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The role of sound in the British Columbia troll salmon fishery Boyes, David Ross 1982-12-31

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THE  THE ROLE OF SOUND IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TROLL SALMON FISHERY by DAVID ROSS BOYES  .Sc.,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPT. OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1982 ® David Ross Boyes 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department o r by h i s o r her  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  David R.  Department of  A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Columbia  Date  1983  January 24  Boyes  written  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks Establishment frequency in  this  study.  marine Dr.  Errol  provided  and assembly  available  Cramer  Research  advice  of the equipment.  the spectrum  bio-acoustics.  analyzer Judy  supervisor  the  Ministry  the  G.R.E.A.T.  John  Cramer i nthe  F o r d o f UBC m a d e  Dr. John  i n the sea t r i a l s . Zahradnik  gave  F i n a l l y , I am g r a t e f u l  of Education, V i c t o r i a , f o r p a r t i a l program.  used  of h i s expertise i n  assisted  and g u i d a n c e f o r t h e p r o j e c t .  of  and a s s i s t a n c e  and gave  McLaren  the  and p l a y b a c k equipment  and Dave H a b l e  technical  R o b e r t B l a k e a n d my  support  of the Defense  P a c i f i c f o r c a l i b r a t i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g  response o f the recording  Engineering design  a r e due K e r v B l a c k  funding  under  to  ABSTRACT Sparked influencing B.C.  coast, acoustical  Acoustical  were made o f t r o l l output  Output  output  vessels  at t r o l l i n g  from  were o b s e r v e d  t o be c o r r e l a t e d 2.  Fish  salmon and r a i n b o w  trout  maneuvering were  (approximately l-6kHz), from  propellors.  were made o f h e r r i n g ,  rapidly  correlated  faint.  The d o m i n a n t  s a l m o n i d s , were k n o c k s . like  trickling  with  of hydrodynamic  t o be p r o d u c e d  were r e l a t i v e l y  remarkably  20dB r e l y b a r  pumps f o r a u x i l i a r y  and f e e d i n g on p e l l e t s  T h e s e were examined  K n o c k s were  300Hz.  s p i k e s (1-2.5kHz)  cavitation  Recordings  swimming  and a r e l i k e l y  thought  3.5-5.5kHz.  with  analyzer.  under  were a b o u t  frequency  output  Recordings  on a  spectrum  Two t y p e s o f sounds were e v i d e n t , " k n o c k s "  "scratches".  and  sounds:  n e t pen e n c l o s u r e s .  analyzer.  (l-2m/s)  transient  were  trollers:  on a s p e c t r u m  with o p e r a t i o n of h y d r a u l i c  was t h o u g h t  and f i s h  rapid  and  swimming and  origin.  Scratches  by b r a n c h i a t e and s k e l e t a l Knocks were l - 2 k H z ,  sounds  in actively  Recordings water  on the  parts:  o f salmon  Higher  Broadband,  trollers  o f low f r e q u e n c y ,  speed  the h u l l .  noise  salmon  boats  and examined  equipment.  in  of both  i n four  was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  levels  lmeter  studies  The s t u d y was 1.  Sonic  o f boat  the c a t c h r a t e s o f commercial  undertaken.  at  by a n e c d o t a l a c c o u n t s  movements  scratches  feeding, subsurface  of feeding schools  to the human e a r .  sounded  iv 3. made t o l u r e  Attracting coho  (Oncorhynchus  salmon  (Oncorhynchus  i n net pens: kisutch)  t s c h a w y t s c h a ) as w e l l  gairdneri)  to a speaker p r o j e c t i n g  the  fish.  target  output  levels 4.  feeding the west  coast  with  the t e s t  at  lmeter.  response  Attracting  and swimming  gear array  salmon  sounds  recorded  sounds  Island,  t o the t e s t  sounds o f  were o b s e r v e d t o  at lmeter.  at sea:  salmon B.C.  on and o f f .  significant  feeding  (Salmo  Recorded  and  simulated  o f s a l m o n i d s were p r o j e c t e d  of a commercial  of Vancouver  No  as rainbov/ t r o u t  as 55dB r e l u b a r  change  sounds.  were  and c h i n o o k  No r e s p o n s e s o f any k i n d  as h i g h  Attempts  troller  fishing  Catch rates  Output  level  in catch  rate  was  within  on t h e  were m o n i t o r e d 55dB r e ILI b a r  was o b s e r v e d i n  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF FIGURES L I S T OF TABLES 1.0  INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  2.0  i i i i i v vi viii 1  JUSTIFICATION LITERATURE REVIEW MORPHOLOGY & ACUITY OF HEARING IN FISH SOUND IN THE SEA OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  THEORY  FORMATION  2.1 THEORY  AND  1 6 12 18 25  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  28  FORMATION  28  2.2 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  28  3.0  METHODS AND MATERIALS  31  4.0  3.1 RECORDING, PLAYBACK AND ANALYTICAL 3.2 RECORDINGS OF TROLLERS 3.3 RECORDINGS OF FISH 3.4 PLAYBACK IN PENS AND AT SEA RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5  RECORDINGS OF TROLLERS RECORDINGS OF FISH PLAYBACK IN PENS PLAYBACK AT SEA GENERAL DISCUSSION  EQUIPMENT  ...  31 34 37 37 43 43 50 53 55 63  5.0  CONCLUSIONS  68  6.0  SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK  70  7.0  LITERATURE  72  CITED  vi L I S T OF  FIGURES Page  1-1  The  standard  gear  a r r a y o f a B.C.  1-2  Some t e r m i n a l  1-3  Auditory  thresholds  of  three  ostariophysine  1-4  Auditory  thresholds  of  three  non-ostariophysine  species.14  1-5  Auditory  thresholds  of  three  non-ostariophysine  species.15  1-6  A  lures  used  i n the  B.C.  p l o t of p a r t i c l e displacement  monopole  sound  salmon  troller.  troll  2  fishery.  3  species.  vs. distance  from  14  a  source.  1-7  A composite  3-1  Measured s e n s i t i v i t y o f a S p a r t o n 60 LX 123 h y d r o p h o n e and p r e a m p l i f i e r . The n o i s e r e d u c t i o n c i r c u i t o f the h y d r o p h o n e power supply.  33  3-3  Measured  35  3-4  Low p a s s f i l t e r used w i t h p r o d u c e T e s t Tape I I .  complex  3-5  The p o s i t i o n o f during t r i a l s .  projector within  3-6  Sonogram o f T e s t  3-7  Sonogram o f T e s t Tape I I ; i r r e g u l a r l y p u l s e d n o i s e g e n e r a t o r c y c l i n g a t 28 Hz.  output  Sonogram o f T e s t Tape I I I ; f e e d i n g t r o u t (2.5-3kg).  rainbow  3-2  3- 8  illustration  24  output  of  the  sound  ambient  60  a 10m  wooden  4-2  Sonogram o f (2 m/s) .  a 10m  4-3  Sonogram o f (4-5 m / s ) .  a 10m  Sonogram o f hydraulicly  a 14.5m driven  troller  noise.  27  32  loudspeaker.  sound  Tape I ; a r e c o r d i n g  Sonogram o f (1.5 m / s ) .  4-5  oceanic  the Aquavox VW  4- 1  4-4  of  of  generator the  gear  trickling  sounds o f  to  36 array 38  water.40 of  a 41 42  at a slow  trolling  speed 44  wooden t r o l l e r  at a  trolling  speed 45  wooden t r o l l e r  at  fast  tuna  speed 46  wooden t r o l l e r a t a slow t r o l l w i t h r e f r i g e r a t i o n compressor o p e r a t i n g .  Sonogram o f t h e a u t h o r s v e s s e l t r i a l s , a t a slow t r o l l .  (13.1m), used  i n the  47  sea 49  vii Page List  of Figures  (Continued)  4-6  Sonogram o f h e r r i n g  "scratches".  51  4-7  Sonoyram o f h e r r i n g  "knocks".  52  4-8  Sonogram o f j u v e n i l e coho salmon a c t i v e l y  4-9  Sonogram o f k i l l e r acceleration.  whale t a i l  beats during  feeding.  54  rapid 66  viii LIST OF TABLES  Page  1-1  Conversion t a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  sound l e v e l s .  4-1  Salmon catch during  4-2  Salmon catch during c y c l e d playback of Test Tape I I .  59  4-3  Salmon catch during  61  c y c l e d playback of  Test Tape I .  c y c l e d playback of Test Tape I I I .  19 57  1  1.0  INTRODUCTION  1.1  JUSTIFICATION There  salmons  to  troll  gear.  tschawytscha)  fleet  but  pink  and  (0. keta)  m/s.  forego  food  salmon  troller  as  lures  of s k i l l  to tempt  primarily  by  entrance  this  gear  this effort  ( 0 . nerka)  in outside as  and  the  fish  salmon  their  parent  baits  r i g g e d to  through  by  chinook  s p e c i e s of  e x t e n t sockeye  fish  and  coast  have r e d i r e c t e d  t o Dixon  they are p u l l e d  of l u r e s ,  i s shown  fish  they approach  artificial  A h i g h degree  spring  border  Columbia  target  Trollers  for Pacific  ( 0 . k i s u t c h ) and  to a l e s s e r  salmon.  o r dodge as  presentation  coho  feeding for capture  v e s s e l s use  flutter  the B r i t i s h  stocks of these  the Washington  actively  generally  on  were the p r i n c i p a l  declining  from  must be  Troll  2200 v e s s e l s t h a t f i s h  In the p a s t  ( 0 . g o r b u s c h a ) and  chum  waters  about  ( O n c o r h y n c h u s spp.)  means o f (0.  are  stream. roll,  the w a t e r a t  1-2  i s r e q u i r e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and  particularly  to l a r g e r ,  them to b i t e .  in Fig.1-1, while  The  o l d e r coho  basic fishing  some l u r e s  are  and  r i g of a  shown i n  Fig.1-2. Anecdotal influence believe gear  stern  the c a t c h r a t e  suggests  affect  and  shaft  fishing  b e a r i n g s are  examined  regularly  Many t r o l l e r s  success.  alignment tight  drive  Care  i s t r u e and  and  to e n s u r e  prefer  t h a t sound  of t r o l l e r s .  t h a t components o f the b o a t s  can  engine  on  evidence  Experienced train  i s taken  a four bladed  are  and  an fishermen steering  to e n s u r e  that intermediate  well lubricated. they  has  propeller  and  Propellers  undamaged  and  that  are  balanced.  to a t h r e e  bladed  2  FIGURE 1-1.  The standard gear array of a B.C. salmon t r o l l e r . The vessel fishes two of each line shown, a set from each pole.  3  FIGURE 1-2.  Some terminal lures used i n the B r i t i s h Columbia t r o l l salmon fishery. A. Flasher and hootchie. B. Plugs. C. Spoons.  one, stock  feeling  they are q u i e t e r  b e a r i n g s are a l s o  Some t r o l l e r s  feel  thought  t h a t gas  of smoother, q u i e t e r  monitor  the c a t c h r a t e  of  whether  their  of  vessels  alternative outfishing  fish  the l u r e s  sonic  better  performance.  one  with  the  increase  the g e a r ,  sounds  There  The  between b o a t  as  an  agreement repulsive  range  of  sounds  include: fish,  association  T h i s might  sounds and  i s no  the " r i g h t "  i n the p r o p e n s i t y o f  opportunity.  fishermen  t o the b o a t  ones.  to a t t a c k i t t h r o u g h  sounds w i t h a f e e d i n g similarities  "wrong"  diesels  p r o d u c t i o n of  e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r a boat w i t h  rudder  results.  than  Often,  closest  against  Tight  for best  performance.  output of a t t r a c t i v e  1/ An aware o f  "fishier".  necessary  these p r e c a u t i o n s guard  s o u n d s or e n s u r e  thus  engines  because  index  and  baitfish  otherwise of  be due or  the  boat  to  feeding  sounds. 2 / An that  i s , fish  presence  sonic fish of  increase  t h a t would  becoming  not o t h e r w i s e  aware o f  3 / both of  the  4 / Absence  of  output  that  i n the p a t h  i n the a r e a o f  cause of  i t by  influence  have s e n s e d  homing on  the  of  the  the  sound  gear;  gear's  source.  above. f r e q u e n c i e s o r p a t t e r n s i n the  inhibition  the g e a r .  of  feeding  activity  Such sounds m i g h t  boat's amongst  resemble  those  salmon p r e d a t o r s . 5 / Absence  repulsion  of  fish  otherwise  sense  from  of  f r e q u e n c i e s or p a t t e r n s c a u s i n g  the v i c i n i t y  i t ' s presence.  6 / Both  4 and  5.  of  the g e a r  before  active  they  can  The sound may salmon  be  schooling  sand  lance  waters of and  depths  B.C.  blooms  from r u n o f f .  summer.  Salmon o f t e n  only  at  field  short  turbulence tidal  the  rugged  large  area  fish  this  (20  phenomenon  high  currents in  and  of  low  a s i m p l e manner  occur  at  areas  (Boyes p e r s .  of  l a y e r " as  harengus),  so  (and  jargon.  not  (Thompson 1 9 8 1 ) .  same time e a c h day while  water  1981).  gradient.  i s that  over  a  instantaneously; occurrence  of  communication  are  often  waters, then  Further,  cycles  catch  decrease)  associated  however  reverse  tidal  direction  such p e r i o d s  f o r s e v e r a l weeks tidal  a r e s u l t of  driving  The  rate  stop,  useful  unreliable  through r a d i o  banks do  be  as  subsequently  in inshore  and  dusk when  (Thompson  fishermen  catch  spring  Considerable  o r more) a l m o s t  high  suspended  i n the  currrents  is l i k e l y  phyto  as  V i s i o n can  topography  coastal  dense  well  coastal waters,  i n the  s l a c k water  obs.)  by  conditions.  troll  is established  over o f f s h o r e  the  bite"  Periods  primarily  turbid  a smooth c o n c e n t r a t i o n  increase  the  the  is restricted  generated  n a u t i c a l miles  "come on  between b o a t s . with  wind  of  underwater  suddenly  In  at  feed  (Clupea  that  Spring  taken  salmon  herring  attenuated. these  of  capture.  is particularly  feature  for lack  suggest  most a c t i v e l y a t dawn and  common o b s e r v a t i o n  often  as  sea  often  These  "mixed  f i s h e s o l f a c t o r y sense  rates  the  feed  r a n g e ) and  directionally Another  This  r a n g e under  masses a c r o s s Thus  i n the  is further  is also a  (5-8m  such  penetration  material  light  coho, a r e  (100fathoms).  light  at  l o c a t i o n and  also  species  salmon  (Amnodytes h e x a p t e r u s ) .  zooplankton  the  of  in prey  i n p a r t i c u l a r , but  small  and  behavior  important  considerable on  feeding  often  in c e r t a i n  advance  an  hour  or  6 so  e a c h day.  Acoustical stimuli  transmission distances Pacific  of  "feeding  i n such a s h o r t  salmon  accounts of so.  this  Examples  1.2  are  frightening responding Pliny  fish  i n the  Protasov  used  in order can  be  found  and  (or r e p e l )  feeding  or  require  sounds  characteristic  literature fish  animal.  of  acoustic  both c a p t i v e  and  Moulton engraulid  for  many doing  of  ( 1 9 1 8 ) , von  are  and  (1963,  Fay  attraction  or  to  target  sounds or  behavior  reaction  with  fisheries  opportunities  a number o f examples  that  learned  association  line  feeding  and  Sounds  either  form o f p r e y  and  and  1964),  (1972),  i s an  Hook and  i n the  fish  Frisch  literature.  there  feeding  attack  A c c o u n t s on  significance,  behavior.  and  works o f A r i s t o t l e  modern  from  the  by the  i n a v a r i e t y of  wild.  (1960) p l a y e d  recorded  ( A n c h o v i e l l a choerstoma)  (Caranax l a t u s ) ,  are  species,  (1954), Moulton  Usually  most o f t e n  Following  i n the  the  represent  noises  them.  must have  reproductive  These a r e  predators.  fish  that  evidence  for attracting,  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Popper  attract  to the  concrete  predatory  Parker  Chagron  (1973) have r e v i e w e d  fish.  sound  i n Moulton 1963).  (1965), Tavolga  innate,  these  following section.  to c a t c h  Hawkins  or  over  the  REVIEW  long  (1936), Kleerekoper  effect"  for  i s l a c k i n g , there  found  to sound  (cited  to sound  particularly  has  responsible  Although  fish,  LITERATURE Man  be  frenzy  time.  responding  other  nay  a natural predator  sounds of  to y o u n g , c a p t i v e of  the  anchovy.  the jacks The  jacks  7  showed  "quickened to C.  Playback to  initiate  actually  swimming movements o f a n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l  latus of  nibbling  a t the  apparent  Sharks  fish  fishing  on  and  or  in nets.  home on  S t u d i e s by  Nelson  (1967),  and  Johnson  both  ally  and  or r a p i d l y  sharks  several  associate  hundred  an  Nelson  or  Johnson  et a l  success  p l a y b a c k s o f sounds also  be  stick".  do  (1969),  (1972),  and of  Nelson  sharks  in  to s o u r c e s o f p u l s e d sounds  of  simulations electronicthat  responded  struggling  sharks  eventually with a  quickly  reef  fish  came to  possible  (1966, 1 9 7 1 ) ,  and  Maniwa  (1975),  carp, y e l l o w t a i l , mackerel,  sea  (no s p e c i e s names g i v e n ) w i t h  t h e s e a n i m a l s make d u r i n g f e e d i n g .  attracted  a piece of  Maniwa  crab  to  was h i t .  in attracting even  them  (1963),  a variety  speared, The  to  allows  near T a h i t i  m e t e r s away.  and  struggling  (1975) o b s e r v e d  atoll,  nowhere  ability  the r e c o r d e d  sounds o f  a fish  i f from  Gruber  the n o i s e o f a d i s c h a r g i n g s p e a r g u n  bream, s q u i d and  with  fish  t o the  Hashimoto  could  and  are a t t r a c t e d  swimming and  as  activity  Nelson  be  in Rangiroa  meal whether or not  have had  this  These may  Nelson  directionally  from  that  have shown t h a t  Pacific  sound.  generated.  resident  I t appears  (1968, 1972),  and  the  minutes.  t h e r e a r e wounded,  (1963),  "appeared  i n the j a c k s  H a b i t u a t i o n to  (1969 , 1975 , 1970 ), Myreberg  the A t l a n t i c  struggling  Hobson  (1972, 1975)  low-frequency  a few  s o u n d s from  Banner  _et_ _al  resulted  transducer.  after  tooth rasps  have been known t o appear  this.  Myreberg  and  o p e r a t i o n s where  lines  perceive  pharyngeal  feeding reactions"  s t i m u l u s was  during  i t s own  type".  s i m p l y by  " t a p p i n g the  side  of a  Carp boat  8 Steinberg camera m o n i t o r i n g  et^ al_ ( 1 9 6 5 ) , u s i n g  a speaker  (Ocyurus c h r y s u r u s ) pulsed  to  yellowtail  video  snappers source  of  20Hz s i g n a l s . (1966, 1 9 6 7 ) , c o n d i t i o n e d  (Thunnus a l b a c a r e s )  a food  noise  that  underwater  were c o n s i s t e n t l y a t t r a c t e d to a  Iverson tuna  noted  an  reward  t h u s be  from  used  false  albacore  upon p l a y i n g a p u r e  or a r a p i d  withdrawal  and  increase the  (Euthynnus  stimulus.  affinis),  A  sudden  i n volume o f a s i g n a l e l i c i t e d  source  to hold  tone  captive yellowfin  and  tuna  i t i s suggested  in a seine  while  the  that net  speedy  sound  night  is closed  and  pursed.  underwater identify Pulsed,  Richard  (1968), using  speaker  n e a r B i m i n i , Bahamas, was  eight  species  pure-tone  only  demersal  reef  fish  of  surface  (1972) has  schooling  found  that  birds  (gannets,  gavia  gavia), preying  the  fish  were common a r o u n d  (Katsuwonus p e l a m i s ) and of  t e l e o s t s and  s i g n a l s , 25-50Hz were  predatory  York  the  attractive  remote v i d e o  Sula  the  test  species  the  stimulus.  them were  recordings.  of  the  shark.  herbivorous  attraction  of  (Thunnus a l a l u n g a )  the  and  Notably,  skipjack to  (Engraulis a u s t r a l i s ) .  sounds o f  an  site.  demonstrated  albacore  of  to a t t r a c t  three  anchovies  b a s s a n a s e r r a t o r and on  able  were a t t r a c t e d a l t h o u g h  anchovies  splashing  monitoring  and  It the  shearwaters,  predominant  sounds was diving  Puffinus  component  of  9  Chapman  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , showed  piscivorous  t e l e o s t s , the  (Pollachius  virens  (L.)),  resident  by  frequency  low  strong  (L.))  gear.  up  feed  This by  was  the  acoustic  spectrum  Analysis  of  between  propeller  shaft  was  sounds  this  study  salmon  salmon  "perceived  VanDerwalker migrating  with  on  attracted  a l s o developed  divers  the  saithe  pollachius be  with  the  catch  are  the  to  few As  their  respect  catch  to w i t h i n  a negative  the  a l s o - see  rate. fishing  correlation  that  dry  i n one  case  a  albacore  held  that  boat  boats e l e c t r i c a l  and output  Nomura 1 9 8 0 ) , but  accounts  i n the  I am  literature  aware o n l y  (1960) o b s e r v e d  that  d i r e c t i o n of a source of  ground  Spectrum  that  substantiate i t .  at  (1966), reviewed  rainbow  (the  the  above 1500Hz.  have l o n g  rates  f a r as  Disler  stirring  bottom.  and  output  a  open-circuit  damaged p r o p e l l e r s and  trollers,  first  sound.  salmons.  thumping  the  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  sound  important  i s the  Pacific  by  on  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  t o be  to  and  fish  associated  brought out  bearings,  There response  be  trollers  recordings  influenced  thought  The  could  of  f r e q u e n c y were a t t r i b u t e d t o worn o r  fishermen, l i k e gear  to  (L.)),  (Pollachius  sounds o f  found  rates  species  Scotland,  activities  success  this  supercharger.  thought  albacore  catch  fishing  the  (1979),  of  vessel  p e a k s above  lythe  stimuli.  to  divers  Erickson  group r e l a t i v e  the  i n Loch T o r r i d o n , pure-tone  three  (Gadus morhua  and  p o s i t i v e response  scuba of  cod  that  a distance  of  some a t t e m p t s  (Salmo g a i r d n e r i )  and  three  of  salmonid  relate  fingerling vibrations  to  chum caused  1.5-2meters". to g u i d e  brown  (S.  down  trutta)  trout,  10  and  chinook  Startle  reactions  generally at  salmon p a s t  be o b t a i n e d b u t r a p i d  investigated  intensities  habituation  to playback  principle  frequency  shown t o h e a r 150Kz.  level  conditioned 150Hz p u r e  tone.  600Hz t o n e .  r e a r e d rainbow  responded  produced  They found  Abbott  the f i s h  salmon  (Salmo s a l a r )  conditioning  technique  (1972),  t o feed a t the source  of a  were c o n d i t i o n e d a f t e r  t o a 300Hz tone  Hawkins and J o h n s t o n e  the A t l a n t i c  sensitivity  n o i s e makes t h e  but not to a conditional  monitoring of inner ear  a frequency-threshold curve that  beat.  C u t t h r o a t were  uncertain.  A b o u t 90% o f t h e f i s h  and e l e c t r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l  30-2600HZ.  responded (1978),  f o r the p i n k  t o f r e q u e n c i e s from  studied  the hearing o f  by means o f a c a r d i a c  and o b t a i n e d a t h r e s h o l d  curve  showing  between 30-400Hz. If  noises of prey interest.  trout  tail  o f -35dB r e l u b a r a t  and e q u i p m e n t  frequency  (1969),  predominant  a sudden  K o l ' t s o v a ^ t _ _al_ (1977) u s i n g b o t h  potentials, salmon.  h i g h ambient  The f i s h  reactions  The  o f a thump was a t 150Hz.  and maximum  pond  45 t r i a l s .  with  Stober  even  (Salmo c l a r k i ) and  up t o 650Hz, w i t h a t h r e s h o l d  Relatively  threshold  trout  o f these sounds.  sound made was a "thump", a s s o c i a t e d The  fields.  was a p p a r e n t ,  (82dB r e l u b a r ) .  sounds made by c u t t h r o a t  response  sound  t o l o w f r e q u e n c i e s (up t o 280Hz) c o u l d  v e r y h i g h sound  their  turbine intakes with  salmon  use sound  i n prey  location  s p e c i e s and o f t h e salmon  The s o u n d s t h a t  fish  (1964).  produced  as d e n t i c l e s ,  p a r t s such  themselves  are o f  make have been g r o u p e d  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s by T a v o l g a by h a r d  and c a p t u r e , the  These a r e : teeth,  into  stridulatory f i n r a y s and  11  bones b e i n g  rubbed  - swimming turning  or  sounds r e s u l t i n g  movements, f l o w  s o u n d s ; swim b l a d d e r and  scraped  from  the  rhythmic  gut  The  the  or with of  sounds p r o d u c e d  the  croaks,  by  (Boyes p e r s .  from  sounds  from  the  (rapid  the  pink,  comm.).  swimming  of  this  the  size  Here, v e e r i n g  i n the  frequency has  literature.  case  only  noise,  with  attack  a  from r a p i d  of  the  and  gas  transfer  the  by  school)  band  with  and  "veering"  school).  studied the  most  Koulton  of by  intense  and  were  500-1500Hz. work done on  p a p e r on  Neproshin  loudest  predators  large schools  the  coast.  (Shwartz  thumps  to gut  salmon  B.C.  associated  the  s o u n d s were  one  c h i n o o k on  the  to a h e r r i n g , under a t t a c k  been l i t t l e  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , have  coho and  noises  movement o f  to be  on  Probably  the  change o f d i r e c t i o n  similar  salmon and  Kulikova  swim b l a d d e r  or  There  in  from  chinook  Boyes p e r s . o b s . ) ;  hydrodynamic  predators.  Pacific  1980,  h e r r i n g under  anchovies,  centered  s o u n d s , k n o c k s or  of  found  coho and  o p e r c u l u m movement  Shwartz p e r s .  simultaneous  (1960),  and  (Fish  (coordinated  t r a n s f e r to  effecting  include; eating  a school  "streaming"  and  internal  gas  contractions  in large schools  jaw  resulting  obs.,  propulsive  associated  species of  herring  or v e e r i n g  likely  and  hydrodynamic  bladder.  prey  pers.comm.); h y d r o d y n a m i c acceleration  another;  undulatory  muscular  h e r r i n g which o c c u r s  sound  one  - sounds a s s o c i a t e d with  compression  stridulatory  are  from  turbulence  A principal is  against  hearing  the  thresholds  (1971, 1 9 7 4 ) , and the  sounds  spawning  grounds.  appears  Neproshin  acoustic behavior  of  They  of  and  sockeye, found  that  12  s a l m o n make a t three  of Tavolga's  drumming for  least  nine  distinct  (1964), c a t e g o r i e s .  sounds, measured  sound  muscular  unit  at  conversions)  c o n t r a c t i o n s of  be  detected  noise  levels  from  are  spawn i n r u n n i n g  swimming s o u n d s .  of  Pacific  pink  salmon.  reported of  salmon  by  1.3  very  form  must  THE  audition  of  considerable  and  these  coho and  ACUITY OF  there  Ambient as  has  fish. to  The  hearing  such  as  on  results  morphology (1971).  of  to  between  include Grasse  other targeted  FISH  work done on  teleost  fish  Atlantic  s p r i n g salmon  the  on  fish  the  is  three  o r more o t o l i t h s .  variation  the  for  the  HEARING IN  been l i t t l e  i n n e r ear  three  absence  ability  determined  t h a t o f mammals, h a v i n g  and  salmon  f o r the  s a l m o n s , much i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s  structural  Lowenstein  the  sounds could  fish.  account  a u d i t o r y morphology  MORPHOLOGY AND  canals  labyrinth  by  and  q u i t e high  those  cautious.  homologous  semi-circular  surface  t o the  t h e r e f o r e be  other  produced  1-1  frequency d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  E x t r a p o l a t i o n of  of P a c i f i c  generally  fish  sole reference  wide r a n g e o f  and  Although  hearing  likely  (see T a b l e  Hydrodynamic  the  m a s k i n g may  salmon, p a r t i c u l a r l y  trollers  t o be  were  i s the K o l ' t s o v a _ejt a_l (1977) p a p e r  (30-400Hz).  Pacific  are  into a l l  loudest  submerged  (30-2600Hz), c o n t r a s t s with  a similar  salmon  The  thought  breaking  but  thus  The  The  swim b l a d d e r .  fish  given  water,  of  and  the movements o f  not  fitting  a b o u t 40dB re l p b a r  the  were a s s o c i a t e d o n l y w i t h not  sounds,  species:  There  is  reviews  (1958), Moulton  of  (1963),  13 The Characinidae, saccular  seen  further inner  Ostariophysi  Siluridae), relative  connection  in other  between  acting  acute  as a r e s o n a t o r  (Poggendorf  Audiograms of illustrating generally  1952,  three the  found  hearing and  wide  suggests  in this  of  swim b l a d d e r - i n n e r  entirely  such  as  restricted  the  ear  pink the  reported  salmon high  surprising the  ana  the  pink  result  and  and  being  Maclennan  an  Ostariophysi  swim b l a d d e r  link  fish,  the  appear  swim  A number o f o t h e r  fish  lacking  l i n k a g e , or  range  and  seem  or  evidence hearing.  alternative  lacking  high  a swim  salmon.  As  hearing, Fig.1-4  brevirostris),  noted  in section  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (above 1000Hz or  salmon  by  may  artificially  done  be  so)  K o l ' t s o v a _et a l (1977 ) i s a  in a small  1975).  method  bladder  thresholds.  (Negaprion  to  another  g e n e r a l l y have p o o r  lemon s h a r k Atlantic  an  inner-  thresholds  kind  good  the  fish  experimental  have r e l a t i v e l y  bladder  Fig.1-3  low  o f one  to  1959).  in  and  and  i s thought  Roggenkamp  fish  Elasmobranchii  frequency  experiments  Hawkins and  ear  f o r the  f o r the  these  connections  these  frequency  shows a u d i o g r a m s  This  Hawkins 1 9 7 3 ) , and  t h a t many o f  the  and  complex  transverse canal),  The  sensitivity  group.  Non-ostariophysan  1.2,  1963).  more  t r a n s m i t t i n g v i b r a t i o n s to  range of  the  review  of  ostariophysan  (see  the  (the  between  Kleerekoper  swim b l a d d e r - i n n e r  with  the  (Moulton  connection  have  of  otolith  two  Cyprinidae,  and  lagenar  e a r v i a the W e b e r i a n o s s i c l e s . f o r the  (families  have a s m a l l e r  to the  species  have a d i r e c t  account  ear  and  otolith  endolymphatic not  superorder  high  tank  Audiograms  as a r e s u l t  (Parvulescu  of  1964,  f o r the y e l l o w f i n  and  14  • 50 •40 r  • 3 0 f-  2  *20  m 2  +10  ^  0  (A 10  -10  4) >  0  •o - 2 0  3 O CO  -30 -40  -50  20  40  60  ' ' •1 0 0  200  Frequency  FIGURE 1-3.  400  _1_  1000  (Hz)  Auditory thresholds of three ostariophysine species. A/ Mexican cave f i s h (Astyanax mexicanus), Popper 1970. B/ Catfish (Ictarulus nebulosus), Poggendorf 1952. C/ Carp, (Cyprinus carpio) Popper 1973.  JL  4000  -1  10  20  L  1  40  I  I  60  I  I  I I  100  I  Frequency  1-4.  I  200  400  I  i  I  1000  I  (Hz)  Auditory thresholds of three non-ostariophysine species. A/ Lemon shark, (Negaprion b r e v i r o s t r i s ) , Banner 1967. B/ Pink salmon, (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), Kol'tsova et a l 1977. C/ A t l a n t i c salmon, (Salmo s a l a r ) , Hawkins and Johnstone 1978.  I  4000  I  16  false the  albacore  range  tunas  and  i s n a r r o w and  ncn-ostariophysans. large,  f o r the  It is interesting tend  to hear  species, particularly Because  s e a , background  sound  noise  (see  important  through  vital  to  prey,  avoidance  over  its ability  Tavolga  frequency  and  (1974).  others with  to u t i l i z e  of p r e d a t o r s  a u d i t o r y masking in  or  fish's  the  the Fish  Non-ostariophysian  fish  discrimination  attempts  unsuccessful tested, for  broadband  to n o i s e  this  noise  well transmitted  background  A review band  of  concept  hearing,  in  the  the  f e a t u r e of an  work  in fish  poor  appear  is  and  band.  i n the  have  few  been  species  same r a n g e  n o n - o s t a r i o p h y s i a n s , 20-22dB Chapman and  found  good  band  f o r the  t o be  on  frequency  a critical  Surprisingly,  of  ostariophysi  a narrow c r i t i c a l  t o measure  ( B u e r k l e 1969,  the  is therefore  l i n k a g e have  generally display  o s t a r i o p h y s i a n and  smaller  sonic information in capture  thus  ratios  relatively  to p e r c e i v e  good  ( T a v o l g a 1974).  signal  both  but  that  ability  critical  and  to note  i s a constant  swim b l a d d e r - i n n e r e a r  discrimination  these  1.4)  etc.  with  for  Again,  reef dwellers.  section  A  i n F i g . 1-5.  l e s s w e l l than  is relatively  the o c e a n e n v i r o n m e n t . sound  appear  threshold high  piscivorous fish  herbivorous  cod  Hawkins 1973,  with Tavolga  1974). Directional active the  experimentation  older literature  VJhile many e a r l y to  hearing and  is currently  much t h e o r e t i c a l  i s found  experiments,  demonstrate d i r e c t i o n a l  in fish  i n Moulton usually  and  debate. Dixon  i n tanks  discrimination  an A  area  of  review  of  (1967).  or p o n d s ,  in conditioned  failed fish,  17  • 50  •40  •30  2  +20  CD  3  +10  > 01  -10 •o -20 c  3 O CO  -30 -40  -50  10  20  40  -I  60  •  '  i '  100  200  Frequency  FIGURE 1-5.  400  _1_  1000  (Hz)  Auditory thresholds of three non-ostariophysine species. A/ Yellowfin tuna, (Thunnus albacores), Iverson 1966. B/ False albacore, (Euthynrun a f f i n i s ) , Iverson 1967. C/ Cod, (Gadus morhua), Buerkle 1967.  J  4000  I  18 more r e c e n t field  work under  have shown t h a t  (section  1.2).  (1973) and  Schuijf  (1975),  the  SOUND IN  THE  Sound may molecules kinetic  the  i n an  energy  elastic  medium.  an  initial  of p r o p a g a t i o n  pressure,  particle of  of  and  passage of  sound  to a r e f e r e n c e  0.0002bar was sound  theoretical of  ear.  source  molecules  of of  to  in pressure  lubar,  in decibels  Table  1-1  allows  some o f  the  reference  are a l l  =  Use  of  the  negative  that  comparison  the  result of  standards  units  for  with  at  a  a i r standard values  from  sound that  The  acoustics,  ldyne/cm  of  the  displacement  decibels  because  the  Variation in  i n terms o f  lm.  of  transmit  parallel  In u n d e r w a t e r  expressed  measurements. using  level  discontinued  pressure  values  from  i n Hawkins  through a m a t e r i a l .  i s u s u a l l y expressed  commonly g i v e n  distance  ability  a p e r i o d i c motion  particle  r e a s o n s o f measurement.  standard  free  a n a l y s i s models  "sound wave".  practical  respect  timing  inner  this  appear  including  disturbance  of  are  have  subject  Adjacent  intensity  levels  a sound  as  the  velocity, the  acoustic  SEA defined  from  manifestations  i n the  to an  least  latter  be  direction  sound  at  o f p h a s e d i f f e r e n c e and  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n mechanism  1.4  nearer  some s p e c i e s  Newer r e v i e w s o f  consideration the  conditions  of  of  underwater  pressure  appear  in  the  literature. The velocity  and  from  source  the  simplest  model  displacement and  small  relating  pressure,  particle  i n a sound wave assumes g r e a t amplitude  waves and  distance  i s known as  the  19  TABLE dB r e dyn/cm  1-1  CONVERSION TABLE FOR  dB r e 0.0002 dyn/cm  dB r e lyPa  REFERENCE SOUND LEVELS db r e lpbar  Plane Wave RMS Pressure dyn/cm  40  114  140  40  10  20  94  120  20  10  0  74  100  0  1  -20  54  80  -20  10"  -40  34  60  -40  IO  -  2  -60  14  40  -60  IO  -  3  -80  -6  20  -80  IO"  4  100  -26  0  -100  IO"  5  2  1  20 p l a n e wave e q u a t i o n e.g.  Camp 1 9 7 0 ) .  (rms),  in f u l l  i n most a c o u s t i c s  F o r a p l a n e wave o f sound  i s related p =  (derived  to the p a r t i c l e  velocity  (u) b y :  P  = density  o f medium  c = propagation v e l o c i t y  resistance" seawater,  term  Pc i s c a l l e d  or "acoustic  pc i s a b o u t  the s e a i s a b o u t air.  60 t i m e s speaker  The energy  flow  pressure  This  As- a r e s u l t ,  radiating  the " s p e c i f i c  impedance"  4.5 t i n e s  the f o r c e  o f wave. acoustic  o f the medium.  For  1.5x10 gm/cm s e c as compared to  42gm/cm s e c f o r a i r .  in  the p r e s s u r e (p)  pcu  where:  The  i s because  the speed  and the d e n s i t y  an u n d e r w a t e r  o f sound i n  some 850 t i m e s  speaker  must p r o d u c e  and 1/60 t h e d i a p h r a g m d i s p l a c e m e n t the same e n e r g y  intensity  through  and p a r t i c l e  ( I ) o f a sound  expresses  2  = U PC  as a u n i t L  = 10 l o g  where:  of i n t e n s i t y I  I  r e  i s t h e n d e f i n e d by:  ref  L = level £  of a  o f the sound  Pc decibel  about  the r a t e o f  velocity:  2  that  ina i r .  a g i v e n a r e a and i s the p r o d u c t  I = PU=£ The  textbooks  in decibels  = the r e f e r e n c e l e v e l of intensity  herein  2  ldyne/cm  or l y b a r .  Substitution level  leads  t o the w o r k i n g  equation  f o r sound  pressure  (SPL): SPL  = 20log  where:  P  Py- , T  db  r m s  re l y b a r  i s the measured  c  root-mean-square  pressure. All  sound  levels  Propagation  the e f f e c t s loss"  and  Transmission  Sound  emanating  of  spreading,  o m n i d i r e c t i o n a l source  radiating  spherical  outward.  refracting  boundaries,  i n v e r s e square  where:  If  from  r i _ i s the  spreading  a p o i n t source  a b s o r p t i o n and i f the  can  be  diminishes  scattering.  signal  due  scattering,  viewed  as  i n the  absence  pressure  "Spreading  geometrical  propagation  a series net  diminishes  from  of energy,  of r e f l e c t i n g  or  according  to  2 r  P = total  2  acoustical  sphere  of  power  flowing  radii:  Ii = 4  IT  r  2  12  r e f e r e n c e d i s t a n c e of I n ,  = 101og/l_Tl= lOlog 121  through  radius r.  then  the  (SL) i s : SL  to  from  law:  of d i f f e r e n t P = 4 n r  definition.  Loss:  sound  a spheres  to t h i s  p r e s s u r e waves, o f e q u a l  Thus,  P = 4 ir i  For  correspond  N e g l e c t i n g a b s o r p t i o n and  concentric,  the  text  d e s c r i b e s the w e a k e n i n g  effects. an  i n the  r . = 201og 2  r  2  loss  due  to  22  Thus, in  f o r each d o u b l i n g  sound  pressure  of  the  i s observed  Absorption energy  effects  shear v i s c o s i t y ,  absorption" complex  to heat  effect  due  to  is defined  acoustical of  distance  as  variously,  and  the  sulphate  the  ( U r i c k 1975 , S c h u l k i n  neglected.  Similarly,  scattering  from  particulate  effect  i n the  purposes,  sea  by  has  f i g u r e of  K e l l e n e t a_l ( 1 9 7 4 ) .  The  assumption  o f a monopole  projectors. nature.  The  sources  frequency  large  produced.  diverging  that  close  s p h e r i c a l waves.  i n phase w i t h  the  sound  a p p r o a c h e s 90°  to  at  the  pressure  due  to  0.003dB/km,  practical sound c a l c u l a t i o n s  sound  source  emit  source.  well  falls  applies those  of  source  particle  In  as  sound waves of  wavelength  but  i s of  sources  a b o v e ) , or  H e r e , the  the  be  f o r the s c a t t e r i n g  For  to a s m a l l  pressure  can  wave e q u a t i o n  (as n o t e d  relative Sound  plane  effect  spreading.  These w i l l  sound waves a t a d i s t a n c e by  to  pressure,  for  about  o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n for biological sound  in  coefficient  i n underwater due  "ionic  suspended  been e s t i m a t e d  i t i s u s u a l l y assumed  much more complex  angle  A  solely  an  Changes  h a l o c l i n e s and  the  boron-borate  i n sound  diminishes  underwater  not  attenuation  is small.  frequency,  the  from  the  l o s s to t h i s  intensity  course  in  the  thermoclines,  material  independent of  ated  and  and  e t _al_ 1 9 6 2 ) , but  b e l o w 50kHz t r a n s m i s s i o n  loss  of  results  absorption  frequencies  to  This  volume v i s c o s i t y ,  affect  a 6dB  transformation  i n the medium.  o f magnesium  salinity  source,  spreading.  ( Y e a g e r e t a_l 1973 , U r i c k 1 9 7 5 ) .  temperature  that  from  a  only  gener-  the i s propagated  velocity  behind  this  as  by  region  a  is phase  the  particle simple  velocity  relation  tionately  1964,  has  i t the and  r =  source.  to the  been  termed  The the  between  these  is rapid .  A/2TT  "near and  field" van  the  there  fall  o f f of  illustrates  and  particle the  region  B e r g e i j k 1962, i s no  Harris  abrupt  particle  current practice  F i g . 1-6  by  increases dispropor-  VJhile  zones,  and  sound p r e s s u r e  region of high  (Harris  B e r g e i j k 1964).  displacement about  the  "far field"  van  transition  related  f o r p l a n e waves, b u t  towards  displacement beyond  i s not  s e t s the d i v i s i o n  the n e a r  field-far  at  field  effect.  Reflection  and  R e f r a c t i o n at  Boundaries:  Sound p r o p o g a t i n g boundaries  with  the d i f f e r e n c e the  sound  reflector  to normally  than  water.  losses  ranging  from  incident  such  reflection  as from  and  surface  sound  and  having  about  14dB  5kHz sound  dependent  i s an  almost  a choppy  (Mackenzie  or r e f r a c t i v e  perfect  to  transmitted.  interface  of  s u r f a c e , low  relative  i n sandy  upon  higher  a higher a c o u s t i c a l the  from  the w a v e l e n g t h  while  through  is negligibly  through  therraoclines the  extent  a longer wavelength  less well,  Reflective column  sea  to a s m a l l e x t e n t  Here  normally  A calm  s u r f a c e waves  reflects  substrate, for  of  impedances  incident  sound, having  wavelength bottom  pass  a medium r e f l e c t s  mediums to an  in acoustical  ( U r i c k 1967).  frequencies frequency  contiguous  through  vary  silt  The  the sea  impedance  with  t o 5dB  in rock  1960).  interfaces  i n the  and  haloclines,  combined  s u r f a c e and  b o t t o m , can  result  in  water with extremely  24  FIGURE 1-6.  A plot of p a r t i c l e displacement vs. distance from a monopole sound source i l l u s t r a t e s the n e a r - f i e l d , f a r - f i e l d effect for several frequencies projected at 1 y bar re 1 meter (after Hawkins 1973).  25 complex  sound  spherical provide  spreading  imprecise  distance complex  pathways,  from may  different Ambient  particularly  calculations  source.  become j u m b l e d  paths get out of i n the  Loye  and  activity.  (Dobrin  biological been  traced  other  Winn  1947;  at a p o i n t  environment  (1964). and  origin  1964;  is a "crackling"  mussels  ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and  by  i n the ocean  Predominant  are  sounds  rain,  and  seismic  may  tides  transiently  Fish  and  or " f r y i n g "  (Alpheidae)  of ambient  (1970).  spectra  in  persistent  that  has  also  often  to b a r n a c l e s  (Echinidae)  production  1971), Moulton  noise  and  sea u r c h i n s  o f sound  Mowbray  be  York 1972), p a r t i c u l a r l y  (Mytilidae), Reviews  1948),  and  in f i s h  (1963), F i s h  (1964),  A composite  from Wenz ( 1 9 6 2 ) , a p p e a r s  F i g . 1-7.  1.5  OBJECTIVES OF THE The  s t u d y was  the a u t h o r , h i m s e l f of  Fish  T a v o l g a (1960, 1964,  illustration in  and P i g g o t t  invertebrates.  include  waves a r r i v i n g  the s o n i c  to s n a p p i n g s h r i m p  (Cirripedia),  the s i g n a l , i f  P r o b a b l y the most w i d e s p r e a d and  sound  given  Sea:  s o u r c e s s u c h as wind  shallow water.  at a  may  phase.  Sounds o f b i o l o g i c a l  ascendant  loss  Simple  P r o u d f o o t ( 1 9 4 6 ) , Knudsen e t a l (1944,  Wenz (1962, 1964) from p h y s i c a l  intensity  In a d d i t i o n  as sound  Review p a p e r s on include  of t r a n s m i s s i o n  e s t i m a t e s o f sound  the sound  Noise  in shallow water.  sound  i n the B.C.  STUDY  initiated  a troller, troll  to s a t i s f y  the c u r i o s i t y  had d e v e l o p e d r e g a r d i n g  fishery.  Numerous -dockside  the  that role  stories  26  120  -1  1 I | I I 111  INTERMITTENT  1  1 I | I l"|  1  AND LOCAL  TTTTTj-  1 I | I I I l|  EFFECTS  CARTHOUAKES . aioLoacs •  • UURFAGE WAVES-SECOHO-ORDER PRESSURE E F F E C T S ! J — ( K I S M I C •ACKSROUNO)-20  •' l  I I ml 10  A. 10*  _L  (SUftFACC AGITATION)  -UAAAL  LAJ. 10  s  I0  4  O-ua 10°  FREQUENCY-CPS  FIGURE 1-7.  A composite i l l u s t r a t i o n of oceanic ambient noise showing sound spectra from various sources (after Wenz 1962). Sound pressure units may be converted to dB re 1 u bar by adding 74 dB.  27  of  dramatic  drive  train  catch or  investigation  steering of  whether v e s s e l s or  j u s t do  not  increases  the  gear  a t t r i b u t e d to changes lead  phenomena.  with  good  sound  repel  fish  by  to The  this  attempt  main p o i n t  profiles  non-emission  at  in a at  vessels systematic  issue  actively attract of  repulsive  is fish  sounds.  28 2.0  THEORY FORMATION  2.1  THEORY  AND  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  FORMATION  PROPOSITIONS  British least  Catch  rates  vary  Columbia  troll  salmon  part  widely  of the v a r i a n c e  (Boyes p e r s .  between v e s s e l s  fishery.  Fishermen  t o the sound  output  i n the attribute at  o f the v e s s e l  obs.).  ASSUMPTIONS Pacific other  senses  salmon  utilize  sound  i n the l o c a t i o n o f p r e y  in addition  to t h e i r  and a v o i d a n c e o f  predators. INFERENCES Projection at a high  level  from w i t h i n  will  either attract  fish  and s u p p r e s s  vessel,  compared  decrease  the gear  feeding  activity.  o f a salmon  feeding,  The c a t c h  to a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , w i l l o f t h e sound  sounds troller  o r r e p e l the  rate  of the  improve o r  projection.  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN An  obvious  starting  point  s o u n d s o f the b o a t s  and t h e f i s h  comparison  sound  of these  responsible Similarly, predators rate.  prey or predator  array  salmon and s t i m u l a t e  as a r e s u l t  2.2  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  spectra  f o r the s t u d y was the  themselves. might  show  A n a l y s i s and similarities  f o r a t t r a c t i o n or s t i m u l a t i o n of feeding comparison  could  The s t u d y  reveal  of boat  spectrums with  the source  was d i r e c t e d  t h o s e o f salmon  of a negative  towards  i n salmon.  effect  on  catch  the a t t r a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e  29  based  on  the  success  the  literature  his  living  an  of  The  stage  pelleted Success  species  positive  has  although  e q u i p m e n t was of  of  sea  playback  feeding  sounds  troller  variation  through  the  slack tide  T h u s , f o r much o f  The  no  only  the  response.  experiment  effects  of  would  of  not  of  taking  the  fish.  in a  number  with  this  have been common a l s o .  e s t a b l i s h that in l e v e l  salmonid  of  day  with  and/or day  feeding  effort  to  the  A  sound  output  and  the  third  gear  structured  maxima o f t e n  low  light  and  natural variation  performed the  s o u n d s were p r e s e n t e d  to m i n i m a l l y  excited  t o the  fish,  sounds had the  effects  the  associated  to  the  with  catch  dusk.  the  to m i n i m i z e  day  rate  study.  so  fish  " o f f the  bite". the  Trials that  fish.  a s t i m u l a t i v e or on  catch  e x h i b i t s wide  results.  of  i f these  of  presented  slow p e r i o d s  that  the  stage  vernacular,  on  and  a t d a y b r e a k and  i s being  i n the  sounds  increase  during  character  to  behavior  characteristically  They a r e ,  was  this  conducted  expected  actively  s e c t i o n 1.2)  comprised  trollers  with  salmonids  results  i n an  r a t e of  of  makes  them away was  sounds back  adequately  catch  periods  author  investigation consisted  searching  (see  some k i n d  the  in  reproduction.  a commercial  The  or  negative  performing  At simulated  the  various  been r e p o r t e d  That  species  decision.  of  feeding  fish  than c h a s i n g  then p r o j e c t i n g these  result  fidelity  this  s o u n u s made by  in e l i c i t i n g  procedure,  of  second  feed,  a number o f  salmon r a t h e r  inconsiderable part  the  with  i n s e c t i o n 1.2).  (reviewed  catching  recording  of  recorded  It  were  test was  attractive  r a t e would  be  larger  30  than with fewer it  fish  fish  i s also  ratio  already  per l i n e  t h e time  reduced, g i v i n g  and d e l i n e a t i n g  periods. occupied  during  a trial  of the gear  and t h u s more v i s i b l e .  required  a lower  to p u l l  pulling  more c l e a r l y t h e t e s t  In a d d i t i o n ,  Saturation avoided.  b i t i n g well  low c a t c h leaving  rates  the g e a r  and  time/soaking and  more a v a i l a b l e  hooks a r e  t o new  (commonly 7-10 h o o k s / s i d e )  reset  time  control  mean fewer  With  fish.  i s thus  31  3.0  METHODS AND  3.1  RECORDING, PLAYBACK Underwater  MATERIALS  Playback  was from  t h e same  line  by a S o n i c B a r r i e r  transformer, driven  (lOOvolt output). analyzer.  recording  with a b u i l t - i n public  lOOvolt  address  Sonograms were made on a Kay 7029A  Specifications  and p l a y b a c k  tape  r e c o r d e r , t h r o u g h an  loudspeaker  spectrum  a Sparton  a JVC K13-1636 MKII c a s s e t t e  Aquavox UW 60 u n d e r w a t e r  amplifier  EQUIPMENT  r e c o r d i n g s were Made w i t h  60CX123 h y d r o p h o n e o n t o recorder.  AND ANALYTICAL  equipment  and c a l i b r a t i o n  data f o r  follow.  HYDROPHONE: MODEL:  Sparton  COMPOSITION:  Lead-Zinconate, Piezo E l e c t r i c with i n t e g r a l preamplifier  RECEIVING RESPONSE (dB/volt/ybar) :  60CX123  49+ 3dB F l a t 0.04-5.0 kHz (see F i g . 3-1)  POWER REQUIREMENTS:  8.7v ± 5% @ 500 A Low n o i s e power s u p p l y F i g . 3-2.  shown i n  TAPE RECORDER: MODEL:  MODEL JVC K13-1636  FREQUENCY RESPONSE: . . . .  25-17,000Hz  SIGNAL/NOISE:  57dB  WOW  0.08%  & FLUTTER:  ( 3 0 - 1 5 , 0 0 0 ± 3dB  (WRMS)  CROSSTALK:  65dB  INPUT  0.14mV, 20-10k OHMS  SENSITIVITY/IMPEDANCE:  OUTPUT LEVEL/IMPEDANCE: POWER CONSUMPTION:  . .  . . . .  (1kHz)  50mV, 2.5k OHMS 9watts  MKII  0  ~-20  m 73  --40 > 0)  S-60 0)  C  o (/)  -80  -100  10  J  L_L 100  J Frequency  FIGURE 3-1.  L  J  1K  (Hz)  A/ Measured s e n s i t i v i t y of a Sparton 60 CX 123 hydrophone and preamplifier at a depth of 30m. B/ Manufacturers curve of frequency response for the Sparton 60 CX 123 hydrophone and preamplifier.  L  10K  33  2.7KJI  -Wv-r  220KJI  Hydrophone  Output  and  preamplifier  FIGURE 3 - 2 .  The noise reduction c i r c u i t of the hydrophone power supply.  SOUND  PROJECTOR:  MODEL:  Aquavox UW60  MAXIMUM  POWER INPUT:  . . . .  50watts  RMS  FREQUENCY RESPONSE:  100Hz - 50kHz ( S e e F i g . 3-3)  MAGNETIC SYSTEM:  Permanent Magnet  MAXIMUM  OPERATING  DEPTH:  . .  50m  AMPLIFIER: MODEL:  Sonic  POWER INPUT:  12V D.C.  INPUT IMPEDANCE:  200 OHMS - 50k OHMS  INPUT LEVEL  3mV  (MIC):  OUTPUT IMPEDANCE  (lOOv  Barrier  16 OHMS  line):  SOUND GENERATOR: MODEL:  Custom, u s i n g T . I . SN76477N Complex sound g e n e r a t o r I . C .  POWER SUPPLY:  9V D.C.  LOW PASS FILTER:  Rolloff Circuit  3.2  a t 800Hz shown i n F i g . 3-4  RECORDINGS OF TROLLERS Fishboats  the  hydrophone  ran  by a b o u t 4 m e t e r s  were r e c o r d e d from  suspended from  three  speeds; a "slow  about  1.5m/s), " f a s t  trolling select their  speed  troll" troll"  using  below  t h e hydrophone (a s l o w (2m/s),  f o r t u n a , 4-5m/s).  these speeds boats.  two m e t e r s  their  t h e end o f a dock the s u r f a c e .  with  Boats  and were r e c o r d e d a t  salmon  trolling  and " t u n a s p e e d "  speed, (approx.  S k i p p e r s were i n s t r u c t e d  own judgement  to  and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  35  Frequency (Hz)  FIGURE 3-3.  A/ Measured output o f Aquavox UX60 loudspeaker used i n playback d r i v e n a t 1 amp., RMS a t a depth o f 40m i n an a c o u s t i c a l free f i e l d . B/ Measured output o f an Aquavox UW60 d r i v e n a t a c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t o f 1 amp. i n the AMTE a c o u s t i c tank, England (manufacturers d a t a ) . C/ Measured impendance o f the UW60 a t 1 amp i n the AMTE a c o u s t i c tank (manufacturers d a t a ) .  36  wv  3.3KJ1  FIGURE 3-4.  Low pass f i l t e r used with complex sound generator to produce Test Tape I I .  37  3.3  RECORDINGS Herring  in  net pens.  Wild  Island  FISH  were r e c o r d e d  in "wild"  s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d  s h a l l o w water d u r i n g Vancouver  OF  spawning  schools  by e c h o s o u n d e r w h i l e i n  s e a s o n on t h e west  or i n the Gulf  and c a p t i v e  o f Georgia  coast of  (March 1 9 8 0 ) .  h y d r o p h o n e was l o w e r e d t o t h e d e p t h o f the s c h o o l made.  Captive herring  Station net  i n Nanaimo.  were r e c o r d e d  Here  and r e c o r d i n g s  at the P a c i f i c  the hydrophone  The  Biological  was p l a c e d  w i t h i n the  pen.  Coho and c h i n o o k salmon rainbow  trout  Biological enclosure. feeding  ( 1 - 2 . 5 k g ) , as w e l l  (2-3kg) were r e c o r d e d  Station. Pelleted  The h y d r o p h o n e feed  was thrown  i n n e t pens was p l a c e d into  m o t i o n s s u c h as a c c e l e r a t i o n s ,  at the P a c i f i c w i t h i n the  t h e pens  fast  as l a r g e r  to  swimming  initiate  and r a p i d  turns.  3.4  PLAYBACK The  the  sound p r o j e c t o r  net enclosure  chinook,  and t e s t  and r a i n b o w t r o u t .  sounds were o b s e r v e d  3.5  was p l a c e d  sounds p l a y e d  inside  or j u s t  to h e r r i n g ,  R e a c t i o n s o f the f i s h  outside  coho,  to test  from t h e c a t w a l k a r o u n d t h e p e n s .  PLAYBACK AT SEA For  the  IN PENS  troll  7-8meters.  the sea t r i a l s , the p r o j e c t o r  vessel  within  The two main  the gear a r r a y , lines  was towed  behind  F i g . 3-5 a t a d e p t h o f  were p u l l e d  every  l / 2 h o u r , the  38  FIGURE 3 - 5 .  The position of the sound projector within the gear array during test and control periods.  39  numbers and reset.  fish  captured  on  after  the  the  and  o f f every  lines  trials,  sonograms o f  had  l/2hour  with  been r e s e t .  denoted  test  F i g u r e s 3-6,  tapes  3-7  and  included  f l a s h e r s and  hootchies,  arranged  in a pattern  appropriate  the  recorded,  T h i s g e n e r a l l y t o o k a b o u t 4-5mins.  cycled  in  species of  individual  distribution made d u r i n g pieces.  of the  types the  of  l u r e s and  salmon  trial  i n the  periods  the  Three I,  and  The  test  switch  3-8.  III,  The  lures  species  to  vertical  area.  No  shown i n  just used  the  fished  and  to the the  sounds were  sounds were  and  spoons, plugs  lines  occurring  separate  II  the  butterflies,  selectivity  of  species  changes  save r e p l a c i n g worn or  to g e a r lost  were  TYPE  FIGURE 3-6.  B / S 3 S O N A G R A M  •  K A Y E l E M E T R I C S  C O .  PINE  BROOK.  N.J .  Sonogram of Test Tape I; a recording of t r i c k l i n g water. F i l t e r bandwidth 22.5 Hz. " '  4*  O  TYPE  FIGURE 3-7.  B / B 3 S O N A G R A M  •  K A Y ELEMETRICS  C O .  PINE  BROOK.  N.J .  Sonogram of Test Tape I I ; irregular pulsed output of a noise generator cycling at 28 Hz. F i l t e r bandwith 22.5 Hz.  TYPE  8 / 8 3  S O N A G R A M  •  KAY  ELEMETRICS  CO.  PINE  BROOK.  M. J .  4.0  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  4.1  RECORDINGS OF  TROLLERS  R e c o r d i n g s were made of in and  length. two  Eight  were s i n g l e  o u t p u t was Figures at the  were o f  a slow  4-2  skin  and  troll,  y axis,  the  are  trace.  scale  the  height  the  of  guard of  This  at  faster of  associated be  by  due  wooden  speed.  troller  Frequency of  jagged  top  traces  of  the  at  the  recording.  upper  speed,  reduction  gear,  water  noticeable  on  the of  For  each these  intensity is proportional  c a v i t a t i o n of or more b e n t  tailshaft  to  rate.  to  limit  4-3.  noises  hull,  and  are  of  Here  resistance shaft  the  so  the  the  that  propeller  appearing  Trollers  i n the  as  when c y c l e d  on  and  off.  stern  i t is  increase  in  sonogram  is  vessel  turning The  Figure  4-4  both  is  in addition  also.  (Ross  an  1979).  heard  A considerable  frequency Figure  blades,  be  (here  propeller  (Erickson  w h i c h may  one's e a r  the  to  the  considerably operation  a u x i l i a r y e q u i p m e n t , h y d r a u l i c s , pumps, m o t o r s , e t c .  often  is  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c broadband  with  a bent  wave-making  surface  a 10m  intensity a function  and  to one  putting  the  tuna  acoustic  at d i f f e r e n t speeds.  tuna  sections  c a v i t a t i o n noise  and  encountering engine,  two  to a f f e c t c a t c h  intensity evident  The  shows the  wheel, or  vessel  believed  with  i s reversed  4-2  may  against  the  x,  construction  trace.  Figure l-6KHz) t r a c e s  and  at  from 9.7-14.5m  Wide v a r i a t i o n i n  sonograms o f and  instantaneous  frequency  unbalanced  troll  the  the  1976).  are  trollers  c a r v e l plank  fiberglass.  4-3  fast  time on  darkness of sonogram  traditional  a p p a r e n t between b o a t s  4-1,  ten  was  shov/s a  FIGURE 4-1.  Sonogram of 10m wooden t r o l l e r at a slow t r o l l i n g speed (1.5m/s). F i l t e r bandwidth 45 Hz.  TYPE B/SB SONAORAM8  FIGURE 4-2.  KAY KLEMETRICS C O .  PINK B R O O K . N . J .  Sonogram of a 10m wooden t r o l l e r at a fast t r o l l i n g speed (2m/s). A/ Indicates traces associated with c a v i t a t i o n of the propeller. F i l t e r bandwidth 45 Hz.  TYPKB/SSSONAORAM*  KAY • U M E T R I C *  CO.  PINK B R O O K . M . J.  T Y N I B / 6 8SO N A G R A M *  K A Y ELXMETRICS C O . PINK BROOK. N. J .  8KHZ  4KHz  80Hz  FIGURE 4-4.  Sonogram of a 14.5m wooden t r o l l e r at a slow t r o l l with hydraulically driven refrigeration compressor operating (A). F i l t e r bandwith 45 Hz.  4^  48  trace  at  driving  a b o u t 2.2KHZ c a u s e d a refrigeration A  the  sea  reduced boat  in Figure  in this  recording  as  (1.5m) and  abeam the  vessel.  particular the  higher  engine  test  20dB r e  jig  sonogram o f  i s shown  p r e d o m i n a n t , showing  of  a variable  than  boats  the  as  reported  components  level lOdB  likely  engine  for pink  can  detection  will  Erickson's distance  add  to  tend  the  (1979) o u t p u t lm.  traces  The  is  (Figures troll  1-4,  some  vessels  levels  are  valid,  at  albacore  trolling  thresholds other  indicate i n the  i s noteworthy  was  propeller  The  s e n s i t i v e region It  running  and  1-5)  level  appreciably  appreciably  s a l m o n , and  with  output  (1979) w i t h  Gear, s h a f t  the  are  engines  This  in  are  to  associated  to predominate.  most  close  noises  Erickson  this  Atlantic  a p p r o a c h 30m.  i s only  Engine  auxiliary  by  bar).  species  In  pump  v e s s e l , used  Propeller noises  hydrophone was  and  a c o u s t i c a l l y detect  r a n g e 20-400hz.  4-5.  stationary.  reul  not  and  hydraulic  author's  a t a b o u t 600RPM.  measured  noises  non-ostariophysine salmon  main  lm w h i l e  (about  s o u n d s would speed  at  the  the  narrow bandwidth  v e s s e l with  lybar  speed  compressor.  slow-troll  trials  by  the  frequency  range  that  that  of  if  the maximum  detection  TYPE B/68  S O N AO RAM •  KAYELEMETRICB CO.  PINE BROOK. N. J .  2KHz  1KHz  i  20Hz  FIGURE 4-5.  9.6  sec  Sonogram of the author's vessel (13.1m), used i n the sea t r i a l s , at a slow t r o l l i n g speed (1.0-1.5m/s). F i l t e r bandwidth 11.25 Hz.  50  4.2  RECORDINGS OF Obtaining  schooled  herring  resulting. either  Fish  down.  with  the  calm water proved  fleet  on  the  of  sound  or  apparent  skeletal  sound  mussels  also  pens a t FBS  levels.  reversed in  recordings  sounds  the  net,  of w i l d  sonogram  fish  and  be  accompanying  were v e r y  evident.  sounds o f  Fig.4-6  of  the  low  frequency  hitting  the  hydrophone  and  quiet  fish  lower  by this  during  The  up  patterns  recording  fish  i n one  background  tended  corner  until  frying  and  school  sounds  found  at  a l l times  near  and  bandwidth  of  shown i n F i g . 4 - 7 . in this  (<500Hz) p u l s e s  to  which  the  are  causing  The  these  to  feedback.  "knocks"  frying  sonogram due  the  During  r a p i d swimming, sounds dubbed  cord  or  (Cirripedia),  r a p i d swimming  appear p e r i o d i c a l l y  the  fairly  They r a n g e 3.5-5KHz.  These are  Some o f  machinery  produced  with  above m e n t i o n e d  the  with  ( s e v e r a l thousand) i n  were p r e s e n t e d  showing  boat  ( E c h i n i d a e ) ( F i s h 1964).  sometimes p i l i n g  The  the  noise  "crackling"  barnacles  better quality  and  the  h e r r i n g , although  captive herring  thrashing  and  pitched  the  to  background  to be  These may  certain  i s shown i n F i g . 4 - 6 .  crowding  proved high  4KHz.  were o f  surface  A  being  urchins  its direction.  school.  fish  while  due  to d r i f t  sound-activity correlations.  within  occasioned  allowed  Direct observation  allowed  circle  of  difficult  echo s o u n d i n g  movements o f  and  Recordings  noise  on  of h e r r i n g  considerable  or  i s a l s o made by  (Mytilidae),  net  the  school  sounds c e n t e r e d  branchiate  the  and  These p r e - s p a w n i n g  only  "frying"  recordings  were l o c a t e d by  anchored  shut  type  quality  in shallow,  ubiquitous  FISH  as w e l l .  fish  TYPE B/6S  SONAORAM •  KAV ELEMETRICS  CO.  PINK B R O O K . N . J.  8KHZ  4KHz  »  80Hz  FIGURE 4-6.  Sonogram of herring "scratches". The recording was of captive herring i n a net pen at the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l Station. F i l t e r bandwidth 4 5 Hz.  TYPK B/6S  FIGURE 4-7.  SONAGRAM•  KAY KLEMETRIC8 CO.  PINK B R O O K . N . J.  Sonogram of herring "knocks", produced by active f i s h in a net pen at the P a c i f i c B i o l o g i c a l Station. Filter bandwidth 45 Hz.  53 A sonogram o f on  pellets  quickly the  food.  rapid  The  recording,  turns  fish  thus  underwater. chinook  in Fig.4-8.  i s shown  with  did  these  Frying  PLAYBACK As  species  IN  feeding  and  in  p e n s a t PBS  sounds of on  absent  high  as  55dB r e  such  sounds.  adult  noise  for  this generated  of  juvenile  rainbow  from r e c o r d i n g s  trout  of  is evident  captive  in  the  than  2m  It  from  a very  being  on  at  The  into  Figs.3-8  p r o j e c t o r was  the  be  also that  Kaniwa  coho and  subject  fish.  No  the  and  fish  were  are  suspended response  enclosed  of  of  the  fish  levels  as  sonograms o f  within  of  effect  1975).  Playback  at output 4-8  of  chinook  pens and  fish  to  a number  a pelleted diet.  thrown  lm.  with  Maniwa 1966,  to p r o d u c e a s t a r t l e  tones  may  and  responses with  lived  sound  Attempts  oscillating  p o s i t i v e responses  made to u n s a t i a t e d  lubar  The  Hashimoto  and  them was  conditioned  during  in recordings  (1.5-2.5kg) and  trout f a i l e d .  pellets  feeding  with  surface  competed  sounds were p l a i n l y  shipping  similar  rainbow  observed.  they  sounds have been o b t a i n e d  to e l i c i t  more  swimming  PENS  1960,  salmon  area  knocking  the  d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 1.2,  (Moulton  Attempts  v/ere  actively  Fig.4-8.  4.3  and  break  considerable  of  not  not  sounds v/ere  background  playback of  fish  a c c e l e r a t i o n s as  (500gm), a d u l t coho  salmonids but  the  and  (500gm) f e e d i n g  These  S i m i l a r sounds o c c u r r e d  (2.5-3kg).  net  j u v e n i l e coho  any  the  kind  with  pen, was  pure  tone  failed. these  high  background  to v i s u a l  cues o n l y .  fish, noise  hand  fed  level,  Pellets  and have  thrown  held  in  an  become  into  the  pens  T T P K B / O T a O t M O H A M * R A Y • L K M B T M C B C O . PDOt BROOK. N. J .  FIGURE 4-8.  Sonogram of juvenile coho salmon actively feeding on p e l l e t s . The intense broadband traces are the f i s h noises (indicated) considerable shipping noise i s evident i n background. F i l t e r bandwidth 45 Hz.  make a s i g n i f i c a n t also  sheltered  disturbance  on  from p r e d a t i o n  another powerful considerations  stimulus  may  within  to use  explain  the  the  of  surface. their  their  observed  The  fish  are  and  thus  lack  nets  auditory  l a c k of  sense.  These  reaction  to  sounds. 4.4  PLAYBACK AT Attempts  were c a r r i e d off  the  was  weather.  pull  time  so  day  the  (the  glazed  less  gear,  must be  could  schedule.  Often  was  to o t h e r  called  visibility in  the  tidal  was  the  fishing  t h a n a b o u t 50  be  only  a few  to  tow  of  action  caused  a number o f  The (Figs.3-6,  3-7,  successful  i n the  sounds of  boats  requiring three 3-8),  herring  the  types  of  the  vessel  and  time  well  as  to  of  sound  tangles of  and  salmonids.  required processing  before  trials  trial  on  i n the  the  without area.  the in  crew  risk Strong  speaker  and  progress. trials  sounds r e p o r t e d  f o r resemblance  the  good  i n the  between  the  based  frozen,  conduct  projector  sounds used  were c h o s e n  fish  in accordance with  that p r e v a i l e d  abortion  literature, and  as  1982  number  d r e s s e d , washed,  reset  the  fleets  lines  to  and  The  Moderate w e a t h e r w i t h  large  trolling  due  source  number o f  c y c l e s were p o s s i b l e  duties.  required  and  of  when the  p e o p l e were r e q u i r e d  checked  1981  Island.  reset  stunned, bled,  Two  to a sound  patterns  only  and  sea  September o f  of Vancouver  remove f i s h ,  stowed).  gear  by  and  were p r a c t i c a l  was  fish  and  that  west c o a s t  Tests  salmon a t  August  constrained  caught per to  to a t t r a c t  during  southern  trials by  out  SEA  to  to  recorded  be  56  Test Tape I was a r e c o r d i n g of t r i c k l i n g (Fig.3-6). of  water  The broadband pulses e v i d e n t i n a l l the r e c o r d i n g s  a c t i v e f i s h were w e l l mimicked by t h i s method, and a very low  noise tape could be made.  The e r r a t i c pulsed timing of the  sound, roughly 20Hz, accorded w e l l with s u c c e s s f u l sounds in the literature  ( S t e i n b e r g _et a_l 1965, Richard 1968). Test Tape I I i s the recorded output of a custom made  sound generator u t i l i z i n g sound generator  a Texas Instrument  integrated c i r c u i t  SN76477N complex  (Fig.3-7).  The n o i s e  f u n c t i o n o f the c h i p was modified with a low-pass (Fig.3-4) to r o l l  o f f a t about 800Hz, then c y c l e d at about 28Hz.  T h i s sound v/as then pulsed designed  low  irregularly.  to resemble observed  literature.  filter  It differed  Again,  t h i s sound was  f i s h sounds and those  i n the  from Tape I i n i t ' s g r e a t e r emphasis on  frequency. T e s t Tape I I I (Fig.3-8) c o n s i s t e d of repeated  t r o u t feeding sounds. trials  after  T h i s tape was used  i t became apparent  rainbow  at the end of the sea  that the s y n t h e s i z e d sounds were  ineffective. The  r e s u l t s of the playback  Tables 4-1, 4-2 and 4-3. the sound on, and 31 with and  VJith Tape I , 31 f i s h v/ere caught i toff.  on the data i n d i c a t e d .05 .  with  Tape I I gave a r e s u l t of 17  24 r e s p e c t i v e l y , VJhile Tape I I I y i e l d e d 7 and 8.  negative c o r r e l a t i o n  a=  at sea are shown i n  A slight  i s e v i d e n t with Tape I I but a p a i r e d t - t e s t that the r e s u l t was not s i g n i f i c a n t at  57  TABLE 4-1:  Salmon C a t c h D u r i n g C y c l e d T e s t Tape I ; W a t e r N o i s e s  DATE : LOCATION: DEPTH: SPEAKER DEPTH! OUTPUT L E V E L :  ON OFF ON OFF  Period 10:00-10:30 10:30-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00  DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH: SPEAKER DEPTH!  ON OFF ON OFF  Period 17:30-18:00 18:00-18:30 18:30-19:00 19 :00-19:30  DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 10:00-10:30 10 : 3 0 - l l : 0 0 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 12:00-12:30 12:30-13:00 13:00-13:30 13:30-14:00  Playback  of  J u l y 14/81 S w i f t s u r e bank llOmeters llmeters 55dB r e ljuBar a t lm Coho 2 0 1 3  Pink 1 0 0 1  A u g u s t 30/81 N o r t h end o f L a P e r o u s e 55-75meters 13meters Coho 2 2 1 1  Pink 2 1 1 0  S e p t . 2/81 West s i d e o f La P e r o u s e 82-92meters Coho 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0  Pink 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Chinook C 1 0 0  bank  Chinook 1 2 2 0  bank Chinook 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  58  DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 14:30-15:00 15:00-15:30 15:30-16:00 16:00-16:30 16:30-17:00 17:00-17:30 17:30-18:00 18:00-18:30 18:30-19:00 19:00-19:30 DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  ON OFF ON OFF  Period 12:30-13:00 13:00-13:30 13:30-14:00 14:00-14:30  S e p t . 3/81 S o u t h - e a s t end o f La P e r o u s e 59meters Coho 2 3 0  1 3 0 0  1  Pink  1 3  0 0 1 0 0  1  0 2  2  3  bank  Chinook 0 0 0 1 0 0  1  0 2 2  S e p t . 6/81 S w i f t s u r e bank 55-75meters Coho 0 3 0 0  Pink 0 0 0 0  Chinook 0 0 1 0  59  TABLE 4-2:  Salmon C a t c h D u r i n g C y c l e d P l a y b a c k o f T e s t Tape I I ; P u l s e d Low F r e q u e n c y N o i s e  DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH: SPEAKER DEPTH: OUTPUT LEVEL:  ON OFF  Period 08:00-08:30 08:30-09:00  DATE: LOCATION:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 08:30-09:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 12:00-12:30  DATE:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 16:30-17:00 17:00-17:30 17:30-18:00 18:00-18:30 18:30-19:00 19:00-19:30 DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 09:30-10:00 10 :00-10:30 10:30-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 12:00-12:30  Aug. 25/82 Portland Point 80meters 14meters 55dB r e l u B a r a t l m e t e r Coho 0 0  Chinook 0 0  Aug. 26/82 As Above Coho 0 1 0 0 0 3 Aug.  Chinook 0 0 0 0 0 0  28/82  Coho 0 0 0 0 0 0  Chinook 0 0 0 0 0 0  S e p t . 6/82 North s i d e of Juan 130-200meters Coho 2 4 1 4 2 3  de Fuca  Chinook 0 0 1 1 0 1  Canyon  60  DATE: Period ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  15:00-15:30 15:30-16:00 16:00-16:30 16:30-17:00 17:00-17:30 17:30-18:00  DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  OFF ON OFF ON  Period 16:30-17:00 17:00-17:30 17:30-18:00 18:00-18:30  Sept. Coho  7/82 Chinook  1 1 0 0 1 0  0 0 1 0 0 0  S e p t . 15/82 L a P e r o u s e bank 80meters Coho 2 4 3 4  Chinook 0 0 1 0  61  TABLE 4-3:  Salmon C a t c h D u r i n g C y c l e d P l a y b a c k o f T e s t Tape I I I ; F e e d i n g Sounds o f L a r g e Rainbow T r o u t DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH: OUTPUT L E V E L :  ON OFF ON OFF  Period 14:30-15:00 15:00-15:30 15:30-16:00 16:00-16:30 DATE: LOCATION: DEPTH:  ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF  Period 16:00-16:30 16:30-17:00 17:00-17:30 17:30-18:00 18:00-18:30 18:30-19:00  S e p t . 9/82 S w i f t s u r e bank lOOmeters 55dB r e L u B a r a t lm Coho 0 1 2 2  Chinook 0 0 0 0  S e p t . 16/82 L a P e r o u s e bank SOmeters Coho 3 0 1 2 0 2  Chinook 0 1 0 0 1 0  62  As UBC c o n d u c t e d  a f o o t n o t e to the playback preliminary  playback  experiments  killer  whale s o u n d s t o t h e s u b j e c t pods  during  t h e summer o f 1982 (John  same sound  projector  experiments.  Strong  some i n d i v i d u a l s sound at  becoming  a t high speed,  least  extremely  that  Ford of  of recorded  i n Johnstone  60) employed  Straits He used t h e  i n these  t o t h e sounds was e v i d e n t , w i t h  and a c t u a l l y  an i n d i c a t i o n  John  F o r d p e r s . comm.).  ( t h e Aquavox UW reaction  trials,  agitated,  bunting h i s v e s s e l .  t h e equipment  producing  sounds o f a b i o l o g i c a l l y  character  in field  conditions.  a p p r o a c h i n g the  i s capable of  meaningful  l e v e l and  This i s  63 4.5  GENERAL DISCUSSION The  the  predominant  p e r i o d i c broadbank p u l s e s 4-7,  (Figs.3-8, herring, trout.  The  source  as  splashing measured  the  as  on  Fig.3-6,  a  the  sounds.  swimming  herring  undoubtably  by  The  He  but  rainbow  some  revealed  the  lower  during  sound  occasionally Franz  (1959)  that  two  mechanisms  the  of  initial  collapse he  impact,  of  measured  levels  at  the  splashing,  was  the  lower  character of  of  the as  the  while  sounds r e c o r d e d ,  were e v i d e n t  did  "knocks". the  same  i n the  where s u r f a c e  production.  then  impact  particularly  trout recordings  sounds  acoustic monitoring  herring  in pitch  school  the  from  occurrence  of  the  with  spectrum  surface  the  and  Tape I shows  during  that to  Test  is required,  observed  found  acoustic  Observation  rainbow  until  direction.  results  Another e x p l a n a t i o n  not  for  "knocking"  maximum sound p r e s s u r e  a contributor  and  The  p u l s a t i o n and  sonogram o f  although  silent  associated  sharp pulse  always c o r r e l a t e with  chinook  0.15-3.5kHg  is uncertain  pen.  surface.  a i r bubbles.  sounds,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.1-8kHz f o r  to r e v e r s e  noise  sounds e m i t t e d  these  not  were  sonograms  became a c t i v e , t h r a s h i n g  the  w i d e , 0.5-10kHz w i t h end.  net  attempted  were r e s p o n s i b l e ; by  the  underwater  water d r o p l e t s  entrained  sounds  recordings  i n the  were r e l a t i v e l y  of  fish  they  the  followed  ranged  fish  (1-2.5kg) and  these  herring  into a corner  occurred  evident  These  of  i n the  follow.  The piled  4-8).  1.5-7kHz f o r coho  speculations  of  sounds  type  coho,  splashing  was  Cavitation noise Ross  i n the  sea,  noise  u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with  (1976) e s t i m a t e s  projected occurs  from  i s a common s o u r c e  t h a t 80-85% o f  a v e s s e l at  when the  local  speed  pressure  from  n e a r a body  pressure.  Rupture o c c u r s ,  resulting  containing  water vapor  d i s s o l v e d gases.  sea water  microscopic  and  i n the mixed  sub-microscopic  nuclei.  These e f f e c t i v e l y  liquid,  allowing cavitation  the  actual static  as  they  of  broadband  region  reenter  capable levels. turning points  noise.  l-10kHz  broadband  (and  of  of  (Barker  and  rapid  start  t o movement o f  conditions  swimming the  manoeuvres caudal  were r e c o r d e d  at negative  cavitation  cavitation  lubar  pressure  in in  caused  feeding  the  pressures  results  30dB r e  or  and  s t r e n g t h of  fish  above  bubbles radiation  the the  observed  must  to n e a r  be  ambient  movements  (Vveihs 1972,  during  Webb 1 9 7 6 ) ,  f i n as a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e .  during A  in calculation  i s the  tensile  filmed fusiform f i s h  the  liquids,  a c t as  If cavitation  (<500gm) by Webb ( 1 9 7 6 ) . elsewhere)  Most  bubble  c o n t a i n many  pressure  reach  fast  starts  relation  used  of c a v i t a t i o n  equation;  to  static  c o l l a p s e of c a v i t a t i o n  lowering  of  the  This  relative  in a microscopic  the  higher  1973).  transiently  Examination  The  T h i s can  pulses, actively  s p e e d s o f 6m/s trout  regions  of  layer,  to o c c u r  pressure.  value  v o i d s which  reduce  cavitation.  in motion  i s lowered  and  the  propellors.  a c o u s t i c energy  results  near  broadband  ship's  the medium  particularly  to or  the  of  of  small  i n marine  inception  Tip  rainbow design  where, a = c a v i t a t i o n number Po =ambient p r e s s u r e Pv =vapor p r e s s u r e of sea water at r e l e v a n t temperature p =density of seawater u =speed  o" = Po-Pv 1 p u 2  A velocity of  2,  o f a b o u t lOm/s n e a r  about  hydrofoil P  D  with  is  no  at a high  fin  information  an  trout  of  (similarly the  cetaceans  Fig.4-9  orca) a c t i v e l y  Ford).  These are  accelerations  speed  in u  on  at  the  rise  the  shaped  fish)  required  i f an  surface.  could  in  to  quick-start  There  and that  attain  caudal  lOm/s, salmon may  The  broadband be  the  whales d i d not  break  capable  (Lang  feeding  on  the  fish  relative  the  killer  be  of  the  during of  (llm/s)  the  whales by  (John F o r d indicate  noted  that  pers. that the  recording.  c a v i t a t i o n noise  is suction  be  rapid  sounds be  in  speeds w i l l  (provided with  I t should  surface  arid c e t a c e a n s )  size  salmon  Tail  e l u s i v e prey  character source.  speeds  1975).  sounds a s s o c i a t e d  Another p o s s i b l e source other  of  i s a sonogram of  i n p u r s u i t of  c a v i t a t i o n may  the  The  s a l m o n , hov/ever g i v e n  are  c a v i t a t i o n onset  somewhat h i g h e r .  (and  increase  a  c a v i t a t i o n at depth  literature  of P a c i f i c  c a v i t a t i o n of  a sigrna  able.  region  comm.).  of  a t 30°C g i v e s  (Morgan 1 9 6 9 ) .  requisite  t i p speeds a p p r o a c h i n g  (Qrcinus  attack  requires  i n the  Certain  John  f o r onset  of  the  abilities  rainbow  surface  sigma, p r e c l u d i n g  cannot produce  similarly  the  limit  angle  a constant  manoeuvring small  upper  i n c r e a s i n g depth  achieve animal  the  the  feeding.  d i f f e r e n c e between p r e d a t o r  and  i n salmon  Because prey,  of  water  TYPE B / 6 3 0 O N A O R A M •  FIGURE 4-9.  KAYELEMETRICS CO.  PINE BROOK. N. J .  Sonogram of k i l l e r whale (Orcinus orca), t a i l beats during rapid acceleration. The whales were a c t i v e l y feeding on salmon i n the Straight of Juan de Fuca, near Sheringham Point(recording courtesy of John Ford). F i l t e r bandwidth 45 Hz.  67  movement from the p r e y . cavity  the p r e a a t o r ' s a p p r o a c h  S u c t i o n c r e a t e d by  i s used  draw t h e p r e y pressures (Lauder  by most into  at the  and  expansion  fish  to overcome  (Lauder  1980).  surface.  forward  body v e l o c i t y  and  the  may  effect  negative  to  cause  a combination  i n p r e y c a p t u r e and  sufficient  to  of  although mouth  s u n f i s h e s , the a d d i t i v e be  and  cavity  n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e s from  slower  suction  the  R^O)  Salmon u t i l i z e  develop  this  in sunfishes of  (-1020 cm  body movement  approaching  64%  of  the mouth  Buccal  have been measured  required  the p o s i t i o n  e x t e n s i o n of  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s about  they p r o b a b l y cannot  of  jaws  theoretically  cavitation suction  teleost  o f -650cm H^O  1980).  pressure  the  rapid  affects  effect  induce  cavitation. Whatever in  source of  the r e c o r d i n g s o f v a r i o u s f i s h ,  loudest may  the  be  and  likely  analogous  anchovies trout.  and  character.  The  sounds o b s e r v e d .  these  similarity  sounds between  in cutthroat  showed  the  same  broadband  this  class  of  sounds made  the c a v i t a t i o n  n o i s e s made by  propellors  (Fig.4-2),  k i l l e r whale  the  source of  trollers  that  has  They  (1969) o b s e r v e d  s a l m o n and  be  the  " v e e r i n g " sounds o f M o u l t o n ( 1 9 6 0 ) w i t h  "thumps" S t o b e r  Sonograms o f  pulses evident  t h e s e v/ere c e r t a i n l y  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  to the  the  the b r o a d b a n d  and  the v a r y i n g f i s h i n g been a s s o c i a t e d  damaged o r  unbalanced  beats  (Fig.4-9)  performances  i n salmon  with  tail  sonic  output.  by  may  68  5.0  CONCLUSIONS Towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g  troll  salmon  fishery, this  1/  The sound  c o i n c i d e s witli within  2/  noise  3/ a Pacific  limits  from  salmon  pulse  from c a v i t a t i o n induced  recorded  array the of  captive  fish  the t r o l l  of d r i v e  distance  dubbed  to  noises.  pulsed  vessel  fish  troller  feeding  These may  result  feeding.  l o w - f r e q u e n c y and  sounds a t a h i g h  salmon  during  of a t r o l l  "knocks".  level  to c a p t i v e  from w i t h i n  the g e a r  had no o b s e r v a b l e  the study  the p a r t  failed  affect  effect  the catch  on  rate  sound p l a y s  t o e s t a b l i s h the c a u s e o f , i n the t r o l l  some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o b l e m was g a i n e d . that  train  i s about  vessel.  substantiate  likely  vessels  level.  nor d i d i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Although or  salmon  sounds made by a c t i v e l y  i n n e t pens and t o w i l d  of a commercial  of t r o l l  by t a i l b e a t s o r by s u c t i o n  feeding  vessels  30m.  Playback of various  salmonid  salmonids  level  this  i s at l e a s t  a r e broadband  by t r o l l  p r o p e l l o r or v e n t i l a t i o n  The p r e d o m i n a n t  5/  that:  o f 20-500Hz.  a faulty  increase  i n the B.C.  range o f P a c i f i c  The maximum d e t e c t i o n  4/ salmonids  hearing  a t lm i n t h e a b s e n c e  r o u g h w e a t h e r would  by  showed  spectrum produced  The sound o u t p u t  20dB r e l y b a r Cavitation  study  the p r o b a b l e  the approximate  t h e r o l e o f sound  the e f f e c t  of boat  noise  t h e salmon due t o s i m i l a r i t i e s  recommendations  f o r future  studies  I t now  salmon f i s h e r y , seems  i s r e p u l s i v e or  with  predator  in this  area  more  inhibitory  sounds.  Some  are o f f e r e d i n  the  following  section  investigations.  based  on  points  that  arose  i n these  70  6.0  SUGGESTIONS FOR  FUTURE WORK  A number o f p o i n t s have emerged are  deserving  mounted  on  towed  the  sound p r o j e c t o r .  The  camera would  fish  the  sound  of  the  focus  but  using  during  Playback  An  correlational  4/ with  fleet  be  could  5/ salmon.  speeds origins should  and of  with  used  the  at  sea  as  predator  lower  the  troll  albacore  field  sounds  than  during  salmon  c o n d i t i o n s such  catch  rates  controls. level  such  start  i n salmon Recording  "on  as  the  as  Erickson  the  tide,  (temperature, with  the  periods. of  sound  capabilities, are of  bite"  s t a t e of  radio contact  examination  fast  needed  feeding  is involved.  Determination  of  salmon  study  ( m a r i n e mammals,  fleet  to c o r r e l a t e d a i l y  i f cavitation  of P a c i f i c  provide  j i g fleet.  thorough  "knocks".  to  might  in this  were o c c u r r i n g  to d e l i n e a t e these  feeding  direct  A lure  performed  water c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  A more  camera  allow  source.  camera's  book r e p o r t s or d a i l y  suction  confirm  species  be  Evaluation of  6/ all  would  underwater video  the  inhibition  attempt  c o n d i t i o n s and Log  in  trials  environmental  salinity).  that  fish.  simulated  t h e US An  an  a c o u s t i c p r o f i l e - r e l a t i v e catch  study  (1979) d i d w i t h  light  or  periods 3/  periods  apparatus w i t h i n  I f r e p u l s i o n or  test  with  a t t r a c t e d to  recorded  sharks).  a t sea  f o r incoming  2/  study  f u r t h e r work.  Playback  from  a visual  this  1/  observation be  of  from  production peak  to e x p l o r e salmon a t  frequency-threshold  (to confirm  and  swimming  extend  depth  curves the  the  for  findings  71  of  Kol'tsova  detection useful  e t ^1_ 1977)  distances  from  i s needed sound  sources.  i n p r e d i c t i n g e f f e c t s from  offshore  o i l exploration.  to a c c u r a t e l y These  industrial  determine  data might  noise  such  as  be  72  LITERATURE  CITED  A b b o t t , R.R. 1972. I n d u c e d a g g r e g a t i o n o f p o n d - r e a r e d Rainbow T r o u t (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) t h r o u g h a c o u s t i c c o n d i t i o n i n g . T r a n s . A n e r . F i s h . S o c . 1:35-43. B a n n e r , A. 1968. A t t r a c t i o n o f young lemon s h a r k s , N e g a p r i o n B r e v i r o s t r i s by s o u n d . C o p e i a , No. 4. 4:871-872. B a n n e r , A. 1972. Use o f sound i n p r e d a t i o n by young lemon s h a r k s , Negaprion B r e v i r o s t r i s (Poey). B u l l e t i n of Marine S c i . 22 (2):251-283 B a r k e r , S . J . 1973. Measurements o f r a d i a t e d n o i s e from c a v i t a t i n g h y d r o f o i l s . 1973 C a v i t a t i o n and P o l y p h a s e Flow Forum, A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s p p . 27-29. B e r g e i j k , W.A. v o n 1964. D i r e c t i o n a l and n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l h e a r i n g i n f i s h . In M a r i n e B i o - a c o u s t i c s (W.N. T a v o l g a ed.) Permagon P r e s s p p . 281-299. B u e r k l e , U. 1967. An A u d i o g r a m o f t h e A t l a n t i c c o d , Gadus m o r h u i a . J . F i s h . R e s . B o a r d Canada 24:2309-2319. B u e r k l e , U. 1969. A u d i t o r y m a s k i n g and t h e c r i t i c a l band i n A t l a n t i c c o d (Gadus morhua) J . F i s h . R e s . Bd. Canada 26:1113-1119. Chapman, C . J . and A.D. Hawkins. 1973. A f i e l d s t u d y o f h e a r i n g i n t h e c o d Gadus morhua ( L ) . J . Comp. P h y s i o l . 85:146-167. Chapman, C . J . 1975. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o t h e r e a c t i o n s o f f i s h to sound. I n : Sound R e c e p t i o n i n F i s h , ( e d s . A. S c h u i j f and A.D. H a w k i n s ) . E l s e v i e r pp. 241-253. D i s l e r , N.N. 1960. L a t e r a l l i n e s e n s e o r g a n s and t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n f i s h b e h a v i o r . I z d a t e l 'Stvo A k a d e m i i Nauk SSSR, Moskva 1960. E n g . T r a n s . I s r a e l Program f o r S c i e n t i f i c T r a n s l a t i o n s L t d . IPST C a t . No. 5799, 1971. D o b r i n , M.B. 1947. Measurements o f u n d e r w a t e r m a r i n e l i f e . S c i e n c e 105:19-23.  n o i s e p r o d u c e d by  E r i c k s o n , G . J . 1979. Some f r e q u e n c i e s o f u n d e r w a t e r n o i s e p r o d u c e d by f i s h i n g b o a t s a f f e c t i n g a l b a c o r e c a t c h . 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