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The heroic song in Paradise lost and Paradise regained Hilder, Monika Barbara 1983

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THE  HEROIC SONG IN PARADISE LOST AND PARADISE REGAINED  By " MONIKA BARBARA HILDER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT.OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E n g l i s h  We accept . t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r t l 1983 (_) Monika Barbara  Hilder  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head of  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ii ABSTRACT In the f o l l o w i n g Milton's  Paradise  study, I propose to pursue the  L o s t and  Paradise  Regained.  The  subject  M i l t o n i c d e l i n e a t i o n of  h e r o i c v i r t u e i n t h e s e two  works emerges from the t e n s i o n  century  and  English Puritanism  the s t r o n g  of heroism i n  i n f l u e n c e of  between  seventeenth-  six.t eent h-centuxy ;  ;  R e n a i s s a n c e humanism—-between the r e l i g i o u s view that human v i r t u e i s contingent belief  upon the a c t i v e power of d i v i n e beneficence' and  i n the c a p a c i t y of n a t u r a l man  the more s e c u l a r  to a s s e r t h i s e s s e n t i a l d i g n i t y .  C o n s c i o u s of t h i s o s t e n s i b l e dichotomy between the temporal and m a i n t a i n e d by  s e c u l a r humanism and  t r a n s c e n d s the fusion  Milton  God's w i l l d o v e t a i l s w i t h man's, and interdependent,  inseparable.  And  direct  . i s God,  synthesizes the two  and  egocentric the  and measure of a l l t h i n g s .  proportion  terms, an  v i o l e n t n a t u r e and  crucial recognizing  second, a s s e r t i n g t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l Man  m a n i f e s t s the h e r o i c  song i n upon  heroic v i s i o n i s a conscious tradition.  e p i c poem i s a n a r r a t i v e of c o n s i d e r a b l e or c h a r a c t e r s  their capacity  is "larger than.life."  But  t o e s t a b l i s h a new,  c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c norm, s p e c i f i c a l l y  to r e a l i z e a  Milton,  to w r i t e c l a s s i c a l e p i c on a C h r i s t i a n theme, c o n s c i o u s l y Graeco-Roman precedent i n order  length  in  demonstrate i n deeds, u s u a l l y of a  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o war,  of human achievement t h a t  The  purposes,  i t i s t h i s r e l i g i o u s humanism which i n s p i r e s  Thus, t h e . t h e o c e n t r i c  which the main c h a r a c t e r  ethos.  the  humanism—the f i r s t  t r a n s c e n d e n c e of the h e r o i c norm i n h e r i t e d from Western In g e n e r a l  free w i l l :  t o h i s t h e o c e n t r i c i t y ; h i s magnanimity i s c o n t i n g e n t  h i s m o r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and M i l t o n ' s works.  d i v i n e g r a c e and  i s founded on  \  In a Baroque  a r e , f o r a l l i n t e n t s and  this synthesis  d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e o c e n t r i c and t h a t the c e n t r e f o r man  eternal  strict'Puritanism respectively, Milton  impasse i n a r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n of human grandeur.  of apparent o p p o s i t e s ,  i s the c e n t r e  the  a l l u d e s to  revolutionary  illustrated  the A e n e i d , c e l e b r a t i n g deeds m o t i v a t e d l a r g e l y by  in his  personal  level  choice the  heroic  i n the I l i a d ambition  and  and  I l l  resulting vision.  in a recognizable  s e c u l a r g l o r y , i s wholly  inadequate to M i l t o n ' s  M i l t o n thus r e j e c t s the Western h e r o i c t r a d i t i o n , d e s c r i b i n g m y t h i c ,  "superhuman" f e a t s o n l y to t r a n s c e n d of the " l o n g and feign'd"  t e d i o u s havoc  ( P a r a d i s e L o s t , IX,  them.  [caused  by]  He  demonstrates the  inferiority  f a b l ' d Knights./ In B a t t l e s  30-31) i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to "the b e t t e r  f o r t i t u d e / Of P a t i e n c e and H e r o i c Martyrdom i h i t h e r t o ] Unsung" (11. _31-33)"'. While the more p r i m i t i v e c l a s s i c a l e p i c i s o l a t e s only the v a l u e of s u c c e s s , M i l t o n , the product  of a C h r i s t i a n age,  i d e n t i f i e s and  worldly  embraces a  h e r o i c ethos c e l e b r a t i n g the s a c r e d n e s s of the human s p i r i t . In P a r a d i s e L o s t and vision  i n P a r a d i s e Regained, M i l t o n o r c h e s t r a t e s h i s e p i c  through Satan, the Son,  embodiment of the c l a s s i c a l  and  Adam and  Eve.  i d e a l , underscoring  direct  allusion  to "the wrath/ Of  "rage/  Of Turnus" (11. 16-17), and  Satan he c r e a t e s as the p a r a l l e l p o r t r a i t  stern A c h i l l e s "  (PL, IX,. 14-15),  Christ new  and  i n the Son greater  w i l l of d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e .  The  t r u e hero who  of "might" not Son,  later  fully  h a i l s human achievement f o r i t s own  strength—"By  H u m i l i a t i o n and  subject"  the  incarnate  While  the  sake,. M i l t o n e u l o g i z e s :  the paradox t h a t what is. most o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d  spiritual  In  embodies M i l t o n ' s  " b e t t e r f o r t i t u d e , " t h e i n i t i a t o r of t h e h e r o i c song. spirit  the  1  i n P a r a d i s e Regained, i s the one  classical  in  "Neptune s i r e or Juno's" (1. 18).  Satan's f u t i l e heroism, M i l t o n d e f l a t e s the v a l i d i t y to the c h a r a c t e r and  the  weak e x e m p l i f i e s . .  strong Sufferance:/  His  weakness s h a l l o'ercome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h " ( P a r a d i s e Regained, I , 160-161). And  i n man  M i l t o n c o n s o l i d a t e s h i s view that genuine heroism i s the  exercise  of m o r a l magnanimity i n the cosmic b a t t l e between good a n d . e v i l .  Edenic  man  man,  knows t h a t b l i s s  raising  himself  i s contingent  upon h i s obedience, and  from the depths of d e s p a i r , r e a l i z e s t h a t the p u r s u i t of  s p i r i t u a l heroism c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s p o s s e s s i o n happier  fallen  f a r " (PL, X I I ,  587).  of "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n . . .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Chapter I :  The H e r o i c I d o l : divided."  " s t r e n g t h from T r u t h  1  Chapter I I :  The H e r o i c Image: " H i s weakness s h a l l o'ercome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h . "  34  Chapter I I I : The H e r o i c Achievement:  "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n  66  ... h a p p i e r f a r . " Conclusion  \  114  Notes  117  Bibliography  122  1 CHAPTER I :  The H e r o i c I d o l :  " s t r e n g t h from T r u t h d i v i d e d . " .  Fundamental to M i l t o n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y v i s i o n of heroism' i n both P a r a d i s e Lost and P a r a d i s e Regained Satan e x e m p l i f i e s the v i o l e n t  i s the c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e of Satan'.  c l a s s i c a l heroism f u t i l e  u n i v e r s e ; t h i s c o n f l i c t between c l a s s i c a l and two major c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e s to Satan.  in a Christian  C h r i s t i a n e t h i c s has  raised  F i r s t , as C..S. Lewis, i m p l i e s ,  i s a contemptible f o o l deserving d i v i n e laughter.^  Satan  Secondly, as A.J.A.  Waldock s u g g e s t s , he i s the s o l e e p i c hero i n an arena populated w i t h i n s i p i d and  ignoble characters.  2  . ' . . ' • • But M i l t o n ' s d e p i c t i o n of S a t a n i c energy  d e f i e s the narrow and apparently, m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s of "hero or  3 fool" first  d e f i n e d by S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h .  Satan i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y isolating  The t i t l e " f o o l "  i n f e r i o r , which he i s n o t , and the c r i t i c a l  h i s r e b e l l i o u s s t a n c e as the s o l e h e r o i c a c t i v i t y  criticizing  implies  t h a t v e r y h e r o i c c o n v e n t i o n i s e q u a l l y absurd.  that  approach  in epics A d i s c u s s i o n of  the S a t a n i c r o l e i n M i l t o n ' s e p i c v i s i o n must c o n s i d e r the n a t u r e of the secondary  e p i c where i t i s the p o e t i c custom  ethos which t h e poet a t once r e j e c t s . d i s p l a y s a m a g n i f i c e n t heroism which  to d e l i n e a t e an o l d e r  Satan, l i k e Turnus of the A e n e i d , i s , t r a g i c a l l y , opposed  the u n i v e r s e and t h e r e f o r e m o r a l l y f o o l i s h .  i n the poet's v i s i o n ,  to the laws of  The g l o r i o u s a n t a g o n i s t of  heaven i n b o t h P a r a d i s e Lost and P a r a d i s e Regained h e r o i c ethos and,  embodies an outmoded  t h i s t r a g i c hero i s the m o r a l  . M i l t o n u n m i s t a k a b l y c r e a t e s Satan as the embodiment of the i d e a l , . u n d e r s c o r i n g the p a r a l l e l p o r t r a i t Of s t e r n A c h i l l e s "  (PL, IX, 14-15),  d i s e s p o u s ' d " (IX, 16-17), and  classical  i n d i r e c t a l l u s i o n t o "the wrath/  "Neptune's i r e or Juno's" ( I X , 18). e g o i s t i c wrath  s u r p a s s e s Odyssean d e c e p t i o n i n the accomplishment  the beguilement  of i n n o c e n t man.  fool.  the "rage/ Of Turnus f o r L a v i n i a  e x h i b i t s t h e combined m a r t i a l prowess and He  heroic  John M.  of an  Satan  Achilles.  of h i s grand  enterprise  Steadman even compares him  Aeneas c o n c e a l i n g a c t u a l d e s p a i r from h i s companions i n an attempt  to  to r a i s e  2 ' their  spirits,  4  knowing h i s own  high words to be  false.  But  i n the  cance of h i s c l a s s i c a l p o r t r a i t Satan i s c l o s e r to Turnus as t h e a n t i - t y p e of the espoused h e r o i c ethos. "Heroic  Song" (IX, 25)  violent  rage of Satan's p r e d e c e s s o r s .  to  And  signifi-  tragic  M i l t o n chooses to s i n g an  which i s "more H e r o i c "  (IX, 14)  Relegating  than t h e  combined  c l a s s i c a l martial valour  the l e v e l of f a b l e , the u n r e a l and i n s u b s t a n t i a l — Not  sedulous by Nature to  indite  Wars, h i t h e r t o the o n l y Argument Heroic  deem'd, c h i e f mastery to d i s s e c t  W i t h long and  t e d i o u s havoc f a b l ' d  Knights  In B a t t l e s f e i g n ' d (IX, 27-31) —Milton  e l e v a t e s r a t h e r "the b e t t e r f o r t i t u d e / Of P a t i e n c e  Martyrdom [ h i t h e r t o ] Unsung" (IX, 31-33). d i s p e l s the v a l i d i t y will  where a c t i o n i s m o t i v a t e d p r i d e , and, hell—as  by  this f i d e l i t y  "Which way  s u b s t a n c e " ( I , 529),  I f l y i s H e l l ; myself am  Hell"  and is  (IV,  75).  bears o n l y the "Semblance of  t h e demonic a n t i - h e r o s e l f - r a i s e d As  "with  Steadman  observes,  the f r a u d u l e n t v e r s i o n of genuine heroism which f i n d s i t s  summation i n the Son:  i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the Son's i d e n t i t y as  "True Image of the F a t h e r "  (PR,  IV,  596) , Satan i s the m a g n i f i c e n t  i n f e r n a l " I d o l of M a j e s t y D i v i n e " (FL, VI, M i l t o n orchestrates h i s epic v i s i o n of. m a r t i a l v a l o u r f o r i t s own futility.  and  to the e g o t i s t i c a l s e l f  calumnious A r t / Of c o u n t e r f e i t e d t r u t h " (V, 770-771) . Satan p r e s e n t s  to the c h a r a c t e r  the l o v e of s e c u l a r g l o r y , p e r s o n a l honour  Satan i s the parody of genuine heroism who worth, not  subject  Satan i s t r u e to the c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c code  in Milton's universe  Satan e x c l a i m s ,  Heroic  In Satan's f u t i l e heroism M i l t o n  of "might" which i s not  of d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e .  and  101).  5  sake and  but  Thus, i n P a r a d i s e  i n both the d e l i n e a t i o n of the  the  Lost,  futility  i n Satan's t r a g i c awareness of t h a t  3 In P a r a d i s e L o s t , the moral d e f l a t i o n of S a t a n i c heroism i s woven i n t o the v e r y grandeur of h i s c l a s s i c a l "beyond/  portrait.  Compare of m o r t a l prowess"  The f a l l e n A r c h - a n g e l i s  ( I , 587-588),  t h e epitome of c o n v e n t i o n a l  heroic ardour: ... he above the r e s t In shape and g e s t u r e p r o u d l y eminent -Stood l i k e a Tow'r; h i s form had y e t not  lost  A l l her O r i g i n a l b r i g h t n e s s , nor appear'd Less than A r c h - A n g e l r u i n ' d , and t h ' e x c e s s Of G l o r y obscur'd  .... (I,  Satan i s the pre-eminent  589-594)  l e a d e r a s s e r t i n g ' h i m s e l f " w i t h Monarchal  C o n s c i o u s of h i g h e s t worth" ( I I , 428-429), displaying  the c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s  t h e seemingly i n v i n c i b l e hero  "Of d a u n t l e s s courage, and  P r i d e / W a i t i n g r e v e n g e " ( I , 603-604).  pride/  considerate  And M i l t o n ' s usage of the extended  e p i c s i m i l e d e p i c t s Satan's s u p e r i o r m a r t i a l grandeur. ... the s u p e r i o r Was  moving toward  Fiend  the shore; h i s ponderous  E t h e r e a l temper, massy, l a r g e and  shield  round,  Behind him c a s t ; the broad c i r c u m f e r e n c e Hung on h i s s h o u l d e r s l i k e the Moon, whose Orb Through  O p t i c G l a s s the Tuscan A r t i s t  views  At E v ' n i n g from the top of F e s o l e , ^  Or i n V a l d a r n o , t o d e s c r y new  Lands,  -  R i v e r s or Mountains i n her s p o t t y Globe. H i s Spear, t o e q u a l which the t a l l e s t Hewn on Norwegian  hills,  Pine  t o be t h e Mast  Of some g r e a t Ammiral, were but a wand,  4  He w a l k t w i t h t o support uneasy s t e p s ( I , 283-295) Determined t o c o u n t e r s u f f e r i n g by sheer endurance and t h e e x e r c i s e of m i l i t a r y might, the Arch-Angel  i n r u i n cuts a glorious figure.  He c a l l s t o  h i s " A b j e c t and l o s t " ( I , 312) f o l l o w e r s w i t h a " G e n e r a l ' s V o i c e " ( I , 338) "so l o u d , t h a t a l l t h e h o l l o w Deep/ Of H e l l r e s o u n d [ s ] " ( I , 314-315): " P r i n c e s , P o t e n t a t e s , / W a r r i o r s .... Awake, a r i s e , or be f o r ever ( I , 315-316, 330).  B u t M i l t o n ' s usage of t h e extended  a l s o t h e m a l i g n n a t u r e of S a t a n i c grandeur  fall'n"  epic s i m i l e to portray  undercuts h i s h e r o i c stance.  W i t h Head u p - l i f t above t h e wave, and eyes That s p a r k l i n g b l a z ' d , h i s o t h e r P a r t s b e s i d e s Prone on t h e F l o o d , extended  l o n g and l a r g e  Lay f l o a t i n g many a r o o d , i n b u l k a s huge  .  As whom t h e F a b l e s name of monstrous s i z e , T i t a n i a n , or E a r t h - b o r n , t h a t warr'd on J o v e , B r i a r e o s o r Typhon, whom t h e Den By a n c i e n t Tarsus h e l d , o r t h a t  Sea-beast  L e v i a t h a n , w h i c h God of a l l h i s works r  C r e a t e d hugest Him  t h a t swim th'Ocean  stream:  h a p l y s l u m b ' r i n g on t h e Norway foam  The P i l o t o f some s m a l l n i g h t - f o u n d e r ' d  Skiff,  Deeming some I s l a n d , o f t , a s Seamen t e l l , " W i t h f i x e d Anchor i n h i s s c a l y r i n d Moors by h i s s i d e under t h e Lee, w h i l e N i g h t I n v e s t s t h e Sea, and wished Morn d e l a y s .... ( I , 193-208) As A.S.P. Woodhouse e l a b o r a t e s , M i l t o n compares Satan's g i g a n t i c s t a t u r e t o b e i n g s who a r e a l s o t h e enemies of God, d e f e a t e d and s u b j e c t t o punishment:  5 B r i a r e u s who,  a c c o r d i n g to V i r g i l ,  .  s t r o v e a g a i n s t the t h u n d e r b o l t s  Typhon the s e r p e n t so huge t h a t he reached the s t a r s , but Zeus overcame and  i m p r i s o n e d him; L e v i a t h a n , c a l l e d by I s a i a h t h e  serpent and dragon t h a t  i s i n t h e sea'and  f o r God's s p e c i a l vengeance, M i l t o n ) as the whale.  s a i d t o be r e s e r v e d  but more commonly thought of (and by  ^  M i l t o n ' s c l a s s i c a l hero i s the A r c h - d e c e i v e r , and t h o s e r e a d e r s who as t h e s o l e e p i c hero i n an arena p o p u l a t e d w i t h i n s i p i d and  see him  ignoble  c h a r a c t e r s a r e l i k e the deluded m a r i n e r s m i s t a k i n g the Sea-beast L e v i a t h a n for a protective  island.  In t h e c h a r a c t e r of Satan, M i l t o n d e f l a t e s the c l a s s i c a l v e i n of e g o c e n t r i c humanism. own  Satan e x t o l s t o Beelzebub the h e r o i c n a t u r e of h i s  r e b e l l i o u s n e s s — " t h a t f i x t mind/ And h i g h d i s d a i n , from sense of  m e r i t , / That w i t h the m i g h t i e s t r a i s ' d me argues f o r the v i r t u e of i r r e c o n c i l a b l e  injur'd  to contend" ( I , 97-99)--and  revenge:  What though the f i e l d  be  lost?  All  i s not l o s t ; t h e unconquerable W i l l ,  And  study of revenge,  And  courage never to submit or y i e l d :  immortal h a t e ,  And what i s e l s e not t o be overcome? ( I , 105-109) He assumes t h e r o l e as the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of God, n e g a t i v e c r e a t i v i t y c o u n t e r t o the m o r a l o r d e r .  bent on a c o u r s e of  R e j e c t i n g the weakness cent-^  r a l t o t h e o c e n t r i c heroism, Satan c o n f i r m s t o Beelzebub h i s r e s o l v e t o r e s i s t God w i t h e i t h e r ' v i o l e n c e or t r e a c h e r y . ... t o be weak i s m i s e r a b l e Doing or S u f f e r i n g :  but of t h i s be s u r e ,  To do aught good never w i l l be our t a s k , But ever t o do i l l  our s o l e d e l i g h t ,  As being  the c o n t r a r y  Whom we  resist. evil  to h i s h i g h  I f then h i s  Out  of our  Our  l a b o r must be to p e r v e r t  And  out of good s t i l l  Providence  seek to b r i n g f o r t h good, that  157-165)  investing l i f e  r o o t , and  i n v o l v e " ( I I , 382-384), to rob man  (I,  110)  i s animated o n l y by whatever r e s o l u t i o n he may  (I,  191)  condemns him.  t h a t the e g o c e n t r i c energy which Satan p r i z e s as h i s  "Thir spite s t i l l  The  reader  experiences  (I,  126),  Satan "Vaunting  aloud,  but  despair  r a c k t w i t h deep d e s p a i r "  i n r u i n , both t r a g i c  of Satan endorsing  and  liberty.  In the speech o f - h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n determination  to  hell  to overcome damnation  h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y r h e t o r i c undermines the assumed heroism.  t h i s the Region, t h i s the S o i l , t h e  S a i d then the l o s t A r c h - a n g e l ,  Clime,  t h i s the  seat  That we must change f o r Heav'n, t h i s m o u r n f u l gloom For t h a t c e l e s t i a l l i g h t ? ' Be  i t so  ....  ... F a r e w e l l happy Where Joy  in  the Romantic d e l u s i o n . t h a t o n l y the autonomous  opening words appear t o a s s e r t a s u p e r l a t i v e example of c l a s s i c a l Is  "Glory"  i n v a l i d a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l humanism i s f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n e d  242-270), Satan v o i c e s a n , i n d o m i t a b l e but  g a i n from  (1,5).  s e r v e s / H i s g l o r y to augment" ( I I , 385-386).  i t i s c l e a r t h a t the A r c h - a n g e l  i n d i v i d u a l enjoys  itself,  To  i s engaged i n a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e .  Milton's  (I,  malice  In a C h r i s t i a n u n i v e r s e , h e l l i s h g l o r y i s f i n a l l y  impotent:  the p o r t r a i t  by  of h i s " b l i s s f u l Seat"  the f a c t  and  a  Earth with H e l l /  But  formidable,  "as w i t h  i n t o chaos, Satan i s m o t i v a t e d  confound t h e r a c e / Of mankind i n one  m i n g l e and  ....  of l o v e p r o t e c t i v e l y c r e a t e s t h e u n i v e r s e ,  M a n t l e " ( I I I , 110) "to  end,  to f i n d means of e v i l (I,  Whereas t h e God  will  f o r ever d w e l l s :  Fields  H a i l horrors,  hail  His  courage:  7 I n f e r n a l w o r l d , and R e c e i v e thy new  thou profoundest  Possessor  Hell  .... ( I , 242-245, 249-252)  Satan f i r s t d i s t i n g u i s h e s between "mournful gloom" and  ..  "celestial  light,"  acknowledging  the e t e r n a l l o s s of j o y i n exchange f o r the h o r r o r s of  then proceeds  to a s t o i c  embrace of doom.  But h i s subsequent  d e n i a l of  d i s t i n c t i o n between heaven and h e l l throws the h e r o i c r h e t o r i c Satan e u l o g i z e s h i s presumption that personal l i b e r t y  that  the s e l f  The mind i s it's own  p l a c e , and  Here we may  and t h a t  moral  in itself,  Here a t s h a l l be f r e e  into question  will.  Can make a Heav'n of H e l l , a H e l l of Heav'n  We  this  i s the c e n t r e of the u n i v e r s e ,  i s t h e r e s u l t of autonomy from God,  laws a r e s u b j e c t t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  hell,  ....  least  ...  r e i g n s e c u r e , and  i n my  To r e i g n i s worth a m b i t i o n though B e t t e r to r e i g n i n H e l l ,  choice  in Hell:  than s e r v e i n Heav'n.  (I, 254-255, 258-259, 261-263) But the e u p h o r i a generated by the r h e t o r i c i a n c o u n t e r i n g the " U n i v e r s e of death...worse/  Than F a b l e s y e t have f e i g n ' d , or f e a r c o n c e i v e d " ( I I , 622,  626-627) w i t h c l a s s i c a l humanism i s s h o r t - l i v e d . of h i s f a t e has a l r e a d y u n d e r c u t h i s own completes empire  the p r o c e s s .  The  self-declared  master  argument, and h i s weak c o n c l u s i o n  The h e l l b r i e f l y embraced as the s e a t of a worthy'  i s a g a i n r e f e r r e d t o as " t h ' o b l i v i o u s P o o l " (1,266),  " t h i s unhappy  Mansion" (1.268),, and an i r r e s o l u t e Satan c o n c l u d e s the f r a u d u l e n t h e r o i c d e c l a r a t i o n by a s k i n g Beelzebub  i f they ought not " t o t r y what may  Regain'd  i n Heav'n, or what more l o s t  attempts  to assert  i n H e l l ? " ( I , 269-270)  Satan  be y e t / thus  the supremacy of h i s ego through a r h e t o r i c a l e q u a t i o n  of heaven and h e l l , but h i s own  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m o r a l u n i v e r s e d e f l a t e s  8 the f i e r c e n e s s of h i s c l a i m t o "make a Heav'n of H e l l , a H e l l of Heav'n." S i m i l a r l y , Satan i n v a l i d a t e s h i s own liberty  i n the war  c a s t o f f the of the Son  i n heaven.  In the  argument on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  speech c a l l i n g  h i s congregation  "Yoke" (V,786) of s u b m i s s i o n , Satan argues t h a t the  c o n s t i t u t e s the b e g i n n i n g of a monarchy which would  a n g e l s of t h e i r r i g h t f u l l i b e r t y .  But  in introducing  the  yet  h i s own  position.  f r e e , / E q u a l l y f r e e ; f o r Orders and  w e l l c o n s i s t " (V,  d e m o c r a t i c language—"Who can  (V,  (V, 796-797)  ironically,  splendor  protecting  l e s s , / In freedom  i r o n y of Satan's argument on the p r e f e r a b l e  i s t h a t the  state  l i c e n s e to e x e r c i s e power i s always an  enjoyed by u n f a l i e n b e i n g s .  a r g u e s , the Romantic c o n c l u s i o n  oft-repeated  distinction.between the good can be  l i b e r t y and  truly free."^  the poet's view t h a t r e b e l l i o n i s o n l y a f a l s e  t h a t Satan s u f f e r s from enslavement to the  idol,  As A.S.P. Woodhpuse  t h a t Satan i s the hero of P a r a d i s e  p r i n c i p l e that only  VI, A b d i e l v o i c e s  but  the Son's r u l e i n  794-796)—while prudently  equal?"  his cherished  language which,  A g a i n , Satan a t t a c k s  w i t h the s u b c l a u s e " i f i n power and  "obliterates. Milton's  equal a l l ,  Degrees/ J a r not w i t h l i b e r t y ,  himself  never the genuine l i b e r t y  attractive  i n r e a s o n then or r i g h t assume/ Monarchy over  such as l i v e by r i g h t / H i s e q u a l s "  The  deprive  l i n e s " i f not  791-793) i l l u s t r a t e the d e c e p t i v e  c o n t r a d i c t s the r e b e l l i o u s argument.  of self-government  The  introduction  democratic  argument Satan i n f u s e s h i e r a r c h i c a l language, thus s u g g e s t i n g equality while maintaining  to  Lost license,  And  i n Book  liberty,  ego:  This i s servitude, To s e r v e Against  t h ' u n w i s e , or him who his worthier,  T h y s e l f not  f r e e , but  as t h i n e now  serve  thee  to t h y s e l f e n t h r a l l ' d (II,  Milton's  hath r e b e l l ' d  ....  178-181)  i r o n i c d e l i n e a t i o n of Satan's m a r t i a l pre-eminence conveys h i s  r o l e as the f r a u d u l e n t  hero.  The m o r a l c o n t e x t  of Satan's p r e s e n t a t i o n  as  9  the epitome of c o n v e n t i o n a l ardour d e f l a t e s h i s e x a l t e d p o r t r a i t .  As S t a n l e y  Eugene F i s h a l s o o b s e r v e s , the s u b v e r s i o n of the i d e a l of m a r t i a l v a l o u r b e g i n s as e a r l y as when Satan " D a r t s h i s e x p e r i e n c ' t e y e " ( I , 568) the armed f i l e s  through  of h i s l e g i o n s p o s i n g " i n g u i s e / Of W a r r i o r s o l d "  (11. 564-565): T h i r number l a s t he sums. D i s t e n d s w i t h p r i d e , and Glories: Met  For never  And  now  hard'ning  since created  h i s heart in his strength man,  such embodied f o r c e , as nam'd w i t h  Could m e r i t more than t h a t Warr'd on by Cranes  ....  these  small infantry  8 (I, 571-576)  Satan's b a t t a l i o n s u r p a s s e s the m e r i t of " n o b l e s t temper Heroes o l d " who " i n s t e a d of r a g e / D e l i b e r a t e v a l o r b r e a t h ' d " (11. 552-554), but the r e f e r e n c e to c l a s s i c a l heroes as " t h a t s m a l l i n f a n t r y / Warr'd on by Cranes" 576)  r i d i c u l e s the d i s t i n c t i o n .  on by Cranes"  (11.  575-  In e x t e n d i n g " t h a t s m a l l i n f a n t r y / Warr'd  (11. 575-576) by the subsequent  c a t a l o g u e of m y t h i c  and  h i s t o r i c heroes and armies, M i l t o n d i s p e l s the v e r y i d e a l of m a r t i a l v a l o u r i n w h i c h Satan i s  pre-eminent. ... though a l l the G i a n t brood  Of P h l e g r a w i t h t h ' H e r o i c Race were j o i n ' d That fought a t Thebes and I l i u m , on each  side  V Mixt with a u x i l i a r  Gods; and what  In F a b l e or Romance of Uther's B e g i r t w i t h B r i t i s h and Armoric And  a l l who  Jousted  s i n c e , B a p t i z ' d or  resounds  Son Knight; Infidel  i n Aspramant or Montalban,  Damasco, or Marocco, or T r e b i s o n d , Or whom B i s e r t a sent from A f r i c  shore  •  -  When Charlemain w i t h a l l h i s Peerage  By  Fontarabbla.  10 fell  Thus f a r t h e s e beyond  Compare of m o r t a l  prowess  .... (11. 576-588)  .  Without exception, M i l t o n r e l e g a t e s m a r t i a l g l o r y to the delusory " F a b l e or Romance" ( 1 . 580).  With one  stroke,'"Baptiz'd  here t o i n v a l i d a t e the c o n v e n t i o n a l  C h a r l e m a i n w i t h a l l h i s Peerage f e l l " t h e s e names may  suggest t o the r e a d e r :  warfare.  t o e u l o g i z e m i l i t a r y conquest  ideal i t s e l f .  The  last  (1. 5 8 6 ) — s h a t t e r s  of  or I n f i d e l " ( 1 . 5 8 2 ) ,  he d e f l a t e s even t h e a u r a of r e l i g i o u s i d e a l i s m s u r r o u n d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l use of t h e e p i c c a t a l o g u e  stuff  The serves  item—"When.  whatever g r a n d e u r  m a r t i a l w a r f a r e i s the t e x t u r e of  t h e f a l l e n w o r l d , and  i t s s o - c a l l e d g l o r i e s can b r i n g no g e n u i n e v i c t o r y over  the human c o n d i t i o n .  The  of m o r t a l The  f a c t t h a t Satan's b a t t a l i o n r a n k s "beyond/Compare  prowess" (11.587-588) s i g n i f i e s t h e i r condemnation. poet reminds the r e a d e r t h a t t h e S a t a n i c empire founded on m a r t i a l  grandeur i s m e r e l y a , " G o d - l i k e divine glory.  i m i t a t e d S t a t e " ( I I , 511), a sham p a r o d y i n g  Pandemonium i s a " S t r a w - b u i l t C i t a d e l " ( I , 773),  t h a t a p p e a r s grand but of God's c i t a d e l and  citadel  i s i n s u b s t a n t i a l , a f r a u d u l e n t v e r s i o n of t h e grandeur  one  t h a t i s i n h a b i t e d by p a r p d i c a n g e l s who  f o r m s / Reduc'd t h i r shapes immense" ( I , 789-790). "Champions b o l d " ( 1 . 763)  Here the  So t h i c k t h e a e r y crowd Swarm'd and were s t r a i t ' n ' d ; t i l l  the s i g n a l g i v ' n  B e h o l d a wonder! t h e y but now  who  seem'd  In bigness to surpass Earth's  Giant  Sons  l e s s than, s m a l l e s t Dwarfs, i n narrow room  Throng n u m b e r l e s s , l i k e t h a t Pigmean Race  "to  smallest  infernal  a r e b e t t e r compared t o bees ( 1 . 768)  t h e l a u r e l s of e p i c h e r o e s :  Now  a  t h a n awarded  11 Beyond the I n d i a n Mount  .... (11. 775-781)  The  apparent s u p e r i o r i t y of c l a s s i c a l m a r t i a l v a l o u r  universe, essentially The  i s , in Milton's  trivial.  comic d e f l a t i o n of i n f e r n a l heroism a t the end  ' t h e c l i m a c t i c metamorphosis i n Book X. .ignorant of the f r a u d u l e n t n a t u r e  of Book I foreshadows  L i k e t h e "Pigmean Race" (T,  780)  of " T h i r S t r a w - b u i l t C i t a d e l " ( I , 773),  Satan ends h i s e x u l t a n t n a r r a t i v e on the f a l l  of man  w i t h t h e Son's c u r s e :  True i s , mee  a l s o he h a t h j u d g ' d , or r a t h e r  Mee  n o t , but  the b r u t e Serpent i n whose shape  Man  I deceiv'd  ... ... I am  to b r u i s e h i s h e e l ;  H i s Seed, when i s not  s e t , s h a l l b r u i s e my  A World who  purchase w i t h a b r u i s e ,  would not  Or much more g r i e v o u s  head:  pain? (X, 494-496,.498-501)  He  f a i l s t o r e a l i z e though t h a t t h e consequences of h i s p s e u d o - h e r o i c e x p l o i t  a r e not  e n d u r a b l e p a i n but f i n a l damnation, and  "high applause"  (X, 505)  h i s erroneous e x p e c t a t i o n  i s best answered w i t h t h e f u l l  i r o n y of "A  u n i v e r s a l h i s s , the sound/ Of p u b l i c s c o r n " (X, 508-509). degradation  Waldock, a r g u i n g e r a t e but  t h a t Satan i n P a r a d i s e L o s t  ironic  portrait  the t e c h n i q u e  i s a f i g u r e who  of a "comic c a r t o o n , "  urement was  Satan e x p e r i And  A.J.A.  does not  degen-  manipulating  9 of a "comic c a r t o o n . " , But  in  of S a t a n i c heroism, t h i s metamorphosis i s r a t h e r  s u c c e s s f u l comedy of p o e t i c j u s t i c e . technique  to comprehend.  i s degraded by the p o e t i c method, charges M i l t o n w i t h  t h i s metamorphosis by u s i n g Milton's  failed  dismal  In h i s i n v o l u n t a r y  t o "A Monstrous Serpent on h i s B e l l y prone" (X, 514),  ences the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c u r s e he had  Answering Waldock's complaint  on  Steadman p o i n t s out t h a t the demonic  a recurrent convention  i n Medieval  and  of  Renaissance a r t  the"  the  disfig-  and  1.2 l i t e r a t u r e , arguing  t h a t M i l t o n was  a c t u a l l y i n n o v a t i v e i n d e l a y i n g the t r a n s it;  formation  from the r e v o l t u n t i l a f t e r the f a l l  f i n a l metamorphosis i n t o a serpent f a l s e and  of man.  Furthermore, Satan's  "exposes h i s ' g o d l i k e ' p r e t e n s i o n s  h i s apparent heroism as b r u t i s h n e s s ; " the c l i m a c t i c p e n a l t y  sents M i l t o n ' s condemnation of v i r t u a l l y h u m i l i a t i o n of the c o n v e n t i o n a l  as "repre-  the e n t i r e epic t r a d i t i o n , the  h e r o i c ideal.""''' " Satan's d e g e n e r a t i o n 1  final  i s the  r e v e r s e of man's p o t e n t i a l movement "From shadowy Types to T r u t h , from F l e s h to S p i r i t , / From i m p o s i t i o n of s t r i c t Laws, to f r e e / A c c e p t a n c e of l a r g e Grace" ( X I I , 3 03-305): thus f a l l i n g The evident  Satan exchanges the genuine freedom of man  from h i s o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y t o a mere shadow of  f o l l y of m a r t i a l v a l o u r d i v o r c e d from i n the war  i n heaven.  m i s t a k e t o i n t e r p r e t the war  God,  himself.  i t s moral centre i s acutely  As Raphael i n s t r u c t s Adam, i t would be a i n heaven too l i t e r a l l y .  Raphael asks  s h a l l I r e l a t e / To human sense t h ' i n v i s i b l e e x p l o i t s / Of w a r r i n g (V, 564-566), s t a t i n g  with  t h a t h i s account  i s an accommodation of  "how  Spirits"  celestial  events to the scope of human cari prehension: v  ... yet f o r thy good T h i s i s d i s p e n s ' t , and what surmounts the  reach  Of human sense, I s h a l l d e l i n e a t e so, By  lik'ning  As may  s p i r i t u a l to c o r p o r e a l forms,  express them b e s t , though what i f E a r t h  Be but a shadow of Heav'n, and Each t o other  things therein  l i k e , more than on E a r t h i s thought? (V, 570-576)  Thus, t h e war  i n heaven should be read as a d i v i n e a l l e g o r y where the meaning  r a t h e r then the form i s c r u c i a l . f a r e i n a u n i v e r s e where s t r i f e  In t h i s sense,' S t a t n ' s grim i s essentially spiritual  c l a s s i c a l war-  is particularly  ludicrous. The  comparative d e s c r i p t i o n of the c e l e s t i a l and  r e b e l l i o u s armies a t  13 the  onset of t h e war  i n heaven u n d e r s c o r e s t h e r i d i c u l o u s . n a t u r e of t h e  c l a s s i c a l e n t e r p r i s e waged i n a m o r a l u n i v e r s e .  The h e a v e n l y army, "Of  i r r e s i s t a b l e " ( V I , 6 3 ) , a d v a n c i n g " I n s i l e n c e ... t o t h e sound/ Of  Union  instru-  m e n t a l Harmony t h a t b r e a t h ' d / H e r o i c A r d o r " ( 1 1 . 64-66), i s t h e p o r t r a i t of e t e r n a l grandeur: "in  v i c t o r y i s a c o u n t e r p a r t of t h e genuine heroism s e r v i n g  the Cause/ Of God and h i s M e s s i a h " (11. 67-66).  Against t h i s , the  " b a t t a i l o u s a s p e c t " ( 1 . 81) of "The banded Powers of Satan h a s t i n g on/ W i t h f u r i o u s e x p e d i t i o n " ( 1 1 . 85-86) i l l u s t r a t e s sheer f o l l y :  the " b o a s t f u l  Argument" ( 1 . 84) of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a s p i r i n g a g a i n s t unchanging strength i s misspent.  spiritual  L i k e w i s e , Satan's hope t o i m i t a t e h e a v e n l y thunder  i n v i t e s a p a r o d i c comparison of h i s e n t e r p r i s e t o omnipotence.  The  bombastic  r h e t o r i c and e x c e s s i v e l y i n f l a t e d d i c t i o n d e s c r i b i n g cannon w a r f a r e r e f l e c t s the  a b s u r d i t y of S a t a n ' s s t a n c e : ... Which i n t o h o l l o w Engines l o n g and round T h i c k rammed, a t t h ' o t h e r b o r e w i t h t o u c h of D i l a t e d and i n f u r i a t e s h a l l send  fire  forth  From f a r w i t h t h u n d ' r i n g n o i s e among our f o e s Such implements of m i s c h i e f as s h a l l To p i e c e s , and o'erwhelm whatever  dash  stands  A d v e r s e , t h a t t h e y s h a l l f e a r we have disarm'd The Thunderer  of h i s o n l y dreaded (VI,  bolt.  484-491)  W i t h a g e n e r a l ' s s e n s e , S a t a n a t t e m p t s t o r a i s e courage i n h i s f o l l o w e r s : "Meanwhile  r e v i v e ; / Abandon f e a r ; t o s t r e n g t h and c o u n s e l j o i n ' d / T h i n k  n o t h i n g h a r d , much l e s s t o be d e s p a i r ' d " ( V I , 493-495). a s e l f - r a i s e d general s o l e l y occupied w i t h i m p a l ' d / On e v e r y s i d e w i t h shadowing (11.  553-555) c o n f i r m s h i s f o l l y .  But t h e comedy of  "Training h i s d e v i l i s h Enginry,  Squadrons  Deep,/ To h i d e t h e f r a u d "  Satan's a d o p t i o n of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  " s t r i f e of G l o r y " ( V I , 290) does not r e a p t h e expected v i c t o r y .  When he  14 c o n f r o n t s "the g r i s l y  terror"  ( I I , 704)  the menacing appearance worthy of an Incens't  with  of Death at H e l l ' s g a t e s ,  Aeneas—  i n d i g n a t i o n Satan  U n t e r r i f i e d , and  wearing  stood  l i k e a Comet burn'd,  That f i r e s the l e n g t h of Ophiucus huge In t h ' A r t i c Sky,  and  from h i s h o r r i d  Shakes P e s t i l e n c e and  Sin  707-711)  c o n t e s t t u r n s i n t o a drama of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s .  prevents  (1. 683)  as s u p e r l a t i v e examples of c o n v e n t i o n a l ... f o r l i k e s t Stood  Satan.  M i l t o n d e p i c t s 'the  heroism:  Gods they  seem'd,  But  Sky"  P l a n e t s r u s h i n g from aspect  (11. 313-314) e l i c i t s  Was  i s due  In  When M i l t o n a s s o c i a t e s  temper'd so, t h a t n e i t h e r keen/ Nor  t h a t edge" ( V I , 3 2 0 - 3 2 3 ) — h e s u r p a s s e s success  ...  t h e e x p e c t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i d i n g f a t e  of h i s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h i s not met.  g i v ' n him  malign/  "expectation  M i c h a e l ' s v i c t o r y w i t h d i v i n e p o w e r — " t h e sword/ Of M i c h a e l God/  contest also  301-303)  gods l i k e "Two  o p p o s i t i o n i n mid  h o r r o r " (11. 306-307).  of  recognize  to d e c i d e the Empire of g r e a t Heav'n.  s i g h t of t h e s e two  on the m e r i t  Had  they or mov'd, i n s t a t u r e , motion, arms  (VI,  Of f i e r c e s t  g r e a t deeds/  T h i s d e f l a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l  takes p l a c e i n the encounter between Michael"and  The  now  f o e as a m i r r o r of h i m s e l f , t h e u g l i n e s s of S i n as  " p e r f e c t image" (1. 764).  Fit  comic i n t r u s i o n of  (11. 7 2 2 - 7 2 3 ) — a n d the would-be hero i s f o r c e d t o  the " m i s c r e a t e d "  two  The  Satan from e x e r c i s i n g m a r t i a l v a l o u r — " a n d  been a c h i e v ' d "  his  hair  War.  (II, —the  .  even the c o n v e n t i o n  to Olympia's i n t e r v e n t i o n .  p h y s i c a l combat become w h o l l y  irrelevant:  from the Armory  s o l i d might  resist  where the v i c t o r ' s  Here the p o t e n t i a l g l o r i e s of  the  Satan cannot conquer t h e m o r a l  o r d e r where b a t t l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l .  And  the impotence of S a t a n i c  15 heroism  i s further underlined  The  f o r c e of A b d i e l ' s  heroism.  Abdiel  i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n to A b d i e l .  s i n g u l a r f a i t h f u l n e s s exposes Satan's  i s the s o l i t a r y hero, "Among innumerable f a l s e , unmov'd/  Unshak'n, unseduc'd, u n t e r r i f i ' d " and  fraudulent  (V, 898-899), c o n s t a n t  i n l o y a l t y , love,  z e a l (V, 9 0 0 ) . He p o s s e s s e s a f a i t h p a r a l l e l t o what F i s h c a l l s "an  e x i s t e n t i a l a s s u r a n c e of God's l o v e , " and i s thus t h e p o s i t i v e  counterpart  12 t o Satan. duction  The a d v e r s a r y "thought h i m s e l f  impair'd"  (V, 665) a t t h e i n t r o -  of t h e Son, but A b d i e l c o n c l u d e s from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e event i s  "bent r a t h e r t o e x a l t " (V, 829) t h e a n g e l i c s t a t e .  I t i s out of t h i s  a b l e a s s u r a n c e of d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e t h a t A b d i e l v o i c e s awaiting  Satan's s e l f - i m p o s e d  alienation:  unalter  t h e f i n a l doom  "Then who c r e a t e d  thee lamenting  l e a r n , / When who can u n c r e a t e thee thou s h a l t know" (V, 894-895).  Abdiel  fulfills  the praise  t h e Son's command t o "stand  awarded t h e r i g h t e o u s Truth,  servant  i n word m i g h t i e r  only"  (VI, 8 1 0 ) , and r e c e i v e s  f o r having " f o u g h t / The b e t t e r f i g h t  than they i n Arms" (VI, 29-30, 3 2 ) . T h i s  between, t h e s u p e r i o r i t y of t r u t h a g a i n s t n e g a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l heroism.  ... Of distinction  sheer v i o l e n c e i s c e n t r a l t o M i l t o n '  The Father  r e f e r s t o t h e subsequent war i n  heaven as by f a r " t h e e a s i e r c o n q u e s t " (VI, 37) i n comparison t o t h e t e s t of solitary faithfulness. arily  A b d i e l understands that the s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r  succeeds i n a p h y s i c a l  necess-  contest:  ... n o r i s i t aught but just., That he who i n debate of T r u t h h a t h won, Should win i n Arms, i n b o t h d i s p u t e s a l i k e Victor;  though b r u t i s h t h a t c o n t e s t  and f o u l ,  When Reason hath t o d e a l w i t h f o r c e , y e t so Most r e a s o n i s t h a t Reason overcome. (VI, And  121-126)  t h e f i g u r e of Satan r a i s e d on h i s "Royal seat  ... A f f e c t i n g a l l e q u a l i t y  w i t h God,/ In i m i t a t i o n of t h a t Mount whereon/ M e s s i a h was d e c l a r ' d  i n sight  16 of Heav'n" (V, 756, 763-765), i n f u s i n g unwary a s s o c i a t e s " w i t h calumnious A r t / Of c o u n t e r f e i t e d t r u t h " (V, 770-771), i s thus an i d o l of g e n u i n e heroism* He e x h i b i t s t h e M i l t o n i c p r i n c i p l e t h a t " s t r e n g t h from T r u t h d i v i d e d " ( V I , 38.1) must f a i l .  As M i c h a e l  sake i s c o n f u s e d w i t h " V a l o u r  l a t e r r e l a t e s t o Adam, m i g h t f o r i t s own  and H e r o i c V i r t u e , " b u t i s o n l y d e s t r u c t i o n ,  n e v e r v a l i d h e r o i s m ( X I , 689-697).  The appearance of t h e g r e a t E n s i g n  of t h e  M e s s i a h ( V I , 775) on t h e t h i r d day of t h e war i n heaven i s emblematic of t h e f i n a l d e f e a t S a t a n must meet i n a m o r a l u n i v e r s e . d i s i n t e g r a t e s i n t h e encounter w i t h m a n i f e s t e d  Autonomous m a r t i a l v a l o u r  Truth:  • " • .  ... they a s t o n i s h t a l l r e s i s t a n c e l o s t , A l l courage; down t h i r i d l e weapons dropp'd .... H i s a r r o w s .... ... w i t h e r ' d a l l t h i r And  strength,  o f t h i r wonted v i g o r l e f t them d r a i n ' d ,  Exhausted, s p i r i t l e s s , a f f l i c t e d ,  fall'n.  ( V I , 838-839, 845, 850-852) Furthermore,it  i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e Son "meant/ Not t o d e s t r o y , b u t r o o t  them out o f Heav'n" ( V I , 854-855) and t h a t t h e f a l l e n a n g e l s "headlong thems e l v e s threw/ Down from t h e v e r g e of Heav'n" ( V I , 864-865). r e b e l l i o n i s one of s e l f - n e g a t i o n :  Satan's a c t of  t h e Son r e s t o r e s o r d e r t o heaven, b u t  Satan h i m s e l f embraces d e s t i n y . C e n t r a l t o M i l t o n ' s r e f u t a t i o n of t h e c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c i d e a l i n P a r a d i s e L o s t i s S a t a n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e t o r t u r e t h a t e v i l i s . As Satan approaches t h e c l i m a x of h i s e n t e r p r i s e i n Eden, he e x p e r i e n c e s  t h e i n t r i n s i c chaos o f .  h i s i n f e r n a l c o n d i t i o n — a psyche d i v i d e d between unabated r a g e and d e b i l i t a t ing  despair. S a t a n , now f i r s t i n f l a m ' d w i t h r a g e , came down, The  Tempter e r e t h ' A c c u s e r  To w r e c k on i n n o c e n t  of man-kind,  f r a i l man h i s l o s s  i  Of t h a t j u s t B a t t l e , and h i s f l i g h t  to H e l l :  Yet  not r e j o i c i n g  i n h i s speed, though b o l d ,  Far  o f f and f e a r l e s s , nor w i t h cause t o b o a s t ,  B e g i n s h i s d i r e attempt, which n i g h the b i r t h Now r o l l i n g , b o i l s And  i n h i s tumultuous  l i k e a d e v i l i s h Engine back  Upon h i m s e l f ; h o r r o r and doubt His  troubl'd  breast,  recoils distract  t h o u g h t s , and from t h e bottom  stir  The H e l l w i t h i n him, f o r w i t h i n him H e l l He b r i n g s , and round about him, nor from H e l l One  s t e p no more than from h i m s e l f can f l y  By change of p l a c e :  Now c o n s c i e n c e wakes d e s p a i r  That slumber'd, wakes t h e b i t t e r memory Of what he was, what i s , and what must be Worse: o f worse deeds worse s u f f e r i n g s must (IV,  ensue.  9-26)  Here t h e n a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e l i n k s t h e r a g e c h a r a c t e r i z i n g of Satan's odyssey.  c l a s s i c a l heroes t o  the  intrinsic vanity  ing  e g o c e n t r i c i t y where he e x p e r i e n c e s t h e emptiness of h i s e a r l i e r b o a s t s on  the  g l o r y of autonomy from God.  i t s own p l a c e , and i n i t s e l f / (I,  Satan i s t h e v i c t i m of i m p r i s o n -  The i n i t i a l h e r o i c boast t h a t "The mind i s  Can make a Heav'n of H e l l , a H e l l of Heav'n"  254-255) now t a k e s on a t r a g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e :  t h e autonomous mind i s no  l o n g e r a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between heaven and h e l l because i t i s . i t s e l f  hell.  Satan i s the v i c t i m of a s e l f - i n d u c e d moral s c h i z o p h r e n i a , t h e h e l l of c o n s c i o u s r e b e l l i o n from which t h e r e i s no escape. to  The f a c t t h a t h i s c h o i c e  "wreck on i n n o c e n t f r a i l man h i s l o s s " (IV, 11) " l i k e a d e v i l i s h  Engine  back r e c o i l s / Upon h i m s e l f " (11. 17-18) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e M i l t o n i c v i s i o n of sin  as t h e c o n t i n u o u s a c t of s u i c i d e . For  As J o n S. Lawry comments,  Satan, " r e c o i l " i d e n t i f i e s a w a r l i k e and w a r - e n g i n e e r i n g  18 p r i d e t h a t must r e t u r n d e s t r u c t i v e l y upon i t s i n v e n t o r ' s head, t h e r e b y i d e n t i f y i n g itself  as a p e r v e r s e and  Heaven  ....  We  s i n as a form of s u i c i d e and  Hell  h e l p l e s s l y vacant r e f l e c t i o n of  s c a r c e l y n o t i c e t h a t the immediate image  or metaphor f o r F a l l  i s . t h a t of war  but i t i s w e l l t o f i t t h a t  sense:  and any  " B a t t l e proud" erroneous  d i r e c t w a r f a r e a g a i n s t b o t h c r e a t i v i t y and  (1,43),  choice i s  e t e r n i t y , as w e l l  as a s u i c i d a l a n t a g o n i s t i c " r e c o i l " a g a i n s t the chooser. S i m i l a r l y , M.M.  13  Mahood d e s c r i b e s h e l l as the concave m i r r o r f o r heaven where 14  good t h i n g s a r e not excluded but p e r v e r t e d . t r a g e d y of Satan's  i n n e r a n t i t h e t i c a l dilemma:  than a L i a r , a p e r s o n i f i e d of Satan, the poet  C.S.  Lewis  c a p t u r e s the  "he has become more a L i e  self-contradiction."^  i l l u s t r a t e s that  ( 1 . 17) upon i t s e l f because b o t h God  And  In the p r i v a t e  i n f e r n a l heroism n e c e s s a r i l y  portrait "recoils"  i t i s the erroneous c h o i c e of w a r f a r e a g a i n s t  and t h e c r e a t e d s e l f , the v e r y i n v e r s i o n of p o s i t i v e  reality.  In the p r i v a c y of the s o l i l o q u y , Satan e x p r e s s e s e x i s t e n t i a l c o n s c i o u s ness of the h o r r o r of s e l f - i m p r i s o n m e n t .  He  e x p e r i e n c e s the  punishment of e g o c e n t r i c r e b e l l i o n of which God .. Mee  him who  says  disobeys  d i s o b e y s , breaks u n i o n , and  Cast out from God  consequent  that  and b l e s s e d v i s i o n ,  day falls  I n t o u t t e r d a r k n e s s , deep i n g u l f t , h i s p l a c e Ordain'd w i t h o u t redemption, w i t h o u t  end.  (V, 611-615) And  t h e g l o r i e s of the c r e a t e d w o r l d e n f o r c e upon Satan t h e meaning of  inflicted  s e p a r a t i o n from God;  his fallen  l o t i s that  " u t t e r d a r k n e s s , deep  i n g u l f t " of the psyche t h a t c o i n c i d e s w i t h r e b e l l i o n and the b e a t i f i c v i s i o n .  self-  the e t e r n a l l o s s of  In h i s a d d r e s s t o the sun on Mount N i p h a t e s ,  Satan  v o i c e s the t o r t u r e d c o n s c i e n c e wakened by the b e a u t i e s of the c r e a t e d w o r l d :  19 ... t o thee I c a l l , But w i t h no f r i e n d l y v o i c e , and add t h y name 0 Sun, t o t e l l  thee how I hate t h y beams  That b r i n g t o my remembrance from what 1 fell, Till  how g l o r i o u s once above t h y  state  Sphere;  P r i d e and worse Ambition threw me down  Warring  i n Heav'n a g a i n s t Heav'n's m a t c h l e s s K i n g :  Ah w h e r e f o r e ! he d e s e r v ' d no such r e t u r n  .  From me, whom he c r e a t e d what I was .... ' (IV, Here, all  inflat  35-43)  c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o e a r l i e r proud r h e t o r i c , the w a r r i o r e x c e l l i n g  c l a s s i c a l precedent admits he i s g u i l t y of a pseudo-heroism  directed  a g a i n s t a b e n e v o l e n t God. Awareness of a genuine heroism s u p e r i o r t o h i s own " h i g h d i s d a i n , from sense of i n j u r ' d m e r i t " ( I , 98) condemns him:  "but other  Powers as g r e a t / F e l l n o t , but stand unshak'n, from w i t h i n / Or from w i t h o u t , to  a l l t e m p t a t i o n s arm'd" (IV, 63-65).  self-imposed  trial:  Thou h a d s t :  whom h a s t thou then or what t o accuse,/ But Heav'n's f r e e  dealt the of  "Hadst  L o g i c demands t h a t Satan pursue  equally t o a l l ? "  thou t h e same f r e e W i l l and Power t o s t a n d ? /  (IV, 66-68)  the e x i s t e n t i a l  p e r s o n a l g u i l t w i t h o u t r e s p o n d i n g t o awareness w i t h r e p e n t a n c e .  consciousness i s that l i m i t e d  c o n s c i o u s n e s s and,  crisis  Satanic  scope of awareness which b r i n g s "No l i g h t , but  ( I , 63).  Satan expresses t h e agony of a d i v i d e d  i n h i s p e r v e r s e r e a s o n i n g , sentences h i m s e l f t o ego-  centricity: Be then h i s Love a c c u r s t , s i n c e l o v e o r h a t e To me a l i k e , Nay  Love  But t h e i n f e r n a l hero i s u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l  demands of m o r a l l o g i c and, u n l i k e man, undergoes  r a t h e r darkness v i s i b l e "  this  i t d e a l s e t e r n a l woe.  c u r s ' d be thou; s i n c e a g a i n s t h i s t h y w i l l  Chose f r e e l y what i t now so j u s t l y r u e s .  20 Me m i s e r a b l e !  which way  I n f i n i t e wrath, and Which way  shall I f l y  infinite  despair?  I f l y i s H e l l ; myself  am H e l l  ....  (IV, 69-75) S i m i l a r l y , upon e n t e r i n g the s e r p e n t , Satan v o i c e s t r a g i c t h e extent without  of h i s d e p r a v i t y — t r a g i c because he a g a i n  t r a n s f o r m i n g the consequent h o r r o r to 0 f o u l descent!  t h a t I who  erst  That  guilt  contended  I n t o a B e a s t , and mixt w i t h b e s t i a l to i n c a r n a t e and  i s o l a t e s h i s moral  of  repentance..  W i t h Gods t o s i t t h e h i g h e s t , am now  T h i s essence  self-awareness  constrained slime,  imbrute,  to the h i g h t h of D e i t y a s p i r ' d ;  But what w i l l not Ambition Descend t o ? As h i g h he To b a s e s t Bitter  who  and  Revenge  a s p i r e s must down as  s o a r ' d , obnoxious f i r s t things.  or.last  Revenge, a t f i r s t  e r e l o n g back on i t s e l f  low  though sweet,  recoils;  Let i t .... (IX, 163-173) He asks the i n c r i m i n a t i n g q u e s t i o n "But what w i l l not Ambition Descend t o ? " and a reversal.  answers w i t h the f a t a l i s m t h a t the law  He understands  and  Revenge/  of d e p r a v i t y p r e c l u d e s  t h e v i t a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t "Revenge ... back on  i t s e l f r e c o i l s , " but d i s m i s s e s the sweeping i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s m o r a l argument' i n two  fatal syllables—"Let  The  it."  .  t r a g e d y of Satan's a n t i t h e t i c a l s t a t e i s t h a t t h e r e v e l a t i o n of  d i v i n e goodness s e r v e s o n l y t o renew h i s own h o l d of P a r a d i s e , he c o u r a g e o u s l y  hellishness.  d e c l a r e s " a l l good to me  When on the t h r e s h becomes/ Bane"  (IX, 122-123) i n t h e b e s t c l a s s i c a l f a s h i o n , t h e r e i s no v o i c e to c o n t r a d i c t him.  He p e r c e i v e s the e a r t h as a " T e r r e s t i a l Heav'n" (IX, 103), a w o r l d  21 s i g n i f y i n g u n i n t e r r u p t e d d e l i g h t whose v i r t u e s a r e " a l l (IX, 113), but h i s mind i s t r u l y t h a t  Satan i s the v i c t i m  d e s i r e t o s u b s t i t u t e e v i l f o r .good ( i y , . 110):  e x p e r i e n c e d as torment, Eden as h e l l ,  good as e v i l .  c o n f l i c t between i n f e r n a l m a l i c e and a l i n g e r i n g the subsequent  pleasure i s  I t i s i n t h i s dramatic  s e n s i t i v i t y t o good t h a t  s i g h t of Eve so t r a n s f i x e s the A r c h f i e n d :  Satan from m a l i c e and he momentarily,  Man"  " h a t e f u l s i e g e / Of c o n t r a r i e s " (IX,  121-122) where good i s p e r c e i v e d but cannot be t a s t e d . of h i s own  summ'd up i n  innocence d i v o r c e s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y , becomes " S t u p i d l y good"  (IX, 465). ... her Heav'nly A n g e l i c , but more s o f t , and  form  Feminine,  Her g r a c e f u l Innocence, her every A i r . Of g e s t u r e or l e a s t a c t i o n overaw'd H i s M a l i c e , and w i t h r a p i n e sweet  bereav'd  H i s f i e r c e n e s s of the f i e r c e i n t e n t  i t brought:  That space t h e E v i l one a b s t r a c t e d stood From h i s own  evil,  and f o r t h e time remain'd  S t u p i d l y good, of enmity  disarm'd,  Of g u i l e , of hate, of envy, of revenge.... (IX, 457-466) The power of t h e d i v i n e image i n Eve's p e r s o n b r i n g s about the m i r a c l e of momentarily  s e p a r a t i n g Satan from the h e l l t h a t i s h i s f a l l e n s e l f .  It i s  t h i s drama of Satan s t a n d i n g " S t u p i d l y good" ( 1 . 465) b e f o r e Eve, and forcibly recollecting conflict goes  " F i e r c e h a t e " ( 1 . 471) , which c a p t u r e s the m o r a l  i n Paradise Lost.  As G. R o s t r e v o r H a m i l t o n o b s e r v e s , Satan under-  "the c o n f l i c t between l o v e , which d e l i g h t s i n d e r i v i n g from someone  e l s e and u l t i m a t e l y from God, personal independence."^ hero  then  and  and p r i d e or s e l f - l o v e , which clamours f o r  Satan i n P a r a d i s e L o s t  i s the t r a g i c  anti-type,both  f o o l , whose erroneous b e l i e f t h a t h a t r e d i s s t r o n g e r than l o v e  m  i  (IX, 489-493) l o c k s him  i n t o a p s e u d o - h e r o i c s t a n c e v a i n l y opposed  t o the  b e n e v o l e n t order of the u n i v e r s e . Satan of P a r a d i s e Regained  i s a d i f f e r e n t a n t a g o n i s t from t h e f i g u r e  i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , j u s t as the "begotten Son" F a t h e r shone"  ( 1 . 139)  t h e a u r a of grandeur  a d e l i n e a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l  i n v i t e s comparison.  s u r r o u n d i n g c l a s s i c a l heroism  ineptitude.  In t h i s b r i e f  of Satan i n the e a r l y books of P a r a d i s e L o s t g i v e s way portrait  of the i n f e r n a l mind:  In P a r a d i s e  i s dispelled in  t o an  inglorious Satan  subcons-  s p i r i t u a l weakness o n l y t h i n l y v e i l e d by the  sham g l o r i e s of t h e c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c e n t e r p r i s e . into moral  (PR,I,36),  e p i c , the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s  throughout P a r a d i s e Regained,  c i o u s l y d i s c l o s e s the i n t r i n s i c  ating  i n whom " a l l h i s  i s not the e q u i v a l e n t of " t h ' e x a l t e d man"  but the c o n t i n u i t y of M i l t o n ' s e p i c v i s i o n Regained,  (PL, I I I , 80)  The Romantic r e b e l  degener-  s c h i z o p h r e n i a throughout P a r a d i s e L o s t e x h i b i t s here a  r i o t o u s psyche d i v i d e d by envy, f e a r , r a g e , and sheer d e s p e r a t i o n — a presumptuous  energy e x h a u s t i n g i t s e l f a g a i n s t the profounder mind of C h r i s t .  Northrop F r y e says of t h i s e p i c , "Satan, who i s the power t h a t moves toward  seems so l i v e l y and  resourceful,  the c e s s a t i o n of a l l a c t i v i t y , a k i n d of  p e r s o n a l entropy t h a t t r a n s f o r m s a l l energy i n t o a h e a t - d e a t h . " ^ Regained,  As  In P a r a d i s e  the p o r t r a i t of Satan a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r the n a t u r e of C h r i s t ' s  s o n s h i p by tempting him w i t h s e c u l a r v e r s i o n s of the m e s s i a n i c r o l e  conveys  the M i l t o n i c v i s i o n t h a t the o l d era of sheer v i o l e n c e must c o l l a p s e b e f o r e the advent  of T r u t h i n c a r n a t e .  Satan's a s p i r a t i o n s towards undercut from t h e o u t s e t . c o n c e a l i n g f e a r and doubt P a r a d i s e Regained council.  g l o r i o u s heroism i n P a r a d i s e Regained  In c o n t r a s t  t o the courageous  are  general prudently  from t h e p u b l i c eye i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , Satan i n  f r e e l y d i s c l o s e s well-grounded f e a r s t o the  infernal  A f t e r w i t n e s s i n g C h r i s t ' s baptism "With wonder, then w i t h envy  f r a u g h t and r a g e " (1,38), t h e would-be hero escapes t o r e p o r t h i s sense of doom.  overwhelming  23  Long  t h e d e c r e e s of Heav'n  Delay, f o r l o n g e s t time t o him i s s h o r t ; And now too soon f o r u s t h e c i r c l i n g T h i s dreaded time have compast, Must b i d e t h e s t r o k e of t h a t At l e a s t  hours  wherein  we  long t h r e a t ' n ' d wound,  so i f we can, and by the head  Broken be n o t i n t e n d e d a l l our power To be i n f r i n g ' d ... H i s b i r t h t o our j u s t f e a r gave no s m a l l cause, But h i s growth now t o youth's f u l l f l o w ' r ,  displaying  A l l v i r t u e , g r a c e and wisdom t o a c h i e v e T h i n g s h i g h e s t , g r e a t e s t , m u l t i p l i e s my f e a r . (I,  55-62,  66-69)  Then Satan s e i z e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o i t t h e i r awakened sense of danger f o r t h e f a m i l i a r  purpose of s e l f - e x a l t a t i o n .  Ye see our danger on t h e utmost  edge  Of h a z a r d , which admits no long debate, But must w i t h something  sudden be oppos'd,  Not f o r c e , but w e l l couch't f r a u d , w e l l woven s n a r e s .... I, when no o t h e r d u r s t , s o l e undertook The d i s m a l e x p e d i t i o n t o f i n d out And r u i n Adam, and t h e e x p l o i t  perform'd  S u c c e s s f u l l y ; a calmer voyage now W i l l waft me; and t h e way found p r o s p e r o u s once Induces b e s t t o hope of l i k e s u c c e s s . (I,  But i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e monarch o f f e r i n g  94-97,  100-105)  " D e l i v e r a n c e " (PL, I I , 465) from  h e l l , Satan's attempt t o , c o n j u r e a m a j e s t i c image i s u n c o n v i n c i n g . H i s p u b l i c a t i o n of f e a r undermines  h i s c r e d i b i l i t y as a hero i n t h e c l a s s i c a l  24 mode. "Not  And h i s easy a d m i s s i o n of t h e f r a u d u l e n t n a t u r e of h i s e n t e r p r i s e — f o r c e , but w e l l couch't f r a u d , w e l l woven s n a r e s " (PR, I , 9 7 ) — i s  i n d i c a t i v e of a d e f e a t e d h e r d having g i v e n up on t h e o r i g i n a l equality,  i f n o t s u p e r i o r i t y , t o God.  i n t e n t t o prove  Satan r e c a l l s h i s past e x p e d i t i o n t o  Eden i n h e r o i c terms, but h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e " r u i n " of Adam and t h e successful "exploit  perform'd"  ( 1 . 103) a c t s r a t h e r as an i n d i c t m e n t . H i s  a l l u s i o n t o t h e " d i s m a l e x p e d i t i o n " ( 1 . 101) i s i n t e n d e d t o b o l s t e r h i s image but, i r o n i c a l l y , i s most f e l t  signifies a tragic  by t h e seducer.  event where t h e ensuing  suffering  Satan ends h i s r e s o l u t i o n t o b e g u i l e C h r i s t  w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y "hope .of l i k e s u c c e s s " ( 1 . 105), but t h i s adherence t o h e r o i c form The  i s t h e crowning  i r o n y of h i s t r a n s p a r e n t l y l u d i c r o u s s t a n c e .  i n e p t i t u d e of Satan a g a i n s t h i s enemy i s e v i d e n t i n t h e a n t i t h e t i c a l  r h e t o r i c f o l l o w i n g t h e f a i l u r e of t h e f i r s t  temptation.  While h i s d i s g u i s e  as "an aged man i n R u r a l weeds" ( I , 314) i s p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e i n Odysseus' world, i t i s f o l l y sequent  i n t h e encounter w i t h T r u t h i n c a r n a t e , and Satan's  speech i l l u s t r a t e s h i s awareness of t h a t f o l l y .  A foiled  wavers between bemoaning h i s m i s e r y , d e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f as " t h a t  sub-  Satan Spirit  u n f o r t u n a t e " ( I , 358) who exchanged heaven's b l i s s f o r " t h e b o t t o m l e s s deep... t h a t h i d e o u s p l a c e " (11. 361-362), and b o a s t i n g over h i s "Large (1. 365) a s u s u r p e r .  liberty"  C o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s e a r l i e r boast t o t h e c o u n c i l over t h e  s u c c e s s f u l r u i n of man ( I , 100-105), Satan d e n i e s t h e v a l i d i t y o f h i s i n d i c t ment a s " f o e / To a l l mankind" ( I , 387-388), p r e f e r r i n g  t h e generous  " C o p a r t n e r " ( 1 . 392) .  s e l f - d r a w n p o r t r a i t of  Then Satan i n v a l i d a t e s t h e j u s t  title  l i b e r t y by a d m i t t i n g t h a t w h i l e he may have sought man as a companion t o m i s e r y , he now has l e a r n e d t h a t shared p a i n i s " S m a l l c o n s o l a t i o n " ( 1 . 403) when t h e companion i s e l i g i b l e f o r a r e s t o r a t i o n he has excluded h i m s e l f from.  Satan's words i l l u s t r a t e t h e dilemma of s e l f - i m p r i s o n m e n t , and C h r i s t  answers h i s speech by echoing Satan's own lament good t o me becomes/ Bane" (IX, 122-123).  i n Paradise Lost that  "all  C h r i s t j u d g e s Satan as "a poor  25 miserable captive t h r a l l  ... now  depos'd,/  E j e c t e d , emptied, gaz'd,  shunn'd, / A s p e c t a c l e of r u i n or of s c o r n " (PR,  I , 411,  unpitied,  413-415) who  is  "never more i n H e l l than, when i n Heaven" (1. 420). The drama of Satan's encounter w i t h ' t h e Nazarene l i e s as t o how  f a r he comprehends the i d e n t i t y of " t h ' e x a l t e d man"  Significantly,  (PL,  upon him f o l l o w i n g the f a l l  U n l i k e h i s i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n of the Son's c u r s e t o e n d u r a b l e p a i n  X, 494-496, 498-501), Satan now  a t i o n by v o i c i n g "the  ( I , 36).  Satan a s s o c i a t e s the a r r i v a l of C h r i s t w i t h the e x e c u t i o n of  " t h a t f a t a l wound" ( I , 53), t h e c u r s e pronounced of man.  i n t h e ambiguity  the l i k e l i h o o d  undermines h i s own  of imminent d e f e a t .  A d v e r s a r y " ( 1 . 3.3) appears unaware of t h e f u l l  r e b e l l i o u s determin-  But a t t h e same time import of C h r i s t ' s  baptism, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the Son he encountered  i n the war  i n heaven  and t h i s unknown enemy. His  first  begot we  know, and  s o r e have  felt,  When h i s f i e r c e thunder drove us t o t h e deep; Who In  t h i s i s we must l e a r n , f o r man a l l h i s l i n e a m e n t s , though  he seems  i n his face  The g l i m p s e s of h i s F a t h e r ' s g l o r y s h i n e . (PR, I , 89-93) Later, relying his  station  on t h e f a m i l i a r d e l u s i o n t h a t a s p i r i t  (PL, I I , 687), Satan c o u n t e r s C h r i s t ' s t i t l e as t h e Son of  with the a s s e r t i o n that the t i t l e  i s not r e s t r i c t e d  and t.hat he i s h i m s e l f a Son of God. a s s e r t i o n i s evident i n h i s i r r e s o l u t e  t o the s i n g u l a r  diction:  The Son of God, The Son of God i f I was,  A l l men  which b e a r s no s i n g l e I a l s o am,  I am;  or  relation  a r e Sons of. God;  sense;  was, stands;  y e t , t h e e I thought,  lose, God  sense,  The i l l o g i c a l n a t u r e of Satan's  ... thou a r t c a l l ' d  And  of heaven cannot  26 In  some r e s p e c t f a r h i g h e r so d e c l a r ' d . (IV,  In  ,  516-521)  h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manner, Satan d e c l a r e s e q u a l i t y w i t h C h r i s t ,  checks  t h e presumption  by adding t h e p a s t t e n s e , and then weakly r e t u r n s t o t h e  assertion—"And  i f I was,  briefly  i n c l u d e s man  by reassuming  I am"  (1. 519).  under the t i t l e ,  And  i n a democratic  then immediately  the Son  of God,  i g n o r a n c e Satan p e r s i s t s i n i s not doubt failing  station.  Of  not even as the s u p e r i o r A r c h - a n g e l ,  and h i s confused r h e t o r i c b e t r a y s the p r e t e n s e .  but over h i s own  Satan  contradicts himself  the s u s p i c i o n t h a t C h r i s t o c c u p i e s a more august  c o u r s e , Satan never was  spirit,  D.C.  A l l e n argues  that  the  over the i d e n t i t y of h i s o p p o s i t e ,  18 powers as a c o r r u p t e r .  not so much u n c e r t a i n as he i s a f r a i d , and  He  i n s i s t s t h a t Satan i s  t h a t he uses  insincere uncertainty  as an implement of s e d u c t i o n i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h s e l f - d i s t r u s t  in his  19 opponent.  Christ's belief  t h a t Satan h i d e s h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of him as the  Messiah—"Why dost thou then suggest know who  to me  thou a r t ? " ( I , 3 5 5 - 3 5 6 ) — s u p p o r t s  d i s t r u s t , / Knowing who  as I  A l l e n ' s view t h a t Satan i s f e i g n i n g  i g n o r a n c e i n o r d e r t o r a i s e C h r i s t ' s " d i s t r u s t " i n h i s own it  I am,  identity.  However,  i s not ever c l e a r t h a t Satan c o n s c i o u s l y r e c o g n i z e s C h r i s t as the s o l e  b e g o t t e n Son of God  incarnate.  C e r t a i n l y . S a t a n i s aware of C h r i s t ' s g o d l i k e  v i r t u e s , but i n t e n s e f e a r c o n f u s e d w i t h a m b i t i o u s c l a s s i c a l precludes discernment.  The c o n f l i c t between.what i s perhaps  s c i o u s awareness of C h r i s t ' s i d e n t i t y and h i s apparent i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s discernment in Paradise  Satan's  subcon-  i g n o r a n c e of the  s u s t a i n s the drama of h i s f o o l i s h  full  enterprise  Regained.  Satan's t e m p t a t i o n s of C h r i s t w i t h the l u r e s of s e l f i s h heroism  aspirations  i l l u s t r a t e h i s i n a b i l i t y t o fathom  Satan i s "the importune  classical  the depths of C h r i s t ' s mind.  Tempter" ( I I , 404), b o t h p e r s i s t e n t and u n f i t ,  v a c i l l a t e s between h i s c o n v i c t i o n of d e f e a t and d e s p e r a t e attempts t h e c o u r s e of imminent doom.  A f t e r t h e f a i l u r e of the f i r s t  who  to a l t e r  temptation  27 urging  Christ  to perform the m i r a c l e of t u r n i n g  stones i n t o bread,  .acknowledges C h r i s t ' s e x a l t e d mind and f e a r s he may  Satan  be "overmatch'd" ( I I ,  146): If  he be Man  by Mother's s i d e a t  W i t h more than human g i f t s  from Heav'n  P e r f e c t i o n s a b s o l u t e , Graces And  adorn'd,  divine,  a m p l i t u d e of mind t o g r e a t e s t Deeds. (II,  He  least  13 6-139)  thus rebukes B e l i a l ' s s u g g e s t i o n t o l u r e C h r i s t w i t h p h y s i c a l  insisting  that  Virtue's h i l l " beauty.  "one  lust,  l o o k from h i s M a j e s t i c brow,/ Seated as on t h e top of  ( I I , 216-217) would n u l l i f y t h e s e d u c t i v e powers of  But w h i l e Satan thus r e a s o n s t h a t Adam's weakness i s hot  he r e p e a t s the c o n t e x t of Eve's sumptuous f e a s t , o n l y t o admit  fall  by tempting a famished  Christ's,  Christ with a  l a t e r t h a t h i s "temperance i n v i n c i b l e  a l l u r e m e n t y i e l d s t o a p p e t i t e " ( I I , 408-409). cumulative e f f e c t  female  Failing  ... no  t o move C h r i s t ,  of Satan's t e m p t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f o l l y  of  the  tempting  s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h w i t h the sham g l o r i e s of s e l f i s h and a m b i t i o u s m a t e r i a l i s m . Much of Satan's energy  is  devoted t o r e d i r e c t i n g  the a p p e a l t o t h e n e c e s s i t y of p u b l i c fame. C h r i s t ' s s t a t i o n as c a r p e n t e r , t h e tempter  Ridiculing i n s i s t s that  Christ's future with t h e ^ l o w l i n e s s of "Great a c t s r e q u i r e  g r e a t means of e n t e r p r i s e ; / Thou a r t unknown, u n f r i e n d e d , low of b i r t h . . . . Money b r i n g s Honor, F r i e n d s , Conquest,  and Realms" ( I I , 412-413, 422).  shuns. C h r i s t ' s obscure, " p r i v a t e " ( I I I , 232) of  p u b l i c e x p e r i e n c e l e a v e s t h e w i s e s t man  life,  h i s t o r i c a l examples, attempts secular glory prophecy  ( I I I , 31-43).  i n s i s t i n g that the lack  "Timorous and  modesty ... I r r e s o l u t e , unhardy, unadvent'rous"  He  l o t h , with novice  ( I I I , 241,  243), and,  citing  t o i n f l a m e the M e s s i a h w i t h the t h i r s t f o r Satan's a p p e a l t h a t C h r i s t f u l f i l l m e s s i a n i c  by becoming a p o l i t i c a l r u l e r  i s a t i m e l y t e m p t a t i o n , one f u l l y i n  a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s of contemporary  devout  Jewry:  28 If  Kingdom move thee n o t , l e t move thee z e a l  And  Duty  ....  Z e a l of thy F a t h e r ' s house, Duty t o f r e e Thy Country from her Heathen So s h a l t thou b e s t . f u l l f 11,. The Prophets o l d , who  sung  servitude; best v e r i f y  thy e n d l e s s r e i g n ,  The h a p p i e r r e i g n the sooner i t b e g i n s . (Ill,  171-172, 175-179)  Satan then e m b e l l i s h e s t h i s a p p e a l by o f f e r i n g m i l i t a r y s u p e r i o r i t y i n the best c l a s s i c a l v e i n :  "Thou on the Throne of David i n f u l l  g l o r y , / From  Egypt t o Euphrates and beyond/ S h a l t r e i g n , and Rome or Caesar not need (III,  383-385).  Failing  t o comprehend C h r i s t ' s complete  c l a s s i c a l e p i c v a l u e s , Satan i n s i s t s t h a t s p i r i t u a l i t y V a l o r , Wisdom s i t i n want" ( I I , 431)—-and  r e j e c t i o n of  i s weakness —"Virtue, 1  e n f o r c e s the t e m p t a t i o n w i t h the  a s s e r t i o n t h a t g r e a t n e s s can o n l y be r e a l i z e d  i n a p o l i t i c a l conquest of the  e n t i r e w o r l d : . "The Kingdoms of the w o r l d t o thee I g i v e ... On t h i s if  thou w i l t  166-7).  f a l l down,/ And w o r s h i p me  as t h y s u p e r i o r L o r d " (IV,  Satan's b o l d words i l l u s t r a t e a myopic e g o c e n t r i c i t y which  "overmatch'd"  by the t h e o c e n t r i c  fear"  condition  163, i s indeed  hero.  C h r i s t ' s r e b u t t a l of S a t a n i c r h e t o r i c a g g r a v a t e s the c o n f l i c t  between  Satan's s u b c o n s c i o u s awareness of C h r i s t ' s i d e n t i t y and h i s i g n o r a n c e of t h e implications. sit  C h r i s t c o u n t e r s Satan's argument t h a t  i n want" ( I I , 431) w i t h t h e i n s i g h t t h a t  impotent/ To g a i n dominion  " V i r t u e , V a l o r , Wisdom  "Wealth w i t h o u t t h e s e t h r e e i s  or t o keep i t g a i n ' d " ( I I , 433-434), and  m a t e r i a l i s t i c presumption w i t h t h e view t h a t r i c h e s a r e " t h e t o i l ( I I , . 4 5 3 ) , g o l d e n i n appearance t h r o u g h t h e wisdom of Greece  o n l y ( I I , 459-462).  i s r e j e c t e d a s another empty p u r s u i t :  and, moreover, r e j e c t s t h e i n t r i n s i c  of F o o l s "  Satan's o f f e r of fame  r e d u c e s s e c u l a r knowledge t o P l a t o ' s discernment of f i n a l 294)  deflates  Christ  i g n o r a n c e (IV,  293-  e g o c e n t r i c i t y of pagan p h i l o s o p h e r s  29 (IV, 314-315).  The Nazarene exposes Satan's  i d o l a t r y of c l a s s i c a l  glory  by j u x t a p o s i n g t h e genuine g l o r y c e n t r a l t o God's c h a r a c t e r , echoed i n h i s s e r v a n t s , and Satan 146-147).  Satan's  i s silenced,  " s t r u c k / With g u i l t  encounter w i t h t r u t h c o n v i c t s him  r e a d e r r e p e a t e d l y sees him  s i n "(III,  of f o l l y , and  s t a n d i n g "A w h i l e as mute confounded  say,/ What t o r e p l y , c o n f u t e d and lacious d r i f t "  of h i s own  the  what t o  c o n v i n c ' t / Of h i s weak a r g u i n g and  ( I I I , 2-4), a s e l f - d e f e a t e d  figure forcibly  Serpent w i l e s " ( I I I , 5) t o renew the v a i n a s s a u l t .  While  "collecting a l l his Satan senses  f e a r s C h r i s t ' s g o d l i k e nature, h i s self-imprisonment precludes f u l l hension.  Satan, d i r e c t i n g energy  to convince C h r i s t  Why Solicitous?  Christ  Satan's  108-110) :  inquisition?  rising  i s thy  fall,  w i l l be thy d e s t r u c t i o n ? (Ill,  And  of the command  asks,  What moves thy  promotion  compre-  a r t thou  Know'st thou not t h a t my And my  and  t o assume s e c u l a r l e a d e r  s h i p , i s w h o l l y unaware of the i r o n y t h a t C h r i s t ' s f u l f i l l m e n t t o r e i g n must be h i s doom.  fal-  199-202)  answer echoes the d e s p e r a t e heroism  of P a r a d i s e L o s t (IV,  "Let t h a t come when i t comes; a l l hope i s l o s t / Of my r e c e p t i o n  i n t o g r a c e ; what worse?/ For where no hope i s l e f t , ( I I I , 204-206).  But here h i s attempt  l i n e s t h e awareness of h i s own collapses f i r s t  Nazarene and,  The b o l d r e n u n c i a t i o n of f e a r  from God's wrath (11. 215-222).  i s d e f l a t e d a g a i n s t the unchanging  s p i r i t u a l i t y of the  e x a s p e r a t e d , Satan r e j e c t s C h r i s t ' s f i t n e s s f o r t h i s S i n c e n e i t h e r w e a l t h , nor honour, arms nor  Kingdom nor Empire p l e a s e s t h e e , nor aught By me  propos'd  in life  o n l y under-  (11. 212-215), then i n t o the hope  t h a t C h r i s t ' s meekness would be a r e l i e f Satan's r h e t o r i c  fear"  t o r a i s e v i c t o r i o u s courage  fraudulence.  i n t o self-condemnation  i s l e f t no  contemplative,  arts,  world:  •  30 Or a c t i v e , tended  on by g l o r y , or fame,  What dost thou i n t h i s World? For thee i s f i t t e s t  place  The W i l d e r n e s s  ....  (IV, 368-373) Satan  i s t h e p r i s o n e r of h i s t o r t u r e d c o n s c i e n c e , the p a r o d i c d e c e i v e r S t i l l w i l l be tempting And  him who  never cease, though  Or as a swarm of f l i e s  f o i l s him  who  still,  t o h i s shame the more; i n v i n t a g e time,  About t h e wine-press where sweet must i s pour'd, Beat o f f , r e t u r n s as o f t w i t h humming sound; Or s u r g i n g waves a g a i n s t a s o l i d  rock,  Though a l l t o s h i v e r s d a s h ' t , t h ' a s s a u l t renew, V a i n b a t t ' r y , and  i n f r o t h or bubbles  end;  So Satan, whom r e p u l s e upon r e p u l s e Met  e v e r , and t o shameful  Yet g i v e s not o'er though And  silence  brought,  d e s p e r a t e of s u c c e s s ,  h i s v a i n i m p o r t u n i t y pursues.  (IV,, 13-24). H i s c a u s t i c d e n i a l of C h r i s t ' s kingdom i s the e m b i t t e r e d v o i c e of  one  d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e of w o r l d s beyond h i s range of v i s i o n w h i l e f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n e d by t h e same s u g g e s t i o n of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . A Kingdom they p o r t e n d t h e e , but what Kingdom, R e a l or A l l e g o r i c I d i s c e r n not Nor when, e t e r n a l s u r e , as without Without  b e g i n n i n g ; f o r no date  D i r e c t s me  end,  prefixt  i n the.Starry Rubric set.  (IV, 389-393) Satan's i n n e r c o n f l i c t  c u l m i n a t e s i n h i s attempt  t o overcome t h e  "fatal  -enemy" (IV; 525) by p l a c i n g him on t h e h i g h e s t p i n n a c l e of the temple i n  31 Jerusalem. "living  , Here  Christ f u l f i l l s  O r a c l e " ( I , 460) who w i l l  h i s e a r l i e r prophecy t h a t he i s t h e s i l e n c e Satan's f a l s e o r a c u l a r powers.  Satan g i v e s C h r i s t t h e i r o n i c command t o s t a n d , unaware t h a t t h e s t a n d i n g M e s s i a h presages h i s own d e f e a t . But  S a t a n s m i t t e n w i t h amazement  fell  As when E a r t h ' s Son Antaeus ( t o compare Small  things with greatest)  i n Irassa  strove  W i t h Jove's A l e i d e s ... F e l l whence he stood  t o see h i s V i c t o r f a l l .  And  a s t h a t Theban Monster t h a t propos'd  Her  r i d d l e , and him who s o l v ' d i t n o t ,  devour'd,""  That once found out and s o l v ' d , f o r g r i e f and s p i t e Cast So  h e r s e l f headlong from t h ' Ismenian  s t r u c k w i t h dread and a n g u i s h  fell  steep,  t h e F i e n d ....  (IV, 562-565, 571-576) Deceptive ality:  c l a s s i c a l heroism c o l l a p s e s w i t h t h e advent o f s u p e r i o r  Satan's f r a u d u l e n t r h e t o r i c ,  deluding"  spiritu-  "dark/ Ambiguous and w i t h d o u b l e sense  ( I , 434-435), ceases i n t h e f a c e of T r u t h i n c a r n a t e .  As Oedipus  overcame t h e r i d d l e o f t h e Sphinx w i t h t h e answer, "Man," so C h r i s t s i l e n c e s S a t a n i c f a l s e h o o d w i t h t h e heroism o f t h e o c e n t r i c humanism.  Satan i n  P a r a d i s e Regained, t h e advocate o f e g o c e n t r i c c l a s s i c a l heroism, i s "The Tempter f o i l ' d / I n a l l h i s w i l e s , d e f e a t e d Thus, t h e e g o c e n t r i c i t y u n d e r l y i n g and  and r e p u l s ' t " ( I , 5-6).  S a t a n i c energy i n b o t h P a r a d i s e  P a r a d i s e Regained j a r s a g a i n s t t h e h e r o i c song i n M i l t o n ' s  Satan's c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c s t a n c e a c t i o n i s moral a c t i o n :  Lost  universe.  i s an a b e r r a t i o n from t h e drama where t r u e  e v i l i s a parody.of genuine a c t i o n , " t h e s u r r e n d e r i n g 20  of t h e power t o a c t " and t h e d e f e c t i v e n e s s of i n e r t i a a s s e r t s i n De D o c t r i n a C h r i s t i a n a , e v i l creativity:  itself.  As M i l t o n  i s t h e p r i v a t i o n of p o s i t i v e  32 It  i s c a l l e d a c t u a l s i n , not that  for  in reality  i t i m p l i e s d e f e c t ; but because i t commonly  c o n s i s t s i n some a c t . only  s i n i s p r o p e r l y an a c t i o n ,  For e v e r y a c t i s i n i t s e l f  good; i t i s  i t s i r r e g u l a r i t y , or d e v i a t i o n from t h e l i n e o f r i g h t ,  21 which p r o p e r l y In t h e h e r o i c  speaking i s e v i l .  i d o l of t h e s e two works, t h e poet i l l u m i n a t e s b o t h t h e s u p e r -  f i c i a l a t t r a c t i o n s of e v i l ing  and i t s e s s e n t i a l d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s ,  thus  identify-  the a n t i - h e r o i c s t r a i n opposing h i s e p i c song. But t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  Satan i s n o t easy; r a t h e r , M i l t o n poses i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r discernment  i n a f a l l e n world.  It  the hard task of  As Lawry argues,  i s a c l e v e r m i s t a k e t o b e l i e v e t h a t M i l t o n was of t h e d e v i l ' s  p a r t y w i t h o u t knowing i t ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , fully,  that  he wants u s t o know,  i t i s we who have been o f t h e d e v i l ' s p a r t y  knowing i t .  without  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of M i l t o n t o us resembles t h a t of  M i c h a e l t o Adam.  We must e x p e r i e n c e c h o i c e ,  of e r r o r , and r e c o g n i z e  i n c l u d i n g the choice  t h e p o r t i o n of H e l l t h a t  i s where we  are—for  M i l t o n ' s H e l l i s o f t e n s i m i l a r t o t h e C i t y of Men a t  its  .... We must share Satan's p r i d e f u l s i n and f a l l  best  we, as f a l l i b l e human c r e a t u r e s ,  can p r o p e r l y  before  comprehend t h e  22 approaching The  "great  Argument" of d i v i n i t y .  poet t h r u s t s t h e r e a d e r i n t o a world where " t h e knowledge of good i s so  involved  and interwoven w i t h t h e knowledge of e v i l ,  resemblances h a r d l y  t o be d i s c e r n e d ,  imposed on Psyche as an i n c e s s a n t  and i n so many cunning  t h a t t h o s e confused seeds which were  labor to c u l l  out and s o r t asunder, were  23 not more i n t e r m i x e d . "  The r e a d e r i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e d i f f i c u l t and  c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of m o r a l c h o i c e , Satanic  a l t e r n a t e l y a t t r a c t e d and r e p u l s e d by  g l o r y , and o n l y a f t e r knowing e v i l  i s he ready t o e n v i s i o n good.  c o u r s e , t h i s d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e problem o f moral c h o i c e  i n Satan runs t h e  r i s k that the reader w i l l  of t h e "hero or  remain i n t h e narrow c o n f i n e s  Of  33 f o o l " dilemma; even t h e g r e a t advocate of i n t e l l e c t u a l l i b e r t y that  "perhaps t h i s i s t h a t doom which Adam f e l l  considers  i n t o o f knowing good and 24  evil,  t h a t i s t o say, of knowing good by e v i l . "  problem o f m o r a l c h o i c e d e f i c i e n c y t h a t prepares  heroism.  i s inevitable: t h e reader  But, f o r M i l t o n , t h e  i t i s only consciousness  of Satan's  f o r comprehension of t h e t r u e image of  34 CHAPTER I I : The  The H e r o i c  opening  " H i s weakness s h a l l 6'ercome S a t a n i c  l i n e s of Paradise  Man" ( 1 . 4) who w i l l by Adam.  Image:  "Restore  Lost  strength."  promise t h e advent of "one g r e a t e r  ... and r e g a i n t h e b l i s s f u l S e a t "  (1.5) l o s t  T h i s i s t h e M e s s i a h " i n Adam's room/ The Head of a l l mankind,  though Adam's Son" ( I I I , 285-286), t h e one whom t h e poet e u l o g i z e s b o t h as " t h e m i g h t y Pan" (1.89) i n "On t h e Morning o f C h r i s t ' s N a t i v i t y , " and as t h e "Most p e r f e c t Hero" (1.93) i n "The P a s s i o n . "  I n t h e Son i n P a r a d i s e  L o s t , and i n t h e i n c a r n a t e Son, C h r i s t , i n P a r a d i s e Regained, M i l t o n embodies t h e a n t i t h e s i s of t h e c l a s s i c a l h e r o i c s p i r i t .  While the c l a s s i c a l  spirit  h a i l s human achievement f o r i t s own sake, M i l t o n c e l e b r a t e s i n t h e Messiah the paradox t h a t what i s most o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d spiritual  strength—"By  weak e x e m p l i f i e s  greater  H u m i l i a t i o n and s t r o n g S u f f e r a n c e : / H i s weakness  s h a l l o'ercome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h "  (PR, I , 160-161).  The Son i s t h e v e r y  emblem of t h e p o e t ' s new and " b e t t e r f o r t i t u d e / Of P a t i e n c e and H e r o i c Martyrdom/  [ h i t h e r t o ] Unsung" (PL, IX, 31-33).  the d i f f i c u l t of  Satan poses f o r t h e r e a d e r  problem of m o r a l c h o i c e , but t h e Son p r e s e n t s  t h e t r u e image  heroism, an answer so r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h a t i t i s d e s c r i b e d as "Above  Heroic"  (PR, I , 1 5 ) . . Now t h e o b v i o u s problem w i t h t h e poet's d e l i n e a t i o n of  t h e M e s s i a h a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of heroism l i e s w i t h how heroism i s i n a f i g u r e who i s w h o l l y the other.  The f e e l i n g  of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  d i v i n e i n one work, and s e m i - d i v i n e i n  i s t h a t human heroes prove grandeur by r a i s i n g them- .  s e l v e s above t h e i r o r d i n a r y , f a l l i b l e grandeur prove n o t h i n g  praiseworthy  s t a t u r e , w h i l e gods a c t i n g out i n h e r e n t  which we do n o t a l r e a d y know.  But M i l t o n ' s  p r a i s e of t h e e g o c e n t r i c human hero i n f a v o u r  d i v i n e s u i t s t h e t h e o c e n t r i c heroism he i n t r o d u c e s .  rejection of t h e  The Son's g l o r i f i c a t i o n  as t h e p e r f e c t hero does n o t deny man's c e n t r a l r o l e i n P a r a d i s e L o s t ; t h e Son embodies t h e s a c r i f i c i a l which man l e a r n s t o echo.  l o v e o f f e r e d i n submission  rather,  t o t h e Father  I n P a r a d i s e Regained, C h r i s t ' s r e j e c t i o n of t h e  s u p e r f i c i a l rewards of c l a s s i c a l heroism r e p r e s e n t s  the superior  spirituality  35 which Adam and Eve embrace i n t h e " p a r a d i s e w i t h i n XII,  587). C h r i s t  may choose  i s t h e emblem of t h e o c e n t r i c heroism, t h e image which man  to r e f l e c t .  Thus, i t would be erroneous t o go as f a r as Northrop  F r y e when he c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e Son i s f i n a l l y Paradise Lost.^  ... h a p p i e r f a r " (PL,  t h e s o l e a c t o r or hero i n  I f C h r i s t were t h e s o l e hero i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , then t h e  o b j e c t of h i s h e r o i s m — t o  i n s p i r e s i m i l a r magnanimity i n m a n —  But he i s i n b o t h P a r a d i s e L o s t and P a r a d i s e Regained t r u e heroism, t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t t o p a r o d i c grandeur of d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e which man The r e a d e r f i r s t to  the perfect  image o f  i n Satan, and t h e source  reflects.  encounters t h e Son i n P a r a d i s e L o s t when he responds  t h e F a t h e r ' s a n t i c i p a t i o n of man's f a l l .  God argues e x t e n s i v e l y t h a t man  was c r e a t e d a f r e e agent, " j u s t and r i g h t , / S u f f i c i e n t free to f a l l "  would be l o s t .  ( I I I , 98-99),  t o have s t o o d ,  though  one who l o g i c a l l y d e s e r v e s t h e l o s s he h i m s e l f  " d e c r e e d " ( 1 . 116) and " o r d a i n ' d " ( 1 . 128). The a m p l i f i c a t i o n of p r e v a i l i n g mercy ending God's speech a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e Son: ... Man t h e r e f o r e s h a l l f i n d  grace,  ... i n Mercy and J u s t i c e both,' Through Heav'n and E a r t h , so s h a l l my g l o r y But Mercy f i r s t  and l a s t  shall brightest  excel,  shine.  (11. 131-134) The Son i s t h e " r a d i a n t image" of h i s F a t h e r ' s g l o r y ( 1 . 6 3 ) , t h e f i g u r e who makes v i s i b l e  ( 1 . 386) t h e p e r f e c t c h a r i t y d e f i n i n g God's n a t u r e :  Beyond compare t h e Son of God was seen Most g l o r i o u s , i n him a l l h i s F a t h e r shone S u b s t a n t i a l l y e x p r e s s ' d , and i n h i s f a c e D i v i n e compassion  visibly  appear'd,  Love w i t h o u t end, and w i t h o u t measure Grace .... (11. 138-142) The chiasmus i n "Love w i t h o u t end, and w i t h o u t measure Grace" e x p r e s s e s t h e  36 unfathomable s p i r i t u a l l i g h t which g e n e r a t e s Sense of new j o y i n e f f a b l e d i f f u s ' d " Son's f i r s t  speech  then ensures  questions.  (11. 136-137).  And t h e form  confirms the c h a r i t y d e f i n i n g h i s character.  b e g i n s by e x t o l l i n g and  " i n the b l e s s e d S p i r i t s  t h e F a t h e r ' s g r a c i o u s sentence  For should Man f i n a l l y be l o s t ,  The Son  rhetorical  consequence of man's  fall:  should Man  Thy c r e a t u r e l a t e so l o v ' d , t h y youngest F a l l circumvented  of t h e  towards man (11. 144-149),  t h e g i v e n promise of mercy w i t h t h r e e r e l a t e d  F i r s t , he poses t h e p r o b a b l e t r a g i c  elect/  t h u s by f r a u d ,  Son  though j o i n ' d  W i t h h i s own f o l l y ? (11.150-153) In  contrast to the Father's t i t l e  emphasizes t h e f r a i l t y beloved  f o r man as " i n g r a t e " ( 1 . 9 7 ) , t h e Son  of t h e "youngest  of t h e F a t h e r who i s o u t w i t t e d by t h e a d v e r s a r y .  own q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e emphatic statement divine justice: art  Son," t h e d e f e n c e l e s s n e s s of one  " t h a t be from  He then answers h i s  t h a t mercy i s t h e c o u n t e r p a r t of  thee f a r , / That  f a r be from  thee, F a t h e r , who  Judge/ Of a l l t h i n g s made, and j u d g e s t o n l y r i g h t " ( 1 1 . 153-155).  Second, t h e Son s t r e s s e s t h e h o r r i f i c v i c t o r y of Satan over goodness i n t h e event  t h a t God's mercy s h o u l d f a i l Or s h a l l t h e A d v e r s a r y  t o save man.  thus o b t a i n  H i s end, and f r u s t r a t e t h i n e , s h a l l he f u l f i l H i s m a l i c e , and t h y goodness b r i n g t o naught, Or proud  r e t u r n though t o h i s h e a v i e r doom.  Yet w i t h revenge a c c o m p l i s h ' t and t o H e l l Draw a f t e r him t h e whole Race of mankind, By him c o r r u p t e d ? (11. 156-162) The  l o g i c a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of i r r e d e e m a b l e tragedy and omnipotence i s a l s o  expressed  i n the t h i r d  question:  "or w i l t  thou t h y s e l f / A b o l i s h t h y C r e a t i o n ,  and unmake/ For him, what f o r thy g l o r y thou hast made?" (11.162-164) answers the l a s t  q u e s t i o n s w i t h the a s s e r t i o n t h a t f a l l e n man  would deny b o t h God's b e n e f i c e n c e and and  omnipotence:  "So  He  unredeemed  should thy goodness  thy. g r e a t n e s s b o t h / Be q u e s t i o n e d and blasphem'd without d e f e n s e " (11.  166).  The Son's s t r a t e g i c r h e t o r i c  s u p p o r t s the argument f o r s a l v a t i o n  and a g a i n s t the l o g i c of the f r e e agent  choosing h i s own  damnation, and  165-  over he  thus e s t a b l i s h e s h i m s e l f as the g u a r a n t o r of d i v i n e mercy. The Son  embodies the a c t i v e mercy of God,  and h i s o f f e r t o f u l f i l l the  m e s s i a n i c m i s s i o n s i g n i f i e s h i s i d e n t i t y as the t r u e image of heroism i n Paradise Lost. but sav'd who  In q u a l i f y i n g  will"  t h e agreement t h a t "Man  s h a l l not q u i t e be  lost,  ( I I I , 173), t h e F a t h e r s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r j u s t i c e  w h i c h makes l o v e i t s e l f  meaningful.  ... He w i t h h i s whole p o s t e r i t y must d i e , D i e hee or J u s t i c e must; u n l e s s f o r him Some other a b l e , and as w i l l i n g , The r i g i d  pay  s a t i s f a c t i o n , death, f o r death.  Say Heav'nly  Powers, where s h a l l we f i n d  such l o v e ,  Which of ye w i l l be m o r t a l t o redeem Man's m o r t a l c r i m e , and j u s t  t h ' u n j u s t t o save,  D w e l l s i n a l l Heaven c h a r i t y so dear? (Ill, This c a l l for a w i l l i n g  209-216)  s a v i o u r p a r a l l e l s Beelzebub's  q u e s t i o n i n h e l l , "whom  s h a l l we f i n d / S u f f i c i e n t ? " ( I I , 403-404), and we a r e meant t o compare Satan, "rais'd to  ... w i t h Monarchal  the h u m i l i t y of t h e Son.  p r i d e / C o n s c i o u s of h i g h e s t worth" Satan o f f e r i n g  fellow rebels i s a parodic f o i l "the f u l n e s s  ... of l o v e d i v i n e "  Behold mee  then, mee  I o f f e r , on mee  t o the Son  " D e l i v e r a n c e " ( I I , 465) piercing  l i f e for l i f e  l e t t h i n e anger  fall;  to h i s  the s i l e n c e i n heaven w i t h  ( I I I , 225): f o r him,  (II427-429),  38 Account mee man; I f o r h i s sake w i l l Thy  bosom, and t h i s g l o r y next  leave  t o thee  F r e e l y put o f f , and f o r him l a s t l y d i e W e l l p l e a s ' d , on me l e t Death Wreck a l l h i s rage .... (Ill, The caesuras for  236-241)  i n l i n e 236 a c c e n t u a t e t h e c l i m a c t i c o f f e r t o s u b s t i t u t e  man, and t h e " f a l l " ending  which he w i l l  self  l i n e 237 s t r e s s e s t h e s e v e r i t y of d i v i n e w r a t h  expose h i m s e l f t o . I n c o n t r a s t t o S a t a n i c e g o c e n t r i c i t y , t h e  r e p e t i t i o n of "mee" and " I " here o r c h e s t r a t e s t h e Son's f r e e s a c r i f i c e of h i s own l i f e  i n o r d e r t o make g r a c e p o s s i b l e .  The Son expresses  i n these  lines  the new and " b e t t e r f o r t i t u d e / Of P a t i e n c e and H e r o i c Martyrdom" ( I X , 312-313): s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e of l o v e supersedes prise.  The Son's h e r o i c martyrdom  c h a r i t y r e v e r b e r a t e s throughout  egocentric enter-  i s so potent t h a t even i n s i l e n c e h i s  a l l of,heaven:  H i s words here ended, but h i s meek a s p e c t S i l e n t y e t spake, and b r e a t h ' d  immortal  love  To m o r t a l men, above which o n l y shone Filial  obedience:  as a s a c r i f i c e  Glad t o be o f f e r ' d , he a t t e n d s t h e w i l l Of h i s g r e a t F a t h e r . (Ill,  266-271)  The Son a p p o i n t s h i m s e l f as t h e p r i e s t l y " I n t e r c e s s o r " (XI, 19) i n t e r p r e t i n g man's mute s i g h s ( 1 . 3 1 ) , o f f e r i n g "of  t o God t h e f r u i t s of c o n t r i t i o n which a r e  more p l e a s i n g s a y o r " (1.26), than a l l man c o u l d have produced  innocence.  He a d d r e s s e s  the Father: Now t h e r e f o r e bend t h i n e ear  To s u p p l i c a t i o n , hear h i s s i g h s though mute; U n s k i l f u l w i t h what words t o pray, l e t mee I n t e r p r e t f o r him, mee h i s Advocate  i n Edenic  39 And  p r o p i t i a t i o n , a l l h i s works on  Good or not good i n g r a f t , my  mee  Merit those  S h a l l p e r f e c t , and f o r t h e s e my  Death s h a l l  pay.  (XI, 30-36) The  i t e r a t i o n of "mee"  p a r a l l e l of "my  a g a i n resounds w i t h s a c r i f i c i a l  M e r i t " and "my  love.  The  syntactical  Death" u n d e r s c o r e s the h e r o i c ethos where  martyrdom i s the mark of genuine grandeur.  In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o  Satan's  r e b e l l i o n "from sense of i n j u r ' d m e r i t " ( I , 98), t h e Son f o r s a k e s " a l l save/ A world from u t t e r  l o s s " ( I I I , 307-308), and proves h i m s e l f "By M e r i t  more than B i r t h r i g h t Son of God"  (1. 309).  And  the F a t h e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n of  h i s b e g o t t e n Son as the w o r t h i e s t image of h i m s e l f echoes in s e l f - l e s s  to  the heroism c e n t e r e d  love: ... i n t h e e  Love h a t h abounded more than G l o r y abounds, T h e r e f o r e thy H u m i l i a t i o n s h a l l With t h e e thy  <  exalt  Manhood a l s o t o t h i s Throne  ....  (11. 311-314) The Son is  i s t h e e x a l t e d hero i l l u s t r a t i n g  the p a r a d o x i c a l h u m i l i a t i o n which  s t r o n g e r than s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n , and h i s example r e v e r b e r a t e s throughout  Paradise Lost. The c l i m a c t i c syntax i n the F a t h e r ' s a c c e p t a n c e of the Son's o f f e r exclaims the f u t u r e v i c t o r y : So Man,  as i s most  S h a l l s a t i s f y f o r Man, And  just,  be judg'd and d i e ,  d y i n g r i s e , and r i s i n g w i t h him  H i s b r e t h e r n , ransom'd w i t h h i s own (Ill, The l a s t  raise dear  life.  294-297)  important word i n one c l a u s e i s r e p e a t e d as the f i r s t  i n the n e x t , and  important word  the e f f e c t of s u c c e e d i n g c l a u s e s arranged i n a r i s i n g  order  40 of importance i s t o c e l e b r a t e the triumph where "Heav'nly l o v e s h a l l H e l l i s h h a t e " ( 1 . 298).  T h i s i s the g l o r y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h  i n c a r n a t i o n as " V i r g i n Seed" (1. 284). it  is significant  metaphorical  t h a t M i l t o n d i d not  But,  the Son's f u t u r e  as C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s  choose any  l i t e r a l meaning.  a l l r e s t o r e " ( X I I , 623), abandoned Son  When Eve  the r e a d e r  g l o r i o u s i n the war  says "By mee  does not  comments,  such august t i t l e as  meaning of S e e d — t h e triumphant C h r i s t — c h o o s i n g  on the s i m p l e  outdo  the  r a t h e r to  focus  the Promis'd Seed  shall  p i c t u r e the d e v o t e d ,  i n heaven; i n s t e a d , he  self-  i s confronted  with  2 an  intimate smallness  appears d i m i n u t i v e  t h a t i s almost i n v i s i b l e .  i n comparison to S a t a n i c  The  energy:  throws the c l a s s i c a l c a t e g o r i e s of s t r e n g t h and The  "Vicegerent"  (X,  of j u s t i c e and  56)  weakness.  As  the Father  Both Ransom and d e s t i n ' d Man  himself  thee  design'd  to j u d g e Man  fall'n.  58-62)  i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h h i s chosen m e s s i a n i c  embarks on the t a s k c o n s c i o u s answers t h e F a t h e r ,  on  and  himself.  " I go t o j u d g e / On E a r t h t h e s e t h y t r a n s g r e s s o r s ,  M e s s i a h i s the " m i l d Judge and S a v i o r " ( 1 . 209)  destiny,  t h a t the burden of s i n must f a l l  thou know'st,/ Whoever j u d g ' d , the worst on mee  and  relation  Redeemer v o l u n t a r y ,  (X,  He  as  be seen t h a t I i n t e n d  Man's f r i e n d , h i s M e d i a t o r , h i s  fully  the Son's r o l e  in  mercy:  Mercy c o l l e a g u e w i t h J u s t i c e , sending  And  says,  of d i v i n e j u s t i c e i l l u s t r a t e s the r e c i p r o c a l  Easy i t may  Son  s p i r i t u a l heroism o v e r -  Son's embodiment of the t r u e image of heroism i s a l s o e v i d e n t  h i s r o l e as the j u d g e of f a l l e n man.  The  Son's coming grandeur  must l i g h t "  (X, 71-73).  I n t e r c e s s o r " ( 1 . 96), a t once "both Judge  who ... d i s d a i n ' d not  Thence f o r t h the form of s e r v a n t  to  begin  t o assume,  but The  41 As when he wash'd h i s s e r v a n t s ' f e e t , so As F a t h e r of h i s F a m i l y he  clad  T h i r nakedness w i t h S k i n s of B e a s t s Nor  now  ...  hee t h i r outward o n l y w i t h t h e S k i n s  Of B e a s t s , but Opprobrious,  inward nakedness, much more  w i t h h i s Robe of r i g h t e o u s n e s s ,  A r r a y i n g cover'd from  h i s Father's  sight.  (11. 213-217, 220-223) The Son  e x e m p l i f i e s even as j u d g e t h e h u m i l i t y and magnanimity d e f i n i n g  poet's h e r o i c e t h o s .  He meets man  as a " p i t y i n g " ( 1 . 211)  f o r the needs of h i s d e f e n c e l e s s c h i l d r e n .  father  the  concerned  The a c t of c l o t h i n g Adam and  Eve's p h y s i c a l nakedness i s emblematic of t h e g r e a t e r work of c o v e r i n g s p i r i t u a l nakedness, and,  significantly,  the e x t e n s i o n of the Son's r i g h t e o u s -  ness to.man i s not r e f e r r e d t o as a f u t u r e event, but one which t a k e s p l a c e a l o n g s i d e the judgment. c h a r i t y , and  The Son's d e f i n i n g  h i s powers a r e e t e r n a l .  a r c h e t y p a l hero.  When Adam responds  And  characteristic  is sacrificial  Adam r e c o g n i z e s h i s j u d g e as  t o Eve's attempts  at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  l o v e , he a s s o c i a t e s the m e r c i f u l example of the Son w i t h h i s own acquired understanding  of p e n i t e n c e . Remember w i t h what m i l d  And  g r a c i o u s temper he b o t h heard and  Without wrath or r e v i l i n g  judg'd  ....  ... h i s t i m e l y c a r e Hath unbesought p r o v i d e d , and  h i s hands  C l o t h ' d us unworthy, p i t y i n g w h i l e he judg'd What b e t t e r can we  do,  ....  than to the p l a c e  R e p a i r i n g where he judg'd us, p r o s t r a t e f a l l B e f o r e him  r e v e r e n t , and  Humbly our f a u l t s , and  the  there confess  pardon beg, w i t h t e a r s  ...  newly  with  42 Of sorrow u n f e i g n ' d , and h u m i l i a t i o n meek. (X, 1046-1048, 1057-1059, 1086-1089, 1092) The  Son i s the precedent f o r heroic martyrdom from whom Adam t a k e s h i s  example.  L a t e r Adam l e a r n s from M i c h a e l of t h e s a c r i f i c e of C h r i s t , and  internalizes the heroic stance based on obedience t o God: H e n c e f o r t h I l e a r n , t h a t t o obey i s b e s t , And  l o v e w i t h f e a r t h e o n l y God ...  Taught t h i s by h i s example whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever  blest.  ( X I I , 561-562, 572-573) Furthermore,  t h e Son's c r e a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e m a n i f e s t s the b e n e f i -  cence c e n t r a l t o h i s h e r o i c s t a n c e .  He. i s t h e a l l - c r e a t i n g Logos, " t h '  O m n i f i c Word" ( V I I , 217), who i n f u s e s d i s o r d e r w i t h t h e s u p e r i o r power o f divine charity.  The poet d e l i n e a t e s t h e Son as t h e epitome of s p i r i t u a l  s t r e n g t h , t h e summation of c r e a t i v i t y  i n contradistinction to the i n f e r i o r  a n n i h i l a t i v e f o r c e of Satan's c l a s s i c a l  heroism.  ... Meanwhile t h e Son On h i s g r e a t E x p e d i t i o n now appear'd, G i r t w i t h Omnipotence, w i t h Radiance  crown'd  Of M a j e s t y D i v i n e , S a p i e n c e and Love Immense, and a l l h i s F a t h e r i n him shone. ( V I I , 192-196) The numberless t h r o n g accompanying h i s c h a r i o t , supported w i t h Equipage"  ( 1 . 203) from  spirituality  "the Armory of God" (1. 200),  superior to egocentric rage.  s i g n i f i e s the theocentric  The c l a s s i c a l  imagery  by an omnipotence i n f u s e d w i t h "Sapience and Love/ Immense." hero  i s t h e same f i g u r e who e x e r c i s e s u n i v e r s a l o r d e r .  sound" ( 1 . 206) o f heaven's g a t e s opening  "Celestial  i s transcended  The a r c h e t y p a l  The v e r y "Harmonious  "On golden Hinges moving" ( 1 . 207)  43 announces  the r e i g n of the Son f u l f i l l i n g  the F a t h e r ' s w i l l , and t h i s  i r o n i c a l l y w i t h the a n t i h e r o i c Satan r e q u i r i n g S i n ' s agreement  contrasts  t o u n b o l t the  g a t e s of h e l l : ... on a sudden op'n f l y W i t h impetuous r e c o i l and j a r r i n g  sound.  T h ' i n f e r n a l d o o r s , and on t h i r h i n g e s g r a t e Harsh Thunder, t h a t the lowest bottom  shook  Of Erebus. (II, For  879-883)  Satan, chaos i s a " w i l d Abyss" ( I I , 917), "a u n i v e r s a l hubbub w i l d / Of  s t u n n i n g sounds and v o i c e s a l l c o n f u s ' d / Borne through t h e h o l l o w d a r k ... With l o u d e s t vehemence" (11. 951-954), an abyss through which he can t r a v e l o n l y "with d i f f i c u l t y and l a b o r h a r d " ( 1 . 1021). "the  vast  (VII,  immeasurable Abyss/ Outrageous as a Sea, dark, w a s t e f u l , w i l d "  211-212),  imposes o r d e r on c o n f u s i o n — " S i l e n c e , ye t r o u b l ' d waves,  and thou Deep, peace to  I n c o n t r a s t , t h e Son views  his authority.  ... your d i s c o r d end" (11. 216-217)—and  The subsequent a c t of the S p i r i t  of God  chaos adheres  infusing  recipient  chaos w i t h " v i t a l v i r t u e " ( 1 . 236), downward p u r g i n g "The b l a c k t a r t a r e o u s c o l d I n f e r n a l d r e g s / Adverse t o l i f e "  (11. 238r-239) i s p a r a l l e l t o the M e s s i a h  r e s t o r i n g moral order i n the f a l l e n world.  The Son f u l f i l l s  the p r i n c i p l e  t h a t " t o c r e a t e / I s g r e a t e r than c r e a t e d t o d e s t r o y " (11. 606-607), and the n a r r a t o r , echoing the a n g e l i c p r a i s e of c r e a t i o n , a s s e r t s t h e i n d o m i t a b l e power of good over  evil: Who  seeks  To l e s s e n t h e e , a g a i n s t h i s purpose s e r v e s To m a n i f e s t t h e more t h y m i g h t :  his evil  Thou u s e s t , and from thence c r e a t ' s t more good. (11. Man  613-616)  ^  f a l l s from innocence but the b e n e f i c e n c e of the Son, e v i d e n t i n t h e  44 c r e a t i o n , c r e a t e s g r e a t e r good from The appearance  evil.  o f t h e g r e a t E n s i g n of t h e Messiah  ( V I , 775) on t h e  t h i r d day o f t h e war i n heaven s i g n i f i e s t h e f i n a l d e f l a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l heroism.  The e q u a l f o e s "War wearied hath perform'd what War can do,/ And  t o d i s o r d e r ' d r a g e l e t l o o s e t h e r e i n s " ( 1 1 . 695-696) and, as i n t h e c l a s s i c a l e p i c , o n l y d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n can o b t a i n a r e s o l u t i o n . s i m p l y g r a n t one army a m a r t i a l v i c t o r y .  But t h e Son does not  R a t h e r , h i s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e war  announces t h e t r u e heroism where s u p e r i o r s p i r i t u a l i t y q u e l l s m a r t i a l When t h e Son ends t h e war, war i t s e l f And  fury.  i s defeated.  t h e Son's response t o t h e F a t h e r ' s decree t h a t he d r i v e out Satan's  army .expresses t h a t  s u b m i s s i v e n e s s which c o i n c i d e s w i t h genuine h e r o i c  0 F a t h e r , 0 supreme of h e a v ' n l y  glory.  Thrones,  F i r s t , H i g h e s t , H o l i e s t , B e s t , thou always s e e k ' s t To g l o r i f y t h y Son, I always  thee  As i s most j u s t ; t h i s I my G l o r y account, My e x a l t a t i o n , and my whole d e l i g h t , That thou i n me w e l l p l e a s ' d , d e c l a r ' s t F u l f i l l ' d , which t o f u l f i l  thy w i l l  i s a l l my b l i s s .  (11. 723-729) The Son u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t  " t o obey i s h a p p i n e s s e n t i r e " ( 1 . 741), and t h a t  s u b m i s s i o n i s t h e p a r a d o x i c a l means t o g l o r y , e x a l t a t i o n and d e l i g h t .  He  a g r e e s t o e x e r c i s e t h e r o l e of v i c t o r , but w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t he does not i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h t h e r o l e .  Whether he e x p r e s s e s t e r r o r o r m i l d n e s s ,  power o r weakness, t h e Son i s i d e n t i f i a b l e by h i s obedience t o t h e F a t h e r . S c e p t r e and Power, t h y g i v i n g , I assume And  gladlier  s h a l l r e s i g n when i n t h e end  Thou s h a l t be A l l i n A l l ,  and I i n thee  For e v e r , and i n mee a l l whom thou  lov'st;  But whom thou h a t ' s t , I h a t e , and c a n put on  45 Thy  t e r r o r s , as I put thy m i l d n e s s  Image of thee i n a l l t h i n g s  on,  ....  (11. 730-736) The movement from  " I " t o "Thou," and  harmony of d i v i n e l o v e where s t r i c t unity.  "mee  t o " t h e e " conveys  the unbroken  h i e r a r c h y i s t r a n s c e n d e d i n the g r e a t e r  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between F a t h e r and Son  i s one of r e c i p r o c a l  glorifi-  c a t i o n where each seeks t o g l o r i f y the o t h e r . Moreover, the extent of the Son's d e f l a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l heroism  corres-  ponds t o the n a t u r e of the poet's c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s t o the Son's own  person.  I s the Son not simply a more p o w e r f u l m i l i t a r y  force?  the r e a d e r might  The poet's a l l u s i o n t o the v i s i o n of E z e k i e l r e s t s on t h i s q u e s t i o n . ... f o r t h rush'd w i t h w h i r l - w i n d sound, The C h a r i o t of P a t e r n a l D e i t y , Flashing Itself  t h i c k f l a m e s , Wheel w i t h i n Wheel, undrawn,  i n s t i n c t w i t h S p i r i t , but  By f o u r C h e r u b i c shapes,  convoy'd  f o u r Faces  each  Had wondrous, as w i t h S t a r s t h i r b o d i e s a l l And Wings were set w i t h Eyes, w i t h Eyes the Wheels Of B e r y l , and c a r e e r i n g Hee  F i r e s between  i n C e l e s t i a l Panoply  ....  a l l arm'd  Of r a d i a n t Urim, work d i v i n e l y wrought, Ascended, a t h i s r i g h t  hand V i c t o r y  Sat Eagle-wing '.d, b e s i d e him hung h i s And  Q u i v e r w i t h t h r e e - b o l t e d Thunder  And: from about  him f i e r c e e f f u s i o n  Of smoke and b i c k e r i n g flame, and Attended w i t h ten thousand He onward came  Bow stor'd,  roll'd sparkles dire;  thousand  Saints,  .... (VI, 749-756, 760-768)  ask.  46 As I have i n d i c a t e d  i n Chapter One,  the war  i n heaven should be read as a  d i v i n e a l l e g o r y where the meaning and not the form i s c r u c i a l .  The  classical  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e Son as m a r t i a l v i c t o r , c h a r i o t e d and h u r l i n g thunder, a r e u n d e r c u t by the meaning of h i s wrath. heaven's  T h i s wrath  l a u g h t e r a t " i n j u r ' d m e r i t " : "Love  i s the c o u n t e r p a r t of  laughs at a n t i - l o v e , " and  divine  3 j u s t i c e d r i v e s out i t s "impious Foes" ( 1 . 831). C h a r i o t of P a t e r n a l D e i t y the  L i k e the Son's c h a r i o t , " T h e  ... i n s t i n c t w i t h S p i r i t "  (11. 750-752) announces  v i c t o r y of T r u t h over the f u t i l e m a c h i n a t i o n s of S a t a n .  t h a t the Son's r o l e i n the war  It i s significant  i n heaven i s the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of h i s i d e n t i t y  as t h e M e s s i a h , God's " a n n o i n t e d K i n g " ( 1 . 718), t h e " w o r t h i e s t ... H e i r / Of all atic  t h i n g s " (11. 707-708).  H i s triumph on the t h i r d day of the war  of the f i n a l triumph over s i n and death i n the r e s u r r e c t i o n .  E n s i g n of t h e M e s s i a h centric  ( 1 . 775)  The g r e a t  symbolizes the i n f i n i t e s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e o -  s p i r i t u a l i t y over " s t r e n g t h from T r u t h d i v i d e d " ( V I , 381).  a r r i v a l of the Son,  i s emblem-  Satan's c l a s s i c a l w a r f a r e c o l l a p s e s .  The  With  the  "horrid confusion  heapt/ Upon c o n f u s i o n " (11. 668-669) i s ordered upon h i s e n t r a n c e w i t h o u t conflict: B e f o r e him Power D i v i n e h i s way At  prepar'd;  h i s command the u p r o o t e d H i l l s  retir'd  Each t o h i s p l a c e , t h e y h e a r d h i s v o i c e and went Obsequious,  Heav'n h i s wonted f a c e renew'd,  And w i t h f r e s h F l o w ' r e t s H i l l and V a l l e y (11. The r e b e l s r a l l y t h e i r powers ( 1 . 786)  smil'd.  780-784) and s t a n d " r e i m b a t t l ' d  f i e r c e , by  or  f r a u d / Weening t o p r o s p e r " (11. 794-795), but no b a t t l e f o l l o w s .  of  t h e Son d i s s o l v e s S a t a n i c heroism. So spake t h e Son, and  i n t o t e r r o r chang'd  His  count'nance  too s e v e r e t o be b e h e l d  And  f u l l o f wrath bent on h i s Enemies.  force  The power  47 At  once t h e Four spread out t h i r  Starry  wings  W i t h d r e a d f u l shade c o n t i g u o u s , and t h e Orbs Of h i s f i e r c e C h a r i o t r o l l ' d , as w i t h t h e sound Of t o r r e n t  F l o o d s , or of a numerous Host.  Hee on h i s impious Foes r i g h t  onward d r o v e ,  Gloomy as N i g h t ; under h i s b u r n i n g Wheels The s t e a d f a s t Empyrean shook throughout, A l l but t h e Throne i t s e l f Among them he a r r i v ' d ;  of God.  Full  i n h i s right  soon  hand  Grasping t e n thousand Thunders, which he sent B e f o r e him, such as i n t h i r  Souls  infix'd  P l a g u e s ; they a s t o n i s h t a l l r e s i s t a n c e A l l courage; down t h i r His  i d l e weapons dropp'd ....  arrows ... ... w i t h e r ' d a l l t h i r  And  lost,  o f t h i r wonted v i g o r  Exhausted, s p i r i t l e s s ,  left  them d r a i n ' d ,  afflicted, (VI,  strength,  fall'n.  824-839, 845, 850-852)  As C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s a r g u e s , The overthrow o f t h e r e b e l a n g e l s i s t h e overthrow, of  spiritually,  a l l i n whom t h a t d e r i v i n g and n o u r i s h i n g Love i s dead.  The v e r y b l a z e o f eyes from t h e c h a r i o t  i n which t h e D i v i n e Son  r i d e s i s t h e s p e c t a c l e o f a l i v i n g and stupendous u n i v e r s e on t h e "exhausted" r e b e l s .  The  rolling  There needs no b a t t l e ; t h e e x p o s i t i o n 4  of  t h e D i v i n e Nature i s enough.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e c l a s s i c a l  glorification  of s t r e n g t h f o r i t s own sake, t h e  Son e x e r c i s e s s t r e n g t h s o l e l y t o r e s t o r e o r d e r : not  f o r t h , but check'd/ H i s Thunder  "Yet h a l f h i s s t r e n g t h he put  i n mid V o l l e y , f o r he meant/ Not t o  d e s t r o y , b u t r o o t them out o f Heav'n" (11. 853-855).  S i m i l a r l y Michael,  48 relating  t o Adam the f i n a l d u a l between the Messiah and Satan, echoes  concept t h a t w a r f a r e i s s p i r i t u a l .  He  the  i n s i s t s t h a t the f i n a l v i c t o r y w i l l  be  a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of e v i l works, not through t h e p h y s i c a l d e f e a t of Satan worthy  of c e l e b r a t i o n  in a c l a s s i c a l  Dream not of t h i r  epic.  fight,  As of a D u e l , or the l o c a l wounds Of head or h e e l :  not t h e r e f o r e j o i n s the Son  Manhood t o Godhead, w i t h more, s t r e n g t h t o  foil  Thy enemy; nor so i s overcome Satan, whose f a l l  from Heav'n, a d e a d l i e r  bruise,  D i s a b l ' d not t o g i v e thee thy death's wound: Which hee, who  comes t h y S a v i o u r , s h a l l r e c u r e ,  Not by d e s t r o y i n g Satan, but h i s works In  thee and  The Law  i n thy Seed  of God  ....  exact he s h a l l  fulfil  Both by obedience and by l o v e , Alone f u l f i l He  shall  the Law;  though.love  thy punishment  endure by coming i n t h e - F l e s h  To a r e p r o a c h f u l l i f e  and c u r s e d death,  P r o c l a i m i n g L i f e t o a l l who In h i s redemption  shall  believe  .... ( X I I , .386-395, 402-408)  T h i s i s the " G o d - l i k e a c t " ( X I I , 427), the h e r o i c martyrdom of l o v e c o n q u e r i n g s e l f - c e n t e r e d c l a s s i c a l heroism.  W h i l e Moses, a type of t h e law, c o u l d not  b r i n g I s r a e l i n t o Canaan, t h e M e s s i a h ... s h a l l  quell  The a d v e r s a r y S e r p e n t , and b r i n g Through  back  t h e w o r l d ' s w i l d e r n e s s l o n g wander'd  man  49 S a f e t o e t e r n a l P a r a d i s e of  rest.  (XII, In  311-314)  c h a r a c t e r w i t h the Son o r d e r i n g chaos a t the c r e a t i o n , the S a v i o u r  will  . . . dissolve Satan w i t h h i s p e r v e r t e d World, then From the c o n f l a g r a n t mass, purg'd New  Heav'ns, new  and  the war  and  refin'd,  E a r t h , Ages of e n d l e s s  Founded i n r i g h t e o u s n e s s and  peace and  To b r i n g f o r t h f r u i t  eternal  Joy and (XII,  In  raise  date love,  bliss.  546-551)  i n heaven, the Son proves h i m s e l f " W o r t h i e s t  h i s r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "Holy Rest"  (VI, 272)  to Reign"  i s emblematic of  ( V I , 888), final  victory. One may  of c o u r s e r a i s e the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the Son making h i s s a c r i f i c i a l  o f f e r w h i l e c o n s c i o u s of t h e sure r e s u r r e c t i o n even makes a mockery of heroism. t h a t the s u f f e r i n g  The  ( I I I , 241-253) u n d e r c u t s  sentiment  " i n Adam's room" (1. 285)  u n d e r l y i n g t h i s argument i s  i s n o t h i n g i n c o n t r a s t t o the  s u r p a s s i n g g l o r i e s of the "Anointed u n i v e r s a l K i n g " (1. 317), and p a s s i o n i s then m e r e l y first In  a t r i v i a l g e s t u r e towards martyrdom.  h a l f of the argument i s undoubtedly  Paradise Lost, M i l t o n i s attempting  to m o r t a l s i g h t " ( I I I , 54-55). of  time and  infinity  while  t o "see and  tell/  Of t h i n g s i n v i s i b l e  and c o l l a p s e s t h e s e same images of The Son's s a c r i f i c i a l  l i n e s w i t h i n a v a s t epic; the o f f e r  b r a t i o n beyond the expanse of human h i s t o r y i n t o e t e r n i t y .  space.  t o n e g a t e t h e Son's heroism  The  cele-  It i s therefore  on the b a s i s of q u a n t i t a t i v e time  e t e r n a l paean l a u d i n g the Son's unprecedented,  offer  i n v o l v e s the b r i e f  span of t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s , but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s o f f e r m e r i t s  erroneous  the  H i s p o e t r y both expands the o r d i n a r y l i m i t a t i o n s  space t o embrace i n f i n i t y ,  i n a few  Now  that C h r i s t ' s  c o r r e c t , the c o n c l u s i o n i s n o t .  i n t o the e x p e r i e n c e of a s i n g l e moment.  i s captured  or  and  godlike charity  50 merges w i t h t h e poet's own v o i c e : 0 unexampl'd l o v e , Love nowhere t o be found  l e s s than D i v i n e !  H a i l Son of God, S a v i o r of Men, t h y Name S h a l l be t h e c o p i o u s matter H e n c e f o r t h , and never F o r g e t , nor from  of my Song  s h a l l my Harp thy p r a i s e  thy Father's p r a i s e d i s j o i n . (Ill,  The  410-415)  i n c a r n a t e Son i n P a r a d i s e Regained embodies t h e h e r o i c song d e f i n i n g  both e p i c s .  While  t h e d i s o b e d i e n c e o f t h e f i r s t Adam "Brought Death i n t o t h e  w o r l d , and a l l our woe" (PL, I , 3 ) , t h e heroism  of t h e second  Adam  "Recover'd  P a r a d i s e t o a l l mankind" (PR, I , 3 ) . C e r t a i n l y t h e p r o c e s s of r e g e n e r a t i o n i s c e l e b r a t e d p r i o r t o t h e advent with " t o r r i d heat" A i r adust"  of t h e Messiah.  The l o s s of an Eden consumed  (PL, X I I , 634), an atmosphere as parched  ( 1 . 635), i s j u x t a p o s e d  a s p i r i t u a l wasteland  t o t h e optimism  of t h e human p a i r c o u n t e r i n g  w i t h "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n ... h a p p i e r f a r " ( 1 .  However, M i l t o n b o t h a l l u d e s t o i n P a r a d i s e L o s t and f u l l y P a r a d i s e Regained t h e Messiah's tion. God,  587).  eulogizes i n  instrumental function i n t h i s ultimate restora-  I n P a r a d i s e Regained, C h r i s t ' s heroism t h e obedience  "as t h e L i b y a n  embodies t h e human c h o i c e f o r  and c h a r i t y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h E d e n i c  bliss.  I who e r e w h i l e t h e happy Garden sung, By one man's d i s o b e d i e n c e l o s t , now s i n g Recover'd  P a r a d i s e t o a l l mankind,  By one man's f i r m obedience  fully  tried  Through a l l t e m p t a t i o n , and t h e Tempter  foil'd  I n a l l h i s w i l e s , d e f e a t e d and r e p u l s ' t , And  Eden r a i s ' d  i n t h e waste W i l d e r n e s s . ( I , 1-7)  I r o n i c a l l y , Satan a l s o acknowledges t h e Messiah's  exemplary m o r a l s t a t u r e :  51 "Thy  a c t i o n s t o t h y words a c c o r d , thy words/ To t h y l a r g e h e a r t g i v e u t t e r a n c e  due,  t h y h e a r t / C o n t a i n s of good, wise, j u s t , t h e p e r f e c t  shape" ( I I I , 9-11).  M.Y. Hughes i n s i s t s t h a t t h e word "shape" here means " t h e a b s o l u t e p e r f e c t i o n of  the t h i n g — i t s  L o s t when Satan And  felt  (IV, of  form," and connects  i s rebuked  t h i s to a p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n i n Paradise  by t h e a n g e l Zephon:  "Abasht t h e D e v i l  how a w f u l goodness i s , and saw/ V i r t u e i n her shape how  846-848).~* I t i s noteworthy t h a t some c r i t i c s  stood,/  lovely"  reject Milton's delineation  a f i g u r e " P r i v a t e , u n a c t i v e , calm, c o n t e m p l a t i v e " (PR, I I , 81) as t h e e p i c  hero..  E.M.W. T i l l y a r d goes so f a r as t o deny t h e poem i t s e p i c q u a l i t i e s :  "How t h i s poem should be l a b e l l e d  i s doubtful.  g o r i e s f i t i t . And t h e e p i c c a t e g o r y f a i l s i s too s h o r t , c o n f i n e d , and s i m p l i f i e d  None of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a t e -  t o f i t i t most c o n s p i c u o u s l y .  f o r the necessary  It  e p i c v a r i e t y and i t  ,.6 quite lacks choric character. temptations in  W.W.  Robson argues  that Christ r e j e c t i n g the  "as t h e spokesman of pure r e a s o n " , i s " t h e f a i l u r e of i n c a r n a t i o n  i t s most o b v i o u s form."^ The r e a d e r  too p a s s i v e t o be e p i c , one accused  i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a hero  allegedly  of b e i n g r a t h e r t h e embodiment of h a r s h  r a t i o n a l i t y than of f l e s h and b l o o d humanness, and i t i s t h e r e a d e r who must d e c i d e f o r h i m s e l f t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e s e a l l e g a t i o n s .  As Satan p r o f e s s e s t h e  need t o learn, of t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e d e c l a r e d Son of God—"Who t h i s i s we must l e a r n , f o r man he seems/ I n a l l h i s l i n e a m e n t s , though i n h i s f a c e / The glimpses  of h i s F a t h e r ' s g l o r y s h i n e " ( I , 9 1 - 9 3 ) — s o much more must t h e r e a d e r  d i s c o v e r t h e n a t u r e o f Jesus and t h e heroism  he e x e m p l i f i e s .  t h a t M i l t o n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y e p i c v i s i o n answers a p o t e n t i a l l y r e a d i n g o f t h e poem. Regain'd  I s h a l l argue skeptical  I n t h e words of John M. Steadman, " I n P a r a d i s e  t h e hero n o t o n l y r e j e c t s a l l ends or means t h a t seem i n c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h h i s o r d a i n e d r o l e as S u f f e r i n g S e r v a n t ; he a l s o r e d e f i n e s t h e h e r o i c 8 ethos and h e r o i c p o e t r y s p e c i f i c a l l y  i n terms of s a n c t i t y . "  The h e r o i c ethos of t h e poem emerges from t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e Renaissance  i d e a l of t h e a c t i v e hero and t h e M e d i e v a l c u l t o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e  52 ideal.  9  This c o n f l i c t  s e c u l a r humanism and Renaissance b e l i e f d i g n i t y , and  i n Paradise  Regained i s t h a t same t e n s i o n  seventeenth-century E n g l i s h Puritanism—between  i n the c a p a c i t y  of n a t u r a l man  a c t i v e power of d i v i n e g r a c e .  Satan a c c o s t s  heroism b e l o n g i n g  to the "most e r e c t e d  who  else despise,/  a l l pleasures  ( I I I , 27-29).  And  C h r i s t w i t h the  fame, a t t e m p t i n g to i n f l a m e  the  to a s s e r t h i s e s s e n t i a l  the r e l i g i o u s view t h a t human v i r t u e i s c o n t i n g e n t  quest f o r g l o r y and  between  i n him  upon  the  Renaissance  that, t h i r s t  for active  S p i r i t s , most temper'd pure/ E t h e r e a l ,  A l l treasures  and  a l l gain  esteem as  dross"  C h r i s t , not by any means the a c t i v e R e n a i s s a n c e hero  a s s e r t i n g t h a t magnanimity i s most e f f e c t i v e i n the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a , all  the more l i k e the M e d i e v a l m o n a s t i c .  Medieval character Milton's  of such a M e s s i a h .  Christ i n Paradise  looks  M e r r i t t Y. Hughes comments on  the  Responding to the c r i t i c a l view t h a t  Regained i s "a s e l f - p o r t r a i t  of an aging  Puritan  t a k i n g r e f u g e i n S t o i c i s m , " Hughes argues t h a t Contemptus mundi was or d o c t o r  never c a r r i e d f u r t h e r by m e d i e v a l pope  of the Church than i t was  Disillusion  l i k e h i s may  have been p o s s i b l e o n l y  t w i l i g h t of the Renaissance; and  in  the  perhaps the d e n u n c i a t i o n  ancient  c u l t u r e t h a t consummates C h r i s t ' s r e f u s a l of even  noblest  e a r t h l y g l o r y c o u l d have come o n l y from a s p i r i t  c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e had of a n c i e n t Now  by M i l t o n i n t h i s poem.  civic  promised the  fulfillment  l i b e r t y that i s painted  of the t o whom  of the v i s i o n  in Areopagitica.  ^  w h i l e the t h r u s t of Hughes' argument i s e x a c t l y r i g h t , i t would be m i s -  leading to construe Milton's r e g r e s s i v e Medievalism.  p o l i t i c a l d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t as a throwback t o  I would s t r e s s r a t h e r t h a t C h r i s t i n  Paradise  Regained t r a n s c e n d s the t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy between a c t i v e and  contemplative  heroism. It  is significant  t h a t J e s u s ' f i r s t words express h i s own  t h e means t o a t t a i n " p u b l i c good" ( I , 204).  " T h i s p e r f e c t Man"  confusion (1.  166),  over  awakened by t h e sense o f a g r e a t c a l l i n g , has a l i m i t e d awareness of t h e nature  of h i s messianic  the problematic  quest  r o l e , and must d i s c o v e r w i t h i n h i m s e l f an answer t o  f o r g l o r y and fame. ... v i c t o r i o u s deeds  Flam'd i n my h e a r t , h e r o i c a c t s ; one w h i l e To r e s c u e  I s r a e l from t h e Roman yoke,  Then t o subdue and q u e l l o'er a l l t h e e a r t h B r u t e v i o l e n c e and proud T y r a n n i c Till Yet  ppw'r,  t r u t h were f r e e d , and e q u i t y r e s t o r ' d : h e l d i t more humane, more h e a v e n l y ,  By winning words t o conquer w i l l i n g And At Not  make p e r s u a s i o n least  first  hearts,  do t h e work of f e a r ;  t o t r y , and t e a c h  the e r r i n g S o u l  w i l f u l l y m i s d o i n g , but unware  M i s l e d : t h e stubborn  o n l y t o subdue. ( I , 215-226)  The  " g l o r i o u s Eremite"  ( I , 8) does n o t simply  r e p l a c e boyhood a s p i r a t i o n s  towards p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y w i t h a r e t r e a t i n t o p r i v a t e c o n t e m p l a t i o n ; h i s c h o i c e t o impart  t h e g o s p e l becomes t h e mode of h e r o i c a c t i o n .  prowess cannot e s t a b l i s h t r u t h and e q u i t y : as t h e s u f f e r i n g s e r v a n t  i n order  Ironically, Christ f u l f i l l s  t h e Messiah-must o f f e r  rather, Military himself  " t o conquer w i l l i n g h e a r t s " ( I , 2 2 2 ) .  Satan's i m p e r a t i v e  g l o r y , but augment" ( I I I , 3 8 ) : he t r a n s c e n d s  t o "Quench n o t t h e t h i r s t o f t h e s e c u l a r concept of t h e  a c t i v e h e r o by h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y v i s i o n o f man a t t a i n i n g e t e r n a l g l o r y i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o h i s submission  t o God.  T h i s i s t h e t h e o c e n t r i c heroism  which s y n t h e s i z e s t h e t e n s i o n between s e c u l a r humanism and century  seventeenth-  E n g l i s h P u r i t a n i s m , and c r e a t e s a mode o f e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s ,  p a r a d o x i c a l l y , "more humane, more h e a v e n l y " ( I , 221).  As Eden resembles  heaven, so i t i s o n l y t h a t which most c l o s e l y resembles d i v i n e  beneficence  54 which r e a l i z e s humanness. a c t i o n and f o r God,  C h r i s t u n i t e s i n h i m s e l f the one  the other of submission  to g r a c e :  made p e r f e c t i n the Messiah,  Eden i n the "waste W i l d e r n e s s " i s t h a t the hero does not  i t i s o n l y the human c h o i c e  and r e f l e c t e d  ( I , 7).  seek h i s own  The  impulse f o r  essence  i n men,  which can  raise  of t h e o c e n t r i c humanism  g l o r y , but h i s F a t h e r ' s , and,  i n so  doing, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i s himself elevated; S h a l l I seek g l o r y then, as v a i n men Oft not deserv'd? Who  sent me,  and  seek  I seek not mine, but h i s t h e r e b y w i t n e s s whence I  am.  ( I l l , 105-107) As the Father  says  i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , the Son's c h o i c e to g l o r i f y God  e x a l t s b o t h h i m s e l f and observes  r e p e n t a n t mankind  t h i s of t h e o c e n t r i c  ( I I I , 312-314).  Mahood  heroism: 'Not  I , L o r d , but Thou':  u l t i m a t e f e e l i n g about the t h i r s t humanist impulses,  M.M.  i n turn  Milton's  for glory i s that, l i k e  i t i s a divinely-bestowed  other  q u a l i t y which  can  e x a l t or debase the mind a c c o r d i n g t o whether i t i s g i v e n a ward or s e l f w a r d d i r e c t i o n . man  ' t h i n k s t o b r e a k out  Thus, i n P a r a d i s e Regained, C h r i s t  I t becomes a s t o l e n f i r e o n l y when  i n t o sudden b l a z e ' f o r h i s own i s the very  superior to f r e n e t i c c l a s s i c a l a c t i v i t y . whom the F a t h e r  God-  He  glory.  ^  image of a J o b - l i k e p a t i e n c e  i s " t h ' e x a l t e d man"  ( I , 36)  of  prophecies,  By H u m i l i a t i o n and  strong Sufferance:  H i s weakness s h a l l o'ercome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h  ....  (I, 160-161) In P a r a d i s e L o s t , heaven, h e l l , and environments. landscapes  Eden a r e b o t h p h y s i c a l and  S i m i l a r l y , i n P a r a d i s e Regained, t h e w i l d e r n e s s and  have b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  environment i s not o n l y symbolic  spiritual significance.  of the s p i r i t u a l wasteland  The  symbolic garden wilderness  that i s the  55 f a l l e n w o r l d , but of C h r i s t ' s own psyche.  12  Jesus r e c a l l s Mary's words  t h a t he ought t o a t t a i n t h e " h e i g h t [ of ] s a c r e d v i r t u e and t r u e w o r t h " (I,  231), and so "By m a t c h l e s s  Realizing (I,  Deeds express [ h i s ] m a t c h l e s s  s i r e " ( 1 . 233).  t h a t h i s "way must l i e / Through many a hard assay even t o t h e d e a t h  263-264), he f o l l o w s t h e i n n e r l e a d i n g i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s — - " A p a t h l e s s  D e s e r t , dusk w i t h h o r r i d Was d i f f i c u l t ,  shades;/  The way he came n o t having mark'd, r e t u r n /  by human s t e p s u n t r o d " ( I , 296-298).  t h i s a l l u s i o n t o t h e wasteland  I t i s noteworthy  a l s o adumbrates C h r i s t ' s v i c t o r y :  s u p e r l a t i v e h e r o , t h e f i r s t man t o make t h e d i f f i c u l t ness.  that  he i s t h e  r e t u r n from t h e w i l d e r -  The s p e c i f i c a l l y human t e m p t a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e framework of  t h e two dreams a r e i n n e r .  The w i l d e r n e s s r e p r e s e n t s J e s u s ' psychomachia  between s e c u l a r v e r s i o n s o f t h e m e s s i a n i c r o l e and h i s own n o t f u l l y lated v i s i o n : his  1  i t i s a w i l d e r n e s s he must pass through  inner c a l l i n g .  Indeed,  articu-  i n order t o r e a l i z e  t h e "waste W i l d e r n e s s " ( I , 7) becoming "a f l o w ' r y  v a l l e y " (IV, 586) and "a green bank" (IV, 587) i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s of h e r o i c c h o i c e . C h r i s t ' s r e j e c t i o n of t h e f i r s t bread  establishes h i s theocentricity:  t e m p t a t i o n t o t r a n s f o r m stones "Man l i v e s n o t by Bread  each Word/ P r o c e e d i n g from t h e mouth o f God" ( I , 349-350). first  t e m p t a t i o n and t h e f i n a l  divinity.  into  o n l y , but  But b o t h  this,  one on t h e p i n n a c l e o f t h e temple address h i s  The t e m p t a t i o n s o u t s i d e o f t h e dream framework a r e important  b e c a u s e C h r i s t r e j e c t s t h e r e t h e u s e o f d i v i n e powers, and so e n t e r s t h e f r a y as a human e n t i t y o n l y .  But i t i s p r e c i s e l y i n those t e m p t a t i o n s framed by  t h e two dreams t h a t J e s u s wins by m e r i t h i s t i t l e as t h e exemplary human hero. B o t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e dreams and t h e l a n d s c a p e Jesus encounters upon waking a r e i n d i c a t i v e of t h e " i n n e r n e s s " of t h e s e t e m p t a t i o n s :  t h e Nazarene i s 13  being tested  i n h i s e s s e n t i a l human c r e a t u r e l i n e s s and f r a i l t y .  The environment his  which C h r i s t awakens t o a f t e r h i s dream of food i m p l i e s  r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o a Satan "Not r u s t i c as b e f o r e , but s e e m l i e r c l a d "  56  (II,  2 9 9 ) . The Nazarene f i n d s t h a t t h e s p i r i t u a l refreshment he p a r t o o k o f  i n h i s dream w i t h E l i j a h or "as a guest w i t h D a n i e l "  ( I I , 278) "was but a.  dream" ( 1 . 283), and t h a t waking r e a l i t y c o n s i s t s of both hunger and s o l i t u d e . However, t o t h e r e a d e r ' s s u r p r i s e , t h e "waste W i l d e r n e s s " o f s p i r i t u a l appears  t o have undergone a g e n i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  testing  S o l i t u d e remains, but he  saw ... a p l e a s a n t  Grove,  W i t h chant of t u n e f u l B i r d s r e s o u n d i n g l o u d . T h i t h e r he bent h i s way, determin'd  there  To r e s t a t noon, and e n t e r ' d soon t h e shade H i g h r o o f t , and walks beneath,  and a l l e y s brown  That open'd i n t h e m i d s t a woody Scene; Nature's And  own work i t seem'd (Nature taught A r t )  t o a S u p e r s t i t i o u s eye t h e haunt  Of Wood Gods and Wood Nymphs .... (II,  289-297)  The a r t i f i c i a l q u a l i t y of t h e v i s i o n where "Nature taught A r t " t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e element feit  of c l a s s i c a l paganism suggests i t s dangers.  This i s a counter-  n a t u r e i n which o n l y t h e " S u p e r s t i t i o u s eye" can imagine a g e n i a l  innocence.  W h i l e t h e r e a d e r i s g i v e n no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  Christ  t r u s t s the  d e l u s o r y b l i s s , I do t h i n k one i s n o n e t h e l e s s meant t o f e e l t h e p o t e n t i a l fall.  A f t e r t h i s dream, t h e Nazarene, t e s t e d e n t i r e l y i n h i s human c a p a c i t y ,  i s v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e sudden i n t r u s i o n of e v i l . emphasis of t h e subsequent the debate  Furthermore,  the v i s i o n a r y  temptations r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r e s s e n t i a l  inwardness;  i s , i n John Donne's phrase, "a d i a l o g u e o f one," and t h i s  fact  14 i n t r o d u c e s t h e p o w e r f u l d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n o f t h e poem.  Satan a c c o s t s C h r i s t  w i t h t h e p r o b l e m a t i c quest f o r g l o r y and fame, one which he has a l r e a d y begun to  answer f o r h i m s e l f , and, i n t h i s sense, t h e t e m p t a t i o n s framed by t h e two  dreams a r e i n n e r .  57 The Messiah  b a f f l e s Satan's  c o n v e n t i o n a l v i s i o n of h e r o i c v a l u e .  a d v e r s a r y rebukes B e l i a l ' s s u g g e s t i o n t o l u r e C h r i s t w i t h p h y s i c a l denouncing what must be  "a t r i v i a l  "manlier o b j e c t s " ( 1 . 225)  having  p o p u l a r p r a i s e " (11. 226-227).  t o y " ( I I , 223)  men  lust,  i n h i s preference f o r the  "more show/ Of worth, of honor, g l o r y ,  But  "manlier o b j e c t , " "Rocks whereon g r e a t -  have o f t e s t wreck'd" ( 1 . 228),  to t r i v i a l  toys.  The  materialistic  argument t h a t "Great a c t s r e q u i r e g r e a t means of e n t e r p r i s e " ( I I , 412), that  " V i r t u e , Valor., Wisdom s i t i n want" ( 1 . 431),  r e a l i z e s t h a t "Wealth w i t h o u t  " s t r e n g t h from  i s lost  t h e s e t h r e e i s impotent/  keep i t g a i n ' d " (11. 433-434).  The Nazarene m a i n t a i n s  T r u t h d i v i d e d " (PL, VI, 381)  on the man  I I , 4 3 5 - 4 3 6 ) — a n d argues  Wisdom] have o f t a t t a i n ' d / In lowest  those  h i m s e l f "seeks  g l o r y , / And  t h i n g s / Orders and g o v e r n s " w i t h the important  p o v e r t y t o h i g h e s t deeds" (11. 437-438).  (1.  141)  s i n c e the end  g l o r y w i t h t h e argument  f o r h i s g l o r y a l l t h i n g s made, a l l  ( I I I , 110-112).  qualification  And  Christ  t h a t g l o r y " t o God  of the F a t h e r ' s c r e a t i v i t y  beneficence i s only s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n  e g o t i s t i c a l one.).  i s not  (Such a c e l e b r a t i o n  the Messiah  ( I I I , 105-107).  He  belongs"  self-glorification,  i n a transcendent  As I have a l r e a d y observed,  t h e o c e n t r i c n a t u r e of genuine g l o r y  counters the a s s a u l t  a l o n e of r i g h t  but the c e l e b r a t i o n of e t e r n a l goodness ( I I I , 122-126). of  dissolv'd"  endu'd w i t h [ V i r t u e , V a l o r ,  Satan r e i n f o r c e s t h i s c e n t r a l t e m p t a t i o n of fame and t h a t God  who  the s t a n c e t h a t  i s impotent—"Witness  r a t h e r t h a t "men  and  To g a i n dominion or t o  a n c i e n t Empires of the E a r t h / In h e i g h t of a l l t h i r f l o w i n g w e a l t h (PR,  and  C h r i s t ' s performance i n P a r a d i s e Regained  i s the c o n t i n u a l r e d u c t i o n of Satan's est  The  sense, not  i n an  s t r e s s e s the  chooses t o  subordinate  the" d e s i r e f o r g l o r y t o the g r e a t e r cause of b e n e f i c e n c e , p r e f e r r i n g  the  h e r o i c mode c h a r a c t e r i z e d "By deeds of peace, by wisdom eminent./ By p a t i e n c e , temperance" ( I I I , 91-92), and God/  Looking  so a t t a i n s the " t r u e g l o r y and renoun,  on t h ' E a r t h , w i t h a p p r o b a t i o n marks/ The j u s t man"  C h r i s t ' s p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e u n d e r l i n e s h i s s e l f - i m a g e as  fwhich]  ( I I I , 60-63). the  58 suffering  servant.  He  responds t o Satan's c a l l  p o l i t i c a l expectations  with a philosophic  fulfill'd  t i m e , / And  i n t h e i r due  s a i d " ( I I I , 182-183)'. f i n a l l y , passive.  i n order  Messiah reverses s t r e n g t h may  there  " A l l things  are  t h i s q u i e t u d e unmoved by  Satanic  i s r a t h e r t h e k i n d of  frenzy  i s not,  self-destructiveness  "entropy;" C h r i s t , i n f a c t , penetrates  Satanic  c l a s s i c a l e p i c v a l u e s w i t h the paradox t h a t w h i l e  shown me,  best  i s f o r a l l t h i n g s , Truth hath ,  be r i d i c u l e d as s e c u l a r weakness, s e c u l a r  ( I I I , 400-402).  Israel's  t o a s s e r t t h a t p o s i t i v e a c t i o n of a m o r a l n a t u r e . ^  s p i r i t u a l ineptitude: war  quietude:  time t h e r e  Satanic a c t i v i t y  which Frye r e f e r s t o as pretension  But  to f u l f i l l  "Thy  p o l i t i c maxims, or t h a t  strength  spiritual  illustrates  cumbersome/ Luggage of  argument/ Of human weakness r a t h e r than of  Death i t s e l f  The  strength"  proves t h a t s e c u l a r c o n q u e r o r s , deformed by  code of Mars, a r e l e s s than human:  "Conqueror Death d i s c o v e r [ s ] them  men,/  deform'd,/ V i o l e n t or shameful death  due  R o l l i n g i n b r u t i s h v i c e s , and reward" ( I I I , 85-87).  frailty, and  and  to the g r e a t e r  He  a s s e r t s that a p o l i t i c a l  problem of s e l f - e n s l a v e m e n t :  valiant  themselves e n s l a v ' d , /  of inward s l a v e s make outward f r e e ? " (IV, 143-145)  Now,  a s i d e from  r a d i c a l n e g a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , C h r i s t does i n t r o d u c e kingship. . .. a Cr own, Golden i n show, i s but  a wreath of t h o r n s ,  Brings  dangers, t r o u b l e s , c a r e s , and  To him  who  sleepless  wears the R e g a l Diadem,  When on h i s s h o u l d e r s For  thir  each man's burden  lies:  t h e r e i n stands the o f f i c e of a K i n g ,  H i s Honor, V i r t u e , M e r i t and  strength  s a l v a t i o n can be no  "What w i s e and  would seek t o f r e e / These thus degenerate, by  of worthy  scarce  P o l i t i c a l games are t h u s i n d i c a t i v e of human  t h a t which appears w e a k — h u m i l i t y , p a t i e n c e — i s t r u e  t r u e humanness.  the  chief Praise,  • _ nights  solution man Or  could  this  a definition  59 That f o r the P u b l i c a l l t h i s weight he  bears.  ( I I , 458-465) The  e a r t h l y King  only exercises j u s t  i d e n t i t y as the s u f f e r i n g s e r v a n t basic  irreconcilability  ( I I , 469-472).  of p o l i t i c a l r u l e and  f a l l e n w o r l d , the Messiah c o n t i n u e s to g u i d e the i n n e r man o f t e n be  reign in proportion  to h i s  However, to u n d e r l i n e  s p i r i t u a l leadership  And  to emphasize the i n t r i n s i c  "Yet  he who  spirituality  i n n a t e n o b i l i t y f a r s u p e r i o r to ephemeral p o l i t i c a l  r e i g n s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , and  r u l e s / Passions,  i s more a K i n g ; / Which every w i s e and v i r t u o u s man Finally,  greater n o b i l i t y  self-aggrandizement,  i s expressed r a t h e r  D e s i r e s , and  of  indivipower: Fears,  a t t a i n s " ( I I , 466-468).  i n s e l f l e s s g i v i n g than i n  f o r however n o b l e the o r i g i n a l p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e may  been: " t o g i v e a Kingdom hath been thought/ G r e a t e r  and  nobler  l a y down/ Far more magnanimous than to assume" ( I I , 481-483). now  476)  by what must  worthy k i n g s h i p , C h r i s t o f f e r s the d e m o c r a t i c view t h a t t h e v i r t u o u s d u a l e x p r e s s e s an  the  in a  t o say t h a t i t i s "more K i n g l y " (1.  i n t o t r u t h than to govern the outer man  f o r c e ( I I , 473-480).  spiritual  done, and The  have to  Nazarene  f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e s t h e ' s p i r i t u a l i t y c e n t r a l t o a c h i e v i n g the " p u b l i c good"  ( I , 204),  and  prophecies  on the coming of h i s kingdom.  Know t h e r e f o r e when my  season comes t o s i t  On D a v i d ' s Throne, i t s h a l l be. l i k e a t r e e Spreading and  overshadowing a l l the  Earth,  Or as a stone t h a t s h a l l to p i e c e s dash A l l Monarchies b e s i d e s And  of my  throughout the w o r l d  Kingdom t h e r e s h a l l be no  end  ....  ( I V , 146-151) The v i o l e n c e a t t e n d i n g  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of t h i s e t e r n a l kingdom i s t h a t  w h i c h ends v i o l e n c e . I would l i k e t o r e t u r n now  to the s k e p t i c a l r e a d i n g  of P a r a d i s e  I have a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o b o t h T i l l y a r d ' s r e f u t a t i o n of C h r i s t as an  Regained. epic  60 character, the  and  Robson's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the Nazarene's r a t i o n a l i t y  incarnation.  A major problem t h a t the r e a d e r has w i t h t h i s Messiah i s  t h a t he appears so u n l i k e the r i c h compassion e v i d e n t Even i f we  can a c c e p t ,  i n Paradise  ask  an e a r t h l y fame bestowed by v o i c e of r e a s o n d e v o i d  f o o l i s h humanity has  of the d i v i n e c h a r i t y he  For what i s g l o r y but  And  what the p e o p l e but  and  sentiment u n d e r l y i n g i n Paradise  a herd  extol  w e l l weigh'd, s c a r c e worth the  "Mercy and (PL,  not  J u s t i c e both  i t may  of  course,  d i s m i s s mankind i n such  an  t h a t the d e r o g a t o r y tone i s  i n i t i a l l y appear, and,  ...[though] Mercy f i r s t  F i r s t , the poet does not  t o mankind c o l l e c t i v e l y , but  of the  I t does n o t ,  second, t h a t  of mankind i s e n t i r e l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a c h a r i t y d e f i n e d  I I I , 132-134).  as t o say  should  love  w i t h the d e r o g a t o r y view of mankind  I would argue f i r s t  as c o n c l u s i v e l y d e r o g a t o r y as  this perspective  God  i s t h a t the s a c r i f i c i a l  "a herd c o n f u s ' d , / A m i s c e l l a n e o u s r a b b l e . "  n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the S a v i o u r  praise?  47-51)  such a c r i t i c i s m  But  harsh  confus'd,  L o s t , i s incompatible  a r i s t o c r a t i c fashion.  as the  o s t e n s i b l y embodies.  p e o p l e ' s p r a i s e , i f always p r a i s e unmixt?  (Ill,  not  been c o n s t r u e d  the b l a z e of fame,  A m i s c e l l a n e o u s r a b b l e , who  as  C h r i s t ' s r e j e c t i o n of  The  Things v u l g a r ,  redefines  i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Messiah's  undaunted e x e r c i s e of r e a s o n i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h l o v e .  expressed  Lost.  i n answer t o T i l l y a r d , t h a t C h r i s t ' s p a t i e n c e  h e r o i s m s u c c e s s f u l l y , we must s t i l l  The  negates  rather  that  i t i s the  last  shall brightest  That i s as much  i s the burden of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  i n d i v i d u a l who  may  strive for  s p i r i t u a l i t y which i s b o t h "more humane, more h e a v e n l y " (PR, i n d i v i d u a l thus d i s t i n g u i s h i n g h i m s e l f  shine"  i n t e n d t o j u s t i f y the ways of  t o i n d i v i d u a l men.  t h a t the p r o c e s s of h e r o i c c h o i c e s p e c i e s , and  and  by  I , 221).  from c o l l e c t i v e c o n f u s i o n  c e l e b r a t e s the human t r a n s c e n d e n c e over i n t r i n s i c  frailty.  the The  in fact  Second, d i v i n e  61 charity ful..  i s founded i n t h a t l o g i c or j u s t i c e which makes l o v e i t s e l f meaning-  The j u s t i c e which r e j e c t s f o l l y d o v e t a i l s w i t h t h e mercy t h a t e f f e c t s  salvation.  C l e a r l y , t h e Nazarene r e j e c t i n g c o l l e c t i v e human f o l l y  same man who meekly p r e f e r s t o "teach but  unware M i s l e d "  ( I , 224-226).  i s the  t h e e r r i n g S o u l / Not w i l f u l l y  The term " h e r d " even r e c a l l s t h e image o f  the shepherd a n x i o u s t o feed h i s f l o c k , anxious t o r e s c u e " w i l l i n g ( I , 222) from v a s t unheroic p o r t r a i t Similarly, point.  indifference. only underlines  misdoing,  hearts"  Thus, C h r i s t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of mankind's t h e depth o f h i s s a c r i f i c i a l  offer.  C h r i s t ' s r e s p o n s e t o s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g has been a much  I t appears o u t r a g e o u s l y  c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h a t a poet so d e e p l y  disputed  indebted  t o t h e c l a s s i c a l h e r i t a g e would thus c o n s t r u e t h e wisdom of Greece as " f a l s e ...  little  e l s e but dreams,/ C o n j e c t u r e s ,  (IV, 291-292).  fancies, built  on n o t h i n g  A s i d e from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Nazarene's v o i c e  firm"  i s not neces-  s a r i l y always t h e p o e t ' s , a c l o s e r examination of t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e j e c t i o n shows t h a t The  i t i s f a r from being  t h e product o f . s e n i l i t y , pessimism, or b o t h .  q u a r r e l C h r i s t has w i t h s e c u l a r knowledge i s m o r a l r a t h e r  tual.  He i s f u l l y v e r s e d  know t h e s e t h i n g s ;  i n the c l a s s i c a l h e r i t a g e — " T h i n k  or t h i n k / I know them n o t "  of h i s awareness of t h e f i n a l f u t i l i t y the knowledge of r e v e l a t i o n : fountain 288-290).  of l i g h t , / No o t h e r  than  not but that I  (IV, 2 8 6 - 2 8 7 ) — a n d i t i s out  of s e c u l a r humanism t h a t he p r e f e r s  "he who r e c e i v e s / L i g h t from above, from t h e d o c t r i n e needs, though g r a n t e d t r u e " ( I V ,  He rebukes t h e g e n e r a l  "Philosophic  p r i d e " ( 1 . 300) o f men who  " i n themselves seek v i r t u e , and t o themselves/ A l l g l o r y a r r o g a t e , g i v e none" ( 1 1 . 314-315). and  men none.  But J e s u s does n o t ,  t h a t he n o t h i n g  n o t e , he pays t r i b u t e t o S o c r a t e s Poor S o c r a t e s  t o God  i n t u r n , o f f e r God a l l g l o r y  P l a t o he c r e d i t s w i t h genuine wisdom f o r having  To know t h i s o n l y ,  intellec-  knew" (11. 293-294).  "profess'd/  On a more p o s i t i v e  a s an example o f t h e humane quest f o r t r u t h .  (who next more memorable?)  By what he taught and s u f f e r ' d f o r so d o i n g ,  62 For t r u t h ' s sake s u f f e r i n g death u n j u s t , l i v e s Equal  i n fame t o proudest  now  Conquerors. (Ill,  96-99)  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , C h r i s t adds t o the b i b l i c a l h e r i t a g e of s p i r i t u a l "Gideon and  Jephtha, and  the Shepherd l a d " ( I I , 4 3 9 ) — c l a s s i c a l examples of  v i r t u e : " Q u i n t i u s , F a b r i c l u s , C u r i u s , Regulus" ( 1 . 446). does not r e j e c t c l a s s i c a l achievement o u t r i g h t . imprisonment of e g o c e n t r i c l e a r n i n g : discernment remains " s h a l l o w t o y s , / And his  trifles  one who  Thus, the Messiah  Rather, he s t r e s s e s the  absorbs knowledge  without  i n h i m s e l f , / Crude or i n t o x i c a t e , c o l l e c t i n g  f o r choice matters,  worth a sponge" (IV, 327-329).  r e s p o n s e t o s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g , M i l t o n ' s C h r i s t e l a b o r a t e s on the  portrait  of the f a l l e n a n g e l s  expressing  knowledge without  r e v e l a t i o n , " i n wand'ring mazes l o s t " (PL, I I , The IV, 408) his  grandeur—  familiar  the i n s i g h t  human n a t u r e .  v u l n e r a b i l i t y and  of  561).  tempest c o i n c i d i n g w i t h a s l e e p d i s t u r b e d "with u g l y dreams" presents  In  the c l i m a c t i c c o n c l u s i o n to the temptations  (PR,  of C h r i s t i n  A C h r i s t exposed t o the elements u n d e r l i n e s b o t h h i s the s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e ...  O p a t i e n t Son Unshaken  of h i s p r o t e c t i o n :  i l l wast thou shrouded of God,  yet o n l y  then,  stood'st  .... ...  Satt'st unappall'd  i n calm and  thou  s i n l e s s peace.  (IV, 419-421, 424-425) The God,  s t r e n g t h s u p e r i o r t o S a t a n i c a s s a u l t i s simply c h a r a c t e r i z e d "By H u m i l i a t i o n and  perfect  in Christ.  the human c h o i c e f o r  s t r o n g S u f f e r a n c e " ( I , 160), made  In c o n t r a s t t o the S a t a n i c i l l u s i o n f o l l o w i n g the  dream, the environment the Nazarene wakens t o a f t e r the tempest i s a r e g e n e r a t i v e , Edenic  emblem.  first  63 ...morning Came f o r t h w i t h P i l g r i m Who  s t e p s i n amice gray;  w i t h her r a d i a n t f i n g e r  Of thunder,  fair  still'd  chas'd t h e c l o u d s , and  the r o a r laid  t h e winds,  And  g r i s l y S p e c t e r s , which the Fiend had r a i s ' d  And  now  Had  cheer'd t h e f a c e of E a r t h , and d r i e d t h e  ....  the Sun w i t h more e f f e c t u a l beams wet  From d r o o p i n g p l a n t , or d r o p p i n g t r e e ; t h e b i r d s Who  a l l t h i n g s now  C l e a r ' d up  behold more f r e s h and  t h e i r c h o i c e s t n o t e s i n bush and  To g r a t u l a t e the sweet  L i k e the "morning f a i r  ( 1 . 425) .  against the f a l s e  t e m p t a t i o n w i t h a s p i r i t marked by  p o r t e n t s , not sent from God"  Satan, acknowledging 527), reduces  w i s e and  Christ  the Messiah's  "not f o l l o w t h a t he thus remains e q u a l of a Job, a S o c r a t e s .  for  ( 1 . 491), and  t o be h i s " f a t a l enemy" (IV, 525) achievement "To  t e m p t a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between the two  wilderness:  "calm  While  th'utmost  and  "Adversary"  of mere man  both  that  the  dreams t e s t o n l y h i s humanness, i t does  u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the b e s t of men,  the  In f a c t , even Satan c o n t r a d i c t s h i s r e d u c t i o n  C h r i s t as t h e s o l i t a r y  i n h a b i t a n t of t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l  o n l y thou here d w e l l ' s t " (IV, 465-466).  b e n t ; / Of men  at thee,  H i s words r e c a l l the image of  t h i s w i l d e r n e s s as "A p a t h l e s s D e s e r t , dusk w i t h h o r r i d shades"  t h e second  and  so emerges  i t i s t o be s t r e s s e d  " T h i s Tempest a t t h i s D e s e r t most was  which " r e t u r n / Was  and  ... by human s t e p s u n t r o d " ( I , 296-298).  good,/ Not m o r e " ( l l . 535-536).  by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  i s the  C h r i s t has a t t a i n e d t h e human v i c t o r y over  v i c t o r i o u s from t h e " p a t h l e s s D e s e r t  (1.  426-430, 432-435, 437-438)  [coming] f o r t h w i t h P i l g r i m s t e p s , " C h r i s t  human hero r e s i s t i n g  s i n l e s s peace"  spray  r e t u r n of morn. (IV,  first  green  ( I , 296)  d i f f i c u l t , " by human s t e p s u n t r o d " (11. 297-298).  dream and t h e green world upon waking e s t a b l i s h  from  Thus,  t h e Nazarene as  64 t h e one man  who  counters  e v i l with  mankind's "Morning S t a r " ( I , 294); true merit the  what L u c i f e r l o s t  full he  obedience t o h i s Maker.  i s " t h ' e x a l t e d man"  I,  ( I , 36)  who  t h r o u g h h i s sense of " i n j u r ' d m e r i t "  supreme hero whose m o r a l c h o i c e r e p r e s e n t s  (PR,  Jesus i s wins by  (PL,I,  98),  "deeds/ Above H e r o i c "  14-15).  The  subsequent t e m p t a t i o n  of C h r i s t In h i s d i v i n i t y  on the  highest  p i n n a c l e of the temple i n J e r u s a l e m agrees w i t h h i s c e l e b r a t i o n as the human hero. top  J e s u s i s , as Northrop Frye  of the wheel of f o r t u n e ,  says,  subject  " i n the p o s i t i o n of a t r a g i c hero,  t o the f a t a l  i n s t a n t of d i s t r a c t i o n  on  that  16 w i l l b r i n g him  down."  h e r e the r o l e of the o r a c u l a r powers. Messiah standing sary's  inflated  And,  as I have i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter One,  "living  Oracle"  Christ f u l f i l l s  ( I , 460)  forever  Satan's i r o n i c  The  imperative  to s t a n d :  of t h e v i c t o r i o u s S a v i o u r  s i l e n c e s Satanic  falsehood  not  the answer "man."  When "our  Unobserv'd/ Home to h i s Mother's house p r i v a t e r e t u r n ' d " embodies the q u i e t u d e of "Holy R e s t " (PL, VI, 272).  superior  to S a t a n i c  Paradise the  of o t h e r men, of I s r a e l and  Regained,  in his  S a v i o u r meek (IV,  636,  own  ...  638-639),  This i s the  Lawry p o i n t s out  "weakness"  i n man,  but  exactly that: not  an  exemplary man  otherwise d i r e c t l y  effecting  and  that i t " i s  t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f o r M i l t o n " t h ' e x a l t e d man:  Regained i s i n p a r t  image of God  In P a r a d i s e  i n what sense " t h i s h e r o o f p a t i e n c e  triumphant wisdom" i s a " s a v i o r " of men.^ to avoid  this  strength.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , one must a s k  difficult  adver-t  C e n t r a l to  so much i n . h i s d i v i n i t y , as  s u p e r l a t i v e example of t h e o c e n t r i c humanism.  he  the  i s the poet's a l l u s i o n to Oedipus o v e r -  coming t h e r i d d l e of the Sphinx w i t h Christ  of the  false  reason that t h i s d i v i n e v i c t o r y  a g r e e s w i t h h i s i d e n t i t y as t h e human hero i s the f o l l o w i n g . portrait  realizes  s i l e n c i n g Satan's  f i r m i n t h e o c e n t r i c i t y r e s u l t s i n the d e f e a t c l a s s i c a l heroism.  he  ( I , 36)  holding  of  true  the s a l v a t i o n  any more than i n t h e poem he would e f f e c t t h e l i t e r a l s a l v a t i o n 18 Rome." And I t h i n k Lawry i s r i g h t i n a r g u i n g how i t i s t h a t  65 " t h e ' e x a l t e d man"  i s a t once t h e S a v i o u r :  " M i l t o n does not i n t e n d t o show  t h a t r e d e m p t i o n has been inhumanly c o n f e r r e d , but i n s t e a d t h a t i t i s a c h i e v e d i n t h e h e i g h t of t h e human c h o i c e f o r God.  I t i s t h e n t h a t man  i s restored  19 i n t o t h e s o n s h i p of God." P a r a d i s e Regained  F u r t h e r m o r e , as N o r t h r o p F r y e a r g u e s , i s the d e f i n i t i v e statement i n M i l t o n of  t h e d i a l e c t i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of heaven from h e l l t h a t r e a s o n based on r e v e l a t i o n makes, and t h e i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e o f every act  of freedom.  something  To use terms w h i c h a r e not M i l t o n ' s but e x p r e s s  of h i s a t t i t u d e ,  myth of l o s t i d e n t i t y :  t h e c e n t r a l myth of mankind i s t h e  t h e g o a l of a l l r e a s o n , courage and  i s t h e r e g a i n i n g of i d e n t i t y .  vision  The r e c o v e r y o f i d e n t i t y i s n o t  t h e f e e l i n g t h a t I am m y s e l f and not a n o t h e r , but t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one man,  one mind, and one w o r l d , and t h a t a l l 20  w a l l s o f p a r t i t i o n have been b r o k e n down f o r e v e r . 1  Thus, i n h i s embodiment of man's c h o i c e f o r God, C h r i s t r e g a i n s t h e t h e o centric  i d e n t i t y i n t r i n s i c t o man:  he i s t h e image of h e r o i s m who  what i s "more humane, more h e a v e n l y " ( I , 2 2 1 ) .  illustrates  66 CHAPTER I I I :  The H e r o i c Achievement:  "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n . . . h a p p i e r f a r . "  In man M i l t o n c o n s o l i d a t e s h i s view t h a t genuine heroism i s t h e e x e r c i s e of m o r a l magnanimity i n t h e cosmic b a t t l e between good and e v i l . man i s h i g h - s o u l e d tence  i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o h i s t h e o c e n t r i c i t y , and h i s e x i s -  i s d e f i n e d by t h e c o n t i n u o u s  l e s s magnanimity. process  s t r u g g l e between e g o c e n t r i c i t y and s e l f -  Now t h e r e a d e r  has been a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e d i f f i c u l t  of m o r a l c h o i c e presented  d e f i c i e n c i e s of e v i l ,  by S a t a n i c g l o r y and, upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g  he i s ready t o imagine good.  Son's " H u m i l i a t i o n and s t r o n g S u f f e r a n c e " reader God. and  That i s ,  the  W i t h t h e v i c t o r y of t h e  (PR, I , 160) i n b o t h works, t h e  e n c o u n t e r s t h e image of t r u e heroism d e f i n e d by t h e human c h o i c e f o r These two h e r o i c p r o t o t y p e s  have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p o s s i b l e m o r a l o p t i o n s ,  t h e advent of man g e n e r a t e s t h e i r convergence.  Heaven and h e l l await t h e  outcome of man's r e s p o n s e t o t h e cosmic b a t t l e ; AdamandEve i n t h e garden a r e the c e n t r e of M i l t o n ' s h e r o i c song. the human s p i r i t  I t i s w i t h i n t h i s m i c r o c o s m i c realm of  t h a t t h e poet and r e a d e r ,  respectively, test  "the b e t t e r  fort-  i t u d e / Of Pat i e n c e and H e r o i c Martyrdom/ [ h i t h e r t o ] Unsung" ( I X , 31—33) • E d e n i c man knows t h a t b l i s s  i s contingent  upon h i s obedience, and f a l l e n man, r a i s i n g  h i m s e l f from t h e depths of d e s p a i r , r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e p u r s u i t of s p i r i t u a l heroism c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s p o s s e s s i o n (XII,  of "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n  ... h a p p i e r f a r "  587). W h i l e t h e poet of t h e more p r i m i t i v e c l a s s i c a l e p i c i s o l a t e s  the v a l u e of w o r l d l y s u c c e s s , M i l t o n , t h e product  of a C h r i s t i a n age, i d e n t i -  f i e s and embraces an h e r o i c ethos c e l e b r a t i n g t h e s a c r e d n e s s of t h e human Let us f o r t h e moment c o n s i d e r of Adam and Eve i n t h i s e p i c .  His design prosperous,  t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e supposed  spirit.  centrality  John Dryden h e l d t h a t  Paradise Lost, considered Milton's subject  only  as a H e r o i c Poem, was a f a i l u r e :  ' i s n o t t h a t of an H e r o i c Poem p r o p e r l y so c a l l e d .  i s the losing  of our happiness;  l i k e t h a t o f a l l other  h i s event i s n o t  e p i c works; h i s heavenly  machines a r e many, and h i s human persons a r e but two.'*  But  while  t h e t i t l e would imply  that the subject  i s human f a i l u r e , t h e  *  catastrophe  i n Paradise  L o s t , even without  r e s t o r a t i o n of a h a p p i e r  i t s s e q u e l , i s succeeded by t h e  paradise regained.  Nor should  the reader  be daunted  by t h e grandeur of M i l t o n ' s "heavenly machines" i n comparison t o t h e f r a i l t y of h i s two human p e r s o n s .  In f a c t , t h i s f r a i l t y  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p i r i t u a l i t y  i s best s u i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e  superior to c l a s s i c a l  p e r c e i v e d a s t h e f a i l u r e of P a r a d i s e L o s t  "might."  What Dryden  i s i n fact Milton's  redefinition 2  of t h e h e r o i c ethos and h e r o i c p o e t r y  specifically  Classical c r i t e r i a f o r glory are insufficient t h e human s p i r i t .  i n a C h r i s t i a n c e l e b r a t i o n of  Thus, i t i s n o t so s u r p r i s i n g t h a t M i l t o n chose t o p l a c e  h i s theme f o r h e r o i c v e r s e  f a r from r e c o u n t i n g The  i n terms of s a n c t i t y .  (IX, 13-47) a t t h e opening of t h e n i n t h book which, 3  h e r o i c deeds, t e l l s  of t h e weakness of Adam and Eve.  o n l y t o o o r d i n a r y f r a g i l i t y and even b l a n d n e s s of s i n f u l man u n d e r s c o r e s  t h e grandeur of h i s f i n a l c h o i c e t o both r a i s e h i m s e l f  from d e s p a i r and  r e a l i z e the n o b i l i t y  The h e r o i c b a t t l e  takes  intrinsic  to his divine origins.  p l a c e s o l e l y w i t h i n t h e arena of m o r a l c h o i c e . Man, i n M i l t o n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y Janus l o o k i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  of human n a t u r e ,  towards Heaven and e a r t h ;  i sa earth-  ward towards t h e b r u t e c r e a t i o n whose a p p e t i t e s he shares and heavenward through h i s d i v i n e g i f t 4 him As  with the s p i r i t u a l  of reason which u n i t e s '  orders.  such Janus f i g u r e s , Adam and Eve embark on t h e quest  ment, .and f i n a l l y c o n f i r m  t h e espoused h e r o i c  Now I have a s s e r t e d t h a t P a r a d i s e human s p i r i t .  achieve-  ethos.  i s a C h r i s t i a n c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e  And t h i s r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f humanism i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e  poet's heroic v i s i o n . definitions.  Lost  f o rheroic  The term "humanism" e a s i l y suggests  divergent  I n t h e words of Jacques M a r i t a i n , L e t u s say t h a t humanism (and such a d e f i n i t i o n can i t s e l f be developed a l o n g v e r y d i v e r g e n t , l i n e s ) e s s e n t i a l l y tends t o render  68 man more t r u l y  human and t o make his original greatness  m a n i f e s t by c a u s i n g him  him t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l t h a t can e n r i c h  i n n a t u r e and i n h i s t o r y (by ' c o n c e n t r a t i n g  man' , as S c h e l e r world').  t h e world i n  has almost s a i d , and by ' d i l a t i n g man t o t h e  I t a t once demands t h a t man make u s e of a l l t h e .  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s he h o l d s w i t h i n him, h i s c r e a t i v e powers and t h e l i f e of t h e r e a s o n , and l a b o u r s  to make t h e powers of t h e p h y s i c a l  world t h e i n s t r u m e n t s of h i s freedom."* However, t h e h u m a n i s t i c c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e hero's p o t e n t i a l does n o t i n i t s e l f explain Milton's  heroic v i s i o n .  I n answering t h i s l a r g e r q u e s t i o n ,  might a l s o n o t e t h e c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between two k i n d s  the reader  of humanism—a  t h e o c e n t r i c humanism (1''humanisme i n t e g r a l ) and an a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c The i  first  kind  of humanism r e c o g n i s e s  that the centre  i s God; i t i m p l i e s t h e c h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n  freedom  ....  The second kind  f o r man  of man as a t once  a s i n n e r and redeemed, and t h e c h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n and  humanism:  of g r a c e  of humanism b e l i e v e s t h a t  i s h i s own c e n t r e , and t h e r e f o r e t h e c e n t r e of a l l t h i n g s . implies a n a t u r a l i s t i c conception What then i s M i l t o n ' s E n g l i s h Puritanism  man It  of man and of freedom.^  p o s i t i o n on the t e n s i o n between s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  and t h e s t r o n g  i n f l u e n c e of s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  Renaissance  humanism—between t h e r e l i g i o u s v i e w t h a t human v i r t u e i s c o n t i n g e n t the a c t i v e power of d i v i n e b e n e f i c e n c e and t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c b e l i e f c a p a c i t y of man h i m s e l f  upon  i n the  to assert essential dignity?  I argue t h a t M i l t o n t r a n s c e n d s t h e opposed p o s i t i o n s i n a r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n of human grandeur. M i l t o n ' s humanism not  ... i s t h a t of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h  of t h e s i x t e e n t h .  joined  Worldliness  century,  and o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s  i n h i s n a t u r e , t h a t he seeks t o t r a n s c e n d  l i m i t a t i o n s even w h i l e he a s s e r t s f a i t h  a r e so  physical  i n matter.  The  69 vitalising  s p i r i t w i t h which h i s i m a g i n a t i o n imbues a l l matter  i s one means by which he r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t .  ^  C l o s e r t o t h e humanism of t h e M e t a p h y s i c a l s than of t h e Renaissance, thought  i s i n tune w i t h Donne's d e f i n i t i o n :  " ' R e c t i f i e d reason  Milton's  i s religion.'"*  Of c o u r s e , one may argue t h a t M i l t o n does n o t r e s o l v e even t h e t e n s i o n between t h e o c e n t r i c humanism and a t e n a c i o u s adherence t o t h e s o l e powers of g r a c e . L e t u s c o n s i d e r o n l y t h e words of M i l t o n ' s God on t h i s m a t t e r . expounds on t h e n a t u r e of f r e e w i l l , selves i n a l l " dict  t h a t men a r e "Authors  salvation:  of w i l l  cannot  "Man s h a l l n o t q u i t e be l o s t , but sav'd who w i l l / Y e t n o t  i n him, but g r a c e i n me" (11. 173-174).  s i n f u l man cannot  ( I I I , 227-235).  t o them-  ( I I I , 122), r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r r e v o l t , he seems t o C o n t r a -  t h i s " a u t h o r s h i p " of man's w i t h t h e p r e c e p t t h a t man i n h i m s e l f  elect  that  insisting  W h i l e God  Similarly,  t h e Son a s s e r t s  seek g r a c e , t h a t g r a c e can o n l y be found  But t h i s apparent  impotence of human w i l l  unsought  i s further  compli-  c a t e d by t h e d i v i n e v i s i o n t h a t men w i l l d w e l l on e a r t h ... t i l l  by degrees  They open t o themselves  of m e r i t  rais'd  a t l e n g t h t h e way  Up h i t h e r , under long obedience  tri'd,  •And E a r t h be chang'd t o Heav'n, and Heav'n t o E a r t h , One Kingdom, J o y and Union w i t h o u t end. ( V I I , 157-161) The o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n i s whether g r a c e or human w i l l d e s e r v e s p r a i s e . the Baroque s y n t h e s i s of apparent above l i n e s ,  Grace"  o p p o s i t e s , f r e e w i l l and g r a c e , i n t h e  suggests t h a t M i l t o n i s n o t a s k i n g t h e o b v i o u s .  transcendent v i s i o n  i s captured  (XI, 3) renewing man:  penitence i n i t i a t e d  But  i n t h e p a r a d o x i c a l concept  Instead, h i s  of "Prevenient  saving grace a n t i c i p a t e s the a l l - i m p o r t a n t  by man, and so i s a b l e t o e f f e c t  salvation.  God's w i l l  d o v e t a i l s w i t h man's, and f u r t h e r argument over t h e exact p o i n t of u n i o n i s , for M i l t o n , superfluous speculation.  Thus, c o n s c i o u s of t h e o s t e n s i b l e  70 dichotomy between t h e temporal and t h e e t e r n a l , M i l t o n , r e f l e c t i n g t h e contemporary Baroque world-view and l y r i c a paradoxical  synthesis.  v i r t u e upon g r a c e ,  Grace i s c o n t i n g e n t  Puritanism  upon man's obedience, human  The d e f i c i e n c i e s of b o t h s e v e n t e e n t h -  and s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e o c e n t r i c heroism. epic, i n turn test the options  humanism a r e t r a n s c e n d e d i n t h i s  Adam and Eve, t h e f o c a l p o i n t of t h i s  of ego- and t h e o c e n t r i c heroism.  found t h e source of a s p u r i o u s  The poet  heroism i n 'Mans f i r s t  Disobed-  i e n c e ' and of a t r u e heroism i n 'one mans f i r m obedience tri'd.'  into  and God and man a r e j o i n e d i n t h e e t e r n a l p r o c e s s of  exchanging l a u r e l s f o r h e r o i c g l o r y . century  form, f u s e s t h e s e a n t i t h e s e s  fully  The problem of heroism was an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of t h e  humanist dilemma, and i n t h e F a l l  of Adam and Eve M i l t o n  both t h e s o u r c e and t h e symbol of t h a t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t which p e r v e r t e d  discovered  humanism  t h e mind from a t t a i n i n g i t s t r u e h e r o i c magni-  tude, even w h i l e  i t opened t h e way t o a c e r t a i n s p e c i o u s  grandeur  9 of t h e k i n d t y p i f i e d  i n Satan.  And r e g e n e r a t e man marks t h e c l i m a c t i c f u l f i l l m e n t The  of t h e o c e n t r i c  heroism.  f o c a l p o i n t of M i l t o n ' s h e r o i c song i s t h e image of p e r f e c t human  b l i s s portrayed  i n t h e Edehic  the c e n t r e of t h e F a t h e r ' s  u n i t y of Adam and Eve.  "great  This perfect couple i s  Idea" ( V I I , 557):  ... t h e Master work, t h e end Of a l l y e t done ... ...  endu'd  With S a n c t i t y of Reason ... u p r i g h t ... ...  self-knowing,  and from  thence  Magnanimous t o correspond w i t h Heav'n . . . . . (VII,  505-511)  Man's magnanimous s t a t u r e and consequent r i g h t  to j o i n t  r u l e over c r e a t i o n  71 (VII,  520-521) i s obvious t o Satan when he f i r s t Two  of f a r n o b l e r shape e r e c t and  sees Adam and  Eve:  tall,  G o d l i k e e r e c t , w i t h n a t i v e Honor c l a d In  naked M a j e s t y  seem'd Lords of  all,  And  worthy seem'd, f o r i n t h i r  looks Divine  The  image of t h i r g l o r i o u s . Maker shone,  T r u t h , Wisdom, S a n c t i t u d e s e v e r e and Severe, but  in true f i l i a l  Whence t r u e a u t o r i t y i n men (IV, And  freedom  pure,  plac't;  .... 288-295)  the b l i s s of m a j e s t i c l o r d s , t r u e t o t h e i r d i v i n e image, i s acknowledged  by the r e b e l ' s d i a b o l i c  rage:  Sight h a t e f u l , s i g h t tormenting! Imparadis't  thus t h e s e  i n one a n o t h e r ' s arms  The h a p p i e r Eden, s h a l l enjoy t h i r  fill  Of b l i s s on b l i s s , w h i l e I t o H e l l am t h r u s t L i v e w h i l e ye Yet happy p a i r ;  enjoy, t i l l  (IV, i s significant  communion, who understands^  that  may,  succeed.  505-509., 533-535)  i t i s Adam and Eve t o g e t h e r , j o i n e d by  p r e s e n t the human r e f l e c t i o n of d i v i n i t y .  "In s o l i t u d e / What h a p p i n e s s , who  e n j o y i n g , what contentment f i n d ? " prayer, r e j o i c i n g  ....  I return,  Short p l e a s u r e s , f o r long woes a r e t o  It  two  As Adam  intuitively  can enjoy a l o n e , / Or a l l  ( V I I I , 364-366)  over the happiness  nuptial  And  in their  evening  of "mutual h e l p / And m u t u a l l o v e , the  Crown of a l l [human] b l i s s / Ordain'd by [ G o d ] " (IV, 727-729), they c l o s e i n recalling s h a l l with  the promise  of a l a r g e r community, "a Race/ To f i l l  [them] e x t o l / [God's] goodness i n f i n i t e "  the E a r t h ,  (11. 732-724).  who  Again,  c h a r i t a b l e m u t u a l i t y e x p r e s s e s man's i d e n t i t y as t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e of h e r o i c  72 potential. and  In d i r e c t  r e l a t i o n to their f i t t i n g  l o v e f o r one a n o t h e r , Adam  Eve r e a l i z e t h e i r g o d l i k e magnanimity; s o l i t u d e i s no g a i n .  c e l e b r a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o n j u g a l u n i t y i n t h e m a r r i a g e H a i l wedded Love, m y s t e r i o u s  Law, t r u e  And M i l t o n  hymn:  source  Of human o f f s p r i n g , s o l e p r o p r i e t y In  P a r a d i s e of a l l t h i n g s common e l s e . ... by thee  Founded  i n Reason, L o y a l , J u s t , and Pure  R e l a t i o n s dear, and a l l t h e C h a r i t i e s Of F a t h e r , Son and B r o t h e r f i r s t were known. (IV, Not  o n l y i s c o n j u g a l l o v e emblematic of t h e r e l a t i o n between man and God,  but a l s o t h i s " m y s t e r i o u s trinity  itself.  Law" r e f l e c t s t h e p e r f e c t communion enjoyed  (IV, 744-747), M i l t o n p o r t r a y s i n t h e bower of Adam and  Eve a l o v e which l i e s beyond f a l l e n the reader's imagination:  e x p e r i e n c e , thus demanding t h e utmost  "Here Love h i s g o l d e n  l i g h t s / H i s c o n s t a n t Lamp" (IV, 763^-764).  Edenic  s h a f t s employs,  t o t h e p r e s c r i b e d m o r a l sphere.  here  s e x u a l i t y i s . d e f i n e d by an  eros which i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o c h a r i t y , a r a t i o n a l , m e a n i n g f u l itself  by t h e  F u l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e h y p o c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t s e x u a l i t y  is necessarily evil  of  750-752, 754-757)  As Adam l a t e r  love confining  says t o Eve, " f o r  s m i l e s frcm Reason f l o w , / To b r u t e d e n i ' d , and a r e of Love t h e f o o d " ( I X , 239-240).  And a s W i l l i a m H a l l e r Marriage  ... stands i n t h e f o c u s of a l l i n t e r e s t and meaning  in Paradise Lost. c r e a t i o n on e a r t h . of  asserts:  I t i s t h e consummation of God's p l a n of I t i s t h e p r o j e c t i o n of t h e d i v i n e o r d e r ,  t h e order of n a t u r e and of t h e s o u l , i n t o human s o c i e t y .  i s t h e whole of human s o c i e t y i n germ, t h e l i v i n g t r u l y , of f a m i l y , c h u r c h , and s t a t e . prime o b j e c t of Satan's  It  microcosm,  I t i s , i n consequence, t h e  envy, and i t s d i s r u p t i o n t h e f i r s t  task  73 to which he addressed  h i m s e l f on t h i s e a r t h .  when t h e harmony and order of m a r r i a g e , and c o n s c i e n c e , i s broken. woman, upon t h e i r expusion  d e c l a r e s her renewed l o y a l t y and Now Harding  argues  the r e c i p r o c a l  H i s redemption [ s i c ] from  virtue"  reason  the earthly paradise,  obedience. ^ 1  t h a t c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s such as t h a t t o J u p i t e r and their very  ( I X , 1062-1063), enact l u s t , they a r e merely  realizing  the t a i n t e d  s e x u a l i t y which t h e poet has a l r e a d y drawn a t t e n t i o n t o .  should n o t e t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Adam and Eve as c l a s s i c a l  does n o t Imply t h a t they resemble t h e i r p r o t o t y p e s i n a l l f e a t u r e s . Adam and Eve a r e themselves unfalien. attempt  intro-  Thus, when t h e Edenic c o u p l e , " d e s t i t u t e and b a r e / Of a l l t h i r  Olympus-like one  ensues  i s foreshadowed when  Juno (IV, 499-500) d i s c r e d i t Adam and Eve's>innocence from duction.^  Man's f a l l  t h e p r o t o t y p e s of c l a s s i c a l grandeur,  Howeve types  In fact,  untainted,  And t h e r e a d e r , however h i n d e r e d by h i n d s i g h t , s h o u l d a t l e a s t  t o ,imagine  innocence.  Of c o u r s e , a note of p o t e n t i a l e v i l does 12  p e n e t r a t e even t h i s " v e r y c e n t r e and inmost These l u l l ' d And  s a n c t u a r y of M i l t o n ' s cosmos."  by N i g h t i n g a l e s imbracing  slept,  on t h i r naked limbs t h e f l o w ' r y r o o f  Show'rd Roses, which t h e Morn r e p a i r ' d .  S l e e p on,  B l e s t p a i r ; and 0 y e t h a p p i e s t i f y e seek No h a p p i e r  s t a t e , and know t o know no more.  (IV, 771-775) Adam and Eve, u n i t e d , express t h e c h o i c e of t h e t h e o c e n t r i c hero: Him  first,  him l a s t , him m i d s t , and w i t h o u t  i s given a p o r t r a i t of i n v i n c i b l e  end" (V, 164-165).  faith:  H a i l u n i v e r s a l L o r d , be bounteous  still  To g i v e u s o n l y good; and i f t h e n i g h t Have g a t h e r ' d aught of e v i l o r c o n c e a l ' d ,  "to extol/  The r e a d e r  74 D i s p e r s e i t , as now l i g h t d i s p e l s t h e dark. (V, 205-208) And  y e t , w h i l e t h e n o t e of p o t e n t i a l e v i l does n o t d i s r u p t Adam and Eve's  present b l i s s ,  the reader  i s c o n s c i o u s of t h e t e n s i o n between  unaware of e v i l and t h e foreshadowed quest " t h r i c e happy i f they know/ T h i r h a p p i n e s s ,  happiness  towards a h a p p i e r s t a t e . and p e r s e v e r e  upright" (VIII,  631-632), and t h e human p a i r , o n l y once q u e s t i o n i n g b l i s s , f o r f e i t s existence.  The events f o l l o w i n g t h e i r  p o t e n t i a l and t h e d i f f i c u l t renewal.  Men a r e  Edenic  s e p a r a t i o n p o r t r a y t h e abuse of h e r o i c  c h o i c e t o p r a c t i s e p e n i t e n c e i n t h e hope of  I t i s o n l y w i t h t h e i r r e u n i o n t h a t Adam and Eve, f a l l e n but  r e g e n e r a t e , overcome m i s e r y and embark on a p i l g r i m a g e marked by t h e p o s s e s s i o n of "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n ... h a p p i e r f a r " ( X I I , 587). Adam, " t h e g o o d l i e s t man of men s i n c e b o r n "  (PL, IV, 323), i s t h e  epitome of c l a s s i c a l e x c e l l e n c e . ...His f a i r  l a r g e F r o n t and Eye sublime d e c l a r ' d  A b s o l u t e r u l e ; and H y a c i n t h i n e Round from  Locks  h i s p a r t e d f o r e l o c k manly hung  C l u s t ' r i n g , but n o t beneath h i s s h o u l d e r s broad .... (IV, 300-303) His hyacinthine locks find and  their  s o u r c e i n both t h e Aeneid and t h e Odyssey,  t h i s a l l u s i o n i n v i t e s t h e r e a d e r t o t e s t him " a g a i n s t t h e acknowledged 13  exemplars of human e x c e l l e n c e , Aeneas and Odysseus." "sublime"manliness, godlike identity. meets Raphael,  T h i s i s t h e image o f  a f i g u r e whose s u p e r l a t i v e powers and beauty S i m i l a r l y , when "our P r i m i t i v e g r e a t S i r e "  he e x h i b i t s t h e p e r f e c t n o b i l i t y u n i q u e  ... walks f o r t h , w i t h o u t more t r a i n  P e r f e c t i o n s ; i n h i m s e l f was a l l h i s s t a t e ,  (V, 350) f i r s t  t o i n n o c e n t man.  Adam  Accompanied than w i t h h i s own complete  signify his  More solemn than t h e t e d i o u s pomp .that w a i t s On P r i n c e s , when t h i r r i c h R e t i n u e  long  Of Horses l e d , and Grooms besmear'd w i t h Gold D a z z l e s t h e crowd, and s e t s them a l l agape .... (V, 351-357) T h i s n o b i l i t y d e f i n i n g Adam's g o d l i n e s s i s t h e c o u n t e r p a r t of h i s r a t i o n a l spirituality: of  realizing In  he l e a r n s t o know and l o v e God.  He i s t h e human hero  capable  t h e h e r o i c song.  p a r t i c u l a r , Adam's f i r s t memories i l l u s t r a t e h i s r a t i o n a l  spirituality  Answering Raphael's r e q u e s t , Adam r e l a t e s h i s own e x p e r i e n c e of c r e a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he h e s i t a t e s over t h e paradox of r e l a t i n g  one's own c r e a t i o n —  "For Man t o t e l l how human L i f e began/ I s hard; f o r who h i m s e l f b e g i n n i n g knew?" ( V I I I , 250-251) in a deceptive s p i r i t his  I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o Satan b o a s t i n g  self-creation  of i n t e l l e c t u a l gamesmanship, Adam c a u t i o u s l y t e l l s  s t o r y i n t h e hope o f genuine i n t e l l e c t u a l a d v a n c e m e n t — " D e s i r e w i t h  still  l o n g e r t o c o n v e r s e / Induc'd  me" ( V I I I , 252-253).  thee  Moveover, a s t r i k i n g  f e a t u r e of Adam's f i r s t memories i s h i s heavenward gaze and i n s t i n c t i v e u p r i g h t motion:  "  S t r a i g h t toward Heav'n my wond'ring Eyes I t u r n ' d , And  gaz'd  a w h i l e t h e ample Sky, t i l l  rais'd  By q u i c k i n s t i n c t i v e m o t i o n up I sprung, As t h i t h e r w a r d e n d e a v o r i n g , Stood  and  upright  on my f e e t .... ( V I I I , 257-261)  T h i s hero i s " G o d l i k e e r e c t " ( I V , 289), t h e m a j e s t i c Image of God, contemplation "all  "For  ... and v a l o r form'd" ( 1 . 297). He d e l i g h t s i n an Eden where  t h i n g s s m i l ' d " ( V I I I , 265), but i s n o t c o n t e n t t o remain t h e n a i v e  participant  i n pleasure.  As i n s t i n c t i v e as h i s u p r i g h t m o t i o n i s h i s f i r s t  assertion:  "But who I was, or where, or from what cause,/ Knew n o t "  ( V I I I , 270-271).  Adam's s e l f - k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g h i s d i v i n e o r i g i n s i s  i n n a t e , and he a d d r e s s e s ...Tell,  creation:  i f ye saw, how came I t h u s , how here?  Not o f m y s e l f ; by some g r e a t Maker t h e n , In  goodness and i n power  preeminent;  T e l l me, how may I know him, how adore From whom I have t h a t thus I move and l i v e , And  f e e l t h a t I am h a p p i e r than I know. (VIII,'277-282)  And  having come t o know and l o v e God, Adam e x p r e s s e s i n h i s f i r s t  t h e o c e n t r i c humanism c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o v e .  speech t h e  He e x t o l s t h e b l i s s of Eden,  n o t a b l y l a u d s Eve as t h e b e s t of E d e n i c j o y s , and s u b o r d i n a t e s a l l happiness in  g r a t e f u l obedience t o t h e C r e a t o r . S o l e p a r t n e r and s o l e p a r t of a l l these j o y s , Dearer t h y s e l f than a l l ; needs must t h e Power That made u s , and f o r us t h i s ample World Be i n f i n i t e l y good, and o f h i s good As l i b e r a l and f r e e as i n f i n i t e , That r a i s ' d u s from t h e dust and p l a c ' t us here In  a l l t h i s h a p p i n e s s .... (IV,  411-417)'  As t h e i n n o c e n t c o u n t e r p a r t t o Satan's s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , Adam s t r e s s e s t h a t human.worth i s r e a l i z e d in  i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o s e l f - l e s s obedience.  h i s u n f a l l e n wholeness,  man i s t h e f r a i l b e i n g "who a t [God's]  Even  hand/  Ha [s ] n o t h i n g m e r i t e d , nor can p e r f o r m / Aught whereof hee h a t h need" ( I V , 417-419). of  Thus, a s t h e p r o t o t y p e of c l a s s i c a l e x c e l l e n c e and t h e p a t r i a r c h  t h e o c e n t r i c heroism, Adam encounters t h e d i f f i c u l t y of m o r a l Now w h i l e t h e u n f a l l e n Adam i s undoubtedly  element  of c r e d u l i t y  t h e unblemished  choice. hero, t h e  i n h i s p o r t r a i t t e a s e s t h e r e a d e r ' s a n x i e t y over t h e  77 imminent t r a g e d y .  When Adam r e l a t e s t o Eve t h e command not t o taste^ t h e  t r e e of knowledge i n h i s f i r s t  speech,  h i s v e r y i g n o r a n c e of m o r t a l i t y —  "whate'er Death i s , / Some d r e a d f u l t h i n g no doubt" ( I V , 4 2 5 - 4 2 6 ) — u n d e r l i n e s t h e f r a g i l i t y of h i s b l i s s . in h i s i n a b i l i t y  Furthermore,  t h e f i r s t man's n a i v e t e  t o comprehend d i s o b e d i e n c e :  -  i s evident  As he says t o Raphael,  But say, What meant t h a t c a u t i o n j o i n ' d , Obedient?  can we want obedience  i f ye be found then  To him, or p o s s i b l y h i s l o v e d e s e r t Who form'd us from Full  t h e d u s t , and p l a c ' d us here  t o t h e utmost measure of what  bliss  Human d e s i r e s can seek or apprehend? (V, 512-518) The r e a d e r knows what Adam w i l l s t i l l d i s c o v e r : the h i g h p r i c e of l o s i n g Eden. unconscious dramatic ted  bliss—"I  man may know e v i l o n l y a t  And Adam's sense of E d e n i c e x p e r i e n c e as  am h a p p i e r than I know" ( V I I I , 2 8 2 ) — u n d e r s c o r e s  t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c o n s c i o u s r e a d e r .  w i t h Adam's s t r o n g quest  the  The r e a d e r i s c o n f r o n -  f o r knowledge i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s worship of  the Maker, o n l y t o l e a r n how t h e f a t h e r of mankind l a t e r advancement i n an i n s t a n t of o s t e n s i b l e worship  foregoes-upward  of t h e c r e a t e d .  H i s innocent  d e s i r e f o r knowledge d e f i n e s him "as one whose d r o u t h / Y e t s c a r c e a l l a y ' d still  eyes t h e c u r r e n t stream,/ Whose l i q u i d murmur heard new t h i r s t  ( V I I , .66-68).  W h i l e Adam's i n t e l l e c t u a l  excites"  a p p e t i t e i s not reprehensible,  Raphael i n t r o d u c e s an ominous c a u t i o n t o be content w i t h "Knowledge w i t h i n bounds" ( V I I , 1 2 0 ) : S o l i c i t n o t t h y thoughts w i t h m a t t e r s h i d , Leave them t o God above, him s e r v e and f e a r .... ... Heav'n i s f o r thee t o o h i g h To know what passes  t h e r e ; be l o w l y w i s e :  78 T h i n k o n l y what c o n c e r n s thee and t h y b e i n g .... ( V I I I , .167-168, 172-174) But M i l t o n ' s d e l i n e a t i o n of Adam's c r e d u l o u s  innocence i s n o t a n t a g o n i s t i c .  R a t h e r , t h e poet i s d e p i c t i n g t h e near i n c o n c e i v a b l e c o n d i t i o n of e x i s t e n c e in  u n f a l l e n Eden.  T h i s i s t h e Adam s t i l l  f r e e of " t h a t doom ... of knowing  14 good by e v i l . " hearing  T h i s i s t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y sublime s t a t u r e of t h e man  of e v i l w h i l e he h i m s e l f  unfallen simplicity  knows o n l y good.  i n t e n s i f i e s f o r the reader  M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a y a l of  t h e drama where man,  deceived,  chooses t h e doom of remembering t h e p e r f e c t good.that was. Whereas i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see, as I s h a l l l a t e r a^gue, t h a t Eve's hope to  grow "up t o Godhead" ( I X , 877) e x h i b i t s a c e r t a i n h e r o i c impetus, i t i s  difficult ness.  t o see Adam's c h o i c e t o s i n i n any o t h e r  Adam i s u n d e c e i v e d by t h e p r e t e n s i o n s  light  than weak s e l f i s h -  Eve e n t e r t a i n s , and h i s c o n s c i o u s  c h o i c e t o j o i n her i s l e s s than h e r o i c , whether i t i s c o n s i d e r e d or M i l t o n i c terms.  Whereas Eve's f a l l  exemplifies a strong egocentric  Adam's f a l l negates heroism of any s o r t . only t h i n l y d i s g u i s e cowardliness. to;  she c l a i m s "Waiting  Garland  in classical heroism,  H i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s of l o v e f o r Eve  "Eve f o r c e s open a door, Adam slams one  ' a n g e l i c i t y ' and he d e n i e s  h i s heavenly  nature."*"'  d e s i r o u s h e r r e t u r n , [Adam] had wove[n]/ Of c h o i c e s t Flow'rs a  t o adorn  ... h i s H a r v e s t  Queen" ( I X , 839-840, 842), and " t h e faded  Roses shed" ( 1 . 893) o f h i s dropped g a r l a n d a r e emblematic of t h e h o r r o r he f e e l s upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g  "The f a t a l T r e s p a s s  done by Eve" ( 1 . 8 8 9 ) .  G r i e v i n g , he a d d r e s s e s Eve a s i f t h e f a t a l a c t were another e v i l dream: 0 fairest  o f C r e a t i o n , l a s t and b e s t  Of a l l God's Works, C r e a t i o n i n whom e x c e l l ' d Whatever can t o s i g h t o r thought be form'd. H o l y , d i v i n e , good, a m i a b l e , o r sweet! (IX, 896-899) But  t h e memory of h e r innocence b e s i d e p r e s e n t  r u i n enforces h i s c o n v i c t i o n  79 t h a t n o t h i n g can undo t h e cause f o r h i s l a m e n t a t i o n . i n a t i o n of symploce and erotema, Adam c r i e s :  In a p o w e r f u l comb-  "How a r t thou l o s t , how on a  sudden l o s t , / D e f a c ' t , d e f l o w ' r ' d , and now t o Death d e v o t e ? " The d e t a i l s of her f a l l death.  (IX, 900-901)  a r e s u p e r f l u o u s t o a man now aware of t h e meaning of  And Adam adds t o h i s unanswered r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n h i s r e s o l u t i o n t o  j o i n Eve's f a t e . And mee w i t h thee hath r u i n ' d f o r w i t h C e r t a i n my r e s o l u t i o n How can I l i v e without Thy  sweet Converse  thee  i s to Die; thee, how f o r g o  and Love so d e a r l y j o i n ' d ,  To l i v e a g a i n i n t h e s e w i l d Woods f o r l o r n ? (IX, He i t e r a t e s ,  906-910)  "However I w i t h thee have f i x t my L o t , / C e r t a i n t o undergo  doom; i f Death/ Consort w i t h thee, Death i s t o mee as L i f e "  like  ( I X , 952-954).  Thus, a t t h e p r e c i s e moment of c h o i c e , Adam i s c o n s c i o u s of h i s s i n : "he s c r u p l ' d not t o e a t / A g a i n s t h i s b e t t e r knowledge, not d e c e i v ' d , / But f o n d l y overcome w i t h Female charm" (IX, 997-999).  And h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s not a  c o n t r a d i c t i o n of God's, judgment t h a t o n l y t h e f a l l e n a n g e l s a r e " S e l f tempted, s e l f - d e p r a v ' d " ( I I I , 129), but man d e c e i v e d .  Adam i s of c o u r s e  d e c e i v e d by h i s overwhelming l o s s of hope i n t h e omnipotent  goodness of God,  and  self-depravation.  i t i s t h i s d e s p a i r t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s him from  outright  The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n now i s t h e r e l a t i o n between Adam's c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e t o s i n and t h e i n f l u e n c e of "Female charm, ." fall  Satan r e g a r d s Adam's  as a weak s u r r e n d e r q u i t e removed from c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e :  Wife's allurement f e l l "  (PR, I I , 134). R e j e c t i n g B e l i a l ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t  C h r i s t might be tempted by f e m i n i n e charms, Satan a s s e r t s t h a t In  "Adam by h i s  "Beauty  t h ' a d m i r a t i o n o n l y of weak minds/ Led c a p t i v e " (PR, I I , 220-222).  i t would be erroneous  to assert  stands/  But  t h a t M i l t o n simply p o r t r a y s Adam's f a l l as  the i n e v i t a b l e ensnarement of the male psyche by t h e e n c h a n t r e s s .  W h i l e Adam  80 l a t e r accepts  t h i s view of t h e femme f a t a l e w i t h r e m a r k a b l e ease, t h e  dramatic tension leading to h i s f a l l  i n f a c t underscores g u i l t wholly  An Adam " f o n d l y overcome" conveys t h e sense of a c o n s c i o u s r i g h t reason f o r s e l f i s h  h i s own  choice to forgo  concerns.  Now t h e s a c r i f i c i a l appearance of Adam's r e s o l u t i o n t o j o i n Eve renews the q u e s t i o n ing  of heroism.  Eve's e l a t e d r e s p o n s e — " 0 g l o r i o u s t r i a l  Love,/ I l l u s t r i o u s evidence,  example h i g h ! "  o f exceed-  (PL, IX, 961-962)—•unmistak-  a b l y echoes t h e h e a v e n l y p r a i s e of t h e e l e c t e d M e s s i a h :  "0 unexampl'd  Love nowhere t o be found l e s s than D i v i n e ! " ( I l l , 410-411)  love,/  But does Eve's  p e r s p e c t i v e here q u a l i f y Adam's c h o i c e as h e r o i c i n t h e best M i l t o n i c sense of t h e word?  I would argue r a t h e r t h a t Eve's e l a t i o n i s s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e  over t h e f a c t t h a t she w i l l n o t have t o meet death a l o n e hardly a clear perception  of heroism.  (IX,  826-830),  Furthermore, Adam e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r  f e a r of s o l i t u d e , and h i s r e s o l u t i o n thus stems r a t h e r from l o v e o f s e l f than l o v e of Eve.  The r e p e t i t i o n of "mee," "my," and " I " i n l i n e s 906-908,  913-914, and 952-954 i s s t r i k i n g .  And h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n t o Eve over  f a t e d u n i t y echoes S i n ' s words t o Satan. my heart  -  their  Adam a s s e r t s , "So f o r c i b l e w i t h i n  I f e e l / The Bond of Nature draw me t o my own,/ My own i n t h e e , f o r  what thou a r t i s mine" ( I X , 955-957).  S i m i l a r l y , Satan's  first.offspring  d e c l a r e s she has been drawn t o him by "a s e c r e t harmony" (X, 358) t h a t moves her h e a r t w i t h h i s , " j o i n e d i n connexion sweet" ( 1 . 359), and t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e of t h e w o r l d s between them has n o t broken t h e " f a t a l consequence" (1.  364) t h a t w i l l f o r e v e r u n i t e t h e m . ^  Adam's echo of t h e demonic i n h i s  a s s e r t i o n of l o v e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e u n h e r o i c  stance.  H i s concluding  s t a t e m e n t — " t o l o s e t h e e were t o l o s e m y s e l f " (IX, 9 5 9 ) — s u m m a r i z e s t h e weak s e l f i s h n e s s a t the centre of h i s choice. Of c o u r s e ,  an unsympathetic view of Adam's s e l f i s h n e s s would be out of  c h a r a c t e r w i t h M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a i t of h i s f a l l . Adam's p a s s i o n a t e  I t i s a l l t o o easy t o r e g a r d  p l e a — " n o no, I f e e l / The L i n k of Nature draw me"  81 (IX, 9 1 3 - 9 1 4 ) — w i t h t h e c o o l r e a s o n of Raphael. Eve as the summation of beauty i n s i s t s t h a t , i n s p i t e of her her w a i t " (1.554),  After a l l ,  i n the c r e a t e d world inferior  intellect,  when Adam p r a i s e s  ( V I I I , 470-477), and  " A u t h o r i t y and Reason on  does not Raphael indeed temper h i s enthusiasm  Miltonic doctrine?  The A r c h - a n g e l ' s  dichotomy of r a t i o n a l and  o s t e n s i b l y s e t s the boundary between l e g i t i m a t e and What h i g h e r i n her s o c i e t y thou  thou d o s t w e l l ,  passionate love  behaviour:  find'st  A t t r a c t i v e , human, r a t i o n a l , l o v e In l o v i n g  sinful  w i t h sound  still;  i n passion not,  Wherein t r u e Love c o n s i s t s not  ....  ( V I I I , 586-589) . However, a c l o s e r  examination  of Raphael's r e a s o n i n g c o m p l i c a t e s t h e  e q u a t i o n of h i s v o i c e w i t h the p o e t ' s .  There i s n o t h i n g  ready  substantially  wrong w i t h the t h r u s t of h i s argument: For what admir'st An  outside?  thou, what t r a n s p o r t s thee  so,  f a i r no doubt, and worthy w e l l  Thy  c h e r i s h i n g , t h y h o n o r i n g , and  Not  thy s u b j e c t i o n ....  thy l o v e ,  ' ( V I I I , 567-570)  But  t h e subsequent r a t i o n a l e i s more r e m i n i s c e n t of the m a n i p u l a t i v e  of the f a l l e n A r c h - a n g e l  than of Raphael's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c wisdom.  ... weigh w i t h her Then v a l u e :  spirit  thyself;  O f t - t i m e s n o t h i n g p r o f i t s more  Than s e l f - e s t e e m , grounded on j u s t and  right  W e l l manag'd; of t h a t s k i l l the more thou  know'st,  The more she w i l l acknowledge thee her Head  ....  ( V I I I , 570-574) In f a c t , Raphael's e l e v a t i o n of " s e l f - e s t e e m " i n t h e attempt Adam from f a l s e or undue l o v e stands  to protect  i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the  Messiah's  82 compassionate s u b j e c t i o n f o r mankind.  Thus, Raphael's r o l e as t h e warner  does n o t e n t i r e l y f i t t h e poet's v i s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e human l o v e .  Rather,  M i l t o n t e a s e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h a b e n e f i c e n t Arch-arjgel who i s n o t o n l y "absent"  ( V I I I , 229) on t h e day o f man's c r e a t i o n , but'who remains  about t h e o r d a i n e d And  i n t e n s i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l bond between husband and w i f e .  i n h i s s u b t l e p o r t r a y a l of an " i m p e r f e c t , " p a r t i a l l y  messenger, M i l t o n conveys t h e d i f f i c u l t first  unteachable  ignorant  problem of Adam's d u a l  celestial  loyalties.—  t o God and a l s o t o woman. The  effect  dilemma: itself.  of a somewhat ambiguous Raphael o n l y u n d e r s c o r e s  Adam's  i f he obeys God, as he knows he ought t o , he f e e l s he w i l l T h i s s t r o n g sentiment  cannot be q u e l l e d w i t h R a p h a e l i t e  Indeed, Raphael's easy r e a s o n i n g  life  logic.  appears, a t t h e moment of Adam's c h o i c e ,  l i k e a m o r a l i z a t i o n o b l i v i o u s , t o t h e f a c t of human l o v e . Adam c h o o s i n g  lose  And i r o n i c a l l y , t h e  t o s i n i n one sense f o l l o w s t h e messenger's well-meaning  advice:  "Heav'n i s f o r thee t o o h i g h / To know what passes t h e r e ; be l o w l y w i s e : / T h i n k o n l y what c o n c e r n s t h e e and t h y b e i n g " ( V I I I , 172-174).  F o r t h e man  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e e t e r n a l l o s s of h i s l i k e n e s s , f i t h e l p , other  s e l f , h i s w i s h and h e a r t ' s d e s i r e ( V I I I , 450-451), heaven indeed  too h i g h . ness,  he does n o t , as I have argued, a l l o w t h e r e a d e r  concern [His] But  Thus, w h i l e M i l t o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t Adam's f a l l  w i t h h i m s e l f and h i s b e i n g .  the reader  [his] own  i s n o t so much a s p e c t a t o r a s an  the c o n f u s i o n o f d o u b l e d e v o t i o n s and wakened I should  i s due t o s e l f i s h -  t o c o o l l y condemn Adam's  God may j u s t l y observe t h a t man  own r e v o l t " ( I I I , 116-117), " o r d a i n ' d  appears  fall"  "decreed/  (11. 128-129).  empathetic p a r t i c i p a n t i n  selfishness.  l i k e t o r e t u r n t o Eve's echo o f heavenly  M e s s i a h ' s l o v e i n her e l a t i o n over Adam's c h o i c e .  praise f o r the  W h i l e I have argued  a g a i n s t t h e p r o p r i e t y of r e g a r d i n g t h i s c h o i c e i n h e r o i c terms, t h e r e i s of course a l a t e n t i n s i s t s that  suggestion  this  of h e r o i c p o t e n t i a l i n Adam's c h o i c e .  Mahood  83 echo g i v e s a d o u b l e dramatic  e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o Eve's c r y .  one way t h e words a r e an i n s t a n c e of t r a g i c  In  i r o n y , because  there  i s a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e p o s s i b l e between Adam's s a c r i f i c e and t h a t of t h e M e s s i a h .  But Eve's words, by b r i n g i n g t o mind t h e Son's  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f d i v i n e and human n a t u r e s , . man's r e c o v e r y of t h e m o r t a l  sound t h e hope of,  even i n t h e i n s t a n t t h a t marks t h e  'compleating  Sin Original'.^  Moreover, Adam's i n v e r s e " s a c r i f i c e " e n f o r c e s upon t h e r e a d e r man's d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n — t h e c h o i c e between s e l f l e s s heroism and t h e t r a g e d y  of a parodic  reflection. Whereas i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o see Adam's c h o i c e t o s i n as h e r o i c by any.  d e f i n i t i o n , h i s subsequent i n d u l g e n c e belief  i n a heroic f a l l .  i n s u i c i d a l d e s p a i r must d i s p e l a l l  C l e a r l y , Bowra's a s s e r t i o n t h a t " t h e o l d d i g n i t y 18  is lost  i n d e s p a i r " i s an understatement of t h e extent  In h i s s o l i l o q u y of lament, Adam f l a g e l l a t e s h i m s e l f both the c o n t r i t i o n i n t r i n s i c t o regeneration of magnanimity. 844  of Adam's weakness.  t o a degree which d e f i e s  as w e l l as a c l a s s i c a l  I n f a c t , t h e numerous.personal r e f e r e n c e s  vision  i n l i n e s X, 720-  u n d e r s c o r e a masochism which i s t h e i n v e r s e r e f l e c t i o n of h i s deep- .  seated  pride.  W h i l e we must r e g a r d  Satan's p r i d e as a s u p e r l a t i v e example  of a c l a s s i c a l l y h e r o i c a t t r i b u t e , Adam's p r i d e here e x p r e s s e s d e f i c i e n c y of s p i r i t which appears i n c o r r i g i b l y i n e p t . evident  i n the excessive lamentation  plight.  of happy! i s t h i s t h e end  Of t h i s new g l o r i o u s World, and mee so l a t e The  G l o r y of t h a t G l o r y , who now become  Accurst  o f b l e s s e d , h i d e me from t h e f a c e  Of God, whom t o b e h o l d  The i n e p t n e s s i s  over h i s own s u f f e r i n g , one w i t h o u t  t r a c e , o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Eve's s i m i l a r 0 miserable  only that  was then my  highth  a  84 Of happiness .... (X, 720-725) Adam's myopia i s a c o n v i n c i n g d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f man's l o s s of r i g h t through  sin.  Adam concedes t h a t h i s m i s e r y  self-condemnation  i s "deserv'd". ( 1 . 726), but t h i s  i s not an a s p e c t of p e n i t e n c e .  i s a p e r v e r s e e x p r e s s i o n of unchanged p r i d e . c u r s e h i s descendents  reason,  I n s t e a d , Adam's f l a g e l l a t i o n ,  F i r s t , when he c o n s i d e r s t h e  a r e s u b j e c t t o , he a g o n i z e s n o t so much over  their  s u f f e r i n g as he does over t h e f a t e o f h i s own r e p u t a t i o n (X, 725-743). Second, he r e a s o n s t h a t God's o m i s s i o n t o c o n s u l t him on t h e q u e s t i o n of whether or n o t t o g r a n t l i f e , right  t o end l i f e  "unable t o perform  can o n l y b e . c o r r e c t e d by h i s assumption  (X, 743-752).  The a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t i o n t h a t he was  ... terms t o o h a r d " ( 1 1 . 750-751) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s o r t of  p r i d e which p r e c l u d e s p e n i t e n c e . (IV,  of t h e  T h i r d , l i k e Satan  i n two of h i s s o l i l o q u i e s  40-68, IX, 163-172), Adam reminds h i m s e l f of t h e j u s t i c e o f God. God made thee of c h o i c e h i s own, and of h i s own To s e r v e him, t h y reward  was of h i s g r a c e ,  Thy punishment then j u s t  i s at h i s W i l l .  Be  i t s o , f o r I submit, h i s doom i s f a i r ,  That dust I am, and s h a l l t o dust r e t u r n .... (X, 766-770) However, w h i l e Satan u n d e r s t a n d s rejects  (IV, .68-70 , IX, 173), Adam, s u b c o n s c i o u s l y j c o n s t r u e s h i s l e s s e r  understanding his  t h e b e n e f i c e n c e of t h e God which he promptly  creation.  Almighty i s merely  of d i v i n e j u s t i c e t o t h e v i e w of a God t o o impotent The e a r l i e r  i s dormant h e r e .  f a i t h which prompted unmeditated  0 welcome hour whenever!  d e s i r e t o escape why d e l a y s  hand t o execute what h i s Decree  Fix'd  p r a i s e of t h e  When Adam o s t e n s i b l y , a c c e p t s d i v i n e judgment, he  r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s foremost  His  t o save  on t h i s day?  why do I  overlive,  t h a t v e r y judgment.  85 Why am I mockt w i t h d e a t h , and l e n g t h ' n ' d out To d e a t h l e s s p a i n ?  How g l a d l y would I meet  M o r t a l i t y my sentence, and be E a r t h I n s e n s i b l e , how g l a d would l a y me down As And  i n my mother's l a p ! sleep secure;  There I should  rest  h i s d r e a d f u l v o i c e no more  Would Thunder i n my e a r s , no f e a r of worse To mee and t o my o f f s p r i n g would torment me With c r u e l expectation. (X, 771-782) In e f f e c t Adam c o n s t r u e s  d i v i n e j u s t i c e t o a v i s i o n o f a God t o o impotent  to r e v e r s e t h e i n f i n i t e wrath s e t i n motion by man's For though t h e Lord  of a l l be i n f i n i t e ,  Is  be i t , Man i s n o t so,  h i s wrath a l s o ?  But m o r t a l doom'd. Wrath w i t h o u t Can  disobedience.  How can he e x e r c i s e  end on Man whom Death must end?  he make d e a t h l e s s ,  Death? (X, 794-798)  Adam's pessimism over man's f u t u r e (X, 824-828) negates t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t n o t e of redemption i n t h e Son's judgment, and i s thus e n t i r e l y  inappropriate to  one whose'lnward nakedness" (X,221) has a l r e a d y been c o v e r e d . Adam's p e r v e r s e  Furthermore,  h u m i l i t y i s b l a t a n t when he c o n s i d e r s t h e r o l e of t h e  sacrificial victim: ... f i r s t  and l a s t  On mee, mee o n l y , a s t h e source  and s p r i n g  Of a l l c o r r u p t i o n , a l l t h e blame l i g h t s due: So might t h e wrath, v  (X, 831-834)  H i s f e a r of d e a t h i s such t h a t he h i m s e l f  immediately r e t r a c t s t h e p r e t e n s e :  86 "Fond w i s h !  C o u l d s t thou s u p p o r t / That burden h e a v i e r than t h e E a r t h t o  b e a r , / Than a l l t h e World much h e a v i e r " (X, 834-836).  Adam's m i s e r y i s but .  a p a l e r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i n t e n s e agony expressed by S a t a n :  "Me m i s e r a b l e !  which way s h a l l I f l y / I n f i n i t e wrath, and i n f i n i t e d e s p a i r ? / Which, way I fly  i s H e l l ; m y s e l f am H e l l " ( I V , 73-75).  Adam e x h i b i t s a p r i d e  irreconcil-  a b l e t o h i s Maker, but he i s t o o much t h e f r a i l man t o e x e r c i s e demonic heroism.  And Adam i s no s a v i o u r o f men.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own a c t i o n s . "0 C o n s c i e n c e , i n t o what Abyss out of which/  At t h i s p o i n t , he has y e t t o accept  H i s l a s t words a r e t h e most c o n v i n c i n g :  o f f e a r s / And h o r r o r s h a s t thou d r i v ' n me;  I f i n d no way, from deep t o deeper p l u n g ' d ! " (X, 842-844)  No hero, Adam i s u n a b l e t o save h i m s e l f from t h e " e v i l C o n s c i e n c e [which] r e p r e s e n t [ s ] / A l l t h i n g s w i t h double t e r r o r " (11. 849-850).  Thus, even i n  p i o u s language, Adam i n t e r p r e t s e x p e r i e n c e as a s e r i e s of events around  the s e l f .  circling  And t h e depths o f Adam's c o n f u s i o n and d e s p a i r a r e perhaps  M i l t o n ' s c l e a r e s t judgment upon e g o c e n t r i c humanism. s e l f n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s t o "a l i v i n g Death"  The e l e v a t i o n o f t h e  ( 1 . 788).  The v a n i t y of Adam's t o r t u r e d r e a s o n i n g i s most d r a m a t i c i n h i s m i s o g y n i s t i c r e j e c t i o n of Eve. Out  of my s i g h t , thou S e r p e n t , t h a t name b e s t  B e f i t s t h e e w i t h him l e a g u ' d , t h y s e l f as f a l s e And  h a t e f u l ; n o t h i n g wants, but t h a t t h y shape,  L i k e h i s , and c o l o r S e r p e n t i n e may show Thy inward f r a u d , t o warn a l l C r e a t u r e s from t h e e H e n c e f o r t h ; l e s t t h a t t o o h e a v ' n l y form,  pretended  To h e l l i s h f a l s e h o o d , snare them. (X, 867-873) F o r g e t t i n g b o t h t h e o r i g i n of e v i l and t h a t Eve i s h i s " l i k e n e s s , " h i s " o t h e r s e l f " ( V I I I , 4 5 0 ) , Adam denounces h e r a s " T h i s n o v e l t y on E a r t h ,  this  f a i r d e f e c t / Of N a t u r e " (X, ,891-892), and p r o c l a i m s t h a t human s i n i s d i r e c t l y  87 a t t r i b u t a b l e t o "Female s n a r e s " ( 1 . 897). Now E.M.W. T i l l y a r d r e g a r d s o u t b u r s t of Adam's t o be M i l t o n ' s own u n c o n s c i o u s  this  v o i c e , and t r a c e s t h e 19  poet's l a t e n t grudge a g a i n s t women t o h i s f i r s t m a r r i a g e . tempting  i t may be t o i n f e r t h a t t h e man "Wedlock-bound" ( 1 . 905) t o Mary  P o w e l l was a m i s o g y n i s t a f t e r Adam's f a s h i o n , t h e c r i t i c an a u t h o r ' s c h a r a c t e r s as t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s if  But however  ought n o t t o r e g a r d  embodiment of b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a ,  o n l y f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t they a r e . p r e s e n t e d by,the  as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y .  conscious  author  And, as I s h a l l argue i n t h e case of Eve, I doubt t h a t  the poet c o u l d have been t h e m i s o g y n i s t T i l l y a r d  suggests he i s .  Moreover,  i n t h e above l i n e s , Adam's a c c u s a t i o n s p o r t r a y r a t h e r t h e m o r a l c o n f u s i o n of  h i s own psyche,  not t h e demonic darkness  o s t e n s i b l y Eve's.  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t Eve i s "the p a r t s i n i s t e r from [him] though i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c t o n l y her, i s a t e l l i n g repressed. "strict  Adam's  drawn" (X, 8 8 6 ) ,  c l u e of a g u i l t y  conscience  And, as when Adam r e a d i l y accuses Eve b e f o r e t h e Son out of  n e c e s s i t y " (X, 1 3 1 ) — t h e  reader r e c a l l s that t h i s  i s "The T y r a n t ' s  p l e a " ( I V , 3 9 4 ) — s o he a g a i n r a t i o n a l i z e s p e r s o n a l g u i l t w i t h t h e mythic view of woman as t h e demonic e n c h a n t r e s s . to  underscore  Adam's u n r e g e n e r a t e  state.  Thus, M i l t o n d r a m a t i z e s misogyny These a r e t h e e m b i t t e r e d words o f  a man who p r o t e s t s t o o much. It  i s significant  t h a t t h e s u i c i d a l Adam remains "Immovable" (X, 938)  u n t i l Eve e s t a b l i s h e s peace between them. 299), God  Adam, made " f o r God o n l y " ( I V ,  does n o t d i s p l a y heroism u n t i l he responds  i n him" ( 1 . 299) .  t o t h e woman c r e a t e d " f o r  Now i f M i l t o n were t h e s t r i c t  s e x i s t he i s sometimes  t a k e n t o be, then Adam, a s o r d a i n e d head, should have been f i r s t a r e l u c t a n t Eve on t h e importance  of p e n i t e n c e .  to instruct  As i t i s , t h e r e a d e r enjoys ,  t h e humor where Adam, j u s t r e s c u e d by a remarkably  h e r o i c woman, proceeds t o  i n f o r m t h e same of t h e v e r y heroism which saved h i m — " o f f i c e s o f Love [which] ... l i g h t ' n / Each o t h e r ' s burden i n ... share of woe" (X, 960-961).  While  he has h a r d l y r e c o v e r e d from making a s i m i l a r e r r o r , Adam warns Eve a g a i n s t  . being; "too d e s i r o u s " (X, 947) t o take confident  88  on t h e w o r l d ' s punishment, and h i s  tone i s such as i f h i s b e t t e r judgment had never l e f t him.  Furthermore, he i s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e which he was u n a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e  t h e f o l l y of s u i c i d a l d e s p a i r  i n himself.  i n Eve  K i n d l y , Adam c o n s i d e r s t h e  l a t e n t v i r t u e i n Eve's s u i c i d a l p r o p o s a l , and r e d i r e c t s her s a c r i f i c i a l attitude. Eve,  t h y contempt of l i f e and p l e a s u r e  seems  To argue i n thee something more sublime And  e x c e l l e n t than what t h y mind contemns;  But  s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n t h e r e f o r e sought, r e f u t e s  That e x c e l l e n c e thought Not  i n thee, and i m p l i e s ,  t h y contempt, but anguish  and r e g r e t  For l o s s of l i f e and p l e a s u r e  overlov'd.  (X, The  fact  1013-1019)  t h a t Adam does n o t h e r e c o n f e s s  l o s s of l i f e and p l e a s u r e o v e r l o v ' d " serious omission.  h i s own "anguish  (11. 1018-1019) i s n o t ,  R a t h e r , I would suggest  c o n t r i t i o n and r e g e n e r a t i o n  at a l l .  and r e g r e t / For I think, a  i t s u f f i c e s t h a t Adam embrace  And through t h e comedy o f t h i s  leader  v o i c i n g r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d wisdom, M i l t o n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t f a l l e n man i s i n d i r e need o f g r a c e and, e s p e c i a l l y i n Adam's c a s e , is  p o s i t i v e female a s s i s t a n c e  o n l y an a s s e t . Eve's h e r o i c submission  himself.  disenchants  the deadly  s p e l l Adam has woven f o r  He now r e c a l l s b o t h t h e judgment upon t h e serpent  ness of t h e Son h i m s e l f victorious faith.  (X, 1028-1059)—two f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r  For t h e f i r s t  lamentation  beside  t o t h e o c e n t r i c heroism.  inspire  The new man,  h i s despondent d o u b l e , u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t genuine  f o l l o w s i n c o n t r i t i o n , c o n t r i t i o n i n new l i f e .  i n s t r u c t s Eve :  which  time s i n c e h i s c h o i c e t o f a l l , Adam  e x h i b i t s the moral d i g n i t y i n t r i n s i c unrecognizable  and t h e g r a c i o u s -  He r i g h t l y  89 What b e t t e r can we do, than t o t h e p l a c e R e p a i r i n g where he judg'd u s , , p r o s t r a t e f a l l B e f o r e him r e v e r e n t , and t h e r e  confess  Humbly our f a u l t s , and pardon beg, w i t h t e a r s Watering  t h e ground, and w i t h our s i g h s t h e A i r  Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow u n f e i g n ' d , and h u m i l i a t i o n meek. (X, 1086-1092) It  i s of c o u r s e i r o n i c t h a t Adam should v e r b a l i z e here t h e manner of Eve's  conquest if  of h i s d e s p a i r .  He expresses  t h e essence  i t were a r e v e l a t i o n f o r b o t h of them.  from u n d e r s c o r i n g Eve's heroism, a t i o n of f a i t h . him,  of Eve's l e s s o n t o him as  But Adam's u n p e r c e p t i v e n e s s ,  i s i n part the motivation f o r h i s r e a f f i r m -  He seeks t o b o t h understand  and p e r p e t u a t e what has evaded  and so p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e d e f i n i n g heroism.  Books XI and X I I , Adam c o n s o l i d a t e s t h i s young j o y o u s w i t h sound knowledge.  While  Book X, he i t e r a t e s t h e grand  aside  And i n  e x p r e s s i o n of f a i t h  he has a l r e a d y renewed h i s commitment t o Eve i n d e s i g n i n Eve's r o l e : Whence H a i l t o thee,  Eve r i g h t l y c a l l ' d , Mother of a l l Mankind, Mother of a l l t h i n g s l i v i n g ,  s i n c e by thee  Man i s t o l i v e , and a l l t h i n g s l i v e f o r Man. ( X I , 158-161) Thus, by wakening t o f o r e s i g h t  ( X I , 368), Adam i s t o l e a r n from  the "True p a t i e n c e " ( 1 . 361) which w i l l history.  While  i t may be argued  s u s t a i n t h e human s p i r i t  Michael  throughout  that the lengthy b i b l i c a l n a r r a t i v e i n  Books XI and X I I i s a weakness i n P a r a d i s e L o s t , t h e r e a d e r should c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e poet, r a t h e r than r i s k t h e danger of an Adam e a s i l y a c c e p t i n g s i n and  death, n a i v e l y r e j o i c i n g  understand  i n God's goodness, wanted t o ensure t h a t Adam  t h e n a t u r e of e v i l , and a c c e p t b o t h p r o v i d e n c e and t h e n e c e s s i t y  90 of p e r s o n a l  heroism.  By t h e end of t h e poem M i l t o n ' s Adam must be a man who c o u l d n o t be p a t r o n i z e d , however a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , by any other man. know t h e worst  He must  t h a t Satan, s i n and death can p r o v i d e i n a l l of  h i s t o r y , t h e worst  and t h e most complex appearances  of h i s r e a d e r s may have e x p e r i e n c e d .  which any one  Knowing t h e worst, he must be  w i l l i n g t o l i v e , t o c o n c e i v e l i f e as p o s s i b l e and as p o s s i b l y blest.  For Adam, w i t h h i s knowledge of t h e f u t u r e , t o be w i l l i n g  t o b e g i n human h i s t o r y , as f o r t h e r e a d e r w i t h h i s knowledge of the p a s t t o be w i l l i n g  knowingly  to continue i t ,  each must know of  the I n c a r n a t i o n , t h e Redemption, and t h e F i n a l Judgment which g i v e t h a t h i s t o r y meaning.  Within the l i g h t  of such knowledge,  each  21 must l e a r n of t h e " p a r a d i s e w i t h i n . " A r e g e n e r a t e Adam assumes a d u l t c o n s c i o u s n e s s through it  i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t Adam should r e v e r t  such r e v e l a t i o n .  to h i s s u i c i d a l stance i n r e a c t i o n  t o t h e h o r r o r s of t h e f u t u r e — " 0 m i s e r a b l e Mankind, t o what f a l l / t o what wretched  While  Degraded,  s t a t e r e s e r v ' d ! / B e t t e r end h e r e unborn" ( X I , 5 0 0 - 5 0 2 ) — t h e  wisdom of M i c h a e l does r e c a l l him: Nor  l o v e t h y L i f e , nor hate; but what thou  liv'st  L i v e w e l l , how l o n g or s h o r t permit t o Heav'n.... ( X I , 553-554) In f a c t , Adam's f i n a l v i s i o n the g r e a t e s t e v i l  i s s t r o n g c o n f i d e n c e i n a God a b l e t o t r a n s f o r m  i n t o g r e a t e r good:  0 goodness i n f i n i t e , goodness immense! That a l l t h i s good of e v i l s h a l l And  produce,  e v i l t u r n t o good; more w o n d e r f u l  Than t h a t which by c r e a t i o n f i r s t  brought  L i g h t out of d a r k n e s s ! ( X I I , 469-473)  forth  He i n t e r n a l i z e s t h e heroism whereby man most c l o s e l y expresses h i s d i v i n e image: H e n c e f o r t h I l e a r n , t h a t t o obey i s b e s t , And As  l o v e w i t h f e a r t h e o n l y God, t o walk i n h i s presence,  ever t o observe  H i s p r o v i d e n c e , and on him s o l e depend .... ( X I I , 561-564) I m p o r t a n t l y , Adam knows t h a t " t h i n g s deem'd weak/ Subvert ... w o r l d l y s t r o n g " and  t h a t " S u f f e r i n g f o r T r u t h ' s sake/ I s f o r t i t u d e t o h i g h e s t v i c t o r y , / And  to t h e f a i t h f u l Death t h e Gate of L i f e " the f i n a l v i s i o n Eve,  manifestation  And i n  of P a r a d i s e L o s t , Adam i s t h e male v o i c e i n t h e h e r o i c song.  "the f a i r e s t  f e m i n i n e beauty  ( X I I , 567-568, 569-571).  of her Daughters"  and worth.  (IV, 324), i s t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e of  The i n e q u a l i t y of t h e sexes e l e v a t e s Eve as t h e  of human g l o r y . . .. though b o t h  Not  e q u a l , as t h i r  For c o n t e m p l a t i o n  sex not e q u a l seem'd; hee and v a l o r  form'd,  For s o f t n e s s shee and sweet a t t r a c t i v e Hee  Grace,  f o r God o n l y , shee f o r God i n him .... (IV, 295-299)  As D.R. Hutcherson points out "The p h y s i c a l l o v e l i n e s s of M i l t o n ' s Eve was i n ' ' ' 22 p a r t an i n h e r i t a n c e from many women, some of whom had been c a l l e d Eve." M i l t o n compares Eve by d i r e c t  or i n d i r e c t a l l u s i o n t o women of mythology  such  as Juno, Pandora, A p h r o d i t e , Hera, Athena, a wood nymph, an oread o r dryad, 23 D e l i a , P a l e s , Pomona, and Ceres.  But t h e r e i s l i t t l e  or no p h y s i c a l  d e s c r i p t i o n of women i n Homer, or of Eve i n G e n e s i s , and M i l t o n ' s s i n g u l a r creation  i s t o be r e g a r d e d  i n terms of a new precedent s e t by such as Du 24  B a r t a s i n t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h of Eve, M i l t o n p r e s e n t s a p o r t r a i t  century.  of innocence  possibly  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n suggesting,  92 ambiguously, a p r o p e n s i t y t o e x c e s s i v e and While it  Adam a l s o wears " H y a c i n t h i n e Locks  i s argued  by some c r i t i c s  raises f a l l e n Implications:  therefore sinful  ... C l u s t ' r i n g " (IV, 301-303),  t h a t the language d e p i c t i n g Eve's appearance "Shee as a v e i l down t o the s l e n d e r w a i s t /  unadorned g o l d e n t r e s s e s wore/ D i s h e v e l l ' d , but  304-306).  (IV,  sensuality.  S t a n l e y F i s h argues  Her  i n wanton r i n g l e t s wav'd" -  t h a t a d j e c t i v e s such as " D i s h e v e l l ' d " 25  and  "wanton" c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e Eve w i t h "the s c a r l e t woman."  h i s v i e w of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s M i l t o n n e c e s s a r i l y evokes i n h i s  And  to  support  contemporaries,  F i s h c i t e s B i s h o p Joseph H a l l ' s example of a v i s u a l symbol f o r the waywardness of s i n f u l m a n — t h e image of a woman w i t h a " ' l o o s e l o c k e r r i n g wantonly 26 over her suggest  shoulders.'" that t h i s  Now  w h i l e M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a i t appears  i s because the poet does not  feminine sexuality.  ambiguous, I  share a B i s h o p H a l l ' s view of  Instead, M i l t o n d e l i b e r a t e l y confuses the a s s o c i a t i o n  between d i s o r d e r l i n e s s and m o r a l wantonness i n order t o convey h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y image of Edenic  femininity.  Milton's "enchantress" t o Adam's:  "Two  i s a woman whose i n t r i n s i c m o r a l s t a t u r e i s e q u a l  of f a r n o b l e r shape e r e c t and  n a t i v e Honor c l a d / In naked M a j e s t y  seem'd L o r d s of a l l "  h a i l s Eve as "Heav'n's l a s t b e s t g i f t " ( V , for  " f e l l o w s h i p ... f i t t o p a r t i c i p a t e  389-391), t h e c r e a t i o n whom God t h y o t h e r s e l f , / Thy w i s h , While  Satan  t a l l , / Godlike erect, with Adam  19); she i s t h e answer t o h i s d e s i r e  in / A l l rational delight"  i n t r o d u c e s as "Thy  (VIII,  l i k e n e s s , thy f i t help,  e x a c t l y t o t h y h e a r t ' s d e s i r e " ( V I I I , 450-451).  i n P a r a d i s e Regained r e f e r s t o Eve as Adam's " f a c i l e c o n s o r t "  ( I , 51), and a f a l l e n , d e s p e r a t e husband a d d r e s s e s 867),  (IV, 288-290).  her as " S e r p e n t "  she i s o t h e r w i s e , w i t h overwhelming c o n s i s t e n c y , p o r t r a y e d as  g l o r i o u s q u i n t e s s e n c e of c r e a t i o n . "mother of a l l b e i n g , "  and  The name "Eve"  (PL,  X,  the  i n Hebrew, hawwah, means  t h e poet c e l e b r a t e s t h i s meaning w i t h  addresses  such as "Mother of human Race" (IV, 475), "Mother of a l l Mankind,/ Mother of 27 a l l t h i n g s l i v i n g " (XI, 159-160). Roy C. Flannagan argues t h a t t h r o u g h  93 motherhood Eve i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t and " a l l - b e a r i n g Mother E a r t h " (V, 3 3 8 ) . She  i s a l s o f i g u r a t i v e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e Moon a s Adam i s w i t h  the Sun, each being r e s p e c t i v e l y "Male and Female L i g h t , / Which two  g r e a t Sexes animate t h e W o r l d " (8.148-51).  Thus, Eve i s a t  once a c h a r a c t e r from b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y and a m y t h o l o g i c a l e a r t h , moon, and mother goddess who expresses w i t h Adam t h e fundamental male-female p r i n c i p l e of t h e u n i v e r s e :  "male and female he c r e a t e d  28 them" (Gen. 1:27). It  i s thus i n t r i g u i n g t h a t s e v e r a l eminent c r i t i c s  should r e g a r d Eve as an  example of M i l t o n i c misogyny. Dr. Johnson s a i d t h a t t h e poet had "a T u r k i s h 29 contempt of f e m a l e s . " J.H. Hanford says t h a t "There i s no g a i n s a y i n g t h e f a c t ... t h a t t h e poet b e a r s a grudge a g a i n s t woman as t h e p e r v e r s e o c c a s i o n 30 of man's entanglement."  And B a s i l W i l l e y i n s i s t s t h a t M i l t o n " e n l a r g e s t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e of Adam's d i s o b e d i e n c e by making i t a c a p i t a l i n s t a n c e of s u r r e n d e r t o 'female charm'; and i n t h i s manner he i s a b l e ... t o v e n t much  31 of  h i s p e r s o n a l resentment a g a i n s t womankind."  n a t u r e negates i n f e r i o r being.  But Eve's i n t r i n s i c m o r a l  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l usage of t h e e n c h a n t r e s s m o t i f a s a m o r a l l y She becomes a h e r o i n e of t h e f i r s t  Now t h e v a l i d i t y t e s t e d i n her f i r s t  order.  of t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Eve i n h e r o i c - t e r m s  speech.  i s seriously  Eve's v o l u n t a r y n a r r a t i o n of h e r e a r l i e s t  memories p r e s e n t s an u n d e n i a b l e p a r a l l e l t o t h e N a r c i s s u s myth i n Ovid's Metamorphoses, and t h i s arch-symbol  f o r d e s t r u c t i v e s e l f - l o v e , i t i s argued, 32  warns t h e r e a d e r o f Eve's p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e n s i t y t o s i n .  The r e a d e r  encoun-  t e r s an Eve t r a n s f i x e d by t h e "sympathy and l o v e " (IV, 465) of h e r own image, an Eve r e s c u e d from her " v a i n d e s i r e " ( 1 . 466) by t h e v o i c e of God. A l l e n compares Eve's apparent day  D.C.  s e l f - l o v e t o t h a t o f t h e a n g e l s on t h e f i r s t  of c r e a t i o n , and i n s i s t s t h a t i t i s o n l y d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n which saves 33 Eve from a f a l l a t t h i s p o i n t . S i m i l a r l y , D.P. H a r d i n g compares Eve's  94 c r e a t i o n t o t h a t of t h e f u l l - g r o w n , r a v i s h i n g l y b e a u t i f u l S i n ( I I , 757-758), and  s t r e s s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g ominous c o n c l u s i o n : Satan  sees i n S i n h i s " p e r f e c t  Eve f a l l s  image" and f a l l s  i n l o v e w i t h t h e image of h e r s e l f  c l e a r waters of t h e l a k e .  i n love with i t .  she sees i n t h e  The r e a d e r of P a r a d i s e L o s t , knowing  the l e n g t h s t o which Satan's  self-love,  issuing f i r s t  i n pride,  then i n h y b r i s , then i n t h e a c t of d i s o b e d i e n c e , has c a r r i e d him, is entitled of  t o wonder whether Eve's innocent  s e l f - l o v e , an o f f s h o o t  her i n e x p e r i e n c e , may n o t be s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e same  k i n d of  34 development. t h e correspondence ominous p o t e n t i a l a t i o n from  W i l l h i s t o r y repeat  itself?  between Eve and S i n i s c l e a r l y  i n t e n t i o n a l , but t h i s  i n Eve o n l y u n d e r l i n e s t h e m a g n i f i c e n c e  of her t r a n s f o r m -  f r a i l n a i v e t e t o s u b s t a n t i a l , v i c t o r i o u s heroism.  too aware of t h e d a r k e r undertone i n t h i s f i r s t t h a t t h e woman a l t e r n a t e l y 460-466) i s an i n n o c e n t . unexperienc't  thought"  self-awareness—"What  speech  The r e a d e r  only  should n o t f a i l t o n o t e  s t a r t l e d and p l e a s e d w i t h her own r e f l e c t i o n ( I V , L i k e a c h i l d n o t y e t s e l f - a w a r e , Eve a c t s "With  ( 1 . 457), and when t h e warning v o i c e g u i d e s her i n t o thou  s e e s t , / What t h e r e thou  seest f a i r  Creature i s  t h y s e l f " (11. 4 6 7 - 4 6 8 ) — t h e subsequent command t o f o l l o w ( 1 . 469) i s w i t h o u t a r e p r o v i n g tone.' As N. F r y e emphasizes, Eve i s n o t so much n a r c i s s i s t i c as 35 innocent. for  Moreover, Eve b e g i n s and ends her n a r r a t i v e w i t h c o n s c i o u s l o v e  b o t h God and Adam, thus d i s p l a y i n g  Milton's r a d i c a l v i s i o n  t h e meek submission  of h e r o i c s t r e n g t h . 0 thou f o r whom  And  from whom I was fdrm'.'d f l e s h of t h y f l e s h ,  And  w i t h o u t whom am t o no end, my Guide  And  Head, what thou hast s a i d  i s j u s t and r i g h t .  For wee t o him indeed a l l p r a i s e s owe, And  d a i l y thanks,  I c h i e f l y who enjoy  so i n t e g r a l t o  95 So f a r t h e h a p p i e r L o t  ....  ... I y i e l d e d , and from t h a t time see How beauty And  i s e x c e l l ' d by manly g r a c e  wisdom, which a l o n e i s t r u l y (IV,  Thus, Eve's  ted,  440-446, 489-492)  e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n s a r e t h e humble p o r t r a y a l of growth from  a n a i v e egotism t o a maturer appear  fair.  c o n s c i o u s l o v e , and, w h i l e Eve's f r a i l t y may  t o j e o p a r d i z e her h e r o i c p o t e n t i a l , i t i s t h i s v e r y f r a i l t y ,  w h i c h i s t h e mark of her h e r o i c e x c e l l e n c e .  Platonic  redirec-  "Since, i n Milton's  s c a l e , human l o v e i s b o t h analogy and a s c e n t t o D i v i n e Love, i t  i s perhaps n o t t o o f a n c i f u l t o see i n Eve's t a l e an a l l e g o r y of t h e human 36 mind turned from  i t s egotism t o t h e l o v e of God."  Furthermore, identity.  Eve's  l o v e speech a l s o t e s t s t h e e x t e n t of her h e r o i c  Eve, " w i t h p e r f e c t beauty adorn'd" My Author  ( I V , 634), d e c l a r e s t o Adam:  and D i s p o s e r , what thou b i d d ' s t  Unargu'd I obey; so God o r d a i n s God  i s t h y Law, thou mine:  t o know no more  Is woman's h a p p i e s t knowledge and h e r p r a i s e . (IV,  635-638)  These l i n e s r e c a l l S i n ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t o S a t a n — " T h o u a r t my F a t h e r , thou my Author, (II,  thou/ My b e i n g g a v ' s t me; whom should I obey/ But t h e e , whom f o l l o w ? '  8 6 4 - 8 6 6 ) — a n d t h e c o n t r a s t between Eve's f r e e c h o i c e and S i n ' s  unmeditated  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "a s e c r e t harmony" (X, 358) of " f a t a l  quence" ( 1 . 364) u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i n t e g r i t y of Eve's might  submission.  c o n s i d e r A r n o l d S t e i n ' s c y n i c a l r e a d i n g of t h i s speech.  t h a t t h e speech  (IV, 639-656) d i s t a n t l y resembles  conse-  Now one Stein  argues  t h e a n g e l i c hymn which  c e l e b r a t e s t h e Son's "unexampled l o v e " f o r man, b u t , w h i l e t h e movement i n t h a t hymn keeps r e t u r n i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t o f p r a i s e , " t h e e , " t h e r e i s i n 37 Eve's poem t h e l a c k of Adam's p r e s e n c e . And S t e i n asks whether Adam's  absence from  the body of t h e poem does not  a n t i c i p a t e h i s abrupt  disappearance  indeed, at l e a s t  from Eve's account  subliminally,  of her dream or h i s 38  prominent absence from Eve's c o n s c i o u s n e s s d u r i n g the t e m p t a t i o n .  Further-  more, he  "She  insists  t h a t w h i l e the poem i s f o r Adam, i t i s about Eve.  the c r e a t i v e c e n t e r , p e r c e i v i n g o b j e c t s and movements, naming and  them with conscious a r t i s t i c delight.  is  arranging  A poem of this kind has to be centered 39  in  the s e l f ,  the s t i m u l a t e d s o u r c e of i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . "  S t e i n ' s r e a d i n g were s e l f - e v i d e n t , then t h i s speech would indeed Eve's h e r o i c c r e d i b i l i t y . Eve's,  I t would be e q u a l l y absurd  o f f e r — " B e h o l d mee around the s e l f . t h e Son,  then, mee In f a c t ,  f o r him,  c r e a t i v e poetry,  like  t o c l a i m t h a t t h e Son's  l i f e for l i f e " ( I I I ,  which  sacrificial  236)—revolves  i t i s f a r more r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t Eve,  acknowledges the s e l f  Rather  the s e l f is  undercut  i s n e c e s s a r i l y c e n t e r e d i n t h e s e l f , bound t o the narrow egotism  S t e i n suggests.  gift.  However, I f a i l t o see how  If  like  i n o r d e r t o s t r e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of her  than r e p r e s s the importance  i n order t o embrace Adam's b e i n g .  of the s e l f , Eve c r e a t i v e l y a s s e r t s Her  full  acceptance  of  femininity  g e n e r o u s l y e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h the a s s e r t i o n t h a t n u p t i a l communion w i t h  Adam s u r p a s s e s even the sweetness of E d e n i c e x i s t e n c e (IV, 639-656). Eve's l o v e speech,  Thus,  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t f o l l o w s the n a r r a t i v e on her newly  a c q u i r e d m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , marks t h e s t r e n g t h of her s e l f l e s s n e s s .  Arid  t h e i n t e n s i t y of Eve's j o y o u s s e l f l e s s n e s s e s t a b l i s h e s her h e r o i c significance. The  i n t e n s i t y of Eve's h e r o i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i s e v i d e n t even i n her  Here, u n l i k e Adam's weak s u r r e n d e r , Eve attempts for  t o r e a l i z e her s t r o n g d e s i r e  achievement w i t h a courage which, i n c l a s s i c a l  worthy.  fall.  terms, i s o n l y p r a i s e -  When she suggests t o Adam t h a t they d i v i d e t h e i r  l a b o u r s (IX,  214),  she c o u n t e r s p r o t e s t w i t h a r e j e c t i o n of c l o i s t e r e d v i r t u e q u i t e comparable to  t h a t of the A e r e o p a g i t i c a :  Alone, without  "And  what i s F a i t h , Love, V i r t u e unassay'd/  e x t e r i o r h e l p s u s t a i n ' d ? " (IX, 335-336)  But w h i l e t e s t e d  9 7  v i r t u e i s e s s e n t i a l t o heroism i n a f a l l e n w o r l d , Eye's u s e o f t h e argument i n Eden " i s b u t t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f her d e s i r e — t h e d e s i r e f o r which i s i t s e l f indeed,  the beginning  necessary—to  of her d e f i l e m e n t  40  • However, M i l t o n does n o t p r e s e n t  heroism w i t h a s i m p l i s t i c m o r a l l o g i c . in c o l l i s i o n with the Arch-deceiver judgment.  .... Knowledge u s e f u l — •  t h e s a l v a t i o n of f a l l e n man i s worse than u s e l e s s t o  innocence and p u r i t y . "  the reader's  After a l l ,  Instead,  the v e r y  should  "For softness  Eve's e g o c e n t r i c  i n t e n s i t y of Eve  momentarily, i f n o t permanently, i f even U r i e l ,  withholds  "The s h a r p e s t - s i g h t e d  of a l l i n Heav'n" ( I I I , 691), was " b e g u i l ' d " ( 1 . 689), a "woman c r e a t e d  temptation  Spirit  i t i s not l i k e l y  that  ... and sweet a t t r a c t i v e Grace" (IV, 298)  perceive fraudulence:  "For n e i t h e r Man nor A n g e l can d i s c e r n /  Hypocrisy,  t h e o n l y e v i l t h a t w a l k s / I n v i s i b l e , except t o God a l o n e " ( I I I ,  682-684).  The d i v i n e p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t Eve was c r e a t e d " j u s t and r i g h t , /  Sufficient  t o have stood,  characterize the reader's  though f r e e t o f a l l " full  experience  ( I I I , 98-99) does n o t  of s i n .  Rather, M i l t o n ' s p o r t r a y a l  of b o t h Eve's c r e d u l i t y and s t r o n g h e r o i c impetus d r a m a t i z e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y of c h o i c e i n a m o r a l u n i v e r s e . The  prelude  t o Satan's c l i m a c t i c a s s a u l t on Eve's psyche i s i n h e r  demonic dream (IV, 799-809). presenting  the conventions  Here, Satan's p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s a u l t on Eve,  of t r a d i t i o n a l w i t c h - l o v e ,  opens t h e c r u c i a l  41 p s y c h i c b a t t l e between f a l s e h o o d  and t r u t h .  "The demonic attempt t o c o r r u p t  t h e phantasy, t h e c h o i c e of woman a s t h e weaker and more v u l n e r a b l e the a p p a r i t i o n as an a n g e l of l i g h t , nocturnal f l i g h t  instrument,  t h e d i a b o l i c a l i l l u s i o n , and t h e  "up t o t h e Clouds ' a r e a l l c o n v e n t i o n a l 1  f e a t u r e s of w i t c h -  42 craft bility  Thus, M i l t o n e s t a b l i s h e s i n Eve's demonic dream h e r s u s c e p t i t o d i a b o l i c a l i l l u s i o n , not t o l e s s e n her g u i l t , but t o underscore the  t r a g i c consequences o f h e r f r a i l t y .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a d e r must c o n s i d e r  S a t a n , i n t h e g u i s e of t h e l o v e l i e s t  of c l a s s i c a l s e r p e n t s , a t t a c k s  t r u t h s only o b l i q u e l y i n f e c t e d with  falsehood:  that  Eve w i t h  98 ..• p l e a s i n g was And  l o v e l y , never  s i n c e of Serpent k i n d  L o v e l i e r , not t h o s e t h a t Hermione and In  h i s shape,  in Illyria  Cadmus, or the  chang'd  God  E p i d a u r u s ; nor t o which t r a n s f o r m ' d  Ammonian Jove, or C a p i t o l i n e was Hee w i t h Olympias,  seen,  t h i s w i t h her who  bore  S i r p i o t h e h i g h t h of Rome. (IX, A l t h o u g h the a d d r e s s  503-510)  i s intended t o waken v a n i t y , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g f a l s e i n  the a s s e r t i o n t h a t Eve i s the " F a i r e s t resemblance (1.  538).  And  t h e subsequent  of  her  a p p e a l t o t h e ego, a s s e r t i n g  Maker  fair"  t h a t Eden i s  i n s u f f i c i e n t a u d i e n c e f o r t h e a d o r a t i o n of Eve's " C e l e s t i a l Beauty" (11.540, 542-T-548) , i s t h e s o r t of e v a s i v e n e s s t h a t win's easy e n t r a n c e to Eve's subcon1  scious:  " I n t o t h e Heart of Eve h i s words made way, / Though a t the v o i c e much  marvelling" first  (11. 550-551).  I m p o r t a n t l y , Eve, though "unwary" (1. 614), a t  r e s i s t s the serpent's i n t e n t i o n s .  talking  serpent meets her s k e p t i c i s m :  doubt/ The v i r t u e of t h a t F r u i t ,  Satan's  first  "Serpent, thy o v e r p r a i s i n g l e a v e s i n  i n thee f i r s t  the s i g h t of t h e p r o h i b i t e d t r e e provokes  prov'd"  (11. 615-616).  an a u t h o r i t a t i v e  Serpent, we might have spar'd our coming F r u i t l e s s t o mee,  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e  hither,  though F r u i t be here t o e x c e s s ,  The c r e d i t of whose v i r t u e r e s t w i t h t h e e , Wondrous i n d e e d , i f cause of such But  of t h i s Tree we may  God  so commanded, and l e f t  effects.  not t a s t e nor  touch,  t h a t Command  S o l e Daughter of h i s v o i c e ; t h e r e s t , we Law  t o o u r s e l v e s , our Reason i s our (IX,  Law.  647-654)  rejection:  live  And  99 However, Eve's m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s s e r i o u s l y endangered by the S a t a n i c l i e s which have a l r e a d y gained a c c e s s t o her s u b c o n s c i o u s . fascination with t h i s talking  Eve's c r e d u l o u s  snake i s such t h a t , a t the t r e e , she  searches  her own  mind o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e s e r p e n t ' s arguments have become her  own.  Satan need m e r e l y  708-709), and reason  Eve  (1. 738).  independent Eve  e n f o r c e h i s l i e s w i t h the promise  i s ready t o persuade But  courage  rejects  herself  of godhead  (11.  of the t r u t h of h i s "seeming"  the speech p r e c e d i n g the f a t a l c h o i c e i l l u s t r a t e s  an  of c l e a r h e r o i c s t a t u r e . the  p r o h i b i t i o n which, she b e l i e v e s , d e n i e s man  divine  knowledge and wisdom (11. 750-760), r e a s o n i n g t h a t f e a r must be s u b j e c t t o the quest f o r achievement: Under t h i s  "What f e a r I then, r a t h e r what know t o f e a r /  i g n o r a n c e of Good and E v i l , / Of God  (11. 773-775)  I r o n i c a l l y , the p e r c e i v e d . "Cure" ( 1 . 776)  quest f o r betterment overlook that  or Death, of Law  i n s t i g a t e s a profound  curse.  And  or P e n a l t y ? "  t o man's i n n a t e  t h e r e a d e r can h a r d l y  i t i s Eve's m i s d i r e c t e d v i s i o n of p e r s o n a l advancement,  s t r e n g t h e n e d by "An  eager a p p e t i t e " (IX, 740), which s h a t t e r s E d e n i c  bliss;  ...Meanwhile t h e hour of Noon drew on, and wak'd An eager a p p e t i t e , r a i s ' d by t h e s m e l l So  savory o f t h a t F r u i t , w h i c h w i t h  I n c l i n a b l e now Solicited  grown t o t o u c h or  her l o n g i n g eye  desire,  taste,  ....  So s a y i n g , her r a s h hand i n e v i l hour F o r t h reaching to the F r u i t ,  she p l u c k ' d , she eat  ....  (IX, 739-743, 780-781) Eve's f a t a l r a s h n e s s  i s p a r a l l e l t o S i n u n b o l t i n g t h e g a t e s of h e l l :  her s i d e the f a t a l Key,/ 872).  Sad  i n s t r u m e n t of a l l our woe,  "from  she t o o k " ( I I , 871-  Once f a l l e n , the queen of t h i s u n i v e r s e i s t h e v e r y i n v e r s i o n of  heroism,  c l a s s i c a l or M i l t o n i c .  boon" (IX, 793),  Eve,  " h i g h t ' n ' d as w i t h Wine, jocund  e n t e r t a i n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of "God-head" ( 1 . 790)  and  but,  100 i r o n i c a l l y , b e g i n s her new l i f e w i t h an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y degenerate to  t h e t r e e (11. 795-807).  Perhaps t h e most s t r i k i n g  i g n o b l e stupor i s t h e c a l c u l a t e d " F u l l happiness" "more e q u a l The  apostrophe  i n s t a n c e o f Eve's  c o n s i d e r a t i o n towards Adam:  ( 1 . 819) w i t h him, or c o n c e a l her e x p e r i e n c e  should she share i n order t o be  ... sometime/ S u p e r i o r : f o r i n f e r i o r who i s f r e e ? " ( 1 1 . 823-825)  q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n of j e a l o u s y and murderous i n t e n t i o n s , t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d  by an u n c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c p r o f e s s i o n of l o v e , p r e s e n t s t o t h e r e a d e r t h e e x t e n t of human l o s s :  "Adam s h a l l share w i t h me i n b l i s s or woe:/ So dear I  l o v e him, t h a t w i t h him a l l d e a t h s / I c o u l d endure, w i t h o u t him l i v e no  life"  (11. 831-833).  And t h e "bland words" ( 1 . 855) next addressed  t o her husband  only underscore  t h e agony Adam must undergo i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e f a l l .  But w h i l e t h e e f f e c t o f Eve's i g n o b l e s t a n c e might w e l l provoke m o r a l judgment, Adam e x p r e s s e s o n l y g r i e f . suggest  that Milton's p o r t r a i t  nate d e n i g r a t i o n of her quest.  And, on t h e p a r t of^ t h e r e a d e r , I  of Eve's f a l l In f a c t ,  does n o t j u s t i f y an i n d i s c r i m i -  t h e r e i s an i n n o c e n t echo o f Eve's  e x p e r i e n c e when a p p e t i t e t r i g g e r s Adam's r e a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e has a p a r a l l e l  i n waking r e a l i t y .  that.subconscious  As he t e l l s  Raphael,  Each Tree Load'n w i t h f a i r e s t Tempting, s t i r r ' d  F r u i t , t h a t hung t o t h e Eye  i n me sudden a p p e t i t e  To p l u c k and e a t ; whereat I wak'd, and found B e f o r e mine Eyes a l l r e a l , as t h e dream Had  lively  shadow'd .... ( V I I I , 306-311)  M i l t o n thus reminds t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e r e i s a l e g i t i m a t e a p p e t i t e , one which h e l p s c o n v i n c e Adam o f t h e t r u i s m t h a t d i v i n e l y as waking r e a l i t y . is  fulfilled  i n s p i r e d dreams emerge  And t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a l e g i t i m a t e a p p e t i t e which  by a p e r f e c t i o n beyond human i m a g i n a t i o n i s t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t t o  Eve's d e c e p t i o n .  The potency  of Eve's e g o c e n t r i c heroism  is finally  101 transformed t o t h e o c e n t r i c magnificence. It  i s striking  progression  t h a t Eve i s t h e f i r s t  hope i n man's  from t h e f a l l e n c o n d i t i o n of f l e s h under t h e law t o h i s redemp-  t i o n under g r a c e .  W h i l e some c r i t i c s  a t i o n of a misogyny c o n s i d e r e d  interpret Milton's  Eye i n f u l l  t h e human r e f l e c t i o n of t h e t h e o c e n t r i c  h e r o i c ethos m o t i v a t e d by d i v i n e l o v e .  True t o h e r r o l e as t h e g l o r y of man,  i n i t i a t e s t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h God which i s man's hope.  contemplative strengths  expect-  t o be b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l and M i l t o n i c , h i s Eve  a c t u a l l y most c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e s  Eve  t o embody M i l t o n ' s  Whereas Adam'  degenerate i n t o s u i c i d a l i n e p t i t u d e , Eve's  b r i l l i a n c e c a t a l y s e s C h r i s t - l i k e heroism.  Already  the Son, Eve d i s t i n g u i s h e s h e r s e l f as a h e r o i n e .  intuitive  i n t h e i r confessions to W h i l e Adam, c l a i m i n g t h e  t y r a n t ' s p l e a o f " s t r i c t n e c e s s i t y " (X, 131), blames Eve f o r t h e f a l l and i m p l i e s God's s i m i l a r blameworthiness (11. 125-143), Eve admits guilt  humbly and a c c u r a t e l y :  "The Serpent me b e g u i l ' d  personal  and I d i d e a t "  (1.162)  At t h i s p o i n t , Adam s e c u r e s h i s n i h i l i s t i c c o u r s e b u t Eve, t h e h e r o i n e , b e g i n s t h e r e d e m p t i v e movement upwards. bility  Thus, a c c e p t i n g  f o r her a c t i o n s , Eve c o u n t e r s a m i s o g y n i s t i c  m a g n i f i c e n c e of p e r s i s t e n t l o v e .  the moral  responsi-  Adam w i t h a l l t h e  Evoking t h e s a c r i f i c i a l c o n t r i t i o n of  Mary Magdalene a t t h e f e e t of J e s u s , Eve's attempt a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n c a l l s f o r t h t h e r e d e m p t i v e p r o c e s s ( 1 1 . 910-913). r e f l e c t s t h e image of heroism r e p r e s e n t e d  And h e r subsequent language  by t h e Son.  .. . On me e x e r c i s e n o t Thy  h a t r e d ,for t h i s m i s e r y b e f a l l ' n ,  On me a l r e a d y  l o s t , mee than t h y s e l f  More m i s e r a b l e ; Against And  b o t h have s i n n ' d , but thou  God o n l y , I a g a i n s t  God and t h e e ,  t o t h e p l a c e of judgment w i l l  return,  There w i t h m y . c r i e s importune Heaven, t h a t a l l The  sentence from t h y head remov'd may  light  102 On me, s o l e cause t o thee of a l l t h i s woe, Mee mee o n l y j u s t  o b j e c t of h i s i r e . (X, 927-936)  Eve's usage o f "mee" here echoes t h e s a c r i f i c i a l mee then, mee f o r him, l i f e  of t h e Son: "Behold  f o r l i f e / I o f f e r , on mee l e t t h i n e anger f a l l ; /  Account mee man" ( I I I , 236-238).  Even as t h e Son meekly lowers h i m s e l f i n  the I n c a r n a t i o n , Eve chooses t o accept d i t i o n t o t h e i r union  stance  subordination  and t o man's f u t u r e .  t o Adam a s t h e p r e c o n -  I t i s o n l y "her l o w l y  plight,/  Immovable" (X, 937-938) which b r i n g s about t h e m i r a c l e of c o n t r i t i o n i n Adam. Eve  i n s i s t s t h a t Adam i s her " o n l y s t r e n g t h and s t a y " (X, 921), but her,,  apparent weakness, supported  by an i n n e r s t r e n g t h , i s m a g n i f i c e n t l y  to  Eve i s t h e m o r a l enchantress  Adam's comic i n e p t i t u d e .  f u l l r u i n , whose p a t i e n t heroism a g a i n in  her l a s t  speech, Eve expresses  This last Michael, expresses Paradise  whose f o l l y  led to  " s h a l l a l l r e s t o r e " ( X I I , 623). And  t h e essence o f what ought t o be every man's  response t o h i s Maker—not proposing t r u t h but i n t e r n a l i z i n g  superior  t h e p r i n c i p l e of submission  as a g e n e r a l  i t s importance.  speech, d e l i v e r e d upon waking from t h e s l e e p imposed by  should be c o n t r a s t e d t o her c o n d i t i o n p r i o r t o s l e e p when Eve t h e deepest d i s t r e s s upon l e a r n i n g t h a t she and Adam must  leave  f o r t h e unknown t e r r i t o r y beyond Eden: 0 unexpected s t r o k e , worse than of Death! Must I thus l e a v e thee P a r a d i s e ?  thus  -  leave  Thee N a t i v e S o i l , t h e s e happy Walks and Shades, Fit  haunt of Gods?  . ... (PL, X I , 268-271)  In a d d r e s s i n g she a t t a c h e s  her home a s " P a r a d i s e , " Eve u n d e r l i n e s t h e supreme importance t o the p h y s i c a l surroundings  domestic b l i s s . familiar  which were t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r  The i d e a t h a t she must l e a r n t o d i s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f from t h e  " n u p t i a l Bower" ( 1 . 280), and "wander down/ I n t o a lower World,  103 t o t h i s o b s c u r e / And w i l d "  (11. 282-284), appears worse than t h e one  consequence of t h e F a l l — m o r t a l i t y i t s e l f . very reason f o r the necessary e x i l e :  I r o n i c a l l y , Eve has v o i c e d t h e  Paradise  i s indeed t h e " F i t haunt of  Gods," and f a l l e n gods must seek out t h e i r f u t u r e beyond t h e i r former The  development from Eve's immediate d e s p a i r  to the execution  state.  of her c l o s i n g  lines i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between M i l t o n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y heroic ethos and the'movement from a p h y s i c a l Eden t o "A P a r a d i s e far"  within'...  happier  (XII, 587). There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Eve a t t h i s p o i n t can u n d e r s t a n d and t h e r e -  f o r e c o n s c i o u s l y a c c e p t t h e coming e x i l e . fiercer  long  t o " p a t i e n t l y r e s i g n / What j u s t l y thou hast  lost"  ( 1 1 . 287-288).  tone of M i c h a e l ' s words here p a r a l l e l s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n he l a t e r  Adam:  t o the  q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him, M i c h a e l e x h o r t s Eve t o l e a v e o f f  lamentation, The  I n a m i l d manner, c o n t r a r y  gives  "Nor l o v e t h y L i f e , nor h a t e ; but what thou l i v ' s t / L i v e w e l l , how or s h o r t permit t o Heav'n" ( X I , 553-554).  continuing  opportunity  The F a l l g i v e s man t h e  t o e x e r c i s e t h e t r u e h e r o i c p a t i e n c e whereby t h e  consequences of h i s own a c t i o n s and t h o s e beyond h i s c o n t r o l a r e a c c e p t e d and endured.  A l a m e n t i n g Eve must l e a r n t h a t her " N a t i v e  be found  i n a p a r t i c u l a r p l o t of land b u t , r e g a r d l e s s  S o i l " i s no l o n g e r t o of p a r t i c u l a r s i n  time and space, a t her husband's s i d e . It  i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e poet who so h i g h l y p r i z e s man's c a p a c i t y f o r  r e a s o n should  c r e a t e f o r t h e ending of h i s e p i c a f i n a l  r e a s o n has been e f f e c t i v e l y by-passed.  speech where man's  Eve o b t a i n s wisdom by  supernatural  means, by dreams sent by God; t h e poet d r a m a t i z e s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s whereby knowledge p e n e t r a t e s inactive.  Eve's s u b c o n s c i o u s w h i l e her c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a r e  M i c h a e l c a u s e s Eve's s l e e p f o r t h e p e r i o d  waken t o f o r e s i g h t ( X I , 367-369), l a t e r sleep: her  explaining  i n which Adam i s t o  t h e purpose of Eve's  "Her a l s o I w i t h g e n t l e Dreams have calm'd/ P o r t e n d i n g good, and a l l  s p i r i t s compos'd/ To meek s u b m i s s i o n " ( X I I , 595-597).  These  "gentle  104 Dreams" r e f l e c t b o t h the c h a r a c t e r of the d i v i n e agent and, more their  source  of a c o m f o r t i n g  knowledge of the coming g r e a t e r good.  dreams sent  to a l l e v i a t e Eve's d i s t r e s s and  appropriate  submission  confined  important,  t o God  and man.  to e n a b l e her t o enact  I t would be  simpler  t h e importance of dreams t o the female sex.  Eve,  They a r e the  i f Milton  had  the l e s s e r i n t e l -  l e c t , would thus r e c e i v e wisdom through d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , Adam only by use  of h i s r e a s o n .  " f a c i l e Consort"  But M i l t o n ' s Eve  (PR,  I , 51)  r e l a t i o n to dreams i s not woman was Grace.  not  i s not  Satan c a l l s her.  And  as  the  the mystery of Eve's  c l a r i f i e d by a r e c i t a t i o n of the M i l t o n i c i d e a t h a t  formed f o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n ,  Amplifying  t o be e a s i l y d i s m i s s e d  the  b u t . f o r s o f t n e s s and  sweet  attractive  the above d i s t i n c t i o n between the sexes i s t h e p o e t ' s  account of Eve r e t i r i n g upon Raphael's v i s i t s w i t h Adam: Yet went she n o t , as not w i t h such d i s c o u r s e D e l i g h t e d , or not Of what was  high:  Adam r e l a t i n g , Her  capable  her  ear  such p l e a s u r e  she  she  reserv'd,  sole Auditress;  Husband t h e R e l a t e r she p r e f e r r ' d  Before  the Angel,  Chose r a t h e r :  and  hee,  of him  to  ask  she knew, would  G r a t e f u l d i g r e s s i o n s , and  solve high  With conjugal Caresses,  from h i s L i p  Not Words a l o n e p l e a s ' d  her.  intermix dispute  ( V I I I , 48-57) W h i l e Eve  i s not  expressly created f o r contemplation,  her d e l i g h t i n and  basic capacity for i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse.  u n d e r s c o r e s Eve's g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e conjugal r e l a t i o n s h i p . to i n f e r i o r  t h i s does not  intellects  The  i n r a t i o n a l content  Rather, M i l t o n  found w i t h i n  f a c t t h a t dreams a r e thus not  negate  the  t o be seen as  i s , perhaps, c l e a r e r i n Adam's c a s e .  aids  Adam, i n h i s  account of c r e a t i o n t o Raphael, m i n g l e s linages of d r e a m - v i s i o n  w i t h waking  105 reality.  Whereas Eve f i r s t  e x p e r i e n c e s God as a v o i c e  i n t r u d i n g upon her  waking c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e r a t i o n a l Adam, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n i t i a l l y God  a s a dream.  Oppressed by. s l e e p , t h i n k i n g he i s " p a s s i n g  experiences  t o [his] former  s t a t e / I n s e n s i b l e " ( V I I I , 290-291), Adam's s u b c o n s c i o u s encounters an "inward apparition directed  ... of shape D i v i n e "  to greater  ( 1 1 . 293-295), and h i s " f a n c y "  awareness of h i s own i d e n t i t y and environment.  upon Eve's c r e a t i o n , s l e e p a l l o w s of  ( 1 . 294) i s Again,  Adam t o p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y by t h e open door  imagination: My e a r t h l y by h i s Heav'nly overpower'd .... By N a t u r e a s i n a i d  ....  Mine eyes he c l o s ' d , but op'n l e f t Of  the C e l l  Fancy my i n t e r n a l s i g h t , by which  Abstract  as i n a t r a n c e methought I saw,  Though s l e e p i n g where I l a y , and saw t h e shape Still  g l o r i o u s b e f o r e whom awake I stood .... ( V I I I , 453, 459-464)  Upon l e a r n i n g t h a t t h e p a i r must l e a v e P a r a d i s e , whereby he l o s e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r t h e p e r i o d Michael's responding exhortation  Adam undergoes a shock  of Eve's l a m e n t a t i o n  ( X I , 263-267, 293-294).  and  T h i s movement p a r a l -  l e l s Eve's s l e e p , but w i t h t h e i r o n i c d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t w h i l e Eve's l o s s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s due t o d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , Adam's i s t h e n a t u r a l r e s p o n s e to trauma.  Speaking of Eve's s l e e p , M i c h a e l compares i t t o Adam's d u r i n g  Eve's c r e a t i o n ( X I , 367-369).  Thus,' i t i s e v i d e n t  i n s p i r e d dreams emerge as waking r e a l i t y .  that, for Milton, divinely  As Adam r e c o u n t s ,  found/ B e f o r e mine Eyes a l l r e a l , as the'dream/ Had l i v e l y 309-311).  shadow'd" ( V I I I ,  The c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t of M i l t o n ' s m a r r i a g e of dream imagery and  waking, h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y Lost.  " I wak'd, and  i s celebrated  in this final  speech i n P a r a d i s e  The e l e v a t i o n of Eve's l i n e s echoes t h e p r a i s e Adam o f f e r s t h e b o t h  " i n f e r i o r " ( V I I I , 541) and m y s t e r i o u s l y  s u p e r i o r woman:  106 . . . A l l h i g h e r knowledge i n her presence  falls  Degraded, Wisdom i n d i s c o u r s e w i t h her Loses d i s c o u n t ' n a n c ' t , and l i k e f o l l y  shows;  A u t h o r i t y and Reason on her w a i t , As one  i n t e n d e d f i r s t , not a f t e r made  Occasionally  .... ( V I I I , 551-556)  The movement from Eve's s u b c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e - of d i v i n e i n t e r f e r e n c e to c o n s c i o u s r e s p o n s e i n her f i n a l  speech p a r a l l e l s the c o l l e c t i v e human p r o g r e s -  s i o n "From shadowy Types t o T r u t h " ( X I I , 303). In Eve's f o u r t e e n - l i n e speech, s u g g e s t i n g the sonnet  form and i t s  t r a d i t i o n a l usage as a l o v e poem, M i l t o n b o t h a l l u d e s t o and t r a n s c e n d s form and c o n t e n t . Whence thou r e t u r n ' s t , and w h i t h e r went'st, I know; For God  i s a l s o i n s l e e p , and Dreams a d v i s e ,  Which he h a t h sent p r o p i t i o u s ,  some g r e a t good  P r e s a g i n g , s i n c e w i t h sorrow and h e a r t ' s d i s t r e s s Wearied In mee  I f e l l asleep,:  but now  lead  on;  i s no d e l a y ; w i t h thee t o go,  I s t o s t a y here; w i t h o u t thee here t o s t a y , Is.to. go hence u n w i l l i n g ; thou to  mee  A r t a l l t h i n g s under Heav'n, a l l p l a c e s thou, Who  f o r my  w i l f u l crime a r t b a n i s h t hence.  T h i s f u r t h e r c o n s o l a t i o n yet s e c u r e I c a r r y hence;  though a l l by mee  is lost,  Such f a v o r I unworthy am  voutsaf't,  By mee  shall a l l restore.  the Promis'd  Seed  ( X I I , 610-623)  107 The  poet c r e a t e s h e r e a unity- of i d e a s by t h e r i c h i n t e r n a l rhyme, t h e  s y n t a c t i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s , and t h e r e p e t i t i o n of phrases, echo c e n t r a l passages o c c u r r i n g e a r l i e r  i n t h e poem.  some of which  T h i s sonnet  expresses  the s p e a k e r ' s l o v e f o r another i n d i v i d u a l , but as t h e l i n e s cannot be divided  i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l q u a t r a i n s o r o c t a v e and s e s t e t , t h e f i r s t  full  stop o c c u r r i n g o n l y a t l i n e , t e n , so Eve's l o v e f o r Adam i s fused w i t h her love of God—she being writes: her  created  " I t i s as d i f f i c u l t  from Adam.  " f o r God i n him" ( I V , 299). As Lee M. Johnson  t o d i v i d e Eve's sonnet a s i t i s now t o d i v i d e  The m u s i c a l i t y of her u t t e r a n c e may be, i n f a c t ,  Milton's  44  way o f i n d i c a t i n g t h a t she i s now i n harmony w i t h In t h e f i r s t  heaven."  f o u r and one h a l f l i n e s , Eve i n d i c a t e s she knows where  Adam has been and t h a t he has apprehended r e v e l a t i o n s o f d i v i n e The  s i m i l a r endings i n "Whence," " r e t u r n ' s t , " and "went'st"  encourages t h e d e v e l o p i n g  ( 1 . 610)  concept o f a t r a n s c e n d e n c e of t h e c o n f i n e s o f  time and space by t h e proper What i s important  grace.  r e l a t i o n t o t h e Maker i n whom a l l i s one.  i s n o t Eve's absence from Adam and i g n o r a n c e  of t h e "some  g r e a t good," but her oneness w i t h Adam through t h e wisdom a c q u i r e d r e c e n t dream.  The l a t e c a e s u r a  by a s e m i - c o l o n  before the l a s t  i n the.M  f o o t , " I know," f o l l o w e d  ( 1 . 610), s t r e s s e s Eve's a s s e r t i o n t h a t though a s l e e p ,  she has n o t m i s s e d t h e essence of what Adam has l e a r n e d .  In l i n e s  611-613,  Eve  i n s t r u c t s Adam on t h e importance of s l e e p and dreams, s a y i n g t h a t God  has  sent h e r knowledge'of t h e g r e a t f u t u r e good.  "Presaging"  ( 1 . 613) emphasizes t h e p r o p h e t i c r e l e v a n c e o f Eve's  r e c e n t dreams.  The a l l i t e r a t i o n of "p" and " g " f u r t h e r o r c h e s t r a t e s  Eve's.sense of an overwhelming u n i t y for  Adam.  The pause a f t e r  Her phrase  between P r o v i d e n c e  "For God i s a l s o i n s l e e p "  and her l o v e  ( 1 . 611).expresses  f u l l a s s u r a n c e i n d i v i n e c h a r i t y a c t i n g f o r t h e good of man.  And Eve*s  a m p l i f i c a t i o n t h a t p r o p h e t i c dreams came t o h e r i n answer t o d i s t r e s s  108  (11. 613-614) i n d i c a t e s God's r o l e as c o m f o r t e r .  Eve's c o n s c i o u s  response  to  wisdom r e c e i v e d i n an i n a c t i v e s t a t e u n d e r s c o r e s t h e a c t i v e b e n e f i c e n c e  of  God  celebrated in this  The m i d d l e after  line  619  speech.  s e c t i o n b e g i n n i n g l i n e 614 comprises  e x p r e s s e s t h e essence  and  ending at the f u l l  t h e c e n t r a l theme of the speech.  of what the human response  t o God  r a t h e r than v o i c e g e n e r a l t r u t h s , a humble Eve f u l l y stating his  o n l y what her response  r o l e as head  is.  a m p l i f i e s her new  awareness of what r e m a i n i n g i n  In c o n t r a s t t o e a r l i e r d i s t r e s s , Eve  s u r r o u n d i n g s i s now  paradise i s inner.  t h e i r u n i o n beyond Eden.  between r e m a i n i n g  endearment t o  r e a d i n e s s t o embark on a j o u r n e y where the  remain w i t h o u t Adam i s t o l e a v e u n w i l l i n g l y  in  what was  now  To l e a v e w i t h Adam i s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t o remain;  e n l i g h t e n e d Eve, whatever was  i n and  by  The rhyme of a n t i t h e s i s of  e x h i b i t s a t r a n s f o r m e d p e r c e p t i o n of d o m e s t i c i t y : familiar  her l o v e f o r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Adam's,  thus c o n s c i o u s l y s t r e s s i n g t h e i r bond of l o v e .  l e a v i n g P a r a d i s e means.  truth,  w i t h " t h e e , " d i v i d e d and j o i n e d  s e m i - c o l o n s , d i s t i n g u i s h e s between her own  and  internalizes  She b e g i n s by commanding Adam t o a s s e r t  The rhyme of "mee"  " s t a y " (11. 615)  Eve  ought t o be b u t ,  (1. 614), then c e l e b r a t e s through language  Adam (11. 615-619).  " d e l a y " and  Here  stop  (11. 615-617).  i n t e g r a l to l i f e  For the r e g e n e r a t e ,  i n P a r a d i s e i s t o be  In the M i l t o n i c f a s h i o n , t h e  to  found  boundaries  l e a v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e a r e confused as t h e  t r a n s q e n d e n t meaning of the p l a c e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l meaning. As Eve r e p e a t s " h e r e , " t h e word no l o n g e r r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e  historical  P a r a d i s e , but t o the i n n e r p a r a d i s e w h i c h r e c a l l s a l l the d e l i g h t s of t h e e a r l i e r P a r a d i s e now  about  w o r l d more than d e a t h , now  t o be d e s t r o y e d .  Eve, who  escapes the l i m i t a t i o n s of  f e a r e d t h e unknown space.  109 In l i n e s 617 and 618, Eve r e s t a t e s h e r . l o v e f o r Adam. a t i o n of s e l f strengthens Heaven.  The s u b o r d i n -  i n t h e phrase "thou t o me" t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e anaphora i n " a l l "  t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Adam h i m s e l f  The f u l l  of "mee" o c c u r s  effect  under  of Eve's speech i s to.be seen i n how t h e r e p e t i t i o n  throughout P a r a d i s e L o s t .  beguile,expresses  embodies a l l she v a l u e s  S a t a n i c r h e t o r i c , employed t o  sheer e g o c e n t r i c i t y : ... l o o k on mee  Mee who have touch'd and t a s t e d , y e t b o t h And  l i f e more p e r f e c t have a t t a i n ' d than  Meant mee, by v e n t ' r i n g h i g h e r  live, Fate  than my L o t .  (IX, 687-690) In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n , Adam b e g i n s mee, mee o n l y , as t h e source l i g h t s due" (X, 832-833).  t o admit h i s sense of m o r a l g u i l t :  and s p r i n g / Of a l l c o r r u p t i o n , a l l t h e blame  But h i s c o n v e r s i o n  i s f a r from complete s i n c e he  s t i l l a d d r e s s e s Eve as " S e r p e n t " (X, 867), and i t i s o n l y a f t e r  Eve's  c o n s i s t e n t attempt a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h a t he r e g a i n s calm and hope. already discussed for  I have  t h e p a r a l l e l between Eve's w i l l i n g n e s s t o s a c r i f i c e h e r s e l f  Adam's sake (X, .927-936)  238).  "On  Eve's r h e t o r i c a l  and t h e h e r o i c h u m i l i t y o f t h e Son ( I I I , 236-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e Son expresses  s t a t u r e as a m o r a l e n c h a n t r e s s :  the reader  her h e r o i c  has seen her t r a n s f i x t h e magnif-  i c e n t l y c l a s s i c a l Satan i n t o a s t a t e b e r e f t of s t r e n g t h , " S t u p i d l y good" (IX, 465); she " s e d u c e s " a d e s p a i r i n g , m i s o g y n i s t i c , and s u i c i d a l Adam i n t o the m i r a c l e of r e g e n e r a t i o n ;  and i n t h e f i n a l  speech Eve c o n s o l i d a t e s her  s t a n c e a s t h e weaker v e s s e l e x h i b i t i n g g r e a t e r s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h .  Eve  expresses  domesti-  an i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of prophecy i n h e r transformed  c i t y , and thus f u l f i l l s t h e t r u e ^ p a t i e n c e t o which M i c h a e l  had exhorted h e r .  L i n e s 620-623 p o r t r a y t h e new Eve as a s t r o n g , determined l i t e r a l l y c a r r y i n g t h e seed o f t h e promise w i t h i n h e r .  individual  The r e p e t i t i o n of  "hence" (11. 619, 621) conveys t h e l e s s e n i n g importance o f a p h y s i c a l P a r a d i s e  110 i n view of t h e g l o r i o u s f u t u r e . the  f u l l j o y that  humility.  she should  The "mee" i n l i n e s 621 and 623 expresses  be t h e Mother of Mankind, a j o y born out of  The a n t i t h e s i s of " l o s t " and " r e s t o r e " (11. 621,623) emphasizes  the depths of t h e F a l l and t h e g r e a t n e s s of Grace:  she who was t h e cause  of human d e p r i v a t i o n becomes t h e means of s a l v a t i o n . on  The emphasis i s n o t  t h e w o r t h i n e s s of Mary, t h e second Eve, but on t h e s i n g u l a r w o r t h i n e s s  of t h i s f i r s t her  and now r e g e n e r a t e Eve.  In these l a s t  four  t r a n s c e n d e n c e of p l a c e w i t h t h e t r a n s c e n d e n c e of t i m e .  of t h e whole of human h i s t o r y i s compressed t o f i l l of h i s t o r y g i v e s Eve j o y i n t h e immediate present dence of t h e bondage t o time and' space. relevant  l i n e s Eve matches The s i g n i f i c a n c e  an i n s t a n t ; t h e essence  and a i d s i n her t r a n s c e n -  A g a i n , t h e p a r t i c u l a r s a r e not as  a s t h e u n i v e r s a l s ; t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i n d i c a t e t h e u n i v e r s a l o f human  movement "From shadowy Types t o T r u t h . " C e n t r a l t o Eve's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e scheme of d i v i n e redemption i s her.passivity.  From t h e Homeric p e r s p e c t i v e where t h e e p i c hero i s t h e  i n d i v i d u a l whose e x t r a o r d i n a r y  prowess, u s u a l l y expressed  i n v i o l e n t deeds,  i s rewarded w i t h fame, Eve must be t h e " f a c i l e C o n s o r t " Satan deems h e r . She  f r e e l y s u b j e c t s h e r s e l f t o Adam's l e a d e r s h i p ;  over t h e body which i s t o p r o v i d e  she e x e r c i s e s no c o n t r o l  C h r i s t ' s ancestry;  she o b t a i n s  knowledge ;  t h r o u g h dreams, t h e n e x p r e s s e s i n t u i t i v e l y what Adam apprehends d i s c u r s i v e l y But  i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s u n o b t r u s i v e n e s s of Eve which s u i t s her t o M i l t o n ' s  un-Homeric, e p i c c a u s e .  Again rendering  ambiguous t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s o f male  s u p e r i o r i t y and female i n f e r i o r i t y , Eve's i n t u i t i v e b r i l l i a n c e i n t h e f i n a l speech compares w i t h Raphael's d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t u i t i v e a n g e l i c r e a s o n and  d i s c u r s i v e human r e a s o n where he suggests t h a t  the reward f o r obedience (V, 485-595). too,  Paradoxically,  t h e "weaker" woman e x h i b i t s not o n l y  i n t u i t i v e reason associated " i n f e r i o r " status  i n t u i t i v e r e a s o n may be i f not i r o n i c a l l y ,  s u p e r i o r m o r a l s t r e n g t h , b u t an  r a t h e r w i t h t h e a n g e l i c than t h e human.  i s appropriate  to Milton's revolutionary heroic  Eve's  ethos "Of  Ill P a t i e n c e and H e r o i c Martyrdom [ h i t h e r t o ] Unsung" (IX, 32-3) where "weakness s h a l l o'ercome S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h " (PR, I , 161). It  i s thus  i n t r i g u i n g t h a t s e v e r a l eminent c r i t i c s would r e g a r d t h e  c h a r a c t e r Eve as an example of M i l t o n i c misogyny, c o n s c i o u s  or o t h e r w i s e .  In  view o f t h e overwhelming c o n s i s t e n c y i n E v e ' s . p o r t r a i t as t h e g l o r i o u s quint-. essence of c r e a t i o n , t h e s e  i d e a s of misogyny a r e as v a l i d  as t h e bad Hebrew  whereby an a s p i r a t e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the name "Heva" i s i n t e r p r e t e d as female 4 5  serpent.  Eve's s u b m i s s i o n  t o b o t h Adam and d i v i n e purposes  proves her s p i r i t u a l heroism.  I n her f i n a l speech, Eve f u l f i l l s h e r a p p e l l a -  t i o n as "Heav'n's l a s t b e s t g i f t " exalted  undeniably  (V, 19), r e a l i z i n g  t h e concept  s e r v a n t where he who would be g r e a t must f i r s t  be s e r v a n t  s u b j e c t i o n t o Adam, t h e h e r o i n e f u l f i l l s t h e paradox o f t h e f i r s t the l a s t  first.  of t h e of a l l . being  In  last,  Eve's h e r o i c c h a r i t y becomes t h e shadow of Heaven; h e r l o v e  sonnet crowns t h e f i n a l optimism i n t h e e p i c . Thus, r e g e n e r a t e man marks t h e c l i m a c t i c f u l f i l l m e n t heroism.  Reunited,  conscious  o f t h e h o r r o r s o f m o r t a l i t y , Adam and Eve  a f f i r m t h e i n d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y o f t h e human s p i r i t Eve's b r i l l i a n t another in  proclamation  The E d e n i c  p a i r , regenerate,  Now t h e poet  and " s e l f - r e l i a n t "  dramatizes  the harsh j u s t i c e of  descending ... as Ev'ning  Mist  R i s ' n from a R i v e r o ' e r t h e m a r i s h g l i d e s , And  After  sense of t h e word, i s a b l e t o b e g i n t h e p i l g r i m a g e of m o r a l  c h o i c e i n an a f f l i c t e d w o r l d . t h e cherubim  i n harmony w i t h God.  o f f a i t h i n God and man ( X I I , 610-623), not  word need be spoken..  the very best  of theocentric  g a t h e r [ i n g ] ground f a s t a t t h e L a b o r e r ' s  Homeward r e t u r n i n g . (XII,  629-632)  And The b r a n d i s h t Sword o f God ... b l a z [ing]  heel  112 F i e r c e as a Comet; which w i t h t o r r i d And  vapor  heat,  as t h e L i b y a n A i r adust,  Began t o p a r c h t h a t temperate  Clime  . . . .  (11. 633-636) evokes no l e s s t e r r o r .  The l o g i c a l i t y  w e l l lead one t o c o n c l u d e w i t h T i l l y a r d  of t h i s d e a t h - i n - l i f e e x p e r i e n c e may t h a t M i l t o n ends P a r a d i s e L o s t i n 46  unconscious  pessimism  over t h e f a l l e n human c o n d i t i o n .  After a l l ,  i s not  t h i s a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p e s s i m i s t i c n o t i o n t h a t t h e f a l l e n w o r l d w i l l n o t improve; remote?  and i s n o t t h e imagined  However, t h e "pessimism"  new o r d e r , a t b e s t ,  here i s o n l y t o o c o n s c i o u s .  Milton enter-  t a i n s no d e l u s i o n s over t h e p l a u s i b l e g e n i a l i t y of a degenerate w o r l d . it  i s w h o l l y erroneous t o r e g a r d t h i s f i n a l v i s i o n as p e s s i m i s t i c ,  or o t h e r w i s e .  But  conscious  Moreover, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e d e s p a i r c o m p a t i b l e w i t h  the t r a d i t i o n a l contemptus mundi, M i l t o n a s s e r t s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y optimism. The f a m i l i a r  grief  etched  i n t o t h e f e a t u r e s of Adam and Eve i n M a s a c c i o ' s  E x p u l s i o n from Eden ( c . 1425) i s d e v o i d of t h e hope p o r t r a y e d by M i l t o n . I n s t e a d , M i l t o n ' s h e r o i c p a i r e x p r e s s e s b r i e f sorrow—"Some n a t u r a l t e a r s they dropp'd,  but wip'd them soon"  ( X I I , 6 4 5 ) — a n a t u r a l sorrow which i s o n l y  an i n t e r l u d e b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g of a g l o r i o u s  future:  The World was a l l b e f o r e them, where t o choose T h i r p l a c e o f r e s t , and P r o v i d e n c e t h i r  guide:  They hand i n hand w i t h wand'ring s t e p s and slow, Through Eden took t h i r s o l i t a r y way. ( X I I , 646-649) J u x t a p o s i n g t h e d e s p a i r of Satan's way" i s t h e advent  solitary flight  from h e l l , man's  "solitary  of hope where Adam and Eve, " s o r r o w i n g , y e t i n peace"  ( X I , 117), have a r r i v e d a t "Holy R e s t " ( V I , 272). J u s t a s t h e c r e a t e d e a r t h becomes t h e f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e ,  s u b j e c t t o h e r Maker, so Adam and Eve,  t o g e t h e r , r e e s t a b l i s h harmony i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r  submission t o  113 b o t h God and each o t h e r . been channeled  47  T h e i r e n e r g e t i c quest  f o r self-improvement  has  i n t o t h e s e l f - l e s s c h o i c e f o r God, and, t h u s , they have i n  some sense begun t o r e a l i z e Raphael's e a r l i e r may advance beyond h i s appointed  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t o b e d i e n t man  p l a c e i n t h e c h a i n of b e i n g  (V, 491-503).  As e a r t h i s "but t h e shadow o f Heav'n" (V, 575) , so human p r o g r e s s i s t h e emergence "From shadowy Types t o T r u t h , from F l e s h t o S p i r i t " The  f r e e c r e a t i o n of God i s a t t a i n i n g  a new name: quest, ric  this  s o n s h i p and t h e r i g h t  i s t h e h e r o i c achievement.  (XII,'303).  t o be c a l l e d by  And t h i s end of t h e human  "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n ... h a p p i e r f a r " ( 1 . 587), c o i n c i d e s w i t h  heroism:  theocent-  t h e new p a r a d i s e i s i n f i n i t e l y more v a l u a b l e than t h e n a t u r a l  one because redeemed man, t h e f u l f i l l m e n t bestow on h i s C r e a t o r t h e g i f t  of God's d e s i r e s , has t h e power t o  o f an i n n e r w o r l d , and t h e number of such  48 worlds  is infinite.  optimistic,  T h i s f i n a l v i s i o n o f Adam and Eve, c o n s c i o u s l y  i s , a p a r t from t h e image of t h e Son, t h e c l e a r e s t human  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e h e r o i c song.  114 CONCLUSION In c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study, I should l i k e t o c o n s i d e r S i r Walter Raleigh's v e r d i c t imposing  on P a r a d i s e L o s t  ( t o say n o t h i n g  monument t o dead i d e a s . W h i l e  t h e l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n may p r o t e s t  t h a t t h e r e i s v a l u e i n s t u d y i n g such "an imposing for  irrelevant  lies Is  ideas i s c l e a r l y  limited.  i n i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y , and a n y t h i n g  Raleigh's v e r d i c t  monument," a p p r e c i a t i o n  Always, t h e t e s t of g r e a t  literature  i n f e r i o r meets t h e f a t e of o b s c u r i t y .  on M i l t o n then a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e ?  heroic tenets of the twentieth-century to  of i t s sequel) a s "'an  Indeed, t h e a n t i -  i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e do c o n t r i b u t e  t h e r e a d i n g of M i l t o n ' s two works a s m a g n i f i c e n t memorials, m a g n i f i c e n t  but commemorating o n l y t h e o b s o l e t e .  Modern man has exchanged t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n world-view of human s i g n i f i c a n c e i n an ordered cosmos f o r one  of e x i s t e n t i a l i s t d e s p a i r :  i n t h e P l a t o n i c sense,  a u n i v e r s a l , an a b s o l u t e standard the p a r t i c u l a r — m a n a b l y then,  of good, r e s u l t s  i s alone i n a meaningless,  i n t h e l o s s of meaning of  absurd u n i v e r s e .  Understand-  s k e p t i c i s m , i f n o t i n d i f f e r e n c e , i s one t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  to  an o l d e r h e r o i c sentiment.  to  the question Raleigh's v e r d i c t r a i s e s .  cal  t h e modern l o s s of  But I suggest  that t h i s i s not the best  response  I n f a c t , t h r e e c e n t u r i e s of c r i t i -  a p p r e c i a t i o n have h a r d l y g i v e n up M i l t o n t o o b s c u r i t y .  have suggested  response  Moreover, as I  i n t h i s s t u d y , ' M i l t o n ' s c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e s a c r e d n e s s  of t h e  human s p i r i t a f f i r m s a hope i n t h e i d e a l which, even i n t h i s c e n t u r y , i s nothing  l e s s than a l i v i n g u n i v e r s a l .  the epic s p i r i t  isa vital  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Western t h o u g h t — n o t  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n a continuum f i r s t t h e human s p i r i t  John M i l t o n ' s u n i q u e d e l i n e a t i o n of so much a  i n s p i r e d by Homer a s an achievement of  s e t a p a r t from t h a t w h i c h comes b e f o r e and a f t e r .  v i e w d i s t i n c t i v e from and t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t e n e t s of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  His i sa  the anti-heroic  When M i l t o n c a l l s upon t h e heavenly  muse  whom he i s " F o l l o w i n g , above t h ' Olympian H i l l .... Above t h e f l i g h t of Pegasean wing" (PL, V I I , 3 - 4 ) , he a s s e r t s f a i t h i n a dream of t h e i d e a l  115 s u r p a s s i n g the v i s i o n of the Olympian muses. f a i l not thou And  ... For thou a r t Heav'nly,  shee an empty dream" (11.  the poet's i n s p i r a t i o n does not f a i l :  ... though  few"  the u n l i m i t e d  Thus, t h e h e r o i c  God.  he c r e a t e s f o r h i s " f i t  "So 38-39). audience  (1. 31) a l e g a c y of the i m a g i n a t i o n , a l e g a c y of f a i t h i n  p o t e n t i a l of man  anthem e x t o l l i n g  He a d d r e s s e s U r a n i a ;  song  to manifest s p i r i t u a l greatness.  i n P a r a d i s e L o s t and P a r a d i s e Regained  the i n c o r r u p t i b i l i t y  of the human s p i r i t  is a  living  i n harmony w i t h  The t e n s i o n between s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h P u r i t a n i s m and  R e n a i s s a n c e humanism has been t r a n s c e n d e d i n a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e o c e n t r i c heroism.  The drama i n t h e s e two works i s c r a d l e d  i n the h e r o i c ethos where  t r u e a c t i o n i s m o r a l a c t i o n , where h e r o i c achievement frail  man's s u b m i s s i o n to h i s Maker.  The f u t i l i t y  i s t h e m i r a c l e of  of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  is  e v i d e n t i n Satan; " s t r e n g t h from T r u t h d i v i d e d " (PL, V I , 381)  It  i s rather  t h a t man  i n the Son's " H u m i l i a t i o n and  C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s argues, man  i s vain.  s t r o n g S u f f e r a n c e " (PR,  f i n d s the key t o the f i n a l cosmic v i c t o r y of l i f e  heroism  I,  160)  over d e a t h .  As  must f u l f i l l "the law of s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n i n  2 love."  Or as N o r t h r o p F r y e s a y s , The f r e e i n t e l l i g e n c e must d e t a c h i t s e l f unite i t s e l f is  God  t o t h e t o t a l i t y of freedom  i n man,  shift  t h e p r e s e n c e of God  and  w i t h n a t u r e i t appeared  to r e j e c t :  Then i t w i l l f i n d t h e  t h e i n d i v i d u a l who  may  to identity  i t w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the 3  world he made and found good.  And M i l t o n does not i n t e n d t o j u s t i f y the ways of God R a t h e r , he o f f e r s t h e burden  and  i n t e l l i g e n c e which  i t s c e n t r e of g r a v i t y from the s e l f i n the s e l f .  C r e a t o r ' s view of :a  from t h i s world  t o mankind  of m o r a l c h o i c e t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  collectively. I t i s only  s t r i v e t o r e a l i z e t h e s p i r i t u a l i t y which i s a t once  "more humane, more h e a v e n l y " (PR,  I , 221).  4 F i n a l l y , the hero of P a r a d i s e L o s t and P a r a d i s e Regained From the s t a r t , t h e r e a d e r has been engaged i n the d i f f i c u l t  i s the reader. p r o c e s s of m o r a l  116 choice presented c l a s s i c a l heroism heroism  by S a t a n i c s t r e n g t h , and, upon s e e i n g t h e f u t i l i t y of i n a m o r a l u n i v e r s e , encounters  i n t h e Son's weakness.  t h e image o f g e n u i n e  W i t h t h e convergence of t h e s e m o r a l  options  upon Adam and Eve, he p a r t i c i p a t e s f u l l y i n t h e h e r o i c q u e s t i o n posed t o man.  I t i s n o t enough f o r him t o express  Sehnsucht f o r E d e n i c  o r i g i n s ; the  hero must be a b l e t o t r a n s f o r m  Romantic l o n g i n g i n t o a c o n s c l d u s  the dream o f s p i r i t u a l  i s indeed a human p o t e n t i a l .  liberty  hope t h a t  And t h e r e a d e r  h i m s e l f thus p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y optimism whereby man's d e s t i n y i s d e f i n e d as a s p i r i t u a l Eden, "A p a r a d i s e w i t h i n  \  ... h a p p i e r  f a r " ( X I I , 587).  117 NOTES Abstract John M i l t o n , John M i l t o n : Complete Poems and Major P r o s e , ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes, ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : Odyssey P r e s s , 1957). A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to. M i l t o n a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n . Chapter  One  *See C.S. Lewis, A P r e f a c e to " P a r a d i s e L o s t , " (London: Oxford P r e s s , 1942; r p t . 1974) .  Univ.  2 Press, 3  See A.J.A. Waldock, " P a r a d i s e L o s t " and 1947)  Its Critics,  (Cambridge:  Univ.  S i r Walter R a l e i g h , as quoted by G. R o s t r e v o r H a m i l t o n , Hero or Fool? A Study of M i l t o n ' s Satan, (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, L t d . , 1944), p. 7. Hill:  ^John M. Steadman, M i l t o n ' s E p i c C h a r a c t e r s : Image and Univ. of N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1968), p. 235. ''steadman, M i l t o n ' s E p i c C h a r a c t e r s , pp.  Idol,  (Chapel  236-240.  ^A.S.P. Woodhouse, The Heavenly Muse: A P r e f a c e t o M i l t o n , ed. Hugh MacCallum, ( T o r o n t o : Univ. of Toronto P r e s s , 1972), p. 213. ^Woodhouse, p.  121.  S t a n l e y Eugene F i s h , S u r p r i s e d by S i n : The Reader i n " P a r a d i s e ( B e r k l e y : U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971), pp. 162-168.  Lost,"  9  .-Waldoc.k,. "Satan and the/Technique of D e g r a d a t i o n , " M i l t o n : A C o l l e c t i o n of. C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , ed. L o u i s L. M a r t z , (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J..: P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1966), p. 95. ." "^Steadman, M i l t o n ' s E p i c C h a r a c t e r s , pp. **Steadman,.Milton and 1967), pp. xv, 1. 1 2  Fish,  p.  281-294.  the R e n a i s s a n c e Hero, ( O x f o r d :  Clarendon  Press,  193.  13 Poetry,  Jon S. Lawry, The Shadow of Heaven: Matter and Stance i n M i l t o n ' s ( I t h a c a , New York: C o r n e l l Univ. P r e s s , 1968), pp. 125,133.  *^M.M. Mahood, P o e t r y and p. 187. : " v  15  Humanism, (London: Jonathon Cape, 1950),  .. . Lewis,, p. 97 . ;  ^Hamilton,  Q 7  p. 40.  ~ •  "^Northrop F r y e , The Return, of Eden: F i v e Essays ( T o r o n t o : Univ. Toronto P r e s s , 1965), pp. 22-23. 18  ' D..C. A l l e n , The Harmonious V i s i o n : ( B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1954), p.  on M i l t o n ' s E p i c s ,  S t u d i e s i n M i l t o n ' s Poetr.y., 111.  118  A l l e n , The Harmonious V i s i o n ,  1 9  pp. 111-112.  20 F r y e , The Return of Eden, p. 21. J o h n M i l t o n , as quoted by F r y e , The Return of Eden, p. 21.  2 1  L a w r y , p. 23 2 2  2 4  M i l t o n , A r e o p a g i t i c a , p.  728.  M i l t o n , A r e o p a g i t i c a , p.  728.  Chapter 1  127.  Two  F r y e , The Return of Eden, pp. 23-24. .  2 C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M i l t o n ' s Poems," M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m S e l e c t i o n s from Four C e n t u r i e s , ed. James Thorpe, (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, I n c . , 1966), p. 262. 3 W i l l i a m s , p. 258. 4  W i l l i a m s , p.  260.  ^Hughes, "The C h r i s t of P a r a d i s e Regained and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e H e r o i c T r a d i t i o n , " SP, 35 (1938), 276. ^E.M.W. T i l l y a r d , The E n g l i s h E p i c and Oxford U n i v . P r e s s , 1966), p. 447.  i t s Background,  (New  York:  W.W. Robson, "The B e t t e r F o r t i t u d e , " The L i v i n g M i l t o n , . e d . Frank Kermode, (London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1960), p. 135. 7  8 9  Steadman, M i l t o n and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e Hero, p. x v i . See Mahood, p.  10  230.  H u g h e s , "The C h r i s t of P a r a d i s e Regained," 255,  ^Hlahood,  p.  257.  235.  12 See J a n de Bruyn's d i s c u s s i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n between d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e and t h e i n n e r n e s s of t e m p t a t i o n i n t h e u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , " I n n e r n e s s i n P a r a d i s e Regained: A Comment on S t r u c t u r e as an I n d i c a t o r of t h e Dramatic E v o l u t i o n of Temptation." 13 See de Bruyn, p. 4. ^de  Bruyn, p.  6.  1 5  F r y e , The R e t u r n of Eden, p. 23.  1 6  F r y e , "The T y p o l o g y of Paradise, Regained," MP,  53 (1956), 236.  119  "^Lawry, p. 343. ^ L a w r y , p. 343 . 19 Lawry, p. 345. 20 F r y e , The Return of Eden, p. 143,  Chapter Three ^John Dryden, a s quoted by Mahood, p. 207. , 2 Cf. Cf.  3  Steadman, M i l t o n and t h e R e n a i s s a n c e Hero, p. x v i . Mahood, pp. 209-210.  4 Mahood, p. 195.  -  Jacques M a r i t a i n , a s quoted by Mahood, p. 12. ^Jacques M a r i t a i n , a s quoted by Mahood, pp. 18-19. 7  Mahood, p. 2 03.  8 Mahood, p. 205. 9 Mahood, p. 211. 1 0  '  .  W i l l i a m H a l l e r , " ' H a i l Wedded Love,'" ELH, 13 (1946), 97.  D a v i s P h i l o o n H a r d i n g , The Club of H e r c u l e s : S t u d i e s i n t h e C l a s s i c a l Background of " P a r a d i s e L o s t , " (Urbana: U n i v . of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1962), pp. 78-81. 1 1  12  M a h o o d , p. 182.  13 H a r d i n g ^ p. 71. 14 M i l t o n , A r e o p a g i t i c a , p. 728. *^Mahood, p. 221. <^See Hughes, ed. , John M i l t o n , p. 177n. ^Mahood, pp. 221-222. 18 C M . Bowra, From V i r g i l t o M i l t o n , (London: M a c M i l l a n & Co., L t d . , 1945), p. 208. 19 it T i l l y a r d , "Paradise Lost: C o n s c i o u s and Unconscious Meanings, M i l t o n C r i t i c i s m , ed. Thorpe, p. 187. 2 0  See.  J.H. Summers, "The F i n a l V i s i o n , " i n M i l t o n , ed. M a r t z , p. 186.  120 21  Summers, p.  186.  22 Dudley R. H u t c h e r s o n , " M i l t o n ' s Eve and Other Eves," of M i s s i s s i p p i S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , 1 (1960), 12. 23 ' H u t c h e r s o n , 12-13.  University  24 Hutcherson, 2 5  Fish,  pp.  2 6  Fish,  p.  13-14.  92-93. 92.  Roy C. Flannagan, "Eve," A M i l t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a , 3, U n i v . P r e s s e s I n c . , 1978), 83. 2  ^Flannagan,  (London:  Assoc.  83.  29 Dr. Johnson, as quoted by Flannagan,  84.  J a m e s H o l l y H a n f o r d , as quoted by Dorothy D. M i l l e r , (1962), 542. 3 0  61  "Eve," JEGP,  31 B a s i l W i l l e y , The Seventeenth Century Background: S t u d i e s i n the Thought of t h e Age i n R e l a t i o n t o P o e t r y and R e l i g i o n , (London: Chatto & Windus, 1953), p. 263. 32 H a r d i n g , pp. 73-75. 3 3  Allen,  >  " M i l t o n ' s Eve and the Evening A n g e l s , " MLN,  " ^ H a r d i n g , p.  75  (1960), 108-109,  75.  35 3  F r y e , The R e t u r n of Eden, p. ^Mahood, p. 223.  77.  A r n o l d S t e i n , The A r t of P r e s e n c e : The Poet and (Berkeley: U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977), p. 98.  "Paradise Lost,"  38 S t e i n , p. 3 9  Stein,  pp.  98. 98-99.  ^°John S. D i e k h o f f , "Eve, t h e D e v i l , and A r e o p a g i t i c a , " MLQ,  5 (1944),  434. ^ S t e a d m a n , "Eve's Dream and t h e Conventions of W i t c h c r a f t , " JHI, 26 (1965), 567. Steadman, "Eve's Dream," 573. See F r y e , The R e t u r n of Eden, pp. 77-78.  121 44  Lee M. Johnson, 5 (1973), 144. 45  Allen,  " M i l t o n ' s B l a n k V e r s e Sonnets," M i l t o n  " M i l t o n and t h e Name of Eve,"  74  Studies,  (1959), 681-683.  46 See T i l l y a r d , "Conscious and Unconscious Meanings," M i l t o n ed. Thorpe, pp. 206-210. 47 C f . Mahood, p. 202. 48 See Mahood, pp. 304-305.  Criticism,  Conclusion S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h , a s quoted by James H o l l y H a n f o r d , " M i l t o n and Return t o Humanism-"Milton C r i t i c i s m , ed.Thorpe, p. 160. 1  2 Williams,  p.  '  256.  3  F r y e , The R e t u r n of Eden, p. 4  Cf.  Fish,  pp. 206-207.  31.  the  122 Bibliography A l l e n , D.C. The Harmonious V i s i o n : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1954.  MLN,  Studies i n Milton's Poetry, Baltimore:  . 75  " M i l t o n ' s Eve and t h e Evening A n g e l s . " (1960), 108-109.  .  " M i l t o n and the Name of Eve."  _fl_,  74  (1959), 681-683.  B a r k e r , A r t h u r E. M i l t o n and the P u r i t a n Dilemma., 1641-1660. 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