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The historical geography of book markets in China : a case study of Liulichang Yee, Francis Lok-Wing 1983

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THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF BOOK MARKETS IN CHINA: A CASE STUDY OF LIULICHANG BY FRANCIS LOK-WING YEE B.A. (Hons.), Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 \ THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Geography) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1983 •'3(c) F r a n c i s Lok-wing Yee, 19 8 3 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Geogaphhy  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September, 1983 (3/81) A b s t r a c t S c h o l a r s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r i n t -i n g i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f knowledge, p r o m o t i o n o f new i d e a s and c o n s e q u e n t l y as a f o r c e o f s o c i a l and economic change. However, the c r i t i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by t h e bookshops i n t h e development and d i f f u s i o n o f p r i n t i n g has r a r e l y been s t u d i e d . I n b o t h Europe and C h i n a , b o o k s t o r e s produced and d i s t r i b u t e d a wide range o f p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , r e l i g i o u s works, p r a c t i c a l manuals f o r t h e common p e o p l e as w e l l as l i t e r a r y works, C l a s s i c s and s t a n d a r d t e x t s f o r the s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s . B o o k s t o r e s t h u s , on one hand, promoted p o p u l a r l i t e r a c y amongst the masses but a l s o , " o n t h e o t h e r hand, u p h e l d t h e o r t h o d o x i d e o l o g y by c i r c u l a t i n g the government-approved C l a s s i c s and t e x t s t o t h e l i t e r a t e e l i t e s . I n t h e i r l o n g h i s t o r y o f development, b o o k s t o r e s and book markets i n C h i n a e x p e r i e n c e d changes n o t o n l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y b u t a l s o f u n c t i o n a l l y . I n the Song and Yuan p e r i o d s , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f urban p o p u l a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n ©f commercial and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , encouraged the growth o f book p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g i n r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n market c e n t r e s . Kaifeng^,.. Hangzhou and Chengdu c l e a r l y emerged as the major r e g i o n a l book markets i n t h i s p e r i o d . I n t h e Ming and Qing p e r i o d s , a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d n a t i o n a l m a r k e t i n g system d e v e l o p e d . I n t e r - r e g i o n a l book t r a d e a l s o expanded i n t h i s p e r i o d w i t h B e i j i n g .at the uppermost end o f t h e m a r k e t i n g h i e r a r c h y . The e x p a n s i o n o f t h e book m a r k e t i n g system seems t o be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y l i n k e d t o the i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n system. An o v e r l a p between th e a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e and commercial f u n c t i o n s o f t h e l a t e i m p e r i a l c i t i e s i s c l e a r i n t h i s c a s e . I t i s one main t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e o r i g i n s and development o f book markets i n C h i n a n o t o n l y r e f l e c t e d , b u t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l , i n t e r - r e g i o n a l , and e v e n t u a l l y empire-wide urban market economy of i m p e r i a l C h i n a . Moreover, they became a p r i n c i p a l medium f o r t h e r i s e and dominance o f t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l e l i t e s o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a , a n d — i n t h i s s e n s e — p l a y e d a major r o l e i n 1 s h a p i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a l component o f t h e urban s o c i a l f a b r i c o f C o n f u c i a n C h i n a . A s t u d y o f book p r i n t i n g and m a r k e t i n g i n i m p e r i a l C h i n a i s , i n s h o r t , t h u s a l s o a s t u d y i n the c h a n g i n g r o l e o f the c i t y and i t s dominant c l a s s — t h e urban g e n t r y . And, whereas t h i s becomes e s p e c i a l l y ... e v i d e n t i n urban c o r e s o f the l a t e i m p e r i a l p e r i o d , i t i s no where more c l e a r t h a n i n t h e s i n g u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t case o f t h e book markets o f t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l i t s e l f , B e i j i n g , and i n the main book market o f o l d B e i j i n g , L i u l i c h a n g . - i i i -T a b l e o f Content • Page Chapter I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I I . The O r i g i n s and Development o f Book Markets 12 Chapter ITT. The R i s e o f R e g i o n a l Book M a r k e t s 28 Chapter IV. The Book Markets i n t h e Ming and Qing P e r i o d s 61. Chapter V. The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the Landscape o f B e i j i n g 10.7 and L i u l i c h a n g C hapter V I . The R i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g as the N a t i o n a l Book 124 Market o f C h i n a C h a p t e r V I I . C o n c l u s i o n 161 F o o t n o t e s 168 B i b l i o g r a p h y 184 Appendix 20 3 - i v -L i s t of Figures Page Figure 1. The Di s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Song 2 7 and J i n Dynasties, 960-1279. Figure 2. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Yuan 60 Dynasty. Figure 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Ming 105 Period, 1368-1644. Figure 4. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Early 106 Qing Period, 1644-1850. Figure 5. The Transformation of B e i j i n g from Liao to 109 Qing. Figure 6. The Jinkou Canal, Tonghui Canal and Liulichang .L.118 in the Yuan Period. Figure 7. Book Markets i n B e i j i n g i n the Ming and Qing 131 Periods. - v -Acknowledgement I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o p r o f e s s o r Marwyn Samuels, w i t h o u t whose g u i d a n c e , h e l p and e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e , I c o u l d u h a r d l y have completed t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o own much t o . • p r o f e s s o r T e r r y McGee f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e and h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s . Both Ms. Sandy Wong and p r o f e s s o r T e r r y McGee have p r o v i d e d t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n e d i t i n g the m a n u s c r i p t , t o t h i s I d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t e d . S p e c i a l thanks a re due t o F l o r e n c e f o r h er t y p i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I ta k e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the m a t e r i a l s and views p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . - v i -C h a p t e r I . I n t r o d u c t i o n The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r i n t i n g and book d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f knowledge, and as a f o r c e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l change i n European h i s t o r y has l o n g been recognized."'" The r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d e s c a l a t i o n i n th e volume o f a v a i l a b l e p r i n t e d books d u r i n g the l a t e f i f t e e n -t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i t s e l f s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e the enormous s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e new t e c h n o l o g y o f p r i n t i n g and the a t t e n d a n t book d i s t r i b u t i o n / m a r k e t i n g systems o f e a r l y modern Europe. Hence, f o r example, l e s s than f i f t y y e a r s . i. a f t e r the development o f movable t y p e i n the workshop o f Johann Gutenberg o f Mainz i n 1454, o v e r 10 m i l l i o n p r i n t e d books were i n c i r c u l a t i o n and by t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a p p r o x i -2 m a t e l y 150-200 m i l l i o n p r i n t e d book had been produced. T h i s i s even more i m p r e s s i v e when we t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e l e s s o r : -t han 100 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n Europe i n t h i s p e r i o d , . o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f whom c o u l d r e a d . C l e a r l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f such p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the d i f f u s i o n o f i d e a s among the l i t e r a t e e l i t e s — the c l e r g y , u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s e t c . , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e s , t o the s p r e a d o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and e v e n t u a l l y t o t h e s u c c e s s o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t thought and t h e s c i e n c e s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e h i g h volume and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f books a l s o p o i n t t o t h e development o f a growing p o p u l a r market f o r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l among t h e semi-l i t e r a t e masses, e s p e c i a l l y g u i l d s m e n , a r t i s a n s , merchants, - 1 -and o t h e r s . I n the p r o c e s s , the medium o f p r i n t e d books and pamphlets c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f u s i o n o f c r a f t s k i l l s , new a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s , market i n f o r m a t i o n (merchant hand-books) , g e o g r a p h i c a l d a t a (guidebooks) and o t h e r p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l a l s o e v e n t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p r e a d o f l i t e r a c y i t s e l f — a v e r i t a b l e s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g market o f books and ':U o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s . The modern h i s t o r y and geography o f Europe thus owe' much of i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l impetus t o the i n v e n t i o n o f movable t y p e , and t o the development o f book d i s t r i b u t i o n and m a r k e t i n g systems i n c l u d i n g book shops, f a i r s , and l i b r a r i e s . Indeed, bookshops were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t h e p r o c e s s n ot o n l y because t h e y s e r v e d as a p r i n c i p a l means o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , b u t a l s o because t h e y t h e m s e l v e s o f t e n s e r v e d as p r i n t e r s and b i n d e r i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r o l e o f bookshops i n the p r i n t i n g , b i n d i n g , and m a r k e t i n g o f books u l t i m a t e l y i n f e r r e d v a r i o u s economies o f s c a l e . The c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g n o t o n l y c a p i t a l o u t l a y s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s q u a l i t i e s o f movable t y p e , b u t a l s o such o t h e r i n p u t s as t h e q u a l i t y o f paper, b i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s , and so on would, o f c o u r s e , be r e f l e c t e d i n t he c o s t o f books, as w e l l as i n the volumes o f p r o d u c t i o n and i n t h e e x t e n t o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . W i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f l i t e r a c y and t h e growth o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , t he demand -f o r - - l o w - p r i c e d , commercial e d i t i o n s r a p i d l y - 2 -i n c r e a s e d i n many p a r t s o f t h e European c o n t i n e n t . I n C h i n a , when p r i n t i n g was f i r s t d e v e l o p e d i n t h e Tang d y n a s t y (Ai'.D. 6 1 8 - 9 0 7 ) , the bookshops produced a l l t he p r i n t e d books. Government p u b l i s h i n g d i d n o t d e v e l o p u n t i l t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s ( A . D . 9 0 6 - 9 6 0 ) . Even i n the Song p e r i o d (A.D. 9 6 0 - 1 2 7 9 ) when government p u b l i s h i n g was f u r t h e r expanded, commercial p u b l i c a t i o n s t i l l dominated the book market. W h i l e government p u b l i s h i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s and l i t e r a r y works, b o o k s t o r e s produced a.'large p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r books f o r t h e use o f t h e common p e o p l e . D i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s o f merchant manuals, books on f a r m i n g , m e d i c i n e , weaving and l e g a l documents were p u b l i s h e d f o r p r a c t i c a l use by p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . Moreover, bookshops a l s o p u b l i s h e d a l a r g e number o f p o p u l a r n o v e l s , p l a y s , songs, s t o r i e s and r e l i g i o u s works. Indeedi, the e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d books were produced by book-s t o r e s t o meet the enormous religious^ demand by t h e common pe o p l e f o r a l a r g e number o f d e v o t i o n a l works, charms, r e l i - .. g i o u s images and s t o r i e s . The e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g book o f t o d a y , t h e DiamondSutra, was p r o b a b l y p r i n t e d by a bookshop i n "Sichuan. I n the F i v e Dynasties, a l a r g e number o f c a l e n d a r s , g l o s s a r i e s , books on y i n y a n g and d i v i n a t i o n t e x t s were produced and d i s t r i b u t e d i n S i c h u a n and t h e lo w e r Yangtze a r e a . These p o p u l a r works w h i c h were so i m p o r t a n t i n the d a i l y l i f e and r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r o f the p e o p l e , were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d i f n o t - 3 -s u p p r e s s e d by t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . W i t h o u t t h e bookshops' p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e p o p u l a r books, t h e semi-l i t e r a t e p e o p l e would be s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d , even c h i l d r e n ' s e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s and many p r a c t i c a l works c o u l d n o t have been produced. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p o p u l a r and r e l i g i o u s works, bookshops a l s o produced l a r g e numbers o f l o w - p r i c e d C o n f u c i a n t e x t s and t h e i r commentaries, e n c y c l o p a e d i a s and o t h e r r e f e r -ence books f o r the l e s s w e l l - t o - d o e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . The development o f book markets from Tang t o e a r l y Qing e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l changes. In t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s o f development, b o o k s t o r e s were p a r t o f t h e paper-making o r f u n e r a l - o f f e r i n g shops. Most o f t h e books t h e y s o l d were produced by t h e i r f a m i l y members. I n the Song and Yuan p e r i o d s , many b o o k s t o r e s i n r e g i o n a l urban markets n ot o n l y expanded t h e i r s c a l e o f p r o d u c t i o n b u t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d t h e i r m a r k e t i n g c a p a c i t y . I n t h i s p e r i o d i t was n o t u n u s u a l f o r a b o o k s t o r e t o h i r e more than t e n wo r k e r s t o p r i n t one book. The p r i n t i n g o f the B u d d h i s t T r i p i t a k a even employed o v e r 140 b l o c k - c a r v e r s and p r i n t e r s . Some b o o k s t o r e s a l s o began t o market t h e i r books beyond t h e i r r e g i o n a l l i m i t s . I n f a c t , most o f the books produced i n J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g were d i s -t r i b u t e d m a i n l y t o book markets i n o t h e r macro r e g i o n s . Book-s t o r e s a l s o became more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f books. Some b o o k s t o r e s s p e c i a l i z e d i n the p u b l i -s h i n g o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , c a l e n d a r s , c h i l d r e n ' s e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s and p r a c t i c a l guidebooks w h i l e o t h e r s p u b l i s h e d and - 4 -marketed l a r g e numbers o f e x p e n s i v e , h i g h q u a l i t y C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s and l i t e r a r y works f o r t h e e l i t e s . G u l i n Shuwu i n L u l i n g was famous f o r i t s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f m e d i c a l books. Most bookshops produced and marketed t h e i r own books i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f development. I n the Ming and Qing p e r i o d s , b o o k s t o r e s i n B e i j i n g and Hangzhou were n o t e d f o r t h e i r s e l l i n g o f books t h a t were p u b l i s h e d by o t h e r r e g i o n a l book c e n t r e s . Many Suzhou b o o k d e a l e r s bought books from Guangdong b u t s o l d them as Suzhou e d i t i o n s . The m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y a l s o became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n the Qing p e r i o d . Some o f the b o o k s t o r e s p u b l i s h e d t h e i r books i n one shop b u t marketed them i n d i f f e r -e n t r e g i o n a l b r a n c h e s . T h i s no doubt expanded the i n t e r -r e g i o n a l book t r a d e and encouraged the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books t o a much w i d e r r e g i o n a l network. In t h e i r early phase o f development a f t e r t h e i n v e n t i o n o f p r i n t i n g , book markets were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the two r e g i o n s w w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n : the lo w e r Yangtze and Western S i c h u a n . Most o f t h e books produced i n t h i s p e r i o d were almanacs, a s t r o l o g i c a l work and r u d i m e n t a r y d i c -t i o n a r i e s . The reas o n s f o r the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e a r l y book markets i n S i c h u a n and the lo w e r Yangtze a r e a were m a n i f o l d . The d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r o f t h e common p e o p l e i n b o t h r e g i o n s c l e a r l y c o n t r i b u t e d . Moreover, as Gernet s u g g e s t s , t h e development o f the book - 5 -t r a d e i n t h e s e r e g i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the Tang p e r i o d , was encouraged n o t o n l y by the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h i n b o t h r e g i o n s , b u t a l s o by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f merchants and .'\. ..'<<. 3 c i t i e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban development, m e r c a n t i l i s m , and t h e book market system o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a can a l s o be p a r t l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e growth o f r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n -market c e n t r e s as d i s c u s s e d by G. W i l l i a m S k i n n e r . S k i n n e r n o t e d t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l shops and s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , such as p r i n t e r s and b l o c k - c a r v e r s , w e r e found o n l y i n r e g i o n a l 4 c i t i e s and m e t r o p o l i s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f urban p o p u l a t i o n and the a c t i v e commercial and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s e r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s c r e a t e d a demand l a r g e enough t o s u p p o r t t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s and s p e c i a l i z e d m arkets. I n h i s C i t y i n L a t e I m p e r i a l C h i n a , f u r t h e r m o r e , S k i n n e r s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , g i v e n i t s p r e - i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k s , i t s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n , and i t s h i g h l y f o c u s e d r e g i o n a l market economy, no empire-wide o r " u n i f i e d urban system" emerged t o i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l economies o f C h i n a . S k i n n e r f u r t h e r argues t h a t even though c i t i e s l i k e " P e k i n g , Soochow, Canton, and Wuhan... performed i m p o r t a n t e x t r a r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n s (,)...none e x h i b i t e d t h e c e n t r a l i t y needed t o 5 i n t e g r a t e a C h i n e s e system o f c i t i e s . " I n o t h e r words, th e h i g h l y r e g i o n a l i z e d market economy o f books and o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , f o c u s e d on S i c h u a n and t h e J i a n g n a n r e g i o n , - 6 -c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n s e t by t h e l a r g e r r e g i o n a l market economy o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a . On the o t h e r hand, however, as n o t e d by G i l b e r t Rozman, "the b i r t h o f a n a t i o n a l market can be t r a c e d t o t h e Ming p e r i o d . " Indeed i n t h e case o f book m a r k e t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t by Ming t i m e s a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d n a t i o n a l m a r k e t i n g system had emerged w i t h B e i j i n g a t the uppermost end o f t h e m a r k e t i n g h i e r a r c h y . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon can be t r a c e d , moreover, t o o t h e r non-commercial f a c t o r s , n o t the l e a s t o f w h i c h i s t h e c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e e x p a n s i o n o f book markets and the s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e empire-wide, s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n network. Indeed, t h e development o f book markets i s perhaps t h e most o b v i o u s (but as y e t l i t t l e a n a l y z e d ) case o f t h e o v e r l a p between com m e r c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f the l a t e i m p e r i a l C h i n e s e c i t y , f o r book markets n o t o n l y s e r v e d the needs o f i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o l a r s , c r a f t s m e n and t h e l i k e , b u t a l s o and most e m p h a t i c a l l y s e r v e d t h e immediate r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s y s t e m — t h e p r i n c i p a l r o u t e t o s u c c e s s i n the e l i t e g o v e r n i n g h i e r a r c h y o f i m p e r i a l C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . D u r i n g t h e Tang d y n a s t y , degrees were o f f e r e d i n any one o f s e v e r a l f i e l d s , i n c l u d i n g c l a s s i c s , l e t t e r s , law and o t h e r s . By Ming t i m e s , t h i s range had narrowed c o n s i d e r a b l y , e x a m i n a t -i o n s had become s t a n d a r i z e d and c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y o f C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s i n t h e i r o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , d e f i n e d by t h e Song p h i l o s o p h e r , Zhu X i . I n t h e Qing e x a m i n a t i o n s , s u b j e c t s were m a i n l y t o p i c s s e l e c t e d from t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . The f i r s t p a r t o f the e x a m i n a t i o n s r e q u i r e d the w r i t i n g o f e s s a y s on q u e s t i o n s based on the Four Books and the composing o f poems. The second p a r t c o n s i s t e d o f q u e s t i o n s on t h e F i v e C l a s s i c s . 7 The t h i r d p a r t c o n s i s t e d o f d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s . W i t h the a l m o s t complete d o m i n a t i o n o f the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s i n the e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e i s a g r e a t demand f o r s t a n d a r d C o n f u c i a n t e x t s by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . I n t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s and the Song p e r i o d , p r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g o f the C l a s s i c s were f o r b i d d e n . Subsequent d y n a s t i c r u l e r s a l s o p a i d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a c c u r a t e , s t a n d a r d C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . By s t a n d a r i s i n g the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , t he r u l i n g c l a s s a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r p r e t the C o n f u c i a n t h o u g h t s i n t h e i r own o r t h o d o x way. To t h e i m p e r i a l government, th e e x a m i n a t i o n system was t o b r i n g under c o n t r o l t h e f r e e r a n g i n g thought o f the l e a d i n g s o c i a l group. I n t h e Qing d y n a s t y , the c o n s t a n t d r i l l i n g i n t r a d i t i o n a l C o n f u c i a n moral p r i n c i p l e s and the w r i t i n g o f f o r m a l i z e d e s s a y s k e p t the minds o f the g e n t r y so o c c u p i e d t h a t they had l i t t l e time f o r independent thought and s t u d y . T h e i r t h o u g h t s were c h a n n e l l e d i n t o the l i n e s o f o f f i c i a l i.<-'.<: i d e o l o g y i n w h i c h the a s p e c t s o f a u t h o r i t y and d i s c i p l i n e i n the C o n f u c i a n t r a d i t i o n were emphasized. The p r i n c i p l e s o f l o y a l t y and s e r v i c e , w h i c h were fundamental p a r t s o f t h i s doc-t r i n e , were s t r e s s e d n o t o n l y i n the e x a m i n a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s b u t a l s o i n the s c h o o l s , w h i c h prepared students for the. examination' system. - 8 -I n s h o r t , the development and e x p a n s i o n o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n system a c c e n t u a t e d t h e importance o f book markets t h r o u g h o u t t h e empire. B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e Tang Dynasty a r e g u l a r system o f e x a m i n a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d t o r e c r u i t a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f o f f i c i a l s from among e x a m i n a t i o n g r a d u a t e s . The subsequent d y n a s t i e s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c , c o m p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s t o r e c r u i t s t a t e o f f i c i a l s . I n Song t i m e s , the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s ., had become c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t the p i n n a c l e o f the C h i n e s e s t r u c t u r e — w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s a c c e s s t o power, p r e s t i g e and w e a l t h . By Ming t i m e s , e x a m i n a t i o n s a t t h r e e !. l e v e l s — p r e f e c t u r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n — l e d t o t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e d e g r e e s : shengyuan, j u r e n and j i n s h i . (See Appendix IX) The i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f e x a m i n a t i o n s i n the e n t r a n c e i n t o o f f i c i a l d o m c r e a t e d tremendous demands f o r C o n f u c i a n t e x t s and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e works f o r e x a m i n a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The expan-s i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n o f books i n Song and Ming p e r i o d s by b o o k s t o r e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the r i s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n system i n s o c i e t y . I t i s , then, one main t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t the o r i g i n s and development o f book markets i n C h i n a not o n l y r e f l e c t e d , b u t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r e - ; g i o n a l , i n t e r - r e g i o n a l , and e v e n t u a l l y empire-wide urban market economy o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a . Moreover, t h e y became a p r i n c i p a l medium f o r the r i s e and dominance o f t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l e l i t e s o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a , a n d — i n t h i s s e n s e — p l a y e d a major r o l e i n s h a p i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f the p r i n c i p a l component o f t h e urban s o c i a l f a b r i c o f C o n f u c i a n C h i n a . A s t u d y o f book p r i n t i n g - 9 -and m a r k e t i n g i n i m p e r i a l C h i n a i s , i n s h o r t , t h u s a l s o a s t u d y i n the c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e c i t y and i t s dominant c l a s s - - t h e urban g e n t r y . And, whereas t h i s becomes e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n urban c o r e s o f the l a t e i m p e r i a l p e r i o d , i t i s no where more c l e a r t h a n i n the s i n g u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t case o f the book markets o f t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l i t s e l f , B e i j i n g , and i n the main book market of o l d B e i j i n g , L i u l i c h a n g . The t h e s i s w i l l b a s i c a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n of book markets i n C h i n a from the Tang d y n a s t y t o the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d . The t h e s i s b e g i n s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f book p u b l i s h -i n g i n the Tang d y a n s t y because i t i s from t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s . The s e c t i o n ends w i t h t h e m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g systems underwent d r a m a t i c e changes w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Western t e c h n o l o g y . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the f i r s t c h a p t e r examines the o r i g i n s and development o f book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g i n the Tang p e r i o d and the F i v e D y n a s t i e s from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and documentary ; • s o u r c e s . The second c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f book markets i n r e g i o n a l urban c e n t r e s i n t h e Song and Yuan p e r i o d s . The l a s t c h a p t e r o f s e c t i o n one f u r t h e r e x p l o r e s the g e o g r a p h i -c a l and f u n c t i o n a l changes o f book markets and t h e emergence o f a n a t i o n a l book market i n t h e Ming and Qing p e r i o d s . The second s e c t i o n o f the t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s the development o f t h e n a t i o n a l book market i n B e i j i n g . The f i r s t c h a p t e r s c r u t i n i z e s t h e s o c i a l , urban and economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f B e i j i n g b e f o r e t h e m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The second c h a p t e r c o n c e n t r a t e s on - 10 -t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development o f L i u l i c h a n g - - t h e most famous book marekt of B e i j i n g and China. I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e development o f book markets i n China t h e r e a r e problems any r e s e a r c h e r must e n c o u n t e r . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e s on p r i n t i n g and p r i n t e d books a r e , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , s c a n t . The o r i g i n s o f p r i n t i n g i n Ch i n a i s s t i l l a c o n t r o v e r -s i a l s u b j e c t amongst t h e h i s t o r i a n s . On t h e o t h e r hand, book markets were c o n s i d e r e d by s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s t o be a t the lo w e r end o f t h e economic s t r u c t u r e , v e r y few o f them made d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f t h e i r development. Even i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f r a r e e d i t i o n s , C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s always f o c u s e d on the q u a l i t y o f p r i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y and l i t e r a r y s t y l e , n o t on t h e p u b l i s h e r s o r b o o k s e l l e r s . Many o f the commercial p u b l i s h e r s who s o l d a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f p o p u l a r works were r a r e l y mentioned by t h e s e s c h o l a r s . A n o t h e r major d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e s t u d y o f book markets i s t h a t many o f the books p u b l i s h e d and d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e book-shops d i d not be a r the name o f the p u b l i s h e r . The f a c t t h a t r a r e e d i t i o n s o f Song, Yuan and Ming p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e not e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e o u t s i d e C h i n a f u r t h e r adds t o the problem. I n s h o r t , t h e d a t a base f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o m p l e t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d a t a t h a t i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a -b l e i s s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e v a r i o u s major t r e n d s i n book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o v e r the c e n t u r i e s , and a f o c u s here on L i u l i c h a n g — t h e most famous o f the book m a r k e t s — p e r m i t s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the e v o l u t i o n o f a t l e a s t one major book market. C l e a r l y , however, t h i s t h e s i s must be c o n s i d e r e d an i n i t i a l s t e p toward a more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the economic and s o c i a l c o n t e x t s o f book markets i n C h i n a . - 11 -C h a p t e r I I . The O r i g i n s = -and' D e v e l o p m e n t - o f B o o k : M a r k e t s The m a r k e t i n g o f b o o k s has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n C h i n a w h i c h c a n be t r a c e d a s f a r b a c k a s i n t h e L a t e r Han p e r i o d (A.D. 2 5 - 2 2 1 ) . I n t h e b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n o f Wang Chong, t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f .Later Han m e n t i o n e d t h a t Wang a l w a y s v i s i t e d t h e m a r k e t i n L u o y a n g and was a b l e t o memorize t h e 9 b o o k s t h a t were s e l l i n g t h e r e . I n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s (A.D.265-581), L i a n g R e n f a n g a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o o k s t a l l s i n h i s p o e t r y t o L i u J u s h i . E v e n t h e Emperor Yuan o f t h e L i a n g D y n a s t y (A.D.502-557) had o r d e r e d Zhao M e n g j i a n t o buy b o o k s f r o m t h e m a r k e t . ^ A l l t h e s e i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o o k s t a l l s w e l l b e f o r e t h e T ang D y n a s t y when b l o c k p r i n t i n g was f i r s t d e v e l o p e d . However i t was n o t u n t i l b l o c k p r i n t i n g was w e l l d e v e -l o p e d and g r e a t e r number o f b ooks were b e i n g p r o d u c e d t h a t book m a r k e t s became more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . M o r e o v e r we have t o n o t e t h a t t h e p r i n t i n g h o u s e s i n i t s e a r l y p e r i o d were a l s o b o o k s t o r e s s e l l i n g b o o k s t h a t t h e y p r i n t e d . T h i s i n t i -mate r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r i n t i n g and b o o k s e l l i n g c a n n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d when we c o n s i d e r t h e f a c t t h a t i t was i n t h e 11 b o o k s t o r e where p r i n t i n g was f i r s t d e v e l o p e d and p r a c t i s e d . The q u e s t i o n when b l o c k p r i n t i n g was f i r s t d e v e l o p e d i n C h i n a i s s t i l l a m y s t e r y . The d i f f i c u l t y o f d a t i n g t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e - 12 -e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a r t was so g r a d u a l as t o be a l m o s t impercep-t i b l e . The p r i n t i n g o f books s l o w l y e v o l v e d from t h e e a r l y e f f o r t s a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n by means of s e a l s , stamps and r u b -b i n g s from engraved t a b l e t s . The e a r l i e s t w e l l d e f i n e d b l o c k p r i n t s u r v i v e d t o d a y i s a B u d d h i s t charm p r i n t e d i n Japan i n A.D.770. C a r t e r and o t h e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p r i n t i n g i n C h i n a must have been deve l o p e d w e l l b e f o r e A.D.770, l o n g enough f o r someone t o t a k e t h i s a r t a c r o s s 12 t o Japan. The e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d book, the Diamond S u t r a , p r i n t e d i n A.D. 86 8, was d i s c o v e r e d i n Dunhuang. The book c o n s i s t e d o f s i x s h e e t s o f t e x t and one s h o r t e r s h e e t w i t h woodcut, a l l n e a t l y p a s t e d t o g e t h e r so as t o form one c o n t i n u o u s r o l l s i x t e e n f e e t l o n g . Not o n l y t h e e x c e l l e n t t e c h n i q u e b u t the s i z e o f the s h e e t s as w e l l l e d C a r t e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t - t h i s i s n o t a p r i m i t i v e p i e c e of p r i n t i n g l i k e t h e charms from Japan. I n r e f e r r i n g t o the Diamond S u t r a , C a r t e r p o i n t s o ut t h a t : The p r i n t e d book i s a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d p r o d u c t . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y i n d e v i s i n g new ways of r e d u p l i -c a t i o n , which was g o i n g on i n the B u d d h i s t m o n a s t e r i e s and e l s e w h e r e b e f o r e t h i s t i m e , must have c u l m i n a t e d i n some s o r t o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g b e f o r e 770, and l o n g enough b e f o r e t h a t d a t e t o have been by t h a t time c a r r i e d a c r o s s t o Japan. Perhaps the n e a r e s t approach t o an approximate d a t e t h a t can be g i v e n would be t h e r e i g n o f Ming Huang (712-756), t h e time when C h i n a ' s c u l t u r a l 1 o achievement reached i t s h e i g h t . J A t t h e end o f t h e t e x t o f t h e Diamond S u t r a i s the - 13 -statement t h a t t h e book was " r e v e r e n t l y made f o r u n i v e r s a l f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n by Wang J i e on b e h a l f of h i s two p a r e n t s on the f i f t e e n t h day o f t h e f o u r t h month i n t h e n i n t h y e ar 14 of X i a n t o n g (May 11, 868)." A l t h o u g h we do not know much about Wang J i e e x c e p t t h i s s t a t e m e n t , L i u Guojun m a i n t a i n s t h a t the work Wang o r d e r e d t o p r i n t was f i n e l y produced and c e r t a i n l y was not a work done i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f p r i n t i n g . L i u a s s u r e s us t h a t p r i n t i n g must have d e v e l o p e d somewhat a hundred t o one hundred and f i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h i s work was produced and most p r o b a b l y between t h e e i g h t h and th e n i n t h c e n t u r i e s — t h a t i s , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f Impress Wu and Xuanzong. (A.D.684-755). 1 6 W h i l e t h e Diamond S u t r a b e a r s t h e d a t e o f 868, t h e t h r e e o t h e r r o l l books found a t Dunhuang have a l l been a s s i g n e d w i t h a f a i r degree o f p r o b a b l i l i t y t o the n i n t h c e n t u r y o r the opening decade of the t e n t h c e n t u r y . Those o f the s i n g l e s h e e t , as w e l l as a f o l d e d book and a seven page charm da t e d 17 from 947 t o 971. These s h e e t s a r e f a r more p r i m i t i v e i n p r i n t i n g t h a n the r o l l s . A u r e l S t e i n t h u s suggested t h a t t h e books were i m p o r t a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y from the p r o v i n c e o f S i c h u a n , w h i l e t h e s i n g l e s h e e t s were o f l o c a l m a n u f a c t u r e . B e s i d e s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e from Dunhuang, we a l s o have a documentary s o u r c e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e o r i g i n s o f p r i n t i n g i n C h i n a . Based upon t h e w r i t i n g s of a Ming h i s t o r -i a n , Shao J i n g b a n g (1491-1565), Zhang X i u m i n argues t h a t the origins of block p r i n t i n g i n China could be as early as A.D.636. In his Hongjian Lu, Shao t o l d us that a manuscript written by the Empress of Taizong, Nuze, was printed . 18 and d i s t r i b u t e d i n the sixth year of Zhengguan (A.D.636). Zhengguan was the period when Tang's economic and m i l i t a r y strengh reached i t s highest l e v e l . C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s were also greatly enhanced with the r i s e i n material l i v i n g . Although Shao did not give his source of information on the pr i n t i n g of Nuze, Zhang Xiumin assures us that Shao was a highly creditable h i s t o r i a n and suggests that p r i n t i n g i n China was quite possibly developed i n t h i s "Golden Age" of Tang. T h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r i n t i n g o f the Diamond  S u t r a , Feng X i u (767-836), i n a memorial t o t h e t h r o n e , c o n f i r m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f book markets i n S i c h u a n , J i a n g s u and A n h u i . Feng X i u ' s memorial was r e c o r d e d by the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y , C e f u Y u a n g u i , which was c o m p i l e d i n e a r l y Song, as f o l l o w s : On December 29, 835, t h e i m p e r i a l commis-s i o n e r o f E a s t e r n S i c h u a n , Feng X i u proposed i n a memorial t h a t an i m p e r i a l e d i c t f o r b i d t he p r i n t i n g o f c a l e n d a r s by wood b l o c k s . The two Chuan of J i a n n a n (modern Sichuan) and Huainan (Lower Yangtze v a l l e y ) p r i n t a l l c a l e n d a r s by means o f wood b l o c k and s e l l them i n t h e market p l a c e . Each y e a r , b e f o r e t h e Bureau o f Astronomy has m e m o r i a l i z e d t h e t h r o n e s u g g e t i n g the p r o m u l g a t i o n o f the new c a l e n d a r , t h o s e p r i n t e d c a l e n d a r s a r e a l r e a d y everywhere. That i s c o n t r a r y - 15 -to the rule of r e s p e c t f u l l y handling (the new calendar which has to be approved by the Emperor). Consequently an order (on December 29, 835) was issued forbidding (these private printings).20 The development of Sichuan as a major book market i n the Tang period was further confirmed by an early and best known reference to pr i n t i n g — Liu Pian Jiaxun. L i u Pian accompan-ied the Emperor Xizong into temporary e x i l e i n Sichuan during the tumulous years of the late Tang dynasty. In his preface to Jiaxun, L i u gave us an account of the printed books that he saw i n Sichuan: In the t h i r d year of Zhonghe (A.D.8 83) which was the t h i r d year i n which the imperial chariot had been i n Shu ( S i -chuan) . I was then a member of the Secretariat. One day i n summer, on one of my holidays (taken every ten days), I was browsing the books by the Southeast of the second enceinte (of the c i t y w a l l ) . These books consisted mostly of works on di v i n a t i o n of dreams, geomancy, the nine (heavenly) palaces, the f i v e planets, and various (other) themes of the Yinyang (school); there were also d i c t i o n a r i e s and (other books) of lexicography. For the most part they had been engraved on blocks and printed on paper. (But the ink) had blotted, one could not (always) make out every-thing . 21 Another reference to Sichuan as a major p r i n t i n g and bookselling centre i s i n a c o l l e c t i o n of Buddhist r o l l s brought back to Japan i n A.D.8 65 by the monk Shuyei who had stayed i n Changan (present Xian) for three' years.- - One - 16 -o f t h e p r i n t e d r o l l s i s Tangyun, a rhyming d i c t i o n a r y , p rodu-ced i n S i c h u a n . Another d i c t i o n a r y , Y u p i a n , was a l s o p u b l i s h -22 ed i n S i c h u a n , by the same p r i n t e r . Song w r i t e r s , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r i g i n s o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g , o f t e n mentioned S i c h u a n as the p l a c e where p r i n t i n g was f i r s t p r a c t i s e d . Ye Mongde (1077-1148) i n h i s S h i l i n Yan-yu quoted L i u P i a n ' s p r e f a c e t o J i a x u n t o prove t h a t S i c h u a n i n the Tang d y n a s t y had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d t h e a r t o f b l o c k 23 p r i n t i n g . I n h i s second volume o f Y i j u e Li'ao Z a j i , Zhu Y i (1098-1167) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " P r i n t e d words do n o t e x i s t b e f o r e t h e Tang d y n a s t y . I t was i n l a t e Tang t h a t Y i z h o u 24 (Sichuan) began t o have p r i n t b l o c k s . " Wang Y i n g l i n (1223-1296), i n h i s Kunxue J i w e n a l s o mentioned t h a t : " B l o c k p r i n t i n g d i d n o t d e v e l o p u n t i l the l a t e Tang p e r i o d and most o f the books p r i n t e d were m a t h e m a t i c a l , d i c t i o n a r y and e l e m e n t a r y ,.25 works. One o f the e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d works t h a t s t i l l r e main i n C h i n a , a f t e r t h e s e c r e t r e m o v a l o f v a l u a b l e documents by A u r a l S t e i n and P a u l P e l l i o t i n 1907 and 1908, i s a S a n s k r i t s c r i p t u r e , T u o l u o n i J i n g . I t was d i s c o v e r e d i n a Tang tomb e x c a v a t e d near Wangjiang Lou, e a s t o f Chengdu i n S i c h u a n . A s t a t e m e n t a t t h e " b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s u t r a c l e a r l y t e l l s us t h a t i t was d i s t r i b u t e d by a b o o k s t o r e i n Chengdu o f S i c h u a n . The statement r e a d s : " S o l d by t h e zhimapu ( f u n e r a l - o f f e r i n g shop) o f B i a n ' s f a m i l y i n L o n g c h i Fang o f Chengdu X i a n i n - 17 -Chengdu Fu."^" From t h i s s c r i p t u r e we can t e l l t h a t p r i n t i n g was so w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n the l a t e Tang p e r i o d t h a t not o n l y books i n C h i n e s e b u t t h a t books i n o t h e r language were a l s o produced i n C h i n a . I n a d d i t i o n t o B i a n ' s f a m i l y , t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r known b o o k s t o r e s i n S i c h u a n , such as Guo's f a m i l y and Fang Shang's f a m i l y . (See Appendix I ) . One o f t h e books p r i n t e d by Guo's f a m i l y which s t i l l s u r v i v e s i s an i n c o m p l e t e copy of t h e Diamond S u t r a . A t the end o f t h e book i s a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h r e a d s : "A t r u e p r i n t e d copy of Guo's f a m i l y 27 i n S i c h u a n . " A n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t o f t h e book i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u t r a was c i r c u l a t e d by an e i g h t y - y e a r o l d man on t h e t w e l t h day o f t h e t h i r d month of dingmao. As dingmao i s the y e a r 907, we can t e l l t h a t the p r i n t e d copy of Diamond  S u t r a , from w h i c h th e e i g h t y y e a r o l d man c o p i e d , was produced b e f o r e t h e t h i r d month of t h a t y e a r i n S i c h u a n . Another p r i n t e d work, w h i c h was t a k e n away by S t e i n , i s a c a l e n d a r p u b l i s h e d by Fang Shang's f a m i l y i n 882. The r e - ' mains of t h i s c a l e n d a r i s o n l y 26cm by 8cm b u t i t was p r i n t e d i n t h i c k b l a c k i n k . I t has the t i t l e : " C a lendar of Fang Shang's f a m i l y i n Chengdu Fu o f J i a n n a n S i c h u a n (Western S i c h u a n ) " 2 9 I t was n o t o n l y i n S i c h u a n t h a t book, p u b l i s h i n g was v e r y a c t i v e , S i k o n g Tu (837-908) a l s o i n f o r m e d us t h a t a p r i n t e d copy of the V i n a y a (or manuals o f d i s c i p l i n e ) i n J i n g a i Temple i n Luoyang was burned d u r i n g the s u p p r e s s i o n of Buddhism by Wuzong i n A.D.84 5. X i a n g Da s u g g e s t s t h a t S i k o n g T u 1 s - 18 -p e t i t i o n t o r a i s e funds f o r t h e r e p r i n t i n g of t h i s 800 s h e e t s B u d d h i s t work was made d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n Luoyang between 871 and 879. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t p r i n t i n g had a l r e a d y been deve-l o p e d i n Luoyang as e a r l y as the 870 1 s. B e s i d e s S i c h u a n and Luoyang, book p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e lower Yangtze a r e a was a l s o mentioned by a Tang a u t h o r , Fan Shu. I n h i s Y u n x i Y o u y i , Fan p o i n t e d o u t t h a t : The p r e s i d e n t (of a board) He Gannie had g i v e n more th a n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f arduous s t u d y t o the c a n n i b a r o f t h e dragon and t i g e r ( p a r t o f t h e y i n y a n g c u l t ) . When he was i n charge o f t h e west bank o f t h e Yangtze ( J i a n g x i and Hunan), he s e n t i n v i t a t i o n s t o a l a r g e number of magic-i a n s . He composed t h e B i o g r a p h y of L i u  Hong and had s e v e r a l thousand c o p i e s p r i n t e d . He s e n t c o p i e s o f t h i s t o t h o s e , b o t h i n the c o u r t and w i t h i n the f o u r s e a s , gave themselves up t o alchemy.31 I n Wu T i n g x i e ' s Tang D a i Fangzhen B i a o , He Gannie was 32 r e c o r d e d as t h e Commissioner o f J i a n g x i from 847 t o 849. L i Shuhua s u g g e s t s t h a t the B i o g r a p h y o f L i u Hong was p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Wang Dang, i n h i s Tang Y u l i n , a l s o noted t h a t t h e r e was " c o n t r o v e r s y over the a c c u r a c y o f p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d c a l e n d a r s " i n t h e lower Yangtze a r e a when t h e Emperor X i z o n g took r e f u g e 33 i n Chengdu i n 8 81. Why b o o k s e l l i n g and p r i n t i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n S i c h u a n - 19 -and t h e lower Yangtze a r e a c o u l d be due t o the f a c t t h a t they were a l l l o c a t e d w i t h i n easy a c c e s s o f p a p e r - p r o d u c i n g a r e a s . Guangdu, n ot f a r from Chengdu, was v e r y famous f o r i t s paper 34 p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the Tang p e r i o d . Most of the paper used by the c e n t r a l government of Tang was a l s o a c q u i r e d from Guangdu. S e c o n d l y , the Y e l l o w R i v e r r e g i o n had been d e v a s t a -t e d by war a f t e r the r e b e l l i o n of An Lushan. I t was o n l y i n S i c h u a n and the Yangtze a r e a where economic p r o d u c t i o n s t i l l p r o s p e r e d t h a t c u l t u r e c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p . S i c h u a n was a b l e t o become one of the most i m p o r t a n t book p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t e r s n o t o n l y because o f i t s economic p r o s -p e r i t y b u t a l s o because i t had t w i c e been e s t a b l i s h e d as a temporary c a p i t a l -- the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c e n t e r -- o f Tang. Most o f t h e books p r i n t e d and s o l d i n t h i s p e r i o d , perhaps w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of B u d d h i s t l i t e r a t u r e , were p o p u l a r works used by t h e common p e o p l e . Very few o f the l i t e r a r y works were p r i n t e d and s o l d f o r the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s . L i u Guojmn p o i n t s o u t two s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s p e r i o d o f p r i n t i n g and b o o k s e l l i n g : F i r s t , i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g , t h e books s o l d were th o s e needed by t h e common peo p l e such as c a l e n d a r s , d i c t i o n a r i e s and e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s ; S e c o n d l y , t h o s e engaged i n p r i n t i n g were b o o k - d e a l e r s , who were v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c t o use new methods of p r o d u c t i o n so as t o r e a l i s e p r o f i t s from d u p l i c a t i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of books 35 f o r t he g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The demand f o r s c h o l a r l y works and C l a s s i c s was c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l and t h e b o o k d e a l e r s t h e r e -f o r e were n o t i n t e r e s t i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e books. Another r e a s o n why the C l a s s i c s were n o t p r i n t e d u n t i l the F i v e D y n a s t i e s was t h a t t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n a t e c h n i q u e t h a t common pe o p l e had i n v e n t e d . Books produced by s c h o l a r s were s t i l l c o n t i n u e d t o be produced by t h e l a b o r i o u s method o f c o p y i n g by hand. The p r i n t i n g o f t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s and s c h o l a r l y works d i d not b e g i n u n t i l the F i v e D y n a s t i e s , more th a n 150 y e a r s a f t e r t h e development of b l o c k p r i n t i n g and l o n g a f t e r p r i n t e d c a l e n d a r s and o t h e r p o p u l a r books were a v a i l a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I t was i n S i c h u a n t h a t t h e m a r k e t i n g of p r i n t e d books f i r s t o r i g i n a t e d , and i t was t h r o u g h the s e l l i n g of p r i n t e d books i n S i c h u a n and t h e lower Yangtze r e g i o n t h a t t h e i d e a o f p r i n t i n g and s e l l i n g the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s was f i r s t i n s p i r e d . Feng Dao (882-954) and L i Yu were t h e f i r s t t o r e c o n g n i s e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s new a r t o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n f o r d u p l i -c a t i n g the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . I n 9 25, L a t e r Tang conquered the s t a t e o f Shu and h e l d i t f o r n e a r l y n i n e y e a r s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f conquest t h a t Feng Dao and L i Yu saw the s e l l i n g o f books i n Shu and Wu (the Lower Yangtze r e g i o n ) . I n h i s epoch-making memorial of 932, Feng proposed t o the emperor t o p r i n t the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s -- t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s were ever p r i n t e d — and the r e q u e s t - 21 -was g r a n t e d . I n a condensed v e r s i o n , the C e f u Yuangui r e c o r d e d th e memorial by Feng as f o l l o w s : D u r i n g th e Han d y n a s t y , C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r s were honored and t h e C l a s s i c s . w e r e c u t i n s t o n e . I n Tang t i m e s a l s o stone i n s c r i p -t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g t h e t e x t o f t h e C l a s s i c s were made i n the I m p e r i a l S c h o o l . Our d y n a s t y has t o o many o t h e r t h i n g s t o do and cannot u n d e r t a k e such a t a s k as t o have stone i n s c r i p t i o n s c u t and e r e c t e d . We have seen, however, men from Wu and Shu who s o l d books t h a t were p r i n t e d from b l o c k s of wood. There were many d i f f e r e n t t e x t s , b u t t h e r e were among them no o r t h o d o x C l a s s i c s . I f t h e C l a s s i c s c o u l d be r e v i s e d and t h u s c u t i n wood and p u b l i s h e d , i t would be a g r e a t boom t o t h e s t u d y of l i t e r a t u r e . 3 6 Emperor Mingzong of L a t e r Tang thus o r d e r e d the N a t i o n a l Academy t o s e l e c t f o r each C l a s s i c a commission of f i v e o r s i x s p e c i a l i s t s who were t o r e v i s e the t e x t . A government board headed by Ma Gao was a p p o i n t e d t o examine and r e v i s e the work of t h e s e commissions. The Academy then s e l e c t e d s k i l l e d c a l l i g r a p h e r s t o p r e p a r e the f i n a l copy and f i n a l l y 37 a p p o i n t e d c a r e f u l workmen t o c u t t h e b l o c k s . The e d i t i n g and p r i n t i n g o f t h i s work l a s t e d f o r twenty-one y e a r s . F i n a l l y , T i a n Mi n (879-971) i n 935, p r e s e n t e d t o t h e emperor the completed e d i t i o n of t h e C l a s s i c s and t h e i r commentaries i n one hundred t h i r t y volumes -- i n c l u d e d the N ine C l a s s i c s : Y i j i n g , S h u j i n g , S h i j i n g , Y i l i , Z h o u l i , L i j i and the t h r e e commentaries o f Chunqiu; i n a d d i t i o n X i a o j i n g , E r y a , Wujjng 3 8 Wenzi and J i u j i n g Z i y a n g were a l s o p r i n t e d . - 22 -I t i s t r u e t h a t the p r i n t i n g o f the N ine C l a s s i c s under the s p o n s o r s h i p of Feng Dao made p o s s i b l e a w i d e r d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s t o s t u d e n t s o f l i t e r a t u r e . However, the c h i e f purpose of p r i n t i n g d i d not make l i t e r a -t u r e more a c c e s s i b l e t o the masses but s t a n d a r i s e d the a c c e p t a b l e t e x t s . F o r more than a c e n t u r y a f t e r Feng Dao, the p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g of the C l a s s i c s was f o r b i d d e n — a l l such p r i n t i n g must be done byo the government and must g i v e 39 the o r t h o d o x a c c e p t e d v e r s i o n . The s t a n d a r i z a t i o n of t h e C o n f u c i a n t e x t s f o r t h e use o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e whole empire, from the F i v e D y n a s t i e s down t o the Qing p e r i o d , f a c i l i t a t e s t h e development of a n a t i o n a l market -- the book market of C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . W h i l e Feng Dao was a c t i v e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Nine C l a s s i c s i n the c e n t r a l empire, book p r o d u c t i o n i n the s t a t e o f Shu (Sichuan) was i n c r e a s i n g . The r a p i d advance of p r i n t -i n g and b o o k s e l l i n g i n S i c h u a n d u r i n g the m i d d l e y e a r s of t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y was l a r g e l y due t o the e f f o r t s o f a f a r s i g h t e d statesman Wu Z h a o y i . Wu was a s c h o l a r who endeavored t o 40 p r o v i d e l i t e r a r y works f o r poor s t u d e n t s . A f t e r he became the m i n i s t e r o f Shu i n 944, Wu p u b l i s h e d Chuxue J i , B a i s h i L i u t i e and S e l e c t e d Works of P r i n c e Zhaoming w i t h the h e l p o f h i s s t u d e n t s Gou Zhongzheng and Sun F e n g j i . Wu 1s p u b l i s h i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l works was commended by Sima Guang, a w e l l known Song h i s t o r i a n , who wrote i n h i s Z i z h i Tongj i a n : "...He (Wu, Zhaoyi) p e t i t i o n e d t h e k i n g t o have the N i n e C l a s s i c s p r i n t e d . - 23 -The k i n g g r a n t e d h i s p e t i t i o n . From t h i s thime t h e r e was a 41 l i t e r a r y r e n a i s s a n c e i n Shu." Wu 1s p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e Nine C l a s s i c s i n S i c h u a n was p r o b a b l y u n d e r t a k e n i n 944 and con-c l u d e d i n 953. An e a r l y s u g g e s t i o n by Wang M i n g q i n g t h a t Wu's p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e Nine C l a s s i c s was m o d e l l e d by Feng Dao was 42 f l a t l y r e j e c t e d by Wang Guowei. Book p r o d u c t i o n i n S i c h u a n was h i g h l y a c t i v e , i n a d d i t i o n t o Wu Z h a o y i , who made a g r e a t p r o f i t from b o o k s e l l i n g , He Ni n g p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l hundred c o p i e s o f h i s l i t e r a r y work. I n the b i o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n , the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s r e c o r d e d t h a t : He Ning was fond o f w e l l d e c o r a t e d c a r t s and c l o t h i n g s . He composed e s s a y s i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s b u t n e g l e c t e d about q u a l i t i e s . He had a l i t e r a r y work o f over 100 ju a n and had i t p r i n t e d f o r d i s -t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e whole c o u n t r y . 4 3 I n 923, A B u d d h i s t monk, Tan Yu, a l s o p u b l i s h e d h i s master Guan X i u ' s work Zhanjue J i w h i c h c o n t a i n e d o v er 1000 poems. A Ming w r i t e r , Cao Xuequan, a l s o mentioned t h a t c a l e n d a r s were on s a l e i n S i c h u a n i n t h e f i n a l y e a r s o f L a t e r Shu ( 9 3 4 - 9 6 5 ) . 4 4 I n a d d i t i o n t o S i c h u a n , the lower Yangtze a r e a and even Shandong had been mentioned as p l a c e s where book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s were p r e s e n t . The Emperor, o f So u t h -e r n Tang (937-975) had a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a t u r e w i t h c o l l e c t i o n s o f over 60,000 j u a n o f books. Books p u b l i s h e d by S o u t h e r n Tang i n c l u d e d S h i t o n g and Y u t a i X i n y o n g . There were a l s o c a l e n d a r s p r i n t e d i n t h e lower Yangtze a r e a by Nantang and d i s t r i b u t e d as f a r away as S i c h u a n . L i u Zongyuan i n h i s J i n h u a z i Z a b i a n a l s o mentioned t h a t t h e r e were c o p i e s o f l e g a l documents p r i n t e d and a v a i l a b l e i n Shandong i n the 45 p e r i o d o f Shengyuan (937-942). P r i n t i n g was a l s o a p p a r e n t l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n Hangzhou i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d o f t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s . I n September 1925, L e i f a n g Pagoda i n Hangzhou c o l l a p s e d and s c r o l l s of p r i n t e d B u d d h i s t s u t r a , t h e B a o f i e Y i n j i n g , were found i n t h e d e b r i s . The f i r s t l i n e s o f t h e t e x t t e l l us t h a t the p r i n t i n g o f t h e s u t r a was done a t the command o f Qian Hongchu, who was t h e r u l i n g p r i n c e o f t h e s t a t e o f Wu and Yue d u r i n g the p e r i o d 948-978 and a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f Buddhism. The s u t r a f u r t h e r r e c o r d s t h a t 84,000 46 r o l l s of the s u t r a were p r i n t e d i n A.D.976. The e x t e n s i v e use o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g i n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s c o u l d be f u r t h e r proved by documents found i n Dunhuang. There were remnants o f rhythm d i c t i o n a r y p r i n t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d i n a d d i t i o n t o many s i n g l e paged d e v o t i o n a l p r i n t s d a t e d i n the t e n t h c e n t u r y . A b u d d h i s t woodcut p r i n t e d i n 949 bear the b l o c k - c u t t e r ' s name L e i Yanmei -- the f i r s t known b l o c k c u t t e r i n C h i n a ' s h i s t o r y . L e i was a b l o c k c u t t e r i n Dunhuang and so i n d i c a t e d t h a t as e a r l y as the F i v e D y n a s t i e s , the a r t of p r i n t i n g and book p r o d u c t i o n had reached t h i s f a r w e s t e r n p a r t o f C h i n a . - 25 -The p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f books i n the l a t e Tang and the F i v e D y n a s t i e s were thus c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the p o l i t i -c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n Changan (Sian) and Luoyang w h i l e S i c h u a n was c o m p a r a t i v e l y a f l o u r i s h i n g kingdom. Large number of d i s t i n g u i s h e d s c h o l a r s , p o e t s and a r t i s t s a l s o came t o S i c h u a n as r e f u g e e s from the Tang C o u r t . The p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y no doubt g i v e an impetus f o r S i c h u a n t o become one of the f i r s t p l a c e s t o d e v e l o p t h e a r t o f p r i n t i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o S i c h u a n , the Yangtze area,, Luoyang, Shandong and even Dunhuang, also had e v i d e n c e s of book p r i n t i n g and s e l l i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d . Most o f t h e p u b l i s h e d works i n t h i s p e r i o d were c a l e n d a r s , s u t r a s , e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s and o t h e r p o p u l a r works demanded by the common p e o p l e . The p r i n t i n g and s e l l i n g o f the Nine C l a s s i c s and o t h e r l i t e r a r y works d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l Feng Dao's r e q u e s t t o the emperor i n 932. W i t h the development of government and p r i v a t e book p u b l i s h i n g i n the F i v e D y n a s t i e s , commercial p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f books d i d not s u b s i d e b u t f u r t h e r expanded i n the Song and Yuan p e r i o d s . - 26 -F i g . 1. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Song and J i n Dynasties, 960-1279 - 27 -C h a p t e r I I I . The R i s e o f R e g i o n a l Book M a r k e t s A f t e r a p e r i o d of more than 60 y e a r s o f d i s u n i t y , C h i n a was f i n a l l y r e u n i t e d by Zhao K a n g y i n i n 960. D u r i n g the e a r l y Song p e r i o d , t h e economy g r a d u a l l y r e c o v e r e d and commerce r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d . W i t h the r i s i n g p r o s p e r i t y of Song s o c i e t y , c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o f l o u r i s h e d . I n t h e a r e a o f book p r o d u c t i o n , n ot o n l y d i d the t y p e s o f books and the f i e l d s o f s t u d i e s r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e b u t the a r t o f p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f r e a c h e d i t s h e i g h t i n the Song p e r i o d . Book markets i n the Song p e r i o d no l o n g e r l i m i t e d them-s e l v e s t o S i c h u a n and t h e lower Yangtze a r e a b u t spr e a d a l l o v e r t h e empire. I n N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d , t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , K a i f e n g , was the major book market. I n S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d , as p o i n t e d o ut by L i u Guojun, over 170 book 47 p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e s were known. Book markets i n t h i s p e r i o d extended t o Meishan i n S i c h u a n ; Hangzhou, J i n l i n g , Ningbo, Quxian i n Z h e j i a n g ; J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n ; P i n g j i a n g i n J i a n g s u ; J i a n , Shanyao i n J i a n g x i ; G u i c h i , S h e x i a n i n A n h u i ; J i a n g l i n g i n Hubei and Guangzhou i n Guangdong. However, Kaifeng.' i n n o r t h -e r n C h i n a , , Chengdu and Meishan i n S i c h u a n , Hangzhou i n J i a n g n a n and J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n were c l e a r l y emerged as r e g i o n a l book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s . (See F i g u r e 1) The g r a d u a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y a f t e r 960 open-ed up C h i n a ' s l o n g i n h i b i t e d c o m m e r c i a l c a p a c i t y . L o c a t e d a t - 28 -the j u n c t u r e o f the Grand C a n a l and the Y e l l o w R i v e r , K a i f e n g ' s i m p o r t a n c e as a t r a d e e n t r e p o t grew r a p i d l y . I t s commerce was complemented by the growing p r o d u c t i o n of i t s workshops and t h e growing p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h was e s t i m a t e d a t over one m i l l i o n p e o p l e . I t s r o l e as t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l f u r t h e r encouraged i t s development as t h e dominate p o l i t i c a l and economic c e n t r e o f N o r t h e r n Song. K a i f e n g became the market p l a c e n o t o n l y f o r i t s immediate r e s i d e n t s b u t a l s o f o r more d i s t a n t p l a c e s i n b o t h n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n C h i n a and even f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . I n K a i f e n g , books were n o t o n l y produced f o r l o c a l consumption b u t were e x p o r t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . I n Ye Mengde 1s S h i l i n Yanyu, he mentioned t h a t books were produced i n the c a p i t a l o f N o r t h e r n Song, K a i f e n g , b u t t h e 48 q u a l i t y of paper used was lower t h a n t h o s e i n Hangzhou. There were a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t books from F u j i a n , S i c h u a n and Hangzhou were e x p o r t e d t o K a i f e n g . Many of t h e s e books were c a r r i e d t o the c a p i t a l by t h e c a n d i d a t e s who were g o i n g 49 t o t a k e t h e i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n . From a few i m p e r i a l d e c r e e s p r o h i b i t i n g the e x p o r t o f books and documents a c r o s s t h e f r o n t i e r t o L i a o , the c o u n t r y a t war w i t h Song, we l e a r n t h a t t h e r e were b o o k s t o r e s i n K a i f e n g p r o d u c i n g and d i s t r i -b u t i n g such p r o h i b i t e d works. An i m p e r i a l d ecree i n 1040 p a r t l y r e a d s as f o l l o w s : There were r e p o r t s t h a t u n s c r u p u l o u s p e o p l e and some b o o k s t o r e s p r i n t e d and s o l d s e c r e t documents c o n c e r n i n g f r o n t i e r m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s . The Governor o f K a i f e n g was au-t h o r i z e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e and encourage p e o p l e t o r e p o r t on t h i s . 5 0 I n a memorial t o t h e t h r o n e , Ou Y a n g x i u r e p o r t e d t h a t : L a t e l y t h e r e a r e a l o t o f p r i n t e d books a v a i l a b l e as b o o k s t o r e s and b o o k s e l l e r s have not been w e l l r e g u l a t e d . I have seen c o p i e s o f Songwen, which t a l k s about t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s o f the s t a t e , s o l d i n the c a p i t a l . I f t h i s book was c i r c u l a t e d t o the b a r b a r i a n s t a t e s , i t would cause embarrasement t o our government.51 Ou f u r t h e r r e q u e s t e d t h e Governor o f K a i f e n g t o i n v e s t i -g a t e and burn the p r o h i b i t e d books as w e l l as t o o r d e r t h e b o o k s t o r e s n o t t o p u b l i s h o r s e l l any more u n a u t h o r i z e d works. The demand f o r books was no doubt v e r y h i g h i n K a i f e n g as i t was n o t o n l y an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e b u t a l s o a c e n t r e of c u l t u r e . Many s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n K a i f e n g , i n c l u d i n g the N a t i o n a l Academy, the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f Law, S c h o o l o f A r t , Mathematics S c h o o l , M e d i c a l S c h o o l and o t h e r s . There were more than 3,800 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y a l o n e . K a i f e n g was f u r t h e r e n r i c h e d by thousands o f c a n d i d a t e s coming f o r the i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n h e l d e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s . A l t h o u g h we do not have many names of b o o k s t o r e s i n - 30 -K a i f e n g , we l e a r n from Meng Y u a n l a o 1 s. Dong j i n g Menghua Lu (1150) t h a t book-.markets were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the c i t y . Books were s o l d i n the d a i l y market a t P a n l o u J i u d i a n , l o c a t e d 52 on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f P a n l o u S t r e e t , e a s t o f D o n g j i a o Lou. The market t h e r e opened d a i l y i n the morning. I n a d d i t i o n t o books, t h e r e were a l s o c l o t h i n g , p a i n t i n g s , p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , j a d e and o t h e r goods on s a l e . A n o t h e r book market i n K a i f e n g was l o c a t e d i n one o f t h e most famous p e r i o d i c markets i n t h e c a p i t a l — t h e Xiangguo Monastery. Trade took p l a c e f i v e t i m e s a month i n t h e Xiangguo Monastery. D u r i n g t h e market days, merchants from f a r away p l a c e s a t t e n d e d the market b r i n g i n g i n a l l s o r t s o f goods and b u y i n g the s u p p l i e s t h e y needed. A c c o r d i n g t o Meng Y u a n l a o , b o o k s t a l l s were s e t up d u r i n g t h e market days b e h i n d t h e B u d d h i s t H a l l i n f r o n t o f 53 th e Z i s h e n g Gate i n Xiangguo Monastery. O u t s i d e the Monas-t e r y , on the main t h o r o u g h f a r e o f t h e e a s t g a t e , t h e r e were a l s o a few b o o k s t o r e s l o c a t e d b e s i d e t h e shops s e l l i n g caps 54 and b e l t s t o the s c h o l a r s . A w e l l known b o o k s t o r e which, was l o c a t e d i n Xiangguo Monastery b u t l a t e r moved t o Hangzhou was Rong L i u l a n g J i n g s h i S h u j i p u . The conquest o f S i c h u a n i n 9 65 by Song b r o u g h t the pub-l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s o f the p r o v i n c e and of the c e n t r a l empire t o g e t h e r . Wu Z h a o y i , t h e p a t r o n o f book p r o d u c t i o n i n S i c h u a n , was b r o u g h t t o t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l . H i s p r i n t i n g b l o c k s were used t o produce books f o r c i r c u l a t i n g t o t h e whole empire. I n f a c t , pne o f t h e f i r s t books produced by the Song g o v e r n -ment, T a i p i n g G u a n g j i , was p r i n t e d by one of Wu's s t u d e n t , Gou Zhongzheng, i n Chengdu. By t h e end of t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , the N a t i o n a l Academy was e n t r u s t e d t o p r i n t the d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s o f Song S h i , Nanqi Shu and Zhou Shu which were based on e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d i n S i c h u a n . But the most voluminous work done i n S i c h u a n was t h e whole B u d d h i s t canon — t h e T r i p i t a k a . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 5048 j u a n i n 130,000 b l o c k s and f i n i s h e d i n 983. I n 1195-1200, the r e p r i n t i n g of T a i p i n g Yu-l a n i n 1000 j u a n employed over 140 b l o c k - c u t t e r s and p r i n t e r s i n S i c h u a n . T h i s l a r g e number o f w o r k e r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t book m a r k e t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s have a l r e a d y been w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n the p r o v i n c e o f S i c h u a n i n t h i s p e r i o d . M e i s h an, l e s s t h a n 100 k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h of Chengdu, was a n o t h e r major book market i n S i c h u a n . The development of Meishan was i n f l u e n c e d by Chengdu as many o f the b l o c k c u t t e r s and p r i n t e r s from Chengdu a l s o worked i n Meishan. Both Wang Chao and Yuan C i y i n o t o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r i n t i n g o f t h e government-sponsored Chengdu e d i t i o n of T a i p i n g Y u l a n b u t a l s o the Meishan e d i t i o n o f Suwending W e n j i . As Wang Chao was a l s o one o f the b l o c k - c u t t e r s f o r a Meishan b o o k s t o r e , X i a n -yang S h u y i n z h a i , Su B a i s u g g e s t s t h a t b l o c k - c u t t e r s and p r i n t e r s were o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y employed by e i t h e r t h e g o v e r n -55 ment o r the c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s . A f u r t h e r p r o o f of the temporary employment of t h e b l o c k - c u t t e r s and p r i n t e r s i s e v i d e n t i n the p r i n t i n g o f Houshan S h i z h u , which had e l e v e n p r i n t e r s , f o u r o f whom came from the same f a m i l y . Su B a i - 32 -argues t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r a f a m i l y t o have most o f i t s w o r k i n g f o r c e engaged as p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n t e r s and t h e p r i n t e r s must have o n l y been t e m p o r a r i l y h i r e d t o do t h e p r i n t i n g work. Gu T i n g l o n g s u g g e s t s t h a t the r i s e of Meishan as Sichuan's; major book p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e was due t o t h e tremendous e f f o r t 57 of J m g Xianmeng i n pr o m o t i n g book p u b l i s h i n g t h e r e . J i n g was a t r a n s p o r t commissioner i n S i c h u a n d u r i n g 1142-1145 and was a renowned b o o k - c o l l e c t o r . I n 1145, he p e r s o n a l l y e d i t e d seven o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s , Song, Q i , L i a n g , Chen, Wei, N o r t h e r n  Q i and Zhou, b e f o r e s e n d i n g them o u t t o p r i n t i n Meishan. Under J i n g ' s i n i t i a t i o n , the C l a s s i c s , Z h o u l i , Chunqiu, L i z h i  M e n g z i , S h i j i , and Sanguozhi were a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n Meishan. The p u b l i s h i n g of t h e s e books f u r t h e r encouraged book p r o -d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n S i c h u a n . Two o f the most w e l l known b o o k s t o r e s i n Meishan, X i a n -yang S h u y i n z h a i and Wanjuan Tang, had produced more th a n t e n l i t e r a r y works o f Tang S c h o l a r s , as w e l l as T a n g l i u X i a n s h e n g Wen, Guochao E r b a i j i a M i n g x i a n Wencui, S h i q i s h i Ceyao and o t h e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o th o s e i n Meishan, b o o k s t o r e s such as Guangdu P e i z h a i , S h u y i n Z h a i and Ye Chang were w e l l known i n 5 8 S i c h u a n I n the S o u r t h e r n Song p e r i o d , the r i s e o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s i n L i n a n (Hangzhou) and J i a n a n g r a d u a l l y o b s c u r e d t h i s e a r l i e s t major book market o f C h i n a . - 33 -As e a r l y as the N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d (.960-1127) , Ji.anni.ng (Jianyang) i n F u j i a n had a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d as an i m p o r t a n t 59 book market. Some w r i t e r s s u g g e s t t h a t J i a n n i n g had been an i m p o r t a n t book market as e a r l y as the Tang p e r i o d b u t no 6 0 c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s argument. Once i t e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n the Song p e r i o d , J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n became one o f t h e major book markets o f C h i n a t i l l t h e end of Ming, f o r a p e r i o d o f more than 400 y e a r s . Su B a i a t t r i b u -t e s t h e development of J i a n n i n g as the major book market t o i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . Su p o i n t s ? o u t t h a t J i a n n i n g l o c a t e d on t h e communication r o u t e s ' between F u j i a n and J i a n g x i as w e l l as between F u j i a n and Z h e j i a n g . ^ ^ T h i s advantageous l o c a t i o n i s f u r t h e r supplemented by J i a n n i n g ' s f l o u r i s h i n g paper p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l f o r book p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . However, Mao Chunxiang argues t h a t J i a n n i n g ' s development as a major book market i s due t o t h e pre s e n c e o f a noted Song s c h o l a r , Yang S h i , who was t e a c h i n g i n 6 2 Pucheng, n o t f a r from J i a n y a n g . As Yang had many f o l l o w e r s and s t u d e n t s , Mao argues t h a t t h i s g a t h e r i n g o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s p r o v i d e d a f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s t o t h e book p r o d u c t i o n e f f o r t s i n J i a n y a n g . A l t h o u g h books produced i n F u j i a n have n o t been w i d e l y a p p r e c i a t e d by book c o l l e c t o r s , i t s importance i s p r i m a r i l y t r a c e d t o i t s l a r g e o u t p u t . A comp a r a t i v e account o f d i f - . : f e r e n t e d i t i o n s of books produced i n F u j i a n and o t h e r p r o v i n c e s was made by Ye Mengde (1077-1148). I n h i s S h i l i n Yanyu, Ye p o i n t e d o u t t h e wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books o r i g i n a t e d i n F u j i a n : A t p r e s e n t , o f a l l books p r i n t e d t h r o u g h o u t the e mpire, t h o s e o f Hangzhou a r e c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t , t h o s e o f S i c h u a n come n e x t , and t h o s e of F u j i a n a r e t h e w o r s t . The q u a l i t y of p r i n t i n g i n the l a t e c a p i t a l ( K a i f e n g ) d i d n o t seem t o be lower t h a n t h a t i n Hang-zhou b u t t h e paper used was not so f i n e . I n S i c h u a n and F u j i a n , softwood i s much used f o r c u t t i n g p r i n t i n g b l o c k s , t h e o b j e c t o f w h i c h i s t h e i r easy c o m p l e t i o n , w i t h a r a p i d s a l e f o r the books. Hence th e workmanship i s n o t good. F u j i a n e d i t i o n s a r e s p r e a d a l l o v e r t h e empire, and t h a t i s on a c c o u n t o f the ease w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e g o t ready.63 The two most prominent book markets i n J i a n y a n g , a d i s -t r i c t i n the p r e f e c t u r e o f J i a n n i n g , were Masha Zhen i n Yong-zhong L i and Shufang Zhen ( l i t e r a l l y "Book Market") known a l s o as S h u l i n i n Chunhua L i . I n h i s J i a h e X i anxue Cangshu J i , t h e p h i l o s o p h e r Zhu X i mentioned t h a t : "Books produced i n Masha of J i a n y a n g a r e used t h r o u g h o u t the empire, no m a t t e r 64 how f a r i t i s . " Fangyu Shenglan a l s o s a i d : "Both Masha and Chunhua d i s t r i c t s produce books and a r e c a l l e d c e n t r e s o f 65 books." There were a t l e a s t 16 known bookshops: i n F u j i a n w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y i n J i a n a n . One o f t h e bookshops w i t h a h i s t o r y e x t e n d i n g from Song t o t h e end of t h e Ming d y n a s t y was Yu's f a m i l y . The t r a d e was handed down from one gengera-t i o n t o a n o t h e r b u t had o p e r a t e d under d i f f e r e n t names. Two of t h e i r most n o t e d bookshops were Qinyou Tang and Wanjuan Tang. Even t h e emperor Q i a n l o n g i n Qing p e r i o d s e n t an o f f i -c i a l , Zhong Y i n , t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e h i s t o r y o f Qinyou Tang. - 35 -A descendant o f the Yu f a m i l y , Yu T i n g x i a n g , t o l d Zhong Y i n from h i s c l a n r e c o r d t h a t h i s a s c e n d a n t s : ... had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r book p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s i n J i a n y a n g as e a r l y as the N o r t h e r n Song P e r i o d . Yu's f a m i l y i m p o r t e d paper from o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and stamped "Qinyou" on them. As book p u b l i s h i n g had n o t y e t been w e l l p o p u l a r i s e d and Qinyou Tang used good paper and woodblocks f o r p r i n t i n g , t h i s was why J i a n a n (Qinyou Tang) books had been so p o p u l a r . The name of the bookshop "Qinyou" had l o n g been used. I n t h e L i z o n g p e r i o d (1225-1264), Yu Wen-x i n g had an a l t e r n a t i v e name, Qinyou J u s h i , w h ich was t a k e n from t h e name of t h e o l d bookshop. The workshop i n w h i c h Shaoqing- ta n g S h u j i was p u b l i s h e d by the Yu f a m i l y o f today was s a i d t o be t h e o l d s i t e o f Qinyou Tang.66 Qinyou Tang and Wanjuan Tang t o g e t h e r p u b l i s h e d more th a n e i g h t e e n works i n some 270 j u a n . Though most Masha e d i t i o n s were r e g a r d e d by b i b l i o p h i l e s as poor i n q u a l i t y , books pub-l i s h e d by t h e Yu f a m i l y were w e l l produced and h i g h l y p r i c e d and were c o n s i d e r e d as comparable t o e d i t i o n s s o l d i n Hangzhou. Other Yu p u b l i s h e r s i n J i a n a n i n c l u d e d Yu Tangqing and Yu G o n g l i . L i u Guojun p o i n t s o ut t h a t t h e r e were a t l e a s t t h i r t y -t h r e e bookshops i n J i a n n i n g , b u t we do n o t have a l l t h e i r names. The most w e l l known ones i n c l u d e d Huang Sanbalang Shu-pu, Yu P i n g z h a i ' s Wuben Shufang, Dan Guangzu's Yueya Shutang and o t h e r s . (See Appendix I I ) . Bookshops i n F u j i a n g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e d on a much l a r g e r s c a l e t h a n t h o s e i n S i c h u a n and Hangzhou. Most o f t h e books - 36 -p r i n t e d i n Hangzhou were done by f a m i l y members of the shop owner. Even when e x t r a b l o c k - c u t t e r s were needed f o r t h e p r i n t i n g o f books, o n l y one o r a few o f them were h i r e d . However, Y i j i n g Tang i n J i a n n i n g h i r e d more t h a n 29 w o r k e r s t o p r i n t the d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y o f Former and L a t e r Han i n 1208. The l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n o f t h e bookshops i n J i a n n i n g t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s i t a t e d a b i g g e r market o u t s i d e t h e v i c i n i t y . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of books t o d i s t a n t m a r k e t s , t h e y used paper made from young bamboo which was l i g h t e r and y e l l o w i s h i n c o l o u r . I n a d d i t i o n t h e y t r i e d t o squeeze i n as many c h a r a c t e r s as p o s s i b l e onto one p r i n t i n g b l o c k , and t o c u t down the number of volumes so as t o lower the p r i c e of the books t h e y s o l d . To market t h e i r much l a r g e r o u t p u t o f books, bookshops i n J i a n n i n g had t o r e l y l e s s on d i r e c t r e t a i l s a l e b u t more on t h e book t r a d e r s who s o l d books a t 6 7 f a r away towns and m a r k e t s . A f t e r K a i f e n g f e l l i n t o t h e hands of Nuzhen i n 1126, the Song emperor took r e f u g e i n Hangzhou (then c a l l e d L i n a n ) . Hangzhou i t s e l f was a c i t y o f m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s . I t was a t once t h e c a p i t a l , s i n c e i t c o n t a i n e d the I m p e r i a l P a l a c e s and the o f f i c e s o f t h e c e n t r a l government, the s e a t o f a l a r g e p r e f e c t u r e , and a l s o the s e a t o f two s u b - p r e f e c t u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t was an i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e o f t r a d e . G ernet b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Hangzhou must have been l e s s 6 8 than 200,000 b e f o r e 1126. N e v e r t h e l e s s , as r e c o r d e d i n M e n g l i a n g L u , the two s u b - p r e f e c t u r e s , Q i a n t a n g and Renhe, - 37 -had 104,669 households between the p e r i o d 1165 and 1 1 7 3 . 0 3 I f t h e c u r r e n t average o f f o u r t o f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s p e r f a m i l y i s a c c e p t e d , a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f j u s t below h a l f a m i l l i o n was r e c o r d e d t h e n . By 1241-1252, a t o t a l of 111,336 households were r e g i s t e r e d . The y e a r 1270 f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t o have 70 186,330 f a m i l i e s , t h a t i s , a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 900,000. The f i g u r e s t h u s p r o v i d e d s t r o n g e v i d e n c e of a sudden i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r 1126 and a r a p i d growth of p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a f t e r . W i t h the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the f a n g (ward) system, markets sprung up i n a l l the main t h o r o u g h f a r e s of t h e c i t y o f Hang-zhou and t h e c i t y g a t e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o l a r g e numbers o f shops and p e d l a r s s e l l i n g r i c e and p o r k , t h e r e were n e a r l y 200 shops s e l l i n g s a l t e d f i s h . -There were an o t h e r f i f t e e n s p e c i a l i z e d markets s e l l i n g v e g e t a b l e s , f r e s h f i s h , c r a b s , c l o t h i n g , f l o w e r s , o l i v e s , p e a r l s and p r e c i o u s s t o n e s , o r a n g e s , h e r b s , and books. The book market, "Shufang", was l o c a t e d i n Juyuan P a v i l i o n . As a major c e n t r e of t r a d e , Hangzhou n o t o n l y engaged i n i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e b u t a l s o f o r e i g n t r a d e . P a s s i o n f o r l u x u r y and p l e a s u r e was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n Hangzhou. I t was t h e r e t h a t the h i g h C o u r t , the o f f i c i a l s and the r i c h merchants had t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s . Gernet even c l a i m s t h a t "•ho 72 o t h e r town had such a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h . " He f u r t h e r comments t h a t t h e r e was "an e x c e s s i v e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f shops - 38 -i h Hangzhou." W e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s ; d i d not h e s i t a t e t o buy a b u s i n e s s f o r a son who f a i l e d i n the i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n . These s h o p k e e p e r s - b y - a c c i d e n t were known i n the town by the name of "guanren" (madarin) and t h e y were a p p a r e n t l y o c c u p i e d i n the more e x c l u s i v e t r a d e s . The most common o c c u p a t i o n amongst them were b o o k s e l l e r s , d e n t i s t s , or vendors of s p e c i a l caps and c l o t h i n g worn by s c h o l a r s . As noted i n M e n g l i a n g Lu, t h e r e were b o o k s e l l e r Zhang guanren, d e n t i s t Fu guanren, and c a p - s e l l e r Xu guanren. Bookshops i n Hangzhou were not w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of S o u t h e r n Song. Many bookshops t h e n were o n l y p a r t of the b u s i n e s s o f the paper-making shops o r zhimapu (paper f u n e r a l o f f e r i n g shop) .• T h i s was i n d i c a t e d i n two works of t h e e a r l y S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d . A s t a t e m e n t a t t h e end o f Wenxuan Wuchen Zhu r e a d s : " P r i n t e d i n t h e zhimapu of Zhong's f a m i l y i n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e Maoerqiao R i v e r i n Hangzhou." An o t h e r s t a t e m e n t i n a Korean r e p r i n t o f Song e d i t i o n o f Hanshanzi C i r e a d s : " P r i n t e d i n the paper-making shop of Guo 1s f a m i l y i n Cheqiaonan D a j i e i n Q i a n t a n g Gate i n 74 Hangzhou." Su B a i s u g g e s t s t h a t bookshops i n Hangzhou d e v e l o p e d o n l y a f t e r b l o c k p r i n t i n g had been w i d e l y used i n Z h e j i a n g and t h a t a f t e r l a r g e numbers, of b l o c k - p r i n t e r s were t r a i n e d -- i n t h e m i d d l e or l a t e S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d . The c e n s o r s h i p of books had a l s o g r a d u l l y r e l a x e d i n t h i s p e r i o d and t h i s encouraged the p r o d u c t i o n and the m a r k e t i n g of books by the bookshops. L i u Guojun p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e were over t h i r t e e n b o o k s t o r e s i n Hangzhou w h i l e Mao Chunxiang s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e were twenty. A w e l l known bookshop was Chen's f a m i l y whose shop was l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h o f L u q i n Fang i n Hangzhou. From the m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y on, Chen Q i and h i s son p u b l i s h e d a l m o s t . a l l the l i t e r a r y works, poems and f i c t i o n s o f Tang and Song w r i t e r s . Over 100 volumes of Tang works and a l a r g e number of Song works were thus p u b l i s h e d and s o l d i n Hangzhou by Chen's f a m i l y . Many of t h e books p u b l i s h e d by them were o f v e r y h i g h q u a l i t y as t h e y used good q u a l i t y paper and i n k and t h e i r books were r e g a r d e d as t h e b e s t c o m m e r c i a l l y produced e d i t i o n s . Books p u b l i s h e d by Chen was known as "Shupeng" e d i t i o n s . Many o f them had been stamped as: " P u b l i s h e d by Chenshi S h u j i p u i n P e n g b e i D a j i e i n L i n a n Fu" or " P u b l i s h e d by Chen's f a m i l y i n Muqin Fang of Pe n g b e i D a i j i e i n L i n a n Fu." Chen Q i , whose b o o k s t o r e : was known as Yunju Lou, was not o n l y famous as a com m e r c i a l b o o k s e l l e r b u t as a h i g h l y l i t e r a t e p o e t . H i s son, Xuyun, had books stamped: " P u b l i s h e d by Chen J i e y u a n S h u j i p u i n Muqiu Fang o f Pe n g b e i D a j i e i n L i n a n Fu." Chen's b o o k s t o r e l a s t e d from the 1220's t i l l , e a r l y Yuan p e r i o d . The bookshop o f Y i n ' s f a m i l y w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n f r o n t o f T a i m i a o a l s o p u b l i s h e d many f i c t i o n and l i t e r a r y works. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were a l s o b o o k s t o r e s w h i c h p r i n t e d and s o l d s e l e c t e d B u d d h i s t works, such as J i a g u a n r e n J i n g s h u p u i n t h e e a s t o f Zhonganqiao N a n j i e and Wang N i a n s a n l a n g ' s f a m i l y i n Pengqian Nanjie of X i j i n g Fang. Some of these printed Budd-h i s t works were f i n e l y done and the woodcut i n these books were the best samples at that time. Most of the works printed by these bookshops were, however, done by family members alone. This was why many of the i r books did not contain the names of block-printers or cutters. Even when outside labor was needed, only a few were hired. Rarely more than ten block-printers would have been engaged i n one book. In the p r i n t i n g of Cen- jiazhou J i , Chen's family hired only one block-printer, Z i Wen. Although there were instances where more than ten people were hired to do the p r i n t i n g job, t h i s s t i l l could not change the small scale book production system i n Hangzhou i n the period of Southern Song. From an edict to censor books i n 1193, we can t e l l that Wuzhou i n Zhejiang had also been developed as a major book publishing center i n the Southern Song period. In the chapter on law and punishement, Songhuiyao Jigao recorded an imperial edict i n 1193 which put Wuzhou together with Sichuan, Hang-zhou and Nanjing as important places where o f f i c i a l s had to censor and destroy unauthorised works produced and sold 7 6 by the bookshops. Zhouli Zhu printed by Tang's family i n Wuzhou Shimenxiang and Meihua Zishenpu printed by Shuanggui Tang i n Jinhua were both famous works of the Song period that survived. Yiwu Xian seemed to be the most important centre of book marketing i n Wuzhou and there were works published by bookshops, such as Chongzhi Zhai of Jiang's family and Gui Tang of Wu' s f a m i l y , w h i c h s u r v i v e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o Wuzhou, P i n g j i a n g was a l s o an i m p o r t a n t book m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e . I t s development was p o s s i b l y due t o i t s p r o x i m i t y t o Hangzhou and a more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e by Hangzhou was i n d i c a t e d by t h e works p u b l i s h e d t h e r e . Many of the known b l o c k - p r i n t e r s from Hangzhou were a l s o r e c o r d e d as p r i n t e r s i n works produced i n P i n g j i a n g . I n t h e J i a d i n g p e r i o d (1208-1124), b l o c k - p r i n t e r s from P i n g j i a n g had become so numerous t h a t a number of them were h i r e d by bookshops i n 77 p l a c e s as f a r away as Guangdong. Wi t h the i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of bookshops, books p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Song p e r i o d had g r e a t l y expanded from the C l a s s i c s t o books on geography, h i s t o r y , m e d i c i n e , a g r i c u l -t u r e , commerce, i n d u s t r y , mathematics, poems, f i c t i o n , Buddhism and Daoism as w e l l as o t h e r p o p u l a r works. The p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e books g r e a t l y expanded p e o p l e ' s knowledge of t h e s e f i e l d s , such as i n a g r i c u l t u r e , s c i e n c e and mathematics. P r a c t i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l t r e a t i s e s were p u b l i s h e d , w r i t t e n i n s i m p l e languages and o f t e n i l l u s -t r a t e d w i t h woodcut p i c t u r e s of t o o l s and a p p l i a n c e s . I t was o f c o u r s e , the educated and the w e l l - t o - d o l a n d l o r d s who p r i m a r i l y b e n e f i t e d from c o n t a c t s w i t h o f f i c i a l s and r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y promulgated as w e l l as t h e more d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l manuals. Not o n l y were o l d e r t e x t s , such as t h e Qimin Yaoshu ( E s s e n t i a l Technique f o r the Common People) - 42 -w r i t t e n by J i a S i x i e i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y , r e p r i n t e d . New works, o u t s t a n d i n g amongst th o s e were Chen Fu*s Nongshu ( A g r i c u l t u r a l T r e a t i s e ) and Lou Shou's P i c t u r e s and Poems on Husbandry and Weaving — the f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e d work, were 7 8 a l s o p u b l i s h e d . I n a r e q u e s t t o p r i n t Wang Zhen's Nongshu ( A g r i c u l t u r a l T r e a t i s e ) , the J i a n g s u e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n 1313 con-f i r m e d t h a t b o o k s t o r e s had p r i n t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l manuals i n th e S o u t h e r n Song d y n a s t y . The r e q u e s t r e a d s p a r t l y as f o l l o w s : A l t h o u g h the b o o k s t o r e s have p r e v i o u s l y p r i n t e d such works as Qimin Yaoshu and Nongshu, no book has g a t h e r e d m a t t e r s t o g e t h e r c o m p l e t e l y as the p r e s e n t one.™ I n a d d i t i o n t o a g r i c u t u r a l works, Song b o o k s t o r e s a l s o p u b l i s h e d works on e l e m e n t a r y mathematics, t e c h n i q u e s of abacus, such as Yang H u i ' s Mathematics f o r D a i l y Use, wh i c h was p r i n t e d i n 1262. I t was n o t o n l y the comm e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s who a c t i v e l y engaged i n p u b l i s h i n g new s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l works, the i m p e r i a l government o f Song a l s o p u b l i s h e d works on medi-c i n e , a g r i c u l t u r e , law codes and mathematics. The two p r i n t -i n g s o f 1,500 c o p i e s made i n 1273 o f the E s s e n t i a l s of A g r i - c u l t u r e and S e r i c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d one o f the l a r g e s t r u n s . - 43 -T h i s g i v e s us some i d e a of t h e number o f c o p i e s p r i n t e d of each book i n t h a t p e r i o d . I n t h i s f l o u r i s h i n g book p u b l i s h i n g p e r i o d , b o t h contemporary and o l d l i t e r a r y works were p r i n t e d and d i s t r i -b u t e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y . T h i s no doubt h e l p e d t h e p r e s e r v a -t i o n of many o l d t e x t s and r a r e works. The im p o r t a n c e o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e e n t r a n c e i n t o o f f i c i a l d o m l e d t o t h e largenumbers o f books p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e use o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , such as d i c t i o n a r i e s , commentaries on C l a s s i c s and l i t e r a t u r e . The much l a r g e r o u t p u t o f books o f a l l k i n d s i n t h e p e r i o d a l s o much f a c i l i t a t e d t he book c o l l e c -t i o n s o f government and p r i v a t e l i b r a r i e s . Many of t h e book c o l l e c t o r s had a l i b r a r y of more tha n 10,000 j u a n , such as Song Shou, L i Fang, Ye Mengde, Zheng Qiao and o t h e r s . A l o n g w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r p r i n t e d books, p r i n t e r s were encouraged t o p e r f e c t t h e i r a c t . I n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e p r e s e r -v a t i o n , d i f f u s i o n ^ and p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f knowledge, t h e book-shops, w i t h t h e a r t o f p r i n t i n g , h e l p e d t o spre a d knowledge 81 t o a much l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f t h e masses than e v e r b e f o r e . The t h r e e a l i e n d y n a s t i e s w h i c h c o e x i s t e d and engaged i n c o n t i n u o u s wars w i t h the Song d y n a s t y were the L i a o , X i x i a and J i n . To a d i f f e r e n t degree, the t h r e e a l i e n s were i n f l u -enced by t h e h i g h c u l t u r e o f Song and m o d e l l e d Song i n s t i t u -t i o n s . - 44 -The L i a o empire (.907-1125) r o s e as e a r l y as t h e c l o s e o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f M a n c h u r i a . They f i n a l l y f o u g h t t h e i r way t o B e i j i n g i n 938 and l a t e r c a p t u r e d B i a n l i a n g ( K a i f e n g ) . I n 1055, an i m p e r i a l d e c r e e o r d e r e d t h a t s c h o o l s be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e L i a o empire. Commen-t a r i e s t o the C l a s s i c s and t h e h i s t o r i c a l works S h i j i and Hanshu were d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the L i a o government f o r b i d t h e e x p o r t o f books and no specimens o f t h e i r works were d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y . I n 197 4, o ver 160 specimens of L i a o m a n u s c r i p t s , s u t r a s , K h i t a n T r i p i t a k a , p r i n t e d books and p a i n t i n g s were d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e Fugong Monastery i n S h a n x i . The K h i t a n T r i p i t a k a was p r o b a b l y p r i n t e d between the y e a r o f 1031 and 1064 and has l e s s t h a n 1000 volumes. The d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s 12 j u a n of K h i t a n T r i p i t a k a p r o v i d e d an e x c e l l e n t example f o r the s t u d y o f L i a o p r i n t i n g and c u l t u r e . A n o t h e r major f i n d i n g from t h e s e L i a o p r i n t e d books was t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f them were p r i n t e d i n B e i j i n g . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t B e i j i n g , the s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l o f L i a o , became a major book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r as 8 2 e a r l y as the t w e l t h c e n t u r y . X i x i a o r Tangut, a t r i b e o f T i b e t a n p e o p l e , s e t up a s t r o n g kingdom i n n o r t h w e s t M a n c h u r i a and E a s t M o n g o l i a . I n 1032, t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r c a p i t a l i n N i n g x i e . The Tangut p e o p l e admired the C h i n e s e c u l t u r e so much t h a t t h e y c u l t i -v a t e d the s t u d y o f the C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . L i Yuanhao, who reigned from 1032 t o 1048, was so i n t e r e s t e d i n Ch i n e s e l i t e r a -t u r e t h a t on one o c c a s i o n he p r o c u r e d a number o f books from the Song C o u r t i n exchange f o r 50 h o r s e s . S c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the Ch i n e s e model, i n c l u d i n g an Academy o f L e a r n i n g founded i n 1145. L i R e n x i a o , who r e i g n e d from 1139 t o 1193, purchased from the J i n p e o p l e n ot o n l y books on 8 3 C o n f u c i a n i s m b u t Buddhism as w e l l . A f t e r the Nuzhen or J i n overpowered t h e K h i t a n i n 1125, th e y i n v a d e d t h e Song empire and c a p t u r e d t h e / c a p i t a l , K a i f e n g , i n 1126. They took a l l the books as w e l l as p r i n t i n g b l o c k s from the N a t i o n a l Academy o f N o r t h e r n Song and t r a n s p o r t e d them northward. A government p r i n t i n g o f f i c e was f u r t h e r s e t up a t P i n g y a n g , known a l s o as P i n g s h u i , i n S h a n x i . The J i n N a t i o n a l Academy ( r e s t o r e d i n 1151) and the Hong Wen Yuan (founded i n 1194) t o g e t h e r p u b l i s h e d over 30 works i n C h i n e s e 84 and 15 works i n Nuzhen language. Pingyang was not o n l y / f l o u r i s h e d i n government p u b l i s h i n g , i t was a l s o the dominant book market f o r p r i v a t e and commer-c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . As noted by Sun Y u x i u : (Pingyang) was e l e v a t e d t o become the s i t e of a Governor's O f f i c e i n 1128. S i n c e P i n g y a n g had a l s o become the l e a d i n g c u l -t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t e r i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a , an o f f i c i a l p r i n t i n g o f f i c e was s e t up t h e r e . T h i s g r e a t l y encouraged the growth of comm e r c i a l b o o k s t o r e s i n t h a t p l a c e . I n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , book - 46 -market i n Pingyang c o n t i n u e d t o grow, P i n g -yang was thus as prominent as Masha book market i n J i a n y a n g . 8 5 L o c a t e d i n the So u t h e r n C i r c u i t o f Hedong (Southern p a r t o f S h a n x i ) , a f a r removed p l a c e from the c e n t e r of war, Pingyang was a p l a c e e n r i c h e d w i t h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and many s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s r e s i d e d t h e r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g h i g h q u a l i t y w h i t e paper produced t h e r e , P ingyang was f u r t h e r noted as the s i t e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Academy, where many famous scho-l a r s worked, and a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e government p r i n t i n g o f f i c e . These f a c t o r s no doubt encouraged P i n g s h u i t o deve-l o p as the major book market i n t h e J i n and Yuan p e r i o d s . Even i n the J i n d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y , books were mentioned as 8 6 p r o d u c t s o f t h e a r e a . Known bookshops i n P i n g s h u i i n c l u d e d Shuxuan C h e n s h i , L i Ziwen, Zhang Q i a n , Zhonghe Xuan o f Wang's f a m i l y , H ui Ming Xuan o f Zhang's f a m i l y , J i ' s f a m i l y , L i u M i n -8 7 zhong and o t h e r s . (See Appendix I I I ) . Some o f them such as Zhonghe Xuan and J i ' s f a m i l y had f l o u r i s h e d n o t o n l y i n t h e J i n p e r i o d b u t c o n t i n u e d on t o Yuan t i m e s . A Yuan e d i t i o n o f X i n k e Yunlue c o l l e c t e d by Wang S h i z h e n had an i n k stamp w h i c h r e a d : "A new e d i t i o n p r i n t e d by Zhonghe Xuan o f Wang's f a m i l y i n P i n g s h u i i n t h e y e a r o f 1306." T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Zhong-he Xuan had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a t l e a s t 77 y e a r s t h r o u g h o u t 8 8 the J i n and Yuan p e r i o d . Next i m p o r t a n t t o Pingyang i n t h e J i n p e r i o d was t h e book market i n N i n g j i n X i a n w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n the w e s t e r n c i r c u i t o f H e b e i . The roost famous bookshop was the J i n g f a m i l y . J i n g Hu's g r a n d f a t h e r had a l r e a d y s t a r t e d a p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s i n N i n g j i n as e a r l y as the F i v e D y n a s t i e s . I n 1213-1216 when the Mongols i n v a d e d the J i n empire, J i a n g ' s f a m i l y h i d the p r i n t i n g b l o c k s o f the F i v e C l a s s i c s , T a i h e L u y i P l a n , Guang- yun and o t h e r s i n a d e s e r t e d p l a c e . A f t e r the e v a s i o n , J i n g e x c a v a t e d the b l o c k s out and had them p r i n t e d . The p r i n t e d books s o l d by the J i n g f a m i l y were h i g h l y p o p u l a r n o r t h of t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r because th e p r i n t i n g was w e l l done and the , 89 p r i c e was low. The p r o v i s i o n o f books i n J i n was f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e smuggling from t h e s o u t h . A l t h o u g h t h e Song government had laws governed th e p u b l i c a t i o n o f books on p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , smuggling o f t h e s e books t o J i n were o f t e n made by merchants who were encouraged by t h e h i g h p r o f i t s . I n t h e second y e a r o f J i a t a i (120 2 ) , a Song government d e c r e e d i s c l o s e d t h a t a group o f merchants, D a i S h i l i u and o t h e r s , attempted t o smuggle m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l books, Benchao  S h i s h i and o t h e r works, t o J i n and were caught by the o f f i c i a l s . The decree f u r t h e r o r d e r e d t h a t l o c a l o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d ensure t h a t books on m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s p u b l i s h e d by b o o k s t o r e s s h o u l d f i r s t be s c r e e n e d and approved by t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y and the u n a u t h o r i z e d b l o c k s and p r i n t e d books s h o u l d be d e s t r o y e d . 9 ^ W i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f books a l r e a d y begun i n the L i a o - 48 -p e r i o d , book m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s were f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n the J i n p e r i o d . The book market i n B e i j i n g was no doubt encouraged by i t s development as t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l and the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o the c a p i t a l . I n B e i j i n g , J i u Wudai S h i , K o n g s h i Z u t i n g G u a n g j i and Zhengguan Zhengyao were p u b l i s h e d . Markets i n the Xiangguo Monastery i n K a i f e n g c o n t i n u e d on as i n the Song t i m e t o open on t h e t h i r d and e i g h t h day o f e v e r y xun ( c y c l e o f t e n d a y s ) . D u r i n g t h e s e market days, books were s o l d t h e r e . I n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f D i l i X i n s h u , a book used f o r the c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n , we can t e l l t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f books had been q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e J i n s t a t e . More th a n seven e d i t i o n s of D i l i X i n s h u were produced. The N a t i o n a l Academy and c o m m e r c i a l b o o k s t o r e s i n Gutang, Yimen, Puban, P i n g y a n g , a l l had d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s f o r s a l e . I n P i n g y a n g , s e v e r a l 91 d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s were p r i n t e d f o r s a l e t h e r e . Book markets i n the J i n p e r i o d thus had a l r e a d y been d i s t r i b u t e d a l l over the modern p r o v i n c e s o f H e b e i , Shandong, S h a n x i , Henan and S h a a n x i , i n n i n e o f the n i n e t e e n c i r c u i t s o f the J i n a d m i n i s -92 t r a t i o n . I n 1210 t h e Mongol l e a d e r , t h e g r e a t Genghis: Khan a t t a c k e d t h e b u f f e r s t a t e of J i n , and i n 1224 d e s t r o y e d t h e i r c a p i t a l a t B e i j i n g . I n 1227 he d e s t r o y e d X i x i a , l e a v i n g o n l y one hundredth o f the p o p u l a t i o n a l i v e . Three y e a r s l a t e r Genghis d i e d , b u t s t i l l t h e Mongol hoardes advanced, and i n - 49 -123 5 they t u r n e d t o s o u t h e r n China,. A f t e r f o r t y y e a r s of r e s i s t i n g , the Mongols took over the South e r n Song i n 1279 and c a l l e d t hemselves the Yuan Dynasty, The M o n g o l i a n r u l e r s made use of t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n system and the c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n t o keep the C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s p r e o c c u p i e d so t h a t t h e r e would be no m a n i f e s t a t i o n of d i s c o n t e n t and r e v o l t a g a i n s t the f o r e i g n r u l e r s . The Yuan d y n a s t y had a more or l e s s e x t e n s i v e system o f e d u c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o the N a t i o n a l Academy and academies i n the c i r c u i t s , l o c a l schools were numerous. I n 1286 t h e r e were 20,166 l o c a l s c h o o l s and i n 1288 over 24,000 s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . Moreover, more than f o r t y academies, i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , were a l s o r e c o r d e d 93 i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e empire. The c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d , a t the s u g g e s t i o n of Y e l u C h u c a i (1190-1244), even b e f o r e the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the M o n g o l i a n empire i n 1271. However, no e x a m i n a t i o n was g i v e n u n t i l 1284 due t o c o n t i n u o u s m i l i t a r y campaigns. S i n c e 1313, s i x t e e n t r i e n n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were h e l d f o r the h i g h e s t degree o f j i n s h i . L o c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were a l s o g i v e n a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the e x a m i n a t i o n s were p o o r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , t h e y f u r n i s h e d an i n c e n t i v e t o s t u d y and c r e a t e d a demand f o r books. Books i n the Yuan d y n a s t y were a c t i v e l y r e p r i n t e d by the government from the Song p r i n t i n g b l o c k s b u t new works were a l s o produced i n f a r g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y by b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and commercial p u b l i s h e r s . T h i s - 50 -c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r a p i d development o f book markets t h r o u g h -o u t the c o u n t r y . S p e c i a l o f f i c e s t o e d i c t and p u b l i s h books under o f f i c i a l s p o n s o r s h i p were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the Yuan d y n a s t y . A g a i n , a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f Y e l u Chucai, the I n s t i t u t e o f Com-p i l a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g i n 1236 and t h e I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e was founded i n Pin g y a n g i n the same y e a r b u t moved t o B e i j i n g i n 1269. T h i s move f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d B e i -j i n g as t h e c e n t r e of Ch i n e s e c u l t u r e f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s t o come. I n 1273, t h e B i s h u J i a n was c r e a t e d t o t a k e c a r e of a l l books produced f o r t h e Yuan government. A n o t h e r o f f i c e , Xingwen Shu, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1290, f i r s t under the B i s h u J i a n and l a t e r i n 1293 under t h e H a n l i n Academy. Xingwen Shu from t h e n on p l a y e d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the p r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books. E s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e C a p i t a l o f Yuan, B e i j i n g , Xingwen Shu i n 1273 had a s t a f f c o n s i s t i n g o f one s u p e r v i s o r , t h r e e deputy s u p e r v i s o r s , f o u r p r o o f r e a d e r s , one s e c r e t a r y , one r e c o r d e r , 40 w o o d c u t t e r s , one foreman, 39 94 workmen and 16 p r i n t e r s . From t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Xingwen Shu, we c o u l d have a b e t t e r i d e a o f a p r i n t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t where d i v i s i o n o f work was a p p a r e n t . Not o n l y was t h e work of b l o c k - c u t t i n g , p r i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h i c w r i t i n g h a n d l e d by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , t h e r e were a l s o a r e c o r d e r , foreman and s u p e r v i s o r s t o f a c i l i t a t e and c o o r d i n a t e the p r i n t i n g o f books. Works on the C l a s s i c s , p h i l o s o p h y and h i s t o r y were thus produced i n B e i j i n g f o r t h e use o f t h e whole n a t i o n . The f i r s t o f such works produced by Xingwen Shu was b e l i e v e d t o be a 1290 e d i t i o n of Z i z h i Tongj i a n , a c e l e b r a t e d h i s t o r i -c a l work by Sima Guang. Not o n l y was the c e n t r a l government engaged i n the p u b l i s h i n g of books f o r the use o f s t u d e n t s and s c h o l a r s , l o c a l government u n i t s were a l s o encouraged t o r e i s s u e o l d works as w e l l as t o p u b l i s h " new books. S c h o l a r s c o u l d sub-m i t t h e i r w r i t i n g t h r o u g h t h e c i r c u i t s t o t h e H a n l i n Academy f o r a p p r o v a l . I f a c c e p t e d , the m a t e r i a l was r e f e r r e d t o the l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Many books were thus p u b l i s h e d by the l o c a l s c h o o l s . An i m p o r t a n t i n n o v a t i o n i n the f i n a n c i n g o f e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n was a l s o adopted. Lands and farms were a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and p roceeds from the s a l e of farm produce were used as r u n n i n g expenses f o r the s c h o o l s and as s t i p e n d s f o r the f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s . The r e s i d u e of the s c h o o l f u n d was f u r t h e r a l l o c a t e d t o d e f r a y p r i n t i n g expenses. Because of t h i s p r o v i s i o n , many p r o v i n c e s , n o t a b l y J i a n g z h e (covered p a r t s o f modern Z h e j i a n g , J i a n g s u , J i a n g x i , A nhui and F u j i a n ) and J i a n g x i (covered p a r t s o f modern J i a n g x i and Guangdong) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , p r i n t e d a g r e a t number of books f o r the use o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . One of the most a m b i t i o u s p r o j e c t s was launched i n J i a n g z h e p r o v i n c e i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A c o - o p e r a t i v e scheme was u n d e r t a k e n by the d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e v e n t e e n o f f i c i a l - 52 -d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s b u t o n l y n i n e were a c t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d . A s i m i l a r p r o j e c t t o p u b l i s h the seventeen d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s was a l s o p l a n n e d i n the p r o v i n c e of J i a n g x i and seven o f them 95 were p u b l i s h e d by 1332. The number o f c o p i e s o f each i m p r e s s i o n was s u p r i s i n g l y s m a l l i n Yuan p e r i o d . Even such government p u b l i c a t i o n s as the L i a o and J i n d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s p r i n t e d i n 1345 and the Song d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y p r i n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r had o n l y 96 100 c o p i e s p r i n t e d . I n the p u b l i s h i n g of Q i u j i a n X i a n s h e n g  W e n j i , o n l y 20 c o p i e s were p r i n t e d i n 13 22. Another example was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Fuzhou T o n g z h i i n 1322 w h i c h was i n -tended f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g t o s c h o o l s i n the n o r t h . Only 50 c o p i e s were i s s u e d f o r t h i s work which has over 10,000 b l o c k s . Wu s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s m a l l number o f c o p i e s o f each e d i t i o n was due t o the l i m i t e d demand f o r such l i t e r a r y works from the i n s i g n i f i c a n t number of s c h o l a r s i n the c o u n t r y . I n a d d i t i o n , the s u p p l y of books was p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r l o c a l use and the b l o c k s k e p t s a f e l y i n s t o r a g e f o r subsequent 97 i m p r e s s i o n s of any number o f c o p i e s d e s i r e d . But t h e r e were a l s o i n s t a n c e s when a more commonly used p r a c t i c a l g u i d e , such as the E s s e n t i a l s o f A g r i c u l t u r e and S e r i c u l t u r e had two p r i n t -i n g s o f up t o 1,500 c o p i e s i n 1273. B l o c k s f o r books p u b l i s h e d by t h e government were s t o r e d i n p u b l i c d e p o s i t o r i e s where t h e y were a v a i l a b l e f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o p y i n g a t c o s t . F o r books p r i n t e d by t h e v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s , the b l o c k s were i n -v a r i a b l y s t o r e d on the p r e m i s e s and a v a i l a b l e t o anyone who - 53 -wanted t o make a copy. The l a r g e number of e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d o f some works compensated f o r the s m a l l number of c o p i e s p r i n t e d i n each r u n . A d i c t i o n a r y , Daguang Y i h u i Y u p i a n , had no l e s s t h a n f i v e d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d . Another d i c t i o n -a r y , Guangyun, had seven d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s , produced by b o t h o f f i c i a l and c ommercial p u b l i s h e r s i n the Yuan d y n a s t y . One o f the most p o p u l a r books i n the Yuan p e r i o d was L i b u Yunlue p u b l i s h e d i n e i g h t d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s by b o o k s t o r e s w i t h i n a mere s i x t y y e a r p e r i o d . From the d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s p u b l i s h e d by d i f f e r n t p u b l i s h e r s , we can t e l l t h a t b l o c k s were o f t e n t r a n s f e r r e d from one p u b l i s h i n g house t o a n o t h e r . The d i c t i o n a r y L i b u  Yunlue had e i g h t d i f f e r e n t p u b l i s h e r s : Huiwen Tang, Qinyou Tang, Zhonghe Xuan, Y i s h a n Tang, R i x i n Shutang, Yuqing Tang, X i n g q i n g Shutang and X i n y a n Shutang. There were a l s o i n s -t a n c e s where commercial p u b l i s h e r s changed the i m p r i n t from the former p u b l i s h e r t o t h e i r own. I n 1312 Qinyou Tang p u b l i s h e d Dugongbu S h i w i t h d e s i g n a t i o n of the d a t e , 1312, i n a b e l l shaped stamp. The b l o c k s were l a t e r a c q u i r e d by Guang-q i n Tang. A l l d e s i g n a t i o n s o f t h e Qinyou Tang were e f f a c e d and changed t o t h a t o f Sanfeng Shushe and Guangqin Tang, e x c e p t 99 the one a t the end o f t h e t w e n t i e t h - f i f t h j u a n . The s e t o f b l o c k s o f t h e D u s h i changed hands a n o t h e r t i m e and was a c q u i r -ed by Wang L i a n g . B e s i d e s D u s h i , Wang a l s o a c q u i r e d the - 54 -b l o c k s o f S h i j i and L i T a i b a i Shi.j i from Guangqin Tang and changed the i m p r i n t t o t h a t of h i s o w n . 1 0 0 Many Song s c h o l a r s , r e l u c t a n t t o s e r v e under f o r e i g n r u l e r s , founded p r i v a t e academies of t h e i r own. The Yuan a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o encouraged the e s t a b l i s h e m e n t of new academies wherever t h e y c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e . As e a r l y as 1238, the T a i j i Academy was e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g , A nother i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n Yuan p u b l i s h i n g was the X i h u Academy (West Lake Academy) i n Hangzhou. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1291 on t h e s i t e o f t h e former N a t i o n a l Academy of t h e d e f u n c t Song d y n a s t y . There were over 200,000 p r i n t i n g b l o c k s s t o r e d t h e r e . I n 1324, the X i h u Academy p u b l i s h e d the Wen X i a n Tang Kao i n 348 j u a n and i n 1336 Guo Chao Wen L e i i n 7 0 j u a n was p u b l i s h e d . A nother e x c e l l e n t example of p u b l i s h i n g by t h e r i c h l y endowed s c h o o l s i n the Yuan p e r i o d was the Complete Works of Q i u j i a n X i a n s h e n g p u b l i s h e d by t h e J i a x i n g s c h o o l s . Ye Dehui i n h i s S h u l i n Q i n g -hua gave a l o n g l i s t of works p u b l i s h e d by l o c a l government u n i t s , s c h o o l s and academies i n each p r o v i n c e i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d -- f i v e i n A n h u i , t w e n t y - t h r e e i n Z h e j i a n g , t h r e e i n H u b e i , t w e l v e i n J i a n g x i , f o u r t e e n i n J i a n g s u . By comparing i t w i t h Wang Guowei's L i a n g z h e Gukanben Kao, we f i n d numerous o m i s s i o n s by Ye."'"^ "'" But by u s i n g Ye's l i s t as an i n d i c a t o r , we may s a f e l y say t h a t the modern p r o v i n c e of Z h e j i a n g l e d i n the number o f books p r i n t e d o f f i c i a l l y and t h a t i t was f o l l o w e d i n t h e o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e by J i a n g s u , J i a n g x i , - 55 -F u j i a n and Hubei. W h i l e Z h e j i a n g l e d i n the number of government p u b l i c a -t i o n s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , F u j i a n l e d i n c o m m e r c i a l p r i n t i n g w i t h t h e l a r g e s t number of bookshops. B o t h p r o v i n c e s were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y under the J i a n g z h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the Yuan t i m e s . Of t h e seven d i s t r i c t s i n the J i a n n i n g c i r c u i t , J i a n y a n g and J i a n a n l e d i n the number of book p u b l i s h i n g houses. K.T. Wu s u g g e s t s t h a t : " I n J i a n a n a l o n e t h e r e were f o r t y - e i g h t p r i v a t e p u b l i s h e r s , each w i t h a t l e a s t one t i t l e 102 t o i t s c r e d i t . " ( S e e F i g u r e 2 ). One o f the most p r o d u c t i v e bookshops i n Yuan p e r i o d was Qinyou Tang which had a l r e a d y been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Song p e r i o d . Qinyou Tang of Yu Z h i a n p u b l i s h e d no l e s s than s eventeen works i n c l u d i n g C l a s s i c s and l i t e r a r y c o m p i l a t i o n s i n a p e r i o d o f f o r t y y e a r s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e were a l s o two famous b o o k s t o r e s o f the Yu f a m i l y Qinde Tang and Shuanggui Tang. I n J i a n a n , t h e r e were a l s o two R i x i n Tang, one b e l o n g e d t o L i u J i n w e n . Gao 1s f a m i l y had o n l y one known p u b l i s h e d work w h i l e L i u had s i x t e e n books t o h i s c r e d i t . . Another bookshop, C u i y a n J i n g s h e o f L i u Junzuo, p u b l i s h e d more than, t w e l v e i m p o r t a n t works i n the Yuan p e r i o d . The f i r m Zongwen Tang of Zheng T i a n z e i n J i a n a n was noted f o r i t s l o n g h i s t o r y — a p e r i o d o f over two hundred y e a r s , from 1330 t o 1537. The C u i y a n J i n g s h e a l s o had a h i s t o r y e x t e n d i n g from 1314 t o 1469, more th a n one hundred and f i f t y e a r s . Yu P i n g z h a i ' s Wuben - 5.6 -Shutang a l s o p u b l i s h e d s i x known works d u r i n g the Yuan and f o u r more works down t o the Ming d y n a s t y . I n a d d i t i o n , N a n j i a n Shutang i n Masha and Guangqin Tang o f Ye *s f a m i l y a l s o extended t h e i r book m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s from Yuan t o the Ming p e r i o d . 1 0 3 ^(See Appendix IV) Some e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i n s t e a d o f p u b l i s h i n g the books t h e m s e l v e s , would o c c a s s i o n a l l y commission a b u s i -ness f i r m t o do i t f o r them. Yang Zhihang, Commissioner o f E d u c a t i o n i n Z h e j i a n g i n 1326 ordered Zhang Cuizhong t o have S h i s h u Tong p u b l i s h e d i n J i a n y a n g . Zhang l a t e r c o n t r a c t e d Qinyou Tang of Yu Z h i a n t o do t h e p r i n t i n g f o r him w h i c h took t h r e e y e a r s t o complete. I n f a c t , most o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s 104 i n J i a n a n were p r i n t e d by Qinyou Tang. I n a d d i t i o n t o J i a n g z h e , J i a n g x i p r o v i n c e i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d was a l s o f l o u r i s h e d w i t h b o o k s t o r e s . Lu L i n g and J i a n c h a n g were the two i m p o r t a n t book m a r k e t i n g c e n t e r s i n J i a n g x i w i t h famous bookshops such as G u l i n Shutang o f Hu's f a m i l y , T a i y u Shutang, Zhuping Shutang and o t h e r s . W h i l e most of the p u b l i s h e r s p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d a g r e a t v a r i e t y of books, t h e r e were a few who s p e c i a l i z e d i n c e r t a i n t y p e s of books. G u l i n Shuwu of t h e Hu's i n Lu. L i n g s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f m e d i c a l books. I t had p u b l i s h e d more th a n f i v e m e d i c a l books, such as Huangdi N e i j i n g Suwen and Huangdi N e i -- 57 -j i n g L i n g s h u J i n g . A nother noted c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r , Yuansha Academy, d e s p i t e i t s t i t l e as an "academy", s p e c i a l i -zed i n the p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e books of an e n c y c l o p e d i c n a t u r e . One of the w e l l p r i n t e d work by Yuansha Academy was t h e G u j i n Y u a n l i u Z h i l u n . I t i s an e n c y c l o p e d i a i n t e n d e d f o r c a n d i d a t e s t a k i n g t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s . I t f u r n i s h e d them w i t h a resume of c u r r e n t e v e n t s and the h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . J u s t as J i a n y a n g i n the modern p r o v i n c e o f F u j i a n was t h e c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e i n t h e s o u t h , P i n g y a n g i n S h a n x i was i n d i s p u t a b l y the c e n t r e i n the n o r t h d u r i n g b o t h the J i n and Yuan d y n a s t i e s . As mentioned above, the I n s t i -t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s n o r t h e r n c i t y as e a r l y as 1236. Many n o t a b l e books emanated from the book-shops i n t h i s a r e a . Books such as X i a n x i e K u i s o u Shu and Zhenghe Z h e n g l e i Bencao were d i s t r i b u t e d by Shu Xuan of 104 Chen and Huiming Xuan of Zhang Cunhui. However, Pingyang was g r a d u a l l y d i s p l a c e d by B e i j i n g a f t e r the Yuan c a p i t a l moved t o B e i j i n g i n 1267 and the I n s t i t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e a l s o moved t h e r e i n 1269. Books produced by the b u s i n e s s f i r m s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d 105 were c o n s i d e r e d by Ye Dehui as g e n e r a l l y o f low q u a l i t y . The books p u b l i s h e d were p r i m a r i l y m e d i c a l books, e x a m i n a t i o n a i d s , and e n c y c l o p e d i c c o m p i l a t i o n s . The Yuan government o n l y concerned w i t h ways and means of k e e p i n g d i s c o n t e n t e d - 58 -s c h o l a r s o c c u p i e d . As l o n g as t h e s c h o l a r s remained " d o c i l e and s u b s e r v i e n t " , t h e Mongol r u l e r s adopted a l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g book p r o d u c t i o n . But t h e l a c k o f governmen-t a l encouragement no doubt l e d t o the c o m p a r a t i v e l y poor s c h o l a r s h i p r e v e a l e d i n the c o n t e n t o f the books produced. A Japanese b i b l i o g r a p h e r , Nagasawa K i k u y a , l i s t e d a t o t a l of 220 t i t l e s p u b l i s h e d by 107 p r i v a t e and commercial p u b l i s h e r s 10 6 i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h some o f the books l i s t e d should come under o f f i c i a l s p o n s o r s h i p , we n e v e r t h e l e s s can g a i n some i d e a s o f the k i n d s o f books i s s u e d by t h e p r i v a t e and commercial p u b l i s h e r s . C a t e g o r i s e d under t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, Nagasawa i n c l u d e d s e v e n t y - n i n e C l a s s i c s , t h i r t y - t w o H i s t o r y , f i f t y - s i x P h i l o s o p h y and f i f t y - t h r e e B e l l s -l e t t r e s . Of t h e C l a s s i c s , t w e n t y - n i n e a r e l e x i c o n o r rhyming d i c t i o n a r i e s . Under p h i l o s o p h y , t h e r e a r e f i v e books on h e r b s , twenty books on p r e s c r i p t i o n and f i f t e e n e n c y c l o p a e d i a s . The s c h o l a r s t h e m s e l v e s were g e n e r a l l y c o n t e n t w i t h m e d i o c r i t y and c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d . T h i s was why Ye Dehui had t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e low c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e Yuan p e r i o d i s i n d i c a t e d by the low q u a l i t y o f the books p u b l i s h e d . - 59 -P i g . 2. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Yuan Dynasty  •12 6 0-136 8 52 "^ C-o o o o ro —r \ -r "V. _ . 7 ^ V? .-A ^ > v - 1 — o CN I •r-H - 60 -Chapter IV. Book Markets i n t h e Ming and Qing P e r i o d s The Mongol Dynasty was o v e r t h r o w n by C h i n e s e r e b e l s from c e n t r a l and s o u t h C h i n a . Zhu Yuangzhang was f i n a l l y a b l e t o occupy B e i j i n g i n 1368 and p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f emperor of Ming. He s e t up h i s c a p i t a l a t N a n j i n g and i n l e s s t h a n f o u r y e a r s not o n l y r e c o v e r e d a l l the t e r r i t o r i e s h e l d by the Tang d y n a s t y a t t h e h e i g h t of t h e i r power, but f u r t h e r extended h i s c o n t r o l over t h e T r a n s - B a i k a l r e g i o n and M a n c h u r i a as w e l l . N a n j i n g was chosen as the c a p i t a l because i t l a y i n the a r e a of r e b e l strength and near the c e n t r e o f p o p u l a t i o n and w e a l t h . S o u t h e a s t C h i n a c o n t i n u e d t o p r o s p e r and many new w a l l e d c i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e d u r i n g t h e Ming p e r i o d . N a n j i n g g a i n e d new i m p o r t a n c e a f t e r i t became the n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l . I n 1403 t h e new Ming emperor moved the c o u r t n o r t h t o B e i j i n g . Nan-j i n g t h u s l o s t i t s p o l i t i c a l pre-eminence but e c o n o m i c a l l y i t c o n t i n u e d t o f l o u r i s h . N a n j i n g ' s p o p u l a t i o n of more th a n one m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n Marco P o l o ' s time must have exceeded t h a t of B e i j i n g . When the Ming g e n e r a l Xu Da (1332-1385) c a p t u r e d B e i j i n g i n 1368, he a p p r o p r i a t e d g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of government p r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g books and wood-blocks, w h i c h he t r a n s -p o r t e d t o t h e new Ming c a p i t a l o f N a n j i n g i n the s o u t h . Among them were many v a l u a b l e works, i n c l u d i n g some whi c h t h e Mongols had a c q u i r e d d u r i n g the Song t i m e , as w e l l as numerous b l o c k s made under the o r d e r o f Mongol o f f i c i a l s i n - 61 -v a r i o u s c i r c u i t s . The damaged o r i n c o m p l e t e s e t s were sub-s e q u e n t l y r e p a i r e d by t h e Ming government. As N a n j i n g , i n the c i r c u i t of J i q i n g , was a l r e a d y w e l l known f o r i t s p u b l i -s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f m a t e r i a l s l e f t o v e r from the o l d d y n a s t i e s f e l l i n t o t h e hands o f the Ming a u t h o r i t y . The most o u t s t a n d i n g works p u b l i s h e d by t h e So u t h e r n Academy i n t h e p e r i o d o f J i a j i n g were t h e T h i r t e e n  C l a s s i c s and t h e Twenty-one D y n a s t i c H i s t o r i e s . One o f t h e voluminous e n c y c l o p a e d i a n o t o n l y i n C h i n a b u t i n t h e w o r l d was Yongle D a d i a n , c o m p i l e d under t h e pat r o n g e o f t h e Emperor Y o n g l e . The Yongle Dadian, c o n s i s t i n g o f 22,927 j u a n , was completed i n 1407 i n 11,915 volumes. Over 2,000 s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e c o m p i l a -t i o n o f t h i s monumental work. T h i s e n c y c l o p a e d i a n o t o n l y p r e s e r v e d l a r g e number of l o s t works b u t i n c l u d e d a l s o numer-ous p o p u l a r works such as drama and f i c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y 300 volumes o f Yongle Dadian s u r v i v e today. Ming s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e whole was c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r f i c i a l w i t h most Ming w r i t i n g s and c o m p i l a t i o n s u n i n s p i r e d and l a r g e l y 10 8 made up o f p l a t i t u d e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the s o - c a l l e d " e i g h t - l e g g e d essay" i n the Hongwu p e r i o d only s e r v e d t o i n -s t i l l I l l - u n d e r s t o o d c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s and s t e r e o t y p e d o p i n i o n s i n t h e minds o f the s c h o l a r s . Moreover t h e temps o f Ming l i f e was f a v o r a b l e t o the l i f e of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were i n t e r m i t t e n t wars on the M o n g o l i a n b o r d e r and I n d o - C h i n a , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e inroads, o f Japanese p i r a t e s a l o n g t h e c o a s t a l a r e a s , the i n t e r i o r o f t h e empire was a t peace d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e p e r i o d . M a t e r i a l p r o s -p e r i t y r e ached new h e i g h t s and l a b o r was cheap and p l e n t i f u l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e of p o r c e -l a i n and m e t a l work, and p r i n t i n g were h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d . Many s c h o l a r s were d i s g u s t e d by the c o r r u p t p o l i t i c s o f t h e Ming c o u r t and sought t o r e t i r e i n t o p r i v a t e l i f e . V a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n and a r t i s t i c a ppre-c i a t i o n were formed. A l a r g e number of t h e s e were i n such c e n t e r s as Suzhou and Hangzhou, where, f a r removed from th e mainstream of p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n and r e v o l t i n g incompetence of t h e c e n t r a l government i n the n o r t h , t h e y were i n c l i n e d t o a c q u i r e and e n j o y a r t works of v a r i o u s k i n d s . However, t h e i r p u b l i s h e d works, though by no means meager, was f a r l e s s w e l l c o l l a t e d and e d i t e d as Song e d i t i o n s . P r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g became p o p u l a r i n t h e J i a j i n g p e r i o d and f l o u r i s h e d from W a n l i t i l l t he end o f Ming. Suzhou had been one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f Ming d y n a s t y when a l a r g e number of s c h o l a r -p r i n t e r s l i v e d t h e r e . Some of the b e s t examples of p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s a r e a . W r i t i n g i n J i a j i n g p e r i o d , Lu Shen (1477-1544) spoke s l i g h t l y o f t h e p r i n t i n g i n J i a n y a n g b u t p r a i s e d t h a t of Suzhou. He s a i d : "But a r t i s a n s i n Suzhou 109 f o l l o w t h e s t a n d a r d o f o l d works ( i . e . Song e d i t i o n s ) . " Gu Chun, a n o t h e r s c h o l a r i n Suzhou was n o t e d f o r h i s f i n e - 63 -e d i t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t e d works o f s i x famous p h i l o s o p h e r s , the S h i d e t a n g L i u z i . Yuan J i o n g , whose J i a q u Tang i s s u e d a number o f f i n e works, such as the Werixuan L i u s h e n z h u . One o f the b e s t specimens s o f Ming p r i n t i n g was a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t y , Wang Chong Lunheng p r i n t e d by T o n g j i n Caotang o f Su X i a n k e . A n o t h e r c o l l e c t o r - p r i n t e r i n Suzhou was Guo Yunpeng, whose s t u d i o s J i m e i Tang and Baoshan Tang p r i n t e d a g r e a t number of l i t e r a r y works as w e l l . I n She X i a n o f H u i z h o u , We M i a n -xue's S h i g u Tang had a s i z e a b l e c o l l e c t i o n o f books. Wu a l s o p u b l i s h e d many books, i n c l u d i n g books on m e d i c i n e . One of h i s b e s t known e d i t i o n s was a c o l l e c t i o n o f 20 p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e s , E r s h i z i Quanshu. However, the most prominent p r i v a t e p u b l i s h e r s i n the Ming p e r i o d were Mao J i n and Fan Y i n . Mao J i n (1599-1659), a n a t i v e o f Chang Shu, had h i s J i g u Ge used b o t h as a l i b r a r y and p r i n t s h o p . A t o t a l o f 20 p r i n t e r s were h i r e d by Mao and over 10,000 b l o c k s were c u t . I n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s c a r e e r , Mao c o l l e c t e d o v er 10,000 books and p r i n t e d no l e s s t h a n 600 works. The most i m p o r t a n t i n c l u d e d the T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s , the Seventeen D y n a s t i c H i s t o r i e s , the J i n d a i B i s h u , a l a r g e number o f l i t e r a r y works and a s e r i e s o f p l a y s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y Mao's work had always been c i r t i c i z e d f o r c o n t a i n i n g many m i s t a k e s i n c o l l a t i n g and p r o o f r e a d i n g . Y e t because of t h e l a r g e volume o f books t h a t he p r i n t e d , t h e y c o u l d be found i n book markets everywhere i n C h i n a and even i n many l i b r a r i e s o f today. Because o f t h e l a r g e consumption o f paper by Mao i n - 64 -the p r o d u c t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f books, two s p e c i a l v a r i e t i e s o f paper were made i n J i a n g x i , t h e t h i c k e r one known as Mao-b i a n and t h e t h i n n e r one c a l l e d M a o t a i — the terms a r e s t i l l used today. Mao's e n t e r p r i s e was n o t v e r y s u c c e s s f u l f i n a n -c i a l l y i n the Qing p e r i o d and was f o r c e d t o d i s p o s e o f h i s p r o p e r t y as w e l l as h i s p r i n t - b l o c k s w h i c h were soon d i s p e r s e d and d e t e r i o r a t e d . 1 " 1 ' 0 I n c o n t r a s t t o Mao, Fan Y i n (1506-1585)'s famous l i b r a r y , T i a n y i Ge, p u b l i s h e d v e r y few books. B e s t known of h i s p u b l i s h e d works i s t h e E r s h i z h o n g Q i s h u . For t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e Ming p e r i o d , t h e l a r g e s t c o m m e r c i a l o u t p u t came from J i a n y a n g , a d i s t r i c t i n t h e p r e f e c t u r e o f J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n . D u r i n g the Qing p e r i o d , however, J i a n y a n g ceased t o be a m a r k e t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r o f i m p o r t a n c e and the t r a d e t h e r e e v e n t u a l l y d i e d out c o m p l e t e l y . T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o keen c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r book markets such as Suzhou, N a n j i n g , Hangzhou and B e i j i n g , w h i c h g r a d u a l l y grew i n i m p o r t a n c e i n the W a n l i p e r i o d . 1 1 1 (See Appendix "V ). F u j i a n has been w e l l r e c o g n i s e d as one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t e r s o f books. A Qing s c h o l a r , Chen S h o u q i , who i s a n a t i v e o f F u j i a n , mentioned t h a t "book p u b l i s h i n g i n J i a n a n and Masha had become p r o s p e r o u s i n t h e Song p e r i o d and c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p i n the Ming p e r i o d . Between 50 t o 60 p e r c e n t of a l l books d i s t r i b u t e d i n the c o u n t r y come from my n a t i v e c ounty. - 65 -Zhang X i u m i n a r g u e s t h a t i n the Song and Yuan p e r i o d s , most o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s i n F u j i a n were l o c a t e d i n J i a n a n . Out o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x b o o k s t o r e s i n J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g , t w e n t y - n i n e were i n J i a n a n i n the Song p e r i o d . I n the Yuan p e r i o d , twenty-two 113 out o f twenty-seven b o o k s t o r e s were i n J i a n a n . However, book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n J i a n a n d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the Ming p e r i o d . T h i s l e f t J i a n y a n g as the major book market i n F u j i a n . A l o c a l g a z e t t e o f J i a n y a n g X i a n i n J i a -j i n g p e r i o d (1522-1566) r e c o r d e d t h a t books were p u b l i s h e d i n two d i s t r i c t s : Masha and Chonghua. Masha was d e s t r o y e d i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , so o n l y Chonghua s t i l l e x i s t e d . I n 1499, b o o k s t o r e s i n J i a n y a n g were a g a i n damaged by f i r e and a l m o s t a l l t he p r i n t - b l o c k s were d e s t r o y e d . F o r t u n a t e l y , books c o u l d s t i l l be p u b l i s h e d from chonghua and book p r o d u c t i o n was r e v i v e d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n t h e J i a j i n g p e r i o d . The l o c a l g a z e t t e f u r t h e r r e c o r d e d t h a t the book market i n Chonghua d i s t r i c t opened on t h e f i r s t and s i x t h days of e v e r y t e n day p e r i o d . D u r i n g the market days, l a r g e numbers o f merchants and p e d l a r s v i s i t e d t h e numerous b o o k s t o r e s a t Shufang S t r e e t . Zhou Hongzu r e c o r d e d 365 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s p u b l i s h e d i n J i a n n i n g and t h e l o c a l g a z e t t e o f J i a n y a n g r e c o r d e d 451 i n 114 1545. Zhang X i u m i n even s u g g e s t s t h a t over one thousand d i f f e r e n t works were p u b l i s h e d i n J i a n y a n g from 1545 t o t h e end o f t h e Ming d y n a s t y . T h i s l a r g e numbers o f books produ-ced i n J i a n y a n g no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s development as one of the most p r o d u c t i v e book markets i n C h i n a . - 66 -The books produced i n F u j i a n , however, had always been c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g p o o r l y p r i n t e d and e d i t e d as w e l l as h a v i n g used cheap m a t e r i a l s . J i a n y a n g produced a s p e c i a l k i n d o f bunyun woold used f o r making p r i n t i n g b l o c k s . I t s s o f t n e s s made p r i n t i n g easy b u t i t o f t e n made broken o r b l u r r e d i m p r e s s i o n s . For t h i s r e a s o n F u j i a n books had always been c o n s i d e r e d by b i b l i o p h i l e s as o f poor q u a l i t y . X i e Zhaozhe, i n h i s Wuzasu, a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t books were produced i n 115 g r e a t q u a n t i t y i n F u j i a n b u t t h e q u a l i t y was v e r y poor. A n o t h e r Ming w r i t e r , Lang Y i n g , who was a n a t i v e o f Hangzhou, an o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e o f p r i n t i n g , s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e c ommercial p u b l i s h e r s i n F u j i a n : (The p r i n t i n g o f books) has been abused by p u b l i s h e r s i n F u j i a n because t h e y a r e m o t i -v a t e d by p r o f i t s o n l y . Whenever t h e y hear of good works s e l l i n g a t h i g h p r i c e s t h e y r e p r i n t e d them. A l t h o u g h the number of j u a n and the t a b l e of c o n t e n t s a r e e s s e n -t i a l l y t h e same, a g r e a t d e a l o f m a t e r i a l has been d e l e t e d . The b u y e r , not r e c o g -n i z e o f t h i s t r i c k , g e t s the work a t o n l y h a l f p r i c e and f a l l s u n w i t t i n g l y i n t o t h e i r t r a p . 1 1 6 N e v e r t h e l e s s some works of v e r y good q u a l i t y were produced i n J i a n y a n g , e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Many c r e d i t a b l e works were produced i n Masha by L i u Hong i n Ming t i m e s . H i s workshop, Shengdu Z h a i , t u r n e d o u t f i n e e d i t i o n s such as S o n g z i J i a n and S h i q i s h i X i a n g j i e , w h i c h were so w e l l e x e c u t e d t h a t o t h e r book d e a l e r s were tempted t o remove a l l of L i u ' s d e s i g n a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o pass - 67 -i t on as a Song e d i t i o n , L i u wa,s f u r t h e r e n t r u s t e d w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of Shantang Xi a n s h e n g Quanshu Kaosuo by the l o c a l g e n t r y of J i a n y a n g , Because o f t h e e x c e l l e n t work he produced, L i u was even exempted from l o c a l c o n s c r i p t l a b o r f o r one y e a r as a reward. B e s i d e s L i u Hong, another bookshop of t h e L i u f a m i l y , Anzheng Tang i n J i a n y a n g , a l s o i s s u e d a number of c r e d i t a b l e works i n the p e r i o d o f A.D.1500-1600. Together w i t h h i s son and grandson, L i u Chaoguan and L i u Shuangsong, L i u Zongqi's Anzheng Tang p u b l i s h e d more t h a n t w e n t y - f o u r works from 1429 t o e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L i u Zongqi was a h i g h l y r e g a r d e d p u b l i s h e r i n the f a m i l y and h i s books were s o l d a t h i g h p r i c e s . Anzheng Tang not o n l y i s s u e d books on m e d i c i n e , c l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y but a l s o c o l l e c t a n e a and many l i t e r a r y works. An i n t e r e s t i n g note a t the end of h i s work, Shiwen L e i j u Hanmo Daguan, gave us an i d e a of book p r i c e s a t t h i s t i m e , a p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n seldom g i v e n : " B l o c k s r e p a i r e d and p r i n t e d i n t h e fourth month o f 1611 by Anzheng Tang. Each 117 copy i s t o be s o l d a t t h e p r i c e o f one t a e l . " Books i s s u e d by Anzheng Tang was so w e l l e x e c u t e d t h a t i n some c a s e s , w i t h n o t e s o f i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n removed, t h e y had been t a k e n f o r t h o s e o f t h e Yuan p e r i o d by many b i b l i o p h i l e s . W h i l e t h e L i u f a m i l y was t h e l e a d i n g b o o k s e l l e r and p u b l i s h e r i n Masha, the Yu f a m i l y i n Shufang h e l d a s i m i l a r prominent p o s i t i o n as e a r l y as t h e Song p e r i o d on. The most - 68 -noteworthy was t h e i r whorkshop Qinyou Tang which had been v e r y prominent s i n c e t h e Song p e r i o d . I n t h e Ming p e r i o d , Yu f a m i l y became even more famous w i t h a t l e a s t t w e l v e b o o k s t o r e s . The Yu f a m i l y had d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e Ming p e r i o d b u t became p r o s p e r o u s a g a i n i n t h e W a n l i p e r i o d . Many books were p u b l i s h e d by the Yu f a m i l y i n the Ming t i m e s . The noted examples i n c l u d e d the p u b l i s h i n g o f Huangming Y i n g -l i e Zhuan by Yu Junzhao, G a n g j i a n L i c h a o Zhengshi Quanpian by Yu S i y u a n , X i h a n Zhizhuan by Yu S h i t e n g , Huangming Z i z h i 118 Tongj i by Yu X i a n y u a n and many o t h e r s . A n o t h e r b o o k s t o r e of t h e Yu f a m i l y i n J i a n y a n g w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Song p e r i o d was Yu Xiangdou's Shuangfeng Tang. Yu and h i s son, Wenta i , were famous f o r t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g o f i l l u s -t r a t e d n o v e l s , dramas and p o p u l a r manuals i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , such as X i h a n Z h i z h u a n , Nanyou J i , and o t h e r s . Some of t h e works produced i n J i a n y a n g was so poor t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y the l o c a l government had been prompted t o i n t e r v e n e . A d e c r e e was i s s u e d i n 1532 by t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l judge i n F u j i a n , which r e a d p a r t l y as f o l l o w s : The F i v e C l a s s i c s and t h e Four books a r e t h e most i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s . The o l d e r e d i t i o n s were w e l l p r i n t e d ; b u t now p r o f e s -s i o n a l p r i n t e r s , who aim a t n o t h i n g b u t p r o f i t s , i s s u e p o c k e t e d i t i o n s i n s m a l l p r i n t and w i t h many e r r o r s . . . (Many examples a t t h i s p o i n t . ) T h i s i s h a r m f u l n o t o n l y t o b e g i n n e r s but many c a d i d a t e s f o r degrees have been d i s q u a l i f i e d because o f t h e m i s t a k e n - 69 -t e x t s t h e y have used, w h i c h i s i n d e e d a s e r i o u s m a t t e r . T h i s o f f i c e deems i t n e c e s s a r y t h a t a l l works p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , f o r c i r c u l a t i o n o v er t h e whole o f the empire, be c a r e f u l l y c o l l a t e d t o r e c t i f y t h e e r r o r s committed by t h e above p r i n t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . ... ( C a r e f u l l y c o l l a t e d s t a n d a r d t e x t s ) a r e t o be p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l p r i n t e r s as a g u i d e . A l l works must be checked b e f o r e t h e y a r e s o l d . Names o f t h e b l o c k c a r v e r s a r e t o be. p l a c e d a t t h e end o f the books t o make p o s s i b l e t h e t r a c i n g o f any m i s t a k e s committed. B o o k s e l l e r s s h o u l d not d e v i a t e from th e s t a n d a r d t e x t i s s u e d by t h e o f f i c i a l s . Anyone who d i s r e g a r d s t h i s r e g u l a t i o n w i l l be p u n i s h e d and w i l l have h i s b l o c k s d e s t r o y e d . No l e n i e n c e w i l l be shown. A l l p r i n t e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o f i l e a s t a t e m e n t p r o m i s i n g t o comply w i t h t h i s r e g u l a t i o n .. . •'•^  T h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n of 1532 l a t e r appeared i n many of t h e books p r i n t e d i n J i a n y a n g d u r i n g t h e J i a j i n g p e r i o d , such as the Z h o u y i J i n g z h u a n and L i j i J i s h u . W h i l e the Yu f a m i l y had t h e l o n g e s t h i s t o r y i n book p u b l i s h i n g , a few of the b o o k s t o r e s i n F u j i a n a l s o had a l o n g h i s t o r y w h i c h c o u l d be t r a c e d back t o t h e Yuan p e r i o d , such as C u i y a n J i n g s h e , R i x i n g Tang, Guangqin Tang, Zongwen Tang and Wuben Tang. Many of them c o n t i n u e d t o p u b l i s h h i g h q u a l i t y l i t e r a r y works as w e l l as books f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . C u i y a n J i n g s h e p u b l i s h e d S h i T i n Guangj i , Maiyao B i k u o and o t h e r s . R i x i n Tang p u b l i s h e d Tuj i n g Bancao and Zongwen Tang 120 p u b l i s h e d W u l i n Shu, Chuxue J i , and Yiwen L e i j u . - 70 -Another b o o k s t o r e w h i c h s p e c i a l i s e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Y i n y a n g and m e d i c a l books was X i o n g Z o n g l i ' s Zhongde Tang. He p u b l i s h e d more th a n f i f t e e n m e d i c a l works d u r i n g t h e Chenghua p e r i o d (1436-1487). Not o n l y were o l d e r works such as N e i j i n g Suwen, X i a o e r Fangjue r e i s s u e d by him b u t new books were p u b l i s h e d , such as Y u a n y i Y a o x i n g Fu, F u r e n L i a n g f a n g . H i s d e s c e n d a n t s a l s o p u b l i s h e d Tuzhu N a n j i n g and Tuzhu M a i j u e d u r i n g t h e W a n l i p e r i o d . A 24-juan Mingfang L e i z h e n g Y i s h u Daquan, c o m p i l e d by X i o n g Z o n g l i was r e i s s u e d i n Japan t o 121 become the f i r s t Japanese p r i n t e d m e d i c a l book. A l t h o u g h the Ming government a l s o p u b l i s h e d books on C l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y , the demands of t h e p e o p l e was f a r from b e i n g met. B o o k s t o r e s i n J i a n y a n g , N a n j i n g , B e i j i n g , Suzhou, Hangzhou and Huizhou c o m p i l e d a g r e a t number of n o v e l s , dramas and books w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Tn J i a n y a n g t h e r e were a l s o e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e b o o k s t o r e s f o r the b e g i n n e r s , such as T i a n x i a N a n z h i , Q i a n j i a X i n g , ShengTu Fameng and others. Books f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s were a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y produced by t h e c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s . There were s t a n d a r d t e x t s , commentaries, s t u d i e s , e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e Four Books and the F i v e C l a s s i c s w h i c h a i d e d s t u d e n t s t a k i n g the c i v i l e x a m i n a t i o n s . There were a l s o o v e r 60 l i t e r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s o f b o t h e a r l y and con-temporary w r i t e r s p u b l i s h e d by t h e J i a n y a n g b o o k s t o r e s . Such works l i k e Sanguozhi Y a n y i , Shuihu Zhuan, X i x i a n g J i were produced i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y . Books f o r d a i l y use were a l s o e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e i n J i a n y a n g where S h i T i n G u a n g j i , J u j i a B i -- 71 -yong and others, were p u b l i s h e d . N eo-Confucian works were produced s i d e by s i d e w i t h books on law and r e g u l a t i o n . Moreover, J i a n y a n g book p u b l i s h e r s : p u t out a l a r g e number of books f o r p r a c t i c a l use, such as Sunwuzi B i n f a f o r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s , Xiangming Suanfa f o r c a c u l a t i o n , T i a n j i a L i f o r s t u d y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s easons, Luban J i n g f o r c a r p e n t r y and a l s o m e d i c a l books w h i c h had more th a n f i f t y d i f f e r e n t . . , -i 122 t i t l e s . I n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f Ming, book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s were s t i l l i n F u j i a n , Hangzhou and S i c h u a n . W r i t i n g i n the J i a j i n g p e r i o d (1522-1566), L i u Shen i n h i s J i n t a i J i w e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e was no more p u b l i s h i n g done i n Hang-zhou w h i l e e d i t i o n from S i c h u a n and F u j i a n became f a r l e s s p o p u l a r than i n the e a r l y Ming p e r i o d ; o n l y Suzhou e d i t i o n s c o u l d have been compared to the o l d e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d i n t h e Song and Yuan p e r i o d s . I n the J i a j i n g p e r i o d , Huzhou and Shezhou i n A n h u i r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d as i m p o r t a n t p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s . T a l k i n g about book p u b l i c a t i o n i n W a n l i p e r i o d , X i e Zhaozhe. p o i n t e d out t h a t : "The q u a l i t y o f p r i n t i n g i n Hangzhou has d e c l i n e d much. N a n j i n g , Wuxing, X i n a n were the t h r e e p l a c e s where the a r t o f c a r v i n g and p r i n t i n g a r e a t 123 l e a s t as good as Song e d i t i o n s . " X i e c o n t i n u e d t o note t h a t t h e q u a l i t y of p r i n t i n g i n Hunan was j u s t average. Book-s t o r e s i n J i a n y a n g were v e r y p r o d u c t i v e b u t t hey used v e r y poor q u a l i t y paper and b l o c k s and t h a t r e c e n t l y Wuxing and - 72 -N a n j i n g a l s o d e c l i n e d t o the same s i t u a t i o n as tho s e i n F u j i a n . Hu Y i . n g l i n i n W a n l i p e r i o d a l s o contended t h a t : Books p r i n t e d i n Suzhou and Changzhou a r e the b e s t , n e x t t o them i s N a n j i n g , Hang-zhou p l a c e d i n t h e t h i r d p l a c e . R e c e n t l y books produced i n Huzhou and Shezhou a r e of v e r y good q u a l i t y and competed w i t h h i g h - p r i c e d Suzhou e d i t i o n s . Books now r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e i n S i c h u a n and F u j i a n e d i t i o n s a r e p o o r l y p r i n t e d . 1 2 4 Mao Chunxiang f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t q u a l i t y p r i n t i n g i n Suzhou and Changzhou p r e v a i l e d i n J i a j i n g p e r i o d b u t was r e p l a c e d by Wuxing and X i n a n i n the W a n l i p e r i o d . Why A n h u i c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d as a h i g h q u a l i t y p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e was e x p l a i n e d by Mao as t h e r e were many w e a l t h y merchants i n A n h u i and t h e y p r o v i d e d a good f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e c o l l e c t i n g 1 2 5 and p u b l i s h i n g of books t h e r e . A nother p o s s i b l e r e a s o n was t h a t many h i g h l y s k i l l e d b l o c k - c u t t e r s and p r i n t e r s r e - ' s i d e d i n A n h u i , such as Huang J u n , Huang Y i n g t a i , Huang Y i n g -1 2 6 r u i , Wang Zhongshen and Wang Wenyi. Many o f t h e b l o c k - p r i n t e r s i n A n h u i , however, moved t o Suzhou and N a n j i n g i n the W a n l i and Chongzhen p e r i o d . T h e i r m i g r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development o f Suzhou and N a n j i n g as the dominant book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g centres:. Suzhou was p a r t i c u l a r l y noted f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f many h i g h q u a l i t y works as i t had many s k i l f u l b l o c k - p r i n t e r , such as Zhang S h i , 1 2 7 Wu Yao, Wu S h i y o n g , Huang . Z h o u x i a n and Huang J i n x i a n . T a l k i n g about book p u b l i s h i n g , Hu Y i n g l i n commented t h a t : There a r e t h r e e p r i n t i n g c e n t e r s : J i a n g s u , Z h e j i a n g and F u j i a n . I n the Song P e r i o d , S i c h u a n e d i t i o n was the b e s t b u t now r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e . H e b e i , Guangdong, S h a a n x i , Hu-nan and Hubei a l s o had numerous books p r i n t e d b u t not as p r o s p e r o u s as t h e above t h r e e mentioned p l a c e s . The b e s t q u a l i t y books come from J i a n g s u w h i l e F u j i a n l e d i n q u a n t i t y . Z h e j i a n g i s second t o them i n b o t h q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . The J i a n g s u e d i t i o n s a r e the most e x p e n s i v e w h i l e t h e F u j i a n e d i t i o n s a r e t h e c h e a p e s t . Z h e j i a n g a g a i n p l a c e d second i n terms of t h e v a l u e of books p u b l i s h e d . 1 2 8 Athough books were p u b l i s h e d i n Suzhou, N a n j i n g , Hang-zhou, H u i z h o u , Yangzhou and J i a n a n , a c c o r d i n g t o Hu Y i n g l i n the f o u r p r i n c i p a l book markets were: B e i j i n g , N a n j i n g , Suzhou 129 and Hangzhou. Books p u b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g were r a r e b u t i t was one o f t h e major commercial c e n t e r s o f C h i n a w i t h l a r g e numbers o f merchants b r i n g i n g i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f books. Many v a l u a b l e books c o u l d not be k e p t by the descendants and were s o l d i n B e i j i n g . The l a r g e number of s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s and w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g i n B e i j i n g no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y of the book market t h e r e . Hu f u r t h e r noted t h a t books p r i n t e d i n B e i j i n g were t h r e e t i m e s as e x p e n s i v e as t h o s e p r i n t e d i n Z h e j i a n g because of t h e h i g h c o s t o f paper t h e r e and h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g -i n g i n books produced i n the s o u t h . T h i s i s why L i u Hong had a b o o k s t o r e i n J i a n y a n g f o r book p r o d u c t i o n and a n o t h e r b r a n c h s t o r e i n B e i j i n g f o r s e l l i n g books o n l y . 1 ^ 0 The s e l l i n g o f books had a l r e a d y become a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e i n t h e p e r i o d i c - 74 -markets and t h e a n n u a l f a i r s o f B e i j i n g i n t h e Ming p e r i o d . Most b o o k s t o r e s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y were l o c a t e d a t the r i g h t hand s i d e o f Darning Gate, t h e e n t r a n c e o f the M i n i s t r y o f R i t e s , and a t t h e west o f Gongchen Gate. (See f i g u r e 3 ) . Hangzhou, as B e i j i n g , p u b l i s h e d v e r y few books b u t i t s c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the c o l l e c t i o n o f books from Suzhou and F u j i a n . Most of t h e book merchants t h e r e where a c t i v e i n s e c u r i n g , by any means, the books t h a t c o u l d n ot be k e p t by descendants o f famous s c h o l a r s and b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s . Books were a l s o b r o u g h t from Hunan, H u b e i , Guangdong, Guangxi and S i c h u a n . Many s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s from S h a a n x i , Hebei a l s o p l a c e d t h e i r books t h e r e f o r s a l e . D u r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d , a f a r g r e a t e r number of books were p l a c e d i n the bookshops i n Hangzhou f o r s a l e . As d e s c r i b e d by Hu Y i n g l i n , bookstores were located a t t h e main t h o r o u g h f a r e s and i n the p e r i o d i c m a r k e t s : Most o f t h e bookshops a r e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e Zhenhai Lou w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Yong-j i n G a t e / i n B i j i a o Fang and Qinghe Fang. A l l o f them a r e the main t h o r o u g h f a r e s . D u r i n g the p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , book-s t a l l s were s e t up i n f r o n t of t h e exami-n a t i o n H a l l . On the f i f t e e n t h day o f t h e second month, t h e y w i l l move t o the Temple of T i a n z h u when i t i s t h e b i r t h d a y of Budda. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f o u r t h month, t h e y w i l l move t o t h e grave o f Yue F e i where t o u r i s t s f r e q u e n t e d . Most B u d d h i s t l i t e r a t u r e a r e s o l d i n the Temple of Zhaoqing and t h e b o o k s e l l e r s a r e Budd-h i s t monks. There a r e a l s o a few book-s t a l l s w h i c h l o c a t e d a t t h e back l a n e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e y have a few r a r e books too.13 2 - 75 -Freom Hu'a d e s c r i p t i o n s of b o o k s e l l i n g i n B e i j i n g and Hangzhou, we can t e l l t h a t book merchants were q u i c k t o respond t o new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l l i n g books. Not o n l y d i d t h e y have permanent s t o r e s l o c a t e d on major t h o r o u g h f a r e s but t h e y a l s o s e t up m o b i l e s t a l l s i n p e r i o d i c m a r k e t s , temple f a i r s and even g r a v e y a r d s , whereever s e l l i n g oppor-t u n i t i e s were p r e s e n t . I n c o n t r a s t t o B e i j i n g and Hangzhou, N a n j i n g and Suzhou were famous not o n l y as book markets b u t a l s o as i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e s . Wu m a i n t a i n e d t h a t : "There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e c a p i t a l t o B e i j i n g c u r t a i l -133 ed p r i n t i n g i n t h a t c i t y (Nanjing).." Book p u b l i s h i n g i n N a n j i n g had begun as e a r l y as i n t h e p e r i o d o f the F i v e D y n a s t i e s . I t was t h e n t h e c a p i t a l o f Nantang(937-975) and books, such as S h i t o n g , Y u t a i X i n y o n g , were p u b l i s h e d . I n 1291 the l o c a l g a z e t t e o f J i a n k a n g (Nanjing) r e c o r d e d t h a t 67 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s were p u b l i s h e d . There were not o n l y C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s b u t a l s o books on m e d i c i n e , l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l works. I n the Yuan p e r i o d , t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y of Tang was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e c i r c u i t o f J i q i n g and i n 1344 J i n g l i n g X i n z h i was i s s u e d . W i t h t h e f o u n d i n g o f the c a p i t a l i n N a n j i n g by Zhu Yuanzhang, pop u l a t i o n much- expanded and commerce r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d i n N a n j i n g . As r e c o r d e d i n the l o c a l g a z e t t e , the p o p u l a t i o n o f - 76 -N a n j i n g i n 1297 was 95,000 and by 1356 when the Ming fou n d e r f i r s t made his base t h e r e , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the c i t y was about 100,000, W i t h i n two decades, a f t e r N a n j i n g became t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l , i t was t o expand t e n f o l d . F o r c e r e c r u i t -ment o f p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e c i t y was a p p a r e n t i n the e a r l y Ming p e r i o d . Some 45,000 "wealthy households from r i c h r e g i o n s t o the e a s t — around Suzhou, Huizhou and t h o s e p r e f e c t u r e s adhered t o the r e b e l l e a d e r (Zhang Sicheng) — were moved t o N a n j i n g i n 1381" t o f i l l o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t o p u n i s h them f o r h a v i n g r e s i s t e d t h e found e r i n s u p p o r t i n g a r i v a l . The a d u l t males were a s s i g n e d as l a b o r e r s and c r a f t -smen i n v a r i o u s government work p r o j e c t s . Another 14,000 hous e h o l d s o f the "wealthy of t h e r e a l m " were c o n s c r i p t e d t o become t h e w e l l - t o - d o of the c i t y , t o be l i s t e d on t h e p o p u l a -t i o n r e g i s t r i e s as "we a l t h y h o u s e h o l d s " . A n o t h e r r e c o r d r e f e r r e d t o 20,000 c r a f t m e n households moved from Z h e j i a n g t o f i l l s p e c i a l i z e d l a b o r and b u i l d i n g j o b s . G i v i n g an average o f f i v e p e o p l e i n each h o u s e h o l d , we g e t about 395,000 new r e s i d e n t s i n N a n j i n g . By 1391, Shangyuan and J i a n g n i n g , t h e two c o u n t i e s making up t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g t h e c a p i t a l and i t s e n v i r o n s , had t h e f o l l o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n : Shangyuan had 38,900 households o r 253,200 i n d i v i d u a l s and J i a n g n i n g had 27,000 households o r 220,000 i n d i v i d u a l s . These f i g u r e s d i d not i n c l u d e t h e m i l i t a r y , o f f i c i a l and t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l i e s . As i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were more th a n 200,000 m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l - 77 -i n N a n j i n g , t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f N a n j i n g d e c l i n e d a f t e r t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f the c a p i t a l t o B e i j i n g i n 1421. Most a c c o u n t s s a i d i t was reduced "by one h a l f " w h i c h i s not a p r e c i s e e x p r e s s i o n b u t c e r t a i n l y t h e d e c l i n e was s u b s t a n t i a l . I n N a n j i n g , t h e S o u t h e r n Academy s e t up by t h e Ming government not o n l y c o l l e c t e d a l l the p r i n t b l o c k s from the s c h o o l s i n t h e c i r c u i t o f J i q i n g b u t a l s o p r i n t b l o c k s from t h e West Lake Academy. Over 271 works were p u b l i s h e d by the S o u t h e r n Academy as r e c o r d e d by Zhou Hongzhou. Not o n l y were books of C l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y p u b l i s h e d but a l s o books on a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , mathematics, h y d r o l o g y , m e d i c i n e and e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s were i s s u e d . The S o u t h e r n Academy was not o n l y a p u b l i s h i n g house, i t was a l s o t h e i n s t i t u t e o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . Over 9,000 s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e Academy i n 1420 w i t h s t u d e n t s from K o r e a , Japan and T h a i l a n d . As p o i n t e d out by Hu Y i n g l i n , most of the b o o k s t o r e s were l o c a t e d a t t h e Sanshan S t r e e t and i n f r o n t of the I m p e r i a l S c h o o l . Some of the b o o k s t o r e s t h u s had names such as "Sanshan Shufang" o r "Sanshan S h u l i n " . A t o t a l o f f i f t y - f o u r b o o k s t o r e s were l i s t e d by Zhang X i u m i n and he e s t i m a t e s t h a t the number of b o o k s t o r e s i n N a n j i n g was fewer t h a n i n Jianyang 136 which had over s i x t y b u t more th a n t h o s e i n B e i j i n g . I n N a n j i n g t h e Tang f a m i l y had the l a r g e s t number o f b o o k s t o r e s — t w e l v e , w h i l e t h e Zhou f a m i l y came n e x t w i t h seven s t o r e s . The Tang b o o k s t o r e s p u b l i s h e d many books on m e d i c i n e , C l a s s i c s , - 78 -m u s i c , l i t e r a r y works b u t f a r more numerous was the p u b l i s h i n g of dramas. Tang K u i x i ' s Fuchun Tang a l o n e had p u b l i s h e d one hundred dramas w i t h some t h i r t y o f them s t i l l s u r v i v i n g t o d a y , such as Sangu C a o l u J i and Guanbao Fenj i n J i . I n a d d i t i o n t o Fuchun Tang, o t h e r famous N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s , such as Sh i d e Tang, W e n l i n Ge, Guangqing Tang and J i z h i Tang had a l s o p u b l i s h e d many dramas. I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t over 200 t o 300 dramas were p u b l i s h e d by N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s a l o n e i n the Ming p e r i o d . The e a r l i e s t known book p u b l i s h e r i n N a n j i n g was Wang J u z h i who p u b l i s h e d Yasong Zhengyin i n the e a r l y Ming p e r i o d . Zhongde Tang i n 14 3 5 p u b l i s h e d J i n t o n g Yunu J i a o h o n g J i whi c h was the e a r l i e s t N a n j i n g drama s u r v i v i n g today. A n o t h e r b o o k s t o r e i n N a n j i n g , L a i b i n Lou, was famous f o r i t s p u b l i c a -t i o n o f the T r i p i t a k a . B e s i d e s drama, b o o k s t o r e s i n N a n j i n g a l s o p u b l i s h e d l a r g e numbers of n o v e l s w h i c h were i n g r e a t demand by the p e o p l e . Wanjuan Lou p u b l i s h e d S a n g u o j i Zhuan w h i l e S i y o u J i had more t h a n one e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d by Rong-shou Tang and S h i d e Tang. Daye Tang a l s o p u b l i s h e d X i j i n ;  J i z h u a n T i p i n g , D o n g j i n J i z h u a n T i p i n g and J i a n s h a n Tang p u b l i s h e d J i n g s h i Tongyan. Most o f t h e Ming drama and n o v e l s p u b l i s h e d by comm e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s had l a r g e numbers o f i l l u -s t r a t i o n s . I n J i a n y a n g e d i t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i o n s were u s u a l l y i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e page w i t h t h e t e x t below. I l l u s t r a -t i o n s i n N a n j i n g e d i t i o n s became f u l l page or even two pages w i t h one l a r g e i l l u s t r a t i o n . There were a l s o a l a r g e number o f m e d i c a l books p u b l i s h e d by the N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s such as Fuchun Tang's Furen Daquan Liangfang„ There were a l s o h i s -t o r i c a l works produced by N a n j i n g commercial p u b l i s h e r s , such as Dayou Tang's Huangming Baoxun. A l t h o u g h book p u b l i s h e r s i n N a n j i n g d i d n o t p u b l i s h as many books as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n J i a n y a n g , N a n j i n g was more famous f o r i t s l a r g e o u t p u t o f dramas. Suzhou was one o f t h e e a r l i e s t book p u b l i s h i n g and book-s e l l i n g c e n t r e s i n C h i n a . I n the F i v e D y n a s t i e s , i n Feng Xiu's memorial t o the emperor t o ban t h e s e l l i n g o f c a l e n d a r s i n the market, Suzhou was mentioned as one o f t h e p l a c e s where 13 8 u n a u t h o r i z e d c a l e n d a r s were on s a l e . I n 1978, t h r e e N o r t h -e r n Song B u d d h i s t s u t r a s were d i s c o v e r e d i n Ruiguang Pagoda i n t h e c i t y o f Suzhou. T h i s d i s c o v e r y f u r t h e r p r o v e d t h a t book p u b l i s h i n g had been w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n Suzhou i n N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d . The p o p u l a t i o n o f Suzhou i n the Song p e r i o d was e s t i m a t e d a t about 300,000. I t was e s t i m a t e d by Mote t h a t Suzhou i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o b a b l y r e a c h e d t h e h a l f - m i l l i o n mark 139 i n p o p u l a t i o n . The two phased a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i t e d the Suzhou a r e a . I t f i r s t began w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f q u i c k - r i p e n i n g r i c e i n t h e Song p e r i o d and l a t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c r o p s from t h e New W o r l d a f t e r t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c i v i t y o f a g r i c u l -t u r e and use o f s u b s i d i a r y c r o p s f r e e d t h e farming p o p u l a t i o n - 80 -t o engage I n secondary p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Commerce, c r a f t i n d u s t r y and f i n a n c e were a l l expanding i n scope and volume. The p r o d u c t i o n o f l u x u r y goods and the growth of t e x t i l e i n d u s t r i e s , a t f i r s t s i l k and l a t e r c o t t o n i n d u s t r y , were i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t s o f t h e Suzhou r e g i o n . The a g g r e g a t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s f u r t h e r made Suzhou t h e hub of a c i r c l e o f growing s a t e l l i t e c i t i e s -- W u j i a n g , Kunshan, Wuxi, Changshu -- a l l o f w h i c h grew i n t o t h e 100,000 c l a s s a f t e r the s i x t e e n t h 140 c e n t u r y . I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s p r o s p e r i n g i n d u s t r y , Suzhou a l s o f o s t e r e d t h e a r t s o f C h i n a -- the l i t e r a r y a r t s above a l l , b u t a l s o music and p a i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y , t h e c r a f t a r t s , d e c o r a t i v e a r t s and t h e minor a r t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s e l e g a n t l i f e . Moreover, Suzhou s u s t a i n e d l e a r n i n g , t h e mechanism f o r a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s and o f f i c i a l s t a t u s . I t l a v i s h e d w e a l t h on gardens and a r t c o l l e c t i o n and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Suzhou d r e s s e s , mansions, f o o d , p l e a s u r e boats and f e s t i v a l s were r e p o r t e d t o be t h e f i n e s t i n a l l C h i n a . C i t i e s were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l modes i n the network o f m a r k e t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Y e t i n t h e case o f Suzhou, as Mote p o i n t s o u t , t h e commercial and b a n k i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n was o u t s i d e t h e c i t y , i n the suburbs i n the west of the c i t y w a l l s , e x t e n d i n g some d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e Grand C a n a l . As f o r c r a f t - 81 -i n d u s t r y , s i l k , weaving was: c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r i n s i d e the w a l l s , b u t c o t t o n weaving was d i s p e r s e d o u t s i d e t h e c i t y . S p e c i a l i z e d markets f o r p r o d u c t s such as f i s h , f r u i t s , v e g e t a b l e s and c e r t a i n m a nufactured goods were l o c a t e d i n market towns, t e n t o f i f t e e n m i l e s away. " A l l t he p r o c e s s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p u b l i s h i n g books c o n t i n u e d t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r u r a l v i l l a g e a c t i v i t i e s , as were t h e i r s u p p o r t i n g c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s such as the m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f 14 2 paper and i n k . " A l t h o u g h Suzhou i n t h e Song and Yuan p e r i o d s was not y e t a major book market, i t s c l o s e n e s s t o Hangzhou c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s development as a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e g i o n a l p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r . Many o f the famous Song b l o c k -p r i n t e r s , such as Zheng D i n g , L i u Yuanda and o t h e r s , a c t u a l l y 143 came from Suzhou. I n Ming p e r i o d , Suzhou had become not o n l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g b u t m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e as w e l l . There were over f o r t y b o o k s t o r e s i n Suzhou. Most o f them were l o c a t e d near the Chang Gate, the n o r t h w e s t e r n g a t e of the c i t y w a l l , and i n f r o n t o f Wuxian. Books p u b l i s h e d i n Suzhou were comparable i n q u a l i t y t o the books p u b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g . I n f a c t many b o o k s e l l e r s i n B e i j i n g o r i g i n a t e d from 144 Suzhou. Hu Y m g l m f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f books produced i n Suzhou were t h e b e s t compared w i t h o t h e r 145 p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s . Many o f t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , t h e i r commentaries and - 82 -government r e g u l a t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f Ming. T h i s c e r t a i n l y was due t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e " e i g h t - l e g g e d e s s a y " i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n . I n the Zhengde and W a n l i p e r i o d (1506-1619), many Song and Yuan e d i t i o n s were i s s u e d . D u r i n g and a f t e r the W a n l i p e r i o d , dramas and n o v e l s became v e r y p o p u l a r and were p r i n t e d i n l a r g e numbers. Many of t h e s e p o p u l a r works c o n t a i n e d v e r y f i n e l y drawn i l l u s t r a t i o n s and were i n g r e a t demand by the common p e o p l e . The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e dramas, n o v e l s and p o p u l a r works however, were s t r o n g l y s u p p r e s s e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s . A Ming Suzhou m a g i s t r a t e , Tang Wenzheng, p r o c l a i m e d t h a t the n o v e l s and p o p u l a r works p u b l i s h e d by the b o o k s t o r e s c o n t a i n e d l a s c i v i o u s words and p i c t u r e s , w h i c h b a d l y i n f l u e n c e d the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and no o t h e r books, e x c e p t the T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s and the Twenty-one D y a n a s t i c H i s t o r y , were a l l o w e d t o be p u b l i s h e d . A l l t h e p r i n t - b l o c k s o f p r o h i b i t e d books would be d e s t r o y e d by f i r e and the c o m p i l e r s , b l o c k - p r i n t e r s and book-s e l l e r s would a l l be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d . 1 4 ^ I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f C l a s s i c s and d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s were a l s o p r o h i b i t e d . A t t h e end o f the Commentaries t o t h e T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c , a p r o c l a m a -t i o n by a government o f f i c e i n Suzhou was r e c o r d e d p a r t l y as f o l l o w s : - 83 -T h i s o f f t e e has p u b l i s h e d the: T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s , t h e Twenty-one D y n a s t i c H i s - t o r i e s , the S h i j i and o t h e r l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g s . U n s c r u p u l o u s p e r s o n s r e p r o -duce them f o r p r o f i t , w i t h b l o c k s p o o r l y c u t and the t e x t s d e f e c t i v e . They a r e s o l d a t a low p r i c e f o r ready p r o f i t . D i s t a n t b o o k - d e a l e r s have been f r e q u e n t l y d e c e i v e d ; and s t u d e n t s , have a l s o been m i s l e d . A few o f the c u l p r i t s have a c c o r d i n g l y been p u n i s h e d b u t a number of them a r e s t i l l a t l a r g e . H e n c e f o r t h t h o s e who c o n t i n u e t o i n f r i n g e t h e r i g h t s o f t h i s o f f i c e w i l l be p r o s e c u t e d . AIT d e a l e r s of f o r g e d works and tho s e a l t e r e d t i t l e s p u b l i s h e d by t h i s o f f i c e w i l l a l s o be punished.147 I n Guangdong, the s e l l i n g o f books was a l s o s u b j e c t e d t o s t r i c t c o n t r o l and some books were even t o t a l l y banned. I t was r e c o r d e d t h a t a g o v e r n o r o f Nanhong Fu i n Guangdong d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e were f o u r k i n d s of books t h a t s h o u l d be banned from b e i n g s o l d i n t h e b o o k s t o r e s : F i r s t l y , Books on c u r r e n t a f f a i r s w hich c o u l d b a d l y i n f l u e n c e t h e s c h o l a r s . S e c o n d l y , books on operas w h i c h t e a c h l a s -c i v i o u s i d e a s t o p e o p l e . T h i r d l y , books on Buddhism and f o u r t h l y , books on Daoism which promote s u p e r s t i t i o n . A l l t h e s e books had a l r e a d y been banned e a r l i e r . The county o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d g e t a l l book-s t o r e s t o s i g n an agreement not t o s e l l t h e s e books a g a i n . I f t h e y ever s e l l t h e s e books, t h e y would be s e v e r e l y p u n i -shed and t h e y would n o t be a l l o w e d t o open any b o o k s t o r e s a g a i n . O u t s i d e r s s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o b r i n g i n t h e s e books. The f r o n t i e r o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d f r e q u e n t l y checked t h e t r a v e l l i n g merchants t o p r e -v e n t them from smuggling t h e s e banned books i n . 1 4 8 - 84 -Books, pub.lis.hecl i n t h e Ming p e r i o d have many commendable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : b u t t h e r e were numerous d e f e c t s w h i c h were summarised by Wu a s : I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , the Ming p r i n t e r s were i n c l i n e d t o d e l e t e p o r t i o n s o f the t e x t and t o a l t e r e i t h e r the t i t l e s o r t h e c o n t e n t s a t t h e i r own p l e a s u r e . I f t h e r e were any gaps, t h e y a l s o — an even more dangerous p r o c e e d i n g — s u p p l i e d the passages from t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , the books were not c a r e f u l l y p r o o f r e a d , and e r r o r s were many. T h i r d l y , t h e Ming p u b l i s h e r s were fond of u s i n g o l d forms of c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h were no l o n g e r c u r r e n t , m e r e l y t o d i s p l a y t h e i r s e e m i n g l y p r o f o u n d e r u d i t i o n . Making e x t r a v a g a n t c l a i m s , t h e y v e r y o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had based t h e i r e d i t i o n s on t h o s e i s s u e d i n t h e past.149 Even an o u t s t a n d i n g c o l l e c t o r , l i k e Mao J i n , p u b l i s h e d books w h i c h c o n t a i n e d many m i s t a k e s as we have n o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r . T h i s n e g l i e n c e and s e e m i n g l y c a l l o u s i n d i -f f e r e n c e t o a c c u r a c y a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e , on t h e whole, t o t h e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f Ming s c h o l a r s h i p . I n summary, more books were p u b l i s h e d i n the Ming p e r i o d t h a n i n any o f t h e p r e v i o u s d y n a s t i e s . Books p u b l i s h e d extended t o many f i e l d s and became f a r more p o p u l a r even among the common p e o p l e . T h i s was no doubt due t o the government encouragement of e d u c a t i o n and the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n system. As a 13 6 8 s t a t u t e s t i p u l a t e d t h a t a l l books be exempted from t a x e s , Zhu Yuanzhang, th e f i r s t Ming emperor, even o r d e r e d t h a t C o n f u c i a n t e x t s be d i s t r i b u t e d f r e e l y by t h e government t o n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s where books were not e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . As the " e i g h t - l e g g e d e s s a y " was i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r the c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n , the s u c c e s s f u l j i n s h i papers were f i r s t p r i n t e d by c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s i n Suzhou and Hangzhou i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Not o n l y d i d b o o k d e a l e r s i n the n o r t h buy a l a r g e number of them, even F u j i a n bookshops re p r o d u c e d them a t a p r o f i t . I n 1587, the p r i n t i n g o f the j i n s h i papers became an o r t h o d o x p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e S u p e r v i -s o r a t e o f R i t e s s u g g e s t i n g i t s p u b l i c a t i o n and s e r v e d as examples f o r p r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n c a d i d a t e s . I n the J i a q i n g p e r i o d , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of Tang and Song works were p o p u l a r and a f t e r W a n l i p e r i o d , dramas and f i c t i o n were produced by many N a n j i n g and F u j i a n b o o k s t o r e s . I m p o r t a n t book markets i n e a r l y Ming p e r i o d i n J i a n y a n g , Hangzhou and Suzhou were competing s e v e r e l y w i t h B e i j i n g and N a n j i n g which d e v e l o p e d as r e g i o n a l book markets a f t e r t h e W a n l i p e r i o d . The f u n c t i o n o f some of the b o o k s t o r e s i n the Ming p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e i n B e i j i n g and Hangzhou, had a l s o been t r a n s f o r m e d from a c t i v e l y engaging i n b o t h p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g t o become b o o k s e l l i n g a l o n e . D e v a s t a t e d by b o t h t h e p o w e r f u l eunuchs and i n t e r n a l r e b e l s , the Ming c o u r t f i n a l l y succumbed t o t h e Manchus i n 1644. To w in t h e s u p p o r t o f the C h i n e s e , the Manchu r u l e r s - 86 -adopted moat of the Ming i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e v i v e d t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e Qing p e r i o d . Many of t h e s c h o l a r s , however, d i d not w i s h t o s e r v e under t h i s a l i e n d y n a s t y and s p e n t t h e i r t i m e and e f f o r t , i n s t e a d , on t h e s t u d y of s o l i d s c h o l a r s h i p . There were f o u r main d i r e c t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g i n t h i s e a r l y Qing p e r i o d as suggested by L i a n g 151 Qichao. F i r s t l y , i n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t the l a t e Ming e r r o r o f "no l e a r n i n g " , s c h o l a r s s t u d i e d a n c i e n t books and t h e y s t u d i e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e p h i l o l o g y , the s e m a n t i c s of t e c h n i -c a l terms, r e g u l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . , and out of t h i s s t u d y emerged the S c h o o l of E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s i n the mid-Qing p e r i o d . The second a r e a was t h e s t u d y i n g o f t h e causes o f s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e i n a n c i e n t and modern h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , geography, strategic; f o r t s and p a s s e s , and o t h e r m a t t e r s of p r a c t i c a l s t a t e s m a n s h i p . T h i s s t u d y was l a r g e l y h e l d by the v a r i o u s g r e a t m a s t e r s who were a l l e l d e r l y s u r v i v a l s of the p r e v i o u s d y n a s t y and had a c o n c e a l e d b i t t e r n e s s towards the a l i e n d y n a s t y and p l a n n e d t o r e s t o r e the Ming c o u r t . T h i r d l y , w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Western l e a r n i n g i n t o C h i n a by M a t t e o R i c c i and o t h e r s , t h e method of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h had changed from w i t h o u t , f i r s t i n astronomy and mathematics, l a t e r i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s as w e l l . The f o u r t h d i r e c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g was the t u r n i n g back o f t h e a b s t r a c t t o t h e c o n c r e t e w i t h some s c h o l a r s l o o k i n g f o r t h e c o n c r e t e i n w r i t i n g s and some i n a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h th e Manchus were c o n s i d e r e d u n c i v i l i z e d b a r b a r -- 87 -i a n s by the. Ming l o y a l i s t s , t h e e a r l y Manchu r u l e r s , n e v e r t h e -l e s s had g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m f o r C l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g and l i t e r a r y c o m p i l a t i o n s . Emperor Kangxi. was w e l l known as a d e d i c a t e d p a t r o n o f l e a r n i n g and was w e l l v e r s e d i n C h i n e s e C l a s s i c s . I n 1679 he c a l l e d f o r a "Boxue hongru" s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n t o r e c r u i t the most l e a r n e d men t o c o m p i l e th e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y of Ming. I n K a n g x i ' s p e r i o d , s e v e r a l monumental works were c o m p i l e d , such as K a n g x i Z i d i a n , Peiwen Y u n f u , a Complete Work  of Zhu X i and the Quantang S h i . But the most s i g n i f i c a n t and monumental work under the s p o n s o r s h i p o f K a n g x i was the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the G u j i n Tushu J i c h e n g . T h i s grand e n c y c l o -p a e d i a i n 10,000 j u a n was e d i t e d by Chen M e n g l e i and p r i n t e d i n 1728 by copper :movable t y p e s . D u r i n g the r e i g n of Q i a n l o n g , the emperor h i m s e l f had g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r l e a r n i n g and r e i n t r o d u c e d the s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r e r u d i t e men as i n the K a n g x i p e r i o d . He a u t h o r i z e d the e d i t i n g o f many h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t s such a s , Xu Tongdian, Xu Wenxian Tongkao, Xu T o n g z h i , Huangchao Tongdian, Huangchao T o n g z h i and Huangchao Wenxian Tongkao. The g r e a t e s t c o m p i l a t i o n i n the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d , and i n d e e d i n the whole h i s t o r y of C h i n a , was the S i k u Quanshu (The complete L i b r a r y o f the Four T r e a s u r i e s ) w h i c h c o n t a i n e d 79,070 j u a n . There i s no doubt t h a t the c o m p i l a t i o n of S i k u Quanshu g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d the s c h o l a r s as i t c o l l e c t e d a l l i m p o r t a n t works i n one l i b r a r y b u t more s i g n i f i c a n t was i t s ; p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f r a r e works w h i c h c o u l d n o t - 88 -o t h e r w i s e have s u r v i v e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g books: f o r the S i k u Qu a n s hu, many books w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a n a t i o n a l i s t i c c o n t e n t o r were p o p u l a r l i t e r a r y works o r were books f o r d a i l y used by t h e common pe o p l e were r e j e c t e d o r s u p p r e s s e d . T h i s l e d t o much s p e c u l a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e b e h i n d the c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s monumental c o l l e c t i o n . The c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s work n o t o n l y i n c r e a s e d the demand f o r r e f e r e n c e works and d i c t i o n a r i e s b u t c o n t r i b u -t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the development o f the book market i n L i u l i c h a n g which was c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d near t h e r o u t e between t h e I n n e r and Outer c i t y of B e i j i n g . The development of t h i s i m p o r t a n t book market w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n government sponsored l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t s , many s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s a l s o engaged i n p r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g . The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t book o f t h e Qing p e r i o d was t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f T o n g z h i t a n g J i n g j i e by Xu Qianxue. Many o f the l i t e r a r y works o f Qing s c h o l a r s were f i n e l y p r i n t e d , such as Yuyang J i n g h u a l u . There were a l s o c a s e s where b i b l i o p h i l e s were h i r e d t o e d i t works such as S h i 1 1 j u  Congshu o f Wang P i e l i e and Z h i b u z u z h a i Congshu o f Bao Tingbo. Many b i b l i o p h i l e s had works o f t h e i r own p u b l i s h e d t o o , noted examples i n c l u d e d Baoj i n g t a n g Congshu of LuWenshao, J i n g x u n - t a n g Congshu o f B i Yuan and P i n g j inguan C o ng shu o f Sun X i n g y a n . From t h e s e noted examples o f works, we can see t h a t Qing Scho-l a r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f "congshu" - 89 -( c o l l e c t a n e a ) , , The economic r e c o v e r y , p o l i t i c a l r e t r e n c h m e n t , r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n and lower l a b o u r c o s t a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a r g e s c a l e development o f book p u b l i s h i n g i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d . Not o n l y were books f o r the e l i t e p u b l i s h e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y b u t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p o p u l a r works f o r the common pe o p l e were a l s o expanded. "As p r o d u c e r s ( a u t h o r s , p a t r o n s , p r i n t e r s ) and consumers, the h i g h l y l i t e r a t e C h i n e s e e l i t e c o n t i n u e d t o dominate t h e 152 book market." T h i s e l i t e book market was a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e t r a d e o f r a r e books, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h p r i c e s and o c c a s s i o n a l b a n k r u p t c i e s among w e a l t h y men competing t o b u i l d p e r s o n a l l i b r a r i e s . Many of t h e s e c o n n o i s s e u r s were men o f g r e a t l e a r n i n g . These s c h o l a r - p u b l i s h e r s n o t o n l y b o a s t e d o f h a v i n g "one hundred Song e d i t i o n s under one r o o f " but o f t e n c o n t r i b u t e d t o l e a r n i n g by c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g and e d i t i r i g -r a r e works f o r r e p r i n t i n g . N a n j i n g , Suzhou and Hangzhou remained as t h e major c e n t e r s o f q u a l i t y c ommercial book p u b l i s h i n g i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d o f Q i n g . I n f a c t , C o n f u c i a n t e x t s had now become a v a i l a b l e i n f a r g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y and e d i t i o n s t h a n ever b e f o r e . The g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l advancement brou g h t about by t h i s r e p r o d u c t i o n . o f books p r o b a b l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y o f t h e poor i n t h e Ming p e r i o d b u t t h e Qing r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f s p e c i a l i z e d and e x p e n s i v e works, beyond the r e a c h o f the poor, gave t h e - 90 -w e l l - t o - d o an advantage i n t h e i r s t u d i e s and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r 153 t h e h i g h e r c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s i n the Qing p e r i o d . B o o k s t o r e s i n the Qing p e r i o d , however, were not l i m i t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f e x p e n s i v e and e l i t e - o r i e n -t e d books, p o p u l a r works and cheaper e d i t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d and s o l d by many b o o k s t o r e s i n a much l a r g e r q u a n t i t y . The advent of l a r g e s c a l e p u b l i s h i n g s i n c e t h e Song d y n a s t y had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on l i t e r a t u r e and the "consumers" of l i t e r a t u r e . P o e t r y , f o r m e r l y t h e e x c l u s i v e sphere of degree h o l d e r s and o f f i c i a l s , was now a l s o w r i t t e n by merchants, b o o k d e a l e r s and even f a r m e r ' s sons — t h e s e m i - l i t e r a t e s . The p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s o f v e r n a c u l a r f i c t i o n from the Song and Yuan p e r i o d s , w i t h t h e i r c o p i o u s use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and s i m p l i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s , must have a t t r a c t e d a f a i r l y wide r e a d -e r s h i p . V e r n a c u l a r f i c t i o n had an e s p e c i a l l y l i v e l y d e v e l o p -ment i n the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the n o v e l s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B e s i d e s the dramas, Qing p u b l i s h e r s p r i n t e d v e r s i o n s o f s t r e e t e n t e r t a i n m e n t c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t h e a t r e , such as t h e T a n c i v e r s e s from the Suzhou r e g i o n and t h e G u c i from th e B e i j i n g a r e a . S h o r t s t o r i e s , r a n g i n g from d e t e c t i v e t a l e s and g h o s t s t o r i e s t o a c c o u n t s o f h e r o i c k n i g h t s e r r a n t were p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e Ming and Qing p e r i o d s . C o l l e c t i o n s o f j o k e s , e s s a y s , t r a v e l o g u e s and even s a l a c i o u s p s e u d o - h i s t o r i e s o f t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d were a l s o w r i t t e n and o f f e r e d f o r s a l e . The v a s t range of c o m m e r c i a l l y p r i n t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o r amusement was p a r a l l e l e d books were now p r i n t e d i n N a n j i n g , Suzhou and Hangzhou. Fu-j i a n books were seldom t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e n o r t h w h i l e S i c h u a n h a v i n g been d e v a s t a t e d by war was w i t h o u t any book p r o d u c t i o n . Wang a l s o acknowledged t h a t books produced i n t h e c a p i t a l , B e i j i n g , were n o t o f h i g h q u a l i t y and t h a t o n l y L l i from Shimen and Xu Qianxue had produced books which were c l o s e r i n q u a l i t y 155 t o t he Song e d i t i o n s . Ye De h u i , i n h i s S h u l i n Qinghua, a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t " i n Wang S h i z h e n ' s t i m e s , book p r i n t i n g i n N a n j i n g , Suzhou and Hangzhou had a l r e a d y s u r p a s s e d F u j i a n and S i c h u a n . I n t h e Q i a n l o n g and J i a q i n g p e r i o d , most of t h e books e d i t e d by Lu Wenshao, Bao T i n g b o , Wang S h i z h e n and Ruan Yuan were p u b l i s h e d by L i u Wenkui and L i u Wenkai i n 156 N a n j i n g . " (See F i g u r e 4 ) . B o o k s t o r e s i n t h e Qing p e r i o d d e v e l o p e d r e g i n a l b r a n c h e s . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t e m e n t w h i c h was stamped on t h e t i t l e page of Dongxi Han Y a n y i , p r i n t e d by Juwen Tang, r e a d t h a t : Books o f o l d and r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n on s a l e a t Shancheng Tang i n Suzhou, Hang-zhou, Zhe j i a n g and F u j i a n . - ' - 5 7 From t h i s s t a t e m e n t we can t e l l t h a t Shancheng Tang must have been a l a r g e b o o k s t o r e w i t h branches i n J i a n g s u , Z h e j i a n g and F u j i a n a l t h o u g h whether i t s h a d q u a r t e r was i n Suzhou o r Hangzhou had y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . From o t h e r s o u r c e s we a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t Shancheng Tang a l s o p r i n t e d books. Thus Shancheng Tang n ot o n l y engaged i n the p r i n t i n g - 92 -by an e q u a l l y d i v e r s e group of m a t e r i a l s f o r a i d i n s e l f -improvement and p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s . M o r a l i t y books a r t i c u l a -t i n g p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t s and p r e s c r i b i n g m e r i t o r i o u s b e h a v i o r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the book-shops. Baojuan ( p r e c i o u s s c r o l l s ) were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d by some b o o k s t o r e s i n s e c r e t as t h e y were banned by t h e g o v e r n -ment. P o p u l a r e n c y c l o p a e d i a s were a l l t h e more p o p u l a r i n the Qing p e r i o d f o r v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l and s p e c i a l i z e d u s e s . Two o f the more e d u c a t i o n a l p o p u l a r works f o r b e g i n n e r s p u b l i s h e d by t h e b o o k s t o r e s were t h e a r i t h m e t i c books and t h e c h a r a c t e r g l o s s a r i e s . The p r o d u c e r s o f cheap p o p u l a r e d i t i o n s were much more d i s p e r s e d t h a n t h e e l i t e - o r i e n t e d p u b l i s h e r s . I n L i u Ts'un-yan's s t u d y o f 130 C h i n e s e p o p u l a r f i c t i o n i n t h e l i b r a r i e s ob B r i t i s h Museum and t h e R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y , he d i s c o v e r -ed more t h a n e i g h t y b o o k s t o r e s e x i s t e d i n the l a t e Ming and e a r l y Qing p e r i o d , c o v e r i n g a wide a r e a i n c l u d e d Suzhou, Hangzhou, N a n j i n g , Yangzhou, Shanghai, J i a n y a n g , Guangzhou, 154 Fushan, Fusha and B e i j i n g . (See Appendix V I ) . I n t r a c i n g t h e development o f book markets i n C h i n a , Wang S h i z h e n was s u p r i s e d by t h e r a p i d changes of t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s s i n c e t h e Song ti m e s on. Wang p o i n t e d o u t t h a t L i u Shen had a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d t h e s h i f t of book markets from Hangzhou, S i c h u a n and F u j i a n i n Song t i m e s t o Suzhou i n Ming p e r i o d . Wang f u r t h e r commented t h a t most - 93 -and marketing of i t s own books but books published from other bookstores were sold there too. Another bookstore, Saoye Shanfang,-first set up i t s headquarter i n Suzhou during the Ming period and set up a regional branch i n Shanghai during the Qing period. Other bookstores which were a c t i v e l y engaged i n both publishing and marketing of books included Fuwen Tang, Dawen Tang and Laohuixian Tang. In addition to some bookstores which opened regional branches i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s to market th e i r books, some bookstores employed the t a c t i c s of producing d i f f e r e n t editions of one popular work under d i f f e r e n t names. In her study of Huiwen Tang's Xiuxiang Chunqiu Lieguo, L i u Xiuye discovered that i t s content was the same as Fuwen Tang and Baijing Tang's Dongzhou Leiguo J i . Liu thus suggests that the three d i f f e r e n t publishers were in fact the same bookstore. They just used d i f f e r e n t book-158 store names and book t i t l e s to a t t r a c t more customers. Nagasawa Kikuyu also pointed out that Xuwan i n Jiangxi and Makang i n Guangdong were also major publishing centers i n 159 terms of quantity produced i n the Qing period. Other p r i n t i n g centers, such as Nanchang i n Jiangxi, Changsha i n Hunan and parts of Yunnan were also active i n early Qing time. Bookstores i n B e i j i n g , on the other hand, catered to the e l i t e market and the publishing of expensive editions. Some even argued that most of those bookstores i n Liulichang ; - 94 -as r e c o r d e d by L i Wenzao, r a r e l y p u b l i s h e d works of t h e i r own b u t c o n c e n t r a t e d on the c o l l e c t i n g o f books from the J i a n g n a n a r e a and the s e l l i n g o f books p u b l i s h e d by o t h e r b o o k s t o r e s . There were a l r e a d y more t h a n t h i r t y b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g as d e s c r i b e d by L i Wenzao i n 1769. We can be s u r e t h a t more b o o k s t o r e s would be opened once th e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f t h e S i k u  Quanshu began f o u r y e a r l a t e r . How and why t h i s major book market of B e i j i n g and i n d e e d o f C h i n a c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d w i l l be f u r t h e r s t u d i e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . I n c o n t r a s t t o B e i j i n g w h i c h was surrounded by l o w - l e v e l c e n t r a l p l a c e s w i t h i n f r e q u e n t p e r i o d i c m a r k e t s , w i t h i n f i f t y m i l e s o f Suzhou were a t l e a s t f o r t y l o c a t i o n s w i t h d a i l y m arkets or w i t h commerce m a i n l y i n s t o r e s . W i t h i n i t s f i f t e e n m i l e w a l l e d c i r c u m f e r e n c e and i t s immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s , Suzhou had a t l e a s t 500,000 p e o p l e w h i c h p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e d t o as many as one m i l l i o n b e f o r e t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n . 1 ^ 0 C a n a l s w i t h i n Suzhou were co n n e c t e d by water g a t e s f o r r i v e r t r a n s p o r t c o n n e c t i n g e v e r y one o f China's n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l m a r k e t i n g c e n t e r s . As t h e c a p i t a l c i t y f o r t h r e e c o u n t i e s and C h i n a ' s most populous p r o v i n c e , Suzhou ranked as one o f t h e two o r t h r e e most populous c i t i e s i n C h i n a and s e r v e d as the main m a r k e t i n g c e n t e r f o r the r i c h e s t r e g i o n of C h i n a . W h i l e the B e i j i n g book market was noted f o r i t s s e l l i n g o f e x p e n s i v e and r a r e e d i t i o n s , some Suzhou b o o k s t o r e s had been noted f o r the s e l l i n g of l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f unorthodox - 95 -C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , dramas, songbooks and f i c t i o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r i n t i n g o f t h e s e p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e s w hich were o f t e n s u b j e c t e d t o government c e n s o r s h i p i f n o t t o t a l l y -banned. A p r o c l a m a t i o n t o ban t h e " l a s c i v i o u s p a i n t i n g s " a f t e r a v i s i t t o t h e book q u a r t e r by a Suzhou p r e f e c t i n 1838, Yu Q i a n was q u i t e s e n t i m e n t a l i n h i s e x p r e s s i o n : S i n c e I took over t h e o f f i c e i n Suzhou, many of t h e bookshops t h a t I v i s i t e d had l a s c i -v i o u s books and p i c t u r e s t o s e l l . Many o f them not o n l y p u b l i s h e d such works the m s e l v e s b u t a l s o exchanged w i t h o u t s i d e t r a d e r s . These l a s c i v i o u s books and p i c t u r e s were a l s o r e n t and s e l l f o r p r o f i t and t o i n f l a m e p e o p l e w i t h l u s t . The f i l t h e x tends i n t o t h e women's q u a r t e r s , i n c r e a s i n g e v i l and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . There i s n o t h i n g worse t h a n t h i s . The p i c t u r e s t h a t s t i m u l a t e h e t e r o d o x l i c e n t i o u s n e s s a r e worse t h a n lewd books, s i n c e books can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d by tho s e w i t h a rough knowledge of l e t t e r s , w h i l e t h e p i c t u r e s a r e p e r c e p t i b l e t o all.162 T h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n t o ban " l a s c i v i o u s p a i n t i n g s " a l s o t e l l s us t h a t t h e s e books came from two s o u r c e s : b o o k s t o r e s t h a t p r i n t e d the books th e m s e l v e s and t r a d e r s who broug h t them i n t o t h e c i t y from e l s e w h e r e . I n an agreement d a t e d 1837, s i x t y - f i v e Suzhou b o o k s t o r e s agreed t o t u r n i n banned books and t h e woodblocks from w h i c h t h e y were p r i n t e d f o r compensation by t h e government o f f i c e . O u t s i d e t r a d e r s b r i n g i n g i n such books were t h r e a t e n e d w i t h punishment. The frequent announcement o f p r o h i b i t i o n s i n many a r e a s s u g g e s t s t h a t o f f i c i a l c o n t r o l s were i n e f f e c t i v e . The d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f p o p u l a r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n the c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d and b o o k s t o r e s and r e n t a l a g e n c i e s were f u l l o f l a s c i v i o u s - 96 -works.- I t was not o n l y i n . the c i t i e s t h a t " l a s c i v o u s " books were p r e s e n t , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the Song books t h a t c o u l d "spread t h e i r p o i s o n v e r y b r o a d l y " i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e were c a u t i o n e d by the o f f i c i a l s t o o . I n Wang•-. Z h i z h e n 1 s r e c o r d o f b o o k s t o r e s i n Suzhou a r e a , more t h a n f o r t y - f i v e known s t o r e names were mentioned which i n c l u d e d not o n l y book-s t o r e s w i t h permanent s t r u c t u r e s and b o o k s t a l l s w i t h temporary s t r u c t u r e s s e t up d u r i n g market days or f a i r s o r i n l e s s d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s , b u t t h e r e were a l s o "book b o a t s " from o t h e r towns. I n f a c e of s t r o n g government c o n t r o l o f t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h e book p u b l i s h i n g merchants i n Suzhou formed t h e i r own ••huiguan , Chongde Shuyuan, as e a r l y as i n t h e t e n t h y e a r o f K a n g x i (1671). I n Daoguang p e r i o d , a Chongde Gongsuo was f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y . As some of the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n t h e Gongsuo were from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t i e s and r e g i o n s , t h i s l e d t o Ho B i n g d i * s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the Gongsuo was no l o n g e r based on p l a c e of o r i g i n b u t r a t h e r 16 3 i t was a t r a d e o r i e n t e d g u i l d . D e s p i t e o c c a s i o n a l e v i d e n c e of h i g h e r t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , many books produced i n Makang, Guandong were p r i n t e d by u n s k i l l e d female l a b o u r . The q u a l i t y o f books produced t h e r e was t h e r e f o r e poor and t h e p r i c e was low. From an a c c o u n t of t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r p r i n t i n g i n a l o c a l g a z e t t e , we a l s o n o t e d t h a t many o f t h e books produced here were f a k e d as J i a n g s u i m p r i n t : Now woodblock e d i t i o n s c u t a t Makang v i r -t u a l l y e n c i r c l e the f o r e s t o f l e t t e r s . Women and c h i l d r e n can a l l do i t ; t h e men o n l y c a r v e the t e x t on the b l o c k s , a c c o r - ' d i n g t o the h a n d - w r i t t e n m a n u s c r i p t . The r e s t i s done w i t h female l a b o r . Because of t h e i r cheapness, the books go e v e r y -where. When t h e Suzhou merchants come i n t o Guangdong t o s e l l t o t h e shops, t h e y p i c k up Makang i m p r i n t s . Books t h e y w i s h p r i n t e d do not bear an i m p r i n t s when done. The books a r e t a k e n t o J i a n g n a n and s o l d t h e r e w i t h a J i a n g s u i m p r i n t . Those w i t h -i n t h e empire who see them t a k e them t o be Suzhou B o o k s . ^ ^ Makang, however, was not the o n l y p l a c e where books were produced c h e a p l y , J i a n y a n g i n F u j i a n i n e a r l i e r p e r i o d s and Hsu-wen i n J i a n g x i a l s o employed u n s k i l l e d female l a b o u r i n 165 t h e i r p r i n t i n g o f the p o p u l a r works. C o s t advantages of cheap l a b o u r , paper, and i n k a l s o encouraged the e s t a b l i s h -ment of c l u s t e r s o f p r i n t i n g houses i n Hunan and F u j i a n . The c o s t o f book p r o d u c t i o n had always been k e p t low e v e r s i n c e b l o c k - p r i n t i n g developed.- The major expenses i n v o l v e d i n p r i n t i n g i n c l u d e d t h e c o s t o f raw m a t e r i a l s , such as p a p e r , i n k , and woodblocks, and the c o s t o f l a b o r f o r "transcribing, c a r v i n g , p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g . There were a l m o s t no major c a p i t a l c o s t s , no f o u n d r i e s f o r c a s t i n g t y p e and no c o m p l i c a t e d machines f o r p r i n t i n g o r b i n d i n g . The s m a l l c a p i t a l o u t l a y t h u s p e r m i t t e d the e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e numbers of s m a l l s c a l e - 98 -workshops, u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of f a m i l y members o n l y . The woodblocks t h e m s e l v e s , once c a r v e d , c o u l d l a s t f o r as many as 30,000 p r i n t i n g s and c o u l d be s t o r e d f o r f u t u r e r e p r i n t i n g . B l o c k s were sometimes . a l s o s o l d t o o t h e r book p u b l i s h e r s o r 16 6 r e n t e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . Raw m a t e r i a l s were a r e l a t i v e l y minor f a c t o r i n the c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g a book. P r i c e s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f paper, i n k and wood from w h i c h b l o c k s were c a r v e d . Pear wood was t h e s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l b u t o c c a s i o n a l l y p u b l i s h e r s r e s o r t e d t o a s o f t e r wood t h a t was e a s i e r t o c a r v e t o lower t h e c o s t b u t i t produced a b l u r r e d i m p r i n t . Ink and paper were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l components of the t o t a l c o s t . The i n k used i n a 1773-74 p r i n t i n g of a J i a n g s u c l a n genealogy c o s t 0.22 t a e l s per c a t t y o r 5.8 t a e l s i n t o t a l , o u t o f a t o t a l c o s t o f o ver 300 t a e l s . P a p e r s , p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e same purpose, c o s t 1.6 c a s h f o r a l a r g e s h e e t o u t o f w h i c h s e v e r a l f o l i o s c o u l d be c u t . C o s t f o r c a r v i n g woodblocks depended on t h e s i z e and s t y l e o f the c h a r a c t e r used. I n one example from th e 1840" s t h e c o s t was s i x t y - e i g h t c a s h per 100 c h a r a c t e r s . S i n c e t h e b l o c k s had t o be c a r v e d r e g a r d l e s s o f whether 10 :or 10,000 c o p i e s were t o be p r i n t e d , the r e l a t i v e expense of a book f e l l as the number o f c o p i e s t o be p r i n t e d r o s e . A c c o r d i n g t o Ye D e h u i , t h e c o s t o f c a r v i n g woodblocks g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a -sed d u r i n g t h e Qing p e r i o d from twenty c a s h per 100 c h a r a c t e r i n t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o f i f t y c a s h per 100 c h a r a c -t e r s i n t h e l a t e 1 8 7 0 ' s . 1 ^ Rawski, however, argues t h a t - 99 -most of t h i s i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t e d t h e i n f l a t i o n a r y t r e n d o f 169 t h i s p e r i o d and the r e a l c o s t r o s e v e r y s l i g h t l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o s t s c o u l d be reduced by u s i n g u n s k i l l e d female l a b o r , a t a s i x t e e n t o t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n from the normal wages. Even i n t h e Song and Ming p e r i o d s , c o s t o f book pro d u c -t i o n was n o t h i g h . A 1,300 pages D a y i C u i y a n c o s t e d 1,500 c a s h f o r p r i n t i n g and b i n d i n g and r e n t o f p l a t e 1,200 c a s h . 171 The s e l l i n g p r i c e o f t h e book was s e t a t 8 ,000 c a s h . I n 1183, the p r i n t i n g o f the 160 pages Hanjun by X i a n g s h a n c o u n t y s c h o o l c o s t 100 c a s h f o r r e n t i n g the woodblocks and 160 c a s h f o r l a b o r and i n k . I t a l s o used 160 s h e e t s o f paper and two s h e e t s o f e x t r a heavy paper. The s e l l i n g p r i c e o f 172 t h i s work i n two volumes was 600 c a s h . The l a b o r c o s t f o r t h e p r i n t i n g o f books was v e r y low i n Ming t i m e s . Ho Donghai once mentioned t h a t i t o n l y c o s t a l i t t l e o v e r 100 t a e l s o f g o l d t o p r i n t t h e T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s w i t h commentaries. The p r i n t i n g o f Yuzhang Luo X i a n s h e n g W e n j i i n 1554 r e c o r d e d t h a t i t c o s t t w e n t y - f o u r t a e l s o f s i l v e r t o c u t and p r i n t e i g h t y - t h r e e b l o c k s (161 p a g e s ) . T h i s 173 amounted t o o n l y 0.15 t a e l per page. Even up t o t h e l a t e Ming p e r i o d i n t h e Chongzhen e r a , i t o n l y c o s t Mao J i n i n 174 Changzhou twenty c a s h f o r e v e r y 100 c h a r a c t e r s c u t . Most r e c o r d s about book p r i c e s i n -the ^ Ming.-.-and' Q,ing -periods - 100 -are for the rare book market, which was e s p e c i a l l y a l i v e in Suzhou, Hangzhou and la t e r B e i j i n g . From the prices that these book-collectors paid for th e i r Song and Yuan editions, we nevertheless can gain some idea of the book marketing structure. In Ming period prices for the Song and Yuan editions were considered ten times lower than i n the Qing period by Ye 175 Dehui. An inventory of Mao Jin's c o l l e c t i o n of 500 t i t l e s , which l i s t e d the price he paid for each, provided us much information on the p r i c i n g structure of rare books i n the seventeenth century. Rawski maintains that "the price he (Mao Jin) paid for such rare books shows r e l a t i v e l y modest l e v e l of expenditure: many of Mao's books were purchased for 17 6 a few hundred cash." The most expensive book he bought was Songci Y i b a i j i a for 100 taels but the average price he paid for pr i n t books was only 4.9 t a e l s . The price that Mao J i n paid to the booksellers had already been quite generous as there was a saying "there was no other'business 17 7 better than s e l l i n g books to Mao's family." In his description of Mao J i n ' s l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n , Taam Cheuk-woon also provided us some information about the price of books and the generosity of prices paid for books by Mao J i n : For a printed Song ed i t i o n , the owner of th i s house w i l l be w i l l i n g to give as much as 200 cash per leaf; for a. manus-c r i p t copy, as much as 40 cash per leaf. For one good, modern e d i t i o n , i f others - 101 -o f f e r e d 1,000, the owner h e r e w i l l be w i l l i n g t o pay 1,200 ( c a s h ) , 1 7 8 Books, p a r t i c u l a r l y r a r e e d i t i o n s , became more e x p e n s i v e as e a r l y as t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d . Wang S h i z h e n , once mentioned t h a t Qian Muzhai p a i d 1,200 t a e l f o r a Song e d i t i o n o f Former and L a t e r Han D y n a s t i c H i s t o r i e s . I n J u y j L u , Wang a l s o mentioned a Song b i g - c h a r a c t e r e d i t i o n of T o n g j i a n J i s h i Benmo was b r o u g h t t o B e i j i n g by Z h e j i a n g b o o k d e a l e r and asked f o r 120 ta e l s b u t nobody bought i t . Even the p r a c t i c a l work of Y i n g z a o F a s h i was s o l d f o r 40,000 c a s h . I n a p o s t c r i p t t o B i n t u i Lu, Wang Wenyuan mentioned t h a t i n t h e s i x t y - f i r s t y e a r of K a n g x i (1772), a book d e a l e r Wang J i e s a n b r o u g h t f i v e volumes o f Song works t o B e i j i n g and asked f o r t e n t a e l s b u t Wang c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o buy them. I n the Q i a n l o n g and J i a -q i n g p e r i o d (1736-1820), p r i c e f o r r a r e books r o s e t e n t i m e s and most of them were owned by the w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s . Song e d i t i o n s , such as Gongyang J i e g u i n twelve juan, p u b l i s h e d by Yu Renzhong were s o l d f o r 120 t a e l s ; Chunqiu F a n l u i n seventeen j u a n , was s o l d f o r 100 t a e l s ; D o n g j i n g Menghua Lu, i n t e n 179 j u a n , was s o l d f o r t w e n t y - f o u r t a e l s . Books f o r the e l i t e market were i n d e e d v e r y e x p e n s i v e and, i n many ca s e s u n a f f o r d a b l e , f o r an average s c h o l a r . S m i t h o b s e r v e d t h a t i n r u r a l Shandong, t h e c o s t o f C h i n e s e books was " p r a c t i c a l l y p r o h i b i t o r y t o t e a c h e r s who a r e poor" and t h a t a good e d i t i o n o f t h e K a n g x i D i c t i o n a r y might c o s t - 102 -as much as a v i l l a g e t e a c h e r ' s a n n u a l s a l a r y . x o u F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e were a l s o cheaper e d i t i o n s of books a v a i l a b l e t o t h e poor s t u d e n t s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Most of t h e s e cheaper works were produced by the commercial p u b l i s h e r s — the b o o k s t o r e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o the e x p e n s i v e K a n g x i D i c t i o n a r y w h i c h we mentioned p r e v i o u s l y was a h i g h q u a l i t y e d i t i o n w i t h c l e a r t ype and no f a l s e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e were a l s o cheaper p o c k e t d i c t i o n a r i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r g e n e r a l use. These s h o r t e r works n o t o n l y c o s t l e s s t o t r a n s p o r t b u t c o u l d a l s o be i n e x p e n s i v e l y p r i n t e d by s e m i - s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . P o p u l a r f i c t i o n and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s produced f o r t h e mass market were cheaper, l e s s w e l l p r i n t e d and e d i t e d , and u s u a l l y on lower p o o r e r q u a l i t y paper i n o r d e r t o c u t down c o s t . But t h e p r i c e f o r such e d i t i o n s were r a r e l y r e -c o r d e d . A Ming e d i t i o n of the n o v e l I n v e s t i t u r e o f t h e Gods i n twenty j u a n s o l d f o r two t a e l s , was c o n s i d e r e d a f a i r l y h i g h p r i c e . P o p u l a r e n c y c l o p a e d i a s , w h i c h were o f t e n 100 j u a n o r more i n l e n g t h , were s a i d t o have c o s t one t a e l i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Rawski has the o p i n i o n t h a t subsequent e d i t i o n s o f poor q u a l i t y books may have c o s t o n l y o n e - t e n t h 181 o f t h i s sum. A copy of Z a z h i which i s v e r y s h o r t , may have c o s t l e s s t h a n 100 c a s h . I n a s t u d y o f L i Ciming's a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on books, the p r i c e f o r the s c h o l a r l y works of b e t t e r q u a l i t y books were low and h e n c e f o r t h the p o p u l a r 18 2 l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e d t o be i n e x p e n s i v e i n the Qing p e r i o d . The lower p r i c e o f books c o u l d be f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by the - 103 -f a c t t h a t p r i n t i n g c o s t s i n t h e Qing p e r i o d were m a i n t a i n e d a t a low l e v e l . The m a r k e t i n g o f books i n urban a r e a s seems t o have been dominated by merchants from t h e lower Yangtze c e n t e r s and J i a n g x i . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , i t was Suzhou merchants who e x p o r t e d Guangdong books o ut o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f Suzhou as a book e n t r e p o r t may e x p l a i n why the B e i j i n g book q u a r t e r o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was dominated by merchants from H u i z h o u , Suzhou, and J i a n g x i . I t was not u n t i l t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t book t r a d e r s from Hebei emerged as an i m p o r t a n t element i n B e i j i n g ' s L i u l i c h a n g book market. I n the Ming and Qing p e r i o d s , b o o k s t o r e s i n t h e r e g i o n a l urban markets c o n t i n u e d t o expand. Suzhou, Hangzhou, N a n j i n g and B e i j i n g emerged as t h e most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e was v e r y a c t i v e between th e s e f o u r major book markets. Some Suzhou b o o k d e a l e r s even went as f a r so u t h as Guangdong t o purchase books. An e x t e n s i v e r e g i o n a l book m a r k e t i n g network i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h i s p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h the e l i t e book mark-k e t tended t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n the urban m e t r o p o l i s , p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e were p u b l i s h e d and marketed i n many p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , such as Guangdong, Huanan, J i a n g x i and even Yunnan. However the most s i g n i f i c a n t development i n the book market system i n t h i s p e r i o d i s t h e emergence o f a n a t i o n a l book market i n B e i j i n g . - 104 -- 105 -4. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Early Qing Period, 1644-1850 - 106 -C h a p t e r V, The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Landscape of B e i j i n g and L i u l i c h a n g I n L i a o t i m e s , L i u l i c h a n g was s t i l l l a r g e l y a s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d r u r a l v i l l a g e , l o c a t e d m i l e s away from B e i j i n g , t h e n c a l l e d N a n j i n g (the S o u t h e r n C a p i t a l ) . (For a chrono-l o g y of B e i j i n g , see Appendix V I I I ) . However, by the mid-e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L i u l i c h a n g was absorbed i n t o the urban a r e a and was famous f o r b e i n g market o f books. How t h e n d i d t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , from a r u r a l v i l l a g e t o an urban market, t a k e p l a c e ? Moreover, i n what way d i d t h e development of B e i j i n g a f f e c t t h e s e l a n d s c a p e changes i n L i u l i c h a n g ? B e i j i n g has a l o n g h i s t o r y o f more th a n t h r e e thousand y e a r s , w i t h s e t t l e m e n t s d e v e l o p e d t h e r e even', b e f o r e the 184 Zhou d y n a s t y (1030 B.C.-722 B.C.). B e i j i n g was t h e n c a l l e d J i , t h e c a p i t a l o f an independent kingdom, Yan. J i s t a n d s on t h e n o r t h e r n edge of a g r e a t p l a i n , c i r c u m s c r i b e d by mountains i n the west, n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t , and was f u r t h e r f l a n k e d i n the e a s t by m a r shland. The s o u t h t o n o r t h r o u t e t h e r f o r e had t o go t h r o u g h one o f the t h r e e n a t u r a l p a s s e s : Nankou, G u b e i -kou and Shanhaiguan. J i , t h e o l d s i t e o f B e i j i n g , c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d a t the f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e s e t h r e e p a s s e s , had t h e added advantage of b e i n g away from the p o t e n t i a l f l o o d o f t h e Yong-d i n g R i v e r . I n 221 'B.C., the f i r s t emperor of Q i n completed h i s con-- 107 -q u e s t of the o t h e r s i x kingdoms and h r o u g h t about the f i r s t u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a , The kingdom o f Yan and i t s c a p i t a l , J i , were d e s t r o y e d by Q i n . However J i was l a t e r r e b u i l t and became an i m p o r t a n t m i l i t a r y base i n t h e c o n t e s t between the Han and the nomadic groups i n the n o r t h e a s t from t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e Q i n d y n a s t y t o t h e end o f t h e Tang d y n a s t y . To the Han r u l i n g c l a s s i n t h i s p e r i o d , t h e c i t y of J i was e i t h e r used as the base f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y campaign t o t h e n o r t h e a s t o r a c t e d as the g a r r i s o n town t o p r o t e c t t h e N o r t h C h i n a p l a i n from the i n t r u s i o n o f the nomadic p e o p l e . To t h e nomadic i n t r u d e r s , J i was always t h e i r f i r s t t a r g e t i n t h e i r i n v a s i o n 18 6 of t h e s o u t h . J i , however, was not o n l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e m i l i t a r y c o n t e s t between the Han and the nomadic groups, i n p e a c e f u l f i m e , J i a l s o s e r v e d as an i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e f o r t h e communication, t r a d e and c u l t u r a l exchange between the two 187 groups. A f t e r t h e f a l l o f Tang, a nomadic Mongol group, c a l l e d K h i t a n T a r t a r s , r o s e as t h e dominant s t a t e i n the n o r t h . T h i s i s t h e L i a o d y n a s t y (937-1125). I n 938, t h e Mongol r u l e r s o f L i a o b u i l t t h e i r c a p i t a l on a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same s i t e as Tang's Youzhou, c a l l i n g i t Nan j i n g - (See -F-xg. 5';) , the S o u t h e r n C a p i t a l , t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from a n o t h e r c a p i t a l i n t h e i r 18 8 Manchurian homeland i n the n o r t h . The l o c a t i o n o f L i a o N a n j i n g was p a r t i a l l y based on a tombstone found i n L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h was l o c a t e d e a s t of N a n j i n g . The c i r c u m f e r e n c e of the 189 c i t y o f N a n j i n g was measured as t h i r t y - s i x l i . - 108 -F i g . "5 The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f B e i j i n g from L i a o t o Qing N 1 0 2 t i Liao Nanjing J i n Zhongdu Km J~" "j Yuan Daidu I I Ming-Qing B e i j i n g Source: Hou Renzhi, L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n yu s h i j i a n (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1979), p. 207. - 109 -T h i s i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g d i d not o n l y mark the h i s t o r i c a l development of L i u l i c h a n g b u t was a l s o h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l geography of B e i j i n g , The tombstone was d i s c o v e r e d by Meng Hao, who was the s u p e r v i s o r of the i m p e r i a l k i l n f a c t o r y i n L i u l i c h a n g i n the t h i r t y - f i f t h y e a r of Q i a n -l o n g (1771). Meng was i n v e s t i g a t i n g a murder case i n L i u -l i c h a n g when the g r a v e of L i N e i z h e n , an I m p e r i a l C l e r k 190 Grandee of t h e L i a o d y n a s t y , was d i s c o v e r e d . The i n s c r i p -t i o n oO the tombstone n o t o n l y mentioned h i s o f f i c i a l t i t l e s i n the L i a o s t a t e b u t a l s o r e c o r d e d t h a t L i N e i z h e n : " d i e d on the f i r s t day o f t h e s i x t h month i n the t e n t h y e a r of Baoning (978) i n h i s p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e " L u l o n g Fang", a t the age o f e i g h t y . On the e i g h t h day o f t h e e i g h t h month of t h e same y e a r , L i was b u r i e d i n Haiwang V i l l a g e of Y a n x i a County, e a s t 191 o f the c a p i t a l . " A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d i s -c o v e r y of the g r a v e o f L i N e i z h e n c o u l d be found i n Zhu Yun's ess a y "Record of the T r a n s f e r o f t h e Grave of L i N e i z h e n i n L i a o P e r i o d . " Zhu f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h a t : " L i was b u r i e d i n the e a s t o f t h e c a p i t a l — Haiwang V i l l a g e o f Y a n x i a County. T h i s i s where t h e p r e s e n t L i u l i c h a n g i s l o c a t e d . The p l a c e i s now a crowded a r e a w i t h markets t h e r e . There a r e a l s o many famous and h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l p e o p l e l i v i n g somewhere 192 around t h i s a r e a . " I n L i a o p e r i o d , Haiwang V i l l a g e , o r L i u l i c h a n g , was t h u s e s s e n t i a l l y a r u r a l v i l l a g e , s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d and l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l o f L i a o . I t was t h e n f a r from b e i n g a crowded market as Zhu Yu men-t i o n e d above. - 110 -The c i t y o f J i i t s e l f d i d not e x p e r i e n c e many changes from the S p r i n g and Autumn p e r i o d (7 22 B.C.-48Q B.C.) t o t h e end o f Tang. Even when t h e L i a o emperor e s t a b l i s h e d i t s s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l i n t h e o l d s i t e o f J i , t h e r e were no l a r g e s c a l e a l t e r a t i o n s o r r e b u i l d i n g of the c i t y . The f o u n d i n g o f t h e J i n d y n a s t y , however, not o n l y expanded the c i t y i n s i z e b u t f u r t h e r e l e v a t e d i t s s t a t u s t o become the c a p i t a l o f t h e d y n a s t y . The J i n p e o p l e , a n o t h e r group o f nomadic T a r t a r s , o r i g i n a t e d from the Amur R i v e r i n the f a r n o r t h and a r e i n f a c t the f o r e f a t h e r o f the Manchus who conquered C h i n a f i v e 193 hundred y e a r s l a t e r . I n 1151, J i n Emperor Wan. Y a n l i a n g d e c i d e d t o move t h e c a p i t a l from H e i l o n g j i a n g t o Y a n j i n g , t h e o l d s i t e o f L i a o ' s s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l , where more l a n d was a v a i l a b l e f o r the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and served by a b e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. Wan s u b s e q u e n t l y o r d e r e d Zhang Hao and Kong Chanzhou t o d e s i g n and expand the e a s t e r n , w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n s i d e s o f Y a n j i n g . The c a p i t a l c i t y was c o n s -t r u c t e d i n a square shape and had a p a l a c e c i t y b u i l t i n s i d e i t . (See F i g . 5 ) . The c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f t h i s new c a p i t a l was 194 about 18,690 metre as r e p o r t e d by Yan Wanru. The new c a p i t a l was renamed Zhongdu i n 1153 and hence f o r t h became t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre, o f t h e J i n empire. A l t h o u g h t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f J i n d i d n o t m e n t i o n th e l o c a t i o n o f markets i n Zhongdu, Yan s u g g e s t s t h a t the market of Zhongdu was p o s s i b l y l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y . He p o i n t s out t h a t L i a o N a n j i n g had markets l o c a t e d - I l l -i n t h e n o r t h and Xu Kangzong, a Song o f f i c i a l , who had v i s i t e d J i n a l s o mentioned t h a t t h e market was i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n 195 of Y a n j i n g , b e f o r e the r e b u i l d i n g was completed. Yan f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e market i n Zhongdu was l o c a t e d i n a government d e s i g n a t e d a r e a and s u b j e c t e d t o t a x a t i o n . The market system was thus d i f f e r e n t from Song's K a i f e n g where shops sprung up i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c i t y and was more c l o s e r t o t h e Tang system of h a v i n g t h e market i n t h e back o f the p a l a c e c i t y . Zhen Jun i n h i s T i a n z h i Ouwen (1905) mentioned t h a t i n J i n t i m e s , Haiwang V i l l a g e was c a l l e d Haiwang Zhuang, w h i c h 197 was t h r e e l i from the J i n c a p i t a l , Zhongdu. Zhen f u r t h e r s u g g e sted t h a t t h e p r e s e n t Haiwang Park was l o c a t e d n o t f a r from t h e o l d s i t e o f Haiwang V i l l a g e . The J i n d y n a s t y and Zhongdu d i d not l a s t f o r t o o l o n g . I n 1214, J i n Emperor Luanzong escaped t o K a i f e n g from the c o n t i n u o u s t h r e a t o f t h e Mongols. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e Mongol i n v a d e r s stormed i n t o Zhongdu, and the massacre c o n t i n u e d f o r a month. The p a l a c e s and t h e whole c i t y were d e v a s t a t e d by l o o t i n g and f i r e was s e t by the Mongols. I t was not u n t i l f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r i n A.D.1260 t h a t t h e Yuan Emperor S h i z a o ( K u b l a i Khan) v i s i t e d Zhongdu, t h e n renamed Y a n j i n g . I n 126 4, Emperor S h i z a o took t h e a d v i c e of L i u Bingzhong and d e c i d e d t o r e b u i l d Y a n j i n g as the c a p i t a l , w h i c h was t o be c a l l e d Zhongdu. Because most o f the p a l a c e s - 112 -i n Zhongdu had a l r e a d y been damaged, Emperor S h i z a o abandoned t h e i d e a o f r e b u i l d i n g Zhongdu and d e c i d e d t o move t h e c a p i t a l t o a new s i t e i n t h e n o r t h e a s t o f Zhongdu. T h i s new c a p i t a l 198 was named Daidu (See'-''Fig.5 ) , t h e G r e a t C a p i t a l , i n A.D.1271. Why was Daidu s e l e c t e d as t h e s i t e o f t h e Yuan c a p i t a l ? Hou R e n s h i argues t h a t i t was because "the new s i t e o f D a idu has a b e t t e r a c c e s s t o s o u r c e s of w a t e r , w h i c h i n c l u d e d l a r g e a r e a s of l a k e s and streams (from the R i v e r System o f Gao L i a n g ) . The water system not o n l y p r o v i d e d a v e r y n i c e s c e n e r y and environment f o r t h e new p a l a c e s b u t a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d t h e w a t e r 199 t r a n s p o r t system f o r t h e new c a p i t a l . " When the c i t y was p l a n n e d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n was a l s o s t u d i e d . "At t h a t t i m e , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f the o l d c i t y (Zhongdu) were o r d e r e d t o move i n t o t h e new c i t y . The o f f i c i a l c l a s s and t h e w e a l t h i e r f a m i l i e s moved f i r s t . Each f a m i l y was, i n a ccordance w i t h t r a d i t i o n , a s s i g n e d e i g h t mu (See Appendix IX) of l a n d . I f a f a m i l y p o s s e s s e d more th a n e i g h t mu or i f t h e y were unable t o b u i l d upon i t , o t h e r s were a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e on it."^°° A group of t h e s e u n i t s was c a l l e d a f a n g (ward) and B e i j i n g has a t o t a l o f f i f t y f a n g . A l t h o u g h i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t Daidu had l e s s t h a n a h a l f m i l l i o n p e o p l e , i t was s t i l l a tremen-dous problem s u p p l y i n g t h e needs o f t h e s e l a r g e numbers of M o n g o l i a n r u l e r s , w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The Mongol r u l e r s d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o r e r o u t e some of the r i c e s u r p l u s o f t h e Yangtze r e g i o n t o D a i d u . T h i s l a r g e amount of - 113 -s u p p l i e s t o Daidu from the s o u t h had o n l y been p o s s i b l e '•:< • t h r o u g h the e x t e n s i o n o f t h e Grand C a n a l and the improvement o f sea t r a n s p o r t t o n o r t h C h i n a . D a i d u , t h e n , was p r i m a r i l y a c e n t e r o f consumption by a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e r u l i n g m i n o r i t y w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y l e s s a c t i v e commercial a c t i v i t i e s as i n , t — 201 Hangzhou o r K a i f e n g . I n o r d e r t h a t the t i b u t e g r a i n c o u l d r e a c h Daidu w i t h o u t g o i n g t h r o u g h the d i f f i c u l t l a n d r o u t e , Tonghui C a n a l was c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1293 t o c o n n e c t Lake J i s h u i n Daidu and Tongzhou. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Tonghui C a n a l not o n l y e n a b l e d the g r a i n -c a r r y i n g s h i p s from the s o u t h t o go i n t o Daidu d i r e c t l y and be moored i n Lake J i s h u but a l s o encouraged th e development o f 202 commerce around the B e l l and Drum Tower and X i e j i e market. I n l a t e r y e a r , J i n k o u C a n a l was reopened t o i n c r e a s e the f l o w o f water i n t o Tonghui C a n a l i n o r d e r t o cope w i t h the r i s i n g demand f o r g r a i n t r a n s p o r t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e two w a t e r systems, Tonghui and J i n k o u , were b o t h d i s r u p t e d d u r i n g the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c i t y w a l l and the p a l a c e s i n t h e e a r l y Ming p e r i o d . I n t h e b u i l d i n g o f D a i d u , th e P a l a c e c i t y was f i r s t b u i l t , t h en t h e I m p e r i a l C i t y and f i n a l l y the c i t y i t s e l f . The c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f Daidu was measured as 28,600 m e t r e s , i n r e c t a n g u l a r shape. A l l t h e major s t r e e t s were r e g u l a r i s e d , r u n n i n g e i t h e r from n o r t h t o s o u t h o r from e a s t t o west, w i t h o n l y one major e x c e p t i o n , t h e X i e j i e s t r e e t . The major s t r e e t s - 114 -had a w i d t h o f t w e n t y - f i v e metres w h i l e the hutong ( l a n e s ) were s i x t o seven metres wide. Markets i n Daidu were d i s p e r s e d i n a l l p a r t s o f the c i t y i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i x e d e a s t and west markets i n Changan i n th e S u i and Tang d y n a s t i e s . However th e t h r e e major markets were l o c a t e d i n the e a s t e r n , w e s t e r n and n o r t h e r n p a r t s o f Daidu. The most pr o p e r o u s market ;was X i e j i e market i n Rizhong ward, w h i c h was the most busy commercial d i s t r i c t o f t h e c i t y . A n o t h e r major market, Y a n g j i a o , w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n t h e Mingyu ward and X i a n y i ward (which i s the p r e s e n t day X i s i Pa-lo'u.').'; , s p e c i a l i a l i z e d i n t h e t r a d e o f c a t t l e , h o r s e s , a s s e s , sheep and camels. The t h i r d major market, J i a o , was l o c a t e d i n Nansun and X i a n y i d i s t r i c t s , i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f Daidu. The J i a o market, s i t u a t e d r i g h t a t Lake J i s hui. where the Grand C a n a l t e r m i n a t e s , no doubt g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d from i t s easy 20 a c c e s s t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t and t h e t r a d e w i t h s o u t h e r n C h i n a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t h r e e major markets, t h e r e were a l s o s m a l l e r markets w h i c h s p e c i a l i z e d i n a s p e c i f i c t y p e o f goods, such as the v e g e t a b l e market o u t s i d e H e y i Gate, l e a t h e r and cap market a t the Southwest Zhonglou S t r e e t , goose and duck market a t t h e West Zhonglou. The s t a t i o n e r y and book market was l o c a t e d a t the Shengqian s t r e e t . The l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Daidu and the b u i l d i n g o f l a r g e numbers o f new p a l a c e s and government b u i l d i n g s - 115" - -sharply i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . F o u r k i l n f a c t o r i e s were t h e r e f o r e s e t up i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f D a i d u and one o f them was f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s . A Q i n g w r i t e r Ruan K u i s h a n g m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e k i l n f a c t o r y i n L i u l i c h a n g c o u l d p r o d u c e 30,000 p i e c e s o f g l a z e d t i l e s and b r i c k s i n one o p e r a t i o n . T h i s showed t h a t t h e f a c t o r y had a v e r y l a r g e p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y . From t h e n on 207 t h e p l a c e was c a l l e d L i u l i c h a n g ( g l a z e d t i l e f a c t o r y ) . Raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f g l a z e d t i l e and o t h e r c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s c o n s i s t e d o f a w h i t e c o l o r e d , f i n e - g r a i n e d s o i l w h i c h c o u l d be e x c a v a t e d f r o m X i s h a n , a b o u t t w e n t y m i l e s w e s t o f D a i d u . T h i s w h i t e c o l o r e d s o i l was t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e k i l n s i n Haiwang V i l l a g e t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r -2 08 ways t h a t c o n n e c t e d t h e two p l a c e s . I n Yuan t i m e s , L i u l i -c h a n g was w e l l c o n n e c t e d w i t h s m a l l r i v e r s a l l t h e way t o X i s h a n where t h e raw m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r -i n g o f g l a z e d t i l e s were a c q u i r e d . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s were t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m X i s h a n t o L i u l i c h a n g t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r -ways t h a t s t i l l e x i s t e d . L i C i m i n g i n h i s T a o h u a s h e n g J i e a n  R i j i c o n f i r m e d t h a t : B e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e O u t e r C i t y i n M i n g J i a j i n g p e r i o d (1522-1566), t h e r e were w a t e r -ways h e r e ( L i u l i c h a n g ) . F l o w i n g w e s t was Q i n g c h a n g R i v e r , i n t h e s o u t h w e s t was Z h a n g j i a B r i d g e , and i n t h e s o u t h t h e r e was t h e H u f a n g B r i d g e and t h e P a n j i a R i v e r . S o u t h o f t h e b r i d g e i n L i u l i c h a n g was L i a n g j i a P a r k w h i c h c o u l d be c o n n e c t e d t o L i a n g s h u i R i v e r . The p l a c e ( L i u l i c h a n g ) was w e l l c o n n e c t e d w i t h w a t e r w a y s . * u - 116 -The l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Daidu i n the Yuan p e r i o d r e q u i r e d a l o t o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s which c o u l d be a v a i l a b l e from X i s h a n . Guo S h o u j i n g once suggested t o the emperor t o reopen the J i n k o u C a n a l f o r c a r r y i n g b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s from X i s h a n t o t h e c a p i t a l . J i n k o u C a n a l was c o n s t r u c t e d i n the J i n p e r i o d t o a l l o w g r a i n c a r r y i n g s h i p s from th e s o u t h t o r e a c h the c a p i t a l d i r e c t l y . I n 1171, a b r a n c h o f Luguo R i v e r i n Mayu V i l l a g e , west o f t h e c a p i t a l , was l e d t o f l o w ..through 210 X i s h a n t o connect Tonghui C a n a l . (See F i g . 6 ) . U n f o r t u n a -t e l y the f l o w o f J i n k o u C a n a l was not s t e a d y enough. The ;-• s t e e p g r a d i e n t made i t s f l o w t o o r a p i d a f t e r heavy r a i n and t o o muddy d u r i n g the d r y season. The g r a i n t r a n s p o r t t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t depend on the f l o w o f J i n k o u C a n a l and had t o r e s o r t 211 t o t h e l a n d r o u t e . Upon the s u g g e s t i o n o f Guo S h o u j m , the Yuan emperor i n 1266 o r d e r e d Zhang Rou and the M i n i s t e r o f the Board o f Works, Duan T i a n y o u , t o : "open J i n k o u C a n a l and l e a d w a t e r from Lugou i n o r d e r t o c a r r y the r o c k s and lumbers from 212 X i s h a n . " A f t e r the r e o p e n i n g o f J i n k o u C a n a l , the unsteady f l o w o f t h e c a n a l t h r e a t e n e d t o f l o o d t h e c i t i e s o f Daidu and the o l d c i t y o f J i n Zhongdu. Guo t h e r f o r e d e c i d e d t o c l o s e the c a n a l a g a i n i n the T a i d e p e r i o d (1297-1307). I n 1342, B o l u o Tiemuer and Fu Zuo a g a i n suggested the r e o p e n i n g o f J i n -kou C a n a l and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new c a n a l from J i n k o u t o Tongzhou t o f a c i l i t a t e g r a i n t r a n s p o r t t o Daidu from the s o u t h . D e s p i t e s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s from Xu Youren, the new c a n a l was c o n s t r u c t e d i n two months. However, the f l o w was t o o s t r o n g and muddy f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes and damaged s e v e r a l - 117 -F i g . 6 T h e . J i n k o u C a n a l , Tonghui C a n a l and L i u l i c h a n g i n the Yuan P e r i o d . S o urce: Hou R e n z h i , L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n yu s h i j i a n (Shang-h a i : Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1979), p. 292. - 118 -houses. Bo l u o and Fu were e x e c u t e d f o r t h e i r m i s t a k e s . A l t h o u g h f a c t o r i e s were b u i l t i n Haiwang V i l l a g e i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , i t was s t i l l a t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a o u t s i d e the s o u t h e r n w a l l o f the c a p i t a l c i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o the streams and waterways t h a t c u t t h r o u g h L i u l i c h a n g , t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f s o i l f o r t h e k i l n l e f t many p i t s and c a v i t i e s . Because o f t h e s e streams and p i t s , b r i d g e s had t o be b u i l t f o r communica-t i o n w i t h i n the l o c a l i t y . That i s why so many p l a c e names i n L i u l i c h a n g have a c o n n o t a t i o n o f b r i d g e s , such as Z a n g j i a 214 B r i d g e , Hufang B r i d g e , e t c . Wu Changyuan a l s o mentioned i n Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d t h a t b e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g o f the c i t y w a l l i n Ming p e r i o d , the Xuanwu a r e a had many p o o l s . Even a r c h a -e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s i n t h i s a r e a t e s t i f y t h a t i n Ming t i m e s underground w a t e r was about one metre deep o n l y and thus s u g g e s t s t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was the n a a r e a w i t h l o t s o f wat e r , 215 ponds. I n 1356, t h e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the Yuan d y n a s t y l e d by Zhu Yuanzhang c a p t u r e d N a n j i n g and e s t a b l i s h e d the c a p i t a l o f the Ming d y n a s t y t h e r e . Zhu f u r t h e r l e d h i s t r o o p s t o Daidu i n 136 8 and d e f e a t e d the Mo n g o l i a n s t h e r e . Daidu was renamed B e i p i n g and d e s i g n a t e d as a p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l r a t h e r t h a n as the n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l . Due t o c o n s t a n t t h r e a t from t h e Mongo-l i a n s and t h e reduced p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y , a new c i t y w a l l f i v e L i s o u t h from t h e n o r t h e r n w a l l o f Daidu was b u i l t and 216 t h e s o u t h e r n w a l l was extended f o r a n o t h e r h a l f o f one l _ i . .. - 119 -I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f h i s r e i g n , 1403, Emperor Yongle d e c i d e d t o r e v i t a l i z e B e i p i n g and renamed i t B e i j i n g , the n o r t h e r n c a p i t a l , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o N a n j i n g , the s o u t h -e r n c a p i t a l . Why Yongle chose B e i j i n g as the c a p i t a l was p r o b a b l y because he had r u l e d t h e B e i j i n g r e g i o n e a r l i e r and i t was i n B e i j i n g t h a t h i s power was more s e c u r e . A s t r a t e - : g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h o o s i n g B e i j i n g as t h e c a p i t a l was t h a t the defense o f the Ming empire r e q u i r e d t h e s t a t i o n i n g o f l a r g e numbers o f s o l d i e r s a l o n g the n o r t h e r n b o r d e r s . B e i j i n g was t h e r e f o r e i d e a l l y s u i t e d as the i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t i n the l i n e o f s u p p l y from t h e r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s i n t h e s o u t h t o t h e b o r d e r g a r r i s o n s . Rozman f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t was c e r t a i n l y l o g i c a l f o r Ming r u l e r s t o move i t s c a p i t a l t o B e i j i n g , w h i c h had not been under the f i r m c o n t r o l o f a c e n t r a l i s e d C h i n e s e government f o r more than 500 y e a r s , i n o r d e r t o r e u n i t e the m i l i t a r y , c i v i l i a n and b u r e a u c r a t i c f o r c e s . r From t h e t h i r d y e a r o f Yongle on, p a l a c e s were b u i l t i n B e i j i n g and were completed i n 1420, one y e a r b e f o r e Emperor Yongle moved t h e c a p i t a l from N a n j i n g t o B e i j i n g . D u r i n g t h e s e f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a l a c e s , l a r g e amounts o f g l a z e d t i l e s and o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s were manufactured and used. There were f i v e b i g f a c t o r i e s s e t up f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and s u p p l y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s : Shenmuchang, Damuchang, Heiyaochang, L i u l i c h a n g , and T a i j i c h a n g . Both Shenmuchang and Damuchang were r e s p o n s i -- 120 -b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g lumber and Damuchang a l s o had t o c o l l e c t r e e d s . Each o f t h e s e two f a c t o r i e s had 1,000 s o l d i e r s ; a s s i g n e d t o work as l a b o u r e r s . L i u l i c h a n g was f o r making g l a z e d t i l e s and o t h e r c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s f o r t h e use of the i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d s . Heiyaochang was f o r making b r i c k s and t i l e s . T a i j i c h a n g was f o r s t o r i n g f i r e w o o d and r e e d s . There were a l s o f i v e s m a l l e r f a c t o r i e s : Y i n g s h a n Suo f o r woodwork, Baoyuan J u f o r goldwork, Wensi Yuan and Wang-217 gongchang f o r s i l k - m a k i n g , P i z u o c h a n g f o r l e a t h e r - w o r k . A l o n g w i t h the l a r g e s c a l e b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p a l a c e s i n the i m p e r i a l c i t y , t h e r e was an i n f l u x o f new r e s i d e n t s i n B e i j i n g . I n 1403, w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s o f t h e c a p i t a l p r e f e c t u r e , Suzhou and t e n o t h e r p r e f e c t u r e s and a l s o o f Z h e j i a n g , and n i n e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , were o r d e r e d t o t a k e r e s i d e n c e i n B e i j i n g . I n 1404, more th a n 100,000 farni-*. l i e s from the p r o s p e r o u s S h a n x i p r o v i n c e were o r d e r e d i n t o B e i j i n g . Large numbers o f p e o p l e a l s o moved from o t h e r p a r t s 218 o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t o the c a p i t a l i n t h i s p e r i o d . A f t e r Y o ngle moved t h e c a p i t a l from N a n j i n g t o B e i j i n g , Mongols i n v a d e d the o u t e r a r e a o f B e i j i n g s e v e r a l t i m e s . F o r the sake o f p r o t e c t i n g the i m p e r i a l c i t y , s u g g e s t i o n s were made t o b u i l d an o u t e r w a l l t o s u r r o u n d t h e whole B e i j i n g c i t y . Because o f t h e l a c k o f f u n d s , o n l y t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e c i t y was b u i l t w i t h an o u t e r w a l l w h i c h was completed i n 1564. The o u t e r w a l l i s t w e n t y - e i g h t l i l o n g and has seven g a t e s . The - 121 -s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n was g i v e n p r i o r i t y not-only because the Temple of A g r i c u l t u r e and the Temple o f Heaven had a l r e a d y been b u i l t b u t a l s o because the a r e a between Zhengyang Gate and Xuanwu 219 Gate had a g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n . The b u i l d i n g o f t h i s o u t e r w a l l i n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e c i t y changed the r e c t a n g u l a r shape o f B e i j i n g . (See "Fig.5 ) . Moreover, t h i s new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a c o n s i s t e d o f many narrow and c r o o k e d l a n e s w h i c h were i n t o t a l c o n t r a s t t o t h e s t r a i g h t - l i n e d , w e l l 220 p l a n n e d s t r e e t s i n the I n n e r C i t y . The s o u t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f B e i j i n g a l s o c u t o f f a s e c t i o n o f Tonghui R i v e r w i c h was c o n n e c t e d t o t h e Grand C a n a l . G r a i n c a r r y i n g s h i p s from the s o u t h c o u l d no l o n g e r moor i n J i s h u i Lake and t h e major market 221 i n Yuan t i m e s , R izhong ward, d e c l i n e d i n l a t e Ming p e r i o d . A Ming p o e t , Wu Meicun, who l i v e d i n t h e Weiran Hutong, about h a l f o f one l _ i southwest from L i u l i c h a n g , mentioned t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was t h e n s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d w i t h v e r y few houses. Wu c o u l d even see L i u l i c h a n g from h i s house. I n h i s poem "Dushi Oushu C i " , Wu mentioned t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was l o c a t e d a t t h e west s i d e o f Hufang B r i d g e and was a f a c t o r y manufact-u r i n g c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s . L i u l i c h a n g has not y e t d e v e l o p e d 222 as a market o f books. I n many Ming w r i t i n g s about Wanshu Z a j i (1593), and L i u Dong wu Lue (16 3 5 ) , t h e r e was n o t h i n g development as a market c e n t e r . - 122 B e i j i n g , such as Chen Bang's and Yu Y i z h e n g ' s D i j i n g J i n g -mentioned about L i u l i c h a n g ' s A l t h o u g h L i u and Yu had mentioned about t h e "shop o f L i u l i c h a n g " i n t h e i r D i j i n g J i n g -wu Lue, the shops were f o r s e l l i n g some o f t h e c o l o r e d g l a z e d 223 v e s s e l s and t o y s d u r i n g the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l . T h i s was f a r s h o r t o f b e i n g a major urban market. - 123 -Chapter V I . The: R i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g as the N a t i o n a l Book Market o f C h i n a As e a r l y as t h e L i a o p e r i o d , B e i j i n g was a major book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e . I n J i n and Yuan t i m e s , book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s were f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d as B e i j i n g was t h e n the c a p i t a l . I n Ming W a n l i p e r i o d (1573-1619), the s e l l i n g o f books had a l r e a d y become r e g u l a r i n the p e r i o d i c markets and t h e a n n u a l f a i r s . Hu Y i n g l i n d e s c r i b e d t h e l o c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d i c markets i n B e i j i n g i n h i s X i a o s h i Shanfang B i c o n g ( 1 5 8 9 ) : Most b o o k s t a l l s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y a r e a t the r i g h t hand s i d e o f Darning Gate, the e n t r a n c e o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f R i t e s , and a t t h e west o f Gongchen Gate. D u r i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d , b o o k s t a l l s a r e s e t up i n f r o n t o f the e x a m i n a t i o n c e n t r e . On the f i f t e e n t h day o f the second moon, th e y move t o t h e L a n t e r n F a i r . On the f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f e v e r y month, the b o o k s t a l l s a r e moved t o t h e Temple o f the C i t y God. The L a n t e r n F a i r i s a t t h e e a s t s i d e o f the c i t y w h i l e t h e Temple o f the C i t y God l o c a t e s a t t h e west s i d e . Both are the major t r a d i n g .... c e n t r e s o f the c i t y . Trade i n t h e L a n t e r n F a i r l a s t e d f o r t h r e e days a n n u a l l y w h i l e i n the Temple o f t h e C i t y God, t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e t h r e e days monthly. D u r i n g t h i s t r a d i n g p e r i o d , goods o f e v e r y s o r t a r e p r e s e n t and book i s one o f them. 2 24 I n Ming S u i z h e n p e r i o d ( 1 6 2 8 - 1 6 4 3 ) , markets i n B e i j i n g d i d n ot e x p e r i e n c e much s i g n i f i c a n t change as i n d i c a t e d i n L i u Dong and Yu Y i z h e n g ' s D i z i n g Jingwu Lue. I n the s e c t i o n on "The Market o f the Temple o f the C i t y G o l d " , c h a r a c t e r i s -- 124 -t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t markets i n t h e C a p i t a l were d e s c r i b e d and the m a r k e t i n g days were mentioned t o o : The morning market l o c a t e s a t around Darning Gate w i t h merchants i n r e s i d e n c e t h e r e and t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e e v e r y day. The L a n t e r n F a i r l o c a t e s o u t s i d e the e n t r a n c e o f Dong-hua Gate and t h e f a i r l a s t s f o r t e n days a n n u a l l y . The s o - c a l l e d " i n t e r n a l market" l o c a t e s i n s i d e the e n t r a n c e o f Donghua Gate and t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e t h r e e days monthly and had now moved t o L a n t e r n Market b u t s t i l l c a l l e d t h e " i n t e r n a l market." The "Market o f the P o o r " , w h i c h l o c a t e s a t the B r i d g e o f Zhenyang, does b u s i n e s s d a i l y i n the e v e n i n g f o r the w o r k i n g p e o p l e . The Market o f the Temple o f t h e C i t y God opens on the f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e twenty-f i f t h day o f each month.225 A l t h o u g h the l o c a t i o n s o f t h e major markets i n B e i j i n g d i d n o t change much d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from W a n l i t o S u i z h e n , the temporary s t a l l s a t Darning Gate had g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o permanent s t o r e s which opened d a i l y and some o f t h e merchants became r e s i d e n t - m e r c h a n t s . (Figure 6 ) . L i u and Yu c o n t i n u e d t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l t h e market i n the Temple o f the C i t y God: The market o f the Temple o f the C i t y God opens on t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f the month, s t r e t c h i n g from J i a o f a n g i n the e a s t t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f the t e m p l e , w i t h s t a l l s l i n e d up f o r t h r e e l i . . . There were b o t h contemporary and a n c i e n t books, b r o n z e s and v e s s e l s made i n t h e Shang and Zhou p e r i o d s ; l a d d i e and m i r r o r from Q i n and Han p e r i o d s ; Tang and Song's P a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y ; j e w e l s , j a d e and s i l k from Yunnan, Guangdong, F u j i a n , Hunan and H u b e i , Zhejiang...226 - 125 -L i u and Yu f u r t h e r mentioned t h a t on the market day, th e Temple, o f C i t y God was v e r y crowded with, p e o p l e . Out o f e v e r y t e n p e o p l e who v i s i t e d t h e temple market, s i x j u s t l o o k e d around, t h r e e would have bought something and o n l y one p a i d a v i s i t t o the C i t y God. The markets o f books t h a t were l o c a t e d a t Daiming Gate, the e x a m i n a t i o n c e n t r e , the L a n t e r n F a i r and t h e Temple o f the C i t y God i n Ming t i m e s had i n the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d , d u r i n g t h e Shunzhi r e i g n , moved t o C i r e n Monastery. The Monastery was l o c a t e d two l i _ s o u t h o f Xuanwu Gate and n o r t h o f t h e main s t r e e t o u t s i d e Guangning Gate. C i r e n Monastery was a l s o c a l l e d Baoguo Monastery w h i c h was f i r s t b u i l t i n L i a o t i m e s , i n t h e n o r t h west c o r n e r o f C i r e n Monastery. The C i r e n Monastery was funded by the mother o f Ming Emperor X i a n z o n g i n A.D.1466 f o r her b r o t h e r , monk J i X i a n g . Sun Chengze's Chunming Mengyulu (1631) had r e c o r d e d J i a n g D e j i n g ' s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the monastery. J i a n g mentioned t h a t t h e r e were 120 r o l l s o f famous p a i n t i n g s from t h e i m p e r i a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e monastery. J i a n g c o n t i n u e d t o d e s c r i b e the K u n l u P a v i l i o n where one c o u l d c omfortaby e n j o y the s c e n e r y 227 . . . o f X i s h a n . Many poems had d e s c r i b e d K u n l u P a v i l i o n s i n c e the Ming p e r i o d u n t i l i t was t o r n down f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the J i a q i n g p e r i o d . The monastery c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l hundred monks and s e v e r a l hundred mu o f l a n d and was one o f t h e l a r g e s t m o n a s t e r i e s i n t h e c a p i t a l . - 126 -Market days i n C i r e n Monastery were t h e same as i n the market o f the. Temple o f the C i t y God whi c h was h e l d on the f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h , and t h e : : t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f t h e month. Wang S h i z h e n mentioned i n h i s X i a n g z u B i j i t h a t : "On t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h , and t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f the month, hundred k i n d s 228 o f goods a l l g a t h e r e d a t C i r e n Monastery." I n e a r l y Qing p e r i o d many r i c h f a m i l i e s and h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s l i v e d v e r y c l o s e t o C i r e n Monastery. Some o f them even t e m p o r a r i l y r e s i d e d i n t h e monastery, such as Ku Yanwu and Wang S h i z h e n . I n t h e f i f t e e n t h y e a r o f Shunzhi (1658), Ku was s e l e c t e d as the I n s p e c t o r a t e f o r the, Board o f War and r e s i d e d i n C i r e n Monastery. L i Y i n d u noted i n h i s reply t o Gu's poem t h a t : "Gu and I had b o t h r e s i d e d i n C i r e n Monastery i n t h e p r e v i o u s 229 y e a r (1668), b u t Gu l e f t t h e monastery f i r s t . " A memorial h a l l f o r Gu was e r e c t e d by Ho S h a o j i i n 184 3 i n t h e w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f C i r e n Monastery. Wang S h i z h e n i n h i s J u y i Lu a l s o mentioned t h a t he had r e s i d e d i n C i r e n Monastery i n 16 58 when he was a s s i g n e d t o the Board o f War. I t was a l s o i n C i r e n Monastery where he met L i a n g R i j i , who earned a j i n s h i degree i n 1655, the same y e a r as h i m s e l f . Not o n l y d i d t h o s e who r e s i d e d i n C i r e n Monastery buy books from t h e r e , many o t h e r famous s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s a l s o v i s i t e d t h e monastery and bought books, f l o w e r s and o t h e r goods t h e r e . I n h i s J u y i L u , X i a n g z u B i j i , C h i b e i Outan and Gufu Y u t i n g Z a l u , Wang S h i z h e n had mentioned q u i t e a few t i m e s t h a t he had bought books from C i r e n Monastery. I n C h i b e i Outan, - 127 -Wang n o t e d t h a t : " I n the s i x t e e n t h , y e a r o f Shunzhi (1659), I saw a v i s i t i n g c a r d , on which was w r i t t e n ' Keshi b a i ' (From Madam Ke) i n C i r e n Monastery. Zhu Kesheng g o t . i t f o r t h r e e g i a n (See Appendix IX) and composed a poem 'Keshe hang' f o r 230 t h i s . " Wang a l s o once mentioned t h a t he had bought an o l d e d i t i o n o f Yao Kuan's X i x i Cohgyu i n C i r e n Monastery i n 16 92. He l a t e r e d i t e d and supplemented i t w i t h t h e J i g u Ge e d i t i o n . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he bought a copy o f S h i f e n g Gao and a l s o 231 a copy o f Huotao W e n j i from the market o f C i r e n Monastery. Song Luo (1634-1713), a contemporary o f Wang and a l s o a famous p o e t , had bought books, such as Cuihong S h i l i u g u o Chungiu, T i a n x i a M i n g s h a n j i from the C i r e n Monastery. Zhu Yuzhuan got a copy o f Dianya C i w h i l e Sun S i k o n g bought a p o t o f plums from t h e C i r e n Monastery market i n the e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n -t u r y . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r y about Wang S h i z h e n ' s endeavor, t o go t o the book market i n C i r e n Monastery was t o l d by Kong Dongtong. Kong mentioned t h a t he had t r i e d t o v i s i t Wang s e v e r a l t i m e s w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . Xu Qianxue t o l d him t o go t o C i r e n Monastery d u r i n g the market days and w a i t t h e r e f o r Wang. Kong f i n a l l y had a chance t o see Wang i n the book market o f 232 th e monastery. I n h i s J u y i Lu, Wang S h i z h e n d e s c r i b e d h i s g r e a t e n t h u -s i a s m f o r c o l l e c t i n g books and spent a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s income on b u y i n g books: H a v i n g s e r v e d as an o f f i c i a l i n t h e c a p i t a l f o r more th a n twenty y e a r s , I have spent a l l - 128 -my income i n b u y i n g books. Once I dropped by the C i r e n Monastery and saw books, Shangshu Dazhuan, San11 J i n g z h u a n T o n g j i e and H a n l i s e l l i n g t h e r e . On t h e n e x t market day I went back t o l o o k f o r t h e books b u t t h e y had a l r e a d y s o l d t o someone e l s e . I was so u p s e t about i t and my mind c o u l d n o t g e t away from i t . I f e l t s i c k f o r t e n days f o r t h i s . 2 3 3 From Wang's e s s a y we can see n o t o n l y t h e s c h o l a r o f f i a l s ' endeavor t o c o l l e c t books, b u t a l s o t h a t t h e y spent a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r income on books. T h i s i s not o n l y t r u e o f Wang Yuyang b u t many o t h e r s c h o l a r s as w e l l . Zhang Q i n g f e n g , a 1661 j i n s h i and an o f f i c i a l i n t h e Board o f Work, was a g r e a t l o v e r o f books. Once he even had t o borrow money t o buy f o o d , when he had spent a l l the money he borrowed on books i n C i r e n Monastery. T h i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t many o f the s c h o l a r s bought t h e i r books from C i r e n Monastery d u r i n g 234 t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d o f the Qing d y n a s t y . The p r o s p e r i t y o f C i r e n Monastery d i d not l a s t f o r t o o l o n g , i t had a l r e a d y been abandoned as the major market o f the c a p i t a l as e a r l y as i n the 1670's. D a i Lu, i n h i s Tengyin  Z a j i , mentioned t h a t : C i r e n Monastery had l o n g been abandoned. L a s t y e a r the market was s e t up i n the Monastery a g a i n b u t ended a f t e r a w h i l e . T h i s i s because the s e l l i n g o f goods de-pends on the r i c h f a m i l i e s i n t h e c i t y . But t h e Monastery i s t o o f a r away from the c i t y and so t h e r e a r e few c u st omers. I n the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d , most r i c h f a m i -l i e s were i n t h e w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the -c i t y , C i r e n Monastery was t h e r e f o r e v e r y - 129 -c o n v e n i e n t f o r the r i c h e s t o s t r o l l a l o n g . A f t e r the e a r t h q u a k e , i n t h e p a s t s i x t y y e a r s , t h e monastery was t o t a l l y aban- • doned.235 By t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , books were no l o n g e r s o l d i n C i r e n Monastery. The. new book markets o f B e i j i n g were m a i n l y l o c a t e d a t X i h e y a n and L i u l i c h a n g . (See" F i g . 6)vi'SJ-h h i s * X i a n g z u B l j - i (1705)", Wang p o i n t e d o u t t h a t : Nowadays most b o o k s t o r e s i n t h e c a p i t a l l o c a t e d a t Xi h e y a n o u t s i d e Zhengyang Gate. O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e a l s o a few book-s t a l l s s e t t i n g up i n L i u l i c h a n g . The L a n t e r n F a i r was f i r s t h e l d i n L i n g y o u Gong w i t h a few b o o k s t a l l s . S i n c e t h e p l a c e caught f i r e , t h e L a n t e r n F a i r moved t o the so u t h o f the main s t r e e t o f Zhengyang Gate. However, t h e r e were no more books b e i n g s o l d t h e r e . On t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f the month, hundred k i n d s o f goods were g a t h e r e d a t C i r e n Monastery b u t o n l y f i v e t o s i x book-s t a l l s were s e t t i n g up t h e r e . I n t h e e a r l y days, t h e s e b o o k s t a l l s o c c a s i o n a l l y y h a d a few r a r e books b u t i n t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s t h e r e was n o t even one.236 From Wang and D a i , we n o t o n l y l e a r n e d t h a t C i r e n Monastery was no l o n g e r a major market o f books s i n c e the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y but t h a t i t s d e c l i n e d was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e monastery was l o c a t e d t o o f a r away from the r e s i d e n c e o f t h e r i c h f a m i l i e s . The earthquake which D a i mentioned was p r o b a b l y t h e one t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h y e a r o f Ka n g x i (16 7 9 ) . T h i s major earthquake caused e x t e n s i v e damage t o a l a r g e number o f b u i l d i n g s i n a d d i t i o n t o a heavy l o s s o f - 130 -E i g . 7. Book Markets i n B e i j i n g i n the Ming and Qing P e r i o d s N A 1 Darning Gate 2 Board \o'f. R i t e s 3 E x a m i n a t i o n C e n t r e 4_ L a n t e r n Market 0 i_ 5 6 7 8 9 Km Temple o f t h e C i t y God C i r e n Monastery L i u l i c h a n g X i h e Yan Zhengyang Gate - 131 -human l i f e . Wang S h i z h e n i n h i s C h i b e i : Out'an and J u y i Lu a l s o mentioned t h a t i n the s e v e n t h month o f 16 79, t h e c a p i t a l , ( B e i j i n g ) , e x p e r i e n c e d a s t r o n g e a r t h q u a k e . A l l r e s i d e n t i a l houses and government o f f i c e s i n J i z h o u were d e s t r o y e d . Tong-23 zhou was a l s o s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d with, s e v e r a l hundred d e a t h s . The o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f Q i n g , Q i n g s h i Gao, a l s o r e c o r d e d t h a t : On t h e n i n t h day o f t h e s e v e n t h month o f 1679 t h e C a p i t a l e x p e r i e n c e an e a r t h q u a k e ; Tong-zhou, Sanhe, P i n g g u , Xianghe, Wuqing, Yongqing, B a o d i , Guan, a l l had s t r o n g e a r t h quake w h i c h had sounds l i k e f a s t r u n n i n g w h e e l - c a r t s , o r t h u n d e r i n g . The sky was darkened. Many houses c o l l a p s e d and many p e o p l e were k i l l e d . The roads were a l l c r a c k e d w i t h b l a c k w a t e r r u n -n i n g o u t . The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e earthquake was f u r t h e r proved by t h e l a r g e sum o f money K a n g x i g r a n t e d t o t h e v i c t i m s o f the e a r t h q u a k e . A t o t a l o f 10,000 t a e l s o f s i l v e r was a l l o c a t e d by t h e emperor i n t h e f o l l o w i n g month a f t e r the e a r t h q u a k e o c c u r r e d t o t h o s e who were ^wounded, had d i e d o r had houses 239 damaged. D u r i n g t h e earthquake the w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e Outer C i t y o f B e i j i n g was a l s o s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d and many o f the r i c h f a m i l i e s moved away from t h i s a r e a . As the market o f C i r e n Monastery depended on the r i c h f a m i l i e s , t h e market a l s o g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d and t h i s s e r v e d as an impetus f o r L i u l i c h a n g t o d e v e l o p . A f t e r the w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f the Outer C i t y was d e s t r o y e d by t h e earthquake o f 1679, t h e book market i n C i r e n Monastery - 132 -moved t o X i h e y a n and L i u l i c h a n g i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h cen-t u r y . But by the 176 0's, L i Wanzao c o n f i r m e d t h a t L i u l i c h a n g had been d e v e l o p e d as the major book market i n B e i j i n g i n h i s 240 well-known e s s a y "A Record o f the B o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g . " I n t h i s e s s a y , L i t o l d us t h a t he had s t a y e d i n t h e c a p i t a l f o r f i v e months and v i s t e d L i u l i c h a n g almost-everyday a f t e r l u n c h . I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f L i u l i c h a n g , we l e a r n t h a t t h e r e were two e n t r a n c e s t o t h i s book market, one i n the e a s t s i d e and the o t h e r i n t h e west s i d e . I n t h e c e n t e r was a s t o n e - b r i d g e , n o r t h o f w h i c h was the k i l n f a c t o r y . From Pan Rongbi, we a l s o l e a r n t h a t t h e main e n t r a n c e t o the f a c t o r y was c a l l e d Zhanyun Ge. The f a c t o r y o c c u p i e d a l a r g e a r e a w i t h government o f f i c e s , workshops and temples i n s i d e the compound. The space o u t s i d e the main e n t r a n c e was used f o r h o l d i n g the a n n u a l f a i r where l o t s o f goods were g a t h e r e d f o r s a l e and where v a r i o u s shows 241 were performed d u r i n g the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l . L i Wenzao >, r e c o r d e d a t o t a l o f t h i r t y b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g , w i t h t w e n t y - t h r e e b o o k s t o r e s e a s t o f t h e stone-abridge and seven i n the west s i d e . The s t r e e t e a s t o f the b r i d g e was narrower and t h e r e were shops s e l l i n g g l a s s e s , p i p e s , and i t e m s f o r d a i l y use i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h the b o o k s t o r e s . The s t r e e t i n the west s i d e was w i d e r and had shops s e l l i n g c u r i o s , c a l l i g r a p h i c p r i n t s as w e l l as shops p r o v i d i n g v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s , such as mounting p a i n t i n g s and c a l l i g r a p h y , s e a l - m a k i n g , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s and i n v i t a t i o n s , b l o c k p r i n t i n g and s t o n e - i n s c r i p t i o n s . Around the b r i d g e i n the c e n t e r o f L i u l i c h a n g were shops f o r t o o t h - f i l l i n g , l i p s and eye f i x i n g as w e l l as s e l l i n g m e d i c i n e f o r ; v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s . D u r i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d , s t a t i o n -e r y , such as pens, bags f o r e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r s , i n k b o t t l e s , 242 paper w i g h t and o t h e r s , were p u t on s a l e t h e r e t o o . L i Wenzao c o n t i n u e d t o mention t h a t most books s o l d i n L i u l i c h a n g were new e d i t i o n s w h i c h were bound by poor q u a l i t y c o v e r s and had used t h i n paper. O l d e d i t i o n works were s o l d by J i n g x i a o Tang and J i x i n Tang o n l y . Most o f t h e books o f Xianyue Tang were c o l l e c t e d from the i m p e r i a l l i b r a r i e s w h i l e Shenyao Tang s o l d m o s t l y i n c o m p l e t e works. On :the o t h e r hand, Ba o n i n g Tang had a good c o l l e c t i o n o f c l a n h i s t o r i e s , law and r e g u l a t i o n s , t r a v e l l e r s ' l o g books and g u i d e s . A new bookshop wh i c h had j u s t opened f o r b u s i n e s s b u t owned a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f o l d e d i t i o n works was W u l i u J u . L i k e Wencui Tang, W u l i u J u p u r c h a s e d books from Suzhou and b r o u g h t them back by s h i p e v e r y y e a r . The owner o f Y a n q i n g Tang, Wei, no l o n g e r went . t o J i a n g n a n i n r e c e n t y e a r s b u t m a i n l y c o l l e c t e d books from . the r i c h f a m i l i e s i n the I n n e r C i t y . Wei had a good c o l l e c - . t i o n o f books w h i c h had stamps o f Cao L i a n t i n g (1658-1712), 243 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the I m p e r i a l T e x t i l e F a c t o r y i n N a n j i n g . There were b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g t h a t had a l o n g h i s -t o r y , such as E r y o u Tang, w h i c h had been i n b u s i n e s s t h e r e s i n c e t h e Ming p e r i o d . But t h e r e were a l s o b o o k s t o r e s , l i k e W u l i u J u , w h i c h had j u s t s t a r t e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s . To L i Wen-zao, Tao from W u l i u J u , X i e from Wencui Tang and Wei were the most knowledgeable p e r s o n s about books i n L i u l i c h a n g . B oth - 134 -Tao and X i e were n a t i v e s o f Suzhou w h i l e Wei was from Huzhou. The r e s t o f t h e o t h e r b o o k s t o r e owners were: from J i n x i o f J i a n g x i . Out o f t h e twenty-seven b o o k s t o r e owners t h a t L i Wenzao knew, e l e v e n were owned by t h e L i 1 s f a m i l i e s . From L i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , we can t h e r e f o r e see a p i c t u r e o f L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h had j u s t d e v e l o p e d as a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d market o f books. We can a l s o be q u i t e s u r e t h a t when the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu began f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , L i u -l i c h a n g ' s p r o s p e r i t y was f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d and r e a c h e d i t s peak d u r i n g the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d . But t h e q e s t i o n remains as t o why L i u l i c h a n g c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d as t h e major book mar-k e t i n B e i j i n g . What were the s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s development as the famous " S t r e e t o f C u l t u r e " ? Ever s i n c e the K a n g x i p e r i o d , a f t e r t h e Manchus had f i r m l y c o n t r o l l e d C h i n a , L i u l i c h a n g as w e l l as the whole o f C h i n a e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t surge o f p o p u l a t i o n . The h o l d i n g o f an a n n u a l f a i r i n L i u l i c h a n g f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d t h e popu-l a r i t y o f t h e p l a c e . A l a r g e number o f huiguan were b u i l t i n the a r e a i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d and enhanced the p r o s -p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g as a market o f books. No doubt, the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e development o f L i u l i c h a n g as the most i m p o r t a n t market o f books i n B e i j i n g and C h i n a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t was because o f L i u l i c h a n g ' s c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n between the government o f f i c e s o f the I n n e r c i t y and th e r e s i d e n c e s o f t h e s e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s i n the Outer C i t y , t h a t encouraged i t s development as t h e most famous book market i n Ch i n a f o r some two hundred y e a r s t o come. A f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Manchu r u l e i n 1644, Chi n a ' s p o p u l a t i o n r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e d from about 125 m i l l i o n t o o v e r 244 200 m i l l i o n i n 1750. How d i d t h i s p o p u l a t i o n e x p a n s i o n i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n a come about and what were the main d e t e r m i n a n t s g o v e r n i n g i t s growth? As James Lee s u g g e s t s : "Those who w r i t e about C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s as t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t e x p l a n a -245 t o r y f a c t o r i n demographic h i s t o r y . " L i l l i a n L i p o i n t s o u t t h a t Ho P i n g - t ' i p l a c e s a heavy emphasis on the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the New World c r o p s t o Ch i n a as t h e major f a c t o r i n 246 s u s t a i n i n g t h e growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n C h i n a . I n Ho's vie w t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e c r o p s c o n s t i t u t e d a "second a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n " — second t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e a r l y r i p e n i n g r i c e i n t h e Song p e r i o d — wh i c h was t h e most i m p o r t -a n t f a c t o r i n i n c r e a s i n g the food p r o d u c t i o n i n the p e r i o d 247 from the s e v e n t e e n t h t o the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Ho's as s u m p t i o n t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n f o o d p r o d u c t i o n made p o s s i b l e a growth i n p o p u l a t i o n i n some sense c o n t a i n s a M a l t h u s i a n n o t i o n . I t i s a l s o the n o t i o n t h a t when p o p u l a t i o n growth exceeds t h e e x p a n s i o n o f food s u p p l y , the r e s u l t a n t c a t a s t r o -phes s e r v e as a d e t e r r e n t t o f u r t h e r p o p u l a t i o n growth. Ho n e v e r t h e l e s s a l s o a t t r i b u t e s the growth o f p o p u l a t i o n t o - 136 -i n t e r r e g i o n a l m i g r a t i o n s , the l e s s e n i n g o f t a x burdens, the i n c r e a s e i n commercial and i n d u s t r i a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f the p e r i o d as e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s f o r t h e r a p i d r i s e o f p o p u l a t i o n . The e x t e n s i o n o f the s e t t l e m e n t s i n t o S i c h u a n , the Yangtze h i g h l a n d s and the i< Han R i v e r system f u r t h e r made p o s s i b l e a w i d e r e x p a n s i o n o f c u l t i v a t e d acreage i n the s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s when r a p i d growth o f p o p u l a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e i n C h i n a . The t a x burden o f the peopl e was g r e a t l y reduced by t h e e a r l y Manchu emperors, n ot o n l y were l a r g e amounts o f t a x e s r e m i t t e d b u t t h a t the d i n g payment was f u r t h e r f r o z e n i n 1711 and the l a b o r s e r v i c e s were amalgamated w i t h d i n g payments. These t a x r e d u c t i o n s g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d the common p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e l a n d l e s s c l a s s . The growth o f p o p u l a t i o n was f u r t h e r en-^ couraged by an i n c r e a s e i n the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d n o t j u s t by t h e expa n d i n g and more i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l -t u r e b u t a l s o an expanding d o m e s t i c t r a d e and a h i g h l y l u c r a ^ t i v e f o r e i g n commerce as w e l l as some new r i s i n g i n d u s t r i e s and c r a f t s t h r o u g h o u t the l a t e Ming and t h e e a r l y Q i n g . The end o f the campaign a g a i n s t the t h r e e f e u d a t o r i e s and a g a i n s t t h e Ming l o y a l i s t s i n Formosa i n 16 8 3 u s h e r e d i n a l o n g p r o -l o n g e d p e r i o d o f peace and p r o s p e r i t y seldom p a r a l l e l e d i n Ch i n a ' s l o n g h i s t o r y . A l l t h e s e s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the r a p i d growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n e a r l y Qing C h i n a . L i u l i c h a n g i n t h i s e a r l y Qing p e r i o d a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a - 137 -g r e a t upsurge o f p o p u l a t i o n . The r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n L i u l i c h a n g and t h e Outer C i t y was g r e a t l y a c c e n t u a t e d by p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the Qing d y n a s t y . I n the S h u n z h i p e r i o d ( 1 6 4 4 - 1 6 1 1 ) , the f i r s t Q ing emperor o r d e r e d the " e n c l o s u r e o f some r e s i d e n t i a l homes i n B e i j i n g and s e g r e g a t e d the Manchu t r o o p s and the Chinese p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . A l t h o u g h some t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the c i t y a r e a was a f f e c t e d and p e o p l e were moved around, t h e r e were s t i l l l a r g e numbers o f C h i n s e s and Manchus who l i v e d i n t e r m i n g l e d i n the same s e c t i o n o f the c i t y and con-1... 248 f l i c t s a r o s e . " I n t h e f i f t h y e a r o f S h u n z h i , an i m p e r i a l d e c r e e f u r t h e r o r d e r e d t h a t a l l C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l s , merchants and common p e o p l e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a d h e r e n t s o f Manchu Bannermen, were t o move t o the s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n o f the c i t y by t h e end o f the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . T h e i r o r i g i n a l p r o p e r t y was t o be e i t h e r d e m o l i s h e d o r s o l d . They were 249 compensated w i t h a mere f o u r t a e l s o f s i l v e r . Even p e o p l e who made p i l g r i m a g e s t o the temples i n t h e I n n e r C i t y had t o do so d u r i n g t h e day, and were not a l l o w e d t o s t a y o v e r n i g h t . T h i s s e g r e g a t i o n p o l i c y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the emergence o f the " T a r t a r C i t y " — the I n n e r C i t y w i t h t h e Manchus, and t h e "Chinese C i t y " — t h e Outer C i t y w i t h t h e C h i n e s e . Based on the d a t a o f 1851, G i l b e r t Rozman computed the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e I m p e r i a l C i t y o f B e i j i n g as 60,000, a n o t h e r 400,000 t o 500',.000 i n the I n n e r C i t y and 300,000 t o 500,000 250 i n t h e Outer C i t y . The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f B e i j i n g i n - 138 -Qi.anlong p e r i o d was. e s t i m a t e d a t about one million.^""'" 1" Rozman f u r t h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t : "Land i n t h e s o u t h e a s t and southwest p o r t i o n s (of t h e Outer C i t y ) was n o t b u i l t up, b u t t h e n o r t h -c e n t r a l a r e a a l o n g the w a l l s h a r e d w i t h t h e I n n e r C i t y was 252 u n d o u b t e d l y the most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a i n B e i j i n g . " T h i s n o r t h - c e n t r a l a r e a , where L i u l i c h a n g was l o c a t e d , was t h e commercial c e n t r e where thousands o f s m a l l shops l i n e d on c o u n t l e s s i n t e r s e c t i n g s t r e e t s . Merchants and a r t i s a n house-h o l d s l i v e d i n the back o f t h e i r s t o r e s and many p e d l a r s and h i r e d l a b o r e r s r e n t e d l o d g i n g s i n t h e crowded c o u r t y a r d s . Rozman even s p e c u l a t e d t h a t : I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Outer C i t y ' s t h r e e t o f o u r m i l e s o f d e n s e l y s e t t l e d commercial a r e a s were as crowded as the Cho i n Edo, i n w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150,000 p e o p l e smuggled i n t o a square m i l e . . . A t the v e r y l e a s t , t h e Outer C i t y c o n t a i n e d 300,000' i n h a b i t a n t s and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e a c t u a l t o t a l r e a c h e d i n e x c e s s o f 450,000 o r 500,000 i f d e n s i t i e s i n b u i l t up a r e a s were comparable tho s e i n Edo.^5 3 i Coupled w i t h the removal o f t h e Han C h i n e s e t o t h e Outer C i t y and the g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d t h e r e . I n L i u l i c h a n g , development o f r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g was a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n Kan:g'xi < p e r i o d (1662-1722). Wang Wenbai, who was an o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p i l i n g t h e r e c o r d o f r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g i n L i u l i c h a n g , d e s c r i b e d t h e l a r g e number of houses crowded t o g e t h e r i n L i u -l i c h a n g i n an e s s a y e n t i t l e d "An I n s t a n t l y Composed Essay i n the Autumn o f t h e Year o f Gengchen (1700.) d u r i n g t h e compilar-- 139 -tl.on o f the. Record o f R e s i d e n t i a l Housing i n L i u l i c h a n g " ; S i n c e the Ming Dynasty, p o p u l a t i o n has c o n c e n t r a t e d around t h e n i n e g a t e s o f t h e C a p i t a l ; The l a n d was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e E i g h t Banners; The Outer C i t y was I m p e r i a l Land where houses were b u i l t f o r p e o p l e i n the C a p i t a l ; That's why houses i n L i u l i c h a n g was so crowded, l o c a t e d one a f t e r a n o t h e r j u s t l i k e f i s h s c a l e . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and crowdness o f the houses were due t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p a s t s i x t y y e a r s ( s i n c e t h e f o u n d i n g o f the Qi n g i n 16 4 4 ) . P e o p l e from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the empire a l s o g a t h e r e d around h e r e , s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s a l s o r e s i d e d i n L i u l i c h a n g . 2 5 4 From Wang, we n o t o n l y l e a r n t h a t a g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d around t h e c i t y g a t e s s i n c e the Ming t i m e s , b u t a l s o t h a t L i u l i c h a n g had been de v e l o p e d as a d e n s e l y b u i l t a r e a i n the K a n g x i p e r i o d . Wang's essay however was not composed f o r t h e purpose o f d e s c r i b i n g the development o f L i u l i c h a n g a l o n e b u t t o r a i s e t h e c o n c e r n f o r the r e s i d e n t s t h e r e who were r e q u e s t e d t o pay t h e i r t a x based on the u n i t s :of houses r a t h e r t h a n on t h e l a n d t h e y o c c u p i e d . Wang argued t h a t i t was not f a i r f o r the r e s i d e n t s t o pay t a x a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u n i t s they o c c u p i e d as t h e s m a l l amount o f r e n t t h e y r e c e i v e d was b a r e l y enough t o s u p p o r t t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Moreover, t h e y had c o r v e e to s e r v e w h i c h t h e common p e o p l e c o u l d h a r d l y cope w i t h . The r i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g , however, was due n o t o n l y t o t h e - 140 -i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n b u t a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f r e s i d e n c e s w h i c h housed the s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s . Z h i C h a o z i i n h i s J i u j i n g S u o j i (1970) t a l k e d about the r e s i -dences o f t h e Han o f f i c i a l s and t h e r i c h e s i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d : I n t h e o l d days, most Han o f f i c i a l s who d i d not have i m p e r i a l a s s i g n e d r e s i d e n c e s and th o s e who d i d not have t o be on duty i n t h e I m p e r i a l P a l a c e s u s u a l l y l i v e d i n t h e Outer C i t y , o u t s i d e t h e e n t r a n c e o f Xuanwu Gate. Most o f the r i c h f a m i l i e s , on the o t h e r hand, l i v e d around the area.-;outside Suiwen Gate. That's why t h e r e was an o l d s a y i n g : ' i n t he e a s t a re t h e r i c h e s , i n t h e west ar e the h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s . ! ' No wonder t h e r e were so many poems about Xuannan a r e a where many s c h o l a r s l i v e d were composed.255 Amongst the more than 10,000 h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s s t a t i o n e d i n B e i j i n g , many o f them l i v e d n e a r Xuanwu Gate — an a r e a v e r y c l o s e t o L i u l i c h a n g . The c o m p i l e r o f Chunming Mengyu Lu, Sun Chengze, l i v e d i n t h e west s i d e o f Z h a n g j i a B r i d g e , s o u t h o f L i u l i c h a n g . H i s house was c a l l e d "Tuigu 256 Yuan." An o t h e r famous s c h o l a r , Wang Yuyang, l i v e d i n L i u l i c h a n g ' s Huoshen Miao X i j i a o Dao. H i s garden had a v i n e t r e e w i t h f l o w e r s s p r o u t e d a l l o v e r . Some o f h i s g u e s t s composed poems o f t h e v i n e t r e e . He a l s o had a p a i n t i n g e n t i t l e d "Guteng S h i t u Juan" (A r o l l o f P a i n t i n g o f t h e O l d V i n e w i t h Poems) from w h i c h many poems were composed i n l a t e r t i m e . Next t o Wang Yuyang was t h e house o f Cheng J i n f a n g who was a c o m p i l e r o f S i k u Quanshu. D a i Lu even suggested t h a t where Cheng l i v e d was Wang's o l d house. Sun Xi n g y a n who was - 141 -t h e n e d i t i n g Y a n z i Chunqiu, a l s o l i v e d i n L i u l i c h a n g i n 1789 a t N a n j i a Dao. H i s Korean f r i e n d , P i a o Q i j i a w rote him a . p l a q u e — "Wenzi Tang" (House f o r A s k i n g ) . P i a o even suggested t h a t nobody who r e a d l e s s t h a n 5,000 j u a n o f books s h o u l d 257 e n t e r i n t o Sun's house. Qian Q i , i n h i s Cheng B i z h a i S h i -cao a l s o mentioned t h a t he l i v e d i n the o l d house o f Zhu Zhuto 258 i n H u a i s h i X i e j i e . The C h a n c e l l o r , Zhu Wenan had a house a t C o a l Market S t r e e t . He even had a plaque " C h a o t i n g L i a n g -zuo" (Good A s s i s t a n t t o the T h r o n e ) , awarded by t h e Emperor Yongzheng. C h a n c e l l o r L i Wenzhen's r e s i d e n c e was l o c a t e d a t the West P i g Market S t r e e t and had a p l a q u e awarded by Emperor K a n g x i . A n o t h e r famous p o e t , Wu M e i c u n , l i v e d in.Weiyan Hutong i n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f Hufang B r i d g e . Lao Z h i b i a n a l s o mentioned t h a t he met Pang Xueye, an o f f i c i a l i n t h e Board o f Works, i n 259 L i u l i c h a n g a f t e r he moved t h e r e . A l l t h e s e examples showed t h a t many s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s d e s i r e d t o l i v e i n and around L i u l i c h a n g . T h i s was because L i u l i c h a n g was c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d between the I n n e r C i t y and the Outer C i t y . Moreover, t h e y c o u l d e a s i l y buy t h e books t h e y wanted and t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e y needed f o r w r i t i n g . Even when th e y were not b u y i n g a n y t h i n g from the market, L i u l i c h a n g was a p l a c e f o r them t o spend h a l f a day, s t r o l l i n g around and r e a d i n g books. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s i n the n e i ghborhood o f L i u l i c h a n g g r e a t l y encouraged i t s d e v e l o p -ment as C h i n a ' s major market o f books. An o t h e r major event w h i c h was h e l d i n L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g - 142 -t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l and d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d i t s . development\was the Annual F a i r . The f a i r o r i g i n a t e d from t h e L a n t e r n F a i r i n Ming t i m e s . The show o f l a n t e r n s began i n the Han p e r i o d (221 B.C.-A.D. 220) b u t i t was not u n t i l t h e Tang p e r i o d t h a t the f i f t e e n t h day o f the f i r s t month was chosen as t h e day f o r showing the l a n t e r n s . D u r i n g t h e L a n t e r n F e s t i v a l , t h e i m p e r i a l c i t y was open t o t h e common p e o p l e . A c c o r d i n g t o L i u and Yu, t h e L a n t e r n F a i r i n Ming p e r i o d extended from the • i. e i g h t h day t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h day o f the f i r s t month. Even < <• o f f i c i a l s had t e n days o f h o l i d a y t o e n j o y t h e f e s t i v a l . D u r i n g t h e s e t e n day s , t r a d e took p l a c e d u r i n g the day and l a n t e r n s were l i g h t e d up d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g . As suggested by Rozman, " u n l i k e markets w h i c h met a c e r t a i n number o f tim e s e v e r y t e n days, f a i r s were a n n u a l e v e n t s d r a w i n g l a r g e crowds from g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s supplemented p e r i o d i c m a r k e t s , p r o v i d i n g 26 0 a v a r i e t y o f annual needs, l u x u r i e s , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . " The L a n t e r n F a i r i n Ming t i m e s was h e l d o u t s i d e t h e e a s t e r n •: e n t r a n c e o f the i m p e r i a l c i t y , t h e Donghua Gate. Merchants from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y were them g a t h e r e d t h e r e and put f o r t h n o t o n l y l u x u r i o u s i t e m s , such as a n t i q u e and c u r i o o b j e c t s from the p a s t d y n a s t i e s o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , b u t t h e r e were a l s o d a i l y used i t e m s f o r t h e common p e o p l e . B e s i d e s the v a r i o u s k i n d s o f goods on s a l e i n t h e f a i r , t h e r e was a l s o e n t e r t a i n m e n t , such as mu s i c , a c r o b a t i c shows, and f i r e w o r k s f o r t h e v i s i t o r s . Some h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s a l s o v i s i t e d t he f a i r i n p l a i n c l o t h e s . Many o f the e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s a l s o e n j o y e d t h e m s e l v e s d u r i n g t h i s f e s t i v a l . A - 143 -l a r g e number o f t h e r i c h merchants even p a i d a h i g h f e e t o r e n t a room i n some m u l t i - s t o r y r e s t a u r a n t s t o watch the , 4- 261 l a n t e r n s . A c c o r d i n g t o the c h i e f e d i t o r o f the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f B e i j i n g — Q i n d i n g R i x i a Jiuwenkao, Yu Minzhong, t h e L a n t e r n F a i r was no l o n g e r h e l d i n t h e Qing p e r i o d . A nnual F a i r s were th e n h e l d i n s t e a d i n the F l o w e r M a r k e t , P i g M a r k e t , V e g e t a b l e M a r k e t , b u t t h e l a r g e s t f a i r was h e l d i n L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l from the f o u r t h t o the s e v e n t e e n t h 262 day o f t h e f i r s t month. D u r i n g the f a i r , t h e r e were a l o t of s t a l l s f o r s e l l i n g t o y s , f o o d , c u r i o s , p a i n t i n g s , c a l l i -graphy and books. As e a r l y as t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d , Lao Z h i -b i a n i n h i s poem, "A S t r o l l a l o n g L i u l i c h a n g " d e s c r i b e d the p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l when thousands o f w h e e l c a r t s l i n e d up a l o n g the way t o L i u l i c h a n g . The p l a c e was a l s o l i g h t e d up by l a n t e r n s and L i u l i c h a n g was d e s c r i b e d a s : ... showing the g r e a t e s t p r o s p e r i t y w i t h numerous t y p e s o f c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o y s f o r c h i l d r e n and o t h e r c u r i o o b j e c t s . The f o r e g r o u n d o u t s i d e the government k i l n f a c t o r y had many s t a l l s s e l l i n g v a s e , c u r i o s , p a i n t i n g s , c l o t h and books. P e o p l e from a l l w a l k s o f M f e v i s i t e d L i u l i c h a n g and the s t a l l s were v e r y busy i n s e l l i n g t h e i r goods.263 I n Yongzheng p e r i o d (1728-1735), Shang Pan's poem, J"A M i s c e l l a n e o u s Essay i n t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l " f u r t h e r mentioned - 1 4 4 — ,. t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was t h e p l a c e where everyone v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l . Shang a l s o p o i n t e d out, that the place was w e l l c o n n e c t e d t o e v e r y p a r t s o f the c i t y and t h i s was why 264 t h e s t a l l s were so crowded w i t h p e o p l e ; I n Pan R o n g b i 1 s D i j i n g S u i s h i J i s h e n g , (A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Y e a r l y S o c i a l E v e n t s o f the C a p i t a l ) , t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l c o u l d be f u r t h e r i l l u s -t r a t e d : O u t s i d e the e n t r a n c e (of the k i l n f a c t o r y ) , a l l s o r t s o f goods and d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f shows g a t h e r e d here d u r i n g the p e r i o d from the f i r s t t o the s i x t e e n t h day o f t h e F i r s t Moon. Tens o f thousands o f l a n t e r n s were a l l hung up around the market... L o t s o f books and o t h e r c u r i o s o c c u p i e d t h e whole s t r e e t . . . Large numbers o f men and women who were r i d i n g t h e i r h o r s e s o r c a r r i e d by c a r t s , v i s i t e d ( L i u l i c h a n g ) ... 265 Wang Y e q i u n o t e d t h a t b o o k s t a l l s i n the Annual.. F a i r o f L i u l i c h a n g i n the l a t e K a n g x i p e r i o d had g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o shops o f a more permanent n a t u r e and rea c h e d i t s g r e a t e s t 266 p r o s p e r i t y i n Q i a n l o n g ' s t i m e . T h i s development was due not o n l y t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e f a i r w h i c h had v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f goods on s a l e b u t a more i m p o r t a n t f a c t was t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was " w e l l c o n n e c t e d " t o a l l p a r t s o f t h e c i t y and c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h e main t r a f f i c r o u t e s between the I n n e r and Outer C i t i e s o f B e i j i n g . The h o l d i n g o f an Annual F a i r i n L i u l i c h a n g which drew a - 145 -l a r g e crowd o f p e o p l e from a l l w a l k s o f l i f e no doubt encour-aged i t s p o p u l a r i t y ; b u t i t s r i s i n g p r o s p e r i t y was a l s o due t o t h e presence o f l a r g e number o f huiguan w h i c h housed a l a r g e number o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s and o f f i c i a l s . I n B e i j i n g and i n hundreds o f c i t i e s and towns-, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s based on common g e o g r a p h i c o r i g i n s have p l a y e d a v i t a l economic and s o c i a l r o l e d u r i n g the p a s t c e n t u r i e s i n C h i n a . Such a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e c a l l e d huiguan o r Tandsmannschaften. Most Western and Japanese s c h o l a r s a c c e p t e d the c o n t e n t i o n s o f Ming w r i t e r s , L i u Dong and Yu Y i z h e n g , t h a t huiguan was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g i n the J i a j i n g and Longqing p e r i o d s 261 (1522-1572).. However, Ho P i n g - t ' i , i n h i s Zhongguo Huiguan S h i l u n , p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t h u i g u a n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t he n a t i o n ' s c a p i t a l , B e i j i n g , i n Yongle p e r i o d (1403-1424) 26 8 by o f f i c i a l s who were n a t i v e s o f Wuhu, A n h u i . I n the 1919 p u b l i s h e d Wuhu X i a n z h i , Wuhu Huiguan i n B e i j i n g was mentioned a s : ... l o c a t e d a t the upper t h i r d hutong (lane) o u t s i d e the f r o n t (Zhengyang) g a t e . A n a t i v e -(Wuhu) , -Yu Mo, gave a d o n a t i o n t o purchase s e v e r a l houses and a p i e c e o f l a n d t o e s t a b l i s h (the huiguan) i n Ming Yongle p e r i o d (1403-1 4 2 4 ) . 2 6 9 S i n c e B e i j i n g was the c a p i t a l o f the Qing empire, m u l t i -tudes o f government o f f i c e s were l o c a t e d t h e r e . Many o f f i ^ ' > c i a l s , e i t h e r on o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s o r w a i t i n g f o r appointments t o new o f f i c e s , found i t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v e n i e n t t o l i v e i n - 146 -t h e huiguan w h i c h were b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d by t h e i r f e l l o w -countrymen. I t was a l s o i n t h e huiguan t h a t t h e sense o f b e i n g a l i e n a t e d i n a s t r a n g e c i t y was m i n i m i z e d . Many o f t h e e a r l y h u i g u a n w h i c h were formed by o f f i c i a l s extended i t s "membership" t o c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n e x a m i n a t i o n . The m e t r o p o l i t a n e x a m i n a t i o n was h e l d e v e r y t h i r d y e a r i n B e i j i n g when f i v e t o s i x thousand c a n d i d a t e s who had t a k e n t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s f l o c k e d t h e r e t o t a k e p a r t i n 270 i t . W i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f l o c a l and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e i n l a t e Ming and e a r l y Qing p e r i o d s , the demand f o r h a n d i c r a f t and i n d u s t r i a l goods l e d n ot o n l y t o b i g g e r and more s o p h i s t i -c a t e d e n t e r p r i s e s b u t a l s o t o a sharp i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f merchants. The b u i l d i n g o f huiguan i n B e i j i n g and o t h e r c i t i e s t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e d a p l a c e o f c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r merchants from the same r e g i o n and i t was a l s o where p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from the l o c a l p o p u l a c e was o f f e r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Ho P i n g - t ' i , t h e r e were t h r e e ways i n whi c h t h e h u i g u a n were e s t a b l i s h e d : F i r s t l y , p r i v a t e d o n o r s , l i k e Yu Mo, bought the l a n d and the b u i l d i n g s f o r the huiguan. A l t h o u g h o n l y a few huiguan were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s way, t h i s was more common i n i t s e a r l y p e r i o d o f development. I n K a n g x i p e r i o d , C h a n c e l l o r L i Guangdi (1642-1718) donated h i s house as A n x i Huiguan. S e c o n d l y , t h e r e were r i c h merchants who donated money t o b u i l d t he hu i g u a n . F o r example i n Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d , Duan Yunlong e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Longyanzhou Huiguan. T h i r d l y and t h e most common way i s t o have the l e a d i n g o f f i c i a l . - 147 -o f t h e p l a c e s t a r t f u n d - r a i s i n g amongst.. h i s c o l l e a g u e s and the n a t i v e p e o p l e . There were a l s o cases where merchants l e a d 271 the fund r a i s i n g and c o - o p e r a t e d / w i t h the o f f i c i a l s . The common b e l i e f o f l a t e Ming and modern Japanese scho-r l a r s was t h a t Landsmannschaften i n B e i j i n g were, from t h e i r v e r y i n c e p t i o n , h o s t e l s e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r landsmann o f v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s , p e r f e c t u r e s , and c o u n t i e s who went t o B e i j i n g t o t a k e the t r i e n n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n and p a l a c e examina-t i o n s . B u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , Ho P i n g - t ' i (Ho B i n g d i ) , based on e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on the l o c a l h i s t o r y o f Ming and Qing p e r i o d s , found t h a t o r i g i n a l l y t h e r e were two t y p e s o f Lands-mannschaf t e n i n B e i j i n g , none o f whi c h was e x c l u s i v e l y f o r Landsmann e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . The f i r s t t y p e , such as .U t h a t o f Wuhu, was i n t h e n a t u r e o f an e x c l u s i v e c l u b , open o n l y t o n a t i v e s o f Wuhu who s e r v e d as o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c e n t r a l government. The second t y p e , such as t h a t o f She X i a n i n An-h u i p r o v i n c e , was l a u n c h e d i n 156 0 by merchants o f She X i a n and p a r t o o k o f the n a t u r e o f a t r u e Landsmannschaften, open 272 t o a l l Landsmann, o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as merchants. W r i t i n g i n t h e W a n l i p e r i o d , Shen Defu, i n h i s Yehuo B i a n mentioned t h a t : S i n c e t h e c a p i t a l i s t h e g a t h e r i n g p o i n t f o r (people) from a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , most c o u n t i e s have t h e i r own huiguan here t o f a c i -l i t a t e t he pe o p l e who f i r s t came h e r e . T h i s i s a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t method f o r the peopl e f o r a l o n g t i m e . . . By t h e time I went t o t h e c a p i t a l a g a i n (16 0 6 ) , o ur huiguan was f i n e l y c o n s t r u c t e d . However, our county h u i g u a n was - 148 -o c c u p i e d by t h e h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s , t he low e r l e v e l o f f i c i a l s and e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -d a t e s c o u l d n ot be s h e l t e r e d i n the h u i guan. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g o f our huiguan.273 In Chongzhen p e r i o d , L i u Dong and Yu Y i z h e n g p o i n t e d o u t t h a t : Huiguan i n the I n n e r C i t y i s c o n t r o l l e d by the o f f i c i a l s w h i l e t h o s e i n the Outer C i t y a r e r e s i d i n g by the e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . 2 7 4 Ho P i n g - t ' i f u r t h e r argues t h a t huiguan d i d n o t become h o s t e l s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s u n t i l t he Qing p e r i o d . I n the 1924 p u b l i s h e d Records o f t h e F u j i a n Huiguan, the twenty-two F u j i a n huiguan i n B e i j i n g o n l y began t o l i s t t h e s u c c e s s -f u l e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d w i t h t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n o f Shaowu Huiguan. Even the l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d Fuzhou Huiguan d i d not l i s t t he s u c c e s s f u l e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -d a t e s u n t i l t h e Qing p e r i o d . T h i s e v i d e n c e l e d t o Ho's con-: e l u s i o n t h a t h u i g u a n d i d not become a r e s i d e n c e f o r examina-275 t i o n c a n d i d a t e s u n t i l t he Qmg d y n a s t y . Owing t o the i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n as a major c h a n n e l o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and a l s o t o t h e f a c t t h a t v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s v i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n p r o d u c i n g s o c i o -academic s u c c e s s c a n d i d a t e s , the two t y p e s o f h u i g u a n i n B e i -j i n g g r a d u a l l y changed t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . Both t y p e s o f huiguan i n B e i j i n g became h o s t e l r i e s f o r Landsmann e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -- 149 -d a t e s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the Qing d y n a s t y . However, the e x i s t e n c e o f huiguan was n o t l i m i t e d t o B e i j i n g , huiguan a l s o appeared i n a number o f major c i t i e s and even i n some a c t i v e l y t r a d i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g sub-county towns from t h e W a n l i 277 p e r i o d (1573-1619) onwards. U n l i k e o t h e r c i t i e s , B e i j i n g r e c e i v e d a l a r g e number o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s from a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . O u t s i d e B e i j i n g huiguan were h o s t e l s and meeting p l a c e s f o r m o s t l y merchants and c r a f t s m e n than o f o f f i c i a l s . S i n c e huiguan houses such d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s as r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s , mutual p r o t e c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s , and b u r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h e y performed 278 a v a r i e t y o f urban f u n c t i o n s . Whatever the main f u n c t i o n s o f huiguan o u t s i d e o f B e i j i n g , t h e y a l l more o r l e s s p a r t o o k o f the n a t u r e o f g e n e r a l Landsmannschaften, open t o a l l Lands- mann , merchants, c r a f t s m e n , o f f i c i a l s and e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -d a t e s . T h i s was because t h r o u g h o u t the Ming and Qing p e r i o d the c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l s t a t u s was f l e x i b l e and t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s system r a t h e r f l u i d . L a rge numbers o f huiguan were b u i l t i n B e i j i n g i n Ming and Qing p e r i o d s . The r i c h l y documented h i s t o r y o f F u j i a n hostels i n B e i j i n g showed t h a t b e f o r e t h e end o f the Ming p e r i o d a l l p r e f e c t u r e s o f F u j i a n e x c e p t one had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r h o s t e l s i n B e i j i n g . From the b e g i n n i n g o f Qing t o 1760, n@ fewer than e i g h t F u j i a n c o u n t i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r own s e p a r a t e huiguan i n the c a p i t a l . J i a n g x i , as the p i o n e e r p r o v i n c e i n p r o v i d i n g community c h e s t s f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n - 150 -e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , p o s s i b l y s e t up i t s own huiguan b e f o r e F u j i a n . As t h e statesman and prime m i n i s t e r Zhu S h i (1665-1736) t e s t i f i e d , the Jiangxi ' p r o v i n c e and i t s v a r i o u s p r e f e c t u r e s had e s t a b l i s h e d many such h o s t e l s i n B e i j i n g i n Ming t i m e s and even h i s n a t i v e county Gao An a l o n e had two, whi c h g r a d u a l l y 279 became d i l a p i d a t e d and e v e n t u a l l y were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n 1723. Shen Defu, a n a t i v e o f J i a X i n g i n Z h e j i a n , was imp r e s s e d by the number o f huiguan i n B e i j i n g d u r i n g the l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Some n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s near B e i j i n g , however, may have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r h uiguan somewhat l a t e r t h a n t h e remote s o u t h e r n p r o v i n c e s . S h a n x i , f o r example, d i d not have a h o s t e l f o r e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s u n t i l l a t e i n the s e v e n t e e n -t h c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h i t s e n t e r p r i s i n g merchants had s e t up 280 t h e i r g u i l d h a l l s i n B e i j i n g e a r l i e r . From t h e s e examples, we can see t h a t a l l p r o v i n c e s , many l a r g e p e r f e c t u r e s , and a c e r t a i n number o f l a r g e c o u n t i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r h uiguan i n Qin g t i m e s , a l t h o u g h i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p r e c i s e d a t e s o f t h e i r f o u n d i n g . I n the Ming p e r i o d , h u i g u a n were p r e s e n t i n b o t h t h e I n n e r C i t y and t h e Outer C i t y o f B e i j i n g b u t t h a t d u r i n g the Qing p e r i o d most huiguan were l o c a t e d i n t h e Outer C i t y . L i u and Yu s u g g e s t e d t h a t huiguan i n t h e Outer C i t y were r e s i d e d by e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s w h i l e t h o s e i n t h e I n n e r C i t y were 2 81 r e s i d e d by o f f i c i a l s and g e n t r y c l a s s . I n Zhu Y i x i n and Miao Quansun's J i n g x i F a n g x i a n g Z h i (1884), t h e y l i s t e d 391 28 2 huiguan i n B i j i n g . As suggested by Ho P i n g - t ' i , h a l f o f t h e h uiguan were b u i l t i n Ming t i m e s w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f were b u i l t i n Q i n g p e r i o d . I n h i s Shucao Q i n g x i a Lu (1792), Wang Q i s h u d e s c r i b e d the r a p i d development o f huiguan i n the Outer C i t y o f B e i j i n g d u r i n g the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d : I n t h e p a s t y e a r s , d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s competed t o b u i l d t h e i r own h u i g u a n . the b u i l d i n g o f t h e s e huiguan pushed up much th e p r i c e o f l a n d i n t h e Outer C i t y . 2 8 3 From Wang, we n o t o n l y l e a r n t h a t l a r g e numbers o f huiguan were b u i l t i n the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d , b u t .more i m p o r t a n t , n e a r l y a l l t h e s e huiguan were l o c a t e d i n t h e Outer C i t y . Wang Y e q i u n o t e d t h a t many o f t h e s e huiguan were then l o c a t e d around the a r e a between Xuanwu Gate and Zhenyang Gate, where L i u l i c h a n g was l o c a t e d . Wu changyuan i n the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d f u r t h e r l i s t e d t w e n t y - t h r e e huiguan i n t h e neighborhood o f L i u l i c h a n g . These i n c l u d e d : Chaozhou Huiguan, Changyuan Huiguan on Yanshou Monastery S t r e e t ; Poyang Huiguan on Wuchier Hutong; Hehan Huiguan a t Yangmeizhu X i e S t r e e t ; X i a n g l i n g Huiguan, Sanyan Huiguan and Zhaoxing Huiguan on L i T i e g u a i X i e S t r e e t ; Guang-dong Huiguan i n Han j i a Pon; Weinan Huiguan,. Chaoyi Huiguan on Z h a n g j i a B r i d g e ; X i z i Huiguan i n L i a n g j i a Yuan; Quanjun Huiguan i n Sun Gongyuan; T a i l i Huiguan, Pucheng Huiguan i n T i l a o q u a n Temple; J i a n n i n g Huiguan, Huizhou Huiguan on N a n l i n Hang; Nanfeng Huiguan on B e i l i n h a n g ; Guangxi Huiguan, F e n g x i a n g Huiguan and Hanzhong Huiguan i n Qingchang; Q i l u Huiguan a t P a n j i a Heyan; Quanzhe Huiguan and Huaian Huiguan on Heng S t r e e t . Based on J i n g s i . F a n g x i a n g Z h i , Rozman found t h a t t h e r e were few huiguan i n the n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n ; a r e a s b u t t h e r e were about 100 huiguan l o c a t e d i n the w e s t e r n and c e n t r a l s e c t i o n s o f the Outer C i t y and more th a n 200 i n the b u i l t up p o r t i o n o f the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e Outer C i t y . n Rozman s u g g e s t s t h a t huiguan tended t o be l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y 285 s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s o f B e i j i n g . The c l o s e n e s s . o f t h e s e l a r g e numbers o f huiguan i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g where l a r g e numbers o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , s c h o l a r - o f f i - v c i a l s and merchants were housed, un d o u b t e d l y promoted the b u s i n e s s o f b o o k s e l l i n g and f u r t h e r enhanced the p o p u l a r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g amongst the s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s i n t h i s p e r i o d . As h e l d by some h i s t o r i a n s , one o f the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t s i n the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d and d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r i s i n g p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g was the c o m p i l a t i o n o f S i k u  Quanshu wh i c h began i n the t h i r t y - e i g h t h y e a r s o f Q i a n l o n g (1773). As e a r l y as 1772, Emperor Q i a n l o n g had o r d e r e d p r o v i n c i a l - g o v e r n o r s and e d u c a t i o n a l c o mmissioners t o c o l l e c t l o s t works from a l l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . Q i a n l o n g p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e i m p e r i a l l i b r a r y had a l r e a d y q u i t e a r i c h c o l l e c -t i o n o f books but i t c o u l d s t i l l be expanded. As Emperor Q i a n l o n g c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Tushu J i c h e n g , c o m p i l e d i n t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d , c o n t a i n e d o n l y fragmented p i e c e s o f some works and c o u l d not be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e i r f u l l c o n t e x t , he t h e r e f o r e proposed t h a t a l l the works w h i c h had not been r e c o r d e d o r known be c o l l e c t e d o r p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e l i t e r a r y - 153 -c l a s s . I n the same d e c r e e , Emperor Q i a n l o n g s p e c i f i e d t h a t books w h i c h e x p l a i n e d m o r a l i t y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p h i l o s o p h y s h o u l d f i r s t be p u r c h a s e d ; books w h i c h were comments on C l a s s i c s , and t h e n i n e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t s s h o u l d a l s o be s e l e c t i v e l y p u r c h a s e d ; books w h i c h c o l l e c t e d poems, and e s s a y s w r i t t e n by w e l l known l i t e r a t i s h o u l d be w e l l s c r u t i -n i z e d and c o l l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y ; books which were p r i n t e d by b o o k s t o r e s , such as e x a m i n a t i o n e s s a y s , c u r r e n t a f f a i r s works and t h o s e c l a n r e c o r d s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and the l i k e s h o u l d be A' A A 2 8 6 d i s c a r d e d . Q i a n l o n g ' s c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu, however, was viewed by some a n a l y s t s as. p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d . Good-r i c h p l a c e d a s t r o n g emphasis on Q i a n l o n g ' s i n t e n t i o n t o s e a r c h 287 out and d e s t r o y s e d i t i o u s works. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s r e a s o n , Zheng Hesheng and Zheng Hechun s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o m p i l a t i o n was a l s o m o t i v a t e d by t h e emperor's a t t e m p t t o overcome the antagonism o f t h e l i t e r a t i by u s i n g them i n a g r e a t l i t e r a r y u n d e r t a k i n g , t o show h i s i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a -t u r e , and t o make a v a i l a b l e C h i n e s e l i t e r a r y works t o t h e Manchus. The c o m p i l a t i o n was f u r t h e r encouraged by t h e r i s e o f the Han L e a r n i n g w h i c h endeavored t o do the r e s e a r c h on o r i g i n a l works and t o c o m p i l e t o g e t h e r t h e f r a g m e n t a r y r a r e 288 works by s c h o l a r s i n the e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d . As e a r l y as 1774, the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n f o r m t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e y must hand o v e r books o f a - 154 -t r e a s o n a b l e n a t u r e . Those who handed o v e r banned books prom-p t l y would be s p a r e d o f any punishment but t h o s e who h i d t h e s e books would be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d . Even t h e l o c a l o f f i c i a l s would be reprimanded f o r t h e i r n e g l i g e n c e i f such works were l a t e r found. Emperor Q i a n l o n g ' s i n t e n t i o n o f s e a r c h i n g o ut s e d i t i o u s works i n the p r o c e s s o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu was c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n h i s decree o f September 10, 1774, whic h p a r t l y r e a d as f o l l o w s : ... Now o f t h e o v e r t e n thousand volumes s u b m i t t e d by t h e s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s none has been s i n g l e d o u t as o f f e n s i v e . How i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t among such a q u a n t i t y o f books bequeathed by former g e n e r a t i o n s n o t one s h o u l d c o n t a i n a t r a c e o f s e d i t i o n ? D u r i n g the p e r i o d a t t h e end o f the Ming, u n a u t h o r i z e d h i s t o r i e s were v e r y numerous and i n them b o t h defamatory and e u l o g i s t i c comments (to t h i s dynasty) .were e x p r e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r s ' own p r e j u d i c e s . So i t i s t h a t we must conduct a t once a thor o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n (of s e d i t i o u s books).290 In a 1777 memorial t o the emperor, Sanbao, Governor-g e n e r a l o f Huguang, r e p o r t e d t h a t he had handed o v e r 1863 volumes o f books t o the Grand C o u n c i l f o r b u r n i n g . He a l s o encouraged t h e e x p e c t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s t o s e a r c h o u t as many s e d i t i o u s books as p o s s i b l e . The s p o n s o r i n g o f t h i s l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t by Q i a n l o n g t h u s p r o v i d e d the means t o c o n t r o l v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was w r i t t e n and t o c e n s o r s e d i t i o u s - 155 -references to the Manchus. In t h i s way, suspect and h e r e t i c a l views could be discovered and suppressed and t h e i r authors brought to account. According to the Board of War, the destruction of "unacceptable" books took place twenty-four times between 1774 and 1782, amounting to 13,826 works. Good-r i c h , however, suggested that at le a s t 2,320 works were l i s t e d for suppression and 342 works..were l i s t e d for p a r t i a l suppres-sion. According to Chen Naiqian's Suoyinshi De Jinshu Zonglu, there were 2,453 works l i s t e d for t o t a l suppression and 402 292 works for p a r t i a l suppression. The compilation of Siku Quanshu took ten years (1773-1782) to complete and involved hundred of editors, compilers and copyists. The e d i t o r i a l board of Siku Quanshu consisted of 361 scholars, with J i Yun and Lu Xixiong as chief editors. Dai Zhen, Shao Jinhan, Zhou Yongnian and J i Yun each i n charge of the four branches into which the c o l l e c t i o n was divided: 293 Cl a s s i c s , History, Philosophy and B e l l e s - l e t t r e s . Wang Fanggang, who was appointed as compiler an the Han-l i n Academy i n 1773 and subsequently served as an editor of the Siku Quanshu, gave us a detailed account of the process of the compilation of t h i s monumental work i n his Fuchuzhai  S h i j i : The Office of the Siku Quanshu established i n the th i r t y - e i g h t h year of Qianlong. The c o l l e c t i o n of books i n the Hanlin Academy was divided into three sections: one section - 156 -O r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p i l i n g o f r a r e works from th e I m p e r i a l A r c h i v e s , a n o t h e r s e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p i l i n g complete books and a r t i c l e s appeared i n t h e Yongle Dadian; t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p i l i n g books from p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s . 2 9 4 The I m p e r i a l A r c h i v a l s e c t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o p y i n g books from the P a l a c e l i b r a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g M a o j i n P a l a c e , L i z h a o P a l a c e , Zhaoren P a l a c e , Wuying P a l a c e , J i n g y a n g P a l a c e , L i b r a r y o f the Grand S e c r e t a r i a t and H a n j i n g P a l a c e . A t o t a l o f 32 7 works were c o l l e c t e d from t h e s e p a l a c e l i b r a r i e s i n t o t h e S i k u Quanshu and a n o t h e r 418 t i t l e s were l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y o f the S i k u Quanshu. The Y o ngle Dadian s e c t i o n c o p i e d a t o t a l o f 385 works and l i s t e d 127 t i t l e s . The s e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n had r e c e i v e d a t o t a l 4601 works from Z h e j i a n g a r e a a l o n e w h i l e J i a n g s u p l a c e d second i n t h e number o f books s u b m i t t e d . Yunnan and M a n c h u r i a had t h e l e a s t number o f books p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S i k u Commission. S i c h u a n , Guizhou and Gansu were th e n a t war 295 and so d i d not send i n any books. I n the p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i n g books f o r t h e S i k u Quanshu, Emperor Q i a n l o n g s t r o n g l y emphasized th e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o o p e r a t i o n from the p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s and famous l i b r a r i e s , such a s : T i a n y i Ge, E r y o u Ge, X i a o s h a n Tang, T i a n l a i Ge, Pushu T i n g , Shugu Tang, and Chuanshi Lou. Many p r i v a t e b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s , e i t h e r t o p l e a s e t h e emperor o r f o r c e d t o do so, s u b m i t t e d a l a r g e number o f r a r e works t o the S i k u Commission. Ma Yu i n J i a n g s u s u b m i t t e d 779 books, Fan Maozhu, Wang Q i s h u i n Ningbo each s u b m i t t e d 500 t o 600 works t o t h e t h r o n e and were each awarded a copy o f Tushu J i Oh en g. Others who had s u b m i t t e d more th a n 100 works, such as J i a n g Zengying, Wu Y u c h i , Sun . Yangzeng, Huang Dengfa, J i Yun and o t h e r s , were each awarded a copy o f Peiwen Yunfu. However i t was n o t o n l y the r a r e works from Song and Yuan were b e i n g c o l l e c t e d i n t o the S i k u  Quanshu, some p o p u l a r works, such as Yuan Shu's T o n g j I a n J i s h i  Benmo and J i a Y i ' s X i n s h u were a l s o p u r c h a s e d from t h e book-s t o r e s o r p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t o t h i s monu-me n t a l work. A t o t a l o f 100 p o p u l a r works were i n c l u d e d i n the S i k u Quanshu and a n o t h e r e i g h t y - s e v e n t i t l e s were l i s t e d i n i t s b i b l i o g r a p h y . 2 9 ^ A t o t a l o f seven d u p l i c a t e c o p i e s o f t h e S i k u Quanshu were made, o f w h i c h f o u r were p r e s e r v e d i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a w h i l e the o t h e r t h r e e c o p i e s were k e p t i n t h e s o u t h . Wenyuan P a l a c e i n B e i j i n g , Wenyuan P a l a c e i n Yuanming Yuan, Wensu J? .'. P a l a c e i n M a n c h u r i a , and Wenjin P a l a c e i n Rehe each r e c e i v e d a copy. Wenhui P a l a c e i n Yangzhou, Wenzong P a l a c e i n Z h e n j i a n g and Wenlan P a l a c e i n Hangzhou a l s o had a copy o f S i k u Quanshu. The copy i n Yuanming Yuan was burned d u r i n g t h e i n v a s i o n o f B e i j i n g by the A l l i e d F o r c e s . The Wenhui and Wenzong c o p i e s were d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g the T a i p i n g r e b e l l i o n , w h i l e o v e r t h r e e -q u a r t e r s o f t h e Wenlan copy was l o s t t o o . The f i r s t s e t o f S i k u Quanshu, completed i n e a r l y 1782, was housed i n Wenyuan P a l a c e . The b u i l d i n g was presumably m o d e l l e d a f t e r t h e T i a n y i Ge l i b r a r y o f the Fan f a m i l y o f Ningbo, Z h e j i a n g . But i n i t s r e a l i t y , i t s massive p r o p o r t i o n s have more i n common w i t h the - 158 -a d j o i n i n g p a l a c e s t r u c t u r e s t h a n w i t h the s i m p l e b u i l d i n g a t 297 Ningbo. The c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s monumental c o l l e c t i o n , S i k u Quan-shu, no doubt b e n e f i t e d l a r g e numbers o f s c h o l a r s who c o u l d now have a c c e s s t o p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e r a r e works. Many o f th e s e r a r e works were p r e v i o u s l y c o l l e c t e d i n t h e b o o k s t o r e s o r t h e l i b r a r i e s o f b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s and a c c e s s t o them was v e r y d i f f i c u l t . A n o t h e r e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f S i k u  Quanshu i s i t s r o l e i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o l d e d i t i o n s which c o u l d o t h e r w i s e be l o s t . Some 365 r a r e works were p r e s e r v e d from the Yongle Dadian w h i c h i s the o n l y copy a v a i l a b l e now. The S i k u Quanshu, however, was not w i t h o u t any d e f e c t s . Some c r i t i c s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n emphasizes f a r more pre-Mi n g works than Ming o r e a r l y Qing p u b l i c a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , Zhu X i 1 s s c h o o l o f tho u g h t was c o n s i d e r e d as t h e o f f i c i a l o r t h o d o x y and books from o t h e r s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t s were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . One o f t h e major c r i t i c i s m s o f th e c o l l e c t i o n was i t s d e l e t i o n and a d d i t i o n o f works a c c o r -d i n g t o the emperor's d i r e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e works t h a t c o n t a i n e d u n f a v o r a b l e comments about the Manchu d y n a s t y . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu, a l a r g e number o f r e f e r e n c e works, b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , l i t e r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s , books on h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , and C l a s s i c s were r e q u i r e d by t h e S i k u c o m p i l e r s . Moreover, l a r g e numbers o f - 159 -r a r e works had t o be s e a r c h e d o u t from a l l p a r t s o f t h e coun-t r y . A l l t h e s e book s e a r c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d n o t be s u c c e -s s f u l w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s — t h e book d e a l e r s . Wang Fanggang, i n h i s F u c h u z h a i S h i j i , gave us a 1 c l e a r p i c t u r e o f how s i g n i f i c a n t L i u l i c h a n g w w a s i n . / p r o v i d i n g the books, r e f e r e n c e works and w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r the c o m p i l e r s o f the S i k u Quanshu: E v e r y morning t h e o f f i c i a l s went t o the Academy where t e a and l u n c h were p r o v i d e d . In the a f t e r n o o n , the o f f i c i a l s would go back t o t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s . They would l i s t a l l t h e books and r e f e r e n c e works t h a t t h e y needed t o c o m p i l e t h e S i k u Quanshu and went t o b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g t o ':. l o o k f o r t h e s e books. Book merchants from J i a n g s u and Z h e j i a n g were e x t r e m e l y busy i n g e t t i n g the r e f e r e n c e books f o r t h e s e o f f i c i a l s . The l a r g e s t b o o k s t o r e s a r e Wu-l i u J u and Wencui Tang.299 The demand f o r books f o r t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u  Quanshu was so g r e a t t h a t b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g had t o go as f a r away as J i a n g s u and Z h e j i a n g t o l o o k f o r the books t h e s e c o m p i l e r s wanted. These tremendous book t r a d i n g a c t i v i -t i e s i n t h e Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d c e r t a i n l y f u r t h e r enhanced t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d L i u l i c h a n g as t h e most i m p o r t a n t book market i n C h i n a f o r more than two hundred y e a r s . - 160 -Chapter V I I . C o n c l u s i o n W i t h t h e development o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g i n the Tang p e r i o d , t h e number o f books produced by p r i n t i n g i n c r e a s e d t r e m e n d o u s l y and books became f a r more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e common p e o p l e . T h i s method o f book p r o d u c t i o n was f i r s t p r a c t i s e d and c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e bookshops. W i t h o u t t h e bookshops, c a l e n d a r s , g l o s s a r i e s and e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s c o u l d n o t be produced i n q u a n t i t i e s l a r g e enough and p r i c e d low enough t o s a t i s f y t h e demands o f the common p e o p l e . The f i r s t s u r v i v i n g p r i n t e d book i n C h i n a , t h e Djamon S u t r a , was p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d by a bookshop i n S i c h u a n i n the y e a r 868. S i c h u a n was the n one of t he p r o v i n c e s w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e d f a r l e s s d e v a s t a t i o n from wars and c o u l d t h u s m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l o f c u l t u r e . T h i s i m p o r t a n t book c e n t r e p r o s p e r e d f o r some t h r e e hundred y e a r s u n t i l t h e So u t h e r n Song p e r i o d . I n the l a t e Tang and t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s , t h e lower Yangtze a r e a a l s o d e v e l o p e d as an impor-t a n t book market. The s e l l i n g o f c a l e n d a r s and e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s f o r t h e use o f t h e common p e o p l e i n the book markets o f S i c h u a n and the l o w e r Yangtze a r e a p r o v i d e d the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t government p r i n t i n g o f the C l a s s i c s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e might be o t h e r i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s i n C h i n a i n t h i s p e r i o d , we do not have enough a r c h a -e o l o g i c a l and documentary e v i d e n c e s t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n y e t . The u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a by Zhao K a n g y i n o f Song g r e a t l y encouraged economic and c u l t u r a l advancement o f t h e s o c i e t y . - 161 -Not o n l y were government book p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d and expanded, but p r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g a l s o became h i g h l y p o p u l a r . The a r t o f p r i n t i n g i t s e l f was f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d and "Song e d i t i o n " was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by book c o l l e c t o r s and b i b l i o p h i l e s . S i c h u a n was s t i l l one o f the major markets o f books i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d b u t was g r a d u a l l y o b s c u r e d by J i a n a n and Hangzhou. A f t e r t h e i n v a s i o n o f K a i f e n g by J i n , t h e c a p i t a l o f Song was moved t o Hangzhou. T h i s l a r g e s c a l e m i g r a t i o n t o t h e s o u t h n o t o n l y b r o u g h t many s c h o l a r s and . o f f i c i a l s b u t w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s as w e l l t o t h e J i a n g n a n a r e a and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r a p i d r i s e i n s o c i a l and economic p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e r e g i o n . J i a n a n i n F u j i a n , c o n v e n i e n t l y . <: l o c a t e d on the communication r o u t e s between F u j i a n , J i a n g x i and Z h e j i a n g and had ready a c c e s s t o t h e s u p p l y o f paper, r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d as a major book p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e i n t h e Song p e r i o d . The s c a l e o f p r o d u c t i o n o f book-shops i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f S o u t h e r n Song, e s p e c i a l l y Hang -U zhou, was s m a l l and some o f them were s t i l l p a r t o f t h e paper-making b u s i n e s s . The much l a r g e r o u t p u t o f books by J i a n a n ' s bookshops g r a d u a l l y overshadowed S i c h u a n and became one o f the most i m p o r t a n t book markets i n C h i n a f o r some f o u r hundred y e a r s u n t i l the end o f the Ming d y n a s t y . I n c o n t r a s t t o J i a n a n ' s p u b l i s h i n g o f low q u a l i t y and cheap e d i t i o n s , bookshops i n Hangzhou produced h i g h q u a l i t y and e x p e n s i v e works. L a t e r i n the South e r n Song p e r i o d , book p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e s d e v e l o p e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n C h i n a and p u b l i s h e d l a r g e numbers o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , r e f e r e n c e works f o r - 162 -e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , books w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s and books on m e d i c i n e , t e c h n o l o g y and a r i t h m e t i c as w e l l . The l a r g e quan-t i t y o f books produced i n t h i s p e r i o d n o t o n l y encouraged t h e development o f s c h o l a r s h i p , such as t h e r i s e o f Neo-C o n f u c i a n i s m , b u t a l s o f u r t h e r promoted t h e book c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f many b i b l i o p h i l e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o J i a n a n and Hangzhou i n s o u t h e r n C h i n a , P i n g s h u i had been d e v e l o p e d as the most prominent government p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a . L a t e r on commercial p u b l i s h i n g a l s o f l o u r i s h e d t h e r e . I n the J i n p e r i o d , book p r o d u c t i o n was p r e s e n t i n n i n e o f t h e n i n e t e e n c i r c u i t s , c o v e r i n g the modern p r o v i n c e s o f H e b e i , Shandong, Henan and S h a a n x i . I n the Yuan p e r i o d , J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g i n F u j i a n c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t book market w i t h g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f books produced. S e v e r a l o f t h e i r b o o k s t o r e s became famous f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d p u b l i c a t i o n s o f dramas, books on m e d i c i n e o r works f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o the J i a n g z h e a r e a , book markets had a l s o been d e v e l o p e d i n L u l i n g and J i a n c h a n g o f J i a n g x i p r o v i n c e . B e i j i n g a l s o d e v e l o p e d as a book p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e as e a r l y as i n the L i a o d y n a s t y and c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p e v e r s i n c e the c a p i t a l moved t h e r e i n t h e J i n and Yuan d y n a s t i e s . Most o f the b o o k s t o r e s i n t h i s p e r i o d were l o c a t e d i n t h e urban m e t r o p o l i s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y where m e t r o p o l i t a n and p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were h e l d . - 163 -I n the e a r l y Ming p e r i o d , J i a n y a n g , Hangzhou and S i c h u a n were s t i l l t he t h r e e major book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s . Large numbers o f b l o c k - p r i n t e r s moved t o Suzhou and N a n j i n g i n the W a n l i and Chongzhen p e r i o d w h i c h l e d t o t h e development o f book p u b l i s h i n g t h e r e . B e i j i n g , i n the n o r t h , a l s o g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d Pi.ngsh.ui. as the dominant book market. W i t h the f o u n d i n g o f the Ming c a p i t a l i n N a n j i n g , book produc-t i o n a l s o r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d t h e r e . A l t h o u g h t h e c a p i t a l moved t o B e i j i n g i n 1420, N a n j i n g c o n t i n u e d as a major c e n t r e o f book m a r k e t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g . As noted by Hu Y i n g l i n i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b o o k s t o r e s i n B e i j i n g and Hangzhou p u b l i s h e d v e r y few books as compared t o t h o s e i n J i a n g s u , Z h e j i a n g and F u j i a n . B e i j i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y depended upon th e s u p p l y o f books from Suzhou, N a n j i n g and o t h e r book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e s . An i n t e r - r e g i o n a l book t r a d e was c l e a r l y emerging i n t h i s p e r i o d . I n the Qing p e r i o d , the n a t u r e o f book markets was further, t r a n s f o r m e d . Books p u b l i s h e d by the b o o k s t o r e s c a t e r e d b o t h t h e e l i t e market and the p o p u l a r market. Book p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e s extended t o a r e a s such as Guangdong, J i a n g x i and even Yunnan. Many b o o k s t o r e s became more i n v o l v e d i n m a r k e t i n g and some o n l y s o l d books p r i n t e d by o t h e r b o o k s t o r e s . Suzhou i n J i a n g s u was famous f o r i t s l a r g e o u t p u t o f p o p u l a r works w h i l e L i u l i c h a n g was n o t e d f o r i t s s e l l i n g o f h i g h q u a l i t y b u t e x p e n s i v e e d i t i o n s . The l a r g e number o f s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , r e s i d i n g i n t h e c a p i t a l o f Q i n g , B e i j i n g , no doubt encouraged L i u l i c h a n g t o d e v e l o p as a n a t i o n a l book market. - 164 -A macro a n a l y s i s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l geography o f book markets i n C h i n a c o u l d be f u r t h e r supplemented w i t h a m i c r o s t u d y o f how one o f t h e most famous book markets d e v e l o p e d i n the c i t y o f B e i j i n g . Through the a n a l y s i s o f the p o l i -t i c a l , economic and urban t r a n s f o r m a t i o n df B e i j i n g . a n d L i u l i c h a n g , we saw the development o f t h i s famous book market i n B e i j i n g from a r u r a l v i l l a g e l o c a t e d m i l e s away from t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f L i a o , t o become the most famous " S t r e e t o f C u l t u r e " . Even i n the J i n p e r i o d , i t was s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y a s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d v i l l a g e . The b u i l d i n g o f a g l a z e d t i l e f a c t o r y i n Yuan time marked the f i r s t phase i n i t s l a n d s c a p e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The f a c t o r y was f u r t h e r expanded d u r i n g the Yongle p e r i o d when l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c e s and the c i t y was u n d e r t a k e n . W i t h the development o f book p u b l i s h i n g i n L i a o and l a t e r i n t h e J i n and Yuan p e r i o d , B e i j i n g r e p l a c e d P i n g s h u i as the major book market i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a i n the Ming p e r i o d . The b o o k s t a l l s i n Ming B e i j i n g were m a i n l y l o c a t e d i n f r o n t o f Darning Gate, t h e Board o f R i t e s , and the Temple o f the C i t y God. There were a l s o b o o k s t a l l s near t h e e x a m i n a t i o n h a l l d u r i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d and i n t h e L a n t e r n Market d u r i n g t h e L a n t e r n F e s t i v a l . I n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d , C hinese were moved t o the Outer C i t y , and o n l y Manchu bannermen were a l l o w e d t o r e s i d e i n the I n n e r C i t y o f B e i j i n g . The book market i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d was t h e r e f o r e moved t o C i r e n M o nastery i n the Outer C i t y . Many famous s c h o l a r s and - 165 -o f f i c i a l s had v i s i t e d t h i s book market f r e q u e n t l y b e f o r e 1679 t i l l a major earthquake caused e x t e n s i v e damage t o the a r e a . The book market was l a t e r moved t o Xiheyan and L i u l i c h a n g . In 1769/ L i Wenzao, i n h i s essay, "A Record o f the Bookstores i n L i u l i c h a n g " , confirmed t h a t L i u l i c h a n g had a l r e a d y developed as the major book market of the c a p i t a l . In L i ' s essay, a t o t a l of t h i r t y bookstores were l o c a t e d a t t h i s s t r e e t of o n l y two l _ i . The c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu f o u r y ears l a t e r no doubt f u r t h e r encouraged the development o f L i u l i c h a n g . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of L i u l i c h a n g from a r u r a l v i l l a g e i n L i a o times to become a n a t i o n a l l y famous market of books, c e r t a i n l y e n t a i l s a d e t a i l e d study. One of the major f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s development was the upsurge i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f the Outer C i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the area around L i u l i c h a n g . T h i s l a r g e upsurge o f p o p u l a t i o n was a c c e n t u a t e d by a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n to segregate the Manchus and the Chinese and the removal of a l l Chinese to the Outer C i t y . Another f a c t o r was the b u i l d i n g o f a l a r g e number of houses i n L i u l i c h a n g which made i t c o n s p i c u o u s l y crowded. The r i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g was f u r t h e r g r e a t l y enhanced by having l a r g e numbers of s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s who e i t h e r r e s i d e d i n the nearby houses o r huiguan. A s u b s t a n t i a l number o f these huiguan were b u i l t i n the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d f o r the examination c a n d i d a t e s and the o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as the merchants. I t was a l s o because L i u l i c h a n g was so c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d and w e l l connected t o o t h e r p a r t s o f the c i t y t h a t the Annual F a i r was - 166 -held there and t h i s no doubt promoted the popularity of L i u l i -chang. I t i s c e r t a i n l y true, as some historians suggested, that the prosperity of Liulichang was due to the great demand of books during the compilation of the Siku Quanshu. But i t i s also equally true that the development of t h i s book market was also due to i t s convenient location to the residences of these compilers and the Imperial Academy where they worked . - 167 -F o o t n o t e s See E l i z a b e t h E i s e n t e i n , The P r i n t i n g P r e s s as an  Agent o f Change: Communications and C u l t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  i n E a r l y Modern Europe, 2 v o l s . (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1979). 2 L u c i e n F e b v i e and H e n r i - J e a n M a r t i n , The Coming o f  t h e Book: The Impact o f P r i n t i n g , 1450-1800, t r a n s . D a v i d G e r a r d (London: NLB, 1976), p. 262. 3 Jacques G e r n e t , D a i l y L i f e i n C h i n a on the Eve o f the  Mongol I n v a s i o n : 1250-1276, t r a n s . H. M. W r i g h t ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), p. 228. 4 G. W i l l i a m S k i n n e r ed., The C i t y i n L a t e I m p e r i a l  C h i n a ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), p. 351. 5G. W i l l i a m S k i n n e r , 1977, p. 249. G i l b e r t Rozman, Urban Networks i n C h ' i n g C h i n a and  Tokugawa Japan ( p r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), p. 129. 7 Chang C h u n g - l i , The C h i n e s e G e n t r y : S t u d i e s on T h e i r  R o l e i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y C h i n e s e S o c i e t y , ( 1 9 5 5 ; r p t . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1967), p. 175. o Chang C h u n g - l i , p. 19 8. g Fan Ye, Houhan shu, 6 v o l s . (Shanghai: Zhonghua S h u j u , 1965), 3, p. 1629. 1 0 L i u Guojun, Zhongguo s h u s h i j i a n p i a n ( B e i j i n g : Gaodeng J i a o y u Chubanshe, 1958), p. 44. "'""'"Liu Guojun, Zhongguo g u d a i s h u j i s h i h u a ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1962), p. 80. 12 Thomas F r a n c i s C a r t e r , The I n v e n t i o n o f Printing' m  C h i n a and I t s Spread Westward, 2nd ed., r e v . L C a r r i n g t o n G o o d r i c h (New Y o r k : The Ronanld P r e s s Company, 1955), p.41; L i u Guojun, 1958, p.56. 13 Nagasawa K i k u y a , Z u k a i Wa-kan I n s a t s u S h i , 2 v o l s . (Tokyo: 1976), I I , 4; Thomas C a r t e r , p.41. 14 L. G i l e s , "Dated C h i n e s e M a n u s c r i p t s i n t h e S t e m C o l l e c t i o n , P a r t IV," B u l l e t i n o f the S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l  S t u d i e s (1937), 1030; Nagasawa K i k u y a , I , 5-7. 15 L i u Guojun, 1958, p.56. " ^ L i u Guojun, 1962, p.77 - 168 -17 Thomas C a r t e r , p. 64, note 12. 18 Zhang X i u m i n , Zhongguo y i n s h u a s h u de faming j i ' q i  y i n g x i a n g ( B e i j i n g : Renmin Chubanshi, 1958), pp.58-60. 1 9 Z h a n g X i u m i n , 1958, pp.59-60. 20 Wang Y i n r u o e t a l . , C e f u Yuangui (1013; r p t . B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1960), I I , 1932; Q i n d i n g quantang wen (1841; r p t . T a i b e i : Qiwen Chubanshe, 1961), pp.8000-8001. 21 Quoted i n Xue Juzheng e t a l . , J i u Wudai s h i (Shanghai; Zhonghua S h u j i , 1976), p.588. 22 Thomas C a r t e r , pp.6 0-61. 23 Ye Mengde, S h i l i n yanyu (n.p.: Zhonghua Tushuguan, 1907), j u a n 8, pp.3a-3b. 24 Zhu Y i , " Y i j u e l i a o Z a j i , " Z h i b u z u z h a i congshu, ed. Bao Tingbo (Shanghai: Gushu L i u t o n g c h u , 1921), I , 695. 25 ' '• Wang Y i n g l i u , Kunxue j i w e n ( B e i j i n g : Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1959), I I , 768. L i u Guojun, 1962, p.79. 27 L i Shuhua, "Tangdai h o u g i de y i n s h u a , " Qinghua  xuebao, 2, no.2 (1961), 29. 2 8 L i Shuhua, 1961, p.29 29 Zhang X i u m i n , 1958, pp.46-47; Nagasawa K i k u y a , f i g u r e 6. 3 0 L i Shuhua, 1961, pp.2 3-24; Zhang X i u m i n , 1958, pp.45-46. 31 Fan Shu, Y u n x i y o u y i (Shanghai: Shangwu Yins h u g u a n , 1934), j u a n 3, pp.l8a-18b. 32 Wu T i n g x i e , Tang fangzhen n i a n b i a o ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1980), pp.841-842. 33 . • Wang Dang, Tang Y u l i n ( T a i b e i : s h i j i e s h u j u , 1962) , p.256. 34 Mao Chunxiang, Gushu banben changtan (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1977), p.27. 35 L i u Guojun. 1958, p.81. - 169 -3 6Wang Y i n r u o e t a l . , V I I I , pp. 7304-7305, t r a n s . Thomas C a r t e r , P.70. 37 Wang Pu, Wudai h u i y a o (Shanghai: Shanghai G u j i Chubanshe, 1978), p.128. 3 8 Wang Guowei, "Wudai l i a n g s o n g j i a n b e n kao," i n h i s Wang Guantang Xia n s h e n g q u a n j i ( T a i b e i : Wenhua Chuban G o n g s i , 1968) , X I , 43T9. 39 Wang Pu, p.12 8. 40 Wang M i n g q i n g , Hiuchen l u (Shanghai: Zhonghua S h u j u , 1961), IV, 9495. 41 Sima Guang, Z i a h i t o n g j i a n (Xianggang: Zhonghua s h u j u , 1976), IV, 94957 42 Wang Guowei, 1968, p.4318. 43 Quyang X i u , X i n Wudai s h i (Shanghai: Zhonghua S h u j u , 1974), pp.641-642. 4 4 Quoted i n Zhang X i u m i n , 1958, p.65. 45 Zhang X i u m i n , 1958, p.67. 46 Wang S h i l u n and Zhao Zhenhua, Hangzhou s h i h u a ( Z h e j i a n g : Z h e j i a n g Renmin Chubanshe, 19 7 9 ) , p.37." 4 7 L i u Guojun, 1962, p.107. 48 Ye Mengde, ju a n 8, pp. 3a-3b. 49 Quan Hanxing, "Beisong B i a n l i a n g de shuchuru maoyi," i n h i s Zhongguo j i n g j i e s h i l u n c o n g (Xianggang: X i n y a Y i n j i u s u o T 1972) , I , 148. 50 Quan Hanxing, pp.178-179. 51 Quan Han x i n g , p.180. 52 . . , Meng Yuanlao e t a l . , D o n g j i n g menghua l u w a i s i z h o n g (Shanghai: Guaian Wenxue Chubanshe, 1956) , p.14. 53 "Meng Y u a n l a o , p.18. 54 : Meng Y u a n l a o , p.19. - 170 •'55 Su Bai, "Nansong de diaoban yinshua," Wenwu/ January 1962, p.21. ~*^ Su Bai, p.21. 57 Gu Tinglong, "Tang Song Shukeben jianshu," Sichuan tushuguan xuebao, No.2 (19 79), p. 10. • 58, Su Yuxiu, Zhongguo diaoban yuanliu kao (Shanghai: Shangsu Yinshuguan, 1918), p.28; Ye Dehui, Shulin qinghua (Beijing: Zonghua Shuju, 1959), pp.85-88. 52, Su Bai pointed out that book markets i n Jianning developed a l i t t l e b i t l a t e r than Fuzhou which developed as early as 1080. 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" i Gugong bowuyuan yuankan, No. 1 (1980), pp. 28-37. - 202 -Appendix I B o o k s t o r e s i n Tang P e r i o d , A.D. 618-907 B o o k s t o r e B o o k s e l l e r L o c a t i o n B i a n j i a Zima Pu B i a n 1 s F a m i l y L o n g c h i Fang, Chengdu (Sichuan) Fang Shang's Chengdu (Sichuan) F a m i l y Guo's F a m i l y S i c h u a n - 203 -Appendix II Bookstores i n Song Period, A.D. 960-1279 Bookstore Bookseller Location Chen Balang Shupu Chen Balang Chen Jieyuan Shujipu Chen Xuyun Chenzhai Shujipu Chenzhai Shujipu Chenzhai Shujipu (Yunju Lou) Chonghua Shufang Chongzhi Zhai Chuanqin Shutang Chuanqin Tang Cuishi Shushi Dayin Fang Diaojiang Ye Chang Fuxue Tang Guangdu Peizhai Gui Tang Gui Tang Guozhi Pu Huang San Ba Lang Shupu Chen's Family Chen's Family Chen's Family Chen Qi Chen Balang Jiang's Family Ge Shi's Family Cui Ye Chang Hua Pei's Family Wang Moufu Wu's Family Guo's Family Huang Jianning (Fujian) Muqin Fang of Pengbei Dajie in Linan Fu (Zhejiang) Yongkang Qingwei, Wuzhou (Zhejiang) Hangzhou (Zhejiang) Hongqiaozi River, Hangzhou (Zhejiang) Muqin Fang of Pengbei Dajie i n Linan Fu (Zhejiang) Jianyang (Fujian) Suxi (Zhejiang) Yachuan Sichuan Hangzhou (Zhejiang) Nan Jianzhou (Fujian) Fuj ian Sichuan Jianan (Fujian) Qingkao (Zhejiang) Cheqiaonan Dajie inside Qiantang Gate, Hangzhou (Zhejiang) Jianning (Fujian) - 204 -J i a Guanren J i n g s h u J i a Guanren 1s Pu F a m i l y J i a n a n Tang J i g u Tang J i n x i u Tang K a i j i n Zhima Pu Masha Shufang M e i x i J i n g s h e M i n g j i n g Tang Mo Tang Mopei Xuan P o j i Tang Qinde Tang Qinyou Tang Qunyu Tang Rong L i u l a n g J i n g s h i S h u j i p u Sanqui Tang Shih a n Tang Shuanggui Tang S h u y i n Z h a i Dong J i n F e i L i u Shugang's F a m i l y Zhong's F a m i l y Lu's F a m i l y Wang's F a m i l y Yu C a i Qiandao L i u S h i r o n g Yu's F a m i l y (Yu Zhian) J i a n g Zhongde Rong L i u l a n g L i u R i x i n g Wang's F a m i l y E a s t S i d e o f Zhongan-q i a o N a n j i e , Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Masha ( F u j i a n ) Raozhou ( J i a n g x i ) L i n a n ( Z h e j i a n g ) Guangdu (Sichuan) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) M a o e r q i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang) T a i m i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) Quyuan Fengyang (Shanxi) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) J i a n a n (Fu j i an) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) E a s t o f Zhongwa Nan-j i e , Hangzhou (Z h e j i a n g ) J i a n a n ( Z h e j i a n g ) F u j i a n J i n h u a ( Z h e j i a n g ) S i c h u a n - 205 -S h u y i n Z h a i Wang N i a n San Lang J i a Wanjuan Tang Wanjuan Tang Wuben Shufang X i n y u Wushi X i u y a n Shutang Y i j i n g Tang Y i n j i a S h u j i Pu Yueya Shutang Zhang Guanren Zhu-s h i z h i W e n j i Pu Z h a n g j i a Shupu Zhendui Z h a i Zhongde Tang Zongwen Tang Tang's F a m i l y Wang's F a m i l y Wang's F a m i l y Yu Renzhong Wei Zhongju Yu P i n g z h a i Wu C a i Qichong's F a t h e r Y i n ' s F a m i l y Yu Yu G o n g l i ' s F a m i l y Yu Tangqing's F a m i l y Zhan Guangzu Zhang Guanren Zhang's F a m i l y Ruan Zhongyou Zhen's F a m i l y X i a n y a n g (Shaanxi) Wuzhou (Z h e j i a n g ) Zhej i a n g Hucang i n Dongyang X i a n , South o f Yiwu X i a n ( Z h e j i a n g ) S i c h u a n J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) L i n j i a n g ( J i a n g x i ) J i a n n i n g ( F u j i a n ) T a i m i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang) Chongchuan ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) Wuyi ( F u j i a n ) Baoyou Fang, Hangzhou (Z h e j i a n g ) Zhongwazhi S t r e e t , Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) • Minshan ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) - 206 -Appendix I I I B o o k s t o r e s i n J i n P e r i o d , A.D. 1115-1234 B o o k s t o r e B o o k s e l l e r L o c a t i o n Huiming Xuan Zhang Cunhui P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) J i P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) J i a n g Y i Pi n g y a n g (Shanxi) L i Ziwen P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) L i a n g ' s F a m i l y P i n g y a n g (Shanxi) L i a n g ' s F a m i l y ' Yaodu L i u Minzhong P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) Shuxuan Che n s h i Chen P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) Sun X i a S h i S h u j i Pu Sun X i a ' s F a m i l y Songzhou (Henan) Xu Pi n g y a n g (Shanxi) Zhang Qian P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) Zhao Yan J i e s h i (Hebei) Zhonghe Xuan Wang's F a m i l y P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) - 207 -Appendix IV B o o k s t o r e s i n Yuan P e r i o d , A.D. 1279-1368 B o o k s t o r e Chenshi Shutang C u i y a n J i n g s h e D e x i n Shutang Dex i n g Tang Guangqin Tang G u l i n Shutang Huiming Xuan Huiwen Tang H u o j i Tang J i a n a n Shutang J i d e Shutang J i q i n g Tang J u j i n g Shutang L i u s h i S h u s i M e i y i n Shutang Minde Shutang Nanfu Shutang B o o k s e l l e r Chen L i u Junzuo Wu Ye R i z e n g & Ye J i n g k u i Hu Zhang C u i h u i Dou J i * s F a m i l y L i L i He L i a n g *s F a m i l y L i u Hengfu L i u Kechang L i u l i u Ye H u i L o c a t i o n F e i x i a n , J i a n a n (Fuj i a n ) Dongyang ( Z h e j i a n g ) Fusha Biwan (Guangdong) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) L u l i n g ( J i a n g x i ) P i n g y a n g (Shanxi) Yunqu ( F u j i a n ) Yanshan (Hebei) Pingyang (Shanxi) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) T a o x i Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Pingyang (Shanxi) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Sanqu S h i l i n ( Z h e j i a n g ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) - 208 -N a n j i a n Shutang Qinde Shutang Q i n g j i a n g Shutang Qinyou Tang R i x i n Tang R i x i n Shutang Shuanggui Shutang Shuxuan C h e n s h i T a i y u Shutang Tongwen Tang Wanjuan Tang Wanjuan Tang Wanjuan Tang Wanyu Tang Wuben Shutang Wuxi Shuyuan X i n g x i a n Shuyuan X i n q i n g Shutang X i u y a n Shutang Y i s h a n Shutang Yuansha Shuyuan Yugeng Tang Yunzhuang Shutang L i u Yu's F a m i l y Yang Yu Z h i a n Gao L i u Jinwen Yu's F a m i l y Chen Wang L i a n g Dong Yu P i n g z h a i Ye Dun Masha ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) L u l i n g ( J i a n g x i ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i n t a i J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) Masha ( F u j i a n ) Zhu J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) L u l i n g ( J i a n g x i ) L u l i n g ( J i a n g x i ) F e i x i a n J i a n a n (Fuj i a n ) Sanqu S h i l i n ( Z h e j i a n g ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) - 209 -Y u q i n g Tang Zhang C u i h u i Tang Z h a n g j i a Shupu Zhonghe Xuan Z h o u j i a S h u s i Zongwen Tang Zhuping Shuyuan Chen Zhang C u i h u i Zhang's F a m i l y Wang's F a m i l y Zhou's F a m i l y Zheng T i a n z e J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) P i n g y a n g (Shanxi) Zhongwazhi S t r e e t , Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) P i n g s h u i (Shanxi) Wendefang J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) L i u l i n g ( J i a n g x i ) - 210 -Appendix V Bookstores; i n Ming P e r i o d / A.D. 1368-1644 B o o k s t o r e Anzheng Tang Baohan Lou Baoshan Tang Baoshan Tang Biwu Shanfang Bowen Tang Buyue Lou Cangquan Tang Cangzhu Guan Changchun Tang Changyuan Tang L i Pu Cheshu Lou Chihuo Z h a i C h i l u Shanfang C u i j i n Tang C u i q i n g Tang C u i y a n J i n g s h e C u i y i n g Tang Cunren Tang B o o k s e l l e r L i u Z o n g q i , L i u Chaoguan & L i u Shuangsong Ye Zheng Y i z h e n Yu X i u f e n g L i S hihong Chen X i a n Chen Yu S i y u a n and Yu Zhangde L i u Qunzuo Zheng Chen Huaixuan D a i L o c a t i o n J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Zhej i a n g Ruiwo ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) J i n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) - 211 -Dasheng Tang Daye Tang Dayou Tang Diaochong Guan Dushu Fang Eryo u Tang Fuchun Lou o r D u i x i Shufang o r Fuchun Tang Fuwen Tang Fuwen Tang Guangqin Tang Guangyu Tang Guanhua Tang G u i r e n Z h a i G u i r e n Z h a i Guozhai Z h i p u Hangzhou S h u s i Zhou X i d a n Zhou J i n q u a n Zang J i n s h u L i Fu Chunming Fu Menglong Tang D u i x i o r Tang Fuchun Gong Gong Shaoshan Ye R i z e n g and Ye J i n g k u i L i u Z h i q i a n Yang Guo Xun Guo's F a m i l y Hu X i a n Huang Canyu N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Donghai B e i j i n g (Hebei) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Sanshan S t r e e t , N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou:. ( J i a n g s u ) Guangdong S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Wuding X i n g c h e q i a o Nan Daj Q i a n t a n g Gate, Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) - 212 Huanwen Tang H u i j i n Tang J i a b i n Tang J i a h u i Tang J i a n s h a n Tang J i d e Tang J i n g Tang J i n g s h a n S h u l i n J i n t a i Shupu J i s h a n Tang J i u r u Tang J i x i a n Tang J i x i a n Tang J i y o u Z h a i J i z h i Z h a i J u j i n Tang Huang L i a n z h a i Huang Y i b i n Huang Y i k a i Huang Yingguang Huang Y i n g r u i Huang Zhengda Huang Zhengfu Huang Zhengxuan Yang Chunrong Zhou Chen J i a n g Z i s h e n g S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) Wang S i y u a n Chen Guowang and Chen Qichuan Tang J i n c h i Tang L i y u e Chen D a l a i S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Zhangyang Gate, B e i j i n g (Hebei) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Y u n l i n - 213 -J u k u i Lou K u i b i Z h a i L a i b i n Lou Liangheng Tang L i g u a n g Tang L i n f e i Tang Sanheng Guan L i n r u i Tang L i z h e n g Tang Mei Yuan Min Z h a i o r Yangmin Z h a i N a n j i a n Shutang Ningshou Tang P u j i Y a o s h i Qiaoshan Shutang Qiaoshan Tang Q i n g b a i Tang o r G u i r e n Z h a i Q i n g j i a n g Shutang L i Chao Zheng J i a n g ' s F a m i l y L e i Ming L i u Rongwu Zheng Shaoyuan L i u Dahua L i u H u i L i u Kuan L i u L i a n t a i L i u Qiumao L i u T a i h u a Zheng Mao S h a o j i Yang Qiyuan Xu Shouming L i u L i u Y u t i a n L i u L o n g t i a n Yang Yang N a n j i n g ' ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Jubao Gate, N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Fusha ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n n i n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Masha ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) - 214 -Q i n g p i n g Shantang Qinyou Tang R e n r u i Tang R e n s h i Shutang R i x i n Tang Rongshou Tang Rongyu Tang Sandui Z h a i Sangui Tang Sanhuai Tang Sanshan Shufang S a n t a i Guan S a n t a i Guan S a n t a i Guan Saoye Shanfang Shangyou Tang S h a n j i n g Tang Shanshul. L i n Shaoshan Tang Shendu Z h a i Shengde Tang Shi d e Tang S h i j i a n Tang S h i x i a n Tang Hong P i a n Yu Wei L i u Wang Zhenhua Wang Kunyuan Yuan Su Yu Junzhao o r Yu Yin g z h a o Yu Xiangdou X i J i a n An Shaoyun Si.hu Y u y i n Hu Shaoshan L i u Hong ( L i u Hongyi) Hong Qingbo Tang X i u g u X i a o Tenghong J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Chang Gate, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) - 215 -Shouren Z h a i Shu Z a i y a n g Shuanggui Tang Yu's F a m i l y Shuangfeng Tang Yu's F a m i l y (Yu Xiangdou & Yu Wentai) T a i h e Tang Y i b a i Zhuren Tang Chongyu Tang Guangqing Tang Tang Zhenwu and Tang Guoda Tang L i f e i Tang Longquan Tang Shaoqiao Tang Sheng Tang T i n g r e n T a n x i a n g Guan Ye Shun Tiande Tang T i a n x u Z h a i Tong S i q u a n Tong Wenjui Wang Daokun Wang J i d i Wang J u z h i Wang L i a n g Wang L i n Wang S h e n x i u Wanhua Z h a i S hu 1 i n (P u j i an) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) F u j i a n S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) X i n a n N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i n t a i Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) - 216 -Wanjuan Lou. Wen T a i Wenlin* Ge Wenshu Tang Wenye Tang Wuben Shutang W u l i n S h u s h i X i a o y o u Tang X i n g x i a n Tang Shupu Xingwen Shutang X i n x i a n Shutang X i o n g f e i Guan Xiongyang Tang Xuanlan Z h a i Yanqirig Tang Zhou R i j i a o Yu S h i t e n g Tang's F a m i l y (Tang J i n c h i & Tang Huichou) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Wu Guanming Wu Shaoshan Yu P i n g z h a i J i a n g Decheng X i a Zhenyu L i u Tang Shaocun Yu J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) Xu X i a n c h e n g Yang Meisheng Yang Min g f e n g Yang Su q i n g Ye G u i Ye G u i Ye J i a n y u a n J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) - 217 -Y i Bai Tang Youyi Zhai Yulan Caotang Yuming Tang Yuming Tang Ye Ye Jingchi and Kunchi Suzhou (Jiangsu) Ye Yangshan Shulin (Fuj ian) Ye Zhiyuan Shulin (Fujian) Yu Biquan Shulin (Fuj ian) Yu Changgeng Shulin (Fuj ian) Yu Chengzhang Shulin (Fuj ian) Yu Gongren Yu Yu Gongtang (or Kuixiu) Shulin (Fujian) Yu Jingyu Shulin (Fuj ian) Yu Jiyue Shulin (Fuj ian) Yu Shangxun Nanj ing (Jiangsu) Yu Shaoyu Jianyang (Fujian) Yu Tingfu Jianyang (Fujian) Yu Xiangnian Jianyang (Fujian) Yu Xianyuan Jianyang (Fujian) Yu Yuanchang Jianyang (Fujian) Yuan Wuya Ye Kunchi Suzhou (Jiangsu) Zhan Xiumin Zhang Hao and Liu Chengqing Fuj ian Jianyang (Fujian) Zhao Junyao Nanjing (Jiangsu) - 218 -Zhao Pu Zhengxiao Guan Zhid e Tang Zhongde Tang Zhorigfang S h u z h a i Zhonghe Shutang Z h o n g j i n g Tang Zhongwen Tang Zhongxian Tang Zhongzheng Tang Z i x i n Tang Zongwen Tang Zuimian Ge Zuode Tang Zheng Shihao Zheng S h i r o n g Zheng Y i z h e n Zheng Yunzhu L i u Hong's F a m i l y (Hong Z o n g l i & Hong Chongyu) Hong Hong Chengye L i u Hong Damu and Hong Longfeng Zhou D u i f e n g Zhou Kungang Zhou Yuquan Yu Liangmu Zheng T i a n z e Ye Y i l a n G u o z i j i a n , N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) J i a n a n ( F u j i a n ) S h u l i n ( F u j i a n ) - 219 -Appendix V I . B o o k s t o r e s i n E a r l y Q i ng, A.D.1644-1850 B o o k s t o r e s B o o k s e l l e r s L o c a t i o n B a i j i n g Tang Bamao J u Baohua Lou Baoming Tang Baoning Tang Baoqing Ge Baoren Tang B a o t i a n Tang Baoyan Z h a i B e n l i Tang Ben Ya Bogu Tang Bogu Tang Zhou L i L i Boya Tang Buyu Xuan Changqing Tang Changshu S u x i n g Shugu Su Chao C h i l u Shanfang Chongde Shuyuan Chongshan Tang Guangdong F u j i a n L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Yuanhu L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Guangzhou (Guangdong) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i u a n (Anhui) Dongwu Cufang B r i d g e , Suzhou (J i a n g s u ) - 220 -Chongwen Tang C u i g u Z h a i C u i g u Z h a i Cuiwen Shuwu Dadao Tang Daguan J u Da i c a o Tang D a j i n g Tang Dangui Tang Dawen Tang Dayou Shanfang Dayou Tang D e x i n Tang D e j u i Tang Deyue Lou Diaohuang Xuan Dongguan Ge Duchu Xuan Dunhua Tang Duowen Z h a i E r j i n g Tang Eryo u Tang Eryou Tang Qian J i n g k a i Shantang, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Q i a n Tingmo Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Cheng Weiyuan Peng Langfeng & Fengraen, Suzhou Song X i a o y a n ( J i a n g s u ) Zheng Xu Wan L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) S h u l i n Zhongxiang Guangzhou (Guangdong) Ma J u n l i a n g He Shimen N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) Meishan (Sichuan) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) D o n g l i Shanren Nanchang Xiamen ( F u j i a n ) Weiyang - 221 -E r y o u Tang F e n g x i a o Xuan F u g u i Tang Fuwen Tang Fuwen Tang G a i Xuan Guanwen Shuwu Guiwen Tang Guren Wu Dongbai Gusu Yuanben Guwu Sanduo Z h a i Hanxuan Lou Hanyun Z h a i S h u j i p u Hexing Tang Hongmei Shanfang Hongqiang Ge Hongwen Tang Hongye Shanfang Huayangqiao Gu T i n g y u Huanwen Tang Hu Weizhou S h u s i Huancui Tang Huanxiu Ge L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Guangdong Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Guangdong Wu Dongbai Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Yufeng Kaopeng, Suzhou (J i a n g s u ) Zheng L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Gu T i n g y u Zhou Hu Weizhou Huayang B r i d g e , Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou (.Jiangsu) - 222 -Huicheng Tang H u i j i n g Tang^ Huiwen Tang Huiyun Lou J i a n g u Tang J i e z h i Yuan J i e z h i Yuan J i g u Tang J i n g l u n Tang J i n g s h u Tang J i n g x i a o Tang J i n g y e Tang J i n g y i Z h a i J i n q i Shuye Tang J i n y u Tang J i x i u Tang J u j i n g Tang Junhuang Xuan Juwen Tang J u x l n Tang J u x i u Tang J u y i n g Tang J u Zhen Tang Foshan (Guangdong) Foshan (Guangdong) Wei L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Guangdong L i Liweng N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Guangdong Hu L i q u n Xumen, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Guangzhou (Guangdong) Wang Z i x i n g Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Zhen L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Zhen L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Wuchang (Hubei) - 223 -Kaowen Tang Langhuang Shuwu L a o h u i x i a n Tang L e i k e Shantang Liangheng Tang Lianmo Tang L i g u a n g Lou, Nanhuai Tang L i u j i n g Tang L i z h a o Lou Louwai Lou Luyu Shanfang L u y i n Tang Luyun Xuan Maigudong Ren Shen Hongshao Mingsheng Tang Maoxuan Lou M i n q i u Tang Mingshan J u Mogu Tang Guangdong Zhu L i Xianming Guangdong Tingmei Anhui Wujun ( J i a n g s u ) Chang Gate, Suzhou (J i a n g s u ) L i u T i n g b e i C h a o y i (Shaanxi) L i u Wenkui and N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) L i u Wenkai Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Mai Dapeng Guangzhou (Guangdong) Shen Hongshao Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Fudong, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Zhou W a n g f u j i , Suzhou (J iangsu) - 224 -M o l i n Tang P a n g x i Yuan S h u j i p u P i n g h u Guren Wang Z h e n g l i n Q i a n t a n g J i n y a Qingke Tang Qinghe Xuan Qingyun Lou Qiuwu Buhuo Z h a i Q i y o u Tang Renshou Tang R o n g j i n Tang Rongzhu Shanfang R u i j i n Tang Ruiwen Tang Ruiyun Tang San Tang Sande Tang Sanduo Tang Sanhe Tang Sanyu Tang Sanyuan Tang Saoye Shanfang Xuanmiao Guan, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Huang P e i l i e Xuanmiao Guan, Suzhou (J i a n g s u ) Wang Z h e n g l i n Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) S h i Z h a o j i J i a n y a n g ( F u j i a n ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Zhou L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Zhou L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) X i J i a n Chang Gate, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) - 225 -Saoye Shanfang Shancheng Tang Shancheng Tang Shangzhi Tang S h a n y i n Lou Shengde Tang S h e n g j i n g Tang Shengyao Tang Sh e n x i u Tang S h i d e Shuanggui Tang Shuchuanyou Cao J i n -rong Shuchuanyou Shao Baoyong X i J i a n L i S h i J i n z h a n g Cao J i n r o n g Shao Baoyong Shuchuanyou Wu Buyun Wu Buyun Shuchuanyou Zheng Fuyi Zheng F u y i Shudai Caotang Shuye Tang Shuyou Hu Y i q i a n Shuyou Lu Bangwi Shuyou Shao Z h o n g l i n Shuyou Shen P e i y u n Hu Y i q i a n Lu Bangwei Shao Z h o n g l i Shen P e i y u n C a i y e S t r e e t , Shanghai ( J i a n g s u ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Suzhou (Jiangsu). Quanzhou ( F u j i a n ) Foshan (Guangdong) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Xuanmiao Guan, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Changmen, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou (.J i a ng su). Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) - 226 -Shuyou Wu Don g t i n g Shuyou Wu L i f a n g Shuyou Yu Shuyou Zheng Y i j i a Shuyou Zheng Y u n g z h i S i m e i Tang S i s h u o Caotang Songde Xuan So n g x i u Tang S u i d e Tang Suwei Tang Tenghua X i e Tianbao Lou Tianhua Zang Tongbaoyin Z h a i Tongde Tang Tongsheng Ge Ton g s h i Shanfang Tongwen Tang T u i s i Tang Waner Tang W a n g f u j i Shutan Wang Wangru Wang Ya Wu Do n g t i n g Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Wu L i f a n g Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Yu Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Zheng Y i j i a Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Zheng Yu n g z h i Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Tang L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Tao S h i x i u Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Foshan (Guangdong) H u i q i ( Z h e j i a n g ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Gao Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) - 227 -Wanyuan Lou Weicao Tang W e i j i n g Tang Wencui Tang Wencui Tang Wendao Tang Wende Tang Wenhan Lou Wenhua Tang Wenhui Tang Wenhui Tang Wenji n Tang W e n l i Tang Wenmao Tang Wenrui Tang Wensheng Tang Wenxiu Tang Wenya Tang Wenyu Tang Wenyuan Tang Wuben Tang Wugui Tang Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) J i n L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Xiamen ( F u j i a n ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Xu L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) L i L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Fu L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei) N i e s h u , Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Yangzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Chang Gate, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Guangdong - 228 -W u l i u J u W u l i u J u W u x i P u x i n g Shugu Wuyun L o u X i a n g x i a n T i n g X i a n w o C a o t a n g X i a n y u e L o u X i a o h u a X u a n X i a o s h a n L i K e x i X i a o x i a o J u X i u y o u S h a n f a n g X u e s h a n Tang X u e y u Tang Y a n q i n g T a ng Y a n g y u J i n g s h e Y i Z h a i Y i g u Tang Y i j i n g T a n g Y i n g d e Tang Y i n g h u a T a ng Tao Tao Y a n x u e and Tao Y u n f e i Pu L i L i K e x i Xu P e i k e L i u Ye J i n g x i a n d Ye Y i n g c h i L i C h u n f a n g L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g ( H e b e i ) C henghuang T e m p l e , S u z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) S u z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) H a n g z h o u ( Z h e j i a n g ) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g ( H e b e i ) J i a n g s u X u a n m i a o Guan, S u z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) J u n c h e n g , S u z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) N a n j i n g ( J i a n g s u ) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g ( H e b e i ) S u z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) S h a n x i Y a n g z h o u ( J i a n g s u ) X u L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g ( H e b e i ) - 229 -Y i n g x i u Tang Y i s h e n g Z h a i Y i x i a n g Tang Y i x i a o Xuan Yongan Tang Yongqing Tang Youshan Tang Yuchun J u s h i Yulan> Tang Yunfen Lou Yungu Tang Yushang Lou S h u s i Yuzhao Tang Zaidao Tang Zengmei Tang Zhensong Tang Zhenxian Tang Zhicheng Tang Z h i g u i Lou Zh i h e Tang Z h u l i Ge Zhongsheng Tang Zhongshu Tang Zhongyou Tang Yu Wu Shanwan B a i x i a ( J i a n g s u ) Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) T o n g j i n g B r i d g e , J i n -chang Gate, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) N i e s h u , Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Guangdong Q i n g j i a n g p u ( J i a n g s u ) N i e y u a n , Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) - 230 -Zhu Xuan Zhuchun Tang Z i h o u Tang Z i y a n g Ge Z i y i Xuan Zongsheng Tang Z u i l e Tang Z u i l i u Tang Zuiwen Tang Zuiy u e Xuan Z u o y i n Z h a i Xu Zhu Xiucheng Zeng Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) L i u l i c h a n g , B e i j i n g (Hebei); Yuanhu Shanghai ( J i a n g s u ) - 231 -Appendix V I I I . A C h r o n o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f B e i j i n g Dynasty Zhou Q i n Han J i n P e r i o d 1030-221 B.C. 221-207 B.C. 202- B.C.-A.D, 220 265-420 N o r t h e r n & 479-581 So u t h e r n D y n a s t i e s S u i Tang L i a o J i n Yuan Ming 581-618 618-906 937-1125 1153-1215 1215-1264 1264-1267 1267-1368 1368-1403 1403-1420 1420-1644 Name and S t a t u s o f B e i j i n g J i , c a p i t a l o f Yan, 723 B.C.-221 B.C. J i , d e s t r o y e d by Q i n Y a n j i n g , c a p i t a l o f Yan; t h e n Youzhou, c a p i t a l o f an i n d e -pendent kingdom Youzhou, g e n e r a l l y under the c o n t r o l o f t h e Hu t r i b e s U n c e r t a i n Zhuozhun, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e o f a d i s t r i c t Youzhou, r e s i d e n c e o f m i l i t a r y g o v e r n o r s N a n j i n g ( s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l ) Zhongdu ( c e n t r a l c a p i t a l ) Yanj i n g Zhongdu, c a p i t a l o f Yuan i n plan D a i d u , c a p i t a l o f Yuan B e i p i n g , g a r r i s o n town B e i j i n g , second c a p i t a l o f Ming B e i j i n g , c a p i t a l o f Ming Qing 1644-19 11 B e i j i n g , c a p i t a l o f Qing Source: Adapted from N i g e l Cameron and B r i a n B r a k e , P e k i n g : A T a l e o f Three C i t i e s (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), P. 55; Hou R e n z h i , L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n yu s h i j i a n (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1979), pp. 159-204. - 232 -Appendix V I I . C h r o n o l o g i c a l T a b l e o f Chinese D y n a s t i e s Dynasty Shang Kingdom Zhou Dynasty Qin Dynasty Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms S o u t h e r n and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s S u i Dynasty Tang Dynasty F i v e D y n a s t i e s L i a o Dynasty X i x i a S t a t e N o r t h e r n Song Dynasty S o u t h e r n Song Dynasty J i n Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Ming Dynasty Qing Dynasty P e r i o d c a . 1550 - 1030 B.C. c a . 1030 - 256 B.C. 221 -.207.B.C. 202- B.C. - A.D. 220 221 - 265 265 - 581 5 8 1 - 618 618 - 906 907 - 960 937 - 1125 990 -..1227 960 - 1126 1127 - 1279 1115 - 1234 1260 - 1368 1368 - 1644 1644 - 1911 Source: M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , The A r t s o f C h i n a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977), p. 10. Appendix IX. Glossary ding--unit of taxation fang—ward or d i v i s i o n juan--chapter or volume j i n s h i — m e t r o p o l i t a n graduate (highest degree holder) j u r e n — p r o v i n c i a l graduate (second-degree holder) 1 li=0.5 km 1 liang=l.33 oz. 2 1 mu=36 3.6 m 1 qian=l cash, basic unit of money shengyuan—prefectural graduate ( f i r s t degree holdree) - 234 -

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