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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Chinese business in Vancouver, 1886-1914 Yee, Paul 1983

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CHINESE BUSINESS IN VANCOUVER 1886 - 1914 By PAUL RICHARD YEE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1983 ( © P a u l R i c h a r d Yee, 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 E-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y i n V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a between 1886 and 1914 as one avenue o f i m m i g r a n t a d j u s t m e n t . Government documents and r e p o r t s , as w e l l as b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s from l o c a l C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t o p e r a t i o n s , were c o n s u l t e d . C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s t o Canada b r o u g h t w i t h them b u s i n e s s s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s t h a t were r e a d i l y a p p l i e d t o economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r i s i n g i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f C h i n a t o w n . The C h i n e s e c o n d u c t e d a wide v a r i e t y o f b u s i n e s s e s , r e v e a l i n g t h a t t h e h o s t s o c i e t y was most r e c e p t i v e t o t h e C h i n e s e . p r e s e n c e . i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l s p h e r e . The v i a b i l i t y o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s r e a s s u r e d i m m i g r a n t s t h a t t h e i r a m b i t i o n s to e a r n money o v e r s e a s were a c h i e v a b l e d e s p i t e persi.s.tent a n t i - A s i a n h o s t i l i t y i n the g e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . O l d and new w o r l d e l e m e n t s t h u s a i d e d t h e s u r v i v a l and i n t e g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k my g r a d u a t e s u p e r v i s o r W. P e t e r Ward f o r h i s c o u n s e l , e ncouragement, and e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s . t h e s i s . G r a t e f u l t h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o Ian Lee and t h e s t a f f o f t h e S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n o f t h e Main L i b r a r y , U.B.C. f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o t h e Lee Yuen Company p a p e r s , t o Sue B a p t i e o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s - , and t o W i n n i e L o u i s f o r g r a c i o u s l y t r a n s l a t i n g and c l a r i f y i n g d i f f i c u l t p a s s a g e s o f c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e . 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t 1 1 Acknowledgements i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f A p p e n d i c e s v C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION 1 Why C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y ? I I THE CHINESE BACKGROUND TO EMIGRATION 10 P e a s a n t s and Commerce Reasons f o r E m i g r a t i o n C o n f u c i a n i s m and L i n e a g e I I I BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHINATOWN. . . . 27 The V a n c o u v e r S e t t i n g C o n t r a c t o r s , Laundrymen, and M e r c h a n t T a i l o r s A P y r a m i d o f B u s i n e s s e s R e a l E s t a t e and C i t y H a l l IV BUSINESS PRACTICES FROM TWO WORLDS 65 R o t a t i n g C r e d i t P ar t n e r sli i p s M o r t g a g e s V THE SAM KEE COMPANY 9 2 Imports and E x p o r t s L a b o u r C o n t r a c t i n g F u e l and T i c k e t S a l e s VI CONCLUSION . . . 123 BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 APPENDICES 133 L I S T OF APPENDICES I C h i n e s e L a u n d r i e s i n V a n c o u v e r : L i c e n s e A d d i t i o n s and Renewals ,., 1906 - 1912 . 133 I I M e r c h a n t T a i l o r s i n V a n c o u v e r C h i n a t o w n : A n n u a l R e c e i p t s & Employees, 1907 134 I I I N i n e t y One Chinatown F i r m s , V a n c o u v e r : G r o s s R e c e i p t s , 1907 135 IV C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , and V i c t o r i a , 1884 - 1911 . 136 V B u s i n e s s Types and Numbers, C h i n a t o w n , V a n c o u v e r , 1901, 1911 137 VI P u r c h a s e s and M o r t g a g e s By C h i n e s e Owners, 1892 -1914 138 V I I Sam Kee Company: Payments and P u r c h a s e s from Sun Tong Chong Company 141 V I I I Sam Kee Company: S a l t H e r r i n g E x p o r t s t o C h i n a 1904 - 1915 142 IX Sam Kee Company: S a w m i l l C o n t r a c t L a b o u r A c c o u n t s , 1906 143 / 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION WHY CHINESE-CANADIAN BUSINESS HISTORY? T h i s s t u d y o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y amongst V a n c o u v e r ' s e a r l y C h i n e s e s e t t l e r s e x p l o r e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o f one n e w l y - a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t g r o u p . At t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e C h i n e s e a r r i v e d i n a c o u n t r y b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o t h e i r p r e s e n c e . Y e t , d e s p i t e a f a r - r e a c h i n g , r e s t r i c t i v e , and demeaning r a c i s m aimed a g a i n s t them, t h e C h i n e s e s t a y e d , s e t t l e d , and e n c o u r a g e d t h e i r kinsmen t o j o i n them. How d i d t h e y a d j u s t and accommodate t o t h i s h o s t i l e s e t t i n g , and make sens e o f t h e new w o r l d ? I m m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r y t o d a y r e c o g -n i z e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m i g r a n t s ' p r e - m i g r a t i o n c u l t u r e on t h e i r g r a d u a l i n t e g r a t i o n / and s t u d e n t s o f t h e C h i n e s e -C a n a d i a n p a s t have p r e s e n t e d C h i n e s e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s 2 as one i m p o r t a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n w i t h i n t h a t c o n t e x t . A n o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t p r o c e s s l i e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f b u s i n e s s , p r o m i n e n t i n b o t h C h i n e s e and C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y , and c r i t i c a l t o i m m i g r a n t s who u s e d i t as a t o o l o f s u r v i v a l . B u s i n e s s h i s t o r y t h u s d e s c r i b e s one i m p o r t a n t f a c e t i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s , an e l e m e n t w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d r e a l i z a t i o n o f e m i g r a t i o n g o a l s and w h i c h a l s o a f f e c t e d s u b s e -p a t t e r n s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s t o Canada, l i k e newcomers t o N o r t h A m e r i c a from a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , were c h i e f l y m o t i v a t e d by economic a s p i r a t i o n s ; hence b u s i n e s s and f i n a n c i a l e ndea-v o u r s l a y a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e i r newEWorld e x p e r i e n c e . The m i g r a n t s b r o u g h t t r a d i t i o n a l m e r c a n t i l e p r a c t i c e s t o Canada and a d a p t e d them t o l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F o r some m i g r a n t s , b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e d an avenue f o r upward economic m o b i l i t y , a r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r t h e s a c r i f i c e s , t h e a n x i e t i e s , and t h e h u m i l i a t i o n s w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i -e n c e . F o r o t h e r s , s m a l l b u s i n e s s m e r e l y p e r m i t t e d a modest l i v i n g , enough t o j u s t i f y l i f e i n t h e new w o r l d w i t h o u t f u l f i l l i n g i t s p r o m i s e . But w h a t e v e r t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s e n j o y e d by e n t r e p r e n e u r s , b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y was a r e a d y means o f g e t t i n g on i n a f o r e i g n l a n d w h i l e a c h i e v i n g i n some measure t h e g o a l s o f t h e s o j o u r n i n g m i g r a n t . B u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l r e t a i l p r o p r i e -t o r s h i p , has l o n g been an avenue o f s u r v i v a l o r upward 3 m o b i l i t y f o r i m m i g r a n t s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . S t u d i e s on t h e C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have n o t e d t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f A s i a n s i n t h i s f i e l d and have t r i e d t o e x p l a i n i t . Some s c h o l a r s s u g g e s t t h a t r a c i s t r e s t r i c t i o n s on A s i a n s i n t h e g e n e r a l economy f o r c e d them i n t o s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t . A s e c o n d o p i n i o n i s . t h a t t h e s o j o u r n e r m e n t a l i t y , w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e d a s h o r t s t a y a b r o a d and w h i c h embodied q u a l i t i e s s u c h as t h r i f t , a p r o p e n s i t y f o r r i s k , and a d e s i r e f o r q u i c k p r o f i t s , e n c o u r a g e d b u s i n e s s u n d e r t a k i n g s . T h i r d , t h e c u l t u r a l baggage o f t h e m i g r a n t s has sometimes f a c i l i -3 t a t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s . F o r t h e C h i n e s e , k i n s h i p and home d i s t r i c t t i e s and a f a m i l i a r c r e d i t s y s t e m h e l p e d g e n e r a t e c a p i t a l f u n d s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l community. F i n a l l y , s m a l l b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s d i d n o t r e q u i r e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , o r f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h t o s u c c e e d . A l l o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s s u g g e s t v a l i d r e a s o n s f o r t h e s t e a d y d e v e l o p m e n t o f o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s . The i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y , however, i s not t o ask why C h i n e s e e n t e r e d b u s i n e s s b u t t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e e n t e r p r i s e s and t h e i r e f f e c t on i m m i g r a n t i n t e g r a t i o n . How d i d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s f a c i l i t a t e change and m u t u a l accommodation between newcomers and t h e i r . . h o s t s ? The s u b j e c t o f i m m i g r a n t a d j u s t m e n t has n o t been f u l l y e x p l o r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n p a s t . Two m a j o r themes have p r e o c c u p i e d most o f i t s s t u d e n t s : C h i n e s e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and w h i t e r a c i s m . The f o r m e r t o p i c has i d e n t i f i e d two c o n c e p t s i m p o r t a n t to t h e i m m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e m i n o r i t y . F i r s t , t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada was an a d a p t i v e r e s p o n s e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and t o immediate n e e d s . The f i r s t C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s w i t h i n t h e m i g r a n t s o c i e t y and t o oppose d i s c r i m i n a t o r y measures imposed from o u t s i d e t h e community. Home d i s t r i c t and c l a n a s s o c i a t i o n s r e s p o n d e d t o m i g r a n t 9 needs f o r s h e l t e r , j o b s , l o a n s , and c o m p a n i o n s h i p , w h i l e C h i n e s e l a b o u r u n i o n s l a t e r worked a t i m p r o v i n g w o r k i n g 4 c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r members. 1" The r e c e n t d e c l i n e i n t h e number and a c t i v i t i e s o f c l a n and d i s t r i c t a s s o c i a t i o n s t e s t i f i e d t o t h e f a d i n g o f w h i t e h o s t i l i t y 1 ' ' ' and t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e g r a t i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e o f community members. Se c o n d , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e v i e w e d as p a r t o f t h e m i g r a n t s ' c u l t u r a l baggage and as e x p r e s s i o n s o f 1 2 o n g o i n g t i e s t o t h e mother c o u n t r y . O r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h u n i t e d t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g s i m i l a r surnames or h a i l i n g from c e r t a i n c o u n t i e s i n C h i n a c a r r i e d o u t many f u n c t i o n s p r e -13 v i o u s l y u n d e r t a k e n by k i n s h i p and v i l l a g e g r o u p s i n C h i n a . The f l o w e r i n g o f p o l i t i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and t h e a t r i c a l g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t th e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y d e s p i t e t h e s h r i n k i n g o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t o f l o c a l C h i n e s e i n C h i n a ' s e v o l u t i o n as i t e x p e r i e n c e d m o d e r n i z a t i o n schemes, r e v o l u t i o n , c i v i l war, and i n v a s i o n . The s t u d y o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s has h e l p e d s k e t c h a p a r t i a l p o r t r a i t o f l i f e i n o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s c o v e r i n g i n t e r n a l community s t r u c t u r e , s o c i a l and r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s e r v i c e s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . But t h e s t u d y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r a t an o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l l e v e l does n o t r e v e a l how i m m i g r a n t needs were met a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . C l a n and d i s t r i c t a f f i l i a t i o n s t h a t h e l p e d meet h o u s i n g , employment, and s o c i a l needs were e s s e n t i a l l y b a s e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , not t o o l s o f s u r v i v a l . How d i d t h e i m m i g r a n t come t o u n d e r s t a n d th e new w o r l d and i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o h i s own l i f e ? T h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t 5 b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y , a f e a t u r e o f b o t h t h e o l d and new w o r l d s , f a c i l i t a t e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s by e q u i p p i n g m i g r a n t s w i t h s k i l l s and p e r s p e c t i v e s d i r e c t l y u s e f u l t o economic s u r v i -v a l . The C h i n e s e , a f t e r a l l , d i d n o t go a b r o a d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s e t t i n g up v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o f r a c i s m , t h e o t h e r major t o p i c w h i c h has a t t r a c t e d s u b s t a n t i a l s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n , have r e c o r d e d a c e n t u r y o f p o p u l a r and l e g a l a n t i - A s i a n a g i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and have p i n p o i n t e d economic and p s y c h o -l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r i t . One v i e w p o i n t i s t h a t w h i t e r a c i s m a r o s e o v e r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r j o b s and b u s i n e s s . E a r l y s t u d i e s o f t h e ' O r i e n t a l P r o b l e m 1 from t h e 1930's n o t e d t h a t A s i a n w o r k e r s d e p r i v e d w h i t e s o f j o b s b e c a u s e A s i a n s worked f o r l o w e r wages s i n c e t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g was 15 l o w e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e m i t t i n g f u n d s . t o C h i n a was c o n s i d e r e d a c o n t i n u i n g s o u r c e of low l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s amongst A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s . X ^ More r e c e n t l y P a t r i c i a Roy has shown how f e a r s o f economic c o m p e t i t i o n were exag-g e r a t e d by p o l i t i c i a n s and j o u r n a l i s t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f e a r s o f r a c i a l i n u n d a t i o n t o i n s p i r e t h e v i r u l e n t l y a n t i -17 A s i a n a t m o s t p h e r e o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a i n t h e 1920's. W. P e t e r Ward has c h a l l e n g e d t h e economic e x p l a n a t i o n and a r g u e d i n s t e a d t h a t w h i t e r a c i s m was g e n e r a t e d by a p o w e r f u l p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e s i r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r r a c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y . T h a t i s , t h e r a c i a l l y - m i x e d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e t h r e a t e n e d w h i t e A n g l o - S a x o n a t t e m p t s t o r e a l i z e a c o l l e c t i v e . i d e n t i t y b a s e d on r a c i a l p u r i t y . Ward sup-p o r t e d h i s s t a n d by n o t i n g t h a t i n t e r - r a c i a l j o b c o m p e t i t i o n was i n f a c t v e r y l i m i t e d b e c a u s e A s i a n s s p e c i a l i z e d i n a few o c c u p a t i o n s and b e c a u s e t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n 1 8 p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s was r a c i a l l y s t r a t i f i e d . T h e s e s t u d i e s o f r a c i s m have d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C h i n e s e r a t h e r t h a n t h e l i v e s o f t h e C h i n e s e t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e i s no doubt o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f w h i t e r a c i s m , b u t p r o b e s i n t o i t s c h a r a c t e r examine a w h i t e phenome non and i g n o r e t h e C h i n e s e e x c e p t as v i c t i m s and t a r g e t s . Such s t u d i e s do n o t a d d r e s s how t h e C h i n e s e r e s p o n d e d t o r a c i s m o r how t h e y a d j u s t e d t d any a s p e c t o f t h e new w o r l d . T h e r e i s a n e e d , t h e n , t o f o c u s on t h e C h i n e s e and t o examine t h o s e a f f a i r s w h i c h were i m m e d i a t e l y i m p o r t a n t t o them. To d a t e t h e r e has been o n l y one s t u d y made o f C h i n e s e -C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y . C h a r l e s Sedgwick has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y i l l u s t r a t e s C h i n e s e a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e i n Canada as b u s i n e s s m e n i n V i c t o r i a d i v e r s i f i e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o meet c h a n g i n g economic and s o c i a l c i r c u m -19 s t a n c e s between 1857 and 1947. He n o t e d t h e spokesman r o l e o f l e a d i n g C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s and r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h e community's economic f o u n d a t i o n s from p u b l i s h e d w e s t e r n s o u r c e s and a few C h i n e s e documents. But Sedgwick d e s c r i b e d t h e numbers and a r e a s of new e n d e a v o u r s o n l y as r e s p o n s e s t o c h a n g i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , n o t as f a c t o r s w i t h i n a more i n t i m a t e p r o c e s s o f i m m i g r a n t s e t t l e m e n t and A d j u s t m e n t . T h i s s t u d y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r between 1886 and 1914 a l s o examines., t h e b u s i n e s s e n d e a v o u r s o f t h e C h i n e s e 7 b u t i t e x p l o r e s t h e i r use as t o o l s o f immediate economic and i m m i g r a n t s u r v i v a l and as i m p o r t a n t components i n immi-g r a n t i n t e g r a t i o n . In t h i s c o n t e x t , two major i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b u s i n e s s : t h e new w o r l d opened v a r i o u s e conomic o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e C h i n e s e , w h i l e t h e o l d w o r l d e q u i p p e d them t o r e s p o n d e f f e c t i v e l y . The a c t i v i -t i e s o f C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n show t h a t t h e y were n o t always p o w e r l e s s and p a s s i v e v i c t i m s o f w h i t e r a c i s m , b u t r a t h e r were a c t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e men who c a r e f u l l y managed and p r o t e c t e d t h e economic r e s o u r c e s t h e y c o n t r o l l e d . Most o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d h e r e documents t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , d u r i n g w h i c h V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n o v e r t o o k t h a t o f V i c t o r i a as t h e p r i m a r y t r a d i n g c e n t r e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada. In e s s e n c e , a s t u d y o f t h i s one f o r m o f economic a c t i v i t y among t h e C h i n e s e e x p l o r e s t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e o f i m m i g r a n t l i f e . I m m i g r a t i o n was a money-making v e n t u r e and t h e economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a must have s p a r k e d i n t e r e s t and g r e e d , e n c o u r a g e d c o m p e t i t i o n , and p r o l o n g e d t h e s t a y s o f many s o j o u r n e r s . B u s i n e s s was an i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n i n e a r l y C h i n e s e -C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y as a f u n c t i o n a l t o o l o f s u r v i v a l and a d v a n c e -ment and as a forum o f c o n t a c t with, t h e h o s t s o c i e t y . Today t h e t h r i v i n g c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e o f C h i n atown r e m a i n s t h e most v i s i b l e a s p e c t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n e s e community. One d ominant e l e m e n t i n t h i s e t h n i c g r o u p ' s c o n t i n u i t y and h i s t o r y t h u s a p p e a r s t o be i t s b u s i n e s s s e n s i b i l i t y . 8 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I R i c h a r d L. E h r l i c h , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n R i c h a r d L. E h r l i c h , e d i t o r , Immigrants i n I n d u s t r i a l A m e r i c a 1850-1920 ( C h a r 1 o t e s v i i 1 e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1977), pp. i x , x, x i . ; a n d R o b e r t F. Harney and H a r o l d T r o p e r , I m m i g r a n t s : A P o r t r a i t o f t h e Urban E x p e r i e n c e , 1890-1930 ( T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1975), p. 181. 2 F o r example, see E d g a r W i c k b e r g , e d i t o r / From C h i n a to Canada ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1982), p. 1. 3 I v a n L i g h t , E t h n i c E n t e r p r i s e i n A m e r i c a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1972) , p. 4. 4 . F o r e x a m p l e s , see Roger D a n i e l s , The P o l i t i c s o f  P r e j u d i c e ( G l o u c e s t e r , Mass: P e t e r S m i t h , 1966) , pp. 11-12; P e t e r S. L i , " E t h n i c B u s i n e s s Among C h i n e s e i n t h e U.S.," J o u r n a l o f E t h n i c S t u d i e s 4 (19 76) : 35 . 5 Edna B o n a n c i c h , " S m a l l B u s i n e s s and J a p a n e s e A m e r i c a n E t h n i c S o l i d a r i t y , " A m e r a s i a J o u r n a l (Summer 1 9 7 5 ) : 99; and Edna B o n a n c i c h , "A T h e o r y o f Middleman M i n o r i t i e s , " A m e r i c an  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 38 ( O c t o b e r 1973) : 585. ^ L i g h t , p. 60. 7 H a r r y V j e k o s l a w Herman, Men i n White A p r o n s : A S t u d y  o f E t h n i c i t y and O c c u p a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n A s s o c i a t e s , 1978) , pp. 75-76. ' g Chuen-yan D a v i d L a i , "The C h i n e s e C o n s o l i d a t e d B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a : I t s O r i g i n s and F u n c t i o n , " B.C. S T u d i e s 18 (Summer 1 9 7 3 ) : 61-62. 9 . Chuen-yan D a v i d L a i , "Home County and C l a n O r i g i n s o f O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e i n Canada i n t h e E a r l y 1880's," B.C. S t u -d i e s 27 (Autumn 1975) : 20 . X ^ E d g a r W i c k b e r g , "Some P r o b l e m s i n C h i n e s e O r g a n i z a -t i o n a l Development i n Canada, 1923-1947," C a n a d i a n E t h n i c  S t u d i e s 7 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 96. X X W i l l i a m E. W i l l m o t t , "Some A s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e Com-mu n i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Towns," B.C. S t u d i es 27 (Autumn 197 3) : 34-36 . 12 Foon S i e n , "The C h i n e s e " i n John N o r r i s , e d i t o r , S t r a n g e r s E n t e r t a i n e d : A H i s t o r y o f th.e E t h n i c Groups o f B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V a n c o u v e r : E v e r g r e e n P r e s s , 1971), pp. 215-216. 9 1 3 Hayne Y i p Wai, "The C h i n e s e and T h e i r V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s i n B.C.: A P o l i t i c a l Machine I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " (M.A. T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1 970), pp. 4, 79. 14 E d g a r W i c k b e r g , " C h i n e s e and C a n a d i a n I n f l u e n c e s on C h i n e s e P o l i t i c s i n V a n c o u v e r , 1900-1947," B.C. S t u d i e s 45 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 0 ) : 38-47. 1 5 T i e n - f a n g Cheng, O r i e n t a l I m m i g r a t i o n i n Canada ( S h a n g h a i : The C o m m e r c i a l P r e s s , 1931), pp. 177-178; and C h a r l e s J . Woodsworth, Canada and t h e O r i e n t ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1941), p. 273. "^W.A. C a r r o t h e r s , " O r i e n t a l S t a n d a r d s o f L i v i n g , " i n C h a r l e s H. Young and H e l e n R.Y. R e i d , e d i t o r s , The J a p a n e s e  C a n a d i a n s ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1939), p. 237 . 17 P a t r i c i a E. Roy, "The O r i e n t a l 'Menace' i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1976) pp. 252-253. 18 W. P e t e r Ward, White Canada F o r e v e r ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l and Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) , pp. 19-20. 19 C h a r l e s C.P. Sedgwick, "The C o n t e x t o f Economic Change and C o n t i n u i t y i n an Urban O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e Community," (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. i - i v . 10 CHAPTER I I THE CHINESE BACKGROUND TO EMIGRATION When c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n a and a b r o a d e n c o u r a g e d e m i g r a t i o n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e C h i n e s e embarked w i t h u s e f u l b u s i n e s s s k i l l s and s t r o n g f a m i l y a m b i t i o n s t h a t a i d e d t h e i r o v e r s e a s s e t t l e m e n t . C h i n a ' s economy, tho u g h a g r a r i a n a t h e a r t , was h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l -i z e d and t h u s i t molded f i n a n c i a l l y - a d e p t p e a s a n t s and s t i m u l a t e d l i m i t e d i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n . The n a t i o n ' s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , f o u n d e d on C o n f u c i a n t e n e t s and t h e p r i m a c y o f t h e f a m i l y , r e i n f o r c e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l m i g r a n t ' s p u r s u i t o f w e a l t h , p r o v i d e d b a s e s f o r o v e r s e a s community o r g a n i z a -t i o n , and s t r e n g t h e n e d e m i g r a n t t i e s t o t h e homeland. Some of t h e m i g r a n t s ' p r e - m i g r a t i o n l i f e s k i l l s and economic v a l u e s f o u n d r e a d y a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e new w o r l d . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s t o Canada came from e i g h t r u r a l c o u n t i e s ' i n t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a i n :the 5fvi G u a n 9 z n o u ) ' t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l , s t o o d at t h e head o f t h e P e a r l R i v e r and had been a major p o r t c i t y s i n c e t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y A.D. Guangdong p e a s a n t s t r a v e l l e d s o u t h e a s t e r n c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e o f Guangdong 11 t h r o u g h C a n t o n bound f o r Sout h E a s t Asia:., f r o m t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y onward. In 1757, an I m p e r i a l e d i c t d e c l a r e d C a n t o n t o be t h e s o l e C h i n e s e p o r t open f o r t r a d e w i t h t h e West.^ T h e r e a f t e r knowledge about o v e r s e a s o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was r e a d i l y t r a n s m i t t e d to p e a s a n t s l i v i n g n e a r b y . Guangdong p o s s e s s e s a t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e , and t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n i n t h e Cant o n d e l t a s t r e t c h e s a r o u n d t h e y e a r to p e r m i t t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f many c r o p s . R i c e , t h e s t a p l e , was d o u b l e - c r o p p e d a n n u a l l y , b u t t h e r e g i o n had w i t n e s s e d a g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y t o r a i s e o t h e r more p r o f i t a b l e c a s h c r o p s 2 i n i t s p l a c e s i n c e t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One P e a r l R i v e r c o u n t y , f o r example, p r o d u c e d r i c e s u f f i c i e n t f o r o n l y one-3 h a l f i t s c o n s u m p t i o n and i m p o r t e d t h e b a l a n c e o f i t s n e e d s . I n s t e a d , c a s h c r o p s s u c h as s u g a r cane, f r u i t , t e a , s i l k -worms , and v e g e t a b l e s were p l a n t e d to s u p p l y consumer demands e m a n a t i n g from a b r o a d and from r e g i o n a l markets w i t h i n C h i n a . O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h i s a d v a n c e d a g r i c u l -t u r a l economy i n c l u d e d f i s h - f a r m i n g , hemp and r e e d - w e a v i n g , 4 and c l o t h - w e a v i n g . I n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e i n C h i n a had d e v e l o p e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h e e m p i r e ' s r e u n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C o m m e r c i a l growth was f a c i l i t a t e d by a s m a l l c a n a l and r o a d s y s t e m and t h e use o f p a p e r money and b i l l s o f e x c h a n g e . Urban p o p u l a t i o n s r o s e i n t h e Ming p e r i o d (1368-1644 A.D.) and i n t e r m e d i a t e c i t i e s - m u l t i p l i e d be-tween t h e major c i t i e s and t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . ^ D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e Canton r e g i o n became h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e d . 12 By t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o v e r 2500 weavers each e m p l o y i n g t w e n t y o r more w o r k e r s c o n d u c t e d o p e r a t i o n s i n C a n t o n . I r o n f o u n d r i e s and g o l d and s i l v e r mines t h r o u g h o u t Guang-6 dong u t i l i z e d l a r g e numbers o f h i r e d l a b o u r e r s . I n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e a l s o e n c o u r a g e d i n t e r n a l m i g r a -t i o n between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e e m p i r e , c h i e f l y by me r c h a n t s and a r t i s a n s . T h i s movement, l i k e o v e r s e a s m i g r a -t i o n , saw men t r a v e l u n a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e i r f a m i l i e s w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o m a i n t a i n s t r o n g t i e s t o t h e i r homes. F o r example , sons b o r n e by h o s t c i t y w i v e s o r c o n c u b i n e s were o f t e n s e n t back t o be r a i s e d i n . t h e i r f a t h e r ' s v i l l a g e . As w e l l , m i g r a n t s coming f r o m common l o c a l e s formed m u t u a l h e l p a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e d a c c o m o d a t i o n , l e t t e r s o f i n t r o -d u c t i o n , and l i m i t e d c o m m e r c i a l c r e d i t . They a l s o o r g a n i z e d merchant and c r a f t g u i l d s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e g e o g r a p h i c 7 s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s . By t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l m o s t e v e r y p e a s a n t h o u s e h o l d i n C h i n a had a c c e s s to market c e n t r e s , towns w h i c h were h i v e s o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y . They i m p o r t e d goods u n a v a i l -a b l e l o c a l l y and e x p o r t e d p r o d u c e from t h e r e g i o n . M arket towns c o n t a i n e d s e r v i c e s s u c h as t e a - h o u s e s , o i l - d e a l e r s , i n c e n s e and c a n d l e - m a k e r s , and soap-makers, as w e l l as c r a f t s m e n s u c h as b l a c k s m i t h s and c a r p e n t e r s . T r a v e l l i n g a r t i s a n s s u c h as t o o l - s h a r p e n e r s , l i v e s t o c k - c a s t r a t o r s , t o o t h - a r t i s t s , b a r b e r s , and e n t e r t a i n e r s made r e g u l a r v i s i t s 8 t o s u c h m a r k e t c e n t r e s as w e l l . P e a s a n t s t r a d e d r e g u l a r l y a t m a r k e t towns and many went t o n e a r b y p o r t s and c i t i e s t o 1 3 work as c o o l i e s and c r a f t s m e n d u r i n g the s l a c k f a r m i n g 9 s e a s o n . T hrough e x p o s u r e t o t h e s e market a c t i v i t i e s , C h i n e s e p e a s a n t s became s o p h i s t i c a t e d h a n d l e r s o f money. T r a d i n g s k i l l s were f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by t h e e x t e n s i v e use o f c r e d i t i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . A n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o b s e r v e r o f C h i n a n o t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t mass o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e were i n a c h r o n i c s t a t e of d e b t , b u t t h a t t h i s was a n a t u r a l and nor m a l s t a t e o f l i f e ' f o r t h e common man: He i s b o r n i n t o i t ; he grows up i n i t ; he goes t o s c h o o l w i t h i t ; he m a r r i e s i n i t ; and he u l t i m a t e l y l e a v e s t h e w o r l d w i t h -t h e shadow o f i t r e s t i n g on him i n h i s l a s t moments . Cash s h o r t a g e s i n a m a r g i n a l l y - s u b s i s t e n t economy made b o r -r o w i n g n e c e s s a r y w h i l e t h e l u r e o f . p r o f i t s f r o m i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s e n c o u r a g e d l e n d i n g . A l l manner o f men and women would c a l c u l a t e t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o b o r r o w , l e n d , and r e p a y f u n d s i n t h e c r e d i t m a r k e t p l a c e . W h i l e t h e p r o m i n e n t m o n e y - l e n d e r s t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d l a n d l o r d s , p a w n brokers and s h o p - k e e p e r s , c r e d i t o r s a l s o embraced p e a s a n t s , c o o l i e s and s e r v a n t s b e c a u s e any p e r s o n w i t h a s m a l l a m o u n t - o f s u r p l u s c a s h c o u l d r e a d i l y f i n d some-one n e e d i n g t o borrow."'""'" P e a s a n t s p o s s e s s i n g l a n d u s e d i t 12 as c o l l a t e r a l t o borrow money from c i t y - d w e l l i n g l e n d e r s . Loans were a l s o w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m r o t a t i n g c r e d i t c l u b s . S m a l l g r o u p s o f f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s p a i d r e g u l a r sums i n t o a p o o l which was p a i d o u t to . . i n d i v i d u a l members i n t u r n . These l o a n c l u b s t a u g h t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 14 s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l s k i l l s b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r e s t one 13 e a r n e d c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d t h r o u g h c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g . The C h i n e s e economy had c r e a t e d p e a s a n t s who were f i n a n c i a l l y shrewd t r a d e r s . P r o d u c i n g and s e l l i n g cash, c r o p s i n t r o d u c e d them t o a money economy and t h e w o r k i n g s o f s u p p l y and demand i n an open m a r k e t p l a c e . W i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f i n d e b t e d n e s s a l l o w e d them t o p l a y d e b t o r o r c r e d i t o r as f i n a n c e s d i c t a t e d . In n e a r b y market towns and c i t i e s , as w e l l as i n t h e m a j o r p o r t s o f C a n t o n and Hong Kong, t h e y l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and mechanisms of an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g economy. By t h e t i m e news o f o p p o r -t u n i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a r r i v e d i n t h e 1850's, r u r a l ! , m i g r a t i o n t o t h e c i t y was an e x i s t i n g o p t i o n f o r market and money-wise p e a s a n t s d i s p l a c e d f r o m t h e l a n d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d many f a c t o r s e n c o u r a g e d e m i g r a t i o n from Guangdong. A s t e a d y r i s e i n p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e on l i m i t e d a r a b l e l a n d s . Between 1787 and 1850 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n Guangdong a l m o s t d o u b l e d , f r o m s i x t e e n 14 t o t w e n t y - e i g h t m i l l i o n . The p r o v i n c e ' s m a n - t o - l a n d r a t i o 15 f e l l w e l l below t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . An a g r i c u l t u r a l t e n a n c y r a t e o f o v e r f o r t y p e r c e n t r a n k e d among t h e h i g h e s t i n t h e n a t i o n , much above th e p r e v a i l i n g r a t e o f twenty p e r -c e n t i n N o r t h C h i n a . ^ Land o w n e r s h i p became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands o f a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a -17 t i o n . The c o m m e r c i a l i z e d economy i n t h e Canton r e g i o n a l s o began t o s u f f e r i n t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h , c e n t u r y . C h i n a ' s 15 d e f e a t i n t h e F i r s t Opium War o f 1839-1842 r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r c e d o p e n i n g o f f o u r a d d i t i o n a l t r e a t y p o r t s a l o n g th e C h i n e s e c o a s t . These p o r t s d i v e r t e d t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y away f r o m C a n t o n , p u t t i n g p o r t e r s , warehousemen, boatmen, and s m a l l m e r c h a n t s out o f work. The s u b s e q u e n t e n t r a n c e o f f o r e i g n m a n u f a c t u r e d goods o n t o the C h i n e s e market d i s -p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i e s by u n d e r c u t t i n g 18 n a t i v e p r i c e s . C o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s were d i s r u p t e d , r e d u -c i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f s u p p l e m e n t a l income among p e a s a n t s . These economic d i f f i c u l t i e s were compounded by a breakdown i n law and o r d e r a t . n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . The T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n swept t h r o u g h C h i n a between 1850 and 1864 and c l a i m e d t w e n t y m i l l i o n l i v e s . Guangdong e s c a p e d t h e m a s s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s u p h e a v a l , b u t c e n t r a l government a u t h o r i t y was s u f f i c i e n t l y weakened t h a t s e c r e t s o c i e t y u p r i s i n g s e r u p t e d i n t h e P e a r l R i v e r D e l t a i n 1853 and took an e s t i m a t e d one m i l l i o n . l i v e s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by armed i n t e r n e c i n e P u n t i - H a k k a c o n f l i c t o v e r . l a n d and w a t e r r i g h t s i n s e v e r a l P e a r l R i v e r c o u n t i e s t h a t c o s t 150,000 l i v e s 19 between the y e a r s 1854 and 1868. The p e a s a n t r y a l s o c o n t e n d e d w i t h n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s s uch as f l o o d and d r o u g h t . O n g o i n g w a r f a r e p r e v e n t e d f a r m e r s from m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r f i e l d s p r o p e r l y , and an i n -c r e a s i n g number of a b l e - b o d i e d men were c o n s c r i p t e d f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . B a n d i t r y and p i r a c y c o n t i n u e d u n a b a t e d 20 due t o t h e weakened c e n t r a l government. Thus b o t h economic 16 and p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s stemming from i n t e r n a l d y n a s t i c d e c l i n e and e x t e r n a l f o r e i g n a g g r e s s i o n h e l p e d push p e a s a n t s t o seek t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d a b r o a d . M i g r a n t s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a came from m e r c h a n t , p e a s a n t , and l a b o u r i n g b a c k g r o u n d s . The m e r c h a n t s were few i n number and may have been o r i g i n a l l y c o m p e l l e d t o go a b r o a d b e c a u s e t h e y , r a t h e r t h a n r u r a l l a n d l o r d s , were among t h e 21 h a r d e s t h i t when t h e C a n t o n economy s u f f e r e d . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e l e a d i n g m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a t o w n came f r o m Sahm Yup S a n - y i ) , t h e 'Three C o u n t i e s ' l y i n g immedi-a t e l y by C a n t o n , one o f t h e most a d v a n c e d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s i n C h i n a . The m e r c h a n t s t o o k c a p i t a l a b r o a d t o e s t a b l i s h s t o r e s t o s e l l g r o c e r i e s and d a i l y n e c e s s i t i e s t o t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s . They,-also p o s s e s s e d c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e e s t a -2 2 b l i s h e d t r a d i n g f i r m s i n Hong Kong and C a n t o n . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e m i g r a n t s , however, came from d i s -t r i c t s f u r t h e r away from C a n t o n , most n o t a b l y f r o m Say Yup (G9 £ i S i - y i ) , t h e 'Four C o u n t i e s ' . The b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e m i g r a n t s i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s s t r a t a o f t h e r u r a l p e a s a n t r y : l a n d l e s s h i r e d hands, s h a r e c r o p p e r s , and s m a l l l a n d h o l d e r s who owned m a r g i n a l amounts o f l a n d . Some had a l r e a d y t r a v e l l e d p r e v i o u s l y t o Canton or o t h e r towns t o seek work as p e d d l e r s , r i c e - c a r r i e r s , or boatmen, o r t o p l y ' t h e i r 23 own s k i l l s s u c h as c o b b l i n g . Those owning l a n d o f t e n s o l d i t t o r a i s e money f o r t h e i r p a s s a g e , w h i l e o t h e r f a m i l i e s 24 p o o l e d r e s o u r c e s t o send one c l a n member a b r o a d . Not a l l t h e m i g r a n t s t o North. A m e r i c a , t h e n , came ' f r e s h o f f t h e f a r m ' , 17 n o r were a l l o f them i m p o v e r i s h e d p a u p e r s . But w h i l e t h e e m i g r a n t s came from d i f f e r i n g economic b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e y s h a r e d common e x p e c t a t i o n s and a m b i t i o n s i n l i f e s h a p e d by C o n f u c i a n i s m and the p r i m a c y o f t h e f a m i l y . In t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e a n c i e n t c l a s s s y s t e m s t i l l saw t h e p e a s a n t r y p r o d u c i n g w e a l t h f o r t h e g e n t r y and f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c and l a n d - o w n i n g e l i t e s . The l o n g e v i t y o f t h e s y s t e m had a r i s e n ' . i n p a r t .from t h e p e r m e a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y o f C o n f u c i a n t h o u g h t , t h e n a t i o n a l b e l i e f s y s t e m w h i c h p r o v i d e d r u l e s f o r a l l human r e l a t i o n s and s o c i a l b e h a -v i o u r . I t p r e a c h e d t h a t a ha r m o n i o u s s o c i e t y r e q u i r e d a l l i t s members t o a c c e p t t h e i r s t a t i o n i n l i f e and t o a c t t o p r e s e r v e t h e s t a t u s quo. I t t a u g h t u n q u e s t i o n i n g o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y , b o t h t o one's emperors and t o one's e l d e r s . C o n f u c i a n t h e o r y a l s o i d e a l i z e d f a r m i n g as m o r a l and p r o d u c -t i v e b u t d e p i c t e d m e r chant a c t i v i t i e s as p a r a s i t i c and . 25 immo r a l . P e a s a n t s were v i e w e d as s t u r d y and p r o d u c t i v e yeomen, v i r t u o u s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s i m p l e and r e v e r e n t a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e l a n d . C o n f u c i a n t h e o r y e l e v a t e d them i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r w e l l above t h e a r t i s a n and merchant b u t below t h e edu-c a t e d and b u r e a u c r a t i c g e n t r y c l a s s e s . In r e a l i t y , however, w h i l e t h e i r p r o d u c e , t a x e s , and r e n t payments c o n s t i t u t e d t h e economic f o u n d a t i o n s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y , t h e p e a s a n t s ' a r d u o u s l a b o u r p r o v i d e d a s u b s i s t e n c e e x i s t e n c e t h a t a t b e s t b a r e l y p r e s e r v e d them from n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , g r e e d y l a n d l o r d s , c o r r u p t t a x c o l l e c t o r s , and f l u c t u a t i n g m a r k e t 18 p r i c e s . C o n f u c i a n t h o u g h t f u n c t i o n e d to keep t h e p e a s a n t s r e s i g n e d t o t h e d r u d g e r y o f f a r m l a b o u r . M e r c h a n t s were r a n k e d l o w e s t i n C o n f u c i a n i s m b e c a u s e t h e y a l l e g e d l y p r o f i t t e d from t h e n o n - p r o d u c t i v e exchange o f goods p r o d u c e d by p e a s a n t s and a r t i s a n s . But t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t t h e y were s o c i a l o u t c a s t s ; i n s t e a d t h e y were r e c o g n i z e d as u s e f u l and v a l u a b l e members o f s o c i e t y . The b r o a d r a n g e o f b u s i n e s s m e n i n C h i n a i n c l u d e d s t r e e t p e d l a r s , s i m p l e t r a d e r s , b r o k e r s , c o n s i g n m e n t a g e n t s , and: m e r c h a n t 2 7 p r i n c e s a t t a c h e d to s t a t e m o n o p o l i e s . M e r c a n t i l e w e a l t h e n a b l e d b u s i n e s s f a m i l i e s t o e n t e r t h e g e n t r y and b u r e a u -c r a t i c c l a s s e s i n two ways. They c o u l d p u r c h a s e l o w e r -r a n k e d o f f i c i a l d e g r e e s w i t h o u t w r i t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s o r t h e y c o u l d h i r e good t u t o r s t o p r e p a r e t h e i r sons f o r t h e i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . M e r c h a n t s t h e r e f o r e had l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o 28 o v e r t u r n t h e C o n f u c i a n o r d e r . The g e n t r y c l a s s o f s c h o l a r s and l a n d - o w n e r s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a l g o v e r n m e n t a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The g e n t r y p o s s e s s e d b o t h b u r e a u c r a t i c and a r i s t o c r a t i c t e n d e n c i e s , t h e f o r m e r d e r i v e d from d e g r e e -h o l d i n g and the l a t t e r from w e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and b i r t h . At t h e l o c a l level.'.gentry f u n c t i o n s i n l o c a l government i n c l u -ded t a x c o l l e c t i n g , s u p e r v i s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n w o r ks,and s c h o o l s , o r g a n i z i n g t h e l o c a l m i l i t i a , and m e d i a t i n g l e g a l 2 9 d i s p u t e s . These d u t i e s , w h i c h augmented t h e i r l a n d -h o l d i n g w e a l t h , were d i c t a t e d by t h e C o n f u c i a n i d e a l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e where t h e g e n t r y g u i d e d s o c i e t y ' s m o r a l 19 improvement and t e n d e d t o t h e s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y o f i t s p e a s a n t c h a r g e s . High, g e n t r y s t a t u s t h u s r e s t e d on e d u c a t i o n , o f f i c i a l s t a n d i n g , p u b l i c s e r v i c e , and w e a l t h . The i d e o l o g y o f c l a s s i n C h i n a , however, i n c l u d e d a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n upward s o c i a l and economic m o b i l i t y s h a r e d a t a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s . A c c e s s t o t h e p r e s t i g e and w e a l t h o f government o f f i c e and g e n t r y s t a n d i n g was t h e o r e t i c a l l y open t o a l l b e c a u s e t h e i m p e r i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s were u n r e s t r i c t e d . But a d r a m a t i c r a g s - t o - r i c h e s jump was r a r e i n d e e d b e c a u s e w e a l t h was r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e o u t s e t to f i n a n c e e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s . S t i l l , t h e m i n u t e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s a l l e v i a t e d s o c i a l d i s c o n t e n t and m i l l i o n s o f 30 s c h o l a r s s t u d i e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r f o r t h e t e s t s . F o r p e a s a n t s , s o c i a l p r o m o t i o n i n i t i a l l y r e q u i r e d t h e a c c u m u l a -t i o n o f w e a l t h from n o n - f a r m i n g s o u r c e s such as m e r c h a n t a c t i v i t y b e c a u s e one's own p l o t o f l a n d c o u l d not g e n e r a t e 31 s u f f i c i e n t s u r p l u s f u n d s . A m b i t i o u s p e a s a n t s and m e r c h a n t s i n v e s t e d t h e i r s u r p l u s f u n d s i n l a n d , t h e r e n t a l income f r o m w h i c h was t h e n ap-p l i e d a g a i n s t e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n s e s . P e a s a n t s c o u l d e a s i l y see from l a n d o w n e r b e h a v i o u r t h a t o n l y t h e o w n e r s h i p o f more l a n d would f r e e them and t h e i r f a m i l i e s from p h y s i c a l l a b o u r 3 2 and p e r m i t them t o l i v e e x c l u s i v e l y from r e n t . M e r c h a n t s , t o o , i n v e s t e d t h e i r w e a l t h i n l a n d r a t h e r t h a n i n a d d i t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e s i n a t t e m p t s t o overcome t h e i r low s t a t u s by a c -3 3 q u i r i n g l a n d t o r e s e m b l e t h e l a n d e d g e n t r y . Thus, a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d w e a l t h , l a n d - h o l d i n g , and e d u c a t i o n 20 was t h e p a t h t o i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s and e n t r y i n t o t h e g e n t r y and b u r e a u c r a c y o f C h i n a . C o n f u c i a n i s m a l s o b u t t r e s s e d t h e f a m i l y ' s r o l e i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y by d e n o t i n g i t as a m i c r o c o s m o f s o c i e t y and s t a t e , where f a m i l y harmony and s t a b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e d t o p e a c e , o r d e r and good government i n t h e community a t l a r g e . In t h e C o n f u c i a n f a m i l y , r e s p e c t and o b e d i e n c e t o t h e o l d e s t l i v i n g male was s u s t a i n e d by t h e c a r d i n a l v a l u e o f f i l i a l p i e t y . A n c e s t o r w o r s h i p , t h e r e v e r e n c e o f one's f o r e b e a r s , r e i n f o r c e d f i l i a l p i e t y and t h e s e n s e o f c o n t i n -u i t y i n t h e f a m i l y . And, as i n o t h e r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e C h i n e s e f a m i l y was an economic u n i t , c h i e f -l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e n r i c h i n g i t s e l f , p r o t e c t i n g i t s economic 34 i n t e r e s t s , and e n h a n c i n g i t s f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y . In S o u t h C h i n a t h e power o f t h e f a m i l y was e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e l i n e a g e , a k i n s h i p network o f f a m i l i e s s h a r i n g a common surname and t r a c i n g t h e i r r e l a t e d n e s s t o a common f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r . I n Guangdong, many v i l l a g e s h e l d o n l y a few surnames, and i n Say Yup, many v i l l a g e s c o n t a i n e d o n l y one surname. W h i l e l i n e a g e s o f t e n e n c o u r a g e d c l a n n i s h i n - g r o u p f e e l i n g s , t h e y a l s o a c t e d as a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r i n C h i n e s e s o c i e t y b e c a u s e t h e i r v e r t i c a l , t i e s o f k i n s h i p c u t t h r o u g h c l a s s l i n e s and b e c a u s e o f t h e i r many s o c i a l and 3 5 e conomic f u n c t i o n s . The l i n e a g e was he a d e d by e l d e r members o f t h e c l a n who met and made d e c i s i o n s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The l i n e a g e s 36 were Guangdong's l a r g e s t l a n d o w n e r s , and t h e y c o l l e c t e d 21 r e n t s t o use f o r t h e l i n e a g e . They l o a n e d money, u n d e r -w r o t e l a w s u i t s , and d i s t r i b u t e d r e l i e f t o t h e aged and t h e needy. Funds were u s e d t o r e p a i r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and b r i d g e s and t o m a i n t a i n t h e a n c e s t r a l h a l l s . Some l i n e a g e s e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s and h i r e d t e a c h e r s . The c l a n e l d e r s a l s o r e g u l a t e d m o r a l b e h a v i o u r and a r b i t r a t e d d i s p u t e s among i t s m e m b e r s . ^ The r i t u a l , e c o n omic, and e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e l i n e a g e p r o v i d e d p e a s a n t s w i t h a s t r o n g s e n s e o f c o h e s i o n , o f b e l o n g i n g t o a l a r g e r s o c i a l u n i t . A w e a l t h y and power-f u l l i n e a g e gave p r e s t i g e t o a l l i t s members, r i c h and p o o r 3 8 a l i k e s i n c e l i n e a g e membership was d e t e r m i n e d by b l o o d . The l i n e a g e was a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o upward m o b i l i t y b e c a u s e i t f i n a n c e d e d u c a t i o n a l and government e x a m i n a t i o n e x p e n s e s f o r a s p i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . These f u n c t i o n s e n c o u r a g e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e w e a l t h o f t h e i r l i n e a g e . O v e r s e a s m i g r a n t s t h u s s o u g h t to f e e d t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , and i n t h e l o n g e r term, t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r l i n e a g e . S o c i a l o r d e r i n C h i n a t h u s r e s t e d on s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h d i f f u s e d p o t e n t i a l d i s c o n t e n t a r i s i n g from t h e u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h . P e a s a n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t w e a l t h and s t a t u s i n t h e e x i s t i n g C o n f u c i a n o r d e r were a c c e s s i b l e . t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . The c o n s c i o u s p a t e r n a l i s m o f t h e g e n t r y e l i t e and l i n e a g e e l d e r s e a s e d r u r a l m i s e r y . F i n a l l y , p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s between upper and lo w e r c l a s s e s t h r o u g h a code o f mutual r a p p o r t ^ ^ ' j ^ g a n - c h i n g ) a l l o w e d f o r ne-39 g o t i a t i o n s and f l e x i b i l i t y m c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s . 22 The Guangdong p e a s a n t s have been a t t r i b u t e d w i t h a p r o g r e s s i v e and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o u t l o o k a r i s i n g p a r t l y f r o m 40 t h e r e g i o n ' s c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . The g e o g r a p h i c i s o l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e from t h e r e s t o f C h i n a h e l p e d n u r t u r e l o c a l l y a l l t h e major. r e v o l u t i o n s o f modern 41 C h i n a . And, a c c o r d i n g t o one o b s e r v e r , t h e p e a s a n t s and s h o p k e e p e r s o f t h e Hong Kong r e g i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t s e l f -r e l i a n c e and i n d e p e n d e n c e . They, i n s t e a d o f the g e n t r y , assumed l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r o u t i n e a f f a i r s and d e a l t w i t h a l l n a t u r a l and man-made d i s a s t e r s . T h i s i n i t i a t i v e i s s e e n t o have a r i s e n from t h e e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g t e n a n t r i g h t s t h a t a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d i s m and S o u t h C h i n a ' s ' o n e - f i e I d - t w o ( o r m o r e ) - l o r d ' l a n d t e n u r e s y s t e m .had , 4 2 g e n e r a t e d . In summary, the C h i n e s e who came to Canada l e f t a c o u n t r y w i t h a h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e d c a s h economy and .an a g r a r i a n b a s e . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h was o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e t o e v e r y m i g r a n t . B u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y , wage l a b o u r , u r b a n m i g r a t i o n , and m o n e y - l e n d i n g were e s t a b l i s h e d avenues o f s u r v i v a l i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . The s t r o n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h f a m i l y and l i n e a g e added f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e t o f i n a n c i a l a c h i e v e m e n t . Men were e n c o u r a g e d t o go a b r o a d w h i l e t h e l i n e a g e u n d e r t o o k t o c a r e f o r t h e i r w i v e s and f a m i l y . C o n f u c i a n thought ;also i n f l u -e n c e d t h e o u t l o o k o f m i g r a n t s f o r i t embodied the c o n c e p t o f a s t a b l e , p e a c e f u l s o c i e t y w i t h some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r upward s o c i a l and economic m o b i l i t y . 23 In t h e o v e r s e a s s e t t i n g m i g r a n t s s e i z e d upon a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' . t o work i n many o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e i r s a v i n g s were c h a n n e l l e d back t o f a m i l y and l i n e a g e i n C h i n a and i n t o a d d i t i o n a l money-making v e n t u r e s i n t h e new w o r l d . C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s t h u s r e t a i n e d t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l o u t l o o k towards work, f a m i l y , and t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , f o r new w o r l d v a l u e s were s i m i l a r i n some b a s i c r e s p e c t s . The v a l u e s y s t e m o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e n , d i d n o t undergo a v i o l e n t d i s -r u p t i o n upon a r r i v a l i n Canada and i n s t e a d . l a y p r e p a r a t o r y groundwork f o r t h e economic i n t e g r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s and b u s i n e s s m e n . 24 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO Him Mark L a i and P h i l i p P. Choy, O u t l i n e s :  H i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n A m e r i c a (San F r a n c i s c o : C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n S t u d i e s P l a n n i n g Group, 1973), pp. 18, 21. 2 June M e i , " S o c i o e c o n o m i c O r i g i n s , o f E m i g r a t i o n : Guangdong t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1850-1882," Modern C h i n a 5 ( O c t o b e r 1979) : 468. 3 I b i d . , p. 474. 4 I b i d . , p. 468. 5 F r e d e r i c Wakeman, J r . , The F a l l o f I m p e r i a l C h i n a (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1975) , pp. 40-41. 6 M e i , pp^ :"-4 6 8-,4 6,9 .: 7 Lawrence W. C r i s s m a n , "The Segmentary S t r u c t u r e o f Urban O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e C o m m u n i t i e s , " Man I I ( 1967) : 202 . Q George W. S k i n n e r , " M a r k e t i n g and S o c i a l S t r u c -t u r e i n R u r a l C h i n a , " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s 24 (November 1964) : 6 , 10 , 20 . 9 C r i s s m a n , j3: .202. X ^ J . Macgowan, L i g h t s and Shadows o f C h i n e s e L i f e ( S h a n g h a i , 1909), p. 171. l x i b i d . , p. 173 12 Wakeman, p. 10 1 3 M a u r i c e Freedman, "The H a n d l i n g o f Money: A Note o f t h e B a c k g r o u n d t o the Economic S o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e , " Man 59 ( A p r i l 1969):64-65. 14 F r e d e r i c Wakeman J r . , S t r a n g e r s a t t h e G a t e :  S o c i a l D i s o r d e r i n South. C h i n a 1839-1861 ( B e r k e l y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1966), p. 179. 25 1 5 I b i d . , p. 179. In 1812, a Guangdong p e a s a n t p o s s e s s e d an a v e r a g e o f 1.67 mou o f l a n d , compared t o t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f 2.19 mou. A mou i s e q u i v a l e n t to .16 a c r e . "^C.K. Yang, A C h i n e s e V i l l a g e i n E a r l y Communist  T r a n s i t i o n ( C a mbridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p. 5. 1 7 D a v i d Fu Keung Ip., "The D e s i g n o f R u r a l D e v e l o p -ment: E x p e r i e n c e s from S o u t h C h i n a 1949-1976," (Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979), p. 30. 1 8 M e i , p. 470. 19 L a i and Choy, pp. 3 5-36. 20 M e i , pp. 473-474. 2 1 Mei , p. 4 7 5 . 2 2 Mei, p. 476. 2 3 Mei, pp. 477-.481. 2 4 Mei , p. 482. 2 5 L a i and Choy, p. 27. 2 6 B e r n a r d G a l l i n , " C h i n e s e P e a s a n t V a l u e s Towards th e L a n d " i n V.E. G a r f i e l d and E. F r i e d l , E d i t o r s , Sympos ium  o f Community S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y : P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1963 A n n u a l S p r i n g M e e t i n g o f t h e Am e r i c a n E t h n o l o g i c a l  S o c i e t y ( S e a t t l e : A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1964) , p.65. 2 7 Wakeman, The F a l l , p. 40. 2 8 Wakeman, The F a l l , p. 51. 29 Wakeman, The F a l 1 , p. 31. 3 0Wakeman, The F a l l , p. 23 ^ M a u r i c e Freedman, L i n e a g e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n S o u t h -E a s t e r n C h i n a (London: The A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1970)., pp. 58-59 3 2 I b i d . , p. 52. 3 3 G a l l i n , p. 65. 34 Anthony B. Chan, G o l d M o u n t a i n : The. C h i n e s e i n ..the  New W o r l d ( V a n c o u v e r : New S t a r Books, 1983), pp. 100-101. 3 5 Wakeman, S t r a n g e r s , p. 111. 3 6 Wakeman, S t r a n g e r s , p. 109. 26 3 7 Freedman, L i n e a g e , p. 12. 3 8 L a i and Ch.oy, p. 31; Freedman, L i n e a g e , p. 54. 3 9 Wakeman, The F a l l , p. 16. 40 Yang, p. 6. 41 Yang, p . 5. 4 2 J o h n W. Hayes, The Hong Kong R e g i o n , 1850-1911:  I n s t i t u t i o n s and L e a d e r s h i p i n Town and C o u n t r y s i d e (Hamden, Conn.: ARcher Books, 1977), p. 52. I 27 CHAPTER I I I BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHINATOWN T h i s c h a p t e r examines b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t i n V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n e s e community d u r i n g t h e c i t y ' s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s t o see how t h i s a c t i v i t y a f f e c t e d i m m i g r a n t a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e new w o r l d . The r a n g e o f s e l f - o w n e d b u s i n e s s e s among t h e C h i n e s e was w i d e , and t h e f o l l o w i n g pages e x p l o r e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r s , l a u n d r y m e n , m e r c h a n t t a i l o r s , and g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s . These b u s i n e s s m e n t r a d e d goods and s e r v i c e s and v i g o r o u s l y d e f e n d e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a t c o u r t and a t C i t y H a l l when n e c e s s a r y . M e r c h a n t s were t h e f i r s t t o f o r m v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n C h i n a t o w n and r o s e t o d o m i n a t e them b e c a u s e b u s i n e s s a s s e t s and w e a l t h p r o v e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i a i n b o t h C h i n e s e and w h i t e c o m m u n i t i e s f o r s e l e c t i n g l e a d e r s . Upon a r r i v i n g i n Canada, C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s became e i t h e r wage l a b o u r e r s o r s e l f - e m p l o y e d b u s i n e s s m e n . The f o r m e r , i n g e n e r a l , depended on h o s t s o c i e t y demands f o r work w h i l e t h e l a t t e r p r o v i d e d goods and s e r v i c e s t o b o t h C h i n e s e and w h i t e c o m m u n i t i e s . By 1907, t h e f l o u r i s h i n g b u s i n e s s com-m u n i t y was p y r a m i d - s h a p e d , w i t h a few w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s 28 r e a p i n g s i g n i f i c a n t e a r n i n g s from a v a r i e t y o f e n t e r p r i s e s . The v a r y i n g s i z e s o f o p e r a t i o n s f o r m i n g t h e p y r a m i d r e f l e c -t e d i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s as w e l l as l o c a l and r e g i o n a l s o u r c e s o f demand. C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s were a l s o major em-p l o y e r s o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r i n C h i n a t o w n . V a n c o u v e r ' s e a r l y h i s t o r y was l a r g e l y shaped by lum-b e r i n g and t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company, two i n d u s -t r i e s w h i c h r e l i e d on t h e n a t u r a l h a r b o u r o f B u r r a r d I n l e t . P r i o r to 1886, n o n - I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t c l u n g t o t h e edges o f t h e f o r e s t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i n l e t , a t t h e M o o d y v i l l e S a w m i l l , t h e H a s t i n g s M i l l , and t h e G r a n v i l l e T o w n s i t e . G r a n v i l l e , o r Gastown, h e l d s a l o o n s , h o t e l s , and p r o v i s i o n i n g s t o r e s f o r t h e l o g g e r s , and was t h e s o c i a l c e n t r e f o r men w o r k i n g a t t h e m i l l s . x E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1869, t h e H a s t i n g s M i l l ' s f i v e a c r e s i t e c o n t a i n e d a lumber m i l l , s t o r e and o f f i c e s , b u n k h o u s e s , and a wharf t o l o a d t i m b e r f o r A s i a , S o u t h A m e r i c a , and A u s t r a l i a . The company employed a m u l t i - e t h n i c w o r k f o r c e of N a t i v e I n d i a n s , C h i n e s e , h a l f - b r e e d s , Kanakas, and w h i t e s . ' C h i n e s e l o g g e r s o r l o g g i n g crews a l s o s o l d l o g s t o t h e m i l l as d i d one Ah Sang, who d e l i v e r e d s e v e n t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s 3 worth o f t i m b e r t o t h e m i l l between 1871 and 1872. In 1884, an e s t i m a t e d 114 C h i n e s e l i v e d a r o u n d B u r r a r d I n l e t , i n c l u d i n g s i x t y s a w m i l l hands, f i v e m e r c h a n t s , t e n 4 s t o r e e m p l o y e e s , and t h i r t y 'washermen and c o o k s . That y e a r a l s o saw t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company announce e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y from P o r t Moody t o t h e head o f 29 B u r r a r d I n l e t , t h e f u t u r e s i t e o f V a n c o u v e r . C h i n e s e w o r k e r s p r e p a r e d the r a i l w a y r o a d b e d n e a r P o r t Moody and c o m p l e t e d 5 t h i s work towards t h e end o f 1885. Unemployed C h i n e s e and w h i t e r a i l w a y l a b o u r e r s t h e n d r i f t e d i n t o t h e G r a n v i l l e a r e a . Many d i s c h a r g e d r a i l w a y n a v v i e s f o u n d work a t t h e H a s t i n g s M i l l , b u t t h e y soon went on s t r i k e i n A p r i l o f 1886. The m i l l manager, R.H. A l e x a n d e r , r e f u s e d t o r e d u c e w o r k i n g h o u r s f o r the s t r i k e r s and a r g u e d t h a t he had r u n t h e m i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h I n d i a n and C h i n e s e l a b o u r . H i s o t h e r w h i t e employees s u p p o r t e d him and h e l p e d d e f e a t t h e s t r i k e . D u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s , A l e x a n d e r dubbed th e e a s t e r n Cana-d i a n w o r k e r s 'North A m e r i c a n Chinamen' b e c a u s e t h e y were j u s t a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f t r a n s i e n t wage l a b o u r t o him.^ S e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s o f p u b l i c abuse o f t h e C h i n e s e f o l -l o wed. In t h e f i r s t c i v i c e l e c t i o n o f May 1886, A l e x a n d e r s t o o d f o r mayor. He a l l e g e d l y s e n t s i x t y o f h i s C h i n e s e w o r k e r s to t h e p o l l i n Gastown, b u t t h e y were s t o p p e d and c h a s e d back to t h e m i l l by t h e s t a g e c o a c h d r i v e r and h i s h o r s e s . ^ In November, a w h i t e w o r k e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d the K n i g h t s o f Labour s u r f a c e d and demanded t h a t c i t y f i r m s r e f u s e t o h i r e C h i n e s e o r s e l l p r o v i s i o n s t o them. Any m e r c h a n t who d e f i e d t h e ban t h e n saw a l a r g e w h i t e X p a i n t e d on t h e s i d e w a l k b e f o r e h i s s t o r e , m a r k i n g him f o r b o y c o t t Q by t h e e n t i r e c i t y . The K n i g h t s a l s o u r g e d e x p e l l i n g t h e C h i n e s e from V a n c o u v e r , and f o r c e f u l mob a t t e m p t s t o e j e c t newly a r r i v e d C h i n e s e l a n d - c l e a r e r s and t o d e s t r o y C h i n e s e 9 s h a n t i e s and s t o r e s ensued i n J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y o f 1887. 30 T h i s h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n d i d n o t d i s l o d g e o r d i s c o u r a g e t h e C h i n e s e from s e t t l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . The r e g i o n ' s lum-b e r i n d u s t r y had i n i t i a l l y drawn them t h e r e to work as m i l l - h a n d s and h a n d - l o g g e r s . By 1892, e l e v e n s a w m i l l s o p e r a t e d i n town, most o f w h i c h were l o c a t e d on t h e w a t e r -f r o n t o f F a l s e Creek and B u r r a r d I n l e t . ' ' " 0 In 1908, an e s t i m a t e d 1500 o f t h e c i t y ' s C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f f o u r t h o u s a n d worked i n t h e saw, s h i n g l e , and p l a n i n g m i l l s o f t h e a r e a . ± X The C h i n e s e u n l o a d e d t h e b o l t s o f wood, c u t them, p i l e d them up f o r t h e saw, and t h e n p a c k e d t h e f i n i 1 2 x s hed p r o d u c t s f o r s h i p m e n t . L a t e r t h e C h i n e s e became sawyers t o o . C h i n e s e l a b o u r h e l p e d t r a n s f o r m t h e dense f o r e s t s o f V a n c o u v e r i n t o a modern c i t y . The r e m o v a l o f t i m b e r had p o s e d a g r e a t expense to p r i v a t e l a n d o w n e r s : l a n d - c l e a r i n g 13 c o s t between $50 and $150 an a c r e . C h i n e s e l a n d - c l e a r e r s were the c h e a p e s t a v a i l a b l e , and s u c h crews a l s o c a r r i e d o u t 14 ' d i t c h i n g and d y k i n g work i n Richmond and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . In many c a s e s , w h i t e l a n d - o w n e r s l e a s e d l a n d f r e e o f c h a r g e t o t h e C h i n e s e t o c l e a r and farm f o r a few y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y drew up l e a s e s f o r t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r terms /The C h i n e s e q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d p i g r a n c h e s and v e g e t a b l e g a r d e n s , and l o c a l homes, h o t e l s , and b o a r d i n g h o u s e s soon became d e p e n d e n t on them f o r f r e s h f o o d p r o d u c t s . 1 ^ Thus some C h i n e s e w o r k e r s worked s t r i c t l y f o r wages w h i l e o t h e r s ( . e s p e c i a l l y l a n d - c l e a r e r s ) worked i n exchange f o r an o p p o r -t u n i t y a t s e l f - e m p l o y e d f a r m i n g . 31 In o t h e r a r e a s o f wage l a b o u r , C h i n e s e cooks and s e r v a n t s worked i n homes, h o t e l s , and l o g g i n g camps. By 1902, 260 su c h l a b o u r e r s were e a r n i n g $10 t o $30 a month w o r k i n g i n 1 7 p r x v a t e homes and more i n h o t e l s . By 1908, t h i s number 18 had grown t o f o u r o r f i v e h u n d r e d . The use o f C h i n e s e men i n d o m e s t i c work r e f l e c t e d t h e s h o r t a g e o f w h i t e women w o r k e r s i n t h e f r o n t i e r and t h e r e l a t i v e c h e a p n e s s and depen-d a b i l i t y o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r . C h i n e s e w o r k e r s were a l s o em-19 p l o y e d i n b r i c k and c h a r c o a l - m a k i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r . Most C h i n e s e wage l a b o u r e r s r e l i e d on l a b o u r c o n t r a c -t o r s t o overcome t h e l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r , make i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h e m p l o y e r s , and s e t t l e c o n d i t i o n s o f work. These m i d d l e -2 0 men i n t u r n r e c e i v e d a c o m m i s s i o n f r o m t h e w o r k e r s ' wages. They were t h e f i r s t C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n t o be l i c e n s e d by c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s , though a C h i n e s e l a u n d r y and a C h i n e s e g e n e r a l s t o r e had. been i n G r a n v i l l e s i n c e 1882. Out o f e i g h t l i c e n s e s i s s u e d t o ' i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f i c e s ' i n 1888, s i x went 21 t o C h i n e s e f i r m s . L a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g r e q u i r e d o p e r a t o r s t o p o s s e s s some E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y and c o n n e c t i o n s t o w h i t e e m p l o y e r s , as t h e f o l l o w i n g examples o f two c o n t r a c t o r s show. N i n e t e e n y e a r o l d Y i p Sang tjj^ ^ fr Ye Sheng, a l s o known as?^jfs;$g) Ye C h u n - t i a n ) came to N o r t h A m e r i c a from an i m p o v e r i s h e d f a m i l y and worked as a d i s h w a s h e r , cook, and c i g a r - m a k e r . In 1888, he e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Wing Sang Company ^^JC^-j^) i n V a n c o u v e r a f t e r o v e r s e e r i n g f o r a C h i n e s e f i r m t h a t s u p p l i e d l a b o u r e r s t o b u i l d t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . Wing Sang l a t e r a c t e d 32 as t i c k e t a g e n t f o r t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c S t e a m s h i p Company, s u p p l i e d t h e Empress s t e a m s h i p s w i t h f o o d f o r t h e C h i n e s e 2 3 crews, and c o n t r a c t e d l a b o u r t o t h e salmon c a n n e r i e s . 24 The company a l s o t o o k o ut an opium l i c e n s e f r o m t h e c i t y . A n o t h e r c o n t r a c t o r , Won A l e x a n d e r Cumyow, was t h e f i r s t C h i n e s e b o r n i n Canada i n 1861. Son o f a merchant w i t h t h e w e a l t h y Kwong Lee Company, he grew up i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , and spoke E n g l i s h , C h i n o o k , C a n t o n e s e , and t h e Hakka d i a l e c t o f C h i n e s e . From 1890 onwards he worked i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and V a n c o u v e r as c o u r t i n t e r p r e t e r and b u s i n e s s m a n . He hand-l e d r e q u e s t s f o r c o o k s , l a n d - c l e a r e r s , w o o d - c u t t e r s , r a i l w a y s e c t i o n h a n d s , and b a k e r s . Cumyow's c l i e n t s were s p r e a d o v e r a wide a r e a t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , P o r t K e l l s , H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , C a l g a r y , and F a i r h a v e n , Wash-2 5 2 6 i n g t o n . Cumyow a l s o h i r e d w h i t e w o r k e r s f o r e m p l o y e r s . To s o l i c i t work, Cumyow n o t i f i e d p r o s p e c t i v e e m p l o y e r s i n w r i t i n g o f h i s a v a i l a b l e w o r k e r s and a l s o b i d f o r l a n d -• ^ 2 7 c l e a r i n g j o b s . As middleman, t h e c o n t r a c t o r spoke on b e h a l f o f t h e w o r k e r s . In one w o o d - c u t t i n g c o n t r a c t , Cumyow a r g u e d t h a t t h e r o c k y and d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n o f t h e t r e e s , and the d i s m a l w e a t h e r , had t h w a r t e d t h e w o r k e r s , and a s k e d f o r 2 8 a h i g h e r p r i c e . C h i n e s e l a n d - c l e a r e r s p r e s s e d f o r payment by day i n s t e a d o f by a c r e a g e because t h e v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y 2 9 c o u l d n o t be p r e d i c t e d . Of c o u r s e , i t was i n the c o n t r a c -t o r ' s own i n t e r e s t t o p r e s s f o r h i g h e r wages, s i n c e h i s own c o m m i s s i o n w o u l d r i s e a c c o r d i n g l y . T h e r e were a l s o p r o b l e m s i n c o l l e c t i n g wages: Cumyow sometimes had t o t h r e a t e n c o u r t 33 a c t i o n a g a i n s t t a r d y e m p l o y e r s . The l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r stood- between -the C h i n e s e and w h i t e c o m m u n i t i e s and o r g a n i z e d t h e C h i n e s e l a b o u r s u p p l y t o meet the needs o f t h e l o c a l economy. O t h e r C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n a l s o p r o v i d e d d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o t h e h o s t s o c i -e t y , b u t w i t h o u t a s s u m i n g a middleman r o l e . These i n c l u d e d b o t h f a r m e r s and l a u n d r y m e n who s t a r t e d , t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s w i t h s m a l l amounts o f c a p i t a l . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r i s e o f t h e C h i n e s e l a u n d r y t r a d e r e v e a l e d the p e r s i s t e n t demand f o r t h i s s e r v i c e and C h i n e s e w i l l i n g n e s s t o meet t h a t demand d e s p i t e b u r e a u c r a t i c and r a c i s t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e l a u n d r i e s . Wah Chong's l a u n d r y was one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s e s , e s t a b l i s h e d even b e f o r e t h e c i t y ' s i n c o r -p o r a t i o n i n 1886. By 1889, V a n c o u v e r ' s t h i r t y C h i n e s e 31 b u s i n e s s f i r m s i n c l u d e d t h i r t e e n l a u n d r i e s . Ten were l o c a t e d o u t s i d e C h i n a t o w n , n e a r r o o m i n g houses and r e s i d e n -t i a l h o t e l s where l o d g i n g s b u t n o t w a s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s were s u p p l i e d t o t h e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n moving i n and o u t o f t h e c i t y . U n t i l 1891, even the C i t y H o s p i t a l u s e d the s e r -3 2 v i c e s o f two C h i n e s e l a u n d r i e s . . Common s t e r e o t y p e s o f t h e C h i n e s e as an u n c l e a n p e o p l e 3 3 soon b r o u g h t about m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e l a u n d r i e s . In 1893, the e r e c t i o n o f wash-houses was r e s t r i c t e d by c i v i c b y - l a w t o t h e C h i n a town a r e a , on Dupont S t r e e t . { l a t e r 3 4 Pender) between C a r r a l l and C o l u m b i a S t r e e t s . Those s i t u -a t e d o u t s i d e t h e r e s t r i c t e d zone were a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n , b u t t h e y became th.e t a r g e t s o f n e a r b y r e s i d e n t s ' c o m p l a i n t s . 34 These n e i g h b o u r s demanded r e m o v a l o f t h e l a u n d r i e s b e c a u s e t h e y were vi e w e d as a ' n u i s a n c e ' o r as a t h r e a t t o p r o p e r t y 35 v a l u e s . In 1896, a number o f wash-houses were d e m o l i s h e d 3 6 a f t e r a by-law r e g u l a t i n g d r a i n a g e was p a s s e d . In 1900, c i v i c a c t i o n s a g a i n s t C h i n e s e l a u n d r i e s mounted, p o s s i b l y i n r e p o n s e to t h e r i s i n g number o f o p e r a t i o n s . Of t h i r t y wash-houses i n b u s i n e s s , o n l y two 37 were l o c a t e d i n C h i n a t o w n . In March, th e H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r u r g e d t h a t c o m p u l s o r y s m a l l p o x v a c c i n a t i o n be i n t r o d u c e d 3 8 f o r C h i n e s e l a u n d r y m e n . In June, t h e P o l i c e C h i e f was. i n s t r u c t e d to e n f o r c e t h e Sunday O b s e r v a n c e b y - l a w a g a i n s t t h e l a u n d r i e s a f t e r c o m p l a i n t s from t h e V a n c o u v e r T r a d e s 39 and Labour C o u n c i l . Then O c t o b e r saw c i v i c o f f i c i a l s r e g i s t e r a l l C h i n e s e who s l e p t a t t h e i r l a u n d r i e s as l o d g i n g -4 0 house k e e p e r s t o s u b j e c t them t o h o u s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . By t h i s t i m e , two h u n d r e d C h i n e s e worked i n t h e t r a d e , and some l a u n d r i e s employed t e n o r more men. They h a n d l e d t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e c i t y ' s l a u n d r y b u s i n e s s , w h i l e f o u r white-owned l a u n d r y f a c t o r i e s t o o k i n t h e b u l k w a s h i n g 41 o f h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s . W h i l e t h e s e m e c h a n i z e d steam l a u n d r i e s c o m p l a i n e d about u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e l o w e r wages o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e C h i n e s e a r g u e d t h a t t h e y d i d not r e a p h i g h p r o f i t s . Two C h i n e s e l a u n d r y m e n t e s t i f i e d i n 1904 t h a t t h e y e a r n e d f i f t e e n t o twenty d o l l a r s a month . 4 2 a f t e r e x p e n s e s were p a i d . C i t y b y - l a w s were amended i n December 1900 t o b r o a d e n c o n t r o l o f t h e C h i n e s e l a u n d r i e s . . The l a u n d r y zone was 35 e n l a r g e d t o an a r e a bounded by Main S t r e e t , F a l s e C r e e k , Cambie S t r e e t , and B u r r a r d I n l e t . The by-law f o r b a d e dampening c l o t h e s w i t h w a t e r s p r a y e d from t h e mouth and s l e e p i n g o v e r n i g h t on l a u n d r y p r e m i s e s . No c l o t h e s were t o be washed, d r i e d , o r a i r e d w i t h i n s i x t y f e e t o f any s t r e e t , and a s e p a r a t e room f o r s o r t i n g c l o t h i n g was made manda-4 3 t o r y . The s m a l l s c a l e , l o w - c a p i t a l , and c o n f i n e d o p e r a -t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e seemed e s p e c i a l t a r g e t s o f t h e s e a t t e m p t s t o improve c i v i c s a n i t a t i o n . C h i n e s e l a u n d r y m e n r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e measures w i t h f o r m a l p r o t e s t s . T h i r t y o f them r e t a i n e d a w h i t e l a w y e r and s u c c e s s f u l l y p e t i t i o n e d t o remove the l o d g i n g - h o u s e 44 r e g i s t r a t i o n . In A p r i l 1901, t h e i r s o l i c i t o r u n s u c c e s s -f u l l y t r i e d t o have C i t y H a l l r e p e a l t h e p r o h i b i t i o n on 45 d r y i n g c l o t h e s i n t h e open a i r . When t h e i r l i c e n s e f e e was r a i s e d t o $50 i n 1904, C h i n e s e l a u n d r y m e n b r o u g h t the i s s u e to c o u r t . T h e i r l a w y e r c h a r g e d t h a t t h e h i g h f e e s r e s t r i c t e d c o m p e t i t i o n and a c c u s e d two a l d e r m e n of h a v i n g c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a t t e r b e c a u s e t h e y were 46 p a r t n e r s i n two steam l a u n d r i e s . The c a s e f a i l e d , b u t the l a u n d r y m e n a g a i n p e t i t i o n e d f o r a f e e r e d u c t i o n i n 47 March 1905. These C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n p r o v e d d e t e r m i n e d t o overcome b u r e a u c r a t i c o b s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . C h i n e s e l a u n d r y owners a l s o c o n t e n d e d w i t h u n i o n s . In May 1906, a C h i n e s e L a u n d r y W o r k e r s ' U n i o n emerged and c a l l e d f o r s h o r t e r w o r k i n g h o u r s and an end t o Sunday l a b o u r . On f i r s t r e p o r t , t h e n i n e t y member u n i o n c l a i m e d s u c c e s s i n 36 o b t a i n i n g i t s demands. F o u r days l a t e r , however, t h e u n i o n c h a r g e d t h a t e m p l o y e r s were l u r i n g members away w i t h 4 9 p r o m i s e s o f h i g h e r wages. Two weeks l a t e r , s e v e n t e e n men r e p o r t e d l y r e p u d i a t e d t h e i r u n i o n membership on a p u b l i c p o s t e r , b u t t h i s was t o r n down by one man who d e n i e d e v e r 50 l e a v i n g t h e u n i o n . I t r e m a i n s u n c l e a r whether t h i s f l u r r y o f a c t i v i t y was s p a r k e d by u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , i n t r a n s i g e n t e m p l o y e r s , o r o t h e r f a c t o r s such as t h e un-named w h i t e u n i o n o r g a n i z e r . Between 1900 and 1912, an a v e r a g e o f n i n e new l a u n d r i e s s t a r t e d each y e a r a t l o c a t i o n s s i t u a t e d f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r 51 away from C h i n a t o w n . The t o t a l number o f l a u n d r i e s i n -c r e a s e d f r o m t w e n t y - t h r e e i n 1906 t o f i f t y - t h r e e i n 1912. Not e v e r y f i r m renewed the a n n u a l l i c e n s e as t h e y e a r s p a s s e d , and o n l y t w e l v e o f t h e t h i r t y - f o u r l a u n d r i e s r e g i s -t e r e d i n 1906-1907 were s t i l l o p e r a t i n g i n 1912. (See Ap-pendix::i) The h i g h t u r n o v e r i n d i c a t e d a p e r c e i v e d economic o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t many C h i n e s e were w i l l i n g to t e s t , b u t whether o p e r a t o r s d e p a r t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y t o r e t u r n to C h i n a o r u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o t r y a n o t h e r l i n e o f work c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e l a u n d r y t r a d e f u n c t i o n e d as one economic s e t t i n g f o r i m m i g r a n t i n t e g r a t i o n as many i n d i v i -d u a l o p e r a t o r s r e s p o n d e d to m a r k e t demands and l e a r n e d new work and l a n g u a g e s k i l l s to d e a l w i t h c u s t o m e r s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a u n d r i e s away f r o m C h i n atown i n d i c a t e d a c e r t a i n c o n f i d e n c e among o p e r a t o r s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o 37 f u n c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t systems o f C h i n a town. S i m i l a r l y , t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f laundrymen to f i g h t c i v i c r e g u l a t i o n s showed some b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e i r p a r t o f t h e i r r i g h t s as b u s i n e s s m e n i n t h e new w o r l d and o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s needed t o a c h i e v e b u s i n e s s g o a l s . The l a u n d r y t r a d e s a t i s f i e d l o c a l u r b a n demands, w h i l e a n o t h e r l i n e o f C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s r e s p o n d e d t o r e g i o n a l de-mands:. - The o r i g i n s o f C h i n a t o w n ' s merchant t a i l o r i n d u s -t r y came w i t h V a n c o u v e r ' s . r i s e t o a r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i s . The c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n jumped f r o m 14,000 i n 1891 t o 27,000 i n 1901 and t h e n t o 100,000 i n 1911. A f t e r t h e l o c a l boom s p a r k e d by t h e K l o n d i k e G o l d Rush i n 1897-1898, s u s t a i n e d i n d u s t r i a l growth i n V a n c o u v e r f o l l o w e d t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n i n t e r i o r and t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s where demands, f o r lumber and o t h e r o c e a n - i m p o r t e d • • 5 2 goods were r i s i n g . One i n c r e a s e d w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n demand was f o r r e a d y -made c l o t h i n g from V a n c o u v e r , a p r o d u c t e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r b e c a u s e l o c a l m a n u f a c t u r e r s f o l l o w e d A m e r i c a n s t y l e s i n s t e a d o f i m i t a t i n g t h e B r i t i s h c u t s of T o r o n t o p r o d u c e r s . B e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , e a s t e r n m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n M o n t r e a l and T o r o n t o w o r k i n g w i t h g r e a t e r s c a l e s o f p r o -d u c t i o n and w i t h c h e a p e r p o o l s o f f e m a l e l a b o u r e a s i l y 5 3 u n d e r c u t t h e p r i c e s o f Vancouver-made c l o t h i n g . However, l o c a l w h o l e s a l e r s p r e f e r r e d h a n d l i n g l o c a l l y - p r o d u c e d goods b e c a u s e th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s o f e a s t e r n goods 54 r e d u c e d t h e i r p r o f i t s . This, p r e f e r e n c e l e d them t o c o n -38 t r a c t j o b - l o t o r d e r s t o l o c a l C h i n e s e m e r chant t a i l o r s . By 1902, one h u n d r e d C h i n e s e worked i n Ch i n a t o w n ' s m e r c h a n t t a i l o r f i r m s , c a r r y i n g on two l i n e s o f work. One l i n e p r o d u c e d o v e r a l l s , b o y s ' wear, and workmen's p a n t s f o r 5 5 w h o l e s a l e companies and d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r worked a t custom t a i l o r i n g , p r o d u c i n g men and women's s u i t s and c o a t s f o r b l u e and w h i t e c o l l a r c u s t o m e r s . Some C h i n e s e f i r m s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y s e r v e d w h i t e c l i e n t e l e s 56 a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y . The C h i n e s e , i t was o b s e r v e d , had l e a r n e d t o sew by w o r k i n g f o r . w h i t e f i r m s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g 5 7 t h e i r own s h o p s . A n o t h e r s o u r c e r e p o r t e d t h a t the C h i n e s e 58 l e a r n e d t h e i r s k i l l s d u r i n g t i m e s p e n t i n f e d e r a l j a i l s . V a n c o u v e r ' s e i g h t e e n m e r c h a n t t a i l o r s o f 1908 employed 59 122 men, one q u a r t e r o f t h e C h i n a t o w n - b a s e d work f o r c e . Shops were s e t up w i t h s e w i n g machines and o t h e r equipment such as b u t t o n - h o l e r s . Hours o f work v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the w h o l e s a l e r s ' demands: f o r • r u s h o r d e r s , f o u r t e e n hour 60 days were worked. Wages, were g r a d e d a c c o r d i n g to s k i l l : l a d i e s ' t a i l o r s e a r n e d $50 a month., c l o t h c u t t e r s $30 a 61 month, and s e w i n g machine o p e r a t o r s $25 a month. T h r e e m e r c h a n t t a i l o r s s p e c i a l i z e d i n p r o d u c i n g f a n c y s i l k g a r -ments f o r women and l o c a t e d t h e i r shops away from t h e h e a r t o f C h i n a t o w n . ^ These o p e r a t o r s s h a r e d w h i t e w h o l e s a l e r s ' p r o b l e m s w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s b e c a u s e t h e y s t a t e d t h a t l o c a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g was more p r o f i t a b l e t h a n i m p o r t i n g 6 3 t h e goods f r o m C h i n a . The f i f t e e n C h i n a t o w n merchant t a i l o r s c o l l e c t e d a 39 wide r a n g e o f g r o s s incomes i n 1907. A p p e n d i x I I shows t h a t s e v e n f i r m s e a r n e d o v e r $18,000 w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t r e c e i v e d an a v e r a g e o f $10,000. The t o p - e a r n i n g f i r m r e a p e d more t h a n t h r e e t i m e s t h e $10,000 a v e r a g e and em-p l o y e d e l e v e n men, compared t o the a v e r a g e s t a f f o f s e v e n . The h i g h e a r n i n g s r e f l e c t e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l mix o f b o t h l a r g e volume 'rough' m a n u f a c t u r i n g w i t h custom t a i l o r i n g , b e c a u s e w h i l e t h e h a n d - l a b o u r o f custom t a i l o r i n g r e q u i r e d l e s s c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t t h a n t h e equipment needs o f whole-s a l e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e l a b o u r c o s t s o f s k i l l e d hand t a i l o r s was h i g h e r . The m e r chant t a i l o r s formed one o f s e v e r a l components o f t h e Chinatown economy, one l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t on o u t s i d e demands. Most o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f i r m s were g e n e r a l merchan-d i s e companies w h i c h p u r c h a s e d goods from C h i n a and from l o c a l w h o l e s a l e r s t o s e l l w i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e community. They t r a d e d i n e s s e n t i a l f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and work i t e m s needed by t h e m i g r a n t s , i n c l u d i n g r i c e and s o y a , C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e s , t o o l s , and d a i l y goods s u c h as w r i t i n g p a p e r and i n c e n s e . Here t o o t h e r e was a v a r i e t y o f s i z e s i n o p e r a t i o n s h a n d l i n g d i f f e r e n t volumes and t y p e s o f goods a t r e t a i l and w h o l e s a l e o u t l e t s . The l a r g e number o f t h e s e m e r c hant o p e r a t i o n s may have r e s u l t e d from t h e c r e d i t -g e n e r a t e d ease o f e n t r y i n t o t h i s s e l f - o w n e d l i v e l i h o o d , and may a l s o t e s t i f y t o t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e m i g r a n t s ' c l a n and home d i s t r i c t l o y a l t i e s by e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s r e l y i n g on p a t r o n a g e from t h o s e who s h a r e d common a s p e c t s o f 40 o r i g i n . An u n u s u a l l y d e t a i l e d b l o c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s and o t h e r C h i n a t o w n b u s i n e s s e s was a s s e m b l e d by W i l l i a m Lyon M a c k e n z i e K i n g when he a r r i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r i n May 1908 t o a s s e s s t h e damage r e s u l t i n g from t h e a n t i -A s i a n r i o t s o f September 8, 1907. To d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e s i x days a f t e r t h e r i o t d u r i n g w h i c h C h i n a t o w n was s h u t down, M a c k e n z i e K i n g a s k e d f o r t h e m e r c h a n t s ' a n n u a l income f i g u r e s , number o f employees, amount o f wages p a i d , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Of the 103 f i r m s t h a t s u b m i t t e d c l a i m s , t h i r t y - s i x were g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s . The g r o s s a n n u a l incomes o f t h e Chinatown f i r m s r a n g e d from l e s s t h a n $1000 t o o v e r $180,000. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s income was p y r a m i d - s h a p e d : t h e f o u r f i r m s a t t h e peak e a r n e d between $150,000 and $180,000 a n n u a l l y , a range a m o u n t i n g to more t h a n s.i_x t i m e s t h e a v e r a g e income o f two-t h i r d s o f C h i n a t o w n ' s b u s i n e s s e s . (See A p p e n d i x I I I ) W h i l e t h e income f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d t o M a c k e n z i e K i n g may have been i n f l a t e d i n hopes of o b t a i n i n g h i g h e r amounts o f compensa-t i o n , t h e f i g u r e s s t i l l r e v e a l t h e d i v e r s i t y o f C h i n a t o w n ' s b u s i n e s s e s i n r e l a t i v e and c o m p a r a t i v e t e r m s . At t h e p y r a m i d ' s head... s t o o d t h e f o u r f i r m s o f Gim Lee Yuen C ^ i ^ f O ' H i p Tuck Lung C J J y t f . ^ ) , L e e Y u e n ' a n d Sam Kee ( £ L f £ i ) • The opium f a c t o r i e s o f H i p Tuck Lung and Lee Yuen i m p o r t e d t h e raw d r u g from C h i n a and t h e n c o o k e d and r e - p a c k a g e d i t l o c a l l y f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s Canada. 41 C i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s c h a r g e d a $500 a n n u a l l i c e n s e f o r t h e s e 64 o p e r a t i o n s . The opium t r a d e soon ended, d e s p i t e oppo-s i t i o n from C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s , when M a c k e n z i e K i n g had t h e d r u g banned i n J u l y 1908. Lee Yuen c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r i m p o r t s and r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t s , b u t H i p Tuck Lung soon v a n i s h e d . Sam Kee and Gim Lee Yuen i m p o r t e d goods from C h i n a , i n p a r t i c u l a r r i c e and f o o d s t u f f s . The Sam Kee Company a l s o p o s s e s s e d i n t e r e s t s i n c h a r c o a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a h e r r i n g s a l t e r y , l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g , and cordwood s a l e s . C h i n e s e i m p o r t s , l i k e V a n c o u v e r ' s w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , were aimed a t t h e h i n t e r l a n d m a r k e t s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n i n t e r i o r where t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s C h i n e s e l i v e d . (See A p p e n d i x IV) L i k e w h i t e w h o l e s a l e r s , C h i n e s e i m p o r t e r s made e x t e n -s i v e use o f t h e o c e a n l i n e r s docking a t V a n c o u v e r , and t h e m a j o r m e r c h a n t f i r m s soon became Chinatown a g e n t s f o r d i f -f e r e n t s t e a m s h i p l i n e s . The l u c r a t i v e p a s s e n g e r and c a r g o t r a d e between C h i n a and'Canada e n c o u r a g e d c o m p e t i t i o n : Wing Sang r e p r e s e n t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h e d C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c S t e a m s h i p Company, Sam Kee a c t e d f o r t h e r i v a l B l u e F u n n e l L i n e , and 65 . . . . . Lee Yuen worked w i t h t h e Weir L i n e . D i s c r i m i n a t o r y immi-g r a t i o n laws a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l s o s t i m u l a t e d p a s s e n g e r t r a d e t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r as C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s e n t e r e d Canada f i r s t b e f o r e i l l e g a l l y c r o s s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n b o r d e r . R e a l e s t a t e was a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f income f o r t h e m a j o r f i r m s , a l l o f w h i c h p o s s e s s e d s i z e a b l e l a n d - h o l d i n g s i n 42 C h i n a t o w n . The Gim Lee Yuen p r i n c i p a l s owned n i n e l o t s f o r m i n g t h r e e d i s t i n c t s i t e s , w h i l e Wing Sang's s i x t e e n l o t s i n c l u d e d t h e e l e v e n - l o t . C a n t o n A l l e y tenement d i s t r i c t o f homes and b u s i n e s s e s . Wing Sang's 1908 h o l d i n g s were v a l u e d a t $200,000 w h i l e t h o s e o f Sam Kee were e s t i m a t e d a t 6 8 $500,000. Lee Yuen owned o n l y two l o t s i n Chinatown p r o -p e r , b u t l i k e Sam Kee Company, i t had i n v e s t e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n n e i g h b o u r i n g a r e a s . A 1908 e s t i m a t e p l a c e d C h i n e s e -owned p r o p e r t y l o c a t e d i n C h i n a t o w n a t $2 m i l l i o n and e l s e -69 where i n t h e c i t y a t a n o t h e r $1 m i l l i o n . -W h i l e t h e major f i r m s o f C h i n a t o w n a c q u i r e d t h e i r w e a l t h from a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g i m p o r t - e x p o r t t r a d e s , s t e a m s h i p c o m m i s s i o n s , l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g , and r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t m e n t , t h o s e f i r m s l o c a t e d f u r t h e r down t h e income p y r a m i d were n o t as d i v e r s i f i e d . A t t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t e c h e l o n s t o o d f i v e g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s e a r n i n g be-tween $66,000 and $85,000 a n n u a l l y . Two s u p p l i e d w h o l e s a l e p r o v i s i o n s t o f i s h c a n n e r i e s and may have c o n t r a c t e d l a b o u r as w e l l . These two a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t w h o l e s a l e t r a d e was 70 much more p r o f i t a b l e t h a n r e t a i l s a l e s . The o t h e r t h r e e m e r c h a n t s i m p o r t e d a v a r i e t y o f goods from C h i n a and J a p a n . At a t h i r d and w i d e n i n g l e v e l of t h e p y r a m i d , a d i v e r s e g r o u p o f s i x t e e n b u s i n e s s e s e a r n e d $31,000 t o $55,000 a n n u a l -l y . (See A p p e n d i x III)„ E l e v e n g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s , two pawn-b r o k e r s , one c o m m i s s i o n a g e n t , and one custom t a i l o r were i n c l u d e d h e r e . These f i r m s d i d n o t s e r v e . C h i n e s e c u s t o m e r s e x c l u s i v e l y as was t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e b u s i n e s s e s above 43 them. The c o m m i s s i o n a g e n t ' s c a t t l e and. p o u l t r y d e a l i n g s were w i t h many w h i t e s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e Chinatown and as f a r 71 away as C h i l l i w a c k . The two pawnbrokers r e c e i v e d c u s t o -mers from a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s : " . . . m o s t l y C h i n e s e and n e x t 7 2 J a p a n e s e and c o l o u r e d and n e x t wh.ite p e o p l e . . . " ' The t a i l o r and g e n e r a l m e r c hant who s p e c i a l i z e d i n s i l k s and 73 l i n e n s a l s o s e r v e d w h i t e c l i e n t e l e s . The b a s e o f t h e p y r a m i d c o n t a i n e d s i x t y - s i x f i r m s w i t h incomes r a n g i n g from $1000 t o $30,000. T h e r e were e l e v e n r e s t a u r a n t s s i t u a t e d i n the upper h a l f o f t h i s income b r a c k e t , w h i c h employed e i g h t y p e o p l e and a l s o c a t e r e d t o 74 w h i t e c u s t o m e r s . The r e m a i n d e r o f C h i n a t o w n ' s s e v e n t e e n m e r c h a n t t a i l o r s and g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s were e v e n l y d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h t h i s c l u s t e r , as were t h r e e j e w e l l e r s , f o u r b a r b e r s , t h r e e shoe f a c t o r i e s , two c a r t a g e f i r m s , and a b u t c h e r . The c a r t a g e f i r m s s e r v e d t h e b u r g e o n i n g t r a n s p o r t and d e l i v e r y needs o f C h i n a t o w n f i r m s , wh.ile t h e j e w e l l e r s t e s t i f e d t o a p r o s p e r i n g community. One j e w e l l e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t e i g h t y 75 p e r c e n t o f i t s b u s i n e s s came f r o m t h e C h i n e s e . The Wo Yuen shoe f a c t o r y p r o d u c e d r e a d y - t o - w e a r and c u s t o m - f i t t e d 76 p r o d u c t s f o r " . . . a l l c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e . . . " The C h i n a t o w n economy was s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t i t p r o v i d e d i t s i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h a f u l l r a n g e o f s e r -v i c e s i n c l u d i n g r e s t a u r a n t s , l o d g i n g s , employment c o n t r a c -t o r s , b a r b e r s , and c l o t h i n g . Wh.ile t h e s e s e r v i c e s employed s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e o p l e i n C h i n a t o w n , t h e C h i n e s e r e m a i n e d h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t on. the o u t s i d e community f o r j o b s and c u s t o -44 mers. The r e g i o n ' s i m p o r t a n t s a l m o n - c a n n i n g and lumber i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r e d m o b i l e crews o f l a b o u r e r s w h i l e t h e r a z i n g o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f o r e s t s demanded cheap teams o f l a n d -c l e a r e r s . Urban needs f o r a f f o r d a b l e c l o t h i n g , s h o e s , meals and l a u n d r y s e r v i c e s s t i m u l a t e d a s t e a d y b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e C h i n e s e . F i n a l l y , demands f r o m w i t h i n C h i n a t o w n and a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e f o r goods from C h i n a c r e a t e d a d d i -t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a d e . The C h i n a t o w n economy t h u s s t r a d d l e d s e v e r a l w o r l d s : t h e e t h n i c g h e t t o , t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , t h e r e g i o n a l s t a p l e i n d u s t r i e s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s , and C h i n a . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e w o r l d s o f f e r e d a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e C h i n e s e . Some demanded a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o w h i t e c u s t o m e r s , o t h e r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e t h r o u g h t h e use o f mid-dlemen. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a wide r a n g e o f s e w i n g , c o o k i n g , m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and management s k i l l s d e v e l o p e d among t h e m i g r a n t s . Some s k i l l s were e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e o l d w o r l d , o t h e r s were newly a c q u i r e d from t h e l o c a l s e t t i n g . In r e a l e s t a t e m a t t e r s , C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s q u i c k l y a d o p t e d W e s t e r n s t r a t e g i e s t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s . In C h i n a , l a n d had r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most permanent o f a s s e t s , p r i z e d f o r i t s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e f o o d , r e n t a l income, and l o a n s . R e a l e s t a t e i n C h i n a t o w n s i m i l a r l y g e n e r a t e d r e v e n u e f o r t h e w e a l t h y b u s i n e s s m e n . As t h e y bought l a n d and t r a n s -f ormed t h e e a r l y s h a c k s and c a b i n s i n t o s u b s t a n t i a l b r i c k b u i l d i n g s , t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h w h i t e b u s i n e s s m e n , t r a d e s m e n , 45 and c i v i c o f f i c i a l s l e d t o b r o a d e r c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e l a r g e r community and t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f economic i n t e g r a t i o n . C h i n a t o w n o f t h e 1890's was c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e u n i t -b l o c k E a s t Pender at C a r r a l l S t r e e t , and e x t e n d e d west to w a r d s t h e 1 0 0 - b l o c k E a s t P e n d e r . T h i s l o c a t i o n l a y as f a r s o u t h o f t h e downtown b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t ( t h e n s i t u a t e d a l o n g C o r d o v a and A b b o t t S t r e e t s ) as geo g r a p h y would p e r m i t b e c a u s e t h e f o r e s h o r e o f F a l s e Creek banked a l o n g P e n d e r . The C h i n a t o w n l a n d s had formed p a r t o f t h e l a n d g r a n t u s e d t o e n t i c e t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company t o come t o V a n c o u v e r , and l o t s had q u i c k . l y p a s s e d i n t o t h e hands o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f w h i t e s p e c u l a t o r s . T i t l e - h o l d e r s r e n t e d t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s f o r use as s t o r e s and d w e l l i n g s , and i n many c a s e s s i g n e d l e a s e s w i t h t h e C h i n e s e a u t h o r i z i n g t h e 77 tenants, t o e r e c t t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s . Wooden b u i l d i n g s o f a l l s i z e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s t o r e s , l a u n d r i e s and . l o n g narrow tenements o f t h e C h i n e s e were s c a t t e r e d h a p h a z a r d l y o v e r C h i n a t o w n , s u r r o u n d e d by v a c a n t 7 8 p a t c h e s o f unused l a n d . N o n - C h i n e s e i n h a b i t e d t h e a r e a t o o , w i t h t h e T i v o l i B e e r H a l l and Opera R e s o r t s a l o o n l o c a t e d on Pender S t r e e t and many houses o f ' i l l - f a m e 1 r e n t e d by w h i t e p r o s t i t u t e s . The p r o x i m i t y t o F a l s e C r e e k gave C h i n a t o w n many i n d u s t r i a l n e i g h b o u r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Pa l m e r B r o t h e r s ' Woodyard, t h e R o y a l C i t y P l a n i n g M i l l , 79 l i m e and sand w a r e h o u s e s , and s e v e r a l c o a l - y a r d s . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e r i s i n g C h i n e s e p o p u l a -t i o n h.ad prompted t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f a l l l o t s f r o n t i n g on 46 th e u n i t b l o c k E a s t P e n d e r , l e a v i n g t h e 1 0 0 - b l o c k p a r t i a l l y i n h a b i t e d by C h i n e s e . At t h e r e a r o f t h e l o n g narrow l o t s , a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and s t o r e f r o n t s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o f a c e 'Market A l l e y ' , t h e . l a n e r u n n i n g between H a s t i n g s and Pender S t r e e t s . B u s i n e s s and h o u s i n g ' g r o w t h a l s o moved a l o n g C a r r a l l S t r e e t n o r t h towards H a s t i n g s and s o u t h t o -wards F a l s e C r e e k . A l t h o u g h Sam Kee and Wing Sang had 8 0 b o u g h t l a n d s i n 1889 and 1892, i t was d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1900 decade that t h e C h i n e s e a c q u i r e d most o f t h e Chinatown l o t s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . In September o f 1902, C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s p u r c h a s e d a l l t h e v a c a n t l a n d n o r t h o f C h i n a t o w n on C a r r a l l S t r e e t up t o 81 H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . In May 1904,the ?Wing Sang Company's p r i n c i p a l s formed a s y n d i c a t e and r a i s e d $50,000 t o d e v e l o p 82 . . t h e C a n t o n A l l e y t e n e m e n t s . At t h e same t i m e , Gim Lee Yuen b o u g h t f o u r l o t s from',:th.e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company f o r $23,000 , d i v i d e d them i n t o e i g h t l o t s , and e r e c -83 t e d s e v e r a l two s t o r e y b r i c k b u i l d i n g s . E a r l i e r t h e same f i r m had s o l d i t s h o l d i n g s on t h e s o u t h e a s t s i d e o f Pender 84 and C a r r a l l f o r $40,000. L i k e t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s , C h i n e s e t i t l e - h o l d e r s r e n t e d t h e i r p r e m i s e s t o w h i t e 85 p r o s t i t u t e s t o o . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f p h y s i c a l e x p a n s i o n , t h e m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a t o w n s u b m i t t e d numerous p e t i t i o n s to C i t y H a l l r e -q u e s t i n g improvement o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h r o u g h t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f cement and wooden s i d e w a l k s . These r e q u e s t s came from t h e m e r c h a n t s t h e m s e l v e s and t h r o u g h t h e i r w h i t e 4 7 8 6 •; l a w y e r s . In f a c t , t h e m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a town had e s t a -b l i s h e d an e a r l i e r h i s t o r y o f d e a l i n g w i t h C i t y H a l l . In 1896, t h e y had c o m p l a i n e d about t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f 8 7 Pender S t r e e t and i t s s i d e w a l k s . S u b s e q u e n t y e a r s saw 8 8 r e q u e s t s f o r a p l a n k c r o s s i n g o v e r Pender S t r e e t , ...water-89 s p r i n k l i n g o f t h e s t r e e t i n the summer, and r e p a i r s to back l a n e s . ^ O u t s i d e C h i n a town th e p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s o f t h e Sam Kee and Lee Yuen companies showed a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f l o t s s i t u a t e d on c o r n e r s and main s t r e e t s and i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . In t h e e a s t e r n r e a c h e s o f C h i n a t o w n , Lee Yuen p r i n -c i p a l s owned n i n e l o t s i n t h e 2 0 0 - b l o c k E a s t P e n d e r , two o f 91 w h i c h o c c u p i e d c o r n e r s . They a l s o h e l d a c o r n e r s i t e o f t h r e e l o t s i n Japantown and an a d d i t i o n a l c o r n e r s i t e i n 9 2 S t r a t h c o n a . C o r n e r s i t e s a p p e a l e d t o t h e Sam Kee Company t o o , f o r i t p u r c h a s e d two i n Gastown and a n o t h e r a t t h e 9 3 downtown i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Pender and R i c h a r d s S t r e e t s . R e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g some c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e were e r e c t e d on most o f t h e s e l o t s . In some c a s e s t h e two companies p u r c h a s e d e x i s t i n g h o t e l s , b u t i n o t h e r s t h e y e r e c t e d new b u i l d i n g s . They t h e n l e a s e d t h e f a c i l i t i e s t o n o n - C h i n e s e h o t e l o p e r a t o r s and r e t a i n e d r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s s u c h as E.W. MacLean and J . J . B a n f i e l d t o c o l l e c t t h e r e n t s . Sam Kee owned f i v e h o t e l s i t e s and b u i l d i n g s i n c e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r and l e a s e d two s i t e s from German e n t r e p r e n e u r Edward S t o l t e r f o h t on 94 w h i c h t h e company t h e n c o n s t r u c t e d h o t e l s f o r s u b - l e a s i n g . 48 In t h e 2 0 0 - b l o c k E a s t Pender, Lee Yuen p a r t n e r s p u r c h a s e d a tenement b u i l d i n g o f twenty f u r n i s h e d c a b i n s and l e a s e d i t t o w h i t e o p e r a t o r s . The l e a s e s t a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t "...no women o f d i s r e p u t a b l e c h a r a c t e r s h a l l be a l l o w e d t o 9 5 r e s i d e on t h e p r o p e r t y . . . " In managing i t s h o t e l s , t h e two f i r m s d e a l t f i r m l y w i t h o f f i c i a l s and t r a d e s m e n by u s i n g w h i t e l a w y e r s . . In March 1911, the C i t y H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r condemned Sam Kee's O r i e n t a l H o t e l and o r d e r e d i t d e m o l i s h e d . The company, how-e v e r , a r g u e d t h a t i t s s o l i c i t o r and a r c h i t e c t had c o n s u l t e d e a r l i e r w i t h two a l d e r m e n and t h e B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r , and they had a l l a g r e e d to l e t t h e b u i l d i n g s t a n d f o r a n o t h e r f i v e y e a r s . Sam Kee o r d e r e d i t s l a w y e r to a p p e a l t h e d e c i -96 s i o n , b u t i n v a i n . In a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , when t h e C i t y e x p r o p r i a t e d one o f Sam Kee's Pender S t r e e t l o t s , t h e f i r m i n s t r u c t e d i t s l a w y e r s t o s t a r t n e g o t i a t i o n s a t $70,000 9 7 t o r e a c h t h e d e s i r e d p r i c e o f $62,00.0. In 1912, d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e E a s t H o t e l , Lee Yuen o r d e r e d i t s law-9 8 y e r to sue t h e s u r v e y o r s f o r a f a u l t y s u r v e y o f t h e s i t e . Away from t h e c i t y ' s c e n t r e , Sam Kee bought f o u r l o t s f r o n t i n g on B u r r a r d S t r e e t , w h i c h l a t e r became a major 99 t h o r o u g h f a r e . Towards t h e e a s t s i d e o f town, b o t h Sam Kee and Lee Yuen a c q u i r e d l a n d on a n o t h e r main s t r e e t , Has-100 t i n g s . Sam Kee a l s o h e l d w a t e r f r o n t a g e on t h e i n d u s t r i -101 a l s o u t h s h o r e o f F a l s e C r e e k . F i n a l l y , b o t h f i r m s i n v e s t e d o u t s i d e t h e c i t y l i m i t s . Sam Kee a c q u i r e d s i x 10 2 s i t  i n what l a t e r became t h e o u t h e a s t s e c t o r o f V a n c o u v e r . 49 B o t h companies h e l d l a n d i n S t e v e s t o n , Burnaby, N o r t h Van-n ' . . 103 c o u v e r , and the H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e . In r e a l e s t a t e , t h e l e a d i n g m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a t o w n i n v e s t e d e x t e n s i v e l y and c a r e f u l l y w h i l e b a r g a i n i n g a g g r e s -s i v e l y . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s were l o n g - t e r m , b e c a u s e t h e mer-c h a n t s o f Sam Kee, Gim Lee Yuen, Wing Sang, Lee Yuen, and o t h e r f i r m s had s e n t f o r t h e i r w i v e s and had e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s i n Canada. The m e r c h a n t s ' s t a n c e t h a t c i v i c o f -f i c i a l s had t o u n d e r t a k e p h y s i c a l improvements t o C h i n a t o w n r e v e a l e d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l o c a l government, w h i l e t h e i r use o f l a w y e r s and r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s e x t e n d e d t h e i r r e a c h i n t o t h e b u s i n e s s e l i t e o f V a n c o u v e r . These encoun-t e r s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f e a r l e s s n e s s o f t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s , d e s p i t e t h e p r e v a i l i n g w h i t e supremacy., a s s u m p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p e r i o d . M e r c h a n t s p r o v e d u n a f r a i d t o c o m p l a i n t o t h e P o l i c e a b o u t t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . In 1905, t h e C h i n e s e B o a r d of T r a d e p r o t e s t e d g a m b l i n g r a i d s i n t o C h i n a t o w n : The members o f our B o a r d a r e l a w - a b i d i n g c i t i -z e n s . Many o f them have been r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s C i t y f o r a number o f y e a r s , and a r e l a r g e h o l d e r s i n r e a l e s t a t e , p a y e r s o f t a x e s and o t h e r c i v i c a s s e s s m e n t s . . . . The members o f t h i s C h i n e s e B o a r d o f T r a d e . . . . have been c o n -s t a n t l y annoyed and d i s t u r b e d i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s and h o u s e h o l d by what we b e l i e v e t o be u n j u s t i -f i a b l e i n t r u s i o n o f c e r j a ^ n members o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o r c e . In 1906, C h i n a t o w n m e r c h a n t s p u r c h a s e d f o u r t e e n pages o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n an e i g h t y - f o u r page P o l i c e s o u v e n i r book, h o p i n g p e r h a p s to c u l t i v a t e b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h 50 t h e Department^^^Th.e merchants, a l s o e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s , as S h a n g h a i A l l e y • . r e s i d e n t s p r o t e s t e d . P o l i c e a c t i o n s w h i c h had p r e c i p i t a t e d a m i g r a t i o n o f Pender S t r e e t p r o s t i t u t e s t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d : I t i s our d e s i r e t o have o u r c h i l d r e n grow up l e a r n i n g what i s b e s t i n W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n and not have been f o r c e d i n t o d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h i t s w o r s t p h a s e s j u s t a t t h e t i m e t h e y a r e f o r m i n g t h e h a b i t s t h a t w i l l c o n t r o l t h e whole b a l a n c e o f t h e i r l i v e s . In t h e i r p r o t e s t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a t o w n had p e r s o n a l and b u s i n e s s ; i n t e r e s t s t o p r o t e c t , and t h e y may have p r o f i t t e d f r o m th e p o s i t i v e image o f t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y c a p i t a l i s t t h e n p r e v a l e n t . In boomtown Van-c o u v e r , r e a l e s t a t e s p e c u l a t o r s , b a n k e r s , and m e r c h a n t s were r e s p e c t e d and p o p u l a r f i g u r e s f r e q u e n t l y e l e c t e d to p u b l i c o f f i c e . F o r t h e i r p a r t , C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s who p o s -s e s s e d s u b s t a n t i a l a s s e t s were sometimes w r i t t e n up f a v o u r -10 7 a b l y by t h e l o c a l p r e s s . P r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s . a l s o i d e n t i -f i e d to t h e m i g r a n t community t h o s e m e r c h a n t s w i t h c a p i t a l and a s s e t s , m a r k i n g them f o r p o s i t i o n s o f community l e a d e r -s h i p . In o v e r s e a s s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e f i r s t u r b a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e were j i e - f a n g (^^^ ) / s t r e e t a s s o c i a t i o n s f ormed by m u t u a l c o n s e n t among t h e m a j o r C h i n e s e .companies o f a c i t y . J i e - f a n g were i n f o r m a l l y c r e a t e d , o f t e n f o r . . . . . 108 t e m p o r a r y c o - o p e r a t i o n o v e r s p e c i f i c i s s u e s or p r o j e c t s . In V a n c o u v e r , C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s d i r e c t e d l o c a l c o n c e r n s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l government as i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s b e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . In 1895 t h e f i r m s o f H i p Tuck Lung 51 and Wing Sang d o n a t e d to t h e c i v i c D o minion Day c e l e b r a t i o n 109 f u n d . O t h e r m e r c h a n t s p e t i t i o n e d i n 1897 f o r Sunday b u s i n e s s h o u r s and f o r a f i r e c r a c k e r permit."'""'"0 The opium f i r m s l o b b i e d f o r r e d u c t i o n s t o t h e i r l i c e n s e s i n 1895 and i n 1 9 0 6 . 1 1 1 In 1897 Jun Kee sued t h e C i t y f o r $800 a f t e r t h e f i r m ' s goods were w r e c k e d d u r i n g t h e demo-112 l i t i o n o f a d j o i n i n g s h a c k s . Sam Yuen a p p l i e d f o r an . . . . . . . 113 i n j u n c t i o n t o r e s t r a i n s i m i l a r r a z i n g i n 1899. I t f o l l o w e d t h e n , t h a t t h e f i r s t community o r g a n i z a -t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r were m e r c h a n t - i n i t i a t e d chambers o f com-merce, t h e Z h a o - Y i A s s o c i a t i o n fcf^\ ) and t h e Gung-Yi A s s o c i a t i o n ) . These were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1898 and 1899 r e s p e c t i v e l y and amalgamated i n 1906 i n t o the C h i n e s e B o a r d o f T r a d e (^^^.-^"^ ) . 1 1 4 The B o a r d ' s l e a d e r s i n c l u d e d Y i p Sang and Lum Duck-shew from t h e Gim Lee Yuen Company. L a t e r , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e B o a r d had 115 s t a r t e d i n 1895, a y e a r c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e d a t e o f th e i n f o r m a l f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a -t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , n o m i n a l l y t h e h i g h e s t r a n k i n g and most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body i n t h e community. Y i p Sang and Lum Duck-shew, t o g e t h e r with, m e r c h a n t s from t h e Lee Yuen and Sam Kee compa n i e s , were among t h e c h i e f b a c k e r s to t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ., t o o . The C h i n e s e B o a r d o f T r a d e ' s membership was s e l e c t i v e . In i t s s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e 1902 R o y a l Commission on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , t h e B o a r d l i s t e d o n l y f o r t y -s e v e n member f i r m s t h a t embraced r e t a i l s t o r e s , t a i l o r s , 52 w h o l e s a l e r s , g r o c e r s , ' opium f i r m s , and f a n c y good d e a l e r s , 116 w h i l e e x c l u d i n g r e s t a u r a n t s and l a u n d r i e s . The 1901 c i t y d i r e c t o r y , however, had l i s t e d s e v e n t y - o n e C h i n e s e b u s i -n e s s e s and t h i s t r i p l e d , t o 236 i n . 1 9 1 1 . (See A p p e n d i x V) The C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r d i d n o t even d o u b l e f o r t h a t p e r i o d : i t grew f r o m 1800 i n 1901 t o o n l y 3361 i n 1911. The m e r c h a n t - l e d B o a r d o f T r a d e and B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i -a t i o n assumed i n t e r m e d i a r y r o l e s between i m m i g r a n t community and h o s t s o c i e t y and u n d e r t o o k ' c h a r i t a b l e works w i t h i n C h i n a t o w n . I t r a i s e d f u n d s t o c o n s t r u c t a f o u r - s t o r e y 117 a s s o c i a t i o n b u i l d i n g and i n s t a l l e d a h o s p i t a l i n i t . The C i t y ' s H e a l t h O f f i c e r a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e B o a r d ' s "... w i l l i n g and prompt c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f s a n i -118 t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s among t h e i r p e o p l e . " The B o a r d r e s p o n d e d t o t h e 1907 r i o t by s w i f t l y r e t a i n i n g a w h i t e b a r r i s t e r t o demand C i t y p r o t e c t i o n f o r C h i n a t o w n , by p u b l i s h i n g l e a f l e t s i n t e n d e d to q u e l l t h e e x c i t e m e n t , and 119 by n o t i f y i n g t h e C h i n e s e ambassador i n London. M e r c h a n t s from t h e Wing Sang, Gim Lee Yuen, and H i p Tuck Lung companies a l s o o r g a n i z e d t h e C h i n e s e Empire Reform A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1 8 9 0 1 s i n r e s p o n s e t o C h i n a ' s r e f o r m movement. T h i s g r o u p s o u g h t t o a i d C h i n a ' s m o d e r n i -120 z a t i o n and t o e n c o u r a g e b e t t e r C h i n a - C a n a d a r e l a t i o n s , and r e c e i v e d much f a v o u r a b l e p r e s s c o v e r a g e , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e o c c a s i o n o f b a n q u e t s t e n d e r e d to v i s i t i n g d i g n i -t a r i e s f r o m C h i n a . The g u e s t s a t s u c h e v e n t s , where c o n -53 g e n i a l t o a s t s and s p e e c h e s were exchanged between C h i n e s e and w h i t e s , i n c l u d e d t h e A m e r i c a n C o n s u l , C a n a d i a n immi-g r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , and newspaper r e p o r t e r s . 1 2 1 Community l e a d e r s from Chinatown th u s t r i e d t o a r -rang e a smoother c o - e x i s t e n c e between h o s t s o c i e t y and newcomer. They o r g a n i z e d c h a r i t a b l e s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e community and a c t e d as i t s l i a i s o n t o t h e l a r g e r w o r l d o u t s i d e . T hrough t h e f o r m a t i o n o f w e s t e r n - i n s p i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as chambers o f commerce and t h e C h i n e s e Empire Reform A s s o c i a t i o n t h e y s o u g h t t o improve w h i t e i m p r e s s i o n s o f C h i n a and i t s o v e r s e a s c i t i z e n s . T h i s c h a p t e r has e s t a b l i s h e d t h e h o s t i l e r a c i a l c o n -t e x t o f V a n c o u v e r and the numerous economic demands and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s and b u s i n e s s m e n r e s p o n d e d t o . In p a r t i c u l a r , b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y c o mpel-l e d o p e r a t o r s t o a s s i m i l a t e r a p i d l y t h e t e c h n i c a l and l a n g u a g e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o promote and p r o t e c t t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s . B u s i n e s s p r o v i d e d , an a r e n a f o r i n t e r - r a c i a l c o n t a c t and f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f common b u s i n e s s s k i l l s , a l b e i t i n s e p a r a t e s p h e r e s . I t r e v e a l e d t o newcomers t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d e x p e c t r e s p e c t and f a i r t r e a t m e n t . W i t h i n t h e m i g r a n t community, m e r c h a n t s embraced many r o l e s and f u l f i l l e d many f u n c t i o n s . S e l f - i n t e r e s t was paramount, as t h e y e n r i c h e d t h e m s e l v e s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f f o o d , h o u s i n g , and employment t o t h e i r f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n . M e r c h a n t s h e l p e d t h e community a t t a i n a h i g h 54 d e g r e e o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f a c e o f a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t . The m e r c h a n t s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t o t h e community t h a t w e a l t h was i n d e e d a c c u m u l a b l e i n t h e new w o r l d and t h a t economic and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y l e a d i n g t o h i g h s t a t u s i n s i d e C h i n a t o w n was p o s s i b l e . As w e l l , t h e r o l e o f <: ec.ond.mic middleman o f some became a p o l i t i c a l one t o o , as C h i n e s e l e a d e r s l e a r n e d t o use w e s t e r n l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to c h a l l e n g e c i v i c r e g u l a -t i o n s imposed a g a i n s t them. W e a l t h was a means o f a c h i e v i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e m i - . g r a n t community. R e s p e c t and d e f e r e n c e to t h e m e r c h a n t s was r o o t e d i n p r a g m a t i c C h i n e s e a t t i t u d e s towards w e a l t h , t r a d i t i o n a l l y needed f o r b u y i n g l a n d and f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . R e s p e c t f o r w e a l t h was a l s o a key e l e m e n t i n new w o r l d i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m , w h i c h drew i m m i g r a n t s from a r o u n d t h e w o r l d to t e s t i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r q u i c k and easy f o r t u n e s . C h i n a and Canada th u s s h a r e d p o s i t i v e v iews towards t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h , and t h e c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e s e o l d and new w o r l d v a l u e s i n and a r o u n d C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s h e l p e d them i n t e g r a t e q u i c k l y i n t o some economic i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r new homeland. In a s e n s e , t h e new w o r l d s e t t i n g c r e a t e d a semblance o f a C h i n e s e s o c i a l o r d e r i n Canada. M i g r a n t s from t h e c o u n t r y m a r k e t s and c o u n t y towns o f South C h i n a e n c o u n t e r e d a f r e e m arket s i t u a t i o n i n Canada, c o m p l e t e w i t h l i m i t e d p r o s p e c t s f o r upward m o b i l i t y . Peace and o r d e r were needed f o r t h e smooth f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e economy, and t h i s i m p e l l e d 55 C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s t o r i s e to d e a l w i t h t h e v a g a r i e s o f t h e new w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e . They came t o s h o u l d e r t h e w e l f a r e and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d u t i e s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l g e n t r y and l i n e a g e e l d e r s i n C h i n a . In e f f e c t , b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y h e l p e d t r a n s f o r m . . t h e s o c i a l . a n d economic v a l u e s b o u g h t from C h i n a i n t o a f a m i l i a r , f u n c t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m where m i g r a n t s c o u l d l a b o u r p a t i e n t l y a t r e a l i z i n g t h e i r own dreams. 56 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER THREE "'"Eric N i c h o l , Vancouve r ( T o r o n t o : D o u b l e d a y , 1970), pp. 29,31,34,38. 2 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CVA), James S k i t t Matthews, " E a r l y V a n c o u v e r : N a r r a t i v e s o f P i o n e e r s i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C.1,': u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , v o l . 3, pp. 70-73 3CVA, Add. MSS 27, H a s t i n g s S a w m i l l , C o u n t e r Book, p . 116 . 4 James M o r t o n , In t h e Sea o f t h e S t e r i l e M o u n t a i n s ( V a n c o u v e r : J . J . D o u g l a s L t d . , 1977), p. 144. 5 W i l l i a m E. W i l l m o t t , " A p proaches t o t h e Study of C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C. S t u d i e s 4 ( S p r i n g 1970) : 46; and Matthews, v o l . 1, p. 287. 6 M a t t h e w s , p. 288. 7 Matthews, p. 289. Q P a t r i c i a E. Roy, "The P r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e Peace i n V a n c o u v e r : The A f t e r m a t h o f t h e A n t i - C h i n e s e R i o t o f 1887," B.C. S t u d i e s 31 (Autumn 1 9 7 6 ) : 47. 9 I b i d . , pp. 48-52 . 1 0 W i l l i a m s " I l l u s t r a t e d O f f i c i a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  D i r e c t o r y 1 ( V i c t o r i a : R.T. W i l l i a m s , 1892), pp. 781-783. ^ V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 27 May 1908, p. 1. 1 2 Canada. House o f Commons, R o y a l Commission on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , " R e p o r t , " S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1902, No. 54 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as. Canada. 1902 R e p o r t ) , p.128. 13 , . , I b i d . , p . 44. 14 ' , I b i d . , p.5 4. 15 I b i d . , p. 70. ^ T h e V a n c o u v e r News, 27 J u l y . 1886 , p. 2. 17 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 167. 57 18 P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, W i l l i a m Lyon M a c k e n z i e K i n g , Memoranda and Notes 1887-1921, v o l s . C39 to C41 , Royal Commis-s i o n t o I n v e s t i g a t e i n t o L o s s e s S u s t a i n e d by t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C pp. C 3 0 7 0 9 - C 3 2 9 0 0 , ( h e r e a f t e r Shum Moon, p. 31580. , 1908, M i c r o f i l m AW 1 R 5507, c i t e d as K i n g ) , t e s t i m o n y o f 19 Matthews, v o l . 4, p. 266; v o l . 5, p. 133 20 . . . . . See, f o r examples, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Won A l e x a n d e r Cumyow P a p e r s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Cumyow) V o l . 1 f i l e 3, L e t t e r b o o k , p. 13, W.A. Cumyow to W.E. B e c k e t t , 13 A p r i l 1889; p. 46, W.A. Cumyow t o B e n j a m i n S p r i n g e r , 31 O c t o b e r 1889. 21 CVA, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r (.hereafter c i t e d as Van. C i t y ) Department o f P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s , L i c e n s e R e g i s t r y , 1 8 8 6 - 1 8 8 9 , p . 68 . 2 2 C h i k - w a i Leung, e d . , Y i p Sang B i o g r a p h y 1845-1927 ( P r i v a t e P r i n t i n g , 1973) pp. 5,10,11. 23 . C i c e l y T y s o n , M i f c h . e l l P r e s s , 1969), p, 5 June 1908, p. 1. Salmon: Our H e r i t a g e ( V a n c o u v e r : 183; and V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e s e s , 24 CVA, Van. C i t y . L i c e n s e R e g i s t r y 1886-Department 1889, p. 90 of P e r m i t s and L i c e n -25 Cumyow, v o 1 . 1 t o C a l g a r y Steam L a u n d r y , v i l l e S a w m i l l , 31 O c t o b e r 15 November 1890; F e b r u a r y 1891; p. haven W a s h i n g t o n , f i l e 3 L e t t e r b o o k , p. 31, Cumyow 20 June 1889; p. 46 Cumyow t o Moody-1889; p. 91, Cumyow t o J.R. Brown, p. 12 7, Cumyow 14 4, Cumyow to 11 June 1891. to J o s e p h H a r t n e y , 23 McCoy and O ' B r i e n , F a i r -26 t o t o Cumyow, v o l . 1 f i l e 3 L e t t e r b o o k , p B a k e r s ' U n i o n , S e a t t l e , 7 F e b r u a r y 1891; p. A d o l p h H e i n z e l m a n , 4 F e b r u a r y 1891. 2 7 122 119, Cumyow Cumyow Cumyow, v o l . 1 f i l e 3 L e t t e r b o o k , p.. 105, Cumyow to W i l l i a m A l l e n , 17 December 1890; p. 113, Cumyow t o New W e s t m i n s t e r and V a n c o u v e r Tramway Company, no d a t e , 1891; p. 120, Cumyow t o New W e s t m i n s t e r S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 4 F e b r u a r y 1891. t o J 2 8 Cumyow, v o l . 1 f i l e 3 L e t t e r b o o k , p, ,A. F r a s e r , 9 O c t o b e r 1890. 82, Cumyow to J.M, 29 Cumyow , v o l . 1 C l u t e , 5 May 1891 f i l e 3 ' L e t t e r b o o k , p. 135, Cumyow Cumyow, v o l . 1 f i l e 3 L e t t e r b o o k , p. 61, Cumyow to J o n a t h a n P a t t e r s o n , 15 J u l y 1890. 58 31 H e n d e r s o n ' s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G a z e t t e e r and D i r e c -t o r y ( V i c t o r i a : L.G. H e n d e r s o n , 1889), p. 426. 3 2 CVA, Van. C i t y . , O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C o u n c i l M i n u t e s ) , v o l . 2, 26 Novem-b e r 1886; v o l . 4 25 A u g u s t 1890. 3 3 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s t e r e o t y p e , see Ward, pp. 7-8. 34 CVA Van. C i t y , O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k , By-law 176, May 1893. 3 5 See f o r e x a m p l e s , CVA, Van. C i t y , O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k , I n c o m i n g C o r r e s p o n d e n c e ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as In C o r r e s p . ) , v o l . 5, p. 5261, A.O. S t . George e t . a l . t o Mayor and C i t y C o u n c i l , u n d a t e d 1893; v o l . 9 p. 8097, J.A. M i l l s e t . a l . t o Mayor and C i t y C o u n c i l , u n d a t e d 1895; v o l . 15, p. 11738, George F o r s y t h e t . a l . t o Mayor and C i t y C o u n c i l , u n d a t e d 1900. 36 . ' CVA, Van. C i t y , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 17, p. 13298, M e d i c a l Health.i Of f i c e r J t o R o y a l Commission- oh C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , 15 November 1900. 3 7 CVA, Van. C i t y , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 16, p. 12981, W i l s o n V. S e n k l e r t o C i t y C l e r k , 16 O c t o b e r 1900. 3 8 CVA, Van. C i t y , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 15, p. 12037, M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r t o B o a r d o f H e a l t h , 7 March 1900. 39 CVA, Van. C i t y , O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k , O u t g o i n g C o r r e s p o n d e n c e ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Out C o r r e s p . ) , v o l . 9, C i t y C l e r k t o P o l i c e C h i e f , 19 June 1900. 40 CVA, Van. C i t y , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 16, p. 12980, W i l s o n V. S e n k l e r t o C i t y C l e r k , 16 O c t o b e r 1900. 41 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 175, t e s t i m o n y of D o n a l d S t e w a r t . 4 2 w V a n c o u v e r Da i l y P r o v i n c e , 12 May 1904, P • 1 . 43 CVA, Van. 373, December 1900. C i t y . , O f f i c e o f t h e C i t y C l e r k , By-law 44 CVA, Van. W i l s o n V. S e n k l e r t o C i t y . C i t y , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 16, C l e r k , 16 O c t o b e r 1900. P • 12980, 45 CVA, Van. 9 A p r i l 1901. C i t y . , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , v o l . 10, p. 433, 46 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 12 May 190.4, P • 1. 59 47 CVA, Van. C i t y , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , v o l . 13, p. 258, 13 March 1905. 48 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 8 May 1906. 49 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 12 May 190 6. 50 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 29 May 1906. 51 CVA, Van. C i t y . , Department o f P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s , L i c e n s e R e g i s t r y 1903-1909, 1910-1912. 52 P a t r i c i a E. Roy, V a n c o u v e r : An I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y ( T o r o n t o : James L o r i m e r and Company, 19 8 0 ) , p. 59. 5 3 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 178, testimony o f T.R. S m i t h . 54 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 182, t e s t i m o n y o f G.A. K i r k . 5 5 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 180, t e s t i m o n y o f F r a n c i s W i l l i a m s . The m e r c h a n t t a i l o r f i r m o f H i n g Kee, f o r example, s o l d goods t o S p e n c e r s ' Department S t o r e . 56 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 2 9 May 1.9 0.8, p. 1. 57 C h a r l e s Sedgwick, pp. 39-40. 5 8 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 179, t e s t i m o n y o f Samuel McPherson. 59 C o m p i l e d from K i n g , v o l . C40. 60 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 3 0 May 1908, p. 2 61 F o r example, see K i n g , pp.C32852, C32556, t e s t i m o n y of You Jung G. 62 K i n g , pp. C32022-32023, t e s t i m o n y o f Mark Long. T h i s f i r m was l o c a t e d a t 23 E a s t H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . ^ K i n g , p. C31977, t e s t i m o n y o f Yow Yuen o f Quong Yuen Company. 64 CVA, Van. C i t y . , Department o f P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s , L i c e n s e R e g i s t r y 1886-1889. 6 5 C V A , Add. MSS 571, Sam Kee Company ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sam K e e ) , v o l . 18 f i l e 7 [ R e c o r d o f W r i t i n g S e a t s on B e h a l f o f t h e B l u e F u n n e l L i n e ] ; and S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Lee Yuen Company ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Lee Y u e n ) , box 2 f i l e 1 [ R e t u r n t o C h i n a on a Good B o a t , 1908]. 60 6 6 L a i and Choy, p. 95. 6 7 C o m p i l e d from t i t l e s e a r c h e s a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , Land T i t l e s O f f i c e ( h e r e -a f t e r c i t e d as LTO) 6 8 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 4 June 1908, p. 4; 5 June 1908, p. 6 9 I b i d . r 27 May 1908, p. 1. 70 . Kxng, P . C31624, t e s t i m o n y o f Sam Yuen. K i n g , P .C31816, t es timony o f Wing Mow. 72 . K i n g , P . C31834, t e s t i m o n y o f Wong Kong Chew. 73 . K i n g , P . C31641, t e s t i m o n y o f L a i H i n g Lung. 74 . K i n g , P . C31871, t e s t i m o n y o f F i n S i n S i g . 75 . K i n g , P . C31780, t e s t i m o n y o f Mee Wo- o f Y e t S i n g . 76 . K i n g , P . C31811, t e s timony o f Lum Low o f Y e t S i n g . 77 F o r two examples see LTO, Charge Book v o l . 12, f o l i o 424, l e a s e d a t e d 15 F e b r u a r y 1893 between John M. S p i n k s and H i n g Kee. T h i s was a f i f t e e n y e a r l e a s e , w i t h t h e l e s s e e a g r e e i n g t o pay r e n t o f $20 p e r month., t o r e m i t o n e - h a l f t h e amount o f a s s e s s e d t a x e s , and t o e r e c t a b u i l d i n g . A twenty y e a r l e a s e i s c o n t a i n e d i n LTO A p p l i c a t i o n s S e r i e s , #4772E. The l e s s o r s were W. J . Bowser and George I . W i l s o n , t h e l e s -s e e s were Y i p Yen and Y i p Sang. The l e a s e i s d a t e 4 A u g u s t 1902 and t h e l e s s e e s a g r e e d t o e r e c t a two s t o r e y b r i c k b u i l d i n g w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s o f t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e l e a s e . 7 8 W i l l i a m s ' V a n c o u v e r and New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t i e s ' D i r e c t o r y ( V i c t o r i a : :R.T. W i l l i a m s , 1890), pp. "90-91. 7 9 F i r e Map o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C. (San F r a n c i s c o : D a k i n P u b l i s h i n g Co:.., 1889), CVA Map #338. 8 0 LTO, A b s o l u t e Fees Book, v o l . 21 f o l i o 280, Henry Town t o Chang Toy, 25 September 1889; v o l . 20, f o l i o 556, George B a r n e s t o Y i p Sang, 21 O c t o b e r 1892. 81 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 30 September 1902, p. 1. o o I b i d . , 12 May 1904. 8 3 I b i d . , 10 May 1904. 8 4 I b i d . , 10 May 1904. 61 8 5 CVA, Van. C i t y . , Out C o r r e s p . , vol.. 13, pp. 148-180, C i t y C l e r k t o Wing Sang, Sam Kee, Lee Yuen, Sam Yuen, Rand B r o t h e r s , Hope, G r a v e l y and Company, R i c h a r d s and A k r o y d , e t . a l . , 27 November 1903. Of t h i r t y r e p r i m a n d i n g l e t t e r s f r o m C i t y H a l l , e i g h t were s e n t t o C h i n e s e owners. 8^CVA, Van. C i t y . , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , v o l . 13, p.146, 30 J a n u a r y 1905 ; p. 395, 22 May 19.05; p. 446 , 26 June 1905 ; p. 505, 31 J u l y 1905; p. 553, 5 September 1905; p. 588, 25 September 1905. 87 I b i d . , v o l . 7, p. 4, 29 J a n u a r y 1896; v o l . 7 p. 28. 8 8 I b i d . , v o l . 8, p. 568, 1 December 1898. 89 I b i d . , v o l . 10 p. 226, 17 June 1901; CVA, Van. C i t y . , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 14 p. 10433, Lee Yune e t . a l . t o Mayor and C i t y C o u n c i l , 14 June 1899. 90 CVA, Van. C i t y . , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , v o l . 9, p. 406. 11 December 1899. 91 Lee Thung owned L o t s 12 and 13 i n B l o c k 11, D i s t r i c t L o t 196, and L o t s 30-34, i n B l o c k 16, D i s t r i c t L o t 196. Lee Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 8 H o r a t i o Gates Moore t o Lee S a i Chung, 19 November 1906. Lee Kee owned L o t s 22 and 23 i n B l o c k 11 D i s t r i c t L o t 196, Lee Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 9, B.C. Land and I n v e s t m e n t Agency L t d . t o Lee Kee, 28 March 1907. 9 2 Lee Thung owned L o t s 40-42 i n B l o c k 40, DL 196, l o c a t e d a t t h e c o r n e r o f Gore and P o w e l l . Lee Yuen, Box 2 f i l e 9, Hope and Farmer t o Lee Thung, 13 F e b r u a r y 1911. He a l s o owned L o t s 1 and.2 B l o c k 103, DL 196, c o r n e r o f U n i o n and D u n l e v y , Lee Yuen, Box 2 F i l e 3, A n n i e Agnes B a r r e t t t o Lee Thung, 4 September 1909. 9 3 The Gastown s i t e s were L o t s 9-11, B l o c k 2, DL 196, and t h e s o u t h 55 f e e t o f L o t 15, B l o c k 2, DL 541. Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 7, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, 23 September 1910; v o l . 10 f i l e 5, Mortgage between Shum Moon and F r a n c i s W a l t e r H a l l , 1 A u g ust 1906. The downtown s i t e i n c l u d e d L o t s 19-20, B l o c k 25, DL 541. Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 6, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, 30 A u g u s t 1904. 9 4 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 133, Sam Kee t o Ed. S t o l t e r f o h t , 22 June 1908; Sam Kee t o R.R. Forshaw, 10 O c t -o b e r 1910. 9 5 Lee Yuen, Box 1, f i l e 9, L e a s e between Lee Thung and Edward Donovan, 5 June 1907. 9 6 Sam Kee, v o l . 2 Book 1, p. 16, Sam Kee t o R.R. P a r k e s , 31 March 1911. 62 9 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 2 Book 1, p. 15, Sam Kee t o W.A. M a c d o n a l d , K.C., 30 March. 1911. 9 8 Lee Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 4, Lee Kee t o D a v i s , M a r s h a l l , M c N e i l l and Pugh, 9 September 1913. 9 9 These were L o t s 9 and north", h o f " L o t 10, B l o c k 40, DL541, and L o t s 4,5, B l o c k 100, DL 541. Sam Kee, v o l . 10, f i l e 9, t y p e s c r i p t l i s t o f p r o p e r t y t a x e s due to C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1911. 1 0 ° T h e s e were L o t s 16 and 17, B l o c k 9, DL 182A i n Lee Yuen, Box 2 f i l e 9, P . J . M c K i c h a n t o Lee Gee Kwong, 17 A p r i l 1912; and L o t s 9 and 10, B l o c k 8, DL 183D i n Sam Kee, v o l . 10, f i l e 9, t y p e s c r i p t l i s t o f p r o p e r t y t a x e s due t o C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1911. 101 These were L o t 23, B l o c k 2,. DL 200A i n Sam Kee v o l . 10 f i l e 7, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, 23 September 1910; and L o t 12, B l o c k 9, DL 200A, Sam Kee, v o l . 10, f i l e 9, t y p e s c r i p t l i s t o f p r o p e r t y t a x e s due t o C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1911. 102 These were t h e f o l l o w i n g : DL. 394, B l o c k 15, S u b d i v i s i o n 5-9 i n Sam Kee, v o l . 10, f i l e 7, M u n i c i p a l i t y of South V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee 26 June 1907; DL. 714, E a s t h, Southwest h i n Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 7, M u n i c i p a l i t y o f S o u t h V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, 26 June 1907; DL. 648, E a s t h , S u b d i v i s i o n 5, L o t s 6-9 i n Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 7, M u n i c i p a l i t y o f S o u t h V a n c o u v e r to Sam Kee, 1908 Tax S t a t e m e n t ; DL 335, L3?'/. E a s t ' h : i n . Sam ..Kee, V o l . 10 f i l e . 7 , M u n i c i p a l i t y of S outh V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, Tax S t a t e m e n t , 1 November 1911; DL 335, S o u t h h, S o u t h e a s t h, Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 7, M u n i c i p a l i t y o f South V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, Tax S t a t e m e n t , 18 O c t o b e r 1910; D L . 1 4 , L o t s 1-4, 7-22, Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 11, M u n i c i p a l i t y o f S o u t h V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee. 10 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 10 f i l e 7, Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y t o Sam Kee, 12 December 1908 f o r S t e v e s t o n B l o c k 2, L o t 3; v o l . 10 f i l e 7, D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r t o Sam Kee, 15 November 1911 r e DL. 887, B l o c k 4; v o l . 10 f i l e 7, W.L. Fagan t o Sam Kee, 24 June 1907 r e : H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e S e c t i o n 45, E a s t P t ; SW^. See a l s o Lee Yuen Box 1 f i l e 4, D a v i d Bun and Fong Dickman t o Lee Kee and Lee C a r , 22 J a n u a r y 1904 r e : S t e v e s t o n p r o p e r t y ; Box 2, f i l e 3, F.H. L a n t z Co L t d . t o Lee Thung, 2 F e b r u a r y 1911 r e H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e ; Box 2 f i l e 3, John Hendry t o Lee Thung, 23 September 1909 r e : Burnaby l a n d ; and Box 3 f i l e 3, E.W. MacLean t o Lee Thung, 30 March 1912 r e : .North V a n c o u v e r l a n d s . 104 CVA, B o a r d o f P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r s , G e n e r a l F i l e s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as B P C . G e n e r a l F i l e s ) , L o c a t i o n 7 5 - A - l l , F i l e 4, C h i n e s e Board o f T r a d e t o C h i e f o f P o l i c e , 20 A p r i l 1905; T a i Sang t o C h i e f o f P o l i c e , u n d a t e d . 63 105 . . . . CVA, V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n , S o u v e n i r o f t h e P o l i c e Department, 1901. Pamphlet 19 01-6. 106 CVA, BPC. G e n e r a l F i l e s , L o c a t i o n 7 5 - A - l l , F i l e H i n g Lee e t . a l . t o Mayor, 18 A u g u s t 1906. 107 F o r example, see V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 4 June 1908, p. 4 f o r a s y m p a t h e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f . . . t h e two w e a l t h i e s t c e l e s t i a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . . t h e r e m a r k a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between Loo (Gee Wing) and Sam ( K e e ) , the f o r m e r d r e s s e d l i k e a t a i l o r ' s model din t h e s u i t o f a p r o s p e r -ous E n g l i s h m a n down t o h i s p a t e n t l e a t h e r s w h i l e Sam s t i l l r e t a i n s h i s C h i n e s e costume and s p e a k s o n l y i n h i s n a t i v e t o n g u e . 10 8 W i c k b e r g , From C h i n a t o Canada, pp. 30, 34. 109 CVA, Van. C i t y . , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 9 p. 7888, C D . Rand t o C i t y C l e r k , 6 J u l y 1895. 110 CVA, Van. C i t y . , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 11, p. 9321a, C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s t o P o l i c e C h i e f , 21 J a n u a r y 1897. 1 1 1 C V A , Van. C i t y . , I n . C o r r e s p . , v o l . 9, p. 8090, H i p Tuck Lung e t . a l : t o Mayor and A l d e r m e n , 17 June 1895; CVA, Van. C i t y . , C o u n c i l M i n u t e s , v o l . 14, p. 200, 25 June.. 1906. 112 CVA, Van. C i t y . , In C o r r e s p . , v o l . 11, p. 9121, Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t r a n s c r i p t o f p r o c e e d i n g s 20 A u g u s t 1897. 113 CVA, Van. C i t y . , I n . C o r r e s p . , v o l . 15, p. 11705, D.L. W a l l b r i d g e t o Mayor, 4 December 1899. 1 1 4 D a v i d T. H. Lee, [A H i s t o r y o f Chines.e i n Canada] ( T a i p e i , 1967), pp. 208-209. 1 1 ~ ' K i n g , p. C31560 , t e s t i m o n y o f Shum Moon. 1 1 6 C a n a d a . 1902 R e p o r t , p. 213 117 Doe Chuen L e e , I n s i d e t h e C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t  A s s o c i a t i o n ( T a i p e i , 1969), pp. 12-13 118 CVA, Van. C i t y . , In C o r r e s p . , V o l . 17, p. 13303, M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r t o S e c r e t a r y . , R o y a l Commission on C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , 15 November 1900. 119 . K i n g , pp. C31566-31571, 31578, t e s t i m o n y o f Shum Moon . 64 120 Canada. 1902 R e p o r t , p. 235, t e s t i m o n y o f W.A. Cumyow 121 F o r example, see newspaper c l i p p i n g s i n Cumyow s c r a p b o o k , Cumyow, volume 1 f i l e 5, W o r l d 3 A p r i l 1903. 65 CHAPTER IV BUSINESS PRACTICES FROM TWO WORLDS The c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e were c e n t r a l t o t h e i r i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and a t t h e h e a r t o f b u s i n e s s were t h e d e v i c e s and methods used t o o v e r s e e and c o n t r o l t h e movement o f money. Mechanisms f o r r a i s i n g c a p i t a l , l e n d i n g money, f o r m i n g b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s , and i n v e s t i n g s u r p l u s f u n d s complemented d a i l y b o o k k e e p i n g and management p r o c e d u r e s by p r o m o t i n g growth and d e v e l o p m e n t beyond t h e i n i t i a l t r a d i n g o f goods and s e r v i c e s . These were the t o o l s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d t h e m i g r a n t s ' economic e n d e a v o u r s i n a r e a s o t h e r t h a n wage l a b o u r . As f i r s t gen-e r a t i o n s e t t l e r s , C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n b r o u g h t p r a c t i c e s s u c h as r o t a t i n g c r e d i t a s s o c i a t i o n s and p a r t n e r s h i p a r r a n g e -ments w i t h them from C h i n a . These were s u p p l e m e n t e d by l o c a l w e s t e r n p r a c t i c e s and both, a i d e d f i n a n c i a l d e v e l o p -ment i n an e x t r e m e l y m o n e y - o r i e n t e d community. The f o l l o w -i n g pages i d e n t i f y i m m i g r a n t ways o f r a i s i n g money and f o r m i n g b u s i n e s s , and e x p l o r e some o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . A c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t i n economic growth i s t h e a v a i l a -b i l i t y o f s u r p l u s c a p i t a l t o f i n a n c e new v e n t u r e s o r t o 66 expand e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . In t h e new w o r l d community o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada th e c a p i t a l market s e r v e d a v a r i e t y o f n e e d s . L a b o u r e r s t r y i n g q u i c k l y t o amass s u b s t a n t i a l s a v i n g s f o r a r e t u r n t r i p t o C h i n a c o u l d borrow f u n d s t o s t a r t t h e i r own b u s i n e s s . Loans a s s i s t e d t h o s e a l r e a d y i n " b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e i r c a s h f l o w and h e l p e d them expand. Those p o s s e s s i n g s u r p l u s f u n d s t o l e n d e a r n e d p r o f i t s from i n t e r e s t payments. The b o r r o w i n g and l e n d i n g o f money, as n o t e d e a r l i e r , was e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e C h i n e s e way o f l i f e , b o t h as a n e c e s s i t y and as a c h o i c e . In C h i n a , one o f t h e most w i d e l y used mechanisms f o r b o r r o w i n g money was t h e h u i , a l s o c a l l e d j ^ ^ l * y i n - h u i o r J^4? y i - h u i ) , a money l o a n a s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r i n g m u t u a l c r e d i t t o i t s members. In g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e a p e r s o n n e e d i n g f u n d s o r g a n i z e d , a h u i by a s s e m b l i n g a g r o u p o f a b o u t t e n f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s and s e c u r e d from each an agreement to pay a c e r t a i n sum i n t o a common p o o l e v e r y month. The f i r s t p o o l o f c a s h c o l l e c t e d was u s e d by t h e o r g a n i z e r o f t h e h u i . A month, l a t e r , t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s g a t h e r e d and a l l p a i d i n t o t h e p o o l a g a i n . T h i s t i m e , a n o t h e r member, s e l e c -t e d t h r o u g h a l o t t e r y draw, r e c e i v e d use o f t h e c a s h p o o l . The h u i c o n t i n u e d t o meet i n t h i s f a s h i o n u n t i l e v e r y member had r e c e i v e d use o f the p o o l e d sum, each h a v i n g p a i d i n t o t h e p o o l an e q u i v a l e n t amount t h r o u g h t h e m o n t h l y pay-1 ments. In a more demanding v e r s i o n o f the h u i , members b i d f o r t h e use o f t h e p o o l . Those, who needed t h e p o o l e d sum 6 7 u r g e n t l y t e n d e r e d a h i g h u s e r ' s f e e w h i c h was d e d u c t e d from each member's c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r t h a t month. F o r example, i f t h e h i g h e s t b i d was $2.00 on $20.00 s h a r e s , each member p a i d o n l y $18.00 t o e a r n t h e $2.00 u s e r f e e o r i n t e r e s t , as i t were. W e a l t h y c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e h u i who d i d n o t need t h e c a s h p o o l c o u l d p r o f i t f r o m t h e h u i by d e d u c t i n g „ h i g h u s e r f e e s b i d n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g and t h e n by b i d d i n g low u s e r f e e s t h e m s e l v e s l a t e r on to o b t a i n l a r g e r p o o l e d sums. As s u c h , t h e h u i was a s p e c u l a t i v e d e v i c e f o r t h o s e p o s s e s -2 s i n g s u r p l u s c a p i t a l . The h u i r e q u i r e d w i d e s p r e a d m u t u a l c o n f i d e n c e w i t h i n t h e community i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n t o meet s p o n t a n e o u s needs f o r c a s h as t h e y a r o s e . C o n f i d e n c e l i m i t e d t o a few o r t o s m a l l g r o u p s r e d u c e d t h e number o f h u i and t h e amounts o f c a s h r a i s e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e h u i d i d not r e l y on c o l l a t e r a l assignments: t o l e s s e n t h e r i s k o f members ab-3 s c o n d i n g a f t e r r e c e i v i n g use o f t h e c a s h p o o l . In t h e b i d d i n g v a r i a n t o f t h e h u i , t h e o r g a n i z e r was h e l d l i a b l e 4 f o r o n e - h a l f t h e d e b t o f any d e f a u l t e r . Even t h e n t h e h u i r e l i e d m a i n l y on t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l and m o r a l c o n t r o l s e n f o r c e d t h r o u g h v i l l a g e and l i n e e a g e n etworks to g u a r a n t e e r e payment.^ Land and house deeds were, however, used as c o l l a t e r a l i n some h u i i n l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y S o u t h C h i n a . ^ In t h e o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e sub-c o m m u n i t i e s o f r e g i o n and k i n s h i p were r e - c r e a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f m u t u a l t r u s t , m u t u a l h e l p and m o r a l b e h a v i o u r were r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . 68 S i n c e e v e r y C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n a l c l a n and d i s t r i c t t i e s , t h e h u i c o u l d t a p t h e p o c k e t s o f many. S t i l l , t h e h u i c o u l d n o t g e n e r a t e t h e m a s s i v e sums t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l banks r a i s e d f r o m d e p o s i t o r s ' s a v i n g s b e c a u s e t h e h u i was b a s e d on i n t e r - p e r s o n a l t r u s t . In r a i s i n g s m a l l l o a n s ( p o o l e d m o n t h l y sums i n V a n c o u v e r 7 between 1904 and 1913 r a n g e d from $200 t o $1300 ). , t h e h u i was r e m a r k a b l y e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e no o p e r a t i n g c o s t s were i n c u r r e d . Nor was t h e h u i o b l i g e d t o i t s members t o p u r s u e a p r o f i t . I t c r e a t e d cash, o n l y when u r g e n t needs a r o s e from an o r g a n i z e r . F o r t h e n a s c e n t l e v e l o f b u s i n e s s d eve-lopment e x i s t i n g i n t h e e a r l y o v e r s e a s community, t h e h u i . 8 was i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o g e n e r a t e s m a l l sums o f c a p i t a l . The w i d e s p r e a d use o f h u i i n C h i n a was f a c i l i t a t e d by p r i n t e d b o o k l e t s which, s e t o u t th.e r u l e s and p r o v i d e d b l a n k s and columns f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y e n t r i e s o f members' names, m o n t h l y amounts, and d a t e o f m e e t i n g . Over one h u n d r e d such h u i b o o k l e t s were c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e Lee Yuen Company (^VJ/^T-jp^,) / o n e o f e a r l y V a n c o u v e r ' s t o p - e a r n i n g f i r m s . The company was formed as a p a r t n e r s h i p among Lee k i n s m e n i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r , and i t s managers were two b r o t h e r s f r o m a w e a l t h y T a i - s h a n (^J,li\ ) f a m i l y . Lee Thung L i Cong) was a l s o known as Lee S a i - J a n g ( j l pGi ' ^ L i S h i -zh.ang) , wh.ile Lee Kee (^j£j|j[ L i Qi) was a l s o known as Lee S a i -f a n ( j | ^ l i L ^ ^ L i S h i - f a n ) . With s u b s t a n t i a l w e a l t h amassed from th e opium t r a d e and l a t e r f r o m g e n e r a l t r a d i n g , t h e Lee Yuen Company p a r t i c i p a t e d i n many hui.. 69 In t h e 105 h u i b o o k l e t s t h a t were examined, t h e Lee Yuen Company p r i n c i p a l s o r g a n i z e d t h e c r e d i t a s s o c i a t i o n o n l y o nce, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y - w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h u i c h i e f l y as l e n d e r s p u r s u i n g a s p e c u l a t i v e v e n t u r e . The h u i o r g a n i z e d i n V a n c o u v e r were o f t h e b i d d i n g v a r i a n t . F i f t y - n i n e o f t h e s e were o r g a n i z e d i n a s i n g l e y e a r 1912, w h i l e f o r t y - f i v e were a c t i v a t e d between 1904 and 1911. One was from t h e y e a r 1913. Lee Thung, Lee Kee, and t h e i r com-pany were l i s t e d as members i n n i n e t y - n i n e o f t h e h u i , and the r e m a i n i n g s i x b o o k l e t s came f r o m o t h e r Lee k i n s m e n who had e n t r u s t e d t h e i r b o o k l e t s t o t h e company f o r s a f e k e e p i n g . In t h e 1904-1911 b l o c k o f h u i b o o k l e t s , the i n d i v i d u a l m o n t h l y c o n t r i b u t i o n s r a n g e d from $20 t o $100, w i t h an a v e r a g e o f $60. F o r 1912, t h e range was $30 to $100, w i t h an a v e r a g e o f $80. The number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s v a r i e d f r o m t e n to f i f t e e n . A ssuming t h a t a l l members i n a l l h u i f u l -f i l l e d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s , and i g n o r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t deduc-t i o n s , t h e g r o s s amount o f cash, a s s e m b l e d and l o a n e d f o r t h e 1904-1911 p e r i o d can be r o u g h l y c a l c u l a t e d a t $456,300 and f o r 1912 a t $811 , 2 0 0 . 9 A t o t a l o f 169 p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f o r t y - f i v e h u i o f t h e 1904-1911 p e r i o d , w i t h n i n e t y - e i g h t o f them j o i n i n g o n l y o n c e . F o r t h e s i x t y h u i o f 1912, 162 p e o p l e j o i n e d and e i g h t y - n i n e o f t h e s e j o i n e d o n l y o n c e . The h u i c l e a r l y p r o v i d e d a c c e s s t o many i n d i v i d u a l s t o borrow money a n d / o r to s p e c u l a t e f o r a o n e - t i m e - o n l y b a s i s . The number of t h o s e who j o i n e d two h u i . d r o p p e d d r a m a t i c a l l y t o twenty 70 and s e v e n t e e n f o r t h e two p e r i o d s , t e s t i f y i n g p e r h a p s t o t h e r i g o u r s o f r e p a y i n g l o a n s from l i m i t e d i n c o m e s . t h e 105 u n d e r s t u d y ) were o r g a n i z e d by C h i n a town f i r m s and n o t by i n d i v i d u a l s . Those who were a l r e a d y i n b u s i n e s s would n a t u r a l l y have g r e a t e r c a l l t o borrow and would t h e r e -f o r e have s e t about o r g a n i z i n g a h u i . As w e l l , a b u s i n e s s m a n was more l i k e l y t o be t r u s t e d t o a s s e m b l e a s u c c e s s f u l h u i b e c a u s e i f h i s h u i f a i l e d t h e n r e c o u r s e m i g h t be s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e l o s s o f p a t r o n a g e from a s s o c i a t e s . The l o s s o f f a c e and t h e l i a b i l i t y assumed f o r any d e f a u l t e r s p l a c e d a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e on o r g a n i z e r s t o seek o u t t r u s t w o r t h y c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . In many c a s e s , h u i o r g a n i -z e r s were b a c k e d by a n o t h e r . f i r m a c t i n g as g u a r a n t o r community h u i a c t i v i t y \ . b e c a u s e i t o r i g i n a t e d f r o m a s i n g l e f i r m ' s r e c o r d s , i t does r e v e a l t h a t t h e t o p - e a r n i n g f i r m s o f C h i n a t o w n were s t e a d y i n v e s t o r s , a l t h o u g h n o t o r g a n i z e r s , i n t h e r o t a t i n g c r e d i t a s s o c i a t i o n s . In t h e 1904-1911 p e r i o d , Lee Yuen j o i n e d t h i r t y - n i n e h u i , Gim Lee Yuen t h i r t y , Wing Sang t w e n t y - s i x , and H i p Tuck Lung e i g h t e e n . In t h e 1912 r e c o r d s , Lee Yuen s i g n e d u p . f o r s i x t y h u i , Wing Sang f o r t w e n t y - s i x , and Gim Lee Yuen f o r t w e n t y - f o u r . Sam Kee e n t e r e d o n l y t w e n t y - o n e h u i f o r th.e two p e r i o d s as r e c o r d e d i n t h e Lee Yuen p a p e r s . The m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s and b i d s e s -s i o n s were h e l d a t tea-houses, and r e s t a u r a n t s and gave The m a j o r i t y o f t h e h u i ( a t l e a s t s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t o t h e l o a n a r r a n g e m e n t . W h i l e th e Lee Yuen d a t a does n o t r e p r e s e n t o v e r a l l 71 Chinatown's, r e s t a u r a n t t r a d e a lxealth.y b o o s t . F o r example, i n a s i n g l e month i n 1906, Lee Thung a t t e n d e d twenty-one h u i m e e t i n g s a t d i f f e r e n t e a t i n g establishments."*"^ The o n g o i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f ,-the w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s o f C h i n a t o w n s t a b i l i z e d and g u a r a n t e e d t h e m i n o r b a n k i n g f u n c -t i o n s c a r r i e d out by t h e h-ui. The v i a b i l i t y o f t h e h u i was n e c e s s a r y t o e n c o u r a g e o n e - t i m e i n v e s t o r s t o j o i n and add t h e i r s a v i n g s and p r o j e c t e d s a v i n g s t o t h e c a p i t a l mar-k e t . A t t h e same t i m e , the : c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t o f t h e major-f i r m s a t t e s t e d t o t h e p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f t h e h u i . The r o t a t i n g c r e d i t a s s o c i a t i o n was a f a m i l i a r and c o n v e n i e n t i n s t r u m e n t t h a t h e l p e d t h e C h i n a t o w n economy f u n c t i o n and expand when many p o t e n t i a l b o r r o w e r s d i d n o t p o s s e s s s u f f i c i e n t c o l l a -t e r a l t o borrow from c o n v e n t i o n a l l e n d e r s . I t was n o t p o s -s i b l e t o see i f th.e hui. o f f e r e d a c h e a p e r form o f c r e d i t t h a n d i d c o n v e n t i o n a l l e n d e r s b e c a u s e th e c o s t o f h u i b o r r o w i n g c o u l d n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d s i n c e t h e b i d amounts were n o t r e c o r d e d . The s u c c e s s o f t h e h.ui , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , depended on n o n - l e g a l forms o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l o v e r member o b l i g a t i o n s . No e v i d e n c e o f b o r r o w e r s u s i n g l a n d o r b u i l d i n g s as c o l l a -t e r a l were f o u n d i n t h e r e c o r d s . The smooth o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h u i may have begun t o b u c k l e i n t h e new w o r l d , however, b e c a u s e b e g i n n i n g i n 1912 t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce s t a r t e d t o a c t as a c l e a r i n g - h o u s e f o r t h e h u i payments. H u i members s u b m i t t e d p o s t - d a t e d p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s t o t h e Chamber p r o m i s i n g to pay t h e m o n t h l y sums t o t h e Chamber's bank 72 w i t h i n t e r e s t o f t e n p e r c e n t . L i k e the h u i b o o k l e t s , t h e n o t e s were s i g n e d by a g u a r a n t o r . 1 1 T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t c r e a t e d a b i n d i n g l e g a l document t o e n s u r e repayment, and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t d e f a u l t i n g b o r r o w e r s were b r o u g h t 12 to c o u r t . The t r a n s i e n c y and m o b i l i t y o f m i g r a n t s and the changes i n new w o r l d h i e r a r c h i e s may have weakened t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m s o f o b l i g a t i o n and c o n t r o l . As f o r p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s , t h e C h i n e s e had u s e d them to l e n d and t o e x t e n d c r e d i t even b e f o r e 1912. In 1909 Lee Kee l o a n e d $500 t o l a w y e r W.W.B. Mcln n e s s e c u r e d by a p r o m i s s o r y n o t e , 1 3 w h i l e Lee Thung b o r r o w e d from t h e 14 N o r t h e r n Bank, t h e c h a n d l e r y f i r m o f Wood, V a l l a n c e and 15 L e g a t t , and t h e Lee Yuen p a r t n e r s h i p with, t h e same i n -16 . s t r u m e n t . P r o m i s s o r y n o t e s were much more c o n v e n i e n t f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c r e d i t t h a n p e r s o n a l a s s e t s s u c h as 17 18 c a r t s and h o r s e s , o r p a r t n e r s h i p e n t i t l e m e n t s , . w h i c h m i n o r C h i n e s e b o r r o w e r s w i t h l e s s c r e d i t s t a n d i n g commonly us e d . A n o t h e r c a p i t a l - r a i s i n g d e v i c e b r o u g h t f r o m C h i n a was t h e p a r t n e r s h i p a r r a n g e m e n t f o r b u s i n e s s f o r m a t i o n . In C h i n a t h e p o o l i n g o f r e s o u r c e s f o r commerce was common p r a c t i c e , b u t t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and o b l i g a t i o n s 19 were n e v e r f o r m a l i z e d i n l e g a l t e r m s . In N o r t h A m e r i c a n p r a c t i c e and law, l i a b i l i t y was t h e c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e p a r a t i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s from i n c o r p o r a t e d f i r m s . P a r t n e r s , l i k e s o l e p r o p r i e t o r s , were f u l l y and p e r s o n a l l y l i a b l e f o r a l l t h e d e b t s o f th.e company whereas l i m i t e d p a r t n e r s o r 73 c o r p o r a t e s h a r e h o l d e r s were n o t . M o r e o v e r , i n t h e o r y non-.; l i m i t e d p a r t n e r s s h a r e d p r o f i t s and l o s s e s e q u a l l y , r e g a r d -20 l e s s o f t h e amount o f t h e i r i n i t i a l , c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . In C h i n e s e p r a c t i c e , p a r t n e r s h i p s e m p h a s i z e d t h e amount o f c a p i t a l c o n t r i b u t e d and t h e r o l e o f t h e managing p a r t -n e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g p r o f i t and l i a b i l i t y , and t h u s r e s e m b l e d t h e l i m i t e d p a r t n e r s h i p s o f w e s t e r n p r a c t i c e . S e v e r a l v a r i a n t s t o t h e C h i n e s e l i m i t e d p a r t n e r s h i p were d e s c r i b e d 21 by a n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o b s e r v e r . One p e r s o n m i g h t manage a f i r m f ormed from p o o l e d c a p i t a l and t r e a t t h e v a r i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s as l o a n s t o t h e firm., t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e l i a b i l i t y o f o u t s i d e r s . Or p a r t n e r s a c c e p t e d l i a b i l i t y o n l y i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t , e x c e p t f o r t h e managing p a r t n e r . The managing p a r t n e r ' s l i a b i l i t y was u s u a l l y g r e a t e r e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where- dormant p a r t -n e r s p l a y e d no r o l e i n t h e b u s i n e s s . The managing p a r t n e r answered t o c r e d i t o r s and t o t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r s on b e h a l f of t h e e n t i r e f i r m . As such., t h e s i l e n t p a r t n e r s were v i e w e d as i n v e s t o r s w i t h o u t any l i a b i l i t y f o r d e b t s . P a r t n e r s h i p s i n C h i n a t h u s p l a c e d a heavy b u r d e n o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y on t h e managing p a r t n e r . The p a r t n e r s h i p agreements drawn up f o r two e a r l y C h i n a t o w n f i r m s r e p l i c a t e d C h i n e s e p a r t n e r s h i p s . a h d a l s o r e v e a l e d t h e dominance o f c l a n t i e s i n b u s i n e s s . In 1898 t h e Hong On Jung ( j ^ ^ ^ l Tong An Zhan) Company was c a p i t a -l i z e d a t $1500 by f i v e p a r t n e r s , two surnamed Lam C ^ \ L i n ) and t h r e e surnamed Lee (^.Li). . L i n S h i - z h u i n v e s t e d $500 74 2 2 w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r each c o n t r i b u t e d $250. The Gim Lee Yuen J i n L l Yuan) Company s t a r t e d i n 1899 w i t h c a p i t a l o f $1000, of w h i c h $500 came from t h e V i c t o r i a f i r m o f Gim Fook Yuen (^^^^^ J i n F u Yuan) and $200 a p i e c e came fr o m Lum Duck-shew L i n De-ch.ao) and Leong Suey ^It'^IT) L i a n 9 Q i - r u i ) • T h e L a m F a m i l y A s s o c i a t i o n (ffijf>^JH| ) 2 3 h e l d t h e r e m a i n i n g $100 s h a r e . B o t h f i r m s were g e n e r a l i m p o r t e r s s u p p l y i n g o u t - o f - t o w n c u s t o m e r s and t h e terms o f b o t h p a r t n e r s h i p s were a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . B a c k e r s t o b o t h f i r m s a g r e e d t h a t b e c a u s e th e o p e r a -t i o n s were newly e s t a b l i s h e d , no d i v i d e n d s would be p a i d u n t i l a f t e r t h e t h i r d y e a r o f b u s i n e s s , even i f p r o f i t s were e a r n e d i n t h e i n i t i a l y e a r s . I n t e r e s t o f t e n p e r c e n t on s h a r e c a p i t a l was c a l c u l a t e d m o n t h l y , w h i l e d i v i d e n d s were a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the amount o f i n i t i a l c a p i t a l . The a greements i n s t r u c t e d p a r t n e r s to redeem t h e i r h o l d i n g s i n t h e b u s i n e s s i f t h e y r e t u r n e d t o C h i n a . No m e n t i o n o f t h e l i a b i l i t y o f p a r t n e r s i n t h e e v e n t o f b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e a p p e a r e d i n e i t h e r agreement, p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e i t was c o n s i d e r e d i n a u s p i c i o u s . B o t h agreements p l a c e d t h e managing p a r t n e r i n a m a j o r r o l e . The c o n t r a c t s a p p o i n t e d one p a r t n e r t o assume c o m p l e t e management o f t h e f i r m , w i t h the p r o v i s o t h a t he be r e p l a c e d upon f a i l i n g t h e w i s h e s o f th.e p a r t n e r s h i p . He was e n j o i n e d t o work d i l i g e n t l y f o r t h e common good. H i s s a l a r y was s u b j e c t t o change a t any t i m e , b u t i f p r o f i t s a c c r u e d t h e n a bonus was g r a n t e d t o a l l s t a f f . The manager was a l s o h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o w i n g any d e b t s t o be r e c o r d e d a g a i n s t t h e 75 f i r m by a p a r t n e r . The p a r t n e r s h i p agreement a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the p r e v a -l e n c e o f c r e d i t and m u l t i p l e i n v e s t m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e b u s i n e s s community and r u l e d a g a i n s t any p a r t n e r a c t i n g f o r a n o t h e r f i r m . P a r t n e r s were e x p e c t e d t o i n f o r m t h e manager o f any s u c h c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . P a r t n e r s who had b o r -rowed money or goods from t h e f i r m had to d e c l a r e a r e p a y -ment d e a d l i n e and i f t h i s was n o t met t h e o t h e r s c o u l d move to r e c o v e r t h e o u t s t a n d i n g amount f r o m t h e d e b t o r ' s s h a r e o f t h e c a p i t a l p o o l . F u r t h e r comment on t h e p a r t n e r s h i p b a s e s o f t h e s e two f i r m s i s i m p o s s i b l e , o t h e r t h a n to n o t e t h a t b o t h f i r m s d i d p r o s p e r . Hong On Jung r e p o r t e d g r o s s a n n u a l r e c e i p t s o f $50,000 t o M a c k e n z i e K i n g ' s 1908 R o y a l Commission, w h i l e Gim Lee Yuen r e p o r t e d $150,000. Gim Lee Yuen c o n t i -nues to o p e r a t e as a g e n e r a l i m p o r t e r under the Lam f a m i l y , b u t Hong on Jung no l o n g e r e x i s t s . I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e s e two p a r t n e r s h i p agreements w i t h two o t h e r s drawn up f i f t e e n y e a r s l a t e r t o c o n s i d e r t e n t a t i v e l y t h e changes o c c u r r i n g i n b u s i n e s s among the C h i n e s e . In 1913 and 1914, Lee Thung s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e c a p i t a -l i z a t i o n o f two e a t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , b o t h named the P e k i n g R e s t a u r a n t (^ b.^ ^^  B e i j i n g Lou) l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r and 24 V i c t o r i a . The p o o l e d c a p i t a l was s e t a t $4500 and a t $4600 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the V i c t o r i a p a r t n e r s h i p i n v o l v e d some e i g h t e e n p a r t n e r s , e l e v e n o f whom were surnamed Lee . Some of t h e p a r t n e r s h i p terms o f th.e P e k i n g R e s t a u r a n t s 76 r e s e m b l e d t h o s e from t h e 1898 and 1899 f i r m s : t h e manager p o s s e s s e d c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r t h e b u s i n e s s , s t a f f members r e c e i v e d a bonus i f a p r o f i t a c c r u e d , p a r t n e r s were n o t a l l o w e d t o t r a d e s h a r e s on t h e i r own and were e x p e c t e d t o r e t u r n them t o th.e company, and p r o f i t s were d i s b u r s e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e amount o f i n i t i a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . O t h e r terms showed a p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n f o r l i q u i d a t i o n and l i a b i l i t y n o t f o u n d i n t h e e a r l y a g r e e m e n t s . B o t h r e s t a u r a n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e and s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y t h a t any l o s s e s were t o be s h a r e d among a l l p a r t n e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s h a r e c a p i t a l . The V a n c o u v e r f i r m s t a t e d even more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t f u n d s would f i r s t a d d r e s s wages and r e n t s p a y a b l e b e f o r e m e e t i n g t h e p a r t n e r s ' c l a i m s . As f o r b o r r o w i n g from t h e company, p a r t n e r s were now f o r b i d d e n t o do so, and any w i t h d r a w a l o f s h a r e s would be b a s e d on t h e company's s t a n d i n g a t t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s end. The l a t e r p a r t n e r s h i p agreements t h u s a t t e m p t e d t o a n t i c i p a t e and a d d r e s s l i q u i d a t i o n . . p r o b l e m s b e f o r e h a n d and t o h a l t t h e b o r r o w i n g o f company f u n d s by p a r t n e r s . P a r t n e r s h i p s i n Chinatown v a r i e d immensely, and ap-p e a r e d i n a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f u n d e r t a k i n g s . In t h e g a m b l i n g s p h e r e , p a r t n e r s h i p s were r e m a r k a b l y f l e x i b l e d e v i c e s f o r e a r n i n g d i v i d e n d s , r e c e i v i n g wages, and b o r r o w i n g f u n d s . G a m b l i n g , o f c o u r s e , f u n c t i o n e d as a r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l o u t l e t f o r t h e . l a r g e l y male p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n , and t h e many games p l a y e d h e l d p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a l f o r m i g r a n t s a n x i o u s t o h i t a j a c k p o t w i n n i n g . F o r t h o s e who s e t up 77 gaming o p e r a t i o n s , t h e s e v e n t u r e s must have a p p e a r e d to be i d e a l i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s s i n c e t h e r e was a c a p t i v e m a r k e t and s i n c e l i t t l e was s p e n t on c a p i t a l goods. The m a j o r r e q u i r e m e n t was t h e house p o o l a g a i n s t w h i c h c l i e n t s p i t t e d t h e i r l u c k and f u n d s . At t h e same t i m e , however, t h e r e was t h e r i s k t h a t a g a m b l e r ' s sudden s t r e a k o f l u c k m i g h t d r a i n t h e house p o o l and f o r c e t h e p a r t n e r s t o i n j e c t more fun d s i n t o t h e e n t e r p r i s e . The g a m b l i n g v e n t u r e s t h a t t h e Lee Yuen and Sam Kee company p r i n c i p a l s b a c k e d l a s t e d f o r s h o r t terms o f s e v e r a l months to a few y e a r s . These b r i e f l i f e spans may have r e f l e c t e d t h e h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f g a m b l i n g h o u s e s i n C h i n a t o w n , o r may have been b r o u g h t a b o u t by p o l i c e c l o s u r e s . Or p e r h a p s b u s i n e s s m e n v i e w e d g a m b l i n g v e n t u r e s s t r i c t l y as s h o r t t e r m r i s k s t o be l i q u i d a t e d as soon as s a t i s f a c t o r y r e t u r n s were e a r n e d . The f o l l o w i n g examples of f o u r gaming o p e r a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e v a r i e t y o f economic g a i n s t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s o f f e r e d . Hop Lee Word F l o w e r s ^^^'\X-%^C' ) was an 1893 p a r t -n e r s h i p c a p i t a l i z e d a t $300 between Wing Chong Company J^^f'^ rL* ' C h a n g T o y ( ^ . ^ " C n e n C a i ) o f Sam Kee Company, and one Ma Da-yuan ^^f\^^) Wing Chong i n v e s t e d $150 w h i l e the o t h e r two p u t i n $75 each t o o p e r a t e t h e w o r d - g u e s s i n g l o t t e r y . A l l t h r e e a c t e d as w o r k i n g p a r t n e r s and c o l l e c t e d a m o n t h l y wage o r c o m m i s s i o n o f $20 to $25. In t h e e i g h t e e n weeks o f o p e r a t i o n f o r which, r e c o r d s e x i s t , t h e company e a r n e d $650.40 f o r games won by t h e house and p a i d out 78 $529.15 f o r games l o s t by t h e h o u s e . The t h r e e p a r t n e r s t h e n d i v i d e d t h e n e t p r o f i t among them, w i t h each r e c e i v i n g $49.05. F o r t h e i r i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t , t h e two m i n o r p a r t -n e r s had each e a r n e d a p r o f i t o f a t l e a s t $54 o v e r t h e 2 6 e i g h t e e n months, a r e t u r n o f f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t . But b e c a u s e t h e n e t p r o f i t was d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among t h e p a r t -n e r s , Wing Chong s u f f e r e d a f i f t y p e r c e n t l o s s on i t s i n v e s t -ment . A n o t h e r g a m b l i n g p a r t n e r s h i p was Z h e n - T a i (^^^;) formed i n 1905 by Zhen L i Company $J$J^ • H u o - y i n ) , Lee Mong Kow (^ J^ >"f~lj ) t h e p r o m i n e n t V i c t o r i a i n t e r p r e t e r , Chen Mei C ^ s ^ ) and Chen L i u (f^>^£) • 2 7 The c a p i t a l p o o l o f $3000 emerged from t h e $2000 c o n t r i b u t i o n from Zhen L i , $300 each f r o m Huo, Lee, and Chen Mei, and $100 from Chen L i u . Huo and Chen Mei r e c e i v e d m o n t h l y wages o r c o m m i s s i o n s as d i d two n o n - s h a r e h o l d e r s Zhu S h : i - x i u (-^fijS ^  ) a n d Chang Toy. T h i s p a r t n e r s h i p , t h e n , c o n t a i n e d s i l e n t p a r t n e r s and w o r k i n g p a r t n e r s , and n o n - p a r t n e r s who d e r i v e d e a r n i n g s from t h e d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s . A t y e a r ' s end o f 1905,the company had r e c o r d e d an o p e r a t i n g l o s s o f $135. O t h e r v e n t u r e s were more s u c c e s s f u l . In a 1908 p a r t -n e r s h i p t h e t e n s h a r e h o l d e r s t o t h e Hop Chong ) g r o c e r y and g a m b l i n g o u t l e t p o o l e d t o g e t h e r $1100 from i n d i v i d u a l 2 8 amounts o f $50 t o $350 . In f o u r months' time,, the word-l o t t e r y , d i c e games, and g r o c e r y s a l e s y i e l d e d a r e t u r n o f $119.90 p e r one h u n d r e d d o l l a r s o f i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t , ap-p r o x i m a t i n g a twenty p e r c e n t r e t u r n . In a n o t h e r 1912 79 gaming and f r u i t t a b l e o p e r a t i o n , t h e p a r t n e r s p a i d them-s e l v e s d i v i d e n d s a t i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r d e s i r e t o c a s h i n b e f o r e p r o f i t s d r o p p e d a c c o r d i n g t o 29 t h e v a g a r i e s o f g a m b l e r s ' l u c k . The f i r s t s e t o f d i v i -dends were i s s u e d a f t e r two weeks o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d a f t e r e l e v e n . weeks, and t h e t h i r d a f t e r s i x months. P a r t -n e r s i n t h i s ; f i r m a l s o b o r r o w e d from company f u n d s , sums whi c h were l a t e r d e d u c t e d from t h e d i v i d e n d s i s s u e d . G a m b l i n g p a r t n e r s h i p s f o r m e d y e t a n o t h e r h u s i n e s s r e s p o n s e t o l o c a l demands and d i d n o t d i f f e r f r o m p a r t n e r -s h i p s s e t up t o o p e r a t e more l e g i t i m a t e e n t e r p r i s e s . I n v e s -t o r s worked as s a l a r i e d o r s i l e n t p a r t n e r s and c o u l d borrow a g a i n s t t h e i r p r o j e c t e d e a r n i n g s . T h r e e out o f t h e f o u r g a m b l i n g o p e r a t i o n s examined h e r e p a i d d i v i d e n d s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f i n i t i a l c a p i t a l . The low c a p i t a l r e q u i r e -ments, t h e e a s i l y l i q u i d a t e d c h a r a c t e r , and t h e p r o f i t a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s a t t r a c t e d o r d i n a r y and w e a l t h y i n v e s t o r s who e n t e r e d a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a f f o r d a b i l i t y with, i n d i v i d u a l s h a r e s r a n g i n g f r o m f i f t y t o s e v e r a l t h o u -s and do l i a r s . In a n o t h e r a r e a o f e n t e r p r i s e , t h e C h i n e s e formed p a r t n e r s h i p s t o a c q u i r e l a n d and b u i l d i n g s as r e v e n u e -g e n e r a t i n g p r o p e r t y . The a r r a n g e m e n t s i n c l u d e d t h o s e a r i s -i n g between r e g i s t e r e d co-owners and t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g a number o f s i l e n t p a r t n e r s . o r i n v e s t o r s . B o t h k i n d s o f p a r t n e r s h i p s p u r c h a s e d r e a l e s t a t e i n C h i n a town and b eyond. Sam Kee Company and Won A l e x a n d e r Cumyow p o o l e d f u n d s i n 80 1893 t o buy Chinatown b u i l d i n g s w h i c h t h e y r e n t e d t o Y i p Sang 30 and o t h e r m e r c h a n t s f o r o v e r two y e a r s b e f o r e s e l l i n g . In 1911, Lee Thung and Lee Fook L i Fu) c o - p u r c h a s e d a $4700 house i n t h e F a i r v i e w d i s t r i c t and t u r n e d i t o v e r 31 t o r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t J.C. Thorn t o r e n t o u t . As f o r t h e l a r g e r l a n d - a c q u i r i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , one form r e s e m b l e d t h e l i m i t e d p a r t n e r s h i p s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r where managers were a p p o i n t e d and l i a b i l i t y was s e t i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i n i t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s h a r e . F o r example, i n 1912 Lee Thung, Lee Gee Kwong (ji^^L)^ L i J i n g - g u a n g ) and Ma San-yuan (pLj^ -T^  ) became t h e p r i n c i p a l b a c k e r s o f a seven-man p a r t n e r -3 2 s h i p t o buy an E a s t V a n c o u v e r a p a r t m e n t b l o c k . The s h a r e s r a n g e d i n v a l u e from $500 t o $2000. The p u r c h a s e p r i c e was $32,500 and t h e p a r t n e r s h i p r a i s e d a $7500 down payment and b o r r o w e d t h e r e m a i n d e r . Each p a r t n e r t h e n c o n t r i b u t e d a s h a r e o f t h e a n n u a l mortgage payments p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o h i s i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t , w h i l e r e c e i v i n g a s i m i l a r l y c a l c u l a t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e r e n t a l p r o f i t s . The l a r g e r p a r t n e r s h i p was c a l l e d a t o n g ( t a n g ) , a t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t e n s e t up f o r b u s i n e s s p u r p o s e s by g r o u p s s u c h as c l a n s t o a d m i n i s t e r f u n d s or t o a c q u i r e p r o p e r t y f o r p r i v a t e p r o f i t . In C h i n a , s u c h t o n g c o u l d e x i s t o n l y when a member o f t h e s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n was l i t e r a t e enough t o keep a c c o u n t s and p o s s e s s e d s u f f i c i e n t 33 . b u s i n e s s acumen. In V a n c o u v e r , l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s m e n were p r i m a r y p r o m o t e r s o f such t o n g . In 1907, f i f t e e n C h i n e s e l e d by t h e Lee Yuen p r i n c i p a l s f ormed t h e Quong Y i c k Company 81 ) to buy l a n d and b u i l d i n g s i n t h e h e a r t o f 34 C h i n a t o w n . They r a i s e d $20,000 among t h e m s e l v e s w i t h s h a r e s r a n g i n g from $250 t o $4500 and b o r r o w e d $30 , 0.00 to be r e p a i d o v e r t h r e e y e a r s . The b u i l d i n g a c comodated s e v e r a l C h i n e s e f i r m s as t e n a n t s , f r o m whom $7,770.85 i n r e n t was c o l l e c t e d i n one y e a r . The p r o p e r t y was r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e names o f Lee Thung and Lee Kar, b u t l e g a l c e r t i f i c a t e s drawn i n E n g l i s h were i s s u e d t o e v e r y p a r t n e r r e c o r d i n g h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l 3 5 e n t i t l e m e n t t o t h e p r o p e r t y . In :a • s i m i l a r v e i n , b u t w i t h a c l e a r c l a n b a s e , the Lee Lung S a i B u s i n e s s Company ( s o l d s h a r e s i n 1908 t o r a i s e f u n d s to buy l a n d and e r e c t b u i l d i n g s on 3 6 two l o t s i n C h i n a t o w n . The company r a i s e d $27, 000 by." s e l l i n g $10 s h a r e s and b o r r o w e d a n o t h e r $30,000. W h i l e s e l l i n g s h a r e s r e s e m b l e d a l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y company's s t r a -t e g y , t h e company was s t i l l a huge p a r t n e r s h i p where t h e d i r e c t o r s a c t e d as managing p a r t n e r s and the s h a r e h o l d e r s were the dormant one s . U n l i k e t h e Quo.ngV Y i c k Company, Lee Lung S a i Company s h a r e h o l d e r s were n o t a s s i g n e d i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t l e m e n t s t o t h e a s s e t s a t hand. I n s t e a d , the l a n d was r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e names o f t h e t h r e e d i r e c t o r s and one o t h e r 3 7 l a r g e s h a r e h o l d e r Lee Y i c k Quon. Lee Lung S a i Company s h a r e s were s o l d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h o s e surnamed Lee and t h e s h a r e c e r t i f i c a t e f o r b a d e t h e t r a d i n g o f s h a r e s t o n o n - L e e ' s . The company r e s e r v e d one room i n the b u i l d i n g f o r t h e c l a n ' s common h a l l and r e n t e d o u t t h e o t h e r f l o o r s . The t h r e e a p p o i n t e d d i r e c t o r s f o r 1908 82 £4 were Lee Thung, Lee Y i n g {^-^t-) and Lee Kar ( ^ . ^ ^ L i J i a ) , each o f whom came from a : d i f f e r e n t c o u n t y i n Say-Yup. As managing p a r t n e r s Or company d i r e c t o r s , the t h r e e p o s s e s s e d s i g n i n g a u t h o r i t y o v e r ' a l l company m a t t e r s . They p r o p o s e d t h a t a l l r e n t a l income be a p p l i e d a g a i n s t t h e mortgage and t h a t no d i v i d e n d s be i s s u e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e mortgages were f u l l y r e p a x d . P a r t n e r s h i p s t h a t p o o l e d s m a l l amounts o f i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l were t h u s f a m i l i a r and i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e s f o r b u s i -n ess f o r m a t i o n i n C h i n a t o w n . They were used i n v e n t u r e s r a n g i n g f r o m r e a l e s t a t e a c q u i s i t i o n t o g a m b l i n g h o u s e s . These d e v i c e s r e f l e c t e d C h i n a ' s p r e - i n d u s t r i a l economy.where, i n t h e a b s e n c e o f h e a v i l y c a p i t a l i z e d i n d u s t r i e s , t h e m a r s h a l -l i n g o f m a s s i v e f u n d s t o form l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s was u n n e c e s s a r y . S i m i l a r l y t h e c o m m e r c i a l r a t h e r t h a n indus-. t r i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s i n V a n c o u v e r meant t h a t l a r g e sums o f c a p i t a l were u n c a l l e d f o r and t h a t h u i and p a r t n e r s h i p d e v i c e s met t h e i r i mmediate needs a d e q u a t e l y . At t h e same t i m e , s u r p l u s f u n d s from w i t h i n t h e commu-n i t y were t o o modest t o f i n a n c e s u b s t a n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u n d e r t a k i n g s . The C h i n e s e knew o f t h e l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y company b e c a u s e a few were i n c o r p o r a t e d , a l b e i t w i t h s m a l l amounts o f c a p i t a l . In 1895 i n s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l may have d i s c o u r a g e d C h i n e s e d i s c u s s i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h a salmon c a n n e r y t o pack 20,000 c a s e s a n n u a l l y . T h e i r p r o p o -s a l i n t e n d e d t o use t h e l a t e s t m a c h i n e r y a v a i l a b l e and t h e 39 b e s t s k i l l e d C h i n e s e l a b o u r . The p r o p o s i t i o n , w h i c h would 83 have r e q u i r e d o v e r $130,000, n e v e r m a t e r i a l i z e d . A n o t h e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o c c u r r e d i n 1910, when C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n p u r c h a s e d t h e V a n c o u v e r F u r n i t u r e M a n u f a c t u r i n g 40 Company from i t s w h i t e owners. The C h i n e s e s y n d i c a t e h e a d e d by Lee Y i n g and L i m J i m i n c o r p o r a t e d and r e g i s t e r e d i t s e l f as a l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y company and s t a r t e d t o s e l l 41 s h a r e s t o r a i s e $75 ,000 i n c a p i t a l , ibut-.the f a c t o r y soon f a i l e d . P a r t n e r s h i p s a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s , as d i d t h e Wah Y i n g Chong Company o f g e n e r a l m e r c h a n t s and l a b o u r 4 2 c o n t r a c t o r s w i t h t e n s h a r e s of c a p i t a l t o t a l l i n g $10,000 . In 1912, t h e Pu H i n g L i m i t e d Company ( ^ f ^ ^ ^ & ^ i ^ ) s o l d t h i r t y - o n e s h a r e s v a l u e d a t $300 each t o t w e n t y - e i g h t s h a r e -h o l d e r s . I t had p r o b a b l y c h o s e n t h e l i m i t e d company f o r m i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l l a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r l e a s e s i g n e d t o b u i l d a 43 b r i c k b u i l d i n g i n V i c t o r i a C h i n a t o w n . These few i n c o r p o r a -t i o n s s u g g e s t t h e C h i n e s e d i d n o t use t h e d e v i c e u n t i l t h e 1910 d e c a d e , and t h e n f o r r e a s o n s t h a t r e m a i n u n c l e a r . Thus f a r o n l y means and s o u r c e s o f c a p i t a l o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e community have been examined i n any d e t a i l . M o r t g a g e s t o o had been employed i n C h i n a , and i n V a n c o u v e r w h i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s r e a d i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s form o f m o n e y - l e n d i n g . As t h e C h i n e s e a c q u i r e d t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s and b u i l d i n g s o f C h i n a t o w n , t h e y b o r r o w e d a g a i n s t t h e s e a s s e t s . C h i n a t o w n t h u s became an a r e n a o f i n v e s t m e n t as much a s o c i a l community o f f a m i l i e s , b u s i n e s s e s , and homes. In g e n e r a l , t h e C h i n e s e were not i n c l i n e d t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e r e a l e s t a t e market once t h e y a c q u i r e d t i t l e 84 t o C h i n a t o w n p r o p e r t y a l t h o u g h , c h a i n s o f p r e v i o u s w h i t e . . 44 owners had n o t s h a r e d such- a c o n s e r v a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n . I n s t e a d o f s p e c u l a t i o n , t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C h i n e s e l a n d - h o l d i n g i n C h i n a t o w n was t h a t o f m o r t g a g i n g . ., Land t i t l e r e c o r d s f o r f o r t y - t h r e e l o t s from t h e t h r e e main s t r e e t b l o c k s of C h i n a town r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e s t a r t e d t o p u r c h a s e t h e l a n d s w h i c h t h e y o c c u p i e d ..beginning i n 1892. These f o r t y - t h r e e l o t s formed t w e n t y - f o u r d i s t i n c t p i e c e s o f p r o p e r t y , o f w h i c h twenty-one were a c q u i r e d by C h i n e s e b e f o r e 1914. The d a t a f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n -t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x V I . T w e n t y - n i n e C h i n e s e owners o r g r o u p s o f owners had t r a d e d them and a t 1 . l e a s t t w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s e m o r t g a g e d t h e p r o p e r t y i n t h e pre-1914 y e a r s f o r a t o t a l o f f o r t y - f i v e l o a n t r a n s a c t i o n s . M e r c h a n t Yuen Chong p l a c e d s i x mortgages :jfcar.tFt<'. $34,750 between 1905 and 1913 on h i s one l o t , w h i l e Sam S i n g , t h e r e g i s t e r e d owner o f t h e C h i n e s e F r e e m a s o n s ' b u i l d i n g , s e c u r e d s e v e n mortgages t o t a l l i n g 4 5 $125,750 between 1907 and 1914. A l l f o r t y - f i v e mortgages came f r o m n o n - C h i n e s e i n s t i t u -t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . The s i x t e e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o a n s came from i n s u r a n c e companies s u c h as t h e B.C. L i f e A s s u r a n c e Company and C o n f e d e r a t i o n L i f e As s u r anc e , mo.r fegage f i r m s s u c h as t h e C a n a d i a n Permanent Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n , as w e l l as from t r u s t companies i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h A m e r i c a T r u s t and t h e Y o r k s h i r e G u a r a n t e e and S e c u r i t i e s C o r p o r a t i o n . T h e i r l o a n s r a n g e d from $2000 t o $50,000 w i t h i n t e r e s t r a t e s between s i x and f i f t e e n p e r c e n t . The a v e r a g e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o a n o f 85 $15,296 was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e l o a n o b t a i n e d from p e r s o n a l l e n d e r s w h i c h s t o o d a t $12,558. The p e r s o n a l l e n d e r s i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y o f l o c a l men p o s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e C h i n e s e . N i n i a n H. B a i n , George I . W i l s o n , and J a c o b Todd and h i s son C h a r l e s were salmon c a n n e r s , w h i l e John Law, Thomas May, and Henry M u t r i e were f i n a n c i a l b r o k e r s and a g e n t s h a n d l i n g r e a l e s t a t e and i n s u r a n c e . O t h e r s were i n d e p e n d e n t b u s i n e s s m e n s u c h as C h a r l e s M c L a c h l a n o f M c L a c h l a n B r o t h e r s Hardware L i m i t e d and R o b e r t P o r t e r , who r a n two b u t c h e r shops i n town. The r e m a i n i n g l e n d e r s were a g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r , a m i n i n g e n g i n e e r , and a lumber m i l l e n g i n e e r . The i n t e r e s t r a t e s c h a r g e d by them a l s o r a n g e d from s i x t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t and d i d n o t d i f f e r from t h o s e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e n d e r s . The mortgage s o u r c e s t h a t l a y beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f C h i n a t o w n show t h a t t h e C h i n e s e t a p p e d t h e f u l l r a n g e o f money s u p p l i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the a p p l i -c a t i o n o f t h e s e mortgage f u n d s , whether u s e d to c o m p l e t e payment o f t h e p r o p e r t y a t hand o r t o f i n a n c e o t h e r commer-c i a l v e n t u r e s , c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d from t h e r e c o r d s a t hand. In a p p r o a c h i n g n o n - C h i n e s e l e n d e r s , C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n showed t h a t t h e r a c i a l b a r r i e r s e r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada were l o w e s t i n t h e r e a l m o f low r i s k f i n a n c e . In Canada, t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i m m i g r a n t s o c i e t y a l l o w e d i t t o r e s p o n d t o many d i f f e r e n t i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r i s i n g from i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e e t h n i c 86 community. Gambling h o u s e s , i m p o r t s t o r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , r e a l e s t a t e and o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s o f f e r e d .the i m m i g r a n t an a r r a y o f schemes f o r a c c u m u l a t i n g more w e a l t h . The i n i t i a l c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d f o r s u c h u n d e r t a k i n g s was a v a i l a b l e f r o m i n s i d e C h i n a t o w n w i t h t h e h u i and from c o n v e n t i o n a l mortgage l e n d e r s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s money m a r k e t . The f o r m a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t en-t e r p r i s e s was e n c o u r a g e d by p a r t n e r s h i p and t o n g agreements b r o u g h t .'from C h i n a and by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w e s t e r n b u s i -n ess forms s u c h as t h e l i m i t e d company. I t was b o t h o l d and new w o r l d economic d e v i c e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p -ment among t h e C h i n e s e . Many C h i n e s e had come t o Canada e q u i p p e d w i t h e x p e r i -ence and an a d v a n c e d i n t e r e s t i n c o m m e r c i a l a f f a i r s . P r a c -t i c e s s u c h as m o r t g a g i n g p o s s e s s e d an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u -t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t i n w e s t e r n b u s i n e s s c u l t u r e , b u t h u i s u b s c r i p t i o n s had been v i a b l e o n l y i n C h i n a and o t h e r o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s where t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r u s t c o u l d be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . The use o f t h e h u i and C h i n e s e p a r t n e r s h i p forms p e r m i t t e d v e n t u r e s i n t r a d i n g , g a m b l i n g , and l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n t h a t an i m m i g r a n t c o u l d not have c a r r i e d o u t on h i s own. The h u i , i n p a r t i c u -l a r , made c r e d i t a c c e s s i b l e to many s m a l l b o r r o w e r s . O l d w o r l d t e c h n i q u e s were t h u s i m p o r t a n t i n h e l p i n g newcomers s u r v i v e and e x p l o i t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e r a c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d new w o r l d . I t was p o s s i b l e f o r both, i m m i g r a n t community and h o s t s o c i e t y to l i v e s i d e by s i d e b u t t o work s e p a r a t e l y at 87 making money t h r o u g h t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t t o o l s and mechan-i s m s . The m i g r a n t s had i n h e r i t e d a c o m m e r c i a l l e g a c y from C h i n a and c o u l d a l s o e x p l o r e C a n a d i a n b a n k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The use o f p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s and t h e l i m i t e d company form showed t h e i r a d o p t i o n o f w e s t e r n p r a c t i c e s . Economic i n t e -g r a t i o n was t h u s s e l e c t i v e : c e r t a i n h o s t s o c i e t y i n s t i t u t i o n s were c l o s e d t o t h e C h i n e s e , w h i l e o t h e r s were open. The C h i n e s e , on t h e i r p a r t , c o u l d choose from o l d and new w o r l d a l t e r n a t i v e s t h o s e o p t i o n s o f f e r i n g t h e b e s t r e t u r n s and e a s i e s t a c c e s s . 88 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR ''"Ivan L i g h t , E t h n i c E n t e r p r i s e , pp. 23-27 . 2 ' M a u r i c e Freedman, "The H a n d l i n g o f Money: A Note on the B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e Economic S o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e , " Man 59 ( A p r i l 19591: 64-65. 3 I v a n L i g h t , pp. 58-59. 4 . Henry L i t t o n and D e n i s Chang, " C h i n e s e Money-Loan A s s o c i a t i o n s , " Hong Kong Law J o u r n a l 1 (May 1971). :197. 5 . L i g h t , p. 60 6James W i l l i a m Hayes, " V i l l a g e C r e d i t a t Shek P i c k , 1879-1895, " J o u r n a l o f t h e Hong Kong B r a n c h o f t h e R o y a l  A s i a t i c S o c i e t y 5 ( 1 9 6 5 ) : 120. 7 S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Lee Yuen Company P a p e r s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Lee Y u e n ) , Box 13. T h i s box c o n t a i n s t h e 105 h u i b o o k l e t s examined i n t h i s s t u d y . 8 L i g h t , pp. 57-58. 9 These rough t o t a l s were c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g a v e r a g e i n d i v i d u a l m o n t h l y c o n t r i b u t i o n s x a v e r a g e number o f payments p e r h u i x a v e r a g e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s x t o t a l number o f h u i agreements f o r t h e two p e r i o d s . 10 r Lee Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 8, [ R e c o r d o f m o n t h l y h u i s e s s i o n s ] \ Lee Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 5 c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s o f p r o m i s -s o r y n o t e s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce and s i g n e d by v a r i o u s b o r r o w e r s and t h e i r g u a r a n t o r s , 1913. 12 Lee Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 7, Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o Lee S a i Chung, 15 A p r i l 1915. Lee was summoned to b r i n g t o c o u r t a "Book of t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce c o n t a i n i n g a R e c o r d o f monies owing". In t h i s c a s e , Wing Sang was s u i n g Sang Lung Company f o r d e b t s f r o m 1913. 1 3 Lee Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 10, W.W. B. Mclnnes to Lee Kee, 6 A p r i l 1909. 14 Lee Yuen, box 1 f i l e 10, N o r t h e r n Bank t o Lee Thung, 24 J u l y , 1908. 15 Lee Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 3, Lee Thung t o Wood, V a l l a n c e , and L e g g a t t , 23 J u l y , 1912. 89 ^ L e e Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 3, Lee Thung to Lee Yuen, 27 F e b r u a r y 1912. 1 7 Lee Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 3, Lee Thung t o Lee Mei Zhao, 26 November 1912 18 Lee Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 4, C h i n g H i n g J i n g t o Lee Thung, 5 May 1913. 19 George J a m i e s o n , " C h i n e s e P a r t n e r s h i p s : L i a b i l i t y o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l Members," J o u r n a l o f t h e C h i n a B r a n c h o f t h e R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y Second S e r i e s 22 ( 1 8 8 7 ) : 39-40. 2 0 R o b e r t W. J o h n s o n , F i n a n c i a l Management ( B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1972), p. 25. 21 J a m i e s o n , pp. 39-52. 2 2 L e e Yuen, Box 1 2 , j £ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ _ " [ R e c o r d o f t h e Hong On J u n g Company, V a n c o u v e r ] , 1898. ' 2 3 L e e Yuen, Box 12 , '^^.-^S^lj \\ ^ fer [ R e c o r d o f t h e S h a r e s o f Lum Duck-shew], 1899. 2 4 L e e Yuen, Box 3 F i l e 4 , " / ^ A flSWfc $ [ R e c o r d o f P e k i n g R e s t a u r a n t S h a r e s , V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a ] , 1913; Box 11, [ V i c t o r i a , B.C. P e k i n g R e s t a u r a n t , Lee S a i Chung], 1914. 2 5 C i t y o f .Vancouver A r c h i v e s , Add. MSS 571, Sam Kee Company P a p e r s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sam K e e ) , v o l . 28, f i l e 13, t H ° P L e e Word F l o w e r s ] , 1893. 2 6 T h i s was c a l c u l a t e d by t h e . f o l l o w i n g : 4 months x $20 wage + $49.05 p r o f i t - $75 o r i g i n a l i n v e s t m e n t . 2 7 S a m Kee, v o l . 28, f i l e 1 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ 7 , [Zhan T a i R e c o r d ] , 1905 . 2 8 S a m Kee, v o l . 27 f i l e 12 $ , [Hop Chong M o n t h l y T o t a l s ] , 1908. 2 9 L e e Yuen, Box 9 , ^ fy^J^$^%%>, [ R e c o r d of O x - T a b l e Income] , 1912 . 3 0 S a m Kee, v o l . 28, f i l e 8 , % [Hop Wo Tang, R e c o r d o f C a p i t a l , E x p e n s e s , and Income f o r B u y i n g L a n d ] , 1893 3 1 L e e Yuen, Box 10 , %fe H/f-^lS," [ R e c o r d o f J o i n t C a p i t a l P o o l e d between Lee Fook and Lee Thung t o Buy H o u s e ] , 1911. 90 32 1912 Lee Yuen, Box 10, j L e e S a i Chang R e c o r d ] , 3 3J.W. H a y e s , " V i l l a g e C r e d i t " , p. 121. 3 4 L e e Yuen, Box 10, ^jhj^t ^ ^^JaP ^ Q u o n9" Y i c k Tang R e c o r d ] , 1908. ' J 5 < * ~ _ ± - - 3 - w U » T / 3 5 Samples o f c e r t i f i c a t e s : a r e c o n t a i n e d i n Lee Yuen, Box 1, f i l e 10. 3 6 L e e Yuen, Box 1 f i l e 11 ."^U^MM S t £ f & * | [Share C e r t i f i c a t e o f t h e Lee Lung S a i Company, V a n c o u v e r , B . C . ] , 1913. 3 7 LTO, I n d e f e a s i b l e Fee Book v o l . 4, f o l i o 56, 20 J a n u a r y 1908. Lee Yuen, Box 1, f i l e 11 ^&&SJu *J ftSfb^," [ s h a r e C e r t i f i c a t e o f th.e Lee Lung S a i Company, V a n c o u v e r , B . C . ] , 1913. 39 Cumyow, v o l . 1 f i l e 3, ,. L e t t e r b o o k , p. 197, Cumyow to R o b e r t Simpson, 26 November 1895. 40 Lee Yuen, Box 2 f i l e 9, STock C e r t i f i c a t e o f V a n c o u v e r F u r n i t u r e M a n u f a c t u r i n g Company L i m i t e d , 19 September 1911 . 41 B.C. G a z e t t e , December 1910, p. 1366 4 2 B.C. G a z e t t e , May 1912, p. 5813. 4 3 L e e Yuen, Box 3 f i l e 1 / J ? f S | £ z\ " [ R e c o r d o f A Sh a r e o f Pu H i n g Company], 1911. 44 T h i s a s s e r t i o n , and t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n s u b s e q u e n t p a r a g r a p h s , i s b a s e d on t i t l e s e a r c h e s c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e Land T i t l e s O f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. T i t l e s can o n l y be t r a c e d by s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e c u r r e n t owner and t h e n i d e n t i f y -i n g each p r e v i o u s owner one at a t i m e . C h i n e s e o w n e r s h i p o f Ch i n a t o w n p r o p e r t i e s was v e r y s t a b l e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o e a r l i e r s p e c u l a t o r y a c t i v i t y . L o t s f r o m p o r t i o n s o f t h r e e b l o c k s and two m i s c e l l a n e o u s p i e c e s o f p r o p e r t y ( t h o s e o f t h e C h i n e s e Freemasons and the C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n ) were t r a c e d . The t h r e e b l o c k s a r e d e s c r i b e d as D i s t r i c t L o t 196, B l o c k s 12 and 13, w h i c h a r e t h e 100 and u n i t b l o c k s o f E a s t Pender S t r e e t , and D i s t r i c t L o t 541, B l o c k 17, t h e 500 b l o c k C a r r a l l S t r e e t . These l a n d s have formed p a r t o f Ch i n a t o w n s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . 91 Mortgage d a t a is: d e r i v e d from t i t l e s e a r c h e s as d e s c r i b e d i n f o o t n o t e 44, s i n c e each t i t l e r e g i s t r a t i o n a l s o r e c o r d s t h e c h a r g e s ( e . g . m o r t g a g e s , l e a s e s , a g r e e -ments)' h e l d a g a i n s t a p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y . See A p p e n d i x VI f o r Yuen Chong 1 s s i t e a t DL 196, B l o c k 13., L o t 20, and Sam S i n g ' s h o l d i n g a t DL 541, B l o c k 18, L o t s A,B,C. 92 CHAPTER V THE SAM KEE COMPANY C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n s t r a d d l e d t h e two w o r l d s of immi-grants;.and h o s t s o c i e t y and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e economic a d a p t a -t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e t o Canada i n many ways. They b r o u g h t o l d w o r l d c o m m e r c i a l p r a c t i c e s t o a p p l y t o new w o r l d c i r -c u mstances , t h e r e b y enhancing, i m m i g r a n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o amass wealth.. T h i s c h a p t e r examines t h e Sam Kee Company (^^jffii) ' o n e t h e f o u r t o p - e a r n i n g f i r m s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s e a r l y Chinatown., t o s t u d y t h e new w o r l d s i d e o f i n f l u e n c e s on C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t . The range and q u a l i t y o f Sam Kee's o p e r a t i o n s and i t s d e a l i n g s w i t h w h i t e b u s i n e s s m e n p r o v i d e p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e economic r e c e p t i v e -n e ss o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y and i t s e f f e c t on i m m i g r a n t i n t e g r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e e x a c t d a t e o f i t s o r i g i n s i s unknown, t h e Sam Kee Company was o p e r a t i n g on V a n c o u v e r ' s Dupont S t r e e t by 1887. L i t t l e i s known about t h e company's p r i n c i p a l s Chang Toy ( ^ s ^ i \ Chen . C a i , a l s o known as Chen D a o - z h i ) and Shum Moon Shen Man) a l t h o u g h Chang's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f i r m a p p e a r s to have p r e - d a t e d t h a t o f Shum's. The f i r m ' s name was u s e d by t h e company and c u s t o m e r s a l i k e as 9 3 a p e r s o n ' s name a l t h o u g h no s u c h p e r s o n e v e r e x i s t e d . Chang's sons j o i n e d t h e f i r m i n t h e mid-1900's, and t h e i r good g r a s p o f w r i t t e n b u s i n e s s E n g l i s h - u n d o u b t e d l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e company's d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n t o i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s , r e t a i l s a l e s , c h a r c o a l and f u e l s a l e s , l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g i n t h e t i m b e r , f i s h i n g , and s u g a r i n d u s t r i e s , s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s a l e s , and r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t . The company's e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s document t h e s a l e o f C h i n e s e goods t o l o c a l C h i n e s e . I m p o r t - e x p o r t f i r m s s h i p p i n g goods t o and from C h i n a have been i d e n t i f i e d as t h e e a r l i -e s t b u s i n e s s e s of. t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s t o A m e r i c a . These f i r m s d i d n o t r e q u i r e l a r g e amounts o f i n i t i a l c a p i t a l b e c a u s e t h e y r e l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y on c r e d i t and good b u s i n e s s c o n t a c t s i n C anton and Hong,Kong. Many su c h f i r m s were p r i v a t e p a r t -n e r s h i p s between one or more owners w h i l e o t h e r s were a t t a c h e d t o d i s t r i c t a s s o c i a t i o n s . The p r i m a r y i m p o r t s were r i c e , t e a , and d r y goods s u c h as c l o t h i n g and f o o d i t e m s , w h i l e e x p o r t s t o C h i n a i n c l u d e d g o l d , wheat, b a r l e y , m e r c u r y , s a l t , and d r i e d s e a f o o d s . 1 The Sam Kee Company may have s t a r t e d as a b r a n c h o f t h e Wing Chong Company £ ^ ^ | - f ^ ) o f V i c t o r i a b e c a u s e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e company's e a r l y i n v e n t o r y came from t h a t s t o r e . Chang Toy was i n v o l v e d from t h e o u t s e t , e m p l o y i n g two h e l p e r s i n 1888. T h a t y e a r , s a l e s t o t a l l e d $4356.45, 2 and t h e n e t p r o f i t was $374.81. The company c a r r i e d a wide r a n g e o f goods: a 1901 i n v e n t o r y l i s t e d o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d and f i f t y d i f f e r e n t kinds, o f i t e m s i n c l u d i n g a l l t y p e s of 94 C h i n e s e f o o d s ( r i c e , p r e s e r v e d f r u i t s , d r i e d s e a f o o d s , s a l t e d goods, beans, p a s t e s , s p i c e s , and o i l ) , C h i n e s e m e d i c i n e s and w i n e s , and a v a r i e t y o f d r y goods such as t h r e a d , w r i t i n g b r u s h e s , e n v e l o p e s , m a t c h e s , f i s h - k n i v e s , 3 and h a n d k e r c h i e f s . The f i r m ' s r e t a i l s a l e s c l i m b e d i n t h e 1890's f r o m $7740.25 i n 1893 to $8660.44 i n n i n e months o f 4 1898. A l t h o u g h t h e company's r e c o r d s a r e i n c o m p l e t e and u n c l e a r , a t a l l y o f d a i l y c ash-hook e n t r i e s show t h a t $13,831 was r e c e i v e d and $ 14,891.expended i n 1 8 9 1 5 w h i l e 6 $19,540 was r e c e i v e d and $18,471 expended i n 1896. C l e a r l y Sam Kee had s o u r c e s o f income o t h e r t h a n r e t a i l s a l e s o f i m p o r t e d C h i n e s e goods. Sam Kee r e l i e d on c o n n e c t i o n s to C h i n a and a b r o a d f o r s u p p l i e s and f o r c r e d i t . I t p u r c h a s e d goods from f i r m s i n Hong Kong and Yokohama, c h i e f o f which was t h e Sun Tong Chong Company ( j ^ ) o f Hong Kong. Sun Tong Chong a c t e d as t h e company's a g e n t i n C h i n a , p u r c h a s i n g goods o u t -r i g h t and on c r e d i t f o r s h i p m e n t t o Canada. In payment, Sam Kee s e n t f u n d s and C a n a d i a n goods to Sun Tong Chong w h i c h were t h e n s o l d t o C h i n e s e b u y e r s . Between 1902 and 1907 Sam Kee's p u r c h a s e s from Sun Tong Chong c l i m b e d f r o m 7 9,810 t a e l s ($6,180.30) t o 22,735 t a e l s ( $ 17,960.65). Sun Tong Chong l e v i e d i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s o f between s i x and 8 e i g h t p e r c e n t on a n n u a l o u t s t a n d i n g b a l a n c e s . As A p p e n d i x V I I shows, Sam Kee r e l i e d h e a v i l y on c r e d i t p u r c h a s e s , owing amounts t h a t r a n g e d from 2,453 t a e l s ($1,545) t o 9,314 t a e l s ($7,358) d u r i n g t h e 1902-1907 p e r i o d . 95 D u r i n g t h e 1900's, t h e r e a c h of t h e Sam Kee Company e x t e n d e d beyond V a n c o u v e r t o s u p p l y C h i n e s e f i r m s i n Vancou-v e r I s l a n d towns such as E x t e n s i o n and i n t e r i o r p o i n t s s u c h 9 as E n d e r b y . In V a n c o u v e r , c r e d i t was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o C h i n a t o w n i n d i v i d u a l s and f i r m s , and even J a p a n e s e and a few w h i t e s had a c c o u n t s w i t h t h e c o m p a n y . 1 0 C h i n e s e i m p o r t s i n c l u d i n g r i c e , s o y a s a u c e , and f i r e c r a c k e r s were s o l d t o w h i t e w h o l e s a l e r s i n V a n c o u v e r and i n R e v e l s t o k e . 1 1 As w e l l , p r i o r t o 1908, t h e f i r m h a n d l e d an o c c a s i o n a l s h i p m e n t 12 o f opium from V i c t o r i a . But t h e network o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n between Sam Kee and C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e i n s m a l l towns and i s o l a t e d camps was b a s e d c h i e f l y on t h e f i r m ' s c l e a r i n g - h o u s e f u n c t i o n as i t h a n d l e d t h e c a s h r e m i t -t a n c e s w h i c h m i g r a n t s s e n t t o f a m i l i e s i n C h i n a . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e money Sam Kee f o r w a r d e d t h e f u n d s by p e r s o n a l c a r r i e r s or by m a i l t o Sun Tong Chong i n Hong Kong and t o o t h e r b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s i n C a n t o n . These f i r m s t h e n a r -r a n g e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n o r p i c k - u p o f t h e money. In t h e 1890's, Sam Kee a r r a n g e d f o r m o n t h l y d i s p a t c h e s o f t h e r e m i t t a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l amounts r a n g i n g from t e n t o two h u n d r e d d o l l a r s . 1 3 R i c e was a major i m p o r t w h i c h t h e company promoted e x t e n s i v e l y . In 1900, i t i m p o r t e d a t l e a s t t e n t o n s o f r i c e 14 . from C h i n a . These s u p p l i e s may have been i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet l o c a l demands b e c a u s e Sam Kee p u r c h a s e d a d d i t i o n a l q u a n t i t i e s o f r i c e f r o m l o c a l w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r s s u c h as 96 15 F.C. D a v i d g e and W. A. A n d e r s o n i n 1901. By 1908, however, Sam Kee had g a i n e d b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f i t s C h i n e s e r i c e sup-p l i e s and was s e l l i n g r i c e d i r e c t l y t o t h e m a j o r w h o l e s a l e f i r m s of V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r i n c l u d i n g K e l l y , D o u g l a s and 16 . Company and t h e W.H. M a l k i n Company, as w e l l as i n d i r e c t l y 17 t o o t h e r c u s t o m e r s t h r o u g h l o c a l f o o d b r o k e r J . E . Chipman. Sam Kee Company s e t up i t s own r i c e m i l l i n V a n c o u v e r t o p r o c e s s u n c l e a n e d r i c e i n 1908, b u t t h i s v e n t u r e a p p e a r s to have f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e f i r m t r i e d t o s e l l i t s m i l l i n g 18 e q u ipment a y e a r l a t e r . The company p r o v e d t o be an a g g r e s s i v e s e l l e r o f i t s r i c e , s e n d i n g samples and p r i c e s t o w h o l e s a l e f i r m s a c r o s s W e s t e r n Canada i n C a l g a r y , Edmon-19 t o n , L e t h b r i d g e , R e g i n a , and W i n n i p e g . I t was a canny b a r g a i n e r t o o , a d m i t t i n g i n one i n s t a n c e t h a t t h e f i r m c o u l d meet any l o w e r p r i c e o f c o m p e t i t o r s b e c a u s e i t had p u r c h a s e d . i t s r i c e t o o e a r l y i n t h e s e a s o n and was t h e r e -20 f o r e a n x i o u s t o s e l l . The company a l s o s o l d r i c e to 21 l o c a l J a p a n e s e w h o l e s a l e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e J a p a n R i c e M i l l . F i s h was t h e Sam Kee Company's major e x p o r t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s m a s s i v e s h i p m e n t s o f canned salmon had h e l p e d c o n s o l i d a t e t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a p l e s - b a s e d economy i n the 18 7 0's. In 1899, Sam Kee s e n t s i x t y c a s e s o f c o n d e n s e d m i l k and t h i r t y - f i v e c a s e s o f canned c r a b to Hong Kong and 2*2 t h i r t y t o n s o f s a l t e d d o g f i s h , t o Yokohama. In 1901, o v e r f i v e t o n s o f p i c k l e d s almon, canned s a l m o n , and d r i e d s a l t 23 salmon were s h i p p e d t o C h i n e s e f i r m s i n H a w a i i . Then t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s a l t h e r r i n g i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, 97 matched w i t h a p o w e r f u l consumer demand i n C h i n a f o r s a l t e d f i s h , l e d Sam Kee t o e x p o r t l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s , o f t h i s f i s h b e g i n n i n g i n 1903. Most o f t h e e a r l y s h i p m e n t s o f s a l t h e r r i n g went t o t h e Sun Tong Chong Company i n Hong KOng, bu t by 1907, c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f t h e f i s h were a l s o b e i n g 2 4 c o n s i g n e d t o S h a n g h a i . A p p e n d i x V I I I shows t h e volume o f s a l t h e r r i n g e x p o r t s a l m o s t t r i p l e d from a t l e a s t 521 t o n s 25 i n 1905 t o a t l e a s t 1544 t o n s i n 1915. The r a p i d growth, o f t h i s e x p o r t t r a d e l e d t o Sam K e e ' s d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g s i d e o f t h e i n d u s t r y . The p l a n t s were c e n t e r e d a t Nanaimo, where t h e h e r r i n g was c a u g h t i n n e a r b y w a t e r s and i m m e d i a t e l y s a l t - p a c k e d f o r e x p o r t . L o c a l J a p a n e s e f i r m s had e x p o r t e d t h e f i s h t o J a p a n p r i o r t o 1903, when both- t h e Sam Kee and Wing Sang com-2 6 p a n i e s o f V a n c o u v e r began s h i p p i n g t h e f i s h t o Hong Kong. At t h e o u t s e t , Sam Kee m e r e l y p u r c h a s e d t h e f i s h f r o m w h i t e and J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s , b u t soon i t began t o advance f u n d s to p a c k e r s t o e n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l i e s f o r i t s e l f . Sam Kee's r o l e as s u p p l i e r o f c a p i t a l and b u y e r o f f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s r e l i e v e d t h e c a s h s h o r t a g e and m a r k e t i n g p r o b l e m s o f e a r l y p a c k e r s . D u r i n g t h e 1903-1904 s e a s o n , t h e company advanced f u n d s t o Nanaimo p a c k e r H.M. McCrae, 2 7 c h a r g i n g him s e v e n p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t p e r annum. When McCrae d e l i v e r e d h i s s h i p m e n t o f f i s h t o Sam Kee, t h e company p a i d cash, f o r h a l f t h e s h i p m e n t and was a l l o w e d t o d e f e r t h e 28 b a l a n c e f o r s i x t y d a y s . Sam Kee t h e n r e c e i v e d a t e n per-. 2 9 c e n t c o m m i s s i o n from McCrae f o r h e l p i n g t o s e l l t h e f i s h . 98 In t h e e a r l y days o f t h e t r a d e when t h e r e was l i t t l e r e g u l a -t i o n o r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o v e r s a l t i n g and p a c k i n g p r o c e d u r e s , Sam Kee a l s o w i t h h e l d p a r t o f t h e amount p a y a b l e as i n d e m n i t y a g a i n s t any l o s s by w e i g h t o r damage c a u s e d by i m p r o p e r , • 30 s a l t i n g . By 1908, Sam Kee was d e a l i n g w i t h s e v e r a l J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s , p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h C h a r l i e O k u r i and U. Makino. F o r t h e 1908-1909 s e a s o n , both- O k u r i and Makino a g r e e d t o s u p p l y 31 t h e f i r m w i t h one t h o u s a n d t o n s o f s a l t h e r r i n g . B u t . t h e s e two p a c k e r s s u p p l i e d o n l y p a r t o f Sam Kee's t o t a l ex-p o r t volume b e c a u s e t h e company p u r c h a s e d e i g h t h u n d r e d t o n s 3 2 o f f i s h from a n o t h e r J a p a n e s e f i r m i n t h e same s e a s o n . The f i r m ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d i f f e r e n t J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s v a r i e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , b u t O k u r i and Makino o p e r a t e d i n d e p e n -d e n t s a l t e r i e s on w a t e r f r o n t l a n d owned by Sam Kee. They r e c e i v e d f i s h from J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n and t h e i r w o r k e r s d r a i n e d t h e h e r r i n g and s a l t e d and p a c k e d i t f o r s h i p m e n t . O t h e r J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s l a t e r r e n t e d b u i l d i n g s and equipment owned by t h e C h i n e s e f i r m , ' b u t e a r l i e r o p e r a t o r s had r e n t e d 3 3 o n l y t h e w a t e r f r o n t l a n d and p u t up t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s . In March 1908, O k u r i b o r r o w e d $300 f r o m Sam Kee f o r a s i x month term, p r o m i s i n g ' t o pay i n t e r e s t a t $2 a month and o f f e r i n g h i s s a l t e r y b u i l d i n g s and f i s h i n g o u t f i t as s e c u r i -34 t y . I n t u r n , Sam Kee g u a r a n t e e d t o t h e W i l l i a m Hoggan g e n e r a l s t o r e i n Nanaimo t h a t i t would buy O k u r i 1 s f i s h upon p a c k i n g and would pay O k u r i ' s a c c o u n t a t t h e s t o r e i n t h e 3 5 meantime. The company was a demanding m o n e y - l e n d e r , and 99 d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o o r d e r i t s l a w y e r s t o t h r e a t e n f o r e c l o s u r e o v e r J a p a n e s e f i s h - b o a t s and f i s h i n g g e a r w h i c h i t h e l d a c h a t t e l m o r t g a g e . ^ Sam Kee was a r u t h l e s s manager t o o . When i t became d i s p l e a s e d w i t h O k u r i ' s slow p a c k i n g and h i s f i s h e r m e n ' s s a l e o f h e r r i n g t o o t h e r f i r m s , i t t h r e a t e n e d t o 3 7 d e f a u l t on O k u r i ' s a c c o u n t a t t h e g e n e r a l s t o r e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e f i r m began t o c h a r g e Makino g r o u n d r e n t o f a d o l l a r p e r t o n o f s a l t f i s h when i t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Makino was a l s o 38 s e l l i n g f i s h t o o t h e r b u y e r s . In o v e r s e e r i n g t h e J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s , Sam Kee a r r a n g e d f o r t h e p u r c h a s e and d e l i v e r y o f a l l s u p p l i e s . S a l t was p u r c h a s e d from s e v e r a l V a n c o u v e r w h o l e s a l e d e a l e r s i n c l u d i n g C o l i n F. J a c k s o n and Company and E v a n s , Coleman and Evans and s h i p p e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I t a l s o b o u g h t s a l t f o r 39 e x p o r t t o C h i n a . The company b a r g a i n e d d e t e r m i n e d l y and 40 . demanded p r i c e s t h a t i t wanted: In O c t o b e r 1908 i t b l u n t l y 41 t o l d A.R. J o h n s t o n t h a t i t s p r i c e was t o o h i g h , and i n May i t r e j e c t e d E v a n s , Coleman and E v a n s ' o f f e r o f a December d e l i v e r y on one h u n d r e d t o n s o f s a l t and i n s i s t e d upon a 4 2 November d e l i v e r y . As b a c k e r and p u r c h a s i n g a g e n t t o t h e J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s , Sam Kee made the most o f i t s i n t e r m e d i a r y p o s i t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h s u p p l i e r s . The Hoggan g e n e r a l s t o r e i n Nanaimo gave the f i r m a f i v e p e r c e n t d i s c o u n t f o r s e t t l i n g O k u r i ' s a c c o u n t 43 on a m o n t h l y b a s i s . Sam Kee t h e n took a s i m i l a r d i s c o u n t o f f i t s own a c c o u n t a t a l o c a l lumber f i r m w i t h o u t a s k i n g b e c a u s e Sam Kee r e a s o n e d t h a t i t d e s e r v e d t o e a r n s o m e t h i n g 100 44 f o r b r i n g i n g i t s J a p a n e s e b u s i n e s s t h e r e . W i t h a n o t h e r s u p p l i e r , t h e f i r m demanded t h a t w h o l e s a l e p r i c e s a p p l y t o i t s p u r c h a s e s . Sam Kee was a c a r e f u l b u y e r o f s u p p l i e s . When i t came time to p u r c h a s e t e n t h o u s a n d wooden boxes f o r s h i p p i n g , t h e c ompany i n v i t e d q u o t a t i o n s from n i n e lumber m i l l s on t h e 4 6 M a i n l a n d and on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Hardware w h o l e s a l e r s were a l s o a s k e d t o s u b m i t q u o t a t i o n s f o r n a i l s and o t h e r 4 7 s u p p l i e s . When rumours h i n t e d t h a t p u r s e - s e i n i n g f o r her-r i n g m i g h t be p r o h i b i t e d , Sam Kee. q u i c k l y c a n c e l l e d i t s s a l t o r d e r s and u r g e d i t s s u p p l i e r E v a n s , Coleman and Evans t o 48 v e r i f y t h e rumour. And wh.en the company d e c l i n e d a s a l t p u r c h a s e from C. G a r d i n e r J o h n s t o n i n A u g u s t 1908, i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was due t o - t h e i n a b i l i t y o f J a p a n e s e 49 f i s h e r m e n to s e c u r e l i c e n s e s . P r e s s u r e s t o r e s t r i c t th.e number o f l i c e n s e s i s s u e d t o J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n c r e a t e d an o n g o i n g c o n c e r n f o r Sam Kee. The company u s u a l l y p a i d a w h i t e a g e n t i n Nanaimo t o o b t a i n 50 t h e n e c e s s a r y l i c e n s e s f o r i t s J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s . In J u l y 1909 t h e f i r m was s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n c e r n e d t o i n s t r u c t i t s a g e n t H.J. Simpson t o i n t e r v i e w t h e F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n e r 51 w i t h r e g a r d s t o p r o t e s t s o v e r t h e J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n . Next y e a r , Sam Kee d i s c o v e r e d t h a t w h i t e s a l t e r y owners were a t t e m p t i n g t o m a n i p u l a t e • t h e number o f l i c e n s e s i s s u e d and 52 t o l d Simpson to a t t e n d t o i t . The s i t u a t i o n w o r sened i n 1911 when o n l y f i f t e e n l i c e n s e s were g r a n t e d , and t h e f i r m had t o send d i s c r e e t f u n d s t o i t s Nanaimo a g e n t to sway t h e 101 5 3 s i t u a t i o n i h i t s f a v o u r . In 1910, Sam Kee had a p p r o a c h e d F u r u y a and Company, a m a j o r S e a t t l e - b a s e d h e r r i n g e x p o r t e r a b o u t j o i n t l y s e t t i n g up an a r r a n g e m e n t t o c o n t r o l t h e s a l t h e r r i n g i n d u s t r y , n o t i n g t h a t t h e w h i t e p a c k e r s had t r i e d t o 54 do so a l r e a d y b u t w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on t h i s m a t t e r were f o u n d i n t h e company's p a p e r s , b u t i t would a p p e a r t h a t Sam Kee wanted t o s e t up a b u y e r s ' s y n d i c a t e to o b t a i n f i s h i n g l i c e n s e s en b l o c o r t o s t o p v a r i o u s b u y e r s from b i d d i n g up h e r r i n g p r i c e s . D u r i n g 1909, Sam Kee c o n t e m p l a t e d e x p l o i t i n g new s o u r c e s o f h e r r i n g l o c a t e d a t Swanson Bay and i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . In March, t h e company i n f o r m e d a g e n t s f o r t h e m a j o r s t e a m s h i p l i n e s t h a t i t w o u l d be r e c e i v i n g s a l t h e r r i n g from n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r s h i p m e n t to C h i n a , and i t wanted t o s h i p d i r e c t l y o u t o f V i c t o r i a r a t h e r t h a n o u t o f 55 V a n c o u v e r o r S e a t t l e . The N.Y.K., Wat e r h o u s e , and B l u e F u n n e l l i n e s r e s p o n d e d p o s i t i v e l y and o f f e r e d to d i s c o u n t t h e c o s t o f t r a n s f e r s between V i c t o r i a and S e a t t l e i f S e a t t l e 56 s h i p m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y . By t h i s t i m e , Sam Kee was s h i p -p i n g s u c h l a r g e volumes o f f i s h , t h a t s h i p p i n g l i n e s and a g e n t s s u c h as E v a n s , Coleman and Evans and t h e C o a s t S h i p p i n g Company would send t h e f i r m t h e i r s a i l i n g s c h e d u l e s 57 w e l l i n advance o f t h e h e r r i n g s e a s o n . The n o r t h e r n s h i p m e n t s d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e , however. Thus Sam Kee c o n t i n u e d t o r e l y on Nanaimo f o r most o f i t s h e r r i n g and added new J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s t o i t s l i s t o f sup-p l i e r s . The e x p o r t volume expanded i n t o t h e 1910's, and 102 58 c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r C h i n e s e e x p o r t e r s r o s e . The f i r m c o n s i d e r e d b u y i n g more w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y i n Nanaimo to expand i t s o p e r a t i o n s , b u t no f r o n t a g e w i t h a deep enough 59 moorage c o u l d be f o u n d . F o r t h e 1909-1910 s e a s o n , Makino s u p p l i e d Sam Kee w i t h 292 tons, o f s a l t h e r r i n g , Nakaj i and 60 Modokoro 374 t o n s , and Takeda 528 t o n s . Sam Kee i n s t r u c -t e d i t s a g e n t to watch t h a t t h e s e t h r e e s u p p l i e r s d i d n o t s e l l any h e r r i n g t o i t s c o m p e t i t o r s , n o t i n g t h a t i f Makino m i s b e h a v e d t h e company would have the I n s p e c t o r o f F i s h e r i e s c a n c e l h i s l i c e n s e i m m e d i a t e l y . ^ ^ To meet the e x p o r t demand, Sam Kee c o n t i n u e d t o buy s a l t h e r r i n g e l s e w h e r e , f r o m t h e 62 Nanaimo F i s h and B a i t Company and t h r o u g h A.R. J o h n s t o n . By 1911, Sam Kee's i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e Nanaimo s a l t h e r r i n g i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e d w a t e r f r o n t l a n d and a w h arf, two g a s o l i n e l a u n c h e s w o r t h $3500, f i s h t a n k s , a m e s s h a l l , a 6 3 b unkhouse, and o t h e r s a l t e r y b u i l d i n g s . These were r e n t e d to J a p a n e s e p a c k e r s under a g r e e m e nts c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g l a b o u r c o n t r a c t s . T a k e d a , f o r example, a p p l i e d t o Sam Kee i n 1912 f o r o p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l and f o r use o f t h e company's f a c i l i t i e s . Rent was c h a r g e d f o r t h e use o f t h e wharf and t h e b o a t , and Takeda had t o a g r e e t o s e l l t h e f i s h s o l e l y t o Sam Kee a t s p e c i f i e d p r i c e s and a l s o t o p u r c h a s e a l l n e t s , f o o d , f i s h i n g g e a r , and p a c k i n g s u p p l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m t h e ,. 64 f i r m . The Sam Kee Company's s a l t h e r r i n g e x p o r t s l e d i t t o m a j o r d e a l i n g s w i t h w h i t e b u s i n e s s i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . These i n c l u d e d t h e g e n e r a l s t o r e s , lumber 103 m i l l s and hardware and c o m m i s s i o n f i r m s t h a t s u p p l i e d t h e s a l t e r i e s , m a r i n e i n s u r a n c e and s t e a m s h i p a g e n t s who a r r a n g e d f o r l o c a l and e x p o r t s h i p m e n t s , and t h e company's own a g e n t s i n Nanaimo. In a l l t h e s e d e a l i n g s , Sam Kee's a c t i o n s and p o s i t i o n s were g u i d e d by ma r k e t demands and p r o f i t - s e e k i n g . At no p o i n t d i d i t behave d i f f e r e n t l y from any o t h e r a s t u t e and a g g r e s s i v e b u s i n e s s o f t h e p e r i o d . Sam Kee was n e v e r p l a c e d a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e j u s t b e c a u s e i t was C h i n e s e . I t behaved a g r e s s i v e l y , s e c u r e i n t h e knowledge t h a t i t s volume o f p r o d u c t i o n gave i t a d v a n t a g e s and power. I t s middleman r o l e was made p o s s i b l e by t h e s h o r t a g e o f ' o p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l ^mong l o c a l p a c k e r s , by t h e demand i n C h i n a f o r s a l t f i s h , and by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a v i a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m o v e r t h e P a c i f i c . The h e r r i n g t r a d e d i d n o t h i n g e upon t h e C h i n e s e immi-g r a n t s ' d i s a d v a n t a g e d . p o s i t i o n i n t h e g e n e r a l economy, b u t as a l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r , Sam Kee d i d o p e r a t e w i t h i n c o n s t r a i n t s l o c k i n g t h e C h i n e s e i n t o l o w - p a y i n g , s e m i - s k i l l e d work. Lab o u r c o n t r a c t i n g p r e - d a t e d t h e company's e n t r y i n t o t h e h e r r i n g t r a d e and may have e x p o s e d i t to a w i d e r r a n g e o f b u s i n e s s . - p r a c t i c e s t h a t i t used l a t e r t o i t s own a d v a n t a g e . As w e l l , t h e b u s i n e s s acumen t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d Sam Kee's h e r r i n g t r a d e s t r a t e g i e s a l s o s u r f a c e d i n i t s l a b o u r m a r k e t -i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The C h i n e s e c o n t r a c t l a b o u r s y s t e m has been s t u d i e d 66 w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e salmon c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y , b u t i t s key f e a t u r e s a l s o a p p l i e d t o th.e a r e a s i n w h i c h Sam Kee p l i e d 104 i t s t r a d e . In t h e salmon i n d u s t r y a c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r and a C h i n e s e l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r drew up an agreement whereby t h e c o n t r a c t o r a g r e e d t o s u p p l y men a t a s p e c i f i e d p r i c e t o can a c e r t a i n q u o t a o f f i s h . . The c a n n e r p r o v i d e d a c a s h a d v a n c e , w h i c h t h e c o n t r a c t o r u s e d t o e n t i c e men t o t a k e t h e j o b . Crews were t h e n s e n t t o t h e c a n n e r i e s where t h e y worked ,and were b o a r d e d by t h e c o n t r a c t o r . At s e a s o n ' s end t h e c o n t r a c -t o r r e c e i v e d t h e f i n a l payment and p a i d h i s crew t h e i r wages 67 l e s s amounts f o r t h e a d v a n c e , room, and b o a r d . However, i f t h e salmon ru n was low, or i f any o t h e r r e a s o n p r e v e n t e d t h e w o r k e r s from f i l l i n g t h e q u o t a o f f i s h , t h e c a n n e r c o u l d r e f u s e t o pay t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e c o n t r a c t . The c o n t r a c t o r t o o c o u l d p a s s h i s l o s s o n t o h i s w o r k e r s by i n f l a t i n g t h e c o s t s and h i s t a l l y o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s and f o o d he had s u p p l i e d . Thus t h e w o r k e r s c o u l d emerge from a c a n n e r y h a v i n g worked and h a v i n g been f e d and h o u s e d, b u t w i t h no c a s h t o show f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . In s h o r t , t h e c o n t r a c t s y s t e m s h i f t e d t h e r i s k s o f an u n s t a b l e i n d u s t r y o n t o the c o n t r a c t e d w o r k e r s and t h e i r c o n t r a c t o r . Sam Kee's many .canning c u s t o m e r s i n c l u d e d W i l l i a m H i c k e y , John W a l l a c e , W i l l i a m H i l l , and J.H. Todd, as w e l l as f i r m s such as t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t P a c k i n g Company, M a l c o l m and W i n d s o r , Wurzburg and Company, and t h e I m p e r i a l 6 8 C a n n e r y . Sam Kee's d e a l i n g s r e v e a l e d one o t h e r way i n w h i c h t h e middleman was v u l n e r a b l e to t h e l o s s e s s u f f e r e d by t h e c a n n e r . In A u g u s t o f 1905, t h e C a n a d i a n C a n n i n g Company sue d Sam Kee, c h a r g i n g t h a t . th.e f i r m ' s foreman had no c o n t r o l 105 o v e r h i s men and t h a t the crew was s h o r t and was f a i l i n g t o 69 p r o d u c e t h e r e q u i r e d 1200 c a s e s a day. Y e t t h e c o n t r a c t o r s were n o t e n t i r e l y p o w e r l e s s , s i n c e t h e y c o n t r o l l e d t h e v i t a l s u p p l y o f l a b o u r t h a t c a n n e r s needed. C a n n e r s were c o n s t a n t l y demanding f u l l and s k i l l e d crews 70 from Sam Kee. In two i n s t a n c e s , c a n n e r s g u a r a n t e e d i n 71 w r i t i n g t o Sam.Kee t h a t w o r k e r s ' wages would be p a i d . In 1901, Sam Kee's l a w y e r s s u c c e s s f u l l y i s s u e d a g a r n i s h e e 72 a g a i n s t one c a n n e r f o r non-payment o f i t s a c c o u n t . But i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c o m p e t i t i o n among C h i n e s e c o n t r a c t o r s p r e -c l u d e d any p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n i t e d a c t i o n among them t o i m p r o v e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . ^ The c o n t r a c t s y s t e m f u n c t i o n e d i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i n t h e s a w m i l l i n d u s t r y . Sam Kee s u p p l i e d men f o r p a c k i n g , j o i n t i n g , k n o t - s a w i n g , and o t h e r j o b s i n s a w m i l l s , s h i n g l e m i l l s , and p l a n i n g m i l l s . The m i l l s were q u i c k t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t i n e x p e r i e n c e d l a b o u r c r e w s , t h e i r l a t e a r r i v a l , and 74 t h e i r i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers. The c o n t r a c t o r ' s v u l n e r a b i l -i t y was e x p o s e d a g a i n when t h e S p i c e r S h i n g l e M i l l i n f o r m e d Sam Kee t h a t i f s u f f i c i e n t men were not on hand when needed, t h e n t h e m i l l would h i r e a d d i t i o n a l men and c h a r g e t h e i r 75 wages t o Sam Kee's a c c o u n t . Two s e t s o f t a l l i e s k e p t by Sam Kee f o r i t s s a w m i l l w o r k e r s i n 1906 y i e l d some i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r e o f c o n t r a c t l a b o u r . A p p e n d i x IX shows t h a t t h e number o f men e mployed f l u c t u a t e d from month t o month: i n some c a s e s , o v e r t w e n t y men were t a k e n on o r d i s c h a r g e d . The amounts d e d u c t e d 106 f o r f o o d and s u p p l i e s r a n g e d from f i f t e e n t o t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l wages c a l c u l a t e d , s u c h t h a t w o r k e r s e v e n t u a l l y r e c e i v e d on a v e r a g e s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the o r i g i n a l wage. The a v e r a g e m o n t h l y wage a l s o f l u c t u a t e d , from a low o f $14.28 t o a h i g h o f $28.69, r e f l e c t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s o f wages p a i d f o r d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . In 1902, Sam Kee began s u p p l y i n g w o r k e r s t o t h e newly 76 e s t a b l i s h e d K n i g h t S u g a r Company o f Raymond, A l b e r t a . Sam Kee f u r n i s h e d crews o f 'good, h e a l t h y , and p r a c t i c a l ' f a r m e r s under an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g b o s s t o c u l t i v a t e and h a r v e s t e i g h t h u n d r e d a c r e s . o f s u g a r b e e t s f o r s a l e t o t h e 77 s u g a r company. C o n t r a c t t e r m s , l i k e t h o s e i n o t h e r l a b o u r a g r e e m e n t s , s p e c i f i e d t h a t i f Sam Kee d e f a u l t e d on t h e work, i t would have t o pay K n i g h t Sugar t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r t h a t 7 8 t h e s u g a r company would s u b s e q u e n t l y engage. W i t h t h e s u g a r b e e t c o n t r a c t s , Sam Kee p r o t e c t e d . . . i t s own p o s i t i o n w h e r e v e r i t c o u l d . In 1904, i t s u c c e s s f u l l y changed t h e c o n t r a c t t o have K n i g h t Sugar a c c e p t t h e b e e t s i n good c o n d i t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f s a c c h a r i n e c o n t e n t o r p u r i t y E a r l i e r c o n t r a c t s had s p e c i f i e d a t w e l v e p e r c e n t s u g a r c o n -8 0 t e n t and an e i g h t y p e r c e n t p u r i t y i n t h e b e e t s . Sam Kee a l s o a r r a n g e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company f o r 81 a g u a r a n t e e d r e t u r n f a r e f o r t h e w o r k e r s , even though 8 2 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s were r e f u n d e d by K n i g h t S u g a r . Sam 83 . Kee p u r c h a s e d l a n d n e a r Raymond i n 1904 t o c u l t i v a t e b e e t s 84 f o r s a l e t o a n o t h e r s u g a r company, b u t l e f t t h e s u g a r 85 t r a d e by 1907 w i t h o u t any e x p l a n a t i o n . 107 Sam Kee's r e a d y a c c e s s t o C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s a l s o l e d i t t o work i n l o g g i n g and t i m b e r s a l e s . Lumber m i l l s , b r i c k y a r d s , woodyards, and o t h e r s m a l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s n e e d i n g wood f o r f u e l o r f o r p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r a c t e d w i t h Sam Kee t o p u r c h a s e c u t t i m b e r , p a y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f wood p u r c h a s e d . 8 ^ In some c a s e s , t h e b u y e r s h e l d t i m b e r l e a s e s o r owned l a n d w h i c h t h e y wanted l o g g e d , b u t i n o t h e r c a s e s Sam Kee had t o f i n d i t s own s o u r c e o f wood. Most s i t e s were s i t u a t e d a r o u n d V a n c o u v e r , b u t some were l o c a t e d as f a r away 8 7 as R u s k i n , S t a v e L a k e, and C h i l l i w a c k . The wood p r o d u c t s i n c l u d e d s h i n g l e b o l t s , cordwood, l o n g b o l t s , and l o g s s u i t a b l e f o r use as p i l i n g s and as t e l e g r a p h o r t e l e p h o n e 88 p o l e s . The c o n t r a c t terms v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e owner o f t h e u n c u t wood. One m i l l p a i d f o r t o w i n g c o s t s w h i l e Sam Kee p a i d f o r stumpage and a n o t h e r p a i d f o r a r o a d b u i l t v . t o 89 remove the t i m b e r . A n o t h e r b u y e r o f t i m b e r s u p p l i e d a h o r s e f o r l o a d i n g t h e wood and even p r o m i s e d t o pay f o r wood 90 n o t d e l i v e r e d by y e a r ' s end. When Heaps and Company n e g l e c t e d t o have th e s h i n g l e b o l t s c u t a t S t a v e Lake prompt-l y measured, Sam Kee was q u i c k t o r e m i n d them o f t h e i r c o n -91 t r a c t o b l i g a t i o n s . When no s a t i s f a c t o r y a c t i o n r e s u l t e d , t h e f a l l e r s h i r e d a l a w y e r , and Sam Kee h a s t e n e d t o s e t up 9 2 a m e e t i n g t o a v o i d a l a w s u i t . Sam Kee s u b c o n t r a c t e d some o f t h e l o g g i n g work and once more a c t e d as c a p i t a l s u p p l i e r . In November 1 9 0 7 , . i t e n t e r e d a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h W.H. Chow t o c u t t i m b e r on 340 a c r e s o f 108 C.P.R. l a n d . Chow u n d e r t o o k to f e l l and d i s p o s e o f t h e t i m -b e r w i t h a l l s a l e p r o c e e d s to be s u b m i t t e d t o Sam Kee's 93 b o o k k e e p e r . Sam Kee's advance t o Chow was to be r e p a i d from t h e p r o f i t s , w i t h i n t e r e s t s e t a t t e n p e r c e n t p e r annum. In a n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n , Sam Kee s o l d i t s c o n t r a c t f o r s u p p l y i n g t i m b e r and i t s camp o u t f i t o u t r i g h t t o a C h i n e s e s u b c o n t r a c -94 t o r . Sam Kee p r o v e d once a g a i n to be an a g g r e s s i v e d e a l e r i n b u y i n g and s e l l i n g i t s wood products,. When t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company i n v i t e d tenders,:;, f o r c u t t i n g s h i n g l e b o l t s and t i m b e r on' i t s land-, Sam Kee a r g u e d t h a t i t s h o u l d win t h e c o n t r a c t b e c a u s e i t had a l r e a d y worked t h e s i t e u nder a n o t h e r l e s s e e and had s p e n t some one t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s p u t t i n g i n r o a d s . Sam Kee b i d $1.10 p e r c o r d , w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l t e n c e n t s c o u l d be added i f any f i r m s h o u l d 9 5 o u t b i d i t . In A u g u s t , t h e f i r m p u r c h a s e d t h e t i m b e r 96 s t a n d i n g i n s e v e r a l s i t e s i n t h e H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e , and l a t e r a p p r o a c h e d A r t h u r McEvoy, a p r o m i n e n t V a n c o u v e r s o l i c i -t o r , t o t e n d e r i t s wood f o r q u i c k s a l e t o C i t y H a l l , t h e C i t y H o s p i t a l , s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , and 'any o t h e r b i g b u i l d i n g s ' 97 to c l e a r i t s s t o c k b e f o r e t h e summer. When n e c e s s a r y Sam Kee knew t o use t h e a p p r o p r i a t e middleman. In o t h e r b u s i n e s s , Sam Kee e n c o u n t e r e d p r o b l e m s t h a t any f i r m m i g h t have f a c e d . Lumber m i l l s a c c u m u l a t e d u n p a i d 9 8 d e b t s t o Sam Kee f o r c o n t r a c t s c o m p l e t e d . O t h e r c u s t o m e r s c o m p l a i n e d about t h e q u a l i t y o f Sam Kee's s h i n g l e b o l t s and 9 9. r e f u s e d f u l l payment. The.company p u r s u e d s a l e s with. 109 100 o t h e r c u s t o m e r s g u a r a n t e e i n g good t i m b e r i n t h e s h i p m e n t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was a p r o b l e m t o o , and Sam Kee c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e B.C. E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company about t h e l a c k o f c a r s a v a i l a b l e f o r c a r r y i n g wood i n t o town. Sam Kee p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t had b u i l t a s p u r l i n e and t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v e d b e t t e r 101 s e r v i c e . The company's work i n t h e lumber and l o g g i n g i n d u s t r i e s may have grown from i t s c h a r c o a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g and woodyard 102 o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h were o p e r a t i n g as e a r l y as 1898, and 103 p o s s i b l y as e a r l y as 1889. E a r l y r e p o r t s had n o t e d t h a t a ' s y n d i c a t e ' o f C h i n e s e was making c h a r c o a l f r o m t h e r e f u s e 104 o f t h e M o o d y v i l l e s a w m i l l i n an oven b u i l t by t h e m s e l v e s . By 1900, Sam Kee was r u n n i n g t h e Q u i c k D e l i v e r y C o a l and Woodyard a t 48 Dupont S t r e e t , s e l l i n g c o a l , c o k e , c h a r c o a l and wood t o b u s i n e s s e s s u c h as c h a n d l e r i e s and s m a l l f o u n -d r i e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , h o t e l s , homes, and o t h e r f u e l d e a l e r s .'''^ 106 C h a r c o a l was s o l d as f a r away as C a l g a r y . C o n v e n i e n t l y , t h e m a j o r c h a r c o a l c u s t o m e r s were the salmon c a n n e r i e s , many o f w h i c h Sam Kee a l s o s u p p l i e d w i t h l a b o u r . These b u y e r s were l o c a t e d n e a r b y a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and a t S t e v e s t o n and f u r t h e r away a t s i t e s on t h e 10 7 Skeena and Naas R i v e r s , Q u a t h i a s k i Cove, and S m i t h ' s I n l e t . C h a r c o a l s h i p m e n t s a v e r a g e d between 200 t o 2 5 0 d b u s h e l s , and were s h i p p e d on t h e many steamsh.ips s e r v i c i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t . By 1907, Sam Kee may have had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s u p p l y i n g c h a r c o a l as i t i n v e s t i g a t e d p u r c h a s i n g t h e 108 p r o d u c t f r o m a n o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r e r i n town. 110 In a n o t h e r m a r k e t i n g u n d e r t a k i n g i n v o l v i n g s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s , Sam Kee combined i t s i n t e r m e d i a r y r o l e between C h i n e s e and w h i t e s w i t h i t s m e r c h a n t r o l e o f s u p p l y i n g goods and s e r v i c e s demanded by t h e m i g r a n t s . By 1905, Sam Kee was a c t i n g as a g e n t f o r t h e B l u e F u n n e l L i n e and t h e J a p a n M a i l S t e a m s h i p Company t h r o u g h D o d w e l l and Company. I t s o l d t i c -k e t s t o C h i n e s e t r a v e l l e r s and b o a r d e d them l o c a l l y as th e y 109 came t o town t o a w a i t t h e i r s h i p ' s d e p a r t u r e . The com-p e t i t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s - P a c i f i c s t e a m s h i p l i n e s was f i e r c e , w i t h each h a v i n g C h i n e s e a g e n t s b a s e d i n C h i n a -towns a l l a c r o s s Canada. In 1909, Sam Kee a p p o i n t e d t w e n t y -s e v e n C h i n e s e s u b - a g e n t s f o r t h e B l u e F u n n e l ..Line i n t h i r t e e n c i t i e s i n c l u d i n g M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Ottawa, H a m i l t o n , W i n n i -110 peg, S w i f t C u r r e n t , and Moose Jaw. The p r e - e m i n e n t f i r m i n t h e i n d u s t r y was t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c S t e a m s h i p Company w i t h i t s f l e e t o f Empress l i n e r s . In c o m p i l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s c o m p e t i t o r , Sam Kee r e p o r t e d t o D o d w e l l t h a t j u s t o v e r two t h o u s a n d C h i n e s e had d e p a r t e d from V a n c o u v e r a b o a r d C.P.R. s h i p s i n 1 9 0 7 . 1 1 1 The C.P.R.'s a d v a n t a g e , o f c o u r s e , l a y i n i t s a b i l i t y t o s e l l i t s s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s a t t h e same time t h a t e a s t e r n t r a v e l l e r s p u r c h a s e d t r a i n p a s s a g e t o r e a c h t h e west c o a s t . To c o u n t e r t h i s , Sam Kee and t h e B l u e F u n n e l L i n e c h a r g e d t h e same P a c i f i c p a s s a g e as d i d t h e C.P.R., o f f e r i n g t h e i r e a s t e r n a g e n t s a $2 co m m i s s i o n i f t h e y would s e l l B l u e F u n n e l t i c -k e t s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e C.P.R. r a i l w a y f a r e w i t h o u t i n f o r m i n g C.P.R. o f f i c i a l s . I l l As C h i n e s e a g e n t , Sam Kee p u b l i c i z e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e B l u e F u n n e l L i n e c a r e f u l l y . I t p o i n t e d o u t t o i t s C h i n e s e c u s t o m e r s t h a t t h e r e were no f i r s t o r s e c o n d c l a s s a c c o m o d a t i o n s on b o a r d t h e e i g h t s t e a m e r s o f t h e l i n e , t h u s 113 a l l o w i n g a l l p a s s e n g e r s t o walk f r e e l y a b o u t . The 1908 114 f a r e o f $43.50 i n c l u d e d p a s s a g e , c a r t a g e , and b o a r d . The B l u e F u n n e l L i n e , i n l i n e w i t h i t s c o m p e t i t o r s , o f f e r e d a d i s c o u n t e d t i c k e t to i n d i g e n t C h i n e s e , and Sam Kee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v e r i f y i n g t h e a p p l i c a n t s ' n e e d i n e s s . 1 1 ~* Sam Kee was a l s o q u i c k t o r e p o r t p a s s e n g e r s 1 c o m p l a i n t s t o D o d w e l l , n o t i n g t h a t bad p u b l i c i t y n o t o n l y i n j u r e d t h e B l u e F u n n e l L i n e ' s t r a f f i c . b u t a l s o gave t h e C.P.R. a 116 b e t t e r c h a n c e t o r e g a i n i t s s h a r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s . In 1908, t h e i n d i g e n t r a t e was r a i s e d by a l l t h e s t e a m s h i p l i n e s 117 to $30 from $25. In 1910, when D o d w e l l c o n s i d e r e d r a i s i n g t h e p a s s a g e t o match t h e C.P.R.'s h i g h e r r a t e s , Sam Kee a d v i s e d a g a i n s t d o i n g so b e c a u s e t h e C h i n e s e would p r e f e r t o t r a v e l a b o a r d t h e Empresses i f s t e a m s h i p p r i c e s were t h e : „:."i 118 s ame . G i v e n t h e i n c o m p l e t e n a t u r e o f t h e Sam Kee company r e c o r d s , t h i s c h a p t e r c a n n o t s e r v e as a c o m p r e h e n s i v e company h i s t o r y . T h e r e i s n e i t h e r a d e f i n i t e b e g i n n i n g n o r end t o t h e f i r m , n o r have any major t r e n d s been d i s c o v e r e d f o r i t s v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s . H e r r i n g e x p o r t s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p e r i o d u n der s t u d y , and t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e b u s i n e s s i n d i c a t e d some d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s . The r e c o r d s as t h e y s t a n d 112 can o n l y r e c r e a t e and r e v e a l a s l i c e o f company l i f e f o r a d e c a d e ' s t i m e , and t h e y show i n terms o f b e h a v i o u r and attitude,... a f i n e s e n s e o f b u s i n e s s acumen., and a g g r e s s i v e -n e s s . The Sam Kee Company s o l d C h i n e s e goods and s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s t o t h e i m m i g r a n t community and s o l d C h i n e s e l a b o u r , c h a r c o a l , and lumber p r o d u c t s t o w h i t e b u s i n e s s e s . The company b o u g h t h e r r i n g and us e d t h e l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a n c i l l a r y l e g a l s e r v i c e s o f t h e g e n e r a l m e r c a n t i l e com-m u n i t y . These d i f f e r e n t arms o f t h e b u s i n e s s were l o g i c a l l y i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d . L a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g and r e t a i l s a l e s a t -t r a c t e d c u s t o m e r s t o t h e s t o r e , where s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s were l a t e r s o l d . The f i r m ' s c o n n e c t i o n s t o C h i n a f a c i l i t a t e d i t s r e m i t t a n c e f u n c t i o n and t h e h . e r r i n g e x p o r t t r a d e . P r o d u c t s from t h e company's c o n t r a c t l o g g i n g were c h a n n e l l e d i n t o i t s c h a r c o a l m a n u f a c t o r y and woodyard s a l e s . C h a r c o a l s a l e s t h e n r e i n f o r c e d i t s c o n t a c t s w i t h the salmon c a n n e r i e s f o r w h i c h i t c o n t r a c t e d l a b o u r . But w h i l e t h e s e t r a d i n g arms were u n i f i e d , the t r a n s -a c t i o n o f b u s i n e s s r e v e a l e d two . d i f f e r e n t t r a d i n g a t m o s t p h e r e s . In b u y i n g and s e l l i n g s a l t h e r r i n g , c h a r c o a l , and t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , Sam Kee was d e a l t w i t h as an e q u a l by i t s w h i t e b u s i n e s s c o u n t e r p a r t s . The w h o l e s a l e , s h i p p i n g , and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s o f V a n c o u v e r and Sam Kee Company spoke a common l a n g u a g e o f commerce where m u t u a l needs f r o m b o t h s i d e s were s a t i s f i e d i n t h e t r a d i n g o f goods and s e r v i c e s . R a c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h d o i n g b u s i n e s s 113 o r making money. But i n t h e o t h e r a r e n a o f l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g , Sam Kee had t o a c k n o w l e d g e th e l i m i t e d power o f C h i n e s e w o r k e r s i n t h e w o r k p l a c e . The e x t r a ' o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t t h e f i r m s h o u l -d e r e d o v e r q u o t a s o f c a n s , s u g a r , and lumber were terms d i c -t a t e d by w h i t e e m p l o y e r s who knew t h a t l a b o u r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s were l i m i t e d . Sam Kee's r o l e h e r e was t o o r g a n i z e a d i s p a r a t e low-wage segment o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e f o r e m p l o y e r s . The company a l s o a d o p t e d t h e r u t h l e s s s t a n c e o f e m p l o y e r s i n o v e r s e e r i n g i t s J a p a n e s e f i s h - p a c k e r s . The l a b o u r c o n t r a c t o r s t o o d c l o s e r t o t h e e m p l o y e r t h a n t o t h e middleman c e n t r e b e c a u s e , i n a g r e e i n g t o an e m p l o y e r ' s t e r m s , t h e c o n t r a c t o r e f f e c t i v e l y became t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a g e n t . In o t h e r middleman f u n c t i o n s , t h e company's a c t i v i t i e s as r e m i t t a n c e a g e n t , s t e a m s h i p t i c k e t s e l l e r , and i m p o r t e r met some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l needs o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s . I t i s n o t known i f t h e company e x t r a c t e d f e e s as h i g h as t h o s e o f t h e m o n o p o l i s t i c I t a l i a n p a d r o n e , and c o m p e t i t i o n amongst Ch i n a t o w n ' s many f i r m s may have p r e c l u d e d p r o f i t e e r i n g from 119 t h e 'commerce of m i g r a t i o n 1 . As w e l l , t h e Sam Kee Company i n v e s t e d i n l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s and r e a l e s t a t e , making money i n a r e a s q u i t e a p a r t from t h e s e r v i c i n g o f i m m i g r a n t n e e d s . The f i r m f u n c t i o n e d both, as an i m m i g r a n t middleman and a l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l i s t r e s p o n d i n g t o f o r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e g e n e r a l economy. The company's middleman a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e 114 a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e e a r l y m i g r a n t s and r e d u c e d t h e trauma o f s e t t l e m e n t i n a f o r e i g n l a n d . A m i d s t t h e a d v e r s e r a c i a l s e t t i n g , t h e company h e l p e d m i g r a n t s r e a l i z e t h e i r m i g r a t i o n a m b i t i o n s by p r o v i d i n g j o b s , f o o d , and c o n t a c t w i t h t h e mother c o u n t r y . The company's e f f o r t s d i d n o t a l t e r t h e r a c i a l c l i m a t e or d i r e c t l y promote g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e m i n o r i t y . I n s t e a d , t h e y m e r e l y h e l p e d t h e newcomers c o - e x i s t p e a c e f u l l y with, t h e i r i n h o s p i t a b l e h o s t s . In some f u n c t i o n s , t h e company b r o u g h t C h i n e s e i n t o g r e a t e r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , w h i l e i n o t h e r s , i t h e l p e d t h e C h i n e s e r e t a i n t h e i r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Sam Kee's a c t i v i t i e s a l s o r e v e a l e d how t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f b u s i n e s s e n c o u r a g e d newcomers t o a c t and behave as economic men w i t h o u t c o n c e r n o v e r c o l o u r . The company e x t e n d e d c r e d i t t o c u s t o m e r s and p a c k e r s , b a r g a i n e d i n a h a r d - n o s e d f a s h i o n , and seems t o even have had a hand i n c o r r u p t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f fi.s.hing l i c e n s e s . These - , n o n - r a c i s t e n c o u n t e r s , however, were l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l c i r c l e o f b u s i n e s s m e n and d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t r a c e r e l a t i o n s . . However, Sam Kee's h i g h d e g r e e o f i n t e g r a t i o n does t e s t i f y t o a d e g r e e o f r e c e p t i v e n e s s i n t h e h o s t s o c i e t y h i t h e r t o p a s s e d o v e r . And, d e s p i t e t h e common image o f the C h i n e s e as v i c t i m s o f r a c i s m and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m , t h e i r b u s i n e s s a m b i t i o n s and e n d e a v o u r s p r o v e them t o have been f a r f r o m p o w e r l e s s and h i g h l y r e s o u r c e f u l . 115 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FIVE L. Eve A r m e n t r o u t Ma, " B i g and Medium B u s i n e s s e s o f C h i n e s e Immigrants t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1850-1890: An O u t l i n e , B u l l e t i n o f t h e C h i n e s e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a 13 (September 1 9 7 8 ) : 1-2. 2 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Add. MSS 571, Sam Kee Company P a p e r s ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sam Kee) v o l . 15 f i l e 6 X^+'^-Wal^.l&i^.^-if," t R e c o r d o f Goods on Hand], 1888. Sam Kee, v o l . 15 f i l e 1 'Vlfik A -5^  3& " [ C o s t o f Goods On Hand] , 1901. ftWW- --3 4Sam Kee, v o l . 15 f i l e 9, %^J^J^- ^^-16-^^. • [ R e c o r d o f S a l e s , 1 893]; v o l . 15 f i l e 12 " ^C)^" ^ e c 0 r d o f S a l e s , 1 8 9 8 ] . 5Sam Kee, v o l . 14 f i l e 1 n^^^^X^f^^J^^ " [ J o u r n a l , 1891]. 6Sam Kee, v o l . 14 f i l e 2 [ J o u r n a l , 1896] . 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 3, f i l e 6 [ L i s t o f Goods S h i p p e d .to V a n c o u v e r ] , 1905-1906; and v o l . 3 f i l e 11 [ L i s t o f Goods S h i p p e d t o V a n c o u v e r ] , 1908. 8 I b i d . 9 See l e t t e r s i n Sam Kee, v o l . 3, f i l e s 2 , 3 , 8 f o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h camps and towns t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a . 1 0 ~ - 12 f i l e i ^ie^«it4i46*#-i& Sam Kee, v o l . J. ^ J-^-J.^ ^ Qi_>/i_^>v*sa - <N ' < V V J \ I ^r^*7?^Ji [ L e d g e r o f Customers A c c o u n t s , 1901],- v o l . 12 f i l e 2 " ^ C i ^ j S ^ - ^ ffi\&^QlkJ&*-£ [ L e d g e r o f Customers A c c o u n t s , 1902] ; v o l . 12 . f i l e 3 "^^^J^^^^^Jii ||" [ L e d g e r o f Customers A c c o u n t s , 1 1.Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 54, Sam Kee t o McLennan and M c F e e l y , 30 J u l y 1908; v o l . 6, f i l e 7, Woolsey, LeFeaux and Co. t o Sam Kee, 15 May 1906. 12 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, Sh.on Yuen and Co. t o Sam Kee, 19 December 1904. 1 3 S a m Kee, v o l . 18 f i l e 6 [ R e c o r d o f Cash and L e t t e r R e m i t t a n c e s ] , 1891; f i l e 7 'J^gS^^^fr" [ R e c o r d o f Cash and L e t t e r R e m i t t a n c e s ] , 1896. »< 14 Sam Kee, v o l . 5, f i l e 6, Customs d e c l a r a t i o n s , 9 March 1900, 21 May 1900. 116 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9, F.C. D a v i d g e t o Sam Kee, 22 March 1901, 26 March 1901; W. A. A n d e r s o n and Co. t o Chang Foy ( s i c ) , 28 March 1901. ^ S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book' 1 p .120, Sam Kee t o K e l l y Doug-l a s and Co., 31 May 1908; v o l . : 1 Book 1, p. 33, Sam Kee t o W. H. M a l k i n , 18 J a n u a r y 1908. 17 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 12, J . E . Chipman t o Sam Kee, 2 J a n u a r y 1907, 10 J a n u a r y 1908. 1 8 Sam Kee, v o l . 8 . f i l e 1, Sam Kee to V.E. R o b e r t s , 18 F e b r u a r y 1909. 19 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 12, Sam Kee t o C a m p b e l l B r o s and W i l s o n , C a l g a r y , G e o r g e s o n and Co., C a l g a r y , Hudson's Bay Company, W i n n i p e g , e t . a l , 22 J a n u a r y 1908; v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 67-70, Sam Kee t o v a r i o u s f i r m s , 19 March 1908. 20 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 52, Sam Kee t o Rat P o r t -age Lumber Co., H a r r i s o n R i v e r , 6 March 1908. 21 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 89, Sam Kee t o Jap a n R i c e M i l l , 31 March 1908. 2 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 4, B i l l s o f L a d i n g , Sam Kee to Wing Lee Chun, 25 F e b r u a r y 1899, 28 December 1899; Sam Kee t o J . H o r i , 27 F e b r u a r y 1899. 2 3 Sam Kee, v o l .. 5 f i l e 9, B i l l s o f L a d i n g , Sam Kee to C h i n On, 1 November.1901; 11 December 1901. 24 Sam Kee, v o l . 9 f i l e 2, B i l l s o f L a d i n g , 1906-1908. 2 5 The e x p o r t f i g u r e s a r e m o d i f i e d by 'at l e a s t ' b e c a u s e t h e c o m p i l a t i o n may be a f f e c t e d by m i s s i n g r e c o r d s . 26 Leung, p. 6 . 2 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, H.M. McCrae t o Sam Kee v i a E.W. MacLean, 19 F e b r u a r y 1904. 2 8 Sam Kee, v o l 6 f i l e 4, Agreement between H.M. McCrae and Sam Kee, 14 December 1903. 29 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, H.M. McCrae t o Sam Kee v i a E. W. MacLean, 19 F e b r u a r y 1904. 30 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, M. Komatsu and Co. to Sam Kee, 7 A p r i l 1904. 3 1 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 6, C. O k u r i t o Sam Kee, 22 September 1908; U. Makino t o Sam Kee, 31 O c t o b e r 1908. 117 3 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 6, Awaya, I k e d a and Co t o Sam Kee, 21 September 19.0.8. 3 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, Sam Kee to Red F i r Lum-b e r Co., L a d y s m i t h , B.C., 15 November 1909. 34 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 54, C. O k u r i t o Sam Kee, 13 March 1908. 35 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 56, Sam Kee t o C. O k u r i , 13 March 1908. 3^Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 2, p. 24, Sam Kee t o M a c N e i l l , B i r d , M a c d o n a l d and B a n f i e l d , 2 O c t o b e r 1912. 37 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book. 1, pp. 312, 315, Sam Kee t o C. O k u r i , 10 December 1908, 12 December 1908. 3 8 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 388, Sam Kee t o U. Makino, 15 F e b r u a r y 1908. 39 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 1, E v a n s , Coleman and Evans t o Sam Kee, 16 May 1908. 40 ..See, f o r example, Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, C o l i n F. J a c k s o n and Co. t o Sam Kee, 7 June 1907. C.F. J a c k s o n and Company s u b s e q u e n t l y r e d u c e d t h e i r p r i c e by t e n c e n t s a t o n . Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 232, 27 O c t o b e r 1908. 41 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 232, Sam Kee t o A.R. J o h n s t o n , 27 O c t o b e r 1908; v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 245, Sam Kee t o A.R. J o h n s t o n , 3 November 1908. 4 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 113, Sam Kee t o E v a n s , Coleman and E v a n s , 18 May 1908.. 4 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 2, W. Hoggan to Sam Kee, 19 O c t o b e r 1908. 44 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 758, Sam Kee t o Red F i r Lumber'.Company, 15 A p r i l 1910. 4 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 2, p. 40, Sam Kee t o M. F u r u y a and Co., 25 November 1911. 46 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 160, 186, 187, Sam Kee to v a r i o u s m i l l s , 18 August 1908; pp. 198-200, Sam Kee t o v a r i o u s m i l l s , 12 O c t o b e r 1908. 4 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 163, Sam Kee t o Wood, V a l l a n c e and L e g g a t t L t d . , 19 August 1908; v o l . 1 Book 1 p. 164, Sam Kee t o McLennan and M c F e e l y L t d . , 19 August 1908. 118 48 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 129, Sam Kee t o A.E. P l a n t a , 18 June 1908; v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 130, Sam Kee t o Evans, Coleman and Evans, 18 June 1908. 49 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 170, Sam Kee t o C. G a r d i n e r J o h n s t o n , 27 August 1908. ^ S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 646, 747, Sam Kee t o J.H. Simpson, 18 June 1909, 11 March 1910. 51 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 659, Sam Kee to J.H. Simpson, 3 J u l y , 1909. 5 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 750, 753, Sam Kee to J.H. Simpson, 18 March 1910, 20 March 1910. 53 Sam Kee, v o l . 7, f i l e 7, George Hannay t o Sam Kee, 6 September 1911. 54 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 748, Sam Kee t o M. F u r u y a , 14 March 1910; v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 755, Sam Kee t o M.Furuya, 28 March 1910. 55 Sam Kee, v o l . 1, Book.1, pp. 497-499 , Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., K . J . B u r n s , and G r e e r , C o u r t e n a y and Skene, 5 March 1909. 56 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 535, Sam Kee t o C o a s t S t e a m s h i p Co., 10 March 1909. 57 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 2, Evans Coleman and Evans t o Sam Kee, 22 August 1908; v o l . 7 f i l e 6, C o a s t S h i p p i n g Com-pany t o Sam Kee, 15 September 1908. Leung, p. 6. 59 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 561, 584, Sam Kee to A.E. P l a n t a , 18 March 1909. 6 ° S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 767, Sam Kee t o E.G. T a y l o r , no d a t e . ^ S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 736,812, Sam Kee t o George Hannay, 30 J a n u a r y 1910, 23 November 1910. 62 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 726, Sam Kee to Nanaimo F i s h and B a i t Company, 8 J a n u a r y 1910; v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 700, Sam Kee t o A.R. J o h n s t o n and Co., 25 November 1909. 6 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 9 f i l e 4, I n s u r a n c e P o l i c e s , 1911. 64 Sam Kee, v o l . 8 f i l e 6, Agreement between Sam Kee and 0. Takeda, 18 November 1912. 119 6 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 2, pp. 33,34, Sam Kee t o Nanaimo F i s h and B a i t Company, 19 O c t o b e r 1911, 31 O c t o b e r , 1911. ^ P a u l Yee, "The C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s Salmon C a n n i n g I n d u s t r y , " i n Garrick.. Chu , e t . a l . e d i t o r s , I n a l i e n a b l e R i c e : A C h i n e s e and. J a p a n e s e - C a n a d i a n A n t h o l o g y .( V a n c o u v e r : P r i v a t e P r i n t i n g , 1980).: 9-11. • I b i d . 68 For a sample o f his. c l i e n t s , see Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 96, Sam Kee t o John W a l l a c e , Naas R i v e r , 15 A p r i l 1908; v o l . 6 f i l e 5 W. H i c k e y C a n n i n g Co. t o Sam Kee, 5 September 1905; v o l . 5 f i l e 1, B u r r a r d I n l e t P a c k i n g Company t o Sam Kee, 1897; v o l . 5 f i l e 4 Sam Kee to Wurzburg and Co., 9 November 1899; v o l . 5 f i l e 9 , I m p e r i a l Cannery to Sam Kee, 12 A p r i l 1901. 69 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 5, R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l t o Sam Kee, 11 A u g u s t 1905. 70 F o r example, see Sam.Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 645, Sam Kee to John W a l l a c e , 15 June 1909. 71 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 5, W. Mowat t o Sam Kee, 9 September 1905; v o l . 6 f i l e 7, J.O.W. Brown t o A. D e s b r i s a y , 22 March 1906. 72 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9, Cowan, K a p p e l e and McEvoy t o Sam Kee, 18 May 1901, 30 June 1901. 73 Duncan S t a c e y , "The I r o n C h i n k " M a t e r i a l H i s t o r y  B u l l e t i n 12 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 1 ) : 105. 74 F o r examples, see Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9, E.H. Heaps and Co t o Sam Kee, 13 J u l y 1901; S p i c e r S h i n g l e M i l l t o Sam Kee, 13 May 1901. 7 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 1, S p i c e r S h i n g l e M i l l t o Sam Kee, 22 March 1898. 7^Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 2, K n i g h t Sugar Co. to Sam Kee, 27 June 1902. 7 7 Sam Kee, v o l , 6 f i l e 2, Agreement between K n i g h t Sugar Co. and Sam Kee, 2 December 1903. 7 8 I b i d . Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, E. P. E l l i s o n t o Sam Kee 17 November 1904. 120 '80 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 2, Agreement between K n i g h t S u g a r Co and Sam Kee, 2 December 190 3. 81 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, E . P . E l l i s o n t o Sam Kee, 17 November 1904. 8 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 2, Agreement between K n i g h t Sugar Co. and Sam Kee, 15 O c t o b e r 1903. 8 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 4, E.P. E l l i s o n t o Sam Kee, 23 A p r i l 1904. 84 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 5, Agreement between U n i o n S t o c k Company and Shum Moon, 13 May 1905. 8 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 10, E . P . E l l i s o n t o Sam Kee, 20 F e b r u a r y 1907 ; v o l . 6 f i l e 11, E.P. E l l i s o n t o Sam Kee, 13 A p r i l 1907. 8 6 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 29, Sam Kee t o D o u g l a s and Thomas, 3 September 1907; v o l . 6 f i l e 4, H a r o l d B u r n e t t o Sam Kee, 12 J a n u a r y 1904; v o l . 7 f i l e 1 John C o u g h l a n and Co. t o Sam Kee, 25 June 1908; v o l . 7 f i l e 2 J o s e p h Chew Lumber and S h i n g l e M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co. t o Sam Kee, 3 September 1908; v o l . 6 f i l e 10, E.H. Heaps and Co. t o Sam Kee, 28 F e b r u a r y 1907 and 6 March 1907. 8 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9, Dean B r o t h e r s t o E.H. Heaps and Co., 1 A u g u s t 1907; v o l . 1 Book 1, Sam Kee t o Henry F i t z -g e r a l d , 17 November 1910. 8 8 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 2, Brown and V a n o s t r a n d t o H.H. Chow f o r Sam Kee, 9 A p r i l 1903. 89 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9, E.H. Heaps t o Sam Kee, 8 March 1901. 90 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, Cascade Wood Co. t o Sam Kee, 26 September 1907. 9 1 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 529, Sam Kee to E.H. Heaps and Co., 9 March 1909. 9 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 648, Sam Kee t o E.H. Heaps and Co., 19 June 190.9. 9 3 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, Agreement between Sam Kee and W.H.. Chow, 13 November 1907. 94 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, Agreement between Chow Mew and Sam Kee, 20 F e b r u a r y 1908. 121 9 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, Sam Kee t o C.P.R. Land D e p a r t m e n t , 25 A p r i l 1907. 96 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, Edward Do n l a n t o Sam Kee, 25 A u g u s t 1907 r e : t i m b e r on NW% o f S e c t i o n 47; Townsend B r o t h e r s t o Sam Kee, 17 Au g u s t 1907 r e : NE and NW3? o f B l o c k 44; H.Farlow t o Sam Kee, 28 A u g u s t 1907 r e : NW3? o f B l o c k 46. 9 7 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 13, Sam Kee t o A. McEvoy, 5 F e b r u a r y 1908. 9 8 See, f o r examples, Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 7, C.W. Brown t o Sam Kee, 8 May 1906 r e : $950 d e b t ; F r e d A. Shore o f F o s s Lumber t o Sam Kee, 8 A u g u s t 1906. 99 Sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 2, J o s e p h Chew Lumber and S h i n g l e M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co t o Sam Kee, 3 September 1908. 1 0 ° S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 129, Sam Kee t o John C o u g h l i n , 16 June 1908. 1 0 1 S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 274, Sam Kee t o G e n e r a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , B.C.E.R., 14 November 1908. 10 2 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 2, Sam Kee t o T. Dunn and Co., 1898 no d a t e ; Sam Kee t o W.H. Morton M i n i n g and M i l l i n g S u p p l i e s , 25 November 1898. 10 3 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , James S k i t t Matthews N e w s c l i p p i n g C o l l e c t i o n f i l e M1765 " C h a r c o a l " , Wo r i d c l i p p i n g d a t e d 22 A p r i l 1889. 104 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , James S k i t t Matthews N e w s c l i p p i n g C o l l e c t i o n f i l e M1765 " C h a r c o a l " , c l i p p i n g d a t e d 6 J a n u a r y 1898. 10 5 Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 5, D e l i v e r y l i s t s , 14 F e b r u a r y 1900. 106 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 114, Sam Kee t o C D . T a p r e l l , C a l g a r y , 20 May> 1908. 10 7 Fo r examples, see Sam Kee, v o l . 5 f i l e 9-10 8 Sam Kee, v o l . 6 f i l e 11, E l e c t r i c T u r p e n t i n e Company o f Canada t o Sam Kee, 12 O c t o b e r 1907. 109_ „ ' ..rf-^S* / L Sam Kee, v o l 18, f i l e 17 ' ^ C ^ L x f [ R e c o r d o f W r i t i n g S e a t s on B e h a l f o f B l u e F u n n e l L i n e ] , 1905 1 1 0 S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, pp. 611-613, Sam Kee t o Do d w e l l and Co., 7 May 1909. 122 i : L 1 S a m Kee, v o l . 1 Book. 1, p. 148, Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., 30 May 1908. 112 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 203, Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., O c t o b e r 1908. 113 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 443, T r a n s l a t i o n o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t , no d a t e . I b i d . 115 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 239, Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., 2 November 1908. 116 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 799, Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., 25 O c t o b e r 1910 ^''sam Kee, v o l . 7 f i l e 8, D o d w e l l and Co. t o Sam Kee, 7 December 1908. 118 Sam Kee, v o l . 1 Book 1, p. 810, Sam Kee t o D o d w e l l and Co., 19 November 1910. 119 R o b e r t F. Harney, " M o n t r e a l ' s K i n g o f I t a l i a n L a b o u r : A Case S t u d y o f P a d r o n i s m , " Labour 4 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 82-83. 123 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION T h i s s t u d y o f C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y has a d d r e s s e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m i n e t h n i c h i s t o r y o f immi-g r a n t i n t e g r a t i o n . How d i d t h e C h i n e s e s u r v i v e i n a Canada t h a t was b i t t e r l y o pposed to t h e i r p r e s e n c e ? What f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e d a v i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to be worked o u t between two r a c i a l l y d i s t i n c t g r o u p s ? Economic and b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s c r e a t e d a c o n v e n i e n t and n e c e s s a r y a r e n a f o r immediate c o n t a c t and exchange o f goods and s e r v i c e s , b u t a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f o l d w o r l d b u s i n e s s v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s , t h e r i s e o f a t h r i v i n g m e r c h a n t community i n V a n c o u v e r C h i n a t o w n , and t h e r e c e p t i v e n e s s o f c e r t a i n w h i t e c o m m e r c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has r e v e a l e d t h a t b u s i n e s s p l a y e d a major r o l e i n a c c o m o d a t i n g C h i n e s e m i g r a n t s t o t h e i r new homeland. B u s i n e s s and b u s i n e s s m e n i n t h e i m m i g r a n t community were c e n t r a l t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t e x p e r i e n c e . The p r i m a r y g o a l o f i m m i g r a t i o n was t o a c c u m u l a t e w e a l t h , and the m e r c h a n t s l e d t h e way i n c h a n n e l l i n g C h i n e s e l a b o u r i n t o t h e s t a p l e s economy and i n e x p l o r i n g t h e new w o r l d ' s economic r e c e p t i v e -n e s s beyond t h o s e p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s . The d r i v e f o r p r o f i t 124 p u s h e d t h e m e r c h a n t s i n t o a wide range o f i n t e r - r a c i a l d e a l i n g s w i t h u r b a n consumers, l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n , and c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s as many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f e n t e r p r i s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n n o t o n l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e i r f e l l o w m i g r a n t s b u t a l s o r e v e a l e d t h e e x t e n t o f i n t e g r a t i o n that . y t h e y a c h i e v e d t h e m s e l v e s . The m i g r a t i o n s t o t h e new w o r l d have s e e n a coming t o g e t h e r o f many d i v e r s e p e o p l e s . But n o t a l l a s p e c t s o f t h o s e d i f f e r i n g . - c u l t u r e s were d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o t h e North. A m e r i c a n way o f l i f e . I n d eed, i m m i g r a n t a d j u s t m e n t i s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d by t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f v a l u e s o r i n s t i t u -t i o n s i n b o t h o l d and new worlds.. The C h i n e s e a r r i v i n g i n Canada i n t h e _ l a t e n i n e t e e n t h , c e n t u r y , i t would seem, came w i t h many v a l u e s and s k i l l s h i g h l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e new w o r l d . They came f r o m a s o c i e t y n o t o f s i m p l e p e a s a n t s w i t h s u b s i s t e n c e .farming b a c k g r o u n d s , b u t one i n wh i c h most men p o s s e s s e d knowledge o f and a c c e s s t o a s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r -n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t f i a d i n g economy. P r e - i n d u s t r i a 1 C h i n a had e x t e n s i v e c a p i t a l m a r k e t s which, f a c i l i t a t e d a wide range of b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . The C o n f u c i a n s o c i a l o r d e r p r o m o t e d i d e a s o f upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and f a m i l y / l i n e a g e u n i t y t h a t were i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h . E m i g r a n t s from C h i n a c a r r i e d w i t h them n o t o n l y a d e t e r m i n e d i n t e n t t o make money, b u t a l s o s k i l l s and e x p e r i -ence w i t h c o m m e r c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Upon a r r i v i n g i n Canada t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f m i g r a n t s f o u n d a:-'.f l e d g l i n g i n d u s t r i a l economy t h a t v i e w e d them c h i e f l y 125 as a cheap s o u r c e o f m o b i l e s e a s o n a l l a b o u r , one w h i c h c o u l d be r e a d i l y o r g a n i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d by middleman l a b o u r c o n -t r a c t o r s . From t h i s base a s e c o n d a r y l e v e l of m e r c h a n t a c t i v i t y a r o s e to c h a n n e l C h i n e s e l a b o u r i n t o t h e w o r k p l a c e and t o meet l o c a l and r e g i o n a l demands f o r f o o d , c l o t h i n g , h o u s i n g , and oth.er s e r v i c e s . The r a p i d growth o f C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s was f a c i l i t a t e d by c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m C h i n a as w e l l as by l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l w h i t e m o n e y - l e n d e r s . B o t h o l d and new w o r l d f a c t o r s h e l p e d t h e C h i n e s e community s u r v i v e and expand w h i l e i t was p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d . The g e n e r a l and sometimes i n t e n s e h o s t i l i t y g r e e t i n g t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada d i d n o t p r e c l u d e , economic i n t e g r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e a l m o f b u s i n e s s . C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s who d e a l t e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h w h o l e s a l e m e r c h a n t s , c o m m i s s i o n a g e n t s , r e a l e s t a t e b r o k e r s , and mortgage companies d i s c o v e r -ed t h a t r a c i a l concerns d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s a t hand. At t h a t l e v e l o f - t r a d i n g , w h i c h was a d m i t t e d l y , r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e w e a l t h i e s t m e r c h a n t s , C h i n e s e and w h i t e s spoke a common l a n g u a g e o f commerce. The C h i n e s e p r o v e d t o be shrewd b u s i n e s s m e n , r e a d y t o b a r g a i n and n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s o v e r a wide range o f t r a n s a c t i o n s . W h ite r a c i s m had r e n d e r e d t h e C h i n e s e community p o l i -t i c a l l y p o w e r l e s s , a s i t u a t i o n e x a c e r b a t e d by C h i n a ' s own i n t e r n a t i o n a l weakness t h r o u g h o u t the f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Y e t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s , and even l a u n d r y m e n , f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o d e f e n d t h e i r economic 126 and community i n t e r e s t s i n c o u r t and a t G i t y H a l l . They d e m o n s t r a t e d a c o n f i d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w e s t e r n l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s . They u s e d t h e economic r e s o u r c e s t h e y c o n t r o l l e d t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e and p r o f i t and, i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r wealth., g a i n e d a s m a l l t a s t e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l power a s s o c i a t e d w i t h economic s u c c e s s . W i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e community, m e r c h a n t a c t i v i t y i n f l u -e n c e d t h e m i g r a n t g r o u p ' s a d j u s t m e n t and s e t t l e m e n t i n many ways. I t p r o v i d e d t h e most b a s i c o f human n e e d s : employment, f o o d , h o u s i n g , and c o n t a c t with, t h e mother c o u n t r y . Through b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y , m i g r a n t s d i s c o v e r e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e i r own o l d w o r l d v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o new w o r l d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e r e b y h e l p i n g t o overcome t h e trauma o f r e s e t t l i n g i n a f o r e i g n l a n d . M e r c h a n t s p r o v i d e d a measure o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n the m i g r a n t community, a l l o w i n g i t t o p r o s p e r i n a r a c i a l i s t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e i r b a n k i n g and i n v e s t -ment a c t i v i t i e s s t a b i l i z e d t h e o v e r s e a s s e t t l e m e n t i n e n c o u r a g i n g o t h e r s t o borrow and i n v e s t f u r t h e r . F i n a l l y b u s i n e s s o f f e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e c r i t e r i o n t o C h i n e s e and w h i t e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e t h n i c community's l e a d e r s . C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t a c t i v i t y i n t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d o f V a n c o u v e r expanded t h e a r e n a o f i n t e r - r a c i a l c o n t a c t f o r i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . B u s i n e s s p r o p e l l e d o p e r a t o r s t o l e a r n t e c h n i c a l and l a n g u a g e s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o p u r s u e t h e i r c a l l i n g s . O b s e r v a t i o n s amongst t h e Ch.inese t h a t t h e i r mer-c h a n t s c o u l d f u n c t i o n and p r o s p e r i n t h e l a r g e r p o l i t y h e l p e d r e a s s u r e m i g r a n t s t h a t the.new w o r l d was e c o n o m i c a l l y r e c e p -127 t i v e t o them and t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h e i r own e m i g r a t i o n a m b i t i o n s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d . C o m m e r c i a l exchanges d e m o n s t r a t e d t o o t h a t t h e economic base of w e s t e r n c a p i t a l i s m d i d n o t d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m t h a t o f C h i n a . The m i g r a n t s c o u l d see t h a t upward economic m o b i l i t y was a c h i e v a b l e i n t h e new w o r l d j u s t as i t t h e o r e t i c a l l y had been i n C h i n a . They c o u l d p r e d i c t th e g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r o f p r o f i t - s e e k i n g w h i t e s b a s e d on common a s s u m p t i o n s and s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s about f r e e e n t e r p r i s e. The e a r l y i m m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada was one marked by i n t e n s e a n t i - A s i a n h o s t i l i t y . Y e t t h e new w o r l d had c o n t i n u e d t o a t t r a c t g r o w i n g numbers o f C h i n e s e , who f o u n d t h e h o s t s o c i e t y ' s r e c e p t i v e n e s s most c o r d i a l and open a t t h e economic l e v e l . C h i n e s e businessmen, were among t h e f i r s t t o f i g h t u n f a i r l e g i s l a t i o n and t o b r i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s o v e r , t h u s b e c o m i n g symbols o f f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e eyes o f t h e i r community. 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Wakeman, F r e d e r i c J r . The F a l l o f I m p e r i a l C h i n a . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1975. Wakeman, F r e d e r i c J r . S t r a n g e r s a t t h e G a t e : S o c i a l D i s o r d e r  i n S o u t h C h i n a 1839-1961. B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1966. Ward, W. P e t e r . White Canada F o r e v e r . M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l and Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. W i c k b e r g , E d g a r , e d i t o r . From C h i n a to Canada. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1982. W i c k b e r g , E d g a r , " C h i n e s e and C a n a d i a n I n f l u e n c e s on C h i n e s e P o l i t i c s , i n V a n c o u v e r 1900-1947." B.C. S t u d i e s 45 ( S p r i n g 1980) : 37-55. W i c k b e r g , E d g a r , "Some Pr o b l e m s i n C h i n e s e O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D evelopment i n Canada, 1923-1947." C a n a d i a n E t h n i c S t u d i e s 1 1 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 88-98 W i l l m o t t , W i l l i a m E . "Some A s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e Community i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Towns." B . C . S t u d i e s 1 ( W i n t e r 1968-69) : 27-36. W i l l m o t t , W i l l i a m E. "Approaches - t o t h e St u d y o f C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " B.C. S t u d i e s 4 ( S p r i n g 1970):38-52. Woodsworth, C h a r l e s : J . Canada and the O r i e n t . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 1941. Yang, C.K. A C h i n e s e V i l l a g e i n E a r l y Communist T r a n s i t i o n . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. 133 APPENDIX I CHINESE LAUNDRIES IN VANCOUVER LICENSE ADDITIONS AND RENEWALS, 1906-1912 Y e a r L i c e n s e L i c e n s e T o t a l Number A n n u a l A d d i t i o n s Renewals o f L a u n d r i e s Change 1906 0 0 2 3 .1907 11 17 28 + 5 . 1908 9 29 38 + 10 1909 8 38 46 -:- + 8 1910 13 36 49 + 3 1911 9 39 48 -1 .•1912 15 38 53 + 5 S o u r c e: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Department o f P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s , L i c e n s e R e c o r d , 1903-1906, L i c e n s e R e g i s t r y , 1910-1912. 134 APPENDIX I I MERCHANT TAILORS IN VANCOUVER CHINATOWN ANNUAL RECEIPTS & EMPLOYEES, 1907 C l a i m Name o f Number F i r m 14 Fongoun L t d . 20 H i n g Kee 32 Suey Y i n g Chong 40 Quong Y i n g Chong 44 Lun Chong 45 Quong Yee 51 Y i c k Wo 60 Thomas Kee 61 Wo Sang 66 Wo On 67 On Kee 82 Kee S i n g 84 Quong Yuen 85 Mark Long 86 Yuen Sung Tong Lee Bow Yuen H i n g Yuen G r o s s A n n u a l Number o f R e c e i p t s Employees $ 33,000 11 10 ,000 7 10,800 5 12,600 4 2 2,000 9 11,000 7 10 ,000 6 10,0 00 6 18,000 10 7,200 4 9,000 5 19,000 7 21,000 7 25,000 10 7 19 , 000 5 5 7 S o u r c e : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, W i l l i a m Lyon M a c k e n z i e K i n g , Memoranda and Notes 1887-1921 , v o l . C4iD , R o y a l Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e i n t o L o s s e s S u s t a i n e d by t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1908, R e s u l t a n t C l a i m s (1) and ( 2 ) , pp. C32537-C32719 . 135 APPENDIX I I I NINETY-ONE CHINATOWN FIRMS, VANCOUVER GROSS RECEIPTS, 1907 Thousands o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Number A s s i g n e d t o D o l l a r s Chinatown F i r m by M a c k e n z i e K i n g L e s s t h a n 1 52 1 - 5 15, 59, 69, 92, .97 , 81 6 - 10 19, 20 , 30 , 32 , 49 , 51, 63 , 66 , 67 10 - 15 9, 10, 29, 33 , 38 , 40, 53 , 74 , 75, 76, 80 16 - 20 12 , 35 , 41 , 48, 55 , 61, 102 , 5 21 - 25 11 , 17 , 18, 28 , 44, 50 , 26 - 30 16, 31, 34, 35, 64 , 68 , 31 - 35 14, 23 , 24 36 - 40 43 , 71, 87 41 - 45 22 , 26 , 37 46 - 50 2, 8, 27 , 57 , 73 , 83 51 - 55 39 56 - 60 61 - 65 66 - 70 1 . .i 71 - 75 78 76 - 80 7 81 - 85 21 , 77 86 - 90 91 - 95 96 - 100 101 - 119 120 - 129 1 30 - 139 140 - 149 150 - 159 3 160 - 169 170 - 179 25 180 - 189 4 , 89 54, 56, 68, 60 42, 45, 46, 47 70 , 79, 82, 94 S o u r c e : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, W i l l i a m Lyon M a c k e n z i e K i n g , Memoranda and Notes 1887-1921 , v o l . C41"ivs R o y a l Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e i n t o L o s s e s S u s t a i n e d by t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1908, R e s u l t a n t C l a i m s (1) and ( 2 ) , pp. C32537-C32719 . N i n e t y - o n e f i r m s gave f u l l e v i d e n c e t o M a c k e n z i e K i n g . 136 APPENDIX IV CHINESE POPULATION IN BRITISH. COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, AND VICTORIA 1891-1911 Y e a r B.C. V a n c o u v e r P e r c e n t o f B.C. V i c t o r i a P e r c e n t o f B .C 1891 1901 1911 8 , 910 14,855 19 , 568 1065 1800 3361 12! 12' 17! 20 80 2978 3458 2 3% 20% 18% S o u r c e : E x t r a c t e d from T a b l e 1, c o m p i l e d by Chuen-yan D a v i d L a i , "An A n a l y s i s o f Data on Home J o u r n e y s by C h i n e s e Immigrants i n Canada, 1892-1915," The P r o f e s s i o n a l G e o g r a p h e r 29: (November 1977): 360. 137 APPENDIX V BUSINESS TYPES AND NUMBERS CHINATOWN, VANCOUVER, 1901, 1911 J e w e l l e r s Shoemakers R e s t a u r a n t s B a r b e r s M e r c h a n t T a i l o r s L a u n d r i es M e r c h a n t s B a k e r s P h o t o g r a p h e r s Pawnbrokers B o a r d i n g Houses T o b a c c o n i s t s Employment Ag e n t s G r o c e r s T o t a l 1901 1 2 3 3 8 23 31 1911 25 8 23 43 71 2 2 2 5 8 4 31 71 236 S o u r c e : H e n d e r s o n ' s G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r  and F r a s e r V a l l e y D i r e c t o r y ( V a n c o u v e r : Hen-d e r s o n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1911), pp. 1237-1240 . He n d e r s o n ' s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G a z e t t e e r and D i r e c t o r y f o r 1901 ( V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r : H e n d e r s o n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1901), pp. 811-812 Location Chinese Purchase Mortgage Date 196-12-13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1920 1920 1921 12/01/04 20/01/08 1914 1911 1902 1889 1889 1889 12/01/04 12/01/08 22/11/09 22/05/13 18/11/09 08/10/11 17/03/03 10/09/04 196-13-18 19 20 21 22 1944 1944 1904 30/07/07 30/08/05 24/08/06 30/05/07 26/03/12 12/06/12 22/04/13 01/06/07 06/01/09 01/06/12 APPENDIX VI AND MORTGAGES BY CHINESE OWNERS,1892-1914 Mortgagor Amount Charles Henry Akroyd 2,200 Henry Mutrie and Charles McLachlan 15,000 Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation 25,000 Caledonia and B.C. Mortgage Company 50,000 Charles Fox Todd 25,000 Ninian Hugh Bain 2,000 George I. Wilson 4,500 Charles F. Todd 4,000 Yorkshire Guarantee and S e c u r i t i e s 2,500 Yorkshire Guarantee and S e c u r i t i e s 2,000 Yorkshire Guarantee and S e c u r i t i e s 3,500 Henry B. Dalgety 20,000 Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Corporation 4,500 Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Corporation 2,250 Henry Mutrie and Charles Mclachlan 32,500 Hannah McLachlan 5,000 Henry Mutrie and Charles McLachlan 36,000 Rate Term Reference (%) 7.0 2 y r . 16.413 7.0 3 yr. 20.180 6.5 2 y r . 26.164 8.0 5 y r . 42.749 8.0 8.0 3 y r . 33.476 6.0 3 y r . 16.57 6.5 5 y r . 16.428 8.0 1 yr. 7.217 8.0 3 y r . 20.430 9.0 1 yr. 19.303 7.0 3 y r . 36.342 36.345 .5.0 1 yr. 40.441 6.0 5 y r . 19.435 8.0 3 yr 22.245 8.0 3 y r . 38.177 Location Chinese Mortgage Purchase Date •23 30/10/99 02/05/01 24 01/03/99 25 21/10/92 23/03/99 15/12/99 26 04/09/09 27 28 29 28/03/05 28/03/05 21/11/06 22/11/06 30 17/02/97 14/03/99 13/03/06 16/10/09 10/06/10 10/06/10 31 01/10/06 04/11/07 32 04/07/06 22/06/06 33 04/07/06 34 04/07/06 -1 15/12/06 15/01/07 29/04/13 29/04/13 2 10/08/05 21/09/05 15/06/06 03/07/08 25/05/09 3 20/11/02 29/05/03 11/07/07 4 19/07/12 5 6 07/11/04 28/09/04 7 19/08/08 8 30/03/11 APPENDIX VI (Continued) Mortgagor Amount Rate Term Reference (%) Canada Permanent and Western Canada Mortage 11,000 6.5 7 y r . 15.256 Jacob Hunter Todd and C F . Todd 1,500 14.428 Charles Fox Todd 4,500 6.0 9 y r . 15. .17 Thomas B. May 3,000 6.0 3 yr. 17.166 John Bryden and S i r . Charles H. Tupper 6,500 6.5 5 y r . 19. 51 Edward Box Wetenhall (Victoria) 4,500 6.0 17.476 James E l l i s o n 25,000 8.0 24.404 Charles Fox Todd 10,000 8.5 5 yr. 21. 17 Canada Permanent Mortgage Corporation 25,000 6.0 10 y r . Charles Fox Todd 15,000 7.0 5 y r . 19.99 B r i t i s h Columbia L i f e Assurance Co. 6,000 8.0 42.391. John W. Trutch 6,500 6.0 5 y r . B r i t i s h American Trust Company 1,500 12.0 60 days 18. 86 Thomas B. May 6,750 6.5 4 months 20.312 Canada Permanent & Western Canada Mort. 3,000 6.0 16.230 George Turner 7,000 7.5 5 y r . 19.407 Yorkshire Guarantee and S e c u r i t i e s 18,500 9.0 3 yr 38.311 Confederation L i f e Assurance Confederation L i f e Assurance Confederation L i f e Assurance 40,000 20,000 25,000 6.0 7.0 7.0 15 y r . 5 yr. 5 y r . 16.465 20.313 27.419 APPENDIX VI (Continued) Location Chinese Mortgage Mortgagor Amount Rate Term Referenc Purchase Date (%) 541-18-A 15/02/07 15/03/07 Robert Porter 30,000 6.0 5 y r . 20.370 B 15/09/08 Al b e r t E. Carter 10,000 10.0 4 months 20.451 C 30/10/08 30/10/08 Robert Oakes 2,750 6 months 25. 45 01/03/09 Robert Porter and Sons Ltd. 6,000 6.0 1 y r . 25.735 01/04/10 Robert Porter and Sons Ltd. 14,000 7.0 5 y r . 26.351 20/03/12 Robert Porter and Sons Ltd. , 65,000 8.0 3 yr 36.437 06/05/14 John Law 7,000 15.0 1 yr 45.132 196-15-25 13/12/99 13.12/99 R.E. Palmer 2,000 7.0 5 y r . 15. 35 o Source: B r i t i s h Columbia. ' Ministry of the Attorney General. Land T i t l e s O f f i c e . Absolute Fees Books, Indefeasible Fees Books, Charge Books. "'"'Location' gives legal d escription of property i n following order: D i s t r i c t Lot number - Block number - Lot number. 2 'Reference' re f e r s to Land T i t l e O f f i c e , Charge Book en t r i e s . Volume and f o l i o numbers are separated by the period. APPENDIX V I I SAM KEE COMPANY PAYMENTS AND PURCHASES FROM SUN TONG CHONG COMPANY Y e a r T o t a l ; S ent I n t e r e s t T o t a l : H e l d T o t a l I n t e r e s t T o t a l B a l a n c e t o S un Tong A l l o w e d by- by Sun Tong P u r c h a s e s C h a r g e d by Owing Chong Sun Tong Chong from Sun Sun Tong Chong Tong Chong Cho ng 1902 T 10 ,241 .3.6 570.9 10,712 . 1 9,810.0.8 9 , 810 . 0 . 8 902 .0.9 $ 6,451 . 83 3 5 9.10 6,748 . 56 6,180 . 30 6 ,180 .30 586 .26 1903 T 9 , 361 .0.9 737.2.5 10,098 .3.4 11,757.9.8 .793.4 12,551 . 3 . 8 2453 . 0 ..' 3 $ .5,991 . 04 471.68 6 , 462 .72 7,524.48 507 . 52 8,032 .64 1569 .92 1905 T 18,462 .2.0 1,204.8.8 19,667 .0.8 20,896.4.3 1,623.8. 6 22,520 . 2 . 9 2853 .2.1 $ 13,477 . 26 878.92 14,356 .91 15 ,254 .08 1,184.79 16,439 . 60 2082 .69 1906 T 9,932 .4.1 643.1.7 10,575 .5.9 14,656.4.4 9 1 6 . 2 . 5 15,572 . 6 . 9 4997 . 1 $ 7,945 . 6 522.40 - 8, 460 .00 11 , 724 .80 7 32.80 12,457 . 60 3995 . 20 1907 T 13,650 .1.6 1,093.5.1 14,74 3 .6.9 22,725.0 1,332.8. 6 24,057 . 8 . 7 9314 .1.8 $ 10,783 . 50 863.47 11 ,646 .97 17,952.75 1 , 052 . 28 19,005 .03 7 358 .06 S o u r c e ; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Add. MSS 571, Sam Kee P a p e r s , v o l . 3, f i l e 6 [ L i s t o f Goods S h i p p e d t o Vanco u v e r 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 0 6 ] , vol.. 3 : . f i l e 11 [ L i s t o f Goods S h i p p e d t o V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 0 8 ] . Currency Conversion: Average value of Haikwan t a e l f o r 1902 - 63C; 1903 - 64C; 1904 - 66"?; 1905 - 73C; 1906 - 80C; 1907 - 79C. Source: Canada. House of Commons. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce, Sessional Papers No. 10 (1903), p. 137; Canada. House of Commons. Report of the Department of Trade and Commerce, Sessional Papers No. 10a (1908), p. 189. 142 APPENDIX V I I I SAM KEE COMPANY SALT HERRING EXPORTS TO CHINA 19.0..4 - 1915 Year 1904 - 1905 1905- 1906 1906- 1907 E x p o r t s 573.29 t o n s 321.55 t o n s 587.59 t o n s 190 8 - 1909 1 9 1 0 - 1911 1912 - 1913 1914 6 3 8 t o n s 1,005.8 t o n s 1,649.2 t o n s 1,544.25 t o n s S o u r c e : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Add. MSS 571, Sam Kee Company, v o l . 9 f i l e 1, B i l l s o f l a d i n g and i n s u r a n c e c e r t i f i c a t e s , 1904-1905; v o l . 9 f i l e 2 B i l l s o f l a d i n g and i n s u r a n c e c e r t i f i c a t e s , 1906-1908; v o l . 9 f i l e 3, B i l l s o f l a d i n g and i n s u r a n c e c e r t i f i c a t e s , 1911; v o l . 9 f i l e 5, I n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , 1912-1913; v o l . 9 f i l e 6, B i l l s o f l a d i n g and i n s u r a n c e c e r t i f i c a t e s , 1914-1915. APPENDIX IX SAM KEE COMPANY SAWMILL CONTRACT LABOUR ACCOUNTS, 1906 Ye a r Number Wages Expens e s : Expenses as Net Net wages as A v e r a g e 1906 of Men Food & S u p p l i e s P e r c e n t a g e of Wages Wages Rec e i v e d P e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l wage. Wage Cr ew A June 16 $ 3 71.95 $ 57.05 15% 314 .90 85% - $19.68 J u l y 14 288.05 81.8 5- 28 2 0.6 .20 72 14.72 Aug. 9 241.43 43 . 60 .18 197.83 82 21.98 Sep t . 10 207.50 48 . 60 23 158.90 77 15.98 Nov . .:• 11 401.70 86 . 10 21 315.60 79 28.69 Crew B J u l y 69 1493.45 3 9 0.95 26 1102.24 74 15.97 Aug . 96 2154.19 563 . 76 26 1590 .43 74 16.56 S ep t . 74 1935 . 90 602.90 31 133 3.00 69 18.01 O c t . 58 2 0 2 5.95 648.00 32 1377.95 68 2 3.75 Nov . 61 1978.75 542 . 50 27 1436 . 25 73 2 3.54 Dec . 64 1975.40 590 .40 30 1385 .00 70 21 . 64 Jan.1907 57 1312.37 498.00 38 814.37 62 14.28 S o u r c e : C i t y v o l . o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s , Add. MSS 11, f i l e 3 [ P a y r o l l ] , 1906-1907 571, Sam Kee P a p e r s , 

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