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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The contemporary northwest coast Indian art market Duffek, Karen Erica 1983

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THE CONTEMPORARY NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART MARKET By KAREN ERICA DUFFEK B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1983  © K a r e n E r i c a D u f f e k , 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head of  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  /  Department of  Anthropology and  Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  )E-6  (3/81)  April  11,  1983  written  ABSTRACT  In the 1960's a r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t began t o take p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f o l l o w i n g s e v e r a l decades o f d e c l i n e  in a r t  p r o d u c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d from e f f e c t s o f European c o n t a c t on t r a d i t i o n a l native s o c i a l structure.  By the l a t e 1970's the Indian a r t market had  become a s e v e r a l m i l l i o n d o l l a r  i n d u s t r y , i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l hundred  native  a r t i s t s , and s u p p o r t e d by a p r i m a r i l y non-Indian consumer p u b l i c . T h i s t h e s i s examines market  the contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t  i n terms o f the r o l e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a r t w i t h i n i t s  contemporary s o c i a l c o n t e x t , f o c u s i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the consumers  and the a r t they c o l l e c t .  the development  The h i s t o r y o f the I n d i a n a r t r e v i v a l ,  o f the market, changes t h a t Northwest Coast a r t has undergone  i n response t o i t s new purpose f o r p r o d u c t i o n , and consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s and buying p r e f e r e n c e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h i s t h e s i s shows t h a t the r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast a r t has i n v o l v e d n o t o n l y the a r t i s t s who c r e a t e the contemporary work, but a l s o the consumers, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , museums, and d e a l e r s , who have p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h the a r t i s t s  i n a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e d e f i n i t i o n o f " I n d i a n n e s s " and  t r a d i t i o n , and i n the development Surveys o f consumers  o f an audience t o support a r t p r o d u c t i o n .  and museum v i s i t o r s conducted f o r the t h e s i s suggest  t h a t an important and v a l u e d q u a l i t y of contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s its  " o t h e r n e s s " or I n d i a n n e s s .  Today, Northwest Coast a r t t r a d i t i o n s a r e  used i n a contemporary e x p r e s s i o n t h a t r e f e r s t o the v a l u e o f t r a d i t i o n and h e r i t a g e n o t o n l y t o the consumers, but t o n a t i v e s o c i e t y as w e l l . The concept of a c c u l t u r a t e d a r t s i s used i n t h i s study o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t , p r o v i d i n g a comparative c o n t e x t o f changing a r t forms  brought about by c u l t u r e  c o n t a c t , and i l l u s t r a t i n g  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l elements i n t o m a r k e t a b l e commodities f o r n o n - n a t i v e t o u r i s t s and c o l l e c t o r s .  This thesis  i s a contribution  t o the l i t e r a t u r e  on Northwest C o a s t I n d i a n a r t i n p a r t i c u l a r , and a c c u l t u r a t e d a r t s i n general.  - iv -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  xi  INTRODUCTION  1  Notes  7  CHAPTER ONE - The R e v i v a l o f Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t  8  I - ART PRODUCTION ON THE NORTHWEST COAST PRE-1920 A r t f o r S a l e : E a r l y C o l l e c t o r s on the Northwest  8 Coast  I I - ART PRODUCTION ON THE NORTHWEST COAST: 1920 t o 1960  10 14  The T r a d i t i o n a l Context  15  The Commercial Context  17  I I I - THE REVIVAL OF NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART: 1960 t o the P r e s e n t  27  IV - THE RECONSTRUCTION AND REINVENTION OF TRADITION  37  Use o f Museum C o l l e c t i o n s  39  "Books a r e our t e a c h e r s now f o r a l l the o l d t h i n g s "  46  Memories  54  V - ART AS A VEHICLE FOR CULTURAL REVIVAL  55  Notes  59  CHAPTER TWO - A r t f o r t h e M a r k e t p l a c e  61  I - ARTS OF ACCULTURATION  61  I I - NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ARTS AND CHANGING TRADITIONS  65  Use  and Meaning  65  M a t e r i a l s and Techniques  69  Form and S u b j e c t Matter  71  I I I - TRADITION, INNOVATION, AND AUTHENTICITY A r t i f a k e s and Archaism: Contemporary Context Notes  82  "Traditional" Arts i n a 92 96  - v-  CHAPTER THREE - The M a r k e t i n g o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t I - THE MARKET NETWORK  II-  97 97  Market D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  99  MARKETING AND PROMOTION  104  M a r k e t i n g a t the Producer L e v e l  105  M a r k e t i n g a t the R e t a i l L e v e l  116  (i) S o u v e n i r s  116  ( i i ) A r t s and C r a f t s  118  ( i i i ) Fine A r t s  120  (iv) Market S t r a t e g i e s : P r i c e , R e p u t a t i o n , and S a l e a b i l i t y  124  Notes  133  CHAPTER FOUR - The Audience f o r Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t : A Museum V i s i t o r Survey  134  I - THE SURVEY  135  II - RESPONSES TO THE EXHIBIT  158  Demographic and Ownership Data  158  Words and L a b e l s : D e s c r i b i n g Northwest C o a s t I n d i a n A r t s  163  Responses t o the P r i n t s  169  Responses t o the C a r v i n g s  188  The Context f o r t h e A r t s : Viewer Responses  207  Summary  222  Notes  225  CHAPTER FIVE - The Consumers o f Contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t : A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Survey  226  I - THE QUESTIONNAIRE  226  I I - RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE  233  Demographic Data  233  Buying T e n d e n c i e s and P a t t e r n s  237  Knowledge and P e r c e p t i o n s o f Northwest C o a s t A r t  251  A e s t h e t i c and Buying C r i t e r i a  256  Summary  269  Notes  274  CONCLUSION  275  - vi -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  286  L i s t of Individuals  Interviewed  295  APPENDIX I - A S e l e c t i v e Chronology o f Events S i g n i f i c a n t t o the R e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t and the Development o f the Market APPENDIX I I - Vancouver  and V i c t o r i a R e t a i l Shops  i n Northwest  296  Specializing  Coast I n d i a n A r t s  302  APPENDIX I I I - Q u e s t i o n Guide f o r Museum V i s i t o r Survey  306  APPENDIX IV - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Consumer Survey  307  - vii-  LIST OF TABLES Table I II  Page DEMOGRAPHIC  DATA  159, 160  OWNERSHIP DATA  161, 162  WORDS DESCRIBING PRINTS AND CARVINGS  165  IV  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RESPONSES TO PRINTS  170  V  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE QUALITIES OF PRINTS  172  III  VI  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE QUALITIES OF INDIVIDUAL PRINTS  175 - 179  VII  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE QUALITIES OF CARVINGS  190  VIII  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RESPONSES TO CARVINGS  191  IX X  XI  XII  XIII XIV XV XVI  XVII  XVIII IXX XX  POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE QUALITIES OF INDIVIDUAL CARVINGS DEFINITION OF "AUTHENTIC" NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART  209  EFFECT OF THE MARKET ON NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART  214  194 - 198  MESSAGES PRESENTED THROUGH NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART  219  QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION AND RETURN  234  DEMOGRAPHIC  235, 236  DATA  YEAR OF FIRST PURCHASE OF NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART  238  AMOUNT OF MONEY SPENT ON NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART  240  NUMBER OF NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART FORMS PURCHASED  241  TYPE OF STORE AND LOCATION OF PURCHASE  243  REASONS FOR PURCHASE OF CARVINGS AND PRINTS  246, 247  PURCHASE OF CONTEMPORARY ARTS (NON-NORTHWEST COAST)  250  - viii -  Table XXI  XXII  XXIII XXIV  Page MEANS OF INTRODUCTION TO NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ARTS  252  WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTEMPORARY NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ARTS  253  FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE DECISIONS  257, 258  QUALITIES AND SUBJECT MATTER DESIRED IN CARVINGS AND PRINTS  261, 262  - ix -  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  2  Page " A a h - S e e - W i l l , the Greedy Hunter" by Vernon 1978. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  Stephens, 75  "Salmon F i g h t i n g Upstream t o Spawn" by Robert S e b a s t i a n , 1980.  Silkscreen print.  75  3  " B u t t e r f l i e s " by Robert Davidson, 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  77  4  "Study" by Doug Cranmer, 1980. A c r y l i c on c e d a r .  77  5  "Ka-Ka-win-chealth"  79  6  " B a r n a c l e " by A r t Thompson, 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  7  "The C r e a t i o n o f Eve" by Roy V i c k e r s ,  by Joe D a v i d , 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  1977.  81  Silkscreen  print.  81  8  " R e f l e c t i o n s " by Robert Davidson, 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  9  "Memorial Rainbow Drum" by Joe D a v i d , 1977. S i l k s c r e e n print. E x h i b i t of contemporary Northwest C o a s t I n d i a n p r i n t s and c a r v i n g s a t the UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y : l o c a t i o n f o r the museum v i s i t o r s u r v e y .  137  11  "Sparrow" by Glen Rabena, 1979. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  143  12  "Gambler Drum" by Joe D a v i d , 1980.  143  13  "Raven i n the 20th Century" by Don Yeomans, Silkscreen print.  1979.  14  "Bent-Box D e s i g n " by Robert Davidson, 1978. print.  Silkscreen  10  15  Silkscreen print.  "Welcome Canoe" by A r t Thompson, 1978.  17  "Haida Hawk Design" by Freda D i e s i n g , print.  18  19  145  "Spear F i s h i n g " by Vernon print.  Stephens, 1978.  " C h i l k a t B l a c k f i s h " by Roy V i c k e r s , print.  Silkscreen  Silkscreen print. 1977.  127  145  "Thunderbird S i s i u t l " by L l o y d Wadhams, 1979. print.  16  126  146 146  Silkscreen 148  Silkscreen 148  1978.  Silkscreen 149  - x -  Figure 20  Page "Kwakiutl W i l d Woman Mask" by George M a t i l p i , 1979. " B e l l a C o o l a P o r t r a i t Mask" by Beau D i c k , 1977. "Owl Man" mask by Glen Rabena, 1978.  151  21  Totem p o l e by Frank Hanuse, 1979.  153  22  Totem p o l e by B i l l Kuhnley,  153  23  " H a l i b u t " d i s h by Glen Harper,  24  "Human/Beaver  25  "Kwakiutl Sea Monster w i t h Salmon" plaque by Bond Sound,  1979. 1979.  155  D i s h " by L a r r y Rosso, 1979.  155  1979.  156  26  " K w a k i u t l Salmon" plaque by George M a t i l p i ,  27  "Salmon" l e t t e r opener by W i l f Stevenson,  1979.  1980.  157 157  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank a l l those i n d i v i d u a l s who encouraged and a s s i s t e d me i n the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s ; Dr. M i c h a e l M. Ames, my a d v i s o r d u r i n g my graduate s c h o o l c a r e e r , f o r o r i g i n a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g my i n t e r e s t i n the contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market, f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g t h i s t h e s i s , and f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o d a t a on the V i c t o r i a and S e a t t l e I n d i a n a r t markets which I c o l l e c t e d as h i s r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t i n 1981/82 (funded by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's Committee on Humanities and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s Research G r a n t s ) . I a l s o wish t o thank Dr. Ames f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n my work, and f o r o f f e r i n g me many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop and a p p l y my knowledge o f Northwest Coast a r t and g a i n a d d i t i o n a l academic and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d t o my c a r e e r . Dr. M a r j o r i e H a l p i n and D r . E l v i W h i t t a k e r , f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and comments r e g a r d i n g my t h e s i s , and f o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g and approaches t o a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t have i n f l u e n c e d and b e n e f i t e d me i n my own s t u d i e s . The many i n d i v i d u a l s I i n t e r v i e w e d f o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s (see l i s t f o l l o w i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y ) , who c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o my u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the I n d i a n a r t market. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Mr. David Young and Mr. G.A. (Bud) Mintz f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , and f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n my research. In a d d i t i o n , I thank the d e a l e r s and other i n d i v i d u a l s ( l i s t e d i n Chapters Four and F i v e ) who a s s i s t e d me w i t h my museum v i s i t o r survey and consumer q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y . Ms. Susan Davidson, f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o i n t e r v i e w s which she conducted w i t h Haida a r t i s t s i n 1980. My f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s i n the Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y and a t the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . I thank Ms. Diana H a l l and Mr. Herb Watson f o r h e l p i n g me s e t up my e x h i b i t f o r the museum v i s i t o r s u r v e y , and Dr. N e i l Guppy f o r a s s i s t i n g me w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n .  visitor  The Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , survey t h e r e .  for. a l l o w i n g me t o conduct my museum  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r two t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p s , the P r o v i n c i a l Government Department o f Labour f o r support through two Y.E.P. g r a n t s , and the Museum o f Anthropology f o r support through museum assistantships. My p a r e n t s , I s e and Helmut D u f f e k , f o r y e a r s o f support and i n t e r e s t i n my s t u d i e s o f a n t h r o p o l o g y . My f r i e n d David S h e f f i e l d , f o r h i s s u p p o r t , i d e a s , c r i t i c i s m s , and f o r accompanying me t o c o u n t l e s s g a l l e r i e s , openings, and a u c t i o n s ! I wish t o acknowledge t h a t any mistakes  i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e my own.  - 1 -  INTRODUCTION  In the 1960's a r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n  a r t began t o take  p l a c e , f o l l o w i n g s e v e r a l decades o f d e c l i n e i n a r t p r o d u c t i o n from the d e v a s t a t i n g social structure.  e f f e c t s o f European c o n t a c t  that resulted  on t r a d i t i o n a l  The a r t t h a t i s produced today d e r i v e s  native  from c e n t u r i e s o l d  a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the p r i m a r y purpose f o r i t s p r o d u c t i o n s e l l t o a non-Indian consumer p u b l i c .  i s to  T h i s contemporary a r t has a t t a i n e d  new meanings and takes new forms r e l e v a n t t o the changed s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which i t i s now The art  located.  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study i s t o examine the Northwest Coast  market i n terms o f the r o l e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a r t w i t h i n i t s  contemporary s o c i a l c o n t e x t ,  f o c u s i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  consumers and the a r t they c o l l e c t . and  The t h e s i s w i l l examine the h i s t o r y  development o f t h e market, changes t h a t Northwest Coast a r t has undergone  i n response t o i t s new purpose, the p r e s e n t a t i o n and  Indian  consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s  a s p e c t s o f the Indian  and marketing o f the a r t ,  and buying p r e f e r e n c e s .  From an a n a l y s i s o f these  a r t market, i t i s hoped t h a t a g r e a t e r  can  be reached r e g a r d i n g  art  within  understanding  the contemporary use and meaning o f Northwest Coast  the n o n - n a t i v e c o n t e x t ,  and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Northwest Coast  t r a d i t i o n s f o r the consumer as w e l l as n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s . The  initial  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s came from Nelson Graburn's  s t u d i e s o f contemporary I n u i t a r t and other  a r t s o f acculturation''' (Graburn  1969a, 1969b, 1976a, 1976b), i n which he e x p l o r e s  the forms, f u n c t i o n s , and  meanings o f the a r t s i n t h e i r changing s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s .  Because  a c c u l t u r a t e d a r t s "are made f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n and consumption o u t s i d e  o f the  s o c i e t y of c r e a t i o n , c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f p r i m i t i v e and  f o l k a r t s i n the past"  ( i b i d . 1976:4), Graburn  (1976:1,2) s t a t e s  that  - 2 -  "the study o f the a r t s o f the F o u r t h World i s d i f f e r e n t from the study o f ' p r i m i t i v e ' a r t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f most e a r l i e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s , for  i t must take i n t o account more than one  system.  . .  7:  symbolic and a e s t h e t i c  In t h i s r e g a r d , he suggests t h a t the a r t of F o u r t h World  p e o p l e s must be a n a l y s e d i n terms o f i t s audience and  i t s function.  The  consumer s o c i e t y i s thus as v a l i d a s u b j e c t of study as the c r e a t o r peoples have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been. may  Graburn  have been intended f o r . . .  (1976:3) a l s o comments, "That the o b j e c t  e x t e r n a l consumption i s i t s e l f  an  i n d i c a t i o n of the s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between the a r t - p r o d u c i n g p e o p l e s of the F o u r t h World and the t o u r i s t s and a r t consumers o f the West." It  i s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t both shapes and  is reflected  i n the contemporary  Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market, and w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the  following  chapters.  For the purposes  o f t h i s study I have gathered  i n f o r m a t i o n and  o b t a i n e d i d e a s on the Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market from a v a r i e t y o f sources:  r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t  ( p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d books and a r t i c l e s ) ;  exhibition  reviews;  p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d e a l e r s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and a r t i s t s following bibliography);  (see  list  an u n p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  contemporary Haida a r t i s t s conducted  by Susan Davidson;  two  surveys of  viewers and consumers of contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t t h a t I conducted  i n 1980;  and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the market t h a t I have made  through a y e a r ' s p a r t - t i m e work a t the H e r i t a g e House G a l l e r y o f I n d i a n A r t  (1980/81), two Youth Employment p r o j e c t s t h a t i n v o l v e d c r e a t i n g a p h o t o g r a p h i c and w r i t t e n r e c o r d o f n a t i v e a r t s f o r s a l e i n Vancouver and w r i t i n g  (1980)  "A Guide t o Buying Contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t s "  (1981/82), and s e v e r a l y e a r s o f " g a l l e r y hopping" and a t t e n d i n g e x h i b i t  -  openings and museum events  3  -  concerned w i t h Northwest Coast a r t .  S t u d i e s of contemporary Northwest Coast upon most h e a v i l y i n c l u d e books and Hall  (1978, 1981,  1982), H a l l  Indian a r t t h a t I have r e l i e d  a r t i c l e s by Ames (1981), Blackman  (1979, 1980), H a l p i n  and  (1979, 1981b), Hawthorn  (1961) , Macnair e t a l . (1980) , N a t i v e Brotherhood of B r i t i s h Columbia and Reid  (1981).  These sources not o n l y p r o v i d e d me w i t h data on  contemporary a r t forms and important, and  analysed  the wider c o n t e x t s  Northwest Coast "Indianness"  The "The  (1976) have  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of a c c u l t u r a t e d  of n a t i v e c u l t u r e s .  The  latter  studies  w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e from which t o examine the " o t h e r n e s s " I n d i a n c u l t u r e as r e f l e c t e d  i n consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s  study which f o l l o w s i s p r e s e n t e d  I n d i a n a r t r e v i v a l and  of  Beginning  in f i v e chapters.  Chapter  I n d i a n A r t " , d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r y of  the growth of the market i n B r i t i s h Columbia  w i t h a b r i e f summary of the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y supported t o 1960,  i n which t h e r e was  art production.  The  One,  the  and f o r the  a r t , the chapter goes on t o d i s c u s s the e f f e c t s o f European c o n t a c t on  from 1920  of  and " a u t h e n t i c i t y " .  R e v i v a l of Northwest Coast  Seattle.  In  i n p a r t t o modern s o c i e t y ' s " s e a r c h f o r  i n the "otherness"  have p r o v i d e d me  social  a r t production.  ( l i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y ) and MacCannell  a r t s , r e l a t i n g t h i s production authenticity"  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the  f o r contemporary Northwest Coast  a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s by Graburn d e s c r i b e d and  the  the ways i n which they are marketed, but e q u a l l y  they comprise some of the f i r s t  c u l t u r a l contexts  (1980) ,  the  period  o n l y a l i m i t e d a r t market, i s d e s c r i b e d  as a p r e l u d e t o the subsequent Northwest Coast  art revival.  The  section  d e s c r i b i n g the r e v i v a l seeks t o i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d i t s e v o l u t i o n and and  s t i m u l a t e d non-Indian support  r e i n v e n t i o n of Northwest Coast  tradition  of the a r t .  The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  i s d i s c u s s e d as a p r o c e s s  central  - 4 -  t o much o f the r e v i v a l .  The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f examination o f  the renewed p r o d u c t i o n o f Northwest  Coast a r t f o r t h e n a t i v e c o n t e x t , an  a t t e n d a n t development o f the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t f o r s a l e . Chapter Two, " A r t f o r the M a r k e t p l a c e " , examines the changes t h a t Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s have undergone as a response t o the new  and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s i n which they a r e being c r e a t e d . d i s c u s s i o n of a r t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n  social  An i n t r o d u c t o r y  i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  changes i n the use and meaning, form and s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n o l o g y o f the a r t .  These changes a r e a n a l y s e d p r i m a r i l y  the c o n t e x t u a l changes they r e f l e c t :  i n terms o f  t h e a r t s have had t o become more  a c c e s s i b l e t o a wider a u d i e n c e , and t h e i r s a l e depends upon t h e i r  acceptance  by the buying p u b l i c , which has i t s own d e f i n i t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Indian a r t .  Changes i n the a r t a r e a l s o examined i n terms o f the i n f l u e n c e  of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s ' e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s . of the c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s market p e r c e p t i o n s o f Northwest  The f i n a l  section  Coast I n d i a n a r t ,  f o c u s i n g on the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f " t r a d i t i o n " , " i n n o v a t i o n " , " I n d i a n n e s s " , and  " a u t h e n t i c i t y " t h a t form t h e b a s i s o f the c r i t e r i a by which the  contemporary  a r t s a r e g e n e r a l l y judged.  The s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e " r e l e v a n c e " o f Northwest and t r a d i t i o n s i n the contemporary  context.  In Chapter T h r e e , "The Marketing o f Northwest the marketing p r a c t i c e s and s t r a t e g i e s which mediate consumption Participants  o f contemporary  Coast a r t  commercial  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t " , the p r o d u c t i o n and  Coast a r t a r e examined.  i n the market network a r e i d e n t i f i e d , as a r e t h e s e p a r a t e  components or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s o f the market i t s e l f .  Marketing a t both  producer and r e t a i l l e v e l s i s d i s c u s s e d , w i t h a f o c u s on f a c t o r s t h a t the s a l e a b i l i t y o f t h e a r t .  Because Northwest  affect  Coast a r t s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o  - 5  the consumer i n the c o n t e x t o f the a r t market, marketing  s t r a t e g i e s are  examined i n terms o f t h e i n f l u e n c e they may have on a r t p r o d u c t i o n and consumption, and t h e ways i n which they r e f l e c t consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s and buying  preferences. Chapters  Four and F i v e d e s c r i b e and p r e s e n t the r e s u l t s o f the two  surveys which I conducted  i n 1980 f o r the purposes o f examining i n g r e a t e r  d e t a i l consumer demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f contemporary Northwest Indian a r t .  Chapter  Four d i s c u s s e s a survey o f 100 v i s i t o r s t o the  UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . responses  The v i s i t o r s were i n t e r v i e w e d about  their  t o a s e l e c t i o n o f contemporary Northwest Coast s i l k s c r e e n  and wood c a r v i n g s e x h i b i t e d f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s u r v e y . was an attempt t o e l i c i t judged  Coast  prints  The survey  and d e f i n e t h e c r i t e r i a by which the respondents  t h e a r t , and t o examine how t h e i r a e s t h e t i c judgements may have been  c o n t e x t u a l l y q u a l i f i e d by, f o r example, t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y formed of I n d i a n a r t .  Chapter  F i v e d i s c u s s e s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey o f 143  consumers o f Northwest Coast complement t h e museum v i s i t o r purpose o f t h i s s u r v e y ,  expectations  Indian a r t .  T h i s survey was designed t o  survey and p r o v i d e data f o r comparison.  The  i n a d d i t i o n t o examining a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a as above,  was t o examine a c t u a l buying p r a c t i c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , and t o i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e consumers' d e c i s i o n s when p u r c h a s i n g Northwest Coast art.  The  f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s - the contemporary Northwest Coast  Indian  a r t market - i s one a s p e c t o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f Northwest Coast a r t p r o d u c t i o n t h a t can be s t u d i e d .  There a r e important  aspects of a r t production that  are r e l e v a n t t o t h i s t o p i c , but beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s .  For  i n s t a n c e , w h i l e t h e f o l l o w i n g study emphasizes the consumer element o f t h e market, i t o n l y touches  upon the a r t i s t i c v a l u e s o f the p r o d u c e r s , and the  - 6 -  p r o d u c e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of market demands. f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n , and and  the impact  S i m i l a r l y , the n a t i v e c o n t e x t  of the r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast a r t  t r a d i t i o n s upon I n d i a n p e o p l e , are s u b j e c t s n e e d f u l of f u r t h e r s t u d y . I have chosen t o address  an area of r e s e a r c h t o which, u n t i l  r e c e n t l y , not much a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been d i r e c t e d : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the non-Indian Northwest Coast  consumers and  I n d i a n a r t produced f o r s a l e .  the  that i s ,  contemporary  In t h i s r e g a r d , the  two  surveys c o n s t i t u t e a f i r s t attempt t o d e f i n e the c r i t e r i a consumers use i n t h e i r judgements and purchases i s presented art  of I n d i a n a r t .  This thesis, therefore,  as a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e on Northwest Coast  i n p a r t i c u l a r , and a c c u l t u r a t e d a r t s i n g e n e r a l .  Indian  - 7 -  Notes  Graburn (1969a, 1976a) uses the terms " a r t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n " and "Fourth World a r t s " t o d e s c r i b e the contemporary a r t s produced by a b o r i g i n a l or n a t i v e p e o p l e s ; these a r t s have undergone changes i n response t o c u l t u r e c o n t a c t , u s u a l l y c o n t a c t w i t h a dominant F i r s t , Second, or T h i r d World s o c i e t y . See Chapter Two f o r f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t e d and F o u r t h World a r t s .  - 8 -  CHAPTER ONE  - The  R e v i v a l of Northwest Coast  The r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast 1960's has the f i r s t  Indian Art  I n d i a n a r t t h a t began i n the  taken p l a c e w i t h i n a changed s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l context.  Since  i n f l u e n c e s of c o n t a c t w i t h Europeans, many a s p e c t s of a r t  p r o d u c t i o n have i n t u r n undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n response to the context.  The most important  ment of a non-Indian audience, s o c i e t y as the primary  f a c t o r i n these changes has been the which has  consumer of the a r t . p r o c e s s of the r e v i v a l  I n d i a n a r t by f o c u s i n g on the changes i n c o n t e x t  a r t p r o d u c t i o n and  develop-  almost t o t a l l y r e p l a c e d n a t i v e  T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r y and Northwest Coast  new  of  that a f f e c t e d  s t i m u l a t e d the r e v i v a l , the development of a non-Indian  consumer p u b l i c , and  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e i n v e n t i o n of Northwest  Coast  traditions.  I - ART  PRODUCTION ON  THE  NORTHWEST COAST PRE-19.20  A r t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast  context was  an  integral  p a r t of the c u l t u r e , bound to the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n i t s e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l and  ceremonial  p r i v i l e g e s , and  i n i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a s t r u c t u r e  of b e l i e f s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of man a r t was  c e n t r e d around the potlatch..  native l i f e ,  o r a l h i s t o r i e s , and  h i s t o r i a n s have attempted  On  and h i s u n i v e r s e .  main  purposes:  of  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and a r t  (and are attempting) to r e c o n s t r u c t the t h e i r complex  ideas  interrelationships  w i t h the c u l t u r e w i t h i n which they were c r e a t e d and used Duff  the  the b a s i s of e a r l y accounts  ethnographies,  and meanings of the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s and  Gunther 1966).  Much of  (see Boas  1955,  (.1967), f o r example, d e s c r i b e s the a r t as having  two  - 9 -  One purpose o f the a r t was to make the world of s u p e r n a t u r a l beings v i s i b l e and p r e s e n t . A carved shaman's charm was b e l i e v e d n o t o n l y to i d e n t i f y the s p i r i t from which he r e c e i v e d s u p e r n a t u r a l a i d , but t o c o n t a i n some o f i t s power. A masked f i g u r e i n a K w a k i u t l w i n t e r dance d i d not simply symbolize a s p i r i t c r e a t u r e ; ina sense i t proved t h a t the s p i r i t was a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t . How e l s e was man to v i s u a l i z e what the s p i r i t s were l i k e ? How e l s e c o u l d he f e e l t h e i r presence? Here a r t was a servant o f r e l i g i o n . A second main purpose o f the a r t i s t s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s was t o make the s o c i a l system v i s i b l e by p r o v i d i n g emblems to d i s t i n g u i s h the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups and to symbolize t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s . These emblems o r c r e s t s c o u l d be shown on any m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n , from a totem p o l e t o a robe. There was no b e l i e f t h a t they c o n t a i n e d the power o f the c r e a t u r e d e p i c t e d o r symbolized i t s a c t u a l presence, they were p u r e l y s o c i a l , not r e l i g i o u s symbols . . . Here a r t was the servant o f the s o c i a l system by p r o v i d i n g h i g h l y v i s i b l e s t a t u s symbols.  Regarding the p r o d u c t i o n  o f a r t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t ,  (1955:183) d i s t i n g u i s h e s two " s t y l e s " of a r t :  Boas  the man's s t y l e expressed i n  the a r t o f wood c a r v i n g and p a i n t i n g , and the women's s t y l e which, found expression to  i n weaving and b a s k e t r y .  A l t h o u g h a l l men and women were  be a b l e to make use o f common t e c h n i q u e s  i n the p r o d u c t i o n  taught  of u t i l i t a r i a n  items, MacDonald (19.77) notes t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d a r t i s t s who served  long  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s under master c a r v e r s or p a i n t e r s were o f t e n commissioned by high ranking  c h i e f s to produce masks, p o l e s , and o t h e r  T r a d i t i o n a l a r t production,  and the c o n t e x t  items.  i n which, i t took p l a c e ,  was a f f e c t e d by the European presence on the Northwest Coast almost from the time o f f i r s t by Duff output  c o n t a c t i n the 1770's (see Appendix I ) .  (1964b), Macnair e t a l . (19.80), H a l p i n  (1981b) and o t h e r s , the  o f Northwest Coast a r t f l o u r i s h e d f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t  e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y .  As d i s c u s s e d  The f u r t r a d e , b e g i n n i n g  period of  i n the 1770's, brought  sudden i n c r e a s e s of w e a l t h to the s o c i e t y , r e s u l t i n g i n expanded p o t l a t c h a c t i v i t y and an attendant  i n c r e a s e i n the need f o r , and p r o d u c t i o n o f ,  - 10  -  totem p o l e s , masks, and o t h e r r i t u a l objects:. of  The  increased a v a i l a b i l i t y  metal b l a d e s f u r t h e r a i d e d t h i s f l o u r i s h i n g of the a r t by a l l o w i n g  c a r v e r s g r e a t e r ease of p r o d u c t i o n .  According  to Duff  a r t i s t i c growth, c o n t i n u e d  to a climax between 1850  groups, a l t h o u g h Kwagiutl  a r t continued  1890  and  and  (.19.67), " t h i s 1880"  to e v o l v e " i n the p e r i o d between  1920." As the European presence  c o n t a c t s to s e t t l e m e n t and  on the Northwest Coast  colonization  Gunther  changed from t r a d e  (Duff 1964b), the p r o d u c t i o n of  art  began to l e s s e n .  was  so i n t i m a t e l y bound up w i t h the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e accounts  (1966:2) s t a t e s t h a t the f a c t t h a t the a r t  r a p i d d e c l i n e i n the 20th c e n t u r y ; o r g a n i z e d through  the impact  lost a l l motivation." was  The  "for i t s  f o r when the s o c i e t y became d i s -  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n to white customs, the a r t d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  brought about by f o r c e s i n c l u d i n g a d e c l i n e i n the f u r t r a d e , a d r a s t i c  decrease  i n n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n through, d i s e a s e , a l c o h o l , and warfare,  an i n c r e a s i n g dependence of I n d i a n people on a wage economy. governmental laws p r o h i b i t i n g the p o t l a t c h . i n 1884 to  for northern  one  Furthermore,  extended a severe blow  of the most c e n t r a l I n s t i t u t i o n s of n a t i v e s o c i e t y (Macnair  1980:24).  and  et a l .  While some p r o d u c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l a r t d i d c o n t i n u e i n t o  the  20th c e n t u r y , the death, of a n a t i v e c u l t u r e based on c e n t u r i e s o l d t r a d i t i o n s seemed a complete  Art  for Sale:  E a r l y C o l l e c t o r s on the Northwest  Since the f i r s t Northwest Coast and  certainty.  European c o n t a c t 200  Coast  years ago,  the a r t s of  I n d i a n s have i n t r i g u e d v i s i t o r s to the a r e a .  t r a d e r s expressed  interest i n collecting " a r t i f i c i a l  the  Explorers  curiosities"  as  - 11  souvenirs  -  of t h e i r c o n t a c t with, e x o t i c p e o p l e s  (Macnair  e t a l . 1980:65).  Coll-  e c t i n g a r t i f a c t s , was .-not a s p e c i f i c g o a l of most of the e a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s , although  C a p t a i n James Cook, f o r example, gathered  as p a r t of h i s f a c t - f i n d i n g a c t i v i t i e s beginning  of the 19th  items of t r a d e .  (Gunther 1972).  c e n t u r y , however, a r t i f a c t s had  Initially  made f o r n a t i v e use,  i n 1778  ethnographic  these  but by 1820  materials By  the  become Important  a r t i f a c t s c o n s i s t e d of items o r i g i n a l l y the demand f o r c u r i o s had  created  a  " s o u v e n i r " i n d u s t r y , where a r t i s t s produced items d i r e c t l y f o r s a l e to Europeans (Carpenter  the  1975:13).  A r g i l l i t e was  an important  the Haida, i n t h a t a r g i l l i t e  component of t h i s early- a r t market f o r  c a r v i n g s were perhaps the f i r s t  Northwest  Coast a r t forms produced e x c l u s i v e l y f o r s a l e to non-Indians. ment of such an a r t form t h a t had a c r e a t i v e response to the new from European c o n t a c t .  no  The  develop-  function i n traditional society  context  for art production  was  that r e s u l t e d  S t u d i e s of a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g have shown t h a t  changes i n s u b j e c t matter were both a response to c o l l e c t o r demand and  an  i n d i c a t o r of changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l Haida s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Kaufmann  1969).  R e f e r r i n g to e a r l y a r g i l l i t e p a n e l p i p e s , Macnair et a l . (1980:66) note t h a t " I t i s probable  t h a t c r e a t u r e s d e p i c t e d on commercial  represent mythical episodes of sacred and  ritual  t u r n of the c e n t u r y ,  r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l  crests."  articles The  depiction  s u b j e c t s i n the a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g s produced near however, s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t e d a l o o s e n i n g of  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e that could allow formerly  significant  the  traditional  images to be s o l d  as c u r i o s . C u r i o s i n s i l v e r and artists  i n other  wood were a l s o produced by the Haida and  t r i b a l groups.  S i l y e r b r a c e l e t s , produced p r i m a r i l y  by  - 12 -  by the Haida but a l s o by the K w a g i u t l and T s i m s h i a n from c o i n s o b t a i n e d through t r a d e , were s o l d d i r e c t l y to the o u t s i d e r s and were used by the n a t i v e people themselves.  Items In wood i n c l u d e d model totem p o l e s and  other models of l a r g e r works, r e p l i c a s of e x i s t i n g p i e c e s t h a t the owners were not w i l l i n g European  to s e l l or had l o n g s i n c e d i s c a r d e d and r e p l a c e d w i t h  i t e m s , and many o t h e r o b j e c t s such, as bowls and d i s h e s .  commissioning  of models and r e p l i c a s by c o l l e c t o r s adds an  dimension to the c o l l e c t i o n s now  The  interesting  s t o r e d i n museums - commissioned  items were  u s u a l l y made to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the c o l l e c t o r , and tended to be more c o n s c i o u s l y t r a d i t i o n a l i n form than o t h e r items produced a t t h a t time  (Carpenter 1975:16). Most of the e a r l y c o l l e c t i n g  b e f o r e 1870 was  of minor  t h a t took p l a c e on the Northwest  Coast  s i g n i f i c a n c e compared t o . t h e c o l l e c t i n g t h a t began  i n the 1870's and c o n t i n u e d a t a g r e a t r a t e f o r the next f o r t y years: (Cole 1978,  1982).  C o l l e c t i n g by the 1880's had turned i n t o more than a c a s u a l  accumulation of I n d i a n c u r i o s - serious, commissioned f o r museums and world f a i r s had begun (see Appendix the c o l l e c t i n g of Northwest  ethnological I).  collecting  T h i s emphasis on  Coast I n d i a n a r t i f a c t s as "specimens"  coincided  w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the g r e a t age of museums i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Commissioned c o l l e c t o r s such, as James G. Swan ( f o r the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) , Johan A d r i a n Jacobsen  ( f o r B e r l i n ' s Royal E t h n o l o g i c a l Museum),  L t . George Thornton Emmons, and C F .  Newcombe are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g  a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the 115,000 to 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 c a t a l o g u e d a r t i f a c t s r e s i d i n g i n museums today  (Carpenter  1975:16).  Northwest Their  Coast  activity  reflected  the museums' concerns about  s a l v a g i n g the l a s t v e s t i g e s o f a d y i n g  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e to. use "as stones wherewith, to b u i l d up  the  - 13 -  f u t u r e science" of ethnology  ( B a s t i a n 1883).  Both t r a d i t i o n a l and new  p i e c e s made f o r s a l e were gathered up by these men i n a c o m p e t i t i v e t h a t e v e n t u a l l y tapered  o f f by the 1920's.  Much o f t h e a r t produced f o r s a l e b e f o r e trained  quest  1880 was made by a r t i s t s  i n t h e i r c l a s s i c t r i b a l s t y l e , and t h e i r work r e f l e c t s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t f o r m s . .  their  These a r t i s t s p r o b a b l y  items f o r n a t i v e use as w e l l as items f o r s a l e .  produced  By the l a t e 1800's, however,  n a t i v e manufacture o f goods f o r the c u r i o market was dominated by persons o b v i o u s l y n o t t r a i n e d as a r t i s t s . response t o the s t i l l  Work by these p e o p l e was an economic  a c t i v e demand f o r n a t i v e a r t s by o u t s i d e r s  (Macnair  e t a l . 1980:65) . While most a r t i s t s working i n the n i n e t e e n t h anonymous, a s m a l l number o f a r t i s t s achieved t h e i r contacts with  century  remain  renown as i n d i v i d u a l s through  e t h n o l o g i s t s and museum c o l l e c t o r s .  (1839-1920) and G w a y t i h l  or e a r l i e r  Charles  Edensaw  (d. 1912?) a r e two Haida a r t i s t s who a c q u i r e d  international reputations.  The l a t t e r  were a r t i c u l a t e d and r e a l i s t i c  i s known f o r h i s p o r t r a i t masks which  i n s t y l e , y e t n o t made f o r use - they were  t r u l y an a r t made f o r a new f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e o f n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n .  Edensaw  remains one o f the most famous and s i g n i f i c a n t Haida a r t i s t s who was a l s o recognized  and used by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  as an a u t h o r i t y on n a t i v e c u l t u r e .  H i s fame "comes m a i n l y from h i s work i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l media: and  argillite  gold,  ... [ a n d ] most o f h i s i d e n t i f i e d output was produced f o r s a l e  t o non-Indians. reputation?  silver,  I t was i n t h i s c o n t e x t  (Macnair e t a l . 1980:68).  who was a b l e t o devote h i m s e l f  t h a t Edensaw e s t a b l i s h e d h i s Edensaw was a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t  f u l l time t o a r t p r o d u c t i o n .  He l i v e d and  worked between two worlds - the n a t i v e and white s o c i e t i e s - c a r r y i n g on  - 14 -  and  i n n o v a t i n g upon Haida  and  function.  ceased two  t r a d i t i o n s w h i l e a d a p t i n g them to a new  context  In h i s r o l e as an a r t i s t whose t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n had  w i t h i n the n a t i v e environment, Edensaw served as a l a s t l i n k between  c u l t u r e s i n a time of change.  Although,  a r t p r o d u c t i o n f o r n a t i v e use c o n t i n u e d death l e f t  throughout  p r e v i o u s l y , Kwagiutl  t h i s time, Edensaw's  the remnants of n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast a r t t r a d i t i o n s  o n l y to the p r o d u c t i o n of t o u r i s t  I I - ART  as noted  PRODUCTION ON THE The y e a r s from 1920  curios.  NORTHWEST COAST: to 1960  imaginatively.  1920  to  1960  are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a p e r i o d of  c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e f o r Northwest Coast p e r i o d , Hawthorn (1961:69) wrote:  reduced  Indian a r t .  Describing this  "A few c a r v e r s work c a p a b l y ,  Museums p r o v i d e a replacement  even  f o r the supports g i v e n by  the o l d system, s u p p l y i n g an income and an a p p r e c i a t i v e audience. c a r v e r s work c r u d e l y and r e p e t i t i v e l y , of t h e i r communities and  t h e i r work separated  Many more  from the v a l u e s  s e l l i n g on a c o m p l e t e l y uninformed, e x t e r n a l  market." With the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s o c i a l , economic, and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t had  supported  Northwest Coast  a r t s meaning, most t r i b a l groups l o s t  I n d i a n a r t s and  may  The  resources  s u p p r e s s i o n of  such as the p o t l a t c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y a i d e d the d e c l i n e of  t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s f o r a l l t r i b a l groups. 1960  g i v e n the  the knowledge, s k i l l s , and  needed to s u s t a i n a v i a b l e , e v o l v i n g a r t t r a d i t i o n . institutions  political  The  the  f o u r decades between 1920  and  be i n t e r p r e t e d as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n t h a t  began i n the l a t e 1800's, where a new economic and  s o c i a l support  audience  and  consumer, and a  system had not yet developed  they c o u l d r e p l a c e those of the p a s t and  support  new  to an e x t e n t where  the same degree, of a r t  - 15 -  production. Two  k i n d s o f markets or c o n t e x t s f o r Northwest Coast a r t p r o d u c t i o n  d i d e x i s t i n t h i s time p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h they were much more c o n s t r a i n e d i n scope  than i n p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g decades.  A s m a l l number of  p a r t i c u l a r l y among the Southern K w a g i u t l but a l s o among o t h e r continued to produce  works f o r a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t .  number of a r t i s a n s produced  f o r the commercial  artists,  tribes,  Possibly a larger  c o n t e x t , which, c o n s i s t e d  p r i m a r i l y of a l i m i t e d t o u r i s t market.  The T r a d i t i o n a l  Context  Of a l l Northwest Coast t r i b a l groups,  the Southern K w a g i u t l were  the most s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r a r t i s t i c potlatch prohibition. tribal traditions, (Macnair 1977:152).  t r a d i t i o n s i n the f a c e of  I t i s o f t e n s t r e s s e d t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t to o t h e r  the K w a g i u t l t r a d i t i o n alone has remained u n i n t e r r u p t e d However, even K w a g i u t l a r t t r a d i t i o n s  slumbered,  being c a r r i e d on i n the hands o f r e l a t i v e l y few p r a c t i t i o n e r s compared to earlier  times.  C h a r l i e James, Mungo M a r t i n , and W i l l i e Seaweed are  Southern K w a g i u t l a r t i s t s who s i g n i f i c a n t a r t throughout  managed to m a i n t a i n a v i a b l e and  culturally  t h i s p e r i o d , producing ceremonial objects f o r  p o t l a t c h . use, as w e l l as items f o r an o u t s i d e market.  While  the maintenance  of the p o t l a t c h p r o v i d e d employment f o r these and o t h e r K w a g i u t l i t was  artists,  not u n t i l the 19.50's t h a t a few young people a g a i n became i n t e r e s t e d  i n l e a r n i n g the c a r v i n g s k i l l s and The  c a r r y i n g on the work o f the o l d e r  men.  s i t u a t i o n was more s e r i o u s among the Haida and T s i m s h i a n , where  master a r t i s t s d i e d without p a s s i n g on t h e i r knowledge to younger c a r v e r s . Among the T s i m s h i a n , the c l a s s i c c a r v i n g and p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n  passed  - 16 -  from p r a c t i c e about 191Q, although, a few craftsmen the 1940's (Macnair.et a l . 1980:93).  Reid  continued  to carye  into  (1981:4) r e c a l l s t h a t on the  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , " t h e r e was some adequate s l a t e c a r v i n g and a few o l d men.  John C r o s s , Tom Moody, John Marks, and my g r a n d f a t h e r ,  Gladstone,  were making some q u i t e n i c e b r a c e l e t s . "  While i t i s n o t c l e a r whether a r t p r o d u c t i o n f o r the Coast r i t u a l context c o n t i n u e d ,  t r a d i t i o n a l use o f a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g  r a t t l e s and s p i r i t dancing  equipment c o n t i n u e d  t o some e x t e n t  Charles  Salish  engraved throughout  t h i s time p e r i o d (Kew 1981). Regarding  Nuu-chah-nulth. (Westcoast/Nootka) a r t , t h e r e I s some  disagreement as to whether or not the t r a d i t i o n d i e d o u t ; s t a t e t h a t the t r a d i t i o n c o n t i n u e d production of ceremonial and H a l l  i n remote a r e a s , o t h e r s d e c l a r e the  a r t t o have ceased  a l t o g e t h e r by 1950 (Blackman  1978:11). Women's a r t s a r e o f t e n omitted  and  some sources  r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast  from a d i s c u s s i o n o f the d e c l i n e  I n d i a n a r t s , a l t h o u g h b a s k e t r y and weaving  a l s o responded to the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f machine-made wares, and the c u r i o t r a d e .  For example,  basket-making f o r n a t i v e use c o n t i n u e d o n l y as l o n g as i t remained a u s e f u l s k i l l w i t h i n the household.  On the o t h e r hand, b a s k e t r y s t y l e s and forms  were e a s i l y adapted f o r the t o u r i s t market, e s p e c i a l l y by the S a l i s h . and the Nuu-chah-nulth. In the p e r i o d 1920 to I960, the t r a d i t i o n a l context f o r Northwest Coast a r t s had t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y d i m i n i s h e d , l e a v i n g l i m i t e d demand f o r ceremonial  goods and a s l o w l y d e v e l o p i n g  commercial market I n i t s p l a c e .  - 17 -  The Commercial  Context  The market f o r newly produced  Northwest Coast a r t d e c l i n e d d u r i n g  the l a t e 1920/s and 1930's, p r o b a b l y a t l e a s t i n p a r t because of a d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n a c t i v e commissioned museum c o l l e c t i n g , as w e l l as the economic d e p r e s s i o n of the 1930's.  Knight  (1978:43) s t a t e s t h a t  the end o f the 1930's the market f o r Haida a r t had reached  i t s lowest p o i n t .  Barbeau (.1957:203) wrote t h a t Andrew Brown, an e x p e r i e n c e d Haida c a r v e r , was  reduced  argillite  to s e l l i n g m i n i a t u r e totem p o l e s a t the P r i n c e Rupert  d o c k s i d e t o t o u r i s t s f o r two purchase  by  to three d o l l a r s a p i e c e .  o f K w a g i u t l e t h n o g r a p h i c items a l s o d e c l i n e d  Collection  and  i n the 1920's, and  K w a g i u t l a r t i s t s s h i f t e d more to j e w e l l e r y - m a k i n g and m i n i a t u r e wood carvings  (Knight  1978:44).  Although, the c u r i o or t o u r i s t market was  limited i n size  scope, i t p r o v i d e d the primary s t i m u l u s and commercial Coast I n d i a n a r t s produced  between 1920  and 1960.  o u t l e t f o r Northwest  Items produced  t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e d Cowichan k n i t t i n g , b a s k e t r y , some s i l v e r and a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g , and of c o u r s e , wood c a r v i n g . commissioned and purchased  and  during  jewellery  Some museums  p i e c e s f o r t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s , but t h i s o c c u r r e d  on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e than b e f o r e the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . Perhaps the .most e c o n o m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l area of the Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market was e s t a b l i s h e d by the 1880's.  the growing  Cowichan sweater  knitting industry,  A l t h o u g h not a t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e a r t form,  p r o d u c t s were i n h i g h demand by the non-Indian  p u b l i c and came to be  r e c o g n i z e d as u n i q u e l y B r i t i s h Columbian items. r e c e i v e d from f i f t e e n to twenty d o l l a r s a sweater,  K n i t t e r s i n the 1950's and an average  s o l d on the r e t a i l market f o r twenty to t h i r t y - f i v e d o l l a r s  sweater  (Hawthorn e t  the  - 18 -  al.  1958:262).  S i n c e Cowichan k n i t t i n g was an imported  c r a f t o r i g i n a l l y taught it  (non-Indigenous)  t o n a t i v e women by S c o t t i s h immigrant women,  d i d not r e l y on knowledge of t r a d i t i o n a l forms o r have t o adapt  from a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l context k n i t t e d products  to the I n d i a n a r t market.  itself  In f a c t , the  found a ready market among both, n o n - n a t i v e and n a t i v e  people. By c o n t r a s t , b a s k e t r y  comprised a s m a l l segment o f t h e Northwest  Coast a r t market, as t h e c r a f t was; o n l y p r a c t i s e d by o l d e r women and d i d not p r o v i d e  adequate f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s f o r the amount o f l a b o u r  Nuu-chah-nulth, C o a s t a l and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h baskets  involved.  were t h e types most  commonly a v a i l a b l e to t h e consumer. S i l v e r jewellery production  during t h i s period declined g r e a t l y  i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y , r e l a t i v e t o e a r l i e r a r t i s a n s attempted w e l l - d e s i g n e d i n mass p r o d u c t i o n  standards.  engraved j e w e l l e r y .  products  Others p a r t i c i p a t e d  o f b r a c e l e t s , where s t r i p s o f s i l v e r were f a c t o r y -  stamped w i t h a p a t t e r n t h a t t h e n a t i v e craftsman Hawthorn e t a l .  Only a few  then f i n i s h e d and p o l i s h e d .  (1958:263) note t h a t " S i n c e t h e p r i c e f o r most o f these  ranges from $10 t o $15 i n c l u d i n g t h e p r i c e o f the s i l v e r ,  would not j u s t i f y t h e f u l l The relatively  they  care o f a s i l v e r s m i t h . "  r e t u r n s to a r g i l l i t e c a r v e r s were a l s o not high., d e s p i t e a s t r o n g c o l l e c t o r demand f o r works i n t h i s medium.  few c a r v e r s c o n t i n u e d  Only v e r y  to c r e a t e such items as model p o l e s , a s h t r a y s , and  brooches, f o r which, they r e c e i v e d one d o l l a r per l i n e a l inch, i n the 1930's, and  f i v e d o l l a r s p e r i n c h i n the 1950's QBarbeau  1958:260).  Overall a r t i s t i c  1957:9.5;  Hawthorn e t a l .  q u a l i t y o f t h e work was e x t r e m e l y low. i n  comparison t o works c r e a t e d by e x p e r i e n c e d  Haida c a r v e r s i n the 18.QQ's.  - 19  -  Souvenir model totem p o l e s comprised items a v a i l a b l e on the t o u r i s t market. to  two  f e e t , "most r e p r e s e n t ( e d )  southern c o a s t t r i b e s who  had  Ranging i n s i z e from a few  inches  the i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s of c a r v e r s of the  little  totem p o l e s (Duff 19.64b:83)..  the h u l k of the carved wooden  or no  t r a d i t i o n a l background of  Hawthorn e t a l . (1958:259) wrote,  I t must not be assumed t h a t the many s m a l l carved p o l e s f o r s a l e i n shops are an index of the v i t a l i t y of t h i s c r a f t . These s m a l l totem p o l e s have no h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and have o n l y come i n t o e x i s t e n c e as a r e s u l t of t o u r i s t demand f o r s o u v e n i r s ... f o r the most p a r t they are g a r i s h and meaningless l i t t l e s o u v e n i r s , made on commission a t low p r i c e s per u n i t or lot.  Other items of wood carved s i n g l e animal  f o r the market i n c l u d e d masks;, plaques,  f i g u r e s , although  and  these were not produced on as l a r g e a s c a l e  as model p o l e s . A number o f e x p e r i e n c e d n a t i v e c a r v e r s who  continued carving f o r  n a t i v e use a l s o produced items f o r the commercial market. known among them are Southern C h a r l i e James (c. 1868 s o l d to v i s i t o r s  Kwagiutl a r t i s t s .  - 1938)  The b e t t e r  U n t i l the l a t e 1930's  c r e a t e d hundreds of model p o l e s which he  to h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e .  These p i e c e s d i f f e r e d  from h i s  t r a d i t i o n a l works not o n l y i n the context f o r which they were c r e a t e d , but a l s o i n t h e i r i m p r e c i s e workmanship and note,  "He  is  finish.  f o n d l y remembered by h i s own  but the i m p r e s s i o n most o t h e r s have of him items."  Southern  Macnair et a l . (1980:73)  people as a t r a d i t i o n a l  artist  i s t h a t he was: a maker of  curio  K w a g i u t l a r t i s t s Mungo M a r t i n and W i l l i e Seaweed a l s o  carved n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i c l e s f o r s a l e i n a d d i t i o n to the items carved f o r c e r e m o n i a l use.  C h a r l i e G. Walkus (1907  George J r . (b. 1910)  Southern  are two  Kwagiutl  - 1974)  c a r v e r s who  they  and C h a r l i e  began t h e i r  - 20 -  c a r e e r s by c a r v i n g model totem p o l e s to s e l l developed i n t o r e c o g n i z e d in  the 1950's which d i f f e r e d  a few r e s p e c t s : and  tribal artists.  to non-Indians, and  Walkus carved masks f o r s a l e  from the masks he made f o r n a t i v e use  e t a l . 1980:96).  Even the market f o r f i n e contemporary p i e c e s and  to  v e r y l i m i t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A. Hawthorn (1975:14), " t h e r e were no  Coast a r t and two  ethnography.  from an I n d i a n , but  The  In the l a t e 19.40's, a c c o r d i n g  s p e c i a l i z e d d e a l e r s i n Northwest a mask or  gone i n t o the p i e c e s . " i t was  As w i l l  be  not u n t i l the l a t e 196Q's t h a t  items of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t began to be promoted and  as " a r t " and  consider  p r i c e d a c c o r d i n g l y on the a r t market.  E l l e n Neel, r i g h t , was  one  the granddaughter of C h a r l i e James and of the few n a t i v e a r t i s t s who  c a r v e r In  attempted to make a  from her a r t i n the 1940's, at the same time keeping K w a g i u t l and  heirloom  the p r i c e s they p a i d were extremely u n r e a l i s t i c i n  shown i n s e c t i o n I I I of t h i s c h a p t e r ,  own  older  o c c a s i o n a l c u r i o shop might buy  terms of the f i n e workmanship t h a t had  antique  In o n l y  a l a c k of r i g g i n g (meaning the mask c o u l d not be worn),  Walkus' s i g n a t u r e i n s i d e (Macnair  p i e c e s was  who  i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c awareness of i t .  c h i l d r e n she c r e a t e d a f a m i l y c o t t a g e totem p o l e s , masks, and  other  of a s m a l l shop on Powell whatever she c o u l d s e l l "  items.  living  art alive  Together w i t h her husband  i n d u s t r y , and  her  and  they carved model  O r i g i n a l l y , they l i v e d and worked out  S t r e e t i n Vancouver  (see Appendix IIa)l, "making  (A. Hawthorn 1979:259).  The  i n n a t i v e a r t at t h a t time, however, meant a constant  l a c k of  interest  s t r u g g l e to  maintain  s a l e s of t h e i r work. A comment by the outspoken N e e l , made at a 19_48 Native  Conference  I n d i a n A f f a i r s , p r o v i d e s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the context  on within  - 21 -  which, she and  other n a t i v e a r t i s t s worked:  In my f a m i l y c a r v i n g was a means of l i v e l i h o o d . My g r a n d f a t h e r was C h a r l i e James, the famous Yakuglas ... Totems were our d a i l y , fare. They bought our c l o t h i n g and f u r n i s h e d our food. There was no problem of s a l e , s i n c e h i s work was e a g e r l y sought. Now  the s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t .  C u r i o d e a l e r s have so cheapened the a r t i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to s a t i s f y t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p r o f i t , t h a t I doubt i f one c o u l d f i n d a s i n g l e household where the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the work i s important to them. I have s t r i v e n In a l l my work to r e t a i n the a u t h e n t i c , but I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n even a p o r t i o n of the p r i c e n e c e s s a r y to do a r e a l l y f i n e p i e c e of work. This being so, I do not blame my contemporaries f o r t r y i n g to get enough f o r t h e i r work to l i v e on, even though I b e l i e v e 'they are cheapening t h e i r h e r i t a g e . C e r t a i n l y a g r e a t work c o u l d be performed amongst the n a t i v e people i f a t r u e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r work c o u l d be i n s t i l l e d i n t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Only when t h e r e i s an adequate response to our e f f o r t s to r e t a i n the best of our a r t w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e to t r a i n the younger g e n e r a t i o n to a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r own c u l t u r a l achievements ("quoted i n Hawthorn 1948).  N e e l ' s l a t t e r comment, i n p a r t i c u l a r , p o i n t s out  the  importance  of the development of an a p p r e c i a t i v e non-Indian consumer p u b l i c to ensure the s u r v i v a l of Northwest Coast a r t s . by Hawthorn e t a l . (1958:265), who  T h i s requirement was  reported  reiterated  that "Public information  the background of I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i s of f i r s t  importance.  on  A programme  which aims at d e v e l o p i n g  I n d i a n a r t i s t i c r e s o u r c e s must depend u l t i m a t e l y  upon p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and  understanding."  provided  the support  production  system and  S i n c e n a t i v e s o c i e t y no  "market" f o r the a r t s , c o n t i n u e d  longer  art  depended upon the expansion of the commercial market.  The market c o n t e x t a r t i s t s attempted to s e l l  between .1920  and  t h e i r work, was  19.60, i n which Neel and  l i m i t e d and  shaped by  other  interrelated  - 22  economic  s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c , and - The  factors.  B r i e f l y summarized, these i n c l u d e :  l o s s of the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e context  N a t i v e people  had  the p r o v i n c e , had new  -  become I n v o l v e d  for art production.  i n the broader  i n d u s t r i a l economy of  l a r g e l y y i e l d e d to C h r i s t i a n i t y , and had  forms of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The p o t l a t c h  p r o h i b i t i o n law was  i n e f f e c t d u r i n g most of t h i s p e r i o d  and much ceremonial  p a r a p h e r n a l i a was  p o t l a t c h . r a i d , 1922; - The  see I n g l i s 1979)  or  sold. Negative  Indianness were communicated to Northwest Coast  a t t i t u d e s toward  people  through, the  r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l programs, where students were punished  These a t t i t u d e s helped  (1884-1951).,  e i t h e r c o n f i s c a t e d (e.g. Cranmer  s o c i e t a l p e r c e p t i o n s of I n d i a n s .  t h e i r n a t i v e language and  experienced  for using  encouraged to become as "White" as. p o s s i b l e .  foster a negative  i n c l u d i n g a r e j e c t i o n o f the p a s t and  s e l f - i m a g e among I n d i a n s ,  of a c t i v i t i e s or t r a i t s  that  emphasized a person's Indianness.  Addressing  younger g e n e r a t i o n of n a t i v e people  In the 1930's to 1950's d i d not  have an i n t e r e s t  the q u e s t i o n of why  i n preserving their cultural traditions,  (1957:212) c i t e s the words he o f t e n heard  p r o d u c t i o n of I n d i a n a r t , which, would express  the terms of the p a s t , was g e n e r a t i o n , nor was  Barbeau  repeated:  "We have been taught to be modern, p r o g r e s s i v e . be mistaken f o r our u n c l e s who wore b l a n k e t s . "  The  the  We  don't want to  a native identity i n  not c o n s i d e r e d p o s i t i v e l y by t h i s : younger  i t r e i n f o r c e d as d e s i r a b l e by the wider society-.  A statement by Audrey and Harry Hawthorn, quoted i n the Report of Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s , and Sciences. (Massey e t a l , 1951:239).., i s , r e l e v a n t to t h i s p o i n t :  the  - 23 -  There i s s t i l l a widespread ignorance about I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . The movies and the comics p r o v i d e the o n l y g e n e r a l knowledge t o many p e o p l e . A l l I n d i a n s a r e p o r t r a y e d as l i v i n g I n t i p i s and wearing f e a t h e r s , u n t i l even some I n d i a n s have come to b e l i e v e this. A v a s t area o f i n d i f f e r e n c e surrounds Imputations o f ignorance, l a z i n e s s or u n r e l i a b i l i t y . Erroneous b e l i e f s a r e coupled w i t h the sparse f a c t s t h a t Indians made arrow heads ... and t h a t the o l d women used to t r a d e b a s k e t s f o r o l d c l o t h e s ... and t h a t i s the sum t o t a l o f p u b l i c knowledge o f these p e o p l e s .  - Population decline. had  experienced  By 1929 the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  a d e c l i n e o f about s i x t y p e r c e n t  ("from an e s t i m a t e d  70,000 i n 1835).  Columbia  to a low p o i n t , o f 22 605 if  I t was not u n t i l 1939 t h a t the  p o p u l a t i o n a g a i n began t o i n c r e a s e i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t o a t o t a l o f 40,800 i n 1963 (Duff - North American socio-economic  19.64b:45). conditions.  The 1920's were a time o f  r a p i d change f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and North. America g e n e r a l l y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n d u s t r i a l boom and t r e n d s toward u r b a n i z a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , the 1930's were e c o n o m i c a l l y depressed the e x i s t i n g market f o r I n d i a n a r t s . of i n d u s t r y and technology c a r r i e d through  years,  curtailing  An economic boom and b u i l d - u p  f o l l o w e d the Second World War, however, and  the 1950's, a time o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  In contrast to  the more r e c e n t n o s t a l g i a f o r the p a s t , the 1950's were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a replacement  o f the o l d by the new.  - L i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l support o f , and f i n a n c i a l support  f o rnative arts.  f o r , Northwest Coast  was g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g p r i o r to 1960.  Government encouragement Indian a r t production  The f a c t t h a t the p o t l a t c h  p r o h i b i t i o n law was not l i f t e d u n t i l 1951 i n d i c a t e s governmental a t t i t u d e s o f the time toward the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f such e x p r e s s i o n s o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y .  Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t  instances  - 24 -  of f i n a n c i a l support tion projects The  f o r n a t i v e arts; were s e v e r a l totem p o l e r e s t o r a -  (see below) and a s m a l l number o f museum e x h i b i t i o n s .  f a c t o r s mentioned above comprise elements o f t h e wider  context  f o r n a t i v e a r t , w i t h i n which o n l y a l i m i t e d non-Indian consumer p u b l i c developed.  Some attempts a t promoting Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t s were,  however, made between 19.20 and 1960, a l t h o u g h the s o c i a l m i l i e u , i n which, such attempts would be most e f f e c t i v e d i d n o t emerge u n t i l a f t e r t h i s period.  In 1939 Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t was Included  i n t h e Golden  Gate I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n i n San F r a n c i s c o as p a r t o f one o f t h e first  e x h i b i t i o n s o f American I n d i a n a r t .  Coast a r t was " d i s c o v e r e d "  I n the 1940's, Northwest  by the S u r r e a l i s t a r t i s t s i n New York  such a r t i s t s as Max E r n s t , Andre Breton,  (Including  and f r i e n d s such as Claude  L e v i - S t r a u s s ) , who were a t t r a c t e d t o the v i s u a l puns i n t h e masterworks they were a b l e t o c o l l e c t . entitled  The S u r r e a l i s t s arranged an e x h i b i t i o n  "Northwest Coast I n d i a n P a i n t i n g " a t t h e B e t t y Parsons G a l l e r y i n  New York i n 1946 (Carpenter  1975:9, 1 0 ) .  T h i s was a p r e l i m i n a r y  at removing t h e o b j e c t s from the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' specimen" and r e c l a s s i f i n g  them as " a r t . "  category  attempt  of " s c i e n t i f i c  L o c a l e x h i b i t i o n s a t the  Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y In 19.56 and 1958 (see Appendix I) a l s o served to p u b l i c i z e the a r t , although, the f o c u s was u s u a l l y on i t s t r a d i t i o n a l ethnographic  context.  In V i c t o r i a , a non-Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d "The S o c i e t y f o r t h e F u r t h e r a n c e o f B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s " ( l a t e r changed to the B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and Welfare S o c i e t y ) was s e t up i n 1939. preserve  and s t i m u l a t e n a t i v e a r t s and c r a f t s .  some e x h i b i t s o f n a t i v e c r a f t s  I t s purpose was t o  The o r g a n i z a t i o n h e l d  ( i n c l u d i n g e x h i b i t i o n s o f George C l u t e s i ' s  - 25 -  paintings i n attempted  19.44)  , made a r t s c h o l a r s h i p s a v a i l a b l e t o students,- and  t o p u b l i c i z e t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest  (Hawthorn e t a l .  1958:266).  S o c i e t y founder, Dr. A l i c e V R a v e n h i l l ,  p u b l i s h e d a book o f Northwest Canadian C u l t u r e " i n 1944.  Coast p a t t e r n s and d e s i g n s  Coast d e s i g n s e n t i t l e d  "A Cornerstone o f  T h i s was one o f the few books on Northwest  Coast a r t g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t  time.  A number o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c l u d i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and p a t r o n s , p l a y e d a r o l e i n promoting production.  dealers,  the a r t and encouraging a r t  W i l s o n D u f f , Marius Barheau,  and Audrey and H a r r y Hawthorn,  among o t h e r s , c o n t r i b u t e d as a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f Northwest  Coast a r t through t h e i r w r i t i n g s , museum a c t i v i t i e s , and p e r s o n a l  connections to n a t i v e a r t i s t s . i n Northwest  Only a few r e t a i l o u t l e t s  specializing  Coast I n d i a n a r t were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1960 (see Appendix  I I ) , but t h e i r d e a l e r s p r o v i d e d a l i n k between the c r a f t s p e o p l e and the t o u r i s t s and c o l l e c t o r s .  Major  p a t r o n s such, as Walter and Marianne  Koerner and H.R. M a c M i l l a n c o l l e c t e d and a s s i s t e d i n museum purchases o f f i n e Northwest  Coast p i e c e s , and encouraged  p r e s e r v e and support the a r t form.  a r t i s t s and b e n e f a c t o r s t o  The support o f these p a t r o n s helped  museums to spark wider p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  i n Northwest  Coast a r t and c o n t r i -  bute to the body o f m a t e r i a l from which, young a r t i s t s c o u l d l a t e r  relearn  the a r t t r a d i t i o n s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t promotion o f Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t i n  the p e r i o d p r i o r to 1960 was the totem p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t a t the UBC Museum o f Anthropology. commissioned  In  1949.-50.  Audrey and Harry Hawthorn  E l l e n Neel and Mungo M a r t i n t o r e s t o r e totem p o l e s brought  to the campus y e a r s e a r l i e r .  As an e x t e n s i o n of the p r o j e c t  in  1950-51,  - 26  M a r t i n carved 1979:vii). informant  two  f o r t y - f o o t p o l e s of H i s own  t e n years at the B.C.  f o r two  carved and  a l . 1980:73).  and  subsequently (Ames  for  1981:8).  v e r s i o n of h i s t r a d i t i o n a l  r e p l i c a t e d more than two  and  community  dozen totem p o l e s  (Macnair  Both p r o j e c t s a t t r a c t e d much, p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , thereby  s e r v i n g as important p u b l i c and  years at UBC  P r o v i n c i a l Museum with. W i l s o n D u f f  In V i c t o r i a M a r t i n c o n s t r u c t e d a new  et  f a m i l y c r e s t s (A. Hawthorn  T h i s p r o j e c t e s t a b l i s h e d M a r t i n as a f u l l - t i m e c a r v e r i n residence, f i r s t  house, and  -  s t i m u l i to the development of a l a r g e r consumer  to the r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast  "traditional" art.  The  p r o j e c t s a l s o "demonstrated p u b l i c l y t h a t an honourable l i v i n g c o u l d made by p r o d u c i n g museums" (Ames  h i g h q u a l i t y c a r v i n g s f o r white people  the urban c e n t r e s of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a ,  S e a t t l e became the f o c a l areas f o r the Northwest Coast  and  art revival.  much of the commercial a r t p r o d u c t i o n was. c o n t i n u i n g i n the more  remote n a t i v e communities, many a r t i s t s and  their  1981:8).  From t h i s p o i n t on,  Although  and  be  (Including B i l l  l a t e r Robert Davidson, Norman T a i t , and  s e l v e s i n the c i t y .  Reid, Tony- Hunt,  others), were c e n t e r i n g them-  The non-Indian consumers, the t o u r i s t s ,  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as museums were a l s o c e n t e r e d  and  i n urban a r e a s , meaning  t h a t the major markets f o r I n d i a n a r t would develop  w i t h i n the  three  cities. Museum commissions c o n t i n u e d : Cranmer were commissioned by the UBC of was  Canada C o u n c i l g r a n t s ) completed i n 1962;  i n 19.57  B i l l Reid and  Douglas  Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y (with the a i d  to c r e a t e a s e c t i o n of a Haida v i l l a g e ,  and  i n 1954  Henry Hunt was  h i r e d by the  which B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l Museum as c a r y e r - i n - r e s i d e n c e , a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t  - 27 -  t h a t began with, the h i r i n g o f M a r t i n and which has c a r r i e d on to the present of  day.  Again,  such p r o j e c t s not o n l y helped  launch the c a r e e r s  i n d i v i d u a l c a r v e r s , but a t t r a c t e d enough p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to i n d i r e c t l y  affect  the growth o f the wider commercial market f o r Northwest  Indian  arts.  Ill  Coast  - THE REVIVAL OF NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ART: 19.60. to the Present What i s o f t e n termed the " r e n a i s s a n c e "  1975)  or revival"*" o f Northwest Coast  continues both  i n the p r e s e n t  day.  (Cocking  1971, Vastokas  I n d i a n a r t began i n the 1960's and  S o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t o n a t i v e s o c i e t y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a c l i m a t e  f a v o u r i n g the growth o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n , an emphasis on n a t i v e  traditions,  and  two decades  t h e development o f an a p p r e c i a t i v e a r t market.  have witnessed  c o n t i n u i n g I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , a new p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  i n ecology and " t h e people  of nature",  the attempted c r e a t i o n o f a  "Canadian c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y " , the implementation for  The l a s t  o f government  the a r t s , and i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c i t y f o r Northwest Coast  funding  Indian a r t  through books and e x h i b i t i o n s . N a t i v e p o l i t i c a l movements, i n t h e i r attempts to a c h i e v e a new r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I n d i a n people  and the r e s t o f Canadian s o c i e t y ,  have c o n t r i b u t e d to a r e a l i z a t i o n o f the v a l u e o f h e r i t a g e and t r a d i t i o n s ' for  n a t i v e people.  A statement made by n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l  " C i t i z e n s P l u s " p r o p o s a l of 1970 (the "Red P a p e r " ) ,  groups I n the  "called  f o r the  acceptance o f d i v e r s i t y and p l u r a l i s m i n Canada's c u l t u r a l l i f e , and insisted 180).  t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n I n d i a n h i s t o r y and customs" ( P a t t e r s o n I n the f a c e o f c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l ,  19.72:  and economic p r e s s u r e s , an  emphasis on the t r a d i t i o n a unique to n a t i v e c u l t u r e , has been p a r t o f the  - 28  -  search, f o r a p o s i t i v e c o l l e c t i v e I n d i a n i d e n t i t y .  The p r o d u c t i o n of  Northwest Coast a r t based on n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s i s a means of e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i d e n t i t y f o r some contemporary a r t i s t s , and a new a p p r e c i a t i v e audience The  a l l o w s the a r t i s t  to make a l i v i n g p r o d u c i n g  such a r t f o r s a l e .  r e v i v a l of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s such as p o t l a t c h i n g i s an  attendant  development of the contemporary a r t r e v i v a l t h a t a l l o w s f o r an e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i v e i d e n t i t y w i t h i n and  f o r the n a t i v e c o n t e x t .  Wider p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the Western world p l a y e d a r o l e i n the Northwest Coast  art revival.  as a whole has a l s o  The  1960's were  g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the power and the dominant c u l t u r e , and  a g a i n s t technology  I n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n  and  a u t h o r i t y of  i t s consequences.  prompted a renewed sense of  the p a s t , i n which many of the younger g e n e r a t i o n searched  for "alternative  l i f e s t y l e s " and a r e t u r n to the " n a t u r a l " v a l u e s which appeared to be d i s a p p e a r i n g from N o r t h American/European l i f e .  North American I n d i a n  c u l t u r e s , as examples of " c l o s e n e s s to n a t u r e " , became a source of to r e p r e s e n t adherence to the new  v a l u e s - l o n g h a i r and  adopted by n a t i v e as w e l l as non-native may  youth.  fast  symbols  beads were w i d e l y  For the former,  long h a i r  have a d d i t i o n a l l y served as a symbol of p o l i t i c a l pan-Indianism.  t h i s way  elements of a r o m a n t i c i z e d n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n were s e l e c t e d as  o p p o s i t i o n to modernity and represented.  In an  to the c o n f o r m i t y which white American v a l u e s  As a f a c t o r i n the r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast  Indian a r t ,  t h i s 1960's t r e n d served p r i m a r i l y as a means of o r i e n t i n g some s e c t o r s of the p u b l i c toward v i e w i n g n a t i v e c u l t u r e and light.  The  encouraging  response  traditions in a positive  of the p u b l i c i n t u r n seems to have been a f a c t o r  native a r t i s t s '  e x p r e s s i o n s of n a t i v e i d e n t i t y .  The  - 29  -  o v e r r i d i n g message d i r e c t e d at n a t i v e people was from t h a t of e a r l i e r decades. (though not general was  S o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s toward  n e c e s s a r i l y contemporary) n a t i v e  d i s d a i n to acceptance, and  vital  The  sometimes to a d m i r a t i o n .  t r a d i t i o n s , could  once a g a i n  w r i t t e n that  "The  a r t s , as  the a s s a u l t upon  world-wide m o d e r n i z a t i o n  seem to make l a r g e numbers of people s u s c e p t i b l e to an a p p e t i t e In a d d i t i o n , MacCannell (1976) has  s o c i e t y ' s " s e a r c h f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y " i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s and As  stated previously,  customs and  construct  Yet  a p o s i t i v e sense of i d e n t i t y . i s an  past m i n o r i t y mine). and On  to c o l l e c t and  Graburn (1976a:28)_ has  I n d i a n s and  Canada to the t o u r i s t s who  c u l t u r e has  to shown  Second,  and  and  The  I n u i t s e r v e t h i s purpose,  take them home as  way  souvenirs.  t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast  become an element of the i d e n t i t y of not  people themselves, but t h e i r home.  traditions  d i s p l a y the a r t s of t h e i r p r e s e n t  the Northwest Coast, i t i s e v i d e n t  Indian  noted modern  peoples as symbols of t h e i r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y " (emphasis  In Canada, the a r t s of the  represent  relics  v a l u e s In o r d e r  "almost u n i v e r s a l p r o c l i v i t y of modern F i r s t ,  T h i r d World n a t i o n s  for  when a s o c i e t y ' s i d e n t i t y i s  t h r e a t e n e d , the p e o p l e o f t e n t u r n to past  that t h e r e  evident  Grana (1971:98) has  p e r p e t u a t e d by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  of the p a s t .  shift  flourish.  d e s t r u c t i o n of l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and  of p r e - i n d u s t r i a l l i f e . "  from  Such a  growing i n t e r e s t i n p r i m i t i v e t r a d i t i o n s t h a t Became  i n the 19.60's i s p a r t of a l a r g e r phenomenon.  past'  traditional  c u l t u r e were s h i f t i n g  to the development of a m i l i e u i n which, n a t i v e  e x p r e s s i o n s of n a t i v e  'the  b e g i n n i n g to change  a l s o of the non-Indian people who  "our  native  have made the  i n which many n o n - n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s of  Columbia seem to view Northwest Coast c u l t u r e as  o n l y the  British  heritage"  2  may  area  - 30 -  i n d i c a t e "a way [for p e o p l e without symbolically  bonding to t h e l a n d  'long roots:' i n t h e c o u n t r y ] o f  i n which the t r a d i t i o n s have e v o l v e d ...  I t i s a way o f c r e a t i n g the meaning o f the p l a c e own e x p e r i e n c e "  f o r oneself  and i n one's  ( H a l p i n 1981a: 16)..  The m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n  i m p l i e s the  l a c k o f a d e f i n i t e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y formed out o f f a r - r e a c h i n g c o n n e c t i o n s to the c o u n t r y . government as a b l o c k  T h i s l a c k has been p e r c e i v e d  ancestral  b y the f e d e r a l  i n the path, to n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and has r e s u l t e d i n  p o l i c y development t h a t has a f f e c t e d the r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast  Indian  arts. In 1949 a R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s was s e t up by the Canadian f e d e r a l government. government b e l i e v e d  The  t h a t " i t i s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o g i v e encourage-  ment t o i n s t i t u t i o n s which, express n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g , promote common u n d e r s t a n d i n g and add t o the v a r i e t y and r i c h n e s s (Massey e t a l . 1 9 5 1 : x v i i ) .  o f Canadian l i f e "  Recommendations were made i n t h e Commission's  1951 R.eport t h a t a n a t i o n a l a r t s and c r a f t s programme be e s t a b l i s h e d as an e s s e n t i a l aspect o f t h e development o f I n d i a n welfare.  I t was suggested as w e l l t h a t a r e v i v a l o f n a t i v e  promote common u n d e r s t a n d i n g and be a v a l u a b l e culture  s o c i a l and economic  (1951:242^3).  a r t s wouid  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Canadian  I n t h e I960.'s f e d e r a l government f u n d i n g programmes  were e s t a b l i s h e d as a response both, to these recommendations and t o a renewed s e a r c h i n g  f o r a n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and i d e n t i t y .  development department w i t h i n  t h e Department o f Indian  was formed to promote n a t i v e a r t p r o d u c t i o n ;  A cultural and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s  the department i s s u e d  grants  to n a t i v e a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , e t c . , and. began the D.I.N.A. a r t c o l l e c t i o n  - 31 -  (Hill area,  1978:35).  The 'Ksan centre., e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19.66 i n the H a z e l t o n  i s an example o f an economic and c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t t h a t  funding  from p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s o f government.  received 'Ksan, which  o f f i c i a l l y opened i n 1970, i n c l u d e s a museum, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e , as w e l l as the Kitanmax School o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n The  c e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the p r i m a r y g o a l o f h e l p i n g  the e c o n o m i c a l l y intended  depressed a r e a ;  to p r o v i d e  to r e v i t a l i z e  the a r t t r a i n i n g programme was  graduates w i t h a means o f making a l i v e l i h o o d .  a d d i t i o n , the D.I.N.A. e s t a b l i s h e d t h e N a t i o n a l Corporation  art.  I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s  (N.I.A.C.C.) i n 1969.., which, was c r e a t e d  a r t i s t s and c r a f t s p e o p l e  In  to r e p r e s e n t  native  i n meetings w i t h the D.I.N.A., t o make d e c i s i o n s  on a l l o c a t i o n s o f funds among p r o v i n c i a l a r t s and c r a f t s s o c i e t i e s , and to p r o v i d e  a common forum f o r n a t i v e a r t i s t s .  One component o f the  N.I.A.C.C. was the Canadian I n d i a n M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e s in  (C.I.M.S.), e s t a b l i s h e d  the e a r l y 1970's as a c e n t r a l w h o l e s a l e marketing and promotion agency 3  for  Canadian n a t i v e a r t s and c r a f t s . Federal  p o l i c i e s on a r t and c u l t u r e continued  to be developed  through the 1970's and i n t o the 1980's (see Applebaum e t a l . , Report of the F e d e r a l  C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee 1982), o f t e n haying as one  of t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s " t h e improvement o f the c a p a c i t y o f Canadians to see and  t o know themselves, to share c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s and thereby t o  acquire  a sense of b e l o n g i n g "  (Speaking of our C u l t u r e .  P o l i c y Review Committee D i s c u s s i o n a r t s a l s o continued;  Guide 1980:4).  Federal C u l t u r a l  Funding f o r n a t i v e  important f o r many n a t i v e a r t i s t s i n B r i t i s h  Columbia was the f o r m a t i o n  o f the B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s  S o c i e t y i n 1976, which r e p r e s e n t s  almost 2000 a r t i s t s and c r a f t s p e o p l e ,  - 32  providing  them w i t h f u n d i n g ,  materials-, and t r a i n i n g .  N i n e t e e n s i x t y - s e v e n was in  -  Canada's C e n t e n n i a l  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l showcase of Expo '67.  "The  whole of the C e n t e n n i a l  year,  As O s t r y  p r o j e c t , and  (1978:110) s t a t e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y Expo '67,  t h a t investment i n c u l t u r e c o u l d be more than j u s t i f i e d by awareness ...  i t generated."  Indian  a r t i s t s were commissioned and contribute provided  to the f o r m a t i o n  contemporary and  a r t i s t s along  s u b s i d i z e d by  had  proved  the  national  w i t h other  Canadian  the f e d e r a l government to  of a n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e and  image.  Expo  '67  t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast a r t w i t h some much  needed exposure o u t s i d e of B r i t i s h Columbia, as d i d the e x h i b i t i o n "Man  and  h i s World", which, f o r two  p a r t of the UBC  Museum of Anthropology's c o l l e c t i o n s .  Another C e n t e n n i a l  celebrated  p r o j e c t was  subsequent  years exhibited a  the Vancouver A r t  e x h i b i t i o n " A r t s of the Raven", o r g a n i z e d  by D o r i s  a s s i s t a n c e of W i l s o n D u f f ,  B i l l Reid.  B i l l Holm, and  significant  Gallery  Shadbolt with, the On  d i s p l a y was  a  s e l e c t i o n of f i n e p i e c e s of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t gathered from l e a d i n g museums and  p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s throughout North America.  the e x h i b i t i o n , as s t a t e d i n the c a t a l o g u e , c o n t r i b u t i n g to "the Coast I n d i a n (Shadbolt for  shift  1967).  The  from e t h n o l o g y to a r t " f o r Northwest  e x h i b i t i o n has  Northwest Coast a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n .  come i n t o f u l l  "the  i n t e n t of  to make a statement  a r t - " t h i s i s an e x h i b i t i o n of a r t , h i g h a r t , not  " A r t s of the Raven" was had  i n focus  was  The  ethnology"  been regarded as; a t u r n i n g According  to Duff  point  (1975:13),  t h r e s h o l d over which Northwest Coast a r t  r e c o g n i t i o n as  ' f i n e a r t ' as w e l l as  'primitive art'."  P a r t s of the e x h i b i t i o n i n c l u d e d a g a l l e r y devoted to the work of master artist  Charles  Edenshaw, and  another g a l l e r y f o c u s i n g on  contemporary  - 33 -  arts. to  Both o f these s e c t i o n s o f the e x h i b i t r e p r e s e n t e d new approaches  the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Northwest Coast a r t , the f i r s t  the n a t i v e a r t i s t as i n d i v i d u a l , and the second  by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  b y r e c o g n i z i n g the  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s t y l e s i n new and modern c o n t e x t s . Regarding  the l a t t e r ,  different  sense.  the c a t a l o g u e s t a t e s , "But now these a r e a r t s i n a  Though, t r u l y enough, o f I n d i a n descent,  Canadian a r t , modern a r t , f i n e a r t " (Duff  1967).  they a r e now  The contemporary works  i n c l u d e d p i e c e s by Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s t s Doug Cranmer, B i l l Robert  Davidson,  Tony Hunt, and Henry Hunt ( a l l from B r i t i s h  and p i e c e s i n the Northwest Coast  Columbia);  s t y l e by Cherokee a r t i s t Don L e l o o s k a  Smith and white a r t i s t s B i l l Holm, M i c h a e l - Johnson., Sruber  Reid,  and D o r i s Khyber-  (weaver o f C h i l k a t b l a n k e t s ) , the l a t t e r f o u r from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Whether the o r g a n i z e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s f o r the e x h i b i t i o n were  realized  i s d e b a t a b l e , as the a r t ' s connections, to p r i m i t i v e o r t o u r i s t /  c u r i o a r t remain dominant t o the p r e s e n t day.  This; I s r e f l e c t e d  i n the  g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s o f a r t g a l l e r i e s toward c o l l e c t i n g o r e x h i b i t i n g n a t i v e art.  R e l u c t a n t t o accept i t , or a s s e s s i t , simply as contemporary a r t ,  they r e l e g a t e i t to i t s " p r o p e r " p l a c e , the ethnology museum (see Ames 1981;7).  However, " A r t s o f the Raven", l o c a t e d i n the a r t g a l l e r y  s u c c e s s f u l l y served t o d i r e c t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to Northwest Coast art  setting,  Indian  and allowed c o l l e c t o r s and young a r t i s t s to r e a l i z e t h a t contemporary  works c o u l d be c r e a t e d on a par with, m a s t e r p i e c e s  o f the p a s t .  Not  i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the c a t a l o g u e accompanying the e x h i b i t i o n became an a c c e s s i b l e and r e l i a b l e source o f images and i n f o r m a t i o n on the a r t .  The  c a t a l o g u e i n c l u d e s c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the a r t ' s context and d e s i g n conventions w r i t t e n by e x p e r t s Holm and D u f f .  - 34 -  Since the 19.67 " A r t s o f the. Raven" e x h i b i t i o n , "the f o u r major museums and g a l l e r i e s i n B r i t i s h . Columbia  (BCPM, Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ,  Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum, UBC), o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of their gift  shops, have produced over t h i r t y temporary e x h i b i t i o n s o f  Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t and opened  two major permanent  ( P r o v i n c i a l Museum and UBC), a l l o f which promoted  the a e s t h e t i c m e r i t of  Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t , and most o f which i n c l u d e d examples"  (Ames  19.81:8).  exhibitions  contemporary  (See Appendix I f o r a p a r t i a l l i s t i n g o f  Northwest Coast a r t e x h i b i t i o n s h e l d i n B.C. and elsewhere.) of  Like  "Arts  the Raven" and "Man and h i s World", s e v e r a l o f these e x h i b i t i o n s had  a major impact on the development art  o f both, contemporary Northwest Coast  p r o d u c t i o n and an a p p r e c i a t i v e audience f o r the a r t s .  Ames  As c i t e d by  (1981), these i n c l u d e the 1971 "Legacy" (an e x h i b i t i o n o f contemporary  works o n l y ) , the 1974 " B i l l Reid R e t r o s p e c t i v e " , and the s e r i e s o f one-man shows and p r i n t e x h i b i t s i n s t i t u t e d a t t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y i n 1977.  The more r e c e n t "Legacy I I " e x h i b i t i o n c o u l d a l s o be added to the  list.  The opening o f the new UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y i n 1976, which,  f e a t u r e s Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t and d i s p l a y s i t as " f i n e a r t " ,  was  p r o b a b l y the s t r o n g e s t p r o c l a m a t i o n to date of non-Indian r e c o g n i t i o n of the  v a l u e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t  and c u l t u r e .  Almost c o n c u r r e n t openings o f permanent  Northwest Coast  ethnology g a l l e r i e s a t the BCPM and N a t i o n a l Museum f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d the degree t o which Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e was now c o n s i d e r e d to be worthy o f a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . e f f e c t of l e g i t i m a t i n g both, a r t i s t and a r t i f a c t w h i t e s and I n d i a n s "  By h a v i n g "the  i n the eyes o f both,  (Ames. 1981:9).>'.museums and . g a l l e r i e s - h a v e p l a y e d a v i t a l  - 35 -  r o l e i n the development o f the Northwest Coast  I n d i a n a r t market.  Whites see a r t i f a c t s d i s p l a y e d i n museum c o n t e x t s as c o l l e c t i b l e s and investments. Indians d i s c o v e r a new v a l u e f o r t h e i r own m a t e r i a l h e r i t a g e (Ames 1981:9).  It  i s important,  a t t h i s p o i n t , t o emphasize the major r o l e s  by B i l l Reid and B i l l Holm i n the r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast The in  s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l  Indian a r t .  f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d above were v i t a l  d e v e l o p i n g a new context f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n .  However, Reid and Holm's  p i o n e e r i n g a n a l y s e s and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f n o r t h e r n Northwest d e s i g n were a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l i n a i d i n g the r e v i v a l . and  Coast  Their a r t , studies,  t e a c h i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r Holm's 1965 book Northwest Coast  An A n a l y s i s o f Form ( t o be d i s c u s s e d below), from which many succeeding  played  Indian A r t :  have p r o v i d e d the groundwork  a r t i s t s have gone on to l e a r n and c r e a t e i n the  4 northern  style. Contemporary a r t i s t s who wish t o l e a r n Northwest Coast  now choose among t h r e e b a s i c methods o f t r a i n i n g :  d e s i g n can  they can l e a r n on  t h e i r own, u s i n g books, photographs, and museum c o l l e c t i o n s as r e f e r e n c e s ; they can a p p r e n t i c e t o other a r t i s t s ;  training setting (1980:98) note age  and they can l e a r n i n a f o r m a l 5 6  such as 'Ksan or Tony Hunt's workshop. '  t h a t K w a g i u t l Tony Hunt i s p r o b a b l y  group " t o have been t r a i n e d as a youngster  whose u n d e r s t a n d i n g was s t i l l  dominant."  o f the a r t reaches  Macnair e t a l .  the o n l y a r t i s t  by a master £Mungo  in his Martin3  back to when t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e  For many young a r t i s t s , Reid and Holm's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  of  n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast d e s i g n have become the e s t a b l i s h e d " t r a d i t i o n "  to  be passed The  on to c u r r e n t and succeeding  generations of a r t i s t s .  development o f a new context and audience  f a v o u r a b l e to the  - 36 -  p r o d u c t i o n o f contemporary  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s s t i m u l a t e d the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of more and more n a t i v e a r t i s t s , c r a f t s p e o p l e , agents,  and  d e a l e r s i n what had become a s e v e r a l m i l l i o n d o l l a r i n d u s t r y by the l a t e 1970's.  7  A study by the N a t i v e Brotherhood  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  The Development of N a t i v e Tourism i n B r i t i s h Columbia e s t i m a t e s t h a t " I n 1979,  (1980:3-12),  t h e r e were an e s t i m a t e d 2,500 n a t i v e I n d i a n  a r t i s t s and c r a f t s p e o p l e i n B.C.,  of which 1,000  time p r o d u c e r s and the b a l a n c e p a r t - t i m e and encompasses the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e ; p r o d u c e r s make up a t l e a s t 75%  "Today a t l e a s t two hundred  ,  incidental."  of the t o t a l , Northwest  This figure Coast I n d i a n  individuals).  ,  and women are s e r i o u s l y  practicing  are a t t e m p t i n g to l e a r n the o l d forms of s c u l p t u r e or  d e s i g n , c r e a t i n g items stemming from Northwest  t r a d i t i o n s , and  selling  Coast  t h e i r work on the a r t market.  The number of shops s p e c i a l i z i n g i n Northwest has i n c r e a s e d a l o n g w i t h the a r t r e v i v a l .  Coast I n d i a n a r t s  In Vancouver,  t h i r t e e n shops were e s t a b l i s h e d between the y e a r s of 1918  approximately and 1970;  on, a p p r o x i m a t e l y seventeen shops s p e c i a l i z i n g i n Northwest  opened.  In  T h i s l a t t e r e s t i m a t e i n c l u d e s o n l y those  two-dimensional  1970  full-  et a l . (1980:85) have e s t i m a t e d t h a t  I n d i a n men  t h e i r a r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. .  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  ( i . e . , an e s t i m a t e d 1875  c o n t r a s t to t h i s f i g u r e , Macnair  c o a s t a l a r t i s t s who  entitled  from  Coast a r t  Of the t o t a l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y seventeen c l o s e d In the course of  the y e a r s , or stopped s e l l i n g n a t i v e a r t s , l e a v i n g t h i r t e e n s t i l l i n b u s i n e s s a t the time of w r i t i n g which has the second  (see Appendix I l a ) .  l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of Northwest  shops i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  actively  In V i c t o r i a , Coast I n d i a n a r t  f i v e shops were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1970,  and  - 37  s i x opened and date  two  c l o s e d or d i s c o n t i n u e d  (see Appendix l i b ) .  i n the p r o v i n c e  -  Many other  s a l e s of I n d i a n  art since  r e t a i l o u t l e t s are l o c a t e d  that  elsewhere  (the Reserve Management L t d . R e t a i l Survey £1978] e s t i m a t e s  a t o t a l of 162  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g those l o c a t e d i n Vancouver  and  the f i g u r e i n c l u d e s a l l shops s e l l i n g , but not  Victoria;  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n , n a t i v e a r t s ) , and Seattle during  the  1970's.  s e v e r a l shops were e s t a b l i s h e d i n  Through i t s q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Columbia's r e t a i l o u t l e t s , the R e t a i l Survey of t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s of n a t i v e a r t s and centres  of Vancouver and  survey of  British  (1978) found t h a t f u l l y  c r a f t s took p l a c e  82%  i n the urban  Victoria.  While the marketing of Northwest Coast I n d i a n discussed  necessarily  arts w i l l  be  i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three, the f i g u r e s c i t e d above g i v e  evidence of the phenomenal growth of the Northwest Coast I n d i a n market t h a t has have o c c u r r e d (although  occurred  s i n c e the e a r l y 1960's.  w i t h Woodlands a r t i n E a s t e r n  S i m i l a r developments  Canada, w i t h I n u i t a r t  the government-promoted market f o r the l a t t e r was  booming i n the  1950's), and  around the world  w i t h the a r t s of other  (see Graburn 1976a).  already  indigenous peoples  As a r e s u l t of unprecedented  c o l l e c t o r demand, these a r t s have emerged i n a new reflecting  art  social  context,  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s to both producer  and  consumer.  IV - THE  RECONSTRUCTION AND The  REINVENTION OF  TRADITION  r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast I n d i a n  a r t s has  on a p r o c e s s of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e i n v e n t i o n , and t r a d i t i o n s t h a t had,  depended l a r g e l y  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  f o r most t r i b a l groups, d i e d out or at l e a s t remained  dormant f o r s e v e r a l decades.  Northwest Coast I n d i a n  a r t s t y l e s , forms,  - 38 -  meanings, and even c o n t e x t s were (and a r e being) r e c o n s t r u c t e d from a 8 number of s o u r c e s : photographs,  memories, c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t i e s ,  e t h n o g r a p h i e s , and books.  museum  collections,  S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's, many o f  the a r t i s t s who were p r o d u c i n g a r t i n a g e n e r a l Northwest  Coast  style  ( u s u a l l y based on n o r t h e r n a r t ) have, through t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s , r e c o n s t r u c t e d and r e d e f i n e d s t y l e s more p a r t i c u l a r to t h e i r own v i l l a g e or r e g i o n a l groups. of the a r t i s t s '  attempts a t r e v i v i n g and expanding  Indian a r t s t y l e s . "traditional",  The p r o c e s s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t upon Northwest  Coast  I t i s a l s o a p a r t o f the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f  " a u t h e n t i c " , and " I n d i a n " t h a t have emerged among e x p e r t s ,  consumers, and a r t i s t s , and by which the contemporary  arts are often  evaluated. Except f o r the a r t i f a c t s themselves, on t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest i n common:  Coast I n d i a n a r t have two main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a l l a r e themselves  by n e c e s s i t y s e l e c t i v e .  the sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n s , and a l l a r e  For example, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have attempted t o  r e c o n s t r u c t the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e of the Northwest  Coast people by  u s i n g key i n f o r m a n t s ( e l d e r s and m a r g i n a l i n d i v i d u a l s ) .  At the time  when many o f these ethnographers were c o n d u c t i n g t h e i r f i e l d w o r k , t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e w a y s had a l r e a d y been a l t e r e d  through such, f a c t o r s as p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a wage economy (see Knight 1978).  C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f Northwest  Coast  I n d i a n c u l t u r e were s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o the e t h n o g r a p h i e s , and o t h e r a s p e c t s were o m i t t e d .  S i m i l a r l y , p r i v a t e and museum c o l l e c t o r s  c o u l d o n l y gather a s e l e c t i o n o f the t o t a l r e p e r t o r y o f Northwest material culture.  Coast  A l t h o u g h t h i s s e l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f thousands o f  a r t i f a c t s t h a t a r e p r i m a r y c u l t u r a l d a t a themselves,  the e x t e n t to which.  - 39 -  the r e s u l t i n g museum c o l l e c t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y may be q u e s t i o n e d .  o f Northwest Coast  S e l e c t i v i t y a p p l i e s as  w e l l t o the t r i b a l t r a d i t i o n s that have been handed down through the generations  and c o n t i n u e t o the p r e s e n t  Kwagiutl p o t l a t c h , f o r instance, e n t i r e l y as the context  day.  P a r t s o f the Southern  have been a l t e r e d , expanded, o r l e f t out  and r o l e o f the p o t l a t c h changed  (see Holm 1977).  Memories o f the " o l d ways" have s i m i l a r l y undergone a p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and a r e n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by anthropologists' The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the way t h i n g s used t o be.  p r o c e s s o f the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e i n v e n t i o n o f Northwest  Coast t r a d i t i o n through the use o f museum c o l l e c t i o n s , books, and memories w i l l be examined r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g  Use  sections.  o f Museum C o l l e c t i o n s In the 1960's when B i l l Holm o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington and  the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum was a t t e m p t i n g to reconstruct  the r u l e s upon which n o r t h e r n  Northwest Coast d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s  were based, he found t h a t he had o n l y the o l d p i e c e s o f Northwest Coast a r t to turn to.  He s t a t e s  ( 1 9 6 5 : v i i ) , concerning  h i s reconstruction,  that,  I d e a l l y , a study o f t h i s s o r t should l e a n h e a v i l y on i n f o r m a t i o n from I n d i a n a r t i s t s t r a i n e d i n the t r a d i t i o n t h a t f o s t e r e d the art. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I was unable t o l o c a t e a q u a l i f i e d informant from the a r e a covered, i . e . , the c o a s t a l r e g i o n from B e l l a Coola to Yakutat Bay ... (C)ontemporary work seen from the area r e v e a l s a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g by I n d i a n c r a f t s m e n o f the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e the s u b j e c t o f t h i s study.  Thus Holm conducted an a n a l y s i s o f the a r t by r e f e r r i n g t o many a r t i f a c t s i n American and Canadian museums and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s , coding the  -  40  -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 392 o f the p i e c e s on Keysort  c a r d s , and r e c o r d i n g the  i n c i d e n c e of s p e c i f i c d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  He a l s o had spent many  years,  s i n c e the 1940's, making masks and ceremonial  paraphernalia i n  Northwest Coast s t y l e s , and l e a r n i n g from t h i s experience  " t h e system o f  p r i n c i p l e s t h a t governed c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t " (1965:v). sources  To t h i s end, Holm a l s o r e f e r r e d t o museum specimens as  of i n s p i r a t i o n .  Coast d e s i g n i n 1965.  Holm p u b l i s h e d h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Northwest The book, Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t :  of Form has s i n c e become the standard and  Indian a r t i s t s a l i k e Haida a r t i s t  An A n a l y s i s  t e x t s t u d i e d by both a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  (Ames 1981:5).  B i l l Reid was working a t the same time as Holm but  independently  from him i n attempting  a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Haida a r t  traditions.  Commenting on h i s own and Holm's work, Reid  (1976:34) s t a t e s  that,  Those were the f i r s t attempts t o get back t o the o r i g i n s o f the p r o c e s s . E v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t was going on was a r e s u l t of people i m i t a t i n g people who were i m i t a t i n g other people who were i m i t a t i n g the great people o f the p a s t . I t was s o r t of the d i m i n i s h i n g stream. So we skipped a l l t h a t and went back t o the o r i g i n s - i n museums and books - and d i s c o v e r e d what we thought were the b a s i c r u l e s governing a t l e a s t the northern s t y l e o f the a r t .  Because the m a j o r i t y o f p o r t a b l e a r t i f a c t s , had l o n g ago l e f t  the Queen  C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , Reid's r e d i s c o v e r y o f Haida a r t had t o take p l a c e f a r from h i s mother's v i l l a g e o f Skidegate, (Macnair order  e t a l . 1980:87-8).  i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s  Thus Reid had to study museum p i e c e s i n  to d i s c o v e r and l e a r n the p r i n c i p l e s o f Haida form and  His l e a r n i n g process  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by h i s remark t h a t ,  composition.  - 41 -  I b u i l t up an unrepayable debt t o the l a t e C h a r l e s Edenshaw, whose c r e a t i o n s I s t u d i e d , and i n many cases shamelessly c o p i e d , and through those works I began t o l e a r n something of the u n d e r l y i n g dynamics o f Haida a r t which l a t e r p e r m i t t e d me t o d e s i g n more o r i g i n a l p i e c e s w h i l e s t i l l s t a y i n g w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n ( B i l l Reid - A R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n 1974).  Copying  o r working from extant p i e c e s was a t r a d i t i o n a l way of  l e a r n i n g Northwest Coast today.  d e s i g n , and remains an important  l e a r n i n g method  Museum commissions have o f t e n p r o v i d e d a s i t u a t i o n f o r such  l e a r n i n g - one example i s the UBC Totem Park p r o j e c t c a r r i e d out by B i l l Reid and Doug Cranmer.  While the p o l e s a r e not exact r e p r o d u c t i o n s of the  o l d e r p i e c e s they n e v e r t h e l e s s were c l o s e l y d e r i v e d i n d e s i g n from e x t a n t Haida p o l e s .  The B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum has a l s o , s i n c e 1952, employed  I n d i a n c a r v e r s t o c a r v e i n r e s i d e n c e , both to copy museum p i e c e s and t o experiment on t h e i r own (Ames 1981:12). Haida  a r t i s t Robert Davidson began to l e a r n d i r e c t l y from  Bill  Reid i n the 1960's, and was a b l e t o use Reid's and Holm's work as a b a s i s from which t o b u i l d h i s own u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o l l e c t i o n s were s t i l l , i n s p i r a t i o n f o r him. in  the f o l l o w i n g  however, an important  o f Haida  art.  Museum  source o f knowledge and  Davidson (1978:10,11) acknowledges t h e i r  importance  statements:  The Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t and a r t i f a c t s p r e s e r v e d i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s have made p o s s i b l e much o f the reawakening of the a r t i s t i c p a r t o f our c u l t u r e ... I became v e r y aware of my c u l t u r a l background ... by v i s i t i n g museums and by t a l k i n g w i t h people who had knowledge of my a n c e s t r y . The more I s t a r t e d l e a r n i n g , the more I s t a r t e d s e e i n g . The time spent i n museums made me r e a l i s e t h a t the Haida carved more than j u s t totem p o l e s . There was, and to an e x t e n t s t i l l i s , a v i e w p o i n t shared by many a r t i s t s and o t h e r people on the c o a s t t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n of I n d i a n a r t and a r t i f a c t s was wrong - another example of  - 42 -  exploitation. My f e e l i n g about t h a t i s the o p p o s i t e ; i f i t wasn't f o r the museums and i f i t wasn't f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , I f e e l the a r t form would have d i e d c o m p l e t e l y i f n o t h i n g had been c o l l e c t e d and saved. When i t comes t o a r t i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n , [contemporary] a r t i s t s must have a c e r t a i n knowledge o f how t h i n g s worked i n the p a s t . Museum c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t c h a r t t h a t p r o g r e s s i o n can o f f e r knowledge and i n s i g h t s i n t o i n n o v a t i o n t o the Haida a r t i s t s o f today. F o r my own development, museums helped my c r e a t i v i t y and now, as a t e a c h e r , I am s h a r i n g my knowledge, and l e a r n i n g a l o t through t h a t s h a r i n g ... The o n l y way to understand the a r t i s t o study the o l d and new Haida p i e c e s , to t a l k about them, and t o share i d e a s : t o be t o t a l l y aware o f the past and the p r e s e n t .  Numerous o t h e r contemporary Northwest Coast turned  t o museum c o l l e c t i o n s o f o l d Northwest Coast  about t h e i r a r t s t y l e s and to d e r i v e i n i t i a l of for  new p i e c e s i n a l l media. a r t i s t s o f Haida,  S a l i s h descent,  I n d i a n a r t i s t s have Indian pieces to l e a r n  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n  T h i s p r o c e s s was p a r t i c u l a r l y  Tsimshian,  important  Nuu-chah-nulth, B e l l a C o o l a , and ( r e c e n t l y )  since their a r t i s t i c  t r a d i t i o n s were no l o n g e r v i a b l e , nor  were many o l d e r p i e c e s b e i n g used or a c c e s s i b l e i n n a t i v e v i l l a g e s . Among the Southern K w a g i u t l ,  as mentioned e a r l i e r , ceremonial  remained r e l a t i v e l y continuous production.  Nevertheless,  and p r o v i d e d an impetus f o r a r t i s t i c  contemporary K w a g i u t l  use o f museum c o l l e c t i o n s as sources The of  life  a r t i s t s have a l s o made  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n .  importance and i n f l u e n c e o f museum c o l l e c t i o n s on the p r o d u c t i o n  contemporary Northwest Coast  I n d i a n a r t s has r e c e n t l y been shown i n  s e v e r a l " a f t e r - e f f e c t s " of the S a l i s h a r t e x h i b i t i o n " V i s i o n s o f Power, Symbols o f Wealth:  C e n t r a l Coast  S a l i s h S c u l p t u r e and E n g r a v i n g "  UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y (October  .1980 t o A p r i l 1981).  a t the  The e x h i b i t i o n  made a c c e s s i b l e t o contemporary S a l i s h a r t i s t s f o r the f i r s t  time many  - 43 -  t r a d i t i o n a l S a l i s h caryings  t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y been s t o r e d  e a s t e r n Canadian, and European museums.  The e x h i b i t soon  i n American, stimulated  some r e p l i c a t i o n , and S a l i s h a r t i s t Rod Modeste was i n s p i r e d t o r e i n t e r p r e t the c a r v i n g s (Kew  on a l a r g e wooden s c u l p t u r e as a s i l v e r b r a c e l e t  design  1981). When c o n s i d e r i n g  reconstructions  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Northwest Coast  design  t h a t a r e based on museum c o l l e c t i o n s , i t i s important t o  note t h a t "the v a s t b u l k o f Northwest Coast a r t work e x i s t i n g i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s today was produced i n the p e r i o d from 1850 t o the f i r s t of the p r e s e n t  century"  (Holm 1965:19).  The Northwest Coast  t h a t a r e now r e f e r r e d t o as " t r a d i t i o n a l " and as a standard  decade  artifacts  by which  contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s t s ' work i s judged were thus g e n e r a l l y created  a f t e r contact  w i t h white man.  Hawthorn (1961:70), commenting on  the r o l e o f museums i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e contemporary Kwagiutl a r t i n the 1960's, s t a t e d  that,  The outcome o f many d e l i b e r a t i o n s was to d i r e c t the c a r v e r s to r e t u r n t o the s t y l e of the f i r s t phase o f c o n t a c t , u s i n g s t e e l t o o l s but p a i n t i n g s p a r i n g l y . These d i r e c t i o n s grew a c c e p t a b l e t o the c a r v e r s , and the phase o f the a r t used as the standard f o r the museum r e v i v a l has come t o a p p e a l t o them as the peak o f i t s achievement.  T h i s " s t a n d a r d " i s thus d e r i v e d since post-contact  Northwest Coast I n d i a n  t r a d i t i o n a l a r t we have r e c o r d s Hawthorn  from p o s t - c o n t a c t  forms o f the a r t ,  a r t i s the e a r l i e s t and most  and examples o f i n any s i g n i f i c a n t  (1961:70) went on t o p o i n t out t h a t ,  A r e t u r n t o the p r e - c o n t a c t s t y l e and technique would have been i n t e r e s t i n g but much more d i f f i c u l t on many c o u n t s : slow manufacture, few models, and long s e p a r a t i o n from the surviving traditions.  amount.  - 44  An i s s u e emerges as to how i n museums and is. of  referred  t r a d i t i o n a l the a r t t h a t i s e x h i b i t e d  to by a r t i s t s and o t h e r s as " t r a d i t i o n a l "  Much s c h o l a r l y debate has been f o s t e r e d by the f a c t the a n t i q u i t y of Northwest Coast  e x p l o r e r s ' r e c o r d s and  totem p o l e s were p r e s e n t explorers arrived.  a r t extends o n l y as f a r as the  Barbeau 1950)  two  have q u e s t i o n e d  whether or not  However other a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s (see Duff  the c o a s t a l a r e a and  a r t as we know i t o r i g i n a t e d and  e x i s t e d w e l l before contact.  the e x p l o r e r s ' j o u r n a l s and  expedition a r t i s t s '  f r o n t a l p o l e s were observed  v i s i t o r s to Haida  and T l i n g i t  drawings has,  1964a) have developed  according  by the f i r s t  European  villages."  a l s o p r o v i d e evidence  t r a d i t i o n s from p r e - c o n t a c t times.  Europeans on  of a c o n t i n u i t y i n a r t  Holm (1965:3-5) mentions s e v e r a l  examples of such p i e c e s , i n c l u d i n g a carved wooden bowl c o l l e c t e d C a p t a i n George D i x o n on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s i n 1787 now  i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Museum) and  c o l l e c t e d by C a p t a i n M a l a s p i n a Arqueologico  i n Madrid).  century"  (1965:3).  between 1790  a headdress  and 1795  Both p i e c e s "are designed  a c c o r d i n g to the c o n v e n t i o n s  in  q u e s t i o n t h a t the  Smaller a r t i f a c t s t h a t were c o l l e c t e d by the f i r s t the Northwest Coast  European  A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of  H a l p i n (1981b:24), shown t h a t "There i s no l o n g e r any  f r e e - s t a n d i n g and  early  For i n s t a n c e ,  hundred years ago when the f i r s t  argued t h a t Northwest Coast  actually  t h a t our knowledge  archaeological finds w i l l reveal.  some s c h o l a r s (e.g. Marius  to  -  (now and  (the bowl i s plaque  i n the Museo carved e x a c t l y  of c l a s s i c n o r t h e r n work of the  R e t r e a t i n g even f u r t h e r i n t o the p a s t  years ago), some Northwest Coast  by  mid-nineteenth (up to 3000  stone and bone a r t i f a c t s a l s o e x h i b i t  elements of form and d e s i g n s u g g e s t i v e of the c l a s s i c Northwest Coast  styles  - 45 -  of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  (see Duff  Holm (1965:5) notes Coast  1975).  t h a t the changes t h a t took p l a c e i n Northwest  I n d i a n a r t s from the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h to the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h  due  to European c o n t a c t "were of degree r a t h e r than substance";  69)  a l s o notes t h a t "The  Hawthorn  major d i r e c t i o n of the r e s u l t i n g , changes [ a f t e r  i n t r o d u c t i o n of i r o n and  (1961: the  the f u r t r a d e ] appears to have been i n keeping  w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s and Northwest Coast  century  o c c a s i o n s of the a r t . "  I n d i a n a r t s t y l e s and  conventions  "Traditional"  thus seem to be e x h i b i t e d  not o n l y by the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y museum p i e c e s contemporary a r t i s t s now  l o o k to as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o by  some p r e h i s t o r i c Northwest Coast The  Indian a r t .  above d i s c u s s i o n shows t h a t d e s p i t e the apparent  c l a s s i c n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast  d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , the " c o n t i n u i t y of  t r a d i t i o n " i s an a c t i v e , or e v o l v i n g , p r o c e s s . remain s t a t i c over and  a n t i q u i t y of  The  a r t s t y l e s d i d not  time, but changed through, i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s '  i n f l u e n c e s , as w e l l as through  external influences.  These changes gen-  e r a l l y o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the framework of Northwest Coast d e s i g n Southern  Kwagiutl  evolving t r a d i t i o n . Southern  Kwagiutl  Hawthorn  t h a t i s now  (1961:64-5), i n d i s c u s s i n g the work of  c a r v e r C h a r l i e James, s t a t e s t h a t " I t i s of  1900's];  conventions.  c a r v i n g p r o v i d e s an example of the p r o c e s s of  t h a t K w a k i u t l massive c a r v i n g was 1800's, e a r l y  innovations  new  interest  when Yakuglas [James] began [ l a t e  t h a t he developed  the d i s t i n c t i v e r e g i o n a l s t y l e  the most w i d e l y known of the s t y l e s of massive c a r v i n g on  Northwest Coast."  Mungo M a r t i n  (1881-1962), who  was  t r a i n e d by James, i n  t u r n a c h i e v e d r e c o g n i t i o n among h i s people  and  an o u t s t a n d i n g Southern  While h i s e a r l y work i s  Kwagiutl  carver.  the  anthropologists alike,  as  - 46  difficult  t o d i s t i n g u i s h from James'  became an  innovator  i n Southern  -  (Macnair  Kwagiutl  e t al»  s t y l e , and  1980:73), he through  of Henry Hunt, Tony Hunt, and Doug Cranmer, has d i r e c t l y or i n f l u e n c e d many contemporary Northwest Coast Kwagiutl  l a t e nineteenth century  (Macnair  indirectly Southern  i t s c l a s s i c form i n the  e t a l . 1980:51) , and M a r t i n p l a y e d a major  r o l e i n f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g the Southern twentieth century.  his training  Indian a r t i s t s .  s c u l p t u r e e v o l v e d t o what can be c o n s i d e r e d  later  Kwagiutl  art tradition  i n the  H i s works remain i n museum and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s  and  p u b l i c p l a c e s f o r contemporary a r t i s t s t o r e f e r t o as examples of " t r a d i t i o n a l " Southern  Kwagiutl a r t . 9  "Books are our teachers- now Ethnographies  and  f o r a l l the o l d t h i n g s "  other books w r i t t e n by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and  w r i t e r s are a second major source of i n f o r m a t i o n from which a r t i s t s r e c o n s t r u c t Northwest Coast art.  threads connecting  can  traditions.and derive inspiration for their  Where knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n s  memories, e t h n o g r a p h i c  other  i s not p a r t of a r t i s t s '  personal  works on Northwest Coast a r t and c u l t u r e serve  as  the contemporary a r t i s t s t o a t l e a s t those a s p e c t s of  t h e i r c u l t u r e t h a t have been  recorded.  Contemporary n a t i v e a r t i s t s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d to books f o r r e c o u n t i n g s of myths, d e s c r i p t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , d i s c u s s i o n s and  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s .  when he began t o e x p l o r e the s t r u c t u r e of Haida t o books t h a t were j u s t then becoming a v a i l a b l e : Cornerstone Marius  B i l l R e i d , f o r example,  a r t i n the 1950's, r e f e r r e d A l i c e R a v e n h i l l ' s "A  of Canadian C u l t u r e " (1944) and books by Robert  Barbeau.  Reid  and  Inverarity  (1981:5) s t a t e s , "None of these p u b l i c a t i o n s was  and  -  47  -  a g r e a t example of s c h o l a r s h i p , but they d i d p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide s e l e c t i o n of photographs  of Northwest  Coast a r t , which I and a few o t h e r s  c o u l d pour over by the hour, and attempt we  to reproduce, so t h a t  eventually  c o u l d u n l o c k the s e c r e t s of the o v o i d s , f o r m l i n e s , e t c . " A number of books p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e .1955 have p l a y e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the contemporary  r e v i v a l of Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s  by s e r v i n g as important sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a r t i s t s . include:  John R.  Swanton's " C o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Ethnology of the H a i d a "  ( e s p e c i a l l y Chapter X ) , p u b l i s h e d i n 1905; P r i m i t i v e A r t (1927  {[republished 19553);  Chapter 6 o f Franz Boas' Marius Barbeau's two volumes of  "Totem P o l e s " (1950) and h i s "Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d Carvings"  (1953);  and Robert Bruce  I n d i a n s (1950). Form, which,  These books  in Argillite  I n v e r a r i t y ' s A r t of the Northwest  B i l l Holm's Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t :  Coast  An A n a l y s i s of  as p r e v i o u s l y noted, has a l s o p l a y e d an important r o l e ,  p u b l i s h e d i n 1965.  These books can be s i n g l e d out because  was  they are the  o r i g i n a l p u b l i s h e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the p r i n c i p l e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e s i g n i n Northwest a r t i n Northwest  Coast a r t and of the purposes and meanings of the  Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e .  i l l u s t r a t i o n s and/or contemporary  photographs,  Each of the books c o n t a i n s  which have i n s p i r e d and been c o p i e d by  artists.  Swanton's " C o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Ethnology of the Haida", one of few i n f o r m a t i v e s t u d i e s of these p e o p l e , f o c u s e s p r i n c i p a l l y upon the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Haida.  A l a r g e segment o f the book i s taken  up by a b s t r a c t s of s t o r i e s , both a Skidegate and a Masset s t o r i e s are taken from h i s two p u b l i s h e d i n 1905  and 1908,  series.  (These  l a r g e r c o l l e c t i o n s of t e x t s , which were  and a r e i n t u r n v a l u a b l e sources of  - 48 -  ethnographic "The of  and l i n g u i s t i c data.)  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the C r e s t and o f Myth, i n A r t " , i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the manner i n which Haida  The  Chapter X o f the book, e n t i t l e d  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d  i n their art.  chapter i n c l u d e s many i l l u s t r a t i o n s and accompanying e x p l a n a t i o n s o f  totem p o l e s , two-dimensional  s c r e e n and box d e s i g n s , houses, carved  spoons,  t a t t o o d e s i g n s , b l a n k e t border and h a t d e s i g n s , masks, and o t h e r c a r v i n g s and  two-dimensional  designs.  These d e s i g n s and the myths have served as  a major r e f e r e n c e source f o r contemporary Northwest Coast l e a r n i n g the Haida  style.  Concerning  p a r t - t i m e Haida a r t i s t M i c h a e l N i c o l l [of]  Indian  artists  the myths recounted by Swanton, (1980) s t a t e s t h a t "I've made a p o i n t  l e a r n i n g s t o r i e s about the d i f f e r e n t c r e s t s ,  so when I do something,  I can t h i n k about the s t o r y and the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t o r y . "  He goes  on to say t h a t he l e a r n s these s t o r i e s "from Swanton and r e l a t i v e s " The America"  chapter e n t i t l e d  (1980).  " A r t o f the North P a c i f i c Coast o f North  i n Boas' P r i m i t i v e A r t , ^ i s one o f the f i r s t  and most  i n f l u e n t i a l a n a l y s e s o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Northwest design. of  Boas d e s c r i b e s s t y l i z a t i o n i n the a r t , the symbolic  animals,  (e.g.  Coast  characterization  s p l i t t i n g and d i s l o c a t i o n o f p a r t s , and the d e s i g n elements  "eye forms") o f Northwest Coast  a l a r g e number o f f i n e and d e t a i l e d  style.  The chapter a l s o i n c l u d e s  illustrations;.  Helen Codere (1966:xxi), i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n to Boas' K w a k i u t l Ethnography, remarked t h a t "There seems t o be no reason why  thorough  mastery o f the d e t a i l s of Boas.' a n a l y s i s , with, a r e q u i s i t e t e c h n i c a l  skill  i n p a i n t i n g o r c a r v i n g , should n o t make i t p o s s i b l e t o produce a u t h e n t i c new Northwest Coast a r t .  Such a g e n e r a t i v e t e s t would ... demonstrate  the adequacy o f the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . "  U s i n g Boas' work In t h i s  - 49 -  way  has,  i n f a c t , become an important  contemporary Northwest Coast  p a r t of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s f o r  I n d i a n a r t i s t s , who  have r e f e r r e d to the book  both as a source of d e s i g n s and as a source of d e s i g n a n a l y s i s . With r e g a r d to the importance note t h a t he has been c r i t i c i z e d Coast a r t .  f o r a l a c k of knowledge about Northwest  et a l . (19.80:68) s t a t e , " I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t , w h i l e  s t r u g g l i n g to comprehend the a r t a t i t s g r e a t e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l  a b s t r a c t i o n , he was  unable  to e l i c i t  c l e a r i n f o r m a t i o n on meaning because  he had not f u l l y mastered an u n d e r s t a n d i n g two-dimensional now  to  R e f e r r i n g to Boas' a n a l y s i s of a d i s t r i b u t i v e d e s i g n p a i n t e d  on a bent b o w l , ^ Macnair Boas was  of Boas' work, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  A s p e c t s of n o r t h e r n  Northwest Coast d e s i g n not adequately  been r e d r e s s e d by Holm The  of form.!'  covered by Boas have  (1965).  two volumes of "Totem P o l e s " p u b l i s h e d by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Marius  Barbeau i n 1950  comprise  an e x t e n s i v e survey of Northwest Coast  totem p o l e s , i n c l u d i n g many photographs and d e s c r i p t i o n s . t o g e t h e r w i t h Barbeau's "Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d  These volumes,  in Argillite  have served as sources of d e s i g n i d e a s f o r Haida a r g i l l i t e particular.  The  Drew and W i l s o n  Masset a r g i l l i t e  argillite  carvers i n  carver:  300  carved s i n c e the t u r n of  (1980:113) quote Claude Davidson,  a  " I got a copy of Haida Myths ... from my  I s t a r t e d l o o k i n g a t the d e s i g n s i n t h a t book, and Blackman and H a l l  Carvings",  l a t t e r book c o n t a i n s a number of Haida myths and  accompanying i l l u s t r a t i o n s of works i n a r g i l l i t e the c e n t u r y .  Indian  (.1982:32) note t h a t "For Davidson  dad.  s t a r t e d to go by i t . " and many o t h e r  c a r v e r s , o l d p i e c e s c o l l e c t e d i n books r e p r e s e n t e d both, the  v a r i e t y of o l d d e s i g n s and a standard f o r achievement.  In a d d i t i o n ,  Haida Myths q u i c k l y became a standard r e f e r e n c e c a t a l o g f o r  argillite  - 50 -  c o l l e c t o r s who  commissioned  o f modern [contemporary] c a r v e r s works j u s t  l i k e those shown i n Barbeau." Important c r i t i c i s m s of Barbeau's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been made  by such a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s as W i l s o n Duff (1964a), who  p o i n t s to a c a r e l e s s  h a n d l i n g of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , m i s l e a d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and explanations.  The i n a c c u r a c y of Barbeau's work may  be more s i g n i f i c a n t  when the books are used as sources o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a , but may s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a r t i s t s who  facile  be  less  are u s i n g the books' photographs f o r d e s i g n  ideas. Art  of the Northwest  major c a t a l o g u e of Northwest  Coast I n d i a n s by R.B.  first  Coast I n d i a n c a r v i n g s , t e x t i l e s , and o t h e r  o b j e c t s t h a t p r e s e n t s these works as " a r t " . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Northwest  I n v e r a r i t y i s the  I n v e r a r i t y d i s c u s s e s some  Coast d e s i g n , i n c l u d i n g d i s t o r t i o n or  overemphasis, o u t l i n i n g , s p l i t t i n g , " h o r r o r v a c u i " , and the symbols by~ which t o t e m i c animals can be r e c o g n i z e d . framework of Northwest  He d e s c r i b e s the a r t i n a  Coast s o c i a l l i f e , m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , and  religion,  "because the a r t cannot be a d e q u a t e l y understood and a p p r e c i a t e d without some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t s o r i g i n s " thus f a r , A r t of the Northwest  (1950:xii).  L i k e the books mentioned  Coast I n d i a n s c o n t a i n s many photographs  which c o n t i n u e to be used as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s by artists.  (For example, a s i l v e r E a g l e brooch made by B i l l  contemporary  Reid i n 1953-4  was adapted from an e a r l y b l a n k e t d e s i g n f e a t u r e d i n I n v e r a r i t y [see B i l l Reid - A R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n 1974], and Robert Davidson produced a s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t e n t i t l e d "Sea Bear" i n 1968,  adapted from a Haida  s h i r t d e s i g n p i c t u r e d i n the same book [see H a l p i n 1979:4,53.) Northwest  dance  A r t of the  Coast I n d i a n s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t book i n the r e v i v a l o f Northwest  - 51 -  Coast a r t because i t was one o f the few a c c e s s i b l e and a u t h o r i t a t i v e  books  c o n t a i n i n g photographs t o appear i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the r e v i v a l . The s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l book on Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t (some a r t i s t s j o k i n g l y r e f e r to i t as " t h e B i b l e " ) , i s B i l l Holm's Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t :  An A n a l y s i s : o f Form.  L i k e Boas, Holm  p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the c o d i f i c a t i o n o f the elements o r p r i n c i p l e s of Northwest Coast d e s i g n  (Ames 1981:4,5).  Holm, however, went beyond  Boas' type o f a n a l y s i s o f two-dimensional d e s i g n .  He n o t e s (1965:8)  that  the n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast a r t i s t s "had a h i g h l y developed system o f a r t p r i n c i p l e s t h a t guided t h e i r c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y and went f a r beyond the system o f c o n v e n t i o n a l animal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , most n o t a b l y i n the works o f Franz Boas."  Holm's a n a l y s i s ,  therefore,  f o c u s e s on p r i n c i p l e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n , d e s i g n o r g a n i z a t i o n , and form, "those stylistic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t which have  escaped a n a l y s i s "  heretofore  (1965:13).  A p r i m a r y f e a t u r e o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t :  An A n a l y s i s o f  Form i s t h a t Holm i n t r o d u c e s the language o r v o c a b u l a r y o f terms by which, the a r t and i t s elements have s i n c e been d e s c r i b e d . and " f o r m l i n e " , f i r s t  Such terms as " o v o i d "  a p p l i e d by Holm, a r e now commonly used by a r t i s t s  and o t h e r s i n d i s c u s s i n g Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t . f e a t u r e a r e many diagrams and t e m p l a t e - l i k e examples v a r i a t i o n s o f forms, and c o m p o s i t i o n s .  Complimenting  this  o f d e s i g n elements,  These can be s t u d i e d and c o p i e d  by a r t i s t s i n t h e i r own attempts a t l e a r n i n g and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g Northwest Coast d e s i g n . Ames (198.1:4) n o t e s t h a t "The c o d i f i c a t i o n o f d e s i g n elements [_as found i n Boas' and Holm's books] has encouraged a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n or  - 52 -  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f d e s i g n and t e c h n i q u e . to those t h a t occur when customary  The consequences  a r e comparable  law i s transformed i n t o w r i t t e n law: a  g e n e r a l s t e r e o t y p i n g o f form and c o n t e n t . "  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t :  An A n a l y s i s o f Form has been used as a textbook i n a l l Northwest  Coast a r t  t r a i n i n g programs and as a "how-to-do-it" book by many i n d i v i d u a l although, t h i s i s not what the author i n t e n d e d (Holm 1981) . the book has i n c r e a s e d i t s impact on the contemporary r e v i v a l and emphasized  the consequences  design.  "The c o d i f i c a t i o n s produced  Furthermore,  (Ames 1981:6) i n the contemporary Coast  Such use o f  Northwest  o f c o d i f y i n g Northwest  p r o v i d e the p r i m a r y c r i t e r i a by which the Northwest  artists,  Coast a r t Coast  by Boas and Holm Coast a r t i s t  market as w e l l as by o t h e r  i s judged"  Northwest  artists. An a d d i t i o n a l and unintended consequence o f Holm's book d e r i v e s  from i t s f o c u s on n o r t h e r n Northwest  Coast d e s i g n and i t s  o m i s s i o n o f an  a n a l y s i s o f the s t y l e s o f the K w a g i u t l and t h e i r southern n e i g h b o u r s . While  the l i m i t s o f t h i s f o c u s a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  the book, a n e t e f f e c t has been t o s e t a p a r t the n o r t h e r n s t y l e as " t r u e Northwest  Coast" and s u p e r i o r to the southern s t y l e , which i s o f t e n 12  looked upon as a l e s s e r d e r i v a t i o n o f the former. Other books have, o f c o u r s e , p l a y e d a r o l e i n contemporary  artists'  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n s and i n i n s p i r i n g the c r e a t i o n s o f new works. Since the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the above s i x books a t l e a s t t h r e e dozen books and e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h Northwest a r t have been p u b l i s h e d . Northwest  Coast  Coast I n d i a n  H i l a r y Stewart's Looking a t I n d i a n A r t of the  (1979), f o r example, i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to Northwest  Coast  d e s i g n elements, r e g i o n a l s t y l e s , and t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s t h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o by a r t i s t s as w e l l as c o l l e c t o r s .  Moreover, c h a p t e r s and  - 53 -  a r t i c l e s on Northwest Coast a r t a r e i n c l u d e d i n many more books,  journals,  and magazines d e a l i n g g e n e r a l l y w i t h N o r t h American I n d i a n a r t and o t h e r subjects.  These books and a r t i c l e s can s e r v e as a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f  d e s i g n i d e a s and e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e i r photographs of museum c o l l e c t i o n s from around the world make a g r e a t e r number o f Northwest Coast a r t works v i s u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o contemporary  artists.  Unpublished photographs must a l s o be mentioned as a r e f e r e n c e source o f t r a d i t i o n a l works f o r contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s t s . S l i d e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Northwest Coast a r t o b j e c t s from N o r t h American and European museums a r e u s e f u l to a r t i s t s : who would o t h e r w i s e f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e to see such a c o l l e c t i o n o f w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d works.  Bill  Holm's l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f s l i d e s i s one example o f such a r e s o u r c e , i s much-used by B r i t i s h Columbia and S e a t t l e  that  artists.  The importance o f museum c o l l e c t i o n s and books i n the contemporary r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e i n v e n t i o n o f Northwest Coast t r a d i t i o n s r e f l e c t s the changed context i n which the contemporary a r t i s t works, as compared to h i s t r a d i t i o n a l counterpart.  To a l a r g e e x t e n t , these new r e f e r e n c e  source's a r e a major means o f a c c e s s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l t h a t no l o n g e r e x i s t s .  context  The books and e x h i b i t i o n s p r o v i d e the e t h n o g r a p h i c  background an a r t i s t may d e s i r e i n order t o c r e a t e a c e r t a i n p i e c e , as w e l l as the v i s u a l a c c e s s t o t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t s t h a t a r e no l o n g e r an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the contemporary a r t i s t ' s  culture.  U s i n g the s e l e c t i o n o f Northwest Coast a r t o b j e c t s v i s i b l e i n books and museum c o l l e c t i o n s as the p r i m a r y s o u r c e s from which t o r e c o n s t r u c t Northwest Coast a r t t r a d i t i o n s has b o t h d i s a d v a n t a g e s and advantages.  As.  - 54 -  Blackman and H a l l i n books p r e s e n t and  (1982:36,37) p o i n t o u t , museum e x h i b i t i o n s and images p i e c e s as works o f " a r t " , emphasizing s u r f a c e  s e p a r a t i n g the o b j e c t s from the a c t i v i t y and context  were o r i g i n a l l y l o c a t e d .  qualities  i n which  they  A mask i n a museum d i s p l a y case cannot be seen  i n the same way t h a t i t would be were i t used i n a dance by f i r e l i g h t , and "The it  photograph o f a mask does not t e l l  the c a r v e r o f i t s t h i n n e s s , o f how  f e e l s when worn i n the dance, o f accommodations made on i t s i n n e r  s u r f a c e f o r the wearer."  Blackman and H a l l  (1982:37,38) a l s o note,  however, t h a t ,  On the o t h e r hand, contemporary a r t i s t s c o n s u l t i n g photographs and [[museum c o l l e c t i o n s of 3 ... Northwest Coast a r t have an advantage over t h e i r f o r e b e a r e r s . The e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Northwest Coast a r t i s t may have t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y and seen many f i n e l y carved p i e c e s used i n p u b l i c ceremonies o r permanently d i s p l a y e d as totem p o l e s , h o u s e f r o n t p a i n t i n g s , house screens and p o s t s , but the Haida who saw a totem p o l e i n Tsimshian t e r r i t o r y c o u l d o n l y c a r r y i t s image i n h i s mind, and p o s s i b l y r e t u r n a t a l a t e r date t o view i t a g a i n ... Modern Northwest Coast a r t i s t s , by c o n t r a s t , have a t t h e i r f i n g e r t i p s v i s u a l images from a l l a r e a s o f the Northwest Coast to which they can r e t u r n a g a i n and a g a i n . Thus, n o t o n l y can an a r t i s t r e p e a t e d l y study a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e , but t h e r e e x i s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t r i b a l s t y l e s u n p a r a l l e l e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l times.  Memories The  extent  t o which memories o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s u r v i v e among  n a t i v e people today i s i m p o s s i b l e  to measure, as i s the degree t o which  a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast c u l t u r e have remained through the y e a r s .  continuous  Moreover, p e o p l e ' s knowledge o f "the o l d ways" has  o f t e n been i n f l u e n c e d , or l e a r n t from, the w r i t i n g s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , when the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d "tradition".  from such, sources  i s incorporated into  While c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t i e s i n a r t and ceremony a r e  tribal  - 55 -  p r o b a b l y s t r o n g e s t among the Southern K w a g i u t l , the contemporary of  Northwest  of  "the o l d ways".  revival  Coast a r t has a f f e c t e d most t r i b a l groups by r e v i v i n g memories To quote George Y e l t a t z i e  (1980), a Masset  artist,  ... the ones t h a t you have to p l e a s e f i r s t are your people b e f o r e anyone e l s e , and ... t h a t ' s the h a r d e s t t h i n g to do because everyone i s v e r y v e r y p a r t i c u l a r about what they see, what went on at t h a t time, because they a l l b e g i n to remember as the c a r v i n g s come a l i v e a g a i n ...  The p r o d u c t i o n of masks and o t h e r items f o r a r e v i v e d and  sometimes  r e i n v e n t e d c e r e m o n i a l c o n t e x t has c r e a t e d a source of knowledge f o r Northwest  Coast a r t i s t s who  t r a d i t i o n a l times.  are too young to have t h e i r own memories of  In 1969,  p o l e to r a i s e i n Masset.  f o r example, Robert Davidson carved a totem  H a l p i n (.1979:4) comments, "The  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the totem p o l e i n 1969 the  contemporary  called  ritual  f o r t h the songs, the  speeches,  s t o r i e s , the dances, of the o l d c u l t u r e - the f o r m a l c o l l e c t i v e memory  of  the p a s t ... [ D a v i d s o n ] c r e a t e d an a r t i s t i c channel f o r the  of  knowledge from the o l d people to the young.'  always  such, a c h a n n e l . "  t h i s way  'transfer  Haida a r t was  probably  The "handing down" of e l d e r s ' memories has i n  re-emerged as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the contemporary  reconstructing traditions.  To quote Davidson, "The  s o c i e t y i s based on t h i s handing down o f t r a d i t i o n ;  p r o c e s s of  survival'of  the  one then has to i n n o v a t e  upon i t " (Appelbe 19.79:10).  V - ART  AS A VEHICLE FOR  CULTURAL REVIVAL  Robert Davidson's p o l e r a i s i n g i n 1969 development  i n the r e v i v a l o f Northwest  represented a  Coast I n d i a n a r t .  new The s u c c e s s o f  p r o d u c i n g a r t f o r a non-Indian consumer w i t h i n the market c o n t e x t has l e d  - 56 -  to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by some a r t i s t s i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s and meanings o f the a r t , and i s being production  accompanied by a r e v i v a l o f a r t  f o r the n a t i v e c o n t e x t .  Davidson's p o l e was the f i r s t  t o be  r a i s e d on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s i n almost n i n e t y y e a r s , and the attendant  ceremony r e q u i r e d the p r o d u c t i o n  of button  r e g a l i a to r e p l a c e those t h a t had l o n g s i n c e l e f t  blankets  and o t h e r  the v i l l a g e .  I t also  r e q u i r e d a r e l e a r n i n g and r e - c r e a t i o n o f the songs, dances, and c e r e m o n i a l procedure t h a t were an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a p o l e  raising.  Other p o l e r a i s i n g s and ceremonies have s i n c e taken p l a c e on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s .  A housefront  p o l e was e r e c t e d by B i l l Reid  a t the  new Skidegate Band C o u n c i l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g i n 1978, and a c u l t u r a l c e l e b r a t i o n , "A T r i b u t e t o the L i v i n g Haida", was g i v e n by Davidson i n 1980. in  A r t has a l s o become a v e h i c l e f o r c u l t u r a l  'Ksan, and among the Nuu-chah-nulth p e o p l e .  a r t i s t s Henry and Tony Hunt carved The  p o l e was the f i r s t  I n 1970-71 K w a g i u t l  a p o l e as a memorial t o Mungo M a r t i n .  t o be r a i s e d i n many years  g r a v e y a r d , and r e q u i r e d an attendant r e v i v a l o f a slumbering t r a d i t i o n "  revival  i n the A l e r t Bay  p o t l a t c h , which i n t u r n "sparked the (Macnair e t a l . 1980:183).  Vastokas (1975:12) says t h a t the new p o l e s  " a r e no l o n g e r  being  r a i s e d s o l e l y as r e t r i e v a l or r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s by government and educational  i n s t i t u t i o n s , but by the n a t i v e peoples themselves as symbols  of t h e i r new optimism." funding  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, however, t h a t the  f o r the above-mentioned events was s t i l l  government, museums, and c o r p o r a t i o n s .  derived  i n part  from  Davidson's 1969 p o l e , f o r example,  was funded i n p a r t by the B r i t i s h . Columbia C u l t u r a l Fund; was funded t o t a l l y by the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum.  the Hunt's p o l e  I n f a c t , the t a c i t  - 57 -  support  of non-Indian s o c i e t y has p r o b a b l y  played  a significant role i n  encouraging such " c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l " - Davidson's 19.69 p o l e r a i s i n g was perhaps e q u a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f newly p o s i t i v e o u t s i d e a t t i t u d e s toward n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s as a t t i t u d e s i n t e r n a l t o n a t i v e s o c i e t y . The  B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum has become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n  promoting the p r o d u c t i o n  o f a r t f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l use, i n e f f e c t  s t i m u l a t i n g the growth o f a n a t i v e market f o r contemporary Northwest Coast Indian a r t s .  Ethnology c u r a t o r P e t e r Macnair has " p a i d h i s c a r v e r s t o  produce p i e c e s f o r I n d i a n p o t l a t c h e s , and he has loaned museum's c o l l e c t i o n and donated newly carved potlatches"  (Ames 1981:12).  items from the  p i e c e s t o sponsors o f  Producing pieces  f o r the use o f n a t i v e  people i s seen by Macnair and such a r t i s t s as Davidson and Joe David as g i v i n g the a r t "meaning" and making the a r t " a u t h e n t i c " . work t h a t i s now produced f o r p e r s o n a l ,  The amount o f  s p i r i t u a l , community, and p o t l a t c h  purposes, o f t e n f o r l i t t l e  o r no economic b e n e f i t , i s a t r i b u t e t o the  importance such p r o d u c t i o n  has a t t a i n e d f o r some contemporary  Use  artists.  o f the term " c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l " perhaps exaggerates the s o c i a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of revived native t r a d i t i o n s . t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e t h a t i s being  I t i s n o t the e n t i r e  restored to l i f e ,  but m o s t l y s e l e c t e d  elements o f c e r e m o n i a l t r a d i t i o n s i n which a r t p r o d u c t i o n  can p l a y a r o l e ,  S i m i l a r l y , o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l segment o f n a t i v e s o c i e t y i s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d , and the " r e v i v a l " has not improved the c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e f o r most n a t i v e p e o p l e .  I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t "many o f the most prominent  persons i n v o l v e d w i t h the r e l i g i o u s and c e r e m o n i a l r e v i v a l a r e the a r t i s t s themselves" (Warner 1980:30), and t h a t the involvement o f these w i t h other  aspects  o f the n a t i v e community i s o f t e n l i m i t e d .  artists Some p e o p l e ,  - 58 -  such as B i l l R e i d , q u e s t i o n c u r r e n t e f f o r t s t o " r e i n v e n t the o l d I n d i a n culture"  ( I g l a u e r 1982:13), f e e l i n g t h a t the road t o improved  c o n d i t i o n s f o r n a t i v e people pathways o f the p a s t "  social  does not l e a d "through the dust-covered  (Reid 1981:16).  On the other hand, H a l p i n  (1982:28)  s t a t e s t h a t "some n a t i v e a r t i s t s a r e becoming c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s and e x p r e s s i n g a new v i s i o n o f what i s p o s s i b l e . . . fjperhaps] we a r e w i t n e s s i n g the b e g i n n i n g s  o f a c u l t u r a l movement t h a t w i l l  r e s t o r e h e a l t h and  economic v i t a l i t y t o n a t i v e communities-."  The  contemporary r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast  be examined and understood  I n d i a n a r t should not  o n l y i n terms o f how s u c c e s s f u l i t i s i n r e -  c r e a t i n g the p a s t , but more i m p o r t a n t l y , i n terms o f how i t i s c r e a t i n g a new understanding n a t i v e people  alike.  o f Northwest Coast  I n d i a n c u l t u r e f o r n a t i v e and non-  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Northwest Coast  the non-Indian consumer w i l l  be c o n s i d e r e d  impact o f the r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast peoples  a r t s and  i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  a r t and t r a d i t i o n s upon I n d i a n  i s , however, a s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r study.  The  - 59  -  Notes 1 Graburn's d e f i n i t i o n of " r e v i v a l " i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the Northwest Coast case: " R e v i v a l " r e f e r s t o the attempted r e - c r e a t i o n of an a r t form t h a t has f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e ... i t may i n v o l v e s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n of the form and p r o b a b l y does not r e - c r e a t e the c o n t e x t o f the o r i g i n a l manufacture" (1976a:20). 2 See H a l p i n 1981a:16; noted t h i s tendency.  a l s o M a c f a r l a n e and P e r k i n s 1977:46.  I have a l s o  3 The C.I.M.S. d e c l a r e d bankruptcy i n 1979, p r i m a r i l y because of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems r e s u l t i n g from i t s t o o - c e n t r a l i z e d o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e (Native Brotherhood of B.C. 1980:3-4). 4  . A r t i s t s working i n the K w a g i u t l , Westcoast (Nuu-chah-nulth), and S a l i s h s t y l e s have a l s o been a b l e t o u t i l i z e R e i d and Holm's work, but have had t o l e a r n or r e d i s c o v e r t h e i r own t r i b a l s t y l e s from other s o u r c e s .  ^  Tony Hunt, i n h i s "Raven A r t s " workshop i n V i c t o r i a , i n s t r u c t s b e g i n n i n g and i n t e r m e d i a t e woodcarving and d e s i g n . T h i s t e a c h i n g programme i s sponsored by the B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s S o c i e t y .  6  S e v e r a l a r t i s t s have supplemented t h e i r t r a i n i n g w i t h f o r m a l s t u d i e s of Western a r t : f o r example, B i l l R e i d s t u d i e d j e w e l l e r y d e s i g n a t the Ryerson I n s t i t u t e of Technology i n T o r o n t o , and Robert Davidson and o t h e r s have taken a r t c o u r s e s a t the Vancouver S c h o o l o f A r t (now the E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e of A r t ) .  7 One survey conducted i n 1978 (a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w survey of 162 B r i t i s h Columbia r e t a i l shops known t o handle n a t i v e produced goods) e s t i m a t e s t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s of I n d i a n a r t s i n B.C. a t $3.5 m i l l i o n . Approximately 70 p e r c e n t of t h i s t o t a l i s d e r i v e d from the s a l e of a r t s produced by B.C. a r t i s t s and a r t i s a n s . The remaining 30 p e r c e n t i s d e r i v e d from I n d i a n a r t s imported from other p r o v i n c e s . Thus the t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s of B.C.-produced I n d i a n a r t s c o u l d be e s t i m a t e d a t $2.5 m i l l i o n (Reserve Management L t d . , R e t a i l Survey, 1978). The N a t i v e Brotherhood of B.C. (1980:3-12), u s i n g as i t s d a t a base the above survey (1978) and the r e c o r d s of the B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s S o c i e t y , c a l c u l a t e s t h a t "Gross v a l u e of p r o d u c t i o n a t the producer l e v e l of n a t i v e made items was e s t i m a t e d t o l i e i n the range of $4 t o $6 M i l l i o n i n 1978. The a s s o c i a t e d v a l u e of r e t a i l s a l e s of goods produced by n a t i v e a r t i s t s was e s t i m a t e d t o be on the order of $7 t o $10.5 M i l l i o n ... 74 p e r c e n t of t o t a l r e t a i l s a l e s are generated by B.C. p r o d u c e r s . The balance of 26 p e r c e n t was imported from [ o t h e r ! p r o v i n c e s . " 3  By " c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t i e s " I r e f e r t o a s p e c t s of the c u l t u r e t h a t have remained c o n t i n u o u s through the y e a r s : f o r example, c l a n / c r e s t a f f i l i a t i o n , some c e r e m o n i a l s , or the language.  - 60 -  Quote by Henry White  (1980) , Haida c a r v e r .  The chapter (pp. 183-290) i s a r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of Boas" e s s a y , "The D e c o r a t i v e A r t of the I n d i a n s o f the N o r t h P a c i f i c Coast of A m e r i c a " , B u l l e t i n of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New York, V o l . IX, 1897 (pp. 123-176). t  See Boas  1955:275-277.  The g e n e r a l emphasis on n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast a r t i n the m a j o r i t y o f books on Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s consequence as w e l l .  - 61 -  CHAPTER TWO  - Art  The  f o r the  Marketplace  changed s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of  Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t s have had  an e f f e c t on  a r t s have undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n use, matter, m a t e r i a l s , native  use  and  a r t form, and  changes.  other changes are an  for  led f i r s t  traditional arts.  ted a r t s , f o l l o w e d by  last  I - ARTS OF The  re-creation  primary  s i n g l e most  initial  effects  then to a near death  a b r i e f l o o k at  accultura-  contemporary Northwest Coast r e f l e c t i n g contextual that  have  of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t  contemporary commercial  context.  ACCULTURATION t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l elements i n t o marketable c o l l e c t o r s i s a phenomenon t a k i n g  Such a r t p r o d u c t i o n by  been d i s c u s s e d i n the World a r t s . "  chapter i n c l u d e s  " a r t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n "  commodities f o r t o u r i s t s and world over.  to a f l o u r i s h i n g and  the  the  s e c t i o n addresses q u e s t i o n s of " a u t h e n t i c i t y "  a r i s e n w i t h r e g a r d to the t r a d i t i o n s i n the  p r o b a b l y been the  art production since  an examination of the  a r t s produced f o r s a l e as The  This  history  important r o l e i n such  However, the development of a non-Indian p u b l i c as  of white c o n t a c t , that  and  subject  i n e v i t a b l e a s p e c t of the  i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y p l a y s an  important f a c t o r to a f f e c t n a t i v e  change.  meaning, form,  The  Whether the a r t s have been produced  consumer of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t s has  of the  a r t s themselves.  or f o r s a l e , s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s of change have o c c u r r e d .  S t y l i s t i c and of any  technology.  the  l i t e r a t u r e as  Acculturation  H e r s k o v i t s (1936:149) as  place  the  contemporary a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s  has  " a r t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n "  i t s e l f has  been d e f i n e d  or  "Fourth  by R e d f i e l d ,  Linton,  "those phenomena which r e s u l t from groups of  - 62 -  i n d i v i d u a l s having d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r e s coming w i t h subsequent changes Graburn  into first-hand  contact,  i n the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e o f e i t h e r or both groups."  (1969a:457) has gone on t o d e f i n e the a r t s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n as  " a r t p r o d u c t i o n , which d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from, t r a d i t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n form,  c o n t e n t , f u n c t i o n , and o f t e n medium, which a l s o d i f f e r s from the  v a r i o u s forms o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n i n d i g e n o u s t o ever-growing  'civilization'."  Graburn uses the a d d i t i o n a l concept o f " F o u r t h World a r t s " to d e s c r i b e the contemporary a r t s o f those people f o r m e r l y c a l l e d " p r i m i t i v e . " F o u r t h World i n c l u d e s " a l l  The  a b o r i g i n a l o r n a t i v e p e o p l e s whose l a n d s f a l l  w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l boundaries and t e c h n o - b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the c o u n t r i e s o f the F i r s t ,  Second, and T h i r d Worlds"(Graburn  1976a:1).  F o u r t h World a r t s g e n e r a l l y combine a s p e c t s o f the s o c i e t y ' s own symbolic and a e s t h e t i c systems w i t h those o f the dominant are u s u a l l y c r e a t e d .  s o c i e t y , f o r whom the a r t s  While a r t i s never a s t a t i c system, the k i n d s o f  changes r e f e r r e d t o here a r e the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f prolonged c o n t a c t between a F o u r t h World and a F i r s t , Northwest  Second, o r T h i r d World  society.  Coast I n d i a n a r t s produced i n the p a s t 150 y e a r s or so  can g e n e r a l l y be d e s c r i b e d as " a r t s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n " o r " F o u r t h World because many o f the changes the a r t s have undergone  arts"  i n t h a t time p e r i o d  r e s u l t e d from the i n f l u e n c e s o f c o n t a c t w i t h , and p r o d u c i n g a r t f o r , the dominant  non-Indian s o c i e t y .  us to see Northwest  U s i n g the concept o f a c c u l t u r a t e d a r t s h e l p s  Coast I n d i a n a r t s i n the broader comparative c o n t e x t  of changing a r t forms brought about by c u l t u r e  contact.  F o u r t h World a r t s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two major types, determined by the c o n t e x t f o r which they a r e produced:  - 63 -  (1)  Those a r t s , termed " i n w a r d l y d i r e c t e d a r t s " by Graburn (I976a:4),  that a r e made f o r and used by the p r o d u c e r ' s own s o c i e t y .  These o b j e c t s  are made f o r u t i l i t a r i a n or t r a d i t i o n a l c e r e m o n i a l purposes, a l t h o u g h they may i n c o r p o r a t e some changes i n form, s t y l e , m a t e r i a l s , and even symbols t h a t r e s u l t e d from o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s . f o r example,  On the Northwest Coast,  a mask produced f o r a w i n t e r dance, or a s i l k s c r e e n  print  produced as a p o t l a t c h g i f t , would c o n s t i t u t e a r t produced f o r a " t r a d i t i o n a l " o r " n a t i v e " context i n contemporary times.  The " t r a d i t i o n a l  c o n t e x t " may have changed i n format, but these changes have not completely a l t e r e d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l purpose.  S i n c e t h e r e may be an economic a s p e c t  to the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t f o r n a t i v e use, the market t h a t absorbs i n w a r d l y d i r e c t e d a r t s can be termed the " n a t i v e market f o r contemporary  (2)  arts."  Those "outwardly d i r e c t e d a r t s " produced f o r s a l e t o consumers who  are not p a r t o f the p r o d u c e r s ' c u l t u r e s - p r i m a r i l y the Western a r t market. As R i c h t e r  (1980:10) p o i n t s o u t , however, the consumers may a l s o  include  members o f the p r o d u c e r s ' own c u l t u r e who a r e n o t u s i n g the a r t i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t , but d i s p l a y i t i n t h e i r homes.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  m a j o r i t y o f consumers o f contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t s do not belong to the p r o d u c e r c u l t u r e , and the a r t s a r e channeled t o the consumers through the commercial a r t market.  These a r t s can be b r o a d l y  c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the market s e c t o r s f o r which they a r e produced and the degree t o which they i n c o r p o r a t e o u t s i d e I n f l u e n c e s 19.69b:3-6; (a)  (see Graburn  1976a:5-7) :  Commercial f i n e a r t s - These a r e produced t o s a t i s f y t h e i r  c r e a t o r s and o t h e r members o f the a r t i s t ' s s o c i e t y , but must a l s o a p p e a l  - 64 -  to  the consumers i n the a r t market.  Although  these a r t s are made with,  e v e n t u a l s a l e i n mind, they r e t a i n the c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d a e s t h e t i c and formal standards  of the c r e a t o r ' s s o c i e t y .  Commercial f i n e a r t s may  from t r a d i t i o n a l a r t p r o d u c t i o n , or they may commercial purposes.  The  Souvenir  forms generated  for  a r t i s t s attempt to adhere to a h i g h standard  q u a l i t y i n workmanship and (b)  be new  stem  of  design.  a r t s or t o u r i s t a r t s - These a r t s , which, may  bear  little  more than a s u p e r f i c i a l r e l a t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s of the c r e a t o r c u l t u r e , tend to be s i m p l i f i e d , to  s t e r e o t y p i c a l products  the c r e a t o r ' s c u l t u r a l a e s t h e t i c and  standards  and  t r a d i t i o n s may  q u a n t i t y of output, important  and  t h a t do not  formal standards.  be s u b o r d i n a t e d  The  cultural  to the speed of p r o d u c t i o n ,  s a l e a b i l i t y of the i n e x p e n s i v e p r o d u c t .  It i s  to note, however, t h a t the p r e s s u r e of mass p r o d u c t i o n i s not  n e c e s s a r i l y the o n l y f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r poor t o u r i s t a r t ; be a l a c k of knowledge and a r t i s t i c  s k i l l on the p a r t of the  a s t r i c t p r o f i t motive f o r p r o d u c t i o n , and the r e s u l t a n t low q u a l i t y and  i n e x p e n s i v e work.  than to an a c c u r a t e e x p r e s s i o n of the  The  d i r e c t e d a r t s , and  s o u v e n i r a r t s , a r e not m u t u a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d  Northwest Coast s o u v e n i r and  also  producer,  S o u v e n i r s may  conform  o f the producer's  culture  culture.  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s of contemporary Fourth. World a r t s i n t o  and outwardly  a r t s may  i t may  the e x i s t e n c e of a market f o r  more c l o s e l y to the consumers' p r e c o n c e p t i o n s  of  adhere  the l a t t e r  inwardly  i n t o commercial f i n e a r t s  e x c l u s i v e i n the sense t h a t c e r t a i n  i n more than one  category.  For example,  I n d i a n s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s , which are produced f o r the  f i n e a r t markets as w e l l as f o r n a t i v e use,  could  and  types  - 65 -  c o n c e i v a b l y belong to a l l these c a t e g o r i e s .  Graburn  (1976a:14) has p o i n t e d out t h a t "sources of change  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o commercial  a r t s come from both, without and  within,  a c c o r d i n g to the t a s t e s o f the buyers and the e f f o r t s of the p r o d u c e r s . " He adds t h a t "the market i t s e l f i s the most p o w e r f u l source of f o r m a l and a e s t h e t i c i n n o v a t i o n " (1976a:15), forms,  f u n c t i o n s , and meaning.  o f t e n l e a d i n g to changes i n s i z e ,  That these p r o c e s s e s o f change appear i n  many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s i s p r i m a r i l y due  to the f a c t t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n of  s a l e a b l e n a t i v e a r t o b j e c t s f o r a Western market "may criteria,  (Dawson e t a l .  aesthetic  1974 : 23).  The  sale  the a r t s , and thus the l i v e l i h o o d of the producer, depends upon t h e i r  acceptance by the buying p u b l i c , which has i t s own of  be based on  f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , and v a l u e - b a s e d t a s t e s o t h e r than those  d e r i v i n g from the p r o d u c e r s ' c u l t u r e " of  materials,  preconceived expectations  acceptable native a r t s .  I I - NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN ARTS AND Contemporary Northwest  CHANGING TRADITIONS  Coast I n d i a n a r t s produced  market i n c l u d e wood c a r v i n g s , s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s  f o r the  commercial  (serigraphs), s i l v e r  and  g o l d j e w e l l e r y and o t h e r items, a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g s , b a s k e t r y , and weaving. Items l e s s commonly made f o r s a l e i n c l u d e drums, b u t t o n b l a n k e t s , i v o r y bone c a r v i n g s , p a i n t i n g s , and drawings.  This section w i l l  examine  a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s of change i n r e l a t i o n to the contemporary Coast I n d i a n a r t forms commonly produced  for sale  and  Northwest  today.  Use and Meaning The most obvious changes i n Northwest  Coast a r t t h a t have r e s u l t e d  - 66  from the new art  context f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n  f o r the new  consumers.  The  -  are i n the use  functions  of a r t o b j e c t s  n a t i v e c u l t u r e were o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One. for  s a l e p r i m a r i l y to consumers o u t s i d e  of n a t i v e  c r i t e r i a , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p to Northwest Coast I n d i a n  range from p e r s o n a l  about " a r t " , a e s t h e t i c culture.  c o n t e m p l a t i o n of the o b j e c t  these o b j e c t s  are now  by  adornment (e.g. wearing a b r a c e l e t  j e w e l l e r y ) , to investment, to d i s p l a y as a r t .  putes may  new  uses to which contemporary Northwest Coast a r t s are put  the consumer may  the  in traditional  s o c i e t y assumes a  to the consumers' l i f e s t y l e , n o t i o n s  uses i s the  meaning of  Today, the a r t t h a t i s made  role relevant  The  and  as  Common to these d i f f e r e n t  as " a r t o b j e c t " and  produced as " a r t by destination.""''  the  f a c t that  Even where d i s -  a r i s e as to whether a mask or a basket can be c o n s i d e r e d  a work 2  of a r t , the o b j e c t i s viewed and  i s now  displayed  produced f o r and  by  purchased i n the a r t market,  the consumer as one  would view and  t h a t i s , as an o b j e c t w i t h p r i m a r y v i s u a l / a e s t h e t i c use to i t s o t h e r uses, such as s o u v e n i r or i n v e s t m e n t ) . The  display "art",  (this i s i n addition  changes i n the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the a r t s i n n a t i v e  to t h e i r p r e s e n t r o l e as " a r t o b j e c t s " to be d i s p l a y e d room, r a i s e the q u e s t i o n  and  society,  i n the modern  living  of whether d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t r a d i t i o n a l 3  native aesthetic c r i t e r i a  and  the c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d by contemporary con-  sumers to Northwest Coast a r t s .  In a d i s c u s s i o n of n a t i v e a e s t h e t i c  Hawthorn (.19.61:67) n o t e s the responses of K w a g i u t l v i s i t o r s t o o b j e c t s the UBC  Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y ' s c o l l e c t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t  q u a l i t i e s of the o b j e c t were not economic importance."  He  always d i s t i n g u i s h e d  suggests  that,  "the  criteria, in  aesthetic  from i t s s o c i a l  and  - 67 -  Although, most [contemporary] I n d i a n v i s i t o r s , to the Museum have s e p a r a t e d the s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n e d many who d i d n o t . They would have been i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n communication of the s o c i a l f a c t s : the v a l i d a t i n g myths, the h i s t o r i c and s u p e r n a t u r a l f i g u r e s and i n c i d e n t s , and d i s t i n c t i o n s o f rank. Other people, presumably the m a j o r i t y , responded a l s o to q u a l i t i e s of o r i g i n a l i t y , f o r c e f u l n e s s and beauty, and the c a r v i n g was judged as a work o f a r t t o the degree t h a t i t succeeded o r f a i l e d i n s u p p l y i n g these q u a l i t i e s (1961:68).  Hawthorn's statement g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of how ments may  a e s t h e t i c judge-  be q u a l i f i e d by v i e w e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the use and meaning of the  o b j e c t , by c u l t u r a l l y - s p e c i f i c n o t i o n s of a r t i s t i c  q u a l i t y , and by p r e v i o u s l y  formed e x p e c t a t i o n s about the o b j e c t , i n a d d i t i o n to f a c t o r s such as p e r s o n a l taste.  T h i s a p p l i e s to contemporary  n o n - n a t i v e consumers o f Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t as w e l l as to the n a t i v e v i e w e r s Hawthorn r e f e r r e d t o . (See Chapters Four and F i v e f o r surveys and d i s c u s s i o n s of non-Indian viewer and consumer a e s t h e t i c judgements  of contemporary Northwest  Coast I n d i a n  arts.)  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the viewer to the a r t o b j e c t  (and to the p r o d u c e r ' s  c u l t u r e through the medium o f the o b j e c t ) i s an important f a c t o r i n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a r t , and of the meaning of the a r t to him.  S i n c e the  meaning o f an o b j e c t i s not i n t r i n s i c t o the o b j e c t , but i s determined by c o n t e x t , the meaning of Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t to a t o u r i s t , an a r t  i n v e s t o r , a c o l l e c t o r o f f i n e a r t s , or to the a r t i s t h i m s e l f c o u l d g r e a t l y a c c o r d i n g to the use each p e r s o n has f o r the a r t . and forms of Northwest  Today the Images  Coast a r t are s e p a r a t e d from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t  and are r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d , emerging f o r the contemporary  differ  consumer.  as the elements of a new  system o f meaning  The t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f a Northwest  Coast  o b j e c t i s no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t f o r the consumer, but the o b j e c t can assume a  -  new  -  68  f u n c t i o n so t h a t i t i s regarded as u s e f u l and m e a n i n g f u l from the con-  sumer's p o i n t of view.  In t h i s way,  an o b j e c t may  still  incorporate a  c r e s t d e s i g n , but i t w i l l no l o n g e r serve to i d e n t i f y the owner o f the o b j e c t as a member o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l i n e a g e - i t may d e c o r a t i v e o b j e c t , or i t may identity:  be regarded s i m p l y as a  w e l l serve as a statement o f another k i n d of  perhaps t h a t o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t , or Northwest  Coast a r t  connoisseur.  The 1969  r a i s i n g of Robert Davidson's totem p o l e i n Masset  (mentioned i n Chapter One), p r o v i d e s an I l l u s t r a t i o n of the c o n t r a s t between the t r a d i t i o n a l and the contemporary though Davidson's p o l e was  produced  use and meaning of totem p o l e s , f o r the n a t i v e c o n t e x t .  t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of totem p o l e s was and w e a l t h through c r e s t  symbols.  even  The p r i m a r y  to d i s p l a y f a m i l y h i s t o r y ,  identity,  Totem p o l e s were u s u a l l y r a i s e d a t  p o t l a t c h e s , where the s t o r i e s behind the c r e s t s were t o l d to the people w i t n e s s i n g the event.  While Davidson's p o l e a l s o c o n s i s t e d of c r e s t  carved i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e ,  i t was  figures  r a i s e d p r i m a r i l y as a symbol of Haida  i d e n t i t y g e n e r a l l y , and an a f f i r m a t i o n of the c o n t i n u i n g importance of Haida culture.  The p o l e was  r a i s e d on community ground b e f o r e a church, as  to the t r a d i t i o n a l placement a d d i t i o n , the contemporary  o f a p o l e b e f o r e the f a m i l y ' s house.  p o l e was  opposed  In  both, carved and sponsored by Davidson  (with, the a s s i s t a n c e of the B r i t i s h Columbia C u l t u r a l Fund), an a r t i s t was not l i v i n g on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , and who  who  u n t i l t h a t time had  d e r i v e d much o f h i s knowledge away from the Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n Vancouver Victoria, academics.  i n museums, books, and from p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h a r t i s t s  and  Davidson's p o l e , as an e x p r e s s i o n of Haida t r a d i t i o n , was  o l d form with, a new  use and meaning r e f l e c t i n g changed s o c i a l and  an  cultural  and  - 69  -  contexts.  M a t e r i a l s and  Techniques  The e a r l y e f f e c t s of metal i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new  t o o l s on a r t p r o d u c t i o n , and  the  m a t e r i a l s such, as s i l v e r and a r g i l l i t e i n t o Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s have been noted  i n Chapter  One.  More r e c e n t changes i n  c a r v i n g technique i n c l u d e such a d a p t a t i o n s as the use of power t o o l s when practical.  In the f i e l d of s i l v e r j e w e l l e r y , B i l l Reid's f o r m a l  i n European j e w e l l e r y making has artists.  As R e i d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d the work of younger  (19.81:8). n o t e s , "the t e c h n i q u e s I had  learned, p a r t i c u l a r l y  f o r e n g r a v i n g , e v e n t u a l l y d r i f t e d back to the v i l l a g e s and are now u n i v e r s a l l y used.  training  almost  The o l d t e c h n i q u e s , used by Edenshaw, C r o s s , and  g r a n d f a t h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , have e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r e d , and now as t r a d i t i o n a l to do t h i n g s the way  my  i t ' s accepted  I used t o . "  The most obvious change i n m a t e r i a l s to occur i n the r e v i v a l of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s the a d o p t i o n of the s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t medium (serigraphy).  T h i s change has become both a r t i s t i c a l l y and  economically  s i g n i f i c a n t to the p r o d u c t i o n of a r t f o r the contemporary market.  Not  only  have s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s become the medium i n which a r t i s t s are the most f r e e to i n n o v a t e , but, s i n c e the l a t e 1960's, the r e l a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y of p r i n t s on the market has made p r i n t m a k i n g a primary means of economic support f o r 4 many a r t i s t s .  "In j u s t over a decade, more than 100 n a t i v e Northwest  Coast a r t i s t s : have c r e a t e d n e a r l y 10.00 prints"  (Blackman and H a l l Northwest Coast  market f o r n a t i v e a r t s .  d e s i g n s reproduced  as s i l k  screen  1981:55).  s e r i g r a p h y developed Blackman and H a l l  as a product of the commercial (1981:55) note  that.early  d e s i g n i n g on paper b_y- Northwest Coast a r t i s t s - o c c u r r e d "with, t u r n - o f - t h e -  - 70 -  c e n t u r y a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who  commissioned drawings of t r a d i t i o n a l c r e s t  other decorative designs.  D e s i g n i n g on paper r e c e i v e d some l a t e r r e -  inforcement  i n the n a t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h  were o f t e n s t r i k i n g l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l . "  the a r t i s t i c  results  E l l e n Neel screened Northwest  d e s i g n s onto s c a r v e s i n the l a t e 1940's, and  and  Coast  i n the l a t e 1950's, to e a r l y  1960's, Tony Hunt, Doug Cranmer, and C h i e f Henry Speck produced some s i l k s c r e e n d e s i g n s f o r s a l e on the t o u r i s t market. began p r i n t m a k i n g ; Victoria gift  In 1968  Robert  "Davidson's d e s i g n s were a l s o r e t a i l e d  Davidson  i n "Vancouver and  shops, but he e a r l y a t t r a c t e d the i n t e r e s t of c o l l e c t o r s of  Northwest Coast a r t and  f i n e g r a p h i c a r t In g e n e r a l "  (Blackman and H a l l  both  1978:2).  Responding to growing p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , more and more a r t i s t s began to produce d e s i g n s f o r t h i s medium.  Northwest Coast  were e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d from p a i n t e d and  two-dimensional  art traditions  carved d e s i g n s on wood to s i l k s c r e e n  p r i n t s , which are f a m i l i a r to Western consumers as an " a r t " medium and s u i t a b l e f o r d i s p l a y i n the home. E a r l y p r i n t s were c o n s i d e r e d p o s t e r s , and were screened on low paper i n l a r g e o r u n l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s . to b r i n g Northwest Coast p r i n t m a k i n g  Some d e a l e r s and a r t i s t s  quality  endeavoured  Into the l a r g e r realm of Canadian a r t ,  however, which n e c e s s i t a t e d l i m i t i n g e d i t i o n s , having the p r i n t s signed numbered by the a r t i s t , and u s i n g h i g h - q u a l i t y rag papers. now  Most  and  collectors  frame the works w i t h " c o n s e r v a t i o n framing" or c a r e f u l l y s t o r e t h e i r  "investments"  in protective folders.  Museums are c o l l e c t i n g Northwest  Coast  s e r i g r a p h s as w e l l , and have i n c l u d e d the works i n s e v e r a l r e c e n t e x h i b i t i o n s and one-man shows.  I t should be noted,  however, t h a t contemporary  p r i n t s , l i k e o t h e r commercial a r t s , v a r y w i d e l y i n the q u a l i t y of d e s i g n and  e x e c u t i o n , and  are s t i l l  silkscreen  their  s o l d w i t h i n the s o u v e n i r as w e l l as  the  - 71 -  f i n e a r t markets. Some Northwest  Coast d e s i g n s have been produced  f o r use i n the n a t i v e c o n t e x t .  as s i l k s c r e e n  They a r e g i v e n out as p o t l a t c h g i f t s ,  are used to mark important c e r e m o n i a l or p e r s o n a l e v e n t s . commercial  and the n a t i v e c o n t e x t s , Northwest  emerged as a new  prints and  W i t h i n both the  Coast s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s have  medium i l l u s t r a t i n g both, c o n t i n u i t y and change i n n a t i v e  traditions.  Form and  Subject Matter The new  influenced ways.  c o n t e x t f o r contemporary  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t has  (and c o n t i n u e s t o i n f l u e n c e ) form and s u b j e c t matter i n s e v e r a l  Changes i n these aspects: o f a r t p r o d u c t i o n are c l o s e l y connected  changes i n the use and meaning o f the contemporary changes i n form may Northwest  include s t y l i s t i c  changes,  arts.  to  For I n s t a n c e ,  as w e l l as the a d a p t a t i o n of  Coast a r t to such n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l forms as w a l l plaques and  silk-  screen p r i n t s . T o u r i s t a r t s , as mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y , p r o v i d e an obvious example of  changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l form and meaning t h a t occur as a response to t o u r i s t demand f o r s o u v e n i r s of another c u l t u r e .  Souvenir a r t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by a r e d u c t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n of the producer's b e l i e f and t h a t i s determined  symbolic  system  In p a r t by the t o u r i s t buyers' p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s of  what i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the producer's c u l t u r e , and by the producer's p e r c e p t i o n o f the t o u r i s t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s . t h a t " T o u r i s t a r t . . . o p e r a t e s as a minimal  Ben-Amos (1973:9) has  observed  system which must make meanings  as a c c e s s i b l e as p o s s i b l e a c r o s s v i s u a l boundary l i n e s . . . [ i t  involves  r e d u c t i o n i n semantic l e v e l of t r a d i t i o n a l forms, expansion o f t r a d i t i o n a l s e c u l a r m o t i f s , and u t i l i z a t i o n of a d j u n c t  neo-  communicative  a]  systems [ i . e . , ways o f conveying the s o u v e n i r ' s "message", through colour, e t c . , that are u t i l i z e d  and understood by producer and  form,  consumerQ."  Souvenir a r t s can thus be seen as "an obvious v i s u a l c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  code"  (Graburn 1976a :17), conveying enough o f the expected e x o t i c i s m and " o t h e r n e s s to the consumer without b e i n g unreadable. production r e s u l t s  In t h i s way s u c c e s s f u l s o u v e n i r  i n a product t h a t corresponds t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the  buyers and expresses s y m b o l i c a l l y t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  the producer  culture.  Model totem p o l e s p r o v i d e an example o f a p o p u l a r s o u v e n i r t h a t has become a w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d symbol o f B r i t i s h . Columbia Indians.  and Northwest  The p r o d u c t i o n o f model p o l e s was a l r e a d y f l o u r i s h i n g  Coast  In the l a t e  1800's as a response t o t o u r i s t demand f o r a p o r t a b l e s o u v e n i r o f t h i s r e g i o n Many contemporary of  the a r t form.  model p o l e s a r e made by f i n e c a r v e r s and a r e good examples Others merely p r e s e n t a s t e r e o t y p i c a l  they a r e carved i n a s t y l e t h a t b a r e l y resembles s t y l e on the Northwest t i o n o f Northwest  Coast, y e t they s e l l  any t r a d i t i o n a l totem p o l e  widely  and serve as a r e p r e s e n t a -  Coast I n d i a n a r t t o the buyer.  Regarding contemporary Halpin  view o f totem p o l e s ;  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n commercial  fine  (1981b:30) has noted t h a t "Both s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r e a l i s m  cross-cultural  communication...  arts,  facilitate  In o r d e r t o communicate w i t h the new-  consumers, the a r t i s t s a r e c r e a t i n g forms which, a r e more n a t u r a l i s t i c , more universal.  These forms c o n t a i n fewer c u l t u r a l messages, and t h e i r  a p p r e c i a t i o n i s l e s s dependent upon m a s t e r i n g a complex and u n f a m i l i a r As an example o f the g r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the contemporary wider audience, H a l p i n (1981b;30j notes t h a t "the forms o f sculpture are s i m p l i f i e d  and more r e a l i s t i c  style.  forms t o the  contemporary  than the o l d c a r v i n g s .  There  - 73 -  a r e more s i n g l e f i g u r e s now life  and few monstrous  form i n a s i n g l e image."  shift  Such changes  combinations of more than one i n form g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t  "a  i n meaning from the t o t e m i c to the m y t h o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t o f n a t i v e  culture.  Whereas t o t e m i c forms d e r i v e meaning from t h e i r l o c a l  social  context - t h a t of c l a n and t r i b e - m y t h o l o g i c a l themes r e f l e c t more u n i v e r s a l dimensions of human e x p e r i e n c e " (1981b:28). "Northwest  The forms: remain  Coast a r t " , a l t h o u g h they are c r e a t e d w i t h i n and f o r a  changed  c u l t u r a l context. The development  o f a "new"  s t y l e of Northwest  Coast d e s i g n a t  'Ksan  i s a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n of changes: i n form and s u b j e c t matter, and of the u t i l i z a t i o n of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r e a l i s m . groups  I n s t r u c t o r s from v a r i o u s  ( K w a g i u t l a r t i s t s Tony Hunt and Doug Cranmer, Haida a r t i s t  tribal  Robert  Davidson, and white a r t i s t Duane Pasco) were brought i n t o the Kitanmax School of Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g i n n o r t h e r n N o r t h -  west Coast d e s i g n ( s p e c i f i c a l l y T s i m s h i a n ) . accomplished a r t i s t s , none o f them was a r t forms.  A l t h o u g h a l l i n s t r u c t o r s were  proficient  i n t r a d i t i o n a l Tsimshian  The i n s t r u c t o r s i n t r o d u c e d images and forms from a number of  d i f f e r e n t t r i b a l a r t t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g of n o r t h e r n d e s i g n , and the p e r s o n a l s t y l e s of Duane Pasco and one of the f i r s t s c h o o l , Vernon Stephens  (who  graduates of the  a l s o became an i n s t r u c t o r ) , g r e a t l y  influenced  the d i r e c t i o n s the 'Ksan s t y l e has s i n c e taken. The  'Ksan s t y l e can he d e s c r i b e d as u t i l i z i n g a t h i n , somewhat a n g u l a r  f o r m l i n e and r e s u l t a n t a n g u l a r o v o i d s , depending h e a v i l y on templates (which, tends to make the forms i n many d e s i g n s somewhat r e p e t i t i v e ) , and a t t e m p t i n g "innovation" every piece.  ( i . e . , a d e p a r t u r e from t r a d i t i o n a l form and s t y l e ) i n almost A major  i n n o v a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s many 'Ksan graphics, i s  - 74 -  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e , p o r t r a y a l o f the environment,  and a  c o m p a r a t i v e l y n o n - a b s t r a c t o r " l i t e r a l " v i e w o f the s u b j e c t matter Stephens'  "Aah-See-Will, the Greedy Hunter",  ( e.g.  f i g u r e 1) - the e f f e c t  i s the  l o c a l i z a t i o n o f the image i n time and space, which c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the " t i m e l e s s " p o r t r a y a l and meaning o f t r a d i t i o n a l n o r t h e r n Coast images.  Stewart  Northwest  (1979a: 10.0) d e s c r i b e s the means by which, t h i s  effect,  i s a c h i e v e d i n the 'Ksan g r a p h i c s t y l e :  Human f i g u r e s a r e rendered i n l i f e l i k e appearance, o f t e n i n a c t i o n or conveying some emotion, and a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h animals or inanimate o b j e c t s . The elements o f the a r t a r e t r a d i t i o n a l , but segments o f U forms and s p l i t U forms a r e e l o n g a t e d or a b b r e v i a t e d to p r o v i d e the a r t i s t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l shapes t o serve h i s r e q u i r e m e n t s . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c among some o f the 'Ksan a r t i s t s i s the use o f these l i n e a r elements detached, o r n e a r l y so, from the main body o f the d e s i g n . The appearance o f v i g o r o u s movement i s o f t e n enhanced by such, l i n e s , which g i v e a f e e l i n g o f v i b r a n c y .  Certain  'Ksan g r a p h i c s t h a t p o r t r a y s i n g l e f i g u r e s i n a v e r y n a t u r a l i s t i c ,  i l l u s t r a t i v e way (though s t i l l  drawing upon Northwest  Coast s t y l e ) a r e most  p o p u l a r w i t h consumers u n f a m i l i a r w i t h o r u n r e s p o n s i v e t o more t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest  Coast d e s i g n .  Such p o r t r a y a l a l l o w s f o r r e a d i l y  identifiable  s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and the use o f enough. " I n d i a n " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s makes the d e s i g n o b v i o u s l y "Northwest  Coast"  (e.g. Robert  S e b a s t i a n ' s "Salmon F i g h t i n g  Upstream t o Spawn", f i g u r e 2 ) . A tendency naturalistic  i n Northwest  Coast p r i n t d e s i g n s toward  the c r e a t i o n o f more  forms, more s i n g l e f i g u r e s , and l e s s combinations of more than  one c r e a t u r e o c c u p y i n g a s i n g l e space, means t h a t such Northwest designs become more u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , hence more e a s i l y Most s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t  Coast understandable.  images to date d e p i c t s i n g l e , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  animal  forms and m y t h i c a l b e i n g s l i k e the Bu-quis, and Tsonoqua ( H a l l e t a l . 1981:561,  F i g u r e 1. " A a h - S e e - W i l l , the Greedy Hunter" by Vernon Stephens, 1978. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  F i g u r e 2. "Salmon F i g h t i n g Upstream t o Spawn" by R o b e r t S e b a s t i a n , 1980. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  - 76 -  c e n t e r e d i n the middle o f a white f i e l d . Northwest  T h i s method of d e p i c t i n g a  Coast d e s i g n on the open d e s i g n f i e l d of a sheet of paper i s  a c t u a l l y a d e p a r t u r e from the t r a d i t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f a two-dimensional d e s i g n , which was  adapted to the shape of the o b j e c t i t d e c o r a t e d .  In the  area of j e w e l l e r y e n g r a v i n g , most d e s i g n s c o n s i s t of an animal f i g u r e adapted to the shape o f the item, a l t h o u g h Macnair e t a l . (1980:92) a l s o note a growing  tendency among contemporary  a r t i s t s to a p p l y a s i n g l e p r o f i l e d e s i g n  r a t h e r than the more t r a d i t i o n a l b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical d e s i g n . Northwest  The  Coast t r a d i t i o n of s p l i t t i n g up and a b s t r a c t i n g a f i g u r e ,  the f i g u r e o c c u p i e s the t o t a l space, I s attempted by some a r t i s t s i n s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s and c a r v i n g s " B u t t e r f l i e s " , figure 3).  so t h a t  contemporary  (e.g. Robert Davidson's  print,  The c r e a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l d e s i g n s of t h i s type  (see H a l p i n 1979:7-9) r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n n o r t h e r n Northwest  Coast two-dimensional d e s i g n than do the  more standard s i n g l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  forms.  Macnair et a l . (1980:85-6) have s t a t e d t h a t "Contemporary are l e s s r e s t r i c t e d  Indian a r t i s t s  i n t h e i r use of m a t e r i a l , and t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n of s u b j e c t  and form, than were t h e i r p r e c u r s o r s . "  S e v e r a l l e a d i n g contemporary  have undertaken to experiment w i t h the l i m i t s of Northwest  artists  Coast d e s i g n :  three examples c o u l d i n c l u d e Southern K w a g i u t l a r t i s t Doug Cranmer, Haida a r t i s t Robert D a v i d s o n , and Nuu-chah-nulth  a r t i s t Joe D a v i d .  While  c e r t a i n l y not a l l experiments or i n n o v a t i o n s i n contemporary Northwest Indian design are s u c c e s s f u l , a r t i s t s i n f l u e n c e d the d i r e c t i o n s contemporary  Coast  such as the t h r e e named above have n a t i v e a r t has taken.  T h e i r a r t has  i n f l u e n c e d o t h e r a r t i s t s f o l l o w i n g them, s e t t i n g standards by which many c o l l e c t o r s and a r t i s t s view and judge Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t .  F i g u r e 4.  "Study" by Doug Cranmer, 1980. A c r y l i c on c e d a r .  - 78 -  Experimentation  i n d e s i g n can i n v o l v e sometimes s u b t l y i n n o v a t i v e  uses o f form, space, o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s , or s u b j e c t m a t t e r , as w e l l as attempts t o i n c o r p o r a t e or work i n a t r i b a l own.  Successful experimentation  s t y l e other  depends upon the a r t i s t ' s mastery of N o r t h -  west Coast d e s i g n and upon a r e c e p t i v e market. experimentation  than the a r t i s t s ' s  One example o f contemporary  t h a t has i n f l u e n c e d the work o f other a r t i s t s i s Doug  Cramer's e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  w i t h form i n a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g s .  an attempt i s made t o produce a completely  I n these  designs  a b s t r a c t d e s i g n u s i n g the Northwest  Coast d e s i g n elements ( f i g u r e 4 ) , and some designs  i n c o r p o r a t e such  inno-  v a t i o n s as the o v e r l a p p i n g o f c o l o u r s and the o v e r l a p p i n g o f l i n e s to represent  perspective.  Robert Davidson's experiments a r e attempts a t  extending  the a r t w i t h i n the a b s o l u t e  l i m i t s o f Haida two-dimensional  i n n o v a t i n g upon the use o f space ( f i g u r e 3 ) , and o f t e n d e p a r t i n g symmetry.  Serigraphy  experimentation.and  formline and  Joe David  has p l a y e d  a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the r e d i s c o v e r y  (Nuu-chah-nulth) d e s i g n , and as such has  d e f i n e the contemporary Westcoast s t y l e i n h i s work.  ment o f a p e r s o n a l  from  and s i l v e r j e w e l l e r y a r e Davidson's primary media f o r  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Westcoast  helped  design,  The develop-  s t y l e , a " f l u i d " or " l i q u i d " f l o w i n g v e r s i o n of the  (e.g. "Ka-Ka-win-chealth", f i g u r e 5 ) , the use o f t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s ,  the i n f l u e n c e o f n o r t h e r n  two-dimensional d e s i g n i n h i s p r i n t s have  combined i n an i n n o v a t i v e r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t .  The  s u b j e c t matter o f Northwest Coast a r t ranges from the t r a d i t i o n a l  to the v e r y modern.  Many c a r v i n g s , j e w e l l e r y items, a r g i l l i t e p i e c e s , and  s e r i g r a p h s d e p i c t " t r a d i t i o n a l " s u b j e c t matter, such as animal and m y t h i c a l images, even though an i n n o v a t i v e d e s i g n approach o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be taken.  H a l l e t a l . (19.81:56) note t h a t " M y t h i c a l beings  l i k e the  - 79 -  F i g u r e 5. Silkscreen  "Ka-Ka-win-chealth" by Joe D a v i d , print.  1977.  - 80 -  'Bu-quis', or w i l d man...existed  i n the past o n l y as. masks o r dances, but  now they have been t r a n s l a t e d Into two-dimensional d e s i g n . " Northwest  The t r a d i t i o n a l  Coast b e l i e f s i n the a b i l i t y o f humans and animals to t r a n s f o r m  themselves from one form i n t o another, and i n the c o n t i n u i t y between the n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d s , a r e a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n contemporary s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t d e s i g n s (e.g. "Ka-Ka-win-chealth",  f i g u r e 5, i n which. David  d e p i c t s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s u p e r n a t u r a l white wolf i n t o k i l l e r  whale).  Some a r t i s t s c r e a t e d e s i g n s t o mark p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , dreams, b i r t h s , and m a r r i a g e s  (e.g. Robert Davidson's 1969 m a r r i a g e announcement).  n a t i v e t o the Northwest r e p r e s e n t e d as w e l l .  Coast environment  Subjects  but not t r a d i t i o n a l to the a r t a r e  For example, A r t Thompson's " B a r n a c l e " d e s i g n ( f i g u r e  6) and Roy V i c k e r s ' "Swans" e x e m p l i f y the i l l u s t r a t i v e r a t h e r than t o t e m i c n a t u r e o f many contemporary Thompson's p r i n t  designs.  At the same time the b a r n a c l e i n  i s shown w i t h Its; b e i n g i n s i d e , a t r a d i t i o n a l  Coast means o f p o r t r a y i n g c r e a t u r e s and t h e i r s p i r i t s .  Northwest  Haida a r t i s t Don  Yeomans (1980) has s t a t e d t h a t " D e l i b e r a t e l y I suppose I've g o t t e n Into u n c o n v e n t i o n a l t h i n g s s i m p l y because I'm more i n t e r e s t e d i n communicating the u n i v e r s a l l e v e l t h i n g s t h a t p e o p l e can r e l a t e t o . "  on  One o f h i s 1981  p r i n t s d e p i c t s the "Phoenix", a symbol, of i m m o r t a l i t y o r i g i n a t i n g i n E g y p t i a n mythology.  Another p r i n t ,  "Raven i n the 20th Century"  F o u r ) , i n c o r p o r a t e s an automobile i n the d e s i g n o f a r a v e n .  (see Chapter  V i c k e r s has  i n c o r p o r a t e d images from C h r i s t i a n i t y i n many of h i s s i l k s c r e e n  prints  (e.g. "The C r e a t i o n o f Eve", f i g u r e 7), an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t "has; r e c e i v e d c r i t i c i s m both from C h r i s t i a n s who b e l i e v e a 'heathen' a r t form i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the S a v i o u r and from f e l l o w n a t i v e a r t i s t s who  view  the work as a d e s e c r a t i o n o f Northwest  1981:60).  Coast a r t " (Blackman and H a l l  Figure 6 " B a r n a c l e " by A r t Thompson, 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  F i g u r e 7. "The C r e a t i o n of Eve" by Roy V i c k e r s , 1977. S i l k s c r e e n p r i n t .  - 82 -  Although v i e w e r response to contemporary  Northwest  Coast d e s i g n and  s u b j e c t matter w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapters Four and F i v e , i t should be noted here t h a t contemporary  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s which,  have departed e i t h e r s u b t l y or d r a m a t i c a l l y from t r a d i t i o n a l forms have generated both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e responses from a r t i s t s , e x p e r t s , and the buying p u b l i c .  I t appears, however, t h a t the l e s s obvious d e p a r t u r e s  from t r a d i t i o n a l form and s u b j e c t m a t t e r , or a t l e a s t from v i e w e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of I n d i a n a r t , a l l o w the contemporary r e c o g n i z a b l e as Northwest  a r t s to remain  Coast a r t , a seemingly n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n from  the p o i n t of view o f many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the contemporary  Ill  immediately  - TRADITION, INNOVATION, AND  revival.  AUTHENTICITY  In almost any d i s c u s s i o n of contemporary  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t the  terms " t r a d i t i o n " and " i n n o v a t i o n " a r e a p p l i e d to the work. u s u a l l y r e f e r to the degree to which the a r t s s t i l l  These  terms  adhere to the use, meaning,  m a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , form, and s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . the contemporary  Books, a r t i c l e s , and museum e x h i b i t s tend to p r e s e n t  a r t e i t h e r as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of o l d e r t r a d i t i o n s  (with some  m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from a c c u l t u r a t i o n ) , or the o l d e r t r a d i t i o n s are lumped i n t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y of " t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n a r t " from which, the contemporary  a r t has grown.  " T r a d i t i o n a l " c u l t u r e and " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t were never c l o s e d or systems.  static  A g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of " t r a d i t i o n " as " a n y t h i n g which i s t r a n s -  m i t t e d or handed down from the p a s t to the p r e s e n t " ( S h i l s  19.81:12) i m p l i e s  the p o s s i b i l i t y of m o d i f i c a t i o n and change as p a r t o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n p r o c e s s . As shown In the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , t r a d i t i o n s ; change as the c o n t e x t s to which  - 83  -  they r e f e r change, and as i n f l u e n c e s from both, w i t h i n and without  the  c u l t u r e are i n c o r p o r a t e d .  Coast  In t h i s way,  " t r a d i t i o n " i n Northwest  I n d i a n a r t can be seen as a handing down of knowledge r e l a t i n g to the p r o d u c t i o n of a r t o b j e c t s , and  an i n c o r p o r a t i o n of change i n t o t h i s knowledge.  " I n n o v a t i o n s " a r e not i s o l a t e d compartments separated r a t h e r , they i n n o v a t e upon t r a d i t i o n . a base from which to respond down.  The  from  tradition;  I n n o v a t i o n s use the t r a d i t i o n a l  t o , o t r e i n t e r p r e t , the knowledge b e i n g  a r t i s t s are the agents of i n n o v a t i o n i n a r t p r o d u c t i o n ,  the sources of change may As shown i n Chapter  i n c l u d e the consumers and One,  i n t e g r a l aspect of the contemporary r e v i v a l , and d e f i n i t i o n s of " t r a d i t i o n a l " and  although  other i n f l u e n t i a l  factors.  a r t s t y l e s has been an of the f o r m a t i o n of  " a u t h e n t i c " Northwest Coast  Today's consumer p u b l i c f o r the a r t has  i t s own  Indian a r t .  d e f i n i t i o n s of genuine,  I n d i a n a r t , which, are c o n s t r u c t e d out of n o t i o n s  about what c o n s t i t u t e s "the r e a l t h i n g . " to the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t .  passed  a p r o c e s s of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e i n v e n t i o n , and  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast  a u t h e n t i c Northwest Coast  as  This "real thing" generally refers  Delange F r y (1971/72:96) has; observed  that,  What most o c c i d e n t a l s s t i l l seem to seek i n the " p r i m i t i v e " a r t s i s a s e t of q u a l i t i e s t h a t correspond to t h e i r i d e a of t r a d i t i o n a l "primitive" l i f e . The o b j e c t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d or a u t h e n t i c o n l y i f they have served i n r e l i g i o u s , magic or even p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s , but the v e r y n o t i o n s of these f u n c t i o n s l a c k r o o t s In reality. Any o b j e c t t h a t does not f i t the standard n o t i o n s i s r e j e c t e d as i n a u t h e n t i c .  Where contemporary n a t i v e a r t p r o d u c t i o n s are e v a l u a t e d i n terms of r e - c r e a t i o n of the p a s t , a d e p a r t u r e as a d e g e n e r a t i o n  of the a r t .  of n a t i v e c u l t u r e , as p r e s e n t e d  their  from the t r a d i t i o n a l i s o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d  I t can perhaps be s a i d t h a t the  "otherness"  through, the a r t s , i s m a n i f e s t e d  i nits.  - 84 -  t r a d i t i o n a l form. and  I t i s t h i s "otherness" that i s considered authentic  i m p e r a t i v e to p r e s e r v e . A statement  by General  (1978:32-3) a l s o comments on the n o t i o n o f  " a u t h e n t i c " as " t r a d i t i o n a l " :  The i n c o g n i z a n c e o f the a r t buying p u b l i c has l e d t o the development of p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s of what I n d i a n a r t i s and should be. There i s a tendency t o r e s t r i c t the I n d i a n a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t forms which undermine the c r e d i b i l i t y o f I n d i a n a r t as contemporary a r t and r e i n f o r c e the stigma o f I n d i a n a r t as c u r i o s o r as an e t h n o g r a p h i c e x t e n s i o n o f c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  He'adds, however, t h a t "There i s no denying  t h a t many contemporary  a r t i s t s have chosen t o work I n the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t forms" as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter an important  Indian  (1978:33). , W h i l e ,  One, museums and museum a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have p l a y e d  r o l e i n d e f i n i n g and s e t t i n g the standards  I n d i a n a r t (and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been almost emphasis on the t r a d i t i o n a l ) ,  f o r Northwest  t o t a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e by t h e i r  i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t many contemporary  p l a c e an emphasis on l e a r n i n g and a d h e r i n g  Coast  artists  t o t r a d i t i o n a l form and s u b j e c t  matter. The  s t r u c t u r e o f Northwest Coast  two-dimensional  Indian a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  d e s i g n , i s based on a system o f f o r m a l d e s i g n  Because o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a r t , viewers on the b a s i s o f I t s adherence t o c o n v e n t i o n . accomplished of  Northwest Coast  northern  principles.  o f t e n judge d e s i g n  quality  In f a c t , e x p e r t s and  I n d i a n a r t i s t s c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s the importance  achieving a f u l l understanding  s u c c e s s f u l i n n o v a t i o n can o c c u r .  o f the f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s o f the a r t b e f o r e Bill  f o r m l i n e i s the b a s i s o f a l l the a r t .  R e i d , f o r example, f e e l s t h a t "The I t i s the e s s e n t i a l element t h a t  s e t s the a r t from the n o r t h c o a s t a p a r t from any a r t i n the world. don't conform t o I t you're doing something e l s e  I f you  [ I . e . , something other  than  - 85 -  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t ] "  (Legacy D i a l o g u e  1982).  Robert Davidson  (1978:11-12) has expressed h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the Importance  of  traditional  form by s t a t i n g t h a t " I became aware o f the great l e v e l t h a t the Haida a r t i s t s reached i n the 1850's, and I f e l t I c o u l d go on to my  own  d i r e c t i o n s - to i n n o v a t e . "  "I am not content to ' r e c y c l e i d e a s . ' growth and now  f e e l I must go beyond  masters of the p a s t . are my  own"  (Stewart  t h a t once I had a t t a i n e d t h a t  the accepted l i m i t s of the a r t s e t by i d e a s and c r e a t e boundaries t h a t  R e i d has remarked  i m p e l l e d to do something r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t Coast f i e l d a l t o g e t h e r " The emphasis  t h a t "When I f e l t  I went o u t s i d e the Northwest  (Legacy D i a l o g u e 1982).  p l a c e d on the t r a d i t i o n a l as p r o c e s s by D a v i d s o n and  o t h e r a r t i s t s d i f f e r s from the emphasis and consumers,  on t r a d i t i o n found among some e x p e r t s  t h a t seeks to r e s t r i c t n a t i v e a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n to a  p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c phase or s t a t i c  form of t h a t t r a d i t i o n .  e x p e c t a t i o n s of " a u t h e n t i c " and " t r a d i t i o n a l "  Consumer  (which w i l l be  examined i n Chapters Four and F i v e ) a r e g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d  further i n the m a r k e t p l a c e .  G u s t a f s o n (1980:115) n o t e s , r e g a r d i n g the s a l e o f S a l i s h . weavings, " U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e r e has been l i t t l e market 'look I n d i a n . '  term was  f o r any weaving  Stewart  originally titled  t h a t d i d not  (,1979b:69) r e c a l l s t h a t a 1973  print  by  " A b s t r a c t " , but " e v i d e n t l y such a modern a r t  not a c c e p t a b l e f o r a work o f Haida a r t , which, i s renowned f o r  classic traditionalism."  S i n c e t h e r e were few buyers of the p r i n t ,  Davidson renamed i t " K i l l e r Whale F i n " and r a i s e d of 165  that  For example, the t r a d i t i o n a l P l a i n s t y l e of b l a n k e t d i d not  a p p e a l to most customers." Davidson was  that  I r e c o g n i z e the need f o r c o n t i n u e d  I want to expand my 1979b :113).  He has a l s o s a i d  level,  s o l d out.  The r e s t r i c t i o n of contemporary  the p r i c e , and the e d i t i o n a r t forms to s u i t  -  86  c o n s t r u c t e d models of " a u t h e n t i c " and  -  "traditional" arts in this  way  appears to r e a f f i r m s i m i l a r l y c o n s t r u c t e d models of "Indianness"  and  a u t h e n t i c I n d i a n c u l t u r e , even though these models may The "art" One. and  accurate.  g e n e r a l l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t as  i n the Western " f i n e a r t " sense of the word has been noted i n Chapter As General  patronage  (1978:32) s t a t e s , " D e s p i t e  ...  £the] s u p p o r t i v e  [of non-Indian p e o p l e ] , t h e r e s t i l l  a t t i t u d e towards I n d i a n a r t . art  be f a r from  c r e a t e d by Indians as  as contemporary a r t .  The  e x i s t s an  This i s evident  In the a p a t h e t i c g e s t u r e s  of major  throughout the w o r l d . "  This  s e t s of a r t i s t i c  values:  hand i s an emphasis on c r e a t i n g Northwest Coast a r t w i t h i n  t r a d i t i o n a l conventions  of form and  composition,  Western academic avant garde t r a d i t i o n . f i n e a r t has  and  on the o t h e r  museums, and  is a  Contemporary Northwest Coast  emerged i n the commercial a r t market as a s y n t h e s i s of  v a l u e s - i t i s c r e a t e d as " a r t by d e s t i n a t i o n " (Maquet  centuries old native traditions.  Indian  these  1979:9) f o r g a l l e r i e s ,  p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s , at the same time t h a t i t d e r i v e s from  some a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s and criteria  accept  'Indian a r t ' but are v e r y r e l u c t a n t to accept i t  s i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t s the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n of two  expresses  ambivalent  a r t w o r l d i s more than w i l l i n g to  contemporary a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada and  on the one  interest  and  That these v a l u e s a r e viewed  i n d i v i d u a l s as c o n t r a d i c t o r y b r i n g s i n t o f o c u s  by the  by which v i e w e r s d e f i n e contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t .  "Adherence to t r a d i t i o n " as a d e f i n i n g q u a l i t y of a u t h e n t i c I n d i a n a r t i s , as shown i n the above d i s c u s s i o n , an ambiguous c r i t e r i o n , based on d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s constitutes.  Two  since i t i s  of what the " t r a d i t i o n a l " a c t u a l l y  a d d i t i o n a l (and  contentious)  criteria  of  authentic  Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t , which, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, i n c l u d e  the  -  87  -  e t h n i c i t y o r " I n d i a n n e s s " o f the a r t i s t , and the purpose item was  produced  (i.e.,  f o r s a l e to non-Indians  f o r which the  or f o r n a t i v e u s e ) .  P r o b a b l y the most important and seemingly obvious c r i t e r i o n of a u t h e n t i c n a t i v e a r t f o r many buyers, v i e w e r s , and a r t i s t s i s t h a t o b j e c t must be c r e a t e d by an I n d i a n . a r t i s t s , perhaps  twenty,  c r e a t i n g and  But t h e r e a r e a number of s e l l i n g Northwest  the  non-Indian  Coast s t y l e work.^  Of t h e s e , s e v e r a l have e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n s as b e i n g among the b e s t contemporary  Northwest  Coast a r t i s t s - two examples a r e John L i v i n g s t o n of  V i c t o r i a , and Duane Pasco of S e a t t l e . expert on Northwest to  B i l l Holm i s not o n l y the foremost  Coast a r t but i s a l s o a top r a n k i n g a r t i s t .  Sensitive  h i s p o s i t i o n as a non-Indian, however, he does not s e l l h i s work. While the marketing of non-Indian made Northwest  Coast s t y l e a r t w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three, the I s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g the q u e s t i o n of whether the a u t h e n t i c i t y of I n d i a n a r t s h o u l d r e s t on the e t h n i c i t y of the  artist  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  primary  questions:  first,  how  T h i s e t h n i c c r i t e r i o n In t u r n r a i s e s two should the Indianness or a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the  h i m s e l f be d e f i n e d and determined; " r i g h t " kind?  who  Coast a r t and c u l t u r e . Northwest  understand  q u e s t i o n , who  q u a l i f i e s as, a  a s t a t u s I n d i a n , a n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n , someone  i s h a l f I n d i a n over someone who  i n c l u d e a requirement  of  and second, what k i n d of I n d i a n i s the  With r e g a r d to the f i r s t  legitimate Indian a r t i s t :  artist  is; o n e - s i x t e e n t h ?  Other d e f i n i t i o n s  t h a t the a r t i s t have a good knowledge about  Northwest  In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , one Vancouver d e a l e r  Coast a r t s t a t e d t h a t " T h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the a r t i s t s  the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s behind the a r t .  don't  John L i v i n g s t o n knows  more about K w a g i u t l c u l t u r e than most K w a g i u t l c a r v e r s do"  may  (Mintz 19.82).  - 88 -  Duane Pasco (.1982) has s t a t e d t h a t "Some non-Indians a r e more c u l t u r a l l y i n v o l v e d than I n d i a n s a r e . a s s i m i l a t e d white." non-Indian  I f e e l more I n d i a n than non-Indian  Pasco, l i k e L i v i n g s t o n , Steve Brown, and s e v e r a l o t h e r  a r t i s t s , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n dancing  a c t i v i t y when i n v i t e d  - I'm an  t o do so.  and other n a t i v e c u l t u r a l  As mentioned e a r l i e r i n this; c h a p t e r , he  has p l a y e d a major r o l e as a t e a c h e r of Northwest Coast  I n d i a n a r t a t 'Ksan,  and he c o n t i n u e s t o t e a c h c a r v i n g and d e s i g n In S e a t t l e and A l a s k a . D e s p i t e such c o n t r i b u t i o n s , however, t h e e x p e r t i s e and e x p e r i e n c e c u l t u r e f o r non-native artistic  a r t i s t s i s r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y to i n t e r p r e t i n g the  t r a d i t i o n s o f a c u l t u r e t o which, they do not have a n c e s t r a l  c o n n e c t i o n s , and does not extend  t o the contemporary e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g  I n d i a n w i t h i n North American s o c i e t y . hand, may not possess Coast  i n Indian  Some n a t i v e a r t i s t s , on the o t h e r  the same degree o f e x p e r t i s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest  a r t t h a t Pasco or L i v i n g s t o n have, but f e e l t h a t the r i g h t  Northwest Coast  to create  a r t should belong o n l y t o those whose h e r i t a g e the a r t  represents. A f u r t h e r i s s u e i s r a i s e d by the second q u e s t i o n , which, concerns the more s p e c i f i c e t h n i c i d e n t i t y o f the a r t i s t . K w a g i u t l mask by Cree c a r v e r Gene Brabant questioned  by some e x p e r t s , a r t i s t s ,  That  the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f a  or Cherokee c a r v e r L e l o o s k a i s  and c o l l e c t o r s i l l u s t r a t e s a concern  as to whether the I n d i a n person who c r e a t e d the p i e c e was the " r i g h t " k i n d o f Indian. Whether the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f I n d i a n a r t should r e s t on the e t h n i c i t y of the a r t i s t remains an i r r e s o l v a b l e q u e s t i o n . i n t o two camps.  The f i r s t  Arguments tend t o f a l l  argument, used by many a r t i s t s and consumers,  c a l l s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f an i n d u s t r y and a t r a d i t i o n t h a t should  remain  - 89 -  uniquely  Indian.  White "Imposters" are  c u l t u r e away" and i s not  d e r i v i n g economic b e n e f i t from an a r t i s t i c  t h e i r own.  The  should  a number of r e c o g n i z e d  tradition  e t h n i c o r i g i n s of the a r t i s t .  artists.  One  the c r a f t s market  romantic or r a c i s t r e a s o n s " ) , "Indian"  o n l y serves  that  but  to r e s t r i c t  the  i s used by some c o l l e c t o r s , g a l l e r y T h i s view holds: t h a t  people  be buying a r t t h a t a p p e a l s to them a e s t h e t i c a l l y , r e g a r d l e s s  sense to p r o t e c t  the  second argument i s a p p l i e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y to  Northwest Coast f i n e a r t market, and owners, and  seen as " t a k i n g something of  of  Vancouver d e a l e r adds t h a t i t may ("the  buyer has  the r i g h t to buy  t h a t such p r o t e c t i o n of I n d i a n  the make  for  art  as  the r e c o g n i t i o n of Northwest Coast a r t  " f i n e a r t " w i t h i n the wider a r t market  (Mintz  as  1982).  Museums have g e n e r a l l y s h i e d away from the purchase of Northwest Coast a r t made by non-Indians.  Taking i n t o account the  i n f l u e n c e museums have In d e f i n i n g a u t h e n t i c (Ames 1981) , t h e r e  and  seems to be an u n c e r t a i n t y  considerable  c o l l e c t i b l e Indian  as to the i m p l i c a t i o n s of  museum " l e g i t i m a t i o n " of non-Indian Northwest Coast a r t i s t s . t e r i o n of a u t h e n t i c i t y p r e v a l e n t  A recent  F i e l d Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y i n Chicago.  A r c t i c and  Northwest Coast and  I n u i t a r t , organized  native a r t i s t s  and  f i v e non-Indian a r t i s t s  L i v i n g s t o n , Steve Brown, C h e r y l the show-and-sale.  The  ethnic  cri-  in by  the  C o i n c i d i n g with, the museum's "Maritime Peoples of  a month-long show^and-sale of  work of e i g h t e e n o t h e r s ) , and  example i s p r o v i d e d  permanent e x h i b i t i n A p r i l 1982,  Northwest Coast", was  The  i n the marketplace appears e v i d e n t  museum c o l l e c t i n g p r a c t i c e s as w e l l .  opening of a new  art  by and  contemporary  h e l d i n the museum.  ( i n c l u d i n g B i l l Reid,  the  Tony Hunt, Joe  The David,  ( i n c l u d i n g Duane Pasco, John  Samuel, and  K a t i e P a s c o ) , was  featured  in  brochure accompanying the s a l e s t a t e d t h a t a l l of  - 90  -  the a r t i s t s were s e l e c t e d " i n r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r commitment to i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y and H i s t o r y 1982).  innovative c r e a t i v i t y "  excellence  ( F i e l d Museum of  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, t h a t work by  Davidson, D a v i d , and  other  the permanent e x h i b i t , but the s a l e o n l y , and  was  It i s evident  Natural  Reid,  contemporary n a t i v e a r t i s t s i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the work of the non-Indian a r t i s t s was  included i n  not purchased f o r permanent d i s p l a y . t h a t an important, i f not  the most important, q u a l i t y  of contemporary n a t i v e a r t f o r many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market, i s i t s e t h n i c i t y . f i n e a r t , i s r a r e l y considered (usually t r a d i t i o n a l culture).  apart  Native  a r t , from s o u v e n i r  from i t s c o n n e c t i o n  For the a r t i s t and  p r o d u c t s to  to n a t i v e c u l t u r e  dealer,  the e t h n i c i t y of  the a r t can be i t s most s a l e a b l e q u a l i t y (see Chapters Three to F i v e ) . For the t o u r i s t , a souvenir made by an I n d i a n , "Indian" q u a l i t i e s , provides representing  an unmistakable c o n n e c t i o n  the a r t and viewing  i t i s viewed and  there.  recognizably  to " p l a c e " b.y  the unique h e r i t a g e of B r i t i s h Columbia, and  marker of the t o u r i s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n the way  that incorporates  by s e r v i n g as  Even the f i n e a r t is: s o u v e n i r - l i k e  promoted as " I n d i a n " - the c o n n e c t i o n  the c u l t u r e of the producer remains primary.  between  T h i s way  of  the a r t suggests t h a t a Northwest C o a s t - s t y l e item c r e a t e d by a  Indian a r t i s t  i s considered  a  non-  to l a c k an e s s e n t i a l element of a u t h e n t i c i t y ,  t h a t connects the a r t to the c u l t u r e from which the t r a d i t i o n s stem.  The  purpose f o r Northwest Coast a r t p r o d u c t i o n  i s an a d d i t i o n a l  c r i t e r i o n by which the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the contemporary a r t i s judged. some v i e w e r s , the f a c t  t h a t most of the contemporary a r t i s made f o r s a l e  to people o u t s i d e of n a t i v e c u l t u r e r a t h e r than f o r n a t i v e use makes the  For  - 91  art less authentic. and  c e r e m o n i a l use  -  By i m p l i c a t i o n , the a r t produced f o r n a t i v e i s more a u t h e n t i c ,  the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t was  created  and  s i n c e t h a t i s the context  from which i t d e r i v e d  personal  f o r which  i t s meaning.  T h i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s i d e a s r e f e r r e d to by Delange Fry i n an e a r l i e r t h a t suggest a r e s t r i c t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a u t h e n t i c i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l context  for a r t production.  i l l u s t r a t e s a similar perception:  ".  and Davidson's p r i n t s i s whether or not of the work, s t i l l  quote,  the  A comment by a newspaper a r t . .the q u e s t i o n  critic  t h a t a r i s e s from Reid  the s o u l , or the s p i r i t u a l  c a r r i e s i n t o the mass-produced e d i t i o n s of  essence  silkscreened  p r i n t s t h a t e n t e r an almost e x c l u s i v e l y n o n - n a t i v e market" ( P e r r y 19J79_:D-1)_. This notion does not  seems to be s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d to the n a t i v e a r t ;  question  the e x i s t e n c e  critic  of the " s o u l " of contemporary Western a r t ,  which i s almost t o t a l l y produced f o r the commercial market. acknowledged t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n  the  of Northwest Coast I n d i a n  While i t i s art for sale  has  been an important element i n f l u e n c i n g change i n the a r t , i t appears t h a t production  i s i n i t s e l f often considered  to l e a d to " c u l t u r a l l o s s "  such  and,  t h e r e f o r e , a l o s s of a u t h e n t i c i t y .  In summary, t h i s examination of the t h r e e major c r i t e r i a by which a u t h e n t i c i t y i s defined  i n the market context  e t h n i c i t y of the a r t i s t , and  - adherence to t r a d i t i o n ,  the purpose f o r p r o d u c t i o n  " I n d i a n n e s s " of the a r t i s I t s d e f i n i n g q u a l i t y . presentation  of t h i s I n d i a n n e s s , a c c o r d i n g  - suggests t h a t  I t i s the  the the  successful  to the c r i t e r i a of the viewer,  r a t h e r than the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the work alone,  t h a t forms: the  basis  f o r judgements of the q u a l i t y and. a u t h e n t i c i t y of most contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n  art.  - 92 -  A r t i f a k e s and Archaism:  " T r a d i t i o n a l " A r t s i n a Contemporary  A commonly h e l d p e r c e p t i o n o f contemporary among s p e c i a l i s t s ,  consumers, and c r i t i c s  Northwest  Context Coast I n d i a n a r t  i s t h a t the a r t f u n c t i o n s to  p r e s e r v e a t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be l o s t . the a r t may  be viewed  In t h i s  as a mere copy or reminder of the genuine,  e v a l u a t e d as e t h n o g r a p h i c a r t .  sense  and  T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h a p e r c e p t i o n of the a r t  as a means of t r a n s f o r m i n g the p a s t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n i n t o a l i v i n g  one,  i n which contemporary  e x p r e s s i o n s and  i n n o v a t i o n s b u i l d on t r a d i t i o n s of the  p a s t , and the a r t may  be e v a l u a t e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y as f i n e a r t w i t h i n i t s new  c u l t u r a l context. In "Bill  Reid:  the c a t a l o g u e accompanying the 1974 "Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y show A R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n " , Duff expressed the dilemma f e l t  R e i d and some o t h e r a r t i s t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r r e - c r e a t i o n o f o l d Coast forms i n a contemporary  context.  Duff  Northwest  (1974) s a i d , r e g a r d i n g R e i d ' s  work,  It i s f i n e a r t . I t bears a fresh, i m p r i n t of l i f e . And yet...And yet...Why i s i t t h a t B i l l won't stop t a l k i n g about " a r t i f a k e r y " ? What i s the u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s ? Where i s the h a u n t i n g doubt i n t h i s b i r t h of a new a r t from an o l d s t y l e , t h i s b i r t h of new melodies from o l d rhythms? ... nobody can express more e l o q u e n t l y than B i l l , when he t u r n s to the medium o f words, the tragedy i n the t r u t h t h a t the l i f e has gone out of the Haida s h e l l , and he has not been a b l e to put i t a l l back i n .  To quote Reid (19.81:11) h i m s e l f ,  by  /  Is i t as W i l s o n Duff used to say, an a r t form i n s e a r c h of a r e a s o n f o r i t s own e x i s t e n c e ? A medium without a message? Is i t a l l form and freedom and v e r y l i t t l e substance? ... I f e e l t h a t too much, the a r t i s t s a r e f e e d i n g on themselves, l o s i n g touch w i t h o l d forms. And on a deeper l e v e l , l o s i n g touch w i t h the animals and monsters who i n s p i r e d these o l d forms.  - 93 -  C r i t i c i s m of contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t as a n o s t a l g i c a r t , and  as an a r t t h a t has  lost  i t s o r i g i n a l " s o u l " and  purpose, appears  f r e q u e n t l y i n media reviews of e x h i b i t i o n s (e.g. P e r r y 1980:D-1) and other  d i s c u s s i o n s of c u r r e n t a r t p r o d u c t i o n  (1974:6A), "In Canada, the I n d i a n a r t i s t has to view h i m s e l f  (as above).  have a l t e r e d , l i f e s t y l e s t h a t are o u t d a t e d . "  To quote Mertens  been viewed - and  - as a c u l t u r a l enhalmer, p r e s e r v i n g  in  so has  come  i n h i s work v a l u e s  Observers d e c l a r e t h a t  that  the  t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e s p i r i t u a l i t y to which, many of the images o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d i s no  longer  r e l e v a n t to contemporary a r t i s t s , and  o n l y as " a n t h r o - d e c o r a t i o n " and  1979:D-1).  t h a t contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n  a r t , by p e r p e t u a t i n g  of the c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n and  i n North American s o c i e t y . "The  At the same time, c r i t i c s an  concern i t s e l f with, contemporary i s s u e s and  serve as an e x p r e s s i o n  functions  f o r "an anxious audience of s p e c u l a t i n g c o l l e c t o r s  a n t h r o - f e t i s h i s t s " (Perry  t r a d i t i o n , does not  so the a r t now  For  Legacy" e x h i b i t at the UBC  comment  archaic does not  problems of n a t i v e p e o p l e  i n s t a n c e , Laurence (1982:9), i n a r e v i e w of Museum of Anthropology, w r i t e s  that,  A l t h o u g h an urgent n a t i v e need to e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l b o u n d a r i e s and promote c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i s w e l l met i n the r e v i v a l of a r c h a i c a r t t r a d i t i o n s , t h a t archaism i s somewhat u n s e t t l i n g . The a r t of "The Legacy" i s n o s t a l g i c a r t , r e n d e r i n g v i s i b l e the m a r v e l l o u s e x p e r i e n c e of myth-age a n c e s t o r s . I t s p r i n c i p a l i n n o v a t i o n s are s t y l i s t i c , not thematic. While s t r e a m l i n i n g and a b s t r a c t i n g w i t h i n formal t r a d i t i o n s , t h i s a r t makes no acknowledgement of the p l a s t i c , urban, a t h e i s t i n t r u s i o n s of our age. One t h i r d of the contemporary a r t i s t s i n the e x h i b i t i o n l i v e In Vancouver or V i c t o r i a , yet t h e i r a r t c o n t i n u e s to be s e r e n e l y o t h e r w o r l d l y , d e v e l o p i n g images of hawk and wolf and sea o t t e r , c r e a t u r e s many of them may never have seen.  I n d i v i d u a l n a t i v e a r t i s t s , e x p l a i n i n g what they want to express and  achieve  through t h e i r a r t , show the d i f f e r e n t means by which they  " p u t t i n g the l i f e back i n " the contemporary a r t .  are  For Nuu-chah-nulth. a r t i s t  - 94  Joe David and  s e v e r a l other a r t i s t s ,  s p i r i t u a l dimension  -  to a c h i e v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of Northwest Coast  a r t Is a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;  (1978) s t a t e s t h a t " I t i s each a r t i s t ' s t a s k to i n t e r p r e t and n a t u r a l laws,  to t r a i n h i m s e l f and  interpretations."  Northwest Coast  he can "speak of s a c r e d b e l i e f s " and s p i r i t u a l i t y of I n d i a n c u l t u r e " "A l o t of  my  the work and through, my  a r t doesn't  head.  expression"  1979:11)_.  David  £the] s u p e r n a t u r a l  i s a language w i t h which  communicate h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g Robert  of  "the  Davidson comments t h a t  The  them with, a legend.  I am b e g i n n i n g  (Appelbe  a r t f o r David  (1978),  the  s t r i v e f o r p e r f e c t i o n i n these  r e p r e s e n t the p a s t .  then I connect  of  c r e a t u r e s emerge from  The  f i g u r e s come up  to see Northwest Coast  a r t as a p e r s o n a l  In t h i s r e g a r d , B i l l Reid s t a t e s t h a t "the  f u t u r e of contemporary n a t i v e a r t l i e s i n the ever i n c r e a s i n g improvement expansion  of technique which would a s s u r e a l i v i n g , r a t h e r than an a r c h a i c ,  v o c a b u l a r y of e x p r e s s i o n " (Vastokas  1975:19).  On a g e n e r a l l e v e l , the contemporary p r o d u c t i o n of Northwest I n d i a n a r t may Halpin  be c o n s i d e r e d to be " r e l e v a n t " to the p r e s e n t  Coast  i n s e v e r a l ways.  (1982:28) s t a t e s t h a t "the p a s t i s r e l e v a n t to the extent t h a t i t  s e r v e s and e n r i c h e s the p r e s e n t . "  In t h i s sense, an emphasis on n a t i v e  t r a d i t i o n s unique to Northwest Coast  I n d i a n s i s important  a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y f o r n a t i v e people, c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l and  social activity.  I n d i a n i d e n t i t y to non-Indian  The  of both, economic and  i n establishing  t h a t i s i n t e g r a l to much,  f a v o u r a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  an  s o c i e t y i n a form t h a t the l a t t e r admires -  the medium of a r t - means t h a t the contemporary a r t s may  Reid  and  serve as a means  c u l t u r a l communication between the two  (19.76:37), f o r i n s t a n c e , has  societies.  s t a t e d t h a t contemporary Northwest  a r t p r o d u c t i o n " p r o v i d e r s ] a means of d i a l o g u e between the two  Coast  communities,  - 95 -  the I n d i a n and the white.  That  t h e Indians can say q u i t e c l e a r l y and  d e f i n i t e l y t h a t we a r e not e x t i n c t and we have something to say and we have our own p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f e x c e l l e n c e which, compares i n every way w i t h yours and we can t r a d e t h i s back and f o r t h . " respond  by n o t i c i n g , admiring,  r e v i v a l o f Northwest Coast Hamilton,  and p u r c h a s i n g  The non-Indian can  the a r t s .  The contemporary  I n d i a n a r t r e f l e c t s , a c c o r d i n g t o a r t i s t Ron  "a s t r o n g d e s i r e i n the I n d i a n people  t o announce to the world  t h a t we're going t o t r y and get some more I n d i a n t h i n g s happening and n o t so much g e t t i n g i n t o t h i s white w o r l d "  (Cocking  1971:18).  Thus, w h i l e most o f the p r o d u c t i o n of Northwest Coast i s t a k i n g p l a c e f o r the non-Indian  Indian a r t  market, and i s stemming from r e v i v e d  and r e c o n s t r u c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l forms and s u b j e c t matter,  i t i s f o r many  a r t i s t s a means o f i n d i v i d u a l and c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i s s e r v i n g to p r o v i d e a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f Indianness  w i t h i n the contemporary  context.  - 96 -  Notes Maquet (1979:9) d i s t i n g u i s h e s two c a t e g o r i e s of a r t o b j e c t s i n contemporary s o c i e t i e s : (1) " a r t by d e s t i n a t i o n " i n c l u d e s a r t o b j e c t s produced as " a r t " ; (2) " a r t by metamorphosis" i n c l u d e s o b j e c t s o r i g i n a l l y produced, f o r example, f o r a r i t u a l purpose, but which a r e l a t e r r e c l a s s i f i e d as " a r t " .  2 " A r t market" as used here i n c l u d e s the market f o r c r a f t s and as w e l l as f i n e a r t .  souvenirs,  3 By " a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a " I r e f e r t o the c r i t e r i a by which v i e w e r s make judgements as t o the q u a l i t y or a p p e a l o f an a r t o b j e c t .  4 S a l e s of p r i n t s began t o d e c l i n e around 1980. Based on p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h d e a l e r s i n 1981-1983 (see l i s t f o l l o w i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y ) , I would a t t r i b u t e t h i s d e c l i n e p r i m a r i l y t o the combined e f f e c t s of a f l o o d i n g of the Northwest Coast s e r i g r a p h market and a g e n e r a l economic recession. The l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o a downturn i n the markets f o r other contemporary Northwest C o a s t a r t forms as w e l l as non-Indian a r t (see Chapter T h r e e ) .  5 Some of the b e t t e r known non-Indian a r t i s t s who s e l l t h e i r work i n c l u d e J i m Bender, Steve Brown, Harry C a l k i n s , Jean F e r r i e r , Dave F r a n k l i n , Jay Haavik, B a r r y Herem, John L i v i n g s t o n , Duane Pasco, Tom Speer, and Robin W r i g h t . John L i v i n g s t o n p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h Tony Hunt and C a l v i n Hunt i n the c o n t r u c t i o n of a r e p l i c a of a K w a g i u t l house and i n the p a i n t i n g o f a dance screen f o r the e x h i b i t .  - 97 -  CHAPTER THREE - The Marketing o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t  Marketing p r a c t i c e s and s t r a t e g i e s , employed  by a r t i s t s and d e a l e r s ,  but i n f l u e n c e d by consumers, museums, and other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the a r t market, mediate the p r o d u c t i o n and consumption o f contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t .  commercial  The p r o c e s s e s by which the a r t i s marketed,  both on a producer l e v e l and a r e t a i l l e v e l , comprise an i n f l u e n t i a l  force  a f f e c t i n g the a r t i t s e l f , s i n c e p r o d u c e r s t o v a r y i n g degrees must take market demands i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when c r e a t i n g t h e i r work, and market r e f l e c t consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a r t .  strategies  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n t i n u e the  examination o f Northwest Coast a r t i n i t s contemporary market  context,  f o c u s i n g on the market network and the marketing and promotion o f t h e a r t . Such an a n a l y s i s can make c l e a r e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between non-Indian consumers  and the n a t i v e a r t they c o l l e c t .  I - THE MARKET NETWORK M e d i a t i n g between the p r o d u c t i o n and consumption o f contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s the a r t market, a network o f r e l a t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v i n g n o t o n l y the a r t i s t s and i n d i v i d u a l consumers  themselves,  but a l s o d e a l e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s , museums and academics, a r t c r i t i c s , and writers. directly  The d e a l e r s , d i s t r i b u t o r s , and many a r t i s t s / p r o d u c e r s a r e involved  i n t h e marketing o f the a r t t o the consumers.  p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, a r e g e n e r a l l y i n d i r e c t l y  The other  involved, creating  s t a n d a r d s o f q u a l i t y and a c c e p t a b i l i t y t h a t i n f l u e n c e " v a l u e " , promoting the a r t through e x h i b i t i o n s , books, and other w r i t i n g s , and i n f l u e n c i n g the ways i n which t h e a r t i s viewed and judged. Whether t h e i r  involvement w i t h marketing i s d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t ,  - 98  -  the p a r t i c i p a n t s are n e c e s s a r i l y dependent upon one network.  another w i t h i n  the  A r t i s t s r e l y on d e a l e r s f o r promotion, f o r c a r r y i n g out  the  " d i r t y work" of attempting and  t o s e l l the work and  of d e a l i n g w i t h  customers,  f o r g i v i n g the a r t i s t feedback on consumer demands and market  (not a l l p r o d u c e r s use  d e a l e r s , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  on the consumers f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n and  income d e r i v e d  a c c e p t a n c e , and,  Artists  rely  from s a l e s of t h e i r work, f o r  i n the cases of some a r t i s t s , f o r  development of a " f o l l o w i n g " o f admiring museums f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n and  below).  trends  collectors.  the  Artists rely  on  a u t h e n t i c a t i o n t h a t accompany museum purchases  and  e x h i b i t i o n s of t h e i r work, f o r the exposure generated by e x h i b i t openings  and  other museum e v e n t s ,  and  f o r access  to t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i f a c t s held i n  museum c o l l e c t i o n s .  S i m i l a r l y , the w r i t i n g s of academics, other  and  both as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n  c r i t i c s can  serve  promotion of an a r t i s t and  authors,  f o r a r t i s t s , and  v e r i f i c a t i o n of h i s importance.  as  Many a r t i s t s i n  a d d i t i o n r e l y on f e l l o w a r t i s t s f o r feedback on t h e i r work, f o r s u p p o r t , for  ideas.  The  d e a l e r , of c o u r s e ,  on the a r t i s t  f o r the supply  income.  dealer  given  The  depends on the consumer f o r s a l e s , and  of goods whose s a l e p r o v i d e s  i s a l s o dependent t o a l a r g e e x t e n t  him w i t h  an  on the promotion  t o a r t i s t s by museums and w r i t e r s , s i n c e such promotion g i v e s  s a n c t i o n t o the d e a l e r who  represents  the a r t i s t , and  d e a l e r does, however, p l a y an  can  thus h e l p  official boost  s a l e s of the a r t .  The  r o l e h i m s e l f , as he  i s the f i r s t t o e x h i b i t an a r t i s t ' s work, b r i n g i t t o  the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n , and  promote i t .  as h i s p r i m a r y means of g a i n i n g access information  and  The  important tastemaker  consumer r e l i e s on the  dealer  t o the contemporary a r t , f o r  about the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t and  a r t i s t , and  often for  information  - 99 -  on Northwest  Coast a r t g e n e r a l l y .  The consumer may a l s o look t o the d e a l e r  f o r buying a d v i c e , and f o r a d v i c e on such matters as investment. consumers r e l y on the museum  (a non-commercial  Some  i n s t i t u t i o n ) and i t s e x p e r t s  f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n o f an a r t i s t ' s c o l l e c t i b i l i t y , f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n a t i v e a r t and c u l t u r e , f o r the language and terms w i t h which t o speak o f the a r t , and f o r g u i d e l i n e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f contemporary  work.  E v e n t s arranged by museums, such as openings, g i v e consumers a chance t o meet a r t i s t s and other c o l l e c t o r s . Museums themselves a r e n o t dependent  on elements o f the I n d i a n a r t  market f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as i n s t i t u t i o n s , but as noted above and i n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , they have become i r r e v o c a b l y i n v o l v e d as i n f l u e n t i a l forces  ( p a t r o n s , a u t h e n t i c a t o r s , and tastemakers)  i n the m a r k e t p l a c e .  Halpin  (1978:53) notes t h a t "Although we [ c u r a t o r s and c o n n o i s s e u r s ] undoubtedly  c o n t r i b u t e t o the i n f l a t i o n o f t h a t market, on the one hand, we have p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s t o s t u d y , e x h i b i t and w r i t e about Northwest  Coast a r t , on the  other." Finally, the p a r t i c i p a n t s  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o note t h a t beyond the interdependency o f i n the contemporary  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t market,  the market as a whole i s a f f e c t e d by, and i t s s u r v i v a l i s dependent on, g e n e r a l s o c i e t a l economic c o n d i t i o n s over which i t has no c o n t r o l . i n economic c o n d i t i o n s can a f f e c t changes i n market t r e n d s , broad v a l u e s c o n c e r n i n g a r t i n s o c i e t y , governmental  Changes cultural  s u p p o r t , and many other  elements o f the wider c o n t e x t f o r the I n d i a n a r t market.  Market  Differentiation A l t h o u g h the a r t i s t s , d e a l e r s , and consumers a r e d i s c u s s e d above i n  - 100 -  terms o f broad  c a t e g o r i e s , the Northwest Coast  Indian a r t market i s a c t u a l l y  made up o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d market segments, each c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r t i c u l a r marketing networks and kinds o f a r t s .  In Chapter Two, two broad  a t i o n s o f contemporary commercial a r t s were p r e s e n t e d : and  souvenir or t o u r i s t a r t s .  classific-  commercial f i n e  arts,  These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were made on the b a s i s  of t h e degree t o which the a r t s i n c o r p o r a t e d o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s or r e t a i n e d t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d a e s t h e t i c and f o r m a l standards creator's society.  For marketing purposes, contemporary Northwest  Indian a r t s are often c l a s s i f i e d  i s provided  S e r v i c e s , which i d e n t i f i e d tags t o each product  An example o f the l a t t e r means o f  by the now d e f u n c t Canadian Indian  Marketing  t h r e e t a r g e t market s e c t o r s and a t t a c h e d  t o designate  Coast  i n terms o f t h r e e types o f p r o d u c t s :  s o u v e n i r s , h a n d i c r a f t s , and f i n e a r t . classification  o f the  i t s category:  i n t e r m e d i a t e q u a l i t y c r a f t s , and one-of-a-kind  coloured  mass volume s o u v e n i r s , a r t forms such as wood  c a r v i n g s and s i l v e r j e w e l l e r y . The N a t i v e Brotherhood o f B r i t i s h Columbia's 1980 study o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian a r t s and c r a f t s  i n d u s t r y p r e s e n t s data  collected  by Reserve Management L t d . , through a 1978 q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w survey  of 162 r e t a i l s t o r e s known t o handle n a t i v e produced goods.  data shows t h a t ;  In g e n e r a l s o u v e n i r and h a n d i c r a f t items such as lower p r i c e d wood p r o d u c t s , leatherwork and p r i n t s comprise the m a j o r i t y o f r e t a i l i n v e n t o r y and a r e demanded p r i m a r i l y by t o u r i s t s and by domestic r e s i d e n t s f o r home u s e . In c o n t r a s t , h i g h e r p r i c e d items, i n c l u d i n g wood, l i m i t e d e d i t i o n p r i n t s , a r g e l l i t e and s i l v e r and g o l d c a r v i n g s a r e sought by more s e r i o u s c o l l e c t o r s , c o m p r i s i n g the consumer a r t and investment p o r t i o n s o f the market. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r t demand i s met p r i m a r i l y by w e l l known a r t i s t s s e l l i n g e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or through agents t o a r t g a l l e r i e s , museums, and c o r p o r a t e buyers l o c a t e d i n the p r o v i n c e and throughout Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n O n t a r i o (Native Brotherhood o f B.C. 1980:3-21).  The  - 101 -  The survey conducted by Reserve Management L t d . (1978) a l s o shows t h a t "The majority  (45%) o f r e t a i l s a l e s i n B.C. occur i n a r t and hand c r a f t s  i n urban c e n t r e s .  stores  A r t g a l l e r i e s , s o u v e n i r and g i f t shops, and museums a l s o  account f o r s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e s of s a l e s "  (14%, 15%, and 8% r e s p e c t i v e l y ;  r e s e r v e l o c a t i o n s account f o r 7% o f s a l e s , and department s t o r e s f o r 3 % ) . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t market s e c t o r s i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c h i e v e d not o n l y by n o t i n g the o b j e c t types found i n each s e c t o r , but a l s o by examining where and how the o b j e c t s a r e marketed, and the k i n d s o f audiences which they a r e d i r e c t e d .  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the marketing o f Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n s e c t i o n I I below.  Market d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l s o o c c u r s on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . mentioned  As was  i n Chapter One, the Reserve Management L t d . R e t a i l Survey  (1978)  found t h a t f u l l y 82% o f t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia r e t a i l s a l e s o f n a t i v e  arts  and c r a f t s took p l a c e i n t h e urban c e n t r e s o f Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . I n c l u d i n g f i g u r e s f o r H a z e l t o n and Nanaimo accounts f o r 90.5% o f t o t a l sales.  Not i n c l u d e d  i n the R e t a i l Survey, which c o v e r s the Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t market  i n B r i t i s h Columbia o n l y , i s S e a t t l e ,  an a d d i t i o n a l market c e n t r e .  S e a t t l e has a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven  Washington, retail  o u t l e t s f o r Northwest Coast a r t , o f which one i s a s p e c i a l i z e d g a l l e r y (no f i g u r e s of t o t a l sales are a v a i l a b l e ) . art  Contemporary  Northwest Coast I n d i a n  i s a l s o marketed on a more l i m i t e d b a s i s t o i n d i v i d u a l s and on a  w h o l e s a l e or consignment b a s i s t o shops throughout Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by s e v e r a l B r i t i s h Columbia d e a l e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s .  Attempts a r e  being made t o e s t a b l i s h a market f o r Northwest Coast a r t i n Europe and  - 102 -  Japan.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , as the f i g u r e s c i t e d  f o r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a  i n d i c a t e , the f o c u s o f the c u r r e n t market remains r e g i o n a l l y l i m i t e d t o the north P a c i f i c coast area. Although Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and S e a t t l e comprise  the c e n t r e o f  the market f o r contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t , each c i t y can be viewed as a market segment w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the others.'''  i t from  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia's l a r g e s t c i t y , has a s i g n i f i c a n t  b u s i n e s s and c o r p o r a t e s e c t o r , and a t t r a c t s many t o u r i s t s .  The I n d i a n  c u l t u r e s o f t h e c o a s t a r e emphasized as t h e h e r i t a g e o f t h e p r o v i n c e , and t h e i r a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n outdoor  s c u l p t u r e s , museum  e x h i b i t s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and i n many g a l l e r i e s , shops, department and  other o u t l e t s .  These f a c t o r s have helped shape a market supported by  t o u r i s t b u s i n e s s , l o c a l purchases purchases  o f the a r t as g i f t s or f o r p e r s o n a l u s e ,  o f Northwest Coast a r t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i n t s ) as investments, and  institutional  (e.g. museum) and c o r p o r a t e  purchases.  S e a t t l e shares many o f Vancouver's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n , and t o u r i s t Chapter  stores,  i n d u s t r y , but as noted i n  Two, t h e Northwest Coast a r t market t h a t developed  s u p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y by white a r t i s t s s m a l l number o f accomplished  i n terms o f i t s  there i s  (approximately t w e n t y ) , and o n l y a  native a r t i s t s  (approximately t e n ) .  words o f one S e a t t l e d e a l e r , "There i s n o t enough n a t i v e - p r o d u c e d i n S e a t t l e t o support a g a l l e r y " I n d i a n a r t market i s connected  ( F r a n k l i n 1981b).  In the work here  This aspect of S e a t t l e ' s  t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : Northwest Coast  Indian  c u l t u r e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia, and a r e n o t as strongly associated with S e a t t l e ;  the l o c a l S a l i s h a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n has  not e x p e r i e n c e d a r e v i v a l , and perhaps would n o t be as marketable  as the  - 103 -  K w a g i u t l , Nuu-chah-nulth, and n o r t h e r n s t y l e s o f the N o r t h e s t C o a s t ; the t e a c h i n g of B i l l Holm and white a r t i s t Duane Pasco  and  (both o f whom have  e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n s as b e i n g among the b e s t contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s t s ) s t i m u l a t e d much i n t e r e s t among p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t s  (most of  them non-Indian) i n p r o d u c i n g Northwest Coast a r t even b e f o r e many B r i t i s h Columbia n a t i v e p e o p l e now  p r o d u c i n g a r t f o r the market became i n t e r e s t e d  i n r e v i v i n g Northwest Coast a r t t r a d i t i o n s .  The s o u v e n i r market i n  S e a t t l e i s s u p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y by n a t i v e p r o d u c e r s , but many o f t h e s e a r e P l a t e a u and P l a i n s I n d i a n s who items i n t h e i r own  have s e t t l e d  tribal styles.  i n S e a t t l e and a r e p r o d u c i n g  The market f o r h i g h e r q u a l i t y Northwest  Coast c a r v i n g s , p r i n t s , and j e w e l l e r y i s supplemented by the work of I n d i a n a r t i s t s from B r i t i s h Columbia.  An a d d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e noted  by d e a l e r s i s t h a t the degree o f investment i n contemporary Northwest Coast a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i n t s , t h a t had been reached i n Vancouver by  1980  was never reached i n S e a t t l e , and p r i n t s do not a t t a i n the r e s a l e v a l u e i n S e a t t l e t h a t they do i n Vancouver. significant  F i n a l l y , a f a c t o r t h a t may  have been  i n shaping t h e S e a t t l e market i s t h e l a c k o f museum e x h i b i t s ,  c o l l e c t i n g , and t h e r e f o r e promotion, of contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t s by S e a t t l e - a r e a museums, as compared w i t h the h i s t o r y of e x h i b i t s h e l d i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a  (see Chapter One and Appendix I ) .  V i c t o r i a has a s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n than Vancouver, a s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , and l a c k s a c o r p o r a t e s e c t o r , a l l f a c t o r s which l i m i t the e x t e n t of the l o c a l and investment market.  However, as a t o u r i s m c e n t r e  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the demand f o r s o u v e n i r s has r e s u l t e d  in a thriving  i n d u s t r y f o r items r e p r e s e n t i n g Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e s .  While  n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast a r t s and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l S a l i s h c a r v i n g s dominate  - 104  -  the f i n e a r t and s o u v e n i r s e c t o r s o f the Vancouver market V i c t o r i a ' s shops tend t o s p e c i a l i z e Island:  respectively,  i n a r t s by n a t i v e people o f Vancouver  Cowichan sweaters, K w a g i u t l c a r v i n g s , p r i n t s , and j e w e l l e r y , and  Nuu-cha-nulth  c a r v i n g s and p r i n t s , as w e l l as a l a r g e range o f S a l i s h  n o n - n a t i v e produced  souvenir products.  limited primarily to g i f t p e r s o n a l use.  B u s i n e s s from l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i s  buying and purchase of Cowichan sweaters f o r  B u s i n e s s from t o u r i s t s , who  lower p r i c e ranges  g e n e r a l l y d e s i r e items i n the  (under $250), has l e d t o a preponderance  o r i e n t e d shops and o n l y a few g a l l e r i e s .  The  of t o u r i s t  l a t t e r , however, must a l s o  o r i e n t themselves a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y t o the t o u r i s t market. B r i t i s h Columbia  and  The  local  P r o v i n c i a l Museum, c o n t a i n i n g an important permanent  e x h i b i t i o n on the I n d i a n c u l t u r e s o f . t h e Northwest tourist attraction  in V i c t o r i a .  While  i t may  C o a s t , i s a major  serve to stimulate greater  i n t e r e s t among t o u r i s t s i n n a t i v e c u l t u r e s , i t s presumed e f f e c t o f c r e a t i n g more informed consumers i s not n e c e s s a r i l y evidenced i n the marketplace.  I I - MARKETING AND  PROMOTION  The contemporary marketplace  Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s produced  are moved through the network from producer t o consumer by  d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s , determined  p r i m a r i l y by the i n t e n t i o n s of the  and the t a r g e t market s e c t o r f o r the a r t . marketing  f o r the  artist  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine  a t both producer and r e t a i l l e v e l s , f o c u s i n g on the v a r i a b l e s  t h a t marketing  s t r a t e g i e s take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  - 105  Marketing a t the Producer  -  Level  The N a t i v e Brotherhood o f B.C.'s market study notes t h a t w h i l e the amount o f I n d i a n a r t p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia decade,  has  increased  i n the  last  this  ... has not r e s u l t e d i n a c o n c u r r e n t i n c r e a s e i n management, marketing and p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . A l t h o u g h i n the 1970's t h e r e has been improvement, the market system can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as unorganized and the s u p p l y system e r r a t i c . These problems b a s i c a l l y stem from the d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t I n d i a n p r o d u c e r s p e r c e i v e t h e i r involvement i n the i n d u s t r y and, i n d e e d , what the a r t s and c r a f t s i n d u s t r y i s . Given the extreme h e t e r o g e n i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c e r s and items produced, i t i s no wonder t h a t the i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l s u f f e r i n g from "growing p a i n s " , even a f t e r almost two decades of a c t i v i t y (1980:3-2,3).  The  study goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t " P a r t i c i p a t i o n  persons i s i n c i d e n t a l , and  i n the i n d u s t r y by many  i s viewed as a form of income s u b s i d y .  Only  a s m a l l percentage o f a l l p r a c t i s i n g c r a f t s m e n depend e n t i r e l y on the industry for their for  livelihood"  (1980:3-17).  many p r o d u c e r s , the contemporary  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n shows t h a t  market f o r I n d i a n a r t s has the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y , i n which  i n d i v i d u a l s work i n t h e i r  homes and make use of l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , p r o d u c i n g items whose s a l e p r o v i d e s a supplementary  income.  Most p r o d u c e r s o f Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s , whether they are  c r e a t i n g f o r d i r e c t s a l e t o customers own of  or f o r s a l e t o shops, work on  and use r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d marketing t e c h n i q u e s . a sampling o f Masset Haida a r t i s t s g i v e s an i n s i g h t  their  The comments  into their  preferred  methods o f m a r k e t i n g :  [ i t i s ] better t o deal d i r e c t l y with c o l l e c t o r s . I enjoy meeting them and l o o k i n g a t t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s . Most o f them are v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n the a r t , so i t ' s n i c e t o t a l k t o them There are a few honest d e a l e r s and shops, but not r e a l l y t h a t  ...  - 106  -  many; i t takes a l o t out o f the a r t i s t when you work t h a t hard and they mark i t up 100% or more (Henry White 1980).  I want t o meet the p e o p l e t h a t are going t o buy my s t u f f . I would use an agent t o handle the commercial s t u f f (e.g. p r i n t s ) , but I would r a t h e r s e l l i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s myself i f I c a n . If I need an agent t o handle a l l the b u l l s h i t t h a t ' s a l l I ' l l g e t an agent f o r , because I don't want t o g e t i n t o the b u l l s h i t (Jim Hart 1980).  I u s u a l l y s e l l my own. You always have t o have some c o n n e c t i o n too. L i k e I s o l d a l o t t o Bud M i n t z . He h e l p s me i n s e l l i n g because he knows a l l the p e o p l e , the a r t i s t s , the b u y e r s , the collectors. aAt f i r s t I d i d n ' t know anybody, but now t h a t I know the c o l l e c t o r s myself through him, I can do w i t h o u t him sometimes. I [ r a t h e r s e l l d i r e c t l y t o my c l i e n t ] , because the middle man, he makes the money too i f you do i t t h a t way. I t ' s n i c e t o meet the people t h a t buy your work, makes i t b e t t e r ( E a r l Jones 1980).  I g e t p e o p l e d r o p p i n g i n from a l l over i s l a n d . I sell directly to c l i e n t s , o n l y r a r e l y t o shops and o n l y a few t o o f f - i s l a n d people ... I would use someone e l s e t o do marketing f o r me i f I had a mass p r o d u c t i o n , l i k e p r i n t s or c a s t i n g s , then I would do i t but s i n g l e p i e c e s , I don't t h i n k so (Sharon H i t c h c o c k 1980).  Other a r t i s t s take a d i f f e r e n t approach  t o the marketing  of t h e i r  work, p r e f e r r i n g t o a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h agents or d e a l e r s .  Some o f  t h e i r views c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the views sampled above:  When I f i r s t s t a r t e d c a r v i n g I wasn't s a t i s f i e d w i t h d e a l i n g w i t h s t o r e s , and I haven't d e a l t w i t h s t o r e s f o r a long time. I t ' s the bottom of the l a d d e r , s e l l i n g around t o shops ... Most o f my work i s g o i n g through an agent r i g h t now. I don't have t o c o n t a c t p e o p l e . I t .takes- away a l o t o f t h a t running around connected w i t h s e l l i n g . I s t i l l do p r i v a t e o r d e r s ; on t h e o t h e r hand, I e n j o y the a c t u a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e . So I don't know what I'm r e a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h . Both o f them have advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s (Gerry Marks 1980).  I don't l i k e t o work w i t h d e a l e r s , they don't know enough about Northwest Coast a r t . I worked w i t h a Vancouver d e a l e r f o r two y e a r s - the f i r s t year was okay, but the second year they d i c t a t e d what they wanted t o see. Now I market through 'Ksan,  - 107  and they d i s t r i b u t e the work  -  (Ken Mowatt 1980).  D e a l i n g w i t h people [customers] i s a p a i n . They always want you t o copy some museum p i e c e or other photo e x a c t l y , but won't g i v e you enough i n f o r m a t i o n . Then you g e t the p i e c e f i n i s h e d , and t h e y ' r e broke or moved or on h o l i d a y . You need a s t o r e or agent t o do t h a t f o r you. A l o t o f the guys I know spend 75% o f t h e i r time going from s t o r e t o s t o r e t r y i n g t o s e l l one b r a c e l e t (Fah Ambers 1980).  The major b a t t l e i n my e x p e r i e n c e has been m a r k e t i n g . For y e a r s I went s t o r e t o s t o r e and d i d p r i v a t e s a l e s . I t was v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g d e a l i n g w i t h the p e o p l e . Sometimes i t was v e r y good and v e r y e n r i c h i n g but the m a j o r i t y o f the times i t was people who wanted t o haggle ... G e n e r a l l y I don't l i k e s e l l i n g myself. I don't l i k e the one-to-one b a s i s t h a t you have t o g e t down t o , simply because some days I can do i t and some days I can't. I t ' s bad enough having your a r t on the l i n e , but your p e r s o n a l i t y , your appearance t o be e v a l u a t e d by the person who's buying your I n d i a n n e s s , i t j u s t doesn't i n t e r e s t me (Don Yeomans 1980) .  C o n s i d e r i n g both s e t s o f v i e w p o i n t s p r e s e n t e d above, a reader might t h a t a r t i s t s seem t o be a b l e t o develop marketing themselves evidenced  and t h e i r customers.  conclude  systems t h a t work b e s t f o r  S i m i l a r l y c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w p o i n t s are  i n consumer p r e f e r e n c e s :  some consumers p r e f e r d i r e c t c o n t a c t  w i t h the a r t i s t whose work they are b u y i n g , sometimes b e l i e v i n g t h a t w i l l guarantee  this  a lower p r i c e or a more " a u t h e n t i c " a r t o b j e c t , w h i l e o t h e r s  p r e f e r t o purchase  the a r t through a s o l i d l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r m e d i a r y ,  t h a t can g i v e a d v i c e on q u a l i t y and  investment v a l u e .  However, p a s t  developments have shown t h a t the o v e r a l l success o f the contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t upon the methods by which the a r t s are marketed, both on the producer level.  For i n s t a n c e , the growth of the market and  l e v e l and the  retail  i t s f u t u r e expansion  p o t e n t i a l has been l i m i t e d by such f a c t o r s as u n c e r t a i n s u p p l y and uneven  - 108 -  q u a l i t y o f work, and an uneven r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i c i n g and q u a l i t y (Native Brotherhood o f B.C. 1980). i n these problems  On the producer l e v e l , f a c t o r s  involved  include:  (1) The ready s a l e a b i l i t y o f many p r o d u c t s by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e i n g "Indian".  Because they can e a s i l y s e l l t h e i r work, some p r o d u c e r s  f e e l no need t o improve  on i t .  While some c r i t i c s may f e e l  t h i s lowers the image o f contemporary  that  I n d i a n a r t , such a r t p r o d u c t i o n  i s e c o n o m i c a l l y important t o many people i n need. (2) A l a c k o f communication o f i n f o r m a t i o n on s e l l i n g to producers l i v i n g  i n remote a r e a s .  opportunities  " T h i s r e s u l t s i n the i n d i v i d u a l  producer o f t e n s e l l i n g t o l o c a l o u t l e t s or t o agents a t lower p r i c e s than he/she would be a b l e t o r e a l i z e g i v e n a more e s t a b l i s h e d l i n k with r e t a i l e r s .  As w e l l , c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  often  i n h i b i t l o c a l a r t i s t s from attempting t o s e l l t o r e t a i l e r s  located  i n more d i s t a n t r e g i o n s " (Native .Brotherhood o f B.C. 1980:3-17). (3) Uneven a c c e s s t o raw m a t e r i a l s f o r a r t / c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia  The  I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s A s s o c i a t i o n attempts t o  d e a l w i t h t h i s problem by s u p p l y i n g p r o d u c e r s w i t h lower  cost  materials. (4) P r o d u c e r s , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s such as the S a l i s h Weavers G u i l d and the Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s G u i l d , have not  o r g a n i z e d r e g i o n a l l y t o promote Northwest  Coast I n d i a n a r t s and t o  expand t h e i r market. The Northwest  Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s G u i l d , formed  i n 1977 by e l e v e n  n a t i v e a r t i s t s , made attempts t o upgrade t h e q u a l i t y o f Northwest p r i n t s and thereby a c h i e v e wider  Coast Indian  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the a r t as " f i n e a r t " (see  - 109  V i c k e r s 1977  and  David 1978).  response t o a market where the  The  -  f o r m a t i o n o f the G u i l d was  same d e s i g n was  sold  primarily  i n a t o u r i s t shop  a  as  w e l l as a s p e c i a l i z e d g a l l e r y , the p r i c e o f a p r i n t c o u l d v a r y from d e a l e r t o d e a l e r , p r i c e and  q u a l i t y were o f t e n  h i g h p r i c e c o u l d mean h i g h q u a l i t y , and  not  related  i n such a way  that  e d i t i o n s i z e s were l a r g e .  a  A  v a r i e t y of methods by which a r t i s t s went about s e l l i n g t h e i r p r i n t s added t o the  state  of the market:  s e l l t h e i r work and s p e c i f i c dealers, store As  a few  but  some a r t i s t s r e l i e d on p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s  a r t i s t s s o l d t h e i r work through arrangements w i t h  the m a j o r i t y of a r t i s t s c a r r i e d t h e i r e d i t i o n from  t o a n o t h e r , attempting t o s e l l a number of p r i n t s t o d i f f e r e n t  Hall  to  one  outlets.  (1980:4,5) n o t e s ,  T h i s p r a c t i c e d i d not p l e a s e g a l l e r y owners because g a l l e r i e s c o u l d not c l a i m e x c l u s i v e n e s s i n terms of a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t or e d i t i o n , because the owners f e l t t h a t the a r t i s t c o u l d not be t r u s t e d t o r e g u l a r l y d e l i v e r p r i n t s and y e t d i d n ' t want t o buy whole e d i t i o n s of d e s i g n s t h a t might not s e l l w e l l , and because, f o r a number of r e a s o n s , the g a l l e r y owners found i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l p e r s o n a l l y w i t h the a r t i s t s . In t u r n , many a r t i s t s were not happy about having t o spend so much time s e l l i n g t h e i r work, d i d not l i k e d e a l i n g p e r s o n a l l y w i t h g a l l e r y owners because they f e a r e d r e j e c t i o n , and wanted t o r e c e i v e t h e i r t o t a l payment f o r an e d i t i o n i n a lump sum. A few a r t i s t s s o l v e d these problems by a c q u i r i n g agents t o handle t h e i r p r i n t e d i t i o n s , o t h e r s s o l d d e s i g n s t o a p u b l i s h e r who handled w h o l e s a l i n g and r e t a i l i n g , and s t i l l o t h e r s attempted t o c r e a t e m a i l - o r d e r l i s t s o f c o l l e c t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r work.  The  Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s G u i l d marketed two  r e t a i l outlets  i n 1977  and  Indian Marketing S e r v i c e s , q u a l i t y , d e s i g n q u a l i t y was but  the G u i l d  had  1978, and not  s e r i e s of p r i n t s  w i t h w h o l e s a l i n g conducted by a l t h o u g h the  p r i n t s were o f good  as w e l l c o n t r o l l e d .  l i m i t e d success in achieving  over works of a r t , e d u c a t i o n o f the  the  Canadian  technical  Many p r i n t s s o l d  i t s wider aims - q u a l i t y  buying p u b l i c , and  through  well, control  market expansion were  - 110 -  difficult  t o a c h i e v e even w i t h i n  (see H a l l 1979).  an a s s o c i a t i o n o r g a n i z e d f o r those purposes  The G u i l d d i s s o l v e d  i n 1979, prompted, perhaps, by the  d i s s o l u t i o n o f the Canadian I n d i a n Marketing S e r v i c e s The  i n the same y e a r .  marketing p r a c t i c e s which the G u i l d attempted t o improve  l a r g e l y p r e v a i l , but s i n c e  1980, s a l e s o f p r i n t s have d e c l i n e d .  T h i s more  l i m i t e d p r i n t market may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a combination o f f a c t o r s : g e n e r a l economic r e c e s s i o n , which has a f f e c t e d  still  a  the a r t market g e n e r a l l y ; a  f l o o d i n g o f t h e p r i n t market by a r t i s t s and d i s t r i b u t o r s , which l e d both t o a decline of previously speculation  i n p r i n t s by consumers; and p o s s i b l y the development o f a more  discriminating (in  i n f l a t e d v a l u e s o f many p r i n t s , and t o l e s s uninformed  c o l l e c t o r p u b l i c through more exposure t o Northwest Coast a r t  g a l l e r i e s , museum e x h i b i t s , and b o o k s ) .  marketing o f p r i n t s , H a l l  Regarding t h e c o n t i n u i n g  (1980:11,12) p o i n t s  out t h a t ,  There a r e a number o f opposing p h i l o s o p h i e s as t o the b e s t s t r a t e g y for promoting r e c o g n i t i o n o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n g r a p h i c a r t . Some knowledgeable i n d i v i d u a l s ... h o l d t h a t wide-spread d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e c h n i c a l l y e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y d e s i g n s i n u n l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s of inexpensive p r i n t s i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o l i d broadbased market f o r more expensive g r a p h i c s . Other i n d i v i d u a l s , e q u a l l y knowledgeable, b e l i e v e t h a t Northwest C o a s t I n d i a n g r a p h i c s must be r a i s e d t o t h e t e c h n i c a l and a r t i s t i c l e v e l o f other g r a p h i c s q u a l i f y i n g as f i n e a r t s so t h a t Northwest Coast s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s w i l l be handled by f i n e a r t s g a l l e r i e s and c o l l e c t e d by museums and p u b l i c / p r i v a t e a r t g a l l e r i e s .  Dealers generally in  agree t h a t changes i n the p r e v a i l i n g market p r a c t i c e s and  the a r t i t s e l f a r e s t i l l  required  b e f o r e wider a p p r e c i a t i o n  o f Northwest  C o a s t a r t as " f i n e a r t " , and an expansion o f t h e market t o E a s t e r n N o r t h America, Europe, and Japan, can o c c u r .  Some d e a l e r s  promotion o f Northwest Coast a r t o u t s i d e  B r i t i s h Columbia emphasize the  importance t h a t an a r t i s t ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m  interested  i n the  i n marketing t e c h n i q u e s has f o r  - Ill -  many g a l l e r y owners. a r t i s t s who  T h i s view  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o those  wish t o be c o n s i d e r e d as " a r t i s t s "  i n the wider a r t market,  r a t h e r than being c o n s i d e r e d o n l y w i t h i n the sometimes r e s t r i c t i v e framework of " I n d i a n a r t " .  One  requirement o f such a r t i s t s  "high q u a l i t y " a r t t h a t has the a b i l i t y not be knowledgeable  about Northwest  i s for  t o a p p e a l t o c o l l e c t o r s who  Coast t r a d i t i o n s and are buying  art  f o r p r i m a r i l y a e s t h e t i c r a t h e r than s o u v e n i r - l i k e reasons  for  i t s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e r a t h e r than i t s " I n d i a n n e s s " and/or  w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia). of  Of seemingly e q u a l importance  the a r t as " f i n e a r t " .  expansion  may the  (i.e.,  association  i s the  promotion  L o c a l d e a l e r s have a l s o noted t h a t market  i s important t o the f u t u r e o f the contemporary  I n d i a n f i n e a r t market, i f o n l y because  Northwest  Coast  a l a r g e r buying p u b l i c i s needed  i n o r d e r t o s e l l more h i g h p r i c e d a r t p i e c e s , and t h e r e are o n l y a l i m i t e d number of customers In  f o r such works i n B r i t i s h Columbia  (Mintz  1983).  c o n t r a s t t o the h i s t o r y o f the marketing o f Northwest  Coast  I n d i a n a r t , which has i n l a r g e p a r t been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t o u r i s t a r t market and w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c e r s marketing r e t a i l e r s or customers,  t h e i r own  the marketing o f contemporary  work t o  Woodlands I n d i a n p a i n t i n g  and p r i n t s has been more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h commercial The 1959  art galleries.  s t y l e o f "legend p a i n t i n g " t h a t dominates Woodlands a r t was by one a r t i s t , N o r v a l M o r r i s s e a u .  promotion  As  i s o f t e n repeated i n any  of Woodlands I n d i a n a r t , M o r r i s s e a u s t a r t e d t o p a i n t  r e c e i v e d a ' v i s i o n ' t e l l i n g him t o do s o .  founded i n  He  i s the f i r s t  "after  he  I n d i a n t o break  the t r i b a l r u l e s o f s e t t i n g down I n d i a n legends i n p i c t u r e form f o r the white man  t o see and the f i r s t  d e s i g n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e shapes  I n d i a n t o a c t u a l l y draw these legends  to i l l u s t r a t e h i s f o l k l o r e "  and  (Canadian N a t i v e  - 112  P r i n t s , n.d.).  -  B l u n d e l l and P h i l l i p s  (1982:6) have noted  that,  In 1960, however, M o r r i s s e a u was a d d r e s s i n g a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c Ethan an a r t i s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l Ojibway s o c i e t y would have]. The o r a l t r a d i t i o n was by then u n f a m i l i a r t o most n a t i v e s and i t was v i r t u a l l y unknown t o the g e n e r a l white p u b l i c who c o n s t i t u t e d the p o t e n t i a l market f o r the work. M o r r i s s e a u ' s purpose, many times s t a t e d , was d i d a c t i c . He wanted t o r e c o r d knowledge i n danger of being f o r g o t t e n and ( r e - e s t a b l i s h Ojibway p r i d e ] . A more f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and n a r r a t i v e p a i n t i n g s t y l e was o b v i o u s l y adapted t o t h i s purpose.  In 1960 M o r r i s s e a u was "who  " d i s c o v e r e d " by Jack P o l l o c k , a T o r o n t o a r t d e a l e r ,  brought t h i r t y - s i x o f h i s p a i n t i n g s back t o T o r o n t o and s o l d them a l l  w i t h i n a twenty-four hour p e r i o d "  (Warner 1978:60).  e q u a l l y w e l l r e c e i v e d by the buying p u b l i c .  Succeeding shows were  M o r r i s s e a u ' s commercial  has s t i m u l a t e d an e n t i r e s c h o o l of Woodlands I n d i a n p a i n t i n g , a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y a r t i s t s who  have developed t h e i r own  involving  s t y l e s based  M o r r i s s e a u ' s i n n o v a t i o n s , and whose work i s marketed p r i m a r i l y galleries.  on  through  The development o f the g a l l e r y - o r i e n t e d method o f marketing  Woodlands a r t , as compared t o the more d i v e r s e methods o f marketing Coast I n d i a n a r t , may (1) M o r r i s s e a u was  be a t t r i b u t e d  i n p a r t t o two  Northwest  factors:  r e p r e s e n t e d by a g a l l e r y i n T o r o n t o , a m e t r o p o l i s  which s e r v e s a wider market and whose g a l l e r i e s may exposure  success  receive  "national"  (Toronto has become the market c e n t r e f o r the work o f o t h e r  Woodlands a r t i s t s as w e l l ) ; (2) Woodlands a r t , which i n the form of p a i n t i n g s i s a l r e a d y a medium c o n s i d e r e d " a r t " , i s a c c e s s i b l e t o non-Indians i t s narrative style  because  (as noted above by B l u n d e l l and P h i l l i p s )  i s l a r g e l y d i r e c t e d toward  the non-Indian  The marketing o f contemporary  of that  f i n e a r t s market.  I n u i t a r t through c o o p e r a t i v e s p r o v i d e s  - 113  -  a second c o n t r a s t t o the methods by which Northwest Coast market t h e i r work on the producer  Indian  artists  l e v e l . (the S a l i s h Weavers G u i l d i s a  c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n which a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia). I n u i t c a r v i n g , printmaking,  and  craft  The  i n d u s t r y has had much backing  (and  c o n t r o l ) from the F e d e r a l Government, the Canadian H a n d i c r a f t s G u i l d , and the Hudson's Bay  Company, who  d o l l a r s worth of p r o d u c t s England  (Graburn  important  have bought and  south  1978:132).  shipped  tens of thousands o f  f o r s a l e i n Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and  Graburn  (1978:135) notes  t h a t the most  i n s t i t u t i o n a l change s i n c e the emergence of the a r t s and  i n d u s t r y f o r the I n u i t has Cooperatives  crafts  been the development of c o o p e r a t i v e s .  are a means by which the I n u i t p o p u l a t i o n - "with  immense  government a s s i s t a n c e - has broken the monopoly of the Hudson's Bay trading posts  i n t h e i r communities.  Cooperatives  are found  Company  in nearly*all  I n u i t communities and have emerged as i n s t i t u t i o n s which the I n u i t , f o r the most p a r t , f e e l a r e t h e i r own, own  b e n e f i t ...  Various  p r o j e c t s , implementation Inuit institutions  under t h e i r own  d i r e c t i o n , and  for their  [ f e d e r a l government] loan funds, g r a n t s , programs, and  i n d i r e c t a i d s have ensured  training that  ... s u r v i v e d . "  With r e g a r d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between the marketing of I n u i t Northwest Coast  Indian a r t , i t must be emphasized t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n  f i n e a r t p r i n t s , c a r v i n g s , and o t h e r  items f o r the Northwest Coast  a r t market i n r e c e n t years has not come about due  and of  Indian  t o an e x t e r n a l l y  o r g a n i z e d marketing system a i d e d by the government, but r a t h e r by the and  these  combined e f f o r t s o f a r t i s t s , g a l l e r i e s , and c o l l e c t o r s .  individu  Native c o n t r o l  over  the marketing of Indian a r t s i n the form of c o o p e r a t i v e s or  like  i n s t i t u t i o n s has, however, been d i s c u s s e d , and  attempted, on  cooperativethe  - 114 -  Northwest C o a s t .  'Ksan i s one such p r o j e c t t h a t i s supported by f e d e r a l  funds, a l t h o u g h i t i s not i n c o r p o r a t e d as a c o o p e r a t i v e .  Another p r o j e c t ,  "Longhouse P r o d u c t i o n s " , was a s h o r t - l i v e d development of the Vancouver I n d i a n C e n t r e , which was  t o s e r v e as a t r a i n i n g c e n t r e f o r a p p r e n t i c e  p r i n t m a k e r s and bypass normal r e t a i l o u t l e t s i n the s e l l i n g of the p r i n t s . P r o d u c t i o n manager P h i l l i p Oppenheim emphasized the f a c t t h a t the p r o j e c t would be n a t i v e r u n , s t a t i n g without being o f f e n s i v e ? (Mertens 1982:L6).  i n a newspaper  W e l l , the t h i n g  i n t e r v i e w , "How  can I put i t  i s - t h e r e ' s no white c a t s  here"  The p r i n t s d i d not a t t r a c t enough c o r p o r a t e and p r i v a t e  b u y e r s , and because o f u n r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g o f market s t r a t e g y  (including a  r e f u s a l t o market the p r i n t s through a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d Northwest Coast a r t shops and g a l l e r i e s , a l a c k o f promotion o f the p r i n t s , and an i n c o n v e n i e n t shop l o c a t i o n ) , the o p e r a t i o n was  forced to close within  one  year of o p e n i n g . In 1982 the N a t i v e Brotherhood o f B.C.,  through an on-going  f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , began t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f o r m a t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l coope r a t i v e t o enable member a r t i s t s t o have d i r e c t c o n t r o l over the d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e s of t h e i r a r t s and c r a f t s .  The Brotherhood found, however,  that  "Although [some] n a t i v e a r t i s t s agree they are e x p l o i t e d , most a r e h e s i t a n t t o j o i n the co-op.  Some want more i n f o r m a t i o n on how  o t h e r s say ' p o l i t i c s and a r t don't mix'" R i c k A d k i n s , who  the co-op would be run;  (Pemberton 1982:12).  Haida a r t i s t  has been c a r v i n g f o r t e n y e a r s , s t a t e d h i s concern  r e g a r d i n g the q u a l i t y of a r t i s t s allowed t o j o i n the proposed co-op:  "I would  hate t o see myself t a k i n g a pay c u t f o r some s o r t o f i d e a l , no matter how noble.  It s t i l l  comes down t o money" (Pemberton 1982:12).  Haida a r t i s t , George Y e l t a t z i e  Another  (1980) , remarked t h a t a c o o p e r a t i v e  - 115 -  ... would h e l p t o s t a b i l i z e the market, f i x p r i c e s , d e v e l o p the a r t i s t s ... [ i t would b e ] a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t problems w i t h p r i c e s ... I t w i l l take a w h i l e t o develop and g e t used t o i t , because you're s o used t o t r u c k i n g o f f any time you f e e l l i k e i t and s a y i n g , "I'm g o i n g t o s e l l t h i s f o r whatever I want," because you're f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e a t t h a t time. When you're w i t h i n the co-op you have t o m a i n t a i n a l e v e l w i t h the r e s t o f them.  The  a r t i s t s ' comments i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r some p r o d u c e r s , a c o o p e r a t i v e would  mean improved  marketing  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e t u r n s on t h e i r work, w h i l e  o t h e r s would p e r c e i v e t h e c o o p e r a t i v e as imposing unnecessary or " c o n t r o l s " on t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and marketing  practices.  restrictions The f e a s i b i l i t y  of i n s t i t u t i n g Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t c o o p e r a t i v e s i s a s u b j e c t r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r s t u d y , f o r which an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c u l t u r a l bases o f contemporary a r t p r o d u c t i o n on the Northwest Coast and among the I n u i t may prove The p r e c e d i n g overview o f marketing  useful.  a t the producer  l e v e l has p o i n t e d  out some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t among p r o d u c e r s , i n terms o f t h e i r involvement  i n the market, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d e a l e r s , and t h e i r  p r e f e r r e d marketing methods.  These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e connected  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the d i f f e r e n t market segments a r t ) f o r which a r t s a r e produced.  Marketing  i n p a r t t o the  (e.g. s o u v e n i r and f i n e  a t t h e producer  stage i n the p r o c e s s by which the a r t s move from producer  l e v e l i s one  t o consumer.  In c a s e s o f d i r e c t s a l e s t o the consumer, the f u r t h e r stage o f marketing at the r e t a i l l e v e l  ( i . e . , through a s e p a r a t e middleman) i s removed.  The  v a s t m a j o r i t y o f I n d i a n a r t s a l e s t o consumers i n the market c e n t r e s o f Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and S e a t t l e however, mediated marketing  by r e t a i l e r s .  and promotion  (as w e l l as i n o t h e r l o c a t i o n s ) a r e , The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l examine the  p r o c e s s e s f o r contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n  - 116  a r t s a t the r e t a i l  Marketing  -  level.  a t the R e t a i l L e v e l  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t market i n t o s o u v e n i r , h a n d i c r a f t , and f i n e a r t segments i s c l e a r l y i n the s t r a t e g i e s employed by d e a l e r s i n marketing r e c o g n i z e the q u a l i t i e s  Dealers  i n each c a t e g o r y of a r t s which a p p e a l t o p a r t i c u l a r  c a t e g o r i e s of consumers, and through marketing s a l e a b i l i t y o f the a r t s by emphasizing  (i)  these a r t s .  reflected  these  t e c h n i q u e s i n c r e a s e the  qualities.  Souvenirs The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o d u c t i o n of s o u v e n i r s and consumer  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the p r o d u c e r ' s c u l t u r e has been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter As Graburn  Two.  (1969:467) has shown, " s o u v e n i r a r t s h o l d t h e i r market because o f  t h e i r cheapness and c o n f o r m i t y t o the buyers' t a s t e s . "  Souvenirs representing  Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e s i n c l u d e both n a t i v e made and  non-native  manufactured  jewellery,  items:  model totem p o l e s , wooden p l a q u e s , c a s t  p l a s t i c r e p l i c a s , p o t t e r y , T - s h i r t s i m p r i n t e d w i t h Northwest Coast d e s i g n s , and o t h e r items.  Perhaps because o f t h e i r widespread  t o u r i s t shops, a i r p o r t s , g i f t  distribution in  s t o r e s , department s t o r e s , and o t h e r p u b l i c  a r e a s , and because these k i n d s o f p r o d u c t s dominated the I n d i a n " a r t s  and  c r a f t s " market b e f o r e the 1970's, s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t s tend t o have h i g h visibility  and  thereby may  a f f e c t consumer awareness o f n a t i v e a r t g e n e r a l l y .  Souvenir p r o d u c t s have h i g h v i s i b i l i t y t o u r i s t centre of V i c t o r i a .  i n , f o r example, the  S i x I n d i a n a r t shops s i t u a t e d along a s h o r t  s t r e t c h o f V i c t o r i a ' s Government S t r e e t c a r r y the p r o d u c t s as a d i r e c t response  t o the volume o f American,  Japanese,  and Canadian  t o u r i s t demand  - 117 -  for souvenirs.  The ways i n which the items a r e d i s p l a y e d and promoted i n  these shops i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r some consumers, the most important o f the a r t s a r e low p r i c e  ($2.50 t o $250), s m a l l s i z e  qualities  (i.e., transportable  i n a s u i t c a s e ) , and a s u c c e s s f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (from t h e consumer's p o i n t o f view) o f B r i t i s h Columbian I n d i a n c u l t u r e . concerned  Some consumers a r e a l s o  t h a t the items a r e made by I n d i a n s and/or a r e handmade.  With  regard t o the l a s t q u a l i t y , although the model totem p o l e s and o t h e r manufactured produced  by such companies as Boma, P e a r l i t e , and Shamans a r e mass-  o f p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l s , accompanying s t i c k e r s and l a b e l s  emphasize t h a t the item has been handpainted original.  items  or reproduces a  Cards on which p r i n t d e s i g n s have been reproduced  will  handcarved i n a reduced  s i z e a r e marketed by one o u t l e t as "signed w i t h the a r t i s t ' s name", " l i m i t e d e d i t i o n " , "handmade", and " c o l l e c t i b l e " , although the c a r d s a r e s i g n e d and "hand packaged" by employees o t h e r than the a r t i s t s , and the s i z e o f the "edition": i s not c l e a r . Regarding  t h e ways i n which s o u v e n i r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n shop  displays, i t i s  n o t i c e a b l e t h a t as many o f the p r o d u c t s as p o s s i b l e  are p l a c e d on the s h e l v e s .  Items a r e n o t d i s p l a y e d s i n g l y and thereby  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d - they a r e produced  t o a p p e a l t o a wide and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  a u d i e n c e , and thus a r e marketed a p p r o p r i a t e l y . somewhat s i m p l i f i e d  shopping  f o r i t s customers by grouping  wooden totem p o l e s i n t o s e c t i o n s : up".  One V i c t o r i a shop has handcarved  "under $20", "under $50", and "$80 and  P r i c e s i n c r e a s e along w i t h s i z e , e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f c a r v i n g , and amount  of p a i n t i n g .  The p o l e s a r e c a r v e d i n a s t y l e t h a t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of  K w a g i u t l p o l e s but i s a c t u a l l y a poor q u a l i t y marketplace.  Tribal attribution  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the  i s n o t an important q u a l i t y f o r the  - 118  consumer;  -  as.one shop owner s t a t e d , "The  customers have no p r e f e r e n c e  f o r d i f f e r e n t t r i b a l s t y l e s , because they don't  know the d i f f e r e n c e .  c o u l d t e l l them i t ' s a K w a g i u t l mask or a Haida mask and (Porter 1982).  Other  they'd b e l i e v e  Items simply have t o r e p r e s e n t Northwest Coast  g e n e r a l l y , as opposed t o a s p e c i f i c t r i b a l  I me"  Indians  group.  a s p e c t s o f s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t s t h a t do not appear t o be o f  p r i m a r y concern t o b u y e r s , and are not emphasized through m a r k e t i n g , i n c l u d e the q u a l i t y o f c r a f t s m a n s h i p and d e s i g n , and the p r o d u c e r . purchase  the i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y o f  Such q u a l i t i e s are not important t o t o u r i s t s who  wish  to  an item p r i m a r i l y f o r i t s a s s o c i a t i o n a l v a l u e - i t s a b i l i t y t o mark  the t o u r i s t i c  experience.  ( i i ) A r t s and  Crafts  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the l a r g e s t area o f the contemporary Northwest Coast  Indian a r t market i s concerned w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e q u a l i t y  p r o d u c t s whose market l i e s between the s o u v e n i r and which are u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  labelled  f i n e a r t markets, and  " h a n d i c r a f t s " or " a r t s and  crafts".  P r o d u c t s i n t h i s broad c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e wood c a r v i n g s , s i l k s c r e e n  prints,  j e w e l l e r y , and a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g s , t h a t are g e n e r a l l y of a d e s i g n q u a l i t y , l e v e l o f workmanship, and p r i c e h i g h e r than s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t s but lower those  items c l a s s i f i e d  as f i n e a r t .  than  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s c a t e g o r y  u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s women's a r t s such as Cowichan k n i t t i n g , b a s k e t r y , and weaving, a l t h o u g h some of these may  be o f v e r y h i g h q u a l i t y .  The a r t s and c r a f t s market addresses a wide audience: can i n c l u d e t o u r i s t s as w e l l as l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who  customers  are shopping  f o r items  more p a r t i c u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the area and/or w i t h g r e a t e r concern f o r  - 119  -  the o b j e c t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s . items are a l s o o u t l e t s f o r s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t s .  Many shops s e l l i n g P r i c e s f o r the former  range from $35 p r i n t s t o $700 masks and h i g h e r .  items  or unwary consumer.  i n an  attempt  to the s t a t u s of f i n e a r t f o r the unknowledgeable  Such o v e r p r i c i n g and  overpromotion,  on a l a r g e s c a l e f o r s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s by 1981, a drop i n market c o n f i d e n c e and (Scott 1980).  can  However, o v e r p r i c i n g of  p r o d u c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r v i n g s and p r i n t s , o f t e n o c c u r s to elevate certain  these  as had  has been shown to l e a d t o  t o c r i e s f o r q u a l i t y and p r i c i n g  At the same time basketmakers, whose p r o d u c t s  p e r c e i v e d as h a n d i c r a f t s , f i n d  i t difficult  occurred  control  are g e n e r a l l y  t o command p r i c e s which are  h i g h enough t o cover the c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n . In the marketing and q u a l i t y can be noted or f i n e a r t .  of a r t s and c r a f t s c e r t a i n emphases b e s i d e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e these p r o d u c t s  Compared t o s o u v e n i r s , these p r o d u c t s  price  from s o u v e n i r s  are marketed w i t h a  g r e a t e r emphasis on workmanship, the f a c t t h a t they are handmade, t h a t they may  u t i l i z e a u t h e n t i c n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s and  be a t t r a c t i v e  i n the home, and  t h a t they may  s t o r a g e or a sweater f o r warmth). c a r v i n g s i s sometimes emphasized: i n one medium together  The  t e c h n i q u e s , t h a t they  can  be u s e f u l (e.g., a basket f o r  r e l a t i v e uniqueness of  individual  w h i l e some shops c o n t i n u e t o mass works  (items are u s u a l l y not o n e - o f - a - k i n d  when s o l d can o f t e n be r e p l a c e d w i t h a s i m i l a r  works of a r t , and  i t e m ) , other shops p r e s e n t  i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s more s e l e c t i v e l y by hanging masks on w a l l s or p l a c i n g items behind g l a s s i n a d i s p l a y c a s e .  The  l a t t e r approach a g a i n  an attempt t o e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of the work t o a l e v e l approaching art".  To the same end, d e a l e r s may  matter i t i s p o r t r a y i n g , and may  represents "fine  l a b e l a p i e c e a c c o r d i n g t o the s u b j e c t  p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the name of the  - 120  -  c a r v e r and the c a r v e r ' s t r i b a l group.  Carvers, printmakers,  and  j e w e l l e r s u s u a l l y s i g n t h e i r works, but t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e f o r b a s k e t makers and k n i t t e r s , whose name i s sometimes a t t a c h e d t o the p r i c e t a g , and  sometimes n o t .  Emphases on name and  d e a l e r s i n the marketing  t r i b e are not made by a l l  o f a r t s and c r a f t s , s i n c e some consumers may  be buying w i t h those c r i t e r i a  i n mind, but may  not  be buying w i t h more o f an  eye f o r a e s t h e t i c a p p e a l and g e n e r a l q u a l i t i e s o f I n d i a n n e s s .  One  d e a l e r , however, i s known f o r her technique of s u g g e s t i n g t o customers t h a t they buy the a r t t o support n a t i v e I n d i a n s . F i n a l l y , a r t s and c r a f t s are not u s u a l l y promoted as as the f i n e a r t s o f t e n a r e noted above).  the promotion  (with the e x c e p t i o n o f i n s t a n c e s o f  The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the f i n e s t q u a l i t y  s t y l e d b a s k e t r y may  "investments",  not be produced  overpromotion  traditionally-  i n f u t u r e y e a r s s u g g e s t s , though, t h a t  o f such p i e c e s as "investments" might be  justified!  ( i i i ) Fine Arts The contemporary commercial because o f t h e i r uniqueness produced  f i n e a r t s g e n e r a l l y " g a i n a market  and q u a l i t y "  (Graburn  1969a:467), and  are  f o r g a l l e r i e s , museums, and p r i v a t e and c o r p o r a t e c o l l e c t o r s  r a t h e r than t o u r i s t s .  P r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s can i n c l u d e i n d i v i d u a l s who  knowledgeable about Northwest C o a s t a r t as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l s who knowledgeable but are s e e k i n g f i n e q u a l i t y n a t i v e a r t . Coast I n d i a n f i n e a r t market e x p e r i e n c e d  The  are  are not  Northwest  i t s most r a p i d growth i n the mid  t o l a t e 1970's, a p e r i o d d u r i n g which a number of a r t i s t s  achieved  prominence, museums e x h i b i t e d and promoted contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n " f i n e a r t " by " a r t i s t s " , p u b l i c a t i o n s about consumer i n t e r e s t  in collecting  the a r t i n c r e a s e d , and  the contemporary a r t f l o u r i s h e d .  One  - 121  d e a l e r has noted t h a t s i n c e 1977,  -  "more f i n e a r t has been s o l d than ever  b e f o r e , more e x p e n s i v e p r i n t s have been produced, and more p e o p l e are l o o k i n g f o r f i n e q u a l i t y work"  (Rickard 1982).  Investment  i n Northwest  Coast a r t as a hedge a g a i n s t i n f l a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e d , as observed i n an a r t i c l e by A s h l e y Ford i n The F i n a n c i a l P o s t , " I n d i a n a r t a t t r a c t s investment i n t e r e s t " mentioned  (1979:W5).  Such investment, combined w i t h the above  f a c t o r s , s e r v e d t o s t i m u l a t e demand i n the marketplace and l e d t o  an i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e s . Types of a r t s o l d  i n the f i n e a r t market today i n c l u d e  silkscreen  p r i n t s , wood c a r v i n g s such as masks and bowls, a r g i l l i t e s c u l p t u r e s , g o l d and s i l v e r j e w e l l e r y , and some drums and o r i g i n a l works i n other media. P r i c e s can range from $35 t o $1000 f o r s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s  (i.e.,  original  i s s u e p r i c e s ) , $800 t o $3000 f o r masks, and $2000 t o $4000 f o r a wide g o l d bracelet.  A r t by the most " c o l l e c t i b l e " a r t i s t s , such as Robert  D a v i d s o n , can e n t e r much h i g h e r p r i c e l e v e l s - a g o l d b r a c e l e t , f o r example, can be p r i c e d as h i g h as $18,000. Although Northwest  Coast f i n e a r t s are u s u a l l y s o l d  through  s p e c i a l i z e d g a l l e r i e s , they are a l s o c a r r i e d by shops s e l l i n g a v a r i e t y o f products.  T h i s i s a d i r e c t development  of Northwest opposed  as such.  Coast a r t and the degree o f consumer demand f o r s o u v e n i r s as  to fine a r t .  Northwest  of the h i s t o r y o f the marketing  An important c o n d i t i o n f o r consumer r e c o g n i t i o n o f  Coast I n d i a n a r t as f i n e a r t i s t h a t i t i s d i s t i n c t l y  marketed  A b i o g r a p h y o f K w a g i u t l a r t i s t Doug Cranmer d i s c u s s e s  ... p r o b a b l y the f i r s t s e r i o u s attempt by B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s t o market q u a l i t y a r t through a r e t a i l o u t l e t c o n t r o l l e d and run by them. With Peter Scow, Doug Cranmer e s t a b l i s h e d "The T a l k i n g S t i c k " i n Vancouver [c.19643. T h i s shop endeavoured t o o f f e r B.C. Indian a r t of m e r i t . At a l l times Cranmer's s t a n d a r d s were h i g h but t h e r e was not the p u b l i c response t o m a i n t a i n the shop as a  - 122 -  v i a b l e concern. In h i s own words, "we l e a r n e d the junk t h a t p a i d the r e n t " (Macnair, n.d.).  A r t i s t John L i v i n g s t o n  (1981) r e f l e c t s t h a t d u r i n g  too late  i t was  t h e mid-19.60's i n V i c t o r i a ,  " t h e r e was no o u t l e t t o s e l l good work ... we were f o r c e d to do b u s i n e s s w i t h the junk shops on Government S t r e e t . "  T h i s l e d to the opening o f Tony  Hunt's " A r t s o f the Raven G a l l e r y " i n 1970, an attempt to e s t a b l i s h some standards o f q u a l i t y and t h e r e b y educate consumers about Northwest Coast Indian but  art.  Today, the shop remains a source of f i n e q u a l i t y K w a g i u t l a r t ,  i t also s e l l s souvenirs:  quality.  " I d e a l l y our shop t r i e s t o s e l l r e a l good  In V i c t o r i a , though, you a r e f o r c e d t o d i v e r s i f y  t o u r i s t s and c o l l e c t o r s [coming h e r e ] , I f we s e l l  so we have t o f i l l  t e n T - s h i r t s a day, we've p a i d the r e n t "  We get  the t o u r i s t gap.  ( L i v i n g s t o n 1981, 1982).  The problems encountered by these shops and o t h e r s the  ...  l i k e them  illustrate  importance o f marketing t e c h n i q u e s which can be used to d e f i n e and p r o t e c t  the c a t e g o r y of " a u t h e n t i c " of " I n d i a n  and " f i n e " a r t and to minimize the a s s o c i a t i o n  a r t " with " t o u r i s t " .  presentation  o f the a r t .  T h i s i s p a r t l y accomplished through g a l l e r y  For example, the f i n e a r t g a l l e r y does not  attempt to a p p e a l t o the widest p u b l i c i n the way t h a t souvenir the g a l l e r y ' s p u b l i c i s s m a l l e r  o u t l e t s do;  i n membership but has l a r g e r amounts o f money  a v a i l a b l e f o r the purchase o f a r t .  In the g a l l e r y s e t t i n g , a r t o b j e c t s a r e  not p r e s e n t e d as a jumble o f r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e  items, r a t h e r  i s o l a t e d and d i s p l a y e d as unique, o n e — o f - a - k i n d , v a l u a b l e emphasized a r e n o t o n l y the a e s t h e t i c and formal  they a r e  items.  Especially  q u a l i t i e s o f the p i e c e ,  or the q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s , but a l s o s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f the background o f the item  that  can g r e a t l y a f f e c t i t s v a l u e :  the name o f the a r t i s t ,  the a r t i s t ' s h i s t o r y and a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the  - 123  d e s i g n and may  subject matter.  -  Works a r e always s i g n e d and o f t e n t i t l e d ,  and  c a r r y an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r m y t h o l o g i c a l or p e r s o n a l meaning.  S i m i l a r l y , the b i o g r a p h i e s t h a t are d i s p l a y e d w i t h p i e c e s or used f o r promotional  purposes emphasize s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of an a r t i s t ' s  where he was  born, which I n d i a n t r i b e and  background:  c l a n he belongs t o , e a r l y  artistic  i n f l u e n c e s on h i s c a r e e r , r e l a t i v e s who  are a l s o a r t i s t s , h i s  interest  i n n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s , the a r t i s t i c media i n which he works, and  the p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n s f o r which h i s work has been purchased. prominence of such i n f o r m a t i o n i n p r o m o t i o n a l  The  s t r a t e g i e s p o i n t s t o the  importance of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the f i n e a r t market, where buyers  may  c o l l e c t o n l y the work o f s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s , where c e r t a i n a r t i s t s considered  t o have "investment  are  p o t e n t i a l " , and where p r e s t i g e can  accompany  a c o l l e c t o r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the " b i g names",. Promotion of an a r t i s t and " a u t h e n t i c a t e " an a r t i s t and  h i s background can a l s o serve  to  h i s work by i n d i c a t i n g whether the a r t i s t i s  of n a t i v e a n c e s t r y and bases h i s contemporary a r t on a sound knowledge o f tradition.  Market emphases on the a r t ' s adherence t o t r a d i t i o n ,  e t h n i c i t y of the a r t i s t , and  the purpose of a r t p r o d u c t i o n as i n d i c a t o r s  o f the a u t h e n t i c i t y of Northwest Coast Chapter Two.  a r t have a l r e a d y been examined i n  In t h i s regard the marketing of Northwest Coast  by non-Indian a r t i s t s  the  s t y l e work  i n S e a t t l e i s worth n o t i n g , s i n c e i t emphasizes  e t h n i c c r i t e r i o n of a u t h e n t i c i t y .  Dealers  i n S e a t t l e o n l y make a s u b t l e  d i s t i n c t i o n between the work of Indian and non-Indian a r t i s t s g a l l e r i e s , w r i t i n g "Northern  in their  s t y l e mask" on the p r i c e - t a g o f a mask by  n o n - I n d i a n , r a t h e r than  " T l i n g i t mask".  e t h n i c i t y of the a r t i s t  i s an  important  the  Recognizing,  a  however, t h a t the  element of Northwest Coast  art for  - 124  -  many consumers, they s t a t e t h a t they "always l e t people know i f i t ' s made by One  a non-Indian" dealer  ( F r a n k l i n 1981b).  says t h a t  "The  Other d i s t i n c t i o n s are a l s o made.  non-Indian made work t h a t I s e l l has  extremely high q u a l i t y .  I t must be by a devoted a r t i s t who  i n i t f o r the p r o f i t , and  i t must be by  a r t and  culture"  applied  to a r t i s t s of n a t i v e  the q u a n t i t y  (Franklin:1981a).  The  of n o n - n a t i v e a r t c a r r i e d i n her  c o l l e c t o r s w i l l pay emphases of the  less  p r i m a r i l y f o r an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g  piece  notes  a r t i s t and  considered  h i s e t h n i c i t y , or  " t r a d i t i o n a l " or  (iv) Market S t r a t e g i e s : An  the  looking  or f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y ,  such f a c t o r s as the pure a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the p i e c e , of the  that  that  is  adapt i t s marketing s t r a t e g i e s t o emphasize or  the degree to which the  the  de-emphasize the  background  item may  P r i c e , R e p u t a t i o n , and S a l e a b i l i t y s t r a t e g i e s used i n the marketing  of  contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t r a i s e s a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s : and  how  Answers t o these q u e s t i o n s are i s the  reputation  of the  further  how  does an a r t i s t become " c o l l e c t i b l e " ? r e l a t e d , s i n c e one  a r t i s t , and  i s p a r t i a l l y determined by are  be  "innovative".  examination o f the  are p r i c e s e s t a b l i s h e d ,  the  restricts  Depending upon  f i n e a r t c o l l e c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , whether he  to  necessarily  Another d e a l e r  g a l l e r y , and  1981).  just  i s contributing  l e s s because i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d  (Austin-McKillop  be  i s not  same s t a n d a r d s are not  a n c e s t r y , however.  work by non-Indians i s p r i c e d  g a l l e r y can  someone who  to  since  the  element d e t e r m i n i n g p r i c e  c o l l e c t i b i l i t y o f an  the p r i c e s h i s work can  demand.  These a s p e c t s  r e l a t e d t o a wide range o f f a c t o r s which consumers  when p u r c h a s i n g Northwest Coast a r t , and  which t h e r e f o r e  artist  affect  consider the  - 125  s a l e a b i l i t y of an Prices  -  item.  of s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t s are determined p r i m a r i l y  s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e t o other a r t i s t s . market f o r the  first  the  s o l d f o r $35.  The  the  state  r i s e t o the  s p e c t a c u l a r i n c r e a s e s are Joe  David.  $40  - today the  in cost,  the p r i n t s a r e For  quickly  still  by  i n 1977,  now  T h i s i s the  a and  When  Yeoman's "Eagle More  shown i n works by B i l l R e i d , Robert Davidson, i n the  (figure 8),  195),  was  issued  and  1970's f o r $15  to  from $500 t o over $2000.  issued  f o r $250, had  early  the  i n demand, p r i c e s  i n s t a n c e , Don  as a Northwest Coast I n d i a n  appreciated i n value tenfold  s e l l s f o r a t l e a s t $1800.  ( e d i t i o n of  in  increments  rose i n v a l u e t o $250.  same p r i n t s range i n p r i c e  and  edition  design.  David's p o p u l a r "Memorial Rainbow Drum" ( f i g u r e 9) was  Thunderbird" out.  but  a t $45,  A r t i s t s G u i l d p r i n t i n 1977  $150  (in an  print  f o r a p r i n t by  the q u a l i t y of the  P r i n t s by Reid were a v a i l a b l e  Davidson's " R e f l e c t i o n s "  1980.  r i s e gradually  l e v e l generated by demand.  Dancer", o r i g i n a l l y i s s u e d  silkscreen  p r i c e a l s o c o v e r s c o s t s of m a t e r i a l s  of the market and  an e d i t i o n o f p r i n t s s e l l s o u t ,  the a r t i s t ' s  This price reflects his position  Succeeding p r i n t s may  depending on  the  have h i s p r i n t s  amount consumers are w i l l i n g t o pay  r e l a t i v e l y unknown a r t i s t . production.  a r t i s t entering  time, f o r example, may  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 225) marketplace and  An  by  at  R e i d ' s l a s t p r i n t , "Haida  a t $1000 i n 1981,  highest o r i g i n a l issue p r i c e  issued  by  and  easily  sold  f o r a Northwest Coast  s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t to date. Prices sold  i n the  reputation. work, the  f o r woo