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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A foliar nutrition study of East Malaysian plantings of Pinus caribaea mor. var hondurensis barr. and… Fahlman, Richard Allen 1983

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A FOLIAR NUTRITION STUDY OF EAST MALAYSIAN PLANTINGS OF PINUS CARIBAEA MOR. VAR HONDURENSIS BARR. AND GOLF. by RICHARD ALLEN FAHLMAN B.Sc (Comb. Hons.), The University of British Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE ... in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Forestry We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1983 ©Richard Allen Fahlman, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) - i i -Abstract Foliar analysis was used to diagnose nutrient deficiencies in East Malaysian plantings of Pinus caribaea Mor. var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf. Foliage from five sites (two in Sarawak and three in Sabah) was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Mn, Fe and B. Deficiencies of P, Ca and possibly B were recorded from Sabah. Extreme P deficiencies were found on both Sarawak sites. In Sarawak, low levels of N, B and Zn were also noted but, due to the severity of the P deficiencies, their significance could not be evaluated. Fertilization recommendations were made for nutrient deficient sites. And, from an examination of the relationship between tree growth and foliar P concentration, a c r i t i c a l foliar P level of 0.08% to 0.09% was proposed for East Malaysian plantings of Caribbean pine. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Literature Review Material and Methods Choice of Study Areas Climate Site Characteristics Sarawak Sabah Sampling Methods Chemical Analysis Results Sabah Sarawak Discussion and Recommendations Summary Literature Cited Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III - i v -LIST OF TABLES Page Table I. Monthly and annual r a i n f a l l data for sample s i t e s 8 Table I I . Imputed def i c i e n c y l e v e l s for Caribbean pine and c r i t i c a l range for slash pine 24 Table I I I . Lungmanis: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles 26 Table IV. Ranau: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles.. 27 Table V. Gum-Gum: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles.. 28 Table VI. RP93A: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles.. 29 Table VII. RP77: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles.. 30 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Location of Study Areas 6 Figure 2. An example of deformed pine growth on RP93A 11 Figure 3. Sparse foliage and deformed growth of Caribbean pine on RP77 12 Figure 4. An example of pine growth at Lungmanis 16 Figure 5. Good growth and luxuriant foliage of Caribbean pine at Gum-Gum 17 Figure 6. Caribbean pine plot at Ranau 18 Figure 7. Relationship between mean annual height increment and foliar P concentration 76 Figure 8. Relationship between mean annual basal area increment and foliar P concentration 77 Figure 9. Relationship between mean annual basal area x height increment and foliar P concentration 78 - v i -Acknowledgements The author expresses his sincere gratitude to his supervisor, Dr. J. G. Worrall, and his committee members, Dr. T. M. Ballard, and Dr. J. P. Kimmins, for their advice and guidance during this project. Also, the technical assistance kindly offered by Min Tse and by members of the U.B.C. S o i l Science Laboratory i s g r a t e f u l l y adknowledged. The author also wishes to acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l assistance received from the Canadian International Development Agency. And special thanks i s extended to the members of the Sarawak and Sabah Forest Departments, without whose help and gracious h o s p i t a l i t y , this project could never have been r e a l i z e d . - 1 -Introduction Caribbean pine, Pinus caribaea Mor., because of its ability to grow under conditions of high temperature, humidity and r a i n f a l l , has become the most important conifer being planted in the humid tropics. After comparisons of the performance of varieties of Caribbean pine with other tropical pines, Lamb (1973) concluded that, up to 18° from the equator, there was no other pine as suitable as Pj_ caribaea Mor. var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf, for plantation development in the lowland plains of the equatorial zone. Widespread interest in the species as an exotic is revealed by the large number of countries in South America, Africa and Asia where plantations have been established (Hutchinson, 1976). In Sarawak, East Malaysia, the Honduran variety of Caribbean pine has been identified as a potential tree for use in afforestation of abandoned shifting-cultivation sites (Palmer, 1971). Much better growth has been achieved in areas of peninsular Malaysia and in the East Malaysian state of Sabah, where commercial plantations are being established. According to Manikam and Srivastava (1980), 200,315 ha have been reserved for pine plantations in West Malaysia and an additional 60,700 ha in Sabah. Tham (1979) stated that Caribbean pine could be used to rehabilitate over 900,000 ha of degraded land in Sabah. - 2 -Poor performance of the Sarawak plantings has been a t t r i b u t e d to various n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s . Waring (1971) noted that many of the trees e x h i b i t e d symptoms of acute boron d e f i c i e n c y . He also remarked on the presence of n i t r o g e n and phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y symptoms and recommended a p p l i c a t i o n of NPK f e r t i l i z e r s . Levingston (1975) stressed the low l e v e l s of nitrogen and phosphorus i n the pine s i t e s o i l s and suggested that low l e v e l s of calcium and magnesium may a l s o be l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Aluminum t o x i c i t y , which has been noted i n Sarawak a g r i c u l t u r a l crops (Andriesse, 1972), could be another p o s s i b l e cause of poor tree growth. To date, no q u a n t i t a t i v e evidence i s a v a i l a b l e to substantiate the above observations. A f i e l d t r i a l i n v o l v i n g various f e r t i l i z e r treatments was begun i n 1976 (Fahlman, 1977) but was destroyed the f o l l o w i n g year i n a f i r e set by s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t o r s . The major ob j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were to provide i n i t i a l f o l i a r n u t r i e n t concentration data f o r East Malaysian p l a n t i n g s of Caribbean pine and to diagnose which n u t r i e n t s may have been l i m i t i n g growth, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Sarawak pine p l o t s . L i t e r a t u r e Review In recent years, f o l i a r a n a l y s i s has received much a t t e n t i o n as a means of diagnosing n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n f o r e s t crops. A number of reviews (Tamm, 1964; Lavender, 1970; Leaf, 1973; Morrison, 1974; van den Driessche, - 3 -1974; Schutz, 1976) have dealt with principles, methods and interpretations of the technique. Pushparajah and Chew (1979) reviewed the use of foliar analysis In Malaysian agriculture and stressed the need for a programme to help define the nutrient requirements of forest plantations, particularly of P. caribaea Mor. Although Caribbean pine is a widely planted species, few published data are available concerning its nutrition. -Srivastava and Abang Naruddin (1979) summarized previous Malaysian fe r t i l i z a t i o n research involving both potted seedlings (Joseph and Freezaillah, 1969; Joseph, 1971) and field t r i a l s (Platteborze, 1970 and 1971; Lim and Sundralingam, 1974; Sundralingam and Ang, 1975). They concluded that an optimum f e r t i l i z a t i o n regime for Caribbean pine had not yet been worked out for the soils of peninsular Malaysia. Additional research in Malaysia (Chiba, 1978; Manikam and Srivastava, 1980) and in Australia (Cameron et a l . , 1981) has stressed the need for phosphorus applications to plantations of the species which are situated on highly-weathered tropical soils. Nutrient accumulation in Caribbean pine biomass has been studied by Stewart (1980) and Egunjobi and his co-workers (1972, 1979a, 1979b). These studies give an indication of the ranges of nutrient concentrations found in the foliage as a whole; and while not useful for deficiency diagnosis, they are helpful in determining nutrient budgets of forest plantations. - 4 -With respect to f o l i a r analysis for diagnostic purposes, Hamzah (1966), i n a green-house study, analyzed the nutrient content of f o l i a g e stems and roots of f i v e month old seedling grown over a range of nutrient regimes. His work, however, has l i t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n to f i e l d conditions. Srivastava and Chin (1978) attempted to relate growth parameters to f o l i a r nutrient l e v e l s on two West Malaysian s i t e s . And Waring (1971) r e l i e d on his experience i n Australian pine plantations, p a r t i c u l a r l y of P. radiata D. Don, to interpret f o l i a r data from West Malaysian pine plantings. As Caribbean pine i s c l o s e l y related, both morphologically and geographically to slash pine P^ e l l i o t t i i Engelm. ( L i t t l e and Dorman, 1952 and 1954), Humphreys (1971) used available slash pine information as the basis for preliminary deficiency diagnoses of F i j i a n plantations of Caribbean pine. A comparison of tentative deficiency l e v e l s which have recently been derived for slash pine ( P r i t c h e t t , personal communication) and for Caribbean pine (Bevege, 1978 and personal communication) show in fact that f o l i a r nutrient l e v e l s for the two species are s i m i l a r . Thus, information supplied by the two authors was used as a basis for the deficiency diagnoses made In the present study. - 5 -Material and Methods Choice of Study Areas Originally, i t was planned to sample stands of similar age and provenance in both East and West Malaysia. However, due to d i f f i c u l t i e s in obtaining permission to work on the peninsula, sites were confined to the East Malaysian (Borneo) states of Sarawak and Sabah. This created problems in matching both age-classes and provenances. Five sites were eventually sampled, two in Sarawak and three in Sabah. Refer to Figure 1. The Sarawak sites (RP 77 and RP 93A) were within the Silviculture Research Reserve, Oya Road, Sibu (2°l7'N,112o0'E). The Sabah plots were located at Gum-Gum (5o50'N,117°55'E), Lungmanis (5°43,N,117°43IE), and Ranau (5 058 ,N,116°43 ,E). Both Sarawak plots and one Sabah plot (Lungmanis) we^ re of Poptun, Guatemala, provenance. The remaining two stands were of Mountain Pine Ridge, Belize, origin. Fortunately, the location and site conditions of the two provenances were not widely different. Although the Poptun and Mountain Pine Redge stands are presently separated by over 60 km of broad-leaf forest, Greaves (1978) considered i t likely that there had been past migration of the pine from one area to the other. The altitude, latitude, general geology and climate of the two areas are similar. Figure 1 . Location of s t u d y areas - 7 -Climate The climate of Sarawak and Sabah i s uniform and i s characterized by constant warm temperatures, high r a i n f a l l and high r e l a t i v e humidity. Temperature varies l i t t l e through the year, averaging about 27°C near sea l e v e l . Surface temperatures inland f a l l at a rate of about 1.5°C for every 300 m increase i n a l t i t u d e (Acres et a l . , 1975). A l l of the study areas f a l l within the Af, t r o p i c a l rainy climate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Koppen (1936). A summary of available r a i n f a l l data i s given i n Table I. Site Characteristics Sarawak Geology and S o i l s The two Sarawak s i t e s were located on the southern portion of the S i l v i c u l t u r e Research Reserve, approximately 18 km east of the town of Sibu. Details concerning the geology of the region can be found i n publications by Wolfenden (1960) and L e i c h t i (1960). -Both Scott (1965) and B a i l l i e (1970) have described the l o c a l topography and s o i l s . A b r i e f description i s given below. The area i s underlain by a succession of massive sandstone beds with intervening layers of shale and sandstone. The massive sandstones o r i g i n a l l y formed a series of p a r a l l e l s t r i k e ridges which have been eroded, forming a succession of rounded h i l l s 45 to 55 m i n elevation. Mixed shale and sandstone underlay the intervening valleys which are 10 to Table I. Monthly and annual r a i n f a l l data (mm) f o r sample s i t e s . A. Sibu S i l v i c u l t u r a l Research Reserve (Source 1971 - 1975) Sarawak Forest Dept. f i l e s , F M M 0 N Annual Mean Max . Min. 371 572 211 381 620 99 269 414 48 292 340 213 290 518 127 203 307 112 213 252 305 406 46 122 396 645 175 252 292 416 396 185 150 396 511 249 3609 3947 2984 B Gum-Gum (Source: Sabah Forest Dept. f i l e s , 1972 - 1978) Mean Max. Min. 433 461 912 1075 59 22 204 511 30 161 276 58 203 295 129 170 290 67 231 302 401 394 107 201 286 508 127 237 262 338 429 131 162 462 690 176 3412 4224 2462 oo Lungmanis (Source: Sabah Forest Dept. f i l e s , 1970 - 1978) Mean Max. Min. 327 410 624 1016 84 31 201 429 60 126 271 11 186 329 78 215 317 81 247 283 596 464 118 122 212 361 90 233 245 469 405 52 57 282 383 150 2967 4075 2265 D Ranau (Source: Malaysian M e t e o r o l o g i c a l f i l e s , 1969 - 1978) Mean Max . Min. 262 724 78 251 792 26 118 233 29 154 231 80 198 296 58 204 290 97 148 236 257 361 73 72 176 183 360 254 56 90 187 256 80 235 610 107 2350 3139 1707 - 9 -20 m above sea l e v e l . RP93A i s at an elevation of approximately 40 m, on a steep 25° slope of a sandstone h i l l . The deep, well-drained sandy clay loam i s a red-yellow podzolic of the Nyalau family ( S o i l Survey Staff, 1966). S o i l p r o f i l e descriptions for a l l f i v e s i t e s are included i n Appendix I. RP77 i s situated between two h i l l s , at an elevation of 16 m. The parent material of mixed sandstone and shale has resulted i n a shallower, heavier-textured and less well-drained s o i l than found i n RP93A. A semi-detailed s o i l survey (Scott, 1965) tentativ e l y mapped the area as being i n the Bandang series of the Semadoh family. However, detailed reconnaissance by the author has revealed the s o i l to be a red-yellow podzolic of the Merit family. Scott (1973) attempted correlations of the Sarawak s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with the U.S.D.A. system and the F.A.O. World S o i l Map Legend. Under the respective taxonomic systems the RP93A s o i l would be Identified as either a tropeptic haplorthox or an ochric f e r r a l s o l , while the RP77 s o i l would be either an oxic dystropept or an ochric cambisol. Vegetation The area had been subjected to repeated cycles of s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n . Consequently, there was no v i r g i n or old secondary forest l e f t on the - 10 -reserve. Graminaceous and herbaceous plants, in particular, lalang grass Imperata cylindrica Beauv. and resam fern Gleichinia linearis (Burm.) Hend. dominated the site. A few secondary tree species, generally of sapling size, were also present. Both of the Sarawak pine plantings displayed poor form and vigour. Dead and multiple tops were common. Foliage was sparse with a maximum of three needle flushes retained. Chlorosis and, in many cases, necrosis of needle tips was widespread. Figures 2 and 3 give examples of the poor form found on the two sites. The understory vegetation in RP93A was mainly resam fern, with significant minor components of Vitex pubescens Vahl. and Nauclea calycina Barth. Lalang was the dominant ground cover of RP77. Resam fern, the sedge Scleria purpurascens Steud., as well as shrub-sized Vitex pubescens Vahl. and Melastoma malabathricam Linn, were also common. Plot History RP93A Sample trees were from two 36 tree plots (numbers 7 and 8 which were part of a performance t r i a l involving several species of tropical pines (Fahlman, 1976a). Establishment occurred in 1974. Site preparation consisted of cutting existing vegetation and burning the slash. Seedlings were planted at 2.4 m spacing. Hand slashing of brush was done every - 11 -Figure 2. An example of deformed pine growth on RP93A. - 12 F i g u r e 3. S p a r s e f o l i a g e and deformed g rowth of C a r i b b e a n p i n e on RP77. - 13 -six months for the f i r s t two years, then annually. In 1976, each tree received a banded f e r t i l i z e r a p plication consisting of 85 g Christmas Island rock phosphate, 28 g t r i p l e superphosphate and 28 g Borate 46. RP77 The study area was part of a Caribbean pine provenance t r i a l which had been established i n 1972 (Fahlman, 1976b). The t r i a l was l a i d out as a randomized complete block with four r e p l i c a t e s of eight provenances. Each r e p l i c a t e consisted of 25 trees at 2.4 m spacing. Sample trees were chosen from the four r e p l i c a t e s of the Poptun, Guatemala, provenance. Prior to planting, the overstory vegetation had been slashed and removed from the s i t e . The area around each planting point was then sprayed with the herbicide, paraquat. Within the f i r s t year of planting each tree received the following banded f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n : 113 g I.C.I. Compound 15 (10:16:9; with 2.5% MgO) and 113 g of Borate 46 (13.5% B) . Hand-weeding and slashing was done at the time of each annual assessment. Sabah Geology and S o i l s The comprehensive f i v e volume study of the s o i l s of Sabah by Acres e_t a l . (1975) gives detailed information on the physiography, geology and s o i l s of the region. Brief descriptions of the parent materials and s o i l s of the - 14 -three sites are given below. Soil classification follows the F.A.O. World Soil Map Legend, which has been widely used in Sabah. Refer to Appendix I for soil profile descriptions. Lungmanis This site was within the Kretam soil association which generally occurs on moderate to low h i l l s below 150 m. Parent material was comprised of sandstone, mudstone and miscellaneous rocks in the Kuamut, Garinono and Chert-Spilite slump formations (Acres et a l . 1975). Sandstone was dominant. Miscellaneous rocks included serpentinite, gabbro, dolerite, limestone and chert. Two s o i l pits were dug and the soils identified as an orthic acrisol of the Tanjong Lipat family and a ferric acrisol of the Sipit family. Both soils were moderately well-drained sandy clay loams. Gum-Gum The pine stand was located on the flood plain of the Sungai Gum-Gum. Parent material was medium to fine-textured alluvium with considerable buried organic material. The soi l was identified as a gleyic luvisol of the Buran family. Although the s o i l was poorly to imperfectly drained, rooting depth extended well below one metre. Ranau The site was located near the crest of a ridge in the Crocker - 15 -Mountain Range. The s o i l , a dystric cambisol of the Antulai family, was a well-drained humic clay loam, grading to a sandy clay loam with depth. Parent material was sandstone. Vegetation Up to the time of planting, the Lungmanis and Gum-Gum sites had been covered with selectively-logged mixed dipterocarp forest. At one time, the Ranau area had also been included in this forest type, but the activity of shifting cultivators had altered the vegetation to secondary scrub forest. Compared to the Sarawak plots, tree form and vigour was much better in the three Sabah plantings. Up to six flushes of needles were retained on lateral branches and foliage was generally dark green and healthy. Refer to Figures 4, 5 and 6. Dominant understory vegetation of the Lungmanis plot consisted of unidentified grasses with scattered clumps of the fern Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott and scattered c h i l i bushes Capsicum frutescens Linn. The herb, Eupatorium odoratum Linn, was widespread in the the Gum-Gum understory, along with lalang and unidentified grasses. The fern, N. biserrata (Sw.) Schott and an unidentified climber of the Piperacae were also common. As canopy closure had occurred on the Ranau site, no understory was present. Vegetation in the immediate vicinity consisted of saplings of the Oleaceae - 16 F i g u r e 4. An example o f p i n e g r o w t h a t L u n g m a n i s . - 17 -- 18 -F i g u r e 6. C a r i b b e a n p i n e p l o t a t R a n a u . - 19 -and Lauraceae i n p a r t i c u l a r , Linociera ramiflora Wall, D e l i a s s i a cuneata B l . and L i t s e a i n s i g n i s (Bl.) Boerl. Shrubs of the Melastomataceae were also present, as well as some grasses and resam fern. Plot History There were few establishment records available for the Sabah t r i a l s . A l l three s i t e s were demonstration plots at 2.4 m spacing. Planting dates and size of plantings were as follows: Gum-Gum, 0.6 ha, A p r i l 1975, Lungmanis, 3.2 ha, May 1971; Ranau, 49 tree plot, Sept. 1961. A l l areas had been weeded p e r i o d i c a l l y , but there was no information regarding frequency. None of the plots had been f e r t i l i z e d . Sampling Methods Selection of Foliage For f o l i a r diagnostic purposes, current year f o l i a g e , c o l l e c t e d at the end of the growing season i s generally used. However, i n the non-seasonal t r o p i c a l climate of Malaysia the growth of Caribbean pine i s continuous throughout the year (Franson, 1970). Studies of i t s growth pattern under Malaysian conditions (Hiew, 1978; Abu Bakar, 1979) have indicated that the pine may have up to six growth flushes annually and that needles generally take four to f i v e months to reach maturity. Under these conditions, i t was at times d i f f i c u l t to determine which needles should be sampled. Van den Driessche (1974) pointed out that, while current - 20 -foliage is usually the most sensitive indicator of nitrogen status, older foliage may be more informative for other nutrients. And Schutz (1976) cited a number of studies which indicated nutrient levels were most stable in one year old needles. Thus i t was decided to sample the last apparently mature flush, as well as the flush previous to i t . Sampling procedure. Except for Ranau, the following systematic sampling procedure was employed at each site. From a randomly chosen starting point, dominant and co-dominant trees were sampled from the surrounding planting lines until a total of f i f t y trees were measured. Foxtails and trees with large arboreal ant nests were excluded. Due to its small size, a l l of the acceptable dominants and codominants in the Ranau plot were sampled, a total of thirty-five trees. For each tree chosen, total height and diameter at breast height over bark (1.3 m) were measured. Samples of the most recent, and the previously-elongated flush of needles were then taken. Where possible, foliage samples were from either the f i r s t or second lateral branch below the terminal. In a l l cases, samples were from the upper one third of the crown. A pole pruner was used to obtain the Sarawak samples, while tree climbers were employed in Sabah. Upon collection, needles were placed in plastic bags. In Sabah, collected foliage was oven-dried at 68°C - 21 -within 24 hours. A different procedure was followed in Sarawak. As there were no drying ovens in Sibu, needles were frozen the same day as collected. When the sampling was completed, the frozen foliage was sent by air to the forestry department headquarters in Kuching, where i t was dried. After drying, needles were placed in plastic bags and sent by airfreight to the University of British Columbia for analysis. For taxonomic and descriptive purposes, s o i l pits were dug at each site. Composite s o i l samples were taken from each horizon. Air-dried subsamples of these were sent to U.B.C. Time and financial constraints, however, did not allow any so i l analyses to be done. Chemical Analysis Sample Selection and Preparation From the total number of foliage samples taken at each site, eighteen subsamples of both the most recently-elongated needle flush and the flush previous to i t were randomly chosen for analysis of N,P,K, Ca and Mg. (For Gum-Gum, only the current flush was analyzed, as samples of the previous flush were lost during shipment). Analysis of Zn, Fe, Mn, B and Al was carried out on ten of the eighteen subsamples previously chosen from the most recent needle flush. Oven-dry weight (68° C) and mean length of f i f t y randomly-selected needle fascicles were determined for each subsample. - 22 -After weighing and measurement, stainless steel scissors were used to cut the needles into sections approximately 3 mm in length. The cut sections were then finely ground in a Waring blender. Ground foliage was stored in labelled plastic bags. Subsamples, used for the preparation of digest solutions, were redried at 68° C for three hours. o Tissue Digestion and Nutrient Determination With the exception of boron, the sulphuric acid-hydrogen peroxide methods described by Ballard (1980) were employed to prepare the digest solutions used for elemental analyses. For boron, the extraction procedure of Gaines and Mitchell (1979) was used to prepare the digests. Boron concentrations were determined colorimetrically by adaptation of the azomethine-H method developed by Wolf (1971, 1974). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine nutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al,Mn, and Zn. Analyses of N and P were carried out with an autoanalyzer. Results Preliminary comparisons (paired t-tests, p=.05) of macronutrient concentrations found in current foliage versus those found in the previous flush showed few differences. There were no significant differences or trends apparent for any macroelement in either of the Sarawak plots. At Lungmanis, in Sabah, N and P concentrations were significantly higher in the current foliage; while at Ranau, concentrations of P, K, and Mg were - 23 -s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n the current needles. Generally, for the genus Pinus, current f o l i a g e has been found to contain the highest l e v e l s of N, P, and K. Calcium concentrations are u s u a l l y greater i n older f o l i a g e , while no trend has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Mg (Morrison, 1974). Subsequent to macronutrient analyses, correspondence was received which gave t e n t a t i v e c r i t i c a l l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s l a s h pine ( P r i t c h e t t , personal communication). About the same time, information concerning d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s for Caribbean pine was also received (Bevege, 1978 and personal communication). As these d i a g n o s t i c l e v e l s were based upon n u t r i e n t concentrations found i n current f o l i a g e , and as there were no apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t concentrations of current versus previous f o l i a g e i n the obviously n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n t Sarawak s i t e , only n u t r i e n t concentrations i n current f o l i a g e were used to prepare the d e f i c i e n c y diagnoses made i n t h i s study. Table I I gives putative d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s f o r Caribbean pine and c r i t i c a l f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s t e n t a t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s l a s h pine, as supplied by Bevege and P r i t c h e t t r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e f i c i e n c y l e v e l s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r to threshold n u t r i e n t concentrations below which plants d i s p l a y symptoms of i l l h e a l t h . P r i t c h e t t (1979) defined c r i t i c a l l e v e l as a range i n n u t r i e n t concentration above which trees would not respond s i g n i f i c a n t l y to a p p l i c a t i o n s of an element, but at which trees with a lower t i s s u e -24-t Table II. Imputed deficiency levels for Caribbean pine (Bevege, 1978 and personal communication) and c r i t i c a l range for slash pine. (Pritchett, personal communication). Element Caribbean pine Slash pine Nitrogen 0.90% 0.8 - 1.2% Phosphorus 0.07% 0.085 - 0.090% Potassium 0.25% 0.25 - 0.30% Calcium 0.09% 0.08 - 0.12% Magnesium 0.05% 0.04 - 0.06% Aluminum not established not available (toxicity 0.01%) Iron not established 15 - 35 ppm Zinc 21 ppm 10 - 20 ppm Copper 2.0 ppm 2 - 3 ppm Manganese not established 8 -12 ppm Boron 6 ppm 4 - 8 ppm - 25 -content would normally be expected to respond. Richards and Bevege (1969) have defined i t more qua n t i t a t i v e l y as that f o l i a r nutrient concentration associated with 90% of maximum y i e l d . For a pa r t i c u l a r species, a deficiency l e v e l i s generally easier to determine and somewhat lower i n value than the corresponding c r i t i c a l l e v e l . Results of chemical analyses of current foliage are presented on a stand by stand basis i n Tables III to VII. For in d i v i d u a l trees, growth data and f o l i a r nutrient concentration values have been l i s t e d i n Appendix I I . From data i n Appendix I I , a f i r s t approximation of the c r i t i c a l f o l i a r P l e v e l for East Malaysian plantings of Caribbean pine was estimated to be i n the range of 0.08% to 0.09%. Details are provided i n Appendix I I I . Deficiency Diagnosis Using the information i n Table II and the f o l i a r nutrient l e v e l s presented i n Tables III to VII, deficiency diagnoses were made for each stand. Sabah Lungmanis The f o l i a r phosphorus concentration indicated that the s i t e was s l i g h t l y d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus. Levels of a l l other nutrients, with the possible exception of ir o n , were adequate. No deficiency l e v e l for iron has been established for Caribbean pine. The iron concentration, however did f a l l within the c r i t i c a l range of 15 - 35 ppm established for slash pine. In fact, a l l of the s i t e s , with the exception of Ranau, showed iron concentrations within the c r i t i c a l range. The high mean value for Ranau (135 ppm) was most l i k e l y due to dust contamination, as the stand was adjacent to a road. - 2 6 -Table III. Lungmanis; Foliar nutrient concentrations of the most recent flush of needles Lement Mean^ Range S.E.2 ZN 1.20 0.88 - 1.56 0.048 %P 0.06.4 0.045 - 0.085 0.002 %K 0.97 0.55 - 1.40 0.054 %Ca 0.21 0.09 - 0.39 0.020 %Mg 0.16 0.09 - 0.25 0.011 %A1 0.035 0,019 - 0.048 0.011 ppm Mn 274 71-444 43 ppm Fe 29 20-50 3.1 ppm Zn 27 14 -34 2.0 ppm B 16.2 7.1-25.7 1.9 For Tables III to VII inclusive, macronutrient means are based 18 observations. Micronutrierit and Al means are based on 10 observations. S.E. refers to the standard error of the mean. -27-Table IV. Ranau: F o l i a r n u t r i e n t concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles. Element Mean Range S.E. % N 0.97 0.80 - 1.18 0.02 % P 0.059 0.045 - 0.106 0.003 % K 0.64 0.22 - 1.28 0.40 % Ca 0.054 0.020 - 0.090 0.004 % Mg 0.096 0.050 - 0.130 0.005 % A l 0.071 0.046 - 0.094 0.012 ppm Mn 206 126 - 360 23 ppm Fe 135 90 - 170 6.4 ppm Zn 31 15 - 43 2.6 ppm B 16.9 5.5 - 29.4 2.4 - 28 -Table V. Gum-Gum: F o l i a r nutrient concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles. Element Mean Range S.E. % N 1.29 1.03 - 1.79 0.05 % P 0.097 0.064 - 0.140 0.005 % K 0.94 0.48 - 1.69 0.06 % Ca 0.20 0.12 - 0.40 0.02 % Mg 0.16 0.11 - 0.35 0.01 % A l 0.044 0.034 - 0.059 0.003 ppm Mn 328 190 - 498 26 ppm Fe 24 20 - 59 3.9 ppm Zn 37 2 4 - 5 9 4.4 ppm B 9.7 6.1 - 14.1 0.9 -29-Table V I . RP93A: F o l i a r n u t r i e n t concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles. Element Mean Range S.E. % N 0.94 0.51 - 1.34 0.048 % P 0.034 0.020 - 0.072 0.024 % K 1.08 0.43 - 1.83 0.07 % CA 0.23 0.13 - 0.48 0.02 % Mg 0.18 0.10 - 0.34 0.02 % A l 0.052 0.021 - 0.096 0.007 ppm Mn 103 47 - 289 20 ppm Fe 27 10 - 40 3.4 ppm Zn 15 9 - 2 6 1.7 ppm B 6.1 3.6 - 10.9 0.6 -30-Table V I I . R P 7 7 ; F o l i a r n u t r i e n t concentrations of the most recent f l u s h of needles. Element Mean Range S.E. % N 0.63 0.39 - 1.00 0.04 % P 0.014 0.004 - 0.032 0.002 % K 0.61 0.20 - 0.95 0.05 % Ca 0.31 0.13 - 0.62 0.03 % Mg 0.15 0.06 - 0.27 0.01 % A l 0.050 0.032 - 0.074 0.005 ppm Mn 342 100 - 515 43 ppm Fe 21 10 - 40 2.6 ppm Zn 25 18 - 34 1.9 ppm B 10.8 4.8 - 22.4 1.6 - 31 -On the r i c h a l luvium at Gum-Gum, the f o l i a r i r o n concentration was 24 ppm but the f o l i a g e appeared to be very healthy and there were no v i s u a l symptoms of i r o n d e f i c i e n c y . I t i s probable that the i r o n d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l f o r Caribbean pine i s at the lower end of, or below the c r i t i c a l range which has been determined f o r s l a s h pine. Ranau The s i t e appeared to be d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus and calcium. The f o l i a r n i trogen l e v e l was barely adequate. Many trees had heavy cone crops which may have reduced f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s somewhat. Generally, the trees appeared quite healthy, although there was some c h l o r o s i s of the most recent f o l i a g e . I t i s l i k e l y that the low calcium and phosphorus l e v e l s were recent phenomena. P e r i o d i c monitoring of n u t r i e n t l e v e l s or "crop-logging" as proposed by Richards and Bevege (1972) would be u s e f u l on t h i s s i t e . A l s o , i f a shortage of n u t r i e n t s i s oc c u r r i n g as the stand matures, an examination of current growth, as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l growth, could a s s i s t i n assessing present n u t r i e n t requirements. Gum-Gum No n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s were detected on t h i s r i c h a l l u v i a l s i t e . Boron l e v e l s were adequate but approached d e f i c i e n c y i n c e r t a i n t r e e s . A few trees on the s i t e had some deformation of the upper crown which could have been due to a lack of boron. - 32 -Sarawak RP77 Phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y was extreme. Nitrogen was also d e f i c i e n t . Zinc concentration was marginal with f i v e of ten samples below the imputed d e f i c i e n c y l e v e l of 21 ppm. Mean aluminum concentrations were w e l l below the t o x i c i t y l e v e l i n both Sarawak s i t e s . RP93A This s i t e was severely d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus. The nitrogen content was marginal to s l i g h t l y d e f i c i e n t . Eight of the eighteen trees sampled showed nitrogen l e v e l s below 0.9%. With reference to m i c r o n u t r i e n t s , the stand was d e f i c i e n t i n zinc and probably boron. Six out of ten f o l i a r samples analyzed f o r boron had concentrations below 6 ppm. And many of the trees i n the p l o t e x h i b i t e d symptoms of boron d e f i c i e n c y . Disc u s s i o n and Recommendations Sabah Although there were no n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the Sabah p l o t s severe enough to a f f e c t the s a t i s f a c t o r y establishment and e a r l y development of Caribbean pine, there was evidence to suggest that the supply of c e r t a i n elements was below optimum. For the Ranau and Lungmanis s i t e s , establishment of conventional f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s , coupled w i t h monitoring of f o l i a r n u t r i e n t l e v e l s would a s s i s t i n determining i f f e r t i l i z a t i o n was warranted. Phosphorus and, to a l e s s e r extent, nitrogen a p p l i c a t i o n s should - 33 -be stressed. In the case of Ranau, where a low calcium level was evident, a phosphorus source of either rock phosphate or single superphosphate would also supply calcium. At Gum-Gum, boron deficiencies may have occurred on poorly-drained microsites which were particularly susceptible to water-logging. In pine stands near Canberra, Snowden (1972) found the most frequent occurrence of boron deficiency was on seasonally-waterlogged s o i l s . As boron deficiency under such conditions may be transitory, diagnostic foliar sampling should be done as soon as top-dieback symptoms are observed. In any case, the possible deficiencies were not widespread and were li k e l y of l i t t l e or no commercial significance. Sarawak The extreme nature of the phosphorus deficiencies found on both Sarawak sites made i t d i f f i c u l t to interpret the foliar concentrations of other elements. Restricted root growth and limited mycorrhizal development are characteristic of severe phosphorus deficiencies. Russell (1973) stressed the importance of a well-developed root system for maintaining an adequate supply of micronutrients. And he cited cases where zinc and boron deficiencies in orchard crops had been attributed to limited root development. In Australia, applications of phosphate f e r t i l i z e r s to radiata pine stands were found to increase f o l i a r levels of other nutrients (Windsor and Kelly, 1972; Neilsen ejt a l . , 1981). The authors suggested that the - 34 -increased nutrient levels were perhaps due to improved root growth following phosphorus application. The role of tropical mycorrhizae in promoting nutrient uptake has recently been summarized by Bowen (1980). And phosphorus f e r t i l i z a t i o n has been observed to stimulate mycorrhizal associations in soils with low levels of available phosphorus (Lamb and Richards, 1974; Manikam and Srivastava, 1980). Given these factors, only after the phosphorus requirement has been satisfied would i t be possible to determine the significance of low concentrations of other elements. On the ancient land surfaces of the humid tropics, almost a l l of the nutrient capital is either in the standing vegetation or in the soil organic matter. The mineral s o i l derived from highly-weathered parent materials contains few plant nutrients (Coulter, 1972; Dudal et_ al_. 1974; Sanchez, 1976; Waring, 1976). Once the rain forest is cleared, decomposition is accelerated and leaching and erosion losses are greatly increased (Guha, 1969; Platteborze, 1970). The phosphorus deficiencies in the Sarawak plots illustrate the problem of maintaining adequate P nutrition in such highly-weathered soils after the forest cover, which maintains an almost closed phosphorus cycle, is removed. Extensive investigations of soils in temperate regions have shown declining levels of total soil phosphorus with increasing intensity of weathering. In the United States, total phosphorus in surface soils - 35 -ranges from an average of 3,000 ppm in the subhumid cool region to less than 500 ppm in the humid warm temperature region (Olson and Engelstad, 1972). In the humid tropics, total P levels are even lower. At the Oya Road Reserve, previous s o i l analysis of red-yellow podzolics (Scott, 1965; B a i l l i e , 1970) have indicated total P levels were generally below 100 ppm. There were no data concerning the amount of available phosphorus in these soils. However, information from other areas of the state (Bailey, 1967; Andriesse, 1972) indicated i t was very unlikely that available P in the top one metre of the red-yellow podzols would exceed 20 kg ha~l. Similarly low levels of available P have been found in some West Malaysian soils (Platteborze, 1970; Platteborze et a l . , 1971; Srivastava and Abang Naruddin, 1979; Manikam and Srivastava, 1980), From a study of the growth performance of Caribbean pine on a variety of West Malaysian soils, Platteborze e_t a l . (1971) concluded that soils with less than 30 kg ha"-'- of available P could be regarded as highly phosphorous deficient. The authors also cited evidence which indicated that 60 to 70 kg ha~l of available P would be required to support optimal height growth of Caribbean pine. Lamb and Richards (1974) found that mycorrhizal fungi inoculations of pines improved when the amount of available P in the s o i l was increased to 40 kg ha"^ -. 0 - 36 -The low f o l i a r phosphorus levels and the limited s o i l s information indicated that phosphorus amendments are required to promote adequate growth of Caribbean pine on the s o i l s studied. F e r t i l i z e r f i e l d t r i a l s w i l l be needed to provide a basis for developing a f e r t i l i z i n g schedule. As Richards and Bevege (1971) have pointed out, f o l i a r nutrient levels do not give any i n d i c a t i o n of the magnitude of f e r t i l i z e r response. This can only be gauged from the response obtained i n conventional f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s . While, i n the long-term, P additions may stimulate root development and thus increase uptake of other nutrients, there i s evidence from Malaysian agriculture to suggest that, i n the short-term, heavy P applications to poorly-buffered s o i l s may create nutrient imbalances and induce d e f i c i e n c i e s i n other elements (Andriesse, 1972; Coulter, 1972). Research i s needed to determine which elements are required, i n what form and at what rates they should be applied, and what are the most e f f e c t i v e methods of application-. In peninsular Malaysia, a p p l i c a t i o n rates of up to 323 g per tree of t r i p l e superphosphate (equivalent to 112 kg ha"'- of elemental P) have been recommended for Caribbean pine plantations growing on phosphorus d e f i c i e n t red-yellow podzols (Srivastava and Abang Naruddin, 1979; Manikam and Srivastava, 1980). Similar, or even higher, rates may be required for Sarawak s o i l s . Rates, however, w i l l be influenced by the f i x a t i o n capacity of the s o i l , as well as the form of f e r t i l i z e r used, and the method of placement. Phosphate f i x a t i o n i n Malaysian s o i l s i s c l o s e l y correlated - 37 with c l a y content ( C o u l t e r , 1972). Andriesse (1972) categorized the main genetic s o i l groups of Sarawak according to t h e i r a b i l i t y to f i x phosphorus. The heavy-textured Merit s o i l found i n RP77 would be i n the high f i x a t i o n category, while the l i g h t e r - t e x t u r e d Nyalau s o i l of RP93A would be considered to be i n the moderate to l o w - f i x a t i o n range. There i s general agreement among researchers that rock phosphates are the most economical and e f f e c t i v e phosphate sources for t r o p i c a l , a c i d i c s o i l s with a h i g h - f i x a t i o n capacity (Bengston, 1976; Sanchez, 1976; Schutz, 1976). However, an a d d i t i o n of r e a d i l y soluble superphosphate to a phosphorus d e f i c i e n t s o i l would ensure an immediate supply to the t r e e s . For t h i s reason, Lim and Sundralingam (1974) used a mixture of crushed rock phosphate and superphosphate i n f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s of Caribbean pine. In A u s t r a l i a , N e i l s e n e_t a]L. (1981) found that r a d i a t a pine f e r t i l i z e d with rock phosphate plus superphosphate showed greater f o l i a r contents and concentrations of phosphorus than trees given only one form of f e r t i l i z e r . According to Andriesse (1972) nitrogen d e f i c i e n c i e s commonly occur i n Sarawak a g r i c u l t u r a l crops a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of phosphorus. There i s also evidence to suggest t h a t , when N and P f e r t i l i z e r s are added simultaneously, the nitrogen a p p l i c a t i o n may increase uptake of the added phosphorus (Waring, 1972). Compared to p l o t s treated with P alone, Lim - 38 -and Sundralingam (1974) found a very s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n basal area i n Caribbean pine p l o t s treated with N and P. Cameron et a l . (1981) c i t e d evidence which suggested that Caribbean pine i s very s e n s i t i v e to ad d i t i o n s of N f e r t i l i z e r when r e c e n t l y planted, but that the species becomes more t o l e r a n t when e s t a b l i s h e d and when P supplies are adequate. The authors f u r t h e r noted that t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s recognized by the Queensland Department of For e s t r y which l i m i t s N additi o n s to Caribbean pine so that the r a t i o of added elemental N to added elemental P i s less than one. As f o l i a r n i t r o g e n l e v e l s were found to be In the marginal to d e f i c i e n t range, N f e r t i l i z a t i o n would l i k e l y be b e n e f i c i a l . Although P f e r t i l i z a t i o n should stimulate root growth and mycor r h i z a l development and u l t i m a t e l y increase uptake of other n u t r i e n t s , m i c r o n u t r i e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s at the time of P f e r t i l i z a t i o n may be required to prevent short-term n u t r i e n t imbalances. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important with respect to zinc and boron, the f o l i a r l e v e l s of which already ranged from d e f i c i e n t to barely adequate. Boron inf l u e n c e s hormonal balance i n meristems and at d e f i c i e n c y , the a p i c a l growth i n roots and shoots i s a f f e c t e d (Braekke, 1979). I f P f e r t i l i z a t i o n stimulated height and root growth, an increased demand for boron would occur. Without the a d d i t i o n of boron, i t i s l i k e l y that the incidence and s e v e r i t y of B d e f i c i e n c i e s already present i n the p l o t s would increase i n the short-term. S i m i l a r l y , P a p p l i c a t i o n s have been reported to aggravate zinc d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o i l s - 39 -with a low supply of z i n c (Brown et a l . , 1970; Usherwood, 1978). According to Russel (1973), soluble orthophosphates can form i n s o l u b l e compounds with z i n c and the a d d i t i o n of superphosphates may induce a temporary z i n c d e f i c i e n c y . A f t e r reviewing the r e s u l t s of a considerable number of f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s , Coulter (1972) concluded that the patt e r n of trace element d e f i c i e n c y i n Malaysian a g r i c u l t u r e showed a strong i n t e r a c t i o n between major and minor elements i n poorly buffered s o i l s and confirmed the ease with which the e q u i l i b r i u m could be upset by heavy f e r t i l i z e r usage. To prevent Induced d e f i c i e n c i e s , nitrogen and phosphorus amendments may have to be supplemented with m l c r o n u t r i e n t s , aside from those already detected as being i n short supply, i e . z i n c and boron. While f u r t h e r research i s required to determine an optimum f e r t i l i z a t i o n regime, an i n t e r i m p r e s c r i p t i o n i s urgently needed to a l l o w a f f o r e s t a t i o n t r i a l s to continue. At present, the author would recommend an i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of lOOg of rock phosphate (28 kg ha ~1 p) to the p l a n t i n g hole. Followed, one year a f t e r p l a n t i n g , by a banded a p p l i c a t i o n of 100 kg ha of elemental P, with h a l f as rock phosphate and h a l f as s i n g l e superphosphate; plus 100 kg ha of elemental N as urea, and a complete trace element mixture i n the form of glass f r i t s . F r i t t e d - g l a s s i s a slow release f e r t i l i z e r form which would reduce leaching and also lessen - 40 -the chance of a t o x i c uptake of m i c r o n u t r i e n t s . Exact dosages of micronutrients would depend upon commercially-available s u p p l i e s , but they should be i n the f o l l o w i n g range: 5 to 10 kg ha"* f o r Mn, Zn, B, Cu and Fe; and 0.1 to 0.5 kg ha"^ f o r molybdenum. The use of s i n g l e superphosphate, i n a d d i t i o n to rock phosphate, would allow a more rapid uptake of P and would also serve as a source of sulphur. Although no sulphur a n a l y s i s was done In t h i s study, i t was p o s s i b l e that the element was i n short supply. According to Sanchez (1976), sulphur d e f i c i e n c i e s are widespread i n highly-weathered, t r o p i c a l s o i l s . Given the f i r e h i s t o r y of the Research Reserve, i t was also l i k e l y that s i g n i f i c a n t v o l a t i l i z a t i o n losses of sulphur had occurred during past burnings. As w e l l as continuing t r i a l s with inorganic f e r t i l i z e r s , research should be d i r e c t e d towards developing n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g cover crops for use i n f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s . Reference should be made to the considerable work i n t h i s f i e l d which has already been done i n West Malaysia f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l t r e e crops, such as rubber and o i l palm (C o u l t e r , 1972). Emphasis should a l s o be placed upon imprdving the n u t r i e n t uptake p o t e n t i a l of mycorrhizal a s s o c i a t i o n s (Marx, 1980.) - 41 -Summary The o b j e c t i v e of pro v i d i n g i n i t i a l f o l i a r n u t r i e n t concentration data f o r East Malaysian pla n t i n g s of Caribbean pine was achieved. In a d d i t i o n , a c r i t i c a l P l e v e l i n the range of 0.08% to 0.09% was estimated from the data. Refer to Appendix I I I . No serious n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s were observed i n the Sabah p l o t s . The data d i d suggest, however, that the concentrations of some elements were below optimum. Further monitoring of the s i t e s i s warranted. The extremely low P l e v e l s found i n the Sarawak plantings suggest that poor phosphorus n u t r i t i o n was the major f a c t o r l i m i t i n g growth. While f u r t h e r research i s needed to determine optimum f e r t i l i z e r p r e s c r i p t i o n s , heavy phosphorus a p p l i c a t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d . F e r t i l i z a t i o n i s c o s t l y , and i t s economic f e a s i b i l i t y w i l l have to be considered. The p o s s i b i l i t y of an ag r o - f o r e s t r y approach to a f f o r e s t a t i o n p r o j e c t s should be explored. 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Kuching. r - 4 9 -Appendix I S o i l P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n s - 50 -S o i l a s s o c i a t i o n S o i l f a m i l y : S o i l u n i t ; L o c a t i o n : Topography: Slope: E l e v a t i o n : S i t e drainage: Parent m a t e r i a l : V e g e t a t i o n : Land-use: S o i l drainage: Horizon Depth (cm) 0 1 - 0 A 0 - 8 EB 8 - 28 Bl 28 - 46 Lungmanis S o i l P r o f i l e No. 1 Kretam Tanjong L i p a t o r t h i c a c r i s o l (FAO) Lungmanis p l a n t a t i o n , opposite Forest Dept. s t a t i o n 5°43'N, 117°43E u n d u l a t i n g , to low h i l l s 5° 55 m approx. normal slump formation of sandstone, mudstone and miscellaneous igneous rocks Caribbean pine o v e r s t o r y w i t h s c a t t e r e d herbaceous p l a n t s and capsicum bushes fo r m e r l y mixed d i p t e r o c a r p f o r e s t , h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d by t r a c t o r a c t i v i t y moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d D e s c r i p t i o n herbaceous l i t t e r and pine needles very dark g r a y i s h brown (10YR 3/2) loam; moderate medium granula r s t r u c t u r e , moist, very f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , abundant r o o t s , c l e a r smooth boundary brown (10YR 5/3) sandy c l a y loam; strong medium subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , abundant r o o t s , d i f f u s e i r r e g u l a r boundary brown (10YR 5/3) w i t h yellow-brown (10YR 5/8) common medium d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y loam; moderate strong angular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , few g r a v e l - s i z e d stones, frequent r o o t s , gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary - 51 -Horizon Depth (cm) Description B2t 46 - 77 grayish brown (10YR 5/2) with reddish -yellow (10YR 5/8) common medium distinct mottles; clay loam; coarse strong angular blocky structure; moist, firm, sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse gradual boundary B3tg 77 - 130+ grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) with olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) many medium distinct mottles; sandy clay, strong, coarse angular blocky, very firm, sticky, plastic, very few roots reaching 130 cm. - 52 -S o i l a s s o c i a t i o n : S o i l f a m i l y : S o i l u n i t : L o c a t i o n : Topography: Slope: E l e v a t i o n : S i t e drainage: Parent m a t e r i a l : V e g e t a t i o n : Land-use: S o i l drainage: Horizon Depth (cm) D e s c r i p t i o n 0 1 - 0 A 0 - 8 Lungmanis S o i l P r o f i l e No. 2 Kretam S i p i t f e r r i c a c r i s o l (FAO) Lungmanis p l a n t a t i o n , opposite Forest Dept. s t a t i o n 5° 43'N, 117° 43'E un d u l a t i n g to low h i l l s 5° 55 m approx. normal slump formation of sandstone, mudstone, and miscellaneous igneous rocks Caribbean pine o v e r s t o r e y w i t h s c a t t e r e d herbaceous p l a n t s and capsicum bushes f o r m e r l y mixed d i p t e r o c r p f o r e s t , h e a v i l y d i s t u r b e d by t r a c t o r a c t i v i t y moderately w e l l - d r a i n e d herbaceous l i t t e r and pine needles EB Bl brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3 to 10YR 3/3) sandy c l a y loam; moderate medium subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; moist, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c few stones, abundant r o o t s , c l e a r wavy boundary 8 - 2 5 an aggregate of r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/8) and l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6/2) medium to coarse, d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate medium subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; m o i st, f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , many weathered g r a v e l - s i z e d stones, p l e n t i f u l r o o t s , c l e a r wavy boundary 25 - 48 an aggregate of r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/6), l i g h t o l i v e gray (5Y 6/2) and dark red (2.5YR 3/6) medium to coarse, d i s t i n c t to prominent m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate medium angular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , - 53 -very many stones and s t r o n g l y weathered sandstone o c c l u s i o n s , frequent r o o t s , gradual wavy boundary B2t 48 - 80 an aggregate of r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/6) and l i g h t gray to gray (5YR 7/ - 5YR 6/) medium to coarse d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate medium angular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , many g r a v e l to stone s i z e o c c l u s i o n s of strongly-weathered igneous rock, i n f r e q u e n t r o o t s , gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary BCtg 80 - 15+ an aggregate of l i g h t gray (7.5YR N7/) to gray (7.5YR N6/) and r e d d i s h - y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/8) medium to coarse d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; strong medium angular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e ; m o ist, f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h l t y p l a s t i c , many s t r o n g l y weathered stones, very few roots - 54 -RP77 Soil Profile Soil Group: Soil family: Soil unit: Location: Topography: Slope: Elevation: Site drainage: Parent material: Vegetation: Land-use: Soil drainage: Horizon Depth (cm) 0 2 - 0 A 0-15 Big B2tg 15 - 33 33 - 91 Red-yellow podzolic Merit ochric cambisol (FAO) Silviculture Research Reserve, 11 1/2 Mile, Oya Road 2°l7'N, 112°0'E low undulating hil l s 5° 16 m approx. normal to receiving shale and sandstone Caribbean pine overstory with well-developed shrub and herb layers formerly under shifting cultivation imperfectly drained Description lit t e r composed of grass stems, fern fronds and some pine needles grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, plentiful worm casts, some charcoal particles, clear wavy boundary brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) with common, medium prominent light gray (5YR 7/1) mottles; clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky, moist, firm, slightly sticky, plastic, plentiful roots, diffuse wavy boundary an aggregate of medium to coarse red (2.SYR 5/8) and very pale brown (10YR 7/4) mottles; clay; moderate, medium subangular blocky; moist, firm, slightly sticky, plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary - 55 -B3tg 91 - 104 an aggregate of medium to coarse l i g h t gray (10YR 7/1) and brownish y e l l o w (10YR 6/6) m o t t l e s : c l a y , moderate, medium to coarse subangular blocky; moist f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c , no r o o t s , gradual wavy boundary B4tcn 104+ gray (2.5YR 5/1) c l a y , strong medium to coarse p l a t y , i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s between p l a t e s , m o ist, very f i r m , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , no roots 0 56 Soil group: Soil family: Soil unit: Location: Topography: Slope: Elevation: Site drainage: Parent material: Vegetation: Land-use: RP93A Soil Profile Red-yellow podzolic Nyalau ochric ferralsol (FAO) Silviculture Research Reserve, 11 1/2 Mile, Oya Road Sibu. 2°17'N, 112°0'E. low undulating hills 25° 40 m approx. normal sandstone and shale Caribbean pine overstorey with well-developed shrub and herbaceous layers formerly under shifting cultivation Soil drainage: well-drained Horizon Depth (cm) Description 0 2 - 0 Al AB Bl l i t t e r composed of herbaceous material, pine needles and deer faeces 0-15 very dark grayish brown (2.5YR 3/2) sandy clay loam; moderate medium crumb; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, very abundant roots, some charcoal bits, earthworm activity prominent, clear wavy boundary 15 - 28 brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6), some dark brown staining due to decay of old roots and worm casts; sandy clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, gradual wavy boundary 28 - 70 reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) with many distinct fine to medium red (2.5YR 5/8) and few prominent fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles; sandy clay; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary. - 57 B2t 70 - 105 reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) with many distinct fine to medium red (2.5YR 5/8) and few prominent fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles sandy clay; moderate coarse subangular blocky; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots, diffuse wavy boundary B3t 105 - 185 an aggregate of fine to medium red (10R 5/8), fine to medium reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) and fine white (5Y 8/2) mottles; sandy clay; moderate, coarse subangular blocky friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, few roots C 185+ large boulder of reddish shale 58 -S o i l A s s o c i a t i o n : S o i l family: S o i l Unit: Location: Topography: Slope : E l e v a t i o n : S i t e drainage: Parent m a t e r i a l : Vegetation: Land-use: S o i l drainage: Horizon Depth (cm) 0 1 - 0 Al 0 - 6 A2 6 - 20 Bl 20 - 60 Gum-Gum S o i l P r o f i l e Kinabatang Buran Gl e y i c l u v i s o l (FAO) fl o o d p l a i n of Sungei Gum-Gum; 5°50'N, 117°55'E a l l u v i a l p l a i n n i l 5 m approx. normal to occasional f l o o d i n g alluvium Caribbean pine overstory with understorey of grasses and herbaceous plants formerly s e l e c t i v e l y - l o g g e d lowland mixed dipterocarp f o r e s t imperfect to poorly drained D e s c r i p t i o n herbaceous l i t t e r with some pine needles dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) sandy humic loam; moderate medium crumb; moist, very f r i a b l e , non-sticky, non-plastic, abundant roots, c l e a r smooth boundary dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy c l a y loam; moderate, medium subangular blocky; moist, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , many root channels, abundant roots, clear wavy boundary yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) with few pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; sandy c l a y , moderate coarse angular blocky; moist, f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c , large root channels, abundant roots, gradual wavy boundary - 59 -B2tg 60 - 95 y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/4) w i t h l i g h t brownish gray (10YR 6/2) medium, common m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y ; moderate, coarse angular blocky; moist, f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c ; frequent r o o t s d i f f u s e i r r e g u l a r boundary B3tg 95 - 150+ y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/4) w i t h l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5Y 6/4) and re d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5YR 6/8) medium d i s t i n c t m o t t l e s ; sandy c l a y , moderate coarse angular blocky; moist, f i r m , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c ; abundant organic m a t e r i a l throughout the h o r i z o n , i n c r e a s i n g w i t h depth; frequent r o o t s - 60 -Ranau Soil Profile Soil association: Soil family: Soil unit: Location: Topography: Slope: Elevation: Site drainage: Parent material: Vegetation: Land-use: Soil drainage: Horizon Depth (cm) 0 2.5-0 A 0-10 Bl 10 - 55 B2 55 - 105 Crocker Antulai dystric cambisol (FAO) Mile 48, Ranau Road; 5°58'N, 116°43'E mountains 20° 800 m shedding sandstone Caribbean pine overstorey formerly scrub forest after shifting cultivation well-drained Description pine needles over one cm of decomposing needles and fine roots dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) with many dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) mottles (mottling appears to be due to staining from humic substances); humic clay loam; strong fine crumb; moist, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, abundant roots, clear smooth boundary an aggregate of brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; clay loam; moderate, very coarse blocky; moist, very firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic, plentiful roots, diffuse irregular boundary reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; moderate, coarse blocky; moist, firm, non-sticky, non-plastic, many sandstone fragments, frequent roots, diffuse irregular boundary BC 105+ weathered sandstone in a coarse sandy loam matrix - 61 -Appendix II Tree measurements and f o l i a r nutrient concentrations for individual trees. Lungmanis: I n d i v i d u a l of the most t r e e d a t a and m a c r o n u t r i e n t r e c e n t f l u s h of n e e d l e s l e v e l s T r e e H e i g h t D.B.H. Wt Number (m) (cm) Fas 46 12.6 18.8 12 15.8 23.9 38 17.2 20.0 30 16.6 16.4 49 13.5 20.3 15 13.7 20.3 11 13.7 20.6 18 16.6 19.8 28 17.0 19.7 42 15.8 19.2 47 17.5 22.9 09 17.3 24.6 08 18.5 25.4 33 12.4 16.5 21 15.8 19.3 25 16.7 22.4 39 13.4 20.3 36 20.4 17.5 of 50 Avg. F a s c i c l e %N i c l e s (g) L e n g t h (cm) 15.95 30 . 5 1 .09 16 .07 27.6 1.56 13 .76 27 .0 0.91 11.41 27.4 1 .40 18 .16 32.8 1 .40 10.31 24.5 0.93 17 .53 30 .0 1.21 17 . 56 28.5 1 .04 16 .98 28 .6 1 .08 15.08 21 .9 1 . 08 12.99 26 . 1 1 .22 17 .69 28 .2 1 . 14 16 .88 27 .4 1 .37 11.22 27 .3 1 . 23 19.41 28 .6 1 .55 14 .00 27.5 1 .19 15.35 29 .6 0 .88 15.34 24 .8 1 . 31 %P %K %Ca %Mg .057 0.70 .30 .19 .059 0.64 .09 .12 .045 0.55 .20 .15 .075 1 .00 .11 . 14 .074 0.98 .16 .23 . 068 0.85 . 16 .12 .066 0.90 .27 .14 .050 1 . 10 .19 .12 .064 1.21 .17 .15 .063 0.93 . 39 .20 .07 1 0.99 . 18 .21 . 055 1 . 28 . 10 .12 .062 1.21 .14 .09 .066 0.75 . 29 .14 .08 5 1.40 .26 .19 .064 1 .04 . 14 .11 .054 0.89 .24 .18 .074 1.11 .32 .25 Lungmanis : M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s of f l u s h of n e e d l e s the p r e v i o u s r e e Wt. of 50 Avg. F a s c i c l e %N %P %K %Ca %Mg imber F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 46 11 . 55 26 .2 1 .00 .050 0.77 .16 .15 12 15.77 28 .0 1 .46 .049 1 . 15 .08 09 38 16 .13 29 .4 0.87 .044 0.80 .28 . 16 30 15.83 30.2 1.23 .058 0.83 . 21 . 20 49 17 .88 32 .8 1.27 .064 1 .03 .17 .21 15 13.53 28 .2 0.89 .052 0.95 . 30 . 14 11 12.37 28.7 0.97 .041 1.11 .28 . 10 18 18 .87 30.5 0.92 .043 1.17 . 15 .09 28 15.93 29 .8 1 .01 .051 1.13 .18 .14 42 14.92 24 .0 1 .01 .055 0.98 .44 . 22 47 14 .64 26 .8 1 .06 .056 0.92 .24 .27 09 20.97 30.5 1. 19 .045 0.98 . 22 . 20 08 17 .60 27.3 1.12 .052 1 .03 .11 .08 33 12 . 28 29 .3 0.90 .046 0.83 . 28 .11 21 20 .76 27 .8 0.94 .064 1 .24 .27 .19 25 15.84 28 . 5 1.15 .050 0.91 .13 . 09 39 16.91 28.8 0.94 .055 0.88 .39 .18 36 18.55 27.4 1 .33 .067 1 .06 .36 .27 Ranau: I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and m a c r o n u t r l e n t l e v e l s o f t h e most r e c e n t f l u s h o f n e e d l e s r e e H e i g h t D.B.H. Wt. of 50 A v g . F a s c i c l e %N %P %K %Ca %Mg imber (m) (cm) F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 33 27 .4 37.3 13.22 23 .1 0.80 .048 0.55 .03 .05 40 21.3 30.2 21 .68 29 .9 0.94 .080 0.68 .08 .12 23 23 .9 34 .0 21.16 28 .2 0.99 .106 1 .28 .03 .10 04 21.8 32.0 13.51 27 . 5 0.93 .064 0.64 .02 .07 48 29 . 3 35.1 16.85 25.8 0.86 .053 0.73 .04 .11 27 24.8 28.2 15. 59 24.4 0. 90 .066 0 . 53 .05 .07 12 22 .6 28 .4 15.26 26 .9 1 .02 .068 0.68 .09 .10 47 26.8 31.2 20 .22 27 .6 1 .00 .054 0.54 .06 .09 2 0 22 . 1 22 . 1 15.85- 27 .0 1 .02 .056 0.64 .09 .13 30 20.9 24 .4 12.78 27 .7 1.11 . 068 0 .83 .06 .11 25 23 .2 22 .9 15.85 25.9 0.99 .054 0.53 .06 .09 43 22.6 30 .7 16.61 27.6 0 . 94 .056 0 . 50 .02 .06 17 19 .5 26 .2 19 .44 26 .8 1.15 .045 0.69 .08 .12 35 26.4 27 . 2 13.63 23.3 0 . 92 .050 0 .60 .03 .08 08 20 .4 37 .1 19.45 26 .2 0.89 .048 0.42 .04 .11 06 18.9 42.7 19.15 30 . 2 0.83 . 048 0.22 .05 .07 15 21.3 26 . 7 12.47 24 .0 1 .18 .050 0.68 .08 .12 45 20.4 36 .1 15.74 26.5 0 .95 .055 0.79 .06 .13 I O N I Ranau: M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s o f f l u s h o f n e e d l e s t h e p r e v i o u s T r e e Wt. o f 50 A v g . F a s c i c l Number F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 33 22.75 28 .7 40 19 . 39 30.0 23 22 .58 28 .9 04 13-79 27.7 48 18 .28 27 .2 27 16.62 26 . 1 12 16 .96 30 .4 47 19.38 27 .1 20 18 .12 28 . 1 30 12.10 28 .1 25 16 .32 27 .2 43 17.53 27.5 17 19.83 27 .2 35 20.28 29.8 08 21.01 27.9 06 17.46 28 . 3 15 16 .28 25.4 45 16.49 27.3 %N %P %K %Ca %Mg 0.72 .037 0.43 .05 .05 0.83 .058 0.66 .06 .09 0 .95 .081 1.08 .02 .08 0.89 .045 0.56 .03 .05 0.82 .038 0.49 .04 .10 0.86 .047 0.57. .04 .04 1 .08 .060 0.68 .06 .06 0.9 7 .047 0.40 .04 .06 1 .04 .048 0.58 .08 .12 1 . 24 .062 0.80 .04 .08 0.82 .065 0.59 .09 .11 0.89 .053 0.41 .02 .04 1 . 24 .048 0.73 .05 .09 0.99 .043 0.46 .03 .07 0.90 .044 0.30 .05 .11 0.87 .047 0.23 .06 .07 1 .09 .037 0 .55 .12 .15 0.88 .049 0.33 .04 .07 Gum-Gum: l e v e l s I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and of the most r e c e n t f l u s h m a c r o n u t r l e n t of n e e d l e s . H e i g h t D.B.H. Wt. of 50 Avg. F a s c i c l e %N %P %K %Ca %Mg (m) (cm) F a s c i c l e s (g) L e n g t h (cm) 9.8 14 .5 9.74 25.2 1 .15 .085 0.75 .18 .14 9 .1 16.3 10.59 24 .8 1 . 19 .123 0.75 .14 .17 8 . 7 14 .0 9.45 28 .7 1 .10 .081 0.48 .20 .17 9.6 11.7 8.77 2 6.3 1 .33 .075 0.69 .15 .13 8.4 12.1 10.53 26 .2 1 .10 .092 0.91 .29 .20 9 . 3 14.4 8 . 28 22 . 8 1 .13 . 099 0 .95 .14 .12 10 . 5 19 .0 16.73 29 .6 1.79 .126 1. 69 .14 .18 10.2 19 . 1 13.42 27.2 1 .34 .099 1 . 10 .40 .19 9.8 15.0 8 .09 26 .9 1 .09 .111 0.94 .14 .11 8.8 11.6 9.69 27.0 1 . 28 . 084 0.93 .23 .11 10.4 14 .9 11 .90 23 .8 1.03 .084 1.35 .23 .18 9 . 1 18 . 9 8 .10 28 .2 1 .48 . 083 1 .00 .15 .16 10 .1 14.4 9.65 22 .4 1 .27 .140 1 .00 .15 .12 10.2 13.7 11.37 26 .0 1 .24 . 101 0.65 .22 .16 10 .5 16.8 12.24 24 .8 1.59 .064 0.98 .13 .13 10.4 19.8 17.47 27 .7 1 .38 . 095 0.96 .12 .16 10 . 4 18 .5 19 .98 33 .0 1.62 .129 1 .06 .32 .35 9.6 15.0 14.44 29 .6 1 .08 . 079 0.78 .21 .15 T r e e Number 06 42 36 29 12  .   . 1 . 53 l b A i . i u . u y z u . ? i. * i. i. O O Q o o i a 1 ^ . OQ Q fi.95 . 1 4 . 1 2 <*> 14 30 08 11 41 18 46 21 26 19 13 28 RP77: I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a l e v e l s o f t h e most r e c e n t and m a c r o n u t r i e n t f l u s h o f n e e d l e s T r e e H e i g h t D.B.H. Wt. o f 50 A v g . F a s c i c l e %N %P %K %Ca %Mg Number (m) (cm) F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 10 4.2 9.5 15 .28 29 .1 0.73 .016 0.56 .47 .15 06 10.0 15.3 17.59 28 .6 0.78 .016 0.93 .13 .10 02 5.7 13.1 16 .39 29 .3 0.57 o.007 0.95 .14 .06 25 11.8 12.1 19.73 32 .0 0.75 .015 0 . 74 .36 .15 09 5.4 11 .5 8 . 26 21.2 0 .59 .005 0.32 .32 .15 23 4.6 7.6 8 .25 23 .4 0 . 54 .012 0. 20 . 53 .26 11 9.7 15.6 17 .44 27 .4 0.61 .022 0.94 .26 .14 24 8.2 11.1 13.47 29 .7 0.98 .032 0 .61 .29 .22 28 6.3 8.3 13 .54 30 .3 1.00 .020 0.56 .34 .19 04 5.9 10 . 5 14.09 27.0 0.64 .015 0 . 56 .17 • 13 16 4.4 9 . 2 9.95 25 .5 0.44 .008 0.86 .16 .10 18 8 .1 9.2 16.45 32.6 0 . 50 . 017 0.93 .19 .13 26 4.6 7.6 8.87 23 .2 0.39 .004 0.23 .62 .27 12 4.7 7.6 8 .07 22.7 0.49 .012 0 . 56 .15 . 10 03 . 6.3 10 . 2 9.61 22 .5 0.57 .012 0.50 .46 .22 22 6.6 9 . 5 12.91 25.3 0. 68 .017 0.44 .29 .14 17 5 • 1 8.9 15 .03 29 .6 0.59 .016 0 .72 .19 .10 30 4.2 11.5 10.93 23.9 0.55 . 008 0.40 .44 . 17 ON 1^ RP77 : M a c r o n u t r l e n t l e v e l s o f f l u s h o f n e e d l e s t h e p r e v i o u s T r e e Wt. of 50 A v g . F a s c i c l e %N Number F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 10 19 .65 30 .2 0.87 06 16.98 28 .6 1 . 18 02 14 .88 29 .5 0.42 25 16.71 30.0 0 .51 09 11.55 23.5 0.67 23 8 .90 23.7 0 . 58 11 13 .54 26 .9 0.71 24 10.68 28 .5 0 . 82 28 12.46 27 .1 0.64 04 15.16 27.8 0.73 16 9.85 26.4 0 . 55 18 20.08 35.2 0 . 56 26 7.33 21.6 0.38 12 9.73 25.9 0 . 60 03 10.51 23.2 0.72 22 12.20 25.0 0.68 17 14 .57 30 .1 0 . 50 30 14.41 28 .1 0.84 %P %K %Ca %Mg .016 0.52 .48 .18 .008 0 . 56 . 17 . 10 .008 0.90 .16 .09 .012 0 . 95 . 12 .04 .009 0.44 .40 .21 .013 0.38 .40 .21 .024 1 .02 .21 .13 .030 0 . 56 .35 .31 .018 0 .80 .14 .11 .014 0. 38 .24 .18 .012 0.88 .14 .11 .017 0.90 .22 .13 .004 0.28 .57 .25 .017 0 . 60 , 36 . 18 .015 0.63 .31 .17 . 017 0 .45 .29 .13 .010 0.65 .28 .14 .013 0. 54 .44 . 28 RP93A: I n d i v i d u a l t r e e d a t a and m a c r o n u t r l e n t o f t h e most r e c e n t f l u s h o f n e e d l e s l e v e l s r e e H e i g h t D.B.H. Wt. o f 50 Avg. F a s c i c l e %N mber (m) (cm) F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 16 6.0 9 . 5 21.71 30 .6 0.81 14 7.9 13.4 2 3.19 35.9 1 . 05 22 4.5 6.4 12.06 25.7 0.73 11 7 . 6 12 . 0 12.01 27 .1 1 .31 15 5 . 7 8.0 15.37 29.5 0.67 24 7 . 5 13.7 19.89 32 .2 1 .02 26 7.6 12 . 1 21 .89 33.0 1 .02 23 3.9 5.7 14.24 29.4 0.51 18 8.0 11.5 18 .76 27 .9 0.83 09 4 . 3 6.4 13.19 28.8 0.67 04 6.5 9.9 13.23 28 .2 0.92 06 7 .1 10.5 14.45 31 .7 1 . 33 13 4.6 9.5 11.83 27.4 0.67 12 6,5 8.0 13.36 26.6 1 .05 21 8 . 1 10 . 5 11 .77 23 .2 0.89 10 7 . 1 11.5 9 . 90 22.9 1 .06 28 6.7 12.4 10 .81 22.7 1 .09 08 7 . 3 12.4 18 .02 29 .8 1.34 %P %K %Ca %Mg .024 1. 30 .22 . 18 .027 1 . 19 . 29 .24 .023 0.86 .20 .14 . 072 1.74 . 16 . 18 .028 1 .18 .27 .11 . 028 0.43 .48 .34 .039 1.83 .18 .20 .020 0.86 . 22 .12 .029 1.42 .40 .28 .022 0 .97 .23 .13 .034 0.79 .13 .14 .045 1.02 .15 . 10 .034 0.75 .13 .12 .034 0.99 .13 .11 .045 1 .10 .14 .12 .045 0.90 .17 .11 .037 1 .02 .18 .20 .026 1.01 .43 .34 RP93A: M a c r o n u t r i e n t l e v e l s o f t h e p r e v i o u s f l u s h of n e e d l e s T r e e Wt. o f 50 A v g . F a s c i c l e %N Number F a s c i c l e s ( g ) L e n g t h (cm) 16 15 .40 25.5 0.72 14 20.60 33.5 1.11 22 11.68 24 .5 0.86 11 15.36 30. 8 0.80 15 9.60 20.4 0.80 24 20.45 32.6 0.98 26 20 .09 31 .5 1.04 23 13.82 28 .8 0.65 18 17.52 28 .2 0.89 09 15.97 30.3 0.87 04 14 .51 26.3 0.75 06 14.97 31.0 0.92 13 9 .23 25.4 0.64 12 12.90 28.6 0.82 21 14 .96 28 .6 0.78 10 11 .00 24.2 0.99 28 10 .62 22.6 1 .14 08 18 83 31.0 1. 14 %P %K %Ca %Mg .029 1.32 .22 . 19 .031 1.11 . 32 .32 .020 0.85 .23 .13 .032 0.89 . 49 .17 .029 1 .24 .27 .14 . 031 0. 59 .41 . 32 .034 1 .96 . 18 .20 -015 0.82 . 27 .14 .026 1 . 36 .35 .25 .021 0.75 .27 .19 .025 0.81 .12 .13 .037 0 .81 . 13 .07 .030 0.60 . 20 .15 .032 0.88 .12 .09 .035 0.91 .17 .12 . 035 0.95 . 18 . 10 .032 1 .09 .18 .20 . 032 0.93 .35 . 29 - 7 1 -F o l i a r c o n c e n t a n d a l u m i n u m . ( F t r e e s , r e f e r S i t e T r e e Z n p p m N u m b e r L u n g m a n i s 4 6 3 0 1 2 2 0 3 8 3 4 3 0 2 9 4 9 3 2 1 5 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 8 3 1 2 8 2 5 4 2 3 0 G u m - G u m 0 6 2 7 4 2 2 7 3 6 5 9 2 9 2 6 1 2 4 3 3 8 3 1 1 4 4 7 3 0 4 4 0 8 2 4 1 1 3 1 R a n a u 3 3 1 5 4 0 3 5 2 3 4 3 0 4 2 5 4 8 2 5 2 7 3 7 1 2 3 3 4 7 2 2 2 0 3 2 3 0 4 3 i o n s o f m i c r o n u t r i e n t s f u r t h e r d a t a o n i n d i v i d u a l t h e p r e v i o u s t a b l e s ) . n p p m F e p p m B p p m % A l 4 3 1 2 0 2 5 , 7 . 0 3 0 2 4 4 5 0 1 3 . 2 . 0 3 4 2 5 3 3 0 1 3 . 9 . 0 3 7 7 1 2 0 2 0 . 2 . 0 1 9 1 2 9 2 0 2 5 . 7 . 0 2 8 3 3 8 2 0 1 1 . 9 . 0 4 0 4 4 3 4 0 1 3 .1 . 0 4 4 2 3 3 3 0 1 3 . 0 . 0 4 8 1 4 9 3 0 1 8 . 3 . 0 3 2 4 4 4 3 0 7 . 1 . 0 3 9 3 4 4 2 0 6 . 1 . 0 3 4 2 6 1 2 0 1 0 . 0 . 0 3 8 4 2 0 2 0 9 . 4 . 0 4 1 3 2 7 2 0 8 . 0 . 0 4 7 3 2 4 2 0 1 4 .1 . 0 4 0 2 8 2 2 0 1 3 . 5 . 0 5 6 1 9 0 5 9 1 2 . 8 . 0 4 5 4 9 8 2 0 6 . 7 . 0 5 9 3 2 6 2 0 8 . 7 . 0 4 5 3 0 4 2 0 7 . 2 . 0 3 8 1 2 6 9 0 1 4 . 8 . 0 4 6 3 6 0 , 1 3 0 6 . 8 . 0 7 3 1 5 1 1 3 0 2 3 . 6 . 0 7 6 1 4 8 1 3 0 6 . 6 . 0 6 7 1 3 3 1 7 0 2 3 . 6 . 0 7 6 1 5 7 1 6 0 1 5 . 6 . 0 7 5 2 2 3 1 1 0 2 9 . 4 . 0 6 4 1 7 6 1 4 0 5 . 5 . 0 6 3 3 0 7 1 5 0 2 4 . 8 . 0 7 6 2 7 6 1 4 0 1 8 . 6 . 0 9 4 - 7 2 -F o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f m i c r o n u t r i e n t s a n d a l u m i n u m . ( C o n t i n u e d ) S i t e T r e e N u m b e r Z n p p m M n p p m F e p p m B p p m % A l RP77 R P 9 3 A 1 0 3 3 3 9 7 2 0 1 8 . 1 . 0 4 5 0 6 3 0 1 8 3 2 0 1 0 . 6 . 0 3 2 0 2 1 8 1 0 0 3 0 8 . 0 . 0 5 1 2 5 1 8 3 2 2 2 0 7 . 2 . 0 7 4 0 9 2 6 2 8 3 1 0 1 0 . 0 . 0 3 1 2 3 2 1 4 9 2 2 0 9 .1 . 0 4 3 1 1 1 9 3 9 9 1 0 7 . 5 . 0 5 7 2 4 3 4 5 0 2 4 0 4 . 8 . 0 7 2 2 8 2 7 5 1 5 2 0 1 0 . 3 . 0 6 6 0 4 1 9 2 2 8 2 0 2 2 . 4 . 0 3 2 1 6 1 6 9 5 3 0 1 0 . 9 . 0 2 9 1 4 1 6 9 3 4 0 5 . 4 . 0 6 5 2 2 9 1 0 0 2 0 7 . 1 . 0 2 6 1 1 1 1 6 8 3 0 7 . 7 . 0 9 6 1 5 1 0 5 5 1 0 7 . 2 . 0 4 0 2 4 2 6 2 8 9 3 0 5 . 6 . 0 7 7 2 6 1 7 9 3 4 0 4 . 7 . 0 6 2 2 3 9 6 6 1 0 4 . 4 . 0 2 1 1 8 2 1 1 2 1 4 0 3 . 6 . 0 6 3 0 9 1 0 4 7 2 0 4 . 8 . 0 3 7 - 7 3 -APPENDIX I I I E s t i m a t i o n of C r i t i c a l Phosphorus L e v e l - 74 -E s t i m a t i o n of C r i t i c a l Phosphorus L e v e l Although the major purpose of the research was to i d e n t i f y suspected n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s , i t was a l s o considered p o s s i b l e to propose a t e n t a t i v e c r i t i c a l phosphorus l e v e l f o r East Malaysian p l a n t s of Caribbean pine. The d e f i n i t i o n of c r i t i c a l l e v e l i s that of Richards and Bevege (1969) i e . the f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of an element a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 90% of maximum y i e l d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between growth and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y s t u d i e d using s p e c i a l l y - d e s i g n e d f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s . Lamb (1977), however, has argued that e x i s t i n g p l a n t a t i o n s could a l s o be used i f they covered the r e q u i r e d range of growth and n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . In the present study, t h i s requirement appeared to be met f o r the element phosphorus, as f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and p l a n t a t i o n performance ranged from extremely low i n the Sarawak p l o t s to very high i n the a l l u v i a l Gum-Gum p l a n t a t i o n . I t i s s t r e s s e d that the estimated P c r i t i c a l l e v e l i s a f i r s t approximation o n l y . As Richards and Bevege (1969) have pointed out, the concept of a c r i t i c a l l e v e l i m p l i c i t l y assumes that a l l n u t r i e n t s , apart from the one under t e s t , are not l i m i t i n g . Only i f the preceding c o n d i t i o n i s f u l f u l l e d can c r i t i c a l l e v e l s be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h any degree of c e r t a i n t y . Such was not the case i n the Sarawak p l o t s , as other n u t r i e n t s a l s o appeared to be i n the d e f i c i e n c y range. However, given the obvious s e v e r i t y of the phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y r e l a t i v e to other i n d i c a t e d d e f i c i e n c i e s and the f a c t that the low l e v e l s of other n u t r i e n t s may have - 75 -been a r e s u l t of low P a v a i l a b i l i t y and uptake, a reasonable estimate of a c r i t i c a l P l e v e l was thought to be p o s s i b l e . The methods used to estimate the c r i t i c a l phosphorus l e v e l were s i m i l a r to those employed by Lamb (1977), i n h i s det e r m i n a t i o n of a c r i t i c a l f o l i a r n i t r o g e n l e v e l f o r Eucalyptus deglupta Blume i n Papua New Guinea p l a n t a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l tree data from Lungmanis, Gum-Gum and the two Sarawak p l o t s were combined. Information from the o l d e r Ranau p l o t was omitted. S c a t t e r diagrams of h e i g h t , b a s a l area, and b a s a l area x height increments were p l o t t e d a g a i n s t f o l i a r phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . L o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of b a s a l area and b a s a l area x height values were r e q u i r e d i n order to induce homogeneity of v a r i a n c e . Refer to Fi g u r e s 7, 8 and 9. Stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s were performed, using i n t u r n , height and the l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of b a s a l area and b a s a l area x height as dependent v a r i a b l e s , and f o l i a r macronutrient c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t h e i r squares ( t o a l l o w f o r c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) as independent v a r i a b l e s . The best p r e d i c t i v e equations f o r mean annual increments of height ( H t ) , b a s a l area (BA) and height x bas a l area (Ht x BA) were as f o l l o w s : a) Ht = 0.52 + 30.05 P - 119.22 P 2 r 2 = 0.82 b) l o g e BA = -7.23 + 33.12 P - 141.45 P 2 r 2 - 0.65 c) l o g e Ht x BA = -5.85 + 60.03 P - 300.98 P 2 r 2 = 0.65 -76-2 51— O O O O C O " r OO O oo O o 2 .0 3§ ~ 1.5 < t-I o I O O o o O oo o oo o o o o o o • o o o O o o o o oo o 00 o o o o o O O O O o O oo |o o o O o J -. 0 2 .04 . 0 6 . 0 8 .10 .12 .14 F O L I A R P C O N C E N T R A T I O N , (%) Figure 7: Relationship between mean annual height increment and f o l i a r P concentration \ i 00 o o 00 o o o o o o o o O O 00 o o o o o o o o ° ° o o o o o o o o o o ° ^ ° QO O C O o o O Q o o o o o O o .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 FOLIAR P CONCENTRATION, (%) F i g u r e 8 : R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n mean a n n u a l b a s a l i n c r e m e n t and f o l i a r P c o n c e n t r a t i o n -78-2.0 r~ 2 < 3.0 < UJ tr < 4.0 < CD x 5.0 (£ UJ X 0 o -J 6.0 I O O O o o O o Q o O o o O o o o o o o o O 0 0 0 o I- o o ( 00 o o O O O o o o 00 o o o o o o o 00 o 00 .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 FOLIAR P CONCENTRATION, (%) .14 F i g u r e 9 : R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n mean a n n u a l b a s a l a r e a x h e i g h t i n c r e m e n t and f o l i a r P c o n c e n t r a t i o n . - 79 -Each equation was based upon 72 observations and a l l were significant at the 0.1% level. Phosphorus concentrations corresponding to maximum height, basal area and basal area x height increments (Y max.) were then obtained by-differentiating the appropriate equations and solving for dy/dP = 0. These optimum P concentrations were then used to derive maximum height, basal area and height x basal area values. Next, foliar P concentrations corresponding to 90% of the maximum growth increments were calculated. These were found to be the following: height, 0.081% P; basal area, 0.090% P; and height x basal area, 0.081% P. From these results, a tentative critical range for phosphorus of 0.08% - 0.09% is proposed for East Malaysian plantings of Caribbean pine. The findings were in agreement with critical phosphorus levels for the species grown on two podzolic soils in Victoria, Australia. These levels were calculated by the author from regression equations presented by Raupach et al . (1975). Estimated critical ranges were 0.083% -0.086%, 0.083% - 0.088% and 0.086% - 0.089% for height, diameter and volume, respectively. PUBLICATIONS: Fahlman, R. and H.S. Lee. 1978. Nursery Practice i n Sarawark. S i l v i c u l t u r e Pamphlet No. S.R. 1/78 Forest Dept., Sarawak, Malaysia. 48pp. Fahlman, R. 1977. Growth of Pinus caribaea under various establishment procedures. Forest Res. Rep. No S.R. 16. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 6pp. Fahlman, R. 1977. Pinus oocarpa provenance t r i a l . For. Res. Rep. No. S.R. 15. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 7pp. Fahlman, R.l 1976. Growth of Pinus merkusii, P_. caribaea, J?. oocarpa and P_. kesiya on a temuda s i t e . For. Res. Rep. No. S.R. 10. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 8pp. Fahlman, R. 1976. Provenance T r i a l of Pinus caribaea. For. Res. Rep. No. S.R. 9. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 11pp. Fahlman, R. 1975. Growth of Agathis macrophylla on a kerangas s i t e . For. Res. Rep. No. S.R.8. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 5pp. Fahlman, R. 1975. Project S.4 - Species T r i a l s , F i n a l Report. For. Res. Rep. No. S.R. 7. Forest Dept. Sarawak, Malaysia. 26pp. 

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