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A popular exposition in prose and verse of the Vimalakīrti Sūtra : an annotated translation of Stein… Salzberg, Stephan Marcus 1983

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POPULAR EXPOSITION IN PROSE AND VERSE OF THE VIMALAKIRTI SUTRA An A n n o t a t e d T r a n s l a t i o n of S t e i n M a n u s c r i p t Number 4571 by STEPHAN MARCUS SALZBERG B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of R o c h e s t e r , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1983 |cj Stephan Marcus S a l z b e r g , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ryg^ .y^j{^du<y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ?\ \^-£~Mt~ /ifr^ ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of an a n n o t a t e d t r a n s l a t i o n , w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n , of a t e x t r e c o v e r e d from Tun-huang, S t e i n m a n u s c r i p t number 4571. The t e x t , d a t i n g from about 945 A.D., i s of the genre c a l l e d c hianq-chinq-wen, t e x t s used a t r e l i g i o u s g a t h e r i n g s , h e l d t w i c e y e a r l y and l a s t i n g a t l e a s t a week, a t which l e c t u r e s on a g i v e n B u d d h i s t s u t r a were d e l i v e r e d f o r the b e n e f i t of a l a y c o n g r e g a t i o n . The t e x t t r a n s l a t e d h e r e i n i s one such l e c t u r e , c o v e r i n g the opening passages of the V i m a l a k i r t i N i r d e s a S u t r a (Wei-mo-chieh  so-shuo c h i n g ) , one of the more i n f l u e n t i a l s u t r a s i n the h i s t o r y of C hinese Buddhism. The t e x t p a r t a k e s of the t r i p a r t a t e c y c l i c a l form c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the genre: a chanted s u t r a p o r t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a prose e x p l a n a t i o n or e x p o s i t i o n , then by a r e l a t i v e l y l e n g t h y sung v e r s e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n w h i c h , i n i t s f i n a l l i n e , i n t r o d u c e s the next s u t r a p o r t i o n . The aim of the l e c t u r e l i e s l e s s i n s c h o l a r l y e x p l a n a t i o n than i n the f o s t e r i n g and r e i n f o r c e m e n t of c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s through the n a r r a t i o n and e m b e l l i s h m e n t of the s u t r a passages. The t r a n s l a t i o n , the f i r s t i n t o any language, t o the w r i t e r ' s knowledge, of a t e x t i n t h i s genre, i s accompanied by notes d e t a i l i n g , i n t e r a l i a , d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the m a n u s c r i p t and the o n l y p r i n t e d e d i t i o n of the t e x t . The i n t r o d u c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the development and s o c i a l c o n t e x t of the genre as w e l l as the c e r e m o n i a l s e t t i n g of the l e c t u r e s and t h e i r mode of performance. V a r i o u s s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of the t r a n s l a t e d t e x t are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d i n g the s o u r c e s used and methods of a d a p t a t i o TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t r. i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s v Acknowledgement v i INTRODUCTION I. The Tun-huang Legacy 1 I I . Background: Form, Fu n c t i o n and S e t t i n g of the Chiang-ching-wen 5 I I I . An E x p o s i t i o n i n Prose and Verse of the V i m a l a k l r t i S u t r a : D e s c r i p t i v e Information, A n a l y s i s and Synopsis 13 IV. Texts, Dating, Method and Aims of T r a n s l a t i o n 25 Notes to the I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 TRANSLATION AND NOTES SECTION I. Thus 32 Notes 40 SECTION IIA. " I " 47 Notes 51 SECTION IIB. Ananda: "I heard" 55 Notes 6 5 SECTION I I I . At one time they a l l a r r i v e d 78 Notes 8 5 i i i SECTION IVA. The B o d h i s a t t v a s 90 Notes 9 8 SECTION IVB. The B o d h i s a t t v a s : G r e a t P h y s i c i a n K i n g s ... 105 Notes 115 SECTION V. T e x t u a l Notes 123 SECTION V I . The Buddha: O v e r s p r e a d i n g the e n t i r e t y of the v a s t m u l t i t u d e 125 Notes 134 SECTION V I I . V i m a l a k i r t i and the f i v e hundred sons of the e l d e r s 1 39 Notes 152 B i b l i o g r a p h y 159 Appendix 163 i v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Bussho: Ono Genmyo, Bussho k a i s e t s u d a i j i t e n . 1 974 r p t . of 1964-67 r e v . ed. Chang: Chang H s i a n g , S h i h - t z ' u-ch 'u y i i - t z 'u h u i - s h i h . 1954, 1975. Chiang: Chiang L i - h u n g , Tun-huang pien-wen t z u - i t'ung-s h i h . 1959, 1975. Daikanwa: Morohashi T e t s u j i , Daikanwa j i t e n . D a y a l : H. D a y a l , The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e i n B u d d h i s t S a n s k r i t L i t e r a t u r e . 1932. Hsu, pu cheng: Hsu Chen-o, "Tun-huang pien-wen c h i c h i a o - c h i pu-cheng." 1958. t s a i pu: "Tun-huang pien-wen c h i c h i a o - c h i t s a i -pu." 1958. H u r v i t z : Leon H u r v i t z , t r a n s . , S c r i p t u r e of the L o t u s Blossom of the F i n e Dharma, 1976. I r i y a i n d e x : I r i y a Y o s h i t a k a and Matsuo Y o s h i k i , "Tonko henbunshu kogo g o i s a k u i n . " Second d r a f t , 1977. Luk: C h a r l e s Luk, t r a n s . , The V i m a l a k i r t i N i r d e s a S u t r a , 1972. M o c h i z u k i : M o c h i z u k i S h i n k o , Bukkyo d a i j i t e n . Rev. ed. 1 954-71 . MS: S t e i n m a n u s c r i p t no. 4571, m i c r o f i l m copy. Oda: Oda Tokun5, Oda bukkyS d a i j i t e n . 1 954 r p t . PWC: Wang Chung-min, e t a l . , eds., Tun-huang pien-wen c h i , 1961 Taiwan r p t . ( R e f e r e n c e s t o pg. and l i n e . ) T: T a i s h o s h i n s h u d a i z o k y o . 1924-32 ( R e f e r e n c e s t o v o l . , pg. and c o l . ) T i n g : K u m a r a j i v a , t r a n s . , Wei-mo-chieh suo-shuo c h i n g . 1921 (?) r p t . of Wu-hsien T i n g - s h i h ed. w i t h commentary by K u m a r a j i v a and Seng Chao ( e n t i t l e d Wei-mo-ching c h u ) . Tn: T a i s h o t e x t number. Waku: Waku Hakuryu, Bukkyo shokubutsu j i t e n . 1 979. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r s I r i y a Y o s h i t a k a , Kanaoka Shoko and D a n i e l Overmyer who i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h i s f i e l d of study and guided me w i t h i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e . T h e i r broad knowledge and openhearted g e n e r o s i t y have been an i n s p i r a -t i o n t o me. I have been f o r t u n a t e enough t o have had many f i n e t e a c h e r s , t oo many t o thank i n d i v i d u a l l y h ere. T h i s t h e s i s owes much t o each of them. D r a f t t r a n s l a t i o n s of the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s were r e a d by P r o f e s s o r Leon H u r v i t z , who c o n t r i b u t e d a number of h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . I b e n e f i t t e d e s p e c i a l l y from the v a l u a b l e comments and a d v i c e of P r o f e s s o r Overmyer, who read the e n t i r e d r a f t of the t h e s i s . He a l s o t o l e r a t e d w i t h o u t comment the burdens imposed by my o f t e n f r e n e t i c w o r k i n g h a b i t s , f o r which many thanks a re due. I a l s o thank my w i f e , Joy L i n S a l z b e r g , who, on top of e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , t y p e d the f i r s t d r a f t of the t r a n s l a t i o n . M a r j o r i e Chan t y p e d and p r o c e s s e d s u c c e e d i n g d r a f t s and the p r e s e n t v e r s i o n . A l i c e L i o u c o n t r i b u t e d the c a l l i g r a p h y . I wis h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o the s t a f f of the A s i a n S t u d i e s L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t . INTRODUCTION I . The Tun-huang Legacy An a c c i d e n t a l d i s c o v e r y by a T a o i s t monk around the t u r n of t h i s c e n t u r y f o c u s s e d worldwide a t t e n t i o n on Tun-huang , an o a s i s s e t t l e m e n t i n p r e s e n t - d a y Kansu, l o c a t e d on the a n c i e n t S i l k Road l i n k i n g C h i na w i t h C e n t r a l A s i a and u l t i m a t e l y w i t h the West. Once a t h r i v i n g commercial c e n t e r marked by i t s c o s m o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n and B u d d h i s t r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y , Tun-huang had passed i n t o r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y from the b e g i n n i n g of the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y when i t f e l l under Tungut c o n t r o l and d i d not become a "Ch i n e s e " c i t y a g a i n u n t i l t he e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 The d i s c o v e r y by the monk, Wang Y i i a n - l u i Q l ] ^ , of a s e c r e t s e a l e d cave among the hundreds of c a v e - s h r i n e s b u i l t over the c o u r s e of c e n t u r i e s j u s t o u t s i d e Tun-huang, f a l l e n i n t o decay w i t h the o l d monk as t h e i r de f a c t o c u s t o d i a n , r e c a l l e d f o r the w o r l d the days of Tun-huang's g l o r y . The removal of a w a l l r e v e a l e d a c o n c e a l e d s t o r e h o u s e i n s i d e of which were p i l e d perhaps twenty thousand m o s t l y h a n d - w r i t t e n s c r o l l s , bound pamphlets, s c r a p s of paper, t a p e s t r i e s and banners.2 The m a t e r i a l s documented f i v e c e n t u r i e s , from the f i f t h t o the te n t h , 3 of l i f e i n Tun-huang and, more b r o a d l y , i n China i n a l l i t s r i c h v a r i e t y : i n t e l l e c t u a l , r e l i g i o u s , l e g a l , a r t i s t i c . News of t h i s r a r e f i n d of m o s t l y m a n u s c r i p t m a t e r i a l i n a c i v i l i z a t i o n 1 w h i c h , because of i t s e a r l y i n v e n t i o n and w i d e s p r e a d a d o p t i o n of p r i n t i n g , took few p a i n s t o p r e s e r v e such m a t e r i a l began t o spread, e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i n g Western e a r s . W i t h the 1907 e x p e d i t i o n of the e x p l o r e r S i r A u r e l S t e i n and the subsequent v i s i t s of the French s i n o l o g i s t P a u l P e l l i o t , most of t h e b e s t m a t e r i a l was s h i p p e d o f f t o London and P a r i s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Japanese e x p e d i t i o n s and b e l a t e d e f f o r t s by the Ch'ing government, i n i t s death t h r o e s , t o s a f e g u a r d what remained of t h i s c u l t u r a l t r e a s u r e t r o v e f u r t h e r d i s p e r s e d the c o l l e c t i o n , w h i c h now has found i t s way i n t o v a r i o u s hands, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , the w o r l d o v e r . 4 A whole new f i e l d of Tun-huang s t u d i e s was spawned, as b r o a d i n i t s sweep as t h e r a n g e o f m a t e r i a l s found i n Tun-huang, c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e spectrum of the f o u r t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of C hinese l e a r n i n g : C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y and b e l l e s l e t t r e s . P r e v i o u s l y unknown commentaries, v a r i a n t e d i t i o n s of B u d d h i s t s u t r a s , e n t i r e l y unknown T a o i s t w r i t i n g s and v a r i o u s m u l t i - l i n g u a l t e x t s opened new v i s t a s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l s i n o l o g y i n i n n u m e r a b l e ar e a s i n c l u d i n g t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m , Chinese l i n g u i s t i c s , C e n t r a l A s i a n languages and l i n g u i s t i c s , r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y and h i s t o r y . Ephemera of a l l s o r t s , the w r i t t e n r e c o r d s of d a i l y l i f e w h i c h had been p r e s e r v e d nowhere e l s e , account books, c o n t r a c t s , c h i l d r e n ' s p r i m e r s , even c a l l i g r a p h y p r a c t i c e s h e e t s have p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e raw m a t e r i a l f o r s c h o l a r s i n many d i s c i p l i n e s . 2 The t r e a s u r e s o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s y i e l d e d f o r t h f r o m and c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c a v e s ; m u r a l s , s i l k p a i n t i n g s , and s t a t u a r y have e n r i c h e d and f u r t h e r e d o u r kn o w l e d g e imm e n s e l y . Of s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e among t h e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s w h i c h came o u t o f Tun-huang was t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d f i n d i n g o f numerous s c r o l l w r i t t e n i n t h e c o l l o q u i a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e t i m e , some o f them r e p r e s e n t i n g n o t e s and prompt books t o be u s e d i n o r a l p e r f o r m a n c e s on b o t h B u d d h i s t and s e c u l a r themes. The p r o f o u n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e t e x t s f o r l i n g u i s t i c s , r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y were r e a l i z e d v e r y e a r l y on, and a l t h o u g h hampered by t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e s c r o l l s , i n c o m p l e t e c a t a l o g i n g and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a c c e s s , t h e s c h o l a r l y e f f o r t s by p i o n e e r C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n and s t u d y o f t h e s e t e x t s w h i c h came e v e n t u a l l y t o be known g e n e r a l l y , i f i m p r e c i s e l y i n many c a s e s as p i e n - w e n .5 T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h one g e n r e among t h e s e v e r a l s o m e t i m e s g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r as p i e n - w e n , a g e n r e now commonly r e f e r r e d t o as c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n ^' n ° t e s a n d prompt-books f o r l e c t u r e s , r e l i g i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e s r e a l l y , b a s e d upon and i n t e r p r e t i n g a b s t r u s e B u d d h i s t c a n o n i c a l books, s u t r a s , f o r a c o n g r e g a t i o n o f m o s t l y l a y p e o p l e , i n v o l v i n g c h a n t i n g , spoken e x p o s i t i o n , and sung p o e t r y . R e l a t e d t o t h e genre's s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d and s e t t i n g as w e l l as mode o f p e r f o r m a n c e , a b o u t w h i c h much i s known, t h e s e c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n a r e marked by d i s t i n c t f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . The h e a r t of t h i s t h e s i s i s an e x t e n s i v e l y a n n o t a t e d t r a n s l a t i o n of one chiang-ching-wen t e x t . 4 I I . Background: Form, F u n c t i o n and S e t t i n g of the C h i a n g - c h i n g - wen Any r e l i g i o n w h i c h i s g r o w i n g and d e v e l o p i n g i s a t once t u r n i n g i n w a r d and outward. The l i t u r g i c a l a r t s and t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d f o r the purposes of d e v o t i o n and m e d i t a t i o n may s e r v e s p l e n d i d l y when employed and adopted t o the g o a l of " t e a c h i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g " the common people, p r o p a g a t i n g the f a i t h . So i t was w i t h Buddhism i n China. One of the most f o r c e f u l c u r r e n t s i n the development of Buddhism i n China was i t s p o p u l a r i z a t i o n and the c o n c u r r e n t a d a p t a t i o n of forms s u i t e d t o and sprung f o r t h from Chinese s o i l . Buddhism i n i t s p o p u l a r form was a S a l v a t i o n i s t f a i t h and i t was propagated and r e i n f o r c e d by the a c t i v i t i e s of p r i e s t s and monks, both h i g h and low, w e l l - f i x e d and i n t i n e r a n t . Among the most w i d e s p r e a d and e f f e c t i v e of those a c t i v i t i e s were meetings, c o n c l a v e s or r e v i v a l s l a s t i n g f o r days, a t w h i c h day by day i n a mood b o t h f e s t i v e and s o l e m n t h e s t o r y and t e a c h i n g s of a g i v e n s u t r a were chanted, n a r r a t e d , expounded and e m b e l l i s h e d f o r a c o n g r e g a t i o n of l a y f o l k who c o u l d p r o b a b l y n e i t h e r r e a d nor u n d e r s t a n d the s u t r a t h e m s e l v e s . These " p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s " reached t h e i r h e i g h t as an i n s t i t u t i o n from the mid-T'ang through the F i v e D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d , e x t e n d i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y from the c a p i t a l t o the f u r t h e s t of the o u t l y i n g r e g i o n s and w i t h c o n g r e g a t i o n s r a n g i n g from the h i g h e s t , i n c l u d i n g emperors, t o the lowest.7 They were a c u l m i n a t i o n of c e n t u r i e s of e v a n g e l i c a l work by B u d d h i s t c l e r g y , a c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n a f i x e d s t r u c t u r e of 5 the methods d e v e l o p e d by them, performed i n a f i x e d c e r e m o n i a l s e t t i n g p r o v i d e d by w e l l - o r g a n i z e d l a y B u d d h i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . From a f t e r the Han dynasty, t h e r e emerged a c e r t a i n c l a s s of B u d d h i s t c l e r g y , sometimes i t i n e r a n t , whose m i s s i o n and t a l e n t s l a y i n g u i d i n g p e o p l e through song (ch'ang-tao-g^, i ^ . ). They were a l s o c a l l e d " e x p l i c a t o r s of dharma" (shuo-f a ). 8 T h e i r medium was the spoken word i n t h r e e f o r m s : l e c t u r e , chant and song. Some of those took two d i s t i n c t d e v o t i o n a l a r t s , the c h a n t i n g of s u t r a (chuan-tu jjgjp-^ ) and the s i n g i n g of hymns of p r a i s e ( t s a n - p a i "^ H" \r J[ or f a n - p a i ^ ; t ^ ) and put them t o i n s p i r a t i o n a l , e v a n g e l i c a l use. Others l e c t u r e d , g i v i n g o r a l e x p o s i t i o n s on v a r i o u s s u t r a s . Through the S i x D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d the f o r m a t of t h e s e l e c t u r e s s o l i d i f i e d . They appear t o have been h e l d f o r B u d d h i s t adepts, and w e l l - e d u c a t e d l a y p e o p l e and f u n c t i o n e d p r i m a r i l y as f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n w h i c h the i n t e l l i g e n c e and v e r b a l t a l e n t s of s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r a l i k e were t e s t e d and honed. The p r i n c i p a l l e c t u r e r was c a l l e d the f a - s h i h , dharma-master or t e a c h e r ( a l s o c a l l e d f a - c h u , dharma-host, or c h i a n g - c h u t£_ , l e c t u r e h o s t ) , a s s i s t e d by a younger monk, u s u a l l y a d i s c i p l e c a l l e d the t u - c h i a n g , who s e r v e d as a c a n t o r . The t u - c h i a n g would chant a p o r t i o n of the s u t r a , a f t e r w hich the f a - s h i h would l e c t u r e , expounding the meaning of the t e x t . 6 The i n s t i t u t i o n of such l e c t u r e s as w e l l as t h e i r conduct and f o r m a t were n o t u n i q u e t o B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a . They seem t o have d e r i v e d i n p a r t from C o n f u c i a n p r a c t i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the d i v i s i o n of d u t i e s and even the name t u - c h i a n g . T a o i s t l e c t u r e s were common from the S i x D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d through ;. the T'ang.9 The t u - c h i a n g i n t h e B u d d h i s t l e c t u r e s however, as a d i s c i p l e , a l s o had the r o l e of i n t e r p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s , c a l l e d nan " d i f f i c u l t i e s " . The assembled l i s t e n e r s , the se a t e d "guests", p i n ^ , c o u l d a l s o i n t e r p o s e such q u e s t i o n s . The. master's answers were c a l l e d t'ung . F r e q u e n t l y , t h e s e l e c t u r e s became p i t c h e d v e r b a l b a t t l e s as i n t e l l e c t s c l a s h e d . They c o u l d become q u i t e e l a b o r a t e and appear t o have a c h i e v e d f o r m a l r e g u l a t i o n and o r d e r j u s t b e f o r e the T ' a n g J 0 L a r g e r m eetings would have, i n a d d i t i o n t o the two p r i n c i p a l s , t h r e e more f u n c t i o n a r i e s , a wei-na , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o t o c o l and the smooth c o n d u c t i n g of the l e c t u r e s , a hsiang-huo , i n charge of i n c e n s e , and a s i n g e r of hymns of p r a i s e , f a n - p a i cffi B e s i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the s c a l e of the p r o c e e d i n g s , t h e s e f u n c t i o n a r i e s foreshadow the combined f o r m a l f e a t u r e s of the chiang-ching-wen. D e s p i t e t h e l i t u r g i c a l t r a p p i n g s , as e x e m p l i f i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the l a t t e r two f u n c t i o n a r i e s , t h e s e l e c t u r e s seem t o be a k i n t o high-powered s e m i n a r s , f u l f i l l i n g c h i e f l y e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n s . I t was the c r e a t i v e g e n i u s 7 of ch'ang-tao p r e a c h e r s , p r o b a b l y from the mid t o l a t e T'ang, which combined the form of t h e s e l e c t u r e s w i t h p r a y e r and d e v o t i o n i n l e n g t h y c o n c l a v e s of a s e a s o n a l n a t u r e s e r v i n g an e s s e n t i a l l y c o n g r e g a t i o n a l , e v a n g e l i c a l f u n c t i o n . The ch'ang-tao p r e a c h e r s whose s t o c k i n t r a d e had been the c h a n t i n g of s u t r a , t h e s i n g i n g of hymns of p r a i s e and t h e t e l l i n g of p a r a b l e s and i n s p i r a t i o n a l s t o r i e s drawn from the s u t r a s and e l s e w h e r e , began t o a d o p t and a d a p t t h e more p r e s t i g i o u s and e l i t e f o r m o f t h e p o p u l a r l e c t u r e , t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r own p r e a c h i n g methods i n t o a f i x e d , s u s t a i n e d form based upon a s i n g l e s u t r a , a c h i e v i n g through i t s communication t o a l a y a u d i e n c e t h e i r c o n s t a n t g o a l , the p r o p a g a t i o n of the f a i t h . The r e c o r d s of t h e i r e f f o r t s , p r e s e r v e d i n the Tun-huang caves, r e v e a l a t r i p a r t i t e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h a l l o w e d f u l l , and a t t i m e s v i r t u o s o e x p r e s s i o n of the e n t i r e gamut of t h e i r s k i l l s . The c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n w h i c h we have r e p r e s e n t segments of the main body of the l e c t u r e - p e r f o r m a n c e s . They proceed i n the f o l l o w i n g r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n . F i r s t a s h o r t s e c t i o n of the s u t r a i s quoted. T h i s was p r o b a b l y chanted by the t u - c h i a n g . Next the f a - s h i h would l a u n c h i n t o a prose r e s t a t e m e n t , e m b e l l i s h m e n t on or e x p l a n a t i o n of the passage j u s t chanted. T h i s s e c t i o n f r e q u e n t l y f e a t u r e d the use of r h y t h m i c a l l y p a t t e r n e d p a r a l l e l p h r ases i n a s t y l e c a l l e d p' ien-ou-wen ^ ^ which, i n the hands of t h e s e p r e a c h e r s c o u l d be " t u r n e d ... i n t o a l i v e l y and 8 e f f e c t i v e ornament of s t y l e ... e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r l o n g and r e m a r k a b l y i n v e n t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s . " At t i m e s , one o b s e r v e r no t e s , "the p r o s e s e c t i o n s do not d i f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y from p o e t r y . " 1 1 Next came a l o n g v e r s e s e c t i o n w h i c h was sung. T h i s c o n s i s t e d of rhymed s t a n z a s g e n e r a l l y composed of e i g h t l i n e s of u n i f o r m l e n g t h , f o r the most p a r t of seven s y l l a b l e s a l t h o u g h examples of f i v e s y l l a b l e l i n e s a re not i n f r e q u e n t and a r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n w h e r e i n the f i r s t l i n e of a h e p t a s y l l a b i c s t a n z a has s i x s y l l a b l e s a l s o o c c u r s . T h i s s e c t i o n was sung i n a s t y l e c a l l e d y i n v^- w h i c h was d i s t i n c t from the s t y l e of s u t r a -c h a n t i n g , ch'ang wjj , both h a v i n g e v o l v e d from d i s t i n c t a n t e c e d e n t s , t s a n - p a i and chuan-tu r e s p e c t i v e l y . The emphasis and purpose of b o t h were a l s o d i s t i n c t . Ch'ang emphasized sound above a l l whereas y i n v a l u e d r h y t h m i c n a r r a t i o n . The c o n t e n t of the sung s e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y p a r a l l e l s and r e i n f o r c e s t h a t of the p r e c e d i n g prose s e c t i o n . W i t h the f i n a l s t a n z a , the rhyme changes t o comport w i t h the f o r m u l a i c p h r a s e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s genre and i n d i c a t i v e of i t s form and mode of performance, w i t h w h i c h each of t h e s e sung s e c t i o n s ends. The f i n a l c o u p l e t of each s e c t i o n presages the s u b j e c t of the n e x t s e c t i o n and ends w i t h a r e q u e s t t h a t t h e t u - c h i ang c h a n t o r a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t the p r e a c h e r s h a l l chant out the n e x t passage of the s u t r a : c h ' a n g - c h i a n g - l a i . 1 2 The c y c l e then r e p e a t s 9 i t s e l f o v e r the next and s u c c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s . T h i s h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d form of r e l i g i o u s and o r a l performance became p o s s i b l e i n the c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t of b i a n n u a l c o n c l a v e s f o r the e x p o s i t i o n of s u t r a s sponsored by l a y B u d d h i s t patronage a s s o c i a t i o n s c a l l e d she jfcfc . 3 Descended from the i - i ^ o r i - h u i - j ^ of the S i x D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d , l a r g e a s s o c i a t i o n s of up to two t o t h r e e hundred p e o p l e , the she were g e n e r a l l y t e m p l e -c e n t e r e d s u p p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n s of a more modest s c a l e , a v e r a g i n g , i t seems, about t h i r t y members. As temples g e n e r a l l y l o s t upper c l a s s s u p p o r t they t u r n e d t o the common people. The p o p u l a r l e c t u r e r e v i v a l meetings were staged t w i c e y e a r l y by the l a y s u p p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the s p r i n g , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e New Year, and i n the f a l l . They were l a r g e - s c a l e u n d e r t a k i n g s w h i c h u n d e r l i n e d the p o p u l a r base of support f o r the temple and p r o v i d e d a f o c u s f o r p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y . Naba T o s h i s a d a s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the m e e t i n g s l a s t e d , a t the l e a s t , seven days, w i t h some r u n n i n g t e n or f o u r t e e n , even twenty-one or t w e n t y - e i g h t days, depending on the f i n a n c e s of the s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ^ The meetings f o r m a l l y began w i t h what have been termed " s e a t - s e t t l i n g t e x t s " ya-tso-wen $ f ' v e r s i f i - e d i n t r o d u c t i o n s which were p r o b a b l y chanted and i n t u r n p u n c t u a t e d by c o n g r e g a t i o n a l c h a n t i n g of the Buddha's name. These gave a s y n o p t i c o v e r v i e w of t h e s u t r a t o be t h e s u b j e c t of t h e m e e t i n g . 1 5 T h e i r f o r m u l a i c c l o s i n g i n t r o d u c e s the c h a n t i n g of 1 0 the s u t r a ' s t i t l e . Thereupon the performance c y c l e d e s c r i b e d above commenced. Thus the chia n g - c h i n g - w e n r e p r e s e n t a d i s t i n c t i v e genre, p o s s e s s i n g a f o r m a l c o n s i s t e n c y t i e d t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n , the communication of s u t r a t o l a y common people, t h e i r mode of performance and the n a t u r e of t h e i r c e r e m o n i a l s e t t i n g . They a r e the f o r m a l a n t e c e d e n t of t r u e pien-wen, f o r m a l l y s i m i l a r n a r r a t i o n s of t a l e s both B u d d h i s t and s e c u l a r , drawn from s u t r a , C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , p o p u l a r legends o r l o c a l h i s t o r y p e r f ormed by c l e r g y or by p r o f e s s i o n a l e n t e r t a i n e r s . These pien-wen were not t i e d t o the p r o g r e s s i v e e x p o s i t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r t e x t , chanted s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n and t h e i r performance was not c o n f i n e d t o tem p l e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t . They p r o b a b l y a l l o w e d t h e i r p e r f o r m e r s more l a t i t u d e and f l e x i b i l i t y , b e i n g c o m p l e t e d a t a s i n g l e s i t t i n g . Thus chiang-ching-wen, as the e a r l i e s t of p r o s i m e t r i c spoken and sung t e x t s , s t a n d a l s o as the d i r e c t f o r b e a r s of the broad range of o r a l - p e r f o r m a n c e genres which l i t e r a l l y e x p l o d e d w i t h the r i s e of urban c e n t e r s , the growth of t r a d e and the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of Chinese economic a c t i v i t y i n the Sung. The l a t e r forms of o r a l performance, among them the p'ing-hua J p - ^ and c h u - k u n g - t i a o • f ^ 1 ^ ' ^ t and e s p e c i a l l y the p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , the pao-chuan j | l r a ± l based on the a l t e r n a t i o n of spoken and sung pr o s e and v e r s e passages d e r i v e u l t i m a t e l y from 11 the chiang-ching-wen. In p o i n t e d c o n t r a s t t o the e a r l i e r s c h o l a s t i c e d u c a t i o n a l l e c t u r e s on s u t r a , t h e s e chiang-ching-wen are d i r e c t e d a t the common l a y p e o p l e and l i e on t h e b o r d e r s o f e x e g e s i s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t and e d i f i c a t i o n . They r e f l e c t the c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n i n l i t u r g i c a l a r t s , e v i d e n t from the t i m e of the e a r l i e s t ch'anq- t a o c h a n t e r s , between the s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s of the medium i t s e l f and the u n d e r l y i n g r e l i g i o u s message t o be communicated. T h e i r c r e a t o r s , i n t i n e r a n t p r e a c h e r s f o r the most p a r t , w r o t e i n s t y l e s r a n g i n g from c o a r s e , even v u l g a r , through d i d a c t i c , hackneyed, s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l , w i l d l y c o l l o q u i a l , c o m i c a l , m a u d l i n and solemn t o e l e g a n t , sometimes a l l i n the c o u r s e of a s i n g l e t e x t . They were concerned w i t h f o s t e r i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g c e r t a i n b e l i e f s and p i o u s a t t i t u d e s and aimed l e s s a t e x p l i c a t i n g d i f f i c u l t p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s than a t n a r r a t i n g and e m b r o i d e r i n g events and c h a r a c t e r s i n the s u t r a . T h e i r a p p e a l was f i n a l l y t o the e m o t i o n a l i m a g i n a t i o n of t h e i r a u d i e n c e w h i c h they hoped t o i n f l u e n c e and g u i d e through t h e i r own c r e a t i v e powers. By the l a t e T'ang, the c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n was a mature and s t a b l e genre, the c r e a t o r s and r e f i n e r s of w h i c h had d e v e l o p e d an i n v e n t o r y of form and t e c h n i q u e u t i l i z i n g the c o l l o q u i a l language i n advanced, s o p h i s t i c a t e d ways t h a t would i n f l u e n c e the development of p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e up u n t i l the p r e s e n t . 1 2 I I I . An E x p o s i t i o n i n Prose and Verse o f t h e V i m a l a k i r t i S u t r a : D e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s y n o p s i s The t e x t t r a n s l a t e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s , number 4571 of the S t e i n c o l l e c t i o n housed i n the B r i t i s h Museum (thu s r e f e r r e d t o as S.4571, h e r e a f t e r s i m p l y MS), e x e m p l i f i e s many of the f e a t u r e s and t e n s i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. MS a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t s of n i n e t o r n f r a g m e n t s and was d e s c r i b e d i n the 1957 c a t a l o g u e of the S t e i n c o l l e c t i o n as f o l l o w s : Nine f r a g s . , not c o n s e c u t i v e , of a c o m p o s i t i o n by a Chinese monk, w i t h numerous q u o t a t i o n s from s u t r a s and gathas. B o l d ms., i n p a r t s s l i g h t l y c u r s i v e , i n two or more hands. F r a g , no.3 c o n t a i n s q u o t a t i o n s from s u t r a s on the s u b j e c t of f i l i a l p i e t y . ^ 7 The f r a g m e n t s , which were d i s c o n t i n u o u s , had been i n f a c t numbered out of o r d e r . MS i s a chiang-ching-wen c o v e r i n g the opening passages of the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a , the Wei-mo-chieh-ching • MS was r e s t o r e d t o i t s o r i g i n a l o r d e r , e d i t e d i n c l u d e d w i t h f i v e o t h e r t e x t s c o v e r i n g d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the same s u t r a i n the 1 957 a n t h o l o g y PWC, pp. 51 7-645. 1 8 The Vima l a k l r t i s u t r a on w h i c h t h i s t e x t i s b a s e d i s a s p a r k l i n g account of the d i a l o g u e s between V i m a l a k i r t i , a f o r m i d a b l e l a y m a s t e r of t h e c i t y of V a i s a l i , and s e v e r a l o f t h e Buddha Sakyamuni s d i s c i p l e s d i s p a t c h e d t o i n q u i r e a f t e r V i m a l a k i r t i ' s h e a l t h a f t e r he a p p a r e n t l y t a k e s i l l . The d i a l o g u e s a re a s e t t i n g f o r d i s c o u r s e s on a b r e a t h t a k i n g a r r a y of a p p a r e n t l y somewhat h u r r i e d l y , by Wang Ch'ing-shu j£_ 1 3 t o p i c s : the body, s i c k n e s s , the S e l f , p u r i t y , t r u t h , suchness, and e m p t i n e s s . The s u t r a p o i n t s t o a l i b e r a t i o n a t once beyond but s t i l l i n t i m a t e l y connected t o t h i s w o r l d , the p a t h and c a r e e r of the B o d h i s a t t v a , f r e e d from d u a l i t y and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , p o s s e s s e d of no g o a l s but committed t o the compassionate s a l v a t i o n and l i b e r a t i o n of a l l b e i n g s . W i t h i t s b r i l l i a n t use of c o n t r a d i c t i o n and i r o n y and i t s e x h i l i a r a t i n g f l o w of i d e a s , t h e s u t r a became a f a v o r i t e o f t h e e l i t e f r o m t h e t i m e o f i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h i na i n the l a t e Han. I t e x e r c i s e d a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on p h i l o s o p h e r s , men of l e t t e r s and even r o y a l t y , and was a common s u b j e c t of the e d u c a t i o n a l s u t r a e x p o s i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . 1 9 The t r a n s l a t i o n of the s u t r a by 20 K u m a r a j i v a i n 406, w h i c h i s used i n a l l of the Tun-huang t e x t s , i s r e c o g n i z e d as a s t y l i s t i c m a s t e r p i e c e . I t q u i c k l y r e p l a c e d the numerous e a r l i e r t r a n s l a t i o n s and overshadowed even the t r a n s l a t i o n by the famed Hsiian-tsang ^ completed i n 650. 2 1 I t s a p p e a l and i n f l u e n c e , though, was not r e s t r i c t e d t o any one s e c t or s o c i a l c l a s s . The c h a r a c t e r of V i m a l a k i r t i and, a t l e a s t the power, i f not the c o n t e n t of the s u t r a began t o permeate the p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s from e a r l y on. I c o n o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of V i m a l a k i r t i are mentioned from the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . A b e l i e v e r was s a i d t o have been cu r e d of h i s i l l n e s s i n 618 a f t e r h a v i n g had f o r t y c o p i e s of the s u t r a made. C h a n t i n g of t h e s u t r a was a l s o s a i d t o e f f e c t m i r a c u l o u s c u r e s and t h e 14 e x p u l s i o n of demons. There i s e v i d e n c e of the a c c r e t i o n of p o p u l a r legends and a p o c r y p h a l s t o r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g V i m a l a k i r t i , i n c l u d i n g , i n t y p i c a l Chinese f a s h i o n , the a t t r i b u t i o n of a f a m i l y t o him.22 The p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of V i m a l a k i r t i seems however t o be d i s t i n c t f r om the t r a n s m i s s i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s u t r a t e x t i t s e l f . MS thus f o c u s s e s an i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n : how were d i f f i c u l t a b s t r a c t t e x t s i n t e r p r e t e d and communicated t o c o n g r e g a t i o n s of common l a y b e l i e v e r s ? The answer, j u d g i n g from MS a t l e a s t , a p p e a r s t o be t h a t t h e t e x t became a s t r u c t u r e and a medium whereby commonly h e l d b e l i e f s and p i o u s a t t i t u d e s were propogated and r e i n f o r c e d . The e m b e l l i s h e d n a r r a t i o n s and d r a m a t i z a t i o n s drew a t t e n t i o n t o th e m s e l v e s and the themes they emphasize, n o t a b l y among them, f i l i a l p i e t y . The meaning of the s u t r a i t s e l f was s u b o r d i n a t e t o the c r e a t i v e e v o c a t i o n of s p l e n d o r , p i t y , humor, compassion, awe and sadness w h i c h , w h i l e e n t e r t a i n i n g the c o n g r e g a t i o n , shaped the r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s of the p i o u s men and women g a t h e r e d , u n d e r l i n i n g the communal r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of t h e c o n c l a v e . S e v e r a l o v e r a l l a s p e c t s of MS de s e r v e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t . A r e a d e r i s f i r s t s t r u c k by the sheer volume of e x p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t e x t . The a c t u a l s u t r a t e x t t a k e n up i n MS o c c u p i e s l e s s t h a n t w o c o l u m n s of one page i n t h e T a i s h o e d i t i o n of the T r i p i t a k a . 2 3 MS runs t o f o r t y - t h r e e pages i n PWC 1 5 and i n c l u d e s some perhaps l e n g t h y lacunae. T h i s phenomenon i s common t o the genre and i n d i c a t e s a nasc e n t independence from the s u t r a t e x t i t s e l f . The s u t r a s e r v e s t o i n s p i r e e x p l a n a t i o n s , n a r r a t i v e s and d r a m a t i z a t i o n s which have independent i n h e r e n t i n t e r e s t . Secondly, the v a r i e t y of so u r c e s drawn upon by the w r i t e r f s ] of MS i s noteworthy. They i n c l u d e s t a n d a r d e x e g e t i c a l works ( a l t h o u g h no commentaries on the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a i t s e l f appears t o have been used), o t h e r p o p u l a r e x p o s i t i o n s of s u t r a s and what i s p r o b a b l y a p a r t o f t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n w h i c h had grown up around the s u t r a . The q u e s t i o n of so u r c e s i s bound up w i t h the ne x t a s p e c t of MS, the problems of approach, mode of a d a p t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and g o a l s w h i c h a re e v i d e n c e d t h e r e i n . As i t stands MS appears t o be a patchwork t e x t . I t s p r o s e s t y l e i n p l a c e s a c h i e v e s a g r a c e f u l use of the c o l l o q u i a l i n w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d , t a u t l y - d e v e l o p e d passages w h i l e e l s e w h e r e i t i s a s t a l e , opaque and n o t e - l i k e t r e a t m e n t . Only p a r t s of the t e x t would have been performed o r a l l y i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e . Many f e a t u r e s of the t e x t , e s p e c i a l l y i t s d i s p a r a t e s t y l e and c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , seem t o i n d i c a t e an at t e m p t by one or s e v e r a l p r e a c h e r s t o put t o g e t h e r an i n t e g r a l t e x t p a r t i a l l y from p r e -e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s , both s c h o l a s t i c and p o p u l a r , combined w i t h the penning of new prose and v e r s e s e c t i o n s . One can however o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o how t h e t e x t was p u t t o g e t h e r and how i t 1 6 came t o be t o r n a p a r t . What i s i m p o r t a n t though i s the d i v e r s i t y o f s t y l e s and modes of a d a p t a t i o n which MS d i s p l a y s , f o r i t v i v i d l y r e f l e c t s t he t e n s i o n between the c o n s t r a i n t of the s u t r a , i t s wording and o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the p r e a c h e r s ' mandate t o s a t i s f y the d e s i r e of the c o n g r e g a t i o n t o be d e l i g h t e d and moved. The s u t r a was a h o l y t e x t , bound i n i t s c a n o n i z e d form and chanted out i n p o r t i o n s s o l e m n l y t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e of the c o n c l a v e . The p r e a c h e r s c o u l d not e d i t or r e a r r a n g e t o any g r e a t degree the t e x t of the s u t r a i t s e l f . But what shows most c l e a r l y i n MS i s t h e a b i l i t y of the p r e a c h e r s t o dance over, around and through the h o l y t e x t . T h i s t e n s i o n i s even more apparent i n MS because i t t r e a t s the v e r y opening of the s u t r a . I f , as noted above, the a r t of the c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n l i e s i n n a r r a t i o n r a t h e r than i n e x p l a n a t i o n , t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e i s a s o u r c e of r e a l d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e p r e a c h e r because, i n the f o r m u l a i c passages w h i c h open ev e r y s u t r a , i n d r a m a t i c t e r m s , n o t h i n g happens! At the s t a r t of each and every s u t r a we hear the r e s o u n d i n g "thus have I heard" and l e a r n t h a t t h e Buddha was i n s u c h and s u c h a p l a c e t o g e t h e r w i t h m u l t i t u d i n o u s b e i n g s of a l l t y p e s p o s s e s s i n g a t t r i b u t e s r e c i t e d t o us. The e n t i r e t y of MS does n o t , i n terms of the s u t r a ' s p r o g r e s s a t l e a s t , advance us beyond t h i s preamble stage. Kanaoka Shokb has suggested t h a t s i n c e the opening s e c t i o n i s common t o a l l s u t r a s , the p r e a c h e r s p r o b a b l y had w e l l - w o r n 1 7 t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e w h i c h they r o u t i n e l y employed a t the b e g i n n i n g p o p u l a r l e c t u r e c o n c l a v e s and t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n i s thus not the p l a c e t o f i n d d i s t i n c t i v e p o p u l a r m a t e r i a l s . 2 4 T h i s MS, a t l e a s t , suggests o t h e r w i s e . I t seems t o be p r e c i s e l y the opening passages of the s u t r a w h i c h pose the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r the p r e a c h e r s . Having f i n i s h e d the c o n g r e g a t i o n a l c h a n t i n g i n c l u d e d i n the ya-tso-wen i n t r o d u c t i o n and h a v i n g chanted out the s u t r a ' s t i t l e , the l a s t t h i n g t h a t a p r e a c h e r would want t o do would be t o l a u n c h i n t o a s t a n d a r d , w e l l - k n o w n and remembered t r e a t m e n t of the b e g i n n i n g of a l l s u t r a s . The c o n g r e g a t i o n ' s r a p t a t t e n t i o n w ould be q u i c k l y d i s s i p a t e d . The p r e a c h e r g a i n s a t t e n t i o n not through the i n h e r e n t a u t h o r i t y of s u t r a i t s e l f but through h i s own a b i l i t y t o e n t e r t a i n w h i l e i n s t r u c t i n g . The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of MS e v i d e n c e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n the awkward s c r a m b l i n g of t h e i r prose and some of the v e r s e as the p r e a c h e r t r i e s t o adopt h i s powers of e x e g e s i s , t h e m s e l v e s not so w e l l developed, t o the demands of the o c c a s i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n e x h o r t s t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n t o g i v e r i s e t o a m i nd o f r e c e p t i v e f a i t h i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r h e a r i n g and t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the words of Buddha. The p r e a c h e r i s l e a d i n g , i n a p o p u l a r c o n g r e g a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , an a c t of r i t u a l s p i r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n . The second s e c t i o n i n i t i a l l y a t t e m p t s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x e g e s i s of the n o t i o n of S e l f , expounding i t s e s s e n t i a l e m p t i n e s s w h i l e t r y i n g t o r e c o n c i l e the s u t r a ' s use of the word 18 " I " . The argument i s f r e q u e n t l y i l l - o r g a n i z e d and p o o r l y e x p r e s s e d , not o n l y because MS i s t o r n i n t h e m i d d l e of i t . S t i l l the s e c t i o n i s n o t e w o r t h y i n t h a t the argument i s advanced i n the form of c h a l l e n g e and response, wen-ta R ^ ] ^ - , a c a r r y - o v e r from and s t y l i z e d a d a p t a t i o n of t h e nan-t'ung ^ of t h e s c h o l a s t i c l e c t u r e s and a d e v i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s t a n d a r d w r i t t e n e x e g e t i c a l works as w e l l . I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t the c h a l l e n g e was spoken by t h e t u - c h i a n g and t h a t t h e wen-ta d e v i c e s e r v e d p a r t l y t o l i v e n the p r o c e e d i n g s w i t h o u t s u b j e c t i n g the f a - s h i h t o any r e a l c h a l l e n g e . The second p a r t of t h e s e c t i o n abandons p h i l o s o p h y t o f o c u s on the personage of Ananda, s u g g e s t i n g the o u t l i n e s of a f a m i l i a r and perhaps f a v o r i t e s t o r y f o r the c o n g r e g a t i o n w h i l e r e i n f o r c i n g t h e f i d e l i t y , t r u t h and h o l i n e s s of t h e s u t r a t o be chanted. The sung s e c t i o n a c h i e v e s a r i t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Buddha's s u t r a , Ananda's r e c o u n t i n g of i t a t the f i r s t assembly and the v e r y sermon m e e t i n g a t which t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n i s p r e s e n t t h a t day. To be i n the presence of s u t r a , the p r e a c h e r s i n g s , i s t o be i n the presence of the Buddha. The atmosphere of the m e e t i n g i s h a l l o w e d . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of the t e x t i n t e n s i f i e s the a n t i c i p a t i o n of the c o n g r e g a t i o n as i t d e s c r i b e s the g a t h e r i n g " a t one t i m e " of t h e m u l t i t u d e o f b e i n g s o f a l l s o r t s a l l t h i r s t i n g f o r t h e moment of e n l i g h t e n m e n t which they sense w i l l come. The v i v i d 1 9 immediacy of the d e s c r i p t i o n conveyed i n f l u i d , w e l l - w r o u g h t prose, c o u p l e d w i t h the r i t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d , must have s e r v e d w e l l the preacher's purpose, t o g a l v a n i z e the c o n g r e g a t i o n . However, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s born of the preacher's c h a f i n g a t the b i t of the s u t r a ' s pace and o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n become apparent i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n p r e s a g i n g the next s e c t i o n i n the sung p o r t i o n ' s f i n a l l i n e , "At what p l a c e [ d i d ] the Buddha speak?", has been answered a l r e a d y a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s s o r t s of b e i n g s and monks p r e s e n t i n Amra p a r k a r e p l a c e d i n t h i s t h i r d s e c t i o n of the l e c t u r e , a l t h o u g h they appear i n the s u t r a a f t e r the d e s c r i p t i o n , p r a i s e and en u m e r a t i o n of the b o d h i s a t t v a s , the s u b j e c t of the l e c t u r e ' s f o u r t h s e c t i o n . The p r e a c h e r has begun t o r e a r r a n g e the s u t r a t o f i t h i s own sense of o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t p a r t of the b o d h i s a t t v a s e c t i o n a p p l i e s a d i f f e r e n t method o f a d a p t i n g a c r u c i a l p a r t of the s u t r a , but a p a r t which s t u b b o r n l y r e s i s t s n a r r a t i o n or d r a m a t i z a t i o n , the t h i r t y - n i n e p h rases of the s u t r a w h i c h p r a i s e the - b o d h i s a t t v a s . MS g i v e s a s e r i e s of e m b e l l i s h e d p a r a p h r a s e s of the f i r s t t h i r t y -t wo o f t h e s e . 2 5 My g u e s s i s t h a t e a c h p h r a s e o f t h e s u t r a was chanted by t h e t u - c h i a n g f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y by the f a - s h i h ' s r e s p o n s i v e p a r a p h r a s e i n a k i n d of c o u n t e r p o i n t . The t h i r t y -t h i r d and t h i r t y - f o u r t h phrases of the s u t r a a r e r e s e r v e d f o r the 20 second p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n , and a f t e r t h i r t y - t w o the s p e l l of the s u t r a seems t o be broken. The e a r l i e r p a t t e r n does not r e a s s e r t i t s e l f and phrases t h i r t y - f i v e t hrough t h i r t y - n i n e do not f i g u r e i n MS. A p l a y f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' s u p e r n a t u r a l powers and a g l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r appearance round out the p r o s e s e c t i o n . The sung s e c t i o n s k i l l f u l l y resumes the s a l i e n t p o i n t s and images of the p r o s e s e c t i o n . The second p a r t of the f o u r t h s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s more f e r t i l e ground f o r the p r e a c h e r . I s o l a t i n g the s u t r a phrases w h i c h compare the b o d h i s a t t v a s t o g r e a t P h y s i c i a n K i n g s , the p r e a c h e r u t i l i z e s a passage from the f i f t h c h a p t e r of the V i m a l a k i r t i  s u t r a (see s e c t i o n IVB, n.5 below) t o i n s p i r e an e v o c a t i v e t r e a t m e n t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , d r a w i n g p a r t l y on m a t e r i a l s used i n p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s on a ( p r o b a b l y a p o c r y p h a l ) s u t r a (see i b i d . , n.11). T h i s approach communicates the essence of the b o d h i s a t t v a s i n terms w h i c h engage the emotions and thoughts of the c o n g r e g a t i o n i n r e f l e c t i n g upon something they know so w e l l : the p a i n s and p l e a s u r e s of b e a r i n g and r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . The p r o s e s e c t i o n i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s and c o n c l u d e s w i t h a more a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach. The sung s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s some sh a r p -eyed and sharp-tongued o b s e r v a t i o n s on the h a b i t s of wayward c h i l d r e n and wayward B u d d h i s t s ( t h e m s e l v e s c h i l d r e n of the b o d h i s a t t v a s ) . These were met most l i k e l y by both l a u g h t e r and, 21 i n some cases, s t i n g s of s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n . The f i f t h s e c t i o n b r i n g s i n t o sharp f o c u s the preacher's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems. T h i s s e c t i o n , f o l l o w i n g the l e c t u r e ' s b o d h i s a t t v a s e c t i o n , r e v e r t s t o the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s u t r a and t r e a t s the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of b e i n g s p r e s e n t a t Amra park g a t h e r i n g t o hear the Buddha, m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d a t l e n g t h i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . I t h i n k t h i s s e c t i o n may have been a p r e - e x t a n t one w h i c h became s u p e r f l u o u s or d i f f i c u l t t o work i n t o the s t r u c t u r e the p r e a c h e r had chosen w i t h h i s own arrangement of the s u t r a i n s e c t i o n s t h r e e and f o u r . N o n e t h e l e s s , the s e c t i o n may have been c o p i e d over and i n s e r t e d here, i t s p r o p e r p l a c e a c c o r d i n g t o the s u t r a ' s o r d e r , w i t h i t s d i s p o s i t i o n t o be d e c i d e d l a t e r . I have o m i t t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n , but have i n c l u d e d t e x t u a l n otes f o r the convenience of i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r s . A n o t e w o r t h y f e a t u r e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h e p h r a s i n g o f i t s f i n a l sung l i n e , p i e n ch'ing ch'ang c h i a n q - l a i ^j^^- ' a n e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s were conducted by a t l e a s t two p eople. The b e g i n n i n g of the s i x t h s e c t i o n ' s prose p o r t i o n a g a i n d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of b e i n g s g a t h e r e d as does i t s sung p o r t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n , w h i c h would have f o l l o w e d the f o u r t h ' s e m o t i o n a l and w i t t y t r e a t m e n t f a m i l y l i f e s e r v e s t o r e t u r n the forum t o the s p e c t a c l e of the dharma assembly i n Amra park w i t h 22 i t s i n t e n t a n t i c i p a t i o n . I t b r i e f l y t r e a t s of the p o r t e n t o u s l i g h t r e l e a s e d from between the Buddha's eyebrows, a f e a t u r e c o n s p i c u o u s i n o t h e r s u t r a s but absent from the V i m a l a k i r t i  s u t r a . Above a l l , t h i s s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the Buddha i n the m i d s t of, but overshadowing the v a s t assembly. The s e v e n t h and f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e t e x t i s t o my mind t h e j e w e l of the t e x t . I t d i s p l a y s the c r e a t i v e m a s t e r y of the p r e a c h e r s a t i t s h e i g h t . J u s t a t the p o i n t of maximum t e n s i o n and a n t i c i p a t i o n , h a v i n g c o v e r e d l e s s than o n e - h a l f of the f i r s t c h a p t e r of the s u t r a , the p r e a c h e r suddenly i n t r o d u c e s the p r o t a g o n i s t of the s u t r a , V i m a l a k i r t i h i m s e l f , who does not appear i n the s u t r a u n t i l i t s second c h a p t e r . Not o n l y does the p r e a c h e r thus throw o f f the c o n s t r a i n t of the s u t r a ' s s t r u c t u r e , he proceeds t o n a r r a t e , i n a moving b a l l a d s t y l e , e v e n t s not even mentioned i n the s u t r a . V i m a l a k i r t i ' s c o n v e r s i o n ' of the f i v e hundred sons of e l d e r s so t h a t they c o u l d hear the Buddha and g a i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n t o V i m a l a k i r t i , the d e t a i l s of h i s sudden i l l n e s s and t h e i r p a r t i n g d e r i v e p r o b a b l y from o r a l t r a d i t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the s u t r a . Indeed K u m a r a j i v a i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks on the s u t r a 2 6 i n e f f e c t o u t l i n e s the s t o r y w hich i s so b e a u t i f u l l y e m b e l l i s h e d and d r a m a t i z e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . V i m a l a k i r t i ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the f i v e hundred, h i s d i s p a t c h of them t o hear the Buddha, and h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i l l n e s s , which p r e v e n t e d him from g o i n g a l o n g w i t h them, a r e s a i d 23 t o be the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r , the c a u s a t i o n (yu E^? ) w h i c h c a t a l y z e s the e n t i r e s u t r a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the s c h o l a s t i c - s t y l e c h a l l e n g e and response, noted e a r l i e r , appears even i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e of s h o r t gatha i n s e r t e d i n t o the p r o s e p o r t i o n , a g a i n seen i n e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s , i s here t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o what appears t o be a b a l l a d f o r m , sung s t a n z a s i n t r o d u c e d by s h o r t p r o s e statement. The t o u c h i n g s t o r y i s advanced through t h i s g a t h a - b a l l a d form, l o n g sung p o r t i o n s and e l e g a n t l y phrased p r o s e p o r t i o n s . The o c c a s i o n a l e x c e s s e s may be excused f o r t h i s i s the c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n a t the h e i g h t of i t s achievement, the h a r b i n g e r and s e e d l i n g of China's v a r i e d t r a d i t i o n of o r a l performance. 24 IV. T e x t s , D a t i n g , Method and Aims of T r a n s l a t i o n The b a s i c t e x t u sed f o r t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was t h e one p u b l i s h e d i n PWC, pp.51 7-560, e d i t e d by Wang Ch'ing-shu i ^ ^ L • A c o p y of t h e m i c r o f i l m made by t h e B r i t i s h Museum i n 1 954 f o r the Toyo Bunko was used i n comparing the m a n u s c r i p t , S.4571 , t o the PWC e d i t i o n . PWC, a l t h o u g h the b e s t a v a i l a b l e e d i t i o n f o r Tun-huang c o l l o q u i a l l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s l a r g e numbers of e r r o r s , m i s r e a d i n g s and o m i s s i o n s and, as V i c t o r M a i r n o t e s , any s e r i o u s study of the l i t e r a t u r e r e q u i r e s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the o r i g i n a l manuscripts.27 T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the case of S.4571 , f o r the PWC e d i t i o n of t h i s p i e c e , i n c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r V i m a l a k i r t i sermon-pieces w h i c h f o l l o w i t , i s t h e f i r s t p u b l i s h e d e d i t i o n of the t e x t . I n a d d i t i o n , the e d i t i n g seems t o have been rushed. There a r e many m i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and o m i s s i o n s compounding the problems of p h o n e t i c l o a n s and s c r i b a l e r r o r s i n MS. I have n o t e d my c o r r e c t i o n s of t h e PWC t e x t , b a s e d on MS r e a d i n g s , as w e l l as o t h e r a s p e c t s of MS i n t h e f o o t n o t e s a f t e r each s e c t i o n of the t r a n s l a t i o n . I hope t h a t o t h e r s w i l l f u r t h e r improve my e f f o r t . V i c t o r Mair's comment on S.4571, based on p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n , i n h i s 1981 i n v e n t o r y i s as f o l l o w s : S u t r a l e c t u r e t e x t on the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a ( l a c k s t i t l e ) . Enormously l o n g , a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t s of s i x s e p a r a t e s c r o l l s ... S o f t , f i b r o u s , w h i t i s h paper. Mediocre t o f a i r l y good hand, h u r r i e d ; a b i t messy; e l l i p s e s ; some c o r r e c t i o n s i n same and o t h e r hands; h i g h l i g h t i n g . 2 8 25 As noted e a r l i e r , t he t e x t i s i n n i n e d i s c o n t i n u o u s f r a g m e n t s w h i c h , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t e a r s a t t h e t o p and b o t t o m o f t h e paper as w e l l as o b l i t e r a t e d c h a r a c t e r s , r e s u l t s i n f a i r l y f r e q u e n t e l l i p s e s and acc o u n t s f o r some of the obscure passages.29 Such passages must r e m a i n obscure, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t of the s i n g l e m a n u s c r i p t source. Other o b s c u r i t i e s r e f l e c t e d and noted i n the t r a n s l a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o my own d e f i c i e n c i e s , l i n g u i s t i c and o t h e r w i s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of Buddhism. I t r u s t t h a t r e a d e r s , t e a c h e r s and c o l l e a g u e s , w i l l h e l p t o c o r r e c t such e r r o r s . The s e c t i o n s of the t r a n s l a t i o n have been s e t out on the b a s i s of t h e i r c o n t e n t and p l a c e i n the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the p i e c e . That i s t o say, they r e p r e s e n t n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s which I have p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y and added t i t l e s t o . The r e a d e r s h o u l d b e a r i n mind i n r e a d i n g t h a t t h e t e x t i s o f a p a t c h - w o r k n a t u r e , p a r t prompt book, p a r t notebook, and t h a t c e r t a i n of t h e t e x t ' s i n t e r e s t l i e s i n t h a t f a c t . Lo Tsung-t'ao i n h i s v o l u m i n o u s s e t of s t u d i e s on c o l l o q u i a l Tun-huang l i t e r a t u r e based upon B u d d h i s t s u t r a s 3 0 , has a t t e m p t e d t o d a t e the ch i a n g - c h i n g - w e n based on the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a . Based upon shared f o r m a l s t y l i s t i c and l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Lo b e l i e v e s t h a t f i v e of the s i x p i e c e s d e r i v e from the same t e x t by a s i n g l e a u t h o r . On the b a s i s of l i n g u i s t i c and r e f e r e n t i a l e v i d e n c e i n s e v e r a l of t h e p i e c e s and 26 a colophon a t the end of one (P.2292; the colophon i s reproduced at PWC, p.618), Lo c o n c l u d e s t h a t the i n t e g r a l t e x t was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the p e r i o d 944-947 A.D.31 There i s no r e a s o n t o d i s p u t e Lo's c o n c l u s i o n . Most of the d a t e d m a t e r i a l s i n Mair's i n v e n t o r y f a l l between the y e a r s 900-970 A.D. I t i s p r o b a b l y f a i r t o say t h a t S.4571, t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a f i n i s h e d t e x t ready f o r performance, i s an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of a l e c t u r e of the F i v e D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d . I h a v e b o r n e t h i s f a c t i n mind and have t r i e d t o r e f l e c t i t i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . My aim has been t o t r a n s l a t e as l i t e r a l l y and as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , t o convey the form and the language of the t e x t . I have a l s o t r i e d t o c a p t u r e i t s s p i r i t i n communicating i t s c r e a t i v e energy i n a way t h a t does j u s t i c e t o the genre, one so i m p o r t a n t both i n the h i s t o r y of China's r e l i g i o n and i t s l i t e r a t u r e . 27 Notes t o t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 . For a c o n c i s e summary of the geography and h i s t o r y of Tun-huang, see Kanaoka Shoko, Tonko no bungaku (Tokyo: D a i z o shuppan, 1971), pp.3-23. The h i s t o r y of Buddhism a t Tun-huang i s t r e a t e d i n e x h a u s t i v e d e t a i l by Tsukamoto Zenryu, "Tonko b u k k y S s h i g a i s e t s u " , i n S e i i k i bunka kenkyu, v.1 ( K y o t o : H o z o k a n , 1958), pp.39-78. A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n i n E n g l i s h may be found i n Cheung, Hung-nin Samuel, The Language o f the Tun-huang "Pien-wen", (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1974), pp.1-16. 2. The f i g u r e i s an e s t i m a t e based on t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n Kanaoka (1971), pp.35-38. V i c t o r M a i r e s t i m a t e s 42,000 i n h i s "Lay S t u d e n t s and t h e Making of W r i t t e n V e r n a c u l a r N a r r a t i v e : An I n v e n t o r y of Tun-huang M a n u s c r i p t s " , C h i n o p e r l Papers, no.10, (1981), pp.95-96. 3. See A r t h u r Waley, B a l l a d s and S t o r i e s from Tun-huang (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1960), p.236. 4. Kanaoka (1971) g i v e s a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t i n g of the d i s p o s i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s , o r g a n i z e d by l o c a t i o n , pp.46-66, i n c l u d i n g a complete l i s t i n g of e x t a n t c a t a l o g u e s . 5. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h o s e e a r l y e f f o r t s and t h e p r o b l e m s o f no m e n c l a t u r e and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , see Cheng Chen-to, Chung-kuo su -wen -h s i i e h s h i h (1 93 8, Hong Kong r e p r . , n.d . ) , v.1 , pp.181 -190. V i c t o r M a i r d e f i n e s pien-wen, as d i s t i n c t from s i m i l a r c o l l o q u i a l genres, t o be " w r i t t e n descendants of o r a l n a r r a t i v e p e r f o r m e d by p o p u l a r e n t e r t a i n e r s [ d e a l i n g ] w i t h s e c u l a r or r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s " , see (1981), p.5. The i m p r e c i s e u s a g e of t h e t e r m t o r e f e r t o a l l t y p e s o f c o l l o q u i a l l i t e r a t u r e from Tun-huang, r e i n f o r c e d i n p a r t , as M a i r n o t e s , by t h e i n c l u s i o n s of d i v e r s e genres w r i t t e n i n the c o l l o q u i a l language i n the two volume a n t h o l o g y Tun- huang pien-wen c h i ( P e k i n g : Jen-min wen-hsiieh, 1 957) ( h e r e a f t e r PWC), i s an extreme example of the d i f f i c u l t i e s s c h o l a r s have had e s t a b l i s h i n g genre c a t e g o r i e s i n t h i s f i e l d . I b i d . , pp.5-6. An i n s i g h t f u l summary and d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s problem appears i n V. H r d l i c k o v a , "Some Q u e s t i o n s Connected w i t h Tun-huang Pien-wen", A r c h i v O r i e n t a l i a , v.30 (1 962 ), pp.21 1 -230. 28 6. Only one known t e x t , P e l l i o t no. 3808, PWC pp.41 1 -425, a c t u a l l y b e a r s t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n . See Kanaoka (1971), p.102. and M a i r (1981), p.36. The name has been a p p l i e d by s c h o l a r s t o o t h e r t e x t s i n the genre. See, f o r example, Hs i a n g Ta, "T'ang-tai s u - c h i a n g k'ao", i n T'ang-tai Ch'ang-an y_u h s i - y u wen-ming ( P e k i n g : S a n - l i e n s h u - t i e n , 1 957), p.306. E x t a n t specimens of Chiang-ching-wen have been e d i t e d and p u b l i s h e d i n P a r t V of PWC, pp.41 1 -700. M a i r d e f i n e s them as " r e c o r d s of or notes f o r r e l i g i o u s l e c t u r e s f o r laymen ( s u - c h i a n g ) " , M a i r (1981), p. 5. 7. The documentary e v i d e n c e from T'ang and l a t e r s o u r c e s i s quoted and d i s c u s s e d i n Hsiang Ta, pp.297-301. 8. The account w h i c h f o l l o w s i s drawn, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e noted, from Sun K ' a i - t i , "T'ang-tai s u - c h i a n g k u i - f a n yu c h ' i pen c h i h t ' i - t s a i " , i n Su-chiang shuo-hua yu p a i - h u a h s i a o - s h u o ( P e k i n g : T s o - c h i a , 1956), pp.42-98. 9. See Sun, pp.76-77 and 79-81. 10. Sawada Mizuho, "ShodS bungaku no s e i s e i " , i n Bukkyo t o  chugoku bungaku (Tokyo: Kokusho, 1 975 ), p. 19. 11. Both q u o t a t i o n s a r e from H r d l i c k o v a (1962), pp.225-26. 12. Sun, p.84, e x p r e s s e s doubt t h a t the f a - s h i h a f t e r d e l i v e r i n g the p r o s e p o r t i o n a l s o sang the l o n g sung p o r t i o n s . H i s view seems t o p o i n t t o t h r e e major p e r f o r m e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each of the performance's t h r e e f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s . Sawada t a k e s the more f l e x i b l e and, I t h i n k , more a c c u r a t e view t h a t the number of p e r f o r m e r s v a r i e d , depending on c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y f i n a n c e s , and a t t i m e s t h e r e may have been o n l y one p e r f o r m e r . See Sawada, p.40. 13. See Naba T o s h i s a d a , "Zokko t o henbun", i n T o d a i s h a k a i bunka  s h i kenkyu (Tokyo: Sobunsha, 1 974), pp.395-458, esp. p p . 4 0 3 f f , on which my summary i s based. 14. I b i d . . , pp.402-403. 15. The r e n d e r i n g " s e a t - s e t t l i n g t e x t " i s M a i r ' s (1981), p.6. On the ya-tso-wen see Sun, pp.91 f f . and H r d l i c k o v a , pp.227-228. Examples of ya-tso-wen a r e c o l l e c t e d i n PWC, P a r t V I I , pp.823-843. 16. For a d i s c u s s i o n of th e s e l a t e r genre and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the c h i a n g - c h i n g - w e n , see Sawada, pp.53-66. 29 17. L i o n e l G i l e s , D e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g of the Chinese M a n u s c r i p t s  from Tun-huang i n the B r i t i s h Museum (London: B r i t i s h Museum, 1 957), p.185. 18. F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l of t h e s e t e x t s as w e l l as t h e h i s t o r y of the p r i o r e d i t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n of some of them, see Kanaoka Shoko, "Iwayuru ' Y u i m a k i t s u k y o kokyobun' n i t s u i t e " i n N i s h i G i y u , ed., D a i j o bosatsudo no kenkyu (Kyoto: H e i r a k u j i shoten, 1 968), pp.489-490. S.4571 was e d i t e d f o r the f i r s t time f o r i n c l u s i o n i n PWC. 19. Sawada, p.23. P. D e m i e v i l l e , " V i m a l a k i r t i en Chine", appended t o E t i e n n e Lamotte, L'Enseignement de V i m a l a k i r t i ( L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1 962), pp.438-455, g i v e s an account of V i m a l a k i r t i ' s r e c e p t i o n i n China. There i s a f i n e , s h o r t study of the t e x t ' s h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n China by Ch'en Yin-k'o, "Tun-huang pen Wei-mo-chieh-ching W e n - s h u - s h i h - l i wen-chi p'in y e n - y i pa", L i - s h i h y i i - y e n y e n - c h i u suo c h i - k a n 2:1 (1 930), r e p r . i n Wang Chung-min, Tun-huang k u - c h i h s u - l u ( P e k i n g : Shang wu, 1 958), pp.366-371 . I have r e l i e d on the s e l a s t two f o r my b r i e f remarks here. 20. See PWC, p.560, n.1. 21. Lamotte, pp.2-14, g i v e s a l i s t and study of a l l the Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n s of the t e x t . 22. D e m i e v i l l e , pp.447-449. Ch'en Yin-k'o, pp.369-370 d i s c u s s e s the e v i d e n c e of such apocrypha. 23. T a i s h o d a i z o k y o , no.475, v.14, p.537. 24. Kanaoka, " i w a y u r u " , p.498. 25. F o r an e x t e n d e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o r m and c o n t e n t o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s e c t i o n , see Kanaoka, "Iwayuru", pp.500-506. 26. Wei-mo-ching-chu (Shanghai: Y i - h s i i e h s h u - c h i i , n .d.), p.1a. 27. M a i r (1981), p.7. 28. M a i r (1981), p.60. 29. For the convenience of i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r s a c h a r t of the correspondence between MS f r a g m e n t s , as numbered i n the m i c r o f i l m e d i t i o n , and t h e PWC t e x t i s s e t o u t i n t h e 30 appendix. Tun-huang c h i a n q - c h i n g pien-wen y e n - c h i u ( T a i p e i : Wen-shih-che ch'u-pan she, 1972). I b i d . , pp. 1 063-1071 . One o f t h e t e x t s , P.2122, PWC 589-591, appears t o be p a r t of a ya-tso-wen. See M a i r (1981), p. 9. 31 SECTION I Thus When we d i s c u s s the word 'thus' b e i n g put a t the b e g i n n i n g of the s u t r a t o e x p r e s s f a i t h , 1 i f we f o l l o w Tz'u-en's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f a i t h , 2 t h e r e a r e t e n t y p e s of p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d . However, s i n c e I do not presume t o t a l k a t l e n g t h on t h i s s u b j e c t , I s h a l l mention o n l y f i v e . Number one: A c c o r d i n g t o the T r e a t i s e on A c c l a i m i n g the  Holy T e a c h i n g ' s 3 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f a i t h , i t i s the embryo of the seven t y p e s of s a i n t l y r i c h e s . 4 We may l i s t t h e s e seven a s : f a i t h , d i s c i p l i n e , a t t e n t i v e n e s s , e q u a n i m i t y , wisdom, c o n s c i e n c e and shame. 5 F a i t h i s one of th e s e r i c h e s . Furthermore i t i s the one c a l l e d the remover of doub t s . Once we a r e a b l e t o d e v e l o p f a i t h , we g e t r i d of our u n s e t t l e d , d o u b t i n g minds and r e a l i z e t h a t r i g h t b e s i d e us are r i c h e s [by which we can] l e a v e t h i s w o r l d [of s u f f e r i n g ] , [and a l s o ] know t h a t w i t h i n the s c r i p t u r e s l i e s the p a t h t o Buddhahood. I f we n e x t r i d o u r s e l v e s of l a z i n e s s , then we s h a l l advance i n our ( s p i r i t u a l ) r e f i n e m e n t . I t ' s the same as g o i n g i n t o the sea. I t i s e x a c t l y l i k e s e e k i n g j e w e l s . 6 I f we c o u l d go i n t o the s e a s , we would s u r e l y meet w i t h g o l d and s i l v e r . I f we can l i s t e n t o t h e words of s c r i p t u r e , then we w i l l c e r t a i n l y o b t a i n the s a c r e d f r u i t . 7 The seven p r e c i o u s j e w e l s of t h i s w o r l d o n l y remove the p o v e r t y of the 32 p r e s e n t moment. The seven s a g e l y r i c h e s w i t h i n the s e l f can r e s c u e us from the p e r i l o u s r o a d t o come. And s i n c e the awakening of f a i t h i s d i f f e r e n t from the s e l e c t i o n [of the i n t e l l i g e n c e ] , t h e r e f o r e the s c r i p t u r e i s s a y i n g , " I urge you t o become aware and u n d e r s t a n d . " ^ Number two: I n the T r e a t i s e on Mere C o n s c i o u s n e s s we r e a d : " F a i t h i s l i k e a c r y s t a l j e w e l which can c l a r i f y muddied w a t e r s . " 9 L e t ' s say we have a pond of f r e s h w a t e r , s t i l l and pure t o the v e r y bottom. To l o o k a t i t , i t ' s no d i f f e r e n t from a m i r r o r . I t s l u s t e r i s j u s t l i k e t h a t of g l a s s . I t i s c l e a r and pure of i t s e l f , how s h o u l d i t c o n t a i n any i m p u r i t y ? Suddenly [ t h i s t r a n q u i l i t y i s s h a t t e r e d ] by a mud l o a c h which i s dumped i n t o the pond; [ i t s ] e n t i r e body impure, a l l around i t a f o u l s t e n c h . 1 0 The c l e a r water t h a t f i l l e d t he pond i s c l o u d e d , muddied; t h i s s p r i n g [once] p u r i f i e d t o i t s depths i s f o u l -s m e l l i n g and f i l t h y . We have no i d e a what s t e p s t o t a k e t o r e s t o r e the w a t e r ' s e s s e n c e 1 1 t o i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e . We do not know what cause would make the pond's water c l e a r and pure a g a i n . F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s a s i n g l e r a d i a n t j e w e l , the gleaming p u r i t y of whose accumulated l i g h t i s w i t h o u t b l e m i s h . I f we but p l a c e t h i s j e w e l i n t o the pond, the water w i l l of i t s e l f be p u r i f i e d [ a g a i n ] . The t u r m o i l . w i t h i n us i s l i k e the muddied water and the mind of f a i t h i s t h a t r a d i a n t j e w e l . I f our b e l i e v i n g minds a r e s t e a d f a s t and f i r m , our i n n e r t u r m o i l w i l l c l e a r away by 33 i t s e l f J 2 Number t h r e e : I n the Abhidharma T r e a t i s e i t says ( e x p l a i n i n g ' f a i t h ' ) : " F a i t h can p u l l the l i v i n g b e i n g s f r e e of the mire of b i r t h and death."13 The meaning i s t h i s : The c o r r e c t t e a c h i n g s s e r v e as the Buddha's hand 1^, f a i t h i s the hand of the l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s . I f the s e two hands can touch each o t h e r , t h e n c e r t a i n l y we w i l l l e a v e t h e m i r e o f b i r t h and d e a t h . 1 5 We w i l l c a s t away f o r e v e r the T r i p l e Realm 16; n e i t h e r s h a l l we d w e l l w i t h i n the Four B i r t h s 1 7 . [Our f a i t h ] w i l l change d e l u s i o n i n t o wisdom; i t w i l l t r a n s f o r m l a z i n e s s i n t o s u s t a i n e d d i l i g e n c e . U s i n g the s c a l e of our own b e l i e v i n g minds, we w i l l be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e the good and e v i l of o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e the t r e a t i s e says: " [ F a i t h ] can p u l l the l i v i n g b e i n g s f r e e of the mire of l i f e and d e a t h . " 1 8 Number f o u r : A t r e a t i s e s a y s : " F a i t h i s l i k e a man a f l o a t upon a v a s t d a r k s e a who a v a i l s h i m s e l f o f h i s own hand t o p r o p e l h i s b o a t . " 1 9 So t h i s i s l i k e someone who c a s t s h i m s e l f upon the v a s t seas and w i s h e s t o f l o a t upon i t s bound l e s s waves. I f he does n o t work t h e b o a t p o l e i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o make h i s b o a t go. I f he does not r a i s e the oar how then s h a l l he move f o r w a r d ? 2 0 He must r e l y on h i s own hands, o n l y t h e n c a n he do s o m e t h i n g . 2 1 I f he has no hands he w i l l s i n k and d r o w n i n t h e v a s t , d a r k ocean; but i f he h i m s e l f has hands he i s sure t o r e a c h the o t h e r shore. [The re a s o n t h a t ] the mind of f a i t h comes f i r s t 34 i n t he s u t r a [ i s t h a t ] [ the s t a t e o f ] b i r t h and dea t h i s [ l i k e ] a r i v e r . I f the mind of f a i t h i s not f i r m and s t e a d f a s t i n our c o n s c i o u s n e s s when w i l l we e v e r be f r e e of t h e r i v e r o f b i r t h and d e a t h ? 2 2 And now i n f a c t we a r e urged a t the s u t r a ' s s t a r t t o dev e l o p the mind of f a i t h , and so l i s t e n t o the t e a c h i n g s of the Thus Come One. T h i s i s something we must p r a c t i c e and m a i n t a i n . Number F i v e : The Hua-yen S u t r a i n t e r p r e t s f a i t h [ i n t h i s w ay]: I f a man has hands he may p i c k o u t and t a k e p r e c i o u s j e w e l s as he p l e a s e s . But s h o u l d he be w i t h o u t hands, he s h a l l g e t n o t h i n g a t a l l . 2 3 And now as we a r e about t o c o n s i d e r the t e a c h i n g s of t h i s s u t r a . we must d e v e l o p the mind of f a i t h . When the mind of f a i t h a r i s e s , then a re knowledge and wisdom born; when the mind of f a i t h v a n i s h e s , then do i g n o r a n c e and d e l u s i o n f l o u r i s h . L i s t e n i n g t o the s u t r a ' s t e a c h i n g s i s l i k e coming upon a mountain ( f i l l e d ) w i t h the seven j e w e l s . I f we can produce the mind of f a i t h ( w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s ) we s h a l l be a b l e t o c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e the p r i n c i p l e s of the S i n g l e V e h i c l e . But s h o u l d the mind o f f a i t h n o t a r i s e , i t i s as t h o u g h we a r e w i t h o u t b o t h hands and f e e t . So t h a t even s h o u l d we r e a c h the mountain of j e w e l s we would be empty handed, o b t a i n i n g n o t h i n g . So now [ t h e reas o n s t h a t ] t h i s word 'thus' i s p l a c e d a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the s u t r a a r e , f i r s t of a l l , because i t i s the e x p r e s s i o n used a t the F i r s t C o u n c i l 2 4 and, s e c o n d l y , i t seeks t o urge peop l e t o g i v e r i s e t o f a i t h . 35 I n each of the f i v e p r i n c i p l e s [ e s t a b l i s h e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of s u t r a ] t h e r e a r e w o r d s t o i n s t r u c t us.25 By them [we know f o r c e r t a i n t h a t the s u t r a ' s ] words are not f a l s e ; t hey a re a l l words spoken by the Thus Come One. I f we can c u l t i v a t e the mind of f a i t h and h o l d f i r m l y t o i t Then c e r t a i n l y our a c t i o n - s t o r e s h a l l never s t r a y or miss When e v i l deeds have l o n g been done, we're c r u s h e d and swept away When good c o n d i t i o n s have y e t t o come we s i n k , bent out of shape I f o u r d o i n g s a t a l l t i m e s a r e b a s e d on v i e w s and p e r c e p t i o n s deep Then a l l of our a c t s s h a l l be t o m e r i t c l o s e l y l i n k e d 2 8 The s u t r a s thus make known t o a l l , u p l i f t i n g words of p r a i s e The m y r i a d t h i n g s , they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n A mind of f a i t h i s of the h i g h e s t i n e x p l a i n i n g m e r i t ' s f r u i t s Among the seven s a i n t l y r i c h e s i t ra n k s as number one So do not v a i n l y s e a l your f a t e w i t h c o n s t a n t r e c k l e s s a c t s You must weigh e v e r y t h i n g you do w i t h wise c o n s i d e r a t i o n 2 ^ Cut y o u r s e l f o f f from i m m o r a l v i e w s , d e s i s t from [ e v i l ] a c t s 3 0 Do not l e t the s u t r a ' s words g i v e r i s e t o waywardness^! The s u t r a s thus make known t o a l l , u p l i f t i n g words of p r a i s e The m y r i a d t h i n g s , they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n The mind o f f a i t h c a n be compared t o a j e w e l of c r y s t a l pure32 The muddy waters can, i n f a c t , be caused t o be t r a n s f o r m e d When we make the f l o w i n g source be deep and c l e a r once more3 3 Then we f i n a l l y u n d e r s t a n d the j e w e l ' s g r e a t m e r i t - s t r e n g t h We must a t e v e r y moment have s i n g l e - m i n d e d d i l i g e n c e And not l e t e v e r y t h i n g be done w i t h i d l e n e g l i g e n c e Wisdom l i e s w i t h i n an i n c h of del u d e d i g n o r a n c e The m y r i a d t h i n g s they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n L i v i n g b e i n g s ' i n n e r t u r m o i l wraps and b i n d s them t i g h t So l o n g we have been w a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e m i r e o f b i r t h and 36 d e a t h I f we c o u l d but d e v e l o p the h e a r t and mind of f a i t h 3 4 The Thus Come One w o u l d l e a d us f o r t h and g u i d e us t o d e l i v e r a n c e Then c o u l d we e x p e r i e n c e a l i b e r a t i o n - b o d y And c a s t away our form-body, i t s h o l l o w , phantom s u b s t a n c e The Thus Come One t h u s t e l l s us a l l , u p l i f t i n g words o f p r a i s e The m y r i a d t h i n g s they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n I f a man f l o a t s on the sea and wants t o go by boat And would see t e n thousand m i l e s of waves as b e i n g a mere f o o t I f he has hands why then he can a v o i d t h i s danger's p e r i l S h ould he have none, h e ' l l s u r e l y s i n k and drow n i n g he w i l l p e r i s h We can gr a s p the oar and row r i g h t by our s i d e We can ta k e the p o l e and work i t back and f o r t h ^ J u s t as we who s t r i v e t o l e a r n r a i s e up minds of f a i t h The m y r i a d t h i n g s they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n I f a man can make h i s way t o a mountain f i l l e d w i t h j e w e l s And s e e k i n g a hundred k i n d s of p r e c i o u s t h i n g s , s e a r c h e s a l l about I f he's got hands, o n l y then can he go and p l u c k them out W i t h no hands, he r e t u r n s w i t h n o t h i n g and i n t h e end he g a i n s no p r o f i t The s u t r a ' s words are deep and s u b t l e , t h e i r r e a s o n p a s t s u r p a s s i n g The Bodhi which i s unsurpassed emerges from t h e i r m i d s t I t o n l y needs t h a t t h o s e who s e e k s h o u l d p l a n t t h e r o o t o f f a i t h The m y r i a d t h i n g s they a l l a r i s e from the mind's p e r c e p t i o n And when we l i s t e n we s h o u l d l i s t e n w i t h c a r e And s t r i v e t o have the s u t r a ' s words c a u s e . . . [ ? ] 3 6 I n our sense realms37 W e s h o u l d work hard t o know j u s t what we are Do not l e t our tho u g h t s and a c t s become s e l f i s h , mean and low E v i l c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be removed from our i n t e n t i o n s ' m i d s t Of goodly works, there's none comes near the grounds of s u f f e r i n g 3 8 And f o r t h e s e reasons the Thus Come One has spoken f o r t h t h i s s u t r a 37 To t e a c h us a l l t o p e a c e f u l l y conduct our mind's p e r c e p t i o n The s u t r a ' s words w i l l l e a d us t o goodly s p i r i t u a l r e f i n e m e n t But the seeker must de v e l o p i n h i s mind s i n c e r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n - ^ So t h a t r u b b i n g and w i p i n g t h e j e w e l o f o u r t h o u g h t we make i t s p o t l e s s l y c l e a n And r i n s i n g and p o l i s h i n g t h e m i r r o r of o u r m i nd t i l l by i t s e l f i t ' s c l e a r With compassionate a c t i o n s we s t r i v e t o advance Our s l o t h f u l a c t s t u r n round and change I n e v e r y t h i n g cause f a i t h t o grow and w i t h i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g E n t i r e l y c u t o u r s e l v e s f r e e of a l l d o u b t i n g f e e l i n g s 4 ^ When w i t h a mind of f a i t h we can harken t o t r u e s c r i p t u r e Then wisdom i n our mind s t i r s round and comes a l i v e w i t h i n us W i t h i n our minds do not a l l o w g r a s p i n g and attachment I n our minds s t r i v e t o sever t i e s t o a l l t h a t ' s u n e n l i g h t e n e d For when the mind can u n d e r s t a n d , i t u n d e r s t a n d s a l l t h i n g s And when our thought i t i s r e f i n e d , i t ' s so i n e v e r y t h i n g And i f a mind of f a i t h i s f i r m , a c h i e v e d i n e v e r y thought Then w i t h i n the Bodhi mind w e ' l l s p o n t a n e o u s l y grow A d e v i a n t mind must not appear w i l d l y e x p r e s s e d 4 1 D e v i a n t views s h o u l d s t r a i g h t a w a y be o v e r t u r n e d and changed Thoughts of d o i n g e v i l a c t s i n c e s s a n t l y c u t o f f And lewd c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s h o u l d be h a l t e d from the s t a r t Wrong-headed i g n o r a n c e i s m o s t l y what f o o l i s h p e o p l e p r a c t i c e How can s o m e t h i n g f a l s e and bent l e a d t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e w i s e ? I f we can remove f a l s e f l a t t e r y and a l w a y s guard a g a i n s t i t Then w i t h i n the Bodhi mind w e ' l l s p o n t a n e o u s l y grow L e t not the mind's own t u r m o i l b i n d you round f o r l o n g Don't l e t a v a r i c e and anger l e a d t o a l t e r c a t i o n s L e t not the r o o t of f a i t h be caught i n the snare of love's attachment L e t not a c o n f u s e d d i s p o s i t i o n i n c r e a s e i t s i g n o r a n t e m o t i o n s 4 2 Seek not s p l e n d o r nor h i g h p o s i t i o n i n t h i s (our m o r t a l ) w o r l d 38 And do not l o o k among mere men f o r b e n e f i t and fame Do not adopt the hundred t y p e s of i g n o r a n t p e r c e p t i o n s Then w i t h i n the Bodhi mind y o u ' l l s p o n t a n e o u s l y grow When l i s t e n i n g t o s u t r a we have b u t t o l e t o u r f a i t h u n f o l d 4 3 We i n t e n s e l y f e a r t h a t t h o s e who s e e k w i l l g i v e r i s e t o unfounded doubts When one i s l o s t one i s c u t o f f from B o d h i 1 s a d m o n i t i o n s Awakened t o the t r u t h we're f r e e of b i r t h and death's wheel, i t s t u r n i n g So c o v e t not nor be a t t a c h e d t o those t h i n g s p r i z e d by humankind We s h o u l d seek i n s t e a d the w e a l t h by which we l e a v e t h i s w o r l d And so we have e x p l a i n e d f o r you the s u t r a ' s f i r s t word 'thus' Now w e ' l l u n d e r t a k e t o chant t h e n e x t two words: " I h e a r d " 39 Notes t o S e c t i o n I T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h the words |^ -*r a t the bottom of 517.9. 517.10. ' t h u s ' . L i t e r a l l y the two words -£a Jj^_ . 517.10. Z> $c-^% % • T h e c h a r a c t e r jfo seems t o be c r o s s e d out i n MS. T a k i n g 2J as -tb , a common s u b s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w i l l not be noted h e n c e f o r t h . 517.10. Ig. . T h i s r e f e r s t o K u i C h i (632-632 A.D.), d i s c i p l e of Hsuan Tsang , founder of t h e Fa-h s i a n g s e c t =fc ~$\ ^ , and a u t h o r and t r a n s l a t o r of numerous t r e a t i s e s and commentaries. C a l l e d Tz'u-en because of h i s l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the temple of the same name. The b u l k of t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n i s based on the d i s c u s -s i o n of f a i t h found i n s e v e r a l of K u i Chi's commentaries, a p p e a r i n g f o r example i n K u i Chi's commentary on the A-mi- t'o (Amita) S u t r a , A-mi-1'o-chinq t'ung-tsan-shu c.1 p5j s^jif T n - 1 7 5 1 - T h e a p p o s i t e passages a r e t o be found i n T.37.331b-332a. As i s noted i n d e t a i l below, the p r e a c h e r has employed s e l e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n and e m b e l l i s h m e n t of K u i Chi's commentary i n f a s h i o n i n g t h i s s e c t i o n . 517.10. |P, -$§j "IBJ} . I n f u l l , the Hsien-yang sheng-chiao l u n iH."^ r^t^T ' i n 2 0 c-' a u t h o r unknown, t r a n s l a t e d by Hsiian Tsang. One of the s o - c a l l e d e l e v e n t r e a t i s e s of the F a - h s i a n g s e c t . See Bussho v.3 p.1 82-84. Tn.1 602. T.31.480. T h i s i s the f i f t h of K u i Chi's t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s of f a i t h , cf.T.37.33 c. The q u o t a t i o n f rom the Hsien-yang l u n i n K u i Chi's commentary c o n s i s t s , i n f a c t , of o n l y a l i s t of the Seven S a i n t l y R i c h e s . 517.11. fcjffia . F o l l o w i n g T.37.331 c, emending t o TCjJfti . A s c r i b a l e r r o r r e s u l t i n g f r om the s i m i l a r i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s ^ and_^, , the l a t t e r an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r used through MS. 517.11. MS r e a d s i n a c c o r d w i t h T.37.331 c: ^ % ^ ^ ^ % . -PWC t r a n s c r i p t i o n and p u n c t u a t i o n a r e i n c o r r e c t here. PWC p u n c t u a t i o n i s h i g h l y a r b i t r a r y t h roughout and f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r a r y t o a passage's sense. So as not t o s w e l l t h e s e n otes u n n e c e s s a r i l y however, I w i l l note o n l y c r u c i a l i n s t a n c e s . These seven r i c h e s appear i n v a r i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n s i n 40 d i f f e r e n t t e x t s , see Oda 731b. I n t e r e s t i n g l y the o r d e r and names of t h e s e v e n g i v e n by Seng Chao i n h i s c o m m e n t a r y t o the Wei-mo-chieh c h i n g , Fo-tao p ' i n i ^ j ^ - p o ( T i n g , p.68b) a r e t h e same as i n K u i C h i ' s l i s t . E q u a n i m i t y i s l i t e r a l l y ' c a s t i n g away'. 517.12-13. The s i m i l e becomes c l e a r e r when compared t o the w o r d i n g of the ' f i r s t d r a f t ' i n 517.3: " I f a w o r l d l y merchant goes i n t o the sea s e e k i n g j e w e l s , we may compare i t t o a s e e k e r o f r e l i g i o u s t r u t h who l o o k s f o r j e w e l s i n t h e m i d s t of True dharma." X . ;x_ ^ zfe . ^ , ^ A * % & 5fc jf • T h i s ocean s i m i l e i s commonly met w i t h . K u i C h i , i n a n o t h e r commentary t o the A m i t a s u t r a , A - m i - t ' o - c h i n g t z ' u - en'shu pgf Zj$ ffc % M, Sftt , 1 c , Tn.1757, T.37.313c, d i s c u s s i n g the word 'thus' > c i t e s the T a - c h i h - t u - l u n M- ^ a s f o l l o w s : " T n e Buddha's t e a c h i n g s a r e a v a s t sea. F a i t h e n a b l e s us t o e n t e r i t . " A&j j£ j^~Jg£ - \% A . - (See T25.63a) 517.13. Emending p u n c t u a t i o n t o : £ - 4 . % ^ . These are p a r a l l e l t o the e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s i m m e d i a t e l y above. Thus m i s p u n c t u a t i n g , PWC m i s t a k e n l y t r a n s c r i b e s MS One i s tempted t o r e n d e r as " t o l i s t e n w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g " . T h i s however i s the f i r s t of c o u n t l e s s i n s t a n c e s i n t h i s t e x t where i s p a r a l l e l t o ^ , " t o be a b l e t o " , " t o know how t o " . See Chang, p.129. 518.1. rfl? seems t o be e i t h e r a p h o n e t i c l o a n , or a s u p e r f l u o u s c h a r a c t e r . T a k i n g J ^ - a s . The c o n t r a s t (j£ ) i s , I t h i n k , between knowledge g a i n e d through f a i t h ' s i n t u i t i o n , born of h e a r i n g , and t h a t g a i n e d through c o g n i t i v e s e l e c t i o n , born of thought, as seen f o r i n s t a n c e i n the Hsien-yang l u n , c.15, ch'eng-k'u-p'in n.5, Jfp!. ^ 7 ^j&fr , r T. 31 .553a. At&m&lfy . . . ^ - ^ . - ^ 518.1. £ff£L> (^) . I t h i n k t h i s p a r a p h r a s e s the p e r c e i v e d f o r c e of the words -bt\zjk_ , r a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t i n g an a c t u a l quote from s u t r a . T h i s i s t h e e i g h t h of K u i Chi's t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s of f a i t h . T.37.331 C . He c i t e s the Ch'eng-wei-shih *|| , f u l l y the C h ' e n g - w e i - s h i h - l u n ^ , Tn.1 585, a t r e a t i s e i n 1 0 c , t r . by Hsiian Tsang, t o w h i c h K u i C h i h i m s e l f added two e x e g e t i c a l works Tn.1 830 & 1831. see Bussho 103c. 518.1. \% 7 f y$L MS reads 5 ^ - . Should be 41 f o l l o w i n g T.37.331 c. see a l s o 519.7. 10. 518.2. & %JL*& MS has <T" T& • 518.3. ^i-Jjf • As i n MS. Taken as Jfj| Jf^ . 11. 518.3. aK_Jft . E a r l i e r , ^ t f i , MS has . 12. 518.5. 4% ( G s S g ^ f % . MS has ) % ®£ . MS c o r r e c t s t r a n s p o s i t i o n w i t h t h i s m a r g i n a l n o t a t i o n : V . Such a mark was w r i t t e n and then c r o s s e d out between and % i . ^ i s a p h o n e t i c l o a n f o r J2£ , a l s o found i n 518.10. See Hsu, T s a i - pu p.1 18. 'Inner t u r m o i l ' r e n d e r s , Skt. k l e s a , 'anguish 1. Luk, p.147, g l o s s e s as, " t r o u b l e , a n x i e t y , w o rry, d i s t r e s s , p e r p l e x i t y , and whatever causes them." 13. T h i s i s the seventh of K u i Chi's t e n T37.331 c. Here i s i n t r o d u c e d the hand metaphor w h i c h our p r e a c h e r uses i n h i s next t h r e e e x p l a n a t i o n s of f a i t h . K u i C h i e x p l a i n s t h a t f a i t h i s t h e c o n q u e r i n g hand w h i c h opens t h e g a t e o f t h e f a c u l t i e s ; i t r e c e i v e s the hand of the t e a c h i n g s . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o quote h i s words i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y here f o r we s h a l l r e f e r t o them below: ^ flUR^f^ £. % . Jgsfc^-tfe. . <t& 4r 518.5. U r ^ ^ . MS h a s ^ i l - c • T h i s i s the A-pi-ta-mo chu-she l u n pt»[ ^ >]JL. ^  ^jj- , 3 0 c , t r . by Hstian Tsang. Tn.1558. ' 518.5-6. ... •^s>T[1^.^t,^C . MS c l e a r l y does not have -£ff , u s u a l l y w r i t t e n as-5l • I b e l i e v e t h i s c h a r a c t e r t o be ^  , making t h i s s t r u c t u r e p a r a l l e l t o t h a t of 517.10-11, w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s u p e r f l u o u s . 14. 518.6. JL-J^^e^^ . MS has % . 15. Our p r e a c h e r i s p a r a p h r a s i n g K u i Chi's words here. See note 1 5 above. 16. 518.6. 5-^ - . The t h r e e r e a l m s of d e s i r e , form and f o r m l e s s n e s s ^ , , , ^  , w h i c h , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l t he w o r l d s t h r o u g h which m o r t a l b e i n g s pass i n the c y c l e o f b i r t h and death. See Oda 607b. 17. 518.7. % . The f o u r modes by w h i c h the b e i n g s of the t h r e e r e a l m s a r e born: b i r t h by egg, embryo, m o i s t u r e and 42 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ^ , , -)j|v , . see M o c h i z u k i v.2, p.1 842. T h i s c o u p l e t i s s a y i n g , t h e n , t h a t f a i t h w i l l f r e e l i v i n g b e i n g s of the c y c l e of b i r t h and death. 18. 518.8. MS has #L % . 4 • Emended t o match e a r l i e r c i t a t i o n i n 518.6. 19. The p r e a c h e r here c o n t i n u e s the hand metaphor. However t h i s "quote" does not appear among K u i Chi's t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s . J u d g i n g from the f a c t t h a t the preacher's s u c c e e d i n g example i s d r a w n , t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t e r r o r , f r o m K u i C h i and t h a t the " t r e a t i s e " c i t e d here i s not named, i t would appear t h a t the p r e a c h e r has made t h i s one up. 518.8. -jfyt >s. X. -y% -J% • Emended t o A. , f o l l o w i n g 517.8. 20. 518.9. 7^$%^ . . . 3^ - ^ ... These p a r a l l e l l i n e s s u f f e r from f a u l t y t r a n s c r i p t i o n and i n j u d i c i o u s e d i t i n g . PWC ed. seems t o want t o r e a d t h e s e as compound v e r b s w i t h l i t e r a l meanings of ' s t i r and r e s t ' and ' r a i s e and shake', meaning, one supposes, 'to t a k e a c t i o n ' , o r 'to g e t f l a p p i n g ' . I n f a c t t h e s e two are v e r b + o b j e c t . Hsu's s u s p i c i o n , T s a i - p u p.118, formed w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t of c o m p a r i s o n w i t h MS, t h a t ^ i s an e r r o r f o r ^ , i s borne out by M S ^ , the s i g n i f i c , of c o u r s e , b e i n g i n c o r r e c t . MS c l e a r l y does r e a d ^ , but^if- i s i n t e n d e d . S i g n i f i e s a r e commonly con f u s e d i n MS, e s p e c i a l l y and . Daikanwa 1 4992 has;jdji, modern p r o n u n c i a t i o n chao, as meaning b o a t p o l e , r u d d e r , o r oar, the same a s ^ | . These r e a d i n g s are f u r t h e r borne out by 520.1 , i n the v e r s e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . 21. 518.9. 7$L seems t o mean ' a c t s ' o r 'to t a k e a c t i o n ' , h a v i n g a n e u t r a l c o n n o t a t i o n d e s p i t e the presence of the word^-fe , ' c h a r i t y , g i v i n g ' i n a B u d d h i s t c o n t e x t . See 51 9.1, 51 9.5, 520.1 3 f o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , a l s o note 32 below. 22. 518.10. £ &j + O i\ . T a k i n g the o b l i t e r a t e d c h a r a c t e r as Jj^. . See 540.2, 540.7, i n t e r a l i a , f o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . , meaning 'when?', i s a word analogous t o j/~ 'how much?' See notes a t 540.2. 23. T h i s , the l a s t of our preacher's f i v e , a l s o employs the v i v i d and a c c e s s i b l e hand metaphor and d e r i v e s from the seventh of K u i Chi's t e n e x p l a n a t i o n , as d i d our preacher's t h i r d example, n.14 above. The a t t r i b u t i o n t o the Hua-yen s u t r a 4£-]|J£$£ s h o u l d be t o the C h i h - t u l u n • The 43 q u o t a t i o n , as w e l l , i s paraphrased. 24. 518.4. . i . e . The phrase w h i c h the Buddha s t i p u l a t e d Ananda use when he r e p e a t e d the s u t r a s so they might be remembered a f t e r the Buddha's p a r i n i r v a n a . On t h i s , see s e c t i o n t h r e e of t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . 25. 518.14. There s h o u l d be a c o mplete s t o p a f t e r A~. I n h i s o t h e r commentary on the A m i t a s u t r a , A-mi-t'o- c h i n g shu, %k ?fc , Tn.1 757, K u i C h i speaks of the t r a d i t i o n a l f i v e - f o l d s t r u c t u r e of s u t r a s : 1. f a i t h ^ ^ ^ , 2. t e s t i m o n y 1 -^^ - , 3. c a u s a t i o n ^ c ^ g _ ^ - ( t h a t s i t u a t i o n , thought or q u e s t i o n w h i c h prompts the s u t r a ) , 4. main -t e a c h i n g j£ , and 5. c o n c l u d i n g hommage . The f i r s t , f a i t h , i s i n t u r n d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e e l e m e n t s w i t h o u t which s u t r a i s i m p o s s i b l e and which a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a t the o u t s e t of e v e r y s u t r a : 1. f a i t h j ^ 2. h e a r i n g feU 3. t i m e 4% 4. h o s t ( t h e Buddha) 5. p l a c e -JSL . (T37.313c) Our p r e a c h e r i s , i n 518.14, I b e l i e v e , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e f i v e e l e ments ( jjz. 4 , t $L ), each of w h i c h s e r v e s a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n . Indeed, K u i C h i i n d i c a t e s the f u n c t i o n of t h e f i r s t two l a r g e d i v i s i o n s o f s u t r a i n l a n g u a g e r e m i n i s c e n t of our preacher's. They prove t h a t the s u t r a i s not f a l s e : ^ W ^ ^ ^ & % ^ I t h i n k the p r e a c h e r was f a m i l i a r w i t h K u i Chi's d i s c u s s i o n (a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , though not a p p o s i t e , f i v e -p a r t s u t r a s t r u c t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d as w e l l i n the A-mi-t'o- c h i n g t'ung-tsan-shu, T.37.331 a-b, a work the p r e a c h e r c l e a r l y made use of) and i s here t r y i n g t o communicate i t s sense. To r e f l e c t t h a t , I emend the f o l l o w i n g l i n e t o : wC T h i s ends the p r o s e p o r t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n . Seven-s y l l a b l e l i n e , d o u b l e q u a t r a i n v e r s e s w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s i t s c o n t e n t , w h i l e r e i n f o r c i n g and e m b e l l i s h i n g , f o l l o w . 26. 518.15. • Accumulated a c t i o n s , karma. Not s t a n d a r d B u d d h i s t t e r m i n o l o g y as f a r as I know. See 540.7 f o r a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e . 27. 518.16. The p a r t i c l e J$- appears t o be a c a u s a t i v e , p a r a l l e l to~$£_. I n 520.1 4 and 16 i t p a r a l l e l s and /Ir-r e s p e c t i v e l y . On t h i s usage see Chang, p.398. i s not t a k e n i n i t s s t r i c t t e c h n i c a l sense. I t a k e i t t o mean good c o n d i t i o n s or c i r c u m s t a n c e s which r e s u l t from good a c t i o n s and t h o u g h t s . 44 28. 519.1. r-fr 'deep' i n the sense of not r e c k l e s s , u n c o n s i d e r e d or not s e r i o u s , i . e . a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t of s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d i n 519.4. 29. 51 9.4. • MS has j f }|J . 30. 519.5. . N o r m a l l y a n e u t r a l term (see n.23 above), must be t a k e n i n t h i s c o n t e x t as e v i l a c t s . 31. 519.5. L i t e r a l l y 'take the s u t r a ' s words'. The sense of t h i s l i n e r e s e m b l e s t h a t of 526.3. 32. 519.7. y|<. . MS has *K -33. 519.8. -^:J^.*3jf . MS a l s o has 7 ^ , emending here t o 7 % . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the c o u p l e t , i n i t s unemended form, c o u l d be t a k e n t o suggest t h a t the muddier the w a t e r , t h e g r e a t e r the m e r i t of the c l a r i f y i n g j e w e l . 34. 519.12. MS t o r n here. ^ % appears t o be as i n 518.12. I f o l l o w Hsu, t s a i pu, p.1 18, r e a d i n g ^ - K i z . IfiL 35. 520.1. The c o n t e x t i s c l e a r , even though the e x a c t w o r d i n g i s not e a s i l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . As i n 518.9 and 554.6&10 n a u t i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l , n o r m a l l y means t o r u b or g r i n d . i s t h e same a s ^ , t o p o l e a b o a t . ^ ^ " ^ ^ . and ^ "fl^ T must be t a k e n as noun compounds. The f i n a l v e r b i s an a c c u r a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n of MS. Daikanwa 12640 g i v e s , among o t h e r meanings, 'to sweep away' or 'to s t r i k e ' . 36. 520.7. MS h a s - ^ f . Chiang, p.208, i n c l u d e s t h i s i n h i s l i s t of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e e x p r e s s i o n s . T r a n s l a t i o n here g u e s s i n g by c o n t e x t and analogy t o such i d i o m s as 3ff • 37 . 520.8. MS has if^p ffl • See a l s o , i n t e r a l i a , 527.2 38. 520.9. On H- see 518.16; n.29 above. T h i s l i n e r e v e r s e s the p a i r i n g of 518.16. ^.^M- , M. • % JL (Jt)tj; - MS has ^ j . * "^'^ 39. 520.11. T h i s l i n e i s preceded by the m a r g i n a l a n n o t a t i o n p'ing , i n d i c a t i n g a change of rhyme and a change t o ' l e v e l ' tone rhyme words from ' d e f l e c t e d ' ones, t s ' e . The s t y l e of sung r e c i t a t i o n may a l s o have changed here. I n the second q u a t r a i n of t h i s p'ing s e c t i o n a new ' r e f r a i n l i n e ' a p p e a r s . T h i s p'ing s e c t i o n r e s e m b l e s subsequent l o n g sung v e r s e 45 s e c t i o n s i n the t e x t i n i t s rhyme scheme, w h e r e i n the l a s t s y l l a b l e of the f i r s t s e v e n - s y l l a b l e l i n e i n each dou b l e q u a t r a i n a l s o p a r t a k e s of the rhyme. The rhyme of t h e p r e v i o u s t s ' e s e c t i o n i s u n s e t t l e d and awkward. A l l the words i n rhyming p o r t i o n s a r e i n the ' e n t e r i n g tone', j u  sheng , en d i n g i n f i n a l - t , or -k e x c e p t f o r i n 519.7. I s u s p e c t t h a t the p'ing s e c t i o n w i t h i t s h o m i l i e s and a d v i c e , a p p l i c a b l e t o any p o p u l a r l e c t u r e on s u t r a , e x i s t e d i n f i n i s h e d form a l r e a d y and was c o p i e d i n t o the preacher's d r a f t . The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , marked by a p r e p o n d e r a t e l y l a r g e r number of l o a n , m i s w r i t t e n , or u n i n t e l l i g i b l e c h a r a c t e r s , would seem t o be the preacher's p a i n e d a t t e m p t t o v e r s i f y the p r e c e d i n g prose d i s c u s s i o n , drawn from K u i C h i and i t s e l f a p p a r e n t l y so g r u e l i n g f o r the p r e a c h e r t o compose, and, as such, r e f l e c t s t h a t d i s c u s s i o n ' s u n p o l i s h e d s t a t e . T h i s i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t our p r e a c h e r was t r y i n g t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r a l e c t u r e f r om d i s p a r a t e s o u r c e s , among which were w r i t t e n t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of or prompt books f o r o t h e r p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s . M l -5C £ &| • M S has i t . T h i s may be a f i l l e r s y l l a b l e . P h o n e t i c l o a n f o r i s u n l i k e l y s i n c e i t appears i n t h i s l i n e as w e l l . ^ t ^ $ $ < i • M S h a s fe.- • There are numerous i n s t a n c e s of n o u n - a d j e c t i v e i n v e r s i o n s w i t h ^ i n t h i s t e x t . 527.1 4. i s one. 40. 520.14. The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of the l i n e i s t o t a l l y absent due t o a r i p i n b o t t o m o f MS. Hsu, t s a i p_u, p.1 18 r u l e s o u t q u i t e r i g h t l y on the b a s i s of rhyme. He suggests f^f p r o b a b l y on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r f o r m , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o p e r rhyme. I f o l l o w Hsu h e r e , though i t must r e m a i n c o n j e c t u r a l . 41. 521.3. T a k i n g t o be J[ . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , unemended, the sense c o u l d be 'do not w i l d l y s e t out standards'. The phrase i s p u z z l i n g . 42. 521 .8. v f i does not appear t o be a s t a n d a r d B u d d h i s t term. 43. 521.11. Here the rhyme changes once a g a i n , s i g n a l l i n g the end o f t h i s l o n g sung v e r s e s e c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d "we w i l l chant out" >^ 3Ji . 46 SECTION I I A I I j I I The s u t r a s a y s : " I hea r d " . T h i s chant i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . 1 F i r s t , a c h a l l e n g e and response on the meaning of " I " and then an e x p l a n a t i o n of the two words " I h e a r d " t o g e t h e r . C h a l l e n g e : Among the v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g s , a l l u t t e r l y r e f u t e ' c l i n g i n g t o the s e l f ' . 2 why then does the word " I " appear r i g h t a t the s t a r t of the s u t r a ? Response:3 The T r e a t i s e on Transcendent Knowledge 4 s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e f i v e t y p e s of i m p u r i t y , 5 a l l o f which s h a t t e r the i d e a of c l i n g i n g t o the s e l f . Number one: The seed i s impure.6 I n t e r n a l l y t h e r e a r e the b u r n i n g p a s s i o n s [ o c c a s i o n e d by] v a r i o u s p a s t a c t i o n s ; e x t e r n a l l y t h e s e a re p l a n t e d i n the body l e f t t o us by our p a r e n t s . ^ The T r e a t i s e s a y s : T h i s body's seed i s impure I t emerges not from some f i n e and v a l u e d t h i n g I t i s not born of untouched p u r i t y But comes f o r t h o n l y from the path of f i l t h ^ Number two: The p l a c e i t o c c u p i e s i s impure: 9 i n the mother's b e l l y . The T r e a t i s e says: T h i s body i s u n c l e a n i n t h i s way I t does not bloom f o r t h from the f l o w e r s 47 I t i s not borne i n t o l i f e by the f r a g r a n t campaka f l o w e r Nor does i t emerge from a mountain of j eweIs'^ Number t h r e e : I t s i n h e r e n t n a t u r e i s impure.1 1 T h i s i s because the f o u r elements a re always changing and r e - f o r m i n g and because [the body] t r a n s f o r m s i t s sustenance [ i n t o i m p u r i t y ] 1 2 E a r t h , w a t e r , f i r e , wind, t h e s e elements Can change t o form i m p u r i t y 1 3 [Even i f ] one t i l t e d t he oceans emptying them t o wash t h i s body One c o u l d not make i t f r a g r a n t and c l e a n Number f o u r : I t s o u t e r form i s i m p u r e . 1 4 The Nine A p e r t u r e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y d i s c h a r g i n g [ i m p u r i t i e s ] . The T r e a t i s e say s: Every type of impure t h i n g F i l l s t h i s body t o the br i m D i s c h a r g i n g always w i t h o u t cease L i k e a l e a k y sack heaped up w i t h t h i n g s ^ ^  Number f i v e : I t s endi n g i s impure. I n the end i t r e v e r t s to r u i n and decay. The T r e a t i s e s a y s : R e f l e c t upon the T r u t h and co n t e m p l a t e t h i s body I t w i l l r e v e r t , w i t h o u t f a i l , t o the p l a c e of Death Try as you might t o keep i t from r e t u r n i n g I t t u r n s i t s back on k i n d n e s s l i k e a s m a l l c h i l d ^ The i d e a i s : You s e r v e i t f o r a hundred y e a r s , how c o u l d ( i t ? ) know the meaning of k i n d n e s s and the warmth of l o n g l i f e , but coming t o r e c o g n i z e the Three Steps a n d 1 ^ ... shame i s 48 c o n c e n t r a t e d [ ? ] , r e c i p r o c a t e k i n d n e s s and r e q u i t e v i r t u e . A gatha of the T r e a t i s e says ... the warm b r e a t h i s no l o n g e r e x p e c t e d [ ? ] 1 8 ... In t h e end, the maggots suck a t i t 19 When our outward t r a p p i n g s are v i b r a n t and t h r i v i n g We chase e v e r y where a f t e r s p l e n d o r and ... We t a k e d e l i g h t o n l y i n the h a p p i n e s s b e f o r e our eyes How c o u l d we know of the h a t e f u l t h i n g s t h a t f o l l o w our demise They accompany the l i f e l e s s body t o a d e s o l a t e mountain Both eyes gnawed out by d a r k b i r d s of p r e y 2 0 Think h a r d upon t h i s s o r t of body What i s t h e r e about i t which s h o u l d make us want t o g r e e d i l y h o l d on t o i t ? C h a l l e n g e : I f t h i s i s what the body i s l i k e , how can t h e r e be a s e l f , an " i " ? 2 1 Response: There are s i x t y p e s of s e l f : One: The f a l s e l y c a l c u l a t e d s e l f Two: The s i m u l t a n e o u s l y - e n g e n d e r e d s e l f 2 2 Three: The p r i d e f u l s e l f F our: The seeming s e l f of the F i v e A g g r e g a t e s 2 3 F i v e : The s e l f m a n i f e s t e d i n the w o r l d l y c o u r s e . ( T h i s i s the " I " which p e o p l e from the w e s t e r n l a n d s speak of when they meet each o t h e r [ ? ] ) S i x : The s e l f of the E i g h t N o n - h i n d r a n c e s 2 4 That which Ananda speaks of now [ i n the s u t r a ] i s the f o u r t h , the seeming s e l f of the F i v e A g g r e g a t e s , and the f i f t h , t h e s e l f m a n i f e s t e d i n the w o r l d l y c o u r s e . T h i s means t h a t he conforms t o the [ways of t h i s ] w o r l d i n t e a c h i n g and c o n v e r t i n g , and a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f t o common pe o p l e s a y i n g " i " . He t h e r e b y f o l l o w s the w o r l d l y c o u r s e . [ C h a l l e n g e : ] 2 5 why does the s a i n t l y Ananda not conform t o the t e a c h i n g s and say " t h e r e i s no s e l f " ? Response: Were he t o say " t h e r e i s no s e l f " , he i s a f r a i d t h a t the l i v i n g b e i n g would then g i v e r i s e t o minds s t r u c k w i t h f e a r . That i s t o say, s i n c e common people h o l d t o the body and b e l i e v e i n the s e l f , because of t h a t he goes a l o n g w i t h them. Everyone h o l d s w i t h i n them n o t i o n s of t h e i r own s u p e r i o r i t y . . . I f he s a i d t h e r e i s no s e l f ... 2^ ... [ I f t h e r e i s ] no s e l f 2 7 , then f o r whose b e n e f i t i s t h i s s p i r i t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n ? He i s a f r a i d t h a t the l i v i n g b e i n g s w i l l g i v e r i s e t o a mind which t u r n s back [from the p a t h t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t ] , t h e r e f o r e he a d dresses28 the l i v i n g b e i n g s s a y i n g the word " i " . 2 9 50 Notes t o S e c t i o n I I A 1. 521.15. § f % * $ L _ . Emending t o . See 555.5 f o r the same m i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 2. 521.15. $-\i$L . S k t . Atma-graha. Oda 229a. 3. 521.16. MS a l s o has ?tf\ . T h i s i s an e r r o r f o r . 4. 521 .16. %_i!nfi . F u l l y , T a - c h i h - t u l u n ^ W * ^ " , an abridgement and t r a n s l a t i o n by Kumaraj i v a j\M$J*j^ jtfe. \-\ i i n 1 0 0 c , of the Maha-prajna paramitopadesa by Nagarj una-^l^-j^J" j l «£ . Tn. 1509. 5. The sour c e of the f o l l o w i n g passage i s T a - c h i h - t u l u n , c.19, s h i h c h ' u - p ' i n chung no. 37 ffi ^  Si. *f , T. 25 . 1 98c-1 99a, where the s e f i v e t y p e s a re p r e s e n t e d i n qatha preceded by b r i e f p r o s e e x p l a n a t i o n s . D i s c r e p a n c i e s between MS, PWC and T are noted below. I f o l l o w T o n l y where MS i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . 6. T h i s i s the second of f i v e i n T. 7. T h i s passage i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . I n i t s w o r d i n g , i t seems t o be a g a r b l e d and a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of the e x p l a n a t i o n p r e c e d i n g the f i r s t q a tha i n T. I t s sense c o u l d be based on the e x p l a n a t i o n p r e c e d i n g the second. I re a d 52 2.1 as a v e r b . 8. T. r e a d s : ^ | | | ^ '&$Ui<&£ 9. T.198c - 199a has ' I t ' s p l a c e of b i r t h i s impure' %. Tf. . 10. T. reads ( v a r i a n t n o t e d : JJfJ ) 522.6. j%_ $ . The campaka p l a n t . See Waku p.70-71. A f l o w e r i n g p l a n t of the mag n o l i a f a m i l y whose f r a g r a n c e can be s m e l l e d s e v e r a l L i away. 1 1 . 522.7. | j Ogjt ^ >f • F o l l o w i n g T. 25.1 99a t\ -12. 522.7. T h i s l i n e appears t o have been g a r b l e d f i r s t by the c o p y i s t , then by the e d i t o r . MS has: ^ ^ n£ ^ PWC omits the second . The n o t a t i o n V i n d i c a t e s t r a n s p o s i t i o n . I emend and read as f o l l o w s : wfc. ^ (^]^Ti\ • T h e f i r s t c l a u s e 51 p a r a p h r a s e s the f i r s t two l i n e s of the gatha which f o l l o w s . The second seems t o be d e r i v e d from a passage i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the l a s t of the f i v e gatha i n T. 25.1 99b. J^^^ 13. T. has 1 4. 522.1 0. T. has 1^%^%^. 15. 522. 1 1 . ( M S ^ ) . T. has ft 522.1 2. T. has ^ , n o t i n g as v a r i a n t . 16. 522. 1 4-15. T. has %$LVt±\ ^~'^%^^% j $ &f & fsLll ^ I f o l l o w T. r e a d i n g s u n d e r l i n e d . 17. 522. 1 6. ~S~ . Perhaps t e a c h i n g , p r a c t i c e and r e a l i z a t i o n , the t h r e e s u c c e e d i n g s t e p s , each dependent on the p r e c e d i n g one, which l e a d t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t •^J -J^ , • See Oda p.659. There appear t o be f o u r , not s i x c h a r a c t e r s m i s s i n g a f t e r 51 • They are p r o b a b l y a p p o r t i o n e d two up and two down, making a p r o s e rhythm of 6+6, 4+4. 18. T h i s i s the t o r n end o f MS fragment no.7. What seems t o be a p a r a p h r a s e and e x p l a n a t i o n of the f i n a l gatha i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . The l i n e of gatha i n 523.1. appears t o be the t h i r d , not the second, of f o u r . I cannot as y e t i d e n t i f y i t . 19. 523.4. T h i s i s the j a g g e d l y t o r n b e g i n n i n g of MS fragment no.9, which appears t o be the end of the F i v e I m p u r i t i e s s e c t i o n . PWC does not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the s p a c i n g i n MS of the l o s t l i n e s i n 523.2-3. However t h a t i s a moot p o i n t s i n c e those l i n e s are beyond r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 523.4. fc^j 20 . 523.7. may be found i n Chiang's l i s t of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e s , but not i n any d i c t i o n a r y . I t sense, however, i s c l e a r i n c o n t e x t . 21 . The l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the F i v e I m p u r i t i e s s e c t i o n and subsequent d i s c u s s i o n i n the T a - c h i h - t u l u n i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t t h e r e i s no ' I ' i n t h i s body.(T.199b. 3J "5^ ) • (- ) u r p r e a c h e r ' s t a s k i s however t o e x p l a i n why the s u t r a ' s b e g i n n i n g p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y s an " 1 " - ^ , . He t r i e s t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e r e a r e a l l s o r t s of ' s e l v e s ' , i s l e s s t han s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s e f f o r t and abandons the argument f o r the time b e i n g . 52 22. 523.9. , \& % $K . N e i t h e r appear t o be s t a n d a r d B u d d h i s t term. /|_£L c o r r e s p o n d s t o S k t . sahagata or sahaj a. 23. T & ^ r - 5 - j & . means p r i d e or c o n c e i t e d s e l f -r e l i a n c e . The f i v e a g g r e g a t e s , ^ ^ . i f ^ . ^ f f ^ > are r e n d e r e d by Luk as form, f e e l i n g , i d e a t i o n , r e a c t i o n and c o n s c i o u s n e s s (p.144). These f i v e a re the c o n s t i t u e n t elements, l i t e r a l l y 'heaps', which t a k e n t o g e t h e r a r e m i s t a k e n f o r a ' s e l f ' . See Dayal p.69-75 f o r an e n l i g h t e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 24. -k^l^K • ^- (/V) # i^i . T h i s f i r s t i s a n y t h i n g but a s t a n d a r d term. The i n t r i g u i n g remark o f f e r e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . MS seems t o l a c k one, not two c h a r a c t e r s a b o v e . The second i s emended on the b a s i s of MS, which i s c o r r e c t . These are the e i g h t 'non-h i n d r a n c e s ' or ' s e l f - m a s t e r i e s ' a t t a i n e d by the T a t h a g a t a . See Oda p. 1 40 9 ( /V < % pa ^ \ ) . The p r e a c h e r seems t o have r e t u r n e d t o K u i C h i ' s A-mi- t ' o - c h i n g t ' u n g - t s a n - s h u (Tn.1758), i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d r a f t t h i s s e c t i o n . At T.332a-b i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the t e n t y p e s of f a i t h noted i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , K u i C h i launches i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of why Ananda uses the word - J ^ i n r e c a l l i n g the Buddha's words. The argument i s too l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d t o reproduce h e r e , but one passage i s c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what the p r e a c h e r a t t e m p t s here and i s /IMf • t | * A % ft t\ ^ . ( u n d e r l i n i n g added) The p r e a c h e r has adopted t h r e e of K u i C h i ' s n o t i o n s of s e l f and, w i l l y - n i l l y i t a p p e a r s , added t h r e e o t h e r s . The argument, based as i t i s on K u i C h i ' s , i s i n t i m a t e l y bound up w i t h the 'person' of Ananda, who appears now, p r e m a t u r e l y , i n the p r e a c h e r ' s e x p o s i t i o n . For t h a t r e a s o n , and the o b v i o u s d i s c o m f o r t and i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s the p r e a c h e r f e e l s i n such deep p h i l o s o p h i c a l w a t e r s , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n i s , I b e l i e v e , j e t t i s o n e d and we a r e l e f t w i t h the remnants on e i t h e r s i d e of the f r a g m e n t a r y d i v i d e . 25. The word i s m i s s i n g from MS, but c l e a r l y b e l o n g s t h e r e . 26. 523.12. T h i s i s the r i p p e d end of MS fragment no.9. 27. 523.13. The r i p p e d b e g i n n i n g of MS fragment no.8. MS c l e a r l y shows the c h a r a c t e r above the f i r s t - f ^ . The argument i s p r e t t y much c o n t i n u o u s w i t h t h a t a t the end of 53 the l a s t fragment. 28. 523.1 3. . MS has . See 523.1 1 . &C?£\ FL^k. . I n both i n s t a n c e s however i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i s meant, i n the sense of ' h e a r i n g (and r e s p o n d i n g t o ) the l i v i n g b e i n g s ' . 29. The argument from the bottom of 524.10 t o here i s a g a i n adapted from K u i C h i . T.37.332b reads i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the passage c i t e d i n n.24 above: ^ * U 1% &r ^ • T h i s argument appears i n a r e d r a f t e d form a f t e r the n e x t s e c t i o n on ^ , which i t s e l f p i v o t s on Ananda. I n 524.15-524.16 we f i n d a c l e a r and, from the s t a n d p o i n t of e x p o s i t i o n , p r o p e r l y p l a c e d a l t h o u g h not e n t i r e l y w e l l -worded statement of t h i s problem and i t s r e s o l u t i o n which manages t o a v o i d the p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l mire i n which a t f i r s t our p r e a c h e r seemed t o be t r a p p e d . 54 SECTION I I B Ananda: " I h e a r d " N e x t l , a combined e x p l a n a t i o n of [ t h e phrase] " I h e a r d . " These two words, " I h e a r d " , a r e spoken by Ananda (by w h i c h he means), 'I have heard such a t e a c h i n g a t the Buddha's s i d e ' . T h i s i s why he s a y s , " I he a r d " . C h a l l e n g e : Ananda was born on t h e n i g h t t h a t Buddha a t t a i n e d the Way 2 and o n l y a t the age of twenty d i d he come t o s e r v e as the Buddha's a t t e n d a n t 3 , [ t h u s ] he never heard t h e t e a c h i n g s [which the Buddha preached] b e f o r e t h a t t i m e . Why then does he say, " I h e a r d " ? 4 Response: ( F i r s t of a l l ) 5 a c c o r d i n g t o [ a c c o u n t s ] i n the mo n a s t i c codes of the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s 6 , the Buddha r e p e a t e d [ t h o s e t e a c h i n g s ] f o r him. C h a l l e n g e : Why d i d he r e p e a t them? R e s p o n s e : 7 The S u t r a o f R e q u i t i n g M e r c y 8 s t a t e s t h a t [when] the Buddha had Ananda become h i s p e r s o n a l a t t e n d a n t , Ananda approached the Buddha and e n t r e a t e d [Him t o g r a n t ] t h r e e w i s h e s : 1) I do not w i s h t o wear o l d c l o t h e s . 2) I w i l l not be warned a g a i n s t s e p a r a t e i n v i t a t i o n s [from p e r s o n a l b e n e f a c t o r s ] 3) That you w i l l r e p e a t f o r me your t e a c h i n g s of the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . There i s an o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which says t h a t when Ananda 55 r e c e i v e d the Buddha's prophecy [of f u t u r e enlightenment as a Buddha]9 , he spontaneously understood [ a l l of the Buddha's t e a c h i n g s ] . The Lotus S u t r a 1 0 says: The World-Honored One i s one most r a r e He causes me to r e c a l l the past Countless Buddha teachings As though they were heard t h i s day Beyond t h i s I cannot e x p l a i n at l e n g t h . Based upon a l l [the reasons] that we have j u s t chanted, the words of s u t r a say "Thus have I heard. " 1 1 The words 'I heard' which appear i n the s u t r a are words spoken by Ananda. T h i s i s because when K a s y a p a 1 2 gathered the C o u n c i l t o g e t h e r 1 3 , to speak the sublime dharma w i t h i n the P i p p a l a c a v e 1 4 and rang b e l l s and other t h i n g s upon the summit of Mount Sumeru 1 5, on th a t day Ananda ascended to the [dharma] seat and manifested a body which had the t h i r t y - t w o m a rks. 1 6 The assembled holy ones looked up and seeing t h a t he had an appearance marked by the e i g h t y well-formed p h y s i c a l adornments 1 7, a l l wondered at t h i s strangeness; a l l of them gave r i s e to minds t h a t doubt. [But] when Ananda at l a s t chanted out the words "I heard", the Arhats' mistaken views were t o t a l l y 1 ft dispelled.•° Beyond t h i s , what reason l i e s behind Ananda's d e c l a r i n g "I heard"? The i d e a i s that the e n t i r e t y of the s u t r a s and the monastic c o d e s 1 9 , no matter i f they are of the Greater or the 56 L e s s e r V e h i c l e s 2 * } , a l l of them [Ananda] p e r s o n a l l y heard and apprehended i n days l o n g p a s t a t the Buddha's s i d e . 2 1 W h e t h e r 2 2 i n the l a n d of V a i s a l i , or i n the C i t y of the K i n g ' s D w e l l i n g , or a t the time when [the Buddha] g r a n d l y e l u c i d a t e d the p r i n c i p l e of the Three V e h i c l e s upon the Mount of the E a g l e or when he d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h the Four Noble T r u t h s i n the J e t a w o o d s 2 3 ; and a f t e r t h a t , whether i n s p a c i o u s f i e l d s or i n mountain f o r e s t s , [whenever the Buddha spoke h i s ] g o l d e n words, each and e v e r y phrase Ananda p e r s o n a l l y h e ard; and [whenever the Buddha u t t e r e d ] j e w e l l e d g a t h a , Ananda l i s t e n e d t o and r e t a i n e d each and e v e r y l i n e . [So t h a t ] among the t e a c h i n g s of the T r i p i t a k a , t h e r e i s none which he d i d not t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d ; once he heard s o m e t h i n g 2 4 , he never f o r g o t i t . And now 2 5 when he t r a n s m i t s [ t h e dharma] t o the l a s t ages thus b e n e f i t t i n g the l i v i n g b e i n g s , because he p e r s o n a l l y heard [ t h e dharma] i n the Buddha's p r e s e n c e , t h e r e f o r e he cha n t s the words " I h e a r d . " C h a l l e n g e : Ananda d e c l a r e s " I h e a r d " as he r e c o u n t s the e n t i r e t y of the s u t r a s , b u t , i n f a c t , i t d i d not happen t h a t way. I n f a c t Ananda was born o n l y when the World-Honored One f i r s t a c h i e v e d True C o n s c i o u s n e s s 2 6 and o n l y a f t e r r e a c h i n g the age of twenty d i d he come t o s e r v e t h e Buddha as h i s d i s c i p l e 2 7 , how the n c o u l d he have heard the t e a c h i n g s [preached] b e f o r e then? These words "Thus have I h e a r d " [which Ananda (and we a l s o ) ] now 57 d e c l a r e , a re they not e r r o r s i n the s c r i p t u r e ? Response: Now, a c c o r d i n g t o the mo n a s t i c codes of t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s , the Buddha r e p e a t e d [ t h o s e t e a c h i n g s ] f o r him. F u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e : Why d i d he r e p e a t them? Response: The S u t r a o f R e q u i t i n g M e r c y 2 8 says t h a t Buddha [ l o o k e d ? ] 2 9 among th e v i r t u o u s and wise i n h i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g m i r r o r and saw t h a t Ananda's k a r m i c r o o t s were a l r e a d y r i p e and t h a t he was f i t t o s e r v e the World-Honored One as h i s p e r s o n a l a t t e n d a n t . The Buddha then f r e q u e n t e d the r o y a l p a r k s and went o f t e n t o the mansions of the k i n g s . S e t t i n g f o r t h the words of e x p e d i e n t means, he opened up the p a t h which beckons t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He d i s c u s s e d f o r them (him?) the Three Realms and e x p l a i n e d f o r them the Four Forms of B i r t h s . He caused them t o u n d e r s t a n d the n o n - d u r a b i l i t y of phantom s u b s t a n c e and had them speak of the f l e e t i n g n e s s of s p l e n d o r ' s bloom. When Ananda a t t h a t time heard the Buddha's words, he s t r a i g h t a w a y d e v e l o p e d a mind t o l i s t e n c l e a r l y 3 0 / and h a v i n g u n d e r s t o o d , he t u r n e d t o the Buddha and r e l i e d upon him.31 , e n t r e a t i n g t h r e e wishes of the World-Honored One: 1) I do not w i s h t o wear the Buddha's o l d c l o t h e s 2) That you s h a l l not admonish me f o r a c c e p t i n g alms from p e r s o n a l b e n e f a c t o r s . 3) That you pr e a c h a g a i n f o r me th o s e t e a c h i n g s 3 2 y O U have expounded over the l a s t twenty y e a r s . Ananda i n f o r m e d [ t h e Buddha of th e s e w i s h e s ] and the Buddha, 58 e v i n c i n g h i s compassion, [ g r a n t e d them]. Thereupon, Ananda, s e e k i n g the p r o p e r t i m e , d e c i d e d t o l e a v e b e h i n d h i s w o r l d l y t i e s and r e a l i z e d the f r u i t of s r o t a - a p a n n a . 3 3 And t h o s e t e a c h i n g s which Buddha had preached f o r twenty y e a r s b e f o r e t h a t , the Buddha preached them a g a i n t o Ananda. [Which i s why] now a t the b e g i n n i n g of the S u t r a , he [and we] presume t o chant t h e s e two words " I h e a r d . " 3 4 F u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e : The e n t i r e t y of the s c r i p t u r e s a l l u t t e r l y r e f u t e c l i n g i n g t o the s e l f . How then can Ananda u t t e r the word " I " ? Response: F e a r i n g t h a t , were he t o speak of the non-e x i s t e n c e of the s e l f , the l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s would then engender a mind which t u r n s back i n d e f e a t [from the s t r u g g l e toward e n l i g h t e n m e n t ] , he f o l l o w s the w o r l d l y c o u r s e as an e x p e d i e n t and, s i n c e h i s i n t e n t i o n i s t o promote our s p i r i t u a l advancement, even t h o u g h 3 5 he h i m s e l f has a l r e a d y e l i m i n a t e d c l i n g i n g t o the s e l f , he i n v o k e s t h i s word " I " as an e x p e d i e n t means. A l t h o u g h the s c r i p t u r e s do say the words " I h e a r d " , i n the realm of the h o l y t h e r e i s no n o t i o n of s e l f whatsoever. I have d i s c u s s e d but a l i t t l e , e x p l a i n i n g s k e t c h i l y . I am not p r e p a r e d t o d i s c u s s t h i s a t l e n g t h . [ S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t ] i f , when you l i s t e n , you s t r a i g h t a w a y cause a mind of f a i t h t o a r i s e , then you who hear s h a l l soon be born i n t o awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . J 59 t s ' e chant) Ananda was about to undertake the spread of Buddha's words To t r a n s m i t among the Arhats the Buddha's f a i r renown In a n c i e n t days esteemed by a l l as the one who'd heard the most Now as w e l l people a l l agree h i s mind i s sharp and quick When the C o u n c i l met w i t h i n the cave [to gather Buddha's teachings] Whether they were high or low they spoke up to p r a i s e h i m 3 7 Yet when suddenly Ananda d i s p l a y e d the t h i r t y - t w o f i n e marks I t caused a l l of those assembled there to engender d i s b e l i e f But as soon as they heard him suddenly chant these two words: "I heard" The buzzing undertone was stopped, the m u l t i t u d e was s t i l l e d 3 8 The eminent monks who f i l l e d the cave f o r the f i r s t time b e l i e v e d and knew The e n t i r e g a t h e r i n g of Arhats a l l were suddenly e n l i g h t e n e d Now we too bind together the words of s c r i p t u r e t r u e Every word has come from the Thus Come One's Golden Mouth Now today we e x p l i c a t e and make them c l e a r f o r y o u 3 ^ Thus causing humankind to sweep away d i s b e l i e v i n g t h o u g h t s 4 0 He had thoroughly penetrated the c o u n t l e s s holy s c r i p t u r e s So that those who heard him a l l could r e c a l l with yearning [the Master whom they l o v e d ] 4 1 For i n days past he was always t h e r e , i n the Dharma assembly's midst He p e r s o n a l l y l i s t e n e d and understood i n the Buddha's presence The Buddha's teachings penetrated f a r to [ a l l those i n ] the Three V e h i c l e s and the F i v e Natures And caused [those i n ] the E i g h t D i f f i c u l t C o n d i t i o n s and 42 the Four B i r t h s to depart from s u f f e r i n g The t e a c h i n g s handed down f o r l a t e r ages are not f a l s e 4 3 They cause humankind to sweep away d i s b e l i e v i n g thoughts The Revered One, Sakyamuni, Master of the Compassionate Vow Would expound the dharma, and every time Ananda would r e c e i v e h i s w o r d s 4 4 Caused was he with r e v e r e n t mind to always l i s t e n and r e t a i n So t h a t a l l could be t r a n s m i t t e d to the present F i n a l Age 60 Among the V o i c e Hearer's number he a l o n e spoke of " I " Among the g a t h e r e d m u l t i t u d e he was l o n g e s t a t Buddha's command 4 5 Today w i t h i n the s c r i p t u r e i t says the words " I h e a r d " C a u s i n g a l l of us t o be w i t h o u t d i s b e l i e v i n g t h o u g h t s The Buddha's m a j e s t i c presence caused him t o r e a l i z e and t o know He never l e t the words of s c r i p t u r e l e a d t o d i s l i k e o r t o l o v e 4 6 He l i s t e n e d w e l l , b o th body and mind were i n the dharma's mi d s t He never once, f o r g e t t i n g , l o s t a s i n g l e word or p h r a s e 4 7 For the l o n g e s t time i n a l l he d i d he showed s i n g l e - m i n d e d d i l i g e n c e Never [ a l l o w i n g h i s mind] t o beget d i s t r a c t i o n s e v e r y w h e r e 4 8 Today we e x p l i c a t e and make t h i n g s c l e a r f o r you Causing a l l of us t o sweep away d i s b e l i e v i n g t h o u g h t s ( p ' i n g c h a n t ) 4 ^ I n those days Sakyamuni, the Grand World-Honored One Would i n the dharma assembly expound the word of s u t r a And each time would be c a l l the name of Ananda E n t r u s t i n g t o him the words he spoke i n each and e v e r y p l a c e : " I w i s h t o pass my t e a c h i n g s down unto the F i n a l Age So you must remember f a i t h f u l l y and not be slow of mind Today we b i n d t o g e t h e r the t e a c h i n g s of the Thus Come One That i s why w i t h i n the s u t r a i t says t h e s e words " I h e a r d " . ...how c o u l d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g be worthy 5"! ... He a l l o w e d the Buddha t o e n t e r e x t i n c t i o n because of the demon P o - h s i i n 5 2 In h i s i g n o r a n c e d i s c u s s 5 3 S i n c e he h i m s e l f had many f a l s e d i s t o r t e d t h o u g h t s He t h e r e f o r e spoke up and asked the World-Honored O n e 5 4 Today we b i n d t o g e t h e r the t e a c h i n g s of those days The a n c i e n t h o l y t e a c h i n g s we do now r e l a t e Ananda d i d r e c e i v e the words of the Thus Come One That i s why w i t h i n the s u t r a i t say t h e s e words " I h e a r d " 61 Everywhere the Thus Come One spread the dharma gate Ananda, among Buddha's entourage55, was the most a t t e n t i v e l y r e s p e c t f u l Because h i s wisdom s u r p a s s e d the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o t h e r men S i n c e h i s c l e a r i n t e l l i g e n c e s t o o d out from the m u l t i t u d e H i s p e r c e p t i o n s and s e l f - k n o w l e d g e had no i m p e r f e c t i o n s o r bad p o i n t s How then i n h i s s e n t i e n t r e a l m c o u l d he not respond t o [ t h e Buddha's] pro f o u n d g r a c e - ^ Today we b i n d t o g e t h e r the t e a c h i n g s of the Three V e h i c l e s That i s why the s u t r a speaks t h e s e two words " I he a r d " Our t r e a s u r e d Master Sakyamuni H i s t o w e r i n g g o l d e n b o d y " H i s f a c e round l i k e the g l o w i n g sun H i s c o i l e d t r e s s e s l i k e d a r k c l o u d s 3 0 Vast beyond matching L o f t y beyond c o m p a r e ^ When upon the E a g l e ' s Peak He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I h e a r d 6 0 At the time of the assembly i n Amra park They f o l l o w e d the Buddha, the World-Honored One The wise and the worthy appeared i n g r e a t numbers With the h i g h and mighty, the descendants of k i n g s Each and eve r y one c a s t away h i s t r i p l e p a l a c e A l l of them abandoned the s i x d e f i l e m e n t s 6 2 When a t V a i s a l i , He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I heard When he g r a n d l y p r a i s e d t h i n g s of the Western Realms The m a n i f e s t a t i o n of A m i t a , the Master of T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 6 4 Where g o l d e n t e t h e r s mark out the roads i n g o l d And i n b e j e w e l l e d h a l l s , the p r e c i o u s i n c e n s e b i l l o w s up i n cl o u d s 6 5 Causing l i v i n g b e i n g s t o g i v e r i s e t o r e v e r e n c e and r e s p e c t And humankind t o s e t upon a d i l i g e n t r e s o l v e When i n J e t a Park He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I h e a r d 0 0 Always t o g e t h e r w i t h the e v e r - f o l l o w i n g m u l t i t u d e P a s s i n g t h r o u g h so many l a n d s He would a t times d i s c u s s the Four Noble T r u t h s At o t h e r t i m e s e x t o l t he Three V e h i c l e s 62 He t a u g h t and t r a n s f o r m e d the l i v i n g t h i n g s And had them c a s t away t h e i r h o l l o w , phantom s e l v e s When i n the Deer Park He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I h e a r d 6 7 The s a k r a , l o r d s among the gods, a l l came and asked of Him68 To open and e x t e n d the grounds f o r the s i x v i r t u e s t h a t l e a d beyond And when t h e y a l l , t h e i r minds t o g e t h e r as one, reached e n l i g h t e n m e n t They o f f e r e d t o the Buddha j e w e l s and t h i n g s most r a r e (He s a i d ) Wealth and g r e a t n e s s both are l i k e c a n d l e s i n the wind (He t o l d them) The blooms i n a l l t h e i r s p l e n d o r a r e as c l o u d ' s i n the l i g h t n i n g ' s m i d s t Whe n i n the P a l a c e of the Gods He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I h e a r d ^ And f u r t h e r was he s e t upon by a t h r o n g of a s u r a Who a l l came t o seek from him numerous b e n e f i t s f o r themselves He, a t peace w i t h i n t h e i r m i d s t 7 0 , made them bending and c o m p l i a n t He removed t h e i r r e s t l e s s n e s s and e x c i s e d t h e i r a v a r i c e and anger He had t h e n u n d e r t a k e the conduct of compassion And cease r a i s i n g up the armies of c o n t e n t i o n When upon Mount Sumeru He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I heard When the dragon t h r o n g came t o ask Him t o t e l l them a l l about the power of the Vow The sound of p i p e s i n song s w i r l e d round and round F l o w e r p e t a l s r a i n e d down i n showers of p r o f u s i o n The e a r t h i t shook and mountains and r i v e r s moved The wind i t blow; the p l a n t s were as i n s p r i n g When i n the Dragon's P a l a c e He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I heard I n h i s compassion he p i t i e d the l i v i n g t h i n g s Shut up i n the c i r c u i t s of h e l l 7 2 Where mountains of k n i v e s are dark l i k e m i r r o r s And s w o r d - t r e e s gleam l i k e s i l v e r The f u r n a c e - a s h then stopped i t s smoky spewing upward 63 The c a u l d r o n ' s l i q u i d ceased as w e l l i t s c h u r n i n g and i t s b u b b l i n g When i n the O f f i c e s of Darkness73, He H i m s e l f the dharma spoke Each and e v e r y word I heard A l l t h a t i s spoken i n the s u t r a s None i s m i s t a k e n or put t h e r e on a whim74 " I h e a r d " , the A r h a t c h a n t s "Thus d i d the Buddha H i m s e l f r e v e a l " L i s t e n , u n d e r s t a n d ; remove your b u r n i n g i n n e r t u r m o i l Harken t o the s c r i p t u r e ; e x t i n g u i s h f a l s e , unfounded doubts Having thus e x p l a i n e d " I h e a r d " The ne x t p a r t w e ' l l chant out 64 Notes t o S e c t i o n I I B 523.13. l i t e r a l l y : ' a f t e r t h a t ' , ' l a t e r ' . T h i s s t o r y appears i n Ta c h i h - t u l u n c.3 T.25.84a. The Buddha Gautama's f a t h e r , a f t e r h e a r i n g of h i s son's e n l i g h t e n m e n t , i s t o l d by a messenger t h a t a boy has been born t o h i s younger b r o t h e r . He suggests the name Ananda 'hap p i n e s s ' , f o r t h i s c o u s i n of the Buddha, whose b i r t h o c c u r r e d on such an a u s p i c i o u s , happy day. Accounts of Ananda b e i n g chosen as the Buddha's p e r s o n a l a t t e n d a n t may be found i n Chung A-han Ching c.8 s h i h - c h e -c h i n g ^ , \ \ $?l T.1 .472 a-c. and i n Ta-pan v e r s i o n s d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from one a n o t h e r , and, i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s , d i f f e r from the v e r s i o n r e c o u n t e d and a l l u d e d t o i n MS. These d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. 523 .1 5. . PWC ed., p.561 note 6, su g g e s t s t h a t ^ i s a s u p e r f l u o u s c h a r a c t e r , i n d i c a t i n g a l e s s than c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of the t e x t . MS c l e a r l y has a n < 3 t h i s i s w i t h o u t doubt a q u e s t i o n . The two c h a r a c t e r s have been t r a n s p o s e d , common enough i n t h i s MS. Hsu, p_u cheng, p.39, notes t h i s as w e l l . 523.1 5. — - - ^ I f c The c h a r a c t e r — seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e w r i t e r ' s n o t i o n , s u b s e q u e n t l y dropped, t o enumerate s e v e r a l r e s p o n s e s . 523.15. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the w r i t e r ' s c a r e i n o m i t t i n g ^ both here and i n the r e w r i t i n g of t h i s argument, 524.10. I t i s p r e c i s e l y the v e r a c i t y of the s u t r a s which i s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d . How can they be c a l l e d t o t e s t i f y i n t h e i r own de f e n s e ? I n 524.5 however the s u t r a s a r e mentioned, t h e i r v e r a c i t y a f f i r m e d . 523 .1 5. tfi. M S reads - ^ J - . The c h a r a c t e r appears t o be s u p e r f l u o u s , see 524.11 r e w r i t i n g . 523.1 6. T h i s r e f e r s t o the T a - f a n g - b i e n fo-pao-en c h i n q ;<_ -% '\1%> \gv , a work a t t r i b u t e d t o an unknown l a t e Han t r a n s l a t o r , Tn.156, a seven chuan v e r s i o n of which b e g i n s on T.3.124, see Bussho, 10.131. The ' t h r e e w i s h e s ' appear i n c.6 of t h a t t e x t , T.155c-156d. i n a form s i m i l a r but not i d e n t i c a l t o MS v e r s i o n . An extended d i s c u s s i o n of n'ieh-p'an c h i n g c.40 T.12.601a-b. Both the v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s appears below i n n.28. Here I w i l l o n l y note a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the t h i r d w i s h where ' t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ' i s mentioned. Oda p.26.a a l s o has ' t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s B y most a c c o u n t s Ananda came t o s e r v e a t age twenty, and s e r v e d the Buddha f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . Compare 524.14 which g i v e s "twenty". 9. 52 4.1 .• 3Jf"jA |£ t£» The two words ' r e c e i v e ' ^ and ' c o n f e r ' b e i n g homophones, are f r e q u e n t l y used f o r one a n o t h e r . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , s h o u l d be used h e r e , w i t h the l i t e r a l meaning, " a t t a i n e d the Buddha's c o n f e r r a l of prophecy". 10. The Buddha's b e s t o w a l of prophecy upon Ananda appears i n the M i a o - f a - l i e n - h u a c h i n g ( L o t u s S u t r a ) , shou hslieh wu-hsiieh j e n c h i r V i n no.9, ^^^3§^%L&.' T.9.29b-30a. (MS s h o u l d r e a d 5 2 L - j p \ $ § f ) . The l i n e s which f o l l o w a r e the f i r s t h a l f of a gatha spoken by Ananda when, a f t e r b e s t o w a l of the prophecy, he i n s t a n t l y r e c a l l s the t e a c h i n g s of i n c a l c u l a b l e p a s t Buddhas and u n d e r s t a n d s them t h o r o u g h l y w i t h no h i n d r a n c e . See H u r v i t z p. 170-1 71. 1 1 . 524.2. I r e a d w i t h a p a r t i a l s t o p a f t e r ff^^ . T h i s marks the end of the p r e a c h e r ' s f i r s t attempt t o e x p l a i n the phrase " I h e a r d " . The arguments and p o i n t s a r e s e l e c t e d , f l e s h e d o u t , r e a r r a n g e d , and r e p h r a s e d i n the passage which f o l l o w s . 12. 524.3. The two c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d by Q D i n PWC a r e a c t u a l l y two c h a r a c t e r s d e l i b e r a t e l y o b l i t e r a t e d i n MS. The two which s t r a d d l e them on e i t h e r s i d e are + -u^T (not ) , the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the name of the Buddha's d i s c i p l e Kasyapa. 13. 524.3. The s t o r y of the F i r s t C o u n c i l , one thousand p e o p l e s e l e c t e d by Kasyapa, i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the Buddha's e n t r y i n t o n i r v a n a , t o g a t h e r the Buddha's t r u e t e a c h i n g s i n s y s t e m a t i c form so they would not p e r i s h and c o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d f o r the sake of a l l f u t u r e l i v i n g b e i n g s , appears i n Ta c h i h - t u l u n c.2. T.25.66b f f . and r e c e i v e s f u l l e r t r e a t m e n t i n a work devoted t o t r a c i n g the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the dharma, Fu f o - f a y i n - y u a n chuan c.1 \^ itf? & SO Tn.2058, T.50.297ff, i n 6 c , t r . by C h i - c h i a -yeh a n d o t h e r s i n 472 A.D., see Bussho, 9.212. Both r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s and one or the o t h e r c o n t a i n s a l l elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l l u d e d t o here and i n the v e r s e s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s . 1 4. 524.3. jp- •^-.$|| ^  • S k t . P i p p a l i g u h a . A cave l o c a t e d near 66 the c i t y of K i n g ' s D w e l l i n g ( J£_ Ra j agrha) which most acco u n t s t a k e t o be the s i t e of the F i r s t C o u n c i l . P i p p a l i i s a k i n d of e v e r g r e e n t r e e under which the Buddha a c h i e v e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , see Waku p.10. The t r e e i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Kasyapa, whose nickname i s p i p p a l i , s i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o some a c c o u n t s , h i s p a r e n t s prayed t o the s p i r i t s of the p i p p a i t r e e f o r h i s b i r t h . See Oda p.1466a. 15. 524.3-4. A c c o r d i n g t o the T a - c h i h - t u l u n , c.2, Kasyapa becomes aware t h a t the Buddha has e n t e r e d n i r v a n a and t h a t many of the a r h a t s have f o l l o w e d a f t e r him. F e a r i n g t h a t the t r u e dharma w i l l be l o s t , he ascends Mt. Sumeru and, s t r i k i n g b e l l s and o t h e r t h i n g s , (see below) he p r o c l a i m s a gatha e n j o i n i n g a l l of the Buddha's d i s c i p l e s t o repay the Buddha's k i n d n e s s and not t o e n t e r n i r v a n a . The sound and h i s v o i c e c a r r y t h rough the i n f i n i t e w o r l d s and a l l assemble f o r what becomes the F i r s t C o u n c i l . 524.3. t^-$fe_-%i£_ • T a - c h i h - t u l u n , T. 25.67c g i v e s , w i t h v a r i a n t s , 33g.fj£ C h i n g - l u y i - h s i a n g $g jfljfi , T.53.65a i n i t s account based on the former s o u r c e g i v e s N <£L )• 1 e m e n d o n the b a s i s of t h e s e r e a d i n g s . a c c o r d i n g t o Daikanwa 2008.9, t r a n s l i t e r a t e s the S k t . ghant;a, and a c c o r d i n g t o a Sung dy n a s t y work S h i h - s h i h yao- l a n ft; ^  ^ c i t e d t h e r e , r e f e r s t o any number of o b j e c t s made of wood, s t o n e , or me t a l which a re s t r u c k t o summon an assembly. 16. 524.4. ^ M. . T h i s s e a t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n o t h e r a c c o u n t s as the ^ /]£ , o r W^^r^^L • Emending on t h a t b a s i s . See f o r i n s t a n c e Fu f o - t s a n g y i n - y u a n chuan T.50.300a. . The t h i r t y - t w o marks of a Buddha o r one d e s t i n e d f o r Buddhahood. See Luk, p.155, f o r a l i s t of them. A l s o H u r v i t z , p.50. 1 7 . 524 . 4. /V-f 3&$£. . U s u a l l y c a l l e d t he E i g h t K i n d s of the Good /K.-Y o r , iffi jfy t h e s e a re the e i g h t y f i n e f e a t u r e s of a Buddha or B o d h i s a t t v a . See M o c h i z u k i 5.4212 A f f . The mention of the s e and of the t h i r t y - t w o marks above i n d i c a t e t h a t Ananda had a c h i e v e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t . By a l l a c c o u n t s , Ananda was the o n l y one of the one thousand g a t h e r e d who had not y e t ex h a u s t e d h i s o u t f l o w and a t t a i n e d a r h a t s h i p . But h a v i n g s e r v e d the Buddha f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s as h i s p e r s o n a l a t t e n d a n t , he had "heard the most" j£ fiQ. He i s rebuked by Kasyapa f o r h i s s i n s , made t o c o n f e s s them and b a n i s h e d from the assembly u n t i l he a c h i e v e s 67 e n l i g h t e n m e n t . T h i s he s t r i v e s f o r m i g h t i l y but cannot a c h i e v e . However, exhausted from h i s e f f o r t s , he i s sudd e n l y e n l i g h t e n e d j u s t b e f o r e h i s head r e s t s upon h i s p i l l o w . He r e t u r n s t o the assembly, i n a c e l e b r a t e d e p i s o d e , t h r o u g h the k e y h o l e and proceeds t o r e c o u n t a l l of the Buddha's t e a c h i n g s , the s u t r a s . H i s r e t e l l i n g i s so a c c u r a t e (even of th o s e which he had not p e r s o n a l l y h e a r d , which the Ta c h i h - t u l u n account has e x p l a i n e d by Ananda s a y i n g he heard of the Buddha's f i r s t t e a c h i n g s , T.25.69b, w h i l e the Fu f o - t s a n g y i n - y u a n chuan has him speak the r e s o u n d i n g words, "thus have I h e a r d " , from the o u t s e t , i g n o r i n g the o b j e c t i o n which a r i s e s i n the " c h a l l e n g e " of 523.14 and 524.8) t h a t the o t h e r s marvel a t i t , i n FFT T.50.300a-b, p r o c l a i m i n g t e a r f u l gathas i n memory of t h e i r master, now gone, and i n TCTL, r i s i n g h i g h i n t o space upon h e a r i n g the Buddha's words r e c o u n t e d so f a i t h f u l l y . 18. A g a i n , they were p u z z l e d and f i l l e d w i t h doubts when Ananda ascended t o the master's dharma-seat and e v i n c e d the s i g n s of e n l i g h t e n m e n t . A l l t h i s was r e s o l v e d when they heard the words " I h e a r d " . K u i C h i (Tz'u-en) JJJL C}%%L ) i n h i s A-mi-t'o c h i n g  t ' u n g - t s a n - s h u ( c i t e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n ) has an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . He notes t h a t Ananda was s a i d t o have shown the p h y s i c a l marks of a t r u e Buddha upon a s c e n d i n g and r e t u r n e d t o h i s o r i g i n a l form upon d e s c e n d i n g . T h i s l e d , he s a y s , the a r h a t s t o have t h r e e s u s p i c i o n s ' t h a t the Buddha had r e t u r n e d from N i r v a n a t o pr e a c h a g a i n , or t h a t a n o t h e r Buddha had come from somewhere e l s e , o r t h a t Ananda had become a Buddha. The words "Thus have I h e a r d " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t these a r e the t e a c h i n g s Ananda heard p e r s o n a l l y from the Buddha ( #£4N^M# M. f Pfl )/ d i s p e l t hose s u s p i c i o n s . See T.37.3321. I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t our p r e a c h e r made use of th e s e passages by K u i C h i t o f o r m u l a t e t h i s s e c t i o n as w e l l . 524.5. "ffcfTift %L ' T n e u s e o f p r e c e d i n g a d i r e c t o b j e c t o c c u r s throughout the t e x t and i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent i n t h i s s e c t i o n . See i n s t a n c e s i n 525.1. 19. 524.5. $Q ' 20. 524.5-6. ^ ^ J ^ . ^ ^ J > ^ . The words are e x t r e m e l y c o l l o q u i a l . The i s of c o u r s e the same as the modern Mandarin i n t e r r o g a t i v e . Such wording i s t y p i c a l of t h i s r e w r i t t e n s e c t i o n , whose language i s more g r a c e f u l l y c o l l o q u i a l than the p r e c e d i n g 'rough d r a f t ' and seems b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r v e r b a t i m r e c i t a t i o n t o an a u d i e n c e . 68 21 - The t h r e e p a r t s of the t r i p i t a k a a r e v a r i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e d t o c o m p i l e r s a t the F i r s t C o u n c i l . The T a - c h i h - t u l u n has Ananda c o m p i l i n g both the s u t r a s and the d i s c o u r s e s , (T.25.69c; C h i n g - l u y i - h s i a n g T.53 .65a c o n c u r s ) and U p a l i yJ^L^ . the codes. F o - f a - t s a n g y i n - y u a n chuan d i f f e r s , a t t r i b u t i n g the d i s c o u r s e s t o Kasyapa (T.50.300b). 22. 524.6. ^^ir . MS has ^ as seen i n 524.7. as w e l l . 23. 524.6-7. The Mount of the E a g l e sermon i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the L o t u s S u t r a . The r e f e r e n c e t o J e t a woods i s a m i s t a k e by the w r i t e r who means the Deer Park ^ where Buddha f i r s t preached the d o c t r i n e of the Four Noble T r u t h s a f t e r h i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . See v e r s e s e c t i o n , 527.4-528.3 below and the notes t o t h a t s e c t i o n . The p r o s e e x p o s i t i o n from 524.3-524.8 (up t o the ' c h a l l e n g e ' ) f o l l o w s the o r d e r and r e f l e c t s t he c o n t e n t of the v e r s e s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s t o t a l l y absent from the e a r l i e r d r a f t (523.14-524.2). I t h i n k i t q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the p r e a c h e r was u s i n g what may have been a p r e - e x i s t e n t v e r s e s e c t i o n ( i . e . 525.3-529.7) as an o u t l i n e f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l t h a t has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s r e w r i t t e n p r o s e e x p o s i t i o n . 24. 524.7-8. ~~ (J|) 3[ • L i t . 'once [ i t ] passed through h i s organ of h e a r i n g ..." 25 . 524.8. The words ^-K'J , "now", assume the time frame of the F i r s t C o u n c i l where Ananda p r o c l a i m e d the r i v e t i n g words, "Thus have I h e a r d " , and they a l s o s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e the r i t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the F i r s t C o u n c i l as the p r e a c h e r ( s ) conduct the same k i n d of t r a n s m i s s i o n of t r u e s c r i p t u r e f o r the c o n g r e g a t i o n . T h i s r i t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s s t r e s s e d i n the v e r s e s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s . 26. See note 2 above. 27. 524.9. % -3- . One would expect 1^"^ as i n 523.1 5 above. T h i s t e x t shows i n the l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the time t h a t Ananda f i r s t l e f t home t o f o l l o w the Buddha w i t h the time when he came t o s e r v e the Buddha as h i s p e r s o n a l a t t e n d a n t . E x t a n t t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o u n t s have th e s e as s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s . See the nex t n o t e , on Pao-en c h i n g . 28. 524.1 1 . -fll^Zt . The account of Ananda's c o n v e r s i o n and subsequent s e r v i c e as the Buddha's a t t e n d a n t a re n o t , exc e p t f o r t h e s t o r y of the 'three w i s h e s ' , i n the p r e s e n t seven c. v e r s i o n of t h i s s u t r a . There was a s u t r a , now 69 l o s t , of the same name i n the two c. (Bussho 10.131d) which appears i n t h e Sul> p e r i o d c a t a l o g Chung-ching l u ( ^ |& a s a ' f a l s e s u t r a ' (T. 55.1 271 ). W h i l e the c o n t e n t s of t h a t s u t r a cannot be known, i f the w r i t e r of the p r e s e n t t e x t i s i n f a c t c o r r e c t l y p a r a p h r a s i n g i t s c o n t e n t s , i t i n v o l v e s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , the r e t e l l i n g of a v e r s i o n of t h e Ananda l e g e n d . My s u s p i c i o n i s t h a t p a r t s of the ' f a l s e s u t r a 1 have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r e s e n t 7c. v e r s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n c.5 and 6 where t h e s t y l e and sense become choppy and d i s c o n t i n u o u s . The 'wishes' or Ananda's 'terms of employment' appear i n the p r e s e n t v e r s i o n of the s u t r a , c.6 (T.3. 144c), and t h e r e are a c t u a l l y f o u r of them, a l t h o u g h they a r e not enumerated as such. They are brought f o r w a r d as one response t o a q u e s t i o n whose t h r u s t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t of our p r e a c h e r ' s : how can Ananda say " I h e a r d " when i n f a c t he d i d n ' t hear the f i r s t twenty y e a r s of Buddha's t e a c h i n g s ? The f i r s t two wishes match the t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o u n t s (see n.3 above and T.1.472c, T.12.601b) a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as they concern Ananda's c l o t h i n g and food (MS r e n d e r i n g of the second w i s h i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n meaning from Pao-en- c h i n g ' s (PEC) however). The t h i r d w i s h i n PEC, though g a r b l e d , has t o do w i t h the t i m i n g of Ananda's a u d i e n c e s w i t h the Buddha and g e n e r a l l y matches the t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s i o n s . MS s k i p s t h i s w i s h and g i v e s , as does PEC f o r the f o u r t h and f i n a l w i s h , the r e q u e s t t h a t Buddha r e p e a t a l l the p r i o r t e a c h i n g s . PEC's v e r s i o n a r o s e i n response t o an e x t r e m e l y t h i s -w o r d l y and l o g i c a l o b j e c t i o n , which our p r e a c h e r a l s o a d d r e s s e s . The answer i s a l s o q u i t e t h i s - w o r d l y and l o g i c a l . The p r e a c h e r here abandons the a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n found e a r l i e r , ( 524.1), spontaneous u n d e r s t a n d -i n g of a l l p a s t Buddha dharmas and f o r g o e s the e x p e d i e n t , which PEC mentions, as does Ta c h i h - t u l u n , n.17 above, t h a t Ananda heard those t e a c h i n g s from o t h e r d i s c i p l e s . T h i s l a t t e r would d i s t r a c t from the f o c u s on Ananda 1s p e r s o n , w h i l e the spontaneous u n d e r s t a n d i n g argument was p r o b a b l y dropped as b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y m e t a p h y s i c a l . The account which f o l l o w s d i f f e r s v a s t l y from the e x t a n t v e r s i o n s , where Ananda's e n t r y i n t o t h e Buddha's s e r v i c e i s t o t a l l y d i s t i n c t from h i s c o n v e r s i o n , (which o c c u r s i n the Buddha's home v i l l a g e of Anupiya w i t h s i x o t h e r s ) . See M i - s h a - s a i - p u h o - h s i wu-f e n - l u ^ %u ygjjf^ jg_ T. 22 .1 6c-1 7b) . H i s e n t r y i n t o s e r v i c e i n v o l v e s Maudgalyayana ( M u - l i e n ) £j iH, as a go-between. Our p r e a c h e r ' s v e r s i o n i s s t r e a m l i n e d t o f o c u s on Ananda, and i s most l i k e l y a s o r t of s h o r t h a n d r e f e r e n c e t o a l e g e n d w e l l known t o the a u d i e n c e , but l o s t t o us now. 70 The d e s c r i p t i o n of Buddha's v i s i t s t o the p a l a c e s of the mighty, s e e k i n g t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n resembles the l a s t s e c t i o n s of MS and i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the well-known s t o r y of Nanda's c o n v e r s i o n , a l s o the s u b j e c t of p o p u l a r i z a t i o n , PWC p.3 9 5 - 4 0 4 . Such d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y a f o r m u l a i c a s p e c t of p o p u l a r t a l e s about d i s c i p l e s who came from h i g h s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . 2 9 . MS a l s o has ^ which seem t o be an e r r o r , perhaps f o r ^ j ; . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a v e r b meaning t o l o o k or examine may have been i n t e n d e d . 3 0 . 524 .1 3 . f.% Vrf . PWC t r a n s c r i b e s MS a c c u r a t e l y enough here ( 5 2 4 . 1 3 ) . The c h a r a c t e r i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , but the s uggested emendations are of l i t t l e h e l p . I emend p r o v i s i o n a l l y t o " l * ^ - ^ ^ . • 3 1 . 5 2 4 . 1 3 . jfo. i s u s u a l l y r e n d e r e d " t o t a k e r e f u g e i n the Buddha". See M o c h i z u k i , p.495 . 3 2 . 524 .1 4 . MS has^£. 3 3 . 524 .1 4 . ^ ^Oda, p.1005 , d e f i n e s as the f i r s t i n the f o u r s t e p s of the s r a v a k a ' v o i c e - h e a r e r ' v e h i c l e . U s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as " p r e l i m i n a r y c u r r e n t " -ffi^. 34 . 524 . 1 5 . *^ Hsu, pu cheng, p.39 , s u s p e c t s t h a t the c o n t e x t r e q u i r e s . ^ i s c l e a r i n MS and f i t s the c o n t e x t . 5 2 4 . 1 5 . Here the w r i t e r i n the n e x t phrase uses the term nan i n s t e a d of the u s u a l wenp^ . 35 . 524.1 6 . I r e a d 3 ^ UgL ^ ^ SJt*^" % . The sense of the passage r e q u i r e s an a d v e r s a t i v e which has been o m i t t e d . I would i n s e r t ^ b e f o r e ( ^ . T ^ ^ - i ^ . 36 . 5 2 5 . 1 . The o r i g i n a l i s e x p r e s s e d i n the t h i r d p e r s o n . The w r i t e r , f e a r i n g perhaps t h a t h i s l i s t e n e r s may not f o l l o w o r be c o n v i n c e d by h i s e x p o s i t i o n , e n j o i n s them t o s i m p l y p l a n t the r o o t s of f a i t h , t h a t from which a l l e l s e grows. The pr e a c h e r ' s comments here a r e s i m i l a r t o h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s i n 5 1 7 . 1 0 . These seem not t o be f o r m a l , humble u t t e r a n c e s . R a t h e r they seem t o r e f l e c t the p r e a c h e r ' s r e a l e x a s p e r a t i o n and sense of h i s own d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e r e a l m of t e x t u a l e x e g e s i s . 37 . 5 2 5 . 5 . **f) WM- The use of here and elsewhere appears t o mark a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b r a t h e r than r e f l e x i v i t y . 71 38. 525.7. - ^ f a i i • T a k i n g as jfc . 39. 525.10. ^ . ^ l / s ^ . ^v/ i s used here as a p r e p o s i t i o n meaning ' f o r ' . F o r o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h a v a r i e t y of v e r b s where marks the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t , see Chang, p.303-305. 40. 525. 10. ii^PL . The i n i t i a l & seems t o be i n e r r o r . I have f o l l o w e d 525.14, t a k i n g t h i s as ^  and r e n d e r i n g ' t h u s 1 . 41. See Fu f o - t s a n g y i n - y u a n chuan, T50.300a-b. S i n c e Ananda r e c a l l s t he s u t r a s w i t h such v i v i d p r e c i s i o n , t he a r h a t s , upon h e a r i n g him, a l l r e c a l l the Buddha and r i s e i n t o the a i r , c h a n t i n g t e a r f u l laments over a l l t h a t i s of t h i s w o r l d w hich f l o u r i s h e s , d e c l i n e s and i s gone: The Thus Come One g r a n d l y m a s t e r f u l and b o l d Whose achievements and v i r t u e s s u r p a s s the T r i p l e Realm Is y e t j u s t l i k e t he wind of impermanence Buoyed up, f l o w i n g on and a b i d i n g n o t . fa vh 4 Kasyapa then a s k s i f what Ananda has s a i d i s a c c u r a t e . They answer, "No d i f f e r e n t from what the World-Honored One spoke." ?%i$>rr%-^$$i%up, $l-yrr-$& (T.50.300b.) 42. 525.13. T h i s s t a n z a i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l because of i t s s h i f t i n g e l l i p t i c a l s u b j e c t . I n the p r e c e d i n g c o u p l e t I t a k e Ananda as the s u b j e c t . However I t h i n k t h a t here the s u b j e c t i s the Buddha's t e a c h i n g s . The Three V e h i c l e s 5- are the t h r e e conveyances o r paths t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t a s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r h a t , p r a t y e k a  buddha, o r b o d h i s a t t v a . For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s d o c t r i n e and i t s p l a c e i n Mahayana see H u r v i t z , x v i i i - x x . A l s o Oda 638.2. 3 z . s h o u l d r e a d Jz- >f£ . The F i v e Natures s c h e m a t i c i z e a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s ' v a r y i n g i n n a t e p o t e n t i a l f o r en l i g h t e n m e n t i n a s e t of c a t e g o r i e s and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . Of. Oda 531.1. The E i g h t D i f f i c u l t C o n d i t i o n s a r e thos e i n which a l i v i n g b e i n g has d i f f i c u l t y coming t o know the Buddha-dharma. See Oda 1412.2. Luk, p.144, g i v e s seven of t h e s e , o m i t t i n g the f i r s t , t hose who are r e b o r n i n the h e l l i s h p u r g a t o r i e s ^3t£. 43. 525.14. T h i s l i n e a l s o d e f i e s an easy r e a d i n g . i n 524.9 f r7JT> 7f> ffi- h a s t h e sense of ' f a c t s ' o r ' c i r c u m s t a n c e s ' . I ke i t here as ' t h i n g s ' o r , i n c o n t e x t , ' t e a c h i n g s ' , a noun 72 m o d i f i e d by the p r e c e d i n g f o u r c h a r a c t e r s . The phrase might however mean t h a t the t e a c h i n g s were i n f a c t t r a n s m i t t e d 'without a doubt' t o the l a t e r ages. For g r a p h i c i n s t a n c e s of ^  as ' f a l s e ' see Sou-shen c h i t f t^ l f t ' P W C 8 7 4 - 7- 8- A l s o t n e compound jj& i n 518.14 and 524.10. K u i C h i ' s A-mi-t'o c h i n g shu, Tn. 1757, T37.313b-c, e x p l a i n i n g why Buddha had Ananda r e p e a t the A- mi - t ' o s u t r a has a phrase s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r i n wording and sense t o 524.1 4: fe£ % ^ j$ ^If ^  ^ %L • 44. 525. 15. F o l l o w i n g PWC emendation t o " f % . 45. 526.1 . '^j ^ . An i n v e r s i o n of the u s u a l compound ^\f * 5 ^ 7 . The word means t o o r d e r or charge, e n t r u s t w i t h a t a s k , fij^ ^ j , S k t . S r a v a k a , t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Chinese as ' v o i c e -h e a r e r ' , i s one who harkens t o the v o i c e of the Buddha, t h a t i s , a d i s c i p l e . See Oda 792b. 46. 526.3. . MS has . T h i s means he l i s t e n e d d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y . T h i s resembles the a d m o n i t i o n g i v e n the c o n g r e g a t i o n i n 519.6. 47. 526.4. % i s , of c o u r s e , 7c.- • The two graphs a re c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r c h a n g e d i n MS. 48. 526.5. 1$fic. i s a compound n e i t h e r g l o s s e d nor noted anywhere I have l o o k e d . I n c o n t e x t I've tak e n i t as ' d i s t r a c t i o n s ' , l i t . as ' p o i n t i n g s and dep e n d e n c i e s ' , i . e . he p a i d f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o the t a s k s or t h i n g s a t hand, w i t h o u t a thought of t h i n g s i n d i c a t e d by (^jjj) or based upon them. T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o v i s i o n a l . Perhaps ' s t o p p i n g ' ( - > _ L L ) and l e a n i n g ' i s meant. 49. An i d e n t i c a l s h i f t from t s ' e t o p ' i n g w i t h a p a r a l l e l s h i f t i n the d i c t i o n of the r e f r a i n >1f v*/. ^ j^f o c c u r s i n the next s e c t i o n ' s v e r s e as w e l l (530.5-533.4). 50. 526.9 IS! ^  i s a compound, used f r e q u e n t l y i n t h i s MS, meaning l a g g a r d l y or s l u g g i s h . See Chi a n g , p.122 and Daikanwa 4693.46. 526.10. i s f r e q u e n t l y met w i t h i n th e s e t e x t s ; i t s i m p l y means ' t o d a y 1 . 51. 525.11. T h i s l i n e marks the t o r n , j a g g e d end of MS fragment no.8. The next l i n e b e g i n s , a l s o j a g g e d l y , fragment no.5. The rhyme and r e f r a i n a r e the same on both s i d e s of the t e a r . J u d g i n g from the c o n t e n t s of 526.12-13, one or more s t a n z a s r e c a l l i n g events i n Ananda's s e r v i c e t o Buddha 73 l e a d i n g up t o the Buddha's n i r v a n a and the C o u n c i l have been l o s t . 52. 525.1 2. - T ^ I ] j u d g i n g from the d i c t i o n a r i e s , i s a f a u l t y -t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of S k t . Papima o r P a p i y a s , meaning ' e v i l one' or 'murderer'. I t i s a common e p i t h e t f o r Mara. See Oda 1396.3. The r e f e r e n c e here i s perphaps t o the e p i s o d e found i n the Ch' ang a-han c h i n g , 2 , y u - h s i n g c h i n g - J ^ |5i?f ^ ^Ltt^t (T. 1 .1 5a-1 6b) when Buddha i s l e f t a l o n e w i t h Ananda, o u t s i d e of V a i s a l i , h a v i n g d i s p e r s e d a l l h i s o t h e r f o l l o w e r s due t o an impending famine. The Buddha t a k e s g r a v e l y i l l but i n d i c a t e s t o Ananda t h r e e times t h a t , s h o u l d Ananda w i s h i t , the Buddha c o u l d remain i n t h i s w o r l d f o r a k a l p a or more. Ananda, h i s mind bec l o u d e d by demons, does not respond and l e a v e s the Buddha w i t h o u t i m p l o r i n g him t o s t a y l o n g e r on t h i s e a r t h . The demon, po-hsun th e n argues w i t h the Buddha, who f i n a l l y i n d i c a t e s he w i l l e n t e r e x t i n c t i o n i n t h r e e month's t i m e . T h i s i s one of the s i n s f o r which Kasyapa rebukes Ananda a t the time of the C o u n c i l . Ananda answers t h a t demons c l o u d e d h i s mind. See Ta c h i h - t u - l u n 2, T.25.67a-b. 53. 526.12. MS t o r n h e r e . 54. 526.1 3 . 1=)^$? . The c h a r a c t e r which PWC t r a n s c r i b e s as i s u n c l e a r i n MS, l o o k i n g something l i k e . I have t a k e n i t , p r o v i s i o n a l l y , as & . I r ead # i j a s ^ i j . Without a c l e a r c o n t e x t one cannot be s u r e , but t h i s may be a r e f e r e n c e t o the s t o r y t h a t when Buddha was about t o e n t e r n i r v a n a he p e r s o n a l l y t o l d Ananda, i n response t o h i s q u e s t i o n , t h a t a l l s u t r a s s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h the words "Thus have I h e a r d . " See T a - c h i h - t u - l u n , 2, T.25.66b-67a. 55. 525. 1 6. T a k i n g - ^ as j | * . 56. By p e r p e t u a t i n g Buddha's t e a c h i n g s f o r the sake of a l l f u t u r e l i v i n g b e i n g s . 526.2. ljJj|- £j . MS has ®f see 520.8 above. 57. 527.3. The v e r s e changes t o f i v e - s y l l a b l e l i n e s h e r e , w i t h a new r e f r a i n l i n e . r e ^ e r s t o something which i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e , or t r e a s u r e d . I t comes t o be a common e x p r e s s i o n of l e a v e -t a k i n g among monks, i t s sense b e i n g " t a k e c a r e of y o u r s e l f " see Daikanwa.2 09 20.98. <jt_7\. r e f e r s t o one chang and s i x ch' i h i n h e i g h t — JZ . The Buddha was t r a d i t i o n a l l y s a i d t o be t w i c e the 74 h e i g h t of normal men, who i n I n d i a were s a i d t o be e i g h t c h ' i h (10 c h ' i h = 1 chang). T h i s e x p r e s s i o n becomes synonymous w i t h " s c u l p t u r e of the Buddha", which were o f t e n l a r g e r than l i f e . See Daikanwa, 11.48. 58 . 527.5. $ £ - 4 f . MS has -J-^ -Mx . l a t t e r perhaps •!&• T r e s s e s wound upon the head i n the shape of a conch s h e l l . See Oda 1778.1 . 59 . 527 .6. • MS has . 60. 527.7. T h i s i s most l i k e l y a r e f e r e n c e t o the L o t u s S u t r a . The next t h r e e s t a n z a s a l s o r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r s u t r a s . The " I " of the r e f r a i n i s of co u r s e Ananda. 61 . 527.9. J|kS seems an e r r o r f o r (3 -^), perhaps p i c k e d up by c o p y i s t from 527.12. _|^-^ , l i t . ' e l d e r ' , u s u a l l y r e n d e r s S k t . g r h a p a t i , 'master of a ho u s e h o l d ' , see Luk, p.5 n.2. However i t i s f r e q u e n t l y used t o mean thos e w i t h power o r p o s i t i o n and i s e x p l i c i t l y e x p l a i n e d as such i n 553.4. 62. 527.10. I cannot f i n d a s p e c i a l term, e i t h e r l i t e r a r y o r B u d d h i s t . I t seems t o i n d i c a t e the v a s t l u x u r y and r i c h n e s s of t h e i r w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s , though perhaps i t i s u n d e r s t o o d as something l i k e t he T r i p l e Realm 2. . ^ , l i t . 'the s i x [ t y p e s o f ] d u s t 1 . See Oda 1 838.2. 63. T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the v e r y s u t r a b e i n g expounded, the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a . 64. 527.12. ^ ~% ^  That i s t o say, of the Western P a r a d i s e 2L • e m a s t e r of t e a c h i n g and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( c o n v e r s i o n ) , the Buddha. See Oda 392.1. See a l s o 544.14 where t h i s term p a r a l l e l s . 65. 527.1 3. lU, J&. - A sh o r t h a n d d e s c r i p t i o n of s p l e n d i d p l a c e s o r pure l a n d s . The Pao-en-ching , c.1, f o r example, uses the p h r a s e , 'Pure g o l d i s made i n t o t e t h e r s t o make b o u n d a r i e s b e s i d e the roa d s ' wC 4 L 1 £ ' J i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of Buddha-lands of the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s . T.3.124c, 125b, 126a, 126c. B e j e w e l l e d and p r e c i o u s render the same word . 66. 527.15. R e f e r s t o the Amita s u t r a . 67. 527.3. T h i s r e f e r s , I b e l i e v e , t o the f i r s t s u t r a t h a t the 75 Buddha preached a f t e r h i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . S e e k i n g those ready t o g r a s p h i s t e a c h i n g s , from under the b o d h i t r e e he uses h i s ' deva v i s i o n 1 t o l o c a t e f i v e a s c e t i c s who a i d e d him d u r i n g h i s l o n g s t r u g g l e toward e n l i g h t e n m e n t . He t r a v e l s t o j o i n them i n the Deer Park where he preaches the Four Noble T r u t h s f o r them, thus c o n v e r t i n g them. See Fo- p e n - h s i n g - c h i c h i n g ^ ^ - ^ % ^ § : T n - 1 9 0 ' c - 3 3 a n d c.34, Chuan miao-f a - l u n p' i n a & b f||-#y- ^f^a k 1^ T - 3 • 8 0 7 c -811c. The Four Noble T r u t h s a r e expounded i n T.3.811 b&c. The Buddha s t r e s s e s t h a t he r e a l i z e d t h e s e t r u t h s i n the m i d s t of dharma, and d i d not hear them from someone e l s e , which i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note i n l i g h t of the d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g " I h e a r d " h e r e . Ml $${%kr%% ~A * % ®k 528.1 . \2J-gt\S ( \r3-%^). The Four Noble T r u t h s a r e the e x i s t e n c e of s u f f e r i n g 2jjr , the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g s u f f e r i n g ' s e x t i n c t i o n s / ^ and the way t h e r e t o \|[_. See Oda 723.3, Dayal 156-164. 68. 528.4. On t h e s a k r a and a s u r a below, see the n e x t s e c t i o n . 69. Whether t h i s and the s t a n z a s which f o l l o w are r e f e r e n c e s t o p a r t i c u l a r s u t r a s I do not know. They r e p r e s e n t , however, a broad sweep th r o u g h the cosmos i n d i c a t i n g not o n l y t h e utmost power and p e n e t r a t i o n of the Buddha and h i s t e a c h i n g s but a l s o s t r e s s i n g Ananda's d e v o t i o n and c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i v e p r e s e n c e . They a n t i c i p a t e the n e x t s e c t i o n as w e l l by m e n t i o n i n g some of the e i g h t c l a s s e s of b e i n g s • The " s i x v i r t u e s t h a t l e a d beyond" a r e the s i x p a r a m i t a s , p r o p e r l y the s i x p e r f e c t i o n s . The Chinese t r a n s l a t o r s u n d e r s t o o d the term t o mean c r o s s i n g o r t r a n s c e n d e n c e . I have t r i e d t o convey both senses. See D a y a l , p.165-269 f o r an extended and e n l i g h t e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n . 528.6. The e x p r e s s i o n s i n p a r e n t h e s e s c o r r e s p o n d t o and which a r e examples of ch' en t z u ^^Jj£ , e x t r a m e t r i c a l ' f i l l e r ' words. 70. 528.9. - ^ i i . i ^ - . Takeri as a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Buddha's d i s p o s i t i o n and, by e x t e n s i o n , the means of subduing them. See 533.11 f o r a s i m i l a r , more e x p l i c i t passage. ( n o t e : MS reads j | . ^ i z J ^ - a t 533. 1 1 , as i s noted b e l o w ) . 71. 528 .1 2 . *f<. . MS has^L^<. usage here i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of 525.5. 72. 528.16 . T a k i n g |^ as i^fj . Or, unemended, as c i r c l i n g a i m l e s s l y i n the h e l l s . 76 73. 529.3. ^ fr\ The p u r g a t o r i e s . 74. 529.4. Here t h e rhyme s h i f t s t o one e n d i n g i n - a i , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e end o f e v e r y v e r s e s e c t i o n i n t h i s g e n r e , w h i c h a l w a y s end w i t h t h e f o r m u l a i c c h ' a n g - c h i a n g - l a i m £ • . Jt'J'^i ' T * l e f i r s t ^ s a v a r i a n t f o r m of<flfp , g l o s s e d as "as one p l e a s e s " . See Daikanwa 2148. L Hsu, p_u c h e n g , p.39, s u g g e s t s t h a t J f F i j i s t h e same a s ^ j , w h i c h i s a l o a n f o r ^ l j . T h e r e i s no need t o go so f a r a f i e l d . 77 SECTION I I I At one time t h e y a l l a r r i v e d The s u t r a says " a t one time".1 To say "one t i m e " s i n g l e s out and d i s t i n g u i s h e s [ t h a t t i m e] from o t h e r t i m e s , t h e r e f o r e [the s u t r a ] says " a t one t i m e " . There i s a n o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which says t h a t speaker and l i s t e n e r s meet each o t h e r 2 and t h a t t h e r e i s no b e f o r e and no a f t e r beyond t h a t ; the b r e a t h and the peck o c c u r a t the same moment.3 T h e r e f o r e [ t h e s u t r a ] s a y s : " a t one t i m e " . The s u t r a s a y s : "at one t i m e " . Then our Buddha was w i t h i n the c i t y of V a i s a l i i n the Amra park and was about t o f u r t h e r the gate of e x p e d i e n t means, about t o open f o r t h h i s Compassionate Vow. Because he [wished] t o r e s c u e t h o s e born of the f o u r B i r t h s [from] t h e i r b u r n i n g a n g u i s h and he s o r e l y p i t i e d the s e n t i e n t b e i n g s of the Three Realms, he would expound the dharma and f e r r y over (save) i n v a s t numbers tho s e who, by t h e i r karma, were r e a d y , 4 b e s t o w i n g b e n e f i t w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i g h o r low. On t h a t day the e a r t h r o c k e d i n s i x c o n v u l s i o n s , the heavens r a i n e d down the f o u r f l o w e r s . A l l the h o l y ones and w o r t h i e s from the t e n d i r e c t i o n s a r r i v e d and the e i g h t k i n d s of dragons and s p i r i t b e i n g s a l l came. Then humans and devas were gleaming b r i g h t l y , the assembled h o l y ones a l l abuzz. C l o t h i n g i n c o l o r s b o l d and f r e s h were 78 s p r e a d , b i l l o w e d i n m i d - a i r . Upon the ground the seven t y p e s of p r e c i o u s j e w e l s l a y a r r a n g e d . Sakra gods and Brahma K i n g s l i f t e d a j a d e l e c t e r n b e f o r e the M a s t e r ' s s e a t . Dragon K i n g s and yaksas h e l d p r e c i o u s banners on a l l f o u r s i d e s of the World-Honored One. Each and e v e r y one had t a k e n l e a v e of t h e i r Heaven-realms, and a t one time a l l had a r r i v e d a t Amra pa r k . Conch-shaped cymbals s t r u c k i n c r a s h i n g , c l a s h i n g sounds; music p l a y e d , a r e s o u n d i n g cacophony of s t r a i n s . And f u r t h e r were the a s u r a and a l l the r e s t p l a y i n g the sweeping t o n e s , the t i n g l i n g echo of t h e i r p ' i - p ' a s . And t h e K i n n a r a K i n g s , pounding out the d r i v i n g b e l l o w i n g beat of t h e i r n o r t h e r n drums.6 The gandharva p i p e d s u b l i m e s t r a i n s among the c l o u d s and the Garuda K i n g s s e t f l u t e r e f r a i n s moving through the sky. They a l l had come t o hear the dharma; e v e r y one of them wished t o c u l m i n a t e t h e i r l o n g - p r e p a r e d c a u s a t i o n . They c i r c l e d round the deep g o l d form and made o b e i s a n c e t o the v i s a g e of pure g o l d . 8 A l l l i t camphor i n c e n s e and burned f r a g r a n t sandalwood.9 R e s p e c t f u l r e v e r e n t ones were t h e r e , a m i l l i o n t imes t e n thousand more; a thousand, t e n , a m i l l i o n f o l d v o i c e d c r i e s of e x a l t a t i o n . A t any time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly. C a s t i n g t h e i r eyes upon the Great H o l i n e s s r a r e l y met, they w a i t e d f o r the Thus Come One t o expound the dharma. And even beyond t h i s were so many a r h a t s and h o l y men beyond number a l l come t o the g a t h e r i n g ' s m i d s t , a l l a p p r o a c h i n g the 79 dharma assembly. T h e i r s p i r i t s calm, r e f r e s h e d and b r i g h t , i n t h e i r b e a r i n g and appearance each of a s i n g u l a r splendor. Holding t h e i r 'five-mended' begging bowls they seek the alms of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s land.1° Leaning upon t h e i r s i x - r i n g e d staves,11 they roam f r e e l y through other realms. T h e i r three holy garments 12 set them apart and beyond; they blend with c l o u d 1 3 vapors which t r a i l behind them. [Replete i n ] the F i v e V i r t u e s they are beyond compare; meeting a l l with k i n d l y reverence, they stand, w a i t i n g i n unencumbered s i m p l i c i t y . 1 4 T h e i r bodies have pa r t e d d e c i s i v e l y from impure s t a i n ; these were the bodies of 1 5 appearance o n l y . When they took t h e i r e n l i g h t e n e d a c t i o n s , these were a c t i o n s which had taken leave of the dust of d e f i l e m e n t . They had r e a l i z e d the Three C l a r i t i e s , 1 6 and p e r f e c t e d the E i g h t L i b e r a t i n g M e d i t a t i o n s . 1 7 Thereby they had taken leave of the saha world and were not submerged, b u r i e d i n b i r t h and death. At the s t a r t of the Buddha assembly, when the speaking of s u t r a was about to begin, with no before and no a f t e r they rushed to the g a t h e r i n g ; a l l i n a s i n g l e moment they headed f o r the assembly. L i k e a hen c l o s e upon i t s egg: breath and peck at the same i n s t a n t . 1 8 Therefore the s u t r a says "at one time." The dragons and devas upon t h a t day t h e i r b e a r i n g awe-i n s p i r i n g Drawn up i n ranks19, with a l l t h e i r powers they t r u l y are appe a l i n g The sakras hurry i n a rush to put on t h e i r b e j e w e l l e d 80 vestments Immortal youths do one and a l l d e p a r t the p a l a c e p r e c i n c t s Knowing from a f a r our Buddha would expound t r u e s u t r a Each r a d i a t e s t h e i r f e e l i n g s so s i n c e r e and comes t o pay o b e i s a n c e A l l d i s p e r s i n g f l o w e r s f i n e i n the m i d d l e of the sky At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly And t h e r e as w e l l the Brahma K i n g s T h e i r appearance l o f t y , g r e a t l y s e l f - p o s s e s s e d A l l of them had l e f t b e h i n d t h e i r wondrous b e j e w e l l e d p a l a c e s Each one gone f o r j u s t a w h i l e t o the saha r e a l m A l l h o l d i n g f r u i t s and f l o w e r s which d i s p l a y a mighty glow A l l endowed w i t h s p i r i t - p o w e r 2 0 t h a t have no b l o c k or h i n d r a n c e Apprehending Buddha soon would speak a Mahayana s u t r a At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly. The a s u r a , ones of a s p e c i a l s o r t O v e r t u r n i n g oceans, s h i f t i n g mountains, t h e i r m e r i t - s t r e n g t h i s g r e a t L i v i n g h i g h atop Sumeru, t h e i r m e r i t - f o r t u n e 2 1 p o w e r f u l P r o p p i n g up the sun and moon t h e i r overwhelming powers v a s t 2 2 They c o u l d i n t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s show a r e v e r e n c e most pure23 But i n t h e i r m i n d - f i e l d s they r a i s e up j e a l o u s y ' s d i s t u r b a n c e 2 4 S e n s i n g from a f a r t h a t day, dharma's meaning would u n f o l d At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly. The gandharva too t u r n e d t o the Buddha's way and i n him found t h e i r r e f u g e T h e i r songs and music l o n g remain as t h e mind's d e l i g h t Always i n the Buddha's presence they would p l a y the pentatone To hear i t i s e x a c t l y l i k e a t t a i n i n g t r u e samadhi.25 Upon the p ' i - p ' a ' s s t r i n g s were sounds of swallows i n the s p r i n g And s t i c k s upon the n o r t h e r n drums beat out rhythms of s h a t t e r e d j a d e S e n s i n g from a f a r t h a t day dharma's meaning would u n f o l d At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly 81 Gathered devas, men as w e l l , f a r t h e r than the eye can see Each h o l d i n g up a canopy toward the open sky The hundred j e w e l s upon t h e i r h a t s a t t r a c t a m i s t i n hues w e l l - b o d i n g Upon t h e i r c l o t h i n g s i x j e w e l s b r i g h t , a h a l o - s w i r l of c o l o r e d l i g h t 2 6 A l l s e t t i n g out t h i n g s s t r a n g e and r a r e betokening27 t h e i r r e v e r e n c e A l l o f f e r i n g 2 8 i n c e n s e and f l o w e r s , e x p r e s s i n g s i n c e r e d e f e r e n c e Apprehending from a f a r t h a t day [ t h e Buddha] would soon speak s u t r a At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly By the hundreds, thousands, s a k r a s , Brahmans, h o l y ones and w o r t h i e s A l l of them29 t h e i r b e a r i n g so grand and d i g n i f i e d With one a s p i r a t i o n they c u l t i v a t e t h e i r deeds and c u t o f f the Four Flows30 The e n s n a r i n g net i s s e v e r e d as they c a s t away the T r i p l e Realm L i v i n g i n the mountains' m i d s t , d w e l l i n g i n s i d e caves At times31 they s i t i n dhyana, a t times chant songs of p r a i s e Knowing Buddha soon would speak a Mahayana s u t r a . At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly So l o n g c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r c a u s a t i o n and u p h o l d i n g p r o h i b i t i o n s With p o i g n a n t s u f f e r i n g they r e f i n e d themselves32 b u t t h e i r minds d i d not t u r n back They have vowed t o l e a v e the cage of a n g u i s h 3 3 f the r i v e r of b i r t h and d e a t h The wisdom34 they've so f a r a t t a i n e d i s t r u l y l i k e the ocean They can h o l d the five-mend alms bowl and e n t e r r o y a l c i t i e s And can w i e l d the s i x - r i n g e d s t a f f , [ g o i n g ] beyond [ t o ] o t h e r realms35 Knowing Buddha soon would speak a Mahayana s u t r a At one time they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly ( p ' i n g ) 3 6 On t h a t day the Thus Come One was about the speak the s u t r a Many h o l y ones and w o r t h i e s knew of t h i s b e f o r e h a n d J 82 R u s h i n g about up i n the heavens t o l e a v e b e h i n d t h e i r p l e a s u r e and g l e e I n v a s t numbers w i t h i n the c l o u d s they s t r a i g h t e n t h e i r j e w e l l e d garments The s a k r a gods, t h e i r s p i r i t s deep, proud of t h e i r a r r a y e d r e g a l i a The Brahma K i n g s t h e i r a c t i o n s p r o p e r [?]38 show o f f t h e i r m a j e s t i c b e a r i n g High and low they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly T h e r e f o r e does the s u t r a say " a t one t i m e " Dragons and s p i r i t s w i t h o u t l i m i t s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s They p l a y e d a hundred thousand k i n d s of music f i l l i n g up the s k y 3 9 Because of the speed w i t h which they rushed t o meet the h o l y ones and w o r t h i e s One c o u l d o n l y see h e a v e n l y dragons f l y t o the spot40 W i t h i n the c l o u d s one o n l y saw p e o p l e crowded, o v e r f l o w i n g 4 1 [So dense were t h e y ] the s u n l i g h t ' s g l a r e was not seen i n the sky I n an i n s t a n t 4 2 they a l l a r r i v e d a t the Amra park assembly T h e r e f o r e does the s u t r a say " a t one t i m e " A r h a t s b u s t l e d , rushed about t o r e f l e c t a changed appearance They dropped the d a r n i n g n e e d l e and the down t h a t would p a t c h t h e i r h e a v e n l y 4 3 c l o t h e s I n t h a t s p l i t second were a f r a i d t h a t the j o u r n e y would be l o n g Suddenly s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e i r r u s h t h e r e might be l a t e So upon t h e i r b o d i e s s t r i p s of c l o u d s were put t o use as c l o a k s On t h e i r f a c e s two44 p u f f s of snow s e r v e d them as eyebrows With t h e i r superhuman powers a l l a r r i v e d a t Amra park T h e r e f o r e does the s u t r a say "at one t i m e " A hundred thousand g a t h e r e d h o l y ones a b u s t l e and abuzz Every one both body and mind showed r e v e r e n t r e s o l v e As f a s t as thought they a l l d i d come crowd i n g round the j e w e l l e d s e a t A l l of them d e s i r i n g t o pay the G o l d Immortal hommage W i t h i n the c l o u d s one o n l y saw f l o w e r s of the heavens descend I n s i d e the c l o u d s one c o u l d o n l y s c e n t the f r a g r a n c e of camphor smoke 83 I n but the time a f i n g e r snaps At one time they a l l a r r i v e d b e f o r e the Dharma K i n g Be they s a c r e d o r mundane, i n motion from a f a r A l l toward Amra park t o the dharma assembly's r a n k s With a l l t h e i r h e a r t s they a l l wished t o be moistened by dharma r a i n I n e v e r y thought they hoped o n l y t o be shaken by s p r i n g thunder R e s p e c t f u l , r e v e r e n t each and a l l c r i e d o u t , " t h i s i s most r a r e " Palms j o i n e d i n f e r v e n t a n t i c i p a t i o n , they sang out p r a i s e , "most f i n e ! " On t h a t day a t one time a l l headed f o r t h a t g a t h e r i n g At what p l a c e 4 6 the Buddha spoke, next we w i l l chant o u t . 4 7 84 Notes t o S e c t i o n I I I 529.8. • MS h a s ^ v f g 7 |sfr, f o l l o w i n g , s h o u l d r e a d 2. 529.8. . MS h a s ^ ^ Q . 3. 529.8-9. V$ (x^) »|c l£] ^  . T h i s r e f e r s t o the sound of a c h i c k b r e a t h i n g i n s i d e i t s s h e l l , ready t o h a t c h , o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e sound of t h e mother hen p e c k i n g upon the s h e l l t o r e l e a s e the c h i c k . See Daikanwa 2816.3, Oda 1088.1 . The s i m i l e i s t o the moment, a l l c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g r i p e , when a seeker of knowledge, a i d e d by a t e a c h e r , suddenly e x p e r i e n c e s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . 4. 529. 1 1 . 3^1 J$L_~fy . I n o t h e r words those whose ka r m i c c o n d i t i o n s were r i p e ; i n c l i n e d by p a s t a c t i o n , thought and i n t e n t i o n t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . See Oda 100.1. 5. 529.1 3-1 4. -2- . ••• F u l 1 s t o P s h o u l d come a f t e r . See Hs i i , p_u cheng, p. 39. 529.1 4. . . T a k i n g both as compounds the f i r s t element of which i s v e r b a l ("^ J i n the sense of $J^Jfy~ ), the second a d v e r b i a l . ] ^ , Daikanwa 43973, the sound of wind, and jfe^, 44726, meaning jumbled o r u n s e t t l e d . 529.1 4. MS has fJL^Bfl. 529. 1 5. ... -|=F^r . T h i s f i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o M o c h i z u k i , p.1997, seems t o c o r r e s p o n d t o S k t . s u v a r n a , which M o n i e r - W i l l i a m s g i v e s as "of a good or b e a u t i f u l c o l o r , b r i l l i a n t i n hue, b r i g h t , g o l d e n , y e l l o w . " The o r i g i n of the word i s u n c l e a r , a l t h o u g h some commentators t a k e i t t o mean the p u r e s t g o l d . See Oda 759.3 a l s o . Here i t r e f e r s t o the c o l o r and b r i l l i a n c e of the Buddha's body. I have r e n d e r e d 'deep g o l d ' o n l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from 'pure g o l d ' - ^ " ^ , t o which i t i s p a r a l l e l here and p r o b a b l y w i t h w hich, i n the minds of both p r e a c h e r and a u d i e n c e , i t was synonymous. 529.1 5. "^ "ftmfltfc . MS h a s f . has been m i s t a k e n l y t r a n s p o s e d and i s not c o r r e c t e d i n MS. I t i s the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n o f S k t . candana, 1 sandalwood 1. 85 10. 530.1 . j& < J H L . T h i s s h o u l d read & frtk. and r e f e r s t o the mendicant monks' begging bowls, which the Buddha commanded sh o u l d not be r e p l a c e d u n t i l they have been mended a f u l l f i v e t i m e s . See T i n g Fu-pao "3* i Fo-hsueh t a - t z ' u - t i e n 4 # $ * . f £ - & , 1 974 T a i p e i r e p r . , p. 573. L i t . ' t r a n s f o r m i n g c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena'. I n a c o l l o q u i a l sense t h i s r e f e r s t o monks' s o l i c i t i n g alms, by which a c t donors accumulate m e r i t . See Han-yu t z ' u - t i e n , p. 448. T h i s term a l s o appears i n 533. 1 5, as a noun, r e p l a c i n g the o r i g i n a l s u t r a ' s term v$|^^£_ . Here, however, i t i s c l e a r l y used i n the c o l l o q u i a l v e r b a l sense. 1 1 . 530.2. J\ . T h i s i s t h e s t a f f , adorned w i t h s i x r i n g s , which monks c a r r y , a l l o w i n g them t o wander through any r e a l m . Perhaps the s i x r i n g s a r e r e l a t e d t o the S i x Paths of E x i s t e n c e . See M u - l i e n pien-wen, PWC 732.13, where M u - l i e n d i s p l a y s the t w e l v e - r i n g e d pewter s t a f f g i v e n him by Buddha t o open the gate t o the h e l l s . These two l i n e s of p a r a l l e l prose have t h e i r match i n the v e r s e of t h i s s e c t i o n , 531.15. 12. 530.2. = ^ • MS has £ %<_ . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h r e e t y p e s of c l o t h i n g which members of the sangha wear. See Oda 604.3. 13 . 530 .2. 3 jif> • There are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s e t s of v i r t u o u s conduct c a l l e d the F i v e V i r t u e s . Oda, 555.3, g i v e s t h r e e , a l l of which p e r t a i n t o m o n a s t i c l i f e , i n v o l v i n g c o n f e s s i o n , c a r e of t h e s i c k , and s u i t a b i l i t y t o s e r v e as a master o f d i s c i p l i n e . 1 4. 530.2. "\*$ . T h i s i s an u n u s u a l e x p r e s s i o n , which I s u s p e c t may i n v o l v e a p h o n e t i c l o a n , o r erroneous c h a r a c t e r s . I t a k e ^ as ' s i m p l e , unadorned, p l a i n ' . , Daikanwa 496, means t o s t a n d unmoving f o r a l o n g w h i l e , o r to w a i t perhaps w i t h a n t i c i p a t i o n . 1 5. 530.3. 5J"T fcfy ^\ • T h i s phrase i s somewhat c o n f u s i n g . I i n t e r p r e t j |J|. ^  , a c t i o n based upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g (see Oda 430.2), as the o b j e c t of the f i r s t ^ j - . 16. 530.3. 1^ . These are the f i r s t t h r e e of the S i x P e n e t r a t i o n s • They a r e knowledge of the t r a n s m i g r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n of o n e s e l f and o t h e r s i n the p r e s e n t and i n the f u t u r e , and the e x h a u s t i o n of o u t f l o w , t h a t i s , the e l i m i n a t i o n of k l e s a , a n g u i s h . See Oda 665.2. 17. 530.3. / V . F u l l y t h e / V ^ ^ . A l s o known as t h e /\*% These are the e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s of dhyana m e d i t a t i o n by 86 w h i c h t i e s t o the i m p u r i t i e s of the T r i p l e Realm a r e s e v e r e d . See Oda 1413.1. 18. 530.4. rJteSfepff ty|*f ^ ^ Is] &{f- . T h i s i s a f u l l e r s tatement of the phrase i n 529.8-9, n.3 above. The s i m i l e appears as w e l l i n 554. 1 1 w i t h the words ^ fy-jg . 1 9. 530.5. 1$$C.1S£_ . T h i s compound appears a l s o a t 532.3 and 559. 1 4 (p£sC )• 20 . 530.1 1 . ^ ^ f . . MS has • 21. 530.14. ^!Hx^ . The b e n e f i t s a c q u i r e d from the m e r i t of good a c t s . Oda 1514.1. 22. 530.1 4. % 0 M . I am u n c e r t a i n of the compound Jf-^t , however, my r e n d e r i n g t r i e s t o f i t the c o n t e x t of e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t r e n g t h and power and one sense of . .^^t^MS has J^ -frj? BpX • T h i s i s a common m i s t a k e i n PWC t r a n s c r i p t i o n . "g^ .^  r e f e r s t o unfathomable a u t h o r i t y and power, see Oda 1856.1. I r i y a Y o s h i t a k a ^\^.^ ^ / i n h i s r e v i e w of Chiang (Chugoku bungaku ho \% ifgj i . ^ - - f ^ . , v.11, p. 1 79, 1 959) t a k e s the meaning of i n t h i s l i n e t o be 1 malign'.,..'-s Chiang's g l o s s of g r e a t , e x t r a o r d i n a r y e t c . , pp.160-161, seems more a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e , a l t h o u g h h i s r e f e r e n c e t o ^ - ^ as an a d j e c t i v e i s p u z z l i n g . I n s t a n c e s of a t PWC 549. 1 4 and 550.14 r e i n f o r c e a r e a d i n g of b r e a t h t a k i n g or awesome. 23. 530. 1 5. ^r\^ • I s u s p e c t t h i s s h o u l d read ^ ^ . 24. 530.1 5. . Should r e a d ^ . See emendation i n Hsu, t s a i - p u , p.118. 25. 531 .2. The p e n t a t o n e "% r e f e r s t o the f i v e tones of t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e music. T h i s c o u p l e t d i s p l a y s a "number p a r a l l e l i s m " between J L - ^ J" and S even though t h e l a t t e r i s a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the S k t . samadhi and has no c o n n e c t i o n t o the number t h r e e . 26. 531 .6. ' ^ C ' T C i ^ • Hsu, t s a i pu, p.118 emends t o f t . I emend t o o r 4 ^ . ' which b e t t e r f i t s t he c o n t e x t . T h i s image appears t o have been a c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u p l e d image f o r t h i s w r i t e r . See 550.4. 27 . 531 .7 . • MS h a s ^ . 28 . 531.7. ^ " f e j . MS has ^> ) . 87 29. 531 .9. J§>% . MS has ^  J / l ? ) . 31 32 30 . 531 . 1 0 . 027 -/fa . The f o u r ' f l o w s ' which keep th e s e n t i e n t b e i n g s i n the c y c l e of u n s e t t l e d e x i s t e n c e s . The f l o w s of v i s i o n J=J , d e s i r e J - j ^ , b e i n g ^ and i g n o r a n c e JS£ EJ^J . See Oda 858.3. 531.11. >^(lfjr . MS h a s ^ - p . 531 .13. (Mi- H s { i ' t s a i pu, p.1 18 s u g g e s t s t h a t s h o u l d r e a d ^ , presumably a c c e p t i n g PWC emendation t o ^ . I re a d a s ^ ^ , the most d i r e c t emendation and the most l o g i c a l i n t h i s c o n t e x t of the s e l f - r e f i n e m e n t of h o l y men. 33 . 531 . 1 4 . XQ-ftfi^ . Should r e a d as i s w i t h o u t emendation. T h i s i s t he b i n d i n g cage of k l e s a 1^ ^ • See Oda 1 642.1 . 34 . 531 . 1 4 . J ^ * ^ . MS r e a d s - ^ ^ . . 35. See above n.11. 36. 532.1. Here as i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s the m a r g i n a l a n n o t a t i o n 3f- marks a s h i f t i n the tone of the rhymed s y l l a b l e s and, as noted i n the s e c t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g , a s h i f t t o the r e f r a i n ^^M^CXL "• 37. 532.1 . -J|L Jjj^ . F o l l o w i n g Hsu's emendation ( t s a i pu, p. 11 8) t c f * ^ . 38. 532.3. T h i s c o u p l e t i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l . T r y i n g t o proceed on the b a s i s of p a r a l l e l grammar, I p r o v i s i o n a l l y r e a d ^-j" as 3^ ( n o u n + a d j e c t i v e ) w i t h the sense ' t h e i r a c t i o n s a r e reasoned / p r o p e r ' . I t might a l s o be p o s s i b l e t o re a d as hang, ' r a n k s ' , w i t h as an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r " ^ _ . T h i s would v i o l a t e p a r a l l e l i s m , which does not a d m i t t e d l y always p r e v a i l i n t h i s t e x t . 39. 532.5. Tjjfe ^  . MS read s ^ PJC . C o n s i d e r i n g the c o n t e x t and rhyme, I t a k e the t r a n s p o s i t i o n mark as a m i s t a k e . 40 . 532.6. 5N IL Jy-^ftt £'J . I n t h i s MS ^ t l i s c r o s s e d out and /fc w r i t t e n i n i t s p l a c e . However t h a t seems t o be a f a u l t y c o r r e c t i o n on the p a r t of a c o p y i s t o r r e a d e r , o c c a s i o n e d perhaps by c o n f u s i o n w i t h 5 32.15. I read T<T^C • 41 . 532.7. . Should r e a d P ^ J ^ - . T h i s i s an e x p r e s s i o n 88 f r e q u e n t l y met w i t h i n PWC and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s t e x t , w h ich means ' f i l l e d t o the b r i m ' , 'crowded, c h o k i n g , c l o g g i n g ' . Other o c c u r r e n c e s i n t h i s t e x t i n c l u d e 547.1 and 549.1. See Ch i a n g , p.132. 42. 532.8. . On t h i s usage see Ch i a n g , p.137. 43. 532.9. )&%C • Emended t o . 44. 532.1 1 . J> NW£ ^ • A g a i n , I s u s p e c t t h i s r eads ^  . 45. 532.16. F or the same e x p r e s s i o n , see 544.11. 46 . 533. 4 . ^ ^ ^ 7 ^ - ^ 1 1 ^ . MS has T£ . 47. As s t a n d s , t h i s would f o l l o w the o r d e r of the s u t r a . However, the p r e a c h e r has a l r e a d y jumbled t h a t o r d e r , g i v i n g the assembly's l o c a t i o n above a t 529.10, and b a s i n g t h i s s e c t i o n on the s p e c t a c l e of tho s e p r e s e n t , e x c e p t f o r the b o d h i s a t t v a s . T h i s a l s o marks the end of MS fragment no.5, i n which i s found the e n t i r e t y of t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n V which p r e s e n t s the same m a t e r i a l i n the sequence of the s u t r a , i . e . f o l l o w i n g the b o d h i s a t t v a s s e c t i o n , i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s . 89 SECTION IVA The B o d h i s a t t v a s s H e l p i n g Sakyamuni, they m a n i f e s t b o d i l y forms. 1 D w e l l i n g i n t h i s saha world,2 they t r a n s f o r m the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f b e i n g s . Known and r e c o g n i z e d by the m u l t i t u d e i n w o r l d s as numerous as the r i v e r ' s sands3, through a b i l l i o n t e n thousands of l a n d s t h e i r v i r t u e s echo, t h e i r names are heard.4 T h e i r wisdom s h i n e s , o u t s t a n d i n g 5 ; t h e i r t r a n s c e n d e n t powers mighty.^ They make a w a l l [ p r o t e c t i n g ] the gate of dharma and f o r the Buddha's sake cause [ t h e dharma] t o be p r o t e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d . [They speak w i t h ] the l i o n ' s r o a r and heaven and e a r t h r i n g ; Q t h e i r names a r e heard a f a r and the t e n d i r e c t i o n s [ s h a k e ? ] . M a t c h i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o the r o o t r e c e p t a b i l i t i e s 9 of the 1 0 ( c r e a t u r e s of the) Four B i r t h s , they a c t t o h e l p them. As f o r the g o o d l y f i e l d of the Three J e w e l s , they c o n t i n u e 11 i t and do not c u t i t o f f . Everywhere t h e y cause demons and enemies t o bow t h e i r heads 1 3 i n s u b m i s s i o n . 1 2 They cause a l l [ h e t e r o d o x ways t o s u b m i t ] . The l i g h t of t h e i r minds, c l e a r and pure, i s no d i f f e r e n t from the moon's, [ p a r t e d f o r e v e r from] the d e f i l e m e n t of w o r l d l y entanglements'! 4. T h e i r minds ever s e c u r e and s e r e n e , they d w e l l i n a s t a t e of 90 u n h i n d e r e d l i b e r a t i o n . T h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of mind i s always m a i n t a i n e d , e n a b l i n g t h e i r eloquence t o be u n i n t e r r u p t e d . 1 0 G i v i n g f r e e l y , t h ey g u i d e [ t h o s e o f ] s t i n g y and greedy v i e w s . H o l d i n g t o d i s c i p l i n e , t h ey e l i m i n a t e t h o s e who r e v i l e the p r o h i b i t i o n s . P r a c t i c i n g f o r b e a r a n c e , they remove e v e r y t r a c e of c r a v i n g and anger. I n t h e i r e v e r - s t r i v i n g advance t h e y f o r g e t l a z i n e s s c o m p l e t e l y . I n dhyana c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h e i r mind i s one, w i t h no d i s t u r b a n c e . The forms seen by d e l u d e d and c o n f u s e d people a r e a l l e l i m i n a t e d . T h e i r wisdom causes the t e n thousand phenomena t o be unmoving. They see c l e a r l y t h r ough the t e a c h i n g s of the u n e n l i g h t e n e d and i g n o r a n t . They c l e v e r l y extend e x p e d i e n t means, d i l i g e n t l y a c t i n g upon t h e i r f e e l i n g s of sympathy and compassion. They s k i l l f u l l y employ"! 7 p l a c i d i t y and harmony, l e a d i n g f o r t h t h o s e [ p o s s e s s e d by] l o v e and h a t e ^ 8 They cause p e o p l e t o f o l l o w them on the road t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 1 9 S e t t i n g t h e i r minds t o the t a s k , they t u r n the wheel which does not t u r n back.20 91 They can judge the depth of phenomenal m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and 21 r e c o g n i z e the k a r m i c s t r e n g t h of the l i v i n g b e i n g s . They r e c e i v e the s i n c e r e r e s p e c t and a d o r a t i o n of the g r e a t m u l t i t u d e . They expound the dharma w i t h f e a r c o m p l e t e l y absent from t h e i r b r e a s t s . 2 2 I n t h e i r wisdom how c o u l d they s h r i n k i n f e a r 2 3 from c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena?24 The v i r t u e s of m e r i t a r e always c u l t i v a t e d i n t h e i r minds.25 T h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance [embodies] t h e i r u n a l t e r e d beauty or u g l i n e s s ; w h e r e i n s h o u l d t h e i r b o d i l y forms p a r t a k e of adornment?26 The v a s t d i s t a n c e s over which t h e i r names are p r o c l a i m e d a r e 2 7 l i k e unto the t o w e r i n g v a s t n e s s of Mt. Sumeru. T h e i r mind of f a i t h does not t u r n back; s t r o n g and f i r m , i t i s l i k e the diamond. T h e i r dharma-jewel e n r i c h e s w i t h l i f e -g i v i n g m o i s t u r e . I n the b e n e f i t i t c o n f e r s how does i t d i f f e r 2 8 from sweet dew? T h e i r words a r e s o f t and p l i a n t . Of g r e a t s u b t l e t y , they a r e c o r r e c t and t r u e . E n t e r i n g d e e p l y i n t o c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena, they have t a k e n 2 9 l e a v e of a l l f a l s e v i e w s . F i n d i n g a home i n the s i n g l e p a t h of b o d h i , they have c u t t h emselves f r e e of f a l s e d u a l i t y . 3 0 T h e i r e x p o s i t i o n of dharma i s l i k e the sound of the l i o n ' s 92 r o a r . T h e i r d i s c o u r s e s a r e l i k e the s h a k i n g echo of s p r i n g thunder.31 I n t e a c h i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e y c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d of t h o s e who l i s t e n and a d j u s t [ t h e i r e f f o r t s ] t o the depth of t h e i r l i s t e n e r s ' k a r m i c c a p a c i t i e s . 3 2 G a t h e r i n g t h e m u l t i t u d e of j e w e l s they s k i l l f u l l y manage the dharma g a t e . I n t h i s t h e y a r e l i k e p i l o t s who know w e l l the ocean r o u t e s . Those p r e c i o u s j e w e l s [which a r e t h e r e ] , the p i l o t s can succeed i n g e t t i n g them. So i t i s w i t h the s u b l i m e and s u b t l e p r i n c i p l e s [of dharma]; the b o d h i s a t t v a s u n d e r s t a n d them c o m p l e t e l y and t r u l y . 3 3 They see the comings and g o i n g s of the l i v i n g b e i n g s t h r o u g h b i r t h and d e a t h , and e n t e r the E v i l Paths of Asura [?] and the h e l l i s h p u r g a t o r i e s . 3 4 The d i f f e r e n c e s among the minds of men who d w e l l i n a l l of the w o r l d s as numerous as the r i v e r ' s sand, a l l t h i s t h e y know e n t i r e l y i n a s i n g l e t hought. I n the j a g g e d roughness r e s u l t i n g from the b i l l i o n s of i n s t a n c e s of i n n e r t u r m o i l , i n number v a s t as the r i v e r ' s d u s t , they can d i s c e r n the 3 S most minute d i f f e r e n c e s . A l t h o u g h the g a t e s and windows of the E v i l - t e n d i n g Ways ar e f o r e v e r shut [ t o them] and the road t o Bodhi i s not f a r , y e t s t i l l a r e t h e i r t r a n s f o r m e d appearances [ i n t h i s w o r l d ] beyond e x h a u s t i o n and t h e i r w o r k i n g of wonders of r a r e measure.36 They can shake up the Yangtze and make i t i n t o t h i c k l y c u r d l e d m i l k 3 7 , 93 i n but a moment's t i m e ! They can change the g r e a t e a r t h i n t o pure g o l d , a l l i n j u s t an i n s t a n t ! They make 38 mountains o f meat w i t h f i s h and r i c e t o save the s t a r v i n g b e i n g s . They can l i f t up Mt. Sumeru i n the palms of t h e i r hands39 and suck the g r e a t oceans i n t o [ t h e space o f ] a h a i r . 4 0 They man i f e s t 4 1 c l o u d s of compassion which sp r e a d t o cover the T r i p l e Realm. Bestowing t h e i r b e n e f i t s they save the c r e a t u r e s of the Four B i r t h s i n g r e a t numbers. L i m i t l e s s wisdom i s complete i n them. They have u n d e r s t o o d e n t i r e l y a l l the m a j e s t i c b e a r i n g s of the Buddhas.42 W e l l do they d i s t i n g u i s h the p r i n c i p l e s of the Three V e h i c l e s . S k i l l f u l l y do they s e t out the gate of the S i x D e l i v e r a n c e s . T h e i r n e c k l a c e s of j e w e l s c l i c k and chime; t h e i r headwear g l i t t e r s , glows. M a j e s t i c a l l y adorned i n p u r i t y l i k e the l o t u s f l o w e r which blooms i n an a z u r e p o o l . Gleaming s p o t l e s s , s h i n i n g f u l l l i k e the moon p l a c e d i n a c l e a r n i g h t ' s sky. And w i t h t h i s m e r i t - c o n d u c t , a l l w i s h i n g t o advance t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n , i n g r e a t number they appeared, t h i r t y - t w o thousand of them, a l l i n the assembly a t Amra Park. To b o d h i s a t t v a s , a m u l t i t u d e , w i t h t h e i r p e n e t r a t i n g 43 powers J Gathered t h e r e i n a l l t h i r t y two thousand T h e i r m a j e s t i c glow of so many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s T h e i r a u s p i c i o u s b e a r i n g m u l t i p l i e d a hundred thousand 4- • 44 t i m e s . From t h e i r necks and s h o u l d e r s hang n e c k l a c e s of j e w e l s P r e c i o u s s t o n e s and gems v i e upon t h e i r crowns Each and e v e r y mind hopes t o hear and t o r e c e i v e 94 Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park A l l known t o the m u l t i t u d e From M a n j u s r i t o U n i v e r s a l E x c e l l e n c e 4 5 T h e i r s p i r i t powers r e f i n e d , r e p l e t e M e r i t - v i r t u e f u l l round, c o m p l e t e 4 6 They suck g i g a n t i c oceans i n t o a h a i r b r e a d t h ' s space And Mt. Sumeru r e s t s s e c u r e l y i n t h e i r palms Such i s the g r e a t n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t - s t r e n g t h Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park Walking [?] e v e r y where i n t h i s s h i f t i n g w o r l d [ ? ] With ease can make i t [?] a l l of g o l d 4 7 When meeting the c a t a s t r o p h e of famine They c r e a t e mountains of r i c e and f i s h With u n d e r s t a n d i n g c l e a v e the p r i n c i p l e s of the Three V e h i c l e s They can open up the b a r r i e r s t o the S i x P e r f e c t i o n s Such i s the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r m e r i t - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park. T r a n s f o r m i n g t h i n g s they e n t e r each and e v e r y gate T h e i r fame spreads f a r beyond the f a r t h e s t f a r - o f f p l a c e They r e g u l a t e the hete r o d o x ways And subdue the demon enemies i n t o c o m p l i a n c e 4 8 They can c l a r i f y and p u r i f y the m i r r o r of t h e i r knowledge The j e w e l of t h e i r minds has t a k e l e a v e of w o r l d l y b o n d s 4 9 Such i s the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park W i t h i n the T r i p l e Realm n o t h i n g g r a s p s o r b i n d s them Through the t e n d i r e c t i o n s they go and the n r e t u r n They a r e l i k e c l o u d s , how can they be o b s t r u c t e d L i k e the sun, they have no c o v e r i n g hindrance 5 1- 1 S h i n i n g c l e a r : the moon amidst the waves S t a i n l e s s , p u r i f i e d : a l o t u s on the water So numerous t h e i r m e r i t - a c t s complete Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park51 C a u s i n g the i n t e n t i o n s of the l i v i n g b e i n g s t o f o l l o w T h e i r minds of compassion f i l l t he c h i l i o c o s m 5 2 Among the many e v i l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the common r u n They can d i s c e r n the ka r m i c r o o t s of each 95 I n d i s c i p l i n e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n , w i t h each thought a d v a n c i n g Minds which uphold b o d h i i n e v e r y moment of thought Such i s the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t - s t r e n g t h Upon t h a t day, they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park T h e i r knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s of a unique s o r t 5 3 What they c u l t i v a t e and h o l d t o i s a l l a s i n g l e t y p e T h e i r m a g n i f i c e n t adornments a l l aglow w i t h l i g h t T h e i r e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l marks s u r p a s s i n g men's and gods' L i s t e n i n g t o dharma near the g o l d e n p l a t f o r m Having passed through the f o r e s t of j e w e l s 5 4 Such i s the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park S c a t t e r i n g always the sweet dew They can d i s s i p a t e b u r n i n g t u r m o i l ' s s e a r i n g heat With the s t r e n g t h of the diamond, f i r m , u n y i e l d i n g They smash t o p i e c e s a l l f a l s e v i e w s 5 5 Everywhere56 they preach the M i d d l e Way And a t a l l t i m e s 57 r o o t out d u a l i t y Such i s the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t s - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park L e a d i n g on w i t h no excuses born of f e a r Never t a k i n g s i d e s between the g r e a t o r l o w l y They d e f e a t the demons w i t h the l i o n ' s r o a r And preach w i t h the r o l l of thunder and l i g h t n i n g With a thousand powers t h e i r m e r i t s r e a c h c o m p l e t i o n In the Three V e h i c l e s , they've t o t a l mastery Such i s the f u l l n e s s of the m e r i t - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park They can r a i n down a l l of dharma's t r e a s u r e I f men s h o u l d seek, they w i s h t o ease the way Long knowing w e l l the d a r k ocean's byways They have reached the seven t r e a s u r e s ' s h o a l s 5 8 F e e l i n g sharp d i s t r e s s f o r t h o s e caught i n the h e l l s I n t e n t o n l y on r e s c u i n g from woe t h o s e i n t h i s f l o a t i n g l i f e 5 9 Such i s the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r m e r i t - a c t s Upon t h a t day they d i d a r r i v e a t the Amra park 96 On t h a t day i n the Amra park assembly The assembled s a i n t s and w o r t h i e s , h i g h and low Were l i k e f l o w e r s g a t h e r e d i n the sky L i k e brocade 60 A l l p r e s s i n g t o b e h o l d the se a t w i t h a thousand p r e c i o u s t h i n g s adorned With t h e i r f i n g e r s h o l d i n g down t h e i r s e v e n - j e w e l l e d c r o w n s 6 1 T h e i r j e w e l s and gems a l l r i n g , a c h i m i n g , j i n g l i n g sound Jade g i r d l e s echo f o r t h , t h e i r t i n g l i n g note r e s o u n d s 6 2 Some h o l d i n g c r y s t a l v e s s e l s Some r a i s i n g amber p l a t e s With i v o r y showing r e v e r e n t r e s o l v e 6 3 97 Notes t o S e c t i o n IVA 1 . 533 .6 . T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s t a r t s w i t h £|3 &o £ ^£ 45JL Jj . The t o r n b e g i n n i n g of t h i s MS fragment no. 1 b e g i n s w i t h a note on how much of the s u t r a i s t o be c o v e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n (533 .5 . 7$ j£ £L\ •••) However the t e x t i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and d i s c o n t i n u o u s u n t i l the phrase noted above. I s u s p e c t ^L^s s h o u l d r e a d $Q . F o l l o w i n g Hsu, p_u cheng, p. 39, t a k i n g as . 2. 533. 6 . ^fi . Emending ^ t o ji. . MS r e a d s v^L . 3. 533 .6 . 7*] -// - T h i s e x p r e s s i o n i n d i c a t e s an i n c a l c u l a b l y l a r g e number. I t i s an a b b r e v i a t e d form of <fg-'v*f -/}"• , 'the sands of the Ganges'. See Oda 188.C. 4. T h i s paragraph seems t o be the t a i l end of the p r e a c h e r ' s g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of b o d h i s a t t v a s , b e i n g a p a r a p h r a s e and comment on the s u t r a ' s : %fe % % ^ ^ - ^ >?r Jfa ffj^ • 5. 533 .7 . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o s u t r a : j ^ X g if- "3p£ 6. 533 .7 . T h i s appears t o be the p r e a c h e r ' s c a r e l e s s r e a d i n g of the s C t r a ' s 3$ ^ ^ £ • 7. 533 . 7. Corresponds t o s u t r a : • % & • 8. 533 .7 -8 . Corresponds t o s u t r a : ftjr, ^ ^ s-3/L . ^ r^J -f *3T - j - • T h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s a m i s t a k e . I s u s p e c t , from c o n t e x t , t h a t a word such as | ^ o r was i n t e n d e d . 9. 533 .8 . On the term ^ see Oda 497 .a. 10. The term i s an u n u s u a l one. I t a k e i t t o mean ' a c t i n g t o extend b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r s ' . See PWC 382.9,11 f o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . T h i s appears t o be the p r e a c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s u t r a ' s • ^ ^ / f ' v j i f t $t ^Z- > a l t h o u g h i t does not seem q u i t e a p p o s i t e . 1 1 . 533.8. ^ D D i f c -The two u n i n t e l l i g i b l e c h a r a c t e r s appear t o be ( o n l y the r i g h t - s i d e of the f i r s t remains i n MS), which i s c o n f i r m e d by comparison w i t h s u t r a : ^ ' j j f # 1£ • T h e l a c u n a e i n 533.5-1 0 a r e the r e s u l t or t e a r s a t t o p and bottom of MS. 98 12. 533.8. Corresponds t o s u t r a MS has a common p h o n e t i c l o a n f o r ^ & % . PWC emendation toJg^ i s i n c o r r e c t . 13. Corresponds t o s u t r a R e c o n s t r u c t e d on t h a t b a s i s . See a l s o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i n e i n the v e r s e s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g , 535.4, f f f j - J . * | y\^_. 14. 533.8-9. These two l i n e s , i n c o m p l e t e a t b e g i n n i n g and end, pose problems. J u d g i n g from MS t h e r e may be f i v e c h a r a c t e r s m i s s i n g b e f o r e i C ? ^ ? ^ . I f so, one of them would b e l o n g t o the c l a u s e a t hand. * i ^ ^ i n the n e x t c l a u s e s h o u l d be t r a n s p o s e d . I t appears c o r r e c t l y i n the v e r s e c o u n t e r p a r t , 533.5. The term i s a sho r t h a n d r e f e r e n c e t o two n u m e r i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , the f i v e ' c o v e r s ' j£ and the t e n ' bonds' -f\&|t. , f o r which see Oda 513.3 and 926.3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Taken t o g e t h e r , they a re a b l a n k e t r e f e r e n c e t o the causes of a n g u i s h . T h i s passage c o r r e s p o n d s t o the s u t r a ' s fcL . ji<W$L g ^ t J l / o n which b a s i s i t s f u l l sense i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d . 1 5. 533. 9. Corresponds t o s u t r a ' s & ^ & *tk 8% RJL. 1 6. 533.9. -7$ s h o u l d read . S u t r a has s i m p l y £z%_*!§.3$jr %i\ ~% ||£fr • T h e p r e a c h e r seems t o r e a d w i t h a c a u s a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f i r s t and second groups of f o u r c h a r a c t e r s . 1 7. 533.1 1 . J | r % . MS reads ^| . 18. 533.9-11. The passage from n.16 t o h e r e , a l i s t , w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e comment, of the s i x p a r a m i t a s which a re r e p l e t e i n t he b o d h i s a t t v a s , c o r r e s p o n d s t o the s u t r a ' s : ify . #|-1 9. 533. 1 1 -1 2. & i irfL ftfc "Ik . I s u s p e c t i_ s h o u l d r e a d fa • Corresponds t o s u t r a ' s £ HtL fttlJ'lR . The s u t r a p r e c e d i n g l i n e ^ ^ ^£ ^ appears t o have been s k i p p e d o v e r , p u r p o s e l y or n o t , by the p r e a c h e r . 20. 533. 1 2. S u t r a has s i m p l y ^ . 21 . 533.12. S u t r a ' s c o r r e s p o n d i n g passage: ^ -^s Jj^ c % *£• 22. 533. 1 2-1 3. ^ A | L • • - ^ | £ A • • • • I s u s p e c t ^ s h o u l d r e a d o r •^ •^ T^ - • The s u t r a r e a d s : JT ^ ^ • &y%-%. • KumarajIva e x p l a i n s i n h i s commentary t h a t the f i r s t c l a u s e means t h a t 99 they t r a n s c e n d the m u l t i t u d e . See T i n g p.2a. 533.1 3. % | f ^ M 6 & J c . The c h a r a c t e r ^ i s u n c l e a r i n the m i c r o f i l m of MS and appears i n the margin ne x t to^J? . I r e a d as . PWC emendation here i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s u s t a i n . See f o r example 538.5 ?^ (*f^) ^ , an emendation which i s borne out i n Fu-mu en-chung chiang-ching-wen . PWC 681.9. T h i s l i n e s e r v e s as a comment upon the ' f e a r l e s s n e s s ' of the l i n e above, w h i l e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the s u t r a ' s words noted i n n.25. T h i s p a r a g r a p h c o r r e s p o n d s t o the s u t r a ' s yft VK i ' ^ -533.13. Condensing the s u t r a ' s meaning h e r e . S u t r a r e a d s : 533.13-1 4. S u t r a r e a d s : & # & i£ $ f j | | • 533.14. Passage s h o u l d be p u n c t u a t e d w i t h a f u l l s t o p a f t e r ^ Efl'J . b e l o n g s t o the n e x t c l a u s e which s h o u l d have a p a r t i a l s t o p a f t e r ^ and none a f t e r - ^ j ^  , thus g i v i n g two p a r a l l e l c l a u s e s of 4 + 7. C o r r e s p o n d i n g s u t r a passage: 5zV ^ ^ -J*?, i& ~& 533.14-15. These two paragraphs r e f l e c t t he f o l l o w i n g emended p u n c t u a t i o n : P a r t i a l s t o p a f t e r ^ , f u l l a f t e r j i . jJL . P a r t i a l s t o p a f t e r 4& $c , f u l l a f t e r p^, , thus g i v i n g f o u r p h r a s e s of 4. For ano t h e r o c c u r r e n c e of j£. S$- see P w c 553.9. A&^jjLis d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n I I I n.10. SCitra r e a d s : %. £ $ t -*Jr ^  - • ^ 3#L*k , g*T IL * 533.1 5. (^ Jr W I E i f . MS h a s ] ^ . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o s u t r a ' s 1§ -Xgs ^- ^  . The s u c c e e d i n g f o u r c h a r a c t e r s ^ appear t o have been s k i p p e d o v e r . 553. 1 5. Corresponds t o -;§| -A^t.^c , ^ * H J . % t 533.15-16. These two l i n e s , i n v o l v i n g as they do t h e v e r b 3^-~§T , may have been prompted by the s u t r a ' s next l i n e s "<§f' tL ^ fL-"j§r " H o w e v e r s i n c e the s u t r a here r e f e r s t o the tr a n s c e n d e n c e beyond measure of the b o d h i s a t t v a s , we might 1 00 b e s t c o n s i d e r t h e s e two l i n e s as a comment appended t o the p r e c e d i n g l i n e s i n MS (n . 3 1 ) , showing, as they do, the b o d h i s a t t v a s s k i l l i n a p p l y i n g e x p e d i e n t means i n expounding dharma t o t e a c h and t r a n s f o r m . These two l i n e s , which i n c i d e n t a l l y e x h i b i t f a u l t y p a r a l l e l i s m , e x p r e s s i n a n u t s h e l l the c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n p r e a c h i n g , matching c o n t e n t and s t y l e t o a u d i e n c e . On the term which appears a l s o i n 538.1 4, see Oda 497.1 . 33. 533.16. T h i s passage, e x t e n d i n g t o the f i r s t two c h a r a c t e r s of 534.2, i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e as p u n c t u a t e d i n PWC. Through n.35 below I f o l l o w the emended p u n c t u a t i o n of Hsu, t s a i pu, p. 11 8-11 9 , repro d u c e d below: f f «r ^  # ^ ?1 , 4* i l a, - ^ * « , -^M i f - i t - 2 ** vfm, m; * j . The l i n e s t o n.33 c o r r e s p o n d t o the s u t r a ' s % >£ ^  • ^ w l . ' f e f • 3 :JL f^r ' T%.-*-*J~ z-^C • T h e metaphor i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the d i s c u s s i o n i n S e c t i o n I a t 517.12-13 (and 517.3) . 34. 534.1 . vf$L . The E v i l P aths a r e u s u a l l y t h r e e i n number, £ ^ and r e f e r t o the "lower h a l f " of the S i x Paths 7; ijf_ , e x i s t e n c e i n the h e l l s , as a hungry g h o s t , o r as a b e a s t f<£ , %. , ® %- • The i n c l u s i o n of a s u r a here i s an>e r r o r . 35. 534.1-2. T h i s and n.34 above c o r r e s p o n d t o the s u t r a ' s 534.1 . g^, J|£ . Emending t o ->5f . 36 . 534.2. These l i n e s p a r a p h r a s e s the sense of t h e s u t r a ' s Vjr f t & P-b] • i i . i|L S|L4£-II ' w i t h o u t bogging down i n d e t a i l s . With t h i s , the p r e a c h e r b r e a k s away from l i n e - b y - l i n e t r e a t m e n t of the s u t r a . What remains of t h i s p r o s e s e c t i o n a r e some f a n t a s t i c a l examples of the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' powers, t h e n , i n 534.4-5, a b r i e f passage c o v e r i n g the r e s t of the s u t r a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the b o d h i s a t t v a s ( f rom j-^ fr M\%L t o -to* A-~** XL. •) and, i n 534.5, a s t o c k d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r appearance. S i g n i f i c a n t l y the s u t r a ' s passage i s s k i p p e d over h e r e . I t becomes t h e t h e m a t i c f o c u s of the s u c c e e d i n g p o r t i o n of MS. 101 37. 534.2.$fc . P r o p e r l y ^ ^ L g ^ . T h i s i s a beverage made of condensed m i l k through r e p e a t e d b o i l i n g and skimming. See Daikanwa 39835.12. J u d g i n g from a passage i n Lu-shan yuan- kung hua j*J| ^ ^ 4 - , PWC 178.14-15, t h i s must have been e i t h e r g e l a t i n o u s o r of a t h i c k l i q u i d c o n s i s t e n c y . 38 . 534.3. C I ^3 ^  • T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s almost c e r t a i n l y ^ i n MS. 39 . 534. 3. M i s p u n c t u a t e d i n PWC. F o l l o w i n g H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 39, t h i s l i n e s h o u l d r e a d : ^ d\ -f" tf 7 i s u n c l e a r i n MS. Hsu's s u g g e s t i o n of-fsj i s q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e . 40. 534.3. T h i s image d e r i v e s from a passage i n the s i x t h p o r t i o n of the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a , p u - s s u - i p ' i n ^ ^ ga , T i n g p.53a, " [ t h e b o d h i s a t t v a ] can a l s o t a k e the waters of the f o u r g r e a t oceans and put them i n t o a s i n g l e p o r e . " 5 £ _ wC GE7 7 ^ /]<- X. —' 3-Li • Pore & has become s i m p l y h a i r ^ , j u s t as the phrase a t n.39 speaks of the hand, r a t h e r than the s u t r a ' s "mustard seed" ("he can put Sumeru's t o w e r i n g b r e a d t h i n t o a mustard seed." VA. ^  <?$f £. % jf| , T i n g 53a. These l i n e s a r e r e c a p i t u l a t e d i n 534.13. 544.10 has a s i m i l a r l i n e r e f e r r i n g t o demons and s p i r i t s who can t o s s the K'un-lun mountains on t h e i r backs and c o n t a i n the v a s t oceans i n t h e i r b e l l i e s . j ^ j j ^  J A ^ ~Jfr k. > $w y& v& ?K -ft- nt^r' 41 . 534.4. -^CH-^ . T a k i n g as f | . 42. 534.4. . See Oda 1 855.2. 43. 534.7. T h i s b e g i n s a s e c t i o n of f i v e - s y l l a b l e v e r s e i n the f a m i l i a r d o u b l e q u a t r a i n form w i t h r e f r a i n . 44. 534.8. t? • • . On jEj* see C h i a n g , p. 33. I s u s p e c t the m i s s i n g c h a r a c t e r s a r e 1^ . 45 . 534.1 1 . t^" "^jf . U s u a l t r a n s l a t i o n of S k t . Samantabhadra. In f a c t t h i s b o d h i s a t t v a does not f i g u r e i n the V i m a l a k i r t i  s u t r a . However M a n j u s r i 5^ and P' u - h s i e n a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l l y p a i r e d and a r e p r o b a b l y mentioned here as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d h i s a t t v a s . See Oda 1517.1 and M o c h i z u k i p.4405-4407, esp. 4406.2. 46. 534.12 . ^ % % gj . I s u s p e c t gj s h o u l d r e a d )fj . 1 02 47. 534.1 5. , -$[ & $ * . f i s u n c l e a r i n MS. MS has no t r a n s p o s i t i o n mark between 'jjj^. and z£. The p r e a c h e r may i n f a c t not be s p e a k i n g of the saha w o r l d , but of a s h i f t i n g w o r l d of f l u x . On xjf. 's v a r i o u s meanings see Daikanwa 6390.6. Note a g a i n t h a t MS a t 533.6 above has ^ , not the r e v e r s e as i n PWC t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The word t r a n s c r i b e d as & l o o k s l i k e t h i s i n M S : ^ . I am not c o n v i n c e d i t i s & but am a t a l o s s t o suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s . T r a n s l a t i o n based on prose p a r a l l e l i n 534.2-48. 535.4. The emendation t o Jfc makes no sense and, what's more, as Hsu, p_u cheng, p. 40, p o i n t s o u t , v i o l a t e s the rhyme. See 533.8 and n.12 above. The v e r b s |j|J ^  and iJt&fy. a r e p a r a l l e l i n meaning. Uncommon as compounds, they appear t o have been formed by s p l i t t i n g the common v e r b %^ \ £ i and a d d i n g words t h a t mean t o s o f t e n o r make p l i a n t . The l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r means t o do so by b o i l i n g and i s the same as t o which Hsu, p_u cheng, p.40, emends, 49. 535.5. /u>N . emending t o > e > N £ ^ . , p a r a l l e l l i n g - ^ ! ^ . 50. 535.8. F o l l o w i n g Hsu, p_u cheng, p.40 who s u g g e s t s ^ | ( i . e . f o r the m i s s i n g c h a r a c t e r . i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a synonym f o r , see I r i y a i n d e x , 'mo'. 51. 535.10. & CJ • Q . MS has the t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s , r e p l a c e d by the e q u i v a l e n t of d i t t o marks. They a r e , o b v i o u s l y , 5£iJ ^ 52. 535.11. Reading the f i r s t c l a u s e w i t h a c a u s a t i v e s u p p l i e d . Compare 533. 1 1 -1 2: ^ 4 (rfa?) t& 4" fli 3'lfl • •fcJX . The c h i l l i c o s m . An a b b r e v i a t e d form of 21 ^f- ^ ^ ^_. See Oda, 643.2. 53. 535.1 5. j§: ^ife . Reading a s ^ . 54. 536.1 . x ^ ^ . l ' - M S reads V ( ^ i M ^ ) - T h i s v e r b compound a l s o appears i n 527.16. ^f:$£J"- Daikanwa 7376 .1 76 g l o s s e s as a metaphor f o r t h e v e g e t a t i o n i n the Pure Lands. 542.8 uses as a d e s c r i p t i v e metaphor f o r the b o d h i s a t t v a s g a t h e r e d i n the assembly. 55. 536.4. The m i s s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s , w i t h o u t a doubt, , based on c o n t e x t and rhyme. 56 . 536.5. T a k i n g the m i s s i n g c h a r a c t e r s t o be 7*5i , which o c c u r s p a r a l l e l t o wjj ^  i n t h i s t e x t a t 519.4 and 526.8. 1 03 57. 536.5. has a strong temporal sense deriving from i t s basic meaning, 'in every case'. 58. 536.12. This harks back to the 'sea-pilot' metaphor, see 533.1 6. The word-^ , Daikanwa 18784, meaning a sandy island or shoal here, i s also written y^p . 59. 536.13. >uv . MS reads ^  ^ . The word does not seem to be a technical Buddhist term. It i s used in poetry of the T'ang with a sense of unsettled, s h i f t i n g or f l e e t i n g . See Daikanwa 17487.161. 60. 536.16. MS torn. 61 . 537 .1 . MS consistently writes jjjb as f , but only here does PWC transcribe so. The word ^ i s p a r a l l e l and conveys a sense of urgency, not frequency here. 62. 537.2. Hsii, p_u cheng, p.40, suggests for the l a s t two characters. 545.6, with a d i f f e r e n t rhyme, reads «<i5f #fL-fj| 63. 537.4-5. The torn end of MS fragment no.1. 1 04 SECTION IVB The B o d h i s a t t v a s : G r e a t P h y s i c i a n K i n g s Number Two: P a r e n t s of t h i s w o r l d a n x i o u s over the i l l n e s s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 1 ( g a t h a ) : Among humans, p a r e n t s ' devoted l o v e i s of the deepest k i n d Concerned about t h e i r sons and d a u g h t e r s , never slow i n t h e i r response How can they bear [ t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s ] i l l n e s s w i t h i t s t i r i n g , s t o o p i n g woes? How can they even speak of s i c k n e s s and b r i n g c a l a m i t y upon them s e l v e s ? When the m e d i c i n e i s not y e t found nor a cure a c h i e v e d The moaning, w a i l i n g c a n ' t be stopped, i t s h a t e f u l and grave t i d i n g E v ery thought f i l l e d w i t h c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s sake R e g r e t t i n g they c a n ' t t a k e t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i s e a s e upon themselves The b o d h i s a t t v a s f e e l c o n c e r n f o r the b e i n g s o f the T r i p l e Realm, l o v i n g them as i f they were t h e i r own c h i l d r e n . 3 Thus the s u t r a says l a t e r 4 ; " i t i s l i k e a r i c h man who has but one c h i l d , s h o u l d the c h i l d f a l l i l l , so w i l l i t s p a r e n t s be i l l " , e t c . The b o d h i s a t t v a s a p p l y dharma m e d i c i n e . Thus the Kuan-yin  S u t r a 6 says such t h i n g s as "... a c h i e v e s a l v a t i o n by r e s p o n d i n g t o i t w i t h the buddha-body" e t c . e t c . and "among the i l l n e s s e s of the b e i n g s i n the h e l l s , t h e r e a r e i l l n e s s e s r e s u l t i n g from the Three P o i s o n s V " and mentions the F i v e Woes and the E i g h t Woes.8 In the case of a w o r l d l y p h y s i c i a n , he can m i n i s t e r t o t h e 1 05 s i c k n e s s e s of the body. But the dharma m e d i c i n e of the b o d h i s a t t v a s can cur e 9 d i s e a s e s of both the body and the mind, h a v i n g us d e p a r t f o r e v e r from b i r t h and d e a t h . T h i s i s what we mean by c u r e . When the l i v i n g b e i n g s ' i l l n e s s e s a r e c u r e d , t h e 1 0 b o d h i s a t t v a s ' i l l n e s s i s cur e d as w e l l . ' u The s u t r a s a y s , "They s e r v e as g r e a t p h y s i c i a n k i n g s , who, s k i l l e d a t c u r i n g the m u l t i t u d i n o u s a f f l i c t i o n s , bestow m e d i c i n e matched t o the i l l n e s s and cause i t t o be t a k e n . 1 1 L e t us compare t h i s t o l o v e and d e v o t i o n i n our w o r l d . N o t h i n g s u r p a s s e s t h e f e e l i n g which r e l a t i v e s h o l d f o r one another and the most i n t i m a t e bond of a l l i s the one which t i e s p a r e n t s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , born of t h e i r own b o d i e s . 1 2 When the c h i l d i s s m a l l they l o v e and p r o t e c t i t , l o o k i n g upon i t l i k e a j e w e l i n t h e i r palm; as i t grows, the o b j e c t of 1 3 t h e i r l o v i n g c o n c e r n , they c h e r i s h i t l i k e a f a m i l y t r e a s u r e . C r a d l i n g and n u r t u r i n g i t , t hey s h r i n k from no h a r d s h i p or t o i l . They swallow the b i t t e r 1 4 a n d s p i t out the sweet;' do they e v e r make excuses t h a t t h e y ' r e t i r e d o r f e d up w i t h i t ? B y p a s s i n g the d r y , they head f o r the wet; they dread t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n might be u n c o m f o r t a b l e even f o r a moment. When d o i n g the washing they f e a r t h a t i n a moment of absent-minded n e g l i g e n c e they might g e t a sudden shock. When the c h i l d nears a r i v e r o r a w e l l , t hey a re c o n s t a n t l y w o r r i e d about the danger of i t s drowning. [When i t p l a y s a t f i g h t i n g , ] s p o r t i n g w i t h s p e a r s o r k n i v e s , they a r e 1 06 always concerned t h a t i t w i l l r e c e i v e p a i n f u l i n j u r y . Of the t h i n g s of t h i s w o r l d , c h i l d r e n know n o t h i n g , but t h e i r p a r e n t s ' concerns g r a d u a l l y cause them t o r e c e i v e g u i d a n c e . As they get o l d e r and l e a r n t h e i r way around a b i t , 1 6 i t ' s b e s t t o send them o f f t o l e a r n b u s i n e s s or perhaps t o p r a c t i c e w i t h the w r i t i n g b r u s h . Thus s h o u l d i t be w i t h a boy. G i r l s a r e a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y . L e t them never v e n t u r e beyond t h e i r chamber d o o r s , have them p r a c t i c e a t l e n g t h t h e a r t of o i l and powder.17 They s h o u l d become f a m i l i a r w i t h music knowing c l e a r l y the v a r i o u s s t r a i n s and m e l o d i e s , or t a k e up sewing, so t h e i r n e e d l e may be c l e v e r and g r a c e f u l . When boys come of age i n t h e i r t w e n t i e t h year and g i r l s i n 1 fi t h e i r f i f t e e n t h , they s h o u l d t a k e a spouse and be m a r r i e d . E v e r y t h i n g f o l l o w s i n due c o u r s e . And a l l the way through t h e r e 1 9 a r e w o r r i e s ... e v e r y s o r t of ... They burn the b e s t i n c e n s e time and a g a i n w i t h i n the temple20 a n d g r a n t f e a s t s f o r the monks, p r o v i d i n g f o r the l a y men and women as w e l l , 2 1 but t h i s does not ease t h e i r a n x i o u s worry. F a t h e r each day l o o k s more stooped and drawn, mother each day t h i n n e r and more exhausted w i t h worry. But s h o u l d they a t l a s t hear t h a t t h e s i c k n e s s has eased, t h a t even some measure of c u r e has been a c h i e v e d , t h e n suddenly everyone's sad worry changes. Then f a t h e r and mother h a p p i l y r e j o i c e . The b o d h i s a t t v a s ' f e e l i n g s are e x a c t l y the same. With compassion f o r 1 07 the s e n t i e n t b e i n g s they t h i n k of them as though they themselves had g i v e n b i r t h t o them. T h e i r h e a r t s break f o r the common c r e a t u r e s . They l o v e them as i f they were t h e i r own l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . Not w i s h i n g t o see us d r i f t i n g a i m l e s s l y upon the waves of the Four B i r t h s 2 2 , l o n g they p r a c t i c e t h e i r r e s o l v e t o scoop us f r e e . 2 3 Lamenting our b e i n g caught p e r p e t u a l l y i n the t u r n i n g wheel of the T r i p l e Realm, they make a vow t o save us. Not y e t r e a l i z i n g [ the i l l u s o r y n a t u r e o f ] our i g n o r a n t s e n s e s , our sense f i e l d i s e n d l e s s l y darkened by the s i x d e f i l e m e n t s . 2 4 Unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h the True P r i n c i p l e s , we have been c o n t a m i n a t e d f o r so l o n g by the f i l t h of the Three P o i s o n s . 2 5 The b o d h i s a t t v a s a re always l o o k i n g a t such c r e a t u r e s as we; they see s i c k n e s s , n o t h i n g e l s e . The s a i n t l y ones keep t h e i r eyes f i x e d always upon those of the v u l g a r c o u r s e ; t o them i t i s j u s t as though we a r e a f f l i c t e d w i t h i l l n e s s 2 6 . T h e r e f o r e they pound out27 the m e d i c i n e of dharma and a p p l y i t a c c o r d i n g t o the 2 8 r o o t causes of our i l l n e s s . They would have us sev e r o u r s e l v e s from c r a v i n g and anger, and cause us a l l t o work a t c u l t i v a t i n g and r e t a i n i n g wisdom. Though we s h o u l d be upon the waves of the Four C u r r e n t s 2 9 f they cause us t o f e e l no c o n c e r n over the danger of s i n k i n g 3 0 t h e r e i n . Though we be w i t h i n the wheel of the S i x Paths of E x i s t e n c e , t hey cause us t o be c u t f o r e v e r f r e e from the 1 08 road of [ e n d l e s s ] comings and g o i n g s . When one has abandoned the a g g r e g a t i o n of impermanence and a t t a i n e d the f i v e - p a r t dharma-body31, when one has r e a l i z e d b o d h i , where t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r o u t f l o w and c a s t away one's phenomenal form, o n l y then i s one c a l l e d b o d h i s a t t v a , o n l y then i s one p r o c l a i m e d t h e P h y s i c i a n K i n g . When a t l a s t t he a f f l i c t i o n s caused by i n n e r t u r m o i l and a n g u i s h , as v a s t i n number as the sands of the Ganges, when the s e a t l a s t d i s s i p a t e and a r e removed, then s h a l l t he Compassionate Vow of the B o d h i s a t t v a s be f u l f i l l e d . 3 2 Thus the s u t r a s a y s : " M a n i f e s t i n g themselves,33 they s e r v e as g r e a t P h y s i c i a n K i n g s who, s k i l l e d a t c u r i n g the m u l t i t u d i n o u s a f f l i c t i o n s , bestow m e d i c i n e matched t o the i l l n e s s and cause i t t o be t a k e n " (down t o ) ... "and o t h e r s l i k e them numbering t h i r t y and two thousands ... 34 When we speak of the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' devoted p r a c t i c e T h e i r m e r i t - s e e d of happy r e l i n q u i s h m e n t i s worthy of our p r a i s e I n the cour s e of t h r e e g r e a t k a l p a s , each one of i n c a l c u l a b l e l e n g t h , 3 5 they have r e l i n q u i s h e d l o v e and hate The s t r e n g t h of t h e i r f o u r g r e a t compassionate vows36 i s beyond compare L o v i n g compassion and, mercy, they abhor f l a t t e r i n g f a l s e h o o d And would save, cure the l i v i n g b e i n g s , who a r e so t h o r o u g h l y u n s e t t l e d Compassion and p i t y a r e always p r e s e n t , t y i n g t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o us J u s t l i k e p a r e n t s who f e e l p i t y i n g c o n c e r n over t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i l l n e s s 1 09 Those of the u n e n l i g h t e n e d common r u n , l o n g c u t o f f from the l i g h t I n f e c t e d l o n g w i t h c r a v i n g and anger, so hard^7 t o pare away, make r i g h t Always f e e l i n g c r a v i n g l i k e a l e a s h which tugs them on Co n s t a n t wayward t h o u g h t s a r i s e l i k e n e e d l e s , j u s t l i k e na i 1 s 3 8 I n d o l e n t l y l e a v i n g s u l l i e d m a t t e r i t s f r e e r e i n we debauch on i n c r a z e d d e l u s i o n - 1 ^ Can't w a i t t o l e t l o o s e i g n o r a n c e , proud of our h e a d s t r o n g s t u b b o r n n e s s 4 0 But the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' mercy and compassion t i e s t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o us J u s t l i k e p a r e n t s who f e e l p i t y i n g c o n c e r n over t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i l l n e s s Those of the u n e n l i g h t e n e d common r u n , b e g u i l e d by sound and form V a i n l y caught up i n c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena^, chase a f t e r f a l s e appearances In t e n thousand d i f f e r e n t songs they d e l i g h t i n l o v e ' s emotion I n s p r i n g t i m e s ' realm they go a s t r a y from t h e i r own t r u e n a t u r e s Among men, debauched, u n c a r i n g , you may delu d e your [own] m i n d - f i e l d 4 2 But i n the h e l l s how s h a l l you d e c e i v e the m i r r o r of your k a r m a ? 4 3 I n t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e J u s t l i k e p a r e n t s who f e e l p i t y i n g c o n c e r n over t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i l l n e s s Always e v i l b u l l i e s 4 4 , f i g h t i n g a l l the time When they hear about g o o d l y t h i n g s they don't l i s t e n t o a word They may d e c i d e t o mend t h e i r ways but t h a t l a s t s j u s t a minute They can never h o l d t o t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r any l e n g t h of time B u y i n g perfume, i t s e t s them back two or t h r e e b r i g h t c o i n s Or they 'buy a s m i l e ' , s h e l l i n g out seven o r e i g h t more s i l v e r s 4 5 I n t h e i r mercy and compassion, b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e J u s t l i k e p a r e n t s who f e e l p i t y i n g c o n c e r n over t h e i r 11 0 c h i l d r e n ' s i l l n e s s Wearied by good deeds, they c r a v e the w i c k e d r e a l m When s h a l l they be a b l e i n t h e i r minds t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r s h o r tcomings?46 With e v e r y s o r t of s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , they have no sense of shame Should the s l i g h t e s t t h i n g not go the way they want i t , they hate such a d i s a s t e r 4 7 E x o r c i s i n g t h e i r homes w i t h magic r i t e s , t h e y seek h i g h l i f e and s p l e n d o r They ask c h a r l a t a n s t o d i v i n e t h e i r f u t u r e s and l o o k f o r h a p p i n e s s and good f o r t u n e In t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e For the s i c k n e s s which i n f e c t s you48, the i l l of f o o l i s h i g n o r a n c e l With no r e g a r d f o r g r e a t or low and w i t h l i t t l e o r no r e s p e c t With p r i d e , c o n c e i t e d a r r o g a n c e d a r k e n i n g [?] p a s t and p r e s e n t 4 9 S t u d y i n g t o be w i c k e d and c o a r s e , of a f o u l r e p u t e [?] T h e y ' l l have no p a r t of r i t e s o r music, the good codes of r e s p e c t T h e i r i d e a s a r e l i b e r t i n e , p e r v e r s e and i g n o r a n t When, pray t e l l , w i l l they e v e r be a b l e t o wipe c l e a n t h e i r a c t i o n - s t o r e ? In t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e For the s i c k n e s s which i n f e c t s you, your u n y i e l d i n g o b s t i n a n c e With f r e n z i e d i g n o r a n t minds s i z z l i n g l i k e a s k i l l e t G l o w ing h o t , more f u e l p i l e d on, l i g h t the s k i e s w i t h w i l d i n t e n s i t y The untamed waves of v a i n misdeeds r o i l e d muddy thr o u g h and t h r o u g h The t o w e r i n g peak of c r a v i n g , r e a c h i n g heaven, p u s h i n g h i g h e r I f someone a s k s a f a v o r they can p r e t e n d t h a t they a r e d e a f 5 0 But s e e k i n g w e a l t h i m m o r a l l y they can be s h a r p - w i t t e d as a s a i n t I n t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g 1 11 m e d i c i n e For the s i c k n e s s which i n f e c t s you, hot-tempered c r a v i n g ' s i l l I f you're poor a l l means ex h a u s t e d , don't bemoan your f a t e ! S p l e n d o r decays when l e a s t we'd t h i n k , we're a l l d e s t i n e d t o our l o t You l o o k a t t h i n g s , and i n your h e a r t s you s t a r t t o f o s t e r e v i l t h o u g h t s You l o o k a t o t h e r s and i n your manner you p r a c t i c e p a r a s i t i c f a w n i n g 5 1 When w i l l you c a s t away the thought and a c t i o n of a yaksa? _ j — • — i — When w i l l t h i s r a k s a s a - l i k e c h a r a c t e r and c a l c u l a t i o n be removed?52 In t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e For the s i c k n e s s which i n f e c t s you, c r a z e d c o n f u s i o n ' s i l l With backs t u r n e d t o the True Source they hanker f o r improper paths Of good l o o k s and s k i l l s t h ey boast as they g a l l o p t o the f o r e 5 3 I n t h e i r y o u t h when th e y a r e t h r i v i n g t hey w i l l say, "How s t r o n g I am!" P a s s i n g cups, t h e y ' l l t i l t t h e tumble r and b i d each o t h e r d r i n k B e f o r e t h e wind, beneath the moon, t h e y ' l l compose new p o e t r y Among t h e f l o w e r s a t w a t e r ' s edge, t h e y ' l l t r a d e o f f - c o l o r l y r i c s 5 4 I n t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g m e d i c i n e s To r e l e a s e 5 5 you from your i l l n e s s , d e l u d e d i g n o r a n c e Senses f a l s e l y 5 6 t r a p p e d i n t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , t o an i n e x p r e s s i b l e degree How c o u l d you know a hundred y e a r s i s but a l i g h t n i n g f l a s h ? You, so c l e v e r , the f u l l , f i n e p i c t u r e of a man W i l l you bear b e i n g handed o v e r , l e d away by oxhorn-headed demons? The common run s h a l l meet t h e i r end, p l a c e d i n d a r k n e s s ' byway Not r e a l i z i n g t h e i r wayward p a t h , i t ' s t h e deep p i t t o which they a s p i r e In t h e i r mercy and compassion b o d h i s a t t v a s o f f e r h e a l i n g 1 1 2 m e d i c i n e To cause a l l t h e s i c k n e s s e s of l i v i n g b e i n g s t o be c o m p l e t e l y c u r e d p ' i n g ) Everywhere t e n d e r i n g t h e i r m e r c i e s , not j u s t randomly For they do l o o k upon us as t h e i r c h i l d r e n , j u s t the same They l i f t us a l l and c a r r y us out of the saha w o r l d They r e s c u e us, c a s t t o t a l l y away the source of p a i n f u l i n n e r t u r m o i l From our s i c k l y eyes, not open y e t , they remove the c o v e r i n g i n f e c t i o n 5 7 Our s t r i c k e n s e l v e s seem beyond cure58 they r e l e a s e us from the i l l n e s s w hich d o t h b i n d us They cause a l l men t o be done a t l a s t w i t h b i r t h and w i t h e x t i n c t i o n Only t h r o u g h t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s ' l a m e n t i n g compassion do we f i n a l l y g a i n our r e s t P a i n f u l l y t h i s i l l n e s s 5 9 l o n g does c o i l round and s i n k us The s a i n t l y ones w i t h p i t y i n g c o n c e r n put i n p r a c t i c e t h e i r vow p r o f o u n d A d a p t i n g means t o our k a r m i c r o o t s and c i r c u m s t a n c e , they persuade and g u i d e us They can g i v e us dharma m e d i c i n e and w i e l d f o r us the h e a l i n g n e e d l e Causing us t o c l i m b ever upward i n b o d h i ' s p a t h The doors and windows t o danger and e v i l a r e s e a l e d o f f from our s e a r c h i n g (?) 60 When they have caused each, one and a l l , t o f u l l y be e n l i g h t e n e d Only then s h a l l t h e i r t e n d e r m e r c i e s cause us t o p r o c l a i m o u r s e l v e s as body and m i n d D With m e r i t - a c t i o n s such as t h e s e they save us from the t u r n i n g wheel They send f o r t h t o a l l t h e i r l a m e n t i n g compassion62, t h e i r s a d n e s s - t i n g e d c o n c e r n A c y p r e s s bough w i t h i n t h e i r hands63 they sweep away o b s t r u c t i n g t u r m o i l I n s i d e t h e i r vase t h e r e i s sweet dew t o wash away c a l a m i t o u s m i s f o r t u n e How c o u l d they cease t h e i r s a v i n g b e n e f i t s c i t i n g t o i l o r 1 1 3 f a t i g u e They do not s h r i n k from p a i n f u l e f f o r t i n t h e i r comings and t h e i r g o i n g s Long have they a c t e d f o r s a l v a t i o n of t h i s saha w o r l d They w i l l cause a l l s i c k l y eyes t o d e c i s i v e l y be opened D i g n i f i e d , r e s p l e n d e n t , t h e i r s t a t u r e overawes64 A l l a r e t h e r e i n Amra pa r k , i n the assembly form ranks They hope o n l y t o see the C o n s c i o u s n e s s Supreme65 as he pours out dharma r a i n W a i t i n g but f o r the Great H o l i n e s s t o s e t s p r i n g thunder q u a k i n g The crowns a g l i t t e r upon t h e i r heads, a c l u s t e r of pure g o l d The t h r e a d s of t h e i r c l o t h e s rubbed w e l l [ ? ] , 6 6 a mass67 of brocade l e a f L ayer a f t e r l a y e r beyond number, l i t by luminous p o r t e n t s L i k e a f o r e s t of j e w e l t r e e s which has r e l e a s e d i t s blooms 6 Sages, s a i n t s so v a s t i n number, a t h r o n g i n Amra park A u s p i c i o u s c o l o r s and g l a d c l o u d s f i l l t he n i n e i n f i n i t i e s 6 9 The b o d h i s a t t v a s c i r c l e d round, t h i r t y thousand s t r o n g V o i c e - h e a r e r s ( s r a v a k a ) m i l l i n g a l l around a hundred thousand t u r n s Upon the conches songs are p l a y e d , the sound i s f u l l and c l e a r Cymbals, gongs s t r u c k m i g h t i l y , echo on and on Upon t h a t day the World-Honored One would expound the dharma As t o who e l s e came t o hear Him t h e r e , n e x t w e ' l l chant t h a t out 11 4 Notes on S e c t i o n IVB MS fragment no.3 b e g i n s , j a g g e d l y , a t 537.7. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s t a r t s a t 537.10, the second of two gathas i n what appears t o be an attempt a t f a s h i o n i n g an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a prose e x p o s i t i o n s e c t i o n on the s u t r a ' s " p h y s i c i a n k i n g " passage, quoted a t 538.3 and r e p e a t e d i n 539.1. T h i s passage, which appears as p a r t of the " b o d h i s a t t v a s e c t i o n " of the s u t r a ( T i n g , p . 3 a ) , was passed over by the p r e a c h e r i n S e c t i o n IVA, as noted t h e r e , and r e c e i v e s s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t h e r e . 537.1 0. . MS has % -z,#Q . 537. 1 2. #f i s a r h e t o r i c a l p a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n i n modern Ch i n e s e . 7GlL> (7£EJ jlL . T h i s i n t r i g u i n g c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n o c c u r s a l s o i n 538.11, where i t s meaning can be gl e a n e d from c o n t e x t , p a r a l l e l t o >j$, 'haggard, drawn'. L i t e r a l l y t he phrase means "exhausted t u r t l e " . The t u r t l e image g r a p h i c a l l y e x p r e s s e s stooped and slow, d r a g g i n g movements. The modern Taiwanese d i a l e c t p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l e x p r e s s i o n . Wang Y i i - t e i % , i n h i s Taiwango  j o y o g o i 4g ^ & , p. 300, notes the e x p r e s s i o n un gu, which he s u p p l i e s w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s f^jl ^  , and g l o s s e s as 'stooped, hunchbacked'. He a l s o g i v e s the i l l u s t r a t i v e s entence G i a h gag ungu k i , ^ , t o walk i n a t i r e d f a s h i o n w i t h the c h i n s t i c k i n g o u t . 537.1 5. r%[ jc* £ 3- . Emending -£» t o . 537. 1 5. ~r- "Z5* . T h i s i s not the name of a s u t r a and s h o u l d not be u n d e r l i n e d . The s u t r a r e f e r r e d t o i s t h i s v e r y same one, the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a . "fej ~X- i s an adverb of p o s i t i o n which means 'below' or ' l a t e r ' , ' i n a p o r t i o n t o f o l l o w 1 . See I r i y a i n d e x f o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . T h i s passage i s found i n the f i f t h p o r t i o n of the s u t r a , ( W e n - s h u - s h i h - l i ) wen-chi p ' i n ( sL ^ £ l^-fclP T $ L V?B , T i n g , p.42b and i s p a r t of V i m a l a k i r t i ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of the o r i g i n of h i s i l l n e s s . The passage c o n t i n u e s , " I f the c h i l d r e c o v e r s from i t s i l l n e s s , t he p a r e n t s a l s o r e c o v e r . So i t i s w i t h the b o d h i s a t t v a s . They l o v e the l i v i n g b e i n g s l i k e [ t h e i r own] c h i l d r e n . I f the l i v i n g b e i n g s a r e i l l t h en the b o d h i s a t t v a s a r e i l l . When the l i v i n g b e i n g s ' i l l n e s s i s c u r e d , the b o d h i s a t t v a s a re a l s o c u r e d . " ^- ifc , i C " 3 ^ 7 ^ 1 1 5 The i d e a of the passage, i d e n t i f y i n g b o d h i s a t t v a s w i t h concerned, e m p a t h e t i c p a r e n t s , m o t i v a t e s t h i s s e c t i o n of the l e c t u r e . The p r e a c h e r c i t e s the passage here and pursues w i t h e m b e l l i s h m e n t the analogy t o p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n what f o l l o w s , a p p e a l i n g i n the most a c c e s s i b l e and d i r e c t f a s h i o n t o h i s a u d i e n c e ' s e x p e r i e n c e and emotion. 6. 537.1 6. jjjg, % . N o r m a l l y t h i s r e f e r s t o the t w e n t y - f i f t h c h a p t e r of the L o t u s S u t r a , > t n e K u a n - s h i h - y i n p'u-sa p'u-men p' i n |jf£ ^ yfe. (KumarajIva t r . , Tn.262.25. T.9.56). The " q u o t a t i o n s " which f o l l o w are at b e s t p a r a p h r a s e s . The terms ~ ^ ft*? , , or / V ^ do not appear i n t h e Kuan-yin S u t r a . These may have been notes on s p e c i f i c i d e a s , remembered as d e r i v i n g from t h e Kuan-yin  S u t r a , which the p r e a c h e r i n t e n d e d t o b u i l d upon i n a p l a n n e d p r o s e e x p o s i t i o n t o f o l l o w or which may have been expounded i n the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n , now l o s t . 7. 537.16. 2 ^ . The t h r e e p o i s o n s of c r a v i n g , anger and i g n o r a n c e . , gjt , See Oda 651 .2. 8. 537.1 6-538.1 . J z $ r /V ^ . Two d i f f e r e n t ways of c o u n t i n g the E i g h t Woes, which i n one f o r m u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f : b i r t h , a g i n g , s i c k n e s s , d e a t h , p a r t i n g w i t h the o b j e c t of a f f e c t i o n , meeting w i t h the o b j e c t of l o a t h i n g , s e e k i n g w i t h o u t f i n d i n g and woes a r i s i n g from the F i v e A g g r e g a t e s . The F i v e Woes count the f i r s t f o u r as a s i n g l e woe. See Oda 672.1 . 9. 538.1. There seems t o be a p o i n t e d c o n t r a c t between the v e r b ^ , r e n d e r e d ' m i n i s t e r t o ' above, and the r e s u l t a t i v e compound S^. ^  . 10. 538.1-2. T h i s i s a r e w o r d i n g of the q u o t a t i o n s from the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a a b b r e v i a t e d i n 537.15. 11. 538.3. T h i s i n t r o d u c e s a s e c t i o n which t a k e s a new or perhaps reworded approach t o the same m a t e r i a l . I t seems t o be based upon the same s u t r a which i n s p i r e d the P o p u l a r  E x p o s i t i o n on t h e S u t r a o f the Weight of P a r e n t s ' Devoted  Love, Fu-mu en chung c h i n g chiang-ching-wen iC, 5t_ ( t i t l e g i v e n by PWC e d i t o r s , o r i g i n a l unknown) PWC 672-694, h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d as FM. The q u o t a t i o n marks s h o u l d not i n c l u d e - ^ . 1 2. 538.4. A . L i t e r a l l y , " T h i s i s the c h i l d born of the [mother's] b e l l y . " , g i v e n as the reason f o r the i n t e n s i t y of the bond. 1 1 6 13. 538.4-5. These a r e p r o b a b l y s e t phrases the c o n g r e g a t i o n was f a m i l i a r <"with. See Lu-shan Yiian-kung hua iiv i j * JiZ PWC 181.13: i C # l ^ & • 1 4. 538.5. vffij^ . Should r e a d ^  . See FM, 681.9, 13 and 682.12. 15. 538.5-6. T h i s language c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the s e c t i o n s of FM devoted t o i n f a n c y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . Compare the passages a t 681.9-10 and 683.14-15, r e s p e c t i v e l y , b o t h of which quote from the ( p r o b a b l y a p o c r y p h a l ) s u t r a w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a n t s . The p r o s e and v e r s e e x p o s i t i o n s i n FM a l s o r e v e a l s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 1 6 . 538.7. %t . T h i s seems t o be a s t a n d a r d phrase i n d i c a t i n g the b e g i n n i n g of mastery of one's environment. $L i s b e s t t a k e n as "can go e a s t or west, t h i s way or t h a t . " See FM 6 92.3 #|£ f$£ '^t \ 57 as w e l l as 674.4, and Lu-shan Yiian-kung hua 181.15 ^ ^ (|^) . Perhaps i t i s g o i n g t o o f a r t o t a k e here i n i t s modern sense of " t h i n g s " , but the usage here does g i v e a c l u e as t o the o r i g i n s of the word, f o r a sense of 'the t h i n g s t o the e a s t and west (around) one' can be i n f e r r e d . An extended meaning of ' t h i s and t h a t ' o r ' ( i n d e f i n i t e ) t h i n g s ' would be a n a t u r a l development. 17 . 538.8. %t^f$L. MS a c t u a l l y r e a d s ^ . There i s no need f o r emendation. As H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 40, p o i n t s o u t , the c h a r a c t e r i s used i n the sense of powder . ' O i l and powder' means c o s m e t i c s . See FM 687.6 -fjCj $$JL • 18. 538.6-9. Having passed t h r o u g h i n f a n c y and c h i l d h o o d , a d o l e s c e n c e and m a r r i a g e f o l l o w . These l i n e s p a r a l l e l the sense and language of p a r t s of FM 685.16-687.14, i n v o l v i n g not o n l y ' s u t r a q u o t a t i o n s ' but s n i p p e t s from v e r s e and prose e x p o s i t i o n as w e l l . I t would seem t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n s t o c k p hrases and o r d e r s of p r e s e n t a t i o n which formed s e t p i e c e s on themes such as r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . I tend t o t h i n k t h a t t hey d e r i v e d from l e c t u r e s on the same s u t r a t h a t FM uses and were i n s e r t e d i n t o o t h e r l e c t u r e s a t what the p r e a c h e r s f e l t t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s . The f a c t t h a t the p r e s e n t t e x t , w i t h the n e x t MS fragment, has woven i t s way back t o the theme of s i c k n e s s and the response t o i t , thus f o l l o w i n g the o r d e r of t h e m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n FM ( i t s e l f d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s u t r a i t d e a l s w i t h ) and u s i n g language found t h e r e as w e l l r e i n f o r c e s my view t h a t the p r e a c h e r used, i f not t h e FM 1 1 7 which has s u r v i v e d , a t e x t v e r y s i m i l a r t o i t i n w r i t i n g t h i s segment. I n f a c t the p r e a c h e r seems t o have t u r n e d t o such a t e x t f o r i n s p i r a t i o n and been d i s t r a c t e d by the w e a l t h of p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l m a t e r i a l t h e r e which he proceeds t o adopt f o r the p r e s e n t l e c t u r e . Perhaps r e a l i z i n g he had s t r a y e d from h i s theme, he abandoned t h e attempt and r e t u r n e d t o the c o n c e r n a t hand, s i c k n e s s . 19. 538.9. T h i s i s the end of MS fragment no.3. 20. 538.10. T h i s i s the b e g i n n i n g of MS fragment no.2. T r a n s l a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h j|£ ^ 7v-^%T • There a r e a t l e a s t t w e l v e c h a r a c t e r s m i s s i n g between ^ and jfa i s u n c l e a r . 21 . 538.1 0. . T a k i n g i n the sense of % . 22. 538.1 2. Jgfc. |L % ^ ^ . MS has %. . R e m i n i s c e n t of the image evoked i n 536.1 3 by % , -jft^'-jfy. means t o be u n s e t t l e d , d r i f t i n g . 23. 538.1 2. . PWC a c c u r a t e l y t r a n s c r i b e s MS. Both s h o u l d be w r i t t e n w i t h the 'hand' r a d i c a l , i^fr Daikanwa 12679 means t o scoop up from water, as does^j^,, Daikanwa 1 2593. 24. 538. 1 3. $$• Bifc "3** lHt" 10 . MS h a s ^ , i n d i c a t o r of p a s s i v e . >0Lis p a r a l l e l t o Jfc. below and i s an adverb meaning 'always' or ' f o r a l o n g t i m e ' . See C h i a n g , p.169-170, where he i n c i d e n t a l l y a l s o emends to i n t h i s l i n e . A l s o Chang, p.153-154. 25. 538.13. The f u n c t i o n of i n t h i s phrase i s not c l e a r . 26. 538. 1 4. $ | ^ j " . MS has, 27 . 538.1 4. J{£ . The second c h a r a c t e r would seem t o be an e r r o r . 28. 538.1 4 . ^ ^ - . Emending t o . 29. 538. 1 5. W T$L .. The f o u r c u r r e n t s which keep the s e n t i e n t b e i n g s i n c e s s a n t l y a d r i f t . The c u r r e n t s caused by the d e l u s i o n s of s i g h t |[, , d e s i r e j ^ _ , i l l u s o r y b e i n g 7 ^ and i g n o r a n c e . ^ ^ . See Oda 858.3. 1 1 8 30. 538 .15 . -iirL>:i%> . These two c h a r a c t e r s a r e not i d e n t i c a l i n MS. P r o b a b l y i s meant f o r the second. 31 . 538.1 5. 5 . -0" 2 - 7 & ^ - The f i v e - p a r t body r e a l i z e d t hrough t h e achievement of the f i v e m e r i t - v i r t u e s ifi °f d i s c i p l i n e ^ , c o n c e n t r a t i o n ] ^ , knowledge , l i b e r a t i o n ^ . and knowledge of one's own t r u e l i b e r a t i o n ^ f . -See Oda 567.1 . 32. 538.16 . - ^ f l ^ - I s u s p e c t the f i r s t two c h a r a c t e r s have been t r a n s p o s e d . The p r e a c h e r , even j u d g i n g from what remains of t h i s s e c t i o n of prose e x p o s i t i o n , has succeeded i n f l e s h i n g out what seems t o have been i n h i s mind. Both s i d e s of the e q u a t i o n b o d h i s a t t v a : s e n t i e n t b e i n g s = p a r e n t s : c h i l d r e n have been e x p l o r e d , the l a t t e r t r i g g e r e d by the quote i n 537.15, w h i l e the m a t e r i a l o u t l i n e d i n "qu o t e s " from the Kuan-yin s u t r a , r e p r e s e n t i n g the causes and the n a t u r e of the s e n t i e n t b e i n g s ' i l l n e s s i s c o v e r e d i n the l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n , the essence of which appears i n 538.1-2. 33. 539.1 . Wv ^fL^x-M . T h i s phrase has been i n a d v e r t e n t l y t a k e n from t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e of t h e s u t r a . 34. 539.1. T h i s i s the f i n a l phrase i n the s u t r a b e f o r e the names of some of the b o d h i s a t t v a s p r e s e n t are l i s t e d . 35. 539.3. ^. X. y\% 1#Cj / i f # j i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n of f f 7 ^ , S k t . asamkhya, 'numberless'. The whole e x p r e s s i o n , i n t u r n , i s a b b r e v i a t i n g 5. ifcfiil, ' t h r e e numberless k a l p a s ' , the l e n g t h of a b o d h i s a t t v a 1 s c u l t i v a t i o n on the p a t h t o Buddhahood. See Oda 603.3 and Dayal p. 77-79. 36 . 539 .3 . t# . S a i d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o the Four Noble T r u t h , t h e s e a r e the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' vows t o save a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s , s e v e r a l l a n g u i s h , l e a r n e v e r y a s p e c t of dharma and a c h i e v e the u n e x c e l l e d way of the Buddha. See Oda 698.2. 37 . 539.6. Hf£ . MS re a d s c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r t h i s c h a r a c t e r . 38. 539.7. ^ ( " ^ : ) ^ ~ . Emending t o , as does Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119. 39 . 5 3 9 . 8 . ^ S ^ 3£ j £ . MS reads and . ' S u l l i e d m a t t e r ' r e n d e r s ^ -J^ , t h a t which has o u t f l o w s , i . e . i s s u l l i e d by t h i s w o r l d . 40. 539.8. T a k i n g ^17 (#/0?$L as ' i n f l e x i b l e , s t u b b o r n ' , l i k e 1 1 9 the compound $bft . 539 .1 0 . . T h i s term appears i n the f i f t h p o r t i o n of the V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a , W e n - s h u - s h i h - l i wen-chi p' i n <~ ff^JLfe^ ^f'\ 4h. & ' where V i m a l a k i r t i says t h a t i t i s t h e r o o t cause of l i v i n g b e i n g s ' i l l n e s s : . %% ^~^c • ( T i n g , p.46a). I f I u n d e r s t a n d K u m a r a j i v a ' s commentary c o r r e c t l y |pL a r i s e s when the mind t a k e s an o b j e c t of c o g n i t i o n and lecoraes enmeshed w i t h i t , i n t u r n l e a d i n g t o wayward t h o u g h t s and i l l n e s s . The r e a l m of L^#|L i s the T r i p l e Realm, the w o r l d s of o u t f l o w s and c o n d i t i o n e d phenomena \% . ff £ s. $L\ . I t a k e the e x p r e s s i o n as a v e r b + o b j e c t c o m b i n a t i o n . As a v e r b J|^L seems t o have conveyed even the sense of "impaled upon", as i n the M u - l i e n pien-wen PWC 726.9: <£^ l£[ ^Af^W-M *H ' a n d 7 2 6 ' 1 1 #~77 d*-% •  T h e e x p r e s s i o n was, f o r t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , q u i t e a g r a p h i c one I b e l i e v e . See Oda 1432.3. Luk, p.54, s i m p l y r e n d e r s as " c l i n g i n g " . 539.1 2 . A- Pel , G > ^ • MS reads . Emending 539.12. {J%.)§^L . For a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e of " f ^ i n t h e sense of " d e c e i v e " see M u - l i e n pien-wen, 733.6 ^ " f ^ The k a r m i c m i r r o r r e f l e c t s t r u l y the karma of p e o p l e b e f o r e the judges of h e l l . 539.1 4. • F o l l o w i n g H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, who emends t o ^ and ^ 7 . 539. 1 6 . C h i a n g , p.74, under ^ - y / ^ , t o t a l l y m i s u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s l i n e , s a y i n g the money i s spent t o buy i n c e n s e t o burn i n o f f e r i n g t o Buddha. N o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r than the case i n t h i s d e p i c t i o n of the s i n n e r . The sense of ^ i s " t o purchase f l e e t i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t " . The word 7 ^ - a c c u r a t e l y t r a n s c r i b e s MS. I t seems 7 ^ - i s meant. C h i a n g , p.74, emends to 3 ^ , t o c a s t away w i t h o u t heed or t o s a c r i f i c e . The T' a i - t z u ch ' eng-tao c h i n g ^ S i l ^ / pWC p.293 . 1 3 and 14, uses ^ i n e x a c t l y t h a t sense, %$je_ would appear t o be a monetary d e n o m i n a t i o n , perhaps a s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n . 540.2. IfiL-^-^f C ^ f ) . MS has | . Emending t o . 540.3. % (|IDT% • F o l l o w i n g PWC emendation. Perhaps however t h i s i s r e l a t e d (an i n v e r s i o n or t r a n s p o s i t i o n ? ) t o the e x p r e s s i o n ^ i n 553.1 5, which appears t o mean "as 1 20 one l i k e s " . 48 . 540.5. -H/fc^ . Ta k i n g here and i n 540.8 as an e r r o r f o r ^ . (540.12, 540.16). 49. 540.6. PWC has o m i t t e d t h r e e l i n e s h e r e , c o n d e n s i n g them i n t o one. MS r e a d s : ^ 5 % & ^ £ 6 $ C ? ? ) A r e a d i n g of B J | i n the f i r s t l i n e s a t i s f i e s the r e q u i r e m e n t s of rhyme and i s c l o s e enough i n form, but i t s meaning i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . For a s i m i l a r p h r a s e , see M u - l i e n pien-wen PWC 7 2 9 . 4 ^ - ^ T Hit % ^ -"fl \%3 appears f r e q u e n t l y i n B u d d h i s t t e x t s and i s t r e a t e d by Chiang on p.121. The second l i n e ' s ^ -> ^ emendation p a r a l l e l s t h a t of n.43 above. The phrase ^ i s a p u z z l i n g one, which appears a l s o i n FM, 686.10. C h i a n g , p.112-113, happens t o d i s c u s s t h a t l i n e (under \% ) and s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n means "not a b l e t o c o n t i n u e the f a m i l y l i n e . " The e x p r e s s i o n a w a i t s f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t i o n . I n t h e l a s t p a i r of l i n e s , I t a k e the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r s as ve r b s both t a k i n g two o b j e c t s of two and t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s each. • ^ L ^ f c i s a condensed v e r s i o n of %L> lU; and , r i t e s and music, t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e b e s t means of r e g u l a t i n g s t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l . 50. 540.1 1 . $k . F o l l o w i n g Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119 who emends tof%p, i n t h e sense o f ^ , " p r e t e n d " . 51 . 540.1 4. ji: s h o u l d r e a d i e r . 52. 540. 1 5. Jfjl ?M r a k s a s a , a k i n d of e v i l demon. ~H T h i s r e n d e r i n g i s p r o v i s i o n a l . 53. 541 .1 . P r o v i s i o n a l r e n d e r i n g of 5?|( -t v 54. 541.3. The s e t t i n g s of thes e a c t i v i t i e s have a r o m a n t i c , even l i c e n t i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n . here may r e f e r t o d r i n k i n g games, see 557.4. $ 4 < $ f | H ^ ^ ^ ^ . 55. 541 .4. - MS read s ^  • 56. 541 .5. . MS c o n s i s t e n t l y w r i t e s . Only here does PWC attempt t o t r a n s c r i b e as such. 1 21 57. 541 . 10. ^ - s h o u l d by p a r a l l e l i s m and c o n t e x t be a v e r b meaning t o l i f t or remove. I t a k e as or-^jL. The c h a r a c t e r appears a l s o i n 544.11 where i t s meaning i s " t o b l o c k o u t " or " e c l i p s e " . (Note: MS reads B% 0 ). Chiang, p.209, i n c l u d e s t h i s i n h i s l i s t of u n e l u c i d a t e d e x p r e s s i o n s , n o t i n g i t s apparent meaning and i t s absence from d i c t i o n a r i e s . 58. 541 .1 1 . . Reading a s ^ | - . 59. 541.13. On ^ as merely " s i c k n e s s " see C h i a n g , p.86-87. 60. 541.15. The e x p r e s s i o n i s p u z z l i n g . 61. 541.16. $l . R e f e r s t o the s e l f composed of the f i v e skandha or a g g r e g a t e s & . A l s o c a l l e d the True R e t r i b u t i o n JJL - f 1 , the t r u e r e s u l t of p a s t k a r m i c c a u s a t i o n , as a g a i n s t the Dependent R e t r i b u t i o n Afclfiji , our p o s s e s s i o n s and s u r r o u n d i n g s . The l i n e then i s s a y i n g t h a t when we are a l l caused t o be e n l i g h t e n e d we w i l l know the t r u e n a t u r e of o u r s e l v e s . See Oda 873.3 and 1341.3 ( ). 62. 542.1 . . MS r e a d s With t h i s l i n e the rhyme changes t o a f i n a l ' - a i 1 , s i g n a l l i n g the a p p r o a c h i n g end of t h i s segment. 63. 542.2. % ( ^ ) t * ? . MS r e a d s f . The t i p of a c y p r e s s bough ^^/fxL. w a s used t o c l e a n the t e e t h ( t h u s the Japanese yoj i f o r ' t o o t h p i c k ' ) . I t i s a symbol of p u r i f i c a t i o n and c l e a n s i n g as i n the e x p r e s s i o n ^ J ^ T ^ T K ' a c y p r e s s t i p and p u r i f i e d w a t e r ' , used when i n v i t i n g h o l y g u e s t s . See Oda 1749.2. 64. 542.5. Of t h i s l i n e ' s seven s y l l a b l e s , s i x a r e r e d u p l i c a t e d m a n n e r a d j e c t i v e s . J u d g i n g from 548.12-13, s h o u l d r e a d . 65 . 542.6. |jj • F o l l o w i n g Hsu, p_u cheng, p. 40, t h i s s h o u l d b e i ^ . See 547.16. 66. 542 .7. fy^iK . MS r e a d s ^ . P e r h a p s ^ ; a l o n e i s meant. Aw a i t s f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t i o n . 67. 542.7. ^ . Appears t o be a v a r i a n t form of j fe . 68. 542.8. -jtJ&Bihl . MS reads . 69. 542. 9. JL*%. . 122 SECTION V T e x t u a l Notes 1 . 542. 1 5. . MS r e a d s . 2. 542.1 6. 4^. • Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119, emends t o . 1JJL. Comparison w i t h o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e s , such as a t 544.1 2, show t h i s t o be c l e a r l y not . MS l o o k l i k e " 6 ^ . 3. 543.5. . MS reads . 7j£.. MS r e a d s ; ^ which f i t s b o t h rhyme and c o n t e x t . 4. 5 4 3 . 9 . ^ . H s i i , pu cheng, p.119, su g g e s t s @^  . C h i a n g , p.208, a l s o g i v e s but l i s t s f^-^j as a s t i l l u n e x p l a i n e d e x p r e s s i o n . 5. 543.1 0. § | ^» • H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, w i t h p r o b a b l e r e f e r e n c e t o 545.11, the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ' s rhymed d e s c r i p t i o n of ^ z j ^ , s u g g e s t s || -j|gr_ . That ^£ i s p l a u s i b l e i s seen by comparison w i t h 544.10 where l i g h t n i n g b o l t s from the eyes a r e c o u p l e d i n d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h a r i v e r of b l o o d from the mouth. (See note 16 b e l o w ) . M u - l i e n pien-wen, a t PWC 730.7, d e s c r i b i n g the demonic i n h a b i t a n t s of the a v i c i h e l l has the f o l l o w i n g : C7 52Z. ^  ... ^ • I t i s thus q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i n s t e a d of J | i n 543.1 0, g ^ . i s meant. 6. 543.1 5. % ?S\ H 1t . H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119 s u g g e s t s 1 * . MS reads j f . . 7. 543 . 1 6 . ^ f | f . MS r e a d s ^ ^ (1&). 8. 544.1 marks the end of MS fragment 2. 9. With 544.2, MS fragment 4 b e g i n s . 544.3. s h o u l d read g^L. 10. 1 1 . 544.4. . U n c l e a r i n MS, but l o o k s l i k e ^ j f . 1 2. 544.5. Jj^ r . MS w r i t e s as j | . HT> M S h a s ^ ' w n i c n i s c o r r e c t . 1 3. 544.6. As H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, p o i n t s out ' i ^ s h o u l d read 1 23 3&C^|t-2-?^. MS reads ^ . M(Z$)f% - MS r e a d s j f c . PWC r e v e r s e s ^j? which i s c o r r e c t i n MS. 1 4. 544.7. 7^ "If • H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, c o r r e c t s to^ . 15. 544.8. cfjjs i f ; MS rea d s 7^ . 1 6. 544.10. & *Sf- j t _ ( j U ) . MS reads . . Hs i i , p_u cheng, p. 40 emends c o r r e c t l y t o £7 . 17. 544.1 1 . 0 . MS reads 0^ 0 . The meaning from c o n t e x t i s t o b l o t out or b l o c k the sun. See 541.11 above. Chiang, p.209, p l a c e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r among the as y e t u n d e c i p h e r a b l e s . He emends the f o l l o w i n g NJ^ t o ;A|? . 18. 544. 1 3. $ x jf|. . Perhaps t h i s s h o u l d r e a d j ^ | . See 552.9. 1 9. 544.1 4.4^1^- . MS has&Jk . , used c o n s i s t e n t l y forgyf- . 20. 544. 1 5. 1^ . As H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 40, p o i n t s o u t , s h o u l d r e a d . 21 . 546 .2. 2 % |f£ . Should r e a d . See Hs i i , p_u cheng, p. 40. 22. 546.7. 3 | 3 i t f e £ . MS r e a d s ^ . 23. 546.1 1 . ^ ^ 5 ^ . MS h a s > / l . 24. 546.1 3. j f p . MS reads -ffp. 25. 547.12. The word suggests t h a t the pers o n c h a n t i n g o r s i n g i n g t h e rhymed s e c t i o n i s a s k i n g a n o t h e r p e r s o n t o chant the p r o s e s e c t i o n . T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i n g p e r f o r m e r s . 1 24 SECTION VI The Buddha: O v e r s p r e a d i n g the e n t i r e t y o f t h e v a s t m u l t i t u d e ...Number t w o l : " J u s t as the k i n g of mountains, Mt. Sumeru, towers above the g r e a t ocean, so does he s e t t l e s e c u r e l y upon the L i o n ' s Throne, upon which a r e s e t m y r i a d j e w e l s . " 2 ( g a t h a ) : The Buddha's powers a r e beyond c o n c e p t i o n , h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s mighty So f a r beyond the m u l t i t u d e , h i s t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s c o m p l e t e 3 A w e - i n s p i r i n g , h i s t o w e r i n g form s o a r s i n t o heaven's p u r i t y L o f t y , h i s g o l d e n countenance i s l i k e the s o l a r r a d i a n c e I n the Three Realms l o n g s e r v i n g as a beacon t o r c h 4 Among thos e of the Four B i r t h s , l o n g ...5 We l i k e n him t o Mt. Sumeru, i t s v a s t h e i g h t and b r e a d t h So appears th e Thus Come One, our g r e a t Dharma K i n g . Number t h r e e : " O v e r s p r e a d i n g the e n t i r e t y of the v a s t m u l t i t u d e which has come." ( g a t h a ) : 6 With commanding v i r t u e 7 a w e - i n s p i r i n g , f a r beyond the m u l t i t u d e Now a t l a s t he shows h i m s e l f , h i s form and b e a r i n g t r u e Beneath h i s g o l d e n f e e t , the thousand f l o w e r s i g n V i v i d upon h i s d eep-gold c h e s t the mark of Buddha v i r t u e 8 H i s b l u e eyes l i k e the l o t u s , c l a r i f y i n g a z u r e p o o l s The w h i t e c u r l t w i x t h i s brows l i k e pure gleaming s i l k ^ , i l l u m i n e s sky and e a r t h I n the h o l y assemblylO a t Amra p a r k , the m u l t i t u d e numerous as the r i v e r s ' sands Not a one whose w e l l - f o r m e d m a g n i f i c e n c e was l i k e The World-Honored One' s Thus the s u t r a s a y s : " O v e r s p r e a d i n g the e n t i r e t y of the v a s t m u l t i t u d e which had come." 1 25 Then d i d the a w e - i n s p i r i n g s a c r e d host,11 the l o f t y one honored f o r h i s compassion, s i t u a t e h i m s e l f among the s a i n t s and w o r t h i e s , p l a c e h i m s e l f i n the Amra assembly's m i d s t : The v o i c e -h e a r e r s ( s r a v a k a ) , a m u l t i t u d e o f , a t l e a s t , e i g h t thousand s t r o n g , t h e i r e n l i g h t e n e d forms so s t a t e l y and f i n e ; and b o d h i s a t t v a s t h e r e , t h i r t y - t h o u s a n d , more, t h e i r b e a r i n g u p r i g h t and r e s p l e n d e n t . The Brahma K i n g s o f f e r i n g up f l o w e r s and f r u i t s , t h e i r palms j o i n e d i n a t t e n t i v e r e v e r e n c e , and the s a k r a gods h o l d i n g c a n o p i e s and [ ]12, the utmost i n r e s p e c t f u l s i n c e r i t y . The r a n k s of gods, dragons and yaksas t h i n k of the Golden Countenance and a r e t r a n s f i x e d w i t h a n t i c i p a t i o n , unmoving.13 The a s u r a s and r a k s a s a s l 4 gaze upon the j a d e c u r l [upon the Buddha's brow] and t h e i r t h oughts are f i l l e d w i t h y e a r n i n g . Beyond t h a t the garuda throng15 p l u c k i n g s t r i n g s , t h e sound r e s o u n d i n g c l e a r ; the k i n n a r a k i n g s h a r m o n i z i n g [ v o i c e s ? ] 1 6 , decorous music r i n g i n g f o r t h . F l u t e s and p i p e s , s t r i n g s and reeds and conch-shaped cymbals, t h e i r s h e e t s of b r o n z e ; p e r f o r m i n g music a l l a t once17; j o i n i n g v o i c e s a l l i n t o n e the dharma c h a n t s . And beyond t h a t were the a c c o m p l i s h e d masters of t h e S i x Harmonies18, s e a t e d on the bamboo (covered) p a t h , l o o k i n g from a f a r upon the Thus Come One and [the keepers of the E i g h t D i s c i p l i n e s of R e s p e c t ] 1 9 , s e t t l e d upon the moss, l o o k i n g up w i t h 1 26 a d o r a t i o n a t the G r e a t C o n s c i o u s n e s s . H e r o i c ones of g r e a t achievement, by the t e n s and hundreds of thousands, and t h o s e c l a d i n t h e i r s i l k f i n e r y , i n numbers beyond c o u n t i n g : T h e i r minds w i t h pure i n t e n t i o n , h a p p i l y p o i s e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e i r b o d i e s l i t h e and s u p p l e , s t r e t c h i n g f o r t h i n e x p e c t a t i o n f a r i n t o the d i s t a n c e . T h i s v a s t m u l t i t u d e f i l l i n g t he assembly, the e n t i r e g a t h e r i n g 2 0 Q f gods and men surrounds the World-Honored One t u r n i n g about him a hundred, a thousand t i m e s , t h e r e i n the Amra park, t h e i r numbers f i l l i n g , s w e l l i n g beyond l i m i t 2 " ! : L i k e the m u l t i t u d e of s t a r s t h a t t h r o n g around the moon a t n i g h t ; l i k e t he m y r i a d peaks t h a t p r e s s about Mt. Sumeru. I n p r o f u s i o n w i t h o u t match, i n d i g n i f i e d s p l e n d o r [beyond compare]22. The b o d h i s a t t v a s w i t h t h e i r l o f t y marks of e n l i g h t e n m e n t , gods and men w i t h m a g n i f i c e n t adornments of a l l s o r t s . The commanding v i r t u e of the Brahma k i n g s , so d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e 2 3 , the s a k r a gods, t h e i r form and b e a r i n g c o m p l e t e l y beyond compare. But p l a c e d b e s i d e our Buddha's b l e s s e d form, h i s p e r f e c t and t r u e countenance, they a r e as24 the glow of f i r e f l i e s matched t o the s o l a r o r b or mounds of d i r t p i l e d n e x t t o mountain peaks. T r u l y t h e r e ' s no s i m i l e , nor means whereby t o measure. One cannot p l a c e m a n i f e s t forms b e s i d e the Body beyond a l l form and t h e r e b y measure i t . 2 5 F o r indeed26 the Buddha's l i g h t d o t h t r i u m p h and b l a n k e t a l l t h e o t h e r s i n i t s r a d i a n c e . H i s s a c r e d 1 27 powers a l o n e t r a n s c e n d and s u f f u s e the u n i v e r s e . And now27 i n Amra park t o chant h i s sermon, i n the dharma assembly t o p r e a c h , he i s l i k e Mt. Sumeru r i s e n h i g h above the thousand peaks, l i k e a v a s t ocean f l o o d i n g over t e n thousand c o n t i n e n t s . 2 8 T h e r e f o r e the dragons and gods l o o k up i n e x p e c t a t i o n , the s a i n t and w o r t h i e s f i x t h e i r eyes upon him. A l l of them s i n g o u t : "Most r a r e ! " 2 9 ; e v e r y one e x c l a i m s : "How f i n e ! " . On t h i s day, t h o u g h t - b e i n g s as numerous as the r i v e r ' s sands30 w i l l bow t h e i r heads t o him; minds, as many as the g r a i n s of d u s t , w i l l t u r n t o him f o r s u c c o r . They hope o n l y t o be shaken m i g h t i l y by the s p r i n g t h u n d e r . They a l l w i s h t o be moistened31 i n g r e a t numbers by the dharma r a i n . The s a c r e d mind i s not y e t fathomed; the h o l y c o n s c i o u s n e s s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e . The s a c r e d f a c e now shows pure j o y , the h o l y countenance buoyant h a p p i n e s s . He r e l e a s e s the [ l i g h t from] the w h i t e - c u r l s i g n upon h i s brow. I t spreads g l o w i n g e a s t and west. He l o o s e s the r a d i a n c e of h i s deep g o l d body. I t l e a p s o ' e r p a s s i n g n o r t h and s o u t h . Mountains and r i v e r s echo and shake; heaven and e a r t h l i s t and quake. Four t y p e s of f l o w e r s r a i n down, f i l l i n g the sky; the r a d i a n c e which s u f f u s e s the assembly d i v i d e s i n t o f i v e c o l o r s . F a r i n t o the d i s t a n c e i t glows and s h i n e s , v i v i d l y c o a l e s c i n g t o the f u r t h e s t r e a c h e s . A l l heaven and e a r t h seem l i k e an embroidered s c r e e n 1 28 u n f o l d e d 3 2 . i t i s as though r e d brocade has been s p r e a d out over the e n t i r e w o r l d . The sun and moon appear g r a n d l y i n t h i s a u s p i c i o u s c a s t . R i v e r s , streams a r e g r e a t l y t r a n s f o r m e d by t h i s f a v o r a b l e p o r t e n t . The m y r i a d h o l y ones i n Amra park had never b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c e d such t h i n g s and none c o u l d fathom the s u b l i m e and wondrous powers the Buddha d i s p l a y e d a t t h i s t i m e . T h e r e f o r e the s u t r a s a y s : " J u s t as the k i n g of mountains, Mt. Sumeru, towers above the g r e a t ocean, so does he s e t t l e s e c u r e l y upon the b e j e w e l l e d L i o n ' s Throne, o v e r s p r e a d i n g the e n t i r e t y of the v a s t m u l t i t u d e which had come." The m u l t i t u d e who came t o l i s t e n i n Amra park headed t h e r e l i k e c l o u d s So v a s t i n number, the h o l y and p r o f a n e , s p i l l i n g over e v e r y w h e r e 3 3 B o d h i s a t t v a s c i r c u m a m b u l a t e , t h i r t y - t h o u s a n d , more The b h i k s u s c i r c l e round as w e l l , a thousand t i m e s a ) thousand A l l w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n t powers, t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s complete T h e i r e n l i g h t e n e d forms so s t a t e l y and f i n e , beyond comparison T h e i r b e a r i n g g r a n d l y awesome, a l l p h y s i c a l marks complete m 3 4 S t i l l how c o u l d t h e i r w e l l - f o r m e d f e a t u r e s match our Master Sakyamuni 1s? L i k e Mt. Sumeru s t a n d i n g f i r m l y i n the v a s t dark ocean's m i d s t Around i t mounts of g o l d and j a d e a l l g a t h e r i n a u d i e n c e R i s i n g f a r up through blue35 s k i e s i t p i e r c e s t o w e r i n g h e i g h t s While s t r e t c h i n g t o t o u c h azure seas, the p i l l a r of the heavens A thousand p r e c i o u s t h i n g s complete, enveloped36 by c l o u d and f o g M y r i a d t r e a s u r e s each p l a c e d j u s t r i g h t , e n c l o s e d i n w e l l -b o d i n g m i s t s 129 But of the t e n thousand peaks a l l c l u s t e r e d t h e r e , none can be compared^to Our master Sakyamuni 1s w e l l - f o r m e d m a g n i f i c e n c e The Brahma K i n g s and a l l the c l a s s e s of h e a v e n l y b e i n g s With t h e i r commanding glow of f a v o r a b l e v i r t u e s t i l l l o o k up f o r s u c c o r A hundred j e w e l s g r a c e t h e i r crowns new, a l l eyes f i x e d i n l o v i n g a d o r a t i o n The s i x gems s h i n e upon t h e i r c l o t h e s , a l l speak t h e i r a g r e e m e n t [ ? ] 3 8 So l o f t y t h e y i n human form l i k e l o t u s f l o w e r s of g o l d F i g u r e s t a l l and s t r a i g h t 3 9 l i n e d up l i k e p i l l a r s made of j ade Come j u s t t o be i n Amra park i n the Buddha assembly's m i d s t But how c o u l d t h e i r w e l l - f o r m e d f e a t u r e s match our Master Sakyamuni's? Devas, humans of a l l s o r t s and groups of s a k r a k i n g s Were a l s o where the Thus Come One would expound the dharma T h e i r c l o t h i n g g l i t t e r s s h i n i n g , d e s i g n s formed of w h i t e 4 0 j ade T h e i r c o l o r s r a r e do gleam a f a r , t h r e a d s made of pure g o l d 4 ^ T h e i r b e a r i n g w i t h o u t d e f e c t , a l l w i t h r e s p e c t f u l d e f e r e n c e 4 2 T h e i r b l e s s e d marks f u l l y c omplete, they a l l y e a r n w i t h a d o r a t i o n A r r i v i n g t h e r e i n Amra park i n the Buddha assembly's m i d s t S t i l l how c o u l d t h e i r w e l l - f o r m e d f e a t u r e s match our Master Sakyamuni's? F i l l i n g up the Amra p a r k , the b o d h i s a t t v a s ' number Each one w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n t a l powers, showing q u i e t s e l f -p o s s e s s i o n 4 3 Through v a s t k a l p a s of s e l f - r e f i n e m e n t , t h e i r p r o p i t i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e m a n i f e s t E n d l e s s g o o d l y a c t s p e rformed, t h e i r m e r i t u n i v e r s a l D e f e a t i n g demons, e x p e l l i n g f a c t i o n s [ ? ] 4 4 , w i t h p e r s i s t e n t d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e i r t a s k s Conveying knowledge, p r a c t i c i n g compassion always c l e a r and d i s t i n c t With t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n t b e a r i n g , e v e r y mark complete S t i l l how c o u l d t h e i r w e l l - f o r m e d f e a t u r e s match our Master Sakyamuni's? 130 The b h i k u monks, the A r h a t t h r o n g T h e i r a i r a t once r e f i n e d and s i m p l e 4 5 f p e o p l e e x c l a i m t h e i r p r a i s e s Nobles h a l t t h e i r c a r r i a g e l o o k i n g on from a t o p t h e i r mounts E v i l b i r d s t a k e t o the wing and s t a r e down from the sky Snowy eyebrows deep, p r o f o u n d , cover46 k n o l l s of p i n e Capes of c l o u d so d e l i c a t e m o i s t e n c o l o r e d m i s t s With t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n t b e a r i n g , e v e r y mark complete S t i l l now c o u l d t h e i r w e l l - f o r m e d f e a t u r e s match our Master Sakyamuni s? C e l e s t i a l dragon gods l i n e up t h e i r banners and t h e i r drums Ei g h t - a r m e d , t r i p l e - h e a d e d , t h e i r anger i s s e v e r e With no warning g r a s p the K'un-lun mountains and shake them to and f r o Out of boredom scoop up v a s t d a r k oceans, t i l t them o v e r , pour them out At t i m e s l e a p i n g i n t o the assembly's m i d s t Or47 bounding o f f i n t o the sky A l l come t o Amra park b e f o r e h i s H o l i n e s s But t h e i r m a j e s t i c l i g h t cannot compare t o our Master Sakyamuni's S a i n t s and w o r t h i e s c i r c l e about, s p i r i t s and demons48 p r o t e c t him C l a s p i n g swords and h o l d i n g s p e a r s , they s t a n d by t o s u p p o r t him A l l because the Thus Come One w i l l p r each t h e dharma sound J u s t t o a l l o w the m u l t i t u d e f e e l the m o i s t u r e of sweet dew The Brahma k i n g s , w i t h f r u i t s i n hand, o f f e r e d t o the G o l d Immortal S a k r a s , i n c e n s e ' t w i x t t h e i r f i n g e r s , add t o the j a d e - l i k e plume [ ? ] 4 9 A l l of them toward Amra park assembled i n one^O l i n e H igh and low l o o k up t o our Master Sakyamuni and acknowledge h i s a u t h o r i t y The Buddha i n m e r c i f u l compassion vows t o t e n d e r h i s p r o t e c t i o n [ ? ] 5 1 For a ccumulated k a l p a , numberless, he has c u l t i v a t e d the S i x D e l i v e r a n c e s He f o s t e r s peace and harmony, t a k i n g l e a v e of l o v e and hate He has us h o l d t o wisdom, make i t s o l i d and s e c u r e L o f t y i s h i s appearance, l i k e the pure w h i t e l o t u s f l o w e r A w e - i n s p i r i n g h i s form, a p i l l a r of deep g o l d 1 31 M a j e s t i c r a d i a n c e , t e n thousand t y p e s but none of them can match him Then i s he p r o c l a i m e d the Three Realm's Master of the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l Powers ( P ' i n g ) 5 2 The s a i n t s and w o r t h i e s l i n e d up j u s t so, a hundred thousand s t a l w a r t s J J C i r c l e about54 the Thus Come One, h i s deep g o l d e n r a d i a n c e They l o o k up t o behold55 h i s luminous mark, t h e i r gaze never l e a v e s i t Hoping o n l y t h a t the mouth of g o l d would soon p r e a c h i t s message The m u l t i t u d e i n assembly l e a n f o r w a r d i n e x p e c t a n t a d o r a t i o n The Buddha from between h i s eyebrows m a n i f e s t s w e l l - b o d i n g p o r t e n t F ar and wide i n Amra park they a l l e x c l a i m h i s p r a i s e s Then i s he p r o c l a i m e d the Three Realm's K i n g of the Dharma Wheel The Great C o n s c i o u s n e s s so l o f t y , c l o t h e d i n p r e c i o u s flame Set a p a r t upon th e F l o w e r e d Throne, he draws up the f r a g r a n t aroma Dark r e d l i p s l i k e f r u i t , the c o l o r of the b i m b a 5 6 Both eyes l i k e l o t u s e s , h i s mental and p h y s i c a l d i s c i p l i n e l i k e a p e r v a d i n g f r a g r a n c e 5 7 I n days l o n g p a s t a l l l o o k e d i n a d o r a t i o n t o h i s commanding p r e s e n c e 5 8 And now the human form he m a n i f e s t s goes beyond a l l normal 59 measure The c o l o r s from the h a i r between h i s brows appear both b r i g h t and c l e a r E n c l o s i n g Amra park i n t e n thousand k i n d s of l i g h t The t o w e r i n g g o l d e n f i g u r e i s upon the F l o w e r P l a t f o r m 6 0 About t o p r e a c h , s p r e a d f a r h i s w o r d s 6 1 , r e v e a l i n g dharma's meaning F i v e streams of l i g h t so c o l o r f u l , e m i t t e d from h i s countenance From ' t w i x t h i s brows62 t e n thousand beams of g l i m m e r i n g r a d i a n c e As though one had u n r o l l e d r e d s i l k , c o v e r i n g e a r t h and 1 32 heaven The w o r l d seemed as though c o v e r e d by p i l e s of f i n e brocade A l l about a hundred k i n d s of wondrous t h i n g s are seen The thunder which doth shake the s p r i n g , i t s sound q u i t e imminent In Amra park t h a t day, c i r c l i n g round and round In numbers v a s t , t h e i r eyes f i x e d r a p t , i n t o n i n g p r a i s e : "Most f i n e I" The heavens r a i n e d down f o u r t y p e s of f l o w e r s f o u r , which g l i t t e r e d i n the a i r The e a r t h c o n v u l s e d s i x d i f f e r e n t ways, the echo rumbled f o r t h The s a i n t l y minds d i d not y e t know what t e a c h i n g he would p r e a c h Human tho u g h t s cannot c o n c e i v e i t , none can ever guess At t h a t moment, h i g h and low, a l l d i d form t h i s t h o u g h t : Who s h a l l , f o r t h e m u l t i t u d e , ask the Thus Come One t o speak? In h i s compassion, Sakyamuni knew the t h o u g h t s t h e s e n t i e n t b e i n g s then embraced And upon the F l o w e r e d Throne, e x p e c t a n t l y , a j o y f u l l o o k appeared About t o match c a u s a t i o n and o c c a s i o n , t o pour f o r t h dharma's t r e a s u r e s With p i t y f o r the m y r i a d c r e a t u r e s , he would r a i n f o r t h / T O p r e c i o u s t h i n g s 0 - 3 And now c r i m s o n l i p s b e g i n t o p a r t , r e d l o t u s b u r s t i n g open Gleaming t e e t h a r e p o i s e d , rows of pure w h i t e j a d e The Great C o n s c i o u s n e s s , World-Honored One64, a t l a s t w i l l speak the dharma Now c h a n t i n g we w i l l t e l l you who n e x t came upon the scene 1 33 Notes t o S e c t i o n VI 1. 548.1. T h i s s e c t i o n , l i k e the two preceding i t , begins with an i n t r o d u c t o r y set of gathas, corresponding to the f o l l o w i n g three p a r t d i v i s i o n of the s u t r a passage covered i n the s e c t i o n : a. ^ ^ l & J ^ - f - g f *3Mfc-fc!fl c- 1foZAr-wt%%.*^%L (Ting, p.4a) The f i r s t gatha, corresponding to a, i s incomplete, appearing at the t o r n s t a r t of MS fragment no.6. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n begins with the second. 2. 548.1 giv e s a c o n t r a c t e d v e r s i o n of b (n.1 above) which i s r e c o n s t i t u t e d based on the s u t r a . 3. 548.2. "jf- . Taking p r o v i s i o n a l l y i n the sense of tlL'i^ T . Perhaps though, r e l a t e d to the compounds ) see Chiang, p.33-34, i n which case the sense would be secure and s e l f - p o s s e s s e d . 4. 548.4. J ^ ^ U . Emending totffe • 5. 548.4.\ MS t o r n . 6. 548.6. Beneath the c h a r a c t e r s ^  i n MS the words % 3 (completed copying) are d i s c e r n i b l e . 7. 548.7. JM,I> . MS reads Should read^<f-. 8. 548.8. ^ >"p appears to r e f e r to the 'thousand-lotus' p l a t f o r m upon which the Buddha Sakyamuni s i t s . In t u r n upon each l o t u s flower are a thousand Sakyamuni Buddhas. See Oda 1 0 39.a ( rp/,^ ) . ^ r£ . One of the t h i r t y - t w o marks of a Buddha shaped thus: . I t i s g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a s i g n of v i r t u e . See Oda 1886.b. 9. 548.1 0. • i f e ^ ^ . Should read fej - Hsu, p_u cheng, p.40 so i n d i c a t e s . A l s o f o l l o w i n g Hsii's emendation to^jjsi . 10. 548.1 0. & ^ . MS reads % . 11. 548.12. From t h i s prose s e c t i o n on, MS i s punctuated. 12. 548.1 3.-|*| A c c u r a t e l y t r a n s c r i b e s MS. I cannot i d e n t i f y 1 34 t h i s c h a r a c t e r . 13 . 548.1 3. } i /f*. ^ | . Emending to<i£. 1 4. 548.1 4. H $ f z_ y j " . M S reads 1^ See 529.13. 15. 548.1 4. !^J^1 v^fJ£ • The f i r s t i s s u p e r f l u o u s . 1 6. 548. 1 4-15. There seems t o be a c h a r a c t e r s k i p p e d a f t e r f j § . The p r e a c h e r i s n e i t h e r c a r e f u l nor c o n s i s t e n t r e g a r d i n g the i d e n t i t y of the heav e n l y m u s i c i a n s and the i n s t r u m e n t s they p l a y . Compare 529.13-15. 17. 548.15. 01 ( 3 k ) . As p o i n t e d out above, MS c o n s i s t e n t l y has for|^ j r . PWC's emendation i s i n c o r r e c t , as Hsu, p_u cheng, p.40 p o i n t s o u t . 18. 548 .1 5 . j \ -fa h -k . The S i x Harmonies, f u l l y *7C fa , a r e t h o s e p r a c t i c e d by monks i n the mon a s t i c community. See Oda 1845.a and Luk, p.152. 19. 548.16. T h i s p h r a s e , by p a r a l l e l i s m , s h o u l d have f o u r , not t h r e e ( m i s s i n g ) c h a r a c t e r s a t the s t a r t . The f i r s t two a r e c e r t a i n l y / V ^ ^ t . The E i g h t D i s c i p l i n e s of R e s p e c t , f u l l y , \ . ^jJCifc. , a r e thos e s t i p u l a t e d by the Buddha f o r women who would e n t e r the monastic o r d e r . See Oda 1 400c, fa/\^jJC . Thus t h e e x p r e s s i o n becomes sh o r t h a n d f o r monks and nuns. See 543.14 f o r t h i s same c o u p l i n g . 20. 549.1. 4^^%" . The word ^ here l i t e r a l l y means "combining t o form". I n some Tun-huang t e x t s i t c l e a r l y has t h e extended sense of " a l l " or " e n t i r e " . See Sou-shen c h i , PWC 869.7 f o r two i n s t a n c e s of the e x p r e s s i o n . 21. 549.1 . Another i n s t a n c e of (t$) ) . 22. 549.1 -2. As Hsu, p_u cheng, p.40, p o i n t s o u t , two c h a r a c t e r s have been s k i p p e d a f t e r ^ . ^  goes w i t h the s u c c e e d i n g phrase and i s p a r a l l e l t o ^ A- i n the one a f t e r t h a t . T h i s r e s t o r e s the p a r a l l e l rhythm of the pr o s e . The two m i s s i n g c h a r a c t e r s have been s k i p p e d i n MS as w e l l . They a r e p r o b a b l y something l i k e ^f^T. 23 . 549.2. Emending t o tfj . P a r a l l e l s ?ip i n phrase below. 24. 5 4 9 . 3 . ^ . MS r e a d s ' ^ , perhaps an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r 1 35 25. 549.3. 3|r . MS has <|% . p i ^ j . Should read ^ l/j. 26. 549.4. T a k i n g the sense of the c o n j u n c t i o n ^,1^. from c o n t e x t . 27. 549.4. The c h a r a c t e r s ^ I ^ J appear b e f o r e i s MS. 28. 549.5. \^ T H J . Reading a s . 29. 5 4 9 . 5 . i £ . MS appears t o be . I cannot i d e n t i f y t h i s c h a r a c t e r . Nor can Chiang. I t appears i n h i s l i s t of u n e x p l a i n e d e x p r e s s i o n s , p.209. The word would seem t o f i t the c o n t e x t . 30. 549.5. \v\ O . Should r e a d . See Hsu, pu cheng, p.40. 31 . 549.6. ^£ • MS has (vfe) • Hsu, p_u cheng, p. 40, a l s o makes t h i s emendation. He s u g g e s t s as w e l l t h a t -%J>- i n the p r e c e d i n g phrase i s s u p e r f l u o u s . I t h i n k r a t h e r t h a t one has been l e f t out of t h i s p h r a s e . 32 . 5 4 9 . 8 . ^ ^ . MS reads tyjfrjk • Hsu, pu cheng, p.40, emends the ^ i n 543.9 t o . W h i l e the c o n t e x t here cannot a l l o w g^ >, the sense of "open o u t , u n f o l d " i s c l e a r l y c a l l e d f o r . 33. 549.1 1 . ^ jJL . The phrase i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l . In a l i t e r a l sense, i t may mean " d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t a i n p r o p e r l y " , however i t s h o u l d perhaps read ij^-jg-p or jfc p^tr • 34. 549.14. - f ^ . There does not appear t o be a s e t of t e n e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l marks. P r o v i s i o n a l l y t a k i n g t e n as a number i n d i c a t i n g c o m p l e t e n e s s , as i n -j- -A- . 35. 549. 1 6. • Emending t o j | - . 36. 550.1. . I have y e t t o i d e n t i f y t h i s c h a r a c t e r . R e n d e r i n g from c o n t e x t . 37. 550.4. -> ^ Should emend t o . 38. 5 5 0 . 4 . ^ . ^ . The e x p r e s s i o n i s p u z z l i n g . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s p r o v i s i o n a l . Compare 525.4. 39. 550.5. ^ W J 'Iwffi - An u n u s u a l r e d u p l i c a t e d binome, but c l e a r 1 36 from c o n t e x t . 50 40. 550.8. 3L- . F o l l o w i n g H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 40, emending t o *Q ( p a r a l l e l s - ^ - ). 41 . 550 .8. ^  "ft . C o r r e c t e d w i t h a t r a n s p o s i t i o n mark i n MS. 42. 550.9. ^.S^-^Z . F o l l o w i n g H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, t a k i n g as 43. 550.1 1 . For-£fj£§> , see 534.8 above and C h i a n g , p.33. 44. 550.13. PWC a c c u r a t e l y t r a n s c r i b e s M S ^ . I am u n c e r t a i n as t o i t s sense h e r e . 45. 550. 1 4. See Daikanwa 41 973. 1 1 2. /$L^. S e e Daikanwa 43758.453. 46. 551 . 1 . T a k i n g as . 47 . 551 .5. s h o u l d r e a d ^ %f . 48. 551 .7. . MS has . 49. 551 .9. A t t e m p t i n g t o r e a d as the t e x t s t a n d s t a k i n g _JL 5iE as " j a d e f l o w " , perhaps a d e s c r i p t i o n of the plume o f i n c e n s e smoke. A l t e r n a t i v e l y the l a s t c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be a m i s t a k e f or , the Jade P i l l a r b e i n g perhaps a r e f e r e n c e t o the Buddha. 551.10. The MS u n a c c o u n t a b l y has ^ • I f o l l o w PWC he r e . 51. 551.11. MS r e a d s " I j L ^ . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s p r o v i s i o n a l . 52. The c h a r a c t e r 3f i s w r i t t e n i n MS between l i n e s 551.14 and 551.15, i n d i c a t i n g , as b e f o r e , a s h i f t i n c h a n t i n g s t y l e . W ith 551.15, the rhyme a l s o changes. 53. 551 .1 5. §j 3f ^ . MS r e a d s ^ . The sense c o u l d be 'a hundred thousand and more 1. 54 . 551.1 5. v^4,^ . MS c o n s i s t e n t l y w r i t e s as ^  . 55. 551.16. #L s h o u l d r e a d ^ . 5 6 . 5 5 2 . 4 . ft % 1*1) . Bimba i s a f r u i t , n a t i v e t o I n d i a , which when r i p e becomes a b r i l l i a n t r e d . The hue of Buddha's l i p s 1 37 i s f r e q u e n t l y l i k e n e d t o i t s c o l o r . See Waku no.371, p.91-92. 57 . 5 5 2 . 4 . - 5 ^ ^ - ^ . The e x p r e s s i o n i s s i m i l a r t o +^ -fj- , which l i k e n s , the v i r t u e of d i s c i p l i n e t o a f r a g r a n c e . Knowledge of such v i r t u e spreads f a r and wide l i k e a d e l i g h t f u l f r a g r a n c e . See Oda, 160.1. 58. 552.5. F o l l o w i n g Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119, who t a k e s as j ^ - . > c2 59. 552 . 5 . • T h i s r e n d e r i n g i s u n c e r t a i n . 60. 552.7. .With t h i s l i n e t h e rhyme s h i f t s t o the f i n a l - a i . 61. 552.7. s h o u l d r e a d $ | . 62 . 552.8. 7f i - MS r e a d s I cannot d e c i p h e r the t h i r d c h a r a c t e r and f o l l o w i n g PWC, reads as 7} . 63. 552. 1 6. J ^ f c j 7 . T h i s l i n e i s o b v i o u s l y c o r r u p t . ^ f i t s n e i t h e r the rhyme nor the sense. I f o l l o w Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119, who suggests 64. 553.2. Mt - MS reads . 1 38 SECTION V I I V i m a l a k i r t i and t h e f i v e hundred sons of e l d e r s The s u t r a says' 1: "At t h a t t i m e , i n the g r e a t c i t y of V a i s a l i , was the son of an e l d e r named P a o - j i ( J ewel A c c u m u l a t i o n ) 2 who, t o g e t h e r w i t h f i v e hundred sons o f e l d e r s , a l l h o l d i n g c a n o p i e s d e c o r a t e d w i t h the seven j e w e l s , came t o pay h i s r e s p e c t s a t the p l a c e of the Buddha." C h a l l e n g e : These f i v e hundred [sons o f ] e l d e r s a re a l l the o f f s p r i n g of k i n g s and thus s h o u l d l o n g f o r the l u x u r i o u s i n d u l g e n c e and p l e a s u r e s of k i n g l y p a l a c e s . Why have they grown t i r e d of t h a t l u x u r i o u s s p l e n d o r and, r e j e c t i n g i t , come t o hear the dharma? Response: I t i s because i n the c i t y of V a i s a l i t h e r e i s a l a y sage3 named V i m a l a k i r t i . O r i g i n a l l y he was the Golden M i l l e t - Thus Come One 4 of the World w i t h o u t I m p u r i t y t o the E a s t , b u t , w i s h i n g t o h e l p the Buddha t r a n s f o r m p e o p l e , he came t o r e s i d e f o r a time w i t h i n the f o u l b o u n d a r i e s of t h i s saha w o r l d . Because j u s t as a c o u n t r y does not have two k i n g s , a w o r l d has not two Buddhas, he e x p e d i e n t l y took the form of an e l d e r and m a n i f e s t e d h i m s e l f as h a v i n g a w i f e and c h i l d r e n 5 . I n the c i t y of V a i s a l i , he came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h e v e r y t h i n g and always b e n e f i t i n g l i v i n g b e i n g s i n eve r y p l a c e , so t h a t w i t h i n the c i t y 1 39 t h e r e were none who had not found r e f u g e i n the Buddha. U s u a l l y , he would t e a c h and c o n v e r t w i t h i n the r o y a l p r e c i n c t s and the K i n g of V a i s a l i p a i d him the r e s p e c t due an e l d e r statesman of the r e a l m . Knowing t h a t our Buddha, the World Honored-One, was g o i n g t o expound the dharma i n Amra Park and w i s h i n g t o m a n i f e s t h i s b e n e f i c e n t i n t e n t i o n s , he went i n t o the k i n g ' s p a l a c e s and t h e r e succeeded i n t e a c h i n g and c o n v e r t i n g f i v e hundred r o y a l p r i n c e s . (Number one: Teaching and c o n v e r t i n g i n the k i n g ' s p a l a c e s : ) Knowing Buddha would i n Amra Park preach the R i g h t and T r u e 6 , He went i n t o the r o y a l p a l a c e s t o c o n v e r t the progeny of k i n g s Beneath the w i l l o w s l i k e smoky haze young n o b l e s were i n p l a c e B e f o r e the f l o w e r s l i k e brocade the c o u r t l a d i e s were a r r a y e d T h e i r p a i n t e d boats y i e l d b l i s s f u l l y , go where the c u r r e n t t a k e s them R i c h w h i t e l i q u o r brought out t o them, poured t o t h e i r cups' b r i m To t h i s p l a c e of p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g , V i m a l a k i r t i s t r a i g h t f o r t h came To t e a c h , c o n v e r t and have them8 pay o b e i s a n c e t o the World-Honored One Then P a o - c h i and the o t h e r s heard V i m a l a k i r t i ' s words and asked the Lay Sage: "Know you not t h e n , when the World-Honored One w i l l expound the dharma i n Amra P a r k ? " The Lay Sage answered: "Make your p r e p a r a t i o n s ^ q u i c k l y . The time i s now!" 1 40 (The Lay Sage d i s p a t c h e s them; gatha) You c r a v e t o be i n k i n g l y p a l a c e s , g r a t i f y i n g e v e r y whim In f l o w e r y shadow, i n w i l l o w ' s shade, keep l a d y c o u r t i e r s company Atop the p u r p l e - c l o u d p a v i l i o n s you s e t out reeds and s t r i n g s B e f o r e the w h i t e j a d e 1 0 gardens you dance the W i l d M u l b e r r y B o u g h 1 1 A dreamy p a s s i o n f o r p i p e s ' songs, you c a n ' t s t a n d the p r e s s of time T r o u b l e d not t h a t i t ' s v a n i t y , i l l u s i o n , you d e t e s t a s l o w i n g i n s t i m u l a t i o n ' s pace You s h o u l d now as f a s t as f i r e make your h a s t e t o go For by my r e c k o n i n g [Buddha's] p r e a c h i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e r i g h t now! Then the Lay Sage, expounding many s o r t s of t e a c h i n g s , c o n v e r t e d t h e s e c h i l d r e n of k i n g s and had them go t o Amra Park t o pay homage t o the Buddha and l i s t e n t o the dharma. At t h a t time the f i v e hundred p r i n c e s , P a o - c h i and the o t h e r s , i m p l o r e d the Lay Sage t o go a l o n g w i t h them. (Gatha:) Bathed have we i n your compassion, you have t r a n s f o r m e d us w o r t h l e s s f e l l o w s With h e a r t s s i n c e r e we are moved t o t h a n k s , a hundred thousand t i m e s Had your p e r s i s t e n t guidance of us d e l u d e d o n e s l 3 not been touched by u r g e n t concern How c o u l d our boats ever be f r e e of the t a l l and p e r i l o u s waves We beg t o borrow of your time so t h a t you may l e a d our way We r e l y e n t i r e l y on your g r e a t s t r e n g t h t o s e r v e us as a rudder14 [?] We f i v e hundred b r e t h r e n do most e a r n e s t l y i m p l o r e That the Lay Sage s h a l l come w i t h us and t o g e t h e r w e ' l l go hence 1 41 The Lay Sage r e p l i e d : "From b e f o r e 1 5 I wanted us t o go t o g e t h e r , and now I w i s h t o accompany you." (Gatha:) With deep thanks I do a c c e p t your o f f e r t o have the honor of your company Of themselves your eyes s h a l l c l e a r , b oth eyes s h a l l be o p e n e d 1 6 The r o a d which l e a d s t o b o d h i can seldom be e n c o u n t e r e d 1 7 S h i p s upon the p e r i l o u s r o u t e s r a r e l y g a i n a r u d d e r [?] L i k e j a d e one g r i n d s t o form a b a s k e t , so i n t r i c a t e and f i n e L i k e the hen t h a t n e s t s upon the egg, b r e a k i n g the s h e l l a t the p r o p e r time18 S i n c e i n d e e d you do i n t e n d t o p e r s o n a l l y hear the dharma I t ' s my d e s i r e t o go a l o n g , t o g e t h e r w e ' l l go hence Thereupon the f i v e hundred [sons o f ] e l d e r s each took up a canopy d e c o r a t e d w i t h the seven j e w e l s and, i n the company of the Lay Sage, they a l l went f o r t h from the k i n g ' s p a l a c e . (Gatha:) V i m a l a k i r t i accompanied them as they went t o pay homage t o the G o l d Immortal T h e i r j e w e l e d c a n o p i e s were d e c o r o u s l y h e l d , t h e i r form and c o l o r d a z z l i n g White j a d e s k i l l f u l l y formed i n d e s i g n s of phoenixes and dragons Threads of pure g o l d can be seen r i g h t n e x t t o i v o r y R o s e - c o l o r e d m i s t s d a r t g l o w i n g l y , a shimmering r a d i a n c e The c r y s t a l l i n e webs of j e w e l s chime f o r t h , sound and echo j o i n e d Vast crowds f i l l t he s t r e e t s as p e o p l e a l l l o o k on At t h i s t i m e l 9 the sons of k i n g s head bound f o r Amra Park The the f i v e hundred [sons o f ] e l d e r s t o g e t h e r w i t h the Lay Sage, went out from the c i t y of V a i s a l i . And as they went, 1 42 suddenly [ V i m a l a k i r t i ] took g r a v e l y i l l and t h e r e b e s i d e the r o a d , they p i l e d up s t o n e s t o form a s m a l l square hut f o r him. ( G a t h a : ) 2 0 A deep r i v e r matches p e r f e c t l y h i s commanding s t a t e l y b e a r i n g But suddenly V i m a l a k i r t i was t a k e n i l l and weakened The window l e t s through d i s t a n t winds, h i s c l o t h i n g but h a l f c o v e r s him Door opened t o the autumn moon, he l e a n s sideways on a p i l l o w 2 1 Body t w i s t e d by i n c e s s a n t p a i n , c l o s i n g b oth h i s eyes B r e a t h i n g s h a l l o w , l a b o r e d , s t r a i n i n g t i g h t l y both h i s b r o w s 2 2 The Lay Sage's g r i e v o u s s i c k n e s s , whence c o u l d such a t h i n g a r i s e ? I t causes a l l we b r e t h r e n t o be consumed by doubts V i m a l a k i r t i expounded the dharma a t l e n g t h f o r t h o s e progeny of k i n g s , h i s r o y a l companions, s a y i n g : Cast away f o r e v e r , i t does not l o n g a b i d e T h i s f i e r y mirage23 i s not t r u e s u b s t a n t i a l i t y Nor s h a l l I speak a w h i l e and a l l of you s h o u l d hear T h i s body of mine i s but a phantom When a l l ' s s a i d and done and d e a t h has come, wh e r e i n s h o u l d you seek i t ? D i s e a s e comes and i n v a d e s t h i s body, who do you t h i n k w i l l s t o p i t ? 2 4 A s i n g l e lump of v i r t u e - s u b s t a n c e 2 5 c o n s t i t u t e s i t s r o o t A d e s o l a t e mound heaped up t h r e e f e e t , i t s o n l y d e s t i n a t i o n The Four Elements' disharmony26 i s an everyday o c c u r r e n c e I would not t r o u b l e my worthy l o r d s t o be so a b r u p t l y shocked The Lay Sage s a i d : "You f i v e hundred b r e t h r e n , go t o Amra Pa r k , t h e r e t o do the Buddha homage and t o l i s t e n t o h i s t e a c h i n g s . S i n c e I have t a k e n i l l , I cannot move even the 1 43 s m a l l e s t s t e p . " And so they took t h e i r l e a v e , of which we w i l l chant s e v e r a l g a t h a . o 7 (Seven s t a n z a s ) : You sons of k i n g s have no need t o p a i n f u l l y d e l i b e r a t e what's b e s t To go r i g h t now t o Amra Park i s the most r e a s o n a b l e c o u r s e My l i f e i s j u s t l i k e the dew which forms upon the g r a s s My body l i k e the f r o s t which g a t h e r s on the f l o w e r s C i c a d a sounds a g a i n and a g a i n p i e r c e my l o o s e - k n i t s c r e e n 2 W i l l o w shadows droop w e a r i l y o p p o s i t e my s i c k bed Bend your f i n g e r s , count them, those of days gone by Who among them ever has escaped Impermanence29? And now I g r e a t l y wish to pay homage to the King of Emptiness But t r u l y 3 0 s i c k n e s s binds me and I cry out i n p a i n Lacking s t r e n g t h to set my garments s t r a i g h t , I'm g l a d of q u i e t s o l i t u d e Had I a mind to open my door, I would f e e l but pained c o n f u s i o n The thousand types of r i c h s i l k f i n e r y would press hard upon 31 my eyes Ten thousand songs upon the pipes could s p l i t my bowels apart Oh, ye b r e t h r e n hear my words! Who has ever i n the past escaped Impermanence? Boast ye not: "I am a b r i l l i a n t f e l l o w accomplished i n my w r i t i n g C r y s t a l - c l e a r verse i n measured cadence, rhymes pure as snow or f r o s t With my masterly brush I have set f o r t h the very f o r c e s of 3 ? c r e a t i o n - " In s e c r e t probings many times I have plumbed y i n and yang The p a i n f u l r e s o l v e at f i r e f l y - l i t window, to where does i t go? Great achievements gained on snowy peaks i n what p l a c e are they s t o r e d ? 3 3 Oh ye b r e t h r e n hear my words! Who has ever i n the past escaped Impermanence? 1 44 You s h o u l d go s t r a i g h t a w a y t o pay homage t o the K i n g of Emptiness Your j e w e l e d c a n o p i e s are m a g n i f i c e n t l y adorned, you need not make them more s o 3 4 The sun s h i n e s upon the gems most r a r e , s p a r k l i n g , g l i t t e r i n g The b r e e z e s j o s t l e g o l d and j a d e , sounds r i n g out i n resonance Upon the n i n e - t i e r e d roads35 you a r e a f a v o r a b l e p o r t e n t Among a l l the people of the l a n d you make a g o o d l y omen I t ' s b e s t you go t o pay r e s p e c t t o the S a c r e d Host When you r e t u r n then p r o b a b l y I ' l l have passed i n t o Impermanence36 Though my body seems t o have r e g a i n e d j u s t a b i t of h e a l t h I d are not y e t r e l y on i t t o go do honor t o the Dharma K i n g T h i s square h o v e l i s w i t h o u t the Compassionate M i r r o r ' s r e f l e c t i o n The Bloom of C o n s c i o u s n e s s ' s f r a g r a n c e i s i n Amra Park u n t a i n t e d T h i n and drawn, the form of t o w e r i n g peaks, e n f e e b l e my p i l l o w a l l the more Wispy, sad, the smoke of men reaches my s i c k bed38 Cast your eyes upon me, my form, d e c r e p i t , weakens In a t w i n k l i n g you w i l l see t h a t I ' l l have passed i n t o Impermanence 3 You s h o u l d s t r a i g h t a w a y r e f o r m your former a c t i o n - s t o r e Don't hanker a f t e r " r e d p a v i l i o n " g i r l s , h i g h - p r i c e d female e n t e r t a i n e r s 4 0 I f you r e v e r e h i s Compassionate Honor's s k i l l a t p r e a c h i n g dharma Y o u ' l l f e e l no t h r o b f o r t h o s e a t t r a c t i v e l a d i e s ' s k i l l i n t h e i r t o i l e t t e Cause the p i p e s and s t r i n g s t o cease beyond the p e a r l b l i n d s H a l t your d r i n k i n g games4"! among the t o r t o i s e - s h e l l banquet mats Heed w e l l and remember, th e s e words I urge upon you now T h i s body s h a l l i n but an i n s t a n t pass i n t o Impermanence 4 2 T a k i n g l e a v e upon t h i s spot i s the h e i g h t of u n s e t t l i n g sadness I cannot accompany you i n t o the Holy P l a c e of L e a r n i n g 4 3 I f e r v e n t l y want you gentlemen of pure f a i t h from the p a l a c e s n i n e 4 4 1 45 Go f i r s t j o y f u l l y t o do homage t o the pure l i g h t from h i s brow Golden s t a v e s one a f t e r a n o t h e r , dragons, e l e p h a n t s i n l i n e P a i r upon p a i r of j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s , phoenixes p r o u d l y arrayed45 I a l o n e a t t h i s time s i m p l y cannot go I n an i n s t a n t , c e r t a i n l y I s h a l l pass i n t o Impermanence So then P a o - c h i and the o t h e r s a l l absorbed V i m a l a k i r t i 1 s e x h o r t a t i o n s ; they remembered w e l l the Lay Sage s i n s t r u c t i o n s . Once more they s e t t h e i r appearance i n o r d e r and a g a i n formed i n t o t h e i r r a n k s , [making ready] t o head toward Amra Pa r k , t h e r e t o pay homage t o the Buddha. Then P a o - c h i and the o t h e r s , p e r c e i v i n g the urgency of V i m a l a k i r t i 1 s e x h o r t a t i o n s and s e e i n g how grave the Lay Sage's i l l n e s s was, l i s t e n e d t o h i s o r d e r s and c o m p l i e d w i t h e v e r y s i n g l e one. They p a i d heed t o h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s and t o a man a c c e p t e d them. Then they a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r t h e i r j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s and put s t r a i g h t t h e i r g o l d e n crowns. With s i n g l e minds they were about t o head f o r Amra Pa r k , but bound i n sadness by t h e i r l o v e , they c o u l d not bear t o p a r t from the square h o v e l . P a o - c h i a d d r e s s e d the Lay Sage, s a y i n g : "For a s h o r t time we s h a l l p a r t hands47, f o r but an i n s t a n t be a p a r t . To b i d you, oh Lay Sage, f a r e w e l l i s a thousand, t e n thousand woes. To pay homage t o the Great Holy One, a h i , i f you would have us go, w e ' l l go. These t h i n g s we w i s h w i t h a l l our h e a r t : That the Lay Sage may draw b r e a t h w e l l , t h a t t h i n g s of themselves may harmonize. May a r e d h e a r t h 1 46 warm our e l d e r ' s b r o t h ; may s p i r i t s d e l i c a t e and f i n e wash down m i l o r d ' s m e d i c i n e . For i n d e e d the time i s hushed and l o n e l y : the a u s t e r e , c l e a r wind b e f o r e your window. The season i n i t s w i t h e r e d d e c l i n e : b e s i d e t h e s e w a l l s of p i l e d s t o n e , s c a t t e r e d y e l l o w e d l e a v e s 4 8 . C i c a d a c r i e s , a p i e r c i n g drone, s a t u r a t e your p i l l o w ; the autumn p a l l which f i l l s y our door l i e s heavy, t h i c k l y l a d e n . " L y i n g f a c e up on your r a i s e d bed, weakened, exhausted i n t h i s c r u m b l i n g room.49 The Lay Sage's s i c k l y e x p r e s s i o n t a k e s a t u r n f o r the worse50, your b r e a t h i n g f a i n t and s h a l l o w ; then our d i s t r e s s e d e x p r e s s i o n s g r a v e r s t i l l , our moans of woe more u r g e n t . We have been g r a c e d by V i m a l a k i r t i ' s t e n d e r c o n c e r n f o r us, by h i s p r o f o u n d i n t e n t i o n t o n o u r i s h us w i t h dharma's m i l k 5 1 , w h o c o u l d have known t h a t the Lay Sage would be bound up by s i c k n e s s which would become i n t u r n the a f f l i c t i o n of the progeny of k i n g s ? "Our p a r t i n g , i t draws n e a r e r . In a n x i o u s i n d e c i s i o n 5 2 , worry k n i t s our brows. Our p a r t i n g c l o s e upon us now, our eyes be h o l d but you and t e a r s t r a c e down our reddened cheeks. For us, the sky has l o s t i t s c o l o r ; the sun has l o s t i t s glow. " I n t e n s e i n t h o u g h t , sad worry f i l l s our b r e a s t s . L o s t i n thought sad laments r i s e i n our c h e s t s . A l l of us mix words w i t h t e a r s , a l l c a r r y sad e x p r e s s i o n s . "You must m a i n t a i n your s t r o n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; do not l e t 1 47 your i l l n e s s worsen. We s h a l l go t o c a s t our eyes upon the Great H o l i n e s s f o r a s h o r t w h i l e , t o pay o b e i s a n c e t o h i s M e r c i f u l Honor. Q u i c k l y s h a l l we then l e a v e the Amra Park and i n but a moment r e t u r n t o l o o k a f t e r the Lay Sage." Thereupon they t a k e up53 t h e i r j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s and s t r a i g h t e n e d t h e i r g o l d e n crowns. T h e i r j a d e n e c k l a c e s ' g e n t l e r i n g e n v e l o p s the a r e a . The j a d e s t o n e s of t h e i r g i r d l e s c l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r ; the sound surrounds the steps.54 B l u e gems55 crown them, smoky m i s t s : a s i n g l e s t r i p of autumn sky. C r y s t a l perched upon t h e i r heads, f r a g r a n t towers: the h a l f - w h e e l o f a s h i n i n g moon.56 Carved and p o l i s h e d amber, s c u l p t u r e d c o r a l t o o . A u s p i c i o u s winds s e t i n motion57 f a r - r e a c h i n g f r a g r a n c e ; w e l l -b o d i n g m i s t s r i s e , c o a l e s c i n g the b r i l l i a n t c o l o r s . H a l f a thousand j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s , row on row a l l borne on h i g h . An e n t i r e l a n d s ' h e r o i c w o r t h i e s , i n v a s t p r o f u s i o n , r a i s i n g t h e i r v o i c e s t o g e t h e r i n p r a i s e . And as they p r o c e e d , go on t h e i r way, f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r o f f , the n e i g h b o r g i r l s from t e n - t h o u s a n d households f o l l o w b e h i n d ; songs on p i p e s f i l l the s t r e e t s and l e a d them f o r w a r d . S t r i n g s and p i p e s which s e t the sky abuzz echo58 around the b l u e s k y ' s c l o u d s ; s i l k f i n e r y a l l about r e f l e c t s i t s glow upon the t h i c k l y - g r o w i n g s p r i n g g r e e n e r y 5 9 . T r a n s f o r m i n g the l a n d of V a i s a l i i n t o the c i t y of p a r a d i s e : The n i n e - f o l d highways d r e s s e d up i n p a v i l i o n s , s u n s h i n e f i x e d 1 48 upon them. Ten thousand homes u n f o l d a scene of p e r p e t u a l s p r i n g . G r a d u a l l y they t a k e t h e i r l e a v e of the square h o v e l , a l r e a d y they've l e f t V a i s a l i f a r b e h i n d , any moment now they s h a l l r e a c h Amra Pa r k , t h e r e t o pay f u l l o b e i s a n c e t o the Sacr e d Master of the F l o w e r e d P l a t f o r m . E v e r y t h i n g was j u s t the way the Lay Sage had d e c i d e d But h o l d i n g ready j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s , they a l l were g r i p p e d by i n d e c i s i o n As they were about t o d e p a r t the room, t h e i r brows were k n i t i n c o n s t e r n a t i o n Edging up t o the h o v e l ' s e n t r a n c e , shadows p r e s s e d upon them The e v e n i n g o r i o l e s c r y out from the t r e e s i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i r weeping The autumn swallows j a b b e r i n g i n t h e eaves i n t e n s i f i e s t h e i r sadness P a r t i n g f o r but a moment's t i m e , but s t i l l such sad r e g r e t s As t h e y ' r e about t o honor Sakyamuni, t o f a c e the j e w e l l e d p l a t f o r m We hope the Lay Sage w i l l r e s t o r e h i s harmony Do not be r e m i s s and l e t your s i c k n e s s w o r s e n 6 0 So q u i c k l y t a k e n by l i f e ' s end, i m p o s s i b l e t o escape Suddenly your body t a k e n by a g r e a t s h o c k 6 1 L u c k i l y t o warm your b r o t h you have your g o l d e n k e t t l e And t o heat your m e d i c i n e have you not your w h i t e j a d e pan? Good and bad a r e of a l l s o r t s ; you must p u l l t o g e t h e r and be cur e d You must not j u s t l e t t h i n g s s l i p away and l o s e the o p p o r t u n i t y I n c e s s a n t l y 6 2 time p a s s e s , a l r e a d y f a l l has deepened The c i c a d a s ' sound which pares the e a r t h comes out from e v e n i n g groves Dewdrops form on e v e n i n g p i n e s 6 3 , a thousand drops of j a d e Chrysanthemums sway b e f o r e c o l d w a l l s , a s i n g l e g o l d e n c l u s t e r C l e a r b r e e z e s c o l d and t h i n e l i c i t saddened thoughts The y e l l o w e d l e a v e s f a l l i n d e c l i n e and s t r i k e the s i c k l y 1 49 h e a r t Oh Lay Sage you must s t r i v e t o g a t h e r your e n e r g i e s L e t not death's c a s t i n v a d e t h i s p l a c e We v a l u e V i m a l a k i r t i ' s f e e l i n g s f o r us, the m i l k of dharma-k i n d n e s s 6 4 So t h a t from the time you've t a k e n s i c k , we've g i v e n way t o sadness Now i n t h i s t i n y h o v e l a h e r o i c worthy l i e s J u s t as i f from autumn s k i e s 6 5 the s h i n i n g moon has t o p p l e d A p a l l of sadness k n i t s t h e i r brows, they a r e not s h o r t l y eased T e a r s t r e a k s descend upon t h e i r cheeks, t r a c e s ever s h a r p e r I n t h e i r t houghts they a r e about t o go t o Amra Park Happiness w i t h sadness mixed as on and on they walk G a t h e r i n g up j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s , they t i d y t h e i r appearance T h e i r g i r d l e j a d e chimes m u s i c a l l y , the sound f i l l s a l l the s t r e e t s 6 6 S h i n i n g m o t h e r - o f - p e a r l , i t s r a d i a n c e i r i d e s c e n t 6 7 F i n e l y p o l i s h e d amber, i t s c o l o r glimmers t w i n k l i n g 6 8 P e a r l n e t s w i t h w h i t e - c l o u d h o v e r i n g over69 The b r i l l i a n c e of j e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s l i g h t s t he e v e n i n g sky The p r i d e of an e n t i r e land70 i n the s p r i n g t i m e of t h e i r y o u t h H a l f a thousand p r i n c e s , i n the glow of j a d e People i n v a s t t h r o n g s , t h e i r words a tumultuous buzz Clouds p i l e d l a y e r on l a y e r , r e f l e c t e d on b l u e s k i e s As hands s e t c o r a l swaying, p a r r o t s move about Breezes j o s t l e j a d e g i r d l e s , phoenix p a i r s a r e jo i n e d 7 1 Such n o b l e ranks as the s e a r e inde e d r a r e l y met People i n the m i l l i o n s a l l crowd about t o l o o k J e w e l l e d c a n o p i e s a re h e l d i n hand, the glow a l o v e l y s o f t n e s s 7 2 Golden crowns r e s t on t h e i r heads, t h e i r c o l o r s merge and glimmer S i l k f i n e r y which crowds the s l o p e s d r e s s e d up i n s u n s e t s ' glow Songs on p i p e s f i l l the e a r t h , sound t r a v e l l i n g on f a v o r a b l e b r e e z e s Both emperor and common f o l k a r e s e i z e d w i t h g l a d a n t i c i p a t i o n 1 50 A l l a t one time p a y i n g homage from a f a r i n the Pure L i g h t ' s m i d s t S h o u t i n g out t h e i r p r a i s e : "Indeed t h i s i s most r a r e ! " F i v e hundred sons of k i n g s w i l l pay the P r e c i o u s P l a t f o r m homage The waves of a v a r i c e , a t t r a c t i o n , a re now by t h i s broken The blooms of the Bodhi t r e e soon they w i l l come open S a i n t s and w o r t h i e s sound t h e i r p r a i s e a thousand, thousand times The common p e o p l e ' s songs a re r a i s e d i n 10,000 g l a d r e f r a i n s A l l of them come t o Amra Park t h e r e t o pay the Buddha homage And what o b e i s a n c e d i d they make? t h a t next we s h a l l chant o u t 7 3 1 51 Notes t o S e c t i o n V I I 1 . 553.3. MS does not have the words f^fl/yC. . 2. 553.3. ^fF ^ f " . S k t . R a t n a - r a s i . 3. 553. 5 . & k . 4. 553.5. . P o p u l a r l e g e n d , i t seems, has a s c r i b e d t h i s provenance t o V i m a l a k i r t i . See Oda, 259a and Ch'en Y i n - k ' o , p.370. 5. 553.6. On V i m a l a k i r t i 1 s " a c q u i s i t i o n " of a f a m i l y i n C h i n a , see Ch'en Y i n - k ' o , pp.369-371. 6. 553.9. )£. J$L . T h i s compound i s used as an a d j e c t i v e a t 533.14 above. 7. 553.1 0. $$.tlff . MS w r i t e s c o n s i s t e n t l y asi^f.. 8. 553. 12. §~ . MS reads • 9. 553.1 3. ^ t b . MS may rea d ^fcti. On t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , a l s o w r i t t e n as ^ t b o r ^ ^ | , see C h i a n g , p. 59-60. 10 . 553.1 6. PWC m i s t a k e n l y t r a n s c r i b e s MS % jE* as _ j . . 1 1 . 553. 16. ^  Cfc&JdL. The name of a dance which a c h i e v e d g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g the T'ang d y n a s t y . See Daikanwa 1426.22. 12. 554.1 . >f£-/CiN iHl . MS reads ^  , which c l e a r l y i s not *f£-. I suggest , though not w i t h c e r t a i n t y . '^»N ~iM- i & a n uncommon e x p r e s s i o n . P r o v i s i o n a l l y I t a k e t he phrase t o mean l i t e r a l l y , "hate t h a t the mind s h o u l d s l o w . " 13. 554.5. $L • . H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, s u g g e s t s ^ . MS reads 4^. Sense can be made of the PWC r e a d i n g here and I f o l l o w i t . 14. 554.6. J$^%% . As i n S e c t i o n I , 520.1, I t h i n k t h a t i t i s n a u t i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y p o s i n g a problem here. The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r ,,, :in MS, l o o k s l i k e ^ . ^ , which I cannot i d e n t i f y . The second ' c h a r a c t e r :£jjt i s a v a r i a n t form o f ^ . . A l t h o u g h the c h a r a c t e r s used are u n c l e a r , the s e a - f a r i n g analogy of the p r e v i o u s l i n e , 554.5, and the use of i n 554.10 i n an o b v i o u s l y n a u t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n p o i n t t o a meaning l i k e 1 52 " r u d d e r " , which I have s u p p l i e d p r o v i s i o n a l l y . H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 40 s u g gests "go-between" or " i n t e r m e d i a r y " ^ j^. . Perhaps both here and i n 554.1 0 t h i s l a t t e r sense, extended t o mean "guide", i s i n t e n d e d . 1 5. 554.8. -j;t , by i t s a p p o s i t i o n t o ^ , has the sense of b e f o r e . See, f o r example, the e x p r e s s i o n fcfc. jft. a t 798.9 and 12 and I r i y a i n d e x f o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . 16. 554.9. The s u b j e c t of the second l i n e of the c o u p l e t would appear t o be the p r i n c e s . 1 7 . 554 .10 . O n ^ , see n.14 above. 18. 554. 1 1 . J2g f^fj . Reading t h i s as a v e r b - o b j e c t compound p a r a l l e l i n g H -fyjj below. Note though t h a t a t 558.3-4 and 559.9, a d i f f e r e n t c o p y i s t has w r i t t e n the v e r b a l compound meaning " t o c u t and g r i n d " as jjfj^ ( w r i t t e n tfSJfc'^ i n modern c o l l o q u i a l C h i n e se.) |? ^ifMi-^^kr 1 r e a d |[ as ff<f or^rj- . See 530.4 above. The l a s t s h o u l d read3"|£ . 19. 555.1. i>L^- 2-3- • MS reads &|- . 20. 555.2. . MS has F£| as w e l l . I f not an e r r o r , the c h a r a c t e r would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s q atha i s d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h perhaps o n l y because of the q u e s t i o n i n i t s f i n a l c o u p l e t . -ft st. . L i t e r a l l y a square chang, t h i s i s a t r a d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e t o the t i n y room i n which a monk d w e l l s . For o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n the c o n t e x t of n a r r a t i o n s of t h i s s u t r a , see PWC 634.10 and 635.7. 21 . 555.4. ^ ^"-^C. Hs i i , t s a i pu, p.119, reads as i f o l l o w Hsii h e r e . Both l i n e s of t h i s c o u p l e t d e p i c t f i r s t n a t u r a l phenomena and then the i l l Lay Sage. 22. 555.5. I am u n c e r t a i n of the meaning of ^} and have p r o v i s i o n a l l y t r a n s l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n t e x t and the p r o b a b l e sense of the c h a r a c t e r s . ^J&.jl . ' l? • A s H s u ' E H cheng, p. 40, p o i n t s o u t , t h i s s h o u l d read . 23 . 555.8. "^kjfsk . A heat i l l u s i o n , a mirage. The s i m i l e a t once bespeaks the body's u n r e a l q u a l i t y and i t s r o l e as a c r e a t o r of the t h i r s t which the d e l u d e d t r y t o quench through attachment t o w o r l d l y t h i n g s . See Oda, 1748.3. The sense of t h e s e f i v e l i n e s p a r a l l e l s t h a t of V i m a l a k i r t i ' s 1 53 d i s c o u r s e on the impermanence of the body i n the Fang-pien  p' i n of the s u t r a , T i n g , p.13b-15a; Luk, p.17-18. 555.1 0. MS c l e a r l y r e a d s . %- however i s a m a r g i n a l c o n n e c t i o n f o r jd^ ( ^ L ) . ^ ^ i f f f - M S i s c l e a r l y not , r a t h e r I t seems t h a t the c o p y i s t s p o t t e d something amiss i n t h i s c o u p l e t , a l t h o u g h i t ' s not c e r t a i n he c o r r e c t e d i t . I r e a d both q u e s t i o n a b l e c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i s i o n a l l y a s ^ _ . ^ ^ _ i s an a d v e r b i a l phrase meaning " u l t i m a t e l y , i n the end", see Chang, p.382. T r o u b l i n g however i s the l o s s of p a r a l l e l i s m r e s u l t i n g from t h a t r e a d i n g . Perhaps-f^ a ( e u p h e m i s t i c ? ) e x p r e s s i o n f o r d e a t h , i s meant. 555.1 1 . If . I m not c e r t a i n what e x a c t l y t h i s v i r t u e -s u b s t a n c e " i s . I t i s not a s t a n d a r d B u d d h i s t term. Something a l o n g the l i n e s of an e t h i c a l c o r e i s c l e a r l y meant however. Perhaps t h i s i s a p o p u l a r d o c t r i n a l c o n c o c t i o n . C h i a n g , p.209, i n c l u d e s t h i s among the as y e t u n d e c i p h e r a b l e s . 555.1 2. to 7<- . The f our elements which t o g e t h e r compose the body: e a r t h , w a t e r , f i r e and wind. See Oda, 724.2. A l s o see V i m a l a k i r t i ' s answer t o M a n j u s r I ' s query about a s i c k B o d h i s a t t v a , T i n g , p.45a; Luk, p.53. 555.1 3 . With the words - t l , the c o p y i s t of MS has changed. The w r i t i n g , c l e a r l y of a d i f f e r e n t hand, becomes more c a r e f u l and d e l i b e r a t e , w i t h a t h i c k e r s t r o k e and d i f f e r e n t shade of i n k . 555.1 6 . The c h a r a c t e r j | J ^ would appear t o be a v a r i a n t form of jijj , window. i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s w r i t t e n i n t h i s l i n e and elsew h e r e as 5 5 6 . 1 . . S k t . Anit y e 556.2. _jft . H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, su g g e s t s t h i s s h o u l d r e a d (fi . 556.4. i s p u z z l i n g h e r e . I t r a n s l a t e p r o v i s i o n a l l y . 556.7. . MS reads £Jt/iK». 556.8. Hs i i , t s a i pu, p.119, p o i n t s out t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r X s h o u l d read i # . The l i n e a l l u d e s t o two s c h o l a r s of the ChinJ|p d y n a s t y , Che Y i n ^  , who was so poor he had t o 1 54 study by the l i g h t of the f i r e f l i e s he had c a p t u r e d , and Sun K'ang fjj^ , who a l s o because of h i s p o v e r t y s t u d i e d i n the e v e n i n g by the l i g h t r e f l e c t e d from the snow. The two are u s u a l l y a l l u d e d t o as p a i r e d models of s c h o l a r l y p e r s e v e r a n c e . 34. 556.1 0. £X ^jl. . O r i g i n a l l y meaning t o change and r e s t r e t c h the s t r i n g s of a z i t h e r (?$-), the extended sense i s t o change or improve. I r i y a l i s t s e i g h t o c c u r r e n c e s i n PWC. 35. 556. 1 2. ih f|? s h o u l d read J[ . See Hsii , t s a i pu, p. 11 9. 36. The phrase ^ ^ a t 556 .1 3, 557.1 and 557.9 a l s o conveys the sense of "the S e l f i s impermanent". The more immediate sense of " I w i l l have d i e d " i s of c o u r s e a l s o communicated. 37. 556. 1.5. Both and ^ 4<L a r e of c o u r s e r e f e r e n c e s t o the Buddha. 38 . 556 .1 6 . The c h a r a c t e r seems t o be an e r r o r , but I have no r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e emendation t o s u g g e s t . The rhymed binomes which s t a r t both l i n e s of the c o u p l e t r e f e r t o and a r e s u g g e s t i v e of both the mountains and the smoke and V i m a l a k i r t i ' s p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . 39. 557.1 . ^r- • I r i y a , i n d e x , p. 6, l i s t s o c c u r r e n c e a t 91.2, 430.2 and 666.1, w i t h a r e a d i n g of cen ( t s ' e n ) f o r t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r . C h i a n g , p.171, g l o s s e s the f i r s t and l a s t of t h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h l i t t l e a pparent r e l e v a n c e t o the i n s t a n t usage. The c o n t e x t here i s one of imminence, matching the r e f r a i n l i n e s a t 556. 1 3 ( jf^-^k. ) ' 557.5 ( ^ $ y ) , and 557.9 ( ) • I have t r i e d t o t r a n s l a t e here i n c l u d i n g the sense of the compound as i t o c c u r s i n 559.9. N e i t h e r the p r e s e n t nor t h i s l a s t o c c u r r e n c e i s noted i n the I r i y a i n d e x . 40. 557 .2. " A c t i o n - s t o r e " a g a i n r e n d e r s . <&I ^ , l i t . " r e d m u l t i s t o r i e d s t r u c t u r e s " r e f e r s t o the d w e l l i n g s o f g i r l s from w e l l - o f f f a m i l i e s and by e x t e n s i o n t o r i c h , w e l l - b o r n g i r l s t h e m s e l v e s . See Daikanwa 2743.399. I s u s p e c t t h a t r a t h e r than ^ , -J?J? a " s i n g - s o n g g i r l " i s meant i n t h i s c o n t e x t . 41 . 557.4. j|L . The r i t u a l s of c o n v i v i a l , c o l l e g i a l d r i n k i n g . See Daikanwa 387.92 where the e x p r e s s i o n i s equated w i t h . 155 42. 557.5. . Chiang, p.79, notes o t h e r i n s t a n c e s of |R i n PWC i n the sense he g l o s s e s as 'to l i s t e n t o and o b ey'^^ j§j $.y . The l i t e r a l sense seems t o be 'even as you l o o k ' , i . e . i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . I n s t a n c e s a t 630.14 and 774.8, noted i n I r i y a i n d e x , bear out t h i s r e a d i n g , as does the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t (see note 39 above). 43. 557.6. \% , as Hsu, t s a i pu, p.119, p o i n t s o u t , s h o u l d r e a d Holy P l a c e of l e a r n i n g r e n d e r s Xg."t^ , S k t . Bodhimandala, a p l a c e where the s a c r e d p a t h t o Buddhahood i s p e r f e c t e d . 44. 557.7. %> ^% . As noted e a r l i e r , the e x p r e s s i o n most l i k e l y means "numerous p a l a c e s " and does not r e p r e s e n t a s p e c i f i c n u m e r i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . 45. 557.8. The dragons, e l e p h a n t s and phoenixes r e f e r t o f i g u r e s and d e s i g n s a t t a c h e d t o or worked upon the s t a v e s and c a n o p i e s . 46. 557.10. Ch i a n g , p.79, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of ( i n s t r u c t i o n s ) , c i t e s t h i s l i n e , emending " i f ( jf ) t o % . I f o l l o w C h i a n g , a l t h o u g h the f a c t t h a t ~Q $J£_ i s p a r a l l e l t o the f o l l o w i n g %Z^^ l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t t h a t a v e r b a l compound was meant. 47 . 557.1 2. MS has the m a r g i n a l c o r r e c t i o n i=f f o r Jj$- i n . See PWC 608.3 f o r the same e x p r e s s i o n w i t h " ^ " . 48 . 557.1 4. . The compound's s t a n d a r d meaning i s f r a g r a n t , see Daikanwa 30728.19. Ch i a n g , p.133, however, n o t i n g the •^-^•js a t 543.8, which PWC i n c o r r e c t l y emends t o , f e e l s t h a t i n t h a t o c c u r r e n c e the compound i s merely a p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a n t of JJ£*^$~ . The meaning " i n p r o f u s i o n " i s l i k e l y i n the c o n t e x t of 557.14. 49. 557.1 5. ^ J t ^ . MS r e a d s % . H s i i , t s a i pu, p.119, a l s o makes t h i s emendation. 50. 557.1 5. JgjK . The e x p r e s s i o n i s p u z z l i n g , but c o n t e x t seems t o i n d i c a t e t h i s r e a d i n g . 51 . 557.1 5. The emendation t o i s i n c o r r e c t . The same e d i t o r r e p e a t s t h i s m i s t a k e a t 559.4 and 601.11. The e x p r e s s i o n , Daikanwa 17290.289, t r e a t s dharma as the m i l k which n o u r i s h e s the dharma-bodies of those who would c u l t i v a t e t h e m s e l v e s . H s i i , p_u cheng, p. 40, a l s o notes t h i s e r r o r . 1 56 52. 557. 16. jfc. iH. . Should read ^ or Compare the c o r r e s p o n d i n g rhymed passage a t 558.8. 53. 558.2. \% s h o u l d read ik. or *|" • 54. 558.3. ]Mr and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t a r e p r o b l e m a t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Compare the use of j!^ i n 558.9. i s e q u i v a l e n t t o . I f the f i r s t binome i s t o be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y , the f a c t t h a t the square h o v e l of p i l e d stone would not have s t e p s l e a d i n g up t o i t i s not i m p o r t a n t . The w r i t e r ' s and a u d i e n c e ' s f o c u s i s now upon the s p e c t a c l e of the p r i n c e s as they s e t o u t . S t a t e l y s t e p s a r e consonant w i t h such a s p e c t a c l e . 55. 558 .3. . W r i t t e n a number of ways, t h i s r e n d e r s the S k t . v a i d u r y a , one of the Seven J e w e l s - f ^ . 56. 558.3. The l i n e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h " b l u e gems" pose numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s . They may be g a r b l e d . The w r i t e r seems t o be a t t e m p t i n g an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c sweep i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n and t h i s may account f o r the m i s t y haze of the p r o s e i t s e l f . ^ ^ i Daikanwa 1 7083.1 38, i s g l o s s e d t h e r e as a m i s t - f i l l e d s k y . ~^^k' Daikanwa 44518.165 i s a tower which e m i t s a f r a g r a n c e . Both here and a t 558.6 ( fl^-^f) MS w r i t e s ^ " . 57. 558.4. appears t o be i n e r r o r , perhaps a p h o n e t i c e r r o r f o r ^ . 58. 558.5. makes no sense i n c o n t e x t . Emending t o ^ f , f o r which perhaps i t i s a s c r i b a l e r r o r . 59. 558.6. . MS has | j£ . The word may a l s o mean "buds" h e r e . Autumn and i l l n e s s have bowed f o r the time b e i n g b e f o r e the s p l e n d o r s of s p r i n g t i m e and y o u t h . 60. 5 58. 1 2. fftttfft $ . MS w r i t e s i\L which I t a k e t o be$#L and so emend. The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s u n c l e a r due t o a water b l o t . ^ i s i n c o r r e c t based on the rhyme. MS l o o k s something l i k e ^ which p r o v i s i o n a l l y I t a k e as £y . 61 . 558.1 3. ,% $\ s h o u l d read & $\ . The compound J J appears a t PWC 608.5 and 658.15 a p p a r e n t l y i n the sense of q u i c k , n i m b l y i n t e l l i g e n t , the g l o s s i t r e c e i v e s a t Daikanwa 638336. I t would appear from the w r i t t e n v a r i a n t s (see I r i y a i n d e x : , / ^ | ^ ) and what seem t o be d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t u a l senses t o be an a l l i t e r a t i v e binome w i t h a wide range of meanings. I have t r a n s l a t e d here 1 57 a c c o r d i n g t o my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o n t e x t . 6 2 . 558 .1 6 or "what's more. " }$L^ tT • 6 3 . 5 5 9 . 1 . y%iJ£ . F o l l o w i n g PWC suggested emendation t o - f a r . H s i i , t s a i pu, p . 1 19 , p o i n t s out t h a t the second suggested emendation s h o u l d r e a d 64 . 69 5 5 9 . 4 . 7*3Mfc' . ^« i s i n c o r r e c t . Emending t o ^  which comports w i t h the rhyme and 5 5 7 . 1 6 . 65 . 55 9 . 5 . . Emending t o ^ C . 6 6 . 5 5 9 . 8 . 3% $/ffl . MS r e a d s ^ . 6 7 . 5 5 9 . 9 . UNJ gr^j • I r i y a i n d e x l i s t s o n l y t h i s o c c u r r e n c e . I t s meaning i s u n c l e a r . j | l 7J7 , u s u a l l y Xjj^^ljl , r e f e r s t o a k i n d of ocean s h e l l , w h i t e w i t h p a t t e r n s on i t , w hich then p o l i s h e d i s c o n s i d e r e d one of the Seven J e w e l s . Daikanwa 2 4 2 2 6 . 1 . Oda 8 0 4 . 3 . 68 . 5 5 9 . 9 . - ^ - ^ . . T r a n s l a t i n g p a r t l y from c o n t e x t . See n . 3 9 above. 559.1 0 . . The sound of thunder . T a k i n g a s ^ . 70 . 5 5 9 . 1 1 . -1± 7wL . Daikanwa 368 . 50 g l o s s e s as b u r e a u c r a t i c o f f i c i a l s . P r o b a b l y dr y,^. i s meant. The sense p a r a l l e l s 5 5 8 . 4 : _ ^f- . 71 . 559 .1 3 . j f U ^ . F o l l o w i n g Hsii's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s may be a m i s t a k e f o r ^ . I t seems, both from the number of l i n e s i n t h i s sung p o r t i o n and from the rhyme, t h a t the c o p y i s t has o v e r l o o k e d f o u r l i n e s , h a l f a s t a n z a h e r e . They are absent from MS. T h i s sung p o r t i o n i s noteworthy, i n c i d e n t a l l y , i n t h a t e v e r y s t a n z a has a d i f f e r e n t rhyme. 7 2 . 5 5 9 . 1 5 . . Modernly t h i s would be w r i t t e n a s ^ . 7 3 . 5 6 0 . 5 . T h i s marks the end of MS. 1 58 BIBLIOGRAPHY Chang Hsiang >$L~%-E\ . S h i h - t z u - c h ' u y u - t z ' u h u i - s h i h "f^-l i l f S f | • 1954. Rpt. T a i p e i : Chung-hwa, 1 975. Ch'en Y i n - k ' o "P^!^4^". 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