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The Cauvery River dispute : hydrological politics in Indian federalism Gebert, Rita Ingrid 1983

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THE CAUVERY RIVER DISPUTE: HYDROLOGICAL POLITICS IN INDIAN FEDERALISM By RITA INGRID GEBERT B.A. , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depa r tment o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Augu s t 1983 Q R i t a I n g r i d G e b e r t , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of POLIT ICAL- Q C I E K J C E :  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Au&. 3\,fl62> DE-6 ( 3 /81 ) i i ABSTRACT I n d i a ' s Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e f i r s t appea red i n t h e l a t e 1880s when t he Madras P r e s i d e n c y o b j e c t e d t o t he i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t p l a n s o f t h e up -s t ream p r i n c e l y s t a t e o f M y s o r e . T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e modern i n c a r -n a t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e w h i c h began i n 1970 when Tami l Nadu ' s com-p l a i n t s a g a i n s t K a r n a t a k a ' s r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n e s c a l a t e d i n t o demands t h a t t he c e n t r a l government a p p o i n t a t r i b u n a l to a d j u d i c a t e t h e d i s p u t e . The c o n f l i c t has c o n t i n u e d s i n c e t hen and as o f 1983 no r e s o l u t i o n i s i m m i n e n t . Two a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s - - t o r i v e r d i s p u t e s and t o I n d i a n f e d e r a l - . i s m - - a r e e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g the Cauve ry d i s p u t e . The r i v e r d i s p u t e l i t e r a t u n e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g why t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t a t a l l , why t h e s t a t e s have p r e s e n t e d t he t y p e s o f a rguments t h e y have , and what h y d r o l o g i c f a c t o r s make t h i s r i v e r d i s p u t e d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e . The c e n t r a l government i n i t s r o l e as m e d i a t o r , however , w i l l have t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on t he i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e ' s ou t come. T h i s makes i t i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d I n d i a ' s p r e v a i l i n g sy s tem o f c e n t r e -s t a t e p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s . The t h e s i s o u t l i n e s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d i s p u t e and c h r o n i c l e s t he n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t have gone on b e -tween Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a . The main argument o f t he t h e s i s i s t h a t t he I n d i a n c e n t r a l government has a c t e d i n t he Cauve r y and o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d i n r e s o l v i n g t he d i s p u t e . M e a n w h i l e , t h e s t a t e i i i g o v e r n m e n t s , w h i c h a r e much more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e h y d r o l o g y and deve lopment o f t h e C a u v e r y , have c o n t r a d i c t o r y v i ews o f t h e s e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . I t wou l d appea r t h a t t h e d i s p u t e w i l l be r e s o l v e d when K a r n a t a k a has i n t e r r u p t e d t h e C a u v e r y ' s f l o w enough t o f o r c e Tami l Nadu t o a c c e p t a compromise t o be n e g o t i a t e d by t h e Government o f I n d i a i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I ST OF TABLES v L IST OF FIGURES v i C h a p t e r I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . GOVERNMENTAL INSTITUTIONS AND AN OVERVIEW OF SELECTED RIVER DISPUTES 19 An O v e r v i e w o f S e l e c t e d R i v e r D i s p u t e s i n I n d i a 25 I I I . THE CAUVERY BASIN AND THE DISPUTE PAST AND PRESENT 37 Cauve r y D i s p u t e Pa s t 44 Cauve ry D i s p u t e P r e s e n t 49 IV. THE ROLE OF FEDERAL POLITICS IN THE CONTEMPORARY DISPUTE . . 90 V. CONCLUSION 123 BIBLIOGRAPHY 135 APPENDICES 143 L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS 149 GLOSSARY 150 L IST OF TABLES K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu: Cropped A rea and Water U t i l i s a t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n - - ! 9 0 1 - 1 971 v i L I ST OF FIGURES Map o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r B a s i n . . . . 1 CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e between t h e s t a t e s o f Tam i l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a i n South I n d i a . The h i s t o r i c a l a n t e -c e d e n t s o f t h e d i s p u t e a r e t o be found i n t h e l a t e 1880s when t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e p r i n c e l y s t a t e o f Mysore d e c i d e d t h a t i r r i g a t i o n works i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n o f Mysore wou ld have t o be i m p r o v e d . Downstream Madras P r e s i d e n c y o b j e c t e d , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e s e up s t ream p r o j e c t s wou ld s e r i o u s l y harm a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n Mad ra s . The Cauve r y d i s p u t e ' s modern i n c a r n a t i o n d e v e l o p e d a b o u t f i f t e e n y e a r s ago when Madras s t a t e (now Tami l Nadu) began t o o b j e c t t o M y s o r e ' s (now K a r n a t a k a ) p roposed dam p r o -j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The d i s p u t e has c o n t i n u e d s i n c e t h e n and as o f 1983 , no r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t i s i m m i n e n t . In a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n such as I n d i a , r i v e r d i s p u t e s have d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s on t h e c o u n t r y ' s p r o d u c t i v i t y . In I n d i a s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y dependent on a g r i c u l t u r e f o r i t s l i v e l i h o o d , t hu s mak ing w a t e r t h e c o u n t r y ' s most v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . A r i v e r d i s p u t e h i n d e r s deve lopment o f power and i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s , p r e v e n t s c r e a t i o n o f new i n d u s t r i e s , and i n h i b i t s improvement o f e x i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s e s s e n -t i a l t h a t r i v e r d i s p u t e s be s e t t l e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e so t h a t p r o j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e h y d r o l o g y o f e n t i r e r i v e r b a s i n s , may be p l anned and i m p l e m e n t e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however , r i v e r d i s p u t e s t h e w o r l d o v e r , and t h e Cauve r y i s no e x c e p t i o n , a r e no ted f o r t h e i r l o n g e v i t y . In I n d i a and e l s e w h e r e t h e r e has been a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f p o p u l a t i o n 2 g rowth and deve l opment i n r i v e r b a s i n s w h i c h has u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o d i s p u t e s . In a r i v e r b a s i n t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i c h o t o m y between t h e h i g h e r and l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r . The t e r r a i n o f a b a s i n ' s upper a r e a n e a r e s t t h e r i v e r ' s s o u r c e i s g e n e r a l l y h i l l y and rough compared w i t h t h e l a n d near t h e r i v e r ' s mou th . These t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s mean t h a t t h e l o w e r b a s i n w i l l have a t an e a r l i e r d a t e a d e n s e r p o p u l a t i o n because t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e -ments f o r d e v e l o p i n g a r i v e r b a s i n nea r t h e mouth a r e m i n i m a l . The c o n s e -quent demand f o r w a t e r i n t h e l o w e r b a s i n w i l l l e a d t o "a more r a p i d o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t " t h e r e a s compared w i t h t h e upper b a s i n ( I r r i g a t i o n Commi s s i on , 1972, v . l : 3 4 0 ) . As p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s i n c r e a s e , t h e upper b a s i n w i l l become more h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d , thus c r e a t i n g a h i g h e r demand f o r w a t e r . When t e c h n o -l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n c r e a s e s and t h e p e o p l e o f t h e upper b a s i n a r e a d e v e l o p t h e i r p o r t i o n o f t h e r i v e r , u t i l i s a t i o n o f w a t e r w i l l i n c r e a s e a n d , i f t h e r i v e r ' s r e s o u r c e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e (whe the r i n f a c t o r p e r c e p t i o n ) , t h e p e o p l e o f t h e l o w e r b a s i n w i l l c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s o v e r t h e r i v e r ' s w a t e r s a r e b e i n g v i o l a t e d . R i v e r d i s p u t e s a r e n o r m a l l y i n s t i g a t e d by l o w e r r i p a r i a n s and t h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e . T h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f r i v e r b a s i n deve l opment l e n d s i t s e l f t o t h e c o n c e p t o f " c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y " r e l a t i o n s . The " c e n t r e " i s t h e l o w e r b a s i n w i t h i t s r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i r r i g a t i o n ne twork s w h i l e t h e " p e r i p h e r y " i s t h e upper b a s i n w i t h i t s rugged t e r r a i n and m i n i m a l i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . As t h e " p e r i p h e r y ' s " economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y i n c r e a s e s , i t w i l l t r y t o r e c t i f y what i t sees as an i m b a l a n c e between i t s e l f and t h e r i c h " c e n t r e . " The " p e r i p h e r y ! s " j e a l o u s y o f t h e " c e n t r e " w i l l 3 h i n d e r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f any r i v e r d i s p u t e t h a t a r i s e s between them. The l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o r i v e r d i s p u t e s f o c u s e s on r i v e r s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e has l o o k e d a t t h e n a t i o n a l a c t o r s i n r i v e r d i s p u t e s and has t r i e d t o e x p l a i n why i t i s so d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e d i s p u t a n t s t o r e a c h a compromise s e t t l e m e n t t h r ough n e g o t i a t i o n s . F r e -q u e n t l y t h e ag reements r e a c h e d a r e f a r f r om c o m p r e h e n s i v e , l e a v i n g many o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s o f a d i s p u t e u n s e t t l e d . A r i v e r d i s p u t e i n t h e s u b - n a t i o n a l i n t e r s t a t e " ' ' c o n t e x t i n v o l v e s no t o n l y t h e d i s p u t a n t s b u t t he c e n t r a l government as w e l l . The r i v e r d i s p u t e l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h i t s emphas i s on n a t i o n a l a c t o r s , does l i t t l e t o a n a l y s e t he r o l e o f m e d i a t o r s o r a r b i t r a t o r s o f c o n f l i c t s . When an i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e i s d i s c u s s e d i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t we u n d e r s t a n d t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -m e n t ' s a c t i o n s . How i s a f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r i n such a d i s p u t e to be e x p l a i n e d ? How does t h e c e n t r e a f f e c t t he c o u r s e and outcome o f t h e d i s p u t e ? Where f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l s y s tems a r e i n v o l v e d , e x p l a n a t i o n may be had t h r o u g h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g s y s tem o f c e n t r e - s t a t e r e l a -t i o n s . W h i l e f a c t o r s such as t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f r i v e r w a t e r as an e x p l o i t -a b l e r e s o u r c e and p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f w a t e r enhance ou r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r i v e r d i s p u t e s , t h e o r i e s o f f e d e r a l i s m c o n t r i b u t e t h e most t o an e x p l a n a -t i o n o f i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e s . T h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , w i l l employ a f ramework o f a n a l y s i s i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e o r i e s w h i c h e x p l a i n t h e I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s tem and t h e o r i e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e r i v e r d i s p u t e s . The ma in argument o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l government has a c t e d i n t h e Cauve r y and o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s , based on i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d . 4 L i k e w i s e , w h i l e t h e s t a t e governments a r e much more i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h y d r o l o g y and deve lopment o f a r i v e r , t h e i r l e a d e r s a r e a l s o most c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . The d i f f i c u l t y i n s o l v i n g t h e s e d i s p u t e s l i e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t g o v e r n m e n t s ' d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l c o s t - b e n e f i t s . The two s t a t e s ' demands i n t h e d i s p u t e f i n d t h e i r base on t h e h y d r o -l o g y o f t h e r i v e r and t h e r e f o r e t he arguments o f K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu w i l l be d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r i v e r d i s p u t e l i t e r a t u r e w h i l e t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e d i s p u t e and t h e s t a t e ' s r e a c -t i o n s t o them w i l l be seen p r i m a r i l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e I n d i a n f e d e r a l s y s t e m . The two a s p e c t s o f t h e f ramework w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e as c o m p l e t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g as p o s s i b l e o f t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e c o n f l i c t ' s ma in a c t o r s . Much o f t h e t h e o r i s i n g abou t r i v e r d i s p u t e s has o c c u r r e d i n a l e g a l -i s t i c f r amework , o v e r l o o k i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l o r economic f a c t o r s i n t r i n s i c t o r i v e r d i s p u t e s . W h i l e i t i s u s e f u l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s and g u i d e l i n e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w i n r e l a t i o n t o r i v e r d i s p u t e s , t h e y o f f e r l i t t l e by way o f e x p l a n a t i o n o f d i s p u t e o u t c o m e s . The H e l s i n k i R u l e s , a u t h o r e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n ( I LA ) i n 1966, p r o v i d e t h e most i m p o r t a n t and w i d e l y a c c e p t e d l e g a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r use i n s e t t l i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s . W h i l e t he H e l s i n k i R u l e s do no t have t he f o r c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , t h e y have been bo th a p p l i e d and c i t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e s . B.R. Chauhan ( 1 9 8 1 : 46) s t a t e s t h a t s e c t i o n s o f t h e H e l s i n k i R u l e s have been a p p l i e d i n I n d i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e K r i s h n a and Narmada R i v e r d i s p u t e s t r i b u n a l s . 5 A number o f i m p o r t a n t b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e H e l s i n k i R u l e s . The c e n t r a l u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t " e a c h b a s i n 2 s t a t e i s e n t i t l e d w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y , t o a r e a s o n a b l e and e q u i t a b l e s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i c i a l uses o f t h e w a t e r s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d r a i n a g e b a s i n " ( I L A , 1966 : 9 ) . The i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e l i e s i n d e f i n i n g " e q u i t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e . " A b a s i n s t a t e i s t o " t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e economic and s o c i a l needs o f i t s c o - b a s i n s t a t e s f o r use o f t h e w a t e r s " ( I L A , 1966 : 1 0 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however , t h i s i d e a l i s se ldom a c h i e v e d as each b a s i n s t a t e tends t o e x a g g e r a t e i t s own need s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e c l a i m o f each w i l l be so g r e a t t h a t none o f t h e o t h e r b a s i n s t a t e s ' needs c o u l d p o s s i b l y be s a t i s f i e d . The ILA ( 1966 : 11) d e l i n e a t e d some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h s h o u l d be used i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e " e q u i t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e " s h a r e o f w a t e r due t o each b a s i n s t a t e . The e l e v e n f a c t o r s men t i oned a r e : a ) The geog raphy o f t h e b a s i n , i n c l u d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e e x t e n t o f t he d r a i n a g e a r e a i n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f each b a s i n S t a t e ; b) t h e h y d r o l o g y o f t h e b a s i n , i n c l u d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e c o n t r i -b u t i o n o f w a t e r by each b a s i n S t a t e ; c ) t h e c l i m a t e a f f e c t i n g t h e b a s i n ; d) t h e p a s t u t i l i s a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r s o f t h e b a s i n , i n c l u d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t i n g u t i l i s a t i o n ; e) t h e economic and s o c i a l needs o f each b a s i n S t a t e ; f ) t h e p o p u l a t i o n dependent on t h e w a t e r s o f t h e b a s i n i n each b a s i n S t a t e ; g) t h e c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e means o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e economic and s o c i a l needs o f each b a s i n S t a t e ; h) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o the r , r e s o u r c e s ; i ) t h e a v o i d a n c e o f u n n e c e s s a r y w a s t e i n t h e u t i l i s a t i o n o f w a t e r s o f t h e b a s i n ; j ) t h e p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f c o m p e n s a t i o n t o one o r more o f t h e c o - b a s i n S t a t e s as a means o f a d j u s t i n g c o n f l i c t s among u s e s ; and k) t h e deg ree t o w h i c h t h e needs o f a b a s i n S t a t e may be s a t i s f i e d , w i t h o u t c a u s i n g s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u r y t o a c o - b a s i n S t a t e . 6 The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n goes on t o s a y t h a t " t h e w e i g h t t o be g i v e n each f a c t o r i s t o be d e t e r m i n e d by i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s " ( I L A , 1966 : 1 1 ) . I t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e above l i s t o f r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s s h o u l d no t be c o n s i d e r e d e x h a u s t i v e . T h i s " f a c t o r - w e i g h i n g " a pp r oach t o r e s o l v i n g a r i v e r d i s p u t e may be a s u b j e c t o f c o n t r o v e r s y . Each b a s i n s t a t e w i l l emphas i se o n l y t h o s e f a c -t o r s w h i c h l e n d g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t t o i t s demands. N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e s e a r e t h e t y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h much be c o n s i d e r e d i f r i v e r d i s p u t e s a r e t o be s e t t l e d e q u i t a b l y . In o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e H e l s i n k i R u l e s ' " e q u i t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e a p p o r -t i o n m e n t " s t a n d s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n " w i t h i t s c l o s e r e -l a t i v e , " p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s . " W h i l e t h e f o r m e r i s more w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a t o d a y , t h e l a t t e r i s a t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e o f w a t e r r i g h t s w h i c h has been a p p l i e d i n many p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d and i s s t i l l i n use i n t r a n a t i o n a l l y ( i n t h e a r i d Wes te rn U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e x a m p l e ) . " P r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n " o r " p r i o r u s e r ' s r i g h t s " s i m p l y means t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t u s e r o f wa te r has t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e d use o f t h e w a t e r , w i t h t h e f i r s t use h a v i n g p r i o r i t y o v e r l a t e r u s e s . " P r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s " r e f e r s t o an i n -a l i e n a b l e r i g h t o f u t i l i s a t i o n o f a r e s o u r c e o r p r o p e r t y ( i n t h i s c a s e r i v e r w a t e r ) e s t a b l i s h e d by a p r e s c r i b e d number o f y e a r s o f u n i n t e r r u p t e d , s i m i l a r u s e . A common d e b a t e o f a r i v e r d i s p u t e u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f one s t a t e c l a i m i n g t h a t i t has p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r t h e w a t e r and demanding t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n be a p p l i e d i n d e c i d i n g i t s a l l o -c a t i o n . The o t h e r w i l l a r g ue t h a t each b a s i n s t a t e s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o an " e q u i t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e s h a r e " o f t h e r i v e r ' s r e s o u r c e s . 7 E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e quantum o f w a t e r t o be a p p o r t i o n e d i s o n l y one o f t h e b a s i c i s s u e s w h i c h may a r i s e d u r i n g a r i v e r d i s p u t e . O t h e r s w h i c h B.R. Chauhan ( 1 9 8 1 : 143) p o i n t s o u t a r e : t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f an o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y f o r w a t e r u s e s , t h e q u a l i t y o f w a t e r t o be s h a r e d , t h e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s f o r d e c i d i n g r e s p e c t i v e s h a r e s , and t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f w a t e r f o r f u t u r e use i n t h e b a s i n . The b a s i c p rob lem a r e a s j u s t men t i oned may be r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p u r e l y l e g a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s bu t p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s a lway s c o m p l i c a t e a d i s p u t e and may w e l l r e l e g a t e l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l , and even economic f a c t o r s t o t h e p e r i p h e r y o f a d i s p u t e ' s n e g o t i a t i o n s . He l en Ingram (1969) i n her w o r k , P a t t e r n s o f P o l i t i c s i n Water R e s o u r c e s , d i s c u s s e s t h e C o l o r a d o R i v e r B a s i n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Her a n a l y s i s h i n ge s on t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t h e key a t t r i b u t e o f w a t e r as a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i s i t s b a s i s i n a l o c a l i t y . . . " and goes on to say t h a t " l o c a l i t i e s i n t h e same r i v e r b a s i n o r i n a d j a c e n t b a s i n s where d i v e r s i o n i s p o s s i b l e f i e r c e l y compete f o r w a t e r s u p p l y and d e v e l o p m e n t " ( I n g ram, 1969 : 8 ) . W h i l e t h e b e n e f i t s o f w a t e r p r o j e c t s may be seen i n b r o a d , n a t i o n a l t e r m s , i n r e a l i t y t h e b e n e f i t s a r e " h e a p e d " on t o a l o c a l i t y ( I n g r am, 1969 : 9 ) . Ingram does no t d e f i n e e x a c t l y what she means by " l o c a l i t y " bu t her d i s c u s s i o n o f i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e te rm i s a v a r i a b l e o n e . She says w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t " w a t e r p r o j e c t s a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s i t -u a ted i n a l i m i t e d a r e a , w i t h few e x t e n d i n g o v e r more t h a n a c o n g r e s s i o n a l d i s t r i c t o r o v e r , a t m o s t , a s t a t e " ( I n g r a m , 1969 : 9 ) . The t o t a l a r e a o f a " l o c a l i t y , " t h e n , v a r i e s w i t h t h e b a s i n ' s t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s and w i t h i t s o v e r a l l l e v e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t . LeMarquand ( 1977 : 21) a l s o s u p p o r t s t h e 8 n o t i o n o f l o c a l i s e d s t a k e s i n r i v e r d i s p u t e s when he says t h a t " w a t e r r e s o u r c e s deve lopment i s s u b j e c t t o i n t e n s e r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e and m a n i p u l a t i o n . " Water i s equa ted w i t h w e a l t h o r t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r w e a l t h i n t h e a r e a i n wh i ch i t may be used p r o f i t a b l y . The s h a r i n g o f w a t e r r e s o u r c e s , t h e n , i s a h i g h l y e m o t i v e i s s u e . "Water c a r r i e s a g u a r a n t e e o f a p r o s p e r o u s f u t u r e . Even when i t w o u l d seem t h a t an a r e a has more w a t e r t h a n i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y put t o u s e , i t i s l o a t h t o p a r t w i t h o r even t o s h a r e i t s r i c h e s " ( I n g ram, 1969 : 9 ) . I n g r am ' s d i s c u s s i o n h i g h l i g h t s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e a c h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s o f r i v e r d i s p u t e s . W i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f " o u r w a t e r e q u a l s ou r w e a l t h , " t h e r e i s a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y f o r one s i d e t o v i e w a n o t h e r s i d e ' s demands i n te rms o f what i t must g i v e up . The r i v e r d i s p u t e may be seen i n z e r o - s u m te rms even where t h e h y d r o l o g y o f t h e r i v e r and t h e demands f o r i t s w a t e r do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w a r r a n t s uch a v i e w . Dav id G. LeMarquand ( 1977 : 8 -11 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r b a s i c " h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s " p o s s i b l e between c o - b a s i n s t a t e s . These r e l a t i o n s a r i s e f rom t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r i n g s t a t e s i n t he same r i v e r s y s t e m , and t h e uses each o f t h e s e s t a t e s makes o r w i s h e s t o make o f t h e r i v e r . He i d e n t i f i e s t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s a s : p u b l i c good s , common pool r e s o u r c e s , i n t e g r a t e d deve lopment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and u p s t r e a m - d o w n s t r e a m . The f i r s t two r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e most c o n d u c i v e t o c o o p e r a t i o n among b a s i n s t a t e s . A " p u b l i c good s " r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s when a l l s t a t e s have equa l and u n r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o t h e r e s o u r c e , and when none o f t h e s t a t e s a r e a b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e r e s o u r c e t o o t h e r u s e r s ' d e t r i m e n t . S t a t e s ' 9 n a v i g a t i o n r i g h t s on a r i v e r r e p r e s e n t t h e c l o s e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f a " p u b l i c g ood s " r e l a t i o n s h i p on a r i v e r . The second r e l a t i o n s h i p , "common pool r e s o u r c e s , " o c c u r s when two s t a t e s s h a r e a r i v e r o r l a k e as a boun -d a r y , bu t no up s t ream-downs t ream r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n v o l v e d . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , use o f t h e common r e s o u r c e by one s t a t e may d i m i n i s h t h e b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e o t h e r s b u t may a l s o e v e n t u a l l y harm i t s own i n t e r e s t s . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , a l l r i p a r i a n s t a t e s d i s p o s e o f e f f l u e n t s i n t h e r i v e r , a l l w i l l s u f -f e r f r om t h e r e d u c e d q u a l i t y o f w a t e r . On t he o t h e r hand , a l l w i l l b e n e f i t f rom c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n t o r e d u c e t h e e f f l u e n t s . In t h e s e f i r s t two t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s h o u l d c o n f l i c t a r i s e , t h e i n c e n t i v e s t o r e a c h ag reement w i l l be q u i t e h i g h as i t i s c l e a r t h a t a l l t he b a s i n s t a t e s w i l l b e n e f i t t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i o n . S h o u l d c o n f l i c t a r i s e i n t h e l a t t e r two r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e chance s o f r e a c h i n g e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t a r e much r e d u c e d , as one s t a t e i s a b l e t o r e -c e i v e b e n e f i t s f rom t h e r e s o u r c e w i t h o u t an a g r eemen t . In t h e c a t e g o r y o f " i n t e g r a t e d deve l opment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , " two o r more s t a t e s a r e i n an up s t ream-downs t ream r e l a t i o n s h i p on a r i v e r . An u p s t r e a m s t a t e may d e c i d e t o b u i l d a dam w h i c h , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g b e n e f i t s t o i t s e l f , a l s o g i v e s b e n e f i t s t o a downstream s t a t e i n t h e f o r m , p e r h a p s , o f f l o o d c o n t r o l . The up s t r eam s t a t e w i l l want t o r e a c h an agreement w i t h t h e downstream s t a t e by w h i c h t h e l a t t e r w i l l pay f o r t h e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d f rom t h e upper r i p a r i a n ' s a c t i o n s . The main p rob lem he re l i e s i n c a l c u l a t i n g an " e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s " between t h e s t a t e w h i c h u n d e r -t a k e s t h e p r o j e c t and t h e s t a t e : w h i c h p r o f i t s as a r e s u l t . The f i n a l c a t e g o r y a l s o o c c u r s where t h e b a s i n s t a t e s a r e i n u p s t r e a m -10 downstream r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h i s c a s e , however , t h e up s t ream s t a t e uses a r i v e r f o r i t s s o l e p r o f i t . I t s u t i l i s a t i o n does no t b e n e f i t t h e downstream s t a t e and may w e l l be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e l a t t e r ' s i n t e r e s t s i f , f o r e x a m p l e , i t makes c o n s u m p t i v e use ( such as f o r i r r i g a t i o n ) o f t h e w a t e r , d i v e r t s i t , p o l l u t e s i t e x c e s s i v e l y , o r r e g u l a t e s t h e f l o w o f w a t e r such t h a t t h e downstream s t a t e ' s needs c anno t be s a t i s f i e d . In such c a s e s t h e economic i n c e n t i v e s t o r e a c h an agreement a r e e x t r e m e l y low because t h e up s t ream s t a t e r e c e i v e s maximum b e n e f i t by e x p l o i t i n g t h e r i v e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o n l y i t s own u s e r s ' demands. South I n d i a ' s C a u v e r y d i s p u t e i s i n t h i s l a s t c a t e g o r y o f h y d r o ! o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As LeMarquand ( 1977 : 10 -11) p o i n t s o u t , however , a n a t i o n may have o t h e r i n c e n t i v e s o r d i s i n c e n t i v e s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t s deve l opment o f t h e r i v e r , t o r e a c h agreement w i t h i t s n e i g h b o u r i n g b a s i n s t a t e s . These wou ld i n c l u d e w o r r i e s abou t i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l image s h o u l d i t no t r e a c h a g r eemen t , o r l o s s o f some measure o f s o v e r e i g n t y i f i t does r e a c h a g reemen t . Two o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h may c o m p l i c a t e t h e b a s i n s t a t e s ' r i p a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e : ( 1 ) t h e r i v e r may be much more i m p o r t a n t t o one s t a t e t han t o a n o t h e r ; and (2 ) a n a t i o n may be i n v o l v e d i n a number o f i n -t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r d i s p u t e s wh i ch c o u l d r e s u l t i n an agreement f o r one r i v e r d i s p u t e s e t t i n g an unwanted p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e o t h e r s . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s a n a t i o n ' s c h o i c e o f a c t i o n i n a r i v e r d i s p u t e may w e l l n o t be t h e " e c o n o m i c a l l y o p t i m a l " one becau se t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e c i s i o n a r e p o l i t i c a l ( LeMa rquand , 1977 : 2 0 - 2 1 ) . A d i s c u s s i o n o f Ingram and LeMarquand i s i n c l u d e d h e r e because i t h e l p s e x p l a i n a number o f i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g t h e Cauve ry R i v e r 11 d i s p u t e . Through an a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r c o n c e p t s we w i l l see why t h e r e i s a d i s p u t e a t a l l , why t h e s t a t e s have p r e s e n t e d t h e t y p e s o f a rguments t h e y have , and what h y d r o l o g i c f a c t o r s make t h i s r i v e r d i s p u t e d i f f i c u l t t o r e s o l v e . The Ingram and LeMarquand a n a l y s e s o f r i v e r d i s p u t e s , however , do no t h e l p e x p l a i n t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s i n t h i s d i s -pute, and l e a v e o u t some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l e l emen t s o f t h e d i s -p u t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e two d i s p u t a n t s , i t s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a c t i n g t o end t h e d i s p u t e , and t h e s t a t e s ' v i e w s on t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t - b e n e f i t s . In a f e d e r a l p o l i t y t h e c e n t r a l government w i l l have an e f f e c t on an i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e ' s outcome and t h e r e f o r e some c o n c l u s i o n s must be r e a c h e d as t o what f a c t o r s w i l l e i t h e r encou rage o r i n h i b i t t h e c e n t r e ' s a c t i o n s t o end a c o n f l i c t . A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t he I n d i a n f e d e r a l s y s tem a f f o r d s o v e r w h e l m i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t I n d i a ' s b rand o f f e d e r a l i s m i s " c e n t r a l l y - d o m i n a t e d " and even " o v e r - c e n t r a l i s e d . " Ashok Chanda w r o t e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t I n d i a i s "a u n i t a r y s t a t e i n c o n c e p t and o p e r a t i o n " ( 1 965 : 1 2 4 ) . A . G . Noo r an i (1972) echoed s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s . G r a n v i l l e A u s t i n (1966) a l s o f e e l s t h a t I n d i a i s a h e a v i l y c e n t r a l i s e d f e d e r a t i o n . A u s t i n ( 1966 : 217) p o i n t e d t o A . H . B i r c h ' s (1955) d e f i n i t i o n o f " c o -o p e r a t i v e f e d e r a l i s m " as b e i n g a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e I n d i a n c a s e . B i r c h ' s ( 1955 : 306) d e f i n i t i o n i s : t h e p r a c t i c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n between g e n e r a l and r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e p a r t i a l dependence o f t h e r e g i o n a l governments upon payments f rom t h e g e n e r a l g o v e r n -men t , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l gove rnment , by t h e u se o f c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s , f r e q u e n t l y promotes deve l opment i n m a t t e r s wh i ch a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t he r e g i o n s . 12 Numerous I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have f o c u s e d on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l government and on M r s . G a n d h i ' s Congres s p a r t y o f t h e 1970s i n p a r t i c u l a r ( s ee f o r e xamp le , B. Dua (1979) and B . L . Maheshwar i ( 1 9 7 3 ) ) . I t has been l amen ted t h a t t h e s t a t e g o ve rnmen t s , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y weak, have become so dependent upon M r s . G a n d h i ' s c e n t r a l r e g ime t h a t what l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l autonomy Congres s s t a t e l e a d e r s had has g r a d u a l l y e roded u n t i l t h e s t a t e governments a r e no more t han pawns o f M r s . G a n d h i ' s g o v e r n -ment . There a r e some a u t h o r s who f e e l t h a t w h i l e I n d i a ' s f e d e r a l s y s tem i s no t d e c e n t r a l i s e d , t h e s t a t e s have e x e r c i s e d g r e a t e r power and autonomy v i s - a - v i s t h e c e n t r e t han woul d s eem p o s s i b l e g i v e n I n d i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f power s . Marcus F randa ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i n h i s s t u d y o f West Benga l and t h e " f e d e r a l i s i n g p r o c e s s " i n I n d i a , showed t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n t e r n a l t o West Benga l gave i t and i t s r u l i n g Cong re s s p a r t y autonomy from t h e powe r f u l c e n t r a l government l e d by J a w a h a r l a l N e h r u , d e s p i t e i t s a p p e a r a n c e as a "weak " ( e s p e c i a l l y f i n a n c i a l l y ) s t a t e . F randa ( 1 9 6 8 : 179) c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i s m i n I n d i a as "a b a r g a i n i n g p r o -ce s s between c e n t r a l and s t a t e l e a d e r s , one i n wh i ch e x p e r i m e n t , c o o p e r a -t i o n , p e r s u a s i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n c o u l d d e s c r i b e bo th g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d norms and t h e u s ua l p r o c e d u r a l p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s . " In a more r e c e n t w o r k , F randa ( 1 979 : 226) a r gued t h a t i t was i n c o r r e c t t o v i ew I n d i a ' s c e n t r e - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e 1970s as c e n t r a l l y - d o m i n a t e d because M r s . G a n d h i ' s Congress was u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a g g r e g a t e d s u p p o r t f rom v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . T h i s weakness i n t h e Congress o r g a n i s a t i o n " f o r c e d her to a t t e m p t an a u t h o r i t a r i a n s o l u t i o n . " 13 I n d i a ' s f e d e r a l s y s tem has a l s o been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a b a r g a i n i n g p r o ce s s by W.H. M o r r i s - J o n e s ( 1966 : 143) who s a i d " c o o p e r a t i v e b a r g a i n -i n g " between t h e c e n t r e and t h e s t a t e s governs t h e i r " p r a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s . " Ha rdg rave ( 1980 : 8 8 ) , m o r e o v e r , has no ted t h a t " t h e c e n t r e i s h e a v i l y dependent on t h e s t a t e s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i t s p o l i c i e s . " The c e n t r e ' s dependence on t h e s t a t e s wou l d seem t o be c o n d u c i v e t o p o l i t i c a l b a r g a i n i n g between c e n t r a l and s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s o v e r p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s o f s p e c i a l c o n c e r n t o t h e s t a t e s . C e n t r e - s t a t e b a r g a i n i n g i s an a p t way t o c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e main e l emen t s o f I n d i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . For any g i v e n p o l i c y w h i c h depends f o r i t s s u c c e s s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l , some " d e a l " must be s t r u c k by t h e c e n t r e w i t h t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e . . S t a t e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s w i l l a s s e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p o l i c y and i t s p o s s i b l e i m p a c t on t h e i r means o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t i n t h e s t a t e b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a d e c i s i o n . The c e n t r a l government has s t r o n g l y u rged t h e s t a t e s t o t a k e s t e p s t owa rd l e v y i n g an e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l income t a x , bu t none h a v e . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n t h e s t a t e s r e l y t o such a l a r g e e x t e n t d i r e c t l y on t h e s u p p o r t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l , l a n d - o w n i n g commun i t i e s t h a t t h e y w i l l no t t a k e any a c t i o n wh i ch w i l l a l i e n a t e them. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l makeup o f t he I n d i a n s t a t e s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s tem as a w h o l e . A p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r ' s f i r s t p r i o r i t y i s k e e p i n g h i m s e l f i n power and he does t h i s t h r ough m a i n t a i n i n g a ne twork o f l o y a l s u p p o r t e r s . C e n t r a l government d i r e c t i v e s a r e l i k e l y t o be imp lemented a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l t o t h e e x t e n t t h e y w i l l n o t a l i e n a t e t h e s t a t e l e a d e r s ' m a j o r s u p p o r t e r s . 14 1 The I n d i a n f e d e r a l sy s tem has t o be seen i n t h e l i g h t o f c e n t r a l and s t a t e l e a d e r s ' s t r u g g l e s t o m a i n t a i n s u p p o r t e r s , who i n t u r n m a i n t a i n t h e l e a d e r s ' power . A s t a t e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r u l t i m a t e l y r e l i e s , n o t on New D e l h i , bu t on h i s own s t a t e ' s p e o p l e t o keep h i m s e l f a t t h e h e l m . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e c e n t r a l government w o u l d have t h e g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s i n g e t t i n g t h e s t a t e s t o imp lement p o l i c i e s w h i c h i n c r e a s e t h e s t a t e l e a d e r s ' s cope f o r p a t r o n a g e o r a t l e a s t do no t harm t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t e p a t r o n - c l i e n t s y s t e m . One s h o u l d no t c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e c e n t r e i s so dependent on t h e s t a t e s t h a t t h e I n d i a n f e d e r a l s y s tem must be termed " d e c e n t r a l i s e d . " I t i s n o t . The s t a t e s a r e h e a v i l y dependent on t h e c e n t r e f i n a n c i a l l y . T h i s pu t s t h e c e n t r e i n a p o s i t i o n where i t may o f f e r s t a t e s reward s such as a s t e e l m i l l f o r "good b e h a v i o u r . " The r eward s a r e e n t i c i n g t o s t a t e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s who may use them to s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r b a s t i o n s o f s u p p o r t t h r o u g h p a t r o n a g e . In c e n t r e - s t a t e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e n , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n as t o w h i c h s i d e has t h e g r e a t e r r e s o u r c e s w i t h wh i ch t o b a r g a i n . I n t e r s t a t e r i v e r c o n f l i c t s , howeve r , r e p r e s e n t a c a s e o f even more c o m p l i c a t e d b a r g a i n i n g as t h e c e n t r e must dea l w i t h two o r more s t a t e s : s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . M o r e o v e r , no t o n l y w i l l t h e c e n t r e have t o b a r g a i n w i t h t h e s t a t e s , t h e s t a t e s compete w i t h one a n o t h e r , and t h e s t a t e l e a d e r s may w e l l be under p r e s s u r e f rom groups w i t h i n t h e s t a t e t o s u p p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r s t a n c e . As a m a t t e r o f g e n e r a l p o l i c y t h e c e n t r a l government i s c ommi t t ed t o end i ng a l l i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e s , b u t t h e c e n t r e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d may p r e v e n t i t f r om a c t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y t o r e s o l v e a d i s p u t e d e s p i t e t h e economic c o s t s . W h i l e t h e c e n t r e i s 15 p o w e r f u l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -ment needs t h e s u p p o r t o f t he s t a t e s and t h e s t a t e s ' v o t e r s i n g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s , and i t i s r e l u c t a n t t o a l i e n a t e t h i s s u p p o r t . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on an i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e i n terms o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may be had t h r o u g h Dean Mann ' s (1975) a d a p t a t i o n o f T . J . L o w i ' s (1966) b a s i c t y p e s o f " p o l i t i c s " s p e c i f i c a l l y t o w a t e r p o l i c y . These a r e d i s t r i b u t i v e , r e g u l a t o r y , and r e d i s t r i b u t i v e . D i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i t i c s i n a r i v e r d i s p u t e i n v o l v e s c o a l i -t i o n - b u i l d i n g among l o c a l i n t e r e s t s i n s u p p o r t o f a p a r t i c u l a r a l l o c a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y u n u t i l i s e d w a t e r i n o r d e r t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c e n t r e t o d e c i d e i n t h e i r f a v o u r . The v a r i o u s " l o c a l i n t e r e s t s " ( t h e s t a t e s ) w i l l be l o b b y i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t outcomes o f t h e d i s p u t e t hu s l e a v i n g t he c e n t r a l government i n t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n o f c h o o s i n g between t h e i n t e r e s t s . R e g u l a t o r y p o l i t i c s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s s e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h wou ld s e e , f o r e xamp le , an e n v i r o n m e n t a l g roup p i t t e d a g a i n s t p o l l u t i n g i n d u s -t i e s . In t h i s c a s e t h e c e n t r a l government may have t o pass l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e b e h a v i o u r o f one o f t h e s e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t s . As t h e s e i n t e r e s t s may w e l l c u t a c r o s s s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s , r e g u l a t o r y p o l i t i c s has l i t t l e r e l e -vance t o t h e i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e . R e d i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i t i c s " c o n c e r n s r e a l l o c a t i o n o f w e a l t h and income o r goods and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n a n a t i o n o r c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e s between l e v e l s o f gove rnment " ( LeMarguand , 1977 : 1 8 ) . In i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e s , however , " r e d i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i t i c s " may be used t o d e s c r i b e a c a s e where r i v e r w a t e r i s a l r e a d y b e i n g u t i l i s e d i n a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n , and t h e r e i s a 16 demand made by one o r more o f t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s t o have t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n c hanged . The outcome o f t he d i s p u t e wou ld see a ze ro - s um s i t u a t i o n i n wh i ch one b a s i n s t a t e g a i n s as a r e s u l t o f t h e o t h e r ' s l o s s e s . A g a i n t h e c e n t r a l government i s l e f t w i t h an u n p l e a s a n t p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e w i n n e r s and l o s e r s a r e even more o b v i o u s t han i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e c a s e and t h e p r o s p e c t may d e t e r t h e c e n t r e f rom t a k i n g d i r e c t a c t i o n t o end t h e d i s p u t e even though i t i s w i t h i n ' . i t s power t o do s o . Mann ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i v e and r e d i s t r i b u t i v e p o l i t i c s h i g h -l i g h t s t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d i f f i c u l t r o l e as a m e d i a t o r and s u g ge s t s some r ea s on s why i t has had prob lems i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e s . The c e n t r e f a c e s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k i n t r y i n g t o max im i s e s u p p o r t f o r i t s e l f i n a l l t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s i n a d i s t r i b u t i v e d i s p u t e and i t i s nex t t o i m p o s s i b l e i n t h e c a s e o f a r e d i s t r i b u t i v e c o n f l i c t . N o n e t h e l e s s , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y t h e onus i s on t h e c e n t r a l government t o e n c o u r a g e . t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f r i v e r d i s p u t e s . G i v en t h e p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e c e n t r e t o s e t t l e r i v e r d i s p u t e s t o a l l t h e d i s p u t a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l government w i l l n o t be w i l l i n g t o a c t d e c i s i v e l y t o r e s o l v e most d i s p u t e s q u i c k l y — t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e i n c l u d e d . In summary, LeMa rquand ' s c o n c e p t o f h y d r o l o g i c - e c o r i o m i c r e l a t i o n s w i l l be u sed t o h e l p e x p l a i n t h e p o s i t i o n s o f K a r n a t a k a and Tam i l Nadu i n t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e , k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s w i l l l i k e l y e x a c e r b a t e t h e h y d r o l o g i c -economic r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two s t a t e s . The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s key 17 r o l e i n t h e d i s p u t e w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n t e rms o f t h e e x t e n t o f i t s a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t i n I n d i a ' s s y s tem o f " c o o p e r a t i v e f e d e r a l i s m . " Of c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i -t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y t o end t h e d i s p u t e . In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , t h e gove rnmenta l i n s t i t u t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o r i v e r d i s p u t e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , an o v e r v i e w o f a number o f o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a i s p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e i n a b r o a d e r , c o m p a r a t i v e c o n t e x t . In C h a p t e r Th ree a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e bas in and o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l Cauve r y d i s p u t e i s i n c l u d e d , b u t t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h e c h a p t e r i s on t h e e v e n t s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d i s p u t e . C h a p t e r Four c o n t a i n s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u r -r e n t d i s p u t e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f ramework o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r and t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r r e f l e c t s on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s i m p l i c i t i n t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e . 18 CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES 1 . Th roughou t t h e paper t h e t e rm " i n t e r s t a t e " d i s p u t e s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t o mean " s u b - n a t i o n a l i n t e r s t a t e " d i s p u t e . 2 . P a r t o r a l l o f a b a s i n s t a t e ' s t e r r i t o r y i s w i t h i n t h e r i v e r ' s b a s i n o r w a t e r s h e d b u t t h e t e r r i t o r y need no t t o u c h upon t h e r i v e r o r i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ; t h i s i s opposed t o a r i p a r i a n s t a t e whose t e r r i t o r y does t o u c h upon t h e r i v e r o r one o f i t s t r i b u -t a r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , a l l r i p a r i a n s t a t e s a r e b a s i n s t a t e s but no t a l l b a s i n s t a t e s a r e r i p a r i a n s t a t e s . K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu a r e b o t h r i p a r i a n s t a t e s . 19 CHAPTER I I Governmenta l I n s t i t u t i o n s and an O v e r v i e w o f S e l e c t e d R i v e r D i s p u t e s D u r i n g I n d i a ' s B r i t i s h p e r i o d , i r r i g a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y t h e s o l e c o n c e r n o f t h e Government o f I n d i a . W i t h t he enac tment o f t h e Government o f I n d i a A c t ( 1 9 1 9 ) , i r r i g a t i o n came under c o n t r o l o f t he p r o v i n c e s but i t was a " r e s e r v e d " s u b j e c t i n t h a t any p r o j e c t c o s t i n g o v e r f i v e m i l l i o n r upee s o r a f f e c t i n g more t h a n one p r o v i n c e , r e q u i r e d a p p r o v a l by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a though t h e Government o f I n d i a . When t h e Government o f I n d i a A c t (1935) came i n t o f o r c e , i r r i g a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d e n t i r e l y to t h e p r o v i n c e s ( G u l h a t i , 1 972 : 2 2 - 2 7 ) . The c e n t r e made p r o v i s i o n , however , t h a t i n t h e e v e n t o f a d i s p u t e o v e r an i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r , t h e c o n c e r n e d governments c o u l d c o m p l a i n t o t h e G o v e r n o r -Gene ra l . I f t h e " i s s u e s i n v o l v e d " were o f " s u f f i c i e n t i m p o r t a n c e t o w a r r a n t such a c t i o n [ t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ] s h a l l a p p o i n t a Commiss ion c o n -s i s t i n g o f such pe r son s h a v i n g s p e c i a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n i r r i g a -t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f i n a n c e , o r l a w " and have t h a t commis -s i o n i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o m p l a i n t ( q u o t e d i n G u l h a t i , 1 9 7 2 : 2 8 ) . When I n d i a g a i n e d Independence i n 1947, i t s c o n s t i t u e n t a s s e m b l y made s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s f o r i r r i g a t i o n as e x i s t e d under t he 1935 A c t . E n t r y 17 o f t h e S t a t e L i s t o f powers i n c l u d e s : W a t e r , t h a t i s t o s ay w a t e r s u p p l i e s , i r r i g a t i o n and c a n a l s , d r a i n a g e and embankments, w a t e r s t o r a g e and w a t e r power s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f e n t r y 56 o f L i s t I. Under E n t r y 56 t he c e n t r e has d i s c r e t i o n a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r s : 20 R e g u l a t i o n and deve lopment o f i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r s and r i v e r v a l l e y s to t he e x t e n t t o w h i c h such r e g u l a t i o n and deve lopment under t he c o n t r o l o f t he Un ion i s d e c l a r e d by P a r l i a m e n t by l aw t o be e x p e d i e n t and i n t he p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . In 1956 t h e c e n t r a l government e n a c t e d t h e R i v e r Boa rd s A c t w h i c h comes under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f E n t r y 56 . T h i s a c t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t he c e n t r e ' s i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e deve l opment o f i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r s . I n d i a ' s i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r s a r e among t he l a r g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t o f t he s u b c o n t i n e n t and i n c l u d e : t he Ganges , B r a h m a p u t r a , R a v i , S u t l e j , Narmada, K r i s h n a , G o d a v a r i , and C a u v e r y . The c e n t r e ' s s t a t e m e n t o f i n t e n t was : I t i s he reby d e c l a r e d t h a t i t i s e x p e d i e n t i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e C e n t r a l Government s h o u l d t a k e under i t s c o n -t r o l t he r e g u l a t i o n and deve lopment o f i n t e r - S t a t e r i v e r s and r i v e r v a l 1 e y s . . . Under t h i s a c t , a r i v e r board may a d v i s e " t h e Governments i n t e r e s t e d i n any m a t t e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n o r deve l opment o f any s p e c i f i e d i n t e r - S t a t e r i v e r . . . i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a v i e w to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s among t h e m . " A r i v e r b o a r d , i f so d e s i r e d , c o u l d a l s o p r e p a r e schemes, a l l o c a t e c o s t s o f a scheme among t he i n t e r e s t e d g o ve rnmen t s , and m o n i t o r the p r o g r e s s o f such schemes . However, s t a t e governments have no t thus f a r e v i n c e d .any i n t e r e s t i n s e t t i n g up r i v e r boa rd s and t o d a t e , no t a s i n g l e r i v e r boa rd has been s e t up under t h e a c t . The re a r e , however , a number o f r i v e r c o n t r o l boa rd s w h i c h have been s e t up t h r o u g h c e n t r a l government e x e c u t i v e r e s o l u t i o n s and t h u s , a r e no t s t a t u t o r y b o d i e s . The c o n t r o l b o a r d s , u n l i k e t h e r i v e r boa rd s w h i c h were e n v i s i o n e d i n t h e R i v e r Boards A c t , have been s e t up m e r e l y t o f a c i l i t a t e 21 t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l a r g e i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r p r o j e c t s . The c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s and t h e c e n t r a l government d e c i d e a c o n t r o l boa rd i s n e c e s s a r y and then come t o an ag reement as t o i t s c o m p o s i t i o n and d u t i e s . These boa rd s have been s e t up f o r s uch i n t e r s t a t e p r o j e c t s as t h e Bhak r a -Nanga l P r o j e c t ( Pun j ab and R a j a s t h a n ) , t h e Tungabhadra P r o j e c t ( K a r n a t a k a and Andhra P r a d e s h ) , and -the Chambal P r o j e c t (Madhya P rade sh and R a j a s t h a n ) ( J a i n , 1971 : 1 4 ) . The c o n t r o l b o a r d s , t h e n , have been s e t up f o r s i n g l e p r o -j e c t s i n a r i v e r b a s i n w h i l e t he r i v e r boards were t o o v e r s e e deve l opment o f e n t i r e r i v e r b a s i n s . The Damodar V a l l e y C o r p o r a t i o n (DVC) was s e t up by s t a t u t e i n 1948. The DVC, m o d e l l e d on t he Tennes see V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , was t a o v e r s e e t h e m u l t i - p u r p o s e deve lopment o f t h e Damodar R i v e r f l o w i n g t h r ough West Benga l and B i h a r . I t was t o be a c o r p o r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e two s t a t e s p l u s t he c e n t r e b u t autonomous f rom bo th l e v e l s o f gove rnment . In t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g i t s c r e a t i o n , however , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments i n t e r f e r e d more and more i n t h e work o f t h e DVC, s e v e r e l y hamper ing i t s deve lopment e f f o r t s . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t he " c e n t r a l government has cho sen no t t o e s t a b l i s h any more s t a t u t o r y r i v e r deve l opment c o r p o r a t i o n s " ( J a i n , 1 971 : 17 and see a l s o F r a n d a , 1 9 6 8 : 6 2 - 1 2 8 ) . A r t i c l e 262 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n g i v e s t h e I n d i a n P a r l i a m e n t t h e s o l e r i g h t t o " p r o v i d e f o r t h e a d j u d i c a t i o n " o f a w a t e r d i s p u t e , t hu s e x c l u d i n g the c o u r t s . P a r l i a m e n t may by l aw p r o v i d e f o r the a d j u d i c a t i o n o f any d i s p u t e o r c o m p l a i n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e u s e , d i s t r i b u t i o n o r c o n t r o l o f t h e w a t e r s o f , o r i n , any i n t e r - S t a t e r i v e r o r r i v e r v a l l e y . 22 F o l l o w i n g up on A r t i c l e 262 , t h e : : c e n t r a l l e g i s l a t u r e pas sed t h e I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t (1956) w h i c h p r o v i d e s : When any r e q u e s t under s e c t i o n t h r e e i s r e c e i v e d f rom any S t a t e Government i n r e s p e c t o f any w a t e r d i s p u t e and t h e C e n t r a l Government i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e w a t e r d i s p u t e c a n n o t be s e t t l e d by n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e C e n t r a l Government s h a l l . c o n s t i t u t e a Water D i s p u t e T r i b u n a l f o r the a d j u d i c a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r d i s p u t e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t was q u e s -t i o n e d by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms Commiss ion (ARC) w h i c h no ted t h e l a c k o f a t i m e l i m i t on n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r w a t e r d i s p u t e s , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e c e n -t r a l government t o l e t n e g o t i a t i o n s d r a g on f o r y e a r s (ARC, 1969 : 3 5 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e ARC recommended i m p o s i n g a l i m i t o f t h r e e y e a r s on n e g o t i a t i o n s , t he c e n t r e has no t amended t he A c t to p r o v i d e f o r such a l i m i t . The N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commiss ion i s an i m p o r t a n t c e n t r a l government body. I t has a s i g n i f i c a n t , i f i n d i r e c t , r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e Cauve r y d i s -pu te because a l l m a j o r and medium i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s must r e c e i v e a p p r o v a l f rom the Commi s s i o n . I r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s a r e d e f i n e d on a c o s t b a s i s . "Med ium" p r o j e c t s r ange f rom 250,000 r upee s t o 50 m i l l i o n rupees w h i l e " m a j o r " p r o j e c t s c o s t o v e r 50 m i l l i o n r u p e e s . M i n o r i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s , c o s t i n g l e s s t h a n 250,000 r u p e e s , do no t r e q u i r e t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n ' s a p p r o v a l . In i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a p r o j e c t , t h e P l a n n i n g Commiss ion w i l l t a k e t e c h n i c a l , e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t . A scheme w h i c h i s i n some way p a r t o f an i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e w i l l have l i t t l e chance o f r e c e i v i n g a p p r o v a l f rom t h e Commiss ion u n t i l t h e d i s p u t e i s r e s o l v e d . I f a p r o j e c t i s no t a p p r o v e d , i t w i l l be e x c l u d e d f rom t h e I n d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s F i v e Year P l a n s and w i l l no t be e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e d i r e c t f u n d i n g f rom 23 c e n t r a l c o f f e r s . A s t a t e government wh i ch has n o t o b t a i n e d a p p r o v a l f o r i t s m a j o r and medium p r o j e c t s i s t o r e f r a i n f rom u n d e r t a k i n g t h e same. T h i s does no t mean, however , t h a t an unapproved p r o j e c t w i l l no t r e c e i v e funds f rom t h e c e n t r a l gove rnment . As t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms Commiss ion p o i n t e d o u t , t h e s t a t e s r e c e i v e l o a n s f rom t h e c e n t r e f o r n o n -P l a n p u r p o s e s . "The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e l o a n s r e c e i v e d f rom t h e C e n t r e t o t he c a p i t a l d i s b u r s e m e n t s o f t h e S t a t e s w h i c h was as h i g h as s e v e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t t h e F i r s t P l a n p e r i o d s h o t up f u r t h e r t o e i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t i n t h e T h i r d P l a n p e r i o d " (ARC, 1969 : 1 2 ) . W i t h such a l a r g e amount o f f u n d i n g coming f rom t h e c e n t r e , t h e s t a t e s ' p r o j e c t s may be f i n a n c e d w i t h t h e c e n t r e ' s money, whe the r t h e y a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e P l a n o r n o t . The ARC a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e s had become h a b i t u a t e d t o p a y i n g o f f t h e i r huge d e b t s t o the c e n t r e by t a k i n g o u t new l o a n s f rom t h e c e n t r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t he ARC S t udy Team, t h e s t a t e s have become i n d i f f e r e n t as t o whe the r t h e a s s i s t a n c e t h e y r e c e i v e f rom t h e c e n t r e i s i n t h e fo rm o f l o a n s o r g r a n t s (ARC, 1969 : 1 2 - 1 3 ) . F o l l o w i n g upon t h e recommendat ion s made by t h e ARC i n 1969 , t h e c e n t r a l government r educed i t s power o v e r a l l o c a t i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e s t a t e s by g i v i n g them b l o c k l o a n s and g r a n t s as opposed t o earmarked l o a n s and g r a n t s . In t h i s way t h e s t a t e s have even g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r money r e c e i v e d f rom t h e c e n t r e ( J a i n , 1 9 7 1 : 1 3 ) . I n d i a ' s s t a t e s a r e e x t r e m e l y dependent on t h e c e n t r a l government f o r t he f i n a n c i n g o f i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . In t h e p a s t , some m a j o r i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s ( I d i k k i i n K e r a l a , Ko s i i n B i h a r ) have r e c e i v e d one hundred p e r -c e n t l o a n a s s i s t a n c e and i t i s g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e f o r w a t e r p r o j e c t s t o r e c e i v e 24 f i f t y t o e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e i r r e q u i r e d o u t l a y s f rom t h e c e n t r e ( J a i n , 1971 : 12 and A l h e r i t i e r e , 1978 : 1 8 2 ) . Thus , a l t h o u g h i r r i g a t i o n i s a s t a t e s u b j e c t , t h e c e n t r e has p l a y e d a " dom inan t r o l e t h r o u g h i t s f i n a n c i a l power " ( J a i n , 1 971 : 1 3 ) . The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n " ' i s c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h s e t t l i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s . C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s o f t h i s depa r tmen t have a c t e d as m e d i a t o r s i n r i v e r d i s p u t e s s i n c e I ndependence . They have h e l d m e e t i n g s w i t h C h i e f M i n i s t e r s and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l , put f o r w a r d s u g g e s t i o n s a t t h e m e e t i n g s f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e s , s e t up i n v e s t i g a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s , and have had t h r e e d i s p u t e s r e f e r r e d t o t r i b u n a l s . D r . K.L. Rao and J a g j i v a n Ram were t he I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r s most c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e . A t t h e s t a t e l e v e l i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e t he i m p o r t a n t m i n i s t r i e s a r e t h e P u b l i c Works Depar tments (PWD) i n Tam i l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a . Bo th o f t h e s e d e p a r t m e n t s have w ing s w h i c h a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g and e x e c u t i n g m a j o r and medium i r r i g a t i o n schemes i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s . The m i n i s t e r s , o f f i c i a l s and e n g i n e e r s o f t h e P u b l i c Works Depar tment s a r e t h e most f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e . V a r i o u s documents g i v i n g t he s t a t e s ' p o s i t i o n s on t h e d i s p u t e a r e p r e p a r e d by t h e s e two d e p a r t m e n t s . PWD o f f i c i a l s , u s u a l l y i r r i g a t i o n e n g i n e e r s , put t o g e t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r s t a t e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e d i s p u t e and b r i e f t h e i r C h i e f M i n i s t e r s , both b e f o r e and d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e B r i t i s h c r e a t e d t h e P u b l i c Works Department i n t h e 1850 s , Tami l Nadu ' s PWD has been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e deve lopment o f and d i s p u t e s o ve r t h e Cauve ry B a s i n f o r o v e r one hundred y e a r s ( J a i n , 1 971 : 2 ) . 25 An O v e r v i e w o f S e l e c t e d R i v e r D i s p u t e s i n I n d i a I n d i a ' s p o s t - I n d e p e n d e n c e p e r i o d has w i t n e s s e d a l a r g e number o f r i v e r d i s p u t e s on t h e s u b c o n t i n e n t . Many o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s a r o s e w i t h t h e m a j o r r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s i n 1 953 , 1 956 , 1 9 6 0 , and 1966. In some ca se s ag reements had e x i s t e d between s t a t e s p r i o r , t o S t a t e s R e o r g a n i s a t i o n , bu t t h e t e r r i t o r i a l changes a l s o b r ough t changes i n t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s , t hu s n u l l i f y i n g t h e ag reement s and o p e n i n g t h e way f o r d i s p u t e s t o a r i s e . D i s p u t e s i n I n d i a have g e n e r a l l y been o f two t y p e s : up s t r eam-downs t ream and " i n t e -g r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t " d i s p u t e s where c o s t - b e n e f i t s h a r i n g has been a t t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f d e b a t e . Some d i s p u t e s , such as t h e Narmada, have c o m p r i s e d bo th up s t ream-downs t ream and c o s t - b e n e f i t s h a r i n g a r g u m e n t s . R a v i - B e a s D i s p u t e The R a v i - B e a s R i v e r d i s p u t e between t h e s t a t e s o f Pun jab and Haryana a r o s e i n 1966 w i t h t h e p a r t i t i o n o f P u n j a b . The Beas i s one o f t h e e a s t -f l o w i n g r i v e r s o f t h e Indus R i v e r s y s tem and f l o w s f o r most o f i t s l e n g t h t h r ough P u n j a b . In 1955 a t an i n t e r s t a t e c o n f e r e n c e t o d i s c u s s t h e a l l o c a -t i o n o f Beas w a t e r s , t h e c e n t r a l government a p p o r t i o n e d t h e r i v e r ' s w a t e r s among R a j a s t h a n , P u n j a b , and K a s h m i r . When Punjab was s p l i t i n 1966, t h e two new s t a t e s a r gued abou t how t h e 1955 a l l o c a t i o n s h o u l d be d i v i d e d . Haryana wanted o v e r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f f o r m e r P u n j a b ' s s h a r e , w h i l e Pun jab wanted i t a l l . N e g o t i a t i o n s a t t h e m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l were e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e two s t a t e s w i t h t h e c e n t r a l government a c t i n g as m e d i a t o r . When by t h e e a r l y 1970s no agreement c o u l d be r e a c h e d , t h e c e n t r e ended n e g o t i a t i o n s and 26 i n s t e a d a p p o i n t e d an e x p e r t c o m m i t t e e . t o s t u d y t h e r i v e r , i t s c u r r e n t u t i l i s a t i o n , and t h e p a t t e r n s o f i r r i g a t i o n i n t h e two s t a t e s . Upon t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t s r e p o r t i n 1 975 , t h e c e n t r a l government d i v i d e d t h e w a t e r s o f t h e Beas i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 78 o f t h e Pun jab R e - O r g a n i s a t i o n A c t ( 1 9 6 6 ) . In 1976 Punjab r e f u s e d t o - b e bound by t he c e n t r e ' s a l l o c a t i o n , s a y i n g i t was " i n e q u i t a b l e " and t h a t i t . h a d been " unde r p r e s s u r e o f d u r e s s t o a c c e p t t h e c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n " ( J a c o b : 1976 : 6 2 5 ) . I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s d i s p u t e has been o v e r p a r t i a l l y u n u t i l i s a b l e w a t e r s . In o r d e r f o r Pun jab and Haryana t o r e c e i v e t h e w a t e r s o f two o t h e r e a s t - f l o w i n g r i v e r s , t h e Rav i and t h e S u t l e j , a m a j o r j o i n t p r o j e c t must be u n d e r t a k e n by t h e two s t a t e s and R a j a s t h a n . T h i s p r o j e c t e n v i s i o n s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l a r g e dam and a l i n k i n g c a n a l between t h e Beas and t h e S u t l e j . From 1976 onwa rd , n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d between Punjab and Haryana w i t h t h e c e n t r e a g a i n a c t i n g as m e d i a t o r . F i n a l l y , on December 3 1 , 1981 t he s t a t e s came t o an a g r e e m e n t , w i t h Punjab r e c e i v i n g j u s t o v e r and Haryana j u s t under f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e w a t e r . Now t h a t t h e s h a r e s o f t h e Beas have been d e t e r m i n e d , i t i s l e f t f o r t h e s t a t e s t o u n d e r t a k e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e j o i n t p r o j e c t ( J a i n , 1 9 7 1 : 5 4 - 5 6 ; J a c o b , 1976 : 6 2 4 - 2 5 , I n d i a n E x p r e s s , 21 F e b r u a r y , 1976 , 31 J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 2 ) . Narmada R i v e r D i s p u t e The Narmada R i v e r , e i g h t hundred m i l e s l o n g , f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e s t a t e s o f Madhya P r a d e s h , M a h a r a s h t r a , and G u j a r a t f rom where i t emp t i e s i n t o t h e A r a b i a n S e a . A p p a r e n t l y , i t i s t h e l e a s t d e v e l o p e d o f I n d i a ' s l a r g e r i v e r s . In t h e l a t e 1940s and e a r l y 1 950 s , t h e c e n t r a l government l a u n c h e d a number 27 o f p r o j e c t s t u d i e s i n t he Narmada R i v e r b a s i n , so t h a t i n t e g r a t e d d e v e l o p -ment c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n t h e r e . The C e n t r a l Water and Power Commis s ion recommended i n t h e m id - 1950 s t h a t t h e Navagam Dam be b u i l t i n B roach D i s -t r i c t o f e r s t w h i l e Bombay S t a t e so t h a t i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r s c o u l d be c a r r i e d as f a r away as t h e Rann o f K u t c h . In 1 960 s , a s t u d y team a p p o i n t e d by t h e c e n t r a l M i n i s t r y f o r Power and I r r i g a t i o n recommended t h a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e Navagam Dam be 320 f e e t . In 1960 Bombay S t a t e became d i v i d e d i n t o G u j a r a t and M a h a r a s h t r a and i t was f rom t h i s p o i n t t h a t the. d i s p u t e o v e r t h e Narmada R i v e r a r o s e . Even though Nehru h i m s e l f l a i d t he f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f Navagam, t h e dam was t o be s u b j e c t o f c l o s e t o t w e n t y y e a r s o f i n t e n s e c o n t r o v e r s y . The main p r o -blem was cau sed by Madhya P r a d e s h ' s p l a n s t o c o n s t r u c t a t l e a s t t h r e e dams on t h e upper r e a c h e s o f t h e Narmada. The l a r g e r i t s dams, t h e s m a l l e r and l e s s e f f e c t i v e Navagam wou ld become. In November 1963 t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f G u j a r a t , Madhya P r a d e s h , and M a h a r a s h t r a met w i t h t h e Un ion M i n i s t e r f o r Power and I r r i g a t i o n t o d i s c u s s t h e Narmada R i v e r . An agreement was r e a c h e d under w h i c h t h e Navagam Dam wou ld be 425 f e e t h i g h ( a l l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t o a c c r u e t o G u j a r a t ) and two dams wou ld be b u i l t i n Madhya P radesh w i t h c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t o be s h a r e d among t h e t h r e e s t a t e s . T h i s a g r eemen t , however , was no t s u b s e -q u e n t l y r a t i f i e d by Madhya P r a d e s h . As no ag reement c o u l d be r e a c h e d , t he c e n t r e a p p o i n t e d t h e Narmada Water Re sou rce s Deve lopment Committee under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f D r . A . N . K h o s l a t o i n v e s t i g a t e p r i m a r i l y how t o m a x i m i s e u t i l i s a t i o n o f t h e Narmada i n a manner a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h G u j a r a t and Madhya P r a d e s h . The c o m m i t t e e ' s 28 r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d i n September 1965 and recommended t h a t t h i r t e e n p r o -j e c t s be t a k e n up i n Madhya P r ade sh and G u j a r a t . The c ommi t t ee s u g g e s t e d t h a t Navagam Dam, t h e o n l y p r o j e c t i n G u j a r a t , be c o n s t r u c t e d t o a h e i g h t o f 500 f e e t , f o r w i t h t h i s h e i g h t i r r i g a t i o n and/or h y d r o - e l e c t r i c bene -f i t s c o u l d be e x t ended t o R a j a s t h a n and M a h a r a s h t r a i n a d d i t i o n t o G u j a r a t and Madhya P r a d e s h . G u j a r a t was t h e o n l y s t a t e t o a c c e p t t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t . For t h r e e y e a r s , f rom 1966 u n t i l 1 9 6 9 , t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s met w i t h t h e Un ion M i n i s t e r f o r Power and I r r i g a t i o n , Dr . K .L . Rao. These f r u i t l e s s m e e t i n g s l e d t o G u j a r a t ' s r e q u e s t t h a t t he c e n t r a l government r e f e r t h e d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l under t h e I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t ( 1 9 5 6 ) . In O c t o b e r 1969 , t h e c e n t r a l government s e t up a t r i b u n a l t o a d j u d i c a t e t h e d i s p u t e d e s p i t e Madhya P r a d e s h ' s f i l i n g a w r i t p e t i t i o n i n t h e D e l h i H i gh C o u r t t o p r e v e n t t h e c e n t r e f r om s e t t i n g up a t r i b u n a l . The p e t i t i o n was d i s m i s s e d . The t r i b u n a l handed down a p r e l i m i n a r y d e c i s i o n i n 1 9 7 2 , b u t Madhya P radesh and R a j a s t h a n c h a l l e n g e d t h e d e c i s i o n and t h r ough t he Supreme C o u r t o f I n d i a g o t a s t a y o f t h e t r i b u n a l ' s p r o c e e d i n g s . A t abou t t h i s t i m e P r ime M i n i s t e r Gandhi r e c e i v e d a number o f r e q u e s t s f rom t h e f o u r C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ( G u j a r a t , Madhya P r a d e s h , M a h a r a s h t r a , and R a j a s t h a n ) " t o d e c i d e on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r s between Madhya P rade sh and G u j a r a t and t h e h e i g h t o f t h e Navagam Dam" ( J a c o b , 1 9 7 6 : 6 2 2 ) . The P r ime M i n i s t e r c o n s u l t e d w i t h m i n i s t e r s and o f f i c i a l s o f t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s i n a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s but she c o u l d no t r e a c h a d e c i s i o n " i n v i e w o f r i v a l p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . " Th roughout 1974 and e a r l y 1975 t h e f o u r C h i e f M i n i s t e r s c a r r i e d on 29 n e g o t i a t i o n s . They were a b l e t o r e a c h agreement f o r e i g h t p r o j e c t s i n March 1975 and Madhya P rade sh and R a j a s t h a n a l l o w e d t h e s t a y o f p r o c e e d i n g s f o r t h e t r i b u n a l t o be r emoved . Because o f t h e p a r t i a l a g r e e m e n t , a number o f i s s u e s were removed f rom t h e p u r v i e w o f t h e t r i b u n a l . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t s t i l l had t o r e a c h a d e c i s i o n on t h e h e i g h t o f t h e Navagam Dam and t h e s h a r i n g o f Narmada w a t e r s between Madhya P rade sh and G u j a r a t . The t r i b u n a l f i n a l l y r e a c h e d a d e c i s i o n i n 1978 under w h i c h Navagam's h e i g h t was r e s t r i c t e d t o 455 f e e t . Thu s , d i r e c t l y becau se o f t h e r i v e r d i s p u t e , deve l opment p r o j e c t s i n t h e Narmada B a s i n were h e l d up f o r e i g h t e e n y e a r s and b i l l i o n s o f g a l l o n s o f w a t e r were a l l o w e d t o go t o wa s te i n t h e A r a b i a n S e a . An unhappy p o s t -s c r i p t i s t h a t as o f A p r i l 1982 t h e Navagam Dam was s t i l l f a r f rom c o m p l e -t i o n becau se o f t h e s t a t e s ' b i c k e r i n g o v e r c o s t - s h a r i n g ( I n d i a n E x p r e s s , 1 A p r i l 1 982 ; J a i n , 1 9 7 1 : 3 7 - 4 1 ; J a c o b , 1976 : 6 2 1 - 2 2 ) . K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i D i s p u t e s The K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i r i v e r sy s tems a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r l i n k e d . The K r i s h n a sy s tem j u s t s o u t h o f t h e G o d a v a r i B a s i n i n c l u d e s t h e s t a t e s o f M a h a r a s h t r a , K a r n a t a k a , and Andhra P r a d e s h . The G o d a v a r i s y s t em l i e s i n M a h a r a s h t r a , K a r n a t a k a , Andhra P r a d e s h , Madhya P r a d e s h , and O r i s s a . G i v e n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e two r i v e r b a s i n s , t h e r e have been p l a n s t o d i v e r t K r i s h n a w a t e r s t o t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e G o d a v a r i . In 1 9 5 1 , under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e P l a n n i n g Commi s s i o n , a d r a f t a g r e e -ment was r e a c h e d between t h e s t a t e s o f Bombay, H y d e r a b a d , Mad r a s , M y s o r e , and Madhya P radesh on s h a r i n g t he w a t e r s o f t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i R i v e r s . T h i s a g r eemen t , w h i c h e x c l u d e d t h e s t a t e o f O r i s s a , was r a t i f i e d by a l l t h e 30 s t a t e s e x c e p t Mysore bu t l o s t any v a l i d i t y i t m i g h t have had w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f Andhra P r ade sh i n 1953 and S t a t e s R e o r g a n i s a t i o n i n 1956 a f t e r w h i c h t h e s t a t e o f Hyderabad c e a s e d t o e x i s t . The C e n t r a l Water and Power Commiss ion (CW & P C ) , u s i n g t h e 1951 d r a f t agreement as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t , r e - a l l o c a t e d t h e w a t e r s o f t h e two r i v e r s based on t h e t e r r i t o r i a l changes b r o u g h t abou t by S t a t e s R e o r g a n i s a t i o n . A t a m e e t i n g i n 1960 none o f t h e b a s i n s t a t e s a c c e p t e d t h e new a l l o c a t i o n drawn up by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . A t t h e 1960 m e e t i n g t h e Un i on M i n i s t e r f o r I r r i g a t i o n and Power s u g -g e s t e d t h a t an e x p e r t c ommi t t ee f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a s se s sment o f t h e K r i s h n a - G o d a v a r i d i v e r s i o n scheme be s e t up under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f S r i N.D. G u l h a t i who was I n d i a ' s l e a d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t t h e Indus R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h P a k i s t a n . W h i l e t h e G u l h a t i Commis s ion was a b l e t o p r e -pare a r e p o r t , i t was u n a b l e to c o l l e c t much o f t h e p e r t i n e n t d a t a becau se none o f t h e s t a t e s had c o m p l e t e d a d e q u a t e t e c h n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e r i v e r s . The Un ion M i n i s t r y d e c i d e d t h a t f i n a l a l l o c a t i o n s o f w a t e r t o t h e s t a t e s c o u l d n o t be made b e f o r e 1976 and i n t h e i n t e r i m , t h e CW & PC wou ld c o l l e c t and a n a l y s e t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a . The Un i on I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r , H.M. I b r a h i m , made i n t e r i m a l l o c a t i o n s o f w a t e r s t o t h e f i v e s t a t e s based on t h e G u l h a t i Commiss ion R e p o r t i n 1961 so t h a t t h e y c o u l d go ahead w i t h a t l e a s t some o f t h e i r p r o j e c t s i n t h e two r i v e r b a s i n s . The s t a t e s , however , began t o a c c u s e one a n o t h e r o f mak ing e x c e s s i v e w i t h d r a w a l s o f w a t e r and numerous m e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h t h e I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r t o dea l w i t h t h e s e d i s p u t e s . R e a l i s i n g t h e f u t i l i t y o f t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s , and upon t h e r e q u e s t o f M y s o r e , M a h a r a s h t r a , and Andhra P r a d e s h , t he c e n t r a l government r e f e r r e d b o t h d i s p u t e s t o a d j u d i c a t i o n 31 by t r i b u n a l i n A p r i l 1969. Mysore and M a h a r a s h t r a had bo th r e q u e s t e d a t r i b u n a l as e a r l y as 1 962 , and Andhra P rade sh r e q u e s t e d one i n 1968 . The c e n t r a l government c o n s t i t u t e d two t r i b u n a l s , w i t h t h e same p e r s o n n e l however , t o a d j u d i c a t e t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t r i b u n a l wou ld c o n s i d e r t h e K r i s h n a d i s p u t e f i r s t . The ma in i s s u e b e f o r e t h e t r i b u n a l was how t o d i s t r i b u t e K r i s h n a w a t e r s e q u i t a b l y among t h e b a s i n s t a t e s . In 1 972 , t h e t r i b u n a l made an i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n bu t K a r n a t a k a q u e s t i o n e d i t s v a l i d i t y and t h e t r i b u n a l u n d e r t o o k f u r t h e r h e a r i n g s . On May 3 1 , 1976 t h e t r i b u n a l made i t s f i n a l d e c i s i o n . Of a t o t a l o f 2060 t hou sand m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t (TMC) a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n , K a r n a t a k a wou ld r e c e i v e 700 TMC, M a h a r a s h t r a 560 , and Andhra P rade sh t h e r e m a i n i n g 800 TMC, b u t even s h o u l d f l o w s exceed 2060 TMC, i t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t Andhra P rade sh " s h a l l no t a c q u i r e any r i g h t w h a t s o e v e r t o use nor be deemed t o have been a l l o c a t e d w a t e r i n e xce s s o f 800 TMC." I t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t K r i s h n a w a t e r c o u l d be d i v e r t e d by Andhra P r ade sh t o i t s d r o u g h t - p r o n e a r e a s f o r i r r i g a t i o n pu rpo se s o n l y . The t r i b u n a l p r o v i d e d f o r a r e v i e w o f i t s d e c i s i o n i n t h e y e a r 2000 and a l s o i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n t h a t " t h e d e c i s i o n . . . m a y be a l t e r e d , amended, o r m o d i f i e d by agreement between t h e p a r t i e s o r by p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e g i s l a t i o n " ( J a c o b , 1 976 ; 6 1 8 - 1 9 ) . I t was o n l y a f t e r t h e t r i b u n a l had r e n d e r e d a d e c i s i o n on t h e K r i s h n a R i v e r d i s p u t e t h a t i t c o u l d t u r n i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e G o d a v a r i R i v e r . T h i s meant a seven y e a r w a i t f o r t h e t r i b u n a l ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e . In t h e i n t e r i m , t h e r e f o r e , t h e Un ion M i n i s t e r f o r I r r i g a -t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r e , J a g j i v a n Ram, made an e f f o r t t o have some o f t h e 32 i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f t h e d i s p u t e s o l v e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e c o n -c e r n e d s t a t e s , but no t w i t h more t han two a t a t i m e . In t h i s way, p i e c e -meal u n d e r s t a n d i n g s were r e a c h e d u n t i l , on December 1 9 , 1 975 , t h e s t a t e s found t h e m s e l v e s i n agreement f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f 2300 o f t h e 3000 TMC a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . In t h i s way, p l a n s f o r v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s i n t h e b a s i n c o u l d be g i v e n a p p r o v a l even b e f o r e t h e t r i b u n a l began i t s d e l i b e r a -t i o n s . The t r i b u n a l , headed by Judge Bachawat , r e a c h e d a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h e r e m a i n i n g a l l o c a t i o n o f G o d a v a r i w a t e r s i n 1979 o v e r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e d i s p u t e began ( J a c o b , 1976 : 6 0 9 - 2 1 ; J a i n , 1 9 7 1 : 2 9 - 3 7 ; P.V. Rao, 1 981 : 2 0 , I n d i a n E x p r e s s , J u l y - D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 5 ) . The f o u r d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h a t t h e y were a l l e v e n t u a l l y s o l v e d t h r o u g h i n i t i a t i v e s t a k e n by t h e c e n t r a l gove rnment . In t h r e e i n s t a n c e s - - Narmada, K r i s h n a , and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s - - t h e c e n t r e r e f e r r e d t h e c o n f l i c t s t o t r i b u n a l s , bu t o n l y a f t e r y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s . A l l f o u r c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d l a r g e , m o s t l y un tapped r i v e r s and were a l l examples o f up s t r eam-downs t ream d i s p u t e s a l t h o u g h i n t h e R a v i - B e a s and Narmada d i s p u t e s , i n t e g r a t e d deve lopment o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a l s o p r e s e n t . The economic c o s t s o f a l l o w i n g t h e s e d i s p u t e s t o c o n t i n u e were e x -t r e m e l y h i g h . In t h e Narmada B a s i n , t h e i r r i g a t i o n b e n e f i t s f rom t h e Navagam Dam wou ld e x t e n d t o t hou sands o f a c r e s f rom s o u t h e r n G u j a r a t and M a h a r a s h t r a to t h e Rann o f Kutch and s o u t h e r n R a j a s t h a n . The a v e r a g e annua l d i s c h a r g e f rom t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i b a s i n s i s 5000 TMC (compared w i t h t he C a u v e r y ' s 740 TMC), b u t much o f t h a t was a l l o w e d t o f l o w i n t o t h e o c e a n . The R a v i - B e a s d i s p u t e p r e v e n t e d Pun jab and Haryana f rom w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r on i m p o r t a n t r i v e r - l i n k i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e Indus R i v e r s y s tem wh i ch i s so 33 i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t o f I n d i a ' s most p r o d u c t i v e s t a t e , P u n j a b . A l l o f t h e d i s p u t e s were h y d r o l o g i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c e n t r e t o s o l v e but t h r e e o f them - - Narmada, K r i s h n a , and G o d a v a r i - - were e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e because o f t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e c o n f l i c t s . The G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e , f o r e x a m p l e , i n v o l v e d f i v e Congres s s t a t e s , t h e Narmada had f o u r , and t h e K r i s h n a i n c l u d e d t h r e e Congres s s t a t e s . In t h e s e d i s p u t e s t h e economic c o s t s t o I n d i a o f t h e c e n t r e ' s no t a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y t o end t h e c o n f l i c t s were h i g h b u t t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s wou ld a l s o have been h i g h . The c e n t r a l government t o o k t h e path o f l o w e s t p o l i t i c a l c o s t s by r e f e r r i n g t he d i s p u t e s t o t r i b u n a l s . In t h i s way M r s . Gandhi c o u l d e s cape h a v i n g to make u n p o p u l a r d e c i s i o n s i n t h e d i s p u t e s and a v o i d t he r i s k o f a l i e n a t i n g some o r a l l o f t h e s t a t e s i n v o l v e d . A t t h e same t i m e she c o u l d a s s u r e t h e s t a t e s t h a t t h e i r d i s p u t e s wou l d be s o l v e d e q u i t a b l y , i f n o t w i t h d i s p a t c h . The d e c i s i o n s t o r e f e r t h e d i s p u t e s to t r i b u n a l s came o n l y a f t e r y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s i n a l l t h r e e d i s p u t e s , n i n e y e a r s f o r t h e Narmada d i s p u t e and e i g h t e e n y e a r s f o r t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s , and numerous demands f rom some o f t he s t a t e s f o r t r i b u n a l s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e d e c i s i o n s c o i n -c i d e d w i t h a. t i m e when M r s . Gandhi wou ld have f e l t her power base i n I n d i a t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e - - 1969 , t h e y e a r o f t h e f i r s t Congres s P a r t y s p l i t . The R a v i - B e a s d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s a f t e r some f i f t e e n y e a r s o f d i s c u s s i o n . In t h i s c a se t h e c e n t r e was w i l l i n g t o f o r c e a s o l u t i o n on t h e two s t a t e s d u r i n g t he Emergency - - a t i m e when t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s o f a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y were low w h i l e t h e economic b e n e f i t s 34 r ema ined h i g h . C e r t a i n l y i t was e a s i e r f o r t h e c e n t r e t o r e s o l v e t h i s d i s -p u t e , i n v o l v i n g o n l y two s t a t e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e d i s p u t e s . P u n j a b , however , r e j e c t e d t h e imposed s o l u t i o n i n 1976 and w i t h t h e new J a n a t a government i n power a t t h e c e n t r e i n 1 977 , t h e l a t t e r wou ld no t t r y t o e n f o r c e a s o l u t i o n w h i c h had been imposed on Pun jab d u r i n g t h e Emergency. Because t h e economic c o s t s o f a l l o w i n g t h i s d i s p u t e t o go on were h i g h - -no t o n l y were Pun jab and Haryana u n a b l e t o c a p i t a l i s e on t h e b e n e f i t s o f new i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s , so t oo were R a j a s t h a n and Kashmi r - - t h e c e n t r e c o n -t i n u e d t o make s e r i o u s e f f o r t s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n and t h e two s t a t e s '. f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d a compromise i n 1 9 8 1 . These r i v e r d i s p u t e s a l l have one t h i n g i n common: t h e economic c o s t s o f a l l o w i n g them to c o n t i n u e were a s t r o n o m i c a l . P o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , however , made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c e n t r e t o f i n d a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e c o n f l i c t , t h e r e b y r e s u l t i n g i n t h r e e o f t h e d i s p u t e s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o t r i b u n a l s , a method o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h e c e n t r a l government g e n e r a l l y a v o i d s . R i v e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a a r e l o n g l a s t i n g and have d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s on t h e deve l opment o f t h e r e g i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r i v e r s f l o w . T h i s i n t u r n hampers t h e deve l opment e f f o r t s o f t h e n a t i o n as a w h o l e . S i n c e I n d e p e n -dence I n d i a has s u f f e r e d f rom w e l l o v e r a dozen r i v e r d i s p u t e s . O t h e r s have i n c l u d e d : t h e Musakhand Dam P r o j e c t ( U t t a r P radesh and B i h a r ) , t h e Mahi R i v e r ( G u j a r a t and R a j a s t h a n ) , t h e Tungabhadra R i v e r ( K a r n a t a k a and Andhra P r a d e s h ) , t h e Kanhar R i v e r ( B i h a r , Madhya P r a d e s h , and U P ) , t h e P a l a r R i v e r (Mysore and M a d r a s ) , t h e Ba rak R i v e r (Assam and M a n i p u r ) , t h e Subaranekha R i v e r ( O r i s s a and B i h a r ) and t h e Jamni Dam P r o j e c t (Madhya P r ade sh and U P ) . 35 F o r t u n a t e l y , a number o f t h e r i v e r o r r i v e r p r o j e c t d i s p u t e s have u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n c o - o r d i n a t e d deve lopment e f f o r t s by t h e s t a t e s . These i n c l u d e t h e Tungabhad ra , R a v i - B e a s , Musakhand Dam, and Jamni Dam d i s p u t e s . In two i n s t a n c e s s t a t e s have c o o p e r a t e d on r i v e r deve l opment p r o j e c t s w i t h o u t f i r s t e ngag i n g i n d i s p u t e s . These a r e t h e B h a k r a - N a n g a l P r o j e c t f o r deve l opment o f t h e S u t l e j R i v e r and t h e Chambal Dam P r o j e c t . In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Chambal Dam, R a j a s t h a n t r a n s -f e r r e d p e r m a n e n t l y a s e c t i o n o f i t s t e r r i t o r y t o Madhya P rade sh so t h a t t h e p r o j e c t wou ld l i e c o m p l e t e l y i n t h a t s t a t e ( J a i n , 1 9 7 1 : 1 9 - 2 0 ) . 36 CHAPTER I I FOOTNOTES The M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n has gone t h r o u g h a number o f name changes o v e r t h e y e a r s - - f rom Power and I r r i g a t i o n t o A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n and now i t i s I r r i g a t i o n a l o n e . 37 CHAPTER I I I The Cauve ry B a s i n and t h e D i s p u t e P a s t and P r e s e n t The Cauve r y R i v e r ' s s o u r c e l i e s i n t h e B r a h m i g i r i H i l l s o f Karnataka, ' , s Coorg D i s t r i c t . From t h e r e t he r i v e r w ind s i t s way t h r ough t h e E a s t e r n G h a t s , t h e p l a i n s o f K a r n a t a k a and T a m i l Nadu, and b roaden s i n t o a l a r g e d e l t a j u s t e a s t o f t h e c i t y d f T i r u c h i r a p a l 1 i . T h e r e , i n T a n j a v u r D i s t r i c t , t h e Cauve r y d i v i d e s i n t o numerous c h a n n e l s w h i c h f l o w i n t o t h e Bay o f B e n g a l , some f i v e hundred m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f i t s s o u r c e i n t h e Wes te rn G h a t s . T h i s r i v e r i s t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t i n South I n d i a , a f t e r t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i , and i s t h e l a r g e s t and most i m p o r t a n t r i v e r o f Tam i l Nadu. Cauve ry i s no t a p e r e n n i a l r i v e r ; i t i s v i r t u a l l y d r y i n t h e d i s t r i c t s o f T i r u c h i r a p a l l i ( T r i c h y ) and T a n j a v u r f o r a few months e v e r y y e a r p r i o r t o t h e s o u t h w e s t monsoon. The Cauve ry B a s i n i s 33 ,646 s q u a r e m i l e s i n a r e a . Of t h a t , 13,181 (39 p e r c e n t ) s q u a r e m i l e s and 19 ,359 ( 5 7 . 5 p e r c e n t ) s q u a r e m i l e s l i e i n K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n o t h e r t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e b a s i n i s i n K e r a l a . I m p o r t a n t t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y a r e t h e H a r a n g i , H e m a v a t h i , K a b i n i , and S u v a r n a v a t h i R i v e r s i n K a r n a t a k a and t h e A m a r a v a t h i , B h a v a n i , and N o y i l R i v e r s i n T a m i l Nadu. The Cauve r y B a s i n c o v e r s abou t 38 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f Tami l Nadu and 19 p e r c e n t o f K a r n a t a k a . The c a t c h m e n t i n K a r n a t a k a c o n t r i b u t e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 52 p e r c e n t o f C a u v e r y ' s w a t e r s and t h a t i n Tami l Nadu, 30 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e c a t c h m e n t i n K e r a l a c o n t r i b u t e s 18 p e r c e n t ( Tam i l Nadu P u b l i c Works D e p a r t -ment (TN PWD), 1 9 7 9 ) . 38 The annua l a v e r a g e volume o f f l o w i n t h e Cauve ry has been e s t i m a t e d by t h e Cauve ry F a c t - F i n d i n g Committee ( 1972 : 78) t o be 740 t hou sand m i l -l i o n c u b i c f e e t (TMC) . The Commit tee e s t i m a t e d t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s u t i l i s a -t i o n o f Cauvery w a t e r s was 177 TMC, Tami l Nadu ' s 566 TMC, and K e r a l a ' s o n l y 5 TMC. These u ' t i l t s a t i d n f i g u r e s a c t u a l l y add up t o s l i g h t l y more t h a n t h e annua l a v e r a g e d i s c h a r g e o f t h e r i v e r . The main r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s t h a t t he s t a t e s ' u t i l i s a t i o n f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t w i t h d r a w a l f i g u r e s . When, f o r e xamp le , 10 TMC i s d i v e r t e d f rom t h e r i v e r i n t o an i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , l e s s t h a n 10 TMC w i l l a c t u a l l y be u s e d . T h i s i s because o f " d r a i n a g e f rom e x c e s s i v e p e r c o l a t i o n d u r i n g i r r i g a t i o n , s u r f a c e r u n - o f f d u r i n g i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n a g e f rom c a n a l s e e p -a g e , l e a k a g e . f r o m c a n a l s t r u c t u r e s , . . . {and] d i s c h a r g e s a t t h e l o w e r ends o f c a n a l s " ( J a c o b , 1976 : 6 1 5 ) . T h i s unused w a t e r f rom t h e command a r ea " ' w i l l r e - e n t e r t h e main r i v e r s y s tem and be a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e r s l o w e r down. Thu s , w i t h d r a w a l s a r e a lway s g r e a t e r t h a n u t i l i s a t i o n and t h e l e s s e r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , t h e g r e a t e r t h e w i t h d r a w a l s f r om t h e r i v e r must be i n o r d e r t o i r r i g a t e t h e c r o p s e f f e c t i v e l y . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between w i t h d r a w a l s and a c t u a l u t i l i s a t i o n , t h e f a c t t h a t w i t h d r a w a l s f rom t h e Cauve r y R i v e r add up t o more t h a n i t s a ve r a ge volume o f f l o w , i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f Cauvery w a t e r f l o w s unused i n t o t he sea e v e r y y e a r . I n ' f a c t , t h e Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Committee ( 1972 : 78) e s t i m a t e d - that t h e r e was an annua l w a s t a g e ' o f a bou t 50 TMC, o r seven p e r c e n t o f - t h e r i v e r ' s , a ve r a ge y e a r l y vo lume o f f l o w . Waters o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r have been w e l 1 - u t i l i s e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h many o t h e r l a r g e r i v e r s o f I n d i a . In t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a i n p a r t i c u l a r , 39 i r r i g a t i o n o f r i c e c r o p s on a l a r g e s c a l e has been c a r r i e d ou t f o r hundreds o f y e a r s - - a t l e a s t s i n c e t h e Cho l a Dynas ty o f t h e n i n t h t o t w e l f t h 2 c e n t u r i e s A .D . The Grand A n i c u t , t h e f i r s t m a j o r d i v e r s i o n s t r u c t u r e a c r o s s the Cauve r y R i v e r , was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t by t h e Cho l a s i n abou t t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y ( S t e i n , 1980 : 2 4 ) . I t i s s a i d , however , t h a t as e a r l y as t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A .D . a " s y s t em o f embankments" was b u i l t a l o n g " t h e f l o o d w a y s and c a n a l s o f t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a t o c a r r y t h e [ r i v e r ' s ] w a t e r s a f e l y t o more d i s t a n t f i e l d s " ( H a r t , 1956 : 1 6 ) . In t h e 1830s B r i t i s h e n g i n e e r s i n Madras P r e s i d e n c y began t o u n d e r -t a k e m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o improve t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n . In 1830 t h e y r e p a i r e d and h e i g h t e n e d t h e Grand A n i c u t and i n 1836 t h e y b u i l t t he Lower C o l e r o o n A n i c u t a c r o s s t h e C o l e r o o n R i v e r w h i c h a c t s as a f l o o d c h a n n e l f o r t h e C a u v e r y D e l t a . In 1839 t h e Upper A n i c u t was b u i l t nea r T r i c h y " t o d i v e r t low s u p p l i e s i n t h e r i v e r i n t o t h e s o u t h e r n b r anch w h i c h was t he f e e d e r channe l t o t h e d e l t a " ( Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Committee ( C F F C ) , 1 972 : 2 5 ) . In K a r n a t a k a , however , t h e i r r i g a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r has been o n l y m a r g i n a l l y e x p l o i t e d . T h i s i s p a r t l y be cau se i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e t o d e v e l o p i r r i g a t i o n sy s tems i n n o n - d e l t a i c a r e a s . F l a t d e l t a i c l a n d s have many n a t u r a l c h a n n e l s w h i c h a r e e a s i l y used f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s , w h i l e i r r i g a t i o n c h a n n e l s must a l l be b u i l t i n t h e h i g h e r r e a c h e s o f a b a s i n . U n t i l t h e S t a t e s ' R e - o r g a n i s a t i o n o f 1956 , Mysore was a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s t a t e w h i c h s i m p l y had i n a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s t o d e v e l o p i t s a y a c u t ( i r r i g a b l e l a n d ) on a l a r g e s c a l e . S i n c e t h e n , however , t h e s t a t e has been s l o w l y w o r k i n g t o b u i l d up i t s i r r i g a t e d a r e a 41 i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . 3 The m a j o r dams i n t h e b a s i n a r e M e t t u r w i t h a l i v e s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y o f 93 .5 TMC, nea r Sa lem i n Tami l Nadu and K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r (KRS) w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 45 TMC, abou t t w e l v e mi les f rom Mysore i n K a r n a t a k a . B o t h o f t h e s e dams became f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l i n t h e e a r l y 1930 s . K a r n a t a k a has t h r e e o t h e r m a j o r d a m - r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f c o m p l e t i o n : Hemavath i i n Hassan D i s t r i c t , 34 TMC, Kab in i i n My so re D i s t r i c t , 1 9 . 2 TMC, and Ha r ang i i n C o o r g , 6.5 TMC. In Tam i l Nadu t h e Lower Bhavan i dam i n C o i m b a t o r e D i s t r i c t has a l i v e s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y o f 32 TMC and a l s o i n C o i m b a t o r e D i s t r i c t t h e r e i s a dam a c r o s s t h e A m a r a v a t h i R i v e r w h i c h h o l d s back 5 TMC. A l l t he dams i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n a r e d e s i g n e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s , a l t h o u g h M e t t u r and KRS a r e a l s o used f o r power g e n e r a t i o n . M e t t u r i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r e i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n f o r Tam i l Nadu ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem as i t p r o v i d e s a r e g u l a t e d w a t e r - s u p p l y t o t h e d e l t a some 150 m i l e s away, and w i t h o u t w h i c h s t a b i l i s e d i r r i g a t i o n wou ld be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . M e t t u r i s n o t used f o r i r r i g a t i n g t he T a n j a v u r D e l t a on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s . I t i s o p e r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c r o p p i n g s ea son w h i c h means t h a t i t f i r s t r e l e a s e s w a t e r t o t h e d e l t a i n m i d - J u n e i f t h e s o u t h w e s t monsoon i s a c t i v e o v e r K a r n a t a k a , and s t o p s r e l e a s i n g w a t e r i n about J a n u a r y . When t h e r e i s a d e f i c i e n t s o u t h w e s t monsoon t h e w a t e r l e v e l i n M e t t u r ' s r e s e r v o i r w i l l be low and i t s f i r s t r e l e a s e s may have t o be d e l a y e d . T h i s c au se s g r e a t u n c e r t a i n t y f o r c u l t i v a t o r s i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a who u s u a l l y s t a r t p l a n t i n g t h e i r f i r s t c r o p o f paddy i n J u n e . I f M e t t u r r e l e a s e s a r e d e l a y e d , t h e c r o p p i n g season w i l l have t o be d e l a y e d , but i f t he l a t t e r i s po s tponed by t o o much, t he f i r s t c r o p o f paddy w i l l 42 be damaged by t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon w h i c h beg i n s i n e a r l y O c t o b e r . The c u l t i v a t o r s , t h e n ^ m u s t gamble on e x a c t l y w h e n ' t h e f i r s t r e l e a s e s f rom M e t t u r w i l l a r r i v e i n t h e d e l t a and on whe the r t h e y w i l l be enough t o s u s -t a i n t h e f i r s t c r o p o f paddy. On a s t a t e w i s e b a s i s t h e i r r i g a t e d a r e a w i t h d o u b l e - c r o p p i n g i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Commit tee i n i t s A d d i t i o n a l R e p o r t ( 1 973 : 8 -15) i s : i n K e r a l a , 53 ,400 a c r e s ; i n K a r n a t a k a , 683,000 a c r e s ; and i n T a m i l Nadu, 28 .2 m i l l i o n , a c r e s . Of Tam i l Nadu ' s t o t a l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.45 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f i r r i g a t e d l a n d a r e i n t h e Cauve ry D e l t a ( s ee t a b l e n e x t p a g e ) . The ma in c r o p grown i n t h e i r r i g a t e d a r e a s o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n i s r i c e . In t h e Cauve r y D e l t a v i r t u a l l y a l l l a n d i s under paddy . As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e s t a r t o f t h e paddy c r o p p i n g s ea son i n t h e d e l t a i s dependent on t h e commencement o f t h e s o u t h w e s t monsoon o v e r K a r n a t a k a . In some a r e a s o f t h e d e l t a two s h o r t te rm r i c e c r o p s a r e g rown. The f i r s t o n e , k u r u v a i , i s o f 105 days d u r a t i o n and i s grown f rom June t o O c t o b e r . T h a l a d i , t h e second c r o p , i s o f 165 days d u r a t i o n w i t h a c r o p p i n g season w h i c h e x t end s f r om O c t o b e r t o F e b r u a r y . The a r e a o f d o u b l e c r o p p i n g i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a i s abou t 400,000 a c r e s a l t h o u g h t h i s f i g u r e v a r i e s w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f the s o u t h w e s t monsoon. Most o f t h e d e l t a , however , i s sowed w i t h o n e , l o n g e r d u r a t i o n c r o p o f 180 days known as samba. Samba i s p l a n t e d i n m i d -J u l y and h a r v e s t e d i n J a n u a r y . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t c r o p s grown i n Tam i l Nadu ' s p o r t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n a r e s u g a r c a n e and c o t t o n . In K a r n a t a k a paddy i s g e n e r a l l y grown f rom June t o D e c e m b e r - J a n u a r y . The c r o p p i n g season t h e r e i s a l s o v e r y dependent on t h e s o u t h w e s t monsoon. TABLE 1 KARNATAKA AND TAMIL NADU: CROPPED AREA AND WATER UTILISATION IN THE CAUVERY BASIN — 1901-1971 cropped area in 100,000 acres util isation in TMC 1 301 1928 1956 1971 TAMIL NADU Area in 1st and 2nd crops Utilisation Area in 1st and 2nd crops Utilisation Area in 1st and 2nd crops Util isation Area in 1st and 2nd crops Util isation Major and Medium Schemes 13.445 366.9 14.440 391.2 20.355 488.2 25.299 494.6 Evaporation Losses N/A N/A 8.0 9.0 Minor Irrigation 2.190 44.0 2.21 44.0 2.412 48.0 2.909 58.0 Domestic Water Supply 1.2 1.2 3.1 5.0 TOTAL KARNATAKA 15.635 412.1 16.650 436.4 22.767 547.3 28.208 566.6 Major and Medium Schemes 1.110 27.2 1.110 27.2 2.729 89.28 4.424 110.22 Evaporation Losses N/A N/A 5.34 6.90 Minor Irrigation 1.991 45.5 2.039 46.0 2.200 50.00 2.400 54.70 Domestic Water Supply N/A N/A 4.00 5.00 TOTAL 3.101 72.7 3.149 73.2 4.929 148.62 6.824 476.82 Source: Cauvery Fact-Finding Committee, Additional Report, 1973: pp. 10 and 14-15. 44 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , o n l y a s i n g l e c r o p o f r i c e i s grown i n t h e b a s i n i n K a r n a t a k a . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s o f c e r t a i n h i g h - y i e l d i n g v a r i e t i e s o f r i c e w h i c h have s h o r t e r c r o p p i n g p e r i o d s , second c r o p s o f e i t h e r paddy 4 o r s e m i - d r y f ood c r o p s a r e a l s o p l a n t e d depend i ng on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r . O t h e r c r o p s grown i n K a r n a t a k a a r e r a g i , j o w a r , p u l s e s , g r o u n d n u t s , and s u g a r c a n e (CFFC , 1 972 : 4 4 - 4 5 ) . Cauve ry D i s p u t e P a s t The d i s p u t e o v e r t h e Cauve r y R i v e r began i n t he l a t e 1880s when t h e Dewan o f t h e p r i n c e l y s t a t e o f M y s o r e , K. S e s h a d r i I y e r , d e c i d e d t h a t m a j o r improvements s h o u l d be made t o t h e i r r i g a t i o n works i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . T h i s d e c i s i o n a l a r m e d e n g i n e e r s i n Madras P r e s i d e n c y who f e l t t h a t t h e i n -c r e a s e d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Cauve r y w a t e r was p ropo sed by Myso re w o u l d harm t h e e x i s t i n g i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem v i t a l f o r r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a i n T a n j a v u r D i s t r i c t . By t h e 1880s Madras P r e s i d e n c y had y e t t o e s t a b l i s h i t s s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e r i v e r s f l o w i n g t h r ough i t , i n c l u d i n g t h e C a u v e r y . The m a j o r l a n d -h o l d e r s c o n t r o l l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r i v e r w a t e r s and r e f u s e d t o g i v e up t h a t c o n t r o l t o t h e s t a t e . As M i c h a e l ( 1 9 7 9 : 56 -57) s t a t e s , E f f o r t s by government e n g i n e e r s t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the Cauve ry D e l t a . . . h a d been i n e f f e c t -i v e . By l i t i g a t i n g and l o b b y i n g , r i c h and i n f l u e n t i a l l a n d h o l d e r s had been a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e i r " immemor i a l r i g h t s " t o use e x c e s s i v e q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r f o r i n u n d a t i o n i r r i g a t i o n Madras e n g i n e e r s had seen t h a t up s t ream t e c h -n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n i n Mysore wou ld e v e n t u a l l y . . . d i m i n i s h vo lumes o f w a t e r r e q u i r e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a . They t h e r e f o r e s ough t t o impose r e s t r i c t i o n s o r l i m i t a t i o n s on w a t e r deve l opment a c t i v i t i e s i n M y s o r e . A c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e Mysore S t a t e and Madras P r e s i d e n c y governments was h e l d i n May 1890 " t o d i s c u s s pend ing d i s p u t e s o v e r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f 45 m i n o r i r r i g a t i o n works on i n t e r s t a t e s t r e a m s " ( M i c h a e l , 1979 : 6 9 ) . The t a l k s b r oke down, however , o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s t o i n t e r -s t a t e r i v e r w a t e r i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n . As t h e Government o f I n d i a i n d i c a t e d i t s p r e f e r e n c e t h a t t h e two s i d e s come to some agreement t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d i n May 189.1. In F e b r u a r y 1892 an agreement was s i g n e d by Madras and M y s o r e . I t was e n t i t l e d " R u l e s D e f i n i n g t h e L i m i t s W i t h i n w h i c h No New I r r i g a t i o n Works a r e t o be C o n s t r u c t e d by t h e My so re S t a t e W i t h o u t P r e v i o u s R e f e r e n c e t o t h e Madras Gove rnmen t . " The 1892 A g r e e -m e n t ' s S c h e d u l e A named t h e many t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r w h i c h were t o be under i t s p u r v i e w . W i th the .numerous r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on M y s o r e , t h e agreement r e p r e s e n t e d a v i c t o r y f o r t h e l o w e r r i p a r i a n s t a t e , Madras ( M i c h a e l , 1 9 7 9 : 74-76 and Ba shee r H u s s a i n , 1 9 7 2 : 5 ) . A c o n f l i c t a r o s e a g a i n i n 1910 when Madras P r e s i d e n c y r e c e i v e d p l a n s f rom Mysore f o r a dam, K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r ( KRS ) , t o be c o n s t r u c t e d a c r o s s t h e Cauve r y R i v e r nea r t h e c i t y o f M y s o r e . As i n t h e 1880s-, Madras e n g i n e e r s and T a n j a v u r l a n d h o l d e r s f e l t t h a t M y s o r e ' s p r o p o s a l t o i n c r e a s e w i t h d r a w a l s o f Cauve ry w a t e r s wou ld harm t h e e s t a b l i s h e d , a l b e i t w a s t e f u l , p a t t e r n o f i r r i g a t i o n i n T a n j a v u r D e l t a . A d d i t i o n a l l y , Madras had put f o r w a r d a p r o -j e c t p r o p o s a l f o r M e t t u r Dam bu t was t o l d by t h e Government o f I n d i a t h a t i t wou ld n o t app ro ve t h e p r o j e c t u n t i l t h e d i s p u t e w i t h Mysore was s e t t l e d . Madras t hen sought a r b i t r a t i o n " unde r t h e terms o f t h e 1892 a g r e e m e n t . " In 1913 t h e Government o f I n d i a a p p o i n t e d S i r Henry G r i f f i n , a H igh C o u r t j u d g e , as a r b i t r a t o r o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . He heard e v i d e n c e f o r bo th s i d e s and i n May 1914 awarded Mysore t he r i g h t t o go a h e a d , un impeded , w i t h i t s p l a n s t o b u i l d KRS ( Ba shee r H u s s a i n , 1972 : 7 ) . 46 The T a n j a v u r l a n d h o l d e r s i m m e d i a t e l y met t o d i s c u s s what a c t i o n t h e y c o u l d t a k e a g a i n s t t he a r b i t r a t o r ' s award and d e c i d e d t o l a u n c h t h e i r own a p p e a l . The Madras P r e s i d e n c y i t s e l f a p p e a l e d t o t h e Government o f I n d i a t o d i s a l l o w t h e a r b i t r a t i o n a w a r d , but i n 1916 G r i f f i n ' s d e c i s i o n was u p h e l d . As a r e s u l t t h e Madras Government a p p e a l e d t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a , A u s t e n C h a m b e r l a i n , who s e t up a c ommi t t ee t o l o o k i n t o t h e appea l . The c ommi t t ee was s u p p l i e d w i t h b r i e f s p r e p a r e d by bo th t h e Madras P u b l i c Works Depar tment and by t h e " T a n j o r e M i r a s i d a r s A s s o c i a t i o n " on b e h a l f o f t h e T a n j a v u r l a n d h o l d e r s ( M i c h a e l , 1 9 7 9 : 1 9 3 - 9 4 ) . The c o m m i t t e e r u l e d i n 1917 t h a t i t was w i t h i n t h e S e c r e t a r y o f -S t a t e ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o o v e r r u l e t h e Government o f I n d i a ' s d e c i s i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . The Government o f I n d i a r e a c t e d by s e n d i n g a l e t t e r t o t h e new S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , Edwin Mon tagu , r e - a f f i r m i n g i t s d e c i s i o n t o u p h o l d t h e a r b i t r a t i o n award o f 1914 : " . . . w e f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t any a t t e m p t t o m o d i f y i t [ t h e 1914 award] w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a g r a v e i n j u s t i c e t o a N a t i v e S t a t e . . . " ( quo ted i n M i c h a e l , 1979 : 2 0 9 ) . In November 1 9 1 9 , however , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e s t r u c k down t h e award and o r d e r e d t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s between Madras and Myso re be r e - o p e n e d . A m e e t i n g was h e l d i n A p r i l 1920 and a t e c h n i c a l ag reement was r e a c h e d i n 1 921 , but i t was no t u n t i l 1924 t h a t a f i n a l ag reement was s i g n e d . Under t h i s ag reement Mysore was a l l o w e d t o b u i l d KRS t o h a l f t h e s i z e o f M e t t u r bu t wou l d have t o a b i d e by s t r i c t r u l e s o f o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e dam and f o r any f u r t h e r i r r i g a t i o n works i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n ( M i c h a e l , 1979 : 2 5 1 - 7 4 ) . The 1924 Agreement was t o be i n e f f e c t f o r f i f t y y e a r s , a t t h e end • 47 o f w h i c h i t wou l d be "open t o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d and o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e Governments and t o such m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s as may be m u t u a l l y a g r e e d upon as t h e r e s u l t o f such r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (1924 Ag reemen t : l O . x i ) . The o p e r a t i v e p a r t o f t h i s ag reement was C l a u s e 10 ( s e e a p p e n d i x 1 ) , t h e pa r a g r aph s o f wh i ch r e f e r r e d t o : t h e 1 i m i t a t i o n s on t h e e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n , t h e t y p e o f p r o j e c t f o r wh i ch p l a n s must be f o r w a r d e d t o t h e o t h e r s t a t e , t h e c a p a c i t y and r e g u l a t i o n o f new r e s e r v o i r s , and t h e a c t i o n t o be t a k e n i n t h e e ven t o f a d i s p u t e . From 1924 u n t i l t h e l a t e 1960 s , no new d i s p u t e s a r o s e o v e r t h e Cauve ry R i v e r . N o n e t h e l e s s , i n t h e 1950s Madras and Mysore d i d b e g i n t o r a i s e c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r ' s p r o j e c t s i n t h e C a u v e r y B a s i n . In t h e e a r l y 1 950 s , f o r e x a m p l e , Madras u n d e r t o o k two c a n a l p r o j e c t s on t h e Cauve r y R i v e r ( K a t t a l a i and P u l l a m b a d i ) to wh i ch Mysore o b j e c t e d , c l a i m i n g t h e y were i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e "1 i m i t a t i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n " c l a u s e s o f t h e 1924 Ag reement . Mysore a l s o s a i d t h e p r o j e c t s wou ld use s u r p l u s ' .waters i n t h e r i v e r w h i c h were t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r a p p o r t i o n m e n t when t h e a g r e e -ment came up f o r renewa l i n 1974 . The P l a n n i n g Commiss ion app roved t h e s e schemes b u t s a i d t he p r o j e c t s were no t t o p r e j u d i c e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u r p l u s w a t e r s i n 1974 . Madras a g r e e d t o a b i d e by t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s v e r d i c t ( J a i n , 1 971 : 4 7 ) . M a d r a s ' c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t Mysore r e g a r d i n g t h e T a t t e r ' s p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e f u r n i s h i n g o f s chemes ' d e t a i l s . Madras s t a t e d t h a t Myso re was no t p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l s o f i t s p r o j e c t s on t h e Cauve r y R i v e r and t r i b u t a r i e s 48 as r e q u i r e d under t h e 1924 Ag reement . Myso re r e p l i e d t h a t i t was no t f u r n i s h i n g p l a n s o f i t s schemes because Madras had n o t g i v e n Mysore t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f i t s K a t t a l a i and P u l l a m b a d i c a n a l p r o j e c t s on t h e Cauve ry R i v e r ( J a i n , 1971 : 4 8 ) . In t he Second and T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n s (1956 -1966) Mysore f o r w a r d e d p l a n s t o t h e N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commiss ion i n D e l h i f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h r e e m a j o r dam p r o j e c t s on t h e K a b i n i , H e m a v a t h i , and Ha r ang i t r i b u -t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r . The K a b i n i p r o j e c t a l o n e was app roved by t h e P l a n n i n g Commiss ion b u t t h e Mysore government l a t e r expanded i t so t h a t i n s t e a d o f i r r i g a t i n g 3 0 , 1 5 0 , a c r e s i t wou ld i r r i g a t e 247,000 a c r e s (CFFC , 1972 : 3 7 ) . Madras o b j e c t e d t o a l l o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s , c l a i m i n g them t o be i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e 1924 Ag reement . Mysore a r gued t h a t t he dams were i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t . K a b i n i was an " o f f s e t r e s e r v o i r " to Tam i l Nadu ' s Bhavan i p r o j e c t . H e m a v a t h i , a t a c a p -a c i t y o f 34 TMC, was much s m a l l e r t han t h e 45 TMC a l l o w e d under C l a u s e 1 0 . v i i , and t h e H a r a n g i P r o j e c t was o u t s i d e t h e s cope o f t h e ag reement as t h e t r i b u t a r y was no t i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1892 A g r e e m e n t ' s s c h e d u l e o f r i v e r s becau se i t was no t t h e n i n M y s o r e ' s t e r r i t o r y . D e s p i t e t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e f u s a l t o s a n c t i o n t h e s e p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e expanded K a b i n i dam, t h e Mysore government went ahead w i t h them. Madras c o n t i n u e d t o o b j e c t v o c i f e r o u s l y t o t h e p r o j e c t s and f rom 1967 onward , a number o f m e e t i n g s between t h e t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r s o f t h e two s t a t e s and t h e c e n t r a l government were h e l d . The ma in s u b j e c t o f t h e s e e a r l y m e e t i n g s was K a r n a t a k a ' s Hemavath i and Ha r ang i dams. The two dams a r e bo th h i g h e r up on t h e Cauve r y R i v e r than KRS and as t h e l a t t e r i s t h e 49 d i r e c t s o u r c e o f most o f M e t t u r ' s w a t e r , Tam i l Nadu ' s e n g i n e e r s f e a r e d t h a t t he h i g h e r dams wou ld h o l d back w a t e r f rom KRS w h i c h i n t u r n wou l d keep 5 w a t e r f rom M e t t u r . I t was i n t h e l a t e 1960 s , t h e n , t h a t M a d r a s ' c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t M y s o r e ' s p r o j e c t s and M y s o r e ' s r e f u s a l t o heed them e s c a l a t e d i n t o t h e c u r r e n t d i s p u t e . Cauve r y D i s p u t e P r e s e n t By e a r l y 1970 i t had become c l e a r t o Tami l Nadu t h a t n e i t h e r K a r n a t a k a nor t h e c e n t r a l government wou ld r e spond t o i t s c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t K a r n a t a k a ' s i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Tam i l Nadu r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e c e n t r e s e t up a t r i b u n a l t o a d j u d i c a t e t h e d i s p u t e under t h e I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t . T h i s e ven t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e i n i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y f o r m . The c e n t r a l government d i d no t comply w i t h Tami l Nadu ' s demand f o r a t r i b u n a l bu t r a t h e r t h e M i n i s t e r f o r I r r i g a t i o n , Dr . K.L. Rao, c a l l e d a m e e t i n g f o r O c t o b e r 27 , 1970 w i t h t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f Tam i l Nadu (M.K. K a r u n a n i d h i ) , K a r n a t a k a ( V i r e n d r a P a t i l ) , and K e r a l a ( E .M .S . N a m b o o d i r i p a d ) . A c c o r d i n g t o s o u r c e s i n Tam i l Nadu, a t t he end o f t h i s m e e t i n g , Rao announced t h a t f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s a t t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' l e v e l wou l d no t h e l p t o r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e . He t o l d t h e m e e t i n g he wou ld i n f o r m t h e c e n t r a l C a b i n e t o f h i s o p i n i o n (TN PWD, 1982 : no page n o . ) . Tam i l Nadu a g a i n a s ked t h e c e n t r e to r e f e r t h e d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l . In December 1 9 7 0 , K a r u n a n i d h i w r o t e a l e t t e r t o t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r , M r s . G a n d h i , i n w h i c h he s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e n e g o t i a t i o n s were a t an i m p a s s e , t h e c e n t r e s h o u l d a p p o i n t a t r i b u n a l t o end t h e d i s p u t e (TN G o v ' t . , 1 9 7 1 : 3 4 ) . A p p a r e n t l y , t he Government o f I n d i a r e p l i e d t h a t n o t h i n g wou l d be done u n t i l 50 a f t e r t h e Lok Sabha e l e c t i o n s were h e l d i n March 1 9 7 1 . In t h o s e e l e c t i o n s M r s . G a n d h i ' s Congres s won a sweep ing v i c t o r y , c a p t u r i n g 352 o f 518 s e a t s w i t h f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a r v o t e . K a r u n a n i d h i s e n t two more r e m i n d e r s a b o u t a t r i b u n a l t o t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r i n 1971 b u t r e c e i v e d no r e p l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n Augu s t 1971 Tami l Nadu f i l e d a s u i t i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f I n d i a i n w h i c h i t named t h e Governments o f I n d i a and Myso re as r e s p o n d e n t s . Tam i l N a d u ' s s u i t s t a t e d " t h a t a d i s p u t e has a r i s e n and e x i s t s between t h e S t a t e o f Tam i l Nadu and t h e S t a t e o f Mysore and t h a t t h e Un ion o f I n d i a i s under a p r e -s e n t d u t y t o c o n s t i t u t e a T r i b u n a l under C e n t r a l A c t 33 o f 1956 and r e f e r t he d i s p u t e t o t h a t T r i b u n a l " ( q u o t e d i n K a r n a t a k a Water Re sou rce s D e v e l o p -ment O r g a n i z a t i o n (WRDO), 1976 : 1 3 ) . The second p a r t o f Tami l Nadu ' s p e t i t i o n t o t h e Supreme C o u r t a s ked t h a t " p e n d i n g d i s p o s a l o f t h i s s u i t and t i l l t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e r e f e r e n c e by t h e T r i b u n a l t h a t t h e S t a t e o f Mysore be r e s t r a i n e d by an i n j u n c t i o n f rom p r o c e e d i n g i n any manner w i t h o r e x e c u t i n g t he f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s . " t h e p r o j e c t s a g a i n s t wh i ch Tami l Nadu wanted a c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n were K a b i n i , H e m a v a t h i , and S u v a r n a v a t h i R e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t s and " o t h e r r e s e r v o i r s a c r o s s t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e r i v e r Cauve r y n o t m e n t i o n e d i n S c h e d u l e ' A ' t o t h e 1892 A g r e e m e n t , " t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h was t h e H a r a n g i r e s e r v o i r p r o j e c t ( quo ted i n WRDO, 1976 : 1 3 - 1 4 ) . A t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e government o f Tami l Nadu f i l e d i t s s u i t i n t h e Supreme C o u r t , t h e l andowne r s o f T a n j a v u r D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t e d by M u r a s o l i Maran who was K a r u n a n i d h i ' s s o n - i n - l a w , and Mannai Narayanasami f i l e d a s e p a r a t e c a s e . W h i l e t h e Supreme C o u r t d i d a c c e p t b o t h c a s e s f o r 51 t r i a l , i t d i d no t r u l e i n f a v o u r o f Tami l Nadu. The Supreme C o u r t r u l i n g , handed down on O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 7 1 , s t a t e d t h e r e were i n s u f f i c i e n t g rounds f o r i t t o i s s u e an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t My so re becau se i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p rove t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s i n t h e upper r e a c h e s o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n was c a u s i n g Tami l Nadu t o i n c u r l o s s e s (Namas ivayam, 1975 : 3 0 ) . F o l l o w i n g Tam i l N a d u ' s s e t b a c k , M r s . Gandhi p a i d a v i s i t t o t h e s t a t e i n t h e t h i r d week o f May 1972 . D u r i n g he r t o u r , she r e p o r t e d l y a s ked K a r u n a n i d h i t o w i t h d r a w Tami l Nadu ' s Supreme Cou r t s u i t so t h a t t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e c o u l d be s o l v e d q u i c k l y and a m i c a b l y t h r ough n e g o t i a t i o n s . She a p p a r e n t l y t o l d t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government wou l d do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o f i n d an e a r l y r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e ( I n t e r v i e w s , P .U. Shanmugam and S. P a s h a : 22 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . From May 29. t o 3 1 , 1972 Dr . K.L. Rao c h a i r e d a s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f K a r n a t a k a , K e r a l a and T a m i l Nadu i n New D e l h i . F i v e s t a t e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , t h e c h i e f e n g i n e e r s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s , and o t h e r t o p o f f i c i a l s a l s o a t t e n d e d t he m e e t i n g s . Two o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s had j u s t g a i n e d power f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n r e c e n t s t a t e a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n s : C. A chu tha Menon ( U n i t e d F r o n t ) o f K e r a l a i n 1971 and D. D e v a r a j Urs ( Cong r e s s ) o f K a r n a t a k a i n 1972 . S . P . Namasivayam ( 1 975 : 3 1 ) , r e t i r e d c h i e f e n g i n e e r o f Tam i l Nadu, no te s t h a t t h i s change i n p e r s o n n e l c r e a t e d a g e n i a l a tmosphe re p r i o r t o , and d u r i n g t h e May 1972 t a l k s . The re was a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g t h a t some ag reement w o u l d come o u t o f t h i s m e e t i n g . When t h e m e e t i n g s ended on May 3 1 , a p r e l i m i n a r y agreement h a d , i n d e e d , been r e a c h e d . The a p p o i n t m e n t o f a t r i b u n a l a t t h i s s t a g e was 52 r e j e c t e d . In t h e ag reement s i g n e d by K.L. Rao and t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s i t s t a t e d : "A s e r i o u s a t t e m p t s h o u l d be made t o r e s o l v e by n e g o t i a t i o n s t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e between t h e S t a t e s as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . " P r i o r t o t h i s m e e t i n g t h e c e n t r e had a imed a t r e a c h i n g an i n t e r i m ag reement between t h e s t a t e s " t o be v a l i d u n t i l 1974 when t h e e a r l i e r ag reement o f 1924 wou ld have come up f o r r e v i e w a f t e r f i f t y y e a r s as p r o v i d e d i n t h e ag reement [ bu t ] [ n ] ow, as 1974 i s n e a r , t h i s a t t e m p t has been g i v e n up i n f a v o u r o f f i n d i n g an o v e r a l l a pp r oach t o s o l v e t h e p rob lem a m i c a b l y amongst t h e s e v e r a l s t a t e s " ( I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t r y , 1 9 7 2 ) . The p r e l i m i n a r y agreement o f May 1972 a l s o p r o v i d e d t h a t : 2.2 The C e n t r e may. a p p o i n t a F a c t - F i n d i n g C o m m i t t e e , . . t o c o l l e c t a l l t h e c o n n e c t e d d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o Cauve r y w a t e r s , i t s u t i l i s a t i o n and i r r i g a t i o n p r a c t i c e s as w e l l as p r o j e c t s e x i s t i n g , under c o n s t r u c t i o n , and p ropo sed i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The Commit tee w i l l examine t h e adequacy o f p r e s e n t s u p p l i e s o r e x c e s s i v e use o f w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The Commit tee i s o n l y t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a and n o t make any recommen-d a t i o n s . 2.3 Mak i ng use o f t h e d a t a , d i s c u s s i o n s w i l l be h e l d b e -tween t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e t h r e e S t a t e s t o a r r i v e a t an a g r e e d a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r s f o r t h e r e s p e c t i v e S t a t e s . 3 The Un ion Government w i l l . a s s i s t i n a r r i v i n g a t such a s e t t l e m e n t i n s i x mon th s , and i n t h e meanwh i l e no S t a t e w i l l t a k e any s t e p s t o make t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r ob l em d i f f i c u l t e i t h e r by impound ing o r by u t i l i s i n g w a t e r o f t h e Cauve r y beyond what i t i s a t p r e s e n t . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t outcomes o f t h e 1972 agreement was t h e c e n t r e ' s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e 1924 Agreement as a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e n Tami l Nadu ' s l e a d e r s have c o n t i n u e d t o c l a i m p u b l i c l y t h a t any new a c c o r d g o v e r n i n g t h e Cauve r y B a s i n s h o u l d be based on t h e 1924 A g r e e -ment , bu t i t i s c l e a r t h a t n e i t h e r K a r n a t a k a nor t h e c e n t r a l government s u p p o r t t h i s n o t i o n . K.L. R a o ' s e a r l y r e j e c t i o n o f t h e 1924 Agreement 53 was l i k e l y based on t h e r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w h i l e i t was p o s s i b l e f o r t h e B r i t i s h t o f o r c e t h e p r i n c e l y s t a t e o f Mysore t o a b i d e by t h e a g r e e m e n t ' s c l a u s e s , i t wou ld no t be p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c e n t r a l government t o e n f o r c e such a o n e - s i d e d ag reement on K a r n a t a k a . In June 1972 t h e c e n t r a l government a p p o i n t e d t h e Cauve r y F a c t -F i n d i n g Commit tee (CFFC) w i t h P.R. A h u j a ( o f t h e CW & P C ) , J a t i n d r a S i n g h ( r e t i r e d C h i e f E n g i n e e r , P u n j a b ) , J . S . P a t e l (an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r t ) , and B.D. B a l ( r e t i r e d J u d g e , M a h a r a s h t r a H igh C o u r t ) . A f t e r v i s i t i n g each o f t h e s t a t e s t h r e e t i m e s and c o l l e c t i n g t h e r e q u i s i t e d a t a f rom them, t h e Commit tee t a b l e d i t s r e p o r t i n December 1972 . Meanwh i l e i n Tami l Nadu an a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e was h e l d i n J u n e . I t was d e c i d e d . t h e r e t h a t t h e Tami l Nadu g o v e r n -ment s h o u l d w i t h d r a w i t s c a s e b e f o r e t h e Supreme C o u r t . In i t s m o t i o n t o have t h e c a s e w i t h d r a w n , t h e Madras government s t a t e d t h a t i t i n t e n d e d to w i t h d r a w i t s s u i t i n o r d e r " t o f a c i l i t a t e a s e t t l e m e n t b e i n g a r r i v e d a t between t h e S t a t e s as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . " The Supreme C o u r t a l l o w e d t h e c a s e t o be w i t h d r a w n w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o i t s b e i n g r e - o p e n e d a t some f u t u r e d a t e (WRDO, 1976 : 1 4 ) . K.L. Rao convened t he C h i e f M i n i s t e r s f o r a n o t h e r j n e e t i n g i n A p r i l 1973 . The ma in pu rpose o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s was t o c o n s i d e r t h e CFFC ' s r e p o r t and d e t e r m i n e i f t h e s t a t e s a l l a g r e e d on t h e d a t a g i v e n t h e r e i n . The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e d a t a were t h e f i g u r e s ori w a t e r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The c h i e f e n g i n e e r s o f t h e s t a t e s a g r eed w i t h t h e CFFC t h a t : 54 a) t h e vo lume o f . f l o w up t o M e t t u r was 508 TMC (50% d e p e n d a b i l i t y ) 7 and 45.1 TMC (75% d e p e n d a b i l i t y ) . b) f l o w up t o A n a i k a t t u ( a t r i v e r ' s mouth) was 740 TMC (50% d e p e n d a b i l i t y ) - a n d 670 TMC (75% d e p e n d -a b i l i t y ) . I t seemed, t h e n , t h a t an i m p o r t a n t h u r d l e had been s u c c e s s f u l l y c r o s s e d 9 - - t h e s t a t e s a g r e e d on t h e i s s u e o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n (Namas ivayam, 1975 : 6 1 - 6 2 ) . The C h i e f M i n i s t e r s d e c i d e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g t h a t t h e CFFC s h o u l d be renewed f o r a f u r t h e r t h r e e months so t h a t i t c o u l d c o l l e c t f u r t h e r d a t a t h a t were m i s s e d p r e v i o u s l y and a l s o d o u b l e - c h e c k t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e s t a t e s i n 1972 . The A d d i t i o n a l R e p o r t was c o m p l e t e d by Augus t 1973 and two months l a t e r a m e e t i n g was h e l d t o d i s -cus s i t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e p o r t p rov ided few changes f rom t h e o r i g i n a l and l i t t l e new i n f o r m a t i o n . A t t h e O c t o b e r 1973 t a l k s l i t t l e t i m e was s p e n t d i s c u s s i n g t h e C F F C ' s A d d i t i o n a l R e p o r t . I n s t e a d a t t e n t i o n was t u r n e d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n o f how t o a p p o r t i o n t h e w a t e r o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r among t h e b a s i n s t a t e s . A p p a r e n t l y , Rao met w i t h t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i r s t a t e s . A c c o r d i n g t o i n f o rman t s , i n Tam i l Nadu, f rom t h i s m e e t i n g o n w a r d , t h e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n a sked o f Tam i l Nadu ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s wa s , "How much w a t e r w i l l you g i v e up? To what e x t e n t w i l l you r e d u c e y o u r u t i l i s a t i o n . o f Cauve r y w a t e r ? " ( I n t e r v i e w s , Namas ivayam, Shanmugam: 5 and 22 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . The g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n among p o l i t i c i a n s and o f f i c i a l s i n Tami l Nadu, whe the r c o r r e c t o r n o t , was t h a t Rao and s ub sequen t c e n t r a l I r r i g a -t i o n M i n i s t e r s wou ld be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e o t h e r s t a t e s ' r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 55 Cauve r y w a t e r but o n l y i n Tam i l Nadu ' s f o r f e i t u r e o f w a t e r . That t h e c e n t r e wou ld ask Tami l Nadu t o r e d u c e i t s c on sumpt i on o f Cauve ry w a t e r i s no t s u r p r i s i n g becau se t h e s t a t e i s , by f a r , t h e l a r g e s t u s e r o f t h e r i v e r . K a r n a t a k a ' s and K e r a l a ' s deve lopment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e i r p o r -t i o n s o f t h e b a s i n w i l l be r e a l i s e d o n l y by d e n y i n g Tami l Nadu p a r t o f t h e r i v e r ' s f l o w t h a t i t has been accus tomed t o r e c e i v i n g i n t h e p a s t . T h i s b a s i c p r ob l em i n t h e d i s p u t e h i g h l i g h t s and e x p l a i n s t h e two s t a t e s ' l e g a l a r g u m e n t s . Tam i l Nadu ' s l e a d e r s a r gue on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r Cauve ry w a t e r s t h e y s a y t h e l a n d h o l d e r s i n T a n j a v u r have a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h i r r i g a t i n g t h e i r r i c e c r o p s i n t h e d e l t a w i t h r i v e r w a t e r " s i n c e t i m e i m m e m o r i a l . " Fo r Tam i l Nadu t o c l a i m , how-e v e r , t h a t i t has p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r w a t e r t o i r r i g a t e t h e c u r r e n t a y a c u t o f 2.8 m i l l i o n a c r e s i s a m a j o r e x a g g e r a t i o n s i n c e a t t h e t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y , o n l y 1.6 m i l l i o n a c r e s were under i r r i g a t i o n i n what i s now Tam i l N a d u ' s p a r t o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . K a r n a t a k a ' s e f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s e i t s s h a r e o f Cauve r y w a t e r a r e based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t " w h i c h has become w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n l e g a l c i r c l e s s i n c e i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e H e l s i n k i Ru l e s o f 1966 . The H e l s i n k i R u l e s s t a t e d t h a t " e a c h b a s i n s t a t e i s e n t i t l e d . . . t o a r e a s o n a b l e and e q u i t a b l e s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i c i a l uses o f t h e w a t e r s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d r a i n a g e b a s i n . " K a r n a t a k a says t h a t s i n c e i t c o n t r i b u t e s o ve r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f Cauve r y w a t e r s bu t has been d e n i e d t h e i r use by Tami l Nadu, i n any f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f Cauve r y w a t e r s K a r n a t a k a s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d to use f i f t y p e r c e n t — i t s " e q u i t a b l e s h a r e . " As t he O c t o b e r d i s c u s s i o n s d i d no t r e s u l t i n any ag reement on t h e 56 a l l o c a t i o n o f Cauve ry w a t e r , Rao d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t C.C. P a t e l , A d d i -t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y i n t h e Un ion I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t r y , t o u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e c o n o m i s i n g on e x i s t i n g w a t e r u sages i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n (WRDO, 1 9 7 6 ; 1 6 ) . C .C. P a t e l and h i s c o m m i t t e e t o u r e d t h e Cauve r y B a s i n and had m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e e n g i n e e r s o f t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s a t t h e end o f 1973 . A C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' m e e t i n g was h e l d i n Madras on June 2 7 , 1974, t o d i s c u s s P a t e l ' s p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s . H i s f i n a l r e p o r t , " P o s s i b l e S a v i n g s i n t h e Use o f Cauve ry W a t e r s , " was p r e s e n t e d a t t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' m e e t i n g h e l d i n D e l h i on November 8 and 9 , 1974 . P a t e l found t h a t Tami l Nadu c o u l d r e d u c e i t s u t i l i s a t i o n o f Cauve ry w a t e r by 100 TMC, wh i ch i s a bou t t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f i t s c u r r e n t u t i l i s a t i o n , i f i t were t o improve and m o d e r n i s e i t s i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , l i n e t h e i r r i -g a t i o n channe l between t h e Upper and Grand A n i c u t s , and i n t e n s i f y t h e use o f g r oundwate r i n t he d e l t a . He s a i d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l u n q u a n t i f i e d s a v i n g s c o u l d be had t h r o u g h c o n t i n u o u s a s se s sment o f r e q u i r e m e n t s be low M e t t u r and m o n i t o r i n g o f r e l e a s e s t o e n s u r e e f f i c i e n t t i e - u p b e t -ween r a i n f a l l , w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s , and r e l e a s e s f rom r e s e r v o i r s , . . . s t o r a g e i n t r i b u t a r i e s downstream o f M e t t u r , . . . a n d i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a t i o n o f r e s e r v o i r s ( I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t r y , C .C . P a t e l , 1 9 7 4 ) . He a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t K a r n a t a k a c o u l d s a v e abou t 25 TMC by m o d e r n i s i n g i t s i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s , d i v e r s i f y i n g c r o p s , and i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i t s r e s e r v o i r s . D u r i n g t h e s e t a l k s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f how much w a t e r T a m i l Nadu c o u l d s a ve r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n . On t h e a d v i c e o f h i s e n g i n e e r s , K a r u n a n i d h i i n f o r m e d J a g j i v a n Ram, t h e new Un ion M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n , 57 t h a t Tami l Nadu wou ld be a b l e t o save on t h e o r d e r o f 60 t o 80 TMC. A p p a r e n t l y , howeve r , Ram was i n s i s t e n t on t h e f i g u r e o f 100 TMC and f i n a l l y e x t r a c t e d a s t a t e m e n t f rom K a r u n a n i d h i t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t Tam i l Nadu wou ld save a t o t a l o f 100 TMC i n f i f t e e n y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Namasivayam ( I n t e r v i e w : 3 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , t he Tami l Nadu C h i e f M i n i s t e r ' s commitment was a g r e a t e r r o r and amounted t o a " c o n d e m n a t i o n o f p o s t -e r i t y . " T am i l Nadu ' s e n g i n e e r s p r e s e n t a t t h i s m e e t i n g were h o r r i f i e d t h a t K a r u n a n i d h i c o u l d a g r e e t o a 100 TMC s a v i n g s , and d i d t h e b e s t t h e y c o u l d t o r e c t i f y t h e s i t u a t i o n . They i n f o r m e d K a r u n a n i d h i t h a t t h e Tam i l Nadu government c o u l d a g r e e t o K a r n a t a k a ' s r e d u c i n g t h e f l o w o f w a t e r t o M e t t u r f rom KRS and K a b i n i dams by 100 TMC, but t h a t Tam i l Nadu s h o u l d no t be e x p e c t e d t o r e d u c e i t s u t i l i s a t i o n o f Cauve r y w a t e r i by 100 TMC. The .main r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t a 100 TMC r e d u c t i o n a t M e t t u r Dam does no t r e p r e -s e n t an a c t u a l .100 TMC l o s s o f w a t e r t o Tami l Nadu, w h i l e a 100 TMC r e d u c -t i o n i n u t i l i s a t i o n d o e s . A t p r e s e n t Tami l Nadu ' s i r r i g a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e t h r e e f i l l i n g s o f M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r per y e a r , o r a bou t 275 TMC ( I n t e r v i e w s , B a l a k r i s h n a n , V i l a y u t h a n : 23 and 29 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . The y e a r l y a v e r a g e vo lume o f f l o w i n t o t h e r e s e r v o i r ( " i n f l o w " ) a t M e t t u r i s on t h e o r d e r o f 380 TMC o r mo re , so t h a t h a v i n g M e t t u r i n f l o w s r educed by 100 TMC wou ld have no e f f e c t .on Tami l Nadu ' s p a t t e r n o f i r r i g a t i o n , and t h e s t a t e ' s PWD has s a i d t h a t 260 TMC w o u l d be an a c c e p t a b l e y e a r l y minimum i n f l o w a t M e t t u r . The e f f e c t on K a r n a t a k a wou ld be t h a t i n y e a r s o f good r a i n f a l l , i t wou ld have an e x t r a 100 TMC o r even more f o r i t s new p r o j e c t s i n t h e 58 Cauve r y B a s i n bu t i n m e d i o c r e and d r o u g h t y e a r s , a p r o j e c t i o n t h a t M e t t u r w i l l o n l y g e t , f o r e x a m p l e , 300 TMC wou ld l e a v e K a r n a t a k a w i t h o n l y 40 TMC o u t o f t h e a g r e e d r e d u c t i o n w h i l e Tam i l Nadu ' s needs wou l d be f u l l y met . M o r e o v e r , i f Tami l Nadu were t o m o d e r n i s e i t s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem a f t e r t h e r e d u c t i o n a t M e t t u r , i t w o u l d s t i l l have enough w a t e r t o i n c r e a s e i t s i r r i g a t e d a c r e a g e i n t he b a s i n . I f Tam i l Nadu were t o r e d u c e i t s u t i l i s a t i o n by 100 TMC, i t wou ld have t o u n d e r t a k e a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t f i r s t i n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e a g r e e d r e d u c t i o n and w o u l d have l i t t l e s c ope f o r i n c r e a s i n g i t s i r r i g a t e d c r opped a r e a i n t h e f u t u r e . W h i l e Tami l Nadu ' s " u t i l i s a t i o n r e d u c t i o n " was b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d , K a r n a t a k a wou ld h o l d back more and more w a t e r f rom M e t t u r so t h a t i t s l o w e r r i p a r i a n n e i g h b o u r wou ld be f o r c e d t o c o n t i n u e i t s m o d e r n i s a t i o n programme j u s t i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n i t s i r r i g a t e d a r e a a t c u r r e n t l e v e l s . A n o t h e r p o i n t o f c o n t e n t i o n Tami l Nadu r a i s e d a t t h e November 1974 m e e t i n g c o n c e r n e d t h e Government o f I n d i a ' s new s t a t e u t i l i s a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h e Cauve r y B a s i n as p r opo sed by t h e P a t e l C o m m i t t e e . The new f i g u r e s showed Tami l Nadu ' s u t i l i s a t i o n a t 489 TMC, w h i l e t h e CFFC had f ound t h a t t h e s t a t e ' s u t i l i s a t i o n was 566 TMC. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e l a t t e r f i g u r e i s based on t h e f l o w d a t a f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s , 1934 t o 1971 i n c l u s i v e , w h i l e t h e f o r m e r i s ba sed on f i v e y e a r s e n d i n g i n 1972 . Tami l Nadu a r gue s t h a t t h e d a t a f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s i s a much b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r o f a c t u a l u t i l i s a t i o n t h a n t h a . t f o r f i v e y e a r s . N e i t h e r K a r n a t a k a nor t h e c e n t r a l government has.: a c c e p t e d Tami l Nadu ' s c l a i m and a t s ub sequen t m e e t i n g s 489 TMC has c o n t i n u e d t o be g i v e n as T a m i l 59 Nadu ' s u t i l i s a t i o n f i g u r e . The ma in p o i n t K a r n a t a k a r a i s e s a g a i n s t Tami l Nadu ' s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e use o f d a t a based on t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s i s t h a t i r r i g a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and c r o p p i n g t e c h n i q u e s have changed o v e r t h e t h i r t y -e i g h t y e a r p e r i o d and as a r e s u l t , Tami l Nadu ' s w i t h d r a w a l s o f Cauve r y w a t e r s f o r i t s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem have a c t u a l l y been d e c r e a s i n g o v e r t h e y e a r s even t h o u g h , as t h e CFFC A d d i t i o n a l Repo r t ( 1 9 7 3 : 12 -13 ) i n d i c a t e s , t h e c r o p p e d a r e a has i n c r e a s e d . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i c a l a rgument o r i g i n a l l y r a i s e d a t t h e November 1974 m e e t i n g was o v e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 125 TMC o f w a t e r w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e P a t e l Commi t t ee , wou ld be a v a i l a b l e a t t h e end o f f i f t e e n y e a r s o f e c o n o m i s a t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The a l l o c a t i o n o f t h i s 125 TMC was t o be as f o l l o w s : t o K a r n a t a k a 87 TMC, t o K e r a l a 34 TMC, and t o Tam i l Nadu 4 TMC. None o f t h e s t a t e s have a c c e p t e d t h e s e d i s t r i b u -t i o n f i g u r e s . I t i s u n a c c e p t a b l e t o Tami l Nadu t h a t i t be e x p e c t e d t o r e d u c e i t s u t i l i s a t i o n by 100 TMC t h r o u g h e x p e n s i v e m o d e r n i s a t i o n schemes bu t t h e n r e c e i v e o n l y 4 o f t h e 125 TMC t o be s aved by i t s e l f and K a r n a t a k a . G i v en t h e P a t e l C o m m i t t e e ' s u t i l i s a t i o n f i g u r e o f 489 TMC f o r Tami l Nadu, a f t e r f i f t e e n y e a r s t h e s t a t e c o u l d e x p e c t t o u t i l i s e 393 TMC ( 489 -100+4 ) . Tami l Nadu ' s e n g i n e e r s c l a i m t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s h o r t f a l l o f 70 TMC be low t h e s t a t e ' s minimum r e q u i r e m e n t o f 460 TMC (TN PWD ( V i j a y a r a g h a v a n ) , 1 9 7 8 : P a r . 1 0 ) . D e s p i t e t h e c e n t r e ' s o f f e r t o l e n d f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r t h e d e l t a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t , Tami l Nadu ' s i n c e n t i v e t o m o d e r n i s e i t s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i s m i n i m i s e d by t h e v i s i o n o f i t s a c c r u e d s a v i n g s g o i n g t o b e n e f i t K e r a l a and K a r n a t a k a r a t h e r t han i t s own a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . 60 K a r n a t a k a , however , a l s o o b j e c t s t o t h e c e n t r e ' s p roposed scheme o f s a v i n g s and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . A t t h e end o f f i f t e e n y e a r s i t s maximum u t i l i s a t i o n wou ld be on t h e o r d e r o f 239 TMC ( I n t e r v i e w , J a n a r d h a n : '11 May 1 9 8 2 ) . D e v a r a j Urs s t a t e d i n e a r l y 1975 t h a t i f K a r n a t a k a were t o r e c e i v e o n l y 87 TMC, i t s h o u l d be a b l e t o u t i l i s e i t i m m e d i a t e l y ( I n d i a n E x p r e s s , ( I E ) , . 9 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 5 ) . He a l s o com-p l a i n e d t h a t w i t h o u t a p e n a l t y c l a u s e i n t he ag reement Tami l Nadu c o u l d no t be t r u s t e d t o c a r r y ou t t h e s a v i n g s w i t h i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d t i m e , i f a t a l l (I_E, 11 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 1 ) . On a l e s s f r a c t i o u s n o t e , i n t h e d r a f t agreement p r e s e n t e d by I r r i g a -t i o n M i n i s t e r Ram t o t h e s t a t e s a t t h i s m e e t i n g , p r o v i s i o n s f o r a Cauve ry V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y (CVA) were i n c l u d e d . T h i s was p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y a r e a o f ag reement among t h e s t a t e s a t t h i s round, o f t a l k s . They a l l a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t a Cauve ry V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be c o n s t i t u t e d t o o v e r s e e any agreement t h e y m i g h t r e a c h . . None o f t h e s t a t e s , howeve r , s i g n e d J a g j i v a n Ram's d r a f t ag reement becau se i t a l s o i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cauve ry w a t e r . T h i s November 1974 m e e t i n g marked an i m p o r t a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e . P r i o r t o t h i s m e e t i n g , w h i l e t h e K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu governments d i d have t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t s , a c e r t a i n u n d e r l y i n g s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n p r e v a i l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r s o f t h e two s t a t e s ( I n t e r v i e w s , Namasivayam and Magdum: 5 A p r i l 1 982 , 12 May 1 9 8 2 ) . A t t h e November m e e t i n g , howeyer , t h e mood changed and r a n -c o r o u s d e b a t e ensued u n t i l t he n e x t m e e t i n g h e l d on F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1975 . A l i k e l y r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s o f t h e d i s p u t e w h i c h 61 c l e a r l y demarca ted t h e outcome o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n te rms o f w a t e r a l l o c a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d a t t h e November m e e t i n g . The s t a t e s ' l e a d e r s r e a l i s e d t h e y were f a c e d w i t h a ze ro - sum s i t u a t i o n i n t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s g a i n s i n a l l o c a -t i o n o f w a t e r c o u l d o n l y be had t h r o u g h Tami l N a d u ' s l o s s e s and s i m i l a r l y , i f Tami l Nadu were t o m a i n t a i n i t s c u r r e n t u t i l i s a t i o n , K a r n a t a k a wou ld be u n a b l e t o b r i n g i t s new i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t o f u l l o p e r a t i o n . In t h e month p r i o r t o the F e b r u a r y m e e t i n g , v a r i o u s p o l i t i c i a n s i n K a r n a t a k a e x p r e s s e d h o s t i l i t y t owa rd t h e c e n t r e ' s d r a f t ag reement o f 1974. H.N. Nan jegowda, K a r n a t a k a ' s M i n i s t e r f o r M a j o r I r r i g a t i o n , d e c l a r e d t h a t i t "wou ld do i n j u s t i c e t o K a r n a t a k a a t hou sand t i m e s more t han t he 1924 Ag reemen t . I t wou ld be d i s a s t r o u s t o t h e S t a t e i f t h e D r a f t was a c c e p t e d " ( I E , 6 J a n u a r y 1975 : 1 ) . The K a r n a t a k a P u b l i c Works M i n i s t e r , H.M. Channabasappa c r i t i c i s e d t h e d r a f t agreement f o r b e i n g " u n s c i e n t i f i c and u n r e a l i s t i c w h i c h , i f a c c e p t e d , wou l d c r e a t e chaos and c o n f u s i o n " ( I E , 11 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 1 ) . J u s t t h r e e days p r i o r to t h e F e b r u a r y m e e t i n g , D e v a r a j Urs was u n d e r s t o o d t o have a s s u r e d o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y l e a d e r s i n K a r n a t a k a t h a t he wou ld ho t s i g n a Cauve ry ag reement a t t h e upcoming m e e t i n g ( 1 ^ , 13 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 1 ) . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e n , t h e F e b r u a r y 15 and 16 n e g o t i a t i o n s d i d no t b r i n g t h e s t a t e s any c l o s e r t o ag reement and p r o b a b l y l e f t them f a r t h e r a p a r t t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . A c c o r d i n g t o K a r n a t a k a t h e c e n t r a l government m o d i f i e d i t s 1974 d r a f t ag reement somewhat by a l l o w i n g K a r n a t a k a t o go ahead w i t h p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g a m a x i m u m o f 85 TMC. K a r n a t a k a ' s and K e r a l a ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n s , however , o f a l t e r n a t i v e d r a f t ag reement s c o m p l i c a t e d t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s a t t h i s m e e t i n g . The t a l k s went on f o r ' ' a bou t f i f t e e n hour s 62 t h e two days o f m e e t i n g s bu t t he d i s c u s s i o n s a g a i n became m i r e d i n t h e i s s u e o f t h e amount o f w a t e r t o be saved by t h e s t a t e s and t h e n r e d i s -t r i b u t e d f o r " f u r t h e r deve l opment o f i r r i g a t i o n " ( j [E, 17 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 1 ) . Two days a f t e r t h e s e i n c o n c l u s i v e t a l k s , Tami l Nadu ' s C h i e f M i n i s t e r , K a r u n a n i d h i , convened an a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g i n Madras t o d i s c u s s Tami l N a d u ' s n e x t s t e p i n t he Cauve r y d i s p u t e . The p a r t y l e a d e r s u n a n i m o u s l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s t a t e government s h o u l d a g a i n a sk t h e Government o f I n d i a t o r e f e r t h e d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l . S u b s e q u e n t l y , Tami l N a d u ' s DMK ( D r a v i d a Munnet ra K a l a k a m - D r a v i d i a n P r o g r e s s i v e F e d e r a t i o n ) Members o f P a r l i a m e n t met w i t h t he P r ime M i n i s t e r M r s . Gandhi and t he P r e s i d e n t , F a q r u d d i n A l i Ahmed, t o p r e s s Tami l Nadu ' s r e q u e s t f o r a t r i b u n a l . The c e n t r e i g n o r e d t h i s r e q u e s t , a d h e r i n g t o i t s p o l i c y t h a t t h e d i s p u t e wou ld be b e s t r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s . Spokesmen f o r K a r n a t a k a r e a c t e d t o Tami l N a d u ' s renewed demand f o r a t r i b u n a l by r e f u t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t a t r i b u n a l was n e c e s s a r y . Chennabasappa s a i d t o newsmen, I do no t r u l e o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r t a l k s on t he b a s i s o f o t h e r norms w h i c h can be f i x e d . The re a r e t h r e e o r f o u r o t h e r ways t o s e t t l e t h e i s s u e and i t s r e f e r e n c e t o a t r i b u n a l s h o u l d be t h e l a s t as i t i s c o n t e n t i o u s . K a r n a t a k a i s n o t , however , a f r a i d o f a t r i b u n a l ( I E ^ 21 F e b r u a r y 1975 : 5 ) . The g r ow ing p rob lem a t t h e t a l k s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h o s e h e l d i n November 1974, was t h a t t he s t a t e s c o u l d n o t b r i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o c o m p r o -m i s e on t h e i s s u e w h i c h i s a t t h e c r u x o f t h e d i s p u t e — t he r e a l l o c a t i o n o f C a u v e r y w a t e r s . The d i s p u t e i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e l a c k o f agreement o v e r how much w a t e r i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . T h i s becomes 63 e v i d e n t when we l o o k a t t h e t e c h n i c a l deba te s on s u r p l u s f l o w 0 and g r o u n d -9 w a t e r i n t he Cauve r y B a s i n . Tam i l Nadu c on tend s t h a t g r oundwate r s h o u l d no t even be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d i s p u t e w h i c h i s a bou t a l l o c a t i n g a r i v e r ' s vo lume o f f l o w ( s u r f a c e f l o w , s u r f a c e w a t e r ) and t h a t i t s s h a r e o f s u r f a c e w a t e r s h o u l d no t be compromised by t a k i n g g r oundwate r i n t o a c c o u n t . Tami l Nadu s u p p o r t s i t s c a s e by p o i n t i n g t o t he v e r d i c t handed down by t h e K r i s h n a R i v e r d i s p u t e t r i b u n a l w h i c h a l l o c a t e d K r i s h n a R i v e r w a t e r among K a r n a t a k a , M a h a r a s h t r a , and Andhra P rade sh w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t he e x i s t e n c e o f g r oundwate r i n any o f t h e t h r e e s t a t e s because o f a l a c k o f d a t a : " t h e unde rg round w a t e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e S t a t e s c o n c e r n e d w i l l no t be r e g a r d e d as a l t e r n a t i v e means o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r needs and w i l l n o t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t f o r the pu rpo se o f e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f t h e w a t e r s o f t h e r i v e r K r i s h n a " ( K r i s h n a T r i b u n a l quo ted i n Narmada Water D i s p u t e s T r i b u n a l R e p o r t , 1978 , v . l : 1 8 ) . G roundwate r h a s , howeve r , been i n c l u d e d i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s a t l e a s t p a r t l y because t h e Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Committee ( 1 972 : 58 -60) d i s -c u s s e d g r o u n d w a t e r i n i t s R e p o r t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e CFFC p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Programme i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f g r o u n d -w a t e r i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a showed t h a t " t h e g e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s a r e q u i t e f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e deve l opment o f g r o u n d w a t e r " ( quo ted i n CFFC, 1972: 59) and t h a t Tami l Nadu was u n d e r t a k i n g a p r o j e c t t o s i n k 7000 f i l t e r p o i n t s * 0 and 1000 t u b e w e l l s . T h i s gave K a r n a t a k a l e v e r a g e t o i t s a rgument t h a t s u b s u r f a c e w a t e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as an i s s u e i n t h e d i s p u t e . C .C . P a t e l gave added w e i g h t t o 64 g r oundwate r as a t o p i c f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t he o v e r a l l a l l o c a t i o n o f Cauve ry B a s i n w a t e r s when he " c o n s e r v a t i v e l y " e s t i m a t e d t h a t Tami l Nadu c o u l d r e d u c e i t s use o f r i v e r w a t e r by 30 TMC i f i t were t o make more i n -t e n s i v e use o f t h e g r oundwate r a v a i l a b l e t o i t i n t h e d e l t a . Tami l Nadu a r gue s t h a t i f i t were t o make more i n t e n s i v e use o f g r o u n d w a t e r , t h e q u a n t i t y o f w h i c h i s unknown, i t wou ld no t make much d i f f e r e n c e t o i t s r e q u i r e m e n t o f Cauve r y R i v e r w a t e r . Tami l Nadu ' s e n -g i n e e r s c l a i m t h a t g r oundwate r i s o n l y h e l p f u l f o r s t a r t i n g n u r s e r i e s o f t h e s h o r t te rm k u r u v a i paddy c r o p b e f o r e t h e f i r s t r e l e a s e s o f Cauve r y wa te r f rom M e t t u r Dam b e g i n i n l a t e J u n e . T h i s use o f g r o u n d w a t e r , how-e v e r , w i l l n o t d e c r e a s e t h e d e l t a ' s r e q u i r e m B t s f o r s u r f a c e f l o w s becau se t h e C a u v e r y ' s f i r s t f l o w s i n t h e d e l t a f rom M e t t u r wou ld go t o r e p l e n i s h i n g t h e d e p l e t e d g r oundwate r s u p p l y ( I n t e r v i e w , S. Ganeshan: 24 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know t o what e x t e n t t h i s a s s e r t i o n i s t r u e , f o r i t seems t h e r e i s no con sen su s among e n g i n e e r s as t o t h e e x a c t r e l a -t i o n s h i p between g round and s u r f a c e w a t e r . In r e c e n t y e a r s Tami l Nadu ' s p o s i t i o n has f ound s u p p o r t f rom t h e Narmada w a t e r d i s p u t e s t r i b u n a l ( v . l , 1 978 : 118) w h i c h s t a t e d : Fo r e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f t h e w a t e r s o f an i n t e r -S t a t e r i v e r s y s t e m , t h e unde rg round w a t e r r e s o u r c e . o f a S t a t e i s a r e l e v a n t f a c t o r . The r e a s o n i s t h a t u n d e r -g round w a t e r may f u r n i s h a l t e r n a t i v e means f o r s a t i s f y -i n g t h e S t a t e ' s i r r i g a t i o n n e e d s . But t h e d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t g r oundwa te r f l o w c a n n o t be a c c u r a t e l y e s t i m a t e d f rom the t e c h n i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . . . . I n v i e w o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , we a r e o f t he o p i n i o n t h a t g r oundwate r s h o u l d be o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l e g a l p rob lems o f t h e r i v e r b a s i n . 65 There i s a d i s a g r e e m e n t , m o r e o v e r , as t o the a c t u a l amount o f g r oundwate r i n t h e d e l t a . Tami l Nadu c l a i m s t h a t no t o n l y i s t h e amount i n s i g n i f i c a n t b u t t h a t up t o t w e n t y k i l o m e t e r s i n l a n d f rom t h e ocean i t i s b r a c k i s h and n o t u s e a b l e f o r i r r i g a t i o n pu rpo se s ( I n t e r v i e w , V e n k a t e s w a r a n : . 3 0 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . K a r n a t a k a , whose own g r o u n d -wa te r r e s o u r c e s a r e a p p a r e n t l y m i n i m a l , a r gue s t h e o p p o s i t e . I t s u p p o r t s i t s c a s e by c i t i n g t h e CFFC R e p o r t (1972) and t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p -ment Programme (UNDP) s t u d y . K a r n a t a k a c o n t e n d s t h a t each and e v e r y y e a r , Tami l Nadu wa s te s 150 TMC o f g r oundwate r by a l l o w i n g i t t o seep i n t o t h e o c e a n . A c c o r d i n g t o K a r n a t a k a t h e UNDP R e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t 128 TMC o f g r oundwate r " c a n be w i t h d r a w n f rom w i t h i n t he d e l t a a r e a f o r b e n e f i c i a l u s e , y e a r by y e a r " ( q u o t e d i n K a r n a t a k a I r r i g a t i o n Depa r tmen t , 1978 : P a r s . 3 6 - 3 7 ) . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u r p l u s w a t e r i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n , t h e s t a t e s a r e e q u a l l y f a r a p a r t . Tami l Nadu ' s a s s e r t i o n i s t h a t t h e Cauve r y R i v e r i s a l r e a d y " o v e r b u r d e n e d w i t h e x i s t i n g commi tment s " and t h a t v e r y l i t t l e i f any Cauve r y w a t e r s a r e w a s t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e w a t e r s t h a t do f l o w o u t t o sea f rom the d e l t a a r e no t u t i l i s a b l e . K a r n a t a k a , on t h e o t h e r hand , c l a i m s t h e r e i s a l a r g e s u r p l u s o f Cauve ry w a t e r g o i n g t o was te because Tami l Nadu does no t p r a c t i c e s c i e n -t i f i c w a t e r management. In i t s 1978 n o t e on t h e C a u v e r y d i s p u t e , K a r n a t a k a ' s I r r i g a t i o n Department i n d i c a t e d t h a t an u n a c c e p t a b l y h i g h y e a r l y a v e r a g e o f 340 TMC o f was ted s u r f a c e and g r oundwate r were f l o w i n g o u t t o s e a . I t backed up i t s s t a t e m e n t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n f rom the"UNDP R e p o r t : 66 The r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e m a t c h i n g o u t f l o w (as i n d i c a t e d by a v e r a g e f i g u r e s ) o b t a i n e d . . . f o r Cauve ry and Vennar s u b - b a s i n s j u s t i f i e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s u r f a c e o u t f l o w f rom t h e p r o j e c t w a t e r b a l a n c e a r e a i s abou t 10 TMM [350 TMC], when i n c l u d i n g t h e o u t -f l o w f rom t h e C o l e r o o n R i v e r . K a r n a t a k a c h a r g e s t h a t i n Tami l Nadu t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n t h e d e l t a i s h i g h l y i n e f f i c i e n t w i t h much e scapage o f w a t e r o c c u r r i n g a t t h e 11 12 s y s t e m ' s t a i l e n d r e g u l a t o r s . I t a l s o c h a r g e s t h a t t h e d u t y i n much o f Tami l Nadu ' s p o r t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n i s f a r too l o w . K a r n a t a k a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h r o u g h m o d e r n i s a t i o n o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n Tami l Nadu, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f s m a l l s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r s , i n t e g r a t i n g t h e usage o f s u r f a c e f l o w and g r o u n d w a t e r , and t h e " deve l opmen t o f i r r i g a t i o n on t h e l i n e s o f a g r eed optimum c r o p p i n g p a t t e r n s , " T am i l Nadu w i l l be a b l e t o a v o i d wa s t age and economi se on i t s use o f , C a u v e r y w a t e r , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g K a r n a t a k a t o use i t s r i g h t f u l s h a r e o f t h e r i v e r ( K a r n a t a k a I r r i g a t i o n Depa r tmen t , 1978: P a r . 4 1 ) . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , Tam i l Nadu c l a i m s t h e r e i s no s u r p l u s o f Cauve r y w a t e r . P a r t o f i t s c l a i m i s based on t he f o l l o w i n g : t h e Cauve r y R i v e r i s f e d w i t h two monsoons, t h e r e l i a b l e summer s o u t h w e s t monsoon (May -Augus t ) and t h e s p o r a d i c autumn n o r t h e a s t monsoon ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r ) . Most o f t h e C a u v e r y ' s f l o w a r i s e s f rom t h e e a r l i e r monsoon but t h e s o -c a l l e d wa s t age o c c u r s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t d u r i n g t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon. P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s r e l a t e s t o t he sudden heavy downpours Tami l Nadu e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h i s monsoon, mak ing i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e l e a s e w a t e r s f rom M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r i n p e r f e c t c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e needs o f t h e d e l t a . I t t a k e s abou t t h r e e days f o r w a t e r t o r e a c h t h e d e l t a f rom M e t t u r . T h e r e f o r e i f i t r a i n s h e a v i l y i n t he d e l t a d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , t h e w a t e r 67 r e l e a s e d f rom M e t t u r w i l l have t o be a l l o w e d t o f l o w i n t o t h e sea o r r i s k damaging t h e c r o p s . D u r i n g t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r much w a t e r t o pass i n t o t h e ocean as f l o o d f l o w s as t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e l i m i t as t o how much wa te r may s i t on a paddy f i e l d w i t h o u t damaging t h e c r o p . K a r n a t a k a s u g ge s t s t h a t t h e f l o o d f l o w s c o u l d be saved t h r o u g h t h e use o f t a n k s and o t h e r s t o r a g e s i n t h e lower b a s i n and d e l t a , bu t Tami l Nadu r e p l i e s t h a t t h e ex t reme f l a t n e s s o f t h e l a n d i n t h a t a r e a makes i t n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d e f f e c t i v e s t o r a g e s . M o r e o v e r , such s t o r a g e s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d o n l y a t t h e expense o f e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . E n g i n e e r s i n Tami l Nadu a l s o say t h a t i f s t o r a g e s were t o be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e d e l t a t h e y c o u l d w e l l e x a c e r b a t e an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g f l o o d p rob lem d u r i n g t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon. " I f a f r e s h f l o o d h i t s i n a few days a f t e r we have s t o r e d an e a r l i e r r e c e d i n g f l o o d , t h e p rob lem o f d r a i n a g e w i l l assume p a i n f u l l y immense p r o p o r t i o n s " (Namas ivayam, 1 9 7 5 : 6 9 ) . Tami l Nadu con tend s t h a t t h e w a t e r l o s s t h r o u g h t h e d e l t a ' s t a i l e n d r e g u l a t o r s l o o k s much wor se t h a n i t a c t u a l l y i s . When d r a i n a g e due t o heavy r a i n s becomes a p r o b l e m , w a t e r i s a l l o w e d t o e scape t h r o u g h t h e r e g u l a t o r s . However , because t h e l i e o f t h e l a n d i s so f l a t , w a t e r t e n d s t o s t a g n a t e r a t h e r t h a n f l o w i n t o t h e o c e a n , o f t e n g i v i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f an abundance o f w a t e r be low t h e r e g u l a t o r s , t h e r e b y l e a d i n g t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t w a t e r l o s s e s a r e h i g h . D e s p i t e Tami l Nadu ' s c l a i m s , i t must be remembered t h a t many o f t h e r e g u l a t o r s a r e e x t r e m e l y o l d and i n need o f r e p a i r . As a r e s u l t t h e r e a r e l e a k a g e s t h r o u g h t h e s e r e g u l a t o r s w i t h a r e s u l t i n g , u n q u a n t i f i e d , was tage o f i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r . 68 K a r n a t a k a ' s p o i n t o f v i ew i s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t a i l end r e g u l a t o r s i s an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e o v e r a l l i n e f f i c i e n c y o f Tam i l Nadu ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a . I t c l a i m s t h a t Tami l Nadu uses more w a t e r t h a n i s i t s r i g h t f u l s h a r e because i t has a l l o w e d t h e d u t y i n t h e v a r i o u s command a r e a s t o r e m a i n t oo l o w . I t a l s o says t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s y s tem o f i r r i g a t i o n i n t h e d e l t a w i t h f i e l d - t o -f i e l d movement o f w a t e r , many u n l i n e d and u n s l o p e d c h a n n e l s , and t h e use o f t h e same c h a n n e l s f o r i r r i g a t i o n and d r a i n a g e n e c e s s i t a t e s Tami l Nadu ' s heavy w i t h d r a w a l s f rom t h e Cauve r y R i v e r bu t l e a d s t o t h e i n e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e w a t e r and r e s u l t i n g w a s t e . Tam i l Nadu r e f u t e s a l l o f K a r n a t a k a ' s s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g i n e f f i -c i e n t and u n s c i e n t i f i c w a t e r management p r a c t i c e s i n t h e d e l t a . W h i l e Tami l Nadu a d m i t s t h e r e i s room f o r improvement , i t c l a i m s t h a t even i n i t s c u r r e n t f o r m , t he d e l t a ' s i s t h e most e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n a l l o f South A s i a (Namas ivayam, 1975 : 1 4 ) . Tami l Nadu ' s e n g i n e e r s p o i n t o u t t h a t K a r n a t a k a i t s e l f has an i n e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem and t h a t t h e was tage a round KRS i s h i g h e r t h a n anywhere i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a (Namas ivayam, 1975 : 2 3 ) . S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1950s , Tam i l Nadu ' s e n g i n e e r s have p l anned t o m o d e r n i s e t h e s t a t e ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a . In 1970 t h e Wor l d Bank ag reed t o fund a " d e l t a i r r i g a t i o n and d r a i n a g e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t " c o s t i n g 490 m i l l i o n r u p e e s . T h i s p r o j e c t wou ld have i n c l u d e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e g u l a t e d o u t l e t s f o r f i e l d s , r e g u l a t o r s f o r c h a n n e l s , and c e m e n t - l i n i n g o f some c h a n n e l s . The Wo r l d Bank was o p t i m i s t i c abou t t h i s p r o j e c t , s a y i n g i t wou l d i n c r e a s e t h e a r e a o f 69 d o u b l e - c r o p p i n g and g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e c r o p y i e l d s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : A t f u l l deve lopment t h e annua l g r o s s v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n f rom t h e p r o j e c t a r e a i s e x p e c t e d t o r e a c h 577 m i l l i o n r u p e e s , n e a r l y d o u b l e t h e p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n . A f t e r d e -d u c t i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s , t h e ne t v a l u e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n wou ld r e a c h 319 m i l l i o n r u p e e s , compared t o 191 m i l l i o n rupees w i t h o u t t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s Wor ld Bank p r o j e c t was , however , n o t u n d e r t a k e n . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e c e n t r a l government i n f o r m e d t h e Wo r l d Bank t h a t as t h e p ropo sed p r o -j e c t a r e a was i n c l u d e d i n an i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e i t c o u l d n o t s a n c -t i o n i t . A c c o r d i n g t o one s o u r c e i n Tami l Nadu, t h e c e n t r e was w i l l i n g t o a l l o w t h e p r o j e c t t o go ahead u n t i l K a r n a t a k a had i t r o a d b l o c k e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a S e c r e t a r y i n t h e I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t r y ( I n t e r v i e w , Namas ivayam: 3 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . K a r n a t a k a p r o b a b l y d i d o b j e c t t o t h i s p r o j e c t becau se i t e n t a i l e d a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r d o u b l e - c r o p p i n g paddy i n t h e d e l t a . W i th i n c r e a s e d d o u b l e - c r o p p i n g , Tami l Nadu wou ld r e q u i r e more w a t e r f rom M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r i n m i d - J u n e because t h e f i r s t c r o p o f paddy i n t h e d e l t a i s h e a v i l y r e l i a n t on f l o w s f rom M e t t u r . The i s s u e o f e a r l y summer f l o w s t o M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r i s an i m p o r t a n t one f o r K a r n a t a k a becau se i t t h r e a t e n s t h e s t a t e ' s s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e r i v e r i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y . I f K a r n a t a k a must g u a r a n t e e t h a t Tami l Nadu w i l l r e c e i v e a c e r t a i n amount o f w a t e r a t M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r by a c e r t a i n d a t e , t h i s means t h a t K a r n a t a k a i s o b l i g e d t o o p e r a t e i t s own r e s e r v o i r s , e s p e c i a l l y KRS and K a b i n i , i n such a way as t o meet Tam i l N a d u ' s needs f i r s t . Thus , my i n f o r m a n t s i n K a r n a t a k a a n g r i l y denounced t h e i d e a o f 70 g u a r a n t e e i n g Tami l Nadu a n y t h i n g , s a y i n g i t amounted t o Tami l Nadu h a v i n g paramountcy o v e r K a r n a t a k a ' s p r o j e c t s . Towards t h e end o f 1 9 8 1 , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Tam i l Nadu g o v e r n -ment was s e e k i n g a n o t h e r l o a n f rom t h e Wor l d Bank t o f und a Cauve r y modern -i s a t i o n scheme t h a t wou ld c o s t on t h e o r d e r o f 3660 m i l l i o n r upee s (J_E_, 1 November 1 9 8 1 ) . W i t h t he Cauve ry R i v e r s t i l l under d i s p u t e , however , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l be s a n c t i o n e d by t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -ment f o r a W o r l d Bank l o a n . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t Tami l Nadu i s u n a b l e t o r e c e i v e f u n d i n g f o r p r o -j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a becau se o f t h e d i s p u t e . As we saw e a r l i e r , one o f t h e main i s s u e s deals w i t h t h e quantum o f w a t e r each s t a t e s h o u l d save and how t h i s w a t e r s h o u l d be r e - a l l o c a t e d t h e r e a f t e r . Tam i l Nadu r e f u s e s t o r e d u c e i t s c u r r e n t u t i l i s a t i o n by 100 TMC, p a r t l y be cau se t h e r e a r e no g u a r a n t e e s as t o t h e e x a c t amount o f w a t e r t h a t can be s aved t h r o u g h m o d e r n i s a t i o n w o r k s . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e v a r i o u s m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t s e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e d e l t a were n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n , t h e d e b a t e abou t s a v i n g s wou l d be a l e s s c o n t e n t i o u s one as i t wou ld be c l e a r how much w a t e r Tam i l Nadu c o u l d r e a l i s t i c a l l y s a v e . A n o t h e r one o f K a r n a t a k a ' s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement i n Tami l Nadu ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i s t h a t t h e c r o p p i n g p a t t e r n i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a be changed t o c o i n c i d e b e t t e r w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f r a i n f a l l i n Tam i l Nadu. The d e l t a ' s f i r s t r i c e c r o p , k u r u v a i , p l a n t e d i n J u n e , i s : r a i s e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y on i r r i g a t i o n - s u p p l i e d w a t e r , t h e s o u r c e o f w h i c h i s t h e s o u t h w e s t monsoon o v e r K a r n a t a k a and K e r a l a . K a r n a t a k a says t h a t i t i s h i g h l y i n e f f i c i e n t t o grow a c r o p w h i c h must depend e n t i r e l y on i r r i g a t i o n 71 and no t on r a i n f a l l . K a r n a t a k a s u g g e s t s t h a t Tami l Nadu grow a d r y c r o p d u r i n g t h i s sea son so t h a t i t ( K a r n a t a k a ) may impound more Cauve r y w a t e r . K a r n a t a k a c i t e s t h e R e p o r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l Commiss ion on A g r i c u l t u r e (1976) i n s u p p o r t o f i t s a r g u m e n t s : 1 4 . 1 . 2 . . . N o t o n l y i n r a i n f e d f a r m i n g bu t even under i r r i g a t e d c o n d i t i o n s , one w i l l have t o pl 'an f o r t h e most economic and e f f i c i e n t use o f w a t e r t o d e r i v e maximum p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t f r om r a i n f a l l , r e d u c i n g dependence on i r r i g a t i o n • so t h a t t h e ad van t a ge o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r c o u l d be ex tended t o as l a r g e an a r e a as p o s s i b l e . 1 4 . 7 . 1 5 . . .There i s a c a s e f o r r e s t r i c t i n g paddy t o one season o n l y i n t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s when r a i n f a l l amounts a r e i n h i g h e r r ange s i n one o r two months a t b e s t , and u t i l i s i n g i r r i g a -t i o n w a t e r f o r g r o w i n g v a r i o u s c r o p s o t h e r t h a n paddy. Tami l Nadu r e b u t s K a r n a t a k a ' s a rguments w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s . F i r s t , w h i l e i t may be more e f f i c i e n t t o grow paddy d u r i n g t h e n o r t h e a s t monsoon a l o n e , t h i s monsoon i s n o t o r i o u s l y i n c o n s i s t e n t and t h i s c o u l d mean d i s a s t r o u s r i c e s h o r t a g e s i n y e a r s .of subnormal r a i n f a l l . S e c o n d , much o f t h e l a n d w i t h i n t h e d e l t a i s h i g h l y p rone t o w a t e r l o g g i n g d u r i n g t h e c r o p p i n g sea son and i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y s u i t e d t o paddy ( I n t e r v i e w , V e n k a t e s w a r a n : 30 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i r d , p e o p l e i n Tami l Nadu a r e so accus tomed t o e a t i n g r i c e , i t wou ld be d i f f i c u l t t o h a b i t u a t e them t o consuming o t h e r t y p e s o f f o o d g r a i n s and t h e r e f o r e r i c e p r o d u c t i o n must be kep t a t h i g h l e v e l s t o meet t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand t h a t comes w i t h a r a p i d l y e xpand i n g p o p u l a t i o n ( I n t e r v i e w , M a n a v a l a n : 3 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) . F o u r t h , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n T a n j a v u r have been g r ow ing paddy f o r hundreds o f y e a r s and i t w i l l be 72 d i f f i c u l t t o c o n v i n c e them t h a t t h e y must now grow o t h e r g r a i n s and p u l s e s on l a n d s t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o paddy, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t i s one o f t h e more p r o f i t a b l e c r o p s t h e y can grow ( I n t e r v i e w , Padmanabha Rao: 14 May 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e , t h e n , a r e t h e t y p e s o f t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s w h i c h became t h e f o c u s o f deba te between Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a i n t h e 1 9 7 0 s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e i s s u e s have n o t had adequa te o r , p e r h a p s , i m p a r -t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n wh i ch l e a v e s much room f o r c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by t h e t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r s o f t h e two s t a t e s . K a r n a t a k a ' s and Tami l Nadu ' s t o t a l o p p o s i t i o n t o one a n o t h e r ' s c o n -t e n t i o n s has made t he c e n t r e ' s r o l e as t he m e d i a t o r i n t h i s d i s p u t e d i f f i -c u l t t o p l a y . S i n c e t h e m e e t i n g o f November 1974 , t h e s t a t e s have been m u t u a l l y h o s t i l e and i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a f t e r t h e s t a t e s 1 s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m s o f one a n o t h e r and o f t h e c e n t r e ' s d r a f t ag reements p r e s e n t e d i n l a t e 1974 and e a r l y 1975 , t h e c e n t r e d i d n o t c a l l a n o t h e r m e e t i n g f o r e i g h t e e n month s . W h i l e p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s gap may be found i n t h e s t a t e s ' h o s t i l i t y , a l a r g e r p a r t l i e s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t months o f 1975 , M r s . Gandhi f ound h e r s e l f under p o l i t i c a l a t t a c k f rom a number o f q u a r t e r s . In t h e n o r t h , t h e s e n i o r Gandh ian l e a d e r , J a y a p r a k a s h Na rayan (known as J P ) had l a u n c h e d a movement a g a i n s t Congres s governments i n G u j a r a t and B i h a r , and he f i n a l l y opposed t h e c e n t r a l government i t s e l f . By m i d - 1 9 7 5 , t h i s a n t i - C o n g r e s s JP Movement gave t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f becoming a m a j o r t h r e a t t o M r s . G a n d h i ' s power. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a 1971 73 c o u r t c a s e l a y i n g cha r ge s o f e l e c t i o n m a l p r a c t i c e s a g a i n s t M r s . Gandhi was r u l e d upon . The c a s e had been l a u n c h e d by Ra j N a r a i n , who had l o s t t o M r s . Gandhi i n t h e 1971 Lok Sabha e l e c t i o n . The H igh C o u r t o f A l l a h a b a d found M r s . Gandhi g u i l t y on two m i n o r c ha r ge s bu t unde r I n d i a n l aw t h i s meant t h a t she wou l d l o s e he r s e a t i n P a r l i a m e n t and t h e r e b y be f o r c e d t o r e s i g n t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r s h i p . An appea l was made t o t h e Supreme C o u r t bu t on June 24 i t d i d no t g r a n t an u n c o n d i t i o n a l s t a y a g a i n s t t h e H i gh C o u r t ' s j u d g e m e n t . I n s t e a d i t r u l e d t h a t M r s . Gandhi c o u l d r e t a i n her p o s t as P r ime M i n i s t e r but c o u l d no t p a r t i c i p a t e i n any P a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e e d i n g s . She c a l l e d t h e Emer-gency on June 26 . In S ou th I n d i a , t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was much l e s s v o l a t i l e . W i th M r s . G a n d h i ' s a t t e n t i o n f o c u s s e d on h e r own p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s , how-e v e r , t h e c e n t r a l government p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e C a u v e r y R i v e r d i s p u t e . K a r u n a n i d h i ' s r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s t o have t h e d i s p u t e r e f e r r e d t o a t r i b u n a l were i g n o r e d . By 1 9 7 5 , howeve r , an i m p o r t a n t change had o c c u r r e d i n M r s . G a n d h i ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h K a r u n a n i d h i and h i s DMK gove rnment . In 1969 when t h e Congres s s p l i t i n t o t h e Congres s (R) and Congres s ( 0 ) , M r s . Gandhi l o s t he r m a j o r i t y i n P a r l i a m e n t and had t o r e l y f o r s u p -p o r t on t h e DMK Members o f P a r l i a m e n t . When her Congres s (R) won a m a j o r e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y i n 1971 M r s . Gandhi no l o n g e r needed t h e DMK s u p p o r t bu t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p r ema ined f r i e n d l y . A t t h e end o f 1 972 , however , M.G. Ramachandran, a p o p u l a r Tam i l f i l m s t a r , was e x p e l l e d f rom t h e DMK and he formed h i s own p a r t y , t h e A l l - I n d i a Anna DMK (A IADMK). One o f MGR's 74 f i r s t t a c t i c s as l e a d e r o f t h e m a j o r o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y i n Tam i l Nadu was t o a c c u s e K a r u n a n i d h i o f . .encourag ing m i n i s t e r i a l c o r r u p t i o n . K a r u n a n i d h i t ook t h e t h r e a t f rom MGR so s e r i o u s l y t h a t i n 1974 he began t o l e n d e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t t o JP who was d e d i c a t e d t o t h e remova l o f c o r r u p t i o n i n g o ve rnmen t . T h i s move, b a s i c a l l y t o d i s c r e d i t MGR, a l i e n a t e d M r s . Gandhi and gave MGR an o p p o r t u n i t y t o woo t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r w i t h h i s a n t i - J P " s a v e democracy f r o n t . " D u r i n g t h e Emergency K a r u n a n i d h i , s t i l l e age r t o d i s c r e d i t MGR, who was now c a l l i n g f o r P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e i n Tam i l Nadu, c o n t i n u e d t o a n t a g o n i s e M r s . Gandhi w i t h h i s p ronouncements a g a i n s t t h e Emergency and w i t h h i s r e f u s a l t o c e n s o r t h e p r e s s i n Tam i l Nadu. I t was no s u r p r i s e t h a t Tami l Nadu was p l a c e d under P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e on J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 976 . R u l e o f Tam i l Nadu was t a k e n o v e r by t h e Gove rno r w i t h two new ly a p p o i n t e d a d v i s o r s , P.K. Dave and R.V. Subramaniam on F e b r u a r y 1. W h i l e M r s . G a n d h i ' s a t t e n t i o n had been f o c u s s e d on t h e immed ia te c h a l l e n g e t o her a u t h o r i t y i n t h e months p r e c e d i n g t h e Emergency , once Emergency was imposed she and he r l i e u t e n a n t s c o u l d l o o k t o t h e o t h e r c h a l l e n g e s w h i c h f a c e d t h e i r c o u n t r y . One o f t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s was i n t e r -s t a t e d i s p u t e s . D u r i n g t h e Emergency t h e c e n t r a l government made p r o -nouncements u r g i n g t h e s t a t e s t o s o l v e a l l d i s p u t e s w i t h t h e i r n e i g h -b o u r s . In November 1975 , f o r e x a m p l e , M r s . Gandhi and J a g j i v a n Ram, s t i l l t h e M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n , made a j o i n t appea l t h a t a l l r i v e r w a t e r and b o r d e r d i s p u t e s be ended w i t h i n s i x months ( I E , 11 November 1 9 7 5 : 1 ) . Two months l a t e r , Ram a g a i n s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r -t a n c e o f s e t t l i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s , d e c l a r i n g t h e y were " coming i n t h e way 75 o f g e t t i n g Wor ld Bank a s s i s t a n c e f o r i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e c o u n t r y " ( I E , 25 J a n u a r y 1976 : 1 ) . A number o f ag reements were r e a c h e d t o end w a t e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a w h i l e t h e Emergency was i n f o r c e . On December 2 0 , 1975 , t h e I n d i a n  E xp re s s announced , " F i v e S t a t e s Reach A c c o r d on S h a r i n g o f G o d a v a r i W a t e r s " ( s ee C h a p t e r 2 ) . In h i s s t a t e m e n t t o the p r e s s , J a g j i v a n Ram e x p r e s s e d a w i s h t h a t t h e G o d a v a r i a c c o r d "wou ld be a p r e c u r s o r t o many a g r e e m e n t s " f o r i n t e r s t a t e w a t e r d i s p u t e s (I_E, 20 December 1975 : 1 ) . A t t h e end o f December 1975 , Assam and Man ipu r s e t t l e d a d i s p u t e o v e r t h e Ba rak R i v e r . On F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1976 , i t was f u r t h e r announced , p r e m a t u r e l y , t h a t t h e t e n y e a r o l d R a v i - B e a s d i s p u t e between Punjab and Haryana had ended. A p a c t was s i g n e d i n A p r i l 1976 t o b r i n g K r i s h n a w a t e r s f rom Andhra P r ade sh t o t h e c i t y o f Madras t o enhance i t s d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l y . The Cauve r y d i s p u t e a l s o r e c e i v e d h e i g h t e n e d a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e Emergency. In March 1976 , Ram s t a t e d t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o resume n e g o t i a -t i o n s on t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e and was l o o k i n g i n t o o b t a i n i n g Wor l d Bank a i d f o r m a j o r p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n (J_E, 6 March 1976 : 1 ) . Ram a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c e n t r e was s t i l l i n f a v o u r o f s e t t i n g up a Cauve r y V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y (J_E, 19 J a n u a r y 1976 : 7 ) . Tami l Nadu ' s PWD M i n i s t e r , P .U. Shanmugan, s a i d t h a t h i s government was i n t e r e s t e d i n h a v i n g an " a m i c a b l e s e t t l e m e n t " r e a c h e d as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . He a l s o s a i d , however , t h a t h i s government wanted a s s u r a n c e s f rom K a r n a t a k a f o r enough Cauve r y w a t e r so t h a t Tami l Nadu c o u l d i r r i g a t e 2.5 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a n d i n c l u d i n g a r e a s o f d o u b l e - c r o p p i n g i n t h e d e l t a (IE_,".19 December 1 975 : 7 ) . MPs r e p r e s e n t i n g Tami l Nadu h e l d a m e e t i n g 76 w i t h t h e c e n t r e ' s F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r , C. Subramaniam ( a l s o f rom Tami l Nadu ) , i n June 1976 and t h e con sen su s d e v e l o p e d a t t h a t m e e t i n g was t h a t t h e c e n t r e s h o u l d t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o see t h e d i s p u t e s e t t l e d (I_E, 9 June 1976: 1 ) . K a r n a t a k a ' s C h i e f M i n i s t e r , D e v a r a j U r s , r e i t e r a t e d h i s s t a t e ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e s h o u l d be s o l v e d t h r o u g h "mutua l d i s -c u s s i o n s " and n o t by h a v i n g i t r e f e r r e d t o a t r i b u n a l (J_E, 7 December 1975 : 1 ) . P o l i t i c i a n s f rom K a r n a t a k a a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a l l t h e " o l d " ag reement s r e g a r d i n g t h e Cauve ry R i v e r s y s t e m , i n c l u d i n g t he key 1924 Ag reement , had e x p i r e d and t h a t any new agreement wou ld have t o " s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f K a r n a t a k a " (I_E^, 16 A p r i l 1 9 7 6 ) . On Augu s t 25 and 26 , 1976 , a m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e was c h a i r e d i n New D e l h i by J a g j i v a n Ram and a t t e n d e d by t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f K a r n a t a k a and K e r a l a and t h e Gove rno r o f Tam i l Nadu. J a g j i v a n Ram s t a t e d i n t h e Lok Sabha on Augus t 2 7 : The d i s c u s s i o n s were f r a n k . Each s t a t e e x p r e s s e d i t s v i e w -p o i n t s w h i c h were a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e o t h e r s i n a s p i r i t o f mutua l a c c o m m o d a t i o n . The t a l k s l e d t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h can be r e g a r d e d as a l andmark toward s s e t t l e m e n t o f some o f t h e most complex i s s u e s ' ( q u o t e d i n K a r n a t a k a I r r i -g a t i o n Depa r tmen t , 1 9 7 8 ) . The m e e t i n g r e s u l t e d i n a d r a f t u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h appea red t o be a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . J a g j i v a n Ram was c o n f i d e n t t h a t t he " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " had been a c c e p t e d by t h e s t a t e s and spoke o f i t r a s b e i n g t he " b a s i s f o r c o o p e r a t i o n and f u r t h e r deve lopment o f Cauve r y w a t e r s i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t manne r . " The d r a f t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , however , was l e f t u n s i g n e d . The Gove rno r o f Tam i l Nadu,. Mohan l a l S u k h a d i a , f e l t t h a t s u ch a document r e q u i r e d ' t h e - s i g n a t u r e o f a. d u l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 77 o f t he s t a t e . As t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g was l e f t u n s i g n e d . b y . T a m i l Nadu, •Karnataka and K e r a l a a l s o r e f u s e d t o endo r se i t . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( see a p p e n d i x 2) l e f t two i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t a r e a s f o r commi t tee s t o s tudy . ' D e s p i t e t h e d r a f t agreement r e m a i n i n g u n s i g n e d , i n l a t e 1976 t h e c e n t r a l government a p p o i n t e d t h e two commi t t ee s as p r o -v i d e d f o r i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The S a l d h a n a Commit tee o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s was t o c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f s h a r i n g w a t e r i n y e a r s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t r a i n f a l l and i n " s u r p l u s y e a r s . " A c ommi t t ee o f s e c r e t a r i e s (no name g i v e n i n s o u r c e s ) was a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f s e t t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s o f a Cauve ry V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y . Bo th commi t t ee s were made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t h r e e s t a t e s and t h e c e n t r a l gove rnment . The S a l d h a n a T e c h n i c a l Commit tee began a s e r i e s o f t a l k s i n 1976 . By l a t e 1977 a b o u t s i x m e e t i n g s had been h e l d but t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e c ommi t t ee had t o r e p o r t t h a t t he o p i n i o n s o f t h e members "were so d i v e r -gent t h a t t h e y c o u l d no t be r e c o n c i l e d even on b a s i c i s s u e s such as c r o p p i n g p a t t e r n , normal y e a r [ o f r a i n f a l l ] , p r o t e c t i o n t o e x i s t i n g [ i r r i g a t e d ] a r e a s i n normal y e a r s , p r o c e d u r e f o r a l l o c a t i n g f l o w s i n a l e a n y e a r , e t c e t r a " ( q u o t e d i n TN PWD, 1982 : no page n o . ) . Thu s , t h i s c o m m i t t e e ended i t s s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o u t h a v i n g i s s u e d a r e p o r t f o r t he n e x t C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' m e e t i n g as had been r e q u e s t e d i n t h e d r a f t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s e c r e t a r i e s ' c ommi t t ee on t h e p ropo sed Cauve r y V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y was a l s o u n a b l e t o p roduce a r e p o r t (TN PWD, 1 9 8 2 : no page n o . ) . In March 1977 t h e Lok Sabha e l e c t i o n s were h e l d and t o e v e r y o n e ' s s u r p r i s e t h e J a n a t a P a r t y won a ma jo r v i c t o r y , o u s t i n g M r s . G a n d h i ' s 78 Congres s gove rnment . N o n e t h e l e s s , Congres s s u p p o r t r ema ined h i gh i n t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s . Tami l Nadu ' s C h i e f M i n i s t e r , M. K a r u n a n i d h i , l o s t t h e a s s emb l y e l e c t i o n t o M.G. Ramachandran (MGR) and t h e ADMK. In K a r n a t a k a D e v a r a j Urs r ema i ned t h e Congres s C h i e f M i n i s t e r . W i t h t h e change i n power a t t he c e n t r e , t h e r e were t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s (ADMK, C o n g r e s s , J a n a t a ) r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e n e x t round o f n e g o t i a t i o n s h e l d i n Augu s t 1978 . I t was no t l i k e l y , however , t h a t t h e outcome o f t h e s e t a l k s , w h i c h were doomed t o f a i l u r e b e f o r e t h e y began , wou ld be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e - c h a n g e s i n New D e l h i and Tami l Nadu. W i t h o u t r e p o r t s f r om t h e two c e n t r a l l y - a p p o i n t e d c o m m i t t e e s , t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s had no new m a t e r i a l on w h i c h t h e y c o u l d base c o n s t r u c t i v e t a l k s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , MGR s e n t a l e t t e r t o t h e J a n a t a M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n t o u n d e r s c o r e h i s s t a t e ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t i t d i d no t a c c e p t t h e 1976 u n d e r -s t a n d i n g w h i c h had been a r r i v e d a t when Tam i l Nadu was under P r e s i d e n t ' s Ru l e (TN PWD, 1982 : no page n o . ) . A t t h e Augu s t and O c t o b e r 1978 C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' d i s c u s s i o n s ( t h e l a t t e r was a b i l a t e r a l m e e t i n g between K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu ) , t h e n , t h e r e was l i t t l e chance t h a t t h e s t a t e s wou ld come any c l o s e r t o a r e c o n -c i l i a t i o n . Tam i l Nadu r e p u d i a t e d t he 1976 u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o m p l a i n i n g t h a t i t d i d no t p r o t e c t t h e s t a t e ' s " e x i s t i n g a y a c u t " o f 2.8 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . K a r n a t a k a and K e r a l a e x p r e s s e d some i n i t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t he 1976 u n d e r s t a n d i n g but by 1978 had r e j e c t e d i t . In 1978 f i r s t T am i l Nadu and t h e n K a r n a t a k a p r e s e n t e d pape r s t o one a n o t h e r and t o t he c e n t r a l g ove rnment . The paper s o u t l i n e d t h e s t a t e s ' c l a i m s i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e and i n d i c a t e d t h a t K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu 79 were as f a r f rom r e a c h i n g an ag reement i n 1978 as t h e y had Been i n 1970 . I n deed , as K a r n a t a k a ' s paper was p r e p a r e d a f t e r t h e r e c e i p t o f Tami l N a d u ' s , much o f i t was a c o n c e r t e d a t t a c k on Tami l Nadu ' s c o n t e n t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e g a r d i n g u s e a b i l i t y o f g r o u n d w a t e r , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u r p l u s w a t e r i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n , t h e s a v i n g s o f w a t e r Tam i l Nadu m i g h t put i n t o e f f e c t , and t h e " r a t i o n a l i t y " o f Tam i l Nadu ' s e x i s t i n g c r o p p i n g p a t t e r n . K a r n a t a k a t o o k p a i n s t o i n d i c a t e i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e Cauvery B a s i n v i s - a - v i s Tami l Nadu. I t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t he I r r i g a t i o n Commis s ion R e p o r t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e " d r o u g h t - a f f e c t e d " a r e a i n K a r n a t a k a ' s p o r t i o n o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n e x tended t o 5.29 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n t w e n t y - f o u r t a l u k s w h i l e i n Tami l Nadu i t was o n l y 3.16 m i l l i o n a c r e s i n f o u r t e e n t a l u k s . K a r n a t a k a ' s paper a l s o c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e o f i r r i g a t i o n deve lopment i n t h e Cauvery B a s i n , showing t h a t 13 o n l y e l e v e n p e r c e n t o f i t s " c u l t u r a b l e a r e a " i s under i r r i g a t i o n and u much o f t h a t f rom t a n k s ( s m a l l e a r t h e n r e s e r v o i r s g e n e r a l l y s u p p l i e d by r a i n w a t e r ) , n o t f r om t h e Cauve r y R i v e r s y s t e m , w h i l e i n Tam i l Nadu " 3 3 . 5 p e r c e n t o f i t s c u l t u r a b l e a r e a i s under i r r i g a t i o n , most o f i t f rom m a j o r and medium schemes " ( K a r n a t a k a I r r i g a t i o n ' D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 7 8 : P a r . 7 ) . The m a j o r p o i n t o f Tam i l Nadu ' s paper was t h a t t h e " C a u v e r y R i v e r i s a l r e a d y o v e r b u r d e n e d w i t h e x i s t i n g commi tment s " and t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g a y a c u t i n Tam i l Nadu must have p r i o r i t y o f w a t e r s u p p l y o v e r new i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s . . The a u t h o r o f th- i s paper s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r f u t u r e m a j o r p r o j e c t s i n the- Cauve r y B a s i n , w a t e r wou ld have t o b e . i m p o r t e d f rom o t h e r b a s i n , e s p e c i a l l y - f r o m t h e . w e s t - f l o w i n g r i v e r s o f K e r a l a . The paper c o n c l u d e d t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s r e s e r v o i r s , b o t h KRS and t h e newer 80 o n e s , " s h o u l d no t i n t e r f e r e w i t h o r impound t h e f l o w s due t o Tami l Nadu under t h e 1924 Ag reement " (TN PWD (Vi j a y a r a g h a v a n ) , 1978 : P a r . 2 0 ) . Tam i l N a d u ' s paper a l s o c l a i m s t h a t t h e Cauve ry R i v e r i s t h e " l i f e l i n e " o f t h e s t a t e . I t m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e Cauve r y B a s i n a c c o u n t s f o r o v e r e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l c a n a l i r r i g a t i o n i n Tam i l Nadu and t h a t t h e Cauve r y i s Tami l N a d u ' s o n l y d e p e n d a b l e r i v e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n w h i l e i t i s " one o f many d e p e n d a b l e r i v e r s i n K a r n a t a k a . " F u r t h e r m o r e , i t p o i n t s o u t t h a t K a r n a t a k a has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 29.3 m i l l i o n (1971 c e n s u s ) and w a t e r r e s o u r c e s o f 3350 TMC w h i l e Tam i l Nadu ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s 41 m i l -l i o n (1971 c e n s u s ) b u t i t s w a t e r r e s o u r c e s amount t o o n l y 1300 TMC. The a u t h o r goes on t o s a y t h a t Tam i l Nadu w o u l d b e - h a r d - p r e s s e d " t o p a r t w i t h i t s l i m i t e d w a t e r r e s o u r c e s . " Thu s , bo th s t a t e s a r e keen t o show how d i s a d v a n t a g e d t h e y a r e when compared w i t h t h e o t h e r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , w h i l e K a r n a t a k a c r i t i c i s e d i t s l o w e r r i p a r i a n n e i g h b o u r i n t h e 1978 p a p e r , Tam i l Nadu ' s paper was c r i t i c a l o f t h e c e n t r e ' s November 1974 d r a f t ag reement ( i t does n o t m e n t i o n t h e 1976 d r a f t ) . One i s g i v e n t h e i m p r e s s i o n by t h i s 1978 paper t h a t t h e Tam i l Nadu government f e l t i t s i n t e r e s t s were b e i n g i g n o r e d by t h e c e n t r e : " t h e D r a f t Agreement p r e p a r e d by t h e Government o f I n d i a i n November 1974 does no t meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T a m i l Nadu o r p r o t e c t i t s e x i s t i n g i r r i g a t i o n " (TN PWD ( V i j a y a r a g h a v a n ) , 1 9 7 8 : P a r . 1 9 ) . D e s p i t e t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e two s t a t e s ' p o s i t i o n paper s as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n s , t a l k s were no t h e l d a g a i n f o r o v e r two y e a r s - -no t u n t i l December 1980 . A g a i n one s h o u l d l o o k a t t h e o v e r a l l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a . i n o r d e r t o see why t h e c e n t r a l government gave t h e 81 Cauve r y d i s p u t e such a s i n g u l a r l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n . The O c t o b e r 1978 m e e t i n g had b roken down amid h o s t i l i t y between K a r n a t a k a and Tam i l Nadu wh i ch meant t h e r e was l i t t l e r e a s o n t o h o l d t a l k s i n t h e nea r f u t u r e . However, by t h e t i m e i t wou l d have been r e a s o n -a b l e t o c o n s i d e r a new s e t o f m e e t i n g s , t h e J a n a t a government was t e e t e r i n g on t he b r i n k o f c o l l a p s e . The b low came i n J u l y 1979 when P r ime M i n i s t e r M o r a r j i Desa i c o u l d no l o n g e r c oun t on a m a j o r i t y o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a -ment t o s u p p o r t h i s gove rnment . A f t e r much manoeuv r i n g and b i d d i n g between D e s a i , J a g j i v a n Ram, and Charan S i n g h , t h e l e a d e r o f t h e J a t commun i t y , S i n gh became t h e new P r ime M i n i s t e r . He r ema ined i n t h a t p o s t f o r o n l y t h r e e weeks b e f o r e r e s i g n i n g , c e r t a i n he wou ld l o s e a f o r t h c o m i n g v o t e o f n o n - c o n f i d e n c e i n P a r l i a m e n t because o f M r s . G a n d h i ' s " sudden w i t h d r a w a l " o f her Congres s ( I ) s u p p o r t f o r h i s government (Das G u p t a , 1 9 8 0 : 1 7 9 ) . W i t h Charan S i n g h ' s r e s i g n a -t i o n , t h e P r e s i d e n t , S a n j i v a Reddy, d e c i d e d t h a t new e l e c t i o n s s h o u l d be h e l d i n J a n u a r y 1980 and t h a t Charan S i n gh s h o u l d head a " c a r e t a k e r " g o v e r n -ment u n t i l t h e n . W i t h t h i s s o r t o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n New D e l h i i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s wou ld l o s e s i g h t o f a r i v e r d i s p u t e i n South I n d i a . The J a n u a r y 1980 e l e c t i o n s saw M r s . Gandhi and her renamed Congres s ( I n d i r a ) w i n an a s t o u n d i n g v i c t o r y , g a i n i n g c l o s e t o t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e Lok Sabha s e a t s . Towards t h e end o f J a n a t a r u l e , Tam i l Nadu ' s C h i e f M i n i s t e r , M.G. Ramachandran, had l e n t s u p p o r t t o Charan S i n gh i n r e t u r n f o r h a v i n g two ADMK MPs named t o C a b i n e t p o s t s . M r s . G a n d h i , showing her d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h MGR's d e c i s i o n , had h i s government d i s m i s s e d i n F e b r u a r y 82 1980 so t h a t new a s s emb l y e l e c t i o n s c o u l d be h e l d . T h i s s t r a t e g y b a c k -f i r e d i n t h a t w h i l e T a m i l i a n s had v o t e d f o r DMK c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e p a r l i a -menta ry e l e c t i o n s , t h e y v o t e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f o r MGR and h i s ADMK g o v e r n -ment i n t h e June a s s emb l y e l e c t i o n s . In K a r n a t a k a D e v a r a j Urs r e s i g n e d as C h i e f M i n i s t e r i n F e b r u a r y 1980 a f t e r h i s n a t i o n a l Congress (U) d i d p o o r l y i n t h e J a n u a r y e l e c t i o n s . U r s ' t e n u r e as C h i e f M i n i s t e r , f rom 1972 t o 1980 , was a p e r i o d wh i ch b r o u g h t i m p o r t a n t changes t o K a r n a t a k a ' s p o l i t i c a l d y n a m i c s . W i t h t h e 1972 K a r n a -t a k a a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y f o r t h e Congres s ( R ) , t h e d o w n f a l l o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r u l i n g g roup i n K a r n a t a k a r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Congres s (0) was h e r a l d e d . M r s . Gandhi saw t h i s as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r e a k t h e h o l d o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominant c a s t e s i n K a r n a t a k a , t h e L i n g a y a t s and V o k k a l i g a s , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g he r own i n f l u e n c e i n t h e s t a t e . She i n s e r t e d a- r e l a t i v e l y unknown p o l i t i c i a n f rom a m i n o r c a s t e g roup i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f C h i e f M i n i s t e r . In o r d e r f o r D e v a r a j Urs t o c o n s o l i -d a t e h i s power i n t h e s t a t e he had t o overcome t h e g r i p o f t h e L i n g a y a t s and V o k k a l i g a s and he d i d t h i s t h r o u g h an e x t r e m e l y c l e v e r m a n i p u l a t i o n . o f t h e p a t r o n a g e M r s . Gandhi p r o v i d e d h i m . Urs a imed t h e p a t r o n a g e a t t h o s e g roups w h i c h had a lway s been d e n i e d t h e s p o i l s o f power i n K a r n a t a k a (Manor , 1977 : 1 8 6 7 - 6 8 ) . D u r i n g t h e Emergency t h e Congres s i n K a r n a t a k a "had s t a g g e r i n g amounts o f money t o spend t hank s t o t h e p r o d i g i o u s ' f u n d - r a i s i n g ' c a p a c i t i e s o f D e v a r a j U r s " (Manor , 1 977 : 1 8 6 8 ) . By t h e m i d - s e v e n t i e s Urs had used funds f rom the c e n t r e and funds r a i s e d w i t h i n K a r n a t a k a t o c r e a t e a power base f o r h i m s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e c e n t r a l Congress o r g a n i s a t i o n . In t h e 83 immed ia te p o s t - E m e r g e n c y p e r i o d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f U r s ' programmes a imed a t t h e l o w e s t c a s t e s and c l a s s e s i n K a r n a t a k a was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e d e c i s i v e Congres s w i n s i n t h e K a r n a t a k a Lok Sabha c o n t e s t i n Ma rch 1977 and t h e A s semb l y e l e c t i o n s i n F e b r u a r y 1978. In e a r l y 1979 Urs began t o move away f rom M r s . Gandhi and he r f l e d g l i n g Congres s ( I ) . W i t h i n t h e Congres s ( I ) Urs s pea rheaded a p o l i t i -c a l a t t a c k on M r s . G a n d h i ' s s o n , S a n j a y G a n d h i , and on t h e Youth C o n g r e s s . M r s . Gandhi " t r i e d t o w r e s t c o n t r o l o f t h e s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i s a t i o n f rom him [ U r s ] " bu t she u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r K a r n a t a k a ' s Congress ( H a r d g r a v e , 1980 : 1 8 5 ) . Urs q u i t t h e Cong re s s ( I ) , t a k i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e K a r n a t a k a government p o l i t i c i a n s w i t h h i m . In t h e same y e a r Urs f o rmed t h e n a t i o n a l Cong re s s (U) w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Charan S i n g h ' s c a r e t a k e r government w i t h t h e Lok Dal and t h e AIADMK i n l a t e 1 9 7 9 . U r s ' a m b i t i o n t o make an impac t on t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s cene was d e a l t a s e v e r e b low i n J a n u a r y 1980 w i t h M r s . G a n d h i ' s m a j o r e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y . H i s Congres s (U) w h i c h had 56 s e a t s i n t h e Lok Sabha i n Augu s t 1979, won o n l y 13 s e a t s . M o r e o v e r , i n K a r n a t a k a t h e t i d e had t u r n e d i n f a v o u r o f M r s . Gandhi with her Congres s ( I ) w i n n i n g 27 o f t h e s t a t e ' s 28 Lok Sabha s e a t s . By F e b r u a r y 1980 d e f e c t i o n s f rom U r s ' Cong re s s s t a t e government had t a k e n t h e i r t o l l , and he was f o r c e d t o r e s i g n t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s h i p . From M r s . G a n d h i ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i t was o n l y f i t t i n g t h a t a s t a u n c h S a n j a y Gandhi s u p p o r t e r , R. Gundu Rao, be made U r s ' s u c c e s s o r . I t was o n l y a f t e r t h e June 1980 e l e c t i o n s i n Tami l Nadu and t h e c h o o s i n g o f a C h i e f M i n i s t e r i n K a r n a t a k a , t h a t a t t e n t i o n c o u l d be t u r n e d 84 once more t o t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . By September 1980 t h e s t a t e s had a g a i n p r e p a r e d s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e i r c l a i m s and i n O c t o b e r 1980 d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d between t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e c e n t r a l I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t r y and o f f i -c i a l s o f K a r n a t a k a , Tami l Nadu, and K e r a l a . T h i s m e e t i n g d e a l t w i t h t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s o n l y and was t o c l a r i f y v a r i o u s f i g u r e s w h i c h had been d i s c u s s e d a t t h e 1976 t a l k s (TN PWD, 1 9 8 2 : no page n o . ) . In December 1980 , t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n s t a t e s a g a i n met w i t h t h e Un i on M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n , Rao B i r e n d r a S i n g h . These t a l k s , t h e l a s t t o be h e l d t o d a t e , d i d n o t h i n g t o b r i n g t h e s t a t e s t o a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . A c c o r d i n g t o a paper p r e p a r e d by Tami l Nadu ' s P u b l i c Works Depar tment i n J a n u a r y 1982 , Tami l Nadu r e - e m p h a s i s e d t h e p o i n t s i t had made i n i t s n o te o f 1978 and K a r n a t a k a put f o r w a r d i t s "Ten P o i n t Formula f o r S h a r i n g o f Cauve r y W a t e r " on t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h Gundu Rao s a i d new d i s c u s s i o n s s h o u l d be h e l d . Some o f K a r n a t a k a ' s "Ten P o i n t s " a r e : 1) Each s t a t e i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o a f a i r and e q u i t a b l e s h a r e o f w a t e r f o r b e n e f i c i a l u s e . 3) The a g g r e g a t e q u a n t i t y o f w a t e r t o be a s s e s s e d as a v a i l a b l e f o r u t i l i s a t i o n i n t h e b a s i n s t a t e s s h a l l be i n c l u s i v e o f bo th s u r f a c e w a t e r and g r oundwate r t h a t wou l d be wa s ted i f u n t a p p e d . 6) Such a f a i r and e q u i t a b l e a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r s amongst t h e b a s i n s t a t e s s h a l l be made t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e b a s i n f a c t o r s v i z . , d r a i n a g e a r e a , y i e l d c o n t r i b u t i o n , c u l t i v a b l e a r e a , c u l t u r a b l e command, p o p u l a t i o n , and d r o u g h t prone a r e a i n t h e s t a t e . 7) Each s t a t e s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o u t i l i s e a l l t h e r e g e n e r a t e d w a t e r a c c r u i n g w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y . . . 10) A l l t h e f a c t o r s r e f e r r e d t o above w i l l be worked o u t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a g r e e d s o u r c e s o f d a t a . S i n c e t h e December 1980 d i s c u s s i o n s , f i v e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' m e e t i n g s have been p roposed bu t a l l have been c a n c e l l e d because o f one o r more o f 85 t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' " i n a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d . " In O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 , however , b i l a t e r a l t a l k s were h e l d between K a r n a t a k a ' s Gundu Rao and T a m i l Nadu ' s M.G. Ramachandran. J u s t p r i o r t o t h i s round o f d i s c u s s i o n s , MGR h e l d an a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g i n Madras a t w h i c h t h e con sen su s r e a c h e d was t h a t w h i l e Tami l Nadu need n o t p r e s s f o r t h e renewa l o f t h e 1924 Ag reement , i t s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o i n s i s t on t h e " p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g a y a c u t . " A t t h e end o f t h e b i l a t e r a l m e e t i n g , t h e i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c was t h a t " t a l k s on t h e s h a r i n g o f Cauve r y w a t e r s were p r o g r e s s i n g t oward s a s e t t l e m e n t " (IE., 16 O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 ) . To f u r t h e r t h e " p r o g r e s s " made a t t h e s e t a l k s , d i s c u s s i o n s were s c h e d u l e d f o r November i n Mad r a s . By t h e end o f t h e m o n t h , however , MGR was quo ted as s a y i n g t h a t t h e " K a r n a t a k a g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t a n d on t h e Cauve r y p r ob l em i s n o t c o n d u c i v e t o n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n " and a d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s were not h e l d (I_E, 2 December 1 9 8 1 ) . In J a n u a r y 1982 , l e a d e r s i n Tam i l Nadu e x p r e s s e d shock and d i smay when t h e y l e a r n e d t h a t K a r n a t a k a was g o i n g ahead w i t h p l a n s f o r a h y d r o -e l e c t r i c dam a c r o s s t h e Cauve ry a t a p l a c e c a l l e d Meghada tu . Gundu Rao d e c l a r e d t h a t " i t i s u n u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ( s i c ) how t h i s Meghadatu P r o j e c t comes i n t h e way o f d i s c u s s i o n s and poses a t h r e a t t o Tami l Nadu ' s i n t e r e s t s " (I_E, 13 F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) . S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960 s , however , Tami l Nadu has p l a n n e d t o c o n s t r u c t a power p r o j e c t a t t h e Hogenekal F a l l s between Meghadatu and M e t t u r . The p l an : r e q u i r e s t h a t a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f K a r n a t a k a ' s t e r r i t o r y be f l o o d e d and t h e r e f o r e needs K a r n a t a k a ' s c o n s e n t and c o o p e r a t i o n . K a r n a t a k a c l a i m s t h a t Meghadatu w i l l be a more e f f i -c i e n t , h i g h e r - y i e l d i n g p r o j e c t t h a n Hogeneka l . Of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o 86 K a r n a t a k a , p e r h a p s , i s t h a t Meghadatu i s w h o l l y i n K a r n a t a k a ' s t e r r i t o r y w h i c h means t h a t i t w i l l no t have t o s h a r e t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e p r o j e c t w i t h Tami l Nadu. A p p a r e n t l y , i f Meghadatu i s c o n s t r u c t e d , i t w i l l s t i l l be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a power dam a t Hogenekal F a l l s bu t on a r e d u c e d s c a l e ( I n t e r v i e w , Ramachander Rao: 14 May 1 9 8 2 ) . D e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s a n t a g o n i s m between Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a o v e r t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e , t h e two s t a t e s ' r e l a t i o n s a r e o t h e r w i s e c o r d i a l . In f a c t , M.G. Ramachandran and Gundu Rao a r e r e p u t e d t o be b e s t o f f r i e n d s , and K a r n a t a k a ' s new C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Hegde, has been p r o m o t i n g u n i t y and c o o p e r a t i o n among t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e f o u r s o u t h e r n s t a t e s . As we have s e e n , howeve r , t h e f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . b e t w e e n Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a have no t h e l p e d t o encou rage an e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e . The Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e has c o n t i n u e d f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s (1970 t o 1983) b u t t h e r e i s s t i l l no end i n s i g h t . The c e n t r a l government has a c t e d as a m e d i a t o r i n t h e d i s p u t e s i n c e 1970 b u t i t s e f f o r t s t o h e l p f i n d a r e s o l u t i o n have n o t i c e a b l y f l a g g e d s i n c e t h e end o f t h e Emergency. The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s commitment t o r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e has dwind led s i n c e 1976 and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h o u t t h a t commitment f rom t h e c e n t r e t o t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e ' s e a r l y r e s o l u t i o n , t h e r e i s no chance t h a t t h e s t a t e s wou ld end t h e c o n f l i c t t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s . A l t h o u g h t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s e t t l i n g t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e t h r ough nego -t i a t i o n s has d e c r e a s e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , t h e c e n t r e s t i l l r e f u s e s t o r e f e r t h e d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l . In A p r i l 1982, f o r e x a m p l e , Kedar Pandey, t h e new ly a p p o i n t e d c e n t r a l M i n i s t e r f o r I r r i g a t i o n , r u l e d o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y 87 t h a t t h e Government o f I n d i a wou ld a p p o i n t a t r i b u n a l t o a d j u d i c a t e t h e d i s p u t e . A t t h e same t i m e he and h i s c o l l e a g u e s a s s u r e d t h e Lok Sabha t h a t t h e c e n t r e was mak ing " s u s t a i n e d and c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s " t o a c h i e v e an e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . 88 CHAPTER I I I FOOTNOTES 1. The command a r e a i s t h e i r r i g a b l e a r e a o f an i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . 2 . An a n i c u t i s a dam o r w e i r o f s t o n e and masonry w h i c h f u n c t i o n s t o r a i s e and d i v e r t w a t e r f rom a r i v e r o r s t r eam i n t o an i r r i g a t i o n , s u p p l y channe l . 3 . L i v e s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y i s t h e r e s e r v o i r ' s f u l l c a p a c i t y e x c l u d i n g t h a t vo lume o f w a t e r w h i c h i s no t used f o r o p e r a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . 4 . The t e rm s e m i - d r y c r o p r e f e r s t o any c r o p w h i c h does n o t r e q u i r e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r . I t i s used t o d i s t i n g u i s h c r o p s l i k e wheat and c o t t o n f rom wet c r o p s l i k e paddy a n d . s u g a r -cane w h i c h do r e q u i r e l a r g e amounts o f w a t e r . 5. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Tam i l Nadu l a t e r became more a n x i o u s abou t K a b i n i Dam w h i c h i s on a t r i b u t a r y t o t h e Cauve r y R i v e r be low KRS. T h i s i s becau se i t was f e l t i n Tami l Nadu t h a t t h e " p o w e r f u l KRS f a r m e r s " w o u l d n o t a l l o w t h e Hemavath i and H a r a n g i p r o j e c t s t o r e d u c e t h e i r s h a r e o f Cauve ry w a t e r . As K a b i n i Dam p r o v i d e s abou t o n e - t h i r d o f M e t t u r ' s y e a r l y w a t e r s u p p l y i t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o Tami l Nadu b u t becau se i t i s be l ow KRS t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r e s s u r e w i t h i n K a r n a t a k a f o r K a b i n i t o r e l e a s e i t s impounded w a t e r (Namas ivayam, 1975 : 1 0 ) . 6. K e r a l a has been i n v o l v e d i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1970s and P o n d i c h e r r y s i n c e t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s , bu t i n a m i n o r way. O n l y t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n i s i n K e r a l a and a much s m a l l e r f r a c t i o n i s i n t h e K a r a i k a l s e c t i o n o f P o n d i c h e r r y . W h i l e t h e y have both been i n v o l v e d i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s , w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n t h e ma in c o n -t e s t a n t s a r e K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu. A l l t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f t h i s d i s p u t e r e l a t e t o K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu a l o n e and t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t s h o u l d Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a r e a c h a g r e e m e n t , K e r a l a and P o n d i c h e r r y wou l d have no c h o i c e bu t t o go a l o n g w i t h i t . M o r e o v e r , K e r a l a and P o n d i c h e r r y were no t men t i oned by any o f my i n f o r m a n t s on t h e i r own a c c o r d and t h e two s t a t e s se ldom r e c e i v e d c o v e r a g e i n p r e s s r e p o r t s o f t h e d i s p u t e . They w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be o m i t t e d f rom t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . 7 . D e p e n d a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e minimum vo lume o f r i v e r f l o w t o be e x p e c t e d i n a g i v e n p e r c e n t a g e ( 50% , 75% most commonly u sed) o f y e a r s f o r w h i c h f l o w d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e . I f , f o r e xamp le , r i v e r s u p p l y i s equa l t o a minimum o f 350 TMC i n 18 o f 24 y e a r s and equa l t o 400 TMC o r more i n 12 o f 24 y e a r s , t h e dependab l e w a t e r s u p p l y based on 50% dependa -b i l i t y = 400 TMC and based on 75% d e p e n d a b i l i t y , 350 TMC. 89 8 . S u r p l u s f l o w o r w a t e r i s a r i v e r ' s - y e a r l y a v e r a g e vo lume o f f l o w no t c u r r e n t l y used and a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . 9. G roundwate r i s any w a t e r f ound unde rg round i n porous r o c k s t r a t a . 10 . A f i l t e r p o i n t i s a s h a l l o w w e l l . 1 1 . A r e g u l a t o r i s a s t r u c t u r e on a c a n a l d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e w a t e r l e v e l o r d i s c h a r g e o r b o t h by means o f a d j u s t a b l e s h u t t e r s . T a i l e n d r e g u l a t o r s a r e t h e l a s t r e g u l a t o r s o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . 12 . Duty r e f e r s t o t h e a r e a i r r i g a t e d d u r i n g a base p e r i o d ( c r o p p i n g s ea son ) d i v i d e d by t h e mean s u p p l y o f w a t e r u t i l i s e d i n c u s e c s ( c u s e c = 1 c u b i c f o o t o f w a t e r per s e c o n d ) . Low d u t y i n d i c a t e s an i n e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem w h e r e i n t oo much w a t e r i s needed t o i r r i g a t e a c e r t a i n amount o f l a n d . 1 3 . C u l t u r a b l e a r e a i s a r a b l e l a n d . 90 CHAPTER IV The Ro l e o f F e d e r a l P o l i t i c s i n t h e Con tempora ry D i s p u t e The Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e has been marked by t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f a r g u i n g , t r a d i n g o f i n s u l t s , and numerous r ounds o f u n s u c c e s s f u l n e g o t i a -t i o n s . S i n c e 1970 t h e c e n t r a l government has chosen t o p a r t i c i p a t e as a m e d i a t o r i n t h e d i s p u t e . In t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h e b a s i c arguments t h e two s t a t e s have made d u r i n g t he d i s p u t e w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n te rms o f t h e i r h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p and i n te rms o f i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n t e r n a l t o Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a . In t h e second h a l f o f t h e . c h a p t e r t h e e x t e n t o f t h e New D e l h i g o v e r n m e n t ' s w i l l i n g -ness t o a c t d e c i s i v e l y t o r e s o l v e t h i s d i s p u t e w i l l be a n a l y s e d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t i t s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d . We w i l l see t h a t f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s has p l a y e d an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t he c o n d u c t o f t h e c o n f l i c t ' s ma in a c t o r s . In t h e d i s p u t e Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a have p r e s e n t e d t h e same arguments r e p e a t e d l y . In b r i e f , Tami l Nadu i n s i s t s t h a t i t s e x i s t i n g a y a c u t i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n be g u a r a n t e e d t h e minimum amount o f w a t e r n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n i t a t t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l o f o v e r two and a h a l f m i l -l i o n a c r e s . Tami l Nadu c l a i m s i t has p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s t o t h e C a u v e r y ' s w a t e r and say s t h e 1924 Agreement i s a document w h i c h u p h o l d s t h o s e r i g h t s . K a r n a t a k a a r gue s t h a t Tami l Nadu can no l o n g e r c u r t a i l K a r n a t a k a ' s r i g h t t o d e v e l o p t h e Cauve r y and a l s o t h a t Tami l Nadu can no l o n g e r e x p e c t t o dom ina te t h e Cauve ry B a s i n t h r o u g h u n f a i r a g r e e m e n t s . K a r n a t a k a f u r t h e r a r gue s t h a t i t i s e n t i t l e d t o an e q u i t a b l e s h a r e o f t h e C a u v e r y ' s 91 w a t e r r e s o u r c e s and can make no g u a r a n t e e s t h a t Tami l Nadu ' s e x i s t i n g a y a c u t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e c e i v e enough w a t e r t o m a i n t a i n i t a t i t s c u r -r e n t l e v e l . K a r n a t a k a a s s e r t s t h a t t h e 1924 Agreement i s p r e j u d i c i a l t o i t s r i g h t s and a r gue s t h a t i t became n u l l and v o i d i n 1974 . L e M a r q u a n d ' s c o n c e p t o f h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h e l p s e x p l a i n why t h e two s t a t e s have d e v e l o p e d t h e p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu a r e i n an up s t ream-downs t ream r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r w h i c h p r e s e n t s few " i n t e g r a t e d deve l opment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . " The u p s t r e a m s t a t e has no economic i n c e n t i v e t o come t o an agreement w i t h t h e downstream s t a t e based on t h e h y d r o l o g y and deve lopment o f t h e r i v e r . Tami l Nadu d e v e l o p e d i t s p o r t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r much e a r l i e r t han d i d K a r n a t a k a but when K a r n a t a k a became t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y a b l e t o i n c r e a s e i t s u t i l i s a t i o n o f t h e r i v e r ' s w a t e r s , T a m i l Nadu i n i t i a t e d t h e d i s p u t e because i t f e l t i t s own i n t e r e s t s were b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by K a r n a t a k a ' s deve lopment e f f o r t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The T a n j a v u r D e l t a , w i t h Tami l Nadu ' s h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f paddy l a n d , i s one o f t h e s t a t e ' s r i c h e s t r e g i o n s and c e r t a i n l y has t h e s t a t e ' s w e a l t h i e s t l a n d o w n e r s . These i n f l u e n t i a l l a n d o w n e r s have a l o n g h i s t o r y , d a t i n g back t o b e f o r e t h e o r i g i n a l Mad ra s -My so re c o n f l i c t o f t he 1880 s , o f w o r k i n g a c t i v e l y to p r o t e c t t h e i r i r r i g a t i o n r i g h t s i n t h e Cauve ry D e l t a ( M i c h a e l , 1979 : 5 0 - 5 7 ) . In t h e e a r l y 1970s when Tam i l Nadu f i l e d i t s Supreme C o u r t p e t i t i o n t h e l a n d h o l d e r s o f T a n j a v u r s e p a r a t e l y f i l e d a s i m i l a r p e t i t i o n . In 1972 t h e T a n j a v u r D i s t r i c t Farmers A s s o c i a -t i o n r e l e a s e d a pamph le t e n t i t l e d "Mo the r K a v e r i and A n g u i s h e d T a n j a v u r " i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t t h r e e m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n t h e 92 d e l t a wou ld l o s e t h e i r o n l y means o f l i v e l i h o o d s h o u l d t h e y be u n a b l e t o r e l y on Cauve r y w a t e r s f o r i r r i g a t i o n . The w e a l t h y T a n j a v u r l a n d h o l d e r s , r e p u t e d l y an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f funds and s u p p o r t f o r Tami l Nadu ' s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , have p r e s s u r e d t h e s t a t e government t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a . The c u r r e n t ADMK government l e a d e r s know t h a t t h e T a n j a v u r a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' s u p p o r t i s n o t e a s i l y won. In t h e a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n s o f 1980 , f o r e x a m p l e , o f t h e t w e n t y MLAs f rom T a n j a v u r D i s t r i c t o n l y n i n e were ADMK (TN G o v e r n -men t , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g con sen su s i n Tami l Nadu t h a t t h e Cauve r y R i v e r i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s t a t e as a w h o l e . Much emphas i s has been g i v e n t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e Cauve r y i s t h e s t a t e ' s o n l y r e l i a b l e r i v e r and t h a t a l l wou ld s u f f e r s h o u l d K a r n a t a k a d e v e l o p t h e Cauve r y B a s i n as i t sees f i t . The b a s i n c o v e r s abou t t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f Tam i l Nadu ' s t e r r i t o r y and c o n t a i n s o v e r t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n p e o p l e o r abou t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t a t e ' s p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t h e Tam i l Nadu g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s t o show i t i s f i g h t i n g a s s i d u o u s l y t o p r e v e n t K a r n a t a k a f rom t a k i n g "a s i n g l e d r o p " o f Cauve r y w a t e r f rom Tami l Nadu. The e x - C h i e f M i n i s t e r , K a r u n a n i d h i , and h i s ADMK s u c c e s s o r , M.G. Ramachandran, have both c a l l e d numerous a l 1 - p a r t y m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . The a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g s ' u t i l i t y i s t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , t h e u n a n i m i t y a r i s i n g f rom t h e s e a l l - p a r t y d i s c u s s i o n s a l l o w s t h e Madras government t o p r e s e n t a s t r o n g , perhaps more a g g r e s s i v e f r o n t a t n e g o t i a t i o n s . S e c o n d , i f t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a r e i n p u b l i c agreement w i t h t h e Tami l Nadu g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s , t h e y w i l l have much l e s s 93 j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c r i t i c i s i n g t h e government once an agreement has been s e t t l e d upon . I n d e e d , Tami l Nadu ' s o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e DMK and Congres s ( I ) , have l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e ADMK's s t a n c e on t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e and i n f a c t , t h e c u r r e n t g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o s i t i o n i s no d i f -f e r e n t f rom t h e p r e v i o u s g o v e r n m e n t ' s . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e Cauve r y R i v e r i s t oo i m p o r t a n t f o r too l a r g e a number o f T a m i l i a n s f o r any o f t he p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o do a n y -t h i n g but s u p p o r t t he argument t h a t Tami l Nadu must be e n t i t l e d t o i t s e x i s t i n g s h a r e o f Cauve r y w a t e r . G i v e n t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n -s h i p i n t h e b a s i n , Tami l Nadu i s on t h e d e f e n s i v e v i s - a - v i s K a r n a t a k a , mak ing i t c l e a r t o a l l t h a t t h e "enemy" on t h i s i s s u e i s a n o t h e r s t a t e and no t a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y w i t h i n t h e s t a t e . The K a r n a t a k a gove rnment , Congres s o r Congres s ( I ) - c o n t r o l l e d u n t i l t h e a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n o f J a n u a r y 1983 , has a l s o h e l d a l l - p a r t y mee t i n g s bu t t h e s e have n o t been as f r e q u e n t o r as c o n s e n s u a l as t h o s e h e l d i n Tam i l Nadu. Some o f my i n f o r m a n t s i n B a n g a l o r e were c r i t i c a l o f t h e K a r n a t a k a g o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e d i s p u t e , a c c u s i n g t h e Gundo Rao r eg ime o f b e i n g a " l a p - d o g " o f I n d i r a G a n d h i . They s a i d t h a t w i t h Gundu Rao as C h i e f M i n i s t e r , M r s . Gandhi c o u l d f a v o u r Tami l Nadu i n t h e d i s p u t e w i t h o u t f e a r o f l o s i n g any s u p p o r t f rom t h e K a r n a t a k a g o v e r n -ment ( I n t e r v i e w , S u b b a i a h : 12 May 1 9 8 2 ) . D e v a r a j Urs was c r i t i c i s e d f o r a l m o s t b a r t e r i n g away K a r n a t a k a ' s w a t e r r i g h t s f o r h i s own p o l i t i c a l g a i n d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as C h i e f M i n i s t e r (1972-1980) ( I n t e r v i e w , B a l e k u n d r y : 15 May 1 9 8 2 ) . E x p l a n a t i o n i s needed f o r t h e l a c k o f con sen su s i n K a r n a t a k a r e g a r d i n g 94 t h e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e d i s p u t e . To use I n g r am ' s t e r m , t h e Cauve ry R i v e r ' s " l o c a l i t y " i n K a r n a t a k a i s p a r t o f t h e a n s w e r . The Cauve ry B a s i n c o ve r s on ly n i n e t e e n p e r c e n t o f K a r n a t a k a ' s t e r r i t o r y i n t h e f a r s o u t h o f t h e s t a t e , and p r o v i d e s no b e n e f i t s t o t he p e o p l e o f t h e much l a r g e r n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e s t a t e . N o r t h e r n K a r n a t a k a l i e s i n t h e K r i s h n a and Tungabhadra B a s i n s w h i c h c o v e r abou t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f K a r n a t a k a ' s t e r -r i t o r y ( I r r i g a t i o n Commi s s i on , v . 2 : 2 7 0 ) . Thu s , i n t h e n o r t h t h e r e w o u l d be demand f o r deve l opment o f r i v e r s i n t h e K r i s h n a B a s i n and p r o b a b l y l i t t l e i f any i n t e r e s t i n t h e s o u t h . w h i c h , w i t h i t s g r e a t e r u r b a n i s a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , wou ld be v i e w e d as an a r e a a l r e a d y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h t han t h e n o r t h e r n " h i n t e r l a n d . " A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f con sen su s among K a r n a t a k a n s on t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e may l i e i n t h e c a s t e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t a t e . S i m p l y , t h e s o u t h i s dom ina ted by V o k k a l i g a s w h i l e t h e n o r t h has a l a r g e number o f L i n g a y a t s (Manor , 1977 : 1 8 6 5 ) . The two groups a r e t r a d i t i o n a l r i v a l s and t h e L i n g a y a t s , i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h V o k k a l i g a s f o r government p a t r o n a g e , have much l e s s i n t e r e s t i n t h e Cauve r y t han i n t h e n o r t h e r n r i v e r b a s i n s . W h i l e Tami l Nadu n e c e s s a r i l y must be on t h e d e f e n s i v e i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e , K a r n a t a k a need n o t , as i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r Tami l Nadu t o u n d e r -t a k e any deve l opment i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n t h a t c o u l d r e d u c e K a r n a t a k a ' s s h a r e o f w a t e r . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r i n t e r - p a r t y con sen su s t o be r e a c h e d and m a i n t a i n e d i n K a r n a t a k a w i t h o u t a c o n s t a n t e x t e r n a l t h r e a t t o i t s r i p a r i a n i n t e r e s t s . K a r n a t a k a h a s , however , g r e a t l y r e s e n t e d Tami l Nadu f o r i t s p a s t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r i v e r and t h e r e i s ange r i n t h e s t a t e t h a t " w e a l t h y " Tami l Nadu s h o u l d want t o m a i n t a i n i t s r i c h e s a t t h e expense 95 o f " p o o r e r " K a r n a t a k a ( I n t e r v i e w s , Magdum, Bommai; 12 and 14 May 1 9 8 2 ) . The d i s s e n s i o n wh i ch has a r i s e n i n K a r n a t a k a has had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e s t a t e ' s t e n a c i t y i n t h e d i s p u t e . S o u t h e r n K a r n a t a k a , w i t h t h e s t a t e ' s two l a r g e s t c i t i e s ( t h e o l d c a p i t a l , M y s o r e , and t h e new c a p i t a l , B a n g a l o r e ) and an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r has e n j o y e d g r e a t e r economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h t h a n have t h e n o r t h e r n a r e a s . When K a r n a t a k a b e -came g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d t h r o u g h S t a t e s R e o r g a n i s a t i o n i n 1956 w i t h t h e a d d i -t i o n o f e r s t w h i l e Bombay K a r n a t a k , a l a r g e number o f K a n n a d a - s p e a k i n g o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g e n g i n e e r s , moved f rom Bombay t o B a n g a l o r e t o t a k e up t h e i r c a r e e r s t h e r e . In so d o i n g t h e y became i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e Cauvery B a s i n ( I n t e r v i e w , Magdum: 12 May 1 9 8 2 ) . L i n e s o f p a t r o n a g e move o u t o f t h e c a p i t a l , and t h e new ly a r r i v e d b u r e a u c r a t s e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t e d new l i n e s o f p a t r o n a g e t h r o u g h s p o n s o r i n g and p r o m o t i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e h e r e t o f o r e undeve l oped s o u t h e r n r i v e r b a s i n . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e p a t r o n a g e and power o f a number o f o f f i c i a l s and m i n i s t e r s o f t h e P u b l i c Works Depar tment (PWD) h i n g e s on t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i r r i g a t i o n and power p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n . A l i s t o f p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e Second F i v e Year P l a n ( 1956 -1961 ) shows t h a t seven o f t h e f i f t e e n m a j o r and medium i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n K a r n a t a k a were l o c a t e d i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n d e s -p i t e i t s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e . Added impe tu s came f rom t h e n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g m a c h i n e r y w h i c h gave emphas i s t o i r r i g a t i o n and power p r o j e c t s i n t h e Second P l a n . In t h e F i r s t F i v e ( Year P l a n (1951 -1956 ) t h e r e was o n l y a s i n g l e p r o j e c t u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n (Magdum, 1966 : 1 2 3 ) . 96 W h i l e t h e Cauve r y B a s i n i s o f l e s s i m p o r t a n c e t o K a r n a t a k a as a who le t h a n i t i s t o Tami l Nadu, i t s deve l opment i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c -t o r i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f s o u t h e r n K a r n a t a k a and t h e p a t r o n -age o f t h e P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t . K a r n a t a k a ' s PWD has become v e r y powe r f u l as i t has c o n t r o l o v e r i r r i g a t i o n , power, and h ighway c o n s t r u c -t i o n . K a r n a t a k a ' s S e c o n d , T h i r d , and F o u r t h F i v e Year P l a n s showed t h a t I r r i g a t i o n and Power a l o n e r e c e i v e d 41 .5 p e r c e n t , 41 .5 p e r c e n t , and 50.7 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e P l a n s ' a l l o c a t i o n o f f unds ( H e t t n e , 1977 : 3 5 1 ) . B j o r n H e t t n e ( 1977 : 352 -53 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e PWD s p e n t n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l S t a t e Budget [ 3 r d F i v e Year P l a n ] and as t h e vo lume and n a t u r e o f work expanded i t had become n e c e s s a r y t o p a r c e l o u t t h e v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s , o f w h i c h dam c o n s t r u c t i o n s were t he most i m p o r -t a n t , t o p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l c o s t o f f a r m i n g o u t work t o t h e s e c o n t r a c t o r s added up t o a minimum o f t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e o u t l a y o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t . To He len I n g r am ' s t h e s i s t h a t w a t e r i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e l o c a l i t y , one s h o u l d add t h a t w a t e r i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t to t h o s e who command t h e l i n e s o f p a t r o n a g e a r i s i n g f rom w a t e r deve l opment p r o j e c t s . K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu have d i f f e r e n t , a l t h o u g h perhaps e q u a l l y c o m p e l l i n g , r e a s o n s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g , t h e Cauve ry R i v e r v i t a l t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . D e s p i t e t he d i f f e r i n g r e a s o n s , however , t h e s t a t e s ' a r g u m e n t s , b roken i n t o t h e i r l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l , and economic a s p e c t s , a r e c o n s i s -t e n t w i t h t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two s t a t e s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . The 1924 Agreement p r o v i d e d t h e two s t a t e s w i t h an e a r l y p o i n t o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . K a r n a t a k a c o m p l a i n e d abou t the a g r e e m e n t ' s l e g i t i m a c y and 97 i t s b i a s i n Tami l Nadu ' s f a v o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a n t s i n B a n g a l o r e , K a r n a t a k a a t t e m p t e d t o have t he ag reement d e c l a r e d n u l l and v o i d as e a r l y as 1947 when t h e p r i n c e l y s t a t e o f M y s o r e , one o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t he a g r e e m e n t , c ea sed t o e x i s t ( I n t e r v i e w , H.N. Nan je Gowda: 14 May 1 9 8 2 ) . The argument was renewed i n 1956 when t he S t a t e s ' R e o r g a n i s a t i o n A c t b r ough t f undamenta l changes t o t h e map o f I n d i a , i n c l u d i n g a much e n l a r g e d Myso re b u t a d e c r e a s e d Madras w h i c h had a l r e a d y l o s t i t s T e l u g u -s p e a k i n g a r e a i n 1953 . The 1924 Agreement r a n k l e d K a r n a t a k a because i t l i m i t e d t h e s t a t e . ' s s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e Cauve r y R i v e r w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y and d e n i e d i t deve l opmen t o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i l e Tami l N a d u ' s T a n j a v u r D e l t a p r o s p e r e d . By v i r t u e o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n i n t he r i v e r b a s i n t h e upper r i p a r i a n s t a t e s h o u l d have had a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e C a u v e r y R i v e r . Because o f t h e 1924 Ag reement , however , no t o n l y were i t s deve l opment e f f o r t s i n h i b i t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r the s t a t e f i r s t t o o b t a i n M a d r a s ' p e r m i s s i o n f o r p r o j e c t s on v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e r i v e r s o f t he Cauve ry B a s i n . A f t e r 1956 K a r n a t a k a c o u l d no l o n g e r s tomach t h i s compromise o f i t s t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y and n e i t h e r c o u l d i t a c c e p t Tami l Nadu ' s c o n -t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y a t i t s e x p e n s e . By the e a r l y 1960s K a r n a t a k a had s t opped s e n d i n g i t s Cauve ry B a s i n p r o j e c t r e p o r t s t o T a m i l Nadu as r e -q u i r e d by t h e 1924 Agreement ( K a l y a n i and P e r u m a l , 1 9 7 8 : 1 3 6 ) . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Tam i l Nadu has g i v e n f u l l p u b l i c s u p p o r t t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t t he 1924 Agreement s h o u l d be r enewed , as i t f u l l y p r o t e c t s t he i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l o w e r r i p a r i a n s t a t e . The ag reement s t r i c t l y r e g u -l a t e s t he o p e r a t i o n o f K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r Dam so t h a t Tami l Nadu ' s w a t e r 98 needs a r e met b e f o r e K a r n a t a k a ' s . The 1924 Agreement was , however , r e -j e c t e d by t h e c e n t r a l government as a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s a t t h e i n t e r s t a t e m e e t i n g o f May 1972 because i t d i d no t e x p e c t K a r n a t a k a wou ld a b i d e by i t s p r o v i s i o n s any l o n g e r . T h e r e f o r e t h e Tami l Nadu s t a t e government has no t men t i oned t he 1924 Agreement i n t he p o s i t i o n paper s i t has c i r c u l a t e d among t h e c o n c e r n e d c e n t r a l and s t a t e government o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s . There i s t a c i t a c c e p t a n c e i n Tami l Nadu t h a t the 1924 Agreement i s t oo o n e - s i d e d t o be e n f o r c e d on K a r n a t a k a . The Tami l Nadu g o v e r n m e n t ' s a rguments i n f a v o u r o f r e n e w i n g t h e 1924 Agreement a r e meant t o c o n v i n c e t h e p u b l i c and o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s t h a t i t i s d o i n g i t s u tmos t t o p r o t e c t t h e s t a t e ' s i n t e r e s t s . When M.G. Ramachandran changed h i s p u b l i c s t a n c e i n l a t e 1981 and s a i d t h a t Tami l Nadu wou ld no t " h a r p " on t he 1924 Ag reement , i t appea red t h a t Tami l Nadu was mak ing a c o n c e s s i o n t o K a r n a t a k a . MGR used t h i s as a p l o y t o i n d i -c a t e t h a t h i s government was eage r t o a r r i v e a t an ag reement b u t a t t h e same t i m e wou ld no t a l l o w Tami l N a d u ' s p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s t o be c o m p r o -m i s e d . He c o n t i n u e d t o i n s i s t t h a t t h e " e x i s t i n g a y a c u t " i n Tami l Nadu must be f u l l y p r o t e c t e d w h i c h , i n e f f e c t , i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f rom i n -s i s t i n g on t h e 1924 A g r e e m e n t ' s r enewa l (I_E, 11 O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 ) . The two s t a t e s ' l e g a l p o s i t i o n s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e . Tam i l Nadu a s s e r t s t h a t i t has p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r t h e r i v e r w h i l e K a r n a t a k a demands t h a t Cauve ry w a t e r s be s ha red on t he b a s i s o f e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t . In I n d i a t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t " i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d as t h e p r i m a r y l e g a l p r i n c i p l e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e r i v e r d i s p u t e s , and i t has been used as a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e by t h e r i v e r d i s p u t e s 99 t r i b u n a l s a p p o i n t e d t o d a t e ( J a c o b , 1976 : 6 1 4 - 1 5 ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , d e s p i t e i t s c l a i m t o p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r Cauve ry w a t e r , Tami l Nadu has a number o f a rguments t o show t h a t even i f an a l l o c a t i o n were d e t e r m i n e d on t he b a s i s o f e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t , i t wou ld s t i l l be e n t i t l e d t o t h e l a r g e r s h a r e o f Cauve r y w a t e r . These arguments a r e based on such f a c t o r s as s i z e o f p o p u l a t i o n , n o n - a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , and e x t e n t o f d r a i n a g e a r e a . T h e r e f o r e Tami l Nadu a r gue s t h a t i t i s e n t i t l e d t o p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s and t h a t i t i s " e q u i t a b l e " t h a t Tam i l N a d u ' s s h a r e o f Cauve r y w a t e r s n o t be d e c r e a s e d . Tam i l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a a l s o d i s a g r e e as t o t h e method o f r e -s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e . S i n c e 1970 Tami l Nadu has made f r e q u e n t r e q u e s t s f o r a t r i b u n a l w h i l e K a r n a t a k a has i n s i s t e d t h e d i s p u t e s h o u l d be s o l v e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s . Tami l Nadu hopes t h a t i f t he d i s p u t e were r e f e r r e d t o a t r i b u n a l , a s t o p - w o r k o r d e r wou l d be i s s u e d t o K a r n a t a k a so t h a t c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f i t s Cauve ry B a s i n p r o j e c t s ( e s p e c i a l l y K a b i n i , H e m a v a t h i , and H a r a n g i ) wou ld be h a l t e d w h i l e t he t r i b u n a l hea rd t he c a s e . Tam i l Nadu wou ld want t o see a t r i b u n a l a d j u d i c a t e t h e d i s p u t e b e f o r e K a r n a t a k a has a chance t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o j e c t s , mak ing them f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l . S t a t e l e a d e r s i n Tami l Nadu may a l s o f e e l t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e wou ld r e c e i v e a f a i r e r h e a r i n g by a t r i b u n a l than by t h e Congres s c e n t r a l gove rnment . O the r t r i b u n a l s i n I n d i a have chosen c u t - o f f d a t e s i n d e c i d i n g how to a l l o c a t e w a t e r between s t a t e s where p r o j e c t s a l r e a d y e x i s t ( J a c o b , 1976: 6 1 6 ) . A t r i b u n a l i n 1973 , f o r e x a m p l e , may choose t h e y e a r 1965 100 and say t h a t any p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d by t h a t y e a r s h o u l d be d e f i n e d as an " e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t . " I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , a l t h o u g h n o t p u b l i c l y by K a r n a t a k a , t h a t " e x i s t i n g " p r o j e c t s on a r i v e r s h o u l d r e c e i v e some p r i o r i t y i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r o v e r more r e c e n t o r p roposed p r o j e c t s . K a r n a t a k a i s , no d o u b t , i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m p l e t i n g a l l o f i t s p r o j e c t s so t h a t , s h o u l d a t r i b u n a l be c o n s t i t u t e d , K a r n a t a k a ' s new p r o j e c t s wou ld be c o n s i d e r e d on par w i t h Tami l Nadu ' s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s . To d a t e t h e r e has no t been any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t he Cauve r y d i s p u t e wou ld be r e f e r r e d t o a t r i b u n a l . Bo th K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu seem to have t a k e n a n e g a t i v e v i e w o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e ' s n e g o t i a t i o n s . From l a t e 1974 o n w a r d , t h e two s t a t e s have s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d one a n o t h e r between m e e t i n g s so t h a t any a i r o f c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t m i g h t have been c r e a t e d a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n s was e f f e c t i v e l y s t i f l e d . In r e c e n t y e a r s f o u r s e t s o f m e e t i n g s have been c a n c e l l e d a l t o g e t h e r because one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s has been " t o o b u s y " w i t h o t h e r m a t t e r s . Tami l Nadu has a lway s wanted a t r i b u n a l t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e , w h i c h i s one r e a s o n i t has neve r e v i n c e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise a t t he d i s -c u s s i o n s . In t h e f u t u r e , however , t h e ab sence o f an ag reement w i l l b e -come more and more ha rmfu l t o Tami l Nadu ' s i n t e r e s t s . Because K a r n a t a k a i s c u r r e n t l y u n a b l e t o w i t h h o l d enough w a t e r f rom Tami l Nadu ' s M e t t u r R e s e r v o i r t o harm t he i r r i g a t i o n sy s tem o f t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a , Tami l N a d u ' s p o l i t i c i a n s a r e a b l e t o g e t more p o l i t i c a l m i l e a g e o u t o f p r o -c l a i m i n g t h a t " n o t a d r o p " o f Cauve ry w a t e r w i l l be g i v e n up t o K a r n a t a k a t han o u t o f b e i n g amenable t o some form o f compromi se . 101 K a r n a t a k a has a lway s e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s bu t t h e s t a t e has l i t t l e r e a s o n t o come t o an ag reement w i t h Tami l Nadu as i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l a t t e r , t h r o u g h i t s ' deve lopment e f f o r t s , t o harm K a r n a t a k a ' s deve l opment p o t e n t i a l i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , K a r n a t a k a c o u l d no t be s u r e t h a t an agreement wou ld no t i n f r i n g e on t h e s t a t e ' s deve lopment p l a n s f o r t h e C a u v e r y , a l t h o u g h an e a r l y ag reement c o u l d be advan tageou s t o K a r n a t a k a , i f i t were t o mean t h a t i t s b a s i n p r o j e c t s wou ld be i n c l u d e d i n t h e F i v e Year P l a n s . The C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f bo th s t a t e s seem t o have g i v e n up e n t i r e l y on n e g o t i a t i o n s as a v e h i c l e t o r e a c h a g r eemen t . I n f o r m a n t s i n bo th K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu te rmed t h e t a l k s " u s e l e s s ; " m e r e l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e - i t e r a t e t h e i r s t a t e s ' w e l l - k n o w n p o s i t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n bo th K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu have shown a penchant f o r e x a g g e r a t i n g t h e i r w a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o r d e r t o g i v e w e i g h t t o t h e i r e x a g g e r a t e d demands f o r t h e C a u v e r y ' s r e s o u r c e s . The l a t t e r a r e made t o keep t h e s t a t e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s a t bay . Bo th s i d e s a r gue t h a t t h e y a r e " w a t e r p o o r " - - Tami l Nadu says K a r n a t a k a has g r e a t e r " w a t e r w e a l t h " and K a r n a t a k a , o f c o u r s e , a r gue s t h e o p p o s i t e . Thus , Tami l Nadu shows t h a t i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r per c a p i t a i s much l o w e r t h a n K a r n a t a k a ' s , t h a t i t s number o f d r o u g h t - a f f e c t e d d i s t r i c t s i s h i g h , and the t h e Cauve r y i s t he " l i f e l i n e o f Tami l Nadu" w h i l e K a r n a t a k a has a number o f r e l i a b l e r i v e r s . Tami l Nadu p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f d e s t i t u t i o n and p o v e r t y i n t h e s t a t e s h o u l d i t be d e n i e d t h e w a t e r s o f "Mo the r C a u v e r y . " P o l i t i c i a n s i n Tami l Nadu c r e a t e t he i m p r e s s i o n t h a t K a r n a t a k a w i l l be a b l e t o deny so much w a t e r t o Tami l Nadu t h a t t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a 102 w i l l be t u r n e d t o d u s t ! K a r n a t a k a , on t he o t h e r hand , p o i n t s o u t t h a t d e s p i t e i t s p r o v i d i n g o v e r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n ' s w a t e r s , many o f i t s d i s t r i c t s i n t h e b a s i n have been d e c l a r e d d r o u g h t - a f f e c t e d by t h e I r r i g a t i o n Commis-s i o n because o f t he r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on t h e s t a t e by t h e 1924 A g r e e -ment . K a r n a t a k a f u r t h e r c l a i m s t h a t Tami l Nadu ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s a r e w a s t i n g Cauve r y w a t e r w h i l e many p a r t s o f t h e up s t ream a r e a s o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n a r e i n n e e d . M o r e o v e r , Tami l Nadu has i n c r e a s e d i t s i r r i -g a t ed a c r e a g e f rom c a n a l s t o o v e r two and a h a l f m i l l i o n a c r e s w h i l e K a r n a t a k a has o n l y 635,000 a c r e s under i r r i g a t i o n and much o f t h a t f rom m i n o r i r r i g a t i o n works such as t a n k s , w h i c h do no t even use r i v e r w a t e r . K a r n a t a k a a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a has l a r g e a r e a s where paddy i s d o u b l e - c r o p p e d w h i l e i n K a r n a t a k a ' s p o r t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n , t h e f a r m e r s o f t e n do n o t have enough w a t e r f o r even a s i n g l e c r o p o f paddy. Two n o t a b l e t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e r e l a t e t o g r oundwate r u t i l i s a t i o n and s u r p l u s f l o w i n t h e b a s i n . K a r n a t a k a a r gue s t h a t Tami l Nadu must e x p l o i t i t s l a r g e g r oundwate r p o t e n t i a l i n t h e d e l t a so t h a t l e s s r i v e r w a t e r i s needed t h e r e f o r i r r i g a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n more w a t e r becoming a v a i l a b l e f o r K a r n a t a k a ' s use w i t h o u t ha rming Tami l Nadu ' s i n t e r e s t s . Tami l Nadu c on tend s t h a t i t s g r oundwate r r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d . P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r Tam i l N a d u ' s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t g r o u n d w a t e r , w h i c h must be pumped t o t he s u r f a c e , i s more e x p e n s i v e t o use t han r i v e r w a t e r . The l a n d h o l d e r s p r e f e r t o i r r i g a t e t h e i r c r o p s w i t h s u r f a c e w a t e r , f o r w h i c h t h e s t a t e government cha r ge s a m i n i m a l u s e r ' s 103 f e e , and no doubt make t h a t p r e f e r e n c e known t o t he government p o l i t i -c i a n s and/o r o f f i c i a l s . A n o t h e r r e a s o n t h a t Tam i l Nadu does n o t a cknow ledge t h a t i t m i g h t have a l a r g e s u p p l y o f g r oundwate r i n t h e d e l t a i s t o max im i s e i t s a l l o c a -t i o n o f Cauve r y w a t e r . I f g r oundwate r i s no t c o n s i d e r e d , Tam i l Nadu w i l l r e c e i v e a l a r g e r s h a r e o f s u r f a c e f l o w s b u t s t i l l have i t s g r oundwate r s u p p l y t o e x p l o i t a t a l a t e r d a t e . The amount o f s u r p l u s w a t e r ( u n u t i l i s e d w a t e r s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r a l 1 o c a t i o n ) . i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i s s u e o f g r o u n d w a t e r . Tam i l Nadu, w h i c h c l a i m s t o have l i t t l e g r o u n d w a t e r , s t a t e s t h e r e i s no s u r p l u s w a t e r i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n because s u r f a c e w a t e r s a r e a l l a c c o u n t e d f o r . K a r n a t a k a ' s a rguments a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o Tami l N a d u ' s . K a r n a t a k a ' s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t not. o n l y i s t h e r e much g r o u n d w a t e r , a l a r g e amount o f s u r f a c e w a t e r f l o w s u n u t i l i s e d i n t o t he Bay o f Benga l e v e r y y e a r because Tami l Nadu ' s i r r i g a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e so w a s t e f u l . Tam i l Nadu ha s ten s t o show t h a t i t i s n o t w a s t i n g w a t e r and c l a i m s t o have t h e most e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n South A s i a . In 1 970 , however , t h e Wor ld B a n k ' s Cauve ry D e l t a p r o j e c t r e p o r t p r e d i c t e d t h a t g r o s s v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e a wou l d n e a r l y d o u b l e c u r -r e n t p r o d u c t i o n upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d e l t a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t . The Tami l Nadu government has been p l a y i n g down t h e room f o r improvement i n t h e d e l t a , a l t h o u g h i n 1982 i t r e l e a s e d a p r o p o s a l f o r a T a n j a v u r D e l t a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t t h a t w i l l c o s t 3660 m i l l i o n r u p e e s . I f Tami l Nadu a s s e r t s t h a t i t a l r e a d y has an e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , t h i s i m p l i e s 104 t h a t i t c anno t a c c e p t l e s s Cauve r y w a t e r t han i t has i n t h e p a s t , l e s t t h e i r r i g a t e d a c r e a g e be d i m i n i s h e d . I f Tami l Nadu t h e n m o d e r n i s e s i t s s y s tem i t w i l l be a b l e t o i r r i g a t e even more l a n d w h i l e t h e amount o f Cauve ry w a t e r i t r e c e i v e s r ema in s c o n s t a n t . I f , however , K a r n a t a k a ' s a rguments t h a t much w a t e r i s wa s ted i n t h e d e l t a and t h a t g r oundwate r i s p r e s e n t i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s and s h o u l d be u s e d , a r e t a k e n t o be t r u e , t hen Tami l Nadu ' s s h a r e o f Cauve ry w a t e r s wou ld be r e d u c e d , t hu s f o r c i n g t h e s t a t e t o m o d e r n i s e i t s s y s tem i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e same i r r i g a t e d a c r e a g e . Tam i l Nadu ' s a rguments t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n , e s p e c i a l l y a r o u n d K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r , i s i n e f f i c i e n t may be d i s c o u n t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g how much s m a l l e r i t i s ( K a r n a t a k a c a n n o t be w a s t i n g much w a t e r when t h e amount i t u ses i s so l i t t l e . ) N o n e t h e l e s s , Tami l Nadu p r e s e n t s t h i s a rgument i n o r d e r t o show t h a t K a r n a t a k a i s no t e n t i t l e d t o a g r e a t e r s h a r e o f Cauve ry w a t e r t h a n i t has now. The t e c h n i c a l p e o p l e i n b o t h K a r n a t a k a and Tam i l Nadu a r e f i e r c e l y l o y a l t o t h e i r own s t a t e s , t h u s mak ing i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o g i v e s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e b a s i n ' s h y d r o l o g i c a l d a t a . Data a r e p r e -s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n such a way as t o s u p p o r t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s ' a r g u -ments a t t h e i n t e r s t a t e m e e t i n g s . Helen. Ingram (1969 : 15) p o i n t e d o u t s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s where s t a t e s used e x p e r t s ' r e -p o r t s , some o f dub i ou s s c i e n t i f i c m e r i t , t o s u p p o r t c l a i m s f o r f e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g o f r i v e r deve lopment p r o j e c t s . E n g i n e e r s i n I n d i a a r e r e l i a n t on p o l i t i c i a n s f o r t h e i r p r o m o t i o n s so t h e y have an i n c e n t i v e t o p r e p a r e t h e t y p e s o f t e c h n i c a l a rguments t h e y know t he p o l i t i c i a n s want t o u s e . 105 The s t a t e s ' t e n a c i t y has c au sed t h e r i v e r d i s p u t e t o be p r o t r a c t e d w h i c h i n t u r n has c u r t a i l e d deve lopment e f f o r t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . In 1970 when t h e W o r l d Bank was p r e p a r e d t o fund a d e l t a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o -j e c t , t h e c e n t r a l government d i d n o t a l l o w i t t o go ahead because o f t h e d i s p u t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , K a r n a t a k a and K e r a l a have bo th s u f f e r e d i n t h a t t h e i r Cauve r y B a s i n p r o j e c t s have no t been s a n c t i o n e d by t h e P l a n n i n g Commi s s i o n . T h i s has meant t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t s has e i t h e r been c a n c e l l e d a l t o g e t h e r o r has gone ahead v e r y s l o w l y because o f a p a u c i t y o f d i r e c t f u n d i n g . In y e a r s o f poor monsoons t h e l a c k o f ag reement on a l l o c a t i o n o f Cauve ry w a t e r s has had a p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v e r s e e f f e c t on Tami l Nadu. In t h e s e y e a r s ( 1976 , 1980 , 1982) t h e s t a t e ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s have been r e d u c e d t o begg i ng f o r more w a t e r f rom K a r n a t a k a , a l t h o u g h t h e Tami l Nadu government i s w o r r i e d t h a t t he need t o beg f o r w a t e r l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t K a r n a t a k a does have c o n t r o l o v e r t h e C a u v e r y , t h e r e b y j e o p a r d i s i n g Tami l Nadu ' s p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o ve r Cauve r y w a t e r . K a r n a t a k a ' s newest s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r s have been c o m p l e t e d but a r e no t i n f u l l o p e r a t i o n as t h e ma jo r t a s k o f b u i l d i n g c a n a l s t o nea rby a r a b l e l a n d has y e t t o be u n d e r t a k e n . Thu s , K a r n a t a k a s t o r e s Cauve r y w a t e r but can use o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f i t . N o n e t h e l e s s , as He l en Ingram m e n t i o n e d , a s t a t e w i l l be " l o a t h t o p a r t w i t h " even w a t e r i t c a n -no t p o s s i b l y put t o b e n e f i c i a l u s e . In d r o u g h t y e a r s K a r n a t a k a r e l e a s e s a minimum amount o f w a t e r t o Tami l Nadu becau se i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o t e c t i n g i t s own a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' i n t e r e s t s f i r s t bu t a l s o becau se i t i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government o r a t r i b u n a l wou l d d e c i d e t h a t 106 K a r n a t a k a has s e t a p r e c e d e n t and s h o u l d a lway s r e l e a s e t h a t amount t o Tami l Nadu i n d r y y e a r s . W i t h t h e two s t a t e s a r g u i n g t h u s , t h e t a s k o f a l l o c a t i n g t h e w a t e r s o f t h e r i v e r becomes e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d . Each s t a t e has p r e s e n t e d i t s c a s e i n such a way as t o j u s t i f y c l a i m s t o t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e s h a r e o f Cauve r y w a t e r . G i v en t h e e m o t i v e n a t u r e o f w a t e r as an i s s u e , i t s c l o s e l i n k w i t h w e a l t h and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r w e a l t h , i t i s o n l y t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e s wou ld s t u b b o r n l y c l i n g t o t h e t y p e s o f a rguments p r e s e n t e d above and be u n w i l l i n g t o r e t r e a t f rom t h e i r e x a g g e r a t e d demands. However , t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e two s t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g p a t r o n a g e n e t w o r k s , have been e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e , as has t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c o n f l i c t . In a r i v e r d i s p u t e i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e m a t t e r t o f i n d t h e m o t i -v a t i n g f o r c e s b e h i n d t he s t a t e s ' a c t i o n s as the economic and p o l i t i c a l r eward s and l o s s e s t o be had f rom s e t t l i n g the c o n f l i c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r way a r e q u i t e c l e a r . For t h e c e n t r e , however , t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s b e h i n d i t s a c t i o n s a r e l e s s o b v i o u s and much more open t o s p e c u l a t i o n . In t h e l a t e 1960 s , b e f o r e t h e d i s p u t e f o r m a l l y began, c e n t r a l I r r i g a -t i o n M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s w i t h t e c h n i c a l o f f i c e r s o f t he b a s i n s t a t e s t o d i s c u s s K a r n a t a k a ' s Cauve ry B a s i n p r o j e c t s . Ever s i n c e 1 9 7 1 , when t he Madras government f i l e d a p e t i t i o n i n t h e Supreme C o u r t o f I n d i a t o r e f e r t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l , t h e c e n t r a l government has m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e d i s p u t e wou l d be b e s t s o l v e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n s . To t h i s e n d , c e n t r a l I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r s have c h a i r e d e l e v e n 107 m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s . The f i r s t c e n t r a l I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r t o dea l w i t h t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e was D r . K.L. Rao. Rao was t h e m i n i s t e r who r e f e r r e d t h e Narmada, K r i s h n a , and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s t o t r i b u n a l s when f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s appea red p o i n t l e s s . H i s p a t t e r n o f n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e r e v e a l e d a commitment t o i t s r e s o l u t i o n . H i s s t r a t e g y , t o d i s c u s s f i r s t t h e l e s s s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s on wh i ch t h e s t a t e s c o u l d a g r e e , h e l p e d t o c r e a t e an a i r o f c o o p e r a t i o n a t t h e e a r l y m e e t i n g s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e a i r o f c o o p e r a t i o n was d e s t r o y e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y by d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s o f t h i s d i s p u t e . The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d r a f t agreement p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t a t e s by J a g j i v a n Ram a t the November 1974 m e e t i n g i n c l u d e d t h e i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s i o n t h a t f u r t h e r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e r i v e r c o u l d be made t h r o u g h economies i n t h e c u r r e n t uses o f w a t e r m o s t l y bu t no t e n t i r e l y by m o d e r n i s i n g t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem i n t h e Cauve r y D e l t a . T h i s was u n a c c e p t a b l e t o Tami l Nadu and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e d r a f t were condemned by K a r n a t a k a . D u r i n g t h e Emergency t h e New D e l h i g ove rnment , i n i t s e a ge rne s s t o show how e f f e c t i v e Emergency r u l e c o u l d b e , p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphas i s on r e -s o l v i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s . M r s . G a n d h i ' s Emergency r e g i m e ' s p u b l i c f a c e was one o f p r o v i n g t h a t l a w , o r d e r , e f f i c i e n c y , and economic p r o g r e s s c o u l d p r e v a i l i n I n d i a . P a r t o f t h e p r o o f l a y i n s o l v i n g d i s p u t e s w h i c h h i n d e r e d t h e c o u n t r y ' s deve lopment p o t e n t i a l . J a g j i v a n Ram m i s c a l c u l a t e d , however , i n p r o p o s i n g a n o t h e r d r a f t ag reement a t a t i m e when t h e r e was P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e i n Tami l Nadu, s i n c e t h e a d v i s o r s t h e r e f e l t i t was beyond t h e i r s c ope o f a u t h o r i t y t o s i g n 108 such an i m p o r t a n t document . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, K a r n a t a k a C h i e f M i n i s t e r D e v a r a j Urs i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t t h e 1976 d r a f t agreement even though i t was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e m u c h - c r i t i c i s e d 1974 d r a f t . A p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r U r s 1 w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e i n 1976 r e l a t e d t o h i s a m b i t i o n s t o c r e a t e an i n d e p e n d e n t power base i n K a r n a t a k a f rom w h i c h he c o u l d l a u n c h h i m s e l f i n t o n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . Urs must have p e r c e i v e d t h a t i f t h e d i s p u t e were s e t t l e d d u r i n g t h e Emergency, t h e c e n t r a l government wou ld have been f o r t h c o m i n g w i t h more p a t r o n a g e and d i r e c t f u n d i n g f o r Cauve ry B a s i n p r o j e c t s w h i c h wou l d more t h a n o u t w e i g h K a r n a t a k a ' s mak ing some c o n c e s s i o n s t o Tami l Nadu. W i t h t h e e x t r a money, Urs wou ld have u n d o u b t e d l y b u i l t up a g r e a t e r s u p p o r t ne two rk among t h e p o w e r f u l l a n d o w n e r s o f s o u t h e r n K a r n a t a k a . S i n c e I ndependence , t h e c e n t r a l government has g e n e r a l l y shown a p r e f e r e n c e f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r t r i b u n a l s . In t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s two Congres s s t a t e s - - K a r n a t a k a and M a h a r a s h t r a - - r e q u e s t e d a t r i b u n a l as e a r l y as 1962 but t h e c e n t r e d i d no t c o n s t i t u t e a t r i b u n a l u n t i l 1969. L i k e w i s e , i n t he Narmada d i s p u t e t h e r e were n i n e y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s b e f o r e a t r i b u n a l was a p p o i n t e d . No o t h e r d i s p u t e s , i n -c l u d i n g t h e R a v i - B e a s wh i ch was o n l y r e s o l v e d a f t e r f i f t e e n y e a r s o f nego-t i a t i o n s , have been s e t t l e d by t r i b u n a l s . N e g o t i a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r a b l e t o any o t h e r means o f s e t t l i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s . A number o f a u t h o r s , N.D. G u l h a t i among them, 0 f a v o u r n e g o t i a t i o n s as d i d t h e I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms Commiss ion (ARC ) . The ARC (1969) s t a t e d i n i t s r e p o r t , however , t h a t t he c e n t r a l 109 government o f t e n a l l o w e d n e g o t i a t i o n s t o go on f o r t oo l o n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e y were h a v i n g a d i v i s i v e e f f e c t on t h e s t a t e s i n v o l v e d , r a t h e r t han t h e hoped f o r " i n t e g r a t i v e " e f f e c t . I t s u g ge s t ed t h a t t h e I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t be amended so t h a t a t i m e l i m i t c o u l d be p l a c e d on n e g o t i a t i o n s and t h a t any o u t s t a n d i n g d i s p u t e s be r e f e r r e d t o t r i b u n a l s a f t e r t h e l i m i t had been r e a c h e d , b u t t h e c e n t r a l government has no t t a k e n any a c t i o n t o make t h i s s u g g e s t e d amendment. A s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h has been r e a c h e d by n e g o t i a t i o n s i s more l i k e l y t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y t o a l l p a r t i e s t han an imposed s o l u t i o n . P o l i t i c i a n s who have s i g n e d an agreement w h i c h has been a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , w i l l be more commi t t ed t o i t t han t o an imposed s o l u t i o n and t h e l e a d e r s who have s i g n e d a n e g o t i a t e d ag reement w i l l d e f end i t s m e r i t s b e f o r e t he s t a t e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s . I f a t r i b u n a l ' s imposed s o l u t i o n d e l i v e r s l e s s t h a n t h e s t a t e has demanded, one may w e l l see t h e s t a t e government and o p p o s i t i o n u n i t e d t o r e s i s t i t s i m p l e m e n t a -t i o n . However , when i t a ppea r s t h a t a n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t i s an i m -p o s s i b i l i t y , an imposed s o l u t i o n wou ld be p r e f e r a b l e t o no s o l u t i o n a t a l l . An a d d i t i o n a l p rob lem i s t h a t t r i b u n a l s may h o l d up c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o n g o i n g p r o j e c t s o r may t h e m s e l v e s be h e l d up by t h e s t a t e s ' c o u r t a c t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e Narmada d i s p u t e t h e t r i b u n a l ' s d e l i b e r a t i o n s were h e l d up f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s because R a j a s t h a n and Madhya P rade sh had a s t a y o f p r o c e e d i n g s i s s u e d a g a i n s t i t by t h e Supreme C o u r t and i n t h e K r i s h n a d i s p u t e , K a r n a t a k a r e j e c t e d t h e t r i b u n a l ' s p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s , t hu s d e l a y i n g i t s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . 110 The c e n t r a l government may be h e s i t a n t t o a p p o i n t t r i b u n a l s because t h e y r e p r e s e n t a d e v o l u t i o n o f i t s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power . I f a t r i b u n a l i s a d j u d i c a t i n g a c o n f l i c t , t h e c e n t r e must r e l i n q u i s h some o f i t s a u t h o r i t y and f o r e g o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e outcome o f t h e d i s p u t e t h r o u g h i t s l e v e r a g e w i t h t h e S t a t e s i n v o l v e d . A t r i b u n a l may be p u r -p o s e l y o b l i v i o u s t o p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e c e n t r e wou ld t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t . The c e n t r e may a l s o be c o n c e r n e d t h a t d e s p i t e a c o n f l i c t b e i n g r e s o l v e d by a t r i b u n a l , t h e d i s p u t a n t s m i g h t s t i l l b lame t h e c e n t r e f o r any p e r c e i v e d i n e q u i t i e s i n t h e t r i b u n a l ' s d e c i s i o n . Thu s , t h e m a j o r p o l i t i c a l a d van t a ge f o r t h e c e n t r e i n r e f e r r i n g a d i s p u t e t o a t r i b u n a l wou ld be l o s t . One way i n w h i c h t he c e n t r e c o u l d h e l p r e s o l v e t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e i s by o f f e r i n g f i n a n c i a l p a l l i a t i v e s t o t he s t a t e w h i c h g i v e s up p a r t o f i t s c l a i m t o t h e r i v e r ' s w a t e r . However, t h e f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s t o e n -c o u r a g e compromise a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be f o r t h c o m i n g f rom t h e c e n t r e . P a r t o f t h e r ea son l i e s i n t h e c e n t r e ' s c o n c e r n f o r i t s image i n t h e s t a t e s . The c e n t r e i s i n v o l v e d i n some way w i t h e v e r y i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e i n I n d i a and i f i t were t o s e t t h e p r e c e d e n t o f o f f e r i n g m a j o r f i n a n c i a l r eward s t o end one d i s p u t e , o t h e r s t a t e s wou l d come to e x p e c t s i m i l a r r eward s f o r e n d i n g t h e i r d i s p u t e s . I f t h e r eward s were no t t o m a t e r i a l i s e , t h e c e n t r a l government c o u l d j e o p a r d i s e i t s p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t i n t h e l o s i n g s t a t e s . In r e s o u r c e s c a r c e I n d i a t h e economic c o s t s o f m e t i n g o u t f i n a n c i a l r ewa rd s t o end a d i s p u t e a r e h i g h and may no t r e s u l t i n p o l i t i c a l b e n e f i t s . t o t h e c e n t r a l gove rnment . I t wou ld be e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i -c u l t f o r t h e c e n t r e t o o f f e r ^rewards i n a s i n g l e d i s p u t e w i t h o u t one s t a t e Ill c l a i m i n g , w i t h o r w i t h o u t j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government was f a v o u r i n g t h e o t h e r s i d e . The h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Cauye r y R i v e r d i s p u t a n t s s e r v e s t o na r row t h e c e n t r e ' s o p t i o n s i n e n d i n g t he d i s p u t e . The C a u v e r y , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r m a j o r r i v e r s o f I n d i a , i s a r i v e r whose w a t e r s a r e a l -r e a d y so l a r g e l y u t i l i s e d by one s t a t e (Tami l Nadu) t h a t l i t t l e i s l e f t f o r t h e o t h e r b a s i n s t a t e s ' u s e . Othe r r i v e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a have i n -v o l v e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , undeve l oped r i v e r s , mean ing t h a t t h e r e were l a r g e amounts o f u n u t i l i s e d w a t e r a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . I t i s e a s i e r t o encou rage a s o l u t i o n where w a t e r needs t o be d i s t r i b u t e d and n o t r e -d i s t r i b u t e d , as i n t h e C a u v e r y R i v e r d i s p u t e . However, t h e p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s must n o t be l o s t s i g h t o f . A d i s t r i -b u t i v e r i v e r d i s p u t e , a l t h o u g h h y d r o l o g i c a l l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c e n t r e t o r e s o l v e t h a n a r e - d i s t r i b u t i v e c o n f l i c t , may be e x t r e m e l y d i f -f i c u l t f o r t h e c e n t r a l government t o end i f i t p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e p o l i -t i c a l c o s t s o f i t s f a v o u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n a r e h i g h . T h i s was t r u e o f t h e Narmada, K r i s h n a , and G o d a v a r i d i s p u t e s w h i c h a l l i n v o l v e d a number o f Congres s s t a t e s ( s ee C h a p t e r I I ) . A f t e r y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s t h e c e n t r a l government f i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t h e d i s p u t e s t o t r i b u n a l s becau se t h e r i s k o f a l i e n a t i n g one o r more o f t h e i n v o l v e d s t a t e s t h r o u g h i t s f u r t h e r m e d i a t i o n e f f o r t s had become t o o h i g h . What i s t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s o f r e s o l v i n g t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e ? As has been p o i n t e d o u t , i t i s l e s s i n K a r n a t a k a ' s i n t e r e s t s t o have an agreement t han i t i s i n Tam i l N a d u ' s . Up u n t i l J a n u a r y 1 9 8 3 , K a r n a t a k a ' s s t a t e government has been m o s t l y 112 c o n t r o l l e d by t h e same p a r t y , t h e C o n g r e s s , as t h a t i n New D e l h i , w h i l e Tami l Nadu has been under t h e r u l e o f r e g i o n a l p a r t i e s s i n c e 1967 . Has t h i s c au sed t h e c e n t r e t o f a v o u r K a r n a t a k a by a v o i d i n g a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e ? The e v i d e n c e s u g ge s t s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government has been u n w i l l i n g t o f o r c e t h e two s t a t e s t o come t o an ag reement because i t s does n o t w i s h t o a l i e n a t e e i t h e r K a r n a t a k a o r Tam i l Nadu. T h i s i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e c e n t r e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a where a l l t h e d i s p u t a n t s have had Congres s g o v e r n m e n t s . I t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t on p o l i t i c a l g rounds t h e c e n t r a l government has much r e a s o n t o f a v o u r K a r n a t a k a o v e r T a m i l Nadu. D e s p i t e Tami l N a d u ' s b e i n g under o p p o s i t i o n r u l e , t h e r e has g e n e r a l l y been a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a -t i o n between t h e DMK-ADMK reg imes and M r s . G a n d h i ' s Cong re s s g o v e r n m e n t s . Bo th t h e DMK and t h e ADMK have been a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g s u p p o r t f rom M r s . Gandhi so t h a t t h e y have a b e t t e r chance o f d e f e a t i n g one a n o t h e r a t t h e p o l l s . I t i s t o M r s . G a n d h i ' s a d van t a ge t h a t t h e two r e g i o n a l p a r t i e s a r e a t each o t h e r ' s t h r o a t s , f o r t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r chance t h a t he r Congres s wou ld g a i n s t r e n g t h a t t h e nex t e l e c t i o n and/o r have i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e g o v e r n i n g p a r t y i n Tami l Nadu. M r s . G a n d h i , t h e n , i s g e n e r a l l y seen as a p o t e n t i a l a l l y i n Tami l Nadu and she knows she w i l l have a l l i e s , t h e r e . In t h e t h r e e Lok Sabha e l e c t i o n s s i n c e 1 9 6 7 . - - 1971., 1977, arid 1980 - - Congres s s u p p o r t has i n c r e a s e d i n Tam i l Nadu, f rom 12 . 5 p e r c e n t i n 1971 t o 31.6 p e r c e n t i n 1980 . M r s . Gandhi ! w o u l d be u n l i k e l y to f o r e g o an o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve he r power ba se i n an o p p o s i t i o n s t a t e (where s u p p o r t f o r he r i s on t h e i n c r e a s e ) by i g n o r i n g t h e s t a t e ' s needs i n i t s most i m p o r t a n t r i v e r b a s i n . 113 I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e , m o r e o v e r , t h a t M r s . Gandhi o r her I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r s r e c e i v e a d v i c e f a v o u r i n g Tami l Nadu f rom her Tami l " l i e u t e n a n t s " i n t h e Cong re s s ( I ) : R. Venkataraman ( M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e i n t h e 1970s and now Defence M i n i s t e r ) , R.V. Swaminathan ( u n t i l F e b r u a r y 1983 , M i n i s -t e r o f S t a t e f o r A g r i c u l t u r e ) , and G.K. Moopanar ( A l l - I n d i a Cong re s s Committee ( I ) Gene r a l S e c r e t a r y ) . Moopanar i s h i m s e l f one o f t h e w e a l t h i e s t l andowne r s i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a and so i t i s v e r y much i n h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s t o see T a m i l Nadu s i g n an ag reement w h i c h g u a r a n -t e e s i t s p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s o v e r Cauve r y w a t e r . I t i s unknown, however , t o what e x t e n t t h e s e Congres s ( I ) T a m i l i a n s have a t t e m p t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y t owa rd t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e o r whe the r t h e y i n f a c t have i n f l u e n c e . There a r e a l s o a l a r g e number o f T a m i l i a n s i n t h e I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e , b u t a g a i n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s ay whe the r o r no t t h e y wou ld t r y t o i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y i n Tami l Nadu ' s f a v o u r . K a r na t a kan s c h a r g e t h a t t h e l a r g e number o f T a m i l i a n s i n t h e IAS does l e a d t o c e n t r a l government f a v o u r i t i s m o f Tami l Nadu. T h i s does no t mean, however , t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government does i n f a c t f a v o u r Tami l Nadu o v e r K a r n a t a k a i n t h e d i s p u t e . In t h e 1970 s , K a r n a t a k a has been p r i m a r i l y i n M r s . G a n d h i ' s camp and C h i e f M i n i s t e r D e v a r a j Urs wa s , as Manor (1978) p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e c i p i e n t o f Congres s p a t r o n a g e f rom New D e l h i i n o r d e r t o en su re t h e c o n t i n u e d p o l i t i c a l demi se o f t h e o n c e - p o w e r f u l Cong re s s ( 0 ) i n K a r n a t a k a . A p r ob l em f r om M r s . G a n d h i ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , however , was t h a t Urs d e v e l o p e d an i n d e p e n d e n t power base i n K a r n a t a k a wh i ch u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o h i s e x i t i n 1 979 . f r om M r s . 114 G a n d h i ' s C o n g r e s s . M r s . G a n d h i ' s t e n u r e as P r ime M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a has been marked by her g r e a t s en se o f p o l i t i c a l i n s e c u r i t y a b o u t he r power base w h i c h has made i t s e l f f e l t i n t h e w o r k i n g s o f I n d i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . As Myron We iner ( 1976 : 901) p o i n t e d o u t , " b o t h deve lopment and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s w i l l be . shaped by P r ime M i n i s t e r Gandh i ' s o v e r r i d i n g need t o c o n s o l i d a t e her p o w e r . " W e i n e r ' s ( 1982 : 344) f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s l e d him t o c o n c l u d e i n 1982 t h a t : [ w ] h i l e M r s . G a n d h i ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n he r own p a r t y has neve r been g r e a t e r , no r has t h e p a r t y e v e r been as d e -pendent upon a s i n g l e l e a d e r t o s u s t a i n i t s e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t , M r s . Gandhi c o n t i n u e s t o f e a r t h e emergence o f any i n d e p e n d e n t c e n t e r o f p o l i t i c a l power. M r s . Gandhi has a t t e m p t e d , w i t h m ixed r e s u l t s , t o dom ina te t h e Cong re s s o r g a n i s a t i o n b o t h a t t h e c e n t r e and s t a t e l e v e l s . In 1972 , f o r e x a m p l e , she was a b l e t o " d i s l o d g e " some o f t h e Congres s s t a t e bo s se s and r e p l a c e them w i t h he r own men "who were a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y dependent on t h e c e n t r e " ( G r a v e s , 1 976 : 8 7 5 ) . However , when t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r ' s h a n d p i c k e d C h i e f M i n i s t e r s have been u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own bases o f s u p p o r t - - Gundu Rao o f K a r n a t a k a i s a p r ime example - - t h e y have n o t l o n g r e t a i n e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r hand , i n ca se s where t h e y have d e v e l o p e d i n d e p e n d e n t power bases t h e i r " l o y a l t y " t o M r s . Gandhi has become q u e s t i o n a b l e - - a s w i t h K a r n a t a k a ' s D e v a r a j Urs — and t h e y have e i t h e r l e f t her Congres s o r have been f o r c e d o u t w i t h t h e " r e s u l t t h a t none o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s w e l l - k n o w n n a t i o n a l and s t a t e l e a d e r s has r e m a i n e d i n C o n g r e s s " ( W e i n e r , 1982 : 344 and see a l s o Das G u p t a , 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 0 - 6 1 ) . W h i l e i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t M r s . Gandhi p e r s o n a l l y t a k e s numerous 115 d e c i s i o n s i n s e t t i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f he r gove rnment , she must d e l e g a t e some a u t h o r i t y t o her c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . For t h e pu rpo se s o f r e s o l v i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s , t h e M i n i s t e r f o r I r r i g a t i o n has t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e d i s p u t a n t s . The I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r , t h e n , may p e r s o n a l l y have some i n f l u e n c e o v e r t he c o u r s e o f t h e d i s p u t e . J a g j i v a n Ram, f o r e x a m p l e , was an e x p e r i e n c e d M i n i s t e r i n Congres s c a b i n e t s and was p r o b a b l y w i l l i n g t o f o r c e t h e s t a t e s t o come t o an agreement i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r h i s own p o l i t i c a l p r e s t i g e . In 1 976 , f o r e x a m p l e , even though h i s d r a f t u n d e r s t a n d i n g was no t a c c e p t e d a t t h e Augu s t m e e t i n g , Ram a p p o i n t e d t h e two i n v e s t i g a t i v e c ommi t t ee s as p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e d r a f t , and t h e e v e n t s o f 1977 and 1979 showed t h a t Ram a s p i r e d t o t h e P r ime M i n i s t e r s h i p d f I n d i a . The I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r s s i n c e J a g j i v a n Ram have seemed t o be " l e s s e r l i g h t s " i n t h e J a n a t a and i n M r s . G a n d h i ' s c a b i n e t s - - men who were l e s s l i k e l y t o f o r g e ahead w i t h t h e i r own p l a n s t o end I n d i a ' s r i v e r d i s p u t e s . I n d e e d , d u r i n g t h e t i m e Rao B i r e n d r a S i n g h was I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r (between J a n u a r y 1980 and J a n u a r y 1 9 8 2 ) , he o n l y h e l d one m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e Cauvery d i s p u t e and t h e r e were no m e e t i n g s w h i l e Kedar Pandey h e l d t h e p o r t f o l i o ( f r om J a n u a r y 1982 u n t i l F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 3 ) . The re i s , p e r h a p s , an a i r o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n M r s . G a n d h i ' s c a b i n e t — she has s h u f f l e d i t n i n e t i m e s s i n c e t a k i n g o f f i c e i n J a n u a r y 1980 - - w h i c h does n o t a l l o w t h e M i n i s t e r s much f reedom o f a c t i o n (Ove r sea s T i m e s , 10 F e b r u a r y 1983 : 1 ) . Myron Weiner ( 1982 : 344) o b s e r v e d t h a t " M r s . G a n d h i ' s c a b i n e t i s made up o f p o l i t i c a l unknowns, and c a b i n e t members know t h a t i f t h e y a t t e m p t t o b u i l d a p o l i t i c a l base o f t h e i r own t h e y w i l l be r e m o v e d . " 116 I t i s i n t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s economic i n t e r e s t s t o have a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . In t h e ab sence o f an a g r e e m e n t , t h e r e a r e no p r o j e c t s i n t h e b a s i n e l i g i b l e f o r f o r e i g n a i d . G i v en t h e f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n f e d e r a t i o n , however , t h e c e n t r a l government has b e e n , i n e f f e c t , i n d i r e c t l y f i n a n c i n g Cauve r y B a s i n schemes. Even though K a r n a t a k a ' s p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n have neve r been app roved by t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , t h e y w i l l have r e c e i v e d much o f t h e n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l f r om c e n t r a l c o f f e r s , as a l a r g e p a r t o f t he s t a t e s ' budget s i s made up o f g r a n t s and l o a n s f rom t h e c e n t r e . I t i s common p r a c t i c e f o r t h e s t a t e s t o f i n a n c e l o a n s t h r o u g h f u r t h e r l o a n s f rom t h e c e n t r a l g ove rnment , i n e f f e c t r e d u c i n g t h e l o a n s t o g r a n t s . One o f K a r n a t a k a ' s r e t i r e d C h i e f E n g i n e e r s f o r I r r i g a t i o n , I.M. Magdum, i n d i c a t e d i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t whe the r o r no t a p r o j e c t was i n -c l u d e d i n a F i v e Year P l a n made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o i t s f u n d i n g . However, even i f t h e l e v e l o f f u n d i n g t h e s t a t e u l t i m a t e l y r e c e i v e s f rom t h e c e n t r e f o r a n o n - p l a n p r o j e c t i s t h e same as f o r a p l a n p r o j e c t , t h e n o n -p l a n p r o j e c t ' s r a t e o f f u n d i n g wou ld l i k e l y be s l o w e r . K a r n a t a k a m i g h t i n c l u d e a h e a d i n g such as " I r r i g a t i o n M a i n t e n a n c e " i n " i t s s t a t e budget f o r w h i c h i t wou l d r e c e i v e a l l o c a t i o n s f rom the c e n t r e t h r o u g h t h e F i n a n c e Commi s s i on . T h i s money c o u l d t h e n b e ' a p p l i e d t o t h e v a r i o u s i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n , a l t h o u g h i f a p r o j e c t were i n c l u d e d i n t h e P l a n , i t wou ld r e c e i v e much more f u n d i n g under " M a j o r and Medium I r r i g a -t i o n P r o j e c t s . " The re i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t K a r n a t a k a d i v e r t s funds f rom c e n t r a l l y - a p p r o v e d p r o j e c t s i n t h e K r i s h n a B a s i n , f o r e x a m p l e , t o t h e Cauve r y B a s i n p r o j e c t s . . 117 Because t h e c e n t r a l government i s so c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s t a t e s ' f i n a n c e s , i t l o s e s enormous amounts o f money w i t h d e l a y s i n t h e p r o j e c t s ' c o m p l e t i o n . The Wor l d Bank, f o r e x a m p l e , e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e Cauve ry D e l t a p r o j e c t wou ld c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 490 m i l l i o n r u p e e s . In 1982 , Tami l Nadu ' s Cauve ry D e l t a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p l a n was supposed t o c o s t on t h e o r d e r o f 3660 m i l l i o n r u p e e s . L i k e w i s e , K a r n a t a k a ' s p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n a r e much more e x p e n s i v e t o c o m p l e t e now than t h e y wou ld have been f i v e o r t e n y e a r s a go . A n o t h e r r e a s o n t h a t t h e economic c o s t s o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e a r e p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h i s Tam i l Nadu ' s l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . I f t h e d i s p u t e were t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l K a r n a t a k a i s a b l e t o do s e r i o u s harm t o Tami l Nadu ' s Cauve ry i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem on a y e a r l y b a s i s , Tami l Nadu c o u l d b e -come a c h r o n i c f o o d g r a i n d e f i c i t s t a t e . T h i s i n t u r n wou ld r e s u l t i n t h e c e n t r e ' s h a v i n g t o p r o v i d e more g r a i n t o Tami l Nadu f rom c e n t r a l b u f f e r s t o c k s . The re i s l i t t l e chance t h a t K a r n a t a k a wou ld be a b l e t o p roduce enough f o o d g r a i n s t o o f f s e t Tam i l Nadu ' s l o s s e s i n f o o d , e s p e c i a l l y r i c e , p r o d u c t i o n even w i t h i t s c o m p l e t e d i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s o p e r a t i n g a t f u l l c a p a c i t y because t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d f o r d r y c r o p s . The ne t e f f e c t o f t h i s wou ld be t o make i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r I n d i a t o s u s t a i n i t s goa l o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f ood p r o d u c t i o n . O v e r a l l , t h e p o t e n t i a l economic c o s t s o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l c o s t s w h i c h a r e much l o w e r t h a n t h e y were i n t h e K r i s h n a , Narmada, G o d a v a r i , .. and R a v i - B e a s d i s p u t e s . The commitment t h e c e n t r a l government has shown toward r e s o l v i n g t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e has v a r i e d o v e r t h e y e a r s o f t h e d i s p u t e . In t h e 118 d i s p u t e ' s e a r l i e r s t a g e s , t h e c e n t r a l government t o o k g r e a t e r a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n t han i n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e t h e end o f t h e Emergency. The e a r l i e s t m e e t i n g s , h e l d f rom 1971 t o 1973 , were f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g r a t h e r t h a n f o r s o l v i n g t h e ma in p rob lems o f t h e d i s p u t e . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e no p o l i t i c a l c o s t s i n h o l d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s such as t h e s e i n c o n t r a s t t o ones where t h e s t a t e s show l i t t l e bu t a n t a -gonism f o r each o t h e r and f o r t h e m e d i a t o r ' s p r o p o s a l s . A n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c e n t r e ' s a p p a r e n t l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e s i n c e 1977 l i e s i n t h e c h a n g i n g f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s o f I n d i a . In March 1977 when t h e J a n a t a p a r t y t o o k power , i t s f i r s t and f o r e m o s t c o n c e r n s were w i t h c h o o s i n g a P r ime M i n i s t e r and w i t h c o n s o l i d a t i n g power . Th roughou t i t s s h o r t t e n u r e as g o v e r n i n g p a r t y o f I n d i a , J a n a t a was t r o u b l e d by f a c t i o n a l i s m and c o u l d h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o have a r i v e r d i s p u t e f a r o f f i n t h e s o u t h o f I n d i a , where Cong re s s dom ina ted i n t h e 1977 e l e c t i o n , a t t h e t o p o f i t s 1 i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s . J a n a t a c r u m b l e d i n m id -1979 and I n d i a was under " c a r e t a k e r " r u l e u n t i l M r s . G a n d h i ' s r e t u r n t o power i n J a n u a r y 1980 . The Cong re s s ( I ) e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y r e s u l t e d i n a n o t h e r round o f P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e i n Tami l Nadu becau se MGR had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e Charan S i n g h government and becau se t h e Cong re s s ( I ) had done v e r y w e l l w i t h i t s DMK a l l y i n t h e Tami l Nadu Lok Sabha e l e c t i o n . T o g e t h e r t h e y won 36 o f 40 s e a t s - -Congress ( I ) had 20 and t h e DMK, 1 6 . The c o n s e q u e n t a s s e m b l y e l e c t i o n s saw MGR's ADMK r e t u r n t o power i n June 1980 . D e s p i t e M r s . G a n d h i ' s r e s o u n d i n g e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y o f 1 9 8 0 , her 119 Congres s p a r t y was b e s e t w i t h f a c t i o n a l i s m i n t h e s t a t e u n i t s . Her cho sen Congress ( I ) C h i e f M i n i s t e r s , such as A n j i a h i n Andhra P radesh and B h o s a l e i n M a h a r a s h t r a , f ound t h e m s e l v e s up a g a i n s t ma jo r o p p o s i t i o n f rom w i t h i n t h e i r s t a t e p a r t i e s and were e v e n t u a l l y d e p o s e d . M r s . Gandhi a l s o had a ma jo r p rob lem on her hands w i t h M a h a r a s h t r a C h i e f M i n i s t e r A n t u l a y ' s s c a n d a l i n 1 9 8 1 . The communal v i o l e n c e i n Pun jab and i n Assam a l s o r e -p r e s e n t e d much more p r e s s i n g p rob lems t h a n t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e . F u r t h e r -more , as m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , M r s . Gandhi has s h u f f l e d he r C a b i n e t so many t i m e s s i n c e 1980 t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r s have l i t t l e t i m e i n w h i c h t o d e v e l o p an image i n t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s as s t r o n g and f o r c e f u l men. Thu s , compared w i t h a K.L. Rao o r a J a g j i v a n Ram, an R.B. S i n g h o r a Kedar Pandey wou ld have d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n v i n c i n g the d i s p u t i n g s t a t e s t o come t o t h e b a r -g a i n i n g t a b l e l e t a l o n e c o n v i n c i n g them t o a c c e p t a compromise s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . As n e i t h e r s i d e has e v i n c e d any w i l l i n g n e s s t o c omprom i se , t h e New D e l h i government i s f a c e d w i t h a b r i c k w a l l o f o b s t i n a c y and has l i k e l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e r e q u i r e s more e f f o r t t o be s o l v e d t han i t i s w i l l i n g t o make. For t h e p r e s e n t n e i t h e r Tami l Nadu, e x c e p t i n d r y y e a r s , nor K a r n a t a k a i s s u f f e r i n g becau se o f t h e d i s p u t e d P o l i t i c a l l y i t i s e a s i e s t f o r t h e c e n t r e t o a c t i n t he r o l e o f " u n b i a s e d m e d i a t o r , " as any o t h e r r o l e wou l d r e q u i r e g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l and economic commitments on i t s p a r t . The c u m u l a t i v e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government i s an u n w i l l i n g and t h e r e f o r e an i n e f f e c t i v e m e d i a t o r . The most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d v i e w among my i n f o r m a n t s i n Tam i l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a was t h a t i t i s t h e c e n t r e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f i n d a way t o 120 r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e . I r o n i c a l l y , howeve r , n e i t h e r Tam i l Nadu no r K a r n a t a k a a c c e p t s t h a t t h e c e n t r e i s u n b i a s e d . Fo r e x a m p l e , n e i t h e r s i d e t r u s t e d K.L. Rao. P e o p l e f rom Tami l Nadu f e l t a T e l u g u - s p e a k e r was u n -l i k e l y t o do them j u s t i c e w h i l e t h o s e f rom K a r n a t a k a f e l t t han an I r r i g a -t i o n M i n i s t e r whose home s t a t e (Andhra P r ade sh ) was a l s o a l o w e r r i p a r i a n ( i n t h e K r i s h n a and G o d a v a r i B a s i n s ) w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s t o Tami l N a d u ' s , c o u l d no t do j u s t i c e t o K a r n a t a k a ' s c l a i m s ( I n t e r v i e w s , P a t t a b h i r a m a n , B a l e k u n d r y : 22 A p r i l and 15 May 1 9 8 2 ) . In Tam i l Nadu i t i s common t o hea r t h e c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h e c e n t r e i s f a v o u r i n g K a r n a t a k a i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e because i t a l l o w s K a r n a t a k a t o go ahead w i t h i t s p r o j e c t s . I t i s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t i n T a m i l Nadu t h a t when K a r n a t a k a was under a b r i e f s p e l l o f P r e s i d e n t ' s R u l e i n 1 9 7 1 , t h e s t a t e budget app roved by t h e c e n t r a l l y - a p p o i n t e d a d v i s o r s i n c l u d e d a l l o c a -t i o n s f o r t h e Cauve ry B a s i n p r o j e c t s . An o p i n i o n commonly h e l d i n K a r n a t a k a i s t h a t t h e c e n t r e i s i g n o r i n g t h e s t a t e ' s i n t e r e s t s becau se o f t h e T a m i l i a n s ' s t r e n g t h i n numbers i n i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y , and t h e r e was a l s o t h e s u gge s -t i o n t h a t a p o w e r f u l " l o w e r r i p a r i a n l o b b y , " p r i m a r i l y c o m p r i s e d o f c e n -t r a l o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s f rom Tami l Nadu, G u j a r a t , and Andhra P r a d e s h , o p e r a t e s i n t h e c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s . T h i s l o b b y p r e v e n t s t h e c e n t r e f rom p r o t e c t i n g K a r n a t a k a ' s r i p a r i a n r i g h t s . The c e n t r e has been c r i t i c i s e d by some K a r n a t a k a n s , i n c l u d i n g a Congress ( I ) MP, f o r no t f o r c i n g an e a r l y s o l u t i o n t o t h e d i s p u t e because i n t h e i r o p i n i o n t h e d i s p u t e ' s r e s o l u t i o n i s t o K a r n a t a k a ' s a d v a n t a g e and Tam i l N a d u ' s d i s a d v a n t a g e . The work on K a r n a t a k a ' s p r o j e c t s i s g o i n g 121 ahead v e r y s l o w l y becau se o f t h e i r e x c l u s i o n f rom t h e P l a n w h i l e i n t h e meant ime Tami l Nadu c o n t i n u e s t o r e c e i v e t h e f u l l b e n e f i t s o f t h e Cauve r y R i v e r . I f t h e d i s p u t e were b r o u g h t t o an e n d , K a r n a t a k a ' s p r o j e c t s c o u l d r e c e i v e P l a n f u n d s , be c o m p l e t e d s o o n e r , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s wou l d be s a t i s f i e d , and Tami l Nadu wou ld have t o a c c e p t t h e consequences ( I n t e r -v i e w s , Magdum, Nan je Gowda, B a l e k u n d r y : 1 2 , 1 4 , and 15 May 1 9 8 2 ) . W h i l e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n e x -p l a i n i n g t h e two s t a t e s ' c l a i m s o v e r t h e y e a r s , and i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g why t h i s t y p e o f d i s p u t e i s i n h e r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o s o l v e , t h e y do no t e x p l a i n why t h e Cauve ry R i v e r d i s p u t e r ema in s u n s o l v e d . The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s o f a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y t o end t h e d i s p u t e and t h e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s ' w e i g h i n g o f p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s c o n t r i b u t e more t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . New D e l h i ' s l a c k o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s became a h a l l m a r k o f t h e c o n f l i c t d u r i n g t h e 1970s bu t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n I n d i a ' s s y s tem o f f e d e r a l i s m where t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d need f o r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f rom t h e s t a t e governments and e l e c t o r a t e has... l e d t o i t s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a l i e n a t e e i t h e r K a r n a t a k a o r Tam i l Nadu. Because o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t d e c i s i v e l y i n t h e C a u v e r y d i s p u t e , i t has been u n a b l e t o s u g g e s t an a p p r o -p r i a t e compromise t h a t wou ld a t l e a s t m i n i m i s e t h e s t a t e s ' l o s s e s ( b o t h p e r c e i v e d and a c t u a l ) , even i f i t does no t max im i s e t h e i r g a i n s . 122 CHAPTER IV FOOTNOTES I n t e r e s t i n g l y a t a m e e t i n g i n T i r u c h i i n O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 , when Venkataraman was s t i l l F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r , he " p r o m i s e d t o use h i s good o f f i c e s f o r b r i n g i n g Cauve r y w a t e r t o P u d u k o t t a i D i s t r i c t " w h i c h i s s o u t h o f t h e Cauve r y B a s i n ( I E , 21 O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 ) . ~ 123 CHARTER vV C o n c l u s i o n The Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s i n I n d i a . A s se s sment s o f t he p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e - " f i t s a c c o u n t f o r t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f t h e c e n t r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s ' d e c i s i o n s t o t a k e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s i n t h e d i s p u t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s has l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n where t h e deve l opment needs o f t h e r i v e r b a s i n a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o t he governments i n v o l v e d t han p o l i t i c a l c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y , howeve r , t h a t h y d r o l o g i c a l app roache s t o e x a m i n i n g a r i v e r d i s p u t e s h o u l d be e n t i r e l y r e j e c t e d . Dav id LeMarquand ' s c o n c e p t o f h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s does h e l p t o e x p l a i n some o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t he Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t e e n y e a r s . When i t i s s een i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h " l o c a l i t y , " t h e e m o t i v e n a t u r e o f w a t e r i s s u e s , and t h e e x t e n t o f a c e n t r e -p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s h i p among t he b a s i n s t a t e s , one may p r e d i c t when and where a r i v e r d i s p u t e w i l l a r i s e . Once a d i s p u t e has a r i s e n t h e t h e o r y w i l l a l s o p r e d i c t many o f t h e t y p e s o f a rguments t h e d i s p u t a n t s w i l l p r e s e n t . The t h e o r y c a n n o t , however , p r e d i c t a l l t h e a rguments o f a d i s p u t e nor can i t p r e d i c t i t s outcome because o f i n t e r v e n i n g p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s . The h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a r i v e r b a s i n a l l o w s one t o d e t e r m i n e a number o f n o n - p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h l e n d them-s e l v e s e i t h e r t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o r p r o l o n g a t i o n o f a d i s p u t e . Some 124 f a c t o r s wh i ch t end t o e x a c e r b a t e a d i s p u t e i n c l u d e : 1) an u p s t r e a m -downstream r e l a t i o n s h i p between two s t a t e s w i t h no economic b e n e f i t s f o r t he upper r i p a r i a n t o come t o an agreement w i t h t h e l o w e r r i p a r i a n ; 2) a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l d a t a on t h e r i v e r and/o r d i s p u t e s o v e r t h e v a l i d i t y o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a ; 3) t h e d i s p u t a n t s d i s a g r e e o v e r t h e p e r i -mete r s o f t h e d i s p u t e ( e . g . , one s i d e i n c l u d e s g r o u n d w a t e r , a n o t h e r does n o t ) ; 4 ) t h e d i s p u t a n t s d i s a g r e e o v e r t h e d i s p u t e ' s te rms o f r e f e r e n c e ( e . g . , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " i n a d e q u a t e r a i n f a l l " ) ; 5) much o f t h e r i v e r ' s f l o w i s a l r e a d y h a r n e s s e d , e s p e c i a l l y by one s t a t e ; 6) t h e uppe r r i p a r i a n s t a t e makes o r w i l l make c o n s u m p t i v e use o f t he r i v e r ' s w a t e r ; 7) where t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e g r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t , c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a l l o c a t e . The v a r i a b l e s men t i oned above no t p r e s e n t i n t h e C a u v e r y d i s p u t e a r e 2) and 7 ) , and t h e l a t t e r o n l y becau se t h e r e a r e no l o n g e r any i n t e g r a t e d deve l opment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . Some f a c t o r s w h i c h make r i v e r d i s p u t e s e a s i e r t o s o l v e a r e : 1) a number o f i n t e g r a t e d deve l opment o p p o r t u n i t i e s wh i ch l e a d t o g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s f o r a l l p a r t i e s t h a n i f p r o j e c t s were pu r sued s i n g l y ; 2) t h e c o n f l i c t i s n o t u p s t r e a m - d o w n s t r e a m ; 3) t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r i v e r i s a v a i l a b l e and a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i e s . On l y 3) i s even m i n i m a l l y " p r e s e n t i n t he Cauvery d i s p u t e . Not o n l y a r e t h e two s t a t e s i n an up s t ream-downs t ream r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h no j o i n t deve l opment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , Tam i l Nadu uses most o f t h e w a t e r . T h i s adds up t o a ze ro - sum s i t u a t i o n i n t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s g a i n s r e p r e s e n t Tami l N a d u ' s l o s s e s and i f Tam i l Nadu m a i n t a i n s i t s c u r r e n t s h a r e o f 125 w a t e r , i t w i l l deny K a r n a t a k a i t s deve lopment p o t e n t i a l i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . M o r e o v e r , because o f t h e d i f f e r i n g pace o f deve l opment i n t h e b a s i n , t h e two s t a t e s a r e i n a c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r . K a r n a t a k a has seen Tami l Nadu ' s deve lopment p l a n s f o r g e ahead w h i l e i t s own were h i n d e r e d by i t s l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s and i t s h i s t o r i c a l p o l i t i c a l i n e q u a l i t y w i t h Tami l Nadu. K a r n a t a k a n s a r e j e a l o u s o f Tam i l Nadu ' s more advanced deve lopment and now t h a t t hey ..have t h e economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y , t h e y a r e u n w i l l i n g t o have t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e Cauve r y R i v e r c o m p r o m i s e d — T a m i l Nadu w i l l no l o n g e r be a b l e t o d i c -t a t e te rms t o K a r n a t a k a i n t he Cauve r y B a s i n . He len I n g ram ' s c o n c e p t o f " l o c a l i t y " does no t e n t i r e l y f i t t h e Cauve r y B a s i n s t a t e s . In K a r n a t a k a t h e p r edom inan t v i e w i s t h a t t h e Cauve ry R i v e r o n l y b e n e f i t s a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t he s t a t e . In Tam i l Nadu t h e most common p e r c e p t i o n i s t h a t t h e Cauve r y b e n e f i t s t h e s t a t e as a w h o l e d e s p i t e i t s " l o c a l i t y " because o f t h e r i v e r ' s g r e a t economic i m p o r t a n c e . " L o c a l i t y , " t h e n , no t o n l y v a r i e s w i t h t o p o g r a p h y b u t w i t h a r i v e r ' s economic i m p o r t a n c e o u t s i d e i t s b a s i n . The arguments t h a t Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a have put f o r w a r d o v e r t h e y e a r s o f t h e d i s p u t e have been q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e c t e d l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l , and economic a rguments g i v e n t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p o i n t s r a i s e d by t he two s t a t e s have rema ined r e m a r k a b l y c o n s t a n t o v e r t h e y e a r s . K a r -n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu a r e as f a r a p a r t i n t h e i r s t a n c e s i n 1983 as t h e y were i n 1970 . Bo th s t a t e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o make a commitment t o r e s o l v e t h e 126 d i s p u t e t h r o u g h s i g n i n g an a g reemen t . In K a r n a t a k a and e s p e c i a l l y i n Tami l Nadu, p o w e r f u l l o b b i e s make demands f o r Cauve r y w a t e r and f o r d e -ve lopment p r o j e c t s i n t h e Cauve r y B a s i n . S t a t e l e a d e r s have l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o heed t h e s e demands and show t h e l o b b i e s ( a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , c o n -t r a c t o r s , P u b l i c Works Depar tment ) t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e b e i n g p r o -t e c t e d . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s t o m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , i n t h i s c a s e t h e p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s e x -a c e r b a t e them. LeMarquand u sed t h e c o n c e p t o f h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s t o h e l p a n a l y s e r i v e r d i s p u t e s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a w h i c h means t h a t t he r o l e o f t h e c e n t r a l government i n an i n t e r s t a t e c o n f l i c t i s n o t e x -p l a i n e d . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e may be seen i n two way s : t h e a c t i o n s i t t a k e s and t h e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f n o t o n l y i t s a c t i o n s but t h e a c t i o n s i t may t a k e i n t h e f u t u r e . In K a r n a t a k a ' s c a s e LeMa rquand ' s h y d r o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s wou ld no t have p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e wou ld be as t e n a c i o u s as Madras i n t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e . The r i v e r i s n o t o f as g r e a t economic i m p o r t a n c e t o K a r n a t a k a as i t i s t o Tami l Nadu, b o t h c u r r e n t l y and p o t e n t i a l l y . M o r e -o v e r , K a r n a t a k a i s t he upper r i p a r i a n s t a t e w h i c h means t h e r e i s n o t h i n g Tami l Nadu c o u l d do t o i t s p a r t o f t h e r i v e r t o harm K a r n a t a k a ' s d e -ve l opment p o t e n t i a l i n the Cauve ry B a s i n . Why, t h e n , does K a r n a t a k a b o t h e r t o make such a s t r o n g c a s e f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s r i p a r i a n i n t e r e s t s ? There a r e two m a j o r r e a s o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t and/o r promote t h e i r bases o f s u p p o r t among a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , must i n no u n -127 c e r t a i n te rms show t h a t t h e y a r e g u a r d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' i n t e r e s t s . The second r e a s o n i s t h a t becau se K a r n a t a k a i s a s t a t e i n a f e d e r a l n a t i o n i t c anno t assume t h a t d e s p i t e i t s b e i n g t he upper r i p a r i a n s t a t e , i t w i l l have u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r i v e r . The c e n t r a l government o r a t r i b u n a l c o u l d r u l e a g a i n s t K a r n a t a k a so t h a t i t s w a t e r needs a r e no t e n t i r e l y m e t . W h i l e i n I n d i a ' s c u r r e n t s y s tem o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s t h e c e n t r a l government i s i n need o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f rom t h e s t a t e s , i t does have a u t h o r i t y o v e r t hem. The m o t i v a t i o n s b e h i n d t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a c t i o n s a r e l e s s e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d t h a n t h e s t a t e s ' a rguments and p o s t u r i n g i n t h e d i s p u t e , a l t h o u g h i t can be s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t i t i s a l s o d r i v e n by p o l i -t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however , t o s ay f o r c e r t a i n how t h e L c e n t r a l p o l i t i c i a n s c a l c u l a t e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l g a i n s and l o s s e s i n t he Cauve r y d i s p u t e . K a r n a t a k a may have been a Congres s s t a t e , bu t M r s . Gandhi has a lway s f ound p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f rom t h e r e g i o n a l p a r t i e s i n Tami l Nadu, and her own s u p p o r t i s on t h e i n c r e a s e t h e r e . L i t t l e e v i d e n c e can be found f o r an argument t h a t t h e c e n t r a l government has f a v o u r e d K a r n a t a k a i n t h e d i s p u t e . O v e r a l l , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n g o v e r n i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t y between Tami l Nadu and K a r n a t a k a and Tami l Nadu and New D e l h i seem t o have had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t he d i s p u t e . Because t h e c e n t r a l government i s u n w i l l i n g t o a l i e n a t e e i t h e r Tami l Nadu o r K a r n a t a k a by t r y i n g t o f o r c e t h e s t a t e s t o a c c e p t an u n -p o p u l a r s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e , i t has become an i n e f f e c t i v e m e d i a t o r , and i t w i l l n o t choose t o become an a r b i t r a t o r . The c e n t r a l government e s -t i m a t e s t h a t i t s p o l i t i c a l c o s t s o f a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y t o end t h e d i s p u t e 128 a r e h i g h . G i v en t h e e x i s t i n g h y d r o l o g i c - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e b a s i n s t a t e s t h e r e i s a ze ro - s um s i t u a t i o n w h i c h makes i t v i r t u a l l y i m -p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c e n t r e t o r e s o l v e t he d i s p u t e w i t h o u t t h e emergence o f a " l o s e r . " The c e n t r e does n o t want t o c r e a t e a " l o s i n g s t a t e , " t h e r e b y e i t h e r d e p r i v i n g i t s e l f o f s u p p o r t i n one s t a t e o r f o r e g o i n g t h e o p p o r -t u n i t y t o b u i l d s u p p o r t i n t h e o t h e r . The c e n t r e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l c o s t s changed d u r i n g t h e Emergency. The g o v e r n m e n t ' s own propaganda was h e a v i l y o r i e n t e d t o economic p r o g r e s s i n I n d i a and w i t h more a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e , i t s e s t i m a t e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s t o end d i s p u t e s d e c r e a s e d . ' D u r i n g t h e Emergency t h e c e n -t r e saw t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s had l e s s e n e d w h i l e t h e economic c o s t s o f a l l o w i n g r i v e r d i s p u t e s t o c o n t i n u e r e m a i n e d h i g h . I t was t h e r e f o r e more w i l l i n g t o a c t and was a l s o more e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t two d i s p u t e s were r e -s o l v e d and a t h i r d was s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e s o l v e d w i t h i n a few months o f one a n o t h e r . I t i s a l s o o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t h a t K a r n a t a k a ' s C h i e f M i n i s t e r D e v a r a j Urs p r o f e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s , b e h i n d c l o s e d d o o r s , t o a c c e p t t h e c e n t r e ' s 1976 d r a f t a g r e e m e n t . The new p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a w i t h I n d i r a G a n d h i ' s Emergency r eg ime l e d him t o r e a s s e s s t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a c c e p t i n g an a g reemen t . T h i s u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h y d r o l o g i c a l p o l i t i c s f u l l y . The c e n t r e ' s g e n e r a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t d e c i s i v e l y i n t h e Cauve r y and o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s b e g s - t h e q u e s t i o n o f why t h e New D e l h i g o v e r n -ment b o t h e r s t o a c t a t a l l . Here a g a i n v a r i o u s a c t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . . 129 o f p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s become i m p o r t a n t . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , t h e onus i s on t h e c e n t r e t o h e l p r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s . T h i s has l e d t h e s t a t e s t o pu t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e t t l i n g t h e i r c o n f l i c t s on t h e f e d e r a l government because i n t h a t way t h e i r p o l i t i c i a n s can p l a c e blame f o r u n r e s o l v e d d i s p u t e s and u n f i n i s h e d p r o j e c t s on t h e c e n t r e . T h e r e f o r e , t he p o l i t i c a l c o s t s t o t h e c e n t r e o f no t a c t i n g a t a l l a r e h i g h e r t h a n i t s t a k i n g i n e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n i n a d i s p u t e a l t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l y t h e l a t t e r l e a d s t o few t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s f o r t h e f e d e r a l g ove rnment . I t i s w i t h i n t he c e n t r e ' s power t o end r i v e r d i s p u t e s by mak ing f i n a n c i a l r eward s t o t h e s t a t e o r s t a t e s wh i ch a g r e e t o g i v e up p a r t o f t h e i r c l a i m s t o t h e w a t e r but i t i s u n l i k e l y t o do t h i s f o r f e a r t h a t s t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r d i s p u t e s w i l l a l s o come t o demand f i n a n c i a l r ewa rd s f o r s e t t l i n g t h e i r c o n f l i c t s . M o r e o v e r , i n up s t r eam-downs t ream c o n f l i c t s , w h i c h a r e o f t e n seen i n ze ro - s um terms by t he d i s p u t a n t s , t h e c e n t r e ' s own r e s o u r c e s wou ld be h e a v i l y t a x e d i f i t were t o t r y t o " b u y " a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . The c e n t r a l government p a r t y ' s c o n c e r n f o r i t s image i n v o l v e s more t h a n a n x i e t y o v e r d i s t r i b u t i n g f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s . Because t h e c e n t r e has t o a c t as a m e d i a t o r i n so many i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e s , i t t r i e s t o m a i n t a i n an image o f n e u t r a l i t y . In a s i n g l e d i s p u t e i t i s i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l l y f o r t he c e n t r e t o m a i n t a i n a t l e a s t a v e n e e r o f n e u t r a l i t y o r be f a c e d w i t h c h a r g e s o f f a v o u r i t i s m f rom one a n d , i r o n i c a l l y , p e r -haps a l l t h e d i s p u t a n t s as has happened i n t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e . In t h i s way, t h e c e n t r a l government may f i n d i t s e l f emerg ing f rom i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e s as a s c a p e g o a t . 130 No r i v e r d i s p u t e i n I n d i a has been s o l v e d w i t h o u t y e a r s o f f r u i t -l e s s d i s c u s s i o n , bu t i t i s l i k e l y , however , t h a t t h e c e n t r e i s l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i n d i n g a s o l u t i o n t o t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e t h a n i t has been w i t h s o l v i n g o t h e r m a j o r up s t r eam-downs t ream r i v e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a ( K r i s h n a , G o d a v a r i , R a v i - B e a s , Narmada) because t h e Cauve r y i s one o f t h e most h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d r i v e r s i n I n d i a . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t d i f -f e r e n c e between t h e Cauve r y and t h e o t h e r f o u r d i s p u t e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two. In a l l f o u r c a se s t h e economic c o s t s were e x t r e m e l y h i g h and f o r t h r e e o f t h e d i s p u t e s t r i b u n a l s had t o be a p p o i n t e d because i t was p o l i -t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r New D e l h i i t s e l f t o a i d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t s . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n d i s p u t e s where t h e economic c o s t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h , t h e c e n t r e w i l l be w i l l i n g t o t a k e more d e c i s i v e a c t i o n t o end t h e d i s p u t e , eyen i f i t means h a v i n g a t r i -bunal a d j u d i c a t e i t . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e Cauve r y and o t h e r r i v e r d i s p u t e s i s t h e a i r o f u n c e r t a i n t y . W i t h t h e o t h e r f o u r d i s p u t e s , i t was c l e a r t h a t a l a c k o f ag reement w o u l d have more and more s e v e r e economic r a m i f i c a -t i o n s as t h e y e a r s go b y . In t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e t h e r e i s a chance t h a t upon •comp le t i on o f i t s m a j o r and medium i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s , . 'Kar-n a t a k a w i l l b e . u n a b l e t o h o l d back enough w a t e r f r o m . T a m i l Nadu t o harm t h e l a t t e r ' s i n t e r e s t s . . In t h i s c a s e t h e m a j o r p r ob l em o f t h e c o n f l i c t w i l l be s o l v e d . . I t i s more l i k e l y , however , t h a t t h e economic c o s t s o f t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e w i l l i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e y e a r s w h i c h s h o u l d l e a d t o a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e c e n t r e ' s p a r t t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t . F o r t h e moment, however , bo th s i d e s ' needs a r e b e i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y met and so i t i s p o l i t i c a l l y e a s i e r f o r t h e c e n t r e t o be l e s s t h a n a s s i d u o u s i n p u r -131 s u i n g a s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t . Even i f t h e c e n t r e i s w i l l i n g t o work d i l i g e n t l y t o end a r i v e r d i s p u t e , i t does no t mean t h a t t h e d i s p u t a n t s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l be w i l l i n g t o comprom i se . In a l l t h e c o n c e r n e d s t a t e s , t h e r e w i l l be p o l i t i c a l p r e s -s u r e on t h e s t a t e governments t o make demands f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s h a r e o f a r i v e r ' s w a t e r . The s t a t e governments must heed t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s b e -f o r e t h e c e n t r a l government i f t h e y want t o s t a y i n power . Thu s , w h i l e t h e f e d e r a l government was a b l e t o f o r c e Pun jab t o a c c e p t a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e R a v i - B e a s d i s p u t e d u r i n g t h e Emergency, t h e s t a t e government denounced i t , a n d a r e s o l u t i o n c o u l d no t be found t h a t was a c c e p t a b l e t o Punjab and i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s f o r a n o t h e r f i v e y e a r s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t when t h e c e n t r a l government d e c i d e s i t wants a d i s p u t e r e s o l v e d , i t has t h e m e d i a t i o n s k i l l s commensurate w i t h t h e t a s k . The c e n t r e ' s m e d i a t o r s must be t r u s t e d and t h e t e n t a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t h e y p ropo se r e s p e c t e d . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e c e n t r a l government must be e x -t r e m e l y s k i l f u l d i p l o m a t i c a l l y , have a c l o s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f no t o n l y t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s o f t h e d i s p u t e bu t a l s o t h e p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s t a t e g o ve rnmen t s , and be a b l e t o t a b l e p r o p o s a l s i n such a way t h a t a l l t h e b a s i n s t a t e s i n v o l v e d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t them. In t h e Cauve ry d i s p u t e because Tami l Nadu i s , by f a r , t h e r i v e r ' s l a r g e s t u s e r , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e s t a t e be a s ked t o c u r t a i l i t s use so t h a t i t s c o - b a s i n s t a t e s m i g h t a l s o have a chance t o d e v e l o p t h e i r i r r i g a t i o n p o t e n t i a l . However, t h e c e n t r e c l u m -s i l y f ramed such a s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e 1974 d r a f t and a g a i n d u r i n g t h e Emergency when i t was most c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s o l v i n g i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e s . 132 In t h e 1976 d r a f t u n d e r s t a n d ! n g ? J a g j i v a n Ram s ugge s t ed t h a t Tam i l Nadu s h o u l d m o d e r n i s e i t s i r r i g a t i o n sytem (an e x p e n s i v e v e n t u r e ) so t h a t i t can g i v e away n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e w a t e r i t s a v e s ! The Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t I n d i a n f e d e r a l i s m i s b e s t seen as a s y s tem i n w h i c h o n l y " c o - o p e r a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " can t a k e p l a c e . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -ment i s i n a dominant p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e s t a t e s , t h e c e n t r e c a n n o t f o r c e i t s p o l i c i e s on them a t W 1 " ^ becau se o f i t s need f o r s u p p o r t f rom t h e s t a t e governments and e l e c t o r a t e . Theremus-t f i r s t be some p r o o f t o t h e s t a t e governments t h a t i t i s i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l b e s t i n t e r e s t s t o go a l o n g w i t h c e n t r a l government i n i t i a t i v e s . In t he f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e Cauve r y R i v e r and o t h e r d i s p u t e s i n I n d i a a r e most t h o r o u g h l y e x p l a i n e d by an a s se s sment o f t h e ma i n a c t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a c t i n g i n a p a r t i c u -l a r way. The c u m u l a t i v e e v i d e n c e f rom t h e Cauve r y d i s p u t e p o i n t s t o a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e main r e a s o n , o u t s i d e o f h y d r o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , t h a t i n t e r s t a t e r i v e r d i s p u t e s a r e so p r o t r a c t e d i s t h a t each gove rnment , each r e s p o n s i b l e t o a d i f f e r e n t e l e c t o r a t e , we ighs t h e p o l i t i c a l c o s t s o f a c t i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t t hu s p r e v e n t i n g r e s o l u t i o n s a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i e s f rom b e i n g f o u n d . U n l e s s an a r b i t r a t o r i s a p p o i n t e d t o a d j u d i c a t e a d i s p u t e , i t s r e s o l u t i o n w i l l o n l y be a r r i v e d a t when t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n one o r more o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s ' a s s e s smen t o f p o l i t i c a l c o s t - b e n e f i t s t h a t l e a d s t o a c o n v e r g e n c e i n what t h e y a c c e p t as a .com-p r o m i s e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e . The I r r i g a t i o n Commiss ion ( v . 3 . 2 : 384) r e p o r t e d i n 1972 t h a t 133 " f u t u r e deve lopment o f i r r i g a t i o n i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d ' w i t h a s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e d i s s u e s between t h e c o n t e n d i n g s t a t e s . " As i n o t h e r a r e a s o f I n d i a , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Cauve ry B a s i n i s r a p i d l y g row ing and w i t h i t s e x p a n s i o n , f o o d p r o d u c t i o n must keep p a c e . Even though t h e Cauve r y R i v e r i s one o f t h e most f u l l y d e v e l o p e d and b e s t - r e g u l a t e d o f a l l t h e I n d i a n r i v e r s , t h e r e i s g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r deve l opment i n t h e b a s i n . The Cauve r y D e l t a i s s t i l l i n need o f a m a j o r m o d e r n i s a t i o n e f f o r t and o t h e r Cauve ry B a s i n i r r i g a t i o n sy s tems i n Tam i l Nadu a l s o r e q u i r e u p -d a t i n g . In K a r n a t a k a t h e c a n a l s o f f t h e K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r Dam r e q u i r e some m o d e r n i s a t i o n work and c a n a l s and c h a n n e l s must be b u i l t i n t h e command a r e a s o f t h e newer p r o j e c t s i n t h e b a s i n . As K a r n a t a k a c o m p l e t e s i t s p r o j e c t s i n the Cauve r y B a s i n and i t s maximum needs become known i n t h e y e a r s t o c ome - - abou t t e n t o f i f -t e e n y e a r s a c c o r d i n g t o most e s t i m a t e s — t h e v i a b l e o p t i o n s f o r s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e w i l l become n a r r o w e r and n a r r o w e r because t h e c e n t r e w i l l n o t want t o p r e v e n t K a r n a t a k a f rom u t i l i s i n g • i t s c o m p l e t e d i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o t h e i r f u l l e x t e n t . The o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n o f t he Cauve ry d i s p u t e wou ld see Tami l Nadu a c c e p t t h a t i t must g i v e up a c e r t a i n amount o f w a t e r t o K a r -n a t a k a . An ag reement wh i ch does no t concede a t l e a s t some o f K a r n a t a k a ' s demands wou ld be i m p o s s i b l e t o e n f o r c e on t h e upper r i p a r i a n s t a t e . In o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a i s no t made t o s u f f e r as a r e s u l t o f t h e a g r e e m e n t , t h e I n d i a n c e n t r a l government s h o u l d t a k e a c t i o n t o p r o -mote t h e m o d e r n i s a t i o n o f t h e d e l t a ' s i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem and h e l p t o f i n a n c e i t . In 1970 , t h e Wor ld Bank o f f e r e d t o l e n d a i d t o Tami l Nadu 134 f o r a m o d e r n i s a t i o n p r o j e c t i n t h e Cauve ry D e l t a . One wou l d hope t h a t t he I n d i a n government w i l l pe r suade t h e Wor l d Bank t o come to Tami l Nadu ' s a i d once a g a i n . The d i s p u t e w i l l be s e t t l e d when Tami l Nadu a d m i t s t h a t t he optimum agreement i t may a c c e p t w i l l r e s u l t i n i t r e c e i v i n g l e s s w a t e r f rom K a r -na t aka t h a n i t has i n t h e p a s t bu t t h a t a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o m o d e r n i s e t he d e l t a w i l l l i k e l y compensate f o r t h e l o s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h a t i s u n -l i k e l y t o happen b e f o r e K a r n a t a k a i s a b l e t o r e t a i n so much Cauve r y w a t e r f o r i t s own uses t h a t c h r o n i c w a t e r d e f i c i t s o c c u r i n t h e T a n j a v u r D e l t a . T h i s w i l l c au se t h e T a n j a v u r l a n d h o l d e r s t o p r e s s u r e t h e Tami l Nadu government t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s by a c c e p t i n g an ag reement t o end the c o n f l i c t . In t u r n , t h e Tami l Nadu government w i l l a sk t h e G o v e r n -ment o f I n d i a t o n e g o t i a t e a compromise w h i c h w i l l b r i n g t he Cauve r y R i v e r d i s p u t e t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n . 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. O f f i c i a l Documents I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f Law, J u s t i c e and Company A f f a i r s . The I n t e r - S t a t e Water D i s p u t e s A c t , 1956. No. 33 o f 1956 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f Law, J u s t i c e and Company A f f a i r s . t h e R i v e r Boards A c t , 1956. No. 49 o f 1956 . " I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms Commi s s i on . R e p o r t on C e n t r e - S t a t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s . New D e l h i , 1969 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n and Power. R e p o r t o f t h e  I r r i g a t i o n Commi s s i o n . 3 v o l u m e s . New D e l h i , 1 972 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n and Power. " No te on D i s c u s s i o n s R e g a r d i n g t h e Cauve r y Water D i s p u t e H e l d a t New D e l h i on 29 May 1 9 7 2 . " New D e l h i , 1972 ( m i m e o . ) . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n and Power . R e p o r t o f t h e  Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Commi t t ee . New D e l h i , 1972 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f I r r i g a t i o n and Power. A d d i t i o n a l R e p o r t  o f t h e Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g C o m m i t t e e . New D e l h i , 1 9 7 3 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n . " F i n d i n g o f C.C. P a t e l R e g a r d i n g P o s s i b l e S a v i n g s i n t h e Use o f Cauve r y W a t e r s . " New D e l h i , 1974 ( m i m e o . ) . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n . " D r a f t o f t h e U n d e r s t a n d i n g Reached and Ag reed Upon by t h e S t a t e s o f K a r n a t a k a , K e r a l a , and Tami l Nadu a t t h e M e e t i n g He l d a t New D e l h i on 25 Augu s t 1976 R e g a r d i n g Use and Deve lopment o f Cauve ry W a t e r s . " New D e l h i , 1976 ( m i m e o . ) . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . Narmada Water D i s p u t e s T r i b u n a l . The R e p o r t o f t h e  Narmada Water D i s p u t e s T r i b u n a l w i t h i t s D e c i s i o n , v o l . 1. New D e l h i , 1978 . I n d i a ( R e p u b l i c ) . M i n i s t r y o f Law, J u s t i c e and Company A f f a i r s . The  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f I n d i a , as m o d i f i e d up t o t h e 1 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1980. New D e l h i , 1 980 . K a r n a t a k a . Water Re sou rce s Deve lopment O r g a n i s a t i o n (WRDO). M a s t e r PI an  f o r t h e E q u i t a b l e Use o f t h e Waters o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n i n  K a r n a t a k a . 5 v o l u m e s . B a n g a l o r e , 1976 . 136 K a r n a t a k a . I r r i g a t i o n Depa r tment . "Optimum and E q u i t a b l e Use o f t h e Waters o f t h e Cauve ry B a s i n . " B a n g a l o r e , 1978 ( m i m e o . ) . K a r n a t a k a . K a r n a t a k a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , Who's Who. B a n g a l o r e , 1978 . K a r n a t a k a . P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t . "Ten P o i n t s Formula o f K a r n a t a k a f o r S h a r i n g o f Cauve r y W a t e r s . " B a n g a l o r e , n . d . , ( m i m e o . ) . Tami l Nadu. K a v i r i N i r T a k a r a r u . [The Cauve ry Water s D i s p u t e ] . Mad r a s , 1 971 . Tami l Nadu. P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t . " C a u v e r y W a t e r s , " by B. V i j a y a r a g h a v a n . Mad r a s , 1978 ( m i m e o . ) . Tami l Nadu. P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t . B r o c h u r e on I r r i g a t i o n i n Tami l  Nadu. Mad r a s , 1 979 . Tami l Nadu. Tam i l Nadu S a t t a Mandra P e r a v a i , Yar E va r [ T a m i l Nadu L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , Who 's Who]. M a d r a s , 1 9 8 1 . Tami l Nadu. P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t . " No te on t h e Cauve r y Water I s s u e . " Mad ra s , 1982 ( m i m e o . ) . I I . I n t e r v i e w s P.K. B a l a k r i s h n a n , r e t i r e d Deputy C h i e f E n g i n e e r , Tami l Nadu PWD (23 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d r a s . S .G. B a l e k u n d r y , Cha i rman M a j o r I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t s C o n t r o l B o a r d , K a r n a t a k a (15 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . B h a k t a v a t s a l a m , e x - C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Tam i l Nadu (20 A p r i l 1 9 8 3 ) , M a d r a s . S.R. Bommai, P r e s i d e n t K a r n a t a k a J a n a t a P a r t y (14 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . H.M. Channabasappa , Cha i rman I r r i g r a t i o n A d v i s o r y B o a r d , K a r n a t a k a (17 May 1982)., B a n g a l o r e . D r a v i d a m a n i , K a r n a t a k a DMK O r g a n i s e r (10 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . R. Ganeshan, C h i e f T e c h n i c a l O f f i c e r o f I n t e r s t a t e R i v e r s , Tam i l Nadu PWD (24 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . S. G o v i n d a r a j a n , e x - E x e c u t i v e E n g i n e e r , Tami l Nadu PWD ( T a n j a v u r ) (28 March 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d u r a i . S. Guhan, Madras I n s t i t u t e o f Deve lopment S tud ie s (26 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . 137 P.N. J a n a r d h a n , S p e c i a l C h i e f E n g i n e e r , K a r n a t a k a PWD (11 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . D.C. J a y a s h a n k a r , P r o f e s s o r , Myso re U n i v e r s i t y I n s t i t u t e o f Deve lopment S t u d i e s (25 June 1 9 8 2 ) , M y s o r e . M.K. K a r u n a n i d h i , e x - C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Tami l Nadu (3 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . Kumari Anandan , L e a d e r Tami l Nadu Gandhi Kamaraj Cong re s s (21 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . L a k s h m i n a r a y a n , Madura i D i s t r i c t ADMK S e c r e t a r y (28 March 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d u r a i . I.M. Magdum, r e t i r e d C h i e f E n g i n e e r K a r n a t a k a PWD (12 and 16 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . P. M a n a v a l a n , r e t i r e d C h i e f E n g i n e e r Tami l Nadu PWD (3 A p r i l and 23 May 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad ra s . P. M u t h u r a m a l i n g a m , Madura i D i s t r i c t DMK S e c r e t a r y (23 March 1 9 8 1 ) , M a d u r a i . S .P . Namas ivayam, r e t i r e d C h i e f E n g i n e e r Tami l Nadu PWD (3 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . H.N. Nan je Gowda, Congres s ( I ) MP, Hassan D i s t r i c t and e x - M i n i s t e r f o r M a j o r I r r i g a t i o n , K a r n a t a k a (14 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . R. N a t a r a j a n ( I A S ) , Cha i rman Tami l Nadu C i v i l S u p p l i e s C o r p o r a t i o n and e x - S e c r e t a r y Tami l Nadu PWD (23 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d r a s . P. Nedumaran, L e a d e r Tami l Nadu Kamaraj Congress (2 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad ra s . Padmanabha Rao, A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e E n g i n e e r , Water Re sou r ce s Deve lopment O r g a n i s a t i o n K a r n a t a k a (14 and 15 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . M. P a t t a b h i r a m a n , A s s i s t a n t E d i t o r , The H indu (22 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d r a s . K. R a j a Mohammed, T a m i l Nadu I r r i g a t i o n M i n i s t e r , (5 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , M a d r a s . Ramachander ( I A S ) , Cha i rman Tami l Nadu Smal l I n d u s t r i e s Deve lopment Board and e x - S e c r e t a r y Tami l Nadu PWD (24 May 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . Ramachander Rao, E x e c u t i v e E n g i n e e r K a r n a t a k a Water Re sou r ce s Development O r g a n i s a t i o n (14 and 15 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . S a d i q Pa sha , DMK T r e a s u r e r and e x - M i n i s t e r f o r P u b l i c Work s , Tami l Nadu (22 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad ra s . 138 P.U. Shanmugan, ADMK Gene ra l S e c r e t a r y and e x - M i n i s t e r f o r P u b l i c Works Tam i l Nadu (22 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Mad r a s . A .K . S u b b a i a h , P r e s i d e n t K a r n a t a k a B h a r a t i y a J a n a t a P a r i s h a d (12 May 1 9 8 2 ) , B a n g a l o r e . L. V e l a y u t h a n , J u n i o r E n g i n e e r Tam i l Nadu PWD (Grand A n i c u t ) (30 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , Grand A n i c u t . E. V e n k a t e s w a r a n , A s s i s t a n t E x e c u t i v e E n g i n e e r Tam i l Nadu PWD ( T a n j a v u r ) (29 A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) , T a n j a v u r . I I I . 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" ) W e i n e r , My ron . " I n d i a ' s New P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . " A s i a n S u r v e y 16 (September 1 9 7 6 ) : 8 9 8 - 9 0 1 . " Cong re s s R e s t o r e d : C o n t i n u i t i e s and D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n I n d i a n P o l i t i c s . " A s i a n S u r v e y 22 ( A p r i l 1 9 8 2 ) : 3 3 9 - 5 5 . 143 APPENDIX ONE C l a u s e 10 o f t h e " F i n a l Agreement Between t h e Mysore and t h e Madras Government i n Regard t o t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Dam and a R e s e r v o i r a t K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r . " 18 th F e b r u a r y , 1924 . 10 . Now t h e s e p r e s e n t s w i t n e s s t h a t t h e Mysore Government and t h e Madras Government do he reby a g r ee and b i n d t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r s u c c e s -s o r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as f o l l o w s : — ( i ) The Mysore Government s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o c o n s t r u c t and t h e Madras Government do he reby a s s e n t under C l a u s e I I I o f t h e 1892 Agreement t o t h e Mysore Government c o n s t r u c t i n g a dam and a r e s e r v o i r a c r o s s and on t h e r i v e r Cauve r y a t Kannambad i , now known as t h e K r i s h n a r a -j a s a g a r a , such dam and r e s e r v o i r t o be a s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y o f no t h i g h e r t h a n 112 f e e t above t h e s i l l o f t h e u n d e r - s l u i c e s now i n e x i s t e n c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 124 f e e t above bed o f t h e r i v e r b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e dam, and t o be o f t h e e f f e c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f 44 ,827 m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t , measured f rom the s i l l o f t h e i r r g a t i o n s l u i c e s c o n s t r u c t e d a t 60 f e e t l e v e l above t h e bed o f t h e r i v e r up t o t h e maximum h e i g h t o f 124 f e e t above t h e bed o f t h e r i v e r ; t h e l e v e l o f t h e bed o f t h e r i v e r b e f o r e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e s e r -v o i r b e i n g t a k e n as 12 f e e t be low t h e s i l l l e v e l o f t h e e x i s t i n g u n d e r - s l u i c e s ; and such dam and r e s e r v o i r t o be i n a l l r e s p e c t s as d e s c r i b e d i n s c h e d u l e f o r m i n g Annexure I I t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t . ( i i ) The Mysore Government on t h e i r p a r t he reby a g r e e t o r e g u l a t e t h e d i s c h a r g e t h r o u g h and f rom t h e s a i d r e s e r v o i r s t r i c t l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t he R u l e s o f R e g u l a t i o n s e t f o r t h i n Annexure I, w h i c h r u l e s o f r e g u l a t i o n s h a l l be and form p a r t o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t . ( i i i ) The Mysore Government he reby a g r e e t o f u r n i s h t o t h e Madras G o v e r n -ment w i t h i n two y e a r s f r om t h e d a t e o f t h e p r e s e n t ag reement d i m e n -s i o n e d p l a n s o f a n i c u t s and s l u i c e s o r open heads a t t h e o f f - t a k e s o f a l l e x i s t i n g i r r i g a t i o n c h a n n e l s h a v i n g t h e i r s o u r c e i n t h e r i v e r s C a u v e r y , L a k s h m a n a t h i r t h a and H e m a v a t h i , showing t h e r e o n i n a d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o u r a l l a l t e r a t i o n s t h a t have been made s ub sequen t t o t he y e a r 1910 , and f u r t h e r t o f u r n i s h maps s i m i l a r l y showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a r e a s i r r i g a t e d by t h e s a i d c h a n n e l s p r i o r t o o r i n t h e y e a r 1910 . 144 ( i v ) The Mysore Government on t h e i r p a r t s h a l l be a t l i b e r t y t o c a r r y o u t f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n s o f i r r i g a t i o n i n Mysore under t h e Cauve r y and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s t o an e x t e n t now f i x e d a t 110,000 a c r e s . The e x t e n t o f new i r r i g a t i o n o f 110,000 a c r e s s h a l l be i n a d d i t i o n t o and i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t he e x t e n t o f i r r i g a t i o n p e r m i s s i b l e under t h e R u l e s o f R e g u l a t i o n f o r m i n g Annexure I t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t , v i z . ' , 125 ,000 a c r e s p l u s t he e x t e n s i o n p e r m i s s i b l e under each o f t h e r e x i s t i n g c h a n n e l s t o t he e x t e n t o f o n e - t h i r d o f t h e a r e a a c t u a l l y i r r i g a t e d under such channe l i n o r p r i o r t o 1910 . ( v ) The Madras Government on t h e i r p a r t a g r e e t o l i m i t t h e new a r e a o f i r r i g a t i o n under t h e i r C a u v e r y - M e t t u r P r o j e c t t o 301,000 a c r e s , and t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e new r e s e r v o i r a t M e t t u r , above t h e l o w e s t i r r i g a t i o n s l u i c e t o 93,500 m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t . P r o v i d e d t h a t , s h o u l d s c o u r i n g s l u i c e s be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e Dam a t a l o w e r l e v e l t han t he i r r i g a t i o n s l u i c e , t h e d a t e s on w h i c h s c o u r i n g s l u i c e s a r e opened s h a l l be communicated t o t h e Mysore Government . ( v i ) The Mysore Government and t h e Madras Government a g r e e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f c l a u s e s ( i v ) and ( v ) p r e c e e d i n g t h a t each Government s h a l l a r r a n g e t o s u p p l y t he o t h e r as soon a f t e r t h e c l o s e o f each o f f i c i a l o r c a l e n d a r y e a r , a s may be c o n v e n i e n t , w i t h r e t u r n s o f t he a r e a s new l y b r o u g h t under i r r i g a t i o n and w i t h t h e a v e r a g e m o n t h l y d i s c h a r g e s a t t h e ma i n c a n a l h e a d s , as soon a f t e r t h e c l o s e o f each month as may be c o n v e n i e n t . ( v i i ) The Mysore Government on t h e i r p a r t a g r ee t h a t e x t e n s i o n s o f i r r i g a -t i o n i n Myso re as s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e ( i v ) above s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t o n l y by means o f r e s e r v o i r s c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e Cauve r y and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s men t i oned i n S c h e d u l e A o f t h e 1892 Ag r eemen t . Such r e s e r v o i r s may be o f an e f f e c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f 45 ,000 m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t i n t h e a g g r e g a t e and t h e impound ing t h e r e i n s h a l l be so r e g u l a t e d as n o t t o make any m a t e r i a l d i m i n u t i o n i n s u p p l i e s c o n -no ted by t h e gauges a c c e p t e d i n t h e R u l e s o f R e g u l a t i o n f o r t h e K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r a f o r m i n g Annexure I t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t , i t b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r u l e s f o r w o r k i n g such r e s e r v o i r s s h a l l be so f ramed as t o r e d u c e t o w i t h i n 5% any l o s s d u r i n g any impound ing p e r i o d , by t h e a d o p t i o n o f s u i t a b l e p r o p o r t i o n f a c t o r s , impound ing f o r m u l a o r s uch o t h e r means as may be s e t t l e d a t t h e t i m e . 145 ( v i i i ) The Myso re Government f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s and d e t a i l s o f such r e s e r v o i r schemes and o f t h e impound ing t h e r e i n , s h a l l be f u r n i s h e d t o t h e Madras Government t o e n a b l e them t o s a t i s f y t h e m s e l v e s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n c l a u s e ( v i i ) above w i l l be f u l f i l l e d . S h o u l d t h e r e a r i s e any d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n between t h e Madras and Myso re Governments a s t o w h e t h e r t h e s a i d c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d i n r e g a r d t o any such scheme o r schemes, bo th t h e Madras and Mysore Governments a g r e e t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s h a l l be s e t t l e d i n t h e manner p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e ( x v ) b e l o w . ( i x ) The Mysore Government and t h e Madras Government a g r e e t h a t t h e r e s e r v e s t o r a g e f o r power g e n e r a t i o n pu rpo se s now p r o v i d e d i n t h e K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r a may be u t i l i s e d by t h e Mysore Government a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e f rom any o t h e r R e s e r v o i r h e r e a f t e r t o be c o n -s t r u c t e d , and t h e s t o r a g e t hu s r e l e a s e d f rom the K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r a may be u t i l i s e d f o r new i r r i g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e e x t e n t o f 110,000 a c r e s p r o v i d e d f o r i n c l a u s e ( i v ) a b o v e . ( x ) S h o u l d t h e Mysore Government so d e c i d e t o r e l e a s e t h e r e s e r v e s t o r a g e f o r power g e n e r a t i o n pu rpo se s f r om t h e K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r a , t h e w o r k i n g t a b l e s f o r t h e new r e s e r v o i r f rom w h i c h t h e power w a t e r w i l l t hen be u t i l i s e d s h a l l be f ramed a f t e r . t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e ( v i i ) above and t h e a l t e r e d c o n d i t i o n s o f i r r i g a t i o n under t h e K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r a . ( x i ) The Myso re Government and t h e Madras Government f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and a r r a n g e m e n t s embodied i n c l a u s e s ( i v ) t o ( v i i i ) s u p r a s h a l l , a t t h e e x p i r y o f f i f t y y e a r s f rom the d a t e o f t h e e x e -c u t i o n o f t h e s e p r e s e n t s , be open t o r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d and o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e Governments and t o such m o d i f i c a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s as may be m u t u a l l y a g r eed upon as t h e r e s u l t o f such r e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s . ( x i i ) The Madras Government and t he Mysore Government f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t t h e l i m i t s o f e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e s ( i v ) and ( v ) above s h a l l no t p r e c l u d e e x t e n s i o n s o f i r r i g a t i o n e f f e c t e d s o l e l y by improvement o f d u t y , w i t h o u t any i n c r e a s e o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f w a t e r u s e d . 146 ( x i i i ) N o t h i n g h e r e i n a g reed t o o r c o n t a i n e d s h a l l be deemed t o q u a l i f y o r l i m i t i n any manner t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e 1892 agreement i n r e -ga rd t o m a t t e r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e t o w h i c h t h i s ag reement r e l a t e s o r t o a f f e c t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e Mysore Government t o c o n s t r u c t new i r r i -g a t i o n works on t h e t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y i n Myso re n o t i n -c l u d e d i n S c h e d u l e A o f t h e 1892 agreement i n r e g a r d t o m a t t e r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e t o w h i c h t h i s ag reement r e l a t e s o r t o a f f e c t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e Mysore Government t o c o n s t r u c t new i r r i g a t i o n works on t h e t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y i n Mysore no t i n c l u d e d i n S c h e d u l e A o f t h e 1892 a g r eemen t . ( x i v ) The Madras Government s h a l l be a t l i b e r t y t o c o n s t r u c t new i r r i g a -t i o n works on t h e t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y i n Madras a n d , s h o u l d t h e Madras Government c o n s t r u c t , on t h e B h a v a n i , A m r a v a t h i o r N o y i l r i v e r s i n Mad r a s , any new s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r t h e Mysore G o v e r n -ment s h a l l be a t l i b e r t y t o c o n s t r u c t , as an o f f - s e t a s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e r e f e r r e d t o i n c l a u s e ( v i i ) o f t h i s ag reement on one o f t h e t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Cauve r y i n M y s o r e , o f a c a p a c i t y n o t e x c e e d i n g 60% o f t h e new r e s e r v o i r i n M a d r a s . P r o v i d e d t h a t t h e impound ing i n s uch r e s e r v o i r s s h a l l n o t d i m i n i s h o r a f f e c t i n any way t h e s u p p l i e s t o w h i c h t h e Madras Government and t h e Mysore Government r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e e n t i t l e d under t h i s a g r e e m e n t , o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f s u r p l u s w a t e r w h i c h , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d , w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r d i v i s i o n on t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h i s ag reement as p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e ( x i ) . ( x v ) The Madras Government and Mysore Government h e r e b y a g r e e t h a t , i f a t any t i m e t h e r e s h o u l d a r i s e any d i s p u t e , between t h e Madras Government and t h e Myso re Government t o u c h i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r o p e r a t i o n o r c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t , such d i s p u t e s h a l l be r e f e r r e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t t o a r b i t r a t i o n , o r i f t h e p a r t i e s so a g r e e s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Government o f I n d i a . R e p r i n t e d i n M. Ba shee r H u s s a i n , The Cauve r y R i v e r D i s p u t e : An A n a l y s i s  o f M y s o r e ' s Case ( M y s o r e : Rao and Raghavan, 1 9 7 2 , pp . 5 6 - 6 4 . ) 147 APPENDIX TWO D r a f t o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g reached and a g r eed upon by t h e s t a t e s o f K a r n a t a k a , K e r a l a , and Tami l Nadu a t t h e m e e t i n g h e l d a t New D e l h i on 25 A u g u s t , 1976 r e g a r d i n g use and deve lopment o f Cauve r y w a t e r s . I t i s a g r e e d t h a t optimum use be made o f t h e w a t e r s o f t h e C a u v e r y . I t i s f u r t h e r a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e i s s cope f o r e f f e c t i n g economies i n p r e s e n t use o f Cauve r y w a t e r s w i t h o u t d e t r i m e n t t o e x i s t i n g a y a c u t s and t h a t maximum p o s s i b l e economies i n t h e p r e s e n t uses o f Cauve r y w a t e r be e f f e c t e d . Waters thus saved s h a l l be used t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l m u l t i p u r p o s e b e n e f i t s . I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v o i r s i n t h e b a s i n and f o r r e g u l a t i o n o f r e l e a s e s f rom v a r i o u s r e s e r -v o i r s t o en su r e t h e optimum u t i l i s a t i o n and e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w a t e r s w i t h a v i e w t o a c h i e v i n g a f o r e s a i d o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s h e r eby a g r e e d as u n d e r : - -1. E x i s t i n g u t i l i s a t i o n o f Cauve r y w a t e r s i s a g r e e d as 671 TMC, <. c o m p r i s i n g 489 TMC by Tami l Nadu, 177 TMC by K a r n a t a k a , and 5 TMC" b y~K ' e r a l a . 2 . In a normal y e a r , e x i s t i n g a r e a s under i r r i g a t i o n s h a l l be f u l l y p r o t e c t e d . 3 . In l e a n y e a r s , t h e manner o f s h a r i n g a v a i l a b l e w a t e r s s h a l l be worked o u t by a Commit tee o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e C e n t r a l and S t a t e governments and s u b m i t t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t h e n e x t C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ' m e e t i n g . 4 . T h i s Commit tee s h a l l a l s o work o u t t h e q u a n i t i t i e s o f s u r p l u s w a t e r s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e . The w a t e r s s u r p l u s , o v e r t h e e x i s t i n g use o f 671 TMC s h a l l be s h a r e d i n t h e r a t i o o f 3 0 : 53 : 17 among t he S t a t e s o f Tam i l Nadu, K a r n a t a k a , and K e r a l a . 5. Tam i l Nadu and t h e K a r a i k a l r e g i o n o f P o n d i c h e r r y s h a l l t a k e s t e p s t o e f f e c t a s a v i n g o f 100 TMC f rom p r e s e n t uses and K a r n a t a k a s h a l l t a k e s t e p s t o e f f e c t a s a v i n g o f 25 TMC f r om i t s p r e s e n t u se by v a r i o u s measures such as m o d e r n i s a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s , improvement i n w a t e r management, r e d u c i n g seepage l o s s e s , e t c e t e r a . 6 . The s a v i n g s s h a l l be e f f e c t e d w i t h i n a maximum p e r i o d o f 15 y e a r s . The C e n t r e - s h a l l d e v i s e ways and means t o p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y o u t l a y s (made up o f S t a t e s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n s and C e n t r a l a s s i s t a n c e ) i n t h e P l a n f o r improvement measures a f o r e s a i d . A t t h e end o f f i v e y e a r s , Tami l Nadu s h a l l s ave 20 TMC and K a r n a t a k a , 5 TMC. In t h e s i x t h y e a r , a r e v i e w w i l l be made o f t h e p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d by t h e t h r e e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s and t h e Un ion M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and I r r i g a t i o n who 148 w i l l l a y down a programme f o r t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s and g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n s . 7 . A t t h e end o f 15 y e a r s , s a v i n g s w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d amongst t h e t h r e e S t a t e s t h u s : Tami l Nadu 4 TMC, K a r n a t a k a 87 TMC, K e r a l a 34 TMC 8 . Out o f t h e q u a n t i t y so d i s t r i b u t e d , 2 TMC each s h a l l be a l l o w e d f o r ^ i n d u s t r i a l and d o m e s t i c w a t e r s u p p l y . 9 . Bo th t h e S t a t e s o f K a r n a t a k a and K e r a l a s h a l l be a l l o w e d t o use q u a n t i t i e s o f w a t e r a l l o c a t e d o u t o f t h e s a v i n g s on such p r o j e c t s as t h e y may c o n s i d e r n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f i c i e n t use o f w a t e r i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . 1 0 . A C a u v e r y V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y c o n s i s t i n g o f one I r r i g a t i o n E n g i n e e r f r om each o f t h e t h r e e S t a t e s and an I r r i g a t i o n E n g i n e e r o f a p p r o -p r i a t e s t a t u s no t b e l o n g i n g t o any o f t h e t h r e e S t a t e s nomina ted by t h e C e n t r a l Government as Cha i rman s h a l l be c o n s t i t u t e d . 1 1 . The f u n c t i o n s and r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e Cauve r y V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y as d r a f t e d by a Commit tee o f S e c r e t a r i e s o f t h e t h r e e S t a t e s s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e n e x t m e e t i n g o f C h i e f M i n i s t e r s . ( S o u r c e : Tami l Nadu, P u b l i c Works Depa r tmen t , " No te on t h e Cauve r y Water I s s u e " (Mad ra s , 1 9 8 2 ) , no . page n o . ) . 149 L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS ARC A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reforms Commiss ion ; CFFC Cauve r y F a c t - F i n d i n g Committee CVA C a u v e r y V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y CW & PC C e n t r a l Water and Power Commiss ion IE I n d i a n E x p r e s s ILA I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n KRS K r i s h n a r a j a s a g a r Dam PWD P u b l i c Works Depar tment TN Tami l Nadu WRDO Water Re sou r ce s Development O r g a n i s a t i o n 150 GLOSSARY A n i c u t : Dam o r w e i r o f s t o n e and masonry f u n c t i o n i n g t o r a i s e and d i v e r t w a t e r f r om a r i v e r o r s t r e a m i n t o an i r r i g a t i o n s u p p l y c h a n n e l . A y a c u t : I r r i g a b l e l a n d . B a s i n s t a t e : P a r t o r a l l o f a b a s i n s t a t e ' s t e r r i t o r y i s w i t h i n t h e r i v e r ' s b a s i n o r w a t e r s h e d but t h e t e r r i t o r y need no t t o u c h upon t h e r i v e r o r i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , as opposed t o a r i p a r i a n s t a t e whose t e r r i t o r y does t o u c h upon t h e r i v e r o r a t r i b u t a r y . Command o r c u l t u r a b l e command: I r r i g a b l e a r e a o f an i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . D e p e n d a b i l i t y : R e f e r s t o t h e minimum vo lume o f r i v e r f l o w t o be e x p e c t e d i n a g i v e n p e r c e n t a g e ( 50% , 75% most commonly u sed) y e a r s f o r wh i ch f l o w d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e . I f , f o r e xamp le , r i v e r s u p p l y i s equa l t o a minimum o f 350 TMC i n 18 o f 24 y e a r s and equa l t o 400 TMC o r more i n 12 o f 24 y e a r s , t h e d e p e n d a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y based on 50% d e p e n d a b i l i t y = 400 TMC and based on 75% d e p e n d a b i l i t y , 350 TMC. Du t y : The a r e a i r r i g a t e d d u r i n g a base p e r i o d ( c r o p p i n g s ea son ) d i v i d e d by t h e mean s u p p l y o f w a t e r u t i l i s e d i n c u s e c s ( c u s e c = 1 c u b i c f o o t per s e c o n d ) . Low d u t y i n d i c a t e s an i n e f f i c i e n t i r r i g a t i o n s y s tem w h e r e i n t o o much w a t e r i s needed t o i r r i g a t e a c e r t a i n amount o f l a n d . F i l t e r p o i n t : A s h a l l o w w e l l . G r o u n d w a t e r : Water found unde rg round i n porous r o c k s t r a t a . K u r u v a i : E a r l y r i c e c r o p p l a n t e d i n June and h a r v e s t e d i n O c t o b e r . L i v e s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y : The c a p a c i t y o f a r e s e r v o i r e x c l u d i n g t h a t vo lume o f w a t e r w h i c h i s no t used f o r o p e r a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . R e g u l a t o r : A s t r u c t u r e on a c a n a l d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e t h e w a t e r l e v e l o r d i s c h a r g e o r bo th by means o f a d j u s t a b l e s h u t t e r s . T a i l end r e g u l a t o r s a r e t h e l a s t r e g u l a t o r s o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . Samba, t h a l a d i : L a t e r c r o p s o f r i c e . Samba i s p l a n t e d i n J u l y and h a r v e s t e d i n J a n u a r y ; t h a l a d i i s p l a n t e d i n O c t o b e r and h a r v e s t e d i n F e b r u a r y . S e m i - d r y c r o p : R e f e r s t o any c r o p w h i c h does no t r e q u i r e l a r g e q u a n t i -t i e s o f i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r . T h i s t e r m i s used t o d i s t i n g u i s h c r o p s l i k e wheat and c o t t o n f rom wet c r o p s l i k e paddy and s u g a r c a n e . 151 S u r p l u s w a t e r : A r i v e r ' s y e a r l y a v e r a g e vo lume o f f l o w not c u r r e n t l y used and a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . TMC: Volume o f w a t e r equa l t o one t hou sand m i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t . A s t a n d a r d measure o f w a t e r f l o w used i n I n d i a . S o u r c e s : N.D. G u l h a t i , Deve lopment o f I n t e r - S t a t e R i v e r s i n I n d i a (Bombay: 1972) and L o r e n M i c h a e l , "Water Re sou r ce Management i n South I n d i a : I r r i g a t i o n and H y d r o e l e c t r i c Power i n t h e Cauve r y R i v e r B a s i n , 1878 -1939 " ( M a d i s d n : 1979) 

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