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Through words and silence: a comparative study of William Johnston and Thomas Merton, Roman Catholics… Kendall, John James 1982

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THROUGH WORDS "AND SILENCE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WILLIAM JOHNSTON AND THOMAS MERTON, ROMAN CATHOLICS IN DIALOGUE WITH ZEN. by JOHN JAMES KENDALL B.A. (Hons.) Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland, 1978 A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA • October, 1983 (c)John James K e n d a l l , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis fo r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of t-oos S-W<L Lg-S The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date D E - 6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t C u l t u r e s have always i n f l u e n c e d one a n o t h e r to some e x t e n t . Yet never b e f o r e has the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of c u l t u r e s been as e x t e n s i v e as i t i s today. Never b e f o r e have we had such s o p h i s t i -c a t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n as we have today. These two developments l e a v e us w i t h a heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ev o l v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of humankind', which w i l l h e l p p r e v e n t a r a v i s h i n g of' the w o r l d by peopl e of a l l c u l t u r e s who remain too l o c k e d i n t o views of r e a l i t y that" l e a d t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and v i o l e n c e r a t h e r than t o t h a t compassion which more than ever i s demanded by the n a t u r e of our t i m e s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l e x p l o r e the develppment of one form of i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n : the meeting between Zen Buddhism and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . I t seeks to u n r a v e l some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n . I t examines v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s . o f s p i r i t u a l i t y f ound i n s e l e c t e d works of two Roman C a t h o l i c w r i t e r s , W i l l i a m Johnston and Thomas M.erton. Themes common t o the thought of both men w i l l be used as a background a g a i n s t which the t h r u s t of my argument w i l l be made. A r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between.the approaches of the two c o n s i s t e n t l y c o l o u r s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e stands, on each of the major themes c o n s i d -ered i n the i n d i v i d u a l chapters, of t h i s s t u d y , on t h e i r views of C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards Zen and t h e i r approaches to i i i symbols and r e a l i t i e s f o u n d i n d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . This d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be t r a c e d . u l t i m a t e l y t o -their d i f f e r e n t . e.pistemol.ogies , examined i n my f i n a l c h a p t e r . Out of the work of the two men two c o n t r a s t i n g c r e a t i v e approaches t o d i a l o g u e w i l l be expounded. The c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h Zen Buddhism l e a d s t o a g r e a t enrichment of u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the w r i t i n g s of Johnston and Merton, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g both of e a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y and of C a t h o l i c i s m . Johnston develops a p e r s p e c t i v e which uses the study of Zen f o r the e l a b o r a t i o n of meanings i m p l i c i t i n C h r i s t i a n l i f e and thought; he a l s o develops an overview of human s p i r i t u a l i t y which a l l o w s an e s s e n t i a l r o l e f o r a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . Merton develops a r a d i c a l a t t i t u d e towards a l l e x p r e s s i o n which f i n a l l y emerges from h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o the b o t t o m l e s s depths from which a l l e x p r e s s i o n emerges and t o which a l l e x p r e s s i o n f i n a l l y p o i n t s . This l e a d s t o a l i b e r a t i o n from the need f o r a b s o l u t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n any one r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n i n p r e f e r e n c e to any o t h e r . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s ' v i e w of Merton's thought, consonant w i t h much t h a t i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g undertaken i n the area of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , has not been e l a b o r a t e d b e f o r e . I t r e p r e s e n t s a new approach t o Merton and h e l p s to e x p l a i n some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s C a t h o l i c w r i t e r s have had i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s t a r t l i n g man. Merton uses the i d e a s and symbols of r e l i g i o n w i t h p o e t i c freedom, Johnston w i t h r a t i o n a l commitment. T h e i r p o s i t i o n s can be viewed as c o n t r a d i c t o r y or as complementary. E i t h e r way, they serve as u s e f u l models f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of one of the most e x c i t i n g developments i n modern man's unique c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . 1 I. THE FOUNDATION OF HUMAN NATURE 28 I I . METHOD IN THE SPIRITUAL LIFE U I I I . THE EXPERIENCE OF ENCOUNTER 76 IV. THEOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS 111 V. PRINCIPLES OF DIALOGUE . . . 1 42 FOOTNOTES SOURCES CONSULTED Ac'k'ri owl e dg em en t s v A number of p e o p l e have been i n v o l v e d i n . the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . Among those i n the Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia I must mention, f i r s t of a l l , P r o f e s s o r s Shotaro I i d a and W i l l i a m N i c h o l l s who have s e r v e d a t d i f f e r e n t times as my t h e s i s a d v i s e r s . I a l s o want to thank P r o f e s s o r s K e i t h C l i f f o r d , P a u l Mosca and Joe R i c h a r d s o n who have o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e i n v a r i o u s ways d u r i n g the f i v e y e a r s I have been e n r o l l e d as a master's s t u d e n t a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . The debt which I owe t o P r o f e s s o r David B e l l of Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland i s i n c a l c u l a b l e . Not o n l y d i d he p r o v i d e me w i t h my b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s but he s e r v e d as an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r my c o n t i n u i n g i n t h i s a r e a . Without h i s example t h i s work would not have been un d e r t a k e n . F i n a l l y my; h e a r t f e l t thanks t o Marlene B r u s h e t t , who shared my l i f e d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of t h i s s t u d y , t o Sherry Miyamoto and M a r c e l a A d l e r , who d i d my t y p i n g , and t o David L o k e r , J e a n n i e Loughrey, T e r r y and Joanne Parsons and M i c h a e l S h i l l i n g f o r d , f o r the encouragement and support of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p s . For f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e I am i n d e b t e d t o the Canada C o u n c i l and The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. - 1 -I n t r o d u c t i o n A mere g l a n c e a t the c o n d i t i o n .of t h i s w o r l d s h o u l d c o n v i n c e us of the i n e p t i t u d e of a l l human e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a p a r a d i s e on e a r t h , no matter i n what g u i s e i t be s t r i v e n f o r . Has not t h a t a n x i e t y , which some p h i l o s o p h e r s b e l i e v e c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i -mary mode of human e x i s t e n c e , g r i p p e d the whole w o r l d i n u n f o r s e e n ways?. Where i s t h e r e a ray of hope f o r man? Are we n o t • p i l g r i m s , underway t o the e t e r n a l , i n q u e s t of u l t i m a t e t r u t h ? Have we n o t t o a s s i s t and l e a r n from each o.ther on the way? H e i n r i c h Dumoulin People do not l i v e by. .bread a l o n e . They, are a l s o s u s t a i n e d by t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s and by the s o c i e t i e s of which they a r e members. Humans a r e born i n t o p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d - v i e w s ; t r a d i t i o n -a l l y they a l s o d i e d w i t h the same w o r l d - v i e w s which they would have used, w i t h o u t much c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , throughout the course of t h e i r l i v e s . G e n e r a l l y p e o p l e a c c e p t both of these i n t e r r e a l a t e d p a r t s of t h e i r w o r l d s - t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s and t h e i r s o c i e t i e s - as a b s o l u t e . Yet t h a t to which p e o p l e t u r n f o r s u s t e n a n c e , l i k e p eople t h e m s e l v e s , undergoes t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . G r e g o r y Bateson has sug-g e s t e d t h a t i d e a s , l i k . e s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s , s h o u l d be under-2 s t o o d as h a v i n g n a t u r a l h i s t o r i e s . They are bound by l i m i t s , have shape, s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s , respond to t h e i r environment, a d j u s t i n g t o i t i n v a r i o u s ways,.age, and, though s u b j e c t t o sometimes s u r p r i s i n g r e s u r r e c t i o n s , , e v e n t u a l l y d i e . They do n o t , i n t i m e , remain c o n s t a n t . Today s o c i e t y i s changing..The l i m i t s of our w o r l d s , i n v a r y i n g ways and t o v a r y i n g e x t e n t s , are s h i f t i n g . Much of the - 2 -w o r l d i s p a s s i n g through a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e s o c i a l f l u x . At the same time i d e a s and.ways of t h i n k i n g a r e changing t o an unprece-dented degree. I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o draw sharp bound-a r i e s about our own c u l t u r e s as we once might have done, and g i v e them c e r t a i n d e f i n i t i o n . In the p a s t one very important' way of d o i n g t h i s i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g other people or i d e a s as " a l i e n " or " s t r a n g e " or " o u t s i d e " t h e r e b y , through i s o l a t i o n , m a i n t a i n i n g a sense as w e l l of the i n s i d e , of o n e s e l f or one's c u l t u r e . Today i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s have l e d t o our a b s o r b i n g p a r t s of those c u l t u r e s i n t o our own, not w i t h o u t c o n f l i c t and w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s which may be a p p r e c i a t e d only by f u t u r e h i s t o r i a n s . R e l i g i o n i s one of the a r e a s most s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the c u l t u r a l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the modern w o r l d . This t h e s i s examines developments w i t h i n Roman C a t h o l i c i s m which have been s t i m u l a t e d by i t s c o n t a c t w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism. The very e x i s t e n c e of t h i s C h r i s t i a n - B u d d h i s t d i a l o g u e w i l l s u r p r i s e some. Ot h e r s , however, a r e l e s s s u r p r i s e d by i t s e x i s t e n c e than they are c o n v i n c e d of i t s i m p o r t a n c e . A r n o l d Toynbee has w r i t t e n : When the h i s t o r i a n of a thousand y e a r s from now comes to w r i t e the h i s t o r y of our t i m e , he w i l l be p r e o c c u p i e d not w i t h the Vietnam War, n o t w i t h the s t r u g g l e between c a p i t a l i s m and communism, not w i t h r a c i a l s t r i f e , but w i t h what happened when f o r the f i r s t time C h r i s t i a n i t y and Buddhism began t o p e n e t r a t e one another d e e p l y . though i t might be s a i d t h a t Toynbee a l l o w s h i m s e l f more v i s i o n a r y scope than becomes a s e r i o u s h i s t o r i a n , , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comment, i s apropos h e r o . I t i n d i c a t e s the s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h which t h i s d i a l o g u e , t h i s " i n t e r - p e n e t r a t i o n " i s taken by a foremost h i s t o r i a n of the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y . - 3 -John Hick p u t s the case more c a u t i o u s l y though w i t h e q u a l f o r c e : W i t h i n the l a s t few decades i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e has begun i n many p a r t s of the w o r l d . T h i s i s bound t o i n f l u e n c e the f u t u r e development of each t r a d i t i o n . For the r e l i g i o n s a r e n o t r o c k - l i k e e n t i t i e s , "the same y e s t e r d a y , today and f o r e v e r " , but are on the c o n t r a r y h i s t o r i c a l movements u n d e r g o i n g c o n t i n u o u s change and growth. As l i v i n g organisms they i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r environment; and i n the u n i f i e d w o r l d of modern commu-n i c a t i o n s the o t h e r r e l i g i o n s form p a r t of the e n v i -ronment w i t h which each i s i n i n t e r a c t i o n . I t does n o t f o l l o w t h a t the r e l i g i o n s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f l o w t o g e t h e r i n t o a s i n g l e w o r l d f a i t h - i n d e e d t h a t seems h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e . But i t does mean t h a t f u r t h e r t h i n k -i n g w i t h i n each t r a d i t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be done, to an i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t , i n the l i g h t of the v a r i o u s o p t i o n s opened up by awareness of the other t r a d i t i o n s . The s t o r y of Roman C a t h o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Japanese Bud-dhism i s a c t u a l l y s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s o l d . The f i r s t C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s to Japan were the J e s u i t s who a r r i v e d a t Kagoshima i n 15A9. One of these p r i e s t s , F r a n c i s X a v i e r , was very e n t h u s i -a s t i c about the p e o p l e he encountered,, remarking t h a t the Japa-nese s u r p a s s e d the European C h r i s t i a n s so g r e a t l y i n " t h e i r c u l -t u r e , t h e i r s o c i a l usages and t h e i r mores" t h a t one had t o be 5'-ashamed t o say so. The e a r l y C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n i n Japan grew rem a r k a b l y . Thou-sands of c o n v e r t s were made, s e m i n a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and the J e s u i t p r i e s t s were i n f l u e n t i a l w i t h Japanese p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . The s t o r y of t h i s p e r i o d i s t o l d by C h a r l e s Boxer i n The C h r i s t i a n Century i n Japan. The e a r l y s u c c e s s e s of the. . C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n i n Japan d i d not c o n t i n u e , however. The J e s u i t s a r r i v e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d of g r e a t p o l i t i c a l f l u x i n the c o u n t r y . T h i s p e r i o d ended w i t h the - A -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c e n t r a l i z e d government under Nobunaga, H i d e y o s h i and e s p e c i a l l y Tokugawa Ieyasu. who e s t a b l i s h e d the Tokugawa Shog.unate. which., was. t o c o n t i n u e f o r s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s . V a r i o u s reasons-have been p r o f f e r r e d f o r the C a t h o l i c s ' 7 l o s s of p o p u l a r i t y . These w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d here but i t i s worth n o t i n g a c ouple of the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . These were an i n c r e a s e d awareness- on. the p a r t of the shoguna.te of the c o n n e c t i o n between the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r , . m i l i t a r y f o r c e s and the n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards C a t h o l i c s brought by the more g r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d Dutch and E n g l i s h . In 1614- an e d i c t of e x p u l s i o n was i s s u e d . I t d e c l a r e d i n p a r t t h a t the K i r i s h i t a n band have come t o Japan ... l o n g i n g to d i s s e m i n a t e , an e v i l l a w, t o overthrow t r u e d o c t r i n e , so t h a t they many change the government of the c o u n t r y , and o b t a i n p o s s e s s i o n of the l a n d . T h i s ^s the germ of a g r e a t d i s a s t e r , and must be c r u s h e d . A p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g p e r s e c u t i o n s f o l l o w e d and thousands of C h r i s t i a n m a r t y r s went t o t h e i r d eaths. During the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s the C h r i s t i a n f e l l o w s h i p had to go underground, where i t s u r v i v e d i n small, numbers and c u r i o u s form u n t i l the m i d d l e of the l a s t c e n t u r y . ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the e a r l i e s t J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s p a r t o o k i n some Japanese ceremonies, n o t a b l y the "cha-no-yu" or "way of t e a " . They were concerned .with adapting, themselves t o the Japanese c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t h a t they might b e t t e r be a b l e t o p r e s -ent t h e i r C h r i s t i a n message t o these p e o p l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Dumoulin, Zen p r e s e n t e d thern w i t h a g r e a t c h a l l e n g e f o r they- r e g a r d e d i t as - 5 -the most i m p o r t a n t form of Japanese Buddhism. Yet of a l l the 1 2 B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s i t was "most c o n t r a r y t o the law of God" and the Zen p r a c t i t i o n e r s r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s which the m i s s i o n a r i e s were a t a l o s s to h a n d l e . A c c o r d i n g to one of them: "The people who make the g r e a t m e d i t a t i o n s s t a t e q u e s t i o n s which n e i t h e r S a i n t Thomas nor Scotus c o u l d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answer to the unbe-1 3 l i e v e r s . " Dumoulin t e l l s us t h a t w h i l e the e a r l y J e s u i t s were aware of the c h a l l e n g e p r e s e n t e d t o the . r a t i o n a l mind by the Zen p r a c t i t i o n e r s and w h i l e they r e c o g n i z e d i t s a e s t h e t i c development, they were b l i n d t o the m y s t i c a l s i d e of Zen. C l e a r l y the d i f f e r - m ences between the Japanese and the w e s t e r n C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s were, a t the extreme, so r a d i c a l t h a t no easy framework of under-s t a n d i n g c o u l d be found t o accomodate them. The q u e s t i o n s remain. Even today one of the i s s u e s sometimes- r a i s e d i s whether or not 1 A Zen can be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l i g i o n i n the w e s t e r n sense. Some of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two t r a d i t i o n s a r e ex-p l o r e d i n the f a s c i n a t i n g n o v e l s of Shusaku Endo, a contemporary w r i t e r who i s h i m s e l f both Japanese and C a t h o l i c . H i s S i l e n c e , which c e n t e r s around the a c t u a l . a p o s t a s y of the P r o v i n c i a l of the Japanese J e s u i t s , C h r i s t o v a o F e r r e i r a i n 1632, i m a g i n a t i v e l y and s e n s i t i v e l y r a i s e s some of the i s s u e s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more a c a d e m i c a l l y i n t h i s t h e s i s . I . o f f e r a l e n g t h y q u o t a t i o n from t h i s n o v e l s i n c e i t so v i v i d l y d e p i c t s the i n t e n s i t y and c o m p l e x i t y of the c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e d i n the e a r l i e s t m i s s i o n a r y work. T h i s e x c e r p t i n v o l v e s a meeting between the a p o s t a t e F e r r e i r a and R o d r i g u e s , a former s t u d e n t of h i s a t seminary i n Spain who i s deeply d i s t r e s s e d by h i s former mentor's apparent - 6 -b e t r a y a l of C h r i s t i a n i t y : 'For twenty y e a r s ...' Lowering h i s eyes F e r r e i r a whis-pered weakly. 'For twenty y e a r s I have l a b o r e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y . I know i t b e t t e r than you.' 'During those twenty y e a r s as. S u p e r i o r you d i d m a r v e l l o u s work,' s a i d the p r i e s t , r a i s i n g h i s v o i c e i n an attempt t o encourage the o t h e r . ' I r e a d w i t h g r e a t r e s p e c t the l e t t e r s you sent to the headquaters of the S o c i e t y . ' ' W e l l , b e f o r e your eyes stands the f i g u r e of an o l d m i s s i o n a r y d e f e a t e d by m i s s i o n a r y work.' 'No one can be d e f e a t e d by m i s s i o n a r y work.' When you and I a r e dead y e t an o t h e r m i s s i o n a r y w i l l board a junk a t Macao and s e c r e t l y come ashore somewhere i n t h i s c o u n t r y . ' 'He w i l l c e r t a i n l y be c a p t u r e d . ' This time i t was the i n t e r p r e t e r who q u i c k l y i n t e r r u p t e d . 'And when-ever one i s c a p t u r e d i t i s Japanese b l o o d t h a t w i l l f l o w . How many times have I t o l d you t h a t i t i s the Japanese who have t o d i e f o r your s e l f i s h dream. I t i s time t o l e a v e us i n peace.' 'For twenty y e a r s . I l a b o r e d i n the m i s s i o n . ' With e m o t i o n l e s s v o i c e F e r r e i r a r e p e a t e d the same words. 'The one t h i n g I know i s t h a t our r e l i g i o n does not take r o o t i n t h i s c o u n t r y . ' ' I t i s n o t t h a t i t does n o t ta k e r o o t , ' c r i e d R o drigues i n a l o u d v o i c e , s h a k i n g h i s head. ' I t ' s - 7 -t h a t the r o o t s a r e t o r n up.' At the l o u d c r y of the p r i e s t , F e r r e i r a d i d not so much as r a i s e h i s head. Eyes l o w e r e d he answered l i k e a puppet w i t h o u t emotion: 'This c o u n t r y i s a swamp. In time you w i l l come t o see t h a t f o r y o u r s e l f . T h i s c o u n t r y i s a more t e r r i b l e swamp than you can ima g i n e . Whenever you p l a n t a s a p l i n g i n t h i s swamp the r o o t s b e g i n t o r o t ; the l e a v e s grow y e l l o w and w i t h e r . And we have p l a n t e d the s a p l i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h i s swamp.' 'There was a time when the s a p l i n g grew and sent f o r t h l e a v e s . ' 'When?' For the f i r s t time F e r r e i r a gazed d i r e c t l y a t the p r i e s t , w h i l e around the sunken cheeks p l a y e d the f a i n t s m i l e of one who p i t i e s a y o u n g s t e r w i t h no knowledge of the w o r l d . 'When you f i r s t came to t h i s c o u n t r y churches were b u i l t everywhere, f a i t h was. f r a g r a n t l i k e the f r e s h f l o w e r s of the morning, and many Japanese v i e d w i t h one another to r e c e i v e baptism l i k e the Jews who g a t h e r e d a t the J o r d a n . ' 'And s u p p o s i n g the God whom those Japanese b e l i e v e d i n was n o t the God of C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g ...' F e r r e i r a murmured these words s l o w l y , the s m i l e of p i t y s t i l l l i n g e r i n g on h i s l i p s . F e e l i n g an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e anger r i s i n g up from the depth of h i s h e a r t , the p r i e s t u n c o n s c i o u s l y c l e n c h e d h i s f i s t s . 'Be r e a s o n a b l e , ' he t o l d h i m s e l f - 8 -d e s p e r a t e l y . 'Don't be d e c e i v e d by t h i s s o p h i s t r y . The d e f e a t e d man uses any s e l f - d e c e p t i o n whatsoever t o defend h i m s e l f . ' 'You a r e denying the u n d e n i a b l e , ' he s a i d a l o u d . 'Not a t a l l . What the Japanese of t h a t time be-l i e v e d i n was n o t our God. I t was t h e i r own gods. For a l o n g time we f a i l e d t o r . e a l i z e t h i s and f i r m l y be-l i e v e d t h a t they had become C h r i s t i a n s . ' F e r r e i r a s a t down on the f l o o r w i t h a g e s t u r e of t i r e d n e s s . The bottom of h i s kimono f e l l open e x p o s i n g d i r t y bare l e g s , t h i n l i k e p o l e s . ' I am s a y i n g t h i s n e i t h e r to defend my s e l f nor t o c o n v i n c e you. I suppose t h a t no one w i l l b e l i e v e what I am s a y i n g . Not only you but the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n Goa and Macao and a l l the European p r i e s t s w i l l r e f u s e t o b e l i e v e me. And y e t , a f t e r twenty y e a r s of l a b o r here I knew the Japanese. I saw t h a t l i t t l e by l i t t l e , a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y , the r o o t s of the s a p l i n g we had p l a n t e d decayed.' ' S a i n t F r a n c i s X a v i e r R o d r i g u e s , unable t o c o n t a i n h i m s e l f any l o n g e r , i n t e r r u p t e d the o t h e r w i t h a g e s t u r e . ' S a i n t F r a n c i s X a v i e r , when he was i n Japan, d i d n o t have t h a t i d e a . ' 'Even t h a t s a i n t , ' F e r r e i r a nodded, ' f a i l e d t o n o t i c e t h i s . But h i s very word "Deus" the Japanese f r e e l y changed i n t o " D a i n i c h i " (The Great Sun). To the Japanese who adored the sun the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of "Deus" and " D a i n i c h i " was almost the same. Have you not r e a d the l e t t e r i n which X a v i e r speaks of t h a t m i s t a k e ? ' - 9 -' I f X a v i e r had had a good i n t e r p r e t e r such a s t r a n g e and t r i f l i n g e r r o r would never have a r i s e n . ' 'By no means. You don't u n d e r s t a n d what I'm s a y i n g . ' For the f i r s t time nervous i r r i t a t i o n appeared around h i s temples as F e r r e i r a . a n s w e r e d . 'You u n d e r s t a n d n o t h i n g . And the crowd t h a t comes f o r s i g h t - s e e i n g t o t h i s c o u n t r y from the m o n a s t e r i e s of Goa and Macao c a l l i n g themselves a p o s t l e s - they u n d e r s t a n d n o t h i n g e i t h e r . From the b e g i n n i n g those same Japanese who c o nfused "Deus" and " D a i n i c h i " t w i s t e d and changed our God and began t o c r e a t e something d i f f e r e n t . Even when the c o n f u s i o n of v o c a b u l a r y d i s a p p e a r e d the t w i s t i n g and changing s e c r e t l y c o n t i n u e d . Even i n the g l o r i o u s m i s s i o n a r y p e r i o d you mentioned the Japanese d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n the C h r i s t i a n God but i n t h e i r own d i s t o r t i o n . ' 'They t w i s t e d and changed our God and made some-t h i n g d i f f e r e n t ! ' The p r i e s t s l o w l y b i t the words w i t h h i s t e e t h . ' I s n ' t even t h a t our Deus?' 'No! In the minds of the Japanese the C h r i s t i a n God was c o m p l e t e l y changed.' 'What a r e you s a y i n g ? ' At the p r i e s t ' s l o u d c r y the c h i c k e n t h a t had been q u i e t l y n i b b l i n g f o o d on the bare f l o o r f l u t t e r e d . o f f i n t o a c o r n e r . 'What I say i s s i m p l e . You and those l i k e you a r e only l o o k i n g a t the e x t e r n a l s of m i s s i o n a r y work. You a r e not c o n s i d e r i n g the k e r n e l . I t i s t r u e , as you say, t h a t i n my twenty y e a r s of l a b o r i n Kyoto, i n Kyushu, i n Chugoku, i n Sendai and the r e s t churches were b u i l t ; i n Arima and A z u c h i s e m i n a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d ; and the Japanese v i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r t o become C h r i s t i a n s . You have j u s t s a i d t h a t t h e r e were 200,000 C h r i s t i a n s , but even t h a t f i g u r e i s c o n s e r v a t i v e . There was a time when we had 4-00, 000. ' 'That i s something to be proud o f . ' 'Proud? Yes, i f the Japanese had come t o b e l i e v e i n the God we t a u g h t . But i n the churches we b u i l t t h r oughout t h i s c o u n t r y the Japanese were not p r a y i n g to the C h r i s t i a n God. They t w i s t e d God to t h e i r own way of t h i n k i n g i n a way we can never i m a g i n e . I f you c a l l t h a t God ...' F e r r e i r a l o w e r e d h i s eyes and moved h i s l i p s as though something had o c c u r r e d t o him. 'No. That i s not God. I t i s l i k e a b u t t e r f l y caught i n a s p i d e r ' s web. At f i r s t i t i s c e r t a i n l y a b u t t e r f l y , but the n e x t day only the e x t e r n a l s , the wings and the t r u n k , a r e those of a b u t t e r f l y ; i t has l o s t i t s t r u e r e a l i t y and has become a s k e l e t o n . In Japan our God i s j u s t l i k e t h a t b u t t e r f l y caught i n the s p i d e r ' s web: o n l y the e x t e r i o r form of God r e m a i n s , but i t has a l r e a d y 1 5 become a s k e l e t o n . 1 C h r i s t i a n a c t i v i t y i n Japan recommenced w i t h the f o r c e f u l opening of the c o u n t r y t o f o r e i g n commerce by Commodore Matthew P e r r y i n 18 54• S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y which has taken p l a c e between .then and now has r e s u l t e d i n a two-way exchange. To some e x t e n t C h r i s t i a n i t y s i n c e then has been s u c c e s s f u l i n Japan, though i n what sense and t o what e x t e n t i t - 11 -1 6 ap p e a l s t o the unique Japanese mind i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. In 1905 Masaharu A n e s a k i , the Japanese s t u d e n t of r e l i g i o n , wrote of the B u d d h i s t - C h r i s t i a n d i a l o g u e i n terms which are s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o some of the t h i n g s s a i d by the pr e s e n t - d a y C a t h o l i c s s t u d i e d i n t h i s paper: A time w i l l come when a l l the w o r l d w i l l a c c e p t the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , but t h i s w i l l never a b o l i s h the d i f f e r e n c e of t a s t e s and modes of e x p r e s s i o n ... B u d d h i s t s w i l l never l o s e t h e i r s p i r i t of t o l e r a t i o n . There may grow i n Japan a form of C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h o u t Pope and w i t h o u t Holy Synod, but Buddhism w i l l n ever-t h e l e s s h o l d i t s f o o t i n g t h e r e i n f o r e v e r . In s h o r t , B u d d h i s t s a r e ready t o a c c e p t . C h r i s t i a n i t y ; nay, more, our f a i t h i n Buddha i s ^ f a i t h i n C h r i s t . We see C h r i s t because we see Buddha. Th i s t h e s i s w i l l examine n e i t h e r t h e . s u c c e s s of the C h r i s t i a n movement i n Japan nor Japanese p e r c e p t i o n s of C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t i s the o t h e r s i d e of the d i a l o g u e which concerns us. For a t the same time t h a t C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s were working i n Japan to spre a d the G o s p e l , they were s t u d y i n g Japanese c u l t u r e . They were i n the f o r e f r o n t of those who produced a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e body of 1 8 E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e s t u d i e s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of Japanese l i f e . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e s s c h o l a r l y s urveys of the Japanese r e l i -g i o u s s i t u a t i o n , such as George Cobbold's R e l i g i o n i n Japan:  S h i n t o - Buddhism- C h r i s t i a n i t y (1894-) and the l a t e r w o r l d war two study of W i l l i a m Bunce, R e l i g i o n s i n Japan (1955). Of equal b r e a d t h are the E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e works of A n e s a k i , n o t a b l y H i s t o r y of  Japanese R e l i g i o n (1930) and R e l i g i o u s L i f e of the Japanese Peo- p l e (1938). These w r i t e r s e x p l o r e the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of two c u l -t u r e s , two w o r l d - v i e w s , two r e l i g i o n s . - 12 -More s p e c i f i c s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s of Buddhism and S h i n t o and of i n d i v i d u a l B u d d h i s t s e c t s and t h e i r f o u n d e r s a l s o became a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h . The c l a s s i c work f o r the E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e study of the a r e a , S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t 1 s . J a p a n e s e Buddhism, was p u b l i s h e d i n 1935. During the l a s t twenty y e a r s t h e r e has been a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the number of E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e books about a l l a s p e c t s of Japanese l i f e , and c u l t u r e . The more r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s on r e l i g i o n a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a tone of s c h o l a r -l y e r u d i t i o n and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e to the a u t h o r s of e a r l i e r works, who n e v e r t h e l e s s were remarkable f o r t h e i r time and o f t e n d i s p l a y e d a deep s e n s i t i v i t y t o the c o m p l e x i t y of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n s t u d y i n g another c u l t u r e . Throughout the h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e s t u d i e s of Japa-nese r e l i g i o n one a r e a has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n . The number, of volumes .published on Zen Buddhism f a r exceeds those . p u b l i s h e d on a l l the. o t h e r B u d d h i s t s e c t s of Japan combined. Works d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the Zen t r a d i t i o n have been a v a i l a b l e s i n c e the e a r l i e s t y e a r s of. the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y . The Zen master Soen Shaku attended.-the famous Chicago P a r l i a m e n t of World R e l i g i o n s (1893) and l a t e r t o u r e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1905-6. H i s l e c t u r e s , t r a n s l a t e d . b y h i s s t u d e n t and s e c r e t a r y D a i s e t z S u z u k i , were p u b l i s h e d . i n 1913 under the t i t l e Sermons  of a B u d d h i s t Abbot and i n the same y e a r K a i t e n N u k a r i y a ' s The  R e l i g i o n of the Samurai:. A Study.of.Zen P h i l o s o p h y and D i s c i p - l i n e i n China and Japan was o f f e r e d t o the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g pub-l i c . From.that p o i n t on t h e r e was no t u r n i n g back: the E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g w o r l d became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of t h i s Japanese Bud-d h i s t s e c t and today the word "Zen" i s f a m i l i a r to most western--e r s . S e v e r a l b o o k - l e n g t h s t u d i e s of Buddhism i n North America a r e a v a i l a b l e - i n c l u d i n g Emma McCloy Layman.' s Buddhism i n America, C h a r l e s P r e b i s h l . s American' Buddhism and.the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d (1981) How the Swans Came t o the Lake; A N a r r a t i v e H i s t o r y of Buddhism i n America by. R i c k F i e l d s . Western knowledge of Zen has passed through a number of unique phases d u r i n g the p a s t hundred year.s.' H e i n r i c h Dumoulin 1 9 i d e n t i f i e s f i v e of t h e s e : 1. D. T. S u z u k i : P s y c h o l o g y and Wisdom 2. Ru d o l f O t t o : "Born. • of • the G r a v i t y of the Numinous" 3. Beat Zen, P s y c h o t h e r a p y , E s o t e r i c i s m 4. Japanese Zen M e d i t a t i o n and P l u r a l i s m 5. Zen M e d i t a t i o n f o r C h r i s t i a n s Though i t i s the l a s t phase which concerns us h e r e , t h i s cannot be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t some knowledge, however c u r s o r y , of the p r e c e d i n g stages which p r o v i d e p a r t of i t s groundwork. X a v i e r ' s sense of r e s p e c t and h u m i l i t y b e f o r e Japanese c u l t u r e , A n e s a k i ' s c u r i o u s remark t h a t he c o u l d see C h r i s t because he c o u l d see Buddha, the m u l t i - f a c e t e d f a s c i n a t i o n of the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y w i t h Zen, a l l i n f o r m the contemporary, d i a l o g u e between t h a t B u d d h i s t s e c t and C a t h o l i c i s m . P a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s or a t t i t u d e s of each of the p r e c e d i n g f o u r stages can- be found i n the f i f t h s t a g e , "Zen Medita.tion f o r . C h r i s t i a n s " . C o n s equently, a few remarks about these s t a g e s a r e i n o r d e r . The i n d i v i d u a l who, more .than any, other., bears the d i s -t i n c t i o n of making Zen known i n the west,,. D a l s e t z S u z u k i , im-- u -p r e s s e d upon t h a t t a s k h i s own unique mark. " S u z u k i Zen", which i s sometimes c r i t i c i z e d as d e p a r t i n g from the c l a s s i c a l Japanese forms, i s the type of Zen most w e s t e r n e r s t h i n k of when they t h i n k of Zen. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis on s a t o r i , or e n l i g h t e n m e n t , and on the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of the koan e x e r c i s e , which i n v o l v e s the use of seemingly p o i n t l e s s p u z z l e s such as "What i s the sound of one hand c l a p p i n g ? " d u r i n g m e d i t a t i o n . S u z u k i ' s work i s marked by an i n t e r e s t i n e x p e r i e n c e and i n p s y c h o l o g y . He used W i l l i a m James' V a r i e t i e s of R e l i g i o u s Ex- p e r i e n c e and o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i e s e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s . With R i c h a r d DeMartino and E r i c h Frommnhe a u t h o r e d Zen Buddhism  and P s y c h o a n a l y s i s . S u z u k i ' s emphasis on e x p e r i e n c e and p s y c h o l -ogy foreshadows some of. the concerns of c u r r e n t d i a l o g u e between Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen. Rudolf Otto made Zen known i n Germany through h i s p r e f a c e f o r Ohasama Shuei's Zen; der l e b e n d i g e Buddhismus i n Japan (1925) and h i s a r t i c l e "Das numinose E r l e b n i s im Zazen" i n c l u d e d i n h i s Das G e f u h l des UberweTtlichen:. Sensus Numinis (1931). The s i g -n i f i c a n c e of these a r t i c l e s , as Dumoulin i n d i c a t e s , i s t h a t they c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e Zen e x p e r i e n c e w i t h western m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , n o t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y the sense of the "numinous" i n both. This theme was l a t e r e x p l o r e d i n Dr. S u z u k i ' s M y s t i c i s m ; C h r i s t i a n  and Buddhist.. I t too has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the l a t t e r d i a l o g u e between Zen Buddhism and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . Dumoulin's t h i r d and f o u r t h stages r e f l e c t the expansion of i n t e r e s t i n Zen d u r i n g the f i f t i e s , and s i x t i e s . T h is expansion i n c l u d e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t , of Zen m e d i t a t i o n h a l l s under the d i r e c t i o n of Japanese masters throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s and - 15 -Europe and t r a v e l t o Japan by w e s t e r n e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e r e . Zen came t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Beat Movement of the e a r l y f i f t i e s and p r o v i d e d i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s and m u s i c i a n s as w e l l as f o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s . C a r l Jung, Karen Horney and E r i c h Fromm are n o t a b l e among the l a t t e r group, t h e i r fame adding a note of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y t o the p o p u l a r i t y the E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n was then e x p e r i e n c i n g i n the west. What might have been . d i s m i s s e d as a fad. had i t l a s t e d but a decade has c l e a r l y proven i t s deeper worth over the y e a r s as a q u i e t e r but c o n t i n u a l l y growing i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h Zen c o n t i n u e s among w e s t e r n e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Roman C a t h o l i c s i n t e r e s t e d ' i n . Zen have produced a g r e a t d e a l of l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the p a s t twenty y e a r s . I surveyed t h i s m a t e r i a l as the f i r s t s t age i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e -s i s , r e a d i n g works by H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, Hugo E n o m i y a - L a s s a l l e , A e l r e d Graham, W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n and Thomas Merton. On the b a s i s of these r e a d i n g s I was a b l e t o i s o l a t e the v a r i o u s themes which e v e n t u a l l y became the c h a p t e r s of t h i s t h e s i s as I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n . During the w r i t i n g of my t e x t I came to d i s c o v e r and r e a d K a k i c h i Kadowaki's Zen and the B i b l e :  A P r i e s t ' s E x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as more academic w r i t i n g s by H e i n r i c h van S t r a e l i n and Joseph Spae. S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have w r i t t e n s h o r t e r a r t i c l e s r e l e v a n t t o the Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism. Among those which I r e a d a r e works by David S t e i n d l - R a s t , P e t e r K r e e f t and Chalmers MacCormick. I a l s o exam-i n e d Zen Way - Jesus Way, a well-known work by Tucker C a l l a w a y , who f o r many y e a r s l i v e d i n Japan as a P r o t e s t a n t s c h o l a r and m i s s i o n a r y , and John Eusden's Zen and C h r i s t i a n : . The Journey - 16 -Between. The i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r w i l l f i n d these w r i t i n g s l i s t e d i n my b i b l i o g r a p h y . In terms of the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of a t t e n t i o n they g i v e t o Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism the w r i t -i n g s of Merton and Johnston a r e o u t s t a n d i n g among the l i t e r a t u r e I s t u d i e d . And s i n c e a study of the themes I i s o l a t e d i n the works of a l l these a u t h o r s would prove too. u n w i e l d y , I d e c i d e d to examine the themes i n d e t a i l i n the w r i t i n g s of j u s t these two p r i e s t s . T h i s approach p r o v i d e s the b a s i s of the f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s. A few words about the l i v e s and w r i t i n g s of these two men a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . Merton, of c o u r s e , i s a l r e a d y very w e l l known. There i s l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t he i s one of the s p i r i t u a l g i a n t s of our c e n t u r y , as w e l l as a c u l t u r a l f i g u r e of no l i t t l e r e p u t e . By the e a r l y f i f t i e s , g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s were a l r e a d y b e i n g pro-duced on h i s p o e t r y . His a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Seven Storey Mountain made b e s t s e l l e r l i s t s t h roughout t h a t decade. H i s w r i t i n g s were i n f l u e n t i a l w i t h the peace movement of the s i x t i e s . Now l i t t l e more than a dozen y e a r s a f t e r h i s u n t i m e l y death i n 1968, s e v e r a l f u l l l e n g t h s t u d i e s of h i s l i f e a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . H i s books c o n t i n u e to s e l l w e l l and to be r e i s s u e d . B r o t h e r P a t r i c k Hart t e l l s us i n h i s f o r e w o r d t o Thomas Merton: P i l g r i m i n P r o c e s s t h a t " t h e r e have been over a hundred d o c t o r a l and master's s t u d -i e s completed as w e l l as a number of s e r i o u s c r i t i c a l works on 20 a s p e c t s of h i s d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s and concerns'.' Though Merton's thought covers a number of i m p o r t a n t a r e a s the p r e s e n t t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s o n l y on those works which s p e c i f i c -a l l y c o n s i d e r the Roman C a t h o l i c c o n f r o n t a t i o n .with the r e l i g i o n s - 17 -of the E a s t . Merton's i n t e r e s t i n the e a s t was e v i d e n t b r i e f l y d u r i n g h i s s t u d e n t days a t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . At t h a t time Brahmachari, a Hindu monk, was l i v i n g i n New York and d u r i n g h i s p r e - c o n v e r s i o n days Merton d i s c u s s e d s p i r i t u a l i t y w i t h him. Brah m a r c h a r i a d v i s e d the young s t u d e n t t o r e a d deeply i n the s p i r i t u a l wisdom of C h r i s t i a n i t y r a t h e r than s e e k i n g h i s way i n a f o r e i g n r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n . Merton l a t e r r e f l e c t e d t h a t per-haps God had brought t h i s I n d i a n h o l y man to America p r e c i s e l y to g i v e him t h i s d i r e c t i o n . In any event, a f t e r h i s c o n v e r s i o n , Merton's g r e a t energy and i n t e n s i t y were devoted to working w i t h i n the Roman C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n . Only d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r s of h i s l i f e d i d he r e d i s c o v e r h i s e a r l i e r i n t e r e s t i n E a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Yet once he made the d e c i s i o n t o r e - i n v o l v e h i m s e l f w i t h the study of E a s t e r n r e -l i g i o n he threw h i m s e l f i n t o i t w i t h the same'intense energy and commitment t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s e a r l i e r c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o l i -cism. E a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y became a, i f n o t t h e , major concern of h i s thought d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r s of h i s l i f e . Merton produced a number of essays on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Zen and C h r i s t i a n -i t y as w e l l as a number of p e n e t r a t i n g s t u d i e s of E a s t e r n s p i r i t -u a l i t y i t s e l f . He p u b l i s h e d the book whose, p r o d u c t i o n , of a l l h i s many works, he enjoyed.most - a " c o n t e m p l a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n " (from E n g l i s h t e x t s ) of the thought of the Chinese sage Chuang 21 Tzu, whom he c o n s i d e r e d "my k i n d of man". Merton a l s o p u b l i s h e d M y s t i c s and Zen. Masters (19.67) and Zen and the B i r d s of A p p e t i t e (1968). An essay, "The Zen R e v i v a l " , was a c c l a i m e d by D a i s e t z S u z u k i as showing more i n s i g h t i n t o the t r u e n a t u r e of Zen than a n y t h i n g e l s e he had ever r e a d i n a European language. Merton's o n l y extended t r i p o u t s i d e h i s monastery was t o A s i a . H is person-a l r e c o r d of t h i s j o u r n e y was p u b l i s h e d . p o s t h u m o u s l y as The A s i a n  J o u r n a l of Thomas Merton (1968). Taken t o g e t h e r , these works w i l l form the b a s i s of our o b s e r v a t i o n s . a b o u t Merton's d i a l o g u e w i t h e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n . W i l l i a m Johnston i s n o t so w e l l known as Merton. Born i n North e r n I r e l a n d i n 1925, Johnston, undertook s t u d i e s f o r the p r i e s t h o o d and. the m i s s i o n s w i t h the S o c i e t y of J e s u s . He has l i v e d i n Japan s i n c e 1951> where much of the time he has been a p r o f e s s o r a t the J e s u i t - r u n Sophia. U n i v e r s i t y i n Tokyo. Johnston's e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d work d e a l s w i t h the m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n of med i e v a l Europe. H i s study of The M y s t i c i s m of the Cloud of Un- knowing (1965)» f o r which Merton wrote the i n t r o d u c t i o n , n o t e s s i m i l a r i t i e s between e a s t e r n and western s p i r i t u a l thought and e x p e r i e n c e . L a t e r w r i t i n g s i n c l u d e : The S t i l l P o i n t : R e f l e c t i o n s  on Zen and C h r i s t i a n M y s t i c i s m (1970); C h r i s t i a n Zen (1971); S i l e n t Music: The Sc i e n c e of M e d i t a t i o n (1974.) i n which Johnston r e l a t e s modern s c i e n c e and the a r t of m e d i t a t i o n ; and The Inner  Eye of Love: M y s t i c i s m and R e l i g i o n (1978). I n 1980 F a t h e r John-s t o n gave a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s a t Oxford U n i v e r s i t y on " C h r i s t i a n -i t y i n D i a l o g u e w i t h E a s t e r n M y s t i c i s m " . These were l a t e r p u b l i s h e d as The M i r r o r Mind: S p i r i t u a l i t y and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n (1981). F a t h e r Johnston i s s t i l l l i v i n g and working i n Tokyo and, as i s not the case w i t h Merton, we may y e t see f u r t h e r developments i n h i s thought about i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e . Given the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s w r i t i n g s f o r the d i a l o g u e t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a p l e a s a n t p r o s p e c t . Roman C a t h o l i c s come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h Zen i n two p l a c e s and - 19 -i n two ways, e x e m p l i f i e d by the two p r i e s t s whose w r i t i n g s a re the b a s i s of t h i s t h e s i s . Thomas Merton. l e a r n e d of Zen through h i s wide r e a d i n g i n . w o r l d s p i r i t u a l i t y . H i s ' m e e t i n g s w i t h p r a c -t i t i o n e r s of the s e t r a d i t i o n s were i n f r e q u e n t • a n d b r i e f . He t r a v -e l l e d i n A s i a o n l y a f t e r he was c o n v i n c e d of the v a l i d i t y and the very g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e of A s i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y . On the oth e r hand, W i l l i a m Johnston's c o n t a c t w i t h Zen has been p r i m a r i l y f i r s t hand. He has s t u d i e d Zen m e d i t a t i o n i n Japanese B u d d h i s t temples and h i s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n Japan has brought him i n t o c o n t i n u a l c o n t a c t w i t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s of .the B u d d h i s t dharma over a p e r i o d of a l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s . I t may be t h a t the manner of exposure t o Zen has an e f f e c t on. the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the Roman C a t h o l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the d i a l o g u e . I t c e r t a i n l y seems t o be the case t h a t the w r i t i n g s of Roman C a t h o l i c a u t h o r s about Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen r e f l e c t t h e i r a u t h o r s ' p e r s o n a l p r o c l i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as t h e i r s h a red C h r i s t i a n i t y . In the pages t h a t f o l l o w t h i s observ-a t i o n w i l l be e x p l o r e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F a t h e r s Johnston and Merton. We w i l l see how t h e i r thoughts on "Roman C a t h o l i c i s m i n Dia l o g u e w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism" are both s i m i l a r t o and d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r . Yet the b a s i s , of the t h e s i s i s what thes e men say i n common r a t h e r than how.they . d i f f e r . The themes which form the c h a p t e r s of the t h e s i s i n d i c a t e the major p o i n t s i n t h i s commonality. I f the. s t r e s s seems t o be on how' they d i f f e r , I i n v i t e my r e a d e r s t o keep a r e f l e c t i v e eye on those s i m i l a r i t i e s ; , w h i c h, above a l l , , p r o v i d e the . s t r u c t u r a l coherence' f o r t h i s study and about .which,. though . o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , a g r e a t d e a l may y e t be w r i t t e n . - 20 -I i n t e n d e d from the b e g i n n i n g t o . u s e . a t h e m a t i c approach t o the m a t e r i a l . An a l t e r n a t i v e approach might examine the thought of each i n d i v i d u a l as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t and o n l y then compare i t t o the thought of the others.. I n s i g h t s n o t found i n my study might w e l l emerge from such an approach. However, I wanted t o e x p l o r e the d i a l o g u e n ot so much from an i n d i v i d u a l as from a s u p r a - i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t i s c l e a r that, no d i a l o g u e can e x i s t a p a r t from the i n d i v i d u a l s who c r e a t e i t . Yet my pri m a r y concern i s how "Roman . C a t h o l i c s " d i d - and do - e n t e r i n t o d i a -l o g u e w i t h "Zen Buddhism". I d i d n o t seek uniqueness - though t h i s cannot be i g n o r e d - but commonality. The t h e m a t i c approach i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s c o ncern. I want t o say a few words about how the themes a r e I d e n t i -f i e d . The s p e c i f i c themes emerge from t h e t e x t s themselves and ar e n o t superimposed on them. I n i t i a l l y I'used a t r i p a r t i t e model i n the p r o c e s s of u n c o v e r i n g the "themes". I assumed t h a t both Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen Buddhism a r e r e l i g i o n s . I t seemed t h a t an a b s t r a c t model of r e l i g i o n c o u l d a p p r o p r i a t e l y be a p p l i e d t o bot h . The model I chose saw r e l i g i o n as h a v i n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : (1) an e x p o s i t i o n of the human pr e d i c a m e n t ; (2) a r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s p r e d i c a m e n t ; and (3) an i d e a l g o a l a c t u a l i z e d through the r e s o l u t i o n . I then began the d i f f i c u l t t a s k of l o o k i n g f o r these t e n t a t i v e themes i n the t e x t s . I t seemed l i k e l y t h a t modern w r i t i n g s on the "human p r e d i c -ament" might use one of two approaches - t h a t of p s y c h o l o g y or t h a t of s o c i o l o g y . D e s p i t e s c a t t e r e d r e f l e c t i o n s on the n a t u r e of the modern w o r l d and of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r e s embodying the two s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n s of.Zen Buddhism - 21 -and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m , the w r i t i n g s examined s i m p l y do not i n c l u d e enough m a t e r i a l on the " s o c i o l o g i c a l " dimension to w a r r a n t i t s i n c l u s i o n as a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r i n t h i s . t h e s i s . Thomas Merton i s , of c o u r s e , very well-known f o r h i s s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . H i s w r i t i n g s i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between, C h r i s t i a n i t y and the s o c i a l o r d e r , j u s t i c e and r a c i a l e q u a l i t y . H is t a l k on the day of h i s death was e n t i t l e d "Marxism and M o n a s t i c P e r s p e c t i v e s " . But h i s w r i t i n g s on i n t e r a c t i o n between Roman . C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen Buddhism do n o t .explore t h i s i n t e r e s t t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . Nor have I found t h i s d i s c u s s e d . a t l e n g t h i n any of the o t h e r w r i t i n g s I examined, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the works of Joseph Spae. On the o t h e r hand, I d i d f i n d i n the w r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m J ohnston a ve r y s t r o n g and c o n s i s t e n t concern w i t h modern psycho-l o g y . I doubt i f anybody can p r e s e n t an adequate e x a m i n a t i o n of the whole of J o h n s t o n s ' s thought w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g h i s r e f l e c t i o n s on p s y c h o l o g y . Perhaps i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o mention t h a t I choose the term " p s y c h o l o g y " , r a t h e r than " p s y c h o l o g i e s " , d e l i b e r a t e l y . J o h n s t o n , i n f a c t , i s no p s y c h o l o g i s t . a n d as a layman h i s i n t e r -e s t s i n p s y c h o l o g y are q u i t e e c l e c t i c . He borrows i d e a s from v a r i o u s " s c h o o l s " , some of which,, n o t a b l y the " J u n g i a n " , of which he makes much use, might n ot even be a d m i t t e d by academic psycho-l o g i s t s as p a r t of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e . My c h o i c e of the s i n g u l a r i s meant t o i n d i c a t e t h a t Johnston's use of t h i s m a t e r i a l r e s u l t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t , s i n g u l a r approach t o human n a t u r e . One of the most e x c i t i n g d i s c o v e r i e s , i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s o c c u r e d d u r i n g i n i t i a l d r a f t s of the c h a p t e r on "human n a t u r e " . Having d e c i d e d t h a t the. e x a m i n a t i o n of the "human p r e d i c -- 22 -ament" (the f i r s t of the t h r e e dimensions of r e l i g i o n i n my i n i t i a l model) s h o u l d take the form of. a d i s c u s s i o n of "human n a t u r e " as seen by both men and that.. Johns t o n ' s w r i t i n g on "p s y c h o l o g y " gave the key t o an approach I was ready f o r an i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n of the w r i t i n g s of both.men on t h i s t o p i c . To my i n t e r e s t I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the two took r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t approaches t o i t . The g e n e r a l tone and d i r e c t i o n of the under-s t a n d i n g s of "human n a t u r e " which I found i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from one a n o t h e r . J o h n s t o n . p l a c e s emphasis on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and the m u l t i - f a c e t e d n a t u r e of the human; Merton d e c r i e s t h i s approach and t u r n s t o a.non-dual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p e r s o n and of r e a l i t y . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e and t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s on "human n a t u r e " form the m a t e r i a l f o r c h a p t e r one, "The Foun-d a t i o n of Human Na t u r e " . As we s h a l l s h o r t l y see, t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s n o t o n l y a t h e m a t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n but a l s o a methodolog-i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the e n t i r e t h e s i s . .The d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t emphases t h a t i n f o r m t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human n a t u r e a l s o i n f o r m t h e i r approaches t o the o t h e r themes c o n s t i t u t i n g the 23 d i a l o g u e . S t i l l u s i n g my t r i p a r t i t e model., of. r e l i g i o n I examined the w r i t i n g s f o r an e x p o s i t i o n of the i d e a l g o a l . o f human l i f e i n bo t h t r a d i t i o n s . However i t seems t o me. t h a t . t h e g o a l s , though d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y a t v a r i o u s . p o i n t s , . do not r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o c o n s t i t u t e a. s e p a r a t e theme.for a c h a p t e r of the t h e s i s . The r e f l e c t i o n s of both J o h n s t o n and Merton on the i d e a l g o a l of s p i r i t u a l l i f e can more a p p r o p r i a t e l y . b e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s of the r e s o l u t i o n s of the .human pr e d i c a m e n t . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of " r e s o l u t i o n " and " i d e a l g o a l " covers - 23 -the two t o p i c s of " m e d i t a t i o n " and " m y s t i c i s m " (or c o n t e m p l a t i o n ) , which r e c e i v e , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , , more a t t e n t i o n than any o t h e r s i n the w r i t i n g s of J o h n s t o n , Merton and t h e . o t h e r a u t h o r s examined. A c t u a l l y , a s i m p l e skimming of the t i t l e s of t h e i r p u b l i s h e d works and of c h a p t e r headings i n • t h o s e .works, bears t h i s out. In t h i s t h e s i s one c h a p t e r a p i e c e - i s devoted..to the .themes of "med-i t a t i o n " and " m y s t i c i s m " . . As my t h i n k i n g about " m e d i t a t i o n " and "-mysticism" developed s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s .emerged. I r e a l i z e d t h a t the r e a s o n " m y s t i c i s m " r e c e i v e s so much a t t e n t i o n - i n the d i a l o g u e i s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s the " e x p e r i e n t i a l " ' dimension- i n C a t h o l i c C h r i s t i a n -i t y . " E x p e r i e n c e " , whether m y s t i c a l ' o r . n o t , i s so s i g n i f i c a n t i n the d i a l o g u e t h a t i t can be s a i d t o form i t s c o r e , t o be i t s most c r u c i a l element. M y s t i c i s m i s n o t u n r e l a t e d t o o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s . I t occurs i n the m a t r i x of human l i f e . I t i s p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e t h a t both Merton and Johnston p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i a l o g u e . In o t h e r words, t h e i r , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t p r i m a r i l y t h e o r e t i c a l , a b s t r a c t or, academic. I t was t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n , p r a c t i c i n g i n the Zen t r a d i t i o n , e n c o u n t e r i n g men of the .other t r a d i t i o n , t h a t gave shape t o the d i a l o g u e . T h e i r w r i t i n g s , about i t grew out of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and r e f l e c t i o n on i t . The c e n t r a l c h a p t e r of the . t h e s i s .deals w i t h t h i s b r oad p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . .In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s theme i t i s a n e c d o t a l , and b i o g r a p h i c a l . ..This c h a p t e r , "The E x p e r i e n c e , of E n c o u n t e r " , a l s o i n c l u d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n . o f the , e x p e r i e n t i a l dimension of C h r i s t i a n i t y known as " C a t h o l i c mysticism", and i t s 'bearing on the - 2k -d i a l o g u e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a l t h o u g h both men c l a i m c e n t r a l i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e , they take d i f f e r e n t approaches to i t . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y the same as t h a t w h i c h . f i r s t appears i n the c h a p t e r on "human n a t u r e " . The m a t e r i a l on " m e d i t a t i o n " a l s o underwent a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I began t o see i t i n a s l i g h t l y changed c o n t e x t . I n i t i a l l y i t seemed t h a t the one c e r t a i n t h i n g the west c o u l d take from the e a s t was t h e i r t r a d i t i o n of meditation..When I began to c o n s i d e r " m e d i t a t i o n " i n the l a r g e r framework of "methodology i n the s p i r i t -u a l l i f e " , however, I saw t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r " p r a c t i c a l " or " t e c h n i c a l " m a t t e r s shared between the two t r a d i t i o n s . These are c o l l e c t i v e l y d i s c u s s e d i n the second c h a p t e r of the t h e s i s , "Method i n the S p i r i t u a l L i f e " . Here I w i l l a l s o argue t h a t the d i f f e r e n t approaches of Merton and Johnston can be seen most c l e a r l y i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards "means" and " g o a l s " i n s p i r i t u a l l i f e . One of the major a r e a s of d i f f e r e n c e , between the two t r a d i -t i o n s i s the presence of theology, i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . Theology i s mentioned i n the v a r i o u s w r i t i n g s I s t u d i e d a l t h o u g h i n none does i t r e c e i v e a thorough t r e a t m e n t . Thomas.Merton r e f l e c t s t h a t the c e n t r a l d i f f e r e n c e between Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y i s t h a t the one aims a t " o n t o l o g i c a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t " whereas the o t h e r ' s aim i s " t h e o l o g i c a l s a l v a t i o n " . In J o h n s t o n ' s w r i t i n g s t h e o l o g y ( e s p e c i a l l y the t h e o l o g y of Bernard Lonergan) p l a y s a s p e c i a l r o l e . Both men suggest t h a t t h e o l o g y may very w e l l be a key dimension of the d i a l o g u e . Indeed,, both men suggest i n d i f -f e r e n t ways t h a t i t may • even t u a l l y be ..theology, not e x p e r i e n c e , which p r o v i d e s i t s growing edge. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the c h a p t e r - 25 -on " T h e o l o g i c a l R e f l e c t i o n " . At t h i s p o i n t , i t see.m.ecL.to. me t h a t .I had covered most of the t h e m a t i c bases. There were- chapters, on:, ( l ) Human. Na t u r e ; (2) S p i r i t u a l Methods;, (-3) E x p e r i e n c e ; and (4-) Theology-. The q u e s t i o n s t i l l remained, however,.as to how d i a l o g u e .was a c t u a l -l y p o s s i b l e . I wondered whether or- not t h e r e was any r e a l p a t -t e r n t o the d i a l o g u e . Is t h e r e a "framework" - which a n y . ^ i n d i v i d -u a l i n t e r e s t e d i n such d i a l o g u e can adopt? I found the answer t o t h i s . q u e s t i o n i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e p i s t e m o l o g y . The d i f f e r e n c e s between Johnston and Merton, which had appeared i n i t i a l l y i n my r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e i r views of human n a t u r e and c o n s i s t e n t l y i n each of the other t h r e e a r e a s I con-s i d e r e d , seemed t o p o i n t f i n a l l y t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s . The s u g g e s t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t e i t h e r of t h e s e a t t i t u d e s can be u s e f u l f o r i n t e r r e l i g i o u s .dialogue. Moreover, I would h a z a r d t h a t the ' e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e which becomes e v i d e n t i n an e x a m i n a t i o n of Merton's study of Zen i n d i c a t e s a r a d i c a l l y new approach t o Gatholi.ci.sm i t s e l f . Though t h i s approach i s n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the thought of e a r l i e r C h r i s t i a n s such as M e i s t e r E c k h a r t , the s i t u a t i o n i n which i t . has d e v e l o p e d , t h a t of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e , i s new. I t i s t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n which Merton develops, an e p i stemology t h a t a l l o w s him t o use r e l i g i o u s language and t© approach the s p i r i t u a l l i f e i n a unique way, a way which i s perhaps d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a r o l e i n developments w i t h i n C h r i s t i a n i t y i n the f u t u r e , a way which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d . to. the • temper•of our " d e - c o n s t r u c -2 5 t i v i s t " t i m e s . J Johnston's thought, c l o s e r .to t r a d i t i o n a l Catho-l i c models than Merton's, i s a l s o s u g g e s t i n g a r e - f r a m i n g of - 26 -a t t i t u d e s towards r e l i g i o n and r e l i g i o n s t h a t has much t o o f f e r the contemporary w o r l d . H i s t h i n k i n g o f f e r s a c r e a t i v e approach t o i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e concerned w i t h . d i a l o g u e w i t h i n the frame-work of the t r a d i t i o n a l . s p i r i t u a l systems, of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e s p e c t i n g p e o p l e and t r a d i t i o n s , . i n t h e i r " o t h e r n e s s " , and of d e v e l o p i n g the meanings a l r e a d y i n h e r e n t i n the symbols and i d e a s of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . The thought of both .men may, i n a sense, be s a i d t o be p a r a d i g m a t i c and to o f f e r models w i t h which the i d e a s of o t h e r s engaged i n i n t e r r e l i g i o u s . d i a l o g u e can be compared. Th i s m a t e r i a l i s d e a l t w i t h i n the c h a p t e r on "The P r i n c i p l e s of D i a l o g u e " . Only the i n i t i a l i s o l a t i o n of major themes was done on the b a s i s of p e r t i n e n t w r i t i n g s of a l l the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the d i a l o g u e . The e x p l o r a t i o n of the themes and the d i s c o v e r y of the " p r i n c i p l e s of d i a l o g u e " were bas.ed. s o l e l y on- the w r i t i n g s of Johnston and Merton. S t i l l , J o h n s t o n and, Merton a r e only two of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the ongoing d i a l o g u e . Any model based on t h e i r w r i t i n g s n e e d s . t o be c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n s t the thought of o t h e r s engaged i n the work. Such a t a s k i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s but I b e l i e v e i t would.have t o be undertaken b e f o r e the b r oader i m p l i c a t i o n s r a i s e d by t h i s study c o u l d be p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e d . Some d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t have not been e l a b o r a t e d on here would appear i n a broader s u r v e y . The work of F a t h e r Joseph Spae, f o r example, c o u l d d i r e c t us t o the s o c i a l . . d i m e n s i o n s of t h i s d i a l o g u e w h ich, though s i g n i f i c a n t , remain underdeveloped. ; i n Johnston and a r e s c a r c e l y d e a l t with, a t . a l l by Merton. More c o n s e r v a t i v e t r a d i -t i o n a l approaches s t r e s s the. d i f f e r e n c e s between Zen Buddhism and - 27 -C h r i s t i a n i t y somewhat i n the manner of Johnston .without h i s w e l l -d e veloped d i a l o g i c program. The w r i t i n g s of H e i n r i c h van S t r a e l i n a r e s t a r t l i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . In l i g h t of t h i s k i n d of w r i t i n g the r a d i c a l s i d e of Johnston's thought i s . r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . One has o n l y t o r e a d F a t h e r van S t r a e l i n ' s a r c h l y c o n s e r v a t i v e books on C a t h o l i c i s m i n Japan, and i n d i a l o g u e w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o n s t o a p p r e c i a t e how. f a r F a t h e r Johnston's thought b r i n g s us. D i a l o g u e i s a key concept- of our t i m e . T r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s systems i n the west are no l o n g e r a b l e t o . m a i n t a i n the i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r major systems of meaning which has been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of them d u r i n g the pas.t s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s . I f they are t o c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e l i f e - o r i e n t a t i o n s . f o r t h e i r f o l l o w e r s whose l i f e - e x p e -r i e n c e b r i n g s c o n t a c t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s of a l i e n t r a d i t i o n s they must examine the ways i n which they can c r e a t i v e l y d i a l o g u e w i t h t h o s e t r a d i t i o n s . Such i s the aim.of. t h i s t h e s i s which examines the c r e a t i v e s t r u g g l e s , of F a t h e r s Johnston and.Merton i n t h e i r p r o f o u n d and courageous e x p l o r a t i o n s of the Japanese Zen B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n . My own i n i t i a l r e a d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the b a s i c d i s t i n c -t i o n s t h a t emerge from a c o m p a r a t i v e study of the thought of F a t h e r s Johnston and Merton a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o the r e f l e c t i o n s of o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n d i a l o g u e . Such e x p l o r a t i o n s augur w e l l f o r the f u t u r e of the s p i r i t u a l l i f e of humanity. - 28 -The F o u n d a t i o n of Human Nature In u n d e r s t a n d i n g human a c t i v i t y we must l o o k t o the images of human n a t u r e which g i v e i t meaning. The a g g r e s s i o n s of the m i l i t a n t p r o t e c t o r of s o c i e t y , the power.and money making of the businessman and p o l i t i c a n , the c r e a t i v e works of the a r t i s t and the day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s of .the average c i t i z e n a r e a l l embedded i n p a r t i c u l a r views of w h a t . i t i s t o be human. Of themselves the a c t i o n s might seem, t o speak l o u d l y enough. l e t the n e c e s s a r y v i -s i o n s , so o f t e n u n f o c u s e d and u n e x p l o r e d , w i t h which they a r i s e and t o which they speak, w a r r a n t e x a m i n a t i o n . A c t i v e man too o f t e n r e m a i n s . i n .darkness . about human n a t u r e . A l l too unknowingly men have a b d i c a t e d the d i f f i c u l t r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y of d e f i n i n g t h a t n a t u r e , of d i s c o v e r i n g i t s l i m i t s and poten-t i a l s . S a t i s f i e d w i t h the i d e n t i t i e s p r o v i d e d by s o c i e t y , man has been c o n t e n t w i t h l i v i n g the "unexamined l i f e " . Yet once we see man as something more than a mere p h y s i c a l organism we see how c e n t r a l t o the human mode of b e i n g i n the w o r l d a r e v i s i o n s , images of the w o r l d and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , of humanity. Man i s an animate b e i n g which can see. i t s e l f . Men move through the w o r l d as much by the i n n e r as by the out e r eye. And not merely a c t i v e man i s a l s o a c t o r , r e s p o n d i n g t o e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i but a l s o t o f a n c i e d r o l e s , t o n o t i o n s . a b o u t who man may be. And dial o g u e , occurs between, what, man does and what man t h i n k s . The s t o r y of human h i s t o r y i s more than the s t o r y of p h y s i c a l e v e n t s , i m p o r t a n t as these, a r e . I t i s a l s o the s t o r y of the u n c e a s i n g q u e s t f o r meaning i n t e r w o v e n with, those e v e n t s . U n l i k e t h a t of the o t h e r a n i m a l s , man's presence i n . t h e w o r l d i s marked - 29 -by c o n s t a n t q u e s t i o n i n g of t h a t p r e s e n c e , by-the need f o r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . Man does not r e s t s i m p l y and e a s i l y i n the p h y s i c a l w o r l d but s t r u g g l e s u n e a s i l y i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Man and a n i m a l seem t o share the same p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e and t o be s u b j e c t t o the same p h y s i c a l l a w s . .Yet t h e i r modes of presence i n t h a t w o r l d a r e , f o r man, p a i n f u l l y d i f f e r e n t . In the words of R i l k e : d i e f i n d i g e n T i e r e merken es schon, dass w i r n i c h t sehr v e r l S s s l i ^ h zu Haus s i n d i n der gedeutenten Welt. Man s t r u g g l e s towards meaning, above a l l towards the meaning of what i t i s t o be human. Yet i n a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l i e s the d i s c o m f o r t of the i n t e r p r e t e d w o r l d and the s t r u g g l e w i t h the dissonances, t h a t .forever . a r i s e between. the meaning and the w o r l d . The knowing b r u t e s are aware t h a t we don't f e e l very s e c u r e l y a t home w i t h i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t e d w o r l d . Yet i t remains our f a t e t o c o n t i n u e to.be. concerned .with our meaning. Throughout c o u n t l e s s c e n t u r i e s p h i l o s o p h y , mythology, a r t , l i t e r a t u r e and r e l i g i o n have e x p l o r e d the q u e s t i o n of man's n a t u r e . S o c r a t e s c o n s i d e r e d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e the c e n t r a l f o c u s of a l l p r o p e r t h o u g h t , the p r i n c i p a l duty of man. L i f e becomes g e n u i n e l y worth l i v i n g i n s o f a r as i t i s examined and u n d e r s t o o d . The m y t h o l o g i e s of the w o r l d , as Joseph .Campbell has shown, e l a b -o r a t e the n a t u r e of humanity i n a l l . i t s m u l t i f o l d b r e a d t h and 2 p r o f o u n d depths. A r t i s t s e x p l o r e and express new and o l d images of man. Poets and n o v e l i s t s w r i t e of man's deepest r e s p o n s e s , f e e l i n g s , y e a r n i n g s and deeds. R e l i g i o n s t o o , speak t o t h e . i s s u e of human n a t u r e . Buddhism - 30 -and C h r i s t i a n i t y , l i k e a l l r e l i g i o n s , c a l l man t o r e c o g n i z e the t r u e s e l f . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l duty of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e becomes the p r i n c i p a l r e l i g i o u s t a s k as man i s c h a l l e n g e d t o become t h a t t r u e s e l f and r e a l i z e .the genuine, depth and b r e a d t h of the pot-e n t i a l i n p e r s o n a l l i f e . Man i s c a l l e d t o r e c o g n i z e the "Buddha 3 n a t u r e " or the new l i f e m C h r i s t . Today we r e c o g n i z e t h a t what •. c u l t u r e - understands of human n a t u r e undergoes s u b t l e , though h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , changes. The d i f f e r e n c e between the modern we.stern view, of man and t h a t of me d i e v a l Christendom i s i l l u s t r a t i v e . The m e d i e v a l saw man i n a h i e r a r c h y e x t e n d i n g from God, the C r e a t o r , t o the l o w e s t of c r e a t e d t h i n g s . Man's b e i n g was r o o t e d i n a Being who i n f i n i t e l y t r a n s c e n d e d him and w i t h whom man's r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be ex-p r e s s e d o n l y i n such metaphors as t h a t of C r e a t o r and c r e a t e d . Man's meaning was p r o v i d e d i n . r e v e l a t i o n . a n d s u p p o r t e d by church and s o c i e t y which were themselves i n t e n s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . Man's t a s k , through g r a c e , was to work the way towards s a l v a t i o n . Today we t h i n k of man i n . terms p r o v i d e d by-the p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Meaning can no l o n g e r be e a s i l y a c c e p t e d as the g i f t of grace as perhaps more t h a n . e v e r . b e f o r e man's p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s e i s the s u b j e c t of c o n t i n u a l q u e s t i o n i n g . The g r e a t i n t e l l e c t u a l advances of the pas.t s e v e r a l . c e n t u r i e s have s i t u a t e d modern man i n a u n i v e r s e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of h i s medi-e v a l a n c e s t o r s . The end r e s u l t of the r e v o l u t i o n s i n human thought brought about through the work of such i n t e l l e c t u a l g i a n t s as N i c o l a s C o p e r n i c u s , C h a r l e s Darwin, Slgmund F r e u d and A l b e r t E i n s t e i n i s an image of a r e l a t i v e man i n a r e l a t i v e u n i v e r s e . Modern man i s n o t s e c u r e i n the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s meaning i n the u n i v e r s e - 31 -which t r a n s c e n d s the v i s i b l e w o r l d . And, d e s p i t e the t a n t a l i -z i n g d i s c o v e r i e s now emerging from the growing edge of modern p h y s i c s a s s o c i a t e d with, s c i e n t i s t s . such , as David Bohm, the p o p u l a r s c i e n t i f i c approach points.'away from any such meaning. Yet i t i s p r e c i s e l y through t h i s " p o p u l a r s c i e n t i f i c approach" t h a t contemporary wester n men"seek t o d e l i n e a t e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r own n a t u r e . T h i s i s i n a s p e c i a l way t r u e of p s y c h o l o g y . As a s c i e n c e p s y c h o l o g y seeks t o examine man on the b a s i s of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . The core of most academic p s y c h o l o g y r e s o l u t e l y r e f u s e s t o c o n s i d e r a n y t h i n g but b e h a v i o u r i n i t s e x p l o r a t i o n of man. I t i n s i s t s t h a t man can be p r o p e r l y under-s t o o d i n terms of those p r o c e s s e s which i t , has i d e n t i f i e d and which i t s t u d i e s : l e a r n i n g , p e r c e p t i o n ' , m o t i v a t i o n , development, c o n d i t i o n i n g . And d e s p i t e i t s i m p l i c a t i o n i n the very p r o c e s s of t h i n k i n g ( i n c l u d i n g s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g ) , man's awareness of b e i n g a s u b j e c t i v e c e n t r e of meaning i n l i f e i s reduced by t h i s p s y c h o l o g y t o a mere epiphenomenon, h a v i n g no v a l u e i n and of i t s e l f . Modern p s y c h o l o g y , w i t h n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s of G e s t a l t , p s y c h o a n a l y t i c , humanist and more r e c e n t t r a n s p e r s o n a l s c h o o l s , has i m a g i n e d man i n a way that.many p h i l o s o p h e r s and a r t i s t s view as a l i e n a t i n g . More than a hundred y e a r s ago t h i n k e r s such as K i e r k e g a a r d and N i e t z s c h e wrote of the d i s t a n c e c r e a t e d between the o r d i n a r y man and f u l l human p o t e n t i a l . b y the modern manner of t h i n k i n g of which s c i e n c e i s the most s u c c e s s f u l e x p r e s s i o n . Yet whatever i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and w h a t e v e r . i t s . s u c c e s s i n out-growing those l i m i t a t i o n s i t . i s p s y c h o l o g y which p r o v i d e s modern western man w i t h the most p o p u l a r views..of the n a t u r e of b e i n g human. - 32 -T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y , c h a p t e r , i s .concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of man i n t h e . w r i t i n g s of Johnston and Merton, w i t h t h e i r views of human n a t u r e . Both are. d i s t i n c t l y modern men. Thus t h e i r t h i n k i n g about man'S'nature i s i n f l u e n c e d by modern p s y c h o l o g y . The w r i t i n g of W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , i s r e p l e t e w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h a t d i s c i p l i n e and s e v e r a l of I t s s u b d i v i s i o n s . Thomas Merton speaks, v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . . One f i n d s few of the a l l u -s i o n s to biofeedback,- b r a i n waves-, .states of c o n s c i o u s n e s s or depth p s y c h o l o g y which the a t t e n t i v e r e a d e r comes t o expect from the pen of W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n . What Merton o f f e r s i s p r o f o u n d a n a l y s i s of the C a r t e s i a n dualism. which u n d e r l i e s a l m o s t the e n t i r e d i s c i p l i n e of p s y c h o l o g y . Merton views p s y c h o l o g y prima-r i l y w i t h an eye t o i t s l i m i t a t i o n s -and t o the d i s t o r t i o n s of human n a t u r e which i t p e r p e t r a t e s . Johnston t a k e s from i t i n -s i g h t s which broaden and d e l i n e a t e h i s own e s s e n t i a l l y C h r i s t -i a n view of man. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o S i l e n t M usic: The S c i e n c e of Medi-t a t i o n J ohnston welcomes d i a l o g u e with, s c i e n t i s t s . In p a r t i c u l a r he a c c l a i m s those " s t u d e n t s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " , those "modern p r o p h e t s " , who r e c o g n i z e the a b s o l u t e . n e c e s s i t y , of i n c l u d i n g i n t h e i r study the w r i t i n g s of the. great'.mysties and .seers of a l l times and c u l t u r e s . ^ " As a modern man J o h n s t o n . i s moved by the tremendous v o i c e of- s c i e n t i f i c . t h i n k i n g . As.-a. l o n g time s t u d e n t of C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m he i s c o n v i n c e d of the v a l u e of t h a t mode of r e l i g i o n . H i s a f f i r m a t i o n , of an a r e l i g i o u s s c i e n c e which s t u d i e s m y s t i c a l phenomena, i s . an a f f i r m a t i o n n o t o n l y of these phenomena and of the view of human n a t u r e they i m p l y b u t a l s o of the s c i e n t i f i c approach t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g . True s c i e n c e , f o r J o h n s t o n , i s a q u e s t f o r wisdom. - 33 -R e f l e c t i o n on the i n s i g h t s of modern ps y c h o l o g y i n t o human n a t u r e has l e d s t u d e n t s of m y s t i c i s m , to. a.new e v a l u a t i o n of the phenomenon. D i s c u s s i n g the " s c i e n t i f i c ' . ' approach t o the study .of m y s t i c i s m taken by the n i n e t e e n t h , c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c s c h o l a r , August P o u l a i n , Johnston o b s e r v e s : P o u l a i n wrote a t t h e . t u r n of the c e n t u r y . L i t t l e d i d he know t h a t the s c i e n c e of.. m y s t i c i s m was on the verge of an earthquake t h a t would shake i t t o I t s f o u n d a t i o n s and make h i s T h e r e s i a n r e v o l u t i o n l o o k l i k e a t i n y t r e m or. I mean the impact of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , the meeting between C h r i s t i a n i t y and.the r e l i g i o n s of the e a s t , the d i s c o v e r y of brainwaves and^the p o p u l a r i t y of b i o f e e d -back and r e s e a r c h i n drugs. Most of Johnston's w r i t i n g has been p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p a s t decade. Most of the .psychology t.o which, he r e f e r s , a p a r t from the work of W i l l i a m James and the . p s y c h o a n a l y s t s , e s p e c i a l l y C a r l Jung, t o whose n o t i o n s about the subconscious. Johnston g i v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , i s a l s o work .of the p a s t decade. He has been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r i g u e d by the p h y s i c a l approach t o the b r a i n and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In t h i s r e g a r d he makes r e f e r e n c e t o h i s f r i e n d , , the Japanese r e s e a r c h e r Tomio H i r a i , a u t h o r of a study of m e d i t a t i o n . a n d b r a i n w a v e s , Zen and the Mind.^ Before l o o k i n g a t Merton's r e f l e c t i o n s on modern p s y c h o l o g y we might mention, t h a t . t h i s most r e c e n t work i n the f i e l d d i s p l a y s a g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , than e a r l i e r psycho-l o g i c a l work both i n i t s t e c h n i c a l r e f i n e m e n t and i n i t s i n t e r e s t i n s u b j e c t i v e dimensions of human e x p e r i e n c e . S i n c e Thomas Merton d i e d i n . 1968 i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he was u n f a m i l i a r w i t h brainwave research..Whether or n o t he would have viewed t h i s work w i t h the same c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e : •. - 34" -he took towards o t h e r modern s t u d i e s of human n a t u r e i s a moot p o i n t . Would he have seen the a t t e m p t . t o I n t e g r a t e the s u b j e c t i v e dimensions of human e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t e s as a r e d r e s s i n g of the e a r l i e r overemphasis on the e m p i r i c a l ? Or would he have p o i n t e d i n c i s i v e l y at., the. d u a l i s m i n h e r e n t ,in any attempt t o f i n d such a c o r r e l a t i o n ? We. s h a l l never..know, s i n c e he d i d n o t t u r n h i s pen t o w r i t i n g about t h i s m a t e r i a l . The d u a l i s m i n h e r e n t i n - t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human n a t u r e i s c e n t r a l to the C a r t e s i a n . v i e w .of r e a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g the sub-j e c t i v e - o b j e c t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n made vby s c i e n c e i n i t s program of e m p i r i c i s m . But, f o r Merton, both the s.u.bj e c t i v i t y and the o b j e c t i v i t y t a k e n i n t h i s approach a r e a r t i f i c i a l and l e a d to both e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l e r r o r . The d i s t i n c t i o n under-l i e s the a l i e n a t i o n so troublesome, t o modern man. As Merton puts i t : Modern man, i n s o f a r as he i s s t i l l C a r t e s i a n (he i s of course g o i n g f a r beyond, D e s c a r t e s i n .many r e s p e c t s ) , i s a s u b j e c t : f o r whom h i s own.self-awareness as a t h i n k i n g , o b s e r v i n g , measuring and ' e s t i m a t i n g ' s e l f i s a b s o l u t e l y p r i m a r y . I t i s f o r him.the one i n d u b i t a b l e r e a l i t y , and a l l t r u t h s t a r t s . h e r e . The more he i s a b l e t o d e v e l o p . h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . as. a s u b j e c t over a g a i n s t objects., the more he. can u n d e r s t a n d t h i n g s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to, him and on.e. a n o t h e r , the more he can m a n i p u l a t e t h e s e o b j e c t s . f o r . h i s - own i n t e r e s t s , but a l s o , a t the same t i m e , the more he tends, t o i s o l a t e h i m s e l f i n h i s own. subj ectlv.e p r i s o n , t o become a detached o b s e r v e r cut o f f . f r o m e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n a k i n d of i m p e n e t r a b l e , . a l i e n a t e d . a n d t r a n s p a r e n t bubble which c o n t a i n s a l l E e a l i t y i n the form of p u r e l y sub-j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . The i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f a.s i s o l a t e d from the w o r l d and t h r e a t e n e d by. i t so t h a t . h e must i n c o r p o r a t e as much as he can i n the way of knowledge or - m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n or power or - 35 -p l e a s u r e i n o r d e r t o defend t h a t s e l f . The "ego" i n t h i s view must be an a g g r e s s o r i n a h o s t i l e w o r l d , .a w o r l d from which i t i s a l i e n a t e d . However, Merton goes f u r t h e r than t h i s . . The "ego" c o n s t r u c t a l i e n a t e s the s e l f from i t s own t r u e n a t u r e . In s e e k i n g t o shore up i t s own i d e n t i t y by s e l f - i m a g e s of power and p o s s e s s i o n , w i t h or w i t h o u t the m a t e r i a l accoutrements of those images, by r e l a t -i n g t o the w o r l d p r i m a r i l y i n terms of r o l e - i d e n t i t i e s , i t f a i l s t o p e r c e i v e i t s own deeper t r u t h , i t s e s s e n t i a l u n i t y , a u n i t y beyond d u a l i t y and hence beyond need. Merton came t o know the deep.er t r u t h about man through h i s commitment to C h r i s t i a n i t y . The language i n which he d i s c u s s e s ego and s e l f and a l i e n a t i o n and .Cartesian d u a l i t y i s modern language. And Merton's b i o g r a p h y i s a modern b i o g r a p h y . L i k e many ano t h e r modern man Merton's l i f e was no s t r a n g e r t o a l i e n -a t i o n . A l a t e r c h a p t e r w i l l .examine some, of Merton's e x p e r i e n c e i n more depth but here we s h o u l d . mention an. e x p e r i e n c e of h i s l a t e teenage y e a r s , b e f o r e h i s . c o n v e r s i o n to. C a t h o l i c i s m , which t e s t i f i e s to t h i s a l i e n a t i o n : I was i n my room. I t was night... The l i g h t was on. Suddenly i t seemed t o me . t h a t . .Father , who had now been dead more than a y e a r , was. t h e r e w i t h me. The-sense of h i s presence, was as. v i v i d and as. r e a l and as s t a r t l i n g as i f he had touched.-iny arm or spoken to me. The whole t h i n g p a s s e d i n . a f l a s h , but i n t h a t f l a s h , i n s t a n t l y , I was.-overwhelmed w i t h a sudden and p r o f ound i n s i g h t , i n t o ' the m i s e r y and c o r r u p t i o n of my own s o u l , and: I. wa,s. p i e r c e d deeply w i t h . a l i g h t t h a t made.me r e a l i z e something of the c o n d i t i o n I w a s . i n , and I. wa s . - f i l l e d w i t h h o r r o r a t what I saw, and my. whole being.,rose up i n r e v o l t a g a i n s t what was ..within me,, and my s o u l d e s i r e d escape and l i b e r a t i o n and.freedom.from a l l t h i s w i t h an i n t e n s i t y and an urgency u n l i k e a n y t h i n g - 36 -I had ever known b e f o r e . And.now I t h i n k f o r the f i r s t time i n my whole l i f e I r e a l l y began t o pray -p r a y i n g not w i t h my l i p s and .with my i n t e l l e c t and my i m a g i n a t i o n .but-, p r a y i n g out of. the very r o o t s of my l i f e and of my being,: and p r a y i n g the God I had never known, t o .reach down towards ..me out of H i s darkness and t o h e l p me to. get f r e e of the thousandg t e r r i b l e t h i n g s that.held.my w i l l i n t h e i r s l a v e r y . Merton's sense of a l i e n a t i o n and h i s p r o f o u n d d e s i r e t o overcome i t grew out of h i s own l i f e . R e f l e c t i o n on h i s own l i f e b rought i n s i g h t about the c o n d i t i o n of modern man. Merton's sense of a l i e n a t i o n p r e d a t e d h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o b e l i e f i n God, t o C h r i s -t i a n i t y , t o C a t h o l i c i s m , t o becoming a T r a p p i s t monk and eventu-a l l y a k i n d of a h e r m i t . In becoming a C h r i s t i a n and i n e x p l o r i n g the meaning of t h a t becoming Merton moved beyond h i s a l i e n a t i o n t o the d i s c o v e r y of h i s t r u e s e l f , c o n t i n u a l l y removed the bar-, r i e r s of h i s a l i e n a t i o n and w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f u l n e s s became t h a t t r u e s e l f w i t h o u t b a r r i e r . In becoming h i s t r u e s e l f he a l s o found h i s p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the m a t e r i a l w o r l d and t o o t h e r p e o p l e . Commenting on t h i s theme on the. day.of h i s death, Merton n o t e d : The whole purpose of the monastic l i f e i s t o t e a c h men to l i v e by l o v e . The s i m p l e f o r m u l a , which was so p o p u l a r i n the West, was the A u g u s t i n i a n f o r m u l a of the t r a n s l a t i o n of c u p i d i t a s i n t o c a r i t a s , of s e l f - c e n t e r e d l o v e i n t o an ou.tg.oing, o t h e r - c e n t e r e d l o v e . In the p r o c e s s of t h i s change the i n d i v i d u a l ego was seen, t o be i l l u s o r y and, d i s s o l v e d i t s e l f , and i n p l a c e of t h i s s e l f - c e n t e r e d ego came the C h r i s t i a n p e r s o n , who was no l o n g e r j u s t the. i n d i v i d u a l but was C h r i s t d w e l l i n g i n each. one....So i n each one of u s , the C h r i s t i a n person i s that, .which i s f u l l y open to a l l o t h e r persons,, b.ecaus.e . u l t i m a t e l y a l l o t h e r persons a r e C h r i s t . L i k e J o h n s t o n , Merton m a i n t a i n s a C h r i s t b c e n t r i e view of - 37 -human n a t u r e . N o n e t h e l e s s , h i s a n a l y s i s , of the a l i e n a t i o n i n -h e r e n t i n the modern western w o r l d and' of modern views of man c e n t e r e d on the C a r t e s i a n ego, or i t s s c i e n c e , has a v a l i d i t y t h a t i s n o t dependent on h i s . C h r i s t o c e n t r i . c view. But t h i s C h r i s t i a n i n s p i r e d " a r e l i g i o u s " a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a framework of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by which the modern s e c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l can come t o u n d e r s t a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t p r o v i d e s a c u r r e n c y of t r a n s l a t i o n by which C h r i s t i a n concepts of o r i g i n a l s i n can be made r e l e v a n t t o contemporary c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Mert.on's p r o f o u n d l y i n s i g h t f u l n o t i o n of the need t o overcome a l i e n a t i o n by ' r e c o g n i z i n g one's t r u e s e l f , by l i v i n g from the c e n t r e of one's s e l f , r e s o n a t e s t o the C h r i s t i a n concept of d y i n g t o o n e s e l f ("ego") so t h a t C h r i s t may l i v e i n one. Thomas Merton, a modern man.using the language of the modern w o r l d , was a r a d i c a l c r i t i c of t h a t w o r l d , of i t s view of human n a t u r e and of the mode of l i v i n g c o n s o n a n t . w i t h t h a t view. W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , a l s o a modern man s p e a k i n g the language of the modern w o r l d , mines the r i c h e s b u r i e d i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human n a t u r e p r o v i d e d by modern p s y c h o l o g y and s i n g s the p r a i s e s of the modern s c i e n t i s t i n s e a r c h f o r wisdom. Johnston and Merton share f u n d a m e n t a l l y C h r i s t i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human n a t u r e and both d i a l o g u e w i t h modern thought. But' where Merton found only the dust of t h e ' w o r l d Johnston found r i c h e s . A thorough r e a d i n g of Johnston's w r i t i n g s l e a v e s one w i t h a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n of how much he has taken from h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h modern p s y c h o l o g y . I have i s o l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g themes which r e c u r t h r o u g h o u t Johnston's w r i t i n g and which form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human n a t u r e : - 38 -1. Psychology teaches .us. the importance of a t t e n d i n g t o o u r s e l v e s . 2. The mind.can be u n d e r s t o o d as. composed of v a r i o u s l e v e l s .;.Much o f ' i t , i s u n c o n s c i o u s and goes beyond .that-, of which, we a r e commonly aware. 3. The mind can be thought of i n terms of " s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " , , e n c o u r a g i n g us t o r e c o g n i z e a- v a r i e t y i n human awareness. 4. The human p a s s e s . t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a g e s of growth. To assume t h a t man i s s t a t i c or t h a t h i s n a t u r e i s f u l l y , g i v e n a t b i r t h i s to a v o i d the t a s k of change and development. 5. P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s ( e s p e c i a l l y J u n g i a n work) teach us how t o move down, i n t o deeper l e v e l s of psyche. 6. Ps y c h o l o g y teaches us the importance of the unc o n s c i o u s i n human m o t i v a t i o n . I t a l s o h i g h l i g h t s the g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e of the body, of f e e l i n g , of s e x u a l i t y , of meaning (here F r a n k l ' s l o g o t h e r a p y ) and of myth. 7. Brainwave measurement p r o v i d e s an " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c a t o r of d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , even of a v e r y s u b t l e nature-, such as may e x i s t between Zen and Yoga- or even between R i n z a i and Soto forms of Zen. 8. Psych o l o g y p r o v i d e s us w i t h a language t o d e l i n e a t e some of the d i f f e r e n c e s between East and West. 9. M y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y can be u n d e r s t o o d b e t t e r i f we r e f l e c t on what, i s t a u g h t by modern p s y c h o l o g y I f we examine these i n s i g h t s , as a whole we see t h a t they c h a l l e n g e any. r e s t r i c t e d . n o t i on . of -human n a t u r e . such as might be p r o v i d e d by behaviour!sm.or.by common .sense. They a l s o c h a l l e n g e man to l i v e i n . t h e l i g h t of an-expanded v i s i o n of human p o t e n t i a l . Johnston p r e s s e s a..strong, case f o r the r i c h n e s s of human n a t u r e and the p a r t i c u l a r i n s i g h t s he adopts from psycho-l o g y a c c l a i m t h a t r i c h n e s s . ..Indeed, a l o n g w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t i n - 39 -the work of modern p s y c h o l o g y , he i s c r i t i c a l of any approach which f a i l s t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f u l l scope of human p o t e n t i a l . In one l e c t u r e he .indicates-. t h a t any p s y c h o l o g y which does n ot c o n s i d e r m y s t i c a l phenomenon.will be i n a d e q u a t e , an i n s i g h t q u i t e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e . r e c e n t development of t r a n s -p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g y . ^ Johnston a c c l a i m s the concern .of modern p s y c h o l o g y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l growth. While Merton. i s c r i t i c a l . o f any concern which tends t o f o c u s on the "ego" - and t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t much modern p s y c h o l o g y tends i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n -John s t o n r e c o g n i z e s i n the s i n c e r i t y and t r u t h f u l n e s s of t h i s modern q u e s t an a f f i n i t y w i t h • t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n c o n c e r n s . Both Merton and Johnston a c c e p t ...views . of human n a t u r e which draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between the. everyday s e l f and the f u l l y r e a l i z e d s e l f . Both are .aspects.of the human b e i n g but i t i s u s u a l l y o n l y the former of which p e o p l e a re aware. The c h a l l e n g e i s t o grow i n t o the l a t t e r . Only from i t can the former be t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e d . No account of Johnston's view of human n a t u r e would be complete w i t h o u t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the.use he makes of the w r i t i n g s of J e s u i t t h e o l o g i a n Bernard Lonergan. Common t o a l l humanity, Lonergan contends, i s a. shared human n a t u r e which he d e s c r i b e s i n h i s " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l , p r e c e p t s " . In h i s most r e c e n t book, The M i r r o r Mind: S p i r i t u a l i t y . a n d T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , Johnston w r i t e s : Even when. B u d d h i s t s ..and. C h r i s t i a n s have d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s they. c a n . . s t i l l j o i n hands, i n a common method t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y human . and .leads ;. th r o u g h c o n v e r s i o n or e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o t r u t h ' a n d goodness. C o n c r e t e l y , - 40 -t h i s means f i d e l i t y t o those t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r e c e p t s t h a t e n s h r i n e the i n e x o r a b l e demands of the human s p i r i t and p o i n t , the way t o human a u t h e n t i c i t y . The common method iwhich i s b a s i c a l l y ' human i s both p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y antecedent, to any s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s commit-ment. I t s g o a l or u l t i m a t e r e s u l t , both.as r e g a r d s thought and as r e g a r d s a c t i o n , i s a l s o . p o s t e r i o r 'to any such s p e c i f i c commit-ment. The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r e c e p t s , which Johnston d i s c u s s e s i n h i s most r e c e n t works., a r e f i v e : . ,be.'attentive, be i n t e l l i g e n t , be r e a s o n a b l e , be r e s p o n s i b l e and be i n l o v e . In a c t u a l human l i f e t h e s e p r e c e p t s a r e most l i k e l y t o be r e a l i z e d i n those s i t u -a t i o n s where t h e r e i s f a i t h and community, p r e c i s e l y i n s p e c i f i c r e l i g i ons. We s h a l l have o c c a s i o n l a t e r t o r e t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the s e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l , p r e c e p t s . S u f f i c i e n t for. the moment t o note t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n d i c a t e s a: common' human n a t u r e which i s t r a n s c u l t u r a l , and t h a t they i m p l y a movement or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n beyond the common s e l f t o the t r u e s e l f . Both Merton and Johnston . draw.a d i s t i n c t i o n , which i n n e i t h e r case s h o u l d be understood, however. ,as'. a . c l e a r - c u t d u a l i s m , between man's e v e r y d a y . s e l f and h i s . t r u e s e l f . Yet the t r u e s e l f i s t h a t way of s e e i n g , t h a t b o u n a r i l e s s way, which i n r e c o g n i z i n g the f a l s e n e s s of t h a t f a l s e s e l f , n o t e d s u b j e c t i v e l y i n the sense of a l i e n a t i o n , t r u l y t h e r e b y r e c o g n i z e s , a l s o i t s t r u t h . D i a l o g u e w i t h modern, .views of. human n a t u r e has been i m p o r t a n t f o r both of t h e s e men i n . the .development, o f . t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of man. Yet the ways they, have, r e a c t e d to. and, used t h i s m a t e r i a l have d i f f e r e d from one a n o t h e r . While p o s i t i n g the d u a l i t y between - 41 -a f a l s e s e l f , .which..would.include those.images of man h e l d commonly by s o c i e t y and by modern p s y c h o l o g y , and the t r u e s e l f Merton h i g h l i g h t s the need. to., move beyond a l l d u a l i t y . The metaphor I l i k e t o u s e . t o d e s c r i b e . t h e movement su g g e s t e d by Merton's thought i s t h a t . o f depth. Consciousness seeks t o move ever deeper to.: i t s . source . or f o u n d a t i o n . Or, more a c c u r a t e l y e x p r e s s e d , i t seeks a r e c o g n i t i o n . o f i t s own bound-l e s s freedom, a freedom i n .the. absence of, a. gap between i t s knowing and i t s b e i n g , t h e freedom which i s p r o p e r t o the c h i l d r e n of God. Johnston too sees the image of the f a l s e man. He c h a l l e n g e s us t o move beyond our l i m i t a t i o n s i n t o t h o s e . f u l l e r p o t e n t i a l s which a r e ours by b i r t h . In t h i s r e g a r d he t a k e s from modern p s y c h o l o g y n o t i o n s of t h o s e expanded p o t e n t i a l s . H i s use, i n p a r t i c u l a r , of models of human psyche which speak of s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , l e v e l s of awareness a-r. d stages-.of. growth a l l o w s him t o adv o c a t e an e x p l o r a t o r y approach t o human n a t u r e . We cannot suppose t h a t we. know a i l t h a t t h e r e , is . . t o know about man n o r , a n a l o g o u s l y , t h a t we a l r e a d y , e x p e r i e n c e a l l .that t h e r e i s to e x p e r i e n c e or even that,we a l r e a d y , e x i s t , i n the f u l l n e s s of our b e i n g . P s y c h o l o g y has -provided,, d e s c r i p t i o n s of a s p e c t s of human b e i n g n o r m a l l y beyond the scope .of the average man and, i n so d o i n g , c h a l l e n g e s us. to, move. i n t o . them. But,, e s p e c i a l l y t h r ough: t h e concept of. the. u n c o n s c i o u s mind, i t c a l l s f o r an openendedness •in. our models of human psyche.' I t i s , we might n o t e , t h i s openendedness. which Johnston r e c o g n i z e s and. a c c l a i m s i n . a l l t r u e s c i e n c e . . For the s c i e n t i s t , p r e c i s e l y i n b e i n g t r u e t o h i s , work as. a. . s c i e n i l s / t , r e c o g n i z e s - 42 -the l i m i t a t i o n s .and incompleteness,, of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w o r l d and of himself... P s y c h o l o g i c a l science,, b o t h as a study of the psyche and as a s c i e n c e , . has. much t o teach., the s t u d e n t of r e l i g i o n and the r e l i g i o u s man.-We s h o u l d n o t e t h a t the.approaches o f , M e r t o n and Johnston to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e of man a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . We have suggested the metaphor of depth t o d e s c r i b e Merton's approach .and b r e a d t h t o d e s c r i b e J o h n s t o n ' s . Y et i n a sense they c o n t a i n one a n o t h e r . W h i l e Merton's approach moves c o n t i n u a l l y towards s i m p l i c i t y and,, as i t were., p u r i f i c a t i o n of a l l human e x p e r i e n c e , moves t o w a r d s c o n f r o n t a t i o n of' the c o r e of human e x p e r i e n c e and a t t h a t p o i n t breaks through t o a r e c o g n i t i o n of the nondual n a t u r e of man, t o t h a t , w h i c h i s beyond words, Merton's voluminous w r i t i n g s and h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s of the w o r l d s of p o l i t i c s and e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n i n d i c a t e h i s own i n v o l v e m e n t i n the i n c r e d i b l e v a r i e t y and f a s c i n a t i o n of the w o r l d . Nor s h o u l d t h i s be taken l i g h t l y ; Merton c o n t i n u a l l y r e c o g n i z e s the danger of q u i e t i s m i n h i m s e l f and i n r e l i g i o u s g e n e r a l l y and speaks s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t i t ; he i s no e s c a p i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r Merton. a l l e x p e r i e n c e i s the p r o v e r b i a l f i n g e r p o i n t i n g a t the moon and the moon i s not an o b j e c t or a t h i n g t o be e x p e r i e n c e d but the i m a g e l e s s . g r o u n d of a l l expe-r i e n c e . The openminded j o y and c e l e b r a t i o n of human v a r i e t y which one sees i n J o h n s t o n , h i s . adamant . r e f u s a l .to. .reduce a l l t r u e d i f f e r e n c e t o o v e r s i m p l i s t i e u n i t y , h i s . c o n s t a n c y i n p e r c e i v i n g nuances of d i f f e r e n c e . i s n o t the e g o c e n t r i c . p o s t u r i n g of the p o l e m i c i s t concerned w i t h s t a k i n g o u t h i s t e r r i t o r y and d e f e n d i n g i t a g a i n s t a l l comers. Rather i t i s the s i n c e r i t y of the s e a r c h e r - A3 -a f t e r t r u t h . I t i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of the genuine c o m p l e x i t y of l i f e which must be c o n f r o n t e d . and. not. e v a d e d . i f ever we a r e t o develop t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . That the f i n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g may i t s e l f be beyond t h i s c o m p l e x i t y i s n o t f.oreign t o Johnston's t h o u g h t . Indeed h i s w r i t i n g o f t e n p o i n t s t o t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , which he c o n s i d e r s m o s t - l i k e l y . Yet man's n a t u r e , e x t e n d i n g as i t does towards i n e f f a b l e - s i l e n c e , m a n i f e s t s an e d i f y i n g m u l t i -p l i c i t y which we would be amiss t o i g n o r e or f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e . Both Johnston's and Merton's views on human n a t u r e c a l l f o r growth and development beyond e x i s t i n g l i m i t s . Yet t h e i r thought o f f e r s us more than t h i s . I t i s n o t merely on. a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l t h a t they p r e s e n t t h i s t e a c h i n g . R a t h e r , l i k e a l l men of r e l i g i o n , they speak of the- way by which-, t h i s growth and d e v e l -opment may take p l a c e . The n e x t c h a p t e r , on methods of growth, w i l l examine t h i s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the d i a l o g u e w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism. - u -Method i n the. S p i r i t u a l L i f e In the l a s t c h a p t e r I examined, the n a t u r e of man as Johnston and Merton p i c t u r e i t . Both see human n a t u r e as dynamic. Both view i t w i t h an eye t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Both p e r c e i v e a p r o c e s s of development, shaping human h i s t o r y and human l i f e , t hrough which man g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e s or a t t a i n s - t o "the t r u e s e l f " . One does n o t have t o . l o o k too hard a t the views of the two men to d i s c e r n i n them a t e n s i o n between "the t r u e s e l f " and what might be c a l l e d "the s e l f of common e x p e r i e n c e " . This t e n s i o n suggests the p r i m a r y dynamic, of growth i n human l i f e . Man s t r i v e s to r e s o l v e the gap between a sense of what.might be, of what i n -heres i n "the t r u e s e l f " , . a n d the everyday b e i n g of everyday l i f e , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d .by a sense of dukkha or " u n s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s " i n the B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n and .by s i n or. " m i s s i n g the mark" i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . In l i g h t of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of human n a t u r e e x p l o r e d i n the l a s t c h a p t e r , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l , l o o k a t t h e ways man seeks t o a c h i e v e r e a l i z a t i o n of "the t r u e s e l f " , t o a t t a i n " s a l v a t i o n " as a C h r i s t i a n or " l i b e r a t i o n " as a Buddhist.. In my d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r views i n t h a t c h a p t e r I suggested t h a t the metaphors of " b r e a d t h " and "depth" d i s t i n g u i s h the- r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s of Johnston and Merton. J o h n s t o n sees, human-nature p r i m a r i l y i n l i g h t of i t s m u l t i f a r i o u s . p o t e n t i a l s and. d i s t i n c t i v e a b i l i t i e s . His view i s a . c e l e b r a t i o n of d i v e r s i t y . Merton's u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t r e s s e s man's fundamental u n i t y w i t h God., the ground of a l l b e i n g . He s t r i v e s t o m a i n t a i n . h i s f o o t i n g on t h a t base which - 45 -E l i o t has c a l l e d "the s t i l l p o i n t of the t u r n i n g w o r l d " . The views of. the two men a r e a l s o i n l i n e w i t h - and may be u n d e r s t o o d i n the l i g h t of - a. d i s t i n c t i o n , w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i e l d of comparative r e l i g i o n , - between two types of r e l i -g i o n or s p i r i t u a l experience, and..expression : those of d u a l i t y and n o n - d u a l i t y . This d i s t i n c t i o n . , which I s sometimes i d e n t i f i e d as t h a t between r e l i g i o n s of.. c o n f r o n t a t i o n , and r e l i g i o n s of i n f e r i o r i t y , has o f t e n been ..used. W d i f f e r e n t i a t e the r e l i g i o n s of the west from those of the e a s t . • W i t h i n t r a d i t i o n s , however, i n d i v i d u a l s may tend p r i m a r i l y towards the one type even w h i l e the r e l i g i o n w i t h which they i d e n t i f y -tends p r i m a r i l y towards the o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s not uncommon .for both types of e x p e r i e n c e to p l a y a r o l e i n the s p i r i t u a l l i v e s of s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s . At the end of the l a s t . c h a p t e r , I suggested t h a t my i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l i t y • o f Johnston.and Merton as d u a l i s t i c and non.-.duali.stic r e s p e c t i v e l y c o u l d n o t be m a i n t a i n e d a b s o l u t e l y and was not, i n t e n d e d t o be ..-understood .that way. I t i s more a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t they show a. .preference f o r one or the o t h e r t y p e . When l o o k e d a t t h i s way s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d . . a n d examined w i t h o u t b l a t a n t . o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d s p i r i t u a l s i t i e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between d u a l i s m and,' non-dualism a l s o p l a y s a very s p e c i a l r o l e i n any . consi.de.rati ons., of "method" i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , . ! want ..to open, t h i s c h a p t e r on " s p i r i t u a l t e c h n i q u e s " with, a . f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n . . In p a r t i c u l a r , I want t o examine how. i t bears on an understanding, of the " g o a l " or "end" of r e i i g i o n . i n C h r i s t i a n i t y - A6 -and i n Zen. Our a p p r e c i a t i o n of the. "way" i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e and of "methods" or "techniques." i n s p i r i t u a l i t y w i l l v a ry a c c o r d i n g t o the view we h o l d of the " g o a l " towards which we.are moving. One of the fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n s , d r a w n by r e l i g i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sense of dualism, i s that,betwe.en the n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n .allows . f o r two o r d e r s of r e a l i t y , one of which i s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n . t h e , o t h e r . When these a r e u n d e r s t o o d as m e t a p h y s i c a l l y , and n o t j u s t • e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t - t h a t i s t o . s a y , when they a r e taken t o have r e f e r e n c e t o a c t u a l s t a t e s of b e i n g and n o t j u s t t o l e v e l s of t r u t h (such as the " a b s o l u t e " and " r e l a t i v e " - . t r u t h s of Hinduism) - the orde r e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s n o t one'which can be overcome merely by a r e a l i z a t i o n of the t r u t h . Indeed, f o r the c o n s i s t e n t . d u a l i s.t, the d i s t i n c t i o n can never be overcome a t a l l . . .It. i s a .matter • of.-fundamental c o n d i t i o n s of b e i n g , i n h e r e n t .in the s t r u c t u r e and dynamics of r e a l i t y i t s e l f . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t a n d . b r i n g s us t o a n o t h e r - perhaps the most fundamental of a l l d u a l i s m s -. the. d i s t i n c t i o n between "knowing" and "being".. So, f o r example, the C h r i s t i a n w i l l argue n o t o n l y t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t i o n , between man and God f o r man i n h i s p r e s e n t e a r t h l y c o n d i t i o n , when he "sees d a r k l y as i n a m i r r o r " , but t h a t , even when, he sees ."face...to f a c e " a f t e r death -when he knows. God d i r e c t l y . - t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . - w i l l remain. The d i f f erence . between the .Creator and.-.the. c r e a t e d , i s a b s o l u t e . The c r e a t e d o r d e r i s f u l l y a n d . f i n a l l y dependent upon the C r e a t o r , who, a c c o r d i n g t o the. C h r i s t i a n myth, has g i v e n man n o t only e x i s t e n c e . but freedom, and. n o t only freedom., b u t , i n the wake of man's i n i t i a l misuse of t h a t freedom,. redemp.ti.on. Without t h i s - Kl -redemption no s a l v a t i o n and no s p i r i t u a l l i f e would be p o s s i b l e . Man c o u l d have knowledge .- i n d e e d one r e a d i n g of man's " f a l l " u n d e r s t a n d s i t as a f r u i t , of. h i s e a t i n g , of the " t r e e of the knowledge of good and e v i l " , by which.he sought t o become l i k e God - but t h a t knowledge c o u l d .never . s u f f i c e t o b r i n g man t o h i s t r u e e s t a t e as a c h i l d of God, t h a t " s t a t e of g r a c e " which i s a c o n d i t i o n of b e i n g r a t h e r . t h a n of knowing. In l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t -the- n a t u r a l o r d e r i s subsumed by the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r - t h a t , the b e i n g of man i s c o n t a i n e d i n the b e i n g of God but n o t v i c e v e r s a - i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t communication between the.two o r d e r s has been i n i t i a t e d by the C r e a t o r . T r a d i t i o n a l C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g • h a s .allowed f o r knowledge of God through o b s e r v a t i o n of the' n a t u r a l - w o r l d , and the order of the u n i v e r s e . However, w h i l e the . n a t u r a l o r d e r may i n d i c a t e or h i n t a t the s u p e r n a t u r a l , . from.-which i t t a k e s i t s b e i n g , man's f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , o r d e r and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w i l l of t h a t o r d e r a r e dependent upon the communication of i n f o r m a t i o n from t h a t order t o t h i s . Only, through the " r e v e l a t i o n " of God's Word i n the Old and the New. .Testaments can the n a t u r a l mind have any f u l l knowledge of the i n t e n t i o n of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . This g i f t of r e v e l a t i o n , t h i s , s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n of the super-n a t u r a l t o the n a t u r a l r e a c h e s . i t s . . c u l m i n a t i o n i n God's t a k i n g on human n a t u r e i n the person of Jesus of N a z a r e t h . Man i s i n v i t e d t o respond, f r e e l y t o God's r e v e l a t i o n , t o f o l l o w the law of God p r e s e n t e d , t o the/human. r a c e i n the Old and the New Testaments .. A-s . a . C h r i s t i a n ,. man i s above a l l i n v i t e d to l i v e i n harmony w i t h the "new law" e s t a b l i s h e d by J e s u s : the law of l o v e . The d e s c r i p t i o n Jesus gave of h i m s e l f as "the - 48 -way" may be u n d e r s t o o d i n t.erms of the r o l e he p l a y e d i n m e d i a t i n g the o r d e r s of the n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l . The C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e s t h a t through the l i f e , dea.th and r e s u r r e c t i o n of J e s u s , the human r a c e , as. a whole., has. been, redeemed. Through h i s e x i s t -ence a fundamental r e - a l i g n m e n t of t h e two o r d e r s t a k e s p l a c e -the two become one i n him. The. stage has been, s e t on which i t i s now p o s s i b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l p e o p l e , through l i v i n g i n a c c o r d w i t h God's w i l l , t o aim a t t h e i r , own .transcendence of death and the merely n a t u r a l s t a t e which c u l m i n a t e s i n i t . . As' "the Way" Jesus p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a r e s t o r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l dimensions of e x i s t e n c e i n human l i f e . T h i s r e s t o r a t i o n was f o r a l l time and f o r a l l men and, i n t h i s sense, i t belongs t o a tra n s p e . r s o n a l o r d e r . However, i f on the f u n d a mental l e v e l of b e i n g i t s e l f Jesus as "the Way" has u n i t e d two p r e v i o u s l y a l i e n a t e d .orders,. he a l s o . s e r v e s as "the way" through p r o v i d i n g a model f o r h u m a n . l i v i n g . H i s l i f e , c o n t e r e d on l o v e , stands as The Paradigm f o r . a l l t r u l y C h r i s t i a n l i f e . One i s a C h r i s t i a n i n s o f a r as one-accepts t h i s , basic...understanding of the o r d e r of b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n "the Way" and seeks to model h i s or her b e h a v i o u r on knowledge of "the way". At t h i s p o i n t an i m p o r t a n t r e f l e c t i o n needs t o be added. With the d u a l i s t i c mind t h e r e i s the. p o s s i b i l i t y of system. In r e l i g i o n which a l l o w s f o r the n a t u r a l / s u p e r n a t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n t h e r e i s a tendency t o i n t r o d u c e a n o t h e r fundamental dichotomy, t h a t between good and bad. .The s u p e r n a t u r a l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o r m e r and the n a t u r a l , e i t h e r through- an i n h e r e n t q u a l i t y of e v i l or through l a c k of the .good, w i t h the l a t t e r . T h i s , i n t u r n , bears upon the e t h i c a l d imension and man i s c a l l e d upon t o - 49 -i d e n t i f y w i t h the q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l -i n C h r i s t i a n terms, to be i n a " s t a t e of g r a c e " . T r a d i t i o n a l l y the d i s t i n c t i o n , between ...the n a t u r a l and super-n a t u r a l has a l l o w e d f o r • the. a s s o c i a t i o n of the n a t u r a l o r d e r w i t h death and w i t h e v i l . As the realm of- "the. w o r l d , the f l e s h and the d e v i l " i t has been .viewed n e g a t i v e l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t r a d -i t i o n a l C a t h o l i c thought ha's s t r e s s e d the.-importance of d i s c i p -l i n i n g the body and the d e s i r e s , of the body. T h i s has o f t e n been d i s c i p l i n e i n a sense t h a t , ,even...f or the- n a t u r a l i s t i c modern mind, c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d p o s i t i v e l y . However,- we cannot o v e r l o o k t h a t , the C h r i s t i a n tendency t o a s s o c i a t e the b o d i l y w i t h e v i l ( w i t h death) sometimes, reached an extreme of., masochism d i s g u i s e d and d i g n i f i e d by the l a b e l " s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n " . ..The p o s i t i o n s taken by both J o h n s t o n and Merton d i f f e r .fundamentally from t h i s t r a d i -t i o n a l r e n d e r i n g , of the message of- J e s u s . T h i s has a c r u c i a l b e a r i n g on the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of "method", i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e , as we s h a l l d i s c u s s s h o r t l y . Hand i n hand w i t h the d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t u r a l and super-n a t u r a l o r d e r s of r e a l i t y goes a d i s t i n c t i o n between " n a t u r e " and " h i s t o r y " . The s a c r e d . d i m e n s i on , of., human l i f e i s u n d e r s t o o d e i t h e r as r o o t e d i n a h i s t o r i c a l . , c y c l i c a l p r o c e s s e s .of. " e t e r n a l r e t u r n " modeled on the phases of nature, most-, n o t i c e a b l e i n . the a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r or as d i r e c t e d t h rough time, towards, a..unique, and y e t - t o - b e -e s t a b l i s h e d f u t u r e . R e l i g i o n s of d u a l i t y , have combined t h e i r emphasis on the d i s t i n c t i o n . ;beiween the two. orders, w i t h an emphasis on the f u t u r e and t h e . p r o c e s s of h i s t o r y . When the d i s t i n c t i o n between ;,the two. o r d e r s of -being has. n o t e x i s t e d , . when, the t e n s i o n e x p r e s s e d by the gap between them, .has n o t been f-ormulated, r e l i g i o n - 50 -has tended t o f o c u s on " b e i n g " r a t h e r than becoming, on the deepest ( i n d e e d f a t h o m l e s s ) ground of " i s - n e s s " r a t h e r than the o u t r e a c h i n t o a d e s i r e d b u t . n o t y e t r e a l i z e d - and, i n some sense, n o t y e t e x i s t i n g - g o a l . In t h i s case t h e r e has been a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e v a l u a t i o n - of h i s t o r y andean emphasis on the here and now. Fundamental differences.-.between. .Roman. C a t h o l i c i s m and Japanese Zen Buddhism f i n d the two - . r e l i g i o n s , on o p p o s i t e s i d e s of the dichotomy I have j u s t o u t l i n e d . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l i s fundamental t o . C a t h o l i c i s m . So i s the emphasis on h i s t o r y and- the f u t u r e . The C a t h o l i c aims a t a c h i e v i n g s a l v a t i o n , through- grace made a v a i l a b l e by the a c t i o n of J e s u s , i n heaven a f t e r d e a t h . W h i l e , t h e C a t h o l i c s t r i v e s t o l i v e i n accordance w i t h the law- of 'God. i t . has n o t been u n u s u a l f o r C a t h o l i c s t o have a sense t h a t they d i d not know how i t was w i t h them s p i r i t u a l l y . . Indeed, we. .might even, say t h a t t h e r e was a tendency t o devalue any p e r s o n a l knowing of the "super-n a t u r a l " c o n d i t i o n of one's s o u l as a v a i n a t t empt a t u s u r p i n g the j u dgmental a b i l i t y t h a t r e s i d e d only w i t h God. Sometimes, of c o u r s e , the c h u r c h , as the c o l l e c t i v e body of C h r i s t on e a r t h saw f i t to e x e r c i s e i t s . judgment (shaped, a . s . i t b e l i e v e d , by the grace of God) over i t s members. By. i t s own d e f i n i t i o n i t was i n v o l v e d i n a s u p e r n a t u r a l . task, and exercised..an a u t h o r i t y which c o u l d n o t be - and f o r c e n t u r i e s was n o t - q u e s t i o n e d on merely n a t u r a l grounds. As f a r as. the i n d i v i d u a l was concerned, the s p i r i t u a l l i f e was f u t u r e o r i e n t e d and he. or ..she would know the f i n a l judgment only a f t e r death., Here , w.e., have- a c l e a r , and c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between "knowing" . and. ."being" i n . r e g a r d t o the human s o u l . - 51 -T h i s s i t u a t i o n n a t u r a l l y l e d t o not a- l i t t l e a n x i e t y and good C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s , c o u l d o n l y a d v i s e t h e i r , p a r i s h o n e r s t o l e t ' t h i n g s r e s t w i t h God. The n a t u r a l w o r l d was., seen, as c o r r u p t and the n a t u r a l mind as darkened. Adherence, t o the e x t e r n a l o r d e r of the church p r o v i d e d man wi:th. the .only framework f o r the l i v i n g out of l i f e . S e c u r i t y l a y n o t i n knowledge of or r e f l e c t i o n on what today would be c a l l e d "the s e l f " . ( o r even."the ego") but i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the o r d e r of s o c i e t y , which was i t s e l f seen as i n v o l v e d i n the order of God. Zen does n o t draw/a d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t u r a l and super-n a t u r a l o r d e r s of r e a l i t y . A d m i t t e d l y a d i f f e r e n c e i s r e c o g n i z e d between " o r d i n a r y mind" and " e n l i g h t e n e d mind" but t h a t d i f f e r e n c e has o n l y a r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y s i n c e , , f o r the " e n l i g h t e n e d mind", i t ceases t o e x i s t . One's o r d i n a r y n a t u r e i s the Buddha n a t u r e and the Zen t r a d i t i o n i s r e p l e t e w i t h s t o r i e s emphasizing p r e c i s e l y t h i s p o i n t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n has not l a c k e d n o t i o n s of a n o t h e r o r d e r of r e a l i t y ; i n d e e d , one of the p r i n c i p a l forms of Buddhism i s b u i l t on r e c o u r s e t o Amida Buddha, whose e f f o r t s make i t p o s s i b l e f o r i g n o r a n t man t o e n t e r i n t o the Pure Land. T h i s , however, i s not viewed as a f i n a l . r e s t i n g p l a c e but r a t h e r as a p l a c e more c o n d u c t i v e . t h a n t h i s w o r l d f o r e n t r y i n t o n i r v a n a . In p r a c t i c e , i t i s n o t uncommon f o r monks i n Japan to use elements from both Zen and Pure Land t r a d i t i o n s . The s i g n i f i -cant p o i n t , however, i s tha.t the m e t a p h y s i c a l s t a t u s g r a n t e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between the s u p e r n a t u r a l and the n a t u r a l , between heaven and e a r t h , God and man i n C h r i s t i a n i t y i s not t o be found i n Buddhism. In view of a l l of t h i s , i t i s not. s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the Zen - 52. -monk i s ta u g h t n o t t o r e l y on the e f f o r t s and ..acti ons of o t h e r s t o b r i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t . . Inde.ed, Zen. i s sometimes, d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r forms of. Buddhism, such as,.Amida. Buddhism, as " s e l f -e f f o r t " ( j i r i k i ) from " o t h e r - e f f o r t " ( t a r i k i ) . The Zen s t u d e n t must be s e l f - r e l i a n t . The p r o c e s s of e n l i g h t e n m e n t i s a n a t u r a l one. F o l l o w i n g the pr o c e d u r e s t h a t have been e n s h r i n e d i n the Zen t r a d i t i o n the monk w i l l move t o w a r d s . r e a l i z a t i o n . Zen does r e -c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e . o f " f a l s e . e n l i g h t e n m e n t s " , but the Zen master i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e and d i s t i n g u i s h them from the r e a l t h i n g . Moreover, t h i s "enlightenment",, when i t o c c u r s , has the q u a l i t y of a complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n I n .consciousness. In t h i s sense, i t might be compared t o . the .pop-ular n o t i o n of " r e -b i r t h " i n C h r i s t i a n i t y : i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d . i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l . In the C h r i s t i a n case., . however ,• we have a l r e a d y commented t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l C a t h o l i c , s p i r i t u a l i t y frowned upon a l l i n n e r " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s " experience., a p o s i t i o n i n a c c o r d w i t h i t s emphasis on the f u t u r e and the. s u p e r n a t u r a l . . Consequently i t has n o t been u n u s u a l f o r C a t h o l i c . C h r i s t i a n s t o have no sense whatsoever of any i n n e r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e and even among today's C a t h o l i c s t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l .mistrust, of-more e x p e r i e n t i a l 3 forms of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . In t h i s c o n t e x t . . . s p i r i t u a l i t y becomes an e x c l u s i v e l y e x t r o v e r t e d phenomenon. A f u r t h e r p o i n t needs., t o be made/about Zen. " e n l i g h t e n m e n t " . I t i s n o t h i n g s p e c i a l . T h e . e n l i g h t e n e d mind i s not. d i f f e r e n t from the everyday mind, except t h a t • i t i s e n l i g h t e n e d . T h i s under-s t a n d i n g serves, t o emphasize..the...here.,.. the -'now. and the n a t u r a l . I t i s u n l i k e the. C h r i s t i a n , . " r e b i r t h " e x p e r i e n c e i n s o f a r as the l a t t e r emphasized a r e s t o r e d ' r e l a t i o n s h i p with, t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l - 53 -dimension and a s p e c i a l opening of the s o u l t o Jesus w i t h an eye to the promise of the f u t u r e coming, of the Kingdom. In l i g h t of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , , we can. now t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of "method" i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e as i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the thought of Johnston and Merton. .The. r e f l e c t i o n s i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r argue t h a t t h e r e i s a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e ( t h a t of n o n - d u a l i s m ? v s . d u a l i s m ) . between the c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c approaches of the two r e l i g i o u s . t r a d i t i o n s of Japanese Zen Buddhism and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . ••This d i f f e r e n c e i s m e a n i n g f u l f o r the i s s u e of " g o a l s and., methods". i n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Moreover, i t has a s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e f o r the s u b j e c t of t h i s s t u d y . I f we can e s t a b l i s h . a d i f f e r e n c e between Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen Buddhism by u s i n g t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e or non-acceptance of a s e t of d u a l i s t i c c d i s t i n e t i o n s ( n a t u r a l , . . s u p e r n a t u r a l ; God, man; h e r e , t h e r e ; p r e s e n t , future.;' "-good'' works", g r a c e ; means, g o a l ) and i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s . d i f f e r e n c e can be d e s c r i b e d on a continuum r u n n i n g from " d u a l i s m " on the.'extreme, w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s these c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t o "non-dualism" on the extreme which does n o t , then we can say t h a t the t h i n k i n g of Thomas Merton i n c r e a s i n g l y seems to a c c o r d with. t h a t . p o l e a t which we a l s o f i n d Zen Buddhism whereas ; the. t h i n k i n g , of. W i l l i a m Johnston i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c o r d s w i t h the o p p o s i t e . p.ole. .However, t h i s i s n o t t o say, as has sometimes been, .argued, that..Merton "became a B u d d h i s t " . ^ Nor. i s i t t o say t h a t . Johns ton. f a i l s t o a p p r e c i a t e the i n s i g h t s of Zen. Rather,, i t i s .a q u e s t i o n of. d i f f e r e n t s l a n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the t h o u g h t , w r i t i n g a n d . s p i r i t u a l i t y of the two men. Merton c o n t i n u e d t o make, use . of . the d i s t i n c t i o n between the - 54 -n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l , even i n h i s l a s t p u b l i c t a l k when he i d e n t i f i e d i t as. one. of the b a s i c d i s . t i n c t i o n s between Zen and C h r i s t i a n i t y . He speaks . C h r i s t i a n , .language when he t a l k s of the need fo r ~ g r . a c e . His :. t h i n k i n g c o n t i n u e s t o have a touch of f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n . Y e t , de s p i t e , these'. C h r i s t i a n , f o r m u l a t i o n s i n h i s t h o u g h t , h i s w r i t i n g more and. more f a l l s . i n t o l i n e w i t h t h a t Zen p e r s p e c t i v e which he f o u n d , so c o m p a t i b l e . Can we not f i n d i n Merton's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of- grace ..less, .of .an,;,effort t o see i t a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o l o g y and more an''{understanding of i t as an a c c o r d between the g i v e n n e s s (.the g i f t ) of b e i n g and the g r a t i t u d e of the c o n s c i o u s person.who l i v e s w i t h t r u s t i n the fundamental, p r o c e s s of r e a l i t y , . o p e r a t i v e ., even i n the darkness a t the core of human l i f e.,.(o.p.era t i ve,, we might say, though Merton d i d n o t , even on t h e . u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l ) ? Can we not d e t e c t an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on .-the, here- and..now,? .The .Asian J o u r n a l , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s f u l l of t h i s s o r t , of t h i n g . Thus: •I'm g l a d I came h e r e . A l l . morning-alone on the m o u n t a i n s i d e , i n . the -warm sun ,. now o v e r c l o u d e d . P l e n t y of time t o thi n k . . R e a s s e s s m e n t of t h i s whole I n d i a n e x p e r i e n c e i n . more c r i t i c a l terms. Too much movement. Too much -.."looking f o r " some-t h i n g : an answer, .a . v i s i o n , "something o t h e r " . And t h i s breeds i l l u s i o n . . I l l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s something e l s e . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . - the o l d s p l i t t i n g - u p process., t h a t leads., t o m-indlessness, i n s t e a d of the m i n d f u l n e s s of s e e i n g a l l - i n -emptiness and -not- h a v i n g to. break I t up a g a i n s t i t s e l f . Four l e g s good.; two l e g s bad. : e L e t me t r y t o contrast-.the. p o s i t i o n . e x p r e s s e d by Merton -the " m i n d f u l n e s s of seeing- a l l - i n - e m p t i n e . s s ".. i n such passages as the one above w i t h , the . p o s i t i o n John.ston. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t a k e s . J o h n s t o n b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l -human bei n g s a r e moving - 55 -towards the same g o a l , which i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d . i n C h r i s t i a n terms: man i s r e t u r n i n g t o the F a t h e r . We see. t h a t Johnston i s here making a statement about the fundamental ..state of b e i n g of the u n i v e r s e . T h i s i s the way-things a r e . .It i s the way t h i n g s are i r r e s p e c t i v e of how mart may t h i n k about'them.. S i n c e t h i s i s the case a l l men, .in r e a l i t y i r r e s p e c t i v e -of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l l i f e , a r e -on. t h i s p a t h . A l l men are " r e t u r n i n g t o the F a t h e r " . ( S i n c e , a l l . m e n , however, have some i n s i g h t i n t o the t r u e n a t u r e of t h e i r b e i n g , a l l men, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the r e l i g i o u s framework through which, they, u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s p i r i t u a l l i v e s , have something v a l u a b l e t o say about the way and the j o u r n e y . ) Johnston e m p h a s i z e s . t h e • s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C h r i s t i a n form-u l a t i o n . I t i s h i s a c c e p t e d • b e l i e f , s y s t e m . - H o w e v e r , i t i s a l s o an a d m i t t e d p a r t of h i s a c c e p t e d b e l i e f , system t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y s p r i n g s from the p i v o t a l r e a l i t y of a l l human s p i r i t u a l l i f e i n a c o n s c i o u s and m a n i f e s t w a y . . - C h r i s t i a n i t y has, as Johnston s a y s , "the plum of D i v i n e Sonshlp".^\From a human p e r s p e c t i v e , J o h n s t o n admits the r e l a t i v i t y of h i s b e l i e f : system- (of a l l human.knowledge) but a t the same time he accepts, the. a b s o l u t i s t , c l a i m s made by t h a t system f o r i t s e l f . F o r . Johns t o n , .then.,. the " r e t u r n t o the F a t h e r " has paramount s i g n i f i c a n c e .as a . d e s c r i p t i o n of s p i r i t u a l i t y . And t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n con.tain.s two o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e p t i o n s i which c o l o u r h i s view of s p i r i t u a l i t y , g i v i n g i t a d u a l i s t i c t i n g e . The e x p r e s s i o n " r e t u r n i n g to. .the, F a t h e r " 'contains 1). the concept of p e r s o n , of'. "Fa t h e r " and. of r e l a t i o n s h i p . ("Father and c h i l d " ) w i t h i t s demand, f o r co.mmunication ,. and-2.), the concept of movement, of " r e t u r n " , w i t h i t s . r e q u i r e m e n t o f - e x t e n s i o n . (of " b r e a d t h " ) i n both time and space. - 56 -To t h i s p o i n t I have d i s c u s s e d " d u a l i t y / n o n - d u a l i t y " as p e r t a i n i n g t o the l i v i n g of s p i r i t u a l i t y w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on the dimension of t i m e , the e s s e n t i a l framework f o r d i s c u s s -i o n s of " g o a l " and "method". Another a s p e c t .of human e x i s t e n c e , t h a t of the c o r p o r e a l , which i s of e s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r "method i n s p i r i t u a l i t y " , can .-also be .examined ,in l i g h t of t h i s dichotomy. In Zen and the B i b l e ..Father. K a k i c h i Kadowaki r e l a t e s a s t o r y t o l d by Zen master Momon lamada: Once an American, p r i e s t came.to see me. He s a t down i n f r o n t of me and s a i d , "Teach me the s a t o r i of Zen. T e l l me what' s t a t e of mind a person a t t a i n s when he .is e n l i g h t e n e d . " He was c e r t a i n l y a s k i n g a - l o t ! I f the answer to t h a t q u e s t i o n c o u l d be put i n t o words and we c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d . e n l i g h t e n m e n t g'ust by h e a r i n g about i t , we wouldn't have t o go t o a l l t h i s t r o u b l e doing zazen. The p r i e s t p r o b a b l y thought t h a t as l o n g as, he. was i n Japan, he'd have an i n s t a n t e n l i g h t e n m e n t b e f o r e g o i n g home. I r e p l i e d by. s a y i n g , "Before I answer your .question, I've got .one.of. my own. C h r i s t s a i d t h a t u n l e s s you have t h e mind of a l i t t l e c h i l d you cannot , en t e r . heaven... Now. j u s t what i s the mind of a l i t t l e c h i l d ? What i s , the, .psycho-l o g i c a l s t a t e of a baby? -Someday y o u ' l l be goi n g to heaven, won't you? In what frame of mind do you i n t e n d t o go?" The p r i e s t became l o s t i n deep thought. A f t e r a w h i l e , t h o u g h , he, came up w i t h a ve r y f i n e answer, ".The mind o f , a baby i s Mu." He s a i d the same t h i n g , t h a t Zen t e a c h e s . So I s a i d , "That's r i g h t . It.'s.Mu, and.to u n d e r s t a n d what Mu i s i s to be enlightened..,". D e l i g h t e d , he s l a p p e d h i s t h i g h and s a i d , "1 u n d e r s t a n d ! " " I t ' s too soon t o f e e l so happy. You've under-s t o o d here. . ( p o i n t i n g , t o h i s head.), but i n Zen you have t o u n d e r s t a n d here. ..(pointing t o h i s hara or b e l l y ) . " " I majored i n p h i l o s o p h y ' i n c o l l e g e . I f I u n d e r s t a n d up .here., t h a t ' s good enough." L i k e many w e s t e r n e r s , the American p r i e s t , thought t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge was enough.. The r o s h i v a l u e d a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of knowing, however, and t r i e d , t o convey t h i s t o the p r i e s t , - 57 -who was a p p a r e n t l y too caught up w i t h h i s own k i n d of c o n c e p t u a l knowing t o be a b l e t o see beyond : i t . Though i t i s o v e r s t a t i n g the case, i t seems t h a t r e l i g i o n , i n the,-west. ha s . become l a r g e l y a m a t t e r of b e h a v i o u r a l - c o n f o r m i t y t o a s e t 'of moral laws c o u p l e d w i t h a s s e n t to a body of d o c t r i n e , , which .only . t h e o l o g i a n s and p h i l o s o p h e r s s h o u l d seek to u n d e r s t a n d . .Zen teaches t h a t r e l i g i o u s knowledge needs to become r o o t e d .in .the, gut; A f t e r a l l - f o r Zen -one's b e i n g i s one's knowing. What one i s - i s what one knows. Knowing and b e i n g are one. Knowing i s a l l i m p o r t a n t - f o r i t i s n o t o t h e r than what one i s . .On the o t h e r hand, the C h r i s t i a n model has tended t o see. knowledge as. "knowledge -of", so t h a t we have a s e p a r a t i o n between the knowing and the t h i n g known or between c o n c e p t i o n and r e a l i t y . . In t h i s c o n t e x t , a s e p a r a t i o n between "mind" and "body" i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t . may n o t be p o s s i b l e - t o a p p r e c i a t e j u s t what the r o s h i meant by "knowing i n the b e l l y " u n l e s s and u n t i l one has some such e x p e r i e n c e . • .Ultimately., t h i s means t h a t one has to be a c e r t a i n way i n . o r d e r t o know, a c e r t a i n t r u t h . Such comments as t h a t of the r o s h i h o w e v e r • i n d i c a t e one of i t s c h a l l e n g e s of the Zen t r a d i t i o n -..as.of the Yoga t r a d i t i o n of I n d i a - to the west. For h i s . .comment p r o v i d e s a f o i l a g a i n s t which the west must q u e s t i o n the. bounds which i t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y drawn around s p i r i t u a l l i f e . A l t h o u g h the f i r s t c hapter, of t h i s study . d e a l t w i t h the ways i n which Jo h n s t o n and Merton.. u n d e r s t o o d , human n a t u r e , one of the t h i n g s which we d i d not d i s c u s s .at t h a t . t i m e was. something which might be c a l l e d ." s p i r i t u a l anatomy", a matter, which . sounds more 8 e s o t e r i c than i t a c t u a l l y i s . N e i t h e r Merton nor Johnston - 58 -d i s c u s s e s t h i s t o p i c i n g r e a t d e t a i l . Merton d e a l s w i t h i t i n an i n d i r e c t way.; n o t so- much i n what he .says as i n the g e n e r a l tone and a t t i t u d e u n d e r l y i n g h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s p i r i t u a l i t y . J o h n s t o n t a l k s about the ma t t e r m o r e . ' . p a r t i c u l a r l y . At t h i s p o i n t I want t o examine what he has. t o say. about i t . Through an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how both men deal-, w i t h . t h i s i s s u e we may be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e how they f i n d v a l u e , i n the t o p i c of "method" i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . In h i s most r e c e n t work.,' - M i r r o r Mind.:. S p i r i t u a l i t y and Trans-f orma t i on, J o h n s t o n d i s c u s s e s , the r o l e .of the hara (or b e l l y ) i n the Japanese B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n . . . The Japanese see the b e l l y as the c e n t r e of human e x i s t e n c e . .They - a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h f e m i n i n i t y and g e n e r a t i v i t y ( t h r o u g h c o n t a c t . w i t h . l t , J o h n s t o n s a y s , one comes i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h one's.mother's mother), w i t h the " o r i g i n a l n a t u r e " and w i t h the u n c o n s c i o u s . Through s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e the Japanese may seek t o keep awareness; i n the b e l l y , and t o move 9 always from t h a t , c e n t r e of b e i n g . Johnston n o t e s t h a t t h i s i d e a is., n o t so f a r removed from C h r i s t i a n i t y as might be thought. He r e c a l l s v a r i o u s n o t i o n s t h a t have e x i s t e d i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , : "the ground of b e i n g , the core of b e i n g , s y n t e r e s l s . , " See.lenf u n k l e i n " , the 1 0 s o v e r e i g n p o i n t of the s p i r i t . " . He r e f l e c t s t h a t Bede G r i f f i t h s has s u g g ested t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y , t h i s , centre, or core of the human p e r s o n a l i t y where e a s t e r n a n d . w e s t e r n . s p i r i t u a l i t y can 11 meet. Johnst o n ' s work p l a c e s . g r e a t emphasis on. the .importance of be i n g aware of a l l a s p e c t s of human n a t u r e : the f e e l i n g s , the u n c o n s c i o u s , t h o u g h t s , images and so on. He a l s o s t r e s s e s the - 59 -need t o be aware of the body. He a f f i r m s the body and t e l l s us t h a t the o l d dichotomy between body and s p i r i t (or s o u l ) , which saw the one as bad and the o t h e r as rgood..needs t o r e a s s e s s e d . Indeed, f o r J o h n s t o n , the l i f e o f . C h r i s t i s i t s e l f the g r e a t e s t a f f i r m a t i o n of the human body. Joh n s t o n r e f l e c t s on the c o r p o r a l n a t u r e of t r u e C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s C a t h o l i c form, where E u c h a r i s t i c m y s t i c i s m p l a y s such a c e n t r a l r o l e . He a l s o mentions v a r i o u s b i b l i c a l passages which emphasize the r o l e of the body i n s p i r i t u a l - l i f e , r e c a l l i n g , such images as David dancing naked, of Magdalene washing the f e e t of J e s u s , of Jesus h i m s e l f washing the f e e t of h i s d i s c i p l e s . He r e c a l l s Jesus b r e a k i n g bread and s a y i n g : " T h i s ' i s my body:, take and e a t " . He r e c a l l s the c r u c i f i x i o n and the r e s u r r e c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , though Johnston s t r e s s e s the v i t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a c c e p t i n g the body and .of e x p l o r i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l s and i t s use i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e , he p l a c e s , m a j o r emphasis on the n o t i o n of " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " . The p h y s i c a l i s i n d e e d the p h y s i c a l as we know i t and needs t o be e x p l o r e d . i n such-terms, but i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e we d i s c o v e r , as we e x p l o r e more deeply and more f u l l y , t h a t t h e r e i s an a s p e c t to the m a t e r i a l which i s n o t m a t e r i a l as we u s u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i t . The r a d i c a l dichotomy. and antagonism between m a t t e r and s p i r i t cannot be m a i n t a i n e d . Rather the C h r i s t -i a n must a c c e p t the m a t e r i a l and c o r p o r e a l . ( e v e n as God a c c e p t e d i t i n t a k i n g on the f l e s h ) s i n c e i t i s i n and through the f l e s h t h a t s a l v a t i o n i s b e i n g worked out a n d . t h a t the p r o c e s s of s p i r i t -u a l i z a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e . In t h i s r e g a r d , . J o h n s t o n makes r e -f e r e n c e t o the i d e a s , of h i s . f e l l o w J e s u i t , T e i l h a r d de C h a r d i n , who unde r s t a n d s a l l of p h y s i c a l l i f e as un d e r g o i n g a p r o c e s s of - 6 0 -1 2 C h r i s t i f i c a t i o n or s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n M i r r o r Mind Johnston speaks of the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n of the b r e a t h and of the body. He suggests t h a t we have to move i n and through the c e n t r e of our b e i n g . T h i s i n v o l v e s an i n i t i a l a c c e p t a n c e of the p h y s i c a l centre, but then the t r a n s -c e n d i n g of t h a t p h y s i c a l centre- i n t o an even more p r o f o u n d c e n t r e . He w r i t e s ; But as m e d i t a t i o n d e v e l o p s , j u s t as one t r a n s c e n d s the b r e a t h i n g , so one t r a n s c e n d s the tanden. J u s t a's'-one must e v e n t u a l l y f o r g e t the b r e a t h i n g , so one must e v e n t u a l l y f o r g e t - the body. But (and here we a r e back t o the paradoxes) j u s t as t h e r e i s a b r e a t h i n g t h a t i s n o t br.eathing, so t h e r e i s a c e n t e r t h a t i s not a c e n t e r . When I say t h a t i t i s n o t a c e n t e r , I mean t h a t i t i s n o t l o c a t e d s p e c i f -i c a l l y a t the n a v e l or- a t any p a r t of the body. But i t i s of the u t m o s t • i m p o r t a n c e , . f o r i t i s n o t h i n g o t h e r than the t r u e s e l f . To t h i s c e n t e r we must ^ ~ r e t u r n c o n t i n u a l l y ; we must never l o s e touch w i t h i t . J ohnston suggests t h a t we have t o get i n touch w i t h our " t r u e n a t u r e " . The l a s t c h a p t e r n o t e d t h e r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y and f u l n e s s which J o h n s t o n , i n consonance w i t h much modern p s y c h o l o g y , d i s c o v e r s i n man. To be .in a c c o r d w i t h the " t r u e n a t u r e " man must c l a i m t h i s f u l n e s s . Later, i n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l i n d i c a t e some of the many, ways or. methods t h r o u g h which Johnston suggests man can do t h i s . ' Here I want t o note Johnston's change of emphasis, i n s p i r e d ' I. b e l i e v e . by h i s study of Zen, from the t r a d i t i o n a l d u a l i t y , of. matter and s p i r i t which viewed the former as e v i l and something, to be overcome, t o a more dynamic view which sees matter. -a.s . some.thing which .must be a c c e p t e d and which only then i.s somehow t r a n s f o r m e d . Ev.en g i v e n t h i s a f f i r m a t i o n of the u n i t y i n man of m a t t e r and s p i r i t , however, Joh n s t o n tends t o g i v e the edge t o the s p i r i t . As he p u t s i t : - 61 -... one can use an o t h e r Zen s a y i n g : "Examine the p l a c e where you s t a n d . " The meaning i s t h a t you s h o u l d pause, r e c o l l e c t y o u r s e l f , . keep i n touch w i t h your deepest s e l f . The p o i n t . I w i s h t o make h e r e , however, i s t h a t w h i l e t h i s p r o c e s s of r e c o l l e c t i o n , i s a t f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the . b e l l y ,. .one m.ust go beyond the p h y s i c a l to a c e n t e r t h a t ; l s s p a c e l e s s and t i m e l e s s . I f one remains too l o n g w i t b y t h e . p h y s i c a l body, one's p r o g r e s s may be o b s t r u c t e d . In r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s passage I . c a l l t o mind a theme o f t e n r e i t e r a t e d i n the Zen Buddhis.t. t r a d i t i o n : form i s emptiness; emptiness i s form. I wonder i f Johns ton .hasn't g o t t e n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s but n o t the second.. .A C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the body and the m a t e r i a l w o r l d tends e i t h e r t o i g n o r e form ( a t l e a s t b o d i l y form) a l t o g e t h e r or t o de - v a l u e i t . J o h n s t o n , by c o n t r a s t , a f f i r m s the body and the w o r l d - r e c o g n i z i n g them i n t h e i r own r i g h t . He beg i n s w i t h thes.e. A c c o r d i n g t o Jo h n s t o n , however, a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n takes p l a c e . One comes to - see t h a t t h e r e i s a body which i s n o t the. body as o r d i n a r i l y u n d e r s t o o d . "One must go beyond the p h y s i c a l t o a c e n t e r t h a t i s s p a c e l e s s and t i m e l e s s . " Such a c e n t e r , h a v i n g no b o u n d a r i e s , can i n d e e d be c a l l e d empty. "Form i s em p t i n e s s . " When I t r y t o superimpose the Buddhis.t. u n d e r s t a n d i n g onto Johnston's C h r i s t i a n f o r m u l a t i o n , however, i t seems to me t h a t the move from form to emptiness . i s n o t matched, by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g move from emptiness, t o form. J o h n s t o n ' s a c c e p t a n c e of the every-day w o r l d - the world, of our senses, of. our. emotions, and of our thoughts - goes hand i n hand w i t h h i s emphasis on the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . One.must b e g l n w i t h the .here and-now but go be-yond t h a t . One must, i n B u d d h i s t terms, come t o see t h a t form i s - 62 -empt i n e s s . On the most obvious l e v e l , t h i s means t h a t we come to r e a l i z e the p h y s i c a l i s n o t u l t i m a t e . We are n o t f i n a l l y bound by the parameters of time and space arid body. We are i n d e e d p h y s i c a l (and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) but through s p i r i t u a l developm:ent we r e a l i z e the emptiness of these f o r m s . . F o r Johnston these dimensions of our e x i s t e n c e a r e not the core d i m e n s i o n . They must be t r a n s c e n d e d . Johnston h i m s e l f does n o t r e f e r t o t h i s i n s i g h t of h i s by u s i n g the B u d d h i s t n o t i o n of emptiness. However, i t seems v a l u a b l e t o do so. And i f we .now. take such .a r e a d i n g one stage f u r t h e r , we can suggest t h a t i t has o n t o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . No p a r t i c u l a r form has t r u e e x i s t e n c e .in i t s own r i g h t ; a l l form i s dependent on other, form .which, a t the same t i m e , i s dependent on i t . T h i s means t h a t a l l o r d i n a r y • r e a l i t i e s and o r d i n a r y aware-ness of them must be u n d e r s t o o d i n a r e l a t i v i s t i c way. In Johnston's u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i s r e l a t i v i t y i s b e s t seen i n h i s emphasis on the n e c e s s i t y f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . We.cannot,rest i n any of the s e f o r m s , a l t h o u g h we must a t l e a s t b e g i n w i t h them. The n e x t s t e p i s to r a i s e the q u e s t i o n t h a t i f none of the s p e c i f i c forms t h a t we know i n our everyday, p h y s i c a l and psych-o l o g i c a l w o r l d s , can be s a i d t o e x i s t i n and of i t s e l f , s e l f - s u b -s i s t e n t and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , but r a t h e r t o be bound of i t s very n a t u r e t o o t h e r f o r m s , then on what, do • these forms as a whole depend? The B u d d h i s t , depending on h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , may answer t h a t they have no f o u n d a t i o n . o r t h a t they, are a l l m u t u a l l y • • • • 1 5 c o - a r i s i n g or c o - o r i g i n a t i n g or t h a t they depend on mind o n l y . In the r e c o g n i t i o n of the u l t i m a t e emptiness of the w o r l d , i t becomes q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d Johnston.' s s p i r i t u a l i t y t hrough - 63 -r e v i s i o n of • B u d d h i s t m e t a p h y s i c s . ..Johns-ton accep.ts a s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l i t y which i s other, than ..and i n every, way s u p e r i o r t o those m a n i f e s t e d f o r m s , w h i c h s t a n d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o . l t as p r o d u c t t o s o u r c e , c r e a t i o n . t o • c r e a t o r or,' i n the more p e r s o n a l language f a v o u r e d by J o h n s t o n , as c h i l d t o f a t h e r . That r e a l i t y - which i s complete i n i t s own b e i n g - i s God.' Johnston a s s o c i a t e s h i s ' "timeles.s and s p a c e l e s s " r e a l i t y (which I have suggested may. be equated w i t h the B u d d h i s t emptiness) w i t h "the'Word", which i s . " the . Way" , . the fundamental m a t r i x of a l l human e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s t h i s which p r o v i d e s the u l t i m a t e meaning (as the i n d i v i d u a l r e l i g i o n s , may p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e meaning) of human e x i s t e n c e . And, f o r -Johnston, "the Word" has a s p e c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h word and . r a t i o n a l i t y i n t h e i r o r-d i n a r y sense. Hence they may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s i l e n c e . Man p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a u n i v e r s e o f . d i s c o u r s e . The u n i v e r s e i s n o t u l t i m a t e l y s i l e n t because -God .exi s t s . ..God.has r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f t o man as "the !Word". The very e x i s t e n c e of. human d i s c o u r s e and human r a t i o n a l i t y p o i n t t o t h i s r e a l i t y . ,as the- n a t u r a l p o i n t s t o the s u p e r n a t u r a l , though only the s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n of God t o man i n d i c a t e s the true, measure ..of. .that meaning. T h i s c u r i o u s l y J u n g i a n theme, t o which I s h a l l . r e t u r n l a t e r , d i s t i n g u i s h e s C h r i s t i a n i t y from Zen Buddhism. Z.en p r o c l a i m s , the r a d i c a l i n s u f -f i c i e n c y of a l l f o r m u l a t i o n s as -of a l l - f o r m s and, w h i l e deeply aware of the e x i s t e n c e , r e a l i t y , and power, of'.thought, t u r n s i t s ear t o the r e s o u n d i n g s i l e n c e a t . the. ,he.ar,t of the w o r l d . S i n c e Johnston a s s o c i a t e s :his : "emptiness," wi.th something c o n c r e t e and p o s i t i v e , he a c t u a l l y s e t s ..up, a .''duality" betw.een two o r d e r s of r e a l i t y . T h is s.ugge.sts. t h a t t h e r e i s a "mundane" - 64 -and a " s p i r i t u a l " o r d e r . A c r e a t i v e t e n s i o n e x i s t s between the two which are r e l a t e d t h r ough the p r o c e s s , of.. t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the one (the "mundane") i n t o the o t h e r (the " s p i r i t u a l " ) . The r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s view and the t r a d i t i o n a l C a t h o l i c view i s t h a t Johnston's view works w i t h ( r a t h e r than a g a i n s t ) the w o r l d and the f l e s h i n the p r o c e s s of s p i r i t u a l development and, w h i l e J o h n s t o n does s i t u a t e man's - f i n a l g o a l i n the realm a f t e r d e a t h , he n e v e r t h e l e s s .'recognizes • t h a t the s p i r i t u a l o r d e r e x i s t s i n the here and now and t h a t s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i s not something which b e g i n s o n l y a f t e r death . Th i s approach i s consonant w i t h ' Johnston's use of the " s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " paradigm i n modern p s y c h o l o g y . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s s t r u c t u r e d by an i m p l i c i t e v a l u a t i o n which r e c o g n i z e s the " w o r l d t r a n s f o r m e d " as " h i g h e r " than the "mundane w o r l d " . The p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e p r e c i s e l y i n the l i v i n g (and e x p e r i e n c e d ) s p i r i t u a l i t y of the. i n d i v i d u a l (a very J u n g i a n theme). I t may be a c t u a t e d i n a. v a r i e t y . o f ways and so t h i s emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l and on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s matched by an i n t e r e s t i n the d i v e r s i t y of ways by which s p i r i t u a l development may be f u r t h e r e d . While Johnston a c c e p t s a n d . a f f i r m s the everyday w o r l d and i t s r o l e i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . I have suggested t h a t t h e r e i s a d u a l i s m i m p l i c i t i n h i s view. His. movement .from "form i s emptiness" i s n o t r e a l l y matched by the ot h e r s i d e . of. t h e B u d d h i s t e q u a t i o n "emptiness i s form". The t r a d i t i o n a l .. C a t h o l i c tendency to " s i t u a t e " the g o a l of the s p i r i t u a l l i f e somewhere o t h e r than "here" and sometime o t h e r than "now" ( p r e c i s e l y . " i n heaven" " a f t e r death") i s d i f f e r e n t from the B u d d h i s t emphasis on the here and now. I f - 65 -Johnston may be s a i d t o move through the r e a l i t i e s of the p r e s e n t w o r l d t o a c e n t r e t h a t i s " t i m e l e s s and s p a c e l e s s " h i s un d e r s t a n d -i n g n e v e r t h e l e s s c a r r i e s - more than a h i n t of the t r a d i t i o n a l view. The c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T h e o l o g i c a l . R e f l e c t i o n s " w i l l r e i n f o r c e t h i s r e a d i n g of F a t h e r Johnston's, work by p o i n t i n g out t h a t the " u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y " f o r him i n the d i a l e c t i c between "word" and " s i l e n c e " i s the former and n o t the l a t t e r . Once we grasp the approach F a t h e r Johnston t a k e s t o the everyday w o r l d and to the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (a key n o t i o n i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y as can be seen by the s u b t i t l e he chose f o r h i s most r e c e n t book The- M i r r o r Mind; S p i r i t u a l i t y and Transforma-t i o n ) we can u n d e r s t a n d the r o l e p l a y e d ' b y "methods" and " t e c h -n i q u e s " i n . the s p i r i t u a l l i f e as he sees i t . J o h n s t o n t e l l s us q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t a n y t h i n g which t r u l y d e v e l o p s human n a t u r e 1 6 and human p o t e n t i a l w i l l h e l p i n s p i r i t u a l growth. This r a t h e r o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of human n a t u r e f i t s i n w i t h Johnston's b e l i e f t h a t man's n a t u r e i s u n i f i e d i n the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o the s p i r i t u a l - a r a t h e r T e i l h a r d i a n concept. H i s approach i s c l e a r l y t i m e o r i e n t e d : man i s moving i n t o the f u t u r e b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y and as a whole. The f u t u r e i n t o which man i s moving -a f u t u r e which i s shrouded i n mystery to human eyes - i s charac-t e r i z e d by a " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " of man's f a l l e n s t a t e i n t o a g l o r i e d s t a t e . In p r a c t i c e , J o h n s t o n ' s t h e o r y about the " u n i t y " of mind and body - h i s r e j e c t i o n of the o l d view which saw the w o r l d , the f l e s h and the d e v i l as a l l of a n a s t y p i e c e - a l l o w s f o r a m u l t i p l i c i t y of "ways" i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . I sense t h a t J ohnston's a c c e p t a n c e of the p h y s i c a l . w o r l d a n d , h i s c e l e b r a t i o n - 66 -of the b r e a d t h of man's p o t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e i s a genuine r e f l e c t i o n of h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the modern w o r l d . Y et h i n t s of the o l d d u a l i t y r e main. The p h y s i c a l .world can be un d e r s t o o d as r e a l only when one sees i t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o the s p i r i t u a l . In p r a c t i c e , Johnston.'s "ways" i n c l u d e a l o t of methods f o r w o r k i n g w i t h the body and the emotions and o t h e r a s p e c t s of human n a t u r e w i t h an eye. t o t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . "One must go beyond the p h y s i c a l : " : J ohnston's view of the w o r l d , t h e n , i s always f u t u r e o r i e n t e d . . His. d u a l i t y , which we d i s c u s s e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r on "Human Nature!.' i n terms of h i s emphasis on d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y i n human p o t e n t i a l . , now m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n h i s concern w i t h t i m e . The e m p t i n e s s . o f the B u d d h i s t who under s t a n d s n o t only t h a t "form- i s . e m p t i n e s s " but a l s o t h a t "emptiness i s form" i s r o o t e d i n t h e . p r e s e n t . Johnston's v i s i o n grows out of and m a i n t a i n s i t s o r i e n t a t i o n towards C h r i s t i a n e s c h a t o l o g y . With t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n towards .the. very g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of p o t e n t i a l i n human nature,- towards a c c e p t a n c e of the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h a t n a t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g the p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l ) and towards t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a s p i r i t u a l i z e d f u t u r e J o h n s t o n i s a b l e t o make use of the "methods" which he f i n d s i n e a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y . H i s concern w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g a t e n s i o n between "what i s " and "what w i l l be" n a t u r a l l y l e a d s to a concern w i t h ways of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , w i t h g e t t i n g from here to t h e r e . J ohnston emphasizes t h i s . He t e l l s , us t h a t the v e r y n o t i o n of "way" can be a source of u n i f i c a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . As e a r l y - a s S i l e n t Music he. wrote:. "Way i s a word - 67 -1 7 t h a t b r i n g s us t o g e t h e r . " In t h a t study he emphasized the s i m i l a r i t y between, the Chinese Tao. ( ) or "way" and the Greek ( o'Sos )> which, he n o t e d , was .mentioned some 880 times 1 8 i n the S e p t u a g i n t . J o h n s t o n understands these "ways" as p a r t of the s e a r c h f o r wisdom. As he put s i t : There a r e many ways to wisdom. Each r e l i g i o n i s a way and w i t h i n each r e l i g i o n many s m a l l e r ways open up A l l these way.s i n f l u e n c e one anoth-e r . Knowledge of o t h e r ways can h.elp the wanderer t o f i n d h i s own path and i t can gu i d e the t r a v e l l e r or p i l g r i m as he j o u r n e y s towards wisdom, sometimes i n a n g u i s h and dismay a n d ' t e m p t a t i o n . In S i l e n t Music he t e l l s us of some of t h e s e ways. There does n o t seem t o be any r e a l o r d e r t o h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n and the wide v a r i e t y f i n d s u n i f i c a t i o n o n l y i n t h e i r f o c u s on the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and growth towards wisdom. Johnston's most r e c e n t work, The M i r f o r Mi'nd, i s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d around the n o t i o n of "ways". V a r i o u s c h a p t e r sub-headings i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s concept p r o v i d e s a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l and q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t f o c u s f o r Johnston's study of the Zen B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n . A l i s t of the ways towards.wisdom which Johnston mentions i n c l u d e s : 1. r e p e t i t i o n of a word or mantra: eg. l i t a n y , Ave M a r i a , r o s a r y 2. a t t e n t i o n t o the b r e a t h i n g 3. the use of • the mandala and other, methods of deepening c o n s c i o u s n e s s - the c r u c i f i x , the t a b e r n a c l e 4 . f r i e n d s h i p 5. p u r i f i c a t i o n or h e a l i n g - 68 -6 . the way of the s c i e n t i s t 7. t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n 8 . Zen and Yoga 9. m e d i t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h .biofeedback and the use of machines 1 0 . Jesus P r a y e r 1 1 . P e n t e c o s t a l i s m 1 2 . group p r a y e r 1 3 . r e l i s h i n g an obscure sense.of presence (note e s p e c i a l l y the Quakers) 14.. C h r i s t i a n Zen 1 5 . Japanese t e a ceremony, f l o w e r , a r r a n g e m e n t , a r c h e r y e t c . 1 6 . " v e r t i c a l m e d i t a t i o n " - which " s p i r a l s down i n t o i t s own s i l e n t d e p t h s , t o . t h e core of the b e i n g " . 17. " s e c u l a r m e d i t a t i o n " 18. s p i r i t u a l t r a i n i n g : a r t of l e a d i n g , a pers o n t o what he a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e s . -This may have much t o do- w i t h r e a l i z -a t i o n and c o n s c i o u s grasp of hypnogogic imagery t h a t f i l l s the mind w i t h . i t s r i c h n e s s and depth. 19. t e c h n i q u e s f o r e n t e r i n g m y s t i c a l s i l e n c e : f o r r e s t r i c t i n g or r e j e c t i n g the r a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s thus a l l o w i n g the deeper, i n t u i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ..to r i s e t o the s u r f a c e of the mind. ' 2 0 . l i s t e n i n g t o every sound 2 1 . v i s u a l i z a t i o n 2 2 . d e v e l o p i n g the " i n t e r i o r s e n s e s " 2 3 . f a s t i n g 2 4 . d a n c i n g 2 5 . the way of l o v e Johnston's l i s t i s e n d l e s s l y s u g g e s t i v e . He notes t h a t any or a l l of the methods he has mentioned (and.he.hasn't t r i e d t o be - 69 -s y s t e m a t i c or thorough) w i l l be e f f e c t i v e f o r . i n d i v i d u a l s of p a r t i c u l a r i n c l i n a t i o n s . ..The p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r h e r e . From Johns t o n ' s ..perspective one ought to use those methods, f o r which one . ha.s a p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t y . I t i s worth n o t i n g the manner i n w h i c h . J o h n s t o n d i s c u s s e s method i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . He uses an approach of d i f f e r e n t -i a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n . He i s o l a t e s v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s - a l t h o u g h he a l s o s t r e s s e s the importance of h a v i n g an o v e r a l l framework of a " f a i t h commitment", i n order- t h a t t r u e growth i n s p i r i t u a l i t y can take p l a c e . Techniques by .themselves w i l l n o t work, a l t h o u g h they can p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . J o hnston t e l l s us the " f a i t h " i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . W ithout i t , he s t a t e s , no p r o g r e s s i n s p i r i t u a l i t y i s p o s s i b l e and, by example, he r e f l e c t s t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y f o r 20 t h i s r e a son t h a t Aldous Huxley d i d n ' t get very f a r . Johnston r e f l e c t s t h a t " f a i t h " can be found, i n Buddhism as w e l l as i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . The object.s of the f a i t h s . a re d i f f e r e n t b u t the f u n c t i o n i s the same. The B u d d h i s t has ..faith t h a t t h e r e i s a "Buddha n a t u r e " and the . C h r i s t i a n has f a i t h i n God. I t i s these f a i t h s which s u s t a i n the i n d i v i d u a l s e a r c h f o r wisdom, e s p e c i a l l y 21 through i t s p e r i o d s of "anguish.and dismay and t e m p t a t i o n " . One d i s t i n c t i o n does e x i s t between the f a i t h of the Zen B u d d h i s t and the f a i t h of the C h r i s t i a n , . h o w e v e r , which J o h n s t o n does n o t seem t o d i s c u s s . S i n c e the g o a l of the C h r i s t i a n l i f e - i s always i n the f u t u r e . - a t l e a s t - t h i s s i d e of.. the. grave - f a i t h f i l l s the gap between- here a n d . t h e r e . T h i s : i s .the case even f o r the C h r i s t i a n who i s -in the s t a t e , of g r a c e . By c o n t r a s t , the e n l i g h t e n e d Zen B u d d h i s t , who has seen, the h e a r t of. r e a l i t y , has no awareness - 70 -of t h i s k i n d of t e n s i o n . There i s no need t o f i l l a n o n - e x i s t e n t gap between the emptiness of form and the form of e m p t i n e s s . Techniques, however, do have t h e i r p l a c e . I f they can be i d e n t i f i e d and i s o l a t e d , i t may. be . p o s s i b l e t o " l i f t " some of them out of t h e i r o r i g i n a l r e l i g i o u s framework and adapt them to a n o t h e r . A secondary advantage t o be g a i n e d from the study of " t e c h n i q u e s " i n o t h e r . - r e l i g i o u s • t r a d i t i o n s i s t h a t one can seek f o r them anew i n one's own t r a d i t i o n . Johnston i s a b l e t o d i s c o v e r anew the r o l e o f : t h e r o s a r y , of the t a b e r n a c l e and even of f r i e n d s h i p . J ohnston i s q u i t e aware of. the . l i m i t a t i o n s of "methods" i n s p i r i t u a l i t y . However, t h i s does not. p r e v e n t him from g i v i n g them a l o t of a t t e n t i o n . Merton, on t h e . o t h e r hand, does n o t seem t o have as g r e a t an i n t e r e s t . i n "methods". In s e v e r a l p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t h i s works he i s r a t h e r c r i t i c a l of " t e c h n i q u e s " . In the A s i a n J o u r n a l he t a l k s s e v e r a l times about mandalas i n T i b e t a n Buddhism but then he t e l l s us t h a i he r e a l l y doesn't 22 t h i n k t h a t they w i l l be.much of use to him. One has the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he f i n d s them r a t h e r e x o t i c . More than t h a t , however, h i s p a r t i c u l a r approach t o s p i r i t u a l i t y - which c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t of J o h n s t o n - h a r d l y a l l o w s . f o r s p e c i f i c " t e c h n i q u e s " which by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e t e n d t o p l a c e the a t t e n t i o n on l e s s than the whole of l i f e or,, on the o t h e r hand, t o s e l e c t " s p e c i a l " elements of r e a l i t y f o r a t t e n t i o n . One senses .that - i n c r e a s i n g l y the whole of l i f e became sacred, f o r . Merton. Both the s t y l e of Merton's l i f e and the o r i e n t a t i o n of - h i s r e l i g i o u s m etaphysic would tend t o lead, him away from any i n t e r e s t , i n p a r t i c u l a r "ways" or " t e c h n i q u e s " of s p i r i t u a l i t y . In a l e t t e r t o F a t h e r J o h n s t o n , - 71 -c i t e d i n The S t i l l P o i n t , Merton d i s a g r e e s w i t h the emphasis the former p l a c e d on the " t e c h n i c a l i t i e s " of Zen p r a c t i c e - s p e c i f i -23 c a l l y on the b r e a t h and- the p o s t u r e s . Johnston's "Zen"- i s s o c i a l : he s t u d i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l Zendos and, as a member of the Japanese C h r i s t i a n community, seeks ways of h e l p i n g the e v o l u t i o n of an o r i e n t a l C h r i s t i a n i t y , which he r e c o g n i z e s would be d i f f e r e n t from the. European models. In t h i s c o n t e x t h i s i n t e r e s t i n E a s t e r n "methods" has a s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . Merton's "Zen" l i k e t h a t of R. H. B l y t h , whose Zen i n E n g l i s h  L i t e r a t u r e and O r i e n t a l C l a s s i c s and o t h e r - w r i t i n g s are d e l i g h t -f u l l y i r r e v e r e n t i n t h e i r wisdom, was w h o l l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . By the time he t r a v e l l e d t o A s i a , t h e r e t o . o b s e r v e Buddhism f i r s t hand on i t s own ground, Merton had ..already w r i t t e n the s t u d i e s on t h a t t r a d i t i o n which had won him a c c o l a d e s from B u d d h i s t s them-s e l v e s . His E a s t e r n t r i p was meant t o i n v o l v e him i n the r e n e w a l of C h r i s t i a n m o n a s t i c i s m i n the E a s t . However, as he h i m s e l f acknow-l e d g e d , i t was more i m p o r t a n t l y - f o r him, a t l e a s t - t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f i r s t - h a n d encounter w i t h A s i a n r e l i g i o n . The q u e s t i o n s i n h i s mind d u r i n g the t r i p were not so much those con-c e r n i n g the " s p e c i f i c s " of what c o u l d be adapted from e a s t e r n m o n a s t i c i s m i n t o the western t r a d i t i o n as .those which bore on what Merton c a l l e d "the g r e a t a f f a i r " . T h i s , I s u s p e c t , was the q u e s t i o n of whether or n o t the . r e l i g i o n s were f u n d a m e n t a l l y the same or f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t , whether or not commitment t o a s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s framework was e s s e n t i a l t o s p i r i t u a l growth. D e s p i t e h i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t .in "techniques'.' of s p i r i t u a l i t y , Merton's own s p i r i t u a l l i f e was l i v e d i n . a. c l e a r - c u t way. H i s - 72 -was the way of c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n s o l i t u d e . Merton's q u e s t f o r s o l i t u d e took shape p r i m a r i l y t h rough h i s . l i f e as a monk i n the T r a p p i s t Order and through h i s work a s • a - w r i t e r . Towards the end of h i s l i f e h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e v i s i o n was a l s o o p e r a t i v e i n h i s d i s c o v e r y of photography. As a monk Merton sought t o s u r r e n d e r a l l c l a i m s t o those n o t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s which c l a i m e d the men of the w o r l d : t o s e c u r i t y , power, w e a l t h , amusement, p l e a s u r e . E v e n t u a l l y he r e a l i z e d t h a t h i s monastic, vows , demanded s u r r e n d e r of a l l c l a i m s to i n t e l l e c t u a l , a e s t h e t i c and s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s as w e l l . The detachment i m p l i c i t i n the vows was t o t a l . The monk was t r u l y a dead man. In the n e x t c h a p t e r I w i l l , d i s c u s s the r o l e of e x p e r i e n c e i n the s p i r i t u a l l i v e s of both J o h n s t o n and Merton. Y e t the dimension of e x p e r i e n c e i n M e r l o n i s l i f e can be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d only a g a i n s t the background of h i s monastic,vows: h i s commitment t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n and t o the s u r r e n d e r of. e v e r y t h i n g i m p l i c i t i n thbseo vows. F or Merton, the monk, more than f o r J o h n s t o n , the m i s s i o n a r y , the concern f o r e x p e r i e n c e grew out. of and l e a d i n t o the r e a l i -z a t i o n of the emptiness of . a l l . experience-. .For Merton, the monk, the movement i n t o the " s p e c i a l " world, of the monastery c a r r i e d f o r w a r d h i s s p i r i t u a l l i f e . But the f u r t h e r development of t h a t s p i r i t u a l i t y brought him t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the mundane w o r l d which he d i d n o t have when he began..The .di s g u s t w i t h the w o r l d -and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h h i m s e l f - which c o l o u r e d the y e a r s of h i s c o n v e r s i o n and e n t r y i n t o the r e l i g i o u s l i f e , dropped away. To h i s s u r p r i s e , he .discovered, a new a f f i n i t y w i t h the w o r l d he had sought t o escape- by e n t e r i n g the monastery. As e a r l y - 73 -as 1 9 5 3 , w r i t i n g i n The S i g n of Jonas, Merton r e f l e c t e d - o n a v i s i t t o L o u i s v i l l e : We drove i n t o town w i t h Senator Dawson, a n e i g h b o r of the monastery, and a l l the w h i l e I- wondered how I would r e a c t . a t meeting once a g a i n , f a c e t o f a c e , the w i c k e d w o r l d . Perhaps t h i n g s I had .resented about the w o r l d when I l e f t i t were d e f e c t s of my own t h a t I had p r o j e c t e d upon i t . Now,- on t h e c o n t r a r y , I found t h a t e v e r y t h i n g s t i r r e d , me w i t h a deep and mute sense of compassion ... I went through the c i t y , r e a l i z i n g f o r the f i r s t time i n my l i f e how good a r e a l l the p e o p l e i n the w o r l d and how much v a l u e they have i n the s i g h t of God. N o t i c e the d i f f e r e n c e between Johnston and Merton. As we see i t i n the w r i t i n g , J o h n s t o n b e g i n s . w i t h a r g u i n g f o r . an accep tance of the w o r l d . That acceptance,'however, must be seen as a f i r s t s t age i n a p r o c e s s l e a d i n g t o t r a n s c e n d a n c e . We move t h r o u the p h y s i c a l c e n t r e t o a c e n t r e t h a t i s t i m e l e s s and s p a c e l e s s . Merton be g i n s by e s c a p i n g from the w o r l d . He f i n d s i n i t r e a s o n f o r d i s g u s t r a t h e r than c e l e b r a t i o n . H i s escape, however, t r a n s -forms him i n such a way t h a t he comes back w i t h a renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the w o r l d . And t h i s renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n which i s e x p r e s s e d i n 1 9 5 3 i n v e r y C h r i s t i a n terms of i t s v a l u e i n the s i g h t of God, i n c r e a s i n g l y comes t o be e x p r e s s e d s i l e n t l y -w i t h o u t any o v e r t t h e o l o g y . "The m i n d f u l n e s s of s e e i n g a l l - i n -e mptiness . " J u s t as Merton's l i f e , of i n c r e a s i n g s o l i t u d e brought t o him a p r o f o u n d a p p r e c i a t i o n of the w o r l d and a. r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s deep c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t , so d i d . h i s w r i t i n g , h i s p r i n c i p a l means of communication w i t h the w o r l d , . b r i n g him more deeply i n t o s o l i t u d e . . Merton once r e f l e c t e d on t h i s : - 1U -W r i t i n g i s one t h i n g t h a t g i v e s me a c c e s s t o some r e a l - s i l e n e e and. s o l i t u d e . . Also, I f i n d t h a t i t h e l p s me t o p r a y , "because ..when. I pause a t my. work 1 f i n d that-, the m i r r o r i n s i d e , m.e, i s s u r p r i s i n g c l e a n and deep and, serene :an,d God', s h i n e s t h e r e and . i s i m m e d i a t e l y f o u n d , w i t h o u t h u n t i n g , . a g ^ i f He .had come c l o s e t o me w h i l e -.1 was w r i t i n g . Merton d i s c o v e r e d the meaning of h i s l i f e through s o l i t u d e . And i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s • o r i e n t a . t i on, . the view of the monk, which he took w i t h him - and w hich, i n a r e a l sense, took him -i n t o h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the r e l i g i o n s of i'-the e a s t . In a l l h i s d i a l o g u e w i t h B u d d h i s t s t h e . v o i c e of the monk - Indeed the v o i c e of the- h e r m i t - predominated. For J o h n s t o n , the g o a l of a l l . s p i r i t u a l l i f e - the r e t u r n t o the F a t h e r - i s the same. I t i s one. But. the means men use t o seek t h i s g o a l a r e d i f f e r e n t . T h i s i m p l i e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between means and g o a l which r e q u i r e s the f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n so p o p u l a r i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t a l s o e m p h a s e s . m u l t i p l i c i t y of "ways" i n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Johnston a l s o s t r e s s e s the n o t i o n of " g r a c e " , which r e q u i r e s the n a t u r a l - s u p e r n a t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n used by C h r i s t i a n i t y . Merton, t o o , speaks of the s u p e r n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n and source of " g r a c e " . Yet as I r e a d h i s thought he i s f a r more c o n v i c t e d by the B u d d h i s t n o t i o n of "grace-" which sees i t as the q u a l i t y of " g i v e n n e s s " , the,"suehness". of o r d i n a r y ' r e a l i t y . In h i s w r i t i n g s about Zen, Merton was- much, taken by the thought of Hui Neng who emphasized n o t the distin.e.tion. but the' sameness,of " g o a l " and 27 "means" i n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Dhyana i s ' p r a j n a : m e d i t a t i o n i s wisdom. The f i n a l word on "method, i n s p i r i t u a l i t y " must be t h i s : the "method" of the two men was .the .way.they l i v e d t h e i r l i v e s . - 75 -Zen Buddhism i.s a monastic .way. Merton - the. Zennish C h r i s t i a n -was a monk. Johnston - the missionary, w i t h a keen a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of both C h r i s t i a n i t y and Buddhism - was n o t . The way thes e .two men l i v e d - as a monk and as a m i s s i o n a r y -c o l o u r e d n o t only t h e i r own s p i r i t u a l i t y b ut a l s o t h e i r views of i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e . Johnston, could.borrow " t e c h n i q u e s " and " i n s i g h t s " from Zen which could'.be . i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . Merton r e c o g n i z e d an a f f i n i t y w i t h the Zen..monk t h a t went beyond a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n , . a l l need f o r . p a r t i c u l a r "ways". This c h a p t e r , and the. p r e c e d i n g . one on "Human Na t u r e " , have been of a k i n d . Both have sought t o a b s t r a c t from the w r i t i n g s of Johnston and. Merton r e f l e c t i o n s , and. models,-which c o u l d p r o v i d e us w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t . I t w i l l t r a c e the. cours-e the .dialogue, has taken n o t so much i n the thought as i n t h e . l i v e s of the two men. - 76 -The E x p e r i e n c e of Encounter In 1959 Thomas Merton s e n t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of p a r t s of the Verba Seniorum t o the Japanese Zen Buddhist.monk D a i s e t z S u z u k i . S t r u c k by s i m i l a r i t i e s between s t o r i e s of the E g y p t i a n Desert F a t h e r s of the f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s and those of the Zen ma s t e r s , Merton s u s p e c t e d t h a t S u z u k i might be s i m i l a r l y i m p r e s s e d . L a t e r Merton was t o r e f l e c t : There a r e c o u n t l e s s • Z e n s t o r i e s t h a t a l m o s t e x a c t l y reproduce, the Verba Seniorum -i n c i d e n t s which a r e o b v i o u s l y l i k e l y t o occur wherever men seek and r e a l i z e the ^ same k i n d of p o v e r t y , s o l i t u d e and emp t i n e s s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s n o t i c e d by Merton d i d i n d e e d impress Dr. S u z u k i . The Zen monk had a r e p u t a t i o n as the l e a d i n g " m i s s i o n a r y " of h i s B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n t o the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d . S u z u k i had h i m s e l f s t u d i e d some a s p e c t s o f . t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n and i n 1957 p u b l i s h e d a com p a r a t i v e study of M e i s t e r E c k h a r t and Zen under the t i t l e Mysticism.: C h r i s t i a n .and B u d d h i s t . Sometime around 1958 Su z u k i and Merton engaged i n a w r i t t e n d i a l o g u e , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n New D i r e c t i o n s , i n 1961 and sub-s e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d , , under the t i t l e "Wisdom, i n Emp t i n e s s " , as the second p a r t of Merton's Zen. and.-the. B i r d s of A p p e t i t e . Merton l a t e r d e c r i e d the k i n d of approach he used i n h i s own " f i n a l remarks" a t t h a t t i m e . He was, he s a i d , "tempted t o cut them out a l t o g e t h e r " , s i n c e , as. he p u t i t , - 77 -...they are so. c o n f u s i n g . Not t h a t they are"wrong" i n the sense of " f a l s e " or " e r r o n e o u s " , but. because any attempt t o h a n d l e Zen i n t h e o l o g i c a l - language i s bound t o miss the p o i n t . I f I l e a v e these -remarks where they a r e , I do so as a,n example of how :hot t o approach Zen. Merton had f i n a l l y come t o r e a l i z e t h a t the way t o approach Zen was through e x p e r i e n c e . Yet. i n d i c a t i o n s of what he would l a t e r r e a l i z e c l e a r l y and f u l l y a r e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n h i s e a r l i e r work. Even i n the S u z u k i d i a l o g u e Merton s t r u c k on themes t h a t \, would remain c e n t r a l t o h i s study o f ' t h e E a s t . Above a l l he s t r e s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of "wisdom, in.-emptiness", a theme which s e r v e s as a l e i t - m o t i f f o r h i s - e n t i r e e a s t e r n d i a l o g u e . The q u e s t f o r wisdom demands the s u r r e n d e r of a l l t h a t i s f a l s e , e s p e c i a l l y f a l s e images of the s e l f and f a l s e r e l i g i o n . . The p r o c e s s of s u r r e n d e r r e t u r n s us to a fundamental i n n o c e n c e , be-yond d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of any k i n d , i n c l u d i n g those of t h e o l o g y : The t h i n g about Zen i s t h a t i t pushes con-t r a d i c t i o n s t o . t h e i r , u l t i m a t e l i m i t where one has t o choose between madness and i n n o c e n c e . And Zen suggests t h a t we may be d r i v i n g toward one or t h e o t h e r on a cosmic s c a l e . D r i v i n g toward, them because, one way or the o t h e r , as madmen or i n -n o c e n t s , we are. a l r e a d y t h e r e . o l t might he.good t o open our eyes and see. The d i a l o g u e between.Merton and. S u z u k i stands out as an event i n the s p i r i t u a l h i s t o r y of the.wor.ld., Of f a r g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e than i s s u e s . discus.se.d or ideas', s h a r e d . i s the very f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s of d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s met - 78 -t o g e t h e r i n a genuine attempt t o .encounter.one a n o t h e r . T h i s i s the f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s of the d i a l o g u e . It, i s i t s e x p e r i e n t i a l framework, a t once the contex.t of, the .dialogue i n which d i s -c u s s i o n s and s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be s h a r e d , and the p r i m a r y c o n t e n t of t h a t d i a l o g u e . I t i s one- t h i n g t o condemn peo p l e or c u l t u r e s f o r i m m o r a l i t y , f a l s e h o o d or u g l i n e s s when one has no b r e a d t h of e x p e r i e n c e or depth of c o n t a c t w i t h them. Once t h a t c o n t a c t and e x p e r i e n c e are e s t a b l i s h e d , however, i t becomes q u i t e a n o t h e r m a t t e r t o .deny the good,, the t r u e or the b e a u t i f u l i n those people or c u l t u r e s . - The very c o n t a c t and e x p e r i e n c e themselves have a c o m p e l l i n g q u a l i t y which moves i n d i v i d u a l s t o q u e s t i o n , t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n d s . C o n t a c t and e x p e r i e n c e a r e n o t . a matter of mere p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y . They r e q u i r e a way of s e e i n g , an o r i e n t a t i o n towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism both Merton and Johnston demonstrate . p a r t i c u l a r ways of s e e i n g and under-s t a n d i n g , which a l l o w them a c r e a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of e x p e r i e n c e . . Johnston and.Merton m a i n t a i n the same c o n t r a s t i n g emphases-on d u a l i t y and n o n - d u a l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y -t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s on human n a t u r e . Y e t the c h o i c e of e x p e r i e n c e as.the. c e n t r a l , dimension, of the d i a l o g u e i s common t o b o t h . Johnston and Merton speak as i n d i v i d u a l human bein g s and as C a t h o l i c s . They speak w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o . t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l as a s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n and a community. Consequently i n t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h . Zen . both men r e f e r t o the e x p e r i e n t i a l stream of .Catholicism.,, f ound. above a l l i n i t s m y s t i c i s m . Here they .are . d e a l i n g w i t h , a s p e c i f i c type of - 79 -e x p e r i e n c e , and r e f l e c t i o n on experience,.. t h a t t o g e t h e r form the m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n . At .the .same . time,, C a t h o l i c m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y p r o v i d e s a.scheme.which John.ston and..Merton can use i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t upon a l l . . t h e i r . encounters, wi t h Zen. The two men use that- scheme i n . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ' d i f f e r e n t ways. The d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .at the. end of the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , and once again, i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , " T h e o l o g i c a l R e f l e c t i o n s " . A c c o r d i n g l y the .present ..chapter has a t w o f o l d s t r u c t u r e : ( l ) p r e s e n t a t i ons.. of. .concrete encounters from two l i v e s , and (2) c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the C a t h o l i c m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n as i t bears on t h i s i n t e r - . r e l i g i ous . d i a l o g u e .by p r o v i d i n g a m a t r i x f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The f i r s t of the two s e c t i o n s , i s . t h e more i m p o r t a n t . The c o n c r e t e encounters - w i t h men, w i t h a r t works, w i t h p r a c t i c e s -a r e the very h e a r t of the d i a l o g u e . ,And.already, i n the e a r l i e s t encounter of Merton w i t h S u z u k i , an encounter which took p l a c e i n New York i n the s p r i n g of 1964-. a t S u z u k i ' s r e q u e s t , we f i n d e v i d e n c e of t h i s . In t h a t encounter, we have, the coming t o g e t h e r of two men formed i n two d i f f e r e n t • r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s but n e v e r t h e l e s s s h a r i n g .a p a r t i c u l a r type of l i f e , a p a r t i c u l a r type of experien.ee and a p a r t i c u l a r openness t o d i a l o g u e . Merton l a t e r wrote of h i s encounter w i t h S u z u k i i n a way t h a t can be used t o i l l u s t r a t e , the stages, of • h i s . own .engagement w i t h Zen. The f o l l o w i n g , d e c e p t i v e l y ..simple. passage r e f l e c t s Merton's "movement i n d i a l o g u e " from • the . s p e c i f i c and .concrete, through and beyond the c u l t u r a l , and- back t o the c o n c r e t e : One had to meet t h i s man i n o r d e r t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e him. He seemed.to me t o embody a l l the i n d e f i n a b l e q u a l i t i e s of the - 80 -" S u p e r i o r Man" of the .ancient A s i a n , T a o i s t , C o n f u c i a n and .Buddhist t r a d i t i o n s . Or r a t h e r i n meeting him one seemed., to., meet the "True Man of No T i t l e " t h a t Ch'uang Tzu and the Zen Masters speak, o f . And of course t h i s i s the man one r e a l l y wants t o meet. Whe e l s e i s t h e r e ? In meeting- Dr. S u z u k i and d r i n k i n g a cup of t e a w i t h him I f e l t I had met t h i s one man. T h i s pregnant passage, t y p i c a l of Merton, i n t r o d u c e s sev-e r a l of the themes t h a t weave t h e i r way t hroughout the d i a l o g u e . I t b e g i n s w i t h an e x p r e s s i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of e n c o u n t e r , the h i s t o r i c a l and s i m p l e human basi.s of the d i a l o g u e which, i n Merton's r e f l e c t i o n , becomes.also i t s major c o n t e n t : "One had t o meet t h i s man i n o r d e r t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e him". In meeting " t h i s one man" Merton d i s c o v e r s t h e . f u l n e s s . o f the E a s t e r n t r a d i -t i o n s by c o n f r o n t i n g t h e i r " i n d e f i n a b l e q u a l i t i e s " i n the f l e s h , the o n l y way they can be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Immediately, however, Merton r e a l i z e s t h a t S u z u k i i s b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as t r a n s c e n d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . He i s , i n language p r o v i d e d by one E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h y f o r such a p e r s o n , the "True Man of No T i t l e " . R e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s p erson and d e s i r e t o meet him go hand i n hand and Merton s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o c a t e s the p r e s e n c e .of the d e s i r e f o r t h i s meeting i n the human h e a r t . The c o n j o i n i n g of the meeting and the d e s i r e l e a d s Merton t o pose a k o a n - l i k e q u e s t i o n , empha-s i z i n g a f a v o u r i t e theme of n o n - d u a l i t y : . "Who e l s e i s t h e r e ? " F i n a l l y i n a l l s i m p l i c i t y the passage r e t u r n s t o the c o n c r e t e . Merton shares a cup.of t e a w i t h t h i s man. Examining t h i s paragraph we a r e s t r u c k by the v a r i o u s i n -s i g h t s i t c ontains, and the f l u i d i t y w i t h which they a r e brought t o g e t h e r . S h i f t i n g f o c u s a l i t t l e , we can a l s o r e f l e c t on the - 81 -language Merton uses. Here l i e s one key t o . t h e d i a l o g u e . Merton chose t o express- h i s i n s i g h t s i n language taken from E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n . . T h i s i s only p a r t i a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s s u b j e c t -D a i s e t z S u z u k i . I t i s "the c o u r t e s y of a ' t r u l y w i s e h e a r t . By u s i n g the language of the o t h e r t o d e s c r i b e t h a t o t h e r , Merton b r i d g e s the d i s t a n c e between them. E a s t e r n t i t l e , k o a n - l i k e q u e s t i o n and c o n c r e t e c u l t u r a l d e t a i l combine as Merton sees the o t h e r through h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of' the o t h e r ' s " t r a d i t i o n , the t r a d i t i o n which i n f o r m s the o t h e r ' s b e i n g and p r o v i d e s h i s or her s t a n d a r d of l i f e . By moving beyond the i m p l i c i t judgment of d e s c r i b i n g h i s encounter through the language of h i s own C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , Merton demonstrates h i s concern w i t h meeting the o t h e r i n s i m p l i c i t y , 5 m h u m i l i t y and, above a l l , m emptiness. Yet Merton does use p e r s o n a l language t o speak of h i s meeting w i t h S u z u k i . I t i s a p o w e r f u l and s t a r t l i n g e x p r e s s i o n t h a t cap-t u r e s h i s response t o the encounter. Merton t e l l s us t h a t meeting S u z u k i was " l i k e f i n a l l y a r r i v i n g a t one's own home." F i n a l l y . Home. A f t e r a l l those y e a r s i n a C a t h o l i c monastery. Home. F i n a l l y ! R e c o g n i z i n g the o t h e r , Merton r e c o g n i z e d h i m s e l f - n o t so much through t h a t l o v e which sought t o a f f i r m and r e s p e c t d i s -t i n c t i o n s as through t h a t l o v e which saw them a l l i n t h e i r e m p t i n e s s . The encounter between the monk who was a C h r i s t i a n and the monk who was a' Zen B u d d h i s t was n o t an encounter between s t r a n g e r s . Merton o f t e n used f a m i l i a l language t o d e s c r i b e h i s engagement w i t h Eastern, s p i r i t u a l i t y . Witness, h i s own. t r i p t o the c o u n t r i e s .of the e a s t . On October.15, 1968 - 82 -d u r i n g the f l i g h t from San F r a n c i s c o t o H o n o l u l u , Tokyo, Hong Kong and Bangkok Merton once a g a i n used h i s . m e t a p h o r . He w r o t e : 7 " I am g o i n g home". In " L i t t l e G i d d i n g " , E l i o t r e f l e c t s -that "we s h a l l n o t cease from e x p l o r a t i o n / a n d the end. of a l l o u r . e x p l o r i n g / w i l l be to a r r i v e where we s t a r t e d / a n d know the p l a c e f o r the f i r s t 8 t i m e " . So Merton d i s c o v e r ed'.'-Encountering someone or something we t h i n k a l i e n and discovering--what we,.actually s h a r e , what we h o l d i n common, p r o v i d e s a shock- t o e x p e c t a t i o n . I t i s always a s u r p r i s e t o d i s c o v e r - our t r u e home where we do n o t expect t o f i n d i t . Such s h o c k i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n can l i b e r a t e one from o l d s t r u c t u r e s , as a l l t r u t h l i b e r a t e s . . In.-Mystics and Zen Masters Merton mused: Indeed i t i s i l l u m i n a t i n g t o the p o i n t of a s t o n i s h m e n t t o t a l k to. a Zen B u d d h i s t from Japan and t o f i n d t h a t you have much more i n common w i t h him than w i t h those of your own c o m p a t r i o t s who are., l i t t l e concerned w i t h r e l i g i o n , g o r i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n i t s e x t e r n a l p r a c t i c e . In l i g h t of h i s encounter w i t h S u z u k i Merton r e f l e c t e d on h i s own c o m p a t r i o t s and h i s own r e l i g i o n . In comparison w i t h the a f f i n i t y he f e l t w i t h . S u z u k i , Merton saw estrangement i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o those C a t h o l i c s who,found r e l i g i o n u n i n t e r e s t i n g or who understood, i t as . a -matter, of mere b e h a v i o u r a l c o n f o r m i t y . In the a s t o n i s h m e n t of t h i s experience, :Merton. f ound i l l u m i n a t i o n . He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t . - i t was p o s s i b l e f o r p e o p l e b e l o n g i n g t o d i f f . e r e n t c u l t u r a l and. r e l i g i o u s - t r a d i t i o n s t o communicate on the deepest l e v e l s of a, human n a t u r e shared beyond c u l t u r e . -. 83 -One e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s , d i s c o v e r y came t.o. him d u r i n g h i s study of an a n c i e n t T a o i s t sage.. On . h i s . own. t e s t i m o n y , the book which he most? en j oyed, w r i t i n g was a . r e - t r a n s l a t i o n - through h i s own c o n t e m p l a t i v e v i s i o n - o f . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the 1 0 ' Chuang Tzu. Of Chuang Tzu h i m s e l f Merton once remarked: I t h i n k . I may be pardoned f o r c o n s o r t i n g w i t h a Chinese r e c l u s e who shares .the c l i m a t e and peace of my own k i n d o f ^ s o l i t u d e , and who i s my own k i n d of person.. Through such c o n t a c t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s of .the E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n s Merton's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s "own k i n d of p e r s o n " deepened and became more s e c u r e . H i s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h S u z u k i and Chuang Tzu were i d e n t i f i a b l e e n c o unters among a s e r i e s of such i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g h i s l i f e , from h i s p r e - C a t h o l i c days u n t i l the day of h i s death. I t was a Hindu monk who had d i r e c t e d the s p i r i t u a l l y q u e s t i n g Merton, s t i l l a s t u d e n t at. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , t o study the wisdom of the west. Merton d i d so. Subsequently he become a C a t h o l i c , but a t v a r i o u s times d u r i n g h i s l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a t e 50's and 60.'s, he a l s o read, deeply i n the wisdom of the e a s t . The f i n a l weeks of Merton!s l i f e were spent i n the company of e a s t e r n r e l i g i o u s . What was perhaps the. c u l m i n a t i n g s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of h i s l i f e a l s o took p l a c e , i n ' the e a s t . The immed-i a t e -stimulus was..eastern r e l i g i o u s a r t . S h o r t l y b e f o r e he l e f t f o r h i s A s i a n t r i p Merton had .a c o n v e r s a t i o n , .with. Deba P a t n a i k , d u r i n g which Merton t o l d him; "Deba, t h i s ' . j ourn.ey i s very c r u c i a l . 12 I t ' s a f i n a l one f o r me." ,The f i n a l i t y ,of.whieh.Merton spoke was n o t p h y s i c a l but s p i r i t u a l . I t was the c u l m i n a t i o n of h i s - 84 -l o n g study of e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n , of the t r u e , the good and the b e a u t i f u l t o be, found i n the e a s t e r n . t r a d i , t l ons and of the o v e r a r c h i n g quest!on. of the a b s o l u t e . v a l i d i t y of e a s t e r n r e l i g i Perhaps Merton suspected''that, i t might-also.'be the o c c a s i o n f o r a s o r t of s p i r i t u a l f i n a l i t y i n h i s own l i f e . . The e n t r y i n Th e -A siar,, J o u r n a l f o r December 4" , 1968 d e s c r i b e s an e x p e r i e n c e of which Merton remarked: I know and have seen what.I was o b s c u r e l y l o o k i n g f o r . I don't know what e l s e remains but I have now seen and have p i e r c e d through the surface, and have got beyond the shadow and the d i s g u i s e . The e x p e r i e n c e t o which Merton here r e f e r s o c c u r r e d w h i l e he was c o n t e m p l a t i n g B u d d h i s t s t a t u e s a t Polonnaruwa, S r i Lanka. Merton has seen the meaning.of e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n . Moreover, as Merton d e s c r i b e s i t , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y an i n s i g h t , i n t o the very n a t u r e and meaning of e x i s t e n c e i t s e l f . C e r t a i n l y Merton's study of the e a s t had gone hand i n hand w i t h h i s study of h i m s e l f , i n c r e a s i n g l y so d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r s of h i s l i f e . H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of him-s e l f had deepened.with the deepening of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n . This, f i n a l e x p e r i e n c e of s e e i n g i n t o e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n may t h e r e f o r e have been a. .seeing i n t o h i m s e l f as w e l l . The e x p e r i e n c e was,perhaps the most p r o f o u n d Merton ever had. He says as much: I don't know when i n my l i f e I have ever had such a sen.se of beauty and s p i r i t u a l v a l i d i t y r u n n i n g t o g e t h e r i n one a e s t h e t i c i l l u m i n a t i o n . - 85 -Here the s i g n i f i c a n . e e of the a e s t h e t i c 'dimension as a b r i d g e between the two t r a d i . t i ons . i s brought o.ut. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s not a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s d imension ,in Merton's or i n Johnston's w r i t i n g s on the d i a l o g u e . I t . i s i n p a s s i n g comments by the two- men t h a t one senses, t h a t ...the b e a u t i f u l was of c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e i r approach ,to the E a s t . We w i l l f i n d some r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s a l i t t l e . l a t e r i n our d i s c u s s i o n of J o h n s t o n . Here we see i t i n Merton. T h o u g h l t must be an a s i d e i n t h i s paper,, i t i s worth n o t i n g . F u t u r e ' s t u d i e s , however, may w e l l f i n d t h i s a worthy a r e a of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . One o t h e r p o w e r f u l i n d i c a t i o n of the r o l e p l a y e d by the b e a u t i f u l i n Merton's d i a l o g u e s h o u l d be mentioned. T h i s l i e s i n h i s l a t e d i s c o v e r y and use o f p h o t o g r a p h y . Merton was an a r t i s t a l l h i s l i f e - most n o t a b l y i n h i s p o e t r y . In h i s l a t e r y e a r s he t u r n e d i n c r e a s i n g l y towards the eye,-as had h i s f a t h e r b e f o r e him. I t i s as though, as an a r t i s t , he was p r a c t i c i n g one of the b a s i c messages Zen had. f.or him: " I t might be good t o open our eyes and. see." ""Merton's photographs of his. E a s t e r n t r i p , p r e s e r v e d f o r us i n John Howard G r i f fin':.s Hidden Wholeness, are themselves e x p r e s s i v e of h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e l y t r a i n e d v i s i o n . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t Merton makes one of those remarks t h a t s e r v e t o g i v e us the most s t r i k i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o h i s thought. The S r i Lanka e x p e r i e n c e , combining as i t d i d . s p i r i t u a l and a e s t h e t i c elements, was so f o r c e f u l and .so, f u l l t h a t i t l e d Merton t o f e e l i t needed no. superimposed C h r i s t i a n framework t o e x p l a i n i t . Indeed, i t needs no e x p l a n a t i o n . of any k i n d . As an e x p e r i e n c e .- i t stands c o m p l e t e . i n i t s e l f . I t i s i t s own meaning: - 86 -T h i s i s A s i a i n i t s p u r i t y , not covered over w i t h garbage,. A s i a n or European or American, and i t i s - c l e a r , p u r e , complete. I t s a y s . e v e r y t h i n g ; i t needs n o t h i n g . Merton's Asian. J o u r n a l , r e c o r d s meetings w i t h i m p o r t a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f - E a s t e r n r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . N o t a b l e e n c ounters took p l a c e w i t h Sonam K a z i , w i t h t h e . D a l a i Lama and w i t h C h a t r a l Rimpoche.. With . C h a t r a l Merton d i s c u s s e d many t o p i c s , i n c l u d i n g dharmakaya, the R i s e n C h r i s t , s u f f e r i n g , compassion f o r a l l c r e a t u r e s , and motives f o r h e l p i n g o t h e r s . However, t h e i r primary• topie. of d i s c u s s i o n was d.zog.chen, a form of T i b e t a n m e d i t a t i o n which the J o u r n a l d e s c r i b e s as "the u l t i m a t e e m p t i n e s s , the u n i t y of sunyata and karuna,. g o i n g 'beyond the dharmakaya' and 'beyond God' t o the u l t i m a t e p e r f e c t 1 6 e m p t i n e s s " . The two men r e c o g n i z e d t h a t they, both sought the same t h i n g - p e r f e c t emptiness - and t o g e t h e r they made a compact t o a c h i e v e i t . G r e a t l y i m p r e s s e d by t h i s monk, Merton commented t h a t , i n the event of h i s c h o o s i n g 'to l i v e w i t h a T i b e t a n t e a c h e r , he would p i c k C h a t r a l . Then he added: "But I don't know y e t i f 1 7 t h a t i s what I ' l l be a b l e t o do - or whether I need t o . " Here we see what must have been a r e c u r r e n t theme.in Merton's thoughts d u r i n g h i s l a s t t r i p : the p o s s i b i l i t y of s t u d y i n g B u d d h i s t p h i l o -sophy and p r a c t i c e f i r s t hand. l e t the q u e s t i o n i n g of h i s need t o do t h i s r e f l e c t e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the. " u l t i m a t e empt-i n e s s " , 'though p o i n t e d t o by a l l t r a d i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s .beyond any and a l l . t r a d i t i o n . E a r l i e r i n Zen and  the B i r d s of A p p e t i t e Merton had w r i t t e n : - 87 -We b e g i n t o d i v i n e t h a t Zen i s not o n l y beyond the f o r m u l a t i o n s of Buddhism but i t i s a l s o in. a c e r t a i n , w a y 'beyond' (and even p o i n t e d t o bg) the r e v e a l e d message of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Merton's f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e .with t h e B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n , h i s t r a v e l i n A s i a , h i s exposure to. A s i a n . a r t and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , h i s meetings w i t h E a s t e r n monks and r e l i g i o u s e l i c i t e d from him a r e s p o n s e of r e c o g n i t i o n . - In e x p l o r i n g the . " f o r e i g n " B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n Merton d i s c o v e r e d the b o t t o m l e s s depth of h i s own n a t u r e . B r o t h e r David S t e i n d l - R a s t . , i n . a p e r c e p t i v e a r t i c l e on Merton's f i n a l t r i p , comments: In h i s A s i a n J o u r n a l , .more s t i r r i n g l y , maybe, than i n o t h e r w r i t i n g s , he has put b e f o r e us a s p i r i t u a l i t y of openness - n o t of d i s s i p a t i o n but of compassion ... The c h a l l e n g e of t h i s t a s k w i l l always remain v a l i d . For. " t h i s k i n d of mo n a s t i c i s m cannot be e x t i n g u i s h e d . I t i s i m p e r i s h - ^ • a b l e . I t r e p r e s e n t s an i n s t i n c t of the human h e a r t . " T h i s " i n s t i n c t of the human h e a r t " l e d to Merton's en-co u n t e r s w i t h the e a s t and to the success of those e n c o u n t e r s . "Openness t o exper i e n c e " , , which S t e i n d l - R a s t r i g h t l y sees as the key to Merton's A s i a n J o u r n a l , may als.o. be .used, as a key t o the l i f e and thought of W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n . I t i s t o these t h a t we s h a l l now t u r n . By h i s own a c c o u n t , Johnston f i r s t d e veloped a p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n Zen when, he r e t u r n e d t o Japan a f t e r h i s t e r t i a n s h i p i n I r e l a n d , s h o r t h l y .after Me.rton sent h i s . Verba Seniorum t o Dr. S u z u k i . Johnston was i n t r o d u c e d , t o Zen by F a t h e r . . E n o m i y a - L a s s a l l e , aV f e l l o w J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r y ..who. had. r e a l i z e d i n the l a t e 1940's - 88 -t h a t h i s - w o r k i n Japan could, succeed only i f he had a deep and broad u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Japanese c u l t u r e . Knowing t h a t Zen p l a y e d a c e n t r a l . r o l e i n t h a t c u l t u r e h e undertook i t s s t u d y . B e s i d e s r e a d i n g , he p r a c t i c e d Zen m e d i t a t i o n , and. t o h i s very g r e a t s u r p r i s e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e led.;.to a deepening 20 of h i s own s p i r i t u a l l i f e as a C h r i s t i a n . F a t h e r J o h n s t o n v i s i t e d Zen temples w i t h F a t h e r L a s s a l l e . As a p r o f e s s o r a t the J e s u i t - r u n Sophia U n i v e r s i t y i n Tokyo Johnston a l s o came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h J a p a n e s e . s t u d e n t s . One of these i n v i t e d him t o v i s i t t he famous E n g a k u j i Zen temple complex i n Kamakura. S e v e r a l v i s i t s , d u r i n g which he was t a u g h t the p r a c t -i c e of Zen m e d i t a t i o n , l e f t J o hnston q u i t e i m p r e s s e d . Commenting on the e f f e c t t h i s p r a c t i c e had on h i s p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l i t y F a t h e r Johnston l a t e r w r o t e : As f a r as i n t e r i o r d i s p o s i t i o n was concerned I changed n o t h i n g : but I found t h a t I was enormously h e l p e d and, so t o speak, deepened by the h a l f - l o t u s p o s t u r e which I then took on f o r the f i r s t time ... The Kamakura e x p e r i e n c e somehow helped.my d a i l y m e d i t a t i o n , which 1 c o n t i n u e d t o make i n the H a l f - l o t u s p o s i t i o n ( I c o u l d never .manage, the f u l l l o t u s -a l a s f o r Western legs.) in-some k i n d of Zen s t y l e ... I t was -a c o n t i n u a t i o n , , but a t the same time a rema r k a b l e deepening of whg^ I had been d o i n g b e f o r e I . ever heard of Zen. At the same time t h a t . J o h n s t o n was s t u d y i n g Zen a new form of C a t h o l i c i s m , s e e k i n g t o . r e c o v e r i t s i n h e r e n t c o n t e m p l a t i v e d i m e n s i o n , wa.s emerging i n -Japan. T h i s movement, owing much i n s p i r a t - i on . and p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e to-Zen,, .has sometimes, been r e f e r r e d t o as " C h r i s t i a n Z e n " . . I t grew out ,of.the Japanese c o n t e x t , the d e s i r e t o f i n d a C h r i s t i a n i t y s u i t a b l e t o t h a t - 89 -c o n t e x t and the need, t o r e c o v e r g e n u i n e . s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a C h r i s t i a n framework. This . m a t r i x of r e q u i r e m e n t s would c a l l f o r a g r e a t s h a r i n g , on the p a r t of a l l concerned, a s h a r i n g which s t i l l c o n t i n u e s on today, p r o m i s i n g t o b r i n g new and perhaps s u r p r i s i n g developments I n the f u t u r e . While t h i s was t a k i n g p l a c e i n Japan, the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , which was to have a. . s p e c i a l e f f e c t on these m i s s i o n a r y . endeavours, was meeting i n .Rome. . - I t gave o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l t o the p o s i t i o n of the more i n s i g h t f u l m i s s i o n a r i e s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s p i r i t u a l and c u l t u r a l goods were, to be found i n every t r a d i t i o n and t h a t the C h r i s t i a n had a- r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o "acknow-22 l e d g e , p r e s e r v e and promote", .those g o o d s . . C l e a r l y Zen m e d i t a t i o n and the emphasis on a.non-dual-is t i c metaphysic were among the goods i n Japanese Buddhism which c o u l d .be,and were b e i n g acknow-l e d g e , p r e s e r v e d and promoted, .even to the p o i n t of t h e i r b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d w i t h C h r l s . t i a n i t y . Out s i d e of Tokyo F a t h e r L a s s a . l i e opened the f i r s t of s e v e r a l s m a l l c e n t r e s where i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d . in.-Zen p r a c t i c e c o u l d meet. These c e n t r e s were very s i m p l e and spare J a p a n e s e - s t y l e rooms, w i t h t a b e r n a c l e s on the . f l o o r , so • t h a t C a t h o l i c s c o u l d m e d i t a t e i n the presence of the. Sacrament,. Today many Japanese C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s and nuns are .taking the l e a d .In the p r o c e s s of d i a l o g u e i n Japan, f o r g i n g new ...developments from the meeting of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e w i t h . t h e i r newly a c c e p t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y . F a t h e r Johnston acclaims, the ..more • c o n t e m p l a t i v e form of C a t h o l i c i s m which . emerges .in ..this . s e t t i n g , n o t i n g , t h a t though i t i s w e l l s u i t e d to, the Japanese.-it i s a l s o of-' g r e a t v a l u e t o non-Japanese C h r i s t i a n s . Johnston has p r e s e n t e d h i s " C h r i s t i a n - 90 -Zen" t o groups of .people, i n North America, .Europe and A u s t r a l i a . C h r i s t i a n -Zen i s a l s o .the t i t l e . J o hnston chose., f o r one of h i s e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s of .the. d i a l o g u e . . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he was l a t e r t o d i s c l a i m the l a b e l " C h r i s t i a n Zen".- T h i s may i n d i c a t e a growing sense of Johnston's need .to a f f i r m and- m a i n t a i n the d i s t i n c t i o n between the t r a d i t i o n s of w h i c h ' h i s .own e x p e r i e n c e would c o n v i n c e him. -I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Johnston n o t i c e s one s p e c i a l v a l u e i n the use of Zen. Zen m e d i t a t i o n can be p r a c t i c e d w i t h o u t any p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f . Johnston t e l l s us that, a few a g n o s t i c s among h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e s have a c t u a l l y come t o -experience God through 23 the p r a c t i c e . Whatever i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Johnston's c o n v i c t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of f a i t h , f o r development i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e , t h i s does suggest t h a t Zen m e d i t a t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d t o a w o r l d which, l a c k i n g the e x p e r i e n c e of God, can h a r d l y be ex p e c t e d t o h o l d the b e l i e f . The d i a l o g i c movement i n Japan has a l s o i n v o l v e d f o r m a l meetings between groups of Buddhists., C a t h o l i c s , and P r o t e s t a n t s . B e s i d e s d i s c u s s i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s these f o r m a l meetings have i n c l u d e d r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . .There have been s e s s i o n s of Zen m e d i t a t i o n , P r o t e s t a n t B i b l e s e r v i c e s and C a t h o l i c Masses. Meeting i n t h i s f a s h i o n a l l o w s t h e . p a r t i c i p a n t s t o deepen t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l i t y of. d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . In t hese meetings.-the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 have even been a b l e t o share what Johnston c a l l s : " a . k i n d of communal, r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e The c o n t e m p l a t i v e s l a n t of the meetings. ..leads t o each i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n t e r i n g the s i l e n c e w i t h i n . However, Johnston says t h a t i n the communal s i t t i n g ' t h e r e i s also - a s i l e n c e and a pr e s e n c e t h a t - 91 -emerge from-the e n t i r e group, t h a t are p r o p e r t o the group i t s e l f . - T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . . People f rom, d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s • a r e n o t j u s t exchanging ideas..but t o g e t h e r e n t e r i n g i n t o a s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e beyond' t r a d i t i o n , , though one which i s amenable t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the.'specifi,c t r a d i t i o n s . In t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s the C h r i s t i a n may e x p e r i e n c e a-"sense of p r e s -ence", u n d e r s t o o d by Johnston' as the presence of God. I have begun my -review of the d i a l o g u e i n -Father Johnston's l i f e w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l or communal a s p e c t s of i t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r s from my d i s c u s s i o n of Merton, who r e a l l y o n l y i n t h a t f i n a l t r i p which c u l m i n a t e d i n h i s d e a t h , was a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n these a s p e c t s of the d i a l o g u e -and t h e n , i t seems c l e a r , h i s own p e r s o n a l • q u e s t , h i s own q u e s t i o n s , had p r i o r i t y over h i s more i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . I f I have chosen t h i s approach i n my d i s c u s s i o n of J o h n s t o n , i t i s because Johnston's e n t r y i n t o the d i a l o g u e does seem t o have been t i e d up w i t h h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l concerns and because h i s own r e f l e c t i o n s on the meaning of d i a l o g u e a r e very much i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s . Communal a s p e c t s of d i a l o g u e always concerned J o h n s t o n more than they d i d Merton. However, Joh n s t o n c e r t a i n l y had c o n t a c t s w i t h Zen which were l e s s " f o r m a l " or o f f i c i a l than those d e s c r i b e d above and whose :aim was r a t h e r more p e r s o n a l , than i n s t i t u t i o n a l . Speaking of h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s - t i n Zen, F a t h e r Johnston t e l l s us.: People, have, f r e q u e n t l y asked me. why I got i n t e r e s t e d .in Zer. at. . ' a l l , and as so o f t e n . h a p p e n s t h i s q u e s t i o n , i s . f a r from easy t o answer ... Y e t I ..suppose, some answers can b e - g i v e n , even though I cannot vouch f o r the f a c t t h a t they a r e the r e a l ones.- For one - 92 -t h i n g , the c o n t e m p l a t i v e i d e a l i n Buddhism has always f a s c i n a t e d me. I never t i r e of g a z i n g a t the s t a t u e s . o f Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s r a p t i n deep s i l e n c e , i n n o t h i n g n e s s , i n unknowing ... And then t h e r e i s the g e n t l e , s m i l e of compassion t h a t so o f t e n p l a y s around.-the l i p s g g f the B o d h i s a t t v a . A l l t h i s i s b e a u t i f u l . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t was the c o n t e m p l a t i v e i d e a l i n Buddhism which a p p e a l e d t o F a t h e r J o h n s t o n . During h i s c o l l e g e days he had s p e c i a l i z e d i n C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m , s t u d y i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y the anonymous f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e x t , The Cloud of Unknowing. In the l a s t p a r t of t h i s chapter.we w i l l examine the s p e c i a l r o l e p l a y e d by C h r i s t i a n mysticism, i n the d i a l o g u e . Here i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o note. Johnston's p e r s o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o the c o n t e m p l a t i v e i d e a l and the s i g n i f i c a n c e he f e e l s i t had i n h i s a t t r a c t i o n to Buddhism. Mention of "deep, s i l e n c e , n o t h i n g n e s s , unknowing" b r i n g s to mind Merton's " p o v e r t y , s o l i t u d e , and e m p t i n e s s " . Johnston's responsiv.enes.s- to. these v a l u e s l e a d s him t o approach the o t h e r t r a d i t i o n . w i t h openness and h u m i l i t y . L i k e Merton Jo h n s t o n a l s o responds t o the b e a u t i f u l i n Buddhism, the b e a u t i f u l which i s beyond words and d o c t r i n e s , t o u c h i n g a fundamental chord i n human n a t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as n o t e d above, we do n o t have d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s of the . r o l e p l a y e d by a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i n Johnston.'s and Merton's i n t e r e s t i n the B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n . The c l u e s we do have - and here i s one from Johnston -2 6 i n d i c a t e t h a t i t s r o l e was of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . F o r a l l h i s communion w i t h B u d d h i s t s , F a t h e r Johnston con-t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n s a sense of d i f f e r e n c e between the C h r i s t i a n and B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n s . . One . d e l i g h t f u l s t o r y i n C h r i s t i a n Zen i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . As p a r t of a Zen r e t r e a t : ( s e s s h i n ) Johnston - 9 3 -a t t e n d e d he had an i n t e r v i e w (dokusan) w i t h the Zen r o s h i . D u ring the dokusan the f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e took p l a c e , w i t h the r o s h i s p e a k i n g f i r s t : But t e l l me,, what about your Zen? What a r e you doing? I'm doi n g what you, I suppose, would c a l l 'gedo Zen' . Very good! Very good.! Many C h r i s t i a n s do t h a t . But what p r e c i s e l y do you mean by 'gedo Zen'? I mean t h a t - I am s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y i n the presence of God w i t h o u t words or thoughts or images or i d e a s . Your God i s everywhere? Yes-. And you are wrapped around i n God? Yes. And you e x p e r i e n c e t h i s ? Yes. Very good! Very good! Continue t h i s way. J u s t keep on. And e v e n t u a l l y . y o u w i l l f i n d t h a t God ? 7 w i l l d i s a p p e a r and only Johnston San w i l l r emain. T h i s s t o r y i s s t r i k i n g f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t of a l l i t i s s t r i k i n g t h a t a Roman. C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s h o u l d submit h i m s e l f to the a u t h o r i t y of a t e a c h e r i n an a l i e n r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n . i n a f o r m a l s e t t i n g . T h i s . i s something that- Merton never d i d , though he a p p a r e n t l y considered. . . i t , as we: have seen. Johnston's s e n s i t i v i t y t o the awkwardnes,s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be seen i n a statement f o l l o w i n g the above c o n v e r s a t i o n . He s a y s : "One should, n o t , I suppose, . c o n t r a d i c t the . r o s h i , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s 28 I d i d so." He e f f e c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e s h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n - 9 4 -t o the r o s h i , a p o s i t i o n which he had a c c e p t e d , and y e t he goes beyond t h i s p o s i t i o n , t a k i n g i s s u e , w i t h the r o s h i . J o h n s t o n h i m s e l f i s a c t o r and a u d i e n c e f o r t h e s e two r o l e s , , the " l o c u s " of t h e i r coming t o g e t h e r and of, the-problem c r e a t e d f o r him as a C h r i s t i a n by t h e i r coming t o g e t h e r . Johnston t a k e s two p e r -s p e c t i v e s : t h a t of "Zen s t u d e n t " (as i n s i d e r , as, p a r t i c i p a n t ) and t h a t of " s t u d e n t of the Zen t r a d i t i o n " ' (as o b s e r v e r , - as o u t s i d e r , as C h r i s t i a n ) . The f a c t t h a t t h i s C h r i s t i a n can p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a l i e n r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n p o i n t s t o the p r i o r i t y of something f u n d a m e n t a l , b a s i c t o and shared by both r e l i g i o n s - p o i n t s i n f a c t t o human n a t u r e . T h i s p r i o r i t y of human n a t u r e and i t s r o l e as m e d i a t o r can be seen i n an e n d e a r i n g episode r e l a t e d by John-s t o n : The r o s h i was s e a t e d on.a s l i g h t l y r a i s e d p l a t f o r m , and down below, some d i s t a n c e away, was the c u s h i o n on which I was t o squat. -I wondered why he was so f a r away; l a t e r I put t h i s q u e s t i o n t o a Japanese who knew the temple p r e t t y w e l l . Almost f u r t i v e l y he s a i d , " I ' l l t e l l you the r e a s o n . The r o s h i d r i n k s sake, and he doesn't want you t o s m e l l h i s b r e a t h . " Seeing my s u r p r i s e he went on h a s t i l y , " I don't mean t h a t he d r i n k s too much. He d o e s n ' t . But he d r i n k s some, and he doesn't l i k e p e o p l e t o know." I r e f l e c t e d that., a f t e r a l l , Zen r o s h i were humangn b e i n g s , good men l i k e the I r i s h C a t h o l i c p a s t o r s . J o h n s t o n r e c o g n i z e s the commonness of human n a t u r e a c r o s s c u l t u r a l , and r e l i g i o u s boundary. He u s e s . t h i s t.o make sense of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s he e x p e r i e n c e d , i n c l u d i n g , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the- r o s h i . as . e n l i g h t e n e d - Zen' t e a c h e r , and. as -sake d r i n k e r . Another o b s e r v a t i o n , can be. made, .on t h i s story-. J o h n s t o n e x p e r i e n c e s b e i n g "wrapped around i n God". T h i s i s not mere r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . - 95 -I t i s a p r o f o u n d p e r s o n a l and C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e . Yet the e x p e r i e n c e does n o t occur i n . a n y - - c l a s s i c a l C h r i s t i a n s e t t i n g . I t o c c u r s r a t h e r I n a . s e t t i n g , which, one. might have thought a n t i -t h e t i c a l t o such a C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e :•. a- s e t t i n g from a n o t h e r r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e . And i t i s not merely a matter of a C h r i s t i a n ' s u s i n g the "props" of a n o t h e r r e l i g i o n . The e x p e r i e n c e : becomes the b a s i s f o r p a r t of the i n t e r a c t i o n between Johnston, and the r o s h i . I t becomes a ma t t e r of d i s c u s s i o n . The r o s h i a c c e p t s and a f f i r m s : J o h n s t o n ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h ease. I t does n o t seem a f o r e i g n e x p e r i e n c e t o him. Yet he understands i t i n a manner which s t a r t l e s Johnston., as i t - m i g h t any C h r i s t i a n . He suggests t h a t i f Johnston c o n t i n u e s , t o make t h i s "very good" p r o g r e s s he w i l l come t o a•stage where. "God w i l l d i s a p p e a r and only Johnston-San w i l l r e m a i n " . T h i s i s a very, d i s t u r b i n g s t a t e -ment f o r a C h r i s t i a n , who b e l i e v e s t h a t God. i s more r e a l - onto-l o g i c a l l y , i f n o t always p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y - than he i s h i m s e l f . A b a s i c t e n e t of Johns ton's f a i t h was b e i n g challenged..He had to r e s p o n d : R e c a l l i n g the t e a c h i n g of The. Cloud t h a t t h e r e are m y s t i c a l moments, when s e l f . t o t a l l y d i s a p p e a r s and only God remains,, • I sa i d . with, a s m i l e , "God w i l l n o t d i s a p p e a r . But Johnstonofflight w e l l d i s a p p e a r and only God be l e f t . " J o h nston a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d the r o s h i - and put f o r w a r d h i s own b e l i e f . By r e c o u r s e t o a c l a s s i c a l ; C h r i s t i a n t e x t he r e c o g n i z e d a fundamental s i m i l a r i t y - and a r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e -between the two t r a d i t i o n s . . H e s t a t e d h i s ; . e o n c l u s i o n f i r m l y . Yet the r o s h i was not -in the l e a s t p e r t u r b e d . .His response l e f t - 96 -Johnston w i t h matter, f o r r e f l e c t i o n . "Yes, y e s , " he answered, s m i l i n g l y - - " I t ' s the same t h i n g . That i s what I mean." The r o s h i was.not b o t h e r e d by t e r m i n o l o g y . The e x p e r i e n c e was what counted. Yet perhaps the r o s h i missed a. c r u c i a l d i s t i n -c t i o n t h a t the C h r i s t i a n t e r m i n o l o g y , r e c o g n i z e d . . On l a t e r r e f l e c -t i o n , however, Johnston came t o t h e ' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t what the r o s h i s a i d was not a d e n i a l of God. I t was- a d e n i a l of d u a l i t y . And t h i s d e n i a l , presented- i n language . s t a r t l i n g t o F a t h e r J o h n s t o n , l e d him t o broaden h i s own u n d e r s t a n d i n g of God. In f a c t the encounter w i t h the r o s h i :pointed. the way t o the t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of God: "God i s n o t , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , an o b j e c t . 32 He i s the ground of b e i n g . " And s i n c e he i s . .the ground of b e i n g , he i s i m a g e l e s s , he i s n o t to'be g r a s p e d , n o t to.be p i n n e d down b y some thought or i d e a . N a t u r a l l y then as one goes deeper i n m e d i t a t i o n "God" w i l l d i s a p p e a r . . In " O r i e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n " , one of a s e r i e s of s i x tapes he r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e C o n t e m p l a t i v e P r a y e r , J o h n s t o n t e l l s us t h a t , a l t h o u g h he s t u d i e d under a .Zen r o s h i f o r a w h i l e , e v e n t u a l l y he stopped. In p a r t t h i s was a. response t o the d i f f e r e n c e he r e c o g n i z e d between the a t t i t u d e of the r o s h i and h i s own. The r o s h i thought, t h a t s a l v a t i o n , was w e l l and good but q u i t e unnecessary i n the presence of,, e n l i g h t e n m e n t . Johnston b e l i e v e d that, s a l v a t i o n was the true'.goal. O f ' l i f e and e n l i g h t e n m e n t 33 merely something which i t would.be " n i c e , to- have : as w e l l " . Perhaps the q u e s t i o n of whether-.or n o t , , s a l v a t i o n and e n l i g h t e n -ment a r e u l t i m a t e l y the same can be determined o n l y by an i n d i -_ 9 7 -v i d u a l who has e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h . However, s i n c e s a l v a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s whose,goal, .'is. bey ond, death., the. .quest! on.-, remains un-r e s o l v e d . Johnston' I s . c o n v i n c e d .that -the " u l t i m a t e g o a l " of the B u d d h i s t and the. C h r i s t i a n . i s the same-.but t h a t i t l i e s shrouded i n mystery f o r human eyes. • Even i f i t i s not p o s s i b l e - - t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e n l i g h t e n m e n t - a n d s a l v a t i o n i t ' i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o com-pare the e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h occur i n the w o r k i n g out of both p r o c e s s e s . Merton does- t h i s when he compares h i s monastic l i f e w i t h those l e d by h i s Zen B u d d h i s t and T i b e t a n - f r i e n d s . He sees s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . Y e t , d e s p i t e h i s own c l a i m t h a t the u l t i m a t e g o a l i s the same f o r a l l , Johnston, t h i n k s t h a t what i s happening i n the t w o • t r a d i t i o n s on t h i s p r a c t i c a l l e v e l i s not the same. The c o n v i c t i o n of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o h i s c e s s a t i o n of Zen p r a c t i c e , a t l e a s t i n a f o r m a l s e t t i n g under the d i r e c t i o n of a r o s h i . J ohnston s t a t e s . t h a t w h e n . i n d i v i d u a l s of both t r a d i t i o n s e n t e r i n t o the s i l e n c e the- C h r i s t i a n i s o f t e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the "sense of pr e s e n c e " , . w h i c h the Zen B u d d h i s t c a l l s i l l u s o r y . At the same time, the C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n , a l s o r e c o g n i z e s a stage a t which t h i s "sense of p r e s e n c e " v a n i s h e s . Johnston a f f i r m s the v a l i d i t y of both e x p e r i e n c e s , t h a t which i s " d u a l i s t i c " and t h a t which he c a l l s , "monistic"., and wishes, t o p r e s e r v e the t e n s i o n between them,, a t e n s i o n which i s res.olved t h e o l o g i c a l l y i n the C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e of the T r i n i t y . . . F a t h e r Johnston's t h i n k i n g i s open-ended...and. u n r e s o l v e d . T h i s i s a t once:.his-. g r e a t e s t .weakness - and his- g r e a t . e s t s t r e n g t h . I t c o n t r a s t s - w i t h Merton's more s i m p l e a n d - p e n e t r a t i n g s t y l e . - 98 -Perhaps t h i s i s . a . r e f . l e e t i o n of the f a c t - t h a t many of the d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s , which, - i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e - i n - , e v e r y d a y l i f e l i v e d i n t he mids t of a - f o r e i g n . c u l t u r e , can,-be. s i m p l y a v o i d e d by a c l o i s t e r e d approach that, examines that- same f t r a d i t i o n from a f a r . In t h i s sense Merton may 'be said, t o f a i l t o .deal w i t h many of the n i t t y - g r i t t y i s s u e s which- must e v e n t u a l l y be d e a l t w i t h i n the meeting of two c u l t u r e s . On the o t h e r hand Johnston seems, t o withdraw, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y from the r a d i c a l i s s u e s h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n .ha.s suggested. T h i s i s not t o say t h a t he r e t u r n s t o a p r e - c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c i s m . He does n o t . Nor-, i s i t t o suggest-, inadequacy, or • u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p l o r e t r u t h . Johnston t a k e s - a p o s i t i o n which a l l o w s him t o l i v e a l o n g s i d e h i s B u d d h i s t f r i e n d s and t o engage i n d i a l o g u e w i t h them w h i l e y e t en s u r i n g , t h a t he h i m s e l f w i l l remain f i r m l y grounded w i t h i n h i s own t r a d i t i o n , He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t they share an u l t i m a t e g o a l and s t a t e s -his-deep r e s p e c t f o r the B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n (both p o s i t i o n s o f f i c i a l l y t a ken by the V a t i c a n C o u n c i l ) , w h i l e r e a f f i r m i n g h i s own C h r i s t i a n commitment. Johnston c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v e s t o p i n down h i s "sense" of the d i f f e r e n c e between the.two t r a d i t i o n s . In. part' he does t h i s by examining f a i t h . The B u d d h i s t t a k e s r e f u g e " i n . the Buddha, i n the dharma and i n the sangha" w h i l e the... C h r i s t i a n , p l a c e s h i s f a i t h " i n J e s u s , i n the g o s p e l and i n the c.hur.ch" . J o h n s t o n observes t h a t church and .sangha. a r c [ d i f f e r e n t communities... T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n draws a t t e n t i o n i n the f i r s t p l a c e , t o . ' t h e . i n f l u e n c e upon Johnston's e x p e r i e n c e of the f a c t t h a t . h e l i v e s i n J a p a n a m i d s t . a community and a t r a d i t i on. d i f f e r e n t from those i n . which h i s .own sense of s e l f - i d e n t i t y , was shaped. He, d e a l s w i t h t h i s community d a i l y . - 99 -N a t u r a l l y he sees d i f f e r e n c e s . ..In . the . second p l a c e i t suggests t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of. the d i a l o g u e a r e n e c e s s a r y -t h a t we w i l l g a i n .a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f : t h e d i a l o g u e only by u n d e r s t a n d i n g the ways i n " which two d i f f e r e n t communities a c t u a l l y come t o g e t h e r i n time and space. T h i s w i l l c a l l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the.ways i n which c u l t u r e and community r e f l e c t one a n o t h e r and the c o m p l i c a t i o n s of i n t r o d u c i n g f o r e i g n elements i n t o e i t h e r s i d e of t h a t e q u a t i o n . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e beyond our scope, however, and a r e-mentioned only i n s o f a r as they a r i s e d i r e c t l y from. Johnston's d i a l o g u e . Though n o t d e v e l o p e d , they do i m p l i c i t l y u n d e r l i e much of what he has t o say and may p r o v i d e a very s i g n i f i c a n t c l u e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e between h i s thought a n d . t h a t of Merton. The remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r extends our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l t h a t has proceeded, which c e n t r e s on s p e c i f i c events i n the l i v e s of F a t h e r s Merton-and .Johnston. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o see t h a t these events a r e more than a s e r i e s of o c c u r r e n c e s i n the l i v e s of two men, making sense o n l y i n the framework of b i o g r a p h y . In f a c t they p o i n t t o (or intend.) a s p e c i f i c a r e a of the Roman C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n . T h i s a r e a , ..or a s p e c t , of the C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n , which emerges a.s: paramount i n the i n t e r -r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen.Buddhism, i s C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m , and e s p e c i a l l y a p o p h a t i c m y s t i c i s m or the m y s t i c i s m , of n e g a t i o n . I t i s t o t h i s dimension of t h e i r , t r a d i t i o n t h a t , both men a r e l e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n encounter w i t h Zen. A c t u a l l y t h a t to. which t h e i r d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism c o n t i n u a l l y . r e t u r n e d them was a l r e a d y of. v i t a l concern t o both men b e f o r e they began t h e i r study, of the e a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n . Both - 1 00 -men were deeply and p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m . We have a l r e a d y n o t e d t h a t J o h n s t o n ' s u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y mysticism,, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t c l a s s i c of a p o p h a t i c m y s t i c w r i t i n g , The Cloud, of „ Unknowing.. I t . was the c o n t e m p l a t i v e edge of Buddhism w h i c h f i r s . t awakened Johnston's i n t e r e s t i n Zen. Merton's e n t i r e l i f e , had a m y s t i c a l s l a n t . In Thomas Merton  on M y s t i c i s m Raymond' B a i l e y t e l l s u s : (Merton's) s o c i a l . c o m m e n t a r y , as w e l l as h i s p o e t i c o u t p o u r i n g s , were t h e . f r u i t of h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the q u e s t f o r the D i v i n e . The dominant m o t i v a t i o n , i n Merton's l i f e and the p r i m a r y m o t i f i n h i s work was t h i s m y s t i c a l q u e s t f o r u n i o n w i t h God. Throughout h i s l i f e Merton remained c o n s t a n t t o h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e commitment e x p l i c i t i n the p o e t i c vow r e c o r d e d i n The Tears of the- B l i n d L i o n s : "May my bones burn and ravens eat my f l e s h / I f I f o r g e t t h e e , c o n t e m p l a t i o n ..." Moreover, Merton's thought and methodology were r o o t e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y and framed I n the m a t r i x o o f the symbols and s t r u c t u r e s of C a t h o l i c i s m . For both Merton and Johnston the s u r e s t way t o u n d e r s t a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the m y s t i c a l way. I t i s a way which emphasizes e x p e r i e n c e and p e r s o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o those ways which are more concerned, w i t h . b e h a v i our.al . c o n f o r m i t y and n o n - r e f l e c t i v e b e l i e f . . This: d i s t i n c t i o n i s .sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as that, between e.s.o.teri.c (.or hidden,), and. e x o t e r i c (.external, 3 5 s u i t a b l e f o r the. . u n i n i t i a t e d : ) . . The. ex.oterie. dimension can be s a i d t o be c o n c e r n e d . w i t h the e x t e r n a l o r . o u t w a r d l y o b s e r v a b l e dimension of r e l i g i o n and i t i s more, s o c i a l , i n o r i e n t a t i o n . R i t u a l s ' i n which the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e s , t o the end . of s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y and the marking of everyday e v e n t s , may a l s o be - 1 01 -u n d e r s t o o d as h a v i n g r e l e v a n c e t o . a. hidden dimension of e x p e r i e n c e i n the s p i r i t u a l l i v e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . ..Every symbol may be s a i d t o have two s i d e s ( a t .least).:- one w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o ex-p e r i e n c e on the l e v e l of the group 'or community, the o t h e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n the .psyche of the. I n d i v i d u a l . The f i r s t dimension w i l l be the more obvious., because shared by the group, whereas the second may be a p p a r e n t t o o n l y a few. By way of example, Ch r i s t m a s may be a c e l e b r a t i o n marking the b i r t h of J e s u s , or t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e , or b o t h , a' time marked by f e s -t i v i t i e s and the s h a r i n g of. g i f t s , (.with a l l t h a t i m p l i e s i n terms of community) -, but i t might a l s o be seen as i n d i c a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e , p o s s i b l y the b i r t h of the s e l f . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r , l e s s p o p u l a r approach which i n t e r e s t s both Merton and J o h n s t o n . T h i s approach g i v e s shape t o t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s on Zen Buddhism, and i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by those same r e f l e c t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s . Mer.ton r e f e r s t o d i a l o g u e between c o n t e m p l a t i v e s of the two t r a d i t i o n s , • s u c h , as h i s own meeting 37 w i t h D a i s e t z S u z u k i , as the "most e s s e n t i a l d i m e n s i o n " of the d i a l o g u e , p r e c i s e l y because'.it i n t r o d u c e s , the element of i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . The meeting of c ontem.pla f i v e s i s a meeting of i n d i -v i d u a l s who a r e s e n s i t i v e t o .the e s o t e r i c a s p e c t of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . They'can share t h e i r concern w i t h e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e i r fellows... from o t h e r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . In Merton's words: A l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e of such d i a l o g u e shows a t once t h a t t h i s - i s p r e c i s e l y • the . most f r u i t f u l -and the most r e w a r d i n g l e v e l of e c u m e n i c a l exchange. While on the l e v e l of p h i l o s o p h i c a l - 102 -and d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , t h e r e may be tremendous, o b s t a c l e s to.meet., i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o come, t o a very, f r a n k , s i m p l e , and t o t a l l y , s a t i s f y i n g ..understanding i n comparing no t e s - o n the c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e , ~g i t s d i s c i p l i n e s , - i t s vagaries,.- and i t s rewards. One re a s o n Merton. o f f e r s f o r f o c u s i n g on e x p e r i e n c e i n the Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism, i s t h a t the e x p e r i -e n t i a l p a t h i s f o r him the c e n t r a l and. most, v i t a l approach t o C a t h o l i c i s m i t s e l f . He d e a l s w i t h h i s own. • C a t h o l i c i s m through e x p e r i e n c e , r e f e r r i n g e s p e c i a l l y t o the t r a d i t i o n of C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m , a n d he c a r r i e s t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h him i n t o h i s study of Zen. A second r e a s o n , however, has t o be .mentioned. Not every C a t h o l i c t a k e s the m y s t i c a l approach t o h i s t r a d i t i o n . Indeed, u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , t h i s approach was .highly s u s p e c t . Merton h i m s e l f p o i n t s out the dangers of th e . f a l s e . m y s t i c i s m which was the o n l y k i n d t h a t was g e n e r a l l y , .recognized. In. the case of the Zen t r a d i t i o n , however, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e , .to. i g n o r e the dimension of e x p e r i e n c e , s i n c e the t r a d i t i o n , i t s e l f c l e a r l y and unequiv-o c a l l y sees t h i s as c e n t r a l . The .Westerner who does not take an e x p e r i e n t i a l approach .to his.own t r a d i t i o n , . the w e s t e r n e r who i n c l i n e s to the e x o t e r i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y , w i l l be i n c l i n e d t o approach Zen w i t h , the same:, g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e . Merton warns a g a i n s t t h i s : The g r e a t o b s t a c l e t o . u n d e r s t a n d i n g between C h r i s t i a n i t y , and. Buddhism, l i e s , i n . the Western tendency t o f o c u s . n o t o n , t h e . B u d d h i s t e x p e r i e n c e , which, i s e s s e n t i a l - , , but .on,, the e x p l a n a t i o n which i s a c c i d e n t a l and.which indeed.Zen. o f t e n r e g a r d s as c o m p l e t e l y t r i v i a l and even m i s l e a d i n g . - 1 03 -Merton i s here .making an i m p o r t a n t e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c -t i o n , t o which w e . w i l l r e t u r n i n the c h a p t e r . " P r i n c i p l e s of D i a l o g u e " . I t i s the d i s t i n c t i o n , which K o r z y b s k i made famous e a r l i e r i n the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y as that.between, map and t e r r i t o r y , between the d e s c r i p t i o n and the t h i n g , d e s c r i b e d . The map i s not the t e r r i t o r y , though i t i s o f t e n . m i s t a k e n f o r i t . Zen ensures t h a t t h i s m i s t a k e w i l l be corrected...when - i t i s made. I t does t h i s by t a k i n g a v e r y i c o n o c l a s t i c • 'approach .to a l l "words and s c r i p t u r e s " . I t a l s o t a k e s a c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o e x p e r i e n c e , r e c o g n i z i n g the danger of f a l s e - - e n l i g h t e n m e n t s . By and l a r g e the C h r i s t i a n ' , t r a d i t i o n i s n o t as c o n s c i o u s as Zen of the d i s t i n c t i o n between, m a p • a n d . t e r r i t o r y . C h r i s t i a n i t y has been q u i t e a n x i o u s about..any. i d i o s y n c r a t i c , e x p e r i e n c e and has a t v a r i o u s times censured i n d i v i d u a l s . ..who have had experiences. which they e x p r e s s e d i n h e t e r o d o x ways. -St. . John of the C r o s s , one of the g r e a t e s t of C h r i s t i a n mystics., was. j a i l e d by h i s f e l l o w monks. M e i s t e r E c k h a r t .was condemned, by h i s c h u r c h . So, to o , was Thomas Aq u i n a s , whose l a t e mystical., e x p e r i e n c e l e d him t o r e f l e c t t h a t a l l h i s m a g n i f i c e n t w r i t i n g s were l i k e s t r a w by 40 comparison. At the same time t h a t i t has been .quite ..zealous i n g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t " f a l s e " e x p e r i e n c e s , . C h r i s t i a n i t y has been s t r o n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c o r r e c t , a f f i r m a t i o n s . of b e l i e f , . i n c r e d a l s t a t e m e n t s . As Merton n o t e s , C h r i s t i a n i t y b e g i n s w i t h the. r e v e l a t i o n of God's word. By no means can Merton .be accused; of . u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of the word i n the • C h r i s t i a n . l i f e . Yet he i s c r i t i c a l of what can be c a l l e d a " l i t e r a l " .approach .to the. word. H i s c o n t a c t w i t h Zen has deepened .his sense t h a t ' C h r i s t i a n l t y i s a l s o a r e l i g i o . - 1 OA -of e x p e r i e n c e . He c a u t i o n s : The o b s e s s i o n with, d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a s , j u r i d i c a l o r d e r and r i t u a l e x a c t i t u d e has o f t e n made people f o r g e t ."that t h e - h e a r t of C a t h o l i c i s m , t o o , i s . a l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e of u n i t y i n C h r i s t ' which f a r t r a n s c e n d s . a l l c o n c e p t u a l f o r m u l a ! ! ons .. .What too o f t e n has been o v e r l o o k e d , i n consequence, i s t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m i s . , the t a s t e and e x p e r i e n c e of e t e r n a l l i f e . 4 ' Merton does n o t say t h a t the • Zen s a t o r i e x p e r i e n c e and the e x p e r i e n c e of C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m a r e the same. Yet he does suggest t h a t the c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of t r a n s c e n d e n c e of the ego and d i s c o v e r y of one's t r u e n a t u r e .(which i s God f o r the C h r i s t i a n and the "no-mind" f o r the 'Zen B u d d h i s t ) i s s i m i l a r . I t i s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e which i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r e s s e d i n the a p o p h a t i c m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n . W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n s i m i l a r l y emphasizes the m y s t i c a l t r a d i -t i o n . He r e f e r s t o a realm - of m y s t i c a l , e x p e r i e n c e s which t r a n s -cends e x p r e s s i o n and .which forms t h e b a s i s f o r . a l l the w o r l d ' s r e l i g i o n s : A l l a u t h e n t i c r e l i g i o n o r i g i n a t e s w i t h m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , be i t the e x p e r i e n c e of J e s u s , of the Buddha", of: Mohammed, of the s e e r s and pr o p h e t s . of • the: Upanlshad.s., The f o u n d e r s speak of a realm .of mystery t h a t l i e s beyond, the r e a c h of. t h i n k i n g -and r e a s o n i n g and concepts of .any k i n d , .a .realm about which one can only speak. ,s tammeringly a n d - i n d i r e c t l y . On the b a s i s , of . h i s own . exp e r i e n c e . Johnston t e l l s us t h a t u n i o n between p e o p l e , I r r e s p e c t i v e • of t h e i r , b e l i e f s,,. t h e i r formu-l a t i o n s and i d e a s , i s deepest when t h e y . share m y s t i c a l s i l e n c e - 105 -t o g e t h e r . E a r l i e r we d e s c r i b e d Johns ton'.s . shared r e l i g i ous exper-i e n c e w i t h Zen Buddhists., and o t h e r s . \ D e e p l y moved by such exper-i e n c e , Johnston r e f l e c t e d or. . i t . .His., i m p r e s s i o n was t h a t , though t h e r e was much i n common, .important . d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d even on the e x p e r i e n t i a l l e v e l . Johns ton. e x p l a i n e d ..these - by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f a i t h and b e l i e f . F a i t h , which Johnston . r e f e r s ; to. as-, a " f o r m l e s s i n n e r l i g h t " , b e l o n g s t o a l l humans as human.s. I t . i s . a s p i r i t u a l response t o the human s i t u a t i o n - an a f f i r m a t i o n of the u l t i m a t e meaning of human l i f e and a r e c o g n i t i o n of the mystery which surrounds i t . On t h i s l e v e l humans can be most' d e e p l y .united. In Johnston's words : ... when t h i s f a i t h f l o w e r s and devel o p s i n t o the naked f a i t h which I have c a l l e d m y s t i c i s m then the u n i o n i s deepest. -This, i s .the u n i o n of p e o p l e who are i n .love...without r e s t r i c t i o n or r e s e r v a t i o n and, whose l o v e has- e n t e r e d the c l o u d of unknowing. They are one.at.the c e n t r e of t h i n g s : they a r e one i n the great, mystery. which hovers over human l i f e and towards .which a l l r e l i g i o n s p o i n t . B e l i e f s t a n d s t o f a i t h as s u p e r s t r u c t u r e t o i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . A b e l i e f i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f f a i t h , , .when, c o n d i t i o n e d by c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n . However,, the, b e l i e f s of s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o n s a l s o l e a d p e o p l e t o the e x p e r i e n c e , of f a i t h , / a n d p r o t e c t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , p r o v i d i n g , i t w i t h a- s o c i a l . and . ' i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e x t . D e s p i t e t h e i r r e f e r e n c e . t o . t h e common, i n n e r l i g h t of f a i t h , J ohnston does, n o t see ; a l l . b e l i e f . systems • as r e l a t i v e . He i s a c o n v i c t e d C h r i s t i a n and maintains. . . C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f as h i s p r i m a r y map of r e a l i t y , a f a c t .which- w i l l become, c l e a r e r i n our d i s c u s s i o n i n the nex t c h a p t e r . - 106 -R. C. Zaehner. once commented -that Zen Buddhism and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m were w e l l s.uitod f o r dialo.gu.e, w i t h one a n o t h e r , because both sought t o be true, t o the .experiences of u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y and d i v e r s i t y i n u n i t y . 4 4 . The m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , which always i n v o l v e s a passage-beyond the; '-'ego-construct" or everyday s e l f t o one's t r u e ground, the core of one's c o n s c i o u s -ness and b e i n g , may .accord.with . e i t h e r the. n o t i o n of " u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y " or of " d i v e r s i t y i n u n i t y " . M y s t i c i s m of the f i r s t type tends t o be m o n i s t i c or n o n - d u a l i s t i c , whereas the second type i s r e l a t i o n a l , or d u a l i s t i c . Z.en. Buddhism. belongs t o the f i r s t t y p e . The o p p o s i t e i s ' t r u e of ' C h r i s t i a n i t y , where theo-l o g i c a l concepts of the' s u p e r n a t u r a l .order and of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God the Fa t h e r . t h r o u g h . C h r i s t , ensure the maintenance of a d u a l i s t i c o u t l o o k . Yet t h i s i s something of an- o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . The Zen e x p e r i e n c e p e r m i t t e d both Johnston- and Merton to broaden and deepen t h e i r a l r e a d y w.ell-developed a p p r e c i a t i on of the a p o p h a t i c t r a d i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m . .By p l a c i n g emphasis on "not-knowing", t h i s type of -mysticism, encourages n o n - d u a l i s t i c types of e x p e r i e n c e . Th.e fundamental. b a s i s ..of a l l human knowledge i s the a c t whereby one.', t h i n g r i s - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , from' another;, l e a d i n g i n i t s p a r a d i g m a t i c form t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t . In a p o p h a t i c mystici.sm '.such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s r e n d e r e d i m p o s s i b l e by v i r t u e of ,the "un-knowing" which i s i t s approach t o r e a l i t y i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the. p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s m e t a p h y s i c i n which t h i s type of experience., i s f o u n d - - i n the case of Zen Buddhism, c l e a r l y n o n - d u a l i s t i c , and. i n the case of C h r i s t i a n i t y , d u a l i s t i c . - 1 07 -I t must- be- mentioned, however, t h a t i n the case of C h r i s t -i a n i t y we do n o t f i n d a. s i m p l y d u a l i s t i e m e t a p h y s i c , as embodied i n the co- e q u a l p r i n c i p l e s of l i g h t and darkness of P e r s i a n Z o r o a s t r i a n i s m . I t i s true, t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y emphasizes man's p o s i t i o n as c r e a t e d b e i n g and as son, and hence h i s d i s t i n c t i o n from the C r e a t o r God and F a t h e r . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n a l s o l e a d s C h r i s t i a n i t y t o m a i n t a i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the " p e r s o n a l i t y " , the uniqueness ' of the i n d i v i d u a l , even i n the s t a t e of s a l v a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , C h r i s t i a n i t y r e c o g n i z e s as i t s l e g i t i m a t e g o a l the p r a y e r of C h r i s t " t h a t they a l l may be one, as You, F a t h e r , a r e i n Me, and I i n You." C l e a r l y t h i s i s a n o n - d u a l i s t i c g o a l emerging from a d u a l i s t i e background'. The s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e of " u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y " and " d i v e r s i t y i n u n i t y " i s g i v e n i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t expres s i on i n t h e ' ' t h e o l o g i c a l n o t i o n of the T r i n i t y , the g r e a t e s t of a l l C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r i e s . We s h a l l a l s o r e t u r n t o t h i s t o p i c . i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c i s m and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Zen "Buddhism both ' Johns ton' and Merton make r e -f e r e n c e t o the c e n t r a l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e . Both'use the a p o p h a t i c t r a d i t i o n of C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m as t h e i r fundamental c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between the ways, i n which these two men use t h a t t r a d i t i o n - a d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h , n o t " s u r p r i s i n g l y , i s the one we e l u c i d a t e d i n the c h a p t e r "Foundation of Human Nat u r e " . Merton and Johnston r e c o g n i z e both..kataphatic and a p o p h a t i c types of m y s t i c i s m i n C h r i s t i a n i t y : m y s t i c i s m o f . a f f i r m a t i o n and of n e g a t i o n . One would t h i n k t h a t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r the l a t t e r t y p e , r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i r study of Zen, would l e a d them t o r.on-• - 1 08 -d u a l i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e and, u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e a l i t y . Indeed, Merton's l i f e and thought do seem/in c r e a s i n g l y t o . have moved i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . In Johns ton ' s ..case, .however, s e n s i t i v i t y t o the n o n - d u a l i s t i c dimension i s matched, by a c o n c e r n . f o r the d u a l i s t i c sense of the w o r l d . H i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Japanese B u d d h i s t s and w i t h , Zen broadened h i s sense of d i f f e r e n c e between C h r i s t i a n i t y and Buddhism. H i s p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l , l i f e . , , as, i t can be under-s t o o d from h i s w r i t i n g s , l i k e w i s e , r e t u r n s - a g a i n , and a g a i n t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e of r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God the F a t h e r , an e x p e r i e n c e of d u a l i s t i c t y p e . Even h i s s t r e s s upon the two dimensions of " u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y " and " d i v e r s i t y ' i n u n i t y " c o n t a i n s an i m p l i c i t d u a l i s m . And the f a c t of d u a l i s m p r o v i d e s one of the c e n t r a l p o i n t s t o which Johnston turns, i n o r d e r t o e l u c i d a t e h i s "sense" t h a t the t r a d i t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t . In one of h i s c l e a r e s t expres-s i o n s of h i s p o s i t i o n , Johnston•wrote i n The M i r r o r Mind: I have p o i n t e d t o C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t may be u n d e r s t o o d more;;prof oundly ,in the l i g h t of B u d d h i s t p r a c t i c e . . But 1:. do n o t -wish t o make the u n f o r g i v a b l e e r r o r of c l a i m i n g t h a t B u d d h i s t s arid C h r i s t i a n s are " s a y i n g the same t h i n g " , f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s . a r e o b v i o u s . The c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e , i t seems t o me,, i s t h a t in. the H e b r e w - G h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n the t r u e s e l f - i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t i o n a l . I f i n d my t r u e s e l f by g o i n g beyond t h i s t r u e s e l f t o the other.. I f my t r u e s e l f i s a m i r r o r , t h i s m i r r o r , r e f l e c t s , a f a c e o t h e r than my own -y e t t h i s f a c e becomes :mine i n .a r e m a r k a b l e way. For what un i o n could.be c l o s e r than t h a t of the pure m i r r o r and the o b j e c t i t r e f l e c t s ? In s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n I become one .with God j u s t as, the o b j e c t i s one.with the..mirror and j u s t as .Jesus i s one w i t h h i s. F a t h e r . : And, y e t .(paradox of. paradoxes) I. car. c r y out t o the God with, whom I am one; I c a n , c r y out, as Jesus c r i e d out, "Abba, F a t h e r ! " 4 Merton a l s o d e c l a i m s those who f i n d .a too easy s i m i l a r i t y between the two t r a d i t i o n s . He w r i t e s : - 1 09 -I t must c e r t a i n l y be s a i d . t h a t a c e r t a i n type of c o n c o r d i s t thought.. today, too. e a s i l y assumes as a b a s i c dogma that- '. the. my s t i e s ' i n a l l r e l i g i o n s a r e a l l . e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e same t h i n g and are a l l a l i k e i n t h e i r . l i b e r a t i o n from the v a r i o u s d o c t r i n e s and e x p l a n a t i o n s and. creeds of t h e i r l e s s f o r t u n a t e c©-religionists. A c o u p l e of r e f l e c t i o n s may be made on. Merton's remark. F i r s t of a l l , Merton's always . c a r e f u l • w o r d i n g , deserves a t t e n t i o n . What he i s condemning i s not- the -notion tha-t the e x p e r i e n c e s of the m y s t i c s a r e a l l the same but -the t o o - e a s y • a s s u m p t i o n of t h i s n o t i o n as a b a s i c dogma. Merton was c r i t i c a l of p e o p l e who a c c e p t e d d o c t r i n e of any k i n d too s u p e r f i c i a l l y or too e a s i l y . The d o c t r i n e of r e v e l a t i o n , , f o r example, so fundamental t o the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , had t o be a s s i m i l a t e d ..as--an " e x p e r i e n c e " and no t merely a c r e d a l s t a t e m e n t . Merton was no l e s s s e n s i t i v e and a s t u t e i n h i s approach t o oth e r r e l i g i o u s • t r a d i t i o n s than he was i n d e a l i n g w i t h h i s own. Furthermore,- he was aware of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o " v a r i o u s d o c t r i n e s and e x p l a n a t i o n s and c r e e d s " and of the d i f f i c u l t y of t r u e l i b e r a t i o n from- t h e s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n c o n t r a s t t o Jo h n s t o n , Merton was f a r more i n c l i n e d t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t s i m i l a r i t y between.the t r a d i t i o n s d i d e x i s t and t h a t the d o c t r i n e s , e x p l a n a t i o n s and .creeds were l e s s i m p o r t a n t than was o f t e n thought. U l t i m a t e l y , f o r both Merton,. and.. Johns t o n , the t r u l y i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was the phenomenon of - r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . C a p t i v a t e d by what they had f o u n d i n Zen Buddhism and aware of i t s u n f l i n c h i n g concern w i t h d i r e c t , e x p e r i e n c e ..they • were l e d -to r e f l e c t f u r t h e r on the r o l e of e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h e i r own C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . While both men warned, a g a i n s t e x p e r i e n c e . f o r - the sake of' e x p e r i e n c e -- 110 -and e s p e c i a l l y warned a g a i n s t the .seeking of . " s p e c i a l " or u n u s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s - both agreed ..that the touchstone... of - a l l t r u e s p i r i t -u a l i t y was the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i n n e r l i f e . Both gave t e s t i m o n y t o t h i s n o t o n ly i n t h e i r , w r i t i n g and t e a c h i n g but e s p e c i a l l y i n the example.of t h e i r own l i v i n g . In the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , I have e x p l o r e d the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i -ence of both Merton and J o h n s t o n wi.th. Zen and' n o t e d some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between these e x p e r i e n c e s . ..Above a-11 these- stands the f a c t t h a t most of Merton's e x p e r i e n c e took .place i n a w e s t e r n c l o i s e r w h i l e most of Johnston's o c c u r e d amidst h i s a c t i v e l i f e i n Japan's l a r g e s t c i t y . We cannot say. c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t i t was t h i s d i f f e r e n c e which l e d t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t views on the n a t u r e of e x p e r i e n c e i n Zen and C h r i s t i a n i t y . What i s c l e a r , however, i s : ; t h a t J ohnston m a i n t a i n s h i s "sense" t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e r i e n c e of ..the Zen monk and- t h a t of the C h r i s t i a n , whereas Merton seems f a r more deeply c o n v i n c e d of t h e i r fundamental s i m i l a r i t y . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l c a r r y t h i s argument one s t e p f u r t h e r , examining how the two men .understand .the r e l a t i o n s h i p • between e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n i n the two t r a d i t i o n s . We w i l l a l s o have o c c a s i o n t h e r e t o l o o k b r i e f l y , a t some C h r i s t i a n theo-l o g i c a l i s s u e s which a r e d i s c u s s e d by both .men i n t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s on Zen. T h i s w i l l l e a d us i n t o the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r where I w i l l examine the e p i s t e m o l o g i e s . u n d e r l y i n g ' the approaches t o d i a l o g u e d e v e l o p e d by the two men. - 111: -' T h e o l o g i c a l R ef 1 e c.ti on s In the l a s t c h a p t e r I examined.that dimension of the i n t e r -r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e where both Johnston and Merton t e l l us the two t r a d i t i o n s we a r e d i s c u s s i n g seem- t o have most i n common. Yet even i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s about',that dimension,, the dimension of s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f , - I have observed a d i f f e r e n c e of approach and a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of the two men. Merton i s i n c l i n e d t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t fundamental e x p e r i e n c e s i n the two t r a d i t i o n s a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t whereas Johnston, i n s i s t s t h a t they a r e . Merton has chosen t o f o c u s on the non-dualism of Zen Buddhism, so consonant w i t h h i s own p r e f e r r e d approach t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , and on the monastic p r a c t i c e s of p o v e r t y , s o l i t u d e and emptiness t h a t a r e i t s p r a c t i c a l c o r r e l a t e s . J o h n s t o n , by c o n t r a s t , e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e s of the two t r a d i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r , i n d e e d t h a t they must be d i f f e r e n t , s i n c e the r e l i g i o u s frameworks ,in which they a r e s i t u a t e d are d i f f e r e n t . In The S t i l l P o i n t he t e l l s u s: In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , C h r i s t i a n s and B u d d h i s t s agree t h a t m e d i t a t i o n i s not t o t a l l y d i v o r c e d from one's p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e . Even,though i t i s sometimes s a i d t h a t " I t doesn't matter what you b e l i e v e : j u s t s i t ! " one must s i t ( I w i l l b e . f o r g i v e n f o r r e p e a t i n g i t ) on a p h i l o s o p h y . of l i f e . .One,., of c o u r s e , i s detached from the words and concepts and. images i n which t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s couched; but i t i s there. ... The C h r i s t i a n c o n t e m p l a t i v e and. the Zen monk have each h i s own p h i l o s o p h y : they s i t on d i f f e r e n t z a b u t o n s . Both men do r e c o g n i z e , i m p l i c i t l y i f n o t always e x p l i c i t l y , - 112 -a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e o l o g y and .experience, i n the C h r i s t i a n framework. N e i t h e r man i s an. o r i g i n a l t h e o l o g i a n a n d . n e i t h e r c l a i m s t o be one. Both share, the commonly h e l d , t r a d i t i on of C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y t h a t has developed o v e r . t h e c e n t u r i e s and t h a t has the s u p p o r t of the church b e h i n d i t . Both .men were t r a i n e d i n conser-v a t i v e o r d e r s . However, both cam.e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the m y s t i c a l approach t o C a t h o l i c . t h e o l o g y , no doubt a t l e a s t i n p a r t on the b a s i s of t h e i r own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a n d . i n t e r e s t s . Both men are concerned w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r , r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e r i e n c e and t h e o l o g y t h a t i s encouraged.by C a t h o l i c m y s t i c i s m , and both men take t h i s concern i n t o t h e i r s t u d i e s of Zen Buddhism. Th i s d i s t i n c t i o n which both men- draw between t h e o l o g y and e x p e r i e n c e , and the c o n n e c t i o n which they a l s o seek t o e s t a b l i s h between the two, can be d i s c u s s e d i n the more g e n e r a l i z e d terms of " e x p r e s s i o n " and " e x p e r i e n c e " . T h i s second f o r m u l a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h -Zen, where we can a l s o speak of " e x p e r i e n c e " and " e x p r e s s i o n " even i f we cannot speak of "mysticism", or of theology, i n the s t r i c t sense. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the ways the two t r a d i t i o n s c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between ."experience", and " e x p r e s s i o n " proved t o be an impor-t a n t s u b j e c t of r e f l e c t i o n f o r both men. The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i ' l l l o o k a.t t h i s i s s u e . While s t r i v i n g t o be f a i r t o both men, I do ..believe .that. I gave the edge t o Merton i n my d i s c u s s i o n s of. " e x p e r i e n c e " i n the l a s t c h a p t e r . This was i n k e e p i n g w i t h my r e a d i n g of the thought of the two men; "experience"' r e c e i v e s more emphasis i n Merton's thought than i n J o h n s t o n ' s . In t h i s c h a p t e r , , t h e emphasi s : wi-11 be r e v e r s e d . I t i s i n the thought of Johnston t h a t we f i n d the more e l a b o r a t e d - 113 -t h e o l o g i c a l framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e . I t i s t h i s framework, i n f a c t , ..which, makes, d i a l o g u e a r e q u i r e m e n t i n Johnston's: thought as I b e l i e v e . i t - . i s n o t a r e q u i r e m e n t i n Merton's, however much i t may have been a v i t a l c oncern i n h i s own s p i r i t u a l development. • Johnston.has a g r e a t d e a l t o say about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e r i e n c e and. e x p r e s s i o n . i n r e l i g i o n , , e m p h a s i z i n g the r o l e of the l a t t e r i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l l o o k a t t h a t m a t e r i a l as w e l l as n o t i n g the p a r t p l a y e d i n w o r l d s p i r i t u -a l i t y by the s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n concepts whi.ch i n f o r m Johnston's l i f e . L a t e r the fu n d a m e n t a l l y , human t r a i t s which Johnston b e l i e v e s w i l l l e a d us t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n , of the truth', • b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n C h r i s t i a n terms, w i l l be examined. Of. course., I w i l l a l s o e x p l o r e Merton's w r i t i n g about these m a t t e r s , n o t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between h i s views and those o f J o h n s t o n . I w i l l c o nclude the c h a p t e r by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the T r i n i t y i n the thought of both men. In one of h i s books, W i l l i a m Johnston n o t e s the d i s t i n c t i o n between " m y s t i c i s m " (the e x p e r i e n c e ) and " m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y " (the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or r e f l e c t i o n on the experience.) which he says i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n i i a l . f o r u s , t o make today. Johnston does n o t h o l d w i t h t h o s e who c l a i m t h a t o n l y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s i m p o r t a n t . He does admit t h a t m y s t i c a l . e x p e r i e n c e i s the " b a s i c t h i n g " and t h a t a l l e f f o r t s t o f o r m u l a t e .it..are t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e s i n c e i t i s i n e f f a b l e . - A t . the same, time he t e l l s u s: We need, t o . i n t e r p r e t my.stical • e x p e r i e n c e and t o f i n d i t s meaning. We need t o d i s t i n g u i s h the., a u t h e n t i c from the i n a u t h e n t i c . Then t h e r e i s - 114 -the p r a c t i c a l need t o g u i d e people., t o p r o t e c t them from mis takes,.-'from, i l l n e s s ,. -from i l l u s i o n -t o h e l p them u n d e r s t a n d wha.t. i s happening i n t h e i r l i v e s and.save them.from unnecessary s u f f e r i n g . In one sense, the r o l e of t h e o l o g y , from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , has been to I n t e r p r e t . s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y i t has been the r e f l e c t i o n of r e a s o n on.-matters • of f a i t h : the matter of God and grace and Jesus.. C h r i s t , and the. T r i n i t y . When r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e has a r i s e n i t has-:been .understood, w i t h i n the frame-work of the t h e o l o g i c a l systems. .Hence those systems have been a b l e t o s e r v e as a s a f e g u a r d .of orthodoxy., as\a measure a g a i n s t which i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d be .evaluated.: Since such theo-l o g i c a l systems d i d e x i s t , and s i n c e they were e n s h r i n e d w i t h i n the a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of' the church' o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t was p o s s i b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s whose e x p e r i e n c e l e d . them t o hete r o d o x i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o be condemned.. C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y c o n t a i n e d the s p i r i t u a l wisdom of gener-a t i o n s . By and l a r g e , i t s e r v e d t o p r o t e c t - i n d i v i d u a l s and t o g i v e them a s p i r i t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r l i v e s . I t o f f e r e d a framework w i t h i n : which they c o u l d make .sense, of t h e d e t a i l s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e existence.. F o r t h o s e s o u l s who i n c l i n e d towards, the m y s . t i c a l . i t of f e r e d . t o u c h s t o n e s whereby t h e i r e n t i r e i n n e r l i v e s c o u l d .be, .transformed.. In a d d i t i o n i t o f f e r e d m a t t e r . f o r r a t i o n a l .speculation,, which, s t i m u l a t e d s p i r i t u a l growth. J o h n s t o n b e l i e v e s t h a t theo.logy. ..presents, a n e c e s s a r y c o n t e x t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o develop t h e i r s . p i r i t u a l . l i v e s . - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . T h e . r a t i o n a l . f a c u l t i e s have a r o l e i n the human s p i r i t u a l l i f e . A d m i t t e d l y , such e v a l u a t i o n as t h e o l o g y p r o v i d e s - 115. -w i l l always b e • i n a d e q u a t e . t o eapture t h e . f u l l impact of t r u l y s p i r i t u a l experience. -. and w i t h o u t .the e x p e r i e n c e i t w i l l be l i t t l e more than a form of words - b u t i t does p r o v i d e an essen-t i a l component of mature s p i r i t u a l : , l i f e . .And ..Johns t o n , perhaps as a r e s u l t of h i s t r a i n i n g as;a- J e s u i t , n e v e r . n e g l e c t s t h i s f a c t . An emphasis on t h e o l o g y i n - C h r i s t i a n , s p i r i t u a l l i f e can a l s o be f o u n d i n Thomas Merton'. But. i n c r e a s i n g l y h i s w r i t i n g s t r e s s e s e x p e r i e n c e over i n t e r . p r . e t a t i o n - i n c o n t r a s t t o J o h n s t o n , who wants to use both but-who sometimes g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t , i n a c r u n c h , he would choose 1 t h e o l o g y over; e x p e r i e n c e , the a u t h o r i t y of t r a d i t i o n , and the. .wisdom of community over the demands of h i s own i n n e r awareness. ' • One of Merton's s t r o n g e s t . statements on t h e . p l a c e of "theo-l o g y " or " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " - can- be-found' i n h i s passage i n which he c o n t r a s t s C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen: I t cannot be r e p e a t e d ..too.- often:, in..understanding Buddhism i t would be a'-.great-mistake t o , c o n c e n t r a t e on the "doctrine":,., the f o r m u l a t e d , p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e , and t o n e g l e c t ,the e x p e r i e n c e , which i s e s s e n t i a l , the v e r y h e a r t -©f Buddhism. T h i s . i s i n a sense-the very, o p p o s i t e of .the s i t u a t i o n i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . For G h r i s t i a n i t y . . b e g i n s w i t h r e v e l a t i o n . Though i t would be m i s l e a d i n g t o c l a s s i f y t h i s r e v e l a t i o n s i m p l y as a . " d o c t r i n e " and an . " e x p l a n a t i o n " ( i t i s f a r more than that, - . t h e , r e v e l a t i o n of G od H i m s e l f i n the mystery o f .Christ.), i t . i s n e v e r t h e l e s s communi cated... to. us in'.words ,. i n . s t a t e m e n t s , and every-t h i n g depends on t h e . . b e l i e v e r ' s. a c c e p t i n g the t r u t h of these, s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s study i s c o n c e r n e d . w i t h , C h r i s t i a n i t y r a t h e r than w i t h Zen. At. t h i s p o i n t , .however , ' . i t ' . i s important., to. i n t r o d u c e a r e -f l e c t i o n on the matter ©f .Zen which'bears on.the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of - 116 -C a t h o l i c i s m which .Johns.ton. and Merton. developed i n l i g h t of t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h Zen. ,It. i s . w e l l known that. • Zen-- has l i t t l e t r u c k w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n s , .with "words .and l e t t e r s " " ' , with, the use of reason to a c h i e v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t sees .these as downright m i s l e a d i n g . Yet i t s h o u l d n o t be thought t h a t t h e r e i s no . " p h i l o s o p h y " i n Zen. Both J o h n s t o n and Merton r e c o g n i z e that- t h e r e i s . In an e a r l y work, C h r i s t l a n Zen, Johnston w r o t e : One becomes detached i n . o r d e r t h a t something e l s e may s h i n e f o r t h . In the. Buddhist, . t h i s i s h i s Buddha n a t u r e . F o r , c o n t r a r y t o what i s o f t e n s a i d , t r u e Zen i s based on a v e r y . g r e a t f a i t h ' - f a i t h i n the presence of the Buddha n a t u r e i n the deepest r e c e s s e s of the p e r s o n a l i t y . ; ' f a i t h t h a t , as the Four Noble Truths p o i n t out, t h e r e i s a -way out of the morass of s u f f e r i n g and t h a t , man can. be t r a n s f o r m e d through e n l i g h t e n m e n t . In the c h a p t e r on e x p e r i e n c e we n o t e d .that J o h n s t o n r e f e r e d to f a i t h as a " f o r m l e s s i n n e r l i g h t " . . E l s e w h e r e he suggests t h a t i t can take o t h e r forms, however, and that, t h i s I s merely one of i t s a c o n c e p t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n s . ^ He r e c o g n i z e s as c e n t r a l t o Zen the f a i t h t h a t t h e r e i s a Buddha Nature, a f a i t h w h i ch, i n l i n e w i t h h i s s p e c i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , of r e l i g i o n as, f o c u s i n g on i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , Johnston, u n d e r s t a n d s as the core of Buddhism. Other c o n c e p t i o n s and -ideas... and p h i l o s o p h i e s ,and images can be f o u n d i n Buddhism. - even i n . i t s . most i c o n o c l a s t i c Zen form. J o h n s t o n would d i s t i n g u i s h . these, from , the .more ba,sic " f a i t h " and c l a s s i f y them as b e l i e f s . . In. Johnston'.s , way of • s e e i n g t h i n g s both f a i t h , and b e l i e f , a re n e c e s s a r y -. they go hand, i n hand, s u p p o r t i n g and g i v i n g - meaning to one a n o t h e r . He f r e q u e n t l y emphasizes f a i t h , however, as e s s e n t i a l t o a l l p r o g r e s s i n the - 117 -s p i r i t u a l l i f e . He makes i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t - i n s p i t e of what might sometimes be. s a i d - .Zen does, have'a "very g r e a t f a i t h " . No p r o g r e s s i s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t i t : You can't.go on d e t a c h i n g . y o u r s e l f i n d e f i n i t e l y i n the hope, t h a t something, .may or may n o t t u r n up i n s i d e . 'One may of course b e g i n m e d i t a t i o n , w i t h o u t such f a i t h , , and many of the pe o p l e who come t o our p l a c e i n Tokyo do j u s t t h a t , but the time comes when f a i t h i s n e c e s s a r y , and w i t h o u t i t no one goes through t o the end. I t i s not p r e c i s e l y c l e a r from Johnston's work j u s t why he c o n s i d e r s t h i s f a i t h so e s s e n t i a l . Perhaps he t h i n k s i t p r o v i d e s a f o c u s t o m a i n t a i n o r i e n t a t i o n f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h o u t the more d i f f i c u l t and dark s t a g e s of s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Perhaps i t p r o v i d e s a sense .of t h e r e b e i n g a r e a l g o a l , a p o s i t i v e , d e f i n i t e and f i n a l . end..Perhaps i t i s t o s i t u a t e the i n d i v i d u a l i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n which w i l l p r e p a r e him f o r the r e c e p t i o n of g r a c e , though, of c o u r s e , the Zen u n d e r s t a n d i n g does n o t e n t e r t a i n t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . In any event J o h n s t o n i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t both " e x p e r i e n c e " and " e x p r e s s i o n " a re t o be found i n Zen. Merton a l s o n o t i c e s . t h i s . He w r i t e s : Zen i m p l i e s a b r e a k t h r o u g h , an e x p l o s i v e l i b e r a t i o n from o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l conformism, a r e c o v e r y , o f u n i t y which i s not the s u p p r e s s i o n of o p p o s i t e s but. a s i m p l i c i t y beyond o p p o s i t e s . To e x i s t and. f u n c t i o n ' i n the .world of o p p o s i t e s w h i l e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h a t . world, i n terms of p r i m a l s i m p l i c i t y does i m p l y . i f n o t a., f o r m a l m e t a p h y s i c , a t l e a s t , - a ground of m e t a p h y s i c a l i n t u i t i o n . T h i s means a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e from t h a t which dominates- our. s o c i e t y and enables i t to dominate us. - 118 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between word, and . s i l e n c e i n the Zen t r a d i t i o n grows out of the .Zen e x p e r i e n c e . a n d t h e . n o n - d u a l i s t i c m e taphysic which u n d e r l i e s i t . As Merton e x p r e s s e s i t , the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n b e g i n s with- r e v e l a t i o n and c o n t i n u a l l y seeks to come t o terms w i t h . t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d u a l i t y i n v o l v e d i n the meeting of the n a t u r a l and t h e ' s u p e r n a t u r a l , the meeting of man and God. The C h r i s t i a n i s concerned w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e v e l a t i o n of God i n human h i s t o r y and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h a t r e v e l a t i o n f o r h i s own l i f e . R e v e l a t i o n p r o v i d e s , him with, t h a t framework whereby he can g i v e meaning to- h i s l i f e . In l a r g e p a r t , the C h r i s t i a n seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d r e v e l a t i o n through the study of the word - through r e a d i n g the s c r i p t u r e .and through r e f l e c t i o n on t h a t r e a d i n g . Modern C h r i s t i a n s a r e ' d i v i d e d between those who t a k e more " l i b e r a l " approaches (which -make much use of the a p p a r a t u s of modern s c h o l a r s h i p ) , and-those who t a k e the s o - c a l l e d l i t e r a l a p p roach. Merton suggests an approach t o s c r i p t u r e , which i s consonant w i t h h i s approach t o r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i s the approach which u n d e r s t a n d s r e v e l a t i o n not merely.as. "tex.t" but as event. F u r t h e r m o r e , as event i t t a k e s p l a c e n o t only i n the framework of h i s t o r y but a l s o and mos-t i m p o r t a n t l y i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l . In n o t i n g t h a t r e v e l a . t i o n . i s . fundamentally, an e x p e r i e n c e , Merton f a c e s s q u a r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each, i n d i v i d u a l t o take a s t a n d on t h i s matter - and ,to. a l low, him.se.lf to.be t r a n s f o r m e d by i t . T h i s c h a l l e n g e I s e s p e c i a l l y .acute . i n -a,.world t h a t exposes i n d i v i d u a l s t o more than, one r e v e l a t i o n , each., c l a i m i n g u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f o r i t s e l f . - 119 -The e x p e r i e n t i a l approach t o , s c r i p t u r e i s not, ne.w. Johnston t a k e s some time through, h i s , w r i t i n g s to,speak, about the r o l e of " m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y " i n . medieval. C h r i s t i a n i t y . Theology, though i t had an a b s t r a c t , . r a t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e , was a l s o t o be u n d e r s t o o d through , t h e . . i n . t u i t i ©n ,. through c o n t e m p l a t i o n . The g r e a t t r u t h s o f the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h were n o t merely t o be a p p r o p r i a t e d through i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding. - as one might u n d e r s t a n d any e x t e r n a l event of h i s t o r y - b u t : w e r e t o be f e l t i n the i n n e r m o s t core of the. s o u l ; In. The Inner Eye of Love Johnston w r i t e s about some of the g i a n t s of m y s t i c a l s p i r i t u a l i t y i n the C h r i s t i a n framework. He n o t e d : T h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e s " , ' even when they were a p o l o g e t i c i n n a t u r e , were c a l c u l a t e d t o l e a d the r e a d e r t o a r e l i s h i n g ' of the g r e a t m y s t e r i e s of f a i t h ... The experience', o f the T r i n i t y was very r e a l f o r Thomas .(as i t h a s been-very r e a l f o r a l l the C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c s ) but a sad s i t u a t i o n was c r e a t e d some c e n t u r i e s a f t e r - . h i s death when u n e n l i g h t e n e d s c h o l a s t i c s , repeated, h i s T r i n i t a r i a n words w i t h o u t e n j o y i n g h i s T r i n i t a r i a n m y s t i c i s m . They gra s p e d the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n but not the e n l i g h t e n m e n t which - i n s p i r e d i t . I t was not. merely, an a b s t r a c t n o t i o n , t h a t the s o u l was made i n the image and . l i k e n e s s of .God.. .Through s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n the C h r i s t i a n came t o r e a l i z e , i n . . p e r s o n a l l i f e , i n i n n e r and ou t e r experience., p r e c i s e l y , t h i s t r u t h . Today,. however, t h e r e i s s t i l l a tendency t o d i v o r c e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f , from C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e , • a d i v o r c e , w h i c h . J o h n s t o n h i m s e l f d e c r i e s . "A t h e o l o g y which i s d i v o r c e d from, the i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e , of ;the . t h e o l o g i a n i s - 120 -1 0 a r i d and c a r r i e s no c o n v i c t i o n . " P a r t of h i s i n t e r e s t i n Bud-dhism has been the concern, to f i n d . ways, to renew s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a C h r i s t i a n framework. S i n c e the modern w o r l d - as R. D. L a i n g has f o r c e f u l l y t o l d us - no l o n g e r even b e l i e v e s i n the e x i s t e n c e of the s o u l , l e t a l o n e seeks e x p e r i e n c e of i t - i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y , as a r e l i g i o n . i n the modern w o r l d , s h o u l d very l a r g e l y h a n d l e i t s concerns w i t h the " i n n e r man" t h rough e x t e r n a l c o n f o r m i t y and the hope of " s p i r i t u a l l i f e " i n the h e r e a f t e r . Much c r i t i c i s m has been l e v e l e d a g a i n s t those who do h o l d and " e x p e r i -e n t i a l " approach t o C h r i s t i a n i t y by f e l l o w C h r i s t i a n s who want t o s t i c k t o the "word". On t h i s b a s i s H e i l e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d e a s t e r n from w e s t e r n r e l i g i o n - n o t i n g t h a t the former was " m y s t i c a l " and 12 the l a t t e r " p r o p h e t i c " . While t h e r e are few who would say t h a t " e x p e r i e n c e " i s t o t a l l y f r e e of . c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e - or t h a t i t s h o u l d be - t h e r e a r e perhaps even fewer who r e a l i z e t h a t the "acceptance of r e v e l a t i o n " i s i t s e l f an e x p e r i e n c e . Even i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o l o g y Merton r e t u r n s to the c e n t r a l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e . C h r i s t i a n i t y which n e g l e c t s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s d e s t r u c t i v e - or a t l e a s t f a i l s t o l i v e up t o i t s own t r u t h . Without genuine inner, e x p e r i e n c e , the C h r i s t i a n l i f e becomes not. so much a. l i v i n g t h e o l o g i c a l . ex.perience of the p r e s e n c e of God.in, the w o r l d and i n mankind through the mystery of - C h r i s t , , but. r a t h e r a,..sense of s e c u r i t y i n one's own c o r r e c t n e s s : a . f e e l i n g . o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t one has been saved, a c o n f i d e n c e which i s based on the . r e f l e x awareness t h a t one h o l d s the c o r r e c t view of-the- c r e a t i o n and purpose of the w o r l d and t h a t one's .behaviour i s of a - k i n d t o be r e w a r d e d . i n the n e x t l i f e . Or., p e r h a p s , s i n c e few, can a t t a i n t h i s l e v e l of s e l f -a s s u r a n c e , then the C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e becomes one - 1.21 -of a n x i o u s hope - a s t r u g g l e w i t h o c c a s i o n a l doubt of the '.right answers'., a p a i n f u l and c o n s t a n t e f f o r t t o meet the s e v e r e .-demands of m o r a l i t y and law, and a somewhat d e s p e r a t e .-recourse t o the sacraments, which are t h e r e to' h e l p the weak who must c o n s t a n t l y f a i l and', r i s e a g a i n . • • T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e a n d . p e r h a p s . i t need.not.be the case. By and l a r g e , n e i t h e r Merton nor Johns ton. t h i n k s t h a t .the m y s t i c a l or e x p e r i e n t i a l approach t o r e l i g i o n needs to be r e s t r i c t e d t o a s p e c i a l c l a s s of p e o p l e . A l l humans are' c a l l e d to. i t . There are i n d i c a t i o n s today - of which the work of Johnston .and Merton i s one - t h a t the imbalance i s f i n a l l y - - b e i n g redre.ssed. • In Merton's o p i n i o n two types of C a t h o l i c i s m • c a n be i d e n t i f i e d , - and the l a t t e r t y p e , which comes c l o s e r , t o Zen, i s ' a c t u a l l y c l o s e r t o the h e a r t of the r e l i g i o n . In Zen and the B i r d s o f ? A p p e t i t e Merton r e f l e c t s : T h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a s , j u r i d i c a l o r d e r and r i t u a l e x a c t i t u d e has o f t e n made pe o p l e f o r g e t t h a t the h e a r t of. C a t h o l i c i s m , t o o , i s a l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e , of -unity.-.in C h r i s t which f a r t r a n s c e n d s a l l c o n c e p t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n s . What too o f t e n has been o v e r l o o k e d , •;. i n : consequence, i s t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m i s the t a s t e •'and.'..experiene.e. of e t e r n a l l i f e . 7 4 S e v e r a l t h i n g s have been a t t e m p t e d t o t h i s p o i n t . By c o n s i d e r i n g t h e o l o g y as an "expression"- of some . r e a l i t y . - e i t h e r o f ' t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d or of the i n n e r , , s u b j e c t i v e .world (both, of which a r e a v a i l -a b l e t o us i n our everyday experience-,), - we are able' t o l o o k a t i t i n a way whi eh. a l l o w s , f o r com pari, son w i t h Zen....For Zen a l s o has an "order of e x p r e s s i o n " ..- Both •. Merton. .and Johnston- r e c o g n i z e t h a t n o t o n l y C h r i s t i a n i t y but a l s o Zen has an u n d e r l y i n g m e t a p h y s i c . T h i s i s sometimes u n d e r p l a y e d by. w r i t e r s about, the-. Zen t r a d i t i o n - 122 -but such r e c e n t works as T o s h i h i k o Izutsu'.s ,Towards a P h i l o s o p h y of  Zen Buddhism make i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . In any e.vent, n e i t h e r Merton nor Johnston i g n o r e s t h i s m e t a p h y s i c . C h r i s t i a n i t y , however,.has developed i n a c u l t u r e w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d d u a l i t y - i n n e r and o u t e r , , s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e -whereas Zen has always. emphasized a, " u n i t y beyond o p p o s i t e s " , t o borrow Merton's phrase.' The " u n i t y beyond, o p p o s i t e s " has a l s o had a. p l a c e i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . The Western.mind, however, has emphasized the d u a l i t y , the d i s t i n c t i o n , and has used the laws of l o g i c t o m a i n t a i n t h i s d u a l i t y . When Western s p i r i t u a l i t y has e l i c i t e d the sense of n o n d u a l i t y i t has o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y s u s p e c t as i n the n o t a b l e case, of. E c k h a r t '-s s p i r i t u a l i t y . In C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e n , we have a r a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n and a d u a l i s t i c metaphysic p l a y i n g key r o l e s , i n the development of s p i r i t u a l i t y . By c o n t r a s t , . Zen has opposed the o p e r a t i o n s of d i s -c u r s i v e thought and has developed : i n the framework of a nondual me t a p h y s i c . Merton's p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l i t y , w i t h i t s r o o t s deep i n C h r i s t i a n a p o p h a t i c m y s t i c i s m , f i n d s , an a f f i n i t y i n Zen. As " r e l i -g i o u s systems" he t e l l s us t h a t he c o n s i d e r s Zen Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y as d i f f e r e n t as t e n n i s and mathematics: C h r i s t i a n i t y seeks " t h e o l o g i c a l s a l v a t i o n " . , Buddhism . " m o t a p h y s i c a l . e n l i g h t e n -15 merit". Yet one always has the sense t h a t Merton was f a r more s t r u c k and c o n v i n c e d by the s i m i l a r i t i e s than he was by the d i f f e r -ences between the two..By r e f e r r i n g even h i s C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y t o " s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e " , and v i e w i n g the t h e o l o g y as l e s s than cen-t r a l t o the s p i r i t u a l l i f e , he i s a b l e t o f i n d t h a t C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o -gy may n o t be such an un b r e a c h a b l e b a r r i e r between the two t r a d i -, . . 1 6 t i o n s . In an i m p o r t a n t r e c e n t s t u d y , Thomas Merton's Dark P a t h : The - 123 -Inner E x p e r i e n c e of .a C on t ernpi a t i v o .(.which c o n t a i n s e x c e r p t s from an unpublished. Merton. m a n u s c r i p t ) , ..William .Shannon comments on a change i n . M e r t o n ' s use of t h e o l o g y i n h i s v a r i o u s w r i t i n g s on c o n t e m p l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g , t o Shannon-, Merton's 1948 p u b l i c a t i o n , What i s Contemplation?, was l i k e , "any s t a n d a r d manual of s p i r i t u a l or m y s t i c a l t h e o l o g y " : I t i s an e s s e n t i a l i s t approach t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n , d e f i n i n g i t i n terms of the c a l l t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n baptism and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t i n t o i n f u s e d c o n t e m p l a t i o n and a c t i v e c o n t e m p l a t i o n , the f o r m e r a l o n e b e i n g - c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n the s t r i c t sense. Shannon compares t h i s w i t h h i s l a t e r work, New. Seeds of Contemp-l a t i o n , which d e s c r i b e s . c o n t e m p l a t i o n - - " i n such-a way t h a t much of what he says c o u l d be understood•and a c c e p t e d by people b e l o n g i n g 1 8 t o o t h e r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s " . • L a t e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n B i r d s of  A p p e t i t e , Merton shows t h a t . h e i s a b l e .to a p p r o p r i a t e n o t only the v o c a b u l a r y but a l s o the.; e x p e r i e n c e of Zen. C e r t a i n l y a c e n t r a l p a r t of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e was an awareness o f the inadequacy of a l l t h e o l o g i c a l systems, even of the n e c e s s i t y of u s i n g "God-language" a t a l l . H i s p u b l i s h e d works never q u i t e r e a c h a c o n s i s t e n t w i l l i n g n e s s t o throw the whole of the t h e o l o g i c a l , e n t e r p r i s e over-board, but one cannot h e l p . b u t note t h e . i n c r e a s i n g detachment Merton found v i s - a - v i s t h i s a s p e c t of. C h r i s t i a n i t y , even when he p r o v i d e s us w i t h statements a b o u t i t s i m p o r t a n c e . In a l e t t e r t o E r i c h . Fromm, Merton d e s c r i b e d .a, c o n v e r s a t i o n he had w i t h Ivan l l l i c h . H i s . r e m a r k s i n • t h e . l e t t e r i n d i c a t e the l i n e Merton's t h i n k i n g was t a k i n g on.the- matter of t h e o l o g y : - 124 -We had some d i s c u s s i o n s on the q u e s t i o n of a n o n - t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . The p o i n t I was t r y i n g t o convey was t h a t r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n the J e w i s h , C h r i s t i a n , Zen Bud-d h i s t , or i n a g e n e r a l m y s t i c a l human way, i s an e x p e r i e n c e which may n o t be d i f f e r e n t as a human e x p e r i e n c e i n the case of a t h e i s t or a n o n b e l i e v e r . I am not denying the s i g n i f i c a n c e of v a r i o u s c o n c e p t u a l frames of r e f e r e n c e , but I do b e l i e v e t h a t when, i t comes down t o the phenomenon of the r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f , the t h e o l o g i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e i s n o t as c r u c i a l as i t may appear t o be. I have argued t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y m a i n t a i n e d a sense of d u a l i t y which was g i v e n r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y and t h a t , even when m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e or.even the deep e x p e r i e n c e of everyday l i f e was c o n t r a r y t o t h i s , t h a t sense of d u a l i t y was m a i n t a i n e d . The d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t c o u l d be found e s p e c i a l l y i n the r a d i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t was drawn between the o r d e r s of the n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l and a l s o t h a t between mind and body, i n n e r and o u t e r was a l l p e r v a s i v e . One c o u l d even f i n d t r a c e s of the Manichean d i s t i n c t i o n between "good" and " e v i l " ( p e r s o n i f i e d i n God and the D e v i l ) , a l t h o u g h t h i s had t o be tempered by the A u g u s t i n i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of " e v i l " as.a p r i v a t i o b o n i . Merton never e n t i r e l y escaped the t h e o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n w hich gave e x p r e s s i o n t o t h i s d u a l i t y . He p a s s i o n a t e l y y earned f o r unio n w i t h h i s God, w i t h a l l t h a t from which he t r u l y f e l t d i s -u n i t e d . I n c r e a s i n g l y he seems t o have found t h a t u n i o n - e s p e c i a l l y as d e s c r i b e d i n h i s S r i Lanka e x p e r i e n c e . Yet even on the f i n a l day of h i s e a r t h l y l i f e he made r e f e r e n c e t o the d i s t i n c t i o n between C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s s u p e r n a t u r a l dimension and the n a t u r a l o r d e r of the E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s , which has .so. o f t e n been used t o e x p l a i n the - 125 -d i f f e r e n c e between, the. two. i n a t a l k g i v e n .to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m o n a s t i c l e a d e r s from -Asia and... the west Merton. commented: I b e l i e v e t h a t our r e n e w a l - c o n s i s t s p r e c i s e l y i n deepening t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and. t h i s grasp of t h a t which i s m o s t ' r e a l . And : I . b e l i e v e t h a t by openness t o Buddhism, .to Hinduism, and t o these g r e a t A s i a n t r a d i t i o n s , , we s t a n d a wonder-f u l chance of l e a r n i n g mor'e about, the. p o t e n t i a l i t y of our own t r a d i t i o n s , because' t h e y , have gone, from the n a t u r a l p o i n t gf^ view,' so. much deeper i n t o t h i s than we have. Merton goes on to i n d i c a t e t h a t we f i n d . n o t only " n a t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s " but a l s o " g r a c e s " i n the A s i a n t r a d i t i o n s . Here i s a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e r e may be' such f u l n e s s i n the A s i a n t r a d i t i o n s t h a t Merton cannot - r e a l l y f e e l s a t i s f i e d .with the o l d d i s t i n c t i o n . H i s sense of the i n s u f f i c i e n c y of n a t u r a l man, however, may be so deep t h a t he r a t h e r , s-ees- the s u p e r n a t u r a l i n Zen than the merely n a t u r a l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . :In any e vent, he c o n c l u d e s by i n d i c a t i n g a t r a n s c e n d i n g of a l l of t h i s , a p a s s i n g beyond a l l l i m i t e d d i s t i n c t i o n s : The c o m b i n a t i o n of. the n a t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s and the g r a c e s and the o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t have been m a n i f e s t e d i n A s i a , and the C h r i s t i a n - l i b e r t y of the g o s p e l should- b r i n g us a l l a t l a s t t o t h a t f u l l and t r a n s c e n d e n t l i b e r t y which i s beyond mere c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and. mere, e x t e r n a l s -and mere t h i s or t h a t . Perhaps the s i n g l e , most i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n Merton came to make about C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . as a. r e s u l t of. h i s . encounter w i t h the e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s was. t h a t , the way . of . r e a s o n c o u l d never p r o v i d e the u l t i m a t e answers for. the s p i r i t u a l . l i f e . T h i s obser-- 126 -v a t i o n a l o n e would, n o t put. Merton .outside: of .a C h r i s t i a n framework, f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y has i t s e l f r e c o g n i z e d i r . i s even when i t has not emphasized i t . I t does,form, a . p a r t , however,; of,what I.would c a l l Merton's e m a n c i p a t i o n from C h r i s t i a n i t y as t r a d i t i o n , h i s p r e f e r -ence f o r the e x i s t e n t i a l , f o r Zen, and t h e r e f o r e f o r s u i t a b l y modern language i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s p i r i t u a l - l i f e . Merton w r o t e : When G a b r i e l M a r c e l - s a y s : "There a re t h r e s h h o l d s which thought a l o n e , l e f t t o i t s e l f can never p e r m i t us t o c r o s s . An e x p e r i e n c e i s r e q u i r e d -an e x p e r i e n c e of p o v e r t y and- s i e k n e s s " .'. . he i s s t a t i n g ^ s i m p l e C h r i s t i a n • t r u t h i n terms f a m i l i a r to Zen. W i l l i a m Johnston's p o s i t i o n . , on t h e o l o g y i n d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism i s b o t h s i m i l a r t o and d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of Merton. I have a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d t h a t both men c a l l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y from the e x p e r i e n t i a l p o i n t of -view. C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y w i l l n o t r e a l l y make sense, u n t i l one's l i f e i s t r a n s -formed i n ways, consonant w i t h i t . - Both. f i n d , s p e c i a l a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the a p o p h a t i c approach t o C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Both r e c o g n i z e the presence i n Zen of a metaphysic and Johnston s t r e s s e s the i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s i n B u d d h i s t f a i t h : a n d - b e l i e f .• Both r e c o g n i z e the i n adequacy of a l l a t t e m p t s t o g i v e e x p r e s s i o n , t o the deepest of s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s and r e a l i t i e s . . L i k e . M e r t o n , who speaks of C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s - .beginning i n . the r e v e l a t i o n , J o h n s t o n n o t e s t h a t C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n . b e g i n s w i t h the word: The p a t h of m e d i t a t i o n , , p a r t i c u l a r l y of C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n , o r d i n a r i l y b e g i n s - w i t h words. But as - 1 2 7 -p r a y e r and m e d i t a t i o n , develop,, the whole p r o c e s s u s u a l l y , b e g i n s 'to s i m p l i f y , A n d the time may come when one. p r e f e r s t e use no. words a t a l l . b ut s i m p l y t g ~ b e : t o be . s i l e n t i n ; t h e presence of the mystery. The p r i o r i t y of the word i n C h r i s t i a n m e d i t a t i o n i s very i m p o r t a n t f o r J o h n s t o n . He i s c o n s c i o u s of. the c y c l i c a l movement of the m e d i t a t i n g C h r i s t i a n from word t o s i l e n c e t o word, a g a i n and a g a i n . H i s s u g g e s t i o n t o meditator's i s to f o l l o w whatever wants e x p r e s s i n g a t any p a r t i c u l a r time:•whether i t be word or s i l e n c e , image or emp t i n e s s . The whole..is composed . of b o t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s -and I t h i n k he d i f f e r s from Merton i n t h i s - he' g i v e s precedence ' to the word. He n o t only b e g i n s w i t h the word.but he a l s o ends w i t h i t . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t ' i n Johnston's t h i n k i n g , p r o v i d i n g a key n o t o n l y t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y but a l s o t o the i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e , as we s h a l l see i n the n e x t • c h a p t e r . R e f l e c t i n g on the p r o c e s s of m e d i t a t i o n Johnston a s k s : But does the c y c l i c p r o c e s s of words - s i l e n c e -words - s i l e n c e - words - s i l e n c e go on f o r e v e r ? J u s t as the y i n and the yang proceed from the Tao, i s t h e r e a f i n a l , r g a l i . t y from which a l l words and s i l e n c e f l o w ? ' Johns t o n answers h i s own. q u e s t i o n .with an a f f i r m a t i o n of h i s C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f : I. b e l i e v e , that--there i s a f i n a l , word, and t h i s i s the Word Incarnate,.who . d w e l l s i n the. depth 25 of our b e i n g through baptism, and.the E u c h a r i s t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s , of t h i s , b e l i e f f o r the human i n d i v i d u a l a re - 128 -then e l a b o r a t e d . Johnston s t a t e s these, i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e o l o g i c a l l y - and then n o t e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n t i a l . r e a l i t y i n , t h e human b e i n g : The Word made f l e s h awakens i n the substa n c e of the s o u l and c r i e s . , o u t " A b b a , F a t h e r ! " And i n thi.s way i s e f f e c t e d t h e . d i v i n i z a t i on of the human person, t h r o u g h , the- grace of Jesus C h r i s t . In t h i s way are f u l f i l l e d -thoso words of the g o s p e l : "But t o a l l - who r e c e i v e d him, who b e l i e v e d , i n .hi-s'- name-, :he gave power t o . become c h i l d r e n of, God". (.John , 1:12 ). Through bap t i s m and the E u e h a r i s t one becomes a c h i l d , of God: through'mystica-1 e x p e r i e n c e one comes, to r e a l i z e e x i s t e n t i a l l y t h a t t h i s i s so. Johnston e l a b o r a t e s on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the word i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between an. " o u t e r " and an " i n n e r " word, between b e l i e f and f a i t h : In r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e which I s h a l l c a l l b e l i e f and a n ' i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which I s h a l l c a l l f a i t h . The. . s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s the o u t e r word, the o u t e r r e v e l a t i o n , the word spoken i n h i s t o r y , and, c o n d i t i o n e d by c u l t u r e . The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , on t h e oth e r hand, i s the i n t e r i o r word,, the word^spoken t o the h e a r t , the i n n e r r e v e l a t i o n . The o u t e r r e v e l a t i o n has been . given' i n a s p e c i a l way t o the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . However, the '."inner .word", the " i n n e r l i g h t " , i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d , t o G h r i . s t i a n i t y . I t " s h i n e s i n t h e h e a r t s of a l l men and women of good . w i l l who s i n c e r e l y s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h , 28 whatever t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n . " In examining t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n F a t h e r Johnston, r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he a l l o w s a s p e c i a l dimension t o C h r i s t i a n i t y which i s n o t t o be found, ( a t l e a s t , by him) i n the. o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s - 129 -dimension i s the " h i s t o r i c " r e a l i t y of Jesus C h r i s t , who e x i s t e d i n o n l y one time and. place, and, not i n others.. T h i s h i s t o r i c d imension has been, much emphasized, by. C h r i s t i a n s d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o n s . To some e x t e n t i t can.be, u n d e r s t o o d only i n l i g h t of the g r e a t emphasis . t h e .western t r a d i t i o n - has p l a c e d not o n l y on r e a s o n , as we have been, d i s c u s s i n g , - but a l s o on h i s t o r y : on a l i n e a r , o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the -nature of time and on the uniqueness of i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t y . F a t h e r J o h n s t o n r e f e r s to a Japanese C a r m e l i t e , I c h i r o Okumura, i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s : F a t h e r Okumura a p p e a l s to Chinese p h i l o s o p h y . The human r e l i g i o u s consciousness., which i s the same everywhere, i s the y i n : C h r i s t i s the yang. People of a l l r e l i g i o n s a r e u n i t e d by r e a s o n of t h e , y i n ; but C h r i s t the yang, " i s u n i q u e , a b s o l u t e , h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , and- so C h r i s t i a n i t y cannot be equated w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o n s ... H i s t o r i c a l p r o t o f a c t of two thousand years, ago becomes e n d l e s s h i s t o r i c o - r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t y i n C h r i s t i a n i t y and i n the c h u r c h . In t h i s sense, C h r i s t i a n i t y i s m e t a r e l i g i o u s , m e t a - s p a t i a l , m e t a - e h r o n o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l diviono-human r e a l i t y . " By u s i n g the metaphor of the y i n - y a n g F a t h e r Okumura suggests t h a t the "commonly r e l i g i o u s " and the " u n i q u e l y C h r i s -t i a n " a r e bound t o g e t h e r . He might also, be s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i on,, a mutual a r i s i n g of. the c o n c r e t e , h i s t o r -i c a l and the t r a n s c e n d e n t . A c t u a l l y , however, t h i s metaphor needs t o be taken one .step, f u r t h e r . I t i s , not. only. C h r i s t i a n i t y which has a y i n and a yang. Each r e l i g i o n has. i t s own unique t a o , though'.the Tao i s .complete i n a l l 'of them. We. have t o r e c o g n i z e not o n l y the uniqueness of C h r i s t , w h i c h g i v e n the p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e of We.stern c o n s c i o u s n e s s has always been s t r e s s e d , but a l s o the uniqueness of Buddha, of Mohammed,' ©f Moses and so on. - 1 3 0 -Johnston d e v e l o p s F a t h e r Okumura' s. statement, i n an o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . He .dis.tin.guishes be.t.t-j.een .."cosmic Chri.s;t", and " h i s t o r i c a l 3 0 J e s u s " . The l a t t e r , , he notes,, was a ' P a l e s t i n i a n . .Jew of a p a r t i c u -l a r p e r i o d i n t i m e : he l i v e d . a n d thought as a Jew of t h a t p e r i o d of time and t h a t . p l a c e . The R i s e n ' L o r d , on. the ot h e r hand, who i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the same J e s u s , i s above i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r e and t i m e : T h i s means t h a t a l l c u l t u r e s can c l a i m him as t h e i r own and a l l r e l i g i o n s can t e l l us some-t h i n g about who. he i s . T h i s , b e l i e f i n the t r a n s c u l t u r a l n a t u r e of t h e • R i s e n . Jesus has a l r e a d y appeared i n : the' a r t .and s c u l p t u r e of many n a t i o n s and races- but, the t h e o l o g i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n i s f a r from complete. What, can be s a i d i s t h a t C h r i s t ©logy.-, i s 'developing and t h a t Buddhism may w e l l ^ throw .'light on-the mystery of the R i s e n J e s u s . Johnston's C h r i s t o l o g y i s . w e l l - e l a b o r a t e d f o r the d i a l o g i c concerns which p l a y such a c e n t r a l r o l e i n h i s . l i f e . He draws an o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between. .Jesus C h r i s t as me d i a t o r of grace and Jesus C h r i s t as m e d i a t o r of meaning. I t i s p o s s i b l e . t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s by drawing on t h e . d i s t i n c t i o n o f t e n made, between the o r d e r s of the s u p e r n a t u r a l and . the. n a t u r a l . . Grace,, of .course, comes from the s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m . I t i s a. " g i f t of God", which p r o v i d e s man w i t h t h a t which i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y n e c e s s a r y .for .progress i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Meaning, on the o t h e r . hand.,, can e x i s t w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l , d i m e n s i o n . I t i s the way i n which man makes sense o u t of h i s l i f e : i t i s t h a t , w h i c h . g i v e s h i s l i f e v a l u e and o r i e n t a t i o n ,.within the n a t u r a l framework. Johnston.'introduces, a. f u r t h e r , d i s t i h e i i on, her e . Meaning i s -r e l a t i v e t o the. '.' subj e c t i v e " . order of l i f e . I t . i s . r e l a t i v e t o the i n d i v i d u a l . 1. cannot " o b j e c t i v e l y " c o n v i n c e y e u . t h a t my meaning f o r l i f e i s • the : r i g h t one. s i n c e , i t always i n v o l v e s .the element of p e r s o n a l commitment. and. f a i t h . . Johnston, a s s o c i a t e s , " grace" , however, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e o r d e r , o f . r e a l i t y . I t i s . something which i s n o t dependent on the i n d i v i d u a l . It- i s . i n no sense " c o n s t r u c t e d " by the i n d i v i d u a l ; i t does n o t depend on- i n d i v i d u a l . u n d e r s t a n d i n g . In t h i s sense, i t i s n o t r e l a t i v e . ' - . . . Johnston b e l i e v e s t h a t -Jesus.. C h r i s t i s . t h e - m e d i a t o r of grace f o r a l l mankind. I t i s th r o u g h the death and - r e s u r r e c t i o n of Jesus t h a t mankind can a c h i e v e .his.' .ultimate s p i r i t u a l . g o a l , t h a t g o a l which i s now shrouded i n mystery from human eye.s. Jesus C h r i s t , however, i s n o t the mediator of meaning f o r - a l l of humanity. The ot h e r r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s s e r v e t h i s r o l e f o r . t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . T h is needs t o be understood, and., r e s p e c t e d . J o h n s t o n p u t s i t t h i s way: ... we f i n d more u n i o n . w i t h . B u d d h i s t s when we move from the obj e.etive .to., the. • sub j e c t i ve o r d e r . C o n c r e t e l y , we do t h i s by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between Jesus C h r i s t as the mediator.. of. grace and Jesus C h r i s t as the media t o r of ...meaning.. I b e l i e v e t h a t Jesus C h r i s t I s t h e . m e d i a t o r of grace to. the whole, human r a c e , b u t he i s n o t the mediator of meaning to B u d d h i s t s and .to. other, .people who. do not b e l i e v e i n him. They f i n d meaning i n . t h e i r own s e t of symbols - i n the . Buddha and. the dharma and whatever i t may be. • Johnston has . i d e n t i f i e d . . . two. .sides an . i n n e r and an o u t e r -of man's r e l i g i o u s l i f e : , , f a i t h and b e l i e f . .The, coheren.ee of these i n t he s p i r i t u a l i t y .of every human, b e i n g p r o v i d e s , a ground f o r the meeting i n . oneness or, u n i t y , of-, p e o p l e from, . d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . They a r e a l i k e i n that. they. a l l . have a f a i t h and a b e l i e f . For. J o h n s t o n the. f a i t h and .the. b e l i e f a r e both i m p o r t a n t ; - 1 3:2; -both have e s s e n t i a l roles., t o p l a y , i n man's s p i r i t u a l l i f e . F a i t h i s preeminent. and .provides, the. . f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l l s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Yet f a i t h , i s . s u s t a i n e d and. given.. shape by b e l i e f . F a i t h a l s o p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t .role i n interreligi©us d i a l o g u e . I t p r o v i d e s the meeting, ground- f o r - i n d i v i d u a l s of d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f systems. Though f a i t h ' m a y be expressed' i n . d i f f e r e n t forms -as f a i t h i n J e s u s , i n the gos-pel a n d , i n the church f o r the C h r i s t i a n and f a i t h i n the Buddha',: the . dharma; and, the sangha f o r the B u d d h i s t - y e t when,it becomes re a l l y deep, f' a i t h tends t o become s u p r a c o n c e p t u a l . Through t h e : deepening -of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f a i t h s i n d i v i d u a l s of v a r i ©us' r e l l g i ous systems- may be a b l e t o e n t e r t o g e t h e r i n t o , the s u p r a c o n c e p t u a l s i l e n c e , of the mystery t h a t surrounds human l i f e . • - • . There i s a p a r a l l e l t o be drawn- between the two s e t s of d i s t i n c t i o n s which Johnsten uses-: - f a i t h / b e l i e f and (.Jesus C h r i s t m e d i a t i n g ) grace/meaning. .Johnston: does n ot draw t h i s p a r a l l e l h i m s e l f but I b e l i e v e t h a t i t :helps t o c l a r i f y h i s thought i f we do so. I t i s i m p l i c i t i n his. w r i t i n g s and- h e l p s t o shed' l i g h t on h i s sometimes c o n f u s i n g , use-, of. t h e , two terms " f a i t h " and " b e l i e f " . J o hnston's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f . t h e " o b j e c t i v e " order of the u n i v e r s e i s grounded i n - h i s a c c e ptance of ..-Christian t h e o l o g y . God i s a fundamental, r e a l i t y f o r J o h n s t o n . ,The. f a c t , t h a t the B u d d h i s t may not see t h i s . o r may not accept, t h i s does.not a l t e r the f a c t s i n c e i t i s n o t dependent, on human, u n d e r s t a n d i n g . On the o t h e r hand, as we noted-., above b e l i e f systems' - are.. dependent on human u n d e r s t a n d i n g . F a i t h .becomes .an, i n n e r , attl-tu.de ©f: response t o t h a t which i s deepest, and., most true., about , the human , r e a l i t y . For J o h n s t o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e of any i n d i v i d u a l or c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , .that " o b j e c t i v e - 1 3 3 -ground and o r d e r " i s God a n d . h i s . r e v e l a t i o n i n Jesus C h r i s t : the Word Incarnate.. Looked a t i n . t h i s way we, see. t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e connection, between J o h n s t o n ! s approach :to. u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l i g i o n and C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d : h i s emphasis, on,the word. Johnston's m y s t i c i s m i s a m y s t i c i s m -.of .uniqueness,. . d i s t i n c t i o n and d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n . Merton's i s one of e m p t i n e s s . J o h n s t o n b e g i n s and ends w i t h the word. That word has. u l t i m a t e r e a l i ' t y . f o r the whole of mankind. The whole of mankind must e n t e r i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t . F u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s not t o be found, i n the p r e s e n t development of C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . On the c o n t r a r y , j u s t as we can u n d e r s t a n d the f u l l n e s s of C h r i s t , o n l y i f we c o n s i d e r both h i s h i s t o r i c r e a l i t y as Jesus of Nazareth.and h i s cosmic, a n h i s t o r i c d i m e n s i o n , so we can u n d e r s t a n d the f u l l n e s s of the l a t t e r , the " o b j e c t i v e o r d e r " , only i f we c o n s i d e r the i n s i g h t s t h a t w i l l come from the e a s t e r n encounter w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y a l o n g w i t h those i n s i g h t s t h a t have a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y s t i l l has.-a very l o n g way t o go i n i t s development. I t i s an u n f i n i s h e d e n t e r p r i s e . I n e v i t a b l y the developments which w i l l come from the encounter w i t h e a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i t y w i l l s u r p r i s e us.. Jesus brought a message f o r the whole of mankind, not j u s t f o r those, who l i v e i n the w e s t e r n w o r l d and t h i n k as. westerners,. Johnston's' e x p e r i e n c e has c o n v i n c e d him, a t l e a s t , that..the e a s t has., a way. of u n d e r s t a n d i n g which i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from ..that common i n the west. As he p u t s i t : The l o n g e r I l i v e i n . "Tokyo th e more I become aware of the enormous..cultural gap which separates- E a s t and West. The way 'of t h i n k i n g , the words, the manner of e x p r e s s i o n of Buddhism - 13:4 -and C h r i s t i a n i t y are so d i f f e r e n t t h a t anyone who t r i e s t o w r i t e , a . t h e o l o g i c a l book about •. both i s doomed.to s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and. even f a i l u r e . For the f a c t i s t h a t C h r i s t i a n s , and ~~ B u d d h i s t s speak- d i f f e r e n t t h e o l o g i c a l l a n g u a g e s . Buddhism has. grown i n the -context of, the e a s t . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the e a s t - and i t s . ways of e x p e r i e n c -i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g the w o r l d . Today we f i n d t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y i s b e i n g a c c e p t e d t o some .degree by. e a s t e r n e r s . Yet we must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the way i n which • the. e a s t e r n e r s e x p e r i e n c e C h r i s -t i a n i t y w i l l n o t be the same' as-- the way i n which w e s t e r n e r s e x p e r i e n c e the same t r a d i t i o n . E astern' and w e s t e r n C h r i s t i a n s w i l l each be a b l e t o f i n d d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s .of the t r u t h i n the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y must keep i t s e l f , open .to those n o v e l a s p e c t s of the t r a d i t i o n which - w i l l , i n e v i t a b l y , emerge over the y e a r s ahead. Johnston r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a t present, t h e r e i s no "common t h e o l o g i c a l language" f o r B u d d h i s t s and C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s n e c e s s -i t a t e s our t a k i n g a s t a n d w i t h i n the framework - of one p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Johns ton '.does.- suggest t h a t the f u t u r e may h o l d the hope of such a d e v e l o p m e n t H e . b e l i e v e s " t h a t a time w i l l come, p r o b a b l y i n the n e x t c e n t u r y , when we or t h o s e who come a f t e r us w i l l , f o r g e a. common way. of ..speaking and even 34 some k i n d of common t h e o l o g y . " A l t h o u g h • Johnston s t a t e s , t h a t only i n . the. f u t u r e may a common way of . speaking- about .religious,- e x p e r i e n c e . develop and a l t h o u g h he emphasizes, the. g r e a t g u l f s of .understanding which s e p a r a t e the. t r a d i t i o n s , .of the, east. and. the , west, a t p r e s e n t , he does sugges-t--a . b a s i s , of commonality f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . s p i r i t u a l i t y • - 1 36. -He f i n d s t h i s b a s i s , i n the. thought, of Jes.uit. t h e o l o g i a n Bernard Lonergan. Lonergan had suggested..that t h e d e f i n i t i o n , of t h e o l o g y might be expanded t o . i n c l u d e not..merely, " r e f l e c t i o n s on..matters of f a i t h " (the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n : d e f i n i t i o n ) . . b u t r e f l e c t i o n on ma t t e r s of r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l . Rather, than.:, f o c u s i n g on "meta-p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " theology, w i l l t u r n , t o a . c o n s i d e r a t i o n of those fundamental human i n c l i n a t i o n s which u n d e r l i e a l l r e l i g i o n s . 3 5 Lonergan c a l l s them " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s " . There a r e f i v e i n number : Be a t t e n t i v e Be i n t e l l i g e n t Be r e a s o n a b l e Be r e s p o n s i b l e Be i n l o v e J o h n s t o n d i s c u s s e s , these i n Trie .Inner Eye of .Love and a g a i n i n The M i r r o r Mind. The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l vprecepts r e p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the • human ,being and i n d i c a t e . , the ways i n which human n a t u r e can expres.s i t s e l f most, f u l l y . As. such they u n d e r l i e the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s , of mankind, .for: t hese r e l i g i o n s i n d i c a t e how man may become h i s t r u e s e l f . .Johnston d i s c u s s e s how each of these p r e c e p t s . might. be s a i d t o be. e n s h r i n e d . i n . . C h r i s t i a n i t y and how each a l s o , f i n d s ..its. p l a c e . i n Buddhism.. Joh n s t o n r e f e r s t o the. f i f t h , precept, as.-'"a more crowning • q / p r e c e p t which g i v e s beauty a n d . j o y and f u l l n e s s t o human l i f e " . H i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f - l o v e always, r e f e r t o t h e d u a l i t y w h erein two d i s t i n c t i v e b e i n g s . encounter. one :another. For. t h e • G h r i s t i a n t h i s i s the b a s i c e x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g c a l l e d . b y . G o d , of; b e i n g l o v e d by - 136 -God. I t i s the r e - c o g n i t i o n , ©f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the f a t h e r h o o d of God, a r e c o g n i t i o n of the. r e l a t i o n a l , ground, of. human b e i n g , of the depths from which man c a l l s out.:,. "A.bba, Father!." Given h i s b e l i e f about the f u n d a m e n t a l l y ..communicative n a t u r e of u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y from which, a l l r e l i g i o n s s p r i n g , Johns ton must w r e s t l e w i t h the seeming d i f f i c u l t y of speaking, about l o v e i n the B u d d h i s t t r a d i t i o n where t h e r e i s no a l l o w a n c e f o r any God w i t h whom one might be i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i n n e r -Eye - of Love d i s c u s s e s Johnston's c o n v i c t i o n that. B u d d h i s t s a re i n d e e d i n l o v e i n an u n r e s t r i c t e d manner..Johnston c i t e s , examples of- the u n s e l f i s h d e v o t i o n of v a r i o u s B u d d h i s t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s as evi d e n c e of t h i s . He i n d i c a t e s t h a t the B u d d h i s t ' i s i n l o v e w i t h o u t h a v i n g any c l e a r sense of the "who", or .the. ."what" of that, l o v e . S i n c e Johnston t e l l s us elsewhere t h a t we mature b y r e c o g n i z i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g the v a r i o u s dimensions of our e x p e r i e n c e , I wonder i f h i s mention of "vagueness" a t t h i s . cor.e• p o i n t i s .not an i m p l i c i t put-down of Buddhism. In f a i r n e s s , however, J o h n s t o n 'notes t h a t i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . i t might a l s o be s a i d - t h a t no c l e a r image of the o b j e c t of s p i r i t u a l l o v e can be •: m a i n t a i n e d . Once a g a i n J o h n s t o n sounds the v a r i o u s themes t h a t i n f u s e h i s work w i t h i t s d i s t i n c t i v e character;: . . . i f B u d d h i s t m y s t i e s a r e . n o t c l e a r about the o b j e c t of t h e i r l o v e , . C h r i s t i a n m y s t i c s a re not clear, e i t h e r . For. them God i s . not. a c l e a r - c u t o b j e c t but a l o v i n g presor.ee -which they o b s c u r e l y sense. They, f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e . i n , a c l o u d of' unknowing, c r y i n g out to. a- God whom ..they l o v e but cannot see. And a t times: e.v.en t h i s l o v i n g presence, i s withdrawn, and. they.lare. l e f t c r y i n g out i n the. n i g h t of naked . f a i t h . . Only from r e v e l a t i o n can they say, that- the emptiness, i n . which they f i n d . F a t h e r who wraps- them i n H i s ten d e r - c a r e . - 137 -I t i s s t r i k i n g t h a t , w h i l e . J o h n s t o n , l i s t s the f i r s t f o u r " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l , precepts," in,, p r e c i s e l y . the T.s.ame, way i n The M i r r o r  Mind as he l i s t e d them in" '-The, i n n e r Eye of Love, the, f i f t h p r e c e p t i s e x p r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t l y . In t h e . e a r l i e r book i t i s : be i n l o v e . In the l a t t e r , book i t has-become-: . be -committed. A l t h o u g h I have no way of p r o v i n g i t , t h i s change m a y ; w e l l be,an i n d i c a t i o n of the b a s i c s t a n c e on i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e t h a t J o h n s t o n has de v e l o p e d over the y e a r s . As Johnston puts i t : The f i n a l p r e c e p t i s the most i m p o r t a n t : Be committed. T h i s means t h a t I must be committed t o t r u t h wherever I see i t . And so, w h i l e I am committed' t o the- t r u t h I d i s c o v e r i n Buddhism, I. i n t e g r a t e i t w i t h oo the C h r i s t i a n t r u t h which i s mine by b a p t i s m . Being i n l o v e becomes b e i n g committed. I t i n v o l v e s b e i n g who you a r e , e x p r e s s i n g c o n v i c t i o n . : - I t - i n v o l v e s r e c o g n i z i n g and r e s p e c t i n g the "personhood." of o t h e r s , t h e i r , r i g h t t o s t a k e a c l a i m t o meaning., Once a g a i n t h i s , e n t a i l s , an emphasis on d i s -t i n c t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which:..remain the .."bottom l i n e " f o r J o h n s t o n . H i s work seems i n c r e a s i n g l y t o move, i n the d i r e c t i o n of e m p h a s i z i n g t h i s . By c o n t r a s t , Merton!s thought moves i n -c r e a s i n g l y i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . I cannot conclude, t h i s , c h a p t e r w i t h o u t , a few words about the T r i n i t y . This. has..always, been one of \ t h e ..central . t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d . i t i s - c e r t a i n l y one t o which the i s s u e s I have been, d l s c u s . s i n g , i n t h i s . c h a p t e r have a s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e . - N e i t h e r . M e r t o n nor J o h n s t o n p r o v i d e s a complete d i s c u s s i o n , ©f the i d e a of the . ' T r i n i t y ., Yet. it'..- i s . c e n t r a l t o the t h e o l o g i c a l concerns of both men,. as .indeed.it.-may be f o r most C h r i s t i a n s . - 1 3 8 -Merton mentions .the T r i n i t y i n . t h e . e s s a y " A . C h r i s t i a n Looks a t Zen" i n c l u d e d i n . Zen and :the B i r d s '.of. .Appetite.. -He. speaks of the c e n t r a l C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r y : t h a t i n . .us,'through the S p i r i t , C h r i s t l o v e s the F a t h e r . Again Merton•emphasizes' h i s u s u a l theme: t h i s i s n o t merely a t h e o l o g i c a l ' d o c t r i n e ; i t i s a matter f o r o r d i n a r y C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e . Merton r e f e r s to S t . P a u l who noted t h a t , j u s t ' a s nobody can know my i n n e r s e l f except my own " s p i r i t " , so o n l y the S p i r i t of God'can know God. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a t r u t h f o r the C h r i s t i a n t h a t the S p i r i t of God knows God i n the depths of my i n d i v i d u a l and.human b e i n g . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e s i n c e God became man. Merton. t e l l s u s : " T h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s u t t e r l y r e a l , though i t cannot be communicated i n 'terms.understandable t o 39 those who do n o t share i t . " In s p e a k i n g of t h i s t r i n i t a r i a n e x p e r i e n c e i n the i n n e r l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l Merton uses t r a d i t i o n a l P a u l i n e language: p u t t i n g on or h a v i n g the "mind of C h r i s t " . He compares t h i s w i t h t h e n o t i o n of " h a v i n g the Buddha mind" and suggests -that•••the s i m i l a r i t y of language might . i n d i c a t e some fun d a m e n t a l s i m i l a r i t y of e x p e r i e n c e . In f a c t , he r e f l e c t s , the r e f e r e n c e s to. the. "mind of C h r i s t " and the "Buddha mind" a r e d o c t r i n a l n o t i o n s ' - though the " d o c t r i n e i s about the e x p e r i e n c e " . 4 ^ But i n t h e " f i n a l a n a l y s i s " e x p e r i e n c e " , as Mertbn u n d e r s t a n d s i t , i s "empty'' ( i n the B u d d h i s t s e n s e ) . So we cannot say. t h a t , the e x p e r i e n c e , of, h a v i n g the "mind of C h r i s t " i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of having, the' "Buddha .mind". 'Of c o u r s e , (by the same token) n e i t h e r can .we say they, a r e the same. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s Merton w i l l say., t h a t saying, i s not. i m p o r t a n t . Merton i s moVed by. the w r i t i n g , of Dr. •.Suzuki who found I n M e i s t e r Eckhart.' s r e f l e c t i o n s on the T r i n i t y an. e x p r e s s i o n of - 139 -" P r a j n a i n t u i t i o n " . . Merton quotes .Eckhart.and then i n d i c a t e s how the language of E c k h a r t . i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h a t of Zen: " I n g i v i n g us H i s love.God has g i v e n us the Holy Ghost so t h a t we • can lov'e Him w i t h the l o v e wherewith . He .loves . H i m s e l f . " The Son. Who, i n u s , l o v e s the Father-, i n the S p i r i t , i s t r a n s l a t e d thus by S u z u k i i n t o Zen terms: "One m i r r o r r e f l e c t i n g another, w i t h no shadow between them." •. ( S u z u k i , Mysticism.,:,-East, and West, p. 4-1) Merton t e l l s us t h a t he sees no r e a s o n why the statement of S u z u k i cannot be accepted, as q u i t e i n a c c o r d 1 w i t h the theo-l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t r i n i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e . At the same ti m e , he acknowledges .that such accord, remains -to be e s t a b l i s h e d . R ather than d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b l e t h e o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the d o c t r i n e , however, Merton h i g h l i g h t s the very s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t of Doctor S u z u k i ' s f i n d i n g - a n a f f i n i t y between,his Zen i n s i g h t and the C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . I n Merton' words: Furthermore i t . i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a Japanese t h i n k e r - s c h o o l e d i n Zen s h o u l d be so open to what .is . . b a s i c a l l y . the mos.t obscure and d i f f i c u l t mystery of C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y : the dogma of the T r i n i t y and the m i s s i o n of the D i v i n e Persons, i n the C h r i s t i a n - and i n the Church. .This would seem t o . i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e a l a r e a f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a n a l o g i e s and correspondences between , C h r i s t i a n i t y and Zen might a f t e r , a l l , be t h e o l o g y r a t h e r than' p s y c h o l o g y or ^ a s c e t i c i s m . W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n a l s o r e f l e c t s on t h e t r i n i t y . In the c h a p t e r "Monism and D u a l i s m " -in- C h r i s t i a n . Zen he..notes .-that a t the most p r o f o u n d l e v e l s , of C h r i s t i a n ' , p r a y e r one passes. e n t i r e l y beyond the e g o i s t i c a l l e v e l of o r d i n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s , so t h a t i t i s no - 1.49 -l o n g e r a p p r o p r i a t e to say the " I " (the ego) i s . p r a y i n g but r a t h e r t h a t i n me C h r i s t i s p r a y i n g t o h i s Father, i n the S p i r i t . J o h n s t o n l i k e n s the c o n d i t i o n i n which, the.• s p i r i t u a l . e x p e r i e n c e can emerge t o Zen: Such an e x p e r i e n c e may seem - a thousand m i l e s from Zen, but t h e r e a r e s t i l l - s i m i l a r i t i e s -not o n l y i n the s i l e n c i n g , of the f a c u l t i e s , the deep r e p o s e , the:detachment and the i n t e g r a t i o n , but a l s o i n • t h e n o n s e l f c o n d i t i o n i n which the word '''Father" . r i s e s up i n , the h e a r t . F o r , r e a d i n g Gregory and' the m y s t i c s i n depth, one sees t h a t t h i s , c r y does' not..issue from the e m p i r i c a l ego (which.has b e e n : l o s t ) . I t i s the cry of C h r i s t t o h i s F a t h e r , t h e Son. o f f e r i n g h i m s e l f t o the Father- i n T r i n i t a r i a n l o v e , the Son who i s w i t h i n as i n : the P a u l i n e . .".I l i v e , now n o t I ; , but C h r i s t ' l i v e s i n me." So C h r i s t i a n p r a y e r ends up i n a T r i n i t a r i a n c o n t e x t . I t ends up w i t h the f r i g h t e n i n g paradox, t h a t t h e r e i s , d i a l o g u e w i t h i n .a b e i n g t h a t ' i s t o t a l l y one. J o h n s t o n u n d e r s t a n d s t h e - ' T r i n i t y as "unity, i n d i v e r s i t y " and " d i v e r s i t y i n u n i t y " ( t o use the' language of . Za e h n e r ) . The two are one; and y e t they a r e two.which a r e one. T h i s i s the g r e a t mystery of the T r i n i t y which l i e s a t : t h e h e a r t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . J o hnston r e c o g n i z e s -the s i m i l a r i t y , on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l a t l e a s t , of the c o n d i t i o n of c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n which the most p r o f o u n d e x p e r i e n c e can occur -for both, the C h r i s t i a n and the Zen B u d d h i s t . He goes on t o d i s c u s s h i s b e l i e f : t h a t t h e . Zen t r a d i t i o n has s t r e s s e d the u n i t y and the C h r i s t i a n , t r a d i t i o n t h e d i v e r s i t y . I t i s , f o r the G h r i stian,,. the doctrine., of. the T r i n i t y . . which a c t u a l l y , m y s t e r i o u s l y , r e s o l v e s the. paradox, of • the . two. ..and. the one. The Zen B u d d h i s t h a s , of course., no such d o c t r i n e . ...Yet.-both Merton and Johnston suggest"'that C h r i s t i a n t r l n i t a r i a n i s m may- not be fiar removed from the e x p e r i e n c e a t the h e a r t of Zen. - U 1 -F r a n c i s Huxley • discusses, t h i s p oint- i n the . very•. l a s t p a ragraph of- h i s study,- The :Way "of the" S a c r e d . .-.He - t e l l s .us: The mind of the . Buddha , = say Zen- Buddhi s t s , i s i n f a c t - n o d i f f e r e n t from' t h a t of an o r d i n a r y man, a l t h o u g h h i s sense o f / i d e n t i t y has s u f f e r e d a sea-change. 'To •'. the q.ues t i on:, "What - am I ? " he can o n l y answer, "That a r t •Thou-." T h i s i s the mystery of the s a c r e d , i n . a p o i n t . In i t , as Goomaraswamy • says-,. t h e o l o g y and., a u t o l o g y - the s c i e n c e of the . p r i n c i p l e each: man c a l l s " I " -prove t o be the .'same.-' "For, " .as he c o n t i n u e s , i n words which put our'argument, f i n a l l y t o r e s t , "as t h e r e a r e two i n him who i s .both .love and d e a t h , so there, a r e , as a l i t r a d i t i o n a f f i r m s unanimously, two i n u s ; a l t h o u g h not two•of him and two of us, nor even one of him and one of us,, but only one of b o t h . " 4 4 I f t h i s mystery i s expressed, i n t h e o l o g y - and i f t h i s mystery i s i n d e e d t o be f o u n d a t the h e a r t of a l l s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n s because i t i s t o be found a t the -heart of man - then i t may i n d e e d be t h e o l o g y which' p r o v i d e s the. u l t i m a t e ground f o r s h a r i n g between t r a d i t i o n s . Yet c l e a r l y .the t r a d i t i o n s do not say the same t h i n g s - a t l e a s t , not' i n the. same-way and not w i t h the same emphasis. Our study of t h e " c o mparative p h i l o s o p h y " ( i f I may use that, b l a n k e t e x p r e s s i o n ) of Zen Buddhism' and Roman C a t h o l i c i s m has. i n d i c a t e d . t h a t , the one has. s t r e s s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p based on a number of. d i s t i n c t i o n s (man .and.God, n a t u r a l " and s u p e r n a t u r a l , , here and h e r e a f t e r ' , body and s o u l , . s e l f and o t h e r ) whereas the o t h e r h a s / s t r e s s e d n.or d u a l i t y . T have t r i e d t o show t h a t whereas Jo h n s t o n f i n d s h i m s e l f q u i t e at.home w i t h the f o r m e r , Merton i n c l i n e s , , towards the l a t t e r . This, i s no. l e s s t r u e of t h e i r view of d i a l o g u e , than i t i s of t h e i r general, view of. s p i r i t u a l i t y . And i t i s t o t h i s matter t h a t I - w i l l now t u r n i n my c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . - U 2 -P r i n c i p l e s o f D i a l o g u e My e x p o s i t i o n of the views of W i l l i a m . J ohnston and Thomas Merton t h r o u g h o u t the c h a p t e r s of t h i s . t h e s i s argues f o r a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the ways i n which they u n d e r s t o o d Roman C a t h o l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism. In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l c o n c l u d e my d i s c u s s i o n by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t dimension of thought to which t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d i a l o g u e s . u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s us. While one might choose any of s e v e r a l a r e a s t o p r o v i d e an " u l t i m a t e p e r s p e c t i v e " on the d i a l o g u e , t h e r e i s one. i n p a r t i c u l a r t o which the w r i t i n g s of both men l e a d s . T h i s i s the dimension of e p i s t e -mology, the q u e s t i o n not so much of what, one t a k e s to' be u l t i -mate t r u t h (be i t "God" or " n i r v a n a " or whatever) as of how one o r i e n t s o n e s e l f towards t r u t h , how. one seeks t o f i n d t r u t h , how one u n d e r s t a n d s the q u e s t one i s on. Johnston opens his. most, r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d book, The M i r r o r  Mind: S p i r i t u a l i t y and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of ep i stemology. Merton d i s c u s s e d epi.stem o l ogy i n h i s f i n a l t a l k , g i v e n i n Bangkok on the day of. his. d e a t h . The. d i f f e r e n c e s between the two men a r e nowhere more obvious than they a r e h e r e . As l o n g as we maintain, our. f o c u s on the. C h r i s t i a n language which both men used and. f a i l t o examine the. ways i n which they used t h a t language we w i l l . f a i l , t o grasp, the r a d i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r d i a l o g u e . For i t i s . not, p r i m a r i l y i n a d d i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e , i n p r o v i d i n g a s h a r i n g of methods or, t e c h n i q u e s , o r i n exposure t o a new range of symbols t h a t the d i a l o g u e , w i t h Zen i s most c h a l l e n g i n g . I t i s i n what i t has t o t e a c h us about what i t i s - H 3 -t o know - t o know i n any .sense, but e s p e c i a l l y t o know " u l t i -m a t e l y " i n the sense, which-has a l w a y s ..been./of concern t o a l l s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n ' s . . .What are t h e l i m i t s .of human.knowing? What a r e the l i m i t s of.my e x i s t e n c e as a. n o e t i c being? In the l o n g development 1 of my: -study two e p i s t e m o l o g i e s , two ways of knowing, seem t o • emerge..-The f i r s t , o f t hese r e l i e s on the a c c e p t a n c e .of • an : u l t i m a t e t r u t h as-., a f i n a l source and r e f e r e n c e and f o u n d a t i o n -for. a l l .other ..truth. .There i s a f i n a l concept to which a l l o t h e r concepts-lead,, a f i n a l , symbol t o which a l l o t h e r symbols p o i n t . .This e p i stemology .• a c c e p t s t h a t the f i n a l t r u t h i s not merely of the. orde r ©f knowing; i t i s a l s o of the o r d e r . of being.. There i s - a . b e i n g whose u l t i m a c y or f i n a l i t y i s such t h a t i t :knows no gap between i t s knowing and i t s b e i n g . N e i t h e r i t s knowing, nor i t s • b e i n g has: any...limit. P r e c i s e l y i n t h i s , however, l i e s i t s . difference,..-from -m-an.j For man i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s b o t h o f :: knowing :..and of b e i n g . To speak i n - more, r e c o g n i z a b l y • C h r i s t i a n language, t h i s u l t i m a t e i s of the n a t u r e of • p e r s o n ,: d e f i n e d . f i n a l l y by a q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s . an. abso.lute,.being..whose n a t u r e i s t h r e e persons i n one.-God .and who i s -known • t o ..man-, within..'the l i m i t a t i o n s of human knowing, because of. the: r e v e l a t i o n . Hence, we say n o t only t h a t t h e r e i s a. r e l a t i o n s h i p o f , t h e persons i n God one t o a n o t h e r , but. that, man. i s i n . r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o God, as men a r e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to, one.,,another,.. .Truth i n . t h i s , -model, must .be r e l a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l both... One .comes'-to. know, t r u t h as., one, comes t o know p e r s o n . One comes .to be, o n e s e l f .most t r u l y i n s o f a r . a s one i s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o God , and .to. o t h e r men. ..It i s . i n t h e .position.-of a bord e r between . s e l f .and .other . (whether man. or God), t h a t one - 1 U -r e c o g n i z e s who one i s and who the o t h e r i s . That very r e c o g n i t i o n , however, i s a t once a r a d i c a l a c c e p t a n c e of- the f u l l o t h e r n e s s of the o t h e r , of h i s or her b e i n g as.an i n d e p e n d e n t , f r e e , s e l f -d e t e r m i n i n g and s e l f - k n o w i n g b e i n g ( e i t h e r a b s o l u t e l y i n the case of God or w i t h i n l i m i t s known u l t i m a t e l y , o n l y t o God- i n the case of man) and a r a d i c a l acceptance, of the o t h e r as n o t - o t h e r p r e c i s e -l y i n t h a t I can a c c e p t them i n t o m y s e l f , can t r u l y know them and be w i t h them. Th i s f i r s t e p i s t e m o l o g y i s the t r a d i t i o n a l C a t h o l i c p o s i t i o n . I t i s the p o s i t i o n which Johnston, t a k e s and i t remains c e n t r a l t o h i s t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e corpus of h i s work. He has chosen t o emphasize t h i s i n s e l e c t i n g the t i t l e of h i s most r e c e n t book. The human s o u l becomes most t r u l y i t s e l f i n s o f a r as i t a l l o w s i t s e l f t o r e f l e c t the o t h e r . P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s means k e e p i n g the m i r r o r of one's being.as f r e e of smudge as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t h a t i t may r e f l e c t . t r u t h f u l l y . T h i s may be a c c o m p l i s h e d through those t e c h n i q u e s which.we d i s c u s s e d i n the second c h a p t e r of our s t u d y . In r a t h e r more a b s t r a c t language i t may be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h f a i t h f u l n e s s , !to t h o s e .  " t r a n s c e n d e n t a l , p r e c e p t s " which J o h n s t o n b e l i e v e s can be. f o u nd i n . every s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n . By e m p h a s i z i n g t h e s e .precepts... he empha.sizes , not so much u l t i m a t e t r u t h or b e i n g as. way, as-•method, of. approach t o the u l t i m a t e . In h i s own words: . .-. we can f i n d common ground, by w o r k i n g towards a f o u n d a t i o n a l t h e o l o g y based n o t upon m e t a p h y s i c s but upon, t r a n s c e n d e n t a l method. Even when B u d d h i s t s and , C h r i s t i a n s have, d i f f e r e n t ; b e l i e f s,. they can s t i l l j o i n hands i n a common method .tha t is., b a s i c a l l y human and leads- through c o n v e r s i o n , or e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o t r u t h and goodness. C o n c r e t e l y , t h i s , means f i d e l i t y t o t h o s e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r e c e p t s t h a t e n s h r i n e ..the I n e x o r a b l e - U 5 -demands of the human s p i r i t and p o i n t the way to human a u t h e n t i c i t y . 2 Johnston r e f e r s , t o h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y as a "moderate r e a l i s m " . This seems t o be the view of•common *s!eri'se,. a: view, i n a c c o r d w i t h the way i n wh i c h most pe o p l e approach r e a l i t y - , , and as such, d e v e l -oped c r e a t i v e l y i n Johnston's program.for d i a l o g u e and h i s c o g n i -t i v e model of the way. i n which the. d i f f e r e n t r e - l i g i o n s can be s a i d t o f i t i n t o the o v e r a l i framework of. a C h r i s t i a n w o r l d v i e w , may be u s e f u l to C h r i s t i a n s i n t e r e s t e d : i n becoming i n v o l v e d i n s t u d y i n g the o t h e r r e l i g i o u s - t r a d i t i o n s , I n . f a c t , • i t i s a view which c a l l s f o r d i a l o g u e i n a way t h a t Merton'',s view, .as we s h a l l see, does n o t demand i t . J o hnston t e l l s us t h a t h i s epistemology. p r o v i d e s us w i t h a "middle course between a n a i v e r e a l i s m t h a t overemphasizes o b j e c t i v i t y t o the n e g l e c t of the s u b j e c t and- the extreme i d e a l i s m 3 t h a t d e n i e s any o b j e c t i v i t y whatsoever." By, f o r m u l a t i n g h i s ep i s t e m o l o g y i n t h i s way - on the b a s i s of the acc e p t a n c e of d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s of r e a l i t y - a s u b j e c t i v e and. an o b j e c t i v e -Johnston a c c e p t s a fundamental gap betw.een knowing and b e i n g . He a f f i r m s h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s a f u n d a m e n t a l , c o n c r e t e , s o l i d , f i r m , g i v e n r e a l i t y as w e l l . as., the r e a l i t y ' of my own knowing and the knowing of o t h e r b e i n g s . The second e p i s t e m o l o g y ; w h i c h has. emerged.In t h i s study may be d e s c r i b e d as t a k i n g , the .negative. view..,,-It . i s h ot concerned w i t h any a b s o l u t e c o n s i d e r e d as. an. o t h e r . While, i t . may i n d e e d a l l o w f o r the. e x p e r i e n c e , of r e c o g n i z i n g , an o t h e r (whether an o t h e r pers.on, .another b e i n g , or an. other, v i e w p o i n t , d i f f e r e n t from i t s e l f ) . i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t s f o c u s . i s . o n . t h a t i n v i s i b l e r o o t - U 6 -of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .where s e l f . , o t h e r and. the,meeting of s e l f and o t h e r may be s a i d , t o . t a k e p l a c e . I t knows net so. much t h r o u g h the r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s own. n o e t i c q u a l i t y as through., the r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s own coherence i n the l a c k of.any gap between knowing and b e i n g . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s coherence, however., which can never become an o b j e c t of knowledge. The s t a t e i s reached,when- one s u r r e n d e r s the e f f o r t t o know, a l t h o u g h t h i s i s not, t o suggest .that one has no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o know as w e l l and as t h o r o u g h l y as one can, but r a t h e r t h a t once one does r e a c h the l i m i t of one's knowing one does i n f a c t r e a c h t h a t l i m i t . One s i m p l y i s - and t h a t i s enough. Symbols and words t h e r e are;, one a c c e p t s t h e s e and one uses t h e s e . However, one s u r r e n d e r s the sense of s e e k i n g t o r e l a t e these t o one a n o t h e r i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a "super-symbol", which u l t i m a t e l y c e n t e r s and g i v e s meaning, t o them a l l , , or i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o an " a b s o l u t e r e a l i t y " i n the e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c , o b j e c t i v e o r d e r . T h i s second p o s i t i o n , p r o b a b l y b e s t . e x p r e s s e d i n Zen Bud-d h i s t e p i stemology, i s the. one which Merton comes t o a c c e p t and the one which i n c r e a s i n g l y u n d e r l i e s h i s most mature w r i t i n g s . Merton does n o t emphasize a n y . d i s t i n c t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e orders- of r e a l i t y , between, the, knower .and the known. He speaks r a t h e r , of : the n e c e s s i t y , of f o c u s i n g on , c o n s c i o u s n e s s : " B u d d h i s t and C h r i s t i a n m o n a s t i c i s m s t a r t , from the problem i n s i d e man h i m s e l f . I n s t e a d of d e a l i n g , w i t h ..the e x t e r n a l . s t r u c t u r e s of-s o c i e t y , they s t a r t w i t h man'.s own . c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " 4 The p o s i t i o n s which consciousness-, w i l l . take a r e , i n a sense,, a l l t h a t man can know, though i f he pushes through to. the l i m i t - and beyond - he may come to-know i n the., v e r y r e c o g n i t i o n .of. t h e i g n o r a n c e of h i s own knowing: "... a l l immersed i n i l l u s i o n . . t o g e t h e r , but ... the .- U>7 -i l l u s i o n i s a l s o an. emp i r i c a l . , r e a l i t y tha.t has t o be f u l l y a c c e p t e d , and ... i n . t h i s i l l - u s i on-,. • which . is.-, n e v e r t h e l e s s e m p i r i -c a l l y r e a l , n i r v a n a ' i s p r e s e n t and . i t i s a l l t h e r e , i f you but see i t . " 5 One has t o move from the, r e l a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n of t r u t h t o the a b s o l u t e , which, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i s d i f f e r e n t : . f r o m the r e l a t i v e o n l y from the r e l a t i v e p o i n t of view. So Merton i n v i t e s us t o e n t e r i n t o the d i a l o g u e - between a l l such p o s i t i o n s as c o n s c i o u s -ness may t a k e up, whether they be i n t e l l e c t u a l or s p i r i t u a l or i n t u i t i v e or any o t h e r k i n d of p o s i t i o n s . As he put i t : ... you r e s p e c t the p l u r a l i t y of these t h i n g s , but you do n o t make them ends i n t h e m s e l v e s . We r e s p e c t these t h i n g s and go beyond them . d i a l e c t i c a l l y . The k i n d of t h i n g I am s a y i n g • i s . t h a t i n C h r i s t i a n i t y you have a d i a l e c t i c a l a p p r o a c h . t o t h i s , and i n Bud-dhism you have an e s s e n t i a l , d i a l e c t i c c a l l e d the Madhyamika, which i s .the b a s i s of Zen, and so on. A l l t hese d i a l e c t i c a l .approaches . (.Marxism, of c o u r s e , i s a l s o d i a l e c t i c a l ) go beyond, the t h e s i s and the a n t i t h e s i s , t h i s and t h a t , . b l a c k . a n d w h i t e , E a s t and West. We a c c e p t the - d i v i s i o n , -we work w i t h the d i v i s i o n , and.we.go beyond the d i v i s i o n . R e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n has d e c l a r e d t h a t . i t e x p r e s s e s a t r u t h which remains i n v i o l a t e . T h i s t r u t h may be known through the use of the i n t e l l e c t or through i n n e r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , may be known through n a t u r a l means .or through r e v e l a t i o n or through some co m b i n a t i o n of these..ways. i n . C a t h o l i c i s m we have the n o t i o n of a t r u t h which i s "semper .idem" ,,. always ,the same, y e s t e r d a y , today and tomorrow.- A c c i d e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s which, have, e n t e r e d i n t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s e s s e n t i a l t r u t h i n no way a f f e c t i t s u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y . - U 8 -Today we are f a c e d w i t h , a n i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e . We must d e a l not only with, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two. o r d e r s of t r u t h -the a b s o l u t e and the r e l a t i v e , the unchanging and. the c h a n g ing, the e s s e n t i a l and the a c c i d e n t a l , . . - b u t we must ask a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n . We must d e c i d e what we a r e t o make of the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s . may e x p r e s s • d i f f e r e n t a b s o l u t e s . Do t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s p o i n t t o one.and the same,absolute - d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n h i s t o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of i t ? Or i s t h i s n o t i o n of one supreme u n i f y i n g t r u t h or b e i n g , t h i s "super-symbol", i t s e l f m i s p l a c e d ? Did A n e s a k i mean the same-thing when he s a i d t h a t he c o u l d see C h r i s t because he c o u l d see the.Buddha .as Johnston meant when he s a i d t h a t t r u e d i a l o g u e w i l l t a k e p l a c e when Buddha and C h r i s t meet one a n other i n t h e i r f o l l o w e r s ? I w i l l n o t attempt t o answer t h i s d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n h e r e . However, one i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n .comes out of my s t u d y . I f one a c c e p t s the n o t i o n of two o r d e r s of t r u t h , the way i n which one e n v i s i o n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them, w i t h i n one t r a d i t i o n w i l l be consonant w i t h the way .one e n v i s i o n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a d i t i o n s . By. emphasizing "word" i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y , J ohnston has put s t r e s s , upon communication, upon d u a l i t y . He can e a s i l y a c c e p t , however;. t h a t t h e r e i s no reason why God c o u l d not r e v e a l himself, through . d i f f e r e n t l a nguages. His emphasis on the unique s a v i n g act. of Jesus i s ..not t h r e a t e n e d by t h i s s i n c e the g r a c e of t h a t a c t operates on. the s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l whereas the d i f f e r e n t languages of s p i r i t u a l i t y p e r t a i n t o the n a t u r a l l e v e l . J ohnston i s . c a r e f u l here n o t to. push h i s p o s i t i o n too f a r . On the one hand he i s s a y i n g t h a t a l l men are g o i n g t o the same - U ? " -g o a l ; t h a t a l l languages,, i n s o f a r as they e x p r e s s t r u t h , have r e f e r e n c e , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , , t o the same u l t i m a t e , the same essence, .the. same. f i n a l . b e i n g : t o God the F a t h e r who i s one w i t h Jesus- of: N a z a r e t h , H i s Son. Yet h i s immense r e s p e c t f o r the ot h e r and f o r the. r i g h t - i n d e e d the n e c e s s i t y - f o r the ot h e r t o l i v e h i s own meaning, t.o be h i s own p e r s o n , t o d e f i n e his-own l i f e .in' terms of h i s own community and c u l t u r e make him q u i t e uneasy w i t h those who .-would r e f e r t o a l l 7 men of good w i l l as "anonymous G h r i s t i a n s " J o h n s t o n admits t h a t t h i s approach does, p r o v i d e an " i n g e n i o u s l y l o g i c a l " s o l u t i o n f o r the C h r i s t i a n who n o n t h e l e s s r e c o g n i z e s • t r u t h and goodness i n n o n - C h r i s t i a n s , and Johnston i s i n d e e d a man of l o g i c and c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n , but' he cannot accept' i t p r e c i s e l y because i t i s an i n s e n s i t i v e a pproach. I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t J o h n s t o n r e v e a l s two key a s p e c t s of h i s p a r t i c u l a r e p i s t e m o l o g y - a s p e c t s which d i s t i n g u i s h h i s thought s h a r p l y ' from Merton's. These two a s p e c t s , both of which have a s o r t - o f f i n a l i t y or a b s o l u t e n e s s i n Johnston's t h o u g h t , a c t u a l l y b r i n g Johns ton . t o ' a p o i n t at; which he i s s t r u c k by t h e i r seeming c o n t r a d i c t o r i n e s s . . Johnston's . e x p e r i e n c e l e a d s him to a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h a t u l t i m a t e p e r s p e c t i v e of C a t h o l i c i s m which i n f o r m s h i s l i f e and tha.t concern f o r the o t h e r , which i s a p a r t of h i s s p i r i t u a l o u t l o o k and c e n t r a l t o h i s view of C h r i s t i a n i t y , a r e l i g i o n of person..and r e l a t i o n s h i p . T r a d i t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l are. a s . . i n t i m a t e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , f o r J o h n s t o n as are word and t r u t h , Word and Truth.' Y et Johnston, cannot a c c e p t t h a t , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , , i n the l i g h t of heaven,.'the B u d d h i s t view of r e a l i t y w i l l be as a c c u r a t e as the G h r i s t i a n . view, c e n t e r e d on Jesus who i s God. Johnston' handles, t h i s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n by s u g g e s t i n g - 1.5,0 -t h a t we s h o u l d " r e f r a i n from p u s h i n g l o g i c t o i t s u l t i m a t e p o i n t 8 and l e a r n t o l i v e , w i t h .the .paradox and. the t e n s i o n . " U n l i k e J o h n s t o n , who e v e n t u a l l y abandoned.his p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c e of Zen m e d i t a t i o n - i n Japanese zendos, Merton, who had never made such a p r a c t i c e , chose Zen because,, of a l l the r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s which i n t e r e s t e d him, i t most c l e a r l y pushed t o the extreme. I t was Merton who w r o t e : Th i s t h i n g about Zen i s -that i t pushes c o n t r a d i c t i o n s to t h e i r u l t i m a t e l i m i t where one has t o choose between madness and i n n o c e n c e . And.;Zen suggests t h a t we may be d r i v i n g toward, one or the ot h e r on a cosmic s c a l e . D r i v i n g toward them because, one way or the o t h e r , as madmen or i n n o c e n t s , we a r e a l r e a d y t h e r e . Q I t might be good t o open our eyes and see. I have suggested t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the way i n which Johnston answered q u e s t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a b s o l u t e , and r e l a t i v e .orders of t r u t h and the way i n which he d e a l t w i t h the i s s u e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Bud-dhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y . E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , h i s s o l u t i o n l a y i n h i s "moderate r e a l i s m " , which sought t o take a m i d d l e way between the r e j e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t and the r e j e c t i o n of the o b j e c t . I t i s w o r t h comparing t h i s w i t h .what Merton has t o say i n h i s a r t i c l e on "Monastic E x p e r i e n c e and. East-.West: D i a l o g u e " . Here we can see something of the d i f f e r e n c e between the .temper of the man who b e l i e v e d we needed t o l i v e with,, the 1 t e n s i o n s , and the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and the man who f e l t d r i v e n to. seek t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n - i f n ot i n words, then i n t h a t s i l e n c e which i s most p r o p e r .to the freedom t h a t i s not o n l y t o be found w i t h i n but a l s o , beyond a l l words and a l l u l t i m a t e e s s e n c e s . Merton w r o t e : - 1 5 (Ii " T h i s monastic, "work" or " d i s c i p l i n e " i s not merely an i n d i v i d u a l a f f a i r . I t i s . a t once p e r s o n a l and communal.. I t s o r i e n t a t i o n i s . i n a c e r t a i n sense s u p r a p e r s o n a l . I t goes beyond a merely p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u l f i l l m e n t . o n the e m p i r i c a l l e v e l , and i t goes beyond the l i m i t s of communicable c u l t u r a l i d e a l s (of one's-- own n a t i o n a l , r a c i a l , .etc.,. b a ckground). I t a t t a i n s t o a c e r t a i n , . . u n i v e r s a l i t y , and wholeness which have never y e t been.adequately d e s c r i b e d -and p r o b a b l y . c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d - i n . t e r m s of p s y c h o l o g y . Transcending, the l i m i t s t h a t s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t f r o m , o b j e c t and s e l f . f r o m . n o t - s e l f , t h i s development achieves, a .wholeness .which i s d e s c r i b e d i n v a r i o u s ways by the- d i f f e r e n t , r e l i g i o n s ; a s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n of atman, of. V o i d , of l i f e i n C h r i s t , of f a n a and baqa ( - a n n i h i l a t i o n and r e i n t e g r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o S u f i s m ) , e t c . I f J o h n s t o n ' s d i a l o g u e w i t h Japanese Zen Buddhism l e d him t o d i s c o v e r a freedom w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n , Merton came t o a freedom from a l l t r a d i t i o n . J ohnston came t o un d e r s t a n d language and t r a d i t i o n i n a new way. He d i s c o v e r e d - t h a t new meanings of o l d symbols c o u l d i n d e e d be d i s c o v e r e d through a study of the s p i r i t u -a l i t y of an o t h e r t r a d i t i o n . He came t o f i n d a s y s t e m a t i c e x p l a n a -t i o n f o r the r o l e p l a y e d by o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l p l a n of s a l v a t i o n t h a t he b e l i e v e d was: the f i n a l meaning of l i f e . Merton d e c r i e d t a k i n g systems-and t r a d i t i o n s as f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e s , but he c o n t i n u e d t o use C h r i s t i a n l anguage. This has l e d to a debate between those who f e l t t h a t Merton became a B u d d h i s t ( f o r c e r t a i n l y h i s ep i stem ology i s c l o s e r t o ..that • of Zen than t o t h a t which has come to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h . C h r i s t i a n i t y ) and those who i n s i s t t h a t he remained a , C h r i s t i a n . Though.Merton d i d say t h a t he wanted t o be a.s good.a B u d d h i s t as. he c o u l d and though he c o n s i d e r e d l i v i n g the l i f e of a T i b e t a n . Bu.ddhi s t monk, I t h i n k he saw that, i n the. f i n a l . a n a l y s i s t h i s was not n e c e s s a r y . U n l i k e J o h n s t o n , he f e l t no need t o e x p l a i n those o t h e r s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n s - 1 5 2 -i n l i g h t of some oth e r u l t i m a t e . , which a l o n e gave f i n a l t r u t h t o l i f e . Those t r a d i t i o n s , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g , e l s e , have f i n a l v a l u e i n and of t h e m s e l v e s . -Though Merton c o n t i n u e d . t o use C h r i s t i a n language he came t o use i t i n a r a d i c a l l y new. way - a' way t h a t suggested the freedom 11 from t r a d i t i o n which I am speaking' about h e r e . . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of commentators on Merton's thought seem to.have n e g l e c t e d t h i s r a d i c a l t u r n , most e v i d e n t i n h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y W h i l e Johnston would c o n t i n u e t o i n s i s t t h a t , s i n c e a l l symbols and s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s p o i n t e d t o the same u n d e r l y i n g r e a l i t y , they c o u l d be used t o i n f o r m one another and t o teach' us more about t h a t under-l y i n g r e a l i t y , t h a t " a r c h e t y p e " t o use a J u n g i a n term, t o which they sought t o l e a d and from which they d e r i v e d t h e i r f i n a l meaning and t h e i r b e i n g , Merton stopped l o o k i n g f o r the o t h e r , the hidden essence, the f i n a l r e s t i n g p o i n t . He d i s c o v e r e d a "wisdom-i n - e m p t i n e s s " which was a b l e t o r e s t , f i n a l l y , i n "not-knowing". He came to s e e ' t h a t , i n d e e d , t h e r e was no o t h e r . J ohnston speaks of a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s e n s h r i n e d i n a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s which a re of the essence of human b e i n g . By f a i t h f u l n e s s t o t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s one can be l e a d t o the f i n a l t r u t h , the t r u t h which l i e s h i d d e n i n mystery from human eyes. Even Johnston's p r i n c i p l e s emphasize the p o s i t i v e , the i n d i v i d u a l , the d i s t i n c t . They ..emphasize " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " and " r e c o g n i t i o n " , coming t o know the. "word", t h a t one i s , the "word" t h a t the o t h e r i s , - the "Word" t h a t God is...through a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t i s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the t r u e l m e a n i n g of the s e words w i l l emerge. T h i s emphasis on t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s the "language of l i f . e " goes, hand i n hand w i t h th.e s t r e s s Johnston p l a c e s - 153 -on the s o c i a l dimension of t r u t h . H i s concern w i t h h i s own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a C a t h o l i c , h i s own commitment t o h i s own t r a d i t i o n , a l o n g w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t i n . the i n s t i t u t i o n a l dimension of d i a l o g u e are met by h i s . e q u a l l y genuine concern f o r the o t h e r -ness of the B u d d h i s t w i t h whom-he • d i a l o g u e s .• He r e c o g n i z e s the r i g h t of the B u d d h i s t t o spea-k his' own language,, s t a t i n g o n l y t h a t the language of .the . B u d d h i s t , l i k e h i s C h r i s t i a n language, l e a d s u l t i m a t e l y t o the Word which i s God the F a t h e r . One needs a t r a d i t i o n , a r e l i g i o u s l anguage, t o move t o t h i s word: t o r e c o g n i z e where one t r u l y i s and who one t r u l y i s , t h a t i s , a b e i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p . One comes t o speak one's language more f u l l y and w i t h more u n d e r s t a n d i n g i f one can come t o u n d e r s t a n d the language of the o t h e r both because, i n d o i n g so, one i s a f f i r m i n g the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e of " b e i n g - i n - r e l a t i o n s h i p " and because one i s a t the same -tim.e coming t o broaden the number of a s s o c i a t i o n s one has w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l symbols of one's own " n a t i v e language" by the process- of comparison and c o n t r a s t w i t h the symbols of a n o t h e r " r e l i g i o u s language" w h i c h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , has ref.eren.ce t o p r e c i s e l y the same u l t i m a t e and e s s e n t i a l b e i n g , to the Word, t o God.. D i a l o g u e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of Johnston's t h e o l o g y . And i f he i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t p r e s e n t - e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e a "common t h e o l o g i c a l l a n guage" a r e doomed t o f a i l u r e , as h i s own e f f o r t f a i l e d , he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n v i n c e d t h a t such a 1 2 language w i l l emerge i n the f u t u r e . I t w i l l emerge because the language which we speak on the' n a t u r a l l e v e l t o which we are bound s t r i v e s t o p o i n t ever more- a c c u r a t e l y t o . the F i n a l T r u t h , the t r u t h of a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g , the T r u t h of God. The r a t h e r a b s t r a c t v i s i o n of d i a l o g u e which' Johnston expounds - 1 5% -c o n t r a s t s w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c r e t e approach of Merton. J o h n s t o n ' s e n t i r e , programme., f or d i a l o g u e r e s t s , on the a c c e p t a n c e of a f i n a l and u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y t o which a l l o t h e r , r e a l i t i e s have r e f e r e n c e . Merton seemed t o abandon a l l attempts t o speak of such " u l t i m a t e r e a l i t i e s " , v i s i o n e d as somehow o t h e r than t h a t which i s g i v e n i n the here and-now and e s s e n t i a l to the emergence of meaning f o r the here and now. A f t e r :a long, and arduous j o u r n e y , f u l l of darkness and c o n f u s i o n and despair., Merton reached the p o i n t a t which mountains were • mountains a n d . r i v e r s were r i v e r s . And words were - w e l l , they.were words. Merton used them w i t h freedom and abandon, n o t emphasizing any A r c h i m e d i a n P o i n t a t which a l l were s t r i v i n g t o p o i n t , but r a t h e r e mphasizing t h e i r very d a r k n e s s , t h e i r unknowing, and the f u l l e x p r e s s i o n of the n o n - d u a l i t y between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t out of which words f l o w e d . Seeking t o e x p r e s s my sense of. the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e ' t h o u g h t of the two men I have sometimes, s u s p e c t e d . t h a t Johnston's e f f o r t s were geared t o plummeting depths,which-were l i k e the depths of the ocean and d i d , i n d e e d , have, a bottom -. no matter how f a r away t h a t might be. He a g a i n and a g a i n e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t no r e a l p r o g r e s s can be made i n the s p i r i t u a l l i f e u n l e s s one has , f a i t h - and t h a t f a i t h has t o be i n something p o s i t i v e . Only w i t h such a v i e w p o i n t w i l l one- be a b l e t o go through a l l the dark n i g h t s and the s a c r i f i c e s and the d i s c i p l i n e s and so. on.. For Merton, on the o t h e r hand, there., was--.no bottom,, as he d i d . n o t always t h i n k b u t as he s e e m s • i n c r e a s i n g l y to.have become c o n v i c t e d t h rough h i s study of Zen.. Here, however,: i t i s worth, n o t i n g t h a t the " e p i s t e -m o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " through which,Merton passed - passed by way of a l l those dark n i g h t s which, he c o u l d , not. choose: because, i n f a c t , - 1 5 5 -they seem t o have f i r s t chosen him - d i d not. r e l y upon h i s study of Zen. The " e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n " (which can be seen a l s o i n such contemporary w r i t e r s as James H i l l m a n . and Ja.cques D e r r i d a ) was r a t h e r p a r t and p a r c e l . o f Merton's t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a p o p h a t i c m y s t i c i s m , a m y s t i c i s m which. Merton, l i k e f ew. , " C h r i s t i a n " m y s t i c s b e f o r e him, seems to have taken, t o the . l i m i t . .Merton was a b l e t o go beyond r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r because he l i v e d i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . He was exposed t o 1 o t h e r s p i r i t u a l i t i e s . And w h i l e he c o n t i n u e d t o speak C h r i s t i a n language ©u.t of the f u l l n e s s which opened i n h i s l i f e , out of the depths of h i s "un-knowing", he was a l s o a b l e t o speak f r e e l y w i t h the language of the o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s . He used r e l i g i o u s language as a p o e t . Johnston's epistemology- r e t u r n s us t o s t r u c t u r e s . The a r c h e -t y p a l s t r u c t u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p , the mold on which a l l s t r u c t u r e s ar e f u n d a m e n t a l l y based, the d u a l i s m emphasized i n h i s thought i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. Jo h n s t o n has s t r e s s e d the v a l u e of l i v i n g out a commitment of f a i t h and b e l i e f . He has i n s i s t e d on the dimension of community and of t r a d i t i o n . In a sense h i s p e r s o n a l view of s p i r i t u a l i t y g i v e s p r i o r i t y t o t r a d i t i o n and community over i n d i v i d u a l i t y , though he does r e c o g n i z e an i n t e r p l a y of f o r c e s . For Merton, however: I f you f o r g e t , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t has been s a i d , I would, suggest t h a t - y o u remember t h i s f o r the f u t u r e : "From now on,, everybody stands on h i s own f e e t . " This-, I t h i n k , . i s what Buddhism i s about,, what C h r i s t i a n i t y i s about, what m o n a s t i c i s m i s about -i f you u n d e r s t a n d i t i n terms of g r a c e . I t . i s not a P e l a g i a n s t a t e m e n t , by any means, but a statement - 1 5 6 -t o the- e f f e c t t h a t we can no. l o n g e r r e l y on b e i n g - supported.by s t r u c t u r e s t h a t may be d e s t r o y e d a t any moment.'by.-a. p o l i t i c a l power, or a. p o l i t i c a l f o r c e . .You, cannot r e l y on. s t r u c t u r e s . The time f o r . r e l y i n g on s t r u c t u r e s has disappeared.. .They . are good;.and ..they s h o u l d h e l p us, and we s h o u l d .do.the'best we can w i t h them. But. they may be t a k e n .away., and i f e v e r y -t h i n g i s taken away, what do. you do n e x t ? Merton does n o t need s t r u c t u r e s . . He does, not need r e l i g i o n . He does n o t have t o remain a C h r i s t i a n . He has i n d e e d a c h i e v e d the "freedom of the sons of. God" - .the freedom t h a t he has come t o r e c o g n i z e i n h i m s e l f and i n a l l men, the freedom from d i s t i n c t i o n , from t h i s and t h a t , from s u b j e c t , and o b j e c t , from s e l f and o t h e r . He had a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d t h i s freedom i n h i s meeting w i t h S u z u k i , t h a t "True Man of No T i t l e " , the "man. one r e a l l y wants t o meet", f o r , as he asked t h e n : "Who e l s e i s t h e r e ? " I do n o t sense i n Merton any need t o say t h a t - w h i l e we r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y of o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s , .and other, r e l i g i o n s and other' p e o p l e s - i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i n the l a s t r e c k o n i n g , , i n the day of judgement, the C h r i s t i a n message,.the. C h r i s t i a n f o r m u l a t i o n , the Word i d e n t i f i e d by and w i t h the C h r i s t i a n Jesus and. the C h r i s t i a n God w i l l win the day. Merton's sense, of h i m s e l f .and h i s . sense of r e a l i t y underwent a sea-change t h a t . d i s t i n g u i shed . i t . s.o r a d i c a l l y from t h a t of most of h i s f e l l o w C h r i s t i a n s t h a t , while, they c o n t i n u e t o argue t h a t he i n d e e d d i d remain a . C a t h o l i c ,.. they seem., t o have missed h i s message f o r h i s l a n g u a g e . -F.or Merton . t h e r e was.no f i n a l .symbol,. no u l t i m a t e Word. While, mos.t. students, of. Merton - a t l e a s t , those, who i d e n t i f y t hemselves a-s•• G h r i s t i a n s . - seem, t o have sensed .that something r e v o l u t i o n a r y took p l a c e i n h i s l i f e , I: do. not t h i n k they r e a l l y 1 L u n d e r s t o o d j u s t , what t h a t was. - 157. -Yet an e p i s t e m o l o g y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the v a s t m a j o r i t y of C h r i s t i a n s - and c e r t a i n l y from t h a t , of W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n -u n d e r l a y the adve n t u r e Merton had. w i t h . Zen.-, It. ,can be seen i n much of h i s w r i t i n g of the l a s t decade'of .his l i f e . I w i l l o f f e r a cou p l e of examples which -suggest, both i n f o r m ( t h a t of dream and p o e t r y ) and i n c o n t e n t , the s o r t of r e v o l u t i o n . t h a t took p l a c e i n Merton's l i f e . In the A s i a n J o u r n a l he.chose t o g i v e us the f o l l o w i n g dream: L a s t n i g h t I dreamed t h a t I was, t e m p o r a r i l y , back a t Gethsemani. I was d r e s s e d i n a Bud-d h i s t monk's h a b i t , but w i t h more b l a c k and r e d and g o l d , a "Zen h a b i t " , i n c o l o r more T i b e t a n than Zen. I was g o i n g t o t e l l Donald Kane, the cook i n the d i e t k i t c h e n , t h a t I would be t h e r e f o r supper. I met some women i n the c o r r i d o r , v i s i t o r s and s t u d e n t s of A s i a n r e l i g i o n , t o whom I was e x p l a i n i n g I was a k i n d of Zen monk and Gelugpa t o g e t h e r , when I woke up. I w i l l l e a v e the e x p o s i t i o n of t h i s dream t o the f a n c y of my r e a d e r s , s u g g e s t i n g only t h a t i n l i g h t of the comments I have made i n t h i s c h a p t e r i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e i n d e e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y . I t may w e l l be compared w i t h a v e r s e from. h i s . Geography of L o g r a i r e , a p o e t i c d e p i c t i o n of Merton's i n n e r l a n d s c a p e . Note here the emphasis on movement and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t any c o r r e s p o n d i n g heed t o p r o v i d e , those p r o c e s s e s , w i t h a f i n a l end. Should the dance of Shivashapes A l l over f l o o d e d - p r a i r i e s . Make h o s t s of (soon) Christ-Wheat. S e l f - b r e a d which could., a l s o be Squares of B u d d h a - R i c e 1 b - 158 -N e i t h e r Johnston nor Merton has produced .an e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t p e r s p e c t i v e : on d i a l o g u e . I f my argument about t h e i r e p i s t e m o l o g i e s can be a c c e p t e d , i t must n o n e t h e l e s s be a c c e p t e d i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c o n t r a d i c t ! o n s . a r e t o be found s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r w r i t i n g s . J o h n s t o n seems t o me t o have come c l o s e s t t o the p o s i t i o n i have argued was t a k e n by Merton i n h i s C h r i s t i a n Zen, p r o b a b l y i n h i s own s i t t i n g p r a c t i c e and In h i s emphasis on s i l e n c e . I t i s a t t h e s e p o i n t s t h a t one. senses Johnston was h i m s e l f most c h a l l e n g e d t o move beyond the v i e w p o i n t I have suggested he developed "over the y e a r s . Merton, on the o t h e r hand, comes c l o s e s t t o J o h n s t o n n o t so much i n h i s emphasis on word and system ( f o r he has s t r e s s e d p o e t i c s and i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o an extreme n o t f i n a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h J o h n s t o n ' s t h o u g h t ) but i n h i s b e l i e f i n C h r i s t and h i s s t r e s s on the s u p e r n a t u r a l . As I have s t a t e d elsewhere i n - t h i s t h e s i s , I do n o t t h i n k t h a t Merton had f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d a l l the c o n f l i c t s between h i s own r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n and the p o s i t i o n t h a t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the more t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t surrounded .'him and gave s t r u c t u r e to h i s l i f e . Y e t i f J o h n s t o n r o s e above h i s c o n f l i c t s t o an i n t e l l e c t u a l p o s i t i o n that, a l l o w e d . him t o c o n t a i n and g i v e meaning t o them, w h i l e a t the same time a l l o w i n g him.to work i n c r e a t i v e and s e n s i t i v e ways f o r b oth the C h r i s t i a n and. the n o n - C h r i s t i a n Japanese r e l i g i o u s , Merton- seems t o have, r e s o l v e d h i s c o n f l i c t s i n t hose moments which were f r e e o f v e r b a l , o v e r p l a y of any k i n d , of b e l i e f of any k i n d , of the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r . e x p l a n a t i o n of any k i n d . C e r t a i n l y h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n S r i Lanka was one of those moments and p e r h a p s , h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e one of the c l e a r e s t e x p o s i t i o n s of h i s v i e w p o i n t - o r , r a t h e r , h i s freedom - 159 -from the need f o r any a b s o l u t e v i e w p o i n t , h i s . f r e e d o m from t r a d i t i o n . W i l f r e d Cantwell. Smith i n one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s , of i n t e r r e l i g i ous dialogue,.. h i s 1981. study Towards a  World Theology, w r o t e : I do not r e g a r d i t as r e q u i s i t e f o r the t h e s i s of t h i s study t o p r o f f e r here- and now a d i s c i p l i n e d e p i s t e m o l o g y t o go a l o n g w i t h our n e w . g l o b a l aware-n e s s . Many c u r r e n t western e p i s t e m o l o g i e s a r e o r i e n t e d more t o s c i e n c e ...than to h i s t o r y , more t o t h i n g s than t o p e r s o n s , and a r e more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c than w i l l p r o b a b l y (or anyway s h o u l d ) endure. The t a s k of a t t a i n i n g an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t w i l l be h i s t o r i c a l l y s e l f - c r i t i c a l as w e l l as u n i v e r s a l i s t , . i s i n t e r l i n k e d , w i t h , nor p r i o r t o , our t a s k of a t t a i n i n g c o r p o r a t e , c r i t i c a l s e l f -cons c i ousnes.s . i n the r e l i g i o u s r e a l m . In f a c t , some would hardly'be. s u r p r i s e d i f ..the. c o m p a r a t i v e study of r e l i g i o n c o n t r i b u t e d more t o the.development of w e s t e r n epistemology. than v i c e versa:, but the two s h o u l d go hand i n hand. In any c a s e , the s t r i v i n g t o understand- r e l i g i o n i s p a r t and p a r c e l o f , c e r t a i n l y .j n o t s.ubordinate. t o , , man ' s g e n e r a l a s p i r a t i o n to t r u t h . Merton and Johnston have e v o l v e d e p i s t e m o l o g i e s which have r e f l e c t e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l , l i f e , h i s t o r i e s . P a r t of those h i s t o r i e s , f o r whatever r e a s o n s , has been t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the Zen t r a d i t i o n of Japanese, s p i r i t u a l i t y . A c u t e l y .aware of the d i f f i -c u l t i e s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t , i n the i n t e r a c t i o n they have s t r u g g l e d , t,o, make . meaning out . of. t h e i r , i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i r own p r o f essed r e l i g i o u s , t r a d i t i o n , .and t h e . - t r a d i t i o n of Zen Buddhism.' Many f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , w i l l need ..to.be u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e we w i l l / b e g i n t o understand., t h e i r tremendous e f f o r t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , we w i l l , n e e d t o e x p l o r e those, s t u d i e s .of symbolism, of language and of. metaphor such as may be found, i n the work of - 160 -Paul' R i c o e u r or'.David Tracy among many o t h e r s . .We w i l l need to examine the s o c i a l . . dimension of d i a l o g u e , a s k i n g , - f o r example, what new l i g h t the- w r i t i n g s of such a s c h o l a r as Joseph Spae' might b r i n g t o our d i s c u s s i o n . We w i l l want to l o o k a t the i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e t h a t t a k e s p l a c e n o t between Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen Buddhism, but between Roman. C a t h o l i c i s m and' v a r i o u s forms of Islam or Judaism, of .Hinduism, or the. many more ' t r a d i t i o n a l and l e s s s y s t e m a t i z e d . r e l i g i o n s , of. the T h i r d World, as w e l l as the di a l o g u e s - among those r e l i g i o n s , t h e m s e l v e s . The 1 more than on.e. hundred page- b i b l i o g r a p h y / C h r i s t i a n F a i t h Amidst R e l i g i o u s P l u r a l i s m , p u b l i s h e d by U n i o n / T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary i n Richmond, V i r g i n i a i n 1980, g i v e s s o m e - i n d i c a t i o n . of the scope of E n g l i s h language m a t e r i a l s , a l r e a d y , a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s a r e a . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h a t work r e f e r e n c e i s made t o some twenty-1 8 seven p e r i o d i c a l s t h a t a re j o u r n a l s of i n t e r f a i t h d i a l o g u e . A l l of t h i s g i v e s some h i n t of the tremendous e f f o r t b e f o r e us. As Johnston has observed we are a t the b e g i n n i n g of a l o n g t a s k . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h a t t a s k can hardly, be ..overestimated. And t h e r e can be I I t t l . e . doubt . t h a t , how.eyer we e v e n t u a l l y come t o u n d e r s t a n d i n t e r r e l i g i ous. d i a l o g u e , the work of W i l l i a m Johnston and Thomas Merton w i l l p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n i t . - 1 61 -FOOTNOTES I n t r o d u c t i on 1. H e i n r i c h Dumoulin,. C h r i s t i a n i t y Meets Buddhism, t r a n s . John Maraldo ( L a S a l l e , 111.: Open Court P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974), p. 183. 2. Bateson's i d e a s a re put f o r w a r d e s p e c i a l l y i n Steps t o an  Ecology of Mind (New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1972) and Mind and  Nat u r e : A Necessary U n i t y (New York: E. P. Du t t o n , 1979). 3. W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n . Zen (New York,: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1971), p. 1. 4. John H i c k , "Foreword" t o Lynn-A. d e S i l v a , The Problem of S e l f  i n Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y (London: M a c m i l l a n P r e s s L t d . , 1975). p. i x . 5. F r a n c i s X a v i e r q u o t e d i n Thomas Merton, The Zen R e v i v a l (London: The B u d d h i s t S o c i e t y , n. d . ) , p. 3. 6. C. R. Boxer, The C h r i s t i a n Century i n . J a p a n : 154-9-1 650 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1951). 7. A b r i e f but v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p e r i o d can be found i n W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , " T r a n s l a t o r ' s P r e f a c e " , i n Shusaku Endo, Si1en c e, t r a n s . W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n (Tokyo: C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e Co., I n c . f o r Sophia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 969 ) p. 1-18. - 162 -8. Endo, S i l e n c e ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) , p. 5-6. 9. Boxer, C h r i s t i a n Century, p. 318. 10. An i n t e r e s t i n g study of two forms of' C h r i s t i a n i t y which developed i n Japan i n i s o l a t i o n from . Western", .contact (Mukyo-kai and Makuya) can be found i n C a r l o C a l d a r o , C h r i s t i a n i t y : The  Japanese Way ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1979). 11. H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, A H i s t o r y of. Zen Buddhism, t r a n s . P a u l Peachey (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, 1965), p. 198. 12. I b i d . , p. 209. 13. I b i d . , p. 209. 14. "But can we t r u l y d i s m i s s Zen as ' p a s s i v e m y s t i -cism'? Is i t m y s t i c i s m a t a l l ? Is i t a 'way of s a l v a t i o n ' ? Is i t i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ? I s i t .'.subjec-t i v e ' ? These a r e n o t e a s y q u e s t i o n s t o answer, w i t h any amount of e x a c t i t u d e , though i t can be s a i d from the s t a r t t h a t terms l i k e ' m y s t i c i s m ' , ' p a s s i v i t y ' , ' s u b j e c t i v i t y ' , and so on, e s p e c i a l l y the term ' r e l i g i o n ' cannot be a p p l i e d t o Zen w i t h o u t very s t r i c t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and i n d e e d they s h o u l d perhaps n o t n o r m a l l y be a p p l i e d t o i t a t a l l . " Merton, Zen R e v i v a l , p. 1. 1 5 . Shusaku Endo, S i l e n c e , p. 2 3 6 - 2 4 . 0 . 1 6 . A good i n t r o d u c t i o n , t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Japanese c u l t u r e can be found i n C h a r l e s A. Moore (ed.),. The Japanese Mind: E s s e n t i a l s - 1.63 -of Japanese...Philosophy and. C u l t u r e ( H o n o l u l u : E a s t -West Center P r e s s , 1967). Moore c a u t i o n s us: The Japanese thought-and.-culture t r a d i t i o n i s p r o b a b l y the most e n i g m a t i c and p a r a d o x i c a l of a l l major t r a d i t i o n s , but. - . p a r t l y f o r t h a t very reason - i t p r e s e n t s more i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l c h a l l e n g e s , more unique and i n t e r e s t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s , and more p r o v o c a t i v e r e a c t i o n s . than any of the other g r e a t t r a d i t i o n s of A s i a . T h e ; p a r a d o x i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the Japanese mind has been i n e v i t a b l e and u n a v o i d -a b l e f o r the Japanese - i n a d o p t i n g , a d a p t i n g , and a t t e m p t i n g t o harmonize such d i f f e r i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s and r e l i g i o n s as C o n f u c i a n i s m , Taoism, Buddhism, German i d e a l i s m , , and, i n d i g e n o u s S h i n t o . And i t i s a l s o i n e s c a p a b l e and beyond.'.clear-cut comprehension f o r a l l but the Japanese., e s p e c i a l l y the West. I t makes an e x c i t i n g study but a. demanding one. Moore, Japanese Mind, p. 1 . 17. Masaharu A n e s a k i , "How C h r i s t i a n i t y Appeals t o a Japanese B u d d h i s t " , H i b b e r t J o u r n a l : A Q u a r t e r l y • R e v i e w . of R e l i g i o n , Theology, and P h i l o s o p h y , v o l . i v , no. i (1 905): p. 9-10. F o r the i n t e r e s t e d reader. I p r o v i d e here a f u l l e r q u o t a t i o n from A n e s a k i ' s t e x t (p. 9-11): A time may come when a l l the w o r l d w i l l a c c e p t the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , but t h i s . w i l l never a b o l i s h the d i f f e r e n c e of t a s t e s or modes of e x p r e s s i o n . E a s t e r n p e o p l e s w i l l h a r d l y l o s e t h o r o u g h l y t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e of serene m e d i t a t i v e f a i t h . T h e i r C h r i s t i a n i t y w i l l never be the . C h r i s t i a n i t y of a Jew,, f e r v e n t and sometimes very e x c l u s i v e . The Greeks demand wisdom and the Jews- a s i g n ; the g i f t s a r e d i v e r s e , but the s p i r i t the same. There a r e many paths and roads .in f o r e s t s and v a l l e y s , but those who have c l i m b e d up t o the h i l l t o p , by. any of t h e s e r o u t e s e q u a l l y enjoy the same m o o n l i g h t on the open summit. T h i s i s an. o l d Buddhist' p r o v e r b . B u d d h i s t s w i l l never l o s e t h i s s p i r i t of t o l e r a t i o n . There may grow i n Japan a form of C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h o u t Pope and w i t h o u t Holy Synod, but Buddhism w i l l n e v e r t h e l e s s - 164 -h o l d i t s f o o t i n g t h e r e i n f o r e v e r . In s h o r t , we B u d d h i s t s a r e ready t o a c c e p t C h r i s t i a n i t y ; nay, more, our. f a i t h i n Buddha i s f a i t h i n C h r i s t . We see C h r i s t because we.see Buddha. The one has come, t o us i n order, t o r e l e a s e us from the f e t t e r s of p a s s i o n and a v a r i c e / .and to c o n v i n c e us of an i d e a l h i g h e r than any w o r l d l y good. H i s g o s p e l was t h a t of r e s i g n a t i o n , a t t a i n a b l e by medi-t a t i o n , y e t never . l e a v i n g one to the dreamy q u i e t i s m of p a n t h e i s t i c or n i h i l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , but p u r i f y i n g human a c t i v i t y by calm e n l i g h t e n m e n t , and p u s h i n g one t o the l o v e of a l l b e i n g s by f a i t h , i n • a n i n c a r n a t e Dharma-. The o t h e r appeared- i n ' f l e s h as Son of Man, t o redeem us from s i n , to r e c o v e r us t o the l o v e of our F a t h e r , from a covetous attachment t o our own e g o t i s m . H i s g o s p e l was t h a t .• of. l o v e and hope, but never of f u r y and v a n i t y . He preached, no wisdom, but the wisdom of h i s b e l i e v e r s i s h o l y and l e a d i n g • t o the F a t h e r , p u r i f i e d by f a i t h and strengthened-by hope. The q u e s t i o n of the f u t u r e depends upon how f u l l y the f o l l o w e r s of the two Lords, u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r , and how the two streams•of the c i v i l i s a t i o n s n o u r i s h e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by them i n the West and the E a s t can harmonise w i t h each o t h e r and c o n t r i b u t e c o n j o i n t l y t o the f u t u r e p r o g r e s s of humanity. The s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem i s no matter of merely a b s t r a c t s p e c u l a t i o n , but of sympathy and f a i t h . J u s t as a t the f o u n t a i n - h e a d s of these two streams t h e r e appeared the T r u t h i n f l e s h , the F a i t h i n p e r s o n , the r e a l i s a t i o n of. t h i s harmony i n l o v e and f a i t h needs an i n c a r n a t e p e r s o n , r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e of humanity. The p e r s o n may be. a p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d -u a l or a n a t i o n . I f t h e . appearance:of. C h r i s t or Buddha has n o t been i n v a i n , i f the two streams of c i v i l i z a t i o n have been more than ephemeral, then we s h a l l hope not i n v a i n f o r the second advent of C h r i s t or the appearance of the f u t u r e Buddha Me t t e y a . 18. An easy r e a d i n g study w i t h m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t • h e r e i s Pat B a r r , The Deer Cry P a v i l i o n : A S t o r y of W e s t e r n e r s . i n Japan 1868-19 05 (New Y o r k : Har.court, Brace .& World, I n c . , 1 968). 19. H e i n r i c h Dumoulin, "The Western View of-., Zen" , i n Zen E n l i g h t -enment: O r i g i n s and .Meaning, t r a n s . John Mar a i d o .(Tokyo: John W e a t h e r h i l l , I n c . , 1979), p. 3-13. - 1,65 -20. B r o t h e r P a t r i c k H a r t , "Foreword", t o ; Donald G r a y s t o n and M i c h a e l ¥. H i g g i n s ( e d s . ) , Thomas•Merton:.Pilgrim i n P r o c e s s ( T o r o n t o : G r i f f i n House G r a p h i c s .Ltd., 1983), p. v i i . 21. Thomas Merton, The Way of Chuang Tzu (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1965), p. 11. . 22. D. T. S u z u k i quoted by C h r i s t m a s Humphreys i n the "Foreword" to Thomas Merton, Zen R e v i v a l . 23. There i s a g r e a t d e a l more t o be s a i d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p among r e l i g i o n s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the commonality of "human n a t u r e " a c r o s s c u l t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s -.than. I have s a i d i n t h i s t h e s i s . My a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m N i c h o l l s , has examined i n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e as a p r i m a r y s t i m u l u s i n Merton's r e a l -i z a t i o n of h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y . See W . . N i c h o l l s and I. Kent, "Merton and I d e n t i t y " i n Donald G r a y s t o n and•Michael.W. H i g g i n s ( e d s . ) , Thomas Merton: P i l g r i m i n P r o c e s s (Toronto: 1 G r i f f i n House G r a p h i c s L t d . , 1983), p. 1 0 6-120. T h i s i s a p o t e n t i a l l y v e ry f r u i t f u l a r e a of e x p l o r a t i o n , though one f r o u g h t w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s . In the framework of my t h e s i s as a whole the argument developed i n t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t e s p e c i a l l y f o r i t s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . 2 4 . . Thomas Merton, Zen and the B i r d s of A p p e t i t e .(Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 968),. p. 2. ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Merton, B i r d s ) . - 166 -25. A l t h o u g h I have only been a b l e ...to .hint a.t. i t i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t o me, as. I wrote, and s t u d i e d t h a t a g r e a t d e a l c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h a .comparison of Merton's thought w i t h t h a t of t h e . F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e r . J a c q u e s D e r r i d a and t h a t , i n d e e d , one great, m i s s i n g p a r t : i n the. f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Merton's p r o j e c t i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f : i t . a g a i n s t the'background of F rench i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y of , the,. p r e s e n t c e n t u r y . My d i s c u s -s i o n of Merton's i d e a s b e g i n s w i t h h i s c r i t i q u e of the i d e a s of i Rene D e s c a r t e s . I have made some l i t t l e mention of h i s i n t e r e s t i n e x i s t e n t i a l i s m ' . R eferences w i l l be found i n h i s w r i t i n g s t o t the thought of Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s .and a l s o t o t h a t of Roland B a r t h e s , whose W r i t i n g Degree Zero was r e v i e w e d by Merton, and M i c h e l F o u c a u l t . Merton was f l u e n t i n . F r e n c h , h a v i n g spent a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of h i s c h i l d h o o d i n t h a t .country, and was p a r t i c u -l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o i t s c u l t u r e . . By h i s own a c c o u n t , s e v e r a l of the dreams which he r e c a l l e d h a v i n g . d u r i n g the l a s t days of h i s l i f e took p l a c e i n the south o f - F r a n c e . A l t h o u g h s c a t t e r e d r e f e r e n c e s can be f o u nd i n . the l i t e r a t u r e to, t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s on Merton, I am n o t aware of any complete study of them. One a f f i r m a t i o n of my sense of the importance of D e r r i d a ' s thought f o r the study of Merton and i n p a r t i c u l a r of Merton's i n v o l v e m e n t i n I n t e r r e l i g i o u s d i a l o g u e can be f o u n d i n . some comments of Winston L. K i n g i n h i s f o r e w o r d t o K e i j i N i s h i t a n i ' s R e l i g i o n and N o t h i n g n e s s . D i s c u s s i n g w e s t e r n .streams of thought which have a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y f o r Nishitani.'.s work, K i n g r e f l e c t s : A more r e c e n t . b u t very l i v e l y s c h o o l , of American thought -..one, f o r the moment more o f t e n t o be f o u n d i n departments ,of l i t e r a t u r e than i n , d e p a r t m e n t s of p h i l o s o p h y or r e l i g i o n - i s t h a t d e r i v e d from F r e n c h - 167 -s t r u c t u r a l i s t and p o s t s t r u c t u r a l i s t D e r r i d a . A p r i n c i p a l , theme of. t h i s s e h o o l has been the a t t a c k on the d i s t i n c t i o n between a u t h o r and r e a d e r . .At s u c c e s s i v e l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h i s theme becomes .an a t t a c k on the d i s t i n c t i o n between crea.tor, and i n t e r p r e t e r ' , s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , and f i n a l l y between .s e l f - a n d n o n s e l f . When and i f the-methods of. ..this c r i t i q u e b e g i n t o be employed on.the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m atter of t h e o l o g y , N i s h i t a n i ' s somewhat p a r a l l e l c r i t i q u e of the W e s t e r n . e r i s e s • o f theism and s e l f h o o d may f i n d a s u r p r i s i n g k i n d of welcome. Winston L. K i n g , "Foreword" t o K e i j i N i s h i t a n i , R e l i g i o n and  N o t h i n g n e s s , tran s . ' Jan - van . Bragt ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1982), p. x x i . Two r e c e n t s t u d i e s of r e l e v a n c e , are:. .Geoffrey H. Hartman:, Saving the T e x t : L i t e r a t u r - e / D e r r l d a . / P h i l o s o p h y ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981) and V i n c e n t B. L e i t c h , D e construc-t i v e C r i t i c i s m : An Advanced .In . t r o d u c t i o n (New.York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983). A deeper sense of the v a l u e of W i l l i a m Johnston's work might be d e v e l o p e d through a comparison, w i t h t h e . ; w r i t i n g s of P a u l R i c o e u r , a n o t h e r key f i g u r e i n the F r e n c h scene. - 168 -Chapter One 1. R a i n e r M a r i a R i l k e , Duino Elegies.,, German .text w i t h E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , i n t r o d u c t i o n , and commentary by J . B. Leishman and Stephen Spender (New York: W.W. Norton 6 Co.,.. I n c . , 1 963), p. 20. 2. See Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces ( P r i n c e t o n , N. J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s f o r B o l l i n g e n F o u n d a t i o n , I n c . , 194-9) or v a r i o u s o t h e r works of Campbell. 3. For a v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t o p i c see the works of Lynn de S i l v a , e s p e c i a l l y The Problem of S e l f i n Buddhism and C h r i s t i -a n i t y (London: M a c m i l l a n P r e s s . L t d . , 1975). 4-. W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , . S i l e n t Music. (New, York.: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1974), p. 9. 5. I b i d . . , p. 4-8. 6. I b i d . , p. 37-39. 7. Merton, B i r d s , p. 22. 8. Thomas Merton, The Seven Storey, Mountain (Garden... C i t y , New York: Image Books, 1970, c. 1948), p. 140. 9. Thomas Merton, The.Asia, J o u r n a l of Thomas. Merton, ed. Naomi Burton et a l . (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968),; - 169 -p. 3 3 3 - 3 3 4 . 10. Two volumes which p r o v i d e a number of p e r s p e c t i v e s on t r a n s -p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g y and on the v a l u e of s t u d y i n g e a s t e r n s p i r i t u a l -i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o i t are Roger N. Walsh and Fr a n c e s Vaughan ( e d s . ) , Beyond Ego: T r a n s p e r s o n a l Dimensions, i n Psyc h o l o g y (.Los A n g e l e s : J . P. T a r c h e r , I n c . , 1 980) and John Welwood (e.d. .) , . The Meeting of  the Ways: E x p l o r a t i o n s i n East/West Psychology (New York: Schocken Books, 1 979 ).. 11. W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , The M i r r o r Mind (New/ York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1981), p. 10. - 170 -Chapter Two 1. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n can be found d i s c u s s e d i n many p l a c e s . One of t h e b e s t and most r e c e n t s t u d i e s of i t i s P e t e r L. Berger ( e d . ) , The Other Side of God: A P o l a r i t y i n World R e l i g i o n s (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Anchor P r e s s , 1981). 2. A l t h o u g h t h i s study w i l l . f o c u s . o n d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen Buddhism I s h o u l d mention t h a t W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n has made some o b s e r v a t i o n s on Amida Buddhism. See e s p e c i a l l y h i s "Pure. Land Buddhism and Nembutsu: The M e d i t a t i o n of F a i t h " i n : S t u d i a . M i s s i o n a l i a 25 (1 976): 43-64. 3. For a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t i m u l a t i n g a c c o u n t of the r o l e of e x p e r i e n c e i n r e l i g i o n I would suggest Jacob .Need!eman, Lost. C h r i s t i a n i t y : A Journey of R e d i s c o v e r y t o . t h e Center of C h r i s t i a n E x p e r i e n c e (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1980). 4. "An E a s t e r n l a d y wanted t o know what I had been w o r k i n g on so d i l i g e n t l y . I r e p l i e d t h a t I was w r i t i n g a book about an Englishman who became a Communist, then a C a t h o l i c , l a t e r a T r a p p i s t monk, and f i n a l l y a B u d d h i s t , a t which p o i n t , h i s l i f e h a v i n g been f u l f i l l e d , he d i e d . " Edward R i c e , The Man i n the Sycamore Tree (Garden C i t y , New York: Image Books, 1972, c. 1970), p. 187. 5. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 14-8. - 171 -6 . J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 11. 7 . Mumon Yamada quoted i n J . K.. Kadowaki,, Zen and the B i b l e :  A P r i e s t ' s E x p e r i e n c e , t r a n s . Joan R i e c k (London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 7 1 - 7 2 . 8 . J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 6 1 . 9 . A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the r o l e of the b e l l y as the c e n t r e it of b e i n g can be found i n E a r l f r i e d , Graf von Durckheim, Hara:  The V i t a l Centre of Man (New. York: F e r n h i l l House, 1 9 7 0 ) . 1 0 . J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 6 2 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p. 6 3 . 1 2 . Numerous works have been . w r i t t e n by and about. T e i l h a r d . One v a l u a b l e study of de Ghardin's r e l a t i o n t o E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s i s U r s u l a K i n g , Towards a New Mysticism:. T e i l h a r d de Chardin and  E a s t e r n R e l i g i o n s (London:.¥. C o l l i n s Sons & Co., L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) . 1 3 . J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 6 1 - 6 2 . U . I b i d . , p. 6 2 . 1 5 . David J . Kalupahana, B u d d h i s t Philosophy-:. A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s ( H o n o l u l u : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of H a w a i i , 1 9 7 6 ) , e s p e c i a l l y P a r t I I : " L a t e r Buddhism". - 1 7 2 -16. Johnston,. S i l e n t , M u s i c , p. 21 17. I b i d . , p. 10. 18. I b i d . , p. 1 0. 19. I b i d . , p. 11 20. "... i t i s p r o b a b l y f o r t h i s reason t h a t a man l i k e Aldous Huxley, who had .great i n t e r e s t i n m e d i t a t i o n but n.o p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f i n a n y t h i n g , j u s t d i d n ' t get anywhere." J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 18. 21 . J o h n s t o n , S i l e n t M usic, p. 11 . 22. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. '59 - 173 -Chapter Three 1 . M e r t o n , B i r d s , p. 1 0 0 . 2 . I b i d . , p. 1 3 9 . 3. I b i d . , p. 1 41 . 4 . I b i d . , p. 6 0 - 6 1 . 5 . I do n o t i n t e n d t o su g g e s t here t h a t one can ever go t o t a l l y beyond one's c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , the r o o t s of which a r e both deep and p e r v a i s i v e , so "much as to h i g h l i g h t Merton's freedom i n a d a p t i n g the usages of a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . T h i s i s the p o i n t I w i l l make f u r t h e r on when I speak of Merton's language as " p o e t i c " . 6 . Merton, B i r d s , p. 6 1 . 7 . Merton, Asian J o u r n a l , p. 5 . 8 . T . S . E l i o t , P n l l e o t e d Poems 1 9 0 9 - 1 962 (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1 9 6 3 ) , P . 2 2 2 . 9 . Merton, "Mystics, p. 209 . 1 0 . Mprt.nn • Chuang Tzu, p. 9 - 1 0 . 11 . I b i d . , p. 11 . - 174- -1 2 . Deba P a t n a i k , " S y l l a b l e s of the Great Song: Merton and A s i a n R e l i g i o u s Thought" i n B r o t h e r P a t r i c k H a r t ( e d . ) , The  Message of Thomas Merton (Kalamazoo, M i c h . : C i s t e r c i a n P u b l i -c a t i o n s , 1981 ), p. 7 3 . 1 3 . Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 2 3 6 . 1 4 . I b i d . , p. 2 3 5 . 1 5 . The e d i t o r s of Merton' s' A s i a n J o u r n a l p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g g l o s s e s : Sunya, s u n y a t a : S a n s k r i t , " e m p t i n e s s , the V o i d . " A b a s i c concept i n c e r t a i n s c h o o l s of Buddhism, p a r t i c u l a r l y Madhyamika and Zen. The term goes back t o Nagarjuna's s u n y a t a , the " S i l e n c e of the M i d d l e Way," and c o n t i n u e d to e v o l v e , i n depth and c o m p l e x i t y , f i n a l l y t o r e a c h i t s m a t u r i t y i n the sunya d o c t r i n e s ' o f the Madhyamika s c h o o l . "The terms a r e used i n two a l l i e d meanings: ( i ) the phenomena ar e sunya, as they a r e r e l a t i v e and l a c k s u b s t a n t i a l i t y or i n d e p e n d e n t ' r e a l i t y ; they a r e c o n d i t i o n e d ( p r a ' t i t y a - samutpanna) , and hence are un-r e a l ; ( i i ) the A b s o l u t e i s sunya or sunyata i t s e l f , as i t i s d e v o i d of e m p i r i c a l f o r m ; no t h o u g h t - c a t e g o r y or p r e d i c a t e ( ' i s , ' ' n o t - i s , ' ' i s and i s n o t , ' ' n e i t h e r i s nor n o t - i s ' ) can l e g i t i m a t e l y be a p p l i e d t o i t ; i t i s Transcendent t o thought ( s u n y a ) . " ( M u r t i ) S. B. Dasgupta, i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to Tan.tric Buddhism, page 9 , d e f i n e s sunyata as " e n l i g h t e n m e n t of the n a t u r e of e s s e n c e l e s s n e s s " and p o i n t s out t h a t when i t was combined w i t h karuna ( u n i v e r s a l compassion) as the two c h i e f elements of b o d h i c i t t a ( e n l i g h t e n e d - m i n d e d n e s s ) t h i s " p e r f e c t commingling ... had f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Mahayanic i d e a s i n t o the T a n t r i c i d e a s . " Christmas Humphreys.relates sunya w i t h t a t h a t a (suchne.ss or thusness).,. w h i l e the D a l a i Lama, i n h i s pamphlet I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Buddhism, c a l l s sunyata "the knowledge of the u l t i m a t e . r e a l i t y of a l l o b j e c t s , m a t e r i a l and phenomenal." Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 4 0 5 . Karuna: "the Mahayana B u d d h i s t term f o r compassion; a t r a i t of b o d h i s a t t v a s . " (Ross) Among the m y t h i c - 175 -b o d h i s a t t v a s , Samantabhadra.is .the c l a s s i c exemplar of ka r u n a , " r e p r e s e n t i n g the l o v e a s p e c t of the Buddha-p r i n c i p l e . " (Humphreys) "He has vowed t o s e r v e a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s by g u i d i n g ' them t o a happy l i f e which i s a t t a i n e d by the p r o f o u n d i n t e n t i o n t o be f r e e from a l l attachment and r e s i s t e n c e t o t h i n g s . In him, a c t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h h i s . vow. " (Morgan) In Theravada Buddhism, karuna i s the second of the f o u r Brahma v i h a r a s , or sub l i m e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . (See Humphreys: Buddhism, pages 125-126.) Me r t o n , . A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 381. Dharmakaya: the S a n s k r i t term f o r "the c o s m i c a l body of t h e Buddha, the essence of a l l b e i n g s . " ( M u r t i ) Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 372. A c l e a r d i s c u s s i o n of these and oth e r r e l a t e d concepts of the Madhyamika, the B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y which was one of the main c u l t u r a l i n g r e d i e n t s t h a t went i n t o the making of Zen, can be found i n a book which Merton r e a d d u r i n g h i s A s i a n t r i p and from which he quotes e x t e n s i v e l y i n the A s i a n J o u r n a l . T h i s i s T. R. V. M u r t i , The C e n t r a l P h i l o s o p h y of. Buddhism, 2nd ed. London: A l l e n & Unwin, 1960. 17. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 1 4-4--18. Merton, B i r d s , p. 8. 19. D avid S t e i n d l - R a s t , "Exposure: Key t o Thomas Merton's A s i a n J o u r n a l ? " i n M o n a s t i c Studies., v. 12, n. 1 0 (1 9 7 4 ) : 204-. 20. My account of Johnston's, engagement w i t h Zen r e l i e s e s p e c i a l l y on h i s C h r i s t i a n Zen and a taped l e c t u r e , " O r i e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n " , one of a s e r i e s of s i x tapes p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e Contem-p l a t i v e P r a y e r (Kansas C i t y , Mo.: N a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c R e p o r t e r - 176 -P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980). I . Zen and the B i r d s of A p p e t i t e . ( p . 16) Merton n o t e s : "Of course t h e r e a r e many C h r i s t i a n s who a r e very much aware t h a t t h e r e i s something t o be l e a r n t from Hinduism, Buddhism, C o n f u c i a n i s m , and e s p e c i a l l y from Zen and.Yoga. Among the s e a re those few Western J e s u i t s i n Japan who have had. the courage t o p r a c t i c e Zen i n Zen m o n a s t e r i e s , as w e l l as the Japanese C i s t e r c i a n s , who a r e becoming i n t e r e s t e d i n Zen i n t h e i r own m o n a s t e r i e s . " I b e l i e v e Merton's c h o i c e of the word courage i s w e l l made. I want t o s t r e s s my a d m i r a t i o n f o r the deep sense of i n t e g r i t y and the i n t e l l e c t u a l and p e r s o n a l honesty which l e d Johnston both t o a study of Zen and to the development of the p o s i t i o n I have t r i e d t o e l a b o r a t e i n t h i s paper. I wonder i f those who do not have a knowledge of the p r o f o u n d l y c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e of C a t h o l i c l i f e d u r i n g the p a s t few c e n t u r i e s can a p p r e c i a t e the magnitude of Johnston's e f f o r t . I say t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the danger of m i n i m i z i n g t h a t e f f o r t i n comparing i t w i t h t h e r a d i c a l r e - f r a m i n g of C a t h o l i c i s m which I f i n d i n Merton's t h o u g h t . I f I f i n d m y s e l f w i t h r a t h e r more r a p p o r t f o r Merton than f o r John s t o n I n e v e r t h e l e s s s u s p e c t t h a t J o h n s t o n may o f f e r a way i n t o d i a l o g u e w i t h Zen (and a way i n t o C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t u a l development) f o r many who f i n d Merton a l t o g e t h e r too f a r out. A study of Johnston's p r o m i s i n g j u x t a p o s i -t i o n of re a s o n and f a i t h , t r a d i t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i t y and h i s n o t i o n of d i a l o g u e has y e t t o be un d e r t a k e n . A comparison of Johnston-'-s work w i t h t h a t of P a u l R i c o e u r might be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n e l a b o r a t i n g a l l of t h i s . I also - r e g r e t t h a t no i n t e l -- T77 -l e c t u a l b i o g r a p h i e s , y e t . e x i s t of' Johnston or those o t h e r J e s u i t s who have been .engaged i n the study of Zen i n Japan. S i n c e much r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i s l i k e l y t o be l o s t over time and s i n c e t h i s development i s of such moment f o r the study of man t h i s i s i n d e e d u n f o r t u n a t e . 21. J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 5 . 22. " D e c l a r a t i o n on the R e l a t i o n of t h e Church t o N o n - C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n s " I n John Hick and B r i a n H e b b l e t h w a i t e ( e d s . ) , C h r i s t i -a n i t y and Other R e l i g i o n s : S e l e c t e d Readings (Glasgow: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s Sons & Co., L t d . , 1980), p. 82. 2 3 . W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , " O r i e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n " / a u d i o t a p e / . In M i r r o r Mind, (p. 29) John s t o n t e l l s u s : " I p e r s o n a l l y have met p e o p l e who c l a i m t h a t they have no r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and even no f a i t h , when i n f a c t a l l they need do i s t o r e f l e c t on the m s e l v e s . I f they do s o , they d i s c o v e r h i d d e n t r e a s u r e s i n the f i e l d s of t h e i r own s o u l s . " 24. J o h n s t o n , " O r i e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n " / a u d i o t a p e / . 2 5 . J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 2. 26. I b i d . , p. 7-8. 27. I b i d . , p. 8. - 178 -28. I b i d . , p. 7. 29.. I b i d . , p. 8. 30. I b i d . , p. 8. 31. I b i d . , p. 8. 3 2 . I b i d . , p. 26. 33. J o h n s t o n , " O r i e n t a l . M e d i t a t i o n " / a u d i o t a p e / . 34-. Raymond B a i l e y , Thomas Merton. on M y s t i c i s m (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1974), p. 16. 35. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the e s o t e r i c / e x o t e r i c dimensions of r e l i g i o n see the work of F r i t h j o f Schuon and Rene Guenon. Another p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n can be f o u n d i n Jacob Needleman, L o s t C h r i s t i a n i t y . : . A Journey of R e d i s c o v e r y t o the Center of C h r i s t i a n E x p e r i e n c e (New Y o r k : Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1980). H i s d i s c u s s i o n of Merton's study of the e a s t i n l i g h t of what he (Needleman) c a l l s " i n t e r m e d i a t e C h r i s t i a n i t y " i s f a s c i n a t i n g . 36. S o c i o l o g i c a l dimensions of r e l i g i o n i n d i a l o g u e demand much f u r t h e r s t u d y . S h a r i n g (whether o f m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , i d e a s , companionship) undoubtedly has i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t go f a r beyond both the m a t e r i a l and the approach of my t h e s i s . - 179 -37. Merton, M y s t i c s , p. 208. 38. I b i d . , p.. 209. 39. Merton, B i r d s , p. 37-38. 4.0. Merton's a t t i t u d e towards the c e n s o r i n g (or "condemnation") of i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k e r s by the' o f f i c i a l c hurch i s i n d i c a t i v e of h i s g e n e r a l s t a n d towards . a l l o f f i c i a l l y and a b s o l u t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d p o s i t i o n s . In Co'h.rec't'ure's' of''a . G u i l t y Bystander (p. 42-43) Merton makes a comment p e r t i n e n t t o the" i s s u e under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s : "The f i r s t s t e p i n i d e n t i f y i n g 'heresy' i s to r e f u s e a l l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w i t h the s u b j e c t i v e i n t u i t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e of the ' h e r e t i c ' , and t o see h i s words o n l y i n an i m p e r s o n a l realm i n which t h e r e i s no d i a l o g u e - i n which d i a l o g u e i s d e n i e d a p r i o r i . " 4.1. Merton, B i r d s , p. 39. 4.2. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 81. 43. I b i d . , p.. 77. 44. R. C. Zaehner has w r i t t e n . m u c h , i n h i s own i n i m i t a b l e way, about the i n t e r r . e l a t i o n s h i p . of r e l i g i o n s . The theme of " u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y " and " d i v e r s i t y i n u n i t y " r e c u r r s a g a i n and a g a i n I n h i s work. - 180 -4.5. The New King. James Bi b l e . : Maw, Testament. . ( N a s h v i l l e Nelson P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1 7 4 . 4.6'. J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 3 9 . 4 7 . Merton, B i r d s , p. 4 3 . - 181 -Chapter Four T. J o h n s t o n . S t i l l P o i n t , p. 175-176. 2. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 43. 3. I b i d . , p. 4-3. 4. Merton, B i r d s , p. 39. 5. J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 17-18. 6. I b i d . , p. 1 03. 7. I b i d . , p. 18*19. 8. Merton, B i r d s , p. 140. 9. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 56. 10. Ib i d . . , p. 57. 11. "Many pe o p l e used t o b e l i e v e t h a t the 's e a t ' of the s o u l was somewhere i n the b r a i n . S i n c e b r a i n s began to be opened up f r e q u e n t l y , no one has seen 'the s o u l ' . As a r e s u l t of t h i s and l i k e r e v e l a t i o n s , many pe o p l e do not now b e l i e v e i n the s o u l . " R. D. L a i n g , The P o l i t i c s of. E x p e r i e n c e and the B i r d of P a r a d i s e (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d . , 1967), p. * 182 -12. F r i e d r i c h H e i l e r P r a y e r (New. York:, Oxford. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 58). Quoted i n J o h n s t o n , i n n e r Eye, p . 4-5. 13. Merton, B i r d s , p . 13-14. U . I b i d . , p . 39. 15. Merton, B i r d s , p . 2. 1'6. I b i d . , p . 58. 17. W i l l i a m H. Shannon, Thomas Merton's Dark P a t h : The Inner  E x p e r i e n c e of a C o n t e m p l a t i v e (New York: F a r r a r . S t r a u s . G i r o u x , 1981 ), p . 151 . 18. I b i d . , p . 1 51 . 1 9 . I b i d . , p . 21 2. 20. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p . 343. 21. I b i d . , p . 343. 22. Merton, B i r d s , p . 56. 23. J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p . 76-77. 2 4 . I b i d . , p . 8 4 . - 183 -25. I b i d . , p. 8 4 . 26. I b i d . , p. 84-85. 27. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 68. 28. I b i d . , p. 69. 29. J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 21. 30. I b i d . , p. 21. 31 . I b i d . , p. 21 . 32. I b i d . , p.. 20. 33. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 15-16. 34. I b i d . , p..16. 35. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 61-62. 36. Bernard Lonergan, Method :in Theology (London.: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1972). 37. J o h n s t o n , Inner Eye, p. 67-68. - 184 -38. J o h n s t o n . M i r r o r Mind, p. 11. 39. Merton, B i r d s , p. 57. 40. I b i d . , p. 57. 41 . I b i d . , p. 57. 4 2 . I b i d . , p. 57-58. 4.3. J o h n s t o n , C h r i s t i a n Zen, p. 29. 4.4. F r a n c i s Huxley, The Way of the Sacred (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Company, I n c . , T974-), p. 306.. - 185 -Chapter F i v e 1 .. J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r Mind, p. 10. 2. I b i d . , p. 4-3. I b i d . , p. 4-. 4. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 332. 5. I b i d . , p. 3 4 2 . 6. I b i d . , p. 340-34-1 • 7. "... some t h e o l o g i a n s have c a l l e d n o n - C h r i s t i a n s 'anonymous C h r i s t i a n s ' - men and women who possess the grace of C h r i s t w i t h o u t knowing t h a t they do so. T h i s i s i n g e n i o u s l y l o g i c a l and, as an a t t e m p t t o s o l v e the o l d problem of the s a l v a t i o n of the non-C h r i s t i a n , i t may have some v a l i d i t y . But i t does not h e l p d i a l o g u e . A f t e r a l l , what C h r i s t i a n would l i k e t o be c a l l e d an anonymous B u d d h i s t ? " J o h n s t o n , M i r r o r ,Mind, p. 21-22. The n o t i o n of t h e "anonymous C h r i s t i a n " . w a s developed e s p e c i a l l y by the German t h e o l o g i a n K a r l Rahner, S. J . 8. I b i d . , p. 22. 9 . Merton, B i r d s , p. 1 4 1 . - 1 8 6 -10. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p.- 310. 11-. Merton's "freedom from t r a d i t i o n " d i d not depend e n t i r e l y on the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n through which h i s t h i n k i n g passed. The way he came to t h i n k , a way which I have chosen t o c a l l " p o e t i c " , was consonant w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r words and symbols he p r e f e r r e d t o use when he wro t e . Many of these s y m b o l s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w o r l d of n a t u r e which was so i m p o r t a n t t o Merton or w i t h the a p o p h a t i c type of m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e he f a v o u r e d (words i n d i c a t i n g g r o u n d l e s s n e s s , b o u n d l e s s n e s s , open-endedness), were not s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n and c o u l d be used by peopl e of ot h e r t r a d i t i ons. 12. J o h n s t o n , I n n e r Eye, p. 16. 13. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 338. 1 L . V a r i o u s s t u d e n t s of Merton have attempted t o approach h i s work by de-emphasizing h i s C h r i s t i a n language and s t r e s s i n g t h a t h i s message can be u n d e r s t o o d i n s u i t a b l y modern l a n g u a g e s , f o r example p s y c h o l o g y w i t h n o t i o n s such as the s e a r c h f o r the " t r u e s e l f " . Though t h i s i s a v a l i d approach t o Merton's work I have s e v e r a l arguments w i t h I t . In the f i r s t p l a c e t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t Merton d i d use C h r i s t i a n , language even a t tho s e times when he h i m s e l f was s t r i v i n g t o get beyond t h e problems such language p r e s e n t e d f o r i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s . I b e l i e v e our under-s t a n d i n g of Merton i s b e t t e r s e r v e d i f we;.look n ot so much a t the - 187 -terms he d i d use as. a t the way i n ' w h i c h he used, them: i . e., " p o e t i c a l l y " . - The C h r i s t i a n language can' be used as p o e t i c a l l y as the language of p s y c h o l o g y . T r a n s l a t i o n , i f i t i s a v a l i d p o s s i b i l i t y (a q u e s t i o n we need t o rai.se c o n t i n u a l l y ) , w i l l s erve us b e s t i f we do n o t s i m p l y t r y t o r e p l a c e one a b s o l u t e t e x t by a n o t h e r . A p r e a c h e r i s a p r e a c h e r whether h i s g o s p e l be C h r i s t i a n , B u d d h i s t , M a r x i s t or P s y c h o l o g i c a l . S e c o n d l y , Merton i n c r e a s i n g l y g a i n e d the freedom of " l i l a " - of p l a y - of the dance of l i f e above the v o i d . No s o l i d i t y . No c o n c r e t e , a b s o l u t e , f i n a l c e n t e r . I n t e r p r e t e r s of Merton who...strive, t o base Merton's thought n e c e s s a r i l y , I b e l i e v e , l o s e h i s most r a d i c a l message. 15. Merton, A s i a n J o u r n a l , p. 107. 16. Thomas Merton, The Geography of L o g r a i r e (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968), p. 123. 17. W i l f r e d C a n t w e l l Smith, Towards a World Theology (London: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1981), p. 188-189. 18. Donald. Dawes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " C h r i s t i a n F a i t h Amidst R e l i g i o u s P l u r a l i s m : An I n t r o d u c t o r y B i b l i ography (Richmond, Va.: Union T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary, c. 1 980), n. p. - 1 8 8 -SOURCES CONSULTED I . Works by W i l l i a m Johnston A. Books . C h r i s t i a n Zen. New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1971. . The Cloud of Unknowing and the Book of P r i v y C o n s e l i n g . New York: Doubleday and Co., 1973. . The Inner Eye of Love: M y s t i c i s m and R e l i g i o n . New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1978. . The M i r r o r Mind: S p i r i t u a l i t y and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , ' I n c . , 1981. . The M y s t i c i s m of the Cloud of Unknowing: A Modern I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . Tokyo: Delegatus P r e s s , 1965. . S i l e n t M u s i c : The S c i e n c e o f . M e d i t a t i o n . New York: Harper & Row., P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1974. . The. S t i l l P o i n t : R e f l e c t i o n on Zen, and C h r i s t i a n M y s t i c i s m . New York: Fordham U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. B. A r t i c l e s - 1 8 9 -. " B u d d h i s t s and C h r i s t i a n s Meet." The E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t (New S e r i e s ) 3 , 1 (June 1 9 7 0 ) : 1 3 9 - U 6 . . " D i a l o g u e . w i t h Buddhism." Monchanin I n f o r m a t i o n Review 2 , 7 (Sept. 1 9 6 9 ) : 2 - 7 . . "Dialogue w i t h Zen.". 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"' Ci s t er c 1 an S t u d i e s 6, .1 (1 971 ): 57-64-. "The N o t i o n of Man i n Zen." S t u d l a M i s s i o n a l i a 19 (1970) 87-100. . " T r a n s l a t o r ' s P r e f a c e . " In S i l e n c e , p. 1-18. Shusaku Endo. Tokyo: C h a r l e s E. Tu.ttle Co.. f o r Sophia U n i v e r s i t y . 1 969. . "Zen and C h r i s t i a n C o n t e m p l a t i o n . " Review f o r R e l i g i o u s 29, 5 ( S e pt. 1970): 699-704. . '/';Zen and C h r i s t i a n P r a y e r . " C i s t e r c i a n S t u d i e s 5, 1 (1 9 7 0 ) : 57-62. C. Tapes . C o n t e m p l a t i v e P r a y e r . Kansas. C i t y , M i s s o u r i . C a t h o l i c R e p o r t e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980. - 191 -I I . Works , by Thomas M e r t o n A . B o o k s . The A s i a n J o u r n a l o f Thomas M e r t o n . E d . Naomi B u r t o n , B r o t h e r P a t r i c k H a r t , James L a u g h l i n . C o n s u l t i n g E d . A m i y a G h a k r a v a r t y . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 3 . . I n t r o d u c t i o n s E a s t & W e s t ; The F o r e i g n P r e f a c e s o f  Thomas M e r t o n . E d . R o b e r t E . D a g g y . O a k v i l l e , O n t . : M o s a i c P r e s s . 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 1 . . M y s t i c s a n d Zen M a s t e r s . New Y o r k : . F a r r a r , S t r a u s a n d G i r o u l x . 1 9 6 7 . . The Way o f C h u a n g T z u . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 5 , 1 9 6 9 . . Zen a n d t h e B i r d s o f A p p e t i t e . New Y o r k ; New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 8 . B . A r t i c l e s . " C h r i s t i a n C u l t u r e N e e d s O r i e n t a l W i s d o m . " p . 2 9 5 - 3 0 3 . I n A Thomas M e r t o n .Reader . . ( R e v i s e d . E d i t i o n . ) ... E d . Thomas P . M c D o n n e l l . G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : Image B o o k s , 1 9 7 4 . - 192 -. "D. T . S u z u k i : The Man a n d H i s W o r k . " E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t ( A u g . 1 9 6 7 ) : 3 - 9 . - 193 -I I I . Works about Merton A. Books B a i l e y , Raymond. Thomas Merton on M y s t i c i s m . . G a r d e n C i t y , N. I . : Image Books, Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1975. F i n l e y , James. Merton's P a l a c e . o f Nowhere: A Search f o r God  through Awareness of the True S e l f . Notre Dame, Ind. : Ave Ma r i a P r e s s , 1978. F u r l o n g , Monica. .Merton: A B i o g r a p h y . San F r a n c i s c o : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s . 1980. G r a y s t o n , Donald and H i g g i n s , M i c h a e l W. (eds..). Thomas Merton:  P i l g r i m i n P r o c e s s . T o r o n t o : G r i f f i n House G r a p h i c s L t d . , 1983. H a r t , B r o t h e r P a t r i c k (ed.) The Message of Thomas Merton. Kalamazoo, M i c h . : C i s t e r c i a n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981. M a l i t s , E l e n a . The S o l i t a r y E x p l o r e r : Thomas Merton's T r a n s f o r m i n g  Journey.. San F r a n c i s c o : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1980. R i c e , Edward. The Man i n the Sycamore Tree: The Good Times and  Hard L i f e of Thomas Merton: An E n t e r t a i n m e n t . . G a r d e n C i t y , N. Y.: Image Books, Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1972. - 194 -Shannon, W i l l i a m H. Thomas, Mer ton's Dark .Path: .The Inner, E x p e r i e n c e  of a C o n t e m p l a t i v e . New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s and Gir.oux, 1981. Woodcock, George. .Thomas Merton: Monk and P o e t : . , A , C r i t i c a l Study. Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e Ltd.., 1978. B. A r t i c l e s MacCormick, Chalmers. "The Zen C a t h o l i c i s m of Thomas Merton." J o u r n a l of Ecumenical S t u d i e s 9 (1972): 802-818. S t e i n d l - R a s t , D a v i d . "Exposure: Key t o Thomas Merton's A s i a n J o u r n a l ? " M o nastic S t u d i e s 12, 10 (1974): 181-204. S t e i n d l - R a s t , D a v i d . " R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Thomas Merton's L a s t Days i n the West." M o n a s t i c S t u d i e s 7, (1969 ) : •1-10. -Teahan, John F. "A Dark and Empty Way: Thomas Merton and the Ap o p h a t i c T r a d i t i o n . " J o u r n a l of R e l i g i o n 58 ( J u l y 1978): 263-287. O'Hanlon, D a n i e l I . "Zen and the S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s : A D i a l o g u e between F a i t h s . " T h e o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s (Dec. 1978): 737-768. - 195 -IV.. Works by o t h e r Roman C a t h o l i c s Dumoulin, H e i n r i c h . H i s t o r y of Zen Buddhism, t r a n s . P a u l Peachy. New York: Random House, I n c . , 1963. Dumoulin, H e i n r i c h . C h r i s t i a n i t y Meets. Buddhism. t r a n s . John Maraldo.. L a S a l l e , 111.: Open Court P u b l . Co., 1 974-. Dumoulin, H e i n r i c h . Buddhism i n the Modern. World. ( e d i t e d ) t r a n s . John Maraldo (assoc ed) New York: M a c m i l l a n Co., 1976. Dumoulin, H e i n r i c h . Zen E n l i g h t e n m e n t : O r i g i n s and Meaning, t r a n s . John Maraldo. New York: John W e a t h e r h i l l , I n c . , 1979. Enomiya-Las;salle,Hugo. Zen-Way t o E n l i g h t e n m e n t . New York: T a p l i n g e r P u b l . Co., 1968. E n o m i y a - L a s s a l l e , Hugo. Zen M e d i t a t i o n f o r C h r i s t i a n s , t r a n s . John Maraldo. L a S a l l e , 111.: Open Court P u b l . , Co., 1974. Graham, A e l r e d . Zen C a t h o l i c i s m : . A.Suggestion.,New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, I n c . , 1963. Graham, Aelr.ed. . C o n v e r s a t i o n s C h r i s t i a n and B u d d h i s t : Encounters i n Japan. New. York.: Harcourt,. Brace and I v a n o v i c h , 1 968. Graham, A e l r e d . The End of R e l i g i o n : A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l ' E x p l o r a t i o n s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1971. - 196 -Graham, A e l r e d . ..Contemplative C h r i s t i a n i t y , : . An .Approach t o the R e a l i t i e s of R e l i g i o n . New York..: Seabury P r e s s , 1974. Kadowaki, K a k i c h i . Zen and, the B i b l e : A P r i e s t ' s E x p e r i e n c e , t r a n s . Joan R i e c k . London :.. Routledge . & Kegan P a u l , 1 980. - 197 -V. Other Works Anderson, G e r a l d H. and S t r a n s k y , Thomas F. (eds.) F a i t h Meets  F a i t h . Ramsey, N. J . : P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1981. Ber g e r , P e t e r L. The H e r e t i c a l I m p e r a t i v e : Contemporary  P o s s i b i l i t i e s of R e l i g i o u s A f f i r m a t i o n . Garden C i t y , N. Y.: Anchor P r e s s , 1980. Ber g e r , P e t e r L. (ed.) The Other Side of God: A P o l a r i t y i n  World R e l i g i o n s . Garden C i t y , N. Y.: Anchor P r e s s , 1981. Cooper, Robert M. " S i l e n t as L i g h t : A C h r i s t i a n - Z e n I n q u i r y . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y D i v i n i t y S c h o o l , 1972. Cox, Harvey. T u r n i n g E a s t : The Ch a l l e n g e and P e r i l of the New  O r i e n t i a l i s m . New York: Simon &.Schuster, 1977. Dawe, Donald and Carman, John (eds.) C h r i s t i a n F a i t h i n a  R e l i g i o u s l y P l u r a l World. M a r y k n o l l , N. Y.: Orbi s Books, 1978. F i t t i p a l d i , S i l v i o Edward. "The Encounter between Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and Zen Buddhism from a Roman C a t h o l i c P o i n t of View." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. Fox, Douglas A. Buddhism, C h r i s t i a n i t y and..the F u t u r e of R e l i g i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Westminster P r e s s , 1972. - 198 -G e f f r e , Claude and Dhavamony, M a r i a s u s a i .(eds..).. Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n 1 t y. C o n c i l i u m , no. 116. New York.: Seabury P r e s s , 1 979. H i c k , John. God and the U n i v e r s e of F a i t h s : ' Essays i n the ' P h i l o -sophy of R e l i g i o n . London: M a c m i l l a n & Co., 1973. H i c k , John and H e b b l e t h w a i t e , B r i a n ( e d s . ) . C h r i s t i a n i t y and  Other R e l i g i o n s : S e l e c t e d Readings. Glasgow: W i l l i a m C o l l i n s Sons & Co., L t d . , 1 980. I z u t s u , T o s h i h i k i . Toward a P h i l o s o p h y of ,Zen Buddhism. Tehran: I m p e r i a l I r a n i a n Academy of P h i l o s o p h y , 1977. K i n g , Winston L. Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y , : Some B r i d g e s of  U n d e r s t a n d i n g . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Westminster P r e s s , 1962. Lonergan, Be r n a r d . Method i n Theology. London: C a r t o n , Longman and Todd, 1972. McGuire, F r a n c i s James. " P r a c t i c a l M y s t i c i s m : The P s y c h o s o c i a l Dynamics of Change i n the M y s t i c a l T r a d i t i o n , C h r i s t i a n and Zen B u d d h i s t . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , . B e r k e l e y : Graduate T h e o l o g i c a l U n i o n , 1976. Needleman, Jacob. L o s t C h r i s t i a n i t y : A Journey, of R e d i s c o v e r y  t o t h e 'Center of . . C h r i s t i a n E x p e r i e n c e . Garden C i t y , N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1980. - 199 -P a n i k k a r , Raimundo., Myth/, F a i t h and Hermerieutics: Toward. Cross- CuTturaT R e l i g i o u s U n d e r s t a n d i n g . Ramsey, N. J..: P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1 980. Pye, M i c h a e l and Morgan, Robert (eds..). The C a r d i n a l Meaning:  Essays i n Comparative Hermeneutics, Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y . The Hague: Mouton, 1973. Siegmund, Georg. Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y : A P r e f a c e t o D i a l o g u e , t r a n s . McCarthy, S i s t e r Mary F r a n c e s . Alabama: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama P r e s s , 1980. Smart, N i n i a n . A D i a l o g u e of R e l i g i o n s . London: SGM P r e s s , 1960. Smart, N i n i a n . Beyond I d e o l o g y : R e l i g i o n and the F u t u r e of  Western C i v i l i z a t i o n . San F r a n c i s c o : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1981. S u z u k i , D a i s e t z T e i t a r o . M y s t i c i s m ; C h r i s t i a n . a n d B u d d h i s t . New Y o r k : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1957. T i l l i c h , P a u l . C h r i s t i a n i t y and the Encounter of. World R e l i g i o n s . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. Welwood, John (.ed. ) The Meeting of the .Ways :,.E x p l o r a t i o n s i n  East/West P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o rk; Schocken Books I n c . , 1979. 

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