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The historical geography of book markets in China : a case study of Liulichang Yee, Francis Lok-Wing 1983

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THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF BOOK MARKETS IN  CHINA:  A CASE STUDY OF LIULICHANG BY FRANCIS LOK-WING YEE B.A.  (Hons.), Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  \ THESIS SUBMITTED  1980  I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  o f Geography)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1983 •'3(c) F r a n c i s L o k - w i n g  Y e e , 19 8 3  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  the  the  University  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the  Library  s h a l l make  it  freely available  and  study.  I  agree t h a t for  permission  for extensive copying of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  department or  by  understood that for  for reference  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  s h a l l not  be  Geogaphhy  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  September,  1983  Columbia  thesis  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  of  this  head o f  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  the  further  written  Abstract  S c h o l a r s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  print-  i n g i n t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , p r o m o t i o n o f new and  consequently  as a f o r c e o f s o c i a l and  However, the c r i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  r o l e p l a y e d by  I n b o t h E u r o p e and  China,  bookstores  economic change.  the bookshops i n  d i f f u s i o n o f p r i n t i n g has  ideas  the  r a r e l y been s t u d i e d .  p r o d u c e d and  a wide range of p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g popular  distributed  literature,  r e l i g i o u s w o r k s , p r a c t i c a l m a n u a l s f o r t h e common p e o p l e w e l l as  l i t e r a r y w o r k s , C l a s s i c s and  s c h o l a r s and popular upheld  students.  texts for  B o o k s t o r e s t h u s , on one  l i t e r a c y amongst t h e m a s s e s b u t a l s o , " o n t h e o r t h o d o x i d e o l o g y by  a p p r o v e d C l a s s i c s and  In t h e i r  circulating  t e x t s to the l i t e r a t e  the  also functionally.  the other  government-  c o m m e r c i a l and  cultural activities,  o f book p r o d u c t i o n market c e n t r e s .  and  marketing  Yuan p e r i o d s ,  expansion growth  metropolitan  Chengdu c l e a r l y  as t h e m a j o r r e g i o n a l book m a r k e t s i n t h i s p e r i o d . M i n g and  In  emerged the  Qing p e r i o d s , a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d  n a t i o n a l marketing  system developed.  book  the  encouraged the  in regional  Kaifeng^,.. H a n g z h o u and  and  geographically  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of urban p o p u l a t i o n , together w i t h the ©f  hand,  elites.  changes not o n l y  I n t h e S o n g and  the  hand, promoted  long h i s t o r y of development, bookstores  markets i n China experienced but  standard  as  I n t e r - r e g i o n a l book  t r a d e a l s o expanded i n t h i s p e r i o d w i t h B e i j i n g  .at  t h e u p p e r m o s t end  of the marketing hierarchy.  o f t h e book m a r k e t i n g s y s t e m l i n k e d t o the i n c r e a s i n g service  examination  t r a t i v e and  commercial  seems t o be a t l e a s t  importance  system.  The  partially  attached to the  An o v e r l a p  functions  expansion  between the  civil adminis-  of the l a t e i m p e r i a l  cities  i s c l e a r i n t h i s case.  I t i s one  main t h e s i s o f t h i s study t h a t the o r i g i n s  d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a n o t o n l y also contributed  r e f l e c t e d , but  to the expansion of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l ,  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l , and e v e n t u a l l y of  i m p e r i a l China.  empire-wide  urban  m a r k e t economy  M o r e o v e r , t h e y became a p r i n c i p a l medium  f o r t h e r i s e and d o m i n a n c e o f t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l e l i t e s imperial China, a n d — i n shaping the character social  urban  gentry.  o f t h e p r i n c i p a l component o f t h e  e v i d e n t i n urban  1  urban  A s t u d y o f book p r i n t i n g  r o l e o f t h e c i t y and And,  of  a major r o l e i n  i n i m p e r i a l China i s , i n short,  study i n the changing —the  this sense—played  f a b r i c of Confucian China.  and m a r k e t i n g  and  thus also  i t s dominant  a class  w h e r e a s t h i s becomes e s p e c i a l l y ...  cores of the l a t e i m p e r i a l p e r i o d ,  i t i s no  w h e r e more c l e a r t h a n i n t h e s i n g u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t c a s e o f book m a r k e t s o f t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l  itself,  Beijing,  i n t h e m a i n book m a r k e t o f o l d B e i j i n g , L i u l i c h a n g .  - iii -  and  the  Table of Content •  Page  Chapter I . I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  Chapter I I .  12  The O r i g i n s a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f Book M a r k e t s  C h a p t e r I T T . The R i s e o f R e g i o n a l Book M a r k e t s Chapter IV. C h a p t e r V. Chapter V I . Chapter V I I .  The Book M a r k e t s  28  i n t h e M i n g and Q i n g P e r i o d s 61.  The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d s c a p e o f B e i j i n g 10.7 and L i u l i c h a n g The R i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g a s t h e N a t i o n a l Book Market of China Conclusion  124 161  Footnotes  168  Bibliography  184  Appendix  20 3  - iv -  L i s t of F i g u r e s  Page  F i g u r e 1.  27  The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bookstores i n the Song and J i n D y n a s t i e s , 960-1279.  F i g u r e 2. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Yuan Dynasty.  60  F i g u r e 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Ming P e r i o d , 1368-1644.  105  F i g u r e 4. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the E a r l y Qing P e r i o d , 1644-1850.  106  F i g u r e 5. The Transformation Qing.  109  o f B e i j i n g from L i a o t o  F i g u r e 6. The J i n k o u Canal, Tonghui Canal and L i u l i c h a n g i n the Yuan P e r i o d . F i g u r e 7. Book Markets i n B e i j i n g i n the Ming and Qing Periods.  - v -  .L.118 131  Acknowledgement I am d e e p l y without  indebted  t o p r o f e s s o r Marwyn S a m u e l s ,  whose g u i d a n c e , h e l p a n d e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e , I c o u l d u  h a r d l y have completed t h i s t h e s i s .  I a l s o own much t o . •  p r o f e s s o r T e r r y McGee f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e a n d h e l p f u l criticisms.  B o t h Ms. Sandy Wong a n d p r o f e s s o r T e r r y  McGee  have p r o v i d e d  t h e i r assistance i n e d i t i n g the manuscript,  t h i s I deeply  appreciated.  S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e due t o F l o r e n c e  for her typing of t h i s thesis. responsibility  to  Finally,  I take the  f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s and views p r e s e n t e d  thesis.  - v i-  i n this  Chapter I .  The  Introduction  i m p o r t a n c e o f p r i n t i n g a n d book d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e  dissemination social,  o f knowledge, and as a f o r c e  economic and p o l i t i c a l  l o n g b e e n recognized."'" the  for intellectual,  change i n European h i s t o r y has  The r e l a t i v e l y  rapid escalation i n  volume o f a v a i l a b l e p r i n t e d books d u r i n g  t h and s i x t e e n t h  centuries  itself  the l a t e  fifteen-  serves t o i n d i c a t e the  enormous s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e new t e c h n o l o g y o f p r i n t i n g a n d the  a t t e n d a n t book d i s t r i b u t i o n / m a r k e t i n g  modern E u r o p e .  systems o f e a r l y  H e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , l e s s t h a n f i f t y y e a r s . i.  a f t e r t h e development o f movable type i n t h e workshop o f Johann G u t e n b e r g o f M a i n z i n 1 4 5 4 , o v e r 10 m i l l i o n p r i n t e d b o o k s w e r e i n c i r c u l a t i o n and by t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h  century  approxi2  m a t e l y 150-200 m i l l i o n p r i n t e d book h a d b e e n p r o d u c e d .  This  i s e v e n more i m p r e s s i v e when we t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e l e s s o r : t h a n 100 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n E u r o p e i n t h i s p e r i o d , . o n l y minority  o f whom c o u l d  such p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l of  played a c e n t r a l role i n the d i f f u s i o n the clergy,  and s t u d e n t s e t c . , c o n t r i b u t i n g  t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Protestantism,  and e v e n t u a l l y  thought and t h e s c i e n c e s . and  C l e a r l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  i d e a s among t h e l i t e r a t e e l i t e s —  scholars of  read.  a  university  to the c i r c u l a t i o n  t r e a t i s e s , t o the spread o f  t o the success o f Enlightenment  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e h i g h v o l u m e  p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f books a l s o p o i n t  t o t h e development o f  a growing popular market f o r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l  among t h e s e m i -  l i t e r a t e masses, e s p e c i a l l y guildsmen, a r t i s a n s , merchants, - 1 -  and  others.  I n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e medium o f p r i n t e d b o o k s a n d  pamphlets c o n t r i b u t e d agricultural  t e c h n i q u e s , market i n f o r m a t i o n  books) , g e o g r a p h i c a l information. material itself  data  contributed  to the spread o f l i t e r a c y  modern h i s t o r y a n d g e o g r a p h y o f E u r o p e t h u s owe' much impetus t o t h e i n v e n t i o n o f movable  and l i b r a r i e s .  bookshops were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l  Indeed,  t o the process not  b e c a u s e t h e y s e r v e d a s a p r i n c i p a l means o f d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  but  a l s o because they themselves o f t e n  and  binderies.  various  and m a r k e t i n g o f books u l t i m a t e l y i n f e r r e d  economies o f s c a l e .  The c o s t s  marketing of printed materials, outlays  f o r the production  materials,  in the cost  of production  and  including not only c a p i t a l  of various  type, b u t a l s o such o t h e r i n p u t s binding  served as p r i n t e r s  Furthermore, t h e r o l e o f bookshops i n the  printing, binding,  q u a l i t i e s o f movable  as t h e q u a l i t y o f paper,  a n d so on w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be r e f l e c t e d  o f books, as w e l l as i n t h e volumes o f  production  i n the extent of d i s t r i b u t i o n . With the expansion of  l i t e r a c y and t h e growth o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , for-  type,  t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f book d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d m a r k e t i n g  s y s t e m s i n c l u d i n g book s h o p s , f a i r s ,  and  ':U  market o f books and  materials.  of i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l  only  (merchant hand-  (guidebooks) and o t h e r p r a c t i c a l  a veritable self-generating  other printed  and  new  S i m i l a r l y , the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of printed  also eventually  —  The  to the d i f f u s i o n of c r a f t s k i l l s ,  -low-priced,  commercial e d i t i o n s r a p i d l y  - 2 -  t h e demand -  i n c r e a s e d i n many p a r t s o f t h e E u r o p e a n c o n t i n e n t .  In  C h i n a , when p r i n t i n g was f i r s t  d e v e l o p e d i n t h e Tang  dynasty  (Ai'.D. 6 1 8 - 9 0 7 )  books.  Government p u b l i s h i n g d i d n o t d e v e l o p u n t i l t h e  Five Dynasties 960-1279)  , t h e bookshops produced a l l  (A.D.906-960).  E v e n i n t h e Song p e r i o d  when g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i s h i n g was f u r t h e r  commercial p u b l i c a t i o n s t i l l  the printed  (A.D.  expanded,  d o m i n a t e d t h e book m a r k e t .  government p u b l i s h i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e C o n f u c i a n  While  classics  a n d l i t e r a r y w o r k s , b o o k s t o r e s p r o d u c e d a.'large p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r b o o k s f o r t h e u s e o f t h e common p e o p l e .  Different  e d i t i o n s o f merchant manuals, books on f a r m i n g , m e d i c i n e , w e a v i n g and l e g a l documents were p u b l i s h e d f o r p r a c t i c a l use by p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s .  Moreover, bookshops  also  p u b l i s h e d a l a r g e number o f p o p u l a r n o v e l s , p l a y s , s o n g s , s t o r i e s and r e l i g i o u s works.  Indeedi, t h e e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d b o o k s w e r e p r o d u c e d b y b o o k s t o r e s t o meet t h e enormous r e l i g i o u s ^ demand b y t h e common p e o p l e f o r a l a r g e number o f d e v o t i o n a l w o r k s , c h a r m s , r e l i - .. g i o u s images and s t o r i e s .  The e a r l i e s t  s u r v i v i n g book o f  t o d a y , t h e D i a m o n d S u t r a , was p r o b a b l y p r i n t e d b y a b o o k s h o p i n "Sichuan.  I n t h e F i v e Dynasties,  a l a r g e number o f c a l e n d a r s ,  g l o s s a r i e s , b o o k s on y i n y a n g a n d d i v i n a t i o n t e x t s w e r e p r o d u c e d and d i s t r i b u t e d  i n S i c h u a n and t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a .  p o p u l a r works w h i c h were so i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d a i l y l i f e religious  These and  f e r v o r o f t h e p e o p l e , were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d i f n o t - 3 -  suppressed  by t h e r u l i n g c l a s s .  Without  t h e bookshops'  p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e p o p u l a r books, l i t e r a t e p e o p l e w o u l d be s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d , e v e n  t h e semi-  children's  elementary  t e x t s a n d many p r a c t i c a l w o r k s c o u l d n o t h a v e  produced.  I n a d d i t i o n t o these p o p u l a r and r e l i g i o u s  bookshops a l s o produced  works,  l a r g e numbers o f l o w - p r i c e d C o n f u c i a n  t e x t s and t h e i r commentaries, e n c y c l o p a e d i a s and o t h e r ence books f o r t h e l e s s w e l l - t o - d o e x a m i n a t i o n  The  been  refer-  candidates.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s f r o m Tang t o e a r l y  experienced s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l changes.  In their  Qing early  y e a r s o f development, b o o k s t o r e s were p a r t o f t h e paper-making o r f u n e r a l - o f f e r i n g shops. produced  Most o f t h e books t h e y s o l d were  b y t h e i r f a m i l y members.  p e r i o d s , many b o o k s t o r e s expanded t h e i r  I n t h e Song a n d Yuan  i n r e g i o n a l urban markets n o t o n l y  scale o f production but f u r t h e r developed  marketing capacity.  I n t h i s p e r i o d i t was n o t u n u s u a l f o r  a b o o k s t o r e t o h i r e more t h a n t e n w o r k e r s The  t o p r i n t one book.  p r i n t i n g o f t h e B u d d h i s t T r i p i t a k a even employed  140 b l o c k - c a r v e r s a n d p r i n t e r s .  most o f t h e books produced  over  Some b o o k s t o r e s a l s o b e g a n  t o market t h e i r books beyond t h e i r r e g i o n a l l i m i t s .  In fact,  i n J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g were  dis-  t r i b u t e d m a i n l y t o book m a r k e t s i n o t h e r m a c r o r e g i o n s . s t o r e s a l s o became more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d marketing o f books.  their  Book-  i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and  Some b o o k s t o r e s s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e p u b l i -  shing of popular l i t e r a t u r e ,  calendars, children's  t e x t s and p r a c t i c a l guidebooks  elementary  w h i l e o t h e r s p u b l i s h e d and  - 4 -  m a r k e t e d l a r g e numbers  of expensive, high q u a l i t y  classics, dynastic histories  Confucian  and l i t e r a r y works f o r t h e e l i t e s .  G u l i n Shuwu i n L u l i n g was famous  for i t sspecialization  i n the  p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f m e d i c a l books.  M o s t b o o k s h o p s p r o d u c e d a n d m a r k e t e d t h e i r own b o o k s i n the  e a r l y years o f development.  bookstores i n B e i j i n g of  I n t h e Ming and Q i n g p e r i o d s ,  and Hangzhou were n o t e d f o r t h e i r  selling  b o o k s t h a t w e r e p u b l i s h e d b y o t h e r r e g i o n a l book  centres.  Many S u z h o u b o o k d e a l e r s b o u g h t b o o k s f r o m Guangdong  but sold  them a s S u z h o u e d i t i o n s . more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  The m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y a l s o became  i n the Qing period.  Some o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s  p u b l i s h e d t h e i r b o o k s i n o n e shop b u t m a r k e t e d them i n d i f f e r ent  regional branches.  T h i s no d o u b t e x p a n d e d t h e i n t e r -  r e g i o n a l book t r a d e a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b o o k s t o a much w i d e r r e g i o n a l n e t w o r k .  In their early phase o f development a f t e r  the invention of  p r i n t i n g , book m a r k e t s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e two r e g i o n s w w i t h the greatest density o f p o p u l a t i o n : the lower Yangtze and W e s t e r n S i c h u a n .  Most o f t h e books p r o d u c e d i n t h i s  p e r i o d were a l m a n a c s , a s t r o l o g i c a l tionaries.  work a n d r u d i m e n t a r y  The r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e a r l y  dicbook  m a r k e t s i n S i c h u a n and t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a were  manifold.  The d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , a n d t h e s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s  fervor  of  t h e common p e o p l e i n b o t h r e g i o n s c l e a r l y  contributed.  M o r e o v e r , a s G e r n e t s u g g e s t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e book - 5 -  trade i n these  r e g i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e Tang p e r i o d ,  e n c o u r a g e d n o t o n l y by r e g i o n s , but  a l s o by  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of w e a l t h  was  i n both  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m e r c h a n t s and  .'\. ..'<<.  3 cities.  The and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban development,  t h e book m a r k e t s y s t e m o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a c a n  mercantilism, a l s o be  partly  d e f i n e d i n terms of the growth of r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n market c e n t r e s  as d i s c u s s e d by  noted that s p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l s u c h as p r i n t e r s and  G.  William Skinner.  s h o p s and  Skinner  specialized services,  block-carvers,were  found o n l y i n r e g i o n a l  4  cities and  and  metropolis.  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of urban  t h e a c t i v e c o m m e r c i a l and  regional metropolitan support  these  centres  cultural activities  Imperial China,  furthermore,  to  i t s h i g h l y focused  empire-wide or  functions  predominantly  " u n i f i e d u r b a n s y s t e m " emerged  f u r t h e r argues t h a t even though c i t i e s  Soochow, C a n t o n , and  given  r e g i o n a l market  i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l economies of  Skinner  Skinner  century,  i t s p r e - i n d u s t r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks, i t s  economy, no  these  s p e c i a l i z e d markets.  s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t i n the mid-eighteenth  a g r a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n , and  in  c r e a t e d a demand l a r g e e n o u g h t o  s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s and  In h i s C i t y i n Late  population  China. like  Wuhan... p e r f o r m e d i m p o r t a n t  "Peking,  extraregional  (,)...none e x h i b i t e d t h e c e n t r a l i t y n e e d e d  to  5  i n t e g r a t e a Chinese system of c i t i e s . "  In other words,  the  h i g h l y r e g i o n a l i z e d m a r k e t economy o f b o o k s and o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , f o c u s e d on S i c h u a n and t h e J i a n g n a n r e g i o n , -  6  -  closely market  f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n s e t by t h e l a r g e r  regional  economy o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a .  On  the o t h e r hand, however, as n o t e d by G i l b e r t  "the b i r t h o f a n a t i o n a l market period."  c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e M i n g  I n d e e d i n t h e c a s e o f book m a r k e t s , i t i s c l e a r  t h a t by M i n g t i m e s a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l  integrated  m a r k e t i n g s y s t e m had emerged w i t h B e i j i n g a t t h e end o f t h e m a r k e t i n g h i e r a r c h y .  The  phenomenon c a n be t r a c e d , m o r e o v e r ,  to other  uppermost  non-commercial correlation  b e t w e e n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f book m a r k e t s a n d t h e of the empire-wide,  national  explanation for this  f a c t o r s , not the l e a s t of which i s the c l o s e  systematization  s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l examination network.  Indeed, the development obvious  Rozman,  o f book m a r k e t s  (but as y e t l i t t l e  analyzed) case of the  between c o m m e r c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p e r i a l Chinese c i t y ,  i s p e r h a p s t h e most overlap  f u n c t i o n s of the  late  f o r book m a r k e t s n o t o n l y s e r v e d t h e  n e e d s o f i n d e p e n d e n t s c h o l a r s , c r a f t s m e n and t h e l i k e , a l s o and most e m p h a t i c a l l y s e r v e d t h e immediate  but  resource  requirements of the candidates f o r the i m p e r i a l examination system—the  p r i n c i p a l route t o success i n the e l i t e  h i e r a r c h y of i m p e r i a l Chinese  society.  D u r i n g t h e Tang d y n a s t y , d e g r e e s were o f f e r e d of several f i e l d s ,  governing  including classics,  By M i n g t i m e s , t h i s r a n g e h a d n a r r o w e d  letters,  i n any  l a w and  considerably,  one  others.  examinat-  i o n s h a d become s t a n d a r i z e d and c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y o f C o n f u c i a n classics  i n t h e i r o r t h o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , d e f i n e d by  the  S o n g p h i l o s o p h e r , Zhu X i .  In the Qing examinations, s u b j e c t s  were m a i n l y t o p i c s s e l e c t e d from t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s . f i r s t p a r t of the examinations on q u e s t i o n s b a s e d The  second  r e q u i r e d the w r i t i n g of  on t h e F o u r B o o k s and  The  essays  t h e c o m p o s i n g o f poems.  p a r t c o n s i s t e d o f q u e s t i o n s on t h e F i v e C l a s s i c s . 7  The  t h i r d p a r t c o n s i s t e d of d i s c u s s i o n questions.  almost complete  With  the  domination of the Confucian c l a s s i c s i n the  e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e i s a g r e a t demand f o r s t a n d a r d C o n f u c i a n t e x t s by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . D y n a s t i e s and  In the F i v e  the Song p e r i o d , p r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g o f  C l a s s i c s were f o r b i d d e n .  the  Subsequent d y n a s t i c r u l e r s a l s o p a i d  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the p u b l i c a t i o n of a c c u r a t e , standard Confucian c l a s s i c s .  By  s t a n d a r i s i n g the Confucian  the r u l i n g c l a s s attempted in  t h e i r own  orthodox  to i n t e r p r e t the Confucian  thoughts  way.  To t h e i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n b r i n g under c o n t r o l the f r e e r a n g i n g thought s o c i a l group.  classics,  s y s t e m was  of the l e a d i n g  In the Qing dynasty, the constant d r i l l i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l Confucian moral  p r i n c i p l e s and  the w r i t i n g  in  of  f o r m a l i z e d e s s a y s k e p t t h e m i n d s o f t h e g e n t r y so  occupied  t h a t t h e y had  and  little  time f o r independent  to  thought  study.  T h e i r t h o u g h t s w e r e c h a n n e l l e d i n t o t h e l i n e s o f o f f i c i a l i.<-'.<: ideology i n which  t h e a s p e c t s o f a u t h o r i t y and d i s c i p l i n e i n  t h e C o n f u c i a n t r a d i t i o n were emphasized. l o y a l t y and  The  s e r v i c e , w h i c h were fundamental  principles  p a r t s of t h i s  of doc-  t r i n e , were s t r e s s e d n o t o n l y i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s  but  a l s o i n t h e s c h o o l s , w h i c h prepared students f o r the. examination' system. -  8 -  I n s h o r t , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and system accentuated the importance the empire.  examination  o f book m a r k e t s  B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e Tang D y n a s t y  o f e x a m i n a t i o n was of o f f i c i a l s  expansion of the  throughout  a regular  organized to r e c r u i t a s u b s t a n t i a l  f r o m among e x a m i n a t i o n g r a d u a t e s .  The  system number  subsequent  d y n a s t i e s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c , c o m p e t i t i v e examinations  to r e c r u i t state o f f i c i a l s .  I n Song t i m e s , t h e  s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s ., had become c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e p i n n a c l e of the Chinese  s t r u c t u r e — w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s a c c e s s t o power,  p r e s t i g e and w e a l t h .  By M i n g t i m e s , e x a m i n a t i o n s  at three . !  l e v e l s — p r e f e c t u r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n — l e d t o t h r e e successive degrees: IX)  The  s h e n g y u a n , j u r e n and  i n c r e a s i n g importance  jinshi.  of examinations  (See  Appendix  i n the  entrance  i n t o o f f i c i a l d o m c r e a t e d t r e m e n d o u s demands f o r C o n f u c i a n and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e w o r k s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n p u r p o s e s .  The  texts expan-  s i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f b o o k s i n Song and M i n g p e r i o d s by bookstores corresponded examination  system  I t i s , t h e n , one  to the r i s i n g  importance  of  the  i n society.  main t h e s i s o f t h i s  study t h a t the  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a n o t o n l y but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the expansion  origins  reflected,  of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e -  g i o n a l , i n t e r - r e g i o n a l , and  e v e n t u a l l y empire-wide  economy o f i m p e r i a l C h i n a .  M o r e o v e r , t h e y became a  urban  market  principal  medium f o r t h e r i s e and d o m i n a n c e o f t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l of imperial China, a n d — i n  this sense—played  f a b r i c of Confucian China. - 9 -  elites  a major r o l e i n  s h a p i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a l component o f t h e social  ;  A s t u d y o f book  urban  printing  and m a r k e t i n g in  i n i m p e r i a l China  the changing  i s , i n s h o r t , thus a l s o a  r o l e o f t h e c i t y and And,  i t s dominant  study  class--the  urban  gentry.  w h e r e a s t h i s becomes e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n  urban  c o r e s o f t h e l a t e i m p e r i a l p e r i o d , i t i s no w h e r e more  c l e a r than i n the s i n g u l a r l y of  the i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l  market of o l d B e i j i n g ,  The The of  thesis w i l l  first  itself,  B e i j i n g , and  i n t h e m a i n book  Liulichang.  b a s i c a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two  s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r i c a l  The  sections.  developmental  book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a f r o m t h e Tang d y n a s t y  period. ing  i m p o r t a n t c a s e o f t h e book m a r k e t s  pattern  to the e a r l y  t h e s i s b e g i n s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f book  Qing  publish-  i n t h e Tang d y a n s t y b e c a u s e i t i s f r o m t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e  earliest printed material i s available findings.  The  from a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  s e c t i o n ends w i t h t h e m i d - e i g h t e e n t h  century  when t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g s y s t e m s u n d e r w e n t d r a m a t i c e changes w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Western In  this  s e c t i o n , the f i r s t  c h a p t e r examines the o r i g i n s  d e v e l o p m e n t o f book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g and  The  second  l a s t c h a p t e r o f s e c t i o n one  cal  and  o f book  f u r t h e r e x p l o r e s the  f u n c t i o n a l c h a n g e s o f book m a r k e t s and  geographi-  t h e emergence  a n a t i o n a l b o o k m a r k e t i n t h e M i n g and Q i n g p e r i o d s .  second  s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s d i s c u s s e s the development of  n a t i o n a l book m a r k e t i n B e i j i n g . the s o c i a l , urban  and  ; •  c e n t r e s i n t h e Song and Y u a n p e r i o d s .  The  of  documentary  chapter d e a l s w i t h the expansion  markets i n r e g i o n a l urban  and  i n t h e Tang p e r i o d  t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s f r o m a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  sources.  technology.  The  f i r s t chapter  The - 10  second -  the  scrutinizes  economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of B e i j i n g  the mid-eighteenth century.  The  before  chapter concentrates  on  the  analysis of the factors that contributed  t o t h e development  of  L i u l i c h a n g - - t h e most famous book marekt o f B e i j i n g and China.  I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a there  a r e problems any r e s e a r c h e r  must e n c o u n t e r .  e v i d e n c e s on p r i n t i n g and p r i n t e d books a r e , scant. sial  amongst t h e h i s t o r i a n s .  markets were c o n s i d e r e d end  i n the f i r s t  The o r i g i n s o f p r i n t i n g i n C h i n a i s s t i l l  subject  o f t h e economic s t r u c t u r e , very  s t u d i e s o f t h e i r development. e d i t i o n s , Chinese scholars  a  place,  controverh a n d , book  t o be a t t h e l o w e r  f e w o f them made d e t a i l e d  Even i n t h e i r  studies of rare  a l w a y s f o c u s e d on t h e q u a l i t y o f  p r i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y and l i t e r a r y or b o o k s e l l e r s .  On t h e o t h e r  by s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s  Archaeological  s t y l e , n o t on t h e p u b l i s h e r s  Many o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s who s o l d a  l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f p o p u l a r works were r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d by t h e s e scholars. is  Another major d i f f i c u l t y  i n t h e s t u d y o f book m a r k e t s  t h a t many o f t h e b o o k s p u b l i s h e d  and d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e book-  s h o p s d i d n o t b e a r t h e name o f t h e p u b l i s h e r . r a r e e d i t i o n s o f S o n g , Yuan e a s i l y available outside  The f a c t  that  and Ming p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e n o t  C h i n a f u r t h e r adds t o t h e p r o b l e m .  In s h o r t , t h e data base f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s n e c e s s a r i l y incomplete.  Nevertheless,  the data that i s presently a v a i l a -  ble i s s u f f i c i e n t to indicate various  major trends  i n book  p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g over t h e c e n t u r i e s , and a focus here on  Liulichang—the  most famous o f t h e book  markets—permits  a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a t l e a s t one m a j o r book m a r k e t . an  C l e a r l y , h o w e v e r , t h i s t h e s i s must be  i n i t i a l step  considered  t o w a r d a more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e  economic and s o c i a l c o n t e x t s -  o f book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a . 11  -  Chapter  II.  The can  be  The  marketing  traced  25-221).  In  official visited  O r i g i n s = -and' D e v e l o p m e n t - o f  as  books  f a r back  the  has  as  of  market  a  long  i n the  biographical  history the  of  .Later Han  history  Later  section  of  mentioned  i n Luoyang  and  was  Book:Markets  Han  i n China period  (A.D.  Wang C h o n g ,  that able  Wang to  which  the  always  memorize  the  9 books  that  Dynasties presence the  were  these Tang  loped  there.  (A.D.265-581), of  Emperor  ordered  selling  bookstalls Yuan  of  Zhao M e n g j i a n  indicated  the  Liang  in his  the  In  buy  Renfang poetry  Liang  to  the  presence  of  p r i n t i n g was  However  i t was  until  greater  number  book markets  became more  to  the  note  that  of  block  books  fully  selling  books  first  in  bookstores  mate  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i n t i n g and w h e n we  bookstore  p r i n t i n g was  The China ning  is of  where  question s t i l l block  a  consider  when b l o c k mystery.  printing  -  fact  -  by  had A l l  before  the  developed.  well  Moreover  the  have  were  This  inti-  cannot  i t was  and  first  that  we  period  that  of  deve-  produced  bookselling  difficulty  12  well  developed  i s complicated  Even  market.^  printed.  p r i n t i n g was  The  the  being  they  the  first  mentioned  i t s early  also  underestimated  Six  p r i n t i n g was  were  that  the  Jushi.  the  developed.  p r i n t i n g houses  of  (A.D.502-557)  bookstalls  when b l o c k  and  Liu  from  Dynasty  not  also  to  Dynasty books  period  in  be the  practised.  developed  dating fact  the  that  11  in begin-  the  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a r t was s o g r a d u a l a s t o be a l m o s t tible.  impercep-  The p r i n t i n g o f b o o k s s l o w l y e v o l v e d f r o m t h e e a r l y  e f f o r t s a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n by means o f s e a l s , s t a m p s and r u b b i n g s from engraved p r i n t s u r v i v e d today i n A.D.770. of p r i n t i n g A.D.770,  tablets.  The e a r l i e s t w e l l d e f i n e d b l o c k  i s a B u d d h i s t charm p r i n t e d  i n Japan  C a r t e r and o t h e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e i n C h i n a must have been d e v e l o p e d  l o n g e n o u g h f o r someone  well  before  t o take t h i s a r t across  12 t o Japan. printed  The e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d b o o k , t h e Diamond S u t r a ,  i n A.D.  86 8, was d i s c o v e r e d i n Dunhuang.  The book  c o n s i s t e d o f s i x s h e e t s o f t e x t and one s h o r t e r s h e e t woodcut, a l l n e a t l y pasted continuous r o l l technique  t o g e t h e r so as t o form  sixteen feet long.  one  Not o n l y the e x c e l l e n t  b u t t h e s i z e o f t h e sheets as w e l l  believe that-this  with  led Carter to  i s not a p r i m i t i v e piece of p r i n t i n g  t h e charms from Japan.  In referring  t o t h e Diamond S u t r a ,  Carter points out that: The p r i n t e d book i s a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d product. I t i s evident t h a t the f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y i n d e v i s i n g new ways o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w h i c h was g o i n g on i n t h e B u d d h i s t m o n a s t e r i e s and e l s e w h e r e b e f o r e t h i s t i m e , m u s t h a v e c u l m i n a t e d i n some s o r t o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g b e f o r e 7 7 0 , and l o n g e n o u g h b e f o r e t h a t d a t e t o have been by t h a t time c a r r i e d a c r o s s t o Japan. Perhaps the nearest a p p r o a c h t o an a p p r o x i m a t e d a t e t h a t c a n be g i v e n w o u l d be t h e r e i g n o f M i n g Huang ( 7 1 2 7 5 6 ) , t h e t i m e when C h i n a ' s c u l t u r a l 1 o achievement reached i t s h e i g h t . J  A t t h e end o f t h e t e x t o f t h e Diamond S u t r a i s t h e - 13 -  like  statement  t h a t t h e book was " r e v e r e n t l y made f o r u n i v e r s a l  f r e e d i s t r i b u t i o n b y Wang J i e o n b e h a l f o f h i s two p a r e n t s on t h e f i f t e e n t h d a y o f t h e f o u r t h m o n t h i n t h e n i n t h  year  14 of  Xiantong  (May 1 1 , 8 6 8 ) . "  A l t h o u g h we do n o t know much  a b o u t Wang J i e e x c e p t t h i s s t a t e m e n t , L i u G u o j u n m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e w o r k Wang o r d e r e d t o p r i n t was f i n e l y  produced  and c e r t a i n l y was n o t a w o r k done i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f printing.  L i u a s s u r e s us t h a t p r i n t i n g must have  somewhat a h u n d r e d t o one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y w o r k was p r o d u c e d  While other r o l l a fair  years before  this  and most p r o b a b l y between t h e e i g h t h and  the n i n t h c e n t u r i e s — Wu a n d X u a n z o n g .  developed  t h a t i s , during the p e r i o d of Impress  (A.D.684-755).  1 6  t h e Diamond S u t r a b e a r s t h e d a t e o f 8 6 8 , t h e t h r e e b o o k s f o u n d a t Dunhuang h a v e a l l b e e n a s s i g n e d w i t h  degree o f p r o b a b l i l i t y t o the n i n t h century o r the  opening  decade o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y .  Those o f t h e s i n g l e  s h e e t , a s w e l l a s a f o l d e d book a n d a s e v e n page c h a r m  dated  17 f r o m 947 t o 9 7 1 . printing  T h e s e s h e e t s a r e f a r more p r i m i t i v e i n  than the r o l l s .  A u r e l S t e i n thus suggested  books were i m p o r t a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y from  that the  the province of  S i c h u a n , w h i l e t h e s i n g l e s h e e t s were o f l o c a l  manufacture.  B e s i d e s t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f r o m Dunhuang, we a l s o have a documentary s o u r c e which printing ian,  i n China.  Shao J i n g b a n g  indicates the origins of  Based upon t h e w r i t i n g s o f a Ming (1491-1565),  Zhang X i u m i n a r g u e s  histor-  that the  origins  of b l o c k p r i n t i n g  A.D.636.  i n China c o u l d be as e a r l y as  In h i s Hongjian Lu, Shao t o l d us t h a t a manuscript  w r i t t e n by the Empress of Taizong, Nuze, was p r i n t e d . 18 and  distributed  i n the s i x t h year of Zhengguan (A.D.636).  Zhengguan was the p e r i o d when Tang's economic and m i l i t a r y strengh reached i t s h i g h e s t l e v e l . also greatly  Cultural  a c t i v i t i e s were  enhanced with the r i s e i n m a t e r i a l l i v i n g .  Although Shao d i d not g i v e h i s source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the printing  of Nuze, Zhang Xiumin assures  highly creditable  historian  China was q u i t e p o s s i b l y  us t h a t Shao was a  and suggests t h a t p r i n t i n g i n  developed i n t h i s "Golden Age" of  Tang. T h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e Diamond S u t r a , Feng X i u (767-836),  i n a memorial  t o the throne,  c o n f i r m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f book m a r k e t s i n S i c h u a n , J i a n g s u and A n h u i .  Feng X i u ' s memorial  h i s t o r y , Cefu Yuangui,  was r e c o r d e d b y t h e o f f i c i a l  w h i c h was c o m p i l e d  i n e a r l y Song, as  follows:  On December 2 9 , 8 3 5 , t h e i m p e r i a l commiss i o n e r o f E a s t e r n S i c h u a n , Feng X i u proposed i n a memorial t h a t an i m p e r i a l edict forbid the printing of calendars by wood b l o c k s . The two Chuan o f J i a n n a n (modern S i c h u a n ) a n d H u a i n a n (Lower Yangtze v a l l e y ) p r i n t a l l c a l e n d a r s by means o f wood b l o c k a n d s e l l them i n t h e market p l a c e . Each year, b e f o r e t h e Bureau o f Astronomy has m e m o r i a l i z e d t h e throne suggeting the promulgation of the new c a l e n d a r , t h o s e p r i n t e d c a l e n d a r s are a l r e a d y everywhere. That i sc o n t r a r y - 15 -  to the r u l e of r e s p e c t f u l l y h a n d l i n g (the new calendar which has t o be approved by the Emperor). Consequently an order (on December 29, 835) was i s s u e d f o r b i d d i n g (these p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g s ) . 2 0  The  development of Sichuan  as a major book market i n the  Tang p e r i o d was f u r t h e r confirmed reference to p r i n t i n g — i e d the Emperor Xizong  by an e a r l y and b e s t known  L i u Pian Jiaxun.  L i u P i a n accompan-  i n t o temporary e x i l e i n Sichuan  the tumulous years of the l a t e Tang dynasty. to  during  In h i s p r e f a c e  J i a x u n , L i u gave us an account of the p r i n t e d books t h a t  he saw i n Sichuan:  In the t h i r d year of Zhonghe (A.D.8 83) which was the t h i r d year i n which the i m p e r i a l c h a r i o t had been i n Shu ( S i chuan) . I was then a member of the Secretariat. One day i n summer, on one of my h o l i d a y s (taken every t e n days), I was browsing the books by the Southeast o f the second e n c e i n t e (of the c i t y w a l l ) . These books c o n s i s t e d mostly of works on d i v i n a t i o n of dreams, geomancy, the nine (heavenly) p a l a c e s , the f i v e p l a n e t s , and v a r i o u s (other) themes of the Yinyang ( s c h o o l ) ; there were a l s o d i c t i o n a r i e s and (other books) of l e x i c o g r a p h y . For the most p a r t they had been engraved on b l o c k s and p r i n t e d on paper. (But the ink) had b l o t t e d , one c o u l d not (always) make out everyt h i n g . 21  Another r e f e r e n c e t o Sichuan  as a major p r i n t i n g and  b o o k s e l l i n g c e n t r e i s i n a c o l l e c t i o n of Buddhist  rolls  brought back t o Japan i n A.D.8 65 by the monk S h u y e i who had stayed i n Changan (present Xian) f o r three' years.- - One -  16 -  of the p r i n t e d r o l l s ced i n S i c h u a n .  i s Tangyun, a rhyming  Another  dictionary,  d i c t i o n a r y , Y u p i a n , was a l s o  produpublish-  22 ed i n S i c h u a n , b y t h e same p r i n t e r .  Song w r i t e r s , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r i g i n s o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g , o f t e n mentioned was f i r s t p r a c t i s e d .  S i c h u a n as t h e p l a c e where  printing  Ye Mongde (1077-1148) i n h i s S h i l i n  yu quoted L i u P i a n ' s p r e f a c e t o J i a x u n t o p r o v e t h a t i n t h e Tang d y n a s t y h a d a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d  Yan-  Sichuan  the a r t of block  23 printing.  I n h i s s e c o n d v o l u m e o f Y i j u e Li'ao Z a j i ,  Zhu Y i  (1098-1167) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " P r i n t e d w o r d s do n o t e x i s t b e f o r e t h e Tang d y n a s t y .  I t was  i n l a t e Tang t h a t Y i z h o u 24  (Sichuan) began t o have p r i n t b l o c k s . "  Wang Y i n g l i n  1296),  that:"Block printing  i n h i s Kunxue J i w e n a l s o m e n t i o n e d  (1223-  d i d n o t d e v e l o p u n t i l t h e l a t e Tang p e r i o d and m o s t o f t h e b o o k s p r i n t e d w e r e m a t h e m a t i c a l , d i c t i o n a r y and  elementary  ,.25 works. One o f t h e e a r l i e s t p r i n t e d w o r k s t h a t s t i l l China, after  remain i n  t h e s e c r e t r e m o v a l o f v a l u a b l e documents by  A u r a l S t e i n and P a u l P e l l i o t scripture, Tuoluoni Jing. excavated near Wangjiang  i n 1907 and 1 9 0 8 , i s a S a n s k r i t  I t was d i s c o v e r e d i n a Tang tomb L o u , e a s t o f Chengdu i n S i c h u a n .  A statement a t the"beginning of t h i s sutra c l e a r l y t e l l s  us  t h a t i t was d i s t r i b u t e d by a b o o k s t o r e i n Chengdu o f S i c h u a n . The s t a t e m e n t r e a d s : " S o l d by t h e z h i m a p u  (funeral-offering  shop) o f B i a n ' s f a m i l y i n L o n g c h i F a n g o f Chengdu X i a n i n - 17 -  Chengdu F u . " ^ " was  F r o m t h i s s c r i p t u r e we  so w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n t h e  books i n Chinese but produced i n China.  can  tell  l a t e Tang p e r i o d  that  t h a t not  only  t h a t books i n o t h e r language were  also  In a d d i t i o n to Bian's family, there  a l s o o t h e r known b o o k s t o r e s i n S i c h u a n , s u c h as and  Fang Shang's f a m i l y .  p r i n t e d by  printing  (See  Appendix I ) .  Guo's f a m i l y w h i c h s t i l l  c o p y o f t h e Diamond S u t r a . statement which reads:  At  "A  the  survives end  Guo's  One  were family  of the  i s an  books  incomplete  of the book i s a  t r u e p r i n t e d c o p y o f Guo's  family  27 in the  Sichuan." s u t r a was  t w e l t h day the  A n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t of the book i n d i c a t e s  of the  y e a r 907,  Sutra,  c i r c u l a t e d by  we  an  eighty-year  t h i r d month o f dingmao. can  tell  from which the  produced before the  t h a t the  eighty  calendar published  Shang's f a m i l y Sichuan)" It  by  ink.  dingmao i s  copied,  t a k e n away by  Fang Shang's f a m i l y  I t has  26cm by  the  i n C h e n g d u Fu  Diamond was  title:  8cm  Stein, i s a  i n 882. but  The  i t was  "Calendar of  of Jiannan Sichuan  re-' printed  Fang  (Western  2 9  was  not  only  a c t i v e , S i k o n g Tu copy of the V i n a y a in  the  t h i r d month of t h a t y e a r i n S i c h u a n .  mains of t h i s c a l e n d a r i s o n l y thick black  As  on  p r i n t e d copy of  y e a r o l d man  A n o t h e r p r i n t e d w o r k , w h i c h was  in  o l d man  that  L u o y a n g was  i n S i c h u a n t h a t book, p u b l i s h i n g was  (837-908) a l s o i n f o r m e d us (or manuals of d i s c i p l i n e )  burned during  Wuzong i n A.D.84 5.  the  X i a n g Da  that a  -  18  printed  in Jingai  s u p p r e s s i o n of Buddhism  suggests that Sikong -  very  Tu s 1  Temple by  p e t i t i o n t o r a i s e funds  for the r e p r i n t i n g of this  800 s h e e t s  B u d d h i s t w o r k was made d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n L u o y a n g b e t w e e n 871 and  879.  This suggests  t h a t p r i n t i n g had a l r e a d y been deve-  l o p e d i n L u o y a n g a s e a r l y a s t h e 8 7 0 s. 1  Besides Sichuan  a n d L u o y a n g , book p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e l o w e r  Y a n g t z e a r e a was a l s o m e n t i o n e d b y a Tang a u t h o r , F a n S h u . In h i s Yunxi Y o u y i , Fan p o i n t e d o u t t h a t :  The p r e s i d e n t ( o f a b o a r d ) He G a n n i e h a d g i v e n more t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f a r d u o u s s t u d y t o t h e c a n n i b a r o f t h e dragon and t i g e r (part of the yinyang c u l t ) . When he was i n c h a r g e o f t h e w e s t b a n k o f t h e Y a n g t z e ( J i a n g x i a n d H u n a n ) , he s e n t i n v i t a t i o n s t o a l a r g e number o f m a g i c ians. He composed t h e B i o g r a p h y o f L i u Hong a n d h a d s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d c o p i e s printed. He s e n t c o p i e s o f t h i s t o t h o s e , b o t h i n t h e c o u r t and w i t h i n t h e f o u r s e a s , gave t h e m s e l v e s up t o alchemy.31  I n Wu T i n g x i e ' s Tang D a i F a n g z h e n B i a o , He G a n n i e was 32 r e c o r d e d as t h e Commissioner o f J i a n g x i from Li  Shuhua s u g g e s t s  t h a t the Biography  847 t o 8 4 9 .  o f L i u Hong was  probably published during t h i s period. Wang Dang, i n h i s Tang Y u l i n , a l s o n o t e d "controversy over  t h a t t h e r e was  the accuracy of p r i v a t e l y printed calendars"  i n t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a when t h e E m p e r o r X i z o n g t o o k  refuge  33 i n Chengdu i n 8 81.  Why b o o k s e l l i n g a n d p r i n t i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n S i c h u a n - 19 -  and  t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a c o u l d be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y  were a l l l o c a t e d w i t h i n easy a c c e s s o f p a p e r - p r o d u c i n g Guangdu,  areas.  n o t f a r f r o m C h e n g d u , was v e r y famous f o r i t s p a p e r 34  p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e Tang p e r i o d .  Most o f t h e paper used  b y t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f Tang was a l s o a c q u i r e d Guangdu.  Secondly,  t e d by war a f t e r Sichuan  from  t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r r e g i o n had been  t h e r e b e l l i o n o f An L u s h a n .  devasta-  I t was o n l y i n  and t h e Y a n g t z e a r e a where economic p r o d u c t i o n  prospered  that c u l t u r e continued t o develop.  still  S i c h u a n was  a b l e t o become one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t book p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t e r s n o t o n l y because o f i t s economic p r o s p e r i t y b u t a l s o because i t had t w i c e been e s t a b l i s h e d as a temporary  c a p i t a l -- t h e p o l i t i c a l  a n d c u l t u r a l c e n t e r -- o f  Tang. Most o f t h e books p r i n t e d and s o l d perhaps w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of Buddhist  i n this period, literature,  p o p u l a r w o r k s u s e d b y t h e common p e o p l e .  Very  were  few o f t h e  l i t e r a r y works were p r i n t e d and s o l d f o r t h e s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s . L i u Guojmn p o i n t s o u t two s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s p e r i o d of p r i n t i n g and b o o k s e l l i n g : block p r i n t i n g , people  First,  i n this early period of  t h e b o o k s s o l d w e r e t h o s e n e e d e d b y t h e common  such as c a l e n d a r s , d i c t i o n a r i e s and e l e m e n t a r y  Secondly,  t h o s e engaged i n p r i n t i n g were b o o k - d e a l e r s ,  texts; who  were v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c t o u s e new m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c t i o n s o a s to r e a l i s e p r o f i t s  from d u p l i c a t i n g  for the general public.  35  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f books  The demand f o r s c h o l a r l y w o r k s a n d  C l a s s i c s was c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l and t h e b o o k d e a l e r s  there-  f o r e were n o t i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e b o o k s . Another  r e a s o n why  F i v e D y n a s t i e s was  t h e C l a s s i c s were n o t p r i n t e d u n t i l t h e that the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s  i n t e r e s t i n a technique Books produced produced  t h a t common p e o p l e  by s c h o l a r s were s t i l l  by t h e l a b o r i o u s method  showed  little  had i n v e n t e d .  c o n t i n u e d t o be  o f c o p y i n g by  The p r i n t i n g o f t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s and  hand.  scholarly  w o r k s d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s , more t h a n  150  y e a r s a f t e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g and l o n g  after  p r i n t e d c a l e n d a r s and o t h e r p o p u l a r b o o k s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o the general p u b l i c . p r i n t e d books f i r s t of  I t was  i n Sichuan  o r i g i n a t e d , and i t was t h r o u g h  p r i n t e d books i n Sichuan  of  the s e l l i n g  and t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e r e g i o n t h a t  t h e i d e a o f p r i n t i n g and s e l l i n g first  that the marketing  the Confucian c l a s s i c s  was  inspired.  F e n g Dao  (882-954) and L i Y u w e r e t h e f i r s t  to recongnise  t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s new a r t o f book r e p r o d u c t i o n f o r d u p l i c a t i n g the Confucian c l a s s i c s .  I n 9 25, L a t e r Tang c o n q u e r e d  t h e s t a t e o f Shu and h e l d i t f o r n e a r l y n i n e y e a r s . d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of conquest  t h a t F e n g Dao and L i Yu  t h e s e l l i n g o f b o o k s i n Shu and Wu In  I t was saw  ( t h e Lower Y a n g t z e r e g i o n ) .  h i s epoch-making m e m o r i a l o f 932, Feng p r o p o s e d  t o the  e m p e r o r t o p r i n t t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s -- t h e f i r s t t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s were e v e r p r i n t e d — - 21 -  time  and t h e r e q u e s t  was  granted.  In a condensed v e r s i o n ,  r e c o r d e d t h e m e m o r i a l by  F e n g as  the  Cefu Yuangui  follows:  D u r i n g t h e Han d y n a s t y , C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r s w e r e h o n o r e d and t h e C l a s s i c s . w e r e c u t i n stone. I n Tang t i m e s a l s o s t o n e i n s c r i p t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g the t e x t of the C l a s s i c s w e r e made i n t h e I m p e r i a l S c h o o l . Our d y n a s t y has t o o many o t h e r t h i n g s t o do and c a n n o t u n d e r t a k e s u c h a t a s k as t o h a v e s t o n e i n s c r i p t i o n s c u t and e r e c t e d . We h a v e s e e n , h o w e v e r , men f r o m Wu and Shu who s o l d b o o k s t h a t w e r e p r i n t e d f r o m b l o c k s o f wood. T h e r e w e r e many d i f f e r e n t t e x t s , b u t t h e r e w e r e among them no o r t h o d o x Classics. I f t h e C l a s s i c s c o u l d be r e v i s e d and t h u s c u t i n wood and p u b l i s h e d , i t w o u l d be a g r e a t boom t o t h e s t u d y o f literature.3 6  Emperor Mingzong of L a t e r  Tang t h u s o r d e r e d t h e  Academy t o s e l e c t f o r e a c h C l a s s i c a c o m m i s s i o n o f s i x s p e c i a l i s t s who b o a r d h e a d e d by Ma the  work of  skilled  were t o r e v i s e Gao  was  text.  A  five  The  to p r e p a r e the  or  government  a p p o i n t e d t o e x a m i n e and  these commissions.  calligraphers  the  National  Academy t h e n  revise  selected  f i n a l c o p y and  finally  37 a p p o i n t e d c a r e f u l workmen t o c u t  the  and  f o r twenty-one y e a r s .  p r i n t i n g of  Finally, the  t h i s work l a s t e d  T i a n Min  (879-971) i n 935,  completed e d i t i o n of  i n one  the  blocks.  Y i jing, Shujing, Shijing, Y i l i ,  editing  presented to the  C l a s s i c s and  h u n d r e d t h i r t y v o l u m e s --  The  included  Zhouli,  emperor  t h e i r commentaries the  Nine  L i j i and  the  Classics: three  c o m m e n t a r i e s o f C h u n q i u ; i n a d d i t i o n X i a o j i n3 g8, E r y a , W u j j n g W e n z i and J i u j i n g Z i y a n g w e r e a l s o p r i n t e d . -  22  -  I t i s true the  t h a t the  s p o n s o r s h i p o f F e n g Dao  t i o n of the  made p o s s i b l e  a wider  Confucian c l a s s i c s to students of  However, the  distribu-  literature.  c h i e f p u r p o s e o f p r i n t i n g d i d n o t make  t u r e more a c c e s s i b l e acceptable texts. the  p r i n t i n g of the Nine C l a s s i c s under  t o the masses but  standarised  literathe  F o r more t h a n a c e n t u r y a f t e r F e n g  p r i v a t e p r i n t i n g of the  s u c h p r i n t i n g m u s t be  C l a s s i c s was  done by  the  o  forbidden  g o v e r n m e n t and  Dao,  —  a l l  must  give  39 the  orthodox accepted v e r s i o n .  C o n f u c i a n t e x t s f o r the use  The  of the  s t a n d a r i z a t i o n of  civil  service  c a n d i d a t e s i n the whole empire, from the to the  Qing p e r i o d ,  m a r k e t --  the  C l a s s i c s i n the  tenth  bookselling  c e n t u r y was  s t a t e s m a n Wu  F i v e D y n a s t i e s down  a c t i v e i n the  increasing.  production  Wu  was  to the  of the i n the  Nine state  r a p i d advance of p r i n t -  i n Sichuan during  l a r g e l y due  Zhaoyi.  The  national  classics.  c e n t r a l e m p i r e , book p r o d u c t i o n  ( S i c h u a n ) was  i n g and  was  examination  the development of a  book m a r k e t o f C o n f u c i a n  W h i l e F e n g Dao  o f Shu  facilitates  the  the middle years of e f f o r t s of a  a scholar  who  the  farsighted  endeavored  to  40 provide  l i t e r a r y works f o r poor students.  the m i n i s t e r L i u t i e and  o f Shu  Selected  h i s s t u d e n t s Gou of e d u c a t i o n a l  i n 944,  Wu  Works o f P r i n c e  Z h o n g z h e n g and  w o r k s was  Song h i s t o r i a n , who  published  Sun  A f t e r he  became  Chuxue J i , B a i s h i  Zhaoming w i t h  the  Fengji.  publishing  commended by  Wu s 1  help  S i m a Guang, a w e l l known  w r o t e i n h i s Z i z h i T o n g j i a n : "...He  Zhaoyi) p e t i t i o n e d the k i n g  of  t o have the N i n e C l a s s i c s - 23 -  (Wu,  printed.  The  king granted his p e t i t i o n .  From t h i s  thime there  was a  41 l i t e r a r y r e n a i s s a n c e i n Shu."  Wu s p u b l i s h i n g 1  of the Nine  C l a s s i c s i n S i c h u a n was p r o b a b l y u n d e r t a k e n i n 944 a n d c o n c l u d e d i n 953.  A n e a r l y s u g g e s t i o n b y Wang M i n g q i n g t h a t Wu's  publishing flatly  o f t h e N i n e C l a s s i c s was m o d e l l e d b y F e n g Dao was 42 r e j e c t e d b y Wang G u o w e i .  Book p r o d u c t i o n t o Wu  i n S i c h u a n was h i g h l y a c t i v e , i n a d d i t i o n  Z h a o y i , who made a g r e a t  Ning published  profit  s e v e r a l hundred copies  In the b i o g r a p h i c a l Dynasties recorded  f r o m b o o k s e l l i n g , He o f h i s l i t e r a r y work.  section, the o f f i c i a l  history of the Five  that:  He N i n g was f o n d o f w e l l d e c o r a t e d c a r t s and c l o t h i n g s . He composed e s s a y s i n great q u a n t i t i e s b u t neglected about qualities. He h a d a l i t e r a r y w o r k o f o v e r 100 j u a n a n d h a d i t p r i n t e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e whole country.43  I n 9 2 3 , A B u d d h i s t monk, T a n Y u , a l s o p u b l i s h e d h i s m a s t e r Guan X i u ' s poems.  work Zhanjue J i w h i c h c o n t a i n e d  o v e r 1000  A M i n g w r i t e r , Cao X u e q u a n , a l s o m e n t i o n e d  that  c a l e n d a r s were on s a l e i n S i c h u a n i n t h e f i n a l y e a r s o f Later  Shu ( 9 3 4 - 9 6 5 ) .  4 4  I n a d d i t i o n t o S i c h u a n , t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a and even Shandong h a d b e e n m e n t i o n e d a s p l a c e s and  m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s were p r e s e n t .  e r n Tang  (937-975) h a d a s t r o n g  where book  publishing  The Emperor,  o f South-  interest i n literature  with  c o l l e c t i o n s o f o v e r 60,000 j u a n o f b o o k s . by  S o u t h e r n Tang i n c l u d e d  Shitong  were a l s o c a l e n d a r s p r i n t e d  Books  published  and Y u t a i X i n y o n g .  There  i n t h e lower Yangtze area by  N a n t a n g a n d d i s t r i b u t e d a s f a r away a s S i c h u a n .  L i u Zongyuan  in  h i s J i n h u a z i Zabian a l s o mentioned t h a t there  were  of  l e g a l d o c u m e n t s p r i n t e d a n d a v a i l a b l e i n Shandong i n t h e  copies  45 period  o f Shengyuan (937-942).  P r i n t i n g was a l s o  w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n Hangzhou i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d Dynasties. collapsed  I n September 1925, L e i f a n g  apparently  of the Five  Pagoda i n Hangzhou  and s c r o l l s of p r i n t e d B u d d h i s t sutra, the B a o f i e  Y i n j i n g , were found i n t h e d e b r i s .  The f i r s t  l i n e s of the  t e x t t e l l u s t h a t t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e s u t r a was done a t t h e command o f Q i a n H o n g c h u , who was t h e r u l i n g p r i n c e s t a t e o f Wu a n d Yue d u r i n g  the period  of the  948-978 a n d a  strong  s u p p o r t e r o f Buddhism.  The s u t r a f u r t h e r r e c o r d s t h a t 46 r o l l s o f t h e s u t r a w e r e p r i n t e d i n A.D.976. The e x t e n s i v e  use of block  Five Dynasties could Dunhuang. this period  be f u r t h e r p r o v e d b y d o c u m e n t s f o u n d i n  i n a d d i t i o n t o many s i n g l e p a g e d d e v o t i o n a l century.  bear the b l o c k - c u t t e r ' s  A b u d d h i s t woodcut p r i n t e d  name L e i Y a n m e i -- t h e f i r s t  c u t t e r i n China's h i s t o r y .  L e i was a b l o c k  a r t o f p r i n t i n g a n d book p r o d u c t i o n  western part of China. - 25 -  prints i n 949  known  cutter i n  Dunhuang a n d s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s e a r l y a s t h e F i v e the  of the  There were remnants o f rhythm d i c t i o n a r y p r i n t e d i n  dated i n the tenth  block  p r i n t i n g i n the period  84,000  Dynasties,  had reached t h i s f a r  The p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f b o o k s i n t h e l a t e and t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s w e r e t h u s c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y t h e cal  i n s t a b i l i t y i n Changan  Tang politi-  ( S i a n ) and L u o y a n g w h i l e S i c h u a n  was c o m p a r a t i v e l y a f l o u r i s h i n g k i n g d o m .  L a r g e number o f  distinguished  a l s o came t o S i c h u a n  s c h o l a r s , p o e t s and a r t i s t s  as r e f u g e e s f r o m t h e Tang C o u r t .  The p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and  c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y no d o u b t g i v e an i m p e t u s become one o f t h e f i r s t In  f o r Sichuan to  places to develop the a r t of p r i n t i n g .  a d d i t i o n t o Sichuan, the Yangtze  area,, L u o y a n g ,  Shandong  a n d e v e n Dunhuang, a l s o had e v i d e n c e s o f book p r i n t i n g selling  i n this period.  Most of the p u b l i s h e d works i n t h i s  p e r i o d were c a l e n d a r s , s u t r a s , e l e m e n t a r y  t e x t s and o t h e r  p o p u l a r w o r k s demanded by t h e common p e o p l e . and s e l l i n g  and  The  printing  o f t h e N i n e C l a s s i c s and o t h e r l i t e r a r y w o r k s d i d  n o t b e g i n u n t i l F e n g Dao's r e q u e s t t o t h e e m p e r o r i n 932. W i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t and p r i v a t e book in  the F i v e D y n a s t i e s , commercial  publishing  p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f  b o o k s d i d n o t s u b s i d e b u t f u r t h e r e x p a n d e d i n t h e Song Yuan p e r i o d s .  - 26 -  and  F i g . 1. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Bookstores i n the Song and J i n D y n a s t i e s , 960-1279  - 27 -  Chapter I I I .  The R i s e o f R e g i o n a l  Book M a r k e t s  A f t e r a p e r i o d o f more t h a n 60 y e a r s o f d i s u n i t y , C h i n a was f i n a l l y  r e u n i t e d b y Zhao K a n g y i n i n 960.  Song p e r i o d , t h e economy g r a d u a l l y r e c o v e r e d r a p i d l y developed.  With the r i s i n g  cultural activities  also flourished.  production,  During the e a r l y and commerce  p r o s p e r i t y o f Song s o c i e t y , In the area  o f book  n o t o n l y d i d t h e t y p e s o f b o o k s and t h e f i e l d s o f  studies r a p i d l y increase but the a r t of production reached i t s height  i n t h e Song  itself  period.  Book m a r k e t s i n t h e Song p e r i o d no l o n g e r  limited  them-  s e l v e s t o S i c h u a n and t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e a r e a b u t s p r e a d a l l over the empire.  I n N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d , t h e n a t i o n a l  c a p i t a l , K a i f e n g , was t h e m a j o r book m a r k e t . Song p e r i o d , a s p o i n t e d  In Southern  o u t by L i u G u o j u n , o v e r 170 book 47  production  centres  w e r e known.  Book m a r k e t s i n t h i s  extended t o M e i s h a n i n S i c h u a n ; Hangzhou, J i n l i n g , Quxian i n Zhejiang;  period  Ningbo,  Jianning i n Fujian; Pingjiang i n Jiangsu;  J i a n , Shanyao i n J i a n g x i ; G u i c h i , S h e x i a n i n A n h u i ; J i a n g l i n g i n H u b e i and G u a n g z h o u i n Guangdong. ern  However, Kaifeng.' i n n o r t h -  C h i n a , , Chengdu and M e i s h a n i n S i c h u a n , Hangzhou i n  J i a n g n a n and J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n w e r e c l e a r l y emerged a s r e g i o n a l book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s . The g r a d u a l  (See F i g u r e  1)  r e s t o r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y a f t e r 960 o p e n -  ed up C h i n a ' s l o n g  i n h i b i t e d commercial capacity. - 28 -  Located a t  t h e j u n c t u r e o f t h e G r a n d C a n a l and importance  the Y e l l o w R i v e r , Kaifeng's  as a t r a d e e n t r e p o t grew r a p i d l y .  was  c o m p l e m e n t e d by t h e g r o w i n g  and  the growing  m i l l i o n people.  I t s commerce  p r o d u c t i o n of i t s workshops  p o p u l a t i o n which  was  estimated a t over  I t s r o l e as the n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l  further  e n c o u r a g e d i t s d e v e l o p m e n t as t h e d o m i n a t e p o l i t i c a l economic c e n t r e of N o r t h e r n  Song.  one  and  K a i f e n g became t h e m a r k e t  p l a c e n o t o n l y f o r i t s i m m e d i a t e r e s i d e n t s b u t a l s o f o r more d i s t a n t p l a c e s i n b o t h n o r t h e r n and foreign countries. for  s o u t h e r n C h i n a and  I n K a i f e n g , books were n o t o n l y  even  produced  l o c a l c o n s u m p t i o n b u t were e x p o r t e d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f  the  country.  I n Ye M e n g d e s S h i l i n Y a n y u , he m e n t i o n e d t h a t b o o k s w e r e 1  produced  i n the c a p i t a l of Northern  Song, K a i f e n g , but  the 48  q u a l i t y o f p a p e r u s e d was  lower t h a n t h o s e i n Hangzhou.  T h e r e were a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t books from F u j i a n , and  Hangzhou were e x p o r t e d t o K a i f e n g .  were c a r r i e d  decrees  prohibiting  the f r o n t i e r  Many o f t h e s e  t o t h e c a p i t a l by t h e c a n d i d a t e s who 49  to take the i m p e r i a l examination.  t h e e x p o r t o f b o o k s and  t h a t t h e r e were b o o k s t o r e s  p a r t l y r e a d s as  An  imperial  documents a c r o s s  w i t h S o n g , we  i n Kaifeng producing  b u t i n g such p r o h i b i t e d works.  books  were g o i n g  From a few  t o L i a o , t h e c o u n t r y a t war  Sichuan  and  i m p e r i a l decree  distri-  in  follows:  There were r e p o r t s t h a t u n s c r u p u l o u s  learn  people  1040  and some b o o k s t o r e s p r i n t e d and s o l d s e c r e t documents c o n c e r n i n g f r o n t i e r m i l i t a r y matters. The G o v e r n o r o f K a i f e n g was a u t h o r i z e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e and encourage p e o p l e t o r e p o r t on t h i s . 5 0  In  a memorial t o the throne,  Ou Y a n g x i u r e p o r t e d t h a t :  L a t e l y t h e r e a r e a l o t o f p r i n t e d books a v a i l a b l e as b o o k s t o r e s and b o o k s e l l e r s have n o t been w e l l r e g u l a t e d . I have s e e n c o p i e s o f Songwen, w h i c h t a l k s about t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s o f the s t a t e , s o l d i n the c a p i t a l . I f this book was c i r c u l a t e d t o t h e b a r b a r i a n s t a t e s , i t would cause embarrasement t o our government.51  Ou f u r t h e r r e q u e s t e d gate  and b u r n t h e p r o h i b i t e d books as w e l l as t o o r d e r t h e  bookstores  The as  t h e Governor of K a i f e n g t o i n v e s t i -  n o t t o p u b l i s h o r s e l l a n y more u n a u t h o r i z e d  demand f o r b o o k s was no d o u b t v e r y h i g h i n K a i f e n g  i t was n o t o n l y a n i m p o r t a n t  centre  works.  but a l s o a centre  established  political  of c u l t u r e .  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Many s c h o o l s  were  i n K a i f e n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e N a t i o n a l Academy, t h e  N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f Law, S c h o o l o f A r t , M a t h e m a t i c s School, Medical School students  and o t h e r s .  T h e r e w e r e more t h a n  e n r o l l e d i n the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y alone.  was f u r t h e r e n r i c h e d by t h o u s a n d s o f c a n d i d a t e s the i m p e r i a l examination  Although  held every  three  Kaifeng  coming f o r  years.  we do n o t h a v e many names o f b o o k s t o r e s i n - 30 -  3,800  K a i f e n g , we  l e a r n f r o m Meng Y u a n l a o s. Dong j i n g Menghua L u 1  (1150) t h a t book-.markets w e r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d Books were s o l d  i n the c i t y .  i n the d a i l y market a t Panlou J i u d i a n ,  located 52  on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f P a n l o u S t r e e t , e a s t o f D o n g j i a o Lou. The m a r k e t t h e r e o p e n e d d a i l y  i n the morning.  In addition to  books, t h e r e were a l s o c l o t h i n g , p a i n t i n g s , p r e c i o u s j a d e and o t h e r g o o d s on s a l e . was  located  capital —  stones,  A n o t h e r book m a r k e t i n K a i f e n g  i n one o f t h e m o s t famous p e r i o d i c m a r k e t s i n t h e the Xiangguo Monastery.  Trade took p l a c e  t i m e s a month i n t h e X i a n g g u o M o n a s t e r y .  five  During the market  d a y s , m e r c h a n t s f r o m f a r away p l a c e s a t t e n d e d t h e m a r k e t bringing i n a l l needed.  s o r t s o f g o o d s and b u y i n g t h e s u p p l i e s t h e y  A c c o r d i n g t o Meng Y u a n l a o , b o o k s t a l l s w e r e s e t up  d u r i n g t h e market days b e h i n d the B u d d h i s t H a l l i n f r o n t of 53 the Z i s h e n g Gate i n Xiangguo Monastery.  O u t s i d e t h e Monas-  t e r y , on t h e m a i n t h o r o u g h f a r e o f t h e e a s t g a t e , t h e r e w e r e a l s o a few b o o k s t o r e s l o c a t e d b e s i d e t h e s h o p s s e l l i n g 54 and b e l t s t o t h e s c h o l a r s . was  caps  A w e l l known b o o k s t o r e w h i c h ,  l o c a t e d i n X i a n g g u o M o n a s t e r y b u t l a t e r moved t o H a n g z h o u  was Rong L i u l a n g J i n g s h i  Shujipu.  The c o n q u e s t o f S i c h u a n i n 9 65 b y Song b r o u g h t t h e p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s o f t h e p r o v i n c e and o f t h e c e n t r a l together.  Wu  empire  Z h a o y i , t h e p a t r o n o f book p r o d u c t i o n i n S i c h u a n ,  was b r o u g h t t o t h e i m p e r i a l c a p i t a l .  His printing  were used t o p r o d u c e books f o r c i r c u l a t i n g  blocks  t o the whole empire.  I n f a c t , p n e o f t h e f i r s t b o o k s p r o d u c e d b y t h e Song g o v e r n -  ment, T a i p i n g Gou  Guangji,  was  p r i n t e d by  Z h o n g z h e n g , i n Chengdu.  t h e N a t i o n a l Academy was  By  the  entrusted  one  end  o f Wu's  of the  student,  tenth  to p r i n t the  century,  dynastic  h i s t o r i e s o f Song S h i , N a n q i Shu  and  Zhou Shu  on  But  the most v o l u m i n o u s work  e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d i n Sichuan.  done i n S i c h u a n was This  the whole B u d d h i s t canon —  collection consisted  finished  i n 983.  l a n i n 1000  juan  i n Sichuan.  of  5048 j u a n  e m p l o y e d o v e r 140  b l o c k - c u t t e r s and  p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s have a l r e a d y of Sichuan i n t h i s  M e i s h a n , l e s s t h a n 100  kilometers  a n o t h e r m a j o r book m a r k e t i n S i c h u a n .  and  i n 130,000 b l o c k s  i n f l u e n c e d by  Yuan C i y i n o t  s o u t h of Chengdu, The  development  B o t h Wang  Yulan  temporarily  f o r a Meishan bookstore,  e m p l o y e d by  but  As Wang Chao  Su B a i s u g g e s t s t h a t b l o c k - c u t t e r s  p r i n t e r s were o n l y  cutters  o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r i n t i n g of  the b l o c k - c u t t e r s  yang S h u y i n z h a i ,  was  of  Chengdu as many o f t h e b l o c k  a l s o the M e i s h a n e d i t i o n of Suwending W e n j i . of  printers  period.  t h e g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d Chengdu e d i t i o n o f T a i p i n g  a l s o one  Yu-  been w e l l  p r i n t e r s f r o m Chengdu a l s o w o r k e d i n M e i s h a n .  Chao and  and  l a r g e number o f w o r k e r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o o k  developed i n the p r o v i n c e  M e i s h a n was  the T r i p i t a k a .  I n 1195-1200, the r e p r i n t i n g of T a i p i n g  This  m a r k e t i n g and  w h i c h were based  was  Xian-  and  e i t h e r the  govern-  55 ment o r t h e  commercial p u b l i s h e r s .  A f u r t h e r proof of  t e m p o r a r y e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e b l o c k - c u t t e r s and evident  i n the  printers,  p r i n t i n g o f Houshan S h i z h u ,  f o u r o f whom came f r o m t h e - 32 -  the  printers is  w h i c h had  same f a m i l y .  Su  eleven Bai  a r g u e s t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r a f a m i l y t o have most o f i t s w o r k i n g f o r c e engaged as p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n t e r s and t h e p r i n t e r s must have o n l y been t e m p o r a r i l y printing  h i r e d t o do t h e  work.  Gu T i n g l o n g  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r i s e o f M e i s h a n as Sichuan's;  m a j o r book p r o d u c t i o n  centre  was due t o t h e t r e m e n d o u s e f f o r t 57  of J m g  X i a n m e n g i n p r o m o t i n g book p u b l i s h i n g t h e r e .  was a t r a n s p o r t c o m m i s s i o n e r i n S i c h u a n d u r i n g was a r e n o w n e d b o o k - c o l l e c t o r . seven o f f i c i a l  histories,  Q i and Z h o u , b e f o r e Under J i n g ' s  1142-1145 and  I n 1 1 4 5 , he p e r s o n a l l y  Song, Q i , L i a n g ,  Chen, Wei, N o r t h e r n  the C l a s s i c s , Z h o u l i , Chunqiu, L i z h i  and S a n g u o z h i w e r e a l s o p u b l i s h e d  i n Meishan.  The p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e s e b o o k s f u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d book duction  edited  s e n d i n g them o u t t o p r i n t i n M e i s h a n .  initiation,  Mengzi, S h i j i ,  Jing  and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  pro-  i n Sichuan.  Two o f t h e m o s t w e l l known b o o k s t o r e s i n M e i s h a n , X i a n yang S h u y i n z h a i  and Wanjuan T a n g , h a d p r o d u c e d more t h a n t e n  l i t e r a r y w o r k s o f Tang S c h o l a r s , Wen,  as w e l l as T a n g l i u  Xiansheng  Guochao E r b a i j i a M i n g x i a n W e n c u i , S h i q i s h i C e y a o a n d  others.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e i n M e i s h a n , b o o k s t o r e s such as  Guangdu P e i z h a i , S h u y i n Z h a i  and Ye Chang w e r e w e l l known i n  58 Sichuan  I n t h e S o u r t h e r n Song p e r i o d ,  bookstores i n Linan  (Hangzhou) and J i a n a n  t h i s e a r l i e s t m a j o r book m a r k e t o f C h i n a . - 33 -  the r i s e of the gradually  obscured  As  e a r l y a s t h e N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d  (Jianyang)  (.960-1127) , Ji.anni.ng  i n F u j i a n had a l r e a d y been d e v e l o p e d as an  important  59 book m a r k e t . an  Some w r i t e r s s u g g e s t t h a t J i a n n i n g h a d b e e n  important  book m a r k e t a s e a r l y a s t h e Tang p e r i o d b u t no 60  concrete  e v i d e n c e seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s a r g u m e n t .  established i t s e l f  Once i t  i n t h e Song p e r i o d , J i a n n i n g i n F u j i a n  became one o f t h e m a j o r book m a r k e t s o f C h i n a t i l l o f M i n g , f o r a p e r i o d o f more t h a n 400 y e a r s .  t h e end  Su B a i a t t r i b u -  t e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f J i a n n i n g a s t h e m a j o r book m a r k e t t o i t s geographical  location.  Su p o i n t s ? o u t t h a t  Jianning  l o c a t e d on t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e s ' between F u j i a n and J i a n g x i as w e l l a s b e t w e e n F u j i a n a n d Z h e j i a n g . ^ ^  This  l o c a t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u p p l e m e n t e d by J i a n n i n g ' s paper p r o d u c t i o n  advantageous flourishing  w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l f o r book p r o d u c t i o n and  marketing a c t i v i t i e s .  H o w e v e r , Mao C h u n x i a n g a r g u e s  that  J i a n n i n g ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a s a m a j o r b o o k m a r k e t i s due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n o t e d Song s c h o l a r , Y a n g S h i , who was t e a c h i n g i n 62 Pucheng, n o t f a r from Jianyang. and  students,  provided  A s Y a n g h a d many f o l l o w e r s  Mao a r g u e s t h a t t h i s g a t h e r i n g  a further stimulus  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s  t o t h e book p r o d u c t i o n  efforts i n  Jianyang. A l t h o u g h books produced i n F u j i a n have n o t been appreciated  b y book c o l l e c t o r s ,  traced t o i t s large output.  i t s importance i s p r i m a r i l y  A comparative account of d i f - . :  f e r e n t e d i t i o n s o f books p r o d u c e d i n F u j i a n and o t h e r was  widely  made b y Ye Mengde ( 1 0 7 7 - 1 1 4 8 ) .  provinces  I n h i s S h i l i n Y a n y u , Ye  p o i n t e d o u t the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of books  originated i n  Fujian:  A t p r e s e n t , of a l l books p r i n t e d t h r o u g h o u t the e m p i r e , t h o s e o f H a n g z h o u a r e c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t , t h o s e o f S i c h u a n come n e x t , and t h o s e o f F u j i a n a r e t h e w o r s t . The q u a l i t y of p r i n t i n g i n t h e l a t e c a p i t a l ( K a i f e n g ) d i d n o t seem t o b e l o w e r t h a n t h a t i n Hangz h o u b u t t h e p a p e r u s e d was n o t s o f i n e . I n S i c h u a n and F u j i a n , s o f t w o o d i s much u s e d for c u t t i n g p r i n t i n g b l o c k s , the o b j e c t of which i s t h e i r easy c o m p l e t i o n , w i t h a r a p i d s a l e f o r the books. Hence t h e w o r k m a n s h i p i s n o t good. F u j i a n e d i t i o n s a r e s p r e a d a l l o v e r t h e e m p i r e , and t h a t i s on a c c o u n t o f the e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e g o t r e a d y . 6 3  The trict  two m o s t p r o m i n e n t book m a r k e t s  dis-  i n t h e p r e f e c t u r e o f J i a n n i n g , w e r e Masha Zhen i n Y o n g -  z h o n g L i and S h u f a n g  Zhen  a s S h u l i n i n Chunhua L i . the  i n Jianyang, a  philosopher  (literally  "Book M a r k e t " )  known a l s o  I n h i s J i a h e X i a n x u e Cangshu J i ,  Zhu X i m e n t i o n e d  that:  "Books p r o d u c e d i n  Masha o f J i a n y a n g a r e u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e m p i r e , no m a t t e r 64 how  far i t is."  Fangyu Shenglan a l s o s a i d :  Chunhua d i s t r i c t s p r o d u c e b o o k s  " B o t h Masha  and  and a r e c a l l e d c e n t r e s o f  65 books."  T h e r e w e r e a t l e a s t 16 known bookshops: i n F u j i a n  with the majority i n Jianan.  One  of the bookshops  h i s t o r y e x t e n d i n g f r o m Song t o t h e end o f t h e M i n g was  Yu's  family.  The  t r a d e was  with  dynasty  h a n d e d down f r o m one  gengera-  t i o n t o a n o t h e r b u t had o p e r a t e d u n d e r d i f f e r e n t names. of  t h e i r most noted bookshops  Tang. cial,  a  Two  w e r e Q i n y o u Tang and W a n j u a n  Even t h e emperor Q i a n l o n g i n Qing p e r i o d s e n t an Zhong Y i n , t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e h i s t o r y o f Q i n y o u - 35 -  offi-  Tang.  A d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e Yu f a m i l y , Yu T i n g x i a n g , t o l d  Zhong Y i n  from h i s c l a n r e c o r d t h a t h i s ascendants:  ... had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r book p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s i n J i a n y a n g as e a r l y as t h e N o r t h e r n Song P e r i o d . Yu's f a m i l y i m p o r t e d p a p e r f r o m o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and s t a m p e d " Q i n y o u " on them. As b o o k p u b l i s h i n g h a d n o t y e t b e e n w e l l p o p u l a r i s e d and Q i n y o u Tang u s e d good p a p e r and w o o d b l o c k s f o r p r i n t i n g , t h i s was why J i a n a n ( Q i n y o u Tang) b o o k s had b e e n s o p o p u l a r . The name o f t h e b o o k s h o p " Q i n y o u " had l o n g b e e n u s e d . I n t h e L i z o n g p e r i o d (1225-1264), Yu Wenx i n g h a d a n a l t e r n a t i v e name, Q i n y o u J u s h i , w h i c h was t a k e n f r o m t h e name o f t h e o l d bookshop. The w o r k s h o p i n w h i c h S h a o q i n g t a n g S h u j i was p u b l i s h e d b y t h e Yu f a m i l y o f t o d a y was s a i d t o be t h e o l d s i t e o f Q i n y o u Tang.66  Q i n y o u Tang and Wanjuan Tang t o g e t h e r p u b l i s h e d more t h a n e i g h t e e n w o r k s i n some 270  juan.  Though m o s t Masha  editions  w e r e r e g a r d e d by b i b l i o p h i l e s a s p o o r i n q u a l i t y , b o o k s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e Yu f a m i l y w e r e w e l l p r o d u c e d and h i g h l y  priced  and were c o n s i d e r e d as c o m p a r a b l e t o e d i t i o n s s o l d i n Hangzhou. O t h e r Yu p u b l i s h e r s i n J i a n a n i n c l u d e d Yu T a n g q i n g and Yu Gongli.  L i u Guojun p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e were a t l e a s t  t h r e e b o o k s h o p s i n J i a n n i n g , b u t we do n o t h a v e a l l names.  thirty-  their  The m o s t w e l l known o n e s i n c l u d e d Huang S a n b a l a n g S h u -  p u , Yu P i n g z h a i ' s Wuben S h u f a n g , Dan G u a n g z u ' s Y u e y a S h u t a n g and o t h e r s .  (See A p p e n d i x I I ) .  B o o k s h o p s i n F u j i a n g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e d on a much s c a l e t h a n t h o s e i n S i c h u a n and Hangzhou. - 36 -  larger  Most of t h e books  printed  i n Hangzhou w e r e done b y f a m i l y members o f t h e shop  owner.  E v e n when e x t r a b l o c k - c u t t e r s w e r e n e e d e d f o r t h e  p r i n t i n g o f b o o k s , o n l y one o r a f e w o f them w e r e h i r e d . However, Y i j i n g Tang i n J i a n n i n g h i r e d more t h a n 29 w o r k e r s to p r i n t the dynastic The l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n necessitated facilitate  h i s t o r y o f F o r m e r and L a t e r Han i n 1208. o f the bookshops i n J i a n n i n g  a bigger  market o u t s i d e  therefore  the v i c i n i t y .  To  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of books t o d i s t a n t m a r k e t s ,  t h e y u s e d p a p e r made f r o m y o u n g bamboo w h i c h was yellowish i n colour. as many c h a r a c t e r s  In a d d i t i o n they t r i e d  lighter  and  t o squeeze i n  a s p o s s i b l e o n t o one p r i n t i n g b l o c k ,  and  t o c u t down t h e number o f v o l u m e s s o a s t o l o w e r t h e p r i c e o f the books they s o l d .  To m a r k e t t h e i r much l a r g e r o u t p u t o f  b o o k s , bookshops i n J i a n n i n g had t o r e l y retail  l e s s on d i r e c t  s a l e b u t more on t h e book t r a d e r s who  s o l d books a t  67 f a r away t o w n s and m a r k e t s .  After Kaifeng  fell  i n t o t h e h a n d s o f N u z h e n i n 1126, t h e  Song e m p e r o r t o o k r e f u g e i n Hangzhou Hangzhou  i t s e l f was a c i t y o f m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s .  once t h e c a p i t a l , the  (then c a l l e d L i n a n ) .  since i t contained  I t was a t  the Imperial Palaces  o f f i c e s of t h e c e n t r a l government, the seat of a  prefecture, addition, believes  large  and a l s o t h e s e a t o f two s u b - p r e f e c t u r e s .  i t was  an i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e  that the population  of trade.  In  Gernet  o f Hangzhou m u s t h a v e b e e n  less  68 t h a n 200,000  before  1126.  Nevertheless,  M e n g l i a n g L u , t h e two s u b - p r e f e c t u r e s , - 37 -  and  as r e c o r d e d i n  Q i a n t a n g and  Renhe,  had  104,669 h o u s e h o l d s b e t w e e n t h e p e r i o d 1165  and  1173.  I f the c u r r e n t average of f o u r t o f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s per i s accepted,  a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of j u s t below h a l f a  was  then.  recorded  were r e g i s t e r e d .  By The  0 3  family  million  1241-1252, a t o t a l o f 111,336 h o u s e h o l d s year  1270  f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t o have 70  186,330 f a m i l i e s , The  t h a t i s , a t o t a l population of  f i g u r e s thus provided  strong evidence  i n p o p u l a t i o n during the years  900,000.  of a sudden  immediately  increase  a f t e r 1126  and  a  r a p i d growth of p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e a f t e r . With the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the fang s p r u n g up z h o u and and  i n a l l the main thoroughfares the c i t y gates.  pedlars s e l l i n g  selling  r i c e and  markets s e l l i n g vegetables,  and  books.  The  pearls  o f t h e c i t y o f Hang-  I n a d d i t i o n t o l a r g e numbers o f pork,  t h e r e w e r e n e a r l y 200  s a l t e d f i s h . -There were a n o t h e r  flowers, olives,  (ward) s y s t e m , m a r k e t s  fresh fish,  and  precious  fifteen  shops  specialized  crabs,  clothing,  stones, oranges,  book m a r k e t , " S h u f a n g " , was  shops  herbs,  l o c a t e d i n Juyuan  Pavilion.  As  a m a j o r c e n t r e of t r a d e , Hangzhou n o t o n l y engaged i n  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l trade but a l s o f o r e i g n trade. l u x u r y and was  p l e a s u r e was  particularly  there t h a t the high Court,  m e r c h a n t s had  for  s t r o n g i n Hangzhou.  the o f f i c i a l s  their residences.  Passion  and  the  It  rich  Gernet even c l a i m s t h a t  "•ho  72  o t h e r t o w n had  such a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth."  comments t h a t t h e r e was  "an -  He  e x c e s s i v e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of 38  -  further shops  i h Hangzhou."  W e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s ; d i d not  a b u s i n e s s f o r a son  who  failed  i n the  hesitate to  imperial  T h e s e s h o p k e e p e r s - b y - a c c i d e n t w e r e known i n t h e name o f  "guanren"  ( m a d a r i n ) and  i n t h e more e x c l u s i v e  trades.  amongst them w e r e b o o k s e l l e r s , c a p s and there  c l o t h i n g w o r n by  were b o o k s e l l e r  c a p - s e l l e r Xu  As  of S o u t h e r n Song.  i n the  shop of G u o s f a m i l y 74 1  Hangzhou."  Su  developed only  --  censorship and by  This  was  reads:  indicated in  A statement at  " P r i n t e d i n the  " P r i n t e d i n the  i n Cheqiaonan D a j i e  the  zhimapu  of  in  Song  paper-making  i n Qiantang Gate i n  B a i s u g g e s t s t h a t bookshops i n Hangzhou  a f t e r block  p r i n t i n g had  been w i d e l y  used  t h a t a f t e r l a r g e numbers, o f b l o c k - p r i n t e r s  i n the middle or o f b o o k s had  bookshops.  only  two  east side of the Maoerqiao R i v e r  t h i s encouraged the the  the  zhimapu  Another statement i n a Korean r e p r i n t of  and  Lu,  and  Many b o o k s h o p s t h e n w e r e  paper-making shops or  e d i t i o n of Hanshanzi C i reads:  trained  guanren,  w e l l developed i n  e a r l y S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d .  Zhong's f a m i l y  Zhejiang  special  guanren.  o f Wenxuan Wuchen Zhu  Hangzhou."  occupied  noted i n Mengliang  Zhang g u a n r e n , d e n t i s t Fu  ( p a p e r f u n e r a l o f f e r i n g shop) .•  end  the  d e n t i s t s , or vendors of  scholars.  p a r t of the b u s i n e s s of the  works of the  town by  m o s t common o c c u p a t i o n  Bookshops i n Hangzhou were not early period  examination.  t h e y were a p p a r e n t l y The  buy  were  l a t e S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d .  also gradully relaxed production  and  in this  in  The period  the m a r k e t i n g of  books  Liu  G u o j u n p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e were o v e r  bookstores  thirteen  i n H a n g z h o u w h i l e Mao C h u n x i a n g s u g g e s t s  were twenty.  that there  A w e l l known b o o k s h o p was Chen's f a m i l y whose  s h o p was l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h o f L u q i n F a n g i n H a n g z h o u . the middle  From  o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n , Chen Q i and h i s s o n  p u b l i s h e d a l m o s t . a l l t h e l i t e r a r y w o r k s , poems and o f Tang and Song w r i t e r s .  fictions  O v e r 100 v o l u m e s o f Tang w o r k s and  a l a r g e number o f Song w o r k s w e r e t h u s p u b l i s h e d and s o l d i n H a n g z h o u b y Chen's f a m i l y .  Many o f t h e b o o k s p u b l i s h e d by  them w e r e o f v e r y h i g h q u a l i t y a s t h e y u s e d g o o d p a p e r and i n k and t h e i r b o o k s w e r e r e g a r d e d commercially  produced e d i t i o n s .  known a s "Shupeng" e d i t i o n s . as:  " P u b l i s h e d by Chenshi  quality  as t h e b e s t  B o o k s p u b l i s h e d by Chen  Many o f them h a d b e e n s t a m p e d  S h u j i p u i n Pengbei D a j i e i n L i n a n Fu"  o r " P u b l i s h e d by Chen's f a m i l y i n M u q i n F a n g o f P e n g b e i i n L i n a n Fu." Lou,  was  Chen Q i , whose b o o k s t o r e  Daijie  : was known a s Y u n j u  was n o t o n l y famous a s a c o m m e r c i a l b o o k s e l l e r b u t a s a  h i g h l y l i t e r a t e poet.  H i s s o n , Xuyun, had books stamped:  " P u b l i s h e d b y Chen J i e y u a n S h u j i p u i n M u q i u F a n g o f P e n g b e i D a j i e i n L i n a n Fu." t i l l ,  Chen's b o o k s t o r e  l a s t e d f r o m t h e 1220's  e a r l y Yuan p e r i o d .  The b o o k s h o p o f Y i n ' s f a m i l y w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n f r o n t of Taimiao  a l s o p u b l i s h e d many f i c t i o n and l i t e r a r y w o r k s .  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were a l s o b o o k s t o r e s s e l e c t e d B u d d h i s t works, such  w h i c h p r i n t e d and  as J i a g u a n r e n J i n g s h u p u  e a s t o f Z h o n g a n q i a o N a n j i e and Wang N i a n s a n l a n g ' s  sold i n the  family i n  In  Pengqian N a n j i e of X i j i n g Fang.  Some of these p r i n t e d Budd-  h i s t works were f i n e l y done and the woodcut i n these books were the b e s t samples a t t h a t time.  Most of the works p r i n t e d  by these bookshops were, however, done by f a m i l y members alone. T h i s was why many of t h e i r books d i d not c o n t a i n the names of b l o c k - p r i n t e r s or c u t t e r s . only a few were h i r e d .  Even when o u t s i d e l a b o r was needed,  R a r e l y more than t e n b l o c k - p r i n t e r s  would have been engaged i n one book. jiazhou J i , Wen.  In the p r i n t i n g of Cen-  Chen's f a m i l y h i r e d only one b l o c k - p r i n t e r , Z i  Although  there were i n s t a n c e s where more than t e n  people were h i r e d t o do the p r i n t i n g job, t h i s s t i l l  c o u l d not  change the s m a l l s c a l e book p r o d u c t i o n system i n Hangzhou i n the p e r i o d of Southern  Song.  From an e d i c t t o censor books i n 1193, we can t e l l Wuzhou i n Z h e j i a n g had a l s o been developed p u b l i s h i n g center i n the Southern  that  as a major book  Song p e r i o d .  In the chapter  on law and punishement, Songhuiyao J i g a o recorded an i m p e r i a l e d i c t i n 1193 which put Wuzhou together with Sichuan, zhou and Nanjing as important  Hang-  p l a c e s where o f f i c i a l s had t o  censor and d e s t r o y unauthorised works produced and s o l d 76 by the bookshops.  Z h o u l i Zhu p r i n t e d by Tang's f a m i l y i n  Wuzhou Shimenxiang and Meihua Zishenpu  p r i n t e d by Shuanggui  Tang i n Jinhua were both famous works of the Song p e r i o d t h a t survived.  Yiwu X i a n seemed t o be the most important  of book marketing  centre  i n Wuzhou and there were works p u b l i s h e d by  bookshops, such as Chongzhi Zhai of J i a n g ' s f a m i l y and Gui  Tang o f Wu' s f a m i l y , w h i c h  In a d d i t i o n  t o Wuzhou, P i n g j i a n g  book m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e . i t s proximity H a n g z h o u was of the as  survived.  was  a l s o an  I t s d e v e l o p m e n t was  t o H a n g z h o u and i n d i c a t e d by  p o s s i b l y due  a more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e  the works p u b l i s h e d  known b l o c k - p r i n t e r s  (1208-1124), b l o c k - p r i n t e r s  so numerous t h a t a number o f  them w e r e h i r e d by  Many recorded  In the  from P i n g j i a n g  to  by  there.  from Hangzhou were a l s o  p r i n t e r s i n works produced i n P i n g j i a n g .  period  important  Jiading  had  become  bookshops i n  77 p l a c e s as  f a r away as  With the published  Guangdong.  increase  i n the  i n the  Song p e r i o d  C l a s s i c s t o b o o k s on  written  of c o u r s e , the  primarily benefited the  in agriculture,  i n s i m p l e l a n g u a g e s and of  e d u c a t e d and  t o o l s and the  often  appliances.  officials  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y p r o m u l g a t e d as w e l l as  the  Qimin Yaoshu  Not  only  were o l d e r  ( E s s e n t i a l Technique f o r the - 42  -  illusIt  well-to-do landlords  from c o n t a c t s w i t h  d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l manuals. as  s u c h as  expanded  Practical agricultural treatises  t r a t e d w i t h woodcut p i c t u r e s was  The  these books g r e a t l y  these f i e l d s ,  mathematics.  were p u b l i s h e d ,  the  fiction,  other popular works.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  people's knowledge of and  g r e a t l y expanded from  m a t h e m a t i c s , poems,  D a o i s m as w e l l as  p r o d u c t i o n and  science  had  geography, h i s t o r y , medicine, a g r i c u l -  t u r e , commerce, i n d u s t r y , B u d d h i s m and  number o f b o o k s h o p s , b o o k s  who  read  the  texts,  more such  Common P e o p l e )  written by J i a S i x i e i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y , r e p r i n t e d .  New  w o r k s , o u t s t a n d i n g amongst t h o s e w e r e Chen F u * s N o n g s h u (Agricultural Treatise) H u s b a n d r y and W e a v i n g —  a n d L o u S h o u ' s P i c t u r e s a n d Poems o n the f i r s t  i l l u s t r a t e d work, were  78 also  published.  I n a r e q u e s t t o p r i n t Wang Zhen's Nongshu ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Treatise), firmed the  the Jiangsu educational  t h a t b o o k s t o r e s had p r i n t e d  S o u t h e r n Song d y n a s t y .  a u t h o r i t i e s i n 1313 c o n a g r i c u l t u r a l manuals i n  The r e q u e s t r e a d s p a r t l y a s  follows:  A l t h o u g h t h e b o o k s t o r e s have p r e v i o u s l y p r i n t e d such works as Qimin Yaoshu and N o n g s h u , no book h a s g a t h e r e d m a t t e r s t o g e t h e r c o m p l e t e l y as t h e p r e s e n t o n e . ™  In a d d i t i o n published  t o a g r i c u t u r a l w o r k s , Song b o o k s t o r e s  also  works on e l e m e n t a r y m a t h e m a t i c s , t e c h n i q u e s o f  a b a c u s , s u c h a s Yang H u i ' s M a t h e m a t i c s f o r D a i l y U s e , w h i c h was p r i n t e d  i n 1262.  I t was n o t o n l y engaged i n p u b l i s h i n g the  the commercial publishers  who a c t i v e l y  new s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l  works,  i m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t o f Song a l s o p u b l i s h e d  works on m e d i -  c i n e , a g r i c u l t u r e , l a w codes and m a t h e m a t i c s .  The two p r i n t -  ings  o f 1,500 c o p i e s made i n 1273 o f t h e E s s e n t i a l s o f A g r i -  c u l t u r e and S e r i c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d - 43 -  one o f t h e l a r g e s t  runs.  T h i s g i v e s u s some i d e a o f t h e number o f c o p i e s p r i n t e d o f e a c h book i n t h a t p e r i o d .  I n t h i s f l o u r i s h i n g book p u b l i s h i n g p e r i o d ,  both  c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d o l d l i t e r a r y w o r k s w e r e p r i n t e d and d i s t r i buted  i n large quantity.  T h i s no d o u b t h e l p e d  t i o n o f many o l d t e x t s a n d r a r e w o r k s . civil  s e r v i c e examinations  the preserva-  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e  f o r the entrance  into officialdom  l e d t o t h e largenumbers  o f books p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e use o f t h e  examination  such as d i c t i o n a r i e s ,  candidates,  C l a s s i c s and l i t e r a t u r e .  commentaries on  The much l a r g e r o u t p u t  a l l k i n d s i n t h e p e r i o d a l s o much f a c i l i t a t e d tions  o f g o v e r n m e n t and p r i v a t e l i b r a r i e s .  c o l l e c t o r s h a d a l i b r a r y o f more t h a n  o f books o f  t h e book  Many o f t h e book  10,000 j u a n , s u c h a s  Song S h o u , L i F a n g , Ye Mengde, Zheng Q i a o a n d o t h e r s .  Along  w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r p r i n t e d b o o k s , p r i n t e r s encouraged t o p e r f e c t t h e i r a c t .  collec-  Instrumental  were  i n the preser-  v a t i o n , d i f f u s i o n ^ and p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , t h e b o o k shops, w i t h t h e a r t o f p r i n t i n g , helped  t o spread  knowledge 81  t o a much l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f t h e m a s s e s t h a n e v e r  The  t h r e e a l i e n d y n a s t i e s w h i c h c o e x i s t e d and engaged i n  continuous and  Jin.  before.  w a r s w i t h t h e Song d y n a s t y  were t h e L i a o ,  Xixia  To a d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e , t h e t h r e e a l i e n s w e r e  e n c e d b y t h e h i g h c u l t u r e o f Song a n d m o d e l l e d tions . - 44 -  Song  influ-  institu-  The  L i a o empire  the n i n t h century finally  fought  Bianliang  (.907-1125) r o s e  i n the northern  t h e i r way  (Kaifeng).  s c h o o l s be  p a r t of Manchuria.  to Beijing  I n 1055,  as e a r l y as t h e c l o s e  an  i n 938  and  t a r i e s t o t h e C l a s s i c s and Hanshu were d i s t r i b u t e d  i m p e r i a l decree ordered  to schools.  t h e i r works were d i s c o v e r e d  o v e r 160  Unfortunately  o f b o o k s and  no  The  t h e Fugong M o n a s t e r y i n S h a n x i . p r i n t e d between the year volumes.  Khitan T r i p i t a k a provided  these  The  in Beijing.  the  sutras,  discovered  K h i t a n T r i p i t a k a was  o f 1031  and  1064  d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s 12  culture.  This  Liao  and  has  juan  of  an e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e f o r t h e  L i a o p r i n t e d b o o k s was  printed  and  specimens of L i a o manuscripts,  in  o f L i a o p r i n t i n g and  Commen-  until recently.  p a i n t i n g s were  l e s s t h a n 1000  that  specimens of  K h i t a n T r i p i t a k a , p r i n t e d b o o k s and  probably  captured  the h i s t o r i c a l works S h i j i  government f o r b i d the e x p o r t  I n 197 4,  They  later  e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the L i a o empire.  of  Another major f i n d i n g  study  from  t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f them w e r e  indicates that Beijing,  the  southern  c a p i t a l o f L i a o , became a m a j o r b o o k p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r  as  82 e a r l y as t h e  twelth  century.  X i x i a or Tangut, a t r i b e of T i b e t a n  people,  s t r o n g k i n g d o m i n n o r t h w e s t M a n c h u r i a and 1032,  they  s e t up  East Mongolia.  established their c a p i t a l i n Ningxie.  The  p e o p l e a d m i r e d t h e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e so much t h a t t h e y vated  the  study  of the Confucian  classics.  a In  Tangut culti-  L i Yuanhao,  who  reigned f r o m 1032 t o 1 0 4 8 , was s o i n t e r e s t e d i n C h i n e s e  litera-  t u r e t h a t on one o c c a s i o n he p r o c u r e d a number o f b o o k s the  Song C o u r t i n e x c h a n g e f o r 50 h o r s e s .  established after L e a r n i n g founded to  t h e Chinese model, i n 1145.  1193, purchased  from  S c h o o l s were  i n c l u d i n g an Academy o f  L i R e n x i a o , who r e i g n e d f r o m 1139  from t h e J i n people n o t o n l y books on 83  C o n f u c i a n i s m b u t Buddhism as w e l l .  A f t e r t h e Nuzhen o r J i n overpowered  t h e K h i t a n i n 1125,  t h e y i n v a d e d t h e Song e m p i r e a n d c a p t u r e d t h e / c a p i t a l , K a i f e n g , in  1126.  They t o o k a l l t h e b o o k s a s w e l l a s p r i n t i n g b l o c k s  f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f N o r t h e r n Song and t r a n s p o r t e d them n o r t h w a r d .  A g o v e r n m e n t p r i n t i n g o f f i c e was f u r t h e r s e t  up a t P i n g y a n g , known a l s o a s P i n g s h u i , i n S h a n x i . N a t i o n a l Academy  ( r e s t o r e d i n 1151) a n d t h e Hong Wen  The J i n Yuan  ( f o u n d e d i n 1194) t o g e t h e r p u b l i s h e d o v e r 30 w o r k s i n C h i n e s e 84 and  15 w o r k s i n N u z h e n  language.  P i n g y a n g was n o t o n l y / f l o u r i s h e d i n g o v e r n m e n t i t was a l s o t h e  dominant book market  c i a l publications.  f o r p r i v a t e and commer-  A s n o t e d b y Sun Y u x i u :  ( P i n g y a n g ) was e l e v a t e d t o become t h e s i t e o f a G o v e r n o r ' s O f f i c e i n 1128. S i n c e P i n g y a n g h a d a l s o become t h e l e a d i n g c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t e r i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a , an o f f i c i a l p r i n t i n g o f f i c e was s e t up t h e r e . T h i s g r e a t l y encouraged the g r o w t h o f c o m m e r c i a l b o o k s t o r e s i n that place. I n t h e Y u a n p e r i o d , book - 46 -  publishing,  m a r k e t i n P i n g y a n g c o n t i n u e d t o grow, P i n g y a n g was t h u s a s p r o m i n e n t a s Masha book market i n Jianyang.85  Located i n the Southern C i r c u i t  o f Hedong  (Southern p a r t o f  S h a n x i ) , a f a r removed p l a c e f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f w a r , P i n g y a n g was a p l a c e e n r i c h e d w i t h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a n d many and  students resided there.  In addition t o having  scholars  high  q u a l i t y w h i t e p a p e r p r o d u c e d t h e r e , P i n g y a n g was f u r t h e r as  t h e s i t e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Academy, w h e r e many famous  noted  scho-  l a r s w o r k e d , and a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e government p r i n t i n g office. lop  T h e s e f a c t o r s no d o u b t e n c o u r a g e d P i n g s h u i t o d e v e -  a s t h e m a j o r book m a r k e t i n t h e J i n a n d Y u a n p e r i o d s .  Even i n t h e J i n d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y , books were mentioned as 86 products of the area.  Known b o o k s h o p s i n P i n g s h u i  included  S h u x u a n C h e n s h i , L i Z i w e n , Zhang Q i a n , Zhonghe X u a n o f Wang's f a m i l y , H u i M i n g X u a n o f Zhang's f a m i l y , J i ' s f a m i l y , L i u M i n 87 zhong and o t h e r s .  (See A p p e n d i x I I I ) .  Some o f them s u c h a s  Zhonghe X u a n a n d J i ' s f a m i l y h a d f l o u r i s h e d n o t o n l y i n t h e J i n p e r i o d b u t c o n t i n u e d on t o Yuan t i m e s .  A Yuan e d i t i o n o f  X i n k e Y u n l u e c o l l e c t e d b y Wang S h i z h e n h a d a n i n k stamp w h i c h read:  "A new e d i t i o n p r i n t e d by Zhonghe X u a n o f Wang's f a m i l y  i n P i n g s h u i i n t h e y e a r o f 1306." he X u a n h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d 88 t h e J i n a n d Yuan p e r i o d .  This indicates that  f o r a t l e a s t 77 y e a r s  Zhong-  throughout  N e x t i m p o r t a n t t o P i n g y a n g i n t h e J i n p e r i o d was t h e book m a r k e t i n N i n g j i n X i a n w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n t h e w e s t e r n  circuit  of Hebei. Hu's  The  roost  famous b o o k s h o p was  g r a n d f a t h e r had  the J i n g  and  the J i n empire, J i a n g ' s f a m i l y h i d  others i n a deserted place.  excavated  t h e b l o c k s o u t and  b o o k s s o l d by  had  L u y i P l a n , Guang-  them p r i n t e d .  The  the J i n g f a m i l y were h i g h l y p o p u l a r  p r o v i s i o n o f b o o k s i n J i n was  the smuggling  from the south.  printed  north  w e l l done and  of the  Although  further facilitated  smuggling  made by m e r c h a n t s who  o f t h e s e books t o J i n were o f t e n  (120 2 ) , a Song g o v e r n m e n t  d i s c l o s e d t h a t a g r o u p o f m e r c h a n t s , D a i S h i l i u and attempted  t o s m u g g l e m i l i t a r y and o t h e r w o r k s , t o J i n and  The  f u r t h e r ordered  decree others,  w e r e c a u g h t by  that local o f f i c i a l s  the  p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s published  bookstores  screened  a u t h o r i t y and  f i r s t be  the unauthorized  and  officials.  should  t h a t b o o k s on m i l i t a r y and should  a p p r o v e d by t h e  b l o c k s and  p r i n t e d books  ensure by local should  destroyed. ^ 9  W i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f books a l r e a d y begun i n the - 48  In  p o l i t i c a l books, Benchao  S h i s h i and decree  and  w e r e e n c o u r a g e d by t h e h i g h p r o f i t s .  the second year of J i a t a i  by  t h e Song g o v e r n m e n t  l a w s g o v e r n e d t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f b o o k s on p o l i t i c a l  military affairs,  be  Jing  , 89 low.  p r i c e was  had  the  A f t e r the e v a s i o n ,  t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r b e c a u s e t h e p r i n t i n g was  The  in  I n 1213-1216 when  p r i n t i n g b l o c k s of the F i v e C l a s s i c s , Taihe yun  Jing  already started a publishing business  N i n g j i n as e a r l y as t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s . the Mongols invaded  family.  -  Liao  p e r i o d , book m a r k e t i n g f u r t h e r developed B e i j i n g was  activities  i n the J i n p e r i o d .  no d o u b t e n c o u r a g e d  n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l and  in  by  The  book m a r k e t i n  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t as  t h e p o l i t i c a l and  attached t o the c a p i t a l . Z u t i n g G u a n g j i and  i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s were  cultural  the  importance  I n B e i j i n g , J i u Wudai S h i , K o n g s h i  Zhengguan Z h e n g y a o w e r e p u b l i s h e d .  the Xiangguo Monastery  Markets  i n K a i f e n g c o n t i n u e d on a s i n t h e  Song t i m e t o o p e n on t h e t h i r d and e i g h t h d a y o f e v e r y (cycle of ten days). sold there. for  D u r i n g t h e s e market days, books were  In the p u b l i c a t i o n of D i l i  the c i v i l  s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n , we  X i n s h u , a book  can t e l l  of  Dili  throughout  the J i n s t a t e .  X i n s h u were produced.  commercial  bookstores  The  used  t h a t the  p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o f b o o k s had b e e n q u i t e developed  xun  extensively  More t h a n seven N a t i o n a l Academy  editions and  i n Gutang, Yimen, Puban, P i n g y a n g , a l l  had d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s f o r s a l e .  In Pingyang,  several 91  d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s were p r i n t e d in  t h e J i n p e r i o d t h u s had  for sale there.  a l r e a d y been d i s t r i b u t e d  Book m a r k e t s a l l over  t h e modern p r o v i n c e s o f H e b e i , S h a n d o n g , S h a n x i , Henan  and  Shaanxi, i n nine of the nineteen c i r c u i t s of the J i n adminis92 tration. In  1210  t h e M o n g o l l e a d e r , t h e g r e a t Genghis: K h a n  a t t a c k e d t h e b u f f e r s t a t e o f J i n , and their capital at Beijing. o n l y one  hundredth  I n 1227  i n 1224  he d e s t r o y e d X i x i a ,  of the p o p u l a t i o n a l i v e .  Genghis d i e d , but s t i l l  the Mongol hoardes - 49  -  destroyed leaving  Three years a d v a n c e d , and  later in  123 5 t h e y t u r n e d t o s o u t h e r n China,. resisting,  the Mongols took over  and  themselves  called  The M o n g o l i a n  A f t e r f o r t y years of  the Southern  Song i n 1279  t h e Yuan D y n a s t y ,  r u l e r s made u s e o f t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n  s y s t e m and t h e c i v i l  s e r v i c e examination  t o keep t h e  Chinese  scholars preoccupied  s o t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no m a n i f e s t a t i o n  o f d i s c o n t e n t and r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e f o r e i g n r u l e r s . Yuan d y n a s t y In  The  h a d a more o r l e s s e x t e n s i v e s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n .  a d d i t i o n t o t h e N a t i o n a l Academy and a c a d e m i e s i n t h e  circuits,  local  20,166 l o c a l  schools w e r e n u m e r o u s .  I n 1286 t h e r e w e r e  s c h o o l s and i n 1288 o v e r  24,000 s c h o o l s w e r e  e s t a b l i s h e d throughout  the country.  M o r e o v e r , more t h a n  academies, i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , were a l s o  forty  recorded  93 in  d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the empire.  examination Chucai  service  was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d , a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f Y e l u  (1190-1244), even b e f o r e t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h e  Mongolian until  The c i v i l  empire i n 1271.  However, no e x a m i n a t i o n  1284 due t o c o n t i n u o u s  sixteen t r i e n n a l examinations degree o f j i n s h i . irregular  m i l i t a r y campaigns.  given  S i n c e 1313,  were h e l d f o r t h e h i g h e s t  L o c a l examinations  intervals.  was  were a l s o g i v e n a t  Despite the f a c t that the  examinations  w e r e p o o r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , t h e y f u r n i s h e d an i n c e n t i v e t o s t u d y and  c r e a t e d a demand f o r b o o k s .  Books i n t h e Yuan  dynasty  w e r e a c t i v e l y r e p r i n t e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t f r o m t h e Song p r i n t i n g b l o c k s b u t new w o r k s w e r e a l s o p r o d u c e d i n f a r g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y by b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s . - 50 -  This  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s  through-  out the country.  S p e c i a l o f f i c e s t o e d i c t and p u b l i s h books under s p o n s o r s h i p w e r e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e Yuan Again,  a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f Y e l u Chucai,  p i l a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g  i n 1269.  j i n g as t h e centre come.  dynasty.  t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Com-  i n 1236 a n d t h e I n s t i t u t e  o f L i t e r a t u r e was f o u n d e d i n P i n g y a n g moved t o B e i j i n g  official  i n t h e same y e a r b u t  T h i s move f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d B e i -  of Chinese  c u l t u r e f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s t o  I n 1 2 7 3 , t h e B i s h u J i a n was c r e a t e d t o t a k e c a r e o f  a l l books p r o d u c e d f o r t h e Yuan government. X i n g w e n S h u , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 2 9 0 , f i r s t J i a n and l a t e r  Another  office,  under t h e B i s h u  i n 1293 u n d e r t h e H a n l i n Academy.  Xingwen Shu  f r o m t h e n on p l a y e d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e p r i n t i n g and  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books.  E s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e C a p i t a l o f Yuan,  B e i j i n g , X i n g w e n Shu i n 1273 h a d a s t a f f c o n s i s t i n g o f one s u p e r v i s o r , t h r e e d e p u t y s u p e r v i s o r s , f o u r p r o o f r e a d e r s , one s e c r e t a r y , one r e c o r d e r , 40 w o o d c u t t e r s ,  one f o r e m a n , 39  94 workmen a n d 16 p r i n t e r s . Shu,  From t h e s t r u c t u r e o f X i n g w e n  we c o u l d h a v e a b e t t e r i d e a o f a p r i n t i n g  w h e r e d i v i s i o n o f w o r k was a p p a r e n t .  establishment  N o t o n l y was t h e w o r k  o f b l o c k - c u t t i n g , p r i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h i c w r i t i n g by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ,  t h e r e were a l s o a r e c o r d e r , foreman and  supervisors to f a c i l i t a t e books.  handled  and c o o r d i n a t e t h e p r i n t i n g o f  Works o n t h e C l a s s i c s , p h i l o s o p h y a n d h i s t o r y  thus produced i n B e i j i n g  were  f o r t h e use o f t h e whole n a t i o n .  The to cal  first be  o f s u c h w o r k s p r o d u c e d by X i n g w e n Shu  a 1290  e d i t i o n of Z i z h i Tongj i a n ,  was  believed  a celebrated  histori-  w o r k by Sima Guang.  Not  o n l y was  the c e n t r a l government engaged i n the  p u b l i s h i n g of books f o r the use  of students  and  scholars,  l o c a l government u n i t s were a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t o r e i s s u e o l d w o r k s a s w e l l as t o p u b l i s h " new mit their writing for  approval.  through  t h e m a t e r i a l was  local educational authorities the  L a n d s and  school d i s t r i c t s  and  w e r e u s e d as r u n n i n g for  t h e f a c u l t y and  f u n d was  local schools.  An and  and  important p u b l i c a t i o n was  farms were a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s  proceeds from the s a l e of farm produce e x p e n s e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s and students.  The  r e s i d u e of the  further a l l o c a t e d to defray printing  as  J i a n g x i (covered  Guangdong) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r  expenses.  of the most a m b i t i o u s  province  scheme was  Anhui  local administrative units,  p r o j e c t s was  i n the e a r l y years  co-operative in  Jiangzhe  p a r t s o f m o d e r n J i a n g x i and  p r i n t e d a g r e a t number o f b o o k s f o r t h e u s e One  stipends  school  p a r t s o f modern Z h e j i a n g , J i a n g s u , J i a n g x i ,  F u j i a n ) and  the  Many b o o k s  B e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n , many p r o v i n c e s , n o t a b l y (covered  sub-  r e f e r r e d to  for publication.  i n n o v a t i o n i n the f i n a n c i n g of education a l s o adopted.  Scholars could  t h e c i r c u i t s t o t h e H a n l i n Academy  I f accepted,  w e r e t h u s p u b l i s h e d by  books.  of t h e i r  launched  in  students.  Jiangzhe  of the f o u r t e e n t h century.  u n d e r t a k e n by  the d i f f e r e n t  the p r o v i n c e f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the seventeen - 52  -  A  schools official  d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s b u t o n l y n i n e were a c t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d . s i m i l a r p r o j e c t t o p u b l i s h the seventeen d y n a s t i c was a l s o p l a n n e d  A  histories  i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f J i a n g x i and s e v e n o f them 95  w e r e p u b l i s h e d b y 1332.  The number o f c o p i e s o f e a c h i m p r e s s i o n was s m a l l i n Yuan p e r i o d .  suprisingly  Even such government p u b l i c a t i o n s as  t h e L i a o and J i n d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s p r i n t e d i n 1345 and t h e Song d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y p r i n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r h a d o n l y 96 100 c o p i e s p r i n t e d . Wenji,  In the p u b l i s h i n g of Q i u j i a n Xiansheng  o n l y 20 c o p i e s w e r e p r i n t e d i n 13 22.  Another example  was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f F u z h o u T o n g z h i i n 1322 w h i c h was i n tended f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g  to schools  i n the north.  c o p i e s were i s s u e d f o r t h i s work w h i c h has o v e r Wu  suggests  O n l y 50 10,000 b l o c k s .  t h a t t h e s m a l l number o f c o p i e s o f e a c h  edition  was due t o t h e l i m i t e d demand f o r s u c h l i t e r a r y w o r k s f r o m t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t number addition,  the supply  of scholars i n the country.  o f b o o k s was p r i m a r i l y  l o c a l u s e and t h e b l o c k s k e p t impressions  o f a n y number  In  intended f o r  s a f e l y i n storage 97  of copies desired.  f o r subsequent B u t t h e r e were  a l s o i n s t a n c e s when a more commonly u s e d p r a c t i c a l g u i d e ,  such  as t h e E s s e n t i a l s o f A g r i c u l t u r e and S e r i c u l t u r e had two  print-  i n g s o f up t o 1,500  copies  i n 1273.  B l o c k s f o r books p u b l i s h e d  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t w e r e s t o r e d i n p u b l i c d e p o s i t o r i e s w h e r e were a v a i l a b l e f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o p y i n g p r i n t e d by t h e v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t  at cost.  they  F o r books  s c h o o l s , t h e b l o c k s were i n -  v a r i a b l y s t o r e d o n t h e p r e m i-s e53 s and a v a i l a b l e t o anyone  who  w a n t e d t o make a c o p y .  The  l a r g e number o f e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d o f some w o r k s  compensated f o r the run.  s m a l l number o f c o p i e s  p r i n t e d i n each  A d i c t i o n a r y , Daguang Y i h u i Y u p i a n , had  f i v e d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d . a r y , Guangyun , had official  and  Another  dictionboth  c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s i n t h e Yuan d y n a s t y . b o o k s i n t h e Y u a n p e r i o d was  Libu  One  Yunlue  i n e i g h t d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s by b o o k s t o r e s w i t h i n  a mere s i x t y y e a r  period.  From t h e d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s p u b l i s h e d p u b l i s h e r s , we f r o m one  l e s s than  s e v e n d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s , p r o d u c e d by  o f the most p o p u l a r published  no  can  tell  differnt  t h a t b l o c k s were o f t e n t r a n s f e r r e d  p u b l i s h i n g house t o a n o t h e r .  Y u n l u e had  by  The  dictionary  Libu  e i g h t d i f f e r e n t p u b l i s h e r s : Huiwen Tang, Q i n y o u  T a n g , Zhonghe X u a n , Y i s h a n Tang, R i x i n S h u t a n g , Y u q i n g T a n g , Xingqing  S h u t a n g and  Xinyan Shutang.  There were a l s o  t a n c e s where c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s changed the the  f o r m e r p u b l i s h e r t o t h e i r own.  published a bell  and  Dugongbu S h i w i t h d e s i g n a t i o n  s h a p e d stamp.  q i n Tang.  I n 1312  The  imprint  of the date,  of the Q i n y o u Tang were  c h a n g e d t o t h a t o f S a n f e n g S h u s h e and  from  Q i n y o u Tang  b l o c k s were l a t e r a c q u i r e d  A l l designations  ins-  1312, by  in  Guang-  effaced  Guangqin Tang, e x c e p t 99  t h e one  a t the  end  of the  t w e n t i e t h - f i f t h juan.  b l o c k s o f t h e D u s h i c h a n g e d h a n d s a n o t h e r t i m e and ed by Wang L i a n g .  Besides  The  set  was  acquir-  D- u s54 h i , - Wang a l s o a c q u i r e d  the  of  blocks  of S h i j i  changed the  and  L i T a i b a i Shi.j i f r o m G u a n g q i n Tang  imprint  t o t h a t of h i s  Many Song s c h o l a r s , rulers,  own.  f o u n d e d p r i v a t e a c a d e m i e s o f t h e i r own.  the  T a i j i Academy was  foreign The  e s t a b l i s h e m e n t of  academies wherever they c o n s i d e r e d 1238,  1 0 0  r e l u c t a n t to serve under  a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o encouraged the  desirable.  established  and  Yuan  new  As  early  in Beijing,  as  Another  i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n Yuan p u b l i s h i n g the  X i h u Academy  established  i n 1291  Academy o f t h e  Guo  the  Chao Wen  on  stored  Wen  Xian  published hua  by  s i t e of the  there.  former  Tang Kao  was  the  the  gave a l o n g  by  the  i n 348  National  j u a n and  list  in  by  local  academies i n each p r o v i n c e  and  period  --  i n Anhui, twenty-three i n Zhejiang,  i t w i t h Wang G u o w e i ' s L i a n g z h e Gukanben Kao,  we the  may  Ye."'"^"'"  s a f e l y say  But  by  using  Ye's  list  t h a t the modern p r o v i n c e  number o f b o o k s p r i n t e d o f f i c i a l l y and  followed  i n the  order of  i m p o r t a n c e by - 55  -  i n the  i n Jiangsu.  By  we as  of  Yuan  three  numerous  indicator,  Zhejiang  that i t  in  comparing  find an  Jiangsu,  Qing-  government  schools  o m i s s i o n s by  the  Dehui i n h i s S h u l i n  of works p u b l i s h e d  Hubei, twelve i n J i a n g x i , fourteen  in  Xiansheng  units,  five  excellent  endowed s c h o o l s  Ye  200,000  1336  Another  Complete Works o f Q i u j i a n  J i a x i n g schools.  was  t h e X i h u Academy  published.  richly  It  There were o v e r  I n 1324,  L e i i n 7 0 j u a n was  example of p u b l i s h i n g Yuan p e r i o d  the  d e f u n c t Song d y n a s t y .  p r i n t i n g blocks published  (West L a k e Academy) i n H a n g z h o u .  was  led i n  was  Jiangxi,  F u j i a n and  Hubei.  While Zhejiang  l e d i n t h e number o f g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a -  t i o n s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , F u j i a n l e d i n c o m m e r c i a l w i t h the  l a r g e s t number o f b o o k s h o p s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y under the Jiangzhe times.  Of  the seven d i s t r i c t s  Jianyang  and  houses.  K.T.  printing  Both provinces  were  p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the  i n the J i a n n i n g  Yuan  circuit,  J i a n a n l e d i n t h e number o f book p u b l i s h i n g Wu  suggests  t h a t : "In Jianan alone  t h e r e were  f o r t y - e i g h t p r i v a t e p u b l i s h e r s , e a c h w i t h a t l e a s t one  title  102 to  i t s credit."  One  (See  F i g u r e 2 ).  o f the most p r o d u c t i v e bookshops i n Yuan p e r i o d  Q i n y o u Tang w h i c h had Song p e r i o d .  a l r e a d y been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  Q i n y o u Tang o f Yu  Z h i a n p u b l i s h e d no  s e v e n t e e n w o r k s i n c l u d i n g C l a s s i c s and i n a p e r i o d of f o r t y years. famous b o o k s t o r e s Tang. to  w h i l e L i u had Cuiyan  o f t h e Yu  G a o s f a m i l y had 1  p e r i o d of over  two  Cuiyan  a l s o had  more t h a n one  belonged  known p u b l i s h e d w o r k Another bookshop,  o f L i u J u n z u o , p u b l i s h e d more t h a n , t w e l v e  i n J i a n a n was  Jingshe  two  Shuanggui  R i x i n T a n g , one  o n l y one  w o r k s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d .  Zheng T i a n z e  than  compilations  f a m i l y Q i n d e Tang and  s i x t e e n books t o h i s credit..  Jingshe  important  literary  less  I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e were a l s o  I n J i a n a n , t h e r e w e r e a l s o two  L i u Jinwen.  was  noted  The  f i r m Zongwen Tang o f  f o r i t s long h i s t o r y —  h u n d r e d y e a r s , f r o m 1330 a h i s t o r y extending  h u n d r e d and  fifty - 5.6  ears. -  t o 1537. f r o m 1314  a  The to  1469,  Yu P i n g z h a i ' s Wuben  S h u t a n g a l s o p u b l i s h e d s i x known w o r k s d u r i n g t h e Yuan and f o u r more w o r k s down t o t h e M i n g d y n a s t y .  In addition,  N a n j i a n S h u t a n g i n Masha and G u a n g q i n Tang o f Ye *s f a m i l y a l s o e x t e n d e d t h e i r book m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s the Ming p e r i o d .  1 0 3  ^(See A p p e n d i x  from Yuan t o  IV)  Some e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s ,  instead of p u b l i s h i n g  the books t h e m s e l v e s , would o c c a s s i o n a l l y commission a b u s i n e s s f i r m t o do i t f o r them.  Yang Z h i h a n g , C o m m i s s i o n e r  of  E d u c a t i o n i n Z h e j i a n g i n 1326 o r d e r e d Zhang C u i z h o n g t o h a v e S h i s h u Tong p u b l i s h e d i n J i a n y a n g .  Zhang l a t e r  Q i n y o u Tang o f Yu Z h i a n t o do t h e p r i n t i n g three years to complete.  contracted  f o r him w h i c h t o o k  I n f a c t , most o f f i c i a l  publications  104 i n J i a n a n were p r i n t e d by Q i n y o u  Tang.  I n a d d i t i o n t o J i a n g z h e , J i a n g x i p r o v i n c e i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d was  also flourished with bookstores.  Lu L i n g  and  J i a n c h a n g w e r e t h e two i m p o r t a n t b o o k m a r k e t i n g c e n t e r s i n J i a n g x i w i t h famous b o o k s h o p s  such as G u l i n Shutang o f  f a m i l y , T a i y u S h u t a n g , Z h u p i n g S h u t a n g and o t h e r s . m o s t o f t h e p u b l i s h e r s p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d o f b o o k s , t h e r e w e r e a few who of  specialized  Hu's  While  a great  variety  i n c e r t a i n types  books.  G u l i n Shuwu o f t h e Hu's p u b l i s h i n g of m e d i c a l books.  i n Lu. L i n g s p e c i a l i z e d  i n the  I t had p u b l i s h e d more t h a n  five  m e d i c a l b o o k s , s u c h a s H u a n g d i N e i j i n g Suwen and H u a n g d i N e i -  57  -  j i n g Lingshu  Jing.  Another noted  commercial p u b l i s h e r ,  Y u a n s h a Academy, d e s p i t e i t s t i t l e zed  i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and  an e n c y c l o p e d i c  nature.  Y u a n s h a Academy was encyclopedia  events  and  One  of the w e l l p r i n t e d work  f o r candidates  t h e h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l and  by  I t i s an  t a k i n g the c i v i l  I t f u r n i s h e d them w i t h a resume o f  J u s t as J i a n y a n g  speciali-  d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e f e r e n c e books of  the G u j i n Y u a n l i u Z h i l u n .  intended  examinations.  as an "academy",  political  service  current  institutions.  i n t h e modern p r o v i n c e o f F u j i a n  was  the commercial p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e i n the south, Pingyang i n Shanxi  was  i n d i s p u t a b l y the c e n t r e i n the n o r t h d u r i n g  t h e J i n and  Yuan d y n a s t i e s .  t u t e o f L i t e r a t u r e was a s e a r l y as 1236.  As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e  established i n this northern  both  Insticity  Many n o t a b l e b o o k s e m a n a t e d f r o m t h e  shops i n t h i s a r e a .  B o o k s s u c h as X i a n x i e K u i s o u  Zhenghe Z h e n g l e i B e n c a o w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d by Shu  Shu  book-  and  Xuan o f  104 Chen and was  H u i m i n g X u a n o f Zhang C u n h u i .  However, P i n g y a n g  g r a d u a l l y d i s p l a c e d by B e i j i n g a f t e r t h e Y u a n  moved t o B e i j i n g moved t h e r e i n  i n 1267  and  capital  the I n s t i t u t e of L i t e r a t u r e  also  1269.  B o o k s p r o d u c e d by  the b u s i n e s s  f i r m s i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d 105  were c o n s i d e r e d The  by Ye D e h u i as g e n e r a l l y o f l o w  books p u b l i s h e d were p r i m a r i l y m e d i c a l  a i d s , and  encyclopedic  compilations.  The  quality.  books,  examination  Yuan government  o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h ways and means o f k e e p i n g - 58 -  discontented  scholars occupied. and  As l o n g as t h e s c h o l a r s remained  s u b s e r v i e n t " , t h e Mongol r u l e r s adopted a  p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g book p r o d u c t i o n .  laissez-faire  B u t t h e l a c k o f governmen-  t a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t no d o u b t l e d t o t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y scholarship revealed i n the content  titles  poor  o f t h e books produced.  A J a p a n e s e b i b l i o g r a p h e r , Nagasawa K i k u y a , 220  "docile  listed  a t o t a l of  p u b l i s h e d b y 107 p r i v a t e a n d c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s 10 6  i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d .  Although  should come u n d e r o f f i c i a l  some o f t h e b o o k s  listed  s p o n s o r s h i p , we n e v e r t h e l e s s c a n  g a i n some i d e a s o f t h e k i n d s o f b o o k s i s s u e d b y t h e p r i v a t e and  commercial p u b l i s h e r s .  classification  C a t e g o r i s e d under t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  s y s t e m , Nagasawa i n c l u d e d s e v e n t y - n i n e  thirty-two History, f i f t y - s i x lettres.  P h i l o s o p h y and f i f t y - t h r e e  Of t h e C l a s s i c s , t w e n t y - n i n e  dictionaries.  Classics, Bells-  a r e l e x i c o n o r rhyming  U n d e r p h i l o s o p h y , t h e r e a r e f i v e b o o k s on h e r b s ,  t w e n t y b o o k s o n p r e s c r i p t i o n and f i f t e e n e n c y c l o p a e d i a s . s c h o l a r s themselves  The  were g e n e r a l l y c o n t e n t w i t h m e d i o c r i t y  and  c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d .  had  t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e low c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e Yuan p e r i o d  is  T h i s was why Ye D e h u i  i n d i c a t e d by t h e low q u a l i t y o f t h e books p u b l i s h e d .  - 59 -  Pig.  2. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bookstores i n the Yuan Dynasty •12 6 0-136 8  o o 52  "^Co o ro  —r  -r  ^ V?.-A  \ "V.  7  _ .  ^  v-  >  1  —  o CN I  •r-H  -  60  -  C h a p t e r IV.  The  Book M a r k e t s i n t h e M i n g and  M o n g o l D y n a s t y was  c e n t r a l and  south China.  occupy B e i j i n g He  i n 1368  Y u a n g z h a n g was  proclaimed  s e t up h i s c a p i t a l a t N a n j i n g  not o n l y recovered dynasty  Nanjing  and  was  i n l e s s than  a l l t h e t e r r i t o r i e s h e l d by  t h e T r a n s - B a i k a l r e g i o n and  China  to prosper  f u r t h e r extended h i s M a n c h u r i a as  continued  to f l o u r i s h .  m i l l i o n people  its political  area  and many new  wealth.  walled  cities  Nanjing  gained  In  1403 Nan-  pre-eminence but e c o n o m i c a l l y i t  Nanjing's  i n Marco P o l o ' s  p o p u l a t i o n o f more t h a n  t i m e must h a v e e x c e e d e d  one  that  Beijing.  When t h e M i n g g e n e r a l Xu Da in  well.  M i n g e m p e r o r moved t h e c o u r t n o r t h t o B e i j i n g . lost  of  Tang  i t became t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l .  j i n g thus  to  years  n e a r t h e c e n t r e o f p o p u l a t i o n and  continued  importance a f t e r  t h e new  four  the  were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e d u r i n g t h e Ming p e r i o d . new  able  c h o s e n as t h e c a p i t a l b e c a u s e i t l a y i n t h e  o f r e b e l s t r e n g t h and Southeast  finally  h i m s e l f emperor of Ming.  a t the h e i g h t of t h e i r power, but  c o n t r o l over  Periods  o v e r t h r o w n by C h i n e s e r e b e l s f r o m  Zhu  and  Qing  1368,  property,  he  (1332-1385) c a p t u r e d  a p p r o p r i a t e d g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of  i n c l u d i n g b o o k s and  p o r t e d t o t h e new  government  w o o d - b l o c k s , w h i c h he  Ming c a p i t a l of N a n j i n g  Beijing  i n the  trans-  south.  Among them w e r e many v a l u a b l e w o r k s , i n c l u d i n g some w h i c h M o n g o l s had  the  a c q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e Song t i m e , as w e l l as  numerous b l o c k s made u n d e r t h e o r d e r o f M o n g o l o f f i c i a l s - 61  -  in  various c i r c u i t s .  The damaged o r i n c o m p l e t e  s e q u e n t l y r e p a i r e d by t h e Ming government.  s e t s were subAs N a n j i n g , i n  t h e c i r c u i t o f J i q i n g , was a l r e a d y w e l l known f o r i t s p u b l i shing a c t i v i t i e s ,  s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f m a t e r i a l s l e f t  from t h e o l d d y n a s t i e s f e l l authority.  over  i n t o t h e hands o f t h e Ming  The m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g w o r k s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e  S o u t h e r n Academy i n t h e p e r i o d o f J i a j i n g w e r e t h e T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s and t h e Twenty-one D y n a s t i c  Histories.  One o f t h e v o l u m i n o u s e n c y c l o p a e d i a but  not only i n China  i n t h e w o r l d was Y o n g l e D a d i a n , c o m p i l e d  p a t r o n g e o f t h e Emperor Y o n g l e .  under t h e  The Y o n g l e D a d i a n , c o n s i s t i n g  o f 22,927 j u a n , was c o m p l e t e d i n 1407 i n 11,915 v o l u m e s . 2,000 s c h o l a r s a n d o f f i c i a l s h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d t i o n o f t h i s monumental work. preserved ous  Over  i n the compila-  This encyclopaedia  not only  l a r g e number o f l o s t w o r k s b u t i n c l u d e d a l s o numer-  popular  w o r k s s u c h a s drama a n d f i c t i o n .  o n l y 300 v o l u m e s o f Y o n g l e D a d i a n s u r v i v e  Unfortunately  today.  M i n g s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e w h o l e was c o n s i d e r e d  superficial  w i t h most Ming w r i t i n g s and c o m p i l a t i o n s u n i n s p i r e d and l a r g e l y 10 8 made up o f p l a t i t u d e . " e i g h t - l e g g e d essay" still  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t h e Hongwu p e r i o d  only s e r v e d  to i n -  I l l - u n d e r s t o o d c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s and s t e r e o t y p e d  o p i n i o n s i n t h e minds o f t h e s c h o l a r s . Ming l i f e Although  was f a v o r a b l e t o t h e l i f e  M o r e o v e r t h e temps o f  of connoisseurship.  t h e r e were i n t e r m i t t e n t wars on t h e M o n g o l i a n  border  and  Indo-China, i n a d d i t i o n to the  along  the c o a s t a l areas,  peace d u r i n g  the g r e a t e r  p e r i t y r e a c h e d new Consequently, the l a i n and  the  and  l a b o r was  c h e a p and  p r i n t i n g were h i g h l y by  the  sought to r e t i r e  corrupt  pros-  plentiful. porce-  developed.  p o l i t i c s of  into private l i f e .  s o c i e t i e s f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n and  at  Material  i n d u s t r i a l a r t s e s p e c i a l l y those of  Many s c h o l a r s w e r e d i s g u s t e d and  i n t e r i o r o f t h e e m p i r e was  p a r t of the p e r i o d .  heights  m e t a l w o r k , and  Ming c o u r t  inroads, of Japanese p i r a t e s  the  Various  artistic  appre-  c i a t i o n were formed.  A l a r g e number o f t h e s e w e r e i n s u c h  centers  H a n g z h o u , w h e r e , f a r removed f r o m  as  S u z h o u and  mainstream of p o l i t i c a l of the  corruption  c e n t r a l government i n the  acquire  and  published  and r e v o l t i n g i n c o m p e t e n c e  north,  enjoy a r t works of v a r i o u s  w o r k s , t h o u g h by  c o l l a t e d and  t h e y were i n c l i n e d kinds.  no means m e a g e r , was  However,  the  end  of Ming.  o f the most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s  lived  there.  Lu but  Shen  (1477-1544) s p o k e s l i g h t l y o f t h e  praised  f o l l o w the Chun,  Writing  t h a t of Suzhou. standard  He  s a i d : "But  i n S u z h o u was -  63  -  the  scholarprivate  in Jiajing  period,  p r i n t i n g i n Jianyang a r t i s a n s i n Suzhou  109 ( i . e . Song e d i t i o n s ) . "  of o l d works  another scholar  had  during  Some o f t h e b e s t e x a m p l e s o f  p r i n t i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s area.  period  Suzhou  l a t t e r p a r t o f M i n g d y n a s t y when a l a r g e number o f printers  their  e d i t e d as Song e d i t i o n s .  f l o u r i s h e d from Wanli t i l l  b e e n one  to  far less well  P r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g became p o p u l a r i n t h e J i a j i n g and  the  noted f o r h i s f i n e  Gu  e d i t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t e d w o r k s o f s i x famous p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e Shidetang L i u z i . of  Y u a n J i o n g , whose J i a q u T a n g i s s u e d a number  f i n e w o r k s , s u c h a s t h e Werixuan L i u s h e n z h u .  One o f t h e  b e s t s p e c i m e n s s o f M i n g p r i n t i n g was a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t y , Wang Chong L u n h e n g p r i n t e d b y T o n g j i n  C a o t a n g o f Su X i a n k e .  A n o t h e r c o l l e c t o r - p r i n t e r i n S u z h o u was Guo Y u n p e n g , whose s t u d i o s J i m e i Tang a n d B a o s h a n Tang p r i n t e d a g r e a t of  l i t e r a r y works as w e l l .  I n She X i a n  number  o f H u i z h o u , We M i a n -  x u e ' s S h i g u Tang had a s i z e a b l e c o l l e c t i o n o f b o o k s . also published  Wu  many b o o k s , i n c l u d i n g b o o k s o n m e d i c i n e .  One  o f h i s b e s t known e d i t i o n s was a c o l l e c t i o n o f 20 p h i l o s o p h i c a l treatises, Ershizi  Quanshu.  However, t h e most p r o m i n e n t p r i v a t e p u b l i s h e r s M i n g p e r i o d w e r e Mao J i n a n d F a n Y i n .  Mao J i n  i n the  (1599-1659),  a n a t i v e o f Chang S h u , h a d h i s J i g u Ge u s e d b o t h a s a and  printshop.  library  A t o t a l o f 20 p r i n t e r s w e r e h i r e d b y Mao a n d  o v e r 10,000 b l o c k s w e r e c u t .  I n the course of h i s career,  Mao c o l l e c t e d o v e r 10,000 b o o k s a n d p r i n t e d no l e s s t h a n 600 works. the  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t  Seventeen Dynastic  included  the Thirteen C l a s s i c s ,  H i s t o r i e s , the J i n d a i Bishu,  number o f l i t e r a r y w o r k s a n d a s e r i e s o f p l a y s . Mao's w o r k h a d a l w a y s b e e n c i r t i c i z e d mistakes i n c o l l a t i n g  Unfortunately  f o rcontaining  and p r o o f r e a d i n g .  a large  many  Y e t because of t h e  l a r g e volume o f books t h a t he p r i n t e d , t h e y c o u l d be f o u n d i n book m a r k e t s e v e r y w h e r e i n C h i n a a n d e v e n i n many l i b r a r i e s o f today.  B e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e c o n s u m p t i o n o f p a p e r b y Mao i n - 64 -  the  production  of  l a r g e numbers o f b o o k s , two  o f p a p e r w e r e made i n J i a n g x i , t h e bian  and  the  used today.  thinner  one  c i a l l y i n the Qing p e r i o d property and  t h i c k e r one  c a l l e d Maotai —  Mao's e n t e r p r i s e was and  forced  1  1  In contrast  0  famous l i b r a r y , T i a n y i Ge, known o f h i s p u b l i s h e d  For  the g r e a t e r  published  very  prefecture  h o w e v e r , J i a n y a n g c e a s e d t o be of  completely.  Yin  few  books.  i m p o r t a n c e and T h i s was  the  p r o b a b l y due  there  in  (See  F u j i a n has  A p p e n d i x "V  eventually died  to keen c o m p e t i t i o n  been w e l l r e c o g n i s e d  had  as one  Hangzhou  of the  develop i n the Ming p e r i o d . books d i s t r i b u t e d i n the  from and  Song p e r i o d B e t w e e n 50  country - 65  and t o 60  come f r o m my -  most  i s a native  "book p u b l i s h i n g i n J i a n a n  become p r o s p e r o u s i n t h e  out  Wanli  marketing centers  A Q i n g s c h o l a r , Chen S h o u q i , who  F u j i a n , mentioned t h a t  period,  ).  i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h i n g and books.  the  publishing  B e i j i n g , w h i c h g r a d u a l l y grew i n i m p o r t a n c e i n the 1 1 1  Best  largest  During the Qing  trade  dispersed  (1506-1585)'s  the  a m a r k e t i n g and  his  Qishu.  a district  book m a r k e t s s u c h as S u z h o u , N a n j i n g ,  period.  of  Fan  works i s the E r s h i z h o n g  in Fujian.  still  successful finan-  p a r t of the Ming p e r i o d ,  of J i a n n i n g  Mao-  terms are  to dispose  t o Mao,  c o m m e r c i a l o u t p u t came f r o m J i a n y a n g ,  other  known as  as w e l l as h i s p r i n t - b l o c k s w h i c h w e r e s o o n  deteriorated. " '  center  the  not very  was  special varieties  and  continued  of of Masha to  percent of a l l native  county.  Zhang X i u m i n a r g u e s t h a t i n t h e Song and Y u a n p e r i o d s , m o s t o f the bookstores  i n F u j i a n were l o c a t e d i n J i a n a n .  t h i r t y - s i x bookstores  i n J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g ,  i n J i a n a n i n t h e Song p e r i o d .  Out o f t h e  twenty-nine  were  I n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , t w e n t y - t w o 113  out of twenty-seven bookstores  were i n J i a n a n .  However,  b o o k p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g  a c t i v i t i e s i n Jianan declined  d u r i n g the Ming p e r i o d .  l e f t Jianyang  market i n F u j i a n . jing  period  This  A l o c a l gazette of Jianyang  (1522-1566) r e c o r d e d  two d i s t r i c t s :  in  t h e Yuan p e r i o d , s o o n l y Chonghua s t i l l  all  Masha and C h o n g h u a .  i n Jianyang  destroyed  existed.  gazette  f u r t h e r recorded  I n 1499,  and a l m o s t  F o r t u n a t e l y , books c o u l d  be p u b l i s h e d f r o m c h o n g h u a and book p r o d u c t i o n  revived to a lesser extent  i n the J i a j i n g  period.  was  The  local  t h a t t h e book m a r k e t i n Chonghua  district  o p e n e d on t h e f i r s t  period.  During  and  Masha was  w e r e a g a i n damaged by f i r e  t h e p r i n t - b l o c k s were d e s t r o y e d .  still  Xian i nJ i a -  t h a t books were p u b l i s h e d  in  bookstores  a s t h e m a j o r book  and s i x t h d a y s o f e v e r y  t e n day  t h e m a r k e t d a y s , l a r g e numbers o f m e r c h a n t s  pedlars v i s i t e d  Zhou Hongzu r e c o r d e d  t h e numerous b o o k s t o r e s  a t Shufang S t r e e t .  365 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s p u b l i s h e d i n  J i a n n i n g and t h e l o c a l g a z e t t e o f J i a n y a n g  recorded  451 i n  114 1545.  Zhang X i u m i n e v e n s u g g e s t s  t h a t over  d i f f e r e n t works were p u b l i s h e d i n J i a n y a n g end  of the Ming dynasty.  ced  i n Jianyang  one t h o u s a n d  f r o m 1545 t o t h e  T h i s l a r g e numbers o f b o o k s p r o d u -  no d o u b t c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a s one  o f t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a . - 66 -  The  b o o k s p r o d u c e d i n F u j i a n , h o w e v e r , had  criticized  as b e i n g p o o r l y p r i n t e d and  h a v i n g used cheap m a t e r i a l s .  always been  e d i t e d as w e l l  Jianyang  produced a  special  k i n d o f bunyun woold u s e d f o r m a k i n g p r i n t i n g b l o c k s . s o f t n e s s made p r i n t i n g e a s y b u t impressions.  For t h i s reason  Its  i t o f t e n made b r o k e n o r b l u r r e d  F u j i a n b o o k s had  c o n s i d e r e d by b i b l i o p h i l e s a s o f p o o r q u a l i t y . i n h i s Wuzasu, a l s o m a i n t a i n e d  as  always been Xie  Zhaozhe,  t h a t books were produced i n 115  g r e a t q u a n t i t y i n F u j i a n b u t t h e q u a l i t y was A n o t h e r M i n g w r i t e r , L a n g Y i n g , who another  important  was  centre of p r i n t i n g ,  very  poor.  a n a t i v e o f Hangzhou,  severely  criticized  the commercial p u b l i s h e r s i n F u j i a n : (The p r i n t i n g o f b o o k s ) h a s b e e n a b u s e d by p u b l i s h e r s i n F u j i a n because they are m o t i v a t e d by p r o f i t s o n l y . Whenever t h e y h e a r o f good works s e l l i n g a t h i g h p r i c e s t h e y r e p r i n t e d them. A l t h o u g h t h e number o f j u a n and t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same, a g r e a t d e a l o f m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n d e l e t e d . The b u y e r , n o t r e c o g n i z e o f t h i s t r i c k , g e t s t h e work a t o n l y h a l f p r i c e and f a l l s u n w i t t i n g l y i n t o t h e i r trap.116  Nevertheless  some w o r k s o f v e r y good q u a l i t y  produced i n Jianyang, e s p e c i a l l y p r i o r to the century.  were  fifteenth  Many c r e d i t a b l e w o r k s w e r e p r o d u c e d i n M a s h a  L i u Hong i n M i n g t i m e s . out f i n e e d i t i o n s such  H i s w o r k s h o p , Shengdu Z h a i , as S o n g z i J i a n and  w h i c h w e r e so w e l l e x e c u t e d  by  turned  Shiqishi Xiangj ie,  t h a t o t h e r book d e a l e r s w e r e  t e m p t e d t o remove a l l o f L i u ' s d e s i g n a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p a s s - 67  -  it  on a s a Song e d i t i o n ,  L i u wa,s f u r t h e r e n t r u s t e d  with  the  p u b l i c a t i o n o f S h a n t a n g X i a n s h e n g Quanshu K a o s u o by t h e l o c a l gentry of Jianyang,  B e c a u s e o f t h e e x c e l l e n t w o r k he p r o d u c e d ,  L i u was e v e n e x e m p t e d f r o m l o c a l c o n s c r i p t as  labor  f o r one  year  a reward.  B e s i d e s L i u Hong, a n o t h e r b o o k s h o p o f t h e L i u f a m i l y , A n z h e n g Tang i n J i a n y a n g , a l s o i s s u e d works i n the p e r i o d and  o f A.D.1500-1600.  T o g e t h e r w i t h h i s son  g r a n d s o n , L i u Chaoguan and L i u S h u a n g s o n g , L i u Z o n g q i ' s  A n z h e n g Tang p u b l i s h e d  more t h a n t w e n t y - f o u r w o r k s f r o m 1429  to e a r l y seventeenth century. regarded publisher high  a number o f c r e d i t a b l e  prices.  L i u Z o n g q i was a h i g h l y  i n t h e f a m i l y and h i s b o o k s w e r e s o l d a t  A n z h e n g Tang n o t o n l y  issued  c l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y b u t a l s o c o l l e c t a n e a works.  b o o k s on m e d i c i n e , and many  literary  An i n t e r e s t i n g n o t e a t t h e end o f h i s w o r k , S h i w e n  L e i j u Hanmo Daguan, g a v e u s an i d e a o f book p r i c e s a t t h i s time, a piece and  printed  of information  i n t h e fourth  seldom g i v e n :  "Blocks  repaired  month o f 1611 b y A n z h e n g T a n g .  Each  117 c o p y i s t o b e s o l d a t t h e p r i c e o f one t a e l . " issued with  by A n z h e n g Tang was  Books  so w e l l e x e c u t e d t h a t  i n some c a s e s ,  n o t e s o f i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n removed, t h e y had been  f o r t h o s e o f t h e Yuan p e r i o d  by many b i b l i o p h i l e s .  W h i l e t h e L i u f a m i l y was t h e l e a d i n g publisher  taken  i n M a s h a , t h e Yu f a m i l y  bookseller  i n Shufang held  p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n a s e a r l y a s t h e Song p e r i o d - 68 -  on.  and  a similar The  most  n o t e w o r t h y w a s t h e i r w h o r k s h o p Q i n y o u Tang w h i c h h a d b e e n very  p r o m i n e n t s i n c e t h e Song p e r i o d .  I n t h e M i n g p e r i o d , Yu  f a m i l y became e v e n more famous w i t h a t l e a s t t w e l v e The  Yu f a m i l y h a d d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y  i n the e a r l y years of the  M i n g p e r i o d b u t became p r o s p e r o u s a g a i n Many b o o k s w e r e p u b l i s h e d  bookstores.  i n the Wanli  period.  b y t h e Yu f a m i l y i n t h e M i n g  times.  The  n o t e d e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e d t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f Huangming  lie  Zhuan b y Yu J u n z h a o , G a n g j i a n L i c h a o  by Yu S i y u a n ,  Ying-  Zhengshi Quanpian  X i h a n Z h i z h u a n b y Yu S h i t e n g ,  Huangming  Zizhi  118 T o n g j i b y Y u X i a n y u a n a n d many o t h e r s . o f t h e Yu f a m i l y i n J i a n y a n g  Another bookstore  w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n  t h e Song p e r i o d was Yu X i a n g d o u ' s S h u a n g f e n g T a n g .  Yu a n d  h i s s o n , W e n t a i , w e r e famous f o r t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g o f i l l u s trated novels, century,  dramas and p o p u l a r  manuals i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  s u c h a s X i h a n Z h i z h u a n , Nanyou J i ,  and o t h e r s .  Some o f t h e w o r k s p r o d u c e d i n J i a n y a n g  was s o p o o r  occasionally intervene.  that  t h e l o c a l government had been prompted t o A d e c r e e was i s s u e d  i n 1532 b y t h e o f f i c e o f t h e  p r o v i n c i a l judge i n F u j i a n , which read  p a r t l y as f o l l o w s :  The F i v e C l a s s i c s a n d t h e F o u r b o o k s a r e t h e most i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s . The o l d e r e d i t i o n s w e r e w e l l p r i n t e d ; b u t now p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n t e r s , who a i m a t n o t h i n g b u t p r o f i t s , issue pocket e d i t i o n s i n small p r i n t and w i t h many e r r o r s . . . (Many e x a m p l e s a t t h i s point.) This i s harmful not only t o b e g i n n e r s but many c a d i d a t e s f o r d e g r e e s h a v e been d i s q u a l i f i e d because o f t h e m i s t a k e n  - 69 -  t e x t s t h e y have u s e d , w h i c h i s indeed a serious matter. T h i s o f f i c e deems i t necessary t h a t a l l works p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , f o r c i r c u l a t i o n over the w h o l e o f t h e e m p i r e , be c a r e f u l l y c o l l a t e d t o r e c t i f y t h e e r r o r s c o m m i t t e d by t h e above p r i n t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . ... ( C a r e f u l l y c o l l a t e d s t a n d a r d t e x t s ) a r e t o be p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l p r i n t e r s as a g u i d e . A l l w o r k s m u s t be checked before they are s o l d . Names o f t h e b l o c k c a r v e r s a r e t o be. p l a c e d a t t h e end o f t h e b o o k s t o make p o s s i b l e t h e t r a c i n g o f any m i s t a k e s c o m m i t t e d . B o o k s e l l e r s should not d e v i a t e from the s t a n d a r d t e x t i s s u e d by t h e o f f i c i a l s . A n y o n e who d i s r e g a r d s t h i s r e g u l a t i o n w i l l be p u n i s h e d and w i l l h a v e h i s b l o c k s destroyed. No l e n i e n c e w i l l be shown. A l l p r i n t e r s are r e q u i r e d to f i l e a statement promising t o comply w i t h t h i s r e g u l a t i o n .. . •'•^  This proclamation  o f 1532  the books p r i n t e d i n J i a n y a n g as t h e Z h o u y i  Jingzhuan  W h i l e t h e Yu p u b l i s h i n g , a few  and  l a t e r a p p e a r e d i n many o f d u r i n g the J i a j i n g p e r i o d ,  Liji  f a m i l y had  Jishu.  the  l o n g e s t h i s t o r y i n book  of the bookstores  i n F u j i a n a l s o had  a  h i s t o r y w h i c h c o u l d be t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e Y u a n p e r i o d , as C u i y a n and  Cuiyan others.  long  such  J i n g s h e , R i x i n g T a n g , G u a n g q i n T a n g , Zongwen Tang  Wuben T a n g .  quality  such  Many o f them c o n t i n u e d  to publish high  l i t e r a r y works as w e l l as books f o r t h e g e n e r a l J i n g s h e p u b l i s h e d S h i T i n Guangj i ,  Maiyao Bikuo  R i x i n Tang p u b l i s h e d T u j i n g B a n c a o and Shu,  Chuxue J i , and - 70  -  Yiwen  Leiju.  and  Zongwen Tang 120  published Wulin  public.  Another bookstore which  specialised  o f Y i n y a n g and m e d i c a l b o o k s was He  i n the  publication  X i o n g Z o n g l i ' s Zhongde T a n g .  p u b l i s h e d more t h a n f i f t e e n m e d i c a l w o r k s d u r i n g t h e  Chenghua p e r i o d  (1436-1487).  Not o n l y were o l d e r works  a s N e i j i n g Suwen, X i a o e r F a n g j u e  such  r e i s s u e d by h i m b u t new  books  w e r e p u b l i s h e d , s u c h as Y u a n y i Y a o x i n g F u , F u r e n L i a n g f a n g . His descendants  a l s o p u b l i s h e d T u z h u N a n j i n g and T u z h u M a i j u e  during the Wanli p e r i o d .  A 24-juan Mingfang  Daquan, c o m p i l e d by X i o n g Z o n g l i was  reissued  Leizheng Yishu i n Japan  to  121 become t h e f i r s t J a p a n e s e  p r i n t e d m e d i c a l book.  A l t h o u g h the Ming government a l s o p u b l i s h e d books C l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y , t h e demands o f t h e p e o p l e was b e i n g met.  f a r from  Bookstores i n Jianyang, Nanjing, B e i j i n g ,  H a n g z h o u and H u i z h o u  on  Suzhou,  c o m p i l e d a g r e a t number o f n o v e l s , d r a m a s  and b o o k s w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  Tn J i a n y a n g t h e r e w e r e  also  e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s p u b l i s h e d by t h e b o o k s t o r e s f o r t h e b e g i n n e r s , s u c h a s T i a n x i a N a n z h i , Q i a n j i a X i n g , ShengTu Fameng a n d others. Books f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s were a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y produced commercial  publishers.  There were s t a n d a r d t e x t s ,  s t u d i e s , e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e F o u r B o o k s and which aided students t a k i n g the c i v i l  by  the  commentaries,  the F i v e  examinations.  Classics There  w e r e a l s o o v e r 60 l i t e r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s o f b o t h e a r l y and  con-  temporary  Such  w r i t e r s p u b l i s h e d by t h e J i a n y a n g b o o k s t o r e s .  works l i k e Sanguozhi produced  Y a n y i , S h u i h u Zhuan, X i x i a n g J i were  i n large quantity.  Books f o r d a i l y use were  also  e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e i n J i a n y a n g where S h i T i n G u a n g j i , J u j i a B i - 71  -  y o n g and  others, were p u b l i s h e d .  p r o d u c e d s i d e by  N e o - C o n f u c i a n works were  s i d e w i t h b o o k s on  law  M o r e o v e r , J i a n y a n g book p u b l i s h e r s : p u t books f o r p r a c t i c a l use,  and out  regulation. a l a r g e number o f  s u c h as S u n w u z i B i n f a f o r  military  purposes, Xiangming Suanfa f o r c a c u l a t i o n , T i a n j i a L i f o r studying  agricultural  seasons, Luban J i n g f o r c a r p e n t r y  a l s o m e d i c a l b o o k s w h i c h had  more t h a n f i f t y d i f f e r e n t  122  . . , -i  titles.  In the were s t i l l  early period  pointed  out  zhou w h i l e  o f M i n g , book p u b l i s h i n g  i n F u j i a n , H a n g z h o u and  J i a j i n g period  t h a t t h e r e was  e d i t i o n f r o m S i c h u a n and  Xie  In the  out  the  J i a j i n g p e r i o d , Huzhou  that:  "The  important  and  publishing period,  q u a l i t y of p r i n t i n g i n  H a n g z h o u has  d e c l i n e d much.  three  where the a r t of c a r v i n g  places  the  Jiwen  old editions printed in  T a l k i n g about book p u b l i c a t i o n i n W a n l i  Zhaozhe. p o i n t e d  in  o n l y Suzhou e d i t i o n s  S h e z h o u i n A n h u i r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d as centers.  Writing  F u j i a n became f a r l e s s  e a r l y Ming p e r i o d ;  Yuan p e r i o d s .  centers  no more p u b l i s h i n g done i n Hang-  have been compared to the  Song and  Sichuan.  ( 1 5 2 2 - 1 5 6 6 ) , L i u Shen i n h i s J i n t a i  p o p u l a r than i n the could  and  Nanjing,  Wuxing, X i n a n were and  p r i n t i n g are  the  at  123 l e a s t a s g o o d as t h a t the stores  Song e d i t i o n s . "  Xie continued  q u a l i t y o f p r i n t i n g i n Hunan was  i n J i a n y a n g were v e r y  p o o r q u a l i t y p a p e r and  blocks  productive and  - 72  j u s t average.  but  they used  t h a t r e c e n t l y Wuxing -  to  note Book-  very and  Nanjing  also declined  Fujian.  t o t h e same s i t u a t i o n a s t h o s e i n  Hu Y i . n g l i n i n W a n l i p e r i o d  a l s o contended  that:  Books p r i n t e d i n Suzhou and Changzhou a r e t h e b e s t , n e x t t o them i s N a n j i n g , Hangzhou p l a c e d i n t h e t h i r d p l a c e . Recently b o o k s p r o d u c e d i n Huzhou a n d S h e z h o u a r e o f v e r y good q u a l i t y a n d c o m p e t e d w i t h h i g h - p r i c e d S u z h o u e d i t i o n s . B o o k s now r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e i n S i c h u a n and F u j i a n editions are poorly printed.124  Mao C h u n x i a n g f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t q u a l i t y p r i n t i n g i n S u z h o u a n d C h a n g z h o u p r e v a i l e d i n J i a j i n g p e r i o d b u t was replaced could  b y Wuxing a n d X i n a n i n t h e W a n l i p e r i o d .  Why A n h u i  have d e v e l o p e d as a h i g h q u a l i t y p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e  explained  b y Mao a s t h e r e  and t h e y p r o v i d e d  was  w e r e many w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s i n A n h u i  a good f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e c o l l e c t i n g 125  and p u b l i s h i n g o f b o o k s t h e r e . was  Another p o s s i b l e  reason  t h a t many h i g h l y s k i l l e d b l o c k - c u t t e r s a n d p r i n t e r s r e - '  sided  i n A n h u i , s u c h a s Huang J u n , Huang Y i n g t a i , Huang  Ying-  126  rui,  Wang Z h o n g s h e n a n d Wang W e n y i . Many o f t h e b l o c k - p r i n t e r s i n A n h u i , h o w e v e r , moved t o  Suzhou and N a n j i n g migration as  i n t h e W a n l i and Chongzhen p e r i o d .  Their  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Suzhou and  Nanjing  t h e d o m i n a n t book p u b l i s h i n g a n d m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s : .  was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n  Suzhou  o f many h i g h q u a l i t y  w o r k s a s i t h a d many s k i l f u l b l o c k - p r i n t e r , s u c h a s Zhang S h i , 127  Wu Y a o , Wu S h i y o n g , Huang . Z h o u x i a n a n d Huang J i n x i a n .  T a l k i n g a b o u t b o o k p u b l i s h i n g , Hu  Y i n g l i n commented t h a t :  There are three p r i n t i n g c e n t e r s : J i a n g s u , Z h e j i a n g and F u j i a n . I n t h e Song P e r i o d , S i c h u a n e d i t i o n was t h e b e s t b u t now r a r e l y available. H e b e i , Guangdong, S h a a n x i , Hunan and H u b e i a l s o had numerous b o o k s p r i n t e d b u t n o t as p r o s p e r o u s as t h e a b o v e three mentioned p l a c e s . The b e s t q u a l i t y b o o k s come f r o m J i a n g s u w h i l e F u j i a n l e d i n q u a n t i t y . Z h e j i a n g i s s e c o n d t o them i n b o t h q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . The J i a n g s u e d i t i o n s a r e the most e x p e n s i v e w h i l e the F u j i a n e d i t i o n s are the cheapest. Zhejiang a g a i n p l a c e d second i n terms of the v a l u e of books published.128  Athough books were p u b l i s h e d i n Suzhou, N a n j i n g , z h o u , H u i z h o u , Y a n g z h o u and  Jianan, according  t o Hu  Hang-  Yinglin  t h e f o u r p r i n c i p a l book m a r k e t s w e r e : B e i j i n g , N a n j i n g ,  Suzhou  129 and  Hangzhou.  i t was  one  Books p u b l i s h e d i n B e i j i n g  were r a r e  of the major commercial c e n t e r s of China  but  with  numbers o f m e r c h a n t s b r i n g i n g i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f  large  books.  Many v a l u a b l e b o o k s c o u l d n o t be k e p t by t h e d e s c e n d a n t s were s o l d i n B e i j i n g . and  wealthy  The  l a r g e number o f  families residing  scholar-officials  i n B e i j i n g no d o u b t c o n t r i b u t e d  t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e book m a r k e t t h e r e .  Hu  t h a t books p r i n t e d i n B e i j i n g were t h r e e times as t h o s e  as  a bookstore  i n Jianyang  store i n Beijing  noted  expensive of  high transportation costs involved i n bring-  i n g i n books produced i n the south.  b o o k s had  further  p r i n t e d i n Zhejiang because of the h i g h c o s t  p a p e r t h e r e and  and  T h i s i s why  f o r book p r o d u c t i o n and  f o r s e l l i n g books o n l y . ^ 1  0  The  L i u Hong another selling  had  branch of  a l r e a d y become a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e i n t h e p e r i o d i c -  74  -  m a r k e t s and t h e a n n u a l f a i r s o f B e i j i n g  i n the Ming p e r i o d .  Most b o o k s t o r e s i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y were l o c a t e d a t t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e o f Darning G a t e , t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f R i t e s , and a t t h e w e s t o f Gongchen G a t e .  (See f i g u r e 3 ) .  Hangzhou, as B e i j i n g , p u b l i s h e d v e r y few books b u t i t s central location facilitated S u z h o u and F u j i a n .  the c o l l e c t i o n o f books from  Most o f t h e book m e r c h a n t s t h e r e  where  a c t i v e i n s e c u r i n g , b y any means, t h e b o o k s t h a t c o u l d n o t be k e p t by d e s c e n d a n t s o f famous s c h o l a r s and  book-collectors.  B o o k s w e r e a l s o b r o u g h t f r o m Hunan, H u b e i , Guangdong, G u a n g x i and S i c h u a n .  Many s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s  a l s o p l a c e d t h e i r books t h e r e f o r s a l e .  from Shaanxi, Hebei During the p r o v i n c i a l  e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d , a f a r g r e a t e r number o f b o o k s w e r e i n t h e b o o k s h o p s i n Hangzhou  for sale.  As d e s c r i b e d by  placed Hu  Y i n g l i n , bookstores were located a t t h e m a i n t h o r o u g h f a r e s and i n the periodic markets:  Most o f the bookshops are l o c a t e d o u t s i d e Zhenhai Lou w i t h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Yongj i n G a t e / i n B i j i a o F a n g and Q i n g h e F a n g . A l l o f them a r e t h e m a i n t h o r o u g h f a r e s . D u r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , books t a l l s w e r e s e t up i n f r o n t o f t h e e x a m i nation Hall. On t h e f i f t e e n t h d a y o f t h e s e c o n d m o n t h , t h e y w i l l move t o t h e T e m p l e o f T i a n z h u when i t i s t h e b i r t h d a y o f Budda. At the beginning of the fourth m o n t h , t h e y w i l l move t o t h e g r a v e o f Yue F e i where t o u r i s t s f r e q u e n t e d . Most B u d d h i s t l i t e r a t u r e a r e s o l d i n t h e Temple o f Z h a o q i n g and t h e b o o k s e l l e r s a r e B u d d h i s t monks. T h e r e a r e a l s o a f e w b o o k s t a l l s which l o c a t e d a t the back l a n e s , occasionally t h e y have a few r a r e books too.13 2 - 75 -  Freom Hu'a d e s c r i p t i o n s o f b o o k s e l l i n g i n B e i j i n g and H a n g z h o u , we c a n t e l l  t h a t book m e r c h a n t s w e r e q u i c k  r e s p o n d t o new o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r s e l l i n g books.  Not  to only  did  t h e y have permanent s t o r e s l o c a t e d on m a j o r t h o r o u g h f a r e s  but  t h e y a l s o s e t up m o b i l e s t a l l s  i n p e r i o d i c markets,  temple f a i r s and even g r a v e y a r d s , w h e r e e v e r s e l l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s were  present.  I n c o n t r a s t t o B e i j i n g and H a n g z h o u , N a n j i n g  and S u z h o u  w e r e famous n o t o n l y a s book m a r k e t s b u t a l s o a s i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e s .  Wu m a i n t a i n e d t h a t :  " T h e r e i s no  evidence that the t r a n s f e r of the c a p i t a l to B e i j i n g c u r t a i l 133 ed p r i n t i n g i n t h a t c i t y  (Nanjing).."  Book p u b l i s h i n g i n N a n j i n g period of the Five Dynasties.  had b e g u n a s e a r l y a s i n t h e I t was t h e n t h e c a p i t a l o f  N a n t a n g ( 9 3 7 - 9 7 5 ) and b o o k s , s u c h a s S h i t o n g , Y u t a i were p u b l i s h e d .  I n 1291 t h e l o c a l g a z e t t e  Xinyong,  of Jiankang  ( N a n j i n g ) r e c o r d e d t h a t 67 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s w e r e  published.  T h e r e w e r e n o t o n l y C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s b u t a l s o b o o k s on m e d i c i n e , l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s . t h e o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f T a n g was p u b l i s h e d  I n t h e Yuan  i n the c i r c u i t of  J i q i n g and i n 1344 J i n g l i n g X i n z h i was i s s u e d . founding of the c a p i t a l much- e x p a n d e d  i n Nanjing  period,  With the  by Zhu Y u a n z h a n g ,  population  and commerce r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d i n N a n j i n g .  As r e c o r d e d i n t h e l o c a l g a z e t t e , - 76 -  the population  of  Nanjing  i n 1297 was 95,000 a n d b y 1356 when t h e M i n g  f i r s t made his b a s e t h e r e , t h e p o p u l a t i o n about 100,000,  Within  imperial capital,  Ming p e r i o d . regions  w e r e moved  two d e c a d e s , a f t e r N a n j i n g  became t h e  Force  recruit-  f o r t h e c i t y was a p p a r e n t i n t h e e a r l y  Some 45,000 " w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d s f r o m  t o the east  prefectures  o f t h e c i t y was  i t was t o e x p a n d t e n f o l d .  ment o f p o p u l a t i o n  founder  —  around Suzhou, H u i z h o u and t h o s e  adhered t o t h e r e b e l leader t o Nanjing  rich  i n 1381" t o f i l l  to punish  them f o r h a v i n g  a rival.  The a d u l t m a l e s w e r e a s s i g n e d  (Zhang S i c h e n g )  —  o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n and  r e s i s t e d t h e founder i n supporting as l a b o r e r s and c r a f t -  smen i n v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t w o r k p r o j e c t s .  Another  14,000  h o u s e h o l d s o f t h e "wealthy o f t h e r e a l m " were c o n s c r i p t e d t o become t h e w e l l - t o - d o  of the c i t y ,  t o be l i s t e d  t i o n r e g i s t r i e s as "wealthy households".  Another  r e f e r r e d t o 20,000 c r a f t m e n h o u s e h o l d s moved fill  s p e c i a l i z e d l a b o r and b u i l d i n g j o b s .  on t h e p o p u l a record  from Zhejiang t o  G i v i n g an a v e r a g e  o f f i v e p e o p l e i n e a c h h o u s e h o l d , we g e t a b o u t 395,000 new residents i n Nanjing.  By 1 3 9 1 , S h a n g y u a n a n d J i a n g n i n g , up t h e a r e a  t h e two c o u n t i e s m a k i n g  i n c l u d i n g t h e c a p i t a l and i t s e n v i r o n s ,  following population:  S h a n g y u a n h a d 38,900 h o u s e h o l d s o r  253,200 i n d i v i d u a l s a n d J i a n g n i n g 220,000 i n d i v i d u a l s .  had t h e  h a d 27,000 h o u s e h o l d s o r  These f i g u r e s d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e  military,  official  and t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l i e s .  estimated  t h a t t h e r e w e r e more t h a n 200,000 m i l i t a r y - 77 -  A s i t was personnel  i n Nanjing, the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of Nanjing d e c l i n e d the r e l o c a t i o n of the c a p i t a l t o B e i j i n g a c c o u n t s s a i d i t was  reduced  "by one  i n 1421.  h a l f " which  after  Most i s not  p r e c i s e e x p r e s s i o n b u t c e r t a i n l y t h e d e c l i n e was  a  substantial.  I n N a n j i n g , t h e S o u t h e r n Academy s e t up b y t h e M i n g government not o n l y c o l l e c t e d a l l the p r i n t b l o c k s from  the  s c h o o l s i n the c i r c u i t of J i q i n g but a l s o p r i n t b l o c k s from t h e West L a k e Academy.  O v e r 271 w o r k s w e r e p u b l i s h e d by  S o u t h e r n Academy a s r e c o r d e d b y Zhou H o n g z h o u .  Not o n l y were  b o o k s o f C l a s s i c s and h i s t o r y p u b l i s h e d b u t a l s o b o o k s a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , mathematics, and  e l e m e n t a r y t e x t s were i s s u e d .  The  n o t o n l y a p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e , i t was higher learning. Academy i n 1420  the  hydrology,  on  medicine  S o u t h e r n Academy  a l s o the i n s t i t u t e  O v e r 9,000 s t u d e n t s w e r e e n r o l l e d  was of  i n the  w i t h s t u d e n t s f r o m K o r e a , J a p a n and T h a i l a n d .  As p o i n t e d o u t by Hu Y i n g l i n , m o s t o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s w e r e l o c a t e d a t t h e S a n s h a n S t r e e t and School.  i n f r o n t of the I m p e r i a l  Some o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s t h u s had names s u c h  "Sanshan Shufang"  o r "Sanshan S h u l i n " .  as  A t o t a l of  fifty-four  b o o k s t o r e s were l i s t e d by Zhang X i u m i n and he e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e number o f b o o k s t o r e s i n N a n j i n g was  f e w e r t h a n i n Jianyang 136  w h i c h had o v e r s i x t y b u t more t h a n t h o s e i n B e i j i n g . N a n j i n g t h e Tang f a m i l y had  t h e l a r g e s t number o f b o o k s t o r e s —  t w e l v e , w h i l e t h e Zhou f a m i l y came n e x t w i t h s e v e n The  In  stores.  Tang b o o k s t o r e s p u b l i s h e d many b o o k s o n m e d i c i n e , - 78 -  Classics,  music, of  l i t e r a r y w o r k s b u t f a r more numerous  dramas.  was  Tang K u i x i ' s F u c h u n Tang a l o n e h a d p u b l i s h e d one  h u n d r e d d r a m a s w i t h some t h i r t y o f them s t i l l s u c h a s Sangu C a o l u J i and Guanbao F e n j i n J i . to  the p u b l i s h i n g  surviving  today,  In addition  F u c h u n T a n g , o t h e r famous N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s ,  such as  Shide  T a n g , W e n l i n Ge, G u a n g q i n g Tang and J i z h i Tang h a d a l s o p u b l i s h e d many d r a m a s .  I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t o v e r  dramas were p u b l i s h e d by N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s  200 t o 300  alone i n the Ming  period.  The e a r l i e s t known book p u b l i s h e r i n N a n j i n g was Wang J u z h i who p u b l i s h e d Y a s o n g Z h e n g y i n  i n the e a r l y Ming p e r i o d .  Zhongde Tang i n 14 3 5 p u b l i s h e d J i n t o n g Yunu J i a o h o n g J i which  was t h e e a r l i e s t N a n j i n g drama s u r v i v i n g t o d a y .  bookstore  Another  i n N a n j i n g , L a i b i n L o u , was famous f o r i t s p u b l i c a -  t i o n of the T r i p i t a k a .  B e s i d e s drama, b o o k s t o r e s  a l s o p u b l i s h e d l a r g e numbers o f n o v e l s w h i c h demand by t h e p e o p l e .  i n Nanjing  were i n g r e a t  Wanjuan L o u p u b l i s h e d S a n g u o j i  Zhuan  w h i l e S i y o u J i h a d more t h a n one e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d by R o n g s h o u Tang and S h i d e T a n g .  Daye Tang a l s o p u b l i s h e d X i j  in;  J i z h u a n T i p i n g , D o n g j i n J i z h u a n T i p i n g and J i a n s h a n Tang p u b l i s h e d J i n g s h i Tongyan. p u b l i s h e d by c o m m e r c i a l strations. in  M o s t o f t h e M i n g drama a n d n o v e l s  p u b l i s h e r s h a d l a r g e numbers o f  In Jianyang e d i t i o n ,  i l l u s t r a t i o n s were  t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e page w i t h t h e t e x t b e l o w .  t i o n s i n N a n j i n g e d i t i o n s became f u l l w i t h one l a r g e i l l u s t r a t i o n .  illu-  usually Illustra-  page o r e v e n two p a g e s  T h e r e w e r e a l s o a l a r g e number  of m e d i c a l b o o k s p u b l i s h e d by t h e N a n j i n g b o o k s t o r e s F u c h u n T a n g ' s F u r e n Daquan Liangfang„  such  as  There were a l s o h i s -  t o r i c a l w o r k s p r o d u c e d by N a n j i n g c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r s , s u c h as Dayou T a n g ' s Huangming B a o x u n .  Although  book p u b l i s h e r s  i n N a n j i n g d i d n o t p u b l i s h a s many b o o k s a s t h e i r  counterparts  i n J i a n y a n g , N a n j i n g was more famous f o r i t s l a r g e o u t p u t o f dramas.  S u z h o u was one o f t h e e a r l i e s t book p u b l i s h i n g and b o o k s e l l i n g centres i n China.  I n t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s , i n Feng  Xiu's m e m o r i a l t o t h e e m p e r o r t o b a n t h e s e l l i n g o f c a l e n d a r s i n t h e m a r k e t , S u z h o u was m e n t i o n e d a s one o f t h e p l a c e s  where  13 8 unauthorized  c a l e n d a r s were on s a l e .  e r n Song B u d d h i s t  I n 1978, t h r e e  North-  s u t r a s were d i s c o v e r e d i n Ruiguang Pagoda  i n t h e c i t y o f Suzhou.  T h i s d i s c o v e r y f u r t h e r proved  book p u b l i s h i n g had b e e n w e l l d e v e l o p e d  that  i n Suzhou i n N o r t h e r n  Song p e r i o d . The p o p u l a t i o n o f S u z h o u i n t h e Song p e r i o d was a t a b o u t 300,000.  estimated  I t was e s t i m a t e d b y M o t e t h a t S u z h o u i n  the s i x t e e n t h century probably  reached  t h e h a l f - m i l l i o n mark  139 in population.  The two p h a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n  e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i t e d t h e Suzhou a r e a . the i n t r o d u c t i o n of q u i c k - r i p e n i n g r i c e and  I t f i r s t began w i t h i n t h e Song p e r i o d  l a t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c r o p s f r o m t h e New W o r l d  the s i x t e e n t h century.  after  The i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c i v i t y o f a g r i c u l -  t u r e and u s e o f s u b s i d i a r y c r o p s f r e e d t h e - 80 -  farming p o p u l a t i o n  t o engage I n s e c o n d a r y p r o d u c t i o n  and d i s t r i b u t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .  Commerce, c r a f t i n d u s t r y a n d f i n a n c e s c o p e and v o l u m e . growth of t e x t i l e  The p r o d u c t i o n  were a l l e x p a n d i n g i n  of luxury  industries, at first  silk  goods and t h e and l a t e r  cotton  i n d u s t r y , were i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t s o f t h e Suzhou r e g i o n . a g g r e g a t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l s  The  and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i n i s h e d  p r o d u c t s f u r t h e r made S u z h o u t h e hub o f a c i r c l e o f g r o w i n g satellite cities  -- W u j i a n g , K u n s h a n , W u x i , C h a n g s h u -- a l l  o f w h i c h grew i n t o t h e 100,000 c l a s s a f t e r t h e s i x t e e n t h 140 century.  In a d d i t i o n t o i t s prospering fostered but  industry,  Suzhou  also  t h e a r t s o f C h i n a -- t h e l i t e r a r y a r t s a b o v e a l l ,  a l s o m u s i c and p a i n t i n g , c a l l i g r a p h y , t h e c r a f t a r t s ,  decorative  a r t s and t h e minor a r t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d  elegant l i f e .  M o r e o v e r , Suzhou s u s t a i n e d  mechanism f o r a c h i e v i n g  to i t s  learning, the  s o c i a l s t a t u s and o f f i c i a l  status.  I t l a v i s h e d w e a l t h o n g a r d e n s and a r t c o l l e c t i o n and r e l i g i o u s institutions.  The S u z h o u d r e s s e s ,  boats a n d f e s t i v a l s w e r e r e p o r t e d  mansions, food,  pleasure  t o be t h e f i n e s t i n a l l  China.  C i t i e s w e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l modes i n t h e n e t w o r k o f m a r k e t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Y e t i n t h e case o f Suzhou, as Mote p o i n t s outside  o u t , t h e c o m m e r c i a l and b a n k i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n  the c i t y ,  i n the suburbs i n the west of the c i t y  e x t e n d i n g some d i s t a n c e  a l o n g t h e Grand C a n a l . - 81 -  was walls,  As f o r c r a f t  industry,  s i l k , w e a v i n g was: c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n t h e n o r t h e a s t  c o r n e r i n s i d e t h e w a l l s , b u t c o t t o n w e a v i n g was d i s p e r s e d outside the c i t y . fish,  S p e c i a l i z e d m a r k e t s f o r p r o d u c t s such as  f r u i t s , v e g e t a b l e s and c e r t a i n m a n u f a c t u r e d goods were  l o c a t e d i n m a r k e t t o w n s , t e n t o f i f t e e n m i l e s away.  " A l l the  p r o c e s s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g b o o k s c o n t i n u e d t o be characteristically rural village activities,  as were  their  s u p p o r t i n g c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s such as t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f 14 2 p a p e r and i n k . "  A l t h o u g h S u z h o u i n t h e Song and Yuan p e r i o d s was n o t y e t a m a j o r book m a r k e t , i t s c l o s e n e s s t o H a n g z h o u c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s development as a h i g h l y regional publishing center. printers,  certainly  sophisticated  Many o f t h e famous Song b l o c k -  s u c h a s Zheng D i n g , L i u Y u a n d a a n d o t h e r s ,  actually  143 came f r o m S u z h o u .  I n M i n g p e r i o d , S u z h o u h a d become n o t  o n l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g b u t m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e a s well.  There were over f o r t y b o o k s t o r e s i n Suzhou.  Most o f  them w e r e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e Chang G a t e , t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n g a t e of  the c i t y w a l l ,  and i n f r o n t o f Wuxian.  Books p u b l i s h e d i n  Suzhou were comparable i n q u a l i t y t o t h e books p u b l i s h e d i n Beijing.  I n f a c t many b o o k s e l l e r s i n B e i j i n g o r i g i n a t e d  from  144 Suzhou. Hu Y m g l m f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f books p r o d u c e d i n Suzhou were t h e b e s t compared w i t h o t h e r 145 publishing centers.  Many o f t h e C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , - 82 -  t h e i r c o m m e n t a r i e s and  government r e g u l a t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f Ming.  T h i s c e r t a i n l y was due t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e  "eight-legged essay"  i n the c i v i l  service examination.  In  t h e Zhengde and W a n l i p e r i o d ( 1 5 0 6 - 1 6 1 9 ) , many Song and Yuan e d i t i o n s were i s s u e d .  D u r i n g and a f t e r  the Wanli p e r i o d ,  dramas and n o v e l s became v e r y p o p u l a r and w e r e p r i n t e d i n l a r g e numbers.  Many o f t h e s e p o p u l a r w o r k s c o n t a i n e d v e r y  f i n e l y d r a w n i l l u s t r a t i o n s and w e r e i n g r e a t demand by t h e common p e o p l e .  The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e d r a m a s , n o v e l s and p o p u l a r works however, were s t r o n g l y  suppressed  by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .  A M i n g S u z h o u m a g i s t r a t e , Tang Wenzheng, p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e n o v e l s and p o p u l a r w o r k s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e b o o k s t o r e s  contained  l a s c i v i o u s w o r d s and p i c t u r e s , w h i c h b a d l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and no o t h e r b o o k s , e x c e p t t h e T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s and  t h e T w e n t y - o n e D y a n a s t i c H i s t o r y , w e r e a l l o w e d t o be  published.  A l l t h e p r i n t - b l o c k s o f p r o h i b i t e d b o o k s w o u l d be  d e s t r o y e d by f i r e  and t h e c o m p i l e r s , b l o c k - p r i n t e r s and b o o k -  s e l l e r s w o u l d a l l be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d . ^ 1 4  In another  i n s t a n c e , book p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g o f  C l a s s i c s and d y n a s t i c h i s t o r i e s were a l s o p r o h i b i t e d . end o f t h e C o m m e n t a r i e s t o t h e T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c , a t i o n by a government o f f i c e  At the  proclama-  i n S u z h o u was r e c o r d e d p a r t l y  follows:  - 83 -  as  T h i s o f f t e e h a s p u b l i s h e d the: T h i r t e e n C l a s s i c s , t h e Twenty-one D y n a s t i c H i s t o r i e s , t h e S h i j i and o t h e r l i t e r a r y writings. Unscrupulous persons r e p r o d u c e them f o r p r o f i t , w i t h b l o c k s p o o r l y c u t and t h e t e x t s d e f e c t i v e . They a r e s o l d a t a low p r i c e f o r ready p r o f i t . D i s t a n t b o o k - d e a l e r s have been f r e q u e n t l y d e c e i v e d ; and s t u d e n t s , h a v e a l s o b e e n misled. A few o f t h e c u l p r i t s have a c c o r d i n g l y b e e n p u n i s h e d b u t a number o f them a r e s t i l l a t l a r g e . Henceforth t h o s e who c o n t i n u e t o i n f r i n g e t h e r i g h t s o f t h i s o f f i c e w i l l be p r o s e c u t e d . AIT d e a l e r s o f f o r g e d w o r k s and t h o s e a l t e r e d t i t l e s p u b l i s h e d by t h i s o f f i c e w i l l a l s o be p u n i s h e d . 1 4 7  In to  Guangdong, t h e s e l l i n g o f b o o k s was a l s o s u b j e c t e d  strict  c o n t r o l and some b o o k s w e r e e v e n t o t a l l y b a n n e d .  was r e c o r d e d  t h a t a governor  o f Nanhong F u i n Guangdong  d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e were f o u r k i n d s o f books t h a t s h o u l d banned from b e i n g  sold  i n the bookstores:  F i r s t l y , B o o k s on c u r r e n t a f f a i r s w h i c h could badly influence the scholars. S e c o n d l y , b o o k s on o p e r a s w h i c h t e a c h l a s c i v i o u s ideas t o people. T h i r d l y , books on B u d d h i s m and f o u r t h l y , b o o k s on D a o i s m which promote s u p e r s t i t i o n . A l l these books had a l r e a d y been banned e a r l i e r . The c o u n t y o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d g e t a l l b o o k s t o r e s t o s i g n an a g r e e m e n t n o t t o s e l l these books a g a i n . I f they ever s e l l t h e s e b o o k s , t h e y w o u l d be s e v e r e l y p u n i shed and t h e y w o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o open any b o o k s t o r e s a g a i n . Outsiders should n o t be a l l o w e d t o b r i n g i n t h e s e b o o k s . The f r o n t i e r o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d f r e q u e n t l y checked the t r a v e l l i n g merchants t o prev e n t them f r o m s m u g g l i n g t h e s e b a n n e d books i n . 1  4  8  - 84 -  be  It  Books, pub.lis.hecl i n t h e M i n g p e r i o d h a v e many commendable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : b u t t h e r e w e r e numerous d e f e c t s w h i c h w e r e s u m m a r i s e d by Wu  as:  In the f i r s t p l a c e , the Ming p r i n t e r s were i n c l i n e d t o d e l e t e p o r t i o n s o f t h e t e x t and to a l t e r e i t h e r the t i t l e s or the c o n t e n t s a t t h e i r own p l e a s u r e . I f t h e r e w e r e any g a p s , t h e y a l s o — an e v e n more d a n g e r o u s proceeding — s u p p l i e d the passages from their imagination. S e c o n d l y , the books were n o t c a r e f u l l y p r o o f r e a d , and e r r o r s w e r e many. T h i r d l y , t h e M i n g p u b l i s h e r s w e r e fond of u s i n g o l d forms of c h a r a c t e r s which w e r e no l o n g e r c u r r e n t , m e r e l y t o d i s p l a y t h e i r seemingly profound e r u d i t i o n . Making extravagant c l a i m s , they very o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had b a s e d t h e i r e d i t i o n s on t h o s e issued i n the past.149  E v e n an o u t s t a n d i n g  collector,  l i k e Mao  b o o k s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d many m i s t a k e s  a s we  in  seemingly  the chapter.  T h i s n e g l i e n c e and  fference to accuracy  J i n , published  have noted  earlier  callous indi-  a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e , on t h e w h o l e , t o  the  s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of Ming s c h o l a r s h i p .  In than  summary, more b o o k s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e M i n g p e r i o d  i n any  of the previous d y n a s t i e s .  e x t e n d e d t o many f i e l d s and t h e common p e o p l e .  service examination t h a t a l l b o o k s be  became f a r more p o p u l a r  T h i s was  encouragement of e d u c a t i o n system.  Books p u b l i s h e d  no d o u b t due  and  government  the p o p u l a r i t y of the  civil  As a 13 6 8 s t a t u t e s t i p u l a t e d  e x e m p t e d f r o m t a x e s , Zhu  Ming emperor, even o r d e r e d  t o the  e v e n among  that Confucian  Yuanzhang, the t e x t s be  first  distributed  f r e e l y by t h e government t o n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s where books were n o t e a s i l y  available.  As t h e " e i g h t - l e g g e d e s s a y " was i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r t h e civil  service examination, the successful j i n s h i  f i r s t p r i n t e d by c o m m e r c i a l i n the sixteenth century.  papers  were  p u b l i s h e r s i n Suzhou and Hangzhou Not o n l y d i d bookdealers  i n the  n o r t h b u y a l a r g e number o f them, e v e n F u j i a n b o o k s h o p s reproduced  them a t a p r o f i t .  j i n s h i papers  I n 1587, t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e  became an o r t h o d o x  practice with the Supervi-  s o r a t e o f R i t e s s u g g e s t i n g i t s p u b l i c a t i o n and s e r v e d a s examples f o r p r o s p e c t i v e examination c a d i d a t e s .  I n t h e J i a q i n g p e r i o d , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f Tang and Song w o r k s w e r e p o p u l a r a n d a f t e r W a n l i p e r i o d , d r a m a s a n d f i c t i o n were produced  by many N a n j i n g and F u j i a n  bookstores.  I m p o r t a n t book m a r k e t s i n e a r l y Ming p e r i o d i n J i a n y a n g , H a n g z h o u and S u z h o u w e r e c o m p e t i n g Nanjing which  developed  Wanli period.  severely with Beijing  and  a s r e g i o n a l book m a r k e t s a f t e r t h e  The f u n c t i o n o f some o f t h e b o o k s t o r e s i n  t h e M i n g p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e i n B e i j i n g and H a n g z h o u , had  a l s o been t r a n s f o r m e d from a c t i v e l y engaging  p u b l i s h i n g and m a r k e t i n g  Devastated  t o become b o o k s e l l i n g  1644.  alone.  by b o t h t h e p o w e r f u l e u n u c h s and  r e b e l s , the Ming c o u r t f i n a l l y  i n both  internal  succumbed t o t h e Manchus i n  To w i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e C h i n e s e , - 86 -  t h e Manchu  rulers  a d o p t e d moat o f t h e M i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and s e r v i c e examination e a r l y i n the s c h o l a r s , however, d i d not d y n a s t y and study of of  Qing p e r i o d .  the  civil  Many o f  the  w i s h to serve under t h i s a l i e n  s p e n t t h e i r t i m e and  solid  revived  scholarship.  effort,  i n s t e a d , on  the  There were f o u r main d i r e c t i o n s  l e a r n i n g i n t h i s e a r l y Qing p e r i o d  as  s u g g e s t e d by  Liang  151 Qichao. of  "no  Firstly,  i n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t the  learning", scholars  studied  studied  ancient  as p r e r e q u i s i t e p h i l o l o g y , t h e  c a l terms, r e g u l a t i o n s s t u d y emerged t h e period.  The  s u c c e s s and  and  b o o k s and  semantics of  i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . , and  School of E m p i r i c a l Studies  s e c o n d a r e a was failure  l a t e Ming  the  i n ancient  g e o g r a p h y , s t r a t e g i c ; f o r t s and  studying  and  they techni-  out  i n the  of the  error  of  mid-Qing  causes  modern h i s t o r i c a l  this  of  records,  p a s s e s , and  other matters  of  s t u d y was  l a r g e l y h e l d by  p r a c t i c a l statesmanship.  This  various  were a l l e l d e r l y s u r v i v a l s of  the  a concealed b i t t e r n e s s towards  the  great  m a s t e r s who  p r e v i o u s d y n a s t y and a l i e n d y n a s t y and with  the  R i c c i and  planned to r e s t o r e  others,  other subjects  the method of  as w e l l .  looking  scholarly research  i n a s t r o n o m y and  t u r n i n g back of the  scholars  the Ming c o u r t .  Thirdly,  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f W e s t e r n l e a r n i n g i n t o C h i n a by  from w i t h o u t , f i r s t  the  had  f o r the  The  abstract  had  t o the  in  learning  concrete with  c o n c r e t e i n w r i t i n g s and  Matteo changed  mathematics, l a t e r  f o u r t h d i r e c t i o n of  the  was  some  some i n  action. A l t h o u g h t h e Manchus w e r e c o n s i d e r e d - 87  -  u n c i v i l i z e d barbar-  i a n s by  the. M i n g l o y a l i s t s ,  l e s s had  great  enthusiasm f o r C l a s s i c a l  compilations. patron  of  I n 1679  he  t h e e a r l y Manchu r u l e r s ,  E m p e r o r Kangxi. was  l e a r n i n g and called  was  literary  dedicated  i n Chinese C l a s s i c s .  f o r a "Boxue h o n g r u " s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n  r e c r u i t t h e m o s t l e a r n e d men of Ming.  l e a r n i n g and  w e l l known as a  w e l l versed  neverthe-  to  to compile the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y  I n K a n g x i ' s p e r i o d , s e v e r a l monumental works were  c o m p i l e d , s u c h as K a n g x i Z i d i a n , P e i w e n Y u n f u , a C o m p l e t e Work o f Zhu  X i and  the Quantang S h i .  monumental work under the  But  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  sponsorship  o f K a n g x i was  c o m p i l a t i o n of the G u j i n Tushu J i c h e n g . paedia  i n 10,000 j u a n was  i n 1728  by  copper  e d i t e d by  :movable  respect  f o r l e a r n i n g and  e x a m i n a t i o n f o r e r u d i t e men authorized  and (The  indeed  The  reintroduced  as i n t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d .  greatest compilation  important  w o r k s i n one  p r e s e r v a t i o n of  literary  i n the Qianlong  doubt t h a t the the  s c h o l a r s as  He  Tongzhi,  Huangchao W e n x i a n  was  complete L i b r a r y of the Four T r e a s u r i e s )  Quanshu g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d  had  the s p e c i a l  T o n g d i a n , Xu W e n x i a n T o n g k a o , Xu  T h e r e i s no  printed  the emperor h i m s e l f  i n the whole h i s t o r y of China,  79,070 j u a n .  encyclo-  Chen M e n g l e i and  Huangchao T o n g d i a n , Huangchao T o n g z h i and Tongkao.  This grand  t h e e d i t i n g o f many h i s t o r i c a l and  p r o j e c t s s u c h a s , Xu  the  types.  D u r i n g the r e i g n of Q i a n l o n g , great  and  period,  t h e S i k u Quanshu which  compilation  contained of  Siku  i t collected a l l  l i b r a r y b u t more s i g n i f i c a n t was i t s ;  l a r g e numbers o f r a r e w o r k s w h i c h c o u l d - 88  -  not  o t h e r w i s e have s u r v i v e d . selecting  Unfortunately, i n the process of  books: f o r t h e S i k u Qu a n s h u , many b o o k s w h i c h  c o n t a i n e d a n a t i o n a l i s t i c c o n t e n t o r were p o p u l a r l i t e r a r y w o r k s o r w e r e b o o k s f o r d a i l y u s e d b y t h e common p e o p l e w e r e r e j e c t e d or suppressed.  T h i s l e d t o much s p e c u l a t i o n o f t h e  p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e b e h i n d t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s monumental collection.  The c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s w o r k n o t o n l y i n c r e a s e d  the  demand f o r r e f e r e n c e w o r k s a n d d i c t i o n a r i e s  ted  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e development  but contribu-  o f t h e book market i n  L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h was c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d n e a r t h e r o u t e between t h e I n n e r and O u t e r c i t y o f B e i j i n g . of  this  i m p o r t a n t book m a r k e t  will  be  The  development  discussed further i n  subsequent c h a p t e r s .  In  addition to participating  i n government  l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t s , many s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s private publishing.  The f i r s t  sponsored  a l s o engaged i n  i m p o r t a n t book o f t h e Q i n g  p e r i o d was t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f T o n g z h i t a n g J i n g j i e b y X u Q i a n x u e . Many o f t h e l i t e r a r y w o r k s o f Q i n g s c h o l a r s w e r e p r i n t e d , such a s Yuyang J i n g h u a l u . where b i b l i o p h i l e s  finely  There were a l s o  cases  were h i r e d t o e d i t works such as S h i 1 1 j u  C o n g s h u o f Wang P i e l i e a n d Z h i b u z u z h a i C o n g s h u o f Bao T i n g b o . Many b i b l i o p h i l e s  h a d w o r k s o f t h e i r own p u b l i s h e d t o o , n o t e d  examples i n c l u d e d Baoj i n g t a n g Congshu o f LuWenshao,  Jingxun-  t a n g C o n g s h u o f B i Yuan a n d P i n g j i n g u a n C o ng shu o f Sun X i n g y a n . From t h e s e n o t e d e x a m p l e s o f w o r k s , we c a n s e e t h a t Q i n g l a r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y  fond of the p u b l i s h i n g of - 89 -  Scho-  "congshu"  (collectanea), ,  The increase  economic r e c o v e r y , of population  p o l i t i c a l retrenchment,  and l o w e r l a b o u r  rapid  cost a l l contributed  t o t h e l a r g e s c a l e development o f book p u b l i s h i n g i n t h e e a r l y Qing p e r i o d .  N o t o n l y were books f o r t h e e l i t e p u b l i s h e d i n  large quantity but the production common p e o p l e were a l s o  "As  producers  o f p o p u l a r works f o r t h e  expanded.  (authors,  patrons,  the h i g h l y l i t e r a t e Chinese e l i t e  p r i n t e r s ) and consumers,  continued  t o dominate t h e  152 book m a r k e t . "  This  e l i t e b o o k m a r k e t was a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d  i n t h e t r a d e o f r a r e b o o k s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h p r i c e s and occassional bankruptcies personal great having  libraries.  learning.  among w e a l t h y men c o m p e t i n g t o b u i l d  Many o f t h e s e c o n n o i s s e u r s w e r e men o f  These s c h o l a r - p u b l i s h e r s  not only boasted of  "one h u n d r e d Song e d i t i o n s u n d e r one r o o f " b u t o f t e n  contributed  t o l e a r n i n g by c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g and e d i t i r i g -  r a r e works f o r r e p r i n t i n g .  Nanjing,  remained as t h e major c e n t e r s  S u z h o u and H a n g z h o u  o f q u a l i t y c o m m e r c i a l book  p u b l i s h i n g i n t h i s e a r l y period of Qing.  In fact,  t e x t s h a d now become a v a i l a b l e i n f a r g r e a t e r e d i t i o n s than ever before.  The g e n e r a l  b r o u g h t about by t h i s r e p r o d u c t i o n . facilitated  the i n i t i a l  q u a n t i t y and  cultural  advancement  o f books p r o b a b l y  stages of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y o f t h e poor  i n t h e Ming p e r i o d b u t t h e Qing r e p r o d u c t i o n s and  Confucian  of specialized  e x p e n s i v e w o r k s , beyond t h e r e a c h o f t h e p o o r , gave t h e - 90 -  well-to-do  an  advantage i n t h e i r  the higher  civil  s t u d i e s and  preparation  s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s i n the Qing  for  period.  153  B o o k s t o r e s i n the Qing p e r i o d , however, were not l i m i t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n  and  m a r k e t i n g o f e x p e n s i v e and  t e d b o o k s , p o p u l a r w o r k s and and  cheaper e d i t i o n s were  published  s o l d by many b o o k s t o r e s i n a much l a r g e r q u a n t i t y .  advent of  large scale publishing  a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on literature.  Poetry,  holders  officials,  and  b o o k d e a l e r s and The  elite-orien-  s i n c e the  l i t e r a t u r e and  formerly was  even farmer's sons —  simplified ership.  characters,  f i c t i o n had  of the  Qing p u b l i s h e r s connected with Suzhou r e g i o n  and  s t o r i e s , ranging  merchants,  the s e m i - l i t e r a t e s . Song  of i l l u s t r a t i o n s  seventeenth centuries,  eighteenth  theatre,  and  and  century.  develop-  B e s i d e s the  dramas,  of s t r e e t entertainment  s u c h as  the Tanci  f r o m d e t e c t i v e t a l e s and  accounts of h e r o i c k n i g h t s e r r a n t  read-  culminating  v e r s e s from  the Guci from the B e i j i n g area.  Qing p e r i o d s .  C o l l e c t i o n s of  and  even s a l a c i o u s p s e u d o - h i s t o r i e s  jokes,  essays,  of the  offered for sale.  the  Short  ghost s t o r i e s to  were p u b l i s h e d  and  w e r e a l s o w r i t t e n and  of  degree  an e s p e c i a l l y l i v e l y  printed versions the  had  must have a t t r a c t e d a f a i r l y wide  s i x t e e n t h and  novels  "consumers"  f i c t i o n from the  t h e i r c o p i o u s use  Vernacular  ment i n t h e i n the  with  the  a l s o w r i t t e n by  p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s of v e r n a c u l a r  Yuan p e r i o d s ,  Song d y n a s t y  the e x c l u s i v e sphere of  now  The  i n l a t e Ming travelogues  i m p e r i a l household  The  v a s t range  c o m m e r c i a l l y p r i n t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o r amusement was  of  paralleled  b o o k s w e r e now p r i n t e d i n N a n j i n g ,  Suzhou and Hangzhou.  j i a n books were seldom t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e n o r t h w h i l e having  been d e v a s t a t e d  b y w a r was w i t h o u t  a n y book  Fu-  Sichuan  production.  Wang a l s o acknowledged t h a t b o o k s p r o d u c e d i n t h e c a p i t a l , B e i j i n g , were n o t o f h i g h q u a l i t y and t h a t o n l y L l i f r o m Shimen and  Xu Q i a n x u e h a d p r o d u c e d b o o k s w h i c h w e r e c l o s e r i n q u a l i t y 155  to  t h e Song e d i t i o n s .  a l s o confirmed in and  Nanjing,  Ye D e h u i , i n h i s S h u l i n Q i n g h u a ,  t h a t " i n Wang S h i z h e n ' s t i m e s ,  Suzhou and Hangzhou had a l r e a d y  Sichuan.  I n the Qianlong  book  printing  surpassed  Fujian  and J i a q i n g p e r i o d , most o f t h e  b o o k s e d i t e d b y L u Wenshao, Bao T i n g b o , Wang S h i z h e n  a n d Ruan  Yuan w e r e p u b l i s h e d b y L i u W e n k u i a n d L i u W e n k a i i n 156 Nanjing."  (See F i g u r e 4 ) .  Bookstores i n t h e Qing p e r i o d developed r e g i n a l branches. An i n t e r e s t i n g  s t a t e m e n t w h i c h was s t a m p e d o n t h e t i t l e  o f D o n g x i Han Y a n y i , p r i n t e d b y Juwen T a n g , r e a d  page  that:  Books o f o l d and r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n on s a l e a t S h a n c h e n g Tang i n S u z h o u , Hangz h o u , Zhe j i a n g a n d F u j i a n . - ' 5 7  From t h i s s t a t e m e n t we c a n t e l l have been a l a r g e b o o k s t o r e Zhejiang in  t h a t S h a n c h e n g Tang m u s t  w i t h branches i n Jiangsu,  and F u j i a n a l t h o u g h  w h e t h e r i t s h a d q u a r t e r was  Suzhou o r Hangzhou h a d y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d .  From  other  sources  we a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t S h a n c h e n g Tang a l s o p r i n t e d  books.  Thus S h a n c h e n g Tang n o t o n l y e n g a g e d i n t h e p r i n t i n g - 92 -  by an e q u a l l y d i v e r s e g r o u p o f m a t e r i a l s f o r a i d i n s e l f i m p r o v e m e n t and p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s .  M o r a l i t y books  articula-  t i n g p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t s and p r e s c r i b i n g m e r i t o r i o u s b e h a v i o r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n the bookshops.  Baojuan  ( p r e c i o u s s c r o l l s ) were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d  some b o o k s t o r e s i n s e c r e t a s t h e y w e r e b a n n e d by t h e ment.  govern-  P o p u l a r e n c y c l o p a e d i a s w e r e a l l t h e more p o p u l a r i n  t h e Q i n g p e r i o d f o r v a r i o u s p r a c t i c a l and Two  by  specialized  uses.  o f t h e more e d u c a t i o n a l p o p u l a r w o r k s f o r b e g i n n e r s  p u b l i s h e d by t h e b o o k s t o r e s w e r e t h e a r i t h m e t i c b o o k s  and  the c h a r a c t e r g l o s s a r i e s .  The  p r o d u c e r s o f c h e a p p o p u l a r e d i t i o n s w e r e much more  dispersed than the e l i t e - o r i e n t e d p u b l i s h e r s . y a n ' s s t u d y o f 130  Chinese popular f i c t i o n  ob B r i t i s h Museum and  In L i u Ts'un-  i n the  libraries  t h e R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y , he d i s c o v e r -  ed more t h a n e i g h t y b o o k s t o r e s e x i s t e d  i n the l a t e Ming  and  e a r l y Qing p e r i o d , c o v e r i n g a wide a r e a i n c l u d e d Suzhou, Hangzhou, N a n j i n g , Yangzhou, Shanghai,  J i a n y a n g , Guangzhou,  154 F u s h a n , F u s h a and B e i j i n g .  (See A p p e n d i x  VI).  I n t r a c i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a , Wang S h i z h e n was  s u p r i s e d by t h e r a p i d c h a n g e s o f  g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s s i n c e t h e Song t i m e s on. o u t t h a t L i u Shen had  Wang p o i n t e d  a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d t h e s h i f t of book  m a r k e t s f r o m H a n g z h o u , S i c h u a n and Suzhou i n Ming p e r i o d .  their  F u j i a n i n Song t i m e s  Wang f u r t h e r commented t h a t m o s t - 93  -  to  and marketing of i t s own  books but books p u b l i s h e d from other  bookstores were s o l d t h e r e too.  Another bookstore, Saoye  S h a n f a n g , - f i r s t s e t up i t s headquarter i n Suzhou d u r i n g the Ming p e r i o d and s e t up a r e g i o n a l branch i n Shanghai d u r i n g the Qing p e r i o d .  Other bookstores which were a c t i v e l y engaged  i n both p u b l i s h i n g and marketing of books i n c l u d e d Fuwen Tang, Dawen Tang and L a o h u i x i a n Tang.  In a d d i t i o n t o some  bookstores which opened r e g i o n a l branches  in different  cities  to market t h e i r books, some bookstores employed the t a c t i c s of  producing d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s of one popular work under  d i f f e r e n t names.  In her study of Huiwen Tang's X i u x i a n g  Chunqiu Lieguo, L i u Xiuye d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t s content was  the  same as Fuwen Tang and B a i j i n g Tang's Dongzhou Leiguo J i . Liu  thus suggests t h a t the three d i f f e r e n t p u b l i s h e r s were  i n f a c t the same bookstore.  They j u s t used d i f f e r e n t book158  s t o r e names and book t i t l e s to a t t r a c t more customers.  Nagasawa Kikuyu a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t Xuwan i n J i a n g x i and Makang i n Guangdong were a l s o major p u b l i s h i n g c e n t e r s i n 159 terms of q u a n t i t y produced  i n the Qing p e r i o d .  Other  p r i n t i n g c e n t e r s , such as Nanchang i n J i a n g x i , Changsha i n Hunan and p a r t s of Yunnan were a l s o a c t i v e i n e a r l y Qing time. Bookstores i n B e i j i n g , on the other hand, c a t e r e d to the e l i t e market and the p u b l i s h i n g of expensive  editions.  Some even argued t h a t most of those bookstores i n L i u l i c h a n g - 94 -  ;  as r e c o r d e d but  by L i Wenzao, r a r e l y p u b l i s h e d w o r k s o f t h e i r  concentrated  a r e a and  the  on t h e c o l l e c t i n g o f b o o k s f r o m t h e  s e l l i n g o f b o o k s p u b l i s h e d by o t h e r  T h e r e w e r e a l r e a d y more t h a n  t h i r t y bookstores  a s d e s c r i b e d by L i Wenzao i n 1769. bookstores  w o u l d be  c a n be  Jiangnan  bookstores.  in Liulichang s u r e t h a t more  opened once the c o m p i l a t i o n s of the  Quanshu b e g a n f o u r y e a r m a r k e t o f B e i j i n g and w i l l be  We  later.  indeed  How and why  of China  further studied i n later  own  Siku  t h i s m a j o r book  c o u l d have  developed  chapters.  I n c o n t r a s t t o B e i j i n g w h i c h was  s u r r o u n d e d by l o w - l e v e l  c e n t r a l places with infrequent p e r i o d i c markets, w i t h i n f i f t y m i l e s of Suzhou were a t l e a s t f o r t y m a r k e t s o r w i t h commerce m a i n l y mile walled circumference S u z h o u had  i t s immediate  m i l l i o n before  marketing  centers.  every As  one  surroundings,  which p o s s i b l y increased  the T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n . ^ 1  of  the c a p i t a l c i t y  or t h r e e most populous c i t i e s  the main marketing  center  for three  been noted  and  rare editions,  f o r the s e l l i n g  i n China  noted  regional  as one  and  of  served  as  China.  some S u z h o u b o o k s t o r e s  -  river  for i t s selling  of l a r g e q u a n t i t y of - 95  0  counties  f o r the r i c h e s t r e g i o n of  W h i l e t h e B e i j i n g book m a r k e t was of expensive  for  China's n a t i o n a l and  C h i n a ' s most p o p u l o u s p r o v i n c e , Suzhou ranked  t h e two  daily  Within i t s fifteen  w i t h i n S u z h o u w e r e c o n n e c t e d by w a t e r g a t e s  transport connecting  and  i n stores.  a t l e a s t 500,000 p e o p l e  t o a s many a s one Canals  and  locations with  had  unorthodox  C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , dramas, songbooks and f i c t i o n s .  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r i n t i n g o f t h e s e p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e s were o f t e n banned.  subjected  i f not totally-  A p r o c l a m a t i o n t o ban t h e " l a s c i v i o u s p a i n t i n g s "  after a v i s i t 1838,  t o government c e n s o r s h i p  which  t o t h e book q u a r t e r  Yu Q i a n was q u i t e  by a Suzhou p r e f e c t i n  sentimental  i n h i s expression:  S i n c e I t o o k o v e r t h e o f f i c e i n S u z h o u , many of t h e bookshops t h a t I v i s i t e d had l a s c i v i o u s books and p i c t u r e s t o s e l l . Many o f them n o t o n l y p u b l i s h e d s u c h w o r k s t h e m s e l v e s but a l s o exchanged w i t h o u t s i d e t r a d e r s . These l a s c i v i o u s books and p i c t u r e s were a l s o r e n t and s e l l f o r p r o f i t and t o i n f l a m e p e o p l e with lust. The f i l t h e x t e n d s i n t o t h e women's quarters, increasing e v i l and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . There i s nothing worse than t h i s . The p i c t u r e s that stimulate heterodox l i c e n t i o u s n e s s are worse than lewd books, s i n c e books c a n o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d b y t h o s e w i t h a r o u g h k n o w l e d g e of l e t t e r s , w h i l e t h e p i c t u r e s a r e p e r c e p t i b l e to all. 162  This  p r o c l a m a t i o n t o ban " l a s c i v i o u s p a i n t i n g s "  t e l l s u s t h a t t h e s e b o o k s came f r o m two s o u r c e s :  also  bookstores  t h a t p r i n t e d t h e b o o k s t h e m s e l v e s a n d t r a d e r s who b r o u g h t them i n t o t h e c i t y f r o m e l s e w h e r e . 1837,  I n an agreement d a t e d  s i x t y - f i v e Suzhou b o o k s t o r e s a g r e e d t o t u r n i n banned  books and t h e woodblocks from w h i c h t h e y were p r i n t e d f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n by t h e government o f f i c e . bringing  Outside  traders  i n such books were t h r e a t e n e d w i t h punishment.  frequent a n n o u n c e m e n t o f p r o h i b i t i o n s i n many a r e a s that o f f i c i a l  c o n t r o l s were i n e f f e c t i v e .  of p o p u l a r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s  The  suggests  dissemination  i n t h e c i t i e s c o n t i n u e d and  b o o k s t o r e s and r e n t a l a g e n c i e s were f u l l o f - 96 -  The  lascivious  works.-  I t was  not o n l y in. the c i t i e s  books were p r e s e n t , could  "spread  that  t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e Song b o o k s  t h e i r poison very broadly"  were c a u t i o n e d  by  "lascivous"  the o f f i c i a l s  r e c o r d of bookstores  too.  i n the  that  countryside  I n Wang•-. Z h i z h e n s 1  i n S u z h o u a r e a , more t h a n  forty-five  known s t o r e names w e r e m e n t i o n e d w h i c h i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y s t o r e s w i t h p e r m a n e n t s t r u c t u r e s and s t r u c t u r e s s e t up desirable other  bookstalls with  book-  temporary  d u r i n g market days or f a i r s or i n l e s s  l o c a t i o n s , but  t h e r e w e r e a l s o "book b o a t s "  from  towns.  I n f a c e of s t r o n g government c o n t r o l of t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g activities,  t h e book p u b l i s h i n g m e r c h a n t s i n S u z h o u f o r m e d  t h e i r own ••huiguan , Chongde S h u y u a n , as e a r l y as i n t h e year was  of Kangxi  (1671).  I n Daoguang p e r i o d , a Chongde Gongsuo  f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d by  of the  the p r i n t i n g  industry.  l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n t h e Gongsuo w e r e f r o m  counties  and  regions, this  t h e Gongsuo was  no  tenth  l e d t o Ho  As  some  different  Bingdi*s suggestion  l o n g e r b a s e d on p l a c e o f o r i g i n b u t  that  rather  16 3 i t was  a trade oriented  Despite  guild.  o c c a s i o n a l evidence of higher  technical s k i l l ,  many b o o k s p r o d u c e d i n Makang, Guandong w e r e p r i n t e d unskilled was  female labour.  t h e r e f o r e p o o r and  The  q u a l i t y of books produced  t h e p r i c e was  the procedure f o r p r i n t i n g  by  low.  there  From an a c c o u n t  i n a l o c a l g a z e t t e , we  t h a t many o f t h e b o o k s p r o d u c e d h e r e w e r e f a k e d  as  of  a l s o noted Jiangsu  imprint:  Now w o o d b l o c k e d i t i o n s c u t a t Makang v i r t u a l l y e n c i r c l e the f o r e s t of l e t t e r s . Women and c h i l d r e n c a n a l l do i t ; t h e men o n l y c a r v e t h e t e x t on t h e b l o c k s , accor-' d i n g t o the h a n d - w r i t t e n m a n u s c r i p t . The r e s t i s done w i t h f e m a l e l a b o r . Because o f t h e i r c h e a p n e s s , t h e b o o k s go e v e r y w h e r e . When t h e S u z h o u m e r c h a n t s come i n t o Guangdong t o s e l l t o t h e s h o p s , t h e y p i c k up Makang i m p r i n t s . Books they w i s h p r i n t e d do n o t b e a r an i m p r i n t s when d o n e . The b o o k s a r e t a k e n t o J i a n g n a n and s o l d there with a Jiangsu imprint. Those w i t h i n t h e e m p i r e who s e e them t a k e them t o be Suzhou B o o k s . ^ ^  Makang, h o w e v e r , was  not  the  only  place  where books were  produced cheaply, Jianyang i n F u j i a n i n e a r l i e r periods  and  Hsu-wen i n J i a n g x i a l s o e m p l o y e d u n s k i l l e d f e m a l e l a b o u r  in  165 t h e i r p r i n t i n g of the cheap l a b o u r ,  popular works.  p a p e r , and  Cost advantages  i n k a l s o encouraged the e s t a b l i s h -  m e n t o f c l u s t e r s o f p r i n t i n g h o u s e s i n Hunan and The  c o s t o f book p r o d u c t i o n  had  s i n c e b l o c k - p r i n t i n g developed.in  p r i n t i n g included  w o o d b l o c k s , and  carving,  p r i n t i n g and  c a p i t a l c o s t s , no  the  foundries  the  materials, labor  existence  of  - 98  small  no  major complicated  c a p i t a l outlay  l a r g e numbers o f  -  paper,  f o r "transcribing,  f o r c a s t i n g t y p e and The  ever  involved  s u c h as  T h e r e w e r e a l m o s t no  machines f o r p r i n t i n g or b i n d i n g . thus permitted  major expenses  c o s t of  binding.  Fujian.  a l w a y s b e e n k e p t low  The  t h e c o s t o f raw  i n k , and  of  small  scale  w o r k s h o p s , u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g o f f a m i l y members o n l y . woodblocks t h e m s e l v e s , once c a r v e d , as 30,000 p r i n t i n g s and  c o u l d be  could  The  l a s t f o r as many  stored for future  reprinting.  B l o c k s w e r e s o m e t i m e s . a l s o s o l d t o o t h e r book p u b l i s h e r s  or  16 6 rented  f o r a short p e r i o d of time.  Raw  m a t e r i a l s were a  r e l a t i v e l y minor f a c t o r i n the c o s t of producing Prices varied according  t o t h e q u a l i t y o f p a p e r , i n k and  from w h i c h b l o c k s were c a r v e d . m a t e r i a l but  P e a r wood was  the  e a s i e r to carve  produced a b l u r r e d i m p r i n t .  t o lower I n k and  s m a l l components of the t o t a l c o s t .  standard  the c o s t but i t  paper were The  relatively  ink used i n a  p r i n t i n g o f a J i a n g s u c l a n g e n e a l o g y c o s t 0.22  c a t t y o r 5.8 taels.  wood  occasionally publishers resorted to a softer  wood t h a t was  74  a book.  taels in total,  1773-  taels  per  out of a t o t a l c o s t of over  P a p e r s , p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e same p u r p o s e , c o s t 1.6  f o r a l a r g e s h e e t o u t o f w h i c h s e v e r a l f o l i o s c o u l d be C o s t f o r c a r v i n g w o o d b l o c k s d e p e n d e d on t h e s t y l e of the c h a r a c t e r used. t h e c o s t was b l o c k s had  I n one  s i x t y - e i g h t cash per  t o be  carved  100  size  example from the characters.  r e g a r d l e s s of whether  cash cut.  and 1840" s  Since  10 :or  300  the  10,000  c o p i e s w e r e t o be p r i n t e d , t h e r e l a t i v e e x p e n s e o f a book fell  as t h e number o f c o p i e s  t o be  printed rose.  According  t o Ye D e h u i , t h e c o s t o f c a r v i n g w o o d b l o c k s g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a sed d u r i n g the Qing p e r i o d from twenty c a s h per i n the  l a t e seventeenth  t e r s i n the  century  late 1870's. ^ 1  to f i f t y  100  cash per  100  Rawski, however, argues - 99  -  character characthat  most of t h i s  i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t e d the  i n f l a t i o n a r y trend  of  169 t h i s p e r i o d and  the r e a l c o s t rose very  F u r t h e r m o r e , c o s t s c o u l d be  slightly.  r e d u c e d by u s i n g u n s k i l l e d  labor, at a s i x t e e n to twenty-three  percent  female  reduction  from  the n o r m a l wages. E v e n i n t h e Song and t i o n was  not high.  M i n g p e r i o d s , c o s t o f book p r o d u c -  A 1,300  c a s h f o r p r i n t i n g and  pages D a y i C u i y a n c o s t e d  b i n d i n g and  1,500  r e n t o f p l a t e 1,200  cash. 171  The  selling  1183,  p r i c e o f t h e book was  the p r i n t i n g of the  160  s e t a t 8 ,000  cash.  p a g e s H a n j u n by  In  Xiangshan  c o u n t y s c h o o l c o s t 100  cash f o r r e n t i n g the woodblocks  160  c a s h f o r l a b o r and  ink.  and  two  sheets  I t a l s o u s e d 160  of e x t r a heavy paper.  The  sheets  and  of  paper  selling price  of  172 t h i s w o r k i n two  The  Ho  Donghai  o v e r 100  cash.  W e n j i i n 1554  The  recorded  t o c u t and  very  low  once mentioned t h a t i t o n l y  t a e l s of g o l d to p r i n t the T h i r t e e n  w i t h commentaries.  silver  600  l a b o r c o s t f o r t h e p r i n t i n g o f b o o k s was  Ming times. a little  v o l u m e s was  p r i n t i n g o f Y u z h a n g Luo  cost  Classics  Xiansheng  that i t cost twenty-four  print eighty-three blocks  in  taels  of  (161 p a g e s ) .  This  173 amounted t o o n l y 0.15  t a e l per page.  E v e n up  to the  M i n g p e r i o d i n t h e C h o n g z h e n e r a , i t o n l y c o s t Mao  late  Jin in 174  Changzhou twenty c a s h f o r every  Most r e c o r d s  100  characters  cut.  a b o u t book p r i c e s i n -the ^Ming.-.-and' Q,ing - p e r i o d s -  100  -  are f o r the r a r e book market, which was e s p e c i a l l y a l i v e i n Suzhou, Hangzhou and l a t e r B e i j i n g . these b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s we n e v e r t h e l e s s  From the p r i c e s t h a t  p a i d f o r t h e i r Song and Yuan e d i t i o n s ,  can g a i n some idea of the book marketing  structure.  In Ming p e r i o d p r i c e s f o r the Song and Yuan e d i t i o n s were considered 175  t e n times lower than i n the Qing p e r i o d by Ye  Dehui.  An i n v e n t o r y  of Mao J i n ' s c o l l e c t i o n of 500 t i t l e s ,  which l i s t e d the p r i c e he p a i d f o r each, p r o v i d e d information  on the p r i c i n g s t r u c t u r e of r a r e books i n the  seventeenth century. (Mao  us much  Rawski maintains t h a t "the p r i c e he  J i n ) p a i d f o r such r a r e books shows r e l a t i v e l y modest  l e v e l of e x p e n d i t u r e : many of Mao's books were purchased f o r 17 6 a few hundred cash."  The most expensive book he bought  was Songci Y i b a i j i a f o r 100 t a e l s but the average p r i c e he p a i d f o r p r i n t books was only  4.9 t a e l s .  The p r i c e t h a t  Mao J i n p a i d t o the b o o k s e l l e r s had a l r e a d y generous as there was a saying  been q u i t e  "there was no o t h e r ' b u s i n e s s 17 7  b e t t e r than s e l l i n g books to Mao's f a m i l y . "  In h i s  d e s c r i p t i o n o f Mao J i n ' s l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n , Taam Cheuk-woon a l s o provided and  us some i n f o r m a t i o n  about the p r i c e of books  the g e n e r o s i t y o f p r i c e s p a i d f o r books by Mao J i n : For a p r i n t e d Song e d i t i o n , the owner of t h i s house w i l l be w i l l i n g t o g i v e as much as 200 cash per l e a f ; f o r a. manusc r i p t copy, as much as 40 cash per l e a f . For one good, modern e d i t i o n , i f others - 101 -  o f f e r e d 1,000, t h e owner h e r e w i l l b e w i l l i n g t o p a y 1,200 ( c a s h ) , 1 7 8  B o o k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r a r e e d i t i o n s , became more e x p e n s i v e as e a r l y as t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d . t h a t Qian Muzhai  Wang S h i z h e n , o n c e  p a i d 1,200 t a e l f o r a Song e d i t i o n o f F o r m e r  and L a t e r Han D y n a s t i c H i s t o r i e s . mentioned was  I n J u y j L u , Wang a l s o  a Song b i g - c h a r a c t e r e d i t i o n o f T o n g j i a n J i s h i  brought  Even t h e p r a c t i c a l work o f  Y i n g z a o F a s h i was s o l d f o r 40,000 c a s h . B i n t u i L u , Wang Wenyuan m e n t i o n e d Kangxi  Benmo  t o B e i j i n g by Z h e j i a n g b o o k d e a l e r and asked f o r  120 t a e l s b u t nobody b o u g h t i t .  of  mentioned  In a postcript to  that i n the s i x t y - f i r s t  ( 1 7 7 2 ) , a book d e a l e r Wang J i e s a n b r o u g h t  year  five  v o l u m e s o f Song w o r k s t o B e i j i n g a n d a s k e d f o r t e n t a e l s b u t Wang c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o b u y them. qing period  (1736-1820),  I n t h e Q i a n l o n g and J i a -  p r i c e f o r r a r e books r o s e t e n times  and m o s t o f them w e r e owned b y t h e w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s . editions,  Song  s u c h a s Gongyang J i e g u i n twelve j u a n , p u b l i s h e d b y Y u  R e n z h o n g w e r e s o l d f o r 120 t a e l s ;  Chunqiu  Fanlu i n seventeen  j u a n , was s o l d f o r 100 t a e l s ; D o n g j i n g Menghua L u , i n t e n 179 j u a n , was s o l d f o r t w e n t y - f o u r  taels.  Books f o r t h e e l i t e market were i n d e e d v e r y and,  i n many c a s e s u n a f f o r d a b l e , f o r a n a v e r a g e  Smith observed  expensive scholar.  t h a t i n r u r a l Shandong, t h e c o s t o f C h i n e s e  b o o k s was " p r a c t i c a l l y p r o h i b i t o r y t o t e a c h e r s who a r e p o o r " and t h a t a g o o d e d i t i o n o f t h e K a n g x i D i c t i o n a r y m i g h t - 102 -  cost  a s much a s a v i l l a g e  teacher's annual  salary.  x o u  F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e were a l s o cheaper e d i t i o n s of books a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p o o r s t u d e n t s and  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  o f t h e s e c h e a p e r w o r k s w e r e p r o d u c e d by publishers — Kangxi  the b o o k s t o r e s .  D i c t i o n a r y w h i c h we  use.  expensive  m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y was no  a  high  false characters, there  dictionaries available for general  These s h o r t e r works not o n l y c o s t l e s s t o t r a n s p o r t  b u t c o u l d a l s o be  i n e x p e n s i v e l y p r i n t e d by  workers.  f i c t i o n and  Popular  t h e mass m a r k e t w e r e c h e a p e r , and  commercial  In c o n t r a s t t o the  q u a l i t y e d i t i o n w i t h c l e a r t y p e and were a l s o cheaper pocket  the  Most  u s u a l l y on  down c o s t . corded.  But  lower poorer  semi-skilled  other m a t e r i a l s produced f o r l e s s w e l l p r i n t e d and  edited,  q u a l i t y paper i n order t o  cut  t h e p r i c e f o r such e d i t i o n s were r a r e l y  re-  A Ming e d i t i o n of the n o v e l I n v e s t i t u r e of the  i n t w e n t y j u a n s o l d f o r two high price.  Popular  t a e l s , was  considered a  fairly  e n c y c l o p a e d i a s , w h i c h were o f t e n  j u a n o r more i n l e n g t h , w e r e s a i d t o h a v e c o s t one the s i x t e e n t h century.  R a w s k i has  e d i t i o n s o f p o o r q u a l i t y b o o k s may  Gods  100  tael in  the o p i n i o n t h a t subsequent have c o s t o n l y  one-tenth  181 of t h i s  sum.  A copy of Z a z h i which i s v e r y s h o r t ,  have c o s t l e s s than annual  expenditure  100  cash.  In a study of L i Ciming's  on b o o k s , t h e p r i c e f o r t h e s c h o l a r l y  o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y b o o k s w e r e l o w and l i t e r a t u r e continued The  may  t o be  h e n c e f o r t h the  works  popular 18 2  inexpensive i n the Qing p e r i o d .  l o w e r p r i c e o f b o o k s c -o u l103 d be- f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d  by  the  f a c t t h a t p r i n t i n g c o s t s i n t h e Q i n g p e r i o d were m a i n t a i n e d at a low l e v e l .  The m a r k e t i n g o f b o o k s i n u r b a n a r e a s seems t o h a v e b e e n dominated by m e r c h a n t s from t h e Jiangxi.  lower  Y a n g t z e c e n t e r s and  A s a l r e a d y n o t e d , i t was S u z h o u m e r c h a n t s who  e x p o r t e d Guangdong  books o u t o f t h e p r o v i n c e .  The c e n t r a l  l o c a t i o n o f S u z h o u a s a b o o k e n t r e p o r t may e x p l a i n why t h e B e i j i n g book q u a r t e r o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was d o m i n a t e d by m e r c h a n t s f r o m H u i z h o u , Suzhou, and J i a n g x i . until  I t was n o t  t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t book t r a d e r s  H e b e i emerged a s a n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n B e i j i n g ' s  from Liulichang  book m a r k e t .  I n t h e M i n g and Qing p e r i o d s , b o o k s t o r e s i n t h e r e g i o n a l urban markets c o n t i n u e d t o expand.  Suzhou, Hangzhou, N a n j i n g  a n d B e i j i n g emerged a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t p u b l i s h i n g a n d marketing centres.  I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e was  v e r y a c t i v e b e t w e e n t h e s e f o u r m a j o r book m a r k e t s . b o o k d e a l e r s e v e n w e n t a s f a r s o u t h a s Guangdong books.  Some S u z h o u  t o purchase  An e x t e n s i v e r e g i o n a l book m a r k e t i n g n e t w o r k i s  c l e a r l y evident i n this period.  A l t h o u g h t h e e l i t e b o o k mark-  ket tended t o concentrate i n the urban m e t r o p o l i s ,  popular  l i t e r a t u r e w e r e p u b l i s h e d a n d m a r k e t e d i n many p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , s u c h a s Guangdong, H u a n a n , J i a n g x i a n d e v e n Y u n n a n . However t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e book m a r k e t s y s t e m i n t h i s p e r i o d i s t h e emergence o f a n a t i o n a l market i n B e i j i n g . -  104  -  book  - 105 -  4. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Bookstores i n the E a r l y Qing P e r i o d , 1644-1850  - 106 -  C h a p t e r V,  The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n d s c a p e o f B e i j i n g and L i u l i c h a n g  I n L i a o t i m e s , L i u l i c h a n g was populated  still  r u r a l v i l l a g e , l o c a t e d m i l e s away f r o m  then c a l l e d Nanjing logy of B e i j i n g ,  (the Southern C a p i t a l ) .  see A p p e n d i x V I I I ) .  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L i u l i c h a n g was a r e a and  largely a sparsely  was  Beijing,  (For a chrono-  H o w e v e r , by t h e  absorbed i n t o the  famous f o r b e i n g m a r k e t o f b o o k s .  How  midurban  then  did  t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , f r o m a r u r a l v i l l a g e t o an u r b a n m a r k e t , take place? Beijing  M o r e o v e r , i n w h a t way  affect  these  B e i j i n g has  landscape  a long h i s t o r y  d i d the development of  changes i n L i u l i c h a n g ?  o f more t h a n  years, w i t h settlements developed  three  thousand  t h e r e even', b e f o r e  the  184 Zhou d y n a s t y Ji,  (1030  B.C.-722 B . C . ) .  t h e c a p i t a l o f an  B e i j i n g was  i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m , Yan.  then  J i stands  t h e n o r t h e r n edge o f a g r e a t p l a i n , c i r c u m s c r i b e d by i n t h e w e s t , n o r t h and t h e e a s t by m a r s h l a n d . t o go kou  through  and  one  n o r t h e a s t , and The  south  was  Nankou,  J i , the o l d s i t e of B e i j i n g , three passes,  a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g away f r o m t h e p o t e n t i a l ding  mountains  to north route therfore  l o c a t e d a t the f o c a l p o i n t of these  on  further flanked i n  of the three n a t u r a l passes:  Shanhaiguan.  called  flood  had  Gubei-  conveniently had  the  of the  added  Yong-  River. In  221 'B.C., t h e f i r s t  emperor of Q i n c o m p l e t e d h i s  - 107  -  con-  q u e s t o f t h e o t h e r s i x k i n g d o m s and h r o u g h t unification  of China,  about the  first  The k i n g d o m o f Yan and i t s c a p i t a l , J i ,  were d e s t r o y e d by Q i n .  However J i was  became an i m p o r t a n t m i l i t a r y  later rebuilt  and  base i n t h e c o n t e s t between t h e  Han and t h e n o m a d i c g r o u p s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t f r o m t h e b e g i n ning of the Qin dynasty t h e Han r u l i n g  t o t h e e n d o f t h e Tang d y n a s t y .  c l a s s i n t h i s p e r i o d , t h e c i t y o f J i was  used as t h e base f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y or  from  the i n t r u s i o n  i n t r u d e r s , J i was a l w a y s  o f t h e nomadic p e o p l e . their  first  either  campaign t o t h e n o r t h e a s t  a c t e d a s t h e g a r r i s o n town t o p r o t e c t t h e N o r t h  plain  To  China  To t h e n o m a d i c  target i n their invasion  18 6 of  the south.  military  J i , h o w e v e r , was n o t o n l y i m p o r t a n t  i n the  c o n t e s t b e t w e e n t h e Han and t h e n o m a d i c g r o u p s , i n  p e a c e f u l f i m e , J i a l s o s e r v e d as an i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e f o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t r a d e and c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e two 187 groups. A f t e r the f a l l  o f Tang, a nomadic Mongol group,  called  K h i t a n T a r t a r s , r o s e as t h e dominant s t a t e i n t h e n o r t h . is  the L i a o dynasty  Liao b u i l t their  (937-1125).  I n 938, t h e Mongol r u l e r s  c a p i t a l on a p p r o x i m a t e l y  to distinguish  i t from another  of  t h e same s i t e a s  T a n g ' s Y o u z h o u , c a l l i n g i t Nan j i n g - (See -F-xg. 5';) , t h e Capital,  This  capital  Southern  i n their  18 8 M a n c h u r i a n homeland i n t h e n o r t h .  The l o c a t i o n  N a n j i n g was p a r t i a l l y b a s e d on a t o m b s t o n e f o u n d w h i c h was  l o c a t e d east of Nanjing.  of Liao  i n Liulichang  The c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f t h e 189 c i t y o f N a n j i n g was m e a s u r e-d 108 a s t-h i r t y - s i x l i .  F i g . "5  The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f B e i j i n g  from L i a o t o Qing  N  1  0  2 Km  t  i  L i a o Nanjing  J~" "j Yuan Daidu I I  J i n Zhongdu  Source:  Ming-Qing B e i j i n g  Hou Renzhi, L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n yu s h i j i a n (Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe, 1979), p. 207. - 109 -  This  important  f i n d i n g d i d not  d e v e l o p m e n t o f L i u l i c h a n g b u t was  by Meng Hao,  who  was  the  kiln  f a c t o r y i n L i u l i c h a n g i n the  long  (1771).  Meng was  historical  also highly significant  the h i s t o r i c a l geography of B e i j i n g , discovered  o n l y mark t h e  The  tombstone  supervisor  thirty-fifth  to  was  of the  imperial  year of  Qian-  i n v e s t i g a t i n g a murder case i n L i u -  l i c h a n g when t h e g r a v e o f L i N e i z h e n , an  Imperial  Clerk  190 G r a n d e e o f t h e L i a o d y n a s t y , was t i o n oO in  the  f i r s t day  (978)  of the  also recorded  year,  On  t h e e i g h t h day  L i was  buried 191  of the c a p i t a l . "  that L i Neizhen:  s i x t h month i n t h e  i n his private residence  eighty.  t e n t h year of  o f t h e e i g h t h month o f t h e  i n Haiwang V i l l a g e of Y a n x i a  Liao Period."  Zhu  the east of the  capital —  populated  and  Liulichang i s located.  The  There are  tioned  above.  Yun's  the  in  place also  somewhere  thus e s s e n t i a l l y a r u r a l v i l l a g e ,  then f a r from being  dis-  County.  I n L i a o p e r i o d , Haiwang V i l l a g e ,  I t was  east  buried  Haiwang V i l l a g e of Y a n x i a  located outside  of  same  f o u n d i n Zhu  h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l people l i v i n g 192  around t h i s area."  on  Baoning  County,  t h a t : " L i was  a crowded a r e a w i t h markets t h e r e .  L i u l i c h a n g , was  "died  of the Grave of L i Neizhen i n  further described  i s where t h e p r e s e n t  many famous and  titles  A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  essay "Record of the T r a n s f e r  i s now  inscrip-  " L u l o n g F a n g " , a t t h e age  c o v e r y o f t h e g r a v e o f L i N e i z h e n c o u l d be  This  The  tombstone not o n l y mentioned h i s o f f i c i a l  the L i a o s t a t e but  the  discovered.  sparsely  southern c a p i t a l of  a c r o w d e d m a r k e t as Zhu - 110 -  or  Yu  Liao. men-  The  c i t y of J i i t s e l f  from the S p r i n g end  of Tang.  and  d i d not  experience  Autumn p e r i o d  many c h a n g e s  (7 22 B.C.-48Q B.C.)  to  E v e n when t h e L i a o e m p e r o r e s t a b l i s h e d i t s  s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l i n t h e o l d s i t e o f J i , t h e r e w e r e no s c a l e a l t e r a t i o n s or r e b u i l d i n g of the c i t y . the J i n d y n a s t y , however, not but  further elevated  dynasty.  The  originated f a c t the  the  The  large  founding  o n l y expanded the c i t y  of  in size  i t s s t a t u s t o become t h e c a p i t a l o f  the  J i n p e o p l e , a n o t h e r group o f nomadic T a r t a r s ,  f r o m t h e Amur R i v e r  i n the  far north  f o r e f a t h e r o f t h e Manchus who  and  are  in  conquered China  five  193 hundred y e a r s l a t e r . decided old  I n 1151,  s i t e of L i a o ' s  s o u t h e r n c a p i t a l , w h e r e more l a n d increasing population  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  Wan  Kong C h a n z h o u t o d e s i g n  and  southern sides of Yanjing.  and  t r u c t e d i n a s q u a r e s h a p e and (See F i g . 5 ) .  The  The had  c a p i t a l was  by  a better  Zhang  expand the e a s t e r n ,  cons-  city built  o f t h i s new 194 Yan Wanru.  renamed Zhongdu i n 1153  Hao  western  c a p i t a l c i t y was  a palace  the  was  served b y  circumference  a b o u t 18,690 m e t r e as r e p o r t e d new  and  subsequently ordered  and  The  Yanliang  t o move t h e c a p i t a l f r o m H e i l o n g j i a n g t o Y a n j i n g ,  a v a i l a b l e f o r the  it.  J i n E m p e r o r Wan.  inside  capital  and  was  hence  f o r t h became t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e , o f t h e J i n e m p i r e . Although the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y of J i n d i d not mention l o c a t i o n o f m a r k e t s i n Z h o n g d u , Yan o f Zhongdu was the c i t y .  He  suggests t h a t the  p o s s i b l y l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h e r n p o i n t s out  that Liao Nanjing - I l l -  the  had  market  s e c t i o n of markets  located  i n t h e n o r t h and X u K a n g z o n g , a Song o f f i c i a l ,  who h a d  visited  J i n a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e m a r k e t was i n t h e n o r t h e r n  section  195 o f Y a n j i n g , b e f o r e t h e r e b u i l d i n g was c o m p l e t e d . f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a r k e t i n Zhongdu was  Yan located i n  a g o v e r n m e n t d e s i g n a t e d a r e a and s u b j e c t e d t o t a x a t i o n . m a r k e t s y s t e m was t h u s d i f f e r e n t f r o m S o n g ' s K a i f e n g  The  where  s h o p s s p r u n g up i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c i t y a n d was more c l o s e r t o t h e Tang s y s t e m o f h a v i n g t h e m a r k e t i n t h e b a c k o f t h e palace  city.  Zhen J u n i n h i s T i a n z h i Ouwen (1905) m e n t i o n e d t h a t i n J i n t i m e s , H a i w a n g V i l l a g e was c a l l e d H a i w a n g Z h u a n g , w h i c h 197 was t h r e e l i  from the J i n c a p i t a l ,  Zhongdu.  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t H a i w a n g P a r k was from t h e o l d s i t e o f Haiwang  Zhen  further  located not f a r  Village.  The J i n d y n a s t y and Zhongdu d i d n o t l a s t f o r t o o l o n g . I n 1214, J i n E m p e r o r L u a n z o n g e s c a p e d t o K a i f e n g f r o m t h e continuous t h r e a t o f the Mongols.  In the following  year,  t h e M o n g o l i n v a d e r s s t o r m e d i n t o Zhongdu, and t h e m a s s a c r e c o n t i n u e d f o r a month.  The p a l a c e s and t h e w h o l e c i t y  d e v a s t a t e d by l o o t i n g and f i r e was was n o t u n t i l  s e t by t h e M o n g o l s .  f o r t y - f i v e years l a t e r  Yuan Emperor S h i z a o renamed Y a n j i n g .  were It  i n A.D.1260 t h a t t h e  ( K u b l a i Khan) v i s i t e d  Zhongdu,  then  I n 126 4, E m p e r o r S h i z a o t o o k t h e a d v i c e o f  L i u B i n g z h o n g and d e c i d e d t o r e b u i l d Y a n j i n g as t h e c a p i t a l , w h i c h was t o be c a l l e d  Zhongdu.  Because most o f t h e p a l a c e s  - 112 -  in the  Zhongdu had  already  b e e n damaged, E m p e r o r S h i z a o a b a n d o n e d  i d e a o f r e b u i l d i n g Zhongdu and  t o a new  site  i n the northeast  decided  t o move t h e  o f Zhongdu.  This  new  capital  capital 198  was  named D a i d u  Why  was  (See'-''Fig.5 ) , t h e G r e a t C a p i t a l , i n A.D.1271.  D a i d u s e l e c t e d as  R e n s h i a r g u e s t h a t i t was  the  s i t e o f t h e Yuan c a p i t a l ?  because "the  new  s i t e of Daidu  a b e t t e r access to sources of water, which i n c l u d e d areas of The  l a k e s and  streams  water system not  (from  palaces  When t h e population of the new  c i t y was  was  city.  The  moved f i r s t . assigned  a very  nice scenery  but  planned, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  also studied.  old city  large  also f a c i l i t a t e d 199 capital."  t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m f o r t h e new  "At  that time,  the  o f f i c i a l c l a s s and  e i g h t mu  (See  the w e a l t h i e r  of  land.  and  the  water  inhabitants the  families  i n accordance with  A p p e n d i x IX)  Liang).  the  (Zhongdu) w e r e o r d e r e d t o move i n t o  E a c h f a m i l y was,  has  t h e R i v e r S y s t e m o f Gao  only provided  e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e new  Hou  tradition,  If a  family  p o s s e s s e d more t h a n e i g h t mu  or i f t h e y were u n a b l e t o b u i l d  upon i t , o t h e r s  t o s e t t l e on  were a l l o w e d  o f t h e s e u n i t s was t o t a l of f i f t y had  c a l l e d a fang  fang.  (ward) and  the  group  that  still  a  Daidu a  tremen-  n e e d s o f t h e s e l a r g e numbers o f  M o n g o l i a n r u l e r s , w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s and  local  Mongol r u l e r s d i d not h e s i t a t e to r e r o u t e  surplus  A  B e i j i n g has  Although i t i s believed  l e s s t h a n a h a l f m i l l i o n p e o p l e , i t was  dous p r o b l e m s u p p l y i n g  The  it."^°°  of the Yangtze r e g i o n  to Daidu.  - 113  -  This  residents. some o f t h e  rice  l a r g e amount o f  s u p p l i e s to Daidu from the through the e x t e n s i o n  south  had  of the Grand Canal  of sea t r a n s p o r t t o n o r t h China. c e n t e r o f c o n s u m p t i o n by with comparatively Hangzhou o r ,  In order going  improvement  D a i d u , t h e n , was  primarily a minority as  in  201  t h a t the  i n 1293  the  a l a r g e p a r t of the r u l i n g  t i b u t e g r a i n could reach  through the d i f f i c u l t  constructed The  —  and  l e s s a c t i v e commercial a c t i v i t i e s  Kaifeng. t  o n l y b e e n p o s s i b l e '•::< •  Daidu  without  l a n d r o u t e , Tonghui Canal  was  t o c o n n e c t L a k e J i s h u i n D a i d u and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of Tonghui Canal  c a r r y i n g s h i p s from the  south  moored i n Lake J i s h u but  not only enabled  t o go  Tongzhou.  the g r a i n -  i n t o D a i d u d i r e c t l y and  be  a l s o encouraged the development of 202  commerce a r o u n d t h e B e l l and In l a t e r year,  J i n k o u Canal  was  of water i n t o Tonghui Canal  Xiejie  market.  reopened t o i n c r e a s e the  i n order  demand f o r g r a i n t r a n s p o r t . s y s t e m s , T o n g h u i and  Drum Tower and  t o cope w i t h the  Unfortunately  these  two  rising water  J i n k o u , were b o t h d i s r u p t e d d u r i n g  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c i t y w a l l and  the p a l a c e s  flow  i n the  the early  Ming p e r i o d . In the b u i l d i n g of Daidu, the Palace  c i t y was  t h e n t h e I m p e r i a l C i t y and  finally  circumference  m e a s u r e d as 28,600 m e t r e s , i n  o f D a i d u was  r e c t a n g u l a r shape. running o n l y one  the c i t y  first  itself.  built,  The  A l l t h e major s t r e e t s were r e g u l a r i s e d ,  e i t h e r from north to south  or from east to west,  major e x c e p t i o n , the X i e j i e - 114 -  street.  The  with  major s t r e e t s  had a w i d t h o f t w e n t y - f i v e metres w h i l e t h e hutong  (lanes)  were s i x t o seven metres w i d e .  M a r k e t s i n D a i d u were d i s p e r s e d i n a l l  parts of the  city  i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i x e d e a s t and w e s t m a r k e t s i n Changan i n t h e S u i and Tang d y n a s t i e s .  However t h e t h r e e m a j o r m a r k e t s  w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e e a s t e r n , w e s t e r n and n o r t h e r n p a r t s o f Daidu.  The m o s t p r o p e r o u s m a r k e t ;was X i e j i e m a r k e t i n R i z h o n g  w a r d , w h i c h was  t h e most b u s y c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t o f t h e  A n o t h e r m a j o r m a r k e t , Y a n g j i a o , w h i c h was M i n g y u w a r d and X i a n y i w a r d lo'u.').'; , s p e c i a l i a l i z e d s h e e p and c a m e l s .  city.  located i n the  ( w h i c h i s t h e p r e s e n t day X i s i  i n the trade of c a t t l e , horses,  The t h i r d m a j o r m a r k e t , J i a o , was  i n N a n s u n and X i a n y i d i s t r i c t s ,  Pa-  asses, located  i n the northern p a r t of Daidu.  The J i a o m a r k e t , s i t u a t e d r i g h t a t L a k e J i s hui. w h e r e t h e G r a n d C a n a l t e r m i n a t e s , no d o u b t g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d  from i t s easy 20  a c c e s s t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t and t h e t r a d e w i t h s o u t h e r n C h i n a .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t h r e e major m a r k e t s , t h e r e were  also  s m a l l e r markets which s p e c i a l i z e d i n a s p e c i f i c type o f goods, such as t h e v e g e t a b l e market o u t s i d e H e y i G a t e , l e a t h e r c a p m a r k e t a t t h e S o u t h w e s t Z h o n g l o u S t r e e t , g o o s e and m a r k e t a t t h e West Z h o n g l o u . was  l o c a t e d a t the Shengqian  The  The s t a t i o n e r y and book  and duck  market  street.  l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D a i d u and t h e b u i l d i n g  o f l a r g e numbers o f new  p a l a c e s and g o v e r n m e n t - 115" -  buildings -  sharply kiln and  increased  factories one  factory  A Qing  and b r i c k s  place  Raw other  was  i n one large  called  materials  colored  Ruan  Liulichang  30,000  showed  capacity.  (glazed  tile  f o r the manufacturing  glaze  products  which  twenty  west  of Daidu.  to the k i l n s  consisted  could  be This  white  from  colored  i n Haiwang V i l l a g e  the  factory).  of a white  kiln  glazed  From  of glazed  excavated  the  of  that  Daidu  glaze  that  pieces  Four  of  of colored  mentioned  This  production  soil  transported  produce  materials.  i n the v i c i n i t y  Kuishang  operation.  fine-grained miles  s e t up  f o r the manufacturing  writer  had a very  for construction  therefore  i n Liulichang could  factory the  were  o f t h e m was  products.  tiles  t h e demand  then  on  207  tile  and  colored,  Xishan, soil  through  about  was  then  the water-  2 08 ways  that  chang  was  Xishan ing  connected well  where  t h e two  connected  places.  with  small  t h e raw m a t e r i a l s  of glazed  tiles  then  transported  ways  that  Riji  confirmed  s t i l l  were  from  existed.  rivers  necessary  acquired.  Xishan  In Yuan  These  times,  a l l t h e way  to  f o r the manufacturmaterials  t o L i u l i c h a n g through  L i Ciming  Liuli-  were the water-  i n h i s Taohuasheng  Jiean  that:  Before the b u i l d i n g o f the Outer C i t y i n Ming J i a j i n g p e r i o d (1522-1566), t h e r e were w a t e r ways h e r e ( L i u l i c h a n g ) . F l o w i n g w e s t was Q i n g c h a n g R i v e r , i n t h e s o u t h w e s t was Zhangjia B r i d g e , a n d i n t h e s o u t h t h e r e was t h e H u f a n g B r i d g e and the P a n j i a R i v e r . South of the b r i d g e i n L i u l i c h a n g was L i a n g j i a P a r k w h i c h c o u l d be c o n n e c t e d t o L i a n g s h u i R i v e r . The place ( L i u l i c h a n g ) was w e l l c o n n e c t e d w i t h waterways.* u  -  116  -  The  l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D a i d u i n t h e Yuan p e r i o d  r e q u i r e d a l o t o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o u l d be a v a i l a b l e from Xishan.  Guo  Shoujing  once s u g g e s t e d t o the emperor t o  reopen the J i n k o u Canal  for carrying building materials  from  Xishan  Jinkou Canal  the  to the c a p i t a l .  was  constructed  J i n p e r i o d t o a l l o w g r a i n c a r r y i n g s h i p s from the reach  the  capital directly.  I n 1171,  in  south  to  a b r a n c h o f Luguo R i v e r  i n Mayu V i l l a g e , w e s t o f t h e c a p i t a l , was  l e d t o f l o w ..through  210 Xishan  to connect Tonghui Canal.  t e l y the steep  flow of Jinkou Canal  (See F i g . 6 ) .  was  not  steady  Unfortuna-  enough.  The ;-•  g r a d i e n t made i t s f l o w t o o r a p i d a f t e r h e a v y r a i n  t o o muddy d u r i n g t h e d r y c o u l d n o t d e p e n d on t h e 211 to the land route.  season.  grain transport  flow of Jinkou Canal Upon t h e  Yuan e m p e r o r i n 1266  The  ordered  suggestion  Zhang Rou  and  and  had  o f Guo  therefore to r e s o r t  Shoujm,  the  the M i n i s t e r of  the  B o a r d o f W o r k s , Duan T i a n y o u , t o : "open J i n k o u C a n a l w a t e r from Lugou i n o r d e r  and  to c a r r y the rocks  and  and  lead  lumbers  from  212 Xishan."  A f t e r the reopening  flow of the c a n a l threatened  kou  Canal  and  Fu  Zuo  again  (1297-1307).  suggested the  i n two  unsteady  to In  1342, of  Jin-  c a n a l from J i n k o u  to  g r a i n t r a n s p o r t to Daidu from the  months.  w e v e-r , t h e -H o117  muddy f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p u r p o s e s and  f l o w was  canal too  and  close  reopening  s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s f r o m Xu Y o u r e n , t h e new  constructed and  therfore decided  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new  Tongzhou t o f a c i l i t a t e Despite  Guo  i n the Taide p e r i o d  B o l u o T i e m u e r and  the  to f l o o d the c i t i e s of Daidu  t h e o l d c i t y o f J i n Zhongdu. the c a n a l again  of Jinkou Canal,  south. was  strong  damaged s e v e r a l  Fig.  6  Source:  T h e . J i n k o u C a n a l , Tonghui C a n a l and L i u l i c h a n g i n t h e Yuan P e r i o d .  Hou R e n z h i , L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n y u s h i j i a n ( S h a n g h a i : S h a n g h a i Renmin C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 292.  - 118 -  houses.  Boluo  Although  and Fu were e x e c u t e d  f a c t o r i e s were b u i l t  Yuan p e r i o d , i t was s t i l l  and w a t e r w a y s t h a t c u t t h r o u g h f o r the k i l n  these streams  mistakes.  i n Haiwang V i l l a g e i n t h e  a t h i n l y populated area outside the  southern w a l l of the c a p i t a l c i t y .  soil  f o rtheir  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e streams  Liulichang, the excavation of  l e f t many p i t s a n d c a v i t i e s .  a n d p i t s , b r i d g e s h a d t o be b u i l t  t i o n w i t h i n the l o c a l i t y .  Because o f f o r communica-  T h a t i s why s o many p l a c e names i n  L i u l i c h a n g have a c o n n o t a t i o n o f b r i d g e s , such as Z a n g j i a 214 B r i d g e , Hufang B r i d g e , e t c .  Wu C h a n g y u a n a l s o m e n t i o n e d  i n Qianlong period that before the b u i l d i n g of the c i t y i n M i n g p e r i o d , t h e Xuanwu a r e a h a d many p o o l s . eological  wall  Even a r c h a -  f i n d i n g s i n t h i s area t e s t i f y t h a t i n Ming  times  u n d e r g r o u n d w a t e r was a b o u t one m e t r e d e e p o n l y a n d t h u s s u g g e s t s t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was t h e n a a r e a w i t h l o t s o f w a t e r , 215 ponds.  I n 1 3 5 6 , t h e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e Yuan d y n a s t y  l e d by  Zhu Y u a n z h a n g c a p t u r e d N a n j i n g a n d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c a p i t a l o f the Ming dynasty in  there.  Zhu f u r t h e r l e d h i s t r o o p s t o D a i d u  136 8 a n d d e f e a t e d t h e M o n g o l i a n s  there.  D a i d u was renamed  B e i p i n g and d e s i g n a t e d as a p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l r a t h e r than as the n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l . l i a n s and t h e reduced five  Due t o c o n s t a n t t h r e a t f r o m t h e Mongopopulation of the c i t y ,  a new c i t y  wall  L i s o u t h f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n w a l l o f D a i d u was b u i l t a n d  t h e s o u t h e r n w a l l was e x t e n d e d  f o ranother  - 119 -  216 h a l f o f one l _ i . ..  In  t h e f i r s t y e a r o f h i s r e i g n , 1403, Emperor  Yongle  d e c i d e d t o r e v i t a l i z e B e i p i n g and renamed i t B e i j i n g , t h e northern c a p i t a l ,  i n contradistinction  ern c a p i t a l .  Yongle  Why  to Nanjing, the south-  chose B e i j i n g as t h e c a p i t a l  was  p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e he h a d r u l e d t h e B e i j i n g r e g i o n e a r l i e r i t was i n B e i j i n g t h a t h i s p o w e r was more s e c u r e . gical  l a r g e numbers o f s o l d i e r s a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n b o r d e r s . s u i t e d as t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t  the l i n e o f supply from t h e r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l areas  south t o the border  garrisons.  i t was c e r t a i n l y l o g i c a l to  was  o f the Ming empire r e q u i r e d the s t a t i o n i n g  B e i j i n g was t h e r e f o r e i d e a l l y in  strate-:  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c h o o s i n g B e i j i n g as t h e c a p i t a l  t h a t the defense of  A  and  B e i j i n g , which  Rozman f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s  f o r M i n g r u l e r s t o move i t s c a p i t a l  g o v e r n m e n t f o r more t h a n  order t o r e u n i t e the m i l i t a r y , c i v i l i a n  500 y e a r s , i n  and b u r e a u c r a t i c  r  From t h e t h i r d y e a r o f Y o n g l e B e i j i n g and were completed Yongle  that  had n o t been under t h e f i r m c o n t r o l o f a  c e n t r a l i s e d Chinese  forces.  i n the  moved t h e c a p i t a l  on, p a l a c e s were b u i l t i n  i n 1 4 2 0 , one y e a r b e f o r e E m p e r o r  from N a n j i n g t o B e i j i n g .  During  these fourteen years of large s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n of palaces, l a r g e amounts o f g l a z e d t i l e s were manufactured  and used.  up f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g materials: and  and o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s There were f i v e b i g f a c t o r i e s s e t  and s u p p l y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  Shenmuchang, Damuchang,  Taijichang.  Both  Shenmuchang  Heiyaochang,  Liulichang,  a n d Damuchang w e r e r e s p o n s i -  - 120 -  b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g l u m b e r a n d Damuchang a l s o h a d t o c o l l e c t reeds.  Each o f these  two f a c t o r i e s h a d 1,000 s o l d i e r s  a s s i g n e d t o work as l a b o u r e r s .  L i u l i c h a n g was f o r m a k i n g  g l a z e d t i l e s and o t h e r c o l o r e d g l a z e products of the i m p e r i a l households. b r i c k s and t i l e s . reeds.  ;  f o r t h e use  H e i y a o c h a n g was f o r m a k i n g  T a i j i c h a n g was f o r s t o r i n g f i r e w o o d a n d  There were a l s o f i v e  smaller f a c t o r i e s : Yingshan  Suo  f o r woodwork, B a o y u a n J u f o r g o l d w o r k , W e n s i Y u a n a n d Wanggongchang f o r s i l k - m a k i n g , P i z u o c h a n g  217 f o r leather-work.  Along with the large scale b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the palaces i n the imperial c i t y , residents i n Beijing.  t h e r e was a n i n f l u x o f new  I n 1403, w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l i e s o f t h e  c a p i t a l p r e f e c t u r e , Suzhou and t e n o t h e r p r e f e c t u r e s and a l s o o f Z h e j i a n g , and n i n e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , were o r d e r e d t o take residence i n B e i j i n g . lies  from t h e prosperous  Beijing.  Large  I n 1 4 0 4 , more t h a n  Shanxi  100,000 f a r n i - * .  p r o v i n c e were o r d e r e d  numbers o f p e o p l e  into  a l s o moved f r o m o t h e r  parts  218 of the country  into the c a p i t a l  i n this period.  A f t e r Y o n g l e moved t h e c a p i t a l Mongols invaded  from Nanjing t o B e i j i n g ,  the outer area o f B e i j i n g  the sake o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e i m p e r i a l c i t y , made t o b u i l d a n o u t e r w a l l t o s u r r o u n d  several times. suggestions  were  t h e whole B e i j i n g  Because o f t h e l a c k o f funds, o n l y t h e southern  For  city.  portion of the  c i t y was b u i l t w i t h a n o u t e r w a l l w h i c h was c o m p l e t e d i n 1 5 6 4 . The  outer w a l l i s twenty-eight  l i  - 121 -  l o n g a n d h a s s e v e n g a t e s . The  s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n was g i v e n p r i o r i t y  not-only b e c a u s e the Temple o f  A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e Temple o f H e a v e n had a l r e a d y b e e n b u t a l s o because the a r e a between  built  Zhengyang G a t e and Xuanwu 219  Gate had a g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n . of t h i s outer w a l l  building  i n the southern p o r t i o n of the c i t y  t h e r e c t a n g u l a r shape o f B e i j i n g . t h i s new  The  (See "Fig.5 ) .  changed  Moreover,  r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a c o n s i s t e d o f many n a r r o w and c r o o k e d  l a n e s w h i c h were i n t o t a l c o n t r a s t t o t h e s t r a i g h t - l i n e d , 220 planned s t r e e t s i n the Inner C i t y .  The s o u t h e r n e x t e n s i o n  of B e i j i n g a l s o c u t o f f a s e c t i o n of Tonghui R i v e r w i c h connected t o the Grand C a n a l .  well  was  Grain c a r r y i n g ships from the  s o u t h c o u l d no l o n g e r moor i n J i s h u i L a k e and t h e m a j o r i n Yuan t i m e s , R i z h o n g w a r d , d e c l i n e d i n l a t e M i n g A M i n g p o e t , Wu M e i c u n , who  lived  market 221 period.  i n the Weiran  Hutong,  a b o u t h a l f o f one l _ i s o u t h w e s t f r o m L i u l i c h a n g , m e n t i o n e d L i u l i c h a n g was Wu  t h e n s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d w i t h v e r y few h o u s e s .  c o u l d even see L i u l i c h a n g from h i s house.  I n h i s poem  " D u s h i Oushu C i " , Wu m e n t i o n e d t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was a t t h e w e s t s i d e o f H u f a n g B r i d g e and was uring colored glaze products. 222 as a market o f books.  I n many M i n g w r i t i n g s Wanshu Z a j i wu Lue  that  located  a factory  manufact-  L i u l i c h a n g has n o t y e t d e v e l o p e d  about B e i j i n g ,  s u c h a s Chen B a n g ' s  ( 1 5 9 3 ) , and L i u Dong and Yu Y i z h e n g ' s D i j i n g  (16 3 5 ) , t h e r e was  d e v e l o p m e n t as a m a r k e t  n o t h i n g mentioned about center. -  122  Jing-  Liulichang's  A l t h o u g h L i u and Yu  had  m e n t i o n e d a b o u t t h e "shop o f L i u l i c h a n g " i n  their Dijing  wu L u e , t h e s h o p s w e r e f o r s e l l i n g some o f t h e c o l o r e d  Jingglazed  223 v e s s e l s and t o y s d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l . short of being  a major urban market.  - 123  -  T h i s was f a r  Chapter VI.  The: R i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g as t h e N a t i o n a l Book Market of China  As e a r l y a s t h e L i a o p e r i o d , B e i j i n g was publishing centre.  a m a j o r book  I n J i n and Yuan t i m e s , book  and m a r k e t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w e r e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d was  then the c a p i t a l .  selling  o f b o o k s had  m a r k e t s and  publishing as  Beijing  In Ming Wanli p e r i o d (1573-1619), a l r e a d y become r e g u l a r i n t h e  the annual  fairs.  the  periodic  Hu Y i n g l i n d e s c r i b e d t h e  l o c a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d i c markets i n B e i j i n g i n h i s X i a o s h i Shanfang Bicong  (1589):  Most b o o k s t a l l s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y are a t t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e o f Darning G a t e , t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f R i t e s , and a t t h e w e s t o f Gongchen G a t e . During the e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d , b o o k s t a l l s a r e s e t up i n f r o n t of the examination c e n t r e . On t h e f i f t e e n t h day o f t h e s e c o n d moon, t h e y move t o t h e L a n t e r n F a i r . On t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f e v e r y m o n t h , t h e b o o k s t a l l s a r e moved t o t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God. The L a n t e r n F a i r i s a t the east s i d e of the c i t y w h i l e t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God l o c a t e s a t t h e west s i d e . B o t h a r e t h e m a j o r t r a d i n g .... c e n t r e s of the c i t y . Trade i n the L a n t e r n F a i r l a s t e d f o r t h r e e days a n n u a l l y w h i l e i n t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God, t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e t h r e e days monthly. During t h i s t r a d i n g p e r i o d , goods o f e v e r y s o r t a r e p r e s e n t and book i s one o f t h e m . 4 2 2  In Ming Suizhen p e r i o d (1628-1643), markets i n B e i j i n g did  n o t e x p e r i e n c e much s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e as i n d i c a t e d i n  Liu  Dong and Yu Y i z h e n g ' s  on  "The  Market  D i z i n g Jingwu  Lue.  In the  o f t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y G o l d " , -  124  -  section  characteris-  t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t markets i n t h e C a p i t a l were d e s c r i b e d the  and  m a r k e t i n g days were mentioned t o o :  The m o r n i n g m a r k e t l o c a t e s a t a r o u n d Darning G a t e w i t h m e r c h a n t s i n r e s i d e n c e t h e r e and t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e e v e r y day. The L a n t e r n F a i r l o c a t e s o u t s i d e t h e e n t r a n c e o f Donghua G a t e and t h e f a i r l a s t s f o r t e n d a y s annually. The s o - c a l l e d " i n t e r n a l m a r k e t " l o c a t e s i n s i d e t h e e n t r a n c e o f Donghua G a t e and t r a d e t a k e s p l a c e t h r e e d a y s m o n t h l y and had now moved t o L a n t e r n M a r k e t b u t s t i l l c a l l e d the " i n t e r n a l market." The "Market o f the Poor", which l o c a t e s a t the B r i d g e o f Zhenyang, does b u s i n e s s d a i l y i n t h e e v e n i n g f o r the w o r k i n g p e o p l e . The M a r k e t o f t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God o p e n s on t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e t w e n t y f i f t h d a y o f e a c h month.225  Although the l o c a t i o n s o f the major markets i n B e i j i n g did  n o t c h a n g e much d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m W a n l i t o S u i z h e n ,  the  t e m p o r a r y s t a l l s a t Darning G a t e h a d g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d  i n t o permanent  s t o r e s w h i c h o p e n e d d a i l y a n d some o f t h e  m e r c h a n t s became r e s i d e n t - m e r c h a n t s .  Liu the  (Figure 6 ) .  and Y u c o n t i n u e d t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l t h e m a r k e t i n  Temple o f t h e C i t y  God:  The m a r k e t o f t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God o p e n s on t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f t h e month, s t r e t c h i n g f r o m J i a o f a n g i n the e a s t t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f t h e t e m p l e , w i t h s t a l l s l i n e d up f o r t h r e e l i . . . There were b o t h c o n t e m p o r a r y and a n c i e n t b o o k s , b r o n z e s and v e s s e l s made i n t h e Shang and Zhou p e r i o d s ; l a d d i e and m i r r o r f r o m Q i n a n d Han p e r i o d s ; Tang and Song's P a i n t i n g and c a l l i g r a p h y ; j e w e l s , j a d e and s i l k f r o m Y u n n a n , Guangdong, F u j i a n , Hunan and H u b e i , Z h e j i a n g . . . 2 2 6 - 125 -  L i u a n d Yu f u r t h e r m e n t i o n e d t h a t on t h e m a r k e t d a y , the  Temple, o f C i t y God was v e r y  o f e v e r y t e n p e o p l e who v i s i t e d looked one  crowded with, p e o p l e .  Out  t h e temple market, s i x j u s t  a r o u n d , t h r e e would have bought something and o n l y  p a i d a v i s i t t o t h e C i t y God.  The  m a r k e t s o f books t h a t were l o c a t e d a t D a i m i n g G a t e ,  the  examination centre,  the  C i t y God i n M i n g t i m e s h a d i n t h e e a r l y Q i n g  during  t h e L a n t e r n F a i r a n d t h e Temple o f period,  t h e S h u n z h i r e i g n , moved t o C i r e n M o n a s t e r y .  The  M o n a s t e r y was l o c a t e d two l i _ s o u t h o f Xuanwu G a t e a n d n o r t h of t h e main s t r e e t o u t s i d e  Guangning Gate.  Ciren  Monastery  was a l s o c a l l e d Baoguo M o n a s t e r y w h i c h was f i r s t b u i l t i n Liao times,  i n t h e n o r t h west corner  o f C i r e n Monastery.  The  C i r e n M o n a s t e r y was f u n d e d b y t h e m o t h e r o f M i n g E m p e r o r X i a n z o n g i n A.D.1466 f o r h e r b r o t h e r , C h e n g z e ' s Chunming M e n g y u l u  monk J i X i a n g .  (1631) h a d r e c o r d e d J i a n g  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the monastery. t h e r e w e r e 120 r o l l s o f famous p a i n t i n g s c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e monastery.  227  the Ming p e r i o d  the J i a q i n g p e r i o d .  that  from the i m p e r i a l to describe  comfortaby enjoy the scenery  Many poems h a d d e s c r i b e d until  Dejing's  J i a n g mentioned  Jiang continued  t h e K u n l u P a v i l i o n w h e r e one c o u l d of Xishan.  Sun  . . . Kunlu P a v i l i o n since  i t was t o r n down f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n The m o n a s t e r y c o n t a i n e d  several  hundred  monks a n d s e v e r a l h u n d r e d mu o f l a n d a n d was one o f t h e l a r g e s t monasteries i n the c a p i t a l .  - 126 -  M a r k e t d a y s i n C i r e n M o n a s t e r y w e r e t h e same a s i n t h e m a r k e t o f the. Temple o f t h e C i t y God w h i c h was h e l d o n t h e first,  f i f t e e n t h , a n d t h e : : t w e n t y - f i f t h d a y o f t h e month.  Shizhen mentioned i n h i s Xiangzu B i j i fifteenth,  that:  Wang  "On t h e f i r s t ,  and t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f t h e month, hundred  kinds  228 o f goods a l l g a t h e r e d a t C i r e n M o n a s t e r y . " p e r i o d many r i c h very  f a m i l i e s and h i g h  c l o s e t o Ciren Monastery.  resided  Monastery.  temporarily  ( 1 6 5 8 ) , Ku was s e l e c t e d  f o r the, B o a r d o f War a n d r e s i d e d  L i Y i n d u n o t e d i n h i s reply  and I had b o t h r e s i d e d  year  ( 1 6 6 8 ) , b u t Gu l e f t  hall  f o r Gu was e r e c t e d  t o Gu's poem t h a t :  t h e monastery f i r s t . " b y Ho S h a o j i  m e n t i o n e d t h a t he h a d r e s i d e d he was a s s i g n e d  i n Ciren  i n C i r e n Monastery i n the previous 229  s e c t i o n o f C i r e n Monastery.  A memorial  i n 184 3 i n t h e w e s t e r n  Wang S h i z h e n i n h i s J u y i L u a l s o i n C i r e n M o n a s t e r y i n 16 58 when  t o t h e B o a r d o f War.  M o n a s t e r y w h e r e he met L i a n g in  lived  i n t h e m o n a s t e r y , s u c h a s Ku Yanwu a n d Wang S h i z h e n .  the Inspectorate  "Gu  officials  Some o f them e v e n  In the f i f t e e n t h year o f Shunzhi as  ranking  I n e a r l y Qing  I t was a l s o i n C i r e n  R i j i , who e a r n e d a j i n s h i  degree  1 6 5 5 , t h e same y e a r a s h i m s e l f . Not  o n l y d i d t h o s e who r e s i d e d  b o o k s f r o m t h e r e , many o t h e r also v i s i t e d goods t h e r e . Gufu Y u t i n g  i n C i r e n Monastery buy  famous s c h o l a r s  and o f f i c i a l s  t h e monastery and bought books, f l o w e r s  and o t h e r  I n h i s J u y i L u , X i a n g z u B i j i , C h i b e i Outan and Z a l u , Wang S h i z h e n h a d m e n t i o n e d q u i t e a f e w t i m e s  t h a t he h a d b o u g h t b o o k s f r o m C i r e n M o n a s t e r y . - 127 -  In Chibei  Outan,  Wang n o t e d t h a t :  " I n the sixteenth, year o f Shunzhi (1659), I  saw a v i s i t i n g c a r d , o n w h i c h was w r i t t e n Madam Ke) i n C i r e n M o n a s t e r y . gian  Zhu K e s h e n g  ' K e s h i b a i ' (From g o t . i t f o r three  (See A p p e n d i x I X ) a n d composed a poem 'Keshe h a n g ' f o r 230  this."  Wang a l s o o n c e m e n t i o n e d t h a t he h a d b o u g h t a n o l d  e d i t i o n o f Y a o K u a n ' s X i x i C o h g y u i n C i r e n M o n a s t e r y i n 16 92. He l a t e r e d i t e d a n d s u p p l e m e n t e d i t w i t h t h e J i g u Ge e d i t i o n . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he b o u g h t a c o p y o f S h i f e n g Gao a n d a l s o 231 a copy o f Huotao W e n j i from t h e market o f C i r e n M o n a s t e r y . S o n g L u o ( 1 6 3 4 - 1 7 1 3 ) , a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f Wang a n d a l s o a famous p o e t , had bought books, such as Cuihong S h i l i u g u o T i a n x i a Mingshanji from the C i r e n Monastery.  Chungiu,  Zhu Y u z h u a n g o t  a c o p y o f D i a n y a C i w h i l e Sun S i k o n g b o u g h t a p o t o f p l u m s from t h e C i r e n Monastery market i n t h e e a r l y seventeenth century.  An i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r y a b o u t Wang S h i z h e n ' s endeavor, t o  go t o t h e book m a r k e t i n C i r e n M o n a s t e r y was t o l d b y K o n g Dongtong.  Kong m e n t i o n e d t h a t he h a d t r i e d t o v i s i t Wang  several times without success.  Xu Q i a n x u e t o l d h i m t o go t o  C i r e n M o n a s t e r y d u r i n g t h e m a r k e t d a y s a n d w a i t t h e r e f o r Wang. K o n g f i n a l l y h a d a c h a n c e t o s e e Wang i n t h e book m a r k e t o f 232 the  monastery. I n h i s J u y i L u , Wang S h i z h e n d e s c r i b e d h i s g r e a t e n t h u -  s i a s m f o r c o l l e c t i n g books and s p e n t a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s income on b u y i n g books:  H a v i n g s e r v e d as an o f f i c i a l i n t h e c a p i t a l f o r more t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s , I h a v e s p e n t a l l - 128 -  my income i n b u y i n g b o o k s . Once I d r o p p e d b y t h e C i r e n M o n a s t e r y and saw b o o k s , S h a n g s h u D a z h u a n , San11 J i n g z h u a n T o n g j i e and H a n l i s e l l i n g there. On t h e n e x t m a r k e t d a y I w e n t back t o l o o k f o r t h e books b u t t h e y had a l r e a d y s o l d t o someone e l s e . I was s o u p s e t a b o u t i t and my m i n d c o u l d n o t g e t away f r o m it. I f e l t s i c k f o r t e n days f o r t h i s . 2 3 3  From Wang's e s s a y we  can see n o t o n l y t h e  scholaroffials'  endeavor t o c o l l e c t books, but a l s o t h a t they spent a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r i n c o m e on b o o k s . Y u y a n g b u t many o t h e r 1661 j i n s h i great  i s n o t o n l y t r u e o f Wang  s c h o l a r s as w e l l .  and an o f f i c i a l  l o v e r o f books.  This  Zhang Q i n g f e n g , a  i n t h e B o a r d o f Work, was  Once he e v e n had t o b o r r o w money t o buy  f o o d , when he h a d s p e n t a l l t h e money he b o r r o w e d on i n Ciren Monastery. the  a  This  further illustrated  books  t h a t many o f  s c h o l a r s bought t h e i r books from C i r e n Monastery  during  234 t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of the Qing dynasty.  The p r o s p e r i t y o f C i r e n M o n a s t e r y d i d n o t l a s t f o r t o o l o n g , i t had a l r e a d y been abandoned  as t h e major market o f  the c a p i t a l as e a r l y as i n t h e 1670's. Z a j i , mentioned  Dai Lu, i n h i s Tengyin  that:  C i r e n M o n a s t e r y had l o n g been abandoned. L a s t y e a r t h e m a r k e t was s e t up i n t h e M o n a s t e r y a g a i n b u t ended a f t e r a w h i l e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s e l l i n g o f goods d e p e n d s on t h e r i c h f a m i l i e s i n t h e c i t y . B u t t h e M o n a s t e r y i s t o o f a r away f r o m t h e c i t y and so t h e r e a r e few c u s t o m e r s . I n t h e e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d , most r i c h f a m i l i e s were i n t h e w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y , C i r e n M o n a s t e r y was t h e r e f o r e v e r y - 129  -  convenient f o r the r i c h e s t o s t r o l l along. A f t e r the earthquake, i n the past s i x t y y e a r s , t h e m o n a s t e r y was t o t a l l y a b a n - • doned.235  By  t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b o o k s w e r e no l o n g e r s o l d i n  C i r e n Monastery.  The. new book m a r k e t s o f B e i j i n g w e r e  l o c a t e d a t Xiheyan Xiangzu  Blj-i  mainly  a n d L i u l i c h a n g . (See" F i g . 6)vi'SJ-h h i s  *  (1705)", Wang p o i n t e d o u t t h a t :  Nowadays m o s t b o o k s t o r e s i n t h e c a p i t a l l o c a t e d a t X i h e y a n o u t s i d e Zhengyang G a t e . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e a l s o a few books t a l l s s e t t i n g up i n L i u l i c h a n g . The L a n t e r n F a i r was f i r s t h e l d i n L i n g y o u Gong w i t h a f e w b o o k s t a l l s . S i n c e t h e p l a c e caught f i r e , t h e Lantern F a i r moved t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e m a i n s t r e e t o f Z h e n g y a n g G a t e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e no more b o o k s b e i n g s o l d t h e r e . On t h e f i r s t , f i f t e e n t h and t w e n t y - f i f t h day o f t h e month, h u n d r e d k i n d s o f goods were g a t h e r e d a t C i r e n Monastery b u t o n l y f i v e t o s i x books t a l l s w e r e s e t t i n g up t h e r e . In the early days, these b o o k s t a l l s o c c a s i o n a l l y y h a d a few r a r e b o o k s b u t i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s t h e r e was n o t e v e n one.236  F r o m Wang a n d D a i , we n o t o n l y l e a r n e d t h a t C i r e n M o n a s t e r y was no l o n g e r a m a j o r m a r k e t o f b o o k s s i n c e t h e l a t e seventeenth  c e n t u r y b u t t h a t i t s d e c l i n e d was due t o t h e f a c t  t h a t t h e m o n a s t e r y was l o c a t e d t o o f a r away f r o m t h e r e s i d e n c e of the r i c h probably Kangxi to  families.  The e a r t h q u a k e w h i c h D a i m e n t i o n e d was  t h e one t h a t o c c u r r e d (16 7 9 ) .  i n t h e eighteenth year o f  T h i s m a j o r e a r t h q u a k e c a u s e d e x t e n s i v e damage  a l a r g e number o f b u i l d i n g s i n a d d i t i o n t o a h e a v y l o s s o f - 130 -  Eig.  7.  Book M a r k e t s  in Beijing  i n t h e M i n g and Q i n g P e r i o d s  N  A  0  i_  Km  1  Darning G a t e  5  Temple o f t h e C i t y  2  B o a r d \o'f. R i t e s  6  Ciren  3  Examination Centre  7  Liulichang  Lantern  8  Xihe  4_  9  Zhengyang Gate  Market  - 131  -  Monastery Yan  God  human l i f e . mentioned  Wang S h i z h e n i n h i s C h i b e i : Out'an and J u y i L u  t h a t i n t h e s e v e n t h month o f 16 79, t h e  ( B e i j i n g ) , experienced a strong earthquake. houses  also  capital,  A l l residential  and g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s i n J i z h o u w e r e d e s t r o y e d .  Tong23  z h o u was The  a l s o s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d with, s e v e r a l hundred  official  h i s t o r y o f Q i n g , Q i n g s h i Gao,  deaths.  also recorded that:  On t h e n i n t h day o f t h e s e v e n t h month o f 1679 t h e C a p i t a l e x p e r i e n c e an e a r t h q u a k e ; Tongzhou, Sanhe, P i n g g u , X i a n g h e , Wuqing, Y o n g q i n g , B a o d i , Guan, a l l h a d s t r o n g e a r t h q u a k e w h i c h had sounds l i k e f a s t r u n n i n g w h e e l - c a r t s , o r thundering. The s k y was d a r k e n e d . Many h o u s e s collapsed and many p e o p l e w e r e k i l l e d . The roads were a l l c r a c k e d w i t h b l a c k w a t e r r u n ning out.  The  s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e e a r t h q u a k e was  f u r t h e r proved  by  t h e l a r g e sum o f money K a n g x i g r a n t e d t o t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e earthquake.  A t o t a l o f 10,000 t a e l s o f s i l v e r was  allocated  b y t h e e m p e r o r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g month a f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k e o c c u r r e d t o t h o s e who  w e r e ^wounded, h a d d i e d o r h a d  houses  239 damaged.  During the earthquake the western s e c t i o n  t h e O u t e r C i t y o f B e i j i n g was of the r i c h  of  a l s o s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d and many  f a m i l i e s moved away f r o m t h i s a r e a .  o f C i r e n M o n a s t e r y d e p e n d e d on t h e r i c h a l s o g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d and t h i s  As t h e  f a m i l i e s , the  market  market  s e r v e d as an i m p e t u s f o r  L i u l i c h a n g to develop. A f t e r t h e w e s t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e O u t e r C i t y was d e s t r o y e d b y t h e e a r t h q u a k e o f 1679,  t h e book m a r k e t - 132  -  i n Ciren  Monastery  moved t o X i h e y a n and tury. had  But  by  the  Liulichang  176 0's,  b e e n d e v e l o p e d as  the  i n the  early eighteenth  L i Wanzao c o n f i r m e d t h a t  cen-  Liulichang  m a j o r book m a r k e t i n B e i j i n g i n h i s 240  w e l l - k n o w n e s s a y "A  Record of the  I n t h i s e s s a y , L i t o l d us f i v e m o n t h s and  Bookstores i n  t h a t he  had  visted Liulichang  e n t r a n c e s t o t h i s book m a r k e t , one  n o r t h o f w h i c h was learn that Ge.  The  the  kiln  learn that  i n the  c e n t e r was  factory.  main e n t r a n c e t o the  a  the  Spring  the  R o n g b i , we  also  c a l l e d Zhanyun  space  outside  annual f a i r  where  where v a r i o u s 241  shows  Festival.  L i Wenzao  >,  recorded a t o t a l of t h i r t y bookstores i n L i u l i c h a n g ,  with  twenty-three bookstores east of the  seven  i n the and  west s i d e .  The  s t o n e - a b r i d g e and  s t r e e t e a s t of the  t h e r e were shops s e l l i n g g l a s s e s ,  d a i l y use  intermingled  w e s t s i d e was  w i d e r and  p r i n t s as w e l l as mounting p a i n t i n g s l e t t e r s and Around the  with had  the  b r i d g e was  pipes,  bookstores.  various  items  for  The  street in  the  such  as  c a l l i g r a p h y , seal-making, w r i t i n g  b r i d g e i n the l i p s and  and  services,  i n v i t a t i o n s , b l o c k p r i n t i n g and  tooth-filling,  narrower  shops s e l l i n g c u r i o s , c a l l i g r a p h i c  shops p r o v i d i n g and  two  government o f f i c e s , The  the  l o t s o f g o o d s w e r e g a t h e r e d f o r s a l e and were p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g  t h e r e were  f a c t o r y was  used f o r h o l d i n g  lunch.  stone-bridge,  From Pan  t e m p l e s i n s i d e t h e compound.  m a i n e n t r a n c e was  capital for  e a s t s i d e and  factory occupied a large area with  w o r k s h o p s and the  the  In the  stayed i n the  almost-everyday a f t e r  I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f L i u l i c h a n g , we  o t h e r i n the west s i d e .  Liulichang."  stone-inscriptions.  c e n t e r o f L i u l i c h a n g were shops eye  f i x i n g as w e l l as  selling  for  medicine  for various purposes. ;  During the examination period,  station-  e r y , such as pens, bags f o r e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r s , i n k b o t t l e s , 242 p a p e r w i g h t a n d o t h e r s , w e r e p u t on s a l e t h e r e t o o .  L i Wenzao c o n t i n u e d t o m e n t i o n t h a t most b o o k s s o l d i n L i u l i c h a n g w e r e new e d i t i o n s w h i c h w e r e b o u n d by p o o r c o v e r s and had used t h i n p a p e r .  O l d e d i t i o n works were  b y J i n g x i a o Tang a n d J i x i n Tang o n l y . X i a n y u e Tang w e r e c o l l e c t e d  quality sold  Most o f t h e books o f  from the i m p e r i a l l i b r a r i e s  S h e n y a o Tang s o l d m o s t l y i n c o m p l e t e w o r k s .  while  On :the o t h e r h a n d ,  B a o n i n g Tang h a d a g o o d c o l l e c t i o n o f c l a n h i s t o r i e s ,  l a w and  regulations, travellers'  bookshop  l o g books and g u i d e s .  A new  w h i c h h a d j u s t o p e n e d f o r b u s i n e s s b u t owned a l a r g e o f o l d e d i t i o n w o r k s was W u l i u J u .  collection  L i k e Wencui Tang, W u l i u  J u p u r c h a s e d b o o k s f r o m S u z h o u a n d b r o u g h t them b a c k by every year.  ship  The owner o f Y a n q i n g T a n g , W e i , no l o n g e r went .  t o J i a n g n a n i n r e c e n t y e a r s b u t m a i n l y c o l l e c t e d books from . the r i c h  f a m i l i e s i n the Inner C i t y .  Wei h a d a good  t i o n o f b o o k s w h i c h h a d s t a m p s o f Cao L i a n t i n g  collec-.  (1658-1712), 243  superintendent of the Imperial T e x t i l e Factory i n Nanjing.  There were b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g t h a t had a l o n g tory,  his-  s u c h as E r y o u Tang, w h i c h had been i n b u s i n e s s t h e r e  s i n c e the Ming p e r i o d .  But t h e r e were a l s o b o o k s t o r e s , l i k e  W u l i u J u , w h i c h had j u s t s t a r t e d t h e i r b u s i n e s s .  To L i Wen-  z a o , Tao f r o m W u l i u J u , X i e f r o m W e n c u i Tang a n d W e i w e r e t h e most k n o w l e d g e a b l e  persons about books i n L i u l i c h a n g . - 134 -  Both  Tao  and  X i e w e r e n a t i v e s o f S u z h o u w h i l e Wei  The  r e s t o f t h e o t h e r b o o k s t o r e o w n e r s were: f r o m J i n x i  Jiangxi.  Out  was  f r o m Huzhou. of  o f the twenty-seven b o o k s t o r e owners t h a t L i  Wenzao knew, e l e v e n w e r e owned by t h e L i s  families.  1  From L i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , we  can  therefore  see  a p i c t u r e of  L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h had  j u s t d e v e l o p e d as a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d  market of books.  can  We  a l s o be  q u i t e sure  t h a t when  the  c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S i k u Quanshu b e g a n f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , l i c h a n g ' s p r o s p e r i t y was peak d u r i n g t o why  further increased  the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d .  But  and  Liu-  reached i t s  the q e s t i o n remains  as  L i u l i c h a n g c o u l d h a v e d e v e l o p e d as t h e m a j o r book mar-  ket i n B e i j i n g .  What w e r e t h e  s o c i a l and  economic f a c t o r s  t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s d e v e l o p m e n t as t h e  famous " S t r e e t  of  Culture"?  E v e r s i n c e t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d , a f t e r t h e Manchus f i r m l y c o n t r o l l e d China,  L i u l i c h a n g as w e l l as t h e w h o l e  China experienced  a great  o f an a n n u a l f a i r  i n Liulichang further increased  l a r i t y of the p l a c e . in  the  area  surge of p o p u l a t i o n .  The  the  popubuilt  enhanced the  p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g as a m a r k e t o f b o o k s .  No  pros-  doubt,  S i k u Quanshu f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d  the  the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f L i u l i c h a n g as t h e most i m p o r t a n t  market  b o o k s i n B e i j i n g and  is a  China.  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t was  Furthermore, there  because of L i u l i c h a n g ' s  of  holding  A l a r g e number o f h u i g u a n w e r e  i n t h e e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d and  c o m p i l a t i o n of the  had  of  strong  convenient  l o c a t i o n between t h e government o f f i c e s o f t h e Inner the residences o f these  scholar-officials  c i t y and  i n the Outer  City,  t h a t e n c o u r a g e d i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a s t h e m o s t famous book market i n China  f o r some two h u n d r e d y e a r s  After the establishment  t o come.  o f Manchu r u l e i n 1 6 4 4 , C h i n a ' s  p o p u l a t i o n r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e d f r o m a b o u t 125 m i l l i o n t o o v e r 244 200  million  i n 1750.  How d i d t h i s p o p u l a t i o n  i n eighteenth century China determinants  governing  expansion  come a b o u t a n d w h a t w e r e t h e m a i n  i t s growth?  A s James L e e  suggests:  "Those who w r i t e a b o u t C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d a g r i c u l t u r a l resources  as t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t 245  t o r y f a c t o r i n demographic h i s t o r y . "  Lillian  explana-  L i points out  t h a t Ho P i n g - t ' i p l a c e s a h e a v y e m p h a s i s o n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e New W o r l d c r o p s  t o China  as t h e major f a c t o r i n 246  s u s t a i n i n g t h e growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n China. view the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f these agricultural revolution" — ripening rice  crops c o n s t i t u t e d a "second  second t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e a r l y  i n t h e Song p e r i o d —  w h i c h was t h e m o s t  ant f a c t o r i n i n c r e a s i n g the food production from the seventeenth  I n Ho's  import-  i n the period 247  to the nineteenth centuries.  Ho's  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n f o o d p r o d u c t i o n made p o s s i b l e a g r o w t h i n p o p u l a t i o n i n some s e n s e c o n t a i n s a M a l t h u s i a n notion.  I t i s a l s o t h e n o t i o n t h a t when p o p u l a t i o n  exceeds t h e expansion  o f food  supply,  growth  the r e s u l t a n t catastro-  p h e s s e r v e a s a d e t e r r e n t t- o 136 f u r t-h e r p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . n e v e r t h e l e s s a l s o a t t r i b u t e s the growth o f p o p u l a t i o n t o  Ho  interregional migrations, increase and  i n c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l employment  the general  factors  the l e s s e n i n g of t a x burdens, the  political  s t a b i l i t y of the period  for the rapid rise of population.  opportunities as e s s e n t i a l  The e x t e n s i o n o f  the  settlements  i n t o Sichuan, the Yangtze highlands  a n d t h e i<  Han  R i v e r s y s t e m f u r t h e r made p o s s i b l e a w i d e r e x p a n s i o n o f  c u l t i v a t e d a c r e a g e i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h when r a p i d g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n The  was t a k i n g p l a c e  i n China.  t a x b u r d e n o f t h e p e o p l e was g r e a t l y r e d u c e d b y t h e e a r l y  Manchu e m p e r o r s , n o t o n l y w e r e l a r g e amounts o f t a x e s but  t h a t t h e d i n g payment was f u r t h e r f r o z e n  reductions  greatly benefited  landless class.  These t a x  t h e common p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e  The g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n  c o u r a g e d by an i n c r e a s e  remitted  i n 1711 and t h e  l a b o r s e r v i c e s were amalgamated w i t h d i n g payments.  i n t h e employment  was f u r t h e r en-^ opportunities  o f f e r e d n o t j u s t b y t h e e x p a n d i n g a n d more i n t e n s i v e t u r e b u t a l s o an e x p a n d i n g d o m e s t i c t r a d e tive  centuries  agricul-  and a h i g h l y l u c r a ^  f o r e i g n commerce a s w e l l a s some new r i s i n g  industries  and  c r a f t s throughout t h e l a t e Ming and t h e e a r l y Qing.  end  o f t h e campaign a g a i n s t  the Ming l o y a l i s t s  the three  feudatories  The  and a g a i n s t  i n F o r m o s a i n 16 8 3 u s h e r e d i n a l o n g  pro-  l o n g e d p e r i o d o f peace and p r o s p e r i t y seldom p a r a l l e l e d i n China's long h i s t o r y . contributed  A l l these s o c i a l and economic  factors  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e r a p i d growth o f p o p u l a t i o n  i n e a r l y Qing  China.  L i u l i c h a n g i n t h i s e a r l y Qing p e r i o d - 137 -  also experienced a  g r e a t upsurge o f p o p u l a t i o n . i n L i u l i c h a n g and t h e Outer political In  The r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n  C i t y was g r e a t l y a c c e n t u a t e d by  d e c i s i o n s i n the e a r l y years o f the Qing  the Shunzhi  dynasty.  p e r i o d (1644-1611), the f i r s t Qing  emperor  o r d e r e d t h e " e n c l o s u r e o f some r e s i d e n t i a l homes i n B e i j i n g and  s e g r e g a t e d t h e Manchu t r o o p s and t h e C h i n e s e  d i f f e r e n t parts of the c i t y . the c i t y  some t h r e e - f i f t h s o f  a r e a was a f f e c t e d a n d p e o p l e w e r e moved  t h e r e were s t i l l lived  Although  people i n  around,  l a r g e numbers o f C h i n s e s and Manchus  i n t e r m i n g l e d i n t h e same s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y  who  a n d con- ... 1  248  flicts  arose."  decree  f u r t h e r ordered t h a t a l l Chinese  and of  In the f i f t h  y e a r o f S h u n z h i , an  common p e o p l e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  officials,  imperial merchants  adherents  Manchu B a n n e r m e n , w e r e t o move t o t h e s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n o f  t h e c i t y by t h e e n d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . p r o p e r t y was t o be e i t h e r d e m o l i s h e d  Their o r i g i n a l  or sold.  They w e r e 249  c o m p e n s a t e d w i t h a mere f o u r t a e l s o f s i l v e r . who made p i l g r i m a g e s t o t h e t e m p l e s  Even  people  i n t h e Inner C i t y had t o  do s o d u r i n g t h e d a y , a n d w e r e n o t a l l o w e d t o s t a y o v e r n i g h t . T h i s s e g r e g a t i o n p o l i c y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e emergence o f t h e "Tartar City" "Chinese  City"  —  t h e I n n e r C i t y w i t h t h e Manchus, and t h e —  the Outer C i t y w i t h the Chinese.  B a s e d on t h e d a t a o f 1 8 5 1 , G i l b e r t Rozman c o m p u t e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e I m p e r i a l C i t y o f B e i j i n g as 6 0 , 0 0 0 , 400,000  another  t o 500',.000 i n t h e I n n e r C i t y and 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o 5 0 0 , 0 0 0  i n the Outer C i t y .  250  The t o t a l -  138  population of B e i j i n g i n -  Qi.anlong  p e r i o d was. e s t i m a t e d  f u r t h e r p o i n t e d out portions  a t a b o u t one  t h a t : "Land i n t h e  ( o f t h e O u t e r C i t y ) was  c e n t r a l area  along  million.^""'" "  southeast  n o t b u i l t up,  the w a l l shared  Rozman  1  and  but  w i t h the Inner  southwest  the  north-  City  was 252  u n d o u b t e d l y t h e most d e n s e l y  populated  area  in Beijing."  T h i s n o r t h - c e n t r a l a r e a , w h e r e L i u l i c h a n g was  l o c a t e d , was  the  c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e where thousands o f s m a l l shops l i n e d  on  countless  house-  intersecting streets.  holds  lived  hired  laborers rented  M e r c h a n t s and  i n the back o f t h e i r lodgings  Rozman e v e n s p e c u l a t e d  s t o r e s and  artisan  many p e d l a r s  i n the crowded  and  courtyards.  that:  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Outer C i t y ' s three to four miles of densely s e t t l e d commercial areas w e r e as c r o w d e d as t h e Cho i n Edo, i n w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150,000 p e o p l e s m u g g l e d i n t o a square m i l e . . . At the very l e a s t , the Outer C i t y c o n t a i n e d 300,000' i n h a b i t a n t s and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the a c t u a l t o t a l reached i n excess o f 450,000 o r 500,000 i f d e n s i t i e s i n b u i l t up a r e a s w e r e c o m p a r a b l e t h o s e i n Edo.^5 3  i  C o u p l e d w i t h t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e Han C i t y and housing  the g e n e r a l  increase i n population,  r a p i d l y developed there.  of r e s i d e n t i a l housing (1662-1722).  Chinese to the  was  was  the  i n Kan:g'xi < p e r i o d  an o f f i c i a l  c o m p i l i n g the record of r e s i d e n t i a l housing described  residential  In L i u l i c h a n g , development  already evident  Wang W e n b a i , who  responsible for  in Liulichang,  l a r g e number o f h o u s e s c r o w d e d t o g e t h e r  l i c h a n g i n an e s s a y e n t i t l e d  "An  in  Liu-  I n s t a n t l y Composed E s s a y i n  t h e Autumn o f t h e Y e a r o f G e n g c h e n - 139  Outer  -  (1700.) d u r i n g t h e  compilar-  t l . o n o f the. R e c o r d o f R e s i d e n t i a l H o u s i n g i n L i u l i c h a n g " ;  Since t h e Ming Dynasty, p o p u l a t i o n has concentrated around t h e nine gates o f the C a p i t a l ; The l a n d was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e E i g h t Banners; The O u t e r C i t y was I m p e r i a l L a n d w h e r e houses were b u i l t f o r p e o p l e i n t h e Capital; T h a t ' s why h o u s e s i n L i u l i c h a n g was s o c r o w d e d , l o c a t e d one a f t e r a n o t h e r j u s t like fish scale. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and c r o w d n e s s o f t h e h o u s e s w e r e due t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e past s i x t y years ( s i n c e t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e Q i n g i n 16 4 4 ) . People from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e empire a l s o g a t h e r e d around h e r e , s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s also resided i n L i u l i c h a n g . 2 5 4  From Wang, we n o t o n l y of population  had a l r e a d y  since the Ming times,  learn that a great  concentration  developed around t h e c i t y  gates  b u t a l s o t h a t L i u l i c h a n g had been  developed as a densely b u i l t area i n the Kangxi p e r i o d .  Wang's  e s s a y h o w e v e r was n o t composed f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i b i n g the  development o f L i u l i c h a n g alone b u t t o r a i s e t h e concern  f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s t h e r e who w e r e r e q u e s t e d t o p a y t h e i r t a x b a s e d o n t h e u n i t s :of h o u s e s r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e l a n d occupied.  Wang a r g u e d t h a t i t was n o t f a i r  t o pay t a x a c c o r d i n g  they  f o rthe residents  t o t h e u n i t s they occupied as t h e s m a l l  amount o f r e n t t h e y r e c e i v e d was b a r e l y e n o u g h t o s u p p o r t their families.  Moreover, they had corvee to serve which t h e  common p e o p l e c o u l d h a r d l y  The  cope  with.  r i s e o f L i u l i c h a n g , h o w e v e r , was due n o t o n l y - 140 -  tothe  increase of population but also a substantial increase i n the number o f r e s i d e n c e s w h i c h h o u s e d t h e s c h o l a r s a n d o f f i c i a l s . Zhi  Chaozi  i n his Jiujing Suoji  d e n c e s o f t h e Han o f f i c i a l s  (1970) t a l k e d a b o u t t h e r e s i -  and t h e r i c h e s i n t h e e a r l y  Qing  period:  I n t h e o l d d a y s , m o s t Han o f f i c i a l s who d i d not have i m p e r i a l a s s i g n e d r e s i d e n c e s and t h o s e who d i d n o t h a v e t o be o n d u t y i n t h e I m p e r i a l Palaces u s u a l l y l i v e d i n t h e Outer C i t y , o u t s i d e t h e e n t r a n c e o f Xuanwu G a t e . Most o f t h e r i c h f a m i l i e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , l i v e d a r o u n d t h e area.-;outside S u i w e n Gate. T h a t ' s why t h e r e was a n o l d s a y i n g : ' i n the east a r e t h e r i c h e s , i n t h e west are the high-ranking o f f i c i a l s . ! ' No w o n d e r t h e r e w e r e s o many poems a b o u t Xuannan a r e a w h e r e many s c h o l a r s l i v e d w e r e composed.255  Amongst t h e more t h a n  10,000 h i g h r a n k i n g  officials  s t a t i o n e d i n B e i j i n g , many o f them l i v e d n e a r Xuanwu G a t e an a r e a v e r y c l o s e t o L i u l i c h a n g .  —  The c o m p i l e r o f C h u n m i n g  Mengyu L u , Sun C h e n g z e , l i v e d  i n t h e west s i d e o f Zhangjia  Bridge, south o f L i u l i c h a n g .  H i s h o u s e was c a l l e d  "Tuigu  256 Yuan."  A n o t h e r famous s c h o l a r , Wang Y u y a n g , l i v e d i n  L i u l i c h a n g ' s Huoshen Miao X i j i a o  Dao.  tree with flowers sprouted a l l over. composed poems o f t h e v i n e t r e e . entitled  "Guteng S h i t u Juan"  H i s garden had a v i n e Some o f h i s  guests  He a l s o h a d a p a i n t i n g  (A r o l l  of Painting of the Old  V i n e w i t h Poems) f r o m w h i c h many poems w e r e composed i n l a t e r time. was  N e x t t o Wang Y u y a n g was t h e h o u s e o f Cheng J i n f a n g who  a c o m p i l e r o f S i k u Quanshu.  D a i Lu even suggested  w h e r e Cheng l i v e d was Wang's o l d h o u s e . - 141 -  Sun X i n g y a n  that who was  then e d i t i n g Yanzi Chunqiu, a l s o l i v e d at  N a n j i a Dao.  plaque —  H i s Korean f r i e n d , Piao Q i j i a wrote him a .  "Wenzi Tang"  t h a t nobody who  i n L i u l i c h a n g i n 1789  (House f o r A s k i n g ) .  P i a o even  r e a d l e s s t h a n 5,000 j u a n o f b o o k s  suggested  should  257 e n t e r i n t o Sun's h o u s e . cao  Q i a n Q i , i n h i s Cheng B i z h a i S h i -  a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t he l i v e d  i n t h e o l d h o u s e o f Zhu Z h u t o  258 in Huaishi Xiejie. at zuo"  Coal Market Street.  He e v e n h a d a p l a q u e " C h a o t i n g  Liang-  (Good A s s i s t a n t t o t h e T h r o n e ) , a w a r d e d b y t h e E m p e r o r  Yongzheng. the  The C h a n c e l l o r , Zhu Wenan h a d a h o u s e  C h a n c e l l o r L i Wenzhen's r e s i d e n c e was  located at  West P i g M a r k e t S t r e e t and h a d a p l a q u e a w a r d e d b y  Kangxi.  Emperor  A n o t h e r famous p o e t , Wu M e i c u n , l i v e d i n . W e i y a n H u t o n g  i n the n o r t h s i d e o f Hufang B r i d g e .  Lao Z h i b i a n a l s o m e n t i o n e d  t h a t he met P a n g X u e y e , an o f f i c i a l i n t h e B o a r d o f W o r k s , i n 259 L i u l i c h a n g a f t e r he moved t h e r e .  A l l these examples  showed  t h a t many s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s d e s i r e d t o l i v e i n a n d a r o u n d Liulichang.  T h i s was b e c a u s e L i u l i c h a n g was  conveniently  l o c a t e d between t h e I n n e r C i t y and t h e O u t e r C i t y .  Moreover,  t h e y c o u l d e a s i l y buy t h e books t h e y wanted and t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e y needed f o r w r i t i n g .  E v e n when t h e y w e r e n o t b u y i n g  a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e m a r k e t , L i u l i c h a n g was a p l a c e f o r them t o s p e n d h a l f a d a y , s t r o l l i n g a r o u n d and r e a d i n g b o o k s .  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s i n the  neighborhood of L i u l i c h a n g g r e a t l y encouraged i t s develop-  ment a s C h i n a ' s m a j o r m a r k e t o f b o o k s . A n o t h e r m a j o r e v e n t w h i c h was h e l d i n L i u l i c h a n g - 142 -  during  the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l and d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d i t s . development\was the Annual F a i r . Ming times.  The f a i r o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e L a n t e r n  Fair i n  The show o f l a n t e r n s b e g a n i n t h e Han p e r i o d (221  B.C.-A.D. 220) b u t i t was n o t u n t i l  t h e Tang p e r i o d t h a t t h e  f i f t e e n t h d a y o f t h e f i r s t month was c h o s e n a s t h e d a y f o r showing t h e l a n t e r n s .  During  the Lantern  Festival, the  i m p e r i a l c i t y was o p e n t o t h e common p e o p l e . and  According  to L i u  Y u , t h e L a n t e r n F a i r i n M i n g p e r i o d e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e • i.  e i g h t h day t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h day o f t h e f i r s t month. o f f i c i a l s had t e n days o f h o l i d a y t o enjoy During  these  t e n days, t r a d e took  E v e n < <•  the f e s t i v a l .  p l a c e d u r i n g t h e day and  l a n t e r n s w e r e l i g h t e d up d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g .  As  suggested  by Rozman, " u n l i k e m a r k e t s w h i c h met a c e r t a i n number o f t i m e s every  t e n d a y s , f a i r s were a n n u a l  events  drawing l a r g e crowds  from g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s supplemented p e r i o d i c markets, p r o v i d i n g 26 0 a v a r i e t y o f annual The  Lantern  entrance  needs, l u x u r i e s , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . "  F a i r i n M i n g t i m e s was h e l d o u t s i d e t h e e a s t e r n •:  of the imperial c i t y ,  t h e Donghua G a t e .  Merchants  from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y were them g a t h e r e d and  there  p u t f o r t h n o t o n l y l u x u r i o u s i t e m s , such as a n t i q u e and  c u r i o o b j e c t s from the past d y n a s t i e s o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , but  t h e r e were a l s o d a i l y used items  Besides was  people.  t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f goods on s a l e i n t h e f a i r ,  also entertainment,  Some h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s  the f a i r i n plain clothes.  candidates  a l s o enjoyed  there  s u c h a s m u s i c , a c r o b a t i c shows, a n d  fireworks for the v i s i t o r s . visited  f o r t h e common  Many o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  themselves during t h i s f e s t i v a l . - 143 -  also  A  l a r g e number o f t h e r i c h m e r c h a n t s e v e n p a i d a h i g h f e e t o r e n t a room i n some m u l t i - s t o r y r e s t a u r a n t s t o w a t c h t h e ,  261  4-  lanterns.  According of B e i j i n g — Lantern  t o the c h i e f e d i t o r of the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y Qinding  R i x i a J i u w e n k a o , Yu M i n z h o n g , t h e  F a i r was no l o n g e r h e l d i n t h e Q i n g p e r i o d .  Annual  F a i r s were t h e n h e l d i n s t e a d i n t h e F l o w e r M a r k e t , P i g M a r k e t , V e g e t a b l e M a r k e t , b u t t h e l a r g e s t f a i r was h e l d i n L i u l i c h a n g during the Spring F e s t i v a l  from the f o u r t h t o the  seventeenth  262 day  o f t h e f i r s t month.  of s t a l l s  During  the f a i r ,  t h e r e were a l o t  f o r s e l l i n g toys, food, c u r i o s , p a i n t i n g s ,  graphy and books.  As e a r l y as  b i a n i n h i s poem, "A S t r o l l  calli-  t h e K a n g x i p e r i o d , Lao Z h i -  along L i u l i c h a n g " described the  p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l when thousands o f wheelcarts The  l i n e d up a l o n g  t h e way t o L i u l i c h a n g .  p l a c e was a l s o l i g h t e d up by l a n t e r n s a n d L i u l i c h a n g was  described as: ... s h o w i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p r o s p e r i t y w i t h numerous t y p e s o f c o l o r e d g l a z e p r o d u c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o y s f o r c h i l d r e n and o t h e r curio objects. The f o r e g r o u n d o u t s i d e t h e g o v e r n m e n t k i l n f a c t o r y h a d many s t a l l s s e l l i n g vase, c u r i o s , p a i n t i n g s , c l o t h and books. People from a l l walks o f M f e v i s i t e d L i u l i c h a n g and t h e s t a l l s were v e r y busy i n s e l l i n g t h e i r goods.263  I n Yongzheng p e r i o d Miscellaneous  (1728-1735), Shang Pan's  Essay i n the Spring F e s t i v a l " - 144—  poem, "A J  f u r t h e r mentioned ,.  t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was t h e p l a c e w h e r e e v e r y o n e v i s i t e d the S p r i n g F e s t i v a l .  during  Shang a l s o p o i n t e d out, that the place was  w e l l connected t o every  parts of the c i t y  a n d t h i s was why  264 the  s t a l l s were so crowded w i t h  people;  In Pan R o n g b i s D i j i n g S u i s h i J i s h e n g , 1  (A d e s c r i p t i o n o f  the Y e a r l y S o c i a l Events o f the C a p i t a l ) , t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g d u r i n g t h e S p r i n g F e s t i v a l c o u l d be f u r t h e r  illus-  trated :  Outside the entrance (of the k i l n f a c t o r y ) , a l l s o r t s o f goods a n d d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f shows g a t h e r e d h e r e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m the f i r s t t o t h e s i x t e e n t h day o f t h e F i r s t Moon. Tens o f t h o u s a n d s o f l a n t e r n s w e r e a l l hung up a r o u n d t h e m a r k e t . . . L o t s o f books and o t h e r c u r i o s o c c u p i e d t h e whole s t r e e t . . . L a r g e numbers o f men a n d women who w e r e r i d i n g t h e i r h o r s e s o r c a r r i e d b y c a r t s , v i s i t e d ( L i u l i c h a n g ) ... 265  Wang Y e q i u  n o t e d t h a t b o o k s t a l l s i n t h e Annual.. F a i r o f  L i u l i c h a n g i n t h e l a t e Kangxi p e r i o d had g r a d u a l l y developed i n t o s h o p s o f a more p e r m a n e n t n a t u r e  and reached i t s g r e a t e s t  266 p r o s p e r i t y i n Qianlong's time.  T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t was due  not o n l y t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e f a i r which had v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t types was  o f g o o d s o n s a l e b u t a more i m p o r t a n t  fact  t h a t L i u l i c h a n g was " w e l l c o n n e c t e d " t o a l l p a r t s o f t h e  c i t y and c o n v e n i e n t l y between t h e Inner The  l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h e main t r a f f i c  routes  and Outer C i t i e s o f B e i j i n g .  h o l d i n g o f a n A n n u a l F a i r i n L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h drew a - 145 -  l a r g e crowd o f p e o p l e f r o m a l l w a l k s o f l i f e  no d o u b t  encour-  a g e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y ; b u t i t s r i s i n g p r o s p e r i t y was a l s o due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e number o f h u i g u a n w h i c h h o u s e d a l a r g e number o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s a n d o f f i c i a l s . B e i j i n g and i n hundreds o f c i t i e s  In  a n d towns-, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  b a s e d on common g e o g r a p h i c o r i g i n s h a v e p l a y e d a v i t a l and s o c i a l r o l e d u r i n g associations  the past centuries  i n China.  economic  Such  a r e c a l l e d huiguan o r Tandsmannschaften.  Western and Japanese s c h o l a r s  accepted the contentions  Most of  M i n g w r i t e r s , L i u Dong a n d Y u Y i z h e n g , t h a t h u i g u a n was established  i n B e i j i n g i n t h e J i a j i n g and Longqing  first  periods  261 (1522-1572)..  H o w e v e r , Ho P i n g - t ' i ,  i n h i s Zhongguo  Huiguan  S h i l u n , p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t h u i g u a n was e s t a b l i s h e d in the nation's  c a p i t a l , B e i j i n g , i n Yongle period 26 8  b y o f f i c i a l s who w e r e n a t i v e s published  o f Wuhu, A n h u i .  Wuhu X i a n z h i , Wuhu H u i g u a n  (1403-1424) I n t h e 1919  i n B e i j i n g was m e n t i o n e d  as: ... l o c a t e d a t t h e u p p e r t h i r d h u t o n g (lane) o u t s i d e t h e f r o n t (Zhengyang) gate. A n a t i v e -(Wuhu) , -Yu Mo, gave a d o n a t i o n t o purchase s e v e r a l houses and a p i e c e o f l a n d t o e s t a b l i s h ( t h e huiguan) i n Ming Y o n g l e p e r i o d (14031424). 2 6 9  S i n c e B e i j i n g was t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e Q i n g e m p i r e , m u l t i tudes o f government cials,  o f f i c e s were l o c a t e d  e i t h e r on o f f i c i a l  t o new o f f i c e s ,  there.  business or waiting  Many o f f i ^  f o r appointments  found i t p a r t i c u l a r l y convenient t o l i v e i n - 146 -  '>  t h e h u i g u a n w h i c h were b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d by t h e i r countrymen.  fellow-  I t was a l s o i n t h e h u i g u a n t h a t t h e s e n s e o f  b e i n g a l i e n a t e d i n a s t r a n g e c i t y was m i n i m i z e d . e a r l y h u i g u a n w h i c h were formed by o f f i c i a l s  Many o f t h e  extended i t s  "membership" t o c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n e x a m i n a t i o n . The m e t r o p o l i t a n e x a m i n a t i o n was h e l d e v e r y t h i r d y e a r i n B e i j i n g when f i v e t o s i x t h o u s a n d c a n d i d a t e s who h a d t a k e n t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l examinations flocked there t o take part i n 270 it.  W i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f l o c a l and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e  i n l a t e M i n g a n d e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d s , t h e demand f o r h a n d i c r a f t and i n d u s t r i a l goods l e d n o t o n l y t o b i g g e r a n d more  sophisti-  c a t e d e n t e r p r i s e s b u t a l s o t o a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of merchants. cities  The b u i l d i n g o f h u i g u a n i n B e i j i n g a n d o t h e r  therefore provided a place of contacts with other  merchants  f r o m t h e same r e g i o n a n d i t was a l s o w h e r e  against discrimination  protection  f r o m t h e l o c a l p o p u l a c e was o f f e r e d .  A c c o r d i n g t o Ho P i n g - t ' i , t h e r e w e r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h the huiguan Yu Mo, b o u g h t  were e s t a b l i s h e d :  Firstly,  t h e l a n d and t h e b u i l d i n g s  p r i v a t e donors,  like  f o r the huiguan.  A l t h o u g h o n l y a f e w h u i g u a n w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s way, t h i s was  more common i n i t s e a r l y p e r i o d o f d e v e l o p m e n t .  p e r i o d , C h a n c e l l o r L i Guangdi as A n x i H u i g u a n .  In Kangxi  (1642-1718) d o n a t e d h i s h o u s e  S e c o n d l y , t h e r e were r i c h merchants  d o n a t e d money t o b u i l d t h e h u i g u a n .  F o r example i n Q i a n l o n g  p e r i o d , Duan Y u n l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h e L o n g y a n z h o u  Huiguan.  T h i r d l y a n d t h e m o s t common way i s t o h a v e t h e l e a d i n g - 147 -  who  official.  o f t h e p l a c e s t a r t f u n d - r a i s i n g amongst.. h i s c o l l e a g u e s a n d t h e native people.  There were a l s o c a s e s where m e r c h a n t s l e a d 271  the fund r a i s i n g and c o - o p e r a t e d / w i t h  The  the o f f i c i a l s .  common b e l i e f o f l a t e M i n g a n d modern J a p a n e s e scho-r  l a r s was t h a t L a n d s m a n n s c h a f t e n i n B e i j i n g w e r e , f r o m very i n c e p t i o n , hostels e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l u s i v e l y  their  f o r landsmann  o f v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s , p e r f e c t u r e s , a n d c o u n t i e s who w e n t t o Beijing  t o take t h e t r i e n n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n and p a l a c e  tions.  B u t , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , Ho P i n g - t ' i  examina-  (Ho B i n g d i ) ,  based  on e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h o n t h e l o c a l h i s t o r y o f M i n g a n d Q i n g p e r i o d s , found  t h a t o r i g i n a l l y t h e r e w e r e two t y p e s o f L a n d s -  mannschaf t e n i n B e i j i n g , Landsmann e x a m i n a t i o n  none o f w h i c h was e x c l u s i v e l y f o r  candidates.  The f i r s t  t y p e , such  a s .U  t h a t o f Wuhu, was i n t h e n a t u r e o f a n e x c l u s i v e c l u b , o p e n o n l y t o n a t i v e s o f Wuhu who s e r v e d a s o f f i c i a l s government.  of the central  The s e c o n d t y p e , s u c h a s t h a t o f She X i a n i n A n -  hui  p r o v i n c e , was l a u n c h e d  and  partook  i n 156 0 b y m e r c h a n t s o f She X i a n  o f t h e n a t u r e o f a t r u e L a n d s m a n n s c h a f t e n , open 272  to  a l l Landsmann, o f f i c i a l s  W r i t i n g i n the Wanli  as w e l l as merchants.  p e r i o d , Shen D e f u , i n h i s Yehuo B i a n  mentioned t h a t :  Since the c a p i t a l i s the gathering point f o r ( p e o p l e ) f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , most c o u n t i e s h a v e t h e i r own h u i g u a n h e r e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p e o p l e who f i r s t came h e r e . This i s a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t method f o r t h e p e o p l e f o r a l o n g t i m e . . . By t h e t i m e I w e n t t o t h e c a p i t a l a g a i n (16 0 6 ) , o u r h u i g u a n was f i n e l y constructed. H o w e v e r , o u r c o u n t y h u i g u a n was - 148 -  o c c u p i e d by t h e h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s , t h e lower l e v e l o f f i c i a l s and e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s c o u l d n o t be s h e l t e r e d i n t h e h u i g u a n . This i s i n contradiction to the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g o f our huiguan.273  In  C h o n g z h e n p e r i o d , L i u Dong a n d Y u Y i z h e n g p o i n t e d o u t  that:  Huiguan i n t h e Inner C i t y i s c o n t r o l l e d by the o f f i c i a l s w h i l e those i n the Outer C i t y are r e s i d i n g by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . 2 7 4  Ho P i n g - t ' i  f u r t h e r argues  t h a t h u i g u a n d i d n o t become  hostels f o r examination candidates u n t i l t h e 1924 p u b l i s h e d R e c o r d s  the Qing p e r i o d .  o f the F u j i a n Huiguan,  i n B e i j i n g o n l y began t o l i s t  In  the twenty-  two  F u j i a n huiguan  ful  examination candidates i n the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d w i t h the  o n l y e x c e p t i o n o f Shaowu H u i g u a n . Fuzhou Huiguan d i d n o t l i s t dates u n t i l  the success-  Even t h e l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d  the successful examination candi-  the Qing p e r i o d .  T h i s e v i d e n c e l e d t o Ho's con-:  e l u s i o n t h a t h u i g u a n d i d n o t become a r e s i d e n c e f o r e x a m i n a 275 t i o n candidates u n t i l  the Qmg  dynasty.  Owing t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n a s a major  c h a n n e l o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and a l s o t o t h e f a c t  that  v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s v i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n p r o d u c i n g  socio-  a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s c a n d i d a t e s , t h e two t y p e s o f h u i g u a n  i n Bei-  j i n g g r a d u a l l y changed t h e i r  functions.  i n B e i j i n g became h o s t e l r i e s  f o r Landsmann e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -  - 149 -  Both types o f huiguan  dates i n the f i r s t h a l f of the Qing dynasty. e x i s t e n c e o f h u i g u a n was appeared  However, t h e  not l i m i t e d to B e i j i n g , huiguan  i n a number o f m a j o r  cities  t r a d i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g s u b - c o u n t y  also  and e v e n i n some a c t i v e l y towns f r o m t h e W a n l i  277 period  (1573-1619) o n w a r d s .  Unlike other c i t i e s ,  Beijing  r e c e i v e d a l a r g e number o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s f r o m a l l parts of the country.  O u t s i d e B e i j i n g h u i g u a n were h o s t e l s  and m e e t i n g  p l a c e s f o r m o s t l y m e r c h a n t s and c r a f t s m e n t h a n o f  officials.  S i n c e huiguan houses such d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s  as  r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s , mutual p r o t e c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s , and b u r i a l 278 a v a r i e t y of urban  functions.  a s s i s t a n c e , they  Whatever the main  performed functions  o f h u i g u a n o u t s i d e o f B e i j i n g , t h e y a l l more o r l e s s of the nature of g e n e r a l Landsmannschaften,  partook  open t o a l l Lands-  mann , m e r c h a n t s ,  c r a f t s m e n , o f f i c i a l s and e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i -  dates.  b e c a u s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e M i n g and Q i n g  T h i s was  the concept of s o c i a l s t a t u s system r a t h e r  s t a t u s was  f l e x i b l e and t h e  period  social  fluid.  L a r g e numbers o f h u i g u a n w e r e b u i l t i n B e i j i n g i n M i n g and Q i n g p e r i o d s . hostels  The  r i c h l y documented h i s t o r y o f  i n B e i j i n g showed t h a t b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e M i n g  p e r i o d a l l p r e f e c t u r e s o f F u j i a n e x c e p t one their hostels i n Beijing. n@  Fujian  had  established  From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Q i n g t o  fewer than e i g h t F u j i a n c o u n t i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r  separate huiguan  i n the c a p i t a l .  own  J i a n g x i , as the p i o n e e r  p r o v i n c e i n p r o v i d i n g community c h e s t s f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n - 150  1760,  -  e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , p o s s i b l y s e t up i t s own h u i g u a n Fujian.  As t h e statesman  t e s t i f i e d , the J i a n g x i  and prime m i n i s t e r  before  Zhu S h i (1665-1736)  ' p r o v i n c e and i t s v a r i o u s p r e f e c t u r e s had  e s t a b l i s h e d many s u c h h o s t e l s i n B e i j i n g i n M i n g t i m e s a n d e v e n h i s n a t i v e c o u n t y Gao An a l o n e h a d t w o , w h i c h g r a d u a l l y 279 became d i l a p i d a t e d a n d e v e n t u a l l y w e r e c o n s o l i d a t e d i n 1 7 2 3 . Shen D e f u ,  a n a t i v e o f J i a X i n g i n Z h e j i a n , was i m p r e s s e d b y  t h e number o f h u i g u a n century.  i n B e i j i n g during the late  sixteenth  Some n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s n e a r B e i j i n g , h o w e v e r , may  have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r huiguan southern provinces.  somewhat l a t e r t h a n t h e r e m o t e  S h a n x i , f o r example, d i d n o t have a  h o s t e l f o r examination candidates u n t i l  l a t e i n the seventeen-  t h c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h i t s e n t e r p r i s i n g m e r c h a n t s h a d s e t up 280 their guildhalls  i n Beijing earlier.  From t h e s e  examples,  we c a n s e e t h a t a l l p r o v i n c e s , many l a r g e p e r f e c t u r e s , a n d a c e r t a i n number o f l a r g e c o u n t i e s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r h u i g u a n i n Qing  times, although i t i s often d i f f i c u l t  p r e c i s e dates of t h e i r  to ascertain the  founding.  I n t h e Ming p e r i o d , huiguan were p r e s e n t i n b o t h t h e I n n e r C i t y and t h e Outer  C i t y o f B e i j i n g b u t t h a t d u r i n g the Qing  p e r i o d most h u i g u a n were l o c a t e d i n t h e Outer Yu  suggested  t h a t huiguan  i n t h e Outer  City.  L i u and  C i t y were r e s i d e d by  examination candidates w h i l e those i n the Inner C i t y  were  2 81 r e s i d e d by o f f i c i a l s  and g e n t r y c l a s s .  M i a o Quansun's J i n g x i F a n g x i a n g  I n Zhu Y i x i n a n d  Z h i ( 1 8 8 4 ) , t h e y l i s t e d 391  28 2 huiguan  i n Bijing.  As s u g g e s t e d  b y Ho P i n g - t ' i , h a l f o f  the  h u i g u a n were b u i l t i n M i n g t i m e s w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f  built  i n Qing period.  I n h i s Shucao Q i n g x i a Lu  were  ( 1 7 9 2 ) , Wang  Qishu d e s c r i b e d the r a p i d development of huiguan i n the Outer C i t y of B e i j i n g during the Qianlong p e r i o d :  In the past years, d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s c o m p e t e d t o b u i l d t h e i r own h u i g u a n . the b u i l d i n g o f t h e s e h u i g u a n pushed up much t h e p r i c e o f l a n d i n t h e O u t e r City.283  F r o m Wang, we n o t o n l y l e a r n t h a t l a r g e numbers o f h u i g u a n were b u i l t all  i n t h e Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d , b u t .more i m p o r t a n t ,  t h e s e h u i g u a n were l o c a t e d i n t h e O u t e r C i t y .  nearly  Wang Y e q i u  n o t e d t h a t many o f t h e s e h u i g u a n w e r e t h e n l o c a t e d a r o u n d t h e a r e a b e t w e e n Xuanwu G a t e a n d Z h e n y a n g G a t e , w h e r e  Liulichang  was  further  located.  listed These  Wu  changyuan  i n the Qianlong period  twenty-three huiguan i n the neighborhood of i n c l u d e d : C h a o z h o u H u i g u a n , Changyuan  Liulichang.  H u i g u a n on  Yanshou  M o n a s t e r y S t r e e t ; P o y a n g H u i g u a n o n W u c h i e r H u t o n g ; Hehan Huiguan a t Yangmeizhu  X i e S t r e e t ; X i a n g l i n g Huiguan,  Sanyan  H u i g u a n and Z h a o x i n g H u i g u a n on L i T i e g u a i X i e S t r e e t ; dong H u i g u a n i n Han j i a P o n ; W e i n a n  Guang-  Huiguan,. C h a o y i H u i g u a n  Z h a n g j i a B r i d g e ; X i z i Huiguan i n L i a n g j i a Yuan; Quanjun  on  Huiguan  i n Sun G o n g y u a n ; T a i l i H u i g u a n , P u c h e n g H u i g u a n i n T i l a o q u a n Temple;  J i a n n i n g H u i g u a n , H u i z h o u H u i g u a n on N a n l i n H a n g ;  N a n f e n g H u i g u a n on B e i l i n h a n g ; G u a n g x i H u i g u a n , F e n g x i a n g H u i g u a n and Hanzhong P a n j i a Heyan;  Huiguan i n Qingchang; Q i l u Huiguan a t  Quanzhe H u i g u a n and H u a i a n H u i g u a n on Heng  Street.  B a s e d on  t h a t t h e r e w e r e few but  Jingsi.Fangxiang huiguan i n the  t h e r e w e r e a b o u t 100  central built  s e c t i o n s of the  up  Z h i , Rozman f o u n d  northern  eastern; areas  huiguan l o c a t e d i n the w e s t e r n O u t e r C i t y and  p o r t i o n of the  and  more t h a n 200  and  in  the  southern p a r t of the Outer C i t y .  Rozman s u g g e s t s t h a t h u i g u a n t e n d e d t o be  located i n  n  relatively  285 sparsely populated areas of B e i j i n g .  The  closeness  t h e s e l a r g e numbers o f h u i g u a n i n t h e v i c i n i t y  of  . of  Liulichang  w h e r e l a r g e numbers o f e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , s c h o l a r - o f f i - v cials  and  business  merchants were housed, u n d o u b t e d l y promoted o f b o o k s e l l i n g and  o f L i u l i c h a n g amongst the  f u r t h e r enhanced the  scholars  and  the  popularity  officials  in  this  period. As  h e l d by  some h i s t o r i a n s , one  p r o j e c t s i n the Q i a n l o n g p e r i o d  and  r i s i n g p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g was  of the  greatest  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the  compilation  Quanshu w h i c h b e g a n i n t h e  t h i r t y - e i g h t h years of  (1773).  E m p e r o r Q i a n l o n g had  As  e a r l y as  provincial-governors  1772, and  educational  l o s t works from a l l p a r t s of the out  t h a t the  t i o n of books but  i t could  Qianlong considered period, contained c o u l d not  be  still  already be  understood i n t h e i r  full  p r o p o s e d t h a t a l l t h e w o r k s w h i c h had known be  ordered  -  collect  pointed  quite a rich As  o f some w o r k s  context, not  he  collec-  Emperor Kangxi and  therefore  been r e c o r d e d  c o l l e c t e d or purchased f o r the b e n e f i t of the - 153  Siku  compiled i n the  fragmented pieces  the  Qianlong  Qianlong  expanded.  t h a t Tushu J i c h e n g ,  only  of  commissioners to  country.  i m p e r i a l l i b r a r y had  literary  or literary  class.  In the  same d e c r e e ,  Emperor Q i a n l o n g  specified  b o o k s w h i c h e x p l a i n e d m o r a l i t y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and should  f i r s t be  C l a s s i c s , and  philosophy  p u r c h a s e d ; b o o k s w h i c h w e r e comments  the nine  schools of thoughts should  on  also  s e l e c t i v e l y p u r c h a s e d ; b o o k s w h i c h c o l l e c t e d poems, e s s a y s w r i t t e n by w e l l known l i t e r a t i n i z e d and  those A  A'  be  and  s h o u l d be w e l l  scruti-  c o l l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y ; books w h i c h were p r i n t e d  bookstores, and  that  s u c h as e x a m i n a t i o n  essays,  current a f f a i r s  c l a n r e c o r d s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and  A  2  8  the  like  by  works  should  be  6  discarded.  Q i a n l o n g ' s c o m p i l a t i o n o f the S i k u Quanshu, however, v i e w e d by  some a n a l y s t s as. p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d .  r i c h placed  was Good-  a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on Q i a n l o n g ' s i n t e n t i o n t o  search  287 out  and  reason,  destroy  s e d i t i o u s works.  Zheng H e s h e n g and  c o m p i l a t i o n was  this  Zheng H e c h u n s u g g e s t e d t h a t  also motivated  by  overcome the a n t a g o n i s m o f the great  In a d d i t i o n to  l i t e r a r y undertaking,  the emperor's attempt  literati  by  litera-  t u r e , and  t o make a v a i l a b l e C h i n e s e l i t e r a r y w o r k s t o  Manchus.  The  o f t h e Han  o r i g i n a l w o r k s and w o r k s by  to compile  together  the  the  the  the  rise  research  fragmentary 288  on rare  s c h o l a r s i n the e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d .  As e a r l y as to  f u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d by  L e a r n i n g w h i c h e n d e a v o r e d t o do  to  u s i n g them i n a  t o show h i s i n t e r e s t i n  c o m p i l a t i o n was  the  1774,  the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s were i n s t r u c t e d  i n f o r m t h e p e o p l e t h a t t h e y must hand o v e r books o f - 154  -  a  treasonable nature.  Those who h a n d e d o v e r b a n n e d b o o k s prom-  p t l y w o u l d b e s p a r e d o f a n y p u n i s h m e n t b u t t h o s e who h i d t h e s e books would  be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d .  would  be r e p r i m a n d e d  later  found.  Even t h e l o c a l  officials  f o r t h e i r n e g l i g e n c e i f such works were  Emperor Q i a n l o n g ' s i n t e n t i o n o f s e a r c h i n g o u t s e d i t i o u s w o r k s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S i k u Quanshu was c l e a r l y  indicated i n  h i s d e c r e e o f S e p t e m b e r 10, 1 7 7 4 ,  which p a r t l y r e a d as f o l l o w s :  ... Now o f t h e o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d v o l u m e s s u b m i t t e d b y t h e s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s none has been s i n g l e d o u t as o f f e n s i v e . How i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t among s u c h a q u a n t i t y of books bequeathed by former g e n e r a t i o n s n o t one s h o u l d c o n t a i n a t r a c e o f s e d i t i o n ? D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d a t t h e end o f t h e M i n g , u n a u t h o r i z e d h i s t o r i e s w e r e v e r y numerous and i n them b o t h d e f a m a t o r y a n d e u l o g i s t i c comments ( t o t h i s d y n a s t y ) .were e x p r e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s ' own p r e j u d i c e s . So i t i s t h a t we must c o n d u c t a t o n c e a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n (of s e d i t i o u s books).290  In  a 1777 m e m o r i a l  t o t h e emperor, Sanbao,  Governor-  g e n e r a l o f H u g u a n g , r e p o r t e d t h a t he h a d h a n d e d o v e r 1863 volumes o f books t o t h e Grand C o u n c i l f o r b u r n i n g . encouraged  He a l s o  the expectant educational o f f i c i a l s t o search out  a s many s e d i t i o u s b o o k s a s p o s s i b l e .  The s p o n s o r i n g o f t h i s  l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t b y Q i a n l o n g t h u s p r o v i d e d t h e means t o c o n t r o l v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was w r i t t e n a n d t o c e n s o r - 155 -  seditious  r e f e r e n c e s t o the Manchus.  In t h i s way,  views c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d and suppressed brought  t o account.  suspect and h e r e t i c a l and t h e i r  authors  A c c o r d i n g t o the Board of War, the  d e s t r u c t i o n o f "unacceptable" books took p l a c e  twenty-four  times between 1774 and 1782, amounting t o 13,826 works. r i c h , however, suggested  t h a t a t l e a s t 2,320 works were  f o r s u p p r e s s i o n and 342 works..were l i s t e d sion.  for partial  A c c o r d i n g to Chen N a i q i a n ' s S u o y i n s h i De J i n s h u  there were 2,453 works l i s t e d  Goodlisted  suppresZonglu,  f o r t o t a l s u p p r e s s i o n and 402 292  works f o r p a r t i a l  suppression.  The c o m p i l a t i o n o f S i k u Quanshu took t e n years  (1773-1782)  to complete and i n v o l v e d hundred o f e d i t o r s , compilers and copyists.  The e d i t o r i a l board o f S i k u Quanshu c o n s i s t e d o f  361 s c h o l a r s , with J i Yun and Lu X i x i o n g as c h i e f  editors.  Dai Zhen, Shao J i n h a n , Zhou Yongnian and J i Yun each i n charge of the f o u r branches i n t o which the c o l l e c t i o n was d i v i d e d : 293 C l a s s i c s , H i s t o r y , Philosophy and B e l l e s - l e t t r e s .  Wang Fanggang, who was appointed as compiler an the Hanl i n Academy i n 1773 and subsequently  served as an e d i t o r of  the S i k u Quanshu, gave us a d e t a i l e d account o f the process of the c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s monumental work i n h i s Fuchuzhai Shiji:  The O f f i c e of the S i k u Quanshu e s t a b l i s h e d i n the t h i r t y - e i g h t h year o f Qianlong. The c o l l e c t i o n o f books i n the H a n l i n Academy was d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s : one s e c t i o n - 156 O  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o m p i l i n g o f r a r e works from the I m p e r i a l A r c h i v e s , another s e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p i l i n g complete books and a r t i c l e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e Y o n g l e D a d i a n ; the t h i r d s e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r compiling books from p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s . 2 9 4  The  I m p e r i a l A r c h i v a l s e c t i o n was  books from the Palace Lizhao  Palace,  Zhaoren P a l a c e , Wuying P a l a c e , Hanjing  t h e S i k u Quanshu and  a n o t h e r 418  b i b l i o g r a p h y of the  S i k u Quanshu.  a t o t a l of  385  section responsible a total placed  4601  w o r k s and  Commission.  Palace,  Palace.  A  The  Yongle Dadian  l i s t e d 127  titles.  the  section  received  alone while  Jiangsu Yunnan  l e a s t number o f b o o k s p r e s e n t e d  S i c h u a n , G u i z h o u and  into  The  f o r t h e p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n had area  total  libraries  s e c o n d i n t h e number o f b o o k s s u b m i t t e d . the  Palace,  t i t l e s were l i s t e d i n  works from Zhejiang  M a n c h u r i a had  copying  Jingyang  32 7 w o r k s w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s e p a l a c e  copied  for  l i b r a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Maojin  L i b r a r y o f t h e G r a n d S e c r e t a r i a t and of  responsible  and  to the  Gansu were t h e n a t  Siku  war  295 and  so d i d n o t  s e n d i n any  books.  In the p r o c e s s  of  c o l l e c t i n g books f o r the S i k u Quanshu, Emperor Q i a n l o n g s t r o n g l y emphasized the p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s and E r y o u Ge, and  t h e e m p e r o r o r f o r c e d t o do  submitted  each submitted  500  the  Tianyi  Ge,  P u s h u T i n g , Shugu T a n g ,  Many p r i v a t e b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s , e i t h e r t o  number o f r a r e w o r k s t o t h e Jiangsu  from  famous l i b r a r i e s , s u c h a s :  X i a o s h a n T a n g , T i a n l a i Ge,  C h u a n s h i Lou.  please  importance of cooperation  779  submitted  S i k u Commission.  b o o k s , Fan  t o 600  so,  Ma  a Yu  large in  M a o z h u , Wang Q i s h u i n N i n g b o  works to the  t h r o n e and  were each  a w a r d e d a c o p y o f T u s h u J i Oh en g. more t h a n  O t h e r s who h a d  submitted  100 w o r k s , s u c h a s J i a n g Z e n g y i n g , Wu Y u c h i , Sun .  Y a n g z e n g , Huang D e n g f a , J i Yun a n d o t h e r s , w e r e e a c h a w a r d e d a copy o f Peiwen Yunfu.  However i t was n o t o n l y t h e r a r e  w o r k s f r o m Song a n d Y u a n w e r e b e i n g c o l l e c t e d i n t o t h e S i k u Q u a n s h u , some p o p u l a r w o r k s , s u c h a s Yuan Shu's T o n g j I a n  Jishi  Benmo a n d J i a Y i ' s X i n s h u w e r e a l s o p u r c h a s e d f r o m t h e b o o k s t o r e s o r p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t o t h i s monum e n t a l work.  A t o t a l o f 100 p o p u l a r w o r k s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n  t h e S i k u Quanshu and a n o t h e r in  i t s bibliography.  2 9  eighty-seven  t i t l e s were  ^  A t o t a l o f seven d u p l i c a t e c o p i e s o f t h e S i k u  Quanshu  w e r e made, o f w h i c h f o u r w e r e p r e s e r v e d  i n northern  w h i l e t h e o t h e r t h r e e c o p i e s were k e p t  i n the south.  i n B e i j i n g , Wenyuan P a l a c e  Palace  i n M a n c h u r i a , and W e n j i n P a l a c e  and  Wenhui P a l a c e  Wenlan P a l a c e  China Wenyuan  i n Y u a n m i n g Y u a n , Wensu J? .'.  Palace  a copy.  listed  i n Rehe e a c h r e c e i v e d  i n Y a n g z h o u , Wenzong P a l a c e  i n Zhenjiang  i n Hangzhou a l s o had a copy o f S i k u Quanshu.  The c o p y i n Y u a n m i n g Yuan was b u r n e d d u r i n g t h e i n v a s i o n o f B e i j i n g by t h e A l l i e d F o r c e s . were d e s t r o y e d  The Wenhui and Wenzong  copies  d u r i n g the T a i p i n g r e b e l l i o n , w h i l e over  q u a r t e r s o f t h e W e n l a n c o p y was l o s t t o o .  The f i r s t  three-  set of  S i k u Q u a n s h u , c o m p l e t e d i n e a r l y 1 7 8 2 , was h o u s e d i n Wenyuan Palace.  The b u i l d i n g was p r e s u m a b l y m o d e l l e d  a f t e r the Tianyi  Ge l i b r a r y o f t h e F a n f a m i l y o f N i n g b o , Z h e j i a n g . B u t i n i t s reality,  i t s m a s s i v e p r o p o r t i o n s h a v e more i n common w i t h t h e - 158 -  adjoining palace  s t r u c t u r e s than w i t h the simple  building at  297 Ningbo.  The shu,  c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s m o n u m e n t a l c o l l e c t i o n , S i k u Quan-  no d o u b t b e n e f i t e d l a r g e numbers o f s c h o l a r s who  could  now h a v e a c c e s s t o p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e r a r e w o r k s .  Many o f  t h e s e r a r e works were p r e v i o u s l y c o l l e c t e d i n t h e b o o k s t o r e s o r t h e l i b r a r i e s o f b o o k - c o l l e c t o r s a n d a c c e s s t o them was very  difficult.  Another e q u a l l y important  function of Siku  Quanshu i s i t s r o l e i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o l d e d i t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d o t h e r w i s e be l o s t .  Some 365 r a r e w o r k s w e r e  preserved  f r o m t h e Y o n g l e D a d i a n w h i c h i s t h e o n l y c o p y a v a i l a b l e now.  The  S i k u Q u a n s h u , h o w e v e r , was n o t w i t h o u t  Some c r i t i c s  pointed  any d e f e c t s .  o u t t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n emphasizes f a r  more p r e - M i n g w o r k s t h a n M i n g o r e a r l y Q i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s . a d d i t i o n , Zhu X i s s c h o o l 1  official  orthodoxy and books from o t h e r  were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . the  o f t h o u g h t was c o n s i d e r e d schools  as t h e  o f thoughts  One o f t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s o f  c o l l e c t i o n was i t s d e l e t i o n a n d a d d i t i o n o f w o r k s  accor-  d i n g t o t h e emperor's d i r e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y those works contained  unfavorable  In  that  comments a b o u t t h e Manchu d y n a s t y .  I n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S i k u Quanshu, a l a r g e number o f r e f e r e n c e  works, b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , l i t e r a r y  c o l l e c t i o n s , books on h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , r e q u i r e d by t h e S i k u c o m p i l e r s .  and C l a s s i c s were  M o r e o v e r , l a r g e numbers o f  - 159 -  r a r e w o r k s h a d t o be s e a r c h e d try.  A l l these  s s f u l without dealers.  out from a l l p a r t s o f the coun-  b o o k s e a r c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d n o t be  the help of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s —  Wang F a n g g a n g , i n h i s F u c h u z h a i  c l e a r p i c t u r e o f how  t h e book  Shi j i ,  s i g n i f i c a n t Liulichangwwas  succe-  g a v e us a  1  in./providing  the b o o k s , r e f e r e n c e works and w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e compilers o f the S i k u  Quanshu:  E v e r y m o r n i n g t h e o f f i c i a l s went t o t h e Academy where t e a a n d l u n c h w e r e p r o v i d e d . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n , t h e o f f i c i a l s w o u l d go back t o t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s . They w o u l d l i s t a l l t h e books and r e f e r e n c e works t h a t t h e y n e e d e d t o c o m p i l e t h e S i k u Quanshu a n d w e n t t o b o o k s t o r e s i n L i u l i c h a n g t o ':. l o o k f o r t h e s e b o o k s . Book m e r c h a n t s f r o m J i a n g s u and Z h e j i a n g were e x t r e m e l y b u s y i n g e t t i n g the r e f e r e n c e books f o r these officials. The l a r g e s t b o o k s t o r e s a r e Wul i u J u a n d W e n c u i Tang.299  The demand f o r b o o k s f o r t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S i k u Quanshu was  so g r e a t t h a t b o o k s t o r e s  i n L i u l i c h a n g h a d t o go  as f a r away a s J i a n g s u a n d Z h e j i a n g t o l o o k f o r t h e b o o k s these ties  c o m p i l e r s wanted. i n the Qianlong  T h e s e t r e m e n d o u s book t r a d i n g  period certainly  activi-  f u r t h e r enhanced t h e  p r o s p e r i t y o f L i u l i c h a n g and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d L i u l i c h a n g a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  book m a r k e t i n C h i n a  two h u n d r e d y e a r s .  - 160  -  f o r more  than  Chapter V I I .  Conclusion  W i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b l o c k p r i n t i n g i n t h e Tang p e r i o d , t h e number o f b o o k s p r o d u c e d  by p r i n t i n g i n c r e a s e d tremendously  and b o o k s became f a r more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e common people.  T h i s method o f book p r o d u c t i o n was f i r s t  and c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e b o o k s h o p s .  Without  c a l e n d a r s , g l o s s a r i e s and e l e m e n t a r y in  practised  t h e bookshops,  t e x t s c o u l d n o t be  produced  q u a n t i t i e s l a r g e enough and p r i c e d l o w enough t o s a t i s f y  t h e demands o f t h e common p e o p l e .  The f i r s t  surviving  printed  book i n C h i n a , t h e Djamon S u t r a , was p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d b y a bookshop i n S i c h u a n i n t h e y e a r 868. of  S i c h u a n was t h e n one  t h e p r o v i n c e s which e x p e r i e n c e d f a r l e s s d e v a s t a t i o n from  wars and c o u l d thus m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l o f c u l t u r e .  This  i m p o r t a n t book c e n t r e p r o s p e r e d f o r some t h r e e h u n d r e d  years  until  t h e S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d .  D y n a s t i e s , t h e lower Yangtze t a n t book m a r k e t .  I n t h e l a t e Tang a n d t h e F i v e  a r e a a l s o developed as an impor-  The s e l l i n g o f c a l e n d a r s a n d e l e m e n t a r y  t e x t s f o r t h e u s e o f t h e common p e o p l e i n t h e book m a r k e t s o f S i c h u a n and t h e lower Yangtze for  the f i r s t  area provided the i n s p i r a t i o n  government p r i n t i n g o f t h e C l a s s i c s .  Although  t h e r e m i g h t be o t h e r i m p o r t a n t book p u b l i s h i n g a n d m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e s i n C h i n a i n t h i s p e r i o d , we do n o t h a v e e n o u g h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and documentary e v i d e n c e s t o support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n yet.  The  u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a b y Zhao K a n g y i n o f Song  encouraged  greatly  economic and c u l t u r a l advancement o f t h e s o c i e t y . - 161 -  Not  o n l y w e r e g o v e r n m e n t book p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s  and  e x p a n d e d , b u t p r i v a t e p u b l i s h i n g a l s o became h i g h l y  popular. and  The a r t o f p r i n t i n g i t s e l f was f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d  "Song e d i t i o n " was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d b y book c o l l e c t o r s a n d  bibliophiles.  S i c h u a n was s t i l l  one o f t h e m a j o r m a r k e t s o f  b o o k s i n t h e N o r t h e r n Song p e r i o d b u t was g r a d u a l l y by the  continued  Jianan  and Hangzhou.  After the invasion of Kaifeng  c a p i t a l o f S o n g was moved t o H a n g z h o u .  migration  t o the south  obscured  This large  contributed to the rapid rise  prosperity of the region.  Jianan  Zhejiang  i n Fujian, conveniently  and had ready a c c e s s t o t h e s u p p l y  i n t h e Song p e r i o d .  . <:  between F u j i a n , J i a n g x i  r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d a s a m a j o r book p r o d u c t i o n centre  area  i n s o c i a l and economic  l o c a t e d on t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e s and  scale  n o t o n l y b r o u g h t many s c h o l a r s a n d .  o f f i c i a l s b u t wealthy f a m i l i e s as w e l l t o t h e Jiangnan and  by J i n ,  of paper,  and m a r k e t i n g  The s c a l e o f p r o d u c t i o n  o f book-  s h o p s i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f S o u t h e r n S o n g , e s p e c i a l l y Hang-U z h o u , was s m a l l a n d some o f them w e r e p a r t o f the paper-making business. o f books by J i a n a n ' s  still  The much l a r g e r o u t p u t  bookshops g r a d u a l l y overshadowed  and  became one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  for  some f o u r h u n d r e d y e a r s u n t i l  In c o n t r a s t t o Jianan's  Sichuan  book m a r k e t s i n C h i n a  t h e end o f t h e Ming d y n a s t y .  p u b l i s h i n g o f low q u a l i t y and cheap  e d i t i o n s , bookshops i n Hangzhou p r o d u c e d h i g h q u a l i t y and expensive works. production  centres  L a t e r i n t h e S o u t h e r n Song p e r i o d , b o o k d e v e l o p e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n C h i n a and p u b l i s h e d  l a r g e numbers o f p o p u l a r  literature, -  162  -  reference  works f o r  e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , b o o k s w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s and b o o k s on m e d i c i n e , t e c h n o l o g y and a r i t h m e t i c as w e l l . t i t y o f books produced  The l a r g e q u a n -  i n t h i s period not only  encouraged  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c h o l a r s h i p , s u c h a s t h e r i s e o f NeoC o n f u c i a n i s m , b u t a l s o f u r t h e r p r o m o t e d t h e book  collection  a c t i v i t i e s o f many b i b l i o p h i l e s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o J i a n a n and Hangzhou i n s o u t h e r n P i n g s h u i had been d e v e l o p e d  a s t h e most p r o m i n e n t  p u b l i s h i n g centre i n northern China. publishing also flourished there.  L a t e r on  China,  government  commercial  I n t h e J i n p e r i o d , book  p r o d u c t i o n was p r e s e n t i n n i n e o f t h e n i n e t e e n  circuits,  c o v e r i n g t h e modern p r o v i n c e s o f H e b e i , S h a n d o n g , Henan Shaanxi.  and  I n t h e Yuan p e r i o d , J i a n a n and J i a n y a n g i n F u j i a n  c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t book m a r k e t w i t h g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f books produced. became famous f o r t h e i r b o o k s on m e d i c i n e  Several of their  bookstores  s p e c i a l i z e d p u b l i c a t i o n s o f dramas,  o r works f o r examinations.  In addition to  t h e J i a n g z h e a r e a , book m a r k e t s h a d a l s o b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n L u l i n g and J i a n c h a n g o f J i a n g x i p r o v i n c e . developed  Beijing  also  a s a book p r o d u c t i o n c e n t r e a s e a r l y a s i n t h e L i a o  d y n a s t y a n d c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p e v e r s i n c e t h e c a p i t a l moved t h e r e i n t h e J i n and Yuan d y n a s t i e s .  Most o f the b o o k s t o r e s  i n t h i s p e r i o d were l o c a t e d i n t h e u r b a n m e t r o p o l i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where m e t r o p o l i t a n and p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s held.  -  163  -  were  I n t h e e a r l y M i n g p e r i o d , J i a n y a n g , H a n g z h o u and were s t i l l centres.  the t h r e e major  book p u b l i s h i n g and  Sichuan  marketing  L a r g e numbers o f b l o c k - p r i n t e r s moved t o S u z h o u  and  N a n j i n g i n t h e W a n l i and Chongzhen p e r i o d w h i c h  l e d to the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f book p u b l i s h i n g t h e r e .  i n the n o r t h ,  Beijing,  a l s o g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d Pi.ngsh.ui. a s t h e d o m i n a n t book With the founding of the Ming c a p i t a l t i o n a l s o r a p i d l y developed t o B e i j i n g i n 1420,  there.  i n N a n j i n g , book  As  produc-  A l t h o u g h t h e c a p i t a l moved  N a n j i n g c o n t i n u e d as a major  book m a r k e t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g .  market.  centre of  n o t e d by Hu Y i n g l i n  i n the  s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b o o k s t o r e s i n B e i j i n g and H a n g z h o u p u b l i s h e d v e r y few b o o k s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e i n J i a n g s u , Z h e j i a n g and Fujian.  B e i j i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y d e p e n d e d upon t h e s u p p l y o f  b o o k s f r o m S u z h o u , N a n j i n g and o t h e r book p u b l i s h i n g c e n t r e s . An  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l book t r a d e was  period.  c l e a r l y emerging  I n t h e Q i n g p e r i o d , t h e n a t u r e o f book m a r k e t s  further, t r a n s f o r m e d .  c e n t r e s extended  was  B o o k s p u b l i s h e d by t h e b o o k s t o r e s c a t e r e d  b o t h t h e e l i t e m a r k e t and t h e p o p u l a r m a r k e t .  Yunnan.  in this  Book p r o d u c t i o n  t o a r e a s s u c h a s G u a n g d o n g , J i a n g x i and  even  Many b o o k s t o r e s became more i n v o l v e d i n m a r k e t i n g  some o n l y s o l d b o o k s p r i n t e d by o t h e r b o o k s t o r e s . J i a n g s u was  and  Suzhou i n  famous f o r i t s l a r g e o u t p u t o f p o p u l a r w o r k s w h i l e  L i u l i c h a n g was  noted f o r i t s s e l l i n g of high q u a l i t y  expensive e d i t i o n s .  The  l a r g e number o f s c h o l a r s a n d  but officials  a s w e l l as e x a m i n a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s , r e s i d i n g i n t h e c a p i t a l Q i n g , B e i j i n g , no d o u b t e n c o u r a g e d n a t i o n a l book  market. - 164  -  L i u l i c h a n g t o d e v e l o p as  of a  A macro a n a l y s i s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l  g e o g r a p h y o f book  m a r k e t s i n C h i n a c o u l d be f u r t h e r s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h a m i c r o s t u d y o f how one o f t h e most famous book m a r k e t s d e v e l o p e d in  the c i t y of B e i j i n g .  tical,  economic and urban t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  L i u l i c h a n g , we in  Through the a n a l y s i s o f the p o l i df  Beijing.and  saw t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s famous book m a r k e t  B e i j i n g from a r u r a l v i l l a g e  located miles  away f r o m t h e  c a p i t a l c i t y o f L i a o , t o become t h e m o s t famous " S t r e e t o f Culture".  Even i n t h e J i n p e r i o d ,  a sparsely populated v i l l a g e .  i t was s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y  The b u i l d i n g o f a g l a z e d  tile  f a c t o r y i n Yuan t i m e m a r k e d t h e f i r s t p h a s e i n i t s l a n d s c a p e transformation.  The f a c t o r y was f u r t h e r e x p a n d e d d u r i n g t h e  Y o n g l e p e r i o d when l a r g e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c e s a n d the  c i t y was  undertaken.  W i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f book p u b l i s h i n g i n L i a o later as  i n t h e J i n a n d Yuan p e r i o d ,  B e i j i n g replaced  and Pingshui  t h e m a j o r book m a r k e t i n n o r t h e r n C h i n a i n t h e M i n g p e r i o d .  The b o o k s t a l l s i n M i n g B e i j i n g w e r e m a i n l y l o c a t e d i n f r o n t o f Darning G a t e , t h e B o a r d o f R i t e s , and t h e Temple o f t h e C i t y God. hall  during  during  There were a l s o b o o k s t a l l s n e a r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n p e r i o d and i n t h e L a n t e r n Market  the Lantern F e s t i v a l .  In the e a r l y Qing p e r i o d ,  Chinese  w e r e moved t o t h e O u t e r C i t y , a n d o n l y Manchu bannermen w e r e allowed  to reside i n the Inner C i t y of B e i j i n g .  The book  m a r k e t i n t h e e a r l y Q i n g p e r i o d was t h e r e f o r e moved t o C i r e n Monastery i n the Outer C i t y . -  Many famous s c h o l a r s  165  -  and  officials till  had  visited  a major earthquake caused e x t e n s i v e  The  book m a r k e t was  In  1769/  in  Liulichang",  as  the  total two no  t h i s book m a r k e t f r e q u e n t l y  confirmed  l_i.  thirty The  The  "A  L i u l i c h a n g had  the  capital.  compilation  of  the  encouraged the  transformation  of  Siku  at  years  One  of  to  population  Outer C i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the  Liulichang.  the This  a political  C h i n e s e and  the  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t was  large  upsurge o f  decision  to  removal of  A n o t h e r f a c t o r was  the  the  the  a l l Chinese  b u i l d i n g of  of  L i u l i c h a n g was  scholars  and  officials  nearby houses o r huiguan.  A  h u i g u a n were b u i l t  i n the  c a n d i d a t e s and  officials  the  was  who  Outer  City.  either resided  a l s o b e c a u s e L i u l i c h a n g was  so  connected to other parts  of  the  city  -  166  -  as  the  large in  the  examination  merchants.  the  rise  these  f o r the  c e n t r a l l y located that  houses The  having  s u b s t a n t i a l number o f  as w e l l  the  the  crowded.  e a r l y Qing p e r i o d  in  accentuated  Manchus and  g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d by  factors  around  a l a r g e number o f  L i u l i c h a n g w h i c h made i t c o n s p i c u o u s l y  numbers o f  major  area  in  books,  upsurge  to the  in  further  later  Liulichang.  the  population  segregate  only  from a r u r a l v i l l a g e  which c o n t r i b u t e d of  a  t h i s s t r e e t of  development o f  e n t a i l s a d e t a i l e d study.  developed  L i ' s essay,  Quanshu f o u r  Liulichang  area.  Bookstores  t i m e s t o become a n a t i o n a l l y famous m a r k e t o f  certainly  by  the  already  In  1679  Liulichang.  Record of  b o o k s t o r e s were l o c a t e d  doubt f u r t h e r  Liao  that  m a j o r book m a r k e t o f of  damage t o t h e  l a t e r moved t o X i h e y a n and  L i Wenzao, i n h i s e s s a y ,  before  and  It  was  well  Annual F a i r  was  h e l d there and t h i s no doubt promoted the p o p u l a r i t y o f L i u l i chang.  I t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e , as some h i s t o r i a n s suggested,  t h a t the p r o s p e r i t y of L i u l i c h a n g was due to the great demand of books d u r i n g  the c o m p i l a t i o n  of the S i k u Quanshu.  But i t  i s a l s o e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t the development o f t h i s book market was a l s o due to i t s convenient l o c a t i o n t o the r e s i d e n c e s these compilers  and the Imperial  - 167 -  of  Academy where they worked .  Footnotes See E l i z a b e t h E i s e n t e i n , The P r i n t i n g P r e s s as an A g e n t o f Change: C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and C u l t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n E a r l y Modern Europe, 2 v o l s . (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979). 2 L u c i e n F e b v i e a n d H e n r i - J e a n M a r t i n , The Coming o f t h e B o o k : The I m p a c t o f P r i n t i n g , 1 4 5 0 - 1 8 0 0 , t r a n s . D a v i d G e r a r d ( L o n d o n : NLB, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 262. 3 J a c q u e s G e r n e t , D a i l y L i f e i n C h i n a on t h e Eve o f t h e M o n g o l I n v a s i o n : 1 2 5 0 - 1 2 7 6 , t r a n s . H. M. W r i g h t ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 228. 4 G. W i l l i a m S k i n n e r e d . , The C i t y i n L a t e I m p e r i a l C h i n a ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 3 5 1 . 5  G.  W i l l i a m S k i n n e r , 1977,  p.  249.  G i l b e r t Rozman, U r b a n N e t w o r k s i n C h ' i n g C h i n a and Tokugawa J a p a n ( p r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 129. 7 Chang C h u n g - l i , The C h i n e s e G e n t r y : S t u d i e s on T h e i r Role i n Nineteenth Century Chinese Society,(1955; r p t . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 175. o  Chang C h u n g - l i , p. 19 8.  g F a n Y e , Houhan s h u , 6 v o l s . S h u j u , 1 9 6 5 ) , 3, p. 1629.  (Shanghai:  L i u G u o j u n , Zhongguo s h u s h i j i a n p i a n Gaodeng J i a o y u C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 44. 1 0  Zhonghua (Beijing:  "'""'"Liu G u o j u n , Zhongguo g u d a i s h u j i s h i h u a Zhonghua S h u j u , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 80.  (Beijing:  12 Thomas F r a n c i s C a r t e r , The I n v e n t i o n o f P r i n t i n g ' m C h i n a and I t s S p r e a d W e s t w a r d , 2nd e d . , r e v . L C a r r i n g t o n G o o d r i c h (New Y o r k : The R o n a n l d P r e s s Company, 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 4 1 ; L i u G u o j u n , 1958, p.56. 13 Nagasawa K i k u y a , Z u k a i Wa-kan I n s a t s u S h i , 2 v o l s . ( T o k y o : 1 9 7 6 ) , I I , 4; Thomas C a r t e r , p . 4 1 . 14 L. G i l e s , " D a t e d C h i n e s e M a n u s c r i p t s i n t h e S t e m C o l l e c t i o n , P a r t IV," B u l l e t i n of the School of O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 1030; Nagasawa K i k u y a , I , 5-7. 15 L i u Guojun,  1958,  p.56.  " ^ L i u Guojun,  1962,  p.77 - 168  -  17 18 yingxiang 1 9  Thomas C a r t e r , p . 6 4 , n o t e 1 2 . Zhang X i u m i n , Zhongguo y i n s h u a s h u de f a m i n g j i ' q i ( B e i j i n g : Renmin C h u b a n s h i , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 5 8 - 6 0 .  Z h a n g X i u m i n , 1958, pp.59-60.  20 Wang Y i n r u o e t a l . , C e f u Y u a n g u i (1013; r p t . B e i j i n g : Zhonghua S h u j u , 1 9 6 0 ) , I I , 1 9 3 2 ; Q i n d i n g q u a n t a n g wen ( 1 8 4 1 ; r p t . T a i b e i : Qiwen C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp.8000-8001. 21 Q u o t e d i n Xue J u z h e n g e t a l . , J i u W u d a i s h i ( S h a n g h a i ; Zhonghua S h u j i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 5 8 8 . 22 Thomas C a r t e r , pp.6 0-61. 23 Ye Mengde, S h i l i n y a n y u ( n . p . : Zhonghua T u s h u g u a n , 1 9 0 7 ) , j u a n 8, p p . 3 a - 3 b . 24 Zhu Y i , " Y i j u e l i a o Z a j i , " Z h i b u z u z h a i c o n g s h u , e d . Bao T i n g b o ( S h a n g h a i : Gushu L i u t o n g c h u , 1 9 2 1 ) , I , 6 9 5 . 25 ' '• Wang Y i n g l i u , Kunxue j i w e n ( B e i j i n g : Shangwu Y i n s h u g u a n , 1959), I I , 768. L i u Guojun, 1962, p.79. 27 L i S h u h u a , " T a n g d a i h o u g i de y i n s h u a , " Q i n g h u a x u e b a o , 2, no.2 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 9 . 2  8  Li  S h u h u a , 1 9 6 1 , p.29  29 Zhang X i u m i n , 1 9 5 8 , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 ; Nagasawa K i k u y a , figure  6.  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No. 1 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 28-37.  i  - 202 -  Gugong bowuyuan  yuankan,  A p p e n d i x I B o o k s t o r e s i n Tang P e r i o d , A.D.  618-907  Bookstore  Bookseller  Location  Bianjia  Bian s Family  L o n g c h i F a n g , Chengdu (Sichuan)  Fang Shang's Family  Chengdu  Guo's F a m i l y  Sichuan  Zima Pu  1  - 203 -  (Sichuan)  Appendix I I Bookstores  i n Song P e r i o d , A.D.  960-1279  Bookstore  Bookseller  Location  Chen Balang Shupu  Chen Balang  Jianning  Chen J i e y u a n S h u j i p u  Chen Xuyun  Muqin Fang of Pengbei Dajie i n Linan Fu (Zhejiang)  Chen's Family  Yongkang Qingwei, Wuzhou (Zhejiang)  (Fujian)  Chenzhai  Shujipu  Chen's Family  Hangzhou  Chenzhai  Shujipu  Chen's Family  Hongqiaozi R i v e r , Hangzhou (Zhejiang)  Chenzhai S h u j i p u (Yunju Lou)  Chen Q i  Muqin Fang of Pengbei D a j i e i n Linan Fu (Zhejiang)  Chonghua Shufang  Chen Balang  Jianyang  Chongzhi Zhai  J i a n g ' s Family  Suxi  Chuanqin Shutang  Ge  Chuanqin Tang  S h i ' s Family  Yachuan  Cuishi  Cui  Sichuan  Shushi  Dayin Fang  (Zhejiang)  (Fujian)  (Zhejiang)  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  D i a o j i a n g Ye Chang  Ye Chang  Nan Jianzhou  Fuxue Tang  Hua  Fuj i a n  Guangdu P e i z h a i  P e i ' s Family  Sichuan  Gui Tang  Wang Moufu  J i a n a n (Fujian)  Gui Tang  Wu's  Qingkao  Guozhi  Guo's Family  Cheqiaonan D a j i e i n s i d e Qiantang Gate, Hangzhou (Zhejiang)  Huang  Jianning  Pu  Huang San Ba Lang Shupu  Family  - 204 -  (Fujian)  (Zhejiang)  (Fujian)  J i a Guanren J i n g s h u Pu  J i a Guanren s Family 1  J i a n a n Tang Jigu  Tang  Jinxiu  Tang  Kaijin  Zhima Pu  Masha ( F u j i a n ) Dong  Raozhou  Jin  Linan  Fei  Guangdu  L i u Shugang's Family  Jianan  Jingshe  Mingjing  Tang  Mo Tang  (Jiangxi)  (Zhejiang) (Sichuan) (Fujian)  Zhong's F a m i l y  M a o e r q i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang)  Lu's  T a i m i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang)  Family  Masha S h u f a n g Meixi  E a s t S i d e o f Zhonganq i a o N a n j i e , Hangzhou (Zhejiang)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Wang's F a m i l y Yu Cai  Jianan Qiandao  (Fujian)  Quyuan  M o p e i Xuan Poji  Tang  Fengyang  (Shanxi)  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Q i n d e Tang  Liu  Q i n y o u Tang  Yu's F a m i l y (Yu Z h i a n )  Jianan  (Fu j i an)  Qunyu Tang  Jiang  Jianan  (Fujian)  Rong L i u l a n g J i n g s h i Shujipu  Rong L i u l a n g  E a s t o f Zhongwa Nanj i e , Hangzhou (Zhejiang)  S a n q u i Tang  Liu Rixing  Jianan  S h i h a n Tang  Wang's F a m i l y  Fuj i a n  Shirong  Zhongde  S h u a n g g u i Tang  Jinhua  Shuyin  Sichuan  Zhai - 205 -  (Zhejiang)  (Zhejiang)  Shuyin  Zhai  Wang N i a n Jia  San Lang  Xianyang  (Shaanxi)  Tang's  Family  Wuzhou  Wang's  Family  Zhej i a n g  Wang's  Family  H u c a n g i n Dongyang X i a n , South o f  (Zhejiang)  Yiwu X i a n Wanjuan  Tang  Wanjuan  Tang  Sichuan Yu R e n z h o n g Wei Z h o n g j u  Wuben S h u f a n g  Yu P i n g z h a i  Xinyu  Wu  Wushi  Xiuyan  Shutang  Yijing  Tang  Y i n j i a S h u j i Pu  (Zhejiang)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Linjiang  (Jiangxi)  Cai Qichong's Father  Jianning  (Fujian)  Yin's  T a i m i a o , Hangzhou (Zhej iang)  Family  Yu  Chongchuan  Yu G o n g l i ' s Family  Jianan  (Fujian)  Yu T a n g q i n g ' s Family  Jianan  (Fujian)  Yueya Shutang  Zhan G u a n g z u  Wuyi  Zhang G u a n r e n Zhus h i z h i W e n j i Pu  Zhang G u a n r e n  Baoyou F a n g , Hangzhou (Zhejiang)  Zhangjia  Zhang's  Zhongwazhi S t r e e t , Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g )  Shupu  Zhendui  Zhai  Zhongde  Tang  Zongwen Tang  Family  (Fujian)  Jianan Ruan Zhongyou  Minshan  Zhen's  Jianan  Family  - 206 -  (Fujian)  (Fujian)• (Fujian) (Fujian)  Appendix I I I Bookstores  i n J i n P e r i o d , A.D.  1115-1234  Bookstore  Bookseller  Location  H u i m i n g Xuan  Zhang C u n h u i  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Ji  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Jiang Y i  Pingyang  (Shanxi)  Li  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Liang's Family  Pingyang  (Shanxi)  Liang's Family  ' Yaodu  L i u Minzhong  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Chen  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Songzhou  (Henan)  Xu  Pingyang  (Shanxi)  Zhang Q i a n  Pingshui  (Shanxi)  Zhao Yan  Jieshi  Wang's F a m i l y  Pingshui  Shuxuan C h e n s h i Sun X i a S h i S h u j i  Zhonghe Xuan  Pu  Ziwen  Sun X i a ' s  Family  - 207 -  (Hebei) (Shanxi)  Appendix IV B o o k s t o r e s  i n Y u a n P e r i o d , A.D.  1279-1368  Bookstore  Bookseller  Location  Chenshi  Chen  Feixian, Jianan (Fuj i a n )  Cuiyan  Shutang Jingshe  Dexin  Shutang  Dexing  Tang  Guangqin Gulin  Tang  Shutang  Liu  Junzuo  Dongyang  Wu  Fusha Biwan  Ye R i z e n g & Ye J i n g k u i  Jianyang  Hu  Luling  H u i m i n g Xuan Huiwen Huoji  Tang  Zhang  Cuihui  Jide  Shutang  Shutang  Jiqing  Tang  Jujing  Shutang  Family  Jianan  Meiyin  Shutang  Minde  (Shanxi)  (Fujian)  Taoxi He  Liu  Hengfu  Liu  Kechang  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Pingyang  (Shanxi)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Liu  Sanqu S h i l i n  liu  Jianyang  Shutang  Nanfu Shutang  (Hebei)  Li  L i a n g *s F a m i l y  Shusi  (Shanxi)  Yunqu ( F u j i a n )  Pingyang  Ji*s  Li  Liushi  (Jiangxi)  Yanshan Dou  (Guangdong)  (Fujian)  Pingyang  Tang  Jianan  (Zhejiang)  Ye H u i - 208  -  (Zhejiang)  (Fujian)  Nanjian Qinde  Shutang  Shutang  Qingjiang  Shutang  Liu Yu's  Yu  Rixin  Tang  Gao  Rixin  Shutang  Liu  Shutang  Shuxuan C h e n s h i Taiyu  Family  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Yang  Q i n y o u Tang  Shuanggui  Masha  Zhian  Jinwen  Yu's  Family  Chen  Pingshui  Shutang  Tongwen Tang Wang L i a n g  (Shanxi)  Luling  (Jiangxi)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Jintai  Wanjuan  Tang  Jianan  Wanjuan  Tang  Masha  Wanjuan  Tang  (Fujian) (Fujian)  Dong  Wanyu Tang Wuben S h u t a n g  Yu  Pingzhai  Jianan  (Fujian)  Wuxi Shuyuan  Luling  (Jiangxi)  Xingxian  Luling  (Jiangxi)  Xinqing Xiuyan  Shuyuan Shutang  Feixian Jianan (Fuj i a n )  Shutang Ye Dun  Yishan  Sanqu S h i l i n  (Zhejiang)  Shutang  Yuansha Shuyuan Yugeng Tang Yunzhuang  Jianyang Zhu  Jianan  Shutang  - 209 -  (Fujian) (Fujian)  Y u q i n g Tang Zhang C u i h u i Zhangjia  Chen Tang  Shupu  Jianan  Zhang  Cuihui  Zhang's  Family  (Fujian)  Pingyang  (Shanxi)  Zhongwazhi S t r e e t , Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g )  Zhonghe Xuan  Wang's  Family  Pingshui  Zhoujia  Zhou's  Family  Wendefang  Shusi  Zongwen Tang  Zheng  Tianze  Zhuping Shuyuan  Jianan Liuling  -  210  -  (Shanxi)  (Fujian) (Jiangxi)  A p p e n d i x V B o o k s t o r e s ; i n M i n g P e r i o d / A.D.  1368-1644  Bookstore  Bookseller  Location  A n z h e n g Tang  L i u Zongqi, L i u Chaoguan & L i u Shuangsong  Jianyang  Baohan Lou  Suzhou  B a o s h a n Tang  Ye  B a o s h a n Tang  Zheng  (Fujian)  (Jiangsu)  Zhej i a n g Yizhen  Ruiwo  (Fujian)  Biwu Shanfang  Nanjing  Bowen Tang  Jianan  (Jiangsu) (Fujian)  Buyue L o u Cangquan  Tang  Yu X i u f e n g  Jianyang  (Fujian)  C a n g z h u Guan  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Changchun  Nanjing  Tang  C h a n g y u a n Tang L i Pu  Li  Shihong  Chen  Xian  Cheshu Lou Chihuo  Zhai  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Nanjing Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  C h i l u Shanfang  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Cuijin  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Yu S i y u a n and Yu Zhangde  Jinyang  (Fujian)  Liu  Jianyang  Cuiqing Cuiyan Cuiying  Chen  (Jiangsu)  Tang Tang Jingshe Tang  C u n r e n Tang  Qunzuo  Zheng  Jianan  (Fujian)  (Fujian)  Chen H u a i x u a n Dai  Nanjing -  211  -  (Jiangsu)  D a s h e n g Tang  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Daye Tang  Zhou X i d a n  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Dayou  Zhou J i n q u a n  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Zang J i n s h u  Donghai  Li  Beijing  (Hebei)  Chunming  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Fu Menglong  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Tang D u i x i o r Tang F u c h u n  Sanshan S t r e e t , Nanjing (Jiangsu)  Tang  D i a o c h o n g Guan Dushu F a n g E r y o u Tang  Fu  Fuchun Lou o r D u i x i Shufang o r Fuchun Tang Fuwen Tang  Suzhou:.  Fuwen Tang  Guangdong  G u a n g q i n Tang Guangyu  (Jiangsu)  Gong  Shulin  (Fujian)  Gong S h a o s h a n  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Ye R i z e n g and Ye J i n g k u i  Jianan  (Fujian)  Tang  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Guanhua Tang Guiren  Zhai  Liu  Guiren  Zhai  Yang Guo  Guozhai  Hangzhou  Zhipu  Zhiqian  Xun  Jianyang  Wuding  Guo's F a m i l y  Shusi  X i n g c h e q i a o Nan D a j Qiantang Gate, Hangzhou ( Z h e j i a n g ) Hangzhou  Hu  Xian  Nanjing  Huang C a n y u  Shulin  -  (Fujian)  212  (Zhejiang) (Jiangsu)  (Fujian)  Huang L i a n z h a i  Shulin  (Fujian)  Huang Zhengda  Shulin  (Fujian)  Huang Z h e n g f u  Jianyang  Huang Z h e n g x u a n  Shulin  Yang Chunrong  Jianyang  Huang Y i b i n Huang Y i k a i Huang Y i n g g u a n g Huang Y i n g r u i  Huanwen Tang Huijin  Tang  Jiabin  Tang  Jiahui  Tang  Jide  Tang  Jing  Tang  Jingshan  Zhou  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Chen  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Shulin  (Fujian)  Shulin  Jishan  Tang  Jiuru  Zisheng  Wang S i y u a n  Shupu  (Fujian) (Jiangsu)  Tang  Jintai  (Fujian)  Nanjing  Jiang Jianshan  (Fujian)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang Nanjing  (Fujian) (Jiangsu)  Zhangyang G a t e , B e i j i n g (Hebei) Chen Guowang a n d Chen Q i c h u a n  Tang  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jixian  Tang  Tang  Jinchi  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jixian  Tang  Tang  Liyue  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jiyou  Zhai  Jizhi  Zhai  Jujin  Tang  Shulin Chen D a l a i  Nanjing Yunlin  -  213  -  (Fujian) (Jiangsu)  J u k u i Lou  Li  Kuibi  Zheng  Zhai  Laibin  Lou  Chao  Jiang's Lei  Liangheng  Nanjing ' (Jiangsu) Nanjing Family  Ming  Tang  (Jiangsu)  Jubao Gate, (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  L i g u a n g Tang  L i u Rongwu  Fusha  L i n f e i Tang S a n h e n g Guan  Zheng S h a o y u a n  Jianyang  (Fujian)  L i u Dahua  Jianyang  (Fujian)  L i u Hui  Jianning  (Fujian)  Liu  Kuan  Shulin  (Fujian)  Liu  Liantai  Shulin  (Fujian)  L i u Qiumao  Shulin  (Fujian)  Liu  Jianyang  Linrui  (Fujian)  Tang  Lizheng  Tang  Taihua  Zheng  Shulin  (Fujian)  Nanjing Mei  Mao  Yuan  Min Z h a i o r Yangmin Zhai Nanjian  Shaoji  (Fujian)  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Yang Q i y u a n  Shutang  Masha  (Fujian)  N i n g s h o u Tang  Xu S h o u m i n g  Puji  Yaoshi  Liu  Qiaoshan Shutang  Liu  Yutian  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Q i a o s h a n Tang  Liu  Longtian  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Q i n g b a i Tang o r Guiren Zhai  Yang  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Qingjiang  Yang  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Shutang  Shulin  -  214  -  (Fujian)  Qingping  Shantang  Q i n y o u Tang Renrui  Hong P i a n Jianan  Yu  Tang  (Fujian)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  R e n s h i Shutang  Wei  Shulin  (Fujian)  Rixin  Liu  Jianan  (Fujian)  Tang  R o n g s h o u Tang  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Rongyu Tang Sandui  Zhai  S a n g u i Tang  Wang Zhenhua  S a n h u a i Tang  Wang K u n y u a n  Sanshan Shufang S a n t a i Guan  Y u a n Su  Jianyang  (Fujian)  S a n t a i Guan  Yu J u n z h a o o r Yu Y i n g z h a o  Jianyang  (Fujian)  S a n t a i Guan  Yu X i a n g d o u  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Saoye S h a n f a n g  Xi  Chang G a t e , Suzhou (Jiangsu)  S h a n g y o u Tang  An S h a o y u n  Shanjing  Jian  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Tang  Shanshul. L i n  Si.hu  S h a o s h a n Tang  Hu S h a o s h a n  Nanjing  Shendu  L i u Hong ( L i u Hongyi)  Jianyang  Zhai  Yuyin (Jiangsu) (Fujian)  Shengde Tang  Hong Q i n g b o  S h i d e Tang  Tang X i u g u  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Shijian  Tang  Xiao  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Shixian  Tang  -  Tenghong  215  -  Shouren  Zhai Shu  Zaiyang  S hu 1 i n  (P u j i an)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  S h u a n g g u i Tang  Yu's F a m i l y  Jianyang  (Fujian)  S h u a n g f e n g Tang  Yu's F a m i l y (Yu X i a n g d o u & Yu W e n t a i )  Jianyang  (Fujian)  T a i h e Tang  Yibai  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Tang Tang G u a n g q i n g Tang  Zhuren Chongyu  Tang Zhenwu a n d  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Tang Guoda Tang  Lifei  Tang L o n g q u a n Tang S h a o q i a o Tang Sheng Tang T a n x i a n g Guan  Tingren  Ye Shun  (Fujian)  Fuj i a n  T i a n d e Tang Tianxu  Shulin  Zhai Tong  Siquan  Shulin  (Fujian)  Tong W e n j u i Wang Daokun Wang  Jidi  Xinan  Wang J u z h i Wang L i a n g Wang L i n Wang S h e n x i u Wanhua Z h a i  - 216 -  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jintai Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Wanjuan Lou.  Zhou  Wen T a i  Yu  W e n l i n * Ge  Tang's F a m i l y (Tang J i n c h i & Tang H u i c h o u )  Rijiao  Shiteng  Wenshu Tang  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Wenye Tang Wu  Guanming  Jianyang  Wu S h a o s h a n  Nanjing  Wuben S h u t a n g  Yu P i n g z h a i  Jianan  Wulin  Jiang  Shushi  Xia X i a o y o u Tang X i n g x i a n Tang  Shupu  Xingwen Shutang Xinxian  (Fujian) (Jiangsu) (Fujian)  Decheng  Zhenyu  Liu  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Tang S h a o c u n  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Yu  Shulin  (Fujian)  Shutang  X i o n g f e i Guan X i o n g y a n g Tang  Xuanlan  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Xu X i a n c h e n g  Shulin  Yang M e i s h e n g  Jianyang  Yang M i n g f e n g  Shulin  (Fujian)  Yang  Shulin  (Fujian)  (Fujian)  Zhai  Suqing  (Fujian)  Y a n q i r i g Tang Ye G u i  Nanjing  Ye G u i  Shulin  (Fujian)  Ye  Shulin  (Fujian)  Jianyuan  -  217  -  (Jiangsu)  Ye J i n g c h i and Ye Kunchi  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Ye Yangshan  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Ye Zhiyuan  Shulin  (Fujian)  Yu Biquan  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Yu Changgeng  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Yu Chengzhang  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Yu Gongtang (or Yu Kuixiu)  Shulin  (Fujian)  Yu Jingyu  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Yu J i y u e  Shulin  (Fuj ian)  Yu Shangxun  Nanj i n g (Jiangsu)  Yu Shaoyu  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Yu T i n g f u  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Yu Xiangnian  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Yu Xianyuan  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Yu Yuanchang  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Y i B a i Tang Youyi  Zhai  Yu Gongren  Yuan Wuya Yulan Caotang Yuming Tang  Ye Kunchi  Suzhou  Zhan Xiumin  Fuj i a n  Zhang Hao and L i u Chengqing  Jianyang  (Jiangsu)  Yuming Tang  Zhao Junyao  Nanjing  - 218 -  (Fujian) (Jiangsu)  Zhao Pu  Guozijian, (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  Zheng S h i h a o  Shulin  (Fujian)  Zheng  Shulin  (Fujian)  Zheng Y i z h e n  Shulin  (Fujian)  Zheng Y u n z h u  Shulin  (Fujian)  Shirong  Z h e n g x i a o Guan Z h i d e Tang  Liu  Zhongde  Hong's F a m i l y (Hong Z o n g l i & Hong Chongyu)  Jianyang  Hong  Shulin  (Fujian)  Shulin  (Fujian)  Tang  Zhorigfang Zhonghe  Shuzhai  Shutang  Z h o n g j i n g Tang Zhongwen Tang  Hong C h e n g y e  Z h o n g x i a n Tang Z h o n g z h e n g Tang  Liu Hong Damu and Hong L o n g f e n g Zhou D u i f e n g Zhou  Kungang  Zhou Y u q u a n Zixin  Tang  Zongwen Tang Zuimian  (Fujian)  Yu L i a n g m u Zheng  Tianze  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Jianan  (Fujian)  Shulin  (Fujian)  Ge  Zuode Tang  Ye  Yilan  -  219  -  Appendix V I .  B o o k s t o r e s i n E a r l y Q i n g , A.D.1644-1850  Bookstores Baijing  Booksellers  Tang  Location Guangdong  Bamao J u Baohua Lou B a o m i n g Tang Baoning  Tang  Baoqing  Ge  Fuj i a n Zhou  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  B a o r e n Tang B a o t i a n Tang Baoyan Z h a i Benli  Tang  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Ben Y a Bogu Tang Bogu Tang  Yuanhu Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  B o y a Tang Buyu X u a n C h a n g q i n g Tang C h a n g s h u S u x i n g Shugu  Chilu  Guangzhou  (Guangdong)  Su  Suzhou ( J i a n g s u )  Chao  Liuan  Shanfang  (Anhui)  Dongwu  Chongde S h u y u a n C h o n g s h a n Tang  Cufang B r i d g e , Suzhou (Jiangsu) - 220 -  Chongwen Tang Cuigu  Zhai  Qian  Cuigu  Zhai  Q i a n Tingmo  C u i w e n Shuwu  Jingkai  Shantang, Suzhou (Jiangsu) Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Cheng W e i y u a n  Dadao Tang Daguan J u  Peng L a n g f e n g & Song X i a o y a n  Fengraen, S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  D a i c a o Tang  Zheng  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Dajing  Xu Wan  Shulin  Tang  D a n g u i Tang  Beijing  Zhongxiang  Guangzhou  (Guangdong)  Dawen Tang Dayou  Shanfang  Ma J u n l i a n g  Dayou Tang D e x i n Tang  He  D e j u i Tang  Shimen Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Meishan  (Sichuan)  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Deyue L o u Diaohuang Xuan Dongguan Ge Dongli  Shanren  Duchu X u a n Dunhua Tang  Nanchang  Duowen  Zhai  Xiamen  Erjing  Tang  E r y o u Tang E r y o u Tang  Weiyang -  221  -  (Fujian)  E r y o u Tang  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  F e n g x i a o Xuan F u g u i Tang  Guangdong  Fuwen Tang  Suzhou  Fuwen Tang  Guangdong  Gai  (Jiangsu)  Xuan  Guanwen Shuwu G u i w e n Tang G u r e n Wu D o n g b a i  Wu D o n g b a i  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Zhai  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Shujipu  Yufeng Kaopeng, Suzhou (Jiangsu)  Gusu Y u a n b e n Guwu Sanduo Hanxuan L o u Hanyun Z h a i H e x i n g Tang Hongmei S h a n f a n g H o n g q i a n g Ge Hongwen Tang  Zheng  Liulichang, (Hebei)  H u a y a n g q i a o Gu T i n g y u  Gu T i n g y u  Huayang B r i d g e , S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  Huanwen Tang  Zhou  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Hu W e i z h o u  Hu W e i z h o u  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (.Jiangsu)  Beijing  Hongye S h a n f a n g  Shusi  H u a n c u i Tang H u a n x i u Ge  - 222 -  Beijing  H u i c h e n g Tang Huijing  Tang^  H u i w e n Tang  Foshan  (Guangdong)  Huiyun Lou  Foshan  (Guangdong)  Jiangu  Tang  Jiezhi  Yuan  Jiezhi  Yuan  Jigu  Wei  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Guangdong L i Liweng  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  Li  Liulichang,  Tang  Jinglun  Tang  Jingshu  Tang  J i n g x i a o Tang  Beijing  (Hebei) Jingye  Tang  Jingyi  Zhai  Guangdong Hu L i q u n  Xumen, S u z h o u  (Jiangsu)  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  J i n q i Shuye Tang Jinyu  Tang  Jixiu  Tang  Jujing  Tang  Guangzhou  (Guangdong)  Junhuang Xuan Juwen Tang  Wang Z i x i n g  Suzhou  J u x l n Tang  Zhen  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  J u x i u Tang  Zhen  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Juying  Tang  Wuchang  J u Zhen Tang - 223 -  (Jiangsu)  (Hubei)  Kaowen Tang  Guangdong  L a n g h u a n g Shuwu Laohuixian Leike  Tang  Shantang  Guangdong Zhu Li  Tingmei Xianming  Anhui  L i a n g h e n g Tang L i a n m o Tang Liguang Tang  Lou, Nanhuai  Wujun  Liujing  Tang  Chang G a t e , S u z h o u (Jiangsu) Liu Tingbei  Chaoyi  L i u Wenkui and L i u Wenkai  Nanjing  (Jiangsu)  (Shaanxi) (Jiangsu)  L i z h a o Lou Louwai Lou  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Luyu Shanfang L u y i n Tang  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Luyun Xuan Mai  Dapeng  Guangzhou  M a i g u d o n g Ren Shen H o n g s h a o  Shen Hongshao  Suzhou  M i n g s h e n g Tang  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  (Guangdong)  (Jiangsu) Beijing  Maoxuan L o u Minqiu  Tang  Fudong, Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Mingshan J u Mogu Tang  Zhou  W a n g f u j i , Suzhou (J iangsu) - 224 -  M o l i n Tang Pangxi  Yuan  X u a n m i a o Guan, Suzhou ( J i a n g s u ) Shujipu  P i n g h u G u r e n Wang Zhenglin Qiantang  Huang P e i l i e  X u a n m i a o Guan, S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  Wang Z h e n g l i n  Suzhou  Jinya  Q i n g k e Tang  Shi  Zhaoji  (Jiangsu)  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Jianyang  (Fujian)  Qinghe Xuan Qingyun Lou Qiuwu Buhuo  Zhai  Q i y o u Tang R e n s h o u Tang Rongjin  Tang  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Zhou  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Zhou  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Rongzhu Shanfang R u i j i n Tang R u i w e n Tang R u i y u n Tang San Tang  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Sande Tang Sanduo Tang Sanhe Tang S a n y u Tang S a n y u a n Tang Saoye Shanfang  Hangzhou Xi Jian  - 225 -  (Zhejiang)  Chang G a t e , S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  Saoye Shanfang  Xi  Jian  Caiye S t r e e t , Shanghai (Jiangsu)  Shancheng  Tang  Hangzhou  Shancheng  Tang  Suzhou  Shangzhi  Tang  (Zhejiang)  (Jiangsu).  Quanzhou  (Fujian)  S h a n y i n Lou Shengde  Tang  Shengjing Shengyao Shenxiu  Foshan  Tang  Li  Tang  (Guangdong)  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Tang Shi  Jinzhang  Shide  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  X u a n m i a o Guan, S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  S h u a n g g u i Tang S h u c h u a n y o u Cao J i n rong  Cao  Shuchuanyou Baoyong  Shao  Shao  Jinrong Baoyong  S h u c h u a n y o u Wu Buyun  Wu  Shuchuanyou  Zheng  Zheng F u y i  Buyun Fuyi  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Shudai Caotang Shuye  Tang  Changmen, S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  Shuyou Hu Y i q i a n  Hu Y i q i a n  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Shuyou L u B a n g w i  Lu  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Shuyou Shao  Zhonglin  Shao  Zhongli  Suzhou  (.J i a ng su).  Shuyou Shen  Peiyun  Shen  Peiyun  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Bangwei  - 226  -  S h u y o u Wu  Dongting  Wu D o n g t i n g  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  S h u y o u Wu  Lifang  Wu L i f a n g  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Yu  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  S h u y o u Yu S h u y o u Zheng  Yijia  Zheng Y i j i a  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  S h u y o u Zheng  Yungzhi  Zheng Y u n g z h i  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Simei  Tang  Sishuo Caotang Songde Xuan Songxiu Suide  Tang  Tang  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Tao S h i x i u  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Foshan  (Guangdong)  Tang  S u w e i Tang  Tenghua X i e Tianbao Lou T i a n h u a Zang Tongbaoyin  Zhai  Huiqi  Tongde Tang T o n g s h e n g Ge Tongshi  Nanjing Li  (Jiangsu)  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Shanfang  Tongwen Tang Tuisi  (Zhejiang)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Tang  Waner Tang Wangfuji  Shutan  Gao  Wang Wangru Wang Y a  Nanjing - 227 -  (Jiangsu)  Wanyuan L o u  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  W e i c a o Tang Weijing  Tang  W e n c u i Tang W e n c u i Tang  Jin  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Wendao Tang Wende Tang  Xiamen  Wenhan L o u  Hangzhou  Wenhua Tang  (Fujian) (Zhejiang)  Xu  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Wenhui Tang  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  W e n j i n Tang  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Fu  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Beijing  Wenhui Tang  W e n l i Tang Wenmao Tang W e n r u i Tang  N i e s h u , Suzhou (Jiangsu)  Wensheng Tang  Yangzhou  W e n x i u Tang  Chang G a t e , S u z h o u (Jiangsu)  Wenya  Tang  Wenyu Tang Wenyuan Tang Wuben Tang Guangdong  Wugui Tang - 228 -  (Jiangsu)  Wuliu  Ju  Tao  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Wuliu  Ju  Tao Yanxue and Tao Y u n f e i  Chenghuang Temple, Suzhou (Jiangsu)  Pu  Suzhou  Wuxi Puxing  Shugu  Beijing  (Jiangsu)  Wuyun L o u Xiangxian  Ting  Hangzhou  (Zhejiang)  Xianwo Caotang Xianyue  Lou  Xiaohua  Xuan  Xiaoshan L i Kexi Xiaoxiao  Li  Li  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Kexi  Beijing  Jiangsu  Ju  Xiuyou Shanfang Xueshan Xueyu  Xuanmiao Guan, (J iangsu)  Tang  Juncheng, (Jiangsu)  Tang Xu  Yanqing Yangyu  Yi  Tang  (Jiangsu)  Liu  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Ye J i n g x i a n d Ye Y i n g c h i  Suzhou  Li  Shanxi  Chunfang  Yangzhou  Tang  Yijing  Tang  Yingde  Tang  Yinghua  Nanjing  Suzhou  Beijing  Jingshe  Zhai  Yigu  Peike  Suzhou  Tang  (Jiangsu)  (Jiangsu)  Liulichang, (Hebei)  Xu  - 229 -  Beijing  Yingxiu  Tang  Yisheng  Zhai  Yixiang  Tang  Yixiao  Baixia  (Jiangsu)  Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Xuan  Y o n g a n Tang Y o n g q i n g Tang  Yu  Y o u s h a n Tang Yuchun  Jushi  Yulan> Tang Yunfen Lou  Tongjing Bridge, J i n chang Gate, Suzhou (Jiangsu)  Yungu Tang Yushang Lou  Shusi  Wu  Hangzhou  Shanwan  Y u z h a o Tang Zaidao  Nieshu,  (Zhejiang) Suzhou  (Jiangsu)  Tang  Z e n g m e i Tang Z h e n s o n g Tang Z h e n x i a n Tang  Guangdong  Z h i c h e n g Tang Z h i g u i Lou Zhihe  Tang  Zhuli  Ge  Qingjiangpu(Jiangsu)  Z h o n g s h e n g Tang Z h o n g s h u Tang Zhongyou Tang  N i e y u a n , Suzhou (Jiangsu)  -  230  -  Zhu X u a n Z h u c h u n Tang  Xu  Z i h o u Tang Ziyang Ziyi  Ge  Zhu X i u c h e n g  Suzhou  Zeng  Liulichang, (Hebei);  (Jiangsu)  Xuan  Z o n g s h e n g Tang Zuile Zuiliu  Tang  Yuanhu  Tang Shanghai  Z u i w e n Tang Z u i y u e Xuan Zuoyin  Beijing  Zhai  -  231  -  (Jiangsu)  Appendix V I I I .  A Chronological History of  Beijing  Dynasty  Period  Name and S t a t u s o f  Zhou  1030-221  Qin  221-207  Han  202- B.C.-A.D, 220  Y a n j i n g , c a p i t a l o f Yan; then Y o u z h o u , c a p i t a l o f an i n d e pendent kingdom  Jin  265-420  Youzhou, g e n e r a l l y under the c o n t r o l o f t h e Hu t r i b e s  B.C. B.C.  Northern & 479-581 Southern Dynasties  Beijing  J i , c a p i t a l o f Y a n , 723 221 B.C. Ji,  B.C.-  d e s t r o y e d by Q i n  Uncertain  Sui  581-618  Zhuozhun, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e of a d i s t r i c t  centre  Tang  618-906  Youzhou, r e s i d e n c e o f m i l i t a r y governors  Liao  937-1125  Nanjing  (southern capital)  Jin  1153-1215  Zhongdu  (central  Yuan  1215-1264 1264-1267 1267-1368  Yanj i n g Zhongdu, c a p i t a l o f Y u a n i n p l a n D a i d u , c a p i t a l o f Yuan  Ming  1368-1403 1403-1420 1420-1644  B e i p i n g , g a r r i s o n town B e i j i n g , second c a p i t a l o f Ming B e i j i n g , c a p i t a l o f Ming  Qing  1644-19 11  Beijing,  capital)  c a p i t a l of Qing  S o u r c e : A d a p t e d f r o m N i g e l Cameron and B r i a n B r a k e , P e k i n g : A T a l e o f T h r e e C i t i e s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 6 5 ) , P. 5 5 ; Hou R e n z h i , L i s h i d i l i x u e de l i l u n y u s h i j i a n ( S h a n g h a i : S h a n g h a i Renmin C h u b a n s h e , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 1 5 9 204. - 232 -  Appendix V I I .  C h r o n o l o g i c a l Table of Chinese Dynasties  Dynasty  Period  Shang Kingdom  ca.  1550 - 1030  Zhou D y n a s t y  ca.  1030 - 256  Qin  Dynasty  221  -.207.B.C.  Han  Dynasty  202- B.C.  Three  Kingdoms  - A.D.  265 - 581  Sui  581-  Tang  Dynasty  618 - 906 907 - 960  Liao  937 - 1125  Xixia  State  990  -..1227  N o r t h e r n Song D y n a s t y  960 - 1126  S o u t h e r n Song D y n a s t y  1127 - 1279  Jin  1115 - 1234  Yuan  Dynasty Dynasty  1260 - 1368  Ming Dynasty  1368 -  Qing  1644 - 1911  Dynasty  220  618  Five Dynasties Dynasty  B.C.  221 - 265  S o u t h e r n and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s Dynasty  B.C.  1644  S o u r c e : M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , The A r t s o f C h i n a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 10.  Appendix IX. G l o s s a r y  d i n g - - u n i t of t a x a t i o n f a n g — w a r d or d i v i s i o n juan--chapter or volume j i n s h i — m e t r o p o l i t a n graduate juren—provincial 1 li=0.5  graduate  (highest degree  (second-degree  holder)  holder)  km  1 l i a n g = l . 3 3 oz. 1 mu=36 3.6  2 m  1 q i a n = l cash, b a s i c u n i t of money s h e n g y u a n — p r e f e c t u r a l graduate  - 234  ( f i r s t degree  -  holdree)  

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