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A foliar nutrition study of East Malaysian plantings of Pinus caribaea mor. var hondurensis barr. and… Fahlman, Richard Allen 1983

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A FOLIAR NUTRITION STUDY OF EAST MALAYSIAN PLANTINGS OF PINUS CARIBAEA MOR. VAR HONDURENSIS BARR. AND GOLF. by RICHARD ALLEN FAHLMAN B.Sc  (Comb. Hons.), The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE ... in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1983 ©Richard Allen Fahlman, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head of  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  1956  Main M a l l  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  -ii-  Abstract F o l i a r analysis was used to diagnose nutrient deficiencies i n East Malaysian plantings of Pinus caribaea Mor. var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf. Foliage from five sites (two i n Sarawak and three i n Sabah) was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, A l , Zn, Mn, Fe and B. were recorded from Sabah. sites.  Deficiencies of P, Ca and possibly B  Extreme P deficiencies were found on both Sarawak  In Sarawak, low levels of N, B and Zn were also noted but, due to  the severity of the P deficiencies, their significance could not be evaluated.  F e r t i l i z a t i o n recommendations were made for nutrient deficient s i t e s . And, from an examination of the relationship between tree growth and f o l i a r P concentration, a c r i t i c a l f o l i a r P l e v e l of 0.08% to 0.09% was proposed for East Malaysian plantings of Caribbean pine.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Literature Review Material and Methods Choice of Study Areas Climate Site Characteristics Sarawak Sabah Sampling Methods Chemical Analysis Results Sabah Sarawak Discussion and Recommendations Summary Literature Cited Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III  -iv-  LIST OF  TABLES Page  Table I.  Monthly and annual  rainfall  d a t a f o r sample s i t e s  Table I I .  8  Imputed d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s f o r C a r i b b e a n pine and c r i t i c a l  range  for s l a s h pine  Table I I I .  Lungmanis: F o l i a r  24  nutrient  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of the most r e c e n t f l u s h of needles  T a b l e IV.  Ranau: F o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  T a b l e V.  the most r e c e n t f l u s h  RP93A: of  Table V I I .  the most r e c e n t f l u s h  of n e e d l e s . .  27  Gum-Gum: F o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  Table VI.  26  of  28  F o l i a r nutrient concentrations  the most r e c e n t f l u s h  RP77:  of n e e d l e s . .  of n e e d l e s . .  29  F o l i a r nutrient concentrations  the most r e c e n t f l u s h  of n e e d l e s . .  30  LIST OF FIGURES  Page Figure 1.  Location of Study Areas  Figure 2.  An example of deformed pine growth on RP93A  Figure 3.  12  An example of pine growth at Lungmanis  Figure 5.  11  Sparse foliage and deformed growth of Caribbean pine on RP77  Figure 4.  6  16  Good growth and luxuriant foliage of Caribbean pine at Gum-Gum  17  Figure 6.  Caribbean pine plot at Ranau  18  Figure 7.  Relationship between mean annual height increment and f o l i a r P concentration  Figure 8.  76  Relationship between mean annual basal area increment and f o l i a r P concentration  Figure 9.  77  Relationship between mean annual basal area x height increment and f o l i a r P concentration  78  -vi-  Acknowledgements The author expresses h i s s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e to h i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. J . G. W o r r a l l , and h i s committee members, Dr. Kimmins, f o r t h e i r advice  T. M. B a l l a r d , and Dr. J . P.  and guidance during  this project.  A l s o , the  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e k i n d l y o f f e r e d by Min Tse and by members o f the U.B.C. S o i l Science  Laboratory  i s gratefully  adknowledged.  The author a l s o wishes to acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency.  received  And s p e c i a l thanks i s  extended to the members of the Sarawak and Sabah F o r e s t Departments, without whose help and g r a c i o u s realized.  hospitality,  t h i s p r o j e c t could never have been  - 1 -  Introduction Caribbean pine, Pinus caribaea Mor.,  because of i t s a b i l i t y to grow  under conditions of high temperature, humidity and r a i n f a l l , has become the most important conifer being planted i n the humid tropics.  After  comparisons of the performance of v a r i e t i e s of Caribbean pine with other t r o p i c a l pines, Lamb (1973) concluded that, up to 18° from the equator, there was  no other pine as suitable as Pj_ caribaea Mor.  var. hondurensis  Barr. and Golf, for plantation development i n the lowland plains of the equatorial zone.  Widespread interest i n the species as an exotic i s  revealed by the large number of countries i n South America, Africa and Asia where plantations have been established (Hutchinson, 1976).  In Sarawak, East Malaysia, the Honduran variety of Caribbean pine  has  been i d e n t i f i e d as a potential tree for use i n afforestation of abandoned s h i f t i n g - c u l t i v a t i o n sites (Palmer, 1971). achieved  Much better growth has been  in areas of peninsular Malaysia and i n the East Malaysian state of  Sabah, where commercial plantations are being established. According  to  Manikam and Srivastava (1980), 200,315 ha have been reserved for pine plantations i n West Malaysia and an additional 60,700 ha i n Sabah.  Tham  (1979) stated that Caribbean pine could be used to rehabilitate over 900,000 ha of degraded land i n Sabah.  - 2 -  Poor performance of the Sarawak p l a n t i n g s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o v a r i o u s n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s . Waring (1971) noted t h a t many of the e x h i b i t e d symptoms of acute boron d e f i c i e n c y . presence of n i t r o g e n and a p p l i c a t i o n of NPK of n i t r o g e n and  He a l s o remarked on  phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y symptoms and  fertilizers.  Levingston  the  recommended  (1975) s t r e s s e d the low l e v e l s  phosphorus i n the pine s i t e s o i l s and  l e v e l s of c a l c i u m and magnesium may  trees  suggested t h a t  a l s o be l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s .  t o x i c i t y , which has been noted i n Sarawak a g r i c u l t u r a l crops  low  Aluminum (Andriesse,  1972), c o u l d be another p o s s i b l e cause of poor t r e e growth.  To d a t e , no q u a n t i t a t i v e evidence i s a v a i l a b l e to s u b s t a n t i a t e above o b s e r v a t i o n s . was  begun i n 1976  A f i e l d t r i a l involving various f e r t i l i z e r  (Fahlman, 1977)  but was  f i r e set by s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t o r s . to p r o v i d e  The  destroyed  treatments  the f o l l o w i n g year i n a  major o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were  i n i t i a l f o l i a r nutrient concentration  p l a n t i n g s of Caribbean pine and  the  data f o r East  to diagnose which n u t r i e n t s may  Malaysian have been  l i m i t i n g growth, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Sarawak pine p l o t s .  L i t e r a t u r e Review I n r e c e n t y e a r s , f o l i a r a n a l y s i s has of d i a g n o s i n g (Tamm, 1964;  r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n as a means  n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n f o r e s t crops. Lavender, 1970;  L e a f , 1973;  Morrison,  A number of reviews  1974;  van den  Driessche,  - 3  1974;  Schutz, 1976)  -  have dealt with p r i n c i p l e s , methods and interpretations  of the technique.  Pushparajah and Chew (1979) reviewed the use of f o l i a r analysis In Malaysian agriculture and stressed the need for a programme to help define the nutrient requirements of forest plantations, p a r t i c u l a r l y of P. Mor.  Although Caribbean pine i s a widely planted species, few  data are available concerning  caribaea  published  i t s n u t r i t i o n . -Srivastava and Abang Naruddin  (1979) summarized previous Malaysian f e r t i l i z a t i o n research involving both potted seedlings (Joseph and F r e e z a i l l a h , 1969; t r i a l s (Platteborze, 1970 and Ang,  1975).  and 1971;  Joseph, 1971)  Lim and Sundralingam, 1974;  Additional research i n Malaysia  Srivastava, 1980)  field  Sundralingam  They concluded that an optimum f e r t i l i z a t i o n regime for  Caribbean pine had not yet been worked out for the s o i l s of Malaysia.  and  (Chiba, 1978;  and i n Australia (Cameron et a l . , 1981)  peninsular  Manikam and has stressed the  need for phosphorus applications to plantations of the species which are situated on highly-weathered tropical s o i l s .  Nutrient accumulation i n Caribbean pine biomass has been studied by Stewart (1980) and Egunjobi and his co-workers (1972, 1979a, 1979b). studies give an indication of the ranges of nutrient concentrations  These found i n  the foliage as a whole; and while not useful for deficiency diagnosis, they are helpful i n determining nutrient budgets of forest plantations.  - 4 -  With r e s p e c t  to f o l i a r a n a l y s i s  for diagnostic  i n a green-house study, analyzed the n u t r i e n t r o o t s of f i v e month o l d s e e d l i n g His work, however, has and  little  grown over a range of n u t r i e n t  a p p l i c a t i o n to f i e l d  two  West M a l a y s i a n s i t e s .  And  conditions.  Don,  p a r t i c u l a r l y of P.  to i n t e r p r e t f o l i a r data from West M a l a y s i a n pine  As  to s l a s h pine P^ e l l i o t t i i  for preliminary  Caribbean p i n e .  r e c e n t l y been d e r i v e d  D.  Engelm. ( L i t t l e and  and Dorman, as  1952 the  of  t e n t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s which have  and  that f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s f o r the supplied  his  f o r s l a s h pine ( P r i t c h e t t , p e r s o n a l communication)  Caribbean pine (Bevege, 1978  information  nutrient  plantings.  d e f i c i e n c y diagnoses of F i j i a n p l a n t a t i o n s  A comparison of  regimes.  radiata  1954), Humphreys (1971) used a v a i l a b l e s l a s h pine i n f o r m a t i o n  basis  and  Srivastava  Caribbean pine i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , both m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  geographically  stems  Waring (1971) r e l i e d on  experience i n A u s t r a l i a n pine p l a n t a t i o n s ,  for  content of f o l i a g e  Chin (1978) attempted to r e l a t e growth parameters to f o l i a r  l e v e l s on  and  purposes, Hamzah (1966),  by  the  two  p e r s o n a l communication) show i n f a c t two  species  authors was  d e f i c i e n c y diagnoses made In the present  are s i m i l a r .  used as a b a s i s  study.  Thus, for  the  and  - 5 -  Material and Methods Choice of Study Areas O r i g i n a l l y , i t was planned to sample stands of similar age and provenance i n both East and West Malaysia.  However, due to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  obtaining permission to work on the peninsula, sites were confined to the East Malaysian (Borneo) states of Sarawak and Sabah. in matching both age-classes and provenances. sampled, two i n Sarawak and three i n Sabah.  This created problems  Five sites were eventually Refer to Figure 1.  The Sarawak sites (RP 77 and RP 93A) were within the S i l v i c u l t u r e Research Reserve, Oya Road, Sibu (2°l7'N,112 0'E). o  The Sabah plots were  located at Gum-Gum (5 50'N,117°55'E), Lungmanis (5°43 N,117°43 E), o  ,  and Ranau (5 58 N,116°43 E). 0  ,  ,  I  Both Sarawak plots and one Sabah plot  (Lungmanis) we^re of Poptun, Guatemala, provenance. The remaining two stands were of Mountain Pine Ridge, Belize, o r i g i n . Fortunately, the location and s i t e conditions of the two provenances were not widely d i f f e r e n t .  Although the Poptun and Mountain Pine Redge stands  are presently separated by over 60 km of broad-leaf forest, Greaves (1978) considered i t l i k e l y that there had been past migration of the pine from one area to the other.  The altitude, latitude, general geology and climate of  the two areas are similar.  Figure 1.  L o c a t i o n of  study  areas  - 7 -  Climate The c l i m a t e of Sarawak and Sabah i s uniform and c o n s t a n t warm temperatures, Temperature v a r i e s l i t t l e level.  i s characterized  high r a i n f a l l and high r e l a t i v e  humidity.  through the year, averaging about  27°C near  Surface temperatures  inland f a l l  every 300 m i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e  at a r a t e of about  (Acres e t a l . ,  1975).  1.5°C  by  sea  for  A l l of the study  areas f a l l w i t h i n the Af, t r o p i c a l r a i n y c l i m a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Koppen (1936).  Site  A summary of a v a i l a b l e r a i n f a l l data i s g i v e n i n Table I .  Characteristics Sarawak Geology The  two  and  Soils  Sarawak s i t e s were l o c a t e d on the southern p o r t i o n of the  S i l v i c u l t u r e Research Reserve,  approximately 18 km east of the town of S i b u .  D e t a i l s concerning the geology of the r e g i o n can be found Wolfenden (1960) and L e i c h t i have d e s c r i b e d the l o c a l  (1960).  topography  i n publications  -Both S c o t t (1965) and B a i l l i e and  soils.  by  (1970)  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n i s given  below.  The  area i s u n d e r l a i n by a s u c c e s s i o n of massive  i n t e r v e n i n g l a y e r s of s h a l e and  sandstone.  sandstone  The massive  beds with  sandstones  o r i g i n a l l y formed a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l s t r i k e r i d g e s which have been forming a s u c c e s s i o n of rounded h i l l s 45 to 55 m i n e l e v a t i o n . and  sandstone  underlay the i n t e r v e n i n g v a l l e y s which are 10 to  eroded,  Mixed shale  Table A.  Mean Max . Min. B  Mean Max. Min.  D  Mean Max . Min.  Monthly and annual  Sibu S i l v i c u l t u r a l 1971 - 1975)  371 572 211  F  M  381 620 99  269 414 48  Gum-Gum ( S o u r c e : 433 461 912 1075 59 22 Lungmanis  Mean Max. Min.  I.  204 511 30  (Source:  327 410 624 1016 84 31  201 429 60  Research  251 792 26  118 233 29  Reserve  (mm)  292 340 213  290 518 127  203 307 112  213 305 46  252 406 122  Sabah F o r e s t Dept. f i l e s , 161 276 58  203 295 129  170 290 67  231 401 107  302 394 201  Sabah F o r e s t Dept. f i l e s , 126 271 11  154 231 80  186 329 78  215 317 81  247 596 118  283 464 122  396 645 175  204 290 97  148 257 73  236 361 72  sites.  0  N  252 416 185  292 396 150  files, Annual  396 511 249  3609 3947 2984  462 690 176  3412 4224 2462  282 383 150  2967 4075 2265  235 610 107  2350 3139 1707  1972 - 1978) 286 508 127  237 338 131  262 429 162  1970 - 1978) 212 361 90  Meteorological f i l e s , 198 296 58  f o r sample  Sarawak F o r e s t Dept.  (Source  M  Ranau ( S o u r c e : M a l a y s i a n 262 724 78  r a i n f a l l data  233 469 52  245 405 57  1969 - 1978)  176 360 56  183 254 90  187 256 80  oo  - 9 -  20 m above sea l e v e l .  RP93A i s at an e l e v a t i o n of approximately of  a sandstone  hill.  p o d z o l i c of the Nyalau  40 m, on a steep 25° s l o p e  The deep, w e l l - d r a i n e d sandy c l a y loam i s a r e d - y e l l o w f a m i l y ( S o i l Survey  S t a f f , 1966).  Soil  profile  d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a l l f i v e s i t e s are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix I .  RP77 i s s i t u a t e d between two h i l l s , parent m a t e r i a l o f mixed sandstone  a t an e l e v a t i o n of 16 m.  and s h a l e has r e s u l t e d i n a s h a l l o w e r ,  h e a v i e r - t e x t u r e d and l e s s w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l semi-detailed s o i l in  The  than found i n RP93A.  A  survey ( S c o t t , 1965) t e n t a t i v e l y mapped the area as being  the Bandang s e r i e s of the Semadoh f a m i l y .  However, d e t a i l e d  reconnaissance by the author has r e v e a l e d the s o i l  to be a r e d - y e l l o w  p o d z o l i c of the M e r i t f a m i l y .  S c o t t (1973) attempted  c o r r e l a t i o n s of the Sarawak s o i l  classification  with the U.S.D.A. system and the F.A.O. World S o i l Map Legend.  Under the  r e s p e c t i v e taxonomic systems the RP93A s o i l would be I d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r a t r o p e p t i c haplorthox or an o c h r i c f e r r a l s o l , while the RP77 s o i l would be e i t h e r an o x i c dystropept or an o c h r i c  cambisol.  Vegetation The  area had been s u b j e c t e d to repeated  Consequently,  c y c l e s of s h i f t i n g  there was no v i r g i n or o l d secondary  cultivation.  f o r e s t l e f t on the  - 10 -  reserve.  Graminaceous and herbaceous plants, i n particular, lalang grass  Imperata c y l i n d r i c a Beauv. and resam fern G l e i c h i n i a l i n e a r i s (Burm.) Hend. dominated the s i t e . size, were also  A few secondary tree species, generally of sapling  present.  Both of the Sarawak pine plantings displayed poor form and vigour. Dead and multiple tops were common. Foliage was sparse with a maximum of three needle flushes retained. Chlorosis and, i n many cases, necrosis of needle tips was widespread.  Figures 2 and 3 give examples of the poor form  found on the two s i t e s .  The understory vegetation i n RP93A was mainly resam fern, with s i g n i f i c a n t minor components of Vitex pubescens Vahl. and Nauclea calycina Barth.  Lalang was the dominant ground cover of RP77.  Resam fern, the sedge  S c l e r i a purpurascens Steud., as well as shrub-sized Vitex pubescens Vahl. and Melastoma malabathricam Linn, were also common.  Plot History RP93A Sample trees were from two 36 tree plots (numbers 7 and 8 which were part of a performance t r i a l involving several species of t r o p i c a l pines (Fahlman, 1976a).  Establishment occurred  i n 1974.  Site preparation  consisted of cutting existing vegetation and burning the slash. were planted at 2.4 m spacing.  Seedlings  Hand slashing of brush was done every  - 11 -  F i g u r e 2.  An example of deformed pine growth on RP93A.  - 12  Figure  3.  S p a r s e f o l i a g e and d e f o r m e d  growth of  Caribbean pine  on RP77.  - 13 -  s i x months f o r the f i r s t r e c e i v e d a banded  two years, then a n n u a l l y .  I n 1976,  each  tree  f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of 85 g Christmas I s l a n d  rock phosphate, 28 g t r i p l e  superphosphate and 28 g Borate 46.  RP77 The study area was been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1972  p a r t of a Caribbean pine provenance (Fahlman, 1976b).  The t r i a l was  t r i a l which had  l a i d out as a  randomized complete b l o c k with four r e p l i c a t e s of e i g h t provenances.  Each  r e p l i c a t e c o n s i s t e d o f 25 t r e e s a t 2.4 m s p a c i n g .  Sample t r e e s were chosen  from the f o u r r e p l i c a t e s of the Poptun, Guatemala,  provenance.  P r i o r to  p l a n t i n g , the o v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n had been slashed and removed from the site.  The area around each p l a n t i n g p o i n t was  then sprayed with the  h e r b i c i d e , paraquat. W i t h i n the f i r s t  year of p l a n t i n g each t r e e r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g  f e r t i l i z e r application:  banded  113 g I.C.I. Compound 15 (10:16:9; w i t h 2.5%  and 113 g of Borate 46 (13.5% B) . Hand-weeding and s l a s h i n g was  MgO)  done at the  time of each annual assessment.  Sabah Geology and  Soils  The comprehensive  f i v e volume study of the s o i l s of Sabah by Acres e_t a l .  (1975) g i v e s d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the physiography, geology and s o i l s o f the  region.  B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of the parent m a t e r i a l s and s o i l s of the  - 14 -  three sites are given below.  Soil c l a s s i f i c a t i o n follows the F.A.O. World  S o i l Map Legend, which has been widely used i n Sabah.  Refer to Appendix I  for s o i l p r o f i l e descriptions.  Lungmanis This s i t e was within the Kretam s o i l association which generally occurs on moderate to low h i l l s below 150 m. Parent material was comprised of sandstone, mudstone and miscellaneous rocks i n the Kuamut, Garinono and Chert-Spilite slump formations (Acres et a l . 1975). Miscellaneous  Sandstone was dominant.  rocks included serpentinite, gabbro, d o l e r i t e , limestone and  chert.  Two  s o i l pits were dug and the s o i l s i d e n t i f i e d as an orthic a c r i s o l of  the Tanjong Lipat family and a f e r r i c a c r i s o l of the Sipit family. s o i l s were moderately well-drained  Both  sandy clay loams.  Gum-Gum The pine stand was located on the flood plain of the Sungai Gum-Gum. Parent material was medium to fine-textured alluvium with considerable buried organic material. Buran family.  The s o i l was i d e n t i f i e d as a gleyic l u v i s o l of the  Although the s o i l was poorly to imperfectly drained, rooting  depth extended well below one metre.  Ranau The site was located near the crest of a ridge i n the Crocker  - 15 -  Mountain Range.  The s o i l , a dystric cambisol of the Antulai family, was a  well-drained humic clay loam, grading to a sandy clay loam with depth. Parent material was sandstone.  Vegetation Up to the time of planting, the Lungmanis and Gum-Gum sites had been covered with selectively-logged mixed dipterocarp forest.  At one time, the  Ranau area had also been included i n this forest type, but the a c t i v i t y of s h i f t i n g cultivators had altered the vegetation to secondary  scrub forest.  Compared to the Sarawak plots, tree form and vigour was much better i n the three Sabah plantings. Up to six flushes of needles were retained on l a t e r a l branches and foliage was generally dark green and healthy.  Refer to  Figures 4, 5 and 6.  Dominant understory vegetation of the Lungmanis plot consisted of unidentified grasses with scattered clumps of the fern Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.)  Schott and scattered c h i l i bushes Capsicum frutescens Linn.  The herb,  Eupatorium odoratum Linn, was widespread i n the the Gum-Gum understory, along with lalang and unidentified grasses.  The fern, N. biserrata (Sw.)  Schott and an unidentified climber of the Piperacae were also common. As canopy closure had occurred on the Ranau s i t e , no understory was present. Vegetation i n the immediate v i c i n i t y consisted of saplings of the Oleaceae  -  Figure  4.  An e x a m p l e o f  16  pine growth at  Lungmanis.  - 17 -  - 18  F i g u r e 6.  -  Caribbean pine p l o t  at  Ranau.  - 19 -  and Lauraceae Bl.  i n p a r t i c u l a r , L i n o c i e r a r a m i f l o r a Wall, D e l i a s s i a  and L i t s e a i n s i g n i s  (Bl.) Boerl.  Shrubs of the Melastomataceae were  a l s o p r e s e n t , as w e l l as some grasses and  Plot  cuneata  resam f e r n .  History  There were few e s t a b l i s h m e n t records a v a i l a b l e f o r the Sabah t r i a l s . All  three s i t e s were demonstration p l o t s a t 2.4 m s p a c i n g .  and s i z e of p l a n t i n g s were as f o l l o w s : Lungmanis, 3.2  ha, May  1971;  Gum-Gum, 0.6  Sampling  ha, A p r i l  Ranau, 49 t r e e p l o t , Sept. 1961.  been weeded p e r i o d i c a l l y , but there was None of the p l o t s had been  Planting  dates  1975, A l l areas  had  no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g frequency.  fertilized.  Methods  S e l e c t i o n of F o l i a g e For f o l i a r d i a g n o s t i c purposes, c u r r e n t year f o l i a g e , c o l l e c t e d a t the end of the growing  season i s g e n e r a l l y used.  However, i n the  non-seasonal  t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e of M a l a y s i a the growth of Caribbean pine i s continuous throughout  the year (Franson, 1970).  M a l a y s i a n c o n d i t i o n s (Hiew, 1978; pine may  Abu  Studies of i t s growth p a t t e r n under Bakar,  have up to s i x growth f l u s h e s a n n u a l l y and  take f o u r to f i v e months to reach m a t u r i t y . at  1979)  times d i f f i c u l t  to determine  have i n d i c a t e d  that  the  that needles g e n e r a l l y  Under these c o n d i t i o n s , i t was  which needles should be  sampled.  Van den D r i e s s c h e (1974) p o i n t e d out t h a t , while c u r r e n t  - 20  -  foliage i s usually the most sensitive indicator of nitrogen status, older foliage may  be more informative for other nutrients.  And Schutz (1976)  cited a number of studies which indicated nutrient levels were most stable in one year old needles.  Thus i t was  decided  mature flush, as well as the flush previous  to sample the last  apparently  to i t .  Sampling procedure. Except for Ranau, the following systematic employed at each s i t e .  sampling procedure was  From a randomly chosen starting point, dominant and  co-dominant trees were sampled from the surrounding planting lines u n t i l a total of f i f t y trees were measured. ant nests were excluded.  Due  Foxtails and trees with large arboreal  to i t s small size, a l l of the  acceptable  dominants and codominants i n the Ranau plot were sampled, a total of t h i r t y - f i v e trees.  For each tree chosen, total height and diameter at breast height over bark (1.3 m) were measured. previously-elongated  Samples of the most recent, and  flush of needles were then taken.  the  Where possible,  foliage samples were from either the f i r s t or second l a t e r a l branch below the terminal. crown.  In a l l cases, samples were from the upper one third of the  A pole pruner was  used to obtain the Sarawak samples, while tree  climbers were employed i n Sabah.  Upon c o l l e c t i o n , needles were placed i n  p l a s t i c bags.  In Sabah, collected foliage was  oven-dried  at 68°C  - 21 -  within 24 hours.  A different procedure was followed i n Sarawak.  As there  were no drying ovens i n Sibu, needles were frozen the same day as collected. When the sampling was completed, the frozen foliage was sent by a i r to the forestry department headquarters i n Kuching, where i t was dried.  After  drying, needles were placed i n p l a s t i c bags and sent by a i r f r e i g h t to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for analysis.  For site.  taxonomic and descriptive purposes, s o i l pits were dug at each  Composite  s o i l samples were taken from each horizon.  subsamples of these were sent to U.B.C.  Air-dried  Time and f i n a n c i a l constraints,  however, did not allow any s o i l analyses to be done.  Chemical Analysis Sample Selection and Preparation From the total number of foliage samples taken at each s i t e , eighteen subsamples  of both the most recently-elongated needle flush and the flush  previous to i t were randomly chosen for analysis of N,P,K, Ca and Mg. (For Gum-Gum, only the current flush was analyzed, as samples of the previous flush were lost during shipment).  Analysis of Zn, Fe, Mn, B and A l was  carried out on ten of the eighteen subsamples most recent needle flush.  previously chosen from the  Oven-dry weight (68° C) and mean length of  f i f t y randomly-selected needle fascicles were determined for each  subsample.  - 22  -  After weighing and measurement, stainless steel scissors were used to cut the needles into sections approximately 3 mm  i n length.  sections were then f i n e l y ground i n a Waring blender. stored i n labelled p l a s t i c bags.  The cut  Ground foliage  was  Subsamples, used for the preparation of  digest solutions, were redried at 68° C for three hours.  o  Tissue Digestion and Nutrient Determination With the exception of boron, the sulphuric acid-hydrogen peroxide methods described by Ballard (1980) were employed to prepare the digest solutions used for elemental analyses.  For boron, the extraction procedure  of Gaines and Mitchell (1979) was used to prepare the digests.  Boron  concentrations were determined c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y by adaptation of the azomethine-H method developed by Wolf (1971, 1974).  Atomic absorption  spectrophotometry was used to determine nutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al,Mn, and Zn.  Analyses of N and P were carried out with an  autoanalyzer.  Results Preliminary comparisons  (paired t-tests, p=.05) of macronutrient  concentrations found i n current foliage versus those found i n the previous flush showed few differences.  There were no significant differences or  trends apparent for any macroelement i n either of the Sarawak plots.  At  Lungmanis, i n Sabah, N and P concentrations were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n the current foliage; while at Ranau, concentrations of P, K, and Mg were  - 23  -  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n the c u r r e n t needles.  G e n e r a l l y , f o r the genus  P i n u s , c u r r e n t f o l i a g e has been found to c o n t a i n the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of N, and K.  Calcium  P,  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are u s u a l l y g r e a t e r i n o l d e r f o l i a g e , w h i l e  no t r e n d has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Mg  Subsequent to m a c r o n u t r i e n t  ( M o r r i s o n , 1974).  a n a l y s e s , correspondence was  gave t e n t a t i v e c r i t i c a l l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s l a s h pine p e r s o n a l communication).  About the same time, i n f o r m a t i o n  d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s f o r Caribbean pine was  r e c e i v e d which  (Pritchett, concerning  a l s o r e c e i v e d (Bevege, 1978  and  p e r s o n a l communication). As these d i a g n o s t i c l e v e l s were based upon n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s found i n c u r r e n t f o l i a g e , and as t h e r e were no apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c u r r e n t versus p r e v i o u s f o l i a g e i n the o b v i o u s l y n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n t Sarawak s i t e , o n l y n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n c u r r e n t f o l i a g e were used to prepare the d e f i c i e n c y diagnoses made i n this  study.  Table I I g i v e s p u t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s f o r Caribbean pine  and  c r i t i c a l f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s t e n t a t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s l a s h p i n e , as s u p p l i e d by Bevege and P r i t c h e t t r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r to t h r e s h o l d n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s below which p l a n t s d i s p l a y symptoms of i l l h e a l t h .  P r i t c h e t t (1979) d e f i n e d c r i t i c a l l e v e l as a range  i n n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n above which t r e e s would not respond s i g n i f i c a n t l y to a p p l i c a t i o n s of an element, but at which t r e e s w i t h a lower t i s s u e  -24-  t  Table I I . Imputed deficiency levels for Caribbean pine (Bevege, 1978 and personal communication) and c r i t i c a l range for slash pine.  (Pritchett,  personal communication). Element  Caribbean pine  Slash pine  Nitrogen  0.90%  0.8  Phosphorus  0.07%  0.085 - 0.090%  Potassium  0.25%  0.25  - 0.30%  Calcium  0.09%  0.08  - 0.12%  Magnesium  0.05%  0.04  - 0.06%  Aluminum  not established  not available  (toxicity  - 1.2%  0.01%)  Iron  not established  15 - 35 ppm  Zinc  21 ppm  10 - 20 ppm  Copper  2.0 ppm  2 - 3  Manganese  not established  8 - 1 2 ppm  Boron  6 ppm  4 - 8 ppm  ppm  - 25 -  content would normally be expected  to respond.  Richards and Bevege (1969)  have d e f i n e d i t more q u a n t i t a t i v e l y as that f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 90% of maximum y i e l d .  For a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s , a  d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l i s g e n e r a l l y e a s i e r to determine and somewhat lower i n v a l u e than the corresponding c r i t i c a l  level.  R e s u l t s of chemical analyses of c u r r e n t f o l i a g e are presented on a stand by stand b a s i s i n Tables I I I to V I I .  For i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s , growth  data and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n values have been l i s t e d  i n Appendix  II.  From data i n Appendix I I , a f i r s t approximation  of the c r i t i c a l  P l e v e l f o r E a s t M a l a y s i a n p l a n t i n g s of Caribbean pine was estimated in  the range of 0.08% to 0.09%.  foliar to be  D e t a i l s are provided i n Appendix I I I .  Deficiency Diagnosis Using the i n f o r m a t i o n i n Table I I and the f o l i a r presented i n Tables I I I to V I I , d e f i c i e n c y diagnoses  nutrient  levels  were made f o r each  stand. Sabah Lungmanis The  f o l i a r phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d  slightly deficient  i n phosphorus.  L e v e l s of a l l other n u t r i e n t s , with the  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of i r o n , were adequate. been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Caribbean f a l l w i t h i n the c r i t i c a l In  that the s i t e was  pine.  No d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l f o r i r o n has  The i r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , however d i d  range of 15 - 35 ppm e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s l a s h pine.  f a c t , a l l of the s i t e s , with the e x c e p t i o n of Ranau, showed  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the c r i t i c a l  range.  iron  The high mean value f o r Ranau  (135 ppm) was most l i k e l y due to dust contamination, as the stand was adjacent to a road.  -26-  Table I I I . Lungmanis;  F o l i a r nutrient  concentrations  of the most recent flush of needles  Lement  Mean^  Range  - 1.56  S.E.  2  0.048  ZN  1.20  0.88  %P  0.06.4  0.045 - 0.085  0.002  %K  0.97  0.55  - 1.40  0.054  %Ca  0.21  0.09  - 0.39  0.020  %Mg  0.16  0.09  - 0.25  0.011  %A1  0.035  0,019 - 0.048  0.011  ppm Mn  274  71-444  43  ppm Fe  29  20-50  3.1  ppm Zn  27  14 -34  2.0  ppm B  16.2  7.1-25.7  1.9  For Tables I I I to VII inclusive, macronutrient 18 observations.  means are based  Micronutrierit and Al means are based on 10  observations.  S.E. refers to the standard error of the mean.  -27-  T a b l e I V . Ranau:  Foliar nutrient  concentrations  of the most r e c e n t f l u s h of n e e d l e s .  Element  Mean  Range  % N  0.97  0.80  % P  0.059  0.045 - 0.106  % K  0.64  0.22  % Ca  0.054  0.020 - 0.090  0.004  % Mg  0.096  0.050 - 0.130  0.005  % Al  0.071  0.046 - 0.094  0.012  ppm Mn  206  ppm Fe  135  ppm Zn  31  ppm B  16.9  126  - 1.18  - 1.28  - 360  90 - 170 15  - 43  5.5 - 29.4  S.E.  0.02 0.003 0.40  23 6.4 2.6 2.4  - 28 -  Table V. Gum-Gum: of  Foliar  the most r e c e n t  nutrient flush  concentrations  of n e e d l e s .  Element  Mean  % N  1.29  1.03  % P  0.097  0.064 - 0.140  0.005  % K  0.94  0.48  - 1.69  0.06  % Ca  0.20  0.12  - 0.40  0.02  % Mg  0.16  0.11  - 0.35  0.01  % Al  0.044  0.034 - 0.059  ppm Mn  328  ppm Fe  24  20 - 59  3.9  ppm Zn  37  24-59  4.4  ppm B  9.7  Range  - 1.79  190 - 498  6.1 - 14.1  S.E.  0.05  0.003  26  0.9  -29-  T a b l e V I . RP93A: F o l i a r n u t r i e n t  concentrations  of the most r e c e n t f l u s h of n e e d l e s .  Element  Mean  % N  0.94  0.51  % P  0.034  0.020 - 0.072  0.024  % K  1.08  0.43  - 1.83  0.07  % CA  0.23  0.13  - 0.48  0.02  % Mg  0.18  0.10  - 0.34  0.02  % Al  0.052  0.021 - 0.096  ppm Mn  103  47 - 289  20  ppm Fe  27  10 - 40  3.4  ppm Zn  15  9-26  1.7  3.6 - 10.9  0.6  ppm B  6.1  Range  - 1.34  S.E.  0.048  0.007  -30-  Table V I I .  RP77;  F o l i a r nutrient  concentrations  of the most r e c e n t f l u s h o f n e e d l e s .  Element  Mean  Range  % N  0.63  0.39  % P  0.014  0.004 - 0.032  0.002  % K  0.61  0.20  - 0.95  0.05  % Ca  0.31  0.13  - 0.62  0.03  % Mg  0.15  0.06  - 0.27  0.01  % Al  0.050  0.032 - 0.074  ppm Mn  342  ppm Fe  21  10 - 40  2.6  ppm Zn  25  18 - 34  1.9  ppm B  10.8  - 1.00  100 - 515  4.8 - 22.4  S.E.  0.04  0.005  43  1.6  - 31 -  On the r i c h a l l u v i u m a t Gum-Gum, the f o l i a r i r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n  was 24  ppm but the f o l i a g e appeared t o be very h e a l t h y and there were no v i s u a l symptoms of i r o n d e f i c i e n c y .  I t i s probable t h a t the i r o n d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l  f o r C a r i b b e a n pine i s a t the lower end o f , o r below the c r i t i c a l range which has been determined f o r s l a s h p i n e .  Ranau The  s i t e appeared t o be d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus and c a l c i u m .  f o l i a r n i t r o g e n l e v e l was b a r e l y adequate.  The  Many t r e e s had heavy cone crops  which may have reduced f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s somewhat.  G e n e r a l l y , the  t r e e s appeared q u i t e h e a l t h y , a l t h o u g h there was some c h l o r o s i s of the most recent f o l i a g e . were r e c e n t  phenomena.  "crop-logging" this site.  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the low c a l c i u m and phosphorus l e v e l s P e r i o d i c monitoring  as proposed by R i c h a r d s  of nutrient l e v e l s or  and Bevege (1972) would be u s e f u l on  A l s o , i f a shortage o f n u t r i e n t s i s o c c u r r i n g as the stand  matures, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c u r r e n t growth, as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l growth, could a s s i s t i n assessing  present n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s .  Gum-Gum No n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s were d e t e c t e d  on t h i s r i c h a l l u v i a l  Boron l e v e l s were adequate but approached d e f i c i e n c y i n c e r t a i n t r e e s . few  site. A  t r e e s on the s i t e had some d e f o r m a t i o n of the upper crown which c o u l d  have been due to a l a c k of boron.  - 32 -  Sarawak RP77 Phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y was Z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n was  extreme.  N i t r o g e n was  also d e f i c i e n t .  m a r g i n a l w i t h f i v e of ten samples below the imputed  d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l of 21 ppm.  Mean aluminum c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were w e l l below  the t o x i c i t y l e v e l i n both Sarawak s i t e s .  RP93A T h i s s i t e was  s e v e r e l y d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus.  content was m a r g i n a l to s l i g h t l y d e f i c i e n t . sampled showed n i t r o g e n l e v e l s below 0.9%. m i c r o n u t r i e n t s , the stand was  The  nitrogen  E i g h t o f the e i g h t e e n t r e e s With r e f e r e n c e to  d e f i c i e n t i n z i n c and probably boron.  of ten f o l i a r samples analyzed  f o r boron had c o n c e n t r a t i o n s below 6  S i x out ppm.  And many of the t r e e s i n the p l o t e x h i b i t e d symptoms of boron d e f i c i e n c y .  D i s c u s s i o n and Recommendations Sabah Although  there were no n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the Sabah p l o t s  severe enough to a f f e c t the s a t i s f a c t o r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t and e a r l y development of Caribbean  p i n e , t h e r e was  evidence  to suggest t h a t the supply of c e r t a i n  elements was  below optimum.  For the Ranau and Lungmanis s i t e s ,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o n v e n t i o n a l f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s , coupled w i t h m o n i t o r i n g f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s would a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g warranted.  of  i f f e r t i l i z a t i o n was  Phosphorus and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n s should  - 33 -  be stressed.  In the case of Ranau, where a low calcium l e v e l was evident, a  phosphorus source of either rock phosphate or single superphosphate would also supply calcium.  At Gum-Gum, boron d e f i c i e n c i e s may have occurred on poorly-drained microsites which were p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to water-logging.  In pine  stands near Canberra, Snowden (1972) found the most frequent occurrence of boron deficiency was on seasonally-waterlogged s o i l s .  As boron deficiency  under such conditions may be transitory, diagnostic f o l i a r sampling should be done as soon as top-dieback symptoms are observed. possible d e f i c i e n c i e s were not widespread  In any case, the  and were l i k e l y of l i t t l e or no  commercial s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Sarawak The extreme nature of the phosphorus deficiencies found on both Sarawak s i t e s made i t d i f f i c u l t to interpret the f o l i a r concentrations of other elements.  Restricted root growth and limited mycorrhizal development  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of severe phosphorus d e f i c i e n c i e s . stressed the importance  Russell (1973)  of a well-developed root system for maintaining an  adequate supply of micronutrients. And he c i t e d cases where zinc and boron d e f i c i e n c i e s i n orchard crops had been attributed to limited root development.  In A u s t r a l i a , applications of phosphate f e r t i l i z e r s to radiata  pine stands were found to increase f o l i a r levels of other nutrients (Windsor and K e l l y , 1972; Neilsen ejt a l . , 1981). The authors suggested that the  - 34 -  increased nutrient levels were perhaps due to improved root growth following phosphorus application. The role of t r o p i c a l mycorrhizae in promoting nutrient uptake has recently been summarized by Bowen (1980). phosphorus f e r t i l i z a t i o n has been observed to stimulate  And  mycorrhizal  associations i n s o i l s with low levels of available phosphorus (Lamb and Richards, 1974;  Manikam and Srivastava, 1980).  Given these factors, only  after the phosphorus requirement has been s a t i s f i e d would i t be possible to determine the significance of low concentrations of other elements.  On the ancient land surfaces of the humid tropics, almost a l l of the nutrient capital is either i n the standing vegetation or i n the s o i l organic matter.  The mineral s o i l derived from highly-weathered  materials contains few plant nutrients (Coulter, 1972; Sanchez, 1976;  Waring, 1976).  parent  Dudal et_ al_. 1974;  Once the rain forest i s cleared,  decomposition i s accelerated and leaching and erosion losses are greatly increased (Guha, 1969;  Platteborze, 1970).  The phosphorus deficiencies i n  the Sarawak plots i l l u s t r a t e the problem of maintaining  adequate P n u t r i t i o n  i n such highly-weathered s o i l s after the forest cover, which maintains an almost closed phosphorus cycle, i s removed.  Extensive investigations of s o i l s i n temperate regions have shown declining levels of total s o i l phosphorus with increasing intensity of weathering.  In the United States, total phosphorus i n surface soils  - 35  -  ranges from an average of 3,000 ppm i n the subhumid cool region to less than 500 ppm i n the humid warm temperature region (Olson and Engelstad, 1972). In the humid tropics, t o t a l P levels are even lower.  At the Oya Road  Reserve, previous s o i l analysis of red-yellow podzolics (Scott, 1965; B a i l l i e , 1970) have indicated t o t a l P levels were generally below 100  ppm.  There were no data concerning the amount of available phosphorus i n these soils.  However, information from other areas of the state (Bailey,  1967;  Andriesse, 1972) indicated i t was very unlikely that available P i n the top one metre of the red-yellow podzols would exceed 20 kg h a ~ l .  Similarly  low levels of available P have been found i n some West Malaysian s o i l s (Platteborze, 1970; Naruddin, 1979;  Platteborze et a l . , 1971; Srivastava and Abang  Manikam and Srivastava, 1980),  From a study of the growth performance of Caribbean pine on a variety of West Malaysian s o i l s , Platteborze e_t a l . (1971) concluded that s o i l s with less than 30 kg ha"-'- of available P could be regarded as highly phosphorous d e f i c i e n t .  The authors also cited evidence which indicated that  60 to 70 kg ha~l of available P would be required to support optimal height growth of Caribbean pine.  Lamb and Richards (1974) found that  mycorrhizal fungi inoculations of pines improved when the amount of available P i n the s o i l was increased to 40 kg ha"^-.  0  - 36  The  low  indicated  foliar  phosphorus l e v e l s and  the l i m i t e d s o i l s  that phosphorus amendments are r e q u i r e d  of Caribbean pine on needed to provide Richards and g i v e any  -  the s o i l s  studied.  Bevege (1971) have pointed  to promote adequate growth  Fertilizer  a b a s i s f o r developing  information  field trials will  a f e r t i l i z i n g schedule. out,  i n conventional  While, i n the long-term, P a d d i t i o n s may i n c r e a s e uptake of other  stimulate  n u t r i e n t s , there  As  f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s do  i n d i c a t i o n of the magnitude of f e r t i l i z e r response.  be gauged from the response obtained  be  not  T h i s can  only  fertilizer trials.  root development and  thus  i s evidence from M a l a y s i a n  a g r i c u l t u r e to suggest t h a t , i n the s h o r t - t e r m , heavy P a p p l i c a t i o n s to poorly-buffered i n other  s o i l s may  c r e a t e n u t r i e n t imbalances and  elements ( A n d r i e s s e ,  1972;  C o u l t e r , 1972).  Research i s needed to  determine which elements are r e q u i r e d , i n what form and should  be a p p l i e d , and  In p e n i n s u l a r of t r i p l e  what are  induce d e f i c i e n c i e s  at what r a t e s  the most e f f e c t i v e methods of a p p l i c a t i o n - .  Malaysia,  a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s of up  superphosphate ( e q u i v a l e n t  to 112  to 323  and  podzols ( S r i v a s t a v a and  S r i v a s t a v a , 1980).  Sarawak s o i l s .  r a t e s may  i n f l u e n c e d by the  of the s o i l , as w e l l as the form of f e r t i l i z e r used, and placement.  tree  phosphorus  Abang Naruddin, 1979;  S i m i l a r , or even h i g h e r ,  Rates, however, w i l l be  g per  kg ha"'- of elemental P) have  been recommended f o r Caribbean pine p l a n t a t i o n s growing on d e f i c i e n t red-yellow  they  Phosphate f i x a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a n s o i l s  Manikam  be r e q u i r e d fixation  for  capacity  the method of  i s closely correlated  -  w i t h c l a y c o n t e n t ( C o u l t e r , 1972).  37  A n d r i e s s e (1972) c a t e g o r i z e d the main  g e n e t i c s o i l groups of Sarawak a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a b i l i t y  to f i x phosphorus.  The h e a v y - t e x t u r e d M e r i t s o i l found i n RP77 would be i n the h i g h f i x a t i o n c a t e g o r y , w h i l e the l i g h t e r - t e x t u r e d Nyalau s o i l of RP93A would be c o n s i d e r e d to be i n the moderate to l o w - f i x a t i o n range.  There i s g e n e r a l agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s that r o c k phosphates are  the most economical and e f f e c t i v e phosphate sources f o r t r o p i c a l ,  acidic  s o i l s w i t h a h i g h - f i x a t i o n c a p a c i t y ( B e n g s t o n , 1976; Sanchez, 1976; S c h u t z , 1976).  However, an a d d i t i o n of r e a d i l y s o l u b l e superphosphate to a  phosphorus d e f i c i e n t s o i l would ensure an immediate s u p p l y to the t r e e s . For  t h i s r e a s o n , Lim and Sundralingam (1974) used a m i x t u r e of crushed r o c k  phosphate and superphosphate i n f e r t i l i z e r  t r i a l s of Caribbean p i n e .  A u s t r a l i a , N e i l s e n e_t a]L. (1981) found t h a t r a d i a t a p i n e f e r t i l i z e d rock phosphate p l u s superphosphate showed g r e a t e r f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of phosphorus  In with  c o n t e n t s and  than t r e e s g i v e n o n l y one form of  fertilizer.  A c c o r d i n g to A n d r i e s s e (1972) n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c i e s commonly occur i n Sarawak a g r i c u l t u r a l crops a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of phosphorus. a l s o evidence to suggest t h a t , when N and P f e r t i l i z e r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the n i t r o g e n a p p l i c a t i o n may phosphorus  (Waring, 1972).  There i s  are added  i n c r e a s e uptake of the added  Compared to p l o t s t r e a t e d w i t h P a l o n e , Lim  - 38 -  and Sundralingam (1974) found a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n b a s a l area i n C a r i b b e a n pine p l o t s t r e a t e d w i t h N and P.  Cameron e t a l . (1981) c i t e d  evidence which suggested t h a t Caribbean pine i s v e r y s e n s i t i v e to a d d i t i o n s of N f e r t i l i z e r when r e c e n t l y p l a n t e d , but t h a t the s p e c i e s becomes more t o l e r a n t when e s t a b l i s h e d and when P s u p p l i e s are adequate.  The  authors  f u r t h e r noted t h a t t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s r e c o g n i z e d by the Queensland Department of F o r e s t r y which l i m i t s N a d d i t i o n s to Caribbean pine so t h a t the r a t i o of added e l e m e n t a l N t o added e l e m e n t a l P i s l e s s than one. f o l i a r n i t r o g e n l e v e l s were found to be I n the m a r g i n a l  As  to d e f i c i e n t range,  N f e r t i l i z a t i o n would l i k e l y be b e n e f i c i a l .  Although  P f e r t i l i z a t i o n should s t i m u l a t e r o o t growth and  m y c o r r h i z a l development and u l t i m a t e l y i n c r e a s e uptake o f o t h e r n u t r i e n t s , m i c r o n u t r i e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s a t the time of P f e r t i l i z a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d t o prevent  s h o r t - t e r m n u t r i e n t imbalances.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important  with  r e s p e c t t o z i n c and boron, the f o l i a r l e v e l s of which a l r e a d y ranged from d e f i c i e n t to b a r e l y adequate.  Boron i n f l u e n c e s hormonal balance i n  meristems and a t d e f i c i e n c y , the a p i c a l growth i n r o o t s and shoots i s a f f e c t e d (Braekke,  1979).  If P fertilization  s t i m u l a t e d h e i g h t and r o o t  growth, an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r boron would o c c u r .  Without the a d d i t i o n of  boron, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the i n c i d e n c e and s e v e r i t y of B d e f i c i e n c i e s a l r e a d y present  i n the p l o t s would i n c r e a s e i n the s h o r t - t e r m .  Similarly, P  a p p l i c a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d to aggravate z i n c d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o i l s  - 39 -  w i t h a low s u p p l y of z i n c (Brown e t a l . , 1970; Usherwood, 1978).  According  to R u s s e l (1973), s o l u b l e orthophosphates can form i n s o l u b l e compounds w i t h z i n c and the a d d i t i o n of superphosphates may  induce a temporary  zinc  deficiency.  A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the r e s u l t s of a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of  fertilizer  t r i a l s , C o u l t e r (1972) concluded t h a t the p a t t e r n of t r a c e element d e f i c i e n c y i n M a l a y s i a n a g r i c u l t u r e showed a s t r o n g i n t e r a c t i o n between major and minor elements i n p o o r l y b u f f e r e d s o i l s and confirmed the ease w i t h which the e q u i l i b r i u m c o u l d be upset by heavy f e r t i l i z e r usage.  To  prevent Induced d e f i c i e n c i e s , n i t r o g e n and phosphorus amendments may have t o be supplemented w i t h m l c r o n u t r i e n t s , a s i d e from those a l r e a d y d e t e c t e d as b e i n g i n s h o r t s u p p l y , i e . z i n c and boron.  While f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to determine an optimum f e r t i l i z a t i o n regime, an i n t e r i m p r e s c r i p t i o n i s u r g e n t l y needed to a l l o w afforestation trials  to c o n t i n u e . At p r e s e n t , the author would recommend an  i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of lOOg of r o c k phosphate (28 kg ha ~1 p) to the planting hole.  F o l l o w e d , one year a f t e r p l a n t i n g , by a banded a p p l i c a t i o n  of  of e l e m e n t a l P, w i t h h a l f as r o c k phosphate and h a l f as  100 kg ha  s i n g l e superphosphate; p l u s 100 kg ha  of e l e m e n t a l N as u r e a , and a  complete t r a c e element m i x t u r e i n the form of g l a s s f r i t s . a slow r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r  Fritted-glass i s  form which would reduce l e a c h i n g and a l s o l e s s e n  - 40 -  the chance of a t o x i c uptake of m i c r o n u t r i e n t s .  Exact dosages of  m i c r o n u t r i e n t s would depend upon c o m m e r c i a l l y - a v a i l a b l e s u p p l i e s , but s h o u l d be i n the f o l l o w i n g range: 5 to 10 kg ha"* f o r Mn, Fe; and 0.1  to 0.5  Zn, B, Cu  they  and  kg ha"^ f o r molybdenum.  The use of s i n g l e superphosphate,  i n a d d i t i o n to rock phosphate,  would a l l o w a more r a p i d uptake of P and would a l s o serve as a source of sulphur.  Although no s u l p h u r a n a l y s i s was done In t h i s s t u d y , i t was  p o s s i b l e t h a t the element was  i n short supply.  s u l p h u r d e f i c i e n c i e s are widespread  A c c o r d i n g to Sanchez (1976),  i n highly-weathered,  Given the f i r e h i s t o r y of the Research  Reserve,  i t was  tropical  also l i k e l y  soils. that  s i g n i f i c a n t v o l a t i l i z a t i o n l o s s e s of s u l p h u r had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g past burnings.  As w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g t r i a l s w i t h i n o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z e r s ,  research  should be d i r e c t e d towards d e v e l o p i n g n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g cover crops f o r use i n f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s . Reference  should be made to the c o n s i d e r a b l e work i n  t h i s f i e l d which has a l r e a d y been done i n West M a l a y s i a f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l t r e e c r o p s , such as rubber and o i l palm ( C o u l t e r , 1972).  Emphasis should  a l s o be p l a c e d upon imprdving the n u t r i e n t uptake p o t e n t i a l of m y c o r r h i z a l a s s o c i a t i o n s (Marx, 1980.)  - 41 -  Summary  The o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g i n i t i a l f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a f o r E a s t M a l a y s i a n p l a n t i n g s of C a r i b b e a n p i n e was a c h i e v e d .  In addition, a  c r i t i c a l P l e v e l i n the range of 0.08% t o 0.09% was e s t i m a t e d from the d a t a . R e f e r to Appendix I I I .  No s e r i o u s n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s were observed i n the Sabah p l o t s .  The  d a t a d i d s u g g e s t , however, t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of some elements were below optimum.  F u r t h e r m o n i t o r i n g o f the s i t e s i s w a r r a n t e d .  low P l e v e l s found i n the Sarawak p l a n t i n g s suggest t h a t poor n u t r i t i o n was the major f a c t o r l i m i t i n g growth.  phosphorus  While f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s  needed t o determine optimum f e r t i l i z e r p r e s c r i p t i o n s , heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d .  The e x t r e m e l y  phosphorus  F e r t i l i z a t i o n i s c o s t l y , and i t s economic  f e a s i b i l i t y w i l l have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . 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Soil Sci Plant Anal. 5: 39 - 44. Wolfenden, E. B. 1960. The geology and mineral resources of the lower Rajang Valley and adjoining areas. Memoir II, British Borneo Geological Survey Dept. Kuching. r  -49-  Appendix I Soil Profile  Descriptions  - 50 Lungmanis Soil association  Kretam  Soil family:  Tanjong L i p a t  Soil  orthic acrisol  unit;  Soil Profile  No. 1  (FAO)  Location:  Lungmanis p l a n t a t i o n , o p p o s i t e F o r e s t Dept. 5°43'N, 117°43E  Topography:  u n d u l a t i n g , t o low h i l l s  Slope:  5°  Elevation:  55 m a p p r o x .  Site  normal  drainage:  station  Parent m a t e r i a l :  slump f o r m a t i o n o f s a n d s t o n e , mudstone and m i s c e l l a n e o u s i g n e o u s r o c k s  Vegetation:  C a r i b b e a n p i n e o v e r s t o r y w i t h s c a t t e r e d herbaceous p l a n t s and c a p s i c u m bushes  Land-use:  f o r m e r l y mixed d i p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t , h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d by tractor activity  Soil  moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d  drainage:  Horizon  Depth (cm) D e s c r i p t i o n  0  1-0  herbaceous l i t t e r  and p i n e  needles  A  0-8  v e r y d a r k g r a y i s h brown (10YR 3/2) loam; moderate medium granular structure, moist, very f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , abundant r o o t s , c l e a r smooth boundary  EB  8 - 28  brown (10YR 5/3) sandy c l a y loam; s t r o n g medium subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , abundant r o o t s , d i f f u s e i r r e g u l a r boundary  Bl  28 - 46  brown (10YR 5/3) w i t h y e l l o w - b r o w n (10YR 5/8) common medium d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y loam; moderate strong angular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , few g r a v e l - s i z e d s t o n e s , frequent r o o t s , gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary  - 51 -  Horizon  Depth (cm) Description  B2t  46 - 77  grayish brown (10YR 5/2) with reddish yellow (10YR 5/8) common medium distinct mottles; clay loam; coarse strong angular blocky structure; moist, firm, sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse gradual boundary  B3tg  77 - 130+  grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) with olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) many medium distinct mottles; sandy clay, strong, coarse angular blocky, very firm, sticky, plastic, very few roots reaching 130 cm.  - 52 Lungmanis S o i l P r o f i l e Soil  association:  Kretam  Soil family:  Sipit  Soil  ferric acrisol  unit:  No. 2  (FAO)  Location:  Lungmanis p l a n t a t i o n , o p p o s i t e F o r e s t Dept. s t a t i o n 5° 43'N, 117° 43'E  Topography:  u n d u l a t i n g to low h i l l s  Slope:  5°  Elevation:  55 m a p p r o x .  Site  normal  drainage:  Parent m a t e r i a l :  slump f o r m a t i o n o f s a n d s t o n e , m i s c e l l a n e o u s igneous r o c k s  Vegetation:  C a r i b b e a n p i n e o v e r s t o r e y w i t h s c a t t e r e d herbaceous p l a n t s and c a p s i c u m bushes  Land-use:  f o r m e r l y mixed d i p t e r o c r p f o r e s t , h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d by tractor activity  Soil  moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d  drainage:  Horizon  mudstone, and  Depth (cm) D e s c r i p t i o n herbaceous l i t t e r  and p i n e  needles  0  1-0  A  0 - 8  brown t o dark brown (10YR 4/3 t o 10YR 3/3) sandy c l a y loam; moderate medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c few s t o n e s , abundant r o o t s , c l e a r wavy boundary  EB  8-25  an a g g r e g a t e o f r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR o l i v e g r a y (5Y 6/2) medium to c o a r s e , sandy c l a y ; moderate medium s u b a n g u l a r moist, f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , g r a v e l - s i z e d stones, p l e n t i f u l r o o t s , boundary  Bl  25  an a g g r e g a t e o f r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6 / 6 ) , l i g h t o l i v e g r a y (5Y 6/2) and dark r e d (2.5YR 3/6) medium to c o a r s e , d i s t i n c t t o prominent m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate medium a n g u l a r b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , slightly plastic,  - 48  6/8) and l i g h t d i s t i n c t mottles; blocky structure; many weathered c l e a r wavy  - 53 -  v e r y many s t o n e s and s t r o n g l y weathered sandstone o c c l u s i o n s , f r e q u e n t r o o t s , g r a d u a l wavy boundary B2t  48 - 80  an aggregate o f r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/6) and l i g h t g r a y t o g r a y (5YR 7/ - 5YR 6/) medium t o c o a r s e d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate medium a n g u l a r b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , many g r a v e l to s t o n e s i z e o c c l u s i o n s o f s t r o n g l y - w e a t h e r e d igneous r o c k , i n f r e q u e n t r o o t s , g r a d u a l i r r e g u l a r boundary  BCtg  80 - 15+  an a g g r e g a t e o f l i g h t g r a y (7.5YR N7/) t o g r a y (7.5YR N6/) and r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/8) medium to c o a r s e d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; s t r o n g medium a n g u l a r blocky structure; moist, firm, s t i c k y , s l i g h l t y p l a s t i c , many s t r o n g l y weathered s t o n e s , v e r y few r o o t s  - 54 RP77 Soil Profile Soil Group:  Red-yellow podzolic  Soil family:  Merit  Soil unit:  ochric cambisol  Location:  Silviculture Research Reserve, 11 1/2 Mile, Oya Road 2°l7'N, 112°0'E  Topography:  low undulating h i l l s  Slope:  5°  Elevation:  16 m approx.  Site drainage:  normal to receiving  Parent material:  shale and  Vegetation:  Caribbean pine overstory with well-developed shrub and herb layers  Land-use:  formerly under shifting cultivation  Soil drainage:  imperfectly drained  Horizon  (FAO)  sandstone  Depth (cm) Description  0  2-0  l i t t e r composed of grass stems, fern fronds and some pine needles  A  0-15  grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, plentiful worm casts, some charcoal particles, clear wavy boundary  Big  15 - 33  brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) with common, medium prominent light gray (5YR 7/1) mottles; clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky, moist, firm, slightly sticky, plastic, plentiful roots, diffuse wavy boundary  B2tg  33 - 91  an aggregate of medium to coarse red (2.SYR 5/8) and very pale brown (10YR 7/4) mottles; clay; moderate, medium subangular blocky; moist, firm, slightly sticky, plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary  - 55 B3tg  91 - 104  an a g g r e g a t e of medium to c o a r s e l i g h t g r a y (10YR 7/1) and b r o w n i s h y e l l o w (10YR 6/6) m o t t l e s : c l a y , moderate, medium t o c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; m o i s t firm, sticky, p l a s t i c , no r o o t s , g r a d u a l wavy boundary  B4tcn  104+  g r a y (2.5YR 5/1) c l a y , s t r o n g medium to c o a r s e p l a t y , i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s between p l a t e s , m o i s t , v e r y f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , no r o o t s  0  56 RP93A Soil Profile Soil group:  Red-yellow podzolic  Soil family:  Nyalau  Soil unit:  ochric ferralsol  Location: Topography:  Silviculture Research Reserve, 11 1/2 Mile, Oya Road Sibu. 2°17'N, 112°0'E. low undulating h i l l s  Slope:  25°  Elevation: Site drainage:  40 m approx. normal  Parent material:  sandstone and shale  Vegetation:  Caribbean pine overstorey with well-developed shrub and herbaceous layers  Land-use:  formerly under shifting cultivation  Soil drainage:  well-drained  Horizon 0  (FAO)  Depth (cm) Description 2-0  l i t t e r composed of herbaceous material, pine needles and deer faeces  Al  0-15  very dark grayish brown (2.5YR 3/2) sandy clay loam; moderate medium crumb; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, very abundant roots, some charcoal bits, earthworm activity prominent, clear wavy boundary  AB  15 - 28  brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6), some dark brown staining due to decay of old roots and worm casts; sandy clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, gradual wavy boundary  Bl  28 - 70  reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) with many distinct fine to medium red (2.5YR 5/8) and few prominent fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles; sandy clay; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary.  - 57 B2t  70 - 105  reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) with many distinct fine to medium red (2.5YR 5/8) and few prominent fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles sandy clay; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary  B3t  105 - 185  an aggregate of fine to medium red (10R 5/8), fine to medium reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) and fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles; sandy clay; moderate, coarse subangular blocky friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots  C  185+  large boulder of reddish shale  58 -  Gum-Gum S o i l Soil  Association:  Profile  Kinabatang  Soil family:  Buran  Soil Unit:  G l e y i c l u v i s o l (FAO)  Location:  flood  Topography:  alluvial  Slope :  nil  Elevation: Site drainage:  5 m approx.  p l a i n o f Sungei  Gum-Gum; 5°50'N,  117°55'E  plain  normal t o o c c a s i o n a l f l o o d i n g Parent  material: alluvium  Vegetation:  C a r i b b e a n p i n e o v e r s t o r y w i t h u n d e r s t o r e y o f g r a s s e s and herbaceous p l a n t s  Land-use:  formerly selectively-logged  lowland mixed d i p t e r o c a r p  forest Soil  drainage:  Horizon  imperfect  to p o o r l y d r a i n e d  Depth (cm) D e s c r i p t i o n  0  1 - 0  herbaceous l i t t e r w i t h some p i n e  Al  0 - 6  dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 3/6) sandy humic loam; moderate medium crumb; m o i s t , v e r y f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , abundant r o o t s , c l e a r smooth boundary  A2  6 - 20  dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 4/4) sandy c l a y loam; moderate, medium subangular b l o c k y ; m o i s t , f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , many r o o t c h a n n e l s , abundant r o o t s , c l e a r wavy boundary  Bl  20  y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/4) w i t h few p a l e brown (10YR 6/3) m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y , moderate c o a r s e a n g u l a r blocky; moist, firm, s t i c k y , p l a s t i c , large root c h a n n e l s , abundant r o o t s , g r a d u a l wavy boundary  - 60  needles  - 59 B2tg  60 - 95  y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/4) w i t h l i g h t b r o w n i s h g r a y (10YR 6/2) medium, common m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; m o d e r a t e , coarse angular blocky; moist, f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c ; f r e q u e n t r o o t s d i f f u s e i r r e g u l a r boundary  B3tg  95 - 150+  y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/4) w i t h l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5Y 6/4) and r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/8) medium d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y , moderate c o a r s e a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; m o i s t , f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c ; abundant o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l throughout the h o r i z o n , i n c r e a s i n g w i t h depth; frequent roots  - 60 Ranau Soil Profile Soil association:  Crocker  Soil family:  Antulai  Soil unit:  dystric cambisol (FAO)  Location:  Mile 48, Ranau Road; 5°58'N, 116°43'E  Topography:  mountains  Slope:  20°  Elevation:  800 m  Site drainage:  shedding  Parent material:  sandstone  Vegetation:  Caribbean pine overstorey  Land-use:  formerly scrub forest after shifting cultivation  Soil drainage:  well-drained  Horizon  Depth (cm) Description  0  2.5-0  pine needles over one cm of decomposing needles and fine roots  A  0-10  dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) with many dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) mottles (mottling appears to be due to staining from humic substances); humic clay loam; strong fine crumb; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, clear smooth boundary  Bl  10 - 55  an aggregate of brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; clay loam; moderate, very coarse blocky; moist, very firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, plentiful roots, diffuse irregular boundary  B2  55 - 105  reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; moderate, coarse blocky; moist, firm, non-sticky, non-plastic, many sandstone fragments, frequent roots, diffuse irregular boundary  BC  105+  weathered sandstone in a coarse sandy loam matrix  - 61 -  Appendix II  Tree measurements and f o l i a r nutrient concentrations for i n d i v i d u a l trees.  Lungmanis:  Tree Number  Height (m)  46 12 38 30 49 15 11 18 28 42 47 09 08 33 21 25 39 36  12.6 15.8 17.2 16.6 13.5 13.7 13.7 16.6 17.0 15.8 17.5 17.3 18.5 12.4 15.8 16.7 13.4 20.4  D.B.H. (cm)  18.8 23.9 20.0 16.4 20.3 20.3 20.6 19.8 19.7 19.2 22.9 24.6 25.4 16.5 19.3 22.4 20.3 17.5  Wt Fas  Individual of the most  of 50 icles (g)  15.95 16 .07 13 .76 11.41 18 .16 10.31 17 .53 17 . 56 16 .98 15.08 12.99 17 .69 16 .88 11.22 19.41 14 .00 15.35 15.34  t r e e d a t a and macronutrient r e c e n t f l u s h of n e e d l e s  Avg. Fascicle Length (cm)  30 . 5 27.6 27 .0 27.4 32.8 24.5 30 .0 28.5 28 .6 21 .9 26 . 1 28 .2 27 .4 27 .3 28 .6 27.5 29 .6 24 .8  %N  1 .09 1.56 0.91 1 .40 1 .40 0.93 1.21 1 .04 1 .08 1 . 08 1 .22 1 . 14 1 .37 1 . 23 1 .55 1 .19 0 .88 1 . 31  %P  .057 .059 .045 .075 .074 . 068 .066 .050 .064 .063 .07 1 . 055 .062 .066 .08 5 .064 .054 .074  levels  %K  0.70 0.64 0.55 1 .00 0.98 0.85 0.90 1 . 10 1.21 0.93 0.99 1 . 28 1.21 0.75 1.40 1 .04 0.89 1.11  %Ca  %Mg  .30 .09 .20 .11 .16 . 16 .27 .19 .17 . 39 . 18 . 10 .14 . 29 .26 . 14 .24 .32  .19 .12 .15 . 14 .23 .12 .14 .12 .15 .20 .21 .12 .09 .14 .19 .11 .18 .25  Lungmanis : M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s f l u s h of needles  ree imber 46 12 38 30 49 15 11 18 28 42 47 09 08 33 21 25 39 36  Wt. o f 50 Fascicles (g) 11 . 55 15.77 16 .13 15.83 17 .88 13.53 12.37 18 .87 15.93 14.92 14 .64 20.97 17 .60 12 . 28 20 .76 15.84 16.91 18.55  Avg. Fascicle Length (cm) 26 .2 28 .0 29 .4 30.2 32 .8 28 .2 28.7 30.5 29 .8 24 .0 26 .8 30.5 27.3 29 .3 27 .8 28 . 5 28.8 27.4  %N  1 .00 1 .46 0.87 1.23 1.27 0.89 0.97 0.92 1 .01 1 .01 1 .06 1. 19 1.12 0.90 0.94 1.15 0.94 1 .33  of  %P  .050 .049 .044 .058 .064 .052 .041 .043 .051 .055 .056 .045 .052 .046 .064 .050 .055 .067  the  previous  %K  0.77 1 . 15 0.80 0.83 1 .03 0.95 1.11 1.17 1.13 0.98 0.92 0.98 1 .03 0.83 1 .24 0.91 0.88 1 .06  %Ca  %Mg  .16 .08 .28 . 21 .17 . 30 .28 . 15 .18 .44 .24 . 22 .11 . 28 .27 .13 .39 .36  .15 09 . 16 . 20 .21 . 14 . 10 .09 .14 . 22 .27 . 20 .08 .11 .19 . 09 .18 .27  Ranau:  ree imber  33 40 23 04 48 27 12 47 20 30 25 43 17 35 08 06 15 45  Height (m)  D.B.H. (cm)  27 .4 21.3 23 .9 21.8 29 . 3 24.8 22 .6 26.8 22 . 1 20.9 23 .2 22.6 19 .5 26.4 20 .4 18.9 21.3 20.4  37.3 30.2 34 .0 32.0 35.1 28.2 28 .4 31.2 22 . 1 24 .4 22 .9 30 .7 26 .2 27 . 2 37 .1 42.7 26 . 7 36 .1  I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and m a c r o n u t r l e n t of the most r e c e n t f l u s h of n e e d l e s  Wt. o f 50 F a s c i c l e s (g)  13.22 21 .68 21.16 13.51 16.85 1 5 . 59 15.26 20 .22 15.8512.78 15.85 16.61 19 .44 13.63 19.45 19.15 12.47 15.74  Avg. F a s c i c l e L e n g t h (cm)  23 .1 29 .9 28 .2 27 . 5 25.8 24.4 26 .9 27 .6 27 .0 27 .7 25.9 27.6 26 .8 23.3 26 .2 30 . 2 24 .0 26.5  %N  0.80 0.94 0.99 0.93 0.86 0. 90 1 .02 1 .00 1 .02 1.11 0.99 0 . 94 1.15 0 . 92 0.89 0.83 1 .18 0 .95  levels  %P  .048 .080 .106 .064 .053 .066 .068 .054 .056 . 068 .054 .056 .045 .050 .048 . 048 .050 .055  %K  0.55 0.68 1 .28 0.64 0.73 0 . 53 0.68 0.54 0.64 0 .83 0.53 0 . 50 0.69 0 .60 0.42 0.22 0.68 0.79  %Ca  %Mg  .03 .08 .03 .02 .04 .05 .09 .06 .09 .06 .06 .02 .08 .03 .04 .05 .08 .06  .05 .12 .10 .07 .11 .07 .10 .09 .13 .11 .09 .06 .12 .08 .11 .07 .12 .13  I ON I  Ranau:  Tree Number  Wt. o f 50 Fascicles (g)  33 40 23 04 48 27 12 47 20 30 25 43 17 35 08 06 15 45  22.75 19 . 39 22 .58 13-79 18 .28 16.62 16 .96 19.38 18 .12 12.10 16 .32 17.53 19.83 20.28 21.01 17.46 16 .28 16.49  M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s of f l u s h of needles  Avg. F a s c i c l L e n g t h (cm) 28 .7 30.0 28 .9 27.7 27 .2 26 . 1 30 .4 27 .1 28 . 1 28 .1 27 .2 27.5 27 .2 29.8 27.9 28 . 3 25.4 27.3  %N  0.72 0.83 0 .95 0.89 0.82 0.86 1 .08 0.9 7 1 .04 1 . 24 0.82 0.89 1 . 24 0.99 0.90 0.87 1 .09 0.88  %P  .037 .058 .081 .045 .038 .047 .060 .047 .048 .062 .065 .053 .048 .043 .044 .047 .037 .049  the  previous  %K  0.43 0.66 1.08 0.56 0.49 0.57. 0.68 0.40 0.58 0.80 0.59 0.41 0.73 0.46 0.30 0.23 0 .55 0.33  %Ca  %Mg  .05 .06 .02 .03 .04 .04 .06 .04 .08 .04 .09 .02 .05 .03 .05 .06 .12 .04  .05 .09 .08 .05 .10 .04 .06 .06 .12 .08 .11 .04 .09 .07 .11 .07 .15 .07  t r e e d a t a and Gum-Gum: I n d i v i d u a l o f t h e m o s t recent flush levels  Tree Number  Height (m)  06  9.8 9 .1 8. 7 9.6 8 .4 8.4 9 . 3 10 . 5 10.2 9.8 8.8 10.4 9. 1 10 .1 10.2 10 .5 10.4 10 . 4 9.6  42 36 29 12 14 30 08 11 41 18 46 21 26 19 13 28  D.B.H. (cm)  14 .5 16.3 14 .0 11.7 12 . 1 12.1 * i. i. 14.4 19 .0 19 . 1 15.0 11.6 14 .9 18 . 9 14.4 13.7 16.8 19.8 18 .5 15.0  Wt. o f 50 F a s c i c l e s (g)  9.74 10.59 9.45 8.77 1 0 . 53 10.53 O .O 28 Q 8 16.73 13.42 8 .09 9.69 11 .90 8 .10 9.65 11.37 12.24 17.47 19 .98 14.44  Avg. Fascicle L e n g t h (cm)  25.2 24 .8 28 .7 2 6.3 26 l b .2 . A 22 oo. i a8 29 .6 27.2 26 .9 27.0 23 .8 28 .2 22 .4 26 .0 24 .8 27 .7 33 .0 29 .6  macronutrlent of n e e d l e s .  %N  1 .15 1 . 19 1 .10 1 .33 1 i ..10 i u 11 .13 1^ 1.79 1 .34 1 .09 1 . 28 1.03 1 .48 1 .27 1 .24 1.59 1 .38 1.62 1 .08  %P  .085 .123 .081 .075 ..092 u y z .. OQ 0 9Q9 .126 .099 .111 . 084 .084 . 083 .140 . 101 .064 . 095 .129 . 079  %K  0.75 0.75 0.48 0.69 0.91 u . ? i. 0 .95 fi.95 1. 69 1 . 10 0.94 0.93 1.35 1 .00 1 .00 0.65 0.98 0.96 1 .06 0.78  %Ca  %Mg  .18 .14 .20 .15 .29 .14 .14 .14 .40 .14 .23 .23 .15 .15 .22 .13 .12 .32 .21  .14 .17 .17 .13 .20 .12 .12 .18 .19 .11 .11 .18 .16 .12 .16 .13 .16 .35 .15  <*>  macronutrient RP77: I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and f l u s h of needles l e v e l s o f t h e most r e c e n t  Tree Number  10 06 02 25 09 23 11 24 28 04 16 18 26 12 03 . 22 17 30  Height (m)  D.B.H. (cm)  4.2 10.0 5.7 11.8 5.4 4.6 9.7 8.2 6.3 5.9 4.4 8 .1 4.6 4.7 6.3 6.6 5•1 4.2  9.5 15.3 13.1 12.1 11 .5 7.6 15.6 11.1 8.3 10 . 5 9 .2 9.2 7.6 7.6 10 . 2 9 . 5 8.9 11.5  Wt. o f 50 F a s c i c l e s (g)  15 .28 17.59 16 .39 19.73 8 . 26 8 .25 17 .44 13.47 13 .54 14.09 9.95 16.45 8.87 8 .07 9.61 12.91 15 .03 10.93  Avg. F a s c i c l e Length (cm) 29 .1 28 .6 29 .3 32 .0 21.2 23 .4 27 .4 29 .7 30 .3 27.0 25 .5 32.6 23 .2 22.7 22 .5 25.3 29 .6 23.9  %N  0.73 0.78 0.57 0.75 0 .59 0 . 54 0.61 0.98 1.00 0.64 0.44 0 . 50 0.39 0.49 0.57 0. 68 0.59 0.55  %P  o  .016 .016 .007 .015 .005 .012 .022 .032 .020 .015 .008 . 017 .004 .012 .012 .017 .016 . 008  %K  0.56 0.93 0.95 0 . 74 0.32 0. 20 0.94 0 .61 0.56 0 . 56 0.86 0.93 0.23 0 . 56 0.50 0.44 0 .72 0.40  %Ca  %Mg  .47 .13 .14 .36 .32 . 53 .26 .29 .34 .17 .16 .19 .62 .15 .46 .29 .19 .44  .15 .10 .06 .15 .15 .26 .14 .22 .19 • 13 .10 .13 .27 . 10 .22 .14 .10 . 17  ON  ^1  RP77 :  Tree Number  Wt. o f 50 F a s c i c l e s (g)  10 06 02 25 09 23 11 24 28 04 16 18 26 12 03 22 17 30  19 .65 16.98 14 .88 16.71 11.55 8 .90 13 .54 10.68 12.46 15.16 9.85 20.08 7.33 9.73 10.51 12.20 14 .57 14.41  Macronutrlent l e v e l s of f l u s h of needles  Avg. F a s c i c l e L e n g t h (cm) 30 .2 28 .6 29 .5 30.0 23.5 23.7 26 .9 28 .5 27 .1 27.8 26.4 35.2 21.6 25.9 23.2 25.0 30 .1 28 .1  %N  0.87 1 . 18 0.42 0 .51 0.67 0 . 58 0.71 0 . 82 0.64 0.73 0 . 55 0 . 56 0.38 0 . 60 0.72 0.68 0 . 50 0.84  the  %P  .016 .008 .008 .012 .009 .013 .024 .030 .018 .014 .012 .017 .004 .017 .015 . 017 .010 .013  previous  %K  0.52 0 . 56 0.90 0 . 95 0.44 0.38 1 .02 0 . 56 0 .80 0. 38 0.88 0.90 0.28 0 . 60 0.63 0 .45 0.65 0. 54  %Ca  %Mg  .48 . 17 .16 . 12 .40 .40 .21 .35 .14 .24 .14 .22 .57 , 36 .31 .29 .28 .44  .18 . 10 .09 .04 .21 .21 .13 .31 .11 .18 .11 .13 .25 . 18 .17 .13 .14 . 28  RP93A:  ree mber  16 14 22 11 15 24 26 23 18 09 04 06 13 12 21 10 28 08  Height (m)  6.0 7.9 4.5 7.6 5. 7 7.5 7.6 3.9 8.0 4. 3 6.5 7 .1 4.6 6,5 8 . 1 7. 1 6.7 7.3  D.B.H. (cm)  9 .5 13.4 6.4 12 . 0 8.0 13.7 12 . 1 5.7 11.5 6.4 9.9 10.5 9.5 8.0 10 . 5 11.5 12.4 12.4  I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and m a c r o n u t r l e n t l e v e l s of t h e most r e c e n t f l u s h o f n e e d l e s  Wt. o f 50 F a s c i c l e s (g)  21.71 2 3.19 12.06 12.01 15.37 19.89 21 .89 14.24 18 .76 13.19 13.23 14.45 11.83 13.36 11 .77 9 . 90 10 .81 18 .02  Avg. Fascicle L e n g t h (cm) 30 .6 35.9 25.7 27 .1 29.5 32 .2 33.0 29.4 27 .9 28.8 28 .2 31 .7 27.4 26.6 23 .2 22.9 22.7 29 .8  %N  0.81 1 . 05 0.73 1 .31 0.67 1 .02 1 .02 0.51 0.83 0.67 0.92 1 . 33 0.67 1 .05 0.89 1 .06 1 .09 1.34  %P  .024 .027 .023 . 072 .028 . 028 .039 .020 .029 .022 .034 .045 .034 .034 .045 .045 .037 .026  %K  1. 30 1 . 19 0.86 1.74 1 .18 0.43 1.83 0.86 1.42 0 .97 0.79 1.02 0.75 0.99 1 .10 0.90 1 .02 1.01  %Ca  %Mg  .22 . 29 .20 . 16 .27 .48 .18 . 22 .40 .23 .13 .15 .13 .13 .14 .17 .18 .43  . 18 .24 .14 . 18 .11 .34 .20 .12 .28 .13 .14 . 10 .12 .11 .12 .11 .20 .34  RP93A:  Tree Number  Wt. o f 50 Fascicles (g)  16 14 22 11 15 24 26 23 18 09 04 06 13 12 21 10 28 08  15 .40 20.60 11.68 15.36 9.60 20.45 20 .09 13.82 17.52 15.97 14 .51 14.97 9 .23 12.90 14 .96 11 .00 10 .62 18 83  M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s of the p r e v i o u s of needles  Avg. F a s c i c l e Length (cm) 25.5 33.5 24 .5 30. 8 20.4 32.6 31 .5 28 .8 28 .2 30.3 26.3 31.0 25.4 28.6 28 .6 24.2 22.6 31.0  %N  0.72 1.11 0.86 0.80 0.80 0.98 1.04 0.65 0.89 0.87 0.75 0.92 0.64 0.82 0.78 0.99 1 .14 1. 14  %P  .029 .031 .020 .032 .029 . 031 .034 -015 .026 .021 .025 .037 .030 .032 .035 . 035 .032 . 032  %K  1.32 1.11 0.85 0.89 1 .24 0. 59 1 .96 0.82 1 . 36 0.75 0.81 0 .81 0.60 0.88 0.91 0.95 1 .09 0.93  flush  %Ca  %Mg  .22 . 32 .23 . 49 .27 .41 . 18 . 27 .35 .27 .12 . 13 . 20 .12 .17 . 18 .18 .35  . 19 .32 .13 .17 .14 . 32 .20 .14 .25 .19 .13 .07 .15 .09 .12 . 10 .20 . 29  -71 -  F o l i a r and  concent  aluminum. t r e e s ,  S i t e  Lungmanis  Tree  Number  46  Zn  ppm  the  n  m i c r o n u t r i e n t s data  on  p r e v i o u s  ppm  30  431 244  Fe  ppm  .037  20.2  20  25 . 7  .028  20  11.9 1 3 .1 13.0  .044  32 14  338  21  443 233  40 30 30  28 42  25 30  149 444  30  06 42 36 29 12 38 14 30 08  27 27 59 26 43 31 47 44 24  344  20 20  11  31  33 40 23 04 48 27  15 35 43 25 25 37  12 47 20 30  33 22 32 43  282  190 498  .030  13 .9  129  261 420 327 324  A l  30 20  253 71  31  %  50  34  18  ppm  25 ,7 13.2  29  11  B  20  30 15  i n d i v i d u a l  t a b l e s ) .  20  49  Ranau  r e f e r  of  f u r t h e r  12  38  Gum-Gum  (F  ions  20  20 20 20 59 20  18  6.1 10.0 9.4  7  .3  .1  8.0  14  .1  .034 .019  . 040 .048  .032  . 039 .034  .038 .041 . 047 .040  13.5 12.8 6.7 8 . 7  .056 .045  .059 .045  326 304  20  126 360  90 ,130  14.8 6.8  23 .6 15.6  .076  5.5 24 .8 18 . 6  .063 .076 . 094  20  7 . 2  .038  151 148  130 130  23 . 6 6.6  .046 .073 .076 .067  133 157  170 160  223 176 307 276  110 140  29  .07 5 .064  150 140  .4  -72 -  F o l i a r  S i t e  RP77  Tree  of  and  (Continued)  Zn  aluminum.  ppm  Mn  ppm  m i c r o n u t r i e n t s  Fe  ppm  B  ppm  %  A l  Number 10 06  33 30  397 183  20 20 30 20  18 .1 10.6  .045 .032  8 .0  .051  7 . 2 10 .0  . 074 .031  9 .1 7.5  . 043 .057  18 18  100 322  26 21 19  283 492  10  399  502  40  4.8  .072  28 04  27  515 228  20 20  10 .3 22.4  .032  16 14  16  95 93  30  10 .9  .029  68  30 10 30  02 25 09 23 11  24  RP93A  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  22 11  15 24 26 23 18 09  34 19  16  9 11 10 26  17 9 21 10  100  55 289 93 66  121 47  20 10  40 20  40 10 40 20  .066  5.4  .065  7.7 7.2  . 096 .040  7  .1  .026  5.6 4.7  .077 .062  4.8  .037  4.4 3.6  .021 .063  -73-  APPENDIX I I I  E s t i m a t i o n of C r i t i c a l Phosphorus L e v e l  - 74 -  E s t i m a t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Phosphorus L e v e l A l t h o u g h t h e major purpose o f the r e s e a r c h was to i d e n t i f y s u s p e c t e d n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s , i t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a tentative c r i t i c a l pine.  phosphorus l e v e l f o r E a s t M a l a y s i a n  The d e f i n i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l  p l a n t s of Caribbean  l e v e l i s that of Richards  (1969) i e . t h e f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n 90%  p o s s i b l e to propose  and Bevege  o f an element a s s o c i a t e d  with  of maximum y i e l d .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between growth and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t are g e n e r a l l y s t u d i e d using  specially-designed f e r t i l i z e r  concentrations trials.  Lamb  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , however, has argued t h a t e x i s t i n g p l a n t a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o be used i f t h e y c o v e r e d t h e r e q u i r e d range o f growth and n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  In  the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t appeared to be met f o r the element p h o s p h o r u s , as f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  and p l a n t a t i o n performance ranged from  e x t r e m e l y l o w i n t h e Sarawak p l o t s t o v e r y h i g h i n the a l l u v i a l Gum-Gum plantation.  I t i s s t r e s s e d that the estimated  approximation only. concept of a c r i t i c a l  As R i c h a r d s  level i s a f i r s t  and Bevege (1969) have p o i n t e d  o u t , the  l e v e l i m p l i c i t l y assumes t h a t a l l n u t r i e n t s ,  from the one under t e s t , a r e not l i m i t i n g . i s f u l f u l l e d can c r i t i c a l certainty.  P critical  O n l y i f the p r e c e d i n g  apart condition  l e v e l s be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h any degree o f  Such was n o t the case i n the Sarawak p l o t s , as o t h e r  a l s o appeared t o be i n the d e f i c i e n c y r a n g e .  However, g i v e n  s e v e r i t y o f the phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y r e l a t i v e to o t h e r d e f i c i e n c i e s and t h e f a c t t h a t the low l e v e l s o f o t h e r  nutrients  the o b v i o u s  indicated n u t r i e n t s may have  - 75 -  been a r e s u l t o f l o w P a v a i l a b i l i t y and u p t a k e ,  a reasonable  e s t i m a t e of a  c r i t i c a l P l e v e l was thought to be p o s s i b l e .  The methods used t o e s t i m a t e t h e c r i t i c a l phosphorus l e v e l were s i m i l a r t o those employed by Lamb ( 1 9 7 7 ) , i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a c r i t i c a l f o l i a r nitrogen l e v e l f o r Eucalyptus plantations.  I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a from Lungmanis, Gum-Gum and the two  Sarawak p l o t s were combined. omitted.  d e g l u p t a Blume i n Papua New G u i n e a  I n f o r m a t i o n from the o l d e r Ranau p l o t was  S c a t t e r diagrams o f h e i g h t , b a s a l a r e a , and b a s a l a r e a x h e i g h t  increments  were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t f o l i a r phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  L o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f b a s a l a r e a and b a s a l a r e a x h e i g h t were r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o i n d u c e homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e .  values  Refer to F i g u r e s  7, 8 and 9.  Stepwise  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s were p e r f o r m e d , u s i n g i n t u r n ,  h e i g h t and t h e l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f b a s a l a r e a and b a s a l a r e a x h e i g h t as dependent v a r i a b l e s , and f o l i a r m a c r o n u t r i e n t  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and  t h e i r s q u a r e s ( t o a l l o w f o r c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) as i n d e p e n d e n t variables.  The b e s t p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n s  f o r mean a n n u a l  increments of  h e i g h t ( H t ) , b a s a l a r e a (BA) and h e i g h t x b a s a l a r e a ( H t x BA) were as follows: a) Ht = 0.52 + 30.05 P - 119.22 P  2  r  = 0.82  2  b) l o g  e  BA = -7.23 + 33.12 P - 141.45 P  c) l o g  e  Ht x BA = -5.85 + 60.03 P - 300.98 P  2  r  2  2  - 0.65 r  2  = 0.65  -76-  O  2 51— "  O  O  O  r  O  o  2.0  3§ ~ 1.5 < tI o I  o  • o O o oo  o 00  o O o oo  o  o  O  oo O  OO  O  o  oo  CO  o  o  oo  o  oo  o  o o o o o OOOO  o  O oo |o o o O o  .02  J-  .04  FOLIAR  F i g u r e 7:  .06 P  .08  .10  CONCENTRATION,  .12  .14  (%)  R e l a t i o n s h i p between mean a n n u a l h e i g h t and f o l i a r P c o n c e n t r a t i o n  increment  \  00 00 o O  O  o  o  o o o o o o o 00 o o  o o o  o o o o  o  o o  °  o  o  oo °  o o  QO  ° ^° O C O  o o O  Q  o  o  oo  i  o  o O .02  .04 FOLIAR  Figure  8:  .06  .08  .10  P CONCENTRATION,  (%)  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n mean a n n u a l b a s a l increment and f o l i a r P c o n c e n t r a t i o n  -78-  2.0 r~  o  2  < 3.0  O O O  o O oQo o  UJ  tr < 4.0  < CD  x 5.0 (£  UJ X 0  o  -J 6.0 I  o oO o o o o o o o O 000  o  o  I- o o 00  O  00  <  00  o  00  o  o o o o o o  (  o o O O O o .02  .04  .06  .08  .10  FOLIAR P CONCENTRATION, (%)  Figure 9:  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n mean a n n u a l b a s a l a r e a x h e i g h t i n c r e m e n t and f o l i a r P concentration.  .14  - 79 -  Each equation was based upon 72 observations and a l l were significant at the 0.1% level.  Phosphorus concentrations corresponding to maximum height, basal area and basal area x height increments  (Y max.) were then obtained by-  differentiating the appropriate equations and solving for dy/dP = 0. These optimum P concentrations were then used to derive maximum height, basal area and height x basal area values.  Next, foliar P concentrations corresponding  to 90% of the maximum growth increments were calculated. These were found to be the following: height, 0.081% P; basal area, 0.090% P; and height x basal area, 0.081% P. From these results, a tentative c r i t i c a l range for phosphorus of 0.08% - 0.09% i s proposed for East Malaysian plantings of Caribbean pine.  The findings were in agreement with c r i t i c a l phosphorus  levels for the species grown on two podzolic soils in Victoria, Australia. These levels were calculated by the author from regression equations presented by Raupach et a l . (1975).  Estimated c r i t i c a l ranges were 0.083% -  0.086%, 0.083% - 0.088% and 0.086% - 0.089% for height, diameter and volume, respectively.  PUBLICATIONS:  Fahlman, R. and H.S. Sarawark.  Lee.  1978.  Nursery P r a c t i c e i n  S i l v i c u l t u r e Pamphlet No. S.R.  F o r e s t Dept., Sarawak, M a l a y s i a .  1/78  48pp.  Fahlman, R. 1977. Growth of P i n u s c a r i b a e a under various  establishment  Rep. No S.R. Malaysia.  Fahlman, R.  16.  procedures.  F o r e s t Dept.  Forest  Res.  Sarawak,  6pp.  1977.  Pinus oocarpa provenance  For. Res. Rep. No. S.R. Sarawak, M a l a y s i a .  Fahlman, R . l 1976.  trial.  15. F o r e s t Dept.  7pp.  Growth of Pinus  merkusii,  P_. c a r i b a e a , J?. oocarpa and P_. k e s i y a on a temuda  site.  F o r . Res. Rep. No. S.R.  F o r e s t Dept. Sarawak, M a l a y s i a .  Fahlman, R.  1976.  Provenance T r i a l  F o r . Res. Rep. No. S.R. Malaysia.  10.  8pp.  of Pinus  9. F o r e s t Dept.  caribaea. Sarawak,  11pp.  Fahlman, R. 1975.  Growth of A g a t h i s  on a kerangas s i t e .  F o r . Res. Rep. No. S.R.8.  F o r e s t Dept. Sarawak, M a l a y s i a .  Fahlman, R. 1975. F i n a l Report.  macrophylla  P r o j e c t S.4  5pp.  - Species  Trials,  F o r . Res. Rep. No. S.R.  F o r e s t Dept. Sarawak, M a l a y s i a .  26pp.  7.  

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