Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

From longhouse to townhouse : the evolution of on-reserve housing policy for Canadian Indians Perchal, Paul M. 1983

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1983_A8 P47.pdf [ 6.44MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095681.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095681-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095681-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095681-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095681-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095681-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095681-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095681-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095681.ris

Full Text

FROM LONGKOUSE TO TOWNHOUSE: THE EVOLUTION OF ON-RESERVE HOUSING POLICY FOR CANADIAN INDIANS by PAUL M.  PERCHAL  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of Manitoba, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Community And Regional Planning  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F a l l 1983  ©  Paul M.  P e r c h a l , 1983  In  presenting  requirements  thesis  I  available  for  agree  fulfilment  for  the  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  may  or  representatives.  of  be granted by the Head of my  allowed without my  Department of  October  It for  Community And  12,  further  1983  British  it  freely  agree  is  Department or  understood  financial  gain  written permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  make  the  that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  Date:  partial  that  purposes her  in  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of  Columbia,  permission  this  Regional Planning  Columbia  that  by  his  copying or  shall  not  be  i i  Abstract This process  thesis  f o r on-reserve  Columbia. housing  The  around  1945  the  and  the  federal  housing  federal  have grown both and  examines  for  Indian  government since then  government's  first  people  in  required  to  programs that have evolved.  i t s r o l e and  administer  I develop  British  i n t e r v e n e d in Indian responsibilities  in terms of c a p i t a l a l l o c a t e d f o r  manpower  policy-  the  this  purpose  many  housing  the p o s i t i o n that  housing  per se i s not as great a need on Indian reserves as p e r c e i v e d by Indian and symptom  government o f f i c i a l s . ,  of  the  broader  Rather,  poor  housing  and g e n e r a l l y depressed  is  a  socio-economic  situation  i n many Indian communities.  Ingrained  institutional  behaviour  i n d e a l i n g with the p e r c e i v e d problem a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s  to i t s p e r s i s t e n c e . Despite  the government's commitment to improving  conditions  of  Indian people  solved, and  in f a c t has grown worse over  the p e r c e i v e d problem has  has c o n t r i b u t e d to the emergence of new In  view  of  p o l i c i e s and present  the  seeming  the  the y e a r s .  focus  p e r c e p t i o n s of the so c a l l e d  not been  Indeed  it  and unexpected problems.  ineffectiveness  programs, a c e n t r a l  living  of the government's  in t h i s study  "housing"  i s past  problem.  that the e v o l u t i o n of the government's policy-making h y p o t h e t i c a l approaches or models d i s c u s s e d in the  I  and show  conforms to  literature  on  policy-analysis. Specific  o b j e c t i v e s of my  study  i n c l u d e : 1) to examine the  h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of the government's analyze government conceptions  policy-making;"  2)  to  of the problem; 3) to d i s c u s s the  social  and  political  implementation; current  and  implications  4) to d i s c u s s  an  f o r m u l a t i o n and  alternative  achieve these o b j e c t i v e s I f i r s t  three p o l i t i c a l - a n a l y t i c housing:  i)  critical.  the  The  approaches - f o r  classical;  ii)  the  approach  theory  of  community  examining  on-reserve  r e f o r m i s t ; and  documents,  and  decision-making  change.  events and major d e c i s i o n s was  i i i ) the  Information  obtained through  on  undertaken  in  government  to  obtain  about government historical My in  for national  government  Columbia.  i n Ottawa.  additional  I  level  of  the  A l l of  my  was  national interviews  to q u a l i f y my  findings  derived  in  my  analysis.  analysis  three h y p o t h e t i c a l  i n d i c a t e s that the government's policy-making housing has had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l  approaches,  predominate,  but  including:  elements  of  a  reformist  i) a technical definition  the problem; i i ) the p e r c e p t i o n that poor health;  of  problem  and  officials  interviewed  The purpose  information  conceptions  the area of on-reserve  approach  and  i n t e r v i e w s with government o f f i c i a l s in  British  government o f f i c i a l s  and  historical  Indian o f f i c i a l s at the r e g i o n a l , t r i b a l and band l e v e l . the i n t e r v i e w i n g except  on a  theory  DIAND and CMHC at the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , and d i s t r i c t  was  to  d e r i v e d a framework of  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s framework were based  review of l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to  Indian  policy  policy-making.  To  the  of  housing  of  causes  poor  i i i ) emphasis on task goals i n policy-making; and  iv) a  "top-down" p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y . The  r e s u l t s of government policy-making  i n the area of  on-  iv  reserve  housing  include:  i)  a c c u l t u r a t i o n or a s s i m i l a t i o n of  Indian values and b e l i e f s and the emergence of a set of values;  i i ) increasing  Indian people;  and  competition  i i i ) undemocratic p l a n n i n g processes  p a t h o l o g i e s of domination; levels  individualism  and  welfare  iv) contradictions  among  resulting in on  various  between the planning a c t i o n s of DIAND and the a c t i o n s of  Indian people.  These r e s u l t s provide  major  to  changes  policy-making  government  policy-making.  more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  recommended and d i s c u s s e d .  strong  of  a  justification  for  The e v o l u t i o n of  critical  approach  is  V  Table of Contents Abstract L i s t of T a b l e s L i s t of F i g u r e s Acknowledgements  i i v i i viii ix  Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1. Scope And O b j e c t i v e s 2. Background Of The P e r c e i v e d Problem 3. Empirical Uncertainty 4. Administrative D i f f i c u l t i e s 5. The P o l i t i c s Of Economic R e s t r a i n t 6. The A r t Of Reframing : Some Assumptions  1 3 4 8 12 17 19  Chapter II METHODS  22  A. POLITICAL-ANALYTIC APPROACHES TO ON-RESERVE HOUSING ...22 1. The C l a s s i c a l Approach 26 2. The Reformist Approach 30 3. The C r i t i c a l Approach 34 Chapter I I I THE HISTORY OF ON-RESERVE HOUSING .  43  A. EARLY HOUSING ASSISTANCE (1954-67) 1. Problem Formulation 2. Policy 3. Planning Procedure 4. C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Of The Community 5. S o c i a l And P o l i t i c a l R e s u l t s  43 43 45 46 49 50  B. THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PHASE (1967-1982) 1. Problem Formulation 2. Policy 3. P l a n n i n g Procedure 4. C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Of The Community 5. S o c i a l And P o l i t i c a l R e s u l t s  55 55 58 61 70 72  C. CONCLUSIONS  79  Chapter IV DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  80  A. THE CRITICAL APPROACH: STRUCTURED SOCIAL POLICY ANALYSIS 87 1. Systems Model Of The Indian Community 88 2. " S e l f - h e l p " Housing 100 3. Planning As Communicative A c t i o n 103 B. THE CRITICAL APPROACH: A METHOD OF PLANNING  107  vi  1. 2.  Comprehensive Community Based Planning 108 Developmental Approach Toward Band Funding ..110  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A - CHRONOLOGY OF ON-RESERVE HOUSING EVENTS  n  5  124  VI 1  List  Three P o l i t c a l - A n a l y t i c  of Tables  Approaches  viii  List  of F i g u r e s  1. S o c i a l Theory. M o d e l f o r N a t i v e C o m m u n i t i e s C u n n i n g h a m , 1982, p.10)  (Weaver  and  96  ix  Acknowledgement I would l i k e to take the o p p o r t u n i t y to thank Dr. W. Rees f o r h i s v a l u a b l e guidance and patience as my first reader. I would a l s o l i k e to thank P r o f e s s o r C. Weaver and P r o f e s s o r P. Boothroyd for t h e i r advice and i n s p i r a t i o n at v a r i o u s p o i n t s while I was writing my thesis. Finally I would l i k e to acknowledge Dr. B. Beck from the Department of Anthropology and Mr. J. Mooney and Mr. A. Cunningham from Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development for the knowledge they imparted to me as w e l l as f o r t h e i r moral support.  1  I. This  thesis  INTRODUCTION  examines  the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context of  housing p o l i c y  f o r n a t i v e people l i v i n g  on-reserve  Columbia.  central  and  A  focus  p e r c e p t i o n s of the on-reserve of  officials  Development  in  is  past  in  British  present government  "housing" problem.  In  the  words  the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern  (DIAND) the  problem,  d e f i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  on  a  nationwide  basis,  is  way:  A comprehensive housing survey was undertaken and completed i n 1977. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s Housing Needs A n a l y s i s , December 31, 1977, confirmed that there existed a s i g n i f i c a n t and growing housing problem on reserves. T h i s survey found that some 26 per cent of on reserve families obtained shelter e i t h e r by doubling or t r i p l i n g up with other f a m i l i e s or living in a fully dilapidated unit, a unit w e l l beyond repair. In a d d i t i o n , there are a s i g n i f i c a n t number of families (another 25 per cent) l i v i n g i n u n i t s which need to be r e p a i r e d i f they are to meet minimum h e a l t h and s a f e t y standards. The present on r e s e r v e housing backlog i s estimated to be 13,226 new units. In a d d i t i o n , there are some 11,700 e x i s t i n g u n i t s i n need of major r e p a i r s . This shortage of adequate housing causes severe h a r d s h i p s . Funds p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e from a l l sources f o r on reserve housing and c e r t a i n anomalies i n the program's s t r u c t u r e do not allow f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n the backlog. (DIAND, 1980, Pp.9-11)  The  inadequacy  of on-reserve housing  be r e l a t e d to h e a l t h . Branch  i n the B.C.  i s often perceived  to  A r e p o r t prepared by the Medical S e r v i c e s  Region  of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare (NH&W)  states: The h e a l t h of a community i s unquestionably a s s o c i a t e d with housing c o n d i t i o n s . Where these are f a u l t y , the h e a l t h of the people suffers. Where good housing  2  exists will be found the h e a l t h i e s t , happiest, w e a l t h i e s t and most p r o g r e s s i v e people. When one reviews the Indian m o r b i d i t y rates c o n t a i n e d in the 1978 annual report of P a c i f i c Region, M e d i c a l Services Branch, and then looks at the housing conditions, one can only wonder i f there i s not a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Whether we can a c t u a l l y say that these r e l a t i v e l y high m o r b i d i t y r a t e s amongst Indian people are the result of the housing in which they l i v e , i s debateable. However, i t can be s a i d that the housing c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d i n the surveys c a r r i e d out to date by M e d i c a l Services Branch are c e r t a i n l y a major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the r a t e s . (NH&W, 1978, Pp.1-6) DIAND a l s o maintains that the u n u s u a l l y high rate of f i r e deaths on-reserve are d i r e c t l y of  housing,  fires  r e l a t e d to the lower  use of substandard h e a t i n g systems,  1980,  living (DIAND,  p.33). I  problem  develop  the  position  that  "housing"  per se i s not a  on Indian r e s e r v e s , but more a symptom of a much  and more complex problem. to  quality  crowded  c o n d i t i o n s and the s c a r c i t y of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s  and  exist  in  a  T h i s problem  i s that Indians continue  d y s f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l system without  legitimate  work r o l e s , d e f i n e d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and an a p p r o p r i a t e self-guiding  institutions.  riding societal  problems.  larger  set  of  Housing can not r e s o l v e these overFrom  this  perspective  inadequate  housing i s more the r e s u l t than the cause of the wider malaise. On  the  other hand, the type of housing and the way  d e l i v e r e d on Indian r e s e r v e s already  existing  conflict  may  actually  conflict  disposessed  manifests  culture,  contribute  to  the  experienced by some Indians between  t r a d i t i o n a l and welfare v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and The  i t i s being  itself  in  institutions. an  impoverished  and  where i n some cases, the people have l o s t  3  the d e s i r e , w i l l shelter people this  and  interest  f o r themselves. lack the a b i l i t y  conflict  in  This  providing  and  does not imply  that the Indian  to provide and maintain  i s r e s o l v e d however "housing"  shelter.  fact  housing  policy  underdevelopment  of  may  contribute  Until  w i l l have l i t t l e or  no e f f e c t on the development of Indians and Indian In  maintaining  communities.  to  the  social  the community, because i t f a i l s to address  the root problem. 1.  Scope And O b j e c t i v e s  In view of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s with  solutions  to  the  "housing"  evaluate the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s in  dealing  political  with  housing  results arising  My r e s e a r c h analysis  of  government's  policy-making  on Indian reserves and the s o c i a l and from these  efforts.  primarily  i n v o l v e d with  on  bn-reserve  is  a  synthesis  and  housing  at the This  supplemented by r e s e a r c h i n g c u r r e n t s t u d i e s and by DIAND, N a t i o n a l Indian  Brotherhood  (NIB)  Union of B r i t i s h Columbia^ Indian C h i e f s (UBCIC) and my  own personal o b s e r v a t i o n s based on v i s i t s the  thesis w i l l  problem statements and recommendations advanced by  documents prepared the  this  associated  r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l o f f i c e s of DIAND and CMHC.  information  and  difficulties  problem,  of the  concentrates  government o f f i c i a l s district,  and  Vancouver D i s t r i c t  of DIAND.  to Indian reserves  in  The o b j e c t i v e s of my r e s e a r c h  are as f o l l o w s : 1) To examine the h i s t o r i c a l evolution government's policy-making to the p e r c e i v e d problem.  of the "housing""  4  2) To analyze  government conceptions  of the problem.  3) To d i s c u s s the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l policy-mak i n g .  r e s u l t s of  4) To d i s c u s s an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to the problem.  2. The welfare and  Background Of The  Perceived  as set out  in the Indian A c t .  has  administered various  evolved by DIAND.  departments  into  one  been  reserves s i n c e approximately The  social  the  most  and  political  direct  conditions  on  way  agencies  were r e l u c t a n t to use  and  as  intervene  for  pressures  probably  responsible i.e.  for  the  reserve  of  from  the s o c i a l reformers  through on  who  Indian  Indian  housing  p e r c e i v e d to be  deplorable  living  War  II.  The  because  land, h e l d  in  that  the  the Indian people. same  groups  reached market lending  trust  f o r house c o n s t r u c t i o n .  the  housing  in  situation  made i t imperative  welfare  early  services  Government  the  World  the  collateral  came,  regular  These c o n d i t i o n s had  of  alleviate  p o l i t i c a l pressures  adequate  Housing was  reserves.  failed  government,  obtaining  the  intervened  improving  system  the  of  reasons.  c r i s i s p r o p o r t i o n s by the end to  for  1945.  of  Indian  and  reponsibility  i n v o l v e d with housing  f e d e r a l government f i r s t  for  health  In meeting t h i s  Indeed, the F e d e r a l  has  the  under the B r i t i s h North America Act  the p r o v i s i o n of a s s i s t a n c e to Indians housing  perceived  Problem  F e d e r a l Government i s r e s p o n s i b l e for of Canadian Indians  this  by  Social  government The  social  that  were  reform movements in the  viewed inadequate housing  "city", as  the  5  source  of  many of the d i s e a s e s and s o c i a l d i s o r d e r s which were  of high i n c i d e n c e among u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d Weaver,  1979;  Heskin,  1980).  felt  the  federal  a  concerned  government  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the Indian people. in  on-reserve  was  secondary  public,  both  Government  for Indians.  housing was i n t r o d u c e d . with  an economic  to i t s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  function,  function.  I t aimed at p r o v i d i n g  housing  of  citizens.  a  policy size  that  and  Indian  Indian  quality  In 1970 , the concept  communities  was  undertaken  programs  from  which DIAND,  proposed Canada  the  utilization  described perceptions reserves.  this of  and  the p l a n n i n g  confirmed  significant  In B r i t i s h Columbia  of  Immigration  federal  Indian r e s e r v e s  government  "housing"  (M&I),  (DREE), and NH&W.  Despite p r e v i o u s government  survey a  a l l Indian  Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n  most recent housing survey of Canadian i n 1979.  Canadian  In 1977, a comprehensive housing program  Department of Regional Economic Expansion  was completed  have  of community based p l a n n i n g was  (CMHC), and the Department of Manpower  The  should  comparable to other  reserves and Indians would be expected t o undertake t h e i r communities.  families  In 1965, the F e d e r a l Government  i n t r o d u c e d by which p h y s i c a l plans would be made of  of  over  In 1962, the concept of s u b s i d i z e d  a minimum standard house.  announced a new  of  intervention  A f t e r World War II q u a n t i t y s h e l t e r was given p r i o r i t y q u a l i t y housing  and  not l i v i n g up t o i t s  housing has a l s o performed  but i t has remained  (Friedmann  The p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s probably  came from the Indian people and which  groups  problem  efforts  as  and  Indian  on  Indian  the survey found that some 43 per  .6  cent  of on reserve f a m i l i e s obtained s h e l t e r e i t h e r by doubling  or t r i p l i n g existing  up with other  units  were  f a m i l i e s and that 36 per cent  in  need  of major r e p a i r s or  of the  replacement  (DIAND, 1979). The be  a  housing  growing  needs a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that there demand  f o r houses on-reserve  would  i n the 1980's. I t  considered r a t e s of net family formation which c o u l d be expected over the next estimates  fifteen  years  based,  not  only  on  the  latest  of on reserve p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s , but a l s o on the high  Indian b i r t h  rates  increase  f a m i l y formations  in  of  the mid-1960's.  of the l a t e  1950's and e a r l y  for  housing  new  to  f o l l o w i n g the Indian  the  recent  "baby boom"  1960's there i s an i n c r e a s i n g  on-reserves.  Additionally,  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the standard of housing, available  Due  the  rising  i n c r e a s i n g awareness of  funding programs and the recent trend of Indian  moving back onto the reserve would  need  contribute  to  the  people growing  demand f o r houses. In  a  recent  discussion  paper DIAND i n d i c a t e d that  p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e from a l l sources certain  shortcomings  prevented 1980).  in  the  f o r on-reserve  a r e d u c t i o n i n the e x i s t i n g shortage  For example the i n f l e x i b i l i t y  expected  to  fill  housing  of  the  of houses (DIAND, existing  subsidy  Bands and i n d i v i d u a l s  the gap between a subsidy from DIAND and  the a c t u a l c o s t of the house through  one or a combination  f o l l o w i n g : i ) loan funds  from (CMHC); i i ) labour s u b s i d i e s  Canada  Immigration  Employment  and  and  program's s t r u c t u r e and d e l i v e r y  arrangement was s i t e d as one shortcoming. are  funds  Commission  of the from  (CEIC); and i i i )  7  Indian money and e f f o r t . tend  to  be those  general and bracket.  Those bands best able t o f i l l  the gap  with the best c a p a c i t y to d e l i v e r programs i n  consist  Therefore,  of  band  members  i n the higher  income  the program has tended t o miss the a c t u a l  group of Indian people i n most need of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The was The  problem of f i l l i n g  related first  than  demand  and  was that the use of CMHC loans was c o n s i d e r a b l y  a n t i c i p a t e d because of a lack of understanding  ministerial  amongst  guarantee  band  members  that  has a  regions  of how they  would decrease band c a p i t a l or revenue.  considerably  higher  uptake  For example,  of loans than  l a r g e l y because the need f o r such forms of funding  great and departmental o f f i c i a l s have Indian bands t o u t i l i z e CMHC sources A  lower  the use of a  uptake of loans v a r i e s from region t o r e g i o n .  B.C.  supply  to a number of f a c t o r s i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n paper.  work and the f e a r  The  the gap between  informed  and  (Interviews,  other i s so  encouraged  1980-81).  second f a c t o r d i s c u s s e d was the r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of CEIC funding. e i t h e r the housing of resource  Funding c y c l e s g e n e r a l l y d i d not correspond t o c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d on-reserves  or the timing  a l l o c a t i o n by DIAND.  F i n a l l y , a number of  critical  aspects  of  the program's  The delivery mechanism includes two major functions: i ) communications and t r a i n i n g and i i ) t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . DIAND c o n s i d e r s that some Indians lack the necessary managerial or technical skills to implement t h e i r own housing programs. The communication and t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n i s expected to eventually remedy t h i s . U n t i l such a c t i v i t i e s are completed there w i l l be a heavy demand for e i t h e r d i r e c t DIAND program d e l i v e r y or strong d e l i v e r y support f o r the bands from the department. This i s where the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f u n c t i o n comes i n .  8  delivery  mechanism  which  1  covered in DIAND's paper.  did  not operate as intended were  Among these were that the program  not p r o p e r l y communicated to the Indian p o p u l a t i o n and programs d i d not make the headway planned. funds  and  departmental  staff  As w e l l ,  operational technical  a s s i s t a n c e and to support o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance  3. A  training  r e q u i r e d f o r adequate  were not made a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t  activities  depth.  Empirical Uncertainty number  of  uncertainties  beset  the  policy  maker and  planner r e g a r d i n g c a u s a t i o n given a c o r r e l a t i o n between and  was  other  variables.  housing)  i s shown to  disease  or  If a p a r t i c u l a r be  associated  factor  with  a  (e.g.  housing  inadequate  pathology  an abnormal type of s o c i a l behaviour) the  (e.g.  following  c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p o s s i b l e : i ) Inadequate  housing leads to t h i s pathology;  i i ) The pathology leads to inadequate  housing;  iii) Inadequate housing and the pathology under examination may both be caused by a t h i r d determinant; iv) Inadequate housing and the pathology have separate causes; they are not r e l a t e d ; and v) Inadequate housing, the pathology and other .are i n t e r r e l a t e d .  Another  area  of u n c e r t a i n t y a r i s e s when an a s s o c i a t i o n i s  found between a pathology and many f a c t o r s . if  the  direction  of  causality  " f a c t o r causes pathology", importance  factors  various  In t h i s  case  i s assumed to be one factors  or a h i e r a r c h y of importance  may  may exist.  be  even  i n which of  equal  9  A  great  apparent 1954;  deal  of  relationships  Wilner, Walkley,  1964;  Freedman,  housing  studies  relationship health,  the 1  between  Pinkerton  1975;  Buchanan,  attempt  exists  housing  to  between  and  studies,  Tayback, As  demonstrate  that  housing  to  1962; recent a  prove  with  housing.  reviews e m p i r i c a l  d i s c i p l i n e s t o determine what i s known various  physical  parameters  1974).  Among  either  the  series  of  relationship  evidence from many  about  the  effects  of  of housing and of the r e s i d e n t i a l  neighbourhood on behaviour and on (Stanislav,  significant  i s interrelated  than a s i n g l e cause and e f f e c t  Stanislav  as 1979  however, c h a l l e n g e t h i s view of the  to many f a c t o r s and should be viewed i n a very broad rather  Schorr,  in this relationship.  h o u s i n g / h e a l t h r e l a t i o n s h i p by suggesting h e a l t h  relationships  (Lander,  q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y and  able  d i r e c t i o n and/or magnitude of c a u s a t i o n recent  documents the  housing and h e a l t h  1979).  yet none of them have been  Some  literature  mental  and  h i s conclusions  physical the  health  following i s  noteworthy: 3. The l i n k between parameters of housing and i n d i c e s of p h y s i c a l h e a l t h has not been w e l l supported by the reviewed evidence, at l e a s t not i n any d i r e c t sense. To be sure, certain relationships involving simple causal mechanisms -presence of rodents and p r o b a b i l i t y of rodent b i t e s , presence of lead p a i n t i n o l d b u i l d i n g s and p r o b a b i l i t y of lead poisoning i n young c h i l d r e n -- do e x i s t , or are h i g h l y p l a u s i b l e . But the r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and chronic conditions and d i s a b i l i t y i s not a t present supported  1  Refers to the viewpoint that by deductive reasoning, a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and health can be e s t a b l i s h e d . For example, crowding and the incidence of t u b e r c u l o s i s .  10  by any f i r m evidence, and i t would seem that any association which may be e s t a b l i s h e d w i l l be shown to operate v i a s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s . ( S t a n i s l a v , 1974, p . 1 l ) T h i s i m p l i e s poor h e a l t h and poor housing are both the r e s u l t of depressed  social  circumstances  and  not  necessarily  directly  r e l a t e d to each o t h e r . From  an  anthropological  perspective,  P e r i n analyzes the  s o c i a l meanings of v a r i o u s  Amercian  "housing"  These i n c l u d e homeownership, sprawl,  (Perin,  1977).  mortgages, housing  styles,  status  forms  concepts  of  tenure,  and l o c a l c o n t r o l over zoning.  a r i s e from  American  conceptions  of  She  the  conceptions  customarily  i n d i v i d u a l s i n d e c i d i n g about  transition,  are  subdivision  She  a p l a c e to l i v e .  layouts  and  cycle,  citizenship, suggests  addressed  of d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to d e n s i t y l e v e l s , levels,  life  with  f e e l s these meanings  honor, m a r g i n a l i t y , success and s e l f - e s t e e m . cultural  associated  these  indirectly  by  T h i s i s in terms  housing  types,  neighbourhood  and  price  community  character. Perin's research deals urban,  with  the  m i d d l e - c l a s s , white Americans.  beliefs  such  as  the  Indian  feels  remedies  for  reducing  isolated  people.  conceptions of white and m i d d l e - c l a s s  values  By  examining  Americans,  discrimination  group  and  will  the she  making  new  living  be p o s s i b l e .  T h i s i m p l i e s that the b e l i e f s and values of urban, class,  of  however,  departures f o r improving both a v a i l a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y of environments  of  She does not examine the  c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t i o n s of an impoverished and Americans,  and  Caucasians,  toward  middle-  housing, are accepted as the norm i n  11  North America  and o f t e n assumed to be a p p l i c a b l e to  in s o c i e t y r e g a r d l e s s  of socio-economic  a l l groups  and c u l t u r a l  background.  Burns and Grebo (1977) contend that a more balanced view i s required  between  the s t a t e of knowledge about  the s o c i a l  a t t r i b u t e d to poor housing and the use of t h i s knowledge. review and  the  observed  costs They  a s s o c i a t i o n s between housing d e f i c i e n c i e s  i n d i v i d u a l and group m o r b i d i t i e s  i n an attempt  whether housing s u b s i d i e s are j u s t i f i e d .  to  determine  They conclude:  It seems that the d o c t r i n a i r e p o s i t i o n s that have so long c h a r a c t e r i z e d s c h o l a r l y work and i t s use are giving way to more c o n c i l a t o r y views. Economists and s o c i o l o g i s t s recognize that the absence of rigorous proof of u n d e s i r a b l e consequences of poor housing does not mean no such consequences e x i s t . At the same time, reformers and policymakers have come to r e a l i z e that the case f o r government a s s i s t a n c e to low-income housing does not r e s t e x c l u s i v e l y or even importantly on f i r m evidence of massive d i s o r d e r s caused by substandard housing. The emergence of a more balanced view means, among other things, greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p u b l i c p o l i c y to a l t e r n a t i v e s to housing p r o j e c t s , such as income maintenance programs, more i n t e n s i v e job t r a i n i n g to improve the earning p o t e n t i a l s of the poor, special e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s f o r c h i l d r e n of low-income people, or expanded s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of "problem f a m i l i e s " . (Burns and G r e b l e r , 1977, Pp.136-  This  i m p l i e s that housing  significant  contributing  per  factor  se  to  is  not  necessarily  a  poor h e a l t h and that more  d i r e c t measures f o r h e l p i n g u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d  groups  are  people I would a l s o  warranted.  In . the  include community alternatives  sited  planning  case and  of  Indian  development  i n the above q u o t a t i o n  to  in  the  as Indian  society  list  of  bands tend  12  to have the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s a l r e a d y i n place  to  c a r r y out many of the f u n c t i o n s of a community or l o c a l i t y . 4.  Administrative D i f f i c u l t i e s  From a planning p e r s p e c t i v e the d i f f i c u l t i e s delivering housing the  houses on-reserve  encountered i n  are s i m i l a r to those  to any low-income s p e c i a l needs group i n  exception  that Indian people a r e organized  in delivering society,  with  i n t o bands with  t h e i r own community s t r u c t u r e and c o n t r o l , and the  geographical  distance  of some of these bands from the r e s t of s o c i e t y .  Past  "housing"  s o l u t i o n s f o r low-income  have  typically  encountered  Vancouver,  1981).  First, have  at  special  similar d i f f i c u l t i e s  funds a v a i l a b l e f o r low-income  needs  groups  (U.N., 1977; C i t y of  housing  assistance  no time come c l o s e to matching the magnitude of need.  Due  to the s e c t o r a l and disaggregated  is  usually  in  particular  shortages  a case of too l i t t l e find  band funding separate  to  remedy  Small bands  their  funding mechanism.  housing  T h i s i s because  Therefore  for  accountability  a particular  (e.g.  housing,  band's budget i n any given  year, which i s based on the number of members i n the band, be  spread  around to many c a t e g o r i e s of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  and Gibbons, 1980; DIAND, 1982; Harcourt,  is difficult  specific  to  provide  suitable  must  (Ponting  1982).  Second, given the c o s t s of c o n s t r u c t i o n on Indian it  it  i s undertaken on a per c a p i t a b a s i s and i t has many  categories  education).  funding too l a t e .  i t difficult  given the present  nature of band funding  housing  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l needs with the DIAND  that  subsidy  reserves reflects and  CMHC  13  loans.  The f a c t that non-government l e n d e r s , such as c h a r t e r e d  banks, are r e l u c t a n t to make  loans  on  d i f f i c u l t i e s with funding more c r i t i c a l  Indian  reserves  makes  than they would normally  be o f f r e s e r v e . Third, to e f f e c t program  given  a d e s i r e to meet housing needs and the funds  that d e s i r e , the q u e s t i o n of who should implement and manage and maintain the p r o j e c t s s t i l l  B r i t i s h Columbia  more and more Indian bands are  responsibilities, to do so. houses  but  many s t i l l  F i n a l l y , given the  constructed  on  remains.  assuming  In  these  lack the knowledge and s k i l l s  relatively  reserve  the  (15  short  life  span  years i n comparison  of  t o 35  years o f f reserve) and the lack of r e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i o economic development i t i s l i k e l y  that that  will  as  always  exist  as  long  a  Indian  housing people  problem  remain  an  u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d group i n s o c i e t y . Two  cases  traditional  of  efforts  reform e f f o r t s  past have  housing  solutions  failed.  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Consider f i r s t  reform  people  slums  Grebler,  to  the  1977; Heskin,l980)  city .  and  ways, but each l e d to the  asserted  slum  c o u l d not be h e l d  were  responsible  Grebler,1977;  Heskin,l980;  responsibility  therefore f e l l  of  this  view  was  more  experience  millions  emerged  of  (Burns and  The reformer saw the slums i n two  different  conditions  when  how  the housing  In the American  the c i t y became the focus f o r s o c i a l migrated  illustrate  same  caused for  Jacobs  solution.  actions  (Burns  Stevenson,1981).  to the r e s t of s o c i e t y .  convincing  view  by ignorant people who  their and  One  when  coupled  and The  The l o g i c with  the  14  perception and  that slums were the cause of d i s e a s e , p u b l i c d i s o r d e r  reduced land v a l u e s .  deterministic.  Instead  occupants  slum  the  The efforts. which  1977,  tenement was  opposing view was  of being  was  (Burns and G r e b l e r ,  The  one  the e f f e c t  environmentally  of  its  unfortunate  viewed as the cause of such moral p.72). of the outcomes of the e a r l i e s t  Another outcome was  the Tenement  House  Act  p r e s c r i b e d minimum standards f o r water supply,  and  r e p a i r (Burns and  as  governor of New  Grebler,  1977,  p.73).  reform  of  1867  sanitation  Theodore  Roosevelt  York s t a t e worked f o r the passage of another  major tenement house law the n a t i o n ' s  ills  in 1901  which came to  be  f i r s t modern housing code (Burns and  regarded Grebler,  as 1977,  p.73) . The and  first  slum clearance  began g r a n t i n g corporations was  U.S. was  to f o s t e r low-rent housing  made when the P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  l o w - i n t e r e s t long-term loans to l i m i t e d (Burns  abandoned in 1937  replaced  national effort  and  Grebler,  1977,  because of i t s  p.73).  program  This  operation  ineffectiveness.  by the p u b l i c housing program which has this  dividend  Under  available  to l o c a l housing a u t h o r i t i e s which c o n s t r u c t , own  total  subsidies  c o n t r i b u t e a modest  was  e x i s t e d to the  present.  operate low-rent p r o j e c t s and  federal  It  are  part  made  to  and the  cost. A great many of these p r o j e c t s f a i l e d .  questions intervention i s why  have  been  raised  i n slum c l e a r a n c e  the slums continue  about  the  (Heskin,1980).  As a r e s u l t U.S.  serious  government's  Foremost of these  to e x i s t d e s p i t e government a s s i s t a n c e  15  (Jacobs  and  Stevenson,1981).  It  problem c r e a t e d yet other problems and  lack  of  maintenance  appears  solutions  such as abuses of the  of the housing p r o j e c t s . has  i.e.  projects really  low-income  housing  never  been  l i v e s of the people a f f e c t e d by them or merely old  problems of these people to a d i f f e r e n t  the  upgrading  or  standards e n t a i l e d increased  replacement  or  technological  were p a i d by the consumer.  reasons  house for  widened. been  Thus the gap  subsidized  the  to  the same  Finally,  meet  higher  In the absence of  breakthroughs the c o s t s between  and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s income,  providing  improve  location.  .  program  resolved,  shift  dwellings  increasing project costs  subsidies  adequate  of  the  As w e l l the  u n d e r l y i n g debate of slum c l e a r a n c e whether  to  rent  for  an  one of the o r i g i n a l  housing,  was  continually  T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n whether s i m i l a r problems have  encountered  by  the  p r o v i d e adequate housing  Canadian government i n attempting to to  low-income  groups  (e.g.  Indian  people). The  second  example  developing countries. it  also  solutions. population  contains ';, A  concerns  the squatter s e t t l e m e n t s of  Although d i f f e r e n t  some  valuable  substantial  and  insights growing  in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s l i v e  (Mangin,1967;  Dawes,1982;  from the f i r s t context about part  of  i n squatter  Wong,1982).  In  "housing" the  settlements  these  countries  m i l l i o n s of f a m i l i e s from the impoverished c o u n t r y s i d e city  urban  and  the  slums have invaded the o u t s k i r t s of major c i t i e s and set up  enormous  shantytowns.  minimal s h e l t e r  without  These public  settlements services  usually or  c o n s i s t of  infrastructure.  16  Reformers are a p p a l l e d by the high i n c i d e n c e of underemployment, poverty,  lack  the low  of  medical  l e v e l of education  treatment i n these  and  sewage f a c i l i t i e s ,  settlements.  E f f o r t s to c l e a r away s q u a t t e r settlements have They  have  continued  to  r e s u r f a c i n g in d i f f e r e n t (Mangin, 1967; these  remain  countries  part  failed  of the urban  landscape,  l o c a t i o n s and augmented by new  Schon, 1980).  arrivals  I t i s beyond the means of many  to provide enough low-cost  needs of a l l the s e t t l e r s .  and  Where housing  housing  of  to meet the  p r o j e c t s are  possible  they are l i k e l y t o f a i l because the s o c i a l and economic c o s t s of r e - l o c a t i o n are too great f o r the s q u a t t e r s . From  a  d i f f e r e n t viewpoint  the s q u a t t e r s f e e l they have a  r i g h t to the land because many of them were f o r c e d for  economic  social  learning  i n i t i a t i v e and The  reasons.  Their  (Turner,  settlements  1976).  The  to  relocate  represent s i t e s of  squatters  demonstrate  independence by c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r own  dwellings.  settlements are systems i n which, with minimal investment  capital,  the  poor  "housing"  problem.  important  social  inhabiting  them  engage The  in  squatter  relationships and  self-help  solve t h e i r  settlements  and  especially  and  to  supports recent  also to  of own  provide  the  arrivals  people to  a  settlement. As agencies  this  technical  programs  has  i n these c o u n t r i e s have  self-help". and  counter-view  were  gained launched  p o p u l a r i t y some p u b l i c programs  of  "aided  These programs p r o v i d access to m a t e r i a l s , c a p i t a l assistance. initiated  Later  on,  "sites  and  services"  i n which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s made a v a i l a b l e  17  chunks of land, d i v i d e d prepared  for  of these  efforts  services"  into  the c o n s t r u c t i o n in  program  expected  (Schon,  projects  as  did  not  sources  to unserviced  which had support 1980).  networks  the  "sites  and  r e s u l t s planners  settlers  -often  use  the  income r a t h e r than f o r housing. services projects altogether  p r i v a t e b a r r i o s , new  which  already  exist  They  and  squatter  had  went  settlements the  social  in the b a r r i o s  (Schon,  Popko suggests that housing planners ought to l e a r n from rethink  s i t e - s e l e c t i o n and  construction  loans  site  and  other  selection  for  1980).  This  (Schon,  government's  In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n the  strategies  criteria  planners o f t e n do not p e r c e i v e  e f f e c t s of t h e i r a c t i o n s . Canadian  t h e i r t a r g e t groups, t h e i r lay-out  and  example i n d i c a t e s how  an  found  and  Popko's a n a l y s i s  that  the  graded  sprung up at the edge of town, because of  these f i n d i n g s and for  He  of  reveals  produce  1980).  parcels,  of the houses.  Columbia  a l s o by-passed s i t e s and instead  individual  the  actual  r e s u l t s of  the  involvement in on-reserve housing may  be  i n d i c a t i o n of something  that  government  officials  do  not  perceive.  5.  The  There practical help  P o l i t i c s Of Economic R e s t r a i n t  are  a  number  importance and  reframe  reasons  why  this  theoretical significance.  government and  of the on-reserve housing extent  of  Indian  study First  decision-makers'  situation.  DIAND  suffers  the same dilemma of a l l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  i s of is  to  conception to  some  Services  18  often a r i s e  i n response to  perceptions  may  communicative  be  perceived  defined  processes  (Habermas,1975;  in of  problems,  part  I  sometimes  by the instrumental and  the  Forester,1980).  but  organization  itself  w i l l demonstrate there has  been a tendency f o r members of DIAND t o perform a t e c h n i c a l r o l e in r e l a t i o n "ends",  t o on-reserve  rather  housing,  i.e.  through the policy-making  technical  interrelated role  results  than combine a t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l  the promotion of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  Two  produce  of  or  role, i . e .  r e l a t i o n s amongst c i t i z e n s  process.  issues  service  help  perpetuate  organizations.  the  First,  solely  a l l social  t h e o r i e s p o i n t i n g to causes of change are g e n e r a l l y weak, narrow and the  untestable.  One might expect that the nature  and  ways of a f f e c t i n g i t are c l e a r l y understood s i n c e change i s  such a p e r v a s i v e aspect not  of change  the  case  despite  of human e x i s t e n c e . the currency  Second,  however,  is  of v a r i o u s "myths" amongst  decision-makers and i n s t i t u t i o n s seeking (Holling,1978;  This,  to  understand  change  Thompson,1981). i s that s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s can seldom set a s i d e  resources  necessary  for preventative  quotation  e x p l a i n s why:  action.  The  following  It cannot be otherwise; the s e r v i c e e t h i c responding to immediate c r i s i s i s paramount: the sick cannot be turned away; the b a t t e r e d c h i l d cannot be n e g l e c t e d . Facing more demand, the o r g a n i z a t i o n streamlines procedures and converts a l l resources a v a i l a b l e to the service, endlessly seeking an e q u i l i b r i u m of supply and demand. E q u i l i b r i u m seldom ( i f ever) comes. Prevention of n e c e s s i t y , takes a secondary r o l e i n institutional ethics. (Robinson & Sismondo, 1977, p.44)  19  The  service  organization  ends  up  instrumental r o l e with the c l i e n t technical  1977  r e l y i n g on the agency to  an make  many government programs have been abandoned i n  the face of i n f l a t i o n , economy.  Although  rising  unemployment  the On-Reserve Housing  subject to such economic r e s t r a i n t  that  primarily  judgements.  Since  1981;  performing  DIAND,  1980;  conception  the  tightening  Program has not been (DIAND, 1982;  of time before cutbacks  The p r a c t i c a l of  a  DIAND,  DIAND, 1979), one can r e a l i s t i c a l l y assume  i t i s o n l y a matter  a l s o occur.  to date  and  importance  problem  is  i n t h i s program  of h e l p i n g t o reframe  that  it  e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of scarce r e s o u r c e s .  may  lead  the  to a more  Innovative approaches  are needed which enable Indian people t o become independent  and  self-suf f ic ient. This  study  d e f i n i t i o n and  also  resolution  illustrates  an  approach  i n one area  of  Indian  that can be a p p l i e d i n other areas of Indian Finally  this  thesis  presents  6.  The  Art Of Reframing  The  primary  assumption  government e f f o r t s to a s s i s t commitment  to  the more g e n e r a l  planned  policy-making  affairs.  addressing  the  special  on-reserve.  : Some Assumptions of t h i s t h e s i s i s that inherent i n  Indians i n o b t a i n i n g  change.  phenomenon  problem  an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to  policy-making which i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r housing needs of Indian people l i v i n g  to  of  houses  is  a  Planned  change i s an aspect of  social  change.  Contemporary  20  theories social  of  change  change.  underlying  emphasize  There  or  all  (Manheim,1950; Bennis, The  second  different  and  is  general  agreement  theory  of  as  social  assumption  is  that  while  there  one  change  are  many  t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l change some are more for  describing  and  analyzing  change  the context of on-reserve housing I f e e l a theory  which s t r e s s e s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a range economic  to  1969).  opposing  In  no  there are many sources of  encompassing  a p p r o p r i a t e than others efforts.  that  and c u l t u r a l  of  f a c t o r s and the w e l l - b e i n g of  socio-  individuals  i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e . The  t h i r d assumption  planning  i s that  s t r a t e g y f o r e f f e c t i n g change through  the c o o p e r a t i o n of a number of and  their  various  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and at reframing perspective difficult My  conceptions  levels  of  will  entail  departments and  Indian  This implies e f f o r t s a  radical  change  of  more than one a c t o r and t h i s i s o f t e n extremely  f i n a l assumption  on-reserve  is  that  the  situation  and  elsewhere. operating  While procedures  between  in  is  r e s u l t s to the  similar  to  those  used  and  the  B.C.  throughout  the  regions and entire  the a c t u a l r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and budgetary  i n the Vancouver D i s t r i c t O f f i c e are  B.C.  differences  d i s t r i c t s make i t r i s k y to e x t r a p o l a t e my bureaucracy,  in  of the decision-making processes a s s o c i a t e d with  housing  administrative  Office  "housing"  administration  require  present  to achieve i n the short-term.  representative  used  the  government  i n d i v i d u a l Indian bands.  conceptions in  federal  of  cycles  Regional the  entire  21  bureaucracy. Along relating and  to  these  the breadth  assumptions  two  obtained Indian  aspects  of  are  certain  and depth of my r e s e a r c h .  f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s I was  these  and  with  research  forced  to  design.  limitations Due to time  compromise My  between  i n f o r m a t i o n was  i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: i ) i n t e r v i e w s of government officials;  i i ) c l o s e examination  and  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o p e r a t i o n s of the Vancouver D i s t r i c t O f f i c e  i n DIAND's B.C.  Region; i i ) v i s i t s t o Indian r e s e r v e s i n the Vancouver D i s t r i c t ; and B.C.  iii)  a n a l y s i s of government documents and f i l e s  Regional Headquarters of DIAND.  within  the  22  II. Inherent housing  in  i s : 1) the  affairs  is  community  government's  assumption  that  development  social  planned  change  structure  society.  organizational community  1972, p.47).  and  levels  community serve  levels  our  housing change  purposes  community;  and  r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t at the best  organizational  and  f o r understanding  i n d e a l i n g with t h i s p e r c e i v e d problem.  POLITICAL-ANALYTIC  APPROACHES TO ON-RESERVE HOUSING  My h i s t o r i c a l examination memoranda  Three  are concentrated on i n most of the s o c i a l  Since on-reserve  government e f f o r t s  A.  human  change i s an aspect of the more general phenomenon  change l i t e r a t u r e : i ) the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; i i ) the iii)  in  (DIAND, 1980, Pp.13-15).  1  s o c i a l change (Perlman and G u r i n ,  of  approach toward on-reserve  both p o s s i b l e and d e s i r e a b l e and 2) a commitment to  Planned of  the  METHODS  pertaining  to  from 1960 to the p r e s e n t .  i s based on r e p o r t s ,  Indian I  also  housing  papers  and  p o l i c i e s and programs  analyzed  government  Annual  Reports  1  Warren (1969) suggests the the whole idea of development i n t h i s term i m p l i e s a process of purposive change. I t i s an attempt through concerted decision-making to i n f l u e n c e change i n the d i r e c t i o n of whatever goals may be involved. It e n t a i l s a planning process in which appropriate i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s come together to make d e c i s i o n s . I t i s not only a q u e s t i o n of planning to enhance s o c i a l and economic w e l l - b e i n g , but a l s o a q u e s t i o n of how p l a n n i n g takes p l a c e .  23  2  between  '1940-60  and  reports  prepared by the (NIB) and  the  (UBCIC). In these documents events  which  reflect  I  was  the  looking  for  assumptions,  major  beliefs  historical and  values  a s s o c i a t e d with on-reserve housing p o l i c i e s and programs i n hope  of  reconstructing  (Collingwood,1946;  Leff,  the  1969).  meaning  of  I interpret  the  these  the  events  evolution  of  these events i n the context of a framework of p o l i t i c a l - a n a l y t i c approaches There  to on-reserve housing  are at l e a s t  iii)  1 these i n c l u d e ; the  Leff,1969).  three major h y p o t h e t i c a l approaches  the e v o l u t i o n of policy-making Table  (Collingwood,1946;  can  be  i ) the c l a s s i c a l ;  viewed.  by which  Referring  i i ) the r e f o r m i s t ;  to and  critical.  Indian housing has been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of three separate f e d e r a l departments. From 1940-50, 1950-67 and 1967 to the present i t was the responsibility of Mines and Resources, C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration and Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development r e s p e c t i v e l y .  24  Table  1 - Three P o l i t c a l - A n a l y t i c  Approaches  Approach Classical  Reformist  Critical  Characteristics Problem  • No problem definition ' Random c a u s a l i t y * Housing/health relationship p e r c e i v e d as individual responsibility  Social Policy  *  • Defined as the need f o r "X" number of houses • One-way c a u s a l i t y • Housing/health relationship p e r c e i v e d as government r e s p o n s i bility  • Defined as p o l i t i c a l inequity i n existing s o c i a l and economic system • Mutual c a u s a l i t y * P e r c e i v e s housing and h e a l t h i n context o f their relationship to other s o c i o economic f a c t o r s  • No s o c i a l p o l i c y * Task-oriented goals • E f f i c i e n c y stressed  • Homogeneous p o l i c y treating individual needs the same • E x p l i c i t , tasko r i e n t e d goals • E f f i c i e n c y and equity stressed  • Heterogeneous p o l i c y allowing f o r f u l f i l l m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l needs • Process-oriented goals • E q u i t y , e q u a l i t y and efficiency stressed  Planning Procedure  • No p l a n n i n g procedure * I n d i v i d u a l plans and designs • Operations research theory  • Centralized planning procedure ("Top-Down") * Undertaken by " e x p e r t s " with some citizen participation • Rational - empirical and normative r e educative t h e o r i e s  • D e c e n t r a l i z e d planning procedure ("BottomUp") • Undertaken by members of the community along - w i t h experts • R a d i c a l theory  Concept of Community  • No view o f people as a c o l l e c t i v e or mass phenomenon • U t i l i t a r i a n aspects • Community as space  • People d e s c r i b e d by demographic characteristics • U t i l i t a r i a n aspects * Community as people  * People viewed as resource of ideas and source o f i n f o r m a t i o n • A p p r e c i a t i v e and u t i l i t a r i a n aspects • Community as a s o c i a l system and power structure  S o c i a l and Political Results  * Functional integ r a t i o n of communities • Individualism • Assimilation • Competition • Modernization  * Perpetration of poverty • D i s t o r t e d communications • Welfare values • Oppression • Dependence - Paternalism • Bigness • Pluralism • Modernization w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n of cultural attributes  • E l i m i n a t i o n of poverty • Improved communicat i v e processes • Economic s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y and political independence • Cooperative and organized community structures • Participation • P r e s e r v a t i o n of traditional culture • Appropriate technology  Each assumptions  approach about  entails  differing  policy-making  values,  beliefs  and  and are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  25  the government's a c t u a l approach to on-reserve particular  time.  They  for comparison  and  implementation  in  over  time.  Although  area  how  policy  of on-reserve  housing,  conception an  any  a c e n t r a l focus i n my  i.e.  problem  formulation  housing  has  and  evolved  t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s  of the f o r m u l a t i o n stage of the policy-making reserve  at  are rather meant to be used as a b a s i s  illustrating the  housing  process  definition,  of s o c i e t y and the p a t t e r n s of  for  goal  on-  setting,  communication  within  o r g a n i z a t i o n and between o r g a n i z a t i o n s , I a l s o c o n s i d e r to a  l e s s e r degree the implementation p l a n n i n g f o r a c h i e v i n g housing I  chose  the  stage,  i.e.  the  method  of  goals.  following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  between the t h r e e approaches: i ) problem f o r m u l a t i o n ; i i ) p o l i c y g o a l s ; i i i ) p l a n n i n g procedure; community;  and  v)  social  iv)  and  conceptualization  political  results.  d e r i v e d from other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s c u s s e d i n (Maruyama,1974; Rothman,1979; Forester,  Rittel Jacobs  1980;  and  Webber,1973;  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for d i s t i n g u i s h i n g formulation  reserve  housing.  Implicit  i n my  and  based  on  a n a l y s i s are my  common-sense  making l i t e r a t u r e Olson,  1971;  (Lindblom,  Friedmann,  I  process  and 1959;  1973;  own  the  They are literature Gijch,l974;  Boothroyd,1982;  also  between  used  actual  these  periods  of  the h i s t o r y of  on-  p e r s o n a l c r i t e r i a as  to  implementation  what an "optimal" policy-making are  Von  Stevenson,1981;  Habermas,1975).  policy  the  of  in  entails.  These c r i t e r i a  ideas c u r r e n t i n the d e c i s i o n Deutch, 1963; Ostrom,  1973;  Etzioni, Haefele,  1967; 1973;  26  O'Connor, 1973; 1979;  Habermas, 1973;  Schon, 1980).  They  H o l l i n g , 1978;  Doern and  Aucoin,  include:  1) A c c o u n t a b i l i t y : As it relates to public administration a c c o u n t a b i l i t y may be d e f i n e d as the extent to which decision-makers are held responsible for their actions before v o t e r s and p u b l i c servants are h e l d r e p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s before elected officials. 2) E f f e c t i v e n e s s : There i s no agreed upon d e f i n i t i o n for t h i s term but for the purposes of this analysis effectiveness i s taken to mean the extent to which goals and o b j e c t i v e s of s t a t e d p o l i c i e s and programs are met. 3) Input/Output E f f i c i e n c y : There i s a l s o no agreed upon d e f i n i t i o n for t h i s term, but efficiency is generally s a i d to increase with a r e d u c t i o n i n the amount of e f f o r t , expense or waste r e q u i r e d to produce a desired e f f e c t . 4) Citizen Participation : Citizen participation refers to i n d i v i d u a l s taking an active role in planning, implementation, evaluation, and r e f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y i s s u e s concerning them. 5) Q u a l i t y and "Representativeness" of Information As i t r e l a t e s to public- policy-making quality and "representativeness" of information r e f e r s to the degree that information used i n decision-making is representative- of various i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s , and comprehensible and a v a i l a b l e to those groups affected by a d e c i s i o n . 6) Equity : As i t r e l a t e s to p u b l i c policy-making equity may be defined as the fairness in the distribution of goods and services, rights and p r i v i l e g e s i n socio-economic a f f a i r s .  1•  The  Classical  Classical Kenyes,  economic  1971)  support  Approach theories t h i s way  economics i s based on the b e l i e f place,  left  on  i t s own,  can  (Smith,  1976;  Mill,  of viewing s o c i e t y . that  order  the  Classical  competitive  s o c i e t y the most  1965;  market  efficiently  27  (Smith, 1976). an  T h i s i s because " s e l f - i n t e r e s t " as a motive  individual's  a c t i o n s i s b e l i e v e d to be at the c e n t r e of a l l  human a c t i v i t y  (Smith,  condition  which  inputs  in  of  1976).  High  a specified  resources.  improving  for  efficiency  efficiency  seen  task can be performed  Government through  is  efforts  are  r e s e a r c h and  as  with  devoted  a low to  i n n o v a t i o n , thereby  e n t a i l i n g a process of modernization. Under t h i s approach economic  terms  and  1  a  "housing"  the  amount of resource i n p u t s . to  be  the  problem  is  defined  goal i s to s o l v e i t with the As the p r o v i s i o n of housing  private responsibility  of the i n d i v i d u a l  least  is  as  while the  affairs  another  assault  re-organizes  on the market  its  financial  whatever 1980,  conditions  them i n t o poverty  to  for  p.2). correct  ( C i t y of Vancouver,  p.2). Causality  is  led  temporary  ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1980,  I t assumes that the poor have i t w i t h i n t h e i r power  seen  household,  when government a s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d i t i s viewed household  in  viewed  as  relationship concern.  i s not an issue under t h i s approach. independent  between housing  Health  and  with i t s own health  is  i s p e r c e i v e d as e n t i r e l y an  and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the i n d i v i d u a l  and  Each  probability.  1981,  The  therefore  of  individual  matter  f o r good h e a l t h as l y i n g completely  (Jacobs and Stevenson,  event  no  with  p.108).  Concerned more with the a l l o c a t i o n of scarce c o n s t r u c t i o n resources f o r the v a r i o u s competing uses and productivity. Resources would be devoted to housing only to the extent that they were necessary f o r the success of other investment activites.  28  There approach. on  an  is  no  explicit  search  for  policy  goals i n t h i s  T h i s i s because the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y i s  individualistic  competitive.  There  consequences  or  structure  is  very  in  which decision-making  little  consideration  of  s i d e - e f f e c t s of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n .  slump  in  the  q u a l i t y of l i f e (Heilbroner,  economy  or  1967,  that  to  act  as  individual own  i s c a r r i e d out to prevent  a  very  is  i n t h i s approach very  efficient  makes h i s own  little  much  of  is  need  based for  on  the  government  regulator  of  society.  Every  plan or i s the a r c h i t e c t d e s i g n i n g h i s  If p u b l i c p l a n n i n g i s r e q u i r e d i t i s viewed  operated cheaply. civil  a  unemployment, or to assure t h a t the  a process of d e s i g n i n g p r o b l e m - s o l u t i o n s  of  to  T h i s i s because the free market system i s assumed  "building".  and  is  p.285).  there  intervention.  the  keeps pace with the sheer q u a n t i t y of p r o d u c t i o n  The planning procedure belief  is  There i s  a l s o no s o c i a l p o l i c y s i n c e the s o l e purpose of planning ensure that enough economic a c t i v i t y  based  installed  T h i s n o t i o n has been the g u i d i n g  e n g i n e e r i n g , the contemporary  that might be  scientific  operations  management  research  as  concept  movement  and  ( R i t t e l and Webber,  197 3, p.157). In the c l a s s i c a l approach the community does not e x i s t as a mass or c o l l e c t i v e phenomenon. self-centred  and  (Smith,  Mill,  1976;  seeking 1969;  to  Every  individual  maximize  Bentham, 1970).  his/her  is own  seen  as  happiness  Bentham s t a t e s :  4. The i n t e r e s t of the community i s one of the most general expressions that can occur i n the phraseology of morals: no wonder that the meaning of i t i s o f t e n  29  lost. When i t has a meaning, i t is this. The community is a fictitious body, composed of the individual persons who are c o n s i d e r e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g as i t were i t s members. The i n t e r e s t of the community then i s , what? - the sum of the interests of the s e v e r a l members who compose i t . (Bentham, 1970, p.12)  In the community change l i t e r a t u r e the p r i n c i p l e of was  adopted  utility  i n the e c o l o g i c a l approach t o the' community,  views the community as an aggregation of  people  competing  which for  space and scarce resources where each i n d i v i d u a l tends to add to the  sum  t o t a l of h i s / h e r own  p l e a s u r e s (Warren,  1977,  p.203).  This approach suggests that the shape of the community as i t s a c t i v i t i e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l and  by  and/or flow  of  1977,  p.208).  use of space  f u n c t i o n succeeds another i n the  ebb  s t r u c t u r a l changes i n a c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n  considerations,  (e.g.  happiness)  competing  (Warren,  a  in  matters  of  common  but s c a r c e resources and at the same  time i n h a b i t i n g the same space by  and  People are bound together not by sentiment but by  utilitarian  created  well  v a r i o u s processes a c c o r d i n g to which one type of people type of s o c i a l  desire  as  through  mutual  interdependence  d i v i s i o n of labour (Bentham, 1970;  Tonnies,1957;  Warren,1977 ) . The c l a s s i c a l approach e n t a i l s the of  Indian  system  and  communities the  (Boothroyd, 1982,  integration  with l a r g e r s o c i e t y through the economic  institutions p.1).  functional  of  representative  It implies individualism,  competition and modernization (Boothroyd, 1982,  democracy  assimilation,  p.2).  30  2.  The Reformist Approach  This  approach  defines  a  "housing"  problem i n t e c h n i c a l  terms by i d e n t i f y i n g three i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s  which  must  be  c o n f r o n t e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g housing p o l i c i e s : i ) housing adequacy; ii)  limited  resources;  and  iii)  p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Based on  these f a c t o r s f o r e c a s t s of f u t u r e housing needs are made target be  i s set i n regard to the number of new  built  and  the  number  of  and  a  houses that have to  existing  houses  requiring  rennovation. The  reformist  Causality  is  approach  therefore  implies perceived  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s . to  no  mutual  in  terms  causality. of  one-way  R e s u l t s of a c t i o n s are  traced  the c o n d i t i o n s producing them and problems are c a t e g o r i z e d .  For example, recognized  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  housing  and  health  is  and housing i s l a b e l e d as the independent v a r i a b l e .  Jacobs and Stevenson note: The r e f o r m i s t approach holds that housing does affect health. Yet by seeing these two variables in a h i s t o r i c form and isola'ted from other s o c i a l and economic dynamics , i t too remains dominated by the c l a s s i c a l model of medicine and fails to a p p r e c i a t e the interrelationships and dynamics of more fundamental causes of s o c i a l and economic phenomena. (Jacobs and Stevenson, 1981, p.108).  There  is  a  .strong  belief  that h e a l t h can be improved by  improving housing, without changing the basic s o c i a l or r e l a t i o n s of s o c i e t y poverty  is  individuals,  believed social  economic  (Jacobs and Stevenson, 1981, p.108). to  be  programs  an  unfortunate  predicament  Where of  such as housing focus on changing  31  people so Providing be  the  society  they  can  function  more  effectively  in  society.  i n d i v i d u a l s with improved s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s deemed to solution  to  (U.N., 1977,  helping p.72).  them compete more e f f e c t i v e l y i n  Once having obtained  certain  needs they can presumably c a s t a s i d e t h e i r poverty and higher  quality  arrangements may communities,  of  life  (U.N.,  they do not  challenge  The  the beginning of the  While  more  these  prosperous  the basic power s t r u c t u r e in  s t a t e d in t h i s approach.  b a s i s f o r understanding and  social policies.  achieve a  p.72).  S o c i a l goals are e x p l i c i t l y the  p.72).  i n some circumstances lead to  a s o c i e t y (U.N., 1977,  provide  1977,  basic  search  for e x p l i c i t  1960's.  R i t t e l and  evaluating goals was  They  the aims of i n i t i a t e d at  Webber note:  Systems a n a l y s i s , goals commissions, PPBS, social indicators, the s e v e r a l r e v o l t s , the poverty program, model c i t i e s , the c u r r e n t concerns with environmental quality and the q u a l i t i e s of urban l i f e , the search for new r e l i g i o n s among the comtemporary youth, and the i n c r e a s i n g a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the planning idea — a l l seem to be d r i v e n by a common quest. Each in i t s particular way i s asking for a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of purposes, f o r a r e d e f i n i t i o n of problems, for a reordering of p r i o r i t i e s to match s t a t e d purposes, for the design of new kinds of g o a l - d i r e c t e d a c t i o n s , for a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n s to the outputs of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s rather than to the inputs i n t o them, and then f o r a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the outputs of governmental programs among the competing p u b l i c s . ( R i t t e l and Webber, 1973, p.156). Goals are a l s o t a s k - o r i e n t e d  and  concrete  construction  task  (e.g.  the  aimed at the  completion  of "n" houses) or  s o l u t i o n of a d e l i m i t e d problem p e r t a i n i n g to the a community s o c i a l  of  a the  f u n c t i o n i n g of  system.  S o c i a l p o l i c y i s homogeneous as the o r g a n i z a t i o n  of s o c i e t y  32  i s based on a h i e r a r c h i c a l  s t r u c t u r e i n which decision-making i s  c a r r i e d out by e l e c t e d  representatives.  economic  environments  wherein  similar.  T h i s i s because of  economic  management  other hand  innovations  and i n d u s t r i a l  now,  or  the  socio-  i s formulated are  in  the  sciences  i n n o v a t i o n on the one social  (Aucoin,1979; I l i c h , l 9 7 3 ) .  be d e r i v e d from the hopes, a t t i t u d e s and who  well  public-policy  and the t e c h n o l o g i e s of production and the  As  hand,  organization  participation.  As t h i s  aspirations  interests  is d i f f i c u l t  on  I d e a l l y goals should of  those  i n the f u t u r e , w i l l be a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s .  i d e n t i f y these i n d i v i d u a l or group  of  requires  in a h i e r a r c h i c a l  To  citizen structure  s o c i a l p o l i c y tends to remain homogeneous. The  planning  procedure  is  based  process undertaken s o l e l y by "experts" centralized  bureaucracy.  1979; Friedmann,1980). choose  the  most  l i b e r t y or sensitivity  to  the  or  approach,  programs and (Ostrom,  The dilemma  size  planning  course  (Deutch,  1963;  repercussions  f a c i n g the " e x p e r t s " of  action  Olson, and  A  is  to  growing  consequences of  "experts",  following  to  accomodate  public  participation.  1973; Lindblom, 1979; Braybrooke and Lindblom,  1975; Friedmann,  a  to re-examine the l a t e n t values i n p o l i c i e s and  endeavour  and  in  without l o s s of  1965)..  value  P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , however, continues to the  social  professionals  p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s has generated a need f o r this  a  (Armitage, 1975; Warf, 1979; Rothman,  rational  equity  on  complexity 1973).  of  be  1963).  constrained  by  the b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e s s (Pross,  I t places heavy demands on the time and  resources of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups  that  wish  to  have  their  33  i n t e r e s t s accounted f o r i n planning  actions.  In the r e f o r m i s t approach the community i s viewed as a mass or  collective  scope.  It  phenomenon,  i s conceptualized  characteristics composition  lacking  expertise  in  of i t s people.  terms  and  of  the  eduaction,  surveys  of  the  death,  marriage,  race  population  demographic  The census provides data on the  of the p o p u l a t i o n broken down by age,  occupation,  limited in  and  sex,  income,  ethnic i d e n t i t y , etc.  provide  information  Other  about  birth,  d i v o r c e , i l l n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y , delinquency and  cr ime. These are very u s e f u l to the planner First  by  looking  for clusters  geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n social use  levels  (e.g.  these analyses  the s e v e r a l types Second  many  of  areas,  of  projection,  1980,  areas  identify  region or nation) and  and  data  plans  may  be  needs  to  (Cox, 1980, p.227).  In  created in  appropriate  are a v a i l a b l e i n time  developments.  anticipated  of  identified  demographic  various  using for  growing  or  various  developing declining  i n c r e a s i n g h e a l t h problems, or whatever (Cox,  p.227). The  extension  1  to  to plan p a t t e r n s of s e r v i c e s  sets  s e r v i c e s to meet  i t i s possible  of s o c i a l areas  ways.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r  community, d i s t r i c t ,  s e r i e s r e v e a l i n g trends forms  of  i n a number of  reformist of  the  approach  entails  bureaucracy  that  individuals  becoming  plans and r e g u l a t e s  an  their  For example, the p o i n t may come when Indian bands are t o t a l l y responsible for administering t h e i r own programs according to the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s s e t down by DIAND.  34  lives. The  1  One outcome of t h i s approach i s the Welfare  Welfare  State i s the response  i s both entrenched time threatened p. 161). on  society's  by  racially  of a modern m i d d l e - c l a s s that  i n i t s own values and b e l i e f s and at the same  by opposing  values and b e l i e f s  (Gouldner,  1970,  On the one hand the m i d d l e - c l a s s has a strong i n f l u e n c e  threatened it  State.  norms  and  standards.  On  the other hand i t i s  by growing i n t e r n a l c r i s e s of l e g i t i m a t i o n p l a c e d  the demands subjugated  of  dissident  (e.g.  social  strata  on  such as the  I n d i a n s ) , women, students and welfare  dependents (0'Connor,1973; Habermas,1975). T h i s approach p o t e n t i a l l y paternalism,  bigness,  induces  pluralism,  oppression,  and  dependence,  modernization  with the  r e c o g n i t i o n of c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s of groups i n s o c i e t y (Boothroyd,  It  1982, p . 2 ) .  3.  The C r i t i c a l Approach  The  c r i t i c a l approach i s l e s s mechanical  i s concerned  underlying  with  factors  contradictions within between  private  Habermas,1975; Friedmann,1981).  the  interrelationships  of  so  the  existing  and  public  Forester,1980; Schon  and s u p e r f i c i a l .  called  problems  between and  socio-economic  interests Schon,  the  inherent  structures  (Levi-Strauss,1963; 1980;  Heskin,l980;  notes:  Vickers has opened up a more promising approach t o p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y with h i s notion of d i a l e c t i c i n q u i r y , a notion c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the idea of stance toward inquiry. He has p o i n t e d out that i n the I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t view of p r a c t i c a l i n q u i r y as t e c h n i c a l problem-solving, the inquirer is seen as a spectator/manipulator. In the name of d i s i n t e r e s t e d o b j e c t i v i t y , the s p e c t a t o r / m a n i p u l a t o r p l a c e s himself  35  outside the problem he seeks to s o l v e . From t h i s distant p o s i t i o n , and in accordance with his objectives, he tries to analyze and control the situation. V i c k e r s has observed, however, that we are always _in_ the s i t u a t i o n about which we inquire, whether or not we take cognizance of that f a c t . C o n s t r u c t i n g the r e a l i t y of our situations, acting from our c o n s t r u c t i o n s , changing the s i t u a t i o n through our actions, transformed by our apprehensions of the changes we have wrought, we are "agents/experient". (Schon, 1980, p.3). The  notion  for  of the  i n q u i r e r as a agent/experient p r o v i d e s a  understanding  the  side-effects  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of' p l a n n i n g .  In s i t u a t i o n s  that  puzzling,  irritating  precede p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  and  (Schon, 1980,  T h i s approach p e r c e i v e s between one  more  than two  another and  patterns  or  causal  may  dynamic  contradictions a s s e r t s that  the  is  as  mutual  can  generate  t h e i r inter-connexions  the  system  source  confused, should  relationships  in which many things may  processes  socio-economic  are  p.4).  problems  variables  externalities  problem-setting  be mutually e x c l u s i v e .  housing, h e a l t h and a  troubling  basis  of  where  two  maintain  For example, i t views within the  societal  term c o n t r a d i c t i o n has  and  cause  the c o n t e x t of resolution  change.  of  Habermas  different levels  meaning: We can speak of the "fundamental c o n t r a d i c t i o n " of a social formation when, and only when, its o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e n e c e s s i t a t e s that i n d i v i d u a l s and groups repeatedly confront one another with claims and intentions that are, in the long run, incompatible. In c l a s s s o c i e t i e s t h i s i s the case. As long as the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of claims and i n t e n t i o n s i s not recognized by the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the conflict remains l a t e n t . Such f o r c e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d action systems are, of course, i n need of an ideological justification to conceal the a s y m e t r i c a l distribution of chances for the legitimate  of  36  s a t i s f a c t i o n of needs (that i s , r e p r e s s i o n of needs). Communication between participants is then s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d or blocked. Under c o n d i t i o n s of f o r c e f u l i n t e g r a t i o n , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n cannot be identified as a contradiction between the d e c l a r e d intentions of hostile parties and be s e t t l e d in strategic action. Instead, i t assumes the i d e o l o g i c a l form of a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the i n t e n t i o n s that s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e themselves to be carrying out and their, as we say, unconscious motives or fundamental interests. As soon as i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y ' becomes conscious, conflict becomes manifest, and irreconcilable interests are recognized as antagonistic interests. (Habermas, 1975, p.27)  Poverty  is  systems ., that powerlessness holders and  explained remain  of  the  intact poor and  precisely  p o l i t i c a l power can  they negotiate  counterparts  themselves  and  (Habermas,1975;  Heskin,l980; Friedmann, Social oriented  1  goals  in  desired  the  change  community  acquire wealthier  policies  Forester,1980;  and  Schon,1980;  1981). the  concerned with a g e n e r a l i z e d  the  of  Only as the poor  as peers with t h e i r  critical  than i n the previous two  system to f u n c t i o n  because  economic  the dominance of wealthy power-  an a f f l u e n t m i d d l e - c l a s s .  conditions  1  as a product of s o c i a l and  approaches.  or gross c a p a c i t y  over time.  organization  approach are more p r o c e s s They are more  of the  community  S o c i a l p o l i c y i s heterogeneous as of  society  is  based  on  a  non-  Rothman (1979) suggests that t h i s type of goal i s more oriented to system maintenance and capacity, with aims such as e s t a b l i s h i n g c o o p e r a t i v e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s among groups in the community, creating self-maintaining community problems o l v i n g s t r u c t u r e s , improving the power base of the community, stimulating wide i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in community a f f a i r s , fostering collaborative* attitudes and practices and i n c r e a s i n g indigenous l e a d e r s h i p .  37  h i e r a r c h i c a l and solutions  interactionist  are  achieved  Decision-making  through  procedure  and pooled t o g e t h e r . insights  Forester,1980; Indian  Radical  w i l l dissappear  at  consultation. the  of  t h i s approach i s based on  the  1  by members  of  since  a  community  planning s t r a t e g i e s support  of some r a d i c a l t h e o r i s t s  Heskin,l980;  affairs  aims  political  individual.  planning  The  which  eliminating  premise that plans can be generated  view.  in  community  i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d and  hardships of every The  structure  Friedmann,1981)  are  (Habermas,1975; relevant  o v e r n i g h t , or that e q u a l i t y and  equity  can  a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of p o l i c y goals without  in the p o l i t i c a l  process.  For example, Habermas's communications theory t r e a t s political-economic  structures. analysis  The of  communications  structures  as  systematically  industrial societies.  shape  the  but  be  changes  social  o p e r a t i v e communication  c r i t i c a l aspect of the theory  which  for  i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to assume DIAND's r o l e  achieved through  and  this  i s c e n t r e d i n the  unnecessarily  distorted  l i v e s of c i t i z e n s  in advanced  F o r e s t e r notes:  The s p i n a l element of Habermas' communications theory lies in this c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the disabling communicative power of b u r e a u c r a t i c or capitalistic, undemocratic institutions on the one hand, and the  A number of decision-making t h e o r i s t s d i s s a t i s f i e d with the e l i t i s t , c e n t r a l i z i n g and change r e s i s t a n t tendencies of modern planning approaches propose more r a d i c a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . They are r a d i c a l i n that they demand s i g n i f i c a n t changes to the present socio-economic structures. They a l s o imply the a p p l i c a t i o n of power i n some form, p o l i t i c a l or otherwise, to overcome change r e s i s t a n t t e n d e n c i e s .  38  collective e n a b l i n g power of democratic political criticism, mutual understanding, and s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d consensus on the o t h e r . By understanding a detailed analysis of the requirements of the o r d i n a r y mutual understanding which makes any shared political criticism or t e c h n i c a l analysis p o s s i b l e , Habermas establishes a critical reference point, the p o s s i b i l i t y of p o l i t i c a l l y unobstructed d i s c u s s i o n and common sense (technically, intersubjectivity), to which he can then contrast the distorting communicative influences of concrete productive r e l a t i o n s and the s t r u c t u r e and p o l i c i e s of the s t a t e . It i s c r u c i a l to note, here, that some d i s t o r t i o n s of communication (e.g., imperfect i n f o r m a t i o n ) are i n e v i t a b l e , n e c e s s a r i l y present i n the structure of any political-economy; this i s t r u e of face to face communication as w e l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many d i s t o r t i o n s are not i n e v i t a b l e ; they are a r t i f i c i a l , and thus the illusions they promote may be overcome. (Forester, 1980, p.276)  Habermas demonstrates is distorted existing  that the p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c  i n advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s and  social  and  political-economic  operate as d i s t o r t e d communications. three  suggests  relations  He does so by  how  actually  identifying  l e v e l s of d i s t o r t e d communication which can occur between  p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the planned (e.g.  structure  for:  i)  face  to  face  ambiguity, c o n f u s i o n , d e c e i t , m i s i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . ) ; i i )  organizational  (e.g.  public  exclusion  by  jargon,  hiding  of  motives, unresponsiveness, withheld i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . ) ; and i i i ) political-economic  (  e.g.  mystification,  complexity,  m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p u b l i c good, p o l i c y options w i t h h e l d or misrepresented, e t c . ) . pragmatic  communication  H i s three l e v e l s are based on (Habermas,1979).  broken  they have s p e c i a l  First,  s i n c e planners have l i t t l e  effectiveness  of  their  importance  Once  norms  the norms are  to p l a n n i n g for two or  no  of  political  communication becomes very  reasons.  power  the  important.  39  Second,  planners  must  face  the  effects  of  class-based  communicative a c t i o n s of o t h e r s . Habermas'  argument  increasingly l i k e l y democratic  if  planning  suggests communication d i s t o r t i o n s are planners  proposals.  Schon,1980; preventing obstacles  the  to  strengthening  construction  of  Friedmann,1981)  correcting open  removed  new  He and others (Mannheim,1966;  Heskin,l980; or  more  from  a  process which f a c i l i t a t e s the c r i t i c i s m of  problem d e f i n i t i o n s and policy  become  design  and  Forester,1980;  suggest  ways  of  such d i s t o r t i o n s by a d d r e s s i n g b a s i c  democratic  political  processes,  thereby  and and/or a l t e r i n g the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s  entailed  in these p r o c e s s e s . Schon, f o r example, proposes dialectical  processes.  following features. situation  changes  His  First, as  a p l a n n i n g approach  concept  they  of  are  a  based  on  d i a l e c t i c has  the  processes  a r e s u l t of what you do.  by  which  The  hypothesis  f o r a c t i o n as w e l l as the s i t u a t i o n change i n such a way cause a reframing of the problem. should  be  looked  t h i n k i n g agents their  own  at  as  a dialogue.  on the other end  of  that they c o n s t r u c t , they behave i n F i n a l l y , going back to the Marxian  action  conflicts  (Schon,1980).  and  to  Second, the a c t i o n and change  meanings of the a c t i o n s .  contradictions,  as  the  Schon assumes there are  an On  action  who  construct  the b a s i s of the meaning  response  to  the  sense of d i a l e c t i c ,  dilemmas  action. there are  which s u r f a c e through  40  He c a l l s t h i s  approach  "conversational"  1  planning  and  s t r e s s e s the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : 1) I t would be necessary to remember the sequence of events which make up the s t o r y of c o n v e r s a t i o n . 2) I t would be necessary t o r e c o g n i z e that the meaning of the s i t u a t i o n , and the a c t i o n s taken i n i t , may vary g r e a t l y from one p a r t y to another. 3) In the context of such a search f o r understanding, planners would need to be aware that the planned for may be i n some r e s p e c t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from and some repects q u i t e s i m i l a r t o , themselves. 4) Planners would need to be a t t e n t i v e to changes i n the context which might f a l s i f y assumptions p r e v i o u s l y valid. 5) Planners would need to c u l t i v a t e a h a b i t of a t t e n d i n g to the ways i n which t h e i r own values and purposes may c o n f l i c t with one another -- a nose f o r dilemmas. (Schon, 1980, Pp.10-11). Although  Schon doesn't  be r e a l i z e d assumes  e x p l a i n how  in the e x i s t i n g  and  political  system  one  he does not e n v i s i o n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y process.  He  sees the e v o l u t i o n of the l e v e l of awareness of planners and  the  planned  that  social  c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s to  f o r to the point where they are both ready  a c o n v e r s a t i o n and change i s mutually agreed In the c r i t i c a l  to engage  in  upon.  approach the community i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as  a resource of ideas and. a source of i n f o r m a t i o n . ..Members of the community  1  articulate  their  own  view.  This i s e s s e n t i a l for  Schon, Habermas and Friedmann contend planners may engage in a dialogue or c o n v e r s a t i o n with t h e i r , p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n two d i f f e r e n t senses. On the one hand the planner's moves and the responses of the planned f o r may be seen m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , as a conversation. On the other hand planners and the planned for might literally talk with one another concerning the meanings they have formed f o r t h e i r own and the other's moves.  41  determining the relevance of the i n d i v i d u a l ' i n Tonnies  has  been  credited  with  concepts:  i)  (Tonnies,1957). relationships, of  Gemeinschaft  and  more  ii)  Gesellschaft  Gemeinschaft has to do with sentiment i n s o c i a l emphasizing common t i e s and f e e l i n g s and a sense  moral interdependence and mutual  obligation.  By  contrast,  r a t i o n a l types  relationships. The  like of  this  He d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  G e s e l l s c h a f t has to do with the more u t i l i t a r i a n , of  community.  identifying  a p p r e c i a t i v e aspect of community l i f e . two  the  idea of l o c a l communities  as e s s e n t i a l l y Gemeinschaft-  i n c h a r a c t e r has c a r r i e d over i n t o the community.  Two  subsequent  of these are p a r t i c u l a r l y  understanding of Indian communities  conceptions  r e l e v a n t t o an  from a c r i t i c a l  perspective:  i ) the community as a s o c i a l system and i i ) the community  as  a  d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. A  widely  h e l d viewpoint of the community i s that i t i s an  extremely open s o c i a l system, c o n s t a n t l y r e c e i v i n g  inputs  its  contributing  environment,  the  l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and i n turn  outputs to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y Weaver and Cunningham,1981).  (Cox,1972; An  Warren,1977;  analysis  of  from  Beer,1981;  communities  as  s o c i a l systems serves two primary f u n c t i o n s . First,  it  permits  a comparison of communities  s o c i a l systems to a r r i v e at what i s unique about in c o n t r a s t to other s o c i a l systems it  allows  the  systematic  (Cox, 1972, p.228).  the  community  (Cox, 1972, p.227).  analysis  of  the  concepts that have been developed and a p p l i e d systems  with other  community to  other  Second, using social  There are a number of such concepts  42  which  are  useful  for  this  purpose.  First,  social  a n a l y s i s f o r c e s one to i d e n t i f y the boundaries of geographically and changed vertical  or c o n c e p t u a l l y , and ask how  (Cox,  and  1972,  horizontal  v a r i o u s subunits and schools  and  interest  groups  and  and  units  Weaver  and  been  Finally,  proposed  for  The  the  (Beer,1974;  Through  social  that  have  and f u n c t i o n s of  (Beer,1974;  Warren,1977;  Cunningham,1981). concept  of  the  community as a d i s t r i b u t i o n of power  on  much  more  influence  (Stanbury,1975; Warren,1977). concept has l e d to a  much  critical  State.  It  better  understanding  community  of  community  action.  advocates  the  economic  independence of i n d i v i d u a l s implies  cooperation,  p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and both  the  I t s development as a r e s e a r c h a b l e  approach  s u f f i c i e n c y and p o l i t i c a l  in  what goes on than do others  s t r u c t u r e and the dynamics of community  is  system  structure  exercise  that  government,  there are a number of models  individuals  Welfare  (e.g.  stores,  the nature and f u n c t i o n of such  deals with the f a c t that c e r t a i n  The  (e.g.  Cunningham,1981).  analyzing  have  i s , r e l a t i o n s among  within  the  s o c i a l systems at the community l e v e l Weaver and  a l l systems  outside  corporations)  systems a n a l y s i s one can examine interactions.  Second,  subunits  community,  they are maintained  i n t e r a c t i o n s , that  between  families)  Warren,1977;  p.228).  a  systems  a  form  from  the  participation, of  technology  s o c i a l l y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e  1973; Habermas, 1975; Friedmann,1981;  self-  Boothroyd, 1982).  (Ilich,  43  III.  THE HISTORY OF ON-RESERVE HOUSING  A chronology  of  the h i s t o r i c a l  events  associated  with  Indian housing p o l i c i e s and programs i s presented i n Appendix A. It  i s possible  to d i s t i n g u i s h  h i s t o r i c a l periods programs. and  i n the e v o l u t i o n  1954,  development  intervention  the p r e v i o u s chapter  these events keeping  A.  these  policies  (1967-82).  phase  i n Indian  a c t u a l documentation  records u n t i l that year. in  of  between two d i s t i n c t  Although  housing commenced p r i o r to  of i t does not appear  i n government  Based on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s c u s s e d (see Table 1) i t i s p o s s i b l e t o analyze  i n mind these  characteristics.  EARLY HOUSING ASSISTANCE (1954-67) T h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: i ) a t e c h n i c a l  of the housing problem causes explicit iv)  and  These i n c l u d e : i ) e a r l y housing a s s i s t a n c e (1954-67)  i i ) the community  government  between  ill-health; goals; i i i )  definition  based on the p e r c e p t i o n that poor  ii) a  homogeneous  housing p o l i c y  lack of a d e f i n e d p l a n n i n g  housing without  procedure;  and  a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the community as people d e s c r i b e d by  t h e i r demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - . 1. In  Problem Formulation this  character.  period  The housing problem  the f o l l o w i n g statement The  problem  second  formulation  is  reformist  in  i s d e f i n e d i n t e c h n i c a l terms as  illustrates:  i n t e n s i v e housing  survey to determine the  44  t o t a l housing problem c o n f r o n t i n g the Branch in a l l Indian communities was c a r r i e d out during the year. It revealed that about 23.7 per cent of Indian families are living i n below-standard houses. Principally because of the r a p i d rate of f a m i l y formation and changes i n housing needs due to changing economic c o n d i t i o n s , the demand f o r houses c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e and i t i s becoming more d i f f i c u l t to reduce the backlog. The s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y severe t h i s year as unfavourable economic conditions tended to discourage movement away from the r e s e r v e , while a number of f a m i l i e s found i t necessary to return. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1961, p.56) It  represents  technical  government focused need,  available  on  problem-solving  the  resources  interrelationship and p o p u l a t i o n  p l a c e d on q u a n t i t y s h e l t e r rather than being  constructed  housing roof,  in  u n i t s were an  this  period  uninsulated  w a l l s and windows.  i n the sense that the between  growth.  the  Emphasis was  quality  (DIAND, dwelling  1971, with  Measuring approximately  housing  of  houses  p . 1 ) . The conventional  16'X 20' they  seldom c o n s i s t e d of more than two rooms (DIAND, 1971, p . 1 ) . The average c o s t of these b u i l d i n g s was $2,357 (DIAND, 1971, p.1). By some  1961 the backlog  areas  of need had not been decreased  overcrowding i n these  new p e r c e p t i o n s housing-health  of  the  problem,  relationship.  and  in  small d w e l l i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d to i.e.  the  perception  of  a  The 1957-58 Annual Report s t a t e s :  In the f i e l d of c o n s t r u c t i o n the Department p l a c e d i n c r e a s e d emphasis on house b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r s , b e l i e v i n g improved housing c o n t r i b u t e s not only to the physical needs of the Indians, but a l s o t o t h e i r morale and economic conditions. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1958, p.47) Although  no d i r e c t  reference  i s c l e a r that housing  i s made to h e a l t h at t h i s time, i t  i s p e r c e i v e d as a c o n t r i b u t i n g  factor  to  45  many  "Indian"  conditions .  T h i s view was l i k e l y  the p r e v a i l i n g housing l i t e r a t u r e Pinkerton  and  empirical  evidence  and h e a l t h . planning  Tayback,1962; of  (Lander,1954; W i l n e r ,  Schorr,1963)  which  was  Walkley, seeking  the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing  I t was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the  profession  i n f l u e n c e d by  itself  development  and i t s e a r l y  of  the  focus on the p h y s i c a l  development of the c i t y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and health  (Heskin,1980;  2. The is  Jacobs and  Stevenson,1981).  Policy first  statement'of  government, p o l i c y on Indian  found i n the 1953-54 Annual  housing  Report:  Departmental policy i s that the housing requirements of the s i c k and aged are given f i r s t consideration. Assistance also i s given to the able-bodied Indians who, because of l a r g e f a m i l i e s or inadequate incomes, are unable to assume the e n t i r e c o s t of b u i l d i n g or improving t h e i r homes. In these cases the Indians c o n t r i b u t e i n accordance with t h e i r a b i l i t y , e i t h e r by providing m a t e r i a l s or labour or both. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1954, p.50) Policy  in  this  homogeneous of  period  is  reformist  in  character.  It i s  i n nature with no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the needs  Indian groups i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of  the  country.  At  this  time policy-making i n g e n e r a l was more concerned with e f f i c i e n c y than  with  equity  (Rittel  and  Webber,1973;  Doern  and  they  are  Aucoin,1979). Policy explicit  and  goals  are  reformist  task-oriented.  in  Their  character  as  primary aim i s to provide  a s s i s t a n c e to Indians i n o b t a i n i n g adequate housing. intended to s o l v e only a d e l i m i t e d problem  They  are  and imply that Indian  46  people  should  t h i s task.  The  assume some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1956-57 Annual Report  f o r completing  states:  Wherever p o s s i b l e Indian bands are encouraged to meet the housing needs of the reserves by community a c t i o n . Band councils are given every opportunity to participate in planning, and are requested to s t i p u l a t e p r i o r i t y amongst a p p l i c a n t s for a s s i s t a n c e . Indians are meeting half the c o s t s of house c o n s t r u c t i o n from funds a v a i l a b l e to them. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1957, p.50)  From a very e a r l y date the favour  of  the  concept  government  process  into action.  e s s e n t i a l l y as a means of well-being was  likely  of  Indian  enhancing  people  the  through  believed  through  sources  as  housing.  Planning  the  provincial  other  to a l l e v i a t e a  viewed social  T h i s commitment goal,  i.e.  as w e l l as  governments.  the community development process receive  services  Canadians, thereby  It  Indians  from  the  reducing dependence p.27).  Procedure  absence of a d e f i n e d planning procedure classical  and  themselves,  There i s no d e f i n e d planning procedure  the  community  f o r the a d i m i n i s t r a t i o n  upon the Indian A f f a i r s Branch (Weaver, 1981, 3.  a  economic  Indian s e r v i c e s to the Indian people,  would become more s e l f - r e l i a n t and same  put  r e l a t e d to a more general Indian p o l i c y  other f e d e r a l departments and was  to  in  There were,  Community development was  the d e v o l u t i o n of f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  implicitly  of community development.  however, no p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s at t h i s time planning  was  approach. crisis  is a  E a r l y housing  situation  as  in t h i s p e r i o d . characteristic  a s s i s t a n c e was  the  following  The of  provided statement  47  suggests: Early housing was l i m i t e d by depression and wartime lack of funds c r e a t i n g a backlog of need which, when coupled with expanding postwar e x p e c t a t i o n s , reached c r i s i s proportions. (DIAND, 1971, p.2) L i k e many planning government to  a  problems, on-reserve housing o r i g i n a t e d as  intervention  crisis  or s e r i e s of i n t e r v e n t i o n s  (Webber  and  Rittel,1973;  a  i n response  Armitage,  1975;  Heskin,1980). There are  four  interventions  key  i n t e r v e n t i o n s during  are u n r e l a t e d  strategy.  However  they  components  of  present  the  present program i s l a r g e multi-objectives, agencies, and  have  and  wide  the  to  evolved  housing  the F e d e r a l  „non-Indians  in  Immigration,1959). same  This  extremely  complex  in  needs.  been r e v i s e d to r e f l e c t the years. In  Part  addition  eligible  for  1959  The  a  the  shelter  terms  of  sources. provided  Historically  by  the  the  Indian  i n meeting  attempted to respond.  (Dept.  on  of  assistance  the  same  basis  Citizenship has  s c a l e of a s s i s t a n c e ,  rise  The  d i f f e r e n t government  government f o r help  remained however,  i n the c o s t of l i v i n g over  of t h i s s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to  of  Government has  form of  to the present day.  central  program.  for s o c i a l assistance  April,  the  housing  participation  Indians became e l i g i b l e as  form  on-reserve  people have looked to the F e d e r a l t h e i r needs and  to  form of housing a s s i s t a n c e  meet  These  without d i r e c t i o n or an o v e r a l l  a broad range of funding  F i r s t , was government  and  t h i s period.  and the has the  i s a s h e l t e r allowance.  allowance  housing subsidy in 1962.  Indians The  also  became  subsidy has  also  48  been r e v i s e d a number of times s i n c e 1962 to keep pace with the cost of l i v i n g The  second  loan agency. the  (see Appendix A ) . intervention  Housing  Housing  to  obtain  Act which house  Act programs.  enabled  financing  Loans  repayment  involvement attempt direct  to  of  loans.  This  i n Indian housing. explore  qualified  through  f o r houses  through the R e v o l v i n g Loan Fund and a for  of CMHC as a  In 1956 r e v i s i o n s were made t o the Indian Act and  National  applicants  was the involvement  were made p o s s i b l e guarantee  the beginning  I t can be  alternative  the N a t i o n a l  ministerial  was  Indian  viewed  as  1  of CMHC an  early  funding mechanisms apart  from  government a s s i s t a n c e .  The  third  connection  i n t e r v e n t i o n was the o p e r a t i o n  with  house  economic development.  construction  of  sawmills  in  as a means of s t i m u l a t i n g  The 1953-54 Annual  Report  states:  In connection with the housing program, the Indian Affairs Branch operated approximately 40 sawmills d u r i n g 1953-54. These were l o c a t e d i n areas where sawn timber i s not a v a i l a b l e and i n those where the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p r o h i b i t i v e . The work was performed .-by Indians under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the local field staff. (Dept. of Citizenship and Immigration, 1954, p.52) House  construction  investment  and  i s also  seen  employment  as  as the  an  important  following  source of statement  If a band r e f u s e s t o meet i t s commitment to repay the loan the Minister of Indian A f f a i r s i s called upon t o honour h i s guarantee of repayment, t h i s i s done by paying the amount of the loan, p l u s accrued i n t e r e s t , from the Fund and r e c o v e r i n g t h i s expenditure from the Indian monies of the band as these are or may become a v a i l a b l e .  49  illustrates: Skills a c q u i r e d by the Indians through v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and experience i n b u i l d i n g their own homes opened new job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r them i n house building. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1958, p.49)  The of  final  formal  Indian  Indian  Homes"  needs  fhe  i n t h i s p e r i o d i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n  standards. an  a l l reserves.  state  communities.  housing  reflects  c o n d i t i o n s on actually  intervention  objective It  was  The to the  booklet  "Canadian  reform the p h y s i c a l first  attempt  type of housing that would e x i s t particular  physical  a s s o c i a t e d with housing such as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n ,  hygiene,  f a c i l i t i e s , etc..  emphasis  on  i n Indian  the  sanitary  It placed  to  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n e x p l a i n s the  aim of the b o o k l e t : to help the f i e l d a d m i n s t r a t i o n and Indians i n selecting housing p l a n s , determining a p p r o p r i a t e specifications and g u i d i n g community development, house grouping, s a n i t a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n of s i t e , sewage d i s p o s a l , e t c . I t i s expected that the use of t h i s handbook by Indian A f f a i r s s t a f f , Indian c o u n c i l s and individual Indians will promote the orderly development of Indian communities and adequate standards of housing, hygiene and e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1960, p.55)  4.  C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Of The Community  The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the community i n also reformist of  people  in character. described  according t o geographic  by  this  The community i s viewed demographic  location.  information  For example:  period  is  as a group compiled  50  The Department's housing and community development programs must meet the needs of approximately 190,000 Indians i n almost 600 Indian communities across Canada in every c o n c e i v a b l e v a r i e t y of circumstances. Extension of h y d r o - e l e c t r i c s e r v i c e s to many reserves has given easier access to such amenities as tap water, indoor plumbing, refrigeration, entertainment and education through r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , and has c o n t r i b u t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y to reducing the gap between standards of Indian and non-Indian communities. (Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1962, p.33) This c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was the  usefulness  provided  of  information  communities  which  popular d u r i n g the p e r i o d because  of  such data i n t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g .  It  about  could  the  be  housing  utilized  needs  in  of  Indian  measuring  progress  towards s o l u t i o n of the problem. 5.  S o c i a l And  There are formulation  and  a  Political  number  of  Results results  implementation  associated  in t h i s period.  with  policy  First,  housing  c o n t r i b u t e d to the a s s i m i l a t i o n of Indian people. hand  i t was  viewed  as a way  The  the  one  of moving some Indians o f f - r e s e r v e ,  thereby i n t e g r a t i n g them i n t o the l a r g e r system.  On  social  and  political  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n suggests t h i s :  It i s our p o l i c y to a s s i s t i n the re-establishment of Indian f a m i l i e s i n o f f - r e s e r v e l o c a t i o n s particularly in cases where reserves have l i t t l e economic potential... (DIAND, 1967, p.1)  On  the other hand the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of  occurring  with  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of new,  and settlement forms on r e s e r v a t i o n s .  Indian  people  was  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l house  By a c c u l t u r a t i o n I  refer  51  to the process where i n d i v i d u a l s from a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e acquire the  language,  attitudes,  h e l d i n common by variables and  may  members  of  a  dominant  be construed as one  settlement  Stea,l975).  form  by producing  degrees  of c u l t u r a l  which are  culture.  Cultural  set of determinants  (Rapaport,1969;  a p o p u l a t i o n of  Sadalla,  of house  Snyder  and  at  t r a d i t i o n a l at the other Second, housing competition  one  extreme  in  a  particularly  the  single-detached  varying  modern,  Stea,  Traditionally  1975,  cooperative,  in  the  Indians  from non-  p.1).  in  this  1975;  Duff,  northwest,  period  dwellings.  provided  communal f a s h i o n along 1980).  for  as  or more to l i v e and work under one  houses c o n s t r u c t e d  with  c o n t r i b u t e d to i n c r e a s i n g i n d i v i d u a l i s m and  other needs (Morgan,1881; Stanbury,  hundred people  to  ( S a d a l l a , Snyder and  among Indian people.  shelter  individuals  i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n to house form, ranging  the h i g h l y t r a d i t i o n a l  common,  skills  Housing t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e s to the a c c u l t u r a t i v e  process  their  b e l i e f s , values and  were  It  many as  roof.  The  predominantly  with was one new  small,  Along with other changes that were  o c c u r r i n g on Indian reserves new  house form  likely  contributed  to the breakdown of the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n s h i p system by  separating  families. Third housing.  was  the emergence of welfare values a s s o c i a t e d with  I n d i v i d u a l s now  government  assistance  had  to  relative  demonstrate to  other  their  need  individuals.  for  Indian  bands were encouraged to s t i p u l a t e p r i o r i t y amongst a p p l i c a t i o n s for  housing  mechanism  assistance.  The  equity  or  fairness  of  this  for d i s t r i b u t i n g a s s i s t a n c e v a r i e d from band to band,  52  depending  on the power s t r u c t u r e of a p a r t i c u l a r community.  apparently  still  It  v a r i e s to the present day but l i t t l e r e s e a r c h  has been undertaken  thus f a r to determine  the  fairness  of  the  present mechanism. Finally  there  was  the  emergence  of the p e r c e p t i o n of a  "housing" problem and the need to do something problem  was  results  or  attention  defined "ends"  to  political  the  in  a  were  technical  sought.  influence  it  it.  The  f a s h i o n and i n s t r u m e n t a l  The was  government  payed  no  having on the s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s of knowledge, consent and  communities.  about  trust  in  and  Indian  Consequently p a r t i c u l a r p a t h o l o g i e s of domination  and undemocratic  p o l i t i c s c o u l d be expected to occur.  If DIAND and Indian people viewed on-reserve housing from a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e they would not understand formed  problem,  unique to each housing  as  Indian  community.  By  approaching  a process of i n q u i r y w i t h i n a l a r g e r  functions.  The  both  fashion  in  which  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the mutual  the  socio-  in  and  view,  l e a r n i n g and e v o l u t i o n of the  Indian people.  affected  by  deep l e v e l the s o c i a l e f f e c t s and behaviour p a t t e r n s  some Indian  people  can  ideological  contradiction  sense  confusion,  of  and  "end"  planning, i . e .  of  situation,  i t collects  r e l a t i o n s of those i n v o l v e d i n and  a  well-  socio-economic  socio-political  On  a  on-reserve  technical  presents i n f o r m a t i o n should serve not j u s t but  as  but as a p r o b l e m a t i c socio-economic  system, DIAND's. r o l e would perform political  it  be in  viewed  as  a  response  the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  passivity,  dependence,  to  system.  an The  inadequate  53  maintenance  of  homes  and lack of c o n f i d e n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n  some bands were the r e s u l t of a p o l i t i c a l  system  that  accepts  economic and s o c i a l i n e q u i t y . On  a  more  direct  level  some of the p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s of  DIAND had s u b t l e communicative e f f e c t s on Indian norms  of  face  organizational are  broken  to  (e.g.  face  (e.g.  DIAND with  responsible  planner  Indian  political  communication  cooperation The  are  violated  action  mutual  When  band)  using  a  critical  systematic  contradiction  intentions  and  communication  i s impossible. and  seen  For  legitimacy  learning,  trust  housing  approach.  between,  in this period  can  and  to  be  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a  on  the  one  hand,  the  assumptions of the government and, on the other  hand, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and responses of the Indian people be  or  suffer.  e v o l u t i o n of on-reserve  analyzed  with  people)  example, when the c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y , s i n c e r i t y , of  people.  exist.  This  contradiction  manifests  can  i t s e l f in  d i s t o r t e d communications between DIAND and the Indian people and pathologies passivity among  associated and  B.C.  distribution  with  dependence.  Indian  bands  domination There in  assistance,  passivity  and  as  ignorance,  considerable  patterns  and consumption of housing,  government  dependence,  was  the  p e r i o d almost a l l of them met t h e i r some  such  of  production,  but by the end of t h i s  s h e l t e r requirements  implying ignorance  variation  a  certain  through  degree  of  i n d e a l i n g with t h e i r own  problems. The  f e d e r a l government i n i t i a l l y got i n v o l v e d i n on-reserve  54  housing  because of the d e p l o r a b l e l i v i n g  reserves  conditions  new p h y s i c a l surroundings  The government  on Indian people  Individuals  adapt  to the imposed  their  norms and behaviours  T h i s added to the e x i s t i n g c o n f u s i o n experiencing  Indians  or the planned  p h y s i c a l surroundings f a i l e d to maintain  i s debateable  to  surroundings.  stress  many  Indians  due  to  already  f o r , responded  i n a number of ways.  existing of  social  maintenance  with  already  s t u d i e s to support existing  maintenance. Indian  social  to  maintain  Second,  anomie, type  of  e i t h e r view, but I contend that the  made i t even their  housing  more  inadequate  difficult  because  a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s on them f o r change, apart were a l r e a d y  houses  There i s no  problems were the cause of  Modern housing  people  of  the  maintenance problems encountered i n modern housing. empirical  1980-81).  problems (e.g.  inexperience  to the  F i r s t , many  the new houses (Interviews,  whether the inadequate  a l c o h o l i s m ) or the r e s u l t  from  for  i t placed those  they  experiencing. there  were cases of i n d i v i d u a l s making  changes t o the design of government a s s i s t e d housing  1  forced  i n a d j u s t i n g to the i n t e r f a c e between modern  Indian people,  imposed  was  were  t r a d i t i o n a l values and b e l i e f s . The  It  and  imposed  through the design of  houses and layout of s e t t l e m e n t s .  and  Indian  which was b e l i e v e d to be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o disease and a  high m o r t a l i t y rate among Indian people.  were  on  structural so that i t  There i s no documentation of these cases. The author has r e l i e d on the p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s r e l a t e d to him by interviewees i n DIAND and Indian communities.  55  fit  i n with the  example,  the  existing knocking  e x i s t i n g and new housing  B.  THE  norms  and  beliefs.  did  This  was  telling  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PHASE (1967-1982)  planning  procedure;  community. stressing  Housing  procedure  and  housing  policy;  i i i ) the  policy  goals.  occurs  The  during  evolves  emergence this  from  and  participation, 1.  ideas  capable  one  of  period.  i n i t i a t i v e and  of  a  the  type  homogeneous  of the one  s t r e s s i n g both task defined  planning the  social  system  through  Indian with  community  self-reliance.  Problem Formulation  reformist  statements  following  Finally,  progress  The on-reserve housing problem  throughout  ii)  a  community becomes c o n c e p t u a l i z e d more as a resources  i n the  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  task g o a l s to a heterogeneous  process  a  that  groups.  ways: i ) the nature of the  in  planners  not accomodate the c u l t u r a l needs of some  T h i s p e r i o d d i f f e r s from the preceding one  and  For  1  out of w a l l s or adding on extensions to  dwellings.  designs  i n d i v i d u a l s and  social  the  manner. entire  It period,  is as  continues to defined the  in  be  formulated  technical  terms  f o l l o w i n g , government  indicate:  When your housing program i s complete, working together we w i l l have b u i l t at l e a s t 12,350 homes over a f i v e year p e r i o d . (DIAND, 1967, p. 1) If the on-reserve housing backlog i s to be e l i m i n a t e d before the end of the century, new housing s t a r t s w i l l  56  have to reach a minimum level of 3,500 per annum w i t h i n the next three to four years. At the same time, the l e v e l of major r e p a i r s w i l l have to reach 5,000 per annum and be s u s t a i n e d at that l e v e l for a number of y e a r s . (DIAND, 1980, p.3)  While  housing  can a c t u a l l y be p e r c e i v e d  deeper problem, i . e . people,  the  substantive complex  the socio-economic  government problem.  problems  chose  to  Technical  by breaking  as a symptom of a  conditions  formulate  problem  of  Indian  i t as a separate  solving  deals  with  them down i n t o p a r t s which can be  handled more e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y by  separate  sub-units  of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  perception  relationship,  of  a  housing problem as a  i n which b e t t e r housing  contributes  housing/health to  improved  health,  i s more c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n DIAND's p o l i c i e s  in this  period.  For example i n 1967 s e l e c t i o n s  by  M i n i s t e r of Indian  Affairs  from  speeches  the  state:  One of the major b e n e f i t s w i l l be i n the subsequent improvement of h e a l t h standards. (DIAND, 1967, p.1) W e b e l i e v e that poor housing and poor environment are principal c o n t r i b u t o r s to the poor h e a l t h and poverty of the Indian people. (DIAND, 1967, p.1)  The disease  1977 D i s c u s s i o n and  poverty  Paper  but  also  relates deaths  housing  not  only  to  due to f i r e s on Indian  reserves: The lack of housing has meant s e r i o u s overcrowding of two or more f a m i l i e s i n t o small substandard houses which o f t e n lack basic f a c i l i t i e s . Poor housing and inadequate sanitary facilities are blatant c o n t r i b u t o r s to the high i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e , to the  57  r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s and to deaths by f i r e which strike Indian people in numbers so highly d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e to those f o r the r e s t of the Canadian population. (DIAND, 1977, p.2)  By which  1980 DIAND a l s o begins suggested  health.  a  direct  citing  some  relationship  The 1980 D i s c u s s i o n Paper  empirical  between  studies  housing  and  states:  These housing c o n d i t i o n s b r i n g results which extend well beyond housing per se . A recent study undertaken by the M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s Branch of H e a l t h and Welfare Canada stated that on-reserve housing c o n d i t i o n s such as overcrowding and poor ventilation have been implicated i n the i n c r e a s e d frequency of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e i n i n f a n t s and young c h i l d r e n . Other illnesses of h i g h frequency such as middle ear i n f e c t i o n s , s k i n i n f e c t i o n s and gastroenteritis were a l s o found to be r e l a t e d t o inadequate housing and overcrowding. Additionally, on-reserve housing c o n d i t i o n s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to an on-reserve f i r e death rate that i s nine times the national average. In 1978, 186 homes were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e and 55 deaths r e s u l t e d . (DIAND, 1980, p.9)  T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s how the process of f o r m u l a t i n g the problem and of c o n c e i v i n g a s o l u t i o n or r e - s o l u t i o n identical. also  a  T h i s i s because  specification  health  than  i s perceived  improvement  of  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the s o l u t i o n . conditions  and  fire  false  almost  rates  for a planning action. as  housing The  fact  associated  c o n d i t i o n s have not d r a s t i c a l l y years  i t are  each s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the problem i s  of the d i r e c t i o n  Thus i f inadequate housing  to  improved  the  cause  services that  of i l l  becomes  Indian  a  health  with s o c i a l and l i v i n g in  the  last  twenty  (DIAND, 1980) , imp-lies the s o l u t i o n has been d i r e c t e d at a cause.  58  2.  Pol i c y  At the beginning differentiates  of  this  between  (DIAND,1967).  period  Indians  Indian  living  housing  on  and  I t does not, however, d i f f e r e n t i a t e  policy  off-reserve between  the  needs, a s p i r a t i o n s and l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s of v a r i o u s Indian bands, implying  it  is  goals are s t i l l  still  t a s k - o r i e n t e d as t h e i r primary  a s s i s t a n c e to Indian houses  people  (DIAND,1967).  characteristic 1977  reformist in character.  A  in  Paper.  major  The  aim i s to provide  constructing shift  of a c r i t i c a l approach, can be  Discussion  As w e l l , p o l i c y  Paper  and in  rennovating  policy,  detected  includes  the  more  i n the following  pr inc i p l e s : 1) To p r o v i d e each Indian individual and f a m i l y , regardless of income, with the o p p o r t u n i t y to secure decent, safe and s a n i t a r y housing through their Band or on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . 2) To c r e a t e jobs f o r unemployed and underemployed Indians through the c a p i t a l inputs required f o r the construction and rennovation of housing , c o o r d i n a t e d with Manpower and Immigration (M&I) job c r e a t i o n funds. 3) To develop a new d e l i v e r y system responsive to Indian decision-making, s u p p o r t i v e of the concept of Indian people managing t h e i r own a f f a i r s and f l e x i b l e in meeting a wide range of d i f f e r i n g housing needs and local conditions. 4) To place responsibility for the construction and management of Band housing in the hands of Band C o u n c i l s .  design, programs  5) To u t i l i z e the programs and resources of DIAND, CMHC, M&I, DREE, and N.H.& W. to t a c k l e the problem of Indian housing. (DIAND, 1977, Pp.2-3).  The  third principle  i m p l i e s a more heterogeneous p o l i c y  as  59  it  proposes  a  more  number .of housing process-goal deal two  needs.  approach  The  fourth  f o r meeting a d i v e r s e  principle  because i t aims at developing  with housing  needs.  interrelated  determination the  flexible  This s h i f t  factors:  i)  represents  an Indian c a p a c i t y to  i n p o l i c y can be t r a c e d to  Prime  Minister  Trudeau's  to r a t i o n a l i z e government decision-making;  development  of  mechanisms  a  for  Indian  and i i )  participation  in  decision-making. When Trudeau came to power i n 1968 the policy-making These  changes  departmental  procedures  placed  w i t h i n the f e d e r a l  T h i s i s evident  in Indian housing  there  was  no  policy  goals  are  explicitly  Trudeau's  changes  participation.  was  From  meetings were c a r r i e d revisions  to  a d v i s o r s and  per  the  se  stated  DIAND,1977;  to  change  government.  c o n s t r a i n t s on M i n i s t e r s and  o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n DIAND who  (DIAND,1970;  1  new  he attempted  had  to formulate  p o l i c y because p r i o r  actual  policy  DIAND,1980; DIAND,1981). an  July,  increasing 1968  out  with  Indian  Act.  senior policy.  to  (DIAND,1967), whereas a f t e r in  to  emphasis June,  Indian At  the  1  1970 1970  documents Included in on  citizen  1969 c o n s u l t a t i o n  people same  in  regard  to  time Trudeau's  s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s were f o r m u l a t i n g the c o n t r o v e r s i a l  Trudeau attempted to change c a b i n e t ' s operations so that p o l i c i e s would r e f l e c t p o l i t i c a l , not bureaucratic values and opinions. Trudeau d i s t r u s t e d the bureaucracy and hoped to s t r e a m l i n e the p o l i c y process by centralizing i t around the cabinet and pulling i t away from the incrementalism he f e l t c i v i l servants p r e f e r r e d . One of h i s major changes was the introduction of the Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS). I t was to ensure that each government department had a clear idea of i t s goals and o b j e c t i v e s and e v a l u a t e d them through the budgetary process.  60  White Paper, which proposed rights. the  The  the t e r m i n a t i o n of Indians'  Indian people  consultation  felt  process  special  betrayed by the government  they  had  participated  and in  (Cardinal,1969). As  a  result  political  of  pressure  organizations,  arrangement  national  and  regional  c o n s u l t a t i o n process was  1970's.  for  f a i l u r e of the 1969 White Paper  from  a new  government i n the  the  The  process  consultation.  At  top  a  two-tiered  was  a  committee of M i n i s t e r s from the S o c i a l P o l i c y Cabinet who  would  ministers  occasionally would  set  meet  policy  with  Indian  priorities,  Indian  c o n s i d e r e d by the  entailed the  special Committee  leaders. review  These  financial  commitments  and make recommendations to cabinet on broad  directions.  They were to be a s s i s t e d  bureaucratic  Indian  Civil,  participants  t h i s group. leaders  servants  from  and  In 1975  NIB  They wanted more d i r e c t  NIB  number  of  comprise  as  Indian  a new  structure  Committee.  and  cabinet  was  I t brought  political  developed  and the government who  called  the  Joint  together e x e c u t i v e members of  m i n i s t e r s , mainly  l e v e l was  involvement  1980).  from the S o c i a l  Committee of Cabinet, to d i s c u s s major p o l i c y this  1975  a  unhappy with t h e i r s o l e l y b u r e a u c r a t i c connection  in making d e c i s i o n s (Pontings and Gibbons,  the  equal  by  i s s u e s in  Indian a s s o c i a t i o n s were to  for policy-making purposes.  Cabinet-NIB  an  The process remained dormant u n t i l  were  policy  i n t h i s p o l i c y work  support group which would explore p o l i c y  c o n s i d e r a b l e depth.  and  a support  issues.  Policy Beneath  group o f s t a f f members from  were to prepare  in-depth analyses  of  61  policy  issues  shortlived.  In  frustration  the  different  for  the  1978  the NIB  Indian  Joint  Before the NIB's  withdrawal  a  technical  program.  T h i s report had  report  subsequent p o l i c i e s and  point  that  1981 it  process-oriented. First,  a  a  with  The  There  are  pressure Indian  the  a  reserves  DIAND's  was  3.  Planning  The  and  more general  housing p o l i c y  and  influence  evolved and  on  to  much  that Indian  more  housing  Finally,  goals  planning  (DIAND,p.4, 1981).  organizations  the  the  program o b j e c t i v e s .  toward community-based  continued  conditions  to on  the on-reserve housing  (DIAND,1980).  a  with  defined the  planning  Despite  on  a  of  in  policies  entire  this and  government.  t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l to move toward what I  term a c r i t i c a l approach the planning was  procedure  rationalization  o c c u r r i n g throughout the  implement  to  Procedure  coincides  period  the  of reasons for t h i s .  programs that was  entire  severe  process-oriented  as g e t t i n g worse  emergence of  efforts  was  theoretical  self-government  (NIB,1980).  perceived  Indian  number  the government to improve  problem was  period  reason  the  able  heterogeneous  policy  the development of Indian second  committee  housing p o l i c y had  DIAND's t h r u s t at t h i s time was and  the  strong  completely  the  of  programs (DIAND,1977; DIAND,1980; DIAND,  heterogeneous  coincided  on  on-reserve was  because  was  committee.  complete  By  withdrew  T h i s committee  s i d e experienced in n e g o t i a t i n g with  l e v e l s of the  1981).  Committee.  reformist  community-based  in  procedure throughout  character.  planning  and  this  I t attempted to decentralize  the  62  administration  of  the  programs  to  the r e g i o n a l and  district  l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I t intended that d e c i s i o n s would be  more e q u i t a b l e as  districts  accountable  regions,  f o r t h e i r own  Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and  bands  became  more  planning a c t i o n s , as w e l l as i n c r e a s e  in the process  (Ponting  and  Gibbons,1980;  Aucoin and Doern,1979). The p l a n n i n g process f a i l e d , however, as major d e c i s i o n s as to  how  civil  and  f o r what money was  servants in  incremental  national  throughout  financial  and  D e c i s i o n s were based on assessments DIAND, limited  headquarters.  These  r e s i d e d with s e n i o r Decisions  f o c u s i n g on ways  delivery reviews  of  assesments  the a v a i l a b l e data.  of  functions the  of the "housing" problem  1977). by  , still  remained  t h i s p e r i o d e n t a i l i n g only minor changes  to the e x i s t i n g program and existing  spent  improving  of  the program.  current  program  (DIAND, 1981;  were  the  highly  DIAND,  technical  and 1980; and  For example, the most a c c u r a t e  assessment of on-reserve housing needs (DIAND,1979) makes only a rough approximation of the i n d i c a t o r s used by CMHC and does even attempt  to measure housing  Community-based  planning  through a f i v e - y e a r program Indian housing separate  communities. up  to  housing  affordability. was  for  first  the  T h i s program was  acceptable programs:  introduced  physical  in  development  1966 of  designed to b r i n g Indian  standards. i)  not  Subsidy  It  established  Housing  four  Program; i i )  63  Indian  On-Reserve  Housing  Housing Programs; and The  Band  planning.  administrative  1  i i i ) Band Administered  i v ) Indian Off-Reserve  Administered Indian  Program  Housing  Band  Programs e n t a i l  Councils  reponsibility  Housing  -for  are  p r o v i d e comprehensive  Council  proceeding  resolution  with  a  assume  housing  programs  i n f o r m a t i o n as to the manner i n which  the Band C o u n c i l intends to conduct Band  to  housing programs.  They are expected to develop revenue-producing and  community-based  encouraged  t h e i r own  Program.  has  housing  its  proposed  to be passed program.  It  program.  A  i n each band before must  include  the  following information: 1) Number of housing units request f o r a s s i s t a n c e . .  needed  2) Estimated number of new family p e r i o d of proposed program.  at the time of  formations  during  3) Estimated number of years r e q u i r e d to e l i m i n a t e e x i s t i n g backlog of housing requirements (including new family f o r m a t i o n s ) . 4) T o t a l amount of Departmental  a s s i s t a n c e requested.  5) Amount of departmental a s s i s t a n c e requested f o r each f i s c a l year of the proposed program. 6) An i n d i c a t i o n of amount to be p a i d from Band and p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  funds  7) O u t l i n e of proposed plan of program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g manner in which recovery of funds will be made, i e . by s a l e , r e n t a l , r e n t a l - p u r c h a s e , e t c . . 8) A statement that the Band C o u n c i l w i l l assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program.  1  At t h i s time the name of t h i s program r e f e r r e d to the loans CMHC made a v a i l a b l e through the NHA. The name would l a t e r be used to r e f e r to a l l the housing programs as one comprehensive housing program.  64  9) The name of the q u a l i f i e d a u d i t o r who will assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program. 10) A statement that the Band C o u n c i l w i l l adopt standards f o r determining the size of houses, the amount of a s s i s t a n c e and a l l o c a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s , which are comparable with those observed in respect of the Branch Subsidy Housing Program. 11) A statement that a l l books and records r e l a t e d to the housing program w i l l be a c c e s s i b l e at a l l times to the Branch or to an a u d i t o r appointed by the Branch. (DIAND, 1968, Pp.4-5)  While  these s t i p u l a t i o n s  effectiveness  of  delivering  were  intended  Indian  housing  l o c a l c o n t r o l over programs, they s t i l l government  control  over  the  to  lives  the  and the sense of  imply a of  increase  great  Indian  deal  people.  of This  c o n t r a d i c t ion • i s a r e c u r r i n g theme throughout  t h i s p e r i o d of on-  reserve housing.  this  holding  onto  money was  DIAND continued to e x e r c i s e  the  spent.  responsibility  right  to s p e c i f y how,  the  program  because  Others became discouraged with the  financial bands  (Mason,1980).  and  despite  strategies. designing  Bands their  incentives  its  efforts were  own  for  length  control in :  solutions.  self-reliance  directly  increasing  emphasis  attributable  to  on  time  the  whole  continued to assume  different  planning  from d e f i n i n g problems and The  continued  further  dependency on the government in some cases The  of  and d i r e c t i o n over many  trying  prevented  greater  of i t s c o m p l e x i t i e s .  The department  administrative  by  f o r what, and by whom  Many Bands were i n c a p a b l e of assuming of  procedure took  control  absence  reinforced  of  welfare  (DIAND,1980).  community-based  planning  is  DIAND's o v e r a l l e f f o r t s at d e v o l v i n g  65  and d e c e n t r a l i z i n g and  its  decentralization  control  over  planning  responsibilities.  Devolution  are both aimed at d e c r e a s i n g  departmental  individual  devolution,  DIAND  has  and had  Band  initiative.  limited  success  agreements with the provinces on welfare because  most  provinces  federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . federal  continue  to  delivery  system  so  f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support Indian bands' dependency on DIAND Regarding 1970's  as  Indians  argue that Indians are a  a  result  Assistant  that  aimed  at  other  departments'  be  ways of  coordinated,  extend  to  to  of the f r u s t r a t i o n and resentment f e l t by  Deputy  levels  Minister  regional  and Peter  the  level  headquarters, of  the  the  Indian  people.  Lesaux, DIAND began a  with  districts  themselves (Ponting and Gibbons, Some  and  reduced.  process of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i t s a d m i n s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y national  other  In f a c t many of the  are  can  with  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , a major change came i n the mid-  DIAND's r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t Under  establishing for  I t has had g r e a t e r success  major changes to the planning procedure the  in  programs  departments and with Indian bands.  improving  Respecting  the and  from  i n t e n t that i t  then  the  bands  1980, Pp.112-113).  major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s such as the development of new  housing  programs were t r a n s f e r r e d  bands.  The a l l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds  the  various  the  Indian  regions people  concerning  the  budget and  direct  and t h e i r have  to  the  Regions  respective d i s t r i c t s .  considerable  input  into  the  grants  Indian  i s different in  into  a l l o c a t i o n of the region's c a p i t a l input  and  In B.C. decisions  expenditures  and c o n t r i b u t i o n s  66  budget.  They have l e s s input  1  i n t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n  between d i s t r i c t s and between bands w i t h i n By policy  1975  both  implementation.  Joint-Cabinet  fundamental the  of  creation for  stressed  Indian  changes  structures  and NIB  The program  Committee  and c o n d i t i o n s  for  DIAND  to of  felt  of  districts.  the need f o r changes i n  o b j e c t i v e s developed by the l o c a l needs,  people  funds  but  they  did  the  aspirations not  suggest  the e x i s t i n g planning procedure except special  increasing  area/regional  Indian  decision-making  participation  (NIB/DIAND,  1976). In l i n e with these program  o b j e c t i v e s the  Paper proposed a more comprehensive The  emphasis  deployment  in  delivery  of  roles,  structures  system.  on the c o - o r d i n a t e d and  Most of the paper d e a l t with the and  DREE  integrated  p.12).  There  some obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s proposed program  f o r the  (DIAND,  1977,  For example a memorandum from the B.C.  at  and  band ,  regions.  activities  timely  the  a r e a / r e g i o n a l and national, l e v e l s were  Discussion  of f e d e r a l resources from DIAND, CMHC, M&I,  (DIAND, 1977, p.6). system  t h i s paper was  and complex  1977  Region  stated:  The Indian Reserve Housing Program w i l l generate the following needs f o r comprehensive planning a s s i s t a n c e to Bands and Departmental Programs and S e r v i c e s : 1) E s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of data systems f o r multi-usership i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of housing needs and p r i o r i t i e s (this ties i n with the Regional Planners' work on comprehensive community p r o f i l e s ) . 2)  Facilitation  of  the  community planning process  Band _ a d m i n i s t e r e d housing programs come under c o n t r i b u t i o n s as a p a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o p r i a t i o n .  grants  and  67  which a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s the Band l e a d e r s h i p and the community in e v o l v i n g indigenous housing s t r a t e g i e s , which are reponsive to needs for shelter and servicing, and other needs for socio-economic development and p o l i t i c a l advancement. 3) P r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n n i n g documents as guidelines for implementing comprehensive and i n t e r r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l and a c t i v i t y programs ( i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g parameters f o r E&A i n p u t ) . 4) C o n t i n u i n g and active promotion of implementing community plans, including through advancement of joint federal/provincial initiatives. (DIAND/B.C. Region, 1976, p.3)  Increased  demands  generated by the new  for. p l a n n i n g  program .  One  staff  and  funding were  can reasonably  assume  that  many Indian Bands would be l o o k i n g to DIAND f o r a s s i s t a n c e s i n c e many The  of them l a c k e d the necessary funds, s k i l l s and  knowledge.  p l a n n i n g process f o r each band would a l s o be extremely  consuming as a r e s u l t of the broad funding sources program  and  its  inherent  complexities.  As  d e c e n t r a l i z e d nature of the program would r e q u i r e planning  services  to  be  met  of  time-  the  new  well,  the  the  Region's  i n part from the d i s t r i c t  level  thereby p l a c i n g more demands on t h e i r time and manpower as w e l l . By been  1980  the government's e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h i s  dashed.  A comprehensive housing survey completed  confirmed the p e r c e p t i o n of a growing reserves  (DIAND,p.11,1980).  mechanism was results  program's  c i t e d as one  orginally  (DIAND, 1980,  program  The of  housing problem  inflexibility  the  reasons  why  on  in  had 1979  Indian  of the funding some  of  the  intended of the program had not been achieved  p.11).  delivery  A  number  mechanism,  of  critical  such  as  the  aspects  of  the  communications  68  f u n c t i o n and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , were a l s o ineffectively  cited  as  operating  (DIAND, 1980, p.11).  The f i s c a l year 1980/81 was to be used as a t r a n s i t i o n to  introduce  measures  d e l i v e r y system offered  in  of the  f o r improving the funding mechanism and  the  program.  1980  However,  Discussion  Paper  they  merely  national  officials,  administrating local  level.  effects  of  surprising  such  reflected  of  the  a  the did  s i g n i f i c a n t changes from the p r e v i o u s p o l i c y anything  improvements not  and  represent  program.  If  growing awareness, amongst  difficulties  encountered  in  a complex and comprehensive program at the  They were a l s o beginning to understand some of the Band  Administered  of these was that  Housing  Programs.  For DIAND t h i s concept  due  discussed.  1980-81 was a l s o earmarked f o r i n t r o d u c i n g  self-government.  most  T h i s , however, was l a r g e l y  to the f a i l u r e s i n funding and d e l i v e r y p r e v i o u s l y year  The  few bands had opted to assume more  c o n t r o l over t h e i r own housing.  The  year  Indian  implies:  Band governments become the focus of comprehensive community and i n d i v i d u a l development - Bands e x e r c i s e powers and a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r own jurisdictions Bands i n t e r a c t with other l e v e l s of government and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own l i n k s with regional economics Band governments r e s p o n s i b l e and accountable to t h e i r members f o r achievement of community goals and to government f o r F e d e r a l funds expended. (DIAND, 1980, P. 6) The concept departure planning government  "Indian self-government" does not represent a from  previous  procedure structure  policy-making.  except which  for  the  major  It e n t a i l s a similar  development  of  a  band  would allow Indian bands to assume  69  more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r l o c a l problems.  This s t r u c t u r e has planning  procedure  Program.  not  resulted  associated  in  with  any  the  changes  On-reserve  Changes havn't been made to the funding  d e l i v e r y mechanism.  In  1982  to  Housing  system or  the program's o b j e c t i v e s  the  the  included:  1) Housing i s an i n d i v i d u a l / b a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the Indian On-Reserve Housing Program i s designed to assist i n d i v i d u a l s and bands in o b t a i n i n g adequate housing which meets n a t i o n a l standards. 2) Bands should be encouraged to appoint c o u n c i l s s u i t a b l e for t h e i r r e s e r v e s .  Band  Housing  3) Capital subsidies provided by DIAND are i n s u f f i c i e n t by themselves to b u i l d adequate houses. The s u b s i d i e s have to be used by i n d i v i d u a l s and Bands along with other sources of funds to c o n s t r u c t housing that meets National Building Code residential standards of c o n s t r u c t i o n . (DIAND, 1982, Pp.1-2) These o b j e c t i v e s r e f l e c t a need to c l a r i f y procedures of the program and procedure. result it  in any  poses  These  program,  greater  the  same  difficulites  various up  This  funding  community  goals.  s i m p l i f y the steps like  past  s o r t of d i f f i c u l t i e s with include  planning  inadequate  r u l e s and  to  because  implementation.  for  of  the  in s e t t i n g  achievment  some inadequacies band's  of in  budget  not on the b a s i s of need  i i ) a band's budget i s determined y e a r l y and strict  likely  bands  These i n c l u d e : i ) a  i s determined on a per c a p i t a b a s i s and  by  i s not  i n s u f f i c i e n t assistance procedures  and  planning  communication  As w e l l there are s t i l l  the nature of band funding.  and  ones,  in the  s e l f - r e l i a n c e among Indian  sources and  community-based  responsibilites  i s constrained  r e g u l a t i o n s for a c c o u n t a b i l i t y in  a  number  of developmental c a t e g o r i e s predetermined by DIAND (Pontings  and  70  Gibbons, 1980; DIAND, 1982). difficultly  when  comprehensive difficulty  4. The between  bands encounter  great  to undertake e f f o r t s at long-term and  development.  As  undertaking  any  in  insufficient  trying  Consequently  well  smaller  bands  enounter  type of development because of  funds.  C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Of The Community idea of 1970  community  and 1977.  d u r i n g these years  planning  was  initiated  i n DIAND  The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the community  i s reformist in character.  It  is  concerned  with e s t a b l i s h i n g a community p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n to d e a l with the physical  improvement  of  communities  terms of t h e i r need f o r houses, electrification,  road  and  water  bridges  differentiating and  sewage  (DIAND,  them i n  facilities,  1970, p.6).  around 1977 DIAND began to doubt t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n community. interrelating more  DIAND's  new  D i s c u s s i o n Paper  of  of the  view of the community, as a system of  f u n c t i o n s and as a v a s t  characteristic  Then  the  resource  critical  in  itself,  approach.  The  is 1977  states:  The community Planning S e r v i c e s provided by DIAND at the time were based on the p r i n c i p l e of "planned townsites". The concept was i n a p p r o p r i a t e to Indian communities - o v e r l o o k i n g among other t h i n g s t h e i r s p e c i a l s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the regions i n which they were l o c a t e d . More importantly, the values and goals of the Indian communities themselves were o f t e n overlooked. (DIAND, 1977, p.4)  Since 1977, the view of housing in  as a  facilitating  process  community development r e p e a t e d l y turns up i n DIAND documents  71  (DIAND ,1980; DIAND,1981; DIAND,1982). DIAND  officials  have  never  Yet, d e s p i t e  this  view  f o l l o w e d a p l a n n i n g procedure  permits the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s a s s o c i a t e d with  that  community  development. F i r s t , consensus that  housing  development Second,  would  among Indian people has never been be the best course of a c t i o n  (DIAND,1970; DIAND,1977;  the  principal  emphasis  in  houses  program. DIAND help  or  never p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t  Indian  been on the of  more  communities  develop  to  process  improved  structures  (DIAND,1970; DIAND,1977; DIAND,1980; DIAND,1981). secondary  wide  spectrum  to the completion of houses.  efforts total  have  not  community.  interested  or  housing been  Third, ranged  substantive  (Pontings and Gibbon,1980). made  Efforts  powerful  relatively  the over They  areas  of  Finally,  at s e c u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the  have  rather  been  confined  to  i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the community  and those with decision-making p r e r o g a t i v e s 81 ) .  action  of community problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  have r a t h e r been c o n f i n e d to development, i . e .  for  Process g o a l s  concerns of the community f o r development have never a  goals  funds and/or a s s i s t a n c e to  communication and decision-making and e f f e c t i v e community  have remained  and  improvements i n the funding mechanism of the  Despite i t s t h e o r e t i c a l commitment  has  DIAND,1981).  has  accomplishment of task goals such as c o n s t r u c t i o n better  f o r community  DIAND,1980; housing  reached  (Interviews,  1980-  72  5.  S o c i a l And P o l i t i c a l  As  suggested  above  Results  DIAND  began  f o r m u l a t i n g some of the  elements of what I and p o l i c y - a n a l y s t s term a c r i t i c a l but f a i l e d to implement policy-making character.  them.  implemented  All  in  The f o l l o w i n g  of  this  results  the  characteristics  period are  approach,  were  of  reformist in  associated  with  these  characteristics. DIAND  maintained that housing can be d e f i n e d and s o l v e d as  a s u b s t a n t i v e problem.  Some Indian people  remained  uninformed  and u n c e r t a i n about other p o l i c y options and consequences. of  them  actually  believe  housing i s the problem because they  r e l y on experts to d e f i n e t h e i r problems and undertaking a c r i t i c a l The  result  different  is  levels.  review of o l d and new  are  planner  analysis  a  misrepresentation result  of  the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of b e l i e f on a number of  the  role  situation of  may  the  bureaucratic  of  the  lead  being planned f o r .  to  or  an  a  distortion  out  for  Indian  overly  technical with the  Second, on an i d e o l o g i c a l  people  and  beleives  i t s own  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l motives or fundamental i n t e r e s t s ,  level to  be  unconscious  i.e.  On-reserve housing i s used as a means of s a t i s f y i n g the of Indian people and d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n  or  T h i s can occur as a  DIAND i s caught between the i n t e n t i o n s that i t carrying  if  informed technocrat h i s  a c t u a l problem. language  For example,  d e f i n i t i o n of the problem i n face to face communication individuals  from  F i r s t , what the expert chooses to say, or not  takes  of  removed  options.  say, i s p r a g m a t i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y c r u c i a l . the  Many  from p o l i t i c a l  survival. demands inequity  73  and  policy-making  that  addresses  social  needs  in  a  more  comprehensive f a s h i o n . Another r e s u l t cynical  about  i s that  their  own  many  Indian  participation  people in  process and d e f e r e n t to those with apparent their  own  effort,  social  and  debate,  grown  the policy-making  expertise.  capacities  Doubting  for cooperative  they r e l y on the d e c i s i o n s of DIAND o f f i c i a l s i n s t e a d .  Some Indian people are removed  political  have  from  a  politically  planning  process  c r i t i c i s m of a l t e r n a t i v e  collective  construction  They  temporarily  have  passive  of  they  are  encourages p o l i t i c a l  problem  new  been  which  because  definitions  and the  design and p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s .  immobilized  or  disabled  from  r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t i o n . A  third  result  i s that the set of welfare v a l u e s , which  emerged i n the preceding p e r i o d , are now r e a d i l y adopted  by  current  in.  generation.  These  e x p e c t a t i o n s and housing housing.  Over  fifty  t r a d i t i o n a l housing.  standards years  plans  between  Despite the f a c t adequate  housing,  ago  are  associated  here  that  evident with  more  other communities  and  on-reserve  Indian reserves they  s i m i l a r i t i e s of house and  the  Indian people were l i v i n g i n  Today when one v i s i t s  are s t r u c k by the remarkable site  values  the  more  Indians  designs  and  off-reserve. are obtaining  according to n a t i o n a l standards, many remain  d i s p o s s e s s e d , a l i e n a t e d , unemployed and some r e s p e c t s DIAND's on-going  poverty  involvement  stricken.  i n on-reserve  In  housing  c o n t r i b u t e s to many of these u n d e r l y i n g problems by p e r p e t u a t i n g Indian  dependence  on  the  government  f o r these s e r v i c e s .  In  74  s p i t e of how much money i s spent on housing the  expectation  in  any  given  year  and need f o r government a s s i s t a n c e w i l l always  e x i s t as long as Indian people b e l i e v e t h i s i s one of t h e i r only viable  alternatives  and  they  can  continue  to  obtain  high  standards of housing at any c o s t . Finally,  there  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of actions  of  i s an  inherent  on-reserve  DIAND  and  housing,  contradiction between  the  i n the disabling  the e n a b l i n g a c t i o n s of Indian people.  Insofar as Indian people are engaged i n a planning process does  not f o s t e r knowledge of the a l t e r n a t i v e s and  does not promote that  could  widespread  lead  s o l u t i o n s and;  to  does  community-based  participation  that  consequences;  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  a  critical  examination  of problems and  not  foster  cooperative,  well-organized,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s which c o u l d meet l o c a l needs, one  might expect that  they  will  remain  uninformed,  passive  and  dependent. This  contradiction  often  manifests  itself  as f i n a n c i a l  c o n s t r a i n t and c o n t r o l over the l i v e s of Indian people. and Gibbons (1980) c a l l housing one  provides  i t "social-fiseal control".  On-reserve  a v i v i d example, of t h i s c o n t r o l because i t i s  of the few programs that the department has  greater  Ponting  responsibility  to Indian people.  tried  to  Social-fiscal  give  control  i m p l i e s that the p r o v i s i o n of money by DIAND c a r r i e s with i t the r i g h t to s p e c i f y to Indian people how, f o r what and by whom t h i s money w i l l be spent. officials  are  responsibility  I t i s a form of neo-paternalism  reluctant to  Indians  to  turn  until  over they  greater prove  as  DIAND  financial themselves  75  accountable.  In  some cases a c c o u n t a b i l i t y p l a c e s unreasonable  demands on the time and  resources  t h e r e f o r e leave many Indians Ponting by  and  lengthy  of  i n a continued  Gibbons a l s o suggest periods  of  Indian  bands.  s t a t e of dependency.  that the dependency  welfare  I t can  dependency  generated  provides  another  example of s o c i o - f i s c a l c o n t r o l o c c u r i n g even when not intended. Prolonged the  welfare  initiative  launching  is  f u l l y capable  of d r a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s of  and sense of s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t are  any  challenge  to  the  political  necessary  for  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t a t u s quo (Ponting and Gibbons , 1980, p.175). The  c o n t r a d i c t i o n occurs  concerned of  about  f o r two reasons.  i t s own s u r v i v a l .  First,  DIAND  is  The systematic o r g a n i z a t i o n  many b u r e a c r a c i e s i s not p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d to the welfare of  the people  i t serves  but  to  i t s own  survival  (Beer,1974;  Habermas,1975; Braybrooke and Lindblom,1963). Second,  i t stems  Canadian s o c i e t y , i . e . intentions  of  (0'Connor,1975). uneven  from  a  much  deeper  contradiction in  the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of  private  accumulation  the  and  public  P u b l i c s e r v i c e s , such as housing,  distribution  of  opportunities  claims  needs  conceal  f o r the  and  the  legitimate  s a t i s f a c t i o n of needs.  T h i s e v e n t u a l l y leads to a " l e g i t i m a t i o n  crisis",  legitimating  enough  i n which mass  the  loyalty  system  not  while assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the economy (Habermas, 1975; 0'Connor,1975). contradiction  can  manifests  itself  a c t i o n s of the l e g i t i m i z e d  in c o n f l i c t  system and groups  are becoming more p o l i t i c a l l y  aware of t h e i r  maintain  f o r lags i n  At t h i s p o i n t  the  between the planning in  society  options.  which  76  The  evolution  of on-reserve housing p o l i c y  can a l s o be analyzed using a c r i t i c a l approach responded  by  giving  more  responsibility  in t h i s period  .  The  government  for  the  planning,  c o n s t r u c t i o n and management of housing to i n d i v i d u a l s and bands. Indians  were  houses, set  allowed  to  design and plan t h e i r houses.  however, had to meet a l l of the  down  by  DIAND  housing standards. individuals  and This  rules  and  regulations  house designs had to meet e s t a b l i s h e d represents  a  and bands were prevented  conflict  because  with  being  many  from o b t a i n i n g the type of  housing they wanted by f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s , as w e l l frustrated  These  as  being  f o r c e d to comply with DIAND's r u l e s  and  regulat ions. The  response  political  inequity  w i t h i n bands. contributed  and  emerged  adversary  to  the  division  of  was  the  tradesmen. among  have the most  need  for  in  a  of  to  trained  community  bands  increasing Today  an  responsibilites  in  the  band  Housing  administrators the  through  Program a l s o and  social  skilled relations  as a money exchange the  it  I t i s u s u a l l y made up of  The On-reserve  p r o g r e s s i v e l y evolves and r e p l a c e s reciprocity  power  A l l of t h i s helped transform  individuals  form  band.  band bureaucracy assumes many of these  s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s .  created  given  i n e x i s t i n g occupations i n the  the i n d i v i d u a l s who  the  labour because of  through a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management.  their  in  r e l a t i o n s between bands and  As more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  specialization emerging  by the planned-for  traditional  system  system  of  and a more d e f i n e d economic h i e r a r c h y emerges based  on the s t a t u s of each  individual's vocation.  Inequity  appears  77  between  rich  disparities The  and  poor,  or the powerful and the weak, through  i n the a l l o c a t i o n of housing. planned-for  inadequately  also  maintain  their  responded houses.  rate of f i r e s and deaths by f i r e may way  also  be viewed  result  of  It i s  entrenched  heating systems (e.g. again  whether  furnaces and  Fires  in a similar  fires  s o c i a l problems or f a u l t y and  that s o c i a l problems are l i k e l y  Finally,  the planned-for responded  responsibility  had a n t i c i p a t e d . and s k i l l s and  drastically.  by Indian people  debateable  insulation,  to  are  the  inadequate  wiring).  Once  there i s no e m p i r i c a l evidence to support e i t h e r view but  I contend  the  continuing  In r e l a t i o n to t h i s the  increased  as a response  as maintenance.  by  l a r g e l y due  telling  planners  and resources were ready housing  that  and  were  offices.  is  up  lack  of  knowledge rules  involved.  This  should  to  have  not a l l Indian people were at the  assume  more  skills  responsibility  over  communicating t h i s to the planners by in  the  district,  regional  and  However the extreme range of a t t i t u d e s among  Indian people toward  political  telling  participation,  planners  p r a c t i c e s have a d i s a b l i n g e f f e c t on action  to a  Some bands with the necessary  d i r e c t l y pressuring o f f i c i a l s  cynicism,  take  of DIAND, along with other f e d e r a l departments  same l e v e l of development.  national  to  r e q u i r e d to meet the time-consuming and complex  which were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  their  by f a i l i n g  f o r t h e i r housing as q u i c k l y as the planners  T h i s was  regulations  been  i m p l i c a t e d somehow.  i n some cases.  that  from deference  DIAND's  Indian  to  communicative  participation  and  78  Today's  evidence  suggests  l i s t e n e d to the responses people  now  of  that  the  the  planners  planned-for.  have  First,  not  Indian  view housing as an i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t and are h i g h l y  dependent on the government f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g adequate housing. meets  Second, the demand or  specified  expectation  of  standards has grown i n c r e d i b l y  housing fast  which  on-reserve  in order to keep pace with the accepted standards i n the r e s t of Canada. have  These two  changed  f a c t s i n d i c a t e that Indian values  over  and  norms  the years and t h i s change i s l a r g e l y due  to  the government's p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a bad t h i n g f o r Indian which  have  consciously  developmental however,  a  economic, mobilize  of  large  number  political  or  themselves.  confidence  is  of  Housing  This  and  is  not  confusion new  widespread  is  yet  developed  bureaucrac i e s .  which  a  because  some  values.  i n B.C. to  the  of  the  There  are,  for  social,  reasons have not been a b l e to very  hear  of  This  There the  appropriate intensify  these latter  i s usually a responses  the  bands are group  of  tendency of  this  DIAND p e r c e i v e s Indian bands to have  s i m i l a r needs, values and a s p i r a t i o n s . not  advantage  f o r such bands because i t may  of p l a n n e r s to ignore or f a i l group.  take  communities  cultural  e x p e r i e n c i n g i n adapting communities  to  o p p o r t u n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with housing.  development a c t i v i t y lack  decided  communities  necessary  As w e l l some bands  skills  have  to engage government  79  C.  CONCLUSIONS My  field  a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s that government of  contains in  on-reserve  elements of a l l three h y p o t h e t i c a l approaches  outlined  period  was  elements  but  reformist  characterized  while the  by  both  critical  in  policy-making i s o c c u r r i n g .  perception  inadequate  emphasis on t a s k - g o a l s planning The  in  The  of  the  The  and  first  reformist  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  This suggests that a  definition  that  predominate.  classical  second p e r i o d was  elements.  two  elements  and  i) a t e c h n i c a l  the  the  examined,  1,  in  in  periods  Table  housing,  policy-making  reformist  gradual  evolution  r e f o r m i s t elements  include:  housing  ii)  housing  problem;  causes  policy-making;  based on a "top-down" planning  ill-health;  and  iv)  iii)  centralized  strategy.  r e s u l t s of these p o l i c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e : i ) the  acculturation  or  a s s i m i l a t i o n of Indian  the emergence of a new individualism  and  set of  welfare  values  values;  and  beliefs  ii)  among  Indian  people;  undemocratic planning  processes  resulting  in  pathologies  domination;  an  and  iv)  inherent  contradiction  d i s a b l i n g a c t i o n s of DIAND and  the e n a b l i n g  people.  provide  These  implications  strong  major changes to e x i s t i n g p o l i c y formulation continued  structural recommended.  actions  iii)  between of  and  analyses  the  for  implementation.  e v o l u t i o n of policy-making to include more of  assumptions  of  Indian  justification  and  and  increasing  competition  The  the  the  of a c r i t i c a l approach i s  80  IV. The  foregoing  practical problem  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS analysis  justification and  shows  both  the  for reformulating  t h e o r e t i c a l and  the on-reserve housing  c o n s i d e r i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to' the present  one. The  theorectical justification  lies  i n the  fact  that  the  F e d e r a l Government, through DIAND, has been addressing  a symptom  of  reserves,  a  i.e.  much more complex, u n d e r l y i n g Indian  people continue  economic system. relationship (e.g.  between  to  housing  which  can  and  fire  justify  housing s e c t o r on Indian evidence  t o c o e x i s t i n an i n e q u i t a b l e s o c i o -  I have shown that the government  health s t a t i s t i c s ,  relationship  reserves.  between housing and h e a l t h .  As  suggest housing c o n t r i b u t e s only  i s despite  direction well,  contribution  this  a  apparent  involvement  i n the empirical  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  developmental  theories  i n d i r e c t l y to human development  s o c i a l and economic a c t i v i t i e s .  in the t h i r d world have biggest  e t c . ) of  This  perceives  and uses i n d i c a t o r s  i t s increasing  the  other  health  rates,  prove  via  problem on Indian  demonstrated  that  For example e f f o r t s housing  makes  the  to human development when i t i n v o l v e s the  e n t i r e community i n the planning  process  (Vautherin  &  Cisse,  1982). The  level  at which the problem i s r e s o l v e d depends on the  o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the conceptualization  i s derived.  the problem  in  highly  involvement  i n the planning  problem  and  how  this  I have shown that DIAND d e f i n e s  technical process  terms  and  confines  to the implementation  Indian stage  81  of policy-making. DIAND  has  endeavoured  i n c r e a s i n g Indian housing  However h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s does r e v e a l increase  Indian  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over  programs;  decentralize  r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t for the review  to  the  participation  management  i t s technical  l e v e l s and;  support  and d i s c u s s i o n of on-reserve  that  of  their  functions  national housing  by  to  committees  p o l i c i e s and  programs. The  practical  reserve housing housing over  justification  problem l i e s  problem  as  thirty-five  existing s t a t i s t i c s .  i n the  defined  years  for fact  also  in  the  and  most  is  getting  planning  counts.  process.  policy  e x i s t i n g options counselling,  process  are s t i l l with  economic  Indian  and  removed few  make  rate on  Indian  from f o r m u l a t i n g  exceptions.  p l a n n i n g process  The government  options (e.g.  to  f a i l u r e but  or  encourage  housing  versus  development,  participation  does  not  education,  etc.). by  existing  inform  a critical  Instead  national  Those  set t h e i r  w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of a l r e a d y  p o l i c i e s and programs are formulated Ottawa.  according  D e s p i t e DIAND's commitment to  i n the  problems  p o l i c i e s and programs. of  on-reserve  improvement.  bands that are engaged i n a community priorities  on-  i n p r a c t i c e i t s e f f o r t s have f a i l e d on  Indian people  and d e f i n i n g t h e i r own  people  worse  f o r t h i s l i e s not only i n conceptual  more s e l f - r e l i a n t ,  planning  the  As w e l l Indian h e a l t h and the f i r e  increase Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n people  that  the  by DIAND has not been r e s o l v e d i n  Indian reserves have not shown great The reason  reformulating  Indian  review of training, housing  officials  in  i s r e s t r i c t e d to a d i s c u s s i o n of  82  how such p o l i c i e s and programs might policies  and  programs  have  be  improved.  therefore  On-reserve  tended  to  reflect  incremental policy-making. Although there has been g r e a t e r Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the implementation  stage of the  On-Reserve  have been many c o n s t r a i n t s encountered the and  process as w e l l .  First,  i n f o r m a t i o n provided by  acquisition undertake housing  of  skills  Program  DIAND,  and  there  by bands at t h i s stage of  there has been inadequate to  bands,  knowledge  the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n i n g programs.  Housing  and  by  to  ensure  Indian  managing  training the  people  of  their  to own  As w e l l , the type of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d to  Indian people and the p u b l i c Second, although  more  i s t e c h n i c a l and ambiguous. bands  are  determining  their  own  housing needs, o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own funding sources and choosing their  own  house  designs  they are s t i l l  s t r i c t l y monitored by  DIAND o f f i c i a l s and must comply to the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s set down i n the housing program a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . very  time-consuming  and  f r u s t r a t i o n and f a i l u r e  demoralizing  for  sufficient capital  their  that a band,  housing  DIAND's  projects,  upon  affect  in  assuming  will  receive  efforts  to  decentralize i t s  f u n c t i o n s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l over DIAND's budget  r e s i d e s with the Treasury Board procedures  resulting  f o r the number of houses i t had planned f o r .  T h i s i s because d e s p i t e technical  is a  i n some cases.  F i n a l l y , there i s no guarantee responsibility  process  This-  the  i n Ottawa.  liklihood  that  Federal  still  budgetary  a p a r t i c u l a r band w i l l  o b t a i n the number and type of houses i t had  planned  for  in a  83  given year. The  existing  planning  too time-consuming, complex bands. the  process, in p r a c t i c e , and  frustrating  f o r many  Indian  I t a l l o w s f o r h i g h l y c o n s t r a i n e d Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n at  the implementation  stage of the o v e r a l l p r o c e s s .  that have the most success i n t h i s ones  i s therefore  that  already  process  are  The bands  primarily  have a h i g h degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n s l  and knowledge, a good understanding of  bureaucratic  the  skills  procedures  and a f a i r amount of communication and b a r g a i n i n g a b i l i t y . The  picture  of  on-reserve  housing  which emerges i n the  e i g h t i e s i s a h i g h l y complicated one r i d d l e d with c o n t r a d i c t i o n s on a number of l e v e l s .  First  housing  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c  represents  interests. housing  DIAND  Habermas, try  to  in  i s helping  policy-analysts functions  a  of  the  western  1975). maintain  helping the  term  on  a  societal  Indian  federal two  c a p i t a l accumulation  and  on-reserve  obtain  government f u l f i l l mutually  adequate what some exclusive  governments (O'Connor, 1973;  On the one hand the or  people  basic  democratic  level  federal  government  c r e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s i n which p r o f i t a b l e i s possible.  On the other i t must a l s o t r y  to maintain or c r e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o c i a l harmony. expenses (e.g. to  maintain  by keeping peace among the unemployed and  T h i s e x p l a i n s why the government  incur a great d e a l of s o c i a l expense i n the area housing  Social  welfare, housing a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . ) are r e q u i r e d  harmony  underprivileged.  must  i s w i l l i n g to of  on-reserve  while other c l a s s e s i n s o c i e t y are accumulating  and a l l the b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d with i t .  capital  84  Second on an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l there  is a  contradiction  among the values and b e l i e f s of o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n DIAND. evident  in  objectives.  the  Indian  the  nature  of  the housing  program's  For example some o f f i c i a l s hold the view, that  department's and  conflicting  This i s  responsibility  responsibility  opposite  view.  over  housing  should be d e c r e a s i n g  i n c r e a s i n g , while As  was  some o f f i c i a l s  previously  c o n t r a d i c t i o n may be due to DIAND o f f i c i a l s ' organization's  the  pointed concern  hold  out  this  for  their  survival.  Those i n Indian and government c i r c l e s who s u b s c r i b e to the value  of  Indian  successful  housing  direction  of  officials, still  self-determination projects  i n l a r g e numbers  shortages  are  the  structural  realities  result in  from of  find  represent  self-determination.  however, can not overlook  suffer  inequality  which  can  gains  Indian  and  in  which  These  socio-economic  result  and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t c e r t a i n  the  people  shortages.  long-standing  of  government  the f a c t t h a t Indian housing  society  examples  in  economic  m i n o r i t y groups i n  our s o c i e t y . It  i s not  a q u e s t i o n of socio-economic  the area of n a t i v e housing. refer  to  discrimination I  r e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a p i t a l accumulation.  as Indian people  lack  relations  and  they w i l l  continue  assistance.  By socio-economic  descrimination in  As  an  legitimate  work  roles,  defined  a p p r o p r i a t e set of s e l f - g u i d i n g to  long  rely as  on  the  Indian  s o c i a l and economic means to achieve  government  people  As long social  institutions for  housing  are removed from the  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y there  will  85  always be housing  shortages  What i s r e q u i r e d budget  so  that  on r e s e r v e s .  is a  there  reallocation  of  DIAND's  i s the development of s o c i a l  shared c o l l e c t i v e goals and an i n s t i t u t i o n a l and that of  w i l l enable bands)  to  the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l u n i t  exercise  determination.  This  a  much  involves  greater  capital  solidarity,  economic  base  ( e . g . band or group degree  of  self-  a t r a n s f e r of meaningful powers  from the f e d e r a l government to the l o c a l band or t r i b a l l e v e l . The  f u t u r e of housing  f o r Indians  l i v i n g on Indian  should r e l y on Indian l e a d e r s h i p more than ever. and  structures  of  DIAND  should s h i f t r a d i c a l l y . Housing  Program  Over the  should  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as  in this  be  a  managing  next  decade  gradually  short-term  t h e i r own housing  of " s e l f - h e l p "  would  the  more  on  appropriate technologies. should  continue  self-sufficiency reserve  Housing  use If  of  the  dissolved.  goal  Indian  in  indigenous  first way  as  With  Indian  bands  would  designing  which  resources  and  assistance  to be made a v a i l a b l e through CMHC.  With Indian  Program  goal the c a p i t a l  from  the  On-  should be r e - a l l o c a t e d to more d i r e c t  p o l i t i c a l responsibility  A band or a group  for their  economic  roles  and  of  responsibility housing  have an economic base f o r c a p i t a l accumulation. legitimate  bands  financial  as a long-term  necessary  bands w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be able to assume f i n a n c i a l well  On-reserve  These p r o j e c t s would  housing  forms of s o c i a l and economic development.  as  functions  for planning,  projects.  be based on the concept rely  The  sector of Indian development  assume complete p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  reserves  supportive  i f they In  this social  86  relationships w i l l The  be r e s t o r e d to Indian  present  approach  to  DIAND's t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n s The  results  perpetuation  have  language;  pre-empts  problem  distorted  of a so c a l l e d  organization,  as  professionals;  does  housing  separates  ignores  the  not  or  by  too  systematically  and  I f DIAND,  effects  involvement  technical  functions.  communications  "housing" problem.  community  overly  on-reserve  from i t s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  been  planning  communities.  of  as  search  a  technical  defining  complex  the  the  f o r non-  for  planning  a l t e r n a t i v e s through r e g u l a r processes of community c o n s u l t a t i o n and its  c r i t i c i s m ; and does not address u n d e r l y i n g approach  cases,  to  to  Indian  immobilize  problems, and  contradictions in  i t w i l l continue,  disable  i n some  responsible  Indian  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t i o n . If  Indian  people  government's c u r r e n t they make to Indian place greater social  do  not  critically  p o l i c i e s and programs f o r the self-determination  evaluate  contribution  and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and  demands on the government f o r more d i r e c t forms of  and economic development than housing they w i l l  to c o e x i s t i n an i n e q u i t a b l e p o l i t i c a l pressuring T h i s should  the  the government f o r g r e a t e r include: analyzing  system.  continue  Bands should  be  political responsibility.  t h e i r own problems, s e t t i n g t h e i r  own  priorities  f o r development, c r e a t i v e l y searching  own  solutions,  devising  their  own  rules,  for their  regulations  and  standards f o r t h e i r programs, and monitoring and e v a l u t a t i n g the results  of  their  they w i l l be able  planning  actions.  This  i s the only way that  to regain a sense of p r i d e and confidence  and  87  maintain c o n t r o l over the' i n t e g r a t i o n of new an  approach  for  each band, of which housing may  members  values.  Under such  one can e n v i s i o n a comprehensive p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y  decide,  rather  than  be a component i f  one  central  housing  the  band  strategy  a p p l i c a b l e to a l l bands. A critical  approach  structured  approach  literature  review  following  to a  ii)  social  critical  principles:  community;  to on-reserve  i)  action.  a  appropriate  more  development.  It  approach  housing  A critical  of  include  band  Indian o f f i c i a l s  funding.  as  differs  the  of the Indian  i i i ) • planning  as  would a l s o r e s u l t i n  planning the  for  following  based  planning  Indian important and  ii)  and  "top-down"  nature  of  and the  and  analyses  of  a  policy-process  "bottom-up" i n nature.  CRITICAL APPROACH: STRUCTURED SOCIAL POLICY ANALYSIS  The deeper  my  evident with on-reserve housing, evolves to  which i s comprehensive and  THE  Based on  should g r a d u a l l y implement these p r i n c i p l e s  i n c o r p o r a t e the s t r u c t u r e s  A.  more  Over the next ten years DIAND and  f u n c t i o n s so that the s e c t o r a l policy-process,  a  include  concept  and;  f u n c t i o n s : i ) comprehensive community developmental  would  approach  method  would  offers  policy-analysis.  "systems"  "self-help"  communicative much  a  housing  critical  approach  attempts  to analyze problems at a  l e v e l of understanding than the r e f o r m i s t from  the  reformist  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a  range  approach of  i n that  approach.  It  i t s t r e s s e s the  socio-economic  factors  and  88  health.  It  also  views  these  interrelationships  w i t h i n the  framework of a dynamic system.  The t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n adopted  by t h i s approach i s relations  of  that  the  economic  structure  and  social  production  and  exchange determine the nature of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and h i s environment and thus  determine  the type of p a t h o l o g i e s a f f l i c t i n g him.  In p r a c t i c a l  terms i t  entails  the  a  systematically planning  critical  analysis  distorted  decisions  in  of  communications order  structurally  which  to maintain  result  power, wealth, 1.  was  the  p r i v i l e g e s and a u t h o r i t y i s r i g h t and proper.  p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d out an important  critical  approach  interrelationships  between  "problems" and understanding economic  system.  is  its  factors  characteristic  concern  with  the  the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s of s o - c a l l e d contradictions  within  the  A systems model p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e  about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic  distribution  Systems Model Of The Indian Community  As of  around  l e g i t i m a c y , i . e . the  view h e l d by p a r t s of the system that, the e x i s t i n g of  and  housing  as w e l l as i n s i g h t  values between an Indian community  and  socio-  information  other  socio-  i n t o the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  and  the  rest  of  Canadian  society. My  a n a l y s i s shows how the q u a l i t y of information r e l i e d on  by DIAND, f o r making d e c i s i o n s about on-reserve 1940-60,  was  low.  DIAND  pathologies  between  tended t o r e l y on i n d i c a t o r s of the  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of Indian people social  housing  experienced  as  reflection  on Indian r e s e r v e s .  p o i n t e d out, however, some Indian people  reacted  of  various  As I have  positively  to  89  improvements increasing  in  housing  while  others  Indian p o l i t i c a l  p l u r a l i s t i c approach  groups'  housing  and  managing  t h i s more l i b e r a l now  the  shift  80's  demand  to s o c i a l c h o i c e r e s u l t e d  more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to Indian people  and  a  tendency  for  and  fire  more  i n DIAND g r a n t i n g  f o r choosing t h e i r own  t h e i r own  housing programs.  toward community p l a n n i n g  social  a  pathologies s t i l l  in  r a t e s sheds l i t t l e  type  Despite the  70's  p e r s i s t on Indian  reserves and a mere c o r r e l a t i o n of adequate housing with statistics  to  pathology.  In the 70's  of  showed  health  l i g h t on the o r i g i n s of  such u n d e r l y i n g p a t h o l o g i e s . The dynamic nature of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between economic f a c t o r s and housing makes i t imperative  that  socio-  planners  and community p r a c t i t i o n e r s have an understanding of t h e o r i e s of social  change  and  frame  t h e i r change e f f o r t s  model a s s o c i a t e d with e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s .  One  i n some sort of  w e l l known systems  model c o n t r i b u t e s to an understanding of the p l a n n i n g process by presenting framework  the  various  (Beer,1974).  held  values  of  and  such  provides  unexpected  a  way  efforts,  of  and  r e s u l t s of developmental  different  endeavouring  or  in  a  shedding the  Gurin,  analyzing  e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t i v e developmental In  planning  traditions  o r g a n i z a t i o n s to change (Perlman also  of  recursive  I t p r o v i d e s an understanding of some of  the o b s t a c l e s i n the way deeply  levels  and  light  on  resistances  of  1972,  p.51).  It  understanding  the  e f f o r t s and  predicting  the  efforts.  to analyze the v a r i o u s s o c i a l responses of  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l groups to  development  many  theorists  90  have  begun to r e a l i z e that the use of s t a t i s t i c a l  planning  must  framework  be  (Beer,  1978;  Cunningham, 1982; these  augmented  by  a  systematic  Warren, 1977;  Holling,  1979).  people  Following  such  as  the  Weaver and  thinking  of  to understanding  the  housing,  on  Indian  i s required.  To failed  efforts,  interpretative  Bowles, 1980;  t h e o r i s t s a more conceptual approach  impacts of developmental  indicators in  date, to  with  few  provide  application  of  the  exceptions,  the s o c i a l  conceptual  s c i e n c e s have  underpinnings  for  the  systems a n a l y s i s to s o c i a l problems (Weaver and  Cunningham, 1981).  I would l i k e to d i s c u s s some r e s e a r c h i n the  a p p l i c a t i o n of systems a n a l y s i s to Indian development which have been undertaken  i n the Business Management and Planning  Although none of them have been a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to an of  on-reserve  housing  I  feel  they  have  fields. analysis  potential  c o n t r i b u t i n g to an understanding of policy-making i n  this  for area  of Indian A f f a i r s . Beer Indian  (1978)  community  effective  formulated  based  management.  i) central axis; identity"  has  on  an  analytical  "cybernetics",  the  model of the science  The components of Beer's model  i i ) " g e t t i n g ahead" sub-model; and  iii)  include: "Indian  sub-model.  The model i n c o r p o r a t e s the dynamics of a dilemma that contends  DIAND  developmental  and  effort  so  that  the  Indian  bands  they undertake,  l o s i n g Indian i d e n t i t y . system  of  face  i.e.  in  any  sort  does  of  g e t t i n g ahead without  Beer b e l i e v e s the task i s to steer dilemma  Beer  the  present Indian people with  91  contradictions and  Indian  they can't r e s o l v e .  bands  understand  The model can  some  of  the  assist  effects  DIAND  of t h e i r  developmental e f f o r t s . The a c t u a l DIAND.  focus f o r s t e e r i n g  i n the model i s the band, not  The key f e a t u r e s of the model are shown t o be r e l a t e d to  each other  i n a dynamic fashion  The l i n e s are arrows.  continually  An  by the use of l i n e s and arrows.  flowing  important  in  convention  in  "comparator" which i s a measure of the things  (A & B ) .  the  The d i f f e r e n c e  direction the  of the  model  difference  i s the  between  between A & B, at v a r i o u s p o i n t s  throughout the model, flows away to a f f e c t something e l s e . effect  i s called  The  origin  of  change  to  i n the model i s the c e n t r a l  between Canadian  Although the band i s part model  society  of Canadian s o c i e t y  illustrate  the  various  "getting  ahead".  c r i t e r i o n of g e t t i n g  self-sufficiency  ahead.  of Indian i d e n t i t y . well-being  band.  model  is  and  examines  taken  as the  To the l e f t of the c e n t r a l a x i s the  model examines "Indian i d e n t i t y " .  happiness,  a  inter-connexions  To the r i g h t of the c e n t r a l a x i s the Band  and  axis.  i t i s separated i n  dynamics.  criterion  This  feedback.  DIAND i s a f a c i l i t a t o r  the  two  or  Band eudemony i s taken as the  Eudemony i s a good  feeling.  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the white man's term " q u a l i t y  special It of  kind  has  life"  of  little (e.g.  number of houses). The getting critical  entire ahead and  model Indian  deals with dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n s indentity.  It  is  related  between to the  approach because i t p r o v i d e s a means f o r a n a l y z i n g the  92  interrelationships factors  between  housing  as w e l l as an understanding  and  account  of  a l l the  feedback loops i n the model I w i l l can  be  used  projects.  are i n f o r m a t i o n a l feedbacks.  provide a d e t a i l e d  to  analyze  a s s o c i a t e d with on-reserve  the  housing  a  Most  of  Although  the  I can't  inter-connexions  and  b r i e f l y d i s c u s s how the model  dynamics  housing.  of  band  Similarily  be used t o analyze any band developmental First  socio-economic  of the value c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  in development e f f o r t s such as housing inter-connexions  other  development  the model  could  effort.  band makes demands on the s t r u c t u r e s of DIAND.for  assistance  through  programs and annual  applications  to  various  budget f o r e c a s t s f o r housing.  housing  DIAND i n turn  makes a l l o c a t i o n s to a band based on the band's demands but a l s o in  consideration  .regulations Board.  c o n s t r a i n t s and s t r i c t r u l e s and  for accountability  Demands/allocations  and an on-going discrepancy band.  of budgetary  process.  between  is  established  the  t h e r e f o r e the f i r s t  There  demand  by  and  is  an  amplifier  allocation  Treasury  comparator of  actual  going back t o the  There i s a l s o an an a m p l i f i e r of p e r c e i v e d d i s c r e p a n c y or  the d i f f e r e n c e between demand and p e r c e i v e d a l l o c a t i o n . The a  very  d i f f e r e n c e between a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d d i s c r e p a n c y has strong  training.  effect  on  Indian  motivation,  education  and  For example i f DIAND g i v e s an Indian band as much as  i t s annual  budget permits but i t i s not  as  much  as  the  demanded,  the d i s c r e p a n c y w i l l a f f e c t how a band p l a n s ,  band  designs  and manages i t s own housing.  T h i s i s because i f a band does not  receive  i t deserves  what  i t perceives  i t s motivation  and  93  education drive.  will  The  skills,  be dampered and  existence  obtained  of  From e n t e r p r i s e members  employed  unemployed.  entrepeneurial  through  Beer's model e n t e r p r i s e  training,  i s the  there  in  there w i l l be no  key  i s a comparator  p a r t i c u l a r band.  l e v e l of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n a band. a  number  a feedback loop  internal  assistance  a f f e c t i t may  housing p r o j e c t s and  there w i l l  be a  there  have on band  i)  heritage  projects  manufacturing, pulp and construction,  projects  (e.g.  paper); and  particular  band  back  to  projects. low  if  to the  left  Band  logging); i i )  production,  An  foreign  degree of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and feeds  He  classified  i i i ) foreign projects  the value of t h i s comparator should be The  (e.g.  pre-fabrication plants).  transformed h e r i t a g e  is a goal.  further  lumber  comparator shows the discrepancy between and  sensitive  government a s s i s t e d housing p r o j e c t s .  the  heritage  There  are p r i v a t e housing p r o j e c t s , band  in  transformed h e r i t a g e  be  of  motivation.  government a s s i s t e d housing p r o j e c t s are as:  tendency  f o r a band to decrease.  and  housing  implies  from t h i s comparator to band m o t i v a t i o n .  enterprise  model  revenue  A l a r g e value  contends that DIAND must be aware of t h i s and  Under  band  high degree of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Beer suggests  government support and  attenuating  of  A comparator of revenues/costs measures  that as s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s  any  In  housing r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s versus numbers  the  is  of  T h i s provides an a m p l i f i e r of the  has  managerial  to g e t t i n g ahead.  a  band  and  generates e n t e r p r i s e .  of  a  drive  entrepeneurial  brick (e.g.  assimilation projects  and  Beer contends that Indian  indentity  a s s i m i l a t i o n in a  side of the model  and  94  a f f e c t the accepted band  through  a  v a l u e s , norms and  cultural modifier.  structures  s t r u c t u r e s of modern housing,  Canadian  s o c i e t y , on bands.  accepted  must  traditional  reach  and  some  imposed  Indian  by the r e s t  sort  and  of  values,  a  norms  the Treasury  Board.  compromise  between  and  structures.  eudemony i s a measure of a band's adjustment to imposed norms  and  structures.  s t r u c t u r e of the band as w e l l as the band's s e n s i t i v i t y to  land  s t y l e , band-chief  based  rights,  on  language, community  efforts  Indian  to  DIAND's  structures  DIAND o f f i c i a l s about the dilemma between g e t t i n g ahead  and m a i n t a i n i n g if  Indian  at  identity.  getting  ahead  Band eudemony should are  not  resulting  be  high  i n a l o s s of  identity.  There i s a l s o a feedback loop to Indian m o t i v a t i o n that  life-  e l d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and band l i v l i h o o d .  A feedback loop from band eudemony informs  the  values, value  hunting/fishing  is  Band  accepted  possession,  It  of  These v a l u e s , norms and s t r u c t u r e s  are imposed on DIAND through Parliament band  an  DIAND a l s o imposes values,  norms and  Each  of  if  band  eudemony  is  low  it  will  also  implying  decrease  band  motivation. Finally discrepancy  a  values  between the accepted  Canadian s o c i e t y discrepancy  perceived  here  and  an  will  Indian amplify  comparator  v a l u e s , norms and band.  The  measures  s t r u c t u r e s of  existence  and  vice-versa.  important  of  Indian housing  the  Canadian s o c i e t y w i l l  perceptions  shape  the  of  the l e v e l of "worthiness"  Canadian s o c i e t y has of Indian people because  the  values,  norms  and  This  a  that is  held by  stuctures  95  imposed housing  on  Indian bands.  On the other hand the p e r c e p t i o n s of  h e l d by Indian people  shape  the  demands  a  band  will  p l a c e on the s t r u c t u r e s of DIAND f o r housing. Beer's of the  model should be used f o r p r o v i d i n g an  centralized,  "top-down"  current p o l i c y - p r o c e s s . model  so  that  reason and  I advocate  Indian  sectoral  nature  T h i s was h i s i n t e n t i o n  Indian  p r e s e n t i n g Indian people  and  policy-making  with  understanding  i n d e s i g n i n g the  might  evolve  irreconciable conflicts.  before For t h i s  the use of t h i s model by government  people  of the  officials  to h e l p the e v o l u t i o n of DIAND's s t r u c t u r e s  and f u n c t i o n s . Weaver  and  Cunningham  provide  a  a n a l y z i n g change i n an Indian community. social  theory  Cunningham, 1982). historical  model  for native  approach  to  housing).  associated  for  (Weaver  and  i n F i g u r e 2, o f f e r s a understanding  economic change i n Indian communities and the impact decisions  model  They propose a general  communities  The model, i l l u s t r a t e d  and • s t r u c t u r a l  different  with Indian development  (e.g.  socio-  of planning on-reserve  96  Figure  1 - S o c i a l Theory Model f o r Native  Communities  (Weaver and Cunningham, 1982, p.10) (b) Relationship with Physical Environment (Resource Perception S Spatial Ordering)  Division of Labour  Distribution of Goods £ Services  (c)  (f)  Social Relations  Family Structure  (d)  <e)  Organization of Economic Producion. Including Predominant Ownership Patterns and Technology  Psychological Development and Behaviour Patterns  Quality of Daily Life  (1)  (a) Dominant Institu tions  Socialization  (g )  <j>  '. Culture  Social Values and Norms  (h)  U)  - /  Relations with Other Communities (m)  L i k e Beer's model t h i s one i s a l s o dynamic and the  critical  analyzing  the  socio-economic inherent  approach  because  i t offers  interrelationships factors  as  well  between as  an  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between an Indian  another housing  related  to  means  of  and  understanding  other of the  community and the r e s t  97  of the  s o c i a l system.  meant  to  show  continually for  a  flowing.  The  Weaver and  process  description conditions; v) s o c i a l  framework the  of  i)  stages is  in  rendered  The  economic  it  iii)  in  and  the  apply  to  any  with  of  descriptive  2  the  information  particular  band  relations,  family  directly  process  (e.g.  The  changes  Indian  an  this  historical  importance of  in  the  community  resulting  of the  this  social  and from  community. framework  would  an on-going housing p r o j e c t or those  historical about  analysis  changes  related  to  dominant  that housing  information  provide  occurred (e.g.  and  behaviour p a t t e r n s .  a  the  contact.  about i n d i r e c t changes and  in  social  institutions  s e r v i c e s , s o c i a l values  p s y c h o l o g i c a l development and  activity.  would  r e l a t i o n s h i p with p h y s i c a l environment) since Europeon  d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and  and  in the diagram, then a  etc.).  the  structure,  It would a l s o provide  current  between  bands c o n s i d e r i n g a housing p r o j e c t as a developmental R e f e r r i n g to Figure  ii)  community f o r each  of on-reserve housing t h i s  band  their  project appraisal;  for each "box"  an  as  framework  evaluation  Indian  developmental e f f o r t s o r i g i n a t i n g o u t s i d e In the context  a  of  analysis;  relationship  change in an  reveals  relations  thought  are  2 i s that the model i s used as a  d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each box,  process i s that  be  historical  conditions;  statement.  analyzing  to  model  impact a n a l y s i s process based on  the model in F i g u r e  five  current  and  iv) a l t e r n a t i v e scenarios  for  description  arrows in t h e i r  Cunningham provide  includes:  current  impact  process and  l i n e s and  inter-connexions  five-stage social  model.  of  The  (e.g.  norms) and  It would a l s o  98  i n c l u d e an account of l o c a l and  form  of  resources used in housing,  t r a d i t i o n a l housing  d e s c r i p t i o n of the nature and band over  time.  opportunity  The  for  and  settlement  the  style  p a t t e r n s and  type of p a t h o l o g i e s a f f l i c t i n g  h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s not only  a  the  provides  the  p i n p o i n t i n g the emergence of band problems but  i s a l s o a consciousness  raising activity  in i t s e l f ,  for a l l band  members. The  d e s c r i p t i o n of c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s would c o n t a i n an  to-date account of v a r i o u s p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and a s s o c i a t e d with housing manufacturing,  (e.g.  housing  carpenter, plow  planner/manager,  operator,  stratification  and  lumbering,  painter,  integration  level  and  accountant,  inspector,  distribution  of  housing  etc.)  and;  the  dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s and  existing values  on  social  division house  type,  institutional  of  value,  in the band  household  ( e.g.  plumber,  etc.);  mechanisms ( e.g.  number of households, household s i z e , need,  occupations  p r e f a b r i c a t i o n , cement  labour, d e f i n i t i o n of sex r o l e s , s t a t u s based etc.);  up-  (e.g. housing  structure  family, r e l i g i o n ,  and band  c o u n c i l , c o o p e r a t i o n , consensus, r e l a t i o n s h i p to the land, e t c . )  first  Based  on  two  stages  analyze (e.g.  the  the an  vs.  gained  in the  vitality  would  which t r a d i t i o n a l socio-economic  roles  evaluation  degree  communal  independence  information and  to  vs.  individual  dependence  d i v i s i o n of labour,  cooperation  institutions  values  breakdown,  and  dependence,  of  on vs.  (e.g.  passivity,  understanding community  provision the  of  housing,  government,  increased  competition, kinship  etc.)  breakdown,  confusion,  and  family  competition,  99  appropriation transformed  of  belief,  by housing  separated out  disorientation,  projects.  The  etc.)  e f f e c t s of housing  from the e f f e c t s of other f a c t o r s  i n t e r a c t i n g with these other  have  but  are not  viewed  and  e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t developmental  education and tourism and  as  factors.  A l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o s of the f u t u r e , e n v i s i o n i n g no projects  been  t r a i n i n g , a l c o h a l and drug  r e c r e a t i o n , hunting and  housing  activities  rehabilitation,  trapping, forestry,  (e.g. mining,  fishing,  e t c . ) would be c o n s i d e r e d at t h i s p o i n t i n the p r o c e s s .  Once  decision  made, a  in  principal  to  proceed  with a p r o j e c t was  a  p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l using the general s o c i a l theory model would be conducted and  to c o n s i d e r i n i n t e r a t i v e l y  how  community  a  particular  would  output  of  proposal  where  would  impact  the  evaluation  process  I t would  be  made  available  in  the  education.  T h i s model tends to encourage a d e c e n t r a l i z e d , comprehensive  policy-process.  This  i n c o r p o r a t e s a framework of e v a l u a t i o n which community  members.  framework  are  conjunction  As  carried  with  well out  the by  first  the  Finally  used  of  evaluate  is is  three  community  "bottom-up" because  it  undertaken  by  steps and  i n the  then  in  the government a set of a l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o s  for development are generated. to  written  languages of a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , and would be meant  to serve as a focus of community debate and  and  a  p r o v i d e a c l e a r summary of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  judgements a r r i v e d upon. working  developmental  detail  life.  As a f i n a l report  increasing  a  variety  the  framework  developmental  efforts  can  be  (e.g.  100  s o c i a l and economic) to ensure a p a r t i c u l a r bands's is  balanced.  model  by  For  Indian  developmental  these bands  and  efforts.  training  and  I recommend the use of t h i s  DIAND  Indian  c a r r y i n g out a l l of the provide  reasons  steps  development  for  analyzing  their  bands would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r in  the  process.  DIAND  would  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to bands r e q u e s t i n g  it. 2.  "Self-help"  Housing  The concept of user c o n t r o l i n housing, based on of  self-reliance,  1979,  p.212).  It  industrialized  i s the essence does  not  components  of S e l f - h e l p Housing  deny  the  available  housing  through  a  the  value  However i t  does  scale  of technology a p p r o p r i a t e enough to ensure  that  the  As p r e v i o u s l y  out  an  stages  material  (Haynes, 1979,  pointed  all  that  the  design,  in  of  selection,  the  involved  p.212).  the i n d i v i d u a l maintains c o n t r o l over t h e i r  approach  technological  the  process:  be  and  of  assembly and the l i v i n g imply  (Haynes,  l e a r n e d from past experience, but i t does i n s i s t  the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned  idea  technological  d i s c o v e r i e s and mass p r o d u c t i o n nor does i t deny knowledge  the  housing.  outcome  of  the  critical  i s the adoption of a . s c a l e of technology and  resources  which s u i t the l o c a l circumstances of the members of a community or t e r r i t o r y . sufficiency  S e l f - h e l p housing can  to  the  self-  of a community of people through a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the use of a p p r o p r i a t e resources and and d e s i g n i n g of The  contribute  scale  technology  i n the  planning  houses. of  the  housing  shortage on I n d i a n - r e s e r v e s i s  101  such that DIAND can not s o l v e i t  by  housing  Even  on  a  welfare  basis.  e f f o r t s would not be in the human d i g n i t y .  My  the  direct  provision  i f i t were p o s s i b l e  interests  of  a n a l y s i s demonstrates  of such  self-confidence  and  that Indian people have  become more dependent on the government f o r housing a s s i s t a n c e . While  some bands are assuming more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  d e s i g n i n g and managing t h e i r own have  been  disabled  consuming and  housing  for planning,  programs  from  taking  t h e i r own  frustrating  nature  of  the  many  bands  a c t i o n by the time on-reserve  housing  process. My  a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e s that DIAND o f f i c i a l s have tended  to put t h e i r of  a  faith  in the v e r t i c a l and h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  large-scale  involvement  housing  program  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  precludes  the.  of  I have shown how  l a r g e s c a l e and c e n t r a l i z e d nature program  instead  limited  of  the  direct  in p r a c t i c e  on-reserve  v a r i e t y and  Indian  housing  flexibility  of the  program and prevents the r e s o l u t i o n of housing shortages appropriate  is  a  need  for  clear  comprehension of the  s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and environmental a p a r t i c u l a r band and the r o l e  housing  s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d needs of a band. important  perceptual  in  a  differences  Indian people, and Efforts arguement  at  an  scale.  There  very  the  in  which  band  thus d i f f e r e n t third stresses  world  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  plays  in  meeting  the  S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of needs i s  because  between  unique  there  are  policy-makers,  cultural planners  and and  rankings of needs. housing  helping  lend  Indian  support people  to to  the help  1 02  themselves  in  attaining  adequate  s e c t o r s of T h i r d World c i t i e s networks nations  enable  the  lateral to  In  the informal  information  and  draw on resources  decision  that the r i c h  and westernized bureaucrats have f o r g o t t e n or underrated  (Oberlander, 1982; sector  poor  housing.  in  the  Vautherin  Third  e f f i c i e n t means of  &  Cisse,  1982).  The  informal  World c o n s t i t u t e s a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e and  providing  goods  and  services  and  adopts  r e a d i l y to the changing needs of the populace. DIAND's  role  in  housing  f u n c t i o n i n g of the informal  should  sector  be  in  to  Indian  facilitate  the  communities  and  promote i t s autonomous development by the i n j e c t i o n of and  the  provision  of  training  Housing components and m a t e r i a l s l e a d i n g sector  in appropriate  could  resources  technologies.  form a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d  i n c e r t a i n bands depending on t h e i r  developmental  priorities. In those bands where housing i s chosen as priority  the  o u t l i n e d by necessity  Turner for  p r i n c i p l e of maintained using job  following  priniciples  (1976),  are  self-government  local (Turner,  and  s e l f - h e l p housing, as  applicable.  in  personal  First,  local affairs freedom  1976, p.226).  developmental  to  i s the  f o r which the  build  must  be  Second i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r  the l e a s t necessary power, weight and s i z e of t o o l f o r the  (whether managerial or t e c h n o l o g i c a l ) Self-help  territorial  housing  recognizes  powers i n order  flexible  enough  the  (Turner,  1976, p.226).  reassertion  of  local  that a community or a t e r r i t o r y can  achieve economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and are  of  a  to provide  formulate  policies  that  f o r l o c a l needs, i n t e r e s t s and  1  aspirations.  These  03  conditions  may  be  achieved  through  " s e l e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i a l c l o s u r e " (Friedmann and Weaver, 1979) and a  striving  towards s e l f - r e l i a n t development.  This necessitates  an e x p r e s s i o n of f a i t h i n the a b i l i t i e s of people f o r c e s of t h e i r own e v o l u t i o n . o u t s i d e a i d and investment. whole  Indian  process  community  of  social  learning  between  indigenous  resources  to  leads  the  a l s o i n v o l v e s the  development, i n i t i a t e s a conscious  government, d i v e r s i f i e s and  guide  Indian people would r e l y l e s s on  S e l f - h e l p housing  in  to  the  Indian  people  p r o d u c t i o n , pools  adoption  of  and the indigeneous  "alternative"  or  appropriate technologies. 3.  Planning As Communicative A c t i o n  Another important is  a  deep  understanding  planners and the structures two  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c r i t i c a l  and  from being  of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which occur between  planned-for processes  approach  and  the  to prevent  provision  of  suitable  communications between the  distorted.  As p o i n t e d out i n my a n a l y s i s DIAND o f f i c i a l s  may  or  may  not be aware of s u b t l e d i s t o r t i o n s of communication o c c u r r i n g on different  levels  d e f i n i t i o n of etc.).  (e.g.  the  DIAND  bureaucratic  problem,  attempted  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n and Indian people Indian  from  policy  technical options,  improve communication between i t s by  implementing  mechanisms f o r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n but these mechanisms have not proved  as e f f e c t i v e as hoped. planning  diversion  language,  procedure  and/or t e c h n i c a l  In p r a c t i c e DIAND has never  which p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t  assistance  to  allow  Indian  t o be  followed  financial  a  support  communities  to  104  develop  their  inherent  abilities  making, and e f f e c t i v e community  f o r communication,  action.  DIAND, as an o r g a n i z a t i o n , not keyed  to  only  accomplishes  the "means and ends" of a problem  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l attention  The  structure  process r e f l e c t s a systematic p a t t e r n i n g of levels  of  Indian  a n t i c i p a t i n g the i n t e r e s t s , people  DIAND can b u i l d  to producing t e c h n i c a l  of  and  distorts  the  i t s planning  and  that  action.  aspirations  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  of  By  Indian  support i n a d d i t i o n  solutions. theory  require  rule-structured  prospects  (Habermas,1975;  of  communicative  more  and  possibilites  Forester,1980). than  communication  technical  A  process  Indian  action  critical  Heskin,l980;  possible  harm  approach  to  By  organizational  DIAND  would  particular  to  powerless,  understand  undemocratic  know  how  dependent  organizations  and  how  the  Indian people when those c i t i z e n s have  democratic v o i c e in t h e i r own  domination and  (Forester,  understanding  little  then  would  knowledge to be e f f e c t i v e , i . e .  Friedmann,1981).  done  which  people face  promote p r a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s and knowledge  needs  and  p r a c t i c e by f i r s t r e c o g n i z i n g that usual p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e  i s a normatively  1980;  reproduces  communication  participation  needs  DIAND can put a c r i t i c a l into  but a l s o  results  r e l a t i o n s of knowledge, consent, t r u s t  (Forester,1980).  influences  decision-  politics  Indian and to  why  occur.  people  confused support  movements that work to overcome these  are by  management,  pathologies Finally,  rendered public  Indian  DIAND  ignorant,  bureaucratic  organizations  problems.  of  and  105  A commitment to t e c h n i c a l problem-solving contradictions Current  for  may  ease  political  a p e r i o d of time.  contradictions  are  housing)  continue  will  the  that are inherent i n the s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y .  planning  injustices  perpetuates  not  be  over  social  However, i f these u n d e r l y i n g  resolved to  tensions  perceived  the  problems  (e.g.  focus of a t t e n t i o n  i n the  system. Since i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c change  immediately  the  to assume that first  DIAND's  step  in  role  will  resolving  these  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i s a commitment to understanding them.  This  be  learning"  achieved  through  (Friedmann,1973:1981; Schon,  1980)  a  process  Grabow  between  and  Indian  of  "social  Heskin,1973;  communities  Habermas,1975;  and  DIAND.  Social  l e a r n i n g culminates i n c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , which e n t a i l s a held  together  environment), making  communication  as w e l l  as  organizations  "bottom-up" as between  by  the  well group  p h y s i c a l , presence  its  members  (internal  communication  with  other  decision-  a  and  environment).  "top-down"  of  an  flow  evolving  adjustment  collective environments to  each  involves a  communication  who  their situation.  the have  In the  s i t u a t i o n communication among a f f e c t e d organization  thereby l e a d i n g to a p p r o p r i a t e adjustments  external  of  of members from each a f f e c t e d group  groups and the decision-making  For  It  decision-makers, thereby r e q u i r i n g  v a l u a b l e knowledge and experience about course  group  among  (external as  can  action  to  must  be  other.  will  be  on-going  in p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s .  be s u c c e s s f u l the i n t e r n a l  This  continuously  brought  can be accomplished  and into  through  1 06  three  i n t e r r e l a t e d processes of c o l l e c t i v e  t e c h n i c a l process of comprehensive and c u l t u r a l Indian and  action.  socio-economic,  p l a n n i n g i n Indian communities.  people  be  t r a i n e d to undertake  l e a r n t o communicate i n a  members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y f r o m  First,  fashion  environmental  This requires that  this process that  the  does  themselves  not  exclude  the process.  Second, a s e l f - m a n a g i n g , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n making  concerned  priorities this  with  conceiving,  of community development.  capacity  but  planning Most  and  Indian  realizing bands  have  i t h a s been u n d e r m i n e d by t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  "top-down" c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y .  A  degree  members  and  of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  government o f f i c i a l s Finally,  a  life  and  course  cultural  process  of  i n a l l phases of development, as w e l l as t h e  a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e human q u a l i t i e s o f  assumption  and  social  and t h e development of a community.  learning  before their  b e f o r e b a n d s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y .  political,  monitoring progress societal  o f band o f f i c i a l s  high  that social  l e a r n i n g proceeds  T h i s i s based from p r a c t i c e  i s embodied i n t h e l e a r n e r and i n t e g r a t e d of  action  (Friedmann,1981).  p e r s o n a l example s o c i a l  development.  learning  Imparted  on  i n which  through  through  the  the  dialogue  i s a measure of p r o g r e s s of  1 07  B.  THE CRITICAL APPROACH: A METHOD OF PLANNING There are few examples of an a p p l i c a t i o n  of  the  approach as a method of p l a n n i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e . to  on-reserve  housing  planning w i l l functions  DIAND.  Some  below but i t i s important which  the  method  c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g . needed  integrated. i.e.  by  What  First  type  of  workshops  planning  theory  on  will  have  to  i n order t o undertake t h e i r  planning?  or  i.e.  training  years or ten y e a r s . and  organizations  or  preparation, training private  the  i s the p r e p a r a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and  Indian people  preparation, training private  that  sectoral  vs.  What type of p r e p a r a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and education?  programs,  five  and  system i t s e l f .  p r e p a r a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and education w i l l year,  structure  i s based demands a more fundamental change i n  The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s method of  own p l a n n i n g .  the  of these changes w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  t o keep i n mind  the economic and p o l i t i c a l  education  In r e l a t i o n  the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s approach toward  r e q u i r e some major changes i n  of  critical  consultants  and or  centres.  How  be required?  much  i . e . one  Who w i l l pay f o r the necessary  education? Indian  i.e.  bands.  education?  Who w i l l  i.e.  Indian bands.  the 'government,  the  provide the government,  Second i s the governing  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t would apply.  What  governing  i . e . national,  and  administration  provincial, district, financial  tribal  distribution  of  will  preside?  of  level  or band.  What sort  planning  responsibilities?  government, p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , band or i n d i v i d u a l . a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the necessary  legislative  legal  of  and  i.e. Finally  f i n a n c i a l and other  108  regulatory Who  controls  that are a c c e p t a b l e to the Indian  w i l l be accountable  questions  which  and  to whom?  These  mind  any  one  important  application  I t i s important  to  keep  that there i s no s i n g l e answer f o r a l l Indian bands to of  these  questions  a s p i r a t i o n s of each are 1.  since  the  needs',  values  and  different.  Comprehensive Community Based Planning  Another  characteristic  decentralized, Comprehensive  of  "bottom-up" community  the  and  based  are  taken  i n t o account  an i n t e g r a t e d f a s h i o n . involved  in  a  critical  planning  of  is  a  planning.  i s a s t r a t e g y by which  i n t e r e s t s of  a  particular  by the members of the community in  Members of the  process  approach  comprehensive  the l o c a l needs, a s p i r a t i o n s and and band  all  w i l l have to be answered before an  of the c r i t i c a l approach i s p o s s i b l e . in  are  people.  community  evaluating  are  various  actually  options  for  development. I t would be comprehensive planning would be given the o p p o r t u n i t y , through processes, and  derive  a  the above three p l a n n i n g  "whole"  solutions,  rather  from c u r r e n t s e c t o r a l  than  the  fragmented  planning.  Depending  p a r t i c u l a r band's p r i o r i t i e s housing may  part of economic  a  bands  s y t e m a t i c a l l y to analyse the nature of t h e i r problems  solutions resulting on  i n the sense that  comprehensive problems.  This  community-planning process  solution is  due  itself  to more  the to  than housing  be c o n s i d e r e d as  underlying the nature  socioof the  per se, s i n c e  it  1 09  e n t a i l s a high degree of community part  participation.  By  taking  i n community-planning band members would become more aware  of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the  restrictions  system  They  encompassing  them.  that  Planning  i n i t i a t i v e s are more s u c c e s s f u l  b e n e f i c i a r i e s take p a r t i n t h e i r implies  process.  exist  in  individuals. if  f o r m u l a t i o n and  the  intended  implementation.  a "bottom-up" as opposed to a "top-down"  I n d i v i d u a l s sharing  in  the  would a l s o l e a r n and work i n  s o c i a l groups, once again, and not as i s o l a t e d  This  1  the  planning  decision-making  process  w i l l become more s a t i s f i e d with the r e s u l t s because they conform to t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and accustomed l i f e s t y l e s . of  the  community  should  undertake  d e s c r i p t i o n of c u r r e n t community community  vitality  Then  conjunction  in  before  "planned  helps  making  values and b e l i e f s .  any  development  with DIAND p r i o r i t i e s  remove  f o r " thereby  historical  the  analysis,  c o n d i t i o n s and an e v a l u a t i o n of  value c h o i c e s should be made r i g h t planning  a  I d e a l l y members  decisions.  f o r development and  i n the community.  distinction  between  Community  "planner" and  r a i s i n g the l e v e l of awareness of  people's  I t thus r e c t i f i e s planning e r r o r s by making  i t p o s s i b l e f o r c l i e n t s to point out what  will  work  and  what  w i l l not. If  i t i s genuinely mass-based community-planning b u i l d s up  the s e l f - e n a b l i n g community.  1  character  and  co-operative  spirit  F a c i n g common problems as a s o l i d group and  of  the  finding  Community-planning should i d e a l l y i n v o l v e a l l of the members of the community i n making d e c i s i o n s . Depending on the e x i s t i n g power s t r u c t u r e of an Indian band, however, t h i s i s not always the case i n p r a c t i c e .  110  solutions c o l l e c t i v e l y  leads to g r e a t e r s e l f - a s s u r a n c e and p r i d e  in the group's a b i l i t y  to act p r o d u c t i v e l y .  l a r g e r whole whose welfare i s every likely  to r e s u l t  i n d i v i d u a l ' s concern  of  a  i s more  i n organized p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups.  Individuals  and  communities  meeting t h e i r housing and  Consciousness  assistance  to  experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s in  needs should be meet  these  given  needs  c o n s i s t a n t with l o c a l circumstances.  the  in  a  Indian  opportunities  manner bands  which i s should  be  provided with block funding to permit comprehensive a n a l y s i s and planning  f o r long-term  socio-economic  development undertaken at  the community l e v e l .  Subsequent  organized  to meet the needs which the plans of  primarily  individual  bands  determine  DIAND  to  be  programming  necessary  should  for  be  these  integrated  community development. 2. A  Developmental Approach Toward Band developmental  approach  to  band  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s . require  lump  sums  of  money  if  comprehensive planning o b j e c t i v e s . to  aggregate  takes  into  i s that bands  will  are going to undertake  Second, i s that  bands  need  a v a i l a b l e funding amongst themselves i n order that  the funding can go f u r t h e r .  Finally,  the use of both p u b l i c and  p r i v a t e sources of funding i n order to funding  funding  First, they  Funding  create  more  innovative  strategies.  Comprehensive  community  significant  contribution  incorporates  a  objectives.  This  composite suggests  planning to  of the  is  Indian social, type  capable  of making a  development economic of  and  programs  if  it  political that  will  111  contribute  more  directly  to  an improvement i n the s o c i a l  economic c o n d i t i o n s of Indian people resources  in  education and and  both  the  through  government  and  t r a i n i n g , a l c o h a l and drug  t r a p p i n g , farming,  a  realignment  the  community  rehabilitation,  forestry, fishing,  and  mining,  of  (e.g. hunting  tourism  and  r e c r e a t i o n , etc . ) . It  is  likely  some time and  that the Indian Act w i l l not be r e v i s e d f o r  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g the  Indian A f f a i r s ' budget w i l l Board.;  The  exercise  size  continue to r e s i d e with the of  by  Treasury for  comprehensive community-based planning would be a p r a c t i c a l  step  forthcoming  powers  the  bands  in p r e p a r i n g bands for any  greater  of  r e v i s i o n s to  the  Indian  Act. The  relative  approaches to development difficulties funding  m e r i t s and  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  allocation  should  of  therefore  existing be  seriously  a s s o c i a t e d with a r r i v i n g at  procedures  funds  the  oppose any  most  of  money  they  have  d i s t r i b u t i o n of e x i s t i n g bands to achieve The planned  funds,  It i s l i k e l y  o p t i o n which v a r i e s from  received however,  the would  the  past.  A  re-  assist  poorer  of program funding to Indian bands should  i n such away that there i s on  in  in  t h e i r development o b j e c t i v e s .  transfer  expenditure  The  appropriate  the present approach, e s p e c i a l l y i f i t e n t a i l s cut-backs amount  Indian  examined.  should not be underestimated.  that some Indian groups w i l l  for  the  saving can only r e s u l t  programs  no  increase  in  the  at the time of t r a n s f e r .  i f the growth of Indian  be  total A true  independence  is  112  accompanied  by  a  bureaucracy.  I t should  allocate existing First  Indians  to  be  from  aggregation structures  possible  in  for  i n more developmental  in  Block such  bands  per of by  to  ways. of block  and  their  own  capita  versus funds  ability  shift  toward greater amalgamation or programs  bands (e.g.  and  organizational  T r i b a l C o u n c i l s , Indian p r i o r i t i e s or  having some s o r t of c u l t u r a l a f f i n i t y amongst themselves Housing  Society  of  of  p r i o r i t i e s to s u i t  Second, there should be a  for of  discretionary  developmental  funding  funding groups  the  Regional Committees) s h a r i n g s i m i l a r developmental  Sto-lo  re-  a manner that the number of c a t e g o r i e s of  i s minimized  choose  government  funding r e f e r s to the t r a n s f e r of  l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i s maximized. away  reduction  there should be a greater u t i l i z a t i o n  accountability Indians  also  funding  s e c t o r a l funding. to  corresponding  B.C.).  (e.g.  T h i r d there should be more  i n n o v a t i v e approaches to band funding which: i ) E s t a b l i s h a v i a b l e working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C r e d i t Union-Trade Union movements, both provincially and at l o c a l l e v e l s . ii) Work with l o c a l community groups to s o l v e housing problems f o r low and modest incomes, seniors, handicapped, single parents, n a t i v e s , and others f a c i n g housing d i f f i c u l t i e s . i i i ) Blend create new 1979, p.2)  Once again people  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e housing funding to housing f i n a n c i n g approaches. (Harcourt,  i t i s recommended  seriously  reconsider  the  that  DIAND  potential  c o n t r i b u t i n g to community development.  The  and of  the  Indian  housing  for  besetting limitation  113  of  housing  as a means of s o c i a l  change  change the a c t u a l socio-economic to at  make  but  Indians  i t stops t h e r e .  to p a r t i c i p a t e  I t does not  re-organization  s t r u t u r e s which allow  of  in  no  DIAND.  Instead  be  a  the  outside  to accept  improve c o n d i t i o n s in could  delegate  Regional the  the  s o c i a l and the  recipient,  to  economic  for  it  for  itself  s e r v i c e s , both w i t h i n  what i t f e e l s would best  community.  funds  planning  choose  Alternatively,  management of necessary  of  a  per se, of programs from  a  band  funds to T r i b a l  Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n s where d e c i s i o n s  allocation  and  perpetuation  community-based  departments,  the  activities  i t s funding on the b a s i s  i t would have the power  government  I t i s aimed  domination.  from among the a v a i l a b l e ideas, s k i l l s and and  serves  questioning  i n e q u i t y , i n e q u a l i t y and  band has agreed  longer  not  they are competent,  existing  the p r i n c i p l e of comprehensive  would  does but  community  entail  the  p a t h o l o g i e s a s s o c i a t e d with Once, a  of  it  c o n d i t i o n s of people  give them a f e e l i n g that they count and  radical  of  that  these c o n d i t i o n s a l i t t l e more t o l e r a b l e .  encouraging  and  is  with  development  respect  would  be  or to  made  c o l l e c t i v e l y among r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the group of bands. An  extensive  examination  of  the  application  of  these  p r i n c i p l e s , undertaken by Indian bands, Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n s and DIAND,  is  a  comprehensive approach  to  pre-requisite community-based band  implementation examination  planning.  of of:  these i)  the  to  obtaining planning  As was  and  Cabinet a  approval  developmental  p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d out  principles preparation,  also  requires  training  of  and  a  the  close  education  114  needed  by  Indian  comprehensive  in  community-based  administrative necessary  people  structures  legislative,  order  planning;  that  would  principles DIAND and application  be  own  i i ) the governing and apply;  and  iii)  people.  In  order  implementation,  the be  processes closely  themselves.  and  results  monitored  the  to  test  suggested  that  associated  these  Region of  with  their  and evaluated by the Indian  I t i s a l s o important  that a c r i t i c a l  reveiw  of past e f f o r t s which i n c o r p o r a t e some or a l l of  these p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n B.C. Canim Lake Indian  Counc i 1 ) .  i t is  be a p p l i e d on a l i m i t e d b a s i s i n the B.C.  undertaken  (e.g.  their  p r i n c i p l e s and to r e s o l v e other complex i s s u e s that c o u l d  cause d e l a y s i n  people  undertake  f i n a n c i a l and other r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s  that are a c c e p t a b l e to the Indian these  to  Band  as w e l l as other regions of Canada of  B.C.,  The  Ontario  Housing  1 15  BIBLIOGRAPHY Armitage, Andrew. S o c a i l Welfare i n Canada: I d e a l s and Realities. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1975 Boothroyd, P e t e r . "Summary of C h a r a t e r i s t i c s of the Four Development Approaches". The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Unpublished, 1982. Beer, S t a f f o r d . Designing f o r Freedom. Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974. Beer, S t a f f o r d , Ernst and E r n s t . Development. J u l y , 1978.  Toronto: Canadian  The Dynamics of Band  Bentham, Jeremy. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the P r i n c i p l e s of Morals and L e g i s l a t i o n . e d i t e d by J.H. Burns and H.L.A. H a r t . London, Athlone P., 1970. Boothroyd, P e t e r . " I m p l i c a t i o n s of Development Approaches for Indian Development". The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Unpublished, 1982. Braybrooke, David and Lindblom, C h a r l e s E. A S t r a t e g y of D e c i s i o n : P o l i c y E v a l u a t i o n as a P o l i c y Process. Edinborough: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1963. Buber, M a r t i n . I and Thou. 2nd e d i t i o n . C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r s ' s Sons, 1958.  New York:  Buchanan, E n i d Jane. A r c t i c Housing:Problems and Prospects . Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. Burns, Leland S. and G r e b l e r , Leo. The Housing ofNations U. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. Canada. Report.  Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1981.  Canada. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953-62.  Annual  Annual Report.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Annual Report. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967-82. Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Program C i r c u l a r J : S e r i e s 1-5. Ottawa, 1 982. Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Indian On-Reserve Housing P o l i c y and Program  11 6  D i s c u s s i o n Paper, Ottawa, 1981. 16.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Indian On-Reserve Housing Program. D i s c u s s i o n Paper, Ottawa, 1980.  17.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Indian C o n d i t i o n s : A Summary. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1980  18.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. A Progress Report on the Indian and I n u i t Program D i r e c t i o n . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1980.  19.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Housing Needs A n a l y s i s . F i n a l Report, Ottawa, 1979.  20.  Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Proposed Housing P o l i c y f o r Indians On-reserve. D i s c u s s i o n Paper, Ottawa, 1977.  21.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. B.C.-Yukon Region. Planning f o r the Proposed Indian Reserve Housing Program. Memorandum, Vancouver, 1976.  22.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Indian Housing. V i c t o r i a , 1971.  23.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Community Improvement: Proposed P o l i c i e s and Programs. Ottawa, 1970.  24.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. P h y s i c a l Development of Indian Communities. C i r c u l i a r #7, Ottawa, 1968.  25.  Canada. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. S e l e c t i o n s from Speeches by the M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s and Senior Departmental O f f i c i a l s , Ottawa, 1967.  26.  Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. P a c i f i c Region, Medical S e r v i c e s Branch. A Housing S t r a t e g y . Vancouver, 1979.  27.  C a r d i n a l , Harold. The Unjust S o c i e t y . H u r t i g L t d . , 1969.  28.  Chin, Robert and Benne, Kenneth D. "General S t r a t e g i e s for E f f e c t i n g Changes i n Human Systems", Pp.32-59. i n Bennis, Warren G., Benne, Kenneth D. and Chin, Robert. The Planning of Change. H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,  Edmonton: M.G.  11 7  1969. 29.  C i t y of Vancouver. Planning Department. Vancouver's Housing. Vancouver, 1981.  30.  Collingwood, R.G. Press, 1946.  31.  Cox, Fred M. " A l t e r n a t i v e Conceptions of Community:Implications f o r Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , Pp.224-35. in Cox, Fred M. and Rothman, Jack. S t r a t e g i e s of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n . Itasca, I l l i n o i s : F. E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1979.  32.  Dawes, Fred W.H. "Land and the Squatter — A D i f f e r e n t S t r a t e g y f o r North and South?", Pp.21-37. Land and Squatter Communities: A S t r a t e g i c R e l a t i o n s h i p . Vancouver: The Centre f o r Human Settlements, U.B.C, 1982.  33.  Deutsch, K a r l W. Nerves of Government. Press of Glencoe, 1963.  34.  Doern, Bruce G. and Aucoin, P e t e r . Public Policy in Canada. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1979.  35.  Duff, A.D. "Indian P o l i c y " , Pp.36-55. in Doern, Bruce G. and Wilson, Seymour V. Issues i n Canadian P u b l i c P o l i c y . Macmillan of Canada L i m i t e d , 1974.  36.  Duff, Wilson. The 1. V i c t o r i a : B.C.  37.  Engels, F r e d e r i c h . The Housing Question. I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1935.  38.  Engels, F r e d e r i c h . The O r i g i n of the Family, P r i v a t e Property and the S t a t e . Moscow: Progress P u b l i s h e r s , 1977.  39.  E t z i o n i , Amitai. "Mixed Scanning: A T h i r d Approach to Decision-Making", Pp.385-92. P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Reveiw , December, 1967.  40.  F o r e s t e r , John. Pp.275-286. APA  41.  F o r e s t e r , John. "Know Your O r g a n i z a t i o n : Planning and the Reproduction of S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l R e l a t i o n s " , Pp.3-13. Plan Canada, 22:1, 1980.  42.  Freedman, Jonathon L. Crowding and The V i k i n g Press, 1975.  43.  Friedmann, John.  The  Idea of H i s t o r y .  Understanding Oxford:  Clarendon  London: Free  Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia V o l . P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1980. New  York:  " C r i t i c a l Theory and Planning P r a c t i c e " , J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1980.  Behaviour.  Retrackinq America.  New  New  York:  York: Anchor  118  Press/Doubleday,  1973.  44.  Friedmann, John. Press, 1979.  The Good S o c i e t y .  45.  Friedmann, John and Weaver, Clyde. T e r r i t o r y and F u n c t i o n Berkley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1979.  46.  Gouldner, A l v i n W. The Coming C r i s i s of Western New York: Basic Books, 1970.  47.  Goulet, Dennis. 1980.  48.  Grabow, Stephen and Heskin, A l l a n . "Foundations f o r a R a d i c a l Concept of P l a n n i n g " , Pp. 106-1.4. AIP J o u r n a l . March, 1973.  49.  Habermas, Jurgen. Press, 1973.  50.  H a e f e l e , Edwin T. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government and Environmental Management.  51.  Harcourt, Mike. B.C. Native Housing P r o p o s a l . Based on the Sto Lo Housing Committee's E x p e r i e n c e , May, 1978 to October, 1979. Vancouver, November, 1979. B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973.  52.  H a r r i s , Marvin. C a n n i b a l s and Kings:The O r i g i n s of C u l t u r e s . New York: F i r s t Vintage Books E d i t i o n , 197&.  53.  Haynes, C h a r l e s . S e l f Help Housing. Vancouver: Centre for C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C, 1 979.  54.  H e i l b r o n e r , Robert L. York: A C l a r i o n Book,  55.  Heskin, A l l a n David. " C r i s i s and Response", APA J o u r n a l , January, 1980.  56.  H o l l i n g , C . S . (ed). Adaptive Environmental Assessment Management. John Wiley & Sons, 1978.  57.  Howensteine, E. Jay. " A p p r a i s i n g the Role of Housing i n Economic Development", Pp.21-34. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Reveiw, V o l . LXXV ( 1 ) , 1957.  58.  I l l i c h , Ivan D. and Row, 1973.  59.  Jacobs, M. and Stevenson, G. "Health and Housing:An H i s t o r i c a l Examination of A l t e r n a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e s " ,  The C r u e l Choice.  Cambridge:  New  Legitimation C r i s i s .  The  Sociology  York: Atheneum,  Boston: Beacon  The Worldly P h i l o s o p h e r s . 1967.  Tools for C o n v i v i a l i t y .  MIT  New  New  Pp.50-63. and  York: Harper  1 19  Pp.105-22. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Health S e r v i c e s . Vol.11 ( 1 ) , 1981. 60.  Johnson, H a r o l d R. and Tropman, John E. "The S e t t i n g s of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e " , Pp.213-24. i n Cox, Fred M. and Rothman, Jack. S t r a t e g i e s of Community Organization. I t a s c a , I l l i n o i s : F.E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1979.  61.  Keynes, John Maynard. The C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s of John Maynard Keynes. MacMillan f o r the Royal Economic S o c i e t y , London, 1971.  62.  Lander, Bernard. Towards an Understanding of J u v e n i l e Delinquency . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s t i y Press, 1955.  63.  L e f f , Gordon. H i s t o r y and S o c i a l Theory. U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama Press, 1969.  64..  L e v i - S t r a u s s , Claude. S t r u c t u r a l Anthropology. Basic Books, Inc., 1963.  65.  Lindblom, C h a r l e s E. "The Science of Muddling Through", P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. Vol.19 (2), 1959.  66.  Lindblom, C h a r l e s E. " S t i l l Muddling, Not Yet Through", Pp.517-26. P u b l i c A d m i n s t r a t i o n Review, November/December, 1979.  67.  Mangin, W i l l i a m . "Squatter Settlements", Pp.21-30. S c i e n t i f i c American, Vol.217 ( 4 ) , 1967.  68.  Mannheim, K a r l . Ideology and U t o p i a . Brace and World, Inc., 1966.  69.  Maruyama, Magoroh. " H i e r a r c h i s t s , I n d i v i d u a l i s t s and M u t u a l i s t s " , Pp.103-14. F u t u r e s , Vol.6 ( 2 ) , 1974.  70.  Marx, K a r l and Engels, F r e d e r i c h . The Communist M a n i f e s t o . i n Mendel, Arthur P. E s s e n t i a l Works of Marxism. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1979.  71.  Maslow, A.H. M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1954.  72.  Mason, A l l a n . The Need f o r P a r t i c i p a t o r y P l a n n i n g f o r OnReserve Housing in Canada. Student Paper, School of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1980.  73.  Mendel, A r t h u r P. E s s e n t i a l Works of Marxism. Bantam Books, Inc., 1979.  74.  M i c h e l s o n , W i l l i a m H.  Man  Alabama:  New  and h i s Urban  New  York:  York: H a r c o u r t ,  New  York:  New  York:  Environment:A  120  S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach. Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1970.  Addison-  75.  M i l l , John S t u a r t . P r i n c i p l e s of P o l i t i c a l Economy. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1965.  76.  M i l l , John S t u a r t . Essays on E t h i c s , R e l i g i o n and S o c i e t y ed. J.M. Robson. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969.  77.  M i l l s , C. Wright. Power, P o l i t i c s and People. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963.  78.  Morgan, Lewis H. Houses and House L i f e of the American A b o r i g i n e s . U. S. Department of the I n t e r i o r . Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1881.  79.  N a t i o n a l Indian Brotherhood. P o s i t i o n Paper, V980.  80.  NIB-DIAND J o i n t Working Group. Program. May, 1976.  81.  Oberlander, H. Peter. Land and Human Settlement A Review and A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Recent P o l i c y Developments. Vancouver: The Centre f o r Human Settlements, U.B.C, 1982.  82.  O'Connor, James.  83.  Olson, Mancur. The Logic of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971.  84.  Ostrom, V i n c e n t . The I n t e l l e c t u a l C r i s i s i n American P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama: U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama Press, 1973.  85.  P e r i n , Constance. E v e r y t h i n g in i t s Proper P l a c e . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977.  86.  Perlman, Robert and Gurin, A r n o l d . Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . New York: Wiley, 1972.  87.  Ponting, J . Rick and Gibboins, Roger. Out of I r r e l e v a n c e : A S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n to Indian A f f a i r s in Canada. Toronto: Buttersworth, 1980.  88.  Pross, P a u l . Pressure Group Behaviour in Canadian Politics. Scarborough: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1975.  89.  Rappaport, Amos. Inc., 1969.  House Form and  90.  R i t t e l , Horst W.  and Webber, Melvin M.  The  Housing Program  New  York:  1980.  Indian Housing P o l i c y  and  Policy:  F i s c a l C r i s i s of the S t a t e .  Culture.  Boston:  Prentice-Hall, "Dilemmas in a  121  General Theory of Planning", Pp.155-69. Vol.4, 1973.  Policy Sciences.  91.  Robinson, J . R u s s e l l and Sismondo, S e r g i o . " A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l P a t h o l o g i e s i n a P o l i c y Context: A Paradigm f o r A c t i o n " , Pp.41-72. S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s Research. Vol.6, . 1979.  92.  Rothman, Jack. "Three Models of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e : T h e i r Mixing and Phasing", Pp.25-45. i n Cox, Fred M. and Rothman, Jack. S t r a t e g i e s of Community" Organization. I t a s c a , I l l i n o i s : F.E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1979.  93.  S a d a l l a , Edward K., Snyder, Peter Z. and Stea, David. "House Form and C u l t u r e R e v i s i t e d " . i n Stea, David, S a d a l l a , Edward K. and Snyder, Peter Z. Fourth World S t u d i e s i n P l a n n i n g . Los Angeles: School of A r c h i t e c t u r e and.Urban Planning, 1975.  94.  S a h l i n s , M a r s h a l l . C u l t u r e and P r a c t i c a l Reason. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1976.  95.  Schon, Donald. C o n v e r s a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . I n s t i t u t e of Technology, F a l l , 1980.  96.  Schorr, A l v i n L. Slums and S o c i a l I n s e c u r i t y . U.S. Department of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare, 1964.  97.  Smith, Adam. An Inquiry i n t o the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of N a t i o n s . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976.  98.  Smith, Adam. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. ed. D.D. Raphael and A. M a c f i e . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.  99.  Stanbury, W.T. The S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s of Indian F a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1975.  Masachusetts  100.  S t a n i s l a v , V. K a s l . " E f f e c t s of Housing on Mental and P h y s i c a l H e a l t h " , Pp.207-25. Man-Environment Systems. Vol.4 (4), 1974.  101.  Stohr, Walter B. and T a y l o r , D.R. F r a s e r ( e d ) . Development from Above or Below? . New york: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.  102.  T a y l o r , John G. From Modernization to Modes of Production London: Macmillan Press L t d . , 1979.  103.  Tonnies, Ferdinand. Community and'Society. The Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957.  East L a n s i n g :  122  104.  Turner, John F. "Housing by People", Pp.227-29. A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design. V o l . XLVI (4), 1976.  105.  Union of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian C h i e f s . on Housing. Vancouver, 1973.  106.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s . Department of Economic and S o c i a l Affairs. The S o c i a l Impact of Housing:Goals, Standards, S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s and Popular P a r t i c i p a t i o n . New York, 1 977.  107.  V a u t h e r i n , Jacques and C i s s e , Roland. Seminar on E a r t h Based B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s and T r a d i t i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n Techniques. A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Development of T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n Urbanism and A r c h i t e c t u r e . Vancouver: Centre f o r Human Settlements, May 14, 1982.  108.  Von G i j c h , John, P. York: Mayor and Row,  109.  Warf, B r i a n . "Theory and P r a c t i c e " , Pp.9-27. i n Warf, B r i a n . Community Work i n Canada. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1979.  110.  Warren, Roland L. S o c i a l Change and Human Purpose:Toward Understanding and A c t i o n . Chicago: Rand McNalley C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1977.  111.  Warren, Roland L. The Community i n America. Chicago: Rand McNalley C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1963.  112.  Wassenhoven, C. " S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Aspects of Housing", Pp.37-48. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Environmental S t u d i e s . Vol.9 (4), 1976.  113.  Weaver-., Clyde and Cunningham, A l a i n . S o c i a l Impact Assessment f o r Northern N a t i v e Communities: A T h e o r e t i c a l Approach. Unpublished. School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1981.  114.  Weaver, S a l l y M. Making Canadian Indian P o l i c y : The Hidden Agenda . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1981.  115.  Weismann, E r n e s t . Human Settlements, Bureaucracy and Ideology: The Yugoslav A l t e r n a t i v e . Vancouver: The Centre for Human Settlements, U.B.C., 1981.  116.  White, L e s l i e A. The E v o l u t i o n of Culture:The Development of C i v i l i z a t i o n to the F a l l of Rome. New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, Inc., 1959.  117.  Wilner, R o s a b e l l e Walkley, P i n k e r t o n , Thomas and Tayback, Mathew. Housing Environment and Family L i f e . B a l t i m o r e :  Position  Paper  A p p l i e d General Systems Theory. 1974.  New  1 23  John Hopkins Press, 1962. 118.  Wong, Shue Tuck. "The Nature and Consequence of Squatter Settlements: the Experiences i n Colombo and Bangkok", Pp.1-24. Land, i t s Role i n Squatter Communities i n A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America. Vancouver: The Centre f o r Human Settlements, U.B.C., 1982.  1 24  APPENDIX  A - CHRONOLOGY OF O N - R E S E R V E  HOUSING  EVENTS  125  MAJOR DATES & EVENTS  - Housing Assistance - No formal program - Operation of sawmills  FUNDING SOURCES  PRINCIPLES  i ) Indians c o n t r i b u t e i n accordance with t h e i r a b i l i t y , e i t h e r by p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l or labour or both. I i ) Housing requirements of the s i c k and aged given f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . iii)  Welfare subsidy appropriation, Veteran's land Act Grants, band fund and personal contributioni  RESPONSIBILITY  Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration  I n s t r u c t i o n , a s s i s t a n c e and employment provided i n sawmills.  i v ) Indian bands encourages to meet housing needs by community a c t i o n .  1956 - Revisions In Indian Act & N.H.A.  i ) Permit q u a l i f i e d Indian a p p l i c a n t s to o b t a i n house f i n a n c i n g through N.H.A. programs.  C.M.H.C.  i i ) Subject to s p e c i a l guarantee p r o v i s i o n s .  1957-1960 - Increased emphasis on house b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r s . - r e v i s i o n s to s c a l e of r e l i e f assistance. - development of housing standards.  i ) Housing c o n t r i b u t e s , not only to p h y s i c a l needs of Indians but also to t h e i r morale and t h e i r d e s i r e to achieve b e t t e r s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . i i ) Source of continuing employment. i i i ) Place more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on Indian f a m i l i e s to manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s remove stigma of r e l i e f , maintain morale and s e l f i n t e r e s t .  1957 * ORDER IN COUNCIL P.C.  1957-196^  - Amended Revolving Funds Regulation to a s s i s t Indians J l i v i n g away from the reserveJ  1) F a c i l i t a t e economic and adjustment.  social  1959 * "Canadian Indian Homes" handboo] published.  1) Help f i e l d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and Indians i n s e l e c t i n g housing plans, determining appropriate and guiding community development, house grouping, s a n i t a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n of s i g h t , sewage d i s p o s a l , etc, i i ) Promote o r d e r l y development of Indian communities and adequate standards of housing, hygiene and e s s e n t i a l services.  1962 * Indian Subsidy Program  i ) Provide s h e l t e r f o r a l l Indian f a m i l i e s . 11) Provide houses of a minimum standard f o r those capable of making a personal contribution.  1962-1963 * Housing  Survey  1965 * C i r c u l a r #387 - Emphasis placed on housing requirements on reserves adjacent to v i l l a g e s , towns,  Subsidy, welfare approprla t i o n , band funds, N.H.A. loans and personal c o n t r i butions .  126  1965... c i t i e s and industry or on r e l o c a t i o n to reserves adjacent to job opportunities * Winter House B u i l d i n g Incentive Program  Department of Labour  1966 * P h y s i c a l Community Development Program  i ) Where Indian bands are s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced to manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s and i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t to do so, they should be encouraged to assume most of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s presently provided by the branch and thus achieve a l a r g e r degree of s e l f determination.  *Survey - S t a t i s t i c s f o r Indian and f a c i l i t i e s  housing  * Long Range F i n a n c i a l Forecast - housing  requirements  1966-71  * C i r c u l a r 0672 - house designs  i * "Indian A f f a i r s House Designs" - new  brochures  prepared  I I i  |  i ) With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new o f f reserve housing programs and loans to Indian f a m i l i e s on reserves, l a r g e r house designs required. i ) By i n v o l v i n g Indians i n the s e l e c t i o n of t h e i r own house plan, the colour scheme, choice of heating appliance and many other d e t a i l s encountered i n home b u i l d i n g , they w i l l develop a pride of ownership and w i l l keep t h e i r homes i n good r e p a i r .  * C i r c u l a r #665 - Subsidy housing program amended - Band Operated programs approved  i ) Realized that the house s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n Band Councils e f f e c t under t h i s approval d i d not meet C.M.H.C. minimum standards. 11) Approval to t r a n s f e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e l a t e d f i n a n c i a l resources f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of Indian houses on reserves to Band Councils or to Housing Committee r e s p o n s i b l e to Band C o u n c i l .  1966-1967 Hawthorne Report - government commissioned n a t i o n a l survey on Canadian Indians.  i ) Rejected termination of s p e c i a l r i g h t s of Indian peoples as a p o l i c y o p t i o n . i i ) C i t i z e n plus s t a t u s f o r Indians. i l l ) Role o f advocate - ombudsman f o r Indian A f f a i r s Branch because many Indians lacked the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s of s e l f - d e f e n c e . i v ) Refuted usual c o n s t i t u t i o n a l agreement that Indians were the e x c l u s i v e respons i b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l government, thereby l e a v i n g the way open f o r the provinces to d e l i v e r programs to Indians. v) Emphasized development on a broad socio-economic s c a l e i n order to reverse Indian poverty and depending on the government. v i ) Urged r e c o g n i t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l problems among Indians i n c i t i e s .  127  1967 . . . *  Privy -  Council  1967-1725  approve  Indian  Housing  Regulations  On R e s e r v e (CMHC  loans) * Housing  Design  Study  i)  Purpose o f brochure new h o u s i n g  -  "New P a t t e r n s  f o r Indian  to e x p l o r e  Communities"  * Circular  can  #777  arise  design  but rather  some o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s when we move away  standard  city-like  and  alike  look  i s n o t t o l a y down standards  subdivisions  bungalow  that  from planning  patterns.  !  DIAND s u b s i d y , band  -  I n d i a n On R e s e r v e Program  -  e s t a b l i s h e s four programs  Housing  cont r i b u t i o n s  basic  a)  subsidy  b)  I n d i a n On-Reserve  housing  c)  Indian Off-Reserve  d)  Band A d m i n i s t e r e d  Housing Housing Housing  1968 *  Circular -  Band  #797  Administered  extended tion  sewage *  Circular -  Programs  to include  o f road,  water  i  construe; and  I  system. 91  i)  summary o f f i v e - y e a r p r o g r a m of  p h y s i c a l development o f  Indian  Communities  P r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e towards b e t t e r l i v i n g accommodation, water and s a n i t a r y | s e r v i c e s , e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n and improved roads on I n d i a n Reserves.  j ii)  Branch concerned r e g a r d i n g construction o f housing -  program  expanded  quality of  i n $ only  - no a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ! s u p e r v i s i o n and planning - no a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s p e r u n i t w h i l e m a t e r i a l c o s t s and l a b o u r s p i r a l each year.  1969 * White -  Paper  proposal tion of  a global  of a l l special  Indians  termina-  i)  treatment  ' E q u a l i t y * o r " n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was the  including the  key i n g r e d i e n t  i n a solution  problems o f I n d i a n s ,  Indian Act.  are 11)  iii)  t h e major  and s p e c i a l  cause o f Indian  to the rights  problems.  ' E q u a l i t y * was t o b e a c h i e v e d by t e r m i n a t i n g t h e s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and bureaucracy t h a t had developed over the past century t o d e a l w i t h t h e Indians. Transfer sibility Indians.  t o the provinces t h e responf o radministering services to  1970 *  Circular  048  i)  Increasing lity  emphasis  o f Band  responsibility their  Commun i t y Proposed  Improvement Policies  and Programs  i)  assuming  f o r administration of  own h o u s i n g  improvement  on t h e d e s i r e a b i -  Councils  and community  programs.  Emphasis p l a c e d on programs w h i c h s t i m u l a t e and a s s i s t bands p r o p e r l y t o manage t h e i r own p r o g r a m s .  loans,  and i n d i v i d u a l  DIAND, CMHC, Band  Councils  128  1970... * Community Improvements Proposed, P o l i c i e s and P r o g r a m s . . .  ii)  iii)  I n d i a n s s h o u l d bo e n c o u r a g e d to a c c e p t mo r t g a g e and r e n t a l payments as normal o b l i g a t i o n s o f owning o r r e n t i n g property. E d u c a t i o n a l program w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f i n c r e a s i n g the number o f bands q u a l i f i e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e i r own h o u s i n g programs.  i v ) P u b l i c h o u s i n g i s a j u s t and e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n t o many I n d i a n housing problems. v) G r e a t e r band c o n t r i b u t i o n s e n c o u r a g e d f o r i n t e r n a l r o a d s , w a t e r and sewage s y s t e m s and i n t e r n a l power. v i ) Need f o r community p l a n n i n g reserves.  for a l l  v i i ) S u b s i d y Program d i s c o n t i n u e d and r e p l a c e d by New R e n t a l and P u r c h a s e H o u s i n g Program i n remote a r e a s . viii)  Arrange f o r t r a n s f e r of t h i s Department' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the h o u s i n g programs to a n o t h e r F e d e r a l Department o r t o P r o v i n c i a l Governments as soon as p o s s i b l e .  1971 * C i r c u l a r #893  i ) R i g h t o f homeowner to o b t a i n a home o f h i s choosing w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t i o n of a v a i l a b l e funds.  1972 * D i r e c t i v e on Band H o u s i n g Program  Administered  i ) E s t a b l i s h i n g aims and g u i d e l i n e s o f expanded band a d m i n i s t e r e d H o u s i n g Program. a) P a r t i a l b a s i s b) Y e a r to y e a r b a s i s c) Long range p l a n n e d b a s i s  * P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n G r a n t R i g h t s e x t e n d e d t o Homes on I n d i a n R e s e r v e s .  1973 * Circular  #57  - maximum s u b s i d y i n c r e a s e d f r o m $7,000 t o $10,000 p e r unit * Bill  C-133  - an a c t t o amend t h e  NHA  i ) S e c t i o n 15.1 - l o a n s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o n o n - p r o f i t organizat ions ii)  Section 34.18 - l o a n s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o operatives  co-  1974 * R u r a l and  Native Housing  Policy!  i ) Construction or a c q u i s i t i o n of 50,000 d w e l l i n g s o v e r t h e next f o r p e o p l e i n r u r a l a r e a s and c o m m u n i t i e s who c a n n o t a f f o r d accommodat i o n . ii)  up to 5 years small decent  E x t e n s i o n o f t h e NHA residential r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program beyond t h e centres.  large  129  1976 * Joint  DIAND/NIB T e c h n i c a l  i)  Report  Main be  thrust  group *  Designation of Indian as Communities  and p r i o r i t y  towards  (0-$4,000/year).  Reserves ii)  iii)  DIAND s h o u l d lity.  Housing  v)  Special  scaled  Status o f reserve lands through  n o t be  provision of  individual  a n d Band  A suitable  mechanism be d e v e l o p e d f o r  every ment Reserves  be  t o t h e income o f i n d i v i d u a l s  R e s o u r c e s o f CMHC a n d o t h e r f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s b e made a v a i l a b l e t o Bands and i n d i v i d u a l s .  Indian  Designation o f Indian as Communities  responsibi-  Bands.  jeopardized  vii)  lead  s u b s i d i e s and loans  according and  vi)  maintain  B a n d s be e n a b l e d t o manage t h e i r h o u s i n g program through l o c a l government.  iv)  *  o f new p r o g r a m  t h e needs o f t h e "no-income"  people level  loans  for  t o have d i r e c t  of housing  and program  housing.  input at  policy  develop-  management.  i)  Qualify  f o r R.R.A.P. t h r o u g h  I)  R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r band authorization  CMHC  B.C.  Ministry  o f Housing  1977 *  Pink -  Circular  amends  pink  Discussion  //1053 circular  housing  project  //1051  Paper  i)  -  proposed housing p o l i c y and comprehensive housing program, "On-Reserve Housing Program"  -  s u b s i d y i n c r e a s e d from t o $12,000  Provide  each  Indian  i n d i v i d u a l and  f a m i l y , r e g a r d l e s s o f income, w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e c u r e d e c e n t , s a f e and s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r band o r o n t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .  $10,000 ii)  ill)  C r e a t e j o b s f o r unemployed and underemployed I n d i a n s through c o p i t a l i n p u t s required f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and renovation of housing, co-ordinated with M i l j o b c r e a t i o n programs. Develop to  iv)  a new d e l i v e r y  Indian  system  responsive  decision-making.  Place r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the design, c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d management o f Band h o u s i n g programs i n t h e hands o f Band C o u n c i l s .  v)  U t i l i z e p r o g r a m s a n d r e s o u r c e s o f DIAND, CMHC, M&I, DREE a n d N.H. & W. t o t a c k l e the problem o f I n d i a n h o u s i n g .  i)  P r o v i d e 2 5 , 5 0 0 new a n d e x i s t i n g I n d i a n homes w i t h p o t a b l e w a t e r , s a f e w a s t e disposal f a c i l i t i e s , electricity, fire p r o t e c t i o n and roads.  * D i s c u s s i o n Paper -  proposed program  infrastructure  1978 *  Decentralization Management  o f Mortgage  i)  DIAND p o l i c y management  to decentralize  o f t h e program  mortgage  to the regions.  DIAND s u b s i d y , l o a n s , job c r e a t i o n funds, Band a n d i n d i v i d u a l contributions.  DIAND, CMHC, E . I . C . , DREE, N.H.W., B a n d Councils  130  1979 * Housing *  final  Present  -  and F u t u r e  final  Union  an a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t  reserve  housing  of on-  needs.  Infra-  Requi reraents  report i)  o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s  Report  Provide  report  structure  *  i)  Needs A n a l y s i s  on Housing  Adequate the  Programs ii)  housing  federal  Housing  must  development  integrated  b e p r o v i d e d by  government.  with  development  must  be  totally  the overall  structure  community  of Indian  communities. iii)  D e c e n t r a i l z a t i on o f f u n d s to  reserve  and r e s o u r c e ;  level.  1980 *  P.C.  i)  1980-504  Approval for  Indian of  o f annexed  t h e guarantee Affairs  * B.C.  f o r on  Reserve  i)  Necessary housing  ii)  * B.C. I n n o v a t i v e Native  Housing  Housing's  i)  Action  Programme based on S t o - L o Housing Society's experience.  to Indian  ii)  iii)  Discussion  t o have  policy  i)  program.  Work w i t h  local  housing  community  problems  incomes,  single  parents,  facing  housing  the scale of  groups to  f o r low and  seniors,  handicapped,  n a t i v e s and o t h e r s difficulties.  Blend p u b l i c and p r i v a t e housing f u n d i n g t o c r e a t e new h o u s i n g financing approahces.  To encourage take  Housing  outlines  Program  i)  components  t o a sound  considered  Indian  responsibility  with  housing  issuance of from  Paper  on reserve housing  basic  free  funds  $57.  own h o u s i n g  -  Bands.  E s t a b l i s h v i a b l e working relationships between t h e c r e d i t u n i o n - t r a d e u n i o n s movements b o t h p r o v i n c i a l l y a n d a t l o c a l ] levels.  solve  NIB  on  Indian  Examine a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f f u n d i n g i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e needs.  modest  and  and d e s i g n a t e d  subsidy  circular  -  Development  purposes  Regional  Revision Proposal H o u s i n g Program  -  f o r housing  Reserves  Settlements  and c o n d i t i o n :  and N o r t h e r n  l o a n s made  Indian  terms  by t h e M i n i s t e r o f  local  needs  communities t o f o r meeting  i n a manner  their consistent^  aspirations.  Bands s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e s i g n , c o n t r o l and d e l i v e r programs on r e s e r v e s .  policy for  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  on  ii)  reserves.  Band  Councils should  their ture iii)  of  o f Canada  ensuring  should  that  become a v a i l a b l e supports iv)  to the  f o r the expendi-  funds.  The Department for  be a c c o u n t a b l e t o  membership and a l s o  Government  band  be r e s p o n s i b l e  housing  resources  i n a manner  which  initiatives.  I n d i v i d u a l s and communities e x p e r i e n c i n g h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s s h o u l d be able to develop approaches to solve t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t with l o c a l circumstances.  NIB  H o u s i n g Program.  v) The government r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s shou Id se rve as an i n c e n t i ve to s t i m u l a t e p e r f o r m a n c e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f I n d i a n h o u s i n g s t o c k .  * Indian C o n d i t i o n s : A Survey - o u t l i n e s changes i n s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f Indian people d u r i n g l a s t 10-20 y e a r s . * Indian Housing I n f r a s t r u c t u r e Standards  i) Provides a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r determining the l e v e l o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t h a t may be p r o v i d e d i n s u p p o r t o f I n d i a n h o u s i n g and t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must be met t o j u s t i f y e x p e n d i t u r e f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e systems.  * Communique - s u b s i d y i n c r e a s e d from $12,000 t o $22,125  1981 * Discussion  Paper  - on-reserve housing and program  Discussion  i)  I n d i a n s and t h e i r band c o u n c i l s have primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g , b u i l d i n g and managing h o u s i n g s t o c k on reserves.  ii)  DLAND's On-Reserve H o u s i n g P r o g r a m a s s i s t s Indians i n t h e development and financing of housing on-reserves.  policy  Paper...  iii)  DIAND's S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m , w h i c h p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e on t h e b a s i s o f need c a n p r o v i d e a s h e l t e r allowance.  Iv)  I n d i ans a r e encuu raged t o make f u l l use of funds from s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n DIAND.  v) DIAND w i l l a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n H o u s i n g s t a n d a r d s and g u i d e 1 ines Program C i r c u l a r J t h i s and s u b s e q u e n t " J " c i r c u l a r s s e t s out o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r program d e l i v e r y .  i ) H o u s i n g i s an i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e I n d i a n On-Reserve H o u s i n g Program i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s and bands i n o b t a i n i n g adequate housing. i i ) C a p i t a l subs i d i e s p r o v i d e d by DIAND a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t by t h e m s e l v e s t o b u i l d a d e q u a t e h o u s e s . The s u b s i d i e s have to be used a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g .  1982 * Program C i r c u l a r J-2 - d e s c r i b e s how bands may u t i l i z e a combination o f funding sources to acquire band owned r e n t a l h o u s i n g . * Program C i r c u l a r J - 3 - d e s c r i b e s how band members may a c q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l l y owned h o u s i n g on t h e i r reserves or settlements t h r o u g h t h e use o f r e p a y a b l e loans.  * Program C i r c u l a r J-4 - d e s c r i b e s how bands o r i n d i v i d u a l s can u t i l i z e t h e RRAP program t o i m p r o v e o r upgrade e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g b u i l t p r i o r t o A u g u s t , 19 77 on-reserves. * Program C i r c u l a r J-5 - clarifies fora l l parties concerned t h e a c t i o n that must be t a k e n a n d a l l t h e s t e p s t h a t must be f o l l o w e d when payments on a h o u s i n g loan a r e i n a r r e a r s .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095681/manifest

Comment

Related Items