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Selection of native species for alpine reclamation, Northeast Coal Block, British Columbia Willey, Norman Andrew 1982

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SELECTION OF NATIVE SPECIES FOR ALPINE RECLAMATION, NORTHEAST COAL BLOCK, BRITISH COLUMBIA by NORMAN ANDREW WILLEY B.Sc. U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Forest ry) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1982 © Norman Andrew Wi l ley In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of f c r f ^ t r " - f  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date / a n i i A b s tract Open p i t c o a l mining at the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e , i n Northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia's Coal Block, w i l l be located i n the upper reaches of the subalpine and p o r t i o n s of the a l p i n e zones. Because of the adverse growth c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s s i t e , reclamation a f t e r mining w i l l present problems i n using agronomic plant species adapted to lower e l e v a t i o n s . This w i l l e s p e c i a l l y be a problem w i t h c l o v e r , a l f a l f a and other legumes. Moreover, the aft e r - u s e of the mined land r e q u i r e s a s t a b l e p l a n t community capable of supporting w i l d l i f e forage ( e s s e n t i a l l y Woodland Caribou and Mountain Goats) at l e a s t to the same a b i l i t y as the pre-mining communities. To deal w i t h these c o n s t r a i n t s , and to r e - e s t a b l i s h n a t i v e plant communities, i t w i l l be necessary to inco r p o r a t e n a t i v e species i n the reclamation program. As a p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n process, t h i s study has pr e - s e l e c t e d f i v e n a t i v e species on the b a s i s of the c o n s t r a i n t s mentioned above. These species, S a l i x a r c t i c a , Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , Hedysarum alpinum, Oxytropis  s e r i c e a , 0^ podocarpa ( A r c t i c w i l l o w , Mountain avens and three high a l t i t u d e legumes, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were grown on crushed shale (from the minesite) to t e s t i n h i b i t i o n s to growth on simulated s p o i l s . Mature plant portions were c o l l e c t e d from the m i n e s i t e , rooted i n the shale under a mist system i n f i v e i n c h (13 cm) standard pots and then placed outdoors. An equal number of each pla n t species was grown on the top mineral h o r i z o n on which these plants normally grow (the c o n t r o l ) . No f e r t i l i z e r was added to e i t h e r growth medium, with the exception of Oxytropis podocarpa. T e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r one summer; l a c k of reclamation i i i s i t e s at the minesite and a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n of the p l a n t s to s i t e growth c o n d i t i o n s d i d not a l l o w f o r , or re q u i r e s i t e t e s t i n g f o r growth response to the type of growth medium. Following the growth p e r i o d , above ground biomass was c l i p p e d and weighed a f t e r oven d r y i n g . S o i l f e r t i l i t y analyses were conc u r r e n t l y conducted on the shale and c o n t r o l growth media. S t a t i s t i c a l comparison of biomass between the two growth media i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r S a l i x a r c t i c a , Hedysarum alpinum or Oxytropis s e r i c e a ; these species can be a p p l i e d i n s i t e t e s t s when reclamation begins, though S a l i x w i l l need to be placed where drainage i s not excessive. The r o o t i n g problem of Oxytropis podocarpa w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e f u r t h e r t e s t i n g of t h i s s pecies, though seed propagation may overcome t h i s problem. Dryas should probably not be planted e a r l y i n the reclamation program as i t s growth i s i n h i b i t e d on the l e s s weathered sha l e . i v Table of Contents Page No. Abstract i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of Figures v i i Acknowledgements v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 1 Chapter One 6 Meteorology and Ecology 6 The Growth Environment 14 Chapter Two 15 Species S e l e c t i o n 15 W i l d l i f e Forage Requirements 17 Mine S p o i l s as a Growth Medium . . • . . 18 The C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n 20 Selected Species 22 Chapter Three 25 Experimental Design and R e s u l t s 25 P l a n t and S o i l C o l l e c t i o n 26 Plant and S o i l P r e p a r a t i o n 27 S o i l F e r t i l i t y A n a l y s i s 31 Measurement of Biomass Production 32 Chapter Four 40 Summary and Conclusion • 40 Conclusions 43 References 47 V Page No. Appendix I - P l o t s of Undisturbed Vegetation from S h e r i f f , 53 Frame and Babcock Mountains Appendix I I - S o i l A n a l y s i s Data 56 Appendix I I I - Maximum and Minimum Temperatures, and P r e c i p i t a t i o n 58 Vancouver A i r p o r t , May to August, 1982 Appendix IV - Biomass Data 61 Appendix V - P r e p a r a t i o n and Growth of Tested Species 64 v i L i s t of Tables Page No. Table I Methods Used f o r F e r t i l i t y A n a l y s i s 31 Table I I S o i l F e r t i l i t y Parameters 34 Table I I I Growth Response t o Unamended Shale and 37 Colluvium as a Growth Medium Table IV Number of P l a n t s Used i n Testing the 38 S i g n i f i c a n c e of Growth Medium Table I . I Appendix I 54 Table I I . I Appendix I I 57 Table IV.I Oven Dry Biomass (grams)/Shale . . . . . 62 Table I V . I I Oven Dry Biomass (grams)/Colluvium 63 Table V.I Germination Testing f o r U n s t r a t i f i e d and 69 Legume Seed v i i L i s t of Figures Page No. Figure 1 - L o c a t i o n of the S h e r i f f M i n e s i t e , Northeast . . 3 Coal Block, B.C. Figure 2 - C l i m a t i c Normals f o r Dawson Creek: 7 Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , 1941 - 1970 Figure 3 - S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n f o r S h e r i f f P i t 12 Figure 4 - S o i l P r o f i l e , Plant C o l l e c t i o n S i t e 28 Figure 5 - P a r t i c l e S i z e Comparison of Crushed Shale . . . 29 and Colluvium Figure 6 - Pot Temperatures . *. 36 Figure 1.1 - L o c a t i o n of Vegetation P l o t s by Aspect 55 E l e v a t i o n and Moisture Figure I I I . l - Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n 59 & I I I . 2 - 60 v i i i Acknowledgements For f i n a n c i a l l y supporting a p o r t i o n of t h i s study and supplying transportation/accommodations, I am indebted to Bruce Switzer of Denison Mines, L t d . In p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s on the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. campus, I would l i k e to thank Dr. S z i k l a i , Dave Armstrong, E r n i e Jaeckeles and Ed Montgomery; l a b space f o r biomass determinations and s o i l f e r t i l i t y analyses was provided by Dr. A r t Bomke, f o r which I am t r u l y a p p r e c i a t i v e . INTRODUCTION This study i s a p r e l i m i n a r y step i n the s e l e c t i o n and t e s t i n g of n a t i v e a l p i n e p l a n t s f o r reclamation i n the Northeast Coal Block, B r i t i s h Columbia. As such, the r e s u l t s w i l l need to be incorporated i n t o f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of a more extensive nature at the s i t e of eventual employment. This w i l l e s s e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e p l o t t e s t s on the S h e r i f f Mine s i t e , when reclamation s i t e s become a v a i l a b l e , however, some propagation t e s t i n g w i l l a l s o be i n order. As a p r e l i m i n a r y work, t h i s study p r e - s e l e c t s native p l a n t s and thereby f a c i l i t a t e s high a l t i t u d e reclamation by p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e to agronomic species. The undisturbed environment from which the t e s t p l a n t species are derived i s g e n e r a l l y h o s t i l e to plant growth. S o i l i n s t a b i l i t y from erosion and f r o s t , and c o l d winters during which the snow cover i s removed by wind create poor growing c o n d i t i o n s . Moreover, the plant community, from which the t e s t p l a n t s were acquired, i s found on w e l l drained ridges w i t h s o i l s of low f e r t i l i t y . The plants i n h a b i t i n g t h i s community are t h e r e f o r e adapted to the f o l l o w i n g environmental c o n s t r a i n t s : 1) s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y 2) f r o z e n s o i l during the autumn, winter and e a r l y s p r i n g 3) wind d e s s i c a t i o n during l a t e winter and e a r l y spring 4) s o i l moisture d e f i c i t s during the growing season 5) low s o i l f e r t i l i t y . While s e v e r a l communities comprise the krummholz and a l p i n e zones (Harcome, 1978), the krummholz ridge-top p l a n t community i s most adapted to harsh growth c o n d i t i o n s and i s most l i k e l y to c o n t a i n p l a n t s that w i l l survive on c o a l mine s p o i l s . Coal s p o i l s i n the Southeast Coal Block are reported to be drought prone, since c a p i l l a r y r i s e may not supply water to the upper solum, and may e x h i b i t s o i l creep when slopes exceed t h i r t y degrees. These s p o i l s are a l s o 2 very slow to weather and re l e a s e plant n u t r i e n t s ( H a r r i s o n , 1973; 1977). In gen e r a l , c o a l s p o i l s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y low i n n i t r o g e n , phosphorus and organic matter, r e s u l t i n g i n a growth medium of low f e r t i l i t y (Doyle, 1976). The growth environment on c o a l s p o i l s i n the Northeast Coal Block w i l l l i k e l y e x h i b i t s i m i l a r problems; chemical a n a l y s i s of d r i l l cores from Quintette v Coal's S h e r i f f property (Stage I I Report, 1982) i n d i c a t e s a very l i m i t e d supply of a v a i l a b l e plant n u t r i e n t s i n the overburden rock. Furthermore, the subalpine mountain s e t t i n g w i l l r e s t r i c t the length of the growing season as w e l l as provide a p o t e n t i a l f o r s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y . The n o r t h e r l y l a t i t u d e of t h i s s i t e w i l l a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to a short growing season, coupled w i t h harsh w i n t e r s . For these reasons, the s e l e c t i o n of n a t i v e species from the ridge-top p l a n t community w i l l provide a pre-adaptation to adverse growth co n d i t i o n s and thus promote the success of n a t i v e p l a n t s i n reclamation e f f o r t s . The l o c a t i o n of the plant community, from which the t e s t p l a n t s f o r t h i s study were obtained, i s between 1700 and 1720m i n e l e v a t i o n on the southwest f a c i n g slope of the S h e r i f f minesite ( l a t i t u d e 55° 05' Longitude 121° 08'). The open p i t c o a l mine l i e s east of the Rocky Mountains i n the high f o o t h i l l s , about 100 kil o m e t e r s south of Chetwynd, B.C. To the east l i e s the Murray R i v e r v a l l e y , while the north i s bounded by Wolverine River v a l l e y , along which r a i l access to the c o a l f i e l d s i s c u r r e n t l y being constructed (see Figure 1 ) . While the minesite i s below the r e g i o n a l t r e e l i n e , a l l r i d g e t o p s , w i t h a west to south aspect, have developed krummholz and a l p i n e plant communities. This i s l i k e l y a response to wind since much of the snow i s removed from t h i s aspect by l a t e winter winds; s i t e s of snow d e p o s i t i o n c o n s i s t of Picea/Abies subalpine communities. 3 Figure 1 L o c a t i o n of the S h e r i f f M i n e s i t e , Northeast Coal Block, B.C. ( A f t e r stage I I r e p o r t , Quintette Coal L t d . , 1982) 4 Previous reclamation work on the south to west aspect of the minesite i n v o l v e d the seeding of agronomic grasses on e x p l o r a t i o n roads and t e s t p l o t s (Pomeroy, 1982). S i m i l a r t e s t p l o t s were done by the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources at various l o c a t i o n s i n the Coal Block, g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t i n g very poor legume growth at the higher e l e v a t i o n s ( E r r i n g t o n , 1978). Most of the t e s t p l o t s i n these s t u d i e s appear to have been located on weathered m a t e r i a l s derived at or near the surface. E x t r a p o l a t i n g the r e s u l t s of p l o t t e s t s on weathered media to plant performance on unweathered c o a l s p o i l s may be tenuous. To avoid t h i s problem, the t e s t i n g of p l a n t s i n t h i s study in c o r p o r a t e s an overburden stratum of cl a y s t o n e (shale) as a t e s t medium f o r growth. The performance of the s e l e c t e d species i s compared to t h e i r growth on mineral s o i l (Bm horizon) from the pl a n t c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . The employment of a pot study to determine the growth response of pl a n t s on overburden m a t e r i a l i s not unique. F i t t e r and Bradshaw (1974) employed Lolium perenne and A g r o s t i s t e n u i s a pot study to determine the response to phosphorus when these grasses were grown on shale. C o r r e l a t i o n between f i e l d p l o t s and pot t e s t s were found to be high. Grosse-Brauckmann (1977) a l s o found pot t e s t s of n u t r i e n t uptake i n mustard to be comparable to r e s u l t s obtained i n the f i e l d . Pot s t u d i e s were used by Weston et^ al^ (1964) to s u c c e s s f u l l y show plant response to heavy metals i n s l a g t i p m a t e r i a l . Growth response through pl a n t y i e l d has been the main use of pot s t u d i e s , though m y c o r r h i z a l e f f e c t s i n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h mine s p o i l s have a l s o been tested i n t h i s f a s h i o n (Lindsey e_t a l 1977; Aldon, 1978). In t h i s study, pots have been employed to determine pl a n t response to shale and, as pointed out above, the r e s u l t s w i l l need to be a p p l i e d to future f i e l d p l o t s . The reason f o r not e s t a b l i s h i n g f i e l d p l o t s at present 5 i s s t r i c t l y pragmatic; w i t h mining commencing and overburden s t r i p p i n g underway, there i s no s u i t a b l e and safe s i t e to e s t a b l i s h study p l o t s . Were these t e s t p l a n t s agronomic species, not s p e c i f i c a l l y adapted to the s i t e , pot studies would be i n v a l i d s i n c e i t would be necessary to t e s t t h e i r a b i l i t y to f l o u r i s h under the minesite c o n d i t i o n s . This i s not the case with the n a t i v e species, however, since t h e i r a b i l i t y to grow under the given environmental c o n s t r a i n t s i s not i n question. What i s not known i s whether the selected n a t i v e species can grow on new c o a l mine s p o i l s , represented by shale. I t i s thus the hypothesis of t h i s study that the adaptations of n a t i v e p l a n t s to adverse growth c o n d i t i o n s w i l l a l s o provide an adaptation to the growth c o n s t r a i n t s of c o a l s p o i l s , making them s u i t a b l e candidates f o r reclamation. 6 Chapter One The Growth Environment, P l a n t C o l l e c t i o n S i t e Meteorology and Ecology Weather records f o r the Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s physiographic region (Holland, 1964) i n the v i c i n i t y of the S h e r i f f mine/plant c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , are not extensive. The longest term records have been from Dawson Creek (1941-1970; see Figure 2 ); these c l i m a t i c normals show a minimum of p r e c i p i t a t i o n during A p r i l and a maximum i n June (Environment Canada, 1975). While Dawson Creek i s a c t u a l l y part of the A l b e r t a P l a t e a u , the same trend of damp summers can be seen f o r the F o o t h i l l s s t a t i o n s of Chetwynd and Hudson Hope, i n d i c a t i n g a damp summer as the normal s t a t e . Temperature p r o f i l e s f o r these s t a t i o n s show a maximum i n mean d a i l y temperature of about 15° C. Short term records ( l e s s than two years) from the mine property show s i m i l a r peaks, but a concomitant depression of temperature w i t h e l e v a t i o n (Stage I I repo r t , 1982). As a r e s u l t , growth c o n d i t i o n s at the higher e l e v a t i o n s can be expected to be co o l and damp from June through August. Frequency and v e l o c i t y of winds at the S h e r i f f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n , s i t u a t e d at 1707m e l e v a t i o n show a predominance of west to southwest winds. No calm periods were reported from summer through l a t e w i n t e r . Again these are short term recordings ( c i t e d i n Quintette Coal Stage I I r e p o r t ) , though the wind d i r e c t i o n s correspond to surrounding s t a t i o n s . The constancy of wind d i r e c t i o n i s a l s o portrayed i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of krummholz (upper subalpine) p l a n t communities. Those p o r t i o n s of mountains around the S h e r i f f s i t e which face west to south develop a l p i n e communities, devoid of trees and c l e a r of snow i n l a t e w i n t e r . Where sh e l t e r e d from the p r e v a i l i n g winds, Figure 2 C l i m a t i c Normals f o r Dawson Creek: Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , 1941 - 1970 2 0 - , 10 0 -10 - 2 0 Daily Mean Temperature J F M A M J J A S O N D 60 40 4 mm 0 Total Precipitation mm 2 0 mm p.::::.v.v.v.v.v.-.-.v.v.v.v J F M A M J J A S O N (Environment Canada, 1975} D 8 Plcea englemannii and Abies l a s i o c a r p a dominate, w i t h d e f i n i t e boundaries separating the treed subalpine from t r e e l e s s a l p i n e . In d e s c r i b i n g the a l p i n e communities of the Northeast Coal Block, (Harcombe, 1978) has d e l i n e a t e d four communities: 1) Net-leaved Dwarf Willow/Spiked Woodrush 2) Net-leaved Dwarf Willow/Capitate Lousewort 3) A r t i e Willow/Moss Campion/Fruticose Lichens 4) One-flowered C i n q u e f o i l / F r u t i c o s e Lichens The plant c o l l e c t i o n s i t e f o r t h i s study g e n e r a l l y f i t s the t h i r d community type w i t h reported community constants o f : S a l i x a r c t i c a Oxytropis podocarpa P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a S a x i f r a g a b r o n c h i o l i s Dryas i n t e g r l f o l i a B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a (Polygonum viviparum) S i l e n e a c a u l i s  Poa a l p i n a Cladonia spp. w i t h Dryas dominant i n cover. Such s i t e s are described by Harcome as moist, moderate to w e l l drained on a c o l l u v i a l veneer/blanket. The anomoly i n comparing Harcombe's d e s c r i p t i o n to the c o l l e c t i o n s i t e i s the notable presence of Hedysarum alpinum on the s i t e . P l o t s t u d i e s done during the course of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d H. alpinum to be present on S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock Mountains, as described f u r t h e r i n Appendix I . Since H. alpinum i s found throughout the B.C. and A l b e r t a Rockies (Hulten, 1968); Hitchock and Cronquist, 1973; P o r s i l d , 1974, Taylor, 9 1974), the omission from the Harcombe work may have been due to i t s r e g i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n . In S i g n a l Mountain, i n Jasper ( A l b e r t a ) , (Hrapko and LaRoi, 1978) reported a dominance of Dryas o c t o p e t a l a , l i c h e n s and Oxytropis podocarpa on "semi-xeric" s i t e s . Where snow-cover was more p e r s i s t e n t , a willow/heath community developed; both community types were considered c l i m a c t i c . Much as i n the N.E. Coal Block a l p i n e , "wind, low s o i l moisture, coarse t e x t u r e , and scree i n s t a b i l i t y a l l tend to i n h i b i t v egetation and s o i l development on the steep S.W. slope". V i e r e c k (1966) described the e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l stages of the Muldrow G l a c i e r outwash of Alaska as being dominated by Dryas drummondii and D. i n t e g r i f o l i a . At t h i s s i t e , above the r e g i o n a l t r e e l i n e , there was v i r t u a l l y no snow accumulation during the winter due to the r a t h e r severe winds. Also o c c u r r i n g w i t h Dryas were legumes of the genera A s t r a g a l u s , Hedysarum and O x y t r o p i s , w i t h rare occurrences of S a l i x spp. Viereck suggested the Dryas stage to be s e r a i , succeeded s l o w l y by a shrub community through s e v e r a l stages. The Dryas mats r e p o r t e d l y showed a y e a r l y s i z e increment of 20 to 25 cm. S i m i l a r s u c c e s s i o n a l trends were reported by T i s d a l e et_ a l (1966) on lower e l e v a t i o n t e r m i n a l and r e c e s s i o n a l moraines of the Mount Robson area ( B r i t i s h Columbia). These s i t e s were dominated i n i t i a l l y by Dryas drummundii with Hedysarum mackenzie (a lower e l e v a t i o n analogue of H. alpinum). Due to the e l e v a t i o n , these communities succeeded e v e n t u a l l y to P i c e a englemannii. (Bryant and Scheinberg, 1970) reported Dryas hookeriana communities occurred on f r o s t patterned ground i n the Highwood Range of southwestern A l b e r t a . These communities formed the second of f i v e s u c c e s s i o n a l stages, terminating w i t h a Carex and l i c h e n ( C e t r a r i a c u c u l a t t a ) dominated stage. A c l i m a c t i c stage was not thought to occur as continued f r o s t a c t i v i t y 10 disrupted the deeper roo t i n g species such as Dryas and S i l e n e . Intense f r o s t a c t i o n was a l s o noted by Bamberg and Major (1968) i n the C o r d i l l e r a n Mountains of Montana. While not developing patterned ground, f r o s t a c t i o n , s o i l m o b i l i t y , r a p i d drainage and a calcareous parent m a t e r i a l contributed to a c l i m a c t i c community dominated by Dryas o c t o p e t a l a . Associated w i t h Dryas were Carex, S a l i x n i v a l i s , A s t r a g a l u s , Hedysarum and Oxytropis. I t i s evident from these s t u d i e s that Dryas, i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a l p i n e legumes and the mat-forming w i l l o w s , forms the dominant community on w e l l drained higher a l t i t u d e s i t e s , where the d u r a t i o n of winter snow i s short l i v e d . Dryas communities appear to develop e a r l y i n the succession and can be c l i m a c t i c . On S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock Mountains, i n the N.E. Coal Block, the most i n t e n s i v e a l p i n e pedogenesis takes place i n t h i s community. Where Dryas mats are w e l l developed, B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s occur, while the absence of Dryas g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h Regosolic soils''". Dryas and i t s companion legumes are l i k e l y not the s o l e p r o g e n i t o r s of t h i s development but the Dryas mats create a s u i t a b l e micro-habitat f o r other p l a n t s such as B i s t o r t e v i v i p a r a , Zagadenus elegans as w e l l as Cladonia and Stereocaulon l i c h e n s . This microhabitat promotes greater p l a n t growth and thus greater s o i l development. St r a t i g r a p h y and S o i l s The parent m a t e r i a l s which have provided the drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Dryas communities i n the N.E. Coal Block were derived from Mesozoic With the notable exception of G l e y s o l s , dominated by sedges, rushes and some grasses. 11 sediments. During the Cretaceous period an i n l a n d seaway l a y j u s t east of the current S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e . The c o a l deposits developed from c o a s t a l swamps along t h i s seaway, o r i g i n a t i n g from gingkos, cycads, f e r n s and c o n i f e r s . Changes i n the ground l e v e l due to epeirogeny r e s u l t e d i n a l t e r a t i o n s to t h i s c o a s t l i n e and p e r i o d i c a l l y permitted the d e p o s i t i o n of sand, s i l t and c l a y over the swamps. The source of these sediments was a high range of mountains, p a r a l l e l to and j u s t west of the present Rocky Mountains. Several c y c l e s of c o a s t l i n e changes r e s u l t e d i n f i v e organic l a y e r s of v a r y i n g thickness and separated by non-marine sediments. The organics developed i n t o c o a l and the sediments i n t o sandstone, conglomerate and shale rocks, as shown i n Figure 3 ( S t o t t , 1973). The parent m a t e r i a l f o r the plant c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , l o c a t e d 50 meters north of the c o a l conveyor embarkation, was a medium to f i n e grained sandstone. Shown i n Figure 4, the s i t e s o i l p r o f i l e i n d i c a t e s a l i m i t e d r o o t i n g depth of about 50 to 60 cm. At t h i s depth the bedrock i s consolidated to the point of r e s t r i c t i n g root p e n e t r a t i o n while p e r m i t t i n g water seepage. The l a t t e r aspect has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r promoting weathering at depth and has r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i a l l y weathered parent m a t e r i a l f o r s e v e r a l meters beyond the r o o t i n g depth. This can be c l e a r l y seen at numerous po i n t s on S h e r i f f Mountain during the course of road c o n s t r u c t i o n and overburden removal. Pedogenesis at the c o l l e c t i o n s i t e has proceeded beyond the Regosolic stage w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of organic matter i n a Bm h o r i z o n and the development of granular s t r u c t u r e . With the pH gr e a t e r than 5.5 (1:2 0.01M C a C l 2 ) t h i s i s an O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l . While d e t a i l e d s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d i n Chapter I I I , s u f f i c e to say at t h i s p o i n t , the s o i l on which the t e s t p l a n t s normally grow i s r a t h e r i n f e r t i l e . 12 Figure 3 S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n from S h e r i f f P i t Coal seams are designated by l e t t e r w i t h t h i c k n e s s i n meters; s i l t s t o n e occurs as t h i n s t r a t a i n the Gates Member but not e x t e n s i v e l y enough to appear at t h i s s c a l e . ( A f t e r Drawing No. 76-0647-R04, Quintette Coal L t d . , 1976.) LEGEND Sandstone...... Shale. Siltstone Conglomerate. Coal i Boulder Creek M Member Hulcross Member COMMOTION FORMATION D 2.6m-_ E 8 . 4 m — F 1.1m—• G 0.9nrv^ Gates Member J 8 . 9 m — 13 In V i ereck's study of the Muldrow G l a c i e r (1966) he reported 47% organic matter and 0.03% n i t r o g e n i n the mineral s o i l beneath the Dryas communities. This enrichment of the mineral s o i l (outward) was a t t r i b u t e d to Dryas, and to a l e s s e r extent the other p l a n t s of the f i r s t pioneer stage. The Hrapko and La Roi (1978) study reported no f r e e lime present on S i g n a l Mountain; both s a l t content and a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n (NO^) were very low. Phosphorus i n t h i s a l p i n e s e t t i n g was about 4 ppm while potassium was somewhat more v a r i a b l e , ranging from 14 to 319 ppm. Some v a r i a t i o n i n parent m a t e r i a l s may have r e s u l t e d i n t h i s potassium range. 14 The Growth Environment With the compounded e f f e c t s of wind exposure and temperature, the a l p i n e environment as a s i t e f o r plant growth i s r a t h e r harsh. In comparing such environments, B i l l i n g s (1974) has sta t e d t h a t a r c t i c p l a n t species become more numerous i n the mountain a l p i n e as one t r a v e l s north. The c o r o l l a r y to t h i s i s the a l p i n e environment becomes more ' a r c t i c - l i k e ' on approaching the north; Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , the high a l t i t u d e Dryas of the N.E. Coal Block, i s a l s o the Dryas of the a r c t i c tundra ( B l i s s , 1977), but not of the Jasper a l p i n e (Hrapko & LaRoi, 1978). The g e n e r a l l y c o o l , damp summers and harsh winters of the N.E. Coal Block a l p i n e o b v i o u s l y r e s t r i c t growth to only those species, such as D. i n t e g r i f o l i a , which are adapted to such an h a b i t a t . Moreover, the l i m i t e d supply of macronutrients, coupled w i t h f r o s t a c t i o n and s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y , f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e to the harsh nature of t h i s growth environment. For these reasons the success of a reclamation program at the S h e r i f f minesite w i l l r e s t upon the s e l e c t i o n of very hardy plant species. While grasses such as Festuca r u b r a , Calamagrostis  canadensis and A r c t a g r o s t i s l a t i f o l i a f i t t h i s requirement ( B l i s s , 1974; Seiner, 1975) they w i l l not provide f o r long term re c l a m a t i o n . Were such species the dominants i n the undisturbed a l p i n e communities, and capable of f u l f i l l i n g a pioneer r o l e , grasses would be the o n l y requirement f o r a reclamation program. However, the grasses do not comprise a high p r o p o r t i o n of the mesic and sub-mesic communities (Appendix I ) , though they do c o n s t i t u t e an important component i n pioneer communities on r e l a t i v e l y l e s s d i s t u r b e d s i t e s such as e x p l o r a t i o n roads (Meidinger, 1981). Reclamation success on a long term b a s i s must therefore inc l u d e p l a n t s not only s u i t e d to the environment but a l s o capable of succeeding grasses; i n short they must e s t a b l i s h a s u s t a i n i n g community. The most obvious p l a n t s to f i t t h i s requirement are native species. 15 Chapter Two Species S e l e c t i o n The current g u i d e l i n e s f o r reclamation of land d i s t u r b e d by c o a l mining ( M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources, 1982) s t i p u l a t e the a f t e r - u s e of the mined land must be equal to or b e t t e r than the pre-mining q u a l i t y . This q u a l i t y i s based upon the Canada Land Inventory (CLI) c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g system of e x c e l l e n t to poor on a s c a l e of one to seven. The g u i d e l i n e s f u r t h e r s t i p u l a t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g before and a f t e r use c a p a b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h the mining company. In the case of the S h e r i f f Mine, Quintette Coal L t d . has stated i n the Stage I I proposal that w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t w i l l have the highest c a p a b i l i t y f o r a f t e r - u s e i n the a l p i n e and krummholz vegetation zones. As a b a s e l i n e study, the B.C. Resource A n a l y s i s Branch (RAB) ( M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1977) c a r r i e d out two r e g i o n a l surveys of the N.E. Coal Block. The f i r s t study covered the "core" area of mine and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development w h i l e the second, published the f o l l o w i n g year, covered the southern s e c t i o n . U n l i k e the CLI which uses seven c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s e s f o r r a t i n g w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t the RAB uses a scale of one to three. Furthermore, only winter h a b i t a t i s c l a s s i f i e d since the authors f e e l t h i s i s the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n y e a r l y s u r v i v a l . The r a t i n g s c a l e uses c l a s s 1W to s i g n i f y the highest c a p a b i l i t y , c l a s s 2W f o r moderate and c l a s s 3W f o r low value. Since t h i s Is a r e g i o n a l survey, the three point s c a l e g i v e s a reasonable overview of h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n s but i s too general f o r a s p e c i f i c s i t e . For the S h e r i f f m i n e site the only h a b i t a t e v a l u a t i o n i s f o r Woodland Caribou (Rangifer  tarandus montanus Seton), Class 1W, and Mountain Goats (Qreamnos americana B l a i n v i l l e ) , Class 2W. Caribou h a b i t a t appears to have been evaluated on the 16 presence of ground l i c h e n s and sedges In the a l p i n e , while a r b o r e a l l i c h e n s and shrub presence was used f o r the subalpine. Goat h a b i t a t was rated on the presence of both a l p i n e ridge and rugged escape t e r r a i n . A more d e t a i l e d h a b i t a t a n a l y s i s f o r the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e appears i n Quintette's Stage I I r e p o r t . Again, t h i s s i t e i s rated as most important f o r winter use with the f o l l o w i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s : Caribou Class 4 winter use E l k Class 4 non-winter use Goats Class 4 non-winter use Moose Class 5 non-winter use L i m i t a t i o n s : excessive snow depth which reduces m o b i l i t y , poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of necessary landforms. The report uses the CLI r a t i n g system, i n which Class 4 has moderate l i m i t a t i o n s and Class 5 has moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s f o r use c a p a b i l i t y . The discrepancy i n c l a s s i f y i n g the Caribou h a b i t a t , o c c u r r i n g between the two r e p o r t s , i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n on the value of the undisturbed h a b i t a t . Such d i f f e r e n c e s a l s o occur i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s and veget a t i o n ( L a v k u l i c h , pers. comm., 1982; Ganders, pers. comm., 1981, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , due to the su b j e c t i v e nature of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. Nonetheless, w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i s the main before and a f t e r - u s e of the min e s i t e , r e q u i r i n g reclamation planning to r e - e s t a b l i s h such at a q u a l i t y equal to or b e t t e r than the pre-mining c o n d i t i o n . As the two major a l p i n e ungulates are Caribou and Goats (Cowan & Guiget, 1973), t h i s study has employed the forage requirements f o r these two species i n the p r e - s e l e c t i o n of a l p i n e p l a n t s f o r t e s t i n g . 17 W i l d l i f e Forage Requirements Cowan and Guiget describe the food requirements of the Mountain Goat as being considerably v a r i e d , consuming grasses and fo r b s i n the a l p i n e . This i s s i m i l a r to Kodiak I s l a n d and the Kenai P e n i n s u l a of A l a s k a , where the summer d i e t a r y preference concentrated on forbs ( H j e l j o r d , 1973). Saunders (1955) reported a r e l i a n c e on grasses, sedges and rushes (56% of d i e t ) i n the Crazy Mountains of Montana. The remaining p o r t i on of the summer d i e t c onsisted of forbs at 24% ( i n c l u d i n g Hedysarum s u l f u r e s c e n s ) and shrubs such as S a l i x spp. at 16%. During the f a l l , a g r e a t e r usage of grasses/sedges/rushes was noted. This usage decreased i n winter w i t h an emphasis on Oxytropis s e r i c e a and some c o n i f e r s . L i c h e n consumption occurred i n a l l seasons. In summarizing d i e t a r y requirements of the Mountain Goat, (Rideout and Hoffmann, 1975) reported s i m i l a r summer consumption. Winter d i e t s , however, appeared to vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , depending on l o c a t i o n and veget a t i o n present. The lower sodium content of l u s h s p r i n g v e g e t a t i o n was c i t e d as the reason f o r r e q u i r i n g a s a l t i n p u t , u s u a l l y from s a l t l i c k s ranging from 22 ppm to 5500 ppm sodium. These authors a l s o reported the Goats migrated to lower e l e v a t i o n s a f t e r the f i r s t heavy a l p i n e s n o w f a l l and remained at the lower e l e v a t i o n s u n t i l s p r i n g . High a l t i t u d e forage requirements are therefore g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to l a t e s p r i n g , summer and f a l l , though Goats w i l l u t i l i z e a l p i n e ridges that are c l e a r e d of snow i n the winter. Forage requirements f o r Caribou, however, are l e s s w e l l documented. Cowan and Guiget (1973) i n d i c a t e d a summer d i e t that was q u i t e s i m i l a r to that of the Goats. During the winter there i s a heavy r e l i a n c e on f o l i o s e l i c h e n s and some shrubs i n the a l p i n e , while a r b o r e a l l i c h e n s are important below the t i m b e r l i n e . The RAB report (1977) simply s t a t e s that ground 18 l i c h e n s and sedges form the bulk of the a l p i n e d i e t . A more comprehensive study was done on the S l a t e Islands of Lake Superior by Cringan (1957); during the summer there was a heavy dependence on f o r b s w i t h some consumption of l i c h e n s and shrubs, while a r b o r e a l l i c h e n s predominated i n the w i n t e r d i e t . The obvious problem f o r a l p i n e reclamation imposed by the consumption of l i c h e n s i s the t o t a l l a c k of p r a c t i c a l experience w i t h promoting t h e i r growth. Nonetheless, the a l p i n e l i c h e n s s t r o n g l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the occurence of the Dryas mats (Appendix I) and can be encouraged to grow by e s t a b l i s h i n g Dryas. This may be p o s s i b l e during the l a t e r stages of reclamation, as discussed i n Chapter Four, below, but u n t i l such time the f r u t i c o s e l i c h e n s w i l l l i k e l y be scarce. Mine S p o i l s as a Growth Medium Shown i n Figure 3, above, are the two main types of overburden that can become the s u r f i c i a l c o a l mine s p o i l a f t e r mining, namely sandstone and shale ( c l a y s t o n e ) . Of these two, the sandstone has the lowest content of c l a y and f e l d s p a r which w i l l release plant n u t r i e n t s upon weathering ( G a r r e l s & Mackenzie, 1971). Moreover, the ra t e at which sandstone w i l l weather i s slower than shale ( B i r k e l a n d , 1974; P o t t e r et a l , 1980), i n d i c a t i n g sandstone as a poor s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l f o r promoting r e c l a m a t i o n success. This has been recognized i n Quintette's Stage I I r e p o r t . Foscolos and S t o t t (1975), analyzed shale from the Commotion Formation (Wolverine Ridge, north of Wolverine R i v e r ) , r e p o r t i n g a predominance of i l l i t e c l a y . The normative value f o r i l l i t e c o n s i s t s of about 78% oxides of s i l i c o n and aluminum ( i n the c l a y l a t t i c e ) w i t h small q u a n t i t i e s of i r o n , magnesium, calcium and potassium oxides (Degens, 1965). As i l l i t e weathers, potassium i n p a r t i c u l a r i s replaced by water and becomes a v a i l a b l e f o r plant 19 growth ( B i r k e l a n d , 1974). The small percentage of organic matter present i n sedimentary deposits a l s o contains plant growth n u t r i e n t s . More than 95% of the organic matter i s composed of the high molecular weight aromatic compound kerogen; i n shale the kerogen i s composed of about 81% carbon, 7% hydrogen, 10% oxygen and 2% n i t r o g e n (Degens, 1965). The l a t t e r , of course, i s a macronutrient required f o r plant growth. Of the other two macronutrients required, potassium Is made a v a i l a b l e from i l l i t e weathering, however the source of phosphorus i n sediments i s so l i m i t e d that i t i s not reported i n s p e c i f i c shale analyses (Foscolos & S t o t t , 1975) or normative shale values (Degens, 1965). I t i s therefore q u i t e l i k e l y that phosphorus may be the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n plant growth on sediments such as s h a l e . Another source of nit r o g e n i n shales occurs as ammonium, f i x e d w i t h i n the c l a y l a t t i c e (Stevenson, 1959). In gray calcareous shales of a Pennsylvanian c o a l mine, the t o t a l percent n i t r o g e n ranged from 0.12% to 0.21% w i t h a mean of 0.17% or 1700 ppm by K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s (Cornwall & Stone, 1968). Shale from the Seneca Mine i n Colorado (2011 m e l e v a t i o n ) was reported to c o n t a i n 1112 ppm t o t a l n i t r o g e n , a l s o by the K j e l d a h l method, wi t h 1 ppm sodium bicarbonate e x t r a c t a b l e phosphorus. Incubation of t h i s shale showed m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and subsequent n i t r i f i c a t i o n were very l i m i t e d i n one season (Reeder & Berg, 1977). Power et_ a l (1974) pointed out, however, that K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s may i n d i c a t e only a t h i r d of the f i x e d ammonium; d e s t r u c t i o n of the c l a y l a t t i c e by h y d r o f l u o r i c a c i d w i l l r e lease the remaining ammonium. While a l e s s d r a s t i c form of d e s t r u c t i o n , a c i d mine drainage from the o x i d a t i o n of p y r i t e s i n shale w i l l c o n s i d e r a b l y enhance the rate of shale weathering and the subsequent release of n i t r o g e n (Cornwell & Stone, 1968). As i n d i c a t e d by these authors, " s p o i l s c o n t a i n i n g l i t t l e o x i d i z a b l e sulphur, or having a high r a t i o of cal c i u m and magnesium to 20 sulphur, do not undergo much s i l i c a t e d e s t r u c t i o n , and may t h e r e f o r e release l i t t l e n i t r o g e n , r e g a r dless of t o t a l content or form". Since the Commotion sediments are low i n sulphur (Foscolos & S t o t t , 1975), t h i s problem i s a p p l i c a b l e ; the a n t i c i p a t e d release of n i t r o g e n from the S h e r i f f mine s p o i l s can thus be expectedly slow. For t h i s reason the s e l e c t i o n of n i t r o g e n f i x e r s from among the n a t i v e species w i l l need to be considered. The C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n Perhaps the g r e a t e s t drawback to the employment of n a t i v e species i n reclamation i s the l a c k of p r a c t i c a l knowledge of propagation methods (Ziemkiewicz et a l , 1978). For t h i s reason, the ease of propagation must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s e l e c t i n g n a t i v e species f o r t e s t i n g . In some cases t h i s w i l l e n t a i l some e x t r a p o l a t i o n from known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the Family taxonomic l e v e l , such as the hard seed coat problem encountered i n some of the Rosaceae. Other nativ e species have c l o s e l y a l l i e d species of the same genera used i n a l p i n e gardens, w i t h t h e i r propagation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reported i n the various trade j o u r n a l s . However f o r the m a j o r i t y of species encountered i n the N.E. Coal Block a l p i n e , there i s l i t t l e or no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . This n e c e s s i t a t e s propagation t e s t i n g f o r seed s t r a t i f i c a t i o n requirements, the success of c u t t i n g s and so f o r t h , as has been done to a l i m i t e d extent i n t h i s study (Appendix V). Several authors have addressed themselves toward the s e l e c t i o n of plant species f o r reclamation purposes. In B r i t a i n , Whyte and Sisam (1949) suggested the f o l l o w i n g : 1) r a p i d development 2) low n u t r i e n t requirement 3) heavy l i t t e r production 21 4) t o x i c m a t e r i a l s r e s i s t a n c e 5) n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n a b i l i t y 6) pioneer species* S i m i l a r c r i t e r i a were reported by Ziemkiewicz et a l (1978) f o r reclamation p l a n t s used on various A l b e r t a p r o j e c t s : 1) a v a i l a b i l i t y of seed 2) c o l d hardiness 3) s a l t t o l e r a n c e 4) competitive a b i l i t y 5) drought hardiness 6) low n u t r i e n t requirements 7) provide a balance of r o o t i n g h a b i t 8) able to f i x n i t r o g e n 9) provide quick ground cover-In western Canada, Mains (1977) promoted the employment of na t i v e species f o r a l p i n e reclamation, as they are a c c l i m a t i z e d to s i t e c o n d i t i o n s and mineral c y c l e s . A s i m i l a r point of view has been promoted by B e l l and Meidinger (1977) f o r the N.E. Coal Block. For high a l t i t u d e mine reclamation i n Colorado, Brown et^ al_ (1978) l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1) low growth form 2) drought r e s i s t a n t 3) able to reproduce 4) grow at low temperatures. In viewing such c r i t e r i a i t becomes evident that each author i s Influenced by unique s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . Where one reclamation s i t e requires s a l t tolerance or r e s i s t a n c e to t o x i c m a t e r i a l s , another s i t e needs plants adapted to the harsh growing c o n d i t i o n s of the a l p i n e . Nonetheless, 22 s i m i l a r i t i e s i n requirements are apparent and g e n e r a l l y recognize the reclamation s i t e as unfavorable f o r p l a n t growth wherever i t occurs. Drawing from these s i m i l a r i t i e s , as w e l l as from the s i t e c o n s t r a i n t s of the S h e r i f f minesite, the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were used to p r e s e l e c t species f o r t h i s study: 1) able to f u n c t i o n as a pioneer species 2) e a s i l y propagated 3) grow f a s t and/or develop extensive roots 4) c o l d hardness and drought r e s i s t a n c e 5) f i x atmospheric n i t r o g e n 6) provide w i l d l i f e forage The c r i t e r i a are l i s t e d i n the order of importance, though very few p l a n t s are l i k e l y to meet them a l l . Instead, prospective species should meet the f i r s t three c r i t e r i a and e i t h e r of the l a s t two. I t i s a l s o recognized that t h i s l i s t of c r i t e r i a w i l l l i k e l y exclude some p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l species. This i s p a r t i a l l y i n t e n t i o n a l ; i n order to l i m i t the scope of t h i s study to a manageable s i z e , only those species which best f i t c u r r e n t l y evident requirements were chosen. P r a c t i c a l experience on s i t e a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y modify these c r i t e r i a , p e r m i t t i n g other species excluded by t h i s study to be incorporated i n t o the reclamation program. Selected Species^" Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a V a h l . : Though not a species u t i l i z e d as w i l d l i f e forage, Dryas has been recognized as a pioneer species on outwash g r a v e l s (Viereck, 1966) and a climax species on a l p i n e colluvium (Hrapko & LaRoi, 1978). I t 23 w i l l f i x atmospheric n i t r o g e n (Lawrence e_t a l , 1967) and forms extensive mats that provide e r o s i o n c o n t r o l . Reported growth increments (V i e r e c k , 1966) i n d i c a t e i t w i l l spread about 20 to 25 cm annually. While not being d i r e c t l y consumed by w i l d l i f e , i t i s evident from the f i e l d survey done i n t h i s report (Appendix I ) that f o l i o s e l i c h e n s ( u t i l i z e d by Caribou) grow i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Dryas. Propagation from seed i s reported as slow and u n c e r t a i n , while c u t t i n g s taken l a t e i n the summer are more productive (Lowe, 1967; Deno, 1977; L y s t e r , 1978). S a l i x a r c t i c a P a l l a s : The major reason f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s species i s i t s value as w i l d l i f e forage. As a foragable shrub i t w i l l be g e n e r a l l y higher i n percent phosphorus, carotene ( v i t a m i n A precursor) and percent d i g e s t i b l e p r o t e i n than forbs and grasses, while lower i n d i g e s t i b l e energy (Johnston, et a l , 1968; Cook, 1971). S a l i x i n general i s e a s i l y propagated from c u t t i n g s (Hartmann & Kester, 1975). This species has not been reported as a s i g n i f i c a n t pioneer, however i t does occur w i t h Dryas ( T i s d a l e ejt a l , 1966; V i e r i c k , 1966; B a r r e t t & Schulten, 1975); Hrapko & LaR o i , 1978). S a l i x  a r c t i c a forms extensive root systems i n the N.E. Coal Block, as observed during the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n stage of t h i s study. Hedysarum alpinum L.: While t h i s species has not been reported to be u t i l i z e d by w i l d l i f e ( a l p i n e ungulates), c l o s e l y r e l a t e d Hedysarum  sulfurescens i s consumed (Saunders, 1955). The g r e a t e s t advantage of t h i s a l p i n e legume i s i t s a b i l i t y to f i x n i t r o g e n . The root system of H. alpinum Voucher specimens are deposited i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Herbarium. 24 inv o l v e s very long taproots extending down to bedrock w i t h a very f i n e and copious root system j u s t below the s o i l surface ( p e r s o n a l observation, S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e ) . As w i t h S a l i x a r c t i c a , H. alpinum occurs w i t h Dryas  i n t e g r i f o l i a . Oxytropis podocarpa Gray & (). s e r i c e a Nutt.: As i n the case of Hedysarum, these two legumes w i l l f i x atmospheric n i t r o g e n . 0. s e r i c e a i s a l s o an important component i n the winter d i e t of Montana Mountain Goats (Saunders, 1955). The root systems of both species are s i m i l a r to H. alpinum but have l e s s extensive t a p r o o t s . Propagation of a l l legumes t e s t e d can be accomplished by seed (Appendix V). 0. s e r i c e a i s a l s o known as 0. s p i c a t a . 25 Chapter Three Experimental Design and Results With t h e i r a daptation to a harsh growing environment, the n a t i v e species of the a l p i n e ridge community should be able to grow under the e q u a l l y harsh c o n d i t i o n s of mine s p o i l s . The hypothesis of t h i s study concerns the a b i l i t y of n a t i v e species to grow on shale as the most f e r t i l e and most e a s i l y weathered of p o t e n t i a l c o a l s p o i l s . To t e s t t h i s hypothesis, mature p l a n t s were grown on crushed shale during one growth season; the c o n t r o l c o n s i s t e d of the mineral s o i l (Bm horizon) from the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . Evidence of s i g n i f i c a n t growth d i f f e r e n c e s between the two media, was measured by above-ground biomass production. Such measurements were subjected to s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis t e s t i n g f o r r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis ( d i f f e r e n c e s due to 'chance'). S o i l analyses were done conc u r r e n t l y to determine the a v a i l a b i l i t y of n u t r i e n t s f o r p l a n t growth. In the design and execution of t h i s procedure three assumptions were made and should be examined at t h i s p o i n t : 1) Since s i t e c o n d i t i o n s p r o h i b i t e d the establishment of t e s t p l o t s , i t was necessary to r e s o r t to a pot study. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the a b i l i t y of the t e s t p l a n t s to grow on the s i t e i s not q u e s t i o n a b l e , however i t i s not known whether they would e s t a b l i s h and grow on c o a l s p o i l . Since only the e f f e c t of growth medium was to be t e s t e d , the use of pots was deemed adequate. This assumption was a l s o employed by McFee et a l (1981) on a s i m i l a r pot study. 2) Shale i s the ' i d e a l ' overburden l a y e r to become the top of the s p o i l yet i t does not predominate i n the overburden. Furthermore, Stage I I reclamation plans i n d i c a t e that " t o p s o i l " from the s i t e w i l l be s t o c k p i l e d 26 and placed on top of the s p o i l . With r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t o p s o i l a v a i l a b l e i t w i l l need to be spread q u i t e t h i n l y (or used only on the most adverse s i t e s ) , a l l owing a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e of the s p o i l as a secondary parent m a t e r i a l . As shale has been recognized i n t h i s report as the best s e l e c t i o n f o r s u r f a c i n g the s p o i l , the assumption was made that such a m a t e r i a l would play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e In long term reclamation success. 3) In the r o l e as a p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g procedure, t h i s study w i l l be superseded by s i t e t e s t s and i t s methods must be a p p l i c a b l e to both c o n d i t i o n s . While f o l i a r a n a l y s i s f o r macro- and m i c r o n u t r i e n t s would also have y i e l d e d the necessary data (Munshower & Neuman, 1980), the f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l support may not be a v a i l a b l e during s i t e t e s t s . Plant and S o i l C o l l e c t i o n Both t e s t p l a n t s and growth media were c o l l e c t e d from the south side of the S h e r i f f minesite between May 5 and 10, 1982. Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , along with the other four species, was c o l l e c t e d on a small k n o l l immediately north of the embarkation point f o r the conveyer b e l t . At the time only the south to west f a c i n g r i d g e s were snowfree and f r o z e n ground extended down from the base of the LFH s o i l h o r i z o n . Dryas was c o l l e c t e d by l i f t i n g l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the mat, pruning away woody stems and breaking o f f p o r t i o n s of the mat. These p o r t i o n s were approximately 6 to 10 cm i n diameter; an attempt was made to acquire a uniform fragment s i z e . The fragments were then placed i n p l a s t i c bags (c a . 8 l i t r e c a p a c i t y ) and i n t e r - l a y e r e d w i t h wet moss. S a l i x a r c t i c a was acquired by c u t t i n g a 10 cm p o r t i o n of root and i n c l u d i n g at l e a s t one branch w i t h pre-formed buds. Again, an attempt was made to acquire a standard s i z e c u t t i n g but, as i n a l l c o l l e c t e d species, some s i z e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d . A l l species were packed i n the same manner as 27 Dryas. Hedysarum alpinum was severed from i t s taproot at the m i n e r a l s o i l s urface, w h i l e the f i n e root system r e t a i n e d part of the LFH l a y e r when l i f t e d . Having much shorter taproots, both Oxytropis species were l i f t e d w i t h most of the taproot i f i t d i d not penetrate more than about 10 cm. A f t e r bagging, the plants were covered w i t h snow and transported to Dawson Creek by t r u c k . Shipment to Vancouver was v i a a i r f r e i g h t . M i n e r a l s o i l (top 10 cm Bm horizon) was obtained on the north side of the c o l l e c t i o n s i t e and was loaded d i r e c t l y i n t o c l e a n c o a l sample b a r r e l s (see Figure 4 ) . The s o i l , a l s o r e f e r r e d to h e r e i n as c o l l u v i u m , was moist but not wet when c o l l e c t e d . Shale was acquired from the rock face exposed by road b u i l d i n g , j u s t above the " J " c o a l seam. This zone of rock appeared to be s l i g h t l y weathered as i r o n oxide deposits were noted on crack f a c e s . The amount of p a r t i a l l y weathered shale was minimized by c o l l e c t i n g l a r g e pieces; because the shale was representing new c o a l mining s p o i l s i t was necessary to u t i l i z e unweathered m a t e r i a l . The shale was c o n t a i n e r i z e d i n the same manner as the c o l l u v i u m and both were shipped by truck to Vancouver. Plant and S o i l P r e p a r a t i o n While no p r e p a r a t i o n of c o l l u v i u m was r e q u i r e d before p o t t i n g the p l a n t s , i t was necessary to break down the pieces of s h a l e . This was accomplished with a small Jaw-Crusher, o r d i n a r i l y used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of rock samples f o r chemical a n a l y s i s . The s i z e range f o r both shale and c o l l u v i u m Is shown i n Figure 5. 28 Figure 4 S o i l s P r o f i l e , Plant C o l l e c t i o n S i t e Located on the north side of the conveyor embarkation, S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e ; an O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l (Can. System S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 1978). ^ , , . i t , _ 3 c m L F H Bm Horizon I 18 cm C Horizon 51cm 1 R Horizon ure 5 P a r t i c l e Size Comparison of Crushed Shale and Colluvium Mean of three samples f o r each composite growth medium. % Total Weight 100-80-60-40-20-shale colluvium 2 1 .25<25 2 1 .25 <25 Sieve size (mm) 30 Pl a n t s were prepared f o r p o t t i n g by gently washing the roots i n water to remove remnants of s o i l . Removing mineral s o i l was r e l a t i v e l y easy but where the organic LFH s t i l l adhered to the f i n e roots i t was not p o s s i b l e to wash t h i s o f f without removing a l l f i n e r o o t s . With Dryas and Hedysarum t h i s was such a problem that very l i t t l e of the w e l l decomposed organic matter could be removed. Not only d i d the roots hold the organic m a t e r i a l together but fungal hyphae abounded i n t h i s m a t e r i a l , exascebating the problem. Both species of Ox y t r o p i s , as w e l l as S a l i x , were completely bare-root when planted. There was a two day l a g between p o t t i n g p l a n t s on the c o l l u v i u m and shale due to problems i n a t t a i n i n g access to a Jaw-Crusher. A f t e r p o t t i n g (5 inch/13 cm standard pots) a l l p l a n t s were placed under i n t e r m i t t e n t mist i n the greenhouse, where they remained f o r twelve days (10 days f o r those plants on s h a l e ) . S a l i x was pruned back during the f i r s t day s i n c e bud f l u s h was proceding root development; much of the second f l u s h was produced from pre-formed i n i t i a l s under the bark. With the exception of Oxytropis podocarpa no f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d to any p l a n t s . Following the r o o t i n g period under m i s t , a l l p l a n t s were transported to an outdoor shade frame, constructed i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to a f l a t topped cold frame. Shade was provided by three l a y e r s of gray p l a s t i c window screen, each l a y e r mounted on a wooden frame. Wood chips covered the f l o o r of the frame, a l l o w i n g f o r water absorption and higher humidity i n the frame. P l a n t s were watered d a i l y to avoid water s t r e s s , u t i l i z i n g c i t y water. The frame was l o c a t e d to provide shade from adjacent t r e e s u n t i l a f t e r 10:30 a.m. (PDST, June 2); shade returned a f t e r 6:30 pm. The shade frames were completely removed i n stages, w i t h the f i n a l being taken o f f June 8; Oxytropis podocarpa continued to receive a s i n g l e l a y e r of shade frame f o r a f u r t h e r 20 days. The sides of the shade f rame (30—40 cm high) were l e f t i n place during the e n t i r e growth period to reduce any wind. 31 S o i l F e r t i l i t y A n a l y s i s To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the n u t r i e n t s t a t u s of both shales and coll u v i u m , analyses were c a r r i e d out with nine r e p l i c a t i o n s of each l i s t on each growth medium. As a g u i d e l i n e , the "Laboratory Methods Recommended f o r Chemical A n a l y s i s of Mined-Land S p o i l s and Overburden i n Western United States" were used (USDA, 1977). Some of the suggested t e s t s were ina p p r o p r i a t e due to the i n a v a i l a b l l i t y of equipment, q u a n t i t i e s required or d i f f e r e n c e s i n composition of the shale, i n which case the "Methods Manual, Pedology Laboratory" ( L a v k u l i c h , 1978) was employed. Both methodologies r e l y h e a v i l y on Black (1965). Tests and methods used are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I , below. Table I A n a l y s i s Methods Used f o r F e r t i l i t y A n a l y s i s Method Source pH pH S a l t concentration CaC03 equivalent Gypsum ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) T o t a l Nitrogen Phosphorus ( a v a i l a b l e ) Sulphate Cation Exchange Capacity Basic Cations T o t a l Carbon % Iron & Aluminum 1:1 Water 1:2 0.01M C a C l 2 E l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y Gravimetric P r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h acetone Semi Micro K j e l d a h l Bray's PI T u r b i d i t y Ammonium acetate & Atomic Absorption Leco A n a l y s i s Sodium Pyrophosphate E x t r a c t i o n USDA, 1977 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 USDA, 1977 Black, 1965 USDA, 1977 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 USDA, 1977 Foscolos & Barefoot, 1970; L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s both shale and c o l l u v i u m were a i r d r i e d and screened; only the f r a c t i o n l e s s than 2 mm was u t i l i z e d ( L a v k u l i c h , 1978). 32 Measurement of Biomass Production At the end of the growth season, evident by the c e s s a t i o n of growth and change i n l e a f c o l o r , the plants were removed from the pots. Biomass ( l e a v e s , stems, f r u i t s , roots) produced during the current growth season was removed by c l i p p i n g and bagged i n paper 'lunch bags'. Above ground biomass ('leaves') was bagged separately from below ground biomass ( ' r o o t s ' ) . The c l i p p i n g s were then d r i e d i n convectional ovens at 65 °C u n t i l a constant dry weight was obtained. Following d r y i n g , the c l i p p e d biomass f o r each p l a n t was weighed and recorded. For each species except Dryas t h i s meant 25 measurements f o r leaves and 25 f o r roots on each growth medium, minus the number of p l a n t s which died during the growth season or i n i t i a l l y f a i l e d to root. Drya is was reported by L y s t e r (1978) to t r a n s p l a n t p o o r l y , so 50 p l a n t s were used on each of the two growth media, y i e l d i n g more than 25 l e a f measurements per medium. Root measurements were considered to be inaccurate as no f e a s i b l e means of separating s o i l from r o o t s was found (Nelson & Allmaras, 1969). This problem was most evident w i t h the f i n e roots which comprised the bulk of the season's growth. During the s e p a r a t i o n of s o i l and r o o t s , e i t h e r by gentle washing or manipulation, more than three quarters of the root t i p s were l o s t on a l l species (by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n ) . The root system of Dryas was composed almost e n t i r e l y of f i n e roots and t h e r e f o r e was not c l i p p e d . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the biomass weights was accomplished through the computer program "MIDAS, Elementary S t a t i s t i c s " , a v a i l a b l e on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia MTS system. This program was used to derive measurement parameters (minimum and maximum weight, mean and standard d e v i a t i o n ) as w e l l s t a t i s t i c a l inferences run on 'leaves' only. The l a t t e r involved hypothesis t e s t i n g by way of the Mann-Whitney "U" Test and Median 33 Test ; both t e s t s measured the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n populations In t h i s case shale and co l l u v i u m grown p l a n t s . While the "U" Test Is the more powerful of the two, i t s power i s diminished by t i e s i n ranked data, n e c e s s i t a t i n g the i n c l u s i o n of the Median Test which i s not a f f e c t e d by t h i s ( U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1976). The s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s of these t e s t s allowed f o r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis that growth d i f f e r e n c e s between shale and colluvium were due to chance. Results The p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the co l l u v i u m or c o n t r o l growth medium i s as f o l l o w s : a) Landform: r i d g e , upper slope, c o l l u v i u m . b) Er o s i o n : shedding, has been eroded i n the past to form stone s t r i p e s . c) Stoniness: e x c e s s i v e l y stoney. d) Rockiness: exceedingly rocky. e) S o i l water Regime: Mesic, moderately w e l l drained. f ) C o l o r : moist 2.5Y 2/1 y e l l o w i s h gray dry 2.5Y 5/1 black. g) S o i l t e x t u r e : g r a v e l l y , subangular rock 25%; 75% medium granular. h) M o t t l e s : None i ) S o i l S t r u c t u r e : weak, f i n e to medium g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e ; f r a c t i o n 2 mm = sandy loam. 1 The Histogram d i s p l a y , a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n MIDAS i n d i c a t e d the data to require non-parametric t e s t s . 34 j ) Consistence: s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , f r i a b l e , k) Roots: abundance of f i n e r o o t s i n LFH, more coarse roots i n Bm w i t h taproots passing through C to bedrock (50 - 65 cm). 1) Horizon Boundary: LFH to Bm = abrupt, Bm to C = c l e a r and wavy, ( a f t e r The Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1978). S o i l f e r t i l i t y analyses are shown i n Table I I . Table I I S o i l F e r t i l i t y Parameters Top 10 cm of mineral (Bm) horizon f o r Colluvium Test Shale Colluvium pH 1:1 water pH 1:2 0.01M Calcium c h l o r i d e Calcium carbonate equivalent Gypsum T o t a l Nitrogen Phosphorus (Bray's PI) Sulphate ( s o l u b l e ) Percent T o t a l Carbon Percent Organic Matter Percent I r o n Percent Aluminum 6.4 5.9 5.47% none 455 ppm 1.1 ppm l e s s than 2 ppm 5.29% 9.10% 0.029% 0.194% 6.2 5.5 0.35% none 1203 ppm 2.5 ppm l e s s than 2 ppm 10.46% 18.03% 0.104% 0.142% Basic Cations Cation Exchange Na Mg K Ca Capacity (meq /100g) Shale 0.28 3.04 0.28 8.05 7.43 Colluvium 0.0055 2.5 0.12 11.5 24.99 35 Surface temperatures of both shale and co l l u v i u m i n the pots are I l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 6. These temperatures were recorded on a c l e a r day and d i s p l a y the lower albedo of the dark gray shale over the dark brown c o l l u v i u m . Plant growth response to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth media are shown i n Table I I I . Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a was the only species to have a s i g n i f i c a n t response to shale as compared to colluvium. ure 6 Pot Temperatures A comparison of temperatures i n pots c o n t a i n i n g shale and collu v i u m ; measured at a depth of one c e n t i m e t S from the surface, during a one day period; weather was c l e a r w i t h 0/10 cloud cover. wxu AS 35 25J 15J Z/ V ambient 0900 1200 1500 TIME (days) 1800 37 Table I I I Growth Response to Unamended Shale and Colluvium as a Growth Media Species Dry Weight Leaves (g) Po p u l a t i o n S i m i l a r i t y Mann-Whitney Median Test M i n i - Maxi- Std. S i g n i f i c a n c e S i g n i f i c a n c e mum mum Mean D e v i a t i o n L e v e l L e v e l S 0.14 1.1 0.52 0.26 S a l i x a r c t i c a C 0.15 1.2 0.60 0.30 0.4529 0.5231 Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a C 0.06 0.84 0.34 0.19 0.05 1.3 0.61 0.35 0.0002 0.0027 Hedysarum  alpinum S 0.025 1.5 0.66 0.36 C 0.21 1.6 0.73 0.43 0.9152 0.3306 Oxytropis s e r i c e a 0.30 4.6 1.64 0.95 0.56 3.7 1.97 0.91 0.8797 0.1528 Oxytropis  podocarpa 0.22 1.2 0.71 0.33 C 0.11 1.3 0.68 0.40 0.8797 0.3281 S C Shale col l u v i u m H r d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth due to chance; r e j e c t i o n l e v e l s = 0.01 H\ d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth due to growth medium. 38 The number of p l a n t s which s u c c e s s f u l l y rooted and grew to the end of the growth season are shown I n Table IV. Table IV Number of Plants Used In T e s t i n g the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Growth Medium Species Number of P l a n t Shale Colluvium S a l i x a r c t i c a  Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a  Hedysarum alpinum  Oxytropis s p i c a t a  Oxytropis podocarpa 19 45 23 24 10 23 45 24 23 10 The raw data f o r biomass measurements can be found i n Appendix IV, while raw data on s o i l a n a l y s i s appears i n Appendix I I . By mid-June only seven of the legumes had flowered (4 Hedysarum  alpinum, 3 Oxytropis s e r i c e a ) w i t h no preference f o r e i t h e r growth medium. The most s i g n i f i c a n t growth of a l l species, a f t e r removal from the greenhouse, was evident during c o o l and r a i n y weather. During a period of hot, dry weather i n June a l l l e a f and shoot growth ceased. Water s t r e s s occurred i n a d v e r t e n t l y on S a l i x and Oxytropis s e r i c e a during t h i s period (June 11); Oxytropis w i l t e d but recovered w i t h watering, while S a l i x showed more permanent damage. Tip burning was noticed on very few leaves of S a l i x 39 grown on c o l l u v i u m , however, those p l a n t s on shale showed the d e s t r u c t i o n of whole shoots. Of the s i x S a l i x on shale which d i e d , f i v e of these expired s h o r t l y a f t e r the p e r i o d of water s t r e s s . Root growth of a l l species was c o n s i s t e n t l y more extensive on colluvium than shale; root b a l l s were l a r g e r and c o n s i s t e d of more f i n e t i p s than were present on shale. M y c o r r h i z a l root t i p development on Dryas was much greater w i t h c o l l u v i u m than with shale, though no p l a n t s were missing such root t i p s . No n i t r o g e n f i x i n g nodules were seen on e i t h e r p o p u l a t i o n of Dryas, however, nodula t i o n was observed at the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s i t e . Nodulation on the legumes was s l i g h t l y more extensive on c o l l u v i u m , though t h i s may have been due to the greater number of r o o t s present on t h i s medium. I n t e r v e i n a l l e a f c h l o r o s i s developed on the o l d e r leaves of Hedysarum alpinum i n e a r l y August. This was most n o t i c e a b l e w i t h c o l l u v i u m , since the p l a n t s on shale had a greater p r o p o r t i o n of younger leaves. Oxytropis podocarpa received a l i q u i d s t a r t e r f e r t i l i z e r (10-15-10) to enhance r o o t i n g . A f t e r removal from the greenhouse, t h i s species began to d i e ; w i t h very l i t t l e root development showing on those that had d i e d , i t was evident the remaining plants required a s s i s t a n c e . The q u a n t i t y of f e r t i l i z e r (150 ppm P 2°5^ added amounted to 2.7 x 10~ 5 kg per pot. On a f i e l d b a s i s t h i s would be about 24 kg/ha P2^5 broadcast. Though some p l a n t s died a f t e r the f e r t i l i z e r treatment, ten p l a n t s on shale and ten on colluvium were salvaged. E l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y on both shale and c o l l u v i u m were too low to produce s a l t - i n d u c e d t i p burning. S o i l surface area of a 5-inch (13 cm) standard pot i s about 1.13 x 10 ^ ha; t h i s was used to d e r i v e the f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e . 40 Chapter Four Summary and Conclusion On the b a s i s of above ground biomass there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t growth d i f f e r e n c e between shale and colluvium f o r S a l i x a r c t i c a , Hedysarum alpinum or Oxytropis s e r i c e a and i n these species the n u l l hypothesis must be accepted. With the use of f e r t i l i z e r on Oxytropis podocarpa, t h i s species must be excluded from the t e s t r e s u l t s , even though i t was not i n h i b i t e d when growing on s h a l e . Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , by c o n t r a s t , showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y depressed growth response to shale. On t h i s medium the p l a n t s had a lower mean and maximum weight, i n d i c a t i n g growth l i m i t a t i o n s may be present on shale as a s p o i l m a t e r i a l . Though Viereck (1966) described Dryas as a pioneer species on a l p i n e outwash, i t would appear from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study that Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a may not be an i n i t i a l c o l o n i z e r . Such a r o l e i n the Northeast Coal Block a l p i n e appears to Involve p r i m a r i l y grasses, though t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was derived from d i s t u r b e d s u r f i c i a l d e posits (Meidinger, 1981). Applying successional tendencies on weathered s u r f i c i a l d eposits to unweathered shale should be done with c a u t i o n . In the case of Dryas, however, i t seems l i k e l y t h i s species supersedes an i n i t i a l c o l o n i z i n g stage since i t shows a preference f o r weathered growth medium. In a l l tested species r e s u l t s obtained p e r t a i n to normal S h e r i f f m i n esite growth c o n d i t i o n s where water i s not l i m i t e d during the growth season. As a growth medium, unweathered shale has about h a l f the t o t a l n i t r o g e n , phosphorus and organic matter of the surface m i n e r a l s o i l ( c o l l u v i u m or Bm h o r i z o n ) . The granular s t r u c t u r e and s l i g h t s t i c k i n e s s i n d i c a t e the a d d i t i o n s of organic matter and c l a y i n the weathering of the parent m a t e r i a l and development of s o i l . The c l a y and organic matter content a l s o enhances the c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y or CEC ( B i r k e l a n d , 1974); with the 41 CEC of the c o l l u v i u m g r e a t e r than that of the shale, the c o l l u v i u m i s able to hold onto more c a t i o n i c n u t r i e n t s than shale. The CEC value f o r shale i s probably low s i n c e the sum of basic c a t i o n s (meg/100 g) i s g r e a t e r than the CEC. Foscolos & S t o t t (1975) report CEC values f o r marine shale i n the Wolverine R i v e r area (N.E. Coal Block) between 11 and 12 meg/100 g, and s i m i l a r values f o r shale c o l l e c t e d elsewhere i n the Rocky Mountain (Peace Riv e r ) region. Given the same amount of time f o r weathering as has been a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o l l u v i u m , the c l a y - r i c h shale would produce a higher CEC than the sandstone derived colluvium. At present, though, the n u t r i e n t holding c a p a c i t y of shale and the amount of n u t r i e n t s a v a i l a b l e i s rather l i m i t e d . This i s f u r t h e r evidenced i n the s i z e of root b a l l s on S a l i x  a r c t i c a , Hedysarum alpinum and Oxytropis s e r i c e a . While not showing a s i g n i f i c a n t above ground response t o the growth media d i f f e r e n c e s , root development was n o t i c e a b l y enhanced i n the higher n u t r i e n t s t a t u s c o l l u v i u m ; root development i n both media, however, extended t o the l i m i t s of the pots. I t would appear that even the small d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y between the two growth media have an important impact on f i n e root development. The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o n - s i t e use of f e r t i l i z e r suggest small a d d i t i o n s could be a l l that i s r e q u i r e d . The 24 kg/ha P 2 0 5 (15% a n a l y s i s ) a p p l i e d to Oxytropis podocarpa had a very d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on promoting f i n e root growth. Moreover, root samples from a l l s p e c i e s , taken at the m i n e s i t e , showed a very close a s s o c i a t i o n of f u n g a l hyphae. The i m p l i c a t i o n I s that m y c o r r h i z a l a s s o c i a t i o n s could be a very important component i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of n u t r i e n t s by the n a t i v e species. S a l i x  a r c t i c a root samples from the s i t e showed root t i p development t y p i c a l of ectomycorrhizae, as d i d Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a on both s i t e and potted p l a n t s . Since mycorrhizae on legumes have been shown to be i n h i b i t e d by i n c r e a s i n g 42 l e v e l s of phosphorus f e r t i l i z e r (Kucey & P a u l , 1980), f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n s of f e r t i l i z e r should be kept to a minimum i f employing n a t i v e p l a n t s . Since whole plant p o r t i o n s were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study the p o s s i b i l i t y of stored reserves c a r r y i n g the p l a n t s through the season must be addressed. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the plant fragments acquired f o r t h i s study i n v o l v e d severe pruning of the root system where most of the a l p i n e p l a n t biomass occurs. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true of Hedysarum alpinum, where about 10% or l e s s of the t o t a l taproot was acquired. With S a l i x a r c t i c a the i n i t i a l bud f l u s h was pruned completely so i t would not preceed root growth, r e q u i r i n g an even greater d r a i n on stored reserves from the previous growing season. Tieszen et_ a l (1980) have i n d i c a t e d that f l o w e r i n g of a r c t i c p l a n t s (eg. S a l i x a r c t i c a , Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a ) i s dependent upon the r e a l l o c a t i o n s of stored reserves. Had reserves been adequate to c a r r y these p l a n t s through the growth season they should a l s o have been adequate t o promote f l o w i n g . Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a was a l s o c o l l e c t e d w i t h a small amount of LFH which could not be separated by washing. Had t h i s a d d i t i o n a l n u t r i e n t source been s u f f i c i e n t t o c a r r y the plant through the season, there would have been no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n growth between the two growth media. This was not the case, however as Dryas was i n h i b i t e d by growing on shale when compared to c o l l u v i u m . The a b i l i t y of these growth media t o supply n u t r i e n t s c l e a r l y had an e f f e c t on plant growth. In employing S a l i x a r c t i c a on a l p i n e c o a l s p o i l s i n the N.E. Coal Block, water s t r e s s w i l l need t o be considered. This w i l l e s p e c i a l l y be true where dark colored s p o i l s l i k e shale are not covered by a l i g h t e r colored " t o p s o i l " . During normal weather years, w i t h c o o l wet summers, water s t r e s s w i l l not be a problem, while sunny and dry weather w i l l lead to l e a f d e s t r u c t i o n or even death of e n t i r e p l a n t s . Because of t h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y 43 t o drought, S a l i x a r c t i c a w i l l need to be employed i n depressions or other m i c r o - s i t e s where water i s ensured or some s h e l t e r i n g from d i r e c t s u n l i g h t i s a v a i l a b l e . The two t e s t species w i t h the l e a s t i n h i b i t i o n to growing on shale as a s p o i l m a t e r i a l are Hedysarum alpinum and Oxytropis s e r i c e a . The l a t t e r was planted as a bare root mature plant and showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n h i b i t i o n on shale. Hedysarum was planted w i t h a small c o l l a r of LFH remnant, held by f i n e roots and fungal hyphae, which could have imparted an i n i t i a l advantage a f t e r t r a n s p l a n t i n g . However, Dryas was t r a n s p l a n t e d w i t h a s i m i l a r amount of LFH remnant but i t s growth on shale was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n h i b i t e d . In view of such, i t appears the LFH remnant was not able to s u s t a i n growth during the e n t i r e growth p e r i o d . Hedysarum obviously was able t o root i n t o the shale and e x p l o i t i t s l i m i t e d n u t r i e n t supply; were t h i s not the case i t would have shown stunted growth compared t o the colluvium grown p l a n t s . The i n t e r v e i n a l c h l o r o s i s on the older leaves (Hedysarum) may have been due to a magnesium d e f i c i e n c y as Meidinger (1981) i n d i c a t e d magnesium t o be d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s area. The c h l o r o s i s may a l s o be an i n d i c a t i o n of senescence brought on by the t r a n s l o c a t i o n of elements as a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l c y c l i n g , as i n a r c t i c p l a nts ( B u n n e l l , 1980). Conclusions Of the f i v e n a t i v e species s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o ameliorate n u t r i e n t poor s o i l s , or provide w i l d l i f e forage, f o u r species were s e l e c t e d . One of the four s p e c i e s , Oxytropis podocarpa, t r a n s p l a n t e d poorly due to a l o s s of the f i n e root p o r t i o n of the root system. As t h i s species i s an important component i n the dry a l p i n e r i d g e s , i t i s tempting t o use i t on 44 p o t e n t i a l l y droughty p o t e n t i a l c o a l s p o i l s . However, i f 0_. podocarpa i s to be u t i l i z e d i t w i l l need to be planted w i t h the f i n e r o o t s i n t a c t ; t h i s might be avoided by s t a r t i n g p l a n t s from seed, though the percent germination i s low (Appendix V). Due t o the problems encountered w i t h (). podocarpa, t h i s species should probably be dropped from f i e l d t r i a l s . Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a was the only species of the f i v e that showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s growth on shale than c o l l u v i u m . For t h i s reason i t s immediate employment on a l p i n e s p o i l s i s not recommended. Nonetheless, i t i s the dominant species i n the climax community, I n a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f o l i o s e l i c h e n s . Because such l i c h e n s are important t o Caribou winter h a b i t a t , promotion of t h e i r growth can be accomplished by e s t a b l i s h i n g the micro-habitat provided by a Dryas mat. S u c c e s s f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n of Dryas appears to r e q u i r e a more weathered, higher n u t r i e n t s o i l . This i s not provided by unweathered shale, though " t o p s o i l " added on top may overcome t h i s problem. Dryas should l i k e l y be planted as a f i n a l stage i n reclamation f o l l o w i n g a build-up of organic matter and some weathering. While S a l i x a r c t i c a was not i n h i b i t e d by growing on sh a l e , i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o water s t r e s s w i l l l i m i t the type of s i t e s i t can be planted on. S a l i x w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to moist s i t e s and w i l l show considerable m o r t a l i t y i f planted as a rooted c u t t i n g during dry sunny weather. Water w i l l be l e s s of a problem with Hedysarum alpinum, however, i t does occupy moist h a b i t a t s on the undisturbed a l p i n e r i d g e s . This legume w i l l not be s u i t e d f o r very dry s i t e s where drainage i s e x c e s s i v e , and may require magnesium to be added t o the s o i l . I n t e r v e i n a l c h l o r o s i s , evident on the older leaves, was shown to occur on both shale and c o l l u v i u m . Oxytropis s e r i c e a a l s o a n i t r o g e n f i x i n g legume, showed no problems with t r a n s p l a n t i n g or water s t r e s s . Moreover, i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y 45 I n h i b i t e d by growing on shale and w i l l l i k e l y be the best of the f i v e species t e s t e d f o r p l a n t i n g i n an a l p i n e reclamation program. On the ba s i s of r e s u l t s shown i n t h i s study, the r a t i n g of s u i t a b i l i t y f o r using s e l e c t e d n a t i v e species i n a l p i n e reclamation i s as f o l l o w s : Oxytropis s e r i c e a Hedysarum alpinum S a l i x a r c t i c a (). podocarpa Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a This r a t i n g i s f o r mature bare-rooted plants and i s based on the a b i l i t y to su r v i v e the f o l l o w i n g : handling, t r a n s p l a n t i n g , a low n u t r i e n t growth medium, and l i m i t e d moisture d e f i c i e n c y . No one plant should be chosen, however, from t h i s group and u t i l i z e d i n a monoculture. As pointed out i n Chapter Two, very few na t i v e plant species w i l l meet a l l the c r i t e r i a of s o i l a m e l i o r a t i o n and w i l d l i f e forage requirements. Of the f i v e species t e s t e d , the best s e l e c t i o n s to meet these c r i t e r i a , and f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g on s i t e , are Oxytropis s e r i c e a , Hedysarum alpinum and S a l i x a r c t i c a . The f i r s t two w i l l add n i t r o g e n to the s p o i l through f i x a t i o n and perhaps form a p o r t i o n of the f o r b requirement of ungulate summer d i e t s . S a l i x w i l l promote s p o i l s t a b i l i t y through extensive r o o t i n g and summer forage f o r ungulates. Long term reclamation plans should probably i n c l u d e Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a i n a f i n a l p l a n t i n g stage. These species should not be viewed as complete replacements f o r s u c c e s s f u l agronomic species but r a t h e r as supplemental i n promoting the re t u r n of na t i v e v e g e t a t i o n . As such they may best be employed a f t e r an i n i t i a l stage u t i l i z i n g agronomic grasses. With the poor growth of agronomic legumes i n the N.E. Coal Block a l p i n e ( E r r i n g t o n , 1978), and the r e g r e s s i o n of agronomic grasses on reclamation s i t e s (Gates, 1962; Down, 1973; Dabbs, 1974; Baker, 1975; B e l l & Meidinger, 1977; Brown e_t sd, 1978), n a t i v e species are the most promising f o r a l p i n e reclamation. The drawback to employing n a t i v e species, however, 46 has been the l a c k of knowledge on propagation and handling techniques (Ziemkiewicz et^ al, 1978). In s e l e c t i n g and t e s t i n g n a t i v e species f o r reclamation purposes, perhaps the b e n e f i t of s t u d i e s such as t h i s i s t o f u r t h e r our knowledge along these l i n e s . 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Ph.D. T h e s i s , Univ. Colorado, Boulder. (Abstracted from Bamberg & Major, 1968). Whyte, R.O. & J.W.B. Sisam, 1949. The Establishment of Vegetation on I n d u s t r i a l Waste Land. Commonwealth A g r i c u l t u r a l Bureau, J o i n t P u b l i c a t i o n No. 14, Oxford, England. Ziemkiewicz, P.F., C.A. Dermott & H.P. Sims, 1978. Proceedings: Workshop on Native Shrubs i n Reclamation. Reclamation Research Technology Advisory Committee ( A l b e r t a ) Report No. 79-2. 53 Appendix I P l o t s of Undisturbed Vegetation from  S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock Mountains Due to the discrepancy of the Harcombe study (1978) w i t h observed physiognomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the plant c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , the f o l l o w i n g v e g e t a t i o n p l o t s were analyzed. This was an attempt t o determine whether Hedysarum alpinum, not reported by Harcombe, was "endemic" to S h e r i f f Mountain or found at other a l p i n e krummholz s i t e s . D i v i s i o n of s i t e s by moisture i s s u b j e c t i v e and does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h such r a t i n g s by other authors (eg. Hrapko & LaRoi, 1978), however s i t e s rated as 'mesic' have a notably higher ground coverage. From these p l o t s i t i s evident H_. alpinum i s not found on the d r i e r p o r t i o n s of the a l p i n e ridge communities. Plot Number 1 5 6 7 15 16 17 Location^ S P P F B B B Moisture 2 a a a a a a a Aspect WSV S ssw SSW SSW SW NNW Elevation (axlO) 170 186 177 177 156 155 152 Slope (degrees) 15 24 21 5 8 26 19 Quadrat Area (» 2) 25 32 49 39 48 36 96 Species Naae Salix r e t i c u l a t a 3 + 1.2 2.3 3.4 2.3 Salix a r c t i c a 2.3 2.3 3.4 1.4 3.4 Betula glandulosa Plcea engleaannli + Abies laslocarpa + Bedysarua alpinum 2.2 1.2 1.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 1.3 Dryas I n t e g r i f o l i a 3.* 2.4 3.4 4.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 Saxlfraga bronchialis 2.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 2.3 1.3 1.3 Oxytropis splcata 2.2 + 2.2 2.2 2.2 0. podocarpa 2.2 1.2 2.2 1.2 1.2 2.3 2.2 Arnica mollis 1.1 + 1.1 1.1 + + 1.1 P o t e n t l l l a u n l f l o r a 1.1 1.2 + + + 2.2 Aconltua d e l f i n i f o i l urn 1.1 + + + Zagadenus elegans 1.1 1.2 1.2 Epllobiua l a t l f o l l v a i 1.1 + 1.1 + Erlgeron coaposltus + 1.2 + E. grandlflorus 1.2 1.2 E. lariat us Pedlcularis capitata 1.1 + 1.1 1.1 1.1 P. lanata + Polygonum vivaparua + + + 1.1 1.1 1.1 Delphinliai glaucun + + 1.1 + + Aneaone drusaundil + + + + 1.2 Vacclnlua V l t i s - l d a e a 2.3 Taraxacum ovinun + + Solidago a u l t l r a d l a t a + + + 1.1 1.1 1.1 Antennarla aedla + Sllene acaulls + + 1.3 1.3 + Caapanula laslocarpa + Seneclo pauperculus + Astragalus alplnus + 1.2 2.2 1.3 1.3 Hyosotis a l p e s t r l s + + + + + 1.3 1.3 Cerastrlua spp. + + + Saxlfraga trlcuspidata Grasses 1.1 1.2 1.2 + 1.2 + + Sedges/Rushes + + + + Mosses 1.3 2.4 2.3 3.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 Lichens 2.3 + 1.3 1.2 2.2 1.2 2.2 1 Location: S - Sheriff F - Fraae B - Babcock. 2 Moisture: a - aeslc sx • subxerlc x - xer i c ( i n order, aolst to dry) 3 Zurich-Montpellelr f l o r l s t l c description: exaaple 2.3, 2 - cover class, 3 - s o c i a b i l i t y . 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 S F F F B B B B B B sx sx sx a sx X sx •X sx sx SW WNW SSW S SSW EST. wsw NNW SSE ssw 176 184 186 178 171 170 170 186 184 172 22 27 19 11 1 4 8 11 13 12 36 18 45 49 108 90 56 40 45 48 + 2.4 + 1.3 + 1.2 + 2.4 1.2 2.3 3.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 3.4 3.4 2.3 3.4 1.3 1.3 2.3 1.2 2.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 1.2 1.2 2.2 + + 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 + 1.1 + + + 1.1 + + 1.3 2.2 1.2 + 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 + + + + + + + + + + + 1.2 + + + 1.1 1.1 + + + 1.1 + + + 1.1 + + + + + + + - + + + + + + 1.3 + + + + 1.2 + 2.3 + 1.3 + 1.2 + 1.1 1.1 + + 1.2 2.4 + + + + + + + + + + + 2.4 2.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 + + + 3.4 2.3 1.2 2.3 + + 1.2 1.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 + + 3.4 2.2 3.4 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.3 3.2 2.2 Cover class: 4- IX; 1-1-5X; 2-6-25X; 3-26-50X; 4-51-75X; 5-76-100X. S o c i a b i l i t y : l-gro*s singly; 2-tufts; 3-aaall patches; 4-carpetB; 5«pure populations. 55 Figure 1.1 L o c a t i o n of Vegetation P l o t s by Aspect, E l e v a t i o n and Moisture Note p l o t number 10 i s the only x e r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 56 Appendix I I S o i l A n a l y s i s Data Tests plica- pH pH CaC03 Total Avail. SO4 Total tion (H20) (CaCl2) equlv. N P C SI* 6.40 5.83 5.8 525 1 2 5.43 S2 6.45 5.78 # f 0.8 2 5.16 S3 6.40 5.90 5.34 547 2 2 5.31 S4 6.38 5.90 6.43 525 1 2 5.08 S5 6.38 5.93 5.18 f 1 2 5.43 S6 6.35 5.95 5.44 438 0.5 2 5.20 S7 6.35 6.00 5.34 569 1.5 2 5.35 S8 6.35 5.95 5.14 656 1. 2 5.16 S 9 6.38 5.98 5.34 # 1 2 5.50 CI 6.18 5.50 0.36 1444 2.5 2 10.65 C2 6.20 5.50 # f 2.5 2 10.45 C3 6.20 5.45 # 1225 2.5 2 10.42 C4 6.15 5.50 0.18 1247 • 2.5 2 10.42 C5 6.20 5.45 0.12 f 2.5 2 10.57 C6 6.23 5.48 0.42 # 3.2 2 10.28 C7 6.20 5.45 0.38 1291 2.0 2 10.40 C8 6.20 5.48 0.28 1313 2.5 2 10.51 C9 6.20 5.45 0.70 1225 2.5 2 10.44 Blank - - - 88 0.0 0.0 Units - - X ppm ppm ppm X X Fe 0.041 0.028 0.028 0.027 0.026 0.030 0.030 0.027 0.028 ,104 104 ,103 ,104 104 .103 103 ,107 Z Al 0.029 0.019 0.019 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.017 0.019 0.018 0.151 0.137 .145 .154 0  0  # 0.138 0.134 0.137 0.143 CEC 7.50 7.66 6.72 7.81 7.97 6.88 8.06 6.94 7.34 25.56 25.06 26.00 24.69 25.63 24.69 26.41 20.47 26.41 eq/lOOg 4.60 4.60 4.58 4.55 4.51 4.52 4.58 4.39 4.45 2.11 2.10 2.05 2.04 2.05 2.03 2.07 2.05 1.05 0.22 ppm Ca 67.33 72.49 68.01 63.25 68.11 68.69 69.18 65.29 65.48 94.67 92.34 92.53 102.94 95.35 96.13 92.53 90.88 100.99 0.31 ppn Mg 14.98 15.67 15.18 14.50 14.69 14.98 15.08 15.08 14.69 12.55 12.07 12.16 12.84 12.45 12.45 12.16 11.97 12.55 0.02 ppa Na 0.35 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.14 # # 0.09 ppn •S - Shale C - Colluvlui # - contamination or spillage Appendix I I I Maximum and Minimum Temperatures, and P r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  Vancouver A i r p o r t , May t o August, 1982 Data f o r t h i s appendix was obtained from l o c a l newspapers (Vancouver Province, Vancouver Sun), a v a i l a b l e through the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. L i b r a r y . M i s s i n g data i n d i c a t e missing e d i t i o n s . The o r i g i n a l data was c o l l e c t e d by Environment Canada, and at the present time i s not a v a i l a b l e i n a published form other than newspapers. Figure I I I . 2 60 JULY/AUGUST 1 10 20 1 10 20 31 July August 61 Appendix IV Biomass Data Data i n these t a b l e s are i n order of r e p l i c a t i o n number, s t a r t i n g w i t h number 1 at the top and proceeding down t o number 25. For Dryas t h i s numbering extends t o 50 f o r leave s only; overflow from the f i r s t column appears i n the second column. 62 Table IV.I Oven Dry Biomass (grams)/Shale Dryas S a l i x Hedysarum Oxytropis Oxytropis i n t e r g r i f o l i a a r c t i c a alpinum s p i c a t a podocarpa Leaves Leaves Roots Leaves Roots Leaves Roots Leaves Roots 0.19 0.46 — — 0.39 3.6 1.1 3.5 _ — 0.44 0.41 0.22 0.72 1.1 5.3 0.81 2.7 - -0.30 0.30 0.14 0.24 0.54 2.8 2.0 10.5 0.42 3.1 0.06 0.57 0.73 1.7 0.84 4.3 2.1 8.4 1.2 3.8 - 0.63 0.78 1.3 0.94* 3.9 4.6 7.5 - -0.47 0.21 0.46 0.80 0.56 3.0 - - - -- 0.30 0.60 0.70 - - 1.1 3.2 0.80 2.2 0.72 0.50 1.1 3.0 0.45 2.4 1.0* 7.9 - -0.11 0.36 0.67 1.1 0.57 3.5 1.4 4.3 - -0.44 0.38 0.92 2.4 0.62 2.6 1.6 10.2 0.22 2.4 0.43 0.20 0.54 1.3 0.64 4.3 0.30 2.6 - -0.55 0.41 - - 0.41 2.6 0.48 1.2 0.90 0.83 0.38 0.79 0.32 0.95 0.67 1.7 2.0 7.2 0.75 6.3 0.20 0.78 3.7 0.35 1.7 1.1 3.4 1.1 3.5 - 0.27 1.8 1.1 6.2 2.5 12.3 0.60 2.5 - - - 1.2 5.7 0.57 7.9 0.81 1.9 0.23 0.33 1.8 0.74 3.2 0.81 3.4 - -0.30 0.30 1.1 0.87 4.4 2.5 6.4 - -0.28 - - 0.025 0.97 3.2 10.0 - -0.84 0.30 2.0 0.55 4.7 1.6 4*9 - -0.12 0.53 0.55 1.5 14.2 2.1 6.0 - -0.30 0.30 0.36 0.14 0.83 1.8* 5.9 - -0.45 - - 0.20 0.88 1.5 5.0 - -0.61 0.50 1.7 0.88 8.0 2.0 7.9 0.27 0.40 0.26 - - - - 1.2 3.3 - -0.24 0.24 0.18 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.21 0.28 0.30 * = f l o w e r s / f r u i t present 63 Table I V . I I Oven Dry Biomass (grams)/Colluvium Dryas S a l i x Hedysarum Oxytropis Oxytropis i n t e r g r i f o l i a a r c t i c a alpinum s p i c a t a podocarpa Leaves Leaves Roots Leaves Roots Leaves Roots Leaves Roots 0.86 0.40 0.97 3.6 0.21 1.6 2.9 8.1 _ _ 0.13 0.55 0.48 2.1 0.38 1.0 - - 1.0 2.2 0.11 0.51 0.27 1.4 0.51 3.5 1.0 1.8 - -0.76 - 0.96 3.5 1.3 8.4 2.9 16.0 0.42 1.1 0.10 0.58 0.47 1.1 0.89 7.1 2.4 8.9 - -1.3 0.10 0.96 3.5 1.2 3.9 2.5 10.6 0.11 0.44 0.21 0.33 0.45 1.6 0.51 2.9 3.5 10.0 - -1.1 0.82 0.53 1.7 0.48 2.0 1.7 5.9 1.3 1.5 - 1.3 0.75 2.0 0.99 3.9 3.7 18.7 0.64 4.6 0.40 1.1 0.99 3.1 1.3 15.2 2.8 17.2 - -- 0.26 0.15 0.90 0.5 2.0 1.1 3.9 - -0.83 0.65 1.2 0.67 0.36 3.9 0.56 0.20 - -0.38 0.88 0.63 1.3 1.3* 4.5 - - 0.61 0.60 0.34 0.05 0.60 3.8 1.4 4.1 1.4 4.5 - -1.2 0.84 - - 0.66* 4.0 1.4 8.6 - -0.68 0.71 2.1 - - 1.8 5.4 - -0.45 0.37 2.1 0.54 3.9 1.1 2.5 - -0.51 0.18 1.3 0.43 4.1 2.0* 7.5 0.57 2.1 0.64 0.64 2.3 1.6 14.6 3.2 15.2 - -0.42 0.25 1.2 0.37 4.6 0.77 1.2 - -0.20 - - 0.23 3.8 0.95 3.8 1.1 6.1 0.55 0.56 3.0 0.40 1.8 1.9 2.9 0.93 2.2 1.2 0.43 1.6 1.1 4.0 2.3 10.4 - -0.15 0.32 0.82 0.27 5.9 2.2 9.2 0.11 0.38 0.92 1.0 2.5 0.61 0.85 1.3 4.1 - -0.75 0.71 1.0 0.22 0.89 1.0 0.63 0.60 64 Appendix V P r e p a r a t i o n and Growth of Tested Species The f o l l o w i n g contains observations on growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the tested species, as w e l l as seed germination t e s t s f o r the legumes. Suggestions f o r propagation and u t i l i z a t i o n are based on these observations. 65 V . l S a l i x a r c t i c a Propagation of j>. a r c t i c a by c u t t i n g s i s an easy and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d method. U t i l i z i n g a 10 to 15 cm p o r t i o n of the underground 'stem', found i n and j u s t under the LFH mat, roots and shoots are e a s i l y i n i t i a t e d . Preformed buds or roots are not necessary. A f t e r c u t t i n g the stem i n t o s e c t i o n s the cut faces should be dipped i n a f u n g i c i d e , though r o o t i n g hormones are not necessary. During the rooting period a moist environment i s r e q u i r e d ; t h i s p l a n t should be s t a r t e d as container stock, and placed under mist i f a v a i l a b l e . About two weeks are required f o r s u f f i c i e n t root development to take place before the plants can be moved from the moist r o o t i n g environment to a shade frame. Rapid shoot development may occur during the root p e r i o d , r e q u i r i n g pruning; a l l shoots can be removed at the beginning of the r o o t i n g period without d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s . Shade should be continued f o r about two weeks, though hot weather w i l l r equire a longer shade p e r i o d . The volume provided by a 5 1/2 i n c h standard pot i s adequate f o r one season's growth 3 (roughly 1200 cm ) but i s too small f o r two seasons as a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of root growth takes place. Growth of shoots and l e a f buds w i l l continue u n t i l about mid-summer, as long as c o o l , damp weather p r e v a i l s . Senescence appears t o be keyed t o day length, r e c u r r i n g a f t e r August 15 at 55° l a t i t u d e . S a l i x should probably be planted only on f l a t t o concave slopes where drainage i s not excessive. With f r o s t a c t i o n a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r at the alpine/krummholz s i t e , p l a n t i n g should not i n c l u d e a c o n t a i n e r to avoid f r o s t heaving. A r o o t b a l l w i t h p o t t i n g s o i l adhering i s suggested. S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n at the S h e r i f f mine w i l l need t o i n c l u d e an i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r though t h i s should be kept to a minimum to avoid i n h i b i t i n g 66 n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n i n the legumes and m y c o r r h i z a l development i n general. Based on the a n a l y s i s of shale i n t h i s study and the growth response of Oxytropis podocarpa t o f e r t i l i z e r , a rate of 25 kg/ha f o r phosphorus (as 10-15-10) i s suggested. While l a r g e r a p p l i c a t i o n s may promote more growth, the promotion of m y c o r r h i z a l development should be considered as part of the s o i l a m e l i o r a t i o n process. Short term gains i n f o l i a g e development through heavy f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l i n h i b i t mycorrhyzal and i n the long term w i l l make the p l a n t dependent upon f e r t i l i z e r s . A one-time a p p l i c a t i o n of phosphorus at 25 kg/ha w i l l provide a source of the element where e s s e n t i a l l y none e x i s t s but should not i n h i b i t m y c o r r h i z a l development. In g e n e r a l , i t w i l l be necessary to t e s t S a l i x and other n a t i v e species f o r f e r t i l i z e r requirements t o a c c u r a t e l y assess the optimum r a t e to promote growth, while not i n h i b i t i n g m y c o r r h i z a l development or n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n . V.2 The Legumes: Hedysarum alpinum, Oxytropis s p i c a t a , (). podocarpa While t h i s study u t i l i z e d whole p l a n t s , the e a s i e s t method of propagation i s by seeds. These are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the S h e r i f f minesite on the west face of Frame Mountain, below and s l i g h t l y south of the a d i t s . On Babcock Mountain a l l three species can be c o l l e c t e d on the northwest shoulder, on the north side of the a d i t f a ce. H. alpinum can be found i n ample qu a n t i t y at these s i t e s but i s not a v a i l a b l e on the more dry s i t e s surrounding; both Oxytropis are u b i q u i t o u s . Whole seed pods should be c o l l e c t e d before dehiscence or detachment from the p l a n t . For (). podocarpa t h i s can be done between August 1 and 15, while (). s e r i c e a and H. alpinum can be c o l l e c t e d at the end of August. Care w i l l need t o be taken t o avoid 67 c o l l e c t i n g too l a t e as both Oxytropis open t h e i r pods when r i p e (at t h i s point the pods are t a n i n c o l o r and d r y ) , w h i l e the loment of II. alpinum breaks i n t o segments when dry (dark brown). For s e e d l i n g growth i n containers a Spencer-LeMaire system i s suggested, but of a l a r g e r volume than u t i l i z e d f o r c o n i f e r s since a considerable amount of root growth w i l l occur. The s e e d l i n g s w i l l l i k e l y be too small at a 1+0 stage and should probably be placed out at 2+0 years. V.3 Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a As an a l p i n e p l a n t adapted to a short , c o o l growing season, Dryas i s an amazing species. Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a i s , of course, f r o s t hardy but i s a l s o able to a s s i m i l a t e CO2 to about -5 °C and w i t h i n 4 or 5 days a f t e r removal of the snow cover. While s o i l and a i r temperatures w i l l determine when Dryas Is able t o begin i t s growth season, J), i n t e g r i f o l i a w i l l enter dormancy without a c o l d stimulus. This i s considered a mechanism t o prevent l a t e season growth and f r o s t damage to new growth (H a r t g e r i n k & Mayo, 1976; Mayo ejt _ a l , 1977). The flowers of Dryas are a l s o adapted to the co o l environment; the p a r a b o l i c arrangement of p e t a l s focus s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on the reproductive s t r u c t u r e s (androecium/gynocecium). By i n c r e a s i n g the temperature of these p a r t s , a warm m i c r o - s i t e i s provided f o r p o l l i n a t i n g i n s e c t s , e n t i c i n g them to remain longer on the flower and enhancing p o l l i n a t i o n (Kevan, 1975). Moreover, I), i n t e g r i f o l i a i s a l s o adapted t o low s o i l n u t r i e n t l e v e l s and i s i n h i b i t e d i n growth by hig h l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r (Babb, 1977). Propagation of Dryas by fragmenting a mature mat, as was done i n t h i s study, i s f e a s i b l e but w i l l not be p r a c t i c a l f o r l a r g e s c a l e out p l a n t i n g . 68 Where large numbers of plants are required the seed heads should be c o l l e c t e d and seeds germinated, probably a f t e r a short p e r i o d of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . The short term s t r a t i f i c a t i o n requirements of the a l p i n e legumes, reported above, may be a p p l i c a b l e . Seeds w i l l probably need t o be " p r i c k e d - o f f " a germination medium and placed on a growth medium i n c o n t a i n e r s , i f container stock i s to be used. Paper pots are suggested s i n c e they a l l o w f o r s u f f i c i e n t root development while having some s o i l surface exposed around the p l a n t ; the l a t t e r aspect i s discussed below. Since the presence of organic matter appears to be of importance i n the growth of Dryas, a p o t t i n g mix using about 50% peat should be s u f f i c i e n t . The remaining volume could be made up with a varying s i z e range of sand and pebbles to approximate an Ap hori z o n of LFH/Bm. As w i t h the other n a t i v e s p e c i e s , i t w i l l be necessary to introduce the appropriate organisms to e s t a b l i s h nodules and mycorrhizae i n t o the p o t t i n g mix. Perhaps the gr e a t e s t advantage gained w i t h Dryas i n a reclamation program w i l l be the concurrent development of f r u t i c o s e l i c h e n s . These form part of the Caribou d i e t and w i l l need to be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . One way t h i s might be accomplished i s t o introduce the l i c h e n s w i t h Dryas, already attached to the p o t t i n g medium. By c o l l e c t i n g l i c h e n s and chopping them up i n a blender, a s l u r r y could be made. The s l u r r y could then be poured i n t o the exposed s o i l s u r f a c e , provided w i t h paper pots. Such a method may mimic n a t u r a l reproduction by fragmentation ( A l v i n , 1977). 69 V.3 The Legumes Germination t e s t s on seed of the three legumes c o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the S h e r i f f minesite (Frame Mtn.) i n d i c a t e a short p e r i o d of cold s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s b e n e f i c i a l to two species. Table IX shows the r e s u l t s of these t e s t s : Table V.I Germination Testing f o r U n s t r a t i f i e d and S t r a t i f i e d Legume Seed Values are the mean of f i v e r e p l i c a t i o n s , plus or minus the standard e r r o r ; a Jacobsen-Zepher Germinator was used f o r t h i s t e s t i n g ; day length was 12 hours under Gro-lux lamps. U n s t r a t i f i e d S t r a t i f i e d Species %G %GC Rio(days) %G %GC Rio(days) Hedysarum 72+1.8 88+2.2 6+0.2 60+2.7 88+4.9 1+0 alpinum Oxytropis 49+2.2 87+1.3 5+0.4 14+0.9 78+1.8 5+0.4 s e r i c e a Oxytropis 14+1.8 92+1.3 14+0.9 13+1.8 90+0.9 2+0.4 podocarpa %G = percent of t o t a l seed germinated %GC = percent germination c a p a c i t y , d i s r e g a r d i n g time; %GC = %G + % sound seed at end of t e s t Rio = r a t e i n days required to germinate 10% of %GC 70 S t r a t i f i c a t i o n was accomplished by p l a c i n g the seed between wet b l o t t e r paper and then i n a p l a s t i c bag. The bags were held at about 2 °C f o r 26 days. This i s an e f f e c t i v e method but i s subject t o mold development, r e q u i r i n g the b l o t t e r paper to be dipped p r e v i o u s l y i n a f u n g i c i d e . S t r a t i f y i n g these legume seeds d i d not improve the %G but decreased the rate of germination i n Hedysarum alpinum and Oxytropis podocarpa. Oxytropis s e r i c a d i d not b e n e f i t from s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; the decrease i n %G of s t r a t i f i e d seed was due i n part t o the mold i n f e s t i n g s t r a t i f i e d seed. The 26 day s t r a t i f i c a t i o n period was excessive since both Oxytropis germinated during t h i s p e r i o d , w i t h germinants dying. This l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of increase i n the %G w i t h s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . For r eclamation work on the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e , Oxytropis podocarpa can be c o l l e c t e d about mid-August. £. s e r i c e a and Hedysarum alpinum pods r i p e n at the end of August. A l l three species are e a s i l y c o l l e c t e d by hand and a season's seed requirement could be met by two people c o l l e c t i n g f o r one or two days. The volume of c l e a n seed f o r (). podocarpa i s about 16g/l of seed pods; 0. s e r i c e a produces about 21g/l of seed pods. E. alpinum does not need to be cleaned as the loment breaks i n t o i n d i v i d u a l seed segments and w i l l sprout from the segment without i n h i b i t i o n . Since the seed pods are part of the u t i l i z e d seed, the weight of seed per l i t r e w i l l be much lower than e i t h e r O x y t r o p i s . A l l seed should be inspected during c o l l e c t i o n since a small p o r t i o n may be empty and i s a l s o subject t o boring i n s e c t s . Once c o l l e c t e d , pods of Oxytropis should be placed In a dry environment t o open the two " s h e l l s " or valves of the legume pod. Tumbling the seeds and pods w i l l separate most of the seeds, which then need be passed through a nest of sieves to remove f o r e i g n matter. Both Oxytropis w i l l c o l l e c t on the 1 mm 71 mesh, along w i t h a few l e a f l e t s that can be separated ( i f necessary) by gentle blowing. For storage a l l legume seeds w i l l need t o be as dry as p o s s i b l e or mold w i l l occur. Storage temperature should be w e l l below 5 °C and probably below 0 °C as Oxytropis seed i n a moist 2 °C environment w i l l germinate. About one week before the seed i s r e q u i r e d , Hedysarum and 0. podocarpa should be s t r a t i f i e d . This process should probably not exceed f i v e days; check s t r a t i f i e d seed d a i l y f o r germination. S t r a t i f i e d and u n s t r a t i f i e d (0. s e r i c e a ) seed could then be germinated on a s u i t a b l e medium before p r i c k i n g - o f f t o c o n t a i n e r s . 

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