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Selection of native species for alpine reclamation, Northeast Coal Block, British Columbia Willey, Norman Andrew 1982

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SELECTION OF NATIVE SPECIES FOR ALPINE RECLAMATION, NORTHEAST COAL BLOCK, BRITISH COLUMBIA  by  NORMAN ANDREW WILLEY B.Sc.  University  of V i c t o r i a ,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of  Forestry)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s to the r e q u i r e d  as conforming standards  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1982 ©  Norman Andrew W i l l e y  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  fcrf^tr"-f  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  /an  written  ii  Abstract  Open p i t c o a l mining  a t the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e , i n N o r t h e a s t e r n  Columbia's C o a l B l o c k , w i l l  British  be l o c a t e d i n the upper reaches of t h e s u b a l p i n e  and  p o r t i o n s of the a l p i n e zones.  Because o f t h e adverse growth c o n d i t i o n s  of  this  mining  site,  reclamation  after  will  present  agronomic p l a n t s p e c i e s adapted t o lower e l e v a t i o n s . a problem w i t h c l o v e r , a l f a l f a and o t h e r legumes. the  mined  land  requires  a  stable  plant  problems  i n using  T h i s w i l l e s p e c i a l l y be  Moreover, the a f t e r - u s e of  community  capable  of  supporting  w i l d l i f e f o r a g e ( e s s e n t i a l l y Woodland C a r i b o u and Mountain G o a t s ) a t l e a s t t o the  same  ability  constraints, necessary As native  and  to  the  pre-mining  re-establish  communities.  native  plant  To  deal  communities,  with  i t will  a p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n process, on  Salix  the b a s i s  arctica,  of  Dryas  this  study  has p r e - s e l e c t e d  t h e c o n s t r a i n t s mentioned  integrifolia,  Hedysarum  above.  alpinum,  test  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were grown  inhibitions  on crushed  t o growth on s i m u l a t e d  shale  spoils.  (from  i n c h (13 cm) standard species  normally  grow  (the control).  medium, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n at  No  fertilizer  of O x y t r o p i s  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  These  altitude  Mature p l a n t p o r t i o n s were  p o t s and then p l a c e d o u t d o o r s .  was grown on t h e t o p m i n e r a l  five  the m i n e s i t e ) t o  c o l l e c t e d from the m i n e s i t e , r o o t e d i n t h e s h a l e under a m i s t  plant  be  Oxytropis  s e r i c e a , 0^ podocarpa ( A r c t i c w i l l o w , M o u n t a i n avens and t h r e e h i g h legumes,  these  t o i n c o r p o r a t e n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n program.  species  species,  as  An e q u a l number of each  horizon was  podocarpa.  system i n f i v e  on which  added  these  plants  to either  growth  T e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out  Columbia f o r one summer;  l a c k of r e c l a m a t i o n  iii  sites  a t the minesite  and a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n of t h e p l a n t s  to  site  growth  c o n d i t i o n s d i d not a l l o w f o r , o r r e q u i r e s i t e t e s t i n g f o r growth response t o the type of growth medium. was  clipped  and weighed  F o l l o w i n g the growth p e r i o d , above ground a f t e r oven  drying.  Soil  fertility  biomass  analyses  were  growth  media  c o n c u r r e n t l y conducted on the s h a l e and c o n t r o l growth media. Statistical indicated  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Oxytropis  sericea;  reclamation excessive. further problem.  comparison  begins, The  biomass  between  the  difference f o r Salix arctica,  these  species  can  be  applied  two  Hedysarum a l p i n u m or in  site  tests  when  though S a l i x w i l l need t o be p l a c e d where d r a i n a g e i s not  rooting  t e s t i n g of t h i s Dryas  of  should  problem species, probably  of  Oxytropis  though n o t be  podocarpa  seed p r o p a g a t i o n planted  early  will may  necessitate overcome  i n the  program as i t s growth i s i n h i b i t e d on the l e s s weathered s h a l e .  this  reclamation  iv T a b l e of Contents Page No.  Abstract  i i  T a b l e of Contents  iv  L i s t of T a b l e s  vi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  v i i  Acknowledgements  viii  Introduction  ....  1  Chapter One  6  M e t e o r o l o g y and E c o l o g y  6  The Growth Environment  14  Chapter Two  15  Species S e l e c t i o n W i l d l i f e Forage Requirements Mine S p o i l s as a Growth Medium The C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n Selected Species Chapter Three  15 17 18 20 22 25  . . • . .  E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n and R e s u l t s P l a n t and S o i l C o l l e c t i o n P l a n t and S o i l P r e p a r a t i o n S o i l F e r t i l i t y Analysis Measurement of Biomass P r o d u c t i o n  25 26 27 31 32  Chapter Four Summary and C o n c l u s i o n Conclusions References  40 •  40 43 47  V  Page No.  Appendix I - P l o t s of U n d i s t u r b e d V e g e t a t i o n from S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock Mountains  53  Appendix I I - S o i l A n a l y s i s Data  56  Appendix I I I - Maximum and Minimum Temperatures, and P r e c i p i t a t i o n Vancouver A i r p o r t , May t o August, 1982  58  Appendix IV - Biomass Data  61  Appendix V - P r e p a r a t i o n and Growth of T e s t e d S p e c i e s  64  vi L i s t of T a b l e s Page No. Table I  Methods Used f o r F e r t i l i t y A n a l y s i s  31  Table I I  S o i l F e r t i l i t y Parameters  34  Table I I I  Growth Response t o Unamended Shale and C o l l u v i u m as a Growth Medium  37  T a b l e IV  Number of P l a n t s Used i n T e s t i n g t h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of Growth Medium  38  Table I . I  Appendix I  54  Table I I . I  Appendix I I  57  Table I V . I  Oven Dry Biomass (grams)/Shale . . . . .  62  Table I V . I I  Oven Dry Biomass ( g r a m s ) / C o l l u v i u m  63  Table V.I  G e r m i n a t i o n T e s t i n g f o r U n s t r a t i f i e d and Legume Seed  69  vii L i s t of F i g u r e s Page Figure 1  -  L o c a t i o n of the S h e r i f f M i n e s i t e , N o r t h e a s t C o a l B l o c k , B.C.  Figure 2  -  C l i m a t i c Normals f o r Dawson Creek: Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , 1941  . .  No. 3 7  -  1970  Figure 3  -  Stratigraphic Section f o r Sheriff P i t  12  Figure 4  -  S o i l P r o f i l e , Plant C o l l e c t i o n Site  28  Figure 5  -  P a r t i c l e S i z e Comparison of Crushed S h a l e and  ...  29  Colluvium  Figure 6  -  Pot Temperatures  . *.  F i g u r e 1.1  -  Figure I I I . l & III.2  -  L o c a t i o n of V e g e t a t i o n P l o t s by A s p e c t E l e v a t i o n and M o i s t u r e Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n  36 55 59 60  viii  Acknowledgements  For  financially  supporting  transportation/accommodations, Mines, would  Ltd. like  Montgomery;  I  a am  indebted  In providing f a c i l i t i e s t o thank  Dr. S z i k l a i ,  p o r t i o n of  this  study  t o Bruce  Switzer  on t h e U n i v e r s i t y  Dave  Armstrong,  Ernie  l a b space f o r biomass d e t e r m i n a t i o n s and s o i l  and  supplying of  o f B.C.  campus,  Jaeckeles fertility  was p r o v i d e d by Dr. A r t Bomke, f o r which I am t r u l y a p p r e c i a t i v e .  Denison  and  I Ed  analyses  INTRODUCTION  This native  study  alpine  Columbia.  As  is a  plants such,  preliminary  for  step  reclamation  the  results w i l l  need  n a t u r e at the  will  plot  reclamation also  be  plants  sites  involve  thereby  As  a  derived and  the  undisturbed  and  high  environment  during  conditions.  t e s t p l a n t s were a c q u i r e d , The  the  Sheriff  British  into  further  employment.  This  Mine  site,  when  testing  will  some p r o p a g a t i o n this  study  of  Block,  incorporated  s i t e of e v e n t u a l  work,  pre-selects  a l t i t u d e reclamation  from  which  w h i c h the  Moreover,  the Soil  test  by  native  providing  plant  an  species  i n s t a b i l i t y from  are  erosion  snow c o v e r i s removed by  the  plant  community, from  i s found on w e l l d r a i n e d  wind which  ridges with s o i l s  of  p l a n t s i n h a b i t i n g t h i s community are t h e r e f o r e adapted to  f o l l o w i n g environmental c o n s t r a i n t s :  during  the  autumn, w i n t e r  winter  and  early spring  5)  soil  low  Coal  testing  species.  cold winters  poor growing  low f e r t i l i t y . the  be  i s g e n e r a l l y h o s t i l e to p l a n t growth.  frost,  create  to  on  preliminary  facilitates  a l t e r n a t i v e to agronomic The  tests  s e l e c t i o n and  Northeast  become a v a i l a b l e , however,  i n order. and  the  i n the  s t u d i e s of a more e x t e n s i v e essentially  in  fertility.  and 4)  1) s o i l  early spring  3)  instability  2) f r o z e n  soil  wind d e s s i c a t i o n d u r i n g  late  s o i l moisture d e f i c i t s during  the growing season  W h i l e s e v e r a l communities comprise the krummholz  a l p i n e zones (Harcome, 1978), the krummholz r i d g e - t o p adapted t o h a r s h growth c o n d i t i o n s and  i s most l i k e l y  and  p l a n t community i s most to c o n t a i n p l a n t s  that  w i l l s u r v i v e on c o a l mine s p o i l s . Coal  s p o i l s i n the  Southeast  prone, s i n c e c a p i l l a r y r i s e may exhibit  soil  c r e e p when s l o p e s  Coal  not s u p p l y  Block  are  reported  water t o the  exceed t h i r t y d e g r e e s .  to  be  drought  upper solum, and These s p o i l s are  may also  2  v e r y slow t o weather and r e l e a s e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s ( H a r r i s o n , 1973; 1977). general,  coal spoils  organic matter, The  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  resulting  l o w i n n i t r o g e n , phosphorus and  i n a growth medium of low f e r t i l i t y  growth environment on c o a l s p o i l s i n the N o r t h e a s t  exhibit  s i m i l a r problems; v  Coal's  Sheriff  property  chemical (Stage  cores  w e l l as p r o v i d e a p o t e n t i a l f o r s o i l  instability.  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o a s h o r t growing  winters.  For  these  ridge-top  plant  conditions  community  and  thus  the  will  promote  Quintette  selection  provide  the  season as  The n o r t h e r l y l a t i t u d e of season,  of  native  a pre-adaptation  the s u c c e s s  limited  Furthermore,  t h e l e n g t h of t h e growing  this site w i l l  reasons,  from  likely  1982) i n d i c a t e s a v e r y  supply of a v a i l a b l e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s i n the overburden r o c k . restrict  ( D o y l e , 1976).  Coal Block w i l l  a n a l y s i s of d r i l l  I I Report,  s u b a l p i n e mountain s e t t i n g w i l l  In  of n a t i v e  coupled w i t h species  from  t o adverse  plants  harsh the  growth  i n reclamation  efforts. The this  l o c a t i o n of the p l a n t  study  southwest  were facing  obtained, slope  community, from w h i c h t h e t e s t  i s between  of the S h e r i f f  1700 and 1720m minesite  121° 0 8 ' ) . The open p i t c o a l mine l i e s high  foothills,  lies  the Murray R i v e r v a l l e y ,  valley,  along  constructed treeline,  rail  (see Figure a l l ridgetops,  i n e l e v a t i o n on t h e  (latitude  55° 05'  Longitude  e a s t of the Rocky Mountains i n the  about 100 k i l o m e t e r s south  which  plants f o r  of Chetwynd, B.C.  To t h e east  w h i l e t h e n o r t h i s bounded by W o l v e r i n e  access 1). with  to  While a  the  coalfields  the m i n e s i t e  west  to  south  i s below aspect,  krummholz and a l p i n e p l a n t communities.  This  i s likely  s i n c e much  this  aspect  of t h e snow i s removed  from  i s currently  being  the r e g i o n a l  have  developed  a response  by l a t e  River  winter  s i t e s o f snow d e p o s i t i o n c o n s i s t o f P i c e a / A b i e s s u b a l p i n e communities.  t o wind winds;  3 Figure 1  L o c a t i o n of the S h e r i f f M i n e s i t e , Northeast Coal Block,  B.C.  ( A f t e r stage I I r e p o r t , Q u i n t e t t e C o a l L t d . ,  1982)  4  P r e v i o u s r e c l a m a t i o n work on the s o u t h to west a s p e c t of the m i n e s i t e i n v o l v e d the s e e d i n g of agronomic g r a s s e s on e x p l o r a t i o n roads and t e s t p l o t s (Pomeroy,  1982).  Similar  test  plots  were  done  by  the  B.C.  Ministry  of  Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the C o a l B l o c k , generally  indicating  (Errington, been  1978).  located  Extrapolating performance problem,  poor  legume  Most of the t e s t  on  weathered  the  results  on  the  very  unweathered  testing  of  plot  coal  plants  at  the  higher  derived tests  spoils  on  may  i n this  at  or  near  weathered be  study  t o have  the  surface.  media  to  To  avoid  tenuous. incorporates  s t r a t u m of c l a y s t o n e ( s h a l e ) as a t e s t medium f o r growth. the  elevations  p l o t s i n these s t u d i e s appear  materials of  growth  an  plant this  overburden  The performance of  s e l e c t e d s p e c i e s i s compared t o t h e i r growth on m i n e r a l s o i l (Bm h o r i z o n )  from the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n The  employment  of  on  overburden  material  plants employed  L o l i u m perenne  response t o phosphorus between  site.  field  a  pot  and  study to determine i s not  Agrostis  unique. tenuis  the growth  Fitter  a  pot  and  Bradshaw  pot t e s t s were found t o be h i g h .  of  (1974)  study to determine  when t h e s e g r a s s e s were grown on s h a l e .  p l o t s and  response  the  Correlation  Grosse-Brauckmann  (1977) a l s o found pot t e s t s of n u t r i e n t uptake i n mustard t o be comparable to r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n the f i e l d . to  successfully  Growth  response  show p l a n t  response  through p l a n t  though m y c o r r h i z a l  effects  P o t s t u d i e s were used by Weston et^ al^ (1964)  yield  t o heavy has  metals  i n slag  been the main  i n conjunction  with  mine  use  t i p material.  of pot  spoils  studies,  have a l s o  been  t e s t e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n ( L i n d s e y e_t a l 1977; A l d o n , 1978). In shale  t h i s s t u d y , p o t s have been employed  and,  future f i e l d  as  pointed  plots.  The  out  above,  t o d e t e r m i n e p l a n t response t o  the r e s u l t s  will  reason f o r not e s t a b l i s h i n g  need field  t o be  applied  to  p l o t s at present  5  is  strictly  pragmatic;  underway, t h e r e these pot  i s no  test plants  studies  with  s u i t a b l e and  agronomic  would  mining  be  safe  species,  invalid  commencing  the  native  species,  however,  since  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s i s not the  selected native  shale.  It  is  thus  species the  can  specifically  i t would  a b i l i t y to f l o u r i s h under the m i n e s i t e  be  conditions. their  ability  i n question. grow on new  hypothesis  of  overburden  this  adapted  necessary T h i s i s not to  growth c o n s t r a i n t s of  reclamation.  coal  spoils,  to to  What i s not  Were  the  site,  test  their  the case w i t h  grow under  the  given  known i s whether  c o a l mine s p o i l s , r e p r e s e n t e d study  that  the  n a t i v e p l a n t s to adverse growth c o n d i t i o n s w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e the  stripping  s i t e to e s t a b l i s h study p l o t s .  not  since  and  making  by  adaptations  of  an a d a p t a t i o n  to  them s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e s  for  6  Chapter One  The Growth Environment, P l a n t C o l l e c t i o n  Site  M e t e o r o l o g y and E c o l o g y Weather r e c o r d s f o r t h e Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n (Holland, are  1964) i n the v i c i n i t y  not extensive.  (1941-1970;  see  The  longest  Figure  2);  of the S h e r i f f term  these  mine/plant c o l l e c t i o n  r e c o r d s have  climatic  normals  p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g A p r i l and a maximum i n June W h i l e Dawson Creek i s a c t u a l l y  been from  minimum  of  p a r t o f t h e A l b e r t a P l a t e a u , t h e same t r e n d of  Hope, i n d i c a t i n g a damp summer as t h e normal s t a t e . stations  a  Creek  (Environment Canada, 1975).  damp summers can be seen f o r t h e F o o t h i l l s s t a t i o n s  these  show  Dawson  site,  show a maximum i n mean d a i l y  o f Chetwynd and Hudson Temperature  temperature  profiles for  of about  15° C.  Short term r e c o r d s ( l e s s than two y e a r s ) from the mine p r o p e r t y show s i m i l a r peaks, but a concomitant d e p r e s s i o n o f temperature w i t h e l e v a t i o n r e p o r t , 1982).  (Stage I I  As a r e s u l t , growth c o n d i t i o n s a t the h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s can  be expected t o be c o o l and damp from June t h r o u g h August. Frequency and v e l o c i t y o f winds a t t h e S h e r i f f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l situated  a t 1707m e l e v a t i o n  show a predominance  No calm p e r i o d s were r e p o r t e d from summer are  short  the  wind  wind  term r e c o r d i n g s directions  direction  (cited  of west  through l a t e w i n t e r .  portrayed i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  s u b a l p i n e ) p l a n t communities.  The  winds.  A g a i n these  i n Q u i n t e t t e C o a l Stage I I r e p o r t ) ,  correspond to surrounding s t a t i o n s .  i s also  t o southwest  station,  though  c o n s t a n c y of  o f krummholz  (upper  Those p o r t i o n s o f mountains around t h e S h e r i f f  s i t e w h i c h f a c e west t o s o u t h d e v e l o p a l p i n e communities, d e v o i d o f t r e e s and clear  of snow i n l a t e  winter.  Where  sheltered  from  the p r e v a i l i n g  winds,  C l i m a t i c Normals f o r Dawson Creek:  Figure 2  Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , 1941 - 1970  20-,  Daily Mean  Temperature  10  0  -10  -20  J  F  M  A  M  J  J  A  S  O  A  S  N  D  Total Precipitation  60  40 4 mm  mm 2 0 mm 0  p.::::.v.v.v.v.v.-.-.v.v.v.v  J  F  M  A  (Environment Canada,  M  J  1975}  J  O  N  D  8  Plcea  englemannii  and  Abies  lasiocarpa  dominate,  with  definite  boundaries  s e p a r a t i n g the t r e e d s u b a l p i n e from t r e e l e s s a l p i n e . In  d e s c r i b i n g the  (Harcombe, 1978)  The  a l p i n e communities  has d e l i n e a t e d f o u r  of  the  Coal  Block,  communities:  1)  N e t - l e a v e d Dwarf W i l l o w / S p i k e d Woodrush  2)  N e t - l e a v e d Dwarf W i l l o w / C a p i t a t e Lousewort  3)  A r t i e Willow/Moss C a m p i o n / F r u t i c o s e  4)  One-flowered  plant c o l l e c t i o n  Northeast  Lichens  C i n q u e f o i l / F r u t i c o s e Lichens  site  for this  study g e n e r a l l y f i t s  the t h i r d  community  type w i t h r e p o r t e d community c o n s t a n t s o f : Salix arctica O x y t r o p i s podocarpa Pedicularis capitata Saxifraga bronchiolis Dryas i n t e g r l f o l i a B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a (Polygonum v i v i p a r u m ) Silene acaulis Poa  alpina  C l a d o n i a spp. w i t h Dryas dominant i n c o v e r . Such s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d by Harcome as m o i s t , moderate t o w e l l d r a i n e d on c o l l u v i a l veneer/blanket. the  collection  site.  site  The  i s the  anomoly i n comparing Harcombe's d e s c r i p t i o n to notable  to be p r e s e n t on S h e r i f f ,  Frame and  in  alpinum  Rockies  presence  of  Hedysarum  alpinum  P l o t s t u d i e s done d u r i n g the course of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d H.  Appendix  I.  Since  ( H u l t e n , 1968);  H.  a  Babcock M o u n t a i n s ,  i s found  throughout  H i t c h o c k and C r o n q u i s t , 1973;  as d e s c r i b e d the  B.C.  Porsild,  on  the  alpinum further  and A l b e r t a 1974,  Taylor,  9  1974), the o m i s s i o n from the Harcombe work may  have been due  to i t s regional  application. In  S i g n a l Mountain,  in  Jasper  (Alberta),  (Hrapko  r e p o r t e d a dominance of Dryas o c t o p e t a l a , l i c h e n s and "semi-xeric"  sites.  Where  community developed; in  the N.E.  Coal Block alpine,  slope".  more  LaRoi,  persistent,  a  soil  on  willow/heath  "wind, low s o i l m o i s t u r e , c o a r s e  to i n h i b i t v e g e t a t i o n and  1978)  O x y t r o p i s podocarpa  both community types were c o n s i d e r e d c l i m a c t i c .  s c r e e i n s t a b i l i t y a l l tend steep S.W.  snow-cover was  and  Much as  t e x t u r e , and  development on  the  V i e r e c k (1966) d e s c r i b e d the e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s of  the Muldrow G l a c i e r outwash of A l a s k a as being dominated by Dryas drummondii and  D.  integrifolia.  virtually winds.  no  through  occurring with  and  suggested  this  Oxytropis,  the Dryas stage several  increment  site,  snow a c c u m u l a t i o n  Also  Hedysarum  At  of  to  25  during  Dryas  with  the  were  rare  The  Dryas  cm.  winter  due  legumes  of  occurrences  t o be s e r a i ,  stages.  20  above the r e g i o n a l t r e e l i n e ,  the of  Mount  initially  Robson by  area  Dryas  analogue o f H.  (British  alpinum).  Due  genera  showed  successional trends  Columbia).  drummundii w i t h  rather  Salix  reportedly  T i s d a l e et_ a l (1966) on lower e l e v a t i o n t e r m i n a l and the  the  spp.  sites  mackenzie  to the e l e v a t i o n ,  were  severe  Viereck community  yearly  size  reported  by  r e c e s s i o n a l moraines of  These  Hedysarum  a  was  Astragalus,  succeeded s l o w l y by a shrub  mats  Similar  to  there  these  (a  were  dominated  lower  elevation  communities  succeeded  e v e n t u a l l y to P i c e a englemannii. (Bryant occurred Alberta.  on  and  frost  These  Scheinberg, patterned  communities  stage  was  not  ground formed  t e r m i n a t i n g w i t h a Carex and climactic  1970)  reported in the  the  Dryas  Highwood  second  of  hookeriana  communities  Range  southwestern  five  of  successional stages,  l i c h e n ( C e t r a r i a c u c u l a t t a ) dominated s t a g e .  thought  to  occur  as  continued  frost  A  activity  10  d i s r u p t e d t h e deeper r o o t i n g s p e c i e s such as Dryas and S i l e n e . Intense Cordilleran  f r o s t a c t i o n was a l s o noted by Bamberg and M a j o r (1968) i n the  Mountains  of Montana.  While  not  developing  patterned  f r o s t a c t i o n , s o i l m o b i l i t y , r a p i d d r a i n a g e and a c a l c a r e o u s contributed Associated  to with  Oxytropis. alpine well  a  Dryas  legumes  and  community  Carex, S a l i x  dominated nivalis,  octopetala.  A s t r a g a l u s , Hedysarum  altitude  sites,  where  the  duration  of  community  winter  On S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock M o u n t a i n s , i n the N.E.  mats  are  well  developed,  place  Brunisolic  of Dryas g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h  Dryas  Bistorte lichens. soil  on  snow i s  soils  Regosolic  i n this occur,  soils''".  mats  create  vivipara, This  a  suitable micro-habitat  Zagadenus  microhabitat  e l e g a n s as promotes  well  greater  f o r other  as  Cladonia  while  Dryas  plant  plants and  growth and  Coal  community. the  and i t s  companion legumes a r e l i k e l y not the s o l e p r o g e n i t o r s of t h i s development the  and  from these s t u d i e s t h a t D r y a s , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  the most i n t e n s i v e a l p i n e pedogenesis takes  absence  Dryas  Dryas communities appear t o d e v e l o p e a r l y i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n and  can be c l i m a c t i c .  Dryas  by  parent m a t e r i a l  the mat-forming w i l l o w s , forms t h e dominant  higher  short l i v e d .  Where  were  I t i s evident  drained  Block,  climactic  ground,  such  but as  Stereocaulon thus  greater  development.  S t r a t i g r a p h y and S o i l s The  p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s which have p r o v i d e d  the d r a i n a g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the Dryas communities i n the N.E. C o a l B l o c k were d e r i v e d from M e s o z o i c  With  the n o t a b l e  and some g r a s s e s .  exception  of G l e y s o l s , dominated  by  sedges, rushes  11  sediments.  D u r i n g the C r e t a c e o u s p e r i o d  the c u r r e n t S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e . swamps  along  this  seaway,  originating ground  Changes  in  alterations  to this  c o a s t l i n e and  high  silt  and  range  Mountains. layers  of  organics  the  Several varying  of  thickness  developed  into  to  gingkos,  due  periodically  parallel  cycles  from  level  c l a y over the swamps.  of mountains,  i n l a n d seaway  lay just  east  of  The c o a l d e p o s i t s developed from c o a s t a l  conifers.  sand,  an  to  c o a l and  epeirogeny  permitted  ferns  and  resulted  in  the d e p o s i t i o n of  The  source of t h e s e sediments was  and  just  west  c o a s t l i n e changes and  cycads,  separated  by  of  the  resulted  i n five  non-marine  the sediments i n t o  present  Rocky  organic  sediments.  sandstone,  a  The  conglomerate  and s h a l e r o c k s , as shown i n F i g u r e 3 ( S t o t t , 1973).  north  The  parent m a t e r i a l f o r the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n  of  the  sandstone. rooting  depth  for  of  about  t o the  seepage.  weathering  conveyor  Shown i n F i g u r e  consolidated water  coal  numerous p o i n t s  on  the s i t e  to  60  latter  cm.  beyond  aspect  was soil At  of r e s t r i c t i n g  a t depth and has  s e v e r a l meters  4,  50  point  The  embarkation,  root  has  this  during  to  fine  depth  the  responsible weathered  This  can  be  the c o u r s e of  meters grained  indicates a  limited  bedrock  penetration while  resulted i n partially  Mountain  l o c a t e d 50  medium  profile  been  the r o o t i n g d e p t h .  Sheriff  a  site,  is  permitting  for  promoting  parent m a t e r i a l clearly  seen  at  road c o n s t r u c t i o n  and overburden removal. Pedogenesis a t the c o l l e c t i o n s i t e has proceeded beyond stage  with  development CaCl ) 2  the  deposition  of g r a n u l a r  this  is  an  of  organic  structure. Orthic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d  matter  in  a  Bm  W i t h the pH g r e a t e r  Eutric  Brunisol.  the  horizon  t h a n 5.5  While  Regosolic and  the  (1:2  0.01M  detailed  soil  i n Chapter I I I , s u f f i c e t o say a t t h i s p o i n t , the  s o i l on w h i c h the t e s t p l a n t s n o r m a l l y grow i s r a t h e r i n f e r t i l e .  12  Figure 3  Stratigraphic  S e c t i o n from S h e r i f f P i t  C o a l seams a r e d e s i g n a t e d by l e t t e r w i t h t h i c k n e s s i n meters; s i l t s t o n e occurs as t h i n s t r a t a i n t h e Gates Member but not e x t e n s i v e l y enough t o appear a t t h i s s c a l e . ( A f t e r Drawing No. 76-0647-R04, Q u i n t e t t e C o a l L t d . , 1976.)  Boulder  M  Creek  Member  LEGEND Hulcross  Sandstone......  Member  Shale.  COMMOTION  Siltstone Conglomerate. Coal  i  FORMATION  D E F G  2.6m-_ 8.4m— 1.1m—• 0.9nrv^  J  8.9m—  Gates Member  13  In organic  Viereck's matter  communities. Dryas, The  and  Phosphorus  of  the  0.03%  nitrogen  Muldrow  Glacier  (1966)  i n the  mineral  soil  he  of the m i n e r a l s o i l (outward) was  to a l e s s e r extent  the o t h e r p l a n t s of the f i r s t  both in  La R o i salt this  (1978) study content  alpine  and  r e p o r t e d no available  setting  was  4  somewhat more v a r i a b l e , r a n g i n g from 14 t o 319 ppm. m a t e r i a l s may  have r e s u l t e d i n t h i s potassium  range.  ppm  (NO^) while  the  47%  Dryas  attributed pioneer  f r e e lime present  nitrogen  about  reported  beneath  T h i s enrichment  Hrapko and  Mountain;  and  study  were  on  to  stage. Signal  very  potassium  low. was  Some v a r i a t i o n i n parent  14  The Growth Environment With  the  compounded  effects  of  wind  exposure  and  temperature,  a l p i n e environment as a s i t e f o r p l a n t growth i s r a t h e r h a r s h . such  environments,  Billings  become more numerous corollary  to t h i s  approaching N.E. not  (1974)  i n the  stated  mountain  i s the a l p i n e  the n o r t h ;  has  Dryas  alpine  environment  integrifolia,  that as  the h i g h  the Dryas of the a r c t i c  of the J a s p e r a l p i n e  (Hrapko & L a R o i , 1978).  harsh winters  of the N.E.  an  with  frost  nature  habitat.  of  Moreover,  the  and  instability,  action this  soil  growth  environment.  canadensis Seiner,  and  they w i l l  further  For  not  latifolia  these  provide  f i t this f o r long  s p e c i e s the dominants  i n the u n d i s t u r b e d  fulfilling  role,  a  pioneer  r e c l a m a t i o n program. of  the  mesic  constitute disturbed  and  'arctic-like' Dryas  obviously  restrict  w h i c h a r e adapted t o  contribute reasons rest  to  the  the  harsh  success  of  a  upon the s e l e c t i o n of  requirement  (Bliss,  term r e c l a m a t i o n .  be  the  only  communities  (Appendix  exploration  roads  they  relatively  1981).  for a  proportion  I ) , though  (Meidinger,  such  c a p a b l e of  requirement  on  1974;  Were  a l p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s , and  g r a s s e s would  sub-mesic  as  the  c o o l , damp  However, the g r a s s e s do not c o m p r i s e a h i g h  such  of  on  1977), but  generally  an i m p o r t a n t component i n p i o n e e r communities sites  The  W h i l e g r a s s e s such as F e s t u c a r u b r a , C a l a m a g r o s t i s  Arctagrostis  1975)  north.  tundra ( B l i s s , The  species  s u p p l y of m a c r o n u t r i e n t s , c o u p l e d  r e c l a m a t i o n program at the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e w i l l v e r y hardy p l a n t s p e c i e s .  plant  altitude  integrifolia,  limited  I n comparing  travels  Coal Block a l p i n e  growth t o o n l y those s p e c i e s , such as D. such  one  becomes more  Coal Block, i s also  summers and  arctic  the  do less  Reclamation  success on a l o n g term b a s i s must t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e p l a n t s not o n l y s u i t e d t o the  environment  establish  a  but a l s o  sustaining  requirement are n a t i v e  c a p a b l e of s u c c e e d i n g g r a s s e s ; community.  species.  The  most  obvious  i n short plants  to  t h e y must f i t this  15  Chapter  Two  Species S e l e c t i o n The mining  current  for  of  the mined l a n d must be  quality.  This  capability  rating  quality  is  system of  based  use  Sheriff  capability  equal upon  the  rests with  land  the  disturbed  R e s o u r c e s , 1982)  the  Canada a  mining  Land  the  In  one  the  Stage  the  pre-mining  f o r deciding  s t a t e d i n the  coal  Inventory  s c a l e of  company.  by  stipulate  to o r b e t t e r than  responsibility  Mine, Q u i n t e t t e C o a l L t d . has  w i l d l i f e habitat w i l l  of  e x c e l l e n t t o poor on  guidelines further stipulate  after  reclamation  ( M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines & Petroleum  after-use  The  guidelines  (CLI)  to  seven.  before  case  and  of  the  I I proposal  that  have the h i g h e s t c a p a b i l i t y f o r a f t e r - u s e i n the a l p i n e  and krummholz v e g e t a t i o n zones. As a b a s e l i n e s t u d y , the B.C. of the Environment, 1977) Block.  The  first  study  development  while  the  southern  section.  rating wildlife  carried covered  the  out the  second,  Unlike  Resource A n a l y s i s B r a n c h (RAB) two  r e g i o n a l surveys  "core"  published CLI  h a b i t a t the RAB  area  the  which uses  uses a  s c a l e of  seven c a p a b i l i t y  classes for  one  rating  t h i s Is a r e g i o n a l survey,  the  to three.  c l a s s 3W  tarandus  the  only  habitat  montanus S e t o n ) ,  B l a i n v i l l e ) , C l a s s 2W.  limiting  signify  f o r low v a l u e .  three point s c a l e g i v e s a reasonable  of h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n s but i s too g e n e r a l f o r a s p e c i f i c s i t e . minesite  to  evaluation  Class  1W,  and  is  for  Woodland  Mountain Goats  the  Furthermore,  f e e l t h i s i s the  s c a l e uses c l a s s 1W  f o r moderate and  infrastructure covered  factor  h i g h e s t c a p a b i l i t y , c l a s s 2W  Coal  f o l l o w i n g year,  s i n c e the a u t h o r s  The  the N.E.  of mine and  only winter habitat i s c l a s s i f i e d i n yearly survival.  of  (Ministry  the Since  overview  F o r the  Sheriff  Caribou  (Rangifer  (Qreamnos  americana  C a r i b o u h a b i t a t appears to have been e v a l u a t e d on  the  16  presence o f ground l i c h e n s and sedges I n t h e a l p i n e , w h i l e and  shrub presence was used f o r the s u b a l p i n e .  arboreal  lichens  Goat h a b i t a t was r a t e d on the  presence o f both a l p i n e r i d g e and rugged escape t e r r a i n . A more d e t a i l e d h a b i t a t Quintette's  Stage I I r e p o r t .  analysis  f o r the S h e r i f f minesite  appears i n  A g a i n , t h i s s i t e i s r a t e d as most i m p o r t a n t f o r  w i n t e r use w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g  capabilities:  Caribou  C l a s s 4 w i n t e r use  Elk  C l a s s 4 non-winter use  Goats  C l a s s 4 n o n - w i n t e r use  Moose  C l a s s 5 non-winter use  Limitations:  excessive  snow  depth  which  reduces  mobility,  poor d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y l a n d f o r m s . The  report  uses  the CLI r a t i n g  limitations  and  capability.  The d i s c r e p a n c y  Class  5  has  system,  i n which  moderately  i n classifying  severe  indicates a difference  the  Such d i f f e r e n c e s  habitat.  of s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n 1981,  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , due t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e  Nonetheless, minesite, equal  ( L a v k u l i c h , pers.  wildlife  requiring  to or better  ungulates  habitat  reclamation  and Goats  occurring  on t h e v a l u e o f  Ganders, p e r s .  nature o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n before  comm.,  systems.  and a f t e r - u s e  of the  to r e - e s t a b l i s h such a t a q u a l i t y  (Cowan & G u i g e t ,  As t h e two major 1973),  employed t h e f o r a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r these two s p e c i e s of a l p i n e p l a n t s f o r t e s t i n g .  f o r use  i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  comm., 1982;  than t h e p r e - m i n i n g c o n d i t i o n .  are Caribou  has moderate  habitat,  i n opinion  also occur  i s the main planning  4  limitations  the Caribou  between t h e two r e p o r t s , undisturbed  Class  this  alpine  study has  i n the pre-selection  17  W i l d l i f e Forage Requirements Cowan and Guiget as  being  considerably  describe  the food  v a r i e d , consuming  r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e M o u n t a i n Goat grasses  T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o K o d i a k I s l a n d and the K e n a i summer d i e t a r y p r e f e r e n c e  concentrated  and f o r b s  i n the a l p i n e .  P e n i n s u l a o f A l a s k a , where the  on f o r b s  (Hjeljord,  1973).  Saunders  (1955) r e p o r t e d a r e l i a n c e on g r a s s e s , sedges and r u s h e s ( 5 6 % of d i e t ) i n the Crazy  Mountains  o f Montana.  The  remaining  p o r t i on  of  t h e summer  diet  c o n s i s t e d of f o r b s a t 24% ( i n c l u d i n g Hedysarum s u l f u r e s c e n s ) and shrubs such as  Salix  spp.  at  16%.  During  was  emphasis on O x y t r o p i s  s e r i c e a and some c o n i f e r s .  a l l seasons.  (Rideout diets,  I n summarizing  and Hoffmann, however,  cited ranging  from  Goats m i g r a t e d remained  at  requirements  22 ppm  t o 5500 ppm  the  sodium.  elevations  are therefore  generally  of  with  an  occurred  consumption.  depending  Goat, Winter  on l o c a t i o n and  o f l u s h s p r i n g v e g e t a t i o n was input,  These  until  i n winter  of the Mountain  summer  from  also  salt  licks  r e p o r t e d the  heavy a l p i n e s n o w f a l l and  spring.  restricted  usually  authors  e l e v a t i o n s a f t e r the f i r s t  lower  usage  L i c h e n consumption  considerably,  sodium content  greater  decreased  similar  f o r requiring a salt  t o lower  a  d i e t a r y requirements  t o vary  The lower  as t h e r e a s o n  usage  1975) r e p o r t e d  appeared  vegetation present.  This  fall,  grasses/sedges/rushes  in  noted.  the  High  to late  altitude  forage  s p r i n g , summer and  f a l l , though Goats w i l l u t i l i z e a l p i n e r i d g e s t h a t a r e c l e a r e d o f snow i n the winter. Forage  requirements  Cowan and G u i g e t that  f o r Caribou,  however, a r e l e s s w e l l  (1973) i n d i c a t e d a summer d i e t  o f the Goats.  During  the w i n t e r  there  l i c h e n s and some shrubs i n t h e a l p i n e , w h i l e below  the t i m b e r l i n e .  The  RAB  report  t h a t was q u i t e  documented. similar to  i s a heavy r e l i a n c e on f o l i o s e a r b o r e a l l i c h e n s a r e important  (1977)  simply  states  that  ground  18  lichens  and  study was  sedges  form the b u l k of the a l p i n e  done on  the  Slate  Islands  of Lake  diet.  A more  S u p e r i o r by  comprehensive  Cringan (1957);  d u r i n g the summer t h e r e was a heavy dependence on f o r b s w i t h some consumption of  lichens  diet. of  shrubs, while  arboreal  lichens  predominated  The o b v i o u s problem f o r a l p i n e r e c l a m a t i o n imposed  lichens  growth. of  and  i s the  total  lack  of p r a c t i c a l  by t h e  experience with  winter  consumption  promoting  their  N o n e t h e l e s s , the a l p i n e l i c h e n s s t r o n g l y c o i n c i d e w i t h the occurence  the Dryas mats (Appendix I ) and can be encouraged  Dryas.  i n the  T h i s may  discussed  be  possible  during  i n Chapter Four, below,  the  later  but u n t i l  t o grow by  stages  of  establishing  reclamation,  such time the f r u t i c o s e  as  lichens  w i l l l i k e l y be s c a r c e .  Mine S p o i l s as a Growth Medium Shown i n F i g u r e  3,  can become the s u r f i c i a l shale  (claystone).  Of  above,  are the two main t y p e s of overburden  that  c o a l mine s p o i l a f t e r m i n i n g , namely sandstone these  two,  the  sandstone  has  and  the l o w e s t c o n t e n t of  c l a y and f e l d s p a r which w i l l r e l e a s e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s upon w e a t h e r i n g ( G a r r e l s & Mackenzie,  1971).  Moreover,  the r a t e  slower  shale  (Birkeland,  1974;  surficial  material  than  sandstone  as  a  poor  a t w h i c h sandstone w i l l weather i s Potter  et  a l , 1980),  f o r promoting  indicating  reclamation success.  T h i s has been r e c o g n i z e d i n Q u i n t e t t e ' s Stage I I r e p o r t . F o s c o l o s and S t o t t ( 1 9 7 5 ) , a n a l y z e d s h a l e from the Commotion F o r m a t i o n (Wolverine illite silicon  Ridge,  clay. and  The  north of  Wolverine  River),  normative value f o r i l l i t e  aluminum  ( i n the c l a y  lattice)  reporting  a  predominance  of  c o n s i s t s of about 78% o x i d e s of with  small  quantities  of  iron,  As i l l i t e  weathers,  magnesium, c a l c i u m and p o t a s s i u m o x i d e s (Degens,  1965).  potassium i n p a r t i c u l a r  becomes a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t  i s replaced  by water and  19  growth ( B i r k e l a n d , 1974). sedimentary  d e p o s i t s a l s o c o n t a i n s p l a n t growth n u t r i e n t s .  the o r g a n i c m a t t e r kerogen; 10%  The s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r  i s composed o f the h i g h m o l e c u l a r weight a r o m a t i c  oxygen and 2% n i t r o g e n  required, source  More t h a n  i n s h a l e the kerogen i s composed of about 81% c a r b o n ,  macronutrient  required  potassium  (Degens,  f o r plant  1965).  growth.  The l a t t e r ,  Of t h e o t h e r  I s made a v a i l a b l e from  illite  o f phosphorus i n sediments i s so l i m i t e d  specific  shale  (Degens,  1965).  present i n  analyses  (Foscolos  & Stott,  I t i s therefore  quite  compound  7% hydrogen,  of course, two  is a  macronutrients  weathering,  however the  t h a t i t i s not r e p o r t e d i n  1975) o r n o r m a t i v e  likely  95% of  that  shale  values  phosphorus may  be t h e  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n p l a n t growth on sediments such as s h a l e . Another source the  clay  lattice  Pennsylvanian 0.21%  with  with  (Stevenson,  c o a l mine,  1959).  the t o t a l  Shale  to contain  1 ppm  sodium  as ammonium, f i x e d w i t h i n  I n gray  percent  a mean of 0.17% o r 1700 ppm  Stone, 1968). reported  of n i t r o g e n i n shales occurs  calcareous  nitrogen  bicarbonate  from  of  a  0.12% t o  by K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s ( C o r n w a l l  from the Seneca Mine i n C o l o r a d o 1112 ppm t o t a l  ranged  shales  nitrogen, also  &  (2011 m e l e v a t i o n ) was  by t h e K j e l d a h l method,  e x t r a c t a b l e phosphorus.  Incubation  of t h i s  s h a l e showed m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and subsequent n i t r i f i c a t i o n were v e r y l i m i t e d i n one that  season (Reeder & B e r g , K j e l d a h l a n a l y s i s may  destruction remaining drainage  of  the c l a y  ammonium.  Power et_ a l (1974) p o i n t e d o u t , however,  indicate only lattice  While  a  by  less  a  third  of the f i x e d  hydrofluoric acid  drastic  form  will  ammonium; r e l e a s e the  of d e s t r u c t i o n , a c i d  mine  from t h e o x i d a t i o n o f p y r i t e s i n s h a l e w i l l c o n s i d e r a b l y enhance the  rate of shale weathering Stone,  1977).  1968).  oxidizable  As  sulphur,  and the subsequent r e l e a s e o f n i t r o g e n ( C o r n w e l l &  indicated o r having  by a  these high  authors, ratio  "spoils  of c a l c i u m  containing  little  and magnesium t o  20  sulphur, little  do  not  nitrogen, regardless  sediments  are  applicable; can  undergo much s i l i c a t e d e s t r u c t i o n , and  thus  low  in  of  total  sulphur  content  (Foscolos  or  &  form".  Stott,  Since  the  this  release  Commotion  problem  is  the a n t i c i p a t e d r e l e a s e of n i t r o g e n from the S h e r i f f mine s p o i l s  be  expectedly  slow.  For  this  reason  the  s e l e c t i o n of  nitrogen  considered.  Criteria for Selection Perhaps  the  greatest  reclamation  is  (Ziemkiewicz  et a l , 1978).  the  lack  drawback of  to  the  practical  For  employment  knowledge  t h i s reason,  of  of  cases t h i s w i l l Family  taxonomic  some of the  the  same  little  of  or  level,  genera  no  such as  the  Other n a t i v e  used  in  reported  species  in  information  hard  the  seed  species  alpine  encountered  seed s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  propagation  available.  problem  with  trade  journals.  the  N.E.  This  r e q u i r e m e n t s , the  Coal  Block  necessitates s u c c e s s of  reclamation  purposes.  suggested the f o l l o w i n g : 1) r a p i d development 2) low n u t r i e n t requirement 3) heavy l i t t e r  production  In  Britain,  their  I n some the  species  in of  propagation  However alpine,  for  the  there  is  propagation  c u t t i n g s and  testing so  forth,  (Appendix V ) .  S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have addressed themselves toward the for  must be  encountered  have c l o s e l y a l l i e d  in  methods  for testing.  gardens,  various in  coat  as has been done t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n t h i s study  species  species  some e x t r a p o l a t i o n from known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t  Rosaceae.  characteristics majority  entail  native  the ease of p r o p a g a t i o n  t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s e l e c t i n g n a t i v e s p e c i e s  for  therefore  1975),  f i x e r s from among the n a t i v e s p e c i e s w i l l need t o be  The  may  Whyte  s e l e c t i o n of and  Sisam  plant (1949)  21  4) t o x i c m a t e r i a l s r e s i s t a n c e 5) n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n a b i l i t y 6) p i o n e e r Similar  species*  c r i t e r i a were r e p o r t e d  by  Ziemkiewicz  et  a l (1978) f o r  reclamation  p l a n t s used on v a r i o u s A l b e r t a p r o j e c t s : 1) a v a i l a b i l i t y of seed 2) c o l d h a r d i n e s s 3) s a l t t o l e r a n c e 4) c o m p e t i t i v e a b i l i t y 5) drought  hardiness  6) low n u t r i e n t  requirements  7) p r o v i d e a balance of r o o t i n g h a b i t 8) a b l e t o f i x n i t r o g e n 9) p r o v i d e q u i c k ground coverIn w e s t e r n Canada, Mains (1977) promoted the employment of n a t i v e s p e c i e s f o r alpine  r e c l a m a t i o n , as  cycles. (1977)  A for  Colorado,  similar the  they  point  N.E.  are  of  Coal  acclimatized to s i t e  view has  Block.  For  been promoted high  altitude  c o n d i t i o n s and by  Bell mine  and  mineral Meidinger  reclamation  in  Brown et^ a l _ (1978) l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a :  1) low growth form 2) drought r e s i s t a n t 3) a b l e t o reproduce 4) grow a t low In  viewing  Influenced salt  by  to  such  unique  tolerance or  adapted  temperatures.  the  criteria site  becomes  conditions.  r e s i s t a n c e to harsh  it  growing  Where  evident one  that  reclamation  t o x i c m a t e r i a l s , another conditions  of  each  the  site  alpine.  author  site  is  requires  needs p l a n t s Nonetheless,  22  similarities  in  requirements  r e c l a m a t i o n s i t e as u n f a v o r a b l e from these s i m i l a r i t i e s , minesite,  the  are  apparent  and  generally  recognize  f o r p l a n t growth wherever i t o c c u r s .  as w e l l as from the s i t e  following c r i t e r i a  were used  Drawing  c o n s t r a i n t s o f the  to  preselect  species  the  Sheriff  for  this  study: 1) a b l e t o f u n c t i o n as a p i o n e e r  species  2) e a s i l y propagated 3) grow f a s t and/or develop e x t e n s i v e r o o t s 4) c o l d hardness and drought r e s i s t a n c e 5) f i x atmospheric  nitrogen  6) p r o v i d e w i l d l i f e The  criteria  are  likely  first this  are  listed  t h r e e c r i t e r i a and list  i n the  to meet them a l l .  of c r i t e r i a  This i s p a r t i a l l y a  forage  manageable  requirements  were  Instead,  prospective  e i t h e r of the l a s t  will  likely  intentional;  size,  o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e ,  only chosen.  those  exclude  i n order species  Practical  two.  though v e r y species  should  plants  meet  I t i s a l s o recognized  some p o t e n t i a l l y  to l i m i t which  few  that  species.  the scope of t h i s study  best  experience  useful  the  on  f i t currently site  evident  application  l i k e l y modify these c r i t e r i a , p e r m i t t i n g o t h e r s p e c i e s e x c l u d e d  to  by t h i s  will study  to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the r e c l a m a t i o n program.  S e l e c t e d Species^"  Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a  Vahl.:  Dryas has  been r e c o g n i z e d  1966)  a  and  climax  Though not a s p e c i e s u t i l i z e d as a p i o n e e r  s p e c i e s on  s p e c i e s on  as w i l d l i f e  forage,  outwash g r a v e l s ( V i e r e c k ,  a l p i n e c o l l u v i u m (Hrapko & L a R o i ,  1978).  It  23  w i l l f i x a t m o s p h e r i c n i t r o g e n (Lawrence e_t a l , 1967) that  provide  erosion  control.  i n d i c a t e i t w i l l spread consumed by w i l d l i f e , (Appendix  I)  association  that  with  Reported  i t i s e v i d e n t from the f i e l d foliose  lichens  Propagation  u n c e r t a i n , while c u t t i n g s taken Deno, 1977;  Salix  arctica  in  percent  protein et  The  forage.  than f o r b s and  major As  Cook,  a foragable  s i g n i f i c a n t pioneer,  arctica  1966; forms  extensive  while  utilized  by  sulfurescens  seed  Salix  This  Schulten,  root  L.:  While  wildlife  this  as  in  close  slow  and  (Lowe,  specimens  are  deposited  be  and  is its  generally  higher  percent  digestible  energy  (Johnston,  easily not  species  propagated  been r e p o r t e d  from as  a  w i t h Dryas ( T i s d a l e ejt a l , 1966; Hrapko  i n the  N.E.  &  LaRoi,  Coal  1978).  Block,  as  Salix  observed  study.  species  has  ungulates),  (Saunders,  is  s p e c i e s has  1975);  systems  (alpine  i s consumed  Herbarium.  grow  reported  in digestible  i n general  1955).  a l p i n e legume i s i t s a b i l i t y to f i x n i t r o g e n .  Voucher  is  directly  done i n t h i s r e p o r t  Caribou)  shrub i t w i l l  lower  d u r i n g the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n stage of t h i s  alpinum  by  being  for selecting this  however i t does occur  Barrett &  Hedysarum  survey  (vitamin A precursor)  grasses, 1971).  reason  c u t t i n g s (Hartmann & K e s t e r , 1975).  Vierick,  W h i l e not  1966)  l a t e i n the summer are more p r o d u c t i v e  phosphorus, c a r o t e n e  a l , 1968;  from  (Viereck,  L y s t e r , 1978).  Pallas:  v a l u e as w i l d l i f e  (utilized  forms e x t e n s i v e mats  increments  about 20 to 25 cm a n n u a l l y .  Dryas.  1967;  growth  and  i n the  not  been  closely  The The  reported  related  greatest  British  be  Hedysarum  advantage of  r o o t system of H.  U n i v e r s i t y of  to  this  alpinum  Columbia  24  i n v o l v e s very  long  taproots  copious  root  system  Sheriff  minesite).  just As  extending below  with  down to bedrock w i t h  the  Salix  soil  arctica,  surface H.  a  very  (personal  fine  and  observation,  alpinum  occurs  i n the  case of  with  Dryas  integrifolia.  Oxytropis these  two  important 1955). less  podocarpa Gray & (). s e r i c e a N u t t . : legumes  will  f i x atmospheric  component i n the w i n t e r  The  diet  nitrogen.  taproots.  Propagation  a c c o m p l i s h e d by seed (Appendix V ) .  0.  sericea  Hedysarum, is  of Montana M o u n t a i n Goats  r o o t systems of both s p e c i e s a r e  extensive  As  of  s i m i l a r t o H. all  legumes  also  (Saunders,  a l p i n u m but tested  an  have  can  0. s e r i c e a i s a l s o known as 0. s p i c a t a .  be  25  Chapter  Three  E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n and R e s u l t s With  their  species  of  equally  harsh  concerns  the  adaptation  alpine  ridge  conditions  the a b i l i t y  to  a  harsh  community  of  mine  growing  should  spoils.  environment,  be  The  able  to  grow  hypothesis  of n a t i v e s p e c i e s to grow on  s h a l e as  the  of  native  under this  the most  the study  fertile  and most e a s i l y weathered of p o t e n t i a l c o a l s p o i l s .  To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s ,  mature  one  plants  were grown  on  crushed  shale  c o n t r o l c o n s i s t e d of the m i n e r a l s o i l site.  Evidence  measured subjected hypothesis  by to  (Bm  during  growth  season;  h o r i z o n ) from the p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n  of s i g n i f i c a n t growth d i f f e r e n c e s between the two above-ground  biomass  statistical  hypothesis  (differences  c o n c u r r e n t l y t o determine I n the d e s i g n and  due  to  the  production. testing  Such  for  'chance').  measurements  rejection  Soil  media,  of  analyses  was were  the  null  were  done  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of n u t r i e n t s f o r p l a n t growth. e x e c u t i o n of t h i s  procedure  t h r e e assumptions were  made and s h o u l d be examined a t t h i s p o i n t : 1) i t was  Since  s i t e c o n d i t i o n s p r o h i b i t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o r t t o a pot s t u d y .  of t e s t  As mentioned e a r l i e r , the  plots, ability  of the t e s t p l a n t s t o grow on the s i t e i s not q u e s t i o n a b l e , however i t i s not known whether they would e s t a b l i s h and effect  of  adequate. s i m i l a r pot 2)  growth This  medium  was  to  a s s u m p t i o n was  grow on c o a l s p o i l .  be  tested,  the  use  of  also  employed  by  McFee  et  Since pots al  only  was  the  deemed  (1981) on  a  study. Shale  i s the  s p o i l yet i t does not reclamation plans  'ideal'  overburden l a y e r  t o become the  predominate i n the overburden.  indicate  that  "topsoil"  from the  top  Furthermore, site  will  be  of  the  Stage I I stockpiled  26  and  p l a c e d on top of the  spoil.  With r e l a t i v e l y  w i l l need t o be spread q u i t e t h i n l y  little  topsoil available i t  ( o r used o n l y on the most a d v e r s e  sites),  a l l o w i n g a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e of the s p o i l as a secondary p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . s h a l e has the  been r e c o g n i z e d  spoil,  the  i n t h i s r e p o r t as  assumption  was  made  that  I n the  superseded  by  a  r o l e as a p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h i s study w i l l  be  conditions.  site  While f o l i a r  have y i e l d e d and  tests  the  and  a  data  not  material  would  success.  i t s methods  must  a n a l y s i s f o r macro- and  necessary  f i n a n c i a l support may  such  selection for surfacing play  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e I n l o n g term r e c l a m a t i o n 3)  the best  As  be  applicable  micronutrients  (Munshower & Neuman, 1980),  be a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g s i t e  to  both  would  the  also  facilities  tests.  P l a n t and S o i l C o l l e c t i o n Both t e s t p l a n t s and of  the  S h e r i f f minesite  growth media were c o l l e c t e d from the  between May  5  along w i t h the o t h e r f o u r s p e c i e s , was n o r t h of the south  facing  ridges  from the base of the LFH  the  of  mat.  the  mat,  These  attempt was  pruning  were  moss.  Salix at  1982.  Dryas  horizon.  bags  arctica l e a s t one  acquire  (ca.  was  8  branch w i t h  some s i z e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d .  by  integrifolia,  6  capacity)  pre-formed  s i z e c u t t i n g but,  to  10  buds. as  time o n l y  ground  breaking  and  cutting a  the  10  cm  The  the  extended  down  lifting  large  c o l l e c t e d by  fragment s i z e .  litre  acquired  a standard  Dryas was  approximately  At  frozen  away woody stems and  were  side  c o l l e c t e d on a s m a l l k n o l l i m m e d i a t e l y  snowfree and  made to a c q u i r e a u n i f o r m  in plastic  made t o  soil  portions  placed  including  10,  e m b a r k a t i o n p o i n t f o r the conveyer b e l t .  t o west  sections  and  south  off portions in  diameter;  of an  fragments were then  inter-layered with  wet  cm  root  and  attempt  was  p o r t i o n of  Again,  an  i n a l l c o l l e c t e d species,  A l l s p e c i e s were packed i n the  same manner as  27  Dryas.  Hedysarum alpinum was  surface,  while  lifted.  Having much  with  most  of  the  the  fine  Creek by t r u c k .  Figure  but not wet road be  4).  The  and  i f i t did  was  soil,  not  Shale was  of  with  the  mineral  LFH  than  soil  l a y e r when  species  more  snow and  the  were about  transported  lifted 10  cm.  t o Dawson  via air freight. obtained into  on  the  n o r t h s i d e of  c l e a n c o a l sample b a r r e l s as  c o l l u v i u m , was  moist  a c q u i r e d from the r o c k f a c e exposed by This  zone o f  rock  appeared  i r o n o x i d e d e p o s i t s were noted on c r a c k f a c e s .  r e p r e s e n t i n g new The  minimized  s p o i l s i t was  necessary  to  by t r u c k t o Vancouver.  Preparation no  i t was  samples  The  c o n t a i n e r i z e d i n the same manner  preparation necessary  of  to  colluvium  break  down  was  required  the  pieces  before  of  shale.  potting  the  This  was  a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a s m a l l Jaw-Crusher, o r d i n a r i l y used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n rock  to  by c o l l e c t i n g l a r g e p i e c e s ;  c o a l mining  s h a l e was  as the c o l l u v i u m and b o t h were shipped  plants,  penetrate  " J " c o a l seam.  u t i l i z e unweathered m a t e r i a l .  While  at  Oxytropis  directly  amount of p a r t i a l l y weathered s h a l e was because the s h a l e was  part  a l s o r e f e r r e d to h e r e i n  j u s t above the  P l a n t and S o i l  both  h o r i z o n ) was  loaded  when c o l l e c t e d .  s l i g h t l y weathered as  i t s taproot  retained  taproots,  ( t o p 10 cm Bm  site  building,  system  Shipment t o Vancouver was  collection  (see  shorter  from  p l a n t s were covered  Mineral s o i l the  root  taproot  A f t e r b a g g i n g , the  severed  for  chemical  c o l l u v i u m I s shown i n F i g u r e  analysis. 5.  The  size  range  for  both  shale  of and  28 Figure 4  S o i l s P r o f i l e , Plant C o l l e c t i o n S i t e  L o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h s i d e of t h e conveyor e m b a r k a t i o n , S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e ; an O r t h i c E u t r i c B r u n i s o l (Can. System S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 1978).  ^  ,,. ,_3cm  LFH  i t  Bm  I  Horizon  18 c m  C  Horizon  51cm  1  R Horizon  ure 5  P a r t i c l e S i z e Comparison of Crushed S h a l e and C o l l u v i u m  Mean of t h r e e samples f o r each composite growth medium.  100-  80-  % Total  60-  Weight 40-  shale  colluvium  20-  2  1  .25<25  2  1 .25 < 2 5  Sieve size (mm)  30  P l a n t s were p r e p a r e d f o r p o t t i n g to  remove remnants  of s o i l .  where the o r g a n i c LFH s t i l l  by g e n t l y washing t h e r o o t s i n water  Removing m i n e r a l  s o i l was  adhered t o the f i n e r o o t s i t was  wash t h i s o f f w i t h o u t removing a l l f i n e r o o t s . was  such a problem  that  c o u l d be removed.  relatively  very l i t t l e  easy but  not p o s s i b l e t o  W i t h Dryas and Hedysarum t h i s  of the w e l l  decomposed  organic  matter  Not o n l y d i d the r o o t s h o l d the o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l t o g e t h e r  but f u n g a l hyphae abounded i n t h i s m a t e r i a l , e x a s c e b a t i n g t h e problem. species  of  planted.  Oxytropis,  as  well  as  Salix,  were  Both  c o m p l e t e l y b a r e - r o o t when  There was a two day l a g between p o t t i n g p l a n t s on the c o l l u v i u m and  s h a l e due t o problems i n a t t a i n i n g a c c e s s t o a Jaw-Crusher. After under  potting  intermittent  (5  i n c h / 1 3 cm  standard pots) a l l p l a n t s  m i s t i n the greenhouse,  days (10 days f o r those p l a n t s on s h a l e ) . first  day s i n c e bud f l u s h was  flush  was  produced  from  exception  of O x y t r o p i s  Following  the r o o t i n g  outdoor  shade  frame.  Shade was  each  frame,  podocarpa  no  allowing  by  f o r water  P l a n t s were watered d a i l y  pruned  layers  absorption  was  f o r twelve  back  during  bark.  With  t o any  the  to a  flat  plastic  the  plants.  were t r a n s p o r t e d  fashion of g r a y  the applied  a l l plants  i n similar  three  under  fertilizer  l a y e r mounted on a wooden frame.  frame,  S a l i x was  initials  under m i s t ,  constructed  provided  t h e y remained  placed  p r o c e d i n g r o o t development; much of the second  pre-formed  period  where  were  t o an  topped  window  cold  screen,  Wood c h i p s c o v e r e d the f l o o r  of the  and  frame.  higher  humidity  c i t y water.  The  frame was l o c a t e d t o p r o v i d e shade from a d j a c e n t t r e e s u n t i l a f t e r 10:30  a.m.  (PDST,  June  completely  2);  shade  removed  in  t o a v o i d water s t r e s s , u t i l i z i n g  i n the  returned stages,  after with  the  6:30  pm.  final  The being  shade taken  frames off  June  were 8;  O x y t r o p i s podocarpa c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e a s i n g l e l a y e r of shade frame f o r a f u r t h e r 20 d a y s .  The  s i d e s of the shade f rame (30—40 cm  p l a c e d u r i n g the e n t i r e growth p e r i o d t o reduce any w i n d .  h i g h ) were l e f t i n  31  Soil Fertility To  Analysis  obtain  colluvium,  information  on  the n u t r i e n t  a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out w i t h  each growth medium. Chemical  Analysis  States"  were  inappropriate differences  (USDA,  Spoils  1977).  shales  and  nine r e p l i c a t i o n s o f each l i s t  and Overburden  Some  due t o t h e i n a v a i l a b l l i t y  of  the  on  suggested  United  tests  were  required or  i n w h i c h c a s e t h e "Methods Manual,  Pedology L a b o r a t o r y " ( L a v k u l i c h , 1978) was employed. (1965).  i n Western  o f equipment, q u a n t i t i e s  i n c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e s h a l e ,  h e a v i l y on B l a c k  of both  As a g u i d e l i n e , t h e " L a b o r a t o r y Methods Recommended f o r o f Mined-Land  used  status  Both methodologies  T e s t s and methods used a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  rely  i n Table I ,  below.  Methods Used f o r F e r t i l i t y  Table I Analysis  Method  Source  pH pH Salt concentration CaC03 e q u i v a l e n t Gypsum ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) Total Nitrogen Phosphorus ( a v a i l a b l e ) Sulphate C a t i o n Exchange C a p a c i t y Basic Cations T o t a l Carbon  1:1 Water 1:2 0.01M C a C l E l e c t r i c a l conductivity Gravimetric P r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h acetone Semi M i c r o K j e l d a h l Bray's P I Turbidity Ammonium a c e t a t e & Atomic A b s o r p t i o n Leco A n a l y s i s  % I r o n & Aluminum  Sodium Pyrophosphate Extraction  In  preparation  Analysis  2  f o r analysis  both  shale  USDA, 1977 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 USDA, 1977 B l a c k , 1965 USDA, 1977 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978 USDA, 1977 F o s c o l o s & B a r e f o o t , 1970; L a v k u l i c h , 1978 L a v k u l i c h , 1978  and c o l l u v i u m  were  a i r d r i e d and  s c r e e n e d ; o n l y t h e f r a c t i o n l e s s than 2 mm was u t i l i z e d ( L a v k u l i c h , 1978).  32  Measurement of Biomass At and  the end  Production  of the growth season, e v i d e n t  change i n l e a f  c o l o r , the p l a n t s were  removed from  ( l e a v e s , stems, f r u i t s ,  r o o t s ) produced d u r i n g  removed by c l i p p i n g and  bagged  i n paper  bagged  clippings  then d r i e d i n c o n v e c t i o n a l  dry  were  weight  was  separately  obtained.  p l a n t was weighed  and  recorded.  measurements f o r l e a v e s  and  25  Drya is was  were  used  on  reported  each  of  no  feasible  the  Allmaras,  means  1969).  at  the  Above ground  biomass 65  °C  clipped  f o r roots  tips  were  two  The  constant f o r each  the growth season o r i n i t i a l l y  growth  separating  problem was  lost  a  biomass  media,  yielding  more  the  failed  soil  most  from  evident  roots  was  with  the  than  to  on  a l l species  25  leaf  t o be  inaccurate  found  (Nelson  fine  roots  &  which  D u r i n g the s e p a r a t i o n of s o i l and  r o o t s , e i t h e r by g e n t l e washing o r m a n i p u l a t i o n , more t h a n t h r e e root  biomass  on each g r o w t h medium, minus  comprised the b u l k of the season's growth.  the  was  ('roots'). until  Root measurements were c o n s i d e r e d  of  This  Biomass  by L y s t e r (1978) t o t r a n s p l a n t p o o r l y , so 50 p l a n t s  measurements per medium. as  ovens  drying,  pots.  F o r each s p e c i e s e x c e p t Dryas t h i s meant 25  number of p l a n t s which d i e d d u r i n g root.  bags'.  from below ground  Following  the  the c u r r e n t growth season  'lunch  ( ' l e a v e s ' ) was  by the c e s s a t i o n of growth  (by v i s u a l  system of Dryas was composed almost e n t i r e l y of f i n e  q u a r t e r s of  inspection).  The  root  r o o t s and t h e r e f o r e  was  not c l i p p e d . Statistical the  computer  University measurement  a n a l y s i s of the biomass  program  of B r i t i s h  "MIDAS,  Columbia MTS  parameters  (minimum  d e v i a t i o n ) as w e l l s t a t i s t i c a l involved  hypothesis  Elementary  testing  system. and  w e i g h t s was Statistics",  available  This  was  maximum  program weight,  i n f e r e n c e s r u n on  by way  a c c o m p l i s h e d through  of the Mann-Whitney  "U"  the  used t o d e r i v e  mean  'leaves'  on  and  only.  standard The  latter  T e s t and  Median  33  Test ; b o t h t e s t s measured the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e t h i s case s h a l e powerful  of  necessitating (University allowed  and c o l l u v i u m  the  two,  grown p l a n t s .  i t s power  i n populations In  W h i l e the "U" T e s t I s t h e more  i s diminished  by  ties  i n ranked  the i n c l u s i o n of t h e Median Test w h i c h i s n o t a f f e c t e d of M i c h i g a n ,  f o r acceptance  1976). or  The  rejection  significance of  the n u l l  levels  of  hypothesis  data, by t h i s  these that  tests growth  d i f f e r e n c e s between s h a l e and c o l l u v i u m were due t o chance.  Results The as  p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o l l u v i u m  o r c o n t r o l growth medium i s  follows: a) Landform:  r i d g e , upper s l o p e ,  colluvium.  b) E r o s i o n :  shedding, has been eroded i n t h e past  t o form  stone s t r i p e s . c) S t o n i n e s s :  excessively  stoney.  d) R o c k i n e s s :  exceedingly rocky.  e) S o i l water Regime:  Mesic, moderately w e l l  f) Color:  moist  2.5Y  2/1  drained.  yellowish  gray  d r y 2.5Y  5/1  black. g) S o i l t e x t u r e :  gravelly,  subangular  rock  25%;  75%  medium  granular. h) M o t t l e s :  None  i ) S o i l Structure:  weak,  fine  fraction  1  The  Histogram d i s p l a y ,  also  require non-parametric t e s t s .  to  medium  granular  structure;  2 mm = sandy loam.  available  i n MIDAS i n d i c a t e d  the d a t a t o  34  j ) Consistence:  slightly sticky,  slightly plastic,  k) Roots:  abundance o f f i n e  roots  friable,  i n LFH, more  coarse  r o o t s i n Bm w i t h t a p r o o t s p a s s i n g through C t o bedrock 1) H o r i z o n Boundary: (after  (50 - 65 cm).  LFH to Bm = a b r u p t , Bm t o C = c l e a r and wavy,  The Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  1978).  S o i l f e r t i l i t y a n a l y s e s a r e shown i n Table I I .  Table I I  S o i l F e r t i l i t y Parameters Top 10 cm of m i n e r a l (Bm) h o r i z o n f o r C o l l u v i u m Test  Shale  pH 1:1 water pH 1:2 0.01M C a l c i u m c h l o r i d e C a l c i u m carbonate e q u i v a l e n t Gypsum Total Nitrogen Phosphorus ( B r a y ' s P I ) Sulphate ( s o l u b l e ) P e r c e n t T o t a l Carbon Percent Organic Matter Percent I r o n P e r c e n t Aluminum  Colluvium  6.4 5.9 5.47% none 455 ppm 1.1 ppm l e s s than 2 ppm 5.29% 9.10% 0.029% 0.194%  6.2 5.5 0.35% none 1203 ppm 2.5 ppm l e s s than 2 ppm 10.46% 18.03% 0.104% 0.142%  Basic Cations  Shale Colluvium  Na  Mg  0.28 0.0055  3.04 2.5  K (meq /100g) 0.28 0.12  Ca  8.05 11.5  Cation Exchange Capacity  7.43 24.99  35  S u r f a c e temperatures of both s h a l e and c o l l u v i u m i n the p o t s a r e I l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 6.  These temperatures were r e c o r d e d on a c l e a r day and d i s p l a y the  l o w e r albedo of the dark g r a y s h a l e over the dark brown c o l l u v i u m . P l a n t growth response t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth media a r e shown i n Table  I I I . Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a was  the o n l y  response t o s h a l e as compared t o c o l l u v i u m .  species  t o have  a  significant  ure 6  Pot  Temperatures  A comparison of temperatures i n p o t s c o n t a i n i n g s h a l e colluvium; measured a t depth of one c e n t i m e t S from s u r f a c e , d u r i n g a one day p e r i o d ; weather was c l e a r w i t h cloud cover. a  AS  35  25J Z/ ambient V  15J  0900  1200  1500  TIME (days)  1800  and the 0/10 wxu  37  Growth Response t o Unamended Shale and C o l l u v i u m as a Growth Media  Table I I I  Population S i m i l a r i t y Species  Dry Weight Leaves ( g ) Minimum  S Salix arctica C  Dryas integrifolia C  S  Maximum  Mean  Std. Deviation  0.14  1.1  0.52  0.26  0.15  1.2  0.60  0.30  0.06  0.84  0.34  0.19  0.05  1.3  0.61  0.35  0.025  1.5  0.66  0.36  Hedysarum alpinum C  0.21  1.6  0.73  0.43  0.30  4.6  1.64  0.95  Oxytropis sericea 0.56  3.7  1.97  0.91  0.22  1.2  0.71  0.33  Oxytropis podocarpa C  0.11  S  Shale  C  colluvium  H  r  1.3  0.68  Mann-Whitney  Median Test  Significance Level  Significance Level  0.4529  0.5231  0.0002  0.0027  0.9152  0.3306  0.8797  0.1528  0.8797  0.3281  0.40  d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth due t o chance;  H\ d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth due t o growth medium.  r e j e c t i o n l e v e l s = 0.01  38  The  number of  p l a n t s which  s u c c e s s f u l l y rooted  growth season are shown I n Table  Table IV  and  grew t o  the  end  of  the  IV.  Number of P l a n t s Used I n T e s t i n g the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Growth Medium  Number of P l a n t  Species  Colluvium  Shale  Salix arctica  19  23  Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a  45  45  Hedysarum  alpinum  23  24  Oxytropis s p i c a t a  24  23  O x y t r o p i s podocarpa  10  10  The  raw  data f o r biomass measurements can be found i n Appendix IV, w h i l e  raw  d a t a on s o i l a n a l y s i s appears i n Appendix I I . By alpinum, The  most  mid-June 3 Oxytropis  dry  occurred  evident  weather  seven  of  sericea) with  significant  greenhouse, was hot,  only  growth during  i n June  i n a d v e r t e n t l y on  (June 11); O x y t r o p i s w i l t e d more permanent damage.  of  legumes  no  preference  all  Salix  and  flowered  for either after  r a i n y weather.  and  shoot  recovered  growth  (4  Hedysarum  growth medium.  removal During  ceased.  from  a  the  period  of  Water  stress  during  this  period  with watering, while  Salix  showed  Oxytropis  T i p b u r n i n g was  had  species,  c o o l and  a l l leaf  but  the  sericea  n o t i c e d on  very  few  leaves  of  Salix  39  grown on  c o l l u v i u m , however, those p l a n t s  of whole s h o o t s .  on  shale  showed  the  destruction  Of the s i x S a l i x on s h a l e w h i c h d i e d , f i v e of these e x p i r e d  s h o r t l y a f t e r the p e r i o d of water s t r e s s . Root  growth  of  all  species  was  consistently  c o l l u v i u m t h a n s h a l e ; r o o t b a l l s were l a r g e r and than were p r e s e n t  on  much g r e a t e r  colluvium  with  such r o o t t i p s . Dryas,  however,  Nodulation this  No  on  may  medium.  Mycorrhizal than w i t h  root  shale,  extensive  on  c o n s i s t e d of more f i n e  t i p development though no  on  tips  Dryas  p l a n t s were  was  missing  n i t r o g e n f i x i n g nodules were seen on e i t h e r p o p u l a t i o n  nodulation  the  have  shale.  more  was  legumes was  been  due  Interveinal  to  leaf  observed  slightly the  the  plant  more e x t e n s i v e  greater  chlorosis  Hedysarum a l p i n u m i n e a r l y August.  at  on  number  of  roots  developed  on  the  T h i s was  of  collection  site.  colluvium,  though  present older  on  this  leaves  most n o t i c e a b l e w i t h  of  colluvium,  s i n c e the p l a n t s on s h a l e had a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of younger l e a v e s . Oxytropis enhance die;  rooting.  w i t h very  evident (150 basis  podocarpa r e c e i v e d a l i q u i d s t a r t e r f e r t i l i z e r  the  ppm  little  remaining  P °5^  this  After  2  plants required assistance.  be  amounted about  d i e d a f t e r the f e r t i l i z e r were  greenhouse,  this  species  began  to  r o o t development showing on t h o s e t h a t had d i e d , i t was  added  would  removal from the  (10-15-10) to  to  24  2.7  kg/ha  treatment,  P  x  10~  2^5  5  The kg  q u a n t i t y of per  broadcast.  pot. Though  ten p l a n t s on s h a l e and  fertilizer On  a  some  t e n on  field plants  colluvium  salvaged.  Electrical  c o n d u c t i v i t y on  both  shale  and  colluvium  were  too  low  to  i s about 1.13  x  produce s a l t - i n d u c e d t i p b u r n i n g . Soil  surface  area  10 ^ ha; t h i s was  of  a  5-inch  (13  cm)  standard  pot  used t o d e r i v e the f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e .  40  Chapter Four  Summary and On  Conclusion  the  difference or  b a s i s of above ground  between s h a l e  Oxytropis  accepted.  sericea  With  must be excluded growing on  the  and  use  shale.  Dryas  mean and  maximum w e i g h t ,  shale  a  study in  in  these  fertilizer  on  integrifolia,  response  spoil  On  indicating  growth  Though  Hedysarum  alpinum  the  null  hypothesis  podocarpa,  t h i s medium the limitations  Viereck  (1966)  t h a t Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a may Northeast  though  this  (Meidinger, deposits  Coal  Block  information 1981).  t o unweathered  be an i n i t i a l  a l p i n e appears  was  Applying  not  derived  from  to  a  shale  should  D r y a s , however, i t seems l i k e l y  be  on  be  species  significantly  p l a n t s had may  be  a  lower  present Dryas  results  colonizer.  disturbed  successional tendencies  this  described  Involve  must  not i n h i b i t e d when  c o n t r a s t , showed  to s h a l e .  material.  growth  arctica,  Oxytropis  by  significant  s p e c i e s on a l p i n e outwash, i t would appear from the  the  stage  species  i s no  from the t e s t r e s u l t s , even though i t was  growth  pioneer  colluvium for Salix  of  depressed  as  and  biomass t h e r e  on  as  a  of  this  Such a  role  primarily  grasses,  surficial  deposits  weathered  surficial  done w i t h c a u t i o n .  I n the  case  of  t h i s s p e c i e s supersedes an i n i t i a l c o l o n i z i n g  s i n c e i t shows a p r e f e r e n c e f o r weathered growth medium.  In a l l tested  s p e c i e s r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d p e r t a i n t o normal S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e growth c o n d i t i o n s where water i s not l i m i t e d d u r i n g the growth season. As  a  growth  medium,  nitrogen,  phosphorus  (colluvium  or  indicate  the  Bm  and  parent m a t e r i a l and  organic  horizon).  a d d i t i o n s of  unweathered  The  shale  has  about  of  the  surface  matter  granular  o r g a n i c matter  development of s o i l .  s t r u c t u r e and and  The  half  the  mineral  slight  a l s o enhances the c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y o r CEC  soil  stickiness  c l a y i n the w e a t h e r i n g c l a y and  total  o r g a n i c matter  of  the  content  ( B i r k e l a n d , 1974); w i t h the  41  CEC  of the c o l l u v i u m g r e a t e r than t h a t of the s h a l e , the c o l l u v i u m i s a b l e  hold  onto more c a t i o n i c n u t r i e n t s t h a n s h a l e .  probably CEC.  low  s i n c e the  Foscolos  Wolverine similar River)  &  River  Stott area  values  for  region.  the  holding  This  arctica,  is  significant  Block)  values  value  the  ground  the  and  At  in  response  to  the  would  between  that  even  the  small  the  two  growth  development.  The  implications for  additions  could  analysis)  applied  promoting at  the  fine  be  component arctica  Is in  root  to  size  that  that  the  sericea. growth  Moreover, r o o t very  close  as on  the  balls  While  not  been  important use  of  had  limits  impact  nutrient  a  24  very  rather  on  Salix  showing  root  suggest  small  P 0 2  nutrients  the  by  showed r o o t on  be  a  native  effect  very  legumes have been shown t o be  site  inhibited  Salix  typical  potted by  The  important  species.  and  on  taken  hyphae.  t i p development  both  (15%  5  samples from a l l s p e c i e s ,  could  pots.  fine  kg/ha  fungal  root  availability  definite  of  a  colluvium;  of the  on  fertilizer  The  CEC  differences,  i n nutrient  association  d i d Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a  (Peace  has  the  root  media  associations  site  as  nutrient status  required.  podocarpa  a c q u i s i t i o n of from  on-site  is  mycorrhizal  samples  mycorrhizae  a  an  and  though,  of  differences  have  Oxytropis  showed  ectomycorrhizae, Since  all  r o o t growth.  minesite,  implication  media  meg/100 g,  nutrients available i s  n o t i c e a b l y enhanced i n the h i g h e r  appear  the  f o r weathering  root development i n both media, however, extended t o the It  in  shale  Rocky M o u n t a i n  present,  the  Oxytropis  the  s h a l e would produce a h i g h e r  amount of  evidenced  12  is  than  marine  and  i n the  time  clay-rich  colluvium. and  alpinum  of  11  f o r shale  i s greater  for  between  same amount  further  above  development was  the  shale  Hedysarum  CEC  c o l l e c t e d elsewhere  derived  of  report  Coal  colluvium,  capacity  limited.  (1975)  shale  sandstone  CEC  of b a s i c c a t i o n s (meg/100 g)  (N.E.  Given  a v a i l a b l e f o r the than  sum  The  to  of  plants.  increasing  42  levels  of phosphorus f e r t i l i z e r  f e r t i l i z e r should  (Kucey & P a u l ,  1980), f i e l d  applications  be kept t o a minimum i f employing n a t i v e p l a n t s .  Since whole p l a n t p o r t i o n s were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study the of s t o r e d As  reserves  mentioned  severe occurs. less  This  of  the  f l u s h was even  Salix  the  the  root  taproot  pruned c o m p l e t e l y drain  et_ a l  on  Dryas  for the  this  addressed.  study  alpine  involved  plant  a l p i n u m , where  biomass  about  W i t h S a l i x a r c t i c a the  10%  or  initial  bud  so i t would not preceed r o o t g r o w t h , r e q u i r i n g reserves  indicated  reserves  they  Hedysarum  acquired.  integrifolia)  Had  season  was  of  of  possibility  season must be  fragments a c q u i r e d  system where most  stored  (1980) have  reserves.  growth  plant  i s e s p e c i a l l y true  arctica,  stored the  of  total  greater  Tieszen  c a r r y i n g the p l a n t s t h r o u g h the  earlier,  pruning  of  from  that  the  flowering  i s dependent  been adequate t o  should  previous of  growing  arctic  upon the carry  an  season.  plants  (eg.  r e a l l o c a t i o n s of  these  a l s o have been adequate t o  plants  promote  through flowing.  Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a was  a l s o c o l l e c t e d w i t h a s m a l l amount of LFH  which  could  not  washing.  source  been  be  separated  sufficient  by  to carry  significant  the  plant  this  through the  additional  The  ability  nutrient  season, t h e r e  d i f f e r e n c e i n growth between the  the case, however as Dryas was colluvium.  Had  two  would  g r o w t h media.  have been T h i s was  no not  i n h i b i t e d by growing on s h a l e when compared t o  of these growth media t o s u p p l y  nutrients clearly  had  an e f f e c t on p l a n t g r o w t h . In  employing  Salix arctica  on  alpine  coal  B l o c k , water s t r e s s w i l l need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . where  dark  "topsoil". will  not  colored  spoils like  shale  are  s p o i l s i n the  T h i s w i l l e s p e c i a l l y be  not  covered  D u r i n g normal weather y e a r s , w i t h c o o l wet be  d e s t r u c t i o n or  a  problem,  while  even d e a t h of  sunny  and  entire plants.  N.E.  dry  by  a  lighter  Coal true  colored  summers, water s t r e s s  weather  will  lead  to  leaf  Because of  this  susceptibility  43  t o drought, S a l i x  arctica will  need  t o be employed  i n d e p r e s s i o n s or  other  m i c r o - s i t e s where water i s ensured or some s h e l t e r i n g f r o m d i r e c t s u n l i g h t i s available. The two t e s t  s p e c i e s w i t h the l e a s t i n h i b i t i o n t o growing on s h a l e as  a s p o i l m a t e r i a l a r e Hedysarum alpinum and O x y t r o p i s  sericea.  The l a t t e r  planted  as a bare r o o t mature  p l a n t and showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  shale.  Hedysarum was  with a small  planted  collar  of LFH  inhibition  remnant,  f i n e r o o t s and f u n g a l hyphae, w h i c h c o u l d have i m p a r t e d an i n i t i a l after  transplanting.  However, Dryas was  transplanted with  of LFH remnant but i t s growth on s h a l e was  a  was  held  on by  advantage  similar  significantly inhibited.  amount I n view  of such, i t appears the LFH remnant was not a b l e t o s u s t a i n growth d u r i n g the entire  growth  period.  Hedysarum o b v i o u s l y  was  able  t o root  i n t o the  shale  and e x p l o i t i t s l i m i t e d n u t r i e n t s u p p l y ; were t h i s not t h e case i t would have shown s t u n t e d growth compared t o the c o l l u v i u m grown p l a n t s .  The  chlorosis  t o a magnesium  on t h e o l d e r  leaves  deficiency  as M e i d i n g e r (1981)  area.  c h l o r o s i s may  the  The  (Hedysarum) may  have been due  i n d i c a t e d magnesium t o be  a l s o be an i n d i c a t i o n  t r a n s l o c a t i o n of elements as a r e s u l t  of  deficient  senescence  of i n t e r n a l  interveinal  i n this  brought  on  by  c y c l i n g , as i n a r c t i c  p l a n t s ( B u n n e l l , 1980).  Conclusions Of  the f i v e  native  n u t r i e n t poor s o i l s , One loss  of t h e f o u r of the f i n e  important  species  or p r o v i d e  wildlife  species, Oxytropis root  selected f o r t h e i r  ability  to  ameliorate  f o r a g e , f o u r s p e c i e s were s e l e c t e d .  podocarpa, t r a n s p l a n t e d p o o r l y  p o r t i o n of the r o o t  system.  As  this  due  species  to a i s an  component i n t h e d r y a l p i n e r i d g e s , i t i s t e m p t i n g t o use i t on  44  p o t e n t i a l l y droughty p o t e n t i a l c o a l s p o i l s .  However, i f 0_. podocarpa i s t o  be u t i l i z e d i t w i l l need t o be p l a n t e d w i t h the f i n e r o o t s i n t a c t ; t h i s might be  avoided  low  by  starting  (Appendix V ) .  p l a n t s from seed, though the  Due  t o the  species should probably Dryas significantly  less  was  the  on  shale  growth  immediate employment  on  only  lichens.  habitat,  promotion of  micro-habitat appears  to  provided  by  their  provided  require  a  by  lichens  growth can a  Dryas  shale,  Dryas should  be  Salix  arctica  the  that  this  recommended.  important  reason i t s  accomplished  higher  by  not  some  e s t a b l i s h i n g the  added  soil.  This  on  may  top  stage i n  inhibited  by  growing  on  mortality will  be  moist suited  i f planted l e s s of  magnesium  to  very be  o l d e r l e a v e s , was Oxytropis with  a  rooted  a problem w i t h  h a b i t a t s on for  as  to  the  sites  added  to  transplanting  or  water  considerable  occupy  alpine  ridges.  drainage  is  This  legume w i l l  excessive,  and  Interveinal chlorosis,  nitrogen  stress.  dry  show  Hedysarum a l p i n u m , however, i t does  soil.  a  will  planted  Water  shown t o occur on both s h a l e and sericea also  and  its  sunny weather.  where the  sites  c u t t i n g during  undisturbed  dry  not  overcome  shale,  moist  restricted  is  weathering.  on.  be  Dryas  reclamation  l i m i t the type of s i t e s i t can be  will  it  winter  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  nutrient  "topsoil"  Caribou  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o water s t r e s s w i l l Salix  showed  Nonetheless,  to  be p l a n t e d as a f i n a l  was  five  For  Successful  f o l l o w i n g a b u i l d - u p of o r g a n i c matter and While  are  mat.  though  likely  this  community, I n a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  more weathered,  unweathered  t h i s problem.  such  of  colluvium.  a l p i n e s p o i l s i s not  Because  is  trials.  species  than  i s the dominant s p e c i e s i n the c l i m a x foliose  germination  problems encountered w i t h (). podocarpa,  be dropped from f i e l d  integrif olia  percent  fixing  Moreover,  may  evident  not  be  require on  the  colluvium. legume, showed no i t was  not  problems  significantly  45  I n h i b i t e d by growing on s h a l e and w i l l  l i k e l y be t h e best of t h e f i v e  species  t e s t e d f o r p l a n t i n g i n an a l p i n e r e c l a m a t i o n program. On t h e b a s i s of r e s u l t s shown i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r a t i n g of s u i t a b i l i t y f o r u s i n g s e l e c t e d n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n a l p i n e r e c l a m a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Oxytropis s e r i c e a (). podocarpa  Hedysarum alpinum  arctica  Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a  T h i s r a t i n g i s f o r mature b a r e - r o o t e d survive  Salix  the f o l l o w i n g :  medium, and l i m i t e d however, from t h i s  handling,  moisture  p l a n t s and i s based  transplanting, a  deficiency.  group and u t i l i z e d  No  on t h e a b i l i t y t o  low n u t r i e n t  one p l a n t  should  i n a monoculture.  be  growth chosen,  As p o i n t e d  out i n  Chapter Two, v e r y few n a t i v e p l a n t s p e c i e s w i l l meet a l l t h e c r i t e r i a of s o i l a m e l i o r a t i o n and w i l d l i f e  forage  requirements.  the best s e l e c t i o n s t o meet these c r i t e r i a , are  Oxytropis  s e r i c e a , Hedysarum alpinum  w i l l add n i t r o g e n t o t h e s p o i l through the  forb  requirement  stability  through  of ungulate  extensive  term r e c l a m a t i o n p l a n s planting  stage.  Of t h e f i v e  and f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g  and S a l i x  arctica.  summer d i e t s .  probably  These s p e c i e s should  Salix  of n a t i v e  vegetation.  The f i r s t  will  two  promote  spoil  f o r ungulates.  Long  i n c l u d e Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a i n a f i n a l not be viewed as complete replacements  f o r s u c c e s s f u l agronomic s p e c i e s but r a t h e r as s u p p l e m e n t a l return  on s i t e ,  f i x a t i o n and perhaps form a p o r t i o n of  r o o t i n g and summer f o r a g e  should  species tested,  As such  they  may  best  i n promoting the  be employed  after  an  i n i t i a l stage u t i l i z i n g agronomic g r a s s e s . With alpine  t h e poor  (Errington,  growth 1978),  reclamation s i t e s (Gates, Meidinger, for  o f agronomic and  legumes  the r e g r e s s i o n  i n t h e N.E. of  agronomic  Coal  grasses  on  1962; Down, 1973; Dabbs, 1974; B a k e r , 1975; B e l l &  1977; Brown e_t s d , 1978), n a t i v e s p e c i e s a r e t h e most  alpine reclamation.  Block  The drawback t o employing  native  promising  s p e c i e s , however,  46  has  been  the  lack  of  knowledge  (Ziemkiewicz  et^ al,  reclamation  purposes,  further  knowledge along  our  1978).  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Symp., The C o a l A s s o c . Can. Mayo, J.M., A.P. H a r t g e r i n k , D.G. Despain, R.G. Thompson, E. van Z i n d e r e n B a k k e r , j r . & S.D. N e l s o n , 1977. Gas exchange s t u d i e s of Carex and D r y a s , T r u e l o v e Lowland. I n : T r u e l o v e Lowland, Devon I s l a n d , Canada; a h i g h a r c t i c ecosystem. L.C. B l i s s , ed., U. of A l b e r t a P r e s s , Edmonton. McFee, W.W., W.R. Byrnes & J.G. S t o c k t o n , 1981. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o a l mine overburden i m p o r t a n t t o p l a n t growth. J . E n v i r o n . Q u a l . 10:300-308. M e i d i n g e r , D.V., 1981. N a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n of d i s t u r b a n c e s I n the Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d . MSc T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of Energy Mines & Petroleum r e c l a m a t i o n ) , V i c t o r i a , B.C.  R e s o u r c e s , 1982.  Draft Guidelines (for  51  M i n i s t r y of t h e Environment, 1977. W i l d l i f e Resources of t h e N o r t h e a s t C o a l Study A r e a , 1976-1977. Resource A n a l y s i s B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a , B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, 1980. C l i m a t e of B.C., 1977. A i r S t u d i e s Branch. Munshower, Frank F. & Dennis R. Neuman, 1980. E l e m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n n a t i v e p l a n t s p e c i e s growing on m i n e s p o i l s and n a t i v e range. Reclam. Rev. 3:41-46. N e l s o n , W.W. & R.R. A l l m a r a s , 1969. An Improved m o n o l i t h i c method f o r e x c a v a t i n g and d e s c r i b i n g r o o t s . Agron. J . 61:751-754. P o t t e r , P.E., J.B. Maynard, W.A. P r y o e r , 1980. S e d i m e n t o l o g y o f S h a l e . S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g , New Y o r k . Power, J . F . , J . J . Bond, F.M. Sandoval, W.O. W i l l i s , 1974. N i t r i f i c a t i o n i n Paleocene S h a l e . S c i e n c e 183:1077-1079. Reeder, J.D. & W.A. B e r g , 1977. N i t r o g e n m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and n i t r i f i c a t i o n i n a C r e t a c e o u s s h a l e and c o a l mine s p o i l s . S o i l S c i . Soc. Am. J . 41:922-927. Reeder, J.D., & W.A. B e r g , 1977. P l a n t uptake of i n d i g e n o u s and f e r t i l i z e r n i t r o g r e n from a C r e t a c e o u s s h a l e and c o a l s p o i l s . S o i l S c i . Soc. Am. J . 41:919-921. R i d e o u t , C.B. & R.S. Hoffmann, 1975. Oreamnos a m e r i c a n u s . 63:1-6, The American Soc. of Mammalogists.  Mammalian S p e c i e s  R u s s e l l , W.B., 1980. The v a s c u l a r f l o r a and n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n of abandoned c o a l mined l a n d , Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s , A l b e r t a . M.Sc. T h e s i s , U. of A l b e r t a . Saunders, J.K., 1955. Food h a b i t s and range use of t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n Goat i n t h e Crazy M o u n t a i n s , Montana. J . W i l d l . Man. 19:429-437. S h i m w e l l , D.W., 1971. The D e s c r i p t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of V e g e t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, P r e s s , S e a t t l e , U.S.A. Stevenson, F . J . , 1959. On t h e presence of f i x e d ammonium i n r o c k s . 130-(3369):221-222.  Science  S t o t t , D.F., 1973. Lower C r e t a c e o u s B u l l h e a d group between Bullmoose Mountain and T e t s a R i v e r , Rocky Mtn f o o t h i l l s , N o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. G e o l . Sur. Can. B u l l . 219. Terman, G.L. & J . J . M o r t v e d t , 1978. N u t r i e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o r a t e s a p p l i e d f o r pot e x p e r i m e n t s : I . N i t r o g e n and p o t a s s i u m . Soil S c i . Soc. Am. J . 42:297-302.  52  T i e s z e n , L.L., M.C. L e w i s , P.C. M i l l e r , J . 1980. An a n a l y s i s of p r o c e s s e s of forms. I n : Tundra Ecosystems: A O.W. H e a l & J . J . Moore, eds., The 25. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Mayo, F.S. C h a p i n , & W. O e c h e l , p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n i n t u n d r a growth Comparative A n a l y s i s . L.C. B l i s s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme  T i s d a l e , E.W., M.A. Fosberg & C.E. P o u l t o n , 1966. V e g e t a t i o n and s o i l development on a r e c e n t l y g l a c i a t e d a r e a near Mount Robson, E c o l o g y 47:517-523.  B.C.  USDA ( U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ) , 1977. L a b o r a t o r y Methods recommended f o r c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s of mined-land s p o i l s and overburden i n Western U n i t e d S t a t e s . A g r i c u l t u r e Handbook No. 525. U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n , 1976. Elementary S t a t i s t i c s U s i n g MIDAS. S t a t i s t i c a l Research L a b o r a t o r y , second e d i t i o n . V i e r e c k , L.A., 1966. P l a n t s u c c e s s i o n and s o i l development on g r a v e l outwash of the Muldrow G l a c i e r , A l a s k a . E c o l . Monag. 36:181-199. V o i d , T e r j e , Robert Maxwell & Ruth Hardy, 1977. B i o p h y s i c a l s o i l resources and l a n d e v a l u a t i o n of the N o r t h e a s t C o a l Study A r e a . Vo. 2. Resources A n a l y s i s Branch, M i n i s t r y of the Environment, B.C. Weston, R.L., P.D. G a d g i l , B.R. S a l t e r & G.T. Goodman, 1964. Problems of r e v e g e t a t i o n i n the Lower Swansea V a l l e y , an a r e a of e x t e n s i v e industrial derelection. I n : B r i t i s h E c o l o g i c a l Soc. Symposium No. 5. G.T. Goodman, R.W. Edwards & J.M. Lambert, eds. W i l l a r d , B.E., 1963. P h y t o s o c i o l o g y of the a l p i n e t u n d r a of T r a i l R i d g e , Rocky Mtn. N a t i o n a l P a r k , C o l o r a d o . Ph.D. T h e s i s , Univ. Colorado, B o u l d e r . ( A b s t r a c t e d from Bamberg & M a j o r , 1968). Whyte, R.O. & J.W.B. Sisam, 1949. The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of V e g e t a t i o n on Industrial Waste Land. Commonwealth A g r i c u l t u r a l Bureau, P u b l i c a t i o n No. 14, O x f o r d , England.  Joint  Z i e m k i e w i c z , P.F., C.A. Dermott & H.P. Sims, 1978. P r o c e e d i n g s : Workshop on Native Shrubs i n Reclamation. Reclamation Research Technology A d v i s o r y Committee ( A l b e r t a ) Report No. 79-2.  53  Appendix I  P l o t s of U n d i s t u r b e d V e g e t a t i o n from S h e r i f f , Frame and Babcock M o u n t a i n s  Due t o the d i s c r e p a n c y of the Harcombe s t u d y (1978) w i t h observed physiognomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e p l a n t collection site, the f o l l o w i n g v e g e t a t i o n p l o t s were analyzed. T h i s was an attempt t o determine whether Hedysarum alpinum, not reported by Harcombe, was "endemic" t o S h e r i f f Mountain o r found a t o t h e r a l p i n e krummholz s i t e s . Division of s i t e s by m o i s t u r e is s u b j e c t i v e and does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h such r a t i n g s by o t h e r a u t h o r s ( e g . Hrapko & L a R o i , 1978), however s i t e s r a t e d as 'mesic' have a n o t a b l y h i g h e r ground coverage. From these p l o t s i t i s e v i d e n t H_. alpinum i s not found on the d r i e r p o r t i o n s of the a l p i n e r i d g e communities.  1  5  S a WSV 170 15 25  P a S 186 24 32  P a  Salix r e t i c u l a t a Salix arctica Betula glandulosa Plcea engleaannli Abies l a s l o c a r p a  +  1.2  Bedysarua alpinum Dryas I n t e g r i f o l i a Saxlfraga b r o n c h i a l i s Oxytropis splcata 0. podocarpa Arnica m o l l i s Potentllla unlflora Aconltua d e l f i n i f o i l urn Zagadenus elegans Epllobiua latlfollvai E r l g e r o n coaposltus E. g r a n d l f l o r u s E. lariat us Pedlcularis capitata P. l a n a t a Polygonum v i v a p a r u a Delphinliai glaucun Aneaone d r u s a u n d i l Vacclnlua V l t i s - l d a e a Taraxacum ovinun Solidago a u l t l r a d l a t a Antennarla a e d l a Sllene acaulls Caapanula l a s l o c a r p a Seneclo pauperculus Astragalus alplnus Hyosotis a l p e s t r l s C e r a s t r l u a spp. Saxlfraga t r l c u s p i d a t a  2.2 3.* 2.3 2.2 2.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1  Location^ Moisture Aspect E l e v a t i o n (axlO) Slope (degrees) Quadrat Area ( » ) 2  2  6  P l o t Number 17 16  7  15  177 21 49  a SSW 177 5 39  B a SSW 156 8 48  B a SW 155 26 36  B a NNW 152 19 96  2.3 2.3  3.4 2.3  3.4  1.4  2.3 3.4  ssw  F  2  3  4  8  9  S sx SW 176 22 36  F sx WNW 184 27 18  F sx SSW 186 19 45  F a S 178 11 49  B sx SSW 171 1 108  +  1.3 +  1.2 +  2.4  1.2  10 B X EST. 170 4 90  11 B sx  wsw 170 8 56  12  13  B •X NNW 186 11 40  B sx SSE 184 13 45  14 B sx  ssw 172 12 48  Species Naae 3  Grasses Sedges/Rushes Mosses Lichens  +  +  1.2 2.4 1.2 1.2  +  1.2 3.4 1.2  +  2.2 1.1  +  + +  +  1.1  1.2  +  2.3 4.4 1.2 1.2 1.1  2.3 3.4 2.3 2.2 1.2  2.3 3.4 1.3 2.2 2.3  + +  + +  1.2  1.2  +  +  +  + +  1.2  + + + + + + +  +  1.1  + + +  1.1  +  2.4 2.4  3.4 1.2  3.4 1.2  2.2  2.2  2.2 1.1 1.2  1.3  + +  +  1.1  +  + +  +  +  1.1  1.1  1.1  1.3  + +  1.3  1.3  +  +  +  1.2  2.2  + +  +  +  1.3 1.3  1.2  +  +  + +  1.2  1.3 2.3  +  2.4  2.3 1.3  3.3 1.2  2.3 2.2  2.2 1.2  1.3 1.3  2.2  + +  +  +  +  + + +  + + +  + +  +  2.4 1.2  2.3 1.2  2.3 1.2 1.2  1.2 1.2  + +  +  2.2  +  3.4 1.2 2.2  +  2.2  +  + + +  +  1.2  +  + +  2.3  +  3.4  2.4  + +  1.1  + 1.1  1.1  1.1  +  +  +  +  +  1.2  1.2  +  +  1.1  +  1.3 2.3  +  2.3 2.3  2.3  2.3 1.1 2.3  +  2.3  + +  1.2  1.3 2.3  2.3 2.3  +  1.1  +  1.1  + + +  + + +  + + +  2.3  +  1.3  1.2  1.1 2.4  +  +  +  + +  2.3 2.2  1 Location: S - S h e r i f f F - Fraae B - Babcock. 2 Moisture: a - a e s l c sx • subxerlc x - x e r i c ( i n order, a o l s t t o d r y ) Zurich-Montpellelr f l o r l s t l c description: exaaple 2.3, 2 - cover c l a s s , 3 - sociability. 3  + +  1.1  +  1.2  2.4 1.2 2.2  1.1  +  1.1  1.3 3.4 1.3 2.2 2.2 1.1 2.2  1.2  + + +  2.3  +  1.2 1.1  2.4 +  Cover c l a s s : Sociability:  +  +  +  +  +  3.4 1.2  2.3 2.3  1.2 2.2  1.2 2.2  1.2  2.2 + 3.4 3.4  +  2.2  2.2  2.2 2.2  2.2 3.2  3.3 2.2  4- IX; 1-1-5X; 2-6-25X; 3-26-50X; 4-51-75X; 5-76-100X. l-gro*s singly; 2-tufts; 3 - a a a l l patches; 4-carpetB; 5«pure p o p u l a t i o n s .  55 F i g u r e 1.1  L o c a t i o n of V e g e t a t i o n P l o t s by A s p e c t , E l e v a t i o n and M o i s t u r e  Note p l o t number 10 i s the o n l y x e r i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  56  Appendix I I  S o i l A n a l y s i s Data  Tests  plication SI* S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9  CI C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 Blank Units •S C #  pH (CaCl2)  CaC03 equlv.  Total N  Avail. P  6.40 6.45 6.40 6.38 6.38 6.35 6.35 6.35 6.38  5.83 5.78 5.90 5.90 5.93 5.95 6.00 5.95 5.98  5.8  525 f 547 525 f 438 569 656  1 0.8 2 1 1 0.5 1.5 1. 1  6.18 6.20 6.20 6.15 6.20 6.23 6.20 6.20 6.20  5.50 5.50 5.45 5.50 5.45 5.48 5.45 5.48 5.45  0.36  pH (H 0) 2  -  -  - Shale - Colluvlui - contamination or spillage  #  5.34 6.43 5.18 5.44 5.34 5.14 5.34 # #  0.18 0.12 0.42 0.38 0.28 0.70  -X  #  1444 f 1225 1247 f #  1291 1313 1225 88 ppm  2.5 2.5 2.5 • 2.5 2.5 3.2 2.0 2.5 2.5 0.0 ppm  SO4  Total C  X Fe  Z  CEC  Al  Ca  Mg  Na  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  5.43 5.16 5.31 5.08 5.43 5.20 5.35 5.16 5.50  0.041 0.028 0.028 0.027 0.026 0.030 0.030 0.027 0.028  0.029 0.019 0.019 0.018 0.018 0.018 0.017 0.019 0.018  7.50 7.66 6.72 7.81 7.97 6.88 8.06 6.94 7.34  4.60 4.60 4.58 4.55 4.51 4.52 4.58 4.39 4.45  67.33 72.49 68.01 63.25 68.11 68.69 69.18 65.29 65.48  14.98 15.67 15.18 14.50 14.69 14.98 15.08 15.08 14.69  0.35 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.0 ppm  10.65 10.45 10.42 10.42 10.57 10.28 10.40 10.51 10.44  ,104 104 ,103 ,104  0.151 0.137 0..145 0..154 # 0.138 0.134 0.137 0.143  25.56 25.06 26.00 24.69 25.63 24.69 26.41 20.47 26.41  2.11 2.10 2.05 2.04 2.05 2.03 2.07 2.05 1.05 0.22 ppm  94.67 92.34 92.53 102.94 95.35 96.13 92.53 90.88 100.99 0.31 ppn  12.55 12.07 12.16 12.84 12.45 12.45 12.16 11.97 12.55 0.02 ppa  0.16 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.14  X  104 .103 103 ,107  eq/lOOg  # #  0.09 ppn  Appendix I I I  Maximum and Minimum Temperatures, and P r e c i p i t a t i o n , Vancouver A i r p o r t , May t o A u g u s t ,  1982  Data f o r t h i s appendix was o b t a i n e d from l o c a l newspapers (Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Vancouver Sun), a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. L i b r a r y . Missing data indicate missing editions. The o r i g i n a l data was c o l l e c t e d by Environment Canada, and a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e is not available in a published form other than newspapers.  Figure III.2  60  JULY/AUGUST  1  10 July  20  1  10  20  August  31  61  Appendix IV  Biomass Data  Data i n t h e s e t a b l e s a r e i n o r d e r of r e p l i c a t i o n number, s t a r t i n g w i t h number 1 a t t h e t o p and p r o c e e d i n g down t o number 25. F o r Dryas t h i s numbering extends t o 50 f o r l e a v e s o n l y ; o v e r f l o w from t h e f i r s t column appears i n t h e second column.  62  Table I V . I  Oven Dry Biomass ( g r a m s ) / S h a l e  Dryas intergrifolia Leaves 0.19 0.44 0.30 0.06  -  0.47  -  0.72 0.11 0.44 0.43 0.55 0.38 0.20  --  0.23 0.30 0.28 0.84 0.12 0.30 0.45 0.61 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.18 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.21  Salix arctica Leaves  0.46 0.41 0.30 0.57 0.63 0.21 0.30 0.50 0.36 0.38 0.20 0.41 0.79  Hedysarum alpinum  Roots  —  0.22 0.14 0.73 0.78 0.46 0.60 1.1 0.67 0.92 0.54  -  —  0.72 0.24 1.7 1.3 0.80 0.70 3.0 1.1 2.4 1.3  -  0.32 0.78 0.27  0.95 3.7 1.8  0.33 0.30  1.8 1.1  0.30 0.53 0.30  2.0 0.55 0.36  0.50  1.7  -  -  -  -  -  -  0.28 0.30 * =  f l o w e r s / f r u i t present  Leaves 0.39 1.1 0.54 0.84 0.94* 0.56  0.45  0.57 0.62 0.64 0.41 0.67 0.35 1.1 1.2 0.74 0.87 0.025 0.55 1.5 0.14 0.20 0.88  -  Oxytropis spicata  Roots  Leaves  Roots  3.6 5.3 2.8 4.3 3.9 3.0  1.1 0.81 2.0 2.1 4.6  3.5 2.7 10.5 8.4 7.5  1.1 1.0* 1.4 1.6 0.30 0.48 2.0 1.1 2.5 0.57 0.81 2.5 3.2 1.6 2.1 1.8* 1.5 2.0 1.2  3.2 7.9 4.3 10.2 2.6 1.2 7.2 3.4 12.3 7.9 3.4 6.4 10.0 4*9 6.0 5.9 5.0 7.9 3.3  2.4  3.5 2.6 4.3 2.6 1.7 1.7 6.2 5.7 3.2 4.4 0.97 4.7 14.2 0.83 0.88 8.0  -  -  -  Oxytropis podocarpa Leaves _  -  0.42 1.2  0.80 0.22 0.90  0.75 1.1 0.60 0.81  -0.27 -  Roots —  -  3.1 3.8  -  2.4  2.2  -  0.83 6.3 3.5 2.5 1.9  -0.40 -  63 Table IV.II  Oven Dry Biomass ( g r a m s ) / C o l l u v i u m  Dryas intergrifolia Leaves 0.86 0.13 0.11 0.76 0.10 1.3 0.21 1.1  -  0.40  -  0.83 0.38 0.34 1.2 0.68 0.45 0.51 0.64 0.42 0.20 0.55 1.2 0.15 0.92 0.75 0.71 1.0 0.22 0.89 1.0 0.63 0.60  0.40 0.55 0.51  0.58  0.10 0.33 0.82 1.3 1.1 0.26 0.65 0.88 0.05 0.84  Salix arctica  Hedysarum alpinum  Oxytropis spicata  Oxytropis podocarpa  Leaves  Roots  Leaves  Roots  Leaves  Roots  Leaves  0.97 0.48 0.27 0.96 0.47 0.96 0.45 0.53 0.75 0.99 0.15 1.2 0.63 0.60  3.6 2.1 1.4 3.5 1.1 3.5 1.6 1.7 2.0 3.1 0.90 0.67 1.3 3.8  0.21 0.38 0.51 1.3 0.89 1.2 0.51 0.48 0.99 1.3 0.5 0.36 1.3* 1.4 0.66*  1.6 1.0 3.5 8.4 7.1 3.9 2.9 2.0 3.9 15.2 2.0 3.9 4.5 4.1 4.0  2.9  8.1  _ 1.0  2.2  1.0 2.9 2.4 2.5 3.5 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.1 0.56  1.8 16.0 8.9 10.6 10.0 5.9 18.7 17.2 3.9 0.20  0.42  1.1  0.71 0.37 0.18 0.64 0.25  2.1 2.1 1.3 2.3 1.2  0.43 1.6 0.37 0.23 0.40 1.1 0.27 0.61  4.1 14.6 4.6 3.8 1.8 4.0 5.9 0.85  1.4 1.4 1.8 1.1 2.0* 3.2 0.77 0.95 1.9 2.3 2.2 1.3  4.5 8.6 5.4 2.5 7.5 15.2 1.2 3.8 2.9 10.4 9.2 4.1  -  -  0.56  3.0  0.43 0.32 1.0  1.6 0.82 2.5  0.54  3.9  -  -  -  -  -  Roots _  0.11  0.44  1.3 0.64  1.5 4.6  -  0.61 --  -  -  0.60 -  -  -  0.57  2.1  0.93  6.1 2.2  0.11  0.38  1.1 -  -  -  -  -  -  64  Appendix V  P r e p a r a t i o n and Growth of Tested  Species  The following contains observations on growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e s t e d s p e c i e s , as w e l l as seed germination tests for the legumes. Suggestions for p r o p a g a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n are based on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s .  65  V.l  Salix arctica P r o p a g a t i o n of j>. a r c t i c a by  method. and  Utilizing  j u s t under the LFH  buds or cut  a 10 t o 15 cm  roots  faces  not  should  necessary. plant  are  be  available.  be  r o o t s and  dipped  About two  as  stock,  required  r e q u i r i n g pruning;  a l l shoots can  a  weather w i l l  5 1/2  inch  placed  under  root  occur during  Shade should  require  standard  the  hormones are  not  pot  a  be  longer  continued  one  mist  if to  environment root  period,  of the  rooting  f o r about  shade p e r i o d .  i s adequate f o r  this  development  the  removed at the b e g i n n i n g  period without d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s .  by  and  for sufficient  R a p i d shoot development may  provided  stem i n t o s e c t i o n s  be moved from the m o i s t r o o t i n g  be  Preformed  a m o i s t environment i s r e q u i r e d ;  t o a shade frame.  weeks, though hot  'stem', found i n  s h o o t s are e a s i l y i n i t i a t e d .  container  p l a n t s can  straightforward  underground  i n a f u n g i c i d e , though r o o t i n g  weeks are  the  easy and  A f t e r c u t t i n g the  rooting period  started  before  p o r t i o n of the  necessary.  D u r i n g the  should  take p l a c e  mat,  c u t t i n g s i s an  The  two  volume  season's growth  3 (roughly of  root  until  1200  cm  growth  ) but takes  i s too place.  about mid-summer, as  appears  to  be  keyed  to  s m a l l f o r two Growth of  long day  as  seasons as  s h o o t s and  a significant  leaf  buds w i l l  c o o l , damp weather p r e v a i l s .  length,  recurring  after  planted  o n l y on f l a t  August  amount continue  Senescence 15  at  55°  latitude. S a l i x should drainage  i s not  p r o b a b l y be  excessive.  With  frost  alpine/krummholz s i t e , p l a n t i n g should heaving. preparation of  A  rootball at  fertilizer  the  with  potting  S h e r i f f mine w i l l  though t h i s  should  be  action  not  a  t o concave s l o p e s  significant  include a container  soil  adhering  is  need t o i n c l u d e an kept  to  f a c t o r at to avoid  suggested. initial  a minimum t o  where  avoid  the frost Site  application inhibiting  66  nitrogen Based  on  Oxytropis  fixation the  in  the  a n a l y s i s of  podocarpa  to  the promotion  shale  While  mycorrhizal  i n this a  study  r a t e of  heavy f e r t i l i z e r make the  development  and 25  the  l a r g e r a p p l i c a t i o n s may  Short  term  applications w i l l  p l a n t dependent  response  (as  c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of  A  of  promote more growth,  mycorrhyzal  upon f e r t i l i z e r s .  general.  f o r phosphorus  gains i n f o l i a g e  inhibit  in  growth  kg/ha  of m y c o r r h i z a l development s h o u l d be  amelioration process.  will  and  fertilizer,  10-15-10) i s suggested.  soil  legumes  development  and  i n the  the  through  long  term  one-time a p p l i c a t i o n  of  phosphorus at 25 kg/ha w i l l p r o v i d e a source of t h e element where e s s e n t i a l l y none e x i s t s will  be  but  should  necessary  requirements  to  not  inhibit  test  Salix  t o a c c u r a t e l y assess  m y c o r r h i z a l development. and  other  native  In general, i t  species  for  fertilizer  the optimum r a t e t o promote g r o w t h , w h i l e  not i n h i b i t i n g m y c o r r h i z a l development or n i t r o g e n f i x a t i o n .  V.2  The Legumes: While  Hedysarum a l p i n u m , O x y t r o p i s s p i c a t a , (). podocarpa  this  study  p r o p a g a t i o n i s by seeds.  utilized  whole  plants,  the west f a c e of Frame M o u n t a i n , below and  On  Babcock  shoulder, ample  on  surrounding; collected  a l l three  species  the n o r t h s i d e of the  q u a n t i t y at both  these  sites  Oxytropis  before dehiscence  adit  but are  collected  at  the  end  of  can  be  face.  i s not  slightly  south  collected H.  method  Whole  on  the  of  can  seed  pods For  15, w h i l e (). s e r i c e a and H. Care w i l l  need  to  be  be  adits.  northwest found  t h e more d r y  or detachment from t h e p l a n t .  August.  of t h e  on  alpinum  available  ubiquitous.  t h i s can be done between August 1 and be  easiest  These are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e  on  Mountain  the  in  sites  should  be  (). podocarpa alpinum  taken  to  can  avoid  67  collecting point  too l a t e  as both O x y t r o p i s open t h e i r  t h e pods a r e t a n i n c o l o r  and d r y ) , w h i l e  pods when r i p e t h e loment  (at this  of II. alpinum  breaks i n t o segments when d r y ( d a r k brown). For  seedling  suggested,  but  of  growth a  in  larger  containers  volume  than  c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f r o o t growth w i l l too  Spencer-LeMaire  utilized  occur.  system  f o r conifers  is  since  a  The s e e d l i n g s w i l l l i k e l y be  s m a l l a t a 1+0 s t a g e and s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be p l a c e d out a t 2+0 y e a r s .  V.3  Dryas  integrifolia  As an a l p i n e p l a n t adapted an  a  amazing  also  species.  Dryas  able t o assimilate  integrifolia  CO2  removal of t h e snow c o v e r . when Dryas  t o a s h o r t , c o o l growing season, Dryas i s  t o about While  i s , of c o u r s e , f r o s t -5 °C and w i t h i n  soil  I s a b l e t o b e g i n i t s growth  dormancy w i t h o u t a c o l d  stimulus.  hardy  4 o r 5 days  and a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s w i l l season, J),  but i s  integrif olia  after  determine will  enter  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d a mechanism t o p r e v e n t  l a t e season growth and f r o s t damage t o new growth ( H a r t g e r i n k & Mayo, 1976; Mayo  ejt _ a l , 1977).  environment; the  insects,  flowers  the parabolic  reproductive  temperature  The  arrangement  structures  of t h e s e p a r t s ,  enticing  them  are a l s o  of p e t a l s  adapted  focus solar  (androecium/gynocecium). a warm m i c r o - s i t e  to  p o l l i n a t i o n (Kevan, 1975).  of Dryas  remain  Moreover,  longer  on  By  to the cool radiation  increasing  on the  i s provided f o r pollinating the  I), i n t e g r i f o l i a  flower  and  enhancing  i s a l s o adapted t o low  s o i l n u t r i e n t l e v e l s and i s i n h i b i t e d i n growth by h i g h l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r (Babb, 1977). P r o p a g a t i o n o f Dryas by f r a g m e n t i n g a mature mat, as was done i n t h i s study, i s f e a s i b l e  but w i l l  not be p r a c t i c a l  f o r large  scale  out p l a n t i n g .  68  Where l a r g e numbers of p l a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t h e seed heads s h o u l d and  seeds g e r m i n a t e d , p r o b a b l y  a f t e r a short  period  be c o l l e c t e d  of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .  s h o r t term s t r a t i f i c a t i o n requirements of t h e a l p i n e legumes, r e p o r t e d may  be  applicable.  germination stock  sufficient  using  be  used.  probably  pots  about  i s discussed  t o be of importance  50% peat  should  made up w i t h a v a r y i n g h o r i z o n of LFH/Bm.  size  to  a r e suggested  root development w h i l e having  appears  need  be  above,  "pricked-off"  a  on a growth medium i n c o n t a i n e r s , i f c o n t a i n e r  Paper  t h e l a t t e r aspect  matter  will  medium and p l a c e d  i s to  plant;  Seeds  The  some s o i l below.  they  allow f o r  s u r f a c e exposed around the  Since  i n t h e growth  be s u f f i c i e n t .  since  t h e presence of o r g a n i c of D r y a s ,  The r e m a i n i n g  a p o t t i n g mix  volume c o u l d  be  range of sand and p e b b l e s t o approximate an Ap  As w i t h t h e o t h e r n a t i v e s p e c i e s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o  i n t r o d u c e the a p p r o p r i a t e organisms t o e s t a b l i s h n o d u l e s and m y c o r r h i z a e  into  the p o t t i n g mix. Perhaps program w i l l part might  the greatest  be t h e c o n c u r r e n t  of t h e C a r i b o u be  attached  advantage  diet  accomplished  and w i l l  the exposed s o i l  Dryas  the  By c o l l e c t i n g  be made.  surface, provided  in a  reclamation  lichens.  These form  need t o be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d .  i s t o introduce  a s l u r r y could  with  development of f r u t i c o s e  t o t h e p o t t i n g medium.  i n a blender,  gained  lichens  Dryas,  this  already  l i c h e n s and chopping them up  The s l u r r y c o u l d  w i t h paper p o t s .  n a t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n by f r a g m e n t a t i o n  with  One way  ( A l v i n , 1977).  t h e n be poured  into  Such a method may mimic  69  V.3  The Legumes Germination  tests  on  seed  of t h e t h r e e  legumes  v i c i n i t y of t h e S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e (Frame Mtn.) i n d i c a t e stratification  i s beneficial  t o two s p e c i e s .  Table  collected  i n the  a s h o r t p e r i o d of c o l d I X shows t h e r e s u l t s of  these t e s t s :  T a b l e V.I  G e r m i n a t i o n T e s t i n g f o r U n s t r a t i f i e d and S t r a t i f i e d Legume Seed  V a l u e s a r e t h e mean of f i v e r e p l i c a t i o n s , or minus the s t a n d a r d e r r o r ; Germinator  was  used  a  plus  Jacobsen-Zepher  for this  testing;  day  l e n g t h was 12 hours under G r o - l u x lamps.  Species  %G  Unstratified %GC Rio(days)  %G  Stratified %GC Rio(days)  Hedysarum alpinum  72+1.8  88+2.2  6+0.2  60+2.7  88+4.9  1+0  Oxytropis sericea  49+2.2  87+1.3  5+0.4  14+0.9  78+1.8  5+0.4  Oxytropis podocarpa  14+1.8  92+1.3  14+0.9  13+1.8  90+0.9  2+0.4  %G %GC  = =  Rio  =  p e r c e n t of t o t a l seed germinated percent germination c a p a c i t y , d i s r e g a r d i n g time; %GC = %G + % sound seed a t end of t e s t r a t e i n days r e q u i r e d t o germinate 10% of %GC  70  Stratification b l o t t e r paper for  and  26 days.  requiring  was  accomplished  then i n a p l a s t i c  by  bag.  placing The  the  blotter  germination  paper  to  be  was  due  stratification this  between  bags were h e l d at about  dipped  in  Hedysarum  alpinum  and  s e r i c a d i d not b e n e f i t from s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; seed  seed  T h i s i s an e f f e c t i v e method but i s s u b j e c t t o mold previously  S t r a t i f y i n g these legume seeds d i d not improve of  the  i n part period  t o t h e mold was  the %G  p e r i o d , w i t h germinants d y i n g .  2 °C  development, a  fungicide.  but d e c r e a s e d the r a t e  O x y t r o p i s podocarpa.  Oxytropis  the d e c r e a s e i n %G  stratified  infesting  excessive since  in  wet  stratified  both  of  seed.  The  26  O x y t r o p i s germinated  This l i k e l y  contributed  day  during  t o the l a c k of  i n c r e a s e i n the %G w i t h s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . For  r e c l a m a t i o n work on the S h e r i f f m i n e s i t e , O x y t r o p i s podocarpa  be c o l l e c t e d at  about  mid-August.  the end of August.  season's two  seed  days.  £.  s e r i c e a and Hedysarum a l p i n u m pods  A l l three s p e c i e s are e a s i l y  requirement c o u l d  be met  by two  collected  people  The volume of c l e a n seed f o r (). podocarpa  pods; 0. s e r i c e a produces about 2 1 g / l of seed pods. to  be  c l e a n e d as  t h e loment  breaks  into  the  utilized  either small  Oxytropis. portion  collected, the will  seed,  two  may  the  weight  of  seed  A l l seed  s h o u l d be  be  and  empty  seed  per  1 6 g / l of seed  segments and  litre  will  be  much l o w e r  inspected during c o l l e c t i o n  i s also  or  will  S i n c e the seed pods a r e p a r t of  subject to  o r v a l v e s of the legume pod.  Tumbling  environment  than  since  boring insects.  pods of O x y t r o p i s s h o u l d be p l a c e d I n a d r y  "shells"  f o r one  a  E. a l p i n u m does not need  individual  sprout from the segment w i t h o u t i n h i b i t i o n .  ripen  by hand and  collecting i s about  can  a  Once  t o open  t h e seeds and  pods  s e p a r a t e most of the seeds, which t h e n need be passed t h r o u g h a n e s t of  sieves  t o remove f o r e i g n m a t t e r .  Both O x y t r o p i s w i l l  collect  on  the 1  mm  71  mesh, along gentle  blowing.  possible and  with  a  few l e a f l e t s  For storage  o r mold w i l l  probably  below  w i l l germinate.  0  occur. °C  check  unstratified  c a n be  separated  a l l legume seeds w i l l Storage  temperature  as O x y t r o p i s  seed  need  ( i f necessary)  by  t o be as d r y as  s h o u l d be w e l l below 5 °C  in a  moist  2  °C  environment  About one week b e f o r e t h e seed i s r e q u i r e d , Hedysarum and 0.  podocarpa s h o u l d be s t r a t i f i e d . days;  that  stratified  T h i s p r o c e s s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t exceed  seed  ( 0 . s e r i c e a ) seed  daily  for  germination.  c o u l d t h e n be germinated  before p r i c k i n g - o f f t o c o n t a i n e r s .  Stratified  five and  on a s u i t a b l e medium  

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