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The development of a new measure of creative abilities in grade five children Ellis, Julia Litwintschik 1983

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MEASURE OF CREATIVE ABILITIES IN GRADE FIVE CHILDREN by JULIA LITWINTSCHIK ELLIS M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia,1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y And S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 © J u l i a L i t w i n t s c h i k E l l i s , 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y And S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 7 June 1983 A b s t r a c t The development of the i n s t r u m e n t , S o l v i n g R e a l Problems: e x e r c i s e s i n p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g (SRP), was prompted by the i n t e n t t o d e s i g n c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g t a s k s t h a t would be: (1) s t i m u l a t i n g from the examinee's p o i n t of view; (2 ) complex; (3) l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as i t o c c u r s i n the examinee's "everyday w o r l d " ; (4) l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y or c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . To d e v e l o p SRP t a s k s , s u b j e c t s were f i r s t asked t o submit examples of what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be "everyday, h i g h - i n t e r e s t problems" e x p r e s s e d i n the format of "Something I want t o do and why I c a n ' t do i t . " From a p o o l of problems thus o b t a i n e d , t a s k s were s e l e c t e d which appeared t o a l l o w f o r b r e a d t h i n s o l u t i o n approaches. A t t e n t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o e n s u r i n g v a r i e t y i n terms o.f c o n t e n t and apparent d i f f i c u l t y of the problems. Examinees were asked t o g e n e r a t e as many d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s as they c o u l d imagine f o r each problem. An e x p l o r a t o r y approach t o the development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s f o r the SRP was u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y t h a t might be i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o the age l e v e l of s u b j e c t s i n the study or t o t h e s e k i n d s of t a s k s . Data c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d the SRP, an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of c r e a t i v i t y , and measures of a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y . Seven SRP s c o r e s were d e v e l o p e d : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , W i s h i n g , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p between the academic achievement measure and the SRP v a r i a b l e s — F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y — i n p r e d i c t i n g t o performance on the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the SRP v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g , were the most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of the C r e a t i v e Group (as d e f i n e d by performance on the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n ) . These two SRP v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t i v e l y independent of academic achievement. Convergent v a l i d i t y a n a l y s e s i n v o l v i n g the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , the SRP v a r i a b l e s , and case study v a r i a b l e s s u p p o r t e d a d u a l a b i l i t y / p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . W h i l e most SRP v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n beyond t h a t a v a i l a b l e from measures of academic achievement, C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were judged t o have promise f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and development work i n the measurement of c r e a t i v i t y . i v T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s x i i Acknowledgements x i i i I . INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE 1 1.1 Background Of The Problem 1 1.2 Statement Of The Problem 7 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n Of C r e a t i v i t y 9 1.3.1 C r e a t i v i t y As A b i l i t y .. .. 9 1.3.2 C r e a t i v i t y As P e r s o n a l i t y 11 1.3.3 C r e a t i v i t y As Achievement 12; 1 . 4 Summary 13 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 15 2.1 Approaches To I d e n t i f y i n g C r e a t i v e I n d i v i d u a l s ....15 .2.1.1 P r o d u c t Approach 15 2.1.2 P r o c e s s Approach 19 2.1.3 Summary 21 2.2 Problems In H e l p i n g Teachers To I d e n t i f y C r e a t i v e S t u d e n t s 23 I I I . METHODOLOGY 25 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n And Sample 25 3.2 I n s t r u m e n t s Used 26 3.2.1 S e a r s / S p a u l d i n g S e l f - C o n c e p t I n v e n t o r y 26 3.2.2 Canadian T e s t s Of B a s i c S k i l l s ...28 3.2.3 T o r r a n c e T e s t s Of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g 28 V 3.3 Development Of I n s t r u m e n t s And V a r i a b l e s 31 3.3.1 Development Of SRP Tasks And V a r i a b l e s 31 3.3.2 Development Of P r o p o s a l A c t i v i t y , R a t i n g S c a l e , And S c o r i n g 36 3.3.3 Development Of Case S t u d i e s And Case Study V a r i a b l e s 39 3.4 Study P r o c e d u r e s And T i m e l i n e 42 IV. ANALYSES AND RESULTS 44 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 44 4.1.1 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s A ddressed In The A n a l y s e s .44 4.1.2 Samples — 4 5 4.1.3 Overview Of A n a l y s e s And R e s u l t s 46 4.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between The SRP V a r i a b l e s And The To r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s 53 4.3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Of P r o p o s a l And CTBS With SRP And To r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s 57 4.3.1 SRP And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 60 4.3.2 SRP, CTBS, And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s ..62 4.3.3 SRP And P r o p o s a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s 64 4.3.4 CTBS, SRP And P r o p o s a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s 69 4.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of Case Study V a r i a b l e s W i t h P r o p o s a l And SRP V a r i a b l e s 72 4.5 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of S e l f - C o n c e p t W i t h Study V a r i a b l e s .88 4.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex And Other Study V a r i a b l e s 90 V. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION 91 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 91 5.1.1 Purpose Of The Study 91 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 92 5.2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Of SRP V a r i a b l e s 93 5.2.2 Apparent V a l u e Of The SRP V a r i a b l e s 103 5.2.3 Adequacy Of SRP V a r i a b l e s 104 5.3 D i s c u s s i o n 105 5.4 F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s F o r SRP Development 111 5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 114 5.6 Summary Of I m p l i c a t i o n s For F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 115 . BIBLIOGRAPHY 117 APPENDIX A - SELF-CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE 121 APPENDIX B - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SELF-CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE 128 APPENDIX C - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TORRANCE TASKS 1 30 APPENDIX D - "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?" QUESTIONNAIRE 133 APPENDIX E - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?" QUESTIONNAIRE 140 APPENDIX F - FINAL FORM - SOLVING REAL PROBLEMS: EXERCISES IN PRODUCTIVE THINKING 142 APPENDIX G - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SRP 152 APPENDIX H - DESCRIPTION OF INITIAL CODING AND SCORING SYSTEM FOR SRP TASKS 156 APPENDIX I - TEST CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE INITIAL SCORES DEVELOPED FOR THE SRP TASKS 167 APPENDIX J - RATIONALES FOR SRP SCORES RETAINED OR COMBINED TO BECOME THE SRP VARIABLES 185 APPENDIX K - COMPUTATION OF SCORES FOR SRP VARIABLES AND TEST CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE VARIABLES 194 APPENDIX L - DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUEST-FOR-PROPOSAL PRESENTATION 201 APPENDIX M - RATING SCALE USED FOR SCORING PROPOSALS 206 APPENDIX N - INTERVIEW SCHEDULES 209 APPENDIX 0 - CASE STUDIES 214 APPENDIX P - RULES FOR SCORING THE CASE STUDIES 272 V i l l L i s t of T a b l e s 1. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r the P i l o t SRP Tasks ..34 2. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r Study V a r i a b l e s * 50 3. P e r c e n t a g e Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Scores f o r F i v e of the SRP V a r i a b l e s 51 4. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Sc o r e s f o r the P r o p o s a l V a r i a b l e .52 5. I n t e r - s c o r e r and I n t r a - s c o r e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the P r o p o s a l and SRP V a r i a b l e s 52 6. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among V a r i a b l e s from the T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (N=151) .53 7. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=151) 54' 8. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP and To r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151) 55 9. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s of CTBS and P r o p o s a l w i t h SRP and T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151) 59 10. S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I : P r o p o s a l and SRP V a r i a b l e s 61 11. S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I I : P r o p o s a l , CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s 63 12. Number, P r i o r P r o b a b i l i t y and Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s f o r Each C r i t e r i o n Group 66 i x 13. S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I : U s i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s t o Se p a r a t e C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups 67 14. Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I 67 15. S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I : U s i n g CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s t o Separate C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups 71 16. Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I 71 17. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r SRP, P r o p o s a l , and Case Study V a r i a b l e s (N=15) 75 18. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e SRP V a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , and Case Study V a r i a b l e s f o r the Case Study Sample (N=15) ...76 19. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP V a r i a b l e s f o r the Case Study Sample (N=15) 77 20. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Case Study V a r i a b l e s (N=15) 78 21. Pearson Product-Moment. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Case Study, P r o p o s a l , and SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=15) 79 22. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Between Case Study and P r o p o s a l , CTBS, and S e l f - C o n c e p t V a r i a b l e s .80 23. Case Study S u b j e c t s ' S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l and the Case Study V a r i a b l e s : Wonder and F r i e n d s 83 24. Case Study S u b j e c t s ' S cores on P r o p o s a l , Case Study, and SRP V a r i a b l e s 85 25. Comparison of W i s h i n g / P r a y e r S c o r e s from SRP and Case S t u d i e s f o r the Case Study Sample 87 26. Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r the S e l f - C o n c e p t V a r i a b l e 89 X 27. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between S e l f - C o n c e p t and Other Study V a r i a b l e s 89 28. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Sex and Other Study V a r i a b l e s 90 29. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , Range, and Per c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c i e s f o r I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s 170 30. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among P r o p o s a l and the I n i t i a l SRP Sc o r e s 172 31. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the F l u e n c y Scores and Pr o d u c t 185 32. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the F l e x i b i l i t y S c o r e s and the P r o d u c t Score 186 33. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the W i s h i n g S c o r e s and the Pr o d u c t Score 187 34. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y S cores and the P r o d u c t Score 188 35. Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the F a n t a s y F a c t o r Response C a t e g o r i e s and the P r o d u c t Score ....189 36. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and Produc t ..191 37. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and Product 193 38. S c a l e s f o r Recoding I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s P r i o r t o Computing SRP V a r i a b l e s 195 39. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242) 1 98 x i 40. P e r c e n t a g e Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e of the SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242) 199 41. Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the SRP V a r i a b l e s and the P r o d u c t Score 200 X I 1 L i s t of F i g u r e s T i m e l i n e f o r Study A c t i v i t i e s x i i i Acknowledgement I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my thank s t o the members of my s u p e r v i s i n g committee f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , g u i d a n c e , and i n s i g h t . My d i s s e r t a t i o n a d v i s o r , Dr. S. B l a n k , has been an i m p o r t a n t mentor f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . H i s encouragement and h e l p c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably t o t h i s s t u d y . I w i s h t o thank Dr. W. Werner f o r always making time t o d i s c u s s the study d u r i n g a l l of i t s s t a g e s . H i s guidance w i t h the i n t e r v i e w i n g and case study component of the r e s e a r c h was of s p e c i a l v a l u e . I w i s h t o thank Dr. H. R a t z l a f f and Dr. D. Thomas f o r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l thoroughness which has c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the q u a l i t y of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . S p e c i a l thanks go t o Dr. K. S t o d d a r t f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h and h i s generous a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Two c o n s u l t a n t s , Dr. R. Conry and Dr. T. Rogers, made p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s s t u d y . I w i s h t o thank Dr. Conry f o r h i s guidance and h e l p w i t h the development of i n s t r u m e n t s and s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s and many of the a n a l y s e s . I would l i k e t o thank Dr. T. Rogers f o r h i s guidance and many v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a n a l y s e s . A l a r g e number of peopl e made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e i r t i m e , i n t e r e s t , and a t t e n t i o n . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o a l l of the s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . A v e r y s p e c i a l thanks i s due t o Mrs.. Velma H a s l i n who c o o r d i n a t e d many of the study a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o , her work as a judge f o r the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n measure was of g r e a t importance t o the s t u d y . I a l s o w i s h t o thank C a r o l B e l l and J i l l Andersson f o r t h e i r work as r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s . Many p e o p l e have c o n t r i b u t e d i n d i r e c t l y t o the conduct of t h i s s t u d y . I w i s h t o acknowledge the sup p o r t of Joyce Fox who has shared my en t h u s i a s m f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h problem. V e r y i m p o r t a n t l y , I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my thanks t o my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t and encouragement. 1 I . INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE 1 .1 Background Of The Problem-Gowan (1971) has suggested t h a t c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e not t h a t much d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r p e o p l e , but t h a t something has happened t o " t u r n them on". MacKinnon ( c i t e d by Gowan & Demos, 1964), i n d i s c u s s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r type of c r e a t i v e p e r s o n has w r i t t e n : He i s t y p i c a l of many who make up f o r what they l a c k i n v e r b a l i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s w i t h a h i g h l e v e l of energy, a k i n d of c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y which e n a b l e s them t o keep coming a t a problem w i t h a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s from a v a r i e t y of a n g l e s ; and b e i n g c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s they p e r s e v e r e u n t i l they a r r i v e a t a c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n . T h i s k i n d of person s h o u l d remind us t h a t c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t o be equated t o h i g h v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . (p.71) The r o l e of temperament, m o t i v a t i o n , or p e r s o n a l i t y i h c r e a t i v i t y has been u n d e r s c o r e d i n d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y as w e l l as by e m p i r i c a l work. C r u t c h f i e l d ( c i t e d by B l a n k , 1982), f o r example, has r e f e r r e d t o c r e a t i v i t y a s : a c o n v e n i e n t summary l a b e l f o r a complex s e t of c o g n i t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s which a r e i n v o l v e d i n p e r c e i v i n g , remembering, t h i n k i n g , i m a g i n i n g , . . . (p.1) S i m i l a r l y , T r e f f i n g e r (1980) has w r i t t e n : C r e a t i v e t a l e n t r e p r e s e n t s a complex s y n t h e s i s of c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s , and i t s e x p r e s s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l or s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , (p.23) Some s t u d i e s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o 2 c r e a t i v i t y among members of s p e c i f i c groups have shown the more c r e a t i v e members t o be d i f f e r e n t from l e s s c r e a t i v e members i n terms of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t h e r than i n terms of s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s ( B a r r o n & H a r r i n g t o n , 1981). E f f o r t s towards i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g have i n c l u d e d the development of i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a s s e s s i n g e i t h e r c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . R e kdal (1977) has re v i e w e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s as t e s t s of c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r the purpose of a s s e s s i n g which ones have p o s s i b l e use v a l u e . He noted t h a t i t was not y e t c l e a r t h a t such t e s t s c o u l d be used as s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s s i n c e p r o f i l e s of c r e a t i v e a d u l t s may be v e r y d i f f e r e n t from p r o f i l e s of c r e a t i v e y o u n g s t e r s . There i s a l s o the problem of u n r e l i a b i l i t y of such i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . I n t h e i r r e v i e w , B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n (1981) mentioned e m p i r i c a l work which had i d e n t i f i e d d i s c r e p a n c i e s .among the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s a t d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s . P e t r o s k o (1978) r e p o r t e d on an assessment of most c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s t h a t were c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . When summarizing h i s f i n d i n g s he s t a t e d t h a t no t e s t s were found t h a t r e p o r t e d c o n v i n c i n g v a l i d i t y d a t a , i . e . , moderate or h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between the i n s t r u m e n t and some r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l outcome, such as r a t e d c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r . I n s t e a d , t h e most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d k i n d of v a l i d i t y was based on d i v e r g e n t or f a c t o r i a l v a l i d i t y , i . e . , . r e p o r t i n g f a c t o r l o a d i n g s or c o r r e l a t i o n s below 3 .20 between c r e a t i v i t y and n o n c r e a t i v i t y measures. B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n (1981), on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e view of l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t : some d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s , a d m i n i s t e r e d under some c o n d i t i o n s and s c o r e d by some s e t s of c r i t e r i a , do measure a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e achievement and b e h a v i o r i n some domains. (p.447) They commented t h a t where d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s c o r e s have f a i l e d t o c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t w i t h p l a u s i b l e i n d i c e s of c r e a t i v e achievement and b e h a v i o r t h a t t h i s may have been due, i n p a r t , t o the f i e l d - s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n c e of many d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s and the p r i m i t i v e s t a t e of knowledge r e g a r d i n g the a b i l i t i e s u n d e r l y i n g c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n any g i v e n f i e l d . They drew a t t e n t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t o r s who had been a t t e m p t i n g t o match d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s t o r e l e v a n t domains i n a r e a s such as m u s i c a l c r e a t i v i t y or s c i e n t i f i c c r e a t i v i t y . W h i l e a s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n t o the problem of measuring c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s has not y e t been i d e n t i f i e d , t he problem i t s e l f has been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d and some g u i d e l i n e s have been o f f e r e d r e g a r d i n g improvements beyond e x i s t i n g measures. T o r r a n c e (1962), commenting on i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' e f f o r t s t o a s s e s s c r e a t i v i t y i n young c h i l d r e n , has s t a t e d : I t seems c l e a r t h a t much of the c o n f u s i o n stems from the ways i n which each s c h o l a r has l i m i t e d h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y . Most of the work which has been done r e f l e c t s l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t no s i n g l e t e s t o r a r e a of o b s e r v a t i o n s t a p s a l l of the r e s o u r c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and t h a t the same t e s t or k i n d s of o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e not v a l i d o r 4 adequate a t a l l age l e v e l s . (p.23) Such a statement s u g g e s t s a need f o r more openmindedness about the ways i n which c h i l d r e n can/may m a n i f e s t c r e a t i v i t y a t d i f f e r e n t ages r a t h e r than e x p e c t i n g any g i v e n t e s t t o be adequate and v a l i d a t a l l age l e v e l s . T r e f f i n g e r , R e n z u l l i , and F e l d h u s e n (1971) have a l s o acknowledged the need t o e s t a b l i s h d i f f e r e n t i a l age and sex c r i t e r i a as an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n r e s e a r c h on c r e a t i v i t y and i t s assessment. T r e f f i n g e r e t a l . (1971) have p r e s e n t e d a number of c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g t a s k s i n t e n d e d t o measure c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . Four of t h e s e c o n c e r n s appear t o be somewhat t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o g u i d e l i n e s f o r the development of p r o m i s i n g new measures of c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . There i s a g r e a t d e a l t o be l e a r n e d about the assessment of c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t s i m p l e measures of f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y are not s u f f i c i e n t . Perhaps s u b s t a n t i a l e f f o r t must be g i v e n t o f i n d i n g new, more complex measures. (p.109) There a r e a l s o a number of problems of a v e r y p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e t o s o l v e . How does the r e s e a r c h e r know t h a t what he c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i v e t a s k s a r e c r e a t i v e and c h a l l e n g i n g f o r the examinee? I t may be t h a t the t a s k s he c o n s i d e r s most unu s u a l a r e b o r i n g , u n e x c i t i n g , even t r i v i a l , f o r the most i m a g i n a t i v e of our examinees. (p.110) Another d i m e n s i o n of the c r i t e r i o n problem c o n c e r n s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s or i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of our c u r r e n t means f o r a s s e s s i n g o r i g i n a l i t y . W h i l e a few have d i s s e n t e d , almost everyone who has g r a p p l e d w i t h c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h appears t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f r e q u e n c y c r i t e r i o n f o r measures of o r i g i n a l i t y . . . . Perhaps our easy a c c e p t a n c e of 5 the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f r e q u e n c y c r i t e r i o n has p r e v e n t e d us from i d e n t i f y i n g new methods which a r e u s e f u l f o r measuring t h i s d i m e n s i o n of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . I d e a l l y one would l i k e a q u a l i t a t i v e index w i t h f a c e v a l i d i t y . (p.110) An i s s u e of c r i t i c a l importance i n s o l v i n g the problem of a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i s concerned w i t h the v a l i d i t y of our measures. Too o f t e n , i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t e s t s which a r e manageable from the p s y c h o m e t r i c p o i n t of v i e w , we have r e l i e d on t a s k s which may have l i t t l e or no l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as i t o c c u r s i n the " r e a l w o r l d " . W h i l e t h e r e e x i s t s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y ( i d e n t i f y i n g adequate c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which the t e s t t a s k s can be v a l i d a t e d ) , the problem w a r r a n t s our a t t e n t i o n . The " c r e a t i v i t y " a s s e s s e d by our t e s t s , . a f t e r a l l , s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o bear a resemblance t o c r e a t i v i t y as i t i s a c t u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d among p e o p l e , (p. 110-111) Tog e t h e r , t h e s e concerns suggest the d e s i r a b i l i t y of t a s k s t h a t : • Are s t i m u l a t i n g from the examinee's p o i n t of view, ( i . e . , t h a t w i l l prompt c h i l d r e n t o ask q u e s t i o n s and ge n e r a t e i d e a s ) ; • Are complex, ( i . e . , i n s t e a d of b e i n g l i n e a r or. s i n g l e -c o n s t r a i n t - t y p e s of problems, the t a s k s s h o u l d i n v o l v e a number of components which make p o s s i b l e a v a r i e t y of s o l u t i o n approaches depending on the t r a d e - o f f s one p r e f e r s t o make or a c c e p t ) ; • Are l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as i t o c c u r s i n t h e examinee's "everyday w o r l d " , ( i . e . , t a s k s t h a t draw upon m a t e r i a l from the c h i l d ' s "everyday w o r l d " e x p e r i e n c e ) ; and t h a t • W i l l p r o v i d e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y or 6 c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , ( i . e . , go beyond a s i m p l e count or i n f r e q u e n c y i n d e x . ) W i t h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n v i e w , the r e s e a r c h e r had p r e v i o u s l y u ndertaken the development of t a s k s i n t e n d e d t o t a p examinees' "everyday w o r l d " c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i n problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s ( E l l i s , 1975). The t a s k s d e v e l o p e d c o m p r i s e d a t e s t now c a l l e d : S o l v i n g R e a l Problems: e x e r c i s e s i n p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g (SRP). To d e v e l o p SRP t a s k s , s u b j e c t s were f i r s t a sked t o submit examples of what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be "everyday, h i g h - i n t e r e s t problems" e x p r e s s e d i n the format of "Something I want t o do and why I c a n ' t do i t . " From a p o o l of problems t h u s o b t a i n e d , t a s k s were s e l e c t e d which appeared t o a l l o w f o r b r e a d t h i n s o l u t i o n approaches. A t t e n t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o e n s u r i n g v a r i e t y i n terms of c o n t e n t and apparent d i f f i c u l t y of the p roblems. To respond t o the t a s k s , examinees were asked t o g e n e r a t e as many d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s as they c o u l d imagine f o r each problem. That s t u d y , conducted w i t h grade t h r e e s u b j e c t s , examined t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of t a s k s d e v e l o p e d and t h e i r independence from n o n c r e a t i v i t y measures. No p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y d a t a was c o l l e c t e d . The r e s u l t s s u g g e sted t h a t f u r t h e r development work was w a r r a n t e d . The c u r r e n t study was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e f o r f u r t h e r development of t h e s e k i n d s of e x a m i n e e - r e l e v a n t , complex t a s k s . The assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t a s k s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s way a r e the f o l l o w i n g : 1. I f problems p r e s e n t e d on an SRP a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e by the examinee as b e i n g from h i s / h e r "everyday w o r l d " they w i l l be 7 c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g m e a n i n g f u l or p l a u s i b l e by the examinee. 2. I f examinees and SRP t a s k s both come from the same r e s t r i c t e d s u b - p o p u l a t i o n ( i . e . , a group h a v i n g a c c e s s t o the same or s i m i l a r community and g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s o u r c e s and e v e n t s ) , then among examinees t h e r e w i l l be some common base of knowledge r e g a r d i n g t y p i c a l l y w i t n e s s e d s o l u t i o n methods f o r those t y p e s of problems and r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e . 3. By r e s e m b l i n g t h e examinee's own h i g h - i n t e r e s t "everyday" problems, the SRP t a s k s s h o u l d cue the use of the examinee's u s u a l r e p e r t o i r e of a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t a re t y p i c a l l y engaged i n response t o such problems. T h e r e f o r e , c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s d emonstrated i n response t o SRP t a s k s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of "everyday" b e h a v i o r i n h i g h - i n t e r e s t problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , both p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n an examinee's responses t o SRP t a s k s . 1.2 Statement Of The Problem The main purpose of the study was t o d e v e l o p an SRP t e s t ( i . e . , d e v e l o p t a s k s and s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s ) f o r a grade f i v e s u b - p o p u l a t i o n and t o examine the e x t e n t of convergent v a l i d i t y among the SRP and two e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a of "everyday" b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , the st u d y a l s o examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e s e new v a r i a b l e s t o e x i s t i n g measures of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , academic achievement, and s e l f - c o n c e p t . Three m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems were a d d r e s s e d i n c o n d u c t i n g the s t u d y . F i r s t , an SRP s c o r i n g system had t o be d e v i s e d i n a 8 manner t h a t would d e f i n e and r e c o r d what might be v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y a t t h i s age l e v e l . A two-step p r o c e d u r e f o r the development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s was e x p l o r e d . I t i n v o l v e d f i r s t i d e n t i f y i n g and s c o r i n g a l a r g e number of response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t might p o s s i b l y be r e l a t e d t o "everyday w o r l d " c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r , and s e c o n d l y , examining whether such response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of c r e a t i v i t y . S e c o n d l y , an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i n the form of "everyday w o r l d " c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g had t o be o b t a i n e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d manner from a l l s u b j e c t s and had t o be r a t e d . To meet t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , a l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y ( t h r o u g h a s t a n d a r d i z e d p r e s e n t a t i o n ) t o d e v e l o p a p r o p o s a l f o r a h i g h - i n t e r e s t c l a s s p r o j e c t ( e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r i n n a t u r e ) . The p r o p o s a l s were c o l l e c t e d as " c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t s " and a s c a l e was b u i l t f o r r a t i n g them. T h i r d l y , case s t u d i e s of s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s ( p r e p a r e d on the b a s i s of i n t e r v i e w s ) had t o be q u a n t i f i e d t o make conv e r g e n t v a l i d i t y a n a l y s e s p o s s i b l e . S c o r e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s t h a t were d e f i n a b l e as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s among the everyday b e h a v i o r / c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these s u b j e c t s . Q u e s t i o n s Addressed i n the Study 1. How might i n d i v i d u a l s m a n i f e s t c r e a t i v i t y on SRP t a s k s , ( i . e . , what d e f i n a b l e and c r e a t i v i t y - r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s would be d e v e l o p e d from s u b j e c t s ' r esponses t o the SRP t a s k s ) ? 2 . How would SRP v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of "everyday w o r l d " performance, ( i . e . , the r a t i n g s s u b j e c t s 9 r e c e i v e d f o r t h e i r P r o p o s a l s -- the p l a n s they d e v e l o p e d f o r the c l a s s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p r o j e c t ) ? 3. How would SRP v a r i a b l e s and the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e r e l a t e t o "everyday w o r l d " b e h a v i o r as d e t e r m i n e d through i n t e r v i e w s , ( i . e . , the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s ) ? 4. How would the new v a r i a b l e s ( i . e , the SRP, P r o p o s a l , and case study v a r i a b l e s ) r e l a t e t o an e x i s t i n g measure of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , ( i . e . , s e l e c t e d t a s k s from the T o r r a n c e T e s t s of  C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (TTCT))? 5. How would the new v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of academic achievement, ( i . e . , the Canadian T e s t s of B a s i c  S k i l l s (CTBS))? .6. How would the new v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x i s t i n g measure of s e l f - c o n c e p t , ( i . e . , the S e a r s - H a r r i s S e l f - C o n c e p t I n v e n t o r y ) ? 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n Of C r e a t i v i t y To g u i d e the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the study i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e c r e a t i v i t y as a b i l i t y , as p e r s o n a l i t y , and as achievement. 1.3.1 C r e a t i v i t y As A b i l i t y R e g a r d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y , Khatena (1976) has w r i t t e n : Two d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y have been most p r o d u c t i v e of i n s t r u m e n t development: ( a ) G u i l f o r d ' s d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g and r e d e f i n i t i o n a b i l i t i e s as components of t h e S t r u c t u r e of I n t e l l e c t M o d e l , and ( b ) T o r r a n c e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a p r o c e s s t h a t i n v o l v e s s e n s i n g gaps or d i s t u r b i n g m i s s i n g 10 e l e m e n t s , f o r m i n g h y p o t h e s e s , c o m u n i c a t i n g the r e s u l t s , and p o s s i b l y m o d i f y i n g and r e t e s t i n g t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . To t h e s e may be added such d e f i n i t i o n s as the a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e or produce w i t h i n some c r i t e r i o n of r e l e v a n c e many c o g n i t i v e a s s o c i a t e s and many t h a t a r e unique ( W a l l a c h & Kogan, 1965), and the power of the i m a g i n a t i o n t o break away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t so as t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l and m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds (Khatena & T o r r a n c e , 1973). (p. 339) Blank (1982) has d e f i n e d c r e a t i v i t y a s : t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s i n which a g o a l -o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g s t o bear a c o m b i n a t i o n of f l e x i b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y t o i d e a s which e n a b l e s him t o break away from h i s u s u a l approaches and i d e a s i n t o new, d i f f e r e n t and p r o d u c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h o u g h t , the r e s u l t s of which y i e l d s o l u t i o n s which add t o what i s a l r e a d y known and which a r e s a t i s f y i n g t o the i n d i v i d u a l . (p. 1 ) G i v e n the i n t e n d e d format of the SRP t a s k s ( i . e . , examinees g e n e r a t e a number of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o a p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m ) , and the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h a t format — e.g., no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r examinees t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s , no i n v i t a t i o n f o r examinees t o make e x p l i c i t how they may have r e d e f i n e d the problem — the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n was s e l e c t e d from those l i s t e d above: the power of the i m a g i n a t i o n t o break away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t so as t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l and m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds (Khatena & T o r r a n c e , 1973). ( c i t e d by Khatena, 1976, p. 339) The d e f i n i t i o n f o c u s s e s on the importance of f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y and emphasizes the c r i t e r i o n of m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . 11 1.3.2 C r e a t i v i t y As P e r s o n a l i t y B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n (1981) r e v i e w e d the e m p i r i c a l work of the p r e v i o u s 15 y e a r s on the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e p e o p l e and noted t h e emergence of a f a i r l y s t a b l e s e t of c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c o r r e l a t e s of c r e a t i v e achievement and a c t i v i t y i n many domains. These were: h i g h v a l u a t i o n of e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s i n e x p e r i e n c e , broad i n t e r e s t s , a t t r a c t i o n t o c o m p l e x i t y , h i g h energy, independence of judgment, autonomy, i n t u i t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e a n t i n o m i e s or t o accommodate a p p a r e n t l y o p p o s i t e or c o n f l i c t i n g t r a i t s i n one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , and f i n a l l y , , a f i r m sense of s e l f as " c r e a t i v e " . (p. 454) Ba r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n c a u t i o n e d , however, t h a t "the s e a r c h f o r the taxonomic s i m p l i c i t y has a l l too o f t e n i g n o r e d the phenomenon of dev e l o p m e n t a l ebb and f l o w i n many t r a i t s " (p. 456). They gave examples of a g e - r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e v e r s a l s of c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s had i d e n t i f i e d . S i n c e t h e r e d i d not appear t o be a sound b a s i s f o r s p e c i f y i n g a g i v e n s e t of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the c r e a t i v e c h i l d , a more g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of the c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y was s e l e c t e d . U s i n g O t t o Rank's c o n c e p t s as p r e s e n t e d by MacKinnon (1965), the " c r e a t i v e t y p e " , as a c h i l d , i s one who i s a t t a i n i n g a s e c u r e sense of s e l f and who i s e x p r e s s i n g p o s i t i v e w i l l i n s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , m o d i f y i n g , and r e c r e a t i n g h i s / h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n s u g g e s t s growing s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and connotes a c t i v e n e s s as opposed t o r e a c t i v e n e s s or p a s s i v i t y / a c c e p t a n c e . Rank's 12 c o n c e p t s a l s o emphasize t h a t the c r e a t i v e type i s m o t i v a t e d towards the c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y . T o r r a n c e ( 1 9 6 2 , p. 120) has s i m i l a r l y observed t h a t c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n a r e s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e i r u n i q u e n e s s . 1.3.3 C r e a t i v i t y As Achievement D e f i n i n g c r e a t i v e achievement i n v o l v e s s p e c i f y i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g performances or p r o d u c t s . Blank (1982) has recommended and d i s c u s s e d t h r e e c r i t e r i a : n o v e l t y , u s e f u l n e s s , and c o m m u n i c a b i l i t y . P r e s e n t e d as they are i n the c o n t e x t of e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t s ' p r o d u c t s , B l a n k ' s d i s c u s s i o n s of these c r i t e r i a a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . I f the p r o d u c t or s o l u t i o n i s t o q u a l i f y i n terms of the N o v e l t y d i m e n s i o n , i t must be judged t o be o r i g i n a l a t l e a s t and p r e f e r a b l y g e r m i n a l as w e l l . That i s , the s o l u t i o n d e v e l o p e d by the s t u d e n t must be such t h a t i t i s viewed t o be one t h a t would be found o n l y v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y among s o l u t i o n s d e v e l o p e d by the s t u d e n t ' s p e e r s i n both age and e x p e r i e n c e t o l i k e p roblems. Further> i t . s h o u l d be a s o l u t i o n or p r o d u c t t h a t can l e a d t o the d i s c o v e r y of o t h e r problems or t o the development of more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o l u t i o n s t o the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . (p. 10) h a v i n g met the c r i t e r i o n "new", the s o l u t i o n must a l s o meet the c r i t e r i o n " u s e f u l " i n the sense t h a t i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e and u s e a b l e s o l u t i o n . (p. 10) I s the s o l u t i o n " s a l e a b l e " ; i s i t w e l l thought o u t ; has i t been w e l l developed? . . . i f the s o l u t i o n i s uncommunicable or u n s a l e a b l e f o r whatever r e a s o n , i t f a i l s t o meet an e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n of a " c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n " . (p. 10) For the purpose of g u i d i n g t h e r a t i n g of the c r i t e r i o n 13 measure of c r e a t i v i t y , the P r o p o s a l s , the c r e a t i v e achievement or p r o d u c t was d e f i n e d as one which met a l l of the t h r e e c r i t e r i a : n o v e l t y , u s e f u l n e s s , and c o m m u n i c a b i l i t y . 1.4 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d the background t o the problem, namely, r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and arguments which suggest p o t e n t i a l v a l u e i n e x p l o r i n g the use of SRP t a s k s f o r measuring c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n c h i l d r e n . The problem has been s t a t e d i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t o be a d d r e s s e d i n the s t u d y : 1. How might i n d i v i d u a l s m a n i f e s t c r e a t i v i t y on SRP t a s k s ? 2. How would SRP v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of "everyday w o r l d " performance, ( i . e . , the P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s ) ? 3. How would SRP v a r i a b l e s and the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e r e l a t e t o e veryday b e h a v i o r as d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s , ( i . e . , the case study v a r i a b l e s ) ? 4. How would the new v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x i s t i n g measure, of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g ? 5. How would the new v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of academic achievement? 6. How would the new v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x i s t i n g measure of s e l f - c o n c e p t ? F i n a l l y , d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y (as a b i l i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y , and achievement) t o g u i d e the r e s e a r c h have been s p e c i f i e d . W h i l e S e c t i o n 1.1, t h e Background of the Problem, has s e r v e d t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t i o n a l e f o r the d e s i g n of SRP t a s k s , 1 4 Chapter I I r e v i e w s l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g ( l ) g e n e r a l approaches t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , and ( 2)problems i n h e l p i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s . 1 5 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 Approaches To I d e n t i f y i n g C r e a t i v e I n d i v i d u a l s Three g e n e r a l approaches t o i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s use measures of a b i l i t y , or p e r s o n a l i t y , or achievement (B a r r o n e t a l . , 1981). Arguments r e g a r d i n g the use of t h e s e a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t s u s i n g measures of achievement a r e r e f e r r e d t o as the p r o d u c t approach. Those u s i n g measures of a b i l i t y or p e r s o n a l i t y a r e grouped t o g e t h e r i n what i s c a l l e d the p r o c e s s approach (Gowan et a l . , 1964) . 2.1.1 P r o d u c t Approach J Some arguments f o r the p r o d u c t approach a r e based on what might be c o n s i d e r e d the l o g i c a l f u t i l i t y of the p r o c e s s approach. That i s , w h i l e the p r o c e s s approach a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y , i t does not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e whether or when the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l use t h i s c a p a c i t y . I t has been suggested t h a t the human mind p r o b a b l y always has had c r e a t i v i t y w i t h i n i t s c a p a c i t y and t h a t t h e r e f o r e one can o n l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among peopl e by examining t h e i r p r o d u c t s ( N i c h o l l s , 1972). On a s i m i l a r theme, Kagan (1967) has compared the e n t e r p r i s e of t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t c r e a t i v i t y from c a p a c i t y t o the a b s u r d i t y of t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t number of c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s of f e r t i l i t y . He argued t h a t the r e s u l t of t h i s approach has been a tendency t o c o n f u s e c a p a c i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y w i t h the c r e a t i v e p e r s o n , whereas f e r t i l i t y would 16 never be c o n f u s e d w i t h number of c h i l d r e n . There has been p e r s i s t e n t c r i t i c i s m t h a t the term, c r e a t i v i t y , may be b e t t e r used t o d e s c r i b e a r a r e q u a l i t y or g e n i u s r a t h e r than a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t s e t of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s ( T r e f f i n g e r & P o g g i o , 1972). A t t e n t i o n has been drawn t o the i n a b i l i t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures ( d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s from one a n o t h e r by s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e s ) t o r e f l e c t t he l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y between e m i n e n t l y c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s and tho s e who seem t o produce l i t t l e t h a t i s worthy of note (Gowan e t a l . , 1971). N i c h o l l s (1972) has suggested t h a t any g i v e n p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not l i k e l y t o have the same p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o r d i n a r y i n d i v i d u a l s as i n e m i n e n t l y c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . (While such v a r i a b l e s may d i f f e r e n t i a t e between known groups, they a r e u n l i k e l y t o have p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i n u n s e l e c t e d samples.) He a l s o argued t h a t w h i l e p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s such as d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g assume a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t and un n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n a concept of a t r a i t of c r e a t i v i t y . Thus, he a r g u e s , i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t s t h a t c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s can be i d e n t i f i e d . W h i l e arguments such as the ones l i s t e d suggest a g r e a t e r degree of d e f e n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o d u c t approach, t h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Whether jugdes have the a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e p r o d u c t s has been one cause f o r c o n c e r n (Anderson, 1959; L a s s w e l l , 1959; and Murray, 1959). Blank (1982, p. 161-162) has p r e s e n t e d arguments f o r e x p e r t judgement as the most s e n s i t i v e and p r o b a b l y the o n l y m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s f o r 17 the e v a l u a t i o n of c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t s . The development of g u i d e l i n e s f o r o b t a i n i n g p r o d u c t s and of c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g them has been p r o b l e m a t i c (Brogden & S p r e c h e r , 1964; G h i s e l i n , 1963; Kagan, 1967; S h a p i r o , 1970; T r e f f i n g e r e t a l . , 1971). How p r o d u c t s a r e o b t a i n e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n purposes r a i s e s a number of i s s u e s . R e q u e s t i n g p r o d u c t s f o r e v a l u a t i o n , the "work samples" a p p r o a c h , r a t h e r than examining n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g ones may i n t r o d u c e a s p e c t s of m o t i v a t i o n and work h a b i t s t h a t may not be t y p i c a l f o r the p r o d u c e r s (Brogden e t a l . , 1964). Blank (1982) has p r e s e n t e d a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or elements of t h e problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n which a r e e s s e n t i a l i f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t o be engaged i n the g e n e r a t i o n of a p r o d u c t or s o l u t i o n (p. 4-5). He has o u t l i n e d ways i n which the elements of the problem must be: changeable or t r a n s f o r m a b l e ; a v a i l a b l e (or a c t i v a t e d or i n f o c u s ) f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n a t any time d u r i n g problem s o l v i n g ; and f r e e of c o n s t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r i s i n g from p r e v i o u s c o n t e x t s . The c o m p l e x i t y of e v a l u a t i n g n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p r o d u c t s has been i l l u s t r a t e d . Kagan (1967) has proposed f o u r c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g p r o d u c t s : n o v e l t y , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and c o n d e n s a t i o n . However, he has a l s o d i s c u s s e d the many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementing t h e s e c r i t e r i a . Brogden and Sprecher (1964) p r e s e n t e d a number of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s and o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s as b e i n g r e l e v a n t when j u d g i n g the c r e a t i v i t y of t h e person t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n of the p r o d u c t . Examples of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s were: age, p o s i t i o n , and amount of 18 time i n the j o b s i t u a t i o n . Examples of o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s were: a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l e nvironment; and d i f f i c u l t y or p o t e n t i a l of the problem a r e a s t u d i e d . T a y l o r (1975) has r e p o r t e d on the use of a C r e a t i v e P r o d u c t I n v e n t o r y which uses seven t y p e s of c r i t e r i a ( e . g . , o r i g i n a l i t y , r e l e v a n c y , c o m p l e x i t y ) t o a s s e s s each of f o u r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the p r o d u c t ( e . g . , the p r o d u c t ' s r e l a t i o n t o the problem; the p r o d u c t ' s r e l a t i o n t o the f i e l d ) . B lank (1982, p. 11-12) has p r o v i d e d e i g h t c r i t e r i a which the s t u d e n t p r o d u c e r can use t o e v a l u a t e h i s / h e r own c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t ( e . g . , whether the s o l u t i o n l e a d s t o f u r t h e r i d e a s / s o l u t i o n s or i s a dead end; whether the s o l u t i o n answers a l l a s p e c t s of the problem s i t u a t i o n . ) G i v e n a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i v i t y and the d i f f e r e n t meanings t h a t c r e a t i v i t y has f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e agreement about what t y p e of p r o d u c t and which e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a would be s u i t a b l e (Anderson,. 1959; Brogden et a l . , 1964; T r e - f f i n g e r et a l . , 1971). The l a r g e i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r o d u c t approach i s t h a t p r o d u c t s a r e of i n t e r e s t as i n t e r m e d i a t e c r i t e r i a f o r p r e d i c t i n g t o the u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l l i f e p r o d u c t i o n . V a l i d a t i o n i n terms of the u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n i s i m p r a c t i c a l and s u b s t i t u t i n g e a r l i e r c r i t e r i a r e s u l t s i n measures which "cannot s t r i c t l y be r e g a r d e d as e i t h e r c r i t e r i o n or p r e d i c t o r s , but o n l y as g u i d i n g landmarks" ( S h a p i r o , 1970, p. 259). T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e s e i n t e r m e d i a t e c r i t e r i a a re a c c e p t a b l e . 19 2.1.2 P r o c e s s Approach P r o c e s s measures of c r e a t i v i t y a r e not f o r g l o b a l measurement of c r e a t i v i t y , but f o r measuring s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s . Gowan (1964) has c l a s s i f i e d the p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o t h r e e groups: (1) the f a c t o r a n a l y s t s of a b i l i t y , ( t h e o r e t i c i a n s r e p r e s e n t e d by G u i l f o r d ) who have g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n t o d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n , o r i g i n a l i t y , i d e a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y , and r e d e f i n i t i o n a b i l i t y , and who s t r e s s t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of k i n d s of c r e a t i v i t y ; (2) t h o s e c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h v i a b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l s , i n t e r v i e w s , p e r s o n a l assessments, and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s , ( e . g . , T a y l o r , MacKinnon, and B a r r o n ) ; and ( 3 ) t h o s e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n measuring c r e a t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n through t e s t i n g and o t h e r forms of assessments. (p. 78-79) Arguments have been o f f e r e d f o r the l o g i c a l advantages of the p r o c e s s approach. T r e f f i n g e r e t a l . (1971) have suggested t h a t i f c r e a t i v i t y i s not a s t a b l e human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h e n , assuming a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t , i t would seem more a p p r o p r i a t e t o determine the c o n s i s t e n c y of each component p a r t and t o p l a c e more emphasis on the s t a b i l i t y of measures of c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r . Anderson (1959), i n a c k n o w l e d g i n g the problems r e l a t e d t o q u e s t i o n s of v a l u e and s o c i a l a p p r o v a l of p r o d u c t s , has suggested t h a t by s e l e c t i n g p e o p l e who are c a p a b l e of u s i n g the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , t h i s group w i l l i n c l u d e t h o s e who w i l l a c t u a l l y g e n e r a t e the p r o d u c t s of i n t e r e s t t o s o c i e t y . S t e i n (1968) has e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t n o v e l p r o d u c t s may be a r r i v e d a t w i t h o u t the use of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , e.g., t h r o u g h t r i a l and e r r o r , problem s o l v i n g p r o c e d u r e s , d i s c o v e r y , / 20 and s e r e n d i p i t y . (Yet these may w e l l be p a r t of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . ) He contended t h a t s i n c e c r e a t i v i t y i s a p r o c e s s , i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d as c r e a t i v e s h o u l d be homogeneous i n terms of p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t h e r than i n s o f a r as t h e i r p r o d u c t s have, been judged by some group of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s as b e i n g unique and a d a p t i v e . Brogden and Sprecher (1964) have noted t h a t knowledge about p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t r a i n i n g and may be i m p o r t a n t f o r s e l e c t i o n i f a c o l l e c t i o n of p r o c e s s measures can be shown t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o p r o d u c t measures and more r e l i a b l e . Some weaknesses of the p r o c e s s approach have been e x p r e s s e d i n terms of the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the use of p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s . • Measures of c r e a t i v i t y t h a t f i t w e l l i n t o e s t a b l i s h e d p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e s have s a c r i f i c e d e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , which, i n r e a l l i f e , o f t e n t a k e s the form of i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t a p p l i e d t o one r e a l problem over a l o n g p e r i o d of time ( T r e f f i n g e r & P o g g i o , 1972.) • R e l i a n c e on c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t s a s s i g n s a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e t o the more dynamic m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e r s t h a t make p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i v i t y k i n e t i c (Kagan, 1967.) • C r e a t i v i t y o c c u r s i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t and one which i s p r o b a b l y u n l i k e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g or l a b o r a t o r y environment ( S t e i n 1968.) • I t i s not y e t known how l a r g e a b a t t e r y i t w i l l t a k e t o a s s e s s a l l a s p e c t s of a c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v i t y ( T o r r a n c e , 21 c i t e d by Gowan, 1964.) • Many d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s have f i e l d - s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n c e and we have o n l y a p r i m i t i v e s t a t e of knowledge r e g a r d i n g the a b i l i t i e s u n d e r l y i n g c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n any g i v e n f i e l d ( B a r r o n & H a r r i n g t o n , 1981.) • Tasks w i t h i n commonly used e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s do not p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h i g h l e v e l c r e a t i v e r e sponses (C r o c k e n b e r g , 1972.) Re g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y measures i n p a r t i c u l a r , B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n (1981) noted t h a t w h i l e a f a i r l y s t a b l e s e t of c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e p e o p l e has emerged from e m p i r i c a l work, q u e s t i o n s remain as t o : which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y f a c i l i t a t e c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as opposed t o e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r of any form; which a r e b y - p r o d u c t s of c r e a t i v e achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n as opposed t o more g e n e r a l s o c i a l achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n ; and which a r e me r e l y n o n c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t e s of c r e a t i v e achievement? They a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n t o r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may v a r y as a f u n c t i o n of age, sex, and f i e l d of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . 2.1.3 Summary Whether the p r o d u c t approach or p r o c e s s approach i s more d e f e n s i b l e i s l i k e l y t o remain an u n t e s t a b l e q u e s t i o n u n t i l t h e r e i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of each approach. I n t e r e s t i n e f f i c i e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n methods and the d e s i r e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c r e a t i v i t y w i l l l i k e l y 22 c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e momentum f o r the p r o c e s s approach. Development work w i t h the p r o c e s s approach, however, f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e s t h e use of the p r o d u c t approach f o r o b t a i n i n g v a l i d a t i o n d a t a . From the c r i t i c i s m s l i s t e d f o r the p r o c e s s approach ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o measures of c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s ) , i t would appear w o r t h w h i l e t o c o n s i d e r means f o r remedying the f o l l o w i n g : d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the s o c i a l c o n t e x t f o r r e a l l i f e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y and the c o n t e x t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p r o c e s s measures; d i s c r e p a n c i e s between r e a l l i f e m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e r s f o r c r e a t i v i t y and p r o c e s s measures m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e r s ; d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the c o n t e n t domain tapped by. c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t s and the f i e l d i n which c r e a t i v i t y i s e x p e c t e d t o be m a n i f e s t e d ; and l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i g h l e v e l c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g on c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t s . The c o n c e r n s o u t l i n e d f o r the p r o d u c t approach suggest t h a t a h i g h degree of s e n s i t i v i t y r e g a r d i n g c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s and m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n t e x t would be i m p o r t a n t i n s e l e c t i n g or d e s i g n i n g any p r o d u c t measure. Of p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e , i s B l a n k ' s (1982) v e r y comprehensive a n a l y s i s of the problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of elements i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l i f the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t o be u t i l i z e d i n the g e n e r a t i o n of a p r o d u c t or s o l u t i o n . 23 2.2 Problems In H e l p i n g Teachers To I d e n t i f y C r e a t i v e S t u d e n t s F i n d i n g e f f e c t i v e means t o en a b l e t e a c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s i s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r two main r e a s o n s . One i s the b l u r r y d i s t i n c t i o n between " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d " and " c r e a t i v e l y g i f t e d " . The o t h e r i s the m u l t i t u d e of f a c t o r s t h a t o p e r a t e t o de p r e s s the e x p r e s s i o n of c r e a t i v i t y i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . Many have a c c e p t e d t h a t some g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e c r e a t i v e and some a r e not (T o r r a n c e & Gowan, 1971, p. 201). I t has a l s o been found t h a t some c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s (as i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r p r o d u c t s ) a r e not i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d (MacKinnon, 1978). To i n v i t e t e a c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s on the b a s i s of o b s e r v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s not a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m a t t e r s i n c e a m u l t i f a c e t e d view of c r e a t i v i t y would i n c l u d e some b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s of c r e a t i v i t y t h a t a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e (Swenson, 1978). T o r r a n c e (1964) has summarized t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n from l e s s c r e a t i v e but e q u a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n : h a v i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r h a v i n g w i l d or s i l l y i d e a s ; d o i n g work which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p r o d u c t i o n of i d e a s t h a t a r e " o f f the beaten t r a c k or o u t s i d e of the mold"; and d o i n g work which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by humor, p l a y f u l n e s s , r e l a t i v e l a c k of r i g i t y and r e l a x a t i o n . T o r r a n c e and o t h e r s , however, have i d e n t i f i e d a number of f a c t o r s (examples below) which work a g a i n s t the e x p r e s s i o n of such d i v e r g e n c y or o r i g i n a l i t y . P r i n c e (1975), i n s t u d y i n g the i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g , has 2 4 i d e n t i f i e d a number of s p e c u l a t i o n - r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y e x h i b i t e d w i t h i n a c o m p e t i t i v e c l i m a t e and has d i s c u s s e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g s p e c u l a t i o n - e n h a n c i n g a c t i o n s . Blank (1982), a d d r e s s i n g the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g , has o u t l i n e d means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the " c o m f o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m " w h e r e i n t h e r e i s freedom from n e g a t i v e p u n i s h i n g c r i t i c i s m and the p r a c t i c e of p o s i t i v e , h e l p f u l , e n c o u r a g i n g e v a l u a t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d would appear t o r e q u i r e t i m e , commitment, and c e r t a i n k i n d s of knowledge or s k i l l s on the p a r t of the t e a c h e r . As f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g the e x p r e s s i o n of d i v e r g e n c y or o r i g i n a l i t y , T o r r a n c e (1964) has d i s c u s s e d : s u c c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n ; p e e r - o r i e n t a t i o n ; s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t q u e s t i o n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n ; the e q u a t i n g of d i v e r g e n c y w i t h a b n o r m a l i t y ; the w o r k - p l a y dichotomy frame of r e f e r e n c e ; heterogeneous g r o u p i n g ; and c o n s t r a i n t s such as time p r e s s u r e s , s c h e d u l i n g , and the t e a c h e r ' s view of the r o l e of the t e a c h e r . I t would seem t h a t t e a c h e r s may have l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o observe e v i d e n c e of c r e a t i v i t y among t h e i r s t u d e n t s and may have d i f f i c u l t y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . 25 I I I . METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner t o p r e s e n t the r e s e a r c h methodology: P o p u l a t i o n and Sample; I n s t r u m e n t s Used; (a) S e a r s / S p a u l d i n g S e l f - C o n c e p t I n v e n t o r y ; (b) Canadian T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ; (c) T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g ; I n s t r u m e n t s / V a r i a b l e s Developed; (a) SRP t a s k s , s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s , and v a r i a b l e s ; (b) P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y , r a t i n g s c a l e , and s c o r i n g ; and (c) Case Study p r e p a r a t i o n and v a r i a b l e development. Study P r o c e d u r e s and T i m e l i n e . 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n And Sample The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the stu d y were the grade f i v e s t u d e n t s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The stu d y sample i n c l u d e d 250 grade f i v e student's from t en c l a s s e s l o c a t e d i n e i g h t s c h o o l s . One of the c l a s s e s was a grade f o u r / f i v e s p l i t . The mean age as of September 1st of the s c h o o l y e a r was 125 months w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 6 months. S c h o o l s s e l e c t e d were the o n l y e i g h t t o respond w i t h f u l l commitment t o a d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n v i t a t i o n f o r s c h o o l s t o v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . Another f o u r s c h o o l s e x p r e s s e d some i n t e r e s t and t h e s e p r o v i d e d s i x grade f i v e c l a s s e s f o r p i l o t i n g work i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e c e i v e d and responded t o the i n v i t a t i o n s a f t e r 26 d e t e r m i n i n g t h a t t h e r e was i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of a grade f i v e t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l . The d i s t r i c t c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26 s c h o o l s t h a t i n c l u d e d grades K-7. The c i t y had a p o p u l a t i o n of over 65,000, was l o c a t e d i n the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, and f e a t u r e d the p r o v i n c e ' s f o u r main i n d u s t r i e s of m i n i n g , f o r e s t r y , f a r m i n g , and t o u r i s m . Among the t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t u d y , f o u r were male and s i x were female. In the s i x p i l o t c l a s s e s , f o u r t e a c h e r s were male and two were fema l e . 3.2 I n s t r u m e n t s Used 3.2.1 S e a r s / S p a u l d i n g S e l f - C o n c e p t I n v e n t o r y Student s e l f - c o n c e p t r e g a r d i n g s e l f - i m a g e and g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l competence i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s r o o m t a s k s was measured u s i n g an i n v e n t o r y r e v i s e d by S p a u l d i n g (1966) from one dev e l o p e d by Sear s (1963). The r e v i s e d i n s t r u m e n t was extended t o i n c l u d e items r e l a t e d t o d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g and a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g a l o n g w i t h t h o s e r e l a t e d t o mental a b i l i t i e s of a more c o n v e n t i o n a l n a t u r e . H a r r i s (1977) used the i n v e n t o r y w i t h grade f i v e s t u d e n t s t o o b t a i n measures of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e g a r d i n g s e l f , problem s o l v i n g , and human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l s . The measure u t i l i z e s 90 items t o be a s s e s s e d on a m o d i f i e d L i k e r t s c a l e and a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a group w r i t t e n untimed b a s i s . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s measure as de t e r m i n e d by S p a u l d i n g was r e p o r t e d as .85 and .82 f o r h e i g h t of s e l f - c o n c e p t 27 and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s p e c t i v e l y . He r e p o r t e d the i n s t r u m e n t as b e i n g used s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h grade f o u r and s i x s t u d e n t s . S p a u l d i n g had o f f e r e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i t e m s a l o n g e i g h t major d i m e n s i o n s : s o c i a l b e h a v i o r ; a t t r a c t i v e appearance; s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r s ; work h a b i t s ; mental a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g c r e a t i v i t y ; mental a t t i t u d e s ; human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l s ; and s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . T h i s 9 0 - q u e s t i o n i n s t r u m e n t was s h o r t e n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t o 63 q u e s t i o n s by d e l e t i n g items p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y from each of the e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of items p r o v i d e d by S p a u l d i n g . The r e s u l t i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s I n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. Teacher's i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. To d e t e r m i n e whether s u b t e s t s w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e might be d e f i n a b l e , an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a n a l y s i s ( L e r t a p , UBC) of the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (n=24l) was c a r r i e d out The L e r t a p a n a l y s i s computed a Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y of .96 f o r the t o t a l t e s t . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t was u n i v a r i a t e and t h a t i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e t o use s u b j e c t s ' t o t a l s c o r e s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r performance on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y s u b j e c t s ' t o t a l s c o r e s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were used i n t h e a n a l y s e s i n the s t u d y . The o b t a i n e d Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y a l s o i n d i c a t e d a h i g h degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the s h o r t e n e d i n s t r u m e n t . 28 3.2.2 Canadian T e s t s Of B a s i c S k i l l s To i n c l u d e a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of s u b j e c t s ' academic achievement, r e s u l t s from the s p r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the CTBS were o b t a i n e d from the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . These t e s t s were w r i t t e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e months p r i o r to the commencement of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n the s t u d y . The CTBS i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s : V o c a b u l a r y , Reading, Language, Work Study, and Math. I f a l l s u b t e s t s have been c o m p l e t e d , a composite s c o r e i s a l s o r e p o r t e d . The CTBS composite s c o r e was used as the v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g academic achievement. R e l i a b i l i t y . In p r e s e n t i n g a s p l i t - h a l v e s r e l i a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s f o r the t e s t b a t t e r y , CTBS, the p u b l i s h e r s r e p o r t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .98 f o r the Composite Score f o r Grade Four , L e v e l Ten ( K i n g , 1975, p . 5 2 ) . 3.2.3'Torrance T e s t s Of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g Three of the t a s k s from the TTCT were used: the P r o d u c t Improvement A c t i v i t y ( V e r b a l T e s t , Form A ) ; the Incomplete F i g u r e A c t i v i t y ( F i g u r a l T e s t , Form A ) ; and the Repeated F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y , i . e . , C i r c l e s ( F i g u r a l T e s t , Form B ) . These t a s k s were s e l e c t e d from the TTCT because they appeared t o be l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the k i n d s of f u n c t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d on SRP t a s k s . The P r o d u c t Improvement A c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s examinees t o l i s t a l l the d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t a t o y c o u l d be improved t o make i t more fun f o r c h i l d r e n t o p l a y w i t h . T h i s i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the 29 SRP's requ i r e m e n t t h a t examinees l i s t m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n methods. R e g a r d i n g the Incomplete F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y , T o r r a n c e (1966a) has w r i t t e n : As i s w e l l known i n G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , an i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s e t s up i n an i n d i v i d u a l t e n s i o n s t o complete i t i n the s i m p l e s t and e a s i e s t way p o s s i b l e . Thus, t o produce an o r i g i n a l r e s ponse, the s u b j e c t u s u a l l y has to c o n t r o l h i s t e n s i o n s and d e l a y g r a t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s impulse t o c l o s u r e . ( p . 14) T h i s type of f u n c t i o n i n g would seem t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e q u i r e d by the SRP where the examinee must remain open t o a l t e r n a t e approaches t o t h e problem or a l t e r n a t e r e f o r m u l a t i o n s of the problem. The Repeated F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y u s i n g the C i r c l e s t e s t s the a b i l i t y t o make m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o the same s t i m u l u s and r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y t o d i s r u p t or d e s t r o y an a l r e a d y complete form. T h i s t a s k would appear t o be r e l a t e d t o the a b i l i t y t o f r e e - a s s o c i a t e or t o r e d e f i n e problems which may a l s o f a c i l i t a t e performance on SRP t a s k s . S c o r i n g . The v e r b a l t a s k , P r o d u c t Improvement, was s c o r e d f o r F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y f o l l o w i n g the p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n the s c o r i n g g u i d e p r o v i d e d by T o r r a n c e (1966b). The v e r b a l t a s k was not s c o r e d f o r o r i g i n a l i t y as e x a m i n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s ' r e sponses suggested t h a t the a v a i l a b l e p r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g o r i g i n a l i t y were o u t - o f - d a t e . The Incomplete F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y was s c o r e d f o r F l u e n c y and O r i g i n a l i t y u s i n g the r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d s t r e a m l i n e d s c o r i n g g u i d e ( T o r r a n c e & B a l l , 1980). The Repeated F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y was a l s o s c o r e d f o r F l u e n c y and O r i g i n a l i t y u s i n g the 30 s t r e a m l i n e d s c o r i n g guide ( T o r r a n c e & B a l l , 1978). Both f i g u r a l t a s k s were a l s o s c o r e d f o r components of the C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s s c o r e d e s c r i b e d i n the s c o r i n g g u i d e s . To d e v e l o p the C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s s c o r e , r esponses t o the f i g u r a l t a s k s were s c o r e d f o r the n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f : movement; e x p r e s s i o n of emotion; a r t i c u l a t e n e s s ; humor; r i c h n e s s of imagery; i n t e r n a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n ; u n usual v i s u a l i z a t i o n ; c o m b i n a t i o n s ; b r e a k i n g / e x t e n d i n g b o u n d a r i e s . R e l i a b i l i t i e s . V a r i o u s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from .88 t o .99 f o r f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y f o r v e r b a l and f i g u r a l forms u s i n g t e s t - r e t e s t , i n t e r - s c o r e r , and i n t r a - s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s have been r e p o r t e d ( T o r r a n c e 1966a). T o r r a n c e , i n commenting on a l i s t of t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s , s u g g ested t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s t e n d t o handle the m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of t e s t i n g more a d e q u a t e l y when they conduct e x p e r i m e n t s than when they c o l l e c t n o r m a t i v e d a t a . He noted that, s i n c e m o t i v a t i o n i s i n d i s p u t a b l y i m p o r t a n t i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . The t e a c h e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the T o r r a n c e t a s k s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C. Re g a r d i n g the s t r e a m l i n e d s c o r i n g methods, T o r r a n c e and B a l l (1980, p.6) have r e p o r t e d t h a t s e v e r a l s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s have been completed and i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o keep the s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y of the n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d ( i . e . , f i g u r a l f l u e n c y and o r i g i n a l i t y i n t h i s s t u d y ) and c r i t e r i o n -r e f e r e n c e d ( i . e . , components of the C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s s c o r e ) 31 measures of t h e s e new s c o r i n g c o n c e p t s above the .90 l e v e l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r f i f t h grade s t u d e n t s ' b o o k l e t s they r e p o r t e d s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s of .99 f o r f l u e n c y and .99 f o r o r i g i n a l i t y . For the component c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s s c o r e , r e p o r t e d s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranged from .42 f o r I n t e r n a l V i s u a l i z a t i o n t o 1.00 f o r Movement/Action. 3.3 Development Of I n s t r u m e n t s And V a r i a b l e s 3.3.1 Development Of SRP Tasks And V a r i a b l e s Task Development. To o b t a i n a p o o l of everyday, h i g h - i n t e r e s t problems from which t o s e l e c t t a s k s f o r an SRP, the "What's a R e a l Problem?" Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (WRPQ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a l l of the study c l a s s e s by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix E. The Problems o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the WRPQ were examined i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r e s t s and u s u a l ways of d e f i n i n g problem s i t u a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g problems were s e l e c t e d t o be p i l o t e d as SRP t a s k s : (1) 1 want t o b u i l d a model j e t but I don't have the money f o r a s e t . (2) 1 want t o make something e l e c t r i c a l but I don't have the m a t e r i a l s I need. (3) A l o t of k i d s i n our c i t y want t o have a horse but t h e i r p a r e n t s c a n ' t a f f o r d i t and they have no p l a c e t o keep one. (4) 1 want t o keep my s i s t e r from coming i n my room because she 32 messes i t up, she bugs me, and she t a k e s my t h i n g s . (5) 1 want t h i n g s t o go b e t t e r i n my l i f e but I don't t h i n k I can do a n y t h i n g . (6) 1 want t o s t o p wars but who would l i s t e n t o a k i d i n el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . SRP P i l o t Form A i n c l u d e d problems ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , and (5) and Form B i n c l u d e d ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , and ( 6 ) . Eq u a l numbers of the two forms were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n each of the s i x p i l o t c l a s s e s and were a d m i n i s t e r e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r o b s e r v e d a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the p i l o t forms. For each of the p i l o t t a s k s , a master l i s t of a l l s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n approaches) i n c l u d i n g f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s was p r e p a r e d . C a t e g o r i e s of responses were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the master l i s t . Those c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were i n f r e q u e n t l y used and t h a t were judged t o be both i m a g i n a t i v e and c l e v e r or p r o m i s i n g were noted as c a t e g o r i e s - t o be c r e d i t e d f o r an o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e . T h i s work was c a r r i e d out by the r e s e a r c h e r and two r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s working t o g e t h e r but on d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . The f i n a l d e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s and s e l e c t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s t o be c r e d i t e d f o r o r i g i n a l i t y had t o be agreed upon by a l l t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s . D i s c u s s i o n was conducted u n t i l consensus was reached. The p r o t o c o l s thus d e v e l o p e d were used by the r e s e a r c h e r t o s c o r e a l l p i l o t SRP's s u b m i t t e d . ( A l l p i l o t SRP's s u b m i t t e d were used i n the development of p r o t o c o l s , i . e . , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 per form.) The P i l o t SRP's were s c o r e d f o r : 33 (1) F l u e n c y : one p o i n t f o r each non-redundant i d e a ; (2) F l e x i b i l i t y : one p o i n t f o r each c a t e g o r y used; and (3) O r i g i n a l i t y : one p o i n t f o r each response b e l o n g i n g t o an " o r i g i n a l i t y " c a t e g o r y . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r the p i l o t t a s k s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3.1. Tasks ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , and (6) were s e l e c t e d as t a s k s f o r the f i n a l form of the SRP. These were the o n l y t a s k s t h a t evoked responses t h a t were judged t o q u a l i f y as both i m a g i n a t i v e and c l e v e r or p r o m i s i n g . The SRP i n i t s f i n a l form i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix F. 34 Table 1 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r the P i l o t SRP Tasks V a r i a b l e Task Mean S .D. Min Max F l u e n c y (1) 5 92 3 .34 2 16 (2) 4 36 2 .77 0 17 (3) 3 79 2 .17 0 10 (4) 5 90 3 .43 0 21 (5) 4 49 3 .33 0 15 (6) 1 96 1 .88 0 12 F l e x i b i l i t y (1 ) 1 .62 .84 1 4 (2) 2 .64 1 .29 0 7 (3) 2 . 1 4 .94 0 4 (4) 2 .26 .86 0 4 (5) 2 .17 1 .20 0 5 (6) 1 .40 1 .02 0 5 O r i g i n a l i t y (1 ) .36 .60 0 2 (2) (3) .27 .45 0 1 (4) (5) (6) .01 .12 0 1 Notes: For Form A, t a s k s : ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , and ( 5 ) , n=68. For Form B, t a s k s : ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , and (6),. n = 70. For t a s k s ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , and ( 5 ) , t h e r e were no c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were judged t o q u a l i f y f o r o r i g i n a l i t y c r e d i t . Score Development. To a r r i v e a t f i n a l s c o r e s f o r an SRP, t h r e e main s t e p s were u n d e r t a k e n : (1) Working from a master l i s t w i t h f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s of s u b j e c t s ' responses t o each t a s k , a c o d i n g system was d e v e l o p e d t o q u a n t i f y a l a r g e number of q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s among s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e t a s k s . (2) The f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of a n a l y s e s were undertaken t o determine 35 the m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d and s c o r e d i n s t e p 1 above. (a) I n t e r - t a s k c o r r e l a t i o n s were examined t o det e r m i n e whether t h e r e was i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y among the same or s i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s or t y p e s of s c o r e s . (b) I n t r a - t a s k c o r r e l a t i o n s were examined t o det e r m i n e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of combining i n f r e q u e n t l y used c a t e g o r i e s . (c) C o r r e l a t i o n s between SRP s c o r e s and s c o r e s on the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y ( t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of c r e a t i v i t y i n the study) were examined t o det e r m i n e the r e l e v a n c e of s c o r e s i n i t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r the SRP t a s k s . ( 3 ) F o r t h o s e s c o r e s t o be r e t a i n e d f o r the SRP,.as d e t e r m i n e d i n s t e p 2 above, s c a l e s were d e v e l o p e d t o r e p l a c e the raw s c o r e s from each t a s k i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the weight of each t a s k / c a t e g o r y i n the f i n a l , c o mposite s c o r e s . For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n i t i a l c o d i n g and s c o r i n g system, see Appendix H ( i . e . , t he r e s u l t s of s t e p 1 ab o v e ) . For the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x of i n i t i a l SRP s c o r e s and the P r o p o s a l s c o r e , see Appendix I . For the r a t i o n a l e s f o r SRP s c o r e s r e t a i n e d / c o m b i n e d f o r use, see Appendix J ( i . e . , r e s u l t s of s t e p 2 a b o v e ) . For the s c a l i n g system used t o compute f i n a l SRP s c o r e s , see Appendix K ( i . e . , s t e p 3 as d e s c r i b e d a bove). R e l i a b i l i t i e s . To d e t e r m i n e i n t e r - s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s , 40 SRP's were randomly s e l e c t e d (8 from those s c o r i n g 5 or 6 on P r o p o s a l ; 16 from t h o s e s c o r i n g 3 t o 4.5 on P r o p o s a l ; and 16 from those s c o r i n g 2.5 or l e s s on P r o p o s a l ) and were s c o r e d by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . These SRP's were a l s o r e - s c o r e d by t h e 36 r e s e a r c h e r t o det e r m i n e i n t r a - s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s . 3.3.2 Development Of P r o p o s a l A c t i v i t y , R a t i n g S c a l e , And Scor i n g Purpose. The purpose of the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y was t o p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u b j e c t s t o demonstrate c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i n an "everyday w o r l d " , h i g h - i n t e r e s t s i t u a t i o n . Development of the P r o p o s a l A c t i v i t y . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were c o n s u l t e d t o determine h i g h - i n t e r e s t e v e n t s t h a t each c l a s s would be i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g and c o n d u c t i n g and t h a t t e a c h e r s would be w i l l i n g t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r . E v e n t s s e l e c t e d t o be the f o c u s of the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y f o r each c l a s s were those w h ich: were of h i g h - i n t e r e s t t o the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s ; p r o v i d e d f o r some degree of commonality i n scope and c o n t e n t a c r o s s e v e n t s ; and p r o v i d e d scope f o r c r e a t i v e t h o u g h t . As the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y i t s e l f , s u b j e c t s were t o w r i t e a s e t of i d e a s about the form the event would t a k e . P r i o r t o w r i t i n g t h e s e " P r o p o s a l s " , each c l a s s was g i v e n a p r e s e n t a t i o n w hich i n c l u d e d : a warm-up a c t i v i t y which p r o v i d e d p r a c t i c e i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g ; the l i s t of c r i t e r i a t h a t the event was ex p e c t e d t o meet; background i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s r e l a t e d t o the e v e n t ; o r a l group p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t o ge n e r a t e i d e a s f o r the e v e n t . The " R e q u e s t - f o r - P r o p o s a l p r e s e n t a t i o n " i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix L. S u b j e c t s were g i v e n a 37 30-minute time p e r i o d t o w r i t e t h e i r P r o p o s a l s . The f o l l o w i n g day, an a d d i t i o n a l 20-minute p e r i o d was p r o v i d e d . Development of t h e R a t i n g S c a l e . A g e n e r a l method f o r the development of s c a l e s t o be used i n r a t i n g complex p r o d u c t s has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n a l a r g e - s c a l e assessment of w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n (Conry, 1978). W i t h the use of t h i s method, r a t i n g s c a l e s a r e b u i l t t o accommodate the number of a b i l i t y l e v e l s t h a t can be m e a n i n g f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d among p r o d u c t s . Each of the p o i n t s on a s c a l e i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the g e n e r a l meaning of the u n d e r l y i n g s k i l l d i m e n s i o n . F i n a l l y , samples of p r o d u c t s are s e l e c t e d t o e x e m p l i f y each of the p o i n t s . T h i s method f o r b u i l d i n g r a t i n g s c a l e s appeared t o be w e l l - s u i t e d t o a d d r e s s the measurement problems of r a t i n g work-samples f o r c r e a t i v i t y c r i t e r i a . That i s , s c a l e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s way c o u l d p r o v i d e f o r o b j e c t i v i t y w h i l e f a c i l i t a t i n g an o p t i m a l l e v e l of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among p r o d u c t s . The f i r s t s t e p i n the b u i l d i n g of the r a t i n g s c a l e was t o d e t e r m i n e the number of a b i l i t y l e v e l s t h a t c o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l l y d e t e c t e d among the P r o p o s a l s . The P r o p o s a l s from f o u r c l a s s e s were used f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e . I t was d e c i d e d i n advance t h a t P r o p o s a l s would be r a t e d on o n l y one d i m e n s i o n c a l l e d " c r e a t i v i t y " , i . e . , o n l y one s c a l e would be d e v e l o p e d . E x a m i n a t i o n of P r o p o s a l s c o n f i r m e d the f e a s i b i l i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h i s p l a n . To d e t e r m i n e the number of a b i l i t y l e v e l s d i s c e r n i b l e ( i . e , the number of p o i n t s t h a t would be on the s c a l e ) the r e s e a r c h e r r e a d the P r o p o s a l s and s o r t e d them i n t o p i l e s . The f i r s t 38 s o r t i n g attempt r e s u l t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f o u r groups.of P r o p o s a l s . These f o u r groups were i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l terms: Group 1 - P r o p o s a l s r e v e a l s t u d e n t s ' i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o attempt the t a s k ; Group 2 -S t u d e n t s have attem p t e d the t a s k w i t h o u t s u c c e s s ; Group 3 -P a r t s or a l l of the P r o p o s a l meet the c r i t e r i a of n o v e l t y ; Group 4 - The P r o p o s a l i d e a s a r e b o t h n o v e l and g e r m i n a l . (See d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a p r o d u c t i n Chapter I f o r B l a n k ' s d e f i n t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' p r o d u c t s which a r e n o v e l and g e r m i n a l . ) A second s o r t i n g e x e r c i s e was then conducted w i t h o n l y the P r o p o s a l s i n Group 2. T h i s s o r t r e s u l t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t h e s e P r o p o s a l s i n t o t h r e e groups. Thus a t o t a l of s i x s c a l e p o i n t s were i d e n t i f i e d by the s o r t i n g p r o c e s s . Each s c a l e p o i n t was i d e n t i f i e d by a g e n e r a l l a b e l or d e s c r i p t i o n and was d e f i n e d i n terms of b o t h an " a n t i c i p a t e d judge's response t o P r o p o s a l s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y " and a " g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n or a n a l y s i s of P r o p o s a l s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . " A f i g u r e which l i s t s t h e s e l a b e l s and d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each of the s c a l e p o i n t s i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix M. Two or t h r e e examples of s t u d e n t s ' P r o p o s a l s were s e l e c t e d t o e x e m p l i f y each of the s c a l e p o i n t s . These exemplars a r e i n c l u d e d as Appendix P. Scor i n g . A l l P r o p o s a l s were r a t e d by both the r e s e a r c h e r who b u i l t the r a t i n g s c a l e and by a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l who was g i v e n t r a i n i n g i n the use of the r a t i n g s c a l e . The second judge was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of e x p e r t i s e i n the a r e a of c r e a t i v i t y and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e grade c h i l d r e n . A t o t a l of 209 P r o p o s a l s were r a t e d by both j u d g e s . The 39 judges gave i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s for 136 (65%) of the Proposals. For 51 (24%) of the Proposals, judges' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by one sca l e p o i n t . For 22 (11%) of the Proposals, judges' r a t i n g d i f f e r e d by two sc a l e p o i n t s . Where judges' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by only one s c a l e p o i n t , the r a t i n g s were averaged to assign a score to the Proposal. Where the r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by two sc a l e p o i n t s , the Proposals were presented to the judges to be independently rated again. A f t e r r a t i n g these Proposals the judges discussed Proposals r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s and attempted to reach consensus. There were 22 Proposals " r e - r a t e d " by both judges. For nine (41%) of these, i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s were assigned. For 11 (50%), i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s were reached through concensus. For two ( 9 % ) , r a t i n g s were l e f t as d i f f e r i n g by one point and were averaged. 3.3.3 Development Of Case Studies And Case Study V a r i a b l e s Purpose. The purpose for developing the case s t u d i e s was to obtai n d e s c r i p t i o n s of subjects' everyday l i f e b e h a v i o r / c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As 11 of the 15 case study subjects had demonstrated c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y on the Proposal a c t i v i t y , the case studi e s for these subjects could provide f o r " r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n " of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s at t h i s age l e v e l . It'was a l s o expected that the case study m a t e r i a l might c o n t r i b u t e to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of some of the SRP v a r i a b l e s . 40 Method. The development of the case s t u d i e s was g u i d e d by b o t h : awareness of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y p i c a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s and awareness of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s u b j e c t s had r e v e a l e d / m a n i f e s t e d i n response t o the SRP t a s k s , i . e . , the SRP var i a b l e s . To o b t a i n m a t e r i a l f o r the case study p r e p a r a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h the s u b j e c t , the* p a r e n t s , and the t e a c h e r . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix N. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h s u b j e c t s and p a r e n t s were tape r e c o r d e d . Hand-w r i t t e n n o t e s were made d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s . The s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the s c h o o l day i n 30-45 minute p e r i o d s . Teachers were i n t e r v i e w e d o u t s i d e of c l a s s time a f t e r the s u b j e c t ( s ) from t h e i r c l a s s had been i n t e r v i e w e d . P a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h e i r c h i l d ' s s c h o o l a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . For 13 of t h e 15 s u b j e c t s , both p a r e n t s a t t e n d e d the i n t e r v i e w . One s u b j e c t had a s i n g l e p a r e n t . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s took a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. Tapes of i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o h a n d - w r i t t e n form by the r e s e a r c h e r . The case s t u d i e s were then w r i t t e n i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. The t r a n s c r i p t s and notes f o r a s u b j e c t were read s e v e r a l t i m e s t o determine the most d i s t i n c t i v e and p e r v a s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t s u b j e c t . Once the s e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e n t i f i e d , a l l s t a tements r e l a t e d t o a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were grouped t o g e t h e r t o form a s u b s e c t i o n of the case s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e case s t u d i e s do not have i d e n t i c a l subheadings. The case s t u d i e s a re i n c l u d e d as Appendix 0. 41 S c o r i n g . The s c o r i n g or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system d e v e l o p e d f o r the case s t u d i e s was an attempt t o q u a n t i f y d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among the case s t u d i e s . E i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e n t i f i e d as v a r i a b l e s or di m e n s i o n s t o be used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . These were: ( l ) u s e of w i l l p o w e r ; (2)use of p r a y e r ; ( 3)use of w i s h i n g ; (4)use of f a n t a s y ; ( 5 ) i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder; (6)use of humor; ( 7 ) s u c c e s s w i t h f r i e n d s ; ( 8 ) s u c c e s s w i t h p a r e n t s . In o r d e r t o generate r u l e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g c a s e s t u d i e s as h i g h , medium, or low on each of th e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s were u n d e r t a k e n . For each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a l l case s t u d i e s were read and i n d i c a t o r s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or i t s absence were r e c o r d e d . From e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e " i n d i c a t o r s " , an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n was d e v e l o p e d f o r h i g h , medium, or low c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Cases were then c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . The adequacy of the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were then examined by c o n s i d e r i n g whether each s u b j e c t ' s a s s i g n e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a l l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n h i s / h e r case s t u d y . I f n o t , the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were expanded or r e f i n e d t o y i e l d a more s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. The r u l e s used f o r s c o r i n g the case s t u d i e s on the e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix P. 42 3.4 Study P r o c e d u r e s And T i m e l i n e F i g u r e 1 o u t l i n e s t h e t i m e l i n e f o r the s t u d y a c t i v i t e s t h a t were c a r r i e d o u t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the CTBS, a l l paper and p e n c i l a c t i v i t i e s used t o c o l l e c t s tudy data were a d m i n i s t e r e d between October 5 - 30, 1981. CTBS r e s u l t s from the p r e v i o u s s p r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were used. The o r d e r of i n s t r u m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was: t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; t a s k s from the TTCT; SRP; and P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . The SRP was a d m i n i s t e r e d on the same day i n a l l c l a s s e s . Teachers were r e q u e s t e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the TTCT t a s k s d u r i n g a s p e c i f i e d week f o r each, c h o o s i n g a day when c l a s s a t t e n d e n c e was good. The case study i n t e r v i e w s were conducted a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e months a f t e r t h e s e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d the s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e TTCT t a s k s , and t h e SRP. The r e s e a r c h e r made the R e q u e s t - f o r - P r o p o s a l p r e s e n t a t i o n t o each of the c l a s s e s . The r e s e a r c h e r and a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t a f f member were the two judges t o r a t e a l l P r o p o s a l s s u b m i t t e d by s u b j e c t s . A l l case study i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by the r e s e a r c h e r . 43 F i g u r e 1 - T i m e l i n e f o r Study A c t i v i t i e s 1 981 June 22 O r i e n t a t i o n meeting w i t h t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t a f f Sept. 28 T r a i n i n g s e s s i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s Sept. 29 - Oct. 22 C o n s t r u c t i o n of SRP - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of "What's a R e a l Problem?" Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - S e l e c t i o n of P i l o t SRP t a s k s - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p i l o t t a s k s - Development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s - S c o r i n g of p i l o t t a s k s - A n a l y s i s of s c o r e s - S e l e c t i o n of t a s k s f o r f i n a l form of SRP Oct. 5 - 9 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e Oct. 12 - 16 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T o r r a n c e t a s k s Oct. 26 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of SRP Oct. 5 - 26 Development of R e q u e s t - f o r - P r o p o s a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s Oct. 27 - 29 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y Nov. 2 - 12 B u i l d i n g of r a t i n g s c a l e f o r P r o p o s a l s Nov. 17 & 28 R a t i n g of P r o p o s a l s Nov. 23 - Dec . 18 Development of SRP s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s and SRP v a r i a b l e s Dec. 9 P i l o t i n g of i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s 1982 J a n . 12 S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s f o r case s t u d i e s J a n . 27 - Feb. 5 Conduct of i n t e r v i e w s f o r case s t u d i e s Feb. 8 - March 18 P r e p a r a t i o n of case s t u d i e s and development of case study v a r i a b l e s 44 IV. ANALYSES AND RESULTS 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the main s t u d y v a r i a b l e s : means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( T a b l e 2 ) ; fr e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s ( T a b l e s 3 and 4 ) ; and r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( T a b le 5 ) . T e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s e c t i o n which p e r t a i n s t o a n a l y s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e s e v a r i a b l e s ( S e c t i o n 4.4). A l l v a r i a b l e s a r e t r e a t e d as i n t e r v a l i n the use of p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s i n the a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d (Gardner, 1975). 4.1..1 Research Q u e s t i o n s A d d r e s s e d In The A n a l y s e s T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s w i t h each s e c t i o n a d d r e s s i n g a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n . A n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e s u l t s as the s t r u c t u r e of each a n a l y s i s i s f r e q u e n t l y dependent upon the r e s u l t s of a p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d by the s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e : i . What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s betweeen the SRP v a r i a b l e s and the To r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s ? i i . What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among P r o p o s a l , CTBS, SRP and T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s ? i i i . What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among P r o p o s a l , SRP, and the case study v a r i a b l e s ? i v . What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between S e l f - C o n c e p t and the o t h e r study v a r i a b l e s ? v. What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Sex and the o t h e r 45 study variables? 4.1.2 Samples For questions ( i ) , ( i i ) , and (v) above, the sample included 151 subjects from 9 classes in seven schools. These were subjects whose scores were available for a l l of: Torrance tasks, SRP, CTBS, and Proposal. One class of students from an eighth school was excluded because, in the i r case, the administration procedures for the Torrance tasks were not co r r e c t l y followed. Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s presented for TTCT tasks, CTBS, SRP, and Proposal are those computed from the sample of 151. For Proposal, the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s are presented for both the sample of 151 as well as for the sample of a l l Proposals submitted (n=225). For SRP, the descriptive s t a t i s t i c s for a l l SRP's submitted (n=242) are presented in Appendix K. From these 151 subjects, 141 constituted the sample for question (iv) above ( i . e . , ten subjects whose scores were not available for Self-Concept were excluded). Test c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s presented for Self-Concept are those that were computed from a l l questionnaires submitted (n=242). The case study sample for question ( i i i ) included 15 subjects. Fourteen of these were from the main study sample of 151. One of these 15 subjects was not included in the main study sample of 151 because of missing scores on the Torrance tasks. For question ( i i ) , the main study sample of 151 i s divided 46 i n t o two subgroups: N o n c r e a t i v e (n=141) and C r e a t i v e (n=lO). C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s were d e f i n e d as those o b t a i n i n g a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of 5 or 6. ( P r o p o s a l was the name of the a c t i v i t y where s u b j e c t s s u b m i t t e d a w r i t t e n p l a n / s u g g e s t i o n f o r a p a r t y or f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t . These " p r o p o s a l s " were p r o d u c t s t h a t were judged f o r c r e a t i v i t y on a s c a l e of 1 t o 6.) For q u e s t i o n ( i i i ) , the case study sample i n c l u d e d a C r e a t i v e Group w i t h n = l l . One of t h e s e C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s was e x c l u d e d from the main study sample of 151 because of m i s s i n g s c o r e s f o r the T o r r a n c e t a s k s . The frequ e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r P r o p o s a l s c o r e s ( T a b l e 4) i n d i c a t e s 13 s u b j e c t s meeting the c r i t e r i a f o r C r e a t i v e Group membership. One of t h e s e s u b j e c t s was e x c l u d e d from main and c a s e s t u d y samples because of m i s s i n g s c o r e s f o r the SRP. The o t h e r was e x c l u d e d from the main study sample because of m i s s i n g s c o r e s f o r CTBS and from the case study sample because of l a c k of pa r e n t p e r m i s s i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4.1.3 Overview Of A n a l y s e s A n d . R e s u l t s For the a n a l y s e s , t h e r e was a common s e t of study d a t a f o r 151 s u b j e c t s . That i n c l u d e d the seven SRP v a r i a b l e s , the P r o p o s a l s c o r e , seven v a r i a b l e s from the TTCT, the composite s c o r e from the CTBS, and a S e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e . The f i r s t s t e p i n the a n a l y s e s was t o l o o k a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the SRP v a r i a b l e s and the TTCT v a r i a b l e s . SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l but two of the seven TTCT v a r i a b l e s . SRP A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h r e e of the TTCT f i g u r a l v a r i a b l e s . 47 O v e r a l l , s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S R P a n d T T C T v a r i a b l e s t e n d e d t o b e a s h i g h a s c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t T o r r a n c e t a s k s a n d S R P t a s k s w e r e m e a s u r i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t w a s c o m m o n . H o w e v e r , f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h a t w a s c o m m o n t o t h e m w a s g e n e r a l a b i l i t y a s m e a s u r e d b y a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t i v i t y . T h e r e w a s c o n v e r g e n c e a m o n g S R P , T T C T , a n d C T B S v a r i a b l e s . H o w e v e r , n o n e o f t h e T T C T v a r i a b l e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l , t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y . T h e n e x t a n a l y s i s s t e p w a s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f t h e S R P v a r i a b l e s w e r e t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s o f p e r f o r m a n c e o n P r o p o s a l . F i v e o f t h e S R P v a r i a b l e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l . H o w e v e r , f o u r o f t h e s e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , C T B S w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l a n d w i t h s o m e o f t h e S R P v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e w a s a l s o t h e q u e s t i o n o f h o w m u c h S R P v a r i a b l e s a d d e d t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f P r o p o s a l g i v e n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . T w o s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d . W h e n o n l y S R P v a r i a b l e s w e r e u s e d t o p r e d i c t P r o p o s a l , F l e x i b i l i t y a n d C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g w e r e s e l e c t e d . W h e n C T B S w a s a l s o u s e d , F l e x i b i l i t y a n d C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e m a i n e d i n t h e e q u a t i o n b u t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n w a s n o t s u b s t a n t i a l . T h u s , g e n e r a l a b i l i t y a s i n d i c a t e d b y a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t s e e m e d t o b e t h e g r e a t l e v e l l e r i n p r e d i c t i n g t o t h e f u l l r a n g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e o n P r o p o s a l . 48 The next a n a l y s i s q u e s t i o n was concerned w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i n g the C r e a t i v e Group. These were the t e n s u b j e c t s who had g o t t e n a "5" or a "6" on the P r o p o s a l r a t i n g . C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were the most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s f o r t h i s purpose. When CTBS was f o r c e d t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , i t had l i t t l e power, even as the f i r s t v a r i a b l e e n t e r e d . In summary, F l e x i b i l i t y and CTBS were the be s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r s of P r o p o s a l s c o r e s . As d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of the C r e a t i v e Group, C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were b e s t . Case s t u d i e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r 15 s u b j e c t s and were q u a n t i f i e d , i n t o e i g h t v a r i a b l e s . These e i g h t v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n convergence a n a l y s e s w i t h t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s and P r o p o s a l . I t was hoped t h a t any s t r o n g p a t t e r n s t h a t emerged might c l a r i f y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the SRP v a r i a b l e s . Both of the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s , Wonder and F r i e n d s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l . The Wonder v a r i a b l e was a s c o r e f o r t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder about the complex or a b s t r a c t . The F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e was a s c o r e f o r p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t . To examine which of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s might be more n e c e s s a r y or s u f f i c i e n t f o r performance on P r o p o s a l , p a t t e r n s i n the raw d a t a were i n s p e c t e d . I t appeared t h a t the Wonder v a r i a b l e was more n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t f o r performance on P r o p o s a l . The raw d a t a were s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i v e about i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g , i n the case study 49 sample, r e p r e s e n t e d the j o i n t presence of s t r e n g t h s on both the Wonder v a r i a b l e and the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e . Only s u b j e c t s who had h i g h s c o r e s on both these v a r i a b l e s had a s c o r e f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . Only s u b j e c t s from t h i s group had the h i g h e s t s c o r e of " 6 " f o r P r o p o s a l . 50 T a b l e 2 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r Study V a r i a b l e s * V a r i a b l e Mean S t a n d a r d Range D e v i a t i o n T o r r a n c e V e r b a l F l u e n c y 1 3.53 6.58 33 V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y 5.56 2.13 1 1 F i g u r a l F l u e n c y 1 8.38 2.15 8 F i g u r a l F l u e n c y 2 15.58 6.45 32 F i g u r a l O r i g i n a l i t y 1 4.80 1 .99 9 F i g u r a l O r i g i n a l i t y 2 4.54 3.15 15 C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s 4.05 2.18" 12 SRP F l u e n c y 7.95 2.81 12 F l e x i b i l i t y 8.94 2.91 15 W i s h i n g .36 .67 3 P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y 1 .23 1 .35 5 Fa n t a s y F a c t o r .64 1.16 6 A n a l y t i c .42 .64 3 C o n c e p t u a l .13 .41 2 P r o p o s a l 2.90 1.17 5 CTBS 5.21 .93 3 S e l f - C o n c e p t 193.00 39.55 176 Age** 124.34 5.85 27 Sex*** N=242 f o r S e l f - C o n c e p t . N=151 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . • D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r case study v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 17 and 18. **For age, u n i t s a r e i n months. ***There were 66 boys and 85 g i r l s . ' 51 T a b l e 3 - P e r c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f S c o r e s f o r F i v e o f t h e SRP V a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e S c o r e % o f S u b j e c t s N=151 N=242 W i s h i n g 0 7 3 . ,5 7 6 . ,4 1 18 . ,5 1 7 . ,4 2 6 . ,6 5 . ,0 3 1 . ,3 1 . ,2 P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y 0 41 . , 1 4 8 . ,0 1 2 3 . .2 2 2 . ,0 2 17 . ,9 16 . .0 3 9 . ,3 7 . .0 4 6. ,6 5 . .0 5 2 . .0 2 . .0 F a n t a s y F a c t o r 0 6 6 . .2 6 6 , . 5 1 17. .9 16, .9 2 8 , .6 8 , .7 3 4 , .0 4 , . 1 4 1 , .3 1 , .7 5 .7 1 , .2 6 1 , . 3 .8 A n a l y t i c 0 64 , .9 6 7 , .0 1 28 , . 5 26 , .0 2 6, .0 6, .0 - 3 .7 .4 C o n c e p t u a l 0 89 , .4 9 3 , . 0 1 7, . 9 5 . 0 2 2, . 6 2 . 0 52 T a b l e 4 - Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of S c o r e s f o r the P r o p o s a l V a r i a b l e n=1 51 n=224 V a r i a b l e P r o p o s a l Score N % N % 1 1 1 7.3 1 6 7.1 1 .5 8 5.3 1 2 5.4 2 44 29. 1 69 30.8 2.5 1 4 9.3 22 9.8 3 16 10.6 22 9.8 3.5 1 1 7.3 1 7 7.6 4 34 22.5 49 21 .9 4.5 3 2.0 4 1.8 5 7 4.6 10 4.5 6 3 2.0 3 1 .3 T a b l e 5 - I n t e r - s c o r e r and I n t r a - s c o r e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the P r o p o s a l and SRP V a r i a b l e s V a r i a b l e I n t e r - s c o r e r I n t r a - s c o r e r SRP F l u e n c y .93 .98 F l e x i b i l i t y .91 .97 W i s h i n g 1.00 1.00 C apable .95 1.00 F a n t a s y F a c t o r 1.00 1.00 A n a l y t i c .89 .92 C o n c e p t u a l .90 .90 P r o p o s a l .88* Note. *Both judges awarded i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s t o 77.8% of the p r o p o s a l s . On the r e m a i n i n g p r o p o s a l s , judges' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by one s c a l e p o i n t . For t h e s e c a s e s , the average of the two r a t i n g s was the f i n a l s c o r e a s s i g n d t o a p r o p o s a l . 53 4.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between The SRP V a r i a b l e s And The Torrance V a r i a b l e s I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the SRP v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 7. C o r r e l a t i o n s between the SRP v a r i a b l e s and the To r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 8. Three of the SRP v a r i a b l e s -- F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g -- were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h v a r i a b l e s from the T o r r a n c e t a s k s . O v e r a l l , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between SRP and To r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s tended t o be of the same magnitude as s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s among T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s ( e x c l u d i n g i n t r a - t a s k v a r i a b l e s ) . T a b l e 6 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among V a r i a b l e s from the To r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (N=151) V F l u V F l e x F 1 F l u F 2 F l u F 1 0 r i g F 2 0 r i g CS V F l u V F l e x 59** F 1 F l u 1 4 01 F 2 F l u 26** 18 32** F 1 0 r i g 13 10 54** 10 F 2 0 r i g 20* 14 13 53** 00 ; CS 3 1 ** 20* 10 31 ** 09 26** No t e s : L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d • *2<. 01 . **P_<.001 . 54 T a b l e 7 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=151) F l u F l e x Wish Capable Fant F A n a l y t i c F l u F l e x 7 9 * * Wish 24* 19 Capable 4 7 * * 27** 02 Fant F 1 5 01 02 07 A n a l y t i c 43** 45** 06 2 9 * * -16 Concept 1 4 07 07 14 20* 19* Notes'; L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *2< .01. **P_<.001 . 55 T a b l e 8 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP and T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151) T o r r a n c e SRP V F l u V F l e x F I F l u F 2 F l u F l O r i g F 2 0 r i g c s F l u 24* 26** 1 3 30** 23* 1 9* 1 5 F l e x 21* 22* 08 30** 20* 22* 1 3 Wish 05 1 6 1 5 05 09 02 -02 Capable -01 -04 -09 03 06 07 02 Fant F 08 12 10 -04 06 -07 02 A n a l y t i c 06 01 07 22** 26** 2g** 01 Concept 01 04 12 06 10 04 1 4 Notes: L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *2<.01 . **2<.001. Both SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s : V e r b a l F l u e n c y , V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y , F i g u r a l Task 2 F l u e n c y , F i g u r a l Task 1 O r i g i n a l i t y and F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y . Of t h e s e , the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e , F i g u r a l Task 2 F l u e n c y , r a t h e r than w i t h the T o r r a n c e v e r b a l v a r i a b l e s . T h i s may be due t o the more q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e of the f i g u r a l measure ( i . e . , i f the examinee's i d e a doesn't work v e r y w e l l he/she p r o b a b l y c a n ' t draw i t and t h e r e f o r e c a n ' t get a s c o r e f o r i t . By c o n t r a s t , examinees may or may not e x e r c i s e e v a l u a t i v e t h i n k i n g on the v e r b a l t a s k . ) 5 6 The SRP v a r i a b l e , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s : F i g u r a l Task 1 O r i g i n a l i t y , F i g u r a l Task 2 F l u e n c y , and F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y . It d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th the T o r r a n c e v e r b a l v a r i a b l e s . I t demonstra ted h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s than wi th the f i g u r a l f l u e n c y v a r i a b l e . I t s c o r r e l a t i o n s w i th the f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were h i g h e r than were those of SRP F l u e n c y or F l e x i b i l i t y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy g i v e n the l e s s e r degree of v a r i a b i l i t y f o r the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e (see T a b l e 3). I t i s a l s o n o t a b l e tha t the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h both T o r r a n c e f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s w h i l e the l a t t e r e x h i b i t e d a ze ro c o r r e l a t i o n w i th each o t h e r . None of the SRP v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th the Torrance, v a r i a b l e , F i g u r a l Task 1 F l u e n c y . However, n e i t h e r d i d the T o r r a n c e v e r b a l v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e wi th i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y . S i n c e F i g u r a l Task l F l u e n c y d i d c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th F i g u r a l Task 2 F l u e n c y , i t may be t h a t there i s a h i g h degree of f i g u r a l domain s p e c i f i c i t y f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e . None of the SRP v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e , C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s . Among the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s , C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th the v e r b a l task and the second f i g u r a l task v a r i a b l e s but not w i th the f i r s t f i g u r a l task v a r i a b l e s . T h i s aga in p o i n t s up the un iqueness of the f i r s t f i g u r a l task s i n c e the C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s s c o r e was deve loped from responses to both f i g u r a l 5 7 t a s k s . O v e r a l l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s s uggest t h a t t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , s h a r e d as much, i f not more v a r i a n c e w i t h the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s than the l a t t e r ,did i n t e r - t a s k w i s e among t h e m s e l v e s . SRP A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g appears t o be r e l a t e d most s t r o n g l y t o To r r a n c e f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y . SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y appear t o be r e l a t e d t o a l l T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s except F i g u r a l Task 1 F l u e n c y and C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s . 4.3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Of P r o p o s a l And CTBS W i t h SRP And T o r r a n c e  V a r i a b l e s T a b l e 9 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o p o s a l ( i . e . , s c o r e on the p r o d u c t measure of c r e a t i v i t y ) and CTBS and the SRP and T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s ) . None of the Torr a n c e v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l . F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y e x h i b i t e d the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h P r o p o s a l . Three of the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS: V e r b a l F l u e n c y , V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y , and C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s . F i v e of the SRP v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . Of t h e s e , F l e x i b i l i t y had the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h P r o p o s a l . Three of the SRP v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h CTBS: F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . P e r s o n a l 5 8 C a p a b i l i t y had the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h CTBS. P r o p o s a l and CTBS e x h i b i t e d a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r than w i t h any of the SRP or T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s . 59 T a b l e 9 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s of CTBS and P r o p o s a l w i t h SRP and T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151) P r o p o s a l CTBS To r r a n c e V F l u 04 28** V F l e x 06 26** F 1 F l u -09 -17 F 2 F l u 00 05 F 1 0 r i g 01 01 F 2 0 r i g 18 1 4 CS 05 23* SRP F l u 26** 30** F l e x 35** 33** Wish 08 -09 Capable 24* 36** F a n t a s y F a c t o r -08 08 A n a l y t i c 28** 19 C o n c e p t u a l 23* 16 CTBS 46** Notes: L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . * 2 < . 0 1 . * * 2 < . 0 0 1 . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s o f f e r e d l i t t l e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e s i n c e none of the T o r r a n c e - P r o p o s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . F i v e of the SRP v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l , but t h r e e of the s e v a r i a b l e s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS. As w e l l , the SRP v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d among themselves (see T a b l e 4.5). In u n t a n g l i n g t h i s mosaic, f o u r q u e s t i o n s were of i n t e r e s t . 1. What su b s e t of the SRP v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s f o r the most e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t i o n of the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e ? 2. G i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the CTBS v a r i a b l e , what f u r t h e r 60 c o n t r i b u t i o n do SRP v a r i a b l e s make t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l s c o r e s ? 3. Which SRP v a r i a b l e s have the most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power f o r p r e d i c t i n g C r e a t i v e Group membership ( i . e . , the s u b s e t of s u b j e c t s o b t a i n i n g a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of 5 or 6)? 4. G i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of CTBS, what i s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of SRP v a r i a b l e s t o ' d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the N o n c r e a t i v e and the C r e a t i v e Group? 4.3.1 SRP And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e which SRP v a r i a b l e or c o m b i n a t i o n of SRP v a r i a b l e s would be the most e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r s of the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e , a m u l t i p l e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d u s i n g SRP v a r i a b l e s ( t h o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l ) as independent v a r i a b l e s t o p r e d i c t t o the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e . T h i s p r o v i d e d f o r a r a t i o of 30 s u b j e c t s per i n d e p e n d e n t . v a r i a b l e (which i s d e s i r a b l e t o d e r i v e a ' s t a b l e ' e q u a t i o n , K e r l i n g e r & Pedhazur, 1973). The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of .05 f o r e n t r y and .10 f o r d e l e t i o n of a v a r i a b l e i n t o / f r o m the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was s e t i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t a p a r s i m o n i o u s s u b s e t of v a r i a b l e s . The increment of e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e ( R 2 ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the independent v a r i a b l e s was r e p o r t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of the SRP v a r i a b l e s t o the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e i n the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e . The two s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r were c a r r i e d out u s i n g the New R e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) ( K i t a , 1981). 61 A summary of the s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n based on the P r o p o s a l and SRP v a r i a b l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. The e q u a t i o n g e n e r a t e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t F l e x i b i l i t y was the most e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t o r of P r o p o s a l . In a d d i t i o n , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l ( a f t e r the v a r i a n c e shared w i t h F l e x i b i l i t y had been removed). However, the p r o p o r t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e ( R 2 ) p r e d i c t e d i n P r o p o s a l by C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g was s m a l l i n comparison t o the amount of v a r i a n c e a l r e a d y p r e d i c t e d by F l e x i b i l i t y (so s m a l l t h a t i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a m e a n i n g f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n ) . None of the v a r i a b l e s — F l u e n c y , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , or A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g -- c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l a f t e r the v a r i a n c e s h a r e d w i t h F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g had been removed. T a b l e 10 - S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I : P r o p o s a l and SRP V a r i a b l e s SRP V a r i a b l e s E q u a t i o n I Dependent V a r i a b l e : P r o p o s a l n = l 5 l p t o enter=.05 p t o d e l e t e = . 1 0 R 2=.16 F P r o b a b i l i t y = . 0 0 0 0 V a r i a b l e s E n t e r e d Increment i n R 2 F l e x i b i l i t y .1 2 C o n c e p t u a l .04 V a r i a b l e s Remaining F - p r o b a b i l i t y F l u e n c y .54 Capable .10 A n a l y t i c .18 62 I t appears t h a t s u b j e c t s ' o b t a i n e d F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e s on the SRP are r e l a t e d beyond chance l e v e l t o t h e i r o b t a i n e d r a t i n g on the P r o p o s a l measure and t h a t these two SRP v a r i a b l e s comprise a p a r s i m o n i o u s subset of a l l the SRP v a r i a b l e s . (The r e m a i n i n g SRP v a r i a b l e s a r e F l u e n c y , W i s h i n g , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . ) The r e s u l t s of E q u a t i o n I suggested t h a t the r e m a i n i n g SRP v a r i a b l e s d i d not improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y the a c c u r a c y of p r e d i c t i n g P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s compared t o the p r e d i c t i o n based o n l y on F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t the magnitude of the p r e d i c t i o n ( R 2 ) i s s m a l l . T h i s e q u a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d f o r the purpose of e x p l o r a t i o n , not e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i t a r e not o f f e r e d a t t h i s p o i n t . 4.3.2 SRP, CTBS, And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s . To determine whether SRP v a r i a b l e s make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l t h a t i s unaccounted f o r by CTBS, a second s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d . Independent v a r i a b l e s used i n the e q u a t i o n were: CTBS, F l e x i b i l i t y , and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g ( t h e two SRP v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d by E q u a t i o n I as a p a r s i m o n i o u s subset of SRP v a r i a b l e s ) . A summary of the s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n based on the P r o p o s a l , CTBS, and SRP v a r i a b l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 11. The e q u a t i o n g e n e r a t e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t both F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the p r e d i c t i o n 63 of P r o p o s a l ( a f t e r the v a r i a n c e s h a r e d w i t h CTBS had been removed). The amount of a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e ( R 2 ) , however, i s s m a l l ( t o o s m a l l t o be c o n s i d e r e d m e a n i n g f u l . ) T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t o a s m a l l e x t e n t , but above a chance l e v e l , each of t h e s e SRP v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s independent from CTBS s c o r e s and t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o performance on the P r o p o s a l measure. I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p i n the v a r i a n c e t h a t each of the v a r i a b l e s , CTBS and F l e x i b i l i t y share w i t h P r o p o s a l . T a b l e 11 - S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I I : P r o p o s a l , CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s E q u a t i o n I I Dependent V a r i a b l e : P r o p o s a l n=151 _____________ p t o d e l e t e = . l O R 2=.27 F P r o b a b i l i t y = . 0 0 0 0 V a r i a b l e s E n t e r e d '. • Increment i n R 2 . CTBS F l e x i b i l i t y C o n c e p t u a l .21 .04 .02 64 4.3.3 SRP And P r o p o s a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s The C r e a t i v e Group (n=lO) was d e f i n e d as t h o s e s u b j e c t s h a v i n g P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s of e i t h e r f i v e or s i x . For the f u l l range of P r o p o s a l s c o r e s , F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g had been the most e f f i c i e n t SRP p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . A s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was employed t o d etermine which of the SRP v a r i a b l e s were most u s e f u l f o r p r e d i c t i n g membership i n the C r e a t i v e Group. The seven SRP v a r i a b l e s formed the s e t of p r e d i c t o r s . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s i n each of the groups a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a p a r s i m o n i o u s s o l u t i o n , o n l y t h o s e v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the two groups were r e t a i n e d (g t o e n t e r = .05; g t o d e l e t e = .10). The p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t i e s of group membership f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p urposes were s e t p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e o b s e r v e d number of s u b j e c t s i n each group. The d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r were c a r r i e d out u s i n g the subprogram DISC from SPSS ( K i t a , 1979). The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e s 13 and 14. T a b l e 13 shows the v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d i n t h e i r o r d e r of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power. The v a l u e of W i l k ' s lambda i s p r e s e n t e d f o r each s t e p . C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g p r o v i d e d the g r e a t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power. The next most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r , g i v e n C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g was A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . Beyond the second s t e p , no v a r i a b l e s e x h i b i t e d a l a r g e enough p a r t i a l m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r s e l e c t i o n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t the r e d u c t i o n i n W i l k ' s lambda by the 6 5 v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d was not s u b s t a n t i a l . T a b l e 14 c o n t a i n s the s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s on the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . These c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c o n t r i b u t e d most t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l o n g the f u n c t i o n . The e i g e n v a l u e and c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f u n c t i o n a r e a l s o r e p o r t e d . These a r e not l a r g e i n magnitude. The f u n c t i o n , however, c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between groups. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of the f u n c t i o n t o the s e p a r a t i o n of the two groups can be seen from e x a m i n a t i o n of the group c e n t r o i d s p r e s e n t e d i n the t a b l e . 66 T a b l e 12 - Number, P r i o r P r o b a b i l i t y and Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s f o r Each C r i t e r i o n Group Group N o n c r e a t i v e C r e a t i v e Number N=1 41 N=1 0 P r i o r P r o b a b i l i t y .93 .07 F l u e n c y 7.79 10.30 (2.76)* (2.58) F l e x i b i l i t y 8.76 1 1 .50 (2.85) (2.55) Wish .37 .20 ( .68) (.42) Capable 1.18 .2.00 (1.30) (1.89) F a n t a s y F a c t o r .63 .70 (1.15) (1.34) A n a l y t i c .37 1.20 (.57) (1.03) C o n c e p t u a l .09 .80 (..33) (.79) CTBS 51.60 59.70 (9.30) (5.19) N o t e s . The t a b l e i n c l u d e s p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s from both d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s i n the c h a p t e r . *Numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . 67 T a b l e 13 - Ste p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I : U s i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s t o Separate C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups SRP V a r i a b l e s Two Groups: N o n c r e a t i v e (n=141) and C r e a t i v e (n=1u) Order of E n t r y of V a r i a b l e s p t o enter=.05 p t o d e l e t e - . 1 0 S t e p No. Independent V a r i a b l e W i l k ' s Lambda 1 C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g .81 2 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g .75 V a r i a b l e s Remaining F - p r o b a b i l i t y F l u e n c y .35 F l e x i b i l i t y .14 W i s h i n g . 14 Capable .69 Fa n t a s y F a c t o r .69 Ta b l e 14 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I SRP V a r i a b l e s Independent V a r i a b l e S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g * .80 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g .55 E i g e n v a l u e .33 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n .50 C a n o n i c a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n e v a l u a t e d a t group means (group c e n t r o i d s ) Group F u n c t i o n 1 ( S i g n i f i c a n c e = . 0 0 0 0 ) N o n c r e a t i v e -0.15 C r e a t i v e 2.15 6 8 The adequacy of the d e r i v e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n was f u r t h e r a s s e s s e d by a p p l y i n g the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n t o s u b j e c t s used t o d e r i v e the f u n c t i o n and comparing p r e d i c t e d group membership w i t h a c t u a l group membership. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were a d j u s t e d based on p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t e s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o group s i z e . Only f o u r of the ten s u b j e c t s i n the C r e a t i v e Group were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were the SRP v a r i a b l e s t h a t were most r e l e v a n t t o C r e a t i v e Group membership, they were not adequate f o r c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i v e Group. In r e v i e w i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e s 13 and 14) and the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s ( T a b l e s 10 and 11), the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. In a c c o u n t i n g f o r the f u l l range of performance on the P r o p o s a l measure, CTBS and SRP F l e x i b i l i t y were the most e f f i c i e n t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r s . Among the SRP v a r i a b l e s , o n l y F l e x i b i l i t y and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s . By c o n t r a s t , i n p r e d i c t i n g t o membership i n the C r e a t i v e Group, C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were the o n l y SRP v a r i a b l e s t o make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . 69 4.3.4 CTBS, SRP And P r o p o s a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n A n a l y s i s To c l a r i f y the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t CTBS can make t o p r e d i c t i n g C r e a t i v e Group membership, a n o t h e r m u l t i p l e l i n e a r d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was employed. CTBS and the SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , were used as p r e d i c t o r s . U s i n g a s t e p w i s e p r o c e d u r e , CTBS was f o r c e d t o e n t e r f i r s t i f i t met the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a (g<.05 t o e n t e r and 2<-l0 t o d e l e t e . ) The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e s 15 and 16. Ta b l e 15 shows the o r d e r of v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d and the consequent r e d u c t i o n i n W i l k ' s lambda w i t h the e n t r y of each v a r i a b l e . Both C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were s e l e c t e d a f t e r CTBS was f o r c e d t o e n t e r f i r s t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o t h the SRP v a r i a b l e s made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n beyond t h a t p r o v i d e d by CTBS. Even though i t was e n t e r e d f i r s t , the r e d u c t i o n i n W i l k ' s lambda r e s u l t i n g from the e n t r y of CTBS was s m a l l . T a b l e 16 c o n t a i n s the s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s . These c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c o n t r i b u t e d most t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l o n g the f u n c t i o n and CTBS c o n t r i b u t e d l e a s t . The e i g e n v a l u e and c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f u n c t i o n a r e a l s o r e p o r t e d . These a r e almost the same as those r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 14 f o r the SRP v a r i a b l e s a l o n e . The group c e n t r o i d s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16. A comparison of group c e n t r o i d s i n T a b l e s 14 and 16 shows t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of CTBS d i d not r e s u l t i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r s e p a r a t i o n of the two 70 groups. 71 T a b l e 15 - Ste p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I : U s i n g CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s t o S e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s Two Groups: N o n c r e a t i v e (n=l41) and C r e a t i v e (n=lO) Order of E n t r y of V a r i a b l e s p t o enter=.05 p t o d e l e t e - . 1 0 S tep No. Independent V a r i a b l e W i l k ' s Lambda 1 CTBS* .95 2 C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g .79 3 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g .74 Note. *CTBS was f o r c e d t o e n t e r f i r s t i f i t c o u l d meet the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . T a b l e 16 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s Independent V a r i a b l e S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s CTBS .25 C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g .76 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g .50 E i g e n v a l u e .35 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n .51 C a n o n i c a l D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n e v a l u a t e d a t group means (group c e n t r o i d s ) Group F u n c t i o n 1 ( S i g n i f i c a n c e = . 0 0 0 0 ) N o n c r e a t i v e -0.16 C r e a t i v e 2.22 72 To f u r t h e r compare the adequacy of t h i s d e r i v e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t from o n l y the SRP v a r i a b l e s , p r e d i c t e d group membership was compared w i t h a c t u a l group membership. Ag a i n o n l y f o u r of the ten s u b j e c t s i n the C r e a t i v e Group were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . The r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s u t i l i z i n g both CTBS and SRP v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t CTBS c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r by the SRP v a r i a b l e s a l o n e . F u r t h e r , the s m a l l r e d u c t i o n i n W i l k ' s lambda due t o CTBS a l o n e (see T a b l e 15) s u g g e s t s t h a t CTBS, on i t s own, would have l i t t l e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power. Whil e the SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , a r e not adequate t o p r o v i d e f o r c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i v e Group, they a r e the be s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r s from the v a r i a b l e s a v a i l a b l e i n the s t u d y . 4.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of Case Study V a r i a b l e s With P r o p o s a l And SRP  V a r i a b l e s The 15 case s t u d y s u b j e c t s were from s i x c l a s s r o o m s l o c a t e d i n s i x d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . The case study sample i n c l u d e d C r e a t i v e Group members (th o s e s u b j e c t s whose P r o p o s a l r a t i n g had been a f i v e or a s i x ) f o r whom SRP r e s u l t s were a v a i l a b l e (n=11). A l s o i n c l u d e d were t h r e e s u b j e c t s w i t h a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of 4.5. The f i f t e e n t h case s t u d y s u b j e c t had a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of f o u r . S e l e c t i o n of case study s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of h i g h e s t P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s had p r o v i d e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of 73 v a r i a b i l i t y among SRP s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by members of t h i s group. Two l e v e l s of P r o p o s a l performance e x i s t e d w i t h i n the C r e a t i v e Group, i . e . , r a t i n g s = 5 or r a t i n g s = 6 . The s u b j e c t s w i t h a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of 4.5 were i n c l u d e d i n the case s t u d y sample s i n c e the c u t - o f f s c o r e of P r o p o s a l r a t i n g = 5 f o r C r e a t i v e Group membership was an a r b i t r a r y one ( c o n s i d e r i n g e r r o r of measurement.) The s u b j e c t w i t h a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g = 4 was i n c l u d e d because t h e r e was room f o r one more s u b j e c t i n the case study sample i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . The s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d was one who, l i k e the C r e a t i v e Group members, tended t o have above average s c o r e s on the SRP v a r i a b l e s . The case s t u d i e s have been i n c l u d e d i n Appendix 0. They ar e p r e s e n t e d f o r the i n t e r e s t of the re a d e r r a t h e r than as e v i d e n c e of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v i t y . Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed i n o r d e r t o determine the e x t e n t of convergence among the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , and SRP v a r i a b l e s . (For methods used t o d e v e l o p case study v a r i a b l e s , see S e c t i o n 3.3.3. For r u l e s f o r s c o r i n g the case s t u d i e s on these v a r i a b l e s see Appendix P.) T a b l e s 17 and 18 p r e s e n t the means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the P r o p o s a l and SRP v a r i a b l e s and f o r the case study v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e s 19 and 20 p r e s e n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the SRP v a r i a b l e s and among the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e s 21 and 22 p r e s e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s and CTBS, P r o p o s a l , S e l f - C o n c e p t , and SRP v a r i a b l e s . O r d i n a r i l y , one would not 7 4 d i s c u s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the t a b l e s p r e s e n t e d here u n l e s s they were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 001 l e v e l ( s i n c e f i v e p e r c e n t of t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s would be e x p e c t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t by chance a l o n e ) . However, g i v e n the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e of the st u d y and the l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s d e v e l o p e d from each of the SRP and the case s t u d i e s , c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l w i l l be "taken s e r i o u s l y " f o r the purpose of e x p l o r a t o r y e x a m i n a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . From e x a m i n a t i o n of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among case study v a r i a b l e s and the P r o p o s a l and SRP v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e s 21 and 2 2 ) , the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made. Each of the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s -- Wonder, F r i e n d s , and T o t a l — were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b oth P r o p o s a l and the SRP v a r i a b l e , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . The case s t u d y v a r i a b l e , F r i e n d s , was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the two SRP v a r i a b l e s : P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . 75 T a b l e 17 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r SRP, P r o p o s a l , and Case Study V a r i a b l e s (N=15) V a r i a b l e Mean S.D. Min Max SRP F l u e n c y 9.60 F l e x i b i l i t y 11.00 W i s h i n g .47 Capable 1.67 F a n t a s y F a c t o r .53 A n a l y t i c 1.00 C o n c e p t u a l .53 2 2 1 1 53 20 83 63 1 3 00 74 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 17 3 5 4 3 2 Case Study W i l l p o w e r P r a y e r W i s h i n g F a n t a s y Wonder Humor F r i e n d s P a r e n t s T o t a l 2.40 20 13 60 1 3 ,20 67 67 16.00 83 86 74 51 .83 ,77 82 ,49 ,78 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 20 P r o p o s a l 5.03 58 4.5 76 T a b l e 18 - Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e SRP V a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , and Case Study V a r i a b l e s f o r the Case Study Sample (N=15) V a r i a b l e Score N V a r i a b l e Score N SRP Case Study W i s h i n g 0 10 W i l l p o w e r 1 3 1 4 2 3 3 1 3 9 Capable 0 4 P r a y e r . 1 4 1 5 2 4 2 2 3 7 3 1 4 2 W i s h i n g 1 3 5 1 2 7 3 5 Fa n t a s y F a c t o r 0 1 1 1 2 Fa n t a s y 1 6 2 1 2 9 4 1 Wonder 1 4 A n a l y t i c 0 6 2 5 1 4 3 6 2 4 3 1 Humor 1 • 3 2 6 C o n c e p t u a l 0 9 3 6 1 4 2 2 F r i e n d s 1 8 2 4 P r o p o s a l 4 1 3 3 4.5 3 5 8 P a r e n t s 1 5 6 3 2 10 77 T a b l e 19 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP V a r i a b l e s f o r the Case Study Sample (N=15) F l u F l e x Wish Capable Fant F A n a l y t i c F l u F l e x 61 * Wish 23 -12 Capable 69* 38 1 7 Fant F -40 -58 -21 -17 A n a l y t i c 65* 62* 00 61* -38 Concept 39 1 3 03 51 32 29 Notes: L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *2<.01. 78 Ta b l e 20 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Case Study V a r i a b l e s (N=15) W i l l p w r P r a y e r Wish Fa n t a s y Wonder Humor W i l l p w r P r a y e r -02 Wish -20 -04 Fa n t a s y 41 -46 -23 Wonder 1 2 -04 20 30 Humor 42 -28 20 04 18 F r i e n d s 21 00 -04 17 59* 45 P a r e n t s 18 -34 -26 29 47 38 T o t a l 56 06 21 30 74** 63* Fr i e n d s P a r e n t s P a r e n t s 42 T o t a l 76** 47 Notes: L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *2<.01. **p_<.001 . 79 T a b l e r f l 0 % f e ; r S O " P r o d ^ t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Case Study, P r o p o s a l , and SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=15) SRP Case Study F l u F l e x Wish Capable Fant F A n a l y t c Con W i l l p w r 01 -39 02 -1 1 37 09 21 P r a y e r 10 26 36 -20 -49 08 1 6 Wish -16 04 01 -26 34 -29 -14 Fa n t a s y 09 -32 1 4 35 40 28 23 Wonder 20 19 -30 30 38 43 68* Humor 37 08 -04 40 28 09 30 F r i e n d s 55 52 -17 61* 1 3 61* 67* P a r e n t s 29 13 -29 57 09 44 33 T o t a l 39 18 -06 38 37 44 66* P r o p o s a l 08 31 -48 31 35 31 62* Notes; L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *p_< • 01 . 80 T a b l e 22 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Between Case Study and P r o p o s a l , CTBS, and Self-Concept. V a r i a b l e s Case Study P r o p o s a l CTBS S e l f - C o n W i l l p w r -03 07 02 P r a y e r -01 -19 -04 Wish 07 -27 -58 F a n t a s y 05 27 02 Wonder 73* 42 -3 1 Humor 30 -17 1 4 F r i e n d s 70* 23 - 1 4 P a r e n t s 42 46 22 T o t a l 60* 1 7 -13 N: 1 5 15 1 4 Notes: L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *2<.01 . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t h i s case study sample, t h e r e i s some convergence among P r o p o s a l , SRP, and case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p among Wonder, C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g , and P r o p o s a l seems somewhat l o g i c a l . High s c o r e s f o r Wonder were a s s i g n e d t o s u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d w o n d e r i n g about t h i n g s t h a t were a b s t r a c t , complex, or i n f i n i t e . S c ores t o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g were d e v e l o p e d from responses t o t h e war problem which 81 c o n s t i t u t e s a complex problem. The a c t i v i t y of g e n e r a t i n g the P r o p o s a l c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d t o be complex. S u b j e c t s had t o w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t y or f u n d - r a i s i n g event t h a t would meet a number of c r i t e r i a , e.g., o r i g i n a l i t y , p r a c t i c a l i t y , c o m p l e t e n e s s , r e l e v a n c e . T h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d appear t o be an a t t r a c t i o n t o and a b i l i t y t o work w i t h the complex t h a t l i n k s t o g e t h e r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s from t h r e e independent measures. The v a r i a b l e , F r i e n d s , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s e as w e l l as w i t h the SRP v a r i a b l e s , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . H i g h - s c o r e r s on the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e were those who i d e n t i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h . f r i e n d s as b e i n g one of the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e i r l i f e and p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s a l s o commented on t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . One can ponder whether the s k i l l s r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r p s y c h o - s o c i a l s u c c e s s or whether t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of t h e s e s k i l l s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the the s o c i a l a c t i v i t y and the s e t of s k i l l s have each c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of the o t h e r , however, t h a t such an e a s i l y o b s e r v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t appears t o be such a r e l e v a n t i n d i c a t o r of so many o t h e r a b i l i t i e s a t t h i s age l e v e l ( a t l e a s t w i t h i n a s e l e c t e d sample such as t h i s one.) The v a r i a b l e , Wonder, on the o t h e r hand, w h i l e j u s t as s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o P r o p o s a l and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y or even m o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r SRP v a r i a b l e s . 82 A l t h o u g h Wonder and F r i e n d s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , the u n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e a l l o w s room f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t " t y p e s " of i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a l l a b l e t o p e r f o r m s u c c e s s f u l l y on the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . I t a l s o r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n as t o which of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , F r i e n d s and Wonder) might be n e c e s s a r y or s u f f i c i e n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l performance on the P r o p o s a l measure. I n s p e c t i o n of the s e t s of s c o r e s on these t h r e e v a r i a b l e s (Table 23) s u g g e s t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e p r e s e n t e d by the Wonder s c o r e t o be the more n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t of two case study v a r i a b l e s compared ( i . e . , F r i e n d s and Wonder). I t i s noteworthy, however, t h a t a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l of performance on P r o p o s a l , ( r a t i n g = 6 ) , t h e r e i s a tendency f o r bo t h Wonder and F r i e n d s s c o r e s t o be h i g h . G i v e n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between F r i e n d s and the SRP v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , t h e r e i s the s u g g e s t i o n of a r i c h mix of a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o h i g h e s t performance on the P r o p o s a l measure. 83 T a b l e 23 - Case Study S u b j e c t s ' S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l and the Case Study V a r i a b l e s : Wonder and F r i e n d s Case Study S u b j e c t No. P r o p o s a l Wonder F r i e n d s 1 6 3 3 2 6 3 3 3 6 .3 2 4 5 3 2 5 5 3 2 6 5 2 2 7 5 2 3 8 5 3 1 9 5 2 1 10 5 2 1 11 5 1 1 12 4.5 2 1 13 4.5 1 1 14 4.5 1 1 15 4 1 1 These and the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s a r e h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and t e n t a t i v e g i v e n the use of such a s m a l l and s e l e c t e d sample. However, g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine case s t u d y d a t a f o r even t h e s e s m a l l numbers, i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o e x p l o r e f o r whatever i d e a s or s p e c u l a t i o n s might be r e a s o n a b l y g l e a n e d . To p r o v i d e f o r f u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n of the n a t u r e of the convergence among v a r i a b l e s from P r o p o s a l , SRP, and Case S t u d i e s , the raw s c o r e s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 24. The t a b l e shows t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h s c o r e s f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g t e n d t o be the o n l y s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h s c o r e s on the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y 84 c l e a r - c u t r e l a t i o n s h i p between F r i e n d s and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Wonder v a r i a b l e ) c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s . Those s u b j e c t s who had the i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder about the complex and who had the p l a y f u l n e s s and c o n f i d e n c e of the p s y c h o - s o c i a l l y t a l e n t e d , were a b l e and i n c l i n e d t o ge n e r a t e the k i n d s of res p o n s e s c r e d i t e d f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . These responses (see Appendix H f o r examples) d e a l t h o l i s t i c a l l y w i t h the " s t o p wars" problem ( i n d i c a t i n g c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t y ) but a t th e same ti m e g e n e r a l l y showed t h e examinees t o be " p l a y i n g " w i t h i d e a s ( i . e . , responses took the form of f a n t a s y a n a l o g i e s , p l ay-war t a c t i c s , or c h a n g i n g the r u l e s or s t r u c t u r e of a game . i n t h i s c a s e , the game of the whole w o r l d . ) E x p r e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p among these s c o r e s another way ( i . e . , among Wonder, F r i e n d s , and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g ) , the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e can be viewed as a p p r o x i m a t e l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e j o i n t p r e s e n c e of s t r e n g t h s on b o t h the Wonder and F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e s . . 85 T a b l e 24 - Case Study S u b j e c t s ' S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l , Case Study, and SRP V a r i a b l e s Case Study SRP S u b j e c t No. P r o p o s a l Wonder F r i e n d s Concept . A n a l y t i c 1 6 3 2 6 3 3 6 3 4 5 3 5 5 3 6 5 2 7 5 2 8 5 3 9 5 2 10 5 2 11 5 1 12 4.5 2 13 4.5 1 14 4.5 1 15 4 1 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 1 0 2 1 1 3 0 3 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 I n s p e c t i o n of the s c o r e s f o r C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s , h i g h l i g h t s a n o ther i s s u e . The f i r s t s i x s u b j e c t s and the next f o u r or f i v e ( T a ble 24) appear t o be d i f f e r e n t " t y p e s " i n terms of c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h s p o r t r a y e d i n the t a b l e . Each type was a b l e t o do w e l l on the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . The assumption or e x p e c t a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , however, i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e homogeneity w i t h i n the groups t o be d i s c r i m i n a t e d . T h i s would be one t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r the inadequacy of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ( i . e . , the c r e a t i v e group encompasses two subgroups 86 h a v i n g o v e r l a p p i n g y e t d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s . ) To complete the e x a m i n a t i o n of the case study a n a l y s e s , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t SRP W i s h i n g was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the case study v a r i a b l e s , W i s h i n g or P r a y e r . The SRP v a r i a b l e , W i s h i n g , r e p r e s e n t e d both w i s h i n g and p r a y e r responses on the SRP. T a b l e 25 p r e s e n t s case study s u b j e c t s ' raw s c o r e s on the s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . Those s u b j e c t s h a v i n g medium or h i g h s c o r e s f o r case study W i s h i n g or P r a y e r had not n e c e s s a r i l y suggested t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s as responses t o SRP t a s k s . However, a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h SRP W i s h i n g s c o r e s g r e a t e r then z e r o a l s o had medium or h i g h s c o r e s on e i t h e r P r a y e r or W i s h i n g from the case s t u d i e s . 87 T a b l e 25 - Comparison of W i s h i n g / P r a y e r S c o r e s from SRP and Case S t u d i e s f o r the Case Study Sample SRP Case Study S u b j e c t No. P r o p o s a l W i s h i n g W i s h i n g P r a y e r 1 6 0 3 3 2 6 1 1 3 3 6 0 3 1 4 5 1 2 2 5 5 0 3 2 6 5 0 1 3 7 5 0 2 1 8 5 0 2 3 9 5 0 2 1 10 5 0 2 2 1 1 5 0 2 3 12 4.5 1 3 2 1 3 4.5 0 1 1 1 4 4.5 1 3 3 1 5 4 3 2 3 The o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made have been o f f e r e d t e n t a t i v e l y and a r e a h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e attempt t o make sense of p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e s e d a t a . The numbers i n the case study sample were s m a l l . C r e a t i v e Group members were s e l e c t e d f o r the sample but the c o n s t r a i n t s of the stu d y d i d not a l l o w f o r a l s o i n c l u d i n g s u b j e c t s h a v i n g h i g h s c o r e s on C o n c e p t u a l and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , but low s c o r e s on P r o p o s a l . What remains t o be ac c o u n t e d f o r i s the d i f f e r e n c e between th e s e two subgroups of s u b j e c t s . 88 4.5 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of S e l f - C o n c e p t W i t h Study V a r i a b l e s To determine whether the S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e might c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the study v a r i a b l e s , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed. T a b l e 26 p r e s e n t s summary s t a t i s i t i c s f o r the S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e . T able 27 p r e s e n t s Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e and each of the o t h e r study v a r i a b l e s . S e l f - C o n c e p t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n l y w i t h SRP F l u e n c y , T o r r a n c e V e r b a l F l u e n c y , T o r r a n c e F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y , and CTBS. These c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l l p o s i t i v e and' s m a l l i n magnitude. Among the case study v a r i a b l e s t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h S e l f - C o n c e p t . G e n e r a l l y , the low and/or n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n T a b l e 27 do not suggest' any s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e and any of the study v a r i a b l e s . 89 T a b l e 26 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r the S e l f - C o n c e p t V a r i a b l e Mean 1 93 St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 39.55 Min 92 Max 268 N of Items 63 Hoyt e s t . of r e l . .96 Stand. E r r o r of Meas 7.41 Z-score -1 .08 -0.51 -0.05 .52 .98 Lower Bound Upper Bound 148.41 170.97 189.03 211.59 229.64 152, 175, 193, 216, 234, 92 49 54 10 15 T a b l e 27 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between S e l f --Concept and Other Study V a r i a b l e s T o r r a n c e SRP Case Study V F l u 20* F l u 21* W i l l p o w e r 23 V F l e x 1 4 F l e x 16 P r a y e r -04 F 1 F l u 1 7 Wish -03 Wish -58 F 2 F l u 08 Capable 17 F a n t a s y 02 F 1 0 r i g 09 Fant F -04 Wonder -31 F 2 0 r i g 20* A n a l y t i c 01 Humor 14 CS 15 Concept -09 F r i e n d s -14 P a r e n t s 22 P r o p o s a l 03 CTBS 22* T o t a l -13 N o t e s . N=14 f o r Case Study v a r i a b l e s . N=141 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *p_< .01. 90 4.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex And Other Study V a r i a b l e s B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n (1981) have suggested t h a t c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d r o u t i n e l y i n c l u d e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t s of t h e i r f i n d i n g s . T able 28 p r e s e n t s Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between Sex and o t h e r s t u d y v a r i a b l e s (except case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s . ) The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h SRP F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and W i s h i n g . A l l t h r e e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d an advantage f o r the g i r l s . Among the C r e a t i v e Group, t h e r e were t h r e e boys and e i g h t g i r l s . The s u p e r i o r performance of g i r l s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t g i r l s r e t u r n or r e c o v e r from the "grade f o u r slump" sooner than do boys. T a b l e 28 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Sex and Other Study V a r i a b l e s T o r r a n c e SRP -V F l u 10 F l u 25* V F l e x 1 4 F l e x 20* F 1 F l u 00 Wish 21* F 2 F l u 08 Capable -04 F 1 0 r i g 05 Fant F -09 F 2 0 r i g 06 A n a l y t i c -02 CS 08 Concept -14 P r o p o s a l 17 CTBS -12 S e l f - C o n c e p t 01 Age 04 Notes. N=141 f o r S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e . N=151 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . Boys were coded as 1 and g i r l s were coded as 2. L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . 91 V. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.1.1 Purpose Of The Study The development of S o l v i n g R e a l Problems (SRP) t a s k s was prompted by the i n t e n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e s i g n i n g c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g t a s k s t h a t would be: (1) s t i m u l a t i n g from the examinee's p o i n t of view; (2) complex; (3) l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as i t o c c u r s i n the examinee's "everyday w o r l d " ; (4) l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y or c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . An e x p l o r a t o r y approach t o the development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s f o r the SRP was u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y t h a t might be i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o the age l e v e l of s u b j e c t s i n the s t u d y or t o t h e s e k i n d s of t a s k s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t b oth a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n an examinee's responses t o the SRP. S i n c e SRP t a s k s were i n t e n d e d t o resemble the examinee's own h i g h - i n t e r e s t "everyday w o r l d " problems, they were e x p e c t e d t o cue the use of the examinee's u s u a l r e p e r t o i r e of a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y engaged i n response t o such problems. To a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of examinees' performance on SRP t a s k s , o t h e r d a t a u t i l i z e d i n c l u d e d : 92 (1) performance on s e l e c t e d t a s k s from the To r r a n c e T e s t s of  C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g ; (2) r e s u l t s from the Canadian T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ; (3) s c o r e s on a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the S e a r s - S p a u l d i n g S e l f - C o n c e p t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; (4) r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d on P r o p o s a l s , a n o v e l measure of everyday l i f e c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g performance (see S e c t i o n 3.3.2); (5) s c o r e s on everyday l i f e b e h a v i o r / c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e v e l o p e d from case s t u d i e s of s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s (n=15). ( S u b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d as c r e a t i v e on t h e P r o p o s a l measure c o m p r i s e d t h e m a j o r i t y of the case s t u d y sample). 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s The c o n t r i b u t i o n t h i s s tudy has made t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c r e a t i v e c h i l d i s t h a t on the b a s i s of f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y , i t appears r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e c r e a t i v e c h i l d i s one who i s much a t t r a c t e d t o c o m p l e x i t y and e n j o y s wondering about t h i n g s t h a t a r e a b s t r a c t . T h i s c h i l d p u z z l e s about "why g r a v i t y i s " , "how space can be i n f i n i t e " , "the way numbers make o t h e r numbers", "why p e o p l e behave the way they do", or "how the c y c l e s of n a t u r e keep r e o c c u r r i n g " . T h i s i s the major broad c l a i m t h a t can be made about a l l " c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n " i n the s t u d y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o wonder about complex or a b s t r a c t phenomena, the c r e a t i v e c h i l d a l s o has some or a l l of t he f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He/she i s l i k e l y t o be v e r y p o p u l a r and a c c e p t e d as a l e a d e r by f r i e n d s and c l a s s m a t e s . The 93 c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e p r o b a b l y shows when she/he has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y something d i f f i c u l t . As w e l l , or i n s t e a d , i t may appear as p l a y f u l n e s s when the c h i l d s u g g e s t s f a r - f e t c h e d (but m e t a p h o r i c a l l y r e l a t e d ) s o l u t i o n s t o a problem. In o t h e r words, the c r e a t i v e c h i l d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e i t h e r or b o t h an " I - c a n - d o - i t / s t i c k - t o - i t - i v e n e s s " a t t i t u d e or s p a r k l i n g , s p o n t a n e i t y of t h o u g h t . 5.2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Of SRP V a r i a b l e s The e x p l o r a t o r y development of p r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g the SRP y i e l d e d seven dimensions or v a r i a b l e s : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , W i s h i n g , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . R e l a t i o n s h i p s among the s e v a r i a b l e s and o t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t e d were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the meaning of SRP v a r i a b l e s . Drawing from the r e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s ( p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV) the f o l l o w i n g . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the SRP v a r i a b l e s a r e - s u g g e s t e d . F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y . Both F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y would appear, f o r the most p a r t , t o be r e f l e c t i o n s of g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , w i t h F l e x i b i l i t y b e i n g the more a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r of the two. A l t h o u g h F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h T o r r a n c e V e r b a l F l u e n c y and V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y , the l a t t e r two v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS but not w i t h P r o p o s a l . Upon i n i t i a l l y o b s e r v i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y and the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s , i t i s t e m p t i n g t o c o n c l u d e t h a t SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y a r e measures of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g j u s t as the 9 4 T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s a r e supposed t o be. I t i s more l i k e l y , however, t h a t what i s common t o t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r SRP and T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y (as i n d i c a t e d by CTBS). The SRP v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l (the "everyday l i f e " measure of c r e a t i v i t y ) , but the T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s were n o t . The use of both CTBS and SRP F l e x i b i l i t y as p r e d i c t o r s of P r o p o s a l i n a s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e 11), showed t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p e x i s t e d between CTBS and F l e x i b i l i t y i n the v a r i a n c e t h a t each shared w i t h P r o p o s a l . When o n l y SRP v a r i a b l e s were used as p r e d i c t o r s (Table 10), F l e x i b i l i t y r a t h e r than F l u e n c y was s e l e c t e d f i r s t . Once. F l e x i b i l i t y was i n the equation,. F l u e n c y f a i l e d t o meet the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p e x i s t e d between F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y i n the v a r i a n c e t h a t each shared w i t h P r o p o s a l . W i s h i n g . The v a r i a b l e , W i s h i n g , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any o t h e r v a r i a b l e i n the s t u d y (except, f o r S e x ) . N o t a b l y , i t d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the case study v a r i a b l e , W i s h i n g . E x a m i n a t i o n of the raw d a t a f o r the case study s u b j e c t s (Table 25) r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n . W ithout e x c e p t i o n , i f a case s t u d y s u b j e c t had o b t a i n e d a s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o f o r W i s h i n g on the SRP, then he/she a l s o r e p o r t e d the use of w i s h i n g or p r a y e r when i n t e r v i e w e d . However, not a l l s u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d u s i n g w i s h i n g or p r a y e r had a l s o made w i s h or p r a y e r r esponses on the SRP. In o t h e r words, i f one uses SRP W i s h i n g s c o r e s t o p r e d i c t t o case s t u d y W i s h i n g or P r a y e r s c o r e s , t h e r e a r e no f a l s e p o s i t i v e s but t h e r e 95 a r e f a l s e n e g a t i v e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s u n r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the SRP W i s h i n g s c o r e . P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . The v a r i a b l e , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , l i k e F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y , can be viewed f o r the most p a r t as an i n d i c a t o r of g e n e r a l a b i l i t y . Of a l l the SRP v a r i a b l e s , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y had the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h CTBS (Table 9) . L i k e F l u e n c y , as a p r e d i c t o r of P r o p o s a l , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y f a i l e d t o meet s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a once F l e x i b i l i t y had a l r e a d y been e n t e r e d i n t o t he p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n ( T a b l e 10) . F a n t a s y F a c t o r . F a n t a s y F a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the SRP v a r i a b l e , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . I t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any o t h e r v a r i a b l e i n the s t u d y . What i s common t o both of th e s e v a r i a b l e s might' be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as c o n f i d e n c e or w i l l i n g n e s s t o take r i s k s i n e x p r e s s i n g o f f - b e a t i d e a s , p l a y f u l n e s s , and r e l a x a t i o n of c e n s o r s h i p of i d e a s . Responses c r e d i t e d f o r a Fan t a s y F a c t o r s c o r e c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be viewed i n t h i s way, e.g., "Rob a bank," or "Hold a c a t up f o r ransom," ( i . e . , s o l u t i o n methods t h a t one wouldn't r e a l l y u s e ) . Some s u b j e c t s even wrote a p a r e n t h e t i c a l note t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e i r F a n t a s y F a c t o r s u g g e s t i o n was a j o k e . S i m i l a r a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s might be seen t o u n d e r l y r esponses c r e d i t e d f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e s . These responses showed s u b j e c t s t o be t r u l y " p l a y i n g " w i t h i d e a s f o r s t o p p i n g wars as opposed t o l i s t i n g commonly w i t n e s s e d s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . ( e . g . , "Have a m a g i c i a n t h a t would t u r n 96 weapons i n t o h a r m l e s s t h i n g s l i k e a n i m a l s . " " B r i n g back p e o p l e from the dead t h a t were good a t s o l v i n g t h e s e k i n d s of problems." For more examples, see Appendices J and L.) F u r t h e r , the o c c u r r e n c e of C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g responses s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s e x p e c t e d or assumed t h a t they c o u l d g e n e r a t e d e f i n i t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s o l d and complex problem. I t appeared t h a t s u b j e c t s had a c c e p t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the war problem or ownership of the problem r a t h e r than w i t h d r a w i n g from i t . Responses r e f l e c t e d comprehension of the l a r g e - s c a l e n a t u r e of the problem and an e f f o r t t o g e n e r a t e s o l u t i o n s of the same l e v e l of f a r - r e a c h i n g n e s s ( e . g . , "You know the guy t h a t has the j o b of sending out i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the war -- w e l l , j u s t get r i d of h i s j o b i n each of the c o u n t r i e s . " ) I t seems i m p l i c i t i n t h e s e l a r g e - s c a l e s o l u t i o n s or h o l i s t i c t r e a t m e n t s of the problem t h a t the s u b j e c t s e x p e c t e d or had c o n f i d e n c e t h a t they c o u l d work w i t h a problem of t h a t scope and c o m p l e x i t y . Thus c o n f i d e n c e and p l a y f u l n e s s w i t h i d e a s were suggested by the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s . What appears t o be common t o F a n t a s y F a c t o r and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g responses i s an a t t i t u d e of p l a y f u l n e s s and c o n f i d e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , the v a r i a b l e , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , may be viewed as an i n d i c a t o r of an a t t i t u d e or p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s a somewhat p u z z l i n g v a r i a b l e . I t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n depends on l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of responses c r e d i t e d f o r t h i s s c o r e as w e l l as i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a number of o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the SRP 9 7 " a b i l i t y " v a r i a b l e s — F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y — but u n l i k e t h e s e i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS. I t was a l s o u n l i k e F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y i n t h a t i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h T o r r a n c e V e r b a l F l u e n c y and V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y . (See T a b l e s 8 and 9 ) . I n s t e a d , i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h T o r r a n c e f i g u r a l v a r i a b l e s and most s u b s t a n t i a l l y so w i t h the f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . There appears t o be a t r e n d toward convergence among the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s P r o p o s a l , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , and T o r r a n c e F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each of t h e o t h e r two v a r i a b l e s . N e i t h e r A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g or F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS. A l t h o u g h F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l , i t e x h i b i t e d a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i t than d i d any of the o t h e r T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s c o r e s of s u b j e c t s i n the case s t u d y sample a l s o r e v e a l e d i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the case study v a r i a b l e , F r i e n d s . (See Appendix P f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of s c o r e s on the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e . ) Each of these two v a r i a b l e s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the SRP v a r i a b l e , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . W h i l e A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was a t the same time s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SRP F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y , F r i e n d s was n o t . These p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggest t h a t w h i l e g e n e r a l 98 a b i l i t y i s a component of A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , t h e r e i s a l s o a n o t h e r major component u n d e r l y i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e . (The a b i l i t y component of A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h F l e x i b i l i t y , which i n t u r n s h a r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a n c e w i t h CTBS, see T a b l e s 7, 9, and 11. Comparing T a b l e s 13 and 15 a l s o r e v e a l s the e x t e n t of s h a r e d v a r i a n c e between A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and CTBS i n p r e d i c t i n g t o C r e a t i v e Group membership.) T h i s o t h e r component would seem t o be an a s p e c t of p e r s o n a l i t y . Responses c r e d i t e d f o r A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g r e v e a l e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o a p p l y l o g i c and r e a s o n i n g t o the s o l u t i o n of a l a r g e - s c a l e , complex problem. A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s came from the " s t o p wars" problem. W h i l e such r e s p o n s e s ( e . g . , make c o u n t r i e s s h a r e ; get p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s t o know each o t h e r b e t t e r ; o r g a n i z e ; use i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e ) f a i l e d t o d e a l w i t h the problem i n i t s e n t i r e t y , they c o u l d be viewed as l o g i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e s t e p s towards the d e s i r e d g o a l . T h i s W i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y , u s i n g whatever r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y one p o s s e s s e s , r a t h e r than t o withdraw from a complex problem may be the k i n d of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c u n d e r l y i n g the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . T h i s p e r s o n a l i t y component might be s p e c i f i e d as the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , "endurance" (from Edwards P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e S c a l e . ) The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h F r i e n d s i s s u g g e s t i v e of a p e r s o n a l i t y component f o r the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . . I t may be t h a t the w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y or t o p l a n or t o o r g a n i z e (as shown i n r e s p o n s e s t o the war problem) i s a l s o one p a r t of the 99 c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s encompassed by p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t . The convergence among A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , F r i e n d s , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y a l s o i s s u p p o r t i v e of a p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y r e sponses suggested t h a t s u b j e c t s viewed themselves t o be c a p a b l e of d o i n g t h i n g s t h a t r e q u i r e d a b i l i t y , c o urage, l u c k , and/or i n f l u e n c e over o t h e r p e o p l e (see Appendix J f o r exam p l e s ) . S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r one's own performance, or an " I can do i t " a t t i t u d e i s one component of l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . I t has been argued t h a t A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s an i n d i c a t o r of the j o i n t p resence of g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i . e . , endurance. W h i l e the s e arguments f o r a p e r s o n a l i t y component a r e t e n t a t i v e l y o f f e r e d ( g i v e n the s i z e and s e l e c t i o n b a s i s f o r the case study sample), t h e y a r e one way of e x p l a i n i n g why A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was r e l a t i v e l y independent of CTBS (see Ta b l e s 9 and 15) but was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of C r e a t i v e Group membership. C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l , the SRP v a r i a b l e s --Fa n t a s y F a c t o r and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g -- and the case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s : Wonder, F r i e n d s , and T o t a l . From among the Torr a n c e v a r i a b l e s , i t s h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was.with C r e a t i v e S t r e n g t h s . I f A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " g e n e r a l a b i l i t y " and "endurance" and Fa n t a s y F a c t o r i s viewed as an i n d i c a t o r of " p l a y f u l n e s s " , then t h i s s u g g e s t s a 100 r i c h mix of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n d e r l y i n g the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . The responses c r e d i t e d f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e f l e c t e d both p l a y f u l n e s s and c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . (See Appendices L and J.) The s c o r e s of s u b j e c t s i n the case study sample r e v e a l e d a s t r o n g d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n t h a t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . Case study s u b j e c t s h a v i n g a C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o were o n l y those s u b j e c t s h a v i n g medium t o h i g h s c o r e s f o r both the case study v a r i a b l e s , F r i e n d s and Wonder ( T a b l e 24). Wonder i n d i c a t e d the i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder about the complex, a b s t r a c t , or i n f i n i t e . F r i e n d s i n d i c a t e d s u c c e s s f u l p s y c h o - s o c i a l a c t i v e n e s s . Each of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s would seem t o i n v o l v e both a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a v e r y complex set of a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . The r e l e v a n c e of these combined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g was the most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r f o r s e p a r a t i n g the C r e a t i v e Group from the N o n c r e a t i v e Group ( T a b l e 15). How can one l a b e l the a b i l i t y / p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e p r e s e n t e d by the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e ? From the p a t t e r n of s c o r e s i n the case s t u d y sample ( i . e . , a C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o can be seen t o r e f l e c t the j o i n t p r e s e nce of s t r e n g t h s on b o t h the Wonder and F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e s ) one can o f f e r the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t . A s u b j e c t who o b t a i n s a s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g i s one who: 101 • wonders about the complex, a b s t r a c t , or i n f i n i t e • has p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t and p l a c e s h i g h v a l u e on a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s • i s a b l e and i n c l i n e d t o p l a y w i t h i d e a s about a complex problem. E x a m i n a t i o n of r e s p o n s e s c r e d i t e d f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s had perhaps drawn from t h e i r p l a y - w i t h - f r i e n d s e x p e r i e n c e when " p l a y i n g " w i t h the war problem ( i . e . , r e s ponses took the form of f a n t a s y a n a l o g i e s , p lay-war t a c t i c s , and c h a n g i n g the r u l e s or s t r u c t u r e of a game.) S u b j e c t s making C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g responses would seem t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t y (as d e f i n e d by d e a l i n g w i t h the complex war problem i n a h o l i s t i c f a s h i o n ) , i m a g i n a t i o n , and s p o n t a n e i t y of t h o u g h t . I t may t h e r e f o r e be r e a s o n a b l e t o suggest the l a b e l c r e a t i v i t y -- c r e a t i v i t y as a b i l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y as a p e r s o n a l i t y type -- f o r r e f e r r i n g t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t e d by the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g S c o r e . I t might a l s o be argued t h a t the a c t i v i t y of p l a y w i t h f r i e n d s (at l e a s t f o r the case study sample) had p r o v i d e d f o r b o t h the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e s t i m u l a t i o n of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . I t can be argued t h a t the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s do i n f a c t meet the c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a b i l i t y , i . e . , the power of the i m a g i n a t i o n t o break away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t so as t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l and m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds (Khatena & T o r r a n c e , 1973). ( c i t e d by Khatena, 1976, p. 339) 1 02 The key a s p e c t s of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a r e 'the b r e a k i n g away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t w i t h r e s u l t i n g n o v e l t y ' and ' m e a n i n g f u l n e s s ' . C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r esponses do meet the s e c r i t e r i a or key a s p e c t s and a r e the o n l y k i n d s of re s p o n s e s t h a t d i d so. That s u b j e c t s ' i m a g i n a t i o n had broken away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t was i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t these r e s p o n s e s were not "commonly w i t n e s s e d s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s " . That t h e s e r esponses were a t the same time m e a n i n g f u l i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the s o l u t i o n s were of the same s c a l e or scope as the problem i t s e l f , ( i . e . , t h ey c o n s t i t u t e d a h o l i s t i c t r e a t m e n t or c o n c e p t u a l approach t o the p r o b l e m ) . I t can a l s o be argued t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u b j e c t s o b t a i n i n g C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g s c o r e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as p e r s o n a l i t y , i . e . , one who i s a t t a i n i n g a sec u r e sense of s e l f and who i s e x p r e s s i n g p o s i t i v e w i l l i n s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , m o d i f y i n g , and r e c r e a t i n g h i s / h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n s u g g e s t s growing s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e and connotes a c t i v e n e s s as opposed t o r e a c t i v e n e s s or p a s s i v i t y / a c c e p t a n c e . (From S e c t i o n 1.3.2) These s u b j e c t s had r e p o r t e d wondering and p u z z l i n g about complex phenomena ( i . e . , the Wonder s c o r e ) . T h i s can be seen as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a c t i v e n e s s i n s e l e c t i n g and r e c r e a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e as opposed t o p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e of what i s . A se c u r e sense of s e l f i s i n d i c a t e d by b o t h the p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t and the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i m p l i e d by the g e n e r a t i o n of the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s . F u r t h e r , the p l a y f u l n e s s i n h e r e n t i n both p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t and the C o n c e p t u a l 103 T h i n k i n g responses can be seen as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of ' r e c r e a t i n g one's own e x p e r i e n c e s ' . These t h e n , a r e the arguments f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , a t l e a s t f o r the case s t u d y sample, the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e i s an i n d i c a t o r of c r e a t i v i t y as both a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s argument i s p r o v i d e d by the f a c t t h a t these s u b j e c t s a l s o g e n e r a t e d a p r o d u c t ( i . e . , t he P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y ) which was judged t o be a c r e a t i v e achievement. 5.2.2 Apparent V a l u e Of The SRP V a r i a b l e s Both the SRP v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g a re c r e a t i v i t y - r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e n o v e l i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n s t r u m e n t s used i n the s t u d y . They were the o n l y v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y t h a t had power f o r p r e d i c t i n g C r e a t i v e Group membership (see S e c t i o n 4.3.4). The d i s c u s s i o n i n S e c t i o n 5.2.1 has suggested t h a t t h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t each of these v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t both p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The SRP v a r i a b l e s , F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , on the o t h e r hand are not s u f f i c i e n t l y n o v e l ( i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s used i n t h e study) i n o r d e r t o be of s u b s t a n t i a l v a l u e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . In p r e d i c t i n g t o performance on P r o p o s a l ( t h e pr o d u c t measure of c r e a t i v i t y ) t h e y d i d not make s u b s t a n t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s beyond t h a t of CTBS ( i . e . , the academic achievement measure, see S e c t i o n 4.3.2). T h e r e f o r e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were not of p r a c t i c a l v a l u e g i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of 104 a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of academic achievement. The F a n t a s y F a c t o r v a r i a b l e was not of v a l u e i n p r e d i c t i n g t o P r o p o s a l (see Ta b l e 9 ) . I t appeared t o r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s i t i c s (Sec 5.2.1.) but d i d not a t the same time t a p a b i l i t y . ( i . e . , I t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h F l e x i b i l i t y or CTBS; see T a b l e 9.) T h e r e f o r e i t was o n l y the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t o f f e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was r e l e v a n t t o c r e a t i v i t y and t h a t was u n a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r p r e d i c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s used i n the s t u d y . 5.2.3 Adequacy Of SRP V a r i a b l e s A l t h o u g h C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were the most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of t h e C r e a t i v e Group (see T a b l e s 13 and 15), the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n d e v e l o p e d from them was not adequate f o r c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i v e Group. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s u g g e s t e d f o r t h i s was t h a t the C r e a t i v e Group c o m p r i s e d two d i f f e r e n t subgroups when both case s t u d y and SRP v a r i a b l e s were examined. T h i s l a c k of homogeneity i n the C r e a t i v e Group, however, was u n l i k e l y t o account f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were more s u b j e c t s who o b t a i n e d s c o r e s g r e a t e r than z e r o f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g than t h e r e were C r e a t i v e Group members ( i . e . , Proposal=5 or 6 ) . I t was a l s o noted t h a t the b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r p r e d i c t i n g the o v e r a l l range of performance on P r o p o s a l (see Ta b l e 11) o n l y a c c o u n t e d f o r a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of the v a r i a n c e i n P r o p o s a l . 105 These f i n d i n g s can be t a k e n t o suggest t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) not measured i n the s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o performance on the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t the a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e one's e f f o r t s i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n and t o p r o ceed w i t h o u t f r e q u e n t prompts and feedback, would be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i m p o r t a n t t o s u c c e s s on the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c might be c a l l e d m ental m a t u r i t y (which i s not equated w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y , E n g l i s h & E n g l i s h , 1958, p. 318.) I t appears p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e needed t o more a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t P r o p o s a l or t o b e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t e the C r e a t i v e Group from the N o n c r e a t i v e Group i s mental m a t u r i t y . 5.3 D i s c u s s i o n The C o n c l u s i o n s s e c t i o n has e s s e n t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d a summary of the f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s / c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t may be s u g g e s t e d by those f i n d i n g s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l p r e s e n t more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n about what was l e a r n e d about the SRP t a s k s or about c h i l d r e n ' s e x p r e s s i o n / m a n i f e s t a t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y on the SRP t a s k s . The most i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t can be made about the SRP t a s k s was t h a t i t took a problem much " b i g g e r " than th e c h i l d , ( i . e . , the " s t o p wars" p r o b l e m ) , t o evoke the spontaneous use of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , ( i . e . , m e t a p h o r i c a l / c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g or " p l a y i n g " w i t h i d e a s t h a t d e a l t w i t h a l a r g e - s c a l e , m u l t i - s y s t e m , complex problem i n a h o l i s t i c manner). T h i s i n i t s e l f i s i n t e r e s t i n g . The more manageable problems of g e t t i n g a model j e t s e t or a h orse d i d not nudge c h i l d r e n i n t o " f l i g h t s 106 of f a n c y " . Only one s u b j e c t (and she was i n the p i l o t sample) gave what might be c o n s i d e r e d a h i g h l e v e l c r e a t i v e response f o r one of the f i r s t two problems. (For the j e t problem she s a i d t o put a j e t costume on your pet b i r d . For the war problem, however, t h i s s u b j e c t gave s i x f a n t a s y a n a l o g i e s . ) The most s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g about c h i l d r e n ' s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y on the SRP ( i . e . , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r esponses) was i t s spontaneous o c c u r r e n c e . No one t o l d s u b j e c t s t o g e n e r a t e such o f f - b e a t i d e a s . No one t a l k e d t o them about metaphors or a n a l o g i e s or m a k e - b e l i e v e . The o r a l warm-up problem f o r the SRP (how someone c o u l d get a c r o s s a r i v e r ) d i d not suggest or evoke " u n - r e a l " s o l u t i o n methods i n the s i x p i l o t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s observed by the r e s e a r c h e r . For some c h i l d r e n , t h e n , the use of the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g c a t e g o r i e s of i d e a s was t h e i r spontaneous way of r e s p o n d i n g t o the l a r g e - s c a l e , complex SRP problem. The use of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g (as d e f i n e d by the Conceptual. T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s ) as a spontaneous response t e a complex problem i s a h i g h l y noteworthy phenomenon because of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r both a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y ( i . e . , b o t h i n c l i n a t i o n and a b i l i t y a r e i m p l i e d . ) T h i s type of b e h a v i o r ( i . e . , the spontaneous b r e a k i n g away from p e r c e p t u a l s e t and p l a y f u l n e s s w i t h i d e a s ) was the same b e h a v i o r t h a t G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n (1962) observed when c r e a t i v e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were asked t o w r i t e s t o r i e s about a p i c t u r e . The d e f i n i t i o n of C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g response c a t e g o r i e s i s i m p o r t a n t because i t i s d i f f e r e n t from a s i m p l e i n f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e index of o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g , ( i . e . , i t i s a 1 0 7 q u a l i t a t i v e i n d e x ) . The d e s i g n or format of the " s t o p wars" problem ( i . e . , the problem which evoked the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g response c a t e g o r i e s ) i s noteworthy because the t a s k i s complex, y e t i s not i n a " f i n d - t h e - o n e - r i g h t - a n s w e r " format ( i . e , does not depend h e a v i l y on l i n e a r , l o g i c a l , d e d u c t i v e , or a n a l y t i c t h i n k i n g ) — which i s perhaps why the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e was r e l a t i v e l y independent from CTBS. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between F r i e n d s and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and the case s t u d y d e s c r i p t i o n s of s u b j e c t s p o i n t s up a n other i s s u e . SRP t a s k s were i n t e n d e d t o be l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r as i t o c c u r s i n the examinee's everyday w o r l d . For many c h i l d r e n a t t h i s age l e v e l i t may be t h a t everyday c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r most f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s p l a c e i n the c o n t e x t of p l a y w i t h f r i e n d s (as opposed t o i n the c o n t e x t of " p r o b l e m s " ) . I t may be t h a t t a s k s t h a t t a p " p l a y w i t h f r i e n d s " c o n t e x t s c o u l d be m o s t . p r o v o c a t i v e of c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . Why then d i d the war problem seem t o work? Perhaps the war problem was so b i g t h a t , t o cope w i t h i t , " C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k e r " s u b j e c t s reduced i t t o the s c a l e of j u s t a n o t h e r game. T h i s l i n e of argument c o u l d i m p l y t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t d e s i r e d f o r t h i s age. l e v e l i s not one c a l l e d " S o l v i n g R e a l Problems" but r a t h e r , one c a l l e d " P l a y i n g R e a l Games". ( T h i s emphasis or d i r e c t i o n would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h W a l l a c h and Kogan's (1966) approach of h a v i n g examinees p l a y f u l l y e n t e r t a i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n a t a s k - c e n t r e d environment.) Whether the e x p l i c i t i n v i t a t i o n t o engage i n f a n t a s y , metaphor, and m a k e - b e l i e v e would a i d or h i n d e r . 108 e f f i c i e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s would be a mat t e r f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . The o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe the spontaneous use of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i n response t o a problem p r e s e n t e d as " r e a l " may i n f a c t be the s t r e n g t h of the c u r r e n t SRP format. The convergence a n a l y s i s of SRP, P r o p o s a l , and Case Study v a r i a b l e s draws a t t e n t i o n t o a n o t h e r a s p e c t of c h i l d r e n ' s e x p r e s s i o n s / m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y a t t h i s age l e v e l . In Tab l e 25, i f one compares the f i r s t s i x s u b j e c t s w i t h the next f i v e , one can see a - t r e n d towards two d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s f o r C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s . The second group would appear t o not have the p l a y f u l n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y of the f i r s t group ( i . e . , as i n d i c a t e d by low s c o r e s on F r i e n d s and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g ) . However, they do have t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder about t h e complex; some of them demonstrated the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and a l l of them were a b l e t o ge n e r a t e a P r o p o s a l t h a t was n o v e l ( a l t h o u g h not g e r m i n a l ) , a p p r o p r i a t e , and s a l e a b l e . Perhaps t h i s t y pe of c r e a t i v e c h i l d i n p a r t i c u l a r , would r e q u i r e the e x p l i c i t i n v i t a t i o n t o engage i n C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g t y p e s of responses and/or a t a s k t h a t i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o engage i n o f f - b e a t i d e a s (as opposed t o a s e r i o u s r e a l p r o b l e m ) . In t h i s study t h e r e appeared t o be two g e n e r a l t y p e s of c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n : t h o s e who s p o n t a n e o u s l y engage i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s / c o a c h i n g ; and those who o n l y use c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g when i t i s made e x p l i c i t t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o do so. A l l of the c h i l d r e n who s p o n t a n e o u s l y 109 used creative thinking were s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e / s u c c e s s f u l , at l e a s t . Some of them were very popular with friends and these children tended to make s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s / s u c c e s s a high p r i o r i t y in everyday l i f e . This p r o f i l e i s suggestive of the bright but creative c h i l d who does not "appear" to be a "hard-worker" or "serious student" in the school setting. Examples of teachers' comments about such children in the case studies were: "She's one of the best students and has a good imagination but her energy's going into the s o c i a l scene right now"; "She's one of the best students but she holds back in her school work so that she can stay in the group her friends are i n " ; or "He's accepted as a leader by his classmates, wants to be f i r s t in everything, and i n s i s t s on always being the f i r s t to f i n i s h assigned work instead of doing a c a r e f u l , tidy job." The parents of children with t h i s p r o f i l e expressed surprise that their children got good marks in school because they didn't seem to give, i t much e f f o r t . The parents of boys with t h i s p r o f i l e mentioned that their sons had been moved by their teachers to be seated far away from their friends in the class because of "talking problems". It would seem that t h i s a t t r a c t i o n to s o c i a l a c t i v i t y could serve to cloud or disguise the general a b i l i t y of a creative c h i l d in a variety of ways. Understanding or accepting t h i s s o c i a l aspect of the "spontaneously creative" c h i l d would seem to have implications for their educational needs, (e.g, the obvious advantages of a classroom where academic excellence i s valued by s o c i a l peers and, conversely, the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of 110 such c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n s e t t i n g s where academic e x c e l l e n c e i s s o c i a l l y p unished.) For the c r e a t i v e c h i l d who does not engage i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g u n l e s s i t i s c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e / r e q u e s t e d , t h e r e a r e a l s o i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . Such c h i l d r e n would seem l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t from an e d u c a t i o n a l program which f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d e x p l i c i t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the use of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . T h i s would ensure t h e i r p r a c t i c e w i t h or e x e r c i s e of t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . (The "spontaneous u s e r s " of c r e a t i v i t y get such p r a c t i c e i n two ways: they engage i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g as a spontaneous response t o c e r t a i n t y p e s of problems; and t h e y spend time p l a y i n g w i t h f r i e n d s which p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the use and v a l u i n g of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . ) In summary, i t appears from t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e r e a r e two t y p e s of c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n -- one type which may s u f f e r a c a d e m i c a l l y w i t h o u t a s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l environment; and a n o t h e r type w h i c h may s u f f e r i n the a r e a of m a x i m a l l y d e v e l o p i n g , t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . W h i l e t h i s has been a c u r s o r y d e s c r i p t i o n of c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the consequences of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s b r i e f s k e t c h may p r o v i d e i d e a s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , the s k e t c h i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s of o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , ( e . g . , T o r r a n c e , 1962; G e t z e l s & J a c k s o n , 1962). These f i n d i n g s s i m p l y p r o v i d e f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n f o r the view t h a t , w i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n may be viewed t o be "at r i s k " . 111 The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y a l s o have g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u m e n t s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n . I f one wishes t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h i s age l e v e l who s p o n t a n e o u s l y engage i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , then i t i s a l a r g e -s c a l e , m u l t i - s y s t e m , complex problem t h a t can f a c i l i t a t e t h i s r a t h e r than a s i m p l e , s i n g l e - c o n c e p t one. I t may w e l l be t h a t o t h e r c h i l d r e n can attempt m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g or f a n c i f u l t h i n k i n g g i v e n s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and perhaps c o a c h i n g on how t o do so. The i m p l i c a t i o n s , however, a r e of i n t e r e s t f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s who w i s h t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s who use c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g whether or not they have been s p e c i f i c a l l y i n s t r u c t e d t o do so. There i s a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n from t h i s s t u d y t h a t i t i s the complex, " b i g g e r - t h a n - t h e - c h i l d " problem (which p r o v i d e s scope f o r m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n approaches) t h a t must be used t o spark t h i s spontaneous use of c r e a t i v e t h o u g h t . Problems p r e s e n t e d i n more manageable b i t s d i d not i n s p i r e the use- of t h i s k i n d of t h i n k i n g . More s i m p l e , s i n g l e - c o n s t r a i n t , or l i n e a r - t h o u g h t t y p e s of c r e a t i v i t y t e s t items would not seem l i k e l y t o o f f e r the k i n d of involvement and e x c i t e m e n t t h a t c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n found i n the " s t o p wars" problem. 5.4 F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s For SRP Development F u r t h e r development work on SRP t a s k s s h o u l d attempt t o i d e n t i f y / d e v e l o p t a s k s l i k e the " s t o p wars" problem. In t h i s s t u d y , the " s t o p wars" problem was s u b m i t t e d by s u b j e c t s as b e i n g a h i g h - i n t e r e s t problem. T h i s suggested t h a t i t might be a m e a n i n g f u l one t o s u b j e c t s i n the study sample. An e f f o r t 1 12 would have t o be made t o f i n d o t h e r t a s k s t h a t a r e both complex and m e a n i n g f u l t o the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t . An i n i t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the " s t o p wars" problem s u g g e s t s t h a t t o be complex, a problem s h o u l d be m u l t i - s y s t e m . In o t h e r words, the problem s e t t i n g must c o n s t i t u t e a s t r u c t u r e . W i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e t h e r e a r e components which a r e s e p a r a t e and e x h i b i t v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . For example, the p h y s i c a l laws g o v e r n i n g the e a r t h and space a r e one l a r g e component of the s t r u c t u r e of the w o r l d which i s the s e t t i n g or c o n t e x t of the " s t o p wars" problem. The p o l i t i c a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l systems would be examples of sub-components of the main component r e l a t e d t o what governs p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s . When .a complex s t r u c t u r e i s the c o n t e x t of a problem, and the s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s components which a r e h i g h l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , then t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number of e n t r y p o i n t s or p o s s i b l e approaches t o s o l v i n g the problem. In o t h e r words, i n s t e a d of t h e r e b e i n g one r i g h t answer which can be a r r i v e d a t through c a r e f u l r e a s o n i n g or d e d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . , t h e r e i s ample scope f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l s whose knowledge, s k i l l s , t a l e n t s , and i n t e r e s t s might be i n d i v e r s e a r e a s . Thus c o m p l e x i t y of a problem might be d e f i n e d i n terms of the number and v a r i e t y of components w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e which i s the c o n t e x t of the problem. To meet the c r i t e r i a of "m e a n i n g f u l t o the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t " the problem s h o u l d be one t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be of h i g h importance t o the examinees. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t o n l y p i l o t t e s t i n g w i l l c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e 113 whether a problem i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complex, b i g , and i m p o r t a n t so as t o c a p t u r e the i m a g i n a t i o n s of c r e a t i v e examinees. However, i f the problem which appears l a r g e and complex i s i d e n t i f i e d / s u b m i t t e d by members of the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t t h a t would be one c l u e t o i t s s u i t a b i l i t y . An i n s t r u m e n t l i k e the "What's a R e a l Problem Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " (Appendix D) c o u l d be used f o r t h i s purpose. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t p r o v i d e s examples of problems b e f o r e a s k i n g s u b j e c t s f o r t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n s . U s i n g the " s t o p wars" problem as one of t h e s e examples might e l i c i t more s u g g e s t i o n s of problems on t h a t s c a l e . In a d d i t i o n t o p r e s e n t i n g a complex problem as a r e a l problem, a f u t u r e SRP s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t a s k which i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y i n v i t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g and p r o v i d e s an a p p r o p r i a t e warm-up a c t i v i t y . These two k i n d s of t a s k s " ( i . e . , the s e r i o u s problem and the g a m e - l i k e problem) might be b e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s u b j e c t s as s e p a r a t e i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t names. When a d m i n i s t e r i n g the s e r i o u s , complex problem i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o pr e c e e d i t w i t h a more manageable s e r i o u s problem such as the " j e t problem" was. In t h i s way, a l l s u b j e c t s would e x p e r i e n c e some form of suc c e s s w i t h the i n s t r u m e n t . A l s o , the s m a l l manageable problem may be i m p o r t a n t f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a c e r t a i n response " s e t " b e f o r e examinees encounter the l a r g e - s c a l e complex problem. I t does not appear w o r t h w h i l e t o pursue f u r t h e r development of the v a r i a b l e s , F l u e n c y and F l e x i b i l i t y . These v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e p r e d i c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n beyond t h a t a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n the CTBS s c o r e s . I t seems t h a t p r i m a r y mental 1 1 4 a b i l i t y t y p e measures of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g p r o v i d e l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n beyond t h a t a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of academic achievement. V a r i a b l e s such as W i s h i n g , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . They may be u s e f u l f o r d e f i n i n g p r o f i l e s of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c r e a t i v e s u b j e c t s o r f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e C r e a t i v e from t h e N o n c r e a t i v e group w i t h i n a p r o f i l e t y p e . A l e s s heterogeneous sample would be of g r e a t v a l u e i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i t h SRP type t a s k s . The C r e a t i v e Group i n t h i s s t udy was s m a l l (15 from a p o s s i b l e 224 s u b j e c t s who s u b m i t t e d P r o p o s a l s ) . W i t h a sample t h a t y i e l d e d a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s , r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be asked and answered w i t h more c o n f i d e n c e and c l a r i t y . 5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study (1) The study i n v o l v e d s t u d e n t s from grade f i v e c l a s s e s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o groups from a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n . (2) G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d f o r the SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n the case s t u d y sample who had s c o r e s g r e a t e r than z e r o f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a l l had h i g h s c o r e s on the P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e . I n o t h e r words, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f e r e d may not be m e a n i n g f u l a t lower l e v e l s of performance on P r o p o s a l . What remains t o be e x p l o r e d i s whether s u b j e c t s i n the N o n c r e a t i v e Group who have s c o r e s g r e a t e r than 1 15 z e r o f o r A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g a r e d i f f e r e n t from the C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s . Would c o r r e l a t i o n s among case study v a r i a b l e s and SRP v a r i a b l e s f o r t h i s group be the same as those o b t a i n e d f o r the C r e a t i v e Group? Would a measure of mental m a t u r i t y c o n s t i t u t e the main d i f f e r e n c e between the s e two groups? 5.6 Summary Of I m p l i c a t i o n s For F u r t h e r Research I t would appear w o r t h w h i l e f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g SRP t a s k s t o c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s or q u e s t i o n s . 1. Can o t h e r SRP t a s k s be d e v e l o p e d which a r e c a p a b l e of e v o k i n g the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g responses? Would such complex t a s k s have a r e l a t i v e l y u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l t o s u b j e c t s of t h i s age group i n d i f f e r e n t communities? Would l e s s complex t a s k s (which do not evoke C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g or A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s ) be n e c e s s a r y as p r e l i m i n a r y warm-up t a s k s ? 2. Can the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d f o r the v a r i a b l e s C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g be c o n f i r m e d by f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ? For example, would C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g s c o r e s have the same meaning (as i n d i c a t e d by case s t u d y v a r i a b l e s ) . f o r s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g lower on P r o p o s a l than d i d the C r e a t i v e Group? S t a t e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y , case s t u d i e s would have t o be compared f o r C r e a t i v e Group members and N o n c r e a t i v e Group members, a l l of whom had s c o r e s f o r C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and/or A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . 3. Can the v a r i a b l e s needed f o r improved p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l 1 1 6 be i d e n t i f i e d ? Would such v a r i a b l e s account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between s u b j e c t s low or high on Proposal but high on A n a l y t i c and Conceptual Thinking? Would such v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the p r e d i c t i o n of the f u l l range of Proposal scores? 4. Can tasks which i m p l i c i t l y and/or e x p l i c i t l y i n v i t e the use of m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g and p l a y f u l n e s s with ideas a i d i n the more e f f e c t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C r e a t i v e Group members? 1 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, H.H. C r e a t i v i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . In H.H. Anderson ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1959. B a r r o n , F. and H a r r i n g t o n , D.M. C r e a t i v i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and p e r s o n a l i t y . Annual Review of P s y c h o l o g y , 1981, 32, 439-476. 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The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1971, _ 5 ( 3 ) , 156-174. Gowan, J.C. and Demos, G.D. The E d u c a t i o n and Guidance of the  A b l e s t . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1964. H a r r i s , D.G. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y : two approaches t o enhance c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n grade f i v e s t u d e n t s . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia, 1977. Kagan, J . (Ed.) C r e a t i v i t y and L e a r n i n g . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1967. Khatena, J . Major d i r e c t i o n s i n c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 2 0 ( 3 ) , 336-349. K i t a , S. S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS). U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1979 . K i t a , S. S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS). U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1981 . L a b o r a t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Research Test A n a l y s i s Package. (ERSC LERTAP) UBC E d u c a t i o n Research S e r v i c e C e n t r e , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , March 1978.. L a s w e l l , H.D. The s o c i a l , s e t t i n g of c r e a t i v i t y . In H.H. Anderson ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1959. MacKinnon, D.W. In s e a r c h of human e f f e c t i v e n e s s . B u f f a l o , New York: C r e a t i v e E d u c a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n , 1978. MacKinnon, D.W. P e r s o n a l i t y and the r e a l i z a t i o n of c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1965, 20_, 273-281 . N i c h o l l s , J.G. C r e a t i v i t y i n the pers o n who w i l l never produce a n y t h i n g o r i g i n a l or u s e f u l : the concept of c r e a t i v i t y as a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , August 1972, 717-727. 119 P e t r o s k o , J.M. M e a s u r i n g c r e a t i v i t y i n the e lementary s c h o o l : the s t a t e of the a r t . The J o u r n a l of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 8 , J_2(2) , 1 09 -1 1 9 . P r i n c e , G.M. C r e a t i v i t y , s e l f , and power. In I.A. T a y l o r and J.W. G e t z e l s (Eds.) P e r s p e c t i v e s i n c r e a t i v i t y . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1975. R e k d a l , C.K. In s e a r c h of the w i l d duck: p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s as t e s t s of c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and t h e i r use as measurements i n programs f o r the g i f t e d . The G i f t e d C h i l d  Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 2J_(4), 501-516. S h a p i r o , R.J. The c r i t e r i o n problem. In P.E. Vernon ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y . G reat B r i t a i n : R i c h a r d C l a y (The Chausser P r e s s ) L t d , 1970. S t e i n , M.I. C r e a t i v i t y . In E.F. B o r g a t t a and W.W. Lambert (Eds.) Handbook of P e r s o n a l i t y Theory and R e s e a r c h. C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y & Company, 1968. Swenson, E.V. Teacher-assessment of c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 2 2 ( 3 ) , 338-343. T a y l o r , I.A. An emerging view of c r e a t i v e a c t i o n s . In I .A. T a y l o r and J.W. G e t z e l s ( E d s . ) , P e r s p e c t i v e s i n C r e a t i v i t y . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1975. T o r r a n c e , E.P. T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g Norms- T e c h n i c a l Manual (Research E d i t i o n ! " ! P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P e r s o n n e l P r e s s , I n c . , 1966(a). T o r r a n c e , E.P. T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g : D i r e c t i o n s  and S c o r i n g Manual ( V e r b a l T e s t B o o k l e t A)~ P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P e r s o n n e l P r e s s , 1966(b). T o r r a n c e , E.P. E d u c a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . In C.W. T a y l o r ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y : p r o g r e s s and p o t e n t i a l . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1964. T o r r a n c e , E.P. G u i d i n g C r e a t i v e T a l e n t . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1962. 1 20 T o r r a n c e , E.P. and B a l l , O.E. S t r e a m l i n e d S c o r i n g and  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Guide and Norms Manual f o r F i g u r a l Form A,  TTCT ( 4 t h E d i t i o n - ! Athens, G e o r g i a : G e o r g i a S t u d i e s of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , J u l y 1980. T o r r a n c e , E.P. and B a l l , O.E. S t r e a m l i n e d S c o r i n g and  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Guide and Norms Manual f o r F i g u r a l Form B,  TTCT. Athens, G e o r g i a : G e o r g i a S t u d i e s of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1 978. T o r r a n c e , E.P. and Gowan, J.C. (Eds.) E d u c a t i n g the A b l e s t . I t a s c a , I l l i n o i s : F.E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1971. T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. The p r o g r e s s and p e r i l of i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e T a l e n t among g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . The J o u r n a l  of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1980, J_4(1), 20-34. T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. and P o g g i o , J.P. Needed R e s e a r c h on the measurement of c r e a t i v i t y . The J o u r n a l of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1972, 6 ( 4 ) , 253-267. ~~ T r e f f i n g e r , D.J., R e n z u l l i , J.S., and F e l d h u s e n , J.F. Problems i n the assessment of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . The J o u r n a l of  C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1971, 5 ( 2 ) , 104-112. W a l l a c h , M.A. and Kogan, N. Modes of T h i n k i n g i n Young . C h i l d r e n : A Study of the C r e a t i v i t y - I n t e l l i g e n c e D i s t i n c t i o n . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1965. 121 APPENDIX A - SELF-CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE 122 Boy G i r l Teacher _ - • " ~~~ Date This a chance for you to look at y o u r s e l f and think about what your strong p o i n t s are and what your weak po i n t s are. This i s not a t e s t . Be sure your answers show how you think about y o u r s e l f . 123 Instructions to Students Before you start, here i s an example for you to try. Read number 1 and then answer the question. Better Very Than Not so EXAMPLE: Excellent Good Most OK Good Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 1. Working on my own. The words at the top of each column show what each l i n e stands for. Find the line under the heading that shows your answer. Make an X on that line. 124 Compared with other girls and boys my age, how do I rate myself? Better Very Than Not so Excellent Good Most OK Good 1. Keeping at my work until I get i t done. 2. Being able to read well. 3. Being able to Laugh about things easily. 4. Listening to someone even when I haven't had a chance to t e l l my ideas. 5. Knowing how to solve arithmetic problems. 6. Wanting to learn about things scientists do. 10. Learning about people around the worl - - - - -in them. d and being interested Knowing how other people feel, when they have troubles or problems. Seeing small but important facts in solving hard problems. Being able to talk about my ideas in a group. 11. Being a good sport. 12. Making friends easily. 13. Being able to see things in my mind easily when I want to. 14. Being able to set my own goals and work toward them. 15. Working with others to get a job done. 125 Better Very Than Excellent -Good Most Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 16. Being able to talk to teachers easily and feel comfortable with teachers. 17. Thinking up answers to problems no one else has thought of. 18. Letting others do their jobs in their own ways and not bossing people around. 19. Seeing new ways of thinking about things and putting ideas together. 20. Being able to figure out how to solve a hard problem. .21. Enjoying funny things people do or say. 22. Having ideas came quickly and easily. 23. Being able to t e l l my ideas in front of other people. 24. Being able to keep my mind on my work. .25. Being interested in new things and excited about a l l there is to learn. 26. Being willing to t e l l my ideas when no one else agrees with me. 27. Liking something in everyone no matter who they are. 28. Being attractive, good-looking or handsome. 126 Better Very Than Not so Excellent Good Most OK Good Compared with other girls and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 29. Being able to enjoy jokes and having a sense of humour. 30. Being cooperative with teachers. . 31. Getting my school work in on time and not getting behind. 32. Knowing what to do to get the right answer to a problem. 33. Having high standards for myself. 34. Seeing important facts ;that other people miss. •< 35. Not expecting everything I do to be perfect. 36. Letting my imagination go when I want to. 37. Making .up my own mind even i f other people don't agree with me. 38. Understanding other people's feelings. 39. Being fair to other people even when I don't like them very much. 40. Thinking of unusual things — things other people don'rethink about very much. 41. Being able to admit my mistakes. 42. Liking everybody at least a l i t t l e bit. 43. Being able to lead my l i f e my own way. 44. Doing my part in class activities including work jobs and clean-up. 127 Better Very Than Not so Excellent Good Most OK Good Compared with other girls and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 45. Being able to solve a hard problem by turning i t around and seeing i t in a new way. 46. Being able to listen to someone else when I think that what they are saying is a l l wrong. 47. Being able to think quickly and easily. 48. Learning about new things even when other people aren't interested. 49. Solving problems in ways others haven't tried before. 50. Being a good sport when I lose in a game. 51. Being friendly to others. 52. Taking part in class projects and doing my share. 53. Having new and original ideas. 54. Knowing that everyone has a right to be different. 55. Learning things quickly. 56. Remebering what I have learned. 57. Being willing for others to have their way sanetimes. 58. Being confident, not shy or timid. 59. Being a good student. 60. Being a leader. 61. Making other people feel at ease. 62. Liking school. 63. Being able to use what I have learned. 1 2 8 APPENDIX B - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SELF- CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE S e l f - C o n c e p t Inventory 129 P lease a d m i n i s t e r du r i ng the week of October 5 - 9 . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s P l e a s e i n t r oduce the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i th a d i a l o g u e such as the sample one P rov ided below. There i s no t ime l i m i t r e q u i r e d . Students may work as f a s t as they l i k e . I f you a n t i c i p a t e r ead ing d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r some of the s t u d e n t s , p l ease use whichever o f the f o l l o w i n g procedures seems most r e a s o n a b l e . o r a p p r o p r i a t e : (A) I d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c words i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which might cause d i f f i c u l t y and rev iew the meaning of these words w i th the c l a s s p r i o r to the use of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (B) I n v i t e s tuden ts to ask f o r your a s s i s t a n c e du r ing comp le t ion o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f they encounter any d i f f i c u l t y w i th any of the q u e s t i o n s . (C) I f e x c e p t i o n a l r ead ing d i f f i c u l t i e s are a n t i c i p a t e d f o r some of the s t u d e n t s , take these s tudents to one s i d e and go through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r a l l y w i t h them w h i l e the r e s t o f the c l a s s does i t on t h e i r own. I f d i f f i c u l t i e s are a n t i c i p a t e d w i th the 5 -po in t r a t i n g s c a l e o f " e x c e l l e n t " to "not so good" , f o r p r a c t i c e have s tuden ts r a t e themselves on the s c a l e f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as the f o l l o w i n g : s i n g i n g , runn ing f a s t , w r i t i n g n e a t l y , remembering the words to songs I l i k e , be ing on t i m e , swimming. Sample D ia logue f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( D i s t r i b u t e b o o k l e t s . ) Today I have a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r you to comple te . At c e r t a i n t imes in the y e a r , many people l i k e to t h i nk about t h e i r work and how i t i s g o i n g . Some boys and g i r l s your age have found tha t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e he lps them th ink about themselves and the t h i n g s they do. Th is i s a chance f o r you to look at y o u r s e l f and dec ide what your s t rong po in t s are and what your weak p o i n t s a r e . Everyone w i l l have d i f f e r e n t answers — so be sure tha t your answers show how you th ink about y o u r s e l f . To f i l l in the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , read each i tem and then answer the q u e s t i o n : Compared w i th o ther boys and g i r l s my age, how do I r a t e myse l f? L e t ' s look at the example on the second page. There are f i v e answers to choose f rom: e x c e l l e n t , very good, b e t t e r than most, OK, not so good. Put an X in the space tha t s tands f o r your answer. Are there any ques t i ons about how to do t h i s ? Now go r i g h t ahead. Work as f a s t as .you l i k e . Remember to put your name on the f r o n t be fore you hand i t in 1 30 APPENDIX C - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TORRANCE TASKS TORRANCE CREATIVITY ACTIVITIES 131 P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r du r i ng the week of October 12 - 16. There are 3 Tor rance t asks to be adm in i s te red w i th a t ime l i m i t of 10 minutes f o r each t a s k . There are 2 warm-up a c t i v i t i e s which you are reques ted to conduct w i th the c h i l d r e n f i r s t as a l e a d - i n to the Tor rance t a s k s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Warm-Up A c t i v i t i e s (1) "Add a wo rd . " Assuming tha t c h i l d r e n are s i t t i n g in rows of about 6 s tuden ts each ( i f no t , make some p h y s i c a l rearrangements t ha t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e pass ing sheets of paper w i t h i n a c i r c u i t o f about 6 s tuden ts each) have each s tudent begin w i th a sheet o f l i n e d paper w i th h i s / h e r name at the t o p . The o b j e c t of the game i s f o r each c i r c u i t of 6 s tuden ts to generate 6 sentences by each s tudent c o n t r i b u t i n g one word to each o f the sen tences . To b e g i n , each s tudent puts down a ward t ha t can begin a sentence.. Then he /she passes the page to the next person who adds the next word to the sen tence . Th is con t inues u n t i l each person gets back t h e i r o r i g i n a l page w i t h t h e i r own name on i t . Have some of the sentences read out loud to the c l a s s . I f the s tuden ts enjoyed the game and want to t r y i t aga in you may wish to l e t them do so . (2) "Add a l i n e . " (2) "Add a l i n e . " In a s i m i l a r manner to the "add a word" game, each c i r c u i t o f about 6 s tuden ts c r e a t e s 6 p i c t u r e s by each person c o n t r i b u t i n g a l i n e to each of the- p i c t u r e s . (A l i n e i s any mark t ha t can be made on the page w i thout hav ing to l i f t the p e n c i l o f f the page, i . e . , i t can be c u r v e d , wavy, or can c r o s s o the r l i n e s . ) I f the p i c t u r e s s t i l l look u n f i n i s h e d when each person gets back the page they s t a r t e d w i t h , you may wish to have the p i c t u r e s go through the c i r c u i t a second t ime . Sample D ia logue f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tasks (P lease f o l l o w t h i s as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . For the Tor rance tasks themselves you may wish to read the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the s tudents as though you were r ead ing out the d i r e c t i o n s f o r a new game.) "Today we ' re going to do some a c t i v i t i e s where we use our imag ina t i on and and t h i nk of l o t s o f ideas very q u i c k l y . The f i r s t game i s c a l l e d "add a word " . To p l a y t h i s game . . . . (Conduct the add-a-word game.) " In our next game we make group p i c t u r e s in the same way we made group sen tences . . . . (Conduct the a d d - a - l i n e game.) ( D i s t r i b u t e the Torrance t asks f ace down.) "Now we have 3 games tha t you each do by y o u r s e l f . One of them i s w i th words and the o ther 2 are w i th p i c t u r e s . We on l y have 10 minutes to spend on each game so t r y and work very q u i c k l y to th ink of a l l the ideas you can . On these games, t r y and t h i nk of unusual ideas tha t no one e l s e w i l l t h ink o f . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. J u s t use your imag ina t i on to t h ink of 132 l o t s of d i f f e r e n t i d e a s . I f you run out of ideas be fo re 10 minutes i s up on a game, j u s t s i t and wa i t and sometimes more ideas w i l l come and you can add t h o s e . F i r s t put your name on the blank page tha t you see in f r o n t o f you . Put down your f u l 1 name. Now tu rn your book le t o v e r . For the f i r s t game y o u ' r e go ing to th ink about a s t u f f e d toy e l ephan t . I t ' s about 6 inches t a l l and.weighs about h a l f a pound. I t ' s the k i nd you can get in a dime s t o r e f o r a coup le of d o l l a r s . Try to th ink o f the c l e v e r e s t , most i n t e r e s t i n g and unusual ways of changing t h i s toy e lephan t so tha t c h i l d r e n would have more fun p l a y i n g w i th i t . Don ' t worry about how much the change would c o s t . J u s t th ink about what would make i t more fun to p l a y w i th as a t o y . You can use t h i s page and the next one f o r p u t t i n g down a l l your ideas f o r changes. Go r i g h t ahead. I ' l l t e l l you when the t ime i s up. (A l l ow ten m inu tes . ) A l r i g h t t u rn to the next page. For the next game y o u ' r e go ing to make p i c t u r e s by adding l i n e s to the incomple te f i g u r e s on t h i s page and the next one. Try to th ink o f a p i c t u r e or o b j e c t s tha t no one e l s e w i l l t h ink o f - Try to make i t t e l l as complete and i n t e r e s t i n g a s t o r y as you can by adding to and b u i l d i n g up your f i r s t i d e a . Make up an i n t e r e s t i n g t i t l e f o r each drawing and w r i t e i t at the bottom of each b lock next to the number o f the f i g u r e . Work q u i c k l y to do as many as you can but d o n ' t worry about i t i f you d o n ' t f i n i s h a l l of them. Try to t h i nk o f t h i n g s to draw tha t no one e l s e w i l l . Go r i g h t ahead. (A l l ow 10 m inu tes . ) ( I f s tudents seem to be g e t t i n g f a t i g u e d a l l o w a break be fore doing the l a s t a c t i v i t y - - i f n e c e s s a r y , c o l l e c t the book le t s and r e t u r n them a f te rward f o r the l a s t t a s k . ) Turn the page. For the l a s t game, see how many o b j e c t s or p i c t u r e s you can make from the c i r c l e s on t h i s page and the next one. You can use p e n c i l s or o ther drawing m a t e r i a l s . The c i r c l e s shou ld be the main pa r t of whatever you make. You can make marks i n s i d e the c i r c l e s and o u t s i d e the c i r c l e s - -wherever you want in o rder to make your p i c t u r e . Try to th ink o f t h i ngs to draw tha t no one e l s e w i l l th ink o f . Make as many d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s or o b j e c t s as you can and put as many ideas as you can in each one. Make them t e l l as complete and i n t e r e s t i n g a s t o r y as you can . Add names or t i t l e s below the o b j e c t s . Go r i g h t ahead. (A l low 10 m inu tes . ) (A l low the c h i l d r e n to show some of t h e i r drawings to each o ther be fo re c o l l e c t i n g the b o o k l e t s . ) General Never use the word t e s t . Don ' t g i ve c h i l d r e n examples of r e s p o n s e s ; i f they ask ques t i ons j u s t t r y to repeat the i n s t r u c t i o n s word f o r word. Thank y o u ! 133 A P P E N D I X D - " W H A T ' S A R E A L P R O B L E M ? " Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 134 S o m e t h i n g I want to do W h y I can ' t do it 135 S o m e t h i n g I want to do 136 S o m e t h i n g I wan t to do W h y I can ' t do it 137 S o m e t h i n g I want to do W h y I can ' t do it 138 S o m e t h i n g I wan t to do W h y i can ' t do it 139 S o m e t h i n g I wan t to do W h y I can ' t d o it 140 APPENDIX E - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE  "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?" QUESTIONNAIRE 141 "What 's a Real Prob lem?" Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r on Thursday, October 1, 1981 There i s no t ime l i m i t r e q i r e d . I t would be d e s i r e a b l e to a l l o w as much t ime as i s r e q u i r e d f o r those s tuden ts t ha t do seem to have ideas (app rox ima te l y 15 - 20 m inu tes . ) The s tuden ts who do not have ideas w i l l u s u a l l y amuse them-s e l v e s by c o l o r i n g or dood l i ng on the d raw ings . Th is i s f i n e as i t c r e a t e s a r e l a x e d atmosphere f o r those s tuden ts who can t h i n k of examples of p rob lems. Some s tuden ts may appear to put c o n s i d e r a b l e t ime i n t o drawing i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e i r examples. Th i s i s f i n e as i t may g i ve them the t ime they need to t h i nk of o ther examples o f - p r o b l e m s . Sample O ia logue f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( D i s t r i b u t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . ) A group of people t h a t are i n t e r e s t e d in how people do problem s o l v i n g would l i k e to know what people your age c o n s i d e r r e a l problems to be. Th i s c l a s s has been asked to p rov ide examples o f what " r e a l " problems a r e . T h e y ' r e say i ng t ha t a problem i s when t h e r e ' s something you want to do but t h e r e ' s a reason why you c a n ' t do i t . On the f i r s t 3 pages of t h i s book le t t h e y ' v e g iven examples of what problems cou ld be. T h e y ' r e ask ing i f each of you can g i ve th ree examples o f problems t ha t you have or t ha t you know your f r i e n d s have. You can use the l a s t 3 pages of t h i s form to g i ve your examples. You can a l s o make a drawing to i l l u s t r a t e each problem i f you w i s h . P l e a s e go ahead. T ry and- t h ink of 3 prob lems. You have about 15 m inu tes . 1 42 APPENDIX F - FINAL FORM - SOLVING REAL PROBLEMS: EXERCISES IN PRODUCTIVE THINKING Solving Real Problems exercises in productive thinking Name 144 I want to b u i l d a model j e t but I do.n't have t h e money f o r a s e t . 145 What a r e a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h i s p e r s o n c o u l d t r y to do? I f you need more space p l e a s e put a check n a r k h e r e the l a s t page i n t h i s b o o k l e t . and use our c i t y 146 A l o t o f k i d s i n , want t o have a h o r s e but t h e i r p a r e n t s c a n ' t a f f o r d i t and t h e y have no p l a c e t o keep one. 147 What a r e a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h e s e k i d s c o u l d t r y t o do about t h i s problem? I f you need more space p l e a s e p ut a check mark h e r e the l a s t page i n t h i s b o o k l e t . and use 148 149 What a r e a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h i s p e r s o n c o u l d t r y to do? I f you need more space p l e a s e put a check mark h e r e and use t h e l a s t page i n t h i s b o o k l e t . 150 151 1 52 APPENDIX G - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SRP 153 P r o c e d u r e s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  " S o l v i n g R e a l P r o b l e m s : E x e r c i s e s i n P r o d u c t i v e T h i n k i n g " Time R e q u i r e m e n t s T h e r e i s no time l i m i t imposed on s t u d e n t s f o r c o m p l e t i n g the e x e r c i s e b o o k l e t . The time frame d e s c r i b e d h e r e i s p r o v i d e d to e n a b l e you to s c h e d u l e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n v e n i e n t l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f o t h e r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . -- A l m o s t a l l s t u d e n t s w i l l p r o b a b l y be f i n i s h e d i n 30 m i n u t e s . - Some s t u d e n t s w i l l be f i n i s h e d i n 10 m i n u t e s and s h o u l d have s o m e t h i n g e l s e t o t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o so t h a t they do not d i s t r a c t s t u d e n t s who a r e s t i l l w r i t i n g . - A few s t u d e n t s may w i s h t o c o n t i n u e p a s t 30 m i n u t e s and s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o do so. - I f a f t e r one hour from the b e g i n n i n g o f the e x e r c i s e , any s t u d e n t i s s t i l l w r i t i n g , g e n t l y persuade them t h a t what t h e y have done i s more than ample and t h a t t h e r e i s no need t o f i l l e v e r y l i n e i n t h e b o o k l e t . Sample D i a l o g u e f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the E x e r c i s e s ( P l e a s e f o l l o w t h i s as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . There a r e t h r e e main p a r t s : i n t r o d u c t i o n ; b r a i n s t o r m i n g warm-up; and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c problems i n the b o o k l e t to ensure comprehension.) "Our c l a s s has been asked t o complete a b o o k l e t o f problem s o l v i n g e x e r c i s e s . A group o f p e o p l e wish to know how w e l l p e o p l e your age can s o l v e problems. Do you remember the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e you f i l l e d out where you gave examples o f what you thought problems were? W e l l the problems i n t h i s b o o k l e t have been s e l e c t e d from the ones you gave. There a r e 3 problems, and f o r each problem you a r e asked t o s u g g e s t a l l the d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t someone c o u l d t r y t o s o l v e t h a t problem. There a r e no r i g h t or wrong answers. .The p e o p l e t h a t made the b o o k l e t j u s t want to see what d i f f e r e n t  ways you can t h i n k o f o r i m a g i n e f o r s o l v i n g each problem. You s h o u l d put down any i d e a s you can t h i n k of even i f you're not s u r e t h e y wou'ld work. 154 F i r s t w e ' l l do a p r a c t i c e one t o g e t h e r . ( D i s t r i b u t e the b o o k l e t s . ) Look a t t h e p i c t u r e s on t h e c o v e r o f t h e b o o k l e t . What i s the p e r s o n ' s problem? (Take an answer from the s t u d e n t s , t h e n r e p h r a s e i t i f n e c e s s a r y and w r i t e on t h e b l a c k b o a r d : " I want to g e t a c r o s s the r i v e r . " ) In t h e p i c t u r e s t h a t are: shown, how does the p e r s o n t r y to get a c r o s s the r i v e r ? (Take answers from s t u d e n t s . ) What a r e a l l the o t h e r d i f f e r e n t ways the p e r s o n c o u l d t r y to get a c r o s s ? (Take answers from s t u d e n t s and w r i t e them on the. board i n p o i n t form, e.g., - use s t i l t s - jump - f i n d a p l a c e where the r i v e r i s narrower A f t e r the f i r s t few i d e a s a r e g i v e n , t r y . t o t a k e answers f a i r l y r a p i d l y and encourage a f e e l i n g o f e n t h u s i a s m about a l l o f the d i f f e r e n t i d e a s b e i n g produced. R e f r a i n from c r i t i c i z i n g or even commenting on the f e a s i b i l i t y o f the i d e a s put f o r w a r d . C o n t i n u e u n t i l no more i d e a s a r e f o r t h c o m i n g . ) Those were v e r y good. Now t u r n t o the f i r s t page o f the b o o k l e t and l e t ' s l o o k a t t h e f i r s t problem. What i s the p e r s o n ' s problem? (Take.an answer from a s t u d e n t and make s u r e i t c o n t a i n s the whole i d e a , i . e . , i n c l u d e s the r e a s o n why t h e p e r s o n c a n ' t make the model j e t . The t u r n t o the "second problem and have one o f the s t u d e n t s say out l o u d what t h a t problem i s . Make s u r e the s t u d e n t mentions b o t h a s p e c t s o f the problem, i . e , both the 'no p l a c e to keep i t ' and 'can't a f f o r d i t ' p a r t s . ) T h a t ' s r i g h t ( i n r e s p o n s e to a s t u d e n t ' s v e r b a l i z a t i o n o f the second p r o b l e m ) . The problem i s always w r i t t e n above the p i c t u r e . On the l i n e d page f a c i n g the p i c t u r e w r i t e down a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s the p e r s o n c o u l d t r y t o do about the problem. I f you need more space t h e r e a r e two e x t r a pages a t the end o f the b o o k l e t . r c ° can You can p r i n t or w r i t e , use pen or p e n c i l . Y o u ^ w r i t e your i d e a s i n p o i n t form l i k e I d i d on the b l a c k b o a r d . You don't need to make f u l l s e n t e n c e s . Don't w r i t e a s t o r y . I f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g you don't u n d e r s t a n d j u s t r a i s e your hand. P l e a s e go ahead. T r y t o t h i n k o f a l l the d i f f e r e n t i d e a s you can. 155 ( A f t e r 10 or 15 minutes be sure to walk around the c l a s s . I f you see that students appear puzzled by the war problem, reassure them with the f o l l o w i n g statement: "Put down a l l the things the person could consider or imagine t r y i n g to do, even i f you're not sure how he or she would a c t u a l l y do them.") ( F i n a l l y , please make sure a l l students put t h e i r name i n f u l l on the f r o n t of the booklet.) Some Don't's Please r e f r a i n from c a l l i n g t h i s a t e s t . J u s t r e f e r to i t as "the b o o k l e t " , "a set of e x e r c i s e s " , "some problems to solve".. There i s no need to use the word, ' c r e a t i v i t y 1 , or ' c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g ' . J u s t put the s t r e s s on ' a l l the d i f f e r e n t things a person could try. to do' and 'using your imagination'. Thank you! 156 APPENDIX H - DESCRIPTION OF INITIAL CODING AND SCORING SYSTEM FOR SRP TASKS Task 1 - J e t Problem "I want t o b u i l d a model j e t but I d o n t ' t have the money f o r a s e t . What a r e a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h i s person c o u l d t r y t o do?" The c o d i n g of responses t o the j e t problem p r o v i d e d f o r the com p u t a t i o n of s c o r e s f o r : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y ( a ) , F l e x i b i l i t y ( b ) , Use of Wishing/Fantasy;, F a n t a s y F a c t o r , and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . F l u e n c y . To compute a F l u e n c y s c o r e , one p o i n t was c r e d i t e d f o r each non-redundant r e s p o n s e . Where a s u b j e c t had p r o v i d e d a l o n g l i s t of s i m i l a r i d e a s , e.g., "Earn money by: c u t t i n g lawns, r a k i n g l e a v e s , sweeping s i d e w a l k s , t r i m m i n g hedges, p u l l i n g weeds, w a t e r i n g lawns", the f l u e n c y count was l i m i t e d t o t h r e e f o r such a l i s t . F l e x i b i l i t y ( a ) . To compute the F l e x i b i l i t y ( a ) s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the use of any of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e g e n e r a l approaches t o the problem. (1) Ways t o r a i s e money t o buy the s e t . (2) S u b s t i t u t e o t h e r m a t e r i a l s t o make the j e t . (3) Ways t o reduce the c o s t of the s e t . (4) Ways t o get the s e t u s i n g o n l y a v a i l a b l e f u n d s . (5) Get something e l s e or do something e l s e . F l e x i b i l i t y ( b ) . To compute the F l e x i b i l i t y ( b ) s c o r e , one p o i n t 1 57 each was c r e d i t e d f o r the use of any of the f o l l o w i n g n i n e g e n e r a l approaches t o r a i s i n g money. (1) Ask f o r the money. (2) Borrow the money. (3) Save/wait f o r the money. ( 4 ) Look f o r the money. (5) Take money out of the bank. ( 6 ) Earn money by d o i n g odd j o b s . (7) Get a r e g u l a r j o b . (8 ) S e l l t h i n g s . ( 9 ) S t a r t a b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e . Use of W i s h i n g / F a n t a s y . To compute a s c o r e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , W i s h i n g , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of r e s p o n s e s . Get a money t r e e . F o l l o w a rainbow. 7 Wish on a s t a r . -Step on a c o i n and make more money. Fa n t a s y F a c t o r . To compute a Fa n t a s y F a c t o r s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r any of t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of r e s p o n s e s . Rob a bank. H o l d a c a t up f o r ransom. S t e a l i t . Make c o u n t e r f e i t money. P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . To compute a P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r r e s p o n s e s t h a t s u g g e s t e d t h a t the s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f a s : 158 b e i n g a b l e t o do something d i f f i c u l t ; b e i n g a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r p e o p l e ; or b e i n g a b l e t o be l u c k y . The f o l l o w i n g a re examples of such r e s p o n s e s . T e l l your Dad t o bet on a c e r t a i n h o r s e . Have a ballgame and charge 5 c e n t s per p e r s o n . Save a pers o n and be rewarded. Be smart i n s c h o o l and win money. Bet your f r i e n d t h a t y o u ' l l get so many g o a l s i n a hockey game. P l a y c a r d s f o r money. Make a w o r l d ' s r e c o r d . Buy s m a l l t h i n g s and s e l l them t o a f r i e n d f o r more than you p a i d f o r them. Ask f o r a r a i s e i n your a l l o w a n c e . L e a r n some magic and put on a show i n a s t o r e . 159 Task 2 - Horse Problem "A l o t of k i d s i n our c i t y want t o have a horse but t h e i r p a r e n t s c a n ' t a f f o r d i t and they have no p l a c e t o keep one. What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h e s e k i d s c o u l d t r y t o do about t h i s problem?" The c o d i n g of responses t o the ho r s e problem p r o v i d e d f o r the c o m p u t a t i o n of s c o r e s f o r : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , Use of W i s h i n g / F a n t a s y , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , and G i v e Up. F l u e n c y . To compute a F l u e n c y s c o r e , one p o i n t was c r e d i t e d f o r each non-redundant response. Where a s u b j e c t had p r o v i d e d a l o n g l i s t of s i m i l a r i d e a s , e.g., "Earn money by: c u t t i n g lawns, r a k i n g l e a v e s , sweeping s i d e w a l k s , t r i m m i n g hedges, p u l l i n g weeds, w a t e r i n g lawns", the f l u e n c y count was l i m i t e d t o t h r e e f o r such a l i s t . No f l u e n c y c r e d i t s were g i v e n f o r the s u g g e s t i o n , "Forget about i t , " or f o r comments which d i d not a d d r e s s the problem, e.g., " I f you go on h o l i d a y s the horse w i l l s t a r v e . " F l e x i b i l i t y . To compute a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the use of any of the f o l l o w i n g s i x g e n e r a l approaches t o the problem. (1) S u g g e s t i o n s about where t o keep the ho r s e or how t o get a p l a c e f o r i t . (2) Ways t o r a i s e money f o r the h o r s e . (3) Ways t o get a c c e s s t o a h o r s e . 1 60 (4) P o o l i n g the e f f o r t s or r e s o u r c e s of a l l i n t e r e s t e d k i d s . (5) Ways t o get the horse f r e e or f o r l e s s c o s t . (6) U s i n g the horse or the " p l a c e t o keep i t " t o ge n e r a t e funds t o pay f o r e i t h e r . Use of W i s h i n g . To compute a s c o r e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , W i s h i n g , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g k i n d of response. Wish f o r one. F a n t a s y F a c t o r . To compute a s c o r e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , F a n tasy F a c t o r , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of r e s p o n s e s . S t e a l a h o r s e . Make c o u n t e r f e i t money. Rob a bank. Borrow one and ta k e o f f w i t h i t . P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . To compute a s c o r e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of r e s p o n s e s . Make b e t s sometimes. Get a l l your r e l a t i v e s t o put t o g e t h e r the money they would o t h e r w i s e spend on your b i r t h d a y and C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t s . Go on a TV show t o earn money. G i v e Up. To compute a s c o r e f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , G i v e Up, one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r s u g g e s t i o n s of a l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t i e s such as the f o l l o w i n g . Get a p i c t u r e of one. Get a s t a t u e of a h o r s e . 161 Get a dog i n s t e a d . 162 Task 3 - War Problem "I want t o s t o p wars but who would l i s t e n t o a k i d i n ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l ? What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h i s p erson c o u l d t r y t o do?'' There were 13 c a t e g o r i e s of responses t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a l approaches t o the problem and t h a t were used i n computing a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . There were a n o t h e r seven c a t e g o r i e s of responses t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c a t e g o r i e s d i d not add t o a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . F l u e n c y . To compute a F l u e n c y s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r each non-redundant response. F l e x i b i l i t y . To compute a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e , one p o i n t each was c r e d i t e d f o r the use of any of the f o l l o w i n g 13 g e n e r a l approaches t o the problem. 1. T a l k t o p e o p l e . e.g., T e l l o t h e r k i n d s of p e o p l e how you f e e l about i t . T a l k about i t i n s c h o o l . T a l k about i t w i t h your f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . 2. T e l l key p e o p l e . e.g., T a l k t o / t e l l / w r i t e the p r e s i d e n t / p r i m e m i n i s t e r / governor/mayor/government. 3. Communicate. e.g., Make s i g n s . Get a b u l l h o r n . Use TV, newspaper, r a d i o . 4. O r g a n i z e . e.g., S t a r t up a c l u b . 163 Form a u n i o n . Get o t h e r f r i e n d s / a d u l t s / t h e whole s c h o o l i n v o l v e d . 5. Make war equipment u n a v a i l a b l e . e.g., A l l v a r i a t i o n s of take away, h i d e , d e s t r o y war equipment. 6. Communicate w i t h the army, e.g., A l l v a r i a t i o n s of a s k i n g or t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e w i t h i n the f i g h t i n g a r m i e s / n a v i e s . 7. T a k i n g a p e r s o n a l e f f o r t or a c t i o n . e.g., I f you ever get c a l l e d t o war, don't go. Keep up i n s c h o o l and you may have time t o do r e s e a r c h on p a s t wars. F i n d out from the P r e s i d e n t what i t would t a k e t o s t o p the wars. 8. Use i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e . e.g., Ask i m p o r t a n t p e o p l e i f they c o u l d s t o p wars. Ask someone who knows the P r e s i d e n t . W r i t e l e t t e r s t o p e o p l e who work f o r p e o p l e t h a t a r e w e l l known. T a l k t o p e o p l e who a r e famous. 9. Change t h i n g s . (Responses which appeared t o f o c u s on one p o s s i b l e c a u s e / c o n t r i b u t o r t o wars.) e.g., Share w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Get o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o know each o t h e r b e t t e r . Make them be f r i e n d s . Try t o be n i c e t o people i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and earn a good r e p u t a t i o n f o r your c o u n t r y . Try t o make them s h a r e . Don't f i g h t w i t h your f r i e n d s and maybe i t w i l l keep g o i n g so nobody w i l l f i g h t anymore. 164 Be n i c e t o p e o p l e and maybe i t w i l l c a t c h on. 10. R e s t r u c t u r e the s i t u a t i o n . (Responses t h a t suggest permanent changes t h a t , almost by d e f i n i t i o n , would imply no wars.) e.g., J o i n n a t i o n s and t h e r e wouldn't be so many wars. Have a v o t e between both of the c i t i e s i n s t e a d of a f i g h t . Make i t a law t h a t t h e r e i s n ' t a l l o w e d t o be wars. J u s t don't have p r o v i n c e s , have a l l one s t a t e . A l l have the same r e l i g i o n . Make peace a law. In each c o u n t r y , get r i d of the o f f i c e where the guy works t h a t sends out t h e o r d e r s f o r t h e wars. 11. I n t e r v e n t i o n . (These a r e one-shot a t t e m p t s t o get s i d e s t o r e f r a i n from f i g h t i n g . ) e.g., Get the w o r l d l e a d e r s t o s i t down a t a t a b l e t o g e t h e r and t a l k t o them. Find.a. p l a c e where people w i l l f i g h t and t e l l one army t o l e a v e the base. 12. USe of f o r c e , d e s t r u c t i o n , or t h r e a t s , e.g., K i l l the men who a r e f i g h t i n g f o r the o t h e r s i d e of us. Blow up the w o r l d . K i l l everybody. K i l l them a t t h e i r base. 13. Fantasy A n a l o g y , e.g., Invent a machine t h a t makes peopl e good. Make the ground out of sponge. Get a machine t h a t ages p e o p l e . s o you make e v e r y 18-23 y e a r - o l d 165 p e r s o n 40 y e a r s o l d . B r i n g back p e o p l e from t h e dead who were good a t s o l v i n g t h e s e problems. Put something i n f r o n t of the sun l i k e a b i g p i e c e of b l a c k paper and then i t would be dark so nobody c o u l d see and they c o u l d n ' t f i g h t . Get a m a g i c i a n t o t u r n weapons i n t o h a r m l e s s t h i n g s l i k e a n i m a l s . Make i t so t h a t no one w i l l t h i n k of : wars. Spray s t u f f i n the a i r t h a t w i l l make everyone t h i n k of n i c e s t u f f not wars and f i g h t i n g . Make a b i g f o r c e f i e l d between a l l of the c o u n t r i e s . Other C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s were s c o r e d (one p o i n t f o r each response i n a c a t e g o r y t o be c r e d i t e d t o t h a t c a t e g o r y ) but were not used t o add f u r t h e r t o the F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . (Some responses were c r e d i t e d f o r both.. " f l e x i b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s " and " c h a r a c t e r i s t r i c c a t e g o r i e s " , e.g., responses f o r (19) were a l s o c r e d i t e d f o r (12).) 14. Use of a T r i c k . e . g . , Get w h i t e f l a g s and s h i n e them a t the enemy and a t the same time be d r e s s e d l i k e the o t h e r army. Get on the phone and make your v o i c e sound l i k e t he p r e s i d e n t . 15. P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , e.g., Grow up t o be p r e s i d e n t . Become p r e s i d e n t and s o l v e e v e r y t h i n g . T e l l a speech i n f r o n t of your s c h o o l . 1 66 16. Use of W i s h i n g / P r a y e r , e.g., T e l l God about i t . I f you had 3 w i s h e s , w i s h f o r an end t o war. 17. E x p r e s s i o n of an E m o t i o n a l Response, e.g., Hide under the bed u n t i l the war s t o p s . 18. F a n t a s y . e.g., Turn i n t o a b i g s c a r y monster and s c a r e them a l l . 19. Use of a T a c t i c a l P l a n . e.g., A s s a s s i n a t e a l l the p r e s i d e n t s . K i l l everyone except one male and one female. K i l l a l l the army c a p t a i n s . 20. Ways t o cope w i t h the o c c u r r e n c e of wars, e.g., I f you j u s t c a n ' t s t o p the wars j o i n the army and h e l p the army, i t may be a l o t of f u n . Keep h i g h s p i r i t s and don't l e t i t b o t h e r you t o d i s a s t e r . 1 6 7 APPENDIX I - TEST CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE INITIAL SCORES DEVELOPED FOR THE SRP TASKS Legend The following i s a legend for the code names used for scores in the tables in this appendix. Proposal A c t i v i t y Product Score for the Proposal A c t i v i t y , i . e . , the external c r i t e r i o n of c r e a t i v i t y in the study. Jet Problem Fluj e t Fluency score. Flexjet F l e x i b i l i t y ( a ) score. F l e x j e t 2 F l e x i b i l i t y ( b ) score. The following are the codes for the five main approaches to the jet problem. They are l i s t e d in the same order in which they appear in Appendix G. Getmon Subst i Reduce Usevail Getelse The following are the codes for the nine general approaches to rai s i n g money for the set. They are l i s t e d in the same order in which they appear in Appendix H. Ask Borrow Save Lookfor Bank 168 Earn Job S e l l B u s i n e s s W i s h j e t Score f o r Use of W i s h i n g / F a n t a s y . I l l e g j e t Score f o r F a n t a s y F a c t o r . P o w e r j t Score f o r P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . Horse Problem F l u h r s F l u e n c y s c o r e . F l e x h r s F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . The f o l l o w i n g a re the codes f o r the f i v e main approaches t o the horse problem. They a r e l i s t e d i n the same o r d e r i n which they were p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix H. Ordfund Access P o o l i n g F r e c heap Combin Wishhs Score f o r Use of W i s h i n g . I l l e g h s Score f o r F a n t a s y F a c t o r . Powerhs Score f o r P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . D o e l s e Score f o r G i v e Up. War Problem Fluwar F l u e n c y s c o r e . F l e x w a r - F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . The f o l l o w i n g a re the codes f o r the 13 d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a l approaches t h a t were c r e d i t e d f o r a F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . They are 1 6 9 l i s t e d i n the same o r d e r i n which they appeared i n Appendix H. T a l k Key Communi O r g a n i z Warequi Comarmy P e r s o n l I n f l u e n Change R e s t r u c I n t e r v F o r c e Analogy The f o l l o w i n g a r e the codes f o r t h e seven c a t e g o r i e s of resp o n s e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They a r e l i s t e d i n the same o r d e r i n .which they appeared i n Appendix-H. T r i c k Powerwr Wishwr Regress F a n t a s y T a c t i c l C oping 170 Ta b l e 29 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , Range, and Perc e n t a g e F r e q u e n c i e s f o r I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s Score Mean S.D. Min Max % of S u b j e c t s O b t a i n i n g a s c o r e >0 Pro d u c t 2.83 1 .34 1 6 100 F l u j e t 8.57 5.01 1 33 100 F l e x j e t 1 .69 .84 1 4 100 F l e x j t 2 3.62 1 .48 1 8 100 Getmon 6.81 4.52 1 28 100 S u b s t i .38 .62 0 2 31 Reduce . 1 1 .38 0 3 10 U s e v a i l . 14 .38 0 2 1 3 G e t e l s e .20 .56 0 4 14 Ask 1 .33 1 .25 0 7 71 Borrow .45 .64 0 3 37 Save .55 .76 0 4 43 L o o k f o r .12 .38 0 3 10 Bank . 1 1 .33 0 2 1 1 Earn 1 .88 2.08 0 1 5 75 Job .54 .84 0 7 41 S e l l .67 1.21 0 10 42 B u s i n e s s .55 1 .02 0 9 34 W i s h j e t .15 .55 0 3 8 I l l e g j t .40 :. .88 0 4 21 P o w e r j t .91 1 .76 0 1 6 40 F l u h r s 4.96 3. 16 0 16 97 F l e x h r s 2.10 .99 0 5 96 Ordfund 1 .58 1 .78 0 9 67 Ac c e s s .80 1.11 0 6 45 P o o l i n g . 1 1 .34 0 2 10 Frecheap .16 .41 0 2 1 4 Combin .02 .13 0 1 2 Wishhs .19 .53 0 3 14 I l l e g h s .19 .53 0 3 1 3 Powerhs .42 .85 0 6 29 Do e l s e .20 .65 0 6 13 Fluwar 3.24 2.40 0 13 95 Fl e x w a r 2.30 1 .40 0 7 95 T a l k .31 .69 0 4 21 Key .46 .71 0 4 36 Communi .49 .97 0 7 30 O r g a n i z .22 .56 0 4 1 7 Warequi .25 .67 0 5 16 171 Comarmy .19 .44 0 3 17 P e r s o n l .50 1 .00 0 9 33 I n f l u e n .18 .44 0 3 16 Change .07 .31 0 2 6 R e s t r u c .03 .16 0 1 2 I n t e r v .13 .45 0 4 10 F o r c e .23 .66 0 6 16 Analogy .07 .38 0 4 4 T r i c k .07 .28 0 2 6 Powerwr .32 .68 0 5 24 Wishwr .12 .40 0 3 9 Regress .03 .16 0 1 2 F a n t a s y .02 .14 0 1 2 T a c t i c l .03 .18 0 2 2 Coping .15 .46 0 4 12 No t e s . N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e s . N=224 f o r P r o d u c t s c o r e . 172 T a b l e 30 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among P r o p o s a l and the I n i t i a l SRP Sco r e s The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between SRP s c o r e s and P r o d u c t . In t h i s t a b l e , P r o d u c t i s the code name f o r P r o p o s a l . P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK PRODUCT 1 .0000 0 .1828* 0 .2373** 0 .2435** 0 . 1403 0 . 1419 0 . 1277 0 .1807* 0 . 1084 0 .0625 FLUJET 0 .1828* 1 .0000 0 .1736* 0 .6097** 0 .9000** 0 .0743 0 .2634** 0 . 1288 0 .0319 0 .2593** FLEXJET 0 .2373** 0 .1736* 1 .0000 0 .0870 -0 .0576 0 .5719** 0 .4236** 0 .4183** 0 .5029** 0 .2203** FLEXJT2 0 .2435** 0 .6097** 0 .0870 1 .0000 0 .6033** -0 .0212 0 . 1298 0 . 1326 -0 .0179 0 .2270** GETMON 0 . 1403 0 .9000** -0 .0576 0 .6033** 1 .0000 -0 . 1074 0. .1810* 0, .0248 -0 . 1389 0 . 1578* SUBSTI 0 . 1419 0. .0743 0 .5719** -0 .0212 -0 . 1074 1 . .0000 0, .0132 -0. .0340 0 .0699 0 . 1388 REDUCE 0 . 1277 0. . 2634** 0 .4236** 0, . 1298 0, .1810* 0 .0132 1 , .0000 0. .0927 0 .0923 0 . 1249 USEVAIL 0 .1807* . 0. . 1288 0 .4183** 0. . 1326 0 .0248 -0. .0340 0, .0927 1 , .0000 0 .1612* 0 .0764 GETELSE 0 . 1084 0 .0319 0 .5029** -0 .0179 -0, . 1389 0 .0699 0. .0923 0, .1612* 1 .0000 0 . 1087 ASK 0 .0625 0. .2593** 0 .2203** 0. .2270** 0 .1578* 0. . 1388 0, . 1249 0, .0764 0 . 1087 1 .0000 BORROW 0 . 1739* 0. . 1 104 0 .0345 0 .3677** 0 . 1082 -0, .0536 0, .0685 0. .031 1 -0 .0284 -0 .0141 SAVE 0 . 1663* 0. .1774* 0 .0838 0, .3438** 0. . 1827* 0, .0876 0, .0040 0, ,0782 0 .0673 0 .0060 LOOKFOR 0 .0923 0, .2113** 0. .0735 0. .2863** 0, .1770* -0. .0470 -0, .0036 0, , 2019** -0 .0698 0 .2171** BANK 0 .0210 0, .1550* 0, .0654 0. .2937** 0, .1511* 0, ,0974 -0. ,0004 -0, ,0262 -0 .0535 0, . 1327 EARN -0 .0497 0. .5137** -0. .2070** 0, .2496** 0, .6275** -0, , 1860* -0. ,0630 -0. , 1307 -0 .0912 -0 . 1581* JOB 0 .0479 0. .2887** -0. .0866 0, , 2752** 0. .3003** -0, ,0842 0, , 2314** 0. .0226 -0 .0785 0 .0440 SELL 0 . 1 162 0. .5808** 0. .071 1 0, ,3583** 0. .6116** 0, ,0002 0, ,0896 0. ,0905 -0 .0144 -0 .0905 BUSINESS 0 .0046 0, 5777** -0, .0907 0, ,3612** 0, .6418** - o . ,0833 0. .0994 -0. ,0286 -0 . 1 127 -0, . 1 144 WISHJET -0 .0686 0. 2402** 0. .0551 0. .0196 0. .0430 0. .0776 0. ,0198 -0. ,001 1 -0 .0563 0. . 1463 ILLEGJT -0, .0515 0. .1914* -0, ,0108 0. .0326 -0, ,0135 0. ,0162 0. .0522 -0. ,0446 -0. .0781 0, .1770* POWERJT 0. . 1935* 0. .6190** -0. .0070 0, ,2092** 0. .5612** -0. ,0347 0. 2475** 0. .0986 -0. .0971 -0. .0134 FLUHRS 0, .1993* 0. ,4902** 0. ,2373** 0. .4543** 0. .3664** 0. , 1670* 0. . 1022 0. ,0877 0. . 1894* 0, , 1525* FLEXHRS 0. .2802** 0. .2699** 0. . 2994** 0. .3264** 0. .2031** 0. .2343** 0. , 1504* 0. .1514* 0, .1848* 0. . 1465 ORDFUND 0, .0786 0. 3931** 0. , 101 1 0. ,3526** 0. .3347** 0. 0658 0. 0574 0. 0559 0. .0336 0, .0418 ACCESS 0. . 1666* 0. ,0306 0. ,2198** 0. 1767* -0. ,0158 0. ,1311 0. , 1 137 0. 0378 0. .1522* 0. .1681* POOLING 0. . 1 175 0. . 1858* 0. .0774 0. ,1513* 0. .1968* 0. 0146 0. .0320 0. 1977* 0. .0141 0. . 1083 FRECHEAP 0. .0645 -0 . .0330 0. . 1804* -0. .0137 -0. , 1089 0. 2000** 0. ,0443 0. 0930 0, .0956 0, .0576 COMBIN 0. .0368 0. 0240 0. .0092 0. ,0777 0. .0413 -0. 0275 0. . 1344 -0. 0477 -0. .0464 0. .0177 WISHHS 0. .0340 0. 1678* 0. . 1745* 0. 0699 0. .0591 0. 0872 0. 0617 -0. 0066 0. . 1269 0, , 1382 ILLEGHS 0. ,0254 0. 0700 0. ,0548 -0. .0300 -0. ,0820 0. 0366 0. 0410 0. 0138 0. .0430 0. . 1007 POWERHS 0. .0960 0. 3326** 0. ,1131 0. 2410** 0. 2360** 0. 1444 0. 0210 0. 0722 -0. .0283 0. ,0793 DOELSE 0. .0997 0. 0150 0. 0766 -0. 0050 -0. 0939 0. 0038 -0 . 0417 0. 0185 0. .3456** 0. .0092 FLUWAR 0. .2666** 0. 3995** 0. 2842** 0. 3649** 0. 2871** 0. 1783* 0. 1458 0. 1493 0. ,2263** 0. .2699** FLEXWAR 0. ,2634** 0. 3369** 0. 2544** 0. 3647** 0. 2447** 0. 1 142 0. 1895* 0. 1389 0. .1908* 0. .2438** TALK o. .0900 0. 1 197 0. 1385 0. 1 140 0. 0967 0. 1080 -0 . 0076 0. 0207 0. .0530 o. .0714 KEY 0. ,0207 0. 1 138 0. 2355** 0. 1430 0. 0935 0. 0871 0. 1200 -0 . 0222 0. , 1 173 0. .0873 COMMUNI 0. ,0651 0. 0885 0. 1414 0. 1237 0. 0124 0. 1516* -0 . 0260 0. 0927 0. ,2802** 0. 1020 ORGANIZ 0. 1496 0. 1548* 0. 0327 0. 1737* 0. 1767* -0 . 0304 0. 1767* 0. 1047 0. ,0038 -0 . 0229 WAREQUI 0. 0563 0. 0727 0. 0265 0. 0507 0. 0126 -0 . 0082 0. 0051 0. 0907 0. .0235 0. .0858 COMARMY -0 . 0461 0. 0812 0. 1111 0. 0848 0. 0091 0. 0751 0. 0497 0. 1 154 0. ,0013 0. 1070 PERSONL 0. 1095 0. 1981** 0. 0797 0. 0593 0. 1759* 0. 1040 0. 0289 0. 0015 0. 0463 0. 0878 CO SIGNIF. LE .01 * * - SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK INFLUEN 0. .2001 * 0 . 2246** 0. ,0258 0, .2122** 0, .2796** -0. .0510 0. . 1047 0 .1214 0. ,0079 -0, .0091 CHANGE 0. .1618* 0. .2232** 0. 0413 0. . 1273 0 .1837* 0. .0255 0, . 1438 0 .0521 0. ,0591 0. .0766 RESTRUC 0, , 1394 0 .0189 0. 0271 0, .0595 -0, .0052 0. . 1 178 -0. .0475 0 .0806 -0. .0091 0. . 1287 INTERV 0. ,0767 0. .0462 -0. 0915 0. . 1363 0, .0626 -0, .0716 -0, .0357 -0 .0086 -0. .0356 0. , 1460 FORCE -0 . ,0023 0. .0382 -0. 0743 0. .0645 -0, .0122 -0. .0093 -0. .0023 -o .0779 -o. .0783 0. .0294 ANALOGY 0. ,1932* 0. .0822 -0 . 0522 0. . 1042 0, .0675 -0. .0192 -0. .0518 0 .1640* -0 . .0622 0. ,0150 TRICK -0 . .0591 0, .0703 -0. 0884 0. .0715 0, .0523 -0. ,0261 -0. .0704 -0 .0483 0. .0486 -0. ,0034 POWERWR -0 . .0030 0, . 1489 0. 1079 -0. .0183 0, .0777 0. . 1 169 0. .0883 -0 .0291 0. .0962 0. ,2045** WISHWR 0. .1211 0. .1877* 0. 1676* 0. . 1032 0. .0783 0. ,0733 0. .0517 0, .0830 0. . 1386 0. ,1641* REGRESS 0. .0140 0, .0401 0. 1217 0. .0235 0. .0301 0. ,0312 0. .0944 0 .0109 0. .0388 -0 . ,0210 FANTASY 0. .0538 -0. .0573 -0 . 1 190 -0. ,0606 -0, .0778 -0. .0900 -0. .0432 -0 .0535 -0. .0519 -0. .0153 TACTICL 0. . 1852* -o. .0204 -0 . 1 128 -0. .0108 -o. .0198 -0. ,0853 -0. ,0410 -0, .0507 -0 . ,0492 0. ,0003 COPING O. . 1 183 -0, .0147 0. 1603* 0. .0706 -0. .0514 -O. ,0639 0. . 1237 0, .1212 0. . 1 157 0. .0471 SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHdET ILLEGdT PRODUCT 0 . 1739* 0 . 1663* 0 .0923 0 .0210 -0 .0497 0 .0479 0 . 1 162 0. .0046 -0 .0686 -0 .0515 FLUUET 0 . 1 104 0 .1774* 0 .2113** 0 . 1550* 0 .5137** 0 .2887** 0 .5808** 0, .5777** 0. .2402** 0, . 1914* FLEXJET 0 .0345 0 .0838 0 .0735 0 .0654 -0 .2070** -0 .0866 0 .071 1 -0, .0907 0 .0551 -0 .0108 FLEXJT2 0 .3677** 0 .3438** 0 .2863** 0 .2937** 0. .2496** 0 .2752** 0 .3583** 0, .3612** 0 .0196 0, .0326 GETMON 0 . 1082 0, .1827* 0 .1770* 0 .1511* 0, .6275** 0 .3003** 0 .6116** 0, .6418** 0, .0430 -0, .0135 SUBSTI -o .0536 0 .0876 -0 .0470 0 .0974 -0. .1860* -0 .0842 0 .0002 -0, .0833 0. .0776 0, .0162 REDUCE 0 .0685 0, .0040 -0 .0036 -0 .0004 -0, .0630 0 .2314** 0 .0896 0, .0994 0, .0198 0, .0522 USEVAIL 0 .031 1 0 .0782 0 . 2019** -0 .0262 -0. . 1307 0 .0226 0 .0905 -0, .0286 -0. .001 1 -0, .0446 GETELSE -0 .0284 0, .0673 -0, .0698 -0 .0535 -0, .0912 -0 .0785 -0, .0144 -0. .1127 -0. .0563 -0, .0781 ASK -o .0141 0. .0060 0, .2171** 0 . 1327 -0. .1581* 0. .0440 -0. .0905 -0, . 1 144 0. . 1463 0. .1770* BORROW 1 .0000 -0. .0164 0, .0429 0 .0585 0, .0266 -0. .0313 -0. .0040 -0. .0087 0. . 1060 -0. .0832 SAVE -0 .0164 1 . .0000 0. .0971 0 .1381 -0. .0467 -0. .0060 0. . 1 136 0. .0078 -0. .0463 -O. . 1049 LOOKFOR 0 .0429 0, .0971 1 , .0000 0 .0957 -0, .0512 0. .0518 -0. .0258 -0. .0256 0. .0564 0. .1580* BANK 0 .0585 0. .1381 0, .0957 1 .0000 -0, .0053 0. .0075 -0. .0124 0. .0144 -0. .0234 0. .0454 EARN 0 .0266 -0, .0467 -0, .0512 -0. .0053 1 , .0000 -0. .0572 0. .2961** 0. . 3785** 0. .0079 -0. . 1 190 JOB -0, .0313 -0 . .0060 0, .0518 0 .0075 -0. .0572 1 . .0000 0, .0592 0. . 1393 -0, .0483 -0. .0231 SELL -0, .0040 0, . 1 136 -0, .0258 -0. .0124 0, .2961** 0, .0592 1 , .0000 0. , 4558** -0. .0265 0. .0181 BUSINESS -0. .0087 0. .0078 -0. .0256 0, .0144 0. , 3785** 0, . 1393 0. .4558** 1 , ,0000 0, .0016 -0. .0337 WISHJET 0, . 1060 -0 , ,0463 0, .0564 -0. .0234 0. ,0079 -0, .0483 -0, .0265 0. .0016 1 , OOOO 0. .2358** ILLEGJT -0 . .0832 -0 . . 1049 0. . 1580* 0 .0454 -0. . 1 190 -0, .0231 0. .0181 -0, .0337 0. .2358** 1 , .0000 POWERJT -0 . .0357 -0 , ,0173 0, . 1396 0, .0025 0. ,1584* 0. ,3629** 0, .2501** 0. ,3006** 0, ,0909 0. .0412 FLUHRS 0. . 1091 0, , 1319 0. . 1946* 0, .2808** 0. ,2237** 0, .1901* 0. . 1 154 0. ,1574* 0. . 1594* 0. , 1359 FLEXHRS 0. . 1698* 0. ,0581 0. .0923 0, . 1336 0. .0619 0. ,0787 0, .0816 0. .0964 -0. ,0109 -0 , ,0248 ORDFUND 0, .0368 0, ,1509* 0, ,1941* 0. 2640** 0. ,3031** 0. .0870 0. . 1346 0. .1291 0. ,0382 0. , 1250 ACCESS 0. ,0518 0, ,0183 0. .0654 0, .0393 -0'. .0871 0. .0817 -0, .0584 -0. .0405 0. .0087 -0 . ,0858 POOLING 0. .0755 0. ,0527 0. ,0281 -0, ,0375 0. ,0651 0. ,0510 0. . 1088 0. , 1574* -0. ,0004 -O. .0389 FRECHEAP 0. .0728 -0 . . 1237 0. ,0661 0, .0199 -0. .1721* 0. ,0369 -0. .0940 -0, .0737 0. .0772 0. .0613 COMBIN -0 . ,0400 0. ,0780 0. ,0459 -0. .0441 0, ,0540 -0. .0447 -0. .0186 0. ,0575 0. .0240 -0 . .0589 WISHHS 0. .0844 0. .0047 0. .0367 0, .0942 0. .0194 -0, ,0202 -o. ,0341 0. .0097 0. .3726** 0. .0437 ILLEGHS -0 . ,0254 -0 . ,0570 0. ,0981 -0. ,0952 -0. , 1262 -0. .0482 -0. .0213 -0 . 0896 0. ,1601* 0. .6069** POWERHS 0. .0954 0. .0281 0. .1949* 0, ,0833 0. , 1024 0. ,0945 0. .0213 0. . 1 193 0. 2202** 0. . 1439 DOELSE -0 . ,0485 0. 0610 -0. ,0613 -0. ,0477 -0. ,0650 0. ,0735 -0. .0472 -0. 0556 0. 1816* -0 . 0405 FLUWAR 0. ,0912 0. , 1347 0. .2342** 0. . 1509* 0. .0695 0. , 1976* 0, , 1924* 0. 0062 0. 1214 0. .1883* FLEXWAR 0. . 1439 0. ,0970 0. ,1851* 0. , 1353 0. ,0746 0. .1967* 0. .1116 0. 0100 0. 0557 0. 1282 TALK 0. .0665 0. 0675 0. .0505 0. ,0459 0. . 1487 -0. .0488 o. .0040 -0 . 0280 0. 0076 0. 0307 KEY 0. 2189** 0. 0617 0. 0042 0. ,3148** -0 . 0512 0. 0622 0. .0670 0. 0089 -0 . 0782 0. 0060 COMMUNI 0. 0127 0. 1419 0. 0590 -0, .0166 -0 . 0025 0. 0414 0. 0171 -0 . 0479 0. 0413 -0 . 0034 ORGANIZ 0. ,0685 0. 0835 0. 0536 -0. ,0006 0. 1074 0. 0973 0. 0710 0. 0822 -0 . 0274 -0 . 0556 WAREOUI -0 . ,0174 -0 . 0636 0. 1484 -0. .051 1 -0 . 0510 0. 0951 -0. .0073 0. 0063 0. 1 142 0. 1828* COMARMY 0. 0580 -0 . 0691 0. 0694 0. , 1430 -0 . 0398 0. 0884 -0 . .0647 -0 . 0253 0. 1255 0. 1 170 PERSONL -0 . 0623 0. 1018 0. 0013 -0. .0049 -0 . 0062 0. 0822 0. ,3163** 0. 0288 0. 001 1 0. 0418 * - SIGNIF. LE .01 * * - SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT INFLUEN 0 . 1294 0, .1181 0. ,1978** 0 .0058 0. . 1842* 0. .0549 0, . 1240 0 . 1688* -0. .0750 -0, . 1402 CHANGE -0, .0007 -0, .0504 -0. .0029 -0, .0415 0. .0655 0. .2483** 0, .0545 0 .0280 0. .0326 0. .0120 RESTRUC -0, .0283 -o. .0448 0. .1617* 0, .0268 -0. ,0807 0. .0566 -0. .0229 -0 .0862 -0. .0433 0, .0179 INTERV 0. .0168 -o. .01 1 1 0. .0342 -0. .0128 0, ,0026 0, .0699 0. .0617 -0. .0365 -0. .0773 0. . 1205 FORCE -0, .0549 -0 , .0167 0. ,0437 0, .0358 -o. ,0322 0, .0789 0. .0362 -0 .0695 0, .1701* 0, .3492** ANALOGY -0. .0024 0. .0327 0. , 1 190 -0. .0592 -0, ,0165 0, .0705 0. . 1 100 -0 .0192 0. .0520 0. .0689 TRICK -o. .0962 0. .0053 0. ,0058 -0. .0354 0, ,0771 -0. .0460 0. . 1005 0 .0902 0, .0437 0. .0936 POWERWR -0 . .0612 -0 . .0162 -0. ,0147 0, .0450 -0, ,0797 0, . 1807* 0. .0260 0 .0041 0. .0954 0. .0772 WISHWR -0. .0081 0. .0783 0. 0480 0, .0591 0. .0310 -0. .0624 -0. ,0415 0 .0773 0. .2230** -0. ,0026 REGRESS -0 , .0283 -0 . .0800 0. 0214 0. .0268 0. .0472 -0. .0709 0. ,0871 0 .0707 -0. .0433 0, ,0782 FANTASY 0, .0351 -0 . ,0664 0. 0323 -0, .0495 -0. .0898 -0, ,0239 -0. ,0088 -0. .0214 0. .0666 0. ,0987 TACTICL -0 . .0966 -0 . .0083 0. 0185 0. .0231 -0. .0586 0, ,0214 -0. .0008 -0. .0519 0, ,0464 0. . 1 196 COPING 0. .0054 0. .0350 0. , 1668* 0, .0304 -0. .0436 -0. .0197 -0. ,0344 -0. .0379 0. .0298 -0. .0313 SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS PRODUCT O. , 1935* 0. , 1993* 0. . 2802** 0, ,0786 0. , 1666* 0, . 1 175 0. .0645 O, .0368 0. .0340 O. .0254 FLUJET 0. .6190** 0, ,4902** 0. , 2699** 0, ,3931** 0, ,0306 0, . 1858* -0. .0330 0. .0240 0 . 1678* 0. .0700 FLEXJET -0 . ,0070 0, , 2373** 0. .2994** 0. , 101 1 0, ,2198** 0, .0774 0. . 1804* 0, .0092 0. . 1745* 0. .0548 FLEXJT2 0. ,2092** 0. ,4543** 0. . 3264** 0. ,3526** 0. ,1767* 0. .1513* -0. .0137 0. .0777 0, .0699 -0. .0300 GETMON 0. , 5612** 0, . 3664** 0. .2031** 0, ,3347** -0. .0158 0, .1968* -0. . 1089 0, .0413 0 .0591 -0. .0820 SUBSTI -0 . ,0347 0. ,1670* 0. ,2343** 0, ,0658 0, ,1311 0, .0146 0, ,2000** -0. .0275 0 .0872 0. .0366 REDUCE 0. ,2475** 0, . 1022 0. .1504* 0, .0574 0, , 1 137 0, .0320 0, .0443 0, . 1344 0, .0617 0. .0410 USEVAIL 0. ,0986 0, ,0877 0. .1514* 0, ,0559 0, ,0378 0. . 1977* 0, .0930 -0, .0477 -0, .0066 0. .0138 GETELSE -0 . ,0971 0. , 1894* 0. ,1848* 0. .0336 0, , 1522* 0. .0141 0, .0956 -0. ,0464 0. . 1269 0. .0430 ASK -0 . ,0134 0. . 1525* 0. , 1465 0. ,0418 0. .1681* 0. . 1083 0, .0576 0. ,0177 0. . 1382 0, , 1007 BORROW -0 . ,0357 0. , 1091 0. . 1698* 0. ,0368 0. .0518 0. .0755 0. .0728 -0, ,0400 0. ,0844 -0. .0254 SAVE -0 . .0173 0, .1319 0. ,0581 0. . 1509* 0. ,0183 0, .0527 -0, . 1237 0, ,0780 0. .0047 -0. .0570 LOOKFOR 0. , 1396 0, , 1946* 0. .0923 0, ,1941* 0, ,0654 0. .0281 0. .0661 0, .0459 0 .0367 0. .0981 BANK 0. .0025 0. .2808** 0. , 1336 0. .2640** 0. .0393 -0, .0375 0, .0199 -o. .0441 0, .0942 -0, .0952 EARN 0. . 1584* 0. , 2237** 0. ,0619 0, ,3031** -0. .0871 0, .0651 -0. .1721* 0. .0540 0. .0194 -O. . 1262 JOB 0. . 3629** 0, ,1901* 0. ,0787 0, ,0870 0. ,0817 0, .0510 0, .0369 -0. .0447 -0. .0202 -0. .0482 SELL 0. .2501** 0. . 1 154 0. .0816 0. . 1346 -0, ,0584 0. . 1088 -0. .0940 -0, .0186 -0, .0341 -0. .0213 BUSINESS 0. , 3006** 0. , 1574* 0. .0964 0, ,1291 -0. ,0405 0. . 1574* -0, ,0737 0, .0575 0, .0097 -0. .0896 WISHJET 0. .0909 0. , 1594* -0. ,0109 0. .0382 0. .0087 -0, .0004 0, .0772 0. .0240 0. .3726** 0, . 1601* ILLEGJT 0. .0412 0. , 1359 -0. ,0248 0, , 1250 -0. .0858 -0, .0389 0, .0613 -0, .0589 0. .0437 0. .6069** POWERJT 1 . .0000 0. ,2640** 0. . 1 173 0, , 1752* -0. .0260 0. . 1203 -0, .0150 0, .0064 0. .0217 -0. .0181 FLUHRS 0. ,2640** 1 . .0000 0. 5668** 0, ,7062** 0, ,2814** 0. .0124 0, .2453** 0. . 1252 0. .1773* 0. . 1428 FLEXHRS 0. 1 173 0. ,5668** 1 . OOOO 0. ,2866** 0. .3496** 0, .2521** 0, .4735** 0, . 1849* -0. .0258 -0. .0101 ORDFUND 0. . 1752* 0. .7062** 0. ,2866** 1 . OOOO -0. .0928 -0. .0937 0. . 1091 0. . 1396 0, .0731 0, , 1 124 ACCESS -0 . .0260 0. ,2814** 0. ,3496** -0. .0928 1 . OOOO -0, .0495 0. . 1 169 -0. .0638 0. .0217 -0, ,0620 POOLING 0. 1203 0. ,0124 0. .2521** -0. ,0937 -0. ,0495 1, .0000 -0, .0697 0, ,0528 -0, .0233 -0. .0461 FRECHEAP -0 . 0150 0. .2453** 0. 4735** 0. , 1091 0. , 1 169 -0. .0697 1. .0000 0, ,0281 -0, ,0237 0. . 1087 COMBIN • 0. ,0064 0. , 1252 0. 1849* 0. , 1396 -0. .0638 0. .0528 0, ,0281 1, .0000 -0, ,0453 -0. .0453 WISHHS 0. .0217 0. 1773* -0. 0258 0. .0731 0. .0217 -0, .0233 -0, .0237 -0. .0453 1. .0000 0. ,0384 ILLEGHS -0 . 0181 0. 1428 -0. 0101 0. , 1 124 -0. .0620 -0, .0461 0. , 1087 -0. .0453 0. .0384 1, OOOO POWERHS 0. 3517** 0. ,4663** 0. 1347 0. ,3182** -0. .0846 0. .0517 0. .0777 0, .0882 0, ,0003 0. . 1280 DOELSE 0. 0226 0. 1209 -0 . 0107 -0. . 1229 0. . 1932* -0, ,0087 -0 . ,0138 -0. .0402 0. .0343 -0 . .0370 FLUWAR 0. 1419 0. 5381** 0. 3499** 0. .3694** 0. .2106** 0, .0947 0. , 1382 0, .0008 0, , 1472 0. . 2315** FLEXWAR 0. 1611* 0. 4898** 0. 3645** 0. 3230** 0. 2361** 0. .1391 0. , 1618* 0. .0653 0. .0702 0. . 1425 TALK -0 . 0252 0. 1635* 0. 0713 0. ,2236** 0. 0182 -0. .0961 0. ,0255 -0 , ,0588 0. ,1441 0. ,0657 KEY -0 . 0314 0. 2325** 0. 1568* 0. 2253** 0. 0590 -0, ,0389 0. . 1 174 0. .0083 -0. .0378 0. ,0387 COMMUNI -0 . 0480 0. 2647** 0. 0464 0. .2200** 0. 1118 -0, ,0160 0. ,0710 -0. .0324 0. .0471 0. .0792 ORGANIZ 0. 1376 0. 1648* 0. 1263 0. 0934 0. 0460 0. . 1947* -0. ,0306 0, , 1219 0. ,0271 0. .0548 WAREOUI 0. 0397 0. 1491 0. 1406 0. 0385 0. 0288 0. .0604 0. , 1564* 0. ,0004 0. ,0215 0. .2081** COMARMY 0. 0317 0. 1852* 0. 1407 0. 1258 0. 0263 -0. .0283 0. ,2008** 0. ,0189 0. ,0465 -0 . .0242 PERSONL 0. 1 192 0. 0887 0. 1540* 0. 0258 0. 0048 0. .0318 0. ,0471 -0 . ,0320 -0. ,0102 0. .0910 SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS INFLUEN 0. .1585* 0. . 1983** 0. . 1699* 0 .1939* 0, .031 1 0. .0605 0 .0016 0, .0212 0. .0352 -0. . 1052 CHANGE 0. . 3588** 0. ,1191 0. . 1273 0, .0266 0. .0200 0. .1982** 0, .0033 0, ,0744 0, .0166 -0 . ,0595 RESTRUC 0. .0686 -0 . .0567 -0. .0154 -0, .0970 -0. .0666 0. .0258 0, .0021 -0, .0207 -0. .0557 -0. .0058 INTERV -0 . .0016 0. .0565 0. .0657 0, .0100 0. . 1096 0. . 1226 -0, .0447 -0. ,0369 -0. .0304 0. ,0213 FORCE -0 . .0546 0. , 1366 -0. .0270 0 .0564 0, .0743 -0. .0210 -0, .0592 -0. ,0448 0, ,0445 0, , 2925** ANALOGY 0. .0645 0. .061 1 0, .0605 -0, .0203 0. .0121 0. . 1028 0, .0642 -0. .0226 0. .0005 0. , 1434 TRICK 0. .0201 0, ,0081 -o, .0078 0, .0222 0, ,0165 0. .0528 -o, .0928 -0. ,0306 -0. .0825 0. .0284 POWERWR 0. ,1315 0. .0844 0, . 1346 -0, .0304 -0. .0078 0. .0793 0, .0684 -0. .0131 0. .1341 O. . 1227 WISHWR 0. .0673 0. .0958 0, .0455 0, .0272 0, .0619 0, .0873 -o. .0884 0. ,0435 0. 3450** 0. ,0348 . REGRESS -0 . ,0224 0. ,0613 0. .01 16 0, .0075 0. .0051 -0. .0523 -0, .0626 -0. .0207 -0. .0058 0. .0940 FANTASY 0. ,0072 -0 . ,0071 -0, .0435 -0, .0475 0, .0265 -0. .0477 -0, .0571 -0. ,0188 -0. .0507 0. .0038 TACTICL 0. .0592 0. .0093 -0. .0366 -0, .0579 -0. .0575 0. ,0223 -0, .0541 -0. .0178 0. .0381 -0 . ,0481 COPING -0 . ,0777 0. , 1200 0, ,0524 0, .0184 0. 2544** 0, ,0025 -0, .0586 0. ,0301 0. . 1 109 0. .0255 SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) co P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREQUI COMARMY PRODUCT 0 .0960 0 .0997 0, .2666** 0. .2634** 0 .0900 0 .0207 0, .0651 0 . 1496 0 .0563 -0, .0461 FLUJET 0 3326** 0 .0150 0, .3995** 0. .3369** 0 . 1 197 0, . 1 138 0. .0885 0 . 1548* 0. .0727 0, .0812 FLEXJET 0. .1131 0 .0766 0, .2842** 0. ,2544** 0 . 1385 0 .2355** 0. . 1414 0 .0327 0 .0265 0. .1111 FLEXJT2 0 . 2410** -0 .0050 0, .3649** 0. ,3647** 0 . 1 140 0 . 1430 0, , 1237 0, . 1737* 0. .0507 0, ,0848 GETMON 0. . 2360** -0 .0939 0, .2871** 0. .2447** 0 .0967 0, .0935 0. .0124 0, . 1767* 0. .0126 O. .0091 SUBSTI 0 . 1444 0 .0038 0, .1783* 0. . 1 142 0 . 1080 0. .0871 0. . 1516* -0 .0304 -0. .0082 0, .0751 REDUCE 0 .0210 -o .0417 0. , 1458 0, , 1895* -0 .0076 0 . 1200 -0, .0260 0 . 1767* 0 .0051 0, .0497 USEVAIL 0, .0722 0 .0185 0. . 1493 0. , 1389 0 .0207 -0, .0222 0. .0927 0 . 1047 0, .0907 0. , 1 154 GETELSE -0. .0283 0 .3456** 0, ,2263** 0, . 1908* 0 .0530 0, . 1 173 0. .2802** 0. .0038 0 .0235 0. .0013 ASK 0. .0793 0 .0092 0, .2699** 0. ,2438** 0 .0714 0. .0873 0, , 1020 -0, .0229 0. .0858 0, . 1070 BORROW 0, .0954 -0. .0485 0. .0912 0. , 1439 0 .0665 0, .2189** 0, ,0127 0, .0685 -0, .0174 0, .0580 SAVE 0, .0281 0 .0610 0, . 1347 0. ,0970 0 .0675 0, .0617 0. .1419 0 .0835 -0. .0636 -0. .0691 LOOKFOR 0, . 1949* -0. .0613 0, .2342** 0. ,1851* 0 .0505 0, .0042 0, ,0590 0. .0536 0. . 1484 0. ,0694 BANK 0. .0833 -0 .0477 0. .1509* 0, , 1353 0 .0459 0. .3148** -0, ,0166 -0, .0006 -0. .051 1 0, , 1430 EARN 0, . 1024 -0, .0650 0. .0695 0. ,0746 0, . 1487 -0, .0512 -0, ,0025 0, . 1074 -0. .0510 -0, ,0398 JOB 0, .0945 0, .0735 0. , 1976* 0. , 1967* -0. .0488 0, .0622 0. ,0414 0, .0973 0, .0951 0, ,0884 SELL 0. .0213 -o. .0472 0. . 1924* 0. ,1116 0 .0040 0, .0670 0. ,0171 O, .0710 -0. .0073 -0. ,0647 BUSINESS 0. . 1 193 -0. .0556 0, ,0062 0. ,0100 -o. .0280 0. .0089 -o, ,0479 0. .0822 0. .0063 -o. .0253 WISHJET 0. .2202** 0, ,1816* 0. , 1214 0. .0557 0. .0076 -0, .0782 0. .0413 -0, .0274 0. . 1 142 0. . 1255 ILLEGJT 0. . 1439 -0, .0405 0. ,1883* 0. 1282 0, .0307 0, .0060 -o. .0034 -0. .0556 0. . 1828* 0. . 1 170 POWERJT 0. .3517** 0. .0226 0. ,1419 0. .1611* -0. .0252 -0, .0314 -0. ,0480 0, . 1376 0. ,0397 0, .0317 FLUHRS 0. .4663** 0, . 1209 0. .5381** 0. 4898** 0. . 1635* 0, .2325** 0. .2647** 0, , 1648* 0, ,1491 0. . 1852* FLEXHRS 0. , 1347 -0 . .0107 0. .3499** 0. 3645** 0, .0713 0, , 1568* 0. ,0464 0. . 1263 0. . 1406 0. , 1407 ORDFUND 0. .3182** -0 . , 1229 0. ,3694** 0. 3230** 0. .2236** 0. ,2253** 0. 2200** 0. ,0934 o. ,0385 0. . 1258 ACCESS -0 . .0846 0, , 1932* 0. ,2106** 0. 2361** 0. .0182 0. ,0590 0. .1118 0, ,0460 0. ,0288 0. .0263 POOLING 0, ,0517 -0 , .0087 0. ,0947 0. 1391 -0. .0961 -0. ,0389 -0 . ,0160 0. , 1947* 0. .0604 -0 . .0283 FRECHEAP 0. .0777 -0 , ,0138 0. , 1382 0. 1618* 0. ,0255 0. , 1 174 0. 0710 -0, ,0306 0. , 1564* 0. .2008** COMBIN 0. ,0882 -0 . ,0402 0. 0008 0. 0653 -0. .0588 0. .0083 -0 . 0324 0. ,1219 0. ,0004 0. ,0189 WISHHS 0. .0003 0. .0343 0. 1472 0. 0702 0. , 1441 -0. .0378 0. 0471 0. .0271 0. .0215 0. .0465 ILLEGHS 0. , 1280 -0 . .0370 0. .2315** 0. 1425 0, ,0657 0. .0387 0. 0792 0. ,0548 0. ,2081** -o. 0242 POWERHS 1. .0000 -0 . .0793 0. 2497** 0. 2497** 0. .0208 0. 0659 0. 1298 0. .2016** 0. .0636 0. 1775* DOELSE -o. .0793 1. .0000 0. 0674 0. 0609 -0. ,0401 -0 . 0738 0. 1695* 0. ,0347 -0 . ,0300 0. 0128 FLUWAR o. . 2497** 0. .0674 1. OOOO 0. 8447** 0. ,3393** 0. 2799** 0. 3766** 0. .2752** 0. 2826** 0. ,2298** FLEXWAR 0. .2497** 0. .0609 0. 8447** 1. OOOO 0. ,3054** 0. .2808** 0. 2959** 0. ,3064** 0. .2100** 0. 2607** TALK 0. .0208 -0 . .0401 0. 3393** 0. 3054** 1. OOOO 0. 1298 0. 1457 0. ,0750 -0 . .1151 0. 1069 KEY 0. 0659 -o. ,0738 0. 2799** 0. 2808** 0. , 1298 1. OOOO 0. 0235 -0. .0264 -0 . 0636 0. 0603 COMMUNI 0. 1298 0. , 1695* 0. 3766** 0. 2959** 0. 1457 0. 0235 1. OOOO 0. 0796 -0 . 0867 0. 0182 ORGANIZ 0. 2016** 0. .0347 0. 2752** 0. 3064** 0. ,0750 -0. 0264 0. 0796 1. .0000 -0 . 0597 -0 . 051 1 WAREQUI 0. 0636 -0 . 0300 0. 2826** 0. 2100** -0. ,1151 -0. 0636 -0 . 0867 -0 . .0597 1. .0000 0. 0544 COMARMY 0. 1775* 0. 0128 0. 2298** 0. 2607** 0. , 1069 0. 0603 0. 0182 -0 . 051 1 0. 0544 1. OOOO PERSONL 0. 0605 0. 0172 0. 3962** 0. 2090** -0. ,0161 -0 . 0207 -0 . 0300 0. 0091 -0 . 0171 0. 0065 SIGNIF. LE .01 * * - SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREQUI COMARMY INFLUEN 0, .0316 0, .0042 0, .2689** 0, .2760** 0. .0876 -0, .0598 0. . 1 145 0. . 1735* -0, .0093 0 .0001 CHANGE 0 .0860 0, .0487 0. .2075** 0, 2774** 0. .0068 -0 .0415 0. .0021 0, . 1442 0. .0312 -0 .0414 RESTRUC 0, . 1085 -0 . .0495 0. .0843 0, ,1566* -0, .0723 -0. .0272 -0. .0536 0. . 1262 0, .0604 -0. .0070 INTERV -0. .0115 0. .0383 0. 2674** 0. .3080** -0. .0760 -o .0270 -0. .0593 0, . 1816* 0. . 1837* -0 . 1206 FORCE -0. .0161 -0 . .0495 0. , 2682** 0. .2058** -0. ,0751 -0. .0177 -0. .0523 -0. .0929 0. . 2397** -0 .0033 ANALOGY 0. .0416 0, .0793 0. ,2328** 0. . 1344 -0. .0475 -0. .0654 -0. .0322 0. .0666 0. .4909** -0 .0737 TRICK -0. .0824 0. . 1304 0. .1311 0. ,1614* -0, ,0645 -0, .0473 0. ,0326 -0. .0414 0. .0451 -0 .0328 POWERWR 0. .1118 0. .0319 0. ,3217** 0. .2021** -0. .0722 0, .0086 0. .0957 0. .0526 0, .0451 0, .0652 WISHWR 0. .0510 0. .0369 0. ,2089** 0. ,0864 0. .0180 -0, .0687 0. .0131 0, .0876 -0. .0457 -0 .0519 REGRESS - o . .0165 -0 . ,0087 0. ,0843 0. .0803 -0. .0339 0 .0102 0. .0288 -0. .0635 0. .0205 -0, .0675 FANTASY -0, .0720 0. 2220** 0. ,0100 -0. ,0102 -0, ,0658 -0, .0521 -0. .0738 -0. .0060 0. .0332 0, .0046 TACTICL 0. .0667 0. ,0276 0. ,0536 0. .0529 -0. .0293 -0. .0881 O. .0012 -0. .0548 0. ,1211 -0, .0583 COPING -0, .0294 0. ,0406 0. ,2386** 0. , 1930* -0. .0524 -0. .0245 -0. .0302 -0. .0294 -0. .0503 0, .0102 * - SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) oo o P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S PERSONL INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR PRODUCT 0 . 1095 0 .2001 * 0. . 1618* 0 . 1394 0 .0767 -0, .0023 0 . 1932* -0 .0591 -o .0030 0 .1211 FLUJET 0 . 1981** 0 .2246** 0, .2232** 0 .0189 0 .0462 0 .0382 0 .0822 0 .0703 0 . 1489 0 .1877* FLEXJET 0 .0797 0 .0258 0. .0413 0 .0271 -0 .0915 -0, .0743 -0 .0522 -0 .0884 0 . 1079 0 .1676* FLEXJT2 0 .0593 0 .2122** 0, . 1273 0 .0595 0 . 1363 0, .0645 0 . 1042 0 .0715 -0 .0183 0. . 1032 GETMON 0 .1759* 0 .2796** 0. . 1837* -0 .0052 0 .0626 -0. .0122 0 .0675 0 .0523 0 .0777 0 .0783 SUBSTI 0 . 1040 -0 .0510 0. .0255 0 . 1 178 -0, .0716 -0, ,0093 -o .0192 -0 .0261 0 . 1 169 0, .0733 REDUCE 0 .0289 0 . 1047 0. . 1438 -0 .0475 -0, .0357 -0, .0023 -0 .0518 -0 .0704 0 .0883 0, ,0517 USEVAIL 0 .0015 0, .1214 0, .0521 0 .0806 -0, .0086 -0, .0779 0 .1640* -0 .0483 -0 .0291 0, .0830 GETELSE 0 .0463 0 .0079 0, .0591 -0 .0091 -0, .0356 -0, ,0783 -0 .0622 0 .0486 0 .0962 0. . 1386 ASK 0 .0878 -0 .0091 0, .0766 0 . 1287 0. . 1460 0, .0294 0 .0150 -0 .0034 0 .2045** 0. .1641* BORROW -0 .0623 0 . 1294 -0. .0007 -0 .0283 0. .0168 -0. .0549 -0 .0024 -0 .0962 -0 .0612 -0. .0081 SAVE 0 . 1018 0. . 1 181 -o. .0504 -0 .0448 -0. .0111 -0. .0167 0, .0327 0 .0053 -0. .0162 0, ,0783 LOOKFOR 0 .0013 0, .1978** -0. .0029 0 .1617* 0, .0342 0, .0437 0 . 1 190 0 .0058 -0, .0147 0. .0480 BANK -0 . 0049 0 .0058 -O. .0415 0, .0268 -0. .0128 0. .0358 -0 .0592 -0 .0354 0. .0450 0, ,0591 EARN -0 .0062 0, .1842* 0. ,0655 -o. .0807 0, ,0026 -0. ,0322 -0, .0165 0 .0771 -0. .0797 0. .0310 JOB 0 .0822 0, .0549 0. ,2483** 0. .0566 0, .0699 0, ,0789 0, .0705 -0 .0460 0, . 1807* -0. .0624 SELL 0 .3163** 0, . 1240 0. ,0545 -0. .0229 0. .0617 0. ,0362 0. . 1 100 0 . 1005 0, ,0260 -0. .0415 BUSINESS 0 .0288 0, .1688* 0. ,0280 -0, .0862 -0. .0365 -0. .0695 -0, ,0192 0 .0902 0. .0041 0, ,0773 WISHJET 0. .001 1 -0 . .0750 0. .0326 -0, .0433 -0. .0773 0. .1701* 0, .0520 0. .0437 0. .0954 0. ,2230** ILLEGJT 0, .0418 -0 , . 1402 0. .0120 0. .0179 0. . 1205 0. ,3492** 0. .0689 0, .0936 0, ,0772 -o. .0026 POWERJT 0, . 1 192 0. .1585* 0. .3588** 0, ,0686 -0. ,0016 -0. .0546 0. .0645 0. .0201 O. .1315 0. ,0673 FLUHRS 0, .0887 0. .1983** 0. ,1191 -0, ,0567 0. ,0565 0. . 1366 0, .061 1 0. .0081 0. .0844 0. .0958 FLEXHRS 0, . 1540* 0. .1699* 0. . 1273 -0. .0154 0. .0657 -0. .0270 0. .0605 -0, .0078 0. , 1346 0. .0455 ORDFUND 0, .0258 0, .1939* 0. .0266 -0, ,0970 0. ,0100 0. .0564 -0, .0203 0. .0222 -o. .0304 0. .0272 ACCESS 0. .0048 0, .0311 0. ,0200 -0. .0666 0. . 1096 0. ,0743 0, .0121 0, .0165 -0 , ,0078 0. ,0619 POOLING 0. .0318 0. .0605 0. ,1982** 0, ,0258 0. , 1226 -0. 0210 0. , 1028 0, .0528 0. .0793 0. .0873 FRECHEAP 0, .0471 0. .0016 0. .0033 0, ,0021 -0. .0447 -0. .0592 0, ,0642 -0. .0928 0. .0684 -0. ,0884 COMBIN -0. .0320 0. .0212 0. .0744 -0, ,0207 -0 . .0369 -0. 0448 -0, ,0226 -0. .0306 -0 . .0131 0. .0435 WISHHS -0. .0102 0. ,0352 0. 0166 -0. .0557 -0. 0304 0. 0445 0. ,0005 -0. .0825 0. ,1341 0. 3450** ILLEGHS 0. .0910 -0 . . 1052 -0 . 0595 -0. .0058 0. 0213 0. 2925** 0. . 1434 0, ,0284 0. ,1227 0. 0348 POWERHS 0. .0605 0. ,0316 0. 0860 0. . 1085 -0 . 0115 -0 . 0161 0. .0416 -0, ,0824 0. ,1118 0. 0510 DOELSE 0, ,0172 0. .0042 0. 0487 -0. ,0495 0. 0383 -0 . 0495 0. ,0793 0, , 1304 0. .0319 0. 0369 FLUWAR 0. . 3962** 0. .2689** 0. 2075** 0. .0843 0. 2674** 0. 2682** 0. ,2328** 0, .1311 0. ,3217** 0. 2089** FLEXWAR 0. ,2090** 0. .2760** 0. 2774** 0. , 1566* 0. ,3080** 0. 2058** 0. , 1344 0. . 1614* 0. .2021** 0. 0864 TALK -0 . .0161 0. ,0876 0. 0068 -0. .0723 -0 . 0760 -0 . 0751 -o. .0475 -0, .0645 -0 . ,0722 0. 0180 KEY -0 . ,0207 -0 . .0598 -0 . 0415 -o. ,0272 -0 . 0270 -0 . 0177 -0. .0654 -0. .0473 0. ,0086 -0 . 0687 COMMUNI -0 . .0300 0. , 1 145 0. 0021 -0. .0536 -0 . 0593 -0 . 0523 -0. .0322 0. .0326 0. .0957 0. 0131 ORGANIZ 0. ,0091 0. 1735* 0. 1442 0. , 1262 0. 1816* -0 . 0929 0. ,0666 -0. .0414 0. 0526 0. 0876 WAREQUI -0 . ,0171 -0 . 0093 0. 0312 0. 0604 0. 1837* 0. 2397** 0. ,4909** 0. ,0451 0. ,0451 -0. 0457 COMARMY o. ,0065 0. 0001 -0 . 0414 -0. 0070 -0 . 1206 -0 . 0033 -o. .0737 -0. ,0328 0. 0652 -0. 0519 PERSONL 1. OOOO 0. 0157 0. 0416 -0. ,0260 0. 0518 -0 . 0522 0. ,0444 0. , 1047 0. 6675** 0. 0219 co * - SIGNIF. LE .01 * * - SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S PERSONL INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR INFLUEN 0. .0157 1 , .0000 0. .0245 -0. .0640 -0. .0728 -0 .0821 0, .0039 -0. .0615 -0. .0785 0, ,0239 CHANGE 0. .0416 0, .0245 1 , .0000 0, . 1349 0. .1708* -0. .0841 0. .3131** -0. .0092 0. .0454 -0. .0028 RESTRUC - o . ,0260 - o . .0640 0. . 1349 1 .0000 0. .1908* -0 .0551 0, .1121 0. .0573 -0. .0358 0. .0203 INTERV 0. ,0518 -0, .0728 0. . 1708* 0 . 1908* 1 . .0000 0 .0692 0. .4337** 0. .2281** 0. .0290 -0. ,0364 FORCE -0 . .0522 - o . .0821 -0. .0841 -0, .0551 0. .0692 1 , .0000 -0, .0105 0, .0981 0. .0233 0, ,0257 ANALOGY 0. ,0444 0, .0039 0. .3131** 0, .1121 0, .4337** -0 .0105 1 , .0000 -0. .0022 -0. ,0497 -0. .0231 TRICK 0. , 1047 -0 . .0615 -0. ,0092 0. .0573 0, .2281** 0, .0981 -0, .0022 1 . .0000 -0. .0020 0. .0055 POWERWR 0. ,6675** -0, .0785 0, .0454 -0, .0358 0, .0290 0, .0233 -0, .0497 -0, .0020 1 . .0000 0. .0167 WISHWR 0. ,0219 0. .0239 -0. .0028 0, .0203 -0. .0364 0, .0257 -0, .0231 0. .0055 0. ,0167 1 . .0000 REGRESS 0. , 1073 -0 . .0040 -0, .0388 -0. .0254 0, .0137 0 .0257 -0, .0277 0, . 1523* 0. ,0822 0. .0203 FANTASY 0. .1609* -0. .0583 -0. .0353 -0, .0232 0. .0877 0, .0382 -0. .0253 0, . 1733* 0. ,2325** -0. .0420 TACTICL -0 . ,0224 0. .0484 0, . 1 165 -0. .0219 0, .01 18 0. .2317** 0, . 1572* -0. .0325 -0 . ,0309 0. .0175 COPING -0 . ,0489 0. . 1394 0. ,01 18 -0, .0508 -0. .0098 0, .1529* -0. ,0554 0, . 1524* -0 . ,0691 0. .3625 SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.OOOO IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) co ro P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING PRODUCT 0 .0140 0, .0538 0 .1852* 0, . 1 183 FLUJET 0 .0401 -0, .0573 -0 .0204 -0, .0147 FLEXdET 0 .1217 -0, . 1 190 -0 . 1 128 0, . 1603* FLEXUT2 0 .0235 -0, .0606 -0 .0108 0, .0706 GETMON 0 .0301 -0, .0778 -0 .0198 -0, .0514 SUBSTI 0 .0312 -0, .0900 -0 .0853 -0, .0639 REDUCE 0 .0944 -0, .0432 -0 .0410 0, . 1237 USEVAIL 0 .0109 -0. .0535 -0 .0507 0, .1212 GETELSE 0 .0388 -0, .0519 -0 .0492 0. . 1 157 ASK -0 .0210 -0, .0153 0. .0003 0, .0471 BORROW -0 .0283 0, .0351 -0, .0966 0. .0054 SAVE -0 .0800 -0. .0664 -0, .0083 0. .0350 LOOKFOR 0 .0214 0. .0323 0, .0185 0. . 1668* BANK 0 .0268 -0, .0495 0, .0231 0. .0304 EARN 0 .0472 -0. .0898 -0 .0586 -0. .0436 JOB -0, .0709 -0 . ,0239 0, .0214 -0. .0197 SELL 0 .0871 -0. .0088 -0. .0008 -0, .0344 BUSINESS 0, .0707 -0 . .0214 -0, .0519 -0. .0379 WISHdET -0. .0433 0. ,0666 0. .0464 0, .0298 ILLEGJT 0, .0782 0. ,0987 0, . 1 196 -0. ,0313 POWERJT -0. .0224 0. .0072 0. .0592 -0, ,0777 FLUHRS 0. .0613 -0 . ,0071 0. .0093 0. , 1200 FLEXHRS 0. .01 16 -0 , .0435 -0. .0366 0, ,0524 ORDFUND 0. .0075 -0. ,0475 -0. .0579 0. ,0184 ACCESS 0. .0051 0. .0265 -0, .0575 0. 2544** POOLING -0. .0523 -0 . ,0477 0. .0223 0. ,0025 FRECHEAP -0. .0626 -0. .0571 -0, .0541 -0. .0586 COMBIN -0. .0207 -0 . .0188 -0 . .0178 0. .0301 WISHHS -0. .0058 -0 . ,0507 0. .0381 0, . 1 109 ILLEGHS 0, .0940 0. .0038 -0, .0481 0. .0255 POWERHS -0. .0165 -0 . .0720 0. .0667 -0, ,0294 DOELSE -0. .0087 0. .2220** 0, .0276 0. .0406 FLUWAR 0, .0843 0. .0100 0. .0536 0. .2386** FLEXWAR 0. .0803 -0 . ,0102 0. .0529 0, , 1930* TALK -0. .0339 -0 . ,0658 -0 . .0293 -0. .0524 KEY 0. .0102 -0 . ,0521 -0 . .0881 -0, .0245 COMMUNI 0. .0288 -0 . ,0738 0. ,0012 -0. ,0302 ORGANIZ -0 . .0635 -0 . ,0060 -0 . .0548 -0. ,0294 WAREOUI 0. ,0205 0. ,0332 0, .1211 -0. .0503 COMARMY -0. ,0675 0. ,0046 -0 , ,0583 0. .0102 PERSONL 0, , 1073 o. ,1609* -0 , ,0224 -0. .0489 co * - SIGNIF. LE .01 * * - SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING INFLUEN -0. .0040 -0. .0583 0. .0484 0. , 1394 CHANGE - o . .0388 -0. .0353 0. . 1 165 0. .01 18 RESTRUC -0. .0254 -0, .0232 -0. .0219 -0. .0508 INTERV 0. .0137 0. .0877 0. .01 18 -0. .0098 FORCE 0. .0257 0. .0382 0. .2317** 0. . 1529* ANALOGY -0 . .0277 -0 , .0253 0. . 1572* -0. .0554 TRICK 0. .1523* 0, .1733* -0. .0325 0. . 1524* POWERWR 0. .0822 0. .2325** -0. .0309 -0. .0691 WISHWR 0. .0203 -0 . .0420 0. .0175 0, .3625** REGRESS 1 . .0000 -0. .0232 -0. .0219 0, . 1247 FANTASY -0. .0232 1 , .0000 -0. .0200 -0, .0462 TACTICL -0, .0219 -0. .0200 1 , .0000 -0. .0438 COPING 0. , 1247 - o . .0462 -0. .0438 - 1 . .0000 * - SIGNIF. LE .01 SIGNIF. LE .001 (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) CO 185 APPENDIX J ~ RATIONALES FOR SRP SCORES RETAINED OR COMBINED TO BECOME THE SRP VARIABLES F l u e n c y T a b l e 31 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the f l u e n c y s c o r e s from each of the t h r e e SRP t a s k s . The t a b l e a l s o i n c l u d e s the c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of the f l u e n c y s c o r e s w i t h P r o d u c t ( i . e . , the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y s c o r e ) . A l e g e n d f o r the codes or l a b e l s used i n the t a b l e s can be found i n Appendix H. S i n c e a l l t h r e e f l u e n c y s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d among themselves and w i t h P r o d u c t , i t was judged t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o combine the f l u e n c y s c o r e s from the t h r e e SRP t a s k s i n t o one s c o r e , the SRP v a r i a b l e c a l l e d F l u e n c y . T a b l e 31 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the F l u e n c y S c o r e s and P r o d u c t F l u j e t F l u h r s Fluwar F l u j e t F l u h r s .49** Fluwar .40** .54** P r o d u c t .18* .20* .26** No t e s . N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01 . **P<.001 . 186 F l e x i b i l i t y T a b l e 32 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s from each of the t h r e e SRP t a s k s . The t a b l e a l s o i n c l u d e s the c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s w i t h P r o d u c t ( i . e . , the P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y s c o r e ) . The two f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s from the j e t problem were r e l a t i v e l y independent of each o t h e r w h i l e each was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s from the ho r s e and war problems. A l l of the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o d u c t . T h e r e f o r e i t appeared a p p r o p r i a t e t o combine a l l f o u r f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s i n t o one s c o r e , t h e SRP F l e x i b i l i t y v a r i a b l e . T a b l e 32 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the F l e x i b i l i t y S c o r e s and the Produc t Score F l e x j e t F l e x j t 2 F l e x h r s F l e x w a r F l e x j e t F l e x j t 2 .09 F l e x h r s .30** .33** F l e x w a r .25** . 37** .37** P r o d u c t .24** .24** .28** .26** Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01 . **P<.001. 187 W i s h i n g T a b l e 33 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the w i s h i n g -r e l a t e d s c o r e s from the t h r e e SRP t a s k s and the Product s c o r e . None of the w i s h i n g s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o d u c t . The w i s h i n g s c o r e s were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s . I t was d e c i d e d t o p r e s e r v e the w i s h i n g s c o r e s by co m b i n i n g them i n t o one SRP v a r i a b l e , W i s h i n g , i n o r d e r t o make p o s s i b l e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of any m e a n i n g f u l n e s s t h i s response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c might have. T a b l e 33 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the W i s h i n g S c o r e s and the Pr o d u c t Score W i s h j e t Wi shhrs Wi shwar W i s h j e t Wi s h h r s .37** Wishwar . 22** .35** P r o d u c t -.07 .03 .12 Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01 . **P<.001 . 188 P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y T a b l e 34 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t y s c o r e s from the t h r e e SRP t a s k s as w e l l as the Pr o d u c t s c o r e . The p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t y s c o r e from the war problem was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the same k i n d of s c o r e from e i t h e r of the o t h e r two problems. The p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t y s c o r e s from the j e t and horse problems were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t o n l y t h e s e two s c o r e s would be combined t o become the SRP v a r i a b l e , P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y . T a b l e 34 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y S c o r e s and the P r o d u c t Score P o w e r j t Powerhs Powerwr P o w e r j t Powerhs .35** Powerwr .13 . 1 1 P r o d u c t .19* .10 .00 Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *p<.01. **P<.001 . 189 Fantasy F a c t o r T a b l e 35 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the f a n t a s y f a c t o r r e l a t e d s c o r e s from the t h r e e SRP t a s k s and the P r o d u c t s c o r e . The t h r e e f a n t a s y f a c t o r r e l a t e d s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d among them s e l v e s and a l l were e s s e n t i a l l y independent from the P r o d u c t s c o r e . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s e t h r e e s c o r e s would be r e t a i n e d by combining them i n t o one s c o r e , the SRP v a r i a b l e , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the p o s s i b l e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of t h i s response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T a b l e 35 - Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Among the Fa n t a s y F a c t o r Response C a t e g o r i e s and the P r o d u c t Score I l l e g j t I l l e g h s F o r c e I l l e g j t I l l e g h s .61 F o r c e .35** .29** P r o d u c t -.05 .03 .00 Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01. **P<.001. 190 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g T a b l e 36 p r e s e n t s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among: Change, I n f l u e n t i a l , O r g a n i z e ( t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s from the war p r o b l e m ) , the F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e f o r the war problem, and the Pro d u c t score.\ As was i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e K-1, the t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s of Change, I n f l u e n t i a l , and O r g a n i z e were used by o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of s u b j e c t s . W h i l e t h e s e response c a t e g o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e f o r the war problem, i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , g i v e n the i n f r e q u e n c y of t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e and g i v e n t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Pr o d u c t s c o r e , t h a t ( O t h e s e response c a t e g o r i e s c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be combined i n t o one sc o r e and t h a t ( 2 ) s u c h a s c o r e might p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n not a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n a f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e . L o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s a l s o s u g g e sted t h a t i t might be r e a s o n a b l e t o combine t h e s e response c a t e g o r i e s and t o c a l l the r e s u l t i n g v a r i a b l e , SRP A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . Responses i n any of the s e c a t e g o r i e s r e v e a l e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o one a s p e c t of the problem ( e . g . , the problem i s too b i g f o r one el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t or people f i g h t because they don't l i k e each o t h e r ) and an attempt t o work on t h a t one a s p e c t of the problem i n a l o g i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e manner. W h i l e such r e s p o n s e s or s u g g e s t e d s o l u t i o n methods d i d not d e a l w i t h the war problem i n i t s e n t i r e t y , they c o u l d be seen as r e a s o n a b l e s t e p s towards the d e s i r e d g o a l . (See Appendix I f o r examples of re s p o n s e s i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s . ) 191 T a b l e 36 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and P r o d u c t O r g a n i z F l e x w a r 3 1 *** .15* .26*** N o t e s . ' N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . *p<.05. **P<.01. ***P<.001. Change I n f l u e n Change I n f l u e n .02 O r g a n i z . 1 4* . 1 7** Fle x w a r .28*** .28** P r o d u c t .16** . 20** 192 C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g T a b l e 37 p r e s e n t s i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among: T a c t i c a l , A n a l o g y , R e s t r u c t u r e ( t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s from the war p r o b l e m ) , the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e f o r the war problem, and the P r o d u c t s c o r e . The t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s of T a c t i c a l , A n a l o g y , and R e s t r u c t u r e were used o n l y r a r e l y (see T a b l e 29 i n Appendix I ) . They were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the P r o d u c t s c o r e . T h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F l e x w a r were lower than were those of the response c a t e g o r i e s c o m p r i s i n g the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . These p a t t e r n s suggested t h a t the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of T a c t i c a l , A n a l o g y, and R e s t r u c t u r e c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y combined i n t o one s c o r e c a l l e d C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g and t h a t t h i s s c o r e c o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o performance on P r o d u c t t h a t was not a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d i n the F l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e or the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g s c o r e . L o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s a l s o s u g g e s t e d a degree of commonality among them. Responses from t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a l l r e p r e s e n t e d a h o l i s t i c s o l u t i o n t o the war problem. I f one c o u l d f i n d a way t o implement any s o l u t i o n method i n these c a t e g o r i e s , wars would, almost by d e f i n i t i o n , be s t o p p e d . (See Appendix I f o r examples of responses i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s . ) F u r t h e r these r e s p o n s e s showed s u b j e c t s t o be t r u l y " p l a y i n g w i t h i d e a s " f o r s t o p p i n g wars as opposed t o s i m p l y l i s t i n g commonly w i t n e s s e d s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g e s . 193 T a b l e 37 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and Pr o d u c t T a c t i c l A nalogy R e s t r u c F l e x w a r T a c t i c l A nalogy R e s t r u c F l e x w a r P r o d u c t .16* .02 .05 . 1 9** .11* .13* . 1 9** .16*** . 1 4* 26*** Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between Produ c t and SRP s c o r e s . *p<.05. **P<.01. ***P<.001. 1 94 APPENDIX K ~ COMPUTATION OF SCORES FOR SRP VARIABLES AND TEST  CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE VARIABLES Appendix J p r e s e n t e d r a t i o n a l e s f o r combining some of the i n i t i a l s c o r e s d e v e l o p e d f o r the SRP i n t o a s m a l l e r s e t of s c o r e s t h a t would se r v e as the SRP v a r i a b l e s t o be examined i n the s t u d y . In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the weight of each i n i t i a l s c o r e w i t h i n the v a r i a b l e which would i n c l u d e i t , the raw s c o r e s f o r the i n i t i a l s c o r e s were s c a l e d or recoded p r i o r t o computing s c o r e s f o r the SRP v a r i a b l e s . The s c a l e s or r e c o d i n g system used a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e 38. To compute the s c o r e s f o r the SRP v a r i a b l e s , the component s c o r e s were s i m p l y added t o g e t h e r a f t e r the r e c o d i n g was completed. T a b l e 39 p r e s e n t s the means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and ranges f o r the r e s u l t i n g SRP v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e 40 p r e s e n t s p e r c e n t a g e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r f i v e of the SRP v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e 41 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the SRP v a r i a b l e s . 195 T a b l e 38 - S c a l e s f o r Recoding I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s P r i o r t o Computing SRP V a r i a b l e s I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s I n i t i a l Score V a l u e Recoded V a l u e % Frequency F l u e n c y F l u j e t 1 -• 4 1 17. .9 5 -• 7 2 34. ,7 8 -• 10 3 21 . .0 1 1 -• 16 4 18. .7 17 -• 33 5 7. .8 F l u h r s 0 0 3. .3 1 1 5. .4 2 -• 3 2 44. .2 5 -- 6 3 21 ; .9 7 -• 10 4 18. .3 1 1 -- 16 5 7. . 1 Fluwar 0 0 4. .5 1 1 20. .7 2 -- 3 2 38. . 1 4 -• 5 3 21 . .9 6 -• 7 4 9. .5 8 -- 13 5 5. .3 F l e x i b i l i t y F l e x j e t 1 1 52, .5 2 2 29, .3 3 -- 4 3 18, .2 F l e x j t 2 1 -- 2 1 23, .9 3 2 24, .4 4 3 24, .0 5 4 16, .5 6 -- 8 5 1 1 , . 1 F l e x h r s 0 0 4, . 1 1 1 22, .7 2 2 40, .5 3 3 26, .0 4 -- 5 4 6, .6 F l e x w a r 0 0 8, .2 1 1 1 1 , .22 2 19, .4 3 3 27, .7 196 W i s h i n g W i s h j e t Wishhs Wishwr 4 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 - 7 P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y P o w e r j e t Powerhs F a n t a s y F a c t o r I l l e g j t I l l e g h s F o r c e A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g Change I n f l u e n O r g a n i z C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g T a c t i c l 0 1 2 4 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 3 3 3 16 - 6 2 4 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 2 4 5 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 28. 1 5.4 91 , 8, 86, 13, 90, 9, 59, 20, 12, 7, 71 , 21 , 7, 78, 15, 5, 87, 7, 5, 84, 1 1 , 4, 7 3 4 7 9 1 93.8 6.2 84, 15, 83, 16, 97.9 2. 1 1 97 Analogy 0 0 95.9 1 - 4 1 4.1 Restruc 0 0 97.5 1 1 2.5 198 T a b l e 39 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges f o r SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242) V a r i a b l e Mean S.D. Min Max F l u e n c y 7.6 2.8 2 1 3 F l e x i b i l i t y • 8.7 3.0 2 15 W i s h i n g .3 .6 0 3 P e r s o n a l \ C a p a b i l i t y 1 .0 1 .3 0 5 F a n t a s y F a c t o r .6 1 .2 0 6 A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g .4 .6 0 3 C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g . 1 .3 0 2 199 T a b l e 40 - Percentage Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e of the SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242) V a r i a b l e Score of S u b j e c t s W i s h i n g P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y F a n t a s y F a c t o r A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g C o n c e p t u a l T h i i n k i n g 0 76.4 1 17.4 2 5.0 3 1 .2 0 48.0 1 22.0 2 16.0 3 7.0 4 5.0 5 2.0 0 66.5 1 16.9 2 8.7 3 4.1 4 1 .7 5 1 .2 6 0.8 0 67.0 1 26.0 2 6.0 3 0.4 0 93.0 1 5.0 2 2.0 200 T a b l e 41 - Pearson Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among the SRP V a r i a b l e s and the P r o d u c t Score (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) ( 1 ) F l u e n c y ( 2 ) F l e x i b i l i t y 82** ( 3 ) W i s h i n g 26** 1 g** (4)Ca p a b l e 49** 30** 05 ( 5 ) F a n t a s y 21* 07 10 07 ( 6 ) A n a l y t i c 36** 41** 09 23** 1 6 (7 )'Conceptual 1 4 09 07 1 6 1 4 18* ( 8 ) P r o d u c t 30** 37** 10 17 -05 28* (7) Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o d u c t and SRP s c o r e s . L e a d i n g d e c i m a l s o m i t t e d . *P<.01. **P<.001 . 201 APPENDIX L - DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUEST-FOR-PROPOSAL PRESENTATION P r o p o s a l T o p i c : t o d e v e l o p a p l a n f o r a p a r t y where the grade f i v e c l a s s would e n t e r t a i n a grade one c l a s s f o r an a f t e r n o o n . The p r e s e n t e r began the s e s s i o n by t e l l i n g s t u d e n t s t h a t today they were g o i n g t o do something v e r y i m p o r t a n t and v e r y m a g i c a l . Today they were g o i n g t o come up w i t h the main i d e a s f o r the p a r t y they were g o i n g t o be a l l o w e d t o have f o r the grade one c l a s s . At the same t i m e , they were g o i n g t o use c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t o come up w i t h t h e i r i d e a s . F i r s t t h e r e was g o i n g t o be a b r i e f a c t i v i t y t o g i v e them p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g t h e i r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . For the warm-up a c t i v i t y , s t u d e n t s were g i v e n f i v e minutes t o i n v e n t a game t h a t they had never seen b e f o r e . As background i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s the s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a l i s t of t h i n g s t h a t c o u l d be used i n the game and a l i s t of i d e a s about the way games work. The l i s t of t h i n g s i n c l u d e d : a b l a n k e t , r o p e , empty t i n cans ( c o f f e e ) , a s t i c k ( f o r s t i r r i n g p a i n t ) , o l d used C h r i s t m a s c a r d s , an empty box, a s m a l l spongy b a l l t h a t the dog had chewed, the dog, p i e c e s of paper and p e n c i l s , s c o t c h t a p e , and a S t a r Wars p o s t e r ( D a r t h V a d e r ) . The l i s t of i d e a s about how games work i n c l u d e d : g u e s s i n g games, m a k e - b e l i e v e games, board games, s p o r t s games, c a r d games, team games, games of chance or l u c k , a r i t h m e t i c games, s k i l l games, and e l e c t r o n i c games. S t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n v e n t a game t h a t e i g h t c h i l d r e n c o u l d p l a y u s i n g o n l y some or a l l of the o b j e c t s l i s t e d . They were t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r game i n w r i t i n g or w i t h d r awings on a p i e c e of paper. A f t e r about f i v e m i n u t e s , most of 202 the c h i l d r e n were g i v e n a chance t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r game t o the r e s t of the c l a s s . The p r e s e n t e r then suggested t h a t the s t u d e n t s c o u l d i n v e n t i d e a s f o r t h e i r p a r t y t h a t would make i t so s p e c i a l and u n u s u a l t h a t i t would never be f o r g o t t e n — a p a r t y t h a t would be fun and t h a t would r e a l l y s u r p r i s e p e o p l e . F i r s t , however, the p r e s e n t e r p o i n t e d out t h a t i n p l a n n i n g any k i n d of p a r t y i t i s h e l p f u l t o s t a r t w i t h a theme. U s i n g the examples of C h r i s t m a s and S p r i n g , the c oncept of a theme was d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h t o be c e r t a i n t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s were aware t h a t p a r t y a c t i v i t i e s , d e c o r a t i o n s , f o o d , and so on, c o u l d a l l be c o n n e c t e d t o the theme. The p r e s e n t e r then taped on the board a l i s t of themes and a l i s t of " s p e c i a l days". The themes l i s t e d were: w e s t e r n , s p a c e , p i o n e e r , 50's, rock and r o l l , R o b i n Hood, f a n t a s y , a c h a r a c t e r , S p r i n g , and C h r i s t m a s . " S p e c i a l Days" l i s t e d were: k i t e , h a t , r o b o t , M a r t i a n , D r a c u l a , awards, i n t e r n a t i o n a l , Canada, o l d f a s h i o n e d , backwards, c l o w n , d i s g u i s e , V i k i n g , and grub. These were d i s c u s s e d t o ensure t h a t s t u d e n t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l of them. The p r e s e n t e r then taped up a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would s e r v e as reminders of some of the t h i n g s t h a t t h e r e a r e t o do on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s or on any o c c a s i o n . A c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d were: s i n g i n g , games, p l a y s , d a n c i n g , p u p pets, c o n t e s t s , E a s t e r Egg hunt, a p p l e bobbing, p r e s s i n g l e a s v e s , p l a n t i n g seeds, making a j a c k o' l a n t e r n , w e a r i n g costumes, making c o o k i e s , p i n g pong tournaments, c a r n i v a l b o o t h s , games of chance or s k i l l , s e e i n g 203 a n i m a l s a t the zoo, a i r p l a n e c o n t e s t s , cake walk, p i c n i c games, a haunted house, f i n d t he b r u s h , making a snowman, and making a "something". S t u d e n t s were then g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e w i t h two d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s f b r coming up w i t h u n u s u a l p a r t y i d e a s . One was t o tak e an a c t i v i t y t h a t c l e a r l y d i d not be l o n g w i t h the chosen theme and t o change i t so t h a t i t d i d b e l o n g . For example, g i v e n t h a t a western theme was g o i n g t o be used, s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e d c h a n g i n g the Hallowe'en a c t i v i t y of a p p l e bobbing t o make i t f i t w i t h a western theme. The o t h e r s t r a t e g y was t o t a k e an o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y and change i t t o make i t f i t the theme of i n t e r e s t . S t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e d t h i s s t r a t e g y by s u g g e s t i n g how t o change the o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s of c o o k i e making, seed p l a n t i n g , and i c e cream e a t i n g t o make them f i t w i t h a d r a c u l a theme.; A l l of t h i s p r a c t i c e was done o r a l l y as a group. S t u d e n t s were th e n i n v i t e d t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e v e l o p t h e i r own p a r t y p l a n p r o p o s a l s . Each s t u d e n t was t o use whatever theme he or she wished. They were;reminded t o t r y t o come up w i t h unexpected, u n u s u a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would be fun u s i n g the s t r a t e g i e s the c l a s s had j u s t p r a c t i s e d . The w r i t t e n work s u b m i t t e d by the s t u d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d the p r o p o s a l s t h a t were judged f o r c r e a t i v i t y . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o l l o w - u p i n t a k i n g the c l a s s as a whole t h r o u g h t o the s e l e c t i o n and c o n t i n u e d development of one p a r t y p l a n t h a t would be implemented. Other T o p i c s : The example d e s c r i b e d above was used w i t h f i v e 204 c l a s s e s t h a t were a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g a p a r t y f o r a grade one c l a s s . One c l a s s p r e f e r r e d t o p l a n a s p e c i a l a f t e r n o o n f o r a c l a s s of the same grade l e v e l . Two of the c l a s s e s ( t h e r e were t e n i n a l l ) w i s h ed t o p l a n a s p e c i a l F r i d a y t h a t would i n v o l v e the e n t i r e s c h o o l . These two v a r i a t i o n s r e q u i r e d l i t t l e i n the way of a d a p t a t i o n of the i n i t i a l example. One c l a s s had a m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s who were k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r a i s i n g funds w i t h which t o donate books t o the s c h o o l l i b r a r y . The s c h o o l had a h i s t o r y of s u c c e s s f u l fund-r a i s i n g campaigns i n i t s w e l l-above-average-income neighbourhood. The c l a s s , however, had had d i f f i c u l t y i n i m a g i n i n g a n y t h i n g beyond the u s u a l methods of r a f f l e s , penny d r i v e s , p l e d g e s or c a r washes. The p r e s e n t e r suggested t o t h i s c l a s s t h a t they s h o u l d c o n s i d e r p l a n n i n g an event which would be fun t o do, s u r p r i s i n g (and t h e r e f o r e memorable), which would i n some way ge n e r a t e fu n d s , and which might a l s o i n v o l v e the whole s c h o o l and community i n a v e r y p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e way. T h i s c l a s s was g i v e n the same p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t was used f o r t he p a r t y p l a n . They were a l s o g i v e n a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t g e n e r a t e f u n d s . T h i s l i s t i n c l u d e d : t e l e t h o n , t a x e s , d i n n e r , a u c t i o n , fun f a i r , b a z a a r , p l e d g e s / r a f f l e s , b i n g o , s e l l i n g p r o d u c t s , c h a r g i n g a d m i s s i o n t o some e v e n t , a r t s / c r a f t s f a i r , w i n n i n g a c o n t e s t , and gambl i n g . They were a l s o g i v e n a breakdown of two k i n d s of f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o show what components of them c o u l d be changed t o make the a c t i v i t y u n usual 205 and s u r p r i s i n g . One such a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s was: " s e l l i n g p r o d u c t s " — un u s u a l p r o d u c t s , u n s u a l p l a c e s t o s e l l them from, and u n u s u a l customers t o s e l l them t o . The o t h e r a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s was: " e n t e r t a i n m e n t " -- who or what would be the e n t e r t a i n m e n t , who would be the a u d i e n c e , c o u l d t h e r e be a sp o n s o r , where would the e n t e r t a i n m e n t t a k e p l a c e ? APPENDIX M ~ RATING SCALE USED FOR SCORING PROPOSALS S c a l e . Labe l or General P o i n t D e s c r i p t i o n One L i m i t e d response. Two Low q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . Three High q u a n t i t y and low q u a l i t y . Four Medium to h igh q u a n t i t y and low to medium q u a l i t y . A n t i c i p a t e d Judge 's Response Genera l D e s c r i p t i o n or A n a l y s i s o f to P roposa l s i n t h i s Category P r o p o s a l s i n t h i s Category Why i s i t t ha t the c h i l d d i d n ' t I f the c h i l d has w r i t t e n any th ing at a l l , want to do t h i s , d i d n ' t t r y to i t i s so b r i e f and o r d i n a r y tha t i t almost do t h i s * or wasn ' t ab le to do seems to have been done f o r the sake of t h i s ? There i s no th ing ex t remely l i t t l e cou ld be used. or here tha t There i s no th ing or ex t reme ly l i t t l e here t ha t cou ld be used. hav ing a p p l i e d ink to the page. I t appears t ha t the c h i l d i s c l e a r l y approach ing the task butjcan.'t seem to do i t w e l l f o r any of a number o f r e a s o n s : e . g . , low e l a b o r a t i v e a b i l i t y ; no i m a g i n a t i o n ; low e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l s ; c a n ' t get away from the common approaches ; gets l o s t i n e l a b o r a t i o n and gets dead-ended. The c h i l d appears to have bra ins tormed p r o f u s e l y , (not s i m p l y l i s t e d known a c t i v i t i e s ) , but much of what i s d e s c r i b e d d o e s n ' t make sense , or i s t a s t e l e s s , d o e s n ' t look l i k e f u n , or i s g r o s s l y u n r e l a t e d to the theme. The c h i l d has generated something tha t cou ld be used to get one through the i n t e n d -ed event ( e . g . , the par ty ) - -e i t h e r (a) enough common a c t i v i t i e s tha t would c o n s t i -t u t e a f u n c t i o n a l p a r t y ; and/ or (b) a c t i v i t y ideas tha t w i t h f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n cou ld become the unusual and e f f e c t -i ve a c t i v i t i e s d e s i r e d . E i t h e r : The c h i l d has l i s t e d / d e s c r i b e d a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . Some are common f o r the theme. Some have odd t w i s t s t ha t d o n ' t work or are not r e l a t e d to the theme. One or more of the at tempted f o r c e d connec t ions may show promise but r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . Or : A l l a c t i v i t i e s show some p o t e n t i a l promise but none Of them are e l a b o r a t e d enough to show how they would be made to work w e l l (and i t ' s not r e a d i l y o b v i o u s . ) F i v e High q u a l i t y (one or The-proposa l has one or more more a c t i v i t i e s meet a c t i v i t y ideas tha t you would the c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d . ) d e f i n i t e l y want to use i f you were doing tha t theme. S i x A master p l a n . The c h i l d ' s p roposa l cou ld serve as a r i c h and p rovoca-t i v e s t a r t i n g po in t f o r lead-ing a c l a s s through the development and s tag ing of the event . One or more of the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y ideas appear to be the r e s u l t of a s u c c e s s f u l f o r c e d c o n n e c t i o n . The o the r a c t i v i t y ideas may be p r e d i c t a b l e , common, or s i l l y , t h e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the response suggests t ha t the c h i l d would be capab le o f making a wor thwh i le c o n t r i b u t i o n to someone e l s e ' s master p l a n . The c h i l d has c a r r i e d out a s u c c e s s f u l so lo b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n tha t has r e s u l t e d in a master p l a n , i . e . , what the c h i l d has w r i t t e n down conveys a c l e a r v i s i o n or many p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t images of what the event would or c o u l d be a f t e r re f inement and f u r t h e r development. The e s s e n t i a l r i c h n e s s , however, i s a l r e a d y in the p roposa l - - par t o f t ha t r i c h n e s s i s tha t i t i s sugges t i ve or p r o v o c a t i v e of f u r t h e r c r e a t i v e thought t ha t would extend or e l a b o r a t e t h i s master p l a n . Note : For the fund r a i s i n g event p r o p o s a l s , a l t e r n a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s were p rov ided but the same s c a l e p o i n t s were used. R a t i n g s c a l e f o r j udg ing s t u d e n t s ' p roposa ls on the d imens ion of c r e a t i v i t y . 209 APPENDIX N - INTERVIEW SCHEDULES C h i l d I n t e r v i e w Schedule I f you o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l t h r e e days of the week, what a r e some of the t h i n g s you'd l i k e t o do w i t h the e x t r a time? Have you ever done a n y t h i n g t h a t o t h e r people were s u r p r i s e d you c o u l d do? What's the most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g t h a t you've ever had t o do --o r , i s t h e r e something you've done t h a t was r e a l l y h a r d t o do but you r e a l l y wanted t o do i t ? Some peopl e r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n the power of w i s h i n g . Do you t h i n k you do? Has i t ever worked? Do you ever get o t h e r p e o p l e t o go a l o n g w i t h your i d e a s or what you want t o do? ( a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s ; a c t i v i t i e s or r o u t i n e s a t home) Sometimes we l i k e t o daydream — about t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o do, or t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o t r y , or t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o become. Can you remember a n y t h i n g you've ever daydreamed about? Have you ever done a n y t h i n g r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t from what most k i d s your age have done -- made something, read up on something, p l a n n e d something, t r i e d something? Some pe o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t w i l l p o w e r can t a k e them a l o n g way --do you t h i n k t h a t you've ever used w i l l p o w e r ? I'm g o i n g t o ask you some d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s now — q u e s t i o n s about how you see t h i n g s . For example . Who do you t h i n k makes the b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e t o what happens i n the c l a s s r o o m : the p r i n c i p a l , the t e a c h e r , the k i d s ? When pe o p l e d i s a g r e e over something, why do you t h i n k t h a t u s u a l l y i s ? What t h i n g s would you say a r e most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o most p e o p l e ? What do you t h i n k w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o you? In a l l of the t h i n g s t h a t you're i n t e r e s t e d i n or t h a t you've thought about a l o t , what has p u z z l e d you the most? What's the b e s t t h i n g about b e i n g your age? What's the h a r d e s t t h i n g about b e i n g your age? What would you l i k e t o be r e a l l y good a t d o i n g ? 2 1 0 I f you c o u l d p i c k one t h i n g t h a t you wouldn't have t o worry about anymore, what would i t be? What would be the next t h i n g ? In the w o r l d of n a t u r e or i n the w o r l d of t h i n g s , or i n the w o r l d of p e o p l e , what i s i t t h a t s u r p r i s e s you the most, or t h a t you f i n d the most f a s c i n a t i n g ? Some pe o p l e r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n the power of p r a y e r . Do you t h i n k t h a t you do? Some pe o p l e always have l o t s of i d e a s a t t h e i r f i n g e r t i p s , you know, they always have l o t s of i d e a s about what t o get someone f o r a p r e s e n t , or t hey f i n d i t r e a l l y easy t o t h i n k of t h i n g s t o say i n a s t o r y t hey have t o w r i t e or a l e t t e r . Other p e o p l e have t o work r e a l l y h a r d t o come up w i t h i d e a s , or t hey j u s t seem t o come more s l o w l y . Which k i n d of p e r s o n sounds more l i k e you? Can you t h i n k of any examples of when you had l o t s t o say or l o t s of i d e a s or when you had t r o u b l e t h i n k i n g of a l o t of i d e a s ? Can you remember any times when you've run i n t o a d i f f i c u l t y when you were t r y i n g t o do something or make something — something you needed was m i s s i n g ; something got i n the way or slowed t h i n g s down? What d i d you do? Can you t h i n k of a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s a c o n s t a n t n u i s a n c e or t h a t always annoys you? What a r e some of the t h i n g s you've t r i e d t o do about i t ? What do you do when you need a r e a l l y good i d e a ? I f you c o u l d spend two weeks w i t h someone t h a t does a s p e c i a l k i n d of work, what k i n d of p e r s o n would t h a t be? In the year ahead, what are some of the t h i n g s you'd l i k e t o a c c o m p l i s h or t r y f o r the f i r s t time? Do you spend v e r y much time w r i t i n g or drawing? Have you ever been i n a p l a y ? I s t h e r e something t h a t you've always wanted t o do but t h e r e h asn't been the o p p o r t u n i t y ( t i m e , m a t e r i a l s , r e s o u r c e s ) ? 21 1 P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w Schedule As has g o t t e n o l d e r , how would you say t h a t he has changed a l o t or s t a y e d the same? How would you say t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s , or from f r i e n d s ? What does do when he c a n ' t f i g u r e something out r i g h t away? Does ever f i n d u n u s u a l ways t o do t h i n g s ? Would you say t h a t i s a c h i l d t h a t always has l o t s t o say, l o t s of i d e a s , q u e s t i o n s , or s u g g e s t i o n s ? What does u s u a l l y do when he g e t s stumped or b l o c k e d when he's w o r k i n g on something, t r y i n g t o make something, get something, go somewhere? What does do when t h i n g s t r y h i s p a t i e n c e , l i k e the u s u a l r u l e s or r o u t i n e s or any c o n s t a n t s o u r c e s of annoyance? Some c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e s t r o n g l y i n the power of w i s h i n g , do you t h i n k does? Would you say t h a t i s v e r y good a t g e t t i n g h i s way? You know, i s he p r e t t y good at t a p p i n g any " s o f t s p o t s " ? I s ever the i n i t i a t o r of f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s or new ways of d o i n g t h i n g s around the home? I s ever the one t o i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s ? Has ever s u r p r i s e d you w i t h h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s , or i n i t i a t i v e , or s t a y i n g power? Has ever done a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t or c o m p l i c a t e d or t h a t r e q u i r e d endurance? Does have any u n u s u a l or i n t e r e s t i n g a s p i r a t i o n s , p l a n s or dreams? Do you t h i n k i s aware of the i d e a of w i l l p o w e r or t h a t he ever uses i t ? Sometimes c h i l d r e n s u r p r i s e us w i t h t h e i r depth of u n d e r s t a n d i n g or how much they know about t h i n g s . Does ever make comments or ask q u e s t i o n s t h a t s u r p r i s e you i n t h a t way? Would you say t h a t has good a n a l y t i c a b i l i t y ? Can you t h i n k of any examples of where you might have seen or n o t i c e d i t ? Would you say t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r c e p t i v e , or 212 s e n s i t i v e , or t h o u g h t f u l ? What i s most c u r i o u s about or f a s c i n a t e d w i t h ? What k i n d s of t h i n g s does f i n d easy t o do or hard t o do? Some c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e i n the power of p r a y e r . Do you t h i n k t h a t does? What would you say a r e 's s t r o n g e s t i n t e r e s t s ? how l o n g , how p u r s u e d , r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s ? Whenever i s r e a l l y e x c i t e d t o t e l l you about something, what i s i t u s u a l l y about? What does u s u a l l y do when someone e l s e i s t r y i n g t o do something or f i x something? Are t h e r e any o l d e r c h i l d r e n or a d u l t s t h a t l i k e s t o spend time w i t h ? What do they do or t a l k about t o g e t h e r ? 213 Teacher I n t e r v i e w Schedule How would you d e s c r i b e as a s t u d e n t ? What s u b j e c t a r e a s a r e s t r o n g e s t or weakest f o r ? When g e t s e x c i t e d or p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d , what i s i t t h a t i s u s u a l l y happening i n the c l a s s r o o m ? Does ever s u r p r i s e you i n any way? Does s t a n d out i n any way from the o t h e r s t u d e n t s ? 214 APPENDIX 0 ~ CASE STUDIES The names used i n the case s t u d i e s a r e f i c t i t i o u s . They a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same o r d e r as s u b j e c t numbers 1 t o 15 appear i n the r e l a t e d t a b l e s i n Chapter IV. 215 Yvonne Yvonne i s a v e r y s o c i a l p e r s o n who i s good i n a t h l e t i c s and who has never had t o work h a r d t o do w e l l i n s c h o o l . She does some drawing and p o e t r y w r i t i n g but would be embarassed t o have her f r i e n d s see her name i f a poem were p u b l i s h e d . Yvonne would l i k e t o be an a c t r e s s i n comedy shows, perhaps a s i n g e r , or a famous a t h l e t e . She i s d e s c r i b e d by her t e a c h e r s as a super s t u d e n t and a "boy's d e l i g h t " . Yvonne's p a r e n t s ' response t o her a b i l i t y and performance i s : "But we d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g . " Yvonne's " O r d i n a r i n e s s " I f Yvonne o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 days of the week, she'd use the e x t r a time t o get a paper r o u t e and buy t h i n g s , h e l p around t h e house, s k i , and p l a y . What would she buy? c l o t h e s , games, and s t i c k e r s . What does Yvonne t h i n k w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o h e r ? -- her c h i l d r e n . What's t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g about b e i n g Yvonne's age? — your mother not l e t t i n g you do what you want. What would Yvonne l i k e t o be a b l e t o not worry about? g e t t i n g i n t r o u b l e w i t h her mother, g e t t i n g y e l l e d a t by her mother, g e t t i n g her a l l o w a n c e taken away. What would Yvonne l i k e t o be r e a l l y good a t ? — s p o r t s . What.does Yvonne do w i t h her f r i e n d s ? -- they, toboggan or go t o the s t o r e . What o p p o r t u n i t y would Yvonne l i k e t o have? — t o go d o w n h i l l s k i i n g but i t ' s d i f f i c u l t w i t h her f a t h e r ' s s h i f t work. A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s Yvonne w r i t e s p o e t r y a t home, u s u a l l y about seasons or a n i m a l s . She l i k e s a n i m a l s a l o t . B e f o r e C h r i s t m a s , Yvonne's mother thought one of Yvonne's poems was p a r t i c u l a r l y good and wanted t o send i t i n t o a newspaper but Yvonne was embarassed t o t h i n k t h a t her f r i e n d s might see her name w i t h i t . For d r a w i n g , Yvonne t a k e s books t h a t b e l o n g t o her 4-year-o l d s i s t e r and c o p i e s p i c t u r e s from them — O l l i e and G a r f i e l d , Tweety B i r d , C i n d e r e l l a ' s stepmother. Her p a r e n t s say t h a t the odd time s h e ' l l t h i n k up her own drawing and t h a t she's good a t i t . Yvonne's p a r e n t s r e c a l l e d t h a t about two months ago, Yvonne 216 and Wendy, another g i r l i n the i n t e r v i e w sample, worked s t e a d i l y f o r f o u r days i n an attempt t o make a newspaper. They were g o i n g t o draw a c a r t o o n , w r i t e a s t o r y , i n t e r v i e w somebody and o t h e r t h i n g s and they were t r y i n g t o use a t y p e w r i t e r f o r i t a l l . A f t e r the f o u r days they became d i s c o u r a g e d t h a t i t was too b i g of a j o b . Yvonne's a b i l i t i e s u s u a l l y come t o her p a r e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n i n the way t h a t she p u t s o f f her work u n t i l she almost runs out of time and then crams i t a l l i n . They r e c a l l e d a p r o j e c t r e c e n t l y t h a t she was l a t e d o i n g because she kept f o r g e t t i n g t o b r i n g the books home. Then f o r t h r e e days she worked on i t s t e a d i l y from the time she got home u n t i l i t was time t o go t o bed. They s a i d she d i d n ' t want t o be the o n l y t o not have i t f i n i s h e d . Yvonne's t e a c h e r s comment t h a t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o j e c t s her r e s e a r c h i s v e r y thorough and i n n o v a t i v e i n t h e sense t h a t she p i c k s out unusual f a c t s . They say t h a t she has the b e s t sense of humour, i s v e r y s o c i a l , and t h e r e are s i x boys v y i n g f o r her a t t e n t i o n . They see her s t r e n g t h s t o be i n language a r t s based s u b j e c t s and they see her energy t o be g o i n g i n t o the s o c i a l scene. Yvonne says her f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t i s language a r t s and t h a t she's p r e t t y good a t w r i t i n g s t o r i e s . When she needs an i d e a she j u s t s i t s down and t h i n k s . I f she c a n ' t t h i n k of a n y t h i n g , she w a i t s and w a i t s f o r an i d e a t o come i n t o her head. In math she l i k e s a d d i t i o n and; s u b t r a c t i o n but she doesn't l i k e f r a c t i o n s or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . In g e n e r a l , Yvonne's p a r e n t s say t h a t she doesn't have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a n y t h i n g and t h a t w i t h s c h o o l work, she hasn't had t o work h a r d a t i t . In r e a d i n g , Yvonne's Mother says she's p a s t r e a d i n g the Nancy Drew books and seems t o be r e a d i n g books t h a t have a l i t t l e more t o them. Yvonne's p a r e n t s say t h a t she c a t c h e s :on t o a d u l t c a r d games v e r y f a s t and can p l a y them j u s t as W e l l as her p a r e n t s . When she was 3 y e a r s o l d she c o u l d a l r e a d y p l a y two c a r d games. Sometimes s h e ' l l come out and want t o p l a y c a r d s i n the e v e n i n g . When Yvonne p l a y s i n d o o r games w i t h her f r i e n d s i t ' s u s u a l l y c a r d s , L i f e , Monopoly, or C r o k e n o l e . Reading people and f i g u r i n g out s o c i a l s i u a t i o n s i s a n other t h i n g t h a t Yvonne's p a r e n t s say she's good a t . S h e ' l l hang back a t f i r s t and s i z e up a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e she moves i n t o i t . When asked what p u z z l e s her the most, Yvonne answered: "When God made the e a r t h , how was He born and l i k e i f the e a r t h wasn't h e r e , i f i t was j u s t b l a n k , i t jus t , p u z z l e s me a l o t . L i k e what i s i t ? " When asked what s u r p r i s e s her the most, Yvonne answered: " D i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t the a n i m a l s can do. L i k e panda bears can 217 cush a dog's s k u l l w i t h j u s t one b i t e . And how s t r o n g they r e a l l y a r e . " She says she l i k e s t o do p r o j e c t s on a n i m a l s and t h a t l a s t y e a r she d i d a l o t of r e a d i n g about them. Yvonne's p a r e n t s say t h a t she a s k s a l o t of q u e s t i o n s and i s good a t g i v i n g her o p i n i o n on d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . W i s h i n g and P r a y e r When Yvonne's p a r e n t s were asked i f she uses w i s h i n g they s a i d t h a t they would say no, but t h a t she a n t i c i p a t e s or images a l o t of t h i n g s . I f she's h o p i n g f o r something s h e ' l l r e a l l y b u i l d i t up t h a t t h i s i s g o i n g t o happen t o h e r . When Yvonne was asked i f she uses w i s h i n g , she answered: "Well yah, I wi s h a l o t and sometimes i t works. W e l l , m o s t l y i f i t ' s not t o o b i g of a wish i t u s u a l l y t u r n s o u t . " When Yvonne's p a r e n t s were asked i f she uses p r a y e r , t hey s a i d : "No . . . no." But Yvonne answered: "Yah, sometimes I do. L i k e when I w i s h f o r something I j u s t p r a y t h a t i t w i l l t u r n o u t , yah, I b e l i e v e i n i t . I f something's g o i n g wrong I pray t h a t i t w i l l t u r n out r i g h t or i f I'm on the verge of g e t t i n g something I pray t h a t I ' l l get i t . " F a m i l y Yvonne has a younger s i s t e r who i s 4. Her p a r e n t s note t h a t Yvonne was more mature a t t h a t age than her s i s t e r . They say t h a t they d i d a l o t w i t h Yvonne when she was l i t t l e because they had t h e time t o spend w i t h h e r . When asked i f she was good a t g e t t i n g her own way, Yvonne g r i n n e d i n s t a n t l y and answered: " I am w i t h my Dad, but not so much w i t h my Mom." When asked i f she'd ever done a n y t h i n g t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e were s u r p r i s e d t h a t she was a b l e t o do, Yvonne r e c a l l e d s h o v e l l i n g the dr i v e w a y a f t e r the snow plow had gone by and c r e a t e d a l a r g e snow bank. She s a i d her Dad d i d n ' t t h i n k she'd be a b l e t o do i t , but she d i d i t and he s a i d she d i d a r e a l l y good j o b . Asked how she f e l t a f t e r moving a l l t h a t snow, she g r i n n e d and glowed and s a i d " R e a l l y proud!" 218 K e l l y K e l l y i n t e n d s t o be a d o c t o r . She has t r a v e l l e d a g r e a t d e a l and she spends her spare time t a k i n g c l a s s e s i n j a z z d a n c i n g , b a l l e t , and p i a n o . When she grows up, however, she would want t o spend such spare time d o i n g e x p e r i m e n t s t o f i n d c u r e s f o r t h i n g s . K e l l y i s the o n l y g i r l on the s o c c e r team but the S p o r t s A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l no l o n g e r l e t her p l a y because of i n s u r a n c e r e g u l a t i o n s . She has thought about t a k i n g t h i s m a t t e r t o c o u r t . K e l l y i s v e r y p o p u l a r and i s a c o n s i d e r a t e and compromising f r i e n d . W h i l e she p u t s a l o t i n t o the t h i n g s she does, she i s g e n u i n e l y u n c o m p e t i t i v e . K e l l y says the bes t t h i n g about b e i n g her age i s t h a t she's her mother's "baby" and her mother s p o i l s h e r . Her t e a c h e r says she's a j o y t o have i n the c l a s s s r o o m . A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s K e l l y ' s t e a c h e r says t h a t she's v e r y s t r o n g a c a d e m i c a l l y and i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c s t u d e n t . However, she h o l d s back i f she t h i n k s she's g e t t i n g ahead of her f r i e n d s and might end up i n a d i f f e r e n t group from them. K e l l y ' s t e a c h e r notes t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e o t h e r g i r l s i n the c l a s s who may match her academic s t r e n g t h s , they don't seem t o have the a l l round p e r s o n a l i t y and sense of humour t h a t K e l l y does. K e l l y says she's good a t math and l i k e s i t a l o t . She a l s o says t h a t sometimes, i n some s u b j e c t s , she's q u i t e good a t g e t t i n g i d e a s but i n w r i t i n g s t o r i e s she's q u i t e slow. They have t o w r i t e s t o r i e s and they have t o w r i t e i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s and she's, not keen on d o i n g t h a t . • K e l l y ' s mother says she doesn't know why, but she's s u r p r i s e d t h a t K e l l y has done so w e l l a t s c h o o l . K e l l y ' s f a t h e r a s s e r t s t h a t he i s not s u r p r i s e d . The p a r e n t s n o t e d , however, t h a t K e l l y i s not y e t c o m f o r t a b l e as a s t o r y w r i t e r a t s c h o o l and they don't t h i n k she's u s u a l l y i m a g i n a t i v e w i t h e s s a y s . They r e c a l l h a v i n g been impressed w i t h a s t o r y she wrote f o r s c h o o l a few y e a r s ago. I t was about a racoon and i t was a r e a l s t o r y w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e , and an end. I t was about how i t got i t s s t r i p e s . I t was v e r y o r i g i n a l and K e l l y s a i d she thought i t up h e r s e l f . K e l l y ' s mother a l s o says she wonders about K e l l y ' s study s k i l l s and whether she's l e a r n e d what she's r e a d . K e l l y says she'd l i k e t o be a b l e t o draw but she c a n ' t . When she has n o t h i n g t o do i n s c h o o l she draws and makes d e s i g n s w i t h l o t s of l i n e s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o l o r e d f e l t pens. When asked what p u z z l e s her the most, K e l l y answered: "What happens t o you when you d i e , l i k e i s t h e r e a heaven or i s n ' t t h e r e ? " 219 When asked what s u r p r i s e s her the most, K e l l y s a i d : "The ground hog — how i t knows when t o come out . " An o p p o r t u n i t y K e l l y would l i k e would be t o "make a r e a l l y c r a z y experiment w i t h a whole bunch of c h e m i c a l s . " She says t h a t maybe s h e ' l l be a b l e t o do t h a t when she's o l d e r . When asked what would be most i m p o r t a n t t o her i n her l i f e , K e l l y s a i d : "Becoming a d o c t o r . . . a c a n c e r s p e c i a l i s t . i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o l e a r n about the d i f f e r e n t d i s e a s e s . " K e l l y s a i d she j u s t s t a r t e d p i a n o and l i k e s i t . She s a i d she used t o take g u i t a r but then "hated i t because we got a l l i n t o c o n f u s i n g s t u f f . " She says she doesn't know i f s h e ' l l l i k e p i a n o l a t e r on. K e l l y has been t a k i n g b a l l e t and more r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d t o take j a z z d a n c i n g . She says she doesn't l i k e the j a z z because she makes a f o o l of h e r s e l f because she c a n ' t do some of the s t u f f . She r e c a l l s l a s t year l i k i n g j a z z and not the b a l l e t . When asked which of her music and dance i n t e r e s t s she would l i k e t o keep most i n the f u t u r e t o do i n her spare t i m e , K e l l y s a i d t h a t i n the f u t u r e she'd " l i k e t o do e x p e r i m e n t s i n her own time and f i n d c u r e s f o r t h i n g s . " K e l l y ' s f a t h e r has noted her f l a i r f o r b e i n g e x p r e s s i v e , d r a m a t i c , f o r b e i n g a good a c t r e s s and has t e a s e d her t h a t she s h o u l d be a lawyer because d o c t o r s don't need t o be a b l e t o a c t . K e l l y has the main p a r t i n a p l a y a t s c h o o l . What K e l l y ' s p a r e n t s f i n d u n u s u a l about her i s her a b i l i t y t o get l o s t i n a w o r l d of her own w i t h her l i t t l e f i g u r e s , P l a y m o b i l e t h i n g s , and r e a l l y e n j o y i t . A l t h o u g h she i s the most p o p u l a r - among her f r i e n d s and v e r y s o c i a l , she r e a l l y seems to e n j o y t h i s i m a g i n a t i o n a c t i v i t y by h e r s e l f . Use of P r a y e r When asked i f she uses w i s h i n g , K e l l y answered: "No, w e l l , I p r a y and I b e l i e v e t h a t i f I ask God t h a t he w i l l h e l p but I don't b e l i e v e w i s h i n g w i l l do i t . " When asked i f she uses w i l l p o w e r , she s a i d : "Sometimes, but I u s u a l l y ask God t o h e l p me w i t h s t u f f . " K e l l y ' s p a r e n t s , r e m a r k i n g on the d i f f e r e n c e s between K e l l y and her two o l d e r s i s t e r s , noted t h a t K e l l y has more r e l i g i o n than the o t h e r s . They s a i d t h a t they d i d n ' t know why, t h a t i t hadn't come from them, t h a t they go t o c h u r c h a t C h r i s t m a s and t h a t ' s i t . O f t e n K e l l y w i l l say: " W e l l I asked God . . .", which l e a v e s her mother taken aback and r e s p o n d i n g : "Now K e l l y , t h e r e ' s more t o t h i n g s than j u s t a s k i n g God." K e l l y ' s mother 2 2 0 has noted t h a t K e l l y keeps a B i b l e b e s i d e her bed and she t h i n k s t h a t K e l l y o f t e n l o o k s a t i t . I t was two or t h r e e months ago t h a t K e l l y began t o t e l l them t h a t she says her p r a y e r s e v e r y n i g h t . Temperament K e l l e y ' s p a r e n t s comment t h a t K e l l y i s more a f f e c t i o n a t e than her two s i s t e r s . She's more o b l i g i n g , y e t q u i c k - t e m p e r e d . She's e a s i l y up and e a s i l y down and i s v e r y e x p l i c i t about what she f e e l s . When t r y i n g t o work something o u t , K e l l y i s not v e r y p a t i e n t and she doesn't l i k e t o w a i t 3 days f o r a s o l u t i o n . But she i s e n t h u s i a s t i c , l i k e s t o t r y h a r d and l i k e s t o p l e a s e . K e l l y i s good a t g i v e and t a k e and t h e r e f o r e g e t s a l o t . She can bend and she can keep her f r i e n d s . K e l l y s a y s: " I f you don't have h a p p i n e s s and a l o t of f r i e n d s , you may as w e l l not have any money." F a m i l y K e l l y ' s s i s t e r s a re 13 and 15. One s i s t e r s k i p p e d a grade and one i s i n Honours math and on the A-team i n b a s k e t b a l l . K e l l y i s v e r y a s s e r t i v e i n the home, says t h a t f a m i l i e s s h o u l d do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r , and i n s i s t s t h a t they have a f i r e d r i l l i n the house. Her p a r e n t s note t h a t she never p l a y e d w i t h d o l l s , i s more of a tomboy, has grown out of l e g o , but e n j o y s her P l a y m o b i l e f i g u r e s , e.g., k n i g h t s w i t h d e t a c h a b l e s h i e l d s and h a t s and h o r s e s t h a t they go on. 221 C h r i s How does C h r i s get h i s i d e a s ? He says t h e y ' r e j u s t always t h e r e . What makes him d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r k i d s ? He says he a lways t a k e s d a r e s t o do s t u n t s l i k e jumping o f f a r o o f . The l o v e of h i s l i f e i s d i g g i n g i n the d i r t on h i l l s i d e s t o see what's t h e r e , f o l l o w i n g r i v e r s and w a t e r f a l l s back as f a r as he c a n , s i n k i n g h i s f e e t i n r i v e r bottoms t o f e e l what's t h e r e . He's a w r i t e r . He's an a c t o r . He's an a r t i s t . He won't do the work they g i v e him t o do i n s c h o o l u n l e s s i t i n t e r e s t s him. And he's v e r y w o r r i e d about b e i n g a b l e t o get i n t o u n i v e r s i t y one day -- t o become an a r c h a e o l o g i s t or some k i n d of s c i e n t i s t . P h y s i c a l and E x p l o r a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s I f C h r i s o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 days of the week, he'd do more s l e d d i n g and s k a t i n g . He had j u s t s t a r t e d s k a t i n g , had o n l y been f o u r t i m e s , and was a l r e a d y good. He'd a l s o spend more time e x p l o r i n g i n the h i l l s . The h i l l s i n the a r e a have l o t s of c l a y t h a t ' s good t o work w i t h , t o f i n d t h i n g s i n , and t o scoop out f o r t s i n . He'd a l s o want t o go c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i n g w i t h h i s Dad who he sees on weekends sometimes. C h r i s has one of those s p e c i a l b i k e s t h a t a r e good t o jump w i t h . He remembers r i d i n g down a h i l l t h a t ends w i t h a 2 0 - f o o t d r o p - o f f t o a l a k e . He c o u l d n ' t s t o p a t the bottom but he managed t o jump o f f i n time and o n l y h i s b i k e went o v e r . C h r i s says he always t a k e s dares l i k e he c o u l d jump o f f t h i s r o o f o u t s i d e t h i s window. And a t t h i s time of y e ar jumping o f f h i g h p l a c e s t o l a n d i n snow banks i s r e a l l y f u n . C h r i s s a i d t h a t l a s t y e a r was the b e s t y e ar of h i s l i f e because t h e r e were 3 mountains i n d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s t h a t he got t o e x p l o r e a t . He r e c a l l e d a t one of t h e s e mountains t h a t he and b o t h h i s p a r e n t s l a y on the ground t o r o l l down a h i l l s i d e and how much fun i t was. C h r i s says t h a t money's the most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o most p e o p l e but they've never had a l o t of money and he d i d n ' t have l o t s of t o y s and you can make your own fun w i t h o u t them. He t a l k e d about a r i v e r w i t h a s e r i e s of w a t e r f a l l s t h a t he f o l l o w e d back as f a r as he d a r e d . He remembered t h a t a t one time he l i v e d on the edge of town near a r i v e r and he used t o e n j o y e x p l o r i n g the r i v e r bed, s i n k i n g h i s f e e t t h r o u g h as many l a y e r s as he c o u l d . When asked what has p u z z l e d him, C h r i s t a l k e d about a t r e e he had seen i n t h e f o r e s t . He s a i d i t was a l l t w i s t e d and g n a r l e d and d i r t y and i t grew i n a c l e a r i n g a l l by i t s e l f . The f o r e s t around i t was a l l s t r a i g h t and c l e a n . B e i n g i n the c l e a r i n g by i t s e l f l i k e t h a t , i t seemed l i k e none of the o t h e r t r e e s wanted t o grow around i t . 222 When asked what was the bes t t h i n g about b e i n g h i s age, C h r i s s a i d t h a t you're s m a l l enough t o c r a w l i n t o p l a c e s t h a t a d u l t s c a n ' t get i n t o . The most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g C h r i s has ever had t o do was t o f i n d h i s way back when he got l o s t i n the f o r e s t . He was out camping w i t h cub s c o u t s , got l o s t , and was a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y use h i s compass t o f i n d h i s way back. When asked i f he'd ever done a n y t h i n g t h a t o t h e r s were s u r p r i s e d he c o u l d do, C h r i s r e c a l l e d b e i n g s t r a n d e d on a l a k e a m i l e from shore w i t h two f r i e n d s and an i n n e r t u b e . He was a b l e t o swim back and send a boat f o r h i s f r i e n d s . A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s say t h a t h i s w r i t i n g a b i l i t y has always been t h e r e . C h r i s r e c a l l s w i n n i n g a p r i z e f o r a s t o r y i n grade two. He says he always does l o t s of w r i t i n g . R i g h t now he's go i n g t o w r i t e a s t o r y about h i s c r a y f i s h t h a t j u s t d i e d . I t had made v i c t i m s of two of o t h e r i n h a b i t a n t s of the aquarium b e f o r e i t s own de a t h . The s t o r y i s g o i n g t o be c a l l e d : "The L i f e and Death of A d o l f C r a y f i s h " . The s t o r y i n grade two was about two l i t t l e army a n t s i n b a t t l e s h i p s f i g h t i n g t o g e t h e r and w i p i n g each o t h e r o u t . H i s p a r e n t s r e c a l l the s t o r y b e i n g i n a l i t t l e b o o k l e t t h a t was 2 or 3 pages l o n g and had a r o c k e t on the c o v e r . They say the s t o r y had c o n t i n u i t y and C h r i s won a book f o r i t . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s say t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t and. a b i l i t y i n a r t has been t h e r e a l o n g t i m e . H i s mother commented on a s k e t c h he'd made the o t h e r day of a c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i e r . She s a i d she was s u r p r i s e d because the s t r i d e was t h e r e and e v e r y t h i n g . C h r i s says he s k e t c h e s the f i s h i n h i s tank. When he watches TV he s k e t c h e s the f a c e s of peopl e on t e l e v i s i o n . He says he's g o t t e n q u i t e good a t d o i n g Hutch and M c G a r r e t t . C h r i s was v e r y e x c i t e d about a s e t of o i l p a s t e l s t h a t he'd j u s t been i n t r o d u c e d t o and which he was g o i n g t o use t o p a i n t a background f o r the aquarium. C h r i s d i s c u s s e d h i s a c t i n g r o l e s i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p l a y s . In one he had p l a y e d a mute. He t a l k e d about how he p r e p a r e d f o r the r o l e by l o o k i n g i n the m i r r o r , s a y i n g what the c h a r a c t e r was f e e l i n g , examining the e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e when he s a i d such t h i n g s , and then r e p e a t i n g the f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h o u t s a y i n g the words. In P a u l Bunyan, he'd been c a s t as the farmer because he knew how t o use the speech ac c e n t the farmer s h o u l d have. In a c u r r e n t p l a y he's been c a s t as a c h a r a c t e r who s h o u l d speak w i t h a German a c c e n t . C h r i s had p i c k e d up a German ac c e n t from a t e l e v i s i o n program and had s p o n t a n e o u s l y s t a r t e d u s i n g i t i n war p l a y w i t h h i s f r i e n d . 223 C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s say t h a t h i s math a b i l i t y i s ve r y good, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o l i f e . Two or t h r e e y e a r s ago he had a paper r o u t e . I n i t i a l l y h i s p a r e n t s s e t up h i s book-kee p i n g system f o r him and he m a i n t a i n e d i t a f t e r t h a t . C h r i s ' s t e a c h e r says he's not weak i n any p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s u b j e c t a r e a . However, he s l a c k s o f f on a s s i g n e d work and then doesn't do a good j o b . He won't do i t i f i t ' s not r e l e v a n t or of i n t e r e s t t o him. C h r i s ' s t e a c h e r says t h a t most t e a c h e r s would p r o b a b l y d e s c r i b e C h r i s as r e b e l l i o u s and u n c o o p e r a t i v e . C h r i s s u g g e s t s h i s own p r o j e c t s t h a t he'd l i k e t o work on and can a c t u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e and f o l l o w t h rough on these when a l l o w e d t o do so. C h r i s ' s f a t h e r says t h a t he has a w i l d i m a g i n a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h i n g s and i s v e r y i n v e n t i v e . C h r i s says he always has l o t s of i d e a s , " l i k e t a k e t h i s desk, I c o u l d t h i n k of making a boat out of i t , or a c o u p l e of guns, or . . . ." For C h r i s t m a s C h r i s got an e l e c t r o n i c s k i t t h a t was supposed t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a 1 6 - y e a r - o l d . He d i d a l l the p r o j e c t s d e s c r i b e d i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n v e n t e d some new ones of h i s own and was f i n i s h e d w i t h i t i n a month. When C h r i s was asked what s u r p r i s e s him the most he s a i d i t was p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r towards handicapped p e r s o n s and p r e v i o u s l y p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r towards s l a v e s . C h r i s says he's f a s c i n a t e d w i t h f i r e . He's a l s o f a s c i n a t e d w i t h the Coca C o l a and l i m e s t o n e e x p e r i m e n t s they've done a t s c h o o l . He says he's read about World War I and World War I I and r i g h t now he's r e a d i n g about the m a f f i a . H i s p a r e n t s mention Robinson Caruso, D a v i d C O p p e r f i e l d , and comics. They note t h a t C h r i s ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d i f f i c u l t v o c a b u l a r y has always been v e r y good i n h i s r e a d i n g . They a l s o note t h a t C h r i s uses two of h i s weekly a l l o w a n c e s t o get s p e c i a l i s s u e s .of MAD. C h r i s s a i d t h a t when he j o i n e d Cubs l a s t f a l l he was det e r m i n e d t o get a l l of the s e awards and badges and t h a t he got a l o t of them i n a r e a l l y s h o r t t i m e . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s note t h a t he's always b u i l d i n g t h i n g s w i t h l e g o , mechano, and model k i t s . They say he's i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l the f a n t a s y and f a c t u a l a s p e c t s of space and space t r a v e l . W i s h i n g When asked about w i s h i n g , C h r i s d e s c r i b e d the s t r a t e g y he uses f o r g e t t i n g what he wants. He s a i d t h a t he j u s t says t o h i m s e l f : "I don't want i t r e a l l y anyway", and then i t happens or then he g e t s t o do i t . When C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s were asked i f they thought t h a t C h r i s 224 uses w i s h i n g , h i s f a t h e r answered: "Yes I t h i n k so. He j u s t t a l k s about t h i n g s he'd l i k e t o do e v e r y so o f t e n l i k e a f a n t a s y t h i n g . I t h i n k C h r i s has g r e a t c o n t r o l over what he wants. I don't r e a l l y know how." The f a t h e r a l s o n o t e d - t h a t i n t h e p a s t , C h r i s ' s mother had been f a i r l y i n d u l g e n t toward him. F a m i l y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d C h r i s has had a s t e p f a t h e r f o r 4 1/2 y e a r s . H i s s t e p f a t h e r says t h a t he can see a l o t of h i m s e l f i n C h r i s i n t h a t C h r i s reminds him of the way he was when he was young. C h r i s sees h i s f a t h e r sometimes on weekends and they go t o McDonald's, swimming, and c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i n g . When C h r i s was asked what he'd p i c k i f he c o u l d choose one t h i n g t h a t he wouldn't have t o worry about anymore, he s a i d t h a t i f h i s Mom and Dad got back t o g e t h e r a g a i n he wouldn't have t o worry about h i s Dad — l i k e , i f he was i n a c a r a c c i d e n t , C h r i s wouldn't even know. When C h r i s was 4, 5, and 6, he c o u l d n ' t p l a y w e l l by h i m s e l f . He'd always had one p a r e n t or the o t h e r as the playmate. H i s f a t h e r always d i d whatever C h r i s wanted him t o . H i s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t u n t i l he was 8 or 9, "he'd do e v e r t h i n g f i n e as l o n g as you were t h e r e . But he c o u l d n ' t p l a y by h i m s e l f . He'd hang around the house even on a n i c e day." D u r i n g the l a s t two y e a r s , however, C h r i s has been v e r y independent and e n t h u s i a s t i c . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s note t h a t he's v e r y s e n s i t i v e and goes t o p i e c e s i f h i s s t e p f a t h e r s c o l d s him. The t e a c h e r has t o l d C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s t h a t he i s "a v e r y humorous s t u d e n t i n the c l a s s r o o m . C h r i s ' s mother notes t h a t he has c r a c k e d a l i t t l e j o k e around her e v e r y now.and t h e n , r e a s s u r i n g her t h a t "Oh Mom, I was j u s t k i d d i n g . " C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s comment t h a t he has always been v e r y outspoken and f r e e w i t h h i s i d e a s a l t h o u g h h i s s t e p f a t h e r has been e n c o u r a g i n g him t o f i n i s h t h i n k i n g b e f o r e he s t a r t s s p e a k i n g . Around home, he can "cook a mean s t e a k " and t o h i s mother's r e l i e f , he can now sew h i s j a c k e t back t o g e t h e r . 225 C o l l e e n C o l l e e n spends a g r e a t d e a l of time drawing and makes c a r t o o n s t o r i e s . She l o v e s a n i m a l s , has a way w i t h them, and wants t o be a v e t e r i n a r i a n . C o l l e e n has v i r a l asthma and has been i n and out of h o s p i t a l s i n c e she was 3 months o l d . D u r i n g t h i s s c h o o l y e a r , the f i r s t t h a t she hasn't had t o be i n h o s p i t a l , she has taken g r e a t p r i d e i n d o i n g w e l l i n her s c h o o l work. C o l l e e n i s never shy w i t h a d u l t s or o t h e r c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g her p e r i o d s i n h o s p i t a l she l e a r n e d t o e n t e r t a i n h e r s e l f and she s t i l l p r e s e r v e s a w o r l d of her own. A r t , Humor, and I m a g i n a t i o n C o l l e e n ' s mother says t h a t her i n t e r e s t i n a r t has been t h e r e from the b e g i n n i n g as C o l l e e n s t a r t e d t o c o l o r and draw at the age of 2 or 2 1/2. C o l l e e n doesn't see h e r s e l f t o be t a l e n t e d i n a r t even though a l l the k i d s t e l l her she's good because she says she j u s t c o p i e s -- A r c h i e , D e n n i s , s m u r f s , e t c . She a l s o l i k e s drawing the backgrounds f o r s m u r f s . C o l l e e n ' s mother says t h a t she c o p i e s i n d i v i d u a l s out of the comics and then makes her own c a p t i o n s . Her mother says t h a t the s c r i p t s she makes up f o r t h e s e c a r t o o n s t o r i e s a r e h i l a r i o u s . The humor comes from a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view C o l l e e n has t a k e n , or the f a c t t h a t she's p i c k e d up on some l i t t l e t h i n g t h a t no one e l s e would n o t i c e . When C o l l e e n was i n grade t h r e e , the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l mentioned t o her p a r e n t s t h a t she was v e r y good i n a r t . C o l l e e n ' s mother p a i n t s i n o i l s and two y e a r s ago C o l l e e n t r i e d t o copy one of her o i l p a i n t i n g s of a l a k e w i t h f l o w e r s and so on. C o l l e e n ' s mother was v e r y s u r p r i s e d a t C o l l e e n ' s depth of p e r c e p t i o n and c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n d o i n g t h i s . C o l l e e n and her f r i e n d s sometimes p l a y w i t h smurfs d o i n g i m p r o v i s a t i o n s . C o l l e e n ' s mother n o t e s t h a t C o l l e e n i s t e r r i f i c a t t h a t , v e r y q u i c k , and has more depth than her f r i e n d s . C o l l e e n ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l e d t h a t two y e a r s ago, when C o l l e e n ' s o l d e r b r o t h e r got a tape r e c o r d e r , how the two of them i m p r o v i s e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s . When C o l l e e n was 4 and 5 she was v e r y demanding of a t t e n t i o n but a t the same time had her own l i t t l e w o r l d w i t h a l l her l i t t l e c h a r a c t e r s . Now she has made her room i n t o her own s p e c i a l w o r l d , c o n s t a n t l y r e a r r a n g i n g i t and always g e t i n g new r e d e c o r a t i n g i d e a s . I f her o l d e r b r o t h e r s t a r t s t o head i n t o her room she blows her t o p . C o l l e e n ' s p a r e n t s were s u r p r i s e d t h i s w i n t e r a t how much time she would spend p l a y i n g by h e r s e l f i n the y a r d j u s t 226 building h i l l s and tunnels and so on in the snow. They also note that Colleen i s frequently "somewhere else". She sometimes doesn't stay in the mainstream of conversation and therefore asks the dumbest questions. Sometimes at the supper table s h e ' l l raise her hand to speak. Animals Colleen has a 7-year-old dog that i s l i k e a s i s t e r to her. Her parents have noticed that she has a way with animals when they've seen her around chipmunks or s q u i r r e l s . Colleen reads books about animals, including various outdoor l i f e magazines. She says she's wanted to be a veterinarian for a long time. When asked what w i l l be most important in l i f e to her, Colleen says i t ' s animals. When asked what surprises her most, Colleen says i t ' s how animals survive and how man became smart and how he thought up how to survive. She says people usually get ideas from animals about how to survive. Wishing, Willpower, and Prayer When asked i f she uses wishing, Colleen said: "Well, sort of." When asked i f she uses willpower, she said she sort of does, l i k e when her mother was in the hospital she would use willpower to help herself try to' relax when she was worried and upset. Colleen said that yes she does use prayer which i s something she learned from a friend she had that is a C h r i s t i a n . Colleen's parents say they c l e a r l y see her use of willpower in her dual battles of getting.and staying well and also in excelli n g in physical a c t i v i t i e s although she t i r e s e a s i l y . Desire to E x c e l l , A b i l i t i e s , Interests Colleen's parents have always noticed her drive and stubborn perseverence in physical a c t i v i t i e s such as canoeing, hiking, and camping. She's good at swimming and very able in gymnastics. U n t i l grade 4 , school seemed to have no importance to Colleen and math was always puzzling to her. Her health had been the main challenge in her l i f e . When asked what she'd done at school on any day, she could never remember. In grade 4 she started to show more interest and t h i s year she has taken considerable pride in her school work and marks. She has put a sign on her b u l l e t i n board in her room that says: "Remember and think." Previously, i f she couldn't figure something out she would just leave i t u n t i l the next day in school. This year she t r i e s to calm down and work her way through i t . When she gets completely frustrated she goes to her parents or brother for 227 h e l p . Math i s coming qu i c k e r and e a s i e r f o r her now. C o l l e e n ' s teachers d e s c r i b e her as a B+ student, a w o r r i e r , o v e r - c o n s c i e n t i o u s , keen and thorough. They say she's not yet i n n o v a t i v e or i m a g i n a t i v e . They r e c a l l how she r e c e n t l y c o p i e d out 3 5 pages f o r a s o c i a l s p r o j e c t . C o l l e e n h e r s e l f r e c a l l s p u z z l i n g about how you think you should work i t out when you're doing a p r o j e c t . When asked how she gets her ideas she t a l k e d about an i n s t a n c e where she compared t h i n g s by shape and q u i t e a few other t h i n g s , l i k e the t r i a n g l e c o u l d be where the snowman had melted i n t o the snow. When asked how she gets her s t o r y ideas, she s a i d she t r i e s to imagine h e r s e l f i n the s i t u a t i o n , f o r example with space and space monsters, and t r i e s to imagine what she would do. C o l l e e n says her f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t s are math, a r t , and s o c i a l s . She t h i n k s that p l a y s would be i n t e r e s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the costume d e s i g n i n g . She l i k e s s i n g i n g i n the youth c h o i r and her mother s a i d she was amazed at the ease and c o n f i d e n c e with which C o l l e e n a u d i t i o n e d f o r the c h o i r . Family and E a r l y Childhood C o l l e e n has a brother three years o l d e r who i s commonly acknowledged as being g i f t e d . He gets t o t a l l y exasperated with C o l l e e n i f she doesn't pick i t up r i g h t away the f i r s t time he e x p l a i n s something to her. He never had to be t o l d anything twice.: C o l l e e n ' s mother s a i d she never t r i e d to "teach" her kids but she always t a l k e d to them and read to them a l o t . C o l l e e n has her Dad "wrapped around her f i n g e r " . She can get t h i n g s her brother can't because she has a d i f f e r e n t approach and i s n ' t demanding. C o l l e e n i s the only granddaughter i n the f a m i l y and holds her own w e l l with a d u l t s , other k i d s , or boys. C o l l e e n ' s mother says that she can be a r e a l clown sometimes and then her general approach i s : " C o l l e e n ' s C o l l e e n . You take her as she comes." 228 Jody For a number of y e a r s now, Jody has been engaged i n a f i e r c e b a t t l e w i t h her d i m i n u t i v e s i z e and has q u i t e a number of s u c c e s s e s on her t r a c k r e c o r d . As the m i d d l e c h i l d of t h r e e d a u g h t e r s , Jody's p a r e n t s see her as c l e a r l y unique and somewhat m y s t e r i o u s . Jody's b i g g e s t l o v e s a r e a n i m a l s and f a i r y s t o r i e s . The s t o r i e s she w r i t e s h e r s e l f a r e f i l l e d w i t h a n i m a l s , l i t t l e p e o p l e , and sad endings w i t h odd t w i s t s or zaps t o them. W h i l e Jody's p a r e n t s r e c a l l s i g n s of her a b i l i t y when she was younger, Jody says she c u r r e n t l y spends most of her spare time w a t c h i n g TV, d o i n g her homework, or bugging her Mom. At the end of Jody's i n t e r v i e w she d i d n ' t w i s h t o ask any q u e s t i o n s . When she a r r i v e d home, she p r o u d l y announced t o her p a r e n t s t h a t she had, on her own, " f i g u r e d o u t " the i n t e r v i e w e r . Jody Making Her Presence F e l t Jody's p a r e n t s admit t h a t they have a tendency t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e her because she's the same s i z e as her s i s t e r who i s t h r e e y e a r s younger. They r e c a l l t h a t when she was i n grade one she was t e r r i f i e d t h a t she was g o i n g t o s t a y t h a t s i z e f o r e v e r . When Jody was younger and would get j o s t l e d or stepped on i n a crowd, she would g i v e the o f f e n d i n g a d u l t what her p a r e n t s r e f e r r e d t o as her " e v i l eye t h a t throws d a r t s " . A d u l t s were so unnerved and t a k e n aback by the i n t e n s i t y of t h a t g l a n c e t h a t they c o u l d n ' t even c o l l e c t t h e m s e l v e s enough t o say they were s o r r y . Jody's p a r e n t s say t h a t she's taken a l o t s i n c e she s t a r t e d s c h o o l . When she changes s c h o o l s i t always t a k e s a w h i l e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n b e f o r e the k i d s s t o p c a l l i n g her "dwarf" or "midget". Sometimes Jody would come home and t e l l her .mother something the k i d s s a i d , and add: "But I d i d n ' t c r y . " Jody's p a r e n t s t h i n k t h a t she's v e r y aware of g e t t i n g t h i n g s t o the p o i n t where the o t h e r k i d s t h i n k of her i n terms of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o t h e r than her s i z e . The end r e s u l t t y p i c a l l y a c h i e v e d i s t h a t : "Everyone j u s t l o v e s Jody." Jody n o t e s t h a t the h a r d e s t t h i n g about b e i n g her age i s " b e i n g t r e a t e d l i k e a baby because of my s i z e . " When asked about the most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g she's ever had t o do, Jody t a l k s about how r a c e s a r e always o r g a n i z e d by age l e v e l and how h a r d i t i s , b e i n g so s m a l l , t o have t o r a c e a g a i n s t the o t h e r 11-y e a r - o l d s . When asked whether she ever uses w i l l p o w e r , Jody s a i d : "Yah, l i k e i n gym i n the summertime. In gym, the t e a c h e r makes us do a l l t h i s s t u f f . My g u t s r e a l l y k i l l me sometimes. I j u s t push m y s e l f a l l the way." Jody sees h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r k i d s i n t h a t she 229 " l i k e s . c l i m b i n g t r e e s and e v e r y t h i n g . " Her p a r e n t s say t h a t she l i k e s s p o r t s and sees h e r s e l f as a b i t of a tomboy. Jody's p a r e n t s f e e l t h a t she's u n i q u e , t h a t she has a s t r o n g w i l l or sense of i d e n t i t y , and t h a t she's v e r y much her own p e r s o n . The younger s i s t e r c o p i e d the o l d e r one, but Jody d i d v e r y l i t t l e c o p y i n g and always found her own way or her own t h i n g . They note t h a t Jody has never even l o o k e d l i k e her two s i s t e r s . When Jody p l a y s w i t h her s i s t e r s , she t y p i c a l l y i n i t i a t e s " L e t ' s p r e t e n d . . . " o r " L e t ' s p l a y i. . ." a c t i v i t i e s i n which she has the l e a d r o l e and the o t h e r has a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . Jody's p a r e n t s say t h a t she's v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s about her s c h o o l work, e s p e c i a l l y compared t o her o l d e r s i s t e r , and has f o c u s s e d on w a n t i n g t o do w e l l . A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s Jody's p a r e n t s note t h a t she has always tended t o use a d u l t l e v e l language moreso than the o t h e r two g i r l s . When i n grade one or two she came i n from o u t - o f - d o o r s and t a l k e d about s e e i n g a s l u g or s n a i l and how i t " c l i m b e d back i n t o i t s h o l e when i t was t h r e a t e n e d . " Three or f o u r y e a r s ago, when b u l l d o z e r s were b e g i n n i n g development.work on a wooded a r e a nearby, Jody stormed i n t o the house c o m p l a i n i n g : "They're d e s t r o y i n g the environment." S i n c e she was a y o u n g s t e r , Jody's p a r e n t s have been v e r y impressed w i t h her memory a b i l i t y . When she was- o n l y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n she c o u l d beat everybody a t the c a r d game, C o n c e n t r a t i o n . Now she i s r e a l l y good w i t h the games: M e r l i n , Simon, B a t t l e S h i p s , I n t e l l i g e n c e , and C l u e . Jody's p a r e n t s say t h a t she can w r i t e e x c e l l e n t s t o r i e s and she does them m a i n l y a t s c h o o l r a t h e r than a t home. They say t h e y ' r e about a n i m a l s , l i t t l e p e o p l e , and they have sad e n d i n g s . The e n d i n g s have odd t w i s t s , something unexpected about them, she seems t o put a zap on the end. Jody t h i n k s up the e n d i n g f i r s t and then p u t s a s t o r y around the e n d i n g . She s t a r t e d d o i n g t h i s l a s t year when the t e a c h e r noted t h a t most s t o r i e s a l w a y s have happy e n d i n g s . Jody d e c i d e d i t would be more fun t o do sad e n d i n g s . Jody s a i d t h a t she l o v e s w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g j u s t comes and she can j u s t go on and on f o r e v e r j u s t w r i t i n g . She t a l k e d about a s t o r y she'd w r i t t e n a t home once. Her younger s i s t e r had t o l d her the e n d i n g t o a h o r r o r s t o r y . Then, as a game, Jody wrote a s t o r y t h a t would l e a d up t o t h a t e n d i n g . Jody says t h a t she l o v e s r e a d i n g , a l t h o u g h some of i t ' s 230 b o r i n g , but she r e a l l y l i k e s r e a d i n g f a i r y s t o r i e s . Sometimes s h e ' l l r e ad the same s t o r y 20 t i m e s . A f a v o r i t e she t a l k e d about i s c a l l e d M o t o r c y c l e Mouse . Jody s a i d she a l s o l i k e s t o make up l i t t l e songs and she l i k e s t o draw a n i m a l s . Jody's b i g g e s t s o f t spot i s f o r a n i m a l s . They have a guin e a p i g , b i r d s , dogs, and a c a t . Jody always rounds up any s t r a y s i n the neighbourhood and b r i n g s them home. She wants t o be a v e t but. hopes t o have an a s s i s t a n t t o do the s u r g e r y and c a r e f o r the ones t h a t might d i e . Jody c r i e s f o r 20 m i l e s i f they pass a dead c a t . When asked about a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s , Jody s a i d t h a t her two f a v o r i t e f r i e n d s l i v e f a r away. She d i d mention p l a y i n g w i t h one f r i e n d however. They have a t r e e f o r t and p l a y t h a t t h e y ' r e dogs. They'd be Dobermans. When asked what p u z z l e s her the most, Jody s a i d : "The u n i v e r s e . Where i t s t a r t s and how i t s t a r t s and how i t got put t h e r e . . . how the e a r t h i s j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e i n space. And I j u s t boggle myself t h i n k i n g about i t . " When asked what s u r p r i s e s her the most, Jody s a i d : " I t ' s neat how t r e e s , the way they grow. In summer time t h e y ' r e a l l green. In w i n t e r t h e y ' r e so p r e t t y . " R e g a r d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t she'd l i k e but hasn't had, Jody s a i d t h a t she ca n ' t scrounge m a t e r i a l s f o r a r t and c r a f t p r o j e c t s f o r c l u b s because her Mom's not v e r y c r e a t i v e and doesn't do s t u f f where t h e r e ' s t h i n g s l e f t o v e r . Jody s a i d she hasn't had a chance t o be i n p l a y s because her p a r e n t s don't l i k e t o go out or t a k e them anywhere. When asked t o r e c a l l examples of when she's been s t y m i e d or b l o c k e d i n . t r y i n g t o do something, Jody s a i d t h a t l o t s of t i m e s she p l a n n e d t o have a c l u b or p a r t y and n o t h i n g e ver t u r n s o u t . And then she l o s e s her temper. S c h o o l Work In her s c h o o l work, Jody's p a r e n t s note t h a t she l i k e s math and doesn't c o m p l a i n about a n y t h i n g . Jody says t h a t she l i k e s E n g l i s h r i g h t now. She's i n a group t h a t works i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s about the s t o r y , A l i c e i n Wonderland. Jody says t h a t math i s easy, i f she j u s t works on i t i t ' l l come easy. Jody's t e a c h e r says t h a t she i s q u i t e b r i g h t , b e t t e r i n language a r t s , f a i r l y t a l e n t e d i n t h a t a r e a , p o p u l a r , okay i n math but s t r u g g l e s , and i s s t r o n g e s t i n w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . 231 W i s h i n g and P r a y e r When Jody's p a r e n t s were asked i f they thought t h a t she uses w i s h i n g they s a i d t h a t no, not t h a t she's ever t o l d them, and she's a p r e t t y l e v e l - h e a d e d k i d . When they were asked i f Jody uses p r a y e r , they s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t t h i n k so, but t h a t t h e i r k i d s do know t h a t C h r i s t m a s i s n ' t Santa C l a u s . When Jody was asked i f she uses w i s h i n g , she s a i d : "Yup, a l l the time . . .yah i t works." When asked about p r a y e r , she s a i d "sometimes", and then gave the example of h a v i n g found a s t r a y c a t , r e t u r n i n g i t t o the owner, l e a r n i n g i t was l o s t a g a i n , and then w i s h i n g i t would come back and she would t a k e c a r e of i t . F a m i l y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Jody r e c a l l s l i k i n g her s t u f f e d a n i m a l s and h a v i n g p l a y e d house w i t h them. Her mother doesn't r e c a l l her e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n t e r e s t s but notes t h a t they weren't b i g on b u y i n g l e g o because i t ' s t oo messy. Jody d i d , however, go through t h r e e r o c k i n g h o r s e s w i t h the l a s t one f i n a l l y f a l l i n g a p a r t i n grade 2. Jody's mother read t o a l l of her c h i l d r e n when they were l i t t l e and they a l l " r e a d " books s i n c e they were a b l e t o s i t up. They don't l i v e near anyone so the g i r l s have m a i n l y o n l y had each o t h e r t o p l a y w i t h . 232 James The c a r e f u l , i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y of James' l i f e has been w e l l matched by the c o n s t a n c y of h i s p a r e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o h i s i n s t r u c t i o n and the c o n s t r u c t i v e use of h i s t i m e . James' p a r e n t s say t h a t w h i l e he i s not c r e a t i v e i n the i m a g i n a t i v e or e x p r e s s i v e sense, h i s r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s a r e v e r y good. James does a l o t , always has, g e t s t i r e d , and wishes t h e r e was l e s s s c h o o l work d u r i n g the week and more time a v a i l a b l e on weekends to s i m p l y r e l a x . H i s p a r e n t s note t h a t he seems t o have a g i f t f o r h a v i n g a c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t i n groups - r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h h a p p i l y a c c e p t e d compromises. James' f a t h e r has a s t r o n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h i s son, a s s e r t i n g t h a t he knows where James i s coming from m e n t a l l y and u n d e r s t a n d s how he p e r c e i v e s t h i n g s . P r o d u c t i v i t y James' f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s him as an a l l or n o t h i n g person whose b a s i c approach t o t h i n g s hasn't changed. At 3 1/2 he became i n t e r e s t e d i n super h eroes and l i v e d , dreamt, and a t e super heroes f o r a whole y e a r . In response t o h i s c o n s t a n t r e q u e s t of "Mommy draw me Batman!" they had a s t e n c i l made up and run o f f so t h a t Mom c o u l d s i m p l y whisk one out of the drawer whenever James wanted t o c o l o r a n other batman. At 4, James' p a r e n t s thought he l o o k e d i n t e r e s t e d i n b u t t e r f l i e s so they made him a n e t . By the time he was 7, James had c o l l e c t e d 100 s p e c i e s , a l l t h a t c o u l d be found i n the a r e a , and had put the r a r e ones i n t o d i s p l a y c a s e s . When i n grade 1, James began the p a t i e n t , i n t e n s i v e work of model making, l e a r n i n g t o do a l i t t l e b i t e v e r y n i g h t towards the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . - He has completed 45 models, a l l a i r c r a f t , and always has one or two on the go. The m a s t e r p i e c e of the c o l l e c t i o n was c o mpleted when he was o n l y 7 y e a r s o l d . I t has 350 t o 400 p a r t s on a 1/24 s c a l e w i t h b e a u t i f u l d e t a i l , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p a i n t i n g . James' p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t o be an i n c r e d i b l e achievement f o r a 7 - y e a r - o l d . They have a l s o m a r v e l l e d a t h i s p a t i e n c e and s k i l l i n d e v e l o p i n g the v a s t a r r a y of b r u s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s needed t o p r o p e r l y complete the models. In a d d i t i o n t o always h a v i n g a model on the go, t h e r e i s a lways a p u z z l e b e i n g put t o g e t h e r - one of the c h a l l e n g i n g l a n d s c a p e v a r i e t y w i t h 1,000 t o 2,000 p i e c e s . I f i n the end a p i e c e i s m i s s i n g , one i s c a r e f u l l y c a r v e d out of b a l s a wood, p a i n t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , and i n s e r t e d i n p l a c e . L a s t summer James got h i s own d r a f t i n g b o a r d , T-square, and t e m p l a t e when they were v i s i t e d by a r e l a t i v e who does a r c h i t e c t u r e and i n t e r i o r d e s i g n work. James t r i e d t o copy the p l a n s of a house t h a t the r e l a t i v e was d o i n g . James s a i d i t was 233 d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e where t o put the rooms and f u r n i t u r e and so on. H i s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t a f t e r the r e l a t i v e l e f t , James abandoned the a c t i v i t y as though he d i d n ' t know where t o t a k e i t from t h e r e . James was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o music l e s s o n s when he was 4 1/2 and h i s mother took him t o the Suzuki- v i o l i n program. There, w i t h a Japanese i n s t r u c t o r who spoke no E n g l i s h - the mother w i t h a f u l l - s i z e d v i o l i n and the c h i l d w i t h a m i n i a t u r e one - mother and c h i l d a t t e m p t e d t o p l a y the same p i e c e , week a f t e r week, as the i n s t r u c t o r attempted t o e x t r a c t p e r f e c t i o n . The l e s s o n s were agony f o r James and a f t e r s i x months h i s mother withdrew them from the program. Music i n s t r u c t i o n began a g a i n f o r James one and a h a l f y e a r s ago, t h i s time w i t h the f l u t e . A f t e r a s e r i e s of i n s t r u c t o r s and music camps, James found an i n s t r u c t o r who p r o v i d e d s c a l e s and e x e r c i s e s f o r James t o p r a c t i s e a t home. H i s p r o f i c i e n c y i s such t h a t he has j o i n e d the band a t a nearby j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l . T h i s band p r a c t i s e s f i v e days out of seven and James p r a c t i s e s the f l u t e f o r 30 minutes a t home every n i g h t . James a l s o a t t e n d s swimming or s k a t i n g a f t e r s c h o o l and on S a t u rday he has a f i g u r e s k a t i n g c l a s s . James' p r o j e c t s or r e p o r t s f o r s c h o o l a r e m e t i c u l o u s l y done. James says t h a t he does them v e r y n i c e l y and i n c l u d e s a b i b l i o g r a p h y when a p p r o p r i a t e even though he knows t h a t none of the o t h e r s t u d e n t s would. H i s p a r e n t s note t h a t h i s a r t t e c h n i q u e s , developed over the y e a r s i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , a r e now showing themselves i n the s e n s i t i v e , p r o p o r t i o n e d , v i b r a n t s k e t c h e s he makes f o r the c o v e r pages of t h e s e r e p o r t s . James says t h e r e i s t o o much s c h o o l work - a l t h o u g h he i s c e r t a i n l y a c a p a b l e s t u d e n t he goes i n t o more depth than the o t h e r s . He says t h a t they have so much t o do, he j u s t c a n ' t handle i t , and sometimes he j u s t c a n ' t t h i n k anymore. James' f a t h e r r e c a l l s an o c c a s i o n which e n c a p s u l a t e s James' approach t o an a c t i v i t y . James was 7 a t the time and the f a m i l y had gone t o v i s i t a t a ranch f o r the day. James o b t a i n e d a p a i r of c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i s and spent the whole day t e a c h i n g h i m s e l f how t o use them. He s t a y e d a t one s m a l l s l o p e and by 3 p.m. he had p a t i e n t l y worked out a way t o s u c c e s s f u l l y use the s k i i s . T h i n k i n g A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s James' f a t h e r says t h a t : "James i s not the w i I d l y - c r e a t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e type" i n t h a t sense . . . but h i s a b i l i t i e s a t r e a s o n i n g and t h i n k i n g t h i n g s out a r e v e r y good, above average." The o n l y a r e a i n which they see h i s use of i m a g i n a t i o n i s i n the game of Dungeons and Dragons, a game which i n v o l v e s the use of i m a g i n a t i o n and s t r a t e g y . James o f t e n has the r o l e of dungeon 234 master when he p l a y s t h i s game i n h i s enrichment c l a s s a t s c h o o l . James l e a r n e d t o p l a y c hess when he was 6 or 7. S t r a t e g o i s a f a v o r i t e game. I t ' s a game i n which one has t o do a l o t of p r o b i n g i n o r d e r t o deduce the v a l u e s of the opponent's c h a r a c t e r s . I n p l a y i n g t h i s game w i t h h i s f a t h e r a few months ago, the two of them reached a s t a l e m a t e . James' f a t h e r r e c a l l s a c o u p l e of o c c a s i o n s when he was impressed or even s u r p r i s e d by h i s son's t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . On one o c a s i o n t hey were t o g e t h e r i n an a i r p l a n e . The f a t h e r i n v i t e d the son t o ta k e over the c o n t r o l s , t o t a k e a heading i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n , and t o keep the p l a n e l e v e l . L a t e r he t o l d him t o make a l e f t t u r n , a g a i n k e e p i n g the a l t i t u d e l e v e l . When James' f a t h e r took over the c o n t r o l s a g a i n i t o c c u r r e d t o him t h a t h i s son was s i t t i n g t oo low t o be a b l e t o see the h o r i z o n i n o r d e r t o have used t h a t as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a s t e a d y f l i g h t . James i n f o r m e d him t h a t he had s i m p l y watched over h i s s h o u l d e r a t the h i l l s t o the s i d e f o r a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t . On another o c c a s i o n , when r i d i n g i n the c a r w i t h h i s f a t h e r , James n o t e d the low c l o u d c o v e r and asked h i s f a t h e r an e n t i r e s e r i e s of c a r e f u l l y reasoned q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r an ILS l a n d i n g by commercial a i r c r a f t . James' f a t h e r says t h a t s t a t i s t i c s , p r o b a b i l i t i e s , and p r e c i s e measurement have always f a s c i n a t e d James. T h i s has shown i t s e l f i n q u e s t i o n s about how many of a c e r t a i n k i n d of b u t t e r f l y t h e r e a r e l i k e l y t o be i n a 2 sq. mi. a r e a , or which of two v e r y s i m i l a r p l a n e s i s l a r g e r , or s p o r t s s t a t i s t i c s i n g e n e r a l . James r e g u l a r l y reads the s p o r t s s e c t i o n of the newspaper t o keep informed about t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s . James says t h a t what s u r p r i s e s him i s what p e p l e can a c t u a l l y do - i n c l u d i n g r e a l l y smart k i d s i n h i s c l a s s who t u r n out r e a l l y n i c e t h i n g s and a l s o b r i l l i a n t s c i e n t i s t s . I f James c o u l d spend two weeks w i t h someone t h a t does a s p e c i a l k i n d of work he would p i c k a s c i e n t i s t . James notes t h a t t h e r e a r e 5 a n i m a l groups and w i t h i n the i n v e r t e b r a t e s t h e r e a r e 100 groups. There a r e a l s o many k i n d s of v i r u s e s . These t h i n g s i n t e r e s t him. In s c h o o l work, James' s t r o n g e r a r e a s a r e language a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and s c i e n c e which i s m a i n l y r e p o r t w r i t i n g . In math, James i s i n the t o p group, knows a l l h i s f a c t s and i s the bes t i n h i s c l a s s i n t h a t way, but r e c e n t l y c o n f i d e d t o h i s mother t h a t he f i n d s i t h ard t o do the q u e s t i o n s - t h a t he doesn't get i t r i g h t the f i r s t time or whatever. As something t o be r e a l l y good a t , James would p i c k s p o r t s . He, says he doesn't have the time t o do them a l o t , but he l i k e s t o be good a t i t when he does. He p l a y s road hockey w i t h the 235 boys on the s t r e e t . As f r i e n d s , he p r e f e r s some of the b o y s . a t s c h o o l who are r e a l l y smart and a r e a l s o good a t s p o r t s . Sometimes h i s band, when v i s i t i n g a n o t her s c h o o l , w i l l break t o p l a y s o c c e r and have a hot dog. James' mother n o t e s how much p l e a s u r e James t a k e s i n the comradery of t h e s e o c c a s i o n s . James a l s o e n j o y s the f l o o r hockey tournaments i n which a l l the boys i n h i s grade 5 c l a s s a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g . In h i s enrichment c l a s s , James i s c u r r e n t l y w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n s p i r e d by photographs of a t h l e t e s i n a c t i o n . H i s enrichment t e a c h e r t e l l s him he's good a t t h a t . Among the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t James p r e f e r s or a v o i d s , h i s f a t h e r n o t e s an i n n a t e h o r r o r of o r d e r g e t t i n g broken or d i s r u p t e d . James has never been a c h i l d t h a t l i k e s t o t a k e t h i n g s a p a r t a l t h o u g h the house has c o n t a i n e d an e x c e s s of e l e c t r o n i c g a d g e t r y and h i s f a t h e r has r e s t o r e d o l d c a r s and b u i l t show c a r s as a hobby. James seemed t o view the d i s a s s e m b l y of t h i n g s w i t h d i s g u s t when e x p r e s s i n g c oncern as t o whether h i s f a t h e r would a c t u a l l y be a b l e t o put back t o g e t h e r h i s mother's d i s m a n t l e d GT. James a l s o r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of the f a m i l y moving from one house t o a n o t h e r . James' r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r says t h a t he i s p e r c e p t i v e , r e l a t e s t h i n g s a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s , i s q u i c k t o see i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , has a good s e l f - c o n c e p t and i s s e l f - m o t i v a t e d . F a m i l y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d James has a 5 - y e a r - o l d b r o t h e r , C h r i s . James' mother says t h a t James had a d i f f i c u l t b i r t h and seemed t o c r y c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g h i s f i r s t two y e a r s . She d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f as s o r t of a h i g h t e n s i o n p e r s o n . She says she e x p e c t e d a g r e a t d e a l more of James and put a l o t of p r e s s u r e on him. She e x p e c t e d c e r t a i n t h i n g s from him: t o do w e l l , t o t r y h a r d , t o be good, t o be r e a s o n a b l e . W i t h her second c h i l d she says she's been more r e l a x e d as a mother. At 3 1/2 James went t o p l a y s c h o o l . At 4 1/2 the p l a y s c h o o l t e a c h e r recommended k i n d e r g a r t e n which he then s t a r t e d i n October of the s c h o o l y e a r . James' f a t h e r has been w e l l a b l e t o t u t o r h i s son i n the a r e a s of b u t t e r f l y c o l l e c t i n g and model making, h a v i n g had t h o s e i n t e r e s t s h i m s e l f as a boy. James e n j o y s the company of h i s f a t h e r when making p u z z l e s or models. James' f a t h e r t a k e s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n him and says t h a t when James t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n something you have t o have a l l your f a c t s ready because James w i l l ask e n d l e s s q u e s t i o n s . James' mother s u p e r v i s e s h i s f l u t e p r a c t i c e and says t h a t he does a b e t t e r j o b when she does. She c a u t i o n s him about g e t t i n g a d d i c t e d t o w a t c h i n g TV q u i z shows and p o i n t s out how 236 w e l l h i s time c o u l d o t h e r w i s e be used. R e c e n t l y she was concerned t h a t he wasn't r e a d i n g enough and t o l d him t h a t he was r e a l l y m i s s i n g so much. They made up a c o n t e s t f o r him t o re a d 25 books by the end of May. Almost everyday James l e a v e s s c h o o l t o go t o band p r a c t i c e and i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t time each day. Each day they check i f James has checked t o f i n d out what he m i s s e d . They a l s o check h i s s c h o o l p r o j e c t work and p o i n t out a r e a s f o r improvement. When asked i f James i s p r e t t y good a t g e t t i n g h i s own way or t a p p i n g any " s o f t s p o t s " , James mother answered: "I'm u s u a l l y p r e t t y s t r o n g , 'No' means 'no'." James' p a r e n t s a t t e n d a c h u r c h s e r v i c e e v e r y Sunday and James has as w e l l f o r two y e a r s . Asked whether they thought James uses p r a y e r , they s a i d i t was p r o b a b l y too e a r l y f o r t h a t t o be v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d y e t . However, they note t h a t he's a t y p i c a l l y good s t u d e n t d o i n g h i s B i b l e r e a d i n g s and so on. When James was asked i f he ever uses w i s h i n g he s a i d no but t h a t he does p r a y when something c r i t i c a l happens. James' p a r e n t s r e g a r d him as non-communicative about what he's f e e l i n g , p l a y i n g h i s c a r d s c l o s e t o h i s c h e s t , b e i n g v e r y much unto h i m s e l f , and not w i s h i n g t o unburden h i m s e l f on o t h e r s . R e c e n t l y they've come t o s u s p e c t t h a t he's more s e n s i t i v e than they thought he was. 237 Doug Doug i s an a f f e c t i o n a t e , s e n s i t i v e c h i l d whose l i f e r e v o l v e s around s p o r t s , b e i n g f i r s t , and e n j o y i n g h i s f r i e n d s . He i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a i r l y c a p a b l e s t u d e n t w i t h h i s s t r e n g t h s b e i n g i n math moreso than i n language, a r t s . H i s p a r e n t s say they don't know how he keeps end i n g up w i t h good marks g i v e n t h e amount of c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t he g i v e s i t . S p o r t s Doug's p a r e n t s say t h a t he's a l w a y s been a t h l e t i c , always t r i e s t o be b e s t i n s p o r t s , and t h a t he's one of the b e t t e r p l a y e r s i n s o c c e r . He began w i t h b a s e b a l l when he was younger and then proceeded w i t h s o c c e r and hockey a c c o r d i n g t o the season. For the l a s t two y e a r s he's been d o w n h i l l s k i i n g as w e l l . R e g a r d i n g a s p i r a t i o n s , Doug's p a r e n t s say t h a t he wants t o be a hockey p l a y e r or a f o o t b a l l p l a y e r . They say the o n l y t h i n g Doug i s c u r i o u s about or f a s c i n a t e d w i t h i s s p o r t s . They see the h a r d e s t t h i n g i n l i f e f o r Doug t o be schoolwork because i t t a k e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n and " t h a t ' s the problem -- the mind i s always on the s o c c e r f i e l d or on the i c e somewhere." Doug says he'd use e x t r a time t o s k i , p l a y s p o r t s , and p l a y w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . He r e c a l l s s u r p r i s i n g people by w i n n i n g t h e s c h o o l grade l e v e l arm w r e s t l i n g c hampionship f o r the second year i n a row. T h i s year everyone thought t h a t t h i s r e a l b i g guy was g o i n g t o win but Doug d i d . For daydreams, Doug says t h a t he p l a y s hockey i n h i s head. He p l a y s r i g h t wing. As something t o become r e a l l y good a t , Doug would .pick s k i i n g . I f he c o u l d spend two weeks w i t h a s p e c i a l person i t would be a hockey p l a y e r . An o p p o r t u n i t y he'd l i k e would be t o go t o an A l l S t a r game. Doug says t h a t f o r most p e o p l e , where they l i v e and t h e i r j o b s a r e most im p o r t a n t t o them, but i n h i s l i f e , s p o r t s w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t . B e i n g F i r s t Doug's f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s h i s son's p a s s i o n f o r b e i n g f i r s t s a y i n g : " I f he c a n ' t be f i r s t he h a s n ' t t r i e d h a r d enough or t h e r e ' s got t o be a n o t h e r way." Doug's mother r e c a l l s w a t c h i n g him a t a t r a c k meet and s e e i n g him b i t i n g h i s l i p and always w a t c h i n g t o the s i d e t o check the next boy's p o s i t i o n i n the r a c e . Doug's c o n c e r n w i t h b e i n g f i r s t i s v e r y annoying t o h i s t e a c h e r s as he a p p l i e s i t t o e v e r y t h i n g from b e i n g f i r s t i n l i n e t o b e i n g the f i r s t t o f i n i s h a s s i g n e d work. They have not been a b l e t o c o n v i n c e him t h a t d o i n g work p r o p e r l y and n e a t l y i s more imp o r t a n t than b e i n g the f i r s t t o f i n i s h . F u r t h e r , upon c o m p l e t i n g h i s work, he always makes a p o i n t of r a i s i n g h i s hand t o mention t h a t he i s now f i n i s h e d . One of Doug's t e a c h e r s commented t h a t when Doug l e a r n e d t h a t he was one of the c h i l d r e n 2 3 8 t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , he s e t t l e d down t o d o i n g h i s s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s much b e t t e r than u s u a l . Doug's p a r e n t s a l s o commented t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d i t a f e a t h e r i n h i s cap t o be the o n l y boy i n the i n t e r v i e w group from h i s c l a s s . F r i e n d s Doug has had the same group of f r i e n d s s i n c e b e g i n n i n g s c h o o l . They're on the same s p o r t s teams, i n the same c l a s s a t s c h o o l , and spend t h e i r spare time t o g e t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Doug, the b e s t t h i n g about b e i n g h i s age i s t h a t you get t o see your f r i e n d s a l o t . In t h e i r spare time t o g e t h e r they p l a y road hockey or o t h e r s p o r t s or j u s t make up games t o g e t h e r l i k e h i t t i n g a t i n can w i t h a s l i n g s h o t . What makes h i s f r i e n d s f u n , Doug s a y s , i s t h a t "they t h i n k of so many s t u p i d i d e a s . " Doug's p a r e n t s say t h a t he's never home and t h a t " i f i t can be out w i t h the boys, he's d e f i n i t e l y gone." They see Doug as the r i n g l e a d e r of the group. I f he's b o red, they say t h a t h e ' l l get on the t e l e p h o n e and get everybody o r g a n i z e d f o r a road hockey game. They r e c a l l e d h i s f r u s t r a t i o n one time when he t e l e p h o n e d everyone and no one was home. He f i n a l l y put down the t e l e p h o n e and s a i d : "There's j u s t nobody!" and then he bawled. J u s t t h e n , the one person he'd f o r g o t t e n about t e l e p h o n e d him and he ran out of the house i n j o y f u l l r e l i e f . Doug a l s o has a g i r l f r i e n d , Yvonne, who was i n the" i n t e r v i e w sample. He has l i k e d her s i n c e grade one and they a r e now " g o i n g t o g e t h e r " . There a r e s i x o t h e r boys i n Doug's c l a s s who have been competing f o r Yvonne's a t t e n t i o n . For some f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n , Doug had sent Yvonne a box of c h o c o l a t e s . When he l e a r n e d t h a t a few of the o t h e r boys had done the same t h i n g , he s e n t an a d d i t i o n a l box as w e l l . Doug i s d e s c r i b e d by h i s t e a c h e r s as b e i n g a l e a d e r and p o p u l a r w i t h the k i d s . S e n s i t i v i t y R e g a r d i n g Doug's s e n s i t i v i t y , h i s f a t h e r s a y s : " I don't t h i n k p e o p l e r e a l i z e how easy i t i s t o h u r t him." I f h i s mother g e t s annoyed and screams a t him, h e ' l l t u r n i n t o t e a r s . Doug's p a r e n t s t h i n k t h a t he's c o p i n g w i t h h i s s e n s i t i v i t y q u i t e w e l l i n t h a t no one seems t o r e a l i z e i t , t h a t everyone t h i n k s he's macho and super tough. Doug's t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e s him as shy and and as c o v e r i n g i t up by: f r o w n i n g a l o t , not w a n t i n g t o be c r e a t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a n y t h i n g , and a d o p t i n g a macho f r o n t . Doug's mother r e c a l l s a p a i n f u l i n s t a n c e of s t a g e f r i g h t when Doug was supposed t o i n t r o d u c e a t e a c h e r a t a PTA m e e t i n g . He s t a r t e d over t h r e e t i m e s , everyone l a u g h e d , he c o u l d n ' t get the words o u t , seemed t o have f o r g o t t e n h i s l a s t name, and then he bawled. 239 Doug's p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e him as l o v i n g and t h o u g h t f u l , always g i v i n g a k i s s good-bye when g o i n g t o s c h o o l , t e a s i n g h i s Mom, and f i n d i n g i m p o r t a n t and h e l p f u l t h i n g s t o do f o r h e r . S c h o o l Work Doug says he l i k e s math a l t h o u g h he wouldn't say i t ' s so easy. When asked what p u z z l e s him the most i n a l l of the t h i n g s he's i n t e r e s t e d i n or has thought about a l o t , Doug says i t ' s language a r t s . He says t h a t when he reads a c h a p t e r and has t o answer q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h he knows the answer, i t won't come t o him, and he has t o keep on l o o k i n g back and f i n d i n g i t . As something t o a c c o m p l i s h or t r y f o r the f i r s t time i n the year ahead, Doug says i t would be t o get A's on h i s r e p o r t c a r d . Doug's p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e him as a poor w r i t e r i n t h a t he has l o t s of i d e a s but doesn't put them t o g e t h e r v e r y w e l l . They a l s o mentioned a r e c e n t s p e l l i n g t e s t r e s u l t of 99 out of 100. Making models i s something t h a t Doug l i k e s but he won't take the time or p a t i e n c e t o re a d the d i r e c t i o n s . When t o l d t o do i t r i g h t or not a t a l l , he l e a v e s i t f o r h i s f a t h e r t o f i n i s h . Doug l e a r n e d t o p l a y chess two y e a r s ago and p l a y s i n the chess c l u b a t s c h o o l d u r i n g l u n c h hour. He e n j o y s p i n b a l l and the games: C l u e , Mad, and T r u s t Me. At s c h o o l , Doug g e t s a B i n math and a C+ i n language a r t s . When Doug was asked how he g e t s h i s i d e a s , he responded by u s i n g an example. He s a i d t h a t i n s c h o o l r i g h t now they were supposed t o t h i n k of fund r a i s i n g i d e a s . He s a i d he put h i m s e l f i n the p o s i t i o n of a person he knew who was good a t g e t t i n g d i f f e r e n t j o b s and t r i e d t o imagine what t h a t p e r s o n would do. F a m i l y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Doug spends a f a i r amount of time w i t h h i s Dad who d r i v e s him t o towns or c i t i e s where h i s s p o r t s teams a r e s c h e d u l e d t o compete. They a l s o watch s p o r t s on TV t o g e t h e r . Doug has a s i s t e r who i s t h r e e y e a r s o l d e r and the two have always g o t t e n a l o n g w e l l . Doug says t h a t he e n j o y s h a v i n g a s i s t e r . They o f t e n go s k i i n g t o g e t h e r . D u r i n g p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s , Doug's p a r e n t s say he was " a c t i v e , f o r e v e r i n t r o u b l e , and c o n s t a n t l y on the go." Asked i f they r e a d t o him, they s a i d "not r e a l l y . " At the age of 18 months, Doug began s t a y i n g w i t h a s i t t e r who had two c h i l d r e n of her own. He changed s i t t e r s o n l y once d u r i n g p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s . By s c h o o l age, h i s p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d him t o be more independent and grown-up than most k i d s h i s age. 240 Pat Pat i s a c h i l d whose h i g h l e v e l of t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y i s w e l l matched by her d r i v e and p e r s e v e r e n c e . W h i l e g e n e r a l l y open t o and i n q u i s i t i v e about a n y t h i n g new, she has m a i n t a i n e d a s t r o n g f o c u s on d e v e l o p i n g her w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . Pat a c t u a l l y e n j o y s g o i n g d o o r - t o - d o o r t o c o l l e c t p l e d g e s and i s a c o n f i d e n t p e r f o r m e r b e f o r e an a u d i e n c e . Rather than h a v i n g a w e l l -d e v e l o p e d sense of humor, P a t ' s p a r e n t s say t h a t she has a s t r o n g sense of j u s t i c e and what i s f a i r . Pat i s v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d u l t s and f o r a g i r l f r i e n d p r e f e r s someone who can j o i n her i n p l a y i n g m a k e - b e l i e v e . P a t ' s most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d a s p i r a t i o n i s t o be a famous a u t h o r . From time t o time she a l s o mentions t h a t she'd l i k e t o be Prime M i n i s t e r . W r i t i n g and I m a g i n a t i o n Pat says t h a t i f she o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 days of the week she would use the e x t r a time t o w r i t e s t o r i e s . She l i k e s w r i t i n g f i c t i o n s t o r i e s about a n i m a l s . Her w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was f i r s t acknowledged i n grade one when she won second p r i z e i n a c o n t e s t w i t h the w r i t i n g theme o f : "Why I l i k e my Mother." P a t ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l t h a t , i n grade one, P a t ' s s t o r i e s were always put up on the w a l l and they were always 3 y a r d s l o n g . In both grades 3 and 4, Pat won f i r s t p r i z e i n the Young A u t h o r s ' C o n t e s t . In t h i s c o n t e s t , c h i l d r e n a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p i c t u r e and r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e a s t o r y about i t and t e l l i t t o the j u d g e s . They a l s o g i v e a p o e t r y r e a d i n g u s i n g a poem they have s e l e c t e d t h e m s e l v e s . For t h i s y e a r ' s c o n t e s t , Pat p l a n s t o w r i t e the poem t h a t she w i l l d e l i v e r . In her i n t e r v i e w , Pat t a l k e d about a h o r s e s t o r y she had once w r i t t e n . I t began w i t h a horse coming t o her window. They spoke t o each o t h e r about the h o r s e ' s problem of where t o s t a y . I t f i n a l l y ended w i t h the h o r s e moving i n t o a s p a c i o u s and accommodating c h i l d r e n ' s zoo. The main c h a r a c t e r of P a t ' s c u r r e n t s t o r y has a German shepherd's t a i l , t he shaggy w h i t e body of a goat, a g o a t ' s head w i t h s h o r t b l a c k h a i r , and a g o l d u n i c o r n ' s horn. Pat says the c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l neat t o work w i t h because you can do so much w i t h i t . Her f a v o r i t e a u t h o r i s the one who wrote C h a r l i e i n  the C h o c o l a t e F a c t o r y . Pat d e s c r i b e d a s t r a t e g y she uses f o r s t o r y w r i t i n g . She says she -takes her d i c t i o n a r y , t u r n s t o any word and then asks h e r s e l f : "How can I use t h a t word t o make a p l o t ? " She w r i t e s i t down, does i t a g a i n w i t h the next word she f i n d s t h a t i n t e r e s t s h e r , keeps d o i n g t h i s , and then t r i e s t o put them a l l t o g e t h e r . Pat says t h a t she made up t h i s s t r a t e g y h e r s e l f about s i x months or a y e a r ago when she n o t i c e d her d i c t i o n a r y l y i n g 2 4 1 t h e r e i n view. Asked i f she i l l u s t r a t e s her s t o r i e s , Pat says no and t h a t one s h o u l d be a b l e t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e w i t h words i f you're g e t t i n g b e t t e r . As an example of u s i n g w i l l p o w e r , Pat d e s c r i b e s w r i t i n g , l o s i n g a p l o t , wanting t o j u s t go away and watch TV, but s i t t i n g and t h i n k i n g up another p l o t i n s t e a d . I f she c o u l d spend two weeks w i t h a person t h a t does a s p e c i a l k i n d of work, Pat would p i c k an a u t h o r . Asked what she would l i k e t o a c c o m p l i s h or t r y f o r the f i r s t time i n the year ahead, Pat d e s c r i b e s the s t r u g g l e i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o w r i t e a book. She says s h e ' l l put down a p l o t and then d e c i d e t h a t , no, t h i s i s not g o i n g t o work. Or s h e ' l l put down a sentence and then wonder how she i s g o i n g t o get from here t o the end - you've got t o have something i n the m i d d l e . B e g i n n i n g s and e n d i n g s , she s a y s , a r e easy but you need the i n s i d e f i r s t and a p l o t i s one i n a hundred t o f i n d a good one. As an i n t e r e s t , P a t ' s f a t h e r w r i t e s s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . He says t h a t : "The d i f f e r e n c e w i t h her i s the i m a g i n a t i o n . I mean she can w r i t e f i c t i o n r i g h t now b e t t e r than I can w r i t e f i c t i o n . I can h e l p her a l o n g on the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s but her i m a g i n a t i o n i s way ahead." Asked what k i n d s of f r i e n d s a r e e n j o y a b l e , Pat t a l k e d about someone c a l l e d J o l e n e . "Sometimes I get so f e d up w i t h her but she's r e a l l y n i c e . L i k e I r e a l l y l i k e t o imagine m y s e l f as o t h e r p e o p l e and d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s - p r i n c e s s e s and a l l s o r t s . And she's l i k e t h a t t o o . L i k e I ' l l say something and s h e ' l l say: 'Oh yah, and then we can p r e t e n d t h a t we're . . .' And I r e a l l y l i k e t h a t because some p e o p l e go: 'Oh, how can we do-t h a t ? We're not p r i n c e s s e s or p o l i c e m e n . ' " Pat d e s c r i b e d w i t h p l e a s u r e an o c c a s i o n when she had been asked t o keep a 4 - y e a r - o l d o c c u p i e d a t a f u n c t i o n where a l l the . a d u l t s were busy. She d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h how she p r e t e n d e d t o be an e l e p h a n t f o r the c h i l d and then they both became e l e p h a n t s and how much fun i t was. Use of P r a y e r When P a t ' s p a r e n t s were asked whether Pat uses p r a y e r , they s a i d t h a t they would t e n d t o doubt i t and t h a t t h e y ' r e not r e l i g i o u s . They acknowledged, however, t h a t Pat was f a m i l i a r w i t h the B i b l e and t h a t she had gone t o Sunday S c h o o l when she was l i t t l e . When Pat was asked i f she uses p r a y e r , she s a i d : "Yah, sometimes when I want something t o happen, I p i c t u r e m y s e l f t a l k i n g t o God or something." 2 4 2 I n t e r e s t s and T h i n k i n g A b i l i t i e s P a t ' s f a t h e r says t h a t she always makes c o n n e c t i o n s between t h i n g s . Sometimes when you're t a l k i n g t o her s h e ' l l say t h a t oh i t ' s l i k e t h i s or i t ' s l i k e t h a t . S h e ' l l t r a n s f e r t h i n g s from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r and then b u i l d on the c o n n e c t i o n s a y i n g t h a t oh, then t h a t ' s why . . . . P a t ' s f a t h e r a l s o mentioned t h a t she i s always open t o t r y i n g new t h i n g s and asks "why and how come" q u e s t i o n s about a whole v a r i e t y of t h i n g s . He r e c a l l e d t h a t r e c e n t l y when she passed t h r o u g h the garage when he was working on the c a r t h a t she kept a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s u n t i l he had c o m p l e t e l y gone over the wo r k i n g s of the e n t i r e e n g i n e . Pat says t h a t she l i k e s t o r e a d a l o t . She e n j o y s m y s t e r i e s and l i k e s r e a d i n g The W i z a r d of Oz . She r e c a l l s h a v i n g been a b l e t o r e a d b e f o r e k i n d e r g a r t e n . When asked who makes the b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e t o what happens i n the c l a s s r o o m , Pat says i t ' s the k i d s . She says the t e a c h e r asks the k i d s what they l i k e and then he t e a c h e s them so t h a t t h e y ' l l l i k e and l e a r n . When asked what p u z z l e s her the most, Pat comments on the c o m p l e x i t i e s of government and p o l i t i c s . She says t h e r e a r e so many branches t o go i n t o . She a l s o wonders why n o n - c o n f i d e n c e motions a r e a l l o w e d t o happen when they have the e f f e c t of u n s e a t i n g e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a l r e a d y c a r e f u l l y chosen by the p e o p l e . F o r something t h a t she'd l i k e t o be r e a l l y good a t d o i n g , Pat says she'd l i k e t o know l i t t l e k i d s b e t t e r . . - . . As f o r what s u r p r i s e s her the most, Pat s a y s : " I t ' s the way they keep d i s c o v e r i n g d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s l i k e f i r s t i t was the • space s h u t t l e and then . . . . And t h e r e ' s so much space. I t j u s t goes on and on. I t doesn't seem l i k e i t s h o u l d be t h e r e . " In math, Pat says she l i k e s t h e f a c t t h a t numbers can make d i f f e r e n t numbers. And she l i k e s the i d e a of d i f f e r e n t bases. She says i t ' s neat t o be a b l e t o t h i n k i n a d i f f e r e n t way than j u s t 10's and t o imagine t h a t maybe people on Mars use a d i f f e r e n t base. Pat i s c u r r e n t l y r e a d i n g Agatha C h r i s t i e i n a c l a s s a t s c h o o l . She t a l k e d w i t h p l e a s u r e about how she was u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l and l i f e c y c l e c l u e s t o deduce Agatha's age throughout the t e x t . The a u t h o r e s s c a r e f u l l y a v o i d s m e n t i o n i n g her age a t any p o i n t i n the a u t o b i o g r a p h y . Two y e a r s ago, P a t ' s p a r e n t s gave her a g u i t a r f o r C h r i s t m a s a l t h o u g h she had e x p r e s s e d no i n t e r e s t i n i t . They 243 s a i d t h a t she took t o i t w i l l i n g l y , t a k i n g l e s s o n s and p r a c t i s i n g when reminded. P a t ' s mother s a i d t h a t she h e r s e l f has p l a y e d a l o t of Chine s e c h e c k e r s but t h a t Pat i s now o n l y two or t h r e e moves b e h i n d h e r . In s c h o o l work, P a t ' s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t her math performance i s on par. w i t h her language a r t s . She has t o work at t he math though, i t ' s not as easy. The boy from P a t ' s c l a s s who was a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t Pat i s commonly known as the t o p s t u d e n t i n the c l a s s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n and A b i l i t y t o A c c o m p l i s h O b j e c t i v e s P a t ' s f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s her as v e r y c o m p e t i t i v e . He says she wants t o im p r e s s , l i k e s the s p o t l i g h t and b e i n g number one. She l i k e s w i n n i n g , l o s i n g i s . the p i t s . She has h i g h s t a n d a r d s and l i k e s t o do w e l l a t a n y t h i n g she does, or e l s e d rop i t i f she c a n ' t . When Pat was asked i f she was good a t g e t t i n g her own way, she s a i d : " I f I want something I guess, i f I go about i t the r i g h t way." When P a t ' s p a r e n t s were asked i f she was good a t g e t t i n g a t her own way, they s a i d : "Oh y e s , she's f a i r l y cagey, she's no f o o l . F a t h e r ' s her s u c k e r , moreso than Mom." Asked i f t h e r e were any hou s e h o l d r u l e s t h a t t r y P a t ' s p a t i e n c e , they s a i d : "Most of them - what few we do have t r y her p a t i e n c e . " They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t Pat does t r y t o get around t h e s e . For example, s h e ' l l cause a scene when i t ' s time t o s e t the t a b l e t h e r e b y g e t t i n g sent t o her room and g e t t i n g t o do what she wanted t o do i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The mother s u s p e c t s t h a t P a t i s d e f i n i t e l y c o n s c i o u s of d o i n g t h a t . When Pat was asked i f she uses w i l l p o w e r , she s a i d : "Yah, sometimes I t r y and c o n v i n c e m y s e l f : 'Pat, you're g o i n g t o do i t ' , and then I s i t down and do i t . " P a t ' s f a t h e r has p a r t i c u l a r l y noted her p e r s e v e r e n c e i n s k i i n g as a t h l e t i c s do not come e a s i l y f o r h e r . He says i t b o t h e r s her t h a t her l i t t l e b r o t h e r w i l l do b e t t e r than she does w i t h seemingly l e s s e f f o r t , but she w i l l t r y and t r y and t r y a l l day l o n g . F r i e n d s and S o c i a l L i f e P a t ' s p a r e n t s have noted t h a t the o t h e r k i d d i e s have always come t o Pat and i f they d i d n ' t , she d i d n ' t seem t o miss them i f she had a good s u p p l y of books. They say t h a t she can be alm o s t f r i g h t e n i n g l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . R e c e n t l y , however, Pat has shown more con c e r n w i t h b e i n g 244 p a r t of the s o c i a l scene - e n j o y i n g Guides as a n i g h t out t o g i g g l e w i t h the o t h e r g i r l s and b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d t o get i n more than her f a i r share of the d a n c i n g a t an up and coming dance. F a m i l y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Pat i s the o l d e s t of f o u r w i t h the next c h i l d , B r i a n , b e i n g t h r e e y e a r s younger. P a t ' s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t they spent a g r e a t d e a l of time w i t h her d u r i n g t h o s e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s s i n c e she was the o n l y c h i l d t h e n . They say she was always independent but they always d i d a l o t w i t h her and took her p l a c e s and re a d t o h e r . P a t ' s mother i s c u r r e n t l y one of the Guide l e a d e r s . U n t i l about grade 2 or 3, Pat used t o b r i n g home junk found i n an a l l e y and then f i g u r e out what she c o u l d make out of i t . P a t ' s p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e her as more u p t i g h t than B r i a n who i s more r e l a x e d but more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . P a t ' s f a t h e r says t h a t they t h i n k she's w o n d e r f u l and he r e f e r s t o her as "Super G i r l " and "the P r i n c e s s " . 245 Wendy Wendy's mother says of her t h a t "she's the funny one. R i g h t from the time she was l i t t l e I knew she was smart. Rather than b e i n g the dooer f i l l i n g e v e r y minute of e v e r y day w i t h a c t i v i t y , she's more q u i e s e n t , more s a t i s f i e d t o s i t and t h i n k about t h i n g s . " She doesn't want a l o t of t h i n g s and she doesn't l i k e a l o t of c l o t h e s . Her t e a c h e r says t h a t she has one or two c l o s e f r i e n d s r a t h e r than b e i n g i n t o t h e whole s o c i a l scene. She's an A s t u d e n t who i s a l s o n o t e d f o r her i m a g i n a t i o n . Her mother says t h a t " i f she were t o f i n d something t h a t she would be i n t e r e s t e d i n , and i f she were t o do i t , I t h i n k t h a t the s t a y i n g power would be f a n t a s t i c . " I m a g i n a t i v e A c t i v i t y Wendy t a l k e d about a f r i e n d she'd had u n t i l they moved l a s t March. She and her f r i e n d used t o make up shows where t h e y ' d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y do the same t h i n g s u s i n g a t r e e and the gym equipment i n the y a r d . They'd keep f i n d i n g new ways t o use the equipment. They both had c o l l e c t i o n s of horse f i g u r e s t h a t they spent a g r e a t d e a l of t i m e p l a y i n g w i t h t o g e t h e r as w e l l . Wendy^ has 52 h o r s e s i n her c o l l e c t i o n . They a l l have names, ages, and l i n e a g e s w i t h s i r e s and dames f i r m l y n o t e d . She o r g a n i z e s them p u t t i n g the mares i n one p a s t u r e and the g e l d i n g s i n a n o t h e r . She w r i t e s l i s t s f o r them f o r h orse shows and a l l the e v e n t s t h a t each w i l l be e n t e r e d i n . Wendy c o l l e c t s a l l s o r t s of t r e a s u r e s . When o r d e r e d t o c l e a n out her c l o s e t i t t a k e s her days t o do i t -- moving.her boxes of t r e a s u r e s ' f r o m her c l o s e t t o the garage. The garage i s now h a l f f u l l of her t r e a s u r e s . The most r e c e n t c l e a n - o u t i n v o l v e d the t r a n s p o r t of 18 boxes of t r e a s u r e s t o the garage. B e f o r e Wendy s t a r t e d g o i n g t o s c h o o l she always e n j o y e d w e a r i n g costumes — the head a p p a r e l of a k i t t e n costume, or a bunny, or even a helmet. A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s Wendy knew a l l her numbers when she was 3. She l i k e s t o p l a y c a r d s and i s good a t i t . She used t o p l a y a l o t of s o l i t a i r e , f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s t h a t she l e a r n e d when a t p r e -s c h o o l age. When Wendy was 5 her mother took her t o the S u z u k i v i o l i n program. Wendy's mother s a i d t h a t she thought Wendy needed something more. When asked i f she had a music background t o b e g i n w i t h , Wendy's mother s a i d t h a t no, but you do a l o t of t h i n g s f o r which you have no a p t i t u d e when you're a mother. 246 They went f o r two y e a r s and Wendy's mother s a i d Wendy was f a n t a s t i c a t i t . Then one day Wendy s a i d : "I'm not g o i n g p l a y t h a t v i o l i n a g a i n e v e r . " Wendy i s now i n her second year of p i a n o and l i k e s i t . She says she a l s o e n j o y e d the r e c o r d e r a t s c h o o l l a s t y e a r . She's i n the c i t y ' s y o uth c h o i r and says she l i k e s s i n g i n g . Wendy d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f as a k i n d of horse f r e a k . She wants t o get a horse and become a good r i d e r even though she has memories of b e i n g s c a r e d t o death when jumping w i t h h o r s e s i n grade t h r e e . Her mother s a i d she began g e t t t i n g bucked o f f ho r s e s when she was 3 y e a r s o l d . U n t i l a year ago t h e r e was always ready a c c e s s t o h o r s e s . And Wendy's o l d e r s i s t e r rode a g r e a t d e a l . Over the l a s t two y e a r s , Wendy has saved $400 towards her horse and she won't spend t h a t money on a n y t h i n g . She's a l s o r e a d and sometimes r e - r e a d a l l the ho r s e s t o r i e s she's been a b l e t o o b t a i n . Wendy's mother says she can ask e x t r e m e l y complex q u e s t i o n s . Some f o r example are i n the a r e a of s c i e n c e . Her f a t h e r can answer t h e s e and she seems t o u n d e r s t a n d r i g h t away. She e n j o y s w a t c h i n g the t e l e v i s i o n program, " L i f e on E a r t h " . Wendy's t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e her as an i n t e l l i g e n t a l l round A s t u d e n t . When asked what her f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t s a r e , Wendy answered: " I l i k e s p e l l i n g and t h a t ' s about i t . I l i k e most of i t . " When asked about math, Wendy s a i d : "Math i s p r e t t y easy t o do but I don't l i k e t he s u b j e c t . " Wendy s a i d t h a t when she w r i t e s s t o r i e s she can get i d e a s p r e t t y f a s t . She j u s t makes up the s t o r y as she goes a l o n g , doesn't know how l o n g i t ' s g o i n g t o be, and j u s t w r i t e s u n t i l i t ' s f i n i s h e d . Asked i f she w r i t e s a t home, she s a i d t h a t w r i t e s s t o r i e s f o r her Dad and s i n c e he e n j o y s them she l i k e s w r i t i n g them. Wendy s a i d she a l s o w r i t e s p o e t r y , l i k e f o r s p r i n g and summer and d i f f e r e n t h o l i d a y s l i k e C h r i s t m a s and E a s t e r . Asked what s u r p r i s e s her most, Wendy t a l k s about n a t u r e and the way the t r e e s ' l e a v e s come back on and the f l o w e r s come back up. D u r i n g spare t i m e , Wendy says she p l a y s games by h e r s e l f i n her room and she l i k e s t o read a l o t . She reads horse s t o r i e s and f a i r y t a l e s . In the year ahead she'd l i k e t o j o i n a s o c c e r or a b a s e b a l l team. When asked what she t h i n k s w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o h e r , Wendy answered: "Being a b l e t o support m y s e l f . " F a m i l y and E a r l y Childhoo'd Wendy, the youngest of f o u r , has a "good t h i n g g o i n g " w i t h her Dad. He was the youngest of f i v e and says t h a t the two youngest have t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r . He's v e r y p a t i e n t w i t h h e r , humoring her when she g e t s d i s g r u n t l e d w i t h f a l l i n g w h i l e 2 4 7 s k i i n g . Wendy's mother s a i d t h a t she d i d n ' t encourage her c h i l d r e n t o t r y t o read b e f o r e s c h o o l age but she always read t o them and sang t o them. Wendy's o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r were v e r y v o c a l , r a u c o u s , demanding c h i l d r e n i n the home when Wendy was a p r e - s c h o o l e r . Wendy was always c a r t e d about i n the c a r as they were d r i v e n t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The f a m i l y l i v e d on an acr e a g e f o r a number of y e a r s so t h a t the c h i l d r e n would have the e x p e r i e n c e of growing up around farm a n i m a l s . When they moved i n t o town, the new home was a c r o s s the s t r e e t from an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Wendy, however, f l a t l y r e f u s e d t o change s c h o o l s . 248 Kate Kate i s d e s c r i b e d by her t e a c h e r as non-communicative and by her mother as withdrawn and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . Kate says she's always l i k e d math and been good a t i t . She s k e t c h e s a n i m a l s f r e e h a n d from p i c t u r e s i n a book and l i k e s music and d a n c i n g . Her t e a c h e r says t h a t when new a r t t e c h n i q u e s are i n t r o d u c e d , Kate w i l l expand or modify the t e c h n i q u e s t o make them more d i f f i c u l t . W h i l e a good o r a l r e a d e r , Kate has t r o u b l e w i t h i n t e r p r e t i n g , comprehension, making i n f e r e n c e s , and comparing. Her sentence c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a l s o weak. G e n e r a l l y , Kate has a tendency t o q u i t l e s s o n s or groups t h a t become b o r i n g or r e p e t i t i v e and she r e s i s t s t r y i n g something t h a t she t h i n k s she might not be a b l e t o do. K a t e ' s D i s c o m f o r t When Kate was asked what she'd l i k e t o do i f she o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 days of the week, she s a i d she'd t a k e her dog up the mountain f o r a r u n . N o t h i n g e l s e came t o mind. Kate has an o l d e r b r o t h e r i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . He and h i s f r i e n d s t e a s e her which she doesn't l i k e . When asked i f t h e r e was a n y t h i n g a t a l l t h a t was good about h a v i n g a b r o t h e r , Kate s a i d : "No." K a t e ' s mother says t h a t Kate i s v e r y withdrawn a t t i m e s . When she's been u p s e t , her mother has t r i e d t o t a l k t o h e r , t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t h i n g s t o h e r , but Kate s h u t s her o u t . When Kate ' s p a r e n t s were asked what Kate i s most e x c i t e d t o t e l l them about when she comes home, they s a i d she never i s . The o n l y t h i n g s h e ' l l d i s c u s s sometimes i s something t h a t upset he r . She c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why some t h i n g s have t o be done i n a c e r t a i n way. Her mother says they'11 s i t down and t r y t o e x p l a i n i t t o her hut she s t i l l s t i c k s t o her own o p i n i o n . She a l s o g e t s mad because they don't agree w i t h h e r . Once, K a t e ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l t h a t she came home e c s t a t i c because she'd g o t t e n t o take the c l a s s r o o m ' s g e r b i l home f o r the weekend. Kate had been wantin g a g e r b i l but they a l r e a d y had a dog. T h i s weekend was t o be the t r i a l t o see how t h i n g s went t o d e t e r m i n e whether Kate c o u l d get her g e r b i l . But t h i n g s d i d n ' t go w e l l . The g e r b i l got out of the cage and the dog chased i t and she c a n ' t have one. K a t e ' s p a r e n t s were asked what Kate does when someone e l s e i n the house has a p r o j e c t g o i n g . Her mother says she wants t o h e l p but u s u a l l y ends up h i n d e r i n g and g e t s t o l d t o go away. Ka t e ' s mother says t h a t Kate f i g u r e s she can watch something, know a l l about i t , and be a b l e t o do i t . She doesn't want t o s t a r t a t the bottom but wants t o jump r i g h t i n a t the m i d d l e . 249 Sometimes Kate w i l l phone her mother a t work and ask i f she can bake something i n the k i t c h e n . K a t e ' s mother says : "Yes, but r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s . " But 9 out of 10 of Kate ' s b a k i n g p r o d u c t s go i n t o the garbage by Kate ' s own d e c i s i o n . They r e c a l l e d one example where the cake s t u c k t o the bottom of the pan and came t o p i e c e s as she t r i e d t o f o r c e i t o u t . Kate' s mother says she l i k e s t o be a l o n e . She c l o s e s her bedroom door and p l a y s music. K a t e ' s mother t h i n k s she dances i n f r o n t of her m i r r o r . '• On S a t u r d a y s , Kate goes b o w l i n g and her b r o t h e r p l a y s hockey. K a t e ' s p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would have t o go t o hockey w i t h her b r o t h e r . Kate s a i d t h a t was f i n e . K a t e ' s mother s a i d t h a t Kate doesn't l i k e them t o watch her bowl anyway. Kate has s t a r t e d p l a y i n g b a s k e t b a l l and K a t e ' s mother i s s u r e she'd r e f u s e t o p l a y i f they came out t o watch h e r . When Kate ' s p a r e n t s were asked i f Kate ever f i n d s an un u s u a l way t o do t h i n g s , K a t e ' s mother commented t h a t she has her way and t h e r e a re c e r t a i n a r e a s where t h a t ' s not the a c c e p t a b l e way t o do t h i n g s or d r e s s and Kate g e t s r e a l l y mad because she wants t o do i t her way and you're t r y i n g t o guide h e r . K a t e ' s mother n o t e s t h a t Kate i s s e n s i t i v e and moody and even i f her mother compliments her appearance i n the morning she doesn't t a k e i t w e l l . Kate w i l l sometimes have a g i r l f r i e n d s l e e p over but r e f u s e s o f f e r s t o spend the n i g h t a t t h e i r homes. K a t e ' s mother says she's p h y s i c a l l y mature f o r her age and she's shy about t h a t . Kate has gone t o Brownies and Guides where her mother i s one of the l e a d e r s . Kate wants t o q u i t but her mother i n s i s t s t h a t she w i l l s t i c k i t o u t . K a t e ' s mother n o t e s t h a t Rate i s h a l f a year o l d e r than the o t h e r g i r l s , f i n d s the a c t i v i t i e s b o r i n g , and says t h a t Guides a r e " s i s s i e s " . A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s Kate says she l i k e s math and has always been good a t i t . Her p a r e n t s r e c a l l t h a t i n grade one or two, a cube was brought i n t o the c l a s s r o o m and Kate was the f i r s t one t o see the p a t t e r n t h a t the o p p o s i t e s i d e s of the cube always added t o 7. Kate's t e a c h e r says t h a t she c o u l d be v e r y good i n math but she's h e s i t a n t t o t r y . The t e a c h e r has moved her i n t o a f a s t e r moving group and s a y s : "You can see the t e n s i o n . She's a f r a i d she's g o i n g t o get i t wrong." Ka t e ' s f a t h e r n otes K a t e ' s f r u s t r a t i o n i n t h a t she does w e l l on some of the math t e s t s , doesn't do w e l l on the speed t e s t s , and t h a t b r i n g s her average down. When Kate was asked whait she does when she g e t s stumped on something, she s a i d t h a t she l e a v e s / i t - ' f o r a n o t h e r time and then 250 goes back t o i t t o t r y and f i x i t and i t comes t o g e t h e r b e t t e r t h e n . When asked what she does when she needs an i d e a , s h e . s a i d t h a t she t e l l s someone about i t and they g i v e her s u g g e s t i o n s . I f t h e r e ' s no one around s h e ' l l do something e l s e f o r a w h i l e and then the i d e a s w i l l come t o h e r . When asked i f she ever does any w r i t i n g , Kate s a i d she does but not f o r s c h o o l . Sometimes s h e ' l l have some i d e a s and s h e ' l l w r i t e them down and keep them u n t i l she's used them. The w r i t i n g work she l i k e s a t s c h o o l i s s h o r t s t o r i e s . She doesn't l i k e h a v i n g t o w r i t e p a r a g r a p h s a t s c h o o l . , Kate says she does some drawing i n her spare t i m e . She draws a n i m a l s . She j u s t l o o k s i n a book and draws f r e e h a n d . She keeps her drawings i n a drawer. K a t e ' s t e a c h e r commented on her i n c l i n a t i o n t o extend and e x p l o r e a r t t e c h n i q u e s i n t r o d u c e d i n c l a s s . Kate l i k e s t o l i s t e n t o music, m o s t l y r o c k . She a l s o l i k e s d o i n g f o l k s i n g i n g a t s c h o o l . When asked i f she'd l i k e t o p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t , Kate answered: "When I grow up." When Kate's t e a c h e r was asked when i t was i n s c h o o l t h a t Kate showed e n t h u s i a s m , she answered t h a t i t never happens -- o n l y i n P.E. -- then she l i k e s t o dance and run around. The o n l y o t h e r time Kate shows any warmth or s p a r k l e i s when she g e t s t o t a l k about her dog or something she's brought from home. When Kate was asked what she'd l i k e t o a c c o m p l i s h or t r y i n the y e a r ahead she s a i d she'd l i k e t o t r y j a z z d a n c i n g . Kate's mother s a i d she took b a l l e t when i n grade one but was d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the b o r i n g r e p e t i t i v e e x e r c i s e s . Kate goes swimming r e g u l a r l y and her Dad t a k e s them. L a s t summer, w i t h her Dad as c o a c h , Kate was on a b a s e b a l l team t h a t won the t r o p h y . Kate's g i r l f r i e n d s a r e v e r y b u b b l y , o u t g o i n g , f r i e n d l y g i r l s . She goes a l o n g w i t h them i n whatever they j o i n . She says her f r i e n d s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n what she l i k e s t o do. When asked what she's always wanted t o do but hasn't had the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r , Kate t a l k e d about wanting t o b u i l d a d o l l house or something but not h a v i n g the r i g h t m a t e r i a l s . W i s h i n g and P r a y e r Kate says t h a t y e s , she always wishes f o r t h i n g s but i t doesn't work. She uses p r a y e r sometimes t o o . When her p a r e n t s were asked i f she uses p r a y e r , they s a i d they d i d n ' t t h i n k so. 251 F a m i l y Kate has one o l d e r b r o t h e r i n ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l who her p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e as her complete o p p o s i t e — her b r o t h e r b e i n g more a c c e p t i n g and r e a s o n a b l e about the argument t h a t "That's j u s t the way i t i s . " Kate l i k e s her g r a n d f a t h e r who s p o i l s her and she l a p s i t up. He l i v e s i n another l o c a t i o n and has promised t o take her p a r a s a i l i n g t h i s summer. Her p a r e n t s note t h a t she wants t o spend two weeks w i t h him t h i s summer. She's v e r y e x c i t e d and says she's g o i n g t o cook f o r him and i t w i l l be j u s t the two of them. They hadn't d e c i d e d y e t whether she'd be a l l o w e d t o go. 252 Sara Sara i s a p l a c i d p e r s o n who l i k e s everybody but seems c o n t e n t t o keep h e r s e l f busy by h e r s e l f . Sara t h i n k s she might l i k e t o be e i t h e r an a r t i s t or an a c c o u n t a n t because she l i k e s a r t and math. She used t o read a book a day but now more f u l l y d e v o t e s her time t o her l a t c h - h o o k work. I f she runs out of a c e r t a i n c o l o r of y a r n she c a l m l y checks the back of the box f o r an a d d r e s s t o which she can w r i t e f o r more. Sara f i n d s s c i e n c e t o be a s t r u g g l e because of the r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g work i n v o l v e d . She won a s t o r y c o n t e s t i n grade