Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of air-photo scale on early detection of Mountain Pine Beetle infestation Hobbs, Alison Jane 1983

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1983_A6_7 H62.pdf [ 8.45MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095675.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095675-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095675-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095675-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095675-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095675-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095675-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095675-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095675.ris

Full Text

EFFECTS OF AIR-PHOTO SCALE ON EARLY DETECTION OF MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION by ALISON JANE HOBBS B.Sc. (hons.)» The University of London, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia July 1983 ® Alison Jane Hobbs In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i ABSTRACT C o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , a t s c a l e s o f 1:1000, 1:2000, 1:3000 and 1:4000, were o b t a i n e d o f a l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . ) s t a n d w h i c h was u n d e r g o i n g an a c t i v e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e ( D e n d r o c t o n u s p o n d e r o s a e H o p k i n s ) i n f e s t a t i o n . V i s u a l and d e n s i t o m e t r i c p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were a p p l i e d t o t h e s e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s t o d e t e r m i n e i f symptoms o f i n c i p i e n t m o r t a l i t y c o u l d be d e t e c t e d f r o m g r e e n -f o l i a g e d t r e e s f o l l o w i n g a t t a c k by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t s c a l e s 1:1000, 1:2000, 1:3000, and 1:4000 f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . V i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t r e e s i n t o damage t y p e s . S u b s e q u e n t g r o u n d - c h e c k i n g a l l o w e d a d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f a c c u r a c y o f damage t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t e a c h s c a l e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1 5 % f e w e r t r e e s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as h e a l t h y a t 1:4000 t h a n a t 1:1000. S e p a r a t i o n o f h e a l t h y f r o m a t t a c k e d t r e e s was a c h i e v e d w i t h an o v e r a l l a c c u r -a c y o f 8 9 % a t 1:1000, 8 3 % a t 1:2000, 9 1 % a t 1:3000, and 8 3 % a t 1:4000. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s a t 1:4000, h o w e v e r , was c o n s i d e r a b l y s l o w e r t h a n a t t h e l a r g e r s c a l e s . T o t a l g r e e n ( T G ) , t o t a l r e d (TR) and t o t a l i n f r a r e d ( T I R ) f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s o f t h e images of n e w l y - i n f e s t e d t r e e s d i f f e r e d f r o m m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e h e a l t h y t r e e s . A t 1:1000, images o f n e w l y - s t r e s s e d t r e e s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (p < .05) TIR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o TG and TR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s , when compared w i t h n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . S i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were measured f o r t h e TG and TR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s , f o r r e c e n t l y - a t t a c k e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e , a t 1:2000, 1:3000 and 1:4000, w h i c h s u g g e s t s some change i n t h e g r e e n - r e d p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c t r u m . V i s u a l l y t h e f o l i a g e of t h e r e c e n t l y - a t t a c k e d t r e e s was g r e e n . D e n s i t o m e t r i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c d a t a i s a f f e c t e d by s c a l e change. T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d e g r e e of f i l m r e s p o n s e f o r t h e 1:4000 p h o t o g r a p h s when compared t o o t h e r s c a l e s . T h i s would s u g g e s t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e f i l m d y e - l a y e r s t o r e f l e c t e d l i g h t , w i t h d e c r e a s e i n s c a l e . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t v i s u a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f 70 mm c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s would p r o v i d e t h e f o r e s t manager w i t h a v a l u a b l e management t o o l f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k e d t i m b e r compared t o o t h e r methods, s u c h as a e r i a l s k e t c h - m a p p i n g , which g e n e r a l l y r e l y upon f o l i a g e c o l o u r change f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f dead l o d g e p o l e p i n e . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L I S T OF TABLES v L I S T OF FIGURES AND PLATES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE SURVEY 2 2.1 The b i o l o g y and e c o l o g y o f t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e 2 2.2 Management s t r a t e g i e s 9 2.3 The r o l e of remote s e n s i n g i n d e t e c t i o n and damage a p p r a i s a l 13 2.4 E a r l y d e t e c t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n s t r e s s 15 2.5 C o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m r e s p o n s e t o s p e c t r a l c h a n g e . . 23 2.6 Study o b j e c t i v e s 23 3. THE STUDY AREA 26 3.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a 26 3.2 S e l e c t i o n of t h e s t u d y a r e a 27 4. METHODS 30 4.1 M a r k i n g t h e s t u d y a r e a 30 4.2 A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y 30 IV 4.3 P h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 31 4.4 D e n s i t o m e t r y 33 4.5 F i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n 38 4.5.1 L a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f t r e e c o r e s 41 4.6 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of f i e l d d a t a 42 4.6.1 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f f i l m r e s p o n s e and s c a l e e f f e c t s 43 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 44 5.1 B i o l o g i c a l d a t a 44 5.2 Q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o s 47 5.2.1 C o m p a r i s o n of 1981 w i t h 1982 p h o t o g r a p h s . . . 54 5.3 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of f i l m r e s p o n s e d a t a 60 6. CONCLUSIONS 85 7. LITERATURE CITED 89 APPENDIX I H i s t o g r a m s of s i x f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s i n e a c h of f i v e damage c l a s s e s 95 APPENDIX I I H i s t o g r a m s of s i x f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s i n ea c h o f f i v e a t t a c k c l a s s e s 126 L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I Number and a r e a of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a -t i o n s by p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n b a s e d on r e c e n t l y k i l l e d t r e e s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g a e r i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1982 8 I I S t r u c t u r e of p i n e n e e d l e s ( P i n u s p o n d e r o s a Laws.) b e f o r e and 10 months a f t e r m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k 20 I I I Damage t y p e s u s e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e t r e e c o n d i t i o n s as s e e n on l a r g e s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s 32 IV R e s u l t s of ANOVA f o r f i e l d d a t a of t r e e p o p u l a -t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a t t a c k s t a t u s 45 V R e s u l t s of ANOVA f o r f i e l d d a t a of t r e e p o p u l a -t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o damage c l a s s 46 VI Number of l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t r e s s e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n t s , as t h e y o c c u r by damage t y p e i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y s t u d y s i t e , Kamloops, B.C., 1981 49 V I I A c c u r a c y of p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h e a l t h y and s t e s s e d t r e e s a t each of t h e 4 s c a l e s u s i n g t h e o r i g i n a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s o f a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , Kamloops, B.C., 1981 53 v i V I I I A c c u r a c y of p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of n o n - a t t a c k e d and a t t a c k e d t r e e s a t e a c h o f t h e 4 s c a l e s u s i n g t h e o r i g i n a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n -c i e s o f a l o d g p e o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , Kamloops, B.C., 1981 55 IX A c o m p a r i s o n of 1981 damage-type c o l o u r s w i t h t h e 1982 damage-type c o l o u r s as t h e y a p p e a r on c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s of a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 56 X ANOVA r e s u l t s of f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r each damage c l a s s as i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m CIR t r a n s p a r e n -c i e s of a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 62 XI ANOVA r e s u l t s of f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r each a t t a c k c a t e g o r y 69 X I I ANOVA r e s u l t s showing e f f e c t s of s c a l e change on f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r each damage c l a s s i n t e r -p r e t e d f r om CIR p h o t o g r a p h s of l o d g e p o l e p i n e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 76 X I I I ANOVA r e s u l t s showing e f f e c t s of s c a l e change on t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r each a t t a c k c a t e -g o r y of l o d g e p o l e p i n e " g r o u n d - c h e c k e d " i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 77 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES AND PLATES F i g u r e Page 1. The l i f e c y c l e of t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t 5 2. A r e a s of r e c e n t t i m b e r l o s s c a u s e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n B.C 7 3. Numbers of t r e e s a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 10 4. The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s p e c t r u m 17 5. G e n e r a l i z e d r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e s f o r h e a l t h y g r e e n p i n e n e e d l e s s u p e r i m p o s e d on w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e s f o r damaged n e e d l e s 18 6. R e s p o n s e of c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m t o r e f l e c t a n c e c h a n g e s i n c o n i f e r o u s f o l i a g e 24 7. T o p o g r a p h i c map of t h e T r a n q u i l l i e R i v e r a r e a w i t h m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t u d y s i t e marked 28 8. S p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r i c t r a n s m i t t a n c e c u r v e s of t h e b l u e (Wr. 9 4 ) , g r e e n (Wr. 93) and r e d (Wr. 92) g e l a t i n f i l t e r s 35 9. S p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e c u r v e s f o r Kodak Aerochrome I n f r a r e d 2443 f i l m u s i n g a W r a t t e n 12 f i l t e r and a CC20 magenta c o l o u r c o m p e n s a t i n g f i l t e r 36 v i i i 10. C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of damage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v s . m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k s t a t u s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r each of f o u r s c a l e s of c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y s t u d y s i t e , 1981 50 11. F i l m r e s p o n s e d e v i a t i o n h i s t o g r a m s of s t r e s s e d v s . h e a l t h y l o d g e p o l e p i n e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 63 12. F i l m r e s p o n s e d e v i a t i o n h i s t o g r a m s of s t r e s s e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e v s . l o d g e p o l e p i n e n o n - a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 70 13. E f f e c t of s c a l e on t o t a l r e s p o n s e of c o l o u r - i n f r a -r e d f i l m , by d a m a g e - c l a s s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 78 14. E f f e c t of s c a l e on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s , by damage c l a s s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 79 15. E f f e c t of s c a l e on t o t a l r e s p o n s e of c o l o u r - i n f r a -r e d f i l m t o l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n an a r e a i n f e s t e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 80 16. E f f e c t of s c a l e on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n an a r e a i n f e s t e d w i t h m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 81 IX P l a t e s 1 A m o s a i c of 1:4,000 CIR c o n t a c t p r i n t s of t h e MPB s t u d y s i t e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981 39 2 & 3 CIR s t e r e o p a i r s (1:2,000) of l o d g e p o l e p i n e n ewly-i n f e s t e d w i t h m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n 1981 compared w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s of t h e same t r e e s i n 1981 52 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I g r a t e f u l l y a c k nowledge t h e g u i d a n c e , s u p p o r t and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m p r o v i d e d t o me by my t h e s i s c ommittee: Dr. P.A. M u r t h a , Dr. J.A. McLean and Mr. P. G i m b a r z e v s k y . I t h a n k N e d e n i a Holm f o r a s s i s t a n c e and c o m p a n i o n s h i p i n t h e f i e l d . I a l s o t h ank members of t h e F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n B r a n c h , M i n . o f F o r e s t s , Kamloops, f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and l o a n of equ i p m e n t . 1 1. INTRODUCTION The m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e (MPB), D e n d r o c t o n u s p o n d e r o s a e , H o p k i n s , i s a c h r o n i c p e s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t s . I t i n f e s t s l o d g e p o l e p i n e , P i n u s c o n t o r t a v a r . l a t i f o l i a Englemann, and p o n d e r o s a p i n e , P i n u s p o n d e r o s a , Lawson. The L a t i n name D e n d r o c t o n u s means " t r e e k i l l e r " , an a p p r o -p r i a t e name f o r a b e e t l e t h a t i s t h e most s e r i o u s i n s e c t p e s t o f m a t u r e p i n e s i n W e s t e r n Canada. I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t 40,000 c u b i c m e t r e s o f t i m b e r a y e a r were k i l l e d by t h e b e e t l e i n B.C., o v e r a 20 y e a r p e r i o d e n d i n g i n 1974 ( S a f r a n y i k e_t a l . 1974). The 1981 b e e t l e a t t a c k r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s o f 15.7 m i l l i o n c u b i c m e t r e s of t i m b e r i n more t h a n 5,000 s e p a r a t e l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B.C. In t h e N e l s o n and C a r i b o o f o r e s t r e g i o n s t h e a r e a w i t h r e c e n t k i l l amounts t o 1 1/2 t o 3 1/2 t i m e s t h e a r e a o f a n n u a l h a r v e s t (van S i c k l e 1982). In e c o n o m i c terms t h e l o s s r e p r e s e n t s a p o s s i b l e $450 m i l l i o n (Manning 1982). More t h a n v a l u a b l e t i m b e r i s l o s t . M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n a l s o c a u s e s a r e d u c t i o n i n a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , e s p e c -i a l l y i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s ; r e d u c t i o n o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t ; a change i n h e i g h t and d i a m e t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e f o r e s t , and an i n c r e a s e d f i r e h a z a r d . V a r i o u s management g u i d e l i n e s aimed a t r e d u c i n g l o s s e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m MPB i n f e s t a t i o n e x i s t . However, b e f o r e t h e s e c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y i m p l e m e n t e d , e a r l y d e t e c t i o n of i n f e s t a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s s t u d y e v a l u a t e d t h e use o f l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e e a r l y d e t e c t i o n of MPB i n f e s t a t i o n s . 2 2. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 The b i o l o g y and e c o l o g y o f t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e As a r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s much i s now known a b o u t t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e and i t s e p i d e m i o l o g y i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . In g e n e r a l t h e b e e t l e c o m p l e t e s one g e n e r a t i o n p e r y e a r ( F u r n i s s and C a r o l i n 1977). The b e e t l e s mature i n J u l y and c o m p l e t e m a t u r a t i o n by f e e d i n g w i t h i n t h e b a r k of t h e h o s t t r e e p r i o r t o emergence. D u r i n g t h e f e e d i n g p r o c e s s , t h e a d u l t b e e t l e s c o l l e c t f u n g a l s p o r e s i n t h e mycangium, a s t r u c t u r e on t h e head. The a d u l t b e e t l e s w i l l o n l y merge and f l y f r o m t h e h o s t t r e e a f t e r s e v e r a l days o f t e m p e r a t u r e s e x c e e d i n g 15°C. Maximum f l i g h t a c t i v i t y o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e warm p a r t of t h e day, between 11:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (Amman 1982). Emergence of a d u l t b e e t l e s may e x t e n d o v e r a month o r so, b u t g e n e r a l l y 80% o f t h e b e e t l e s emerge w i t h i n a 1-2 week p e r i o d . Thus, l a r g e numbers of a d u l t b e e t l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e t o i n f l i c t e x t e n s i v e damage on m a t u r e , v i g o r o u s l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i s endemic i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y an e p i p h y t o t i c o u t b r e a k w i l l o c c u r , w h i c h r a d i a t e s o u t f r o m s m a l l g r o u p s of i n f e s t e d t r e e s . I n f e s t a t i o n s o c c u r w i t h a f r e q u e n c y o f 20 t o 40 y e a r s , d e p e n d i n g on how r a p i d l y t h e f o r e s t s t a n d p r e s e n t s c o n d i t i o n s which f a v o u r an i n c r e a s e i n b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n s , i . e . l a r g e d i a m e t e r t r e e s ( g r e a t e r t h a n 20.0 cm) a v e r a g i n g 80 y e a r s of age and h a v i n g t h i c k phloem u n d e r s u i t a b l e e l e v a t i o n a l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s 3 (Roe and Amman 1970; Amman and B a k e r 1972; S a f r a n y i k e t a l . 1 9 7 4). I n i t i a l l y t h e a d u l t s a r e o r i e n t e d t o l a r g e d i a m e t e r t r e e s on d e t e c t i o n o f h o s t v o l a t i l e s , however t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o be by v i s i o n (Amman 1982). Once t h e f e m a l e s t a r t s b o r i n g i n t o t h e b a r k o f a t r e e , she e m i t s an a g g r e g a t i o n pheromone which a t t r a c t s o t h e r b e e t l e s t o t h e t r e e . When maximum d e n s i t y o f a t t a c k i n g b e e t l e s f o r t h a t t r e e i s a c h i e v e d an a n t i - a g g r e g a t i o n pheromone i s r e l e a s e d , t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g o v e r c r o w d i n g . N e i g h b o u r i n g t r e e s t h e n become i n f e s t e d . The b e e t l e s e n t e r t h e t r e e t o f e e d and b r e e d . An i n f e s t e d t r e e i s e v i d e n t due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o r i n g d u s t i n c r a c k s a r o u n d t h e t r e e and a t t h e base and p i t c h t u b e s which mark t h e p o i n t s where b e e t l e s e n t e r e d t h e t r e e . Once t h e y have p e n e t r a t e d t h e o u t e r b a r k , egg g a l l e r i e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d v e r t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e p h l o e m - c a m b i a l l a y e r . The b e e t l e s c a r r y w i t h them two b l u e s t a i n f u n g i , C e r a t o c y s t i s m o n t i a (Rumbold) Hunt, and E u r o p h i u m c l a v i g e r u m R o b i n s o n and D a v i d s o n , which p e n e t r a t e t h e r a y c e l l s and s p r e a d r a d i a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e stem o f t h e t r e e w h i c h c a u s e s o c c l u s i o n of t h e p h l o e m and xylem, t h a t r e s u l t s i n w a t e r and n u t r i e n t s t r e s s , and e v e n t u a l t r e e m o r t a l i t y ( S h r i m p t o n 1 978). F o l i a g e w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y b e g i n t o f a d e i n t h e l a t e summer-early f a l l . G e n e r a l l y , t r e e s show no v i s i b l e change u n t i l t h e new growth p e r i o d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e t r e e i s a b l e t o r e s i s t a t t a c k by " p i t c h i n g o u t " a d u l t b e e t l e s b e f o r e any 4 damage i s c a u s e d t o t h e t r e e . T h i s r e s p o n s e i s b r o u g h t about by r e s i n o s i s of t h e i n n e r b a r k , which s e r v e s as a d e f e n s e mechanism of t h e t r e e ( S h r i m p t o n 1 9 78). The a d u l t f e m a l e s l a y t h e i r eggs i n n i c h e s , i n g r o u p s a l t e r n a t i n g a l o n g t h e s i d e s of t h e g a l l e r y . The eggs h a t c h i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one week and l a r v a e b e g i n f e e d i n g on t h e phloem. The l a r v a e become dormant i n l a t e October/November and b e g i n f e e d i n g a g a i n i n A p r i l , t h u s c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r m a t u r a t i o n a t t h e end o f June t o m i d - J u l y . F i g u r e 1 shows the l i f e c y c l e of t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e s y s t e m . T h e r e i s some c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e a s o n s why m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e e p i p h y t o t i c s o c c u r . I t has been p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e d i a m e t e r t r e e s a r e k i l l e d f i r s t i n a new i n f e s t a t i o n ( H o p p i n g and B e a l l 1948; C o l e and Amman 1969). From t h i s i t may be deduced t h a t i n f a c t t h e most v i g o r o u s t r e e s a r e t h e most s u s c e p t i b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . However, i t has been shown t h a t o u t b r e a k s o c c u r i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y weakened s t a n d s (Mahoney 1978). Mahoney d e v e l o p e d an e q u a t i o n by w h i c h a s t a n d c o u l d be r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o r e s i s t a n c e / s u s c e p t -i b i l i t y t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n . The measure o f c u r r e n t v i g o u r of t h e s t a n d i s t h e P e r i o d i c Growth R a t i o (PGR), w h i c h i s c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e c u r r e n t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t by t h e p a s t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t of dominant and c o - d o m i n a n t l o d g e p o l e p i n e . A v a l u e o f more t h a n 1.0 i n d i c a t e s a s t a n d r e s i s t a n t t o s u c c e s s f u l m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k , w h i l e a PGR o f l e s s t h a n 6 0.9 i n d i c a t e s a d e c l i n e i n v i g o u r and t h e r e f o r e g r e a t e r s u s c e p t -i b i l i t y t o a t t a c k . B e r r y m a n (1976) showed t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n of b e e t l e b r o o d f r o m i n f e s t e d t r e e s i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o phloem t h i c k -n e s s . W h i l e R e i d et^ a J . (1967) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p beween b r o o d p r o d u c t i o n and r e s i n o s i s o r h o s t r e s i s t a n c e t o a t t a c k . But phloem t h i c k n e s s and r e s i n o s i s a r e b o t h d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s t a n d v i g o u r . Berryman (1982) e x p l a i n -ed t h i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x by l o o k i n g a t t h e dynamics of phloem growth and r e s i s t a n t r e s i n o s i s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s . S t a n d v i g o u r b e g i n s t o d e c l i n e a t canopy c l o s u r e , when phloem i s s t i l l t h i c k . Phloem t h i c k n e s s d e c r e a s e s more s l o w l y and a c r i t i c a l t h r e s h o l d may be r e a c h e d when r e s i s t a n c e i s low but phloem i s s t i l l t h i c k enough t o s u p p o r t an i n f e s t a t i o n . Once t h e l a r g e d i a m e t e r , t h i c k - p h l o e m t r e e s a r e k i l l e d , f o o d becomes t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r and t h e b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l t h e n c o l l a p s e . At t h i s p o i n t r e m a i n i n g t r e e s , h a v i n g been f r e e d f r o m c o m p e t i t i o n , i n c r e a s e i n v i g o u r . The above d e s c r i p t i o n of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e - l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n t e r a c t i o n i m p l i e s some l o n g t e r m e q u i l i b r i u m . However, i n t h e s h o r t term, i n f e s t a t i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a s s i v e monetary l o s s e s due t o l o s s o f volume f r o m t h e a n n u a l a l l o w a b l e c u t (A.A.C.) of l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n B.C. In B.C. t h e g r e a t e s t t i m b e r l o s s e s due t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e have been i n t h e s o u t h - c e n t r a l and s o u t h - e a s t I n t e r i o r ( F i g . 2 ) . The e x t e n t o f t i m b e r l o s s e s i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I 7 FIGURE 2: A r e a s of r e c e n t t i m b e r l o s s c a u s e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n B.C. ( A f t e r Wood and van S i c k l e , 1 9 8 3 ) . TABLE I: Number and a r e a of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n s by p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n b a s e d on r e c e n t l y k i l l e d t r e e s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g a e r i a l s u r v e y s and l i m i t e d g r o u n d o b s e r v a t i o n s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1982. ( A f t e r : Wood and van S i c k l e , 1 983). No. o f T r e e s A t t a c k e d i n 1981 No. o f Mean % T r e e s R e g i o n i n f e s t -a t i o n s A r e a (ha) Number8" 3 Volume (m ) s t a n d s c r u i s e d H C R G P C a r i b o o 1,750 222,000 50,000,000 13,600,000 13 57 16 18 8 1 Kamloops 350 22,000 900,000 257,000 -N e l s o n 2,600 38,000 4,300,000 1,590,000 6 57 6 27 7 3 P r i n c e G e o r g e 100 1,500 16,000 3,200 -P r i n c e R u p e r t 600 6,500 300,000 230,000 6 36 35 20 8 1 V a n c o u v e r 8 500 3,000 800 -TOTAL 5,408 290,500 55,519,000 15,681,000 28 50 19 22 8 1 a T r e e s a t t a c k e d i n 1981, d i s c o l o u r e d i n 1982 b H = H e a l t h y C = C u r r e n t , a t t a c k e d i n 1982 R = Red, a t t a c k e d i n 1981 G = G r e y , a t t a c k e d p r i o r t o 1981 P = P a r t i a l a t t a c k ( s t r i p a t t a c k ) 00 9 and p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3. I t i s t h e r e f o r e a p p a r e n t t h a t prompt m i t i g a t i v e measures a g a i n s t MPB must be t a k e n by t h e f o r e s t manager. 2.2 Management s t r a t e g i e s T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s which may be employed by t h e f o r e s t manager i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t bark b e e t l e e p i p h y t o t i c s f r o m o c c u r r i n g o r t o s u p p r e s s them once t h e y o c c u r . S i n c e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a p p e a r t o be c o n d u c i v e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n s have been r e c o g n i z e d , i . e . l a r g e d i a m e t e r t r e e s , o f more t h a n 80 y e a r s o f age, i t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s be managed s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y t o m a i n t a i n c o n d i t i o n s u n f a v o u r a b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e e p i d e m i c s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g s t a n d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e -f o r e be f o c u s s e d on management o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s and n o t m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . S a f r a n y i k e_t a l . (1974) a d v o c a t e d p l a n n e d h a r v e s t i n g of t h e e n t i r e s t a n d when i t r e a c h e s 80 t o 100 y e a r s o f age. They s t a t e d t h a t h a r v e s t i n g s h o u l d not be d e l a y e d beyond t h e age when c u r r e n t and mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f a s t a n d a r e e q u a l . T h e r e i s some danger i n managing a s t a n d by r e d u c i n g d i a m e t e r a l o n e , i n t h a t i t may a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t a n d g e n e t i c s and p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s may be a v o i d e d by r e d u c i n g c o m p e t i t i v e s t r e s s by t h e p r a c t i c e o f s t o c k i n g and s p a c i n g c o n t r o l and by t h e e n c o u r a g e -ment of s t a n d d i v e r s i t y . The a d v a n t a g e of t h i s t y p e of manage-ment i s t h a t a mixed s t a n d w i l l be b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r w i l d l i f e FIGURE 3: Numbers of t r e e s a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( A f t e r : Wood and van S i c k l e , 1 9 8 3 ) . YEAR 11 h a b i t a t , r e c r e a t i o n and w a t e r s h e d management. Such p r a c t i c e s c a n o n l y be c a r r i e d o u t i n i n t e n s i v e l y managed f o r e s t s and m i l l i o n s o f h e c t a r e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s r e m a i n s u s c e p t i b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e e p i p h y t o t i c s . Methods by w h i c h i n c i p i e n t m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e e p i p h y t o -t i c s may be s u p p r e s s e d i n c l u d e t h e u s e of c h e m i c a l s ( S a f r a n y i k e t a l . 1974). I n s e c t i c i d e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y e t h y l e n e d i b r o m i d e and l i n d a n e , have been a p p l i e d t o t h e b a r k of i n f e s t e d t r e e s . However, c h e m i c a l c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s o n l y as a h o l d i n g s t r a t e g y i n l i m i t e d a r e a s , by p r e v e n t i n g b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m i n c r e a s -i n g . O t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e as f o l l o w s : t h e use of t h e s e i n s e c t i c i d e s i s e x p e n s i v e as t h e y must be a p p l i e d t o i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s ; t h e i n s e c t i c i d e s a r e h a z a r d o u s t o human h e a l t h and t o o t h e r forms of l i f e , and by n e c e s s i t y s h o u l d be h a n d l e d w i t h g r e a t c a r e by t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l ( S a f r a n y i k e t a l . 1974). Whitney e_t a]^. ( 1 9 7 8 ) , e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damage c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d a t an a c c e p t i b l y low l e v e l i f prompt, t h o r o u g h , d i r e c t c o n t r o l a c t i o n i s t a k e n w h i l e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n s a r e n e a r o r below a c r i t i c a l t h r e s h o l d l e v e l . They r e v i e w some of t h e a p p r o a c h e s t o d i r e c t c o n t r o l . More r e c e n t l y , a t t r a c t a n t c h e m i c a l s ( a g g r e g a t i o n pheromones p r o d u c e d by t h e b e e t l e s t h e m s e l v e s ) have been u s e d t o a t t r a c t b e e t l e s t o t r a p s , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g them f r o m a t t a c k i n g l a r g e h o s t t r e e s . P i t m a n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i s o l a t e d t h e pheromone, t r a n s - v e r b e n o l , f r o m m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s . L a t e r t h e y f o u n d i t t o be a s t r o n g a g g r e g a t i v e pheromone when us e d t o g e t h e r w i t h 12 a l p h a - p i n e n e o r myrcene, w h i c h a r e h o s t t r e e t e r p e n e s , ( P i t m a n e t a l . 1 9 7 8 ) . R e c e n t work by B o r d e n ejt a l . (1983) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r e e s b a i t e d w i t h t r a n s - v e r b e n o l , e x o b r e v i c o m i n , and t h e m onoterpene 3 - c a r e n e s u s t a i n e d h i g h d e n s i t i e s of a t t a c k by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . Myrcene was f o u n d t o be a s y n e r g i s t f o r t r a n s - v e r b e n o l , and a l p h a - p i n e n e was i n f e r i o r , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t has been f o u n d however, t h a t m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , a l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d t o b a i t e d , s m a l l d i a m e t e r t r e e s , change t h e i r a t t a c k t o n e a r b y t r e e s o f l a r g e d i a m e t e r and t h i c k p h loem (Rasmussen 1972). F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e pheromones c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y be u s e d t o r e d u c e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e . D yer (1978) f o u n d t h a t a pheromone u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h an i n s e c t i c i d e , i n t u r n f o l l o w e d by an a r b o r i c i d e , s u c c e s s f u l l y r e d u c e d t h e s p r e a d of an i n f e s t a t i o n t o one s i x t h o f n o r m a l s p r e a d . In t h e c a s e of an o u t b r e a k s i t u a t i o n , s a n i t a t i o n s a l v a g e l o g g i n g i s s u g g e s t e d . Timber i s removed f r o m the i n f e s t a t i o n p e r i m e t e r a n d / o r t h e i n f e s t a t i o n s i t e , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f o o d s o u r c e f o r t h e b e e t l e s , w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l c a u s e a d e c l i n e i n b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n numbers ( S a f r a n y i k e t a l . 1974). S a n i t a t i o n s a l v a g e l o g g i n g w i l l r e d u c e t h e r a t e s p r e a d o f an i n f e s t a t i o n and i f c a r r i e d o u t p r i o r t o emergence of t h e next g e n e r a t i o n o f b e e t l e s may c a u s e a c o l l a p s e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( W h i t n e y e t a l . 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t any b a r k o r w aste f r o m i n f e s t e d l o g s be d e s t r o y e d p r i o r t o t h e f l i g h t of t h e new b r o o d . 13 F u n g a l s t a i n i n g o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e sapwood r a p i d l y r e d u c e s t h e v a l u e of t h e i n f e s t e d t r e e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p e r a t i v e t h a t s a n i t a t i o n s a l v a g e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s be p e r f o r m e d as so o n a f t e r b e e t l e f l i g h t as p o s s i b l e . A c o s t e f f e c t i v e , e a r l y d e t e c -t i o n remote s e n s i n g s y s t e m i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u i r e a d v a n c e d l e a d t i m e f o r s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s f o r e f f i c i e n t m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e c o n t r o l . 2.3 The r o l e o f remote s e n s i n g i n d e t e c t i o n and damage a p p r a i s a l The image o f a t r e e on an a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h i s a d i r e c t p r o d u c t of l i g h t r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m t h e t r e e . L e v e l s of l i g h t r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m a f o r e s t canopy a r e a f f e c t e d i n p a r t by l e a f c e l l u l a r s t r u c t u r e , c e l l u l a r i n c l u s i o n s , p i g m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , f o l i a g e , f o l i a g e d e n s i t y , t r e e h e i g h t , t r e e geometry and m a t u r -i t y ( S t e i n e r and Gutermann 1966). E n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s s u c h as d i s e a s e , i n s e c t a t t a c k , n u t r i e n t t o x i c i t y o r d e f i c i e n c y and w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y , a f f e c t t h e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e by c h a n g i n g t h e i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h a t p l a n t ( G a t e s 1 9 7 0 ) . S t r e s s e d 1 v e g e t a t i o n may be d e t e c t e d from t h e a i r due t o changes i n e x t e r n a l m o r p h o l o g y a n d / o r r e l a t e d f o l i a g e d i s -c o l o u r a t i o n , w hich i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l change ( M u r t h a 1972). S i n c e t h e 1920's remote s e n s i n g has been u s e d t o d e t e c t , s u r v e y and a p p r a i s e f o r e s t damage i n Canada. 1 S t r e s s : any e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r c a p a b l e of i n d u c i n g a p o t e n t i a l l y i n j u r i o u s s t r a i n on a p l a n t ( L e v i t t 1972). 14 The F o r e s t I n s e c t and D i s e a s e S u r v e y (FIDS) o f t h e Canad-i a n F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e (CFS) p e r f o r m s a n n u a l f o r e s t p e s t s u r v e y s f o r d e t e c t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g of major f o r e s t p e s t s . D a t a o b t a i n e d a r e u s e d i n p e s t management pro g r a m s . The FIDS r e l i e s l a r g e l y on a e r i a l s k e t c h - m a p p i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f t r e e damage (Moody 1 9 8 1 ) . However, i t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c c u r a c y o f a e r i a l sketch-maps and i t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h s i n g l e o r s m a l l g r o u p s of s t r e s s e d t r e e s . A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s have been u s e d t o s u p p l e m e n t a e r i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e r e b y e n h a n c i n g t h e a c c u r a c y of d e t e c t i o n and damage a p p r a i s a l ( H a r r i s and Dawson 1979). P r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e use of a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s i n c l u d e : h i g h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e r r o r and l o s s o f d a t a r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n c o r r e c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s , f i l m t y p e , s c a l e , t i m e of day and s e a s o n ( C i e s l a 1978). The a c c u r a c y o f b o t h a e r i a l s k e t c h - m a p p i n g and a i r p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e dependent upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n t e r p r e t e r . D e t e c t i o n of f o r e s t damage by p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s knowledge of t h e p o t e n t i a l damaging a g e n t s , t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h e damaged t r e e , and t h e e f f e c t s of t h a t damage on s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e and t h e r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t on t h e f i l m ( M u r t h a 1972, 1978). F r e q u e n t l y , more than one b i o t i c o r a b i o t i c a g e n t w i l l p r o d u c e s i m i l a r s t r a i n symptoms. The c a u s a l a g e n t may be i n f e r r e d by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S t r a i n : any b i o c h e m i c a l o r p h y s i c a l change c a u s e d by s t r e s s ( L e v i t t 1 9 7 2 ) . t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e a e r i a l s u r v e y , b u t p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t a sample a r e a be g r o u n d - c h e c k e d . To d a t e most a e r i a l s u r v e y s of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n have r e l i e d on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s t r e s s e d t r e e s f r o m h e a l t h y t r e e s , u s i n g f o l i a g e d i s c o l o u r a t i o n . In B.C., t h e s u r v e y s f o r m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damage a r e u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d i t h e e a r l y f a l l , when a c o u n t o f r e d - t o p p e d p i n e t r e e s i s made. In 1980 a s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e F l a t h e a d R i v e r V a l l e y i n s o u t h - e a s t B.C. ( H a r r i s e t a l . 1 9 82). L o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s k i l l e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e were sketch-mapped and p h o t o -g r a p h e d a t a s c a l e o f 1:5000 u s i n g 70 mm n o r m a l c o l o u r t r a n s p a r ency f i l m . S k e t c h - m a p p i n g and p h o t o g r a p h y were c a r r i e d o u t a f t e r a l l a t t a c k e d t r e e s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r had changed c o l o u r . The s a m p l i n g e r r o r was 18.5%. G r e e n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were not r e c o g n i z e d . The v a l u e o f a e r i a l s u r v e y s b a s e d on v i s u a l f o l i a g e c o l o u r change i s t h a t a h i s t o r i c r e c o r d of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n , and an i n d i c a t i o n o f i n f e s t a -t i o n t r e n d a r e p r o v i d e d . 2.4 E a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n s t r e s s E f f e c t i v e management s t r a t e g i e s a r e dependent upon a c c u r a t e and t i m e l y a s s e s s m e n t o f p i n e damage by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , t h u s c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t has been expended i n t h e a r e a o f e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n damage. E a r l y d e t e c t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n s t r e s s has been r e f e r r e d t o as e i t h e r p r e v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n ( i f t h e r e i s a s u b s e q u e n t change i n t h e v i s i b l e 16 p o r t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s p e c t r u m ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) ) , o r e x t r a v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n i f t h e r e i s no s u b s e q u e n t change i n t h e v i s i b l e r e g i o n . P u r i t c h (1981) c o v e r s b o t h t h e s e i d e a s w i t h t h e t e r m " n o n - v i s u a l " . A g e n e r a l i z e d r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e f o r h e a l t h y g r e e n p i n e n e e d l e s i s shown i n F i g u r e 5. S u p e r i m p o s e d on t h i s c u r v e shown a r e r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e s f o r damaged n e e d l e s . I t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h a n g es i n s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t -a n c e p a t t e r n s of s t r e s s e d p l a n t s o c c u r i n i t i a l l y i n t h e n e a r i n f r a r e d p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c t r u m ( C o l w e l l 1956; F r i t z 1967; M u r t h a 1978). Many of t h e s t u d i e s on l i g h t r e f l e c t a n c e by v e g e t a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t most n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d by c e l l u l a r s t r u c t u r e s of p l a n t s r a t h e r t h a n by t h e s u r f a c e ( G a t e s 1970). Gausman ( 1 9 7 4 ) , compared s t r e s s e d - w i t h non-s t r e s s e d p l a n t s by t a k i n g s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r i c measurements of l e a v e s i n t h e n e a r - i n f r a r e d w a v e l e n g t h s . S t r e s s e d l e a v e s of t h e same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age have a l o w e r i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e t h a n n o n - s t r e s s e d l e a v e s . Gausman (1977) s t a t e s t h a t c r y s t a l s and c y t o p l a s m a c c o u n t f o r ab o u t 8-10% o f n e a r i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e ; spongy m e s o p h y l l - c e l l u l a r membranes, c e l l w a l l - a i r s p a c e i n t e r -f a c e f o r a b o u t 50% r e f l e c t a n c e . About 60% o f n e a r i n f r a r e d l i g h t e n t e r i n g a l e a f i s r e f l e c t e d , w h i l e 20% i s a b s o r b e d and a b o u t 20% t r a n s m i t t e d . In a d d i t i o n , Gausman (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t much o f t h e n e a r i n f r a r e d l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d v i a t h e s t o m a t a , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t a n c e i s f a r g r e a t e r f r o m p l a n t s w i t h open s t o m a t a . E E 3 3 1 7 o w n o L 8 gS GAMMA i RAY J J I I I I T-1 T-0 -X RAY --UV—J { T 7 T 10 2 0 10 1 6 E W A V E L E N G T H i I. s I E m O n co n H-J 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I L WAVELENGTH(X) J I L L, RADAR INFRARED^L Mj£ROWAVE- J MEDIUM i ^ G H z L=-RADIO-BANDS—I 1 AUDIO AC 10 .12 T 5^ 106 ' L l I. I 1 10* 102 FREQUENCY, Hz l WWW" ' ] BLACK REPRESENTS ATMOSPHERIC ATTENUATION FIGURE 4: The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s p e c t r u m . FIGURE 5: G e n e r a l i z e d r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e s f o r h e a l t h y g r e e n p i n e n e e d l e s s u p e r i m p o s e d on w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t a n c e c u r v e s f o r damaged n e e d l e s . ( A f t e r : O e s t e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . 7, R E F L E C T A N C E W A V E L E N G T H <M (nm.) (Arrows i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n of r e f l e c t a n c e change). 19 Some i n s e c t p e s t s c a u s e r a p i d m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n d / o r p h y s i o -l o g i c a l c o l o u r changes which a r e r e a d i l y d e t e c t a b l e i n t h e v i s i b l e r e g i o n s of t h e s p e c t r u m . However, t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s c a u s e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n a r e s u c h t h a t no v i s u a l change may be n o t e d f o r s e v e r a l months. T h e r e have been s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s i n t h e a r e a o f e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f i n f e s t e d t r e e s , where v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n a l o n e has been u s e d . A r n b e r g and Wastenson ( 1 9 7 3 ) , r e p o r t e d t h a t when p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s a f f e c t s r e f l e c t a n c e p r o p e r t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l l e a v e s , t h e most p r o n o u n c e d i n i t i a l c h a n g e s o c c u r i n t h e v i s i b l e s p e c t r a l r e g i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n f r a r e d . T h e i r work was c a r r i e d o u t i n b a r k b e e t l e [ I p s  t y p o g r a p h u s ( L . ) ] i n f e s t e d s p r u c e i n Sweden. S c a l e s u s e d were 1:10,000 and 1:20,000. They r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s i n v i s u a l l y d e t e c t i n g i n f e s t e d s p r u c e on CIR f i l m . Some of t h e remote s e n s i n g l i t e r a t u r e r e c o g n i z e s t h e u t i l i t y of c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r such f e a t u r e s as s p e c i e s s e p a r a t i o n and haze p e n e t r a -t i o n , b u t s t a t e s t h a t p r e v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n of s t r e s s due t o b a r k b e e t l e damage i s not a c h i e v e d ( C i e s l a e_t a_l. 1967; H e l l e r 1968, 1971, 1978; L a n g l e y 1 9 5 9 ) . H e l l e r (1968) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t no r e a l a n a t o m i c a l c h a n g es o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e l e a v e s o f p o n d e r o s a p i n e t r e e s f o l l o w i n g b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e w ould be no e a r l y symptoms o f v i g o u r l o s s i n t h e r e f l e c t i v e p o r t i o n of t h e n e a r i n f r a r e d . T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s a n a t o m i c a l c hanges o b s e r v e d i n p o n d e r o s a p i n e n e e d l e s 10 months a f t e r m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . A s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n r e f l e c t a n c e a t TABLE I I : S t r u c t u r e o f p i n e n e e d l e s ( P i n u s p o n d e r o s a e Laws.) b e f o r e and 10 months a f t e r m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . ( A f t e r : H e l l e r 1 9 6 8 ) . S t r u c t u r e a f f e c t e d Normal n e e d l e Y e l l o w n e e d l e from i n f e s t e d p i n e 1. R e s i n c a n a l Open C o l l a p s e d o r b r o k e n 2. V a s c u l a r b u n d l e s Most c e l l s f i l l e d w i t h c y t o p l a s m C y t o p l a s m a b s e n t 3. Sto m a t a I n t a c t B r o k e n , s h r u n k e n , d e g e n -e r a t e d , c l o s e d 4. C y t o p l a s m F i l l s o u t t o c e l l w a l l s S h r u n k e n f r o m c e l l w a l l s , o f t e n a b s e n t 5. C e l l w a l l s N o r m a l l y t h i n T h i c k e r by c o m p a r i s o n 2 1 0 . 6 8 um and a 5 t o 10% d e c r e a s e a t 0 . 7 5 t o 1 . 2 um was r e v e a l e d by s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y measurement of p i n e n e e d l e s 4 5 days a f t e r a t t a c k ( H e l l e r 1 9 6 8 ) . G e n e r a l l y , c o n i f e r s r e f l e c t l e s s n e a r - i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n t h a n hardwoods, s i n c e t h e i r l e a v e s a r e r e d u c e d i n s u r f a c e a r e a w i t h f e w e r s t o m a t a and t h e t r e e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e more compact i n s t r u c t u r e and have more c o n t a i n e d shadows. Thus, changes i n r e f l e c t e d i n f r a r e d w i l l be more s u b t l e and more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t . T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n why t h e r e has been g r e a t e r s u c c e s s i n n e a r i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e s t u d i e s u s i n g b r o a d l e a v e d v e g e t a t i o n . Changes i n n e a r i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e i n most s t u d i e s w i t h b r o a d l e a v e d s p e c i e s were r e l a t e d t o m o i s t u r e s t r e s s ( C a r l s o n e_t a l . 1 9 7 1 ; K n i p l i n g 1 9 7 0 ; Myers e t a_l. 1 9 7 0 ; O l s o n e t j a . 1 9 7 1 ; Thomas e t a l . 1 9 6 7 ; W o o l l e y 1 9 7 1 ) . G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e i s a d e c r e a s e i n n e a r i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m b a r k b e e t l e i n f e s t e d c o n i f e r s . T h i s may be due p a r t l y t o a c l o s i n g o f s t o m a t a i n r e s p o n s e t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s . E a r l y d e t e c t i o n of s t r e s s has been s u c c e s s f u l l y a c h i e v e d u s i n g m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of l a r g e - s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d (Kodak Aerochrome I n f r a r e d , 2 4 4 3 ) p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . M i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s i s a method by w h i c h v e g e t a t i o n damage may be d e f i n e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . In r e s p o n s e t o v a r i o u s r e p o r t s w h i c h have p r e s e n t e d c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s of c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m i n t h e d e t e c t i o n of v e g e t a -t i o n damage, M u r t h a and H a m i l t o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) p h o t o g r a p h e d 4 s p e c i e s o f c o n i f e r s s u b j e c t e d t o s i m u l a t e d a n i m a l damage u s i n g b o t h 22 c o l o u r and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m . O p t i c a l d e n s i t y measurements o f t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m r e v e a l e d an i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y of t h e c y a n d y e - l a y e r o f t h e f i l m w i t h i n c r e a s e d damage l e v e l s . A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was not f o u n d i n t h e n o r m a l - c o l o u r f i l m . F a l s e - c o l o u r f i l m y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f damage not r e c o r d e d by t h e n ormal c o l o u r f i l m . The i n c r e a s e d c y a n d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t y i s a r e s p o n s e t o d e c r e a s e d i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e by t h e s t r e s s e d f o l i a g e . L i l l e s a n d et_ a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) , r e l a t e d s t r e s s i n elm t r e e s (Ulmus a m e r i c a n a L.) t o d e v e l o p e d d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t i e s i n c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s . H a l l et_ a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , u s i n g 1:1,000 s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d 68% o f D o u g l a s -f i r [ P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o ] newly i n f e s t e d by b a r k b e e t l e by d e n s i t o m e t r i c measurement o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m d y e - l a y e r s . R a t i o s of d y e - l a y e r v a l u e s were u s e d i n t h e a n a l y -s i s t o m i n i m i z e v a r i a n c e s due t o e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o damage d e t e c t i o n , t h e need t o d e f i n e t h e " n o r m a l " t r e e has been r e c o g n i z e d ( M u r t h a and McLean 1981). The r e s u l t s o f a t h r e e - y e a r s t u d y of D o u g l a s - f i r u s i n g m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s show t h a t t h e r e i s i n d e e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between " h e a l t h y " t r e e s and t h o s e showing symptoms of i n c i p i e n t damage. T r e e images o f 1:1,200 s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s were r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e t r e e , as s e e n on t h e g r o u n d . Q u a l i t a t i v e p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d i n g t o damage t y p e s d e f i n e d by M u r t h a (1972, 1 9 7 8 ) . Damage was i d e n t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d by c o l l e c t i o n of i n c r e m e n t c o r e d a t a w h i c h was a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e any l o s s of g r o w t h ( M u r t h a and McLean 1 9 8 1 ) . 23 2.5 C o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m r e s p o n s e t o s p e c t r a l change C o l o u r - i n f r a r e d (Kodak Aerochrome I n f r a r e d , 2443) f i l m c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r s : y e l l o w , magenta and c y a n . The y e l l o w d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r i s s e n s i t i v e t o g r e e n (500-600 nm), t h e magenta d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r i s s e n s i t i v e t o r e d (600-700 nm), and t h e c y a n d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r i s s e n s i t i v e t o n e a r - i n f r a r e d (700-800 nm), ( F r i t z 1 9 6 7). Moore (1980) more s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d t h e p e r c e n t r e a c t i o n of each d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r as i t r e s p o n d s t o t h e d i f f e r e n t w a v e l e n g t h s f r o m b l u e t o n e a r - i n f r a r e d and i l l u s t r a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d u s i n g d i f f e r e n t f i l m and c o l o u r c o m p e n s a t i n g f i l t e r c o m b i n a t i o n s . C o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m s h o u l d be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a W r a t t e n 12 ( m i n u s - b l u e ) f i l t e r ( F r i t z 1967). The d y e - f o r m i n g r e a c t i o n of each d y e - l a y e r i n t h e f i l m i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f l i g h t of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r w a v e l e n g t h i n c i d e n t upon i t ( F r i t z 1 9 6 7 ) . M i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r y i s a method by w h i c h t h e e x t e n t o f d y e - l a y e r d e v e l o p m e n t can be m e a s u r e d . F i g u r e 6 shows a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d f i l m as i t t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s p o n d s t o changes i n s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e . F i l m o p t i c a l d e n s i t y c a n be measured a t s p e c i f i c w a v e l e n g t h r e g i o n s . A b l u e f i l t e r i s u s e d t o measure t h e y e l l o w d y e - l a y e r ; g r e e n t o measure t h e magenta and r e d t o measure t h e c y a n d y e - l a y e r ( F r i t z 1 9 6 7). 2.6 S t u d y o b j e c t i v e s D e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of l a r g e - s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f s t r e s s e d v e g e t a t i o n has y i e l d e d s i g n i f i -24 A. Spectral Ref lectance P a t t e r n s . °/0R eor OOr-«o(-20r 1. Healthy green 2. Stressed foliage 80 60 40 3. Dead, red-brown R n-IR R n-IR R n-IR B. Relat ive Amounts of Dyes Formed After Reversal Development. DYE FORMED R + G - B y//////////m B + G - R R * B - G V////////////, \ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ2 VZZZZZZZZZZZZA W//////M 7////////////, V///////////ZA Yellow Magenta Cyan C. Colour Rendition on Photographic Image. B + R « Magenta Less Red = Dark magenta R + G = Yellow FIGURE 6: Response o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m to reflec t a n c e changes i n coniferous f o l i a g e . (After: Murtha 1978) (i n the r e a l s i t u a t i o n the cyan dye-layer i s on top ( F r i t z 1967)). 25 c a n t r e s u l t s ( H a l l e_t a l . 1983; L i l l e s a n d e_t a l _ . 1978; M u r t h a and H a m i l t o n 1969; M u r t h a and McLean 1981). The use of l a r g e -s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n , i s s t i l l an u n c e r t a i n p r o p o s i t i o n . M u r t h a (1983) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n c i p i e n t damage t y p e s , i n D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s , c o u l d n o t be a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t -ed a t 1:4,000. He r e p o r t e d a 35% i n f o r m a t i o n l o s s when t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c s c a l e was d e c r e a s e d f r o m 1:1,000 t o 1:4,000. T h e r e i s a need t o know more p r e c i s e l y w h i c h s c a l e c a n be u s e d most e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k e d t r e e s . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f u s i n g 1:1,000, 1:2,000, 1:3,000 and 1:4,000 a i r - p h o t o s c a l e s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s f o r d e t e c t i o n of g r e e n - f o l i a g e d m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e where t h e t h r e s h o l d l i e s between r e d u c t i o n i n s c a l e and r e a s o n a b l e a c c u r a c y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The s c a l e u s e d s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e damage t y p e i n q u e s t i o n . In t h e c a s e o f e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damage i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s , t h e s c a l e s h o u l d be l a r g e enough t h a t s t r a i n symptoms on i n d i v i d u a l t r e e crowns may be r e l i a b l y d e t e c t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c image. 26 3. THE STUDY AREA 3.1 S e l e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s i t e I n J u l y , 1981, t h e P e s t Management C o o r d i n a t o r , Kamloops R e g i o n , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , p r o v i d e d a s m a l l a i r c r a f t f o r a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e f l i g h t o v e r t h e T r a n q u i l l e w a t e r s h e d i n t h e Kamloops F o r e s t D i s t r i c t . P o c k e t s of dead, red-brown t r e e s i n d i c a t i v e of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n were l o c a t e d and marked o n t o a 1:50,000 map. S u b s e q u e n t l y , a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s c o n t a i n i n g damaged t r e e s as i d e n t i f i e d from t h e a i r , were v i s i t e d on t h e g r o u n d . Sample g r o u n d c h e c k s were c a r r i e d out t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e damage was c a u s e d by MPB and t h a t t h e i n f e s t -a t i o n was a c t i v e . C r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d as i n d i c a t i v e of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n were as f o l l o w s : r e d - b rown f o l i a g e of l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 1980 k i l l , and s i g n s of b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k on b o l e of t r e e : brown f r a s s , p i t c h t u b e s , emergence h o l e s , p r e s e n c e o f b r e e d i n g g a l l e r i e s u n d e r t h e b a r k . The p e r i p h e r i e s of p r e v i o u s l y a t t a c k e d (1980) g r o u p s of t r e e s were c h e c k e d f o r e v i d e n c e o f e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i n f e s t a t i o n i . e . p r e s e n c e of t r e e s newly i n f e s t e d (1981) by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . B o l e s were i n s p e c t e d f o r s i g n s of i n f e s t a t i o n , such as p i t c h t u b e s and b o r i n g d u s t . In some c a s e s , 30 cm 2 s e c t i o n s o f b a r k were removed t o c o n f i r m t h e p r e s e n c e o f b e e t l e l i f e s t a g e s . 27 3.2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a A s u i t a b l e s t u d y s i t e i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y ( F i g u r e 7) was s e l e c t e d t h a t met t h e above c r i t e r i a . I t c o v e r e d a t o t a l a r e a o f 32 ha and had an a v e r a g e e l e v a t i o n of 760 m above s e a l e v e l . The s t u d y s i t e was l o c a t e d on two s e q u e n t i a l t e r r a c e s o f t h e T r a n q u i l l e R i v e r . The s o i l s a r e w e l l - t o r a p i d l y - d r a i n i n g , f l u v i a l outwash s a n d s and g r a v e l s . O l d c u r r e n t s c a r s on t h e o utwash t e r r a c e s f o r m d e p r e s s i o n s w hich t e n d t o be more m o i s t and s m a l l r i d g e s o f g r a v e l s w h i c h t e n d t o be r a p i d l y d r a i n i n g , t h u s p r e s e n t i n g a r a n g e of m e s i c t o x e r i c s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y p l o t s t h e o r g a n i c h o r i z o n i s v e r y t h i n and g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n 1.0 cm i n t h i c k n e s s . The s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n s , o r draws, a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y r i c h g r o u n d f l o r a , w h i l e p i n e g r a s s ( C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s B u c k l . ) d o m i n a t e s t h e g r o u n d f l o r a o f t h e d r i e r s i t e s . The two most common t r e e s p e c i e s a r e D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e . Much o f t h e s t u d y s i t e i s c o v e r e d by m a t u r i n g l o d g e p o l e p i n e , w h i c h became e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r f i r e s and l o g g i n g . The l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o m p r i s e s 37% by volume of t h e s t a n d (Edward 1982, p e r s . comm.^). The a v e r a g e age of t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s 85 y e a r s . The s h r u b l a y e r , where p r e s e n t i s d o m i n a t e d by A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ( L . ) S p r e n g . and J u n i p e r i s  communis L. v a r . d e p r e s s a P u r s h . Edward, R., F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n B r a n c h , Min. o f F o r e s t s , Kamloops, B.C. 28 FIGURE 7: T o p o g r a p h i c map of t h e T r a n q u i l l e R i v e r a r e a w i t h m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t u d y s i t e marked. 29 1 1: 50,000 N.T.S. 92- 1/15 120°37'W, 50°50'N 30 4. METHODS 4.1 M a r k i n g t h e s t u d y s i t e Two t r a n s e c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d , which r a n p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r a t an o r i e n t a t i o n o f E . 1 1 0 ° - W . 2 9 0 ° . T r a n s e c t s were a b o u t 402 m l o n g and 201 m a p a r t . Ends of each t r a n s e c t were marked on t h e g r o u n d by a 215 x 160 cm w h i t e s h e e t . M a r k e r s were p l a c e d i n open s p a c e s and due t o t h e i r h i g h r e f l e c t i v i t y , were c l e a r l y v i s i b l e b o t h f r o m t h e <air and on t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s . Thus, l i n e s f o r a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y were e s t a b -l i s h e d on t h e g r o u n d . 4.2 A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y of t h e two t r a n s e c t s , which c o m p r i s e d t h e s t u d y s i t e , was c a r r i e d o u t on A u g u s t 1 8 t h , 1981. The p h o t o g r a p h y was c o m p l e t e d by I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e P h o t o g r a p h y L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., w h i c h u s e d a wing t i p camera s y s t e m t o o b t a i n 70 mm s t e r e o - p a i r s of p h o t o g r a p h s ( W i l l i a m s 1 9 7 8 ) . The s y s t e m u s e d two V i n t e n 492 70 mm r e c o n n a i s s a n c e cameras, e a c h e q u i p p e d w i t h a L e i t z l e n s , f o c a l l e n g t h 76 mm, s e t a t F/2. Kodak Aerochrome I n f r a r e d 2443 f i l m was u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a W r a t t e n 12 ( m i n u s - b l u e ) and a CC20M ( g r e e n - a t t e n u a t i n g ) f i l t e r . E a c h t r a n s e c t was f l o w n a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t a l t i t u d e s and p h o t o -g r a p h s were o b t a i n e d a t s c a l e s 1:1,000, 1:2,000, 1:3,000 and 1:4,000. A t o t a l o f 50 s t e r e o - p a i r s was o b t a i n e d of t h e 16 s t u d y p l o t s . A s e c o n d s e t of a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s was o b t a i n e d of t h e more s o u t h e r l y t r a n s e c t on September 22nd, 1982, a t an a p p r o x i -mate s c a l e of 1:2,000. 31 4.3 P h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Each 1:2,000 p h o t o g r a p h i c frame was c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t one s t u d y p l o t on t h e g r o u n d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e 1:2,000 p h o t o g r a p h s was a c h i e v e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : a m y l a r o v e r l a y was a t t a c h e d t o t h e r i g h t frame of e a c h s t e r e o - p a i r of t h e s t u d y p l o t s ; t r e e s were i d e n t i f i e d and numbered on t h e m y l a r o v e r l a y , r e c o g n i z e d by s p e c i e s and damage t y p e s ( a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e I I I ) , u s i n g a 2x p o c k e t s t e r e o s c o p e on a l i g h t t a b l e f o r a v i e w i n g s c a l e of 1:1,000; t h e number of l o d g e p o l e p i n e by damage t y p e was r e c o r d e d . 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s were c h o s e n as t h e b a s e l i n e a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e 1:1,000, 1:3,000 and 1:4,000 p h o t o g r a p h s would be compared f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : — t h e most c o m p l e t e c o v e r a g e of t h e s t u d y s i t e was o b t a i n e d a t t h i s s c a l e — t h e y a r e more compact t h a n t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e p h o t o s and y e t e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r u s e i n t h e f i e l d when g r o u n d -c h e c k i n g U s i n g t h e 1:2,000 p h o t o g r a p h s as i n d i c a t o r s of t h e s t u d y p l o t b o u n d a r i e s , e a c h p l o t was t h e n marked o n t o m y l a r o v e r l a y s o f p h o t o g r a p h s a t o t h e r s c a l e s . In t h e c a s e of t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s , more t h a n one frame r e p r e s e n t e d each p l o t . A t each s c a l e , each t r e e was i d e n t i f i e d and marked on t h e m y l a r o v e r l a y u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t n u m e r i c a l d e s i g n a t i o n a t e a c h s c a l e , i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e b i a s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of damage t y p e s . TABLE I I I : Damage t y p e s u s e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e t r e e c o n d i t i o n s as s e e n on l a r g e s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s . ( A f t e r : M u r t h a 1978; Mu r t h a and McLean 1981). Damage Type D e s c r i p t i o n HH H e a l t h y ; f r e e from s t r e s s I H O a F o l i a g e has d a r k e r magenta t o n e t h a n c o m p a r a b l e u n a f f e c t e d f o l i a g e I H O b F o l i a g e has l i g h t e r magenta t o n e t h a n c o m p a r a b l e u n a f f e c t e d f o l i a g e I I I O a / I I E F o l i a g e has d a r k e r magenta t o n e , p r e m a t u r e l o s s o f o l d e r f o l i a g e , b r a n c h e s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , c u r r e n t f o l i a g e p r e s e n t I I I O b / I I E F o l i a g e has l i g h t e r magenta t o n e , p r e m a t u r e l o s s o f o l d e r f o l i a g e , b r a n c h e s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , c u r r e n t f o l i a g e p r e s e n t I I I G F o l i a g e i s dead, red-brown ( a p p e a r s y e l l o w on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o s ) CO to 33 The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o r p h o t o g r a p h s a t each s c a l e was t h e same as t h a t u s e d f o r t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s . T r e e s were i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o each damage t y p e i n d e p e n d -e n t l y of t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s and i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r s c a l e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s u l t s of e a c h s c a l e were not compared u n t i l t h e p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s had been c o m p l e t e d . S i n c e a t o t a l o f 497 t r e e s were i n t e r p r e t e d by t h i s a u t h o r , i t can be r e p o r t e d t h a t r e c o l l e c t i o n of d e t a i l of each t r e e was m i n i m a l i n t h a t t h e r e was no image c a r r y - o v e r , i . e . r e c a l l i n g t h e d e t a i l s of t h e same t r e e a t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s . The 1982 p h o t o g r a p h s were v i s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d and matched a g a i n s t a sample of 1981 p h o t o s and r e s u l t s u s e d t o v e r i f y t h o s e o b t a i n e d t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . F o r example, i f t h e same t r e e crown a p p e a r e d a l i g h t e r magenta hue ( I I I O B ) on t h e 1981 s e t of c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s and mauve ( I I I B ) o r y e l l o w ( I I I G ) on t h e 1982 s e t , a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e was p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e t r e e had been s u c c e s s f u l l y d e t e c t e d w h i l e s t i l l v i s i b l y g r e e n , u s i n g e v i d e n c e of i n c i p i e n t damage on t h e c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m . 4.4 D e n s i t o m e t r y I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o an o b j e c t i s r e c o r d e d on a p h o t o -g r a p h i c f i l m i n t h e f o r m o f v a r i o u s q u a n t i t i e s o f d y e s . In t h e c a s e of t h e c o l o u r i n f r a r e d f i l m , t h e s e d y e - l a y e r s a r e y e l l o w , magenta and c y a n . The amount o f dye f o r m e d a t e a c h p o i n t on t h e f i l m i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount of r e f l e c t e d l i g h t i n c i d e n t on t h e f i l m when i t was e x p o s e d ( S c a r p a c e 1978; 34 S c a r p a c e and F r i e d e r i c h s 1 9 78). D e n s i t o m e t r y i s a method by w h i c h a measurement of t h e d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t y of each f i l m d y e - l a y e r may be p e r f o r m e d , t h u s t h e r e f l e c t e d i n c i d e n t l i g h t may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d . A Macbeth TR-524 T r a n s m i s s i o n R e f l e c t a n c e D e n s i t o m e t e r was u s e d i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n mode. T r a n s m i s s i o n o f l i g h t f r o m a t u n g s t e n - h a l o g e n lamp, v i a a 1 mm d i a m e t e r a p e r t u r e , t h r o u g h a p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c y i s r e c o r d e d as t h e amount o f l i g h t t h a t r e a c h e s a p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l . A q u a r t z d i g i t a l d i s p l a y i n d i c a t e s t h e d e n s i t y of t h e f i l m d y e - l a y e r ( s ) d i r e c t l y . I n t h i s way t h e d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t i e s of p h o t o - i m a g e s of l o d g e p o l e crowns were measured. F o r e a c h t r e e image t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e y e l l o w , magenta and c y a n d y e - l a y e r s and t o t a l d e n s i t y were measured by s e l e c t i n g a b l u e (Wr. 9 4 ) , g r e e n (Wr. 9 3 ) , r e d (Wr. 92) and v i s u a l (Wr. 106) g e l a t i n f i l t e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . S p e c t r a l t r a n s m i t t a n c e c u r v e s o f t h e t h r e e c o l o u r f i l t e r s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 8. Measurements of a l l d y e - l a y e r s f o r each l o d g e p o l e crown i n t h e s t u d y were made and r e c o r d e d . Each d e n s i t y measurement was made t h r e e t i m e s f o r each f i l t e r and t h e mean of t h e s e measurements t a k e n as t h e d e n s i t y v a l u e . Thus, a t o t a l o f 12 measurements were made f o r each t r e e crown. As f a r as was p o s s i b l e e a c h measurement was made on t h e "sunny" s i d e o f t h e t r e e crown. The "raw" d e n s i t y v a l u e s were m o d i f i e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e o v e r l a p o f t h e s e n s i t i v i t i e s o f t h e t h r e e d y e - l a y e r s , s i n c e each d y e - l a y e r has some r e s p o n s e t o l i g h t a t d i f f e r e n t w a v e l e n g t h s ( F i g u r e 9 ) . 1 WAVELENGTH ( x ) FIGURE 8: Spectrophotometric transmittance curves of the blue (Wr.94), green (Wr.93) and red (Wr.92) gelatin f i l t e r s (Scarpace 1978). CO tn 1.0 0.5 0.0 O - 0.5 O - 1.0 / 52 \ / yellow \ / 92 \ / magenta 1 31 [J N cyan < III \ \ u.v. 400 B L U E 5Q0 600 PERCENT RESPONSE OF EACH LAYER GREEN RED 700 I.R. 800 I.R. 900 GREEN RED INFRARED 100 12 88 12 36 52 = 100% of 52 = 100% of 92 = 100% of 31 WAVELENGTH [nanometers] Total area under curves: 175 FIGURE 9: S p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e c u r v e s f o r Kodak A e r o c h r o m e I n f r a r e d 2443 f i l m u s i n g a W r a t t e n 12 f i l t e r and a CC20 Ma g e n t a c o l o u r c o m p e n s a t i n g f i l t e r (Moore .1980). 37 Moore (1980) r e p o r t e d on s t u d i e s o f a l a r g e number o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d e m u l s i o n s and p r e s e n t e d d a t a which i n d i c a t e d t h e p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e o f t h e d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r t o e a c h s p e c t r a l r e g i o n f o r v a r i o u s f i l t e r c o m b i n a t i o n s . The d a t a f o r a c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d f i l m e x p o s e d w i t h a W r a t t e n 12 and CC20 Magenta f i l t e r a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 9. Based upon t h e s e d a t a , t h e d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t y v a l u e s can be m o d i f i e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e range o f s p e c t r a l s e n s i t i v i t y of each d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r . T h e s e m o d i f i c a -t i o n s , h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d "Moore T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s " a r e as f o l l o w s : F i l t e r on „ , . .. .. n .. . D y e - l a y e r P e r c e n t r e s p o n s e i n f i l m 1JG n s x "com© x Q T/ B l u e Y e l l o w 100% g r e e n l i g h t G r e e n Magenta 12% g r e e n l i g h t , p l u s 88% r e d l i g h t Red Cyan 12% g r e e n l i g h t , p l u s 36% r e d l i g h t p l u s 52% n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t Thus t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e t o : g r e e n l i g h t (TG) = 1.0 ( y e l l o w ) + 0.12 (magenta) + 0.12 ( c y a n ) r e d l i g h t (TR) = 0.88 (magenta) + 0.36 ( c y a n ) n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t ( T I R ) 0.52 ( c y a n ) A c c o r d i n g l y , t o c a l c u l a t e t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e t o n e a r - i n f r a - r e d , t h e r e d - f i l t e r d e n s i t y v a l u e ( o f t h e c y a n d y e - l a y e r ) was m u l t i p l i e d by 0.52; f o r r e d l i g h t , t h e g r e e n f i l t e r d e n s i t y v a l u e ( o f t h e magenta d y e - l a y e r ) was m u l t i p l i e d by 0.88 and added t o t h e c y a n d e n s i t y v a l u e m u l t i p l i e d by 0.36; f o r g r e e n l i g h t , t h e b l u e f i l t e r d e n s i t y v a l u e ( o f t h e y e l l o w d y e - l a y e r ) 38 was added t o t h e magenta d e n s i t y v a l u e m u l t i p l i e d by 0.12 and t h e c y a n d e n s i t y v a l u e m u l t i p l i e d by 0.12. 4.5 F i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n F i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n o r "ground t r u t h " was c a r r i e d out i n June and J u l y , 1982, f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e 1981 c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s . To f a c i l i t a t e o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d , a m o s a i c of 1:4,000 c o n t a c t p r i n t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was u s e d , on which t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e s t u d y p l o t s had been marked ( P l a t e 1 ) . 1:2,000 c o n t a c t p r i n t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g d a t a were r e c o r d e d : s p e c i e s of t r e e , c o n d i t i o n of t h e t r e e crown: g r e e n , f a d i n g , brown, y e l l o w , t h i n n i n g , c o n d i t i o n of t h e b o l e ( e v i d e n c e of b e e t l e a t t a c k ) : b o r i n g , d u s t , p i t c h t u b e s , e x i t h o l e s , g a l l e r i e s , w h e t h e r a t t a c k had been s u c c e s s f u l , u n s u c c e s s f u l o r p a r t i a l , - - d i a m e t e r (dbh cms), h e i g h t (m), and i n c r e m e n t c o r e s t a k e n f r o m a sample of t r e e s . The h e a l t h s t a t u s o f t h e t r e e s were r e c o r d e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 39 PLATE 1: A mosaic of 1:4000 c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d c o n t a c t p r i n t s of the mountain pine b e e t l e study s i t e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. (white l i n e s i n d i c a t e a i r - p h o t o t r a n s e c t s along which study p l o t s are l o c a t e d ) . 41 1. Not a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e 2. S u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d 3. S t r i p a t t a c k 4. U n s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d ( p i t c h o u t ) o 5. S t r e s s e d by some a g e n t o t h e r t h a n b a r k b e e t l e . T r e e s which were p l a c e d i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y were assumed t o be h e a l t h y s i n c e t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f b e e t l e s on t h e b o l e and f o l i a g e was s t i l l g r e e n . S u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s were t h o s e t h a t showed p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n as o u t l i n e d above. S t r i p - a t t a c k t r e e s were o n l y p a r t i a l l y a t t a c k e d . The u n s u c c e s s f u l c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o t r e e s t h a t had r e s i s t e d a t t a c k by r e s i n o s i s r e s p o n s e . The f i f t h c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o t r e e s t h a t showed s i m i l a r s t r a i n symptoms s u c h as t h o s e i n f e s t e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a l t h o u g h damage by some o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n t . The ground d a t a p r o v i d e d t h e b a s e l i n e a g a i n s t which t h e a c c u r a c y o f p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t e a c h s c a l e was c h e c k e d . A c c u r a c y f i g u r e s f o r v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n were t a b u l a t e d and e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t a g e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r c o r e samples were t a k e n p e r p l o t - two from h e a l t h y t r e e s and two from damaged t r e e s . 4.5.1 L a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f t r e e c o r e s An "Addo-X" t r e e r i n g a n a l y s e r was u s e d t o measure r a d i a l i n c r e m e n t a l growth f o r a randomly s e l e c t e d number of t r e e s w i t h -i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . I n c r e m e n t a l growth o v e r t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s was u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p e r i o d i c growth r a t i o (PGR). Mahoney (1978) d e v e l o p e d a r a t i o t o c l a s s i f y l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s 42 as r e s i s t a n t ( l e s s t h a n 1% m o r t a l i t y p e r annum), o r s u s c e p t i b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n . The PGR was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e l a s t 5 y e a r i n c r e m e n t by t h e p r e v i o u s 5 y e a r i n c r e m e n t . I f t h i s r a t i o was g r e a t e r t h a n 1.0, t h e s t a n d i s c o n s i d e r e d r e s i s t a n t and i f l e s s t h a n 0.9 t h e s t a n d i s r a t e d a s s u s c e p t i b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . The a v e r a g e age of t h e s t a n d was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e mean t o t a l r a d i a l i n c r e m e n t o f t h e s e c o r e s . 4.6 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i e l d d a t a The d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e f i e l d and t h a t o b t a i n e d by a n a l y s i s of t h e t r e e c o r e s , were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a t t a c k s t a t u s as o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d , and a c c o r d i n g t o damage t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d f o r m t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d f o r e a c h t r e e were h e i g h t (m), d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t (dbh) (cm) and t h e PGR a s c a l c u l a t e d . The MIDAS* computer p a c k a g e was u s e d t o o b t a i n h i s t o g r a m s and d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s ( s a m p l e s i z e , minimum, maximum, mean and p o p u l a t i o n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ) f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e i n f o u r a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s and i n f o u r damage c a t e g o r i e s . Each v a r i a b l e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e between e a c h damage c l a s s and each a t t a c k s t a t u s , u s i n g one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA). The b i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s t a n d was i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s . * MIDAS: M i c h i g a n I n t e r a c t i v e D a t a A n a l y s i s S ystem (Fox & G u i r e 1 9 7 6 ) . 43 4.6.1 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f f i l m r e s p o n s e and s c a l e e f f e c t s F o r d e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of t h e o r i g i n a l c o l o u r i n f r a r e d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , t h e t r e e s were g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o damage t y p e a l o n e . The v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d f o r each t r e e a t each s c a l e were t h e d e n s i t i e s o f t h e t h r e e f i l m d y e - l a y e r s : y e l l o w , magenta and c y a n , t o which Moore t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s had been a p p l i e d , ( v i z : S e c t i o n 4 . 4 ) , and t h e r a t i o s o f t h e s e t h r e e t o t a l r e s p o n s e v a l u e s : TGR, TGIR and TRIR were computed. R a t i o s of t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s a r e u s e d i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e any e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s s u c h a s , s h a d i n g and f i l m i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s (sample s i z e , r a n g e , mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and h i s t o g r a m s ) were computed f o r each v a r i a b l e and a t e a c h s c a l e , u s i n g t h e MIDAS s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was p e r f o r m e d f o r each v a r i a b l e between e a c h o f t h e damage c l a s s e s as i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s . T h i s was done a t each of t h e f o u r s c a l e s . The p u r p o s e was t o d e t e r m i n e i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d w i t h i n d e n s i t o m e t r i c v a l u e s of t h e d i f f e r e n t damage c l a s s e s . S i m i l a r l y , a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m -ed f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e w i t h i n each of t h e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s , as i d e n t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d , f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s c a l e s . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was a l s o c a r r i e d out f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e w i t h i n t h e f o u r s c a l e s f o r one p a r t i c u l a r damage c l a s s a t a t i m e and f o r one p a r t i c u l a r a t t a c k c a t e g o r y a t a t i m e . The p u r p o s e was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f s c a l e on t h e d e n s i t o m e t r i c v a l u e s of t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . 44 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 B i o l o g i c a l d a t a The r e s u l t s of one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) p e r f o r m e d f o r h e i g h t , dbh and PGR f o r each a t t a c k and damage c a t e g o r y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s IV and V. T a b l e IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s a r e t h o s e h a v i n g t h e l a r g e s t dbh. T h i s r e s u l t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h r e s u l t s f o u n d by C o l e and Amman (1980) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e h a v i n g a l a r g e r dbh were more s u s c e p t i b l e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k t h a n s m a l l e r t r e e s w i t h i n t h e same s t a n d . A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among PGR v a l u e s were f o u n d , t h e y i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d i n t h a t t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s had a PGR o f 1.21 + .43 ( T a b l e I V ) , which i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t r e e s w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y had e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a s i n g growth and v i g o u r o v e r t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s and were l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o a t t a c k t h a n t h o s e t r e e s h a v i n g a PGR of l e s s t h a n 1.0. T r e e s s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e and t h o s e w h i c h showed symptoms o f s t r e s s f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , had PGR v a l u e s o f l e s s t h a n 1.0, w h i c h i n d i c a t e d a d e c l i n e i n growth and v i g o u r o v e r t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s . T r e s s w h i c h have r e s i s t e d b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k by " p i t c h i n g o u t " a d u l t b e e t l e s had a mean PGR v a l u e m a r g i n a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n 1.0. ANOVA r e s u l t s of t h e PGR showed t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between any of t h e damage c l a s s e s . However, t h e HH t r e e s had t h e l a r g e s t PGR. HH and I H O b t r e e s have PGR v a l u e s l a r g e r t h a n 1.0, w h i l e I I I O a / I I E 45 TABLE IV. R e s u l t s of ANOVA f o r f i e l d d a t a of t r e e p o p u l a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a t t a c k s t a t u s . A t t a c k * S t a t u s N H e i g h | x + a (m) dbh x + (cm) a N PGR 2 x + a Non. 69 22.5 + a * 3 . 9 a 21.7 + 4. 3 b 14 1.21 + . 4 3 a Sue. 64 22.9 + 3.3 a 24.6 + 4. 9 a 17 .98 + . 3 5 a P.O. 14 21.7 + 3 . 4 a b 22.7 + 3 . 7 a b 6 1.01 + . 2 7 a Not MPB 13 19.9 + 3.4 b 21.2 + 3.8 b 4 .98 + . 1 3 a (The s t r i p a t t a c k c a t e g o r y was d i s r e g a r d e d s i n c e t h e sample s i z e of 2 t r e e s was t o o s m a l l ) • T o t a l s w i t h i n columns f o l l o w e d by a d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , S c h e f f e ' s T e s t (p < .05) ^ A t t a c k s t a t u s r e f e r s t o c o n d i t i o n of t r e e s as s e e n on t h e g r o u n d . *PGR = P e r i o d i c growth r a t i o . R a t i o of c u r r e n t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t t o p a s t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t (Mahoney 1978). 3 x + o = mean + s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . 46 TABLE V. R e s u l t s o f ANOVA f o r f i e l d d a t a of t r e e p o p u l a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o damage c l a s s . Damage* H e i g h t (m) dbh (cm) PGR 2 C l a s s N x +_ a x + a N x + a HH 68 22.5 + 4.0 a 21.7 + 4 . 2 b 14 1.22 + . 4 1 a I H O b 43 21.9 + 3.2 a 23.0 + 4 . 5 a b 12 1.05 + . 3 7 a I I I O a / I I E 13 24.1 + 2.8 a 24.9 + 4 . 1 a 5 .85 + . 3 2 a I I I O b / I I E 36 22.2 + 3.4 a 24.1 + 5.4 a 10 .98 + . 2 2 a (The 1110a c a t e g o r y was d i s r e g a r d e d s i n c e t h e sample s i z e was t o o s m a l l ) . Damage c l a s s r e f e r s t o c o n d i t i o n of t r e e s as i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s . PGR = P e r i o d i c growth r a t i o . R a t i o o f c u r r e n t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t t o p a s t 5 - y e a r i n c r e m e n t (Mahoney 1 9 7 8 ) . x + a = mean + s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . 47 and I I I O b / I I E t r e e s had PGR v a l u e s s m a l l e r t h a n 1.0. I H O a t r e e s were not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s due t o t h e s m a l l sample s i z e o f t h i s g r o u p . These r e s u l t s a g r e e w i t h Mahoney's h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of l o d g e p o l e p i n e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k (Mahoney 1978). T a b l e V r e l a t e s t h e b i o l o g i c a l d a t a t o damage c l a s s e s . T r e e s c l a s s i f i e d as 1110b, I I I O a / I I E and I I I O b / I I E a r e t h o s e s h o wing e a r l y symptoms of s t r e s s ( M u r t h a and McLean 1981). T a b l e V i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n h e i g h t s t a t u s , and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n d i a m e t e r s t a t u s . One-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f dbh by damage c l a s s showed t h a t t h e HH t r e e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r i n d i a m e t e r t h a n t h e I I I O b / I I E t r e e s and t h e I I I O a / I I E t r e e s . T r e e s i n t h e 1110b c l a s s have a l a r g e r dbh t h a n t h e h e a l t h y t r e e s , however, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e 1110b group and any o t h e r g r o u p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s of t h e PGR and dbh a n a l y s i s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e l a t i t u d e (50°50') and a l t i t u d e (762 m a . s . l . ) o f t h e s t u d y s i t e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i s a t h i g h r i s k i n t e r m s o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k ( C o l e and Amman 1980; Mahoney 1978; S a f r a n y i k et_ a J . 1 9 74). 5.2 Q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o -g r a p h s U n f o r t u n a t e l y w i t h changes i n a l t i t u d e , some of t h e a i r -p h o t o l i n e s were i n c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d and d a t a were o m i t t e d , t h u s sample s i z e s a r e i r r e g u l a r w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d when 48 d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e s u l t s . O n l y h e a l t h y t r e e s and t h o s e showing e a r l y symptoms of s t r e s s on t h e p h o t o s were q u a l i t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r damage t y p e s , u s i n g t h e damage t y p e s d e v e l o p e d by M u r t h a (1972, 1978) ( T a b l e I I I ) . F i v e damage t y p e s were u s e d (HH, I H O a , I H O b , I I I O a / I I E , I I I O b / I I E ) t o r e p r e s e n t 5 c a t e g o r -i e s of t r e e h e a l t h as i n t e r p r e t e d on t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . G r o u n d -c h e c k i n g showed t h a t some o f t h e s e t r e e s had been damaged by w i l d l i f e , some by gr o u n d f i r e ( b u r n s c a r s a t t r e e b a s e s ) and some showed s i g n s o f s t r e s s f o r no v i s u a l l y a p p a r e n t r e a s o n ( T a b l e V I ) . The r e s u l t s , when compared w i t h t h e ground d a t a , showed t h a t o t h e r forms o f s t r e s s r e s u l t e d i n some t r e e s h a v i n g s i m i l a r s t r a i n m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o r damage symptoms t o t h o s e damaged by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . L i k e w i s e , some o f t h e t r e e s s t r e s s e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e showed s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s t r a i n symptoms and were c l a s s i f i e d as damage t y p e s I H O b , I I I O a / I I E and I I I O b / I I E . G e n e r a l l y , t r e e s c l a s s i f i e d as h e a l t h y (HH) on t h e p h o t o s were l a t e r c o n f i r m e d t o be ones not a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . The MIDAS pa c k a g e was u s e d t o h i s t o g r a m t h e number of each damage t y p e as t h e y o c c u r r e d i n e a c h a t t a c k c a t e g o r y and a c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n m a t r i x was d e r i v e d f o r each s c a l e t o show damage t y p e and a t t a c k c a t e g o r y ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . At 1:1,000, 26 o f t h e 29 (90%) n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as HH. Two (6%) o f t h e a t t a c k e d t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as HH, two (6%) a s I H O a , t w e l v e (38%) as I H O b , s e v e n (22%) as I I I O a / I I E and n i n e (28%) as I I I O b / I I E . T h r e e o f 49 TABLE V I . Number o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t r e s s e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n t s as t h e y o c c u r r e d by damage t y p e i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y s t u d y s i t e , Kamloops, B.C., 1981. Cause o f S t r e s s Damage W i l d l i f e G r o u n d f i r e Unknown M o u n t a i n P i n e B e e t l e HH - - - 27 1110a - - - 10 I l l O b 3 7 3 109 I I I O a / I I E - - - 53 I I I O b / I I E 5 13 6 68 TOTAL 8 20 9 267 50 GROUN D 1:1000 DATA. 1 : 2 0 0 0 Z o UJ t r a or u i i -O l -o x a \Atteck Damage\ NON ATT STRIP 6 al H IB O l Z S £ HH 2 6 2 - 3 - 31 moa 1 2 - - - 3 mob - 1 2 - 1 3 16 1 7 2 1 - 11 WOly 1 9 - 3 5 1 8 z 2 9 3 2 2 8 8 79 1 : 3 0 0 0 \Attack Damage , 'NON ATT. STRIP 6 I HH 2 6 1 1 - - J 2 8 i j IHOa 2 3 - - - j 5 | m o b — 2 5 - 1 2 | 2 8 mOa/ As- 1 1 2 2 1 ! - i 1 6 m o b / 3 1 2 - 4 4 ' 2 3 i z: 3 2 5 3 3 6 I 6 J 1 0 0 \Attack Damage\ NON ATT STRIP P.O. 1- CO O a. z a z HH 5 8 4 1 6 - 6 9 TJJOa 6 3 - - - 9 TJJOb 3 3 5 - 1 4 4 3 ElOa/ 1 1 0 2 2 - 1 5 m o b / / j l E 7 1 5 1 5 9 3 7 7 5 67 4 1 4 1 3 1 7 3 1 : 4 0 0 0 \Attack DamageV 'NON ATT. STRIP o a s i z HH 4 3 4 1 4 — 5 2 IHOa 3 2 - - - 5 m o b 3 3 3 - 1 4 41 IHOa/ SUE 1 1 0 2 2 - 15 / H E 7 1 5 — 4 6 3 2 Z 5 7 6 4 3 1 1 10 145 FIGURE 10: Cross t a b u l a t i o n of damage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n vs. mountain pine beetle attack status o f lodgepole pine f o r each of four scales c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d photographs o f the T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y study s i t e , 1981. 51 t h e e i g h t (38%) t r e e s w h i c h had r e s i s t e d a t t a c k by " p i t c h o u t " were c l a s s i f i e d as HH, t h e r e m a i n i n g 62% were i n t e r p r e t e d a s showing s i g n s o f i n c i p i e n t damage. The two (100%) s t r i p a t t a c k e d t r e e s were i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m t h e p h o t o g r a p h s as I I I O a / I I E damage t y p e . Of t h o s e t r e e s showing symptoms o f s t r e s s , a l t h o u g h not a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , 3 (38%) were c l a s s i f i e d as I H O b and 5 (62%) as I I I O b / I I E . The d a t a s e t f o r t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t f o r any o t h e r s c a l e . F i f t y - e i g h t (77%) o f t h e HH t r e e s were not a t t a c k e d by t h e MPB. O n l y 4 (6%) of t h e newly-a t t a c k e d t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as HH, w h i l e 35 (52%) were c l a s s i f i e d as I H O b , 15 (22%) a s I I I O b / I I E , 10 (15%) a s I I I O a / I I E , and 3 (4%) as I H O a . A l i t t l e u n d e r h a l f (43%) o f t h e r e s i s t a n t ( p i t c h - o u t ) t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as HH and t h e r e m a i n i n g 57% were i n t e r p r e t e d as showing symptoms o f i n c i p i e n t damage. One (25%) of t h e s t r i p - a t t a c k e d was c l a s s i f i e d as HH, w h i l e t h r e e (75%) were i n t e r p r e t e d as s t r e s s e d . A l l t h e t r e e s s t r e s s e d by a g e n t s o t h e r t h a n m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e were i n t e r -p r e t e d as I H O b (44%) and I I I O b / I I E ( 5 6 % ) . At 1:3,000, 26 (81%) of t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were i n t e r -p r e t e d as HH. Of t h e 53 s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s , o n l y 1 (2%) t r e e was c l a s s i f i e d as HH. One s t r i p - a t t a c k e d t r e e (33%) was i n t e r p r e t e d as HH f r o m t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The s i x non-moun-t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damaged t r e e s were i n t e r p r e t e d as I H O b (33%) and I I I O b / I I E ( 6 7 % ) . 52 At 1:4,000, 43 (75%) o f t h e t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as HH. Of t h e s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s 33 (52%) were c l a s s i f i e d as I H O b , 15 (23%) as I I I O b / I I E , 10 (16%) as I I I O a / I I E , and 2 ( 3 % ) as 1110a. F o u r (36%) of t h e t r e e s t h a t had r e s i s t e d a t t a c k by " p i t c h o u t " were c l a s s i f i e d as h e a l t h y and t h e r e m a i n i n g 7 (64%) were i n t e r p r e t e d as damage t y p e s I H O b , I I I O a / I I E and I I I O b / I I E . One (33%) o f t h e s t r i p - a t t a c k e d t r e e s was c l a s s e d as HH, t h e o t h e r 2 (67%) were i n t e r p r e t e d as I I I O a / I I E . Non-mountain p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as I H O b (40%) and I I I O b / I I E (60%) damage t y p e s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e v i s u a l a n a l y s i s of t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e I H O b and I I I O b / I I E damage t y p e s a r e t h e most c o n s i s t e n t i n d i c a t o r s of b e e t l e a t t a c k , a l t h o u g h t h e y may i n c l u d e s t r e s s e d t r e e s b u t n o t b e e t l e a t t a c k e d t r e e s , and t r e e s r a t e d as HH were g e n e r a l l y not a t t a c k e d by MPB. The g r o u n d d a t a and p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d a t a were c o n d e n s e d t o p r o d u c e two c a t e g o r i e s : h e a l t h y i . e . n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s c l a s s i f i e d as HH; and s t r e s s e d i . e . a t t a c k e d , s t r i p -a t t a c k e d and n o n - m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damage. The 1110a damage t y p e was d i s r e g a r d e d . The r e s u l t s of t h i s c o n d e n s e d c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V I I . The f o r e s t manager needs t o d i s t i n g u i s h between h e a l t h y t r e e s and t h o s e n e w l y - a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . In t e r m s of b e e t l e a t t a c k , t h e I H O b , I I I O a / I I E and I I I O b / I I E damage t y p e s i n d i c a t e d t r e e s s t r e s s e d by b a r k b e e t l e and most o f t h e HH damage t y p e were n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . The p e r c e n t TABLE V I I . A c c u r a c y of p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h e a l t h y ^ 5 and s t r e s s e d " 3 t r e e s a t each o f t h e 4 s c a l e s u s i n g t h e o r i g i n a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s o f a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , Kamloops, B.C., 1981. P h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c c u r a c y HEALTHY 2 t r e e s STRESSED 3 t r e e s S c a l e Ground* No. % Ground No. % 4 O v e r a l 1 C o unt C o r r e c t A c c u r a c y Count C o r r e c t A c c u r a c y A c c u r a c y 1:1,000 29 26 90% 42 40 95% 93% 1:2,000 75 58 77% 84 79 94% 86% 1:3,000 32 26 81% 62 60 97% 91% 1:4,000 57 43 75% 77 72 94% 86% ^Ground c o u n t = t o t a l number of t r e e s i n each c a t e g o r y as d e t e r m i n e d on t h e ground 2 H e a l t h y t r e e s a r e t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d as HH on p h o t o s 3 S t r e s s e d t r e e s a r e t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d as I H O b , I I I O a / I I E , I I I O b / I I E 4 0 v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a c c u r a c y was o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g w e i g h t e d means of t h e HEALTHY and STRESSED t r e e s c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d and e x p r e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l number of t r e e s i n b o t h c a t e g o r i e s . a c c u r a c y f i g u r e s were t h e n c o r r e c t e d f o r t h a t p o r t i o n of t r e e s w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g s t r e s s e d , b u t were fo u n d t o have been damaged by some a g e n t o t h e r t h a n m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e ( T a b l e V I I I ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d and a t t a c k e d t r e e s i s a p p a r e n t l y not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by s c a l e c h a n g e s . However, t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e non-a t t a c k e d t r e e s t e n d s t o d e c r e a s e i n a c c u r a c y w i t h d e c r e a s e d s c a l e . As s c a l e d e c r e a s e s , more h e a l t h y t r e e s a r e w r o n g l y c l a s s i f i e d as s t r e s s e d / d a m a g e d t r e e s . M urtha (1983) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . The f r e q u e n c y of m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d w i t h d e c r e a s i n g s c a l e , however, s e p a r a t i o n o f h e a l t h y and a t t a c k e d t r e e s was a c h i e v e d w i t h an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y of 89% a t 1:1,000, 83% a t 1:2,000, 9 1 % a t 1:3,000, and 83% a t 1:4,000 ( T a b l e V I I I ) . A l t h o u g h a r e a s o n a b l e a c c u r a c y of s e p a r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d a t 1:4,000, t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s was c o n s i d e r a b l y s l o w e r t h a n a t t h e l a r g e r s c a l e s . 5.2.1 C o m p a r i s o n o f 1981 w i t h 1982 p h o t o g r a p h s A s m a l l sample of t h e 1981 c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s were q u a l i t a t i v e l y compared w i t h 1982 p h o t o s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o l i a g e c o l o u r changes t h a t t r e e s n e w l y - a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e underwent i n one y e a r ( T a b l e I X ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between t r e e s a t t a c k e d o v e r one y e a r ago and t h o s e n e w l y - i n f e s t ed i s v e r y o b v i o u s ( s e e P l a t e s 2 and 3) and f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e most d e t e c t i o n s t u d i e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e l a t e summer TABLE V I I I . A c c u r a c y of p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of n o n - a t t a c k e d ^ and a t t a c k e d " 3 t r e e s a t each o f t h e 4 s c a l e s u s i n g t h e o r i g i n a l c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p o s i t i v e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s of a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , Kamloops, B.C., 1981. P h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c c u r a c y H e a l t h y NON-ATTACKED 2 t r e e s ATTACKED 3 t r e e s S c a l e No. % Ground No. % 4 O v e r a l l C o u n t C o r r e c t A c c u r a c y Count C o r r e c t A c c u r a c y A c c u r a c y 1:1,000 29 26 90% 42 37 88% 89% 1:2,000 75 58 77% 85 74 87% 83% 1:3,000 32 26 81% 62 60 97% 9 1 % 1:4,000 57 43 75% 78 69 88% 83% ^Ground c o u n t = t o t a l number of t r e e s i n each c a t e g o r y as d e t e r m i n e d on t h e ground 2 N o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were t h o s e t h a t were d e s c r i b e d as h e a l t h y f r o m t h e ground •^Attacked t r e e s were t h o s e t h a t showed s i g n s of b e e t l e a c t i v i t y and p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t e d a s : I H O a , I H O b , I I I O a / I I E and I I I O b / I I E on t h e p h o t o s 4 0 v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a c c u r a c y was o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g w e i g h t e d means of t h e NON-ATTACKED and ATTACKED t r e e s c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d , and e x p r e s s i n g t h e r e s u l t as a p e r c e n t a g e of t h e t o t a l number of t r e e s i n b o t h c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE IX. A c o m p a r i s o n o f 1981 damage-type c o l o u r s w i t h t h e 1982 damage-type c o l o u r s as t h e y a p p e a r on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f a l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d i n t h e T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. T r e e Number Damage Type 1981 C o l o u r 1982 C o l o u r 1 HH magenta HH magenta 2 I I I O a / I I E d a r k magenta I I I G y e l l o w 3 I I I O b / I I E d a r k magenta I I I G y e l l o w 4 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 5 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 6 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 7 HH magenta HH magenta 8 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 9 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 10 I I I O a / I I E d a r k magenta I I I O b / I I E l i g h t magenta 11 I H O b l i g h t magenta I I I G y e l l o w 57 PLATES 2 and 3: Colour-infrared stereo-pairs (1:2000) of lodgepole pine newly-infested with mountain pine beetle in 1981 compared with photographs of the same trees in 1982. (Reference should be made to Table IX). 1981 1982 1981 1982 60 e a r l y f a l l o f t h e y e a r a f t e r a t t a c k by w h i c h t i m e a d u l t b e e t l e s w i l l have f o u n d new h o s t t r e e s . The s m a l l sample c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t 8 o f t h e 9 t r e e s i n t e r p r e t e d as showing s u b t l e damage symptoms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e c e n t i n f e s t a t i o n by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , had v i s i b l y c h a nged c o l o u r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . One y e a r l a t e r , t h e f o l i a g e had changed t o a r ed-brown c o l o u r and was s e e n as y e l l o w on t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s (damage t y p e I I I G ) . T h e s e 8 t r e e s had been a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n 1981. T r e e 10 was an e x c e p t i o n i n t h a t i t showed t h e same damage symptoms i n 1981 as t h e t r e e s newly i n f e s t e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , but i t d i d n o t v i s i b l y change c o l o u r o v e r one y e a r . The crown d i d a p p e a r a l i g h t e r magenta ( I I I O b / I I E ) on t h e c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s i n 1982. T h i s t r e e was not a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , b u t d i d show symptoms of s t r e s s . 5.3 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f f i l m r e s p o n s e d a t a D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were o b t a i n e d f o r each of t h e d e n s i t o m e t r i c v a r i a b l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e t h r e e d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t i e s and t h e i r r a t i o s t o w h i c h Moore t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s had been a p p l i e d . F i l m d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t i e s a r e i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o r e f l e c t a n c e , e.g. a h i g h d e n s i t y v a l u e f o r t h e c y a n d y e - l a y e r i n d i c a t e s a low r e f l e c t a n c e o f i n f r a r e d l i g h t f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ( F r i t z 1 9 6 7 ) . D y e - l a y e r r a t i o s a r e i n d i c a t i v e of r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y p a t t e r n s r a t h e r t h a n a b s o l u t e d e n s i t y v a l u e s . D y e - l a y e r r a t i o s may be u s e d t o i n f e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e f l e c t a n c e p a t t e r n s 61 ( H a l l e_t a_l. 1983). The d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x 1 i n t h e form of h i s t o g r a m s . ANOVA r e s u l t s o f t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r e a c h damage c l a s s by s c a l e a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X. [ N o t e : The d e n s i t y measurements o f t h e f i l m d y e - l a y e r s have been m o d i f i e d by a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e Moore t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h u s , t h e m o d i f i e d y e l l o w v a l u e becomes TG, t h e magenta, TR, and t h e c y a n , TIR. The r a t i o s a r e d e n o t e d by c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e s e l e t t e r s ( r e f e r t o Methods 4 . 4 ) ] . Where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between damage c l a s s e s , h i s t o g r a m s were drawn u s i n g t h e mean f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e o f t h e HH t r e e s as t h e b a s e l i n e and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r each damage t y p e d i f f e r e d was p l o t t e d e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e b a s e l i n e ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . At 1:1,000, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between any o f t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r e a c h o f t h e damage c l a s s e s . Two of t h e r e s p o n s e r a t i o s , however, i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e v a l u e s . The r a t i o s of t h e TG t o TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r HH and I I I O a / I I E t r e e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t -l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e I I I O b / I I E t r e e s . Images o f t r e e s i n t h e HH and I I I O a / I I E damage g r o u p s showed a h i g h e r TG v a l u e r e l a t i v e t o TIR, w h i c h , i n terms o f r e f l e c t a n c e , i n d i c a t e d e l e v a t e d r e f l e c t a n c e of n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t r e l a t i v e t o g r e e n l i g h t , whereas t h e I I I O b / I I E g r o u p , h a v i n g a s m a l l e r TG t o TIR r a t i o , w hich s u g g e s t e d a r e d u c e d n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e g r e e n . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e TGIR r a t i o s of t h e 1110a and I H O b t r e e s and t h e TABLE X. ANOVA results of film response values for each damage class as interpreted from CIR transparencies of a lodgepole pine stand in the Tranquile Valley, 1981. Damage Class (N) Total Film Response Response Ratio TG TR TIR TGR TGIR TRIR Scale 1:1, 0 0 0HH ( 3 1 ) 1 . 6 2 + . 4 4 a 1 . 3 7 + . 3 3 a . 3 2 + . 1 0 a 1 . 1 8 + . 0 5 a 5 . 1 2 + . 4 4 a 4 . 3 5 + . 4 3a IHOa ( 3 ) 1 . 6 6 + . 3 3 a 1 . 3 7 + . 2 0 a . 3 3 + . 0 6 a 1 . 2 0 + . 0 7 a 4 . 9 7 + . 0 8 a b 4 . 1 5 + . 2 2 t t D IlOb ( 1 6 ) 1 . 4 9 + . 2 8 a 1 . 2 7 + . 2 2 a . 3 1 + . 0 7 a 1 . 1 7 + . 0 5 a 4 . 8 2 + . 5 4 a b 4 . 1 0 + . 3 8 a b IIIOa/IIE ( 1 1 ) 1 . 6 5 + . 2 9 a 1 . 3 5 + . 1 9 a . 3 3 + . 0 7 a 1 . 2 1 + . 0 7 a 5 . 1 9 + 1 . 1 3 a 4 . 2 6 + . 7 7 a IIIOb/IIE ( 1 8 ) 1 . 5 1 + . 3 4 a 1 . 2 7 + . 2 5 a . 3 4 + . 1 0 a 1 . 1 9 + . 0 5 a 4 . 5 6 + . 7 5 b 3 . 8 4 + . 6 1 b Scale 1:2, 0 0 0 H H ( 6 9 ) 1 . 5 4 + . 2 5 a 1 . 3 4 + . 2 1 . 3 7 + . 1 2 a 1 . 1 5 + . 0 7 a 4 . 4 6 + 1 . 0 6 a 3 . 8 5 + . 8 1 a IHOa ( 9 ) 1 . 8 1 + . 3 1 b 1 . 5 4 + . 2 2 C • 4 7 + . 1 2 b o h 1 . 1 7 + . 0 8 a D 3 . 9 7 + . 8 2 a 3 . 3 7 + . 5 5 a IHOb ( 4 3 ) 1 . 5 0 + . 3 0 a 1 . 2 9 + . 2 1 a .se+.n813 1 . 1 6 + . 0 9 a 4 . 3 5 + 1 . 0 3 a 3 . 7 3 + . 7 3 a IIIOa/IIE ( 1 5 ) 1 . 7 1 + . 3 7 b l^ +.SO130 . 41+ . 1 1 ° * I .IS+.OS"* 4 . 2 6 + . 5 4 a 3 . 6 2 + . 5 1 a IIIOb/IIE ( 3 7 ) 1 . 5 5 + . 3 2 a b 1 . 3 0 + . 2 5 a . 3 5 + . 7 3 a 1 . 2 0 + . 0 7 b 4 . 4 6 + . 4 9 a 3 . 7 2 + . 4 1 a Scale 1:3, , 0 0 0 H H ( 2 8 ) 1 . 6 7 + . 3 7 a 1 . 4 1 + . 2 9 a . 3 6 + . 1 0 a 1 . 1 8 + . 0 5 a 4 . 6 7 + . 5 4 a 3 . 9 7 + . 4 2a IHOa ( 5 ) 1 . 6 9 + . 2 3 a 1 . 3 7 + . 1 6 a . 3 6 + . 0 5 a 1 . 2 3 + . 0 9 b 4 . 6 4 + . 4 8 a 3 . 7 7 + . 3 3 a IHOb ( 2 8 ) 1 . 5 3 + . 2 9 a 1 . 3 0 + . 2 4 a . 3 5 + . 0 8 a 1 . 1 8 + . 0 6 a 4 . 4 7 + . 5 2 a 3 . 7 9 + . 4 1 a IIIOa/IIE ( 1 6 ) 1 . 6 9 + . 2 4 a 1 . 3 9 + . 2 1 a . 3 7 + . 0 7 a 1 . 2 2 + . 0 4 b 4 . 6 4 + . 5 6 a 3 . 8 0 + . 4 5 a IIIOb/IIE ( 2 3 ) 1 . 5 1 + . 2 7 a 1 . 2 5 + . 2 1 a . 3 4 + . 0 6 a 1 . 2 1 + . 0 5 b 4 . 5 1 + . 3 7 a 3 . 7 2 + . 3 2 a Scale 1:4 , 0 0 0 HH ( 5 2 ) 1 . 7 9 + . 3 4 a 1 . 5 2 + . 2 7 a . 4 0 + . 0 9 a 1 . 1 8 + . 0 4 a 4 . 5 1 + . 4 0 a S . S S + . S T8 -IHOa ( 5 ) • 1 . 8 0 + . 2 2 a 1 . 4 8 + . 1 5 a . 4 0 + . 0 4 a 1 . 2 2 + . 0 3 b 4 . 5 2 + . 1 9 a 3 . 7 1 + . ^ IHOb ( 4 1 ) 1 . 7 2 + . 3 3 a 1 . 4 7 + . 2 9 a • 4 0 + . 0 9 a 1 . 1 7 + . 0 4 a 4 . 3 0 + . 3 8 a 3 . 6 7 + . 3 0 a IIIOa/IIE ( 1 5 ) 1 . 9 4 + . 3 4 a 1 . 6 3 + . 2 6 a . 4 6 + . 0 9 a n h 1 . 1 9 + . 0 3 4 . 2 9 + . 4 1 a 3 . 6 0 + . 3 3 a IIIOb/IIE ( 3 2 ) 1 . 7 9 + . 3 0 a 1 . 4 9 + . 2 4 a . 4 0 + . 0 8 a 1 . 2 0 + . 0 3 b 4 . 4 7 + . 4 3 a 3 . 7 3 + . 3 ^ Values folowed by different letter are significantly different, Scheffe's Test (p < 0.05) 63 •3r inooo CO •o 0 CD c o a M a> GREEN •3r s_> + .1 1:2000 HH - .1 HH .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 RED .2 + .1 HH] - . I L IR + .1 HH - .1 .2 .3 -.4 -.5 .6 N.IR • .1 HH - .1 n /R + .1 -TBT HH r - i 1:3000 HHLH EI m 1:4000 % "S HHI - .1 n FIGURE 11: F i l m r e s p o n s e d e v i a t i o n ( f r d ) h i s t o -grams o f s t r e s s e d v s . h e a l t h y l o d g e -p o l e p i n e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1 9 8 1 . f"~l IHOa tU mo* 11 lIIOallE H O b D E 64 r e m a i n d e r . The TRIR r a t i o o f t h e HH t r e e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of t h e I I I O b / I I E t r e e s , which s u g g e s t e d a r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n r e f l e c t a n c e o f n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t f r o m HH t r e e s when compared t o t r e e s i n t h e I I I O b / I I E c a t e g o r y . F i l m r e s p o n s e a n a l y s i s o f t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s r e v e a l e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t h e damage t y p e s f o r each o f t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s . T o t a l g r e e n (TG) r e s p o n s e v a l u e s of b o t h t h e I H O a and I I I O a / I I E g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n f o r o t h e r g r o u p s , w h i c h s u g g e s t e d a r e d u c e d r e f l e c t a n c e of g r e e n l i g h t by t h e t r e e s i n t h e s e damage c l a s s e s . The same was f o u n d on e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e TR v a l u e s , i n d i c a t i n g a r e d u c e d r e f l e c t a n c e of r e d l i g h t by t r e e s i n t h e I H O a and I I I O a / I I E damage c a t e g o r i e s . The TIR v a l u e s , as r e c o r d e d f o r images of t h e HH and I I I O b / I I E t r e e s , were s i g n i f i -c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e TIR v a l u e of t h e I H O a t r e e s . No s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s of o t h e r damage t y p e s . The TGIR r a t i o f o r t h e I I I O b / I I E t r e e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e r a t i o s of t h e HH and I H O b t r e e s . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t e d a r e l a t i v e r e d u c t i o n i n r e f l e c t a n c e o f g r e e n l i g h t t o r e d l i g h t i n t h e I I I O b / I I E damage t y p e , as compared t o t h e h e a l t h y and I H O b t r e e s , where f i l m r e c o r d o f g r e e n l i g h t i s h i g h r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e d l i g h t . A t t h e 1:3,000 s c a l e , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between damage c l a s s e s on e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e . The r a t i o o f t h e TG r e s p o n s e t o t h e TR r e s p o n s e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s l a y between t h e HH and 65 I H O b t r e e s and t h e r e s t o f t h e damage t y p e s ( I H O a , I I I O a / I I E , and I I I O b / I I E ) . The r a t i o of t h e TG t o TR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r f o r t h e HH and I H O b t r e e s i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n g r e e n r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m t r e e s i n t h e s e g r o u p s as compared t o t r e e s i n t h e I H O a , I I I O a / I I E , and I I I O b / I I E g r o u p s . N e i t h e r t h e TGIR o r TRIR r e s p o n s e r a t i o s i n d i c a t e d any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between damage t y p e s . At 1:4,000, r e s u l t s of one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s and r a t i o s f o r e a c h o f t h e damage t y p e s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e 1:3,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between damage c l a s s e s u s i n g any of t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s and t h e o n l y r a t i o t o r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , was t h a t o f t h e TG t o TR r e s p o n s e . The TGR r a t i o of HH and I H O b t r e e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e I H O a and I I I O b / I I E t r e e s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o o f t h e I I I O a / I I E t r e e s and t r e e s i n o t h e r damage g r o u p s . The r a t i o of t h e TG and TR r e s p o n s e s of t h e HH and I H O b t r e e images i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e r a t i o s f o r t h e I H O a and I I I O b / I I E t r e e images. The r e s u l t s o f t h e one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t r e e s w i t h i n t h e d i f f e r e n t damage c a t e g o r i e s , a p a r t f r o m t h o s e c a s e s m e n t i o n e d , d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e . H i s t o g r a m s ( F i g u r e 11) i n d i c a t e how mean f i l m r e s p o n s e o r r a t i o v a l u e s o f t r e e s w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s damage c l a s s e s d i f f e r e d 66 f r o m t h e mean v a l u e s o f HH t r e e s . F i g u r e s drawn r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h o s e c a s e s where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were fo u n d between some o f t h e damage t y p e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e a t a p a r t i c u -l a r s c a l e . A t 1:1,000, a n a l y s i s of t h e r a t i o of t h e TG t o TIR r e s p o n s e s , i n d i c a t e d an o v e r a l l r e d u c t i o n of t h e TGIR r e s p o n s e r a t i o f o r a l l damage t y p e s , i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e HH t r e e s ( T a b l e X ) . T h i s i n f e r s a d e c r e a s e i n f i l m r e s p o n s e t o i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o r e s p o n s e t o g r e e n r e f l e c t a n c e i n each of t h e damage c a t e g o r i e s . The change i n r a t i o v a l u e s of t h e TR t o TIR r e s p o n s e s s u g g e s t e d a d e c r e a s e d f i l m r e s p o n s e t o n e a r - i n f r a -r e d r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m t r e e s i n t h e I H O a , I H O b and I I I O b / I I E damage t y p e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e HH t r e e . H i s t o g r a m s o f f i l m r e s p o n s e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s i n d i c a t e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t damage c l a s s e s were r e c o r d e d by t h e TG, TR, and TIR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . I H O a and I I I O a / I I E images were f o u n d t o have g r e a t e r TG, TR, and TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e t h a n t h e HH t r e e s , i n d i c a t i n g r e d u c e d g r e e n , r e d and n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t -a n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The I H O b t r e e images had l o w e r TG, TR, and TIR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s t h a n t h e HH t r e e s i n d i c t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y e l e v a t e d g r e e n r e d and n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e s . A n a l y s i s of t h e TGR r e s p o n s e r a t i o s of t h e t r e e images w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e damage t y p e s r e v e a l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e f l e c t a n c e p a t t e r n s : a l l of t h e damage c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e d TGR r a t i o s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e r a t i o f o r t h e h e a l t h y t r e e s i . e . t h e 67 TG f i l m r e s p o n s e , i n e a c h c a s e i s h i g h e r r e l a t i v e t o t h e TR f i l m r e s p o n s e . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t i n each damage c l a s s , t h e r e f l e c t -a n ce o f g r e e n l i g h t was low r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e f l e c t a n c e of t h e r e d l i g h t . The I I I O b / I I E t r e e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t most c l e a r l y ( T a b l e X ) . The h i s t o g r a m s of t h e damage t y p e s f o r b o t h t h e 1:3,000 and 1:4,000 s c a l e a r e s i m i l a r i n a p p e a r a n c e ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . A t 1:3,000, t h e TG/TR r a t i o f o r t h e HH g r o u p and t h e I H O b group i s t h e same, i . e . t h e r e l a t i v e r e f l e c t a n c e o f g r e e n and r e d l i g h t by t h e s e two damage t y p e s a p p e a r s t o be c o n s t a n t a t t h i s s c a l e . The I H O a t r e e s have t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f TG t o TR d e n s i t y , f o l l o w e d b y , t h e I I I O a / I I E t r e e s and t h e I I I O b / I I E g r o u p have t h e l o w e s t f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o . In terms o f r e f l e c t a n c e , t r e e s w i t h i n each of t h e damage t y p e s a p p a r e n t l y r e f l e c t e d l e s s g r e e n l i g h t r e l a t i v e t o r e d , as compared t o t h e h e a l t h y (HH) t r e e s . The r e f l e c t a n c e p a t t e r n s a p p e a r t o be s i m i l a r f o r each of t h e g r o u p s a t 1:4,000 s c a l e , e x c e p t t h a t t h e I H O b group of t r e e s r e f l e c t s more g r e e n l i g h t t h a n t h e HH t r e e s and t h e o t h e r damage t y p e s . I t may be o b s e r v e d f r o m t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e s e h i s t o -grams, t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s of t h e d i f f e r e n t damage c l a s s e s become r e d u c e d w i t h r e d u c t i o n i n s c a l e ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t f i l m r e s p o n s e t o r e f l e c t e d l i g h t d e c r e a s e d w i t h d e c r e a s e d s c a l e . At t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e , t r e e s w i t h i n t h e I I I O b / I I E damage c l a s s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r r a t i o of TG and TIR r e s p o n s e , t h a n t h e HH t r e e s w h i c h s u g g e s t s a r e d u c t i o n i n n e a r i n f r a r e d 68 r e f l e c t a n c e r e c o r d e d , r e l a t i v e t o g r e e n r e f l e c t a n c e . The TRIR r e s p o n s e r a t i o of t h e HH t r e e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e I I I O b / I I E t r e e s , i n d i c a t i n g a d e c r e a s e d f i l m r e s p o n s e t o n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t r e l a t i v e t o r e s p o n s e t o r e d l i g h t . T r e e s w i t h i n o t h e r damage g r o u p s do not show s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s . At t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between damage t y p e s , as i n d i c a t e d by t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s . TIR v a l u e s of t h e I H O a t y p e t r e e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r compared t o t h o s e of t h e HH and I I I O b / I I E t r e e s . TG and TR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s of t h e I H O a and I I I O a / I I E t r e e images were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e HH and I H O b t r e e s ( T a b l e X ) . A l t h o u g h one c a s e i n f e r r e d t h a t e a r l y s p e c t r a l changes i n s t r e s s e d t r e e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e n e a r i n f r a r e d , t h e r e was e v i d e n c e h e r e t o s u g g e s t t h a t c h a n g es had o c c u r r e d i n t h e v i s i b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c t r u m (500-700 nm) by t h e t i m e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n i n A u g u s t . The r e s u l t s of t h e one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e between e a c h o f t h e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e X I ) showed l i t t l e d i f f e r -e n c e between t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s and t h e i r r a t i o s f o r each o f t h e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n about t h e mean was g e n e r a l l y so l a r g e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not e x i s t between most o f t h e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s . H i s t o g r a m s ( F i g u r e 12) i n d i c a t e how mean f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o v a l u e s o f t r e e s w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s TABLE XI. ANOVA results of film response values for each attack category. Atack Total Film Response Response Ratio Category (N) TG TR TIR TGR TGIR TRIR Scale 1:1, ,000 NON1 (29) 1.67+.41b 1.39+.30a .33+.09a 1.19+.05a 5.11+.46a 4.30+.45bcd o ATT. (32) 1.52+.28ab 1.27+.23a .32+.08a 1.20+.10a 4.79+.59b 4.01+.50a P.O.3 ( 8) 1.31+.13a 1.14+.12a • 28+.06a 1.15+.03a 4.73+.66ab 4.14+. 60^  STRIP4 ( 2) 1.98+.49b. 1.53+.27a .31+.0la 1.29+.09a 6.50+1.90C 5.01+l.lb NOT MPB5 ( 8) 1.60+.48ab 1.35+.36a •36+.14a 1.18+.05a 4.66+.91b 3.95+. 73^  Scale 1:2, ,000 NON (75) 1.55+.26a 1.34+. 201x1 .37+.lla 1.16+.07a 4.49+1.03a 3.85+.79a ATT. (67) 1.61+.37a 1.37+.29te .39+.lla 1.18+.lla 4.29+.80a 3.65+.60a P.O. (14) 1.42+.16a i.26+.V7Bi> •36+.lla 1.13+.07a 4.18+.93a 3.67+.69a STRIP ( 4) 1.74+.39a 1.53+.31C .38+.10a 1.14+.05a 4.69+.60a 4.13+.48a NOT MPB (13) 1.45+.20a 1.18+.15a .32+.06a 1.23+.07b 4.59+.67a 3.72+.46a Scale 1:3, ,000 NON. (32) 1.63+.34a 1.38+.27b ,35+.08a 1.18+.05a 4.66+.43a 3.95+.34a ATT. (53) 1.61+.27a 1.33+.22ab •36+.07a 1.21+.10a 4.58+.55a 3.79+.45a P.O. ( 6) 1.38+.14a 1.12+.14a •30+.03a 1.24+.07a 4.62+.18a 3.75+.24a STRIP ( 3) 1.76+.28a 1.50+.23b ,38+.07a 1.17+.02a 4.58+.16a 3.91+.!^  NON MPB ( 6) 1.34+.39a 1.16+.36a • 33+.12a 1.18+.05a 4.20+.54a 3.57+.41a Scale 1:4, ,000 NON. (57) 1.81+.36a 1.52+.28a .41+.09a 1.19+.04a 4.48+.40a S^S+.ST8-ATT. (64) 1.77+.33a 1.50+.28a .41+.09a 1.18+.05a 4.36+.40a 3.69+.34a P.O. (11) 1.66+.17a 1.41+.14a .38+.05a 1.18+.03a 4.45+.49a 3.77+.42a STRIP ( 3) 2.00+.28a 1.70+.23a .46+.09a 1.18+.04a 4.40+.37a 3.73+.25a NON MPB (10) 1.73+.24a 1.43+.21a •39+.05a 1.21+.03a 4.48+.45a 3.70+.41a Values folowed by different letter are significantly different, Scheffe's Test (p < 05). 1 NON = healthy trees not atacked by mountain pine beetle (MPB) 2 ATT = trees successfully atacked by MPB 3 P.O. = trees which had resisted atack by "pitch out" 4 STRIP = trees which had been partially atacked by MPB 5 NOT MPB = stressed trees not atacked by MPB 70 1:1000 c o > o •a 0) CO c o a G R E E N .4f +.2 non att. .4 TJ "W .8 .6 .4 +.2 non. att. -.2 .4 I 1.4 1.2 1.0 .8 .6 .4 + .2 non att. - . 2 .4 .6 I 1:2000 1:3000 RED •2r + .1 T3 non £ att. - .1 .2 n . REO 2r + .1 *D non. £ att. - .1 .2 .3 T J I FIGURE 12: F i l m r e s p o n s e d e v i a t i o n ( f r d ) h i s t o g r a m s o f s t r e s s e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e v s . l o d g e p o l e p i n e non-a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. ["1 attacked f f l strip attacked HH pitch out WL not MPB 71 d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e t r e e s w h i c h have not been a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , and a r e not o t h e r w i s e s t r e s s e d . F i g u r e s drawn r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h o s e c a s e s where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between some of t h e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e . At 1:1,000, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n t h e TG f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s between n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s and t r e e s t h a t were f o u n d t o have " p i t c h e d o u t " a t t a c k i n g b e e t l e s , and between t r e e s t h a t had been s t r i p - a t t a c k e d and " p i t c h o u t " t r e e s . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n TG f i l m r e s p o n s e f o r t h e " p i t c h o u t " t r e e images as compared t o r e s p o n s e v a l u e s of t h e non-a t t a c k e d and s t r i p - a t t a c k e d c a t e g o r i e s ( F i g u r e 1 2 ) . T h i s r e s u l t i n f e r s t h a t more g r e e n l i g h t was r e c o r d e d f o r t r e e s w i t h i n t h e " p i t c h o u t " c a t e g o r y . The TGIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o of t h e non-a t t a c k e d t r e e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e a t t a c k e d g r o u p , and t h e TGIR r a t i o f o r t r e e s w hich had been s t r i p - a t t a c k e d was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n r a t i o s f o r a l l o f t h e o t h e r a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s an i n c r e a s e d f i l m r e s p o n s e t o g r e e n l i g h t , f o r n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s when compared t o s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e s p o n s e r a t i o o f TG t o TIR was s m a l l e r s t i l l f o r t h e s t r i p -a t t a c k e d t r e e s , t h i s g r o u p b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r m s o f t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e f r o m a l l o t h e r a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e X I ) . The TRIR r e s p o n s e r a t i o s y i e l d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o t h e TGIR r a t i o s f o r e a c h a t t a c k c a t e g o r y . The TR/TIR r a t i o f o r n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e r a t i o f o r 72 a t t a c k e d t r e e s , a r e s u l t w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i v e l y more i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d by t h e f i l m t h a n r e d l i g h t . The s t r i p - a t t a c k e d t r e e s , a l t h o u g h not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d g roup, had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TRIR r a t i o v a l u e s t h a n t r e e s w i t h i n t h e r e m a i n i n g a t t a c k c a t e -g o r i e s . The h i g h e r f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o i s i n d i c a t i v e of an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount of n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d by t h e f i l m dye l a y e r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e amount of r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s were f o u n d o n l y i n t h e TR f i l m r e s p o n s e a t t h e 1:2,000 s c a l e ( T a b l e X I ) . T r e e s s t r e s s e d by a g e n t s o t h e r t h a n m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e were t h e o n l y group which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . The TR r e s p o n s e f o r t h e s e images b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n f o r t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . T h i s i n f e r s t h a t , compared t o t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d f o r t h e n o n-mountain p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s . S t r i p - a t t a c k e d t r e e s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s t h a n t h o s e t r e e s t h a t had " p i t c h e d o u t " and t h o s e t h a t were o t h e r w i s e s t r e s s e d , i n d i c a t i n g a compara-t i v e l y s m a l l e r r e d r e c o r d f o r images of s t r i p - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . A t 1:3,000, n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e images and images of t r e e s w h i c h had been s t r i p - a t t a c k e d had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s t h a n images o f t r e e s t h a t had " p i t c h e d o u t " and n o n - m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s a d e c r e a s e d r e c o r d o f r e d l i g h t , by t h e f i l m , f o r n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s and t r e e s t h a t had been s t r i p - a t t a c k e d . Images of t r e e s 73 w h i c h had been s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r a t t a c k g r o u p s , i n terms of TR f i l m r e s p o n s e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s on t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s , u s i n g any of t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s o r t h e i r r a t i o s ( T a b l e X I ) . The h i s t o g r a m s ( F i g u r e 12) and r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e XI i n d i c a t e t h a t t r e e s t h a t had been s t r i p - a t t a c k e d , were most c o n s i s t e n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t r e e s w i t h i n o t h e r a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s i n terms of f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s and r a t i o s , b u t t h e y d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . The TGIR and TRIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s f o r n o n - a t t a c k e d and a t t a c k e d t r e e images were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t 1:1,000. B o t h t h e TGIR and TRIR r a t i o s f o r t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e same r a t i o s f o r t h e a t t a c k e d t r e e s . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n f e r t h a t t h e r e c o r d of i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f g r e e n and r e d r e f l e c t a n c e i s l o w e r f o r t h e a t t a c k e d t r e e images t h a n i t i s f o r t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e images. T h e r e i s no f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e c o r d f o r a t t a c k e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e a t any of t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e s . T h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t r e d u c t i o n i n t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e and r a t i o d i f f e r e n c e s between a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h d e c r e a s e i n s c a l e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t f i l m r e s p o n s e t o r e f l e c t e d l i g h t d e c r e a s e s w i t h d e c r e a s e i n s c a l e of t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e may be some s p e c t r a l c hange i n t h e r e d p o r t i o n of t h e s p e c t r u m , as m a n i f e s t e d by 74 TR f i l m r e s p o n s e , f o r s t r i p - a t t a c k e d and non-mountain p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s . However, t h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y no s e p a r a -t i o n o f n o n - a t t a c k e d and s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s u s i n g t h e s e r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r TGIR and TRIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s , f o r t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e images o f newly a t t a c k e d t r e e s , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e may be some d e c r e a s e i n t h e amount of n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d f o r t h e s e t r e e s as compared t o n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . * T h e r e i s a need f o r f u r t h e r i r i s i t u s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r i c s t u d i e s t o m o n i t o r r e f l e c t a n c e changes i n r e c e n t l y s t r e s s e d f o l i a g e of d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s . H e l l e r (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t no r e a l p h y s i c a l c h a n g es o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e n e e d l e s o f p o n d e r o s a p i n e , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k . C o n s e q u e n t l y he s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e would be no e a r l y symptoms of s t r e s s i n t h e n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e f r o m t h e t r e e . However, H e l l e r d i d f i n d an i n c r e a s e o f r e f l e c t a n c e a t 0.68 um ( r e d ) and a 5-10% d e c r e a s e a t 0.75 - 1.2 um ( n e a r - i n f r a r e d ) by s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r i c measurement o f t h e n e e d l e s 45 days a f t e r a t t a c k . In a d d i t i o n t o s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r i c s t u d i e s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t t o e l u c i d a t e where and when ch a n g e s o c c u r as a r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s , and how such changes a f f e c t r e f l e c t a n c e p r o p e r t i e s . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d o u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f s c a l e on t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s and r a t i o s of e a c h damage c l a s s and a t t a c k c a t e g o r y . The r e s u l t s of t h e ANOVA, showing s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between v a l u e s , a r e 75 t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e s X I I a n d X I I I . T hese r e s u l t s have been p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 13-16. A n a l y s i s o f f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s f o r HH t r e e s a t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n TG and TR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s between t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e images and t h e two l a r g e s t s c a l e images ( T a b l e X I I ) . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e a t 1:2,000 and a t 1:4,000. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between s c a l e s f o r t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s o f t h e I H O a t r e e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e I H O b g r o u p i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e TG and TR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s , i . e . r e c o r d e d r e f l e c t a n c e of g r e e n and r e d l i g h t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r a t 1:4,000. T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e of t h e I H O b t r e e s a t 1:4,000 compared t o t h o s e a t 1:1,000 and 1:3,000 w h i c h s u g g e s t e d a d e c r e a s e i n r e c o r d e d i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e ( T a b l e X I I ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s were r e c o r d e d f o r I I I O a / I I E t r e e s a t 1:4,000 and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TIR r e s p o n s e v a l u e was r e c o r d e d f o r t h e s e t r e e s a t 1:4,000 t h a n a t 1:1,000 and a t 1:3,000 ( T a b l e X I I ) . In t h e c a s e of t h e I H O b / H E t r e e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r TG, TR and TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s were r e c o r d e d f o r t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e images t h a n f o r images a t t h e t h r e e l a r g e r s c a l e s ( T a b l e X I I ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e d a r e d u c t i o n o f g r e e n , r e d and n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d by p h o t o g r a p h s a t t h e s m a l l e s t s c a l e . The e f f e c t of s c a l e of f i l m r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s i s d e t e r m i n -ed by e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e r a t i o s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e TABLE XII. ANOVA results showing effects of scale change on film response values for each damage class interpreted from CIR photographs of lodgepole pine, Tranquile Valley, Scale (N) TG Total Film Response TR Response Ratio TIR TGR TGIR TRIR Damage Class: HH 1:1,000 (31) 1.624+.444a 1.368+.332a .321+.104a 1:2,000 (69) 1.542+.254a 1.342+210a .370+.119b 1:3,000 1:4,000 (28) l.eso+.sOT815 i.42i+.295ab .ses+.oge8*5 (52) 1.788+.343b 1.516+.275b .401+.091b Damage Class: IHOa 1:1,000 ( 3) 1.656+.325a 1.374+.200a .333+.0618 1:2,000 (9) 1.810+.308a 1.543+.222a .473+.1218 1:3,000 ( 5) 1.686+.234a 1.370+.164a .364+.0458 1:4,000 ( 5) 1.804+.217a 1.479+.150a .399+.0448 1.180+.051b 5.124+.443b 4.353+.428b 1.149+.066a 4.458+1.057a 3.854+.806a 1.180+.046b 4.683+.542a 3.969+.426a i.i78+.040b 4.509+.400a 3.833+. see*1 1.200+.069a 4.97+.084a 4.150+.216a 1.172+.084a 3.97+.823 1.232+.093a 4.64+.478a 3.367+.555° 1.218+.026 4.52+.187 a 3.773+. 330' 3.708+.156" a 1.173+.050a 4.816+.536a 4.101+.376 b Damage Class: IHOb 1:1,000 (16) 1.491+.279a 1.268+.217tt .313+.0690 1:2,000 (43) 1.502+.308tt 1.291+.213a .SeS+.lCe'"3 1.160+.091a 4.347+1.039a 3.718+.738a 1:3,000 (28) 1.535+.285a 1.304+.241a .348+.0818 1:4,000 (41) 1.712+.329b 1.462+.287b .401+.088* 1.178+.0561 4.468+.518a 3.794+.414! ab Damage Class: IIIOa/IIE 1:1,000 (11) 1.650+.286a 1.355+.1868 1:2,000 (15) 1.709+.366a 1.445+.2968 1:3,000 (16) 1.691+.236a 1.388+.2068 1:4,000 (15) 1.949+.335a 1.633+.262fc Damage Class: IIIOb/IIE 1:1,000 (18) 1.515+.335a 1.273+.2538 1:2,000 (37) 1.555+.318a 1.296+.2508 1:3,000 (23) 1.513+.275a 1.247+.2108 1:4,000 (32) 1.790+.302 .326+.067° .408+.107 be .370+. 072' .458+. 0861-.342+.103° ab 1.172+.037a 4.307+.383tt 3.673+.302a 1.215+.068a 5.192+1.28b 4.258+.774b 1.182+.048a 4.263+.544a 3.617+.512a 1.221+. 039a 4.636+. 559a 3.799+. 447s-1.192+.035a 4.285+.407a 3.596+.330a 1.186+.046a 4.558+.751a 3.844+.607a 1.200+.072a 4.4458+.487a 3.721+.406a 1.212+.049a 4.510+.374a 3.725+.323a b 1.490+.238b .403+.076b 1.200+.032a 4.469+.431a 3.725+.366a .352+.073 .337+.063° a Values folowed by a different letter are significantly different, Scheffe's Test (p < .05) 77 TABLE XIII. ANOVA results showing effects of scale change on total film response values for each atack category of lodgepole pine "ground checked" in the Tranquille Valley, 1981. Scale (N) TG Total Film Response TR TIR Response Ratio TGR TGIR TRIR Atack Categories: Non Atacked 1:1,000 (29) 1.665+.406a 1.389+.304a .330+.0928 1:2,000 1:4,000 (75) 1.552+.256a 1.339+.198a 1:3,000 (32) 1.645+.340a 1.389+.271a (57) 1.813+.362b 1.524+.280b .369+.lllc .355+.084° .409+.0941 1.193+.052b 5.114+.463b 4.297+.454b 1.159+.068a 4.488+.106a 3.851+.789a 1.182+.049a 4.668+.430a 3.951+.344a 1.187+.043a 4.480+.398a 3.779+.369a Atack Category: Successful Atack 1:1,000 (32) 1.522+.279a 1.274+.226a .323+.077° 1:2,000 (67) 1.608+.374a 1.372+.294a .389+.115c 1:3,000 (53) 1.609+.265a 1.331+.223a .355+.0708 1:4,000 (64) 1.775+.325b 1.505+.280b .411+.086t 1.197+.099a 4.787+.587b 4.012+.504b 1.175+.llla 4.289+.796a 3.645+.603a 1.214+.103a 4.585+.555b 3.786+.447ab 1.181+.051a 4.355+.398a 3.690+.335a Atack Category: "Pitch out" 1:1,000 ( 8) 1:2,000 (14) 1:3,000 ( 6) 1:4,000 (11) 1.307+.133a 1.142+.117a 1.418+.159a 1.259+.173a 1.384+.138a 1.124+.140a 1.664+.168b 1.408+.141b .283+.065 .361+.1131-.300+.031 • 377+.052 ab 1.145+.029ab 4.734+.656a 4.139+.604a 1.131+.071a 4.183+.926a 3.672+.691a 1.236+.071° 4.621+.184a 3.749+.243a 1.181+.027bc 4.453+.487a 3.773+.423a Atack Category: Strip-Atacked 1:1,000 ( 2) 1:2,000 ( 4) 1:3,000 ( 3) 1:4,000 ( 3) 1.980+.487a 1.528+.270a .307+.015a 1.745+.387a 1.530+.305a .376+.099a 1.756+.278a 1.496+.230a .385+.0738 2.000+.280a 1.697+.229a .459+.0928 1.288+.092b 6.500+1.900a 5.007+1.12a 1.138+.047a 4.694+.600a 4.126+.'485a 1.174+.021a 4.585+.162a 3.906+.171a 1.179+.041a 4.396+.367a 3.726+.246a Atacked Category: Non-MPB damage 1:1,000 ( 8) 1:2,000 (13) 1:3,000 ( 6) 1:4,000 (10) 1.605+.468a 1.353+.360a 1.450+.198a 1.175+.146a 1.358+.391a 1.159+.358a 1.729+.241a 1.430+.209a .361+.145a 1.178+.054a 4.659+.914a 3.954+.733a .322+.060a 1.234+.066a 4.591+.669a 3.716+.457a .329+.120a 1.177+.052a 4.201+.542a 3.566+.414a •387+.051a 1.211+.027a 4.477+.448a 3.703+.414a Values folowed by a different letter are significantly different, Scheffe's Test (p < .05) 78 FIGURE 13: E f f e c t of scale on t o t a l response o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m , by damage c l a s s of lodgepole pine i n the T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. 2.0 ui 1.5 CO z o a 10 Ui cc 1.0 < .5 i-O HH 2.0 r 2.0 u, 1.5 10 z o a. in ui tt 1.0 < .5 O G R E E N R E D 1.5 1.0 i I N F R A R E D _1 I —1 1 2 3 4 J I —I 1 HTOa .5 • i i i 1 2 3 4 2.0 1.5 1.0 'IR 2.0 1.5 1.0 HE Ob •Sr--I 1 1 SCALE 2 3 4 SCALE 1 - 1:1000 2 - 112000 3 - 10OOO 4 . 1:4000 -J J SCALE 2 3 4 79 FIGURE 14: E f f e c t o f scale on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m response r a t i o s , by damage c l a s s o f lodgepole pine i n the T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. FIGURE 15: E f f e c t of scale on t o t a l response of c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m to . I U J K H l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n ^ a r e a i n f e s t e d with mountain pine beetle, T r a n q u i l l e Valley,1981. FIGURE 16: E f f e c t o f scale on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m response r a t i o s f o r lodgepole pine i n an area i n f e s t e d with mountain pine beetle, T r a n q u i l l e V a l l e y , 1981. 82 TGR r e s p o n s e r a t i o was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r f o r t h e HH t r e e s a t 1:2,000 t h a n a t t h e o t h e r s c a l e s . T h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s TIR r e s p o n s e measured, r e l a t i v e t o TG and TR, f r o m HH t r e e s a t t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e t h a n a t t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e s w hich i n f e r s t h a t more i n f r a r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d f o r HH t r e e s a t 1:1,000. T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i o v a l u e s f o r t h e I H O a t r e e s between t h e f o u r s c a l e s ( T a b l e X I I ) . TRIR r a t i o s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e f l e c t a n c e of i n f r a r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d f o r I H O b t r e e s a t 1:1,000 t h a n a t 1:2,000 and 1:4,000. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e 1:3,000 I H O b image r a t i o and r a t i o s a t o t h e r s c a l e s a l t h o u g h more TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e was r e c o r d e d a t t h i s s c a l e t h a n a t 1:1,000 ( T a b l e X I I ) . The f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s f o r TG and TIR, and TR and TIR o f t h e I I I O a / I I E t r e e images a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t 1:1,000 t h a n a t s m a l l e r s c a l e s . R e l a t i v e l y l e s s TIR r e s p o n s e was measured f o r I I I O a / I I E t r e e s a t t h e l a r g e s c a l e ( T a b l e X I I ) . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t i o v a l u e s f o r I I I O b / I I E t r e e s w i t h i n t h e f o u r s c a l e s . S c a l e s d i d not a p p e a r t o a f f e c t t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s o f t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r damage t y p e I H O a and I I I O b / I I E t r e e s ( T a b l e X I I ) . F i l m r e s p o n s e a n a l y s i s of n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s a t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s showed t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TG and TR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e images and images a t t h e t h r e e l a r g e r s c a l e s ( T a b l e X I I I ) . Measurement of t h e TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r e v e a l e d t h a t images of a t t a c k e d t r e e s a t 1:1,000 and 1:3,000 had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r TIR v a l u e s t h a n images a t 83 1:2,000 and 1:4,000 ( T a b l e X I I I ) . The r e s u l t s f o r images o f s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s and t r e e s t h a t had r e s i s t e d a t t a c k , i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c o r d e d f i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t t h e s m a l l e s t s c a l e . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s r e f l e c t e d g r e e n , r e d , and n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d by t h e f i l m d y e - l a y e r s , f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d and " p i t c h o u t " t r e e s , a t t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e ( T a b l e X I I I ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d f o r s t r i p - a t t a c k e d and non-m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s between s c a l e s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e f o r t h e s e a t t a c k t y p e s was not a f f e c t e d by s c a l e . A n a l y s i s of t h e e f f e c t of s c a l e of f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s i n d i c a t e d , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s , t h a t t h e TGR, TGIR and TRIR r a t i o s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t 1:1,000 t h a n a t t h e t h r e e s m a l l e r s c a l e s ( T a b l e X I I I ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t , a t t h e l a r g e s t s c a l e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e f l e c t e d r e d l i g h t r e l a t i v e t o g r e e n l i g h t was r e c o r d e d , and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e f l e c t e d n e a r - i n f r a r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d r e l a t i v e t o b o t h g r e e n and r e d r e f l e c t e d l i g h t , by t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m f r o m t h e n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s a t t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e s . The u n u s u a l r e s u l t f o u n d on e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e TIR f i l m r e s p o n s e f o r t h e f o u r s c a l e s i n f l u e n c e d t h e TGIR and TRIR r a t i o s f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d t r e e s . In b o t h c a s e s , t h e r a t i o v a l u e s a t 1:1,000 and a t 1:3,000 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n r a t i o v a l u e s a t 1:2,000 and a t 1:4,000 ( T a b l e X I I I ) . S i g n i f i -84 c a n t l y h i g h e r TGIR and TRIR r a t i o s a t 1:1,000 t h a n a t 1:4,000 s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e was a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e amount of n e a r - i n f r a -r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d by t h e f i l m r e l a t i v e t o t h e amounts o f g r e e n and r e d l i g h t r e c o r d e d a t 1:4,000. A n a l y s i s of s c a l e e f f e c t s on t h e TGR r a t i o s o f t r e e s t h a t have " p i t c h e d o u t " a t t a c k i n g b e e t l e s , has p r o d u c e d some i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s , i n t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e TGR r a t i o s between 1:1,000 and 1:3,000, and between 1:2,000 and b o t h 1:3,000 and 1:4,000, but t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between 1:1,000 and 1:4,000. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n t h e TGIR and TRIR r a t i o s between t h e f o u r s c a l e s , f o r " p i t c h o u t " t r e e s . In t h e s t r i p - a t t a c k c a t e g o r y , a n a l y s i s of t h e TGIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r a t i o f o r t r e e s a t 1:1,000 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e s . T h i s r e s u l t i n f e r s t h a t more r e f l e c t e d r e d l i g h t was r e c o r d e d by t h e c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d f i l m r e l a t i v e t o r e f l e c t e d g r e e n l i g h t f o r t h i s group of t r e e s a t t h e l a r g e s t s c a l e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d , i n f i l m r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s , among s c a l e s f o r t h e non-moun-t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d t r e e s ( T a b l e X I I I ) . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e i s s e n s i t i v e t o s c a l e change ( e f f e c t e d by change i n a l t i t u d e of d a t e a c q u i s i -t i o n ) ( F i g u r e s 1 3 - 1 6 ) . A t 1:4,000, t h e TG, TR, and TIR r e s p o n s e v a l u e s t e n d t o i n c r e a s e w i t h d e c r e a s e d s c a l e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t l e s s r e f l e c t e d l i g h t a t t h e t h r e e w a v e l e n g t h s was r e c o r d e d by t h e f i l m w i t h d e c r e a s e d s c a l e . T h i s r e s u l t s u g g e s t s t h a t r e f l e c t e d l i g h t i s b e i n g a t t e n u a t e d a t t h e a l t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d f o r s e n s i n g v e g e t a t i o n damage d a t a a t s m a l l e r s c a l e s . 85 6. CONCLUSIONS B i o l o g i c a l d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d was a t h i g h r i s k i n terms o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a c t i v i t y , and t h a t i t was u n d e r g o i n g an a c t i v e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a -t i o n . V i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f o u r s c a l e s o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s of t h e s t u d y s i t e i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t s t r e s s e d t r e e s j u s t s i x weeks a f t e r m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . T r e e s showed s i g n s of i n c i p i e n t s t r e s s on t h e c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h were n o t v i s i b l e on t h e g r o u n d . T h i s r e s u l t c o n f l i c t s w i t h f i n d i n g s of C i e s l a e t a l . ( 1 9 6 7 ) , H e l l e r (1968, 1971, 1978), and L a n g l e y (1959) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n of s t r e s s c a u s e d by b a r k b e e t l e damage was not a c h i e v e d . A c o m p a r i s o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a c c u r a c y f i g u r e s , a t each s c a l e , showed t h a t 15% f e w e r l o d g e p o l e p i n e were c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d a t t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e t h a n a t t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e . As s c a l e d e c r e a s e d , more h e a l t h y t r e e s were c l a s s i f i e d as s t r e s s e d o r damaged. F r e q u e n c y of m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d w i t h d e c r e a s i n g s c a l e . M u r t h a (1983) r e p o r t e d a 35% i n f o r m a t i o n l o s s on p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of D o u g l a s - f i r when s c a l e was d e c r e a s e d f r o m 1:1,000 t o 1:4,000. H a v i n g c o r r e c t e d f o r t h a t p o r t i o n of t h e t r e e s which were non-mountain p i n e b e e t l e s t r e s s e d , s e p a r a t i o n o f h e a l t h y and a t t a c k e d t r e e s was a c h i e v e d w i t h an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y of 89% a t 1:1,000, 83% a t 1:2,000, 9 1 % a t 1:3,000, and 83% a t 1:4,000. Some e f f e c t of s c a l e was e x p e r i e n c e d on v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of 86 t h e f o u r s e t s o f p h o t o g r a p h s . A t 1:4,000, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n e w l y - i n f e s t e d t r e e s was a c h i e v e d w i t h an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y o f 83%. However, t h e t i m e t a k e n t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a t t h i s s c a l e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e as l o n g as f o r t h e l a r g e r s c a l e s . A s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y might i n c l u d e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s o b t a i n e d a t s c a l e s 1:5,000 and 1:6,000 t o d e t e r m i n e , r e g a r d l e s s o f t i m e r e q u i r e d , how s m a l l a s c a l e may be u s e d t o a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t i n d i v i d u a l crowns of l o d g e p o l e p i n e and t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e r e c e n t l y a t t a c k e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e s of t h e p h o t o -g r a p h i c d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e f i l m was a f f e c t e d by s c a l e . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e i n t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s , i n d i c a t i n g l e s s e x p o s u r e by l i g h t of t h e d y e - f o r m i n g l a y e r s . T h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y no e f f e c t o f s c a l e on t h e TG and TR f i l m r e s p o n s e a t s c a l e s 1:1,000 and 1:3,000, b u t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n b o t h TG and TR r e s p o n s e a t t h e 1:4,000 s c a l e . F i l m r e s p o n s e v a l u e s of t r e e s n e w l y - i n f e s t e d by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e were s e e n t o d i f f e r f r o m measurements of h e a l t h y t r e e s . A t 1:1,000, t r e e s w i t h i n t h e I I I O b / I I E damage c l a s s a r e i n f e r r e d t o e x h i b i t d e p r e s s e d i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t a n c e . S i g n i f i -c a n t l y l o w e r TGIR and TRIR f i l m r e s p o n s e r a t i o s , f o r t h e 1:1,000 s c a l e images o f n e w l y - a t t a c k e d t r e e s , i n f e r s t h a t t h e r e may be some d e c r e a s e i n t h e amount of r e f l e c t e d n e a r - i n f r a r e d r e c o r d e d f o r t h e s e t r e e s as compared t o n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s . T hese 87 r e s u l t s were n o t d u p l i c a t e d a t o t h e r s c a l e s . R e s u l t s of t h e t o t a l f i l m r e s p o n s e a n a l y s i s of damage c l a s s e s , where s i g n i f i -c a n t , t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e changes i n t h e TG and TR r e s p o n s e , which s u g g e s t s t h a t r e f l e c t a n c e changes o c c u r i n t h e g r e e n - r e d p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c t r u m , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t r e e s may a l r e a d y have been dead and t h e f o l i a g e had s t a r t e d t o d i s c o l o u r . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s were f o u n d i n t h e TG r e s p o n s e a t 1:1,000 and i n t h e TR r e s p o n s e a t 1:2,000 and 1:3,000, however, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a c k e d and n o n - a t t a c k e d t r e e s were not f o u n d u s i n g t h e f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e e a r l y c o l o u r c h a n g e s a p p e a r e d t o o c c u r i n t h e v i s i b l e p a r t o f t h e s p e c t r u m , t h e n e w l y - i n f e s t e d t r e e s were v i s u a l l y d e t e c t e d on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s , b u t were n o t r e c o g n i z e d by g r o u n d o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e t r e e crowns. T h i s r e s u l t i n f e r s t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between h e a l t h y and i n f e s t e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s i s made p o s s i b l e by t h e c o n t r a s t p r o p e r t i e s of t h e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m . I n terms of p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 70 mm c o l o u r -i n f r a r e d p h o t o g r a p h s a t 1:3,000 w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e f o r e s t manager w i t h a v a l u a b l e management t o o l . T h i s a u t h o r f o u n d t h a t a key p r o v e d h e l p f u l as a g u i d e t o r e c o g n i t i o n of d i s c r e t e damage t y p e s ( M u r t h a 1978). D e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s i s c o m p l i c a t e d and, i n t h e l i g h t of t h e v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e s u l t s , u n n e c e s s a r y . 88 A t t a c k e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e were d e t e c t e d w i t h i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x weeks of i n f e s t a t i o n by m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , w i t h a 9 1 % a c c u r a c y a t 1:3,000. P o c k e t s o f n e w l y - i n f e s t e d t r e e s , and o t h e r w i s e s t r e s s e d t r e e s , c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be removed b e f o r e t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n o f b e e t l e s l e a v e t h e i n f e s t e d t r e e s f o r new h o s t s and b e f o r e t h e b l u e - s t a i n f u n g i damage t h e wood of t h e s e t r e e s ( S a f r a n y i k e t a l . 1974). The r e m o v a l o f o t h e r w i s e s t r e s s e d t r e e s i s s u g g e s t e d s i n c e t h e y a p p e a r t o be p r e d i s p o s e d t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k . E a r l y d e t e c t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n would h e l p t o r e d u c e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d e v a s t a t i n g e p i p h y t o t i c s ( W h i t n e y e t a l . 1 9 7 8 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f s c a l e on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c o l o u r i n f r a r e d p h o t o -g r a p h s f o r t h e d e t e c t i o n of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e a t t a c k t r e e s , p r i o r t o v i s i b l e f o l i a g e c o l o u r change, i t was f o u n d t h a t i n terms of e a s e and a c c u r a c y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 1:1,000, 1:2,000 and 1:3,000 s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h s y i e l d e d s i m i l a r and u s e f u l r e s u l t s . 89 7. LITERATURE CITED Amman, G. 1982. The m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b i o l o g y , c a u s e s o f o u t b r e a k s and e n t o m o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h n e e d s . I_n: P r o c . J o i n t Canada/USA Workshop on M o u n t a i n P i n e B e e t l e R e l a t e d P r o b l e m s i n W e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . BC-X-230: 7-12. Amman, G. and B.H. B a k e r . 1972. M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f l u e n c e on l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s t r u c t u r e . J . F o r . 70: 204-209. A r n b e r g , W. and L . Wastenson. 1973. Use of a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s f o r e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f b a r k b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n s o f s p r u c e . R o y a l S w e d i s h Academy of S c i e n c e s , Ambio 2: 77-83. Berryman, A.A. 1976. T h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e dynamics i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . E n v i r o n . E n t o m o l . 5: 1225-1233. Berry m a n , A.A. 1982. M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e o u t b r e a k s i n Rocky M o u n t a i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . J . F o r . 80: 410-419. B o r d e n , J.H., J . E . Conn, L.M. F r i s k i e , B.E. S c o t t , L . J . Chong, H.D. P i e r c e and A.C. O e h l s c h l a g e r . 1983. S e m i o - c h e m i c a l s f o r t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e , D e n d r o c t o n u s p o n d e r o s a e ( C o l e o p t e r a ; S c o l y t i d a e ) , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : b a i t e d t r e e s t u d i e s . Can. J . F o r . Res. 1 3 ( 2 ) : 325-333. C a r l s o n , R.E., D.N. Y a r g e r , and R.H. Shaw. 1971. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s of l e a v e s w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on l e a f w a t e r s t a t u s . A g r o n . J . 63:486-498. C i e s l a , W.M. 1978. C o l o r v s . c o l o r i n f r a r e d p h o t o s f o r f o r e s t i n s e c t s u r v e y s . In_: P r o c . 6 t h B i e n n . Workshop on A e r i a l C o l o r P h o t o g r a p h y i n t h e P l a n t S c i e n c e s . Am. S o c . P h o t o -gramm., and C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v . : 31-42. C o l e , W.E. and G.E. Amman. 1969. M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a -t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o l o d g e p o l e p i n e d i a m e t e r s . U.S.D.A. F o r e s t R e s e a r c h N o t e INT-95. 7 p . C o l e , W.E. and G. Amman. 1980. M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e d y n a m i c s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . P a r t 1: C o u r s e o f an i n f e s t a -t i o n . U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e G e n e r a l T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t . INT-89: 56 pp. C o l w e l l , R.N. 1956. D e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r e v a l e n c e of c e r t a i n c e r e a l c r o p d i s e a s e s by means o f a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h . H i l g a r d i a 26: 223-286. D y e r , E.D.A. 1978. M o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e management t r i a l s i n s m a l l i n f e s t a t i o n s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e . U n p u b l . f i l e r e p o r t , P.F.R.C., V i c t o r i a , B.C. F l e m i n g , J . 1978. E x p l o i t i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f Aerochrome I n f r a r e d f i l m . Photogram. Eng. and Remote Sens. 4 4 ( 5 ) : 601-605. Fox, D .J. and K.E. G u i r e . 1976. D o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r MIDAS. 3 r d Ed. S t a t i s t i c a l R e s e a r c h L a b., U n i v . o f M i c h i g a n : 203 pp. F r i t z , N. 1967. Optimum methods f o r u s i n g i n f r a r e d - s e n s i t i v e c o l o u r f i l m s . Photogramm. Eng. 3 3 ( 6 ) : 1128-1138. F u r n i s s , R.L. and V.M. C a r o l i n . 1977. W e s t e r n F o r e s t I n s e c t s , U.S.D.A. F.S. M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1339: 654 pp. G a t e s , D.M. 1970. P h y s i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of p l a n t s . I_n: Nat. A c a d . S c i e n c e s "Remote S e n s i n g w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y " . NAS, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : 224-253. Gausman, H.W. 1974. L e a f r e f l e c t a n c e of n e a r - i n f r a r e d . P h o t o gram. Eng. 40: 183-191. Gausman, H.W. 1977. R e f l e c t a n c e of l e a f components. Remote Sens. Env. 6: 1-9. H a l l , P.M., J.A. McLean, and P.A. M u r t h a . 1983. D y e - l a y e r d e n s i t y a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e s new D o u g l a s - f i r b e e t l e a t t a c k Can. J . F r s t . Res. 1 3 ( 2 ) : 279-282. H a r r i s , J.W.E. and A.F. Dawson. 1979. E v a l u a t i o n o f a e r i a l f o r e s t p e s t damage s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Can. F o r . S e r v . P a c i f i c F o r e s t R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . R e p o r t . BC-X-198: 22 pp. H a r r i s , J.W.E., A.F. Dawson and R.G. Brown. 1982. E v a l u a t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e damage u s i n g a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y . F l a t h e a d R i v e r , B.C. 1980. Can. F o r . S e r v . , P a c F o r . Res. C e n t r e . I n f o r m . Rep. BC-X-228: 10 pp. H e l l e r , R.C. 1968. P r e v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n o f p o n d e r o s a p i n e s d y i n g f r o m b a r k b e e t l e a t t a c k . P r o c . 5 t h Symp. Rem. Sens o f E n v i r o n . : 387-434. H e l l e r , R.C. 1971. D e t e c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s t r e s s symptoms i n f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n . P r o c . I n t . Wkshp. E a r t h Res. S u r v . S y u s t . V o l . I I : 108-122. 91 H e l l e r , R.C. 1978. Case a p p l i c a t i o n s o f remote s e n s i n g f o r v e g e t a t i o n damage a s s e s s m e n t . I_n: Symp. P r o c . on Rem. Sens, f o r V e g e t a t i o n Damage A s s e s s m e n t . S e a t t l e , Wash.: 231-252. H o p p i n g , G.R. and G. B e a l . 1948. The r e l a t i o n of d i a m e t e r of l o d g e p o l e p i n e t o i n c i d e n c e o f a t t a c k by t h e b a r k b e e t l e ( D e n d r o c t o n u s m o n t i c o l a e H o p k . ) . F o r . C h r o n . 24: 141-145. K n i p l i n g , E.B. 1970. P h y s i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f v i s i b l e and n e a r - i n f r a r e d f r o m v e g e t a t i o n . Remote Sen. Env. 1: 155-159. L a n g l e y , P.G. 1959. A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y as an a i d i n i n s e c t c o n t r o l i n w e s t e r n p i n e and mixed c o n i f e r f o r e s t s . J . F o r . 57: 169-172. L e v i t t , J . 1972. R e s p o n s e s of p l a n t s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s e s . A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k , N.Y.: 697 pp. L i l l e s a n d , T.M., P.D. Manion, and B.B. Eav. 1978. Q u a n t i f i c a -t i o n o f u r b a n t r e e s t r e s s t h r o u g h m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y . SUNY, C o l l e g e of E n v i r o n . S c i . and F o r . , S y r a c u s e , N.Y.: 57 pp. Mahoney, R.L. 1978. L o d g e p o l e p i n e / m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e r i s k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . I_n: T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e management i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . Symp. P r o c : 106-113. Manning, G.H. 1982. Impact o f t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e on t h e economy o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r o c . J o i n t Canada/USA Workshop on M o u n t a i n P i n e B e e t l e R e l a t e d P r o b l e m s i n W e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a : 22-23. Moody, B.H. 1981. The r o l e , i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , and m a j o r p e s t p r o b l e m s o f t h e f o r e s t i n s e c t and d i s e a s e s u r v e y . I_n: Uses of Remote S e n s i n g i n F o r e s t P e s t Damage A p p r a i s a l . Sem. P r o c : 43-50. Moore, R.E. 1980. F i l m - f i l t e r c o m b i n a t i o n s f o r a e r i a l c o l o r p h o t o g r a p h y . Can. E n e r g y Mines and R e s o u r c e s , S u r v e y s and Mapping B r . , I.C.A.S., Ottawa, No. SMP-1263E: 32. M u r t h a , P.A. 1972. A g u i d e t o a i r - p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f o r e s t damage i n Canada. Can. F o r . S e r v . P u b l . 1292. O t t awa, O n t a r i o : 63 p. 92 M u r t h a , P.A. 1978. Remote s e n s i n g and v e g e t a t i o n damage: a t h e o r y f o r d e t e c t i o n and a s s e s s m e n t . Photogram. Eng. and Remote Sen s . 44: 1147-1158. M u r t h a , P.A. 1983. Some a i r - p h o t o s c a l e e f f e c t s on D o u g l a s - f i r damage t y p e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Photogram. Eng. and Remote S e n s . 4 9 ( 3 ) ; 327-335. M u r t h a , P.A. and L.S. H a m i l t o n . 1969. D e t e c t i o n of s i m u l a t e d damage on c o n i f e r s u s i n g n e a r - i n f r a r e d f i l m . J . F o r . 6 7 ( 1 1 ) : 827-829. M u r t h a , P.A. and J.A. McLean. 1981. E x t r a v i s u a l d e t e c t i o n ? D e f i n i n g t h e s t a n d a r d n o r m a l t r e e . Photogram. Eng. and Remote S e n s . 4 7 ( 4 ) : 515-522. M y e r s , V . I . , M.D. H e i l m a n , R.J.P. L y o n , L.N. Namken, D. S i m o n e t t , R . J . Thomas, C.L. Wiegand, and J . T . Wooley. 1970. S o i l , w a t e r and p l a n t r e l a t i o n s . I_n: Remote S e n s i n g w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r s t r y . Nat. Acad. S c i . , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : 253-297. O e s t e r , B. 1981. S i g n a t u r e s s p e c t r a l e s des a i g u i l l e s de P i n s s y l v e s t r e s . ISP. Symp. P r o c . S i g n a t u r e s s p e c t r a l e s d ' o b j e t s en t e l e d e t e c t i o n . A v i g n o n , S e p t . 1981: 191-199. O l s o n , C.E., W.G. Rohde, and J.M. Ward. 1971. Remote s e n s i n g o f c h a n g e s i n m o r p h o l o g y and p h y s i o l o g y o f t r e e s u n d e r s t r e s s . I_n: Remote S e n s i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s i n F o r e s t r y . E a r t h R e s o u r c e s S u r v e y Program, OSSA/NASA. Ann. P r o g . R e p t . , S c h o o l Nat. R e s o u r c e s , U n i v . M i c h i g a n , Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : p. 75. P i t m a n , G.B., J . P . V i t e , G.W. K n i z e r , and A . F . F e n t i m a n , J r . 1968. B a r k b e e t l e a t t r a c t a n c e s : T r a n s - v e r b e n o l i s o l a t e d f r o m D e n d r o c t o n u s . N a t u r e 218: 168-169. P i t m a n , G.B., M.W. S t o c k , and R.W. M c K n i g h t . 1978. Pheromone a p p l i c a t i o n i n m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e - l o d g e p o l e p i n e manage-ment: t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . I r i : T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e management i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . Symp. P r o c : 165-173. P u r i t c h , G.S. 1981. N o n v i s u a l remote s e n s i n g of t r e e s a f f e c t e d by s t r e s s : A r e v i e w . F o r . T e c h . R e p t . 30. C a n a d i a n F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e : 38 pp. Rasmussen, L.A. 1972. A t t r a c t i o n o f m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s t o s m a l l - d i a m e t e r p i n e s b a i t e d w i t h T r a n s - v e r b e n o l and a l p h a p i n e n e . J . E c o n . E n t o m o l . 63:1396-1399. 93 R e i d , R.W., H.S. W h i t n e y , and J.W. Watson. 1967. R e a c t i o n s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e t o a t t a c k by D e n d r o c t o n u s p o n d e r o s a e H o p k i n s and b l u e s t a i n f u n g i . Can. J . B o t . 45: 1115-1126. Roe, A.L. and G.D. Amman. 1970. The m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . USDA F o r . S e r v . Res. P a p e r . INT-71, I n t e r m o u n t . F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t . Ogden, U t a h : 23 pp. S a f r a n y i k , L., D.M. S h r i m p t o n , and H.S. W h i tney. 1974. Manage-ment o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e t o r e d u c e l o s s e s f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e . Can. F o r . S e r v . T e c h . R e p o r t 1. Env. Canada: 24 pp. S c a r p a c e , F.L. 1978. S e n s i t o m e t r y on m u l t i - e m u l s i o n i m a g e r y . Photogram. Eng. and Remote S e n s . 4 4 ( 1 ) : 1 2 7 9 - 1 2 9 2 . S c a r p a c e , F.L. and G.A. F r i e d e r i c h s . 1978. A method of d e t e r m -i n i n g s p e c t r a l a n a l y t i c a l dye d e n s i t i e s . Photogram. Eng. and Remote S e n s . 4 4 ( 1 ) : 1 2 9 3 - 1 3 0 1 . S h r i m p t o n , D.M. 1978. R e s i s t a n c e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e t o m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e i n f e s t a t i o n , _In: T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e management i n l o d g e o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . Symp. P r o c : 64-76. van S i c k l e , G.A. 1982. The m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e s i t u a t i o n i n Canada. 1981. I_n: P r o c . J o i n t Canada/USA Workshop on M o u n t a i n P i n e B e e t l e R e l a t e d P r o b l e m s i n W e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a : 13-15. S t e i n e r , D. and T. Guterman. 1966. R u s s i a n d a t a on s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n , s o i l and r o c k t y p e . Dept. o f Geog., U n i v . o f Z u r i c h , S w i t z . : 232 pp. Thomas, J.R., C L . Wiegand, and V . I . M y e r s . 1967. R e f l e c t a n c e o f c o t t o n l e a v e s and i t s r e l a t i o n t o y i e l d . A g r o n . J . 59: 551-554. W i l l i a m s , P.G. 1978. A w i n g - t i p camera s y s t e m f o r l a r g e - s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h y . I_n: P r o c . Symp. Rem. Sens, f o r V e g e t a t i o n Damage A s s e s s m e n t , S e a t t l e , Wash.: 127-133. W h i t n e y , H.S., L. S a f r a n y i k , S . J . M u r a r o , and E.D.A. D y e r . 1978. I n d e f e n s e of t h e c o n c e p t of d i r e c t c o n t r o l of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e p o p u l a t i o n s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e : some modern a p p r o a c h e s . I_n: T h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of m o u n t a i n p i n e b e e t l e management i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s . Symp. P r o c : 159-164. 94 Wood, C S . and G.A. van S i c k l e . 1983. F o r e s t and i n s e c t c o n d i -t i o n s , B.C. and Yukon. 1982. C.F.S., P.F.R.C. p u b l i c a t i o n BC-X-239: 31 pp. W o o l l e y , J . T . 1971. R e f l e c t a n c e and t r a n s m i t t a n c e of l i g h t by l e a v e s . P l a n t P h y s i o l . 47: 656-662. 95 APPENDIX 1: H i s t o g r a m s o f s i x f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s f o r e a c h o f f i v e damage c l a s s e s . <HISTOGRAM BYSTRATA OPTIONS=HIST%,TOT% VAR=TG,TR,TNIR,GR,GKIR,RNIR STRAT=DAMAG HISTOGRAM <1> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG 1.0248 16.1 5 +XXXXX 1.3706 32.3 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.7163 32.3 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 2.0621 6.5 2 +XX 2.4078 6.5 2 +XX 2.7536 6.5 2 +XX TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL 1 (EACH X= 1 ) WIDTH= .34576) HISTOGRAM <1> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR ( 1 .93760 22.6 7 +XXXXXXX 1.2109 35.5 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.4842 25.8 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.7574 6.5 2 +XX 2.0307 6.5 2 +XX 2.3040 3.2 1 +X TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .27328) HISTOGRAM <!>' DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .19760 16.1 5 +XXXXX .27872 41.9 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX .35984 29.0 9 +XXXXXXXXX .44096 3.2 1 +x .52208 3.2 1 +x .60320 6.5 2 +XX TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .81120 HISTOGRAM <1> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR 1 .0775 6.5 2 +XX 1 .1187 16.1 5 +XXXXX 1 . 1 599 22.6 7 +XXXXXXX 1.2011 29.0 9 +XXXXXXXXX 1 .2423 22.6 7 +XXXXXXX 1 .2836 3.2 1 +X (EACH X= 1) TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .41215 -1) HISTOGRAM <1> DAMAGE:HH* SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH 3.9940 4.4128 4.8316 5.2504 5.6691 6.0879 3.2 9.7 19.4 41 .9 22.6 3.2 1 +X 3 +XXX 6 + X X X X X X 13 + xxxxxxxxxxxxx 7 + X X X X X X X 1 +x TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <1> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH 3.2454 3.6695 4.0937 4.5179 4.9421 5.3663 3.2 6.5 38.7 35.5 12.9 3.2 1 +X 2 +XX 12 + X X X X X X X X X X X X 11 + X X X X X X X X X X X 4 + X X X X 1 +x TOTAL 31 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X 1.3680 2.0088 66.7 33.3 2 +XX 1 +X TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= 41878) .4241.9) HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) 1.1712 1.5708 33.3 66.7 1 +X 2 +XX TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .39960) HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .28080 66.7 2 +XX .40040 33.3 1 +X TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .11960) HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1 . 1 523 66.7 2 +XX 1.2788 33.3 1 +X TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .12651) HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 4.8718 33.3 1 +X 5.0177 66.7 2 +XX TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .14586) HISTOGRAM <2> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.9231 33.3 1 +X 4.3544 66.7 2 +XX TOTAL 3 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .43127) HISTOGRAM <3> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG .80840 6.3 1 +X 1 .0943 6.3 1 +X 1 .3802 37.5 6 +XXXXXX 1 .6661 37.5 6 +XXXXXX 1.9520 12.5 2 +XX TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL (EACH X= 1) WIDTH= .28590) HISTOGRAM < 3 > DAMAGE:30B * SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR .75440 6.3 1 +X .96580 12.5 2 +XX 1 .1772 25.0 4 +XXXX 1 .3886 43.8 7 +XXXXXXX 1.6000 12.5 2 +XX T O T A L 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .21140) HISTOGRAM <3> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH .18720 12.5 .25740 25.0 .32760 50.0 .39780 6.3 .46800 6.3 TOTAL 2 +XX 4 +XXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 +X 1 +X 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .70200 HISTOGRAM <3> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.< 1 .0716 6.3 1 +X 1 .1197 18.8 3 +XXX 1 .1678 37.5 6 +XXXXXX 1.2160 31.3 5 +XXXXX 1.2641 6.3 1 +x TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .48126 HISTOGRAM <3> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% i COUN' 3.8997 6.3 1 4.4088 31.3 5 4.9180 37.5 6 5.4271 18.8 3 5.9362 6.3 1 TOTAL 16 1 FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) +X +XXXXX +XXXXXX +XXX +x (INTERVAL WIDTH= .50913) HISTOGRAM <3> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.4188 3.7381 4.0574 4.3767 4.6961 12, 18. 18, 37, 12, +XX +XXX +XXX +XXXXXX +XX TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .31931) HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= l) 1 .3024 1 .6432 1.9840 2.3248 27.3 54.5 9.1 9.1 3 +XXX 6 +XXXXXX 1 +X 1 +X TOTAL 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .34080) HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) 1.0828 1.2948 1.5068 1.7188 9.1 63.6 9.1 18.2 1 +X 7 +XXXXXXX 1 +X 2 +XX TOTAL 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .21200) HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .25480 .32067 .38653 .45240 27.3 45.5 9.1 18.2 +XXX +XXXXX +x +XX TOTAL 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .65867 HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1 . 1 173 1 . 1957 1 .2741 1 .3526 TOTAL 27.3 45.5 18.2 9.1 +XXX +XXXXX +XX 1 +x 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .78439 HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 4124 8894 3664 8435 TOTAL 18.2 54.5 18.2 9.1 +XX +XXXXXX +XX 1 +x 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= 1.4770) HISTOGRAM <4> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.9555 3.9033 4.8511 5.7989 9.1 54.5 27.3 9.1 1 +X 6 +XXXXXX 3 +XXX 1 +X TOTAL 11 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .94780) HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG 1 .0980 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 1 .4370 27.8 5 +XXXXX 1 .7760 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 2.1150 0. 0 + 2.4540 5.6 1 +X TOTAL 18 (INTERVAL (EACH X= 1) HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.' .97200 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 1.2298 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 1.4876 27.8 5 +XXXXX 1.7454 0. 0 + 2.0032 5.6 1 +x TOTAL 18 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .25780) HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .23400 .32370 .41340 .50310 .59280 27.8 38.9 22.2 5.6 5.6 5 +XXXXX 7 +XXXXXXX 4 +XXXX 1 +X 1 +X TOTAL 18 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .89700 HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1 .1 188 1 .1580 1 .1971 1 .2363 1 .2754 TOTAL 22.2 27.8 27.8 16.7 5.6 +XXXX +XXXXX +XXXXX +XXX +x 18 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .39142 HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.5880 22.2 4 +XXXX 4.2374 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 4.8869 22.2 4 +XXXX 5.5364 16.7 3 +XXX 6.1859 5.6 1 +X TOTAL 18 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .64948) HISTOGRAM <5> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:1 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR 2.971 1 16.7 3 +XXX 3.4767 33.3 6 +XXXXXX 3.9823 22.2 4 +XXXX 4.4880 22.2 4 +XXXX 4.9936 5.6 1 +X TOTAL 18 (INTERVAL HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1)1 .00.72 1 .4 1 +X 1 . 1659 10.1 7 +XXXXXXX 1.3247 23.2 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .4834 17.4 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .6422 24.6 17 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .8009 14.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.9597 4.3 3 +XXX 2.1 184 2.9 2 +XX 2.2772 1 .4 1 +x TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 1587! HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1).93440 4.3 3 +XXX 1.0656 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 .1968 18.8 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.3280 31 .9 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .4592 18.8 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .5904 5.8 4 +XXXX 1.7216 4.3 3 +XXX 1.8528 2.9 2 +XX 1.9840 1 .4 1 +x TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .13120) HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH* SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .18200 1.4 1 +X .24570 20.3 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX .30940 33.3 23 -(-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .37310 17.4 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX .43680 5.8 4 +XXXX .50050 8.7 6 +XXXXXX .56420 5.8 4 +XXXX .62790 4.3 3 +XXX .69160 2.9 2 +XX TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .63700 -1) HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) .96503 1.4 1 +X 1.0045 1 .4 1 +X 1.0440 8.7 6 +XXXXXX 1.0834 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 .1229 20.3 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.1624 18.8 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .2018 24.6 17 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .2413 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 .2808 1 .4 1 +x TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .39466 -1) HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.2254 7.2 5 +XXXXX 2.8162 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 3.4070 0. 0 + 3.9978 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 4.5885 34.8 24 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 5. 1793 20.3 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 5.7701 11.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 6.3609 1 .4 1 +x 6.9516 1.4 1 +x TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .59078) HISTOGRAM <6> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.0756 5.8 4 +XXXX 2.5736 13.0 9 +XXXXXXXXX 3.0715 1 .4 1 +x 3.5695 14.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 4.0675 43.5 30 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4.5654 14.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 5.0634 5.8 4 +XXXX 5.5614 0. 0 + 6.0593 1.4 1 +x TOTAL 69 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .49797) HISTOGRAM <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) 1.3380 1.6595 1.9809 2.3024 22. 22, 44. 1 1 , +XX +XX +XXXX +x TOTAL 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .32147) HISTOGRAM <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) .1348 .3733 .61 19 .8504 11.1 33.3 44.4 11.1 +X +XXX +XXXX +x TOTAL 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .23853) HISTOGRAM <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .31720 33.3 3 +XXX .45413 44.4 4 +XXXX .59107 11.1 1 +X ,72800 11.1 1 +X TOTAL 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .13693) HISTOGRAM <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1.0552 1 .1488 1.2423 1.3358 22.2 44.4 22.2 11.1 2 +XX 4 +XXXX 2 +XX 1 +x TOTAL 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .93525 HISTOGRAM <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) ,5333 ,2760 ,0187 ,7614 22.2 0. 44.4 33.3 2 +XX 0 + 4 +XXXX 3 +XXX TOTAL 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .74270) HISTOGRAM MIDPOINT 2.4007 2.9595 3.5182 4.0769 TOTAL <7> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:2 HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 22.2 2 +XX 0. 0 + 55.6 5 +XXXXX 22.2 2 +XX 9 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .55873) HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) .92280 4.7 2 +XX 1.1753 16.3 7 +XXXXXXX 1.4277 46.5 20 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6802 14.0 6 +XXXXXX 1.9327 1 1.6 5 +XXXXX 2.1851 4.7 2 +XX 2.4376 2.3 1 +X TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .25247 HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) .85480 4.7 2 +XX 1.0003 11.6 5 +XXXXX 1.1459 23.3 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.2914 30.2 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.4369 11.6 5 +XXXXX 1.5825 14.0 6 +XXXXXX 1.7280 4.7 2 +XX TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .14553) HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .19240 4.7 2 +XX .26433 27.9 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX .33627 27.9 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX .40820 16.3 7 +XXXXXXX .48013 9.3 4 +XXXX .55207 11.6 5 +XXXXX .62400 2.3 1 +x TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) .99176 9.3 4 +XXXX 1.0634 14.0 6 +XXXXXX 1.1351 39.5 17 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.2068 18.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 .2785 14.0 6 +XXXXXX 1 .3502 2.3 1 +x 1.4218 2.3 1 +x TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.3643 16.3 7 +XXXXXXX 3.0717 2.3 1 +x 3.7792 11.6 5 +XXXXX 4.4866 37.2 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 5.1941 23.3 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 5.9015 7.0 3 +XXX 6.6090 2.3 1 +x TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <8> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.3687 16.3 2.8825 4.7 3.3964 18.6 3.9103 32.6 4.4242 18.6 4.9380 7.0 5.4519 2.3 7 +XXXXXXX 2 +XX 8 +XXXXXXXX 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 3 +XXX 1 +x TOTAL 43 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .51388) HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) 1.0484 1.4683 1.8881 2.3080 13.3 40.0 26.7 20.0 +XX +XXXXXX +XXXX +XXX TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .41987) HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) .91720 13.3 2 +XX 1.2576 33.3 5 +XXXXX 1.5980 40.0 6 +XXXXXX 1.9384 13.3 2 +XX TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .34040) HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .24440 .36747 .49053 .61360 TOTAL 13.3 46.7 33.3 6.7 +XX +XXXXXXX +XXXXX +X 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .12307) HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1.0714 1.1445 1.2176 1 .2907 6.7 53.3 33.3 6.7 1 +X 8 +XXXXXXXX 5 +XXXXX 1 +X TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .73113 HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.3757 13.3 2 +XX 4.0988 60.0 9 +XXXXXXXXX 4.8220 20.0 3 +XXX 5.5452 6.7 1 +X TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .72317) HISTOGRAM <9> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.9432 3.5337 4.1241 4.7146 TOTAL 26.7 46.7 20.0 6.7 +XXXX +XXXXXXX +XXX 1 +x 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .59045) HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) 1.1732 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 1 .4006 32.4 12 + XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6280 32.4 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.8554 10.8 4 +XXXX 2.0828 0. 0 + 2.3102 2.7 1 +X 2.5376 5.4 2 +XX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .22740) HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) .93160 2.7 1 +X 1.1337 45.9 17 + XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.3357 32.4 12 + XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.5378 10.8 4 +XXXX 1.7399 2.7 1 +X 1 .9419 2.7 1 +X 2.1440 2.7 1 +X TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .20207) HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .24440 10.8 4 +XXXX .29553 29.7 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX .34667 24.3 9 +XXXXXXXXX .39780 21.6 8 +XXXXXXXX .44893 5.4 2 +XX .50007 5.4 2 +XX .55120 2.7 1 +x TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .51133 HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH 1.0401 2.7 1 +X 1.0916 8.1 3 +XXX 1.1431 24.3 9 +XXXXXXXXX 1.1946 35.1 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.2462 21 .6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.2977 2.7 1 +x 1.3492 5.4 2 +XX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .51517 HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR 3.6435 8.1 3 +XXX 3.9223 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 4.2011 13.5 5 +XXXXX 4.4800 27.0 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 4.7588 18.9 7 +XXXXXXX 5.0376 5.4 2 +XX 5.3164 10.8 4 +XXXX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL 1 .27882) HISTOGRAM <10> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:2 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= l) 3.0413 3.2814 .5214 .7615 .0015 .2416 4.4816 2 16 21 21 16 16.2 5.4 1 +X 6 +XXXXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 2 +XX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .24005) HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X .95400 6.9 2 +XX 1.3411 24.1 7 +XXXXXXX 1.7282 58.6 17 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.1154 6.9 2 +XX 2.5025 0. 0 + 2.8896 3.4 1 +x TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH .81680 3.4 1 +X 1 .1390 31.0 9 +XXXXXXXXX 1.4611 44.8 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.7833 17.2 5 +XXXXX 2.1054 0. 0  2.4276 3.4 1 +x TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL WIDTH; HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .23920 17.2 5 +XXXXX .33592 58.6 17 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .43264 20.7 6 +XXXXXX .52936 0. 0 + .62608 0. 0 + .72280 3.4 1 +x TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 96720 HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR 1.0777 3.4 1 +X 1.1140 13.8 4 +XXXX 1.1502 27.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.1865 24.1 7 +XXXXXXX 1.2227 17.2 5 +XXXXX 1.2590 13.8 4 +XXXX TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL (EACH X= 1) HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR 3.9823 13.8 4 +XXXX ' 4.4255 34.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 4.8686 34.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 5.3118 6.9 2 +XX 5.7550 6.9 2 +XX 6.1981 3.4 1 +X TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .44316) HISTOGRAM <11> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH 3.2405 6.9 2 +XX 3.5770 13.8 4 +XXXX 3.9135 48.3 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4.2500 17.2 5 +XXXXX 4.5866 10.3 3 +XXX 4.9231 3.4 1 +X TOTAL 29 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .33652) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) 1 .4932 60.0 3 +XXX 1.7266 0. 0 + 1.9600 40.0 2 +XX TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .23340) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) 1.1384 1.3382 1.5380 20.0 40.0 40.0 1 +X 2 +XX 2 +XX TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .19980) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= l) .32240 .38220 .44200 TOTAL 40.0 40.0 20.0 2 +XX 2 +XX 1 +X 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .59800 -1) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1.1092 40.0 2 +XX 1.2218 20.0 1 +X 1.3345 40.0 2 +XX TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .11268) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 4.2229 60.0 3 +XXX 4.8309 20.0 1 +X 5.4389 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .60803) HISTOGRAM <12> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= l) 3.4796 60.0 3 +XXX 3.8654 20.0 1 +X 4.2511 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .38575) HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH 1.0232 3.6 1 +X 1 .2470 25.0 7 +XXXXXXX 1.4709 39.3 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.6947 14.3 4 +XXXX 1 .9186 7.1 2 +XX 2.1424 10.7 3 +XXX TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH•• HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT 1 FOR 4.TR (EACH .92640 7.1 2 +XX 1.1034 28.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.2805 39.3 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.4575 7.1 2 +XX 1.6346 7.1 2 +XX 1.8116 10.7 3 +XXX TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .25480 21.4 6 +XXXXXX .31720 35.7 10 +XXXXXXXXXX .37960 25.0 7 +XXXXXXX .44200 7.1 2 +XX .50440 7.1 2 +XX .56680 3.6 1 +x TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .62400 HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:! MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR 1.0918 10.7 3 +XXX 1.1389 28.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.1861 32.1 9 +XXXXXXXXX 1 .2333 21 .4 6 +XXXXXX 1 .2805 3.6 1 +x 1 .3276 3.6 1 +x TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .47177 HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.5646 7.1 2 +XX 3.9511 28.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 4.3376 10.7 3 +XXX 4.7241 35.7 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 5.1105 10.7 3 +XXX 5.4970 7.1 2 +XX TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . ,38649) HISTOGRAM <13> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.1454 14.3 4 +XXXX 3.4658 28.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 3.7862 21.4 6 +XXXXXX 4.1066 25.0 7 +XXXXXXX 4.4270 3.6 1 +X 4.7475 7.1 2 +XX TOTAL 28 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .32042) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X = 1) 1.2588 12.5 2 +XX 1.4520 18.8 3 +XXX 1.6452 25.0 4 +XXXX 1.8384 25.0 4 +XXXX 2.031 6 18.8 3 +XXX TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .19320) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X = 1) 1.0060 12.5 2 +XX 1.1734 18.8 3 +XXX 1.3408 25.0 4 +XXXX 1.5082 25.0 4 +XXXX 1.6756 18.8 3 +XXX TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .16740) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% .28080 37.5 .33410 12.5 .38740 18.8 .44070 25.0 .49400 6.3 TOTAL COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) 6 +XXXXXX 2 +XX 3 +XXX 4 +XXXX 1 +x 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .53300 -1) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) ,1653 ,2039 ,2425 .281 1 .3197 TOTAL 18.8 50.0 18.8 6.3 6.3 3 +XXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 3 +XXX 1 +x 1 +x 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .38591 -1) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH 4.0124 25.0 4.4620 43.8 4.9117 12.5 5.3613 6.3 5.8110 12.5 TOTAL 4 +XXXX 7 +XXXXXXX 2 +XX 1 +X 2 +XX 16 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .44964) HISTOGRAM <14> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR 3.2989 25.0 4 +XXXX 3.6266 43.8 7 +XXXXXXX 3.9543 6.3 1 +x 4.2820 6.3 1 +x 4.6097 18.8 3 +XXX TOTAL 16 (INTERVAL HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) .97800 4.3 1 +X 1.2844 30.4 7 +XXXXXXX 1.5908 43.5 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.8972 17.4 4 +XXXX 2.2036 4.3 1 +X TOTAL 23 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .30640) HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% .78320 4.3 1.0270 26. 1 1.2708 52.2 1 .5146 13.0 1.7584 4.3 TOTAL 1 +x 6 +XXXXXX 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 3 +XXX 1 +x 23 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .24380) HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .22880 4.3 1 +X .28860 56.5 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX .34840 8.7 2 +XX .40820 21 .7 5 +XXXXX .46800 8.7 2 +XX TOTAL 23 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .59800 HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH 1 . 1447 17.4 4 +XXXX 1 . 1928 56.5 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.2408 13.0 3 +XXX 1.2889 . 4.3 1 +X 1.3370 8.7 2 +XX TOTAL 23 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .48084 HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR 3.7836 8.7 2 +XX 4.1024 17.4 4 +XXXX 4.4211 26.1 6 +XXXXXX 4.7399 26.1 6 +XXXXXX 5.0587 21 .7 5 +XXXXX TOTAL 23 (INTERVAL (EACH X= 1) .31877) HISTOGRAM <15> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:3 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.2421 3.5200 3.7979 4.0759 4.3538 13.0 30.4 34.8 8.7 13.0 3 +XXX 7 +XXXXXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 2 +XX 3 +XXX TOTAL 23 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .27795) HISTOGRAM <16> DAMAGE: HH*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT ' FOR 3.TG (EACH 1 .2124 7.7 4 +XXXX 1.4714 23.1 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .7303 28.8 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 .9893 26.9 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.2483 9.6 5 +XXXXX 2.5073 1 .9 1 +x 2.7662 0. 0 + 3.0252 1.9 1 +x TOTAL 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH* HISTOGRAM <16> DAMAGE: HH*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH 1 .0916 9.6 5 +XXXXX 1.2891 26.9 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.4867 26.9 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6842 23.1 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.8818 9.6 5 +XXXXX 2.0793 1.9 1 +x 2.2769 0. 0 + 2.4744 1 .9 1 +x TOTAL 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .19754) HISTOGRAM <16> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= l) .23920 5.8 3 +XXX .31794 28.8 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .39669 30.8 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .47543 28.8 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .55417 3.8 2 +XX .63291 0. 0 + .71 1 66 0. 0 + .79040 1.9 1 +X TOTAL 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .78743 -1) HISTOGRAM <16> DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% 1.0809 1 .9 1.1083 7.7 1.1357 15.4 1.1631 21.2 1 .1905 26.9 1.2179 19.2 1.2454 5.8 1.2728 1.9 TOTAL HISTOGRAM <16> I MIDPOINT HIST% 1 +x 4 +XXXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 3 +XXX 1 +x 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .27407 -1) 3.5201 1.9 1 +X 3.7745 3.8 2 +XX 4.0289 11.5 6 +XXXXXX 4.2833 21.2 11 + XXXXXXXXXXX 4.5377 25.0 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 4.7921 17.3 9 +XXXXXXXXX 5.0464 13.5 7 +XXXXXXX 5.3008 5.8 3 +XXX TOTAL 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 25438) HISTOGRAM <16> : DAMAGE:HH*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 2.9890 1.9 1 +X 3.2188 9.6 5 +XXXXX 3.4486 7.7 4 +XXXX 3.6784 25.0 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 3.9082 30.8 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4.1380 11.5 6 +XXXXXX 4.3678 9.6 5 +XXXXX 4.5976 3.8 2 +XX TOTAL 52 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .22980) HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1) 1.5420 1.8256 2.1092 TOTAL 40.0 40.0 20.0 2 +XX 2 +XX 1 +x 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .28360) HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1) 1.2796 20.0 1 +X 1 .4792 60.0 3 +XXX 1.6788 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .19960) HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .34840 40.0 2 +XX .39520 20.0 1 +X .44200 40.0 2 +XX TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .46800 HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1.1852 20.0 1 +X 1.2208 60.0 3 +XXX 1.2564 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .35563 HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 4.3526 60.0 3 +XXX 4.5623 20.0 1 +X 4.7719 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .20969) HISTOGRAM <17> DAMAGE:30A*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.5531 40.0 2 +XX 3.7414 40.0 2 +XX 3.9298 20.0 1 +X TOTAL 5 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .18833) HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1)1 .2600 14.6 6 +XXXXXX 1 .4821 26.8 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1 .7043 17.1 7 +XXXXXXX 1.9264 29.3 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 2.1485 4.9 2 +XX 2.3707 2.4 1 +X 2.5928 4.9 2 +XX TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 22213) HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 1)1.0444 9.8 4 +XXXX 1 .2553 29.3 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.4661 31.7 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6770 14.6 6 +XXXXXX 1.8879 9.8 4 +XXXX 2.0987 2.4 1 +X 2.3096 2.4 1 +X TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 21087) HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .27560 14.6 6 +XXXXXX .34927 34. 1 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX .42293 26.8 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX .49660 17.1 7 +XXXXXXX .57027 4.9 2 +XX .64393 0. 0 + .71760 2.4 1 +x TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .73667 HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X = 1) 1 .0718 2.4 1 +X 1 .1022 2.4 1 +X 1 . 1327 19.5 8 +XXXXXXXX 1 .1632 26.8 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.1936 39.0 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.2241 4.9 2 +XX 1.2546 4.9 2 +XX TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .30462 -1 HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.5673 9.8 4 +XXXX • 3.8226 2.4 1 +X 4.0780 31.7 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 4.3333 24.4 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 4.5886 14.6 6 +XXXXXX 4.8439 9.8 4 +XXXX 5.0993 7.3 3 +XXX TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .25532) HISTOGRAM <18> DAMAGE:30B*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.0897 7.3 3 +XXX 3.2952 9.8 4 +XXXX 3.5007 17.1 7 +XXXXXXX 3.7062 36.6 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3.9116 14.6 6 +XXXXXX 4.1171 9.8 4 +XXXX 4.3226 4.9 2 +XX TOTAL 41 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .20547) HISTOGRAM <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% 1.3368 6.7 1.7459 46.7 2.1549 40.0 2.5640 6.7 TOTAL COUNT FOR 3.TG 1 +X 7 +XXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 1 +X 15 (INTERVAL (EACH X= 1) WIDTH= .40907) HISTOGRAM MIDPOINT 1.1312 1.4461 1.7611 2.0760 <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 HIST% COUNT FOR 4.TR (EACH X= 6.7 46.7 26.7 20.0 1)1 +X 7 +XXXXXXX 4 +XXXX 3 +XXX TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .31493) HISTOGRAM <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) .31200 .39347 .47493 .55640 TOTAL 13.3 33.3 20.0 33.3 +XX +XXXXX +XXX +XXXXX 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .81467 HISTOGRAM <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR (EACH X= 1) 1.1359 1.1805 1.2252 1.2699 13.3 53.3 26.7 6.7 2 +XX 8 +XXXXXXXX 4 +XXXX 1 +X TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .44668 HISTOGRAM <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.7505 4.2203 4.6900 5.1597 20.0 53.3 13.3 13.3 3 +XXX 8 +XXXXXXXX 2 +XX 2 +XX TOTAL 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .46971) HISTOGRAM MIDPOINT 3.1754 3.5699 3.9645 4.3590 TOTAL <19> DAMAGE:30A2E*SCALE:4 HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 20.0 3 +XXX 53.3 8 +XXXXXXXX 20.0 3 +XXX 6.7 1 +X 15 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .39452) HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 3.TG (EACH X= 1)1.1924 3.1 1 +X 1.4270 15.6 5 +XXXXX 1 .6617 37.5 12 + XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.8963 15.6 5 +XXXXX 2.1310 18.8 6 +XXXXXX 2.3656 9.4 3 +XXX TOTAL 32 (INTERVAL WIDTH= . 23464) HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT 1 FOR 4.TR (EACH 1.0516 3.1 1 +X 1.2254 15.6 5 +XXXXX 1.3993 34.4 1 1 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.5731 18.8 6 +XXXXXX 1 .7470 15.6 5 +XXXXX 1.9208 12.5 4 +XXXX TOTAL 32 (INTERVAL WIDTH' HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% > COUN' .28600 12.5 4 .35152 25.0 8 .41704 34.4 1 1 .48256 21 .9 7 .54808 3.1 1 .61360 3.1 1 TOTAL 32 FOR 5.TNIR (EACH X= 1) +XXXX +XXXXXXXX +XXXXXXXXXXX +XXXXXXX +x +x (INTERVAL WIDTH= .65520 -HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 6.GR 1.1303 9.4 3 +XXX 1.1542 3.1 1 +X 1.1782 18.8 6 +XXXXXX 1.2022. 31 .3 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.2261 28.1 9 +XXXXXXXXX 1 .2501 9.4 3 +XXX TOTAL 32 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .23959 -HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 7.GNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.6872 9.4 3 +XXX 4.0272 21 .9 7 +XXXXXXX 4.3672 25.0 8 +XXXXXXXX 4.7071 25.0 8 +XXXXXXXX 5.0471 12.5 4 +XXXX 5.3871 6.3 2 +XX TOTAL 32 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .33996) HISTOGRAM <20> DAMAGE:30B2E*SCALE:4 MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 8.RNIR (EACH X= 1) 3.0879 6.3 2 +XX 3.3663 25.0 8 +XXXXXXXX 3.6447 28.1 9 +XXXXXXXXX 3.9231 25.0 8 +XXXXXXXX 4.2015 6.3 2 +XX 4.4799 9.4 3 +XXX TOTAL 32 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .27839) <FINISH> APPENDIX 2 : H i s t o g r a m s o f s i x f i l m r e s p o n s e v a r i a b l e s f o r e a c h o f f i v e a t t a c k c a t e g o r i e s . <HISTOGRAM BYSTRATA OPTIONS=HIST%,TOT% VAR=TG,TR,TIR,GR,GIR,RIR STRAT=ATTACK> HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 19.TG (EACH X= 1) .95400 1.5 3 +XXX 1.1019 2.5 5 +XXXXX 1.2499 11.1 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.3978 16.2 32 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.5458 15.7 31 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6937 19.7 39 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.8417 . 14.1 28 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.9896 7.6 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.1375 5.6 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 2.2855 3.0 6 +XXXXXX 2.4334 .5 1 +x 2.5814 1.0 2 +XX 2.7293 .5 1 +x 2.8773 .5 1 +x 3.0252 .5 1 +x TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .14794) HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON HIST% COUNT FOR 20.TR (EACH X= 1) MIDPOINT .81680 .93520 1 .0536 1 . 1720 1 .2904 1.4088 1.5272 1 .6456 1.7640 1 .8824 2.0008 2.1 192 2.2376 2.3560 2.4744 .5 2.0 9. 1 1 . 21 . 19. 17. 7. 6, 2, 1 , 1 . 0, 1 +X 4 +XXXX 18 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 34+ xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX +XXXXX +XX +XX 42 39 .5 1 .0 +x +XX TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .11840) HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 21.TIR (EACH X= 1) .18200 .22546 .26891 .31237 .35583 .39929 .44274 .48620 .52966 .57311 .61657 .66003 .70349 .74694 .79040 1.0 5.6 14. 20. 20. 1 1 . 1 1 . 4. 6. 2, 1 , 1 , 0, 2 +XX 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 28 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4 0 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 41 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 23 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 22 + XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX +XXXXXXXXX •xxxxxxxxxxxx +XXXX +XX +x +XX + +x 9 12 4 2 1 2 0 1 TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .43457 -1) HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 31.GR (EACH X= 1) 93636 96047 98458 .0087 .0328 .0569 .0810 .1051 .1292 .1533 .1775 .2016 .2257 .2498 .2739 .5 3.5 3.0 11.1 1 1 . 14, 15, 12, 9.1 9.6 7.1 .5 1.0 0. 1 +X 7 +XXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 23 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2 9 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 31 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2 4 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 18 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 19 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1 +x 2 +XX 0 + 1 +x TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .24109 -1) HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 32.GIR (EACH X= 1) ,93269 ,0885 ,2443 ,4002 ,5560 ,7118 ,8677 .0235 ,1793 ,3351 ,4910 .6468 .8026 .9585 . 1 143 2. 2. 1 . 0. 1 . 9. 18. 19. 21 . 1 1 • 0 5 0 0 1 7 2 212.1 .5 .5 .5 .5 4 +XXXX 5 +XXXXX 2 +XX 0 + 2 +XX 18 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3 7 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 3 8 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 4 2 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 24 + xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 1 +x 1 +x 1 +x 1 +x TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .15583) HISTOGRAM <1> ATTACK:NON MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 33.RIR (EACH X= 1) .81739 .5 1 +X .98554 3.5 7 +XXXXXXX 1 . 1537 1 .5 3 +XXX 1.3218 1.0 2 +XX 1.4900 6.1 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6581 12.1 24 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.8263 23.2 46 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.9944 24.2 48 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.1626 12.6 25 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.3307 10.6 21 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.4988 2.5 5 +XXXXX 2.6670 .5 1 +X 2.8351 1.0 2 +XX 3.0033 0. 0 + 3.1714 .5 1 +X TOTAL 198 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .16815) HISTOGRAM <2> ATTACK:SUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 19.TG (EACH X= 1) .88000 .9 2 +XX 1.0023 .9 2 +XX 1.1247 3.2 7 +XXXXXXX 1.2470 8.6 19 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.3694 14.4 32 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.4917 18.5 41 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.6141 14.0 31 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.7364 9.0 20 +xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 1.8587 9.9 22 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.9811 7.7 17 +xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 2.1034 5.9 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.2258 3.2 7 +XXXXXXX 2.3481 1 .4 3 +XXX 2.4705 1 .4 3 +XXX 2.5928 1 .4 3 +XXX TOTAL 222 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .12234) HISTOGRAM <2> ATTACK:SI MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT .47800 .5 1 .60883 0. 0 .73966 .5 1 .87049 1 .8 4 1 .0013 7.2 16 1 .1321 14.9 33 1.2630 22.5 50 1.3938 16.7 37 1.5246 14.9 33 1.6555 9.5 21 1.7863 5.4 12 1.9171 3.6 8 2.0479 1 .8 4 2.1788 .5 1 2.3096 .5 1 TOTAL 222 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .13083) HISTOGRAM <2> ATTACK:SUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 21.TIR (EACH X= 1) .18200 .9 2 +XX .22100 3.2 7 + X X X X X X X .26000 7.7 17 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .29900 20.7 46 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .33800 19.4 43 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .37700 10.4 23 - • - X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .41600 10.4 23 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .45500 1 1 .7 26 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .49400 5.9 13 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X .53300 6.3 14 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .57200 .5 1 +X .61100 2.3 5 +XXXXX .65000 0. 0 + .68900 0. 0 + .72800 .9 2 +XX TOTAL 222 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .39000 -1) HISTOGRAM <2> ATTACK:SUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 31.GR (EACH X= 1) .95122 4.1 9 + X X X X X X X X X 1 .0243 • 30.2 67 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X J 1.0975 43.7 97 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 5 1 .1706 16.2 36 + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1.2437 3.6 8 + X X X X X X X X 1 .3169 0. 0 + 1.3900 .5 1 +x 1.4631 0. 0 + 1.5362 .5 1 +x 1.6094 0. 0 + 1.6825 0. 0 + 1.7556 .5 1 +x 1.8287 0. 0 + 1.9019 .5 1 +x 1.9750 .5 1 TOTAL 222 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .73127 -1) (SZLOI' =Hi,aiM ivAaaj.Ni) zzz XX+ Z 6' XXXXXXXXX+ 6 I" xxxxx+ g z'z XXXXXXXXXXXX+ 21 fr'S XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ ZZ fr'Ol XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ 61 9*8 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ 9Z L'll XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ ts 0*£2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ zz fr'frl XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX + ZZ 6*6 XXXXXXX+ L Z'Z XXXX+ i 8 • t X+ I 9" XXXXX+ 5 Z'Z XXXX+ 8•L 2 0 L S / 2 6 2 0 * ' 2 Z.562'2 fr88l 'Z I 180*2 8 E L - 6 - I S998 * I £69Z.* I 0 2 S 9 * I *te»* i 2oee-1 6 2 2 2 " I 99 I t * I £ 8 0 0 * I iNIOdQIH (I =X H3Y3) aiH'EE HOi J.NC1CO %J.SIH OnS 'MDViXV <2> WYHOOiLSIH ( $ £ £ 2 1 * =rUCIIM 1YAH3I.NI) 222 I Y J I O J . '2 '2 "2 "2 '2 •2 X+ I S" 0£08 XXXXX+ S Z'Z LSL9 XXXX+ t 8* t £8*3 xxxxxxxx+ 8 9*e o u t XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ 22 6*6 ££62 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ l£ O ' M £991 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ LZ L ' S i 06£0 '2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX+ Zi ' 6 t 9116*1 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX +Sfr £"02 Z V S L ' l XXXXXXXXXXXX+ 21 i ' 9 69S9M XXXXXX+ 9 L'Z 962S' I + 0 "0 220*'* I X+ L S" * I XXXX+ 8 * I S L t l ' l XXX+ £ $'I 2020"t (I =X HDY3) HIO*2£ aOJ ANtlCO %iSIH .LNIOdQIW DnS'MOVlilY <Z> WYaOOiSIH HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 19.TG (EACH X= 1) 1 .1704 1.3023 1.4341 1 .5660 1.6979 1 .8297 1.9616 10.3 33.3 17.9 15.4 15.4 5.1 2.6 4 +XXXX 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 7 +XXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 2 +XX 1 +X TOTAL 39 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .13187) HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 20.TR (EACH X= 1) 1.0060 1.1211 1.2361 1.3512 1.4663 1.5813 1.6964 20.5 15.4 25.6 15.4 15.4 2.6 5.1 8 +XXXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 6 +XXXXXX 6 1 +x 2 +XX -t. TOTAL 39 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .11507) HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 21.TIR (EACH .23400 12.8 5 +XXXXX .29553 41 .0 16 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .35707 17.9 7 +XXXXXXX .41860 20.5 8 +XXXXXXXX .48013 0. 0 + .54167 5.1 2 +XX .60320 2.6 1 +X TOTAL 39 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 31.GR (EACH .93578 2.6 1 +X .99044 17.9 7 +XXXXXXX 1.0451 35.9 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.0998 28.2 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.1544 10.3 4 +XXXX 1.2091 0. 0 + 1.2637 5.1 2 +XX TOTAL 39 . (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 32.GIR (EACH 1.0303 5.1. 2 +XX 1.2680 2.6 1 +X 1.5057 5.1 2 +XX 1.7434 15.4 6 +XXXXXX 1.9811 35.9 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2.2188 30.8 12 +XXXXXXXXXXXX 2.4565 5.1 2 +XX TOTAL 39 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <3> ATTACK:UNSUC MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 33.RIR (EACH X= 1) 0000 2500 5000 ,7500 ,0000 ,2500 ,5000 5.1 5.1 10.3 30.8 28.2 17.9 2.6 2 2 4 12 1 1 7 1 +XX +XX +XXXX +XXXXXXXXXXX? +XXXXXXXXXXA +XXXXXXX +x TOTAL 39 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .25000) HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 19.TG (EACH X= 1) 1.2820 1.6296 1.9772 2.3248 16.7 16.7 50.0 16.7 +XX +XX +XXXXXX +XX TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .34760) HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 20.TR (EACH X= 1) 1 . 1272 1 .3991 1.6709 1.9428 16.7 25.0 41.7 16.7 +XX +XXX +XXXXX +XX TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .27187) 135 HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 21.TIR (EACH X= 1) .28080 .37267 .46453 .55640 33.3 33.-3 16.7 16.7 +XXXX +XXXX +XX +XX TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .91867 -1) HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 31..GR (EACH X= 1) .95000 1.0306 1.1112 1.1919 8.3 41 .7 41 .7 8.3 +X +XXXXX +XXXXX +X TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .80620 -1) HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 32.GIR (EACH X= 1) 1.8283 66.7 8 +XXXXXXXX 2.4177 25.0 3 +XXX 3.0071 0. 0 + 3.5965 8.3 1 +X TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .58940) HISTOGRAM <4> ATTACK:STRIP MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 33.RIR (EACH X= 1) 1.6542 2.1087 2.5631 3.0175 33.3 50.0 8.3 8.3 4 +XXXX 6 +XXXXXX 1 +x 1 +x TOTAL 12 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .45445) HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 19.TG (EACH X= 1) .80840 2. 7 1 +X 1.0827 10. 8 4 +XXXX 1.3569 29. 7 1 1 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.6312 35. 1 13 +XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.9055 16. 2 6 +XXXXXX 2.1797 2. 7 1 +x 2.4540 2. 7 1 +x TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 20.TR (EACH X= 1) .75440 5.4 2 +XX .96253 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 1.1707 27.0 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1 .3788 29.7 1 1 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.5869 ' 13.5 5 +XXXXX 1.7951 5.4 2 +XX 2.0032 2.7 1 +x TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 21.TIR (EACH X= 1) .18720 2.7 1 +X .25480 21 .6 8 +XXXXXXXX .32240 40.5 15 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX .39000 18.9 7 +XXXXXXX .45760 8.1 3 +XXX .52520 2.7 1 +x .59280 5.4 2 +XX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH' HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 31.GR (EACH X= 1) .95775 2.7 1 +X 1.0151 5.4 2 +XX 1 .0725 27.0 10 +XXXXXXXXXX 1.1298 37.8 14 +XXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1.1872 18.9 7 +XXXXXXX 1.2445 5.4 2 +XX 1.3019 2.7 1 +x TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .57357 HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 32.GIR (EACH 1.5596 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 1.7650 21.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.9703 24.3 9 +XXXXXXXXX 2.1756 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 2.3810 16.2 6 +XXXXXX 2.5863 0. 0 + 2.7917 5.4 2 +XX TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= HISTOGRAM <5> ATTACK:NOTMPB MIDPOINT HIST% COUNT FOR 33.RIR (EACH 1.3465 10.8 4 +XXXX 1.5457 29.7 11 +XXXXXXXXXXX 1.7449 21.6 8 +XXXXXXXX 1.9441 10.8 4 +XXXX 2.1433 18.9 7 +XXXXXXX 2.3425 5.4 2 +XX 2.5417 2.7 1 +X TOTAL 37 (INTERVAL WIDTH= .20534) <FINISH> 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095675/manifest

Comment

Related Items