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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Yukon River tourism potential : resource capacity methodology and assessment Freeman, M. Joan 1983

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YUKON RIVER TOURISM POTENTIAL: RESOURCE CAPACITY METHODOLOGY AND ASSESSMENT by M. JOAN FREEMAN B . S c . Queens U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1983 © M. JOAN FREEMAN, 1983 '<. i In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le fo r reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission fo r extensive copying of t h i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representa t i ves . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is fo r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. School of Community and Regional Planning The Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Y3 Date - i i -ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s t h e t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e d by the n a t u r a l , h i s -t o r i c and c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t he Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r between Wh i te-ho r se and Dawson. A method was d e v e l o p e d and used t o a s s e s s t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s f o r t o u r i s m . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s d e f i n e d as the maximum number o f t o u r i s t s t h a t a r e -s o u r c e can s u p p o r t w i t h o u t b e i n g deg raded be low an a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d . The s t u d y f o c u s e d on two d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y : t h e b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he C o r r i d o r and the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g -i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r u s e r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t o u r i s t s . A t h i r d d e t e r m i n -a n t , management a c t i o n s , was not i n v e s t i g a t e d because few management r e g u -l a t i o n s and p o l i c i e s now e x i s t f o r t h e C o r r i d o r and because t h e s t udy c o n -c e r n s f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l s ; p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s c o u l d change i n f u t u r e . I d e a l l y , management g o a l s d e f i n e the a c t i v i t i e s f o r wh i ch c a r r y i n g c a p a -c i t y s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d . S i n c e t h e r e were no such g o a l s f o r the C o r r i -d o r , i t was d e c i d e d t o c a l c u l a t e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g a t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . Thus the f i r s t s t e p i n t h e a n a l y s i s was to d e t e r m i n e wh i ch a c t i v i t i e s have a t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . T h i s was done by a s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e . The s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e i d e n t i f i e d 61 d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s wh i ch may have a t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . T h i s was t oo many a c t i v i t i e s t o c o n s i d e r i n d i v i d -u a l l y . - i i i -As a r e s u l t , a c t i v i t i e s were grouped i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b e n e f i t s t h e y p r o v i d e t o t o u r i s t s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r i -mary b e n e f i t t o u r i s t s g a i n f rom t r a v e l i s an e x p e r i e n c e . An e x p e r i e n c e depends on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t and k i n d s o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t s a t o u r i s t has w h i l e he o r she i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s wh i ch d i f f e r e n t i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s were i d e n t i f i e d f rom t h e l i t e r a t u r e and used t o d e r i v e e i g h t e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s . F o r t h e pu rpose o f c a l c u l a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s , i t was assumed f o r t h e most p a r t t h a t e v e r y a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a g i v e n c a t e g o r y had t h e same r e -s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s i n v a l i d f o r a few s p e c i a l i z e d a c -t i v i t i e s such as b i g game h u n t i n g w h i c h have s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e -m e n t s . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and f o r f i v e o f t he e i g h t e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s . The c a l c u l a t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n v o l v e d the f o l l o w i n g f i v e s t e p s : . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t l i m i t o r p r e v e n t u s e . . d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r each o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . . r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s and e l i m i n a t i o n o f a r eas u n s u i t a b l e f o r each e x p e r i -ence o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y . . a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s and e s t i m a t i o n o f the b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l use l e v e l s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s . . c o m p a r i s o n o f each e x p e r i e n c e ' s b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . The l o w e s t v a l u e i s t he o v e r a l l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h e C o r r i d o r . - i v -The r e s u l t s a re p r e l i m i n a r y , " b a l l p a r k " e s t i m a t e s due t o t h e numerous d a t a gaps and a s s u m p t i o n s i n v o l v e d . Because o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , c a p a c i t i e s were o n l y e s t i m a t e d f o r s i n g l e uses and not f o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s . Yet t h e C o r r i d o r i s l i k e l y t o have a m i x t u r e o f u s e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t a r e a s b e i n g used f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and some a r eas h a v i n g more t han one u s e . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y c o u l d not be e s t i m a t e d f o r t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s because t h e y a re l i m i t e d by s e r v i c e and f a c i l i t y f a c t o r s w h i c h were not c o n s i d e r e d i n the s t u d y . In most c a s e s , t he o v e r a l l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s p a r t o f t he i n f o r m a t i o n needed f o r a comp l e t e t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s s e s s m e n t . M a r k e t s , s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a l s o need t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o comp le t e t h e a s s e s s m e n t . A t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s sessment o f t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r i s needed by r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and t o u r i s m p o l i c y d e c i s i o n m a k e r s . The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and methods o f the s t u d y a re u s e f u l t o p l a n n e r s because t h e y o f f e r a p e r s p e c t i v e and app roach f o r t o u r i s m a n a l y s e s . - V -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s v L i s t o f T a b l e s i x L i s t o f F i g u r e s and Maps x i i i Acknowledgements xv CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 The P r o b l e m 2 1.2 A p p r o a c h 11 CHAPTER TWO: ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 15 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 15 P a r t One: T o u r i s m P o t e n t i a l C o n c e p t s 16 2.1 R a t i o n a l e f o r G e n e r a l C o n c e p t u a l Framework 16 2 . 1 . 1 R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e 18 2 .1 .1 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S tudy D e s i g n 27 P a r t Two: C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y C o n c e p t s 31 2.2 I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 2 . 2 . 1 Ove r v i ew o f t h e C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y Concept 31 2 . 2 . 2 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e Concep t - Approaches f o r 34 C a l c u l a t i n g C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y 2 . 2 . 3 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e Concep t - The S t ankey A p p r o a c h 37 2 . 2 . 4 A p p r o a c h Used i n T h i s S tudy 43 P a r t T h r e e : S tudy Requ i r emen t s and 43 A n a l y t i c a l Framework 2 .3 S tudy Requ i r emen t s 43 2 . 3 . 1 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Budget C o n s t r a i n t s 43 2 . 3 . 2 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - P r o d u c t R e q u i r e m e n t s 44 2 . 3 . 3 O v e r v i e w o f A n a l y t i c a l Framework 45 2 . 3 . 4 A n a l y t i c a l Framework o f S c r e e n i n g A n a l y s i s 46 2 . 3 . 5 A n a l y t i c a l Framework o f C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y A n a l y s i s 49 - v i -TABLE OF CONTENTS - c o n t i n u e d Page CHAPTER THREE: THE YUKON RIVER CORRIDOR: RESOURCES, 51 USES, POTENTIALS and PROBLEMS 3.0 G e n e r a l S e t t i n g 51 3.1 B i o p h y s i c a l R e s o u r c e s 51 3.2 H i s t o r i c a l Re sou r ces 55 3 .3 P r e s e n t Uses o f t he Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r 56 3 .3 .1 H y d r o e l e c t r i c 56 3 . 3 . 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 59 3 . 3 . 3 M i n i n g 59 3 . 3 . 4 S e t t l e m e n t 59 3 . 3 . 5 F i s h i n g , H u n t i n g and T r a p p i n g 60 3 . 3 . 6 T o u r i s m 62 3.4 P r e s e n t T o u r i s m i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y 66 3 .5 P o t e n t i a l Uses 67 3 .5 .1 H y d r o e l e c t r i c 67 3 . 5 . 2 K l o n d i k e G o l d Rush I n t e r n a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Pa rk 68 3 . 5 . 3 O t h e r R e s o u r c e Uses 69 3.6 T o u r i s m P o t e n t i a l f o r t h e N o r t h 70 3.7 R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g P rob lem 70 3 . 7 . 1 E x i s t i n g and F u t u r e Use C o n f l i c t s 70 3 . 7 . 2 R e s o u r c e A l l o c a t i o n P rob l em 71 3 . 7 . 3 T o u r i s m P o t e n t i a l P r o b l e m 73 CHAPTER FOUR: SCREENING METHODS and RESULTS 74 4 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 74 4.1 Ove r v i ew o f Methods 74 4 .2 P r e l i m i n a r y S c r e e n i n g Methods and R e s u l t s 77 4 .3 S c r e e n i n g Method f o r Resou r ce F a c t o r s 82 4 . 3 . 1 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g the R e s o u r c e ' s S u i t a b i l i t y 82 f o r an A c t i v i t y 4 . 3 . 2 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g P r e s e n c e o f F e a t u r e s A t t r a c t i v e 87 t o T o u r i s t s 4 . 4 S c r e e n i n g Method f o r Demand F a c t o r s 90 4 . 4 . 1 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g a M a r k e t ' s P r e f e r r e d V a c a t i o n 96 A c t i v i t i e s 4 . 4 . 2 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g t h e A f f e c t o f C o n s t r a i n t s on 100 Demand 4 .5 R e s u l t s o f S c r e e n i n g A n a l y s i s 102 4 .6 E x p e r i e n c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Method and R e s u l t s 127 - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS - c o n t i n u e d Page CHAPTER F I V E : CARRYING CAPACITY METHODS 136 5 .0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 136 5.1 F a c t o r s Impor t an t t o D e t e r m i n i n g B i o p h y s i c a l 140 L i m i t a t i o n s 5 .1 .1 Topography and S o i l s 140 5 . 1 . 2 V e g e t a t i o n 145 5 . 1 . 3 H y d r o l o g y 147 5 . 1 . 4 W i l d l i f e 149 5 . 1 . 5 F i s h 150 5 . 1 . 6 H i s t o r i c 151 5.2 S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l L i m i t a t i o n F a c t o r s 151 5 .2 .1 P e r c e p t u a l F a c t o r s 152 5 . 2 . 1 . 1 W i l d e r n e s s Q u a l i t y F a c t o r s 154 5 . 2 . 1 . 2 Queu ing F a c t o r s 156 5 . 2 . 1 . 3 R e s o u r c e Use C o n f l i c t F a c t o r s 156 5 . 2 . 2 A t t r a c t i v e n e s s F a c t o r s 159 5.3 D a i l y C a p a c i t y F a c t o r s 164 5.4 Annua l C a p a c i t y F a c t o r s 165 5.5 I n v e n t o r y o f Resource C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 166 5.6 C a l c u l a t i n g t h e Use L e v e l s f o r D i f f e r e n t L i m i t i n g 169 F a c t o r s f o r Each E x p e r i e n c e C a t e g o r y 5.7 E s t i m a t i n g C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t i e s 170 CHAPTER S IX : CARRYING CAPACITY RESULTS 175 6 .0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 175 6.1 Q u a l i t y S t a n d a r d D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Each E x p e r i e n c e 177 Type 6 .2 S u i t a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s 178 6 .3 C a l c u l a t i n g o f B i o p h y s i c a l and S o c i o - P s y c h o l o g i c a l 194 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t i e s 6 . 3 . 1 V e g e t a t i o n 198 6 . 3 . 2 Water Q u a l i t y 213 6 . 3 . 3 W i l d l i f e 217 6 . 3 . 4 F i s h 225 6 . 3 . 5 S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l C a l c u l a t i o n s 228 6 .4 O v e r a l l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y o f t h e C o r r i d o r 230 - v i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS - c o n t i n u e d Pa^e CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS 233 7 .0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 233 7.1 C o n c l u s i o n s 234 7.2 U t i l i t y o f R e s u l t s and C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n 235 7 .2 .1 A p p l i c a t i o n t o C o r r i d o r I s s u e s 235 7 . 2 . 2 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n s 238 7.3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f S tudy 240 7 .4 Recommendat ions 241 7.5 O b s e r v a t i o n s on C o r r i d o r ' s T o u r i s m P o t e n t i a l 242 LITERATURE CITED 250 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS CITED 272 APPENDIX 1: Theory Used t o Deve l op t h e 275 A n a l y t i c a l Framework APPENDIX 2: L i t e r a t u r e I d e n t i f y i n g E x p e r i e n c e 317 D e t e r m i n a n t s and V a r i a b l e s APPENDIX 3: T a b l e s L i s t i n g Data R e l a t e d t o 321 I n f o r m a t i o n P r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r Three APPENDIX 4: T a b l e s and T e x t C o n t a i n i n g Da ta 324 R e l a t e d t o I n f o r m a t i o n P r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r Four APPENDIX 5: T a b l e s and T e x t C o n t a i n i n g Da ta 333 R e l a t e d t o I n f o r m a t i o n P r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e APPENDIX 6: T a b l e s and T e x t C o n t a i n i n g Data 347 R e l a t e d t o I n f o r m a t i o n P r e s e n t e d In C h a p t e r S i x - i x -LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 2-1 S y n o p s i s o f R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e F i n d i n g s 19 2- 2 Example o f t he C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y I n f o r m a t i o n 39 P r o v i d e d by S t a n k e y ' s App roach 3- 1 Yukon R i v e r : O r i g i n o f T r a v e l l e r s and Seasona l 64 Use P a t t e r n s 3-2 O r i g i n Breakdown o f ' O t h e r ' C a t e g o r y i n 65 T a b l e 3-1 3- 3 Yukon T e r r i t o r y : O r i g i n o f T r a v e l l e r s 65 4- 1 Range o f P o s s i b l e T o u r i s t A c t i v i t i e s 78 4-2 Resou r ce S u i t a b i l i t y V a r i a b l e s and Resou r ce 84 I n f o r m a t i o n Used t o S c r een t h e A c t i v i t i e s L i s t e d i n T a b l e 4-1 4-3 Known A t t r a c t i o n s , A c t i v i t i e s and E v e n t s i n 91 t h e S tudy A r ea 4-4 Summary o f Yukon R e s i d e n t P r o f i l e and O u t d o o r 101 R e c r e a t i o n Demand 4-5 The Type o f C o n s t r a i n t s and I n f o r m a t i o n Used 103 t o E v a l u a t e t h e A f f e c t o f C o n s t r a i n t s on Demand 4-6 A c t i v i t i e s E l i m i n a t e d and A c t i v i t i e s o f H i g h e s t 107 P o t e n t i a l on B a s i s o f R e s o u r c e S u i t a b i l i t y 4-7 Resou r ce F e a t u r e S co res Used t o E v a l u a t e C o r r i d o r ' s 109 A t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r A c t i v i t i e s S c o r e s a re based on r e s o u r c e and a t t r a c t i o n i n f o r -m a t i o n f rom T a b l e s 4-2 and 4-3 4-8 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C o r r i d o r ' s Demand P o t e n t i a l f o r 112 M a r k e t Segments f r om Canada , U . S .A . and Europe 4-9 E v a l u a t i o n o f the C o r r i d o r ' s Demand P o t e n t i a l f o r 119 P o s s i b l e M a r k e t Segments f rom t h e Yukon - X -LIST OF TABLES - continued Table Page 4-10 Effect of Constraints on the Demand for 121 Potential (P) and Possible (*) Vacation Types from Tables 4-8 and 4-9 4-11 Evaluation of Demand Potential for Different 122 Vacation Types when Constraints are Taken into Account 4-12 Activities Feasible in the Yukon River Corridor 125 4- 13 The Experience Categories and Natural Setting, 131 Social Interaction and Activity Determinants for Each Category 5- 1 Factors Affecting Instantaneous Biophysical 141 Carrying Capacity Levels 5-2 Factors Important for Determining Instantaneous 153 Perceptual Use Limits for Each Experience Type 5- 3 Specialized Activities and Essential Resource 161 Requi rements 6- 1 Status of Information Needed to Produce Accurate 176 Use-Level Estimates and List of Factors Used in this Analysis 6-2 Natural Setting Criteria and Standards for Exper- 179 ience Types 6-3 Socio-psychological Standards for Wilderness 187 Factors 6-4 Vegetation Sensitivity to Impacts: Derivation of 199 Maximum Trampling Levels by Two Procedures: (1) Reanalysis of Existing Data and (2) Utilization of a Theoretical Correlation Equation 6-5 Acceptable Number of Tramples per Season for Each 202 Impact Category 6-6 Assumptions Used to Identify Locations for which 211 Vegetation Sensitivity Use-Levels were Calculated - x i -L IST OF TABLES - c o n t i n u e d T a b l e Page 6-7 Maximum A c c e p t a b l e V a l u e f o r D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s 214 o f Water Q u a l i t y 6-8 P r e s e n t Water Q u a l i t y V a l u e s i n the Yukon R i v e r 215 6-9 Known I n f o r m a t i o n on W i l d l i f e Abundance and 218 D i s t u r b a n c e S e n s i t i v i t y i n the C o r r i d o r 6-10 I n f o r m a t i o n on F i s h Resou r ces i n S tudy A r e a 226 6-11 Low H igh and R e a s o n a b l e V a l u e s Used t o C a l c u l a t e 229 D a i l y and Annua l C a p a c i t i e s 6-12 S o c i o - P s y c h o l o g i c a l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y E s t i m a t e s 229 6- 13 O v e r a l l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t i e s o f t h e C o r r i d o r f o r 232 Each E x p e r i e n c e and S p e c i a l i z e d A c t i v i t y 7- 1 E v a l u a t i o n o f F a c i l i t i e s and I n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r 244 t h e C o r r i d o r A p p e n d i x T a b l e s A l - 1 S i m i l a r M o t i v a t i o n and A c t i v i t y Groups f r om S t u d i e s 286 by McKechn ie ( 1 9 7 4 ) , R i t c h i e (1975) and P h i l l i p s (1977) A l - 2 V a r i a b l e s Used by B a r g u r and A r b e l (1975) i n t h e 307 Comprehens i v e App roach A l - 3 V a r i a b l e s Used by Baud-Bovy and Lawson (1979) i n 312 t h e T o u r i s m P r o d u c t App roach A l - 4 A n a l y t i c a l S t e p s F o l l o w e d i n the S tudy and 316 C r i t e r i a S u p p o r t i n g Them A3-1 O r i g i n o f T r a v e l l e r s 1967 - 1979 322 A3-2 Yukon T e r r i t o r y : S easona l Use P a t t e r n s 323 A4-1 R e s o u r c e C a p a b i l i t y A c t i v i t y M a t r i x 325 A4-2 Assessmen t o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l F a c t o r s and 331 C o n s t r a i n t s Impo r t an t t o the C o r r i d o r ' s R e s o u r c e P o t e n t i a l f o r T o u r i s m A5-1 S l o p e L i m i t a t i o n s f o r V a r i o u s A c t i v i t i e s 334 A5-2 Depth t o Bed rock L i m i t a t i o n s f o r A c t i v i t i e s 334 - x i i -L IST OF TABLES - c o n t i n u e d T a b l e Page A5-3 P a r e n t M a t e r i a l L i m i t a t i o n s t o T r a i l Use 335 A5-4 S o i l T e x t u r e L i m i t a t i o n s 335 A5-5 E r o s i o n P o t e n t i a l o f S p e c i f i c S l o p e , S o i l T e x t u r e , 336 P e r m a f r o s t and Ground Ice C o n d i t i o n s A5-6 T e x t u r e and P a r e n t M a t e r i a l S e n s i t i v i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 337 f o r E n g i n e e r i n g ( P i p e l i n e ) C o n s t r u c t i o n A5-7 S o i l S u i t a b i l i t y f o r S u b s u r f a c e D i s p o s a l o f S e p t i c 338 Tank E f f l u e n t A5-8 V e g e t a t i o n Impact C a t e g o r i e s 339 A5-9 Water Q u a l i t y S t a n d a r d s and R e l a t e d Water Q u a l i t y 340 C r i t e r i a Used t o D e r i v e V a l u e s f o r Each S t a n d a r d A5-10 Abundance L e v e l C a t e g o r i e s f o r W i l d l i f e and F i s h 341 A5-11 H a b i t a t Requ i r emen t s f o r S i g n i f i c a n t W i l d l i f e 342 S p e c i e s A5-12 Hunt E f f o r t C a t e g o r i e s f o r W i l d l i f e 344 A5-13 C a t c h E f f o r t C a t e g o r i e s f o r F i s h 345 A6-1 H e c t a r e E s t i m a t e s o f A reas shown on Map 1. V a l u e s 348 were De te rm ined by P l a n i m e t e r Measurement A6-2 C a l c u l a t i o n o f L i m i t i n g T r a m p l i n g V a l u e f o r Each 349 Impact C a t e g o r y U s i n g L i d d l e ' s V u l n e r a b i l i t y Index and Assuming a L i n e a r R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Number o f T ramples and Loss o f Cove r - x i i i -LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS Figure Page 1- 1 Components of Tourism Potential 5 2- 1 Driver and Tocher's (1970) Model of the Recreation 26 Decision Process 2-2 Analytical Framework of Screening Analysis 48 2- 3 Steps Followed in Carrying Capacity Analysis 50 3- 1 The Yukon River Corridor 52 3-2 Spirit Houses at Little Salmon 57 Abandoned Sternwheeler on Hoofalinqua Island Ft. Selkirk - Once a Community of 5000 People. Gold Dredge Dawson 3-3 Resource Use Compatability Matrix of Present and 72 Future Developments in the Yukon River Corridor 5-1 Examples of Land Density Ranges Used by Tourism 157 Planners for Different Types of Resorts. 7-1 Possible Images for the Corridor 247 Map-1 Tourism Resources of the Yukon River Corridor 190 Map-2 Vegetation Classification of Corridor from Carrnacks 207 to Dawson - XIV -APPENDIX FIGURES F i g u r e Page Al-1 Some Components A f f e c t i n g T o u r i s m 277 Al-2 Phenomena o f T o u r i s t T r a v e l 278 Al-3 R e l a t i o n s h i p C o n c e p t u a l i z e d between M a s l o w ' s 284 H i e r a r c h y o f Needs and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R e c r e a t i o n O p p o r t u n i t i e s and A c t i v i t i e s Al-4 D r i v e r and T o c h e r ' s (1970) Model o f t h e R e c r e a t i o n 296 D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s Al-5 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Goal S t a t e and Goa l O b j e c t i n 299 D r i v e r - T o c h e r Model Al-6 S t a g e s i n t h e Consumer D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s A c c o r d i n g t o 300 t h e EBK Model Al-7 E n g e l , B l a c k w e l l and K o l l a t Model o f t h e Consumer 301 D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s Al-8 The T o u r i s t P r o d u c t P r o c e s s o f Baud-Bovy 310 - XV -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g K. F o x , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t , and f o r h i s a d v i c e , encouragement and p a t i e n c e t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y . I am g r a t e f u l t o the numerous government o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r -i a l Government , t h e C a n a d i a n Government and t h e A l a s k a n Government who p r o v i d e d me w i t h much o f the d a t a used i n the a n a l y s i s . N o t a b l e among t h e s e a r e : R. Graham, f o r m e r l y o f t h e Yukon Depar tment o f T o u r i s m ; M. H o e f s , Yukon W i l d l i f e B r a n c h ; S. A t k i n s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , W h i t e h o r s e ; B. Chambers , f o r m e r l y o f t h e Depar tment o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , W h i t e h o r s e ; M. R i d g e , Yukon A r c h i v e s ; H. T u r i c k and D. C o n n e l l y , Yukon Pa rks and H i s t o r i c Resou r ces B r a n c h ; T. W i l l , P a rks Canada , ARC B r a n c h , O t t a w a ; R. H o o p e r , P a r k s Canada , C a l g a r y ; K. V e r b u r g , f o r m e r l y of P a r k s Canada , W i n n i p e g ; T . O s w a l d , C a n a d i a n F o r e s t S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a ; R. K l a s s e n , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada , C a l g a r y ; S. D ' A q u i n o , I n l a n d Waters D i r e c t o r a t e , V a n c o u v e r ; and B. Gasaway and D. K e l l e y h a u s e , A l a s k a D e p a r t -ment of F i s h and Game. The dump t r u c k d r i v e r who d rove u s , o u r canoe and s e v e r a l hundred pounds o f gea r back t o W h i t e h o r s e t y p i f i e d t h e many f r i e n d l y Yukoners whose a s s i s t a n c e made my Yukon v i s i t so memorable and r e w a r d i n g . A s p e c i a l t h a n k s i s e x t e n d e d t o a l l t h e s e p e o p l e , some o f whom a re named b e l o w . D a v i d Cosco p r o v i d e d me w i t h a c o m f o r t a b l e home i n W h i t e h o r s e . Rudy B u r i a n and A. I n n i s - T a y o r , l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t s , gave v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o Yukon l i f e . The Yukon C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y p r o v i d e d o f f i c e s p a c e . - x v i -S e v e r a l t o u r o p e r a t o r s s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t o u r i s t p r e f e r e n c e s i n c l u d -i n g H e c t o r MacKenz i e o f Yukon Moun ta in and R i v e r E x p e d i t i o n s , Gus Ka rpes o f Go ldRush T o u r s , John Lammers o f Yukon W i l d e r n e s s U n l i m i t e d , and Dave G r i f f i t h s o f A d v e n t u r e Y u k o n . The encouragement and s t i m u l a t i n g a d v i c e John Lammers o f f e r e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . The remote s e n s i n g f a c i l i t i e s o f D r . P. M u r t h a , F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U . B . C , were used t o p e r f o r m t h e s a t e l l i t e image a n a l y s i s and N e d i n i a Holm p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e e q u i p m e n t . D r . Wm. Rees and D r . H.C. H i g h t o w e r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e v i e w e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t and o f f e r e d e d i t o r i a l a d v i c e . I t s o Y e s a k i and Nancy G e r r i s h p r e p a r e d the f i g u r e s and maps and Mar B a r b o u r t y p e d the f i n a l d r a f t . A x e l Mothes t r a v e l l e d w i t h me d u r i n g my t r i p down t h e Yukon R i v e r . F u n d i n g f o r t h i s s t u d y was p r o v i d e d by Canad i an A r c t i c R e s o u r c e s Commit tee and a N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n F e l l o w s h i p . F i n a l l y , I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o Deborah T u r n b u l l who t y p e d t h e t a b l e s and e a r l i e r d r a f t s , a s s i s t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f v i s i t o r s t a t i s t i c s and h e l p e d e d i t t h e m a n u s c r i p t . - 1 -CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this thesis is to develop and illustrate a method to calculate carrying capacities for tourism opportunities provided by the Yukon River Corridor from Whitehorse to Dawson City. A tourist is defined as any person who is travelling for reasons other than business and who is away from home for at least one night. Tourism encompasses all the social and economic activities caused by tourists travelling. It includes public and industry services such as provision of museums, airports, wilderness guides, resorts; and less apparent activities such as policy planning, investment analysis and lobbying by interest groups about issues of concern to them. Tourism opportunities are determined by all the resources, attractions, services and experiences which tourists use or seek. This study investigates the opportunities associated with the corridor made up of the Yukon River and adjacent land between Whitehorse and Dawson. Only resource related opportunities were considered in this study. Resources are defined herein as the biophysical base of an area as well as the cultural and natural features which attract tourists. Carrying capacity is a simple concept that herdsmen have been aware of for centuries; namely, that a resource such as a pasture has a maximum use level (i.e. herd size) that it can support on a sustained - 2 -y i e l d b a s i s . The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f a p a s t u r e f o r c a t t l e depends on t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t he g r a s s . The maximum number o f t o u r i s t s a r e s o u r c e can s u s t a i n i s not such a s i m p l e b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p ( a l t h o u g h b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y may be o f some i m p o r -t a n c e ) . I t depends on the a r e a ' s a b i l i t y t o s u p p l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f q u a l i t y ( F i s h e r and K r u t i l l a 1 9 7 2 ) . The q u a l i t y o f t o u r i s m r e s o u r c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s a f f e c t e d by f a c t o r s such as amount and t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and u s e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s as w e l l as e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s c o n c e p t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t o u r i s m o p p o r t u n i t i e s a t an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f q u a l i t y on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s i s c e n t r a l t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y as used h e r e i n a f t e r . 1.1 THE PROBLEM T o u r i s m i s r anked a f t e r m i n i n g as the second most i m p o r t a n t economic a c t i v i t y i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . In 1979 t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y d i r e c t l y employed 15 p e r c e n t o f t he Y u k o n ' s l a b o u r f o r c e ; w h i l e i t i s l a r g e i n terms o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e Yukon economy, t h e Yukon economy i s i t s e l f s m a l l , and t h e i n d u s t r y i s s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h a t o f A l a s k a o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T o u r i s m Yukon 1980 ; Economic R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g U n i t 1 9 8 0 ) . T o u r i s m a l s o p r o v i d e s i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l b e n e f i t s t o Y u k o n e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , i t d i v e r s i f i e s t h e economy, p r o v i d i n g some s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t the h a r d s h i p s caused when w o r l d m i n e r a l p r i c e s d r o p . S i m i l a r i l y , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s e n j o y r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , such as W h i t e h o r s e ' s - 3 -c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i r e s o r t , wh i ch t h e y a l o n e c o u l d not f i n a n c e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a re many t y p e s o f t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s ; h e n c e , t he i m p a c t s t o u r i s m can have on an a r e a t end t o be f l e x i b l e u n l i k e t h e i m p a c t s o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s wh i ch a re r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d . A hydro dam f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l a lways f l o o d a v a l l e y whereas t h e i m p a c t s f rom a s k i r e s o r t , park c a m p s i t e , o r a g a m b l i n g c a s i n o a re r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t he t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y can be d e v e l o p e d t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g u s e s . The p r e s e n t p rominence o f t o u r i s m i n t h e Yukon economy i s e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e . In f a c t B e l l ( 1 9 7 8 , p . 118) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o u r i s m r e p r e -s e n t s " . . . t h e s i n g l e l a r g e s t r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l f o r Y u k o n e r s . " The e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r y u t i l i z e s v e r y few o f t h e Y u k o n ' s r e s o u r c e s . The b u l k o f t o u r i s t s now v i s i t W h i t e h o r s e and Dawson, and a r e e i t h e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e Yukon on t h e i r way t o c e n t r a l A l a s k a o r i n c l u d e t h e Yukon as a b r i e f s t o p ove r on an A l a s k a n c r u i s e o r g rand t o u r o f t h e n o r t h . T o u r i s t s a re a t t r a c t e d t o the beau ty and w i l d e r n e s s o f t h i s l a s t f r o n t i e r and by i t s g o l d rush h i s t o r y . The w i l d e r n e s s i s seen by most t o u r i s t s f rom t h e c o m f o r t o f a p a s s e n g e r s e a t , few o f them v e n t u r e o f f t he main roads or r a i l w a y s . Hence , v a s t a r eas a re o n l y s p a r c e l y u s e d ; a l t h o u g h t h e i r p o t e n t i a l v a l u e f o r t o u r i s m has no t been a s s e s s e d , t h e s e a r eas c o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y accommodate more t o u r i s t u s e . T h u s , t h e s e u n d e r u t i l i z e d w i l d e r n e s s a r eas r e p r e s e n t a s o u r c e f o r new growth i n t h e t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y and the Y u k o n ' s e c o n o -my. The Yukon R i v e r c o r r i d o r i s one such a r e a . - 4 -The corridor is now undeveloped, but investigations of its hydro electric and mining potential are ongoing; i t could be developed for these purposes within a few years. The Yukon River has also been proposed as a heritage river park. Non-park forms of tourism, trapping, fishing, transportation, and other possible uses for the corridor's resources have so far been ignored as development options. Moreover, the benefits these alternatives would provide to Yukoners and Canadians as a whole are unknown. The corridor is a public resource; hence, it should be developed in a manner that will maximize social benefits. Decision makers are un-likely to allocate resources so as to maximize social returns without knowing the full range of options and the costs and benefits of each. Therefore, the potential of each possible option for the corridor should be assessed before its resources are irreversibly allocated to a particular use. An assessment of the corridor's tourism potential would be particularly relevent for the following reasons: (1) the area is already used by tourists, ( 2 ) it has both gold rush and wilderness attractions, and ( 3 ) the present importance of tourism to the Yukon economy suggests that tourism could be a viable option for the corridor. This thesis provides part of a complete tourism assessment of the Yukon River Corridor; namely, the resource's capacity to support different types of tourism use. Capacity is a useful indicator of specific aspects of supply and demand or theoretical potential. The link between these aspects and overall tourism potential is - 5 -illustrated in Figure 1-1. The conceptualization in Figure 1-1 requires explanation; i t underlies this study's conceptual framework. The meaning of supply and demand in the context of tourism sources requires clarification. As economists use these terms they are not fixed quantities for a given commodity or service. Instead supply is the quantity of a good or service that becomes available at a given price. Unlike the economic notion of supply, the supply of natural or cultural resource that tourists utilize cannot be increased by investing more funds (but services can be). Thus the supply resources for tourism is fixed. Demand however, is another story. Although people may have set expectations which attract them to the Yukon the number of tourists who come to the Yukon to realize a particular experience is determined by a number of factors not the least of which is cost of travel. Therefore, tourism demand for a given resource is not fixed, but tourists' quality expectations for it are essentialy set. Tourism potential is defined as the maximum number of tourists that could visit a region if every feasible type use for the region is provided. Figure 1-1 distinguishes two kinds of tourism potentials, theoretical and actual. Theoretical potential refers to the number of tourists predicted by supply and demand alone, without taking into account limitations from existing constraints. In the real world what is theoretically possible is never achieved; supply is •quality of resources, services, facil it ies Demand Market size preferred product Supply quality of expectations laws policies ~^ investment goals hidden agenda Operations <^arketin^ quantity of resources, services and fac i l i -ties Theoretical Potential / / / / / / CONSTRAINTS '//////. Institutions Private Enterprise' Actual Potential Real Use Figure 1.1 Components of Tourism Potential. - 7 -r e s t r i c t e d by the o b j e c t i v e s o f companies p r o v i d i n g t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s and by government laws and r e g u l a t i o n s . The a c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i s d e f i n e d as what can be a c h i e v e d a f t e r t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s have been t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . What can happen and what does happen a re o f t e n two d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s ; h e n c e , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between a c t u a l p o t e n t i a l and r e a l use i n F i g u r e 1-1 . D e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n may reduce t h e s i z e o f a deve lopment o r , poor m a r k e t i n g r e s u l t s i n u n f i l l e d h o t e l s , t o u r s , a i r p l a n e s and o t h e r t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f m a r k e t i n g i s r e c o g n i z e d w i t h i n the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y ; i t i s an a c c e p t e d maxim t h a t even the bes t s t u d i e d and p l anned t o u r i s m deve lopment w i l l f a i l u n l e s s i t i s w e l l m a r k e t e d . M a r k e t i n g i s t h e key t o a c h i e v i n g the p o t e n t i a l wh i ch t o u r i s m assessment s t u d i e s p r e d i c t . In t h e o r y , m a r k e t i n g may a l s o have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on t o u r i s m demand. Ma rke t s i z e i s d e f i n e d as t h e poo l o f peop l e who c o u l d use a p r o d u c t whe the r o r not t h e y do use i t o r even know about i t . T o u r i s m demand i s a f f e c t e d when t h e pool s i z e i s c h a n g e d . An i n c r e a s e i n ma rke t s i z e can be caused by numerous f a c t o r s ; m a r k e t i n g f o c u s e s on o n l y on o f t h e s e , p e o p l e s ' t a s t e s . E x p e r t s d i s a g r e e about how much o r how s u c c e s s f u l l y s k i l l f u l p r o m o t i o n s change t a s t e s ; a l t h o u g h t h e y do ag ree t h a t c h a n g i n g a p a r t i c u l a r m a r k e t ' s image o f an a r ea r e q u i r e s an i n t e n s e , c o n t i n u a l , and c o s t l y p r o m o t i o n a l campaign ( B o e r j a n 1 9 7 4 ) . C l e a r l y , a b e t t e r s t r a t e g y t han c o s t l y a t t e m p t s t o change t a s t e s i s t o a c c e p t p r e v a i l i n g t a s t e s and t o d i r e c t m a r k e t i n g e f f o r t s - 8 -a t the non-use r s w i t h i n an e x i s t i n g marke t p o o l . Most t o u r i s m m a r k e t i n g adop t s the l a t t e r s t r a t e g y . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h m a r k e t i n g i s c r u c i a l t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l , i t an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n e n t of t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . O r i g i n a l l y s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s was t h o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o r e t i c a l p o t e n t i a l s ; b u i l d more f a c i l i t i e s and more t o u r i s t s would come. But m a r k e t s a re not i n f i n i t e , i f f a c i l i t i e s a re c o n t i n u a l l y expanded t h e number o f peop l e u s i n g them w i l l not keep i n c r e a s i n g ; demand a l s o e f f e c t s p o t e n t i a l s . M o r e o v e r , t h e s u p p l y o f and demand f o r t o u r i s m o p p o r t u n i t i e s a re i n t e r - r e l a t e d ; s u p p l y a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y o f t o u r i s t b e n e f i t s s o u g h t , and v i c e v e r s a . Fo r i n s t a n c e , peop l e may not e n j o y s h a r i n g a d i n i n g t a b l e w i t h s t r a n g e r s even i f t h e r e i s space f o r t h e m ; t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s d i c t a t e the amount o f s u p p l y t h a t i s u s a b l e . S i m i l a r i l y c a m p s i t e s may be c l o s e d a l o n g a s t r e t c h o f r i v e r because they a re t o o nea r B a l d E a g l e n e s t s ; t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ' s s e n s i t i v i t y l i m i t s the amount o f use a l l o w e d . S i n c e s u c c e s s o f t he t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y depends on cus tomer s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a n a l y s e s c o n s i d e r q u a l i t y . In s h o r t , a f u l l a s sessment o f t h e o r e t i c a l t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l wou ld a n a l y s e : t h e m a r k e t ' s s i z e and q u a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , and the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f s u p p l y . T h i s s t u d y a n a l y s e d t h e q u a l i t y e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e m a r k e t , t h e q u a l -i t y o f r e s o u r c e s u p p l y , and the q u a n t i t y o f r e s o u r c e s u p p l y f o r v a r -i o u s t o u r i s t u s e s . A l s o , t he r e s o u r c e c a p a c i t y o f t he c o r r i d o r f o r d i f f e r e n t t o u r i s t uses was e s t i m a t e d by r e l a t i n g q u a l i t y v a l u e s t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . - 9 -D e t e r m i n i n g the marke t s i z e was beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y ; a n o t h e r s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o a d d r e s s t h i s p rob l em (Mothes 1 9 8 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , Wes twa te r R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e a t U . B . C . was engaged i n a g e n e r a l s t u d y o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y ' s t o u r i s m demand a t the t i m e t h i s s t u d y was made. T h i s t h e s i s a l s o d i d not a s s e s s s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s ; i t was assumed i f s u f f i c i e n t demand e x i s t e d more f a c i l i t i e s wou ld be d e v e l o p e d ; h e n c e , p r e s e n t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s were not c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n t o t h e a r e a ' s f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l . F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y d i d not dea l w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y c o n s t r a i n t s ; t h e s e can change ( e g . l a n d c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t s , t r a n s f e r s o f f e d e r a l powers t o t h e t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t ) , t h e r e f o r e , p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s were a l s o not c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n t o p o t e n t i a l s . In summary, t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s was on t h e q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s o u r c e base and the ma rke t s wh i ch l i m i t t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s , o r t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s f o r t o u r i s m . The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f an a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s f o r t o u r i s t use i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h r e e f a c t o r s : - t h e b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he r e s o u r c e wh i ch a f -f e c t t he r e s o u r c e ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o u s e . - t h e u s e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the r e s o u r c e ' s c o n d i t i o n wh i ch a f -f e c t t h e amount o f r e s o u r c e d e g r a d a t i o n t o l e r a t e d by u s e r s . - management a c t i o n s wh i ch upgrade the r e s i l i e n c e o f an a r ea t o o v e r - u s e ( e g . p a v i n g t r a i l ) , change u s e r e x p e c t a t i o n s ( e g . promote an ove r used t e n t campground as a r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e - '10 -(RV) c ampground ) , o r b a l a n c e b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h u s e r demand ( e g . r e g u l a t i n g f i s h i n g season and c a t c h l i m i t ) . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h b i o p h y s i c a l and u s e r , o r s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S i n c e management p o l i c i e s f o r t h e a r e a a re p o o r l y d e f i n e d and s u b j e c t t o change the p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n t o p o t e n t i a l t o u r i s m u s e s . Management a c t i o n s can be c o n c e i v e d as b a l a n c i n g s u p p l y w i t h demand, i n t h i s r e g a r d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l p rove t o be u s e f u l . In a d d i t i o n t o i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s s e s s m e n t s , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s e s a r e u s e f u l f o r p l a n n i n g and manag ing t o u r -i sm d e v e l o p m e n t s . Such a n a l y s e s d e f i n e the maximum use l e v e l f o r deve lopmen t s when both e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e m a i n t a i n e d . Thus t h e c o n c e p t can be used t o p l a n and manage deve l opmen t s so as t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r s u s t a i n a b l e economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . S o c i a l b e n e f i t s a re max im ized when t o u r i s t use i s m a i n t a i n e d at an o p t i m a l l e v e l ; however , t he marke t s ys tem f a i l s t o keep use a t an o p t i m a l l e v e l hence government i n v o l v e m e n t i s needed i n t o u r i s m p l a n -n i n g and management. A ma jo r r eason why government i n p u t i s r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n use at s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l l e v e l s i s because t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r i s , i n many r e s p e c t s , a common p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e . T h i s c o n -c e p t m e r i t s b r i e f e l a b o r a t i o n . - i t -Most o f t he r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r a re p u b l i c l y owned and as such a re s u b j e c t t o o v e r u s e because of what H a r d i n (1968) te rmed t h e " t r a g e d y o f the commons" . As l o n g as a r e s o u r c e i s c o n s i d e r e d u s e a b l e by eve ryone w i t h o u t c o n s t r a i n t s i t s o v e r u s e i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r . An i n d i v i d u a l t o u r i s t o p e r a t o r may g a i n a t e m p o r a r y advan t age f rom o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n a l t h o u g h c o l l e c t i v e l y the t o t a l b e n e f i t s s o c i e t y d e r i v e s f rom the r e s o u r c e s a re d e c r e a s e d . T h e r e -f o r e , t o a c h i e v e the maximum b e n e f i t s f rom t o u r i s m , opt imum use l e v e l s must be d e f i n e d and u t i l i z e d by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s managing t h e r e s o u r c e s . In c o n c l u s i o n , t he r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y have use i n a s s e s s i n g t o u r -i sm p o t e n t i a l s f o r t h e pu rpose o f r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and i n p l a n n i n g and managing f u t u r e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t s . Means of u s i n g the f i n d -i n g s f o r t h e s e pu rposes a re d i s c u s s e d i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r . 1.2 APPROACH Bo th p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s were c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y a s u i t a b l e method f o r a n a l y s i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . P r a c t i -c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e d t i m e and budget c o n s t r a i n t s as w e l l as a commitment t o p roduce r e s u l t s wh i ch c o u l d be used i n m a r k e t , economic and c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s e s . The o v e r r i d i n g t h e o r e t i c a l conce rn was t h a t t h e methods and a s s u m p t i o n s used i n the a n a l y s i s con fo rm t o a c c e p t e d academic t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g l y , a c a r e f u l s t u d y was made o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o d e t e r m i n e what v a r i a b l e s t h e a n a l y s i s must c o n s i d e r and how t h e s e v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be used t o e s t i m a t e use l e v e l s . The i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s wh i ch f o l l o w e d f rom t h i s r e v i e w a r e : - 12 -t ravel is pr imar i l y undertaken to obtain experiences rather than to partake in s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , the re fo re , a reg ion 's ca r ry -ing capacity should be assessed in terms of the t ou r i s t exper-iences i t o f fe rs rather than the a c t i v i t i e s a va i l ab l e ; an experience resu l ts from performing an a c t i v i t y in a pa r t i cu l a r environmental se t t ing in assoc ia t ion with cer ta in people, thus factors a f f e c t i ng a l l three components of an experience ( a c t i v i -t i e s , environmental se t t ing and soc ia l se t t ings ) have to be as -sessed in order to determine a reg ion 's carry ing capacity for any s p e c i f i c experience; who the tou r i s t s are and what experiences they expect l a rge l y determines what a c t i v i t y , or environmental, or soc ia l f ac tor l i m i t s use; the re fo re , the s p e c i f i c var iab les used to ca l cu la te carry ing capacity depend, to a large extent, upon the market type under considerat ion and i t s unique resource demands. The foregoing theore t i ca l and prac t i ca l considerat ions under l ie the framework of th i s t h e s i s . The key theore t i ca l point is the recogn i -t ion that the capacity of an area is dependent upon the i n t e r r e l a -t i onsh ip between the supply of experiences an area can provide and the use l im i t a t i ons defined by each market segment demanding these exper iences. The experience concept implies that three types of l i m i t i n g factors need to be considered: 1. s u i t a b i l i t y cha rac t e r i s t i c s of an area for d i f f e r en t types of a c t i v i t i e s . 2. f ac tors a f f e c t i ng the amount of na tu ra l , h i s t o r i c and cu l tura l resource degradation acceptable to the users , and - 13 -3. f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e v e l o f s o c i a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l i m -p a i r m e n t t o l e r a t e d by t h e u s e r s . Because o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l i m i t a t i o n s two s e p a r a t e p r o c e d u r e s were n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y s e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . One p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g a r eas w i t h i n the c o r r i d o r wh i ch a re c o m p l e t e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r any use o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e and e l i m i n a t i n g them f rom f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a d e t e r m i n e how much use i t can s u p p o r t ; h e n c e , t h e second p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g a r eas t o d e t e r m i n e each a r e a ' s maximum a c c e p t a b l e use l e v e l f o r each e x p e r i e n c e . C h a p t e r Two e x p l a i n s t h e p r o c e d u r e used t o e s t i m a t e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s i n d e t a i l . I d e a l l y , s o c i a l g o a l s and p r e f e r e n c e s i d e n t i f y wh i ch o f the numerous p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s r e q u i r e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . U n f o r t u -n a t e l y , t h e r e a re no such g o a l s f o r t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y l e t a l o n e f o r t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . T h e r e f o r e , i t was e s s e n t i a l a t an e a r l y s t a g e t o reduce the number o f e x p e r i e n c e s wh i ch m e r i t s t u d y t o a r e a l i s t i c number , because t h e r e a re h u n d r e d s , p o s s i b l y even t h o u s a n d s o f t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t an a r ea m igh t s u p p l y . T h i s l e d t o t h e deve lopment o f a s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e wh i ch was c a p a b l e o f e l i m i n a t i n g t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . The p r o c e d u r e used t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t a l l t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f s u p p l y i n g d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . These - 14 -f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d f rom a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e (see A p p e n d i x One) and a r e d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r Two. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e a n a l y t i c a l f ramework i n v o l v e d two s t a g e s o f a n a l y -s i s : a s c r e e n i n g s t a g e t o i d e n t i f y t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t o be s t u d i e d i n t h e nex t s t a g e , t h e a c t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g two p r o c e d u r e s : s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e c o r r i d o r u n -s u i t a b l e f o r p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , and use l e v e l a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r -mine t h e a c t u a l use l e v e l s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f t h e c o r r i d o r c o u l d s u p -p o r t f o r d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . - 15 -CHAPTER TWO: ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 2 . 0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s chapter is to descr ibe and present the ra t iona le for the ana l y t i ca l framework used in th i s study. The ra t iona le i s based on both theore t i ca l and p rac t i ca l cons idera t ions . Because of the complexity associated with tourism and car ry ing capaci ty con-cepts much of t h i s chapter i s devoted to expla in ing theore t i ca l con-s i d e r a t i o n s ; the ana l y t i ca l framework i s presented in the f i na l sec -t i o n . As explained in Chapter One the over r id ing theore t i ca l concern i s that the ana l y t i ca l framework adhere to accepted theory; t h i s neces-s i t a ted an extensive study of the current tourism ana lys is methods and the theor ies and assumptions underlying them. Theoret ica l issues and concepts were invest igated at the fo l lowing two leve ls of d e t a i l : the system l e v e l , which covers a l l components a f f e c t i ng re -gional tourism po ten t i a l s ; and the subcomponent level which concen-t ra tes on the fac tors a f f e c t i ng regional car ry ing c apac i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e review described in Appendix One was undertaken to iden -t i f y the pert inent theore t i ca l i s sues . The two conceptual frame-works developed as a resu l t of t h i s review are the basis for the ana l y t i c a l procedures used in the study. These two conceptual frameworks are : a general conceptua l iza t ion of the var iab les and re l a t ionsh ips responsible for regional tourism - 16 -p o t e n t i a l s and a s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t u a l f ramework o f t h e components and i n t e r a c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g r e s o u r c e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . Bo th c o n c e p t u -a l i z a t i o n s a r e o r i g i n a l , no s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n s t r u c t s were found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l f ramework i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r One ( see F i g u r e 1-1), as a r e some o f t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r bo th c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s , and c o m p l e t e s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y c o n c e p t . T h i s c h a p t e r i s l e n g t h y , because o f t h i s i t has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . PART ONE: TOURISM POTENTIAL CONCEPTS 2.1 RATIONALE FOR GENERAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The p r i m a r y pu rpose f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l l t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s and methods o f t h i s d e t a i l e d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y s t u d y c o n f o r m t o t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s s e s s m e n t s . The second pu rpose f o r s t u d y i n g t h i s c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l i s t o d e v e l o p a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l f ramework f o r t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w o f t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l r e v e a l e d two d i s c o n c e r t i n g f a c t s . F i r s t , an enormous number o f f a c -t o r s a r e i n v o l v e d ( see F i g u r e A l-1 i n A p p e n d i x One f o r e x a m p l e s ) ; m o r e o v e r , t h e ways t h e y i n t e r a c t and a f f e c t one a n o t h e r a r e e x t r e m e -l y c o m p l e x . S e c o n d , no c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n t e g r a t e s a l l t h e s e f a c -t o r s i n t o a model t h a t a c c u r a t e l y e x p l a i n s and p r e d i c t s t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l s . E x i s t i n g mode ls o n l y c o v e r c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h e s y s -t e m , h a v i n g t y p i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s : - 17 -- f l o w s o f p e o p l e - f l o w s o f goods and s e r v i c e s - f l o w s o f c a p i t a l and e x p e n d i t u r e - a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f r e g i o n - consumer b e h a v i o u r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r angemen t s ( i . e . t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a u t h o r i t y and p o l i c i e s o f p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s , government a g e n -c i e s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n v o l v e d i n t o u r i s m ) . Even c o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e mode ls do not g i v e t h e whole p i c t u r e , t h u s , i t i s l i k e t r y i n g t o p i c t u r e how an an ima l l o o k s and behaves f rom images o f i t s a rm, e y e , f o o t and s t o m a c h . Hence , u n s y n t h e s i z e d i d e a s f rom a wide v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s were sought t o h e l p f i l l i n t h e g a p s . The p r i n c i p a l f i e l d s r e v i ewed i n c l u d e d : r e c r e a t i o n , t o u r i s m , p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , commerce and m a r k e t i n g , r e -s o u r c e management, g e o g r a p h y , and p l a n n i n g . The o b j e c t i v e o f t he l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w was t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m p l e t e s ys tem o f f a c t o r s e f f e c t i n g t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l s and t o i d e n t i f y t h e key components and r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t d e t e r m i n e r e g i o n a l t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e t h e o r e t i -c a l p o r t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w f o c u s e d on two i s s u e s , why p e o p l e t r a v e l and why c e r t a i n a r eas become t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n s . The c u r r e n t a p -p r o a c h e s used t o a n a l y z e t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l were a l s o r e v i ewed and t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s e x a m i n e d . On ly t h e f a c t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e f i n d i n g s wh i ch i n f l u e n c e d the c o n c e p t u a l f ramework a re e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e next s e c -t i o n . - 18 -2 . 1 . 1 R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e The i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s f rom t h e academic l i t e r a t u r e a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 2 - 1 . T h i s s e c t i o n e x p l a i n s t h e s e f i n d i n g s as w e l l as e x a m i n -i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s and a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g many o f t h e c u r r e n t a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s . The c o n c e p t s and t h e o r e t i c a l f i n d -i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e x t i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e y a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2 - 1 . A l t h o u g h t r a v e l i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a l u x u r y p a s t i m e t h e o r e t i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s u n a n i m o u s l y c o n c l u d e t h a t i t p e r f o r m s an i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o l e (Cheek , F i e l d and Burdge 1 9 7 6 ; Mac-Canne l 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s r o l e i s i m p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d , f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o r i s t s d i s a g r e e as t o t r a v e l ' s p l a u s i b l e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . Yet r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g i s o n g o i n g , based i n t h e absence o f t h e o r y on a h e r o i c a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h p l a n n e r s a r e f r e -q u e n t l y unaware t h e y have made. The u s u a l a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t r a v e l f u l f i l l s needs and i t i s m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o s a t i s f y t h e s e needs ( V e r b e r g 1 9 7 5 , J u b e n v i l l e 1 9 7 6 ) . So f a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s have not c l a r i f i e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e e d s , m o t i v a t i o n s and s a t i f a c t i o n s . A l l t h a t can be c o n c l u d e d i s t h a t n e e d s , m o t i v a t i o n s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e c o m p l e x . T h e r e f o r e , o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g assump-t i o n s abou t t h e m , such as t h o s e c u r r e n t l y made by t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s , a r e s u s p e c t , a l t h o u g h not enough i s known t o even a n t i c i p a t e t h e i n -a c c u r a c i e s and b i a s e s . D u r i n g one h o l i d a y a t o u r i s t may p a r t i c i p a t e i n hundreds o f a c t i v i -t i e s , r a n g i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , f rom b a r b e c u i n g a f r e s h l y caugh t f i s h t o - 19 -T a b l e 2-1 S y n o p s i s o f R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e F i n d i n g s ( see A p p e n d i x One f o r numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o each f i n d i n g ) S u b j e c t Causes f o r p e o p l e t r a v e l 1 i n g Causes f o r c e r t a i n r e -g i o n a l a r e a s d e v e l o p i n g as t o u r i s t a r e a s Area o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n g e n e r a l m o t i v a t i o n s t h e t h i n g s peop l e seek f rom t r a v e l macro p a t t e r n s - d e s t i n a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e -ness - marke t f o r c e s - t o u r i s t f l o w s i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n mak ing b e h a v i o u r T h e o r i e s / E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s h y p o t h e s i z e d : p e o p l e t r a v e l t o s a t i s f y needs e x p e r i e n c e s - t h e s e a re d e -r i v e d f rom c o m b i n a t i o n o f : - a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g - s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s - a m e n i t i e s draw p e o p l e , t h e i m p o r t a n t draws a r e : n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and man-made r e s o u r c e s Ma rke t f o r c e - p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs push peop l e f rom home t o d i s t a n t a r e a s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g marke t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s empha-s i z e d . F l o w c o n s t r a i n t s - t h e s e i m -pede f l o w s , key ones a re c o s t , i n s t i t u t i o n s , t i m e numerous i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s found t o e f f e c t d e c i s i o n s (eg p e r c e p t i o n , & i n f o r m a t i o n ) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o r r e l a t i o n s -t r a v e l p a t t e r n s c o r r e l a t e w i t h t o u r i s t s ' e d u c a t i o n , a g e , i n -come, e t c . d e c i s i o n m o d e l - d e s t i n a t i o n c h o i c e e x p l a i n e d on b a s i s o f 3 i n t e r - a c t i n g componen t s , g o a l s , a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n s and i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s . - 20 -g a m b l i n g i n a c a s i n o . C l e a r l y , t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l i s a f f e c t e d by t h e s u p p l y o f a c t i v i t i e s . What t h e n i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l and a c t i v i t i e s ? S t u d i e s have found t h a t most p e o p l e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g an e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s (Meyersohn 1 9 6 9 , R o b e r t s 1 9 7 8 ) . As e x p l a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x Two, a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s o n l y p a r t o f what makes an e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d a r e : t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r -onment and a m e n i t i e s , and t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . In s h o r t , an e x -p e r i e n c e r e s u l t s f rom p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an a c t i v i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p e o p l e . I n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d f rom p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an a c t i v i t y com-b i n e t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , two weeks o f c a n o e i n g , c a m p i n g , f i s h i n g and h i k i n g a l o n g t h e Yukon R i v e r wou ld combine i n t o an o v e r a l l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . H e r e i n a f t e r t h e t e rm e x p e r i e n c e i s used t o mean o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e s . A l s o , t h e t e r m u s e , when used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t o u r i s t u s e , means t h e same as e x p e r i e n c e . C l awson (1963) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e d i s t i n c t phases o f an o v e r a l l r e c r e a -t i o n e x p e r i e n c e : (1) a n t i c i p a t i o n , (2) t r a v e l t o , (3) o n - s i t e , (4) t r a v e l b a c k , and (5) r e c o l l e c t i o n . T o u r i s t t r a v e l i s c o n s i d -e r e d a s p e c i a l i z e d fo rm o f r e c r e a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , a t o u r i s t ' s e x p e r -i e n c e i s a l s o made up o f t h e s e f i v e p h a s e s . The t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y c anno t p roduce e x p e r i e n c e s , i t j u s t p r o v i d e s t h e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s t o u r i s t s u s e . P r o g r e s s i v e t o u r i s m - 21 -p l a n n e r s , howeve r , a re aware t h a t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s can i n f l u -ence t h e s e t t i n g and s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s wh i ch c r e a t e e x p e r i e n c e s (Gunn 1 9 7 9 ) . I f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e c o n t e x t i s used i n t o u r i s m p l a n -n i n g , t h e f o c u s i s on t o u r i s m p r o d u c t s r a t h e r t han on i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . A t o u r i s m p r o d u c t i s d e f i n e d as the c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a t o u r i s t uses w h i l e she o r he has an e x p e r i e n c e . R e c a l l i n g t h a t a t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e c o v e r s f i v e p h a s e s , a t o u r i s m p r o d u c t i n c l u d e s t h e e n t i r e range o f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s used by the t o u r i s t f rom the moment a t r i p i s f i r s t a n t i c i p a t e d u n t i l t h e t i m e s when he o r she r e c a l l s t h e t r i p a f t e r i t i s o v e r . Bo th t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s and p r o d u c t s a re a n a l y s e d d u r i n g a t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s s e s s m e n t ; each r e v e a l s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l s . E x p e r i e n c e a n a l y s i s i s t h e bes t means o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s u p p l y o f and demand f o r t o u r i s t r e s o u r c e s because an e x p e r i e n c e i s u l t i m a t e l y what t h e consumer wants and t h e r e s o u r c e s must s u p p l y . S i n c e t o u r i s t p r o d u c t s d e s c r i b e the i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c s e r v i c e goods a s s o c i a t e d w i t h income and c o s t s t h e y a re most u s e f u l i n economic a n a l y s e s , such as c o s t - b e n e f i t s t u d i e s . Note t h a t t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l i s not synonymous w i t h t h e t o u r i s m i n -d u s t r y ; t h e i n d u s t r y i n f l u e n c e s s e r v i c e and f a c i l i t y s u p p l y , wh i ch i s o n l y one o f the f a c t o r s e f f e c t i n g t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . Because the economic b e n e f i t s o f t o u r i s m come f rom s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i -t i e s , t h e t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y i s u s u a l l y t h e f o c u s o f t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l - 22 -s t u d i e s and deve lopment p l a n s . Such a na r row a p p r o a c h i s wrong f o r t h i s s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : - i t wou ld o n l y a s s e s s economic v a l u e s , l i m i t i n g t h e r e s u l t s u s e -f u l n e s s i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s such as c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s t o e c o n o -mic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s s e r i o u s because o t h e r b e n e f i t s such as c o n s e r v a t i o n and l i f e s t y l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e o f t e n t h e main r e a s o n s t o u r i s m i s chosen as a r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t ; - i t s p r e d i c t i o n s c o u l d be wrong because t h e e f f e c t s f rom non-i n d u s t r y r e l a t e d f a c t o r s a r e i g n o r e d ; - t h e t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y i s not t h e o n l y s u p p l i e r o f s e r v i c e s and i n -d u s t r y . V a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government p r o v i d e most i f no t a l l o f t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . r o a d s , a i r p o r t , sewer s y s t e m , e t c . ) and key s e r v i c e s such as p a r k s , i n f o r m a t i o n b u r e a u s , n a t i o n a l t r a v e l p r o m o t i o n s , museums, c o n c e r t h a l l s , e t c . In t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e q u e s t i o n why c e r t a i n a r e a s become t o u r i s t d e s -t i n a t i o n s has been a d d r e s s e d a t two l e v e l s : a t t h e m a c r o - l e v e l o f t o u r i s t p a t t e r n s , f l o w s and s p a c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i n t e r n a -t i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l a r e a s ; and a t t h e m i c r o - l e v e l o f i n d i -v i d u a l t o u r i s t ' s c h o i c e s o f t r a v e l modes and d e s t i n a t i o n s . Macro-l e v e l s t u d i e s p r i m a r i l y e x p l a i n t o u r i s t p a t t e r n s on t h e b a s i s o f e i t h e r d e s t i n a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o r f a c t o r s t h a t e f f e c t t h e d i r e c -t i o n and s i z e o f t o u r i s t f l o w s such as d i s t a n c e , c o s t , and p r o x i m i t y t o a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t m i c r o - l e v e l s t u d i e s f o c u s on t h e s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s f o r o r t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s by wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l chooses a p a r t i c u l a r d e s t i n a t i o n . A p p e n d i x One r e v i e w s t h e macro and m i c r o l i t e r a t u r e i n d e t a i l ; o n l y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l - 23 -p o i n t s c r i t i c a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l f ramework a r e b r i e f -l y d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . A t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s d e f i n e d as t h e a b i l i t y o f an a r e a t o a t t r a c t and h o l d t o u r i s t s . The d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i c i t y assumes t h a t p e o p l e a r e drawn t o an a r e a because o f i t s a t t r i b u t e s . An a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y r e f u t e s t h i s c o n t e n d i n g t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs d r i v e p e o p l e f rom t h e i r homes t o a t o u r i s t s i t e ( G e a r i n g , Swart and Var 1 9 7 6 ) . N e i t h e r p r e m i s e has been p roven a l t h o u g h most t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s , k n o w i n g l y o r u n k n o w i n g l y , a c c e p t t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t h e o r y . M o r e -o v e r , t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s c o n s i d e r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o depend upon bo th n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s ( e g . c l i m a t e , s c e n e r y , good f i s h i n g , and s k i h i l l s ) and man-made f e a t u r e s ( e g . h i s t o r i c s i t e s , f e s t i v a l s , un i que c u l t u r e s , and s p e c i a l p r o d u c t s such as Esk imo c a r v i n g s ) . C o n s e -q u e n t l y , bo th f e a t u r e s a r e u s u a l l y s u r v e y e d i n p r e p l a n n i n g i n v e n -t o r i e s . T o u r i s t f l o w s t u d i e s t y p i c a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e p r o b l e m as f o l l o w s : C 0 N S T R A I N T S - 24 -They emphas i ze f l o w c o n s t r a i n t s and t r e a t s u p p l y and demand f a c t o r s as s e c o n d a r y . These s t u d i e s , t h e r e f o r e , a re u s e f u l f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and r e l a t i n g c o n s t r a i n t f a c t o r s such as c o s t , t i m e , c o m p e t i t i v e a r e a s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . A n a l y s i s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t o u r i s m p l a n n i n g s i n c e t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s u n l i k e c o s t and l e n g t h o f p e o p l e ' s v a c a t i o n t i m e , a re l e s s f i x e d ; t h e y can be a l t e r e d t o s t i m u l a t e more t o u r i s m . I n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e the l a w s , p o l i c i e s , agency mandates and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s governments i n v o l v e d i n t o u r i s m ; a l l can l i m i t t o u r i s m . F o r e x a m p l e , t he Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government T o u r i s m D e p a r t m e n t ' s o b j e c t i v e i s t o s t i m u l a t e economic g r o w t h ; o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s such as e conomic s t a b i l i t y , j o b d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and enhancement of r e s i d e n t r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a re u n c o n s i d e r e d . As a r e s u l t o n l y v e n t u r e s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h i s s i n g l e minded economic o b j e c t i v e a re s u b s i d i z e d , promoted and p l a n n e d . Numerous f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d t h a t e f f e c t t he i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e o f t r a v e l d e s t i n a t i o n . Resea r ch on the f a c t o r s a t p l a y d u r -i n g the a n t i c i p a t i o n t r a v e l phase has e x p l o r e d many avenues i n c l u d -i n g : t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y and d e s t i n a t i o n , t h e f o r -m u l a t i o n o f menta l maps, t h e n a t u r e and e f f e c t s o f p e r c e p t i o n on c h o i c e , and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l g roups on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a v e l c h o i c e . A l t h o u g h most r e s e a r c h has c o n c e n t r a t e d on a n t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r s a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d t h a t a r e i n f l u e n t i a l d u r i n g t h e o t h e r t r a v e l p h a s e s . - 25 -In view of the number of var iab les invo lved , p red ic t ing where a t o u r i s t w i l l decide to go i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t task. It has been attempted using three d i f f e r en t approaches. One approach re -duces the number of fac tors by some ra t iona le to a few supposedly key ones, which are then used to make p red i c t i ons . An example i s the Bovy-Baud and Lawson method (1977), a popular European tourism planning approach that stresses the image of areas. An image de-pends upon percept ions , the re fo re , t h i s method emphasizes percep-t ions to the exclus ion of other f a c to r s . Another approach uses surrogate socio-economic ind ices in place of the actual fac tors (Burton 1971). Indices such as age, sex, educa-t i o n , income, occupat ion, and family or marita l status are known to cor re la te with the type of t o u r i s t s who use s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s such as nat ional parks, luxury c ru i sesh ips or recreat ion vehic le camp-grounds. However, user p r o f i l e s are unknown for many of the f a c i l i -t i e s contained within a reg ion. Therefore , i f t h i s approach i s used for a reg ion , numerous assumptions have to be made about t o u r i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i na l approach i s to t i e a l l the fac tors together in to a model of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s dec i s ion process. For the purpose of t h i s study the recreat ion u t i l i t y model (Driver and Tocher 1970) i s best be-cause of i t s s imp l i c i t y and use of the experience concept. Figure 2-1 i l l u s t r a t e s th i s model. The model was developed to expla in rec-r e a t i o n i s t s ' behaviour; but i t can be appl ied to a subset of recrea-t i o n i s t s , t o u r i s t s . According to the model a t o u r i s t ' s choice of Figure 2-1:- Driver and Tocher 's (1970) Model of the Recreation Decis ion Process Antecedents Motivators "7 Intervening Var iables Personal Sa t i s fac t ion Personal ' Benef i ts (a) Components of the Mot i va t ion-Ut i l i t y Decis ion Process (af ter Jubenv i l l e 1976) CM r Motivat ional Condit ions and Behavioural D i rect ions (feedback) I f h> antecedent condi t ions — — -> -intervening condit ions — L- -> goal o b j e c t — L Environmental stimuli Physiological drives Heredity Prior learning Maturity (stability) Cognitive style Conditions encountered in pursuit of the goal which contribute to learning and induce changes in the behaviour of the recreationist Observable Responses Attractiveness before pursuit was started and value (utility) or approached Selectivity of performance (including routes of pursuit), substitutability of goals and/or persistence and vigour of behaviour until goal is reached. (b) The Model of Decis ion Process-Recreation Behaviour (from Driver and Tocher 1970) - 27 -t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e depends on t h r e e e l e m e n t s : a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i n t e r v e n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and goa l o b j e c t i v e s . Of t h e s e , a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i t i o n s a re c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t b e h a v i o u r d e t e r -m i n a n t s , as t h e y a re t h e s o u r c e o f and d e c i d e t h e s t r e n g t h ( s ) o f t h e n e e d ( s ) t o t r a v e l . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a n t e c e d e n t c o n d i -t i o n s i n F i g u r e 2-1 r e v e a l s them t o be a m i x t u r e o f s u p p l y ( i e . e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i ) and demand ( i e . p h y s i o l o g i c a l d r i v e s ) f a c -t o r s . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i m p l i e s t h a t t o u r i s t b e -h a v i o u r i s a r e s u l t o f bo th s u p p l y and demand f o r c e s . F i n a l l y , no te t h a t t h e goa l o b j e c t i s d e f i n e d as t h e e x p e r i e n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s e e k i n g . T h u s , t h e r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i t y model i s based on the assump-t i o n t h a t t r a v e l i s u n d e r t a k e n t o s a t i s f y n e e d s . As p o i n t e d ou t e a r l i e r t h i s a s s u m p t i o n c o u l d be e r r o n e o u s i n wh i ch case t h e e n t i r e model i s i n c o r r e c t . 2 . 1 . 2 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S t udy D e s i g n A t the o u t s e t i t was s t a t e d no e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was a d e -qua te f o r t h i s s t u d y . M o r e o v e r , i t i s a p p a r e n t f rom t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e r e i s no s i n g l e u n i f y i n g t h e o r y t h a t e x p l a i n s t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l s . The l i t e r a t u r e d o e s , however , p r o v i d e some g e n e r a l p r i n c -i p l e s and some s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s f o r p a r t o f t h e phenomenon. These p r i n c i p l e s and v a r i a b l e s were used t o d e v e l o p the c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e -w o r k ; f o r i n s t a n c e , s e v e r a l o f t h e f r a m e w o r k ' s components were t a k e n d i r e c t l y f rom the l i t e r a t u r e . T h e o r e t i c a l c r i t e r i a were used t o i d e n t i f y t h e f r a m e w o r k ' s unknown components and l i n k a g e s ; t h e s e c r i t e r i a were d e r i v e d f rom g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s a c c e p t e d w i t h i n t h e - 28 -l i t e r a t u r e . They p r o v i d e the t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r amework ; t h e s e c r i t e r i a a re as f o l l o w s . . Use a h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h . A s y s t ems a n a l y s i s app roach i s r e q u i r e d because i t i s t h e o n l y method t h a t a t t e m p t s t o dea l w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y . . Base t h e f r a m e w o r k ' s components and l i n k a g e s on t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r c e s and f a c t o r s wh i ch cause t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s . Such an app roach i s needed t o ensu re the r e s u l t s a re as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e . An a l t e r n a t i v e , f r e q u e n t l y used app roach i s t o use v a r i a b l e s i n wh i ch d e c i s i o n makers a re i n t e r e s t e d . D e c i s i o n makers want i n f o r m a t i o n about e f f e c t s on employment , p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s o r o t h e r e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The v a r i a b l e s c a u s i n g a p o t e n t i a l a r e d i f f e r e n t than the d e s c r i p -t i v e i n d i c a t o r s d e c i s i o n makers a re c o n c e r n e d a b o u t . I t i s s e l f e v i d e n t t h a t c a u s a l v a r i a b l e s , such as marke t demand, a re u s e f u l f o r p r o j e c t i n g p o t e n t i a l s whereas i n d i c a t o r s such as the number o f new j o b s a re n o t . T h e r e f o r e , c a u s a l v a r i a b l e s must be used t o a r r i v e a t a c c u r a t e p r o j e c t i o n s o f p o t e n t i a l . Once t h e p o t e n t i a l i s e s t a b l i s h e d i t i s easy t o d e r i v e the i n f o r m a t i o n d e c i s i o n makers want f rom i t . - 29 -. Focus t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l a s s e s s m e n t s on e x p e r i e n c e s and p r o d u c t s ; e x p r e s s r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l s i n t e rms o f e x p e r i e n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s e r v i c e / f a c i l i t y p o t e n t i a l s i n t e rms o f p r o d u c t o p p o r t u n i -t i e s . E x p e r i e n c e s and p r o d u c t s a r e t h e n a t u r a l u n i t s f o r t o u r i s m r e -s o u r c e s and t o u r i s m s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e r e -f o r e t h e y s h o u l d be u s e d . . A n a l y z e bo th s u p p l y and demand f a c t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e r e s o u r c e p o -t e n t i a l s . T o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s depend upon t o u r i s t s , bo th r e s o u r c e a t t r i b u t e s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t t o u r i s t ' s d e s t i n a t i o n c h o i c e s . . I n c l u d e c o n s t r a i n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l o n e s , i n t h e f r a m e -w o r k . C o n s t r a i n t s can reduce t o u r i s t numbers s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom e s t i -mates p r o j e c t e d s o l e l y by s u p p l y and demand. Because t h e c o n c e p t u a l f ramework i s based upon p a r t i a l t h e o r i e s and u n c o n n e c t e d p i e c e s , a s s u m p t i o n s had t o be made about how t h e d i f f e r -en t p i e c e s l i n k t o g e t h e r i n t o an o v e r a l l s y s t e m . T h i s s t u d y ' s c o n -c e p t u a l f ramework i s , t h e r e f o r e , not based on a w e l l a c c e p t e d t h e o -r e t i c a l m o d e l ; i t c o n t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t a s s u m p t i o n s . - 30 -Two key a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l i e t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r amework . The f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n r e l a t e s t o the l i n k a g e s between s u p p l y and demand. S u p -p l y and demand a re c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r c o n n e c t e d and j o i n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a t i n g a r e g i o n ' s t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n f o r s u p p l y and demand comes f rom t h e r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i t y model (RUM); s u p p l y and demand d e s c r i b e t h e same f a c t o r s as RUM's a n t e c e d e n t c o n -d i t i o n s . T h u s , t h e a s s u m p t i o n made by t h e r e c r e a t i o n u t i l i t y model i s adop ted by t h i s f r amework , name l y , t r a v e l i s u n d e r t a k e n t o s a t i s -f y p e r s o n n e l n e e d s . The second a s s u m p t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e r o l e a s s i g n e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . Both a re v i ewed as f o r c e s t h a t c o n s t r a i n and channe l t h e p o t e n t i a l g e n e r a t e d by s u p p l y and demand i n t o a p a r -t i c u l a r t y p e o f u s e . In o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s assumed t h a t a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s e s neve r g e n e r a t e t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l , t hey f u n c -t i o n s o l e l y as c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on s u p p l y and demand f a c t o r s , an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e e n t i r e s ys tem r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l s was needed t o d e s i g n t h e s t u d y and i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s . By r e l a t i n g - 31 -supply and demand quality concerns to the overall issue of tourism potential, the study was designed so its results would be useful for other analyses; problems of too narrow a focus, incorrect study orientation and results not giving the information subsequent analyses required were avoided. S imi lar i ly, the study's results could only be used for evaluating tourism potential when they were interpreted in relation to al l the determinants of tourism potential and their significance within this context. Therefore, the overall conceptual framework should be kept in mind as the carrying capacity concept is discussed in the next section. PART TWO: CARRYING CAPACITY CONCEPTS 2.2 INTRODUCTION Carrying capacity analysis is a useful approach for estimating sup-ply and demand quality, the primary task of this study. This sec-tion describes the concept, how i t is used, and the conceptual ap-proach on which the analytical framework is based. 2.2.1 Overview of the Carrying Capacity Concept Carrying capacity is a concept which relates resource use to the abi l i ty of a resource to sustain that use without undergoing an un-acceptable amount of degradation. Basically, the concept contends that resource use is limited by the amount of degradation the re-source can tolerate. The concept is only concerned with continual types of use such as an annual f ishery, in contrast to one shot ex-ploitations which consume the entire resource (eg. fish) at one - 32 -t i m e . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y has h i s t o r i c a l l y meant t h e maximum use l e v e l a r e s o u r c e can s u s t a i n w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g t h e minimum q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d , o r amount o f r e s o u r c e d e s t r u c t i o n p e r m i t t e d . I t i s e x p r e s s e d as a number o r amount per a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e . Fo r e x a m p l e , t o u r i s t c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s t h e number o f p e o p l e per a r e a pe r season ( o r d a y , m o n t h , y e a r , e t c . ) . The concep t o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e f i e l d s o f range and w i l d l i f e manage-ment and was d e f i n e d as the maximum number o f a n i m a l s a g i v e n h a b i -t a t c o u l d s u p p o r t on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s (Wagar 1 9 6 4 ) . The management i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i s t h a t l a n d s have a n a t u r a l l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y , r e l a t e d t o t h e r a t e o f b iomass p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h i n wh i ch use must be c o n t r o l l e d . E c o n o m i s t s a l s o have a c o n c e p t f o r r e s o u r c e c a p a c i t y but i n s t e a d o f a r e s o u r c e s t o c k and i t s maximum s u s t a i n e d y i e l d t h e y t h i n k i n t e rms o f a p r o d u c t o f c o n s t a n t q u a l i t y ( F i s h e r and K r u t i l l a ( 1 9 7 2 ) . In c a s e s where t h e p r o d u c t i s a r enewab le r e s o u r c e s t o c k such as g r i z z l y bea r s o r c a t t l e t h e two c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s do not d i v e r g e . However , i f t h e p r o d u c t i s a n o n - c o n s u m p t i v e r e s o u r c e use ( i e . s c e n i c t o u r s , l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g , c amp ing ) t hen t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e because i t s q u a l i t y depends upon amen i t y r e s o u r c e s . The q u a l i t y o f amen i t y r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e s s u b s t a n t u a l l y more than j u s t a b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s e f f e c t e d by p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Amen i t y r e s o u r c e s a re o b v i o u s l y i m p o r t a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m , t h e r e f o r e , t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y depends upon much more than s i m p l e b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - 33 -In f a c t , t h r e e d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t a r e s o u r c e ' s t o u r i s m c a r r y -i n g c a p a c i t y : b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u s e r o r s o c i o - p s y c h o l o -g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and management a c t i o n s . Each o f t h e s e f a c -t o r s a c t s l i k e a l i n k i n a c h a i n ; t h e weakes t l i n k d e t e r m i n e s t h e t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . S e v e r a l l i n k s , howeve r , may have t h e same minimum s t r e n g t h , i n w h i c h c a se t h e t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s d e f i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . The f o c u s h e r e i n i s on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s s e t by b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i -p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . B i o p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s l i m i t use l e v e l s by mak ing a r e a s u n s u i t a b l e f o r u s e , as f o r example bogs o r s t e e p c l i f f s p r e v e n t g o l f i n g , o r by mak ing a r e a s s e n s i t i v e t o use and t h u s o n l y a b l e t o h a n d l e a c e r t a i n number o f p e o p l e w i t h o u t b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o a f f e c t an a r e a ' s s u i t a b i l i t y and maximum use l e v e l s . They s e t l i m i t s f o r p e o -p l e ' s t o l e r a n c e o f such t h i n g s a s : c r o w d i n g , changes t o t h e e n v i r -onment , l a c k o f c o m f o r t , a n d , d e c l i n i n g a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : t h e maximum number o f t o u r i s t s t h a t a r e s o u r c e can s u p -p o r t on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s w i t h o u t b e i n g deg raded be low an a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d . F o r b r e v i t y p u r p o s e s , t h e t e r m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s used h e r e i n a f t e r t o mean t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . - 34 -2 . 2 . 2 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e Concept - App roaches f o r C a l c u l a t i n g C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y From t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p t o use f o r c a l c u l a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s i s s i m p l y : C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y = f ( 1 i m i t i n g f a c t o r s ) Put i n w o r d s , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t u s e . To c a l c u l a t e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s t h e r e f o r e , one needs t o know t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f u n c t i o n and o f t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s ; b o t h a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s a r e : b i o p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and management a c t i o n s . The f u n c t i o n i s s i m p l y t o t a k e t h e l o w e s t v a l u e o f a l l t h e use l e v e l s s e t by t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . B e -f o r e t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f an a r e a can be c a l c u l a t e d one a l s o has t o know f o r w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e ( s ) t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be made. T h i s r e q u i r e s a n o t h e r t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n : s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s f o r t h e a r e a w h i c h s p e c i f y t h e t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e ( s ) t h e a r e a i s t o p r o -v i d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s f o r t h e t y p e o f u s e , o r t o u r i s t e x p e r -i e n c e , an a r e a s h o u l d p r o v i d e a r e o f t e n u n d e f i n e d . What i s u s u a l l y known i s t h e a r e a ' s h i s t o r y , p r e s e n t u s e , r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e p o l i c i e s and r u l e s used by i t s p r e s e n t management ( P f i s t e r and F r e n k e l 1 9 7 5 ) . M o v e o v e r , P f i s t e r and F r e n k e l (1975) s t a t e t h a t such g e n e r a l g o a l - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e even as a b a s i s t o use i n d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c management g o a l s . S p e c i f i c g o a l s r e -- 35 -q u i r e d e c i s i o n s and v a l u e judgements about what e x p e r i e n c e t y p e t o p r o v i d e , and t h e s e r e q u i r e much more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n about s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s t han what i s a v a i l a b l e . T h u s , t h e g r e a t e s t d i f -f i c u l t y w i t h o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y c o n c e p t i s o b -t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e t y p e o f use t h a t c o r r e c t l y e x p r e s s s o c i e t y ' s w i s h e s . I f a l l t he r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n i s known the p r o c e d u r e f o r e s t i m a t -i n g an a r e a ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d : F i r s t , t h e s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e s a re i d e n t i f i e d f o r wh i ch c a r r y -i n g c a p a c i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l be made; S e c o n d , t h e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r b i o p h y s i c a l , s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l and management c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re d e t e r m i n e d f o r each e x -p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s e d as t h e number o f peop l e per u n i t o f a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e ; T h i r d , t h e r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e s t a n d a r d s a re a n a l y s e d f o r t h e a r e a and p o r t i o n s o f the a r e a u n s u i t a b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s e l i m i n a t e d ; F o u r t h , t he q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r an e x p e r i e n c e a re r e l a t e d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g a r e a , t he one wh i ch i s t h e l o w e s t use l e v e l b e -comes the a r e a ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e o r y , t h e r e f o r e , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s can p r o v i d e p r e c i s e numbers f o r peop l e per u n i t o f a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e . The most a c c u r a t e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s a re t h o s e made f o r s i n g l e , e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; t he d a i l y c a p a c i t y o f a campground h a s , f o r - 36 -instance, been calculated with relative success by numerous analysts (Verberg and Rees 1974). Accuracy decreases substantially when the exercise is attempted for areas having several types of tourist use or for future developments. Because of this carrying capacity calculations are rarely done for regional tourism potential assessments. The reasons it is d i f f i cu l t to calculate carrying o capacities for regions and for future developments merit elaboration. Determining precise carrying capacity values for a region is impos-s ib le . There are never goals defining the type of tourist experience(s) every tourism area in the region should provide. Furthermore, information is usually lacking on use level limitations for some of the opportunities. Therefore, analysts determined to quantify a region's carrying capacity either (1) formulate the goals and use level values needed, or (2) resort to general (high, medium, low) capability ratings (Pfister and Frenkel 1975). Neither approach is very satisfactory; the f i r s t approach is extremely tedious and frought with so many assumptions its results are questionable, while the second is so general its results are v i r tual ly useless. As a result carrying capacity is seldom calculated for regions. Calculating carrying capacities for potential uses is also proble-matic. Another variable enters the equation once the focus is on potential vs. existing uses: future change. Speci f ica l ly , change - 37 -i n t h e a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o s u p p o r t t o u r i s t s . The a b i l i t y o f b i o p h y s i c a l , and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r use l e v e l w i l l no t change u n l e s s t h e f e a t u r e s a r e t h e m s e l v e s a l t e r e d ; a bog w i l l be j u s t as s e n s i t i v e t o a hundred p e o p l e s l o s h i n g t h r o u g h i t 20 y e a r s f rom now as i t i s t o d a y . Changes i n t h e use l e v e l a f e a t u r e can s u p p o r t a r e b r o u g h t about by management a c t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , management can put a b o a r d wa lk a c r o s s a b o g , t h u s a l l o w i n g hundreds o f p e o p l e t o c r o s s t h e bog w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g i t . T h e r e f o r e , f u t u r e management a c t i o n s need t o be known t o c a l c u l a t e p o t e n t i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e y r a r e l y a r e . M o r e o v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t what t h e y may be because t h e r e a r e s c o r e s o f p o s s i b l e management a c t i o n s f o r most u s e s . C l e a r l y , t h e a p p r o a c h o f q u a n t i f y i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s i s u n s u i t -a b l e f o r r e g i o n a l p o t e n t i a l s t u d i e s . The q u a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n em-b o d i e d by t h e c o n c e p t , howeve r , have a p o t e n t e f f e c t on t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l s ; t h e y s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d by t o u r i s m s t u d i e s . T h u s , a d i f -f e r e n t a p p r o a c h i s needed . 2 . 2 . 3 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e Concep t - t h e S t ankey A p p r o a c h S t ankey (1974) s u g g e s t e d a way t o c o n s i d e r q u a l i t y f a c t o r s w i t h o u t c a l c u l a t i n g a r e g i o n ' s a c t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . H i s app roach i s e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e when g o a l s s p e c i f y i n g t h e t y p e o f use f o r an a r e a a r e l a c k i n g . I t i n v o l v e s c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r e v e r y f e a s i b l e u s e , i n s t e a d o f j u s t t h e u s e ( s ) s p e c i f i e d by manage-ment g o a l s . - 38 -S t a n k e y ' s a p p r o a c h e s t i m a t e s r e g i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r i n d i -v i d u a l u s e s , h e n c e , i t s e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t t h e number o f t o u r i s t s a r e g i o n c o u l d s u p p o r t i f i t was e n t i r e l y d e v o t e d t o one p a r t i c u l a r u s e . S i n c e r e g i o n s i n v a r i a b l y c o n t a i n a m i x t u r e o f u s e s , S t a n k e y ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s do not g i v e a r e g i o n ' s a c t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . T h u s , t h e y a r e l e s s u s e f u l f o r e v a l u a t i n g t o u r i s m p o t e n -t i a l s t han a c t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s wou ld be i f t h e y were a v a i l a b l e . S t a n k e y ' s r e s u l t s a r e howeve r , u s e f u l f o r d e v e l o p i n g management p o l i c i e s and g o a l s f o r an a r e a . A c t u a l l y , i t i s t h e q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f S t a n k e y ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s t h e m s e l v e s t h a t a r e u s e f u l t o p o l i c y m a k e r s . These q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be used t o c r e a t e a s c e n a r i o o f how c o n d i t i o n s wou ld be i f a p a r t i c -u l a r use was d e v e l o p e d . F o r e x a m p l e , deg ree o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e , d e n s i t y o f use and l e v e l o f f a c i l i t y deve lopment a r e a l l q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D e c i s i o n makers can examine t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each e x p e r i e n c e , e v a l u a t e t h e i r p ro s and c o n s , and use them t o h e l p d e c i d e where and what t y p e s o f use s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . T h u s , i f t h e ba ckg round i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d f o r c a r -r y i n g c a p a c i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s i s p r o p e r l y p r e s e n t e d , i t can be a u s e -f u l t o o l . The S t ankey (1974) a p p r o a c h i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e such a t o o l . The S t ankey " t o o l " i s s i m p l y a t a b l e s i m i l a r t o T a b l e 2-2 w h i c h l i s t s t h e q u a l i t y l e v e l s o f key c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s f o r d i f -- 39 -Quality Level of Key Factors Experience Family Canoe trip on Yukon River Factor 1 Density of Use Factor 2 Environmental Change Tolerated range low (less than 3 groups/ day) to moderate (3 to 10 groups -per day) - generally want some privacy at campsite, but while canoeing satisfied seeing more people moderate (less than 10 signs of man per day)  expect to see roads, bridges, abandoned homes, flattened campsites, etc. Factor 3 Level of Managerial Investment in Facilities  low (20 people per campground) -only need to pro-vide rustic camp-sites Table 2-2?: Example of the carrying capacity information provided by Stankey's Approach. The example is for illustration purposes only, it does not represent real conditions. - 40 -f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . The key f a c t o r s a re d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f d e c i s i o n m a k e r s . The f o u r f a c t o r s S t ankey (1974 ) i d e n -t i f i e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , emphas i ze s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l and management l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e y a re d e n s i t y o f u s e , r e l a t i v e w e igh t o f s o c i a l v s . e n v i r o n m e n t a l components o f e x p e r i e n c e , degree o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l change u s e r s t o l e r a t e , and l e v e l o f m a n a g e r i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n f a c i l i -t i e s . A l t h o u g h S t ankey does not c o n s i d e r t hem, b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e . The q u a l i t y l e v e l s o f key f a c t o r s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e a re d e t e r m i n e d by r e s e a r c h . S t ankey p r i m a r i l y bases h i s q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s on s t u d i e s o f campground and park use l i m i t s (Hendee , Ga l e and C a t t o n 1 9 7 1 ) . The f i n a l p o i n t t o no te about T a b l e 2-2 i s t h a t t h e q u a l i t y s t a n d -a r d s o f e v e r y key f a c t o r a r e g i v e n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whe the r t hey p r e -s e n t l y e f f e c t c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e s . The r eason f o r t h i s i s b e -cause t h e c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t i n g use may change as a r e s u l t o f manage-ment i n t e r v e n t i o n s . H a v i n g t h e c o m p l e t e range o f s t a n d a r d s t h e r e -f o r e g i v e s the i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o p r e d i c t c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s when and i f f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s c h a n g e . S t a n k e y ' s t a b l e i s u s e f u l t o p o l i c y makers f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : 1. I t p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f what t h e c o n d i t i o n s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h each e x p e r i e n c e a r e . T h i s i s u s e f u l f o r c r e a t i n g an image o f what an a rea wou ld be l i k e i f a p a r t i c u l a r use i s d e v e l o p e d . - 41 -2 . I t can be used t o d e t e r m i n e a r e g i o n ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l u s e s . To do t h i s t h e r e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e base must be a n a l y s e d and used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h S t a n k e y ' s t a b l e . 3 . I t can h e l p i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e management a c t i o n s . Knowing t h e range o f l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w s a n a l y s t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d s o f management a c t i o n s t h a t wou ld most e f f e c t i v e l y i n c r e a s e use l e v e l s o r , more g e n e r a l l y , a l t e r use l e v e l s i n some d e s i r e d way. The app roach S t ankey s u g g e s t s f o r d e r i v i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s e t h r e e p u r p o s e s f rom t h e t a b l e i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . F i r s t , g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e o b t a i n e d by s i m p l y r e a d i n g t h e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e f rom t h e t a b l e . S e c o n d , t h e same s t e p s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 2 a r e f o l l o w e d t o c a l c u l a t e a r e g i o n ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r a s i n g l e u s e . F i n a l l y , t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t e p s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s ( d e f i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , d e t e r m i n i n g use l e v e l s t a n d a r d s and a n a l y s i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s ) a r e a l s o u n d e r t a k e n t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e management a c t i o n s . Once t h e r e s o u r c e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h l i m i t use a r e e s t a -b l i s h e d a range o f a c t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d upgrade t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s may be i d e n t i f i e d . These p o s s i b l e management a c t i o n s can be d e v e l o p e d e i t h e r i n t u i t i v e l y o r by r e s e a r c h i n g t h e a c t i o n s used a t o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h have s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . - 42 -A p r o b l e m w i t h S t a n k e y ' s app roach t o w a r d s c a l c u l a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a -c i t i e s i s i t r e q u i r e s a t remendous amount o f w o r k ; c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e done f o r e v e r y f e a s i b l e u s e . N o r m a l l y t h e work i s r educed by c l a s -s i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o a l i m i t e d number o f g roups and then c a l c u -l a t i n g a s i n g l e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v a l u e f o r each g r o u p . O b v i o u s l y , t o do t h i s the a s s u m p t i o n i s made t h a t a l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n a g roup have t h e same r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . Whether t h i s i s t h e case o r not depends upon how t h e e x p e r i e n c e s a re c l a s s i f i e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i s c r i t i c a l t o the o v e r a l l a p p r o a c h . S t ankey used the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d by Hendee Ga le and C a t t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s o n l y f o r camping and n a t u r a l park r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . M o r e o v e r , r e c e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t even t h e s e camping and park e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s a re i n c o m -p l e t e ( H o l b r o o k 1980 , R i t c h i e 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 ) . In summary, t h e S t ankey app roach p roduces a c rude assessment of a r e g i o n ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i t p r o v i d e s the k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l f o r d e c i d i n g r e g i o n a l t o u r i s m p o l i c y and man-agement o b j e c t i v e s . Such g o a l s a re needed t o c a l c u l a t e a r e g i o n ' s p o t e n t i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a c c u r a t e l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e y a re neve r a v a i l a b l e ; r e g i o n a l g o a l s d e f i n i n g t h e k i n d s and p a t t e r n s o f f u t u r e use a re a lways i n c o m p l e t e . T h u s , a p r e r e q u i s i t e s t e p t o c a l c u l a t i n g a r e g i o n ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s i s t o d e f i n e i t s g o a l s and management o b j e c t i v e s ; t h i s i s t he main pu rpose o f t h e S t ankey a p p r o a c h . The app roach does not d e r i v e such g o a l s , however , i t i s o n l y a t o o l de-- 43 -c i s i o n - m a k e r s can use t o h e l p them choose g o a l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , S t a n k e y ' s a n a l y s i s does not c o n c l u s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e t h e t o u r i s m p o -t e n t i a l o f a r e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e s . Subsequent a n a l y s i s i s needed once t h e management g o a l s a r e d e f i n e d , t o a r r i v e a t a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s o f a r e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . 2 . 2 . 4 A p p r o a c h Used i n T h i s S tudy The S t ankey a p p r o a c h i s t h e model on wh i ch t h i s s t u d y ' s a n a l y t i c a l f ramework i s b a s e d . On l y t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was u s e d , howeve r ; t h e c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s and e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f rom t h o s e S t a n k e y u s e d . These changes were made because o f r e c e n t r e -s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and because t h i s s t u d y c o v e r s a l l t o u r i s t e x p e r i -ences not j u s t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o n e s . PART THREE: STUDY REQUIREMENTS and ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 2 .3 The t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e c o v e r e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c -t i o n s ; t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s wh i ch a f f e c t e d t h e s t u d y d e s i g n a r e e x p l a i n e d h e r e . Two t y p e s o f p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i n -v o l v e d : budget c o n s t r a i n t s and p r o d u c t r e q u i r e m e n t s . The c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t e r i a ( see S e c t i o n 2 . 1 . 2 ) a r e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e a n a l y t i c a l f r amework . 2 . 3 . 1 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Budget C o n s t r a i n t s As i n any s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h had t o be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n c e r t a i n t i m e and c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e s e w e r e : - 44 -- d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t ime was l i m i t e d t o s i x w e e k s , - t h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r a n a l y s i s was one t o two mon ths , - the budget f o r f i e l d work and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was r o u g h l y $1000 - t h e money a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n was a few hundred d o l l a r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , methods emphas i zed s e c o n d a r y d a t a s o u r c e s , and o n l y one month l o n g f i e l d t r i p t o the a r e a . 2 . 3 . 2 P r a c t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - P r o d u c t Requ i r emen t s A g e n e r a l commitment was made t o p r o v i d e r e s u l t s wh i ch wou ld be u s e f u l i n subsequen t s t u d i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e two c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o t h i s goa l w e r e : - t h e r e s u l t s wou ld t i e i n w i t h r e s e a r c h Westwater Resea r ch C e n t r e was c o n d u c t i n g a t t he t i m e , a n d , - t h e p r o d u c t s h o u l d be u s e a b l e i n economic a n a l y s e s and a s se s smen t s o f t h e economic i m p a c t s o f t o u r i s m . These two c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e some e x p l a n a t i o n . A t the t i m e t h i s s t u d y was made the Wes twa te r Resea r ch C e n t r e was i n v o l v e d i n a Yukon Water Resou r ce Management p r o j e c t . A h i g h p r i o r i t y o f t h a t p r o j e c t was t o g a i n an o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e p e r c e p t u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y l e v e l s f o r the a q u a t i c sys tems o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . T h i s a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d such c a p a c i t y l e v e l s f o r t h e Yukon R i v e r as w e l l as a f ramework wh i ch Wes twate r c o u l d use t o d e r i v e a b road p e r s p e c t i v e on the a q u a t i c s y s t ems i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . - 45 -Undoubtedly economic analysis will be conducted in future to evalu-ate the major development proposals the Yukon River is facing. To properly evaluate the opportunities foregone by various proposals decision-makers need to know the potentials of alternative uses such as tourism. Carrying capacity results provide estimates of the op-timum visitation numbers for different types of tourism development in the Yukon River corridor. These results can be combined with other demand assessments to give the kind of economic evaluation of tourism potentials which decision-makers require (Perchal 1981). 2.3.3 Overview of Analytical Framework An analytical approach comprised of two sequential steps was devel-oped on the basis of the foregoing practical and theoretical criter-ia. These two steps are: - a screening step to select the experiences for which carrying capacity should be calculated, and - carrying capacity analysis to determine the resource's capacity for each experience identified by the first step. The specific reasons for using these two steps are given in Appendix Table Al-4. Both analyses take a holistic perspective to the pro-blem, whether "the problem" is overall tourism potentials as in the case of screening analysis or a resource's capacity for tourism. For instance, carrying capacity analysis involves a thorough examin-ation of biophysical, socio-psychological and management conditions - 46 -and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; t hus a l l t he f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l s a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d (Freeman and Brown 1 9 7 4 ) . Bo th s t e p s a l s o con fo rm t o a n o t h e r key t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e y e m p h a s i z e e x p e r i e n c e s ; t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t he s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e the c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s . A l s o s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s i s j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f t i m e and budget c r i t e r i a . F i n a l l y , t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s s a t i s f i e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o c o n s i d e r s u p p l y demand r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g r e s u l t s t h a t a re u s e f u l f o r Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e pu rposes and f u t u r e economic a n a l y s e s . 2 . 3 . 4 A n a l y t i c a l Framework o f S c r e e n i n g A n a l y s i s A l t h o u g h t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t o f t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s e s was a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s , a c t i v i t i e s not e x p e r i e n c e s were s c r e e n e d . E x p e r i e n c e s were d e v e l o p e d f rom the a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h s c r e e n i n g by c o m b i n i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Thus t h e a n a l y s e s i n v o l v e d two d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s : - s c r e e n i n g t o i d e n t i f y f e a s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s f rom t h e enormous num-b e r o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s , and - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o d e v e l o p e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s f rom a c t i v i t y , e n v i r -onmenta l and s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . - 47 -I n s t e a d o f s c r e e n i n g a l l t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e components ( a c t i v i t e s , e n v i r o n m e n t s and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ) o n l y a c t i v i t i e s were s c r e e n e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . F i r s t , a n a l y s i s o f one d e t e r m i n a n t r a t h e r t h a n t h r e e d e c r e a s e s t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d f o r s c r e e n i n g . Time c o n s t r a i n t s o n l y p e r m i t t e d a n a l y s i s o f one d e t e r m i n a n t . S e c o n d , most f e a s i b i l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n s t o a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n t o o v e r a l l e x p e r i e n c e s o r t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h i r d , t h e e x p e r i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each a c t i v i t y can be e a s i l y d e r i v e d by i n t e g r a t i n g d a t a about e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i -t i o n s . F i g u r e 2-2 o u t l i n e s t h e s t e p s f o l l o w e d i n s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s . The a c t u a l s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d t e s t i n g a l a r g e s e t o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t f e a s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a f o r s u p p l y and demand. A c t i v i t i e s were t e s t e d a g a i n s t one s e t o f c r i t e r i a a t a t i m e ( i e . f i r s t s u p p l y o f r e s o u r c e s and t h e n demand) and t h o s e f a i l i n g t o meet t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f c r i t e r i a were e l i m i n a t e d f rom f u r t h e r c o n s i d -e r a t i o n . The a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d by s c r e e n i n g as f e a s i b l e were used t o d e v e l o p e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s . A c c e p t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods ( H p l b r o o k 1 9 8 0 , R i t c h i e 1 9 7 5 , 1974) were used t o combine t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The d a t a on e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s came f rom p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n t e r -v i e w s w i t h marke t e x p e r t s , and a f i e l d t r i p t o t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r -r i d o r . - 48 -Figure 2 . 2 Analytical Framework of Screening Analysis Screening Procedure Activity i Pass Supply Criteria? Yes Pass Demand Criteria? I Yes List of Feasible Activit ies Classi fication Procedure Experience ^ _ Classi fication \ List of Possible Experiences NO NO E L I M I N A T E Research Environmental and Social Conditions i I Possible Environmental I Conditions T Possible Social Conditions -49 -2.3.5 Analytical Framework of Carrying Capacity Analysis As explained in Section 2.2.4 the analytical framework followed Stankey's (1974) approach; a table similar to Stankey's was gener-ated and carrying capacity values were calculated on the basis of the corridor being entirely committed to a single use. Furthermore, carrying capacities were not calculated for individual experiences but for experience groups. Figure 2-3 illustrates the steps in-volved in the analytical framework. Two basic assumptions underlie this framework, they are: - every activity and associated experience within a given group has the same resource requirements, and - there is sufficient information to establish biophysical and socio-psychological quality standards and to determine the com-position and distribution of the Corridor's resources. - 5 0 -STEP NUMBER AND PURPOSE PROCEDURE AND EXAMPLES I d e n t i f y s u i t a b i l i t y and use l e v e l f a c t o r s for each experience/ s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y Experience Types, S p e c i a l i z e d A c t i v i t i e s (defined i n screening a n a l y s i s ) Define standards f o r s u i t a b i l i t y and use l e v e l s f o r each experience Determine s u i t a b l e areas i n c o r r i d o r f o r each experience Determine use l e v e l s of s u i t a b l e areas f o r each experience Determine o v e r a l l c a r r y i n g capacity f o r each experience BIOPHYSICAL FACTORS - instantaneous, d a i l y and annual f a c t o r s - t e r r a i n , w i l d l i f e , v e g e t a t i o n , season length BIOPHYSICAL STANDARDS number of animals/area, depth of s o i l , percent vegetation cover, e t c . BIOPHYSICAL SUITABILITY resource inventory of c o r r i d o r compare s u i t a b i l i t y standards with inventory and eliminate u n s u i t a b l e areas BIOPHYSICAL USE-LEVELS - convert b i o p h y s i c a l standards ( i . e . "X" bears/hectare) to use l e v e l s ( i . e . " Y " hunters/ hectare) - determine s i z e of s u i t a b l e area - m u l t i p l y area by standard and season length SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS instantaneous d a i l y and annual f a c t o r s crowding, a e s t h e t i c s , incompatable SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL STANDARDS number of people/area SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL STANDARDS inventory of c o r r i d o r ' s a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s , use patterns compare inventory with standards and el i m i n a t e unsuitable areas SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL USE LEVELS - determine s i z e of s u i t a b l e areas - m u l t i p l y area by standard and season length COMPARE BIOPHYSICAL and SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL USE LEVELS • BIOPHYSICAL VALUE LOWEST ? ' SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL « VALUE LOWEST ? Figure 2-3: Steps Followed in Carrying Capacity Analysis - 51 -CHAPTER THREE: THE YUKON RIVER CORRIDOR: RESOURCES, USES, POTENTIALS AND PROBLEMS 3.0 GENERAL SETTING From i t s headwate r s i n t h e s o u t h e r n Yukon T e r r i t o r y , t h e Yukon R i v e r f l o w s more t h a n 3 ,680 km t h r o u g h t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y and A l a s k a t o t h e B e r i n g S e a . The s e c t i o n s t u d i e d , t h e Wh i tehorse-Dawson p o r t i o n o f t h e Yukon R i v e r , i s 736 km (460 m i l e s ) l o n g . The s t u d y a r e a i s a na r row c o r r i d o r . The l a n d b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s c o r r i d o r a r e d e l i n e a t e d by what t h e r i v e r u s e r can see o r hea r ( F i g u r e 3 - 1 ) . 3.1 BIOPHYSICAL RESOURCES The Yukon R i v e r d r a i n s i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , and i n d o i n g so pas se s t h r o u g h two ma jo r c l i m a t i c a r e a s w i t h i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y , a s o u t h w e s t e r n a r e a wh i ch has m o d e r a t i n g m a r i n e i n f l u e n c e s f rom t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n , and a c e n t r a l p o r t i o n wh i ch has a c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e (Kendrew and K e r r 1 9 5 5 ) . W i t h i n bo th c l i m a t i c a r e a s , t h e Yukon R i v e r e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o most " n o r t h e r n " r i v e r s : g r e a t s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n f l o w r e s u l t i n a t o t a l summer d i s c h a r g e w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e t o t a l w i n t e r d i s c h a r g e ( A l f o r d p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) . - 5 2 -FIGURE 3.1 The Yukon River Corridor Study Area National Park o Settlement D Abandoned settlement ighway 1• 2,500,000 - 53 -- 54 -The river channel i t se l f is typical of a large northern river. The upper stretches, above Hootalingua, have l i t t l e sediment and the river is contained within meander patterns. These S-shaped meanders are continually shift ing, undercutting outer banks and building up inner banks. The lower Yukon, especially below the White River con-fluence, contains braided channels with numerous islands and bars, and a continually shifting flow pattern over the wide flood plain. The vegetation communities adjacent to the river are predominatly typical riparian (or river valley) associations. The exact composition of riparian plants changes depending upon the serial stage of the community. In addition, non-riparian vegetation occurs on bordering landforms which are not flood plain. There are two different climax plant communities found in upland areas: dry, south facing slopes have a grassland climax and a l l other areas have a conifer climax. Again, the exact species composition of these communities depends upon their serial stage (Herrick 1977). Waterfowl and raptors are numerous along the corridor. This area supports many important staging areas for waterfowl as well as impor-tant raptor species such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) (Mossop pers. comm. 1979). - 55 -The c o r r i d o r i s r e p u t e d l y (Hoe fs p e r s . comm. 1979) good h a b i t a t f o r w i l d l i f e r a n g i n g f rom u n g u l a t e s t o s m a l l mammals and f u r b e a r e r s . L a rge game found i n t h e v a l l e y i n c l u d e moose ( A l c e s a l c e s ) , b l a c k bea r s ( U r s u s a m e r i c a n u s ) , g r i z z l y bea r s (U r sus a r c t o s ) , wo l v e s (Canus  l u p u s ) and t h i n h o r n sheep ( O v i s n i v i c o l a ) . F i n a l l y , t h e Yukon R i v e r has i m p o r t a n t f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e s . A lmos t a l l o f t h e t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Yukon R i v e r a r e spawn ing s i t e s f o r chum (Onco rhynchus k e t a ) and c h i n o o k (Oncorhynchus t s h a w y t s c h a ) sa lmon w h i c h m i g r a t e f rom t h e B e r i n g Sea (Wa lke r 1 9 7 6 ) . The Yukon R i v e r i s a l s o s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g c r i t i c a l h a b i t a t f o r c h i n o o k sa lmon f r y d u r -i n g t h e i r one-yea r r e s i d e n c e i n f r e s h w a t e r (Wa lke r 1 9 7 6 ) . O t h e r s i g -n i f i c a n t s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e a l l w i d e l y used f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and o r d o m e s t i c pu rposes i n c l u d e : t h e A r c t i c g r a y l i n g ( T h y m a l l u s a c t i c u s ) and t h e n o r t h e r n p i k e (Esox l u c i u s ) , w h i c h a r e bo th a l s o sought as s p o r t s f i s h , t h e l o n g n o s e s u c k e r (Cato tomus c a t o t o m u s ) , t h e i n c o n n u ( S t enodus l e u c i c h t h y s ) , t h e humpback w h i t e f i s h (Coregonus c l u p e a f o r -m i s ) and t h e round w h i t e f i s h ( P r o s o p i u m c y l i n d r a c e u m ) . HISTORICAL RESOURCES The r i c h human h i s t o r y o f t h e Yukon R i v e r has been d e s c r i b e d i n numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s ( S e r v i c e 1 9 0 7 , 1940 ; M c G u i r e 1 9 7 7 ; B e r t o n 1 9 5 5 , 1 9 7 3 ; Morrow and Hume 1 9 7 9 ) . - 56 -The Klondike Gold Rush of 1897 - 1898 which resulted in 30,000 for-tune seekers travelling down the Yukon River from Lake Bennett to Dawson in search of gold has been the single most recorded event in the history of the Yukon Territory. Many abandoned buildings, machinery and boats along the route from Whitehorse to Dawson are visible reminders today of this past era. Figure 3-2 illustrates representative historical features of the Corridor. Friesen (1978) outlined many other less well known but st i l l significant historic themes associated with the Yukon River. According to the results of a recent study (Beaudoin pers. comm. 1979), one of these, native history may be a resource of major significance. To support their land claims the Council of Yukon Indians conducted extensive interviews with the older members of the Indian communities, they have compiled a wealth of information about past settlements, fish camps and other native activities along the Yukon River. Thus far, none of these findings have been published. 3.3 PRESENT USES OF THE YUKON RIVER CORRIDOR 3.3.1 Hydroelectric The Yukon River is entirely free flowing except for one hydroelectric dam near Whitehorse. This dam is relatively minor, the reservoir is small and the flooding has mainly resulted in removal of the renowned rapids at Miles Canyon (upstream of Whitehorse) and Whitehorse. The flow regime of the Yukon River downstream from the dam has been altered to a minor degree; the resulting channel depth and gravel Figure 3-2 - 57 -w. -S p i r i t Houses at L i t t l e Salmon Abandoned Sternwheeler at Hootalingua Islan F i g u r e 3-2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) - 58 -G o l d Dredge a t Dawson - 59 -w o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o an o l d s t e r n w h e e l w o r k e r , make n a v i g a t i o n by s t e r n w h e e l e r s more d i f f i c u l t now than i t was h i s t o r i c a l l y ( I n n i s -T a y l o r p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . 3 . 3 . 2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n U n t i l 1 9 5 2 , s t e r n w h e e l e r s and w i n t e r haul roads were t h e o n l y c o n n e c -t i o n between W h i t e h o r s e , Dawson and i n t e r m e d i a r y c o m m u n i t i e s . The r i v e r i s s t i l l used t o a m i n o r e x t e n t f o r b a r g i n g p l a c e r m i n i n g equ ipment and f o r r e a c h i n g i s o l a t e d homesteads ( B u r i a n p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) ; howeve r , t o u r i s t boa t s and canoes a c c o u n t f o r most of t he r i v e r t r a f f i c now. The L i t t l e Salmon t o M i n t o p o r t i o n o f t h e Yukon R i v e r ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 km) p a r a l l e l s p o r t i o n s of the Robe r t Campbe l l and K l o n d i k e H i g h w a y s ; he re t h e h ighway i s v i s i b l e f rom t h e r i v e r i n many l o c a t i o n s , t r a f f i c sounds a re c l e a r l y a u d i b l e f rom the r i v e r , and a b r i d g e spans t h e r i v e r a t C a r m a c k s . 3 . 3 . 3 M i n i n g A c o a l mine a t T a n t a l u s B u t t e , nea r Carmacks i s t h e o n l y one wh i ch can be seen f rom t h e r i v e r . P l a c e r m i n i n g a l o n g t h e K l o n d i k e R i v e r , Duncan Creek ( t r i b u t a r y o f t h e S t e w a r t R i v e r ) and L i v i n g s t o n e Creek ( t r i b u t a r y o f t h e B i g Salmon R i v e r ) may a f f e c t t h e w a t e r q u a l i t y o f t h r e e i m p o r t a n t t r i b u t a r i e s o f t he Yukon R i v e r (Westwater 1 9 8 0 ) . 3 . 3 . 4 S e t t l e m e n t s C a r m a c k s , 325 km downstream f rom W h i t e h o r s e , i s t h e o n l y community between W h i t e h o r s e and Dawson. In 1 9 7 9 , e i g h t homes between M i n t o - 60 -and S teward I s l a n d were i n h a b i t e d ( p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n 1 9 7 9 ) . 3 . 3 . 5 F i s h i n g , H u n t i n g and T r a p p i n g F i s h r e s o u r c e s a r e used by t h r e e u s e r t y p e s : commerc i a l f i s h e r i e s , s p o r t s f i s h e r i e s , and s u b s i s t e n c e u s e r s . S a l m o n , t a k e n f rom be low C a r m a c k s , makes up t h e b u l k o f t h e commerc i a l c a t c h . The 1978 sa lmon h a r v e s t i s c o n s e r v a t i v e l y e s t i m a t e d t o have been w o r t h a t l e a s t $ 1 0 8 , 0 0 0 (Westwater 1 9 8 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n , a s m a l l number o f w h i t e f i s h a r e n e t t e d c o m m e r c i a l l y i n Lake Labe rge ( Bo l and 1 9 7 3 ) . G r a y l i n g and l a k e t r o u t a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t s p o r t s f i s h e r y s p e c i e s ( F i s h e r i e s and M a r i n e S e r v i c e 1 9 7 8 ) ; g r a y l i n g a r e caugh t i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f t h e upper Yukon and a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f a l l s m a l l t r i b u t a r i e s w h i l e l a k e t r o u t and n o r t h e r n p i k e a r e caugh t i n Lake L a b e r g e . L i t t l e i s known s p e c i f i c a l l y about t h e s p o r t s f i s h e r y i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . In 1 9 7 8 , 9 , 6 4 2 C a n a d i a n s ( i n c l u d i n g Yukon r e s i d e n t s ) and 4 , 9 7 0 f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s p u r c h a s e d Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l f i s h i n g l i c e n s e s ; howeve r , most f i s h i n g o c c u r s a t l a k e s a c c e s s i b l e f rom t h e A l a s k a Highway (Wes twate r 1 9 8 0 ) . The s p o r t s f i s h e r y c o n t r i b u t e s s u b s t a n t i a l e conomic r e t u r n s ; i n 1 9 7 5 , d i r e c t f i s h i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s a ve r aged $195 pe r r e s i d e n t a n g l e r and $184 per n o n - r e s i d e n t a n g l e r ( F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1 9 7 8 ) . I f t h e m u l t i p l i e r f o r i n d i r e c t and i n d u c e d e f f e c t s i s 2 , t h e n t h e income g e n e r a t e d by t h e T e r r i t o r y ' s s p o r t s f i s h e r y was a p p r o x i m a t e l y $5 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 7 5 . Even l e s s i s known about t h e n a t i v e f o o d f i s h e r y . One e s t i m a t e i s t h a t 17% o f t h e s t a t u s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s u b s i s t e n c e - 61 -f i s h i n g (Eby 1 9 7 7 ) . However , t h i s i s t h o u g h t t o s e r i o u s l y u n d e r e s -t i m a t e t h e amount t h a t n a t i v e s r e l y on the f i s h r e s o u r c e t o meet t h e i r b a s i c f o o d needs (Wes twate r 1 9 8 0 ) . W i l d l i f e was once ve r y p l e n t i f u l i n the Yukon R i v e r V a l l e y : "Brown and b l a c k b e a r , c a r i b o u , moose , l y n x and w o l v e r i n e s a r e numerous t h r o u g h t h i s s e c t i o n ( Lake L indeman t o 40 M i l e ) . . . B l a c k and s i l v e r - g r e y f o x e s a re not uncommon; mar ten a re a b u n d a n t . " (Moore 1888 p . 497 ) The c a r i b o u , howeve r , have d i s a p p e a r e d , t h e l a s t he rd was seen a t F o r t S e l k i r k i n 1938 ( C r u i k s h a n k 1 9 7 4 ) ; moose a re so s c a r c e now t h a t moose h u n t i n g i s c l o s e d between t h e S t e w a r t R i v e r c o n f l u e n c e and Dawson C i t y (Hoe f s p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s w i l d l i f e i s u t i l i z e d Ma jo r consumers a re the same as f o r f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s : commerc i a l t r a p p i n g and g u i d i n g ) , s p o r t ( h u n t i n g ) and s u b s i s t e n c e ( f o o d ) . In a d d i t i o n , w i l d l i f e i s i m p o r t a n t f o r non-consumpt i v e uses such as pho tog raphy and v i e w i n g . The e n t i r e s t u d y a rea i s d i v i d e d i n t o t r a p p i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , 75 p e r -c en t o f wh i ch a re h e l d by s t a t u s o r n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s . Few p a r t i c i -p a n t s make t h e i r l i v i n g f rom t r a p p i n g , most r e g a r d i t as a s u p p l e m e n -t a r y s o u r c e o f income o r a weekend hobby (Hoe f s 1 9 7 5 ) . Hence , r e l a -t i v e l y few a r eas a re u t i l i z e d p r o p e r l y , most a re o n l y t r a p p e d i n t h e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e p o r t i o n s and some a re not used a t a l l . Most t r a p -p i n g e f f o r t i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on a n i m a l s wh i ch have h i g h p e l t p r i c e s such as l y n x and f o x ; a n i m a l s w i t h low p r i c e s a re p a r t i c u l a r l y u n d e r -u t i l i z e d . - 62 -H u n t i n g use o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s p r i m a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d t o Yukon r e s i -d e n t s ; n o n - r e s i d e n t s demand more p r i s t i n e , c h a l l e n g i n g h u n t i n g t h a n t h e c o r r i d o r can o f f e r (Hoefs p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . S p r i n g bear ( b l a c k and g r i z z l y ) h u n t i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y common t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . Moose h u n t i n g o c c u r s ups t r eam o f t h e S t e w a r t R i v e r , but t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s so d e p l e t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s have l i m i t e d s u c c e s s ( Jack p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) . 3 . 3 . 6 T o u r i s m The R . C . M . P . i n Dawson (Kennedy p e r s . comm. 1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t 1,426 p e o p l e t r a v e l l i n g i n a t o t a l o f 303 p a r t i e s used t h e Yukon R i v e r i n t h e summer o f 1 9 7 9 . However , p e o p l e use t h e r i v e r w i t h o u t r e g i s t e r -i n g w i t h t h e R . C . M . P . o r w i t h o u t h a v i n g Dawson as t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t . The R . C . M . P . f e e l t h a t 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e a r r i v i n g a t Dawson s t a r t e d a t W h i t e h o r s e (Kennedy p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . E s t i m a t e s f o r r i v e r use o t h e r t han R . C . M . P . numbers v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l e . C o n n e l l y ( p e r s . comm. 1979) e s t i m a t e d t h a t 2 ,500 p e o p l e pe r season used t h e r i v e r i n bo th 1978 and 1979 w h i l e a P a r k s Canada s t u d y e s t i m a t e d t h e t o t a l usage i n 1978 was 1,300 p e o p l e ( P a r k s Canada and Yukon Depar tment o f Renewable R e s o u r c e s 1 9 7 8 b ) . R i v e r use has i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n c e 1974 . A s t u d y (Lombard N o r t h Group 1975) e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y 650 p e o p l e used t h e r i v e r i n 1 9 7 4 , l e s s t h a n one h a l f t h e most c o n s e r v a t i v e 1979 number. Between 1974 and 1 9 7 9 , t h e number o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e Yukon o n l y i n c r e a s e d 11 p e r c e n t . A t t h e same t i m e v i s i t o r use o f t h e Yukon R i v e r more t h a n - 63 -d o u b l e d . Compared t o t h e t e r r i t o r y as a w h o l e , t he p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e Yukon R i v e r has d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d . Most t r a v e l l e r s v i s i t i n g F o r t S e l k i r k s i g n a r e g i s t e r ; v i s i t a t i o n p a t t e r n s a t F o r t S e l k i r k between 1975 and 1979 a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 3 - 1 . The p a t t e r n s a re r e v e a l i n g d e s p i t e a c c o u n t i n g f o r o n l y 35-65 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l r i v e r u s e . Peak months a re J u l y and A u g u s t , a l m o s t a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g use o c c u r s i n June o r S e p t e m b e r . Ove r seas v i s i t o r use d o u b l e d between 1975 and 1979 (see T a b l e 3-1 and 3-2) and i n t h e 1980 s e a s o n . . . " u n l e s s you c o u l d speak German you c o u l d n ' t t a l k t o anyone on t h e r i v e r . " (Lammers p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) . Su r veys by Mothes ( 1 9 8 0 ) , Pa rks Canada , t h e Yukon Depar tment o f Renewable R e s o u r c e s (1978b) and t h e a u t h o r ( p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n 1979) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t r a v e l l e r s a re p r e s e n t l y a t t r a c t e d t o the r i v e r f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : - t h e w i l d e r n e s s f e a t u r e s o f a r i v e r t r i p , - t h e h i s t o r i c s i t e s a l o n g t h e r i v e r , - t h e r e l a t i v e ease o f r i v e r t r a v e l ; p e o p l e w i t h l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e can e n j o y t h e t r i p , and - t h e easy a c c e s s and e g r e s s t o the r i v e r by r o a d , wh i ch means the t r i p i s l e s s e x p e n s i v e t han a t r i p a l o n g a waterway wh i ch i s o n l y a c c e s s a b l e by f l o a t p l a n e . Two marke t g roups c u r r e n t l y use t h e Yukon R i v e r . The f i r s t , c o m p r i s -i n g most o f t h e r i v e r t r a f f i c , a r e r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who o r g a n i z e t h e i r Table 3-1 Yukon River: Origin of Travellers and Seasonal Use Pattern 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 Jan. May - J J A Sept. Dec. - T % Jan. May - J J A Sept. Dec. ~~~%~ T % T % T % Yukon 16 79 44 44 6 167 18.0 15 52 78 49 24 218 22.8 145 23.1 106 18.5 86 17.6 Canada 7 24 102 85 20 238 25.6 5 38 91 141 20 295 30.9 160 25.5 184 32.1 144 29.5 United States 2 109 112 115 12 350 37.7 0 59 146 76 31 312 32.7 240 38.2 222 38.7 216 44.3 Other 0 12 64 82 15 173 18.6 0 13 44 67 3 130 13.6 83 13.2 61 10.6 42 8.6 Total 928 955 628 573 488 Source: Fort Selkirk Vis i tor Book, Parks and Historic Resources Branch, Whitehorse (see Appendix Table A3-] for a complete breakdown from 1967 to 1979.) - 65 -Table 3-2 Origin Breakdown of 'Other' Category in Table 3--1 1979 1977 1975 ~r~ ~r~ ~~% Germany 65.3 45.8 38.1 Switzerland 10.4 12.1 0 Norway/Denmark/ Sweden/Finland 9.2 26.5 14.1 Other Western Europe 4.6 12.1 33.3 ° t n e r 10.8 3.6 14.5 Table 3-.3 Yukon Territory: Origin of Travellers 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 T % J % 1 % 1 % 1 % Canada 83,300 23.0 83,468 23.0 78,040 22.6 65,653 21.4 64,885 20.4 United States 249,900 69.0 257 , 662 71.0 215,511 71.8 229,787 7 4.9 244,27 2 7 6.8 Other 28,974 8.0 21 ,774 6.0 16,809 5.6 11 ,351 3.7 8,906 2.8 Total 362,174 362,905 300,154 306,792 318,063 Source: Tourism Yukon 1980 - 66 -own t r i p and use canoes o r s i m i l a r s m a l l w a t e r c r a f t . The second i s t h e o r g a n i z e d t o u r group wh i ch depends on o t h e r s making the a r r a n g e -ments and p r o v i d i n g a l l s e r v i c e s (Mothes 1 9 8 0 ) . R a f t s , medium s i z e d m o t o r b o a t s and canoes a re used by o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . The canoe i s by f a r t h e most common mode o f t r a v e l , 1979 R . C . M . P . f i g u r e s r e p o r t t h e use o f 746 c a n o e s , 68 motor boa t s and 19 r u b b e r r a f t s (Kennedy p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . PRESENT TOURISM IN THE YUKON TERRITORY The t o u r i s t p a t t e r n s f o r t h e T e r r i t o r y a re s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom t h o s e f o r t h e Yukon R i v e r ; t e r r i t o r i a l use w i l l be b r i e f l y r e -v i ewed as i t p r o v i d e s a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t and t r e n d i n s i g h t s . In 1 9 7 9 , 3 6 2 , 1 7 4 p e o p l e v i s i t e d t h e Yukon and c o n t r i b u t e d $36 m i l l i o n t o t h e economy ( T o u r i s m Yukon 1 9 8 0 ) . A s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e s e v i s i t o r s d i d not s t a y i n t h e Yukon but passed t h r o u g h on t h e i r way t o A l a s k a . The o p e n i n g o f t h e A l a s k a Highway i n 1948 has been r e s p o n s -i b l e f o r much o f the Y u k o n ' s t o u r i s t g r o w t h . Numbers i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y between 1948 and 1974 when a h i g h o f 3 2 5 , 3 1 0 p e o p l e was r e a c h e d . The ene rgy c r i s i s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t o u r i s m between 1975 and 1977 , and v i s i t a t i o n d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y . T o u r i s m i n c r e a s e d 21 p e r c e n t o v e r 1977 i n 1978 and rema ined a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same l e v e l f o r 1979 ( T o u r i s m Yukon 1 9 8 0 ) . See T a b l e 3-3 and A p p e n d i x T a b l e A3-2 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . A c c o m m o d a t i o n , s e r v i c e s and t o u r i s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s have not kept pace w i t h t h e demand. S e r v i c e s a re s e v e r e l y l a c k i n g o u t s i d e t h e ma jo r - 67 -c o m m u n i t i e s . Perhaps because o f t h i s , o r because o f changes i n t o u r -i s t p a t t e r n s , t h e use o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d m o b i l e homes by h ighway t r a v -e l l e r s has i n c r e a s e d o ve r the y e a r s (Smale 1 9 7 8 ) . The Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government has a t o u r i s m p l a n (Wolman, 1978) o u t l i n i n g i t s deve lopment s t r a t e g y f o r t h e Yukon . T h i s s t r a t e g y r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " r u b b e r t i r e t o u r i s m " and d i r e c t s most deve lopment t o a s y s t em o f h ighway c o r r i d o r s . The s t r a t e g y does not c o n s i d e r ' o t h e r ' t y p e s o f t o u r i s m o r c o r r i d o r s such as t r a f f i c on the Yukon R i v e r . 3 .5 POTENTIAL USES 3 .5 .1 H y d r o e l e c t r i c The h y d r o e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l o f v a r i o u s s i t e s a l o n g t h e Yukon R i v e r i s w e l l known (S igma 1 9 7 5 , Wes twa te r 1980) a n d , a d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d a mid-Yukon h y d r o e l e c t r i c dam c o u l d be made i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s (MacPherson p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) . The Mid-Yukon p r o j e c t " . . . wou ld i n v o l v e t h e d i v e r s i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e Yukon R i v e r ' s f l o w f rom some 20 m i l e s above Carmacks i n t o a h i g h e r l e v e l c h a n n e l , wh i ch wou ld t h e n r e j o i n t h e Yukon R i v e r about 20 m i l e s s o u t h o f Carmacks a t R ink R a p i d s . A 40-75 megawatt (MW) p l a n t wou ld be c o n s t r u c t e d a t E a g l e s Nes t B l u f f and a 250 MW p l a n t , w i t h a p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y o f 500 MW, wou ld be b u i l t a t R ink Rap ids . . .A na r row 64 km l a k e wou ld be c r e a t e d b e h i n d t h e dam. " (Westwater 1980 p. V - 6 ) . - 68 -3.5.2 Klondike Gold Rush Internat ional H i s t o r i c Park An in te rnat iona l park commemorating the h i s t o r i c phenomena of the Klondike Gold Rush i s being advocated by senior o f f i c i a l s in Parks Canada and the U.S. National Park Serv ice . The park, i f created would have four main elements: 1. the Chi lkoot and White Pass t r a i l s leading from Skagway to Lake Bennett; 2. the Yukon River water route leading from Lake Bennett to Dawson C i t y ; 3. the towns of Skagway, the s ta r t i ng point of the journey and Dawson C i t y , the endpoint; 4. the Klondike gold f i e l d s along the Klondike River upstream from Dawson. At the present t ime, the assessment and planning of the Yukon River uni t i s being j o i n t l y undertaken by the Yukon Department of Renewable Resources (Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government) and by the Agreement for Recreation and Conservation (ARC) Branch, Parks Canada. Interim pro-tec t ion and use guidel ines (Parks Canada and Yukon Department of Renewable Resources 1978) have been es tab l i shed and a draf t concep-tual plan has been produced (Turick pers. comm. 1979). The concept c a l l s for a recreat ion conservat ion co r r ido r to extend from Skagway to Dawson C i t y , a distance of over 960 km (600 m i l e s ) . - 69 -.3 Other Resource Uses Little is known about the potential of other resource uses for the Yukon River and can be summarized below. Transportation - no new highways are being planned close to the Yukon River although access roads, mining roads and forestry roads could be constructed (Parks Canada and Yukon Department of Renewable Resources 1978). Mining - potential mining operations have been discussed for sites near Minto and Eagle Bluff (Westwater 1980). Fish and Wildlife - the size of the salmon population is unknown, therefore, no estimation of potential is possible. - the sustained harvest of furbearers can increase substantially, especially yields from lower priced furs (Hoefs 1975). Tourism - although much is known about the historical and natural features within the Yukon River corridor nothing is known of their overall significance to tourism or of the number and type of tourists which these resources can be expected to sustain. This thesis addresses these two issues. - 70 -3.6 TOURISM POTENTIAL FOR THE NORTH The demand p o t e n t i a l f o r n o r t h e r n t o u r i s m i n Canada i s p r a c t i c a l l y unknown; o p i n i o n s about n o r t h e r n p r o s p e c t s v a r y . Op t im i sm i s based on t h e n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t i n t o u r i s t s ' p r e f e r e n c e towards remote and d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s ( M i e c h z h o w s k i 1 9 7 5 , T u r n e r and Ash 1 9 7 5 ) . W h i l e a gloomy p i c t u r e i s e n v i s a g e d by o t h e r s (Lammers p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 , Sun News D i s p a t c h e s 1981) who c i t e s p i r a l l i n g energy c o s t s , h i g h i n f l a t i o n and t h e d e c l i n e i n 1979 v i s i t a t i o n a t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y o t h e r ( e x c e p t A l a s k a - Y u k o n ) l o n g - h a u l d e s t i n a t i o n . The demand p o t e n t i a l o v e r t h e nex t 5 - 1 0 y e a r s depends upon the net e f f e c t o f such f a c t o r s as changes i n t r a v e l t a s t e s , m a r k e t i n g , d e v a l u a t i o n o f the d o l l a r , g a s o l i n e p r i c e s , and changes i n d i s p o s a b l e i n c o m e . Some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a re p o s i t i v e and some n e g a t i v e , i n a d d i t i o n , so much u n c e r t a i n t y i s a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h each t h a t i t i s hard t o p r e d i c t t he demand p o t e n t i a l . Over t h e l o n g t e rm o t h e r f a c t o r s e n t e r i n such as t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e n t i o n s , p o p u l a t i o n a g i n g and changes i n amount o f l e i s u r e t i m e . A g a i n , t he com-b i n e d e f f e c t i s ha rd t o p r e d i c t . Demand p o t e n t i a l s a r e examined more f u l l y i n C h a p t e r F o u r . 3.7 RESOURCE PLANNING PROBLEM 3 . 7 . 1 E x i s t i n g and F u t u r e Use C o n f l i c t s The r e s o u r c e uses o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s have v a r y i n g d e -g r ee s o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t o u r i s m deve lopmen t s t h e m s e l v e s have v a r i a b l e r e s o u r c e demands, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r c o m p a t i b i l i t y t o each o t h e r and t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses a l s o d i f f e r . One s t udy o f - 71 -t o u r i s m c o n f l i c t s w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses (Depape , P h i l l i p s and Cooke 1975 c i t e d i n Sma l l 1979) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s o f t o u r i s m use wh i ch have d i f f e r e n t c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s , t h e s e a r e : (1) h i g h d e n s i t y c o n s u m p t i v e ( s k i o r o t h e r o u t d o o r s p o r t s r e s o r t s ) , (2 ) low d e n s i t y c o n s u m p t i v e ( h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g ) , (3) h i g h d e n s i t y non-c o n s u m p t i v e ( c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s , c a s i n o s ) , and (4) low d e n s i t y non-c o n s u m p t i v e ( n a t u r e p h o t o g r a p h y ) . A l t h o u g h t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r has few use c o n f l i c t s now, i t may have i n t h e f u t u r e i f some o f i t s p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e d e v e l o p e d . The m a t r i x i n F i g u r e 3-3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y between t h e e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l uses d e s c r i b e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s . The m a t r i x i s based on t h e work o f Depape , P h i l l i p s and Cooke (1975 c i t e d i n Smale 1979) and S c h i e f e r and Eedy ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 3 . 7 . 2 Resou r ce A l l o c a t i o n P rob l em The u n d e v e l o p e d s t a t e o f t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r c anno t be e x p e c t e d t o p e r s i s t much l o n g e r . P r e s s u r e i s moun t i ng f o r ma jo r deve l opmen t s such as t h e mid-Yukon power p r o j e c t as w e l l as f o r s m a l l , l o c a l i z e d d e v e l o p m e n t s such as g o l d r u s h s t y l e c a m p s i t e s ( Ka rpes p e r s . comm. 1979) and homes t eads . The i m p e n d i n g deve lopment d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e t y p i c a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s . The c e n t r a l i s s u e i s how t o b e s t u t i l i z e t h e Yukon R i v e r ' s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . B e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e b e s t a l l o c a t i o n scheme, d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s need v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , such a s : - 72 -—- o o o is II TJ *< -O i f rt- rt<< dps ei? o o -•• o —' ^  E. C 3 IO — « 0 5 T VI T 0.3 *? ^ (ft r* 3 » *< » rt-X X Sporl Hunt; Trapi Subs-F1sh< 2 " 1 stence sry Wt o sr -i to rt = 2. £ 2 S a 2 O 73 X X X -v) X X X * » » * # » * x X X X X X X X X X X X X » X . X X 4 » X X » » * •>> X rt ft Hydro Power Non Consumptive Tourism-low density Non Consumptive Tourism-h1gh density Consumptive Tourism-low density Consumptive Tourism-high density Klondike Int. Gold Rush Park Subsistence Hunting Sports Hunting Trapping Subsistence Fishery Sports Fishery Commerc"»1 Fishery Dispersed Homestead Placer Mining (Subsurface Mining Large River Boat Transportation - 73 -(1) s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e c o r r i d o r ( i e . e conomic g rowth v s . e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n ) , (2) t h e range o f v i a b l e o p t i o n s and t h e p o t e n t i a l o f each o p t i o n , o r (3) t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e g o n e when a p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n i s c h o s e n . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o ( 2 ) , s i n c e l i t t l e i s known o f t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t o u r i s m deve l opmen t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 3 . 7 . 3 T o u r i s m P o t e n t i a l P rob l em The un ique s p a t i a l , and t e m p o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a f f e c t s i t s t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . The key s p a t i a l f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e t h e c o r r i d o r ' s 736 km l e n g t h and w i d t h range o f 1/10 and 1/16 km; t h e t h e r i v e r ' s w i d t h range o f 100 t o 2500 m; and t h e c u r r e n t ' s speed w h i c h a v e r a g e s 3 t o 7 k n o t s but can range between 0 and 10 k n o t s . The s h o r t s eason i s t h e o v e r r i d i n g t i m e c o n s t r a i n t ; mid- June t o t h e end o f September i s t h e b o a t i n g season w i t h t h e b e s t t i m e b e i n g mid- June t o September 1 s t . These f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e p h y s i c a l s i z e o f d e v e l o p m e n t s , t h e t u r n o v e r r a t e o f t r a v e l l e r s and t h e annua l number o f t r a v e l l e r s . The s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s l i s t e d above have a b e a r i n g on t h e mix o f a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s p o s s i b l e i n t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as l i k e l y demand, and r e s o u r c e c a p a b i l i t y a l s o l i m i t t h e range o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s . In C h a p t e r Four t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r and a l i s t o f f e a s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a i s d e v e l o p e d . - 74 -CHAPTER FOUR: SCREENING METHODS and RESULTS 4 . 0 INTRODUCTION The pu rpose o f s c r e e n i n g i s t o s e l e c t f rom ou t o f t h e who le range o f c o n c e i v a b l e t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s t h o s e w h i c h a r e p o s s i b l e i n t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . As C h a p t e r Two e x p l a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s and not e x p e r i e n c e s were s c r e e n e d ; e x p e r i e n c e s were d e v e l o p e d by c o m b i n i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n f o r m a -t i o n about e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h u s , t h e a n a l y s i s u t i l i z e d two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m e t h o d s : - s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o i d e n t i f y s u i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s f rom t h e n u -merous p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s , and - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o d e v e l o p t h e e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . The methods and r e s u l t s o f t h e s e two p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 4.1 OVERVIEW OF METHODS The s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e was c o m p r i s e d o f two s c r e e n i n g l e v e l s , a p r e l i m i n a r y l e v e l and a d e t a i l e d l e v e l . P r e l i m i n a r y s c r e e n i n g i d e n -t i f i e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s t o be used i n t h e subsequen t d e t a i l e d s c r e e n -i n g . D e t a i l e d s c r e e n i n g i n v o l v e d t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t f e a s i -b i l i t y c r i t e r i a f o r s u p p l y and demand. The i d e a l method f o r c l a s s i -f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s i s t o use m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s t o r e l a t e a c -t i v i t i e s , e n v i r o n m e n t s and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t o each o t h e r ( R i t c h i e 1975b , Hoi brook 1 9 8 0 ) ; t h i s was not done because o f budget and d a t a - 75 -c o n s t r a i n t s . I n s t e a d , the c l a s s i f i c t i o n was i n d u c e d . To do t h i s s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r s i m i l a r a c t i v i t e s , e n v i r o n m e n t s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a n a l y s e d ; t h e y form the b a s i s f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h u s , t h e e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s p roduced by t h i s method a re p r e l i m i n a r y and h y p o t h e t i c a l . As e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r s One and Two t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l i s e s s e n t i a l -l y t h e p r o d u c t o f t h r e e i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s : - s u p p l y , - demand, - i n s t i t u t i o n s ( b r o a d l y d e f i n e d he re t o i n c l u d e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s t r u c t u r e s ) . T h u s , t he e f f e c t s o f a l l t h r e e must be c o n s i d e r e d t o d e t e r m i n e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s what t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s s e t out t o d o ; howeve r , i t was found u n c e r t a i n t y and l a c k o f knowledge about f u t u r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n such g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a t h a t t h e y were i n e f f e c t i v e i n e l i m i n a t -i n g any a c t i v i t i e s . Hence , i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were not i n c l u d e d i n t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s . B u t , t h e a s sessmen t o f i n s t i t u -t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s was u s e f u l because i t r e a f f i r m e d the g e n e r a l c o n -c l u s i o n s drawn f rom the s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s ; t h e s e g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s and the r e a l t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l ones a re d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 4 . 5 . A subcomponent o f s u p p l y , s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , was a l s o not i n -c l u d e d i n t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e , as C h a p t e r One e x p l a i n e d - 76 -present services and facil it ies were not considered to be a limita-tion to the area's potential, and because the type and capacity of future facil it ies will depend, to a large extent, upon demand. Therefore, the following factors were used to identify activities which have a tourism potential: - the resource's suitability for the activity; - the presence of features that attract tourists; - the existence of a market demand for the activity under the con-ditions provided by the area. During the detailed screening each activity was tested in the fore-going sequence against each of these factors. Once an activity was rejected by one factor it was eliminated from further consideration. The first two factors are related to supply, their rationale is dis-cussed in Section 4.3, while the rationale for the last factor, which is demand related, is presented in Section 4.4. The screening process identified 61 possible activities; the number of experiences associated with all these activities was st i l l far too many for carrying capacity calculation purposes. As a result, activities were grouped into categories according to the benefits they provide tourists. To the tourist, benefits from activity par-ticipation are inseparable from experience benefits. Hence, the ac-tivity categories from various experience classifications were used - 77 -t o group a c t i v i t i e s . E x p e r i e n c e t y p e s were a l s o d e r i v e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e a c t i v i t i e s were b e i n g g r o u p e d . T h u s , a c t i v i t y g r o u p i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t y p e f o r m u l a t i o n was an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s ; a c t i v i t i e s were i n i t i a l l y a s s i g n e d t o g roups and t h e i r g e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d , w i t h subsequen t a n a l y s i s some a c -t i v i t i e s were moved f rom one c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r and e n v i r o n m e n t a l / s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s were r e f i n e d . More s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e method w h i c h was used t o d e r i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i s g i v e n i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . PRELIMINARY SCREENING METHODS AND RESULTS The i n i t i a l l i s t o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s was i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h a r e v i e w o f p u b l i c a t i o n s and a f i e l d t r i p t o t h e a r e a . The p r i n c i p l e p u b l i c a t i o n s used were t h e o r e t i c a l p a p e r s , Yukon t o u r i s m s t u d i e s and t o u r i s m s t u d i e s o f o t h e r r e g i o n s . The s p e c i f i c p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f each a c t i v i t y a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4 - 1 ; t h i s t a b l e a l s o l i s t s t h e 101 a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s c r e e n i n g i d e n t i f i e d . - 7 8 -Table 4-1 Number A I 5,6,7,8 9,10,11,12 13, 14,15,16 17 18 Range of Possible Tourist Ac t i v i t i es Act iv i ty RESOURCE BASED Water Uses  day-use canoeing slow/flat water fast/white water natural area developed area canoe-tripping same categories as l i s ted above rafting-day-use same categories as l i s ted above raf t tripping same categories as l i s ted above kayaking slow/flat water fast/white water Source Canada Land Inventory 1969 (CLI) CLI Chubb and Bauman 1976 (C&B) C&B CLI and C&B Resource Analysis 1976 (RA) RA Ontario Recreation SUSDIV Inventory Task Force 1975 (T0RPS) 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31,32 sa i 1 i ng day cruising day-use motor boating waterskiing small craft power boating TORPS T0RPS C&B C&B C&B motor boat tripping small craft (sleeping onshore) CLI cruising (sleeping onboard) RA swimming and beach swimming skin and SCUBA diving sunbathing f ishing game f i sh - bank f ishing - boat f ishing coarse f i sh - same 2 categories l i s ted above C&B C&B CLI C&B C&B Gorman, Height, Mull in and Walsh 1977 (ISCID) - 79 -Table 4-1 (continued) Number 33 34 II 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44,45,46,47,48 Act iv i ty  winter ice f ishing ice skating Land Uses hunting-wetland-waterfowl -upland-big game -small game trapping undeveloped trails-day use hiking and walking cross-country skiing dog sledding snowmobiling snowshoeing t r a i l tripping same 5 categories as l is ted above Source RA RA CLI CLI Tourism and Outdoor Reereation Study 1977 Baker 1973 (B) CLI CLI B TORPS CLI 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 B 58 59 60 61 62 63 camping pr i s t ine , no f a c i l i t i e s viewing vegetation landforms geologic features w i ld l i f e and f i sh waterfalls/hydraulic features histor ic sites archeologic features miscellaneous col lect ing and gathering FACILITY AND SERVICE BASED accomodation camping primitive-picnic tables and p i t to i l e ts f u l l service lodges cottages motel hotel C&B RA RA RA RA RA RA RA CLI TORPS TORPS B.C. Research T977 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 (B&P) B.C. B.C. - 8 0 -Table 4-1 (continued) Number 64 65 66 67 68 69 70,71,72,73,74,75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Wolman 1978 (W) Ac t i v i t y Source  developed t r a i l s horseback riding CLI recreation vehicles CLI biking-motor TORPS -cycle TORPS cross-country skiing TORPS snowmobiling TORPS t r a i l tripping same 6 categories as l i s ted above cultural and tradit ional events f es t i va l s , f a i r s TORPS displays of local handicraft salmon f i sh ing , native foods, smoking salmon W art ga l l e r i es , museums ISCID shows of native dances, art and l i terature W educational events workshops, s k i l l improvement (eg. c ra f t s , job s k i l l s ) ISCID special courses (eg. Outward Bound) ISCID conferences ISCID bu i l t f a c i l i t y ac t i v i t i e s vacation camps TORPS conventions TORPS sports competions W sports/health complexes-swimming pools, bowling a l leys , spas ISCID gambling entertainment-theatres, ISCID movies, cabarets dining out ISCID shopping for personal goods and services shopping for specia l i ty items, handicrafts etc. guided tours/interpretation natural history Herrick 1977 historic/archaeologic Clarke 1978 cultural/ethnic W Baud-Bovy and Lawson 1977 (B&B) B&B - 81 -Table 4-1 (continued) Number ' Ac t i y i t y 'Source 96 technical developments-rdams, industrial plants B&B miscellaneous 97 gold panning W 98 picnicing CLI 99 downhill skiing CLI TOO tobogganing CLI 101 pleasure car driving C&B - 82 -4.3 SCREENING METHOD FOR RESOURCE FACTORS Resources, as defined in Chapter One, comprise the biophysical and man-made features which provide tourists with opportunities. The conceptual framework presented in Chapter Two established the two resource factors, suitability and attractiveness, which the screen-ing analysis used. These factors were considered independently in the analysis; different standards were set for each andthe activi-ties were tested separately against the two sets of standards. 4.3.1 Method for Assessing the Resource's Suitability for an Activity Basically, the process involved the comparison of the Corridor's re-source characteristics with the resource requirements of each activ-ity. Thus two types of information were init ia l ly inventoried: the resource requirements of every activity selected in the preliminary screening step, and the resource characteristics of the Corridor. An activity's resource requirements determine which resource charac-teristics need to be known; therefore, each activity's resource re-quirements were identified before the Corridor's resources were in-vestigated. Activity resource requirements may be defined at any level of detail from general to very specific. Moreover, authori-ties commonly disagree as to which resource features are most impor-tant for some activities. As a result, the following guiding prin-ciples were used to select the variable which define the activity requirements: - 83 -- variables must be accepted by the majority of recreation and tourism authorities; - variables should be appropriate for features distinguishable at 1:50,000 or small map scales, and for the baseline information presently available; - specific variables are to be used only i f they are absolutely critical for a particular activity; - variables which are sensitive to the special characteristics of northern ecosystems the Yukon River Corridor exhibits should be used. In Table 4-2 the variables which are used to determine whether the resource base is suitable for specific activities are listed as well as the corridor's resource characteristics for each of these vari-ables. The biophysical resource variables are generally based on Baud-Bovy and Lawson (1977), Christiansen (1977), Jubenville (1976) and Forbatha (1967) while the man-made resource variables are based on Baud-Bovy and Lawson (1977) and Synergy West (1975). Specific sources which explain why a given variable was deemed applicable to a particular activity are included in Table 4-2. Not all variables are equally important to each activity. Also, a factor such as the number of months of ice cover is detrimental to canoeing but a benefit to ice fishing. Hence, for each activity the significance of every factor has to be rated and it has to be deter-Table 4-2 Resource Su i tab i l i t y Variables and Resource Information Used to Screen the Act iv i t ies Listed in Table 4-1 Resource Su i tab i l i ty Variables (column 4 identi f ies the specif ic act iv i t ies to which each variable pertains)  Resource Information Principal Source(s) of Resource Knowledge Act iv i t ies from Table 4-1 to which Variables Source(s) from which Appl icabi l i ty of Variables to Act iv i t ies was Determined CLIMATE precipitation - rain - snow temperature-range sunshine -annual average wind TOPOGRAPHY AND SOILS texture, s t ab i l i t y , thickness, permafrost drainage, r e l i e f attractiveness VEGETATION cover composition attractiveness Whitehorse Fort Selkirk Dawson April-Nov-8days/ May-0ct.-10days/ April-0ct-8days/mo month month month Sept.-May - Sept.-April- Sept-May-136.4cm 127.8cm n 110.2cm -23.1 to 20.1°C -35.2 to 22.1°C -32.2 to 22.2°C Whitehorse -1825hrs/yr, June-271hrs, Dec.-21hrs Whitehorse -ave. speed 8mph, calm 7% in summer Dawson -ave. speed 6mph, clam 15-20% in summer so i l texture highly variable, scattered discontinuous permafrost in climax forests throughout, generally thick a l l u v i a l / col luv ia l deposits thorughout val ley, slumping along 5% of banks generally good drainage but boggy areas and wet so i ls not uncommon surrounding h i l l s generally less than 300m; cut banks up to 70m high range 11/40 to 23/40, range very high scenic value to low - highest interest values: 30 mile, 5 finger rapids, Pelly basalt generally suitable for camping, adequate cover spruce forest, grassy south facing slopes, a l luv ia l succession species range 22/25 to 17/25; very high scenic value to low interest Atmospheric Envir. Service 1971 Atmospheric Envir. Service 1971 Yorke and Kendall 1972 Yorke and Kendall 1972 but 62-63, 76-92,96 Ronstad e t al 1977, Personal observations 5-8,13-16,24,58r 63,65-67,71-73, 76,79,80,84-90 Ronstat et al 1977, 5-8,13-16,24,49-Oswald and Senyk 1977, 52,54,58-76,79, Personal Observation 80,84-92,99,100 Beaubier and Pierce 1974, Lombard North Group 1975 3,4,7,8,11,12,15, 16,39-56,58-61,64, 67,68,70,73,74,93, 94,101 Donaldson 1971 49,53,58-61 Oswald and Senyk 1977 3,7,11,15,50,57,93 Beaubier and Pierce 1974, Lombard North Group 1975 3,4,7,8,11,12,15, 16,39-56,58-61,64, 67,68,70,73,74,93, 94,101 Baker 1973 Bennett 1977 Crowe 1976 Webber 1974 Crowe et al 1979 ELUC 1978 Resource Analysis Br. 1976 Way 1978 McKenzie-Grieves 1979 Stanek 1979 Jubenville 1976 EPEC 1978 Table 4-2 (continued) HYDROLOGY ice break-up and freeze up water quality and temperature hazards and flooding bank access and quality FISHERIES ed ib i l i t y (species) catch effort WILDLIFE viewing probabil ity (abundance) species composition ^ (uniqueness) 00 hazard/nuisance break-up early May to June; freeze up mid Oct.-Dec. Lake Laberge, 30 mile section clear Upper Yukon moderate s i l t , heavy s i l t below White River, entire r iver co ld , some back bays of Lake Laberge up to 14 C in July currents 3-7knots/hr, most of valley is flood p la in , expect frequent break-up flooding in Lower Yukon and winter flooding in Upper Yukon beach act iv i ty on Lake Laberge, islands and sand bars common from Carmacks downstream River - grayl ing, whitef ish, pike, chum and and chinook salmon Lake Laberge - lake trout, pike, grayl ing, whitefish i l l ega l to catch salmon, grayling in Upper Yukon and in tr ibutar ies in Lower Yukon common l i ke l y to see eagles, waterfowl, bears in spring, and small furbearers Dall sheep (rare), furbearers (common), moose (infrequent), bears (common in spring), bald eagle (common), waterfowl (common) moose closed in Yukon River val ley, bear easi ly shot in spring l i t t l e insect or bear problem Fenco 1974 Herrick 1977 Weagle 1979 Donaldson 1971, Fenco 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974, Donaldson 1971 1-35,38-49,58-61,97-100 1-33,49,58-61 , 97 1,2,5,6,9,10,13,14*. 17,18,19-27,30,32, 34,54,58-63,76,77, 79,80,84-92,96,101 5-8,13-16,20,22-29, 3'.49,58-61,84-92 Resource Anal. 1976,1977 Chess 1979 Welch 1979 Hooper 1979 Branch Walker 1976, Tourism Yukon 1976 29-33,53,78,93 Platts 1979 Donaldson 1971, Fisheries and Marine Service 1978 3,7,11,15,29-33,53, Meyer 1978b, Resource 7 8»93 Anal. Br. 1976,1977 Personal observation Hoefs pers.comm. 1979 Hoefs pers.comm.1979 Personal observation 3,7,11 ,15,38,53, 93,101 35-38, 53 35-38,78 1-18,24-32,35-37,39, 44,49,50-61,64,67, 70,73,93,94 Bastedo 1979 Dept. of Indian and North. Aff . 1973 Canada Land Inventory 1969 Table 4-2 (continued) HISTORIC/ARCHAEOLOGIC state of repair out of 11 s i tes , 2 very good, 4 good, 3 poor, and 2 very poor histor ical value/ 11 s i tes : 1 20/20, 2 16/20, 2 12/20 uniqueness 6 8/20 a c c e s s most s i tes only accessible by water, see Table . * . . , . . 5 - 4 f o r specif ic locations of road or plane a<-Cess private/public ownership land claims unsettled; most abandoned Indian vi l lages s t i l l owned by Indians eg. L i t t l e Salmon, Upper LaBerge, Big Salmon 00 Synergy West 1976, Lisoway 1973 Synergy West 1976, Friesen 1978, Parks Canada, Yukon Dept. of Renewable Resources 1978 Personal observation, Synergy West 1976 George 1979, Beaudin 1979 55,56,77-80,94,95, Baud-Bovy and Lawson 101 1977 Synergy West 1976 4,8,12,16,55,56,77-80,94,95,101 55-57,77-80,94,95, 101 - 87 -mined whe the r each i s a b e n e f i t o r d e t r i m e n t . A s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f Chubb and Bauman's ( 1976 ) a p p r o a c h was used t o t r a n s f o r m a l l d e t r i m e n t a l v a l u e s . V a r i a b l e w e i g h t i n g s f o r each a c t i v i t y were d e -r i v e d f rom a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e . A p p e n d i x T a b l e A4-1 c o n t a i n s the m a t r i x o f w e i g h t e d and t r a n s f o r m e d v a l u e s used t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e s o u r c e ' s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r each a c t i v i t y . Most o f t he w e i g h t i n g s found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were s u b j e c t i v e , h e n c e , o n l y t h o s e a c t i v i -t i e s h a v i n g a b s o l u t e c o n s t r a i n t s t o s u i t a b i l i t y were e l i m i n a t e d . 4 . 3 . 2 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g P r e s e n c e o f F e a t u r e s A t t r a c t i v e t o T o u r i s t s In the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n the c a p a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s t o s u p p o r t v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s was e x a m i n e d . However , knowing t h e C o r r i d o r can p r o v i d e c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s i s not enough , the a b i l i t y o f t he r e s o u r c e s t o a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s a l s o has t o be c o n s i d e r e d . A r e g i o n ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s depends upon t h e abundance o f two t y p e s o f f e a t u r e s : s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s needed f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s such as g o l d f o r g o l d p a n n i n g , and g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h most a c t i v i t i e s , such as n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r c a m p i n g . T h e r e f o r e , t o a s s e s s the C o r r i d o r ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s a l l t he p e r t i n e n t s p e c i f i c and a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s need t o be i n v e n t o r i e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y no s i n g l e method c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e s p e c i f i c and g e n -e r a l f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e - 88 -4-1 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f e a t u r e s used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s came f rom a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f o u r a p p r o a c h e s : (1) s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - e g . Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ( 1 9 6 9 ) , B e a u b i e r and P i e r c e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r anch (1976) (2) v i s u a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s - e g . L i t t o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , T e t l o w and Shep-p a r d ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Z u b e , B r u s h and Fabos (1975) (3) demand mode ls - e g . Ross ( 1 9 7 3 ) , N u t t a l l and Va r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , G e a r -i n g , Swart and Va r (1976) (4) r i v e r r e c r e a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n s - e g . L e o p o l d ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Hooper ( 1 9 7 7 a ) , Chubb and Bauman (1976) The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f g e n e r a l n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s were t a k e n f rom t h e s t u d i e s o f N u t t a l l and Va r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , C h r i s t i a n s e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Baud-Bovy and Lawson (1977) and T e t l o w and Sheppard ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e c i f i c n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s were t a k e n f rom t h e s t u d i e s o f t h e R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B ranch ( 1 9 7 6 ) , B e a u b i e r and P i e r c e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Hooper ( 1 9 7 7 a ) , and Chubb and Bauman (1976) and t h e man-made f e a t u r e s where d e s c r i b e d i n F o r b a t h a ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Baud-Bovy and Lawson ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and Syne rgy West ( 1 9 7 5 ) . E v a l u a t i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n each f a c t o r makes t o a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ' s o v e r a l l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s p r o b l e m a t i c . F o r s c r e e n i n g - 89 -purposes i t was only necessary to determine what act iv i t ies should be eliminated because either essential attractiveness features were lacking or very destructive features were present. Therefore, a simple scoring procedure based on the presence or absence of factors that were required or detrimental to each act iv i ty was used (Urban Research and Development Corporation 1978). The determination of which features were required or detrimental to each act iv ity was based on many sources, the principle ones are: canoeing, rafting, kayaking - Hooper 1977b, Chubb and Bauman 1976, Canada Land Inventory (CLI) 1969 motor boating - above plus Chess 1979, Jaakson et al 1976 sail ing - Supply Inventory Feasibi l i ty Study Task Force 1973 fishing - Chubb and Bauman 1976, Bryan 1979, CLI 1969 hunting - Resource Analysis Branch 1976, CLI 1969 undeveloped t ra i l s - Hendee, Marlow, Catton, Brockman 1968, Ontario Recreation Inventory 1971 camping - Hooper 1977a, Chubb and Bauman 1976, Hendee, Marlow, Cat-ton and Brockman 1968, Canadian Government Office of Tourism 1980 viewing - CLI 1969, Resource Analysis Branch 1976 cottages/lodges - CLI 1969, Epec 1977 developed t ra i l s - Forbatha 1967, Supply Inventory Feasibi l i ty Study Task Force 1973 man-made attractions - Synergy West 1975, Baud-Bovy and Lawson 1977, Forbatha 1967 - 90 -The features which were inventor ied to determine each a c t i v i t y ' s a t t rac t i veness are presented with the resu l t s in Sect ion 4.5 The information in Tables 4-2 and 4-3 about the abundance of each of these features in the Cor r idor was used to evaluate the C o r r i d o r ' s a t t rac t i veness for a c t i v i t i e s . SCREENING METHOD FOR DEMAND FACTORS The purpose of t h i s ana lys is i s to f i l t e r out those a c t i v i t i e s the Cor r idor could supply which are i n f ea s i b l e because of market l i m i t a -t i o n s . The term market i s used in th i s study to mean a group of people who seek a s im i l a r t rave l experience. Conceptual ly , the means for r e l a t i ng market demand to resource cha r a c t e r i s t i c s i s s t ra ight forward (Crandall 1980), London, Crandal l and F i tzgibbons 1977), i t involves the fo l lowing s teps : - Group people in to market types according to t h e i r demographic, economic, soc io log i ca l and t rave l behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - Define each group's preferred vacation types in terms of general experiences or in terms of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r as -soc iated se t t ing and soc ia l cond i t ions . - Compare these vacation types with the a c t i v i t i e s or general ex-periences a region could provide and i den t i f y those markets whose vacation preferences might be s a t i s f i e d by the pa r t i cu l a r r e -sources of the region. - Ident i fy the factors which might constra in these potent ia l markets from v i s i t i n g the reg ion. - 91 -TaMe 4-3 Inventory of Known Attract ions, Ac t i v i t i es and Events in the Study Area Act iv i ty canoeing-day-use -tripping rafting-day-use -tripping Description slow water - Lake Laberge slow water/natural area-r i ve r ; some development L i t t l e Salmon - Minto slow water/developed-1 tour in Dawson entire river-2 tour companies motorboating -day-use -waterskiing Lake Laberge -small craft entire r iver -power boating Lake Laberge and entire r iver -boat tours Minto and Pelly Crossing -Ft. Se lk i rk , Whitehorse -Lake Laberge motorboat tours -sleep on shore 1 tour Whitehorse-Dawson swimming and beach -swimming -SCUBA diving fishing-game f i sh ice f ishing hunting trapping day t r a i l s t r a i l tripping Source(s) Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 camping Lake Laberge, L i t t l e Salmon Lake Laberge 1 f ishing tour-upper Yukon r iver and Lake Laberge waterfowl-entire r iver big game-entire r iver entire r iver hiking-entire r iver cross-country s k i i n g ! dog-sledding / restr icted snowmobiling T to access snowshoeing J points cross-country skiing^)entire dog sledding, / r i ve r snowmobiling, j snowshoeing J . no fac i l i t i es-ent i re r iver primit ive f a c i l i t i e s - see Table 4-6 Burton 1977 Minister of Tourism and Economic Devleopment 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Canadian Gov. Office of Tourism 1976 Burton 1977 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Walker 1976 Mossop 1979 Hoefs 1979 Hoefs 1979, Roberts 1979 Lammers 1979 Burton 1977 Roberts 1979 Donaldson 1971 Parks Canada, Yukon Dept. of Renewable Resources 1978 - 9 2 -Table 4-3 (continued) Act iv i ty camping viewing col lect ing and gathering lodges cottages motel/hotel developed t r a i l s -day-use fest iva ls handicrafts salmon f ish ing/ native foods art ga l ler ies/ museums Description f u l l f a c i l i t i e s - see Table 4-6 Source(s) vegetation landsca i T pe ^ Lake Laberge, Lombard North 1975 30 mile, confluence of Pel ly River hydraulic-30 mile, 5 Finger Rapids histor ic s i tes : numerous sites-abandoned prospectors cabins, wrecked paddlewheelers, old Indian v i l l ages , old machinery archaeological s i tes : numerous s i tes , l i t t l e v i s ib l e evidence entire r iver length-but i l l e g i a l to col lect historic/archaeologic ar t i facts see Table 4-6 Lake Laberge see Table 4-6 horseback riding-Whitehorse cross-country skiing-Whitehorse Whi tehorse-Sourdough Rendezvous-February Dawson-Spring Carnival-: c- - March -Break-up Festival-May -Discovery Days-August craft stores in Dawson and Whitehorse along entire r iver Dawson and Whitehorse Donaldson 1971 Clarke 1978 Berton 1973 Beaudin 1979 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Canadian Gov't Office of Tourism 1976 Canadian Gov't Office of Tourism 1976 Minister of Tourism and and Economic Development 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Devleopment 1980 Wolman 1978 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 workshops/ Whitehorse educational upgrading McPherson 1980 - 9 3 -Table 4-3 (continued) Act iv i ty Description conferences/ Whitehorse conventions outdoor skUV; entire r iver courses sports competitions Whitehorse-Arctic Games, Cross-country Ski Championships Dawson - Gold Panning Champ ionship, Dome Race, Outhouse Race sports complex gambl ing shows/theatres/ shopping eating out gold panning downhill skiing pleasure car driving guided tours picmcmg Whitehorse Dawson Whitehorse and Dawson Whitehorse, Carmacks and Dawson Whitehorse and Dawson Whitehorse Klondike Highway natural history-1 tour of upper Yukon historic/archaeologic-Whitehorse, Dawson and Ft. Selkirk access points to r iver -Whitehorse, Lake Laberge, Carmacks, Minto, Dawson Source(s) Wolman 1978 Cormie 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Canadian Gov't Office of Tourism 1976 Wolman 1978 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Personal observation 1979 - 9 4 -Table 4-3 (continued) Attraction land-form aspect exposure su i t ab i l i t y for ac t i v i t i es canyons rock formations hoodoos viewpoints hydrology attractiveness beaches large surface waters currents/river junctions si te specif ic rapids f i sh runs marshes, f l a t landscape air/water pollution l i ve reconstructions histor ical towns with old architecture Description valley wall orientation: 0-201 km and 583-740 km east or west; 201-583 northeast or southwest r iver opening generally means at least one side of bank gets sun cottaging family boating, canoeing, camping 30 mile section Pelly Basalt, 5 Finger Rapids 30 mile section 5-Finger Rapids, Lake Laberge range 9/35 to 25/35 12 beaches Whitehorse -Dawson Lake Laberge 30 mile section, confluence of Teslin and White Rivers Whitehorse Dam Whitehorse to Laberge, White River-Dawson no a i r po l lu t ion, water unpotable Whitehorse -Lower Laberge Dawson City possibly Dawson City Source(s) Map Interpretation Personal Observation 1979 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Donaldson 1971 Herrick 1977 Personal Observation 1979 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Beaubier and Pierce 1974 Donaldson 1971 5 Finger Rapids, Rink Rapids Donaldson 1971 Walker 1976 Donaldson 1971 Donaldson 1971 Personal Observation 1979 Personal Observation 1979 - 95 -Table 4-3 (continued) Attraction technical spectacles fo lk lore tradit ional dwellings resorts Description no s igni f icant bui ldings, dams, mines etc. native t radi t ions, gold rush, Robert Service, exploration and fur trade history NWMP posts, telegraph l ine cabins, roadhouses, Indian settlements none, possibly Takhini Hotsprings for locals art/cultural events Whitehorse, some in Dawson land use scars coal mine - Carmacks hydro dam - Whitehorse road - 100 km L i t t l e Salmon to Minto l i t t e r evident at major sites along river Sdurce(s) Personal Observation 1979 Berton 1973 McGuire 1977 Berton 1973 Batchelor 1975 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 Parks Canada and Yukon Department of Renewable Resources 1978 Parks Canada and Yukon Department of Renewable Resources 1978 other Whitehorse garbage dump Donaldson 1971 - 9 6 -- Determine the e f f ec t the const ra in ing factors are l i k e l y to have on each market's demand, and in turn on the f e a s i b i l i t y for each vacation type. It i s easy to see how one would screen a c t i v i t i e s on the basis of t h i s conceptual approach. F i r s t , a l l a c t i v i t i e s which do not co r -respond to the preferred vacation types would be e l iminated . Then a l l a c t i v i t i e s not included in the types of vacation which remain a f te r const ra in ts are considered would be e l iminated . This approach was used to determine which a c t i v i t i e s had market f e a s i b i l i t y . Thus the ana lys is involved two separate screening events: - e l iminat ion of a l l a c t i v i t i e s and vacation types except those preferred by potent ia l markets, and - e l iminat ion of preferred a c t i v i t i e s and vacat ion types which are unfeas ib le because of p rac t i ca l cons t r a in t s . 4.4.1 Method fo r Assessing the Preferred Vacation A c t i v i t i e s of a Pa r t i cu l a r Market The ideal way to i den t i f y t o u r i s t s markets for the Yukon River Cor -r idor would be to conduct a market survey that stresses psychographic var iab les and to analyse the data using c lus t e r ana lys i s to a r r i ve at general groupings of t o u r i s t s . Psycho-graphic var iab les inc lude a t t i t u d e , l i f e s t y l e , vacat ion preference, and personal i n te res t s as well as socio-economic - 97 -and demograph i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Hawes 1 9 7 7 , R i t c h i e 1975 , Ragheb 1 9 8 0 ) . M o r e o v e r , t h e s u r v e y s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e p o t e n t i a l t r a v e l l e r s home r a t h e r t han a t t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r because t h e l a t t e r o n l y y i e l d s i n f o r m a t i o n on e x i s t i n g marke t s whereas the f o r -mer p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t s , what t h e p o p u l a -t i o n knows and t h i n k s o f t h e a r e a , and t h e r easons why more p e o p l e do not t r a v e l t o t h e c o r r i d o r ( B o e r j a n 1 9 7 4 ) . As t h i s s t u d y i s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e market g r o u p i n g f o r the s t u d y a re t h o s e d e r i v e d f rom p s y c h o g r a p h i c s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d a t p e o p l e ' s homes. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a s p e c i f i c market s u r v e y f o r the Yukon R i v e r C o r -r i d o r has never been c o n d u c t e d a t p e o p l e ' s homes i n E u r o p e , C a n a d a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r i n any o t h e r l i k e l y r e g i o n o f o r i g i n o f Yukon t r a v e l l e r s , t hus the p o t e n t i a l marke t groups o r marke t segments f o r t h e C o r r i d o r a re l a r g e l y unknown. F u r t h e r m o r e , t o do such a s u r v e y was c o m p l e t e l y beyond t h e t i m e and f i s c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h i s s t u d y . Even the d a t a on e x i s t i n g market segments i s s c a n t a l t h o u g h a 1978 u s e r s u r v e y ( P a rks C a n a d a , Yukon Depar tment o f Renewable R e s o u r c e s 1978b) does r e v e a l t h e o r i g i n , s e x , p a r t y s i z e and pu rpose o f t r a v e l f o r p r e s e n t Yukon R i v e r u s e r s 1 , and a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -t i o n o f 1978 T e r r i t o r i a l v i s i t o r s i s a v a i l a b l e (Depar tment o f T o u r -i sm and Economic Deve lopment 1 9 7 9 ) . Because o f t h i s l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s and marke t segments used i n t h e s t u d y had t o be o b t a i n e d by an a l t e r n a t i v e means. *But the r e s u l t s a re s u s p e c t and s h o u l d be used w i t h c a u t i o n ( T u r i c k , p e r s o n a l commun i c a t i o n 6 J u l y 1979) - 98 -This alternative approach was to extrapolate market segmentation findings from studies of other regions to the Yukon River Corridor. The best segmentation findings for this purpose were ones for Canada which were based on surveys conducted in countries from which Yukon tourists are likely to originate. As Chapter Three explained, most travellers to the Yukon River and Yukon Territory come from four places: the Yukon Territory, the rest of Canada, the United States and Europe. The overall composi-tion of overseas visitors to Canada is slightly different: travel-lers from the United Kingdom, France and Japan are much more common (Statistics Canada 1979). The conclusion drawn from the above was that this analysis should examine markets from the Yukon, Canada, the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom and France. The Japanese market was not studied despite its phenomenal growth in Canada (267% between 1972 and 1977) because Japanese employees are expected to have 5 days or less vacation time for the foreseeable future (Savard 1978), while overseas visitors to the Yukon stay an average of 33.3 nights in Canada (Statistics Canada 1979). The findings of three different marketing studies were used to de-fine the market segments and preferred vacation types for people from Canada, Germany, France, United Kingdom and the United States (Air Canada 1974, 1975; Canadian Government Office of Tourism 1974). These segments are summarized in the results section. The potential demand these market segments could generate for the activities and - 99 -v a c a t i o n t y p e s t h e c o r r i d o r can s u p p l y was c o n c l u d e d f rom t h e a n a l y -s i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x 4 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no s t u d y has been made o f t h e market segments w i t h i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . M o r e o v e r , t h e Canad i an v a c a t i o n s e g m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t s ( A i r Canada 1975) canno t be used as a b a s i s f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e Yukon r e s i d e n t ' s demand f o r two r e a s o n s : (1 ) S i n c e r e s i d e n t use o f the c o r r i d o r i s p o s s i b l e f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s as w e l l as ma jor v a c a t i o n s , t he ma rke t s e g m e n t a t i o n has t o encompass l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r f o r both s h o r t and l o n g t i m e p e r i o d s ; and (2 ) Yukone r s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom C a n a d i a n s as a w h o l e ; t h e y a r e y o u n g e r , more a c t i v e i n o u t d o o r p u r s u i t s , and more l i k e l y t o be male ( B u r t o n 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e r e f o r e , e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e Y u k o n ' s p o t e n t i a l demand r e q u i r e d u t i l -i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s e g m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t s ; i d e a l l y , f rom a s t u d y wh i ch c o v e r s a l l t y p e s o f l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r and wh i ch s u r v e y e d a p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e Y u k o n . Many o v e r a l l l e i s u r e t y p o l o g i e s have been d e r i v e d f o r v a r i o u s p o p u -l a t i o n s (see f o r example D i t t o n , Gooda le and Johnson 1 9 7 5 ; B u r t o n 1 9 7 1 ; Romsa 1 9 7 3 ; London , C r a n d a l l and F i t z g i b b o n s 1 9 7 7 ; P e r r e a u l t , Darden and Darden 1 9 7 7 ; and Duncan 1 9 7 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r i t y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o v e r a g e o f l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r , two o t h e r c r i t e r i a were used t o chose a s u i t a b l e t y p o l o g y : g r o u p i n g s s h o u l d be based on p s y c h o g r a p h i c measu rements , and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s - 100 -s h o u l d be t h e method used t o d e v e l o p g r o u p i n g s (Beaman 1 9 7 5 ) . No t y p o l o g y c o u l d be f ound w h i c h had been d e v e l o p e d f o r a p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e Y u k o n ' s . P e r r e a u l t , Darden and D a r d e n ' s (1977) v a c a -t i o n l i f e s t y l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n met t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a and was chosen t o d e s c r i b e t h e p o s s i b l e segments o f t h e Yukon m a r k e t . The p e o p l e s u r v e y e d by P e r r e a u l t , Darden and Darden (1977) were f rom t h e S o u t h e a s t e r n and G rea t Lakes s e c t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; t h u s , t h e p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e Y u k o n ' s . I t was assumed t h a t t h e g e n e r a l l e i s u r e g r o u p i n g s were t h e same f o r t h e Yukon as t h e P e r r e a u l t , Darden and Darden (1977) s t u d y but t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n each g roup was d i f f e r e n t . E s t i m a t i o n o f Yukon r e s i d e n t p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l demand was done by s u r m i z i n g o v e r a l l l e i s u r e p a t t e r n s f rom o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f i n d i n g s (see T a b l e 4 - 4 ) , h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s e n t l e i s u r e p a t t e r n s and P e r r e a u l t , Darden and D a r d e n ' s (1977) l e i s u r e c a t e g o r i e s and e x t r a p o l a t i n g p r e s e n t p o p u a l t i o n t r e n d s . Some r a t h e r h e r o i c a s s u m p t i o n s had t o be made t o a r r i v e a t t h e s e e s t i m a t e s , t h e y a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x F o u r . 4 . 4 . 2 Method f o r A s s e s s i n g t h e A f f e c t o f C o n s t r a i n t s on Demand P r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s such as amount o f f r e e t i m e , o r c o s t can change p e o p l e ' s v a c a t i o n p a t t e r n s g r e a t l y f rom what t h e y i d e a l l y p r e f e r . The most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s t o t o u r i s m demand a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g a c c o r d i n g t o M c i n t o s h ( 1 9 7 7 ) , B u r t o n ( p e r s . comm. 1981) and A r c h e r (1976 c i t e d i n MTB 1 9 8 0 ) : - 101 -Table 4-4 Summary of Yukon Resident Prof i le and Outdoor Recreation Demand (from Burton 1977) Population Prof i le - young - 50% of the population 15-35 years old - 57% male - 70% married - English-speaking - 75% have l ived 3 or more years in the Yukon - 41.7% have l ived over 10 years in the Yukon - mobile population - 60% own or use cars, 40% own or use pick-up trucks - 77.3% own or have access to f ishing tackle - 61.5% own or have access to camping equipment - 58.5% own or have access to hunting equipment Outdoor Recreation Demand Summer: -generally more involved in outdoor recreation than the Canadian population as a whole, but the majority of Yukoners do not part ic ipate; a small percentage of the population participates intensively, accounting for the bulk of demand -over 50% participation in : f i sh ing , sightseeing/nature study/photography, and driving for pleasure/picnicking -50-85% did not participate in other ac t i v i t i es such as: camping, hunting, canoeing, hik ing, t r a i l biking -67% of recreationists participate with the same people every time -except for camping, hunting and motorboating over 50% of the of the participation is day-use Winter: -trends as above; part icipation rates low, people who do participate do so regularly -participate alone in a c t i v i t i e s , especially snowshoemg -over 70% participation is day-use -lower part icipation rates in winter than summer Vacation: -25% taken in the winter, 52% in summer — - . _ . i I- r\rJ _ _C „.J-„.. A-.4-4nnr t i L a n i n t r i o V l l k n n  of primary and 50% of seco dary vacations taken in the Yukon -60-75% of Yukoners take vacations each year -43% take 1 vacation, 15-19% take 2/year -almost i the primary vacations are longer than three weeks Occupation (%) Education (%) 11.9 Home-makers 9.7 Cler ical 16.4 Sales and Service 12.1 Construction and Processing 7.7 Scientists 7.6 Managerial 4.4 Unemployed 8.2 Grade 1 - 8 32.0 Grade 9-11 35.0 Grade 12 Or 13 9.4 Non-university Diploma 9.4 Bachelors Degree 1.7 Masters, Ph.D. - 102 -p r i c e - o f u s i n g t h e s e r v i c e o r o b t a i n i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e - o f c o m p e t i n g goods and d e s t i n a t i o n s a c c e s s - each i n g e t t i n g t o d e s t i n a t i o n p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n - h e a l t h , f a m i l y s t a g e t i m e - l e n g t h o f t i m e t o r e a ch d e s t i n a t i o n and r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r -t a k e e x p e r i e n c e l a c k o f knowledge - amount and a c c u r a c y o f i n f o r m a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s t u d y a r e a p e r t i n e n t t o t h e s e f i v e f a c t o r s i s c o m p i l e d i n T a b l e 4 - 5 ; t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e i n c l u d e d under a c c e s s . No p r i c e s a r e g i v e n f o r c o m p e t i n g d e s t i n a t i o n s and p r o d u c t s , t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d beyond t h e s cope o f t h i s s t u d y . 4 . 5 RESULTS OF SCREENING ANALYSIS The a c t i v i t i e s e l i m i n a t e d because o f r e s o u r c e s u i t a b i l i t y c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4 - 6 . T a b l e 4 - 7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m a t r i x used t o e v a l u a t e t h e C o r r i d o r ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r each a c t i v i t y . A c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g e i t h e r a • o r Q i n t h e m a t r i x were e l i m i n -a t e d . In g e n e r a l , t h e m a t r i x e l i m i n a t e d c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s f rom s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f t h e C o r r i d o r r a t h e r t h a n f rom t h e e n t i r e C o r r i d o r . F o r i n s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g w i l d e r n e s s were e x c l u d e d f rom a r o u n d t h e t h r e e s e t t l e m e n t s o f W h i t e h o r s e , Dawson and C a r m a c k s . The a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g t h e most a t t r a c t i v e appea l were d i s p e r s e d o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ones ( e g . c a n o e i n g , c a m p i n g , t r a i l h i k -i n g and f i s h i n g ) and a c t i v i t i e s u t i l i z i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s and l o c a l c u l t u r e ( e g . v i e w i n g s i t e s and e x h i b i t s , g o l d p a n n i n g , and e a t i n g n a t i v e f o o d s ) . A l t h o u g h t h e C o r r i d o r p r e s e n t l y has ve r y few - 103 -Table 4-5 The Type of Constraints and Information Used to Evaluate the Affect of Constraints on Demand Constraints to Demand Known Information on Constraints Cost (1) to get to Yukon Ai r to Whitehorse from Vancouver/Edmonton Toronto San Francisco Amsterdam 1981 Fares1  Regular Charter (Cdn $) " 340 854 646 2216 (Cdn $) 221 457 389 1159 Ferry Deck (CcfnT) 45 Port Hardy- 2 Prince Rupert Prince Rupert-Skagway3(US$) Seattle-Skagway3(US$) Bus . Vancouver-Whitehorse Edmonton-Whitehorse4 82 138 1981 Fares  Cabin/Person Car (Cdn$) (CHn$) 9-20 75 51(+82) 95(+138) 1981 Fares (Cdn$) 110.60 95.35 Train (2) to travel in Yukon Skagway-Whi tehorse Toronto-Vancouver Car 1981 Fares (Cdn$) 148 (day coach) 208-230 (berth) Edmonton-Whitehorse motorhome(mh)-240, big car 7 (bc)-95, small car(sc)-55 Vancouver-Whitehorse mh - 320, be - 125, sc - 75 1980 Fares (Cdn$) Air o Whi tehorse-Dawson Road car rental/day^ gas-Whi tehorse-Dawson^ 239 (return) 1981 Fares (Cdn$) ?3.50 15*/km 15(sc) - 65(mh) - 104 -Table 4-5 (continued) (2) to travel in Yukon (continued) (3) services and ac t i v i t i es in Yukon (4) examples of package tours Boat canoe rental 14 days shipping canoe from Dawson-Whitehorse11 l n 1980 Rates (Cdn$) T76 30-45 Motel/hote l 1 2 Res taurants 1 1 ' 1 2 Guided canoe/ raft tours Guided boat tours Guided f ishing-boat and -.j horseback Horse t ca i l r iding 1980 Rates (Cdn$) usually 35-60/night for 2 people fast foods-hamburger/ Chicken 3-5 f u l l course dinner in Dawson 15 and up 40-65/day/person 160 approx/day/person 175 approx/day/person Gold panning Museum Camping ] i H hour r iver 12 5/hour/person 0-5/person 0-3/person 0-6/day/site 12 a) 14 days fer ry , bus, a i r . - Seattle, Whitehorse, Fairbanks, Anchorage, Juneau, Sea t t l e 1 4 b) 8 days ship,bus,air-Vancouver, Whitehorse, Juneau, S i tka , Vancouver'^ c) 14 days a i r ,bus, ship - Vancouver, Yellowknife, Inuvik, Dawson, Whitehorse.,. Skagway, Vancouver'5 d) 16 days bus -Calgary, Alaska Hwy, Whitehorse, Dawson, Fairbanks, Anchorage, Valdez, Skagway, Whitehorse, f l y to Edmonton'6 1980 Rates 1350 (US$) 1155-1256 (US$) 1700 (Cdn$) 995 (Cdn$) - 105 -Table 4-5 (continued) (4) examples of package tours (continued) (5) construction e) 22 days bus, camping -Calgary, Whitehorse, Dawson, Fairbanks, Skagway, Prince,-, Rupert, Calgary 1 ' Service road 1 8 Water mainl9 Motel/hotel/ r eso r t s^ House/ Condominium 1980 Rates 740 (Cdn$) 1980 Rates (Cdn$) 70/m 365/m generally high capital costs (up to 90% fixed assets) and long pay-back time 1640-2150/m2 Access Type Ai r Road Ferry/ Train Watercraft on Yukon River Road: Whitehorse to River Access Points Personal Limitations (1) poor health (2) family l ifestage Distance (km) Vancouver-Whitehorse 1487 Toronto-Whitehorse 4218 Amsterdam-Whitehorse 8468 Vancouver-Whitehorse 2647 Edmonton-Whitehorse 1975 Seattl e-Skagway-Whitehorse Whitehorse-Carmacks 325 Whitehorse-Dawson 740 Lake Laberge L i t t l e Salmon Carmacks Yukon Crossing Minto Dawson 34 196 164 200 238 536 see Table 4-10 see Table 4-io me Travel Ti 3 hr 5-8 hr 11-18 hr 3-7 days 2-5 days 3 days 7 days 10-16 days 0.5 hr 2 hr 1.5-2 hr 2-2.5 hr 2.5 hr 1 day - 106 -Table 4-5 (continued) Lack of Knowledge USA knowledge of Canada limited and regional; most l i k e l y people to know of the Yukon are those l i v ing nearest ( ie. Alaska and Pacif ic Northwest States). In 1974 study only 3% of U.S. population knew of the Yukon.21 Canada - Yukon ranked 8th out of 10 Canadian regions and the USA as a possible vacation destination, but 26-31% of the people in Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto and Halifax do know about and have an interest in the Yukon and ranked i t as 1st or 2nd.22 Sources: (1) C P . A i r , Sales Off ice, Vancouver, personal communication, 14 February 1981 (2) B.C. Ferry Corporation, Passenger Information, Vancouver, personal communication, 14 February 1981 (3) Alaska Ferry Corporation, Passenger Information, Seattle, personal communication, 10 March 1981 -(4) Greyhound Bus Lines, Bus Information, Vancouver, personal communication, 14 February 1981 (5) Whitepass Transportation L td . , Rates and Schedules, personal communication, 19 February 1981 (6) Via Rail Canada Inc., Passenger Information, personal communication, 14 February 1981 (7) Calculated Using: - Gas consumption values for different vehicles from Ministry of Transportation Information - Yukon gas price of $0.39/1 (Lammers pers. comm. 1981) - B.C. gas price of $0.35/1 (pump price March 1981) (8) Atlas Independent 1980 (9) Budget Rent-A-Car System, Out of Town Reservations and Information, personal communication, 19 February 1981 (10) Goldrush River Tours Inc. 1980 (11) Personal observation 1979 (12) Tourism Yukon 1980 (13) Minister of Tourism and Economic Development 1980 (14) Knightly Tours 1980 (15) Horizon Holidays 1980 (16) Wiebe Tours 1980 (17) Canadian Camping Adventure 1980 (18) Brian La i rd, personal communication 1980 (19) Baud-Bovy and Lawson 1980 (20) MacArthur, personal communication, 9 June 1980 (21) Canadian Government Office of Tourism 1974 (22) Pr isco l l 1979 - 107 -T a b l e 4-6 , A c t i v i t i e s E l i m i n a t e d and A c t i v i t i e s o f H i g h e s t P o t e n t i a l on the B a s i s o f R e s o u r c e S u i t a b i l i t y (See A p p e n d i x 4 f o r R e s o u r c e C r i t e r i a -A c t i v i t y S u i t a b i l i t y M a t r i x ) P r ime R e a s o n ( s ) A c t i v i t i e s E l i m i n a t e d W h i t e w a t e r c a n o e i n g / r a f t i n g / k a y a k i n g S a i l i n g e ve r ywhe re b u t Lake L a b e r g e Sw immimg/sunba th ing/ w a t e r s k i i n g R e q u i r e f r e q u e n t s e c t i o n s r a t e d c l a s s I I and I I I by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l W h i t e w a t e r R a t i n g Sys tem (Hooper 1 9 7 7 ) . E n t i r e Yukon R i v e r i s c l a s s I, e x c e p t f o r 5 F i n g e r R a p i d s w h i c h i s c l a s s I I . C u r r e n t , s h a l l o w n e s s o f r i v e r , n a r rowness o f c h a n n e l and poo r w i n d s . P o s s i b l e i n Lake L a b e r g e . C o l d w a t e r , c u r r e n t s t h r o u g h o u t . May be p o s s i b l e i n back bays o f Lake L a b e r g e i n mid-summer. Sk in/SCUBA d i v i n g V i e w i n g - w a t e r f a l l s T u r b i d w a t e r , c u r r e n t and c o l d ; r i v e r r e j e c t e d b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e i n Lake L a b e r g e . No n o t a b l e h y d r a u l i c . f e a t u r e s e x c e p t 5 F i n g e r R a p i d s ( w h i c h w o u l d be c l a s s 3 o r 4 i n t h e CL I R a t i n g ) . A c t i v i t i e s w i t h S e r i o u s P r o b l e m s B u i l t t r a i l s f o r t r i p p i n g : r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s , m o t o r -c y c l e s B u i l t f a c i l i t y a c t i v i t i e s i e . # 7 6 , 7 9 , 8 0 , 8 4 - 9 2 l i s t e d i n T a b l e 5-1 S h o r t n e s s o f s e a s o n , low t o l e r a n c e o f l a n d , c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . F l o o d h a z a r d , c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s w i t h Some P o t e n t i a l Day-use motor b o a t i n g Mo to r b o a t t r i p p i n g - l a r g e b o a t C o l d w a t e r , c u r r e n t s r e d u c e p o t e n t i a l D i f f i c u l t t o have permanent p i e r s , o r a n c h o r a g e because o f c u r r e n t s and f l o o d h a z a r d . S h a l l o w w a t e r i s a p r o b l e m f o r l a r g e c r a f t . - 108 -T a b l e 4-6 ( c o n t i n u e d ) . A c t i v i t i e s w i t h Some  P o t e n t i a l ( c o n t i n u e d ) H u n t i n g - w a t e r f o w l - b i g game A c c o m o d a t i o n - p r i m i t i v e and f u l l s e r v i c e c a m p i n g , l o d g e s and c o t t a g e s - m o t e l / h o t e l P r ime R e a s o n ( s ) S h o r t s e a s o n r e d u c e s p o t e n t i a l , moose r a r e ; b u t bea r common i n s p r i n g . F l o o d h a z a r d , c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , s h o r t n e s s o f s e a s o n . F l o o d h a z a r d , c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , s h o r t n e s s o f s e a s o n i f dependen t on m a r k e t s a t t r a c t e d by r e s o u r c e based a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s w i t h H i g h e s t  P o t e n t i a l C a n o e i n g and r a f t i n g - , s l o w / f l a t w a t e r (day-use and t r i p p i n g ) n a t u r a l a r e a Sma l l c r a f t t r i p p i n g F i s h i n g - a l l t y p e s W i l d e r n e s s t r a i l a c t i v i t i e s (day-use and t r i p p i n g ) -h i k i n g , c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g , dog s l e d d i n g , s n o w m o b i l i n g , snowshoe ing W i l d e r n e s s camping V i e w i n g - v e g e t a t i o n , l a n d fo rms - w i 1 d l i f e -w a t e r f o w l - h i s t o r i c s i t e s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n - n a t u r a l h i s t o r y - h i s t o r i c / a r c h a e o l o g i c C u l t u r a l e v e n t s -sa lmon f i s h i n g , n a t i v e f o o d s , • smok ing sa lmon N a t u r a l n e s s and f l a t w a t e r p r o m i n e n t a t t r i b u t e s o f c o r r i d o r . A c c e s s i b l e b a n k s , n a v i g a b l e by s m a l l c r a f t . S p e c i e s a b u n d a n t , r e l a t i v e ease-in • c a t c h i n g . Land s u i t a b l e , l o n g days i n summer, abundance o f w i l d a r e a s . W i n t e r a c t i v i t i e s b e n e f i t f r o m e x t e n d e d s e a s o n . Abundance o f w i l d a r e a s . Abundance o f w i l d l a n d . W a t e r f o w l r e l a t i v e l y numerous, Numerous s i t e s . Same r e a s o n s as g i v e n above Abundance o f sa lmon and h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s . - 109 -T a b l e 4-7: R e s o u r c e F e a t u r e S c o r e s Used t o E v a l u a t e C o r r i d o r ' A t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r - A c t i v i t i e s . S c o r e s b d r e s o u r c e and a t t r a c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m T a b l i s 4-ana 4 - 3 . CULTURAL AND BXIITACZ RESOURCES >-O O U < (J CC _ o cc J2 " < £ S o o u & W I. o tn < y 3 H 2 co UJ cc Ul 2 5 5 e lei a u V% M < J " • 2 Ss5 t " 1 3 as O tn *t i— 8 z ?: s j es < ! 5 2 <j i ^  S "J •93 $2 3 H o • > mt r-33 DEVELOPED RESOURCES ACTIVITIES FROM TABLE 4-1 CANOEING AND RAFTING: - FLAT WATER - NATURAL - DEVELOPED - • A A a • - • BB BUNTING: - WATERFOWL - BIC CAKE - SHALL CAKE TRAFPIMC: UNDEVELOPED TRAILS: - -• • • • •••• • -B-B-B-- -BBBB • ••• • BIKING - CROSS COCNTIT - a B- BB SKI INC - DOC SLEDDING - • B- - BB - SNOWHOBILINC • B - - -- • B - 5NOWSBOEINC • B - - ~ - • • CAKPINC: • B - - - • B - PRISTINE - H D O i m - FULL SERVICE •o A -• • • • a* • -• B • B VIEWINCl — - VEGETATION - LANDFORMS - CEOLOCIC FEATURES - VILDLIPE/FISB - BISTORIC/ARCHAEOLOCIC \\ -• a • • mm UM mm mm B-B-B-B-- -SITES ATTENDINC: • A A - AA A • 3ANEICRAFT EXHIBITS - NATIVE FOODS AND - - A - A T A SALMON riSBINC _ _ _ - ART CALLER!ES AND " MUSEUMS - NATIVE SHOW - WORKSHOPS o o O O A - AA AA A A - SPECIAL COURSES _ - CONFERENCES m _ - * - VACATION CAMPS _ - CONVENTIONS' _ - SPORTS COMPETITIONS _ - SPORTS COMPLEXES GAMBLING _ _ _ THEATRE SBOUS _ _ * DIHINC OUT £3 s3 P U Z </) 5 < 8 t tn _ x S u i S< S < H O = 3, 33! BBBB ... B«B BBBB B*B BBBB • • B BBBB B*B BBBB a«a BBBB • « B BBBB B»B BBBB B«B BBBB l « l BBBB B*B BBBB B • B BBBB — • » • — o ::6?::: -o 16: • •• ••• - •• ©-• •- • •- • •- • ••• ••-BB* -•• • •• ••• • •• ••• - •• ACTIVITIES ELIMINATED PROM CERTAIN PARTS OP COR1HWB • ESSENTIAL FACTOR ABSENT B MAJOR NEGATIVE FACTOR PRESENT ACTIVITIES WITH DRAWBACKS LN CERTAIN PARTS OF COKKXDOt O BENEFICIAL FACTOR ABSENT • MINOR NECATIVE- FACTOR PRESENT ACTIVITIES MOST SUITED TO CERTAIN PARTS OF CORRIDOR • ESSENTIAL FACTOR PRESENT A BENEFICIAL FACTOR PRESENT • NEGATIVE FACTOR ABSENT wanxsoRst ONLT HAS F A C I L I T I E S FOR CROSS COUNTRT SKI C O M P E T I T I O N S . - 110 -Table 4-7 ( c o n t i n u e d ) ATTRACTION ELEMENTS OP NATURAL RESOURCES ACTIVITIES FROM TABU 4-1 >-O o _ i 2 F- M til! O X He o £ B £2 £ o *5 *-* (-* O M ea fee Se & i £ 3 < -1 K S < B B C S o 3 i | B I/J u. o n 5 «* O << *: v, »- — **J u: >• 3 K < Z U X H > (C f J Q - - - — — ? ? E S = S : e 23ieS3S5 „ >• < v, 5E « x &S 2 5 ' ' ' ' W) UJ M x S U .. •!! tr a " r « — * i i i S ^ L . S c -SB CANOEING AND urrac i - FLAT WATER - NATURAL - DEVELOPED RAYARINC . FLAT UATEE DAT HOTORBOATINC BOAT CRUISIKC SAILINC (LABERCE) RANI PISHING BOAT nSBIHC icr FISHINC ICE SKATING BUKTIKC: - WATERFOWL - B1C CAME - SHALL CAKE TRAPPIHC UNDEVELOPED TRAILS: - HIK1NC - CROSS COCXTET SKIING - DOC SLEDDINC - SHOVHOBILINC - SNOWSHOEIHC CAMPING: - FBISTINZ - FRIHTTIVE - FULL SERVICE VIEVmC: - VISITATION - LAtDFOUS - CEOLCCIC FEATURES - WILnLIPE/FlSN - BISTORIC/ ARCBAEOLOGIC SITES COLLECTTJtC AMD GATHERING LODCE5 COTTACES DEVELOPED TRAILS: - HORSEBACK UDIHC - RECREATION VEHICLES - BIKING - MOTOXCTCLINC * CROSS • cororrsT SKIINC - SSOWHDBILIOC ATTEND TUG: - NATIVE FOOD AND SALMON FISHINC CULDED TOORSs • NATURE - BZRITACt - CULTURAL COLD FANNINC PICNICINC DOVNHILL 'SKIINC TOBOCGAmtmc CAB DRIVDiC :8: • -o-•-o-• -o -::86 ::8: : : 8 : • -o-• -o-• -o-A - O -•-o-• iO-•»o-•*o-• A O -•-o-: : 8 : •-o-: : 8 : : : 8 : • -o-::8: •O A A A • O A . . A O A -- - A -. - A- -A A l Q A A AO A A AO ' - A 1 - A : 8 -A — o -o- • — o — o o : : : 6 o : i : 8 A OA O • • A A A A A o • AO-A- -A - -A A - . . . . A - A . . . . A - - . . . . A - . . . . . A . - . . . . A- A . - A A Q O T -T -• --66 A - - - T - - - • -- T- . . . . 66  A -• A A A A A . • A . AA — A A A # # AA - A A A 0 # - A A A A A - • - A . . . A A A A A A . . . . A A A . . . . A A . A A -A A . A . -AA8O Hi O O O O A i . . . . . A : 8 : A O A A O A A • - - A • 81:: - A A Q O -- -• •- --o -o •o — o - A .-A • -A -o-• - T --o-• o . o-o - O -•A A - - • • - • • - I l l -r e s o r t de ve l opmen t s and u rban a t t r a c t i o n s t h e b u i l t f a c i l i t y a c t i v i -t i e s dependent on t h e s e f e a t u r e s such as v a c a t i o n camps were no t e l i m i n a t e d i n t h e m a t r i x because t h e y c o u l d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y be d e v e l -oped i n f u t u r e . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g b u i l t a t t r a c t i o n s d e -pends upon marke t demand; t h u s t h e demand s c r e e n i n g s t e p was r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r e l i m i n a t i n g b u i l t f a c i l i t y a c t i v i t i e s . T a b l e 4-8 summar izes t h e marke t segments and p o s s i b l e v a c a t i o n t y p e s f o r p e o p l e f rom C a n a d a , Germany, F r a n c e , U n i t e d Kingdom and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; t h e f i n d i n g s a r e f rom t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m a r k e t i n g s t u d i e s ( A i r Canada 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 ; C a n a d i a n Government O f f i c e o f T o u r -i sm 1 9 7 4 ) . A l s o , t h e t a b l e d e s c r i b e s t h e p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l d e -mand f o r each v a c a t i o n t y p e i n t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . These d e -mand e s t i m a t e s were c o n c l u d e d f rom t h e a n a l y s i s o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x F o u r . The A i r Canada s t u d i e s ( 1 9 7 4 , 1975) r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a g i v e n v a c a t i o n t y p e c o u l d appea l i n v a r y i n g amounts t o more t h a n one g roup o f p e o -p l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e Canad i an and European p e o p l e g r o u p i n g s i n T a b l e 4-8 a r e not meant t o l i n e - u p w i t h t h e v a c a t i o n t y p e s and d e -mand a s s e s s m e n t s ; co lumn t h r e e , v a c a t i o n t y p e p r e f e r e n c e , i n d i c a t e s t o w h i c h v a c a t i o n t y p e s each p e o p l e g roup i s l i n k e d . The C a n a d i a n Government O f f i c e o f T o u r i s m (1974) s t u d y does not e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e v a c a t i o n t y p e s a p p e a l . I n s t e a d , a g e n e r a l v a c a t i o n t y p e i s d e s -c r i b e d f o r each p e o p l e g r o u p ; t h u s , i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e v a c a t i o n t y p e and demand co lumns f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p o r t i o n o f T a b l e 4-8 does c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e a d j a c e n t p e o p l e g r o u p i n g . Lifestyle Group  and % of Population Table 4-8 Evaluation of the Corridor's Demand Potential for Different Market Segments from Canada, U.S.A. and Europe. (Market segments and vacation types are from Air Canada (1974,1975) and Canadian Government Office of Tourism (1974) studies). 0-no potential-resources or cultural features not available, *-possible potential i f fac i l i t ies for this type of tourism developed. Need to check feas ib i l i ty of building these f a c i l i t i e s , P-def1nite potential based on existing demand, P,*-demand potential for existing types of use, possible additional potential from development of other types of use compatible with Vacation type) (Key: Description CANADA Extravagant Customers 18% Nature People 20% Are predominantly female, tend to have higher than medium household incomes, and include a l l age groups. An appealing vacation would emphasize luxury, service, pampering and clothes in places like Europe, Hawaii and the Caribbean. Tend to be young, unmarried, and well-educated. They want to go to new and different places to avoid schedules and routine, and to experience the universe generally without the usual concern about the usual comforts. Vacation Type Preference Hot Winter Peace and Quiet Aesthetic Appreciation Inexpensively Active Vacation Type and % of  Population to which it Appeals Aesthetic Appreciation 22% Peace and Quiet 20% Vacation Type  Descriptions A broadening,cultural educational experience at historic places; appeals mostly to well-educated people and those 1n professional or managerial occupations. Present Demand  for Vacation Type Demand Potential  for Development  of Vacation Type In 1978 approx. 26,500 bus, r a i l , air and auto (non-52% camping) travellers who were not visit ing relatives stayed 1n Whitehorse and Dawson2 P.' Peaceful, quiet, and relaxing in a country setting; appeals to people in middle age and to those with less than average discretionary income.. 20% of river t raf f ic in 1979, 360-650 people/year', 15% of autocampers at provincial 69% parks along the river in ' 1978, approx. 2,400 people/year2. Inexpensively Active (see following page) P laysters Are p r imar i l y young Hot 23% males Involved 1n the Winter ac t i ve pursu i t o f Inexpensively sensual p leasure. A Ac t i ve vacat ion for them would need to be r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive, but swinging, modern, and a c t i v e , f ea tur ing no soc i a l values other than fun. Cautious Tend to be o l d e r , less Grand Homebodies a f f l u e n t , less wel l- Hotel 39% educated, and less Re la t ives concentrated 1n urban and areas. They want Fr iends sa f e t y , secur i t y and a p e r f e c t l y pred ic tab le environment on t he i r vacat ion without any new exper iences. EUROPE (Germany, France, U.Kr (In to ta l there are 15 l i f e s t y l e groups, only those re la ted to vacat ion types that have a potent ia l are given below) Germany Cautious- More female, under 35, do L iberated not l i k e to take chances, 25% job secur i t y important. Outdoor Discover ing Poss ib ly Peaceful German Ho te l , and Grand Hotel Luxury Inexpensively The low cos t , ac t i ve Act ive fun vacat ion good 9% for meeting people; appeals moit to males and young people. • Hot A vacat ion in a hot Winter c l imate to get away 19% from winters , l i e on a beach and be pampered; appeals both to luxury and to fun seekers. Grand The luxury vacat ion , Hotel providing entertainment, 19% good food , and excitement; appeals both to luxury and fun seekers who have higher incomes. Relat ives The family-centered and vaca t ion , f u l l of Friends f a m i l i a r , f r i e n d l y 12% and inexpensive experiences; appeals most to older people who are not wel l-educated and have modest Incomes. Outdoor Cook over open f i r e , Discovering experience wilderness 15-21% p i c n i c , tour caves, d r i ve more than 1,000 m i l e s , dr ink from a stream, camp in a tent unusual , f i s h , l i v e with a fore ign fami l y , s e l f ca te r . P.* 0 0 0 0 In 1978 approx. 5,400 P-1n bus, a i r , r a i l , and proport ion t r a ve l l e r s came to to .. Whitehorse and Dawson populat ion to v i s i t f r i ends growth and r e l a t i v e s . -19% of r i v e r t r a f f i c P in 1979, 285-475 people/year -2% of auto campers at Carmacks, Minto, Whitehorse and Dawson parks in 1978. approx. 500 people/year. I cr-upper Crust-with Taste 20.5% France Young/Modern Living 21% Upper Crust 16% Cautious Spender 21% U.K. Routine Family-Minded 21% Better educated, high readers of informed publications, l ike antiques, sportscars, looking attractive. Single, under 24 years old, impulsive, l ike sportscars and science f ic t ion. Better educated. Better educated, l ike new areas, rather spenu on travel than car, travel without children, ambitious, more female. Married, job security important, exercise regulari ly, read consumer reports, high T.V. watchers. Family centred, children come f i r s t in holiday decisions, day and l i f e orderly, concern over health and nutrition Active Tourist Grand Hotel Luxury Outdoor Discovering Outdoor Discovering Grand Hotel Luxury Active Sunshine Active Sunshine Peaceful French Hotel Possibly Outdoor Discovering Peaceful French Hotel Outdoor Discovering Family Hotel Vis i t friends and relatives Active Tourist Family Seaside Active Tourist •18-24% Peaceful European Hotel 15-19% Gourmet restaurants, famous people, broadening  educational, exciting, nightclubs, fun, dancing, historical interest  abroad. Speak language, warm and sunny, l ie on a beach, swim, comfortable accomodation free from s t r i fe , able to drive there. -12% of r a i l , bus and air travellers in 1978 stayed in Whitehorse or Dawson, approx. 8,000 people/year. -2% of non-camping auto travellers stayed in Whitehorse or Dawson in 1978, approx. 640 people/year. Grand Gourmet restaurants, Hotel excellent service, Luxury luxurious, good 10-21% entertainment, theatres, nightclubs, shopping. Visit Vis i t relatives, stay Friends in friends' home, v is i t and friends, watch T.V. Get to know husband/ wife better, get to know family better, good weather, able to sunbathe and swim, fun, go dancing Similar to active tourist but also expect to sunbathe al l day and have good weather. Progressive Modern m Male Outlook 20% Upper Crust-with Taste 20% Better educated, heavy readers of upper c lass pub l i c a t i ons , l i b e r a l outlook - i e . support career women, a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s , independence of w i f e , d i s l i k e dress codes, s t r i c t law enforcement, l i k e fore ign t r a v e l , v i s i t i n g non-English speaking count r ies . Under 34, enjoy sports on T .V . and watching opposite sex, heavy newspaper readers, f i n a n c i a l l y ambitious Well educated, l i k e new des t i na t i ons , above average income, l i k e sportscars and ant iques. Outdoor Discover ing Poss ib ly V i s i t Friends and Re lat ives/ Family Seaside Grand Hotel Luxury Outdoor Discovery Act ive Tou r i s t Family Seaside Family Family holiday with Seaside ch i ldren at seas ide. ( B r i t i an Sunbathing and only) swimming, eating w e l l , 18.5% dr inking and dancing, prefer hotel in Europe for 2 weeks. USAJ Lifestyle  Group Description Vacation Type Preference Non-Active Conventional and introverted Visitors people who find it difficult 29% to respond to new or strange situations. Tend to be older with fewer children, less education, lower income, many retired. Stay within U.S., visit friends and relatives, below average cost, familiar place, few activities, 10-16 days, anytime of year. Active Dreamers rather than doers. City They tend to be followers Visitors rather than leaders, 12% female, of average age, single, with average education.and lower income. Tend to stay in U.S., visit familiar places and relatives, more often winter, average cost, 16 or more days, alone or with child under 6, city activities. Family Conventional and rigid Sightseer in their thinking and 6% social behaviour which is a function of their relative lack of emotional security. Tend to be blue collar workers with a higher income, between 35-44 years of age, married, high school education, with children. Stay 1n U.S., visit new places, may visit friends and relatives, 9 days or less, average cost, usually with child under 12, city sightseeing, zoos amusement parks, cultural activities. Vacation Type Description Present Demand A. Primary B. Factors for Preferred Requirements of l itt le Vacation Type  of Vacation Importance Visit friends/ relatives, been before, no language problem, no borders to cross, go on impulse. Visit friends/ relatives, been before, things to see and do, big dty atmosphere, popular price. Treat for children, never been before, popular place, exciting, lots to see and do, no language problem. Never been before, popular place, exciting experience, things to see and do. Clean air, never b.-i^ n before, no ant1-amer1can1sm, no language problem, no borders to cross, reasonable rates, go on Impulse, clean accomodation. Been before, not too commercial, clean air, quiet and restful. Demand Potential for Development  of Vacation  Type In 1978 approx 7,900 bus, rail air and auto (non-camping) travellers stayed 1n Whitehorse and Dawson.2 Outdoor Seek new and varied Vacationers experiences. Their impulsive 19% and unconventional behaviour tends to make them "loners". Tend to be ski l led blue collar workers, of average income, male, under 35 years of age, married, with children with an average education. Resort Egocentric and domineering Vacationers extroverts. Want an 8% audience to admire and respect them and tends to Impress their views on others. Tend to be professionals, male, between 25-44 years of age, married, with children, more education and higher Income. Foreign Extroverted and gregarious Travel people who like social iz ing, Vacationers meeting new people and 26% going to new places. Tend to dominate social situations, be female, single, of higher education and Income, professionals, with fewer children. Vis i t Canada and U.S., new places, 9 nights or less, summer usually, with children below average'cost, camping, country sightseeing, water sports, hiking, hunting, and fishing. Vis i t U.S. and Florida, been before, sometimes with children, 9 nights or less, above average cost, water sports, golf , tennis and nightclubs. Camping f ac i l i t i e s , clean a i r , hunting and f ishing, treat for children, quiet and restful , water sports. Water Sports, no borders to cross, good weather, popular place, big city atmosphere. Vis i t friends/ relatives, good transportation, no language Probst , no borders to cross. Visit friends/ relatives, go on impulse, never been before. 38% of river traff ic 1n 1979, 570-950 people/ yr. 83% of auto campers at Carmacks, Minto, Whitehorse, and Dawson, 1n 1978 approx. 13,500 people/year. 0 Europe, less U.S., new Never been places, 17-30 days, f a l l , before, without children, above exciting, average cost, sightseeing, foreign shopping, cultural ' atmosphere, act iv i t ies , night clubs, beautiful good restaurants. scenery. Vis i t friends/ relatives, been before, hunting and f ishing, treat for children, no language problem, no borders to cross. Sources: (2) 3 4 (5) In 1978 approx. 50,000 bus, ra i l air and auto (non-camping) travellers stayed in Whitehorse and Dawson.2 Table 3-1 and use estimates given in Chapter 3 Data from Tourism Yukon (1980) and Department of Tourism and Economic Development (1979) (for method of calculation see Appendix 4. Air Canada (1975) A1r Canada (1974, 1974b) Canadian Government Office of Tourism (1974) - 118 -T a b l e 4-9 p r e s e n t s t h e marke t g roups and v a c a t i o n t y p e s used t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r e s i d e n t Yukon m a r k e t . E s t i m a t e s o f each marke t g r o u p ' s p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l demand f o r t h e v a c a t i o n t y p e s t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r c o u l d s u p p l y a r e a l s o g i v e n i n T a b l e 4 - 9 . I t was c o n c l u d e d a f t e r r e v i e w i n g T a b l e 4-8 and 4-9 t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g v a c a t i o n t y p e s f rom each c o u n t r y o r t e r r i t o r y have a demand p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r : Canada - a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n - peace and q u i e t - i n e x p e n s i v e l y a c t i v e - r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s Europe - o u t d o o r d i s c o v e r i n g - a c t i v e t o u r i s t U . S . A . - f a m i l y s i g h t s e e r - o u t d o o r v a c a t i o n e r - f o r e i g n t r a v e l v a c a t i o n e r s Yukon - budget t r a v e l l e r s An a s sessmen t o f t h e e f f e c t c o n s t r a i n t s such as c o s t and t i m e c o u l d have on t h e C o r r i d o r ' s p o t e n t i a l demand i s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 4 - 1 0 . T h i s a s sessmen t was t h e b a s i s by w h i c h t h e demand p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e above v a c a t i o n t y p e s was r e v i s e d . The v a c a t i o n t y p e s wh i ch were found t o have a p o t e n t i a l a f t e r c o n s t r a i n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w e r e : Table 4-9 Lifestyle Group  and % of Sample  Population Budget Travellers 28% Adventurers 24% CTl Homebodies 20% Evaluation of the Corridor's Demand Potential for possible Market Segments from the Yukon (Lifestyle and Vacation Types are from Perreault, Darden and Darden 1977) (Key: 0 - no potential - resources or cultural features not available, * - possible potential if facilities for this type of tourism developed. Need to check feasibility of building these facilities, P - definite potential demand for available resources) Description medium income, head of household usually business executive, 2 years of college education, married young, started families early, conservative in using income, least use of credit cards, financially optimistic, interested in travel, but vacation interests economy-oriented. young, well-educated, middle-high income, professional, business or technical, glamor seekers, low interest in homemaking or community-minded activities, frequent social drinkers, seek excite excitement and wide horizons financially optimistic. high income, although previously low, older, lowest on glamour and wide horizons scale, finaciilly pessimistic. Preferred Vacation Type economic activities, interest in camping, educational, historic travel. No interest in jet-setter, cosmopolitan travel activities. money oriented and venturesome travel, like jet-set and one upmanship activities. Little interest in relaxing travel. like relaxing vacations, staying at home and do not like to travel on vacation. Dislike camping, educational, economic, historical or tour types of travel. Present Demand  for Preferred"- Vacation T.ype^  most present river users -if 80% of Yukoners on the river then. 215-350 people/year in 1979. Demand Potential  for Development  of Vacation Type possibly some - if 20% of Yukoners on the river then 50-100 people/year in 1979. Vacationers 7% Moderates 21.5% medium-low income, less education, generally active, in community and leisure pursuits, blue collar worker, average age 42, frequent users of credit cards, .gregarious and family oriented travellers. medium income, education, middle aged. Middle range of all general interest scores, tendency to travel. weekend travel and short holidays. Like cosmopolitan, first-class and one upmanship travel activities. social vacations, no interest in tenting, weekend travel, and sports (either participatory or spectator). o (Source: Based on Tables 3-1 and 4-4)1 -121-Table 4-10 Effect of Constraints on the Demand for Potential (P) and Possible (*) Vacation Types from Tables 4-8 and 4-9 Constraint Cost-travel expenses -package tours, services and ac t i v i t i es -construction Access-travel Personal  Limitations -poor health -family l i f e stage Lack of Information Comments and Implications Energy costs increasing; individual travel and auto travel becoming less feas ib le , group t rave l , a i r , bus, and train increasing in importance. Expensive, a vacation w i l l cost several hundreds to thousands of dol lars . Only a l imited market w i l l spend that amount of money on a vacation. Expensive; bu i l t f a c i l i t i e s require a sustained level of high use to make a pro f i t . Short ice-free period and long dark winters l imi t likelyhood of steady year round flow of tour ists . Tourism based on capital intensive f a c i l i t i e s unl ikely. Its remoteness results in the Yukon being unsuitable as a weekend or short vacation destination for most markets outside the t e r r i to ry ; travel l ing there requires a major committment in time and money Limited to use by people with time - ie . re t i red , unemployed, students or people in occupations having 2 or more consecutive weeks of holiday. Limited road access to Yukon River percludes auto and bus modes for tourism development. Retired market requires less strenuous travel and ac t i v i t i e s . Estimate 7-9% of Canadian population are too i l l to travel and 8-11% are in poor physical f itness (Stat ist ics Canada 1980). Parents with young children often do not travel long distances. Estimate 13.7% of Canadian adults have children under 6 years and 24.1% have children 6-14 years old (Stat ist ics Canada 1980). An exist ing problem which can be improved by disseminating information, but, to do so requires money. Vacation Types  in Tables 5-8  and 5-10 to  which Constraints  Apply a l l , especially Individual types l i k e : Peace and Quiet, Relatives and Friends, Family Sightseer, Outdoor Vacationer, Outdoor Discovering and Budget Travel l ing. Peace and Quiet, Inexpensive Action, Family Sightseer, Outdoor Vacationer, Outdoor Discovering, Budget Travell ing Aesthetic Appreciation, Family Sightseers, Foreign Travel Vacationers, Active Tourist , Family Hotel, Vacationers, Moderates Family Sightseers Outdoor Vacationers Adventurers Family Sightseers Vacationers Moderates Family Sightseers Family Hotel Budget Travellers A l l vacation types no potent ia l -resources or cu l tu ra l features not ava i l ab l e l i m i t e d , smal l-scale developments l i m i t e d , 1 or 2 developments in t e r r i t o r y l i m i t e d , slow development over several years appears f e a s i b l e with carefu l planning and development poss ib le potent ia l i f f a c i l i t i e s for th i s type of tourism developed. Need to check f e a s i b i l i t y of bu i ld ing these f a c i l i t i e s . d e f i n i t e potent ia l demand fo r a va i l ab l e resources demand potent ia l fo r ex i s t i ng types of use, poss ib le add i t iona l potent ia l from development of other types of use compatible with vacat ion type l eas t potent ia l small potent ia l medium potent ia l most potent ia l - 123 -Table 4-11 Evaluation of Demand Potential for Different Vacation Types When Constraints are taken into Account Vacation Type Rating  From Tables 4-8 and 4-9 Feasibil ity Considering Constraints CANADA Aesthetic Appreciation - P,* Peace and Quiet P Inexpensively Active P,* Relatives and Friends P U.S.A Family Sightseers P,* Outdoor Vacationers P Foreign Travel Vacationers P,* EUROPE Outdoor Discovering P Active Tourist P,* Family Hotel * YUKON Budget Travellers P Adventurers * Vacationers * Moderates * 1 L1,(L2)\L3 L1,(L2) 2,L3 LI ,L2,L3 F -depends on population growth L2.L3 LI ,L3 L1.L2.L3 L2.L3 L2.L3 0 L1.L3 LI ,L2,L3 0 L2.L3 Evaluation of  Demand Potential  for Development of  Vacation Type 3 3 2 Potential -depending on growth of population Aesthetic Appreciation encompasses two basic historic-cultural tours: (1) a built-up fac i l i t y oriented product and (2) a natural human resource product which requires few f ac i l i t i e s . The (2) refers to the f i r s t case where fac i l i t i es are needed. 2 Peace and Quiet is also made up of two distinct products: (1) single location stays at lodges, cottages,etc.,and (2) relaxing travel and tent or trai ler camping. The (2) refers to the f i r s t case, where built fac i l i t i es are needed. - 124 -a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n Canada peace and q u i e t Canada o u t d o o r d i s c o v e r i n g Europe o u t d o o r v a c a t i o n e r s U n i t e d S t a t e s budget t r a v e l l e r s Yukon E x c e p t f o r a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n a l l t h e v a c a t i o n t y p e s r e l a t e t o n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . A l l a c t i v i t i e s not r e l a t e d t o t h e s e f i v e v a c a t i o n t y p e s were e l i m i n -a t e d . S i x t y - o n e a c t i v i t i e s rema ined a f t e r t h i s l a s t s t e p i n t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e d ; t h e s e were t h e a c t i v i t i e s used t o d e r i v e e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e y a re l i s t e d on T a b l e 4 - 1 2 . As e x p l a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 4.1 t h e e f f e c t o f i n s t i t u t i o n c o n d i t i o n s on t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l was a s s e s s e d ( see A p p e n d i x F o u r ) a l t h o u g h i t was not used t o s c r e e n a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s assessment p o i n t e d ou t a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f u n c e r t a i n t y and p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment p rob lems f o r the a c t i v i t i e s a l r e a d y e l i m i n a t e d o r c o n s i d e r e d q u e s t i o n a b l e by t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f e a s i b i l -i t y o f y e a r round f a c i l i t y based a t t r a c t i o n s i s f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d by s o c i a l r o u t i n e s and manpower s k i l l s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e u n c e r t a i n -t y and p rob lems caused by l a n d c l a i m s , b u r e a u c r a t i c red t a p e , and p r o v i n c e h o o d d i s c u s s i o n s a re f u r t h e r r easons why i n v e s t o r s a re u n -w i l l i n g t o f i n a n c e f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s . - 125 -T a b l e 4-12 A c t i v i t i e s F e a s i b l e i n t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r A . D i s p e r s e d Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s 1. c a n o e i n g and r a f t i n g day-use and t r i p p i n g - s l o w / f l a t w a t e r - n a t u r a l a r e a - o r g a n i z e d t o u r s 2. k a y a k i n g - s l o w / f l a t w a t e r 3. day-use motor b o a t i n g - s m a l l c r a f t - boa t t o u r s 4 . motor boa t t r i p p i n g - s m a l l c r a f t - l a r g e c r a f t t o u r s 5. game f i s h i n g - bank - boa t - t o u r s - i c e 6 . u n d e v e l o p e d day and t r i p p i n g t r a i l s - w a l k i n g and h i k i n g - c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g - dog s l e d d i n g - snowshoe ing - s n o w m o b i l i n g - t r e k i n g / o u t d o o r t o u r s 7. t r a p p i n g 8 . h u n t i n g - w a t e r f o w l - bear - g u i d e d t r i p s 9. camping - p r i s t i n e - p r i m i t i v e 10 . v i e w i n g . . ; . - l a n d s c a p e , - v e g e t a t i o n - h i s t o r i c s i t e s - w i l d l i f e / f i s h 1 1 . g u i d e d t o u r s / i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - n a t u r a l h i s t o r y - h i s t o r y and a r c h a e o l o g y - c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c - 126 -T a b l e 4-12 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 12 . m i s c e l l a n e o u s - c o t t a g i n g - o u t d o o r s k i l l c o u r s e s B. C e n t r a l i z e d O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n and B u i l t F a c i l i t y A c t i v i t i e s 13 . d e v e l o p e d t r a i l s (a ) day-use - h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g - r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s / m o t o r c y c l e s - c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g - s n o w m o b i l i n g - w a l k i n g / h i k i n g (b) t r i p p i n g - h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g - c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g - s n o w m o b i l i n g 14 . SCUBA d i v i n g and s a i l i n g - Lake L a b e r g e 1 5 . a c c o m o d a t i o n - f u l l s e r v i c e camping - l o d g e s and c o t t a g e s - m o t e l / h o t e l 16 . b u i l t f a c i l i t i e s - f e s t i v a l s , f a i r s - s h o p p i n g - h a n d i c r a f t s - w o r k s h o p s / o u t d o o r s k i l l c o u r s e s - sa lmon f i s h i n g , n a t i v e f o o d s , n a t i v e dances and a r t s - a r t g a l l e r i e s , museums - c o n f e r e n c e s / c o n v e n t i o n s - s p o r t s somp lexes and c o m p e t i t i o n s - g a m b l i n g - e n t e r t a i n m e n t / h i s t o r i c a l s h o w s / t h e a t r e - d o w n h i l l s k i i n g - g o l d p a n n i n g 17 . m i s c e l l a n e o u s - p l e a s u r e c a r d r i v i n g - p i c n i c i n g - 127 -EXPERIENCE CLASSIF ICATION METHOD AND RESULTS The pu rpose o f an e x p e r i e n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t o i d e n t i f y the c a t e -g o r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s wh i ch r e s u l t s f rom t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s , n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . There a re two methods o f o b t a i n i n g an e x p e r i e n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F i r s t , e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e v i e w e d i n t h e s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s can be used t o d e f i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and d e v e l o p c a t e g o r i e s . Here i n f o r -m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a c t i v i t i e s , r e s o u r c e a t t r i b u t e s and market t y p e s wou ld be u s e d . Ma rke t i n f o r m a t i o n i s t he most c r i t i c a l , s i n c e p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e the t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e r e c e i v e d . S e c o n d , e x i s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s can be used i f t h e y a p p l y t o s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s , r e s o u r c e s and p e o p l e . I t was c o n c l u d e d f rom s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s i s t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e most p o t e n t i a l a r e t h o s e f o c u s e d on o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and h a v i n g l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . Re sea r ch has shown t h a t t h e r e a re s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e and groups o f p e o p l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4-12 (Hendee , C a t t o n , Mar low and Brockman 1 9 6 8 ; Lucus 1 9 6 4 ; S t a n k e y 1 9 7 3 ) . The marke t s e g m e n t a t i o n r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4-8 and 4-9 lump a l l o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o one g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y (Ou tdoo r D i s c o v e r i n g / V a c a t i o n i n g ) . M o r e o v e r , t he s e g m e n t a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n was t o o g e n e r a l i z e d t o be u s e f u l f o r f o r m u l a t i n g o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s . Fo r t h e s e r easons t h e second method o f d e r i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s was u s e d . - 128 -I d e a l l y , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t em f o r e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d by m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f a c t i v i t y , n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and s o c i a l i n -t e r a c t i o n d a t a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s no s y s t em w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f r om m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f a l l t h r e e f a c t o r s , no r i s t h e r e a u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . B e g i n n i n g s have been made i n c a t e g o r i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p r e f e r e n c e , a t t i t u d e , e t c . , a n d , t h e r e has been s p e c -u l a t i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t y g roups t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s . A c t i v i t y t y p i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y done on t h e b a s i s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( B u r t o n 1 9 7 1 , Romsa 1 9 7 3 , M c k e c h n i e 1974 and Duncan 1 9 7 8 ) , o r p r e f e r e n c e (Hendee , G a l e and C a t t o n 1 9 7 1 , R i t c h i e 1 9 7 5 ) ; o c c a s s i o n a l l y t h e b a s i s i s t h e needs a c t i v i t i e s s a t -i s f y ( L o n d o n , C r a n d a l l and F i t z g i b b o n s 1 9 7 7 , C r a n d a l l 1 9 8 0 ) . In a d -d i t i o n , t h e methods f o r g r o u p i n g a c t i v i t i e s v a r y : f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n i t i a l l y had most usage ( B u r t o n 1 9 7 1 , M c k e c h n i e 1 9 7 4 , Hendee and Burdge 1 9 7 4 ) , but c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s has been f a v o u r e d f o r t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s because i t i s more v a l i d t e c h n i c a l l y (Beaman 1 9 7 5 ; D i t t o n , Gooda l e and J ohnsen 1 9 7 5 , L o n d o n , C r a n d a l l and F i t z g i b b o n s 1 9 7 7 ) . A n o t h e r m e t h o d , m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g (MDS) , has been used f o r a l i m i t e d number o f a c t i v i t i e s ( R i t c h i e 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 a ; H o l b r o o k 1 9 8 0 ) . MDS i s most u s e f u l f o r r e v e a l i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v i t y g roups and s o c i a l o r r e s o u r c e d i m e n s i o n s . - 129 -MDS r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d f i v e f a c t o r s wh i ch e x p l a i n how t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4-12 c o u l d be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o p r e -f e r e n c e s ( R i t c h i e 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 a ; Hoi b rook 1 9 8 0 ) . Fou r o f t h e f a c t o r s a r e g e n e r a l and r e p r e s e n t a con t i nuum o f p r e f e r e n c e s , t he f i f t h i s s p e c i f i c , i t i s t h e q u e s t f o r t r o p h i e s . The f o u r con t inuums a r e shown b e l o w . Wilderness Individual Active Simple I 1 I, I A A Urban Group Passive Difficult A c c o r d i n g t o MDS, e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s a r e made up o f v a r y i n g com-b i n a t i o n s o f t h e f i v e f a c t o r s . F o r e x a m p l e , one e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d i n v o l v e no q u e s t f o r t r o p h i e s p l u s a t t a i n m e n t o f t he e x p e r i e n c e i n -d i c a t e d by " A " i n the above c o n t i n u u m s . E x p e r i e n c e t y p e " A " wou ld be i n n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , have a modera te amount o f s o c i a l i z i n g , be p a s s i v e and i n v o l v e easy a c t i v i t i e s such as c o t t a g i n g o r c a r c a m p i n g . In t h i s s t u d y an e x p e r i e n c e t y p o l o g y was i n d u c e d by s y n t h e s i z i n g the f i n d i n g s o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . Three c r i t e r i a d e t e r m i n e d wh i ch s t u d i e s were u s e d : (1 ) t h e a c t i v i t y t y p o l o g y s h o u l d ag ree w i t h f i n d i n g s f rom MDS s t u d i e s ( H o l b r o o k 1980 , R i t c h i e 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 a , 1975b) so t h a t key s o c i a l and r e s o u r c e d i m e n s i o n s can be c o r r e l a t e d , (2) t h e s t u d i e s s h o u l d emphas i ze t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4 - 1 2 , and - 130 -(3) c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be t h e g r o u p i n g me thod . Th ree b a s i c s o u r c e s were used t o d e v e l o p t h e e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s shown i n T a b l e 4 - 1 3 , t h e s e a r e : Hendee , G a l e and C a t t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) ; USDA (1974) and C h r i s t i a n s e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) . A d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s f o r s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s a r e no t ed i n co lumn (7) o f T a b l e 4 - 1 3 . Table 4-13 (1) Type of Experience Sought The Experience Categories and Natural Sett ing, Social Interaction and Act iv i ty Determinants for Each Category Natural S e t t i n g S o c i a l Interactions (2) (3) (4) (5) ^ ( 6 ) i Ac t i v i t i es Important Development Type Quantity Compatable Features Level of People with Experience (7) Sources I. a) Wilderness -Spir i tual wilderness, solitude Important, peace and rejuvlnatlon from closeness with nature. Escape from stress of urban l i v ing and ro le playing. b) Wilderness-Appreciation appreciation of natural features; feel ing of achievement, adventure and challenge from contact with the elements. Opportunities for solitude and growth of group members relat ions. self organized part icipation in ac t i v i t i e s of: canoeing, ra f t ing , kayaking, camping, viewing, hiking, cross-country sk i i ng , dog sledding, snowshoeing, nature study, f ishing for food needs, high level of outdoor s k i l l s and self rel iance. above ac t i v i t i e s plus small organized wilderness tours, boating with small motors, cabins, trapping, high level of outdoor s k i l l s and sel f rel iance. minimum evidence of man and maximum evidence of natural forces. Isolation from motorized access and large groups. same as above, although less stringent about sol itude: 1 or 2 contacts with small groups/ day accepted. pr ist ine - no s i te modification, no f a c i l i t i e s , no road or motorized access. no contact with other travel lers socia l ize only with chosen group companions. primltive-manimum s i te modification, some rustic changes done to protect s i te (vs comfort of user). Sanitation f a c i l i t i e s simple and stark ,s i te maintence by users, no road or motorized access, spacing informal and socia l izat ion within group of family or fr iends, development of comraderie. one Individual or a small group (2-6 people) small group (2-6 people), occasional meetings with other groups. Hendee, Catton, Harlow and Brockman 1968 McKlnley 1966 Catton 1969 Hendee, Catton, Marlow and Brockman 1968, Burch 1969, Lucus 1980 II. Nature-Trophy hunting and Fishing quest for trophies in natural environment III. Nature -Passive appreciate nature but physical stamina not necessary, re laxat ion, some social Interaction. hunting, f ishing,trapping, cabins, lodges, quided t r i p s , canoeing, h ik ing, ra f t ing , motor boating (smal1), viewing, horseback treking. Low to high level of outdoor s k i l l s . a c t i v i t i e s requiring l i t t l e effort-car camping, nature viewing and study, f ishing for food needs, organized canoe and raft tours, day walks, outdoor tours. Moderate level of outdoor s k i l l s . population of trophy sized animals and f i s h , natural state of environment. natural environment, re la t i ve ly easy access. dispersed so as to minimize contact with others. Only indigineous materials used for s i te alterat ions. range from prist ine campsites to comfortable lodges. General l y , some f a c i l i t i e s -f i r e p i t s , and sanitat ion, guided tours often provide more services. range from none (solo tr ips) to extensive social Ization with large groups at lodges. one, small group (2-6 people), large group (up to 30 or more people). Meyer 1978 Bryan 1979 semi-primitive-as 1(b) above plus more services: water, sanitat ion,s i te maintenance, and primitive road access. No maintained accomodation. group soc ia l iza t ion , some outside contact primarily single groups, brief meetings and social izat ion of several groups. small groups (2-6 people), occasional meeting of 1-3 small groups. IV. Nature-Comfort Sociable Appreciate nature, taste of adventure but also sense of security and comfort. Expect to meet people outside group. Experience equally divided between social and environmental objectives. canoeing, ra f t ing , essent ia l ly kayaking, motor natural boating (small) environment, f ishing for food good access, needs, trapping, ful l-service camping, cottaging, outdoor s k i l l courses, a l l undeveloped t r a i l a c t i v i t i e s , nature and histor ic viewing, pleasure car dr iv ing, p l cn ldng . Low level of outdoor s k i l l s . intermediate-site socia l izat ion modification outside group moderate, f a c i l i t i e s anticipated, equally provided Social izat ion for s i te protection with and and comfort of users. Well maintained sanitat ion, water and seasonal accomodation f a c i l i t i e s . Hard surfaced roads and t r a i l s . Informal provision of information. Some f a c i l i t i e s for buying limited supplies, meals. Inconspicuous spacing and use controls. Rustic seasonal accomodation-eg. permanent floors for gold rush style tents. Only natural material used. influences from people outside immediate sphere of friends/family accepted. several small groups (2-6 people/group), or 1 or 2 large groups (u 30 people Catton 1969 D to V. Sociable resort , lodge pleasing Learning: vacation, f u l l environment, Nature and service camping providing Historic guided tours, change of Pleasing developed t r a i l s : routine and environment, horseback r i d i ng , surroundings, group learning cross-country easy access experiences, sk i ing , walking, with a l l numerous f es t i va l s , types of opportunities workshops, motor vehicles for soc ia l i z ing , salmon f ishing appreciation and native and learning exhib i ts , about natural h is tor ica l and histor ic shows, gambling, features. gold panning, nature study and viewing minimal outdoor s k i l l s . VI. Active-Outdoor Sports intense stimulation, glamour, fun, and being outdoors. Do not require natural setting. s a i l i n g , SCUBA div ing, downhill sk i ing , horseback r id ing , recreation vehicles, motor-cycles, sports complexes and and competitions. No outdoor s k i l l s ; moderate to high sport s k i l l s . specialized features for a sport such as ski h i l l s , horse and recreation vehicle t r a i l s , etc. Easy access, large enough to accomodate numerous people. semi-rnodern-s i te heavily modified, many f a c i l i t i e s provided for comfort and convenience of users, no luxury f a c i l i t i e s . Synthetic materials used, a r t i f i c i a l surfaces on a l l roads and t r a i l s . Basic permanent accomodation-eg. cottages, f a c i l i t i e s for obtaining information, most supplies, meals and some specialty items (eg. souvenirs, handicrafts). range from intermediate f a c i l i t i e s similar to those for IV to modern f a c i l i t i e s described in VII below. Generally extensive s i te modification, exact type depends on ac t i v i t y . active social-opportunities to interact with other tourists fac i l i t a ted development by variable group s ize , s i te used by several other groups. Upper use level determined by congestion and queuing factors more than environmental perception. Canadian Government Office of Tourism 1974 A1r Canada 1974b, 1975 variable with each sport but typica l ly very social-numerous opportunities for interaction. variable group s ize , f a c i l i t y used by numerous other people. Upper use level determined by queuing factors. McKechnie 1974 Ph i l l i p s 1977 VII. Cultural-Social soc ia l i z ing , meeting new people, travel to new exotic places, enjoyment of beautiful scenery, luxury, cultural events. guided tours, sightseeing, viewing h is tor ic s i t e s , f es t i va l s , f a i r s , shopping, art ga l l e r i es , conferences, gambling, entertainment, motel/hotel, salmon f ishing and native shows. pleasing environment, attract ive as a backdrop to highly social tour is t . modern-extensive s i te modification, most f a c i l i t i e s purely for comfort of users. Luxury f a c i l i t i e s , entertainment, manicured setting-clipped hedges, gardens, mowed lawns etc. highly gregarious-surrounded by people, opportunities to socia l ize always available. variable group size encounter numerous -other groups en route and at each s i te . same references as for V - 136 -CHAPTER F I VE : CARRYING CAPACITY METHODS INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e methods used t o e s t i m a t e t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r a few s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e groups i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . I n c l u d e d a re p r o c e d u r e s f o r : (1 ) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g b i o p h y s i c a l 1 i m i t a t i o n s , (2 ) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s o c i o -p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , (3 ) i n v e n t o r y i n g p e r t i n e n t r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (4 ) c a l c u l a t i n g l i m i t s f o r d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y , and (5 ) e s t i m a t i n g t h e s t u d y a r e a ' s o v e r a l l r e s o u r c e c a p a c i t y f o r each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y . Three t y p e s o f c a p a c i t y were s t u d i e d , t hey a re d e f i n e d as f o l -l o w s : (1 ) I n s t a n t a n e o u s C a p a c i t y ( IC ) - t h e maximum number o f p e o p l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h i n a u n i t a r e a . IC i s e x p r e s s e d as t h e number o f p e o p l e / u n i t a r e a . (2 ) D a i l y C a p a c i t y (DC) - t h e t u r n o v e r r a t e o f p e o p l e per day i n a g i v e n a rea t i m e s t h e IC . DC i s e x p r e s s e d as the number o f p e o -p l e / u n i t a r e a / d a y . (3 ) Annua l C a p a c i t y (AC) - t h e DC t i m e s the days o f use per y e a r . AC i s e x p r e s s e d as the number o f p e o p l e / u n i t a r e a / y e a r . - 137 -W i t h i n t h e c o r r i d o r t h r e e a r e a s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f use p a t t e r n s , t h e s e w e r e : r i v e r , s h o r e l i n e and h i n t e r l a n d . The r i v e r was assumed t o be t h e f o c u s o f a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s , e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h i s a s s u m p t i o n ( f o r example USDA 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e r e -f o r e , i n t e n s i v e use was assumed t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e r i v e r and s h o r e l i n e , t h e h i n t e r l a n d w o u l d o n l y be used f o r d i s p e r s e d uses such as h u n t i n g , h i k i n g , v i e w i n g o r as a p l e a s a n t b a c k d r o p f o r c o n c e n -t r a t e d u s e s . Because each a r e a i s used i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s , t h e t y p e and i m p o r t a n c e o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s d i f f e r s among t h e t h r e e a r e a s . S e p a r -a t e a n a l y s i s was done f o r each a r e a . The b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e r i v e r , s h o r e l i n e and h i n t e r l a n d a r e shown on Map 1 i n C h a p t e r S i x . They a r e d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o Hooper (1977a) and Lombard N o r t h (1975) as f o l l o w s : R i v e r - t h e a c t i v e r i v e r channe l and beach up as f a r as t h e h i g h w a t e r mark . S h o r e ! i n e - w h i c h e v e r i s l e s s : t h e f o r e s h o r e and b a c k s h o r e ( i e . v a l l e y b o t t o m , see Hooper (1977a) f o r p r e c i s e d e f i n i -t i o n ) , o r 1 k i l o m e t e r f rom t h e channe l edge . A l t h o u g h Lombard N o r t h (1975) s u g g e s t e d a 1 ,000 f o o t ( 0 . 3 0 4 km) b o u n d a r y , one k i l o m e t e r was chosen because i t wou ld be l a r g e enough t o accommodate any t o u r i s m deve lopment y e t not e x t e n d beyond t h e normal d i s p e r s a l a r e a o f w a t e r -o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . - 138 -H i n t e r l a n d - t h e maximum v i e w i n g d i s t a n c e f rom t h e s h o r e l i n e and r i v e r . The e x a c t boundary was d e t e r m i n e d f rom a n a l y -s i s o f t o p o g r a p h i c maps, f i e l d no te s and p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n e v e r y e i g h t km ( f i v e m i l e s ) , i t i s w i d e r than i s n e c e s s a r y i n most c a se s t o a l l o w f o r p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e s i n v i e w i n g f rom p o t e n t i a l s h o r e l i n e d e v e l o p m e n t s . P e o p l e can h i k e , b u i l d c o t t a g e s o r snowmobi le i n a w ide v a r i e t y o f l a n d s c a p e s . S i n c e most a c t i v i t i e s can o c c u r under such a range o f c o n d i t i o n s , a key a s s u m p t i o n was made: e v e r y a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a  g i v e n e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y has t h e same r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . Based on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , t h e a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on t h e e i g h t e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s wh i ch were d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r ; g e n e r a l r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e f i n e d f o r each c a t e g o r y and each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y ' s t o u r i s m c a p a c i t y was d e t e r m i n e d . However , some a c t i v i t i e s such as g o l d pann ing o r v i e w i n g h i s t o r i c s i t e s r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s , o t h e r w i s e , t h e y canno t o c c u r . The a s s u m p t i o n o f homogeneous r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s no t v a l i d f o r t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , t he c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s were a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . In s h o r t , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was e s t i m a t e d f o r a few s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as f o r t h e e i g h t e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d f rom s c r e e n i n g a n a l y s e s . - 139 -There a re numerous methods f o r t h e i n v e n t o r y , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s ( e g . Canada Land I n v e n -t o r y 1966 , R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r anch 1976 , O n t a r i o Land I n v e n t o r y 1 9 7 1 , L e o p o l d 1 9 6 9 , B e a u b i e r and P i e r c e 1 9 7 4 ) , and deve lopment ( e g . Way 1 9 7 8 , Ande rson e t a l 1976 , H i l l s 1 9 6 1 , N o r t h e r n P i p e l i n e Task F o r c e 1 9 7 5 , McHarg 1 9 7 1 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a re a b e w i l d e r i n g q u a n t i t y o f methods s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r r i v e r s ( e g . Hooper 1977a and 1977b , Chubb and Baumen 1 9 7 6 , P l a t t s 1 9 7 9 , O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s 1980 , McConne l l and S t o l l 1969 , T e r r y 1 9 7 7 , Mo r i s awa 1 9 7 1 , and C r a i g h e a d and C r a i g h e a d 1962) and f o r c a l c u l a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ( e g . USDA 1 9 7 4 ; H e l d , B r i c k l e r and W i l c o x 1 9 6 9 ; L i d d l e 1 9 7 5 a ; Chubb and A s h t o n 1 9 6 9 ; G r e i s t 1 9 7 5 ; O v i n g t o n e t a l 1 9 7 4 ; F i s h e r and K r u t i l l a 1 9 7 2 ) . A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e s t u d i e s l i s t e d above and o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was no method s u i t e d t o t h e pu rposes o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , new a n a l y t i c a l methods were d e v e l o p e d . The v a r i o u s components o f t he methods d e s c r i b e d i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r were s e l e c t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a as g u i d e l i n e s : (1) t h e r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be measured s h o u l d be d e t e r -mined by the r e s o u r c e demands o f t h e v a r i o u s market t y p e s , (2) d a t a must be a p p r o p r i a t e t o a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e l e v e l o f d e t a i l , (3 ) methods must c o n s i d e r t h e f u l l scope o f t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s f rom c a t e g o r i e s Ia t o V I I , and (4 ) d a t a i n p u t s must be l i m i t e d t o a v a i l a b l e s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s and what can be c o l l e c t e d i n a few weeks i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . - 140 -5.1 FACTORS IMPORTANT TO DETERMINING BIOPHYSICAL LIMITATIONS T a b l e 5-1 l i s t s t h e b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d f rom the l i t e r a -t u r e as i m p o r t a n t f o r a p p r a i s i n g i n s t a n t a n e o u s t o u r i s m c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . As i m p l i e d i n t h e t a b l e , e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s can l i m i t t o u r i s m i n two ways : - i m p a c t s o f use ( e g . t r a m p l i n g ) degrade t h e q u a l i t y of the e n v i r o n -ment be low t h e l e v e l a c c e p t a b l e t o a g i v e n e x p e r i e n c e t y p e , o r - s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e g . p e r m a f r o s t , e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l , d r a i n a g e ) e s c a l l a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and make d e -v e l o p m e n t s i n f e a s i b l e . G e n e r a l l y c o s t l i m i t a t i o n s a re r e l a t e d t o e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s wh i ch r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l deve lopment ( i e . C a t e g o r i e s V-V I I ) whereas e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s per se a p p l y t o e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r i e s wh i ch have h i g h n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s ( i e . I - IV ) . The e f f e c t s each f a c t o r has on t o u r i s m c a p a c i t y as w e l l as the v a l u e s wh i ch were used t o measure t h e s e e f f e c t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 5 .1 .1 Topography and S o i l s A l t h o u g h s o i l s and t o p o g r a p h y a re l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n T a b l e 5-1 , t h e y a re d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n as t h e i r e f f e c t s a r e r e l a t e d . S l o p e - a f f e c t s the f e a s i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , deve lopment f o r s e p t i c t a n k s , road c o n s t r u c t i o n , e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l , and - 141 -T a b l e 5-1 F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g I n s t a n t a n e o u s B i o p h y s i c a l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y L e v e l s to r- each E x p e r i e n c e Type (Key : X - i n t r i n s i c e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r " t h a t c o u l d l i m i t use l e v e l i t s e l f C - c o s t f a c t o r , t h a t c o u l d l i m i t maximum number o f p e o p l e because o f h i g h d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s due t o e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ) E x p e r i e n c e C a t e g o r y / Resou r ce C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ia l b - . ; I I . I I I IV V VI V I I A . R i v e r Uses HYDROLOGY w a t e r q u a l i t y X X ,C x,c c c c c c h a z a r d s X X x,c x,c c c c c WILDLIFE abundance X X X X X - - -c o m p o s i t i o n X X X - - - -p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e - - X - - - - -FISH. " abundance X X X X X - - -c o m p o s i t i o n X X X X X - - -p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e - - X - - - - -c a t c h a b i 1 i t y o f f i s h - - X - - - - -S h o r e l i n e Uses VEGETATION d e n s i t y X X ,C x,c c c c c c c o m p o s i t i o n X X x,c x,c x,c c c c % p r i c k l e y p l a n t s X X x,c c c - - -v a r i e t y X X X x X - - -TOPOGRAPHY s l o p e X X x,c x,c c c c c d e p t h t o b e d r o c k X X x,c X c c c c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l X X x,c X x,c x,c x,c SOILS t e x t u r e X X x,c X x,c x,c x,c x,i d r a i n a g e X X x,c X x,c x,c x,c X,i p e r m a f r o s t X X x,c X x,c x,c x,c X,i HYDROLOGY f l o o d i n g - C c c c c c c w a t e r q u a l i t y X x,c x,c c c c c c bank h e i g h t X X x,c X c c c c bank a n g l e X X x,c X c c c c bank v e g e t a t i o n X X x:sc c c c c c % s l u m p i n g X X x,c x,c x,c c c c T a b l e 5-1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) E x p e r i e n c e C a t e g o r y / R e s o u r c e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ia Ib I I I I I IV V VI V I I WILDLIFE abundance X X X X X c o m p o s i t i o n X X X - -p o p u l a t i o n g rowth r a t e - - X - -h a z a r d s - - - X X F ISH abundance X X X X X c o m p o s i t i o n X X X X X p o p u l a t i o n g rowth r a t e - - X - -c a t c h a b i l i t y o f f i s h X X X X X HISTORIC s t a t e o f r e p a i r X X - x,c c s i z e o f b u i l d i n g - - - X X H i n t e r l a n d Uses VEGETATION d e n s i t y X X x,c c c c o m p o s i t i o n X X x,c c c % p r i c k l y p l a n t s X X x,c c c v a r i e t y X X X X X TOPOGRAPHY s i ope X X X X X dep th t o bed rock X X X X X SOILS t e x t u r e X X x,c c c d r a i n a g e X X x,c X X WILDLIFE abundance X X x X X c o m p o s i t i o n X X X - -p o p u l a t i o n g rowth r a t e - - X - -- 143 -s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p a t h s , t r a i l s , c a m p s i t e s and p i c n i c s i t e s ( Re sou r ce A n a l y s i s B r anch 1 9 7 6 , Root and Knap i k 1 9 7 2 , S tanek 1 9 7 9 ) . Impo r t an t s l o p e r anges a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 1 . Depth t o Bedrock - a f f e c t s s e p t i c t a n k s , de ve l o pm e n t s such as p l a y -g r o u n d s , p a r k i n g , r oads and b u i l d i n g s , e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l , dep th o f p l a n t r o o t i n g s t r u c t u r e , and t h e a b i l i t y o f t r e e s t o w i t h s t a n d w i n d s . A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-2 l i s t s p e r t i n e n t dep th r a n g e s . P a r e n t M a t e r i a l - a f f e c t s d r a i n a g e , e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , s l u m p i n g p o t e n t i a l , s e p t i c t a n k s u i t a b i l i t y , and l a n d a c t i v i t i e s ( i n t h e a n a l y s i s i t was assumed a l l l a n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e a f f e c t e d by e r o s i o n and d r a i n a g e ) . As A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-3 i n d i c a t e s , s o i l t e x t u r e and d r a i n a g e a r e r e l a t e d , a l t h o u g h i m p e r f e c t l y , t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . The i m p o r t a n t t y p e s o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e : a l l u v i u m , c o l l u v i u m , m o r a i n a l , g l a c i o -f l u v i a l , g l a c i o - l a c u s t r i n e , and o r g a n i c ( R o n s t a d e t a l 1977) . The d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each o f t h e s e t y p e s o f p a r e n t a l m a t e r i a l a r e g i v e n i n The C a n a d i a n Sys tem  o f S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Canad i an S o i l Su r vey Commit tee 1978) . - 144 -T e x t u r e - a f f e c t s b u i l t f a c i l i t i e s , road and t r a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n , e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l and s i t i n g f o r deve lopmen t s such as camp-g r o u n d s , p i c n i c s i t e s and i n t e n s i v e p l a y a r e a s . The f a c t o r s t o measure a re the p e r c e n t a g e o f s a n d , s i l t and c l a y , o r the t e x t u r e c l a s s (Doug l as 1974 , Re sou r ce A n a l y s i s B r anch 1 9 7 6 ) . The g e n e r a l s u i t a b i l i t y o f t e x t u r e c l a s s e s i s as f o l l o w s ( J u b e n v i l l e 1 9 7 6 ) : R a t i n g T e x t u r e C l a s s Good - s a n d , g r a v e l , sandy loam F a i r - s t o n e y l o a m , c l a y , s i l t loam Poor - heavy c l a y o r s i l t A p p e n d i x T a b l e s A 5 - 3 , A 5 - 4 , A 5 - 5 , A5-6 and A5-7 c o n t a i n t h e c r i t e r i a used t o a s s e s s s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s . F i v e t a b l e s o f d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a were used because o f t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t e x t u r e c a t e g o r i e s t o p a r t i c u l a r uses and i m p a c t s ( i e . d i s p e r s e d t r a i l u s e , s e p t i c t a n k s , e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ) . A g a i n s e v e r a l o f t h e s e t a b l e s a l l u d e t o the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e x t u r e , d r a i n a g e , s l o p e , a s p e c t and o t h e r f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the ground s u r f a c e c a p a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t u s e s . D r a i n a g e - a f f e c t s most u s e s , poor d r a i n a g e poses a s e v e r e l i m i t a -t i o n t o f a c i l i t y de ve l o pme n t s ( i e . c a m p s i t e s , b u i l d i n g s , p l a y g r o u n d s ) because o f c o s t s t o d r a i n . D r a i n a g e a l s o a f -f e c t s s e p t i c t ank s u i t a b i l i t y . The d r a i n a g e c a t e g o r i e s used were t h o s e d e f i n e d by Rons tad e t a l (1977) and a r e : - 145 -(1) w e l l d r a i n e d ( d r y ) (2 ) i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d ( m o i s t - g l e y e d phases ) (3) v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d . P e r m a f r o s t - a f f e c t s b u i l t f a c i l i t i e s ( i e . r o a d s , t r a i l s , b u i l d i n g s e t c ) , s e p t i c t a n k s and any use w h i c h d i s t u r b s t h e s u r f a c e l a y e r . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t o a s s e s s a re the e x t e n t , whe the r i t i s l o c a l o r w i d e s p r e a d , and t h e dep th o f the a c -t i v e o r imped ing l a y e r . A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-6 g i v e s s i g n i f i -c a n t e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n r a n g e s . These can a p p l y t o b u i l d i n g and road d e v e l o p m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , R o n s t a d ' s (1977) p e r m a f r o s t - d r a i n a g e c l a s s i f i c t i o n was u s e d . R o n s t a d ' s 3 c a t e g o r i e s a r e : (1 ) w e l l d r a i n e d w i t h p e r m a f r o s t (2 ) i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d w i t h p e r m a f r o s t (3) p o o r l y d r a i n e d w i t h p e r m a f r o s t . 5 . 1 . 2 V e g e t a t i o n D e n s i t y - a f f e c t s abundance o f w i l d l i f e ( f o o d and c o v e r ) , c l e a r i n g c o s t s f o r d e v e l o p e d f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i l s , a c c e s s t o w i l d e r -ness c a m p s i t e s and h i k i n g a r e a s , and e r o s i o n l e v e l s . The f o l l o w i n g a re i m p o r t a n t d e n s i t y ranges f o r c l e a r i n g and w i l -d e r n e s s use ( J u b e n v i l l e 1 9 7 6 , Hooper 1977b , Resou r ce A n a l y s i s B r a n c h 1 9 7 6 ) . 30% u n d e r s t o r y , 30-75% u n d e r s t o r y , 75% u n d e r s t o r y . - 146 -C o m p o s i t i o n - a f f e c t s abundance and t y p e o f w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s f o r h u n t i n g and v i e w i n g and i t a f f e c t s t h e a r e a ' s o v e r a l l s e n s i t i v i t y t o use (Doug l a s 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 4 a ; L a c a t e e t a l 1 9 7 8 ) . Based on N e i l a n d and V i e r e c k ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Oswald and K i n g (1980) and p e r s o n a l r e s e a r c h ( 1 9 7 9 ) , seven i m p o r t a n t v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s were i d e n t i f i e d wh i ch have d i s t i n c t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n t y p e s . These c o m p o s i t i o n t y p e s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d h a b i t a t s a re l i s t e d i n C h a p t e r 6 , T a b l e 6 - 3 . A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-8 g i v e s the impac t s t a n d a r d s used f o r v e g e t a t i o n . H a z a r d s - p o i s o n i v y , p r i c k l y p l a n t s , dead s t a n d i n g t r e e s , e t c . , a f f e c t e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s t h a t do not have s i t e c l e a r i n g ( i e . I t o I I I ) . P r i c k l y p l a n t s a re t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n t , h a z a r d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a ; t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f r om R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B ranch (1976) was used t o a s s e s s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . V a r i e t y - a f f e c t s w i l d l i f e abundance . The s i g n i f i c a n t c a t e g o r i e s o f v e g e t a t i o n f o r w i l d l i f e a re l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 1 1 . The f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s were used t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e c a t e g o r -i e s : Doug las ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Hoe fs ( p e s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) , Gasaway ( p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) , K e l l e y h o u s e ( p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) , and Mossop ( p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) . - 147 -5 . 1 . 3 H y d r o l o g y F l o o d i n g Haza rd - a f f e c t s a l l permanent d e v e l o p m e n t s . The i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s t o measure a r e : (1 ) t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f t h e h a z a r d , and (2) t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a g i v e n d i s c h a r g e w i l l o c c u r ( Fenco 1 9 7 4 ) . The Resou r ce A n a l y s i s B r anch (1976 ) ' r a t i n g s f o r l i m i t a t i o n s were u s e d . Water Q u a l i t y - a f f e c t s a l l uses r e q u i r i n g d r i n k i n g w a t e r as w e l l as s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s such as sw imming , b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g . S t a n l e y (1973) d e f i n e d t h r e e i m p o r t a n t w a t e r q u a l i t y l e v e l s w h i c h r e l a t e t y p e o f use t o a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s , t h e s e a re g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 9 . The Work ing Group on Water Q u a l i t y O b j e c t i v e s (1977 ) d e s c r i b e numerous p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l and m i c r o b i a l c r i t e r i a t h a t d e t e r m i n e a g i v e n w a t e r b o d y ' s q u a l i t y l e v e l . Fo r t h i s s t u d y ' s pu rposes t h r e e f a c t o r s a re i m p o r t a n t : t r a c e m e t a l s , d i s s o l v e d oxygen and c o l i f o r m c o u n t s (Chess 1 9 7 9 , Smi th and Cameron 1 9 7 5 ) . The a c c e p t e d v a l u e s the Work ing Group on Water Q u a l i t y O b j e c t i v e s (1977 ) d e f i n e d f o r t h e s e f a c t o r s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f use ( e g . p u b l i c w a t e r s u p p l y o r swimming) were used t o d e f i n e the maximum v a l u e f o r each f a c t o r a t t he t h r e e q u a l i t y l e v e l s ; see A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-9 f o r each s t a n d a r d ' s p e r t i n e n t c r i t e r i a . - 148 -Haza rds - can a f f e c t most wa te r based a c t i v i t i e s . The e f f e c t o f h a z a r d s depends on t h e s e v e r i t y o f t he p rob l em and whether o r not management u n d e r t a k e s t o remove the h a z a r d s . Manage-ment does not c l e a r h a z a r d s f o r c e r t a i n uses such as t h o s e i n c a t e g o r i e s I and I I , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e s e uses a r e d i s r u p t e d or p r e v e n t e d by h a z a r d s . In c a ses where management does remove h a z a r d s use i s not a f f e c t e d , bu t m a i n t e n a c e c o s t s a r e . The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s t o measure f o r t h e Yukon R i v e r a r e : (1 ) d e b r i s a c c u m u l a t i o n - t y p e ; f r e q u e n c y ; l o w , medium o r h i g h degree o f danger a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sweepers and l o g j a m s , (2 ) s h a l l o w n e s s and channe l s t a b i l i t y - t h e abundance , d i s -t r i b u t i o n , f r e q u e n c y o f change and dep th o f s a n d b a r s ; f a c t o r s p r i m a r i l y i m p o r t a n t t o l a r g e w a t e r c r a f t , and (3 ) bank ove rhang - e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l and p e r c e n t o f o v e r -h a n g . A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-5 g i v e s the e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s e d ; R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B ranch (1976 ) c a t e g o r i e s were used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g bank o v e r h a n g . Bank - a f f e c t s the ease and c o m f o r t o f a c c e s s t o w a t e r and s h o r e l i n e a c t i v i t i e s f o r uses h a v i n g no s i t e m o d i f i c a t i o n , and d e v e l -opment c o s t s o f uses f o r wh i ch m o d i f i c a t i o n i s p e r m i s s i b l e . Impo r t an t measures i n c l u d e : bank h e i g h t , bank a n g l e and bank v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s e s ( f r o m Hooper 1977a) and bank s l u m p i n g c l a s s e s ( f r o m R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B ranch 1 9 7 6 ) . - 149 -5 . 1 . 4 W i l d l i f e Abundance - a f f e c t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v i e w i n g and h u n t i n g . The s i g -n i f i c a n t s p e c i e s f o r v i e w i n g , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g a r e : g r i z z l y b e a r , b l a c k b e a r , moose , w o l f , t h i n h o r n s h e e p , s m a l l mammals, w a t e r f o w l , b a l d e a g l e s , and o t h e r r a p t o r s . The d e -f i n i t i o n o f abundance l e v e l s used h e r e i n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 1 0 . The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s a r e h a b i t a t t y p e s and abundance i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s . D e s c r i p t i o n s f o r h a b i t a t t y p e s a r e f r o m H o e f s ( p e r s . comm. 1 9 7 9 ) , Doug l a s ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Gasaway ( p e r s . comm. 1979) and K e l -l e y h o u s e ( p e r s . comm. 1 9 8 0 ) . In A p p e n d i x T a b l e A5-11 h a b i -t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each s p e c i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . C o m p o s i t i o n - a f f e c t s t h e same t o u r i s m o p p o r t u n i t i e s and i n v o l v e s t h e same s p e c i e s as a b o v e . The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s a r e h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s and w i l d l i f e c o m p o s i t i o n l e v e l s f o r d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s and s p e c i f i c a n i m a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . P o p u l a t i o n Growth Ra te - a f f e c t s t h e l e v e l o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d f o r h u n t i n g . I m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a r e s u r v i v a l and r e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s , h a b i t a t t y p e s , manage-ment p r a c t i c e s and d i s t u r b a n c e l e v e l . An i m p o r t a n t measure w h i c h d e p e n d s , i n p a r t , on g rowth r a t e i s hunt e f f o r t . The q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r hunt e f f o r t a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e A 5 - 1 2 . - 150 -Haza rd - a f f e c t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . B ea r s and bugs a r e t h e two p o s s i b l e h a z a r d s . The deg ree o f h a z a r d i s r a t e d as none , s l i g h t , modera te o r s e v e r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r anch (1976) s t a n d a r d s . .5 F i s h Abundance - a f f e c t s v i e w i n g and c a t c h s u c c e s s . P o p u l a t i o n s i z e i s t h e b a s i c measu re . The i m p o r t a n t c a t e g o r i e s a r e a b u n d a n t , common, uncommon, and r a r e . These c a t e g o r i e s a r e d e f i n e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 1 0 . C o m p o s i t i o n - a f f e c t s t h e e d i b i l i t y o f f i s h , and t h e v i e w i n g o f f i s h and f i s h r u n s . S i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i e s a r e : c h i n o o k s a l m o n , chum s l a m o n , g r a y l i n g and l a k e t r o u t . P o p u l a t i o n Growth Ra te - a f f e c t s t h e l e v e l o f s u s t a i n a b l e y i e l d f o r s p o r t s f i s h i n g , and h a r v e s t i n g f o r t o u r i s t mea l s such as s a l -mon b a r b e q u e s . Key f a c t o r s a r e : h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s , ne t r e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s t y p e s o f h a b i t a t d i s t u r b a n c e and ne t r e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . C a t c h a b i l i t y o f F i s h - a f f e c t s s u c c e s s o f s p o r t s f i s h i n g . Two b a s i c f a c t o r s a f f e c t c a t c h a b i l i t y , t h e s e a r e t h e p r o p e n s i t y o f t h e f i s h t o b i t e and t h e number o f s u i t a b l e s p o r t s f i s h i n a g i v e n l a k e o r r i v e r . The u s u a l measure o f c a t c h a b i l i t y i s c a t c h e f f o r t . Q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s v a r y somewhat a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i e s . These a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e A 5 - 1 3 . - 151 -5 . 1 . 6 H i s t o r i c S t a t e o f R e p a i r - a f f e c t s the s e n s i t i v i t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the s i t e t o d i f f e r e n t u s e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme o r S y n e r -gy West (1975 ) was u s e d . The d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s a re l i s t e d b e l o w : (1 ) u n s a l v a g a b l e (2) b a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d (3 ) r e q u i r e s ma jor expense t o r e s t o r e (4 ) r e a s o n a b l e c o n d i t i o n (5 ) e s s e n t i a l l y who le s t r u c t u r e r e m a i n s . S i z e o f B u i l d i n g - a f f e c t s h i s t o r i c v i e w i n g and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . The i m p o r t a n t measures i n r e l a t i o n t o s i z e a r e : - number o f b e d s / b u i l d i n g - maximum number o f u s e r s a t any one t i m e . 5.2 SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL LIMITATION FACTORS S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n v o l v e s two t y p e s o f f a c -t o r s : (a ) p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e n s i t y o r c o n -g e s t i o n l e v e l s , and (b ) a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l appea rance and r e s o u r c e s u i t a b i l i t y f o r d e s i r e d e x p e r i e n c e . Bo th were c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . - 152 -5 .2 .1 P e r c e p t u a l F a c t o r s T a b l e 5-2 l i s t s t h e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n s t a n t a n e o u s p e r c e p t u a l c a p a c i t y . Fo r e x p e r i e n c e g roups I t o I I I w i l d e r n e s s f a c t o r s d o m i n a t e , t h e s e f a c t o r s can be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n -d i v i d u a l ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r i v a c y , s o l i t u d e , t r a n q u i l i t y , and l a c k o f c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e o r e v i d e n c e o f man. In g roups IV t o V I I t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o s e r v i c e q u a l i t y o r what a r e o f t e n t e rmed q u e u i n g f a c t o r s ( J u b e n v i l l e 1 9 7 6 , P a n i c o 1 9 6 9 , Newe l l 1 9 7 1 ) . A f i n a l t y p e o f p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s , ( r e s o u r c e use c o n f l i c t s ) a f f e c t a l l e x p e r i e n c e g roups ( I - V I I ) . Management i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such c o n f l i c t s ; p r o p e r p l a n n i n g can m i t i g a t e most r e s o u r c e and t o u r i s m use i n c o m p a t a b i 1 i t i e s . U n l i k e f a c t o r s i n T a b l e 5-1 t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s were not b roken down and r e l a t e d t o r i v e r , s h o r e l i n e and h i n t e r l a n d a r e a s . Such a breakdown i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e d e n s i t y p e r c e p t i o n s a r e c aused p r i -m a r i l y by s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , w h i c h have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h s p e c i -f i c a r e a s . However , t h e a r e a w h i c h can be r e l a t e d t o some f a c t o r s i s e a s i l y d e d u c e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , q u e u i n g f a c t o r s a p p l y t o d e v e l o p -ments wh i ch f o r t h e most p a r t , w o u l d be l o c a t e d i n t h e s h o r e l i n e a r e a . The a r e a l e x t e n t o f o t h e r f a c t o r s such as v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y c o u l d a p p l y t o a l l t h r e e a r e a s d e p e n d i n g on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c r i -t i c a l v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s . Each f a c t o r i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . - 153 -T a b l e 5-2 F a c t o r s I m p o r t a n t f o r D e t e r m i n i n g I n s t a n t a n e o u s P e r c e p t u a l Use L i m i t s f o r Each E x p e r i e n c e Type (Key : X - i n d i c a t e s f a c t o r i m p o r t a n t t o e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y ) E x p e r i e n c e C a t e g o r y / F a c t o r s Ia Ib I I I I I IV V VI V I I BIOPHYSICAL v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y X X X X X - -t o p o g r a p h i c v a r i e t y X X X X X - -LOCATION OF INTERACTION a t s i t e X X X X - - - -en r o u t e X X X X - - -p e r i p h e r y v s . i n t e r i o r X X X X - - -CONTACT PARTY FEATURES s i z e o f g roup X X X X - - -mode o f t r a v e l X X X X - - -LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT 1 e x i s t i n g l e v e l X X X _ _ _ _ ACCESS IB IL ITY , e x i s t i n g a c c e s s X X X _ _ _ _ EVIDENCE OF OTHER GROUPS l i t t e r X X X X OTHER USE COMPATABILITY m i n i n g / f o r e s t r y / h yd ro X X X X X X X X r o a d s / h o m e s t e a d s X X X ~ ~o ~ ~ c o m m u n i t i e s X X X X X t o u r i s m X X X X - - -SPATIAL/QUEUING s i z e o f a c t i v i t y v s . # o f beds - - X X X X s i z e o f s e r v i c e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e v s . # o f beds - - X X X X ^ A p p l i e s o n l y f o r t h e p r i s t i n e t y p e I I h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . 2 May o r may n o t be a f a c t o r d e p e n d i n g on s i z e o f communi ty and d i s r u p t i o n i t c auses t o p e r c e p t i o n o f n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . - 154 -5 . 2 . 1 . 1 W i l d e r n e s s Q u a l i t y F a c t o r s v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y - a f f e c t s v i s u a l s c r e e n i n g and l i k e l i h o o d o f s e e i n g o t h e r p e o p l e . Impor t an t f a c t o r s t o measure i n c l u d e : g r a s s l a n d ( p o o r ) , open f o r e s t ( f a i r ) , c l o s e d f o r e s t ( g o o d ) . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f Oswald and K i n g (1980) f o r g r a s s l a n d and open and c l o s e d f o r e s t were u s e d . t o p o g r a p h i c v a r i e t y - has the same s c r e e n i n g a f f e c t as v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y . I m p o r t a n t measures he re a r e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l t y p e s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y p i t t e d g round m o r a i n e s ) and t h e s l o p e v a r i e t y c l a s s e s o f B e a u b i e r and P i e r c e ( 1 9 7 4 ) . l o c a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n - a f f e c t s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s . G e n e r a l l y p e o p l e a re more t o l e r a n t o f e n c o u n t e r s w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g and i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l a r e a o f a w i l d e r n e s s r e g i o n ; t h e y a r e l e a s t t o l e r a n t o f c o n t a c t w h i l e a t a camp-s i t e o r i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t he w i l d e r n e s s a r e a ( S t ankey 1 9 7 3 , Lime 1 9 7 6 , Lucus 1 9 6 4 ) . Impo r t an t f a c t o r s a re d i s -t a n c e f rom t h e a c c e s s p o i n t and the s i z e o f t h e c a m p s i t e . c o n t a c t p a r t y f e a t u r e s - e n c o u n t e r s w i t h l a r g e p a r t i e s have nega-, t i v e i m p a c t s on u s e r s ' w i l d e r n e s s p e r c e p t i o n ( C a t t o n 1 9 6 9 , L ime 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 , P e t e r s o n 1 9 7 1 ) . The key f a c t o r s a re t h e s i z e o f t h e g roups and t h e number o f e n c o u n t e r s t o l e r a t e d by each e x p e r i e n c e g r o u p . The mode o f t r a v e l o f p a r t i e s a l s o - 155 -a f f e c t s t h e u s e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y n o n - m o t o r i z e d g roups a r e l e s s t o l e r a n t t h a n m o t o r i z e d p a r t i e s . S i m i l a r i -ty, h i k e r s a r e more demanding t h a n h o r s e b a c k r i d e r s (Hendee , C a t t o n , Mar low and Brockman 1 9 6 8 ; L ime 1 9 7 2 ; P r i d d l e and C l a r k 1 9 7 4 ) . The key f a c t o r s he re a r e t o l e r a n c e l e v e l s o f p e o p l e u s i n g t h e v a r i o u s modes g i v e n i n T a b l e 4-12 f o r e n -c o u n t e r s w i t h p a r t i e s u s i n g each o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t modes. l e v e l o f deve lopment - w i l d e r n e s s p u r i s t s have an a v e r s i o n t o any deve lopment (Hendee , C a t t o n , Mar low and Brockman 1 9 6 8 ; S t a n k e y 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t o a s s e s s a re t h e number and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e a r e d c a m p s i t e s , s a n i -t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p -men t s . a c c e s s i b i l i t y - l a c k o f road a c c e s s i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ( P e t e r s o n 1971) f o r some u s e r s ( i e . e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y I ) , w h i l e r e s t r i c t e d road a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s i m p o r -t a n t t o o t h e r s ( i e . c a t e g o r i e s I I and I I I ) . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s a r e l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g a c c e s s . Note t h a t a c c e s s i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f more d e v e l o p e d uses ( i e . c a t e g o r i e s I I I t o V I I ) ; howeve r , such s i t e a c c e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s as t h e y have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h p e r c e p t u a l d e n s i t y l i m i t a t i o n s . - 156 -5 . 2 . 1 . 2 Queu ing F a c t o r s Queu ing e s s e n t i a l l y has t o do w i t h the l e n g t h o f t ime spen t w a i t -i n g i n l i n e - u p s . Two f a c t o r s a re i m p o r t a n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a c -c e p t a b l e q u e u i n g v a l u e s ( P a n i c o 1 9 6 9 ) : (1 ) t h e number o f peop l e e x p e c t e d t o want a s e r v i c e , and (2 ) t h e l e n g t h o f t ime t h e s e p e o p l e w i l l use the s e r v i c e . T o u r i s m p l a n n e r s a re g e n e r a l l y w e l l aware of the t y p e and q u a n t i t y o f a c t i v i t y , s e r v i c e and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e deve lopmen t s needed t o s a t i s f y d i f f e r e n t numbers o f p e o p l e . Fo r e x a m p l e , F i g u r e 5-7 i l -l u s t r a t e s o v e r a l l l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e s o r t t y p e s . S p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d s a re a v a i l a b l e f o r the s i z e o f a c t i v i t y space v s . number o f b e d s , and f o r t h e s i z e o f s e r v i c e s and i n f r a s t r u c -t u r e v s . number o f beds f o r d i f f e r e n t u s e s . S i n c e t h e s e s t a n d a r d s a r e d e r i v e d by t o u r i s m p l a n n e r s , p r e sumab l y t o m a i n t a i n s u i t a b l e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s , i t was assumed t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s took q u e u i n g f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S t a n d a r d s used a re f rom Baud-Bovy and Lawson ( 1 9 7 7 ) , C a n a d i a n Government O f f i c e o f T o u r i s m ( 1 9 8 0 ) , H a l l ( 1 9 7 4 ) , F o r b a t h a ( 1 9 6 6 ) , P a rks Canada ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and O n t a r i o R e c r e a t i o n S u p p l y I n v e n t o r y Task F o r c e ( 1 9 7 5 ) . 5 . 2 . 1 . 3 R e s o u r c e Use C o n f l i c t F a c t o r s O t h e r Use C o m p a t i b i l i t y - The r e s o u r c e use c o m p a t i b i l i t y m a t r i x i n C h a p t e r Three ( F i g u r e 3-3) i l l u s t r a t e s the g e n e r a l t y p e s o f use w h i c h a re i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h v a r i o u s t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s . The f a c -t o r s t o c o n s i d e r f o r measurement pu rposes a r e : t he c o m p a t i b i l i -- 157 -F i g u r e 5-1: Examp les o f Land D e n s i t y Ranges Used by T o u r i s m P l a n n e r s f o r D i f f e r e n t Types o f R e s o r t s . O v e r a l l D e n s i t i e s i n R e s o r t s i s R e l a t e d t o t h e Type o f B u i l d i n g Used t o Accomoda te G u e s t s . SKI RESORTS IZZZZZZU-6 STORY BUILDINGS I/////////1 P-3 STORY BUILDINGS IZZZ2ZZ3 LIMIT FOR INDIVIDUAL UNITS LZZZZZ2 WIDLEY DISPERSED INDIVIDUAL UNITS i ' i ' t i i i i i i i i i i i i t i i SEA a LAKE RESORTS l / X X X X X X X X X y l MULTI-STORY HOTELS • Honolulu \///S//7 r7 r7[ 4-6 STORY BUILDINGS [ZZZZZZZ2 2-3 STORY BUILDINGS • Bali IZZZZZZ1 LIMIT FOR INDIVIDUAL UNITS • Club Med Villages FZZZZ3 WIDLEY DISPERSED INDIVIDUAL UNHTS J I i I I i i i t | i i i i l I i i L 20 40 60 80 TOO 120 140 160 180 200 OVERALL DENSITY (BEDS PER HA) - 158 -t i e s o f each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h e v a r -i o u s e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e uses o f t h e C o r r i d o r . E v i d e n c e o f O t h e r U s e r s - T h i s c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n s t o w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y f a c t o r s as w e l l as r e s o u r c e use c o n f l i c t f a c t o r s . W i th r e g a r d t o w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t g a r b a g e , t r e e c a r v i n g s , r ock s i g n s , wanton c h o p p i n g o f t r e e s and o t h e r s i g n s o f human p r e s e n c e a f f e c t p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f o v e r u s e ( e g . P r i d d l e and C l a r k 1 9 7 4 , S t ankey 1 9 7 3 , P e t e r s o n 1 9 7 1 ) . S i m i l a r i t y , u n -p l e a s a n t s i g n s o f human d e s p o i l i n g cause p e r c e p t i o n s o f o v e r u s e f o r n o n - w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s . The p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r r e -s o u r c e uses can a l s o cause d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . A m i n i n g o r f o r e s t r y c l e a r c u t w i l l o b v i o u s l y e rode t h e q u a l i t y o f a w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i -e n c e . The e f f e c t o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses on n o n - w i l d e r n e s s p e r c e p -t i o n s a r e more c o m p l e x . A p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e use may c o n f l i c t w i t h some t o u r i s m uses and not w i t h o t h e r s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n -no t be made about t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses w i t h n o n - w i l d e r n e s s t o u r i s m u s e s ; each use has t o be examined s e p a r a t e -l y because t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f n o n - w i l d e r n e s s u s e r s do not have a u n i f o r m p e r c e p t i o n o f what a c t i o n s a r e d i s t a s t e f u l . F o r i n s t a n c e , some u s e r s may t o l e r a t e o r encou rage p r a c t i c e s w h i c h o t h e r s c o n s i -d e r a b h o r r e n t , such as e r e c t i o n o f b i l l b o a r d s , o r c r i s s - c r o s s i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e w i t h dune buggy t r a i l s . The w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y a s p e c t o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n was not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h l i t t e r i n g i s a f a c t o r w h i c h a l l e x p e r i -- 159 -ence t y p e s ag ree i s d e t r i m e n t a l , c o n t r o l measures and p r o p e r m a i n -t e n a n c e c a n , t o a l a r g e d e g r e e , nega te l i t t e r p r o b l e m s . T h e r e -f o r e , i t was assumed t h e s t u d y a rea would have p r o p e r waste man-agement and l i t t e r i n g wou ld neve r become a l i m i t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a -c i t y f a c t o r . 5 . 2 . 2 A t t r a c t i v e n e s s F a c t o r s The r e l e v a n t a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r Four ( see T a b l e 4 - 7 ) . Some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a re s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e d by c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e o t h e r s a re g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c a t t r i b u t e s . The t a s k here i s t o d e t e r m i n e a method f o r q u a n t i f y i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o m e a n i n g f u l q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Numerous methods have been p roposed f o r m e a s u r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s ( e g . L i t t o n 1 9 6 8 , C r a i k 1972 , T e t l o w and Sheppard 1 9 7 7 , S h a f e r and M i e t z 1 9 7 0 , Resource A n a l y s i s B ranch 1977 , and Zube , B rush and Fabos 1 9 7 5 ) . None o f t h e s e m e t h o d s , howeve r , can p roduce q u a n t i f i e d , r e p r o d u c a b l e r a t i n g s f o r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s (Zube 1 9 7 3 ) , l e t a l o n g p r e d i c t q u a l i t y t h r e s h o l d s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was c o n c l u d e d a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r s c o u l d not be a s s e s s e d f o r c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y p u r p o s e s . Because t h e s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i -t i e s a re known, such as duck h u n t i n g r e q u i r i n g d u c k s , t h i s a s p e c t o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s can be q u a n t i f i e d . The same app roach as the - 160 -Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ( 1 9 6 6 ) used f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and mapping r e c -r e a t i o n f e a t u r e s was used t o d e f i n e t h e s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e -ments o f s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and t o map t h e i r e x t e n t w i t h i n t h e c o r r i d o r . The s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s examined were a l l t h o s e i n T a b l e 4-7 w h i c h have e s s e n t i a l ( f ^ q ) d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e f a c t o r s , as w e l l as one a c t i v i t y i d e n t i f i e d f rom t h e l i t e r a t u r e , s h o r e l i n e wi lderness/Drimit ive c a m p i n g . S h o r e l i n e w i l d e r n e s s / p r i m a t i v e camping was i n c l u d e d because i t c o u l d be s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n e d by s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e i t has s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T a b l e 5-3 p r e s e n t s t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e i r r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s a n a l y s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e more g e n e r a l i z e d a t t r a c t i v e n e s s a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , he re t h e f o c u s i s on s p e c i f i c s i t e s and r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s i n s t e a d o f t h e l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d t h e g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s s t u d i e d . Most o f t h e r e s o u r c e f a c t o r s have a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d . H e n c e , t h e a n a l y s i s s i m p l y i n v o l v e d e v a l u a t i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l s e t o f s t a n d a r d s ; t h o s e f o r t h e s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s . Two a c t i v i t i e s , g o l d p a n n i n g and w i l d e r n e s s / p r i m i t i v e camping do r e q u i r e an assessmen t o f new f e a t u r e s and c o l l e c t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l d a t a . These new r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s as w e l l as t h e s p e c i f i c q u a l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r most a c t i v i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . New q u a l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e not g i v e n f o r f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , w i l d l i f e / f i s h v i e w i n g , o r t r a p p i n g ; t h e same s t a n d a r d s - 161 -T a b l e 5-3 S p e c i a l i z e d A c t i v i t i e s and E s s e n t i a l Resource , R e q u i r e m e n t s N e c e s s a r y R e s o u r c e F a c t o r s S p e c i a l i z e d  A c t i v i t y ( i e s ) s h o r e ! i n e w i l d e r n e s s / p r i m i t i v e camping o E s- C D o to +-> O M— to •r- " O " O CU r— O 1 — CU c o • r - CU re Q . to rC o __ rC s_ o s-1 _3 •1—* to SZ Z3 •— o to </) i — o +-> to CU T -"I— ro S- cu r — • CU > +J <u > to E (0 S- cu o N o to T 3 E • i — u T J ro " 1 — + J sz S- <o o to +-> s-1 ro to M— •r— E • r - 4— (0 4 - 4 J ITS o •r— S- •r— X I S- O CU O -t-> • i — 4 - i — s- i — o q - ro u SZ CU " D QJ i — +-> __ CU to E to i — • +-> ro to o O Q . "r— (O • 1 — •i— rO E • I — rO ro to M— CD q - 3: 2 to sz f i s h i n g x x - - -h u n t i n g - - - - - x x t r a p p i n g _ _ _ _ _ _ v i ewi ng w i l d l i f e / f i s h v i ewi ng h i s t o r i c / a r c h a e o l o g i c s i t e s n a t i v e sa lmon f i s h i n g g o l d p a n n i n g M d o w n h i l l x s k i i n g Key : x M - e s s e n t i a l - f a c t o r , - d a t a a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e f rom . i n v e n t o r y f o r b i o p h y s i c a l a n d - p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r - more d a t a - r e q u i r e d -162 -d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y f o r b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s were used ( see S e c -t i o n 5 . 1 . 4 and 5 . 1 . 5 ) . S h o r e l i n e W i l d e r n e s s P r i m i t i v e Camping E i g h t f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Hooper (1977a) were used t o a s s e s s t h e s h o r e l i n e ' s c a p a c i t y f o r p r i m i t i v e c a m p s i t e s . These f a c t o r s and t h e i r l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w . F a c t o r g round m a t e r i a l g round s l o p e s h o r e - t y p e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n o v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n boa t l a n d i n g c a m p f i r e s u i t a b i l i t y L i m i t i n g C o n d i t i o n s o i l t h i n , p o o r l y d r a i n e d s u r f a c e uneven 10° i n a c c e s s i b l e , f o r e s h o r e h i g h e r t h a n 9m and 30° s l o p e 40% c o v e r c l o s e d f o r e s t f a s t c u r r e n t , b o u l d e r s , no b e a c h , s h o r e - t y p e as g i v e n above o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l , dense v e g e t a t i o n V i e w i n g H i s t o r i c / A r c h a e o l o g i c S i t e s The e x i s t e n c e o f a s i t e i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . S i t e r a t i n g s were based on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by Synergy West ( 1 9 7 5 ) . - 163 -V a l u e S i t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1 S m a l 1 . . . o t h e r s i m i l a r s i t e s . . . r e q u i r e s com-p l e m e n t a r y deve lopment 2 Not s p e c i a l . . . a f f e c t e d by c o n f l i c t i n g a d j a -c en t l a n d u s e s . 3 A m i n o r t o u r i s t d e l a y . . . c o m p l e m e n t s ma jor d e l a y s . 4 One o f a s e r i e s o f m ino r d e s t i n a t i o n s . . . a l a r g e s i t e . . . g o o d a c c e s s . 5 P r o v i d e s a d e s t i n a t i o n i n i t s e l f . . . m a j o r t o u r i s t d e l a y . G o l d p a n n i n g G o l d p a n n i n g can o c c u r at an i n t e n s i v e or e x t e n s i v e l e v e l o f u s e . Here t h e o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s f o r t h e i n t e n s i v e t y p e , wh i ch has v e r y s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e demands u n l i k e e x t e n s i v e use wh i ch can o c -c u r o ve r w i d e s p r e a d a r e a s . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a r e : (1 ) g o l d i s known t o o c c u r at t h e s i t e , and (2) t h e a r e a i s w e l l known ( R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s B r anch 1 9 7 6 ) . The r a t i n g f o r f a c t o r (1 ) was s i m p l y p r e s e n c e or absence o f c o l o u r . F a c t o r (2 ) was r a t e d u s i n g t h e same s c a l e as was used f o r h i s t o r i c / a r c h a e o l o g i c s i t e s a b o v e . D o w n h i l l S k i i n g Fo r s k i i n g t h e p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s a r e : s n o w c o v e r , s l o p e , v e r t i c a l d rop and o r i e n t a t i o n . The r e q u i r e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r each f a c t o r a r e as f o l l o w s ( f r o m Baud-Bovy and Lawson 1 9 7 7 ) : - 164--Factor Required Conditions slope average 15°, with some steep sections up to 35° vertical drop 1,000m for national interest, 100-200m for local interest orientation north and east snow cover at least 4 months for national/international interest and at least 100 cm i f not man-made Fishing, Hunting, Trapping and Viewing Wildlife/Fish The quality classifications already described for wildlife and fish abundance and catchability (see Appendix Table A5-10) were used to assess the Corridor's suitability for fishing, hunting, trapping and viewing wildlife and fish. In addition to these standards, hunting was excluded from areas of human settlement and tourism developments (eg. campsites) for safety reasons. Activity Minimum Acceptable Standard Fishing (including Catchability - moderate native salmon fishing) Hunting and Trapping Hunt Effort - moderate Hunting No settlements or campsites Viewing Wildlife/Fish Abundance - common 5.3 DAILY CAPACITY FACTORS Three types of factors were identified from the literature which are important in determining the daily capacity for users: - 165 -(1 ) t h e n a t u r e o f t he a c t i v i t y ( t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e a c t i v i t y , i e . g o l d pann ing may r e q u i r e l e s s than two h o u r s , c o t t a g i n g may r e q u i r e s e v e r a l hours t o s e v e r a l m o n t h s ) ; (2 ) number o f hours per day u s e r s a re a c t i v e ; and (3 ) p h y s i c a l f l o w f a c t o r s ( i e . c u r r e n t o f r i v e r , speed of h i k e r s , and speed o f t r a v e l mode - m o t o r b o a t v s . c anoe ) The f i r s t two f a c t o r s have t o do w i t h s i t e use r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e t h i r d has t o do w i t h c r o w d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s e n r o u t e . V a l u e s were d e r i v e d f o r t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s , t h e y a re g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 6 a l o n g w i t h t h e i r s o u r c e s . ANNUAL CAPACITY FACTORS The annua l c a p a c i t y depends upon the number o f days d u r i n g the y e a r when i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y . The season l e n g t h f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s depends upon one or more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (1 ) c l i m a t e - l e n g t h o f summer, snow, s u n s h i n e , (2 ) h y d r o l o g y - l e n g t h o f i c e c o v e r , (3 ) w i l d l i f e - s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f w i l d l i f e , l e g a l h u n t i n g s e a s o n , (4 ) f i s h - s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f f i s h , l e g a l f i s h i n g s e a s o n . The v a l u e s f o r most o f t h e s e f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r ( see T a b l e 4 - 2 ) . From t h e s e v a l u e s , t h e season l e n g t h f o r the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s was d e d u c e d ; t h e r e s u l t s a re g i v e n i n C h a p t e r S i x . - 166 -INVENTORY OF RESOURCE CHARACTERISTICS The r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i t y l e v e l s w h i c h need t o be i n v e n t o r i e d a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p -t e r . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i n v e n t o r y w e r e : (1) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e use l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each f a c t o r ' s q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s , and (2 ) t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f each l i m i t i n g f a c t o r o r c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e c o r r i d o r . To f u l f i l l t h e second o b j e c t a s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d o f t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f e v e r y p e r t i n e n t b i o p h y s i c a l , h i s t o r i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . Such a s u r v e y may be c o n d u c t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t w a y s ; namely t h e t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h o r t h e b i o p h y -s i c a l a p p r o a c h ( E a s t e t a l 1 9 7 9 ) . The t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h i n v o l v e d c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n : c l i m a t e , l a n d f o r m s , s o i l s , f l o r a , f a u n a , and g e o l o g y , h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e e t c ( B a s t edo 1 9 7 9 ) . The b i o -p h y s i c a l a p p r o a c h i s p r i m a r i l y based on L a c a t e ' s (1969) s y s t em o f l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n v o l v e s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on l a n d f o r m s , s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n . The ma jo r d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e b i o p h y s i c a l and t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h i s t h a t t h e b i o p h y s i c a l a p -p r o a c h combines a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t o one map o f l a n d s c a p e u n i t s whereas t h e t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h r e s u l t s i n s e p a r a t e maps f o r each t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A l a n d s c a p e i s an a r e a o f l a n d assumed t o p o s s e s s homogeneous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h was chosen f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : - 167 -- H i s t o r i c , c u l t u r a l and a r c h e o l o g i c r e s o u r c e s canno t be i n t e -g r a t e d w i t h n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n t o homogeneous u n i t s . P a t t e r n s o f human phenomena do not u s u a l l y f o l l o w t h e same p a t t e r n s as t h o s e f o r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . - The r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h need t o be known v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s , h e n c e , g e n e r a l i z e d r e s o u r c e u n i t s wou ld be m i s l e a d i n g f o r many a c t i v i t i e s . - I n s t e a d o f e v a l u a t i n g v e g e t a t i o n - l a n d f o r m - s o i 1 u n i t s , e v a l u a t i o n can i n c l u d e components such as w i l d l i f e , h i s t o r i c s i t e s o r f l o r a , w h i c h i n many c a s e s a r e t h e most s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s f rom t o u r i s m . The i n v e n t o r y i n v o l v e d c o l l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f bo th p r i -mary and s e c o n d a r y d a t a . Most o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn f rom s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . The t y p e s o f s e c o n d a r y d a t a i n c l u d e d : maps such a s : - s o i l maps f rom R o n s t a d e t a l ( 1 9 7 7 ) , - N o r t h e r n Land Use I n f o r m a t i o n S e r i e s , and - v e g e t a t i o n and e c o r e g i o n maps f rom Oswald and K i n g ( 1 9 8 0 ) . p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o : - t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r , - p e r c e p t u a l d e n s i t y s t u d i e s , and - r e s o u r c e impac t s e n s i t i v i t i e s . Most o f t h e map and p u b l i c a t i o n m a t e r i a l was a v a i l a b l e i n p u b -l i s h e d f o r m . Some u n p u b l i s h e d maps and r e p o r t s o f government a g e n c i e s were a l s o u s e d . - 168 -P r i m a r y d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f o r t h r e e p u r p o s e s : (1 ) t o d e t e r m i n e the a r e a l e x t e n t o f v a r i o u s v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , (2 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a t -t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , s h o r e l i n e w i l d e r n e s s / p r i m i t i v e c a m p i n g , f o r wh i ch e x i s t i n g d a t a was l a c k i n g , and (3 ) t o o b t a i n o p i n i o n s f rom k n o w l e d g e a b l e e x p e r t s about u n p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n such as w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s , p r e s e n t marke t e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e n -s i t y p r e f e r e n c e s . Da ta was c o l l e c t e d f o r each o f t h e above pu rposes u s i n g the f o l l o w -i n g m e t h o d s . Pu rpose (1 ) - a i r p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - s a t e l l i t e image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u s i n g a c o l o u r a d d i t i v e v i e w e r - 35 mm c o l o u r s l i d e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f pho tog raphs t a k e n d u r i n g a f i e l d t r i p t o t h e C o r r i d o r . Pu rpose (2 ) - s u r v e y o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s e ve r y 5 m i l e s a l o n g t h e r i v e r u s i n g a r e v i s i o n o f H o o p e r ' s (1977a ) p r o c e d u r e . See page 346 i n Append ix 5 f o r d e t a i l s on the method u s e d . Pu rpose (3 ) - i n t e r v i e w s w i t h k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s and t o u r o p e r a t o r s . - 169 -CALCULATING THE USE LEVELS FOR DIFFERENT LIMITING FACTORS FOR EACH EXPERIENCE CATEGORY P r e c i s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y were s e l e c t e d f rom t h e numerous s t a n d a r d s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s C h a p t e r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y d e f i n i t i o n s i n C h a p t e r F o u r . Once each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y ' s s t a n d a r d s were e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e use l e v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d i n t h e o r y be s i m p l e . Fo r i n s t a n c e , a l l one needs t o do t o a r r i v e a t t h e use l e v e l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a s t a n d a r d such as 85 p e r c e n t n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i s t o d e t e r m i n e the maximum number o f p e o p l e an a r e a can accommodate w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g t h e 85 p e r c e n t s t a n d a r d . In p r a c t i c e t h i s p roved t o be f a r f rom a s i m p l e t a s k ; not o n l y were t h e r e s u b s t a n t i a l gaps i n knowledge about the a r e a ' s e c o l o g y and p e o p l e ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e f e r e n c e , knowledge r e l a t i n g use l e v e l s t o a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e C o r r i d o r was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . N o t h i n g was known, f o r i n s t a n c e , about t h e number o f t i m e s a t e n t c o u l d be p i t c h e d i n a mixed s p r u c e - a s p e n f o r e s t b e f o r e more t han 15 p e r c e n t o f i t s n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n was k i l l e d . How then were use l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d ? By mak ing numerous assump-t i o n s , and e x t r a p o l a t i n g f i n d i n g s f rom s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o p i p e l i n e i m p a c t s , P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t park and r e c r e a t i o n u s e r i m p a c t s , and deve l opmen t s i n t h e Yukon o u t s i d e the s t u d y a r e a . The s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t o a r r i v e a t t he use l e v e l e s t i -mates used i n t h i s s t u d y a re p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r S i x . - 170 -ESTIMATING CARRYING CAPACITIES Once a l l t h e i n v e n t o r y and use l e v e l i n f o r m a t i o n was c o m p i l e d c a l c u l a t i n g each e x p e r i e n c e ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y was s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . I t i n v o l v e d c o m b i n i n g t h e i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r ' s use l e v e l , c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f t h e p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c a p a c i t y number f o r t h i s a r e a and summing t h i s v a l u e w i t h a l l o t h e r c a p a c i t y numbers t o a r r i v e a t an o v e r a l l number f o r t h e C o r r i d o r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n v o l v e d f i v e s t e p s . These s t e p s were f o l l o w e d f o r bo th e x p e r i e n c e t y p e and s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s a l t h o u g h o n l y e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s a p -pea red i n much o f t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n f o r b r e v i t y r e a s o n s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r o c e d u r e t h e s p e c i f i c c a l c u l a t i o n s w h i c h were made f o r b i g game h u n t i n g a r e d e s c r i b e d under each s t e p . S t ep 1. F o r each e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s i d e n t i f y t h e b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e i f an a r e a i s s u i t a b l e f o r an e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t d e t e r m i n e use l e v e l s f o r t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l e t o u s e . E x a m p l e : S u i t a b i l i t y f a c t o r s - p r e s e n c e o f moose , bea r o r sheep h a b i t a t . - s a f e d i s t a n c e f rom i n h a b i t e d a r e a s . - h u n t i n g a l l o w e d . - 171 -Use l e v e l f a c t o r s - b i o p h y s i c a l - p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f b i g game. - s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l - a c c e p t a b l e s p a c i n g o f b i g game h u n t e r s . - d a i l y t u r n o v e r - t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e a c t i v i t y . - annua l t u r n o v e r - l e g a l h u n t i n g s e a s o n . S t ep 2 . D e f i n e t h e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s o f t h e f o r e g o i n g s u i t a b i l i t y and use l e v e l f a c t o r s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e t y p e . E x a m p l e : S u i t a b i l i t y s t a n d a r d s - h a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f moose and b e a r . - a t l e a s t 5 km. away f rom any h a b i t a t i o n . - no h u n t i n g o f sheep a l l o w e d . Use l e v e l s t a n d a r d - b i o p h y s i c a l - m o d e r a t e hunt e f -f o r t , 0 . 14 a n i m a l s a v a i l a b l e per h u n t e r pe r y e a r . - s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l - s p a c i n g o f 130 h e c t a r e s / h u n t e r . - season l e n g t h - d e t e r m i n e d by h u n t i n g s e a s o n . - 172 -S tep 3. A p p l y t h e s u i t a b i l i t y s t a n d a r d s t o t h e i n v e n t o r y i n f o r -m a t i o n about t h e C o r r i d o r t o d e t e r m i n e what a r e a s a re s u i t a b l e f o r each e x p e r i e n c e . Examp le : Not enough d e t a i l e d mapping a v a i l a b l e t o e l i m i n a t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y h a b i t a t s . Assumed e n t i r e a r e a s u i t -a b l e e x c e p t f o r 5 km. zone a round s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e r e -f o r e 9785 k m 2 o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r h u n t i n g . S t ep 4 . A p p l y t h e use l e v e l s t a n d a r d s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e t y p e t o t h e s u i t a b l e a r eas and a r r i v e a t e s t i m a t e s o f annua l b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s a re e x p r e s s e d i n t e rms o f the number o f p e o p l e per a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e , hence c a l c u l a t i o n o f s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s i n v o l v e d d i v i d i n g t h e s u i t a b l e a r eas by t h e s p a c i n g s t a n d a r d and m u l t i p l y i n g by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e f a c t o r . B i o p h y s i c a l use l e v e l s t a n d a r d s a re e x p r e s s e d i n t e rms o f r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i e . 0 . 1 4 moose per h u n t e r ) t h e r e f o r e an a d d i t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n was needed t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f p e o p l e / a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e s t a n d a r d s . Examp le : S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l - t h e d a i l y e s t i m a t e was c a l c u -l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e s u i t a b l e a r e a (9785 km 2 ) by the s p a c i n g s t a n d a r d (130 h a / h u n t e r ) and then m u l t i -p l y i n g by the t u r n o v e r r a t e (1 ) t o a r r i v e at an e s t i -mate o f 7526 h u n t e r s per day f o r t h e c o r r i d o r . No annua l v a l u e was c a l c u l a t e d s i n c e t h i s d a i l y v a l u e i s h i g h e r t han the annua l b i o p h y s i c a l v a l u e . - 173 -B i o p h y s i c a l - t o c o n v e r t t h e use l e v e l s t a n d a r d o f 0 .14 a n i m a l s / h u n t e r t o t h e number o f p e o p l e / a r e a i t was n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e annua l h a r v e s t r a t e o f b i g game. The f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s were made t o e s t i m a t e t h e s u s t a i n a b l e moose and bea r annua l h a r v e s t : - t h e c o r r i d o r ' s moose p o p u l a t i o n i s a t t h e same d e n s i t y as i t i s i n c e n t r a l A l a s k a . - t h e s u s t a i n a b l e moose h a r v e s t r a t e i s 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . - t h e p r e s e n t h a r v e s t l e v e l o f 35 b e a r s i s equa l t o t h e s u s t a i n a b l e h a r v e s t r a t e . U s i n g t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s t h e annua l b i g game h a r v e s t was e s t i m a t e d t o be between 84 and 110 a n i m a l s . D i v i d i n g t h e s e h a r v e s t v a l u e s by hunt e f f o r t ( 0 . 1 4 ) r e s u l t e d i n an e s t i m a t e by 599 t o 786 h u n t e r s / y e a r f o r t h e c o r r i d o r . S t ep 5. Compare each e x p e r i e n c e ' s b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o -l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s , t h e l o w e s t v a l u e i s t h e o v e r a l l c a r r y -i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h e c o r r i d o r . Examp le : B i o p h y s i c a l e s t i m a t e - 599 t o 786 h u n t e r s / y e a r . S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l e s t i m a t e - 7526 h u n t e r s / d a y . O v e r a l l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r b i g game h u n t i n g - 600 t o 786 h u n t e r s / y e a r . - 174 -The example o f b i g game was u t i l i z e d because i t i s s i m p l e s t t o u n -d e r s t a n d . C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s were more c o m p l i c a t e d s i n c e t h e y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and t r a v e l p a t t e r n s o f t o u r i s t s . - 175 -CHAPTER S IX : CARRYING CAPACITY RESULTS INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r a p p l i e s t h e methods d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e t o a s p e c i f i c a r e a - t h e Yukon R i v e r C o r r i d o r . I t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t t h e me thodo logy i s i d e a l i s t i c ; numerous da t a gaps e x i s t . Hence , a ma jo r r e s u l t o f t he a n a l y s i s was t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n wh i ch a re needed t o p roduce a c c u r a t e use l e v e l e s t i m a t e s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e c a t e g o r y ( see T a b l e 6 - 1 ) . In g e n e r a l , two t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were l a c k i n g : - I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f use t o s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f s o c i a l and n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s . At p r e s e n t a few i n t e r -a c t i o n s have been d e f i n e d such as t r a m p l i n g i m p a c t s on s o i l m o i s -t u r e and v e g e t a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n . Fo r many o t h e r l i k e l y i m p a c t s no c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between use l e v e l and e n v i r o n m e n t has been e s -t a b l i s h e d ( e g . f i s h abundance i n r e l a t i o n t o w a t e r c r a f t t r a f f i c ) . - I n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e and marke t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In some c a se s where n o t h i n g i s known ( such as the s i z e o f t he w a t e r f o w l p o p u l a t i o n s ) b a s e l i n e d a t a a re needed , i n o t h e r s i t u a -t i o n s more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed ( e g . h u n t e r ' s t o l e r a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f hunt e f f o r t ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , an a t t emp t was made t o d e v e l o p a range o f use l e v e l s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e t y p e and s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y . T a b l e 6-1 i n d i c a t e s how t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a n a l y s e d t o a r r i v e a t c rude e s t i m a t e s . Numerous a s s u m p t i o n s had t o be made t o a r r i v e a t - 176 -Table 6-1 Status of Information Needed to Produce Accurate Use-Level Factors Relationship of More Precise Baseline Use of Use-Level to Data Needed Data- Factor Resource About Factor Nothing 1n this Suitability (eg. Status Known Analysis and Potential and about Social or Distribution Factor Environmental 1n Corridor) Impacts I. Biophysical Factors Hydrology-AU water quality S S -flooding A A - AL hazards A - X NO bank - S AL Wildlife abundance S . X AU composition S S - AU population growth X X s NO rate hazards s A • AL Fish abundance X - X NO composition s X - AU population growth X s - AU rate catchability s - X NO Vegetation NO density s X -composition s S - AU X prickly s X NO plants variety s S - NO Topography AL slope A - -depth to bedrock A - X NO parent material s S - AL Soils texture s S - AL drainage s S - AL & AU permafrost s s - AL i. AU Historic state of repair A A - AL size of building A A - AL II. Perceptual Factors Biophysical vegetation density S S - AU topographic variety S X S NO Location of Interaction at site S A - AU en route S A AU periphery vs S S - AU Interior Contact party features S S - AU Level of Development A A - AL Accessibility A A - AL Other Use CompatablHty S A - AL Spatial/Queuing size of activity vs. S A - AL/AU # of beds size of services and S A - AL/AU infrastructure vs. f Of beds Key: X - a l l types of Information needed; S - some types of Information needed, some available; A - adequate amount of Information available for this analysis; AL - assumed to be limiting. If factor present area unsuitable for given experience; AU - assumed to effect use-level in suitable areas; NO - no analysis done using this factor because of lack of Information on Its relationship to Impacts and/or occurrence In the corridor. - 177 -these crude est imates; much of the fo l lowing d iscuss ion concerns the assumptions that under l ie each est imate. As Chapter Five explained a f i ve step procedure was followed to c a l -culate carry ing capac i t i es for each experience. The resul ts of the f i r s t s tep, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the biophysical and soc io-psycholo-g ica l factors which could l i m i t use, were also described in Chapter F i v e . This Chapter presents the resu l ts of the las t four s teps , which were: - d e f i n i t i o n of the qua l i t y standards for each experience type, - s u i t a b i l i t y analys is of the Corr idor to i den t i f y the areas s u i t -able for each experience, - c a l cu l a t i on of biophysical carry ing capac i t i es and soc io-psycholo-g ica l carry ing capac i t i es for each experience type, and - determination of the Co r r i do r ' s overa l l carry ing capac i ty . The fo l lowing sect ions discuss these resu l ts in the foregoing s e -quence. QUALITY STANDARD DEFINITIONS FOR EACH EXPERIENCE TYPE Spec i f i c resource cha ra c t e r i s t i c s can have one of two e f fec ts on use: they can make i t impossible for cer ta in uses to occur in an area, or they can set an upper l i m i t for use in an area. Spec i f i c resource standards were derived for each experience which defined the condit ions under which an experience could not occur and under which i t s use level was l i m i t e d . These standards were based on the d e f i n i t i o n of each exper ience; they were taken from the range of - 178 -s t a n d a r d s , c l a s s e s and c a t e g o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . D i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s were d e v e l o p e d f o r b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . As C h a p t e r F i v e e x p l a i n e d b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s a r e e x p r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t l y ; s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l ones a re s t a t e d i n t e rms o f t h e number o f p e o p l e per a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e whereas b i o p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s a re g i v e n i n t e rms o f r e s o u r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as 85 p e r c e n t n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n . D e t e r m i n i n g the number o f peop l e per a r e a t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e b i o p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s was , i n most c a s e s , a d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . S i n c e i t was not n e c e s s a r y t o have t h e b i o p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s e x p r e s s e d i n te rms o f t h e number o f p e o p l e per a r e a per u n i t o f t i m e t o use them i n the s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d s i n t o use l e v e l u n i t s was not done f o r t h i s s t e p . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f each e x p e r i e n c e ' s b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 6-2 and 6-3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . SU ITAB IL ITY ANALYSIS The s t a n d a r d s wh i ch d e t e r m i n e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r ea f o r most uses were found t o be r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s such as f l o o d i n g , s l o p e and s o i l t e x t u r e . The s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l s t a n d -a rds used t o e l i m i n a t e u n s u i t a b l e a r e a s f o r each e x p e r i e n c e a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 6 - 2 . S u i t a b l e a r eas were a l s o d e t e r m i n e d f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l i m i t i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . - 179 -Table 6-2 Natural Set t ing C r i t e r i a and Standards fo r Experience Types l a . Wilderness - Sp i r i t u a l  River Uses Hydrology W i l d l i f e F ish Shore! ine Uses Vegetation Topography and So i l s Hydrology level 1 water qua l i t y assume no c l ea r i ng of sweepers or other hazards, therefore .acceptable i f : . . - danger from debr is medium or less abundant composition representat ive of undisturbed ecosystem abundant assume no c lea r ing or seedl ing and p lant ing therefore acceptable i f : - understory dens i ty <75% - hazard level moderate or less impact leve l 1 assume no s i t e l e v e l i n g , a r t i f i c i a l dra inage, erosion control or spec ia l s t ructures over permafrost , areas of high organic matter , l i m i t i n g standards are there fore : - adequate number of campsites as determined by separate shore l ine campsite a n a l y s i s , perceptual l i m i t s , and turnover fac tors - slopes > 1 7 ° - severe ra t ings fo r parent material (see Appendix Table A5-3) - bog or marsh water qua l i t y as above bank he ight , ang le , e t c . not cons idered, assumed i f adequate campsites these are not l i m i t i n g Hinter land Uses Vegetat ion, Topography, S o i l s , W i l d l i f e - as above - 180 -Table 6-2 (continued) lb. Wilderness - Appreciation Hydrology Wildlife Fish Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and Soils Hydrology Wildlife and Fish Hinterland Uses Vegetation and Wildlife Topography and Soils - level 2 water quality - assume no clearing of water hazards, therefore, acceptable i f : danger from debris medium or less common common • assume no clearing and indigenous species can be planted for erosion control, therefore, acceptable i f : - understory density t75% - hazard level moderate or less • assume no site leveling, a r t i f i c i a l drainage or erosion control, therefore, limiting factors are for: (a) overall area - slopes >17° - severe rating for parent material (see Appendix Table A4-3) - bog or marsh - adequate number of campsites as determined by separate shoreline campsite analysis (b) specific fac i l i t i es (outhouses, cabins, camping) outhouses - suitabi l i ty class 3 in Table A5-7 cabins and camping - slope >9° -<0.5m so i l , erosion potential high (see Appendix Table A5-5), very poorly drained water quality as above bank characteristics not considered for same reasons as in Ia - severe flood hazard limiting (Resource Analysis Unit 1976) as above as above - assumptions as above plus suitable for wilderness tra i ls and camping, therefore limiting factors are: - slopes>31° - bog or marsh - adequate # of sites with slope <9° >0.5m s o i l , well or imperfectly drained T a b l e 6-2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) - 181 -I I . N a t u r e - T rophy H u n t i n g and F i s h i n g R i v e r Uses H y d r o l o g y W i l d l i f e F i s h S h o r e l i n e Uses V e g e t a t i o n Topography and So i I s H y d r o l o g y W i l d l i f e Bank F i s h i n g H i n t e r l a n d Uses V e g e t a t i o n Topography and S o i l s - l e v e l 1 w a t e r q u a l i t y - assume no c l e a r i n g o f d e b r i s , t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e i f : dange r l e v e l f r om d e b r i s medium o r l e s s ..- a b u n d a n t , a t .max imum p r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l f o r e c o s y s t e m - h u n t . e f f o r t - modera te - a b u n d a n t , a t maximum p r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l f o r e c o s y s t e m - c a t c h a b i l i t y good assume c l e a r i n g t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e a c c e s s and c a s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n d e v e l o p e d a r e a s , and t o p r o v i d e opt imum w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , t h e r e f o r e economic t o c l e a r i f : - u n d e r s t o r y d e n s i t y <75% - h a z a r d l e v e l mode ra t e o r l e s s i m p a c t l e v e l 1 - 3 f a c i l i t i e s r ange f r om none ( p r i s t i n e ) t o modern l o d g e s ( deve l opmen t l e v e l V ) . Assume t o p o g r a p h y and s o i l s n o t l i m i t i n g t o f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g i f t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t s i t e s f o r s h o r e l i n e c a m p s i t e s as d e t e r m i n e d by s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s . w a t e r q u a l i t y as above m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o bank c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r ange f r om none ( deve l opmen t l e v e l 1) t o s t a i r s , and r e t a i n i n g w a l l s ( d e ve l opmen t l e v e l V ) . Assume bank i s n o t l i m i t i n g t o h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g i f i t meets c r i t e r i a f o r d e v e l o p m e n t l e v e l V. as above abundant c a t c h a b i l i t y good assume same p r a c t i c e s as a b o v e , p u r p o s e t o m a x i m i z e s u s t a i n a b l e w i l d l i f e y i e l d a c c e p t a b l e i f adequate^number o f s i t e s f o r c a m p i n g , i e . s l o p e s <9°,>0.5m s o i l , and w e l l o r i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d - 182 -Table 6-2 (continued) I I I . Nature - Passive R i v e r Uses Hydrology W i l d l i f e Fish Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and S o i l s Hydrology W i l d l i f e Fish H i s t o r i c Hinterland Uses Vegetation Topography and S o i l s level 2 water quality assume clearing of debris having medium or high danger uncommon common assume thinning at campsites to optimum density, removal of p r i c k l y plants, therefore, economic to clear i f : - understory density <75% - hazard level moderate or less impact level 3 assume: - limited s i t e leveling at.campsites, leveling for roads - erosion control from planting natural species, c u l v e r t s , ditches - drainage t i l e s at campsites, no built-up structures over permafrost - suitable for outhouse leaching p i t therefore, l i m i t i n g factors are: - slopes>• 9° - <,0.5m s o i l - high erosion potential (see Appendix Table A5-5) - sO'il s u i t a b i l i t y class 3 in Table A5-9 - construction s u i t a b i l i t y for access roads to s i t e s , class 3 in Table A5-6 assume: - clearing of bank vegetation of suitable level - no a r t i f i c i a l retaining structures for slumping - bank steepness - provide s t a i r s , graded f a c i l i t i e s , simple piers and docks i f necessary therefore limitng cost factors are: - moderate and severe flooding (Resource Analysis Unit 1976) - vegetation understory >75% - bank>9m high, > 30° slope - any slumping - as above - assume no bug c o n t r o l , bear control i f necessary - as above - rebuilding and restoration but no major displays, or staffed interpreters assume clearing for t r a i l s , therefore, l i m i t i n g cost factor: - understory density >75% assume:— no s i t e leveling - no drainage measures - no built-up structures over permafrost « - suitable for cleared t r a i l s - adequate number of s i t e s for camping with slopes<9 0,?0.5m s o i l , and well or imperfectly drained therefore, limitng factors are: - slopes >17° - severe rating for parent material (see Appendix Table A5-3) - bog or marsh W i l d l i f e - as above - 183 -Table 6-2 (continued) IV. Nature - Comfort Sociable  River Uses Hydrology Wi ld l i fe Fish Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and Soi Is Hydrology Wi ld l i fe Historic Hinterland Uses Vegetation, Topography, Soils level 2 water quality assume clearing of a l l hazards that block access ( ie. a l l debris with ratings of low, medium or high uncommon common, catchabil i ty f a i r - good - assume: - thinning around campsites/trails to achieve optimum density - therefore economic to clear i f : - understory density4.75% - hazard level moderate or less - impact level 3 - assume: - leveling to achieve desired slope - erosion control - natural materials for structural control - drainage imporvement, simple structures (catwalks, bridges) over wet, organic or permafrost areas - therefore maximum standard levels are: - moderate c lass , parent materials (see Appendix Table A5-3) - <50% sand (Table A5-4) - medium erosion potential (Table A5-5) - class 3 engineering construction (Table A5-6) - class 2 septic tank su i t ab i l i t y (Table A5-7) - water quality as above - assume: - bank clear ing, structures ( s ta i rs , graded slopes) to improve access - slumping control from planting and structures of natural material - therefore, l imit ing factors are: - moderate and severe flooding hazard (Resource Analysis Unit 1976) - vegetation understory>75% - bank>9m high, >30 slope - moderate and severe slumping class of Resource Analysis Unit 1976 - uncommon - assume bear and bug control (spray, drainage, clearing) i f necessary - rebui l t buildings, some informal exhibits - assume: - erosion control , vegeation clear ing, no leveling or drainage control - suitable for cleared t r a i l s - therefore, l imit ing factors are: - the same as those given for experience III Hinterland Uses - 184 -Table 6-2 (continued) V. Social Learning - Nature and Historic River Uses Hydrology Fish Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and Soi Is Hydrology Wildlife Fish Historic Hinterland Uses Vegetation, Topography, Soils level 3 water quality assume clearing of a l l hazards that impede act iv i t ies , large boat cruises are one possible activity therefore, assume channel dredging where necessary and removal of al l hazardous debris abundance - common (for native salmon fishing) assume clearing to achieve optimum density, no prickly plants therefore, economic to clear i f : - understory density<75% impact level 4 assume: - leveling for sites and roads - erosion, gullying and slumping prevented by use of synthetic materials - drainage improvement, structures to cover or avoid permafrost - suitabi l i ty for septic tanks, permanent buildings and roads (see Tables A5-6 and A5-7) therefore, upper limit for soil/topography standards are: - slope <5° (Table A5-1) - moderate class, parent materials (Table A5-3) - medium erosion potential (Table A5-3) - class 3 construction suitabi l i ty (Table A5-6) - class 2 septic tank suitabi l i ty water quality as above assume bank clearing, structures to imporve access therefore, same standards apply here as those given for experience IV Shoreline Uses assume bear and bug control i f necessary as above complete restoration, exhibits, and interpretation assume: - no leveling or drainage control - erosion control, vegetation clearing - suitable for developed trai ls therefore, limiting factors are: - understory density >75% - stopes>17° - severe rating for t ra i l limitation (Table A5-3) - bog or marsh - <0.5m soil - 185 -Table 6-2 (continued) VI. Active - Outdoor Sports River Uses Hydrology Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and Soils Hydrology Wildlife Hinterland Uses Vegetation, Topography, Soils level 3 water quality assume clearing of sweepers, debris and possible- dredging of-sandbars assume clearing where required less suitable cost i f : - understory^75% but will not stop development on its own impact level 3-5 depending on activity assume: - leveling for roads and faci l it ies - art if ic ial controls of gullying, erosion and slumping - drainage improvement, permafrost avoided or protective structures - suitability for septic tanks, intensive use, roads, specialized activities and faci l i t ies therefore, upper limit for soil/topography standards are the same as those given for experience V Shoreline Uses plus suitability for specialized activities from separate analysis water quality as above assume modification to make water access suitable therefore, less suitable cost factors (but do not stop development on their own) are: - vegetation understory >75% - bank >9m high, >30 slope - moderate and severe slumping class (Resource Analysis Unit 1976) limiting factor is: moderate or severe flood hazard (Resource Analysis Unit 1976) - assume when necessary bear and bug control - assume: - modifications to suit development - suitable for developed trai ls , ski hil ls - therefore, limiting factors for developed trails same as those given for experience V Hinterland Uses. Suitability for ski hi l ls determined from separate analysis. - 186 -Table 6-2 (continued) VII. Cultural/Social  River Uses Hydrology Fish Shoreline Uses Vegetation Topography and Soils Hydrology Wildlife Fish Historic Hinterland Uses Vegetation, Topography, Soi Is level 3 water quality assume removal of hazards if river is used (ie. see discussion for experience V River Uses) common (for native salmon fishing) assume clearing where needed for devleopment therefore, less suitable costs if : - understory ^75% (but will not stop development on its own) impact level 5 assume: - leveling, use of art if ic ial materials to correct slope and control erosion - drainage improved to suit development requirements - suitability for septic tanks, roads, buildings therefore, upper limit for soil/topography standards are the same as given for experience V Shoreline Uses water quality as above assume bank modified to suit development requirements therefore, same standards apply here as those given for experience VI, Shoreline Uses assume bear and bug control i f needed common full restoration, exhibits, dances, interpretation assume: - vegetation clearing - planting for erosion control - no leveling or drainage control - suitable for developed trail therefore, limiting factors are the same as those given in experience V Hinterland Uses - 187 -Table 6-3 Socio-psychological Standards for Wilderness Factors Experience  Category la . Wilderness-Spiritual lb. Wilderness Appreciation Acceptable # of  Encounters/day" canoeists-0 optimum up to 3 small groups/ day tolerated. hikers-0 optimum, tolerate up to 2 small groups/day. at campsite-0 at campsite or nearby. at periphery-tol erate seeing several groups of people in f i r s t 5-10km canoeists-1 optimum up to 6 tolerated. motorboaters-5 or less optimum, tolerate up to 10. hikers-1 optimum, tolerate up to 4. at campsite-a) canoeists-50% of users want none nearby, 50% want other groups some distance away but within sight. b) motorboaters-more than 50% wanted a place within sight of others. c) hikers-0 nearby optimum, 33% tolerate campers within sight. Comments -must be small groups, in non-motorized craft. -must be small hiking groups, horseback riders not acceptable. -if another group is within sight or sound 84% of . these users will look for another s i te. -must be encounters with other small groups of canoeists, disl ike motorboats and motor canoes. -prefer encounters with canoeists, tolerate motor-boaters. -no large groups, prefer no horseback riders. -no large groups acceptable. Source(s) Stankey 1973 Lucus 1980 Stankey 1973 Stankey 1973 Lucus 1964 Priddle and Clark 1974 Lime 1975 Lime 1975 Stankey 1973 Hendee et al 1968 -split in preferences (ie. some want campsites nearby and others do not) -suggests a mix of close and isolated campsites should be provided. Stankey 1973 - 188 -Table 6-3(continued] Experience  Category II. Nature-Trophy Hunting and Fishing III. Nature-Passive IV. Nature-Comfort Acceptable # of  Encounters/day~ fishing-lake-professional estimates for acceptable density range from 4.04ha/ boat (estimated ave. 2.2 people/ boat) to 0.13ha/ boat. fishing-bank-one fisherman/ 0.4km, approx. 1.2ha/ fisherman -one fisherman/ 0.3km. hunting-moose- 130ha/ hunter waterfowl- 5.1 ha/ hunter small campsites-7-11 units separated by at least 31m and good screening. cottage spacing-l/0.404ha campsites-<15..units 85% separated by 31m and good screening, 15%<31m apart, screening less important. Comments -fishermen more interested in good fishing t than wilderness only 9% of of fishermen in Algonquin Park, Ontario mentioned absence of other people as important. Ontario Standards Ontario Standards -expect some contact w i l l occur-therefore, spacing of campsites more important than actual # of encounters. -acceptable density from Gulf Islands, B.C. Source(s) Priddle and Clark 1974 Chess 1979 Supply Inventory Feas ib i l i t y Study 1973 Supply Inventory Feas ib i l i t y Study 1973 Supply Inventory Feas ib i l i ty Study 1973 Lucus 1980 Chambers 1974 Lucus 1980 - 189 -The a n a l y s i s a l s o u t i l i z e d s t a n d a r d s f o r t h r e e s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t , a c c e s s i b i l i t y and o t h e r use compa t -i b i l i t y . The f i r s t two f a c t o r s a f f e c t w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s ( i e . t y p e s I and I I ) ; as e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r 5 , t he a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d f o r them i s e i t h e r none o r v e r y l i t t l e . The e v a l u a t i o n s f rom t h e c o m p a t a b i l i t y m a t r i x i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3-3 were t h e s t a n d a r d s used t o d e f i n e wh i ch t y p e s o f use were i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h each e x p e r -i e n c e t y p e . Fo r t h i s purpose t h e f o u r t o u r i s m c a t e g o r i e s used i n the m a t r i x were assumed t o have t h e same use i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s as t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s . h i g h d e n s i t y c o n s u m p t i v e = s o c i a l l e a r n i n g ( t ype V) low d e n s i t y c o n s u m p t i v e = t r o p h y h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g ( t y p e I I ) , and t o a m ino r degree t y p e s I, I I I and IV h i g h d e n s i t y non-consumpt i v e = a c t i v e o u t d o o r s p o r t s ( t y p e V I ) , and c u l t u r a l s o c i a l ( t y p e V I I ) l ow d e n s i t y non-consumpt i v e = n a t u r e - p a s s i v e ( t y p e I I I ) , and n a t u r e - c o m f o r t and s o c i a b l e ( t y p e IV ) Map 1 shows t h e g e n e r a l a r eas wh i ch the a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d as s u i t -a b l e f o r each e x p e r i e n c e t y p e and s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t y . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn f rom t h i s map and the a n a l y s i s on wh i ch i t was b a s e d : (1 ) The C o r r i d o r i s not p r e s e n t l y v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r a w i l d e r n e s s -s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e ( I a ) as the p r e s e n c e o f a h i g h w a y , i n h a b i t e d homes teads , m o t o r b o a t s and s e v e r a l d e v e l o p e d camps ies - 190 -MAP 1 YUKON RIVER CORRIDOR TOURISM RESOURCES Sca le 1 : 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 S Y M B O L N A M E A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e ® H i s t o r i c a l S i t e R o a d House S i te R N W M P o l i c e P o s t A r e a of H u m a n A c t i v i t y ( s e t t l e m e n t s , r o a d s , etc. ) A E x i s t i n g Campsite @ F i s h i n g C a m p A r e a su i tab le fo r f a c i l i t y deve lopment f o r E x p e r i e n c e T y p e s HI to 1ZTL tttt* Addi t ional a r e a suitable for E x p e r i e n c e T y p e HI fac i l i t y deve lopments Potent ia l s i tes for fo l lowing a c t i v i t i e s : # c o t t a g i n g camp ing D fami ly boat ing A beach ac t i v i t i es © geo log ic interest O hot spr ings • s p o r t s f i sh ing A gold pann ing ® f i s h v iewing — 3 0 2 M i l e a g e f r o m W h i t e h o r s e Sources: Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 3 . Lombard North Group, 1975 Department of Interior C a n a d a , 1919 map of the Yukon Territory. M a p showing location of road houses and R N W M Police p o s t s Personal o b s e r v a t i o n s , 1979 - 191 -MAP 1 is too large to be inserted here. It w i l l be kept in Special Collections. - 192 -p r e c l u d e t h e a r e a o f f e r i n g a t r u e w i l d e r n e s s e x p e r i e n c e . The b e s t s e c t i o n s , w h i c h have t h e l e a s t e v i d e n c e o f man a r e : (a) f rom t h e 30 m i l e s e c t i o n be low Lake L a b e r g e t o t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e L i t t l e Salmon w i t h t h e Yukon R i v e r and (b) f rom M i n t o t o Dawson. These same two a r e a s a r e a l s o b e s t f o r a w i l d e r n e s s - a p p r e c i a -t i o n e x p e r i e n c e ( I b ) . However , t h e e n t i r e r i v e r i s p r e s e n t l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and w i l l r ema in so i f t h e a c c e s s i s not c h a n g e d . The e n t i r e C o r r i d o r was r a t e d s u i t a b l e because t h e c a m p s i t e i n v e n t o r y (see A p p e n d i x S i x ) l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t l o c a t i o n s f o r p r i m i t i v e c a m p s i t e s were not l i m i t i n g . S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , l i m i t use b e f o r e l a c k o f p o t e n t i a l c a m p s i t e s d o . E x c e p t i n t h e immed ia te v i c i n i t y o f s e t t l e m e n t s and c a m p s i t e s t h e e n t i r e C o r r i d o r i s s u i t a b l e f o r h u n t i n g ( e x p e r i e n c e t y p e I I ) . L i k e w i s e , t h e e n t i r e r i v e r i s s u i t a b l e f o r f i s h i n g . F u r -t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e adequa t e s i t e s f o r l o d g e s and camps. The l i m i t t o use depends on t h e abundance o f w i l d l i f e and f i s h r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t l e a s t 9 5 , 0 0 0 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d w i t h i n t h e s h o r e l i n e a r e s u i t -a b l e f o r deve lopment o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r n a t u r e - p a s s i v e e x p e r i -ences ( I I I ) . The s u i t a b l e a r e a s were d e r i v e d f rom a n a l y s i s o f maps f o r s o i l and t o p o g r a p h y and o f r e p o r t s and p h o t o g r a p h s r e -l a t e d t o f l o o d h a z a r d a r e a s . The s o i l and t o p o g r a p h y maps were f rom R o n s t a t e t a l ( 1 9 7 7 ) , bu t t h e y o n l y p r o v i d e c o v e r a g e f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e C o r r i d o r . A l t h o u g h p a r t o f t h e a r e a not - 193 -c o v e r e d ( i e . m i l e 312 - 362) i s known t o be l e s s s u i t a b l e ( D o n a l d s o n 1971) t h e r e i s u n d o u b t e d l y s u b s t a n t i a l l y more t han 9 5 , 0 0 0 h e c t a r e s o f s u i t a b l e s h o r e l i n e . H e n c e , a g a i n i t can g e n e r a l l y be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p h y s i c a l l a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d not l i m i t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e ' s c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . O t h e r f a c t o r s such as a c c e s s a r e more l i k e l y t o do s o . The re a r e a t l e a s t 8 5 , 0 0 0 h e c t a r e s o f s h o r e l i n e l a n d w i t h i n t h e C o r r i d o r w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e f o r deve lopment o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x p e r i e n c e t y p e s IV t o V I I . T h i s was c o n c l u d e d a f t e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e same maps d e s c r i b e d i n (4) a b o v e , under s l i g h t l y more s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i a . A g a i n t h e amount and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u i t a b l e l a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s a v a i l a b l e l a n d w i l l l i m i t c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s . E x c e p t f o r t h e s e c t i o n between Twin F a l l s ( m i l e 302) and T h i s t l e Creek ( m i l e 370) t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one s u i t a b l e l o c a -t i o n f o r a p r i m i t i v e c a m p s i t e e v e r y 16 km. In t h e s t e e p c o n -f i n i n g w a l l s o f t h e Twin F a l l s t o T h i s t l e Creek s e c t i o n , " c amp -s i t e s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e s h o r e l i n e s w i t h t h e b e s t s i t e s o c c u r r -i n g a t t h e mouths o f s m a l l c r e e k s . . . " (Dona ldson 1971 p. 1 4 ) . Here s u i t a b l e c r e e k s i t e s a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be between 24 and 32 k i l o m e t e r s a p a r t ( see A p p e n d i x S i x ) . W i l d e r n e s s c a m p s i t e s c o u l d i n c l u d e low i s l a n d s and g r a v e l b a r s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l e s s f l o o d p rone p r i m i t i v e c a m p s i t e s . H e n c e , t h e r e i s no s h o r t a g e o f w i l d e r n e s s s i t e s . - 194 -(8) Numerous spawn ing s i t e s f o r c h i n o o k and chum a r e known (Wa lke r 1976) bu t t h e w a t e r i s g e n e r a l l y t o o murky t o v i ew t h e f i s h . The f i s h l a d d e r a t Whitehorse i s t h e o n l y l o c a t i o n f o r v i e w i n g f i s h r u n s . (9) The C o r r i d o r c o n t a i n s numerous o l d b u i l d i n g s and h i s t o r i c s i t e s . They were e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e and v i e w i n g p o t e n t i a l u s i n g t h e Synergy West (1975) f i v e number s c o r i n g sys tem i n w h i c h 1 means v e r y poor and 5 means e x c e l l -e n t . F o r t S e l k i r k was r a t e d 4 ou t o f 5 w h i l e Dawson was g i v e n a 5 out o f 5. The C o r r i d o r a l s o c o n t a i n s numerous s i t e s w h i c h were r a t e d 2 o r 3. (10) G o l d p a n n i n g i s p o s s i b l e i n a l l o f t h e u n g l a c i a t e d s t r e a m v a l -l e y s f rom Se lwyn t o Dawson. A f i v e p o i n t s c o r i n g sys tem s i m i -l a r t o t h a t used f o r h i s t o r i c s i t e s was used t o e v a l u t e each v a l l e y ' s g o l d pann ing s u i t a b i l i t y . S e v e r a l o f t h e v a l l e y s a r e s l i g h t l y known and were r a t e d 2 out o f 5 o r 3 ou t o f 5. Dawson i s t h e o n l y w e l l known g o l d pann ing s i t e , i t was g i v e n a r a t i n g o f 5 out o f 5. (11) As a r e s u l t o f a m a r g i n a l amount o f snow and l a c k o f e l e v a t i o n d o w n h i l l s k i i n g i s not a f e a s i b l e t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e C o r r i d o r . CALCULATION OF BIOPHYSICAL AND SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITIES As e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e , i d e a l l y t h r e e t y p e s o f c a p a c i t y s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e annua l u s e - l e v e l s : - 195 -(1) i n s t a n t a n e o u s c a p a c i t y wh i ch depends on b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s ( e g . v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y ) , p e r c e p t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the u s e r s ( e g . p r i v a c y a t c a m p s i t e ) and amount o f e s s e n t i a l r e -s o u r c e s f o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s . (2) d a i l y c a p a c i t y wh i ch depends on the t u r n o v e r t i m e o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . (3 ) annua l c a p a c i t y wh i ch i s a f u n c t i o n of season l e n g t h and annua l p a t t e r n s such as w i l d l i f e m i g r a t i o n s . Use l e v e l s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e s e t h r e e c a p a c i t i e s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n s : (1 ) I n s t a n t a n e o u s : ( a ) B i o p h y s i c a l = H e c t a r e s o f S u i t a b l e L a n d *  E c o l o g i c a l S t a n d a r d i n H e c t a r e s / U s e r (b ) S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l = H e c t a r e s o f S u i t a b l e L a n d *  Space S t a n d a r d i n H e c t a r e s / U s e r (2) D a i l y : (a ) B i o p h y s i c a l = I n s t a n t a n e o u s Leve l x T u r n o v e r Rate o f P e o -p l e i n t h e A r e a (b ) S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l = I n s t a n t a n e o u s Leve l x T u r n o v e r Rate o f P eop l e i n t h e A r e a * d e t e r m i n e d by s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s - 196 -(3) Annual : (a) Hunting Biophysical = Square Kilometers of Suitable Land in the Corridor  Square Kilometers/Animal for Par-ticular Abundance Level of Species Number of Animals Able to be Har-vested Hunt Effort Standard (number of hunters per Animal) (b) Other Biophysical = Daily Level x Season Length (c) Socio-psychological = Daily Level x Season Length In practice not all these calculations were made; vegetation use levels for instance were expressed in terms of annual use therefore it was unnecessary to calculate their instantaneous or daily carry-ing capacities. Similarily calculation of daily and instantaneous hunting carrying capacities was not done. The calculation of socio-psychological carrying capacities did however involve computing all three values. The area estimates of suitable lands used in these calculations were determined by planimeter measurement of the areas delimited on Map 1. Appendix Table A6-1 lists these areal values. The results generally had very broad ranges, for instance the range for the nature-passive experience was from 1708 people.to 53,130 - 197 -p e o p l e pe r y e a r . T h i s , range o c c u r r e d because t h e low and h i g h v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d by a s suming t h e most ex t r eme c a s e . F o r exam-p l e t h e low v a l u e f o r t h e n a t u r e - p a s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e s h o r t e s t s eason l e n g t h , s l o w e s t t u r n o v e r t i m e , s m a l l e s t number o f p e o p l e i n a group and f e w e s t c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s . F o r p l a n n i n g and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n p u r p o s e s t h e s e b road ranges have l i t t l e v a l u e , t h e r e f o r e a r e a l i s t i c c a r r y c a p a c i t y was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r each e x p e r i e n c e by u s i n g r e a s o n a b l e i n s t e a d o f e x -t reme v a l u e s f o r v a r i a b l e s . As can be seen i n T a b l e 6-1 b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s were d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y f rom f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : - v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e , - w a t e r q u a l i t y a s s i m i l a t i v e a b i l i t y f rom sewage d i s p o s a l , - w i l d l i f e abundance and s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e , - f i s h g rowth r a t e and s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e . S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s were based f o r t h e most p a r t on p e o p l e ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o changes i n w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t y f a c t o r s . Because t h e b i o p h y s i c a l s t a n d a r d s were not e x p r e s s e d i n t e rms o f use l e v e l s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o do an a d d i t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f p e o p l e pe r a r e a t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e s t a n d a r d s . These a d d i t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n s were bo th c o m p l i c a t e d and u n d e r l a i n w i t h a s s u m p t i o n s ; c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n about b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s i s l e n g t h y . Each o f t h e f o u r b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s , v e g e t a t i o n , w a t e r q u a l t i y , w i l d l i f e and f i s h , a r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . - 198 -6 . 3 . 1 V e g e t a t i o n S o i l s and t o p o g r a p h y , o r t e r r a i n , and v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o r e c -r e a t i o n a l i m p a c t s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d ( L i d d l e 1 9 7 5 a , D o u g l a s 1 9 7 4 ) . Fo r e x a m p l e , a sand dune t h a t has l o s t i t s g r a s s c o v e r i s much more l i k e l y t o b low away t h a n one t h a t has n o t . The e f f e c t s on v e g e t a -t i o n and t e r r a i n have been d i s c u s s e d f o r e v e r y t h i n g f rom w i l d f l o w e r p i c k i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s ( see f o r example A l l e n 1 9 8 1 , W i l l a r d and Mar r 1 9 7 1 ) . However , no q u a n t i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d wh i ch l i n k s impac t l e v e l s t o d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v e g e t a t i o n and t e r r a i n t y p e s . In f a c t , t h e o n l y q u a n t i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h e e f f e c t o f p e o p l e t r a m p l i n g on v e g e t a t i o n (Barden and Randerson 1 9 7 2 , K e l l o m a k i 1 9 7 3 , Wagar 1 9 6 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g -l y , use l e v e l s f o r t r a m p l i n g were d e r i v e d f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t v e g e -t a t i o n t y p e s i n t h e C o r r i d o r , b u t , t e r r a i n was o n l y t a k e n i n t o a c -c o u n t i n s o f a r as i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e v e g e t a t i o n c a t e g o r y ( i e . f l o o d p l a i n c o n i f e r v s . t i l l c o n i f e r ) . The g e n e r a l t e r r a i n f e a t u r e s t h a t r e l a t e t o each v e g e t a t i o n t y p e a r e g i v e n i n co lumn two o f T a b l e 6-4 . The use l e v e l s i n T a b l e s 6-4 and