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The development of a new measure of creative abilities in grade five children Ellis, Julia Litwintschik 1983

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MEASURE OF CREATIVE A B I L I T I E S F I V E CHILDREN  IN GRADE  by J U L I A LITWINTSCHIK M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h  A THESIS SUBMITTED  ELLIS Columbia,1975  I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t Of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y  We a c c e p t to  this  t h e s i s as  And S p e c i a l  conforming  the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May  ©  Julia  1983  Litwintschik E l l i s ,  1983  Education  In  presenting this  requirements  thesis in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  permission  be g r a n t e d  by  representatives.  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s allowed without  Department of  my  7 June  of t h i s  t h e Head o f my  I t i s understood  British  freely that  thesis for scholarly D e p a r t m e n t o r by that copying gain s h a l l  not  or be  written permission.  Educational Psychology  1983  make i t  I f u r t h e r agree  thesis for financial  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  study.  for extensive copying  p u r p o s e s may or her  the  Columbia  And  Special  Education  his  Abstract The  development  exercises  of the i n s t r u m e n t , S o l v i n g R e a l  in productive thinking  ( S R P ) , was  i n t e n t t o d e s i g n c r e a t i v e problem (1) s t i m u l a t i n g  Problems:  p r o m p t e d by t h e  s o l v i n g t a s k s t h a t would  be:  from the examinee's p o i n t of view;  (2) complex; (3) l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r a s i t o c c u r s i n t h e examinee's "everyday w o r l d " ; (4) l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e creative  i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y or  thinking.  To d e v e l o p SRP  t a s k s , s u b j e c t s were f i r s t  asked t o submit  e x a m p l e s o f what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be " e v e r y d a y , problems" e x p r e s s e d i n the format of "Something why  I c a n ' t do  i t . " From a p o o l o f p r o b l e m s  t a s k s were s e l e c t e d w h i c h a p p e a r e d s o l u t i o n approaches. variety  A t t e n t i o n was  to allow  high-interest  I want t o do  and  thus obtained, for breadth i n  also given to ensuring  i n t e r m s o.f c o n t e n t and a p p a r e n t d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e  problems.  E x a m i n e e s were a s k e d t o g e n e r a t e as many  s o l u t i o n s as they c o u l d  imagine f o r each  problem.  An e x p l o r a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o t o c o l s f o r t h e SRP identification idiosyncratic t h e s e k i n d s of  t o t h e age  l e v e l of s u b j e c t s  scoring  t h a t might  be  i n the study or to  tasks. i n c l u d e d t h e SRP,  an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n  and m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t y and  S e v e n SRP  of  u t i l i z e d i n order to p r o v i d e f o r the  of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y  Data c o l l e c t e d creativity,  was  different  personality.  s c o r e s were d e v e l o p e d : F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y ,  of  Wishing, and  Personal C a p a b i l i t y , Fantasy  Conceptual  Thinking.  Stepwise  Factor, Analytic Thinking,  regression analyses  revealed  c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p between t h e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e and  t h e SRP  Capability  variables — —  criterion. SRP  Flexibility,  i n p r e d i c t i n g t o p e r f o r m a n c e on Discriminant function analyses  v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and  t h e most p o w e r f u l  t h e SRP  little  were  (as  These  two  involving  the  case study v a r i a b l e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  Analytic Thinking. i n f o r m a t i o n beyond  SRP  While that  Conceptual  A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g were j u d g e d t o h a v e p r o m i s e f o r  r e s e a r c h and  creat i v i t y .  Thinking,  the  academic  from measures of academic a c h i e v e m e n t ,  T h i n k i n g and further  v a r i a b l e s , and  T h i n k i n g and  v a r i a b l e s provided  available  Conceptual  analyses  a dual a b i l i t y / p e r s o n a l i t y  v a r i a b l e s , Conceptual most SRP  the e x t e r n a l  indicated that  independent of  Convergent v a l i d i t y  external criterion, supported  Personal  the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n ) .  v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t i v e l y  achievement.  and  d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of the C r e a t i v e Group  d e f i n e d by p e r f o r m a n c e on SRP  Fluency,  d e v e l o p m e n t work i n t h e measurement o f  iv  Table of Contents  Abstract  i i  List  of Tables  viii  List  of F i g u r e s  x i i  Acknowledgements I.  xiii  INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE  1  1.1 B a c k g r o u n d Of The P r o b l e m  1  1.2 S t a t e m e n t Of The P r o b l e m  7  1.3 D e f i n i t i o n Of C r e a t i v i t y  9  1.3.1  C r e a t i v i t y As A b i l i t y  .. ..  9  1.3.2 C r e a t i v i t y As P e r s o n a l i t y  11  1.3.3  12;  C r e a t i v i t y As A c h i e v e m e n t  1 . 4 Summary II.  13  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  15  2.1 A p p r o a c h e s To I d e n t i f y i n g C r e a t i v e I n d i v i d u a l s ....15 .2.1.1 P r o d u c t  Approach  15  2.1.2 P r o c e s s A p p r o a c h  19  2.1.3  21  Summary  2.2 P r o b l e m s I n H e l p i n g T e a c h e r s  III.  To I d e n t i f y C r e a t i v e  Students  23  METHODOLOGY  25  3.1 P o p u l a t i o n And Sample  25  3.2 I n s t r u m e n t s  26  3.2.1  Used  Sears/Spaulding  Self-Concept  Inventory  3.2.2 C a n a d i a n T e s t s Of B a s i c S k i l l s 3.2.3  Torrance  T e s t s Of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g  26 ...28 28  V  3.3 D e v e l o p m e n t Of I n s t r u m e n t s And V a r i a b l e s  31  3.3.1 D e v e l o p m e n t Of SRP T a s k s And V a r i a b l e s 3.3.2 D e v e l o p m e n t Of P r o p o s a l  Activity,  31  Rating  Scale,  And S c o r i n g  36  3.3.3 D e v e l o p m e n t Of C a s e S t u d i e s  And C a s e  Study  Variables  39  3.4 S t u d y P r o c e d u r e s And T i m e l i n e IV.  42  ANALYSES AND RESULTS  44  4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n  44  4.1.1 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s A d d r e s s e d I n The A n a l y s e s  .44  —45  4.1.2 S a m p l e s 4.1.3 O v e r v i e w Of A n a l y s e s And R e s u l t s 4.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p s  46  Between The SRP V a r i a b l e s And The  Torrance V a r i a b l e s 4.3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s  53 Of P r o p o s a l  And CTBS W i t h SRP And  Torrance V a r i a b l e s 4.3.1 SRP And P r o p o s a l  57 Regression Analysis  4.3.2 SRP, CTBS, And P r o p o s a l 4.3.3 SRP And P r o p o s a l  60  Regression Analysis  Discriminant  Function  ..62  Analysis 64  4.3.4 CTBS, SRP And P r o p o s a l  Discriminant  Function  Analysis 4.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s W i t h  69 Proposal  And SRP V a r i a b l e s  72  4.5 R e l a t i o n s h i p Of S e l f - C o n c e p t W i t h S t u d y V a r i a b l e s 4.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex And O t h e r S t u d y  .88  Variables 90  V.  CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION  91  5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n  91  5.1.1 P u r p o s e Of The S t u d y  91  5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s  92  5.2.1 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Of SRP V a r i a b l e s  93  5.2.2 A p p a r e n t V a l u e Of The SRP V a r i a b l e s  103  5.2.3 A d e q u a c y Of SRP V a r i a b l e s  104  5.3 D i s c u s s i o n  105  5.4 F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s F o r SRP D e v e l o p m e n t  111  5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The S t u d y  114  5.6 Summary Of I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  115  . BIBLIOGRAPHY  117  APPENDIX A - SELF-CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE  121  APPENDIX B - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SELF-CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE  128  APPENDIX C - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE TORRANCE TASKS  1 30  APPENDIX D - "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?" APPENDIX E - TEACHER'S  QUESTIONNAIRE  133  INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE  "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?"  QUESTIONNAIRE  140  APPENDIX F - F I N A L FORM - SOLVING REAL PROBLEMS: EXERCISES I N PRODUCTIVE THINKING  142  APPENDIX G - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SRP  152  APPENDIX H - DESCRIPTION OF I N I T I A L CODING AND SCORING SYSTEM FOR SRP TASKS  156  APPENDIX I - TEST CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE I N I T I A L SCORES DEVELOPED  FOR THE SRP TASKS  167  APPENDIX J - RATIONALES FOR SRP SCORES RETAINED OR COMBINED TO BECOME THE SRP VARIABLES  185  APPENDIX K - COMPUTATION OF SCORES FOR SRP VARIABLES AND TEST CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE V A R I A B L E S  194  APPENDIX L - DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUEST-FOR-PROPOSAL PRESENTATION  201  APPENDIX M - RATING SCALE USED FOR SCORING PROPOSALS  206  APPENDIX N - INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  209  APPENDIX 0 - CASE STUDIES  214  APPENDIX P - RULES FOR SCORING THE CASE STUDIES  272  Vill  List  of T a b l e s  1. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ,  and Ranges f o r t h e P i l o t  Tasks  SRP ..34  2. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ,  and Ranges f o r Study  Variables*  50  3. P e r c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c y the  D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Scores f o r F i v e of  SRP V a r i a b l e s  4. F r e q u e n c y  51  D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Scores f o r the P r o p o s a l  Variable  .52  5. I n t e r - s c o r e r a n d I n t r a - s c o r e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s Proposal  f o r the  a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s  52  6. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among from t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e  Thinking  Variables  (N=151) .53  7. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP Variables  (N=151)  54'  8. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP a n d Torrance V a r i a b l e s  (N=151)  55  9. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s o f CTBS a n d w i t h SRP a n d T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s 10. S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s  Proposal  (N=151)  I : Proposal  59 a n d SRP  Variables  61  11. S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s  I I : Proposal,  CTBS a n d SRP  Variables  63  12. Number, P r i o r P r o b a b i l i t y a n d Means a n d S t a n d a r d Deviations Group  of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s  f o r Each C r i t e r i o n 66  ix  13. S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I : U s i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s t o S e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups 14. Summary S t a t i s t i c s  67  for Discriminant Analysis I  67  15. S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I : U s i n g CTBS a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s t o S e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups 71 16. Summary S t a t i s t i c s  for Discriminant Analysis II  71  17. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d Ranges f o r SRP, P r o p o s a l , a n d Case S t u d y V a r i a b l e s  (N=15)  75  18. F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e SRP V a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , a n d Case S t u d y V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e C a s e Sample  Study  (N=15)  ...76  19. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Variables  f o r t h e C a s e S t u d y Sample  (N=15)  20. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Study V a r i a b l e s  SRP 77 Case  (N=15)  78  2 1 . P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among  Case  S t u d y , P r o p o s a l , a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=15) 22. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n  79 Case  S t u d y a n d P r o p o s a l , CTBS, a n d S e l f - C o n c e p t V a r i a b l e s 23. Case S t u d y S u b j e c t s '  S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l  and t h e Case  S t u d y V a r i a b l e s : Wonder a n d F r i e n d s 24. Case S t u d y S u b j e c t s '  .80  83  S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l , C a s e S t u d y , a n d  SRP V a r i a b l e s  85  25. C o m p a r i s o n o f W i s h i n g / P r a y e r S c o r e s f r o m SRP a n d Case Studies  f o r t h e Case Study Sample  26. Summary S t a t i s t i c s  f o r the Self-Concept Variable  87 89  X  27. P e a r s o n  Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between S e l f - C o n c e p t  and O t h e r  Study V a r i a b l e s  89  28. P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n Sex a n d Other  Study V a r i a b l e s  90  29. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , R a n g e , a n d P e r c e n t a g e Frequencies f o r I n i t i a l 30. P e a r s o n and  170  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among P r o p o s a l  the I n i t i a l  31. Pearson  SRP S c o r e s  SRP S c o r e s  172  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e F l u e n c y  Scores and Product 32. P e a r s o n  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e  Flexibility 33. P e a r s o n  185  S c o r e s and t h e P r o d u c t S c o r e  186  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e W i s h i n g  Scores and t h e Product Score 34. P e a r s o n  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e P e r s o n a l  Capability 35. P e a r s o n  187  S c o r e s and t h e P r o d u c t Score  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e F a n t a s y  F a c t o r Response C a t e g o r i e s and t h e P r o d u c t Score 36. P e a r s o n  188  ....189  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among A n a l y t i c  T h i n k i n g R e s p o n s e C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , a n d P r o d u c t ..191 37. P e a r s o n  P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among  C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and Product 38. S c a l e s f o r R e c o d i n g  193 Initial  C o m p u t i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s  SRP S c o r e s P r i o r t o 195  39. Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d R a n g e s f o r SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242)  1 98  xi  40. P e r c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c y Variables  Distributions  f o r F i v e o f t h e SRP  (N=242)  41. P e a r s o n Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Variables  and t h e P r o d u c t Score  199 Among t h e SRP 200  XI 1  List  of  Figures  T i m e l i n e f o r Study A c t i v i t i e s  xi i i  Acknowledgement I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o t h e members o f my s u p e r v i s i n g committee f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , guidance, and i n s i g h t . My d i s s e r t a t i o n a d v i s o r , D r . S. B l a n k , has been an i m p o r t a n t m e n t o r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . H i s encouragement and h e l p c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably to this study. I wish t o thank D r . W. Werner f o r always making time t o d i s c u s s t h e s t u d y d u r i n g a l l of its stages. H i s guidance w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g and c a s e s t u d y component o f t h e r e s e a r c h was o f special value. I w i s h t o t h a n k D r . H. R a t z l a f f a n d D r . D. Thomas f o r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t h o r o u g h n e s s w h i c h h a s contributed greatly to the quality of this dissertation. S p e c i a l t h a n k s go t o D r . K. S t o d d a r t for h i s interest i n this r e s e a r c h and h i s generous attention to this dissertation. Two c o n s u l t a n t s , Dr. R. Conry a n d D r . T. R o g e r s , made p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable contributions to this study. I wish t o thank Dr. Conry f o r h i s guidance and h e l p w i t h t h e development o f i n s t r u m e n t s and scoring p r o c e d u r e s a n d many o f t h e a n a l y s e s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . T. R o g e r s f o r h i s g u i d a n c e a n d many v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a n a l y s e s . A l a r g e number o f p e o p l e made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e through their t i m e , i n t e r e s t , and a t t e n t i o n . I wish t o e x p r e s s my gratitude t o a l l of the s t u d e n t s , parents, teachers, and s c h o o l administrators who participated i n this research. A very s p e c i a l thanks is due t o Mrs.. V e l m a H a s l i n who c o o r d i n a t e d many o f the study a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o , h e r work a s a j u d g e f o r t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e was o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e to the study. I a l s o w i s h t o thank C a r o l B e l l and J i l l A n d e r s s o n f o r t h e i r work a s r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s . Many p e o p l e h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d indirectly to the conduct of t h i s study. I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e s u p p o r t o f J o y c e F o x who h a s s h a r e d my e n t h u s i a s m f o r this r e s e a r c h problem. Very importantly, I wish t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o my family for their unfailing s u p p o r t and encouragement.  1  I.  INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE  1 .1 B a c k g r o u n d Of The P r o b l e m Gowan  (1971) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e  not  t h a t much d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r  has  h a p p e n e d t o " t u r n them o n " .  people, but that  MacKinnon  something  ( c i t e d by Gowan &  Demos, 1 9 6 4 ) , i n d i s c u s s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c r e a t i v e p e r s o n has  written: He i s t y p i c a l o f many who make up f o r what t h e y l a c k in v e r b a l i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s with a high l e v e l of energy, a kind of c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y which enables them t o k e e p c o m i n g a t a p r o b l e m w i t h a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s from a v a r i e t y of a n g l e s ; and b e i n g c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r u l t i m a t e success they persevere u n t i l they a r r i v e a t a c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n . This kind o f p e r s o n s h o u l d r e m i n d us t h a t c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o be e q u a t e d t o h i g h v e r b a l intelligence. (p.71) The  r o l e of temperament, m o t i v a t i o n ,  creativity  h a s been u n d e r s c o r e d  w e l l a s by e m p i r i c a l w o r k . for  or p e r s o n a l i t y i h  i n d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y as  C r u t c h f i e l d ( c i t e d by B l a n k ,  1982),  example, has r e f e r r e d t o c r e a t i v i t y a s : a c o n v e n i e n t summary l a b e l f o r a c o m p l e x s e t of c o g n i t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s which a r e i n v o l v e d i n p e r c e i v i n g , remembering, t h i n k i n g , i m a g i n i n g , . . . (p.1)  Similarly, Treffinger  (1980) h a s w r i t t e n :  C r e a t i v e t a l e n t r e p r e s e n t s a complex s y n t h e s i s of c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s , and i t s e x p r e s s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , (p.23) Some s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o  2  c r e a t i v i t y among members o f s p e c i f i c g r o u p s h a v e shown t h e more c r e a t i v e members t o be d i f f e r e n t f r o m l e s s c r e a t i v e members i n terms of p e r s o n a l i t y specific cognitive  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s rather  abilities  (Barron & Harrington,  E f f o r t s towards i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e school  s e t t i n g have i n c l u d e d  assessing creative  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or  (1977) h a s r e v i e w e d p e r s o n a l i t y  use v a l u e .  such t e s t s c o u l d  He n o t e d t h a t  of c r e a t i v e y o u n g s t e r s . unreliability  devices  since  There i s a l s o t h e problem of  of such i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e (1978) r e p o r t e d  tests that  work  .among t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  i n d i v i d u a l s a t d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s . on an a s s e s s m e n t o f most  were c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e i n  elementary schools  i n the United States.  f i n d i n g s he s t a t e d  that  validity  In t h e i r  (1981) m e n t i o n e d e m p i r i c a l  which had i d e n t i f i e d d i s c r e p a n c i e s  When s u m m a r i z i n g h i s  no t e s t s were f o u n d t h a t  d a t a , i . e . , moderate or h i g h  b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a n d some r e l e v a n t such as rated c r e a t i v e behavior.  validity,  w h i c h ones  may be v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m p r o f i l e s  r e v i e w , B a r r o n and H a r r i n g t o n  Petrosko  as t e s t s  i t was n o t y e t c l e a r  be u s e d a s s c r e e n i n g  p r o f i l e s of c r e a t i v e adults  creativity  inventories  p o t e n t i a l f o r the purpose of a s s e s s i n g  have p o s s i b l e  reported  i n d i v i d u a l s i nthe  abilities.  of c r e a t i v e  convincing  1981).  t h e development of i n s t r u m e n t s f o r  either creative personality  Rekdal  that  than i n terms of  reported correlations  behavioral  Instead,  t h e most  outcome, frequently  k i n d o f v a l i d i t y was b a s e d on d i v e r g e n t o r f a c t o r i a l i.e.,. r e p o r t i n g  factor  loadings  or c o r r e l a t i o n s  below  3 .20 b e t w e e n c r e a t i v i t y a n d n o n c r e a t i v i t y m e a s u r e s . Harrington  (1981),  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  regarding divergent  review  t h i n k i n g t e s t s , concluded  Barron and  of l i t e r a t u r e  that:  some d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s , a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r some c o n d i t i o n s a n d s c o r e d by some s e t s o f c r i t e r i a , do measure a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t a n d b e h a v i o r i n some d o m a i n s . (p.447) They commented t h a t where d i v e r g e n t failed  to correlate positively  plausible  thinking test  to a significant  with  i n d i c e s o f c r e a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t and b e h a v i o r  that  many d i v e r g e n t  thinking a b i l i t i e s  knowledge r e g a r d i n g t h e a b i l i t i e s i n any g i v e n  field.  been a t t e m p t i n g  underlying creative  behavior  thinking tests to  such as m u s i c a l c r e a t i v i t y or  s o l u t i o n t o the problem of measuring  h a s n o t y e t been i d e n t i f i e d ,  the problem  h a s been w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d a n d some g u i d e l i n e s h a v e been regarding  Torrance assess  s t a t e of  creativity.  creative a b i l i t i e s  offered  relevance of  and t h e p r i m i t i v e  t o match d i v e r g e n t  While a s p e c i f i c  itself  this  They drew a t t e n t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t o r s who  r e l e v a n t domains i n areas scientific  have  extent  may h a v e been d u e , i n p a r t , t o t h e f i e l d - s p e c i f i c  had  scores  improvements beyond e x i s t i n g measures.  (1962),  creativity  c o m m e n t i n g on i n v e s t i g a t o r s '  efforts to  i n young c h i l d r e n , h a s s t a t e d :  I t seems c l e a r t h a t much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n s t e m s f r o m t h e ways i n w h i c h e a c h s c h o l a r h a s l i m i t e d h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y . M o s t o f t h e work w h i c h h a s been done r e f l e c t s l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t no s i n g l e t e s t o r a r e a o f o b s e r v a t i o n s taps a l l of the resources of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a n d t h a t t h e same t e s t or k i n d s of o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e not v a l i d o r  4  a d e q u a t e a t a l l age  levels.  Such a statement suggests  (p.23)  a n e e d f o r more o p e n m i n d e d n e s s a b o u t  t h e ways i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n can/may m a n i f e s t d i f f e r e n t ages r a t h e r than a d e q u a t e and Feldhusen  valid  a t a l l age  levels.  given  test to  age  and  sex c r i t e r i a  r e s e a r c h on c r e a t i v i t y T r e f f i n g e r et a l . concerns regarding solving a b i l i t y . translatable  and  a s an  at be  Treffinger, Renzulli,  (1971) have a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d the need t o  differential  new  e x p e c t i n g any  creativity  important  and  establish  issue in  i t s assessment.  (1971) h a v e p r e s e n t e d  tasks intended Four of t h e s e  a number o f  t o measure c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m  c o n c e r n s a p p e a r t o be  i n t o g u i d e l i n e s f o r the development of  somewhat  promising  measures of c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l t o be l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e assessment of c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . It i s quite c l e a r t h a t s i m p l e measures of f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t . Perhaps s u b s t a n t i a l e f f o r t must be g i v e n t o f i n d i n g new, more complex measures. (p.109)  T h e r e a r e a l s o a number o f p r o b l e m s o f a v e r y p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e t o s o l v e . How d o e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r know t h a t what he c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i v e t a s k s a r e c r e a t i v e and c h a l l e n g i n g f o r t h e e x a m i n e e ? I t may be t h a t t h e t a s k s he c o n s i d e r s most u n u s u a l a r e b o r i n g , u n e x c i t i n g , e v e n t r i v i a l , f o r t h e most i m a g i n a t i v e of our e x a m i n e e s . (p.110)  Another d i m e n s i o n of the c r i t e r i o n problem c o n c e r n s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s or i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of our c u r r e n t means f o r a s s e s s i n g o r i g i n a l i t y . W h i l e a few have d i s s e n t e d , a l m o s t e v e r y o n e who has g r a p p l e d w i t h c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f r e q u e n c y c r i t e r i o n f o r measures of originality. . . . P e r h a p s o u r e a s y a c c e p t a n c e of  5  t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f r e q u e n c y c r i t e r i o n h a s p r e v e n t e d us f r o m i d e n t i f y i n g new methods w h i c h a r e u s e f u l f o r measuring t h i s dimension of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . I d e a l l y one w o u l d l i k e a q u a l i t a t i v e i n d e x w i t h f a c e validity. (p.110)  An i s s u e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m of a s s e s s i n g c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e v a l i d i t y of our measures. Too o f t e n , i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t e s t s which a r e manageable from t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c p o i n t o f v i e w , we have r e l i e d on t a s k s w h i c h may have l i t t l e o r no l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c r e a t i v e behavior as i t occurs i n the " r e a l world". While there e x i s t s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y ( i d e n t i f y i n g adequate c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which t h e t e s t t a s k s c a n be v a l i d a t e d ) , t h e p r o b l e m w a r r a n t s o u r attention. The " c r e a t i v i t y " a s s e s s e d by o u r t e s t s , . a f t e r a l l , s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o b e a r a r e s e m b l a n c e t o c r e a t i v i t y a s i t i s a c t u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d among p e o p l e , (p. 110-111) Together, these concerns suggest the d e s i r a b i l i t y •  Are s t i m u l a t i n g (i.e.,  that w i l l  generate •  from t h e examinee's  of tasks  that:  p o i n t of view,  prompt c h i l d r e n t o ask q u e s t i o n s and  ideas);  Are complex,  (i.e.,  i n s t e a d of being l i n e a r  or. s i n g l e -  c o n s t r a i n t - t y p e s of problems, the tasks should involve a number o f c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h make p o s s i b l e a v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n approaches  depending  on t h e t r a d e - o f f s one  p r e f e r s t o make o r a c c e p t ) ; •  Are l o g i c a l l y  r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e behavior as i t occurs  i n t h e examinee's draw upon m a t e r i a l  "everyday w o r l d " , ( i . e . , from t h e c h i l d ' s  tasks  that  "everyday w o r l d "  experience); and •  Will  that provide f o rq u a l i t a t i v e  i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y or  6  creative  thinking,  infrequency  (i.e.,  go b e y o n d a s i m p l e c o u n t  index.)  With these o b j e c t i v e s  i n v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h e r had  p r e v i o u s l y undertaken the development  of t a s k s i n t e n d e d t o t a p  examinees'  "everyday w o r l d " c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g  situations  (Ellis,  now  called:  thinking to  1975).  The  i n problem  solving  tasks developed comprised a  S o l v i n g Real Problems: e x e r c i s e s  (SRP).  or  To d e v e l o p SRP  test  in productive  t a s k s , s u b j e c t s were f i r s t  s u b m i t e x a m p l e s o f what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be  asked  "everyday,  h i g h - i n t e r e s t problems" e x p r e s s e d i n the format of "Something want t o do and why  I c a n ' t do i t . "  From a p o o l o f p r o b l e m s  o b t a i n e d , t a s k s were s e l e c t e d w h i c h a p p e a r e d breadth i n s o l u t i o n approaches. ensuring variety the  problems.  A t t e n t i o n was  also given to  validity  That  s o l u t i o n s as they c o u l d  imagine f o r  s t u d y , conducted w i t h grade t h r e e s u b j e c t s ,  The  collected.  work was  The  No  their  predictive  r e s u l t s suggested that  further  warranted.  c u r r e n t s t u d y was  development The  from n o n c r e a t i v i t y measures.  d a t a was  development  intended to provide for further  of t h e s e k i n d s of e x a m i n e e - r e l e v a n t , complex  a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t a s k s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s way  tasks.  are the  following: 1.  of  To r e s p o n d t o t h e t a s k s , e x a m i n e e s were a s k e d t o  e x a m i n e d t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t a s k s d e v e l o p e d and independence  thus  to allow for  i n t e r m s o f c o n t e n t and a p p a r e n t d i f f i c u l t y  g e n e r a t e a s many d i f f e r e n t each problem.  I  I f p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d on an SRP  examinee as b e i n g from h i s / h e r  a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e by  the  "everyday world" they w i l l  be  7  c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g meaningful 2.  o r p l a u s i b l e by t h e e x a m i n e e .  I f e x a m i n e e s a n d SRP t a s k s b o t h come f r o m  restricted  sub-population  (i.e.,  t h e same  a group having access  to the  same o r s i m i l a r c o m m u n i t y a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s o u r c e s a n d e v e n t s ) , t h e n among e x a m i n e e s t h e r e w i l l knowledge r e g a r d i n g t y p i c a l l y w i t n e s s e d those  be some common b a s e o f s o l u t i o n methods f o r  t y p e s of p r o b l e m s and r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e g e n e r a l l y  available. 3.  By r e s e m b l i n g  problems,  t h e e x a m i n e e ' s own h i g h - i n t e r e s t  t h e SRP t a s k s s h o u l d c u e t h e u s e o f t h e e x a m i n e e ' s  usual r e p e r t o i r e of a b i l i t i e s engaged i n response abilities  demonstrated  situations.  i n response  t o SRP t a s k s .  Problem an SRP t e s t  t a s k s and s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s ) f o r a grade  s u b - p o p u l a t i o n and t o examine t h e e x t e n t of c o n v e r g e n t among t h e SRP a n d two e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a In  problem  both p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y  main p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p  develop  creative  i n high-interest  i n an e x a m i n e e ' s r e s p o n s e s  1.2 S t a t e m e n t Of The  (i.e.,  Therefore,  t o SRP t a s k s s h o u l d be  behavior  Consequently,  s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d  The  and a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y  t o such problems.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of "everyday" solving  "everyday"  of "everyday"  five validity  behavior.  a d d i t i o n , t h e study a l s o examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these  new v a r i a b l e s t o e x i s t i n g m e a s u r e s o f d i v e r g e n t  thinking,  academic achievement, and s e l f - c o n c e p t . T h r e e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s were a d d r e s s e d the study.  First,  an SRP s c o r i n g s y s t e m  i n conducting  h a d t o be d e v i s e d i n a  8  manner  t h a t would d e f i n e  manifestations  and r e c o r d  what m i g h t be  o f c r e a t i v i t y a t t h i s age l e v e l .  various A two-step  procedure f o r the development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s It  involved  first  was  explored.  i d e n t i f y i n g a n d s c o r i n g a l a r g e number o f  r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t m i g h t p o s s i b l y be r e l a t e d t o "everyday world"  creative behavior,  and s e c o n d l y ,  w h e t h e r s u c h r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were correlated with  the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n  S e c o n d l y , an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n world"  meet t h i s  manner  (through a standardized  proposals  in a  relatively  and h a d t o be r a t e d .  were g i v e n  presentation)  a high-interest class project  built  i n t h e form of "everyday  from a l l s u b j e c t s  requirement, a l l subjects  significantly  of c r e a t i v i t y .  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g h a d t o be o b t a i n e d  standardized  examining  the  To  opportunity  to develop a proposal f o r  (extra-curricular in nature).  were c o l l e c t e d a s " c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t s "  and a s c a l e  The was  f o r r a t i n g them. T h i r d l y , case s t u d i e s of s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s  b a s i s of i n t e r v i e w s ) v a l i d i t y analyses  (prepared  on t h e  h a d t o be q u a n t i f i e d t o make c o n v e r g e n t  possible.  S c o r e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r c a s e  s t u d y v a r i a b l e s t h a t were d e f i n a b l e  a s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s among t h e  everyday b e h a v i o r / c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these  subjects.  Questions Addressed i n the Study 1.  How  (i.e.,  might  i n d i v i d u a l s manifest c r e a t i v i t y  what d e f i n a b l e  How  tasks,  and c r e a t i v i t y - r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s w o u l d be  d e v e l o p e d from s u b j e c t s ' 2.  on SRP  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e SRP  tasks)?  w o u l d SRP v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n o f  "everyday world"  performance,  (i.e.,  the r a t i n g s  subjects  9  received  for their  P r o p o s a l s --  class extra-curricular 3.  How  w o u l d SRP  "everyday (i.e., 4. case  v a r i a b l e s and  study  w o u l d t h e new  (i.e.,  of  How  w o u l d t h e new  (CTBS))?  .6.  w o u l d t h e new  self-concept,  1.3  (i.e.,  D e f i n i t i o n Of To g u i d e  through i n t e r v i e w s ,  ( i . e , t h e SRP,  Proposal,  and  e x i s t i n g measure of d i v e r g e n t the Torrance  Tests  of  variables relate (i.e.,  t o a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure  the Canadian T e s t s of B a s i c  v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e t o an e x i s t i n g m e a s u r e o f the S e a r s - H a r r i s Self-Concept  Inventory)?  Creativity  the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the study  define creativity  as a b i l i t y ,  i t was  a s p e r s o n a l i t y , and  necessary as  achievement. 1.3.1  C r e a t i v i t y As Regarding  has  to  (TTCT))?  Skills  to  variables  academic achievement,  How  relate  variables)?  s e l e c t e d t a s k s from  Creative Thinking 5.  the Proposal v a r i a b l e  s t u d y v a r i a b l e s ) r e l a t e t o an  thinking,  f o r the  project)?  w o r l d " b e h a v i o r as d e t e r m i n e d  the case  How  the p l a n s they developed  Ability d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y ,  Khatena  (1976)  written: Two d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r e a t i v i t y h a v e been most p r o d u c t i v e of i n s t r u m e n t development: ( a ) G u i l f o r d ' s d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g and r e d e f i n i t i o n a b i l i t i e s a s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e S t r u c t u r e o f I n t e l l e c t M o d e l , and ( b ) T o r r a n c e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a p r o c e s s t h a t i n v o l v e s s e n s i n g gaps o r d i s t u r b i n g m i s s i n g  10  elements, forming hypotheses, comunicating the r e s u l t s , and p o s s i b l y m o d i f y i n g a n d r e t e s t i n g t h e s e hypotheses. To t h e s e may be a d d e d s u c h d e f i n i t i o n s a s t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e o r p r o d u c e w i t h i n some c r i t e r i o n o f r e l e v a n c e many c o g n i t i v e a s s o c i a t e s a n d many t h a t a r e u n i q u e ( W a l l a c h & K o g a n , 1 9 6 5 ) , and t h e power o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t o b r e a k away f r o m p e r c e p t u a l s e t so a s t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , a n d f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l and m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds ( K h a t e n a & T o r r a n c e , 1973). (p. 339) Blank  (1982) has d e f i n e d c r e a t i v i t y  as:  that p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g process i n which a g o a l o r i e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g s t o bear a c o m b i n a t i o n of f l e x i b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y t o i d e a s w h i c h e n a b l e s h i m t o b r e a k away f r o m h i s u s u a l a p p r o a c h e s and i d e a s i n t o new, d i f f e r e n t and p r o d u c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h o u g h t , the r e s u l t s of w h i c h y i e l d s o l u t i o n s w h i c h add t o what i s a l r e a d y known a n d w h i c h a r e s a t i s f y i n g t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . (p. 1) G i v e n t h e i n t e n d e d f o r m a t o f t h e SRP  tasks  (i.e.,  examinees  g e n e r a t e a number o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o a p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m ) , and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h a t  format —  e x a m i n e e s t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s , no make e x p l i c i t  how  t h e y may  following definition  was  e.g.,  invitation  no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f o r examinees t o  have r e d e f i n e d the p r o b l e m —  selected  from those l i s t e d  the  above:  t h e power o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t o b r e a k away f r o m p e r c e p t u a l s e t so a s t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l a n d m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds ( K h a t e n a & T o r r a n c e , 1 9 7 3 ) . (cited by K h a t e n a , 1976, p. 339) The  definition  f o c u s s e s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  and o r i g i n a l i t y and e m p h a s i z e s t h e c r i t e r i o n  flexibility  of m e a n i n g f u l n e s s .  11  1.3.2 C r e a t i v i t y A s P e r s o n a l i t y Barron the previous  and H a r r i n g t o n  (1981) r e v i e w e d  t h e e m p i r i c a l work o f  15 y e a r s on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  c r e a t i v e people  and noted  t h e emergence o f a f a i r l y  stable set  of c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c o r r e l a t e s of c r e a t i v e achievement and  activity  i n many d o m a i n s .  These were:  high v a l u a t i o n of e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s i n e x p e r i e n c e , broad i n t e r e s t s , a t t r a c t i o n t o c o m p l e x i t y , h i g h e n e r g y , independence o f judgment, autonomy, intuition, self-confidence, a b i l i t y to resolve a n t i n o m i e s o r t o accommodate a p p a r e n t l y o p p o s i t e o r c o n f l i c t i n g t r a i t s i n one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , and f i n a l l y , , a f i r m sense of s e l f as " c r e a t i v e " . ( p . 454) Barron  and H a r r i n g t o n c a u t i o n e d , however, t h a t " t h e s e a r c h f o r  the taxonomic s i m p l i c i t y has a l l t o o o f t e n ignored t h e phenomenon o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l 456).  ebb a n d f l o w i n many t r a i t s " ( p .  They g a v e e x a m p l e s o f a g e - r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e v e r s a l s  of c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s had identified. S i n c e t h e r e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be a s o u n d b a s i s f o r s p e c i f y i n g a given s e t of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s creative child,  a more g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n  p e r s o n a l i t y was s e l e c t e d . presented  by M a c K i n n o n  and  s e n s e o f s e l f a n d who i s  i n selecting, organizing, modifying,  r e c r e a t i n g h i s / h e r own e x p e r i e n c e s .  suggests  growing  as  the " c r e a t i v e type", as a c h i l d ,  i s one who i s a t t a i n i n g a s e c u r e expressing positive w i l l  of the c r e a t i v e  U s i n g O t t o Rank's c o n c e p t s  (1965),  f o r the  This  definition  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and connotes a c t i v e n e s s as  opposed t o r e a c t i v e n e s s or p a s s i v i t y / a c c e p t a n c e .  Rank's  12  concepts  a l s o emphasize t h a t the c r e a t i v e type  towards the c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of Torrance(1962,  p.  individuality.  120) h a s s i m i l a r l y  children are searching for their  i s motivated  observed  that  creative  uniqueness.  1.3.3 C r e a t i v i t y As A c h i e v e m e n t D e f i n i n g c r e a t i v e achievement for e v a l u a t i n g performances  involves specifying  or products.  recommended a n d d i s c u s s e d t h r e e c r i t e r i a : and  communicability.  evaluating criteria  Blank  criteria  (1982) has  novelty, usefulness,  P r e s e n t e d as they a r e i n t h e c o n t e x t of  students' products, Blank's d i s c u s s i o n s of these  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  useful.  I f the product or s o l u t i o n i s t o q u a l i f y i n terms of t h e N o v e l t y d i m e n s i o n , i t must be j u d g e d t o be o r i g i n a l a t l e a s t and p r e f e r a b l y germinal as w e l l . T h a t i s , t h e s o l u t i o n d e v e l o p e d by t h e s t u d e n t must be s u c h t h a t i t i s v i e w e d t o be one t h a t w o u l d be f o u n d o n l y v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y among s o l u t i o n s d e v e l o p e d by t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e e r s i n b o t h age a n d e x p e r i e n c e t o l i k e problems. F u r t h e r > i t . s h o u l d be a s o l u t i o n o r p r o d u c t that can l e a d t o the d i s c o v e r y of other problems or t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o l u t i o n s t o t h e present s i t u a t i o n . ( p . 10)  h a v i n g met t h e c r i t e r i o n "new", t h e s o l u t i o n must a l s o meet t h e c r i t e r i o n " u s e f u l " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e a n d u s e a b l e s o l u t i o n . (p. 10)  Is the s o l u t i o n " s a l e a b l e " ; i s i t w e l l thought o u t ; has i t been w e l l d e v e l o p e d ? . . . i f the solution i s uncommunicable or u n s a l e a b l e f o r whatever r e a s o n , i t f a i l s t o meet an e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n o f a " c r e a t i v e solution". ( p . 10) For  the purpose of g u i d i n g t h e r a t i n g of the c r i t e r i o n  13  m e a s u r e of c r e a t i v i t y ,  the  o r p r o d u c t was  as  criteria: 1.4  defined  novelty,  Proposals, one  the  w h i c h met  usefulness,  and  creative  a l l of  achievement  the  three  communicability.  Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has  p r e s e n t e d the  background t o the  problem,  n a m e l y , r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and  arguments which suggest p o t e n t i a l  value  SRP  in exploring  abilities The  the  use  of  tasks  for measuring  in children. p r o b l e m has  been s t a t e d  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t o be  i n t e r m s of  a d d r e s s e d i n the  the  How  m i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s m a n i f e s t c r e a t i v i t y on  2.  How  w o u l d SRP  variables  r e l a t e t o an  "everyday world" performance, How  w o u l d SRP  (i.e.,  v a r i a b l e s and  the  the  following  study:  1.  3.  SRP  case study How  criterion  Proposal  ratings)?  5. of 6.  How  Proposal variable relate (i.e.,  to  the  new  variables  r e l a t e t o an  e x i s t i n g measure, o f  variables  r e l a t e to a standardized  thinking?  would the  academic How  of  variables)?  would the  divergent  tasks?  external  e v e r y d a y b e h a v i o r as d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s ,  4.  creative  new  measure  achievement?  would the  new  variables  r e l a t e t o an  e x i s t i n g measure  self-concept? Finally, personality,  d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y and  (as  achievement) t o g u i d e the  ability, r e s e a r c h h a v e been  specified. While Section  1.1,  the  Background of  s e r v e d t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t i o n a l e f o r the  the  Problem,  d e s i g n of  SRP  has tasks,  of  14 Chapter the  II reviews  identification  helping classroom  literature of c r e a t i v e teachers  regarding  (l)general  individuals,  to i d e n t i f y  and  creative  approaches  (2)problems i n students.  to  15  II. 2.1  Approaches  REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  To I d e n t i f y i n g C r e a t i v e  Three g e n e r a l  approaches  to i d e n t i f y i n g creative  i n d i v i d u a l s use m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t y , achievement  (Barron  e t a l . , 1981).  of t h e s e a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . measures of achievement  or p e r s o n a l i t y , or Arguments r e g a r d i n g  Identification  the  use  e f f o r t s using  a r e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e p r o d u c t  Those u s i n g measures of a b i l i t y together  Individuals  or p e r s o n a l i t y are  i n what i s c a l l e d t h e p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h  approach.  grouped  (Gowan e t a l . ,  1964) . 2.1.1  Product  Approach J  Some a r g u m e n t s m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d approach.  That  d e t e r m i n e an clearly  f o r t h e p r o d u c t a p p r o a c h a r e b a s e d on what the l o g i c a l  i s , while  i t does not  o r when t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  a l w a y s has had c r e a t i v i t y w i t h i n  products  for creativity,  I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  one c a n o n l y  of the p r o c e s s  the process approach attempts to  individual's capacity  i n d i c a t e whether  capacity.  futility  i t s capacity  and t h a t  therefore  their  On a s i m i l a r theme, Kagan  (1967)  compared t h e e n t e r p r i s e of t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t c r e a t i v i t y capacity  t o the a b s u r d i t y  this  t h e human m i n d p r o b a b l y  d i s c r i m i n a t e among p e o p l e by e x a m i n i n g  ( N i c h o l l s , 1972).  use  has  from  o f t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t number o f  c h i l d r e n on t h e b a s i s o f f e r t i l i t y .  He a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t  of t h i s a p p r o a c h has been a tendency  to confuse capacity for  creativity  with  t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n , whereas f e r t i l i t y  would  16  n e v e r be c o n f u s e d w i t h number o f c h i l d r e n . T h e r e h a s been p e r s i s t e n t c r i t i c i s m c r e a t i v i t y , may  that the term,  be b e t t e r u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a r a r e q u a l i t y o r  genius r a t h e r than a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t variables  (Treffinger  to the i n a b i l i t y individuals  & Poggio,  1972).  s e t of  A t t e n t i o n h a s been  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures  et a l . ,  f r o m one a n o t h e r by s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e s ) t o r e f l e c t  seem t o p r o d u c e l i t t l e  1971).  Nicholls  personal characteristic psychological  that  i s worthy  individuals of note  i s not l i k e l y  (Gowan  in ordinary  individuals.  t o h a v e t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s as i n  (While such v a r i a b l e s  d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n known g r o u p s , t h e y a r e u n l i k e l y predictive validity  and  ( 1 9 7 2 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t any g i v e n  significance  eminently creative  may t o have  i n u n s e l e c t e d s a m p l e s . ) He a l s o a r g u e d  w h i l e p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g assume normally d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t ,  i t is difficult  s u s t a i n a concept of a t r a i t  of c r e a t i v i t y .  that a  and u n n e c e s s a r y t o T h u s , he a r g u e s , i t  i s only through c r e a t i v e products that c r e a t i v e be  drawn  (discriminating  t h e l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y between e m i n e n t l y c r e a t i v e t h o s e who  individual  i n d i v i d u a l s can  identified. W h i l e arguments such as t h e ones l i s t e d  degree of d e f e n s i b i l i t y difficulties the a b i l i t y  suggest a g r e a t e r  f o r the product approach,  related to i t s implementation.  there are  Whether  t o e v a l u a t e p r o d u c t s h a s been one c a u s e 1959; a n d M u r r a y ,  1959).  j u g d e s have f o r concern  (Anderson,  1959; L a s s w e l l ,  Blank  ( 1 9 8 2 , p.  161-162) h a s p r e s e n t e d a r g u m e n t s f o r e x p e r t j u d g e m e n t  a s t h e most s e n s i t i v e a n d p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s f o r  17  the e v a l u a t i o n of c r e a t i v e The  d e v e l o p m e n t of g u i d e l i n e s f o r o b t a i n i n g p r o d u c t s and  criteria  f o r j u d g i n g them has  Sprecher,  1964;  Ghiselin,  T r e f f i n g e r et a l . , How  products.  been p r o b l e m a t i c  1963;  K a g a n , 1967;  (Brogden  &  Shapiro,  1970;  1971).  products are obtained f o r e v a l u a t i o n purposes Requesting  samples"  approach,  r a t h e r than examining  o n e s may  i n t r o d u c e a s p e c t s o f m o t i v a t i o n a n d work h a b i t s t h a t  n o t be t y p i c a l  Blank  (1982) h a s  elements  f o r the producers  of t h e problem  or s o l u t i o n  the elements  solving  (p.  4-5).  of the problem  m a n i p u l a t i o n a t any  a  "work  naturally occurring  (Brogden  et a l . ,  1964).  situation  which  or  are e s s e n t i a l i f  i s t o be e n g a g e d i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a  transformable; available  He  has  o u t l i n e d ways i n w h i c h  must be: c h a n g e a b l e  (or a c t i v a t e d or  time d u r i n g problem  constraining conditions arising The  f o r e v a l u a t i o n , the  p r e s e n t e d a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the c r e a t i v e process product  products  raises  number of i s s u e s .  may  of  or  in focus) for  s o l v i n g ; and  f r e e of  from p r e v i o u s c o n t e x t s .  c o m p l e x i t y of e v a l u a t i n g n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g p r o d u c t s  has  been i l l u s t r a t e d .  for  judging products: novelty, appropriateness, transformation,  and  condensation.  difficulties Sprecher  Kagan  (1967) h a s p r o p o s e d  four  criteria  However, he has a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e many  i n implementing  these c r i t e r i a .  Brogden  and  ( 1 9 6 4 ) p r e s e n t e d a number o f c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s  and  o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s as b e i n g r e l e v a n t when j u d g i n g t h e creativity  of the person  through  examination  Examples of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s were: age,  of t h e  product.  p o s i t i o n , a n d amount o f  18  time  i n the  job s i t u a t i o n .  were: a v a i l a b i l i t y  Examples of o p p o r t u n i t y v a r i a b l e s  o f r e s o u r c e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  social  e n v i r o n m e n t ; and  difficulty  or p o t e n t i a l of the problem  studied.  (1975) has  r e p o r t e d on  Product  Taylor Inventory  originality,  which uses seven types  relevancy, complexity)  d i f f e r e n t aspects  of t h e p r o d u c t  to the problem; the product's ( 1 9 8 2 , p. producer  11-12) has can  whether the d e a d end;  use  product  and  a l l the  little  which the  c r e a t i v e product  has  w o u l d be  ultimate criterion  i s i m p r a c t i c a l and  of t h e  production.  intermediate c r i t e r i a  1970, are  p.  259).  acceptable.  product  of  an  V a l i d a t i o n i n terms of  o r p r e d i c t o r s , but  of  intermediate  substituting  i n measures which "cannot s t r i c t l y  (Shapiro,  the  T r e - f f i n g e r et a l . , 1971).  i n t e r e s t as  life  landmarks"  is a  suitable  implementation  a r e of  of  (e.g.,  for different  f o r p r e d i c t i n g to the u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n  as e i t h e r c r i t e r i o n  student  a g r e e m e n t a b o u t what t y p e  B r o g d e n e t a l . , 1964;  large issue underlying  results  Blank  factors involved in c r e a t i v i t y  individual's total  criteria  relation  field).  eight c r i t e r i a  which e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a  approach i s that products criteria  to the  meanings t h a t c r e a t i v i t y  t h e r e seems t o be  ( A n d e r s o n , . 1959;  four  leads t o f u r t h e r i d e a s / s o l u t i o n s or  people,  The  each of  whether the s o l u t i o n answers a l l a s p e c t s  the d i f f e r e n t  (e.g.,  (e.g., the product's  t o e v a l u a t e h i s / h e r own  solution  of a C r e a t i v e  of c r i t e r i a  to assess  relation  provided  problem s i t u a t i o n . ) Given and  t h e use  area  o n l y as  earlier be  regarded  guiding  Traditionally  the  these  19  2.1.2  Process  Approach  P r o c e s s measures of c r e a t i v i t y are not measurement o f c r e a t i v i t y , Gowan (1964) has  classified  but  for global  f o r measuring s p e c i f i c  the process  researchers  aspects.  into  three  groups: (1) t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s t s o f a b i l i t y , ( t h e o r e t i c i a n s r e p r e s e n t e d by G u i l f o r d ) who h a v e g i v e n much a t t e n t i o n to d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n , o r i g i n a l i t y , i d e a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y , and r e d e f i n i t i o n a b i l i t y , and who s t r e s s t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of k i n d s of c r e a t i v i t y ; (2) t h o s e c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h v i a b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l s , i n t e r v i e w s , p e r s o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s , ( e . g . , T a y l o r , M a c K i n n o n , and B a r r o n ) ; and ( 3 ) t h o s e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m e a s u r i n g c r e a t i v i t y i n c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t e s t i n g and o t h e r forms of a s s e s s m e n t s . (p. 78-79) A r g u m e n t s h a v e been o f f e r e d f o r t h e l o g i c a l the process that  approach.  i f creativity  T r e f f i n g e r et a l .  advantages of  (1971) have  suggested  i s n o t a s t a b l e human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  then,  a s s u m i n g a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t , i t w o u l d seem more a p p r o p r i a t e to determine and  t h e c o n s i s t e n c y of e a c h component p a r t  t o p l a c e more e m p h a s i s on t h e s t a b i l i t y  creative  of measures of  behavior.  Anderson  (1959),  q u e s t i o n s o f v a l u e and suggested  t h a t by  i n acknowledging  the problems r e l a t e d  s o c i a l a p p r o v a l of p r o d u c t s ,  s e l e c t i n g people  who  are capable  creative process,  t h i s group w i l l  i n c l u d e t h o s e who  actually  the products  interest  generate  Stein  (1968) h a s  be a r r i v e d a t w i t h o u t through  trial  and  of  expressed t h e use  concern  to  to  has of u s i n g  the  will  society.  that novel products  of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s ,  e r r o r , problem s o l v i n g procedures,  may  e.g.,  discovery,/  20  and  serendipity.  p r o c e s s . ) He  ( Y e t t h e s e may  contended  w e l l be p a r t o f t h e  that since c r e a t i v i t y  i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d as c r e a t i v e of p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have, been j u d g e d unique  and  by  i s a process,  s h o u l d be homogeneous i n t e r m s  r a t h e r than  i n s o f a r as t h e i r  some g r o u p o f s i g n i f i c a n t  products  o t h e r s as  being  adaptive.  B r o g d e n and  Sprecher  process v a r i a b l e s for  creative  selection  (1964) h a v e n o t e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e a b o u t  i s important  f o r t r a i n i n g and may  be  important  i f a c o l l e c t i o n o f p r o c e s s m e a s u r e s c a n be  t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o p r o d u c t m e a s u r e s and more Some w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h i n terms of the l i m i t a t i o n s  shown  reliable. h a v e been  i m p o s e d by t h e use  of  expressed  psychometric  procedures. •  Measures of c r e a t i v i t y psychometric  that f i twell  procedures  into  have s a c r i f i c e d  established  essential  a t t r i b u t e s of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , which, o f t e n t a k e s the form of a p p l i e d t o one (Treffinger •  intense personal  r e a l problem  & Poggio,  in real  life,  involvement  o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d of  time  1972.)  R e l i a n c e on c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y  tests assigns a subordinate  r o l e t o t h e more d y n a m i c m o t i v a t i o n a l l e v e r s t h a t make potential creativity •  Creativity  kinetic  (Kagan,  1967.)  o c c u r s i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t and  p r o b a b l y u n l i k e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g environment •  (Stein  one  which  is  or l a b o r a t o r y  1968.)  I t i s n o t y e t known how  large a battery i t w i l l  a s s e s s a l l a s p e c t s of a c h i l d ' s c r e a t i v i t y  take  (Torrance,  to  21  cited •  by Gowan,  Many d i v e r g e n t  1964.) thinking a b i l i t i e s  have  field-specific  r e l e v a n c e a n d we h a v e o n l y a p r i m i t i v e s t a t e o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g behavior •  the a b i l i t i e s  i n any g i v e n  field  (Barron  opportunities  (Crockenberg, Regarding Harrington  facilitate behavior  (1981) n o t e d  that  responses  while a f a i r l y  stable  and  s e t of core  h a s emerged f r o m  empirical  remain as t o : which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y  creative  behavior  achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n ; related correlates  as opposed t o e f f e c t i v e  of c r e a t i v e  and which a r e merely  of c r e a t i v e achievement?  to research  social  a s o p p o s e d t o more g e n e r a l  social  noncausally  They a l s o  i n d i c a t i n g that creative  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may v a r y a s a f u n c t i o n creative  do n o t  measures i n p a r t i c u l a r , Barron  o f any f o r m ; w h i c h a r e b y - p r o d u c t s  attention  1981.)  1972.)  personality  work, q u e s t i o n s  drew  personality  of age, s e x , and f i e l d o f  activity.  Summary Whether t h e p r o d u c t  defensible  is likely  i s greatly  of each a p p r o a c h . and  & Harrington,  f o r high level creative  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i v e people  there  creative  T a s k s w i t h i n commonly u s e d e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s provide  2.1.3  underlying  the desire  approach or process  a p p r o a c h i s more  t o r e m a i n an u n t e s t a b l e q u e s t i o n  increased s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the Interest  in efficient  f o r understanding  until  implementation  identification  of c r e a t i v i t y w i l l  methods  likely  22  c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e momentum f o r t h e p r o c e s s D e v e l o p m e n t work w i t h t h e p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h , r e q u i r e s t h e use o f t h e p r o d u c t a p p r o a c h validation  approach. however, f r e q u e n t l y  for obtaining  data.  From t h e c r i t i c i s m s  listed  f o r the process  approach  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o m e a s u r e s of c r e a t i v e it  would appear worthwhile  abilities),  t o c o n s i d e r means f o r r e m e d y i n g  the  f o l l o w i n g : d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t f o r r e a l life  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y  and  the c o n t e x t f o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p r o c e s s measures; d i s c r e p a n c i e s between life  motivational levers  motivational tapped  i s expected  demonstrating  ability The  measures  l e v e r s ; d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e c o n t e n t  by. c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y  creativity for  f o r c r e a t i v i t y and p r o c e s s  t e s t s and  the f i e l d  t o be m a n i f e s t e d ; and  high level creative  real  domain  i n which  l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y  t h i n k i n g on  creative  tests. concerns  outlined  f o r the product approach  a h i g h d e g r e e of s e n s i t i v i t y  regarding control variables  m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n t e x t w o u l d be d e s i g n i n g any  product measure.  (1982) v e r y comprehensive s i t u a t i o n and  important  in selecting  a n a l y s i s of the problem  i f the c r e a t i v e process  the g e n e r a t i o n of a p r o d u c t  or  that  and  or  Of p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e , i s B l a n k ' s  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of elements  that are e s s e n t i a l  suggest  solution.  solving  in that  situation  i s t o be u t i l i z e d  in  23  2.2 P r o b l e m s I n H e l p i n g Finding creative the  T e a c h e r s To I d e n t i f y C r e a t i v e  e f f e c t i v e means t o e n a b l e t e a c h e r s  students i s problematic  blurry distinction  "creatively  gifted".  to identify  f o r two m a i n r e a s o n s .  between " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y The o t h e r  One i s  g i f t e d " and  i s the multitude  operate t o depress the expression  Students  of f a c t o r s  of c r e a t i v i t y  that  i n the school  setting. Many have a c c e p t e d t h a t and  some g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e c r e a t i v e  some a r e n o t ( T o r r a n c e & Gowan, 1 9 7 1 , p.  been f o u n d t h a t  some c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s ( a s i d e n t i f i e d by  t h e i r products) a r e not i n t e l l e c t u a l l y To  invite  2 0 1 ) . I t has a l s o  teachers  gifted  (MacKinnon,  1978).  t o i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f  observable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s not a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d matter a multifaceted  view of c r e a t i v i t y  c o r r e l a t e s of c r e a t i v i t y intellectual  aptitude  Torrance  would i n c l u d e  some  since  behavioral  that are c l o s e l y related t o  (Swenson,  1978).  (1964) has summarized t h r e e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which  d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n from l e s s c r e a t i v e but equally  intelligent  wild or s i l l y production  c h i l d r e n : having a reputation  i d e a s ; d o i n g work w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  of ideas  playfulness, relative others,  by t h e  that a r e " o f f the beaten track or outside of  t h e m o l d " ; a n d d o i n g work w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  and  f o r having  lack of r i g i t y  by humor,  and r e l a x a t i o n .  Torrance  h o w e v e r , h a v e i d e n t i f i e d a number o f f a c t o r s  ( e x a m p l e s b e l o w ) w h i c h work a g a i n s t  the expression  of such  divergency or o r i g i n a l i t y . Prince  (1975), i n studying  the i n d u s t r i a l  s e t t i n g , has  24  i d e n t i f i e d a number o f s p e c u l a t i o n - r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o r s typically  that  e x h i b i t e d w i t h i n a c o m p e t i t i v e c l i m a t e and  d i s c u s s e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s  in maintaining  are  has  speculation-enhancing  actions. Blank  (1982),  addressing  the classroom  o u t l i n e d means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g wherein  the  setting,  "comfortable  classroom"  t h e r e i s freedom from n e g a t i v e p u n i s h i n g c r i t i c i s m  the p r a c t i c e of p o s i t i v e , h e l p f u l , e n c o u r a g i n g procedures and  has  evaluation.  d e s c r i b e d would appear t o r e q u i r e t i m e ,  certain  k i n d s of knowledge or s k i l l s  and The  commitment,  on t h e p a r t of  the  teacher. As  factors  originality,  inhibiting  Torrance  peer-orientation; the equating  the e x p r e s s i o n of d i v e r g e n c y  (1964) h a s  discussed: success-orientation;  s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t q u e s t i o n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n ;  of d i v e r g e n c y  with abnormality;  the  work-play  d i c h o t o m y frame o f r e f e r e n c e ; h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g ; c o n s t r a i n t s s u c h a s t i m e p r e s s u r e s , s c h e d u l i n g , and t e a c h e r ' s view of the r o l e of the  evidence  have d i f f i c u l t y intellectual  ability.  the  have l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s  o f c r e a t i v i t y among t h e i r  differentiating  and  teacher.  I t w o u l d seem t h a t t e a c h e r s may to observe  or  s t u d e n t s and  between c r e a t i v i t y  and  may  25  III . This chapter present  METHODOLOGY  i s organized  the research  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner t o  methodology:  P o p u l a t i o n and Sample; Instruments  Used;  (a) S e a r s / S p a u l d i n g  Self-Concept  (b) C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f B a s i c (c) Torrance  Tests  Skills;  of C r e a t i v e  Instruments/Variables  Inventory;  Thinking;  Developed;  (a) SRP t a s k s , s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s , a n d v a r i a b l e s ; (b) P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y ,  rating  s c a l e , and s c o r i n g ; and  (c) Case Study p r e p a r a t i o n and v a r i a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t . Study Procedures  and T i m e l i n e .  3.1 P o p u l a t i o n And Sample The in  p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study  one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .  five  student's  The s t u d y  students  s a m p l e i n c l u d e d 250 g r a d e  from t e n c l a s s e s l o c a t e d i n e i g h t s c h o o l s .  t h e c l a s s e s was a g r a d e f o u r / f i v e September  were t h e g r a d e f i v e  1st of t h e school year  split.  One o f  The mean a g e a s o f  was 125 months w i t h a  standard  d e v i a t i o n o f 6 months. Schools  s e l e c t e d were t h e o n l y e i g h t t o r e s p o n d w i t h  commitment t o a d i s t r i c t - w i d e  invitation  volunteer  to participate  expressed  some i n t e r e s t a n d t h e s e  classes for piloting  i n the study.  full  f o r schools t o Another four  provided  s i x grade  work i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y .  schools five  School  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e c e i v e d and responded t o t h e i n v i t a t i o n s  after  26  determining teacher  t h a t t h e r e was i n t e r e s t  on t h e p a r t o f a g r a d e  i n the school.  The d i s t r i c t  contained  i n c l u d e d g r a d e s K-7.  approximately  26 s c h o o l s  that  The c i t y h a d a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r of the province  and  f o u r main i n d u s t r i e s of m i n i n g ,  featured the province's  forestry,  farming,  participating  m a l e a n d s i x were f e m a l e .  i n the study,  In the s i x p i l o t  were m a l e a n d two were  3.2 I n s t r u m e n t s  four  c l a s s e s , four  female.  Self-Concept  Student s e l f - c o n c e p t regarding  Inventory s e l f - i m a g e and g e n e r a l  p e r s o n a l competence i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s  and c l a s s r o o m  m e a s u r e d u s i n g an i n v e n t o r y r e v i s e d by S p a u l d i n g by S e a r s  to i n c l u d e items  (1963).  The r e v i s e d i n s t r u m e n t  related to divergent  mental a b i l i t i e s  was e x t e n d e d  t h i n k i n g and a t t i t u d e s  o f a more c o n v e n t i o n a l n a t u r e .  used t h e i n v e n t o r y w i t h grade f i v e of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e g a r d i n g  H a r r i s (1977)  t o o b t a i n measures  s e l f , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , a n d human  90 i t e m s  s c a l e and a d m i n i s t e r e d  Test-retest Spaulding  students  related to  skills.  The m e a s u r e u t i l i z e s Likert  t a s k s was  ( 1 9 6 6 ) f r o m one  r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g along with those  relations  were  Used  Sears/Spaulding  developed  Columbia,  and t o u r i s m .  Among t h e t e a c h e r s  teachers  of B r i t i s h  65,000,  was l o c a t e d i n t h e i n t e r i o r  3.2.1  five  reliability  t o be a s s e s s e d  on a m o d i f i e d  i n a group w r i t t e n untimed b a s i s .  f o r t h i s m e a s u r e a s d e t e r m i n e d by  was r e p o r t e d a s .85 a n d .82 f o r h e i g h t o f s e l f - c o n c e p t  27  and  differentiation  the  instrument  as b e i n g  six  students.  Spaulding  along  of s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s p e c t i v e l y .  mental a b i l i t i e s relations  had  63 q u e s t i o n s  and  school  Appendix  of  was  items  i s Included  shortened  provided  the  researcher  The  Teacher's included in  B.  the t o t a l  test.  u n i v a r i a t e and scores  This  ( n = 2 4 l ) was  of r e l i a b i l i t y  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  Therefore,  o b t a i n e d Hoyt e s t i m a t e  only subjects' t o t a l  of r e l i a b i l i t y  i n the  The .96  was  subjects'  the scores study.  also indicated a  internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t y  of  instrument  t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s  instrument.  c a r r i e d out  t h a t i t w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e t o use  to represent  questionnaire.  questionnaire  internal consistency analysis (Lertap,  L e r t a p a n a l y s i s computed a Hoyt e s t i m a t e  degree of  human  by S p a u l d i n g .  i n A p p e n d i x A.  of the c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  total  by  f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are  m i g h t be d e f i n a b l e , an  for  attractive  subjects.  To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s u b t e s t s w i t h i n t h e  UBC)  items  by d e l e t i n g i t e m s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f r o m e a c h o f  instrument  instructions  s o c i a l behavior;  instrument  the e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s resulting  o f f e r e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  i n c l u d i n g c r e a t i v i t y ; mental a t t i t u d e s ;  skills;  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t e a c h e r s ; work h a b i t s ;  This 90-question to  reported  used s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h grade f o u r  e i g h t major dimensions:  appearance; s o c i a l  He  f o r the  on  the  The high  shortened  28  3.2.2  C a n a d i a n T e s t s Of To  Skills  include a standardized  achievement, r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  from the  from the  written approximately data  Basic  collection The  m e a s u r e of s u b j e c t s '  s p r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e  school d i s t r i c t .  following subtests:  R e a d i n g , L a n g u a g e , Work S t u d y , and  Math.  been c o m p l e t e d , a c o m p o s i t e s c o r e was  t o t h e commencement o f  study.  CTBS i n c l u d e s t h e  composite score  CTBS  T h e s e t e s t s were  f i v e months p r i o r  i n the  academic  Vocabulary,  If a l l subtests  i s also reported.  The  u s e d as t h e v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g  have CTBS  academic  achievement. Reliability. for  the  In p r e s e n t i n g a s p l i t - h a l v e s  reliability  t e s t b a t t e r y , CTBS, t h e p u b l i s h e r s r e p o r t e d  reliability  coefficient  F o u r , L e v e l Ten  ( K i n g , 1975,  3 . 2 . 3 ' T o r r a n c e T e s t s Of Three of  the t a s k s  Improvement A c t i v i t y Figure A c t i v i t y Activity,  of  .98  p.52).  Creative  Thinking  f r o m t h e TTCT were u s e d : t h e  (Figural Test,  Form A ) ; t h e  Form A ) ; and  (Figural Test,  r e q u i r e d on The all  logically  SRP  Product  the Repeated  Figures  Form B ) .  r e l a t e d t o the  k i n d s of  they  functioning  tasks. Improvement A c t i v i t y  r e q u i r e s examinees to  t h e d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t a t o y c o u l d be  more f u n  Product  Incomplete  T h e s e t a s k s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e TTCT b e c a u s e a p p e a r e d t o be  a  f o r the Composite Score f o r Grade  (Verbal Test,  i.e., Circles  analysis  for c h i l d r e n to play with.  This  list  i m p r o v e d t o make i t i s very  similar  to  the  29  SRP's r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t e x a m i n e e s l i s t Regarding the has  m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n methods.  Incomplete Figures A c t i v i t y , Torrance  (1966a)  written: As i s w e l l known i n G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , an incomplete f i g u r e s e t s up i n an i n d i v i d u a l t e n s i o n s t o c o m p l e t e i t i n t h e s i m p l e s t and e a s i e s t way p o s s i b l e . T h u s , t o p r o d u c e an o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e , t h e s u b j e c t u s u a l l y has t o c o n t r o l h i s t e n s i o n s and d e l a y g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s impulse to c l o s u r e . ( p . 14)  This  type  of  r e q u i r e d by  f u n c t i o n i n g w o u l d seem t o be the  SRP  similar  to  that  where t h e e x a m i n e e must r e m a i n open  to  a l t e r n a t e approaches t o the problem or a l t e r n a t e r e f o r m u l a t i o n s of the  problem.  The ability  Repeated F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y  t o make m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o t h e  r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y form.  u s i n g the C i r c l e s t e s t s  This  to d i s r u p t or d e s t r o y  t a s k w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  same s t i m u l u s  an a l r e a d y  p e r f o r m a n c e on SRP Scoring. Fluency  The and  to  facilitate  tasks.  v e r b a l task, Product  Flexibility  I m p r o v e m e n t , was  scored  f o l l o w i n g the procedures d e s c r i b e d  the  scoring guide provided  was  not  scored  also  and  complete  r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y  f r e e - a s s o c i a t e o r t o r e d e f i n e p r o b l e m s w h i c h may  the  by T o r r a n c e  (1966b).  f o r o r i g i n a l i t y as e x a m i n a t i o n  The  of  for in  verbal  task  subjects'  responses suggested t h a t the a v a i l a b l e p r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g o r i g i n a l i t y were The  out-of-date.  I n c o m p l e t e F i g u r e s A c t i v i t y was  O r i g i n a l i t y u s i n g the guide was  (Torrance  a l s o scored  scored  for Fluency  recently developed streamlined  & Ball,  1980).  for Fluency  and  The  Repeated F i g u r e s  Originality  using  the  and  scoring Activity  30  streamlined  s c o r i n g guide  Both f i g u r a l Creative Strengths  (Torrance  & Ball,  t a s k s were a l s o s c o r e d score  described  1978).  f o r components of t h e  i n the scoring guides.  To  develop the Creative Strengths  score,  t a s k s were s c o r e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f : movement;  expression  f o r the nine  responses t o the f i g u r a l  o f e m o t i o n ; a r t i c u l a t e n e s s ; humor; r i c h n e s s o f  imagery; i n t e r n a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n ;  unusual  combinations; breaking/extending  boundaries.  Reliabilities.  Various  reliability  coefficients  .88 t o .99 f o r f l u e n c y a n d f l e x i b i l i t y forms u s i n g  test-retest,  reliabilities  h a v e been r e p o r t e d  f o r v e r b a l and  (Torrance  s t u d i e s , suggested that  the m o t i v a t i o n a l aspects  figural  1966a).  researchers  tend  t o handle  o f t e s t i n g more a d e q u a t e l y when  n o t e d that, s i n c e m o t i v a t i o n  i s i n d i s p u t a b l y important  i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t  for administering  they  normative data.  conditions affect test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y . instructions  from  of t e s t - r e t e s t  c o n d u c t e x p e r i m e n t s t h a n when t h e y c o l l e c t  creative thinking,it  ranging  i n t e r - s c o r e r , and i n t r a - s c o r e r  T o r r a n c e , i n c o m m e n t i n g on a l i s t reliability  visualization;  He  in  motivational The  teacher's  the Torrance tasks are included  i n A p p e n d i x C.  Ball  Regarding the streamlined  s c o r i n g m e t h o d s , T o r r a n c e and  ( 1 9 8 0 , p.6) h a v e r e p o r t e d  that several scoring  s t u d i e s h a v e been c o m p l e t e d a n d i n d i c a t e t h a t keep t h e s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t y figural  referenced  (i.e.,  i t i s possible to  of the norm-referenced  f l u e n c y and o r i g i n a l i t y  in this  reliability  (i.e.,  s t u d y ) and c r i t e r i o n -  components o f t h e C r e a t i v e  Strengths  score)  31  measures of these Specifically, scoring  Strengths  b o o k l e t s they  reported  o f .99 f o r f l u e n c y a n d .99 f o r  F o r t h e component c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C r e a t i v e  score, reported scoring r e l i a b i l i t i e s  Internal Visualization  r a n g e d f r o m .42  t o 1.00 f o r M o v e m e n t / A c t i o n .  3.3 D e v e l o p m e n t Of I n s t r u m e n t s 3.3.1  a b o v e t h e .90 l e v e l .  f o r f i f t h grade students'  reliabilities  originality.  for  new s c o r i n g c o n c e p t s  And V a r i a b l e s  D e v e l o p m e n t Of SRP T a s k s And V a r i a b l e s  Task Development.  To o b t a i n a p o o l o f e v e r y d a y , h i g h - i n t e r e s t  problems from which t o s e l e c t  t a s k s f o r an SRP, t h e "What's a  Real Problem?"  (WRPQ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  the  study  Questionnaire  c l a s s e s by t h e c l a s s r o o m  teachers.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x D.  i n a l lof  A copy of t h e  Instructions for  a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x E. The order  Problems obtained  to acquire  t h e WRPQ were e x a m i n e d i n  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r e s t s and u s u a l  ways o f d e f i n i n g p r o b l e m The  through  situations.  f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s were s e l e c t e d t o be p i l o t e d a s SRP  tasks: (1) 1 want t o b u i l d a model j e t b u t I d o n ' t h a v e t h e money f o r a set. (2) 1 want t o make s o m e t h i n g e l e c t r i c a l  but I don't have t h e  m a t e r i a l s I need. (3) A l o t o f k i d s i n o u r c i t y want t o h a v e a h o r s e parents  can't  afford  i t and they  (4) 1 want t o k e e p my s i s t e r  but t h e i r  h a v e no p l a c e t o k e e p o n e .  f r o m c o m i n g i n my room b e c a u s e s h e  32  m e s s e s i t up, she bugs me,  and she t a k e s my  (5) 1 want t h i n g s t o go b e t t e r i n my do  life  things.  but I don't t h i n k I can  anything.  (6) 1 want t o s t o p w a r s b u t who w o u l d l i s t e n elementary  school.  SRP P i l o t included  Form A i n c l u d e d p r o b l e m s  ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , a n d (5) and Form B  ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , and ( 6 ) .  Equal  numbers o f t h e two f o r m s were r a n d o m l y  w i t h i n each of the s i x p i l o t the classroom  teachers.  The r e s e a r c h e r  each of the p i l o t  observed a l l  t a s k s , a master l i s t  (representing different  frequency  counts  was p r e p a r e d .  of a l l s u b j e c t s '  s o l u t i o n approaches) i n c l u d i n g  Categories  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the master l i s t .  o f r e s p o n s e s were  T h o s e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were  i n f r e q u e n t l y u s e d a n d t h a t were j u d g e d t o be b o t h c l e v e r or promising  for  an o r i g i n a l i t y  researcher different  were n o t e d  score.  imaginative  a s c a t e g o r i e s - t o be c r e d i t e d  T h i s work was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e  a n d two r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s w o r k i n g tasks.  The f i n a l  definition  together  until  individuals.  c o n s e n s u s was r e a c h e d .  u s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r pilot  SRP's s u b m i t t e d  i.e.,  approximately The P i l o t  b u t on  of c a t e g o r i e s and  s e l e c t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s t o be c r e d i t e d f o r o r i g i n a l i t y a g r e e d upon by a l l t h r e e  by  forms.  responses  and  distributed  c l a s s e s a n d were a d m i n i s t e r e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the p i l o t For  to a k i d i n  D i s c u s s i o n was  had t o be conducted  The p r o t o c o l s t h u s d e v e l o p e d  t o score a l l p i l o t  SRP's s u b m i t t e d .  were (All  were u s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o t o c o l s ,  70 p e r f o r m . )  SRP's were s c o r e d f o r :  33  (1) F l u e n c y :  one p o i n t  f o r each non-redundant  idea;  (2) F l e x i b i l i t y :  one p o i n t  f o r each c a t e g o r y  (3) O r i g i n a l i t y :  one p o i n t  f o r each response b e l o n g i n g  "originality"  category.  tasks are presented  used; and  Descriptive statistics  i n Table  f o r the  f o r m o f t h e SRP.  pilot  3.1.  T a s k s ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , a n d ( 6 ) were s e l e c t e d a s t a s k s final  t o an  T h e s e were t h e o n l y  tasks  f o r the  that  evoked  r e s p o n s e s t h a t were j u d g e d t o q u a l i f y a s b o t h i m a g i n a t i v e c l e v e r or promising. A p p e n d i x F.  The SRP i n i t s f i n a l  and  form i s i n c l u d e d  as  34  Table  1 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and R a n g e s f o r t h e P i l o t SRP T a s k s  Variable  Task  Mean  S .D.  Min  Max  92 36 79 90 49 96  3 .34 2 .77 2 .17 3 .43 3 .33 1 .88  2 0 0 0 0 0  16 17 10 21 15 12  .84 1 .29 .94 .86 1 .20 1 .02  1 0 0 0 0 0  4 7 4 4 5 5  Fluency  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  5 4 3 5 4 1  Flexibility  (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  1 .62 2 .64 2 .14 2 .26 2 .17 1 .40  Originality  (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  .36  .60  0  2  .27  .45  0  1  .01  .12  0  1  Notes: F o r Form A, t a s k s : ( 1 ) , ( 3 ) , and ( 5 ) , n=68. F o r Form B, t a s k s : ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , and (6),. n = 70. F o r t a s k s ( 2 ) , ( 4 ) , a n d ( 5 ) , t h e r e were no c a t e g o r i e s t h a t judged t o q u a l i f y f o r o r i g i n a l i t y c r e d i t .  Score Development.  To a r r i v e  at f i n a l  s c o r e s f o r an SRP,  were  three  main s t e p s were u n d e r t a k e n : (1) W o r k i n g  from a master  list  with  f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s of  r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h t a s k , a c o d i n g s y s t e m was q u a n t i f y a l a r g e number o f q u a l i t a t i v e subjects' (2) The  responses to the  following  developed  subjects' to  d i f f e r e n c e s among  tasks.  k i n d s o f a n a l y s e s were u n d e r t a k e n  to determine  35  the m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n e d and s c o r e d  i n step 1  above. (a) I n t e r - t a s k c o r r e l a t i o n s were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e was i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y among t h e same o r s i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s or types  of scores.  (b) I n t r a - t a s k c o r r e l a t i o n s were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e appropriateness  of combining  i n f r e q u e n t l y used c a t e g o r i e s .  ( c ) C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n SRP s c o r e s a n d s c o r e s on t h e P r o p o s a l activity  (theexternal c r i t e r i o n  of c r e a t i v i t y  were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l e v a n c e developed  i n the study)  of scores  initially  f o r t h e SRP t a s k s .  (3)For those  scores  t o be r e t a i n e d f o r t h e SRP,.as d e t e r m i n e d i n  s t e p 2 a b o v e , s c a l e s were d e v e l o p e d  t o r e p l a c e t h e raw s c o r e s  from each t a s k  the weight of each  task/category  i n order  to preserve  i n the f i n a l , composite  For a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l see A p p e n d i x H ( i . e . , correlation matrix see A p p e n d i x I . retained/combined 2 above).  scores. coding  the r e s u l t s of step  of i n i t i a l  1 above).  score,  scores  f o r u s e , see Appendix J ( i . e . ,  r e s u l t s of step  F o r t h e s c a l i n g s y s t e m u s e d t o compute f i n a l  Reliabilities.  step 3 as d e s c r i b e d  SRP  above).  To d e t e r m i n e i n t e r - s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s , 40  SRP's were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (8 f r o m t h o s e  from those  For the  SRP s c o r e s a n d t h e P r o p o s a l  F o r t h e r a t i o n a l e s f o r SRP  s c o r e s , see Appendix K ( i . e . ,  Proposal;  and s c o r i n g system,  16 f r o m t h o s e  s c o r i n g 3 t o 4.5 on P r o p o s a l ; a n d 16  s c o r i n g 2.5 o r l e s s on P r o p o s a l )  research assistant.  s c o r i n g 5 o r 6 on  a n d were s c o r e d by a  T h e s e SRP's were a l s o r e - s c o r e d by t h e  36  researcher  t o determine i n t r a - s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s .  3.3.2  D e v e l o p m e n t Of P r o p o s a l A c t i v i t y ,  R a t i n g S c a l e , And  Scor ing  Purpose.  The p u r p o s e o f t h e P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y  relatively  standardized opportunity  was t o p r o v i d e a  f o r s u b j e c t s t o demonstrate  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i n an " e v e r y d a y w o r l d " , h i g h - i n t e r e s t situation. Development of t h e P r o p o s a l A c t i v i t y .  The c l a s s r o o m  were c o n s u l t e d t o d e t e r m i n e h i g h - i n t e r e s t e v e n t s w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g w o u l d be w i l l i n g  t o f o l l o w through  m a j o r i t y of students  As set  and t h a t  i n the c l a s s ; provided  f o r some d e g r e e o f  across events;  and p r o v i d e d  thought.  the Proposal a c t i v i t y  these  itself,  s u b j e c t s were t o w r i t e a  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g ; the l i s t  which p r o v i d e d p r a c t i c e i n  of c r i t e r i a  t h a t t h e e v e n t was  t o meet; b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s r e l a t e d t o  the event; generate  Prior to  " P r o p o s a l s " , e a c h c l a s s was g i v e n a p r e s e n t a t i o n  w h i c h i n c l u d e d : a warm-up a c t i v i t y  expected  year.  activity for  of i d e a s about t h e form t h e event would t a k e .  writing  teachers  w h i c h : were o f h i g h - i n t e r e s t t o t h e  commonality i n scope and c o n t e n t scope f o r c r e a t i v e  t h a t each c l a s s  with during the school  E v e n t s s e l e c t e d t o be t h e f o c u s o f t h e P r o p o s a l e a c h c l a s s were t h o s e  teachers  o r a l group p r a c t i c e i n using c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t o  ideas f o r the event.  presentation"  i s presented  The  "Request-for-Proposal  i n A p p e n d i x L.  S u b j e c t s were g i v e n a  37  30-minute time p e r i o d to w r i t e t h e i r day,  an a d d i t i o n a l  Proposals.  2 0 - m i n u t e p e r i o d was  Development of the R a t i n g S c a l e .  The  following  provided.  A g e n e r a l method f o r  the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c a l e s t o be u s e d i n r a t i n g c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s been i l l u s t r a t e d expression  t h a t can  i n a l a r g e - s c a l e a s s e s s m e n t of w r i t t e n  (Conry,  s c a l e s are b u i l t  1978).  W i t h t h e use  be m e a n i n g f u l l y  dimension.  s e l e c t e d to exemplify  method f o r b u i l d i n g  rating  i n terms of the  rating  levels  d i s t i n g u i s h e d among p r o d u c t s .  meaning of the u n d e r l y i n g s k i l l are  of t h i s method,  t o accommodate t h e number o f a b i l i t y  t h e p o i n t s on a s c a l e i s d e s c r i b e d  products  has  Each of  general  Finally,  samples of  each of the p o i n t s .  This  s c a l e s a p p e a r e d t o be w e l l - s u i t e d t o  a d d r e s s t h e measurement p r o b l e m s o f r a t i n g w o r k - s a m p l e s f o r creativity  criteria.  could provide  That i s , s c a l e s d e v e l o p e d  for objectivity while  l e v e l o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among The  first  facilitating  s t e p i n the b u i l d i n g of the  detected  among t h e P r o p o s a l s .  a d v a n c e t h a t P r o p o s a l s w o u l d be "creativity",  Examination  appropriateness To  of t h i s  confirmed  the  s c a l e was be  Proposals  I t was  to  decided  from in  dimension  feasibility  developed. and  plan.  t h e number of p o i n t s t h a t w o u l d be on and  optimal  s c a l e w o u l d be  d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f a b i l i t y  read the P r o p o s a l s  The  r a t e d on o n l y one  i . e . , o n l y one  of P r o p o s a l s  rating  levels that could  f o u r c l a s s e s were used f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e .  called  an  way  products.  d e t e r m i n e t h e number of a b i l i t y meaningfully  in this  levels discernible ( i . e ,  the  s c a l e ) the  s o r t e d them i n t o p i l e s .  The  researcher first  38  s o r t i n g attempt Proposals.  resulted  i n the  T h e s e f o u r g r o u p s were i n i t i a l l y  f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l terms: inability Students  identification  Group 1 - P r o p o s a l s  or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o attempt have a t t e m p t e d  of f o u r  d e s c r i b e d i n the reveal students'  the t a s k ; Group 2 -  the t a s k without  s u c c e s s ; Group 3 -  P a r t s o r a l l of t h e P r o p o s a l meet t h e c r i t e r i a 4 - The  Proposal  ideas are both  n o v e l and  d e f i n i t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as a p r o d u c t defintion  of s t u d e n t s ' p r o d u c t s  Proposals of t h e s e  i n G r o u p 2. Proposals  judge's  was  response  Blank's  germinal.)  with only  sorting  differentiation  process.  in t h i s category"  d e s c r i p t i o n o r a n a l y s i s of P r o p o s a l s l a b e l s and  or  "anticipated and  a  "general  in t h i s category."  A  d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r e a c h of  s c a l e p o i n t s i s i n c l u d e d a s A p p e n d i x M.  Two  or t h r e e  These exemplars a r e  i n c l u d e d as Appendix  Scor ing.  A l l P r o p o s a l s were r a t e d by b o t h  built  rating  the  training  s c a l e and  i n t h e use  s e l e c t e d on experience  of the  by a n o t h e r rating  scale.  the  P.  the researcher  i n d i v i d u a l who The  the  examples  o f s t u d e n t s ' P r o p o s a l s were s e l e c t e d t o e x e m p l i f y e a c h o f scale points.  the  Thus a t o t a l o f s i x s c a l e  d e f i n e d i n t e r m s of b o t h an  these  I for  then conducted i n the  (See  i d e n t i f i e d by a g e n e r a l l a b e l  to Proposals  f i g u r e which l i s t s  i n Chapter  i n t o three groups.  E a c h s c a l e p o i n t was d e s c r i p t i o n and  germinal.  This sort resulted  p o i n t s were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e  of n o v e l t y ; Group  w h i c h a r e n o v e l and  A s e c o n d s o r t i n g e x e r c i s e was  groups.of  was  who given  second judge  was  t h e b a s i s o f e x p e r t i s e i n t h e a r e a of c r e a t i v i t y w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e grade  A total  o f 209  children.  P r o p o s a l s were r a t e d by b o t h  judges.  The  and  39  judges gave i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s f o r 136 (65%) of the P r o p o s a l s . For  51 (24%) of the P r o p o s a l s ,  scale point.  judges' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by one  For 22 (11%) of the P r o p o s a l s ,  d i f f e r e d by two s c a l e  judges' r a t i n g  points.  Where judges' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by o n l y one s c a l e p o i n t , the r a t i n g s were averaged t o a s s i g n a s c o r e t o the P r o p o s a l .  Where  the r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by two s c a l e p o i n t s , the P r o p o s a l s were p r e s e n t e d t o the judges t o be i n d e p e n d e n t l y r a t e d a g a i n . r a t i n g these P r o p o s a l s the judges d i s c u s s e d  After  Proposals receiving  d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s and attempted t o reach consensus.  There were  22 P r o p o s a l s " r e - r a t e d " by both judges.  For n i n e (41%) of  t h e s e , i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s were a s s i g n e d .  For 11 ( 5 0 % ) ,  r a t i n g s were reached through concensus.  For two ( 9 % ) , r a t i n g s  identical  were l e f t as d i f f e r i n g by one p o i n t and were averaged.  3.3.3 Development Of Case S t u d i e s  Purpose.  The purpose f o r d e v e l o p i n g the case s t u d i e s was t o  o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of s u b j e c t s ' behavior/characteristics. had  And Case Study V a r i a b l e s  everyday  life  As 11 of the 15 case study  demonstrated c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y on the P r o p o s a l  case s t u d i e s f o r these s u b j e c t s c o u l d p r o v i d e  subjects  a c t i v i t y , the  for "rich  d e s c r i p t i o n " of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h i s age l e v e l .  It'was  a l s o expected t h a t the case study m a t e r i a l might c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of some of the SRP v a r i a b l e s .  40  Method.  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s was g u i d e d by  awareness of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y p i c a l l y  both:  attributed to creative  i n d i v i d u a l s and awareness of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t  subjects  revealed/manifested  i . e . , t h e SRP  i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e SRP t a s k s ,  had  var i a b l e s . To o b t a i n m a t e r i a l  f o r the case study  preparation,  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t , the* p a r e n t s , teacher.  The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s a r e i n c l u d e d  Interviews  w i t h s u b j e c t s and p a r e n t s  w r i t t e n n o t e s were made d u r i n g s u b j e c t s were i n t e r v i e w e d periods. the  were t a p e r e c o r d e d .  during  the school outside  at their  c h i l d ' s school  For  13 o f t h e 15 s u b j e c t s , b o t h p a r e n t s  One  subject  had a s i n g l e p a r e n t .  HandThe  of c l a s s time a f t e r  after school attended  Interviews  N.  day i n 30-45 m i n u t e  f r o m t h e i r c l a s s h a d been i n t e r v i e w e d .  were i n t e r v i e w e d  approximately  i n Appendix  interviews with teachers.  T e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d  subject(s)  and t h e  Parents hours.  the interview.  with parents  took  one h o u r .  T a p e s o f i n t e r v i e w s were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o h a n d - w r i t t e n by  the researcher.  f o l l o w i n g manner. read  The c a s e s t u d i e s w e r e t h e n w r i t t e n i n t h e The t r a n s c r i p t s a n d n o t e s f o r a s u b j e c t  s e v e r a l t i m e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most d i s t i n c t i v e  pervasive  form  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of that  subject.  were  and  Once t h e s e m a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e n t i f i e d , a l l s t a t e m e n t s r e l a t e d t o a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  were g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r  of  Accordingly,  the case study.  identical Appendix  subheadings. 0.  t o form a  subsection  t h e c a s e s t u d i e s do n o t h a v e  The c a s e s t u d i e s a r e i n c l u d e d a s  41  Scoring.  The s c o r i n g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system developed f o r the  c a s e s t u d i e s was an a t t e m p t t o q u a n t i f y d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e c a s e s t u d i e s . as  Eight  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  identified  v a r i a b l e s o r d i m e n s i o n s t o be u s e d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  purposes.  These were: ( l ) u s e of w i l l p o w e r ;  (3)use of wishing;  (4)use of f a n t a s y ;  ( 6 ) u s e o f humor; ( 7 ) s u c c e s s  with  (2)use of  (5)inclination  f r i e n d s ; (8)success  prayer; t o wonder; with  parents. In order high,  t o generate r u l e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g  case studies  as  medium, o r low on e a c h o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e  following  steps  were u n d e r t a k e n .  For each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a l l  c a s e s t u d i e s were r e a d a n d i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r i t s a b s e n c e were r e c o r d e d .  From e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e  " i n d i c a t o r s " , an o p e r a t i o n a l medium, o r l o w c l a s s i f i c a t i o n then c l a s s i f i e d  according  definition  was d e v e l o p e d f o r h i g h ,  on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . C a s e s w e r e  t o the o p e r a t i o n a l  definitions.  The  a d e q u a c y o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were t h e n e x a m i n e d by considering consistent If  whether each s u b j e c t ' s with a l l information  assigned  classification  available i n his/her  case  was study.  n o t , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were e x p a n d e d o r r e f i n e d t o  yield  a more s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system.  The r u l e s u s e d  f o r s c o r i n g t h e c a s e s t u d i e s on t h e e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e presented  i n Appendix  P.  42  3.4 S t u d y P r o c e d u r e s Figure  And T i m e l i n e  1 o u t l i n e s the t i m e l i n e f o r the study a c t i v i t e s  were c a r r i e d o u t . W i t h  that  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e CTBS, a l l p a p e r a n d  p e n c i l a c t i v i t i e s used t o c o l l e c t between O c t o b e r 5 - 30, 1981.  s t u d y d a t a were  administered  CTBS r e s u l t s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s  s p r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were u s e d .  The o r d e r o f  instrument  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was: t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; t a s k s t h e TTCT; SRP; a n d P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y . on t h e same d a y i n a l l c l a s s e s .  from  The SRP was a d m i n i s t e r e d  T e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o  a d m i n i s t e r t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e TTCT t a s k s d u r i n g a s p e c i f i e d week f o r e a c h , c h o o s i n g attendence  was g o o d .  approximately Classroom  The c a s e  study  t h r e e months a f t e r  i n t e r v i e w s were  t h e s e d a t a were  the R e q u e s t - f o r - P r o p o s a l  conducted  collected.  The r e s e a r c h e r made  p r e s e n t a t i o n t o each of the c l a s s e s .  The r e s e a r c h e r a n d a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  study  class  teachers administered the self-concept  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e TTCT t a s k s , a n d t h e SRP.  judges  a d a y when  s t a f f member were t h e two  to rate a l l Proposals submitted i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  by s u b j e c t s .  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  A l l case  43  Figure  1 - Timeline  f o r Study  Activities  1 981 J u n e 22  O r i e n t a t i o n meeting w i t h p r i n c i p a l s and  S e p t . 28  Training  S e p t . 29  - Oct.  Oct.  5 - 9  Oct.  12 -  Oct.  22  16  school  session  with  teachers, district  teachers  C o n s t r u c t i o n of SRP - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f "What's a Real Problem?" Questionnaire - S e l e c t i o n o f P i l o t SRP tasks - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p i l o t t a s k s - Development of s c o r i n g p r o t o c o l s - S c o r i n g of p i l o t t a s k s - A n a l y s i s of s c o r e s - S e l e c t i o n of t a s k s f o r f i n a l f o r m o f SRP A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e l f - c o n c e p t questionnaire Administration  of T o r r a n c e  26  Administration  of  Oct.  5 - 26  Development of presentations  Oct.  27  Nov.  2 - 12  Nov.  17 &  Nov.  23  Dec.  9  -  29  Administration B u i l d i n g of  28  Rating  - Dec . 18  staff  of  SRP  Request-for-Proposal of P r o p o s a l  rating  scale  activity  for  Proposals  Proposals  D e v e l o p m e n t o f SRP SRP v a r i a b l e s Piloting  tasks  of  scoring protocols  interview  and  schedules  1982 Jan.  12  Jan.  27  Feb.  8 - March  -  Feb. 5 18  S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s  for case  studies  Conduct of  f o r case  studies  interviews  P r e p a r a t i o n o f c a s e s t u d i e s and of c a s e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s  development  44  IV.  ANALYSES AND RESULTS  4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n This chapter begins w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m a i n s t u d y v a r i a b l e s : means a n d s t a n d a r d deviations and  (Table 2 ) ; frequency  reliabilities  involving  the a n a l y s e s presented  (Gardner,  statistics in  1975).  Addressed  i s divided  pertains to  (Section 4.4). A l l v a r i a b l e s  i n the use of parametric  Questions  This chapter  i n the s e c t i o n which  these v a r i a b l e s  are t r e a t e d as i n t e r v a l  4.1..1 R e s e a r c h  ( T a b l e s 3 and 4 ) ;  (Table 5 ) . Test c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e case  study v a r i a b l e s are presented analyses  distributions  I n The  Analyses  i n t o s e c t i o n s w i t h each  addressing a general question.  section  Analyses are presented  together  w i t h t h e r e s u l t s as t h e s t r u c t u r e of each a n a l y s i s  i sfrequently  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e r e s u l t s o f a p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s .  The r e s e a r c h  questions addressed i.  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e e n t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s and  ii.  by t h e s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e :  the Torrance v a r i a b l e s ?  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among P r o p o s a l , CTBS, SRP and T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s ?  iii.  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among P r o p o s a l , SRP, a n d the case  iv.  study v a r i a b l e s ?  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n S e l f - C o n c e p t a n d the o t h e r study v a r i a b l e s ?  v.  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n Sex a n d t h e o t h e r  45 study  4.1.2  variables?  Samples For q u e s t i o n s ( i ) , ( i i ) , and (v) above, the sample i n c l u d e d  151 s u b j e c t s from 9 c l a s s e s i n seven  schools.  These were  s u b j e c t s whose scores were a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o f : Torrance t a s k s , SRP, CTBS, and P r o p o s a l .  One c l a s s of students from an e i g h t h  school was excluded because, i n t h e i r case, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures  f o r the Torrance tasks were not c o r r e c t l y f o l l o w e d .  Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s  presented f o r TTCT t a s k s , CTBS, SRP, and  Proposal are those computed from the sample of 151.  For  P r o p o s a l , the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s are presented f o r both the sample of 151 as w e l l as f o r the sample of a l l Proposals submitted  (n=225).  SRP's submitted From these question  For SRP, the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s  for a l l  (n=242) are presented i n Appendix K. 151 s u b j e c t s , 141 c o n s t i t u t e d the sample f o r  ( i v ) above ( i . e . , ten s u b j e c t s whose scores were not  a v a i l a b l e f o r Self-Concept were e x c l u d e d ) .  Test c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  presented f o r Self-Concept are those that were computed from a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s submitted  (n=242).  The case study sample f o r q u e s t i o n ( i i i ) i n c l u d e d 15 subjects. 151.  Fourteen of these were from the main study sample of  One of these 15 s u b j e c t s was not i n c l u d e d i n the main  study sample of 151 because of m i s s i n g scores on the Torrance tasks. For q u e s t i o n ( i i ) , the main study sample of 151 i s d i v i d e d  46  i n t o two s u b g r o u p s : N o n c r e a t i v e  (n=141) a n d C r e a t i v e  C r e a t i v e G r o u p s u b j e c t s were d e f i n e d a s t h o s e Proposal  r a t i n g o f 5 o r 6.  activity  where s u b j e c t s s u b m i t t e d  (n=lO).  obtaining a  ( P r o p o s a l was t h e name o f t h e a written plan/suggestion f o r  a party or f u n d - r a i s i n g event.  T h e s e " p r o p o s a l s " were  t h a t were judged  on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 6.) F o r  question  (iii),  with n=ll.  forcreativity the case  sample i n c l u d e d a C r e a t i v e Group  One o f t h e s e C r e a t i v e G r o u p s u b j e c t s was  from t h e main study the Torrance scores  study  tasks.  The f r e q u e n c y  t h e SRP.  study  f o r Proposal  One o f t h e s e  The o t h e r was e x c l u d e d  O v e r v i e w Of A n a l y s e s  permission  sample study  for participation.  And.Results  T h a t i n c l u d e d t h e s e v e n SRP v a r i a b l e s , t h e  s c o r e , s e v e n v a r i a b l e s f r o m t h e TTCT, t h e c o m p o s i t e  f r o m t h e CTBS, a n d a S e l f - c o n c e p t The  excluded  t h e a n a l y s e s , t h e r e was a common s e t o f s t u d y d a t a f o r  subjects.  Proposal  from t h e main s t u d y  f o r CTBS a n d f r o m t h e c a s e  sample because of l a c k of p a r e n t  For  s u b j e c t s was  samples because o f m i s s i n g s c o r e s f o r  because of m i s s i n g scores  score  distributions  ( T a b l e 4) i n d i c a t e s 13 s u b j e c t s m e e t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a f o r  from main and c a s e  151  excluded  s a m p l e o f 151 b e c a u s e o f m i s s i n g s c o r e s f o r  C r e a t i v e Group membership.  4.1.3  products  first  score.  s t e p i n t h e a n a l y s e s was t o l o o k a t t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e TTCT v a r i a b l e s . SRP  Fluency  and F l e x i b i l i t y  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  positively  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l b u t two o f t h e s e v e n TTCT v a r i a b l e s . A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y t h r e e o f t h e TTCT f i g u r a l  variables.  SRP  correlated with  47  O v e r a l l ,  s i g n i f i c a n t  v a r i a b l e s  t e n d e d  v a r i a b l e s  t h e m s e l v e s .  SRP  were  t a s k s  a n a l y s e s  g e n e r a l  a b i l i t y  of  a s  T h i s  was  s u g g e s t e d  t h a t  of  the  w i t h  was  among  t a s k s  to  them  P r o p o s a l ,  the  was  r a t h e r  T T C T ,  v a r i a b l e s  and  However,  a c h i e v e m e n t SRP,  TTCT  T o r r a n c e  common.  common  among  TTCT  and  T o r r a n c e  was  a c a d e m i c  c o n v e r g e n c e  none  t h a t  t h a t  what  by  SRP  c o r r e l a t i o n s  s o m e t h i n g  c o r r e l a t e d  next  v a r i a b l e s  a n a l y s i s  were  the  s t e p  most  F i v e  of  c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h  P r o p o s a l .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y CTBS  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  SRP  v a r i a b l e s .  how  much  the  a v a i l a b i l i t y Two  SRP  of  s t e p w i s e  and  than  CTBS  were  e x t e r n a l  C o n c e p t u a l  T h i n k i n g  F l e x i b i l i t y  and  l e v e l l e r P r o p o s a l .  in  by  a d d e d  a c a d e m i c  to  were  was  not  a c a d e m i c  p r e d i c t i n g  to  were f o u r  c r i t e r i o n  w i t h  t h e r e  to  the  a n a l y s e s  a l s o  the and  t i m e ,  w i t h  some  of  the  q u e s t i o n  of  of  P r o p o s a l  g i v e n  was in  T h u s ,  seemed  range  same  of  When  F l e x i b i l i t y  CTBS  r e m a i n e d  a c h i e v e m e n t  on  were  c o n d u c t e d .  P r o p o s a l , When  SRP  s c o r e s .  were  s u b s t a n t i a l .  f u l l  At  P r o p o s a l  was  the  p e r f o r m a n c e  t h e s e  p r e d i c t i o n  T h i n k i n g  the  of  a c h i e v e m e n t  p r e d i c t  of  of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t h e m s e l v e s .  s e l e c t e d .  C o n c e p t u a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n  i n d i c a t e d  among  w h i c h  p r e d i c t o r s  c o r r e l a t e d  u s e d  d e t e r m i n e  However,  r e g r e s s i o n  were  to  v a r i a b l e s  T h e r e f o r e ,  v a r i a b l e s  v a r i a b l e s  SRP  c o r r e l a t e d  the  t h e i r  the  was  e f f i c i e n t  P r o p o s a l .  as  as  between  c r e a t i v i t y . The  SRP  h i g h  measured  However,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  as  s u g g e s t e d  T h e r e  v a r i a b l e s .  be  m e a s u r i n g  f u r t h e r  c r e a t i v i t y .  to  c o r r e l a t i o n s  to  a l s o  the  be  and u s e d ,  e q u a t i o n  g e n e r a l the  p e r f o r m a n c e  o n l y  but  a b i l i t y g r e a t on  48  The  next a n a l y s i s q u e s t i o n  was c o n c e r n e d  discriminating  t h e C r e a t i v e Group.  who h a d g o t t e n  a " 5 " o r a "6" on t h e P r o p o s a l  Conceptual Thinking discriminators included  T h e s e were t h e t e n s u b j e c t s  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  f o r t h i s purpose.  i n the stepwise  power, even as t h e f i r s t  rating.  were t h e most  variable  little  entered.  a n d CTBS were t h e b e s t  scores.  powerful  When CTBS was f o r c e d t o be  d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , i t had  I n summary, F l e x i b i l i t y p r e d i c t o r s of Proposal  with  single  As d i s c r i m i n a t o r s o f t h e  C r e a t i v e Group, Conceptual T h i n k i n g  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  were  best. C a s e s t u d i e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r 15 s u b j e c t s a n d were quantified,into eight variables. included  i n convergence analyses  Proposal.  significantly  the  t o wonder a b o u t t h e c o m p l e x o r  To e x a m i n e w h i c h o f t h e s e or s u f f i c i e n t  raw d a t a  were  were  The Wonder v a r i a b l e was  The F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e was a s c o r e  necessary  emerged  v a r i a b l e s , Wonder a n d F r i e n d s  correlated with Proposal.  f o r the i n c l i n a t i o n  abstract.  that  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s .  Both of the case study  talent.  w i t h t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s a n d  I t was hoped t h a t a n y s t r o n g p a t t e r n s  might c l a r i f y  a score  T h e s e e i g h t v a r i a b l e s were  for psycho-social  v a r i a b l e s m i g h t be more  f o r p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o p o s a l , p a t t e r n s i n  inspected.  I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e Wonder v a r i a b l e was more n e c e s s a r y sufficient  f o r p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o p o s a l .  The raw d a t a  were  strongly  suggestive  about i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r t h e Conceptual  Thinking  variable.  Conceptual Thinking,  i n the case  study  and  49  sample, r e p r e s e n t e d  the  Wonder v a r i a b l e and  the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e .  h i g h s c o r e s on b o t h  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s had  Thinking. of  "6"  j o i n t presence  Only s u b j e c t s from t h i s  for Proposal.  o f s t r e n g t h s on b o t h O n l y s u b j e c t s who  a score  g r o u p had  for  the had  Conceptual  the h i g h e s t  score  50  Table  2 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d R a n g e s f o r S t u d y Variables*  Variable  Mean  Standard Deviation  Range  1 3.53 5.56 8.38 15.58 4.80 4.54 4.05  6.58 2.13 2.15 6.45 1 .99 3.15 2.18"  33 1 1 8 32 9 15 12  7.95 8.94 .36 1 .23 .64 .42 .13  2.81 2.91 .67 1 .35 1.16 .64 .41  12 15 3 5 6 3 2  Proposal  2.90  1.17  5  CTBS  5.21  .93  3  Self-Concept  193.00  39.55  176  Age**  124.34  5.85  27  Torrance Verbal Fluency Verbal F l e x i b i l i t y F i g u r a l Fluency 1 F i g u r a l Fluency 2 Figural Originality 1 Figural Originality 2 Creative Strengths SRP Fluency Flexibility Wishing Personal Capability Fantasy Factor Analyt ic Conceptual  Sex*** N=242 f o r S e l f - C o n c e p t . N=151 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . • D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r case study v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 17 a n d 18. **For age, u n i t s a r e i n months. * * * T h e r e were 66 b o y s a n d 85 g i r l s . '  51  Table  3 -  Percentage Five  Variable  Score  Wishing  Personal  Fantasy  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of the SRP V a r i a b l e s  Capability  Factor  Analytic  Conceptual  of  % of  Subjects  N=151  N=242  0 1 2 3  7 3 . ,5 1 8 . ,5 6 . ,6 1 .,3  7 6 . ,4 1 7 . ,4 5 . ,0 1 .,2  0 1 2 3 4 5  41 ., 1 2 3 . .2 1 7 . ,9 9 . ,3 6 . ,6 2 . .0  4 8 . ,0 2 2 . ,0 1 6 . .0 7 . .0 5 . .0 2 . .0  0 1 2 3 4 5 6  6 6 . .2 1 7 .. 9 8 ,. 6 4 ,.0 1 ,. 3 .7 1 ,. 3  6 6 ,. 5 1 6 ,. 9 8 , .7 4 ,. 1 1 ,. 7 1 ,. 2 .8  0 1 2 3  6 4 ,. 9 2 8 ,. 5 6,. 0 .7  6 7 ,. 0 2 6 ,. 0 6,. 0 .4  0 1 2  8 9 ,. 4 7,. 9 2,. 6  9 3 ,. 0 5 .0 2 .0  Scores  for  52  Table  4 - F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s of S c o r e s f o r Proposal Variable  n=1 51 Variable  Score  N  Proposal  1 1 .5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6  1 1 8 44 14 16 1 1 34 3 7 3  Table  n=224  % 7.3 5.3 29. 1 9.3 10.6 7.3 22.5 2.0 4.6 2.0  N 16 12 69 22 22 17 49 4 10 3  5 - I n t e r - s c o r e r and I n t r a - s c o r e r R e l i a b i l i t i e s t h e P r o p o s a l and SRP Variables  Variable SRP Fluency Flexibility Wishing Capable Fantasy Factor Analytic Conceptual Proposal  the  Inter-scorer .93 .91 1.00 .95 1.00 .89 .90  % 7.1 5.4 30.8 9.8 9.8 7.6 21 .9 1.8 4.5 1 .3  for  Intra-scorer .98 .97 1.00 1.00 1.00 .92 .90  .88*  Note. * B o t h j u d g e s a w a r d e d i d e n t i c a l r a t i n g s t o 77.8% o f t h e proposals. On t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o p o s a l s , j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s d i f f e r e d by one s c a l e p o i n t . F o r t h e s e c a s e s , t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e two r a t i n g s was t h e f i n a l s c o r e a s s i g n d t o a p r o p o s a l .  53  4.2  Relationships  B e t w e e n The SRP V a r i a b l e s  A n d The  Torrance  Variables I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e T o r r a n c e presented  i n Table  are presented variables  6.  i n Table  variables are  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s 7.  Correlations  and t h e T o r r a n c e  b e t w e e n t h e SRP  variables are presented  T h r e e o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s  i n Table  -- F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y ,  A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g -- were s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  positively  with variables  Overall, the  significant tended  from  the Torrance  tasks.  c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n SRP a n d T o r r a n c e  t o be o f t h e same m a g n i t u d e a s s i g n i f i c a n t  among T o r r a n c e Table Variables  variables  (excluding  correlated  variables correlations  intra-task variables).  VFlex  F1Flu  F2Flu  F10rig  F20rig  VFlu VFlex  59**  F1Flu  14  01  F2Flu  26**  18  32**  F10rig  13  10  54**  10  F20rig  20*  14  13  53**  00  CS  3 1 **  20*  10  31 **  09  *2<. 01 .  and  6 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among f r o m t h e T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (N=151)  VFlu  Notes: Leading  8.  decimals omitted •  **P_<.001 .  ; 26**  CS  54  Table  7 - P e a r s o n Product-Moment I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=151)  Flu  Flex  Wish  Capable  Fant F  Among  Analytic  Flu Flex  79**  Wish  24*  19  Capable  47**  27**  02  Fant F  15  01  02  07  Analytic  43**  45**  06  29**  Concept  14  07  07  14  Notes'; Leading decimals omitted. *2< .01. **P_<.001 .  -16 20*  19*  55  Table  8 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP a n d T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151)  Torrance SRP  VFlu  VFlex  FIFlu  F2Flu  FlOrig  F20rig  cs  Flu  24*  26**  13  30**  23*  1 9*  15  Flex  21*  22*  08  30**  20*  22*  13  Wish  05  16  15  05  09  02  -02  C a p a b l e -01  -04  -09  03  06  07  02  08  12  10  -04  06  -07  02  A n a l y t i c 06  01  07  22**  26**  2g**  01  01  04  12  06  10  04  14  Fant  F  Concept  Notes: Leading decimals *2<.01 . **2<.001.  omitted.  B o t h SRP F l u e n c y a n d F l e x i b i l i t y c o r r e l a t e d with the Torrance Flexibility,  significantly  variables: Verbal Fluency, Verbal  F i g u r a l Task 2 F l u e n c y , F i g u r a l Task  a n d F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y .  1 Originality  Of t h e s e , t h e h i g h e s t  c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h t h e T o r r a n c e Fluency,  were  v a r i a b l e , F i g u r a l Task 2  r a t h e r than w i t h the Torrance  verbal variables.  may be due t o t h e more q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e f i g u r a l (i.e.,  i f t h e e x a m i n e e ' s i d e a d o e s n ' t work v e r y w e l l  p r o b a b l y c a n ' t draw  This measure  he/she  i t and t h e r e f o r e c a n ' t g e t a s c o r e f o r i t .  By c o n t r a s t , e x a m i n e e s may o r may n o t e x e r c i s e e v a l u a t i v e t h i n k i n g on t h e v e r b a l t a s k . )  56  The SRP v a r i a b l e , significantly Originality,  w i t h the Figural  Originality.  It  Torrance verbal with the  degree Table  of  variable  Its  This  It  than  correlation  with each  None o f  the  Taskl  figural  domain s p e c i f i c i t y  verbal the  task  first  and t h e  figural  u n i q u e n e s s of Strengths  the  it  Creative  Creative  figural  noteworthy  the  originality  given  the  lesser (see  Thinking  w i t h both Torrance  latter  exhibited  correlated  a  figural  zero  significantly  1 Fluency.  correlate  may be t h a t for  this  the did  significantly. with  i s a h i g h degree  of  variable.  correlated  figural  with  neither  significantly  there  Strengths.  variables.  However,  with i t  correlated  second f i g u r a l  first  figural  Analytic  Task  Strengths  task  w i t h the  that  SRP v a r i a b l e s  Torrance v a r i a b l e ,  correlations  SRP F l u e n c y o r  Fluency did correlate  Task 2 F l u e n c y ,  the  of  the  Thinking variable  the  variables  Figural  None o f  with  other.  Figural  Torrance verbal  Task 2  Analytic  SRP v a r i a b l e s  Torrance, v a r i a b l e ,  Since F i g u r a l  while  than  w i t h the  were t h o s e  significantly  variables  variables,  variables  the  Task 1  demonstrated higher  correlations  for  originality  the  It  is also notable  correlated  Figural  significantly  is particularly  variability  3).  correlate  originality  were h i g h e r  Flexibility.  correlated  T a s k 2 F l u e n c y , and F i g u r a l  variables.  fluency variable.  Thinking,  Torrance v a r i a b l e s :  d i d not  figural  variables  Analytic  task  significantly  Among t h e  but  T h i s again points  task  since  the  s c o r e was d e v e l o p e d from r e s p o n s e s t o  the  Torrance  significantly variables  with  with not  up  with  the  Creative both  the  figural  57  tasks. Overall, Fluency,  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s ,  Flexibility  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , s h a r e d  n o t more v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e T o r r a n c e ,did  v a r i a b l e s than  i n t e r - t a s k w i s e among t h e m s e l v e s .  to  SRP F l u e n c y  a l l Torrance  Creative  and F l e x i b i l i t y  v a r i a b l e s except  the l a t t e r  SRP A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  a p p e a r s t o be r e l a t e d most s t r o n g l y t o T o r r a n c e originality.  a s much, i f  figural  a p p e a r t o be r e l a t e d  F i g u r a l Task  1 F l u e n c y and  Strengths.  4.3 The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Of P r o p o s a l A n d CTBS W i t h SRP A n d  Torrance  Variables Table  9 presents  s c o r e on t h e p r o d u c t and  Torrance  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between P r o p o s a l  (i.e.,  measure o f c r e a t i v i t y ) a n d CTBS a n d t h e SRP  variables).  None o f t h e T o r r a n c e correlated with Proposal.  v a r i a b l e s were  significantly  F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y e x h i b i t e d  the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h P r o p o s a l .  Three of the Torrance  v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS: Verbal Fluency,  Verbal F l e x i b i l i t y ,  and C r e a t i v e  Strengths.  F i v e o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , correlated with Proposal: Fluency,  Flexibility,  C a p a b i l i t y , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , and Conceptual these, F l e x i b i l i t y  Personal  Thinking.  had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h  T h r e e o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y Fluency,  Flexibility,  and P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y .  positively  Of  Proposal. w i t h CTBS:  Personal  58  Capability  had  Proposal  the h i g h e s t and  correlation  CTBS e x h i b i t e d  o t h e r t h a n w i t h any  o f t h e SRP  w i t h CTBS.  a higher  or T o r r a n c e  correlation variables.  with  each  59  Table  9 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s o f CTBS a n d P r o p o s a l w i t h SRP a n d T o r r a n c e V a r i a b l e s (N=151) CTBS  Proposal Torrance VFlu VFlex F1Flu F2Flu F10rig F20rig CS  28** 26** -17 05 01 14 23*  04 06 -09 00 01 18 05  SRP 26** Flu Flex 35** Wish 08 Capable 24* F a n t a s y F a c t o r -08 Analytic 28** Conceptual 23* CTBS  30** 33** -09 36** 08 19 16  46**  Notes: Leading decimals  omitted.  * 2 < . 0 1 . * * 2 < . 0 0 1 .  It  i s c l e a r that  predictive validity  the Torrance v a r i a b l e s offered  f o r the Proposal  T o r r a n c e - P r o p o s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were Five with  variable since  but three  o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with  CTBS.  As w e l l ,  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s In u n t a n g l i n g 1.  correlated also  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s (see Table 4.5).  t h i s m o s a i c , f o u r q u e s t i o n s were o f i n t e r e s t .  What s u b s e t o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s f o r t h e most  efficient 2.  none o f t h e  significant.  o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Proposal,  little  p r e d i c t i o n of the Proposal  Given the a v a i l a b i l i t y  variable?  o f t h e CTBS v a r i a b l e , what  further  60  contribution  do SRP v a r i a b l e s make t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n  of P r o p o s a l  scores? 3.  W h i c h SRP v a r i a b l e s  predicting Creative subjects 4.  h a v e t h e most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  Group membership  obtaining  Creative 4.3.1  the subset of  a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g of 5 or 6)?  Given the a v a i l a b i l i t y  SRP v a r i a b l e s  (i.e.,  power f o r  o f CTBS, what  to'discriminating  i s the c o n t r i b u t i o n  of  between t h e N o n c r e a t i v e and t h e  Group?  SRP And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n  Analysis  I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h i c h SRP v a r i a b l e o r c o m b i n a t i o n of  SRP v a r i a b l e s  w o u l d be t h e most e f f i c i e n t  predictors  Proposal variable, a multiple  stepwise regression  developed using  (those s i g n i f i c a n t l y  with  SRP v a r i a b l e s  P r o p o s a l ) as independent v a r i a b l e s  Proposal variable.  This provided  independent.variable equation, Kerlinger .05 f o r e n t r y regression  and  correlated t o the  a  per  'stable'  The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f into/from  the  e q u a t i o n was s e t i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t a p a r s i m o n i o u s  with  explained  The  increment of e x p l a i n e d  the independent v a r i a b l e s  variance  stepwise regression c a r r i e d out u s i n g Statistical  to derive  of a v a r i a b l e  i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n the  was  f o r a r a t i o o f 30 s u b j e c t s  & Pedhazur, 1973).  s u b s e t of v a r i a b l e s . associated  equation  to predict  (which i s d e s i r a b l e  .10 f o r d e l e t i o n  of t h e  was r e p o r t e d  t h e New  (R ) 2  a s an  o f t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s  i n the Proposal v a r i a b l e .  analyses presented  variance  The  to  two  i n t h i s chapter  were  R e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e from t h e  Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  (SPSS) ( K i t a ,  1981).  61  A summary of t h e s t e p w i s e P r o p o s a l and equation  SRP  v a r i a b l e s i s presented  generated  efficient  regression equation  indicates that F l e x i b i l i t y  p r e d i c t o r of P r o p o s a l .  the v a r i a n c e shared  with F l e x i b i l i t y  had  by C o n c e p t u a l  T h i n k i n g was  t h e most  Conceptual  been (R ) 2  i t c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  of t h e v a r i a b l e s — Thinking  a meaningful  Conceptual  the v a r i a n c e shared  T h i n k i n g had  10 - S t e p w i s e  removed). predicted in  (so  the  small  contribution).  Personal Capability,  -- c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Proposal after  Table  Fluency,  Proposal  small i n comparison to  amount o f v a r i a n c e a l r e a d y p r e d i c t e d by F l e x i b i l i t y that  the  The  t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n of  However, the p r o p o r t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e Proposal  10.  was  In a d d i t i o n ,  Thinking contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (after  i n Table  b a s e d on  None  or A n a l y t i c  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of  with F l e x i b i l i t y  and  been r e m o v e d .  R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I : P r o p o s a l and Variables SRP  SRP  Variables  Equation I Dependent V a r i a b l e : P r o p o s a l n=l5l p t o enter=.05 p to delete=. 1 0 Variables  Entered  Flexibility Conceptual Variables Fluency Capable Analyt i c  Remaining  R =.16 2  F  Probability=.0000 Increment i n  R  2  .1 2 .04 F-probability .54 .10 .18  62  I t appears that s u b j e c t s ' obtained F l e x i b i l i t y Conceptual  T h i n k i n g s c o r e s on t h e SRP a r e r e l a t e d b e y o n d c h a n c e  level  to their  these  two SRP v a r i a b l e s c o m p r i s e  o b t a i n e d r a t i n g on t h e P r o p o s a l m e a s u r e a n d t h a t  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s . Wishing,  a parsimonious  (The r e m a i n i n g  T h i n k i n g . ) The r e s u l t s o f E q u a t i o n  accuracy  of a l l  F a c t o r , and A n a l y t i c  I suggested  that the  SRP v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t i m p r o v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e of p r e d i c t i n g P r o p o s a l r a t i n g s compared t o t h e  p r e d i c t i o n b a s e d o n l y on F l e x i b i l i t y It  subset  SRP v a r i a b l e s a r e F l u e n c y ,  Personal C a p a b i l i t y , Fantasy  remaining  and  and C o n c e p t u a l  Thinking.  s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e  prediction  (R ) i s small. 2  T h i s e q u a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d  f o r the  purpose of e x p l o r a t i o n , not e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i t a r e not o f f e r e d a t t h i s p o i n t . 4.3.2 SRP, CTBS, And P r o p o s a l R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s . To d e t e r m i n e  w h e t h e r SRP v a r i a b l e s make a  significant  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p r e d i c t i o n of P r o p o s a l t h a t i s unaccounted for  by CTBS, a s e c o n d  developed.  SRP  regression equation  was  Independent v a r i a b l e s used i n the e q u a t i o n  CTBS, F l e x i b i l i t y , variables  stepwise  and C o n c e p t u a l  identified  by E q u a t i o n  Thinking  were:  ( t h e two SRP  I as a parsimonious  subset of  variables). A summary o f t h e s t e p w i s e  r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n b a s e d on t h e  P r o p o s a l , CTBS, a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s equation generated Conceptual  i s presented  i n Table  i n d i c a t e s that both F l e x i b i l i t y  Thinking contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  11.  The  and  t o the p r e d i c t i o n  63  of P r o p o s a l removed).  (after  the variance  ( t o o s m a l l t o be c o n s i d e r e d  suggests that t o a small extent, SRP v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s  f r o m CTBS s c o r e s P r o p o s a l measure. overlap  and that  variance ( R ) , 2  meaningful.)  This  b u t above a chance l e v e l ,  each  information that  share with  i s independent  i s r e l e v a n t t o p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e  I t also indicates that there  i n the variance  Flexibility Table  w i t h CTBS h a d been  The amount o f a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a i n e d  however, i s s m a l l  of t h e s e  shared  i s considerable  t h a t e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s , CTBS a n d Proposal.  11 - S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I I : P r o p o s a l , and SRP V a r i a b l e s  CTBS  CTBS a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s Equation I I Dependent V a r i a b l e : P r o p o s a l n=151 _____________  p t o delete=.lO V a r i a b l e s Entered CTBS Flexibility Conceptual  R =.27 2  '.  F  Probability=.0000  • Increment i n R . 2  .21 .04 .02  64  4.3.3  SRP The  And  Proposal  Creative  having Proposal  scores,  function  of the  SRP  i n the  Creative  Flexibility  The  The  i n each of  In o r d e r t o o b t a i n  =  two  .10).  six.  and  reported  subjects  Table  13  the  variables  groups are  significantly  i n each group.  for each step. discriminatory given  1979).  13 and  shows t h e  discriminatory  no  stepwise which  formed the for  to the  set  the in Table  those  discrimination =  .05;  g  to  power.  discriminant using  r e s u l t s of  The  selected  the  analyses  the  subprogram  analyses  are  i n t h e i r order  The  provided  n e x t most p o w e r f u l was  the  of  greatest  discriminator,  Analytic Thinking.  v a r i a b l e s e x h i b i t e d a l a r g e enough  noted, however, t h a t  observed  v a l u e o f W i l k ' s lambda i s p r e s e n t e d  Conceptual Thinking power.  to the  14.  m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o t o be be  A  presented  (g t o e n t e r  The  The  variables  Conceptual Thinking  second step,  Thinking  f o r p r e d i c t i n g membership  i n t h i s c h a p t e r were c a r r i e d out  i n Tables  full  p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t i e s of group membership f o r  DISC f r o m SPSS ( K i t a , reported  the  Conceptual  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s were s e t p r o p o r t i o n a l number o f  subjects  For  standard deviations  g r o u p s were r e t a i n e d The  those  a parsimonious s o l u t i o n , only  variables that contributed between the  as  employed t o d e t e r m i n e  s e v e n SRP  means and  Analysis  predictor variables.  a n a l y s i s was  Group.  predictor variables  delete  SRP  v a r i a b l e s were most u s e f u l  of p r e d i c t o r s .  12.  defined  e i t h e r f i v e or  been t h e most e f f i c i e n t  discriminant  Function  G r o u p (n=lO) was  r a t i n g s of  range of P r o p o s a l had  Discriminant  the  considered reduction  Beyond  the  partial  for s e l e c t i o n .  It  i n W i l k ' s lambda by  should the  65  v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d was Table  14 c o n t a i n s  coefficients function.  f o r the  substantial.  the  standardized  the  canonical  also  These are  f u n c t i o n , however, c o n t r i b u t e d  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between g r o u p s . separation  of  the  of the  group c e n t r o i d s  discriminant  two  The  large  significantly  i n magnitude. the  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  the  i n the  be  seen from  table.  The  the  to  groups can  presented  not  Thinking  function.  c o r r e l a t i o n corresponding to  reported.  t o the  function  i n d i c a t e that Conceptual  most t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a l o n g t h e  e i g e n v a l u e and f u n c t i o n are  discriminant  s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s on  These c o e f f i c i e n t s  contributed  The  not  function  examination  66  T a b l e 12 - Number, P r i o r P r o b a b i l i t y a n d Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s f o r Each C r i t e r i o n Group  Group Number Prior Probability Fluency  Noncreative N=1 41 .93 7.79  10.30 (2.58)  8.76 (2.85)  1 1 .50  (2.76)* Flexibility Wish  .37  ( .68) Capable Fantasy Factor Analyt ic Conceptual CTBS  Creative N=1 0 .07  (2.55) .20  (.42)  1.18 (1.30)  (1.89)  .63 (1.15)  .70 (1.34)  .37 (.57)  (1.03)  .2.00  1.20  .09 (..33)  (.79)  51.60 (9.30)  59.70 (5.19)  .80  Notes. The t a b l e i n c l u d e s p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s f r o m b o t h d i s c r i m i n a n t analyses i n the chapter. *Numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s .  67  T a b l e 13 - S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I : U s i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s t o Separate C r e a t i v e and N o n c r e a t i v e Groups SRP V a r i a b l e s Two G r o u p s : N o n c r e a t i v e  (n=141) a n d C r e a t i v e (n=1u)  Order of E n t r y of V a r i a b l e s p t o enter=.05 p t o delete-.10 S t e p No.  I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e W i l k ' s Lambda  1 2  Conceptual Thinking Analytic Thinking  V a r i a b l e s Remaining  F-probability  Fluency Flexibility Wishing Capable Fantasy Factor  Table  .81 .75  .35 .14 . 14 .69 .69  14 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s  forDiscriminant Analysis I  SRP V a r i a b l e s Independent V a r i a b l e  Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficients  Conceptual Thinking Analytic Thinking  *  Eigenvalue Canonical Correlation  .80 .55  .33 .50  Canonical Discriminant Function evaluated a t g r o u p means ( g r o u p c e n t r o i d s ) Group Noncreative Creative  Function -0.15 2.15  1 (Significance=.0000)  68  The a d e q u a c y o f t h e d e r i v e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u r t h e r a s s e s s e d by a p p l y i n g  the discriminant  f u n c t i o n was function to  s u b j e c t s used t o d e r i v e t h e f u n c t i o n and comparing p r e d i c t e d group membership w i t h a c t u a l group membership. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were a d j u s t e d proportional  t o group s i z e .  The  b a s e d on p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t e s Only four of the ten subjects i n  t h e C r e a t i v e G r o u p were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . indicate that while Conceptual Thinking  These r e s u l t s  and A n a l y t i c  were t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s t h a t were most r e l e v a n t  Thinking  to Creative  Group  m e m b e r s h i p , t h e y were n o t a d e q u a t e f o r c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y i n g a large proportion  of the C r e a t i v e  In r e v i e w i n g (Tables 11), the  the r e s u l t s of t h i s d i s c r i m i n a n t  13 a n d 14) a n d t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s  the following observations full  Group.  10 a n d  In accounting f o r  r a n g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P r o p o s a l  m e a s u r e , CTBS a n d  were t h e most e f f i c i e n t  single predictors.  Among t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , o n l y F l e x i b i l i t y  ratings.  (Tables  c a n be made.  SRP F l e x i b i l i t y  Thinking  analysis  contributed significantly By c o n t r a s t ,  and C o n c e p t u a l  t o the p r e d i c t i o n of  i n p r e d i c t i n g t o membership  C r e a t i v e Group, Conceptual T h i n k i n g  Proposal  i n the  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  were  t h e o n l y SRP v a r i a b l e s t o make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a discriminant  function.  69  4.3.4 CTBS, SRP And P r o p o s a l To  clarify  enter  linear  CTBS a n d t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s ,  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g ,  were u s e d a s  U s i n g a s t e p w i s e p r o c e d u r e , CTBS was f o r c e d t o  first  i f i t met t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a  2<-l0 t o d e l e t e . ) Tables  Analysis  Group membership, a n o t h e r m u l t i p l e  a n a l y s i s was e m p l o y e d .  Conceptual Thinking predictors.  Function  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t CTBS c a n make t o  predicting Creative discriminant  Discriminant  (g<.05 t o e n t e r a n d  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d i n  15 a n d 16.  Table  15 shows t h e o r d e r  consequent reduction variable.  of v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d and t h e  i n Wilk's  lambda w i t h  Both Conceptual Thinking  s e l e c t e d a f t e r CTBS was f o r c e d  the entry  of each  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  t o enter  first.  This  were  indicates  t h a t b o t h t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the  discriminant  f u n c t i o n beyond t h a t p r o v i d e d  t h o u g h i t was e n t e r e d resulting  first,  from t h e e n t r y  Table  16 c o n t a i n s  coefficients  the reduction  the standardized  indicate that Conceptual Thinking  The  eigenvalue  and c a n o n i c a l  i n Table  discriminant  function  These c o e f f i c i e n t s  contributed  most t o  are also presented  centroids  i n Tables  least.  c o r r e l a t i o n corresponding to the T h e s e a r e a l m o s t t h e same a s t h o s e  14 f o r t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s a l o n e .  centroids  did  lambda  t h e f u n c t i o n a n d CTBS c o n t r i b u t e d  function are also reported. reported  i n Wilk's  Even  o f CTBS was s m a l l .  f o r the selected v a r i a b l e s .  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n along  by CTBS.  i n Table  16.  14 a n d 16 shows t h a t  not r e s u l t i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater  The g r o u p  A c o m p a r i s o n of group  t h e i n c l u s i o n o f CTBS separation  o f t h e two  70  groups.  71  T a b l e 15 - S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I I : U s i n g CTBS and SRP V a r i a b l e s t o S e p a r a t e C r e a t i v e a n d N o n c r e a t i v e G r o u p s CTBS a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s Two G r o u p s : N o n c r e a t i v e  (n=l41) and C r e a t i v e  (n=lO)  Order of E n t r y of V a r i a b l e s p t o enter=.05 p t o delete-.10 S t e p No.  Independent V a r i a b l e  1 2 3  CTBS* Conceptual Thinking Analytic Thinking  Note. *CTBS was f o r c e d t o e n t e r the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a .  Table  Wilk's  first  16 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s  Lambda  .95 .79 .74  i f i t c o u l d meet  forDiscriminant Analysis II  CTBS a n d SRP V a r i a b l e s Independent V a r i a b l e  Standardized Discriminant Coefficients  CTBS Conceptual Thinking Analytic Thinking  .25 .76 .50  Eigenvalue Canonical C o r r e l a t i o n  .35 .51  Canonical Discriminant Function evaluated a t g r o u p means ( g r o u p c e n t r o i d s ) Group Noncreative Creative  Function -0.16 2.22  1  (Significance=.0000)  Function  72  To  f u r t h e r compare t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h i s  discriminant  derived  f u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t f r o m o n l y t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s ,  p r e d i c t e d g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p was c o m p a r e d w i t h a c t u a l g r o u p membership.  Again only  G r o u p were c o r r e c t l y The  four of the ten s u b j e c t s  i n the Creative  classified.  r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s u t i l i z i n g  both  CTBS a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t CTBS c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e d Further,  the small reduction  (see T a b l e  Group, they  4.4  lambda due t o CTBS  alone little  W h i l e t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , a r e not adequate t o p r o v i d e f o r  correct classification  available  i n Wilk's  15) s u g g e s t s t h a t CTBS, on i t s own, w o u l d h a v e  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power. Thinking  f o r by t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s a l o n e .  of a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i v e  a r e the best  d i s c r i m i n a t o r s from t h e v a r i a b l e s  i n the study.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Of C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s W i t h P r o p o s a l  And SRP  Variables The in  15 c a s e s t u d y  s i xdifferent  s u b j e c t s were f r o m s i x c l a s s r o o m s  schools.  The c a s e s t u d y  C r e a t i v e G r o u p members ( t h o s e  sample  located  included  s u b j e c t s whose P r o p o s a l  r a t i n g had  been a f i v e o r a s i x ) f o r whom SRP r e s u l t s were a v a i l a b l e (n=11).  Also  i n c l u d e d were t h r e e  r a t i n g o f 4.5.  subjects with a  The f i f t e e n t h c a s e s t u d y  Proposal  s u b j e c t had a  Proposal  r a t i n g of f o u r . S e l e c t i o n of case study Proposal  r a t i n g s had p r o v i d e d  s u b j e c t s on t h e b a s i s o f h i g h e s t for a considerable  degree of  73  variability  among SRP s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by members o f t h i s  Two l e v e l s o f P r o p o s a l p e r f o r m a n c e  existed within the Creative  Group, i . e . , r a t i n g s = 5 or r a t i n g s = 6 . Proposal rating  The s u b j e c t s w i t h a  o f 4.5 were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a s e  since the c u t - o f f  group.  study  sample  s c o r e of P r o p o s a l r a t i n g = 5 f o r C r e a t i v e Group  m e m b e r s h i p was an a r b i t r a r y one ( c o n s i d e r i n g e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t . ) The s u b j e c t w i t h a P r o p o s a l r a t i n g = 4 was i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e t h e r e was room f o r one more s u b j e c t i n t h e c a s e sample i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . like  study  The s u b j e c t s e l e c t e d was one who,  t h e C r e a t i v e G r o u p members, t e n d e d  t o have a b o v e  average  s c o r e s on t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s . The  case  s t u d i e s have been i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x  are presented f o r the i n t e r e s t of the reader evidence of the c h i l d r e n ' s Pearson  0.  r a t h e r than as  creativity.  product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  computed i n o r d e r t o determine  were  t h e e x t e n t of convergence  t h e c a s e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s . methods used For  rules  Appendix  They  t o develop case  study v a r i a b l e s ,  f o r s c o r i n g the case  among (For  s e e S e c t i o n 3.3.3.  s t u d i e s on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s s e e  P.)  Tables  17 a n d 18 p r e s e n t t h e means, s t a n d a r d  and  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s  and  f o r the case  deviations,  f o r t h e P r o p o s a l and SRP v a r i a b l e s  study v a r i a b l e s .  Tables  19 a n d 20 p r e s e n t  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s a n d among t h e c a s e study v a r i a b l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . c o r r e l a t i o n s between case  T a b l e s 21 a n d 22 p r e s e n t  s t u d y v a r i a b l e s a n d CTBS, P r o p o s a l ,  S e l f - C o n c e p t , a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s .  O r d i n a r i l y , one w o u l d n o t  74  discuss  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the tables  u n l e s s t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 0 1  presented  l e v e l (since  here  five  p e r c e n t o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t by c h a n c e a l o n e ) .  However, g i v e n t h e  exploratory  n a t u r e of t h e s t u d y and t h e l a r g e  number  developed  of v a r i a b l e s  f r o m e a c h o f t h e SRP and t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , coefficients seriously"  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01  correlation  level will  f o r the purpose of e x p l o r a t o r y  be  "taken  e x a m i n a t i o n and  discussion. From e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among c a s e variables the  a n d t h e P r o p o s a l a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s  f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be made.  variables  -- Wonder, F r i e n d s ,  and T o t a l  study  ( T a b l e s 21 a n d  Each of the case —  were  with  b o t h P r o p o s a l a n d t h e SRP  Conceptual Thinking.  The c a s e s t u d y v a r i a b l e , F r i e n d s , with  C a p a b i l i t y and A n a l y t i c  Thinking.  study  significantly,  positively correlated  significantly correlated  22),  t h e two SRP v a r i a b l e s :  variable, was  also  Personal  75  Table  17 - M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d R a n g e s f o r SRP, P r o p o s a l , a n d C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s (N=15)  Variable  Mean  S.D.  Min  SRP Fluency Flexibility Wishing Capable Fantasy Factor Analytic Conceptual  9.60 11.00 .47 1.67 .53 1.00 .53  2 53 2 20 83 1 63 1 13 00 74  6 7 0 0 0 0 0  Case Study Willpower Prayer Wishing Fantasy Wonder Humor Friends Parents Total  2.40 20 13 60 13 ,20 67 67 16.00  83 86 74 51 .83 ,77 82 ,49 ,78  5.03  58  Proposal  Max 13 17 3 5 4 3 2  3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 20 4.5  76  T a b l e 18 - F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r F i v e SRP V a r i a b l e s , P r o p o s a l , a n d C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e C a s e S t u d y Sample (N=15)  Variable SRP Wishing  Capable  Fantasy  Factor  Analytic  Conceptual  Proposal  Score  N  0 1 3  10 4 1  0 1 2 3 4 5  4 5 2 1 2 1  0 1 2 4  1 1 2 1 1  0 1 2 3  6 4 4 1  0 1 2  9 4 2  4 4.5 5 6  1 3 8 3  Variable  Score  N  1 2 3  3 3 9  Prayer .  1 2 3  4 4 7  Wishing  1 2 3  3 7 5  Fantasy  1 2  6 9  Wonder  1 2 3  4 5 6  Humor  1• 2 3  3 6 6  Friends  1 2 3  8 4 3  Parents  1 2  5 10  Case S t u d y Willpower  77  Table  19 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among SRP V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e C a s e S t u d y Sample (N=15)  Flu  Flex  Wish  Capable  Fant F  Analytic  Flu Flex  61 *  Wish  23  Capable  69*  Fant  F  -40  -12 38 -58  17 -21  -17  Analytic  65*  62*  00  61*  Concept  39  13  03  51  Notes: Leading decimals omitted. *2<.01.  -38 32  29  78  Table  20 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s (N=15)  Willpwr  Prayer  Wish  Fantasy  Wonder  Humor  Willpwr Prayer  -02  Wish  -20  -04  Fantasy  41  -46  -23  Wonder  12  -04  20  30  Humor  42  -28  20  04  18  Friends  21  00  -04  17  59*  45  Parents  18  -34  -26  29  47  38  Total  56  06  21  30  74**  63*  Fr iends  Parents  Parents  42  Total  76**  Notes: Leading decimals *2<.01. **p_<.001 .  47  omitted.  79  T  a  b  l  e  r f l % f ; " ^ t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C a s e S t u d y , P r o p o s a l , and SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=15) e  r  S  O  P r o d  0  SRP Case Study  Flu  Willpwr  01  -39  02  -1 1  37  09  21  Prayer  10  26  36  -20  -49  08  16  -16  04  01  -26  34  -29  -14  Fantasy  09  -32  14  35  40  28  23  Wonder  20  19  -30  30  38  43  68*  Humor  37  08  -04  40  28  09  30  Friends  55  52  -17  61*  13  61*  67*  Parents  29  13  -29  57  09  44  33  Total  39  18  -06  38  37  44  66*  P r o p o s a l 08  31  -48  31  35  31  62*  Wish  Flex  Wish  Notes; Leading decimals omitted. *p_< • 01 .  Capable Fant F  A n a l y t c Con  80  T a b l e 22 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n C a s e S t u d y a n d P r o p o s a l , CTBS, a n d S e l f - C o n c e p t . V a r i a b l e s  Case Study  Proposal  CTBS  Self-Con  Willpwr  -03  07  02  Prayer  -01  -19  -04  Wish  07  -27  -58  Fantasy  05  27  02  Wonder  73*  42  -3 1  Humor  30  -17  14  Friends  70*  23  - 1 4  Parents  42  46  22  Total  60*  17  N:  15  15  -13  14  Notes: Leading decimals omitted. *2<.01 . These r e s u l t s  indicate  t h e r e i s some c o n v e r g e n c e variables.  that  f o r t h i s case  study  sample,  among P r o p o s a l , SRP, and c a s e  study  The r e l a t i o n s h i p among Wonder, C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g ,  and P r o p o s a l seems somewhat l o g i c a l .  H i g h s c o r e s f o r Wonder  were a s s i g n e d t o s u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d w o n d e r i n g t h a t were a b s t r a c t , c o m p l e x , T h i n k i n g were d e v e l o p e d  or i n f i n i t e .  Scores  about  things  tor Conceptual  f r o m r e s p o n s e s t o t h e war p r o b l e m  which  81  c o n s t i t u t e s a complex problem. Proposal to  The  c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  activity  of g e n e r a t i n g  t o be c o m p l e x .  Subjects  w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r t y o r f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t  w o u l d meet a number o f c r i t e r i a , practicality, a p p e a r t o be  e.g.,  completeness, relevance. an  attraction  t o and  complex t h a t l i n k s together  these  the had  that  originality, Therefore  ability  i t could  t o work w i t h  v a r i a b l e s from  the  three  independent measures. The  variable, Friends,  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h these Personal  is significantly,  positively  as w e l l as w i t h t h e SRP  variables,  C a p a b i l i t y and  Analytic Thinking.  F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e were t h o s e . f r i e n d s as b e i n g parents of  and  these  one  teachers  priorities  a l s o commented on One  can  in this collection  their psycho-social  identified activities  of t h e h i g h e s t  individuals.  reflected  who  success  High-scorers  that the  the  of v a r i a b l e s have c o n t r i b u t e d or whether t h e i r  and  e a s i l y observed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a p p e a r s t o be abilities such as The strongly  such a r e l e v a n t  a t t h i s age  this  level  and  the  social  to  activities  skills.  It is  s e t of s k i l l s  have  however, t h a t  as p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t  i n d i c a t o r of  so many  other  ( a t l e a s t w i t h i n a s e l e c t e d sample  one.)  v a r i a b l e , Wonder, on r e l a t e d to Proposal  significantly  life  skills  e a c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e o t h e r , s u c h an  with  in their  ponder whether the  social activity  the  the p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t  h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e likely  on  the other hand, w h i l e and  just  Conceptual Thinking,  or even m o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d t o o t h e r  was  as not  SRP v a r i a b l e s .  82  Although  Wonder a n d F r i e n d s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  each o t h e r , the unexplained possibility to  perform  of d i f f e r e n t  correlated with  v a r i a n c e a l l o w s room f o r t h e  " t y p e s " o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a l l a b l e  s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e P r o p o s a l a c t i v i t y .  r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n as t o which of these  I t also  characteristics  F r i e n d s a n d Wonder) m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y  or s u f f i c i e n t f o r  s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P r o p o s a l  measure.  I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e s e t s o f s c o r e s on t h e s e (Table score  23) s u g g e s t s  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  t o be t h e more n e c e s s a r y  v a r i a b l e s compared  (rating=6), there  Friends scores  t o be h i g h .  by t h e Wonder  o f two c a s e  ( i . e . , F r i e n d s and Wonder).  noteworthy, however, t h a t a t the h i g h e s t Proposal,  three v a r i a b l e s  represented  and s u f f i c i e n t  (i.e.,  study  Iti s  l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e on  i s a t e n d e n c y f o r b o t h Wonder a n d Given  the s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s  b e t w e e n F r i e n d s a n d t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g a n d Personal Capability, abilities  there  i s the suggestion  of a r i c h mix of  and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as b e i n g  h i g h e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P r o p o s a l  measure.  relevant to  83  Table  23 - C a s e S t u d y S u b j e c t s ' S c o r e s on P r o p o s a l and C a s e S t u d y V a r i a b l e s : Wonder and F r i e n d s  the  Case Study Subject No. 1 2 3  6  and  6 6  3 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1  13 14 15  4.5 4.5 4  1 1 1  1 1 1  the  f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and  s e l e c t e d sample. data  reasonably To  3 3 .3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 2  suggestions  are  of such a  small  t e n t a t i v e g i v e n t h e use  However, g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine  f o r even these  appropriate to explore be  Friends  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.5  s p e c u l a t i v e and  case study  Wonder  4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  T h e s e and highly  Proposal  s m a l l n u m b e r s , i t seems  f o r whatever i d e a s or s p e c u l a t i o n s might  gleaned.  provide  f o r f u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n of the n a t u r e  c o n v e r g e n c e among v a r i a b l e s f r o m P r o p o s a l , SRP, S t u d i e s , the  raw  are presented high scores  scores  i n Table  for significantly 24.  for Conceptual  w i t h h i g h s c o r e s on  The  and  of  the  Case  correlated variables  t a b l e shows t h a t s u b j e c t s  Thinking  tend  the F r i e n d s v a r i a b l e .  t o be This  the only  with  subjects  relatively  84  clear-cut  r e l a t i o n s h i p between F r i e n d s and C o n c e p t u a l  Thinking  ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Wonder v a r i a b l e ) c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d follows.  T h o s e s u b j e c t s who h a d t h e i n c l i n a t i o n  t o wonder a b o u t  t h e c o m p l e x a n d who h a d t h e p l a y f u l n e s s a n d c o n f i d e n c e p s y c h o - s o c i a l l y t a l e n t e d , were a b l e a n d i n c l i n e d kinds of responses c r e d i t e d f o r Conceptual responses the  t h e same t i m e with  ideas  t o generate the  Thinking.  (i.e.,  ( i n d i c a t i n g conceptual  responses took  with  a b i l i t y ) but a t  Expressing  t h e form of f a n t a s y  analogies,  o r c h a n g i n g t h e r u l e s o r s t r u c t u r e o f a game .  in t h i s case,  t h e game o f t h e w h o l e w o r l d . )  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e s e  ( i . e . , among Wonder, F r i e n d s , a n d C o n c e p t u a l Thinking  s c o r e c a n be v i e w e d a s  scores another  Friends variables.  .  way  Thinking), the approximately  r e f l e c t i n g t h e j o i n t p r e s e n c e o f s t r e n g t h s on b o t h and  These  g e n e r a l l y showed t h e e x a m i n e e s t o be " p l a y i n g "  play-war t a c t i c s ,  Conceptual  of t h e  (see Appendix H f o r examples) d e a l t h o l i s t i c a l l y  "stop wars" problem  as  t h e Wonder  85  T a b l e 24  - C a s e S t u d y S u b j e c t s ' S c o r e s on S t u d y , and SRP V a r i a b l e s  Proposal,  Case Study Subject No.  Case  SRP  Proposal  Wonder  Friends  1 2 3  6 6 6  3 3 3  3 3 2  1 2 1  2 2 0  4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  3 3 2 2 3 2 2 1  2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1  2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0  2 0 1 3 2 1 0 1  12 13 14 15  4.5 4.5 4.5 4  2 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  Inspection  of the  h i g h l i g h t s another f o u r or  five  scores  issue.  (Table  24)  for Creative  The  first  able  t o do  w e l l on  assumption or e x p e c t a t i o n  be  one  the  Proposal  underlying  t h i s chapter  discriminant  (i.e.,  the  and  the  at  i n the  i n terms  table.  activity.  discriminant  next  Each  The function  is a distinguishable  g r o u p s t o be  tentative explanation,  i n a d e q u a c y of the  subjects,  six subjects  portrayed  a n a l y s i s , however, i s t h a t t h e r e homogeneity w i t h i n the  Group  Analytic  a p p e a r t o be d i f f e r e n t " t y p e s "  of c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h s t y p e was  Concept .  discriminated.  least in part,  for  This  would  the  function presented e a r l i e r  c r e a t i v e g r o u p e n c o m p a s s e s two  in  subgroups  86  having overlapping yet d i f f e r e n t To c o m p l e t e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be n o t e d  t h a t SRP W i s h i n g  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the case  on t h e SRP.  of the case  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Table  25 p r e s e n t s c a s e  medium o r h i g h s c o r e s f o r c a s e  tasks.  suggested  these  study  study Wishing  or P r a y e r had not  s t r a t e g i e s as responses  H o w e v e r , a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h SRP W i s h i n g  from t h e case  studies.  subjects'  Those s u b j e c t s h a v i n g  t o SRP  scores greater  t h e n z e r o a l s o h a d medium o r h i g h s c o r e s on e i t h e r Wishing  or Prayer.  r e p r e s e n t e d both w i s h i n g and p r a y e r  raw s c o r e s on t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s .  necessarily  study a n a l y s e s , i t  study v a r i a b l e s , Wishing  The SRP v a r i a b l e , W i s h i n g , responses  profiles.)  Prayer or  87  T a b l e 25 - C o m p a r i s o n o f W i s h i n g / P r a y e r S c o r e s f r o m SRP a n d C a s e S t u d i e s f o r t h e C a s e S t u d y Sample  Subject No.  SRP  Case  Study  Proposal  Wishing  Wishing  Prayer  1 2 3  6 6 6  0 1 0  3 1 3  3 3 1  4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 3 1 2 2 2 2 2  2 2 3 1 3 1 2 3  12 13 14 15  4.5 4.5 4.5 4  1 0 1 3  3 1 3 2  2 1 3 3  The  o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made h a v e been  t e n t a t i v e l y and a r e a  h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e attempt  of p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c e r n i b l e  in these data.  numbers i n t h e c a s e s t u d y s a m p l e were s m a l l . members were s e l e c t e d  sense The  C r e a t i v e Group  f o r t h es a m p l e b u t t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e  study d i d not a l l o w f o r a l s o  including  s c o r e s on C o n c e p t u a l a n d A n a l y t i c Proposal.  t o make  offered  What r e m a i n s  subjects having high  T h i n k i n g , b u t l o w s c o r e s on  t o be a c c o u n t e d  b e t w e e n t h e s e two s u b g r o u p s  of s u b j e c t s .  f o r i s the difference  88  4.5 R e l a t i o n s h i p To d e t e r m i n e contribute  Of S e l f - C o n c e p t W i t h  Study  Variables  whether the S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e  might  t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the study v a r i a b l e s ,  Pearson  p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c o m p u t e d . Table variable.  26 p r e s e n t s summary s t a t i s i t i c s Table  27 p r e s e n t s P e a r s o n  f o r the Self-Concept  product-moment  c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e other study v a r i a b l e s .  T a s k 2 O r i g i n a l i t y , a n d CTBS.  These c o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e c a s e  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s  27 do n o t s u g g e s t ' any s u b s t a n t i a l  Figural  were a l l study  variables  with Self-Concept.  G e n e r a l l y , t h e low and/or n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  Self-Concept variable  significantly  V e r b a l Fluency, Torrance  p o s i t i v e and' s m a l l i n m a g n i t u d e .  Table  and each of t h e  Self-Concept correlated  o n l y w i t h SRP F l u e n c y , T o r r a n c e  correlation  correlations in  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  a n d any o f t h e s t u d y  variables.  89  T a b l e 26 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s  Mean  f o r the Self-Concept  Standard D e v i a t i o n  1 93  Min  Max  92  268  39.55  N of Items  Hoyt e s t .  63  of r e l .  Stand.  .96  Error  Variable  o f Meas  7.41  Z-score  Lower Bound  -1 .08 -0.51 -0.05 .52 .98  148.41 170.97 189.03 211.59 229.64  U p p e r Bound 152, 175, 193, 216, 234,  92 49 54 10 15  T a b l e 27 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s S e l f -- C o n c e p t a n d O t h e r S t u d y V a r i a b l e s  Torrance VFlu VFlex F1Flu F2Flu F10rig F20rig CS  20* 14 17 08 09 20* 15  SRP Flu Flex Wish Capable Fant F Analytic Concept  Proposal  03  CTBS  Notes. N=14 f o r C a s e S t u d y v a r i a b l e s . N=141 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . Leading decimals omitted. *p_< .01.  21* 16 -03 17 -04 01 -09 22*  Between  Case Study Willpower Prayer Wish Fantasy Wonder Humor Friends Parents Total  23 -04 -58 02 -31 14 -14 22 -13  90  4.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Sex And O t h e r S t u d y Barron and H a r r i n g t o n researchers of  their  should  findings.  Variables  (1981) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t  routinely include  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  T a b l e 28 p r e s e n t s  c a s e s t u d y v a r i a b l e s . ) The o n l y  were w i t h SRP F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y , correlations  Group, there  superior  performance of g i r l s  findings that  study  girls  were t h r e e  variables  significant correlations  and Wishing.  i n d i c a t e d an a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e g i r l s .  Creative  i n reports  Pearson product-moment  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s b e t w e e n Sex a n d o t h e r (except  creativity  A l l three Among t h e  boys and e i g h t g i r l s .  i s consistent  return or recover  with  The  previous  from the "grade  four  s l u m p " s o o n e r t h a n do b o y s . T a b l e 28 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n Sex and O t h e r S t u d y V a r i a b l e s  Torrance VFlu VFlex F1Flu F2Flu F10rig F20rig CS  10 14 00 08 05 06 08  SRP Flu Flex Wish Capable Fant F Analytic Concept  25* 20* 21* -04 -09 -02 -14  Proposal  17  CTBS  -12  S e l f - C o n c e p t 01  Age  -  04  Notes. N=141 f o r S e l f - C o n c e p t v a r i a b l e . N=151 f o r a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . B o y s were c o d e d a s 1 a n d g i r l s were c o d e d a s 2. Leading decimals omitted.  91  V. 5.1  CONCLUSIONS AND  DISCUSSION  Introduction  5.1.1  P u r p o s e Of The  The  Study  d e v e l o p m e n t of  p r o m p t e d by designing  the  Solving  intent to  Real Problems  investigate  the  c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g tasks  (1) s t i m u l a t i n g  from the  examinee's p o i n t  (SRP)  tasks  possibility that of  would  was  of be:  view;  (2) c o m p l e x ; (3) l o g i c a l l y  r e l a t e d to c r e a t i v e  examinee's "everyday  b e h a v i o r as  i t occurs in  the  world";  (4) l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e f o r q u a l i t a t i v e i n d i c e s of o r i g i n a l i t y creative An  thinking.  exploratory  protocols  f o r the  identification idiosyncratic  approach to the  SRP  was  to the  age  level  expected that  SRP.  S i n c e SRP  e x a m i n e e ' s own  scoring  of of  creativity  subjects  that  i n the  for  might  study or  the be to  tasks. b o t h a b i l i t y and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d be to the  development of  u t i l i z e d i n order to provide  of m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  t h e s e k i n d s of I t was  or  r e f l e c t e d i n an  tasks  high-interest  were e x p e c t e d t o cue of a b i l i t i e s and  the  use  personality examinee's  responses  were i n t e n d e d t o r e s e m b l e  the  "everyday world" problems, of  the  examinee's u s u a l  a t t i t u d e s that  are  typically  they  repertoire  engaged i n  response to such problems. To SRP  a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e x a m i n e e s ' p e r f o r m a n c e  tasks,  other data u t i l i z e d  included:  on  92  (1) p e r f o r m a n c e on s e l e c t e d t a s k s f r o m  the Torrance  Tests of  Creative Thinking; (2) r e s u l t s  from  the Canadian Tests of B a s i c  Skills;  (3) s c o r e s on a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e S e a r s - S p a u l d i n g  Self-Concept  Questionnaire; (4) r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d on P r o p o s a l s , a n o v e l m e a s u r e o f life  c r e a t i v e problem  (5) s c o r e s on e v e r y d a y from case  s o l v i n g performance life  (see S e c t i o n 3.3.2);  behavior/characteristics  s t u d i e s o f s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s (n=15).  classified  everyday  developed  (Subjects  a s c r e a t i v e on t h e P r o p o s a l m e a s u r e c o m p r i s e d t h e  m a j o r i t y of the case  study  sample).  5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s The of  the creative c h i l d  study, is  contribution this  s t u d y h a s made t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i s t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f f i n d i n g s  i t appears reasonable  one who i s much a t t r a c t e d  t o conclude  gravity  c y c l e s of nature  child  wondering  T h i s c h i l d p u z z l e s a b o u t "why  i s " , "how s p a c e c a n be i n f i n i t e " ,  o t h e r n u m b e r s " , "why p e o p l e  that the creative  t o c o m p l e x i t y and e n j o y s  about t h i n g s t h a t a r e a b s t r a c t .  in this  " t h e way numbers make  b e h a v e t h e way t h e y d o " , o r "how t h e  keep r e o c c u r r i n g " .  T h i s i s t h e major  c l a i m t h a t c a n be made a b o u t a l l " c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n "  broad  i n the  study. In  addition to this  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o wonder a b o u t c o m p l e x  or  a b s t r a c t phenomena, t h e c r e a t i v e c h i l d  of  the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  a l s o h a s some o r a l l  He/she i s l i k e l y  t o be v e r y  p o p u l a r a n d a c c e p t e d a s a l e a d e r by f r i e n d s a n d c l a s s m a t e s .  The  93  child's  self-confidence probably  o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y something may (but  shows when s h e / h e has  difficult.  As w e l l , o r i n s t e a d , i t  a p p e a r a s p l a y f u l n e s s when t h e c h i l d  suggests f a r - f e t c h e d  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y r e l a t e d ) s o l u t i o n s t o a problem.  words, the c r e a t i v e c h i l d  s p o n t a n e i t y of  SRP  sparkling,  SRP V a r i a b l e s  seven dimensions  or v a r i a b l e s : Fluency,  Personal C a p a b i l i t y , Fantasy  Conceptual  Thinking.  the r e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s  Flexibility.  f o r t h e most p a r t , t o be  Although  F l u e n c y and  two  c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n SRP  and  variables,  Flexibility  Drawing IV)  the  are-suggested.  Flexibility  would  r e f l e c t i o n s of g e n e r a l  Flexibility  ability,  i n d i c a t o r of t h e  were  from  two.  significantly  V e r b a l F l u e n c y and V e r b a l  Flexibility,  v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h CTBS  but not w i t h P r o p o s a l .  Torrance  variables  b e i n g t h e more a c c u r a t e  c o r r e l a t e d with Torrance the l a t t e r  variables.  B o t h F l u e n c y and  and  reasonable  (presented i n Chapter  f o l l o w i n g . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e SRP  with F l e x i b i l i t y  Thinking,  R e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e m e a n i n g o f SRP  F l u e n c y and  Flexibility,  Factor, Analytic  o t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t e d were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e  appear,  an  e x p l o r a t o r y d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o t o c o l s f o r s c o r i n g t h e  yielded  Wishing,  other  thought.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Of The  In  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e i t h e r o r b o t h  " I - c a n - d o - i t / s t i c k - t o - i t - i v e n e s s " a t t i t u d e or  5.2.1  the  Upon i n i t i a l l y F l u e n c y and  i t i s tempting  o b s e r v i n g the  Flexibility  to conclude  and  significant the  t h a t SRP  a r e measures of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g  Fluency  j u s t as  the  94  Torrance v a r i a b l e s are  s u p p o s e d t o be.  h o w e v e r , t h a t what i s common t o t h e s e Torrance v a r i a b l e s i s general by C T B S ) . Proposal  The  SRP  Proposal  i n a stepwise  the v a r i a n c e  SRP  ability  and (as i n d i c a t e d  correlated with  Flexibility  11),  o v e r l a p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n CTBS and with Proposal.  selected f i r s t .  equation,. Fluency  but  the  as p r e d i c t o r s of  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s (Table  t h a t each shared  was  SRP  not.  v a r i a b l e s were u s e d a s p r e d i c t o r s ( T a b l e than Fluency  likely,  measure of c r e a t i v i t y ) ,  o f b o t h CTBS and  that considerable in  intellectual  (the "everyday l i f e "  use  particular  v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  T o r r a n c e v a r i a b l e s were The  I t i s more  failed  Flexibility  When o n l y  SRP  10), F l e x i b i l i t y  Once. F l e x i b i l i t y  t o meet t h e  showed  was  rather  in  the  selection criteria.  This  indicated that considerable  o v e r l a p e x i s t e d between F l u e n c y  Flexibility  that each shared  Wishing.  i n the v a r i a n c e  The  v a r i a b l e , Wishing,  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any Sex). study  Notably,  subjects  Without exception, greater reported  than zero t h e use  However, not  w o r d s , i f one  25)  study  r e v e a l e d the  i f a case study  of w i s h i n g  (except, f o r  or p r a y e r  t h e SRP,  reported  when  Wishing scores no  w i t h the data  for  case  the  following pattern. obtained  a  score  then he/she a l s o interviewed.  using wishing  r e s p o n s e s on  scores, there are  raw  s u b j e c t had  or p r a y e r  a l l s u b j e c t s who  W i s h i n g or P r a y e r  significantly  E x a m i n a t i o n of the  (Table  u s e s SRP  Proposal.  correlate significantly  f o r W i s h i n g on  a l s o made w i s h  not  v a r i a b l e i n the  i t d i d not  v a r i a b l e , Wishing.  case study  had  other  was  with  and  t h e SRP.  or In  prayer other  to p r e d i c t to case f a l s e p o s i t i v e s but  study there  95  are  false negatives.  Wishing  indicates unreliability  f o r t h e SRP  score.  Personal Capability. Fluency  This  The v a r i a b l e ,  and F l e x i b i l i t y ,  Personal C a p a b i l i t y ,  like  c a n be v i e w e d f o r t h e most p a r t a s an  i n d i c a t o r of general a b i l i t y .  Of a l l t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s ,  P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y h a d t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h CTBS 9) .  Like Fluency,  Capability had  failed  as a p r e d i c t o r of Proposal, t o meet s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a  a l r e a d y been e n t e r e d  (Table  Personal  once  Flexibility  into the p r e d i c t i o n equation  (Table  10) .  Fantasy  Factor.  Fantasy  F a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e SRP v a r i a b l e , C o n c e p t u a l not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any o t h e r  positively  Thinking.  I t was  variable i n the  study. What i s common t o b o t h characteristics  of these  such as c o n f i d e n c e  v a r i a b l e s m i g h t ' be  or w i l l i n g n e s s t o take  risks  i n e x p r e s s i n g o f f - b e a t i d e a s , p l a y f u l n e s s , and r e l a x a t i o n of censorship of ideas.  Responses c r e d i t e d f o r a Fantasy  Factor  s c o r e c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be v i e w e d i n t h i s way, e . g . , "Rob a bank," or  "Hold  a c a t up f o r r a n s o m , " ( i . e . ,  wouldn't r e a l l y use).  s o l u t i o n methods t h a t one  Some s u b j e c t s e v e n w r o t e a p a r e n t h e t i c a l  note t o e x p l a i n that t h e i r Fantasy  Factor  suggestion  was a j o k e .  S i m i l a r a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s m i g h t be s e e n t o underly  responses c r e d i t e d f o r Conceptual  Thinking  T h e s e r e s p o n s e s showed s u b j e c t s t o be t r u l y for  s t o p p i n g wars a s opposed t o l i s t i n g  solution  strategies.  (e.g.,  scores.  "playing" with  commonly  "Have a m a g i c i a n  ideas  witnessed  t h a t would  turn  96  weapons i n t o h a r m l e s s  things l i k e animals."  " B r i n g back  people  f r o m t h e d e a d t h a t were good a t s o l v i n g t h e s e k i n d s o f problems."  F o r more e x a m p l e s ,  see A p p e n d i c e s  J and L.) F u r t h e r ,  t h e o c c u r r e n c e of C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e s  suggested  that  t h e s e s u b j e c t s e x p e c t e d o r assumed t h a t t h e y c o u l d g e n e r a t e definitive appeared problem it.  s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s o l d and c o m p l e x p r o b l e m .  t h a t s u b j e c t s had a c c e p t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or ownership  of the problem  a n d an e f f o r t  rid  of the l a r g e - s c a l e  to generate  l e v e l o f f a r - r e a c h i n g n e s s ( e . g . , "You job of sending out  instructions  f o r the  war  r a t h e r than withdrawing  Responses r e f l e c t e d comprehension  of the problem  It  from  nature  s o l u t i o n s o f t h e same  know t h e guy  f o r t h e war  t h a t has  -- w e l l ,  just  the  get  o f h i s j o b i n e a c h o f t h e c o u n t r i e s . " ) I t seems i m p l i c i t  these l a r g e - s c a l e s o l u t i o n s or h o l i s t i c problem  t r e a t m e n t s of  the  t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s e x p e c t e d o r had c o n f i d e n c e t h a t  c o u l d work w i t h a p r o b l e m  of t h a t scope  and c o m p l e x i t y .  c o n f i d e n c e and p l a y f u l n e s s w i t h i d e a s were s u g g e s t e d  in  by  they Thus  the  Conceptual Thinking responses. What a p p e a r s Thinking responses  t o be common t o F a n t a s y F a c t o r a n d  i s an a t t i t u d e o f p l a y f u l n e s s a n d c o n f i d e n c e .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e v a r i a b l e , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , may i n d i c a t o r o f an a t t i t u d e o r p e r s o n a l i t y Analytic Thinking. variable.  be v i e w e d  for this  an  logical  puzzling  e x a m i n a t i o n of  s c o r e as w e l l as i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h a number o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was  as  characteristic.  A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s a somewhat  I t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e p e n d s on  responses c r e d i t e d  Conceptual  i n the  significantly  study. c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  SRP  9 7  "ability"  variables  Capability  —  correlated  with  Flexibility  —  Fluency, F l e x i b i l i t y ,  but u n l i k e CTBS.  i n that  and P e r s o n a l  t h e s e i t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  I t was a l s o  unlike  F l u e n c y and  i t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  correlated  (See T a b l e s 8  T o r r a n c e V e r b a l F l u e n c y and V e r b a l F l e x i b i l i t y . and  with  9 ) .  Instead,  i t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  figural variables  correlated  with  a n d most s u b s t a n t i a l l y so w i t h  originality variables.  Torrance  the f i g u r a l  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a t r e n d  c o n v e r g e n c e among t h e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s  Proposal,  Analytic  T h i n k i n g , and T o r r a n c e F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y . T h i n k i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  correlated  variables.  Neither Analytic  Originality  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  with  toward  Analytic  e a c h o f t h e o t h e r two  T h i n k i n g o r F i g u r a l Task 2 correlated  with  CTBS.  Although  F i g u r a l Task 2 O r i g i n a l i t y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  correlated  Proposal, i texhibited  i t than d i d any  of  the other Torrance Intercorrelations  s t u d y sample a l s o for  the Analytic  significantly (See  a higher c o r r e l a t i o n with variables.  among t h e s c o r e s o f s u b j e c t s  revealed  Thinking variable.  correlated  i n the case  i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  with  Analytic  T h i n k i n g was  the case study v a r i a b l e ,  Friends.  A p p e n d i x P f o r d e f i n i t i o n s o f s c o r e s on t h e F r i e n d s  variable.)  E a c h o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s  correlated  with  Analytic with  with  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e ,  were a l s o  significantly  Personal Capability.  T h i n k i n g was a t t h e same t i m e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  SRP F l u e n c y a n d F l e x i b i l i t y ,  While correlated  F r i e n d s was n o t .  These p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  suggest that  while  general  98  ability  i s a component o f A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , t h e r e  is also  another  m a j o r component u n d e r l y i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e .  (The  component o f A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g was was  i n d i c a t e d by  s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with F l e x i b i l i t y ,  shared  the  13 and  fact that i t  which i n turn  c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a n c e w i t h CTBS, see T a b l e s  Comparing T a b l e s  7,  15 a l s o r e v e a l s t h e e x t e n t o f  v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and  ability  9, and  11.  shared  CTBS i n p r e d i c t i n g t o  C r e a t i v e G r o u p m e m b e r s h i p . ) T h i s o t h e r component w o u l d seem t o be an a s p e c t Thinking  of p e r s o n a l i t y .  Responses c r e d i t e d f o r A n a l y t i c  revealed a w i l l i n g n e s s to apply  l o g i c and  the s o l u t i o n of a l a r g e - s c a l e , complex p r o b l e m . Thinking  r e s p o n s e s came f r o m t h e  such responses  ( e . g . , make c o u n t r i e s s h a r e ;  entirety,  people) f a i l e d  they  get people  While in  better; organize;  logically defensible  steps  towards the d e s i r e d g o a l .  This Willingness to t r y , using  whatever reasoning  one  possesses,  w i t h d r a w f r o m a c o m p l e x p r o b l e m may characteristic  be  the  r a t h e r than  to  k i n d of p e r s o n a l i t y  u n d e r l y i n g the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e .  p e r s o n a l i t y component m i g h t be characteristic,  use  t o d e a l w i t h the problem i n i t s  c o u l d be v i e w e d a s  ability  "endurance"  to  Analytic  "stop wars" problem.  d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s t o know e a c h o t h e r influential  reasoning  This  s p e c i f i e d as t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  (from Edwards P e r s o n a l  Preference  Scale.) The  significant correlation with Friends  i s suggestive  p e r s o n a l i t y component f o r t h e A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g v a r i a b l e . . may  be  of a It  t h a t the w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y or t o p l a n or t o o r g a n i z e  shown i n r e s p o n s e s t o t h e war  p r o b l e m ) i s a l s o one  p a r t of  (as  the  99  constellation  o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e n c o m p a s s e d by p s y c h o - s o c i a l  talent. The  c o n v e r g e n c e among A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g , F r i e n d s , a n d  Personal C a p a b i l i t y a l s o i s supportive of a p e r s o n a l i t y interpretation Capability  f o r the A n a l y t i c Thinking v a r i a b l e .  responses suggested  t o be c a p a b l e  of doing  that subjects viewed  other  people  Self-confidence, high expectations  f o r o n e ' s own  i s one component o f  ability.  I t h a s been a r g u e d t h a t A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g of t h e j o i n t  presence of general  i s an i n d i c a t o r  i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and  certain personality characteristics, these  courage,  (see Appendix J f o r  p e r f o r m a n c e , o r an " I c a n do i t " a t t i t u d e leadership  themselves  things that required a b i l i t y ,  l u c k , and/or i n f l u e n c e over examples).  Personal  i . e . , endurance.  While  a r g u m e n t s f o r a p e r s o n a l i t y component a r e t e n t a t i v e l y  offered sample),  ( g i v e n t h e s i z e and s e l e c t i o n they  was r e l a t i v e l y a significant  b a s i s f o r the case  a r e one way o f e x p l a i n i n g why A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t o f CTBS ( s e e T a b l e s  9 a n d 15) b u t was  p r e d i c t o r of C r e a t i v e Group membership.  Conceptual  Thinking.  positively  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h P r o p o s a l , t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s --  Fantasy  Conceptual  T h i n k i n g was  F a c t o r and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  significantly,  -- a n d t h e c a s e  v a r i a b l e s : Wonder, F r i e n d s , a n d T o t a l . variables,  study  From among t h e T o r r a n c e  i t s highest c o r r e l a t i o n was.with C r e a t i v e  If A n a l y t i c Thinking  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the dual  of  and "endurance" and Fantasy  "general a b i l i t y "  study  v i e w e d a s an i n d i c a t o r o f " p l a y f u l n e s s " , t h e n  Strengths.  characteristics Factor i s  this  suggests  a  100  r i c h mix  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n d e r l y i n g the C o n c e p t u a l  variable.  The  responses  credited  r e f l e c t e d b o t h p l a y f u l n e s s and A p p e n d i c e s L and The  for Conceptual  (See  J.)  s t r o n g d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n t h a t has  Conceptual  Thinking  conceptual a b i l i t y .  s c o r e s of s u b j e c t s i n the case  the Conceptual  Thinking  study  sample r e v e a l e d a  implications  Thinking variable.  for  interpreting  Case s t u d y s u b j e c t s h a v i n g  T h i n k i n g s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o were o n l y  those  s u b j e c t s h a v i n g medium t o h i g h s c o r e s f o r b o t h t h e c a s e v a r i a b l e s , F r i e n d s and Wonder ( T a b l e 2 4 ) . inclination Friends  t o wonder a b o u t t h e c o m p l e x , a b s t r a c t , o r  of a b i l i t y  Conceptual  and  personality  Thinking variable.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was T h i n k i n g was  This suggests traits The  can  r e l e v a n c e of these  t h e most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r  one  label  and  Conceptual  f o r s e p a r a t i n g the  the a b i l i t y / p e r s o n a l i t y  15).  characteristic  Thinking variable?  From  p a t t e r n of s c o r e s i n the case  study  a  s c o r e g r e a t e r than z e r o can  sample ( i . e . , be  the  combined  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e C o n c e p t u a l  Thinking  complex  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by  C r e a t i v e Group from the N o n c r e a t i v e Group (Table How  Each of  that a very  i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t  the  Conceptual  seen t o r e f l e c t  the  j o i n t presence  o f s t r e n g t h s on b o t h t h e Wonder and  Friends  v a r i a b l e s ) one  can  A subject  offer  the f o l l o w i n g  statement.  o b t a i n s a score g r e a t e r than zero f o r Conceptual who:  the  infinite.  indicated successful psycho-social activeness.  personality characteristics. set  study  Wonder i n d i c a t e d  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s w o u l d seem t o i n v o l v e b o t h a b i l i t y  a  who  T h i n k i n g i s one  101  •  wonders about the complex, a b s t r a c t , or  •  has  p s y c h o - s o c i a l t a l e n t and  activities •  i s a b l e and  infinite  places high value  on  with friends i n c l i n e d to play with  i d e a s about a complex  problem. E x a m i n a t i o n of r e s p o n s e s c r e d i t e d f o r C o n c e p t u a l Thinking  s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s had  play-with-friends experience (i.e.,  responses took the  t a c t i c s , and Subjects  changing the  form of  fantasy analogies,  of t h o u g h t .  suggest the  label creativity  be  ( a s d e f i n e d by d e a l i n g  with  ability  I t may  represented  --  by  fashion), imagination,  t h e r e f o r e be creativity  c r e a t i v i t y as a p e r s o n a l i t y type  --  f o r the case study  c o g n i t i v e and I t can in  affective  reasonable  as a b i l i t y  for referring  s a m p l e ) had  to  provided  be a r g u e d t h a t t h e C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g specified  to  the Score.  of p l a y w i t h f r i e n d s for both  s t i m u l a t i o n of t h e c r e a t i v e  f a c t meet t h e c r i t e r i a  and  and  the Conceptual T h i n k i n g  I t m i g h t a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y least  play-war  r e s p o n s e s w o u l d seem t o  problem i n a h o l i s t i c  spontaneity  (at  problem  r u l e s o r s t r u c t u r e o f a game.)  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n c e p t u a l  characteristics  their  when " p l a y i n g " w i t h t h e war  making Conceptual T h i n k i n g  t h e c o m p l e x war  p e r h a p s drawn f r o m  the  process. responses  i n the d e f i n i t i o n  of  c r e a t i v i t y as a b i l i t y , i . e . , t h e power of t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t o b r e a k away f r o m p e r c e p t u a l s e t so as t o r e s t r u c t u r e i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , and f e e l i n g s i n t o n o v e l and m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i v e bonds ( K h a t e n a & T o r r a n c e , 1 9 7 3 ) . ( c i t e d by K h a t e n a , 1976, p. 339)  do  1 02  The  key a s p e c t s  perceptual  of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n  r e s p o n s e s do meet t h e s e  and a r e t h e o n l y  subjects'  away  from  s e t w i t h r e s u l t i n g n o v e l t y ' and 'meaningfulness'.  Conceptual Thinking aspects  a r e 'the b r e a k i n g  imagination  criteria  o r key  kinds of responses that d i d so.  h a d b r o k e n away f r o m p e r c e p t u a l  That  s e t was  i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e  r e s p o n s e s were n o t "commonly  witnessed  That these  the  solution strategies".  same t i m e m e a n i n g f u l  r e s p o n s e s were a t  i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t  that the  s o l u t i o n s were o f t h e same s c a l e o r s c o p e a s t h e p r o b l e m (i.e.,  they  constituted a holistic  treatment  or  itself,  conceptual  approach t o the problem). I t c a n a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u b j e c t s obtaining Conceptual Thinking definition  scores  are consistent with the  of c r e a t i v i t y as p e r s o n a l i t y , i . e . ,  one who i s a t t a i n i n g a s e c u r e s e n s e o f s e l f and who i s e x p r e s s i n g p o s i t i v e w i l l i n s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , m o d i f y i n g , a n d r e c r e a t i n g h i s / h e r own experiences. This d e f i n i t i o n suggests growing s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and c o n n o t e s a c t i v e n e s s as opposed t o reactiveness or p a s s i v i t y / a c c e p t a n c e . (From S e c t i o n 1.3.2) These s u b j e c t s had r e p o r t e d wondering and p u z z l i n g about complex phenomena ( i . e . , illustration experience secure  t h e Wonder s c o r e ) .  of a c t i v e n e s s  i n s e l e c t i n g and r e c r e a t i n g  as opposed t o p a s s i v e  sense of s e l f  T h i s c a n be s e e n a s an  a c c e p t a n c e o f what i s .  i s i n d i c a t e d by b o t h t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l  t a l e n t a n d t h e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i m p l i e d by t h e g e n e r a t i o n Conceptual Thinking inherent  A  responses.  i n both p s y c h o - s o c i a l  Further,  the playfulness  t a l e n t and t h e C o n c e p t u a l  of the  103  T h i n k i n g responses o n e ' s own  c a n be s e e n a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f ' r e c r e a t i n g  experiences'.  These t h e n , a r e t h e arguments f o r s u g g e s t i n g for an  the case  study  sample, t h e Conceptual  i n d i c a t o r of c r e a t i v i t y support  that these  subjects a l s o generated  and p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e .  f o r t h i s a r g u m e n t i s p r o v i d e d by t h e f a c t  a c t i v i t y ) w h i c h was j u d g e d 5.2.2 A p p a r e n t V a l u e Both  Thinking variable i s  as both a b i l i t y  Additional  that, at least  a product  (i.e.,  the Proposal  t o be a c r e a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t .  Of The SRP V a r i a b l e s  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g a n d  Conceptual  Thinking are c r e a t i v i t y - r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s that are novel i n relation  to the instruments  only v a r i a b l e s i n the study  used i n t h e study.  They were t h e  t h a t h a d power f o r p r e d i c t i n g  C r e a t i v e Group membership ( s e e S e c t i o n 4.3.4). i n S e c t i o n 5.2.1 h a s s u g g e s t e d  that t h i s  The d i s c u s s i o n  i s due t o t h e f a c t  that  each of these v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t both p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i l i t y characteristics. The  SRP v a r i a b l e s , F l u e n c y , F l e x i b i l i t y ,  and P e r s o n a l  C a p a b i l i t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y relation  to other  instruments  of s u b s t a n t i a l v a l u e  used i n t h e study)  i n order  for identifying creative individuals.  p r e d i c t i n g t o p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o p o s a l creativity)  novel ( i n  ( t h eproduct  t h e y d i d n o t make s u b s t a n t i v e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s b e y o n d t h a t o f CTBS ( i . e . , achievement measure, see S e c t i o n 4.3.2).  t o be In  measure of  significant the academic Therefore  these  v a r i a b l e s were n o t o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e g i v e n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  104  a standardized The  measure of academic  Fantasy Factor  to Proposal  achievement.  v a r i a b l e was n o t o f v a l u e  (see Table 9 ) .  in predicting  I t appeared t o r e f l e c t  personality  characterisitics  ( S e c 5.2.1.) b u t d i d n o t a t t h e same t i m e t a p  ability.  I t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  (i.e.,  Flexibility  o r CTBS; s e e T a b l e  Therefore Thinking  i t was o n l y  9.)  the Analytic Thinking  v a r i a b l e s that offered information  creativity instruments  a n d t h a t was u n a v a i l a b l e  and C o n c e p t u a l  t h a t was r e l e v a n t t o  from other  predictor  used i n the study.  5.2.3 A d e q u a c y Of SRP V a r i a b l e s Although Conceptual Thinking most p o w e r f u l  were t h e  d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of t h e C r e a t i v e Group (see T a b l e s  13 a n d 1 5 ) , t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t not  and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  f u n c t i o n d e v e l o p e d f r o m them was  adequate f o r c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  C r e a t i v e Group.  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n  suggested f o r t h i s  t h a t t h e C r e a t i v e G r o u p c o m p r i s e d two d i f f e r e n t both case study  of the  a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s were e x a m i n e d .  was  s u b g r o u p s when This  lack of  h o m o g e n e i t y i n t h e C r e a t i v e G r o u p , h o w e v e r , was u n l i k e l y t o account f o r the fact scores  greater  Thinking  that there  than zero  than there  were more s u b j e c t s who  f o r Conceptual Thinking  were C r e a t i v e G r o u p members  obtained  and A n a l y t i c (i.e.,  Proposal=5 or 6 ) . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e b e s t overall  equation  r a n g e o f p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o p o s a l  f o r p r e d i c t i n g the  (see Table  accounted f o r a small percentage of the variance  11) o n l y  i n Proposal.  105  These f i n d i n g s can not  be  measured i n the  p e r f o r m a n c e on One  could  the  taken to suggest that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s )  study c o n t r i b u t e d Proposal  speculate  efforts  in a relatively  without  frequent  s u b s t a n t i a l l y to  activity.  t h a t the  ability  unstructured  p r o m p t s and  to organize  s i t u a t i o n and  f e e d b a c k , w o u l d be  i m p o r t a n t t o s u c c e s s on  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m i g h t be  c a l l e d mental maturity  equated with 318.)  Creative  predict Proposal  the  Conclusions  f i n d i n g s and  general  (which i s  not  1958,  or t o b e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t e  s e c t i o n has  p.  the  maturity.  e s s e n t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d a summary  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s / c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t may  those f i n d i n g s .  This  d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t what was  section w i l l learned  be  p r e s e n t more  about the  SRP  tasks  o f c r e a t i v i t y on  or  the  tasks. The  most i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  t a s k s was  child, use  This  English & English,  about c h i l d r e n ' s e x p r e s s i o n / m a n i f e s t a t i o n  SRP  a characteristic  Group from the N o n c r e a t i v e Group i s mental  s u g g e s t e d by  SRP  proceed  Discussion The  of  i n t e l l e c t u a l maturity,  activity.  to  I t a p p e a r s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e n e e d e d t o more  accurately  5.3  Proposal  one's  (i.e.,  that the  multi-system, itself  be made a b o u t  i t t o o k a p r o b l e m much " b i g g e r " "stop  "playing" with  ideas  The  the  the  spontaneous  metaphorical/conceptual that dealt with a large-scale,  complex problem i n a h o l i s t i c  is interesting.  than  wars" p r o b l e m ) , to evoke the  of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , ( i . e . ,  t h i n k i n g or  t h a t can  manner).  This  more m a n a g e a b l e p r o b l e m s o f  a model j e t s e t or a h o r s e d i d not  nudge c h i l d r e n i n t o  in  getting "flights  106  of  fancy".  O n l y one  subject  (and  gave what m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d first  of the  put  a j e t c o s t u m e on y o u r p e t b i r d .  The  was  problems.  on  t h e SRP  (i.e.,  such o f f - b e a t ideas.  For  not  (how  t h e war  said  then,  the use  their  s p o n t a n e o u s way  problem.  Conceptual No No  one  one  Thinking  told  responses)  subjects  to  t a l k e d t o them a b o u t The  oral  warm-up  someone c o u l d g e t a c r o s s a r i v e r ) d i d  by  the  of the C o n c e p t u a l  The  use  Conceptual. T h i n k i n g  to  problem,  s u g g e s t o r e v o k e " u n - r e a l " s o l u t i o n methods i n t h e s i x  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s observed  SRP  j e t p r o b l e m she  analogies.)  metaphors or a n a l o g i e s or m a k e - b e l i e v e . p r o b l e m f o r t h e SRP  sample)  t h i n g about c h i l d r e n ' s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  i t s spontaneous occurrence.  generate  i n the p i l o t  (For the  s u b j e c t gave s i x f a n t a s y  most s u r p r i s i n g  of c r e a t i v i t y  was  a high l e v e l c r e a t i v e response f o r  one  however, t h i s  two  she  researcher.  For  some c h i l d r e n ,  T h i n k i n g c a t e g o r i e s of  of r e s p o n d i n g  to the  pilot  ideas  was  l a r g e - s c a l e , complex  of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g ( a s d e f i n e d by  r e s p o n s e s ) as a s p o n t a n e o u s r e s p o n s e  the tea  c o m p l e x p r o b l e m i s a h i g h l y n o t e w o r t h y phenomenon b e c a u s e o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r both a b i l i t y i n c l i n a t i o n and (i.e.,  the  ability  are  (1962) o b s e r v e d  is  definition  important  of o c c u r r e n c e  same b e h a v i o r  behavior  and were  picture.  of C o n c e p t u a l  of o r i g i n a l  and  that Getzels  when c r e a t i v e h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s  Thinking  because i t i s d i f f e r e n t index  of  both  away f r o m p e r c e p t u a l s e t  the  asked t o w r i t e s t o r i e s about a The  personality (i.e.,  implied.) This type  spontaneous b r e a k i n g  p l a y f u l n e s s w i t h i d e a s ) was Jackson  and  response c a t e g o r i e s  from a s i m p l e  thinking, (i.e.,  infrequency  i t is a  107  qualitative The  index).  design  or  f o r m a t of t h e  "stop wars" problem  problem which evoked the C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g Thinking  response c a t e g o r i e s )  complex, yet  i s not  ( i . e , does not  in a "find-the-one-right-answer"  d e p e n d h e a v i l y on  linear,  logical,  thinking) —  w h i c h i s p e r h a p s why  Thinking  v a r i a b l e was  relatively  and  issue.  SRP  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  t a s k s were i n t e n d e d  c r e a t i v e behavior  as  i t occurs  F o r many c h i l d r e n a t t h i s age c r e a t i v e behavior  be  be m o s t . p r o v o c a t i v e d i d t h e war  t o be  Conceptual  level called  i s not  s c a l e of  imply  logically  level  i t may  be  place  one  called  r e l a t e d to  that  be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h W a l l a c h examinees p l a y f u l l y  and  of  everyday  instrument  Why  then  line  desired for this  P r o b l e m s " but  age.  rather,  K o g a n ' s (1966) a p p r o a c h o f  invitation  was  of  ( T h i s emphasis or d i r e c t i o n  e n v i r o n m e n t . ) Whether the e x p l i c i t  could  subjects  This  in a  of  "problems").  problem  "Conceptual Thinker"  entertain possibilities  f a n t a s y , m e t a p h o r , and  world.  i n the c o n t e x t  P e r h a p s t h e war  "Solving Real  " P l a y i n g R e a l Games".  another  "play with f r i e n d s " contexts  j u s t a n o t h e r game.  t h a t the  or  Thinking  of c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s .  so b i g t h a t , t o c o p e w i t h i t ,  argument c o u l d  deductive,  i n the examinee's everyday  p r o b l e m seem t o w o r k ?  reduced i t t o the  format  s u b j e c t s p o i n t s up  most f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s  that tasks that tap  is  Conceptual  p l a y w i t h f r i e n d s (as opposed t o i n the c o n t e x t I t may  task  i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m CTBS.  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n F r i e n d s and  the case study  the  the  Analytic  i s noteworthy because the  analytic  The  and  (i.e.,  one  would having  task-centred  t o engage i n  m a k e - b e l i e v e would a i d or h i n d e r .  108  efficient matter  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d be a  f o r further study.  The o p p o r t u n i t y  t o observe the  spontaneous use of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g i n response t o a problem presented SRP  a s " r e a l " may i n f a c t be t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c u r r e n t  format. The  c o n v e r g e n c e a n a l y s i s o f SRP, P r o p o s a l , a n d C a s e S t u d y  v a r i a b l e s draws a t t e n t i o n t o a n o t h e r a s p e c t expressions/manifestations  o f c r e a t i v i t y a t t h i s age l e v e l .  T a b l e 2 5 , i f one c o m p a r e s t h e f i r s t five,  one c a n s e e a - t r e n d  s i x s u b j e c t s w i t h the next  The s e c o n d g r o u p w o u l d a p p e a r t o n o t  have t h e p l a y f u l n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y i n d i c a t e d by l o w s c o r e s  However, t h e y  of the f i r s t  t h a t was n o v e l  (although  types  is appropriate  Thinking Proposal  not g e r m i n a l ) , a p p r o p r i a t e , and  would r e q u i r e the e x p l i c i t i n v i t a t i o n  In t h i s  Thinking).  a n d a l l o f them were a b l e t o g e n e r a t e a  Perhaps t h i s type of c r e a t i v e c h i l d  serious real  (i.e.,  do h a v e t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o wonder a b o u t t h e  characteristic,  Thinking  group  on F r i e n d s a n d C o n c e p t u a l  c o m p l e x ; some o f them d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e A n a l y t i c  saleable.  In  t o w a r d s two d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s f o r  C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s .  as  of c h i l d r e n ' s  t o engage i n C o n c e p t u a l  of responses and/or a task t o engage i n o f f - b e a t  in particular,  ideas  that  implies that i t  (as opposed t o a  problem). study  t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be two g e n e r a l  c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n : those t h i n k i n g without  specific  who s p o n t a n e o u s l y  types of  engage i n c r e a t i v e  i n s t r u c t i o n s / c o a c h i n g ; and those  who  o n l y u s e c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g when i t i s made e x p l i c i t t h a t i t i s appropriate  t o do s o .  A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n who  spontaneously  109 used c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g were s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e / s u c c e s s f u l , at least.  Some of them were very popular with f r i e n d s and  c h i l d r e n tended priority  to make s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s / s u c c e s s a h i g h  i n everyday  life.  This p r o f i l e  b r i g h t but c r e a t i v e c h i l d who worker" or " s e r i o u s student"  does not  "appear" to be a  "hard-  Examples of  i n the case s t u d i e s were:  of the best students and has a good imagination  her energy's going of  i s suggestive of the  i n the school s e t t i n g .  t e a c h e r s ' comments about such c h i l d r e n "She's one  these  i n t o the s o c i a l scene r i g h t now";  but  "She's one  the best students but she holds back i n her school work so  that she can stay i n the group her f r i e n d s are i n " ; or  "He's  accepted as a leader by h i s classmates, wants to be f i r s t e v e r y t h i n g , and  i n s i s t s on always being the f i r s t  a s s i g n e d work i n s t e a d of doing a c a r e f u l , t i d y parents of c h i l d r e n with t h i s p r o f i l e expressed  to  job."  in  finish The  s u r p r i s e that  t h e i r c h i l d r e n got good marks i n school because they d i d n ' t seem to  give, i t much e f f o r t .  The parents of boys with  t h i s  profile  mentioned that t h e i r sons had been moved by t h e i r teachers to be seated f a r away from t h e i r  f r i e n d s i n the c l a s s because of  " t a l k i n g problems". It  would seem that t h i s a t t r a c t i o n to s o c i a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d  serve to c l o u d or d i s g u i s e the general a b i l i t y of a c r e a t i v e child  i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  Understanding  s o c i a l aspect of the "spontaneously to  or a c c e p t i n g  this  c r e a t i v e " c h i l d would seem  have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs, (e.g, the  obvious advantages of a classroom where academic e x c e l l e n c e i s valued by s o c i a l peers and,  c o n v e r s e l y , the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of  110  such c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n socially For  the  c r e a t i v e c h i l d who  for educational  w o u l d seem l i k e l y frequently  to benefit  provided e x p l i c i t  creative  thinking.  exercise  of  their  c r e a t i v i t y get  does not  engage i n  creative  i t i s c l e a r l y appropriate/requested, there  implications  creative  is  punished.)  thinking unless also  i n s e t t i n g s where a c a d e m i c e x c e l l e n c e  environments.  f r o m an  educational  opportunities  creative a b i l i t y .  (The  i n two  children  program which  f o r the  This would ensure t h e i r  such p r a c t i c e  Such  are  use  of  practice with  or  "spontaneous users"  ways: t h e y engage i n  t h i n k i n g as a s p o n t a n e o u s r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n t y p e s  p r o b l e m s ; and  t h e y spend t i m e p l a y i n g  provides opportunities  f o r the  use  of  with  and  friends  valuing  of  of  which creative  thinking.) I n summary, i t a p p e a r s f r o m t h i s t y p e s of c r e a t i v e  children  --  one  study that  t y p e w h i c h may  academically without a suitable educational a n o t h e r t y p e w h i c h may developing, t h e i r cursory the  suffer  i n the  creative a b i l i t y .  there are suffer  environment;  a r e a of  two  and  maximally  W h i l e t h i s has  been a  description  of c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s  characteristics  c o n s e q u e n c e s of  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  this brief  provide i s not  ideas for  further  inconsistent  (e.g., Torrance, simply provide appropriate v i e w e d t o be  with  1962;  investigation. the  f i n d i n g s of  Getzels  & Jackson,  further confirmation  educational "at  risk".  sketch  C e r t a i n l y , the other 1962).  f o r the  and may  sketch  researchers, These  view t h a t ,  findings without  e n v i r o n m e n t s , c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n may  be  111  The for  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  instruments  wishes  i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h i s age  t h a t can  r a t h e r t h a n a s i m p l e , s i n g l e - c o n c e p t one. o t h e r c h i l d r e n can attempt thinking given s p e c i f i c do  so.  The  educators  who  i t is a  large-  facilitate  I t may  this  w e l l be  that  fanciful  perhaps coaching  wish to i d e n t i f y  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g whether or not  i n s t r u c t e d t o do study  one  who  m e t a p h o r i c a l t h i n k i n g or  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  If  on  how  i m p l i c a t i o n s , however, a r e of i n t e r e s t f o r  r e s e a r c h e r s and use  level  engage i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , t h e n  s c a l e , m u l t i - s y s t e m , complex problem  to  implications  intended to i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n .  to i d e n t i f y  spontaneously  s t u d y a l s o have g e n e r a l  so.  individuals  t h e y h a v e been  who  specifically  There i s a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n from  this  t h a t i t i s the complex, " b i g g e r - t h a n - t h e - c h i l d " problem  (which p r o v i d e s scope f o r m u l t i p l e s o l u t i o n approaches) t h a t must be u s e d t o s p a r k Problems presented use- o f t h i s or  s p o n t a n e o u s use  k i n d of t h i n k i n g .  to o f f e r  the k i n d of  creative children  More s i m p l e ,  found  i n the  being a h i g h - i n t e r e s t problem. one  thought.  inspire  the  single-constraint, i t e m s would not excitement  seem  that  problem.  Development  the  study, the " s t o p wars" problem  and  "stop wars"  F u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t work on SRP identify/develop tasks l i k e  test  involvement  F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s F o r SRP  a meaningful  of c r e a t i v e  i n more m a n a g e a b l e b i t s d i d n o t  l i n e a r - t h o u g h t t y p e s of c r e a t i v i t y  likely  5.4  this  t a s k s should attempt  "stop wars" problem. was  s u b m i t t e d by  This suggested  In  to this  s u b j e c t s as t h a t i t might  t o s u b j e c t s i n the study sample.  An  effort  be  1 12  w o u l d h a v e t o be made t o f i n d o t h e r t a s k s t h a t a r e b o t h and m e a n i n g f u l examination  t o the population of i n t e r e s t .  An  o f t h e "stop wars" problem suggests  c o m p l e x , a p r o b l e m s h o u l d be m u l t i - s y s t e m .  degrees of interdependence. governing  initial  t h a t t o be  I n o t h e r words, t h e  p r o b l e m s e t t i n g must c o n s t i t u t e a s t r u c t u r e . t h e r e a r e components w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e  complex  Within a structure  and e x h i b i t  varying  F o r example, t h e p h y s i c a l laws  t h e e a r t h a n d s p a c e a r e one l a r g e component o f t h e  s t r u c t u r e of the world which i s the s e t t i n g or context of the "stop wars" problem. psychological  The p o l i t i c a l ,  economic, r e l i g i o u s , and  s y s t e m s w o u l d be e x a m p l e s o f s u b - c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e  m a i n component r e l a t e d  t o what g o v e r n s p e o p l e ' s  actions.  When .a  complex s t r u c t u r e i s t h e c o n t e x t o f a problem, and t h e s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s components which a r e h i g h l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ,  then  there  a r e a l a r g e number o f e n t r y p o i n t s o r p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o solving  the problem.  I n o t h e r w o r d s , i n s t e a d o f t h e r e b e i n g one  r i g h t a n s w e r w h i c h c a n be a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h or d e d u c t i v e  careful  reasoning  t h i n k i n g . , t h e r e i s ample scope f o r c r e a t i v e  t h i n k i n g on t h e p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s whose k n o w l e d g e , t a l e n t s , a n d i n t e r e s t s m i g h t be i n d i v e r s e a r e a s . complexity and  skills,  Thus  o f a p r o b l e m m i g h t be d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e number  v a r i e t y o f components w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s t h e  context of the problem. To meet t h e c r i t e r i a interest" high  t o the population of  t h e p r o b l e m s h o u l d be one t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d  importance It  of "meaningful  t o be o f  t o t h e examinees.  i s likely  that only p i l o t  testing w i l l  clearly  indicate  113  whether a problem i s s u f f i c i e n t l y the imaginations  complex, b i g , and important  as  to capture  of c r e a t i v e examinees.  if  t h e problem which appears l a r g e and complex i s  so  However,  i d e n t i f i e d / s u b m i t t e d by members o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t t h a t w o u l d be one c l u e t o i t s s u i t a b i l i t y . the  "What's a R e a l  Problem Q u e s t i o n n a i r e "  used f o r t h i s purpose. problems before the  This  instrument  more s u g g e s t i o n s  like  ( A p p e n d i x D) c o u l d be  p r o v i d e s examples of  asking subjects f o r their  " s t o p w a r s " p r o b l e m a s one o f t h e s e  An i n s t r u m e n t  submissions.  Using  examples might  elicit  o f p r o b l e m s on t h a t s c a l e .  In a d d i t i o n t o p r e s e n t i n g a complex problem as a r e a l p r o b l e m , a f u t u r e SRP s h o u l d explicitly  i n c l u d e a t a s k which i m p l i c i t l y and  i n v i t e s metaphorical  a p p r o p r i a t e warm-up a c t i v i t y .  t h i n k i n g a n d p r o v i d e s an T h e s e two k i n d s o f t a s k s " ( i . e . ,  t h e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m a n d t h e g a m e - l i k e p r o b l e m ) m i g h t be b e s t administered names.  t o s u b j e c t s as separate  instruments  with  different  When a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e s e r i o u s , c o m p l e x p r o b l e m i t may  be d e s i r a b l e t o p r e c e e d  i t w i t h a more m a n a g e a b l e s e r i o u s  p r o b l e m s u c h a s t h e " j e t p r o b l e m " was. s u b j e c t s would experience instrument.  some f o r m o f s u c c e s s  response " s e t " before  encounter t h e l a r g e - s c a l e complex I t does not appear w o r t h w h i l e of t h e v a r i a b l e s , F l u e n c y  contained  with the  A l s o , t h e s m a l l m a n a g e a b l e p r o b l e m may be  for e s t a b l i s h i n g a certain  provided  I n t h i s way, a l l  little  examinees  problem. t o pursue f u r t h e r development  and F l e x i b i l i t y .  These v a r i a b l e s  p r e d i c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n beyond t h a t  i n t h e CTBS s c o r e s .  important  already  I t seems t h a t p r i m a r y  mental  1 14  ability  type measures of d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g p r o v i d e  information  in this situation  beyond t h a t a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e  s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of academic V a r i a b l e s such as Wishing, Capability  little in a  achievement. Fantasy  F a c t o r , and P e r s o n a l  s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n .  be u s e f u l f o r d e f i n i n g p r o f i l e s o f d i f f e r e n t  They may  types of c r e a t i v e  s u b j e c t s o r f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e C r e a t i v e from t h e N o n c r e a t i v e group w i t h i n a p r o f i l e  type.  A l e s s h e t e r o g e n e o u s s a m p l e w o u l d be o f g r e a t v a l u e i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i t h SRP t y p e t a s k s . s t u d y was s m a l l Proposals).  The C r e a t i v e G r o u p i n t h i s  (15 f r o m a p o s s i b l e 224 s u b j e c t s who  With  submitted  a sample t h a t y i e l d e d a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of  C r e a t i v e G r o u p s u b j e c t s , r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be a s k e d a n d a n s w e r e d w i t h more c o n f i d e n c e  and c l a r i t y .  5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The S t u d y (1) The s t u d y one  involved students  school d i s t r i c t  a n d t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be  l i m i t e d t o groups from a s i m i l a r (2) G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  population.  of t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s developed f o r  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s , C o n c e p t u a l  T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g i s  l i m i t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s s a m p l e who h a d s c o r e s g r e a t e r t h a n had  from grade f i v e c l a s s e s i n  i n c l u d e d i n the case  zero f o r these v a r i a b l e s a l l  h i g h s c o r e s on t h e P r o p o s a l v a r i a b l e .  I n o t h e r words, t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f e r e d may n o t be m e a n i n g f u l p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o p o s a l . subjects  a t lower  What r e m a i n s t o be e x p l o r e d  i n the Noncreative  study  l e v e l s of i s whether  G r o u p who have s c o r e s g r e a t e r  than  1 15  zero  f o r A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g and C o n c e p t u a l  from t h e C r e a t i v e Group s u b j e c t s .  Thinking are different  W o u l d c o r r e l a t i o n s among c a s e  study  v a r i a b l e s a n d SRP v a r i a b l e s f o r t h i s g r o u p be t h e same a s  those  obtained  f o r t h e C r e a t i v e Group?  Would a m e a s u r e o f  m e n t a l m a t u r i t y c o n s t i t u t e t h e main d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e two groups? 5.6 Summary Of I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r I t would appear worthwhile  f o r further research  SRP  tasks to consider  1.  Can o t h e r SRP t a s k s be d e v e l o p e d  evoking  Research  the f o l l o w i n g issues or questions.  the Conceptual  which a r e capable of  T h i n k i n g and A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  W o u l d s u c h c o m p l e x t a s k s have a r e l a t i v e l y  (which  Analytic Thinking  do n o t e v o k e C o n c e p t u a l  r e s p o n s e s ) be n e c e s s a r y  responses?  u n i v e r s a l appeal t o  s u b j e c t s o f t h i s age g r o u p i n d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s ? complex t a s k s  regarding  Would  less  Thinking or  a s p r e l i m i n a r y warm-up  tasks? 2.  Can t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d  Conceptual further  T h i n k i n g a n d A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g be c o n f i r m e d  research?  Analytic Thinking case study than  f o r the v a r i a b l e s  F o r example, would Conceptual s c o r e s have t h e same m e a n i n g  variables).for  T h i n k i n g and ( a s i n d i c a t e d by  s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g lower  d i d t h e C r e a t i v e Group?  by  on P r o p o s a l  S t a t e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  case  s t u d i e s w o u l d have t o be c o m p a r e d f o r C r e a t i v e G r o u p members a n d Noncreative  G r o u p members, a l l o f whom had s c o r e s  f o r Conceptual  T h i n k i n g and/or A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g . 3.  Can t h e v a r i a b l e s n e e d e d f o r i m p r o v e d p r e d i c t i o n o f P r o p o s a l  1 16  be  identified?  Would  between s u b j e c t s and  Conceptual  substantially  low  such v a r i a b l e s account or h i g h  Thinking? to the  on  Proposal  f o r the d i f f e r e n c e  but  h i g h on A n a l y t i c  Would s u c h v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e  p r e d i c t i o n of  the  full  range of  Proposal  scores? 4.  Can  tasks  which  implicitly  of m e t a p h o r i c a l  t h i n k i n g and  more e f f e c t i v e  identification  and/or e x p l i c i t l y  p l a y f u l n e s s with  invite  the  ideas a i d in  of C r e a t i v e Group members?  use the  1 17  BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , H.H. Creativity in perspective. I n H.H. Anderson ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1959. B a r r o n , F. and H a r r i n g t o n , D.M. C r e a t i v i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and personality. A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1981, 32, 4 3 9 - 4 7 6 . 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The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 1 , _ 5 ( 3 ) , 156-174. Gowan, J . C . a n d Demos, G.D. The E d u c a t i o n a n d G u i d a n c e o f t h e Ablest. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1964. H a r r i s , D.G. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y : two a p p r o a c h e s t o e n h a n c e c r e a t i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n grade f i v e s t u d e n t s . Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977. Kagan, J . (Ed.) C r e a t i v i t y M i f f l i n Company, 1967.  and L e a r n i n g .  Boston:  Houghton  Khatena, J . Major d i r e c t i o n s i n c r e a t i v i t y r e s e a r c h . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 2 0 ( 3 ) , 3 3 6 - 3 4 9 . K i t a , S. S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 .  (SPSS).  K i t a , S. S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 .  (SPSS).  Laboratory of Education Research LERTAP) UBC E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h E d u c a t i o n , M a r c h 1978..  Test A n a l y s i s Package. (ERSC S e r v i c e Centre, F a c u l t y of  L a s w e l l , H.D. The s o c i a l , s e t t i n g o f c r e a t i v i t y . Anderson ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1959. M a c K i n n o n , D.W. I n s e a r c h o f human e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Y o r k : C r e a t i v e E d u c a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n , 1978.  I n H.H. New Y o r k :  Buffalo,  New  M a c K i n n o n , D.W. P e r s o n a l i t y and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of c r e a t i v e potential. A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1965, 20_, 273-281 . N i c h o l l s , J.G. C r e a t i v i t y i n t h e p e r s o n who w i l l n e v e r p r o d u c e a n y t h i n g o r i g i n a l or u s e f u l : t h e concept of c r e a t i v i t y as a normally d i s t r i b u t e d t r a i t . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , A u g u s t 1972, 717-727.  119  P e t r o s k o , J.M. Measuring c r e a t i v i t y i n the elementary s c h o o l : t h e s t a t e o f t h e a r t . The J o u r n a l o f C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 8 , J_2(2) , 1 0 9 - 1 1 9 . P r i n c e , G.M. C r e a t i v i t y , s e l f , and J.W. G e t z e l s (Eds.) P e r s p e c t i v e s A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1975.  power. I n I.A. in creativity.  T a y l o r and Chicago:  R e k d a l , C.K. I n s e a r c h of t h e w i l d d u c k : p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s as t e s t s o f c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and t h e i r use as measurements i n programs f o r the g i f t e d . The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 2J_(4), 5 0 1 - 5 1 6 . Shapiro, R.J. Creativity. Ltd, 1970.  The c r i t e r i o n p r o b l e m . I n P.E. G r e a t B r i t a i n : R i c h a r d C l a y (The  S t e i n , M.I. Creativity. I n E.F. Borgatta ( E d s . ) Handbook o f P e r s o n a l i t y T h e o r y and Rand M c N a l l y & Company, 1968.  Vernon (Ed.), Chausser Press)  and W.W. Research.  Lambert Chicago:  Swenson, E.V. Teacher-assessment of c r e a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1978, 22(3), 338-343. T a y l o r , I.A. An e m e r g i n g v i e w o f c r e a t i v e a c t i o n s . I n I .A. T a y l o r and J.W. Getzels (Eds.), Perspectives in C r e a t i v i t y . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1975. T o r r a n c e , E.P. T o r r a n c e T e s t s o f C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g NormsT e c h n i c a l M a n u a l ( R e s e a r c h E d i t i o n ! " ! P r i n c e t o n , New Jersey: Personnel Press, Inc., 1966(a). T o r r a n c e , E.P. T o r r a n c e T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g : D i r e c t i o n s and S c o r i n g M a n u a l ( V e r b a l T e s t B o o k l e t A ) ~ P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : Personnel P r e s s , 1966(b). T o r r a n c e , E.P. E d u c a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . I n C.W. ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y : p r o g r e s s and p o t e n t i a l . New M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1964. T o r r a n c e , E.P. Guiding Creative Talent. N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1962.  Taylor York:  Englewood  Cliffs,  1 20  T o r r a n c e , E.P. a n d B a l l , O.E. S t r e a m l i n e d S c o r i n g and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n G u i d e a n d Norms M a n u a l f o r F i g u r a l Form A, TTCT ( 4 t h E d i t i o n ! Athens, G e o r g i a : G e o r g i a S t u d i e s of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , J u l y 1980. -  T o r r a n c e , E.P. a n d B a l l , O.E. S t r e a m l i n e d S c o r i n g and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n G u i d e a n d Norms M a n u a l f o r F i g u r a l Form B, TTCT. A t h e n s , G e o r g i a : G e o r g i a S t u d i e s o f C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1 978. T o r r a n c e , E.P. a n d Gowan, J . C . ( E d s . ) E d u c a t i n g t h e A b l e s t . I t a s c a , I l l i n o i s : F.E. P e a c o c k P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1971. T r e f f i n g e r , D . J . The p r o g r e s s a n d p e r i l o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r e a t i v e T a l e n t among g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . The J o u r n a l of C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1980, J _ 4 ( 1 ) , 20-34. T r e f f i n g e r , D.J. and P o g g i o , measurement o f c r e a t i v i t y . 1972, 6 ( 4 ) , 2 5 3 - 2 6 7 .  J . P . Needed R e s e a r c h on t h e The J o u r n a l o f C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , ~~  T r e f f i n g e r , D.J., R e n z u l l i , J . S . , and F e l d h u s e n , J . F . Problems i n t h e assessment of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . The J o u r n a l o f C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1971, 5 ( 2 ) , 104-112. W a l l a c h , M.A. a n d K o g a n , N. Modes o f T h i n k i n g i n Young . C h i l d r e n : A Study of the C r e a t i v i t y - I n t e l l i g e n c e D i s t i n c t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1965.  121  APPENDIX A - SELF-CONCEPT  QUESTIONNAIRE  122  Boy  Teacher _  -  •  "  Girl  ~~~  Date  T h i s a chance f o r you t o l o o k a t y o u r s e l f and t h i n k about what your s t r o n g p o i n t s a r e and what your weak p o i n t s a r e . T h i s i s not a t e s t . Be s u r e your answers show how you t h i n k about y o u r s e l f .  123  Instructions to Students  Before you start, here i s an example for you to t r y . Read number 1 and then answer the question.  EXAMPLE:  Excellent  Better Very Than Good Most  OK  Not so Good  Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 1.  Working on my own.  The words at the top of each column show what each l i n e stands for. Find the l i n e under the heading that shows your answer. Make an X on that l i n e .  124  Excellent Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself?  1.  Keeping at my work until I get i t done.  2.  Being able to read well.  3.  Being able to Laugh about things easily.  4.  Listening to someone even when I haven't had a chance to t e l l my ideas.  5.  Knowing how to solve arithmetic problems.  6.  Wanting to learn about things scientists do. Learning about people around the world worl - and- being - -interested in them. Knowing how other people feel, when they have troubles or problems. Seeing small but important facts in solving hard problems.  10.  Being able to talk about my ideas i n a group.  11.  Being a good sport.  12.  Making friends easily.  13.  Being able to see things in my mind easily when I want to.  14.  Being able to set my own goals and work toward them.  15.  Working with others to get a job done.  Very Good  Better Than Most  OK  Not so Good  125 Very E x c e l l e n t -Good Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I r a t e myself?  16.  Being able to talk to teachers easily and feel comfortable with teachers.  17.  Thinking up answers to problems no one else has thought of.  18.  Letting others do their jobs in their own ways and not bossing people around.  19.  Seeing new ways of thinking about things and putting ideas together.  20.  Being able to figure out how to solve a hard problem.  .21.  Enjoying funny things people do or say.  22.  Having ideas came quickly and easily.  23.  Being able to t e l l my ideas in front of other people.  24.  Being able to keep my mind on my work.  .25.  Being interested i n new things and excited about a l l there is to learn.  26.  Being willing to t e l l my ideas when no one else agrees with me.  27. Liking something i n everyone no matter who they are. 28.  Being attractive, good-looking or handsome.  Better Than Most  126  Excellent  Very Good  Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself? 29.  Being able to enjoy jokes and having a sense of humour.  30.  Being cooperative with teachers.  31.  Getting my school work in on time and not getting behind. Knowing what to do to get the right answer to a problem.  32. 33.  Having high standards for myself.  34.  Seeing important facts ;that other people miss.  35.  Not expecting everything I do to be perfect.  36.  Letting my imagination go when I want to.  37.  Making .up my own mind even i f other people don't agree with me.  38.  Understanding other people's feelings.  39.  Being fair to other people even when I don't like them very much.  40.  Thinking of unusual things — things other people don'rethink about very much.  41.  Being able to admit my mistakes.  42.  Liking everybody at least a little bit.  43.  Being able to lead my l i f e my own way.  44.  Doing my part in class activities including work jobs and clean-up.  .  •<  Better Than Most  OK  Not so Good  127  Excellent Compared with other g i r l s and boys my age, how do I rate myself?  45.  Being able to solve a hard problem by turning i t around and seeing i t in a new way.  46.  Being able to listen to someone else when I think that what they are saying is a l l wrong.  47.  Being able to think quickly and easily.  48.  Learning about new things even when other people aren't interested.  49.  Solving problems in ways others haven't tried before.  50.  Being a good sport when I lose in a game.  51.  Being friendly to others.  52.  Taking part in class projects and doing my share.  53.  Having new and original ideas.  54.  Knowing that everyone has a right to be different.  55.  Learning things quickly.  56.  Remebering what I have learned.  57.  Being willing for others to have their way sanetimes.  58.  Being confident, not shy or timid.  59.  Being a good student.  60.  Being a leader.  61.  Making other people feel at ease.  62.  Liking school.  63.  Being able to use what I have learned.  Very Good  Better Than Most  OK  Not so Good  128  APPENDIX B - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE S E L F CONCEPT QUESTIONNAIRE  Self-Concept Inventory  129  P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r d u r i n g t h e week of O c t o b e r  Administration  5 - 9 .  Instructions  P l e a s e i n t r o d u c e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a d i a l o g u e such as the sample one Provided below.  There i s no t i m e l i m i t r e q u i r e d .  S t u d e n t s may work as f a s t as t h e y  like.  I f you a n t i c i p a t e r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r some o f the s t u d e n t s , p l e a s e use w h i c h e v e r o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s seems most r e a s o n a b l e . o r a p p r o p r i a t e : (A)  I d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c words i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which might cause d i f f i c u l t y and r e v i e w the meaning o f t h e s e words w i t h the c l a s s p r i o r t o the use o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  (B)  I n v i t e s t u d e n t s to ask f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f t h e y e n c o u n t e r any d i f f i c u l t y w i t h any o f the q u e s t i o n s .  (C)  I f e x c e p t i o n a l r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d f o r some o f the s t u d e n t s , t a k e t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o one s i d e and go t h r o u g h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r a l l y w i t h them w h i l e the r e s t o f the c l a s s does i t on t h e i r own.  I f d i f f i c u l t i e s are a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h the 5 - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e o f " e x c e l l e n t " to " n o t so g o o d " , f o r p r a c t i c e have s t u d e n t s r a t e t h e m s e l v e s on the s c a l e f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as the f o l l o w i n g : s i n g i n g , running f a s t , w r i t i n g n e a t l y , remembering t h e words t o songs I l i k e , b e i n g on t i m e , swimming. Sample D i a l o g u e f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Distribute  Today I have a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r you t o c o m p l e t e . the y e a r , many p e o p l e l i k e to t h i n k  about t h e i r  think  about t h e m s e l v e s and the t h i n g s t h e y do.  At c e r t a i n t i m e s  work and how i t  Some boys and g i r l s y o u r age have found t h a t t h i s  booklets.) in  is going.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e h e l p s them  T h i s i s a chance f o r you to  look at y o u r s e l f and d e c i d e what y o u r s t r o n g p o i n t s a r e and what your weak are.  Everyone w i l l  how you t h i n k To f i l l  about  have d i f f e r e n t  answers —  points  so be s u r e t h a t your answers show  yourself.  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r e a d each item and then answer the q u e s t i o n :  Compared w i t h o t h e r boys and g i r l s my age, how do I r a t e m y s e l f ? at the example on the second page. e x c e l l e n t , v e r y good, b e t t e r  There are f i v e  than m o s t , OK,  Let's  look  answers t o choose f r o m :  not so good.  Put an X i n  the  space t h a t s t a n d s f o r your answer. Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s about how t o do t h i s ? as f a s t  as.you l i k e .  Now go r i g h t ahead. Work  Remember to put y o u r name on the f r o n t b e f o r e you hand i t  in  1 30  APPENDIX C - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING TORRANCE TASKS  THE  TORRANCE CREATIVITY ACTIVITIES  Please administer  131  d u r i n g t h e week of O c t o b e r 12 - 1 6 .  There are 3 T o r r a n c e t a s k s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h a time l i m i t of 10 m i n u t e s f o r each t a s k . There are 2 warm-up a c t i v i t i e s which you are r e q u e s t e d to conduct w i t h the c h i l d r e n f i r s t as a l e a d - i n to the T o r r a n c e t a s k s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Warm-Up A c t i v i t i e s (1)  (2) (2)  "Add a w o r d . " Assuming t h a t c h i l d r e n are s i t t i n g i n rows o f about 6 s t u d e n t s each ( i f n o t , make some p h y s i c a l r e a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e p a s s i n g s h e e t s of paper w i t h i n a c i r c u i t o f about 6 s t u d e n t s each) have each s t u d e n t b e g i n w i t h a s h e e t o f l i n e d paper w i t h h i s / h e r name at the t o p . The o b j e c t of the game i s f o r each c i r c u i t of 6 s t u d e n t s t o g e n e r a t e 6 s e n t e n c e s by each s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i n g one word to each o f the s e n t e n c e s . To b e g i n , each s t u d e n t puts down a ward t h a t can b e g i n a sentence.. Then h e / s h e p a s s e s the page t o t h e n e x t p e r s o n who adds the n e x t word to the s e n t e n c e . T h i s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l each person g e t s back t h e i r o r i g i n a l page w i t h t h e i r own name on i t . Have some o f the s e n t e n c e s r e a d out loud to the c l a s s . I f t h e s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d t h e game and want t o t r y i t a g a i n you may w i s h t o l e t them do s o . "Add a l i n e . " "Add a l i n e . " In a s i m i l a r manner t o t h e "add a word" game, each c i r c u i t o f about 6 s t u d e n t s c r e a t e s 6 p i c t u r e s by each person c o n t r i b u t i n g a l i n e t o each of the- p i c t u r e s . (A l i n e i s any mark t h a t can be made on the page w i t h o u t h a v i n g to l i f t the p e n c i l o f f the p a g e , i . e . , i t can be c u r v e d , wavy, o r can c r o s s o t h e r l i n e s . ) I f the p i c t u r e s s t i l l look u n f i n i s h e d when each person g e t s back t h e page they s t a r t e d w i t h , you may w i s h to have the p i c t u r e s go t h r o u g h t h e c i r c u i t a second t i m e .  Sample D i a l o g u e f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  Tasks  ( P l e a s e f o l l o w t h i s as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . For the T o r r a n c e t a s k s t h e m s e l v e s you may w i s h t o r e a d the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the s t u d e n t s as though you were r e a d i n g out the d i r e c t i o n s f o r a new game.) "Today w e ' r e g o i n g t o do some a c t i v i t i e s and t h i n k o f  l o t s of  To p l a y t h i s  game  ideas very q u i c k l y .  where we use our i m a g i n a t i o n  The f i r s t  and  game i s c a l l e d "add a w o r d " .  . . . .  (Conduct the a d d - a - w o r d game.) "In  our next game we make group p i c t u r e s  sentences.  i n the same way we made group  . . .  (Conduct t h e a d d - a - l i n e  (Distribute  game.)  the T o r r a n c e t a s k s f a c e  down.)  "Now we have 3 games t h a t you each do by y o u r s e l f . words and the o t h e r  2 are with p i c t u r e s .  with  We o n l y have 10 minutes to spend on  each game so t r y  and work v e r y q u i c k l y to t h i n k o f a l l  t h e s e games, t r y  and t h i n k o f unusual  There are no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s .  One o f them i s  the i d e a s you c a n .  i d e a s t h a t no one e l s e w i l l J u s t use your  think  imagination to think  On  of. of  l o t s of d i f f e r e n t a game, j u s t s i t  ideas.  132 you run out of  If  i d e a s b e f o r e 10 minutes  and w a i t and sometimes more i d e a s w i l l  i s up on  come and you can add  those. F i r s t put y o u r name on t h e blank page t h a t you see i n f r o n t o f y o u . down y o u r f u l 1  name.  Now t u r n y o u r b o o k l e t For the f i r s t It's  over.  game y o u ' r e g o i n g to t h i n k  about 6 i n c h e s t a l l  can get  a n d . w e i g h s about h a l f  i n a dime s t o r e f o r  most i n t e r e s t i n g  changes.  a pound.  page and t h e n e x t one f o r  (Allow ten minutes.)  I'll  Alright  tell  It's  elephant.  the k i n d you o f the c l e v e r e s t ,  t o y e l e p h a n t so t h a t  children  D o n ' t w o r r y about how much the change  about what would make i t  Go r i g h t ahead.  toy  Try to t h i n k  and unusual ways of c h a n g i n g t h i s  Just think  You can use t h i s  about a s t u f f e d  a c o u p l e of d o l l a r s .  would have more fun p l a y i n g w i t h i t . would c o s t .  more f u n t o p l a y w i t h as a t o y .  putting  down a l l y o u r  you when the t i m e  ideas  for  i s up.  t u r n t o the next p a g e .  For the next game y o u ' r e g o i n g to make p i c t u r e s by adding l i n e s to i n c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s on t h i s page and the next o n e . o b j e c t s t h a t no one e l s e w i l l interesting  think  of-  Try to make i t  t i t l e for  tell  each d r a w i n g and w r i t e i t  each b l o c k n e x t t o the number o f the f i g u r e . you can but d o n ' t w o r r y about  ( A l l o w 10 m i n u t e s . )  it  (If  i f you d o n ' t f i n i s h  them a f t e r w a r d  for  the l a s t  Turn the page.  --if  all  Go r i g h t  s t u d e n t s seem to be g e t t i n g  b e f o r e d o i n g the l a s t a c t i v i t y  idea.  at the bottom of  of them.  Try  to  ahead.  f a t i g u e d a l l o w a break  n e c e s s a r y , c o l l e c t the b o o k l e t s and  page and the n e x t one.  The c i r c l e s s h o u l d be the main p a r t of  i n o r d e r to make y o u r p i c t u r e . think  of.  Try to t h i n k  Make as many d i f f e r e n t  as you can and put as many i d e a s as you can i n each one. complete and i n t e r e s t i n g objects.  Go r i g h t ahead.  some o f t h e i r  a s t o r y as you c a n . ( A l l o w 10 m i n u t e s . )  whatever  t h e y ask q u e s t i o n s j u s t t r y  of things  p i c t u r e s or  Make them t e l l  Add names o r t i t l e s  -to objects as  below the  ( A l l o w the c h i l d r e n to show  drawings to each o t h e r b e f o r e c o l l e c t i n g the  Never use the word t e s t .  Thank y o u !  return  You can use p e n c i l s  You can make marks i n s i d e the c i r c l e s and o u t s i d e the c i r c l e s  draw t h a t no one e l s e w i l l  if  as complete and  F o r the l a s t game, see how many o b j e c t s o r p i c t u r e s you  or other drawing m a t e r i a l s .  wherever you want  or  task.)  can make from the c i r c l e s on t h i s  General  of a p i c t u r e  Work q u i c k l y to do as many as  o f t h i n g s t o draw t h a t no one e l s e w i l l .  you make.  Try to t h i n k  the  a s t o r y as you can by adding to and b u i l d i n g up y o u r f i r s t  Make up an i n t e r e s t i n g  think  Put  booklets.)  D o n ' t g i v e c h i l d r e n examples of r e s p o n s e s ;  to r e p e a t the i n s t r u c t i o n s word f o r  word.  133  A P P E N D I X  D  -  " W H A T ' S  A  REAL  P R O B L E M ? "  Q U E S T I O N N A I R E  134  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  W h y I c a n ' t do it  135  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  136  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  W h y I c a n ' t d o it  137  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  W h y I c a n ' t d o it  138  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  W h y i c a n ' t do it  139  S o m e t h i n g I w a n t to do  W h y I c a n ' t d o it  140  APPENDIX E - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE "WHAT'S A REAL PROBLEM?" QUESTIONNAIRE  141 " W h a t ' s a Real P r o b l e m ? " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  P l e a s e a d m i n i s t e r on T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 1,  There i s no t i m e  limit reqired.  It  1981  would be d e s i r e a b l e t o a l l o w as much t i m e  as i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s t h a t do seem t o have i d e a s 15 - 20 m i n u t e s . )  The s t u d e n t s who do not have i d e a s w i l l  s e l v e s by c o l o r i n g o r d o o d l i n g on the d r a w i n g s .  (approximately  u s u a l l y amuse them-  T h i s i s f i n e as i t  r e l a x e d atmosphere f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who can t h i n k of examples of Some s t u d e n t s may appear t o put c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e of t h e i r  examples.  T h i s i s f i n e as i t  i n t o drawing  creates a problems.  illustrations  may g i v e them t h e t i m e t h e y need t o  think  of o t h e r examples o f - p r o b l e m s .  Sample O i a l o g u e f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Distribute  questionnaires.)  A group o f p e o p l e t h a t are i n t e r e s t e d  i n how p e o p l e do problem s o l v i n g  would l i k e t o know what p e o p l e y o u r age c o n s i d e r r e a l problems t o b e . c l a s s has been asked t o p r o v i d e examples o f what " r e a l "  This  problems a r e .  T h e y ' r e s a y i n g t h a t a problem i s when t h e r e ' s something you want to do but t h e r e ' s  a r e a s o n why you c a n ' t do i t .  On t h e f i r s t  3 pages o f  b o o k l e t t h e y ' v e g i v e n examples of what problems c o u l d b e .  this  They're asking  if  each o f you can g i v e t h r e e examples o f problems t h a t you have o r t h a t you know your f r i e n d s h a v e . examples.  You can use the l a s t 3 pages o f t h i s  You can a l s o make a d r a w i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e  P l e a s e go ahead.  T r y and- t h i n k of 3 p r o b l e m s .  form t o g i v e y o u r  each problem i f  you w i s h .  You have about 15 m i n u t e s .  1 42  APPENDIX F - F I N A L FORM - SOLVING REAL PROBLEMS: EXERCISES I N PRODUCTIVE THINKING  Solving Real Problems exercises  Name  in  productive  thinking  144 I want but  to b u i l d  a model j e t  I do.n't h a v e t h e money f o r a s e t .  145 What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t try  If the  to  things  that  this  person  could  do?  y o u n e e d more s p a c e p l e a s e last  page i n t h i s  booklet.  put a check n a r k  here  and  use  our A l o t of kids but  their  parents  t o keep one.  city  in,  146 want  can't  afford  t o have a  horse  i t and t h e y h a v e no  place  147 What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t do a b o u t  If the  this  y o u n e e d more s p a c e p l e a s e last  things  that  these  kids  could  t r y to  problem?  page i n t h i s  booklet.  p u t a c h e c k mark  here  and  use  148  149 What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t try  to  I f you need the  things  that  this  person  could  do?  last  more s p a c e  page i n t h i s  please booklet.  p u t a c h e c k mark h e r e  and  use  150  151  1 52  APPENDIX G - TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE  SRP  153 Procedures " S o l v i n g Real Problems:  Time  i s no  time l i m i t  exercise booklet.  to  Exercises  e n a b l e you  within  imposed The  the c o n t e x t of other d a i l y  something e l s e distract  be  to turn  s t u d e n t s who  - A few s t u d e n t s may be a l l o w e d - If after  t o do  one  still  hour  writing,  the  their  finished  of  parts:  this  "Our  writing.  from the b e g i n n i n g o f the e x e r c i s e , gently  persuade  that  problems  exercises.  n a i r e you  as c l o s e l y  there  i s no need  i n the b o o k l e t  every  filled were?  line  o u t where you gave W e l l the problems There  Do  comprehension.)  that problem.  examples  p e o p l e t h a t made t h e b o o k l e t  in this  ways t h a t  ways y o u c a n t h i n k o f o r i m a g i n e f o r s o l v i n g work.  thought  f o r each  o r wrong  problem could  answers. different  each problem.  of even  selected  someone  want t o s e e what  i d e a s you can t h i n k  question-  b o o k l e t have been  a r e no r i g h t just  well  o f what you  a r e 3 p r o b l e m s , and  There  problem  you remember t h e  to suggest a l l the d i f f e r e n t  s u r e t h e y wou'ld  clarification  A g r o u p o f p e o p l e w i s h t o know how  can s o l v e problems.  p u t down a n y  three  to complete a booklet of  you a r e a s k e d to solve  There are  to ensure  you g a v e .  should  to f i l l  Exercises  as p o s s i b l e .  from t h e ones  .The  any s t u d e n t  them t h a t what t h e y h a v e done  b r a i n s t o r m i n g warm-up; and  c l a s s has been a s k e d  p e o p l e y o u r age  try  not  so.  introduction;  the s p e c i f i c  problems  t h e y do  booklet.  follow  solving  s h o u l d have  t o so t h a t  Sample D i a l o g u e f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the (Please  i n 30 m i n u t e s .  i n 10 m i n u t e s and  attention  are s t i l l  conveniently  activities. -  p r o b a b l y be  finished  here i s provided  w i s h t o c o n t i n u e p a s t 30 m i n u t e s and s h o u l d  i s more t h a n a m p l e and  main  Thinking"  on s t u d e n t s f o r c o m p l e t i n g  to schedule the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  - Some s t u d e n t s w i l l  in  i n Productive  time frame d e s c r i b e d  - Almost a l lstudents w i l l  is  of  Requirements  There the  for Administration  i f you're  You not  First  154  w e ' l l do a p r a c t i c e one t o g e t h e r .  (Distribute  the booklets.)  Look a t t h e p i c t u r e s on t h e c o v e r o f t h e b o o k l e t . person's  problem?  (Take an answer and In  from the s t u d e n t s , then r e p h r a s e i t i f n e c e s s a r y  w r i t e o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d : " I want t o g e t a c r o s s t h e r i v e r . " ) the pictures  across  t h a t a r e : shown, how d o e s t h e p e r s o n t r y t o g e t  the r i v e r ?  (Take answers  from s t u d e n t s . )  What a r e a l l t h e o t h e r d i f f e r e n t get  What i s t h e  ways t h e p e r s o n c o u l d  t r y to  across?  (Take answers point  f r o m s t u d e n t s and w r i t e  them on the. b o a r d i n  form, e.g., - use s t i l t s - jump - find  After  the f i r s t  rapidly  few i d e a s a r e g i v e n ,  and e n c o u r a g e  different  a p l a c e where t h e r i v e r a feeling  until  Refrain  fairly  a l lof the  from c r i t i c i z i n g or even  o f the ideas put forward.  Continue  no m o r e i d e a s a r e f o r t h c o m i n g . )  Those were v e r y good. and  take answers  o f enthusiasm about  ideas being produced.  commenting on t h e f e a s i b i l i t y  try.to  i s narrower  let's  Now t u r n  look at the f i r s t  to the f i r s t  problem.  page o f t h e b o o k l e t  What i s t h e p e r s o n ' s  problem? (Take.an whole  answer  idea,  f r o m a s t u d e n t and make s u r e i t c o n t a i n s t h e  i . e . , includes  the  model j e t .  the  s t u d e n t s s a y o u t l o u d what t h a t p r o b l e m  student mentions 'no  right  second  problem).  On t h e l i n e d things r  ( i n response  The p r o b l e m  page f a c i n g  point  or w r i t e ,  form l i k e  i s always w r i t t e n  t r y t o do a b o u t  of the  above t h e p i c t u r e .  the problem.  I f you need  p a g e s a t t h e end o f t h e b o o k l e t . ° can use pen o r p e n c i l . Y o u ^ w r i t e your i d e a s c  I d i d on t h e b l a c k b o a r d .  sentences.  you d o n ' t  understand j u s t  to think  i t ' parts.)  t h e p i c t u r e w r i t e down a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t  make f u l l Try  i . e , both the  to a student's v e r b a l i z a t i o n  t h e r e a r e two e x t r a  can p r i n t  i s . Make s u r e t h e  both aspects o f the problem,  the person could  more s p a c e  in  t o t h e "second p r o b l e m and h a v e one o f  p l a c e t o k e e p i t ' and ' c a n ' t a f f o r d  That's  You  The t u r n  t h e r e a s o n why t h e p e r s o n c a n ' t make  Don't w r i t e a s t o r y . raise  your hand.  of a l l the d i f f e r e n t  You d o n ' t  need t o  I f there's anything P l e a s e go  i d e a s you c a n .  ahead.  155 (After you  10 o r 15 m i n u t e s be s u r e t o walk around t h e c l a s s .  see t h a t s t u d e n t s  appear p u z z l e d by t h e war problem,  If reassure  them w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : " P u t down a l l t h e t h i n g s t h e p e r s o n c o u l d c o n s i d e r o r imagine t r y i n g t o do, even i f you're not s u r e how he o r she would a c t u a l l y do them.") ( F i n a l l y , p l e a s e make s u r e a l l s t u d e n t s  put t h e i r name i n f u l l  on t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o o k l e t . )  Some Don't's P l e a s e r e f r a i n from c a l l i n g t h i s a t e s t .  J u s t r e f e r t o i t as  "the b o o k l e t " , "a s e t o f e x e r c i s e s " , "some problems t o solve".. There i s no need t o use t h e word, ' c r e a t i v i t y , o r ' c r e a t i v e 1  problem s o l v i n g ' .  J u s t put t h e s t r e s s on ' a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t  t h i n g s a p e r s o n c o u l d t r y . t o do' and ' u s i n g your  Thank you!  imagination'.  156  APPENDIX H - DESCRIPTION OF I N I T I A L CODING AND SCORING SYSTEM FOR SRP TASKS Task  1 - J e t Problem  " I want t o b u i l d a model j e t b u t I d o n t ' t h a v e t h e money f o r a s e t . What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s that t h i s person could t r y t o do?" The  coding  of responses t o the j e t problem provided  computation of scores  f o r the  for:  Fluency, Flexibility(a), Flexibility(b), Use  of Wishing/Fantasy;,  F a n t a s y F a c t o r , and Personal C a p a b i l i t y . Fluency.  To compute a F l u e n c y  each non-redundant response. long l i s t  of s i m i l a r  s c o r e , one p o i n t was c r e d i t e d f o r Where a s u b j e c t h a d p r o v i d e d  i d e a s , e . g . , " E a r n money b y : c u t t i n g l a w n s ,  r a k i n g l e a v e s , sweeping s i d e w a l k s , weeds, w a t e r i n g for  such a  a  trimming  hedges,  pulling  l a w n s " , t h e f l u e n c y c o u n t was l i m i t e d  to three  list.  Flexibility(a).  To compute t h e F l e x i b i l i t y ( a )  s c o r e , one p o i n t  e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r t h e u s e o f a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e general  approaches t o the problem.  (1) Ways t o r a i s e money t o buy t h e s e t . (2) S u b s t i t u t e o t h e r m a t e r i a l s t o make t h e j e t . (3) Ways t o r e d u c e t h e c o s t o f t h e s e t . (4) Ways t o g e t t h e s e t u s i n g o n l y a v a i l a b l e (5) Get  funds.  s o m e t h i n g e l s e o r do s o m e t h i n g e l s e .  Flexibility(b).  To compute t h e F l e x i b i l i t y ( b )  s c o r e , one p o i n t  1 57  e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r t h e u s e o f a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g n i n e g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o r a i s i n g money. (1) Ask f o r t h e money. (2) B o r r o w t h e money. (3) S a v e / w a i t f o r t h e money. ( 4 ) Look f o r t h e money. (5) Take money o u t o f t h e b a n k . ( 6 ) E a r n money by d o i n g  odd j o b s .  (7) G e t a r e g u l a r j o b . (8) S e l l  things.  ( 9 ) Start a business  venture.  Use o f W i s h i n g / F a n t a s y .  To compute a s c o r e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , Wishing,  one p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r t h e  f o l l o w i n g kinds of Get  f o r the  responses.  a money t r e e .  Follow a rainbow.  7  W i s h on a s t a r .  -  S t e p on a c o i n a n d make more money. Fantasy  Factor.  To compute a F a n t a s y  Factor  s c o r e , one p o i n t  e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d s o f  responses.  Rob a bank. Hold  a c a t up f o r r a n s o m .  Steal i t . Make c o u n t e r f e i t money. Personal Capability.  To compute a P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y s c o r e ,  one p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r r e s p o n s e s t h a t s u g g e s t e d the  subject perceived himself/herself as:  that  158  b e i n g a b l e t o do s o m e t h i n g  difficult;  being able to influence other people; or  b e i n g a b l e t o be l u c k y . The  f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of such  T e l l y o u r Dad t o b e t on a c e r t a i n Have a b a l l g a m e  and charge  Save a p e r s o n a n d be  responses.  horse.  5 cents per person.  rewarded.  Be s m a r t  i n s c h o o l a n d w i n money.  Bet your  friend  that y o u ' l l  g e t s o many g o a l s i n a h o c k e y  game.  P l a y c a r d s f o r money. Make a w o r l d ' s r e c o r d . Buy paid Ask  s m a l l t h i n g s and s e l l  them t o a f r i e n d  f o r more t h a n y o u  f o r them. for a raise  i n your  allowance.  L e a r n some m a g i c a n d p u t on a show i n a s t o r e .  159  Task 2 - Horse  Problem  "A l o t o f k i d s i n o u r c i t y want t o h a v e a h o r s e b u t t h e i r p a r e n t s c a n ' t a f f o r d i t a n d t h e y h a v e no p l a c e t o k e e p o n e . What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h e s e k i d s c o u l d t r y t o do a b o u t t h i s p r o b l e m ? " The the  coding of responses t o the horse problem  provided f o r  computation of s c o r e s f o r :  Fluency, Flexibility, Use  of Wishing/Fantasy,  Fantasy  Factor,  P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y , and G i v e Up. Fluency.  To compute a F l u e n c y s c o r e , one p o i n t was c r e d i t e d f o r  each non-redundant long l i s t raking  response.  of s i m i l a r  Where a s u b j e c t h a d p r o v i d e d a  i d e a s , e . g . , " E a r n money b y : c u t t i n g  l e a v e s , sweeping  s i d e w a l k s , trimming hedges,  pulling  weeds, w a t e r i n g l a w n s " , t h e f l u e n c y c o u n t was l i m i t e d for  such a l i s t .  suggestion,  lawns,  to three  No f l u e n c y c r e d i t s were g i v e n f o r t h e  "Forget about  address the problem,  i t , " o r f o r comments w h i c h d i d n o t  e . g . , " I f y o u go on h o l i d a y s t h e h o r s e  will  starve." Flexibility. credited  To compute a F l e x i b i l i t y  s c o r e , one p o i n t e a c h was  f o r t h e u s e o f any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x g e n e r a l  approaches  t o the problem.  (1) S u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t  where t o k e e p t h e h o r s e o r how t o g e t a  place f o r i t . (2) Ways t o r a i s e money f o r t h e h o r s e . (3) Ways t o g e t a c c e s s t o a h o r s e .  1 60  (4) P o o l i n g t h e e f f o r t s o r r e s o u r c e s o f a l l i n t e r e s t e d (5) Ways t o g e t t h e h o r s e (6) U s i n g  the horse  kids.  f r e e or f o r l e s s c o s t .  o r t h e " p l a c e t o keep i t "  t o generate  funds  t o pay f o r e i t h e r . Use  of W i s h i n g .  Wishing,  To compute a s c o r e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  one p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d  f o r the following  k i n d of  response. Wish f o r one. Fantasy  Factor.  To compute a s c o r e f o r t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , Fantasy  F a c t o r , one p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d f o r  the  responses.  following  kinds of  Steal a horse. Make c o u n t e r f e i t Rob  money.  a bank.  B o r r o w one a n d t a k e o f f w i t h i t . Personal Capability.  To compute a s c o r e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,  Personal Capability,  one p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d  following  kinds of  Make b e t s  sometimes.  Get  a l l your  otherwise  responses.  r e l a t i v e s t o p u t t o g e t h e r t h e money t h e y  s p e n d on y o u r  Go on a TV show t o e a r n G i v e Up. one  b i r t h d a y and C h r i s t m a s  would  presents.  money.  To compute a s c o r e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , G i v e  p o i n t e a c h was c r e d i t e d  activities  f o r the  f o r suggestions of a l t e r n a t e  such as the f o l l o w i n g .  Get  a p i c t u r e o f one.  Get  a s t a t u e of a horse.  Up,  161  Get a dog i n s t e a d .  162  T a s k 3 - War  Problem  " I want t o s t o p w a r s b u t who w o u l d l i s t e n t o a k i d i n elementary school? What a r e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h i s p e r s o n c o u l d t r y t o do?'' T h e r e were 13 c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s p o n s e s t h a t different  general approaches  in computing a F l e x i b i l i t y  t o t h e p r o b l e m a n d t h a t were u s e d  score.  T h e r e were a n o t h e r s e v e n  c a t e g o r i e s of responses that represented characteristics.  represented  different  These c a t e g o r i e s d i d not add t o a  Flexibility  score. Fluency.  To compute a F l u e n c y  credited  f o r each non-redundant  Flexibility. credited  s c o r e , one p o i n t e a c h was response.  To compute a F l e x i b i l i t y  s c o r e , one p o i n t e a c h was  f o r t h e use o f any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  13 g e n e r a l  approaches t o the problem. 1. Tell  Talk t o people.  e.g.,  o t h e r k i n d s o f p e o p l e how y o u f e e l a b o u t i t .  Talk about  i t in school.  Talk about  i t w i t h your f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s .  2.  Tell  key p e o p l e .  Talk t o / t e l l / w r i t e  e.g.,  the president/prime m i n i s t e r /  governor/mayor/government. 3.  Communicate.  e.g.,  Make s i g n s . Get a b u l l h o r n . Use TV, n e w s p a p e r , r a d i o . 4.  Organize.  e.g.,  S t a r t up a c l u b .  163  Form a  union.  Get  other  f r i e n d s / a d u l t s / t h e whole s c h o o l i n v o l v e d .  5.  Make war  All  v a r i a t i o n s of t a k e away, h i d e , d e s t r o y war  6.  Communicate w i t h the army,  All  v a r i a t i o n s of a s k i n g o r t a l k i n g  fighting 7. If  a personal e f f o r t  ever  Keep up  e.g., equipment.  e.g., to people  w i t h i n the  armies/navies.  Taking you  equipment u n a v a i l a b l e .  get c a l l e d  i n s c h o o l and  or a c t i o n .  t o war, you  don't  may  e.g.,  go.  have time  t o do  r e s e a r c h on  past  wars. F i n d out  f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t what i t w o u l d t a k e t o s t o p t h e  8.  Use  Ask  important  Ask  someone who  Write  i n f l u e n t i a l people.  e.g.,  i f they c o u l d stop wars.  knows t h e P r e s i d e n t .  l e t t e r s to people  Talk to people 9.  people  wars.  who  are  Change t h i n g s .  who  work f o r p e o p l e  that are w e l l  known.  famous.  ( R e s p o n s e s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o f o c u s on  p o s s i b l e c a u s e / c o n t r i b u t o r t o wars.)  one  e.g.,  Share w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Get  o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o know e a c h o t h e r b e t t e r .  Make them be  friends.  T r y t o be n i c e t o p e o p l e reputation  f o r your  T r y t o make them  fight  e a r n a good  country.  share.  Don't f i g h t w i t h y o u r nobody w i l l  i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and  f r i e n d s and  anymore.  maybe i t w i l l  keep g o i n g  so  164  Be n i c e t o p e o p l e a n d maybe i t w i l l 10.  Restructure the s i t u a t i o n .  permanent changes  c a t c h on.  (Responses t h a t  t h a t , a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n ,  suggest  would  i m p l y no  wars.) e.g., J o i n n a t i o n s a n d t h e r e w o u l d n ' t be s o many Have a v o t e b e t w e e n  both of the c i t i e s  wars.  i n s t e a d of a f i g h t .  Make i t a l a w t h a t t h e r e i s n ' t a l l o w e d t o be w a r s . J u s t d o n ' t h a v e p r o v i n c e s , h a v e a l l one s t a t e . All  h a v e t h e same r e l i g i o n .  Make p e a c e a l a w . In  each c o u n t r y , get r i d of t h e o f f i c e  where t h e guy w o r k s  that  sends out t h e o r d e r s f o r t h e wars. 11.  Intervention.  refrain  (These a r e o n e - s h o t a t t e m p t s t o g e t s i d e s t o  from f i g h t i n g . ) e.g.,  G e t t h e w o r l d l e a d e r s t o s i t down a t a t a b l e t o g e t h e r a n d t a l k to  them.  F i n d . a . p l a c e where p e o p l e w i l l the  fight  and t e l l  one army t o l e a v e  base.  12.  USe o f f o r c e , d e s t r u c t i o n , o r t h r e a t s ,  Kill  t h e men who a r e f i g h t i n g  e.g.,  f o r the other s i d e of us.  Blow up t h e w o r l d . Kill  everybody.  Kill  them a t t h e i r  13.  Fantasy Analogy,  Invent a machine  base. e.g.,  t h a t makes p e o p l e  good.  Make t h e g r o u n d o u t o f s p o n g e . Get a machine  t h a t a g e s p e o p l e . s o y o u make e v e r y 18-23 y e a r - o l d  165  p e r s o n 40 y e a r s o l d . B r i n g b a c k p e o p l e f r o m t h e d e a d who w e r e g o o d a t s o l v i n g  these  problems. Put  s o m e t h i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e sun l i k e  a b i g piece  p a p e r a n d t h e n i t w o u l d be d a r k so nobody c o u l d couldn't Get  of b l a c k  see and they  fight.  a m a g i c i a n t o t u r n weapons i n t o h a r m l e s s t h i n g s  like  animals. Make i t so t h a t no one w i l l Spray s t u f f stuff  t h i n k of wars. :  i n t h e a i r t h a t w i l l make e v e r y o n e t h i n k o f n i c e  not wars and  Make a b i g f o r c e  fighting.  f i e l d between a l l of t h e c o u n t r i e s .  Other C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The  following categories  were s c o r e d  (one p o i n t  f o r each  r e s p o n s e i n a c a t e g o r y t o be c r e d i t e d t o t h a t c a t e g o r y ) b u t were not  used t o add f u r t h e r t o the F l e x i b i l i t y  score.  (Some  r e s p o n s e s were c r e d i t e d f o r both.. " f l e x i b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s " a n d "characteristric categories", credited 14.  be  f o r (12).)  Use o f a  Get  Trick.e.g.,  w h i t e f l a g s and s h i n e dressed l i k e  Get 15.  the other  them a t t h e enemy a n d a t t h e same  Personal  Capability,  sound l i k e  e.g.,  president.  Become p r e s i d e n t  and s o l v e  time  army.  on t h e phone a n d make y o u r v o i c e  Grow up t o be  Tell  e . g . , r e s p o n s e s f o r ( 1 9 ) were a l s o  everything.  a speech i n f r o n t of your  school.  the president.  1 66  16.  Use  of W i s h i n g / P r a y e r ,  Tell  God  about i t .  I f y o u had  e.g.,  3 w i s h e s , w i s h f o r an end  to  war.  17.  E x p r e s s i o n of an E m o t i o n a l R e s p o n s e ,  Hide  u n d e r t h e bed  18.  Fantasy.  Turn  i n t o a b i g s c a r y m o n s t e r and  19.  Use  until  t h e war  e.g.,  stops.  e.g.,  of a T a c t i c a l  Plan.  s c a r e them a l l .  e.g.,  A s s a s s i n a t e a l l the p r e s i d e n t s . Kill  everyone  except  one  m a l e and  one  Kill  a l l t h e army c a p t a i n s .  20.  Ways t o c o p e w i t h t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f w a r s ,  I f you  j u s t c a n ' t s t o p the wars j o i n  i t may  be a l o t of  female.  e.g.,  t h e army and h e l p t h e army,  fun.  Keep h i g h s p i r i t s and  don't  l e t i t b o t h e r you  to  disaster.  167  APPENDIX I - TEST CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE INITIAL SCORES DEVELOPED FOR THE SRP TASKS Legend The f o l l o w i n g i s a legend f o r the code names used f o r scores i n the t a b l e s i n t h i s appendix. Proposal  Activity  Product  Jet  Score f o r the Proposal A c t i v i t y ,  i . e . , the  e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n of c r e a t i v i t y  i n the study.  Problem  Flujet  Fluency  score.  Flexjet  Flexibility(a)  score.  F l e x j e t 2  Flexibility(b)  score.  The f o l l o w i n g are the codes f o r the f i v e main approaches to the j e t problem.  They are l i s t e d  i n the same order i n which they  appear i n Appendix G. Getmon Subst i Reduce Usevail Getelse The f o l l o w i n g are the codes f o r the nine g e n e r a l approaches to r a i s i n g money f o r the s e t .  They are l i s t e d  which they appear i n Appendix H. Ask Borrow Save Lookfor Bank  i n the same order i n  168  Earn Job Sell Business Wishjet  S c o r e f o r Use o f W i s h i n g / F a n t a s y .  Illegjet  Score f o r Fantasy  Powerjt  Score f o r Personal C a p a b i l i t y .  Horse  Factor.  Problem  Fluhrs  Fluency score.  Flexhrs  Flexibility  The f o l l o w i n g horse problem.  score.  a r e t h e codes f o r t h e f i v e main approaches They a r e l i s t e d  were p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x  to the  i n t h e same o r d e r i n w h i c h  they  H.  Ordfund Access Pooling Frecheap Combin Wishhs  S c o r e f o r Use o f W i s h i n g .  Illeghs  Score f o r Fantasy  Powerhs  Score f o r Personal C a p a b i l i t y .  Doelse  Score f o r Give  War  Factor.  Up.  Problem  Fluwar Flexwar  Fluency score. - Flexibility  The f o l l o w i n g approaches  score.  a r e t h e c o d e s f o r t h e 13 d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a l  t h a t were c r e d i t e d  for a Flexibility  score.  They a r e  169  listed  i n t h e same o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r e d  i n Appendix  H.  Talk Key Communi Organiz Warequi Comarmy Personl Influen Change Restruc Interv Force Analogy The  f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e codes f o r t h e seven c a t e g o r i e s of  responses that represented d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . listed Trick Powerwr Wishwr Regress Fantasy Tacticl Coping  i n t h e same o r d e r i n .which t h e y a p p e a r e d  They a r e  i n Appendix-H.  170  T a b l e 29 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , Range, a n d P e r c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c i e s f o r I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s  Score  Mean  S.D.  Min  Max  % of Subjects O b t a i n i n g a s c o r e >0  Product  2.83  1 .34  1  6  100  Flujet Flexjet Flexjt2 Getmon Substi Reduce Usevail Getelse Ask Borrow Save Lookfor Bank Earn Job Sell Business Wishjet Illegjt Powerjt  8.57 1 .69 3.62 6.81 .38 .1 1 . 14 .20 1 .33 .45 .55 .12 .1 1 1 .88 .54 .67 .55 .15 .40 :. .91  5.01 .84 1 .48 4.52 .62 .38 .38 .56 1 .25 .64 .76 .38 .33 2.08 .84 1.21 1 .02 .55 .88 1 .76  1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  33 4 8 28 2 3 2 4 7 3 4 3 2 15 7 10 9 3 4 16  100 100 100 100 31 10 13 14 71 37 43 10 1 1 75 41 42 34 8 21 40  Fluhrs Flexhrs Ordfund Access Pooling Frecheap Combin Wishhs Illeghs Powerhs Doelse  4.96 2.10 1 .58 .80 .1 1 .16 .02 .19 .19 .42 .20  3. 16 .99 1 .78 1.11 .34 .41 .13 .53 .53 .85 .65  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  16 5 9 6 2 2 1 3 3 6 6  97 96 67 45 10 14 2 14 13 29 13  Fluwar Flexwar Talk Key Communi Organiz Warequi  3.24 2.30 .31 .46 .49 .22 .25  2.40 1 .40 .69 .71 .97 .56 .67  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  13 7 4 4 7 4 5  95 95 21 36 30 17 16  171  Comarmy Personl Influen Change Restruc Interv Force Analogy Trick Powerwr Wishwr Regress Fantasy Tacticl Coping  .19 .50 .18 .07 .03 .13 .23 .07 .07 .32 .12 .03 .02 .03 .15  .44 1 .00 .44 .31 .16 .45 .66 .38 .28 .68 .40 .16 .14 .18 .46  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e s . N=224 f o r P r o d u c t s c o r e .  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3 9 3 2 1 4 6 4 2 5 3 1 1 2 4  17 33 16 6 2 10 16 4 6 24 9 2 2 2 12  172  Table The  30 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s P r o p o s a l a n d t h e I n i t i a l SRP S c o r e s  Among  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g  pages.  N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s  b e t w e e n SRP s c o r e s a n d P r o d u c t .  In  i s t h e c o d e name f o r P r o p o s a l .  this  t a b l e , Product  P E A R S O N  PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREQUI COMARMY PERSONL SIGNIF.  C O R R E L A T I O N  C O E F F I C I E N T S  PRODUCT  FLUJET  FLEXJET  FLEXJT2  GETMON  SUBSTI  REDUCE  USEVAIL  GETELSE  1 .0000 0 .1828* 0 .2373** 0 .2435** 0 . 1403 0 . 1419 0 . 1277 0 .1807* . 0 . 1084 0 .0625 0 . 1739* 0 . 1663* 0 .0923 0 .0210 -0 .0497 0 .0479 0 . 1 162 0 .0046 -0 .0686 - 0 , .0515 0.. 1935* 0,.1993* 0..2802** 0,.0786 0.. 1666* 0.. 1 175 0..0645 0..0368 0..0340 0.,0254 0..0960 0..0997 0..2666** 0.,2634** o. .0900 0.,0207 0.,0651 0. 1496 0. 0563 - 0 . 0461 0. 1095  0 .1828* 1 .0000 0 .1736* 0 .6097** 0 .9000** 0..0743 0.. 2634** 0.. 1288 0 .0319 0..2593** 0.. 1 104 0..1774* 0,.2113** 0,.1550* 0..5137** 0..2887** 0..5808** 0, 5777** 0. 2402** 0..1914* 0..6190** 0.,4902** 0..2699** 0. 3931** 0.,0306 0.. 1858* - 0 . .0330 0. 0240 0. 1678* 0. 0700 0. 3326** 0. 0150 0. 3995** 0. 3369** 0. 1 197 0. 1 138 0. 0885 0. 1548* 0. 0727 0. 0812 0. 1981**  0 .2373** 0 .1736* 1 .0000 0 .0870 -0 .0576 0 .5719** 0 .4236** 0 .4183** 0 .5029** 0 .2203** 0 .0345 0 .0838 0..0735 0,.0654 - 0 . .2070** -0. .0866 0..071 1 - 0 , .0907 0..0551 - 0 , ,0108 - 0 . .0070 0.,2373** 0.. 2994** 0., 101 1 0.,2198** 0..0774 0.. 1804* 0..0092 0.. 1745* 0.,0548 0.,1131 0. 0766 0. 2842** 0. 2544** 0. 1385 0. 2355** 0. 1414 0. 0327 0. 0265 0. 1111 0. 0797  0 .2435** 0 .6097** 0 .0870 1 .0000 0 .6033** -0 .0212 0,. 1298 0.. 1326 -0 .0179 0..2270** 0 .3677** 0,.3438** 0..2863** 0..2937** 0,.2496** 0,, 2752** 0,,3583** 0,,3612** 0..0196 0..0326 0,,2092** 0..4543** 0..3264** 0.,3526** 0. 1767* 0.,1513* - 0 . .0137 0.,0777 0. 0699 - 0 . .0300 0. 2410** - 0 . 0050 0. 3649** 0. 3647** 0. 1 140 0. 1430 0. 1237 0. 1737* 0. 0507 0. 0848 0. 0593  0 . 1403 0 .9000** -0 .0576 0 .6033** 1 .0000 -0 . 1074 0,.1810* 0 .0248 -0, . 1389 0 .1578* 0 . 1082 0.. 1827* 0,.1770* 0,.1511* 0,.6275** 0..3003** 0..6116** 0,.6418** 0..0430 -0, ,0135 0..5612** 0..3664** 0..2031** 0..3347** -0. ,0158 0..1968* -0. , 1089 0..0413 0..0591 -0. ,0820 0. 2360** - 0 . 0939 0. 2871** 0. 2447** 0. 0967 0. 0935 0. 0124 0. 1767* 0. 0126 0. 0091 0. 1759*  0 . 1419 0 .0743 0 .5719** -0 .0212 -0 . 1074 1.0000 . 0 .0132 -0. .0340 0 .0699 0.. 1388 -0, .0536 0,.0876 -0. .0470 0,,0974 - 0 , , 1860* -0, ,0842 0,,0002 - o . ,0833 0..0776 0.,0162 - 0 . ,0347 0., 1670* 0..2343** 0. 0658 0.,1311 0. 0146 0. 2000** - 0 . 0275 0. 0872 0. 0366 0. 1444 0. 0038 0. 1783* 0. 1 142 0. 1080 0. 0871 0. 1516* - 0 . 0304 - 0 . 0082 0. 0751 0. 1040  0 . 1277 0 .2634** 0 .4236** 0 . 1298 0..1810* 0,.0132 1.0000 , 0,.0927 0..0923 0,. 1249 0,.0685 0,.0040 - 0 , .0036 - 0 . ,0004 - 0 . ,0630 0,, 2314** 0,,0896 0..0994 0.,0198 0..0522 0. 2475** 0.. 1022 0., 1504* 0. 0574 0., 1 137 0..0320 0.,0443 0.. 1344 0. 0617 0. 0410 0. 0210 - 0 . 0417 0. 1458 0. 1895* - 0 . 0076 0. 1200 - 0 . 0260 0. 1767* 0. 0051 0. 0497 0. 0289  0 .1807* 0 . 1288 0 .4183** 0 . 1326 0,.0248 -0. .0340 0..0927 1.0000 , 0,.1612* 0,.0764 0..031 1 0,,0782 0,, 2019** -0, ,0262 -0. , 1307 0..0226 0.,0905 -0. ,0286 - 0 . ,001 1 - 0 . ,0446 0..0986 0.,0877 0..1514* 0. 0559 0. 0378 0. 1977* 0. 0930 - 0 . 0477 - 0 . 0066 0. 0138 0. 0722 0. 0185 0. 1493 0. 1389 0. 0207 - 0 . 0222 0. 0927 0. 1047 0. 0907 0. 1 154 0. 0015  0 . 1084 0 .0319 0 .5029** -0 .0179 -0 . 1389 0 .0699 0 .0923 0 .1612* 1 .0000 0 . 1087 -0 .0284 0 .0673 -0 .0698 -0 .0535 -0 .0912 -0 .0785 -0 .0144 -0 . 1 127 -0 .0563 -0. .0781 -0. .0971 0.. 1894* 0,.1848* 0..0336 0..1522* 0..0141 0,.0956 - 0 . .0464 0.. 1269 0..0430 - 0 . .0283 0..3456** 0.,2263** 0..1908* 0..0530 0., 1 173 0.,2802** 0.,0038 0..0235 0.,0013 0. 0463  LE .01  * * - SIGNIF. LE .001  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT  ASK 0 .0625 0 .2593** 0 .2203** 0 .2270** 0 . 1578* 0 . 1388 0 . 1249 0 .0764 0 . 1087 1 .0000 -0 .0141 0 .0060 0 .2171** 0,. 1327 -0 . 1581* 0 .0440 -0 .0905 - 0 , . 1 144 0.. 1463 0,.1770* - 0 . .0134 0,, 1525* 0.. 1465 0,.0418 0..1681* 0.. 1083 0,.0576 0..0177 0,, 1382 0.. 1007 0.,0793 0..0092 0..2699** 0..2438** o. .0714 0..0873 0. 1020 - 0 . 0229 0..0858 0. 1070 0. 0878  CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  CO  P E A R S O N PRODUCT INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING SIGNIF.  0..2001 * 0..1618* 0,, 1394 0.,0767 - 0 . ,0023 0.,1932* - 0 . .0591 - 0 . .0030 0..1211 0..0140 0..0538 0.. 1852* O.. 1 183 LE .01  FLUJET 0 . 2246** 0..2232** 0 .0189 0..0462 0..0382 0..0822 0,.0703 0,. 1489 0..1877* 0,.0401 - 0 . .0573 -o..0204 - 0 , .0147  C O R R E L A T I O N  C O E F F I C I E N T S  FLEXJET  FLEXJT2  GETMON  SUBSTI  REDUCE  USEVAIL  GETELSE  0.,0258 0. 0413 0. 0271 - 0 . 0915 - 0 . 0743 - 0 . 0522 - 0 . 0884 0. 1079 0. 1676* 0. 1217 - 0 . 1 190 - 0 . 1 128 0. 1603*  0,.2122** 0.. 1273 0,.0595 0.. 1363 0..0645 0.. 1042 0..0715 -0. .0183 0.. 1032 0..0235 -0. ,0606 -0. .0108 0..0706  0,.2796** 0 .1837* - 0 , .0052 0,.0626 - 0 , .0122 0,.0675 0,.0523 0,.0777 0..0783 0..0301 - 0 , .0778 -o..0198 -0. .0514  -0. .0510 0..0255 0.. 1 178 - 0 , .0716 -0. .0093 -0. .0192 -0. ,0261 0.. 1 169 0.,0733 0.,0312 -0. .0900 -0. ,0853 -O.,0639  0.. 1047 0,. 1438 - 0 . .0475 - 0 , .0357 - 0 . .0023 - 0 . .0518 - 0 . .0704 0..0883 0..0517 0..0944 - 0 . .0432 - 0 . ,0410 0.. 1237  0 .1214 0 .0521 0 .0806 -0 .0086 -o .0779 0 .1640* -0 .0483 -0 .0291 0,.0830 0 .0109 -0 .0535 - 0 , .0507 0,.1212  0.,0079 0.,0591 - 0 . .0091 - 0 . .0356 -o..0783 - 0 . .0622 0..0486 0..0962 0.. 1386 0..0388 - 0 . .0519 - 0 . ,0492 0.. 1 157  SIGNIF. LE .001  ASK - 0 , .0091 0..0766 0.. 1287 0., 1460 0..0294 0.,0150 - 0 . ,0034 0.,2045** 0.,1641* - 0 . ,0210 - 0 . .0153 0.,0003 0..0471  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N BORROW PRODUCT FLUUET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREOUI COMARMY PERSONL * - SIGNIF.  0 . 1739* 0 . 1 104 0 .0345 0 .3677** 0 . 1082 -o .0536 0 .0685 0 .031 1 - 0 .0284 -o .0141 1 .0000 - 0 .0164 0 .0429 0 .0585 0 .0266 - 0 , .0313 - 0 , .0040 - 0 . .0087 0,. 1060 - 0 . .0832 - 0 . .0357 0.. 1091 0.. 1698* 0,.0368 0.,0518 0..0755 0..0728 - 0 . ,0400 0..0844 - 0 . ,0254 0..0954 - 0 . ,0485 0.,0912 0.. 1439 0..0665 0. 2189** 0. 0127 0.,0685 - 0 . ,0174 0. 0580 - 0 . 0623 LE .01  SAVE 0 . 1663* 0 .1774* 0 .0838 0 .3438** 0,.1827* 0 .0876 0,.0040 0 .0782 0,.0673 0..0060 - 0 . .0164 1 .0000 . 0,.0971 0..1381 - 0 , .0467 - 0 . .0060 0,. 1 136 0..0078 - 0 , ,0463 - 0 . . 1049 - 0 , ,0173 0,, 1319 0.,0581 0,,1509* 0,,0183 0.,0527 - 0 . . 1237 0.,0780 0..0047 - 0 . ,0570 0..0281 0. 0610 0., 1347 0.,0970 0. 0675 0. 0617 0. 1419 0. 0835 - 0 . 0636 - 0 . 0691 0. 1018  C O R R E L A T I O N  LOOKFOR 0 .0923 0 .2113** 0 .0735 0 .2863** 0 .1770* -0 .0470 -0 .0036 0 . 2019** -0, .0698 0,.2171** 0,.0429 0..0971 1.0000 , 0,.0957 -0, .0512 0,.0518 -0, .0258 -0. .0256 0,.0564 0.. 1580* 0,. 1396 0.. 1946* 0..0923 0,,1941* 0..0654 0.,0281 0.,0661 0.,0459 0..0367 0.,0981 0..1949* - 0 . ,0613 0..2342** 0.,1851* 0..0505 0. 0042 0. 0590 0. 0536 0. 1484 0. 0694 0. 0013  * * - SIGNIF. LE .001  BANK 0 .0210 0 . 1550* 0 .0654 0 .2937** 0 .1511* 0 .0974 -0 .0004 -0 .0262 -0 .0535 0 . 1327 0 .0585 0 .1381 0 .0957 1 .0000 -0. .0053 0 .0075 -0. .0124 0,.0144 -0. .0234 0 .0454 0,.0025 0,.2808** 0,. 1336 0. 2640** 0,.0393 -0, ,0375 0,.0199 -0. .0441 0,.0942 -0. ,0952 0,,0833 -0. ,0477 0.. 1509* 0., 1353 0.,0459 0.,3148** -0, .0166 -0. ,0006 -0. .051 1 0., 1430 - 0 . .0049  EARN -0 .0497 0 .5137** -0 .2070** 0..2496** 0,.6275** -0. .1860* -0, .0630 -0. . 1307 -0, .0912 -0. .1581* 0,.0266 -0. .0467 -0, .0512 -0, .0053 1.0000 , -0. .0572 0,.2961** 0., 3785** 0.,0079 -0. . 1 190 0.,1584* 0.,2237** 0..0619 0.,3031** -0'. .0871 0.,0651 - 0 . .1721* 0,,0540 0..0194 - 0 . , 1262 0., 1024 - 0 . ,0650 0..0695 0.,0746 0.. 1487 - 0 . 0512 - 0 . 0025 0. 1074 - 0 . 0510 - 0 . 0398 - 0 . 0062  C O E F F I C I E N T S JOB 0 .0479 0 .2887** -0 .0866 0 .2752** 0 .3003** -0 .0842 0 .2314** 0 .0226 -0 .0785 0..0440 -0. .0313 -0. .0060 0..0518 0..0075 -0. .0572 1.0000 . 0,.0592 0,. 1393 -0, .0483 -0, .0231 0.,3629** 0,.1901* 0.,0787 0..0870 0..0817 0.,0510 0.,0369 - 0 . .0447 - 0 , ,0202 - 0 . .0482 0.,0945 0.,0735 0., 1976* 0..1967* - 0 . .0488 0. 0622 0. 0414 0. 0973 0. 0951 0. 0884 0. 0822  SELL 0 . 1 162 0 .5808** 0 .071 1 0 .3583** 0 .6116** 0 .0002 0 .0896 0 .0905 -0, .0144 -0. .0905 -0. .0040 0.. 1 136 -0. .0258 -0. .0124 0..2961** 0,.0592 1.0000 , 0..4558** -0, .0265 0..0181 0,.2501** 0.. 1 154 0,.0816 0.. 1346 -0, .0584 0.. 1088 -0. .0940 - 0 . .0186 -o.,0341 - 0 . .0213 0..0213 - 0 . .0472 0,, 1924* 0..1116 o..0040 0..0670 0. 0171 0. 0710 - 0 . .0073 - 0 . .0647 0.,3163**  BUSINESS  WISHdET  ILLEGdT  0..0046 0,.5777** -0, .0907 0,.3612** 0,.6418** -0, .0833 0,.0994 -0, .0286 -0. .1127 - 0 , . 1 144 - 0 . .0087 0..0078 - 0 . .0256 0..0144 0.. 3785** 0.. 1393 0., 4558** 1,0000 , 0..0016 - 0 , .0337 0.,3006** 0.,1574* 0..0964 0..1291 - 0 . .0405 0., 1574* - 0 , .0737 0.,0575 0..0097 - 0 . 0896 0.. 1 193 - 0 . 0556 0. 0062 0. 0100 - 0 . 0280 0. 0089 - 0 . 0479 0. 0822 0. 0063 - 0 . 0253 0. 0288  -0 .0686 0..2402** 0 .0551 0 .0196 0,.0430 0..0776 0,.0198 -0. .001 1 -0. .0563 0.. 1463 0.. 1060 -0. .0463 0..0564 -0. .0234 0..0079 -0, .0483 -0. .0265 0,.0016 1 ,OOOO 0..2358** 0,,0909 0.. 1594* -0. ,0109 0.,0382 0..0087 - 0 . ,0004 0..0772 0..0240 0..3726** 0.,1601* 0. 2202** 0. 1816* 0. 1214 0. 0557 0. 0076 - 0 . 0782 0. 0413 - 0 . 0274 0. 1 142 0. 1255 0. 001 1  -0 .0515 0,. 1914* - 0 .0108 0,.0326 - 0 , .0135 0,.0162 0,.0522 - 0 , .0446 - 0 , .0781 0..1770* - 0 . .0832 -O.. 1049 0..1580* 0..0454 - 0 . . 1 190 - 0 . .0231 0..0181 - 0 . .0337 0..2358** 1 .0000 , 0..0412 0., 1359 - 0 , ,0248 0., 1250 - 0 . ,0858 - O . .0389 0..0613 - 0 . .0589 0..0437 0..6069** 0.. 1439 - 0 . 0405 0..1883* 0. 1282 0. 0307 0. 0060 - 0 . 0034 - 0 . 0556 0. 1828* 0. 1 170 0. 0418  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT  CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N BORROW INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING SIGNIF.  0 . 1294 - 0 , .0007 - 0 , .0283 0..0168 - 0 , .0549 - 0 . .0024 -o..0962 - 0 . .0612 - 0 . .0081 - 0 , .0283 0,.0351 - 0 . .0966 0..0054 LE .01  SAVE  C O R R E L A T I O N  LOOKFOR  0,.1181 - 0 , .0504 -o..0448 -o..01 1 1 - 0 , .0167 0..0327 0..0053 - 0 . .0162 0..0783 - 0 . .0800 - 0 . ,0664 - 0 . .0083 0..0350  0.,1978** - 0 . .0029 0..1617* 0..0342 0.,0437 0., 1 190 0.,0058 - 0 . ,0147 0. 0480 0. 0214 0. 0323 0. 0185 0., 1668*  SIGNIF. LE .001  BANK 0 .0058 -0, .0415 0,.0268 -0. .0128 0,.0358 -0. .0592 -0. .0354 0,.0450 0,.0591 0..0268 -0, .0495 0..0231 0,.0304  EARN 0.. 1842* 0..0655 - 0 . ,0807 0,,0026 -o.,0322 - 0 , ,0165 0,,0771 - 0 , ,0797 0..0310 0..0472 - 0 . .0898 - 0 . .0586 - 0 . .0436  C O E F F I C I E N T S JOB 0..0549 0..2483** 0..0566 0,.0699 0,.0789 0,.0705 -0. .0460 0,. 1807* -0. .0624 - 0 . .0709 -0, ,0239 0,,0214 -0. .0197  SELL 0,. 1240 0,.0545 - 0 . .0229 0..0617 0..0362 0.. 1 100 0.. 1005 0..0260 - 0 . ,0415 0.,0871 - 0 . ,0088 - 0 . .0008 - 0 . ,0344  BUSINESS 0 . 1688* 0 .0280 -0 .0862 -0. .0365 -0 .0695 -0 .0192 0 .0902 0 .0041 0 .0773 0 .0707 -0. .0214 -0. .0519 -0. .0379  WISHJET  ILLEGJT  -0. .0750 0..0326 - 0 . .0433 - 0 . .0773 0,.1701* 0..0520 0,.0437 0..0954 0..2230** - 0 . .0433 0..0666 0,,0464 0..0298  -0, . 1402 0..0120 0,.0179 0.. 1205 0,.3492** 0..0689 0..0936 0..0772 -0. ,0026 0,,0782 0.,0987 0.. 1 196 -0. .0313  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N POWERJT PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREOUI COMARMY PERSONL  O., 1935* 0..6190** - 0 . ,0070 0.,2092** 0., 5612** - 0 . ,0347 0.,2475** 0.,0986 - 0 . ,0971 - 0 . ,0134 - 0 . ,0357 - 0 . .0173 0., 1396 0..0025 0.. 1584* 0.. 3629** 0..2501** 0., 3006** 0..0909 0..0412 1 .0000 . 0.,2640** 0. 1 173 0.. 1752* - 0 . .0260 0. 1203 - 0 . 0150 • 0.,0064 0..0217 - 0 . 0181 0. 3517** 0. 0226 0. 1419 0. 1611* - 0 . 0252 - 0 . 0314 - 0 . 0480 0. 1376 0. 0397 0. 0317 0. 1 192  SIGNIF.  LE .01  FLUHRS 0., 1993* 0,,4902** 0,, 2373** 0.,4543** 0,. 3664** 0.,1670* 0,. 1022 0,,0877 0., 1894* 0.. 1525* 0., 1091 0,.1319 0,, 1946* 0..2808** 0., 2237** 0,,1901* 0.. 1 154 0., 1574* 0., 1594* 0., 1359 0.,2640** 1.0000 . 0.,5668** 0..7062** 0.,2814** 0.,0124 0..2453** 0., 1252 0. 1773* 0. 1428 0.,4663** 0. 1209 0. 5381** 0. 4898** 0. 1635* 0. 2325** 0. 2647** 0. 1648* 0. 1491 0. 1852* 0. 0887  C O R R E L A T I O N  C O E F F I C I E N T S  FLEXHRS  ORDFUND  ACCESS  POOLING  0.. 2802** 0., 2699** 0..2994** 0.. 3264** 0..2031** 0.,2343** 0..1504* 0..1514* 0.,1848* 0., 1465 0.. 1698* 0.,0581 0..0923 0., 1336 0.,0619 0.,0787 0..0816 0..0964 - 0 . ,0109 - 0 . ,0248 0.. 1 173 0. 5668** 1 OOOO . 0.,2866** 0.,3496** 0..2521** 0. 4735** 0. 1849* - 0 . 0258 - 0 . 0101 0. 1347 - 0 . 0107 0. 3499** 0. 3645** 0. 0713 0. 1568* 0. 0464 0. 1263 0. 1406 0. 1407 0. 1540*  0,,0786 0,,3931** 0., 101 1 0.,3526** 0,,3347** 0,,0658 0,.0574 0,,0559 0..0336 0.,0418 0.,0368 0.. 1509* 0,,1941* 0..2640** 0,,3031** 0,,0870 0.. 1346 0,,1291 0..0382 0,, 1250 0,, 1752* 0,,7062** 0.,2866** 1 OOOO . - 0 . .0928 - 0 . ,0937 0., 1091 0., 1396 0..0731 0., 1 124 0.,3182** - 0 . . 1229 0..3694** 0. 3230** 0.,2236** 0. 2253** 0..2200** 0. 0934 0. 0385 0. 1258 0. 0258  0., 1666* 0,,0306 0,,2198** 0.,1767* -0. .0158 0,,1311 0,, 1 137 0,,0378 0,, 1522* 0..1681* 0..0518 0.,0183 0,,0654 0..0393 -0. .0871 0.,0817 -0, ,0584 - 0 . ,0405 0..0087 - 0 . .0858 - 0 . .0260 0,,2814** 0..3496** - 0 . .0928 1 OOOO . - 0 . ,0495 0., 1 169 - 0 . .0638 0..0217 - 0 . .0620 - 0 . .0846 0.. 1932* 0..2106** 0. 2361** 0. 0182 0. 0590 0. 1118 0. 0460 0. 0288 0. 0263 0. 0048  0,. 1 175 0,. 1858* 0,.0774 0..1513* 0,.1968* 0,.0146 0,.0320 0.. 1977* 0..0141 0.. 1083 0..0755 0,.0527 0..0281 -0, .0375 0,.0651 0,.0510 0.. 1088 0.. 1574* -0, .0004 -0, .0389 0.. 1203 0..0124 0,.2521** -0. .0937 -0, .0495 1,.0000 -0. .0697 0..0528 -0, .0233 -0, .0461 0..0517 -0, ,0087 0,.0947 0..1391 -0. .0961 -0, ,0389 -0, ,0160 0.. 1947* 0..0604 -0. .0283 0..0318  SIGNIF. LE .001  FRECHEAP 0..0645 - 0 . .0330 0.. 1804* - 0 . .0137 - 0 . . 1089 0,,2000** 0,.0443 0,.0930 0,.0956 0,.0576 0..0728 - 0 , . 1237 0..0661 0,.0199 - 0 . .1721* 0,.0369 -0. .0940 - 0 , ,0737 0,.0772 0,.0613 - 0 , .0150 0,.2453** 0,.4735** 0.. 1091 0.. 1 169 - 0 , .0697 1..0000 0,,0281 - 0 , .0237 0., 1087 0..0777 - 0 . ,0138 0., 1382 0., 1618* 0.,0255 0.. 1 174 0.,0710 - 0 . ,0306 0., 1564* 0.,2008** 0.,0471  COMBIN  WISHHS  ILLEGHS  O,.0368 0..0240 0,.0092 0..0777 0,.0413 - 0 . .0275 0,. 1344 - 0 , .0477 - 0 . ,0464 0.,0177 - 0 , ,0400 0,,0780 0,.0459 -o..0441 0..0540 - 0 . .0447 - 0 , .0186 0,.0575 0..0240 - 0 , .0589 0,.0064 0.. 1252 0,. 1849* 0.. 1396 - 0 . .0638 0,,0528 0,,0281 1,.0000 - 0 . .0453 - 0 . .0453 0,.0882 - 0 . .0402 0,.0008 0..0653 - 0 , ,0588 0..0083 - 0 . .0324 0,, 1219 0.,0004 0.,0189 - 0 . ,0320  0..0340 0 . 1678* 0.. 1745* 0,.0699 0 .0591 0 .0872 0,.0617 -0, .0066 0.. 1269 0.. 1382 0.,0844 0..0047 0 .0367 0,.0942 0..0194 -0. .0202 -0, .0341 0,.0097 0..3726** 0..0437 0..0217 0..1773* - 0 . .0258 0,.0731 0..0217 -0, .0233 -0, ,0237 -0, ,0453 1..0000 0..0384 0,,0003 0..0343 0,, 1472 0..0702 0.,1441 -0. .0378 0..0471 0.,0271 0.,0215 0.,0465 - 0 . ,0102  O..0254 0..0700 0..0548 - 0 . .0300 - 0 . .0820 0..0366 0..0410 0..0138 0..0430 0,, 1007 - 0 . .0254 - 0 . .0570 0..0981 - 0 , .0952 -O.. 1262 - 0 . .0482 - 0 . .0213 - 0 . .0896 0,. 1601* 0..6069** - 0 . .0181 0.. 1428 - 0 . .0101 0,, 1 124 - 0 , ,0620 - 0 . .0461 0.. 1087 - 0 . .0453 0.,0384 1, OOOO 0.. 1280 - 0 . .0370 0.. 2315** 0.. 1425 0.,0657 0.,0387 0..0792 0..0548 0..2081** - 0 . .0242 0..0910  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT  CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N POWERJT INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING SIGNIF.  0..1585* 0.. 3588** 0..0686 - 0 . .0016 - 0 . .0546 0..0645 0..0201 0.,1315 0..0673 - 0 . ,0224 0.,0072 0..0592 - 0 . ,0777 LE .01  FLUHRS 0.. 1983** 0.,1191 - 0 . .0567 0..0565 0., 1366 0..061 1 0,,0081 0..0844 0..0958 0.,0613 - 0 . ,0071 0..0093 0., 1200  C O R R E L A T I O N  FLEXHRS  ORDFUND  0.. 1699* 0.. 1273 - 0 . .0154 0..0657 - 0 . .0270 0,.0605 -o,.0078 0,. 1346 0,.0455 0..01 16 - 0 , .0435 - 0 . .0366 0,,0524  0 .1939* 0,.0266 - 0 , .0970 0,.0100 0 .0564 - 0 , .0203 0,.0222 - 0 , .0304 0,.0272 0,.0075 - 0 , .0475 - 0 , .0579 0,.0184  SIGNIF. LE .001  C O E F F I C I E N T S  ACCESS  POOLING  0,.031 1 0..0200 -0. .0666 0.. 1096 0,.0743 0..0121 0,,0165 -0. .0078 0,.0619 0..0051 0,.0265 -0. .0575 0. 2544**  0..0605 0..1982** 0..0258 0.. 1226 -0. .0210 0.. 1028 0..0528 0..0793 0,.0873 -0. .0523 -0. .0477 0.,0223 0,,0025  FRECHEAP 0 .0016 0,.0033 0,.0021 - 0 , .0447 - 0 , .0592 0,.0642 -o,.0928 0,.0684 -o..0884 - 0 , .0626 - 0 , .0571 - 0 , .0541 - 0 , .0586  COMBIN 0,.0212 0,,0744 - 0 , .0207 - 0 . ,0369 - 0 . ,0448 - 0 . .0226 - 0 . ,0306 - 0 . .0131 0.,0435 - 0 . .0207 - 0 . ,0188 - 0 . .0178 0.,0301  WISHHS  ILLEGHS  0..0352 0,.0166 - 0 . .0557 - 0 . .0304 0,,0445 0..0005 - 0 . .0825 0..1341 0. 3450** - 0 . .0058 - 0 . .0507 0..0381 0.. 1 109  - 0 . . 1052 - 0 . ,0595 - 0 . .0058 0.,0213 0,, 2925** 0., 1434 0..0284 O.. 1227 0.,0348 . 0..0940 0..0038 - 0 . ,0481 0..0255  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  co  P E A R S O N  PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREQUI COMARMY PERSONL SIGNIF.  POWERHS  DOELSE  0 .0960 0 3326** 0..1131 0 . 2410** 0.. 2360** 0 . 1444 0 .0210 0,.0722 - 0 . .0283 0..0793 0,.0954 0,.0281 0,. 1949* 0..0833 0,. 1024 0,.0945 0..0213 0.. 1 193 0..2202** 0.. 1439 0..3517** 0..4663** 0., 1347 0..3182** - 0 . .0846 0,,0517 0..0777 0.,0882 0..0003 0., 1280 1..0000 -o..0793 o.. 2497** 0..2497** 0..0208 0. 0659 0. 1298 0. 2016** 0. 0636 0. 1775* 0. 0605  .0997 .0150 .0766 .0050 .0939 .0038 -o .0417 0 .0185 0 .3456** 0 .0092 - 0 . .0485 0 .0610 - 0 . .0613 -0 .0477 - 0 , .0650 0,.0735 -o..0472 - 0 . .0556 0,,1816* - 0 , .0405 0..0226 0,. 1209 - 0 . .0107 - 0 . , 1229 0,, 1932* - 0 , .0087 - 0 , ,0138 - 0 . ,0402 0..0343 - 0 . .0370 - 0 . .0793 1..0000 0..0674 0..0609 - 0 . .0401 -o.,0738 0., 1695* 0..0347 - 0 . 0300 0. 0128 0. 0172  LE .01  0 0 0 -0 -0 0  C O R R E L A T I O N  FLUWAR  FLEXWAR  0,.2666** 0,.3995** 0,.2842** 0,.3649** 0,.2871** 0,.1783* 0., 1458 0.. 1493 0,,2263** 0,.2699** 0..0912 0,. 1347 0,.2342** 0..1509* 0..0695 0., 1976* 0.. 1924* 0,,0062 0., 1214 0.,1883* 0.,1419 0..5381** 0..3499** 0.,3694** 0.,2106** 0.,0947 0., 1382 0. 0008 0. 1472 0..2315** 0. 2497** 0. 0674 1. OOOO 0. 8447** 0. 3393** 0. 2799** 0. 3766** 0. 2752** 0. 2826** 0. 2298** 0. 3962**  0..2634** 0..3369** 0.,2544** 0.,3647** 0..2447** 0.. 1 142 0,, 1895* 0., 1389 0,. 1908* 0.,2438** 0., 1439 0.,0970 0.,1851* 0,, 1353 0.,0746 0., 1967* 0.,1116 0.,0100 0..0557 0. 1282 0..1611* 0. 4898** 0. 3645** 0. 3230** 0. 2361** 0. 1391 0. 1618* 0. 0653 0. 0702 0. 1425 0. 2497** 0. 0609 0. 8447** 1. OOOO 0. 3054** 0. 2808** 0. 2959** 0. 3064** 0. 2100** 0. 2607** 0. 2090**  * * - SIGNIF. LE .001  TALK 0 .0900 0 . 1 197 0 . 1385 0 . 1 140 0 .0967 0 . 1080 -0 .0076 0 .0207 0 .0530 0 .0714 0 .0665 0 .0675 0 .0505 0 .0459 0,. 1487 -0. .0488 0 .0040 -o..0280 0..0076 0,.0307 -0. .0252 0.. 1635* 0,.0713 0..2236** 0..0182 -0. .0961 0.,0255 - 0 . .0588 0., 1441 0,,0657 0..0208 - 0 . ,0401 0.,3393** 0.,3054** 1. OOOO 0., 1298 0. 1457 0.,0750 - 0 . ,1151 0., 1069 - 0 . ,0161  C O E F F I C I E N T S KEY 0 .0207 0,. 1 138 0 .2355** 0 . 1430 0,.0935 0..0871 0 . 1200 -0, .0222 0,. 1 173 0..0873 0,.2189** 0,.0617 0,.0042 0..3148** -0, .0512 0,.0622 0,.0670 0..0089 -0, .0782 0,.0060 - 0 , .0314 0,.2325** 0,, 1568* 0.,2253** 0.,0590 - 0 . ,0389 0., 1 174 0..0083 - 0 . .0378 0..0387 0. 0659 - 0 . 0738 0. 2799** 0..2808** 0. 1298 1. OOOO 0. 0235 - 0 . 0264 - 0 . 0636 0. 0603 - 0 . 0207  COMMUNI  ORGANIZ  WAREQUI  COMARMY  0,.0651 0..0885 0.. 1414 0,, 1237 0..0124 0.. 1516* -0, .0260 0..0927 0..2802** 0,, 1020 0,,0127 0..1419 0,,0590 - 0 , ,0166 - 0 , ,0025 0.,0414 0.,0171 -o,,0479 0..0413 -o..0034 - 0 . ,0480 0..2647** 0.,0464 0. 2200** 0..1118 - 0 . ,0160 0. 0710 - 0 . 0324 0. 0471 0. 0792 0. 1298 0. 1695* 0. 3766** 0. 2959** 0. 1457 0. 0235 1. OOOO 0. 0796 - 0 . 0867 0. 0182 - 0 . 0300  0 . 1496 0 . 1548* 0 .0327 0,. 1737* 0,. 1767* -0 .0304 0 . 1767* 0 . 1047 0..0038 -0, .0229 0,.0685 0 .0835 0..0536 -0, .0006 0,. 1074 0,.0973 O,.0710 0..0822 - 0 , .0274 - 0 . .0556 0,. 1376 0,, 1648* 0.. 1263 0.,0934 0,,0460 0., 1947* - 0 , ,0306 0.,1219 0..0271 0.,0548 0..2016** 0.,0347 0..2752** 0.,3064** 0.,0750 - 0 . .0264 0. 0796 1..0000 - 0 . .0597 - 0 . 051 1 0. 0091  0 .0563 0..0727 0 .0265 0..0507 0..0126 -0. .0082 0 .0051 0,.0907 0 .0235 0..0858 - 0 , .0174 - 0 . .0636 0.. 1484 - 0 . .051 1 - 0 . .0510 0,.0951 - 0 . .0073 0..0063 0.. 1 142 0.. 1828* 0.,0397 0,,1491 0.. 1406 o.,0385 0.,0288 0..0604 0., 1564* 0.,0004 0..0215 0.,2081** 0..0636 - 0 . ,0300 0. 2826** 0..2100** - 0 . .1151 - 0 . 0636 - 0 . 0867 - 0 . 0597 1..0000 0. 0544 - 0 . 0171  - 0 , .0461 0,.0812 0..1111 0,,0848 O..0091 0,.0751 0,.0497 0., 1 154 0..0013 0,. 1070 0,.0580 - 0 . .0691 0.,0694 0,, 1430 - 0 , ,0398 0,,0884 - 0 . ,0647 -o..0253 0.. 1255 0.. 1 170 0,.0317 0.. 1852* 0., 1407 0.. 1258 0..0263 - 0 . .0283 0..2008** 0.,0189 0..0465 -o. 0242 0. 1775* 0. 0128 0.,2298** 0. 2607** 0. 1069 0. 0603 0. 0182 - 0 . 051 1 0. 0544 1. OOOO 0. 0065  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT  CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N POWERHS INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING * - SIGNIF.  0,.0316 0 .0860 0,. 1085 - 0 . .0115 - 0 . .0161 0..0416 - 0 . .0824 0..1118 0..0510 - o . .0165 - 0 , .0720 0..0667 - 0 , .0294 LE .01  DOELSE  C O R R E L A T I O N  FLUWAR  0,.0042 0,.0487 - 0 . .0495 0..0383 - 0 . .0495 0,.0793 0.. 1304 0..0319 0..0369 - 0 . ,0087 0. 2220** 0.,0276 0.,0406  0,.2689** 0..2075** 0..0843 0. 2674** 0., 2682** 0.,2328** 0..1311 0.,3217** 0.,2089** 0.,0843 0.,0100 0.,0536 0.,2386**  SIGNIF. LE .001  FLEXWAR 0,.2760** 0, 2774** 0,,1566* 0..3080** 0..2058** 0.. 1344 0.,1614* 0..2021** 0.,0864 0..0803 - 0 . ,0102 0..0529 0., 1930*  TALK 0..0876 0..0068 -0, .0723 -0. .0760 -0. ,0751 -0. .0475 - 0 , ,0645 -0. .0722 0..0180 -0. .0339 - 0 , ,0658 - 0 . .0293 - 0 . .0524  C O E F F I C I E N T S KEY -0, .0598 -0 .0415 -0. .0272 - o .0270 -0. .0177 -0. .0654 -0, .0473 0,.0086 -0, .0687 0 .0102 -0, .0521 -0. .0881 -0. .0245  COMMUNI  ORGANIZ  WAREQUI  0.. 1 145 0..0021 - 0 . .0536 -0. .0593 - 0 . .0523 - 0 . .0322 0.,0326 0..0957 0..0131 0..0288 - 0 . .0738 O..0012 - 0 . .0302  0.. 1735* 0,. 1442 0.. 1262 0,. 1816* - 0 . .0929 0..0666 - 0 . .0414 0..0526 0,.0876 - 0 . .0635 - 0 . .0060 - 0 . .0548 - 0 . .0294  -0, .0093 0..0312 0,.0604 0.. 1837* 0.. 2397** 0..4909** 0..0451 0,.0451 - 0 . .0457 0..0205 0..0332 0.,1211 - 0 . .0503  COMARMY 0 .0001 -0 .0414 -0. .0070 -0 . 1206 -0 .0033 -0 .0737 -0 .0328 0,.0652 -0 .0519 -0, .0675 0,.0046 -0, .0583 0,.0102  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  oo o  P E A R S O N  PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXJET FLEXJT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHJET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREQUI COMARMY PERSONL * - SIGNIF.  C O R R E L A T I O N  PERSONL  INFLUEN  CHANGE  0 . 1095 0 . 1981** 0 .0797 0 .0593 0 .1759* 0 . 1040 0 .0289 0 .0015 0 .0463 0 .0878 - 0 .0623 0 . 1018 0 .0013 - 0 . 0049 -0 .0062 0 .0822 0 .3163** 0 .0288 0..001 1 0,.0418 0,. 1 192 0,.0887 0,. 1540* 0,.0258 0..0048 0..0318 0,.0471 - 0 . .0320 - 0 . .0102 0..0910 0..0605 0,,0172 0.. 3962** 0.,2090** - 0 . .0161 - 0 . ,0207 - 0 . .0300 0.,0091 - 0 . ,0171 o.,0065 1. OOOO  0 .2001 * 0 .2246** 0 .0258 0 .2122** 0 .2796** - 0 .0510 0 . 1047 0,.1214 0 .0079 - 0 .0091 0 . 1294 0.. 1 181 0,.1978** 0 .0058 0,.1842* 0,.0549 0,. 1240 0,.1688* - 0 . .0750 - 0 , . 1402 0..1585* 0..1983** 0..1699* 0,.1939* 0,.0311 0..0605 0..0016 0..0212 0.,0352 - 0 . . 1052 0.,0316 0..0042 0..2689** 0..2760** 0.,0876 - 0 . .0598 0., 1 145 0. 1735* - 0 . 0093 0. 0001 0. 0157  0.. 1618* 0,.2232** 0..0413 0,. 1273 0.. 1837* 0..0255 0.. 1438 0,.0521 0,.0591 0,.0766 - 0 . .0007 -o..0504 - 0 . .0029 -O..0415 0.,0655 0.,2483** 0.,0545 0.,0280 0..0326 0..0120 0..3588** 0.,1191 0.. 1273 0..0266 0.,0200 0.,1982** 0..0033 0..0744 0. 0166 - 0 . 0595 0. 0860 0. 0487 0. 2075** 0. 2774** 0. 0068 - 0 . 0415 0. 0021 0. 1442 0. 0312 - 0 . 0414 0. 0416  LE .01  * * - SIGNIF. LE .001  RESTRUC 0 . 1394 0 .0189 0 .0271 0 .0595 -0 .0052 0 . 1 178 -0 .0475 0 .0806 -0 .0091 0 . 1287 -0 .0283 -0 .0448 0 .1617* 0,.0268 -o..0807 0..0566 -0. .0229 -0, .0862 -0, .0433 0..0179 0,,0686 -0, ,0567 -0. .0154 -0, ,0970 -0. .0666 0,,0258 0,,0021 -0, ,0207 -0. .0557 -0. .0058 0.. 1085 - 0 . ,0495 0..0843 0., 1566* - 0 . .0723 -o.,0272 - 0 . .0536 0., 1262 0. 0604 - 0 . 0070 - 0 . ,0260  INTERV 0 .0767 0 .0462 -0 .0915 0 . 1363 0 .0626 -0, .0716 -0, .0357 -0, .0086 -0, .0356 0.. 1460 0..0168 - 0 . .0111 0,.0342 -0. .0128 0,,0026 0,.0699 0..0617 - 0 . .0365 - 0 . .0773 0.. 1205 - 0 . ,0016 0.,0565 0..0657 0.,0100 0.. 1096 0., 1226 - 0 . .0447 - 0 . .0369 - 0 . 0304 0. 0213 - 0 . 0115 0. 0383 0. 2674** 0.,3080** - 0 . 0760 - 0 . 0270 - 0 . 0593 0. 1816* 0. 1837* - 0 . 1206 0. 0518  C O E F F I C I E N T S FORCE -0, .0023 0 .0382 -0, .0743 0,.0645 -0. .0122 -0, ,0093 -0, .0023 -0, .0779 -0, ,0783 0,.0294 -0. .0549 - 0 . .0167 0,.0437 0..0358 - 0 . ,0322 0,,0789 0.,0362 - 0 . .0695 0..1701* 0.,3492** - 0 . .0546 0.. 1366 - 0 . .0270 0..0564 0.,0743 - 0 . 0210 - 0 . .0592 - 0 . 0448 0. 0445 0. 2925** - 0 . 0161 - 0 . 0495 0. 2682** 0. 2058** - 0 . 0751 - 0 . 0177 - 0 . 0523 - 0 . 0929 0. 2397** - 0 . 0033 - 0 . 0522  ANALOGY 0 . 1932* 0 .0822 -0 .0522 0 . 1042 0 .0675 -o .0192 -0 .0518 0 .1640* -0 .0622 0 .0150 -0 .0024 0,.0327 0 . 1 190 -0 .0592 -0, .0165 0,.0705 0.. 1 100 -0, ,0192 0,.0520 0..0689 0..0645 0,.061 1 0..0605 -0, .0203 0,.0121 0., 1028 0,,0642 -0, ,0226 0.,0005 0.. 1434 0..0416 0.,0793 0.,2328** 0., 1344 -o..0475 - 0 . .0654 - 0 . .0322 0.,0666 0.,4909** -o..0737 0.,0444  TRICK -0 .0591 0 .0703 -0 .0884 0 .0715 0 .0523 - 0 .0261 - 0 .0704 - 0 .0483 0 .0486 - 0 .0034 - 0 .0962 0 .0053 0 .0058 - 0 .0354 0 .0771 -0 .0460 0 . 1005 0 .0902 0..0437 0,.0936 0..0201 0..0081 - 0 , .0078 0..0222 0,.0165 0,.0528 - 0 . .0928 - 0 . .0306 - 0 . .0825 0,,0284 - 0 , ,0824 0,, 1304 0,.1311 0.. 1614* - 0 , .0645 - 0 . .0473 0..0326 - 0 . .0414 0.,0451 - 0 . ,0328 0., 1047  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT  POWERWR  -o .0030  0 . 1489 0 . 1079 - 0 .0183 0 .0777 0 . 1 169 0 .0883 -0 .0291 0 .0962 0 .2045** - 0 .0612 - 0 . .0162 - 0 , .0147 0..0450 - 0 . .0797 0,. 1807* 0,,0260 0..0041 0..0954 0,,0772 O..1315 0..0844 0., 1346 -o..0304 - 0 , ,0078 0..0793 0..0684 - 0 . .0131 0.,1341 0.,1227 0.,1118 0..0319 0.,3217** 0..2021** - 0 . ,0722 0.,0086 0..0957 0. 0526 0.,0451 0. 0652 0. 6675**  WISHWR 0 .1211 0 .1877* 0 .1676* 0.. 1032 0 .0783 0,.0733 0,,0517 0,.0830 0.. 1386 0..1641* -0. .0081 0,,0783 0..0480 0,,0591 0..0310 -0. .0624 -0. .0415 0,,0773 0.,2230** -o..0026 0.,0673 0..0958 0..0455 0..0272 0.,0619 0..0873 - 0 . ,0884 0..0435 0. 3450** 0. 0348 0. 0510 0. 0369 0. 2089** 0. 0864 0. 0180 - 0 . 0687 0. 0131 0. 0876 - 0 . 0457 - 0 . 0519 0. 0219  CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  co  P E A R S O N PERSONL INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING SIGNIF.  0..0157 0..0416 - o . ,0260 0.,0518 - 0 . .0522 0.,0444 0., 1047 0.,6675** 0.,0219 0., 1073 0..1609* - 0 . ,0224 - 0 . ,0489 LE .01  INFLUEN 1 .0000 , 0,.0245 - o . .0640 - 0 , .0728 - o . .0821 0,.0039 - 0 . .0615 - 0 , .0785 0..0239 - 0 . .0040 - 0 . .0583 0..0484 0.. 1394  C O R R E L A T I O N  CHANGE 0..0245 1 .0000 , 0.. 1349 0.. 1708* - 0 . .0841 0..3131** - 0 . ,0092 0,.0454 - 0 . .0028 - 0 , .0388 - 0 . .0353 0,. 1 165 0.,01 18  SIGNIF. LE .001  RESTRUC - 0 . .0640 0,. 1349 1 .0000 0 . 1908* - 0 , .0551 0,.1121 0..0573 - 0 , .0358 0,.0203 - 0 . .0254 - 0 , .0232 - 0 . .0219 - 0 , .0508  INTERV - 0 . .0728 0..1708* 0..1908* 1.0000 . 0..0692 0,.4337** 0,.2281** 0,.0290 - 0 . .0364 0,.0137 0..0877 0,.01 18 - 0 . .0098  C O E F F I C I E N T S FORCE -0 .0821 - 0 . .0841 -0 .0551 0 .0692 1.0000 , -0 .0105 0,.0981 0,.0233 0,.0257 0 .0257 0,.0382 0..2317** 0,.1529*  ANALOGY 0,.0039 0..3131** 0,.1121 0..4337** - 0 , .0105 1.0000 , - 0 , .0022 - 0 , .0497 - 0 , .0231 - 0 , .0277 - 0 . .0253 0,. 1572* - 0 . ,0554  TRICK - 0 . .0615 - 0 . .0092 0..0573 0..2281** 0,.0981 - 0 . .0022 1 .0000 . - 0 , .0020 0..0055 0,. 1523* 0,. 1733* - 0 . .0325 0,. 1524*  POWERWR - 0 . .0785 0..0454 - 0 . .0358 0..0290 0..0233 - 0 . ,0497 - 0 . .0020 1.0000 . 0.,0167 0.,0822 0.,2325** - 0 . ,0309 - 0 . ,0691  WISHWR 0,,0239 - 0 . .0028 0..0203 - 0 . ,0364 0,,0257 - 0 . .0231 0..0055 0..0167 1.0000 . 0..0203 - 0 . .0420 0..0175 0..3625  (99.OOOO IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  co ro  P E A R S O N REGRESS PRODUCT FLUJET FLEXdET FLEXUT2 GETMON SUBSTI REDUCE USEVAIL GETELSE ASK BORROW SAVE LOOKFOR BANK EARN JOB SELL BUSINESS WISHdET ILLEGJT POWERJT FLUHRS FLEXHRS ORDFUND ACCESS POOLING FRECHEAP COMBIN WISHHS ILLEGHS POWERHS DOELSE FLUWAR FLEXWAR TALK KEY COMMUNI ORGANIZ WAREOUI COMARMY PERSONL * - SIGNIF.  0 .0140 0 .0401 0 .1217 0 .0235 0 .0301 0 .0312 0 .0944 0 .0109 0 .0388 -0 .0210 -0 .0283 -0 .0800 0 .0214 0 .0268 0 .0472 - 0 , .0709 0 .0871 0,.0707 - 0 . .0433 0,.0782 - 0 . .0224 0..0613 0..01 16 0..0075 0..0051 - 0 . .0523 - 0 . .0626 - 0 . .0207 - 0 . .0058 0,.0940 - 0 . .0165 - 0 . .0087 0,.0843 0..0803 - 0 . .0339 0..0102 0..0288 - 0 . .0635 0.,0205 - 0 . ,0675 0,, 1073 LE .01  C O R R E L A T I O N  FANTASY  TACTICL  COPING  0,.0538 - 0 , .0573 - 0 , . 1 190 - 0 , .0606 - 0 , .0778 - 0 , .0900 - 0 , .0432 - 0 . .0535 - 0 , .0519 - 0 , .0153 0,.0351 - 0 . .0664 0..0323 - 0 , .0495 - 0 . .0898 - 0 . ,0239 - 0 . .0088 - 0 . .0214 0.,0666 0.,0987 0..0072 - 0 . ,0071 - 0 , .0435 - 0 . ,0475 0..0265 - 0 . ,0477 - 0 . .0571 - 0 . .0188 - 0 . ,0507 0..0038 - 0 . .0720 0..2220** 0..0100 - 0 . ,0102 - 0 . ,0658 - 0 . ,0521 - 0 . ,0738 - 0 . ,0060 0.,0332 0.,0046 o.,1609*  0 .1852* - 0 .0204 - 0 . 1 128 - 0 .0108 - 0 .0198 - 0 .0853 - 0 .0410 - 0 .0507 - 0 .0492 0..0003 - 0 , .0966 - 0 , .0083 0,.0185 0,.0231 - 0 .0586 0,.0214 - 0 . .0008 - 0 , .0519 0..0464 0,. 1 196 0..0592 0..0093 - 0 . .0366 - 0 . .0579 - 0 , .0575 0..0223 - 0 , .0541 - 0 . .0178 0..0381 - 0 , .0481 0..0667 0,.0276 0..0536 0..0529 - 0 . .0293 - 0 . .0881 0.,0012 - 0 . .0548 0,.1211 - 0 , ,0583 - 0 , ,0224  0,. 1 183 -0, .0147 0,. 1603* 0,.0706 -0, .0514 -0, .0639 0,. 1237 0,.1212 0.. 1 157 0,.0471 0..0054 0..0350 0.. 1668* 0..0304 -0. .0436 -0. .0197 -0, .0344 -0. .0379 0,.0298 -0. ,0313 -0, ,0777 0., 1200 0,,0524 0.,0184 0. 2544** 0.,0025 -0. .0586 0..0301 0,. 1 109 0..0255 -0, ,0294 0..0406 0..2386** 0,, 1930* -0. .0524 - 0 , .0245 - 0 . ,0302 - 0 . ,0294 - 0 . .0503 0..0102 -0. .0489  * * - SIGNIF.  LE .001  C O E F F I C I E N T S  co  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  P E A R S O N REGRESS INFLUEN CHANGE RESTRUC INTERV FORCE ANALOGY TRICK POWERWR WISHWR REGRESS FANTASY TACTICL COPING * - SIGNIF.  - 0 . .0040 - o . .0388 - 0 . .0254 0..0137 0..0257 - 0 . .0277 0..1523* 0..0822 0..0203 1 .0000 . - 0 . .0232 - 0 , .0219 0., 1247 LE .01  C O R R E L A T I O N  FANTASY  TACTICL  COPING  - 0 . .0583 - 0 . .0353 - 0 , .0232 0..0877 0..0382 - 0 , .0253 0,.1733* 0..2325** - 0 . .0420 - 0 . .0232 1 .0000 , - 0 . .0200 - o . .0462  0..0484 0.. 1 165 - 0 . .0219 0..01 18 0..2317** 0.. 1572* - 0 . .0325 - 0 . .0309 0..0175 - 0 . .0219 - 0 . .0200 1 .0000 , - 0 . .0438  0., 1394 0..01 18 - 0 . .0508 - 0 . .0098 0.. 1529* - 0 . .0554 0.. 1524* - 0 . .0691 0,.3625** 0,. 1247 - 0 , .0462 - 0 . .0438 - 1.0000 .  SIGNIF. LE .001  C O E F F I C I E N T S  (99.0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED)  CO  185  APPENDIX J ~ RATIONALES FOR SRP SCORES RETAINED OR COMBINED  TO  BECOME THE SRP VARIABLES Fluency Table scores  31 p r e s e n t s  t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e f l u e n c y  f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e SRP t a s k s .  The t a b l e a l s o  i n c l u d e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of t h e f l u e n c y s c o r e s Product  (i.e.,  the Proposal a c t i v i t y  score).  A legend  c o d e s o r l a b e l s u s e d i n t h e t a b l e s c a n be f o u n d  and w i t h P r o d u c t ,  be a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o m b i n e t h e f l u e n c y s c o r e s t a s k s i n t o one s c o r e , t h e SRP v a r i a b l e c a l l e d  Table  f o r the  i n A p p e n d i x H.  S i n c e a l l t h r e e f l u e n c y s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y , c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s  with  postively  i t was j u d g e d t o f r o m t h e t h r e e SRP Fluency.  31 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e Fluency Scores and Product  Flujet  Fluhrs  Fluwar  Flujet Fluhrs  .49**  Fluwar  .40**  .54**  Product  .18*  .20*  .26**  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t *P<.01 . **P<.001 .  a n d SRP s c o r e s .  186  Flexibility Table  32 p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e  flexibility also  s c o r e s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e SRP t a s k s .  i n c l u d e s the c o r r e l a t i o n s of each of the f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s  with Product The  (i.e.,  the Proposal a c t i v i t y  two f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s f r o m  relatively  independent  significantly, from  The t a b l e  were  p o s t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with the f l e x i b i l i t y  were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  A l l of the f l e x i b i l i t y  positively  correlated with  scores scores  Product.  i t appeared a p p r o p r i a t e t o combine a l l f o u r  flexibility  Table  the j e t problem  o f e a c h o t h e r w h i l e e a c h was  t h e h o r s e a n d war p r o b l e m s .  Therefore  score).  s c o r e s i n t o one s c o r e , t h e SRP F l e x i b i l i t y  variable.  32 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e F l e x i b i l i t y S c o r e s and t h e P r o d u c t S c o r e  Flexjet  Flexjt2  Flexhrs  Flexwar  Flexjet Flexjt2  .09  Flexhrs  .30**  .33**  Flexwar  .25**  . 37**  .37**  Product  .24**  .24**  .28**  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t *P<.01 . **P<.001.  .26**  a n d SRP s c o r e s .  187  Wishing T a b l e 33 p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e w i s h i n g related  s c o r e s f r o m t h e t h r e e SRP t a s k s a n d t h e P r o d u c t s c o r e .  None o f t h e w i s h i n g s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d Product. correlated  The w i s h i n g s c o r e s w e r e , h o w e v e r , among t h e m s e l v e s .  w i s h i n g s c o r e s by c o m b i n i n g i n o r d e r t o make p o s s i b l e meaningfulness  this  with  significantly  I t was d e c i d e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e them i n t o one SRP v a r i a b l e ,  further  investigation  Wishing,  o f any  response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c might  have.  T a b l e 33 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e W i s h i n g S c o r e s and t h e P r o d u c t S c o r e  Wishjet  Wi s h h r s  Wi shwar  Wishjet Wi s h h r s  .37**  Wishwar  . 22**  Product  -.07  .35** .03  .12  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t a n d SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01 . **P<.001 .  188  Personal Table capability Product  34 p r e s e n t s scores  score.  t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e p e r s o n a l  f r o m t h e t h r e e SRP t a s k s a s w e l l a s t h e  The p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t y  p r o b l e m was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y score  Capability  score  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e same k i n d o f  f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two p r o b l e m s .  capability  scores  from t h e j e t and horse  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . only these variable,  f r o m t h e war  The p e r s o n a l  p r o b l e m s were I t was d e c i d e d  that  two s c o r e s w o u l d be c o m b i n e d t o become t h e SRP Personal  Capability.  T a b l e 34 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e P e r s o n a l C a p a b i l i t y Scores and t h e P r o d u c t Score  Powerjt  Powerhs  Powerwr  Powerjt Powerhs  .35**  Powerwr  .13  .1 1  Product  .19*  .10  .00  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t *p<.01. **P<.001 .  a n d SRP s c o r e s .  189  Fantasy Factor T a b l e 35 p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e f a n t a s y factor  related  score.  s c o r e s f r o m t h e t h r e e SRP t a s k s a n d t h e P r o d u c t  The t h r e e f a n t a s y f a c t o r  related  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s essentially  independent  s c o r e s were a n d a l l were  from t h e P r o d u c t s c o r e .  I t was d e c i d e d  t h a t t h e s e t h r e e s c o r e s w o u l d be r e t a i n e d by c o m b i n i n g  them  into  one  s c o r e , t h e SRP v a r i a b l e , F a n t a s y F a c t o r , i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e  for  f u r t h e r examination of the p o s s i b l e meaningfulness  response  of t h i s  characteristic.  T a b l e 35 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Among t h e F a n t a s y F a c t o r Response C a t e g o r i e s and t h e P r o d u c t Score  Illegjt  Illeghs  Force  Illegjt Illeghs  .61  Force  .35**  Product  -.05  .29** .03  .00  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t a n d SRP s c o r e s . *P<.01. **P<.001.  190  Analytic T a b l e 36 p r e s e n t s I n f l u e n t i a l , Organize  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among: C h a n g e , ( t h r e e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s f r o m t h e war  problem), the F l e x i b i l i t y Product  score.\  Thinking  score  f o r t h e war p r o b l e m , a n d t h e  As was i n d i c a t e d  i n T a b l e K-1, t h e t h r e e  r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s o f C h a n g e , I n f l u e n t i a l , and O r g a n i z e were u s e d by o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b j e c t s .  While  these  r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Flexibility given  score  f o r t h e war p r o b l e m , i t was c o n s i d e r e d  the infrequency  of t h e i r  occurrence  and g i v e n  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Product response c a t e g o r i e s could and  that  contained  (2)such  reasonably  Thinking.  t o one a s p e c t  don't l i k e  t h a t one a s p e c t  categories  of the problem  t o o b i g f o r one e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l because they  t o combine t h e s e  the r e s u l t i n g v a r i a b l e ,  R e s p o n s e s i n any o f t h e s e  sensitivity  (Othese score  i n f o r m a t i o n not a l r e a d y  response c a t e g o r i e s  i t m i g h t be r e a s o n a b l e  c a t e g o r i e s and t o c a l l  score, that  score.  L o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the three suggested that  their  be c o m b i n e d i n t o one  a score might provide  in a flexibility  that ,  response  Analytic  revealed  (e.g., the problem i s  student  each other)  SRP  also  or people  fight  a n d an a t t e m p t t o work on  o f t h e p r o b l e m i n a l o g i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e manner.  W h i l e s u c h r e s p o n s e s o r s u g g e s t e d s o l u t i o n methods d i d n o t d e a l w i t h t h e war p r o b l e m i n i t s e n t i r e t y , reasonable  steps  they  towards the d e s i r e d g o a l .  c o u l d be s e e n a s (See A p p e n d i x I f o r  examples of responses i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s . )  191  T a b l e 36 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and P r o d u c t  Change  Influen  Organiz  Flexwar  Change Influen  .02  Organiz  . 1 4*  . 1 7**  Flexwar  .28***  .28**  Product  .16**  . 20**  3 1 ***  .15*  .26***  Notes. ' N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t a n d SRP s c o r e s . *p<.05. **P<.01. ***P<.001.  192  Conceptual Table  37 p r e s e n t s  Analogy, Restructure problem), Product  the  The  f o r t h e war  and  c o m b i n e d i n t o one  that this  t h a t was  these  problem.  I f one  c o u l d f i n d a way  simply  be  Thinking to i n the  response c a t e g o r i e s a l s o  a holistic  Responses  from  s o l u t i o n to the  t o i m p l e m e n t any  war  solution  c a t e g o r i e s , w a r s w o u l d , a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n ,  (See A p p e n d i x I f o r e x a m p l e s of r e s p o n s e s i n e a c h of  the c a t e g o r i e s . ) F u r t h e r truly  three  score.  a d e g r e e o f c o m m o n a l i t y among them.  method i n t h e s e stopped.  t h a t the  not a l r e a d y c o n t a i n e d  categories a l l represented  than  Analytic  information relevant  L o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e suggested  the  in  the  Restructure could  s c o r e or the A n a l y t i c T h i n k i n g  29  were l o w e r  score c a l l e d Conceptual  score could provide  p e r f o r m a n c e on P r o d u c t Flexibility  correlated with  These p a t t e r n s s u g g e s t e d  c a t e g o r i e s of T a c t i c a l , A n a l o g y , and reasonably  Tactical,  response c a t e g o r i e s comprising  Thinking variable.  the  (see Table  Their c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Flexwar  of the  war  p r o b l e m , and  t h r e e r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s of  They were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  score.  were t h o s e  ( t h r e e response c a t e g o r i e s from the  R e s t r u c t u r e were u s e d o n l y r a r e l y  Appendix I ) . Product  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among: T a c t i c a l ,  f l e x i b i l i t y score  score.  A n a l o g y , and  Thinking  "playing with listing  these  r e s p o n s e s showed s u b j e c t s t o  i d e a s " f o r s t o p p i n g wars as opposed  commonly w i t n e s s e d  solution  strateges.  to  be  be  193  T a b l e 37 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among C o n c e p t u a l T h i n k i n g Response C a t e g o r i e s , F l e x w a r , and P r o d u c t  Tacticl  Analogy  Restruc  Flexwar  Tacticl Analogy  .16*  Restruc  .02  .11*  Flexwar  .05  .13*  .16***  Product  . 1 9**  . 1 9**  . 1 4*  26***  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t a n d SRP s c o r e s . *p<.05. **P<.01. ***P<.001.  1 94  APPENDIX K ~ COMPUTATION OF SCORES FOR SRP VARIABLES AND TEST CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE VARIABLES Appendix J presented initial  scores developed  rationales  f o r combining  f o r t h e SRP i n t o a s m a l l e r  scores that  w o u l d s e r v e a s t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s  the study.  In order t o preserve the weight  score w i t h i n for  the variable  the i n i t i a l  which  s c o r e s f o r t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s . used a r e p r e s e n t e d SRP v a r i a b l e s , after  i n Table  38.  initial  i t , t h e raw s c o r e s p r i o r t o computing  or recoding  system  To compute t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e  t h e component s c o r e s were s i m p l y a d d e d t o g e t h e r  t h e r e c o d i n g was c o m p l e t e d .  standard deviations, Table  of each  or recoded  The s c a l e s  s e t of  t o be e x a m i n e d i n  would include  s c o r e s were s c a l e d  some o f t h e  and ranges  40 p r e s e n t s p e r c e n t a g e  t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s .  Table  among t h e SRP v a r i a b l e s .  Table  39 p r e s e n t s t h e means,  f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g SRP v a r i a b l e s .  frequency  d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r f i v e of  41 p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  195  T a b l e 38 - S c a l e s f o r R e c o d i n g I n i t i a l SRP C o m p u t i n g SRP V a r i a b l e s  I n i t i a l SRP Scores  I n i t i a l Score Value  Recoded Value  %  Scores P r i o r  Frequency  Fluency Flujet  1 5 8 11 17  Fluhrs  0 1 2 5 7 11  Fluwar  0 1 2 4 6 8  -• 4 -• 7 -• 10 -• 16 -• 33  1 2 3 4 5  17..9 34.,7 21 ..0 18..7 7..8  -• 3 -- 6 -• 10 -- 16  0 1 2 3 4 5  3..3 5..4 44..2 21 ;.9 18..3 7.. 1  -- 3 -• 5 -• 7 -- 13  0 1 2 3 4 5  4..5 20..7 38.. 1 21 ..9 9..5 5..3  1 2 3  52,.5 29,.3 18,.2  8  1 2 3 4 5  23,.9 24,.4 24,.0 16,.5 1 1 ., 1  5  0 1 2 3 4  4,. 1 22,.7 40,.5 26,.0 6,.6  0 1 2 3  8,.2 1 1 .2 , 19,.4 27,.7  Flexibility Flexjet  Flexjt2  Flexhrs  Flexwar  1 2 3 -1 -3 4 5 6 -0 1 2 3 4 -0 1 2 3  4 2  to  196  4 5 -  7  4 5  28. 1 5.4  0 1  3  0 1  91 ,7 8, 3  0 1  3  0 1  86, 4 13, 7  0 1  3  0 1  90, 9 9, 1  3 16  0 1 2 3  59, 20, 12, 7,  0 1 2 -  6  0 1 2  71 , 21 , 7,  Illegjt  0 1 3  2 4  0 1 2  78, 15, 5,  Illeghs  0 1 2  0 1 2  87, 7, 5,  Force  0 1 2  0 1 2  84, 11 , 4,  Wishing Wishjet Wishhs Wishwr Personal  Capability  Powerjet  0 1 2 4  Powerhs  Fantasy  Analytic  Factor  Thinking  Change  0 1 -  2  0 1  93.8 6.2  Influen  0 1 -  3  0 1  84, 15,  Organiz  0 1 -  4  0 1  83, 16,  -  2  0 1  97.9 2. 1  Conceptual  Thinking  Tacticl  1 97  Analogy  0  0  95.9  Restruc  0  0  1  1  97.5 2.5  1 - 4  1  4.1  198  T a b l e 39 - Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d Ranges f o r SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242)  Variable  Mean  S.D.  Min  2.8  2  13  8.7  3.0  2  15  .3  .6  0  3  1 .0  1 .3  0  5  Fantasy Factor  .6  1 .2  0  6  Analytic Thinking  .4  .6  0  3  Conceptual Thinking  . 1  .3  0  2  Fluency Flexibility Wishing Personal \ Capability  7.6 •  Max  199  T a b l e 40 - P e r c e n t a g e F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n s t h e SRP V a r i a b l e s (N=242)  Variable  Score  Wishing  of  for Five  Subjects  0 1 2 3  76.4 17.4 5.0 1 .2  0 1 2 3 4 5  48.0 22.0 16.0 7.0 5.0 2.0  Fantasy Factor  0 1 2 3 4 5 6  66.5 16.9 8.7 4.1 1 .7 1 .2 0.8  Analytic  0 1 2 3  67.0 26.0 6.0 0.4  0 1 2  93.0 5.0 2.0  Personal  Capability  Thinking  Conceptual  Thiinking  of  200  T a b l e 41 - P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s t h e SRP V a r i a b l e s a n d t h e P r o d u c t S c o r e  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (1)Fluency (2)Flexibility  82**  (3)Wishing  26**  1 g**  (4)Capable  49**  30**  05  (5)Fantasy  21*  07  10  07  (6)Analytic  36**  41**  09  23**  16  (7 )'Conceptual  14  09  07  16  14  (8)Product  30**  37**  10  17  -05  18* 28*  Notes. N=242 f o r SRP s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s . N=214 f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P r o d u c t a n d SRP s c o r e s . Leading decimals omitted. *P<.01. **P<.001 .  Among  (7)  201  APPENDIX  L - DESCRIPTION  OF THE REQUEST-FOR-PROPOSAL  PRESENTATION Proposal  Topic:  to develop a plan  f o r a p a r t y where t h e g r a d e  f i v e c l a s s w o u l d e n t e r t a i n a g r a d e one c l a s s f o r an The p r e s e n t e r today they magical. for  began t h e s e s s i o n by t e l l i n g  were g o i n g Today t h e y  the party  they  g r a d e one c l a s s .  t o do s o m e t h i n g v e r y were g o i n g  were g o i n g  activity  important  t o be a l l o w e d  A t t h e same t i m e ,  t o be a b r i e f  students  that  and  very  t o come up w i t h t h e m a i n  they  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t o come up w i t h t h e i r going  afternoon.  ideas  t o have f o r the  were g o i n g ideas.  t o use  First  there  was  t o g i v e them p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g  their creative thinking. For to  t h e warm-up a c t i v i t y ,  i n v e n t a game t h a t t h e y  students  were g i v e n  had never seen b e f o r e .  i n f o r m a t i o n and ideas the s t u d e n t s  tin  cans  The l i s t  (forstirring  of t h i n g s  o f i d e a s a b o u t t h e way  of t h i n g s i n c l u d e d : a b l a n k e t ,  (coffee), a stick  minutes  As b a c k g r o u n d  were g i v e n a l i s t  t h a t c o u l d be u s e d i n t h e game a n d a l i s t games w o r k .  five  paint),  r o p e , empty  o l d used  C h r i s t m a s c a r d s , an empty b o x , a s m a l l s p o n g y b a l l  t h a t t h e dog  had  chewed, t h e d o g , p i e c e s o f p a p e r a n d p e n c i l s , s c o t c h  tape,  and  a S t a r Wars p o s t e r  about  how  games work i n c l u d e d : g u e s s i n g  b o a r d games,  (Darth Vader).  of ideas  games, m a k e - b e l i e v e  games,  s p o r t s games, c a r d games, team games, games o f  c h a n c e o r l u c k , a r i t h m e t i c games, games.  The l i s t  skill  games, a n d e l e c t r o n i c  S t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o i n v e n t a game t h a t  eight  c h i l d r e n could play using only  some o r a l l o f t h e o b j e c t s  listed.  their  They were t o d e s c r i b e  d r a w i n g s on a p i e c e o f p a p e r .  game i n w r i t i n g o r w i t h  A f t e r a b o u t f i v e m i n u t e s , most o f  202  t h e c h i l d r e n were g i v e n a c h a n c e t o d e s c r i b e r e s t of the The ideas that and  then suggested t h a t the  i t w o u l d n e v e r be t h a t would r e a l l y  forgotten —  could  surprise  that party a c t i v i t i e s , connected to the  a list  presenter  of  p o i n t e d out  certain  then taped  " s p e c i a l days".  that a l l students f o o d , and  on  d i s g u i s e , V i k i n g , and  as  were f a m i l i a r  The  50's,  themes l i s t e d r o c k and  grub.  j a c k o'  roll,  could a l l  Christmas.  w i t h a l l of  o r on any  and  " S p e c i a l Days"  backwards,  awards, clown, to ensure  that  them.  up a l i s t  some o f t h e  o f themes  R o b i n Hood,  T h e s e were d i s c u s s e d  of a c t i v i t i e s  that  t h i n g s that there are  occasion.  s i n g i n g , games, p l a y s , d a n c i n g , hunt, apple  was  were:  robot, Martian, Dracula,  then taped  r e m i n d e r s of  special occasions  Using  were aware  so on,  the board a l i s t  i n t e r n a t i o n a l , Canada, o l d f a s h i o n e d ,  presenter  planning  theme.  were: k i t e , h a t ,  The  fun  S p r i n g , t h e c o n c e p t o f a theme  f a n t a s y , a c h a r a c t e r , S p r i n g , and  students  that in  t o s t a r t w i t h a theme.  decorations,  western,space, pioneer,  listed  unusual  people.  i t is helpful  d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h t o be  The  the  invent  a p a r t y t h a t w o u l d be  however, the p r e s e n t e r  k i n d of p a r t y  serve  students  f o r t h e i r p a r t y t h a t w o u l d make i t so s p e c i a l and  t h e e x a m p l e s of C h r i s t m a s and  be  game t o  class.  presenter  First, any  their  Activities  would  t o do  listed  on  were:  puppets, c o n t e s t s , Easter  Egg  bobbing, p r e s s i n g l e a s v e s , p l a n t i n g seeds, making a  l a n t e r n , w e a r i n g costumes, making c o o k i e s , p i n g  tournaments, c a r n i v a l  b o o t h s , games of c h a n c e o r  skill,  pong seeing  203  animals  a t t h e zoo, a i r p l a n e c o n t e s t s , cake walk, p i c n i c  a haunted house, f i n d t h e brush,  games,  m a k i n g a snowman, a n d m a k i n g a  "something". S t u d e n t s were t h e n g i v e n different  i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e w i t h two  s t r a t e g i e s f b r c o m i n g up w i t h u n u s u a l p a r t y  One was t o t a k e an a c t i v i t y  that c l e a r l y d i d not belong  c h o s e n theme a n d t o c h a n g e i t s o t h a t example, g i v e n students  i t d i d belong.  t h a t a w e s t e r n theme was g o i n g  b o b b i n g t o make i t f i t w i t h a w e s t e r n theme. was  t o t a k e an o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y  the  theme o f i n t e r e s t .  with the  For  t o be u s e d ,  p r a c t i s e d changing the Hallowe'en a c t i v i t y  suggesting  ideas.  of apple  The o t h e r  strategy  a n d c h a n g e i t t o make i t f i t  Students p r a c t i s e d t h i s  s t r a t e g y by  how t o c h a n g e t h e o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s  of cookie  m a k i n g , s e e d p l a n t i n g , a n d i c e c r e a m e a t i n g t o make them f i t w i t h a d r a c u l a theme.; A l l o f t h i s p r a c t i c e was done o r a l l y a s a group. S t u d e n t s were t h e n  i n v i t e d t o independently  own p a r t y p l a n p r o p o s a l s . theme he o r s h e w i s h e d .  Each student  develop  their  was t o u s e w h a t e v e r  They w e r e ; r e m i n d e d t o t r y t o come up  with unexpected, unusual a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t w o u l d be f u n u s i n g t h e  s t r a t e g i e s t h e c l a s s had j u s t p r a c t i s e d . The  w r i t t e n work s u b m i t t e d  proposals teacher  by t h e s t u d e n t s  t h a t were j u d g e d f o r c r e a t i v i t y .  took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r follow-up  The  party plan  classroom  i n t a k i n g t h e c l a s s as  a whole t h r o u g h t o t h e s e l e c t i o n and c o n t i n u e d one  c o n s t i t u t e d the  development of  t h a t w o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d .  O t h e r T o p i c s : The e x a m p l e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e was u s e d w i t h  five  204  c l a s s e s t h a t were a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g one  a party  f o r a grade  One c l a s s p r e f e r r e d t o p l a n a s p e c i a l a f t e r n o o n  fora class  class.  of t h e same g r a d e l e v e l . all)  Two o f t h e c l a s s e s  ( t h e r e were t e n i n  wished t o plan a s p e c i a l F r i d a y that would i n v o l v e the  entire  school.  of a d a p t a t i o n  T h e s e two v a r i a t i o n s r e q u i r e d of the i n i t i a l  school  in raising  library.  i n t h e way  example.  One c l a s s h a d a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s interested  little  who w e r e  keenly  funds w i t h which t o donate books t o t h e  The s c h o o l h a d a h i s t o r y o f s u c c e s s f u l  fund-  r a i s i n g campaigns i n i t s well-above-average-income neighbourhood. imagining  The c l a s s , h o w e v e r , h a d h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n  anything  b e y o n d t h e u s u a l methods o f r a f f l e s ,  penny  d r i v e s , p l e d g e s o r c a r washes. The consider (and  presenter planning  suggested t o t h i s c l a s s t h a t they  an e v e n t w h i c h w o u l d be f u n t o d o , s u r p r i s i n g  t h e r e f o r e m e m o r a b l e ) , w h i c h w o u l d i n some way g e n e r a t e  funds,  and which might a l s o i n v o l v e t h e whole s c h o o l and  community i n a v e r y  p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e way.  T h i s c l a s s was g i v e n for  should  the party plan.  They were a l s o g i v e n  that generate funds.  This  dinner,  auction,  fun f a i r ,  selling  products,  charging  fair,  t h e same p r e s e n t a t i o n  list  a list  of a c t i v i t i e s  included: telethon,  taxes,  bazaar, p l e d g e s / r a f f l e s , bingo, a d m i s s i o n t o some e v e n t ,  w i n n i n g a c o n t e s t , and g a m b l i n g .  b r e a k d o w n o f two k i n d s  t h a t was u s e d  arts/crafts  They were a l s o g i v e n  of f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s  a  t o show what  c o m p o n e n t s o f them c o u l d be c h a n g e d t o make t h e a c t i v i t y  unusual  205 and  surprising.  products" — and  unusual  analysis  One s u c h a c t i v i t y  unusual  a n a l y s i s was:  products, unsual places to s e l l  customers t o s e l l  was: " e n t e r t a i n m e n t "  them t o .  The o t h e r  them  activity  -- who o r what w o u l d be t h e  e n t e r t a i n m e n t , who w o u l d be t h e a u d i e n c e , sponsor,  "selling  where w o u l d t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t  c o u l d t h e r e be a  take  place?  from,  APPENDIX M ~ RATING SCALE USED FOR SCORING  PROPOSALS  Scale .  Label or General  A n t i c i p a t e d J u d g e ' s Response  General D e s c r i p t i o n or A n a l y s i s of  Point  Description  to Proposals in t h i s Category  Proposals in this  One  Limited response.  Why i s i t t h a t the c h i l d d i d n ' t want to do t h i s , d i d n ' t t r y t o do t h i s * o r w a s n ' t a b l e t o do this?  I f t h e c h i l d has w r i t t e n a n y t h i n g at a l l , i t i s so b r i e f and o r d i n a r y t h a t i t almost seems t o have been done f o r the sake of h a v i n g a p p l i e d ink t o the page.  Two  Low q u a n t i t y quality.  There i s n o t h i n g o r e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e here t h a t c o u l d be u s e d .  I t appears t h a t the c h i l d i s c l e a r l y a p p r o a c h i n g the t a s k butjcan.'t seem to do i t w e l l f o r any o f a number o f r e a s o n s : e . g . , low e l a b o r a t i v e a b i l i t y ; no i m a g i n a t i o n ; low e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l s ; c a n ' t get away from the common a p p r o a c h e s ; g e t s l o s t i n e l a b o r a t i o n and g e t s d e a d - e n d e d .  Three  High q u a n t i t y low q u a l i t y .  There i s n o t h i n g o r e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e here t h a t c o u l d be u s e d .  The c h i l d appears t o have b r a i n s t o r m e d p r o f u s e l y , (not s i m p l y l i s t e d known a c t i v i t i e s ) , but much o f what i s d e s c r i b e d d o e s n ' t make s e n s e , o r i s t a s t e l e s s , d o e s n ' t look l i k e f u n , o r i s g r o s s l y u n r e l a t e d t o the theme.  Four  Medium t o h i g h q u a n t i t y and low t o medium quality.  The c h i l d has g e n e r a t e d something t h a t c o u l d be used t o get one t h r o u g h the i n t e n d ed event ( e . g . , the p a r t y ) - e i t h e r (a) enough common a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would c o n s t i tute a f u n c t i o n a l party; and/ or (b) a c t i v i t y i d e a s t h a t with further elaboration could become the unusual and e f f e c t ive a c t i v i t i e s d e s i r e d .  Either: The c h i l d has l i s t e d / d e s c r i b e d a number o f activities. Some a r e common f o r the theme. Some have odd t w i s t s t h a t d o n ' t work o r a r e not r e l a t e d t o the theme. One o r more o f the attempted f o r c e d c o n n e c t i o n s may show p r o m i s e but r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . Or: A l l a c t i v i t i e s show some p o t e n t i a l promise but none Of them a r e e l a b o r a t e d enough t o show how t h e y would be made t o work w e l l (and i t ' s not r e a d i l y o b v i o u s . )  and  and  Category  Five  High q u a l i t y (one or T h e - p r o p o s a l has one o r more more a c t i v i t i e s meet a c t i v i t y i d e a s t h a t you would t h e c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d . ) d e f i n i t e l y want t o use i f you were d o i n g t h a t theme.  One o r more of the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y i d e a s appear t o be the r e s u l t of a s u c c e s s f u l forced connection. The o t h e r a c t i v i t y i d e a s may be p r e d i c t a b l e , common, o r s i l l y , t h e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the r e s p o n s e s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h i l d would be c a p a b l e o f making a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o someone e l s e ' s master p l a n .  Six  A master p l a n .  The c h i l d has c a r r i e d out a s u c c e s s f u l s o l o b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n t h a t has r e s u l t e d i n a master p l a n , i . e . , what the c h i l d has w r i t t e n down conveys a c l e a r v i s i o n o r many p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t images o f what the event would o r c o u l d be a f t e r r e f i n e m e n t and f u r t h e r development. The e s s e n t i a l r i c h n e s s , however, i s a l r e a d y i n the p r o p o s a l - - p a r t of t h a t r i c h n e s s i s t h a t i t i s suggestive or p r o v o c a t i v e of f u r t h e r c r e a t i v e thought t h a t would e x t e n d o r e l a b o r a t e t h i s master p l a n .  Note:  The c h i l d ' s p r o p o s a l c o u l d s e r v e as a r i c h and p r o v o c a t i v e s t a r t i n g point for leadi n g a c l a s s t h r o u g h the development and s t a g i n g of the e v e n t .  F o r the fund r a i s i n g event p r o p o s a l s , a l t e r n a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s were p r o v i d e d but the same s c a l e p o i n t s were u s e d .  Rating scale for judging students'  p r o p o s a l s on the d i m e n s i o n o f  creativity.  209  APPENDIX N - INTERVIEW SCHEDULES Child  Interview  Schedule  I f you o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l t h r e e d a y s o f t h e week, what some o f t h e t h i n g s y o u ' d l i k e t o do w i t h t h e e x t r a t i m e ?  are  Have you e v e r done a n y t h i n g c o u l d do?  you  that  other  p e o p l e were s u r p r i s e d  What's t h e most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g t h a t y o u ' v e e v e r had t o do o r , i s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g y o u ' v e done t h a t was r e a l l y h a r d t o but y o u r e a l l y w a n t e d t o do i t ? Some p e o p l e r e a l l y t h i n k you do? Has  believe i t ever  i n t h e power o f w i s h i n g . worked?  Do  -do  you  Do you e v e r g e t o t h e r p e o p l e t o go a l o n g w i t h y o u r i d e a s o r y o u want t o do? ( a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s ; a c t i v i t i e s or r o u t i n e s a t home) S o m e t i m e s we l i k e t o d a y d r e a m — a b o u t t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o o r t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o t r y , o r t h i n g s we'd l i k e t o become. you remember a n y t h i n g y o u ' v e e v e r d a y d r e a m e d a b o u t ?  what  do, Can  Have you e v e r done a n y t h i n g r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what most k i d s y o u r age h a v e done -- made s o m e t h i n g , r e a d up on s o m e t h i n g , planned something, t r i e d something? Some p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t w i l l p o w e r c a n t a k e them a l o n g do you t h i n k t h a t y o u ' v e e v e r u s e d w i l l p o w e r ? I'm g o i n g t o a s k you some d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how you see t h i n g s . Who the  k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s For example .  way now  -—  do you t h i n k makes t h e b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e t o what h a p p e n s i n c l a s s r o o m : the p r i n c i p a l , the t e a c h e r , the k i d s ?  When p e o p l e d i s a g r e e usually is?  o v e r s o m e t h i n g , why  do  you  think  that  What t h i n g s w o u l d y o u say a r e most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o most p e o p l e ? What do you t h i n k w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o you? I n a l l of t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u ' r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o r t h a t t h o u g h t a b o u t a l o t , what has p u z z l e d you t h e m o s t ? What's t h e What's t h e  b e s t t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g y o u r age? h a r d e s t t h i n g about b e i n g your age?  What w o u l d y o u  l i k e t o be  really  good a t  doing?  you've  210  I f y o u c o u l d p i c k one t h i n g t h a t you w o u l d n ' t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t a n y m o r e , what w o u l d i t be? What w o u l d be t h e n e x t t h i n g ? I n t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e o r i n t h e w o r l d of t h i n g s , o r i n t h e w o r l d o f p e o p l e , what i s i t t h a t s u r p r i s e s you t h e m o s t , o r t h a t you f i n d t h e most f a s c i n a t i n g ? Some p e o p l e r e a l l y t h a t you do?  believe  i n the  power o f p r a y e r .  Do  you  think  Some p e o p l e a l w a y s h a v e l o t s o f i d e a s a t t h e i r f i n g e r t i p s , you know, t h e y a l w a y s h a v e l o t s o f i d e a s a b o u t what t o g e t someone f o r a p r e s e n t , or t h e y f i n d i t r e a l l y easy t o t h i n k of t h i n g s t o say i n a s t o r y t h e y h a v e t o w r i t e o r a l e t t e r . Other people h a v e t o work r e a l l y h a r d t o come up w i t h i d e a s , o r t h e y j u s t seem t o come more s l o w l y . W h i c h k i n d of p e r s o n s o u n d s more l i k e y o u ? Can you t h i n k o f any e x a m p l e s of when y o u had l o t s t o say o r l o t s of i d e a s o r when you had t r o u b l e t h i n k i n g o f a l o t o f ideas? Can you remember any when y o u were t r y i n g s o m e t h i n g you n e e d e d s l o w e d t h i n g s down?  t i m e s when y o u ' v e r u n i n t o a d i f f i c u l t y t o do s o m e t h i n g o r make s o m e t h i n g — was m i s s i n g ; s o m e t h i n g g o t i n t h e way o r What d i d you do?  Can y o u t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s a c o n s t a n t n u i s a n c e o r t h a t a l w a y s a n n o y s y o u ? What a r e some o f t h e t h i n g s y o u ' v e t r i e d t o do a b o u t i t ? What do  you  do  when you  need a r e a l l y  good  idea?  I f y o u c o u l d s p e n d two weeks w i t h someone t h a t d o e s a k i n d o f w o r k , what k i n d o f p e r s o n w o u l d t h a t be? I n t h e y e a r a h e a d , what a r e some o f t h e a c c o m p l i s h or t r y f o r the f i r s t time? Do you s p e n d v e r y been i n a p l a y ?  much t i m e w r i t i n g  special  t h i n g s you'd l i k e  or d r a w i n g ?  Have you  to ever  I s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u ' v e a l w a y s w a n t e d t o do b u t t h e r e h a s n ' t been t h e o p p o r t u n i t y ( t i m e , m a t e r i a l s , resources)?  21 1  Parent Interview As has g o t t e n o l d e r , how a l o t o r s t a y e d t h e same? How w o u l d you s a y t h a t s i s t e r s , or from f r i e n d s ? What d o e s  do  Schedule  w o u l d you  say  t h a t he  has  i s d i f f e r e n t from b r o t h e r s  when he  can't  f i g u r e s o m e t h i n g out  changed or  right  away? Does  e v e r f i n d u n u s u a l ways t o do  things?  Would you say t h a t i s a c h i l d t h a t a l w a y s has l o t s t o s a y , l o t s of i d e a s , q u e s t i o n s , or s u g g e s t i o n s ? What d o e s u s u a l l y do when he g e t s stumped o r b l o c k e d when he's w o r k i n g on s o m e t h i n g , t r y i n g t o make s o m e t h i n g , g e t s o m e t h i n g , go somewhere? What d o e s do when t h i n g s t r y h i s p a t i e n c e , l i k e t h e u s u a l r u l e s o r r o u t i n e s o r any constant s o u r c e s of annoyance? Some c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e think does?  strongly  i n the  power o f w i s h i n g ,  do  Would you say t h a t i s v e r y g o o d a t g e t t i n g h i s way? know, i s he p r e t t y good a t t a p p i n g any " s o f t s p o t s " ? Is ever the i n i t i a t o r of d o i n g t h i n g s a r o u n d t h e home? Is  ever the  one  family a c t i v i t i e s  to i n i t i a t e  a c t i v i t i e s with  o r new  Has e v e r done a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t was e x t r e m e l y or c o m p l i c a t e d or t h a t r e q u i r e d endurance? h a v e any  Do you t h i n k ever uses i t ?  u n u s u a l or i s aware o f  You  ways o f  friends?  Has e v e r s u r p r i s e d you w i t h h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s , i n i t i a t i v e , or s t a y i n g power?  Does dreams?  you  or difficult  i n t e r e s t i n g a s p i r a t i o n s , plans the  idea of w i l l p o w e r  or  that  or he  S o m e t i m e s c h i l d r e n s u r p r i s e us w i t h t h e i r d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r how much t h e y know a b o u t t h i n g s . Does e v e r make comments o r a s k q u e s t i o n s t h a t s u r p r i s e you i n t h a t way? W o u l d you say t h a t has g o o d a n a l y t i c a b i l i t y ? Can you t h i n k o f any e x a m p l e s o f where y o u m i g h t h a v e s e e n o r n o t i c e d it? W o u l d you  say  that  is particularly  perceptive,  or  212  s e n s i t i v e , or What i s What k i n d s  thoughtful? most c u r i o u s  of things  Some c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e does?  about o r f a s c i n a t e d  does  f i n d e a s y t o do o r h a r d t o d o ?  i n t h e power o f p r a y e r .  What w o u l d y o u s a y a r e 's s t r o n g e s t how p u r s u e d , r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s ? Whenever i s really excited what i s i t u s u a l l y a b o u t ?  with?  to t e l l  Do y o u t h i n k  interests? you about  What d o e s u s u a l l y do when someone e l s e something or f i x something?  how  that long,  something,  i s trying  t o do  A r e t h e r e any o l d e r c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s t h a t l i k e s t o spend time with? What do t h e y do o r t a l k a b o u t t o g e t h e r ?  213  Teacher I n t e r v i e w How w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e  as a  Schedule  student?  What s u b j e c t a r e a s a r e s t r o n g e s t o r w e a k e s t f o r When that  gets excited  or p a r t i c u l a r l y  i s u s u a l l y happening surprise  ?  i n t e r e s t e d , what i s i t  i n the classroom?  Does  ever  y o u i n a n y way?  Does  s t a n d o u t i n a n y way f r o m  the other  students?  214  APPENDIX 0 ~ CASE STUDIES The names u s e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s a r e f i c t i t i o u s . They a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same o r d e r a s s u b j e c t numbers 1 t o 15 a p p e a r i n the r e l a t e d t a b l e s i n Chapter IV.  215  Yvonne Yvonne i s a v e r y s o c i a l p e r s o n who i s good i n a t h l e t i c s a n d who h a s n e v e r h a d t o work h a r d t o do w e l l i n s c h o o l . She d o e s some d r a w i n g a n d p o e t r y w r i t i n g b u t w o u l d be e m b a r a s s e d t o h a v e h e r f r i e n d s s e e h e r name i f a poem were p u b l i s h e d . Yvonne w o u l d l i k e t o be an a c t r e s s i n comedy shows, p e r h a p s a s i n g e r , o r a famous a t h l e t e . She i s d e s c r i b e d by h e r t e a c h e r s a s a s u p e r s t u d e n t and a " b o y ' s d e l i g h t " . Yvonne's p a r e n t s ' response t o h e r a b i l i t y a n d p e r f o r m a n c e i s : "But we d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g . " Yvonne's  "Ordinariness"  I f Yvonne o n l y h a d t o go t o s c h o o l 3 d a y s o f t h e week, s h e ' d u s e t h e e x t r a t i m e t o g e t a p a p e r r o u t e a n d buy t h i n g s , h e l p a r o u n d t h e h o u s e , s k i , and p l a y . What w o u l d she buy? c l o t h e s , games, a n d s t i c k e r s . her?  What d o e s Yvonne t h i n k w i l l -- h e r c h i l d r e n .  be most  important i n l i f e  What's t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g Y v o n n e ' s a g e ? m o t h e r n o t l e t t i n g y o u do what y o u w a n t .  to  —  your  What w o u l d Yvonne l i k e t o be a b l e t o n o t w o r r y a b o u t ? g e t t i n g i n t r o u b l e w i t h h e r m o t h e r , g e t t i n g y e l l e d a t by h e r m o t h e r , g e t t i n g h e r a l l o w a n c e t a k e n away. What w o u l d Yvonne l i k e  t o be r e a l l y good a t ?  What.does Yvonne do w i t h h e r f r i e n d s ? go t o t h e s t o r e .  —  sports.  -- they, t o b o g g a n o r  What o p p o r t u n i t y w o u l d Yvonne l i k e t o h a v e ? — t o go d o w n h i l l s k i i n g but i t ' s d i f f i c u l t w i t h her f a t h e r ' s s h i f t work. A b i l i t i e s and  Interests  Yvonne w r i t e s p o e t r y a t home, u s u a l l y a b o u t s e a s o n s o r animals. She l i k e s a n i m a l s a l o t . B e f o r e C h r i s t m a s , Yvonne's m o t h e r t h o u g h t one o f Y v o n n e ' s poems was p a r t i c u l a r l y good a n d w a n t e d t o s e n d i t i n t o a n e w s p a p e r b u t Yvonne was e m b a r a s s e d t o t h i n k t h a t h e r f r i e n d s m i g h t s e e h e r name w i t h i t . F o r d r a w i n g , Yvonne t a k e s b o o k s t h a t b e l o n g t o h e r 4 - y e a r o l d s i s t e r a n d c o p i e s p i c t u r e s f r o m them — O l l i e and G a r f i e l d , T w e e t y B i r d , C i n d e r e l l a ' s s t e p m o t h e r . Her p a r e n t s s a y t h a t t h e o d d t i m e s h e ' l l t h i n k up h e r own d r a w i n g and t h a t s h e ' s good a t it. Y v o n n e ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l e d t h a t a b o u t two months a g o ,  Yvonne  216  and Wendy, a n o t h e r g i r l i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s a m p l e , w o r k e d s t e a d i l y f o r f o u r d a y s i n an a t t e m p t t o make a n e w s p a p e r . They were g o i n g t o draw a c a r t o o n , w r i t e a s t o r y , i n t e r v i e w somebody and o t h e r t h i n g s and t h e y were t r y i n g t o use a t y p e w r i t e r f o r i t all. A f t e r t h e f o u r d a y s t h e y became d i s c o u r a g e d t h a t i t was too b i g of a j o b . Y v o n n e ' s a b i l i t i e s u s u a l l y come t o h e r p a r e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n i n t h e way t h a t she p u t s o f f h e r work u n t i l she a l m o s t r u n s o u t o f t i m e and t h e n c r a m s i t a l l i n . They r e c a l l e d a p r o j e c t r e c e n t l y t h a t she was l a t e d o i n g b e c a u s e she k e p t f o r g e t t i n g t o b r i n g t h e b o o k s home. Then f o r t h r e e d a y s she w o r k e d on i t s t e a d i l y f r o m t h e t i m e she g o t home u n t i l i t was t i m e t o go t o bed. They s a i d she d i d n ' t want t o be t h e o n l y t o n o t h a v e i t f inished. Y v o n n e ' s t e a c h e r s comment t h a t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o j e c t s h e r r e s e a r c h i s v e r y t h o r o u g h and i n n o v a t i v e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t she p i c k s o u t u n u s u a l f a c t s . They s a y t h a t she h a s t h e b e s t s e n s e o f humour, i s v e r y s o c i a l , and t h e r e a r e s i x b o y s v y i n g f o r h e r a t t e n t i o n . They see h e r s t r e n g t h s t o be i n l a n g u a g e a r t s b a s e d s u b j e c t s and t h e y see h e r e n e r g y t o be g o i n g i n t o t h e s o c i a l scene. Yvonne s a y s h e r f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t i s l a n g u a g e a r t s and t h a t s h e ' s p r e t t y good a t w r i t i n g s t o r i e s . When she n e e d s an i d e a she j u s t s i t s down and t h i n k s . I f she c a n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g , she w a i t s and w a i t s f o r an i d e a t o come i n t o h e r h e a d . I n math she l i k e s a d d i t i o n and; s u b t r a c t i o n but she d o e s n ' t l i k e f r a c t i o n s or a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . In g e n e r a l , Yvonne's p a r e n t s s a y t h a t she d o e s n ' t h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a n y t h i n g and t h a t w i t h s c h o o l w o r k , she h a s n ' t had t o work h a r d a t i t . In r e a d i n g , Yvonne's Mother says she's p a s t r e a d i n g the Nancy Drew b o o k s and seems t o be r e a d i n g b o o k s t h a t h a v e a l i t t l e more t o them. Y v o n n e ' s p a r e n t s say t h a t she c a t c h e s :on t o a d u l t c a r d games v e r y f a s t and c a n p l a y them j u s t as W e l l as h e r p a r e n t s . When she was 3 y e a r s o l d she c o u l d a l r e a d y p l a y two c a r d games. S o m e t i m e s s h e ' l l come o u t and want t o p l a y c a r d s i n t h e e v e n i n g . When Yvonne p l a y s i n d o o r games w i t h h e r f r i e n d s i t ' s u s u a l l y c a r d s , L i f e , Monopoly, or C r o k e n o l e . R e a d i n g p e o p l e and f i g u r i n g o u t s o c i a l s i u a t i o n s i s a n o t h e r t h i n g t h a t Y v o n n e ' s p a r e n t s say s h e ' s good a t . S h e ' l l hang b a c k a t f i r s t and s i z e up a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e she moves i n t o it. When a s k e d what p u z z l e s h e r t h e m o s t , Yvonne a n s w e r e d : "When God made t h e e a r t h , how was He b o r n and l i k e i f t h e e a r t h w a s n ' t h e r e , i f i t was j u s t b l a n k , i t j u s t , p u z z l e s me a l o t . L i k e what i s i t ? " When a s k e d what s u r p r i s e s h e r t h e m o s t , Y v o n n e a n s w e r e d : " D i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t h a t t h e a n i m a l s c a n do. L i k e panda b e a r s can  217  c u s h a d o g ' s s k u l l w i t h j u s t one b i t e . And how s t r o n g t h e y r e a l l y are." She s a y s she l i k e s t o do p r o j e c t s on a n i m a l s a n d t h a t l a s t y e a r s h e d i d a l o t o f r e a d i n g a b o u t them. Yvonne's p a r e n t s say t h a t she a s k s a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s i s good a t g i v i n g h e r o p i n i o n on d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s .  and  Wishing and Prayer When Y v o n n e ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d i f s h e u s e s w i s h i n g t h e y s a i d t h a t t h e y w o u l d s a y no, b u t t h a t s h e a n t i c i p a t e s o r i m a g e s a l o t of things. I f she's hoping f o r something s h e ' l l r e a l l y b u i l d i t up t h a t t h i s i s g o i n g t o happen t o h e r . When Yvonne was a s k e d i f s h e u s e s w i s h i n g , s h e a n s w e r e d : "Well y a h , I w i s h a l o t and sometimes i t works. W e l l , m o s t l y i f i t ' s not t o o b i gof a wish i t u s u a l l y turns out." When Y v o n n e ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d i f she u s e s p r a y e r , t h e y s a i d : "No . . . n o . " B u t Yvonne a n s w e r e d : " Y a h , s o m e t i m e s I do. L i k e when I w i s h f o r s o m e t h i n g I j u s t p r a y t h a t i t w i l l t u r n o u t , y a h , I b e l i e v e i n i t . I f s o m e t h i n g ' s g o i n g wrong I p r a y t h a t i t w i l l t u r n o u t r i g h t o r i f I'm on t h e v e r g e o f g e t t i n g something I pray that I ' l l get i t . " Family Y v o n n e h a s a y o u n g e r s i s t e r who i s 4. Her p a r e n t s note t h a t Y v o n n e was more m a t u r e a t t h a t a g e t h a n h e r s i s t e r . They say t h a t t h e y d i d a l o t w i t h Y v o n n e when s h e was l i t t l e b e c a u s e they had t h e time t o spend w i t h h e r . When a s k e d i f s h e was good a t g e t t i n g h e r own way, Yvonne g r i n n e d i n s t a n t l y a n d a n s w e r e d : " I am w i t h my D a d , b u t n o t s o much w i t h my Mom." When a s k e d i f s h e ' d e v e r done a n y t h i n g t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e were s u r p r i s e d t h a t s h e was a b l e t o d o , Yvonne r e c a l l e d s h o v e l l i n g t h e d r i v e w a y a f t e r t h e snow p l o w h a d gone by a n d c r e a t e d a l a r g e snow bank. She s a i d h e r Dad d i d n ' t t h i n k s h e ' d be a b l e t o do i t , b u t s h e d i d i t a n d he s a i d s h e d i d a r e a l l y good j o b . A s k e d how s h e f e l t a f t e r m o v i n g a l l t h a t snow, s h e g r i n n e d and glowed and s a i d " R e a l l y proud!"  218  Kelly K e l l y i n t e n d s t o be a d o c t o r . She h a s t r a v e l l e d a g r e a t d e a l and she spends h e r spare time t a k i n g c l a s s e s i n j a z z d a n c i n g , b a l l e t , and p i a n o . When s h e grows u p , h o w e v e r , s h e w o u l d want t o s p e n d s u c h s p a r e t i m e d o i n g e x p e r i m e n t s t o f i n d c u r e s f o r t h i n g s . K e l l y i s t h e o n l y g i r l on t h e s o c c e r team b u t t h e S p o r t s A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l no l o n g e r l e t h e r p l a y b e c a u s e o f insurance regulations. She h a s t h o u g h t a b o u t t a k i n g t h i s m a t t e r to c o u r t . K e l l y i s v e r y p o p u l a r and i s a c o n s i d e r a t e and compromising f r i e n d . W h i l e she p u t s a l o t i n t o t h e t h i n g s she does, she i s g e n u i n e l y u n c o m p e t i t i v e . K e l l y says t h e best t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g h e r age i s t h a t s h e ' s h e r m o t h e r ' s "baby" a n d h e r mother s p o i l s h e r . Her t e a c h e r says she's a j o y t o have i n t h e classsroom. A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s K e l l y ' s teacher says t h a t she's very s t r o n g a c a d e m i c a l l y and i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c s t u d e n t . However, she h o l d s back i f she t h i n k s s h e ' s g e t t i n g a h e a d o f h e r f r i e n d s a n d m i g h t e n d up i n a d i f f e r e n t g r o u p f r o m them. K e l l y ' s t e a c h e r n o t e s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e o t h e r g i r l s i n t h e c l a s s who may m a t c h h e r a c a d e m i c s t r e n g t h s , t h e y d o n ' t seem t o h a v e t h e a l l r o u n d p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s e n s e o f humour t h a t K e l l y d o e s . K e l l y s a y s s h e ' s good a t math a n d l i k e s i t a l o t . She a l s o s a y s t h a t s o m e t i m e s , i n some s u b j e c t s , s h e ' s q u i t e good a t g e t t i n g i d e a s but i n w r i t i n g s t o r i e s she's q u i t e slow. They have t o w r i t e s t o r i e s a n d t h e y h a v e t o w r i t e i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s and she's, n o t keen o n d o i n g t h a t . • K e l l y ' s m o t h e r s a y s s h e d o e s n ' t know why, b u t s h e ' s s u r p r i s e d t h a t K e l l y h a s done s o w e l l a t s c h o o l . K e l l y ' s f a t h e r a s s e r t s t h a t he i s n o t s u r p r i s e d . The p a r e n t s n o t e d , h o w e v e r , that K e l l y i s not y e t comfortable as a s t o r y w r i t e r a t school and t h e y d o n ' t t h i n k s h e ' s u s u a l l y i m a g i n a t i v e w i t h e s s a y s . They r e c a l l h a v i n g been i m p r e s s e d w i t h a s t o r y s h e w r o t e f o r s c h o o l a few y e a r s a g o . I t was a b o u t a r a c o o n a n d i t was a r e a l s t o r y w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e , a n d an e n d . I t was a b o u t how i t got i t s s t r i p e s . I t was v e r y o r i g i n a l a n d K e l l y s a i d s h e t h o u g h t i t up h e r s e l f . K e l l y ' s mother a l s o says she wonders a b o u t K e l l y ' s s t u d y s k i l l s a n d w h e t h e r s h e ' s l e a r n e d what s h e ' s read. K e l l y s a y s s h e ' d l i k e t o be a b l e t o draw b u t s h e c a n ' t . When s h e h a s n o t h i n g t o do i n s c h o o l she d r a w s a n d makes d e s i g n s w i t h l o t s of l i n e s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o l o r e d f e l t pens. When a s k e d what p u z z l e s h e r t h e m o s t , K e l l y a n s w e r e d : "What h a p p e n s t o y o u when y o u d i e , l i k e i s t h e r e a h e a v e n o r i s n ' t there?"  219  When a s k e d what s u r p r i s e s h e r t h e m o s t , K e l l y g r o u n d hog — how i t knows when t o come o u t . "  said:  "The  An o p p o r t u n i t y K e l l y w o u l d l i k e w o u l d be t o "make a r e a l l y c r a z y e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a w h o l e b u n c h o f c h e m i c a l s . " She s a y s t h a t maybe s h e ' l l be a b l e t o do t h a t when s h e ' s o l d e r . When a s k e d what w o u l d be most i m p o r t a n t t o h e r i n h e r l i f e , K e l l y s a i d : "Becoming a d o c t o r . . . a cancer s p e c i a l i s t . i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o l e a r n a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t diseases." K e l l y s a i d she j u s t s t a r t e d p i a n o and l i k e s i t . She s a i d she u s e d t o t a k e g u i t a r b u t t h e n " h a t e d i t b e c a u s e we g o t a l l into confusing stuff." She s a y s she d o e s n ' t know i f s h e ' l l l i k e p i a n o l a t e r on. K e l l y has been t a k i n g b a l l e t and more r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d to take jazz dancing. She s a y s she d o e s n ' t l i k e t h e j a z z b e c a u s e she makes a f o o l o f h e r s e l f b e c a u s e she c a n ' t do some o f t h e s t u f f . She r e c a l l s l a s t y e a r l i k i n g j a z z and n o t the b a l l e t . When a s k e d w h i c h o f h e r m u s i c and d a n c e i n t e r e s t s she w o u l d l i k e t o k e e p most i n t h e f u t u r e t o do i n h e r s p a r e t i m e , K e l l y s a i d t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e s h e ' d " l i k e t o do e x p e r i m e n t s i n h e r own time and f i n d c u r e s f o r t h i n g s . " K e l l y ' s f a t h e r has n o t e d her f l a i r f o r b e i n g e x p r e s s i v e , d r a m a t i c , f o r b e i n g a g o o d a c t r e s s a n d has t e a s e d h e r t h a t she s h o u l d be a l a w y e r b e c a u s e d o c t o r s d o n ' t need t o be a b l e t o a c t . K e l l y h a s t h e main p a r t i n a p l a y a t s c h o o l . What K e l l y ' s p a r e n t s f i n d u n u s u a l a b o u t h e r i s h e r a b i l i t y t o g e t l o s t i n a w o r l d o f h e r own w i t h h e r l i t t l e f i g u r e s , P l a y m o b i l e t h i n g s , and r e a l l y e n j o y i t . A l t h o u g h she i s t h e most p o p u l a r - among h e r f r i e n d s and v e r y s o c i a l , she r e a l l y seems t o e n j o y t h i s i m a g i n a t i o n a c t i v i t y by h e r s e l f . Use  of  Prayer  When a s k e d i f she u s e s w i s h i n g , K e l l y a n s w e r e d : "No, w e l l , I p r a y a n d I b e l i e v e t h a t i f I a s k God t h a t he w i l l h e l p b u t I d o n ' t b e l i e v e w i s h i n g w i l l do i t . " When a s k e d i f she u s e s w i l l p o w e r , she s a i d : " S o m e t i m e s , b u t I u s u a l l y a s k God t o h e l p me w i t h s t u f f . " K e l l y ' s p a r e n t s , r e m a r k i n g on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n K e l l y and h e r two o l d e r s i s t e r s , n o t e d t h a t K e l l y has more r e l i g i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r s . They s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t know why, t h a t i t h a d n ' t come f r o m them, t h a t t h e y go t o c h u r c h a t C h r i s t m a s and t h a t ' s i t . O f t e n K e l l y w i l l s a y : " W e l l I a s k e d God . . .", w h i c h l e a v e s h e r m o t h e r t a k e n a b a c k and r e s p o n d i n g : "Now Kelly, t h e r e ' s more t o t h i n g s t h a n j u s t a s k i n g God." K e l l y ' s mother  220 h a s n o t e d t h a t K e l l y k e e p s a B i b l e b e s i d e h e r bed a n d she t h i n k s that K e l l y often looks at i t . I t was two o r t h r e e months ago t h a t K e l l y began t o t e l l them t h a t she s a y s h e r p r a y e r s e v e r y night. Temperament K e l l e y ' s p a r e n t s comment t h a t K e l l y i s more a f f e c t i o n a t e t h a n h e r two s i s t e r s . S h e ' s more o b l i g i n g , y e t q u i c k - t e m p e r e d . S h e ' s e a s i l y up a n d e a s i l y down and i s v e r y e x p l i c i t a b o u t what she f e e l s . When t r y i n g t o work s o m e t h i n g o u t , K e l l y i s n o t v e r y p a t i e n t a n d she d o e s n ' t l i k e t o w a i t 3 d a y s f o r a s o l u t i o n . But she i s e n t h u s i a s t i c , l i k e s t o t r y h a r d a n d l i k e s t o p l e a s e . K e l l y i s good a t g i v e and t a k e a n d t h e r e f o r e g e t s a l o t . She c a n b e n d and she c a n keep h e r f r i e n d s . K e l l y says: " I f you d o n ' t have h a p p i n e s s and a l o t o f f r i e n d s , y o u may a s w e l l n o t h a v e any money." Family  and  K e l l y ' s s i s t e r s a r e 13 a n d 15. One s i s t e r s k i p p e d a g r a d e one i s i n H o n o u r s math a n d on t h e A-team i n b a s k e t b a l l .  K e l l y i s v e r y a s s e r t i v e i n t h e home, s a y s t h a t f a m i l i e s s h o u l d do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r , a n d i n s i s t s t h a t t h e y h a v e a f i r e d r i l l i n the house. Her p a r e n t s n o t e t h a t she n e v e r p l a y e d w i t h d o l l s , i s more o f a tomboy, h a s grown o u t o f l e g o , b u t e n j o y s h e r P l a y m o b i l e f i g u r e s , e . g . , k n i g h t s w i t h d e t a c h a b l e s h i e l d s and h a t s a n d h o r s e s t h a t t h e y go o n .  221  Chris How d o e s C h r i s g e t h i s i d e a s ? He s a y s t h e y ' r e j u s t a l w a y s there. What makes him d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r k i d s ? He s a y s he a l w a y s t a k e s d a r e s t o do s t u n t s l i k e j u m p i n g o f f a r o o f . The l o v e o f h i s l i f e i s d i g g i n g i n t h e d i r t on h i l l s i d e s t o see w h a t ' s t h e r e , f o l l o w i n g r i v e r s and w a t e r f a l l s b a c k as f a r as he can, s i n k i n g h i s f e e t i n r i v e r bottoms t o f e e l what's t h e r e . He's a w r i t e r . He's an a c t o r . He's an a r t i s t . He won't do t h e work t h e y g i v e him t o do i n s c h o o l u n l e s s i t i n t e r e s t s him. And he's v e r y w o r r i e d a b o u t b e i n g a b l e t o g e t i n t o u n i v e r s i t y one day -- t o become an a r c h a e o l o g i s t o r some k i n d o f s c i e n t i s t . P h y s i c a l and  Exploration  Activities  I f C h r i s o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 d a y s o f t h e week, he'd do more s l e d d i n g and s k a t i n g . He had j u s t s t a r t e d s k a t i n g , had o n l y been f o u r t i m e s , and was a l r e a d y g o o d . He'd a l s o s p e n d more t i m e e x p l o r i n g i n t h e h i l l s . The h i l l s i n t h e a r e a h a v e l o t s o f c l a y t h a t ' s good t o work w i t h , t o f i n d t h i n g s i n , and t o s c o o p o u t f o r t s i n . He'd a l s o want t o go c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i n g w i t h h i s Dad who he s e e s on weekends s o m e t i m e s . C h r i s has one o f t h o s e s p e c i a l b i k e s t h a t a r e good t o jump with. He remembers r i d i n g down a h i l l t h a t e n d s w i t h a 2 0 - f o o t drop-off to a lake. He c o u l d n ' t s t o p a t t h e b o t t o m b u t he managed t o jump o f f i n t i m e and o n l y h i s b i k e went o v e r . Chris s a y s he a l w a y s t a k e s d a r e s l i k e he c o u l d jump o f f t h i s r o o f o u t s i d e t h i s window. And a t t h i s t i m e of y e a r j u m p i n g o f f h i g h p l a c e s t o l a n d i n snow b a n k s i s r e a l l y f u n . C h r i s s a i d t h a t l a s t y e a r was t h e b e s t y e a r o f h i s l i f e b e c a u s e t h e r e were 3 m o u n t a i n s i n d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s t h a t he g o t t o e x p l o r e a t . He r e c a l l e d a t one of t h e s e m o u n t a i n s t h a t he and b o t h h i s p a r e n t s l a y on t h e g r o u n d t o r o l l down a h i l l s i d e and how much f u n i t was. C h r i s says t h a t money's t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o most p e o p l e b u t t h e y ' v e n e v e r had a l o t o f money and he d i d n ' t h a v e l o t s o f t o y s and y o u c a n make y o u r own f u n w i t h o u t them. He t a l k e d a b o u t a r i v e r w i t h a s e r i e s o f w a t e r f a l l s t h a t he f o l l o w e d b a c k as f a r as he dared. He remembered t h a t a t one t i m e he l i v e d on t h e edge o f town n e a r a r i v e r and he u s e d t o e n j o y e x p l o r i n g t h e r i v e r b e d , s i n k i n g h i s f e e t t h r o u g h as many l a y e r s as he c o u l d . When a s k e d what has p u z z l e d h i m , C h r i s t a l k e d a b o u t a t r e e he had s e e n i n t h e f o r e s t . He s a i d i t was a l l t w i s t e d and g n a r l e d and d i r t y and i t grew i n a c l e a r i n g a l l by i t s e l f . The f o r e s t a r o u n d i t was a l l s t r a i g h t and c l e a n . B e i n g i n the c l e a r i n g by i t s e l f l i k e t h a t , i t seemed l i k e none o f t h e o t h e r t r e e s w a n t e d t o grow a r o u n d i t .  222  When a s k e d what was t h e b e s t t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g h i s a g e , C h r i s s a i d t h a t y o u ' r e s m a l l enough t o c r a w l i n t o p l a c e s t h a t a d u l t s can't get i n t o . The most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g C h r i s h a s e v e r h a d t o do was t o f i n d h i s way b a c k when he g o t l o s t i n t h e f o r e s t . He was o u t c a m p i n g w i t h c u b s c o u t s , g o t l o s t , a n d was a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y use h i s compass t o f i n d h i s way b a c k . When a s k e d i f h e ' d e v e r done a n y t h i n g t h a t o t h e r s were s u r p r i s e d he c o u l d d o , C h r i s r e c a l l e d b e i n g s t r a n d e d on a l a k e a m i l e f r o m s h o r e w i t h two f r i e n d s and an i n n e r t u b e . He was a b l e t o swim b a c k a n d s e n d a boat f o r h i s f r i e n d s . A b i l i t i e s and I n t e r e s t s C h r i s ' s parents say that h i s w r i t i n g a b i l i t y has always been t h e r e . C h r i s r e c a l l s winning a p r i z e f o r a s t o r y i n grade two. He s a y s he a l w a y s d o e s l o t s o f w r i t i n g . R i g h t now h e ' s going t o w r i t e a s t o r y about h i s c r a y f i s h t h a t j u s t d i e d . I t had made v i c t i m s o f two o f o t h e r i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a q u a r i u m b e f o r e i t s own d e a t h . The s t o r y i s g o i n g t o be c a l l e d : "The L i f e a n d D e a t h o f A d o l f C r a y f i s h " . The s t o r y i n g r a d e two was a b o u t two l i t t l e army a n t s i n b a t t l e s h i p s f i g h t i n g t o g e t h e r a n d wiping each other out. H i s parents r e c a l l the story being i n a l i t t l e b o o k l e t t h a t was 2 o r 3 p a g e s l o n g a n d h a d a r o c k e t on the cover. They s a y t h e s t o r y h a d c o n t i n u i t y a n d C h r i s won a book f o r i t . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s s a y t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t and. a b i l i t y i n a r t has been t h e r e a l o n g t i m e . H i s m o t h e r commented o n a s k e t c h he'd made t h e o t h e r d a y o f a c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i e r . She s a i d s h e was s u r p r i s e d b e c a u s e t h e s t r i d e was t h e r e a n d e v e r y t h i n g . C h r i s s a y s he s k e t c h e s t h e f i s h i n h i s t a n k . When he w a t c h e s TV he s k e t c h e s t h e f a c e s o f p e o p l e on t e l e v i s i o n . He s a y s h e ' s g o t t e n q u i t e good a t d o i n g H u t c h a n d M c G a r r e t t . C h r i s was v e r y e x c i t e d a b o u t a s e t o f o i l p a s t e l s t h a t h e ' d j u s t been i n t r o d u c e d t o a n d w h i c h he was g o i n g t o u s e t o p a i n t a background f o r the aquarium. Chris discussed h i s acting r o l e s i n three d i f f e r e n t plays. I n one he h a d p l a y e d a mute. He t a l k e d a b o u t how he p r e p a r e d f o r t h e r o l e by l o o k i n g i n t h e m i r r o r , s a y i n g what t h e c h a r a c t e r was f e e l i n g , e x a m i n i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e when he s a i d such t h i n g s , and then r e p e a t i n g t h e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s without s a y i n g t h e words. I n P a u l B u n y a n , h e ' d been c a s t a s t h e f a r m e r b e c a u s e he knew how t o u s e t h e s p e e c h a c c e n t t h e f a r m e r s h o u l d have. I n a c u r r e n t p l a y h e ' s been c a s t a s a c h a r a c t e r who s h o u l d s p e a k w i t h a German a c c e n t . C h r i s h a d p i c k e d up a German accent from a t e l e v i s i o n program and had spontaneously s t a r t e d u s i n g i t i n war p l a y w i t h h i s f r i e n d .  223  C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s s a y t h a t h i s math a b i l i t y i s v e r y g o o d , especially i n i t s application to l i f e . Two o r t h r e e y e a r s ago he h a d a p a p e r r o u t e . I n i t i a l l y h i s p a r e n t s s e t up h i s bookk e e p i n g s y s t e m f o r h i m a n d he m a i n t a i n e d i t a f t e r t h a t . C h r i s ' s t e a c h e r s a y s h e ' s n o t weak i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l subject area. H o w e v e r , he s l a c k s o f f on a s s i g n e d work a n d t h e n d o e s n ' t do a good j o b . He won't do i t i f i t ' s n o t r e l e v a n t o r o f i n t e r e s t t o h i m . C h r i s ' s t e a c h e r s a y s t h a t most t e a c h e r s would probably d e s c r i b e C h r i s as r e b e l l i o u s and uncooperative. C h r i s s u g g e s t s h i s own p r o j e c t s t h a t h e ' d l i k e t o work on a n d c a n a c t u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e a n d f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t h e s e when a l l o w e d t o do s o . C h r i s ' s f a t h e r s a y s t h a t he h a s a w i l d i m a g i n a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h i n g s and i s v e r y i n v e n t i v e . C h r i s s a y s he a l w a y s has l o t s o f i d e a s , " l i k e t a k e t h i s d e s k , I c o u l d t h i n k o f m a k i n g a b o a t o u t o f i t , o r a c o u p l e o f g u n s , o r . . . ." F o r C h r i s t m a s C h r i s g o t an e l e c t r o n i c s k i t t h a t was s u p p o s e d t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a 1 6 - y e a r - o l d . He d i d a l l t h e p r o j e c t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n v e n t e d some new o n e s o f h i s own a n d was f i n i s h e d w i t h i t i n a month. was and  When C h r i s was a s k e d what s u r p r i s e s h i m t h e most he s a i d i t people's a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r towards handicapped persons p r e v i o u s l y people's a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r towards s l a v e s .  C h r i s says he's f a s c i n a t e d w i t h f i r e . He's a l s o f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e C o c a C o l a a n d l i m e s t o n e e x p e r i m e n t s t h e y ' v e done a t school. He s a y s h e ' s r e a d a b o u t W o r l d War I a n d W o r l d War I I and r i g h t now h e ' s r e a d i n g a b o u t t h e m a f f i a . H i s parents mention Robinson Caruso, D a v i d C O p p e r f i e l d , and comics. They note that C h r i s ' s understanding of d i f f i c u l t vocabulary has a l w a y s been v e r y good i n h i s r e a d i n g . They a l s o n o t e t h a t C h r i s u s e s two o f h i s w e e k l y a l l o w a n c e s t o g e t s p e c i a l i s s u e s .of MAD. C h r i s s a i d t h a t when he j o i n e d Cubs l a s t f a l l he was d e t e r m i n e d t o g e t a l l o f t h e s e a w a r d s a n d b a d g e s a n d t h a t he g o t a l o t o f them i n a r e a l l y s h o r t t i m e . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s note that he's always b u i l d i n g t h i n g s w i t h l e g o , mechano, a n d model k i t s . They s a y h e ' s i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l the f a n t a s y and f a c t u a l a s p e c t s of space and space t r a v e l . Wishing When a s k e d a b o u t w i s h i n g , C h r i s d e s c r i b e d t h e s t r a t e g y he u s e s f o r g e t t i n g what he w a n t s . He s a i d t h a t he j u s t s a y s t o h i m s e l f : " I d o n ' t want i t r e a l l y anyway", a n d t h e n i t h a p p e n s o r t h e n he g e t s t o do i t . When C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d i f t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t  Chris  224  u s e s w i s h i n g , h i s f a t h e r a n s w e r e d : "Yes I t h i n k s o . He j u s t t a l k s a b o u t t h i n g s he'd l i k e t o do e v e r y so o f t e n l i k e a f a n t a s y thing. I t h i n k C h r i s has g r e a t c o n t r o l o v e r what he w a n t s . I d o n ' t r e a l l y know how." The f a t h e r a l s o n o t e d - t h a t i n t h e p a s t , C h r i s ' s m o t h e r had been f a i r l y i n d u l g e n t t o w a r d him. Family  and  Early  Childhood  C h r i s has had a s t e p f a t h e r f o r 4 1/2 y e a r s . His stepfather s a y s t h a t he c a n see a l o t of h i m s e l f i n C h r i s i n t h a t C h r i s r e m i n d s him o f t h e way he was when he was y o u n g . C h r i s s e e s h i s f a t h e r s o m e t i m e s on weekends and t h e y go t o M c D o n a l d ' s , swimming, and c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i n g . When C h r i s was a s k e d what he'd p i c k i f he c o u l d c h o o s e one t h i n g t h a t he w o u l d n ' t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t a n y m o r e , he s a i d t h a t i f h i s Mom and Dad g o t b a c k t o g e t h e r a g a i n he w o u l d n ' t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t h i s Dad — l i k e , i f he was i n a c a r a c c i d e n t , C h r i s w o u l d n ' t e v e n know. When C h r i s was 4, 5, and 6, he c o u l d n ' t p l a y w e l l by himself. He'd a l w a y s had one p a r e n t o r t h e o t h e r as t h e playmate. H i s f a t h e r a l w a y s d i d w h a t e v e r C h r i s w a n t e d him t o . H i s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t u n t i l he was 8 o r 9, "he'd do e v e r t h i n g f i n e a s l o n g as y o u were t h e r e . But he c o u l d n ' t p l a y by himself. He'd h a n g a r o u n d t h e h o u s e even on a n i c e day." D u r i n g t h e l a s t two y e a r s , h o w e v e r , C h r i s has b e e n v e r y i n d e p e n d e n t and e n t h u s i a s t i c . C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s n o t e t h a t he's v e r y s e n s i t i v e and g o e s t o p i e c e s i f h i s s t e p f a t h e r s c o l d s him. The t e a c h e r has t o l d C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s t h a t he i s "a v e r y humorous s t u d e n t i n t h e classroom. C h r i s ' s m o t h e r n o t e s t h a t he has c r a c k e d a l i t t l e j o k e a r o u n d h e r e v e r y now.and t h e n , r e a s s u r i n g h e r t h a t "Oh Mom, I was j u s t k i d d i n g . " C h r i s ' s p a r e n t s comment t h a t he has a l w a y s been v e r y o u t s p o k e n and f r e e w i t h h i s i d e a s a l t h o u g h h i s s t e p f a t h e r has been e n c o u r a g i n g him t o f i n i s h t h i n k i n g b e f o r e he s t a r t s speaking. A r o u n d home, he c a n "cook a mean s t e a k " and t o h i s m o t h e r ' s r e l i e f , he c a n now sew h i s j a c k e t b a c k t o g e t h e r .  225  Colleen C o l l e e n s p e n d s a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e d r a w i n g and makes cartoon s t o r i e s . She l o v e s a n i m a l s , has a way w i t h them, and w a n t s t o be a v e t e r i n a r i a n . C o l l e e n has v i r a l a s t h m a and has been i n and o u t o f h o s p i t a l s i n c e she was 3 m o n t h s o l d . During t h i s s c h o o l y e a r , t h e f i r s t t h a t she h a s n ' t had t o be i n h o s p i t a l , she has t a k e n g r e a t p r i d e i n d o i n g w e l l i n h e r s c h o o l w o r k . C o l l e e n i s n e v e r shy w i t h a d u l t s o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g h e r p e r i o d s i n h o s p i t a l she l e a r n e d t o e n t e r t a i n h e r s e l f and she s t i l l p r e s e r v e s a w o r l d o f h e r own. Art,  Humor, and  Imagination  C o l l e e n ' s m o t h e r s a y s t h a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n a r t has been t h e r e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g as C o l l e e n s t a r t e d t o c o l o r and draw a t t h e age o f 2 o r 2 1/2. C o l l e e n d o e s n ' t see h e r s e l f t o be t a l e n t e d i n a r t e v e n t h o u g h a l l t h e k i d s t e l l h e r s h e ' s good b e c a u s e she s a y s she j u s t c o p i e s -- A r c h i e , D e n n i s , s m u r f s , e t c . She a l s o l i k e s d r a w i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d s f o r s m u r f s . Colleen's m o t h e r s a y s t h a t she c o p i e s i n d i v i d u a l s o u t o f t h e c o m i c s and t h e n makes h e r own c a p t i o n s . Her m o t h e r s a y s t h a t t h e s c r i p t s she makes up f o r t h e s e c a r t o o n s t o r i e s a r e h i l a r i o u s . The humor comes f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w C o l l e e n h a s t a k e n , o r t h e f a c t t h a t s h e ' s p i c k e d up on some l i t t l e t h i n g t h a t no one e l s e w o u l d n o t i c e . When C o l l e e n was i n g r a d e t h r e e , t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l m e n t i o n e d t o h e r p a r e n t s t h a t she was v e r y good i n art. C o l l e e n ' s m o t h e r p a i n t s i n o i l s and two y e a r s ago C o l l e e n t r i e d t o c o p y one of h e r o i l p a i n t i n g s o f a l a k e w i t h f l o w e r s and so on. C o l l e e n ' s m o t h e r was v e r y s u r p r i s e d a t C o l l e e n ' s d e p t h o f p e r c e p t i o n and c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n d o i n g t h i s . C o l l e e n and h e r f r i e n d s s o m e t i m e s p l a y w i t h s m u r f s d o i n g improvisations. C o l l e e n ' s mother n o t e s t h a t C o l l e e n i s t e r r i f i c a t t h a t , v e r y q u i c k , and has more d e p t h t h a n h e r f r i e n d s . C o l l e e n ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l e d t h a t two y e a r s ago, when C o l l e e n ' s o l d e r b r o t h e r g o t a t a p e r e c o r d e r , how t h e two o f them i m p r o v i s e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l figures. When C o l l e e n was 4 and 5 she was v e r y d e m a n d i n g of a t t e n t i o n b u t a t t h e same t i m e had h e r own l i t t l e w o r l d w i t h a l l her l i t t l e c h a r a c t e r s . Now she has made h e r room i n t o h e r own s p e c i a l w o r l d , c o n s t a n t l y r e a r r a n g i n g i t and a l w a y s g e t i n g new redecorating ideas. I f her o l d e r b r o t h e r s t a r t s t o head i n t o h e r room she b l o w s h e r t o p . C o l l e e n ' s p a r e n t s were s u r p r i s e d t h i s w i n t e r a t how much t i m e she w o u l d s p e n d p l a y i n g by h e r s e l f i n t h e y a r d j u s t  226  b u i l d i n g h i l l s and t u n n e l s and so on i n the snow. They a l s o note that C o l l e e n i s f r e q u e n t l y "somewhere e l s e " . She sometimes doesn't stay i n the mainstream of c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e asks the dumbest q u e s t i o n s . Sometimes at the supper t a b l e s h e ' l l r a i s e her hand to speak. Animals C o l l e e n has a 7 - y e a r - o l d dog that i s l i k e a s i s t e r to her. Her parents have n o t i c e d that she has a way with animals when they've seen her around chipmunks or s q u i r r e l s . C o l l e e n reads books about animals, i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s outdoor l i f e magazines. She says she's wanted to be a v e t e r i n a r i a n f o r a long time. When asked what w i l l be most important i n l i f e to her, C o l l e e n says i t ' s a n i m a l s . When asked what s u r p r i s e s her most, C o l l e e n says i t ' s how animals s u r v i v e and how man became smart and how he thought up how to s u r v i v e . She says people u s u a l l y get ideas from animals about how to s u r v i v e . Wishing, Willpower, and Prayer When asked i f she uses wishing, C o l l e e n s a i d : "Well, s o r t of." When asked i f she uses willpower, she s a i d she s o r t of does, l i k e when her mother was i n the h o s p i t a l she would use willpower to h e l p h e r s e l f t r y to' r e l a x when she was worried and upset. C o l l e e n s a i d that yes she does use prayer which i s something she l e a r n e d from a f r i e n d she had that i s a C h r i s t i a n . C o l l e e n ' s parents say they c l e a r l y see her use of willpower in her dual b a t t l e s of g e t t i n g . a n d s t a y i n g w e l l and a l s o i n e x c e l l i n g i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s although she t i r e s e a s i l y . D e s i r e to E x c e l l , A b i l i t i e s ,  Interests  C o l l e e n ' s parents have always n o t i c e d her d r i v e and stubborn perseverence i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s such as canoeing, h i k i n g , and camping. She's good at swimming and very a b l e i n gymnastics. U n t i l grade 4 , school seemed to have no importance to C o l l e e n and math was always p u z z l i n g to her. Her h e a l t h had been the main c h a l l e n g e i n her l i f e . When asked what she'd done at school on any day, she c o u l d never remember. In grade 4 she s t a r t e d to show more i n t e r e s t and t h i s year she has taken c o n s i d e r a b l e p r i d e i n her school work and marks. She has put a s i g n on her b u l l e t i n board i n her room that says: "Remember and think." P r e v i o u s l y , i f she c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e something out she would j u s t leave i t u n t i l the next day i n s c h o o l . T h i s year she t r i e s to calm down and work her way through i t . When she gets completely f r u s t r a t e d she goes to her parents or brother f o r  227  help.  Math i s c o m i n g q u i c k e r  and  easier  f o r her  now.  C o l l e e n ' s t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e her as a B+ s t u d e n t , a w o r r i e r , o v e r - c o n s c i e n t i o u s , keen and t h o r o u g h . They say s h e ' s not y e t i n n o v a t i v e or i m a g i n a t i v e . They r e c a l l how she r e c e n t l y c o p i e d out 3 5 pages f o r a s o c i a l s p r o j e c t . Colleen herself recalls p u z z l i n g a b o u t how you t h i n k you s h o u l d work i t o u t when y o u ' r e doing a p r o j e c t . When a s k e d how she g e t s h e r i d e a s she t a l k e d a b o u t an i n s t a n c e where she compared t h i n g s by shape and q u i t e a few o t h e r t h i n g s , l i k e t h e t r i a n g l e c o u l d be where t h e snowman had m e l t e d i n t o t h e snow. When a s k e d how she g e t s h e r s t o r y i d e a s , she s a i d she t r i e s t o i m a g i n e h e r s e l f i n t h e s i t u a t i o n , f o r example w i t h s p a c e and s p a c e m o n s t e r s , and t r i e s t o i m a g i n e what she w o u l d do. C o l l e e n s a y s h e r f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t s a r e math, a r t , and socials. She t h i n k s t h a t p l a y s would be i n t e r e s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t h e costume d e s i g n i n g . She l i k e s s i n g i n g i n t h e y o u t h c h o i r and h e r mother s a i d she was amazed a t the e a s e and c o n f i d e n c e w i t h which C o l l e e n a u d i t i o n e d f o r the c h o i r . Family  and  Early  Childhood  C o l l e e n has a b r o t h e r t h r e e y e a r s o l d e r who i s commonly a c k n o w l e d g e d as b e i n g g i f t e d . He g e t s t o t a l l y e x a s p e r a t e d with C o l l e e n i f she d o e s n ' t p i c k i t up r i g h t away t h e f i r s t t i m e he e x p l a i n s something to her. He n e v e r had t o be t o l d a n y t h i n g twice.: but  C o l l e e n ' s mother s a i d she n e v e r t r i e d t o " t e a c h " her she a l w a y s t a l k e d t o them and r e a d t o them a l o t .  kids  C o l l e e n has h e r Dad "wrapped a r o u n d h e r f i n g e r " . She can g e t t h i n g s h e r b r o t h e r c a n ' t b e c a u s e she has a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h and i s n ' t demanding. C o l l e e n i s the o n l y granddaughter i n t h e f a m i l y and h o l d s h e r own w e l l w i t h a d u l t s , o t h e r k i d s , o r boys. C o l l e e n ' s mother s a y s t h a t she can be a r e a l c l o w n sometimes and t h e n her g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h i s : " C o l l e e n ' s C o l l e e n . You t a k e her as she comes."  228  Jody F o r a number o f y e a r s now, J o d y has been e n g a g e d i n a f i e r c e b a t t l e w i t h h e r d i m i n u t i v e s i z e and h a s q u i t e a number o f s u c c e s s e s on h e r t r a c k r e c o r d . As t h e m i d d l e c h i l d o f t h r e e d a u g h t e r s , J o d y ' s p a r e n t s s e e h e r a s c l e a r l y u n i q u e and somewhat mysterious. J o d y ' s b i g g e s t l o v e s a r e a n i m a l s and f a i r y s t o r i e s . The s t o r i e s she w r i t e s h e r s e l f a r e f i l l e d w i t h a n i m a l s , l i t t l e p e o p l e , and s a d e n d i n g s w i t h odd t w i s t s o r z a p s t o them. While J o d y ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l s i g n s o f h e r a b i l i t y when she was y o u n g e r , J o d y s a y s she c u r r e n t l y s p e n d s most o f h e r s p a r e t i m e w a t c h i n g TV, d o i n g h e r homework, o r b u g g i n g h e r Mom. A t t h e end o f J o d y ' s i n t e r v i e w she d i d n ' t w i s h t o a s k any q u e s t i o n s . When she a r r i v e d home, she p r o u d l y a n n o u n c e d t o h e r p a r e n t s t h a t she h a d , on h e r own, " f i g u r e d o u t " t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . J o d y M a k i n g Her P r e s e n c e  Felt  J o d y ' s p a r e n t s admit t h a t t h e y have a t e n d e n c y t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e h e r b e c a u s e s h e ' s t h e same s i z e a s h e r s i s t e r who i s three years younger. They r e c a l l t h a t when she was i n g r a d e one she was t e r r i f i e d t h a t she was g o i n g t o s t a y t h a t s i z e forever. When J o d y was y o u n g e r a n d w o u l d g e t j o s t l e d o r s t e p p e d on i n a c r o w d , she w o u l d g i v e t h e o f f e n d i n g a d u l t what h e r p a r e n t s r e f e r r e d t o a s h e r " e v i l eye t h a t t h r o w s d a r t s " . A d u l t s were so u n n e r v e d and t a k e n a b a c k by t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h a t g l a n c e t h a t t h e y c o u l d n ' t e v e n c o l l e c t t h e m s e l v e s enough t o s a y t h e y were sorry. J o d y ' s p a r e n t s s a y t h a t s h e ' s t a k e n a l o t s i n c e she s t a r t e d school. When she c h a n g e s s c h o o l s i t a l w a y s t a k e s a w h i l e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n b e f o r e the k i d s s t o p c a l l i n g her "dwarf" or "midget". S o m e t i m e s J o d y w o u l d come home and t e l l h e r .mother s o m e t h i n g t h e k i d s s a i d , and a d d : "But I d i d n ' t c r y . " J o d y ' s p a r e n t s t h i n k t h a t she's v e r y aware of g e t t i n g t h i n g s t o the p o i n t where t h e o t h e r k i d s t h i n k o f h e r i n t e r m s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s other than her s i z e . The end r e s u l t t y p i c a l l y a c h i e v e d i s t h a t : "Everyone j u s t l o v e s Jody." J o d y n o t e s t h a t t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g h e r age i s " b e i n g t r e a t e d l i k e a baby b e c a u s e o f my s i z e . " When a s k e d a b o u t t h e most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g s h e ' s e v e r had t o d o , J o d y t a l k s a b o u t how r a c e s a r e a l w a y s o r g a n i z e d by age l e v e l and how h a r d i t i s , b e i n g so s m a l l , t o h a v e t o r a c e a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r 11year-olds. When a s k e d w h e t h e r she e v e r u s e s w i l l p o w e r , J o d y s a i d : "Yah, l i k e i n gym i n t h e summertime. I n gym, t h e t e a c h e r makes us do a l l t h i s s t u f f . My g u t s r e a l l y k i l l me s o m e t i m e s . I j u s t p u s h m y s e l f a l l t h e way." Jody sees h e r s e l f as d i f f e r e n t  from o t h e r k i d s  in that  she  229  " l i k e s . c l i m b i n g t r e e s and e v e r y t h i n g . " Her p a r e n t s s a y t h a t l i k e s s p o r t s and s e e s h e r s e l f a s a b i t o f a tomboy.  she  J o d y ' s p a r e n t s f e e l t h a t s h e ' s u n i q u e , t h a t she h a s a s t r o n g w i l l o r s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y , a n d t h a t s h e ' s v e r y much h e r own p e r s o n . The y o u n g e r s i s t e r c o p i e d t h e o l d e r one, b u t J o d y d i d v e r y l i t t l e c o p y i n g and a l w a y s f o u n d h e r own way o r h e r own thing. They n o t e t h a t J o d y h a s n e v e r even l o o k e d l i k e h e r two sisters. When J o d y p l a y s w i t h h e r s i s t e r s , she t y p i c a l l y i n i t i a t e s " L e t ' s p r e t e n d . . . " o r " L e t ' s p l a y i. . ." activities in w h i c h she h a s t h e l e a d r o l e and t h e o t h e r h a s a s u b o r d i n a t e position. Jody's p a r e n t s say t h a t she's v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s about her s c h o o l w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y c o m p a r e d t o h e r o l d e r s i s t e r , and h a s f o c u s s e d on w a n t i n g t o do w e l l . A b i l i t i e s and  Interests  J o d y ' s p a r e n t s n o t e t h a t she h a s a l w a y s t e n d e d t o u s e a d u l t l e v e l l a n g u a g e m o r e s o t h a n t h e o t h e r two g i r l s . When i n g r a d e one o r two she came i n f r o m o u t - o f - d o o r s and t a l k e d a b o u t s e e i n g a s l u g o r s n a i l and how i t " c l i m b e d back i n t o i t s h o l e when i t was t h r e a t e n e d . " T h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s a g o , when b u l l d o z e r s were b e g i n n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . w o r k on a wooded a r e a n e a r b y , J o d y s t o r m e d i n t o the house c o m p l a i n i n g : "They're d e s t r o y i n g the environment." S i n c e she was a y o u n g s t e r , J o d y ' s p a r e n t s h a v e been v e r y i m p r e s s e d w i t h h e r memory a b i l i t y . When she was- o n l y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n she c o u l d b e a t e v e r y b o d y a t t h e c a r d game, Concentration. Now she i s r e a l l y good w i t h t h e games: M e r l i n , Simon, B a t t l e S h i p s , I n t e l l i g e n c e , and C l u e . J o d y ' s p a r e n t s s a y t h a t she c a n w r i t e e x c e l l e n t s t o r i e s a n d she d o e s them m a i n l y a t s c h o o l r a t h e r t h a n a t home. They s a y t h e y ' r e a b o u t a n i m a l s , l i t t l e p e o p l e , and t h e y h a v e s a d e n d i n g s . The e n d i n g s h a v e odd t w i s t s , s o m e t h i n g u n e x p e c t e d a b o u t them, she seems t o p u t a z a p on t h e e n d . J o d y t h i n k s up t h e e n d i n g f i r s t and t h e n p u t s a s t o r y a r o u n d t h e e n d i n g . She s t a r t e d d o i n g t h i s l a s t y e a r when t h e t e a c h e r n o t e d t h a t most s t o r i e s a l w a y s h a v e h a p p y e n d i n g s . J o d y d e c i d e d i t w o u l d be more f u n t o do s a d e n d i n g s . J o d y s a i d t h a t she l o v e s w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g j u s t comes and she c a n j u s t go on and on f o r e v e r j u s t w r i t i n g . She t a l k e d a b o u t a s t o r y s h e ' d w r i t t e n a t home o n c e . Her y o u n g e r s i s t e r had t o l d h e r t h e e n d i n g t o a h o r r o r s t o r y . Then, a s a game, J o d y w r o t e a s t o r y t h a t w o u l d l e a d up t o t h a t e n d i n g . J o d y s a y s t h a t she l o v e s r e a d i n g , a l t h o u g h some o f i t ' s  230  b o r i n g , b u t she r e a l l y l i k e s r e a d i n g f a i r y s t o r i e s . Sometimes s h e ' l l r e a d t h e same s t o r y 20 t i m e s . A f a v o r i t e s h e t a l k e d a b o u t i s c a l l e d M o t o r c y c l e Mouse . J o d y s a i d s h e a l s o l i k e s t o make up l i t t l e s o n g s a n d s h e l i k e s t o draw a n i m a l s . J o d y ' s b i g g e s t s o f t s p o t i s f o r a n i m a l s . They h a v e a g u i n e a p i g , b i r d s , d o g s , a n d a c a t . J o d y a l w a y s r o u n d s up a n y s t r a y s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d a n d b r i n g s them home. She w a n t s t o be a v e t but. h o p e s t o h a v e an a s s i s t a n t t o do t h e s u r g e r y a n d c a r e f o r t h e ones t h a t m i g h t d i e . J o d y c r i e s f o r 20 m i l e s i f they pass a dead c a t . When a s k e d a b o u t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h f r i e n d s , J o d y s a i d h e r two f a v o r i t e f r i e n d s l i v e f a r away. She d i d m e n t i o n w i t h one f r i e n d h o w e v e r . They h a v e a t r e e f o r t a n d p l a y t h e y ' r e dogs. T h e y ' d be Dobermans.  that playing that  When a s k e d what p u z z l e s h e r t h e m o s t , J o d y s a i d : "The universe. Where i t s t a r t s a n d how i t s t a r t s a n d how i t g o t p u t t h e r e . . . how t h e e a r t h i s j u s t s i t t i n g t h e r e i n s p a c e . And I j u s t b o g g l e m y s e l f t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t . " When a s k e d what s u r p r i s e s h e r t h e m o s t , J o d y s a i d : " I t ' s n e a t how t r e e s , t h e way t h e y grow. I n summer t i m e t h e y ' r e a l l green. I n w i n t e r t h e y ' r e so p r e t t y . " R e g a r d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t s h e ' d l i k e b u t h a s n ' t h a d , Jody s a i d t h a t she c a n ' t scrounge m a t e r i a l s f o r a r t and c r a f t p r o j e c t s f o r c l u b s b e c a u s e h e r Mom's n o t v e r y c r e a t i v e a n d d o e s n ' t do s t u f f where t h e r e ' s t h i n g s l e f t o v e r . J o d y s a i d s h e h a s n ' t h a d a c h a n c e t o be i n p l a y s b e c a u s e h e r p a r e n t s d o n ' t l i k e t o go o u t o r t a k e them a n y w h e r e . When a s k e d t o r e c a l l e x a m p l e s o f when s h e ' s been s t y m i e d o r b l o c k e d i n . t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g , J o d y s a i d t h a t l o t s o f t i m e s she p l a n n e d t o h a v e a c l u b o r p a r t y a n d n o t h i n g e v e r t u r n s o u t . And t h e n s h e l o s e s h e r t e m p e r . S c h o o l Work I n h e r s c h o o l w o r k , J o d y ' s p a r e n t s n o t e t h a t s h e l i k e s math and d o e s n ' t c o m p l a i n a b o u t a n y t h i n g . Jody says t h a t she l i k e s E n g l i s h r i g h t now. S h e ' s i n a g r o u p t h a t w o r k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y , answering q u e s t i o n s about t h e s t o r y , A l i c e i n Wonderland. Jody s a y s t h a t math i s e a s y , i f s h e j u s t w o r k s on i t i t ' l l come e a s y . Jody's t e a c h e r says t h a t she i s q u i t e b r i g h t , b e t t e r i n language a r t s , f a i r l y t a l e n t e d i n t h a t a r e a , p o p u l a r , o k a y i n math b u t s t r u g g l e s , and i s s t r o n g e s t i n w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g .  231  Wishing and Prayer When J o d y ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d i f t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t s h e u s e s w i s h i n g t h e y s a i d t h a t n o , n o t t h a t s h e ' s e v e r t o l d them, and s h e ' s a p r e t t y l e v e l - h e a d e d k i d . When t h e y were a s k e d i f Jody uses p r a y e r , they s a i d t h a t they d i d n ' t t h i n k s o , but t h a t t h e i r k i d s do know t h a t C h r i s t m a s i s n ' t S a n t a C l a u s . When J o d y was a s k e d i f s h e u s e s w i s h i n g , s h e s a i d : "Yup, a l l t h e t i m e . . .yah i t w o r k s . " When a s k e d a b o u t p r a y e r , s h e s a i d " s o m e t i m e s " , a n d t h e n gave t h e e x a m p l e o f h a v i n g f o u n d a s t r a y c a t , r e t u r n i n g i t t o t h e o w n e r , l e a r n i n g i t was l o s t a g a i n , a n d t h e n w i s h i n g i t w o u l d come b a c k a n d s h e w o u l d t a k e care of i t . Family and E a r l y  Childhood  Jody r e c a l l s l i k i n g her s t u f f e d animals and having p l a y e d h o u s e w i t h them. H e r m o t h e r d o e s n ' t r e c a l l h e r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n t e r e s t s b u t n o t e s t h a t t h e y w e r e n ' t b i g on b u y i n g l e g o b e c a u s e i t ' s t o o m e s s y . J o d y d i d , h o w e v e r , go t h r o u g h t h r e e r o c k i n g h o r s e s w i t h t h e l a s t one f i n a l l y f a l l i n g a p a r t i n g r a d e 2. J o d y ' s m o t h e r r e a d t o a l l o f h e r c h i l d r e n when t h e y were l i t t l e and t h e y a l l " r e a d " b o o k s s i n c e t h e y were a b l e t o s i t u p . They d o n ' t l i v e n e a r anyone s o t h e g i r l s have m a i n l y o n l y h a d e a c h other t o play with.  232  James The c a r e f u l , i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y of James' l i f e has been w e l l m a t c h e d by t h e c o n s t a n c y o f h i s p a r e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o h i s i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f h i s t i m e . James' p a r e n t s say t h a t w h i l e he i s n o t c r e a t i v e i n t h e i m a g i n a t i v e o r e x p r e s s i v e sense, h i s r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s a r e v e r y good. James d o e s a l o t , a l w a y s h a s , g e t s t i r e d , and w i s h e s t h e r e was l e s s s c h o o l work d u r i n g t h e week and more t i m e a v a i l a b l e on weekends to s i m p l y r e l a x . H i s p a r e n t s n o t e t h a t he seems t o h a v e a g i f t for having a c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t i n groups - r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h h a p p i l y accepted compromises. James' f a t h e r has a s t r o n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h i s s o n , a s s e r t i n g t h a t he knows where James i s c o m i n g f r o m m e n t a l l y and u n d e r s t a n d s how he p e r c e i v e s t h i n g s . Productivity James' f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s him a s an a l l o r n o t h i n g whose b a s i c a p p r o a c h t o t h i n g s h a s n ' t c h a n g e d .  person  A t 3 1/2 he became i n t e r e s t e d i n s u p e r h e r o e s and l i v e d , d r e a m t , and a t e s u p e r h e r o e s f o r a w h o l e y e a r . In response t o h i s c o n s t a n t r e q u e s t o f "Mommy draw me Batman!" t h e y had a s t e n c i l made up and r u n o f f so t h a t Mom c o u l d s i m p l y w h i s k one o u t o f t h e d r a w e r w h e n e v e r James w a n t e d t o c o l o r a n o t h e r batman. A t 4, James' p a r e n t s t h o u g h t he l o o k e d i n t e r e s t e d i n b u t t e r f l i e s so t h e y made him a n e t . By t h e t i m e he was 7, James had c o l l e c t e d 100 s p e c i e s , a l l t h a t c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e a r e a , and had p u t t h e r a r e o n e s i n t o d i s p l a y c a s e s . When i n g r a d e 1, James began t h e p a t i e n t , i n t e n s i v e work o f m o d e l m a k i n g , l e a r n i n g t o do a l i t t l e b i t e v e r y n i g h t t o w a r d s t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . - He has c o m p l e t e d 45 m o d e l s , a l l a i r c r a f t , and a l w a y s has one o r two on t h e go. The m a s t e r p i e c e o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n was c o m p l e t e d when he was o n l y 7 y e a r s o l d . I t has 350 t o 400 p a r t s on a 1/24 s c a l e w i t h b e a u t i f u l d e t a i l , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p a i n t i n g . James' p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t o be an i n c r e d i b l e a c h i e v e m e n t f o r a 7 - y e a r - o l d . They h a v e a l s o m a r v e l l e d a t h i s p a t i e n c e and s k i l l i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e v a s t a r r a y of b r u s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s needed t o p r o p e r l y c o m p l e t e the models. In a d d i t i o n t o a l w a y s h a v i n g a m o d e l on t h e go, t h e r e i s a l w a y s a p u z z l e b e i n g p u t t o g e t h e r - one of t h e c h a l l e n g i n g l a n d s c a p e v a r i e t y w i t h 1,000 t o 2,000 p i e c e s . I f i n t h e end a p i e c e i s m i s s i n g , one i s c a r e f u l l y c a r v e d o u t o f b a l s a wood, p a i n t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , and i n s e r t e d i n p l a c e . L a s t summer James g o t h i s own d r a f t i n g b o a r d , T - s q u a r e , and t e m p l a t e when t h e y were v i s i t e d by a r e l a t i v e who d o e s a r c h i t e c t u r e and i n t e r i o r d e s i g n w o r k . James t r i e d t o c o p y t h e p l a n s o f a h o u s e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e was d o i n g . James s a i d i t was  233  d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e where t o p u t t h e rooms and f u r n i t u r e and so on. H i s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t a f t e r t h e r e l a t i v e l e f t , James a b a n d o n e d t h e a c t i v i t y as t h o u g h he d i d n ' t know where t o t a k e i t from t h e r e . James was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o m u s i c l e s s o n s when he was 4 1/2 and h i s m o t h e r t o o k him t o t h e S u z u k i - v i o l i n p r o g r a m . T h e r e , w i t h a J a p a n e s e i n s t r u c t o r who s p o k e no E n g l i s h - t h e m o t h e r w i t h a f u l l - s i z e d v i o l i n and t h e c h i l d w i t h a m i n i a t u r e one - m o t h e r and c h i l d a t t e m p t e d t o p l a y t h e same p i e c e , week a f t e r week, as t h e i n s t r u c t o r a t t e m p t e d t o e x t r a c t p e r f e c t i o n . The l e s s o n s were agony f o r James and a f t e r s i x months h i s m o t h e r w i t h d r e w them f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . M u s i c i n s t r u c t i o n began a g a i n f o r James one and a h a l f y e a r s ago, t h i s t i m e w i t h the f l u t e . A f t e r a s e r i e s of i n s t r u c t o r s and m u s i c camps, James f o u n d an i n s t r u c t o r who p r o v i d e d s c a l e s and e x e r c i s e s f o r James t o p r a c t i s e a t home. H i s p r o f i c i e n c y i s s u c h t h a t he has j o i n e d t h e band a t a n e a r b y j u n i o r secondary school. T h i s band p r a c t i s e s f i v e d a y s out of s e v e n and James p r a c t i s e s t h e f l u t e f o r 30 m i n u t e s a t home e v e r y night. James a l s o a t t e n d s swimming o r s k a t i n g a f t e r s c h o o l and S a t u r d a y he has a f i g u r e s k a t i n g c l a s s .  on  James' p r o j e c t s o r r e p o r t s f o r s c h o o l a r e m e t i c u l o u s l y done. James s a y s t h a t he d o e s them v e r y n i c e l y and i n c l u d e s a b i b l i o g r a p h y when a p p r o p r i a t e even t h o u g h he knows t h a t none o f the o t h e r s t u d e n t s would. H i s p a r e n t s note t h a t h i s a r t t e c h n i q u e s , developed over the years i n other a c t i v i t i e s , are now s h o w i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e s e n s i t i v e , p r o p o r t i o n e d , v i b r a n t s k e t c h e s he makes f o r t h e c o v e r p a g e s o f t h e s e r e p o r t s . James s a y s t h e r e i s t o o much s c h o o l work - a l t h o u g h he i s c e r t a i n l y a c a p a b l e s t u d e n t he g o e s i n t o more d e p t h t h a n t h e others. He s a y s t h a t t h e y h a v e so much t o do, he j u s t c a n ' t h a n d l e i t , and s o m e t i m e s he j u s t c a n ' t t h i n k a n y m o r e . James' f a t h e r r e c a l l s an o c c a s i o n w h i c h e n c a p s u l a t e s James' a p p r o a c h t o an a c t i v i t y . James was 7 a t t h e t i m e and t h e f a m i l y had gone t o v i s i t a t a r a n c h f o r t h e d a y . James o b t a i n e d a p a i r o f c r o s s c o u n t r y s k i i s and s p e n t t h e w h o l e day t e a c h i n g h i m s e l f how t o use them. He s t a y e d a t one s m a l l s l o p e and by 3 p.m. he had p a t i e n t l y w o r k e d o u t a way t o s u c c e s s f u l l y use t h e s k i i s . Thinking  A b i l i t i e s and  Interests  James' f a t h e r s a y s t h a t : "James i s n o t i m a g i n a t i v e type" i n t h a t s e n s e . . . but r e a s o n i n g and t h i n k i n g t h i n g s o u t a r e v e r y The o n l y a r e a i n w h i c h t h e y see h i s use o f game o f Dungeons and D r a g o n s , a game w h i c h i m a g i n a t i o n and s t r a t e g y . James o f t e n has  the w i I d l y - c r e a t i v e , h i s a b i l i t i e s at good, above a v e r a g e . " i m a g i n a t i o n i s i n the i n v o l v e s t h e use of t h e r o l e o f dungeon  234  m a s t e r when he p l a y s school.  t h i s game i n h i s e n r i c h m e n t c l a s s a t  James l e a r n e d t o p l a y c h e s s when he was 6 o r 7. Stratego i s a f a v o r i t e game. I t ' s a game i n w h i c h one h a s t o do a l o t o f p r o b i n g i n o r d e r t o deduce t h e v a l u e s of t h e opponent's characters. I n p l a y i n g t h i s game w i t h h i s f a t h e r a few months ago, t h e two o f them r e a c h e d a s t a l e m a t e . James' f a t h e r r e c a l l s a c o u p l e o f o c c a s i o n s when he was i m p r e s s e d o r e v e n s u r p r i s e d by h i s s o n ' s t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . On one o c a s i o n t h e y were t o g e t h e r i n an a i r p l a n e . The f a t h e r i n v i t e d t h e son t o take over t h e c o n t r o l s , t o take a heading i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n , and t o keep t h e p l a n e l e v e l . L a t e r he t o l d him t o make a l e f t t u r n , a g a i n k e e p i n g t h e a l t i t u d e l e v e l . When James' f a t h e r t o o k o v e r t h e c o n t r o l s a g a i n i t o c c u r r e d t o h i m t h a t h i s s o n was s i t t i n g t o o l o w t o be a b l e t o s e e t h e h o r i z o n i n o r d e r t o have used t h a t a s a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a steady f l i g h t . James i n f o r m e d h i m t h a t he h a d s i m p l y w a t c h e d over h i s shoulder a t the h i l l s t o the side f o r a reference point. On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , when r i d i n g i n t h e c a r w i t h h i s f a t h e r , James n o t e d t h e l o w c l o u d c o v e r a n d a s k e d h i s f a t h e r an e n t i r e s e r i e s of c a r e f u l l y reasoned questions regarding the c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r an I L S l a n d i n g by c o m m e r c i a l a i r c r a f t . James' f a t h e r s a y s t h a t s t a t i s t i c s , p r o b a b i l i t i e s , a n d p r e c i s e measurement have a l w a y s f a s c i n a t e d J a m e s . T h i s h a s shown i t s e l f i n q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how many o f a c e r t a i n k i n d o f b u t t e r f l y t h e r e a r e l i k e l y t o be i n a 2 s q . m i . a r e a , o r w h i c h o f two v e r y s i m i l a r p l a n e s i s l a r g e r , o r s p o r t s s t a t i s t i c s i n general. James r e g u l a r l y r e a d s t h e s p o r t s s e c t i o n o f t h e newspaper t o keep i n f o r m e d about t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s . James s a y s t h a t what s u r p r i s e s h i m i s what p e p l e c a n a c t u a l l y do - i n c l u d i n g r e a l l y s m a r t k i d s i n h i s c l a s s who t u r n out r e a l l y n i c e t h i n g s and a l s o b r i l l i a n t s c i e n t i s t s . I f James c o u l d s p e n d two weeks w i t h someone t h a t d o e s a s p e c i a l k i n d o f work he w o u l d p i c k a s c i e n t i s t . James n o t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e 5 a n i m a l g r o u p s a n d w i t h i n t h e i n v e r t e b r a t e s t h e r e a r e 100 g r o u p s . T h e r e a r e a l s o many k i n d s o f v i r u s e s . These t h i n g s i n t e r e s t him. I n s c h o o l w o r k , James' s t r o n g e r a r e a s a r e l a n g u a g e a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and s c i e n c e which i s m a i n l y r e p o r t w r i t i n g . I n m a t h , James i s i n t h e t o p g r o u p , knows a l l h i s f a c t s a n d i s t h e b e s t i n h i s c l a s s i n t h a t way, b u t r e c e n t l y c o n f i d e d t o h i s m o t h e r t h a t he f i n d s i t h a r d t o do t h e q u e s t i o n s - t h a t he doesn't get i t r i g h t the f i r s t time or whatever. As s o m e t h i n g t o be r e a l l y good a t , James w o u l d p i c k s p o r t s . He, s a y s he d o e s n ' t h a v e t h e t i m e t o do them a l o t , b u t he l i k e s t o be good a t i t when he d o e s . He p l a y s r o a d h o c k e y w i t h t h e  235  b o y s on t h e s t r e e t . As f r i e n d s , he p r e f e r s some o f t h e b o y s . a t s c h o o l who a r e r e a l l y s m a r t and a r e a l s o good a t s p o r t s . S o m e t i m e s h i s b a n d , when v i s i t i n g a n o t h e r s c h o o l , w i l l b r e a k t o p l a y s o c c e r and h a v e a h o t dog. James' m o t h e r n o t e s how much p l e a s u r e James t a k e s i n t h e c o m r a d e r y o f t h e s e o c c a s i o n s . James a l s o e n j o y s the f l o o r hockey tournaments i n which a l l the boys in h i s grade 5 c l a s s are p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I n h i s e n r i c h m e n t c l a s s , James i s c u r r e n t l y w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n s p i r e d by p h o t o g r a p h s o f a t h l e t e s i n a c t i o n . H i s e n r i c h m e n t t e a c h e r t e l l s him he's good a t t h a t . Among t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t James p r e f e r s o r a v o i d s , h i s f a t h e r n o t e s an i n n a t e h o r r o r o f o r d e r g e t t i n g b r o k e n o r disrupted. James has n e v e r been a c h i l d t h a t l i k e s t o t a k e t h i n g s a p a r t a l t h o u g h t h e h o u s e has c o n t a i n e d an e x c e s s o f e l e c t r o n i c g a d g e t r y and h i s f a t h e r has r e s t o r e d o l d c a r s and b u i l t show c a r s a s a h o b b y . James seemed t o v i e w t h e d i s a s s e m b l y o f t h i n g s w i t h d i s g u s t when e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n a s t o w h e t h e r h i s f a t h e r w o u l d a c t u a l l y be a b l e t o p u t back t o g e t h e r h i s m o t h e r ' s d i s m a n t l e d GT. James a l s o r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y m o v i n g f r o m one h o u s e t o a n o t h e r . James' r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a y s t h a t he i s p e r c e p t i v e , r e l a t e s t h i n g s a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s , i s q u i c k t o see i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , has a good s e l f - c o n c e p t and i s s e l f - m o t i v a t e d . Family  and  Early  Childhood  James has a 5 - y e a r - o l d b r o t h e r , C h r i s . James' m o t h e r s a y s t h a t James had a d i f f i c u l t b i r t h and seemed t o c r y c o n s t a n t l y d u r i n g h i s f i r s t two y e a r s . She d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f as s o r t o f a high tension person. She s a y s she e x p e c t e d a g r e a t d e a l more o f James and p u t a l o t o f p r e s s u r e on h i m . She e x p e c t e d c e r t a i n t h i n g s f r o m h i m : t o do w e l l , t o t r y h a r d , t o be g o o d , t o be reasonable. W i t h h e r s e c o n d c h i l d she s a y s s h e ' s been more r e l a x e d as a m o t h e r . A t 3 1/2 James went t o p l a y s c h o o l . A t 4 1/2 t h e p l a y s c h o o l t e a c h e r recommended k i n d e r g a r t e n w h i c h he t h e n s t a r t e d i n O c t o b e r of the s c h o o l y e a r . James' f a t h e r has been w e l l a b l e t o t u t o r h i s son i n t h e a r e a s o f b u t t e r f l y c o l l e c t i n g and model m a k i n g , h a v i n g had t h o s e i n t e r e s t s h i m s e l f a s a boy. James e n j o y s t h e company o f h i s f a t h e r when m a k i n g p u z z l e s o r m o d e l s . James' f a t h e r t a k e s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n him and s a y s t h a t when James t a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n s o m e t h i n g you have t o have a l l your f a c t s ready b e c a u s e James w i l l a s k e n d l e s s q u e s t i o n s . James' m o t h e r s u p e r v i s e s h i s f l u t e p r a c t i c e and s a y s t h a t he d o e s a b e t t e r j o b when she d o e s . She c a u t i o n s him a b o u t g e t t i n g a d d i c t e d t o w a t c h i n g TV q u i z shows and p o i n t s o u t how  236  w e l l h i s t i m e c o u l d o t h e r w i s e be u s e d . R e c e n t l y s h e was c o n c e r n e d t h a t he w a s n ' t r e a d i n g enough a n d t o l d h i m t h a t he was r e a l l y m i s s i n g s o much. They made up a c o n t e s t f o r h i m t o r e a d 25 b o o k s by t h e e n d o f May. A l m o s t e v e r y d a y James l e a v e s s c h o o l t o go t o b a n d p r a c t i c e and i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t t i m e e a c h d a y . E a c h d a y t h e y c h e c k i f James h a s c h e c k e d t o f i n d o u t what he m i s s e d . They a l s o c h e c k h i s s c h o o l p r o j e c t work a n d p o i n t o u t a r e a s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t . When a s k e d i f James i s p r e t t y g o o d a t g e t t i n g h i s own way or t a p p i n g a n y " s o f t s p o t s " , James m o t h e r a n s w e r e d : "I'm u s u a l l y p r e t t y s t r o n g , 'No' means 'no'." James' p a r e n t s a t t e n d a c h u r c h s e r v i c e e v e r y Sunday a n d James h a s a s w e l l f o r two y e a r s . A s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y t h o u g h t James u s e s p r a y e r , t h e y s a i d i t was p r o b a b l y t o o e a r l y f o r t h a t t o be v e r y w e l l d e v e l o p e d y e t . H o w e v e r , t h e y n o t e t h a t h e ' s a t y p i c a l l y g o o d s t u d e n t d o i n g h i s B i b l e r e a d i n g s a n d s o o n . When James was a s k e d i f he e v e r u s e s w i s h i n g he s a i d no b u t t h a t he d o e s p r a y when s o m e t h i n g c r i t i c a l h a p p e n s . James' p a r e n t s r e g a r d h i m a s n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e a b o u t what he's f e e l i n g , p l a y i n g h i s c a r d s c l o s e t o h i s c h e s t , b e i n g v e r y much u n t o h i m s e l f , a n d n o t w i s h i n g t o u n b u r d e n h i m s e l f on others. R e c e n t l y t h e y ' v e come t o s u s p e c t t h a t h e ' s more s e n s i t i v e t h a n t h e y t h o u g h t he was.  237  Doug Doug i s an a f f e c t i o n a t e , s e n s i t i v e c h i l d whose l i f e r e v o l v e s a r o u n d s p o r t s , b e i n g f i r s t , and e n j o y i n g h i s f r i e n d s . He i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a i r l y c a p a b l e s t u d e n t w i t h h i s s t r e n g t h s b e i n g i n math m o r e s o t h a n i n language, a r t s . H i s p a r e n t s say t h e y d o n ' t know how he k e e p s e n d i n g up w i t h g o o d m a r k s g i v e n t h e amount o f c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t he g i v e s i t . Sports Doug's p a r e n t s s a y t h a t he's a l w a y s been a t h l e t i c , a l w a y s t r i e s t o be b e s t i n s p o r t s , and t h a t he's one o f t h e b e t t e r players in soccer. He began w i t h b a s e b a l l when he was y o u n g e r and t h e n p r o c e e d e d w i t h s o c c e r and h o c k e y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e season. F o r t h e l a s t two y e a r s he's been d o w n h i l l s k i i n g a s well. R e g a r d i n g a s p i r a t i o n s , Doug's p a r e n t s say t h a t he w a n t s t o be a h o c k e y p l a y e r o r a f o o t b a l l p l a y e r . They s a y t h e o n l y t h i n g Doug i s c u r i o u s a b o u t o r f a s c i n a t e d w i t h i s s p o r t s . They see t h e h a r d e s t t h i n g i n l i f e f o r Doug t o be s c h o o l w o r k b e c a u s e i t t a k e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n and " t h a t ' s t h e p r o b l e m -- t h e m i n d i s a l w a y s on t h e s o c c e r f i e l d o r on t h e i c e somewhere." Doug s a y s he'd use e x t r a t i m e t o s k i , p l a y s p o r t s , and p l a y with his friends. He r e c a l l s s u r p r i s i n g p e o p l e by w i n n i n g t h e s c h o o l g r a d e l e v e l arm w r e s t l i n g c h a m p i o n s h i p f o r t h e s e c o n d y e a r i n a row. This year everyone thought that t h i s r e a l b i g guy was g o i n g t o w i n b u t Doug d i d . F o r d a y d r e a m s , Doug s a y s t h a t he p l a y s h o c k e y i n h i s h e a d . He p l a y s r i g h t w i n g . As s o m e t h i n g t o become r e a l l y good a t , Doug w o u l d .pick s k i i n g . If he c o u l d s p e n d two weeks w i t h a s p e c i a l p e r s o n i t w o u l d be a hockey p l a y e r . An o p p o r t u n i t y he'd l i k e w o u l d be t o go t o an A l l S t a r game. Doug s a y s t h a t f o r most p e o p l e , where t h e y l i v e and t h e i r j o b s a r e most i m p o r t a n t t o them, b u t i n h i s l i f e , s p o r t s w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t . Being  First  Doug's f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s h i s s o n ' s p a s s i o n f o r b e i n g f i r s t s a y i n g : " I f he c a n ' t be f i r s t he h a s n ' t t r i e d h a r d enough o r t h e r e ' s g o t t o be a n o t h e r way." Doug's m o t h e r r e c a l l s w a t c h i n g him a t a t r a c k meet and s e e i n g him b i t i n g h i s l i p and a l w a y s w a t c h i n g t o the s i d e t o check the next boy's p o s i t i o n i n the race. Doug's c o n c e r n w i t h b e i n g f i r s t i s v e r y a n n o y i n g t o h i s t e a c h e r s a s he a p p l i e s i t t o e v e r y t h i n g f r o m b e i n g f i r s t i n l i n e t o b e i n g t h e f i r s t t o f i n i s h a s s i g n e d w o r k . They h a v e n o t been a b l e t o c o n v i n c e him t h a t d o i n g work p r o p e r l y and n e a t l y i s more important than being the f i r s t to f i n i s h . F u r t h e r , upon c o m p l e t i n g h i s w o r k , he a l w a y s makes a p o i n t o f r a i s i n g h i s h a n d t o m e n t i o n t h a t he i s now f i n i s h e d . One o f Doug's t e a c h e r s commented t h a t when Doug l e a r n e d t h a t he was one o f t h e c h i l d r e n  238  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , he s e t t l e d down t o d o i n g h i s s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s much b e t t e r t h a n u s u a l . Doug's p a r e n t s a l s o commented t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d i t a f e a t h e r i n h i s c a p t o be t h e o n l y boy i n t h e i n t e r v i e w g r o u p f r o m h i s c l a s s . Friends Doug has had t h e same g r o u p of f r i e n d s s i n c e b e g i n n i n g school. T h e y ' r e on t h e same s p o r t s t e a m s , i n t h e same c l a s s a t s c h o o l , and s p e n d t h e i r s p a r e t i m e t o g e t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Doug, t h e b e s t t h i n g a b o u t b e i n g h i s age i s t h a t you g e t t o see y o u r f r i e n d s a l o t . In t h e i r spare time together they p l a y road h o c k e y o r o t h e r s p o r t s o r j u s t make up games t o g e t h e r l i k e h i t t i n g a t i n can w i t h a s l i n g s h o t . What makes h i s f r i e n d s f u n , Doug s a y s , i s t h a t " t h e y t h i n k of so many s t u p i d i d e a s . " Doug's p a r e n t s say t h a t he's n e v e r home and t h a t " i f i t can be o u t w i t h t h e b o y s , he's d e f i n i t e l y g o n e . " They see Doug as t h e r i n g l e a d e r of t h e g r o u p . I f he's b o r e d , t h e y say t h a t h e ' l l g e t on t h e t e l e p h o n e and g e t e v e r y b o d y o r g a n i z e d f o r a r o a d h o c k e y game. They r e c a l l e d h i s f r u s t r a t i o n one t i m e when he t e l e p h o n e d e v e r y o n e and no one was home. He f i n a l l y p u t down t h e t e l e p h o n e and s a i d : " T h e r e ' s j u s t n o b o d y ! " and t h e n he bawled. J u s t t h e n , t h e one p e r s o n he'd f o r g o t t e n a b o u t t e l e p h o n e d him and he r a n o u t of t h e h o u s e i n j o y f u l l r e l i e f . Doug a l s o has a g i r l f r i e n d , Y v o n n e , who was i n t h e " i n t e r v i e w s a m p l e . He has l i k e d h e r s i n c e g r a d e one and t h e y a r e now " g o i n g t o g e t h e r " . T h e r e a r e s i x o t h e r b o y s i n Doug's c l a s s who h a v e been c o m p e t i n g f o r Y v o n n e ' s a t t e n t i o n . F o r some f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n , Doug had s e n t Yvonne a box o f c h o c o l a t e s . When he l e a r n e d t h a t a few of t h e o t h e r b o y s had done t h e same t h i n g , he s e n t an a d d i t i o n a l box as w e l l . Doug i s d e s c r i b e d by h i s t e a c h e r s popular w i t h the k i d s .  as b e i n g  a leader  and  Sensitivity R e g a r d i n g Doug's s e n s i t i v i t y , h i s f a t h e r s a y s : " I d o n ' t t h i n k p e o p l e r e a l i z e how e a s y i t i s t o h u r t h i m . " I f h i s mother g e t s a n n o y e d and s c r e a m s a t h i m , h e ' l l t u r n i n t o t e a r s . Doug's p a r e n t s t h i n k t h a t he's c o p i n g w i t h h i s s e n s i t i v i t y q u i t e w e l l i n t h a t no one seems t o r e a l i z e i t , t h a t e v e r y o n e t h i n k s he's macho and s u p e r t o u g h . Doug's t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e s h i m as shy and and as c o v e r i n g i t up by: f r o w n i n g a l o t , n o t w a n t i n g t o be c r e a t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a n y t h i n g , and a d o p t i n g a macho f r o n t . Doug's m o t h e r r e c a l l s a p a i n f u l i n s t a n c e o f s t a g e f r i g h t when Doug was s u p p o s e d t o i n t r o d u c e a t e a c h e r a t a PTA m e e t i n g . He s t a r t e d o v e r t h r e e t i m e s , e v e r y o n e l a u g h e d , he c o u l d n ' t g e t t h e w o r d s o u t , seemed t o h a v e f o r g o t t e n h i s l a s t name, and t h e n he b a w l e d .  239  Doug's p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e h i m a s l o v i n g a n d t h o u g h t f u l , a l w a y s g i v i n g a k i s s g o o d - b y e when g o i n g t o s c h o o l , t e a s i n g h i s Mom, a n d f i n d i n g i m p o r t a n t a n d h e l p f u l t h i n g s t o do f o r h e r . School  Work  Doug s a y s he l i k e s math a l t h o u g h he w o u l d n ' t s a y i t ' s s o easy. When a s k e d what p u z z l e s h i m t h e most i n a l l o f t h e t h i n g s he's i n t e r e s t e d i n o r h a s t h o u g h t a b o u t a l o t , Doug s a y s i t ' s language a r t s . He s a y s t h a t when he r e a d s a c h a p t e r a n d h a s t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h he knows t h e a n s w e r , i t won't come t o h i m , a n d he h a s t o k e e p on l o o k i n g b a c k a n d f i n d i n g i t . As something t o accomplish or t r y f o r t h e f i r s t time i n t h e year a h e a d , Doug s a y s i t w o u l d be t o g e t A's on h i s r e p o r t c a r d . Doug's p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e h i m a s a p o o r w r i t e r i n t h a t he h a s l o t s o f i d e a s b u t d o e s n ' t p u t them t o g e t h e r v e r y w e l l . They a l s o m e n t i o n e d a r e c e n t s p e l l i n g t e s t r e s u l t o f 99 o u t o f 100. M a k i n g m o d e l s i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t Doug l i k e s b u t he won't t a k e t h e time or p a t i e n c e t o read t h e d i r e c t i o n s . When t o l d t o do i t r i g h t o r n o t a t a l l , he l e a v e s i t f o r h i s f a t h e r t o f i n i s h . Doug l e a r n e d t o p l a y c h e s s two y e a r s a g o a n d p l a y s i n t h e c h e s s c l u b a t school d u r i n g lunch hour. He e n j o y s p i n b a l l a n d t h e games: C l u e , Mad, a n d T r u s t Me. A t s c h o o l , Doug g e t s a B i n math a n d a C+ i n l a n g u a g e a r t s . When Doug was a s k e d how he g e t s h i s i d e a s , he r e s p o n d e d by u s i n g an e x a m p l e . He s a i d t h a t i n s c h o o l r i g h t now t h e y were s u p p o s e d t o t h i n k o f f u n d r a i s i n g i d e a s . He s a i d he p u t h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a p e r s o n he knew who was good a t g e t t i n g d i f f e r e n t j o b s a n d t r i e d t o i m a g i n e what t h a t p e r s o n w o u l d d o . Family and E a r l y  Childhood  Doug s p e n d s a f a i r amount o f t i m e w i t h h i s Dad who d r i v e s h i m t o t o w n s o r c i t i e s where h i s s p o r t s teams a r e s c h e d u l e d t o c o m p e t e . They a l s o w a t c h s p o r t s on TV t o g e t h e r . Doug h a s a s i s t e r who i s t h r e e y e a r s o l d e r a n d t h e two h a v e a l w a y s g o t t e n along w e l l . Doug s a y s t h a t he e n j o y s h a v i n g a s i s t e r . They o f t e n go s k i i n g t o g e t h e r . D u r i n g p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s , Doug's p a r e n t s s a y he was " a c t i v e , f o r e v e r i n t r o u b l e , a n d c o n s t a n t l y on t h e g o . " A s k e d i f t h e y read t o him, they s a i d "not r e a l l y . " A t t h e a g e o f 18 m o n t h s , Doug began s t a y i n g w i t h a s i t t e r who h a d two c h i l d r e n o f h e r own. He c h a n g e d s i t t e r s o n l y o n c e d u r i n g p r e - s c h o o l y e a r s . By s c h o o l a g e , h i s p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d h i m t o be more i n d e p e n d e n t and grown-up t h a n most k i d s h i s a g e .  240  Pat P a t i s a c h i l d whose h i g h l e v e l o f t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y i s w e l l m a t c h e d by h e r d r i v e and p e r s e v e r e n c e . W h i l e g e n e r a l l y open t o and i n q u i s i t i v e a b o u t a n y t h i n g new, she h a s m a i n t a i n e d a s t r o n g f o c u s on d e v e l o p i n g h e r w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . Pat a c t u a l l y enjoys g o i n g d o o r - t o - d o o r t o c o l l e c t p l e d g e s and i s a c o n f i d e n t p e r f o r m e r b e f o r e an a u d i e n c e . Rather than having a w e l l d e v e l o p e d s e n s e o f humor, P a t ' s p a r e n t s s a y t h a t she h a s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f j u s t i c e and what i s f a i r . Pat i s very c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d u l t s and f o r a g i r l f r i e n d p r e f e r s someone who can j o i n her i n p l a y i n g m a k e - b e l i e v e . P a t ' s most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d a s p i r a t i o n i s t o be a famous a u t h o r . From t i m e t o t i m e she a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t s h e ' d l i k e t o be P r i m e M i n i s t e r . W r i t i n g and  Imagination  P a t s a y s t h a t i f she o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 d a y s of t h e week she w o u l d u s e t h e e x t r a t i m e t o w r i t e s t o r i e s . She l i k e s w r i t i n g f i c t i o n s t o r i e s about a n i m a l s . Her w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was f i r s t a c k n o w l e d g e d i n g r a d e one when she won s e c o n d p r i z e i n a c o n t e s t w i t h t h e w r i t i n g theme o f : "Why I l i k e my M o t h e r . " P a t ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l t h a t , i n grade one, P a t ' s s t o r i e s were a l w a y s p u t up on t h e w a l l and t h e y were a l w a y s 3 y a r d s l o n g . I n b o t h g r a d e s 3 and 4, P a t won first p r i z e i n t h e Young A u t h o r s ' C o n t e s t . In t h i s c o n t e s t , c h i l d r e n a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p i c t u r e and r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e a s t o r y a b o u t i t and t e l l i t t o t h e j u d g e s . They a l s o g i v e a p o e t r y r e a d i n g u s i n g a poem t h e y h a v e s e l e c t e d t h e m s e l v e s . For t h i s y e a r ' s c o n t e s t , P a t p l a n s t o w r i t e t h e poem t h a t she w i l l deliver. I n h e r i n t e r v i e w , P a t t a l k e d a b o u t a h o r s e s t o r y she had once w r i t t e n . I t began w i t h a h o r s e c o m i n g t o h e r window. They s p o k e t o e a c h o t h e r a b o u t t h e h o r s e ' s p r o b l e m o f where t o s t a y . I t f i n a l l y e n d e d w i t h t h e h o r s e m o v i n g i n t o a s p a c i o u s and accommodating c h i l d r e n ' s zoo. The main c h a r a c t e r of P a t ' s c u r r e n t s t o r y has a German s h e p h e r d ' s t a i l , t h e shaggy w h i t e body o f a g o a t , a g o a t ' s h e a d w i t h s h o r t b l a c k h a i r , and a g o l d u n i c o r n ' s h o r n . Pat says the c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l n e a t t o work w i t h b e c a u s e y o u c a n do so much with i t . Her f a v o r i t e a u t h o r i s t h e one who w r o t e C h a r l i e i n the Chocolate F a c t o r y . P a t d e s c r i b e d a s t r a t e g y she u s e s f o r s t o r y w r i t i n g . She s a y s she -takes h e r d i c t i o n a r y , t u r n s t o any word and t h e n a s k s h e r s e l f : "How c a n I use t h a t word t o make a p l o t ? " She w r i t e s i t down, d o e s i t a g a i n w i t h t h e n e x t word she f i n d s t h a t i n t e r e s t s h e r , k e e p s d o i n g t h i s , and t h e n t r i e s t o p u t them a l l together. P a t s a y s t h a t she made up t h i s s t r a t e g y h e r s e l f a b o u t s i x months o r a y e a r ago when she n o t i c e d h e r d i c t i o n a r y l y i n g  241  there  i n view.  A s k e d i f s h e i l l u s t r a t e s h e r s t o r i e s , P a t s a y s no a n d t h a t one s h o u l d be a b l e t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e w i t h w o r d s i f y o u ' r e getting better. As an e x a m p l e o f u s i n g w i l l p o w e r , P a t d e s c r i b e s w r i t i n g , l o s i n g a p l o t , w a n t i n g t o j u s t go away a n d w a t c h TV, b u t s i t t i n g and t h i n k i n g up a n o t h e r p l o t i n s t e a d . I f s h e c o u l d s p e n d two weeks w i t h a p e r s o n t h a t d o e s a s p e c i a l k i n d o f w o r k , P a t w o u l d p i c k an a u t h o r . A s k e d what s h e w o u l d l i k e t o a c c o m p l i s h o r t r y for the f i r s t time i n the year ahead, Pat d e s c r i b e s the s t r u g g l e i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o w r i t e a book. She s a y s s h e ' l l p u t down a p l o t a n d t h e n d e c i d e t h a t , n o , t h i s i s n o t g o i n g t o work. Or s h e ' l l p u t down a s e n t e n c e a n d t h e n wonder how s h e i s g o i n g t o get from here t o t h e end - you've g o t t o have something i n t h e middle. B e g i n n i n g s and e n d i n g s , she s a y s , a r e easy b u t you need t h e i n s i d e f i r s t a n d a p l o t i s one i n a h u n d r e d t o f i n d a good one. As an i n t e r e s t , P a t ' s f a t h e r w r i t e s s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . He s a y s t h a t : "The d i f f e r e n c e w i t h h e r i s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . I mean she c a n w r i t e f i c t i o n r i g h t now b e t t e r t h a n I c a n w r i t e f i c t i o n . I c a n h e l p h e r a l o n g on t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s b u t h e r i m a g i n a t i o n i s way a h e a d . " A s k e d what k i n d s o f f r i e n d s a r e e n j o y a b l e , P a t t a l k e d a b o u t someone c a l l e d J o l e n e . "Sometimes I g e t s o f e d up w i t h h e r b u t she's r e a l l y n i c e . L i k e I r e a l l y l i k e t o imagine myself as o t h e r p e o p l e and d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s - p r i n c e s s e s and a l l s o r t s . And s h e ' s l i k e t h a t t o o . L i k e I ' l l s a y s o m e t h i n g a n d s h e ' l l s a y : 'Oh y a h , a n d t h e n we c a n p r e t e n d t h a t we're . . .' And I r e a l l y l i k e t h a t b e c a u s e some p e o p l e go: 'Oh, how c a n we dothat? We're n o t p r i n c e s s e s o r p o l i c e m e n . ' " P a t d e s c r i b e d w i t h p l e a s u r e a n o c c a s i o n when s h e h a d been a s k e d t o k e e p a 4 - y e a r - o l d o c c u p i e d a t a f u n c t i o n where a l l t h e . a d u l t s were b u s y . She d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h how s h e p r e t e n d e d t o be an e l e p h a n t f o r t h e c h i l d a n d t h e n t h e y b o t h became e l e p h a n t s a n d how much f u n i t was. Use  of Prayer  When P a t ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d w h e t h e r P a t u s e s p r a y e r , t h e y s a i d t h a t they would tend t o doubt i t and t h a t t h e y ' r e not religious. They a c k n o w l e d g e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t P a t was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e B i b l e a n d t h a t s h e h a d gone t o Sunday S c h o o l when s h e was l i t t l e . When P a t was a s k e d i f s h e u s e s p r a y e r , s h e s a i d : "Yah, s o m e t i m e s when I want s o m e t h i n g t o h a p p e n , I p i c t u r e m y s e l f t a l k i n g t o God o r s o m e t h i n g . "  242  I n t e r e s t s and T h i n k i n g A b i l i t i e s P a t ' s f a t h e r s a y s t h a t she a l w a y s makes c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n things. S o m e t i m e s when y o u ' r e t a l k i n g t o h e r s h e ' l l s a y t h a t oh i t ' s l i k e t h i s or i t ' s l i k e t h a t . S h e ' l l t r a n s f e r t h i n g s from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r a n d t h e n b u i l d on t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a y i n g t h a t o h , t h e n t h a t ' s why . . . . P a t ' s f a t h e r a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t she i s a l w a y s open t o t r y i n g new t h i n g s a n d a s k s "why a n d how come" q u e s t i o n s a b o u t a whole v a r i e t y of t h i n g s . He r e c a l l e d t h a t r e c e n t l y when she p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e g a r a g e when he was w o r k i n g on t h e c a r t h a t she k e p t a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s u n t i l he h a d c o m p l e t e l y gone o v e r t h e w o r k i n g s of t h e e n t i r e e n g i n e . P a t s a y s t h a t she l i k e s t o r e a d a l o t . She e n j o y s m y s t e r i e s a n d l i k e s r e a d i n g The W i z a r d o f Oz . She r e c a l l s h a v i n g been a b l e t o r e a d b e f o r e k i n d e r g a r t e n . When a s k e d who makes t h e b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e t o what h a p p e n s i n the c l a s s r o o m , Pat says i t ' s the k i d s . She s a y s t h e t e a c h e r a s k s t h e k i d s what t h e y l i k e a n d t h e n he t e a c h e s them so t h a t t h e y ' l l l i k e and l e a r n . When a s k e d what p u z z l e s h e r t h e m o s t , P a t comments on t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of government and p o l i t i c s . She s a y s t h e r e a r e so many b r a n c h e s t o go i n t o . She a l s o w o n d e r s why n o n - c o n f i d e n c e m o t i o n s a r e a l l o w e d t o happen when t h e y have t h e e f f e c t o f unseating elected representatives - representatives already c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n by t h e p e o p l e . F o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t s h e ' d l i k e t o be r e a l l y g o o d a t d o i n g , P a t s a y s s h e ' d l i k e t o know l i t t l e k i d s b e t t e r . . - .. As f o r what s u r p r i s e s h e r t h e m o s t , P a t s a y s : " I t ' s t h e way t h e y k e e p d i s c o v e r i n g d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s l i k e f i r s t i t was t h e • space s h u t t l e and then . . . . And t h e r e ' s s o much s p a c e . I t j u s t g o e s on a n d o n . I t d o e s n ' t seem l i k e i t s h o u l d be there." I n m a t h , P a t s a y s she l i k e s t h e f a c t t h a t numbers c a n make d i f f e r e n t numbers. And she l i k e s t h e i d e a o f d i f f e r e n t b a s e s . She s a y s i t ' s n e a t t o be a b l e t o t h i n k i n a d i f f e r e n t way t h a n j u s t 10's a n d t o i m a g i n e t h a t maybe p e o p l e on M a r s u s e a d i f f e r e n t base. Pat i s c u r r e n t l y r e a d i n g Agatha C h r i s t i e i n a c l a s s a t school. She t a l k e d w i t h p l e a s u r e a b o u t how she was u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l a n d l i f e c y c l e c l u e s t o d e d u c e A g a t h a ' s age throughout the t e x t . The a u t h o r e s s c a r e f u l l y a v o i d s m e n t i o n i n g h e r age a t any p o i n t i n t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h y . Two y e a r s a g o , P a t ' s p a r e n t s g a v e h e r a g u i t a r f o r C h r i s t m a s a l t h o u g h she had e x p r e s s e d no i n t e r e s t i n i t .  They  243  s a i d t h a t she took t o i t w i l l i n g l y , p r a c t i s i n g when r e m i n d e d .  t a k i n g l e s s o n s and  P a t ' s mother s a i d t h a t she h e r s e l f has p l a y e d a l o t of C h i n e s e c h e c k e r s b u t t h a t P a t i s now o n l y two o r t h r e e moves behind h e r . In s c h o o l w o r k , P a t ' s p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t h e r math p e r f o r m a n c e i s on par. w i t h h e r l a n g u a g e a r t s . She h a s t o work a t t h e math t h o u g h , i t ' s n o t a s e a s y . The boy f r o m P a t ' s c l a s s who was a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t P a t i s commonly known a s t h e top student i n the c l a s s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n and A b i l i t y  to  Accomplish  Objectives  P a t ' s f a t h e r d e s c r i b e s h e r a s v e r y c o m p e t i t i v e . He s a y s she w a n t s t o i m p r e s s , l i k e s t h e s p o t l i g h t a n d b e i n g number o n e . She l i k e s w i n n i n g , l o s i n g i s . the p i t s . She h a s h i g h s t a n d a r d s a n d l i k e s t o do w e l l a t a n y t h i n g s h e d o e s , o r e l s e d r o p i t i f she c a n ' t . When P a t was a s k e d i f s h e was good a t g e t t i n g h e r own way, she s a i d : " I f I want s o m e t h i n g I g u e s s , i f I go a b o u t i t t h e r i g h t way." When P a t ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d i f s h e was good a t g e t t i n g a t h e r own way, t h e y s a i d : "Oh y e s , s h e ' s f a i r l y c a g e y , s h e ' s no fool. F a t h e r ' s h e r s u c k e r , m o r e s o t h a n Mom." Asked i f there were a n y h o u s e h o l d r u l e s t h a t t r y P a t ' s p a t i e n c e , t h e y s a i d : "Most o f them - what few we do h a v e t r y h e r p a t i e n c e . " They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t P a t does t r y t o g e t around t h e s e . F o r e x a m p l e , s h e ' l l c a u s e a s c e n e when i t ' s t i m e t o s e t t h e t a b l e t h e r e b y g e t t i n g s e n t t o h e r room a n d g e t t i n g t o do what she w a n t e d t o do i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . The m o t h e r s u s p e c t s t h a t P a t i s d e f i n i t e l y conscious of doing t h a t . When P a t was a s k e d i f s h e u s e s w i l l p o w e r , s h e s a i d : " Y a h , s o m e t i m e s I t r y a n d c o n v i n c e m y s e l f : ' P a t , y o u ' r e g o i n g t o do i t ' , a n d t h e n I s i t down a n d do i t . " Pat's f a t h e r has p a r t i c u l a r l y noted h e r perseverence i n s k i i n g a s a t h l e t i c s do n o t come e a s i l y f o r h e r . He s a y s i t b o t h e r s h e r t h a t h e r l i t t l e b r o t h e r w i l l do b e t t e r t h a n she d o e s w i t h s e e m i n g l y l e s s e f f o r t , b u t she w i l l t r y and t r y and t r y a l l day l o n g . F r i e n d s and S o c i a l  Life  P a t ' s p a r e n t s h a v e n o t e d t h a t t h e o t h e r k i d d i e s have a l w a y s come t o P a t a n d i f t h e y d i d n ' t , s h e d i d n ' t seem t o m i s s them i f she h a d a good s u p p l y o f b o o k s . They s a y t h a t s h e c a n be a l m o s t frighteningly self-sufficient. R e c e n t l y , h o w e v e r , P a t h a s shown more c o n c e r n  with being  244  p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l scene - e n j o y i n g G u i d e s as a n i g h t o u t t o g i g g l e w i t h t h e o t h e r g i r l s a n d b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d t o g e t i n more t h a n h e r f a i r s h a r e o f t h e d a n c i n g a t an up a n d c o m i n g d a n c e . F a m i l y and E a r l y  Childhood  Pat i s t h e o l d e s t of f o u r w i t h t h e next c h i l d , B r i a n , being three years younger. Pat's p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t they spent a g r e a t d e a l of time w i t h h e r d u r i n g t h o s e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s s i n c e she was t h e o n l y c h i l d t h e n . They s a y s h e was a l w a y s independent but they always d i d a l o t w i t h h e r and took h e r p l a c e s and r e a d t o h e r . P a t ' s m o t h e r i s c u r r e n t l y one o f t h e G u i d e l e a d e r s . U n t i l a b o u t g r a d e 2 o r 3, P a t u s e d t o b r i n g home j u n k f o u n d i n a n a l l e y a n d t h e n f i g u r e o u t what s h e c o u l d make o u t o f i t . P a t ' s p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e h e r a s more u p t i g h t t h a n B r i a n who i s more r e l a x e d b u t more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . Pat's f a t h e r says t h a t t h e y t h i n k s h e ' s w o n d e r f u l a n d he r e f e r s t o h e r a s "Super G i r l " and " t h e P r i n c e s s " .  245  Wendy Wendy's m o t h e r s a y s o f h e r t h a t " s h e ' s t h e f u n n y one. R i g h t f r o m t h e t i m e she was l i t t l e I knew she was s m a r t . Rather t h a n b e i n g t h e d o o e r f i l l i n g e v e r y m i n u t e of e v e r y day w i t h a c t i v i t y , s h e ' s more q u i e s e n t , more s a t i s f i e d t o s i t and t h i n k about t h i n g s . " She d o e s n ' t want a l o t of t h i n g s and she d o e s n ' t l i k e a l o t o f c l o t h e s . Her t e a c h e r s a y s t h a t she has one o r two c l o s e f r i e n d s r a t h e r than being i n t o the whole s o c i a l scene. She's an A s t u d e n t who i s a l s o n o t e d f o r h e r i m a g i n a t i o n . Her m o t h e r s a y s t h a t " i f she were t o f i n d s o m e t h i n g t h a t she w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n , and i f she were t o do i t , I t h i n k t h a t t h e s t a y i n g power w o u l d be f a n t a s t i c . " Imaginative  Activity  Wendy t a l k e d a b o u t a f r i e n d s h e ' d had u n t i l t h e y moved l a s t March. She and h e r f r i e n d u s e d t o make up shows where t h e y ' d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y do t h e same t h i n g s u s i n g a t r e e and t h e gym equipment i n the y a r d . T h e y ' d k e e p f i n d i n g new ways t o use t h e equipment. They b o t h had c o l l e c t i o n s o f h o r s e f i g u r e s t h a t t h e y s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e p l a y i n g w i t h t o g e t h e r as w e l l . Wendy^ has 52 h o r s e s i n h e r c o l l e c t i o n . They a l l h a v e names, a g e s , and l i n e a g e s w i t h s i r e s and dames f i r m l y n o t e d . She o r g a n i z e s them p u t t i n g t h e m a r e s i n one p a s t u r e and t h e geldings in another. She w r i t e s l i s t s f o r them f o r h o r s e shows and a l l t h e e v e n t s t h a t e a c h w i l l be e n t e r e d i n . Wendy c o l l e c t s a l l s o r t s of t r e a s u r e s . When o r d e r e d t o c l e a n o u t h e r c l o s e t i t t a k e s h e r d a y s t o do i t -- m o v i n g . h e r boxes of t r e a s u r e s ' f r o m her c l o s e t t o the g a r a g e . The g a r a g e i s now h a l f f u l l o f h e r t r e a s u r e s . The most r e c e n t clean-out i n v o l v e d t h e t r a n s p o r t o f 18 b o x e s o f t r e a s u r e s t o t h e g a r a g e . B e f o r e Wendy s t a r t e d g o i n g t o s c h o o l she a l w a y s e n j o y e d wearing costumes — the head a p p a r e l of a k i t t e n costume, or a bunny, or even a h e l m e t . A b i l i t i e s and  Interests  Wendy knew a l l h e r numbers when she was 3. She l i k e s t o p l a y c a r d s and i s good a t i t . She u s e d t o p l a y a l o t o f s o l i t a i r e , f i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s t h a t she l e a r n e d when a t p r e s c h o o l age. When Wendy was 5 h e r m o t h e r t o o k h e r t o t h e S u z u k i v i o l i n p r o g r a m . Wendy's m o t h e r s a i d t h a t she t h o u g h t Wendy n e e d e d s o m e t h i n g more. When a s k e d i f she had a m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d t o b e g i n w i t h , Wendy's m o t h e r s a i d t h a t no, but you do a l o t o f t h i n g s f o r w h i c h you h a v e no a p t i t u d e when y o u ' r e a m o t h e r .  246  They went f o r two y e a r s a n d Wendy's m o t h e r s a i d Wendy was fantastic at i t . Then one day Wendy s a i d : "I'm n o t g o i n g p l a y t h a t v i o l i n a g a i n e v e r . " Wendy i s now i n h e r s e c o n d y e a r o f p i a n o and l i k e s i t . She s a y s s h e a l s o e n j o y e d t h e r e c o r d e r a t school last year. She's i n t h e c i t y ' s y o u t h c h o i r and s a y s she likes singing. Wendy d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f a s a k i n d o f h o r s e f r e a k . She w a n t s t o g e t a h o r s e a n d become a g o o d r i d e r e v e n t h o u g h s h e h a s m e m o r i e s o f b e i n g s c a r e d t o d e a t h when j u m p i n g w i t h h o r s e s i n g r a d e t h r e e . H e r m o t h e r s a i d she began g e t t t i n g b u c k e d o f f h o r s e s when s h e was 3 y e a r s o l d . U n t i l a y e a r ago t h e r e was a l w a y s r e a d y a c c e s s t o h o r s e s . And Wendy's o l d e r s i s t e r r o d e a great deal. O v e r t h e l a s t two y e a r s , Wendy h a s s a v e d $400 t o w a r d s h e r h o r s e a n d s h e won't s p e n d t h a t money on a n y t h i n g . She's a l s o r e a d a n d s o m e t i m e s r e - r e a d a l l t h e h o r s e s t o r i e s s h e ' s been a b l e t o o b t a i n . Wendy's m o t h e r s a y s s h e c a n a s k e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x questions. Some f o r e x a m p l e a r e i n t h e a r e a o f s c i e n c e . H e r f a t h e r c a n a n s w e r t h e s e a n d she seems t o u n d e r s t a n d r i g h t away. She e n j o y s w a t c h i n g t h e t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m , " L i f e on E a r t h " . Wendy's t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e h e r a s an i n t e l l i g e n t a l l r o u n d A student. When a s k e d what h e r f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t s a r e , Wendy answered: " I l i k e s p e l l i n g and t h a t ' s about i t . I l i k e most o f it." When a s k e d a b o u t m a t h , Wendy s a i d : "Math i s p r e t t y e a s y t o do b u t I d o n ' t l i k e t h e s u b j e c t . " Wendy s a i d t h a t when s h e w r i t e s s t o r i e s s h e c a n g e t i d e a s pretty fast. She j u s t makes up t h e s t o r y a s s h e g o e s a l o n g , d o e s n ' t know how l o n g i t ' s g o i n g t o b e , a n d j u s t w r i t e s u n t i l it's finished. A s k e d i f s h e w r i t e s a t home, s h e s a i d t h a t w r i t e s s t o r i e s f o r h e r Dad a n d s i n c e he e n j o y s them s h e l i k e s w r i t i n g them. Wendy s a i d s h e a l s o w r i t e s p o e t r y , l i k e f o r s p r i n g a n d summer a n d d i f f e r e n t h o l i d a y s l i k e C h r i s t m a s a n d Easter. A s k e d what s u r p r i s e s h e r m o s t , Wendy t a l k s a b o u t n a t u r e and t h e way t h e t r e e s ' l e a v e s come b a c k on a n d t h e f l o w e r s come b a c k up. D u r i n g s p a r e t i m e , Wendy s a y s s h e p l a y s games by h e r s e l f i n h e r room a n d s h e l i k e s t o r e a d a l o t . She r e a d s h o r s e s t o r i e s and f a i r y t a l e s . I n t h e year ahead she'd l i k e t o j o i n a s o c c e r o r a b a s e b a l l team. When a s k e d what s h e t h i n k s w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e t o h e r , Wendy a n s w e r e d : " B e i n g a b l e t o s u p p o r t myself." F a m i l y and E a r l y  Childhoo'd  Wendy, t h e y o u n g e s t o f f o u r , h a s a "good t h i n g h e r Dad. He was t h e y o u n g e s t o f f i v e a n d s a y s t h a t y o u n g e s t h a v e t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r . He's v e r y p a t i e n t h u m o r i n g h e r when s h e g e t s d i s g r u n t l e d w i t h f a l l i n g  going" with t h e two with her, while  247  skiing. Wendy's m o t h e r s a i d t h a t s h e d i d n ' t e n c o u r a g e h e r c h i l d r e n t o t r y t o r e a d b e f o r e s c h o o l age b u t she a l w a y s r e a d t o them a n d s a n g t o them. Wendy's o l d e r b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r were v e r y v o c a l , r a u c o u s , d e m a n d i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e home when Wendy was a pre-schooler. Wendy was a l w a y s c a r t e d a b o u t i n t h e c a r a s t h e y were d r i v e n t o t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The f a m i l y l i v e d on an a c r e a g e f o r a number o f y e a r s s o t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d have t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f g r o w i n g up a r o u n d farm a n i m a l s . When t h e y moved i n t o t o w n , t h e new home was a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t f r o m an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . Wendy, h o w e v e r , f l a t l y r e f u s e d t o change s c h o o l s .  248  Kate K a t e i s d e s c r i b e d by h e r t e a c h e r a s n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i v e and by h e r m o t h e r a s w i t h d r a w n and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . Kate says she's a l w a y s l i k e d math and been g o o d a t i t . She s k e t c h e s a n i m a l s f r e e h a n d f r o m p i c t u r e s i n a book a n d l i k e s m u s i c and d a n c i n g . Her t e a c h e r s a y s t h a t when new a r t t e c h n i q u e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d , K a t e w i l l e x p a n d o r m o d i f y t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o make them more difficult. W h i l e a good o r a l r e a d e r , K a t e h a s t r o u b l e w i t h i n t e r p r e t i n g , c o m p r e h e n s i o n , m a k i n g i n f e r e n c e s , and c o m p a r i n g . Her s e n t e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a l s o weak. G e n e r a l l y , K a t e h a s a t e n d e n c y t o q u i t l e s s o n s o r g r o u p s t h a t become b o r i n g o r r e p e t i t i v e and she r e s i s t s t r y i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t she t h i n k s she m i g h t n o t be a b l e t o d o . Kate's Discomfort When K a t e was a s k e d what s h e ' d l i k e t o do i f she o n l y had t o go t o s c h o o l 3 d a y s o f t h e week, she s a i d s h e ' d t a k e h e r dog up t h e m o u n t a i n f o r a r u n . N o t h i n g e l s e came t o m i n d . K a t e h a s an o l d e r b r o t h e r i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . He and h i s f r i e n d s t e a s e h e r w h i c h she d o e s n ' t l i k e . When a s k e d i f t h e r e was a n y t h i n g a t a l l t h a t was g o o d a b o u t h a v i n g a b r o t h e r , K a t e said: "No." K a t e ' s mother says t h a t Kate i s v e r y withdrawn a t t i m e s . When s h e ' s been u p s e t , h e r m o t h e r h a s t r i e d t o t a l k t o h e r , t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t h i n g s t o h e r , but Kate shuts her out. When K a t e ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d what K a t e i s most e x c i t e d t o t e l l them a b o u t when she comes home, t h e y s a i d she n e v e r i s . The o n l y t h i n g s h e ' l l d i s c u s s s o m e t i m e s i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t u p s e t her. She c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why some t h i n g s h a v e t o be done i n a c e r t a i n way. Her m o t h e r s a y s t h e y ' 1 1 s i t down and t r y t o e x p l a i n i t t o h e r h u t she s t i l l s t i c k s t o h e r own o p i n i o n . She a l s o g e t s mad b e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t a g r e e w i t h h e r . O n c e , K a t e ' s p a r e n t s r e c a l l t h a t she came home e c s t a t i c b e c a u s e s h e ' d g o t t e n t o t a k e t h e c l a s s r o o m ' s g e r b i l home f o r t h e weekend. K a t e had been w a n t i n g a g e r b i l b u t t h e y a l r e a d y had a dog. T h i s weekend was t o be t h e t r i a l t o s e e how t h i n g s went t o d e t e r m i n e whether Kate c o u l d get her g e r b i l . But t h i n g s d i d n ' t go w e l l . The g e r b i l g o t o u t o f t h e c a g e and t h e dog c h a s e d i t and she c a n ' t h a v e one. K a t e ' s p a r e n t s were a s k e d what K a t e d o e s when someone e l s e i n t h e h o u s e h a s a p r o j e c t g o i n g . Her m o t h e r s a y s she w a n t s t o h e l p b u t u s u a l l y e n d s up h i n d e r i n g and g e t s t o l d t o go away. K a t e ' s m o t h e r s a y s t h a t K a t e f i g u r e s she c a n w a t c h s o m e t h i n g , know a l l a b o u t i t , and be a