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Shamanic content in the art of Clayoquot artist : Joe David "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth" (Supernatural White… Katz-Lahaigue, J. Vanina 1983

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SHAMANIC CONTENT IN T H E ART OF CLAYOQUOT A R T I S T J o e D a v i d M K a - K a - W i n - C h e a l t h M ( S u p e r n a t u r a l W h i t e W o l f T r a n s f o r m i n g i n t o W h a l e ) b y J . V a n i n a K a t z - L a h a i g u e M a i t r i s e , U n i v e r s i t e de P a r i s V I I I , 1973 D i p l S m e d ' E t u d e s A p p r o f o n d i e s , U n i v e r s i t e ' de P a r i s V I I I , 1980 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a O c t o b e r 1983 ( c ) J . V a n i n a K a t z - L a h a i g u e , 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ANTHROPOLOGY ; The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date IE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Images seem to speak to the eye, but they are r e a l l y addressed to the mind. They are ways of t h i n k i n g , i n the guise o f ways o f s e e i n g . The eye can sometimes be s a t i s f i e d w i t h form a l o n e , but the mind can o n l y be s a t i s f i e d w i t h meaning, which can be contemplated, more c o n s c i o u s l y or l e s s , a f t e r the eye i s c l o s e d . (Duff 1975:12) The q u e s t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e o f shamanism on Northwest Coast a r t i s not new. I t has r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n the p a s t few y e a r s , though i n ways t h a t are not a l t o g e t h e r c o n v i n c i n g . T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n p r e s e n t s an aspect which has been r e l a t i v e l y i g n o r e d u n t i l now, namely the p o i n t o f view of the a r t i s t h i m s e l f . I t f o c u s s e s on one contemporary Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s t , Joe David, and uses both h i s works and h i s comments as the b a s i s f o r the study of h i s use of shamanic themes. At the b e g i n n i n g o f the t h e s i s , shamanism i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f i t s main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o s m o l o g i c a l themes, u s i n g the work o f M i r c e a E l i a d e as a primary r e f e r e n c e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an examination o f Northwest Coast shamanism, and the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f shamanic i d e o l o g y i n Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and a r t . The works o f a r t by Joe David are d i s c u s s e d , and through h i s comments t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r k i s r e v e a l e d , a s he t a l k s a b o u t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e h i n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p i e c e s and t h e p r i v a t e m e a n i n g h i d d e n i n t h e m . F i n a l l y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r t i s t ' s comments i s c o n f i r m e d i n a summary o f J o e D a v i d ' s v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g a r t and h i s p r i v a t e c o s m o l o g y w h i c h s y n t h e s i z e s West C o a s t t r a d i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . B o t h h i s w o r k s and h i s c o s m o l o g y c o n t a i n mos t o f t h e s h a m a n i c t h e m e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . F o r J o e D a v i d , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s h a m a n i s m h a s become e x p l i c i t a s he c o m p a r e s h i s w o r k t o s h a m a n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . B u t l i t t l e o f t h a t p e r s o n a l c o s m o l o g y w o u l d be e v i d e n t i n J o e D a v i d ' s w o r k s t o an o b s e r v e r who was n o t a p a r t i c i p a n t i n J o e D a v i d ' s w o r l d . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a n y s t u d y o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t b a s e d s o l e l y on i m a g e s , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e w o r l d v i e w o f t h e a r t i s t , r e v e a l s o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f s h a m a n i c t h e m e s i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF MAPS x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I SHAMANIC COSMOLOGY 9 II SHAMANIC IDEAS IN NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN CULTURES 26 1. The V i s i o n Quest 34 2. S p i r i t H e l p e r s 36 3. I n i t i a t i o n 39 -4. Shamanism and A r t 45 I I I SHAMANIC THEMES IN NORTHWEST COAST ART 51 1. Reference to the Non-human World 52 2. M y s t i c a l E c s t a s y 65 3. I n i t i a t i o n or Contact w i th Death 71 4. Journeys to Other Cosmic Worlds 76 5. Shamanic T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 82 6. S p i r i t Combat 87 7. Shamanic Power 88 i v P a g e IV NORTHWEST COAST SHAMANIC THEMES IN JOE DAVID'S ART 101 1. Reference to the Non-Human World 106 2. M y s t i c a l E c s t a c y 142 3. I n i t i a t i o n 150 4. Journeys i n Cosmic Worlds 156 5. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 159 6. S p i r i t Combat 169 7. Shamanic Power 169 V ART ACCORDING TO JOE DAVID 186 a) The S u p e r n a t u r a l World 187 b) The Concept o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 194 c) The Concept of Power 199 d) The A r t i s t and the Shaman 206 CONCLUSION. 213 BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 v LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Raven R a t t l e - Summary of Shamanic Themes 95 T a b l e 2 Frequency of the Use of Nootkan Q u a d r i l o g y . . 108 Table 3 L i s t of Animals 109 v i LIST OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 1 S u p e r n a t u r a l Rat "Eats Qwin" 112 ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) F i g u r e 2 L i n g Cod "Hanu Qwatchu" ( I n v i t a t i o n C a r d , 1977) 114 F i g u r e 3 L i n g Cod "Hanu Qwatchu" ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) 115 F i g u r e 4 L i n g Cod "Hanu Qwatchu" ( F r o n t l e t , 1976) 117 F i g u r e 5 Hawk (Drum, 1979) 118 F i g u r e 6 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1973) 122 F i g u r e 7 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1975) 123 F i g u r e 8 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1975) 124 F i g u r e 9 " U l t h - M a - C h o o - W h a " (Mask, 1974) 126 F i g u r e 10 " U l t h - M a - C h o o - W h a " (Mask, 1972) 127 F i g u r e 11 " U l t h - M a - C h o o - W h a " (Mask, 1973 128 F i g u r e 12 "Pukmis" (Mask, 1971) : 130 F i g u r e 13 "Nuhlmal" (Mask, 1973 132 F i g u r e 14 Sun ( F r o n t l e t , 1975) 134 F i g u r e 15 Moon ( F r o n t l e t , 1973) 135 F i g u r e 16 Moon (Mask, 1979) 136 F i g u r e 17 Wolf (Joe D a v i d ' s S i g n a t u r e , 1975) 137 v i i P a g e F i g u r e 18 Y o u n g B o y I n i t i a t e ( M a s k , 1 9 7 9 ) M 3 9 F i g u r e 19 F a t h e r ( M a s k , 1 9 7 9 ) 140 F i g u r e 20 F l y i n g F r o g C r e s t ( M a s k , 1 9 7 9 ) 141 F i g u r e 21 R a v e n - R a i n b o w ( D r u m , 1 9 7 1 ) 144 F i g u r e 22 R a v e n - R a i n b o w ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1 9 7 7 ) 145 F i g u r e 23 M e d i c i n e Drum D e s i g n ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1 9 7 9 ) 146 F i g u r e 24 " R a v e n S t e a l i n g L i g h t " ( F r o n t l e t , 1 9 7 6 ) 1 147 F i g u r e 25 " R a v e n S t e a l i n g L i g h t " ( M a s k , 1 9 7 6 ) 148 F i g u r e 26 H a m a t s a ( M a s k , 1 9 7 3 ) 149 F i g u r e 27 I n i t i a t i o n - S p o k a n e ( P o l e , 1 9 7 4 ) 151 F i g u r e 28 I n i t i a t i o n ( D r u m , 1 9 7 4 ) 152 F i g u r e 29 W h a l e ( D r u m , D r u m s t i c k , 1 9 7 9 ) 153 F i g u r e 30 " S p i r i t A w a k e n i n g t h e H a m a t s a i n t h e M o r n i n g " ( M a s k , 1 9 7 5 ) . 1 5 4 F i g u r e 31 D e a d W a r r i o r ( M a s k , 1 9 7 5 ) 155 F i g u r e 32 S e c r e t S o c i e t y I n i t i a t e ( M a s k , 1 9 8 2 ) 156 F i g u r e 33 M e m o r i a l C a n o e ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1 9 7 7 ) 157 F i g u r e 34 W h a l e ( I n v i t a t i o n C a r d , C h i c a g o E x h i b i t i o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . . 158 v i i i P a g e F i g u r e 35 Raven ( R a t t l e , 1977) 159 F i g u r e 36 "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth" ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) 160 F i g u r e 37 "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth I I " ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1981) 161 F i g u r e 38 Wolf (Mask, 1979) 163 F i g u r e 39 Whale (Ceremonial Cape, 1977) 164 F i g u r e 40 Welcome Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) 165 F i g u r e 41 Serpent Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) 166 F i g u r e 42 T h u n d e r b i r d Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) 167 F i g u r e 43 C r a w l i n g Wolf Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) 168 F i g u r e 44 Shaman (Mask, 1979) 172 F i g u r e 45 Shaman (Mask, 1982) 173 F i g u r e 46 Shaman (Mask, 1982) 173 F i g u r e 47 Shaman's Helper (Mask, 1980) 175 F i g u r e 48 Shaman's Helper (Mask, 1980) 176 F i g u r e 49 Shaman's Helper (Mask, 1982) 176 F i g u r e 50 V a r i o u s O b j e c t s - ( S o u l c a t c h e r / B r u s h h o l d e r / D i s h e s / M i n i a t u r e Canoe/Baton - 1975) 177 F i g u r e 51 Soul Catcher ( B r u s h h o l d e r , 1975) 178 i x LIST OF MAPS P a g e Map 1 The Nootkan T r i b e s and t h e i r Neighbours x i (Drucker 1951:1) - Map 1. Map 2 Clayoquot S i t e s x i i (Drucker 1951:241) - Map 8 Map 3 Various Islands ( P o s i t i o n of Icha-Chis) x i i i (Vancouver I s l a n d Tourism O f f i c e ) x MAP 1: THE NOOTKAN TRIBBS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS MA» 1.—Tho Nootlcan tribas and thotr neighbors. (from Drucker 1951:1) MAP 2: CLAYOQUOT S I T E S Drocker] THE NORTHERN AND CENTRAL NOOTKAN TRIBES 241 M A P 8.—Clayoquot sites. 1, La'okw (traditional homo of Clayoquot chiefs); 2 , histau'is; 3 , lilmitsQwIuIa; 4 , hilpltcia (former local group site); 5 , hilslyaklis (hiatau'isath fishing station); 0 , kOtwis (taken in war from a Ucluelet group); 7 , Oqmin (la'Okwath fishing site); 8 , i'tcatcict (hSpitcath summer village); 9 , hOphit* (traditional homo of hSphitcath); 10, tsaht&s (renamed hOphito after traditional site The name is said to have been transferred in marriage, as part of a dowry); 1 1 , kwokiia (former independent local group site); 1 2 , amapls (or aqowitls) (former independent local group site); 12 , amapls (or aqOwitla) (former independent local group); 13 , tl'nama (traditional home of a local group); 1 4 - 1 5 Clayoquot sites, names unrecorded. x i i MAP 3: VARIOUS ISLANDS AND LOCATION OF ICHA-CHIS (from Vancouver Island Tourism Office, The Tofino Chamber of Commerce, 1979). x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In p r o d u c i n g t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n I have i n c u r r e d many d e b t s . I owe th a n k s f i r s t and foremost t o my main i n f o r m a n t , Joe D a v i d , f o r h i s t r u s t and f r i e n d s h i p . I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o him f o r s h a r i n g h i s i d e a s w i t h me and I t r u s t t h a t he w i l l f i n d them f a i t h f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d and r e s p e c t e d h e r e . I t i s a p l e a s u r e t o acknowledge the s u p p o r t i v e guidance and u n f a i l i n g encouragement of my a d v i s o r , Dr. M a r i e - F r a n c o i s e Guedon. The v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s o f Dr. Margaret S t o t t and Dr. R o b i n R i d d i n g t o n are a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Two o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d s c h o l a r s have c o n t r i b u t e d i n m e a n i n g f u l ways: a s p e c i a l 'thank you' t o Dr. George MacDonald, D i r e c t o r of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man i n Ottawa, f o r h i s a s t u t e c r i t i q u e and a d v i c e , and t o P r o f e s s o r D a v i d F. A b e r l e f o r h i s generous encouragement i n d i f f i c u l t t i m e s . Many f r i e n d s a s s i s t e d me i n v a r i o u s and p r e c i o u s ways; J o a n a l d Dumont, Dr. B i l l R e i d , Dr. M a r t i n e R e i d , Mike P o o l e , Robert Lang, Duane Pasco, P a u l a Swan, Audrey Shane, M a d l i n e Rowan, Dr. Ol g a Kempo, C h r i s t i a n e Dubuc, J o s e t t e F a u r e , Iona Brown and many o t h e r s . I a l s o want t o say a s p e c i a l thanks t o my anglophone copy-e d i t o r , B i l l S chermbrucker, w i t h o u t whom I would never have f i n i s h e d t he p r o j e c t . x i v "Now, t h i n k o f hands and eyes: Ceremonial masks S p i d e r Web charms The f o u r d i r e c t i o n s Winter count f i g u r e s Eagle f e a t h e r s C i r c l e s o f the sun and h e a r t Bear claws Hand p r i n t s on stones Pictomyths o f f e e l i n g s Eyes o f woodland d o l l s Wind i n the t r e e s Rhythm..." (V i z e n o r 1972:15). x v Shamanic Content i n the A r t of C l a y o q u o t A r t i s t Joe David "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth" ( S u p e r n a t u r a l White Wolf T r a n s f o r m i n g i n t o Whale) xvi J . V. K a t z - L a h a i g u October 1983 1. INTRODUCTION The i n f l u e n c e o f shamanism on Northwest Coast a r t i s so a t t r a c t i v e an i d e a as to have a l r e a d y generated a l o n g h i s t o r y of s t u d i e s and debates. Meanwhile the a r t i t s e l f i s b e i n g s t u d i e d more s e r i o u s l y . In a r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e on Northwest Coast a r t , Aldona J o n a i t i s remarks t h a t , "In l e s s than a g e n e r a t i o n , the d e f i n i t i o n o f Northwest Coast p i e c e s has changed from 'ethnographic specimen' to ' f i n e a r t ' ( J o n a i t i s 1981:3). Among o t h e r causes, J o n a i t i s a t t r i b u t e s t h i s e v o l u t i o n i n American In d i a n s t u d i e s t o : a g e n e r a l change i n a t t i t u d e towards the I n d i a n s ; the i n f l u e n c e of European S u r r e a l i s t s (1981) i n which c o n n e c t i o n she mentions Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s and Wolfgang P a l l e n ; a growing i n t e r e s t i n p r i m i t i v e a r t f o r " i t s t i m e l e s s n e s s , p r i m a e v a l mythic r o o t s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y ; " and o f course the " d i s c o v e r y " of n a t i v e American a r t as a s a c r e d a r t ( J o n a i t i s 1981: 15-18). As f a r as Northwest Coast a r t i s concerned a number o f authors have shaped the changing a t t i t u d e s . Some were ethnographers i n t e r e s t e d i n shamanism i n g e n e r a l . But o t h e r s were s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n f l u e n c e of shamanism on the a r t : For some s c h o l a r s , shamanism i s the o r i g i n a t o r of a r t forms and i c o n o g r a p h i c m o t i f s . For example, Deborah Waite (1966) proposes t h a t 2. the K w akiutl t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l mask -- which snaps open and shut to r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t mythic beings -- i s an a r t i s t i c e l a b o r a t i o n o f the shamanic e x p e r i e n c e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Joan Vastokas (1973) suggests t h a t the totem p o l e , an o b j e c t used to e x h i b i t s o c i a l rank, i s descended from the shamanic t r e e of l i f e . And P e t e r F u r s t (1973) b e l i e v e s t h a t images of s k e l e t o n s , horns, and animal/human t r a n s f o r m a t i o n were o r i g i n a l l y v i s u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f shamanic power. Al t h o u g h these m o t i f s do appear on Northwest Coast shamanic a r t , they a l s o appear on s e c u l a r a r t , l i k e house p o s t s , c r e s t h a t s , and f e a s t spoons. Both F u r s t and Vastokas propose t h a t the o r i g i n o f much Northwest Coast a r t -- even t h a t a r t used i n s e c u l a r c o n t e x t s and i l l u s t r a t i n g beings t h a t do not r e l a t e at a l l to shamanism -- i s founded i n the shamanic e x p e r i e n c e ( J o n a i t i s 1981:24). J o n a i t i s sees the i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n shamanism as p a r t o f a l a r g e r c o n d i t i o n i n North America at t h i s time: the tremendous r e c e p t i v i t y to s t u d i e s o f the i r r a t i o n a l , the oth e r w o r l d l y , and the o c c u l t i n the s c h o l a r l y f i e l d , "as w e l l as among the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . " As s e v e r a l authors i n c l u d i n g J o n a i t i s and Gue'don have p o i n t e d out, the term "shamanism" i s o f t e n used by a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n so u n c r i t i c a l and broad a f a s h i o n as to throw s e r i o u s doubts on the p o s i t i o n o f the "shamanists". Gue'don w r i t e s : Ce nouvel irite'ret pour l e chamanisme ame'rindien s'e'tend d ' a i l l e u r s a b i e n d'autres domaines que l ' a r t . II f a c i l i t e l e s c o n t a c t s e n t r e c h e r c h e u r s , mais pose de s e r i e u x problemes a l ' e t h n o l o g u e q u i a b e s o i n de donne'es pre'cises. I I e s t c o n s o l a n t de n o t e r que l e s d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e r t e s par l e s in f o r m a t e u r s i n d i e n s sont beaucoup p l u s r i c h e s que l e s d e f i n i t i o n s t r e s ge'ne'rales q u ' u t i l i s e n t 3. l a p l u p a r t des auteurs pour q u i ^ t o u t c e q u i touche de p r e s ou de l o i n au s a c r e devierit 'chamanique' (Gue'don 1982: 131). ( T r a n s l a t i o n ! ) . Such " d e f i n i t i o n s t r e s gene'rales" are o b v i o u s l y u s e l e s s f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s u b j e c t . My f i r s t purpose i n t h i s study i s to e x p l o r e r a t h e r p r e c i s e l y the r o l e o f shamanism i n Northwest Coast a r t , both t r a d i t i o n a l a r t and modern a r t as r e p r e s e n t e d by a contemporary a r t i s t . I hope to show t h a t t h e r e i s more of shamanism i n Northwest Coast a r t than a mere a l l u s i o n to s p i r i t s , or a simple c o r r e l a t i o n between c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t s and c e r t a i n s a c r e d or shamanic co n c e p t s . I w i l l t r y to p r e s e n t shamanism as a u s e f u l f i e l d o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the study o f Northwest Coast a r t , through a study of shamanic cosmology among the h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s , and by a survey of shamanic concepts on the Northwest Coast. My main r e f e r e n c e sources are M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f shamanism around the w o r l d and e s p e c i a l l y i n S i b e r i a . E l i a d e has been f o l l o w e d by broad-range s c h o l a r s l i k e H u l k r a n t z , R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , Joan H a l i f a x and M i c h a e l Harner. O t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g I r v i n g Goldman, George MacDonald, Joan Vastokas and Marie-Franc^oise Gue'don have d e a l t w i t h shamanism s p e c i f i c a l l y among Indians of the Northwest Coast. I w i l l f o c u s on c e r t a i n shamanic themes: Reference to the Non-Human World; M y s t i c a l E c s t a s y ; I n i t i a t i o n ; 4 . I n i t i a t i o n or Contact w i t h Death; Journeys to Other Cosmic Worlds; T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; S p i r i t Combat; Shamanic Power. I w i l l f o l l o w these themes through Northwest Coast a r t to show how the i n f l u e n c e of shamanic cosmology extended f a r beyond the a c t i v i t i e s o f the shaman-healers i n t o such areas as the s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s ' ceremonies, the c h i e f t a i n r i t u a l s , and even the c r e s t system r i t u a l and o t h e r p r i v i l e g e d a c t i v i t i e s o f k i n groups. Throughout t h i s f i r s t p a r t of the study, I w i l l s t r e s s the importance o f the g e n e r a l s p i r i t u a l complex (shaman-s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s — c h i e f t a i n ) which permeates the t r a d i t i o n a l d a i l y l i f e o f the Northwest Coast I n d i a n t r i b e s . In the second p a r t I want to show how these shamanic themes are r e f l e c t e d i n contemporary a r t , and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the work o f one a r t i s t , Joe David. I met many n a t i v e a r t i s t s , among them B i l l R e i d , F r a n c i s W i l l i a m s , Bob Davidson, Norman T a i t , Roy V i c k e r s and Joe David. I l i s t e n e d to t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the a r t , a t l e c t u r e s i n the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology and i n p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . These a r t i s t s are from v a r i o u s t r i b e s (Haida, Nishga, T s i m s h i a n , Clayoquot) and a l l have t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l backgrounds and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Though many steps removed from the o r i g i n a l t r a d i t i o n s , the shamanic themes are s t i l l p r e s e n t today, some more o b v i o u s l y than o t h e r s ; some are i m p l i e d 5 . i n the images themselves, and some i n the meanings behind the d e s i g n s and/or i n the circumstances o f the source o f i n s p i r a t i o n . In time, I r e c o g n i z e d Joe David as one of the r a r e a r t i s t s who can g e n u i n e l y r e l a t e to the a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s w h i l e at the same time l i v i n g and e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f i n the modern wor l d . Moreover, he was w i l l i n g to t a l k w i t h me about the t o p i c s t h a t I was i n t e r e s t e d i n . I t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d to ask f o r h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n and he g r a c i o u s l y consented. I wanted to study h i s c a r v i n g s and s i l k s c r e e n s , and o b t a i n the comments of the a r t i s t . But I found t h a t i n Joe David's case the a r t i s t had become not j u s t an i n t e r p r e t e r but a p h i l o s o p h e r as w e l l . T h i s i s why, i n my o p i n i o n , h i s works and words are so v a l u a b l e . Research Methods I searched through p u b l i c documents and o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h i e s to c o n s t r u c t Joe David's p u b l i c i d e n t i t y , and c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h the a r t i s t on a l i s t o f a l l h i s works. With h i s h e l p , I a l s o assembled a c o l l e c t i o n o f photographs o f a l l h i s works. Though Joe David and I met c a s u a l l y s e v e r a l times, Chapters IV and V are based mostly on the con t e n t s o f i n t e r v i e w s on f i v e o c c a s i o n s : the f i r s t one was conducted i n I cha-Chis i n J u l y 1979. On t h a t o c c a s i o n I spent a week at I c h a - C h i s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the d a i l y l i f e o f Joe 6 . and a f r i e n d w i t h whom he was l i v i n g . His nephew Frank C h a r l i e a l s o a West Coast c a r v e r -- came r e g u l a r l y to pay v i s i t s . I conducted t h r e e other, i n t e r v i e w s i n August 1979, March 1981 and November 1981, at my home i n Vancouver. I s l o w l y l e a r n e d t h a t an i n t e r v i e w w i t h p r e p a r e d q u e s t i o n s based on my own hypotheses was not the b e s t working method. Joe would simply elude the q u e s t i o n s by answering: "I am not i n t o making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s l i k e t h a t " , o r , "words are not my medium." The a r t i s t p r e f e r r e d to be the i n i t i a t o r o f the i n t e r v i e w , to t a l k f r e e l y and not to be c o n s t r a i n e d by a r i g i d frame o f p r e - c o n c e i v e d q u e s t i o n s . The b e s t method to s t r u c t u r e the i n t e r v i e w , I found, was to p r e s e n t him w i t h photographs o f h i s works. Questions had to be few and f l e x i b l e , f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g the work s e s s i o n s , based on what Joe f e l t l i k e t a l k i n g about on the spur of the moment. D e s p i t e t h i s r a t h e r u n s t r u c t u r e d approach, I found t h a t i n the course o f our v a r i o u s t a l k s I was a b l e to cover q u i t e comprehensively a l l the r e l e v a n t t o p i c s I had i n t e n d e d to e x p l o r e . I was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h i s working method had produced r i c h and v a l i d m a t e r i a l . The f i f t h i n t e r v i e w used f o r my study was conducted by Mike P o o l e , a C.B.C. producer, who made a f i l m on the a r t o f the Northwest Coast i n 1980. Hearing of my work, Mike Poole o f f e r e d me the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of h i s t a l k s w i t h 7. Joe David. These t r a n s c r i p t i o n s d i d not i n c l u d e the q u e s t i o n s asked of the a r t i s t , but o n l y the answers. I have a l s o used the t e x t o f t h r e e l e c t u r e s Joe David gave i n the Museum of Anthropology at U.B.C.: one i n February 1977 (51 pages) , and two i n March 1978 (30 and 40 p a g e s ) . Joe David h i m s e l f has reviewed a d r a f t o f my d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s works and has agreed to the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s comments w i t h i n i t . By comparing Joe David's a r t i s t i c achievement and i d e a s to the t r a d i t i o n a l shamanic images r e v e a l e d i n Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t I hope to show a c o n t i n u i t y o f c o n t e n t between the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t and modern a r t . 8 . I n t r o d u c t i o n - Footnotes ""This new i n t e r e s t i n Amerindian shamanism extends i n t o many o t h e r f i e l d s b e s i d e s a r t . I t f a c i l i t a t e s c o n t a c t between r e s e a r c h e r s , but c r e a t e s s e r i o u s problems f o r the e t h n o l o g i s t , who needs a c c u r a t e f a c t s . I t i s c o m f o r t i n g to note t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n by I n d i a n informants are f a r r i c h e r than the v e r y g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s used by the m a j o r i t y o f a u t h o r s , f o r whom e v e r y t h i n g which even remotely touches upon the s a c r e d realm becomes "shamanic." 9. CHAPTER I - SHAMANIC COSMOLOGY F o l l o w i n g the l e a d p r o v i d e d by M i r c e a E l i a d e (1974) i n h i s monumental study o f shamanism, Joan H a l i f a x r e c e n t l y o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of shamanism: Shamanism i s an e c s t a t i c r e l i g i o u s complex o f p a r t i c u l a r and f i x e d elements w i t h a s p e c i f i c i d e o l o g y t h a t has p e r s i s t e d through m i l e n n i a and i s found i n many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . The term shaman, d e r i v e d from the V e d i c sram, meaning " t o h e a l o n e s e l f or p r a c t i c e a u s t e r i e s " , i n d i c a t e s i n f l u e n c e s by P a l e o - O r i e n t a l c i v i l i z a t i o n s . But the complex o f shamanism i s more a r c h a i c , b e i n g p a r t o f the p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s o f S i b e r i a n h u n t ers and o c c u r r i n g among p r o t o h i s t o r i c a l p e o p les i n o t h e r areas o f the world. A l t h o u g h shamans are m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the geographies o f n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l A s i a , they can be found i n A f r i c a , Oceania, A u s t r a l i a , the Americas, and n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n Europe, wherever h u n t i n g -g a t h e r i n g peoples s t i l l e x i s t and wherever t h i s a n c i e n t s a c r e d t r a d i t i o n has m a i n t a i n e d i t s shape i n s p i t e o f the s h i f t i n g o f c u l t u r a l ground ( H a l i f a x 1979:3). (Emphasis added). What does H a l i f a x mean by the " p a r t i c u l a r and f i x e d elements" which make up the complex o f shamanism? A c c o r d i n g to M i r c e a E l i a d e , who s t u d i e s shamanism worl d wide, a n a l y z i n g i t s i d e o l o g y and d i s c u s s i n g i t s t e c h n i q u e s , symbolism and m y t h o l o g i e s ( E l i a d e 1974:XIX), the essence of shamanism i s mastery of the technique o f e c s t a s y . A c c o r d i n g to him "the shaman s p e c i a l i z e s i n a t r a n c e d u r i n g which h i s s o u l i s b e l i e v e d to l e a v e h i s body and ascend to the sky or descend to the underworld" ( E l i a d e 1974:5). 10. The s e p a r a t i o n o f the s o u l from the body d u r i n g e c s t a s y i s p e r c e i v e d as an e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r to death. The shaman i s thus the o n l y one who can d i e and then r e t u r n to l i f e many times t a k i n g . o n the q u a l i t i e s o f a s p i r i t : He can f l y through the a i r , he i s i n v i s i b l e , he can p e r c e i v e t h i n g s f a r away i n the p a s t or i n the f u t u r e , he can v i s i t the v a r i o u s m y t h i c a l or animal w o r l d s . E c s t a s y i s the access to the d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t i e s i n which the shaman i s supposed to o p e r a t e , and e s p e c i a l l y to the p e r c e p t i o n o f these r e a l i t i e s . So shamanic e c s t a s y i s both l e a v i n g one's body and s e e i n g more than the body can p e r c e i v e ( E l i a d e 1958:95). The shaman uses these a b i l i t i e s to become a h e a l e r . He i s a l s o a s p e c i a l i s t i n the human s o u l ( E l i a d e 1974:25) and a psychopomp (or guide of the s o u l through the underworld) ( E l i a d e 1974:21). He i s b e l i e v e d to be ab l e to t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f i n t o an animal, to communicate w i t h the dead, w i t h s p i r i t s and m y t h i c a l a n c e s t o r s . A l t h o u g h shamanism f u n c t i o n s i n much the same way wherever i t i s encountered, t h e r e are v a r i a t i o n s i n the tec h n i q u e s used to ac h i e v e t r a n c e s t a t e s . In S i b e r i a , A s i a and South America, r e c o r d s show t h a t these s t a t e s are o f t e n a t t a i n e d w i t h the h e l p o f h a l l u c i n o g e n i c mushrooms; ot h e r n a r c o t i c s or a l c o h o l are a l s o used to t r i g g e r the e c s t a t i c s t a t e . M i r c e a E l i a d e (1974:315) b e l i e v e s t h a t the use o f n a r c o t i c s i s a r e c e n t phenomenon which, i n a way, u n d e r l i n e s the decadence o f shamanic technique -- the shaman " i m i t a t i n g " through the n a r c o t i c d i z z i n e s s the s p i r i t u a l s t a t e t h a t he can no l o n g e r a c h ieve by o t h e r means. However, F u r s t (1974:10) p o i n t s out t h a t l i n g u i s t i c , a r c h e o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and e t h n o g r a p h i c evidence suggest t h a t the widespread contemporary use by shamans of b o t a n i c a l h a l l u c i n o g e n s i n the New World c o u l d have remote o r i g i n s i n Old World P a l e o l i t h i c and M e s o l i t h i c shamanism. F u r s t argues t h a t the r i t u a l use of the Amanita M u s c a r i a mushroom dates back at l e a s t 7,000 ye a r s and has spread from S i b e r i a to I n d i a : The evidence comes from rock s h e l t e r s i t e s i n Texas and N o r t h e r n Mexico t h a t were o c c u p i e d by e a r l y peoples u n t i l about a thousand years ago. Here, amid c u l t u r a l d e b r i s t h a t has been r a d i o -carbon dated at between 10,000 and 11,000 y e a r s ago q u a n t i t i e s o f the p otent h a l l u c i n o g e n i c r e d "mescal bean" (Sophora s e c u n d i f l o r a ) have been found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the remains o f e x t i n c t b i s o n and the t o o l s and weapons o f Folsom Man" ( F u r s t 1973-1974:52). La Barre (1974:249-266) i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t the New World h a l l u c i n o g e n i c complex has i t s r o o t s i n the e c s t a t i c shamanism o f S i b e r i a and t h a t the use o f h a l l u c i n o g e n i c p l a n t s by p r e h i s t o r i c Indians appears to date from the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e , b e f o r e the e x t i n c t i o n o f the mammoth. However, at p r e s e n t the a n t i q u i t y o f h a l l u c i n o g e n i c use i s undetermined, due to a l a c k o f a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence ( P o k o t y l o : p e r s o n a l communication). In Middle America th e r e i s a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence ( F u r s t 1974:11) t h a t v a r i o u s mushrooms have been used f o r at l e a s t 3,000 y e a r s ; a n c i e n t stone e f f i g i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g mushrooms have been found i n Mexico and Guatemala (Wasson 1974:186-187). In s p i t e d f the widespread use of h a l l u c i n o g e n i c s , n a r c o t i c s and a l c o h o l , most shamans do not use a n y t h i n g s t r o n g e r than tobacco or the beat o f r a t t l e s or drums to a t t a i n e c s t a t i c s t a t e s . In f a c t shamanic tech n i q u e s v a r y c u l t u r a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l l y and a c c o r d i n g to the o c c a s i o n . Guedon, i n her study of T s i m s h i a n shamanism, remarks: Looking at the methods used by shamans i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s or r e g i o n s , one cannot f a i l t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as a "shamanic t r a n c e s t a t e . " The s t a t e o f " v i s i o n " used by shamans does not o n l y v a r y from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e but a l s o from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l and indeed from o c c a s i o n to o c c a s i o n f o r the same p r a c t i t i o n e r . The wide range of i n d u c t i o n found i n shamanic p r a c t i c e s i s a f i r s t c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the n o n - s p e c i f i c i t y of these s t a t e s . The K o r i a k shaman i n E a s t e r n S i b e r i a c o u l d s w i t c h from Amanita M u s c a r i a to vodka to induce h i s v i s i o n because what was done w i t h the s t a t e was more important than the s t a t e i t s e l f . The same b e w i l d e r i n g v a r i e t y o f methods i s found on the Northwest Coast. The shamans t h e r e f o r e are o n l y l o o k i n g f o r some tec h n i q u e -- o f any n a t u r e -- which w i l l h e l p them to r e a c h a d i s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e -- o f any k i n d , p r o v i d e d --and we touch here some e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the shamanic c r a f t , t h a t t h i s s t a t e be c o n t r o l l a b l e , hence the p r e f e r e n c e of l i g h t t r a n c e s r a t h e r than the deep unconscious t r a n c e s t a t e found, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n r i t u a l s o f p o s s e s s i o n (Gue'don 1981: 108-109) . I f shamanism cannot be d e f i n e d i n terms of s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s , the r o l e o f the shaman as w e l l as c o s m o l o g i c a l themes s u p p o r t i n g h i s p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f system are much more u s e f u l . H u l t k r a n t z ' summary of shamanic a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e f i n i n g the phenomena i n North American I n d i a n communities c o u l d be a p p l i e d to most c u l t u r e s where shamans are found: The i n f l u e n c e medicine men e x e r t i n t r i b a l I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s can h a r d l y be overemphasized. The medicine man cures the s i c k , he r e v e a l s t h i n g s hidden i n time and space, lea d s ceremonies and r i t e s , and i s i n many p l a c e s the foremost a u t h o r i t y on the t r a d i t i o n s o f the t r i b e . H i s s u p e r n a t u r a l equipment enables him to secure the success o f the economy o f the group through magic and o t h e r r i t u a l a c t i v i t y . In many p l a c e s he i s a rainmaker and a f r e q u e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f New Year, h u n t i n g , and h a r v e s t ceremonies. The medicine man a l s o makes war medicine. B e s i d e s , the medicine man may be employed i n v a r i o u s t a s k s where t h e r e i s need f o r h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y . We hear of medicine men w i t h the power to c o n t r o l the course and s t r e n g t h o f the winds or to expose e v i l - m i n d e d magicians or to h e l p make women f e r t i l e . The medicine man i s o f t e n the p r e f e r r e d b e a r e r o f t r a d i t i o n s , whether the t r a d i t i o n be e x o t e r i c , as i n the case when the medicine men are not e s t a b l i s h e d as a separate g u i l d , or e s o t e r i c , which can e a s i l y be the case w i t h s e c r e t shamanic s o c i e t i e s ( H u l t k r a n t z 1967:101-102). T h i s s e t of f u n c t i o n s p r o v i d e s a background f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the shamanic cosmology and i t u n d e r l i n e s the g e n e r a l world-wide c o n s i s t e n c y of what M i c h a e l Harner c a l l s " b a s i c shamanic knowledge" (Harner 1980:41). T h i s " b a s i c shamanic knowledge" i s a r t i c u l a t e d on a p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the shaman and non-human b e i n g s . Indeed the f u n c t i o n of the shaman can be summarized as t h a t o f an i n t e r m e d i a r y between the human world and the 14. non-human world. T h i s communication takes p l a c e i n a c o n t e x t d e f i n e d by s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s i n c l u d i n g the i d e a t h a t animals and even p l a n t s , n a t u r a l phenomena and o b j e c t s are r e a l persons -- though non-human ones -- w i t h a s o u l , an i n d i v i d u a l i t y and an e x i s t e n c e of t h e i r own. T h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of non-human beings i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a b e l i e f i n the independent e x i s t e n c e of the s o u l ; the s o u l may separatre from the body and m a i n t a i n i t s own awareness. I t i s at t h i s l e v e l of s o u l s t h a t communication i s p o s s i b l e between d i f f e r e n t b e i n g s , and most shamanic a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e . The c o n t a c t w i t h and c o n t r o l o f the non-human w o r l d i s a c h i e v e d i n a meeting o f equals where the human a c t o r i s not a s u p p l i c a n t a d d r e s s i n g s u p e r i o r beings but r a t h e r one power among o t h e r s . T h i s may be because most o f these c o n t a c t s are w i t h or through the animal w o r l d . Whether i n h u n t i n g or i n dreams, the meeting w i t h the animal i s a f a c e - t o - f a c e encounter between i n h a b i t a n t s o f what i s u l t i m a t e l y the same u n i v e r s e . The l a n d o f the dead w i t h which shamans have numerous c o n t a c t s i s c o n c e i v e d o f as c l o s e to the animal w o r l d . But i f the same u n i v e r s e i s shared by human and non-human b e i n g s , the p e r c e p t i o n each b e i n g has of i t d i f f e r s a c c o r d i n g to i t s s p e c i e s . And the shaman i s an e x c e p t i o n a l human b e i n g who i s a b l e to p e r c e i v e the world from a p o i n t o f view d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r humans. Anisimov (1963) g i v e s l i n g u i s t i c evidence to demonstrate the c o n n e c t i o n between shamanism and the s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n o f h u n t e r s , p o i n t i n g out the r o o t s o f shamanic terms i n v a r i o u s S i b e r i a n languages. In the Evenk language seve  Kechen means " S i b e r i a n s t a g " , and seven means "shaman's s p i r i t h e l p e r , " which l e a d s to sevenche-mi " t o shamanize." Anisimov b e l i e v e s a l s o t h a t the "magic c o n j u r i n g r i t e performed to a t t r a c t or head back the game" w i t h i n range o f the hunter would be the most a n c i e n t element of shamanism, and t h a t "magical pantomimes" performed f o r t h i s purpose would be even more a n c i e n t than shamanism. He uses shamanic t e r m i n o l o g y to i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t : samal-mi-Khamal-mi means " t o jump" (pantomime dance); khamati-mi means " t o o v e r t a k e " ( s p e c i a l dance to a t t r a c t the game), which lea d s to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the word sama-khaman meaning "shaman". He suggests t h a t i n o r d e r to l u r e the game, the shaman had to s i m u l a t e the animal's appearance by wearing robes o f h i d e s and caps adorned w i t h a n t l e r s . R i t u a l s or "magic c u r i n g " and the p a r a p h e r n a l i a connected w i t h them came a l i t t l e l a t e r and d e r i v e d from the same concept (Anisimov 1963:109). C u l t s and r i t u a l s d e a l i n g w i t h the hunt and the k i l l i n g o f v a r i o u s animals are found i n North America and E u r a s i a . They d i f f e r i n d e t a i l s but have the same b a s i c elements o f r e s p e c t and p r o p i t i a t i o n . Among the a n i m a l s , the bear i s so p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n e l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i a l s over such a wide area t h a t i t s presence i n shamanic r i t u a l s i s no s u r p r i s e . The l i n k between shamanism and the s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n o f hunters i s e v i d e n t not o n l y i n the s i m i l a r i t i e s between shamanic themes and h u n t i n g r i t u a l s , as demonstrated f o r i n s t a n c e by L o t - F a l k (1936) but a l s o i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the shaman w i t h animal h e l p e r s . M i r c e a E l i a d e summarizes a number of e t h n o g r a p h i c a l r e p o r t s by n o t i n g " t h a t the m a j o r i t y of these f a m i l i a r and h e l p i n g s p i r i t s have animal forms" ( E l i a d e 1974:88-89). The s p i r i t -h e l p e r i s sometimes a v e r y demanding master u s i n g the p erson o f the shaman to express i t s e l f , sometimes a s e r v a n t or an a s s i s t a n t to the shaman, but the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s always v e r y i n t i m a t e . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r human world p o i n t s toward an e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between shamanic and non-shamanic p e r c e p t i o n s . The c o n n e c t i o n i s a c h i e v e d d u r i n g an i n i t i a t i o n p r o c e s s which s e t s the shaman a p a r t from o t h e r human b e i n g s . As E l i a d e w r i t e s : "The i n i t i a t e becomes another man, because he has had a c r u c i a l r e v e l a t i o n of the w o r l d and l i f e " ( E l i a d e 1958:1). Two o t h e r g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of i n i t i a t i o n u n l i k e the s o l i t a r y shamanic e x p e r i e n c e are d e f i n e d by E l i a d e : t r i b a l i n i t i a t i o n s or p u b e r t y r i t e s (or sometimes i n i t i a t i o n i n t o an age group), u s u a l l y compulsory f o r a l l members of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y , and s e c r e t s o c i e t y i n i t i a t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d to members of p a r t i c u l a r groups. In c o n t r a s t to t r i b a l , puberty and s e c r e t s o c i e t y i n i t i a t i o n s , shamanic i n i t i a t i o n s o ccurs i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a m y s t i c a l v o c a t i o n and i s an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i n i t i a t i o n i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as compulsory i n t h a t the f u t u r e shaman i s supposed to be " c a l l e d " by the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , a c a l l which he cannot r e f u s e on p a i n o f death. D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , puberty r i t u a l s , s e c r e t s o c i e t y and shamanic i n i t i a t i o n s have much i n common: p r o h i b i t i o n o f s l e e p (to remain awake s i g n i f y i n g the attempt to become c o n s c i o u s o f the w o r l d ) ; d i e t a r y p r o h i b i t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g the i n j u n t i o n not to touc h f o o d w i t h f i n g e r s ) ; p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t speech ( i n c e r t a i n t r i b e s n o v i c e s are o n l y p e r m i t t e d to use sounds i m i t a t i n g the c r i e s o f b i r d s and a n i m a l s ) ; p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t normal s i g h t (as darkness i s a, symbol of the o t h e r w o r l d , whether of the worl d o f death or o f the f e t a l s t a t e ) ( E l i a d e 1957:16). A l l these p r o h i b i t i o n s serve to cut the n o v i c e from the pro f a n e w o r l d and to l e a d him to c o n c e n t r a t e and m e d i t a t e . During the o r d e a l s i n s t r u c t i o n through myths, dances and songs opens the c a n d i d a t e t o s p i r i t u a l l i f e , and e n t i c e s him to p e n e t r a t e the m y s t e r i e s o f h i s c u l t u r e . In many t r i b e s the n o v i c e has to be p r e s e n t e d to the sky beings by s y m b o l i c a l l y ascending a t r e e or 18. a p o l e which symbolizes the a x i s of the Cosmos, the World Tree. The symbolism o f death i s s t r e s s e d -- i n i t i a t o r y death, which means death to the profane c o n d i t i o n or to c h i l d h o o d . At the same time t h i s i n i t i a t o r y death i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f e s t i v a l s and a r e g e n e r a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e r e l i g i o u s l i f e : C o l l e c t i v e i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies r e a c t u a l i z e the m y t h i c a l times i n which these D i v i n e Beings were c r e a t i n g or o r g a n i z i n g the e a r t h ( E l i a d e 1957:19) . In the case o f the shaman, however, the i n i t i a t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ; t h i s i n d i v i d u a l nature o f shamanic ex p e r i e n c e i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by the methods used to secure the shamanic " g i f t s " . Dreams, v i s i o n s ( i n s l e e p or i n t r a n c e s t a t e s ) , h a l l u c i n a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s such as meetings w i t h strange beings or events i n the s o l i t u d e of the w i l d e r n e s s are a l l means by which the most important elements of a shaman's knowledge are supposed to be a c q u i r e d . Formal t r a i n i n g i s p r e s e n t but not emphasized. E l i a d e u n d e r l i n e s t h i s importance o f the dream f o r the shaman i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : As we have a l r e a d y seen more than once, the shaman's i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n takes p l a c e i n dreams. I t i s i n dreams t h a t the pure s a c r e d l i f e i s e n t e r e d and d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s w i t h the gods, s p i r i t s , and a n c e s t r a l s o u l s are r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s always i n dreams t h a t h i s t o r i c a l time i s a b o l i s h e d arid the m y t h i c a l time r e g a i n e d -- which a l l o w the f u t u r e shaman to w i t n e s s the b e g i n n i n g s o f the w o r l d and hence to become contemporary not o n l y w i t h the cosmogony but a l s o w i t h the p r i m o r d i a l m y t h i c a l r e v e l a t i o n s ( E l i a d e 1972:103). The c u l m i n a t i o n o f the shaman's i n i t i a t i o n , h i s death and r e b i r t h , takes p l a c e i n the i n n e r r e a l i t y o f a v i s i o n or dream o f t e n s i g n a l l e d by a p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s which s t r i k e s the n o v i c e and announces the coming of the powers. I t does not take p l a c e i n a symbolic ceremony and t h i s may be because o f the i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l nature of the e x p e r i e n c e . The v i o l e n t death through which the shaman appears to go i s a r i t u a l o f profound d i s i n t e g r a t i o n at the i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l . The main themes of the i n i t i a t o r y v i s i o n s are s i m i l a r from S i b e r i a to South America. One can t r a c e many s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f shamanic i n i t i a t o r y death around the w o r l d where the i n i t i a t e i s swallowed by a m y t h i c a l beast or d i g e s t e d by a g i a n t e s s . In L a p l a n d , f o r example, the shamans are supposed to e n t e r the i n t e s t i n e of a b i g f i s h or a whale. In R u s s i a n myths, heroes e n t e r the bodies o f g i a n t s to be vomited out l a t e r on, and i n one Eskimo i n i t i a t i o n , a White bear i s supposed to devour the n o v i c e shaman. S l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s occur a c c o r d i n g to the v a r i o u s n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s : animals such as deer, s t a g and bear haunt the S i b e r i a n shaman's v i s i o n s ; bear, o t t e r , and k i l l e r whale appear i n v i s i o n s of the American P a c i f i c Coast shaman; w h i l e jaguar and snake are p a r t of v i s i o n s of the South American shaman. A l l these a n i m a l s , whether 20. deer, bear, jaguar or snake do at some time b i t e or devour the n o v i c e . Shamans share a s i m i l a r f a t e : . . . to d i e and to be r e b o r n i n a s t a t e o f wisdom so as to be endowed w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power and become the l i n k between the human wo r l d and the o t h e r world ( R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f 1972:102). One aspect of the shamanic i n i t i a t o r y death not found i n o t h e r k i n d s o f i n i t i a t i o n i s the f r e q u e n t and e x p l i c i t mention o f the bones or s k e l e t o n o f the shaman. In S i b e r i a f o r i n s t a n c e , ( E l i a d e 1957:9) the shaman o f t e n l i e s inanimate f o r s e v e r a l days and n i g h t s i n a s o l i t a r y p l a c e ; d u r i n g t h i s "cosmic d e a t h " he i s v i s i t e d by demons and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s who dismember h i s body, c l e a n h i s bones o f any f l e s h , throw away the f l u i d s and take h i s eyes out o f t h e i r s o c k e t s . The p a r t s are then re-assembled, new f l e s h and new b l o o d are p r o v i d e d , and the shaman i s r e b o r n as a new man. A c c o r d i n g to E l i a d e the bones have s p e c i a l symbolic v a l u e : Bone symbolizes the f i n a l r o o t o f animal l i f e , the mold from which the f l e s h c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s e s . I t i s from the bone t h a t men and animals are r e b o r n ; f o r a time, they m a i n t a i n themselves i n an e x i s t e n c e of the f l e s h ; then they d i e , and t h e i r " l i f e " i s reduced to the essence c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s k e l e t o n , from which they w i l l be born a g a i n . Reduced to s k e l e t o n s , the f u t u r e shamans undergo the m y s t i c a l death t h a t enables them to r e t u r n to the i n e x h a u s t i b l e fount o f cosmic l i f e ( E l i a d e 1958:92) . Anisimov (1963:97 and 109) r e f e r r i n g to the Evenks mentions t h a t the " c a l l i n g " o f the shaman to h i s p o s i t i o n 21. i s thought of as the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f the o l d anthropomorphic substance and i t s replacement w i t h a new zodmorphic one; these remarks a p p l y to shamans everywhere. Once i n i t i a t e d the shaman, who i s by d e f i n i t i o n more than human or at l e a s t o t h e r than human, becomes p a r t o f a wor l d which i s always changing, moving, metamorphosing. In the shamanic wor l d the power o f t r a n s f o r m i n g o n e s e l f i n t o an animal or a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g i s a g i f t shared by a l l powerful beings whether they are human or not human. The shaman l e a r n s to c o n t r o l t h i s power. T h i s i s one of the purposes o f the shaman's costume. The shaman d r e s s e s i n animal s k i n , the robe b e i n g ornamented w i t h animal bones and completed by a headdress o f a n t l e r s , o r bear claws, or animal head, thus h e l p i n g the shaman to "become" the animal; he might a l s o wear a dress on which are sewn r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of b i r d bones, i n e f f e c t t r a n s f o r m i n g the shaman i n t o a b i r d and a l l o w i n g him to f l y -Dancing i s a l s o a means to c o n t r o l shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As mentioned above, the Ru s s i a n e t h n o l o g i s t Anisimov (1963:109) d e r i v e s the etymology of the word "shaman" i n the Evenk language from the dancing motions of the shaman. The same importance i s p l a c e d on the g a i t o f t u t e l a r y animals i n o r d e r to t r a n s f o r m the dancer. T h i s shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n g i v e s the shaman the a b i l i t y to use the s p e c i f i c animal's or being's knowledge and s t r e n g t h ( E l i a d e 1974:460). Because the shaman has access to non-human powers and can p e r c e i v e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , h i s s t a t u s w i t h i n the human community i s a f f e c t e d : h i s power s e t s him a p a r t from o t h e r human b e i n g s , and at the same time i t g i v e s him a s p e c i a l r o l e w i t h i n the human community. Shamanic power i s never d e f i n e d as "normal", " c i v i l i z e d " or "human". I t can be d e t e c t e d p r i m a r i l y by what i s "unwonted", " e x t r a o r d i n a r y " or " u n n a t u r a l " . A v e r y s p e c i a l s k i l l o f a hunter or f i s h e r m a n , a b i r t h d e f e c t or v e r y abnormal behaviour are o f t e n taken to r e v e a l the presence o f power. Guedon, i n her d e s c r i p t i o n of T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n cosmology a n a l y z e s the T s i m s h i a n concept o f naxnoq which she t r a n s l a t e s as "power". She makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : The term naxnoq a p p l i e s to any b e i n g , event or a b i l i t y which appears to e x h i b i t or express some form o f "power", a n y t h i n g connected w i t h the abnormal or the e x t r a o r d i n a r y . . . I t a p p l i e s to g h o s t s , s p i r i t s g i f t s , and to any abnormal degree o f s t r e n g t h as w e l l as any m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the non-human world. When I am t a l k i n g about powers, i t may mean " s p i r i t s " , or s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s ; i t may a l s o mean the s p e c i a l g i f t s a shaman has o b t a i n e d from or through h i s h e l p e r s , whether i t i s to p r e d i c t the f u t u r e or to cure a c e r t a i n type of s i c k n e s s (Gue'don, Forthcoming). The s p e c i a l c a l l i n g o f the shaman p l a c e s him, then, i n an e l i t e c a t e g o r y . In many c u l t u r e s , he i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d merely human; he has become a power h i m s e l f . The shaman uses his power for his own sake as well as for the sake of the human community, which brings us back to the role of the shaman as an intermediary between the human and the non-human, the normal and the abnormal, the l i v ing and the dead. The social role of a shaman is marked by his special a b i l i t i e s which single him out and place him in a position of high social standing. In Hultkrantz's words the consequences of a shamans1s power . . . a r e not l imited to himself and his family, as is the case with other acquired supernatural powers. It is his ca l l ing to sustain the community in i ts entirety and on this sustenance his social prestige and his p o l i t i c a l power are established (Hultkrantz 1967:85). Our def init ion of shamanism would not be complete i f we did not c a l l attention to the interconnectedness of a l l the themes on which i t is bui l t from ecstasy and cosmic journeys to the animal world, from i n i t i a t i o n and death to the power of transforming into non-human beings. For example, Eliade points out that: The presence of a helping s p i r i t in animal form, dialogue with i t in a secret language, or incarnation of such an animal s p i r i t by the shaman (masks, actions, dances e t c . . . ) is another way of showing that the shaman can forsake his human condition, is able in a word, to "die" (Eliade 1972:93-94). S imi lar ly , travels to other worlds, the perception of other r e a l i t i e s , fami l iar i ty with death, are only particular cases of the more general and pervasive themes o f shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and power. Not o n l y are a l l these themes l i n k e d to form a s t r u c t u r e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n of t r a i t s ; they u l t i m a t e l y are p a r t o f a cosmic model which i s the b a s i s f o r a whole network of c u l t u r a l exchange, which may account f o r the expansion o f shaman i d e a s . A c c o r d i n g to George MacDonald, the work o f E l i a d e (1972), F u r s t (1972) , R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f (1971, 1975) and many others . . . i n d i c a t e s a c o n c e p t u a l framework, l i n k i n g c u l t u r e s a c r o s s a wide a r e a , t h a t has been s c a r c e l y s t u d i e d i n the p a s t , but which p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r c u l t u r e s to i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r i n c o v e r t , o f t e n s e c r e t , exchanges between r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s . . . . ( M a c D o n a l d 1981:226). In the next chapter we w i l l see t h a t the c u l t u r a l exchange promoted by shamans i n f l u e n c e d more than the shamans themselves and t h a t shamanic idea s may pervade whole c u l t u r e s . 2 5 . Chapter I - Footnotes """In S i b e r i a , as i n North America, t h i s theme of dismemberment i s o f t e n found i n h u n t i n g r i t u a l s . Among the Evenks whenever a bear was k i l l e d h i s bones were not a l l o w e d t o be cut or broken but the whole c a r c a s s had to be c a r e f u l l y dismembered at the j o i n t s . When the meat had been eaten the bones were c o l l e c t e d and l a i d on w i l l o w branches where they were reassembled i n the same order i n which they had been when the bear was a l i v e . S p e c i a l c a r e was a l s o g i v e n to the c o o k i n g and the s e r v i n g of the p a r t s of the bear. A l l t h i s c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n had to do w i t h the f u t u r e r e s u r r e c t i o n of the bear which would be endangered i f the r u l e s about dismemberment and g a t h e r i n g o f the bones had not been r e s p e c t e d (Potapov 1964:649). 7 I t i s c l e a r t h a t , through a l l these ornaments, the shamanic costume tends to g i v e the shaman a new, m a g i c a l body i n animal form. The t h r e e c h i e f types are t h a t of the b i r d , the r e i n d e e r ( s t a g ) , and the bear -- but e s p e c i a l l y the b i r d . We w i l l r e t u r n to the meaning o f the b o d i e s i n the form o f the r e i n d e e r and the bear. For the moment we w i l l c o n s i d e r the o r n i t h o m o r p h i c costume. Fea t u r e s are mentioned more or l e s s everywhere i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f shamanic costumes. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the v e r y s t r u c t u r e of the costumes seeks to i m i t a t e as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the shape of a b i r d . A Tungus shaman's boot i m i t a t e s the f o o t o f a b i r d . The most c o m p l i c a t e d form of the o r n i t h o m o r p h i c costume i s found among the Yakut shamans. T h e i r costume d i s p l a y s a complete b i r d s k e l e t o n o f i r o n . Indeed, a c c o r d i n g to S h i r o k o g o r o f f , the c e n t e r of d i s s e m i n a t i o n f o r the b i r d -form costume appears to be the r e g i o n today o c c u p i e d by the Yakut ( E l i a d e 1974:156). CHAPTER II SHAMANIC IDEAS IN NORTHWEST COAST INDIAN CULTURES Shamanism among Northwest Coast i n d i a n s i s v e r y s i m i l a r from one c u l t u r e to another, from the T l i n g i t to the S a l i s h . We can t h e r e f o r e speak b r o a d l y o f such shamanism without d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between i t s l o c a l forms. In c o n s i d e r i n g Northwest Coast shamanism, I am f o c u s s i n g on shamanic ide a s i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r than on shamanism as a h e a l i n g technique or as a cosmology s p e c i f i c to a c a t e g o r y of r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s . In Northwest Indian c u l t u r e s , shamanic i d e o l o g y , t e c h n i q u e s and symbols extended o u t s i d e the realm o f the h e a l e r . A c c o r d i n g to M.F. Gue'don: Au developpement des groupes de parente et de l a h i ^ r a r c h i e de t i t r e s e t b l a s o n s , c o r r e s p o n d une mainmise des chefs et personnes de haut rang sur l e s r e s s o u r c e s du s u r n a t u r e l . . . . II s ' e s t done greffe' autour ou a cot£ des chamanes une s 6 r i e d ' i n s t i t u t i o n s q u i ont r e p r i s e n t r e a u t r e s o i t au compte des l i g n a g e s et des f a m i l i e s nobles s o i t au compte des socie'te's s e c r e t e s l e s r i t u e l s de qu£te d'une v i s i o n ou d'un e s p r i t g a r d i e n (dont 1 ' i d e n t i t e e s t mairitenant souvent d i c t e e au depart par l e groupe de parente - ou m8me par l e t i t r e qu'on peut espe>er he'riter a" l ' i n t e ' r i e u r de ce groupe), l e s r i t e s de passage e t l e s grandes ceremonies d ' i n i t i a t i o n autour d e s q u e l l e s £taient c e n t r e e s l e s f e s t i v a l s ou Danses d ' h i v e r . . Un chef n'est pas un chamane, mais l o r s q u ' i l o f f i c i e en q u a l i t e ' d ' i n t e r m e d i a i r e e n t r e l e s humains et l e non-humain, on l ' a p p e l l e ^ a r un t i t r e s p e c i a l q u i comporte souvent l e meme terme que c e l u i q u i de'signe l e s g u ^ r i s s e u r s (Gue'don 1982:132). ( T r a n s l a t i o n 1 ) A number o f shamanic concepts, images, even r i t u a l s have t h e r e f o r e been s u s t a i n e d by kinds of r i t u a l i s t s who are not shamans i n the narrow sense of the term but who have c o n t r i b u t e d to the development of shamanic cosmology and shamanic a r t i n Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s . As f o r the Northwest Coast shaman h i m s e l f , h i s main r o l e i s to cure s i c k p e o p l e . H e a l i n g i s done through an encounter w i t h the cause o f the d i s e a s e , i t s e l f a power, or by a d i r e c t meeting w i t h the s o u l of the p a t i e n t d u r i n g which the d i s e a s e i s removed. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i o n o f t e n i n v o l v e s the use o f the mouth (Gue'don p e r s o n a l communication) e i t h e r s u c k i n g or blowing. Among the K w a k i u t l , s u c k i n g i s most common. A c c o r d i n g to the Koskimo (Boas 1930:20) the s i c k n e s s i s l i k e a human b e i n g . I t has to be taken out and swallowed by the shaman; then i t d i e s . Among the T s i m s h i a n , where blowing i s more important, a person who possesses a power i s c a l l e d h a l a i t which t r a n s l a t e s as "shaman", but the a c t u a l shaman i s c a l l e d h a l a i t swerisk, t h a t i s "blowing h a l a i t " . Another way of d e a l i n g w i t h d i s e a s e a r i s e s from the b e l i e f t h a t the s i c k n e s s i s caused by the t h e f t or l o s s of the p a t i e n t ' s s o u l . I t i s the t a s k of the shaman to b r i n g i t back and thus enable the p a t i e n t to r e c o v e r . The a c t i o n of s u c k i n g / b l o w i n g symbolizes " b r e a t h " , a synonym f o r "energy" and c o n s e q u e n t l y f o r " l i f e " . The s o u l i s 2 8 . r e - c a p t u r e d , s t r e n g t h e n e d by the b r e a t h of the shaman and blown back i n t o the p a t i e n t : " B r e a t h was c o n s i d e r e d the p r i m a r y l i f e r e q u i s i t e " (Swanton 1970:446). The shaman can a l s o p r e d i c t c a t a s t r o p h i e s , see s e c r e t i n t e n t i o n s , p e r c e i v e what i s happening i n hidden p l a c e s , and, because he can communicate w i t h animals or t h e i r m y t h i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t , p r e d i c t or even i n f l u e n c e the hunt. He may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the weather; he i s b e l i e v e d to be able to t r a v e l to remote p l a c e s , even to the l a n d of the dead to b r i n g back the s o u l o f the person he i s a t t e m p t i n g to c u r e . In h i s v i s i o n s , he may f l y or d i v e down to the bottom o f l a k e s , r i v e r s or oceans. Power has to be handled c a u t i o u s l y and can be ^dangerous f o r any layman coming i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h i t without the proper p r e p a r a t i o n . Thus a person who has j u s t had a s u p e r n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s t a y s away from c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r people f o r a w h i l e to a v o i d the r i s k of t h e i r c o n t a m i n a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , at a shaman's death h i s whole p a r a p h e r n a l i a i s b u r i e d or hidden away i n remote caves to a v o i d any danger. The c o n t e n t s of shamanic performances may d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g to c i r c u m s t a n c e s , from simple events where the shaman performs a l o n e , without much p a r a p h e r n a l i a o r audience, to more complex cases r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l songs and dances and the presence o f the whole community i n c l u d i n g o t h e r shamans. The main shaman has to enter i n t o a t r a n c e d u r i n g which he asks the h e l p of h i s non-human h e l p e r s i n o r d e r to perform w i t h s u c c e s s . Performances v a r y a l s o a c c o r d i n g to the p e r s o n a l i t y of the shaman, but a v i s i o n or dream i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the r i t u a l . I t i s d u r i n g the v i s i o n or dream t h a t he r e c e i v e s h i s songs and the d e t a i l s o f h i s p a r a p h e r n a l i a , communicates w i t h h i s h e l p e r s and o f t e n f i n d s the s o l u t i o n to the problem he i s t r y i n g to s o l v e . The methods used d u r i n g the performance v a r y but always r e q u i r e the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the "shaman's s p i r i t " or " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " , whose power i s o f t e n t r a n s m i t t e d through power o b j e c t s or "charms". These charms are f r e q u e n t l y o f animal o r i g i n -- a moose hoof, a bear's t o o t h , a b i r d ' s s k u l l -- but can a l s o be a c a r v e d o b j e c t or a simple stone. During c u r i n g performances, the shaman uses c e r t a i n r i t u a l s and g e s t u r e s : massaging, t o u c h i n g , s u c k i n g , blowing, d i r e c t e d to or from the p a t i e n t . R a t t l e s and drums are employed to accompany the songs. Shaman-healers u s u a l l y act i n d i v i d u a l l y ; but they can sometimes j o i n o t h e r shamans f o r common performances. They may a l s o j o i n f e l l o w s h i p s of i n i t i a t e s who -- though they are not h e a l e r s -- are c o n s i d e r e d to b e l o n g i n a s i m i l a r c a t e g o r y . The Northwest Coast I n d i a n people themselves use s i m i l a r terms to d e s i g n a t e the shaman h e a l e r s and the i n i t i a t e d ancers. The most p r e s t i g i o u s members of the 3 0 . K w a k i u t l s o c i e t i e s as w e l l as the s o c i e t i e s themselves are c a l l e d T s i t s i q a , t h a t i s "shamans" by the Kw a k i u t l (Drucker 1940:202). T h i s commonality of term i s found among the B e l l a B e l l a , X a i s l a and Xaihas ( T s i t s a i q a ) , the Koskimo and F o r t Rupert and Wikeno I n d i a n s , as w e l l as among the Tsi m s h i a n ( H a l a i t ) and the Haida (Sxaga). Even a c u r s o r y examination o f the r i t u a l s d e f i n i n g the Northwest Coast s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s shows t h a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e i r member g i v e s a v e r y important p l a c e to i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g dreams and v i s i o n s ( J i l e k 1974). In t h i s r e s p e c t , s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s n o v i c e s are v e r y c l o s e to the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l e r s . T h i s common background i s a l s o noted by H u l t k r a n t z : S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s seem l a r g e l y to be c o l l e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the medicine man, w i t h an accompanying weakening of the v i s i o n a r y and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f the dramatic elements. A g a i n s t such a background the development o f s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s i n North America becomes f u l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . In i t s most pronounced form the s e c r e t s o c i e t y i s an assembly o f r i t u a l l y i n i t i a t e d medicine men who proceed w i t h the c e l e b r a t i o n o f the annual r i t e s i n an e x c l u s i v e and e s o t e r i c s e t t i n g . In i t s secondary, d e r i v e d form the s e c r e t s o c i e t y i s an a s s o c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s who o b t a i n c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t p r i v i l e g e s i n t h i s l i f e or the next through the i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s and who are e n t r u s t e d w i t h m e d i c a l or c u l t i c f u n c t i o n s . In both cases the medicine men have d i r e c t e d the development, and t h e i r i d e a s and o b j e c t i v e s are b a s i c to the a s p i r a t i o n s o f the s o c i e t i e s . T h i s becomes obvious when we take a c l o s e r look at the r i t u a l o f the s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s on the Northwest Coast and among the c e n t r a l A l g o n k i n on the Great Lakes ( H u l t k r a n t z 1967: 119-121). Shamanic r i t u a l s and s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s performances are two of the means by which laymen have access to shamanic powers; but t h e r e are o t h e r means to do so, means u s u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the c h i e f s . Though the c h i e f s are not shamans the m y t h i c a l h i s t o r y o f the noble f a m i l i e s , l i n e a g e or c l a n s , r e v e a l s a c o n t a c t between the human and the non-human realm, which i s o f t e n handled i n a t y p i c a l l y shamanic f a s h i o n . The names or t i t l e s d e r i v e d from the legendary meetings which form the core o f c l a n or l i n e a g e myth of o r i g i n and h i s t o r i e s are a l l e v o c a t i v e i n t h e i r s i m p l e s t forms o f power quests and animal powers. These c o n n e c t i o n s g i v e the c h i e f s and people o f h i g h rank access to r i t u a l p o s i t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; they are thus assuming d u t i e s which i n oth e r c u l t u r e s are c o n s i d e r e d shamanic. For i n s t a n c e the Nootka c h i e f s a c t as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between the hunters and the whale (Drucker 1951:177, C u r t i s 1916:20), the Tsimshian c h i e f s i n i t i a t e the c h i l d r e n to t h e i r f i r s t meeting w i t h the s p i r i t w o r l d and a s s i s t them i n t h e i r s p i r i t quest ( G a r f i e l d 1939:169). I would go f u r t h e r and ven t u r e to say t h a t i n most, i f not a l l Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s , the c h i e f s have the p r i v i l e g e to c r o s s the boundaries o f the human w o r l d and to e n t e r a p r i v i l e g e d l i m i n a l s t a t e . T h e i r f u n c t i o n i s one of balance between the everyday human world and the non human w o r l d o f myth. Because o f t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l i m i n a l s t a t e c h i e f s are sometimes e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d as shamans when they o f f i c i a t e i n t h a t q u a s i -r e l i g i o u s c a p a c i t y : f o r i n s t a n c e , among the T s i m s h i a n , a c h i e f i s c a l l e d w i - h a l a i t (great dancer or g r e a t shaman) when he i s a c t i n g as i n i t i a t o r ( H a l p i n 1973:74-77). A c c o r d i n g to G a r f i e l d (1939:192): "as a ' w i - h a l a i t ' a c h i e f a c t e d i n the c a p a c i t y o f a v e r y powerful shaman p e r f o r m i n g f o r the b e n e f i t o f h i s peo p l e " . Among the Ts i m s h i a n , t h e r e i s a d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n o f c h i e f t a i n s h i p w i t h the r i g h t to t r a n s f o r m i n t o the c r e s t a nimal; o n l y the h i g h c h i e f s have the r i g h t to wear the animal's head and s k i n , a r i g h t which every shaman a l r e a d y has. The e q u a t i o n l i n k i n g the p o s i t i o n s o f c h i e f and shaman can be read here. I r v i n g Goldman reaches a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n f o r the Kwa k i u t l as he b r i n g s t o g e t h e r the Kwakiutl s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s i n i t i a t e s , the shamans and the c h i e f s : Among Kwakiutl. the c h i e f s , or the s o - c a l l e d " n o b i l i t y , " are equated w i t h shamans, and a c u r i n g shaman need not be c h i e f . In t h e i r major r i t u a l r o l e s , however, the c h i e f s are addressed as p a x a l a (shaman) and behave as shamans. The s u p e r n a t u r a l powers of c h i e f s are a k i n to those o f c u r i n g shamans, the "medicine men" (Goldman 1975:4). T h i s e q u a t i o n between the shaman, the i n i t i a t e and the c h i e f i s , i n my o p i n i o n a key to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f s h a m a n i s t i c themes i n the c r e s t s and t i t l e systems among Northwest Coast s o c i e t i e s . C o n c l u d i n g h i s comparative study of these ceremonials P h i l i p Drucker e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e s the t i e s between shamans and i n i t i a t e s o f the s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s : Warfare, as Boas has p o i n t e d out, has l e n t many symbols and m o t i f s to the r i t e s . I s h o u l d l i k e to p o i n t to another i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t has c o n t r i b u t e d most ge n e r o u s l y to the s e c r e t s o c i e t y complex. I r e f e r to shamanism. Not o n l y do the r i t u a l s , as Boas l o n g s i n c e r e c o g n i z e d , d r a m a t i c a l l y p o r t r a y a s u p e r n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the same s o r t as t h a t by which shamans o b t a i n e d t h e i r power, but the b a s i c i d e a of p o s s e s s i o n , the dance to d i s p l a y the n o v i c e ' s power i n c l u d i n g the s l e i g h t - o f - h a n d t r i c k s , i n v a r i a b l e accompaniments of s h a m a n i s t i c performances i n t h i s r e g i o n ) , the concept o f " t h r o w i n g " s u p e r n a t u r a l power ( o f t e n i n the form o f q u a r t z c r y s t a l s ) , the c u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s used to " h e a l " the n o v i c e and the many r e f e r e n c e s to " h e a l i n g " i n r i t e s , and the d e s i g n a t i o n o f one o f the a r t i c l e s as t h a t o f the Shamans, a l l stem from the s h a m a n i s t i c complex of the  a r e a . Even r e d cedar bark used as s o c i e t y i n s i g n i a i s p a r t i a l l y p a r t of a shaman's r e g a l i a . P l a i n l y , shamanism has c o n t r i b u t e d  more h e a v i l y to the form o f the r i t e s than has any o t h e r a s p e c t o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e (Drucker 1940:229/230). (Emphasis added) I n i t i a t e s and laymen s e e k i n g power have a number o f r i t u a l elements i n common w i t h h e a l e r s . Of t h e s e , the most important i n my o p i n i o n a r e : 1) General use of a v i s i o n q u est, w i t h superhuman power granted the s u c c e s s f u l seeker. 2) H e l p e r s or s p i r i t s , most o f t e n animals from the Lower World or the Higher World or "heavens," and w i t h means o f e x i t (or r e - e n t r y ) through the h o l e s , which form the o l d symbols o f the cosmic t r e e , the p o l a r s t a r , or the w h i r l p o o l i n the middle o f the ocean. 3) I n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l w i t h death as the main focus of the e x p e r i e n c e s ; r e b i r t h or r e t u r n to " c u l t u r e d humanity" f o l l o w s . R e l i a n c e on dance, drumming, songs and t h e a t r i c a l performances, w i t h masks and costuming used to change the i d e n t i t y of the dancer, r a t h e r than h a l l u c i n o g e n i c s . Each of these r i t u a l elements has been developed by Northwest Coast t r a d i t i o n s i n a s p e c i f i c f a s h i o n we w i l l now look at b r i e f l y . 1 - The V i s i o n Quest -A c c o r d i n g to V i o l a G a r f i e l d (1939:222) shaman-healers, s h a m a n - i n i t i a t e s and c h i e f s - = a s - r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s a l l gained t h e i r powers through the r i t u a l v i s i o n quest. The Northwest Coast v i s i o n , as G a r f i e l d d e s c r i b e s i t and as o t h e r authors c o n f i r m , i s based on the i n h e r i t a n c e and rank system which g i v e s each i n d i v i d u a l h i s own s t a t u s and i d e n t i t y , a c c o r d i n g to f a m i l y , l i n e a g e or c l a n t r a d i t i o n s , and d i c t a t e s the k i n d o f s p i r i t and the k i n d o f power one may seek; n e v e r t h e l e s s the v i s i o n quest i s a r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e shared by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s whether shamans, c h i e f s or commoners, and g i v e s everyone a t a s t e o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l powers. The n a t u r e o f the powers i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e a p a r t from the quest which lea d s to them. M.F. Gue'don notes t h a t an examination o f the quest i t s e l f and o f the s p i r i t s or powers a c q u i r e d by the seekers i l l u s t r a t e s the common background o f the shaman-healers and' s h a m a n - i n i t i a t e s ( p e r s o n a l communication). Among the Indians o f the Northwest Coast t h e r e seem to be some c e n t r a l r e l i g i o u s powers such as the "power of the S h i n i n g Heaven" (Haida) or the " C h i e f o f Heaven" ( T s i m s h i a n ) . But the most important s u p e r n a t u r a l beings are the i n d i v i d u a l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s . Anybody can t r y to o b t a i n a g u a r d i a n s p i r i t . Laymen do not have to go on a quest as severe as t h e shaman's or i n i t i a t e ' s ; t h e i r s l a s t o n l y a few days. Sometimes they even o b t a i n t h e i r g u a r d i a n s p i r i t i n the s i m p l e s t manner: i t j u s t appears to them and bestows a dance and a song. Some i n d i v i d u a l s s t a r t the t r a i n i n g f o r the quest at a v e r y young age, as e a r l y as seven or e i g h t (Jenness 1955:66; S p r a d l e y 1963:12). Some have to wa i t f o r adulthood to o b t a i n a s p i r i t ; o t h e r s admit to never r e c e i v i n g a n y t h i n g . Even i f a young boy does encounter a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g i n v i s i o n s , he w i l l keep i t s e c r e t and c o n t i n u e t r a i n i n g i n o r d e r to o b t a i n more powers (Duff 1952:99). Women as w e l l as men can attempt a s p i r i t quest. However, because young g i r l s are not supposed to be alone and have t o be accompanied by an o l d woman, even at a d i s t a n c e , the quest i s not easy f o r them to accomplish ( S p r a d l e y 1963:12). O l d e r women have more freedom. Female shamans do e x i s t and some are ve r y famous. 2 - S p i r i t H e l p e r s -The s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f a v i s i o n v a r i e s from informant to informant but does correspond to examples i n legends and s t o r i e s . The s p i r i t sometimes appears i n human g u i s e , sometimes i n animal g u i s e . He g i v e s s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the seeker r e g a r d i n g h i s new song and dance, and sometimes d i r e c t i v e s about h i s masks and costumes, and the new power granted. Then he d e p a r t s . The s p i r i t can a l s o appear i n the form o f a b i z a r r e o b j e c t "such as a hand p r o t r u d i n g from the ground," or as a qu a r t c r y s t a l ( S p r a d l e y 1963:16). By c o n t r a s t w i t h o t h e r North American I n d i a n c u l t u r e s the Northwest Coast shaman und e r s t a n d a b l y p l a c e s a c e r t a i n emphasis on themes n e g l e c t e d by o t h e r t r i b e s such as the ocean landscape and i n h a b i t a n t s . Whales are predominant; s h e l l f i s h , f i s h such as b l a c k f i s h , b u l l h e a d and salmon are o f t e n mentioned; the Northwest Coast shaman seems to d i v e down i n t o the ocean or the r i v e r as o f t e n as the S i b e r i a n or Eskimo shaman f l i e s up, and sea mammals and amphibious animals are then taken as gui d e s . Some shamans get power a f t e r having been kidnapped by a n i m a l s , wolves or bears s p e c i a l l y , or a f t e r h a v ing been h u r t by them (Duff 1952:10), or by c o n t r a s t a f t e r h a v i n g h e l p e d a s i c k or h u r t animal; l a t e r on t h i s animal shows i t s g r a t i t u d e by g i v i n g the hunter s u p e r n a t u r a l power (Boas 1966:41-44). A human b e i n g can a l s o g a i n power from an encounter w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s . These c r e a t u r e s w i l l take human form and t a l k to the would-be shaman; then they resume t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e and d i s a p p e a r a f t e r h a v i n g g i v e n power (Duff 1952:99). A l l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s belong to the animate realm, or t o what the Indians c o n s i d e r e d as animate: e.g. i n c l u d i n g such f o r c e s o f nature as the winds and the thunder "which had been human i n the dawn o f time" (Jenness 1955:47). These g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s possess the v i t a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l animal (or being) o f o r i g i n , and t h i s v i t a l i t y i s t r a n s m i t t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l as "power." Some Coast S a l i s h i n f o r m a n t s d e c l a r e d to Jenness (1955:47 note) t h a t the v i t a l i t y or s o u l o f the animal lodges i n the dancer's c h e s t . An o l d n a t i v e o f S a r d i s even added t h a t "the reason why a medicine-man possesses much g r e a t e r power than a dancer i s t h a t h i s g u a r d i a n - s p i r i t d w e l l s i n h i s c h e s t at a l l times, but a dancer's o n l y w h i l e he i s d a n c i n g . " 3 8 . In Northwest Coast c u l t u r e animal s p i r i t s are monsters from the sea i n l e t s , or f o r e s t s and are c o n s i d e r e d more important than remote gods. Power, from the human p o i n t of view, i s t h e r e f o r e nearby and a c c e s s i b l e . The s p i r i t s and m y t h i c a l beings .-- even though they l i v e i n the non-human realm -- r e v e a l themselves t a n g i b l y to human be i n g s , through v i s i o n s or through s u p e r n a t u r a l encounters. S p i r i t s and m y t h i c a l beings appear to i n d i v i d u a l s under a m u l t i t u d e o f shapes but have t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are t r a n s m i t t e d from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n . Power v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y and k i n d a c c o r d i n g to the r e c e i v e r and a c c o r d i n g to the donor: The a v a i l a b l e s u p e r n a t u r a l powers are both s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l . Animals, f o r example, g i v e a power which i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r own n a t u r e : beavers g i v e t h e i r i n d u s t r i o u s n e s s , g r i z z l y bears t h e i r f i e r c e n e s s . Animals o f f e r themselves as a comprehensive g i f t l they g i v e t h e i r f l e s h , t h e i r form, t h e i r s p e c i f i c n a t u r e . S p i r i t beings cannot g i v e t h e i r f l e s h but they can g i v e t h e i r s p e c i f i c n a ture (Goldman 1975:198). (Emphasis added) While humans have to s t r i v e to o b t a i n power i t seems from myths t h a t the animals are a l s o i n v o l v e d i n power qu e s t s . Goldman comments: The r e l a t i o n s between men and animals may be v i s u a l i z e d as two s t r a n d s , c o i l e d h e l i x - w i s e around each o t h e r , t o u c h i n g at some p o i n t s , s e p a r a t e d at o t h e r s , but always s y m m e t r i c a l l y p o s i t i o n e d . When they touch they exchange powers; when they are s e p a r a t e d they r e f l e c t each o t h e r -- humans appear as animals and animals as humans. Myth p o r t r a y s the animals i n t h e i r houses, h o l d i n g Winter Dances or s e e k i n g S u p e r n a t u r a l powers by d i v i n g i n t o deep waters i n the guise of humans. Humans are p o r t r a y e d i n r i t u a l i n the g u i s e o f animals as they seek and p o r t r a y powers. In K w a k i u t l thought humans are the p r i n c i p a l r e c e i v e r s of powers _(nawalak)_ and animals and t h e i r S D i r i t c o u n t e r p a r t s are the p r i n c i p a l donors (Goldman 1975:185-6) . 3 - I n i t i a t i o n -In the content o f t h e i r v i s i o n , as w e l l as i n the n a t u r e and i d e n t i t y o f t h e i r s p i r i t h e l p e r s or even t h e i r p a r a p h e r n a l i a , the h e a l e r s are independent, and are not governed by the l i m i t s o f t h e i r c l a n , l i n e a g e or f a m i l y . (Such i s not the case f o r the o t h e r p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the a r t s of power.) Among the Nootkan or West Coast people t h e r e are two main ways of a c q u i r i n g h e a l i n g powers. F i r s t i t can be i n h e r i t e d ( C u r t i s 1916:45) from f a t h e r by son, or daughter. In t h i s c a s e , the c h i l d i s sent at an e a r l y age i n t o the woods to a c c o m p l i s h p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e s . He i s then a d v i s e d by h i s f a t h e r of the steps to take i n order to r e c o g n i z e the v i s i t o f the s p i r i t s . Secondly, power can be o b t a i n e d from an encounter w i t h a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g . T h i s encounter may be a c c i d e n t a l or a c h i e v e d through a quest. I t i s not unusual f o r an o l d shaman to t e a c h a c h i l d who has a l r e a d y shown a d i s p o s i t i o n f o r shamanic t a l e n t . The p r e p a r a t o r y 4 0 . c l e a n s i n g o f the body i s ass u r e d by b a t h i n g i n s a c r e d waters and r u b b i n g w i t h s p e c i a l herbs d u r i n g the waning o f the moon; the r i t u a l s are accompanied w i t h songs and p r a y e r s . Among the T l i n g i t (de Laguna 1972:678) a f t e r some time spent i n the woods, the n o v i c e has to f i n d and cut o f f the tongues of c e r t a i n animals. He i s l u c k y i f "he gets a l a n d - o t t e r i n whose tongue i s c o n t a i n e d the whole s e c r e t o f shamanism" (Krause 1956 quoted i n de Laguna 1972:677). He may cut o f f the tongues of o t h e r animals t o o : brown bear, w o l f , e a g l e , raven, owl e t c . , . but the l a n d o t t e r seems to be the one which w i l l g i v e him the s t r o n g e s t power. The f u t u r e shaman does not k i l l these a n i m a l s . He encounters them i n the f o r e s t , s i mply looks at them and they drop dead. When the tongue i s cut he makes a wish to become a h e a l e r . The tongue's s k i n i s then p u l l e d o f f , p l a c e d p r e c i o u s l y between two p i e c e s o f wood and wrapped i n cedar i n t o a bundle. I t i s then hidden away i n a dry p l a c e . The f u t u r e shaman w i l l pay v i s i t s to the tongue each y e a r . I f the p r e c i o u s amulet gets l o s t , he w i l l run the r i s k o f becoming i n s a n e . The s o u l -- or qwani . — • o f the animal whose tongue has been cut becomes the yek ( h e l p i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l being) o f the shaman. A shaman u s u a l l y c u t s e i g h t tongues; the more tongues he c u t s the s t r o n g e r power he w i l l get. In s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , the i n d i v i d u a l quest i s s u p p l a n t e d by a c o l l e c t i v e i n i t i a t i o n . The n o v i c e does not l e a v e d e l i b e r a t e l y on a quest but i s b e l i e v e d to be abducted by the s p i r i t s and taken i n t o t h e i r house where he s t a y s i n i s o l a t i o n f o r a few weeks or even a few months ( f o r the C a n n i b a l S o c i e t y ) . In r e a l i t y he i s abducted by o l d e x p e r i e n c e d dancers, from whom he r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the a r t of dreaming and a c q u i r i n g power, as w e l l as i n d e a l i n g w i t h and p r e s e n t i n g h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s . In due course the " r e t u r n " o f the n o v i c e i s planned and staged. A l l the members o f the s o c i e t y gather i n the Dance House and t h e i r s i n g i n g and dancing i s supposed to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n o f the s p i r i t and to e n t i c e the n o v i c e to reappear. H i s f r e n z i e d behaviour and h i s re-enactment o f h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l encounter through dances and d r a m a t i z a t i o n s v a l i d a t e h i s i n i t i a t i o n ( S p r a d l e y 1963:31). The s t a t e o f p o s s e s s i o n he i s i n i s c o n s i d e r e d a form of " h o l y " madness. I t i s the t a s k of the shamans to r e s t o r e the dancer to h i s normal human s t a t e o r , i n Kwakiutl terms, to "tame" him by means of songs and p u r i f i c a t o r y d e v i c e s . T h i s "taming" p r o c e s s can l a s t s e v e r a l days as the n o v i c e c o n t i n u e s to escape back to the woods to be r e ^ c a p t u r e d each time by h i s a t t e n d a n t s . The i n i t i a t i o n i s sometimes planned by the e l d e r s without the knowledge o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The n o v i c e i s grabbed v i o l e n t l y , by s u r p r i s e , b l i n d f o l d e d and s t r i p p e d to the w a i s t . A l o t of n o i s e , drumming, r a t t l i n g , h o l l e r i n g and screaming accompany the grabbing and c o n t r i b u t e to the s t a t e o f shock endured by the i n d i v i d u a l . The o l d dancers s l a p the n o v i c e i n the stomach, b i t e him and blow on him to i n s t i l l power. T h i s o r d e a l may l a s t f o r as l o n g as t h r e e or f o u r days i n the most d i f f i c u l t c a s e s , u n t i l the song which i s the s i g n of the s p i r i t power comes out o f the n o v i c e . These r i t e s i n v o l v i n g many members o f the group i l l u s t r a t e the c o l l e c t i v e r e t u r n of the s e c r e t s o c i e t y r i t u a l s . D e s p i t e the i n d i v i d u a l independence o f the shaman and as opposed to the more s o c i a l a spect of s e c r e t s o c i e t y i n i t i a t i o n s , t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t s i m i l a r i t y i n a l l these e x p e r i e n c e s . The main s c e n a r i o remains a s p i r i t quest d u r i n g which c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a l t e r e d . W.G. J i l e k , a p s y c h i a t r i s t and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who made a d e t a i l e d study of the S a l i s h S p i r i t dances from 1966 to 1972 i n the Coast S a l i s h a r e a , draws p a r a l l e l s between the i n d i v i d u a l S p i r i t Quest and the Winter Ceremonial i n i t i a t i o n . J i l e k (1974:14-15) a n a l y s e s the symptoms o f " a l t e r e d s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " as d e s c r i b e d by h i s i n f o r m a n t s , and l i s t s the e f f e c t s or v i s i o n s r e c o r d e d by the i n i t i a t e s which appear to them to be o f s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n . These e f f e c t s a r e : 1) A l t e r a t i o n s i n t h i n k i n g , i n c l u d i n g predominance of an a r c h a i c mode o f thought. 2) D i s t u r b e d time sense. 3) Loss of c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l and i n h i b i t i o n . 4) Change i n emotional e x p r e s s i o n toward a f f e c t i v e extreme r a n g i n g from e c s t a s y to profound f e a r . 5) Body - image changes and f e e l i n g o f d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n . 6) P e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n : h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , i l l u s i o n s , v i s u a l iniagery, hyper-acuteness o f p e r c e p t i o n s , s y n a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s (e.g. s e n s a t i o n o f c o l o u r s when music i s h e a r d ) . 7) Change i n meaning: r e v e l a t i o n s of " t r u t h " . 8) Sense of the i n e f f a b l e : the essence o f the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s f e l t to be not d i r e c t l y communicable. 9) F e e l i n g o f r e j u v e n a t i o n , of renewed hope or o f r e b i r t h . 10) H y p e r s u g g e s t i b i l i t y : p r o p e n s i t y to accept u n c r i t i c a l l y statements o f an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . (Emphasis added) (Paraphrase o f J i l e k ) . The i n i t i a t i o n l a s t s as l o n g as n e c e s s a r y f o r the n o v i c e to o b t a i n the r e q u i r e d v i s i o n s and u n t i l he can s i n g the song handed to him by the s p i r i t . A c c o r d i n g to J i l e k (1974:28-31) i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s s p i r i t quest and i n i t i a t i o n , a n o v i c e has to l i v e under c o n d i t i o n s which are bound to induce the t r a n c e s and v i s i o n s . These c o n d i t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : 44. 1) S o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o l o n g e d n o c t u r n a l v i g i l a n c e : i n d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s , the n o v i c e i s sent away i n t o the f o r e s t i n o r d e r to meet the s p i r i t , sometimes f o r s e v e r a l weeks. 2) Motor h y p e r a c t i v i t y arid merital e x c i t a t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o l o n g e d f e a r and emotional s t r e s s , f o l l o w e d by e x h a u s t i o n and f a t i g u e . Records of i n i t i a t i o n s ( J i l e k 1974:71-72-73) -depict the h a r d s h i p s the n o v i c e has to endure i n an atmosphere o f f e a r and v i o l e n c e . 3) S o m a t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . The n o v i c e i s m a i n t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l days, or even s e v e r a l weeks, i n a s t a t e o f w akefulness. He has to undergo a l o n g p e r i o d o f f a s t i n g and r e s t r i c t e d d r i n k i n g . Forced v o m i t i n g , p u r g a t i o n , i n t e n s e sweating i n the sweatlodges provoke d e h y d r a t i o n . Prolonged d i v i n g s i n v e r y c o l d waters sometimes i n t o w h i r l p o o l s , provoke s u f f o c a t i o n . At l a s t , h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to rhythmic s t i m u l a t i o n of the drums i s i n c r e a s e d by h i s e x e r t i o n and f a t i g u e . (Paraphrase of J i l e k ) . On the Northwest Coast, no evidence has ever been found o f the use of a r t i f i c i a l h a l l u c i n o g e n s . The t r a n c e of the shaman/healer or i n i t i a t e , i s a c h i e v e d by o t h e r means: by f e v e r or d e l i r i u m caused by a v e r y s e r i o u s i l l n e s s (even coma); by extreme f a t i g u e of the body caused by f a s t i n g , l a c k o f s l e e p , and l o n g hours o f dances; o r by the use of monotonous rhythms beaten on wooden drums, r a t t l e s , c l a p p e r s and even w h i s t l e s . When a c t i n g i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c a p a c i t y c h i e f s , shamans, and i n i t i a t e s a l l depend on s i m i l a r methods, and e s p e c i a l l y on d r a m a t i z a t i o n which pervade a l l c e r e m o n i a l s : On the Northwest Coast d r a m a t i z a t i o n i t s e l f i s developed as a technique to invoke powers. The d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f a myth, a legend, or even an event i s s u f f i c i e n t to r e c r e a t e the event, t o b r i n g the powers t a k i n g p a r t i n i t "back to l i f e , " o r at l e a s t back i n t o a c t i o n . To impersonate a n c e s t o r s or t h e i r s u p e r n a t u r a l a l l i e s , i s to make t h e i r power once more e f f e c t i v e (Guedon 1981:20). T h i s emphasis on drama may be one of the reasons why v i s u a l a r t s have reached such a peak i n t h i s r e g i o n , and why the a r t i s t s have become so important as to form a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y o f people. 4 - Shamanism arid A r t -The depth and extent o f the c o n t a c t between shamans (whether i n i t i a t e or h e a l e r s ) and a r t i s t s cannot be over-emphasized. I t i s a r e l a t i o n o f mutual dependency. A r t i s t s are d i r e c t l y , and sometimes e x p l i c i t l y , l i n k e d t o shamanic i d e o l o g y through t h e i r work f o r h e a l e r s , s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s and c h i e f s . And everyone i s i n f l u e n c e d by shamanic images. T h i s i s co n f i r m e d by the s i m i l a r i t y o f the images a p p e a r i n g on shaman p a r a p h e r n a l i a , s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s props and costumes and c h i e f c r e s t items and r e g a l i a . Because o f t h i s c o n s t a n t exposure o f the a r t i s t to shamanic images, we have to examine the f u l l range of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n to determine the e x t e n t of shamanic imagery i n Northwest Coast a r t . Harry Hawthorn m a i n t a i n s t h a t " i n s p i t e o f h i s c o n t i n u a l engagement i n p o r t r a y i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s " the Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s t has "no e x t r a o r i e n t a t i o n to the s u p e r n a t u r a l " (Hawthorn 1961:62), but a r a p i d examination o f the r o l e and s t a t u s o f the a r t i s t shown ot h e r w i s e . Everywhere on the Coast, a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the c r a f t s m a n who i s a b l e to c a r v e h i s f i s h o o k s , h u n t i n g weapons and o t h e r t o o l s , and the a r t i s t who i s s o c i a l l y and p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d as a man o f s p e c i a l t a l e n t , whose t a s k i s to enhance the d e f i n i t i o n and s t a t u s o f the n o b i l i t y , or to d e p i c t the meeting between the human and the non human worl d . One o f the main t a s k s o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t i s t o keep a l i v e the legendary h i s t o r y of l i n e a g e s and s p i r i t encounters o f a n c e s t o r s . The a r t i s t ' s r o l e i s not the o n l y channel f o r r e c o r d i n g such events but i t i s h i s t a s k to make t a n g i b l e and v i s i b l e the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s i n v i s i b l e w o r l d so t h a t people can r e l a t e more e a s i l y to them ( G a r f i e l d 1966:59). Even the c r e s t s c a r v e d on the p o l e s , and the many o b j e c t s owned and d i s p l a y e d by c h i e f s , are o r i g i n a l l y won from an encounter w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l . Northwest Coast p o t l a t c h e s are o c c a s i o n s f o r l a v i s h t h e a t r i c a l performances. I t i s the r o l e of the a r t i s t to c r e a t e the r e q u i r e d gear: masks, puppets, mechanical d e v i c e s . But h i s r o l e goes beyond prop making. Many r i t u a l s are s e t up f o r demonstration of "power" (by c h i e f s and shamans) and r e q u i r e the t a l e n t o f c a r v e r s s k i l f u l l enough to produce s p e c i a l e f f e c t s . A r t i s t s a l s o carve o b j e c t s used d u r i n g the Winter Ceremonials or s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s dances ( e s p e c i a l l y among the Kwakiutl) and f o r the Nootka ( d u r i n g the K l u k w a i l e or Wolf R i t u a l ) . A l l the beings i n c a r n a t e d d u r i n g these c e r e m o n i a l s are of s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n , whether s p i r i t s , a n c e s t o r s or a n i m a l s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t c a r v e r s are g e n e r a l l y o f h i g h e r s t a t u s than o t h e r men i n Northwest Coast I n d i a n s o c i e t y . Many s c h o l a r s a l s o u n d e r l i n e the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f the a r t i s t w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l through v a r i o u s c h a n n e l s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r the c a r v e r s who work w i t h s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s o r shamans. Among the T s i m s h i a n , totem p o l e s and s e c u l a r o b j e c t s are c a r v e d and p a i n t e d by the u k g i l y a e w h i l e masks and h a l a ' i t p a r a p h e r n a l i a are taken c a r e o f , i n g r e a t s e c r e t , by the G i t s o n t k whose s t a t u s among the t r i b e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r ( H a l p i n 1973:76). The powers, s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g o f the G i t s o n t k are i n h e r i t e d or are the p r e r o g a t i v e o f h i g h f a m i l i e s . These p r i v i l e g e s are r e g u l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s w i t h which they are a s s o c i a t e d . The s t a t u s of the G i t s o n t k goes 4 8 . beyond t h a t o f e x c e l l e n t c r a f t s m e n . They are supposed to g i v e s e c r e t a d v i c e to the c h i e f s , they belong to the i n n e r c o u n c i l s and they are b e l i e v e d to have r e c e i v e d s u p e r n a t u r a l power: T h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l group o f a r t i s t s . . . w e r e a l l men who had r e c e i v e d s u p e r n a t u r a l powers... the a b i l i t y to c a r v e , p l a n and operate n o v e l mechanical masks or o t h e r o b j e c t s , or compose songs which was c o n s i d e r e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the powers which the i n d i v i d u a l had r e c e i v e d ( G a r f i e l d 1939:304). Among o t h e r t r i b e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the South, no d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn, and a l l a r t i s t s h o l d a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d p o s i t i o n . Among the Kwakiutl t h e r e i s o n l y one o f f i c i a l mask c a r v e r f o r each v i l l a g e group (Holm 1974:64). I t i s c o n s i d e r e d a p r e s t i g i o u s p o s i t i o n and the a r t i s t i s always a nobleman, a na k h s o l a . In t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t y e a r s , a r t i s t s u s u a l l y perform t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p to a Master c a r v e r o r t o t h e i r own f a t h e r s . The c a r v e r i s commissioned e i t h e r by a p a t r o n , or by a shaman, who g i v e him the theme to f o l l o w i n the c a r v i n g . He may a l s o r e c e i v e the ne c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s from h i s s p i r i t s through v i s i o n s or dreams. The West Coast a r t i s t i s s i m i l a r l y w e l l d e f i n e d by h i s community. For i n s t a n c e Drucker mentions one of the members of a c h i e f ' s household i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: qwawin was c o n s i d e r e d an a ' L i e man, but sometimes v i s i t e d i n t h i s house, spending a w i n t e r t h e r e . He was a noted c a r v e r , among ot h e r t h i n g s , and was, t h e r e f o r e , p o p u l a r w i t h a l l the c h i e f s . He had i n h e r i t e d v a r i o u s r i g h t s , m o stly i n the a ' L i e house, and was regarded as a c h i e f of the middle c l a s s (Drucker 1951:286). The a r t i s t s o f t h i s area are busy c a r v i n g masks which are used i n d i f f e r e n t c e r e m o n i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the Wolf R i t u a l , f o r the i m i t a t i v e dances and the p o r t r a y a l of the w o l f c a p t o r s . Dance screens are a l s o r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s r i t u a l as w e l l as f o r p o t l a t c h e s and puberty r i t e s ceremonies. Joe David mentions (Poole I I I ) t h a t a c h i e f can be a s c u l p t o r as w e l l , and t h a t the p r i v i l e g e o f b e i n g a c a r v e r can be i n h e r i t e d from a r e l a t i v e . I t i s not r a r e to see r i c h c h i e f s a d o p t i n g an a r t i s t as a " p r o t e g e " : In a r e g i o n g i v e n over to b r i l l i a n t s p e c t a c l e the appearance o f a n o t a b l e s c u l p t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s f a m i l y g r e a t l y enhanced the f a m i l y ' s p r e s t i g e , through the l u s t e r of r i t u a l o b j e c t s owned and d i s p l a y e d on c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s ( E r n s t 1952:102). The shaman a l s o assumes the r o l e o f a r t i s t he i s the o n l y one a l l o w e d to c a r v e h i s own masks. Most c a r v e r s , because o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c e r e m o n i a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e are a l s o s i n g e r s , d a n c e r s , composers and s t o r y t e l l e r s . These a r t s are never s e p a r a t e . 5 0 . Chapter II - Footnotes A monopoly c o n t r o l o f s u p e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s by the c h i e f s and o t h e r high-ranked persons corresponds to the development o f l i n e a g e groups and to the h i e r a r c h y o f t i t l e s and c r e s t s . . . A s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s has t h e r e f o r e grown up around the shamans, which employ a g a i n , among ot h e r t h i n g s , the r i t u a l s of the v i s i o n quest or r i t u a l s o f the g u a r d i a n - s p i r i t whose i d e n t i t y i s now o f t e n d i c t a t e d by the l i n e a g e or even by the t i t l e one may hope to i n h e r i t w i t h i n the l i n e a l group, r i t e s o f passage and the b i g i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies . . . . • A c h i e f i s not a shaman, but when he a c t s as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between humans and non-humans he i s addressed by a s p e c i a l t i t l e which o f t e n i n v o l v e s the same term as t h a t which d e s i g n a t e s h e a l e r s . Chapter I I I SHAMANIC THEMES IN NORTHWEST COAST ART Goldman, c i t i n g E l i a d e as h i s source, g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g summary of the " c e n t r a l i d e a s of shamanism" among the K w a k i u t l : The c e n t r a l i d e a s of shamanism have been i d e n t i f i e d by E l i a d e ( i b i d ) . They i n c l u d e m y s t i c a l e c s t a s y , the approach to death, journeys i n t o o t h e r cosmic realms, s p i r i t combats (antagonism), t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and the d e s i g n a t i o n o f the shamans as a chosen e l i t e . Shamanism i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the animal w o r l d , e s p e c i a l l y among North American I n d i a n s . The animal i s the source o f c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r w o r l d s , a n e c e s s a r y i n t e r m e d i a r y i n the language o f L e v i - S t r a u s s i a n s t r u c t u r a l i s m , between men and t h e i r sources (Goldman 1975:206). These " c e n t r a l i d e a s " show the wide range o f shamanic i d e o l o g y , and i n my o p i n i o n they form a u s e f u l b a s i s f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g the presence of shamanic themes i n the works of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s t s . From them, I have d e r i v e d and l i s t e d below the major themes and sub-themes which are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , as we l o o k at the main ways i n which elements of the shamanic cosmology appear i n Northwest Coast a r t : 1- Reference to the Non-Human World: Bear, Thund.erb.ird,: S i s i u t l , Wolf, Whale, Land O t t e r e t c . . . 2 - M y s t i c a l E c s t a s y : L i g h t , S i g h t , B l i n d n e s s , E y e s . 3 - I n i t i a t i o n or C o n t a c t w i t h D e a t h : C o r p s e s , S k u l l s , Bones (X-Ray i m a g e s ) , D e a t h . 4 - J o u r n e y s to O t h e r Cosmic W o r l d s : F l i g h t ( B i r d ) , D i v i n g (Whale , w h i r l p o o l ) , S p i r i t Canoe , P o l e . 5 - T r a n s f o r m a t i o n : An imal /Human , Human/Animal, D e v o u r i n g , V o m i t i n g . .6- S p i r i t - C o m b a t : Defense a g a i n s t W i t c h e s , War. 7- Shamanic Power: Contact .with.and control of s p i r i t s , healing C u r s i n g , P r e d i c t i n g , e t c . . . We w i l l examine each o f these themes i n some d e t a i l , b o t h i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t and as they appear i n the a r t images . 1 - R e f e r e n c e to the Non-human Wor ld Northwest Coas t a r t i s based e x t e n s i v e l y on a n i m a l f i g u r e s ; some images appear more f r e q u e n t l y i n c e r t a i n types o f a r t t h a n i n o t h e r s . The a n i m a l s which appear most r e p e a t e d l y are the b e a r , the t h u n d e r b i r d , the s n a k e , the w o l f , the whale and the l a n d o t t e r (or sea o t t e r ) . The Bear Of a l l the animals r e p r e s e n t e d i n Northwest Coast a r t , the most imposing i s the bear, which i s found on monumental totem p o l e s as w e l l as on m i n i a t u r e p i e c e s l i k e spoons, or even gambling s t i c k s . The appearance o f the bear does not v a r y much from r e g i o n to r e g i o n except f o r s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s due to t r i b a l s t y l e s . Great a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . He i s o f t e n seen wearing a c e r e m o n i a l hat w i t h s e v e r a l r i n g s . He i s a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y p o r t r a y e d i n the a c t of swallowing a human or an an i m a l , or h o l d i n g a t i n y man between h i s paws. When the f a c e o f the bear i s r e p r e s e n t e d on the f r o n t w a l l o f a house, on a canoe, on a box or on a d i s h , the whole o b j e c t i s sometimes t r e a t e d as the body of the animal (Boas 1897:392) (Duff 1956:106). 1 L i k e a l l o t h e r animals, bears are t r e a t e d e s s e n t i a l l y as human f i g u r e s w i t h c e r t a i n exaggerated animal f e a t u r e s , to i d e n t i f y them (Duff 1956:105). Duff suggests t h a t t h i s method o f d e p i c t i n g animals i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t i n the p a s t animals had human i d e n t i t i e s . We c o u l d a l s o assume t h a t the shamanic i d e a o f a r e c u r r e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one realm to another might be p a r t o f the c o n t e x t behind t h i s way of d e p i c t i n g the a n i m a l s . The shaman proper f a v o u r s the bear. H i s costume i s o f t e n composed of a bear s k i n . H i s c o r o n e t , t y p i c a l a p p a r e l o f the shaman, i s made of upwardly p r o j e c t i n g bear claws. The T l i n g i t shaman sometimes wears the "bear e a r s " headdres f o r v e r y s p e c i a l t a s k s r e q u i r i n g a l o t of power, i n war e s p e c i a l l y . On r a t t l e s , the shaman who i s s u c k i n g the p o i s o n c o n t a i n e d i n the b r a i n o f the f r o g , which w i l l become s u p e r n a t u r a l power,, s t r o n g l y resembles a bear: h i s h a l f crouched p o s t u r e i s more t h a t o f an animal than of a human and h i s f a c e shows the f a c i a l t r a i t s o f the b e a s t . Is the shaman wearing a bear mask or i s he undergoing a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ? Both might be the answer, as the shaman i s seen i n the p r o c e s s o f a shamanic a c t i o n . Bear masks are numerous and v a r i e d . Some are c a r v e d on p l a i n wood; o t h e r s use r e a l f u r or even the r e a l head o f the animal. Among the s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , masks and costumes made i n e f f i g y o f the bear are worn d u r i n g the Winter Ceremonials. Among the Kwakiutl these c e r e m o n i a l s belong e s p e c i a l l y to the "BaxbakuAlAriuxsi'waE G r i z z l y Bear" (Higher rank) and the " O r d i n a r y G r i z z l l y Bear." T h e i r membe are the o n l y ones not taken away by the s p i r i t at the time of i n i t i a t i o n but are simply hidden i n the house. They are the most dreaded h e l p e r s of the Hamatsa, as t h e i r r o l e i s to p u n i s h f o r any mistake committed d u r i n g these r i t u a l s or d u r i n g the Winter Ceremonial i n g e n e r a l . The p e n a l t y i s g e n e r a l l y death. They always wear bear's claws on the hands and sometimes a whole b e a r s k i n costume (Boas 1897:467). T h e i r f a c e p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t the huge mouth of the bear. During the Winter Ceremonial they u s u a l l y perform dances around the f i r e i m i t a t i n g the a c t i o n s and g r o w l i n g o f an angry bear. Here a g a i n , as among the Kev t r i b e ( S i b e r i a ) mentioned e a r l i e r , the bear appears as a b r i n g e r o f j u s t i c e to the human world from the S u p e r n a t u r a l Beings. The T h u n d e r b i r d The t h u n d e r b i r d i s one o f the most common f i g u r e s i n American I n d i a n A r t . On the Northwest Coast, i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s can be found from p r e h i s t o r i c times up t o pre-and p o s t - c o n t a c t a r t . I t i s u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as a b i r d - l i k e b e i n g . Hawthorn d e s c r i b e s i t as f o l l o w s : The marks d i s t i n g u i s h i n g T h u n d e r b i r d from o t h e r sky beings are the s u p e r n a t u r a l horns t h a t adorn h i s head and the c u r v e d , humped and massive upper beak over a curved lower one. Talons and l e g s emphasized wings u s u a l l y shown o u t t h r u s t , extended s t r a i g h t out from h i s s i d e (A. Hawthorn 1967:26). Among the K w a k i u t l , the t h u n d e r b i r d and h i s b r o t h e r Qolos, are the r u l e r s of the " b i r d s o f the sky" -- t h a t i s the s u p e r n a t u r a l b i r d s — and they hunt the double-headed serpent (Goldman 1975:77). The t h u n d e r b i r d i s c a l l e d "Head Winter Dancer" (Tsaqame) and i s supposed to be a g r e a t shaman whose powers are equal to those o f the g r e a t e s t m y t h i c a l s p i r i t b e ings (Goldman 1975:107). The S i s i u t l The s i s i u t l i s the Kwakiutl v e r s i o n of a m y t h i c a l , double-headed, s n a k e - l i k e b e i n g w i t h horn and p r o t r u d i n g tongue which conveys both good and bad l u c k . Such a c h a r a c t e r appears among v a r i o u s t r i b e s under d i f f e r e n t names and w i t h s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n appearance, on s o u l - c a t c h e r s , s c r e e n s , totem p o l e s and house beams. Among the K w a k i u t l (Boas 1895:371-372) the s i s i u t l appears as a double-headed snake w i t h a human f a c e i n the middle o f i t s body, and two horns s t i c k i n g out. I t i s s a i d to have the power to assume the shape o f a f i s h , to i n c r e a s e i t s s i z e at w i l l and to be a b l e to swallow canoes w i t h a l l aboard (Barbeau 1953:241). To those who a l r e a d y possess s u p e r n a t u r a l power, i t w i l l b r i n g h e l p . I t s s k i n worn as a b e l t w i l l enable the owner to perform wonderful e x p l o i t s . I t may a l s o be used as a magic canoe, i t s f i n s becoming p a d d l e s . I t s eyes can be used as s l i n g stones which can even k i l l whales. But the s i s i u t l can be v e r y dangerous to the layman who attempts to eat i t , touch i t or even see i t . A l l the j o i n t s o f the v i c t i m become d i s l o c a t e d and h i s head t u r n s backward; i f the s i s i u t l ' s b l o o d touches h i s s k i n , i t w i l l become hard as stone, which means death. Among the Nootka the s e r p e n t - l i k e c r e a t u r e i s c a l l e d H e i t l i k . I t i s d e s c r i b e d by the Clayoquot as a t h r e a d - l i k e c r e a t u r e w i t h a huge mouth, a long d a r t i n g tongue and t e e t h l i k e a s e r p e n t . The t h u n d e r b i r d i s supposed to h u r l i t when he wants to k i l l a whale: the H e i t l i k spears the body o f the whale l i k e a harpoon. T h i s animal i s s a i d to be v e r y r a r e but f i s h e r m e n are v e r y eager to c a t c h i t and put i t i n t h e i r boat; i t i s supposed to ensure good l u c k i n t h e i r whale h u n t i n g . Even a p i e c e of the m a g i c a l animal can i n s u r e success on a l l o c c a s i o n s (Newcombe 1907:28). T h i s H e i t l i k has been r e c o g n i z e d on v e r y e a r l y p e t r o g l y p h s , w i n d i n g round totem p o l e s , p a i n t e d on the c h i e f ' s hat and etched on whale harpoons. Among the T l i n g i t , K w a kiutl and Nootka the doubl headed snake, u s u a l l y c o u p l e d w i t h the t h u n d e r b i r d i s a common emblem (Barbeau 1953:239). Among the T s i m s h i a n i t i s a major shamanic emblem which i s c a r v e d on s o u l - c a t c h e r s the hollow bones worn on a n e c k l a c e by h e a l e r s . The Wolf From A l a s k a to southern B r i t i s h Columbia the w o l f was a most f o r m i d a b l e f i g u r e , both as an animal b e l o n g i n g to the r e a l w o r l d and as a mythic f i g u r e (Goldman 1975:76). He was chosen by I n d i a n people as a t u t e l a r y animal f o r h i s q u a l i t i e s of endurance, b r a v e r y , wisdom and f i e r c e n e s s ( E r n s t 1952:45-87-91-105-106). He i s c a l l e d sometimes the " i n v i n c i b l e gray w a r r i o r " , the s i l e n t g u a r d i a n " , or "the s i l e n t w a r r i o r " -- the b r a v e s t and f i e r c e s t o f them a l l " . 58. A c c o r d i n g to a Nootka informant: The w o l f i s the b r a v e s t o f any animal i n the woods. They are the k i l l e r s . They don't f e a r a n y t h i n g . They are so brave t h a t they can run the c o u n t r y u n d i s t u r b e d . That i s why the w o l f i s chosen ( i n E r n s t 1952:48 note 10). The f i g u r e of the w o l f appears on many v a r i e d a r t i f a c t s . On p e t r o g l y p h s , f o u r - f o o t e d animals may have been meant to p o r t r a y wolves (Vastokas 1973:112). I t i s seen on h e r a l d i c items, on s l a t e c a r v i n g s , on t a t t o o s among the Haida, and f a c i a l p a i n t i n g s among the S a l i s h ( J i l e k 1974), on the bows o f canoes (Boas 1955:207 F i g . 197), i n the shape of a d i s h , and of course on masks. Among the Nootka, the w o l f appears f r e q u e n t l y on s c r e e n s , lodged e i t h e r i n the b e l l y o f the whale or on i t s s i d e , i n the company of the t h u n d e r b i r d and l i g h t n i n g - s n a k e . But the w o l f f i g u r e reaches i t s peak i n the masks c r e a t e d f o r the Klukwale, ceremony of the Nootka a l s o knows as Wolf Dance. E r n s t evokes the importance o f the r o l e o f the w o l f i n t h i s r i t u a l : The land-bound w o l f , l i n g e r i n g f a r North as the mysterious agency back of the complete dance r i t u a l o f the Coast, g r a d u a l l y r e t r e a t s i n t o h i s f o r e s t s . Even f a r up i n K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y he reniairis the f i n a l l i n k between  the everyday w o r l d arid t h a t mystic: realm e n t e r e d  d u r i n g the s a c r e d wiriter dances, as the chosen s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e who i n i t i a t e s n o v i c e s i n t o the s e c r e t dancing f r a t e r n i t i e s o f the t r i b e ( E r n s t 1952:105). (Emphasis added) The Klukwale masks assume v a r i o u s shapes, sometimes v e r y r e a l i s t i c , sometimes almost a b s t r a c t and b o x - l i k e , a c c o r d i n g to the dance f o r which they are made (See S. Moogk t h e s i s , 1980). The dance dramatizes the myth of the c a p t u r e o f a number o f n o v i c e s -- u s u a l l y c h i l d r e n -- by wolves, t h a t i s the t e a c h e r s members o f the Klukwale s e c r e t s o c i e t y who i n s t r u c t the n o v i c e s and gi v e powers to them. The i n i t i a t e s are then r e s c u e d and e x o r c i s e d ( E r n s t 1952:2). Among the Nootka people many accounts have been made of wolves g i v i n g " c u r i n g power" t o someone who has h e l p e d them out o f some d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as removing a f i s h bone stuck i n the t h r o a t (Drucker 1951:186). T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the w o l f i s found among o t h e r t r i b e s as w e l l i n c l u d i n g the N o r t h e r n Athapaskan I n d i a n s . In c o n t r a s t to the encounter w i t h o t h e r s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t s which always c o n t a i n s an element o f domination b r i n g i n g the human to s y m b o l i c a l l y k i l l or overcome the s p i r i t at the end o f the encounter b e f o r e u s i n g the power, the encounter between a w o l f and men i s always amicable. Among the K w a k i u t l , a c c o r d i n g t o Boas (1930:41) wolves "are makers of shamans; they are the donors o f s u p e r n a t u r a l powers and o f the 'nontlem' ceremony". The w o l f i s a l s o a conqueror o f the t h u n d e r b i r d , a r e s t o r e r o f l i f e and a major t u t e l a r y s p i r i t o f shamans as w e l l as one o f the founders o f the Winter Ceremonial (Goldman 1975:76, Boas 1930:62). The w o l f i s t h e r e f o r e an important shamanic f i g u r e and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d wolves " d e s c r i b e d 60. i n myth as the f i r s t g r e a t shamans" and as the f i r s t i n i t i a t e s ( Goldman 1975:111). The w o l f i s a l s o a t r a n s f o r m e r . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t w o l f and k i l l e r w h a l e are two aspe c t s o f the same b e i n g and t h a t the k i l l e r w h a l e may step ashore and t u r n i n t o a wolf (Duff 1965:7). In a t a l e r e c o u n t e d by one o f C u r t i s ' i n f o r m a n t s , the w o l f e x p l i c i t l y announces: "I am the Wolf who has one h e a r t w i t h the Whale" ( C u r t i s 1916:20). On the oth e r hand, a c c o r d i n g to Roberts and Swadesh: "When a wolf transforms i n t o a k i l l e r w h a l e the w o l f ' s t a i l becomes the k i l l e r w h a l e ' s d o r s a l f i n " (Roberts and Swadesh 1955:31). T h i s i s a v e r y a n c i e n t i d e a . The Sea Wolf, sometimes known as Was go or Was-Q i s a m y t h o l o g i c a l b e i n g d a t i n g back to p r e h i s t o r y ( R a v e n h i l l 1944:25), which i s found a l l a l o n g the Northwest Coast. The Whale R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the whale are found on the whole Northwest Coast; they c o r r e s p o n d to a number o f c r e s t s i n the North and r i t u a l images everywhere, from monumental s c u l p t u r e s to s m a l l e r p i e c e s such as d i s h e s or even charms. They are r e p r e s e n t e d a l s o i n f a c i a l p a i n t i n g s , body t a t t o o i n g and ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the south) on screens i n the company of the t h u n d e r b i r d , the l i g h t n i n g - s n a k e and the w o l f , and a number of masks and headdresses. The whale i s an important c h a r a c t e r i n a l l Northwest Coast mythologies as w e l l as a p r e c i o u s game e a g e r l y sought by I n d i a n p e o p l e , though hunted o n l y among A l a s k a n and Southern t r i b e s . Whales have m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s : they are l i k e p eople i n t h e i r own kingdom, they are animals on which humans f e e d , but they are a l s o s u p e r n a t u r a l beings i n the sense t h a t they can g i v e s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t s to humans as w e l l as songs, dances and powers to c a l l on them. In A l a s k a n and Nootkan t r i b e s ( L a n t i s 1938, Drucker 1951) e l a b o r a t e ceremonies and r i t u a l s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h whale h u n t i n g . In o r d e r to overcome the v a g a r i e s o f animal b e h a v i o r and to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y o f m a t e r i a l implements --hooks, harpoons and arrows -- the whole crew has to submit to r i t u a l observances which are even s t r i c t e r f o r the c h i e f 3 who i s a l s o the harpooner. Because o f these l e n g t h y p r e p a r a t i o n s which i n v o l v e many people o f the t r i b e s , the wha l i n g has a l o t o f r e p e r c u s s i o n s on d a i l y t r i b a l l i f e . Furthermore, because the c h a r a c t e r s a l l belong e i t h e r to the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d or e x i s t l i m i n a l l y to the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d , the hunt can almost be c o n s i d e r e d as a metaphoric f i g h t w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l , which i m p l i e s t h a t people have to be v e r y c l o s e to the elements and to the whale to be abl e to win t h i s b a t t l e . The Northwest Coast Indians suppose t h a t the s p i r i t or power o f the whale i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s d o r s a l f i n . A s p e c i a l song i s used by whalers to d r i v e t h i s power out of the d o r s a l f i n o f a whale which has d r i f t e d ashore CSapir § Swadesh 1939:229). Among the K w a k i u t l , the whale supercedes the bear as the main h e l p e r o f shamans. I t i s viewed a l s o "as a c l a n a n c e s t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sea beings p a r t i c u l a r l y Kdmowkwa, s c u l p i n s and l o o n s . I t i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o p p e r s , p r o p e r t y d i s p o s i t i o n and w e a l t h " (A. Hawthorn 1967:190). T h i s shamanic aspect o f the whale i s found among o t h e r t r i b e s as w e l l . The whale u s u a l l y t r a n s m i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers by means o f songs and dreams, though myths o f t e n mention d i r e c t meetings between human seekers and sea beings or "ocean p e o p l e " (Swanton 1905:17). L i k e a l l important shamanic f i g u r e s whales are g i f t e d w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a b i l i t y . Not o n l y can a k i l l e r w h a l e t u r n i n t o a l a n d animal when he goes ashore but a whale may a l s o t r a n s f o r m i n t o a s u p e r n a t u r a l canoe: " I had a v i s i o n o f s e v e r a l men i n a canoe. I c l o s e d my eyes, l o o k e d a g a i n . . . i t had t u r n e d back i n t o a whale" ( S a p i r § Swadesh 1947:194). Among the Haida, Swanton r e c o r d e d t h a t i n some p l a c e s : The Ocean People are s a i d to be c r e a t u r e s l i k e human b e i n g s , but covered w i t h a k i l l e r - w h a l e s k i n . In e i t h e r case we seem to have a double i n c a r n a t i o n - the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g i n the k i l l e r - w h a l e , and both the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g and the k i l l e r - w h a l e i n the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . Some of them, even some o f t h e i r c h i e f s , were once men (Swanton 1905:17). 63. The Land-Otter The l a n d - o t t e r i s one of the f a v o r i t e h e l p e r s of the shaman. I t can swim and even d i v e under water, and i t can run on land f a s t e r than a man (Johnson 1973:9). I t loo k s somewhat l i k e a sma l l human b e i n g . I t t h e r e f o r e possesses q u a l i t i e s which are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i m i n a l s t a t u s and s u p e r n a t u r a l power. L a n d - o t t e r s are f e a r e d by laymen and are d e f i n e d as malevolent towards human b e i n g s . Among the T l i n g i t of A l a s k a , de Laguna p o i n t s out the l a n d - o t t e r ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h death and ghosts: In the l a s t a n a l y s i s , i t would seem t h a t the t r a n s -formed Land O t t e r man (ducda-qa), the "ghost or revenant of the drowned person (yuk w gahe yaqu), the s o u l of the la n d o t t e r (kucda-qwani), and the shaman's l a n d - o t t e r s p i r i t (kucda yek or kucda-qu y e k ) , were a l l a c t u a l l y or p o t e n t i a l l y one and the same e n t i t y , t h a t which one o r d i n a r i l y encounters i n i t s animal form or f l e s h y " c l o t h i n g " as a l a n d - o t t e r (kucda) (de Laguna 1972:756). T h i s c o n n e c t i o n of o t t e r w i t h death and drowning i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h madness, a l s o predominant among the Haida: I f a person were gi v e n a name t h a t the Land-Otters l i k e d , they would t r y to s t e a l him. They would sometimes d e p r i v e a person p a r t i a l l y or e n t i r e l y of h i s reason. When one of them came to anybody, i t would assume the shape of whomever t h a t person was i n l o v e w i t h , t o make him speak to her. I f he d i d speak, he soon began to act s t r a n g e l y , f a i n t e t c . and soon a f t e r d i e d . When t a k i n g on human shape, they c o u l d not get r i d of the h a i r between t h e i r f i n g e r s (Swanton 1905:26). L a n d - o t t e r s are supposed t o a t t r a c t s a i l o r s i n d i f f i c u l t y by means of b r i g h t f i r e s l i t on the beach. Among the Haida these s a i l o r s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l o s e t h e i r reason and t r a n s f o r m i n t o g a - g i x i t : These transformed men ( g a ' g i x i t ) were v e r i t a b l e bugaboos t o the Haida. They are d e s c r i b e d as c r e a t u r e s resembling human beings but w i t h bony f a c e s , f u l l of 64. f i s h and sea-egg s p i n e s , wide n o s t r i l s turned so h i g h up as to open almost s t r a i g h t forward, and an u n c l o t h e d body covered w i t h l a n d - o t t e r h a i r (Swanton 1905:26). A c c o r d i n g to Swanton (1905:26) the g a ' g i x i t wandered f o r a whole year i n the Haida c o u n t r y b e f o r e going to the G a ' g i x i t i s l a n d i n the T l i n g i t c o u n t r y . F i v e years l a t e r , they would s t a r t t o walk on t h e i r elbows and behave l i k e a n i mals. U l t i m a t e l y they transformed c o m p l e t e l y i n t o l a n d -o t t e r s and a c q u i r e d a l l t h e i r q u a l i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between i n s a n i t y , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and l a n d - o t t e r i s mentioned aga i n by H a l p i n f o r the T s i m s h i a n . She informs us t h a t "the T s i m s h i a n word nawatsxw, which l i t e r a l l y means ' l i k e l a n d o t t e r ' , i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t r a n s l a t e d as ' c r a z y ' " (1981:281). Among the T l i n g i t , one of the f i r s t steps taken by a n o v i c e shaman i s c a t c h i n g a l a n d - o t t e r to o b t a i n i t s tongue. The l a n d - o t t e r i s both the key to the language of a l l other animals, and has s p e c i a l powers to cure b r e a t h i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s : B r e ath was c o n s i d e r e d the primary l i f e r e q u i s i t e (Swanton 1970:446 i n Johnson 1973:9). Perhaps the l o n g p e r i o d s of time the l a n d o t t e r can remain under water gave i t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s tongue, the c h i e f organ of communication would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n r e a c h i n g other realms, f o r the s e c r e t of shamanism (Johnson 1973:9). The l a n d - o t t e r i s a l s o m e t a p h o r i c a l l y thought of as a means of conveyance f o r a shaman, "capable of t r a n s p o r t i n g him to another w o r l d " (Barbeau 1958:44-45). I t o f t e n appears i n T s i m s i a n shamanic v i s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p i r i t canoe: 65. My canoe came to me i n a dream, and t h e r e were many people s i t t i n g i n i t . The canoe i t s e l f was the O t t e r (watserh). I a l s o dreamed of charms: the Mink ( n e s ' i n ) , the o t t e r (watserh) and Canoe ('mal) (Barbeau 1958: 44-45). The l a n d - o t t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d on charms, r a t t l e s and masks. These masks o f t e n p o r t r a y the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n p r o c e s s of man metamorphosing i n t o l a n d -o t t e r ; h i s f a c e s t i l l shows human f e a t u r e s but has a l r e a d y begun to be covered w i t h l a n d - o t t e r h a i r s (de Laguna 1982 -P l a t e 191). T h i s s m a l l sample shows how s t r o n g l y the shamanic theme runs through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of animal c h a r a c t e r s . Beings such as the E a g l e , the Raven, the Frog, and o t h e r s have a s i m i l a r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h shamanic v i s i o n s . The ways i n which they are d e p i c t e d show t h a t they are d e f i n e d as c a r r i e r s of power and p o t e n t i a l s p i r i t h e l p e r s , as we s h a l l see i n Chapter I I I . 2. M y s t i c a l E c s t a s y H u l t k r a n t z uses the concept of e c s t a s y to d i s t i n g u i s h between two d i f f e r e n t types of h e a l e r s , f i r s t p e r c e i v i n g an a l i e n or e v i l o b j e c t or b e i n g i n the body of the p a t i e n t (and attempting to remove i t ) and second f o l l o w i n g the departed s o u l of t h e i r p a t i e n t to faraway lands as n e c e s s a r y : 66. The manner i n which the power or the s p i r i t approaches i t s c l i e n t i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r e of e x p e r i e n c e , so t h a t we may d i s t i n g u i s h , although q u i t e s c h e m a t i c a l l y , two main types of medicine man: the v i s i o n a r y , whose t r a n c e i s l i g h t and whose c l a i r v o y a n c e i s d i s t i n c t i v e , and the e c s t a t i c , who may converse w i t h the s p i r i t s or depart from h i s own body i n deep t r a n c e (and then at times be possessed by h i s g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s ) ( H u l t k r a n t z 1967:87). (Emphasis added). Both types of e x p e r i e n c e are found among the Northwest Coast shamans. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of journeys out of the body are e x p l o r e d l a t e r . For the moment, we should note t h a t both types of e x p e r i e n c e s are subsumed by Northwest Coast t r a d i t i o n s under the concept of v i s i o n . E c s t a s y i s p r e s e n t e d v e r y p r a c t i c a l l y as a mode of p e r c e i v i n g r e a l i t y (Gue'don forthcoming) . T h i s theme of e c s t a c y i s developed i n a complex s e r i e s of symbols r e l a t e d to enlightenment: " s e e i n g " and " b l i n d n e s " , eyes open or c l o s e d , l i g h t and darkness. A statement by one of Jenness's informants --Old P i e r r e --(1955:67) e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p a i r of o p p o s i t e s : "Four w i n t e r s I endured t h i s penance. Then, at l a s t , my mind and body became r e a l l y c l e a n . My eyes were opened, and I beheld the whole u n i v e r s e . " In t h i s area some of the s t r o n g e s t a r t i s t i c statements are o f f e r e d by masks. Some masks, e s p e c i a l l y shamanic masks, sometimes show s o l i d eyes. Others have a r t i c u l a t e d l i d s which can open or c l o s e , to r e p r e s e n t v i s i o n or b l i n d n e s s . The Kwakiutl xwexwe mask has p r o t r u b e r a n t eyes. The p r o t r u d i n g eyes suggest s p e c i a l powers of v i s i o n . The costume of the swaihwe' dancer a l s o i n c l u d e s f e a t h e r s from the eagle or the swan, b i r d s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shamans. 67. The s a l i s h swaihwe'mask has a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of many s c h o l a r s i n c l u d i n g Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s and M i c h a e l Kew. E v e r y t h i n g i n the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s mask, i n the costume of the dance and i t s myth of o r i g i n seems to be s t r o n g l y t i n g e d w i t h shamanism. L e v i - S t r a u s s (1975:105) c o n t r a s t s the p r o t r u b e r a n t eyes of the swaihe' mask wit h the deep sunken eyes of Tsonokwa. In myths the eyes of the g i a n t Tsonokwa are sometimes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h deep h o l e s : "A Kwakiutl hero saw a rock i n a r i v e r which shows two deep h o l e s : he saw t h a t these h o l e s were the eyes of Tsonokwa" ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1975 V o l I;108). Tsonokwa i s supposed to be b l i n d , or v e r y p o o r - s i g h t e d and she always t r i e s to b l i n d the young c h i l d r e n she s t e a l s , by s e a l i n g t h e i r l i d s w i t h r e s i n . A c c o r d i n g to L e v i - S t r a u s s , Tsonokwa and Swaihwe masks are o p p o s i t e but complementary to each o t h e r , one b e i n g the obverse of the o t h e r . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n l e a d s us t o the twin stone T s i m s h i a n masks which a l s o seem to be opposed and complementing each o t h e r . The " u n s i g h t e d t w i n " and the " s i g h t e d t w i n " are, as Duff puts i t " f a r more than j u s t a l i k e : they are the two h a l v e s of a s i n g l e work of a r t , the two s i d e s of a s i n g l e j profound e q u a t i o n ... One has eyes t h a t never opened, the other has eyes t h a t can never c l o s e . The one sees o n l y inward and backward, the other sees o n l y outward and forward" (Duff 1975:164). The documentation on these masks i s poor but Wilson Duff b e l i e v e s t h a t they were used by a s i n g l e performer d u r i n g the Winter Ceremonial and t h a t "they were switched i n the b l i n k of an eye" (1975:164). 68. H a l p i n (1981:286) observes t h a t the eyes of the w e l l known Tsimshian twin stone masks may be i l l u s t r a t i n g the h y p e r s i g h t e d n e s s of the eyes: I f we look c l o s e l y at the twin stone masks, we can see t h a t t h e i r 'eyes' are not eyes at a l l . The outer mask has no e y e l i d s to c l o s e ; the i n n e r mask does not have t y p i c a l Northwest Coast eye forms, but r a t h e r two p e r f e c t l y c y l i n d r i c a l openings, as i f they had been 'bored'. And t h i s i s perhaps the v e r y metaphor the a r t i s t was u s i n g when he made the 'eyes' t h a t shape. The evidence i s l i g h t , but c o n v i n c i n g . H a l p i n mentions t h a t a c c o r d i n g to a statement made by a C h r i s t i a n i z e d T s i m s h i a n shaman, "my eyes have been bored" means "I have been e n l i g h t e n e d . " T h i s evidence i s supported by Swanton's statement (1909:464) t h a t the f a v o u r i t e animal h e l p e r of the T l i n g i t shaman i s the woodworm "because i t can bore through wood and so t y p i f i e s s t r o n g p e r c e p t i o n " ( H a l p i n 1981:286). Duff expresses a s i m i l a r f e e l i n g about the twin T s i m s h i a n stone mask the eyes of which are hidden behind unopened l i d s : " T h e i r k i n d of v i s i o n i s of a purer k i n d , e t e r n a l l y open to the i n n e r l i g h t " (Duff 1975:165). Eyes are emphasized not o n l y i n masks. T h e i r importance i s marked everywhere i n Northwest Coast a r t . Huge open eyes dominate two-dimensional d e s i g n s : C h i l k a t b l a n k e t s , w a l l s c r e e n s , h o u s e f r o n t d e s i g n s . They are a l s o a major f e a t u r e of the l a r g e heads c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the t h r e e dimensional f i g u r e s . J o i n t s of the body, whether human limb, b i r d wing, animal l e g s or f i n s are d e p i c t e d as an o v o i d f i l l e d w i t h an eye, or even a f a c e . A c c o r d i n g to Emmons, " T h i s i s to convey the n o t i o n of v i t a l i t y , movement, i n t e l l i g e n c e or s k i l l , 69. a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these p a r t s " (Emmons 1972:761), which are c o n s i d e r e d sometimes as independent e n t i t i e s . I f repeated on other p a r t s of the body, the eyes may r e p r e s e n t the a c t u a l f a c e of a b e i n g , or they may s i g n i f y "the i n d w e l l i n g anthropomorphic s o u l (qwani)" (de Laguna 1972:761).* When the face-eye appears on the chest of the being i t c o u l d a l s o r e p r e s e n t the v i t a l i t y or the s o u l of the guardian s p i r i t , as we know from Coast S a l i s h informants t h a t t h i s s o u l r e s i d e s i n the dancer's c h e s t (Jenness 1955:47). In a re c e n t l e c t u r e g i v e n at the Museum of Anthropology i n Vancouver (February 6, 1979) B i l l R e i d , i n h i s comments on the o v o i d shape which i n h i s o p i n i o n forms the e s s e n t i a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k of the whole imagery of Northwest Coast d e s i g n s , suggests t h a t at the o r i g i n , " i t was c e r t a i n l y used as 'eye forms', as the o u t l i n e eyes of the c r e a t u r e b e i n g d e p i c t e d , which perhaps accounts f o r the t h i c k e r l i n e at the top t a p e r i n g o f f to the bottom." He adds t h a t " t h i s may be the o r i g i n of a l l the forms which can be found i n Northwest Coast a r t . " In a Ts i m s h i a n myth c a l l e d "tx"a'msem i m i t a t e s C h i e f S e a l " (Boas 1916:91) we f i n d another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the eye m o t i f : People say t h a t i n olden times a l l the j o i n t s of man's or woman's f i n g e r s had eyes and mouths u n t i l Tx"a'msen h e l d up h i s hands when he i n v i t e d C h i e f S e a l i n t o h i s house, and t h a t man's f i n g e r s have had no eyes and no mouth s i n c e ; when people ate food i n those days, f i n g e r s a l s o a t e . George MacDonald, d i s c u s s i n g rock a r t from the r e g i o n of 70. K i t s e l a s Canyons of the Skeena R i v e r , mentions t h a t " m y t h i c a l c h i e f s who have t h e i r plank houses at the bottom of the ocean are d e s c r i b e d on the North Coast as having eyes on the end of v e r y l o n g s t a l k s . These c h i e f s cannot support t h e i r eyes and they must have s l a v e s h o l d i n g t h e i r eyes" ( L e c t u r e U.B.C. March 5, 1981). Again a c c o r d i n g t o MacDonald ( i n MacDonald, un p u b l i s h e d paper, "Concepts of Wealth i n Northwest Coast A r t " : A p r i l 21, 1982) a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of these "eyes hanging out of the s o c k e t " i s found on rock c a r v i n g s ( R i n g b o l t I s l a n d f o r i n s t a n c e ) as on c r e s t a r t i n c l u d i n g a number of totem p o l e s . T h i s theme has been g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as "Weeping Woman" but may, i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t a sea c h i e f . T h i s c o r r e c t i o n i s confirmed by Newcombe (MacDonald 1981:5) who i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s Sea C h i e f l i v e d o f f B o n i l l a I s l a n d and had a l l the marine c r e a t u r e s i n h i s house under h i s command. L e v i - S t r a u s s (1975 V o l . 11:40) mentions the e x i s t e n c e of a Haida p o l e from Tanu (a copy of which stands i n f r o n t of the Museum i n V i c t o r i a ) on which a "Sea C h i e f " i s d e p i c t e d . A c c o r d i n g to myth the eyes of t h i s sea c h i e f came out of t h e i r s o c k e t s every n i g h t ; h i s f r i e n d s r e p l a c e d them i n s i d e the s o c k e t s f o r each meal, so he c o u l d see h i s food ( L e v i - S t r a u s s 1975 V o l . 11:40). For L e v i -S t r a u s s , these 'hanging eyes' are unusable and consequently c l o s e t o temporary b l i n d n e s s . He c o n t r a s t s them wit h those of the Swaihe' mask. A l l of these d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are based on the p e r c e p t i o n of a s i m i l a r p r e o c c u p a t i o n of the Northwest Coast a r t i s t w i t h v i s i o n , and p o i n t to a l i n k between v i s i o n and power. 3. I n i t i a t i o n or Contact w i t h Death. The theme o f i n i t i a t i o n s or c o n t a c t w i t h death i s widespread i n Northwest Coast a r t , though i t i s o f t e n found d i s g u i s e d i n ambiguous but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d images. We r a r e l y see d e p i c t i o n s o f people d y i n g ; i n s t e a d we f i n d images of s k e l e t o n s and s k u l l s o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as " g h o s t s " or c o r p s e s . S k e l e t o n s and bones are e s p e c i a l l y found i n s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s props and shaman's p a r a p h e r n a l i a . T h i s may be because both of them d e a l e x p l i c i t l y w i t h death and r e s u r r e c t i o n . They appear i n the p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f the Ghost dancers, of the Hamatsa and h i s h e l p e r s . In the Northwest Coast as i n S i b e r i a (See Chapter I) the s k e l e t o n i s not always a symbol o f o r d i n a r y death, but can imply the d u a l i t y of m y s t i c a l death f o l l o w e d by r e s u r r e c t i o n . S k u l l s are used e x p l i c i t l y to d e p i c t g h o s t s , or the presence o f the dead. In Kwakiutl mythology (Goldman 1975:108) ghosts have the power of b r i n g i n g back to l i f e a person who has been k i l l e d , and t h a t i s the theme o f t h e i r performance d u r i n g the Winter Ceremonial (A. Hawthorn 1967:47). Ghosts appear i n s e v e r a l dances d u r i n g the Ceremonial. They are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h W i r i a l a g i l i s - the war s p i r i t -and w i t h Bukwus the W i l d Man of the Woods, or Cockle Hunter (A. Hawthorn 1967:218). Ghosts are a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w e a l t h . For i n s t a n c e , the C h i e f of the Ghosts i s c a l l e d Wealth Coming (Boas 1935b: 131). Wealth i s a l s o mentioned i n t h i s Ghost song: Now Ghosts go a l l to t h a t upper w o r l d , For g r e a t i s your wealth i n the ground ghosts For g r e a t i s your f i r e and many your hot s t o v e s , ghosts (Boas 1897:409). The ghost dancers e i t h e r wear complete wooden masks i n the shape o f s k u l l s , or m i n i a t u r e s k u l l masks of wood are a t t a c h e d on t h e i r r e d cedar garments, s i g n i f y i n g the themes of death and r e v i v a l (A. Hawthorn 1967:29). The b l a n k e t o f the Hamatsa worn as a r i t u a l c o v e r i n g may a l s o e x h i b i t s m a l l wooden s k u l l s a t t a c h e d . "They were i n d i c a t i v e of the number o f times he had danced as Hamatsa" (A. Hawthorn 1967:120). S i m i l a r s m a l l wooden s k u l l s a l s o appear on headdresses (Boas 1897:123, F i g . 204), on masks (Boas 1897:448, F i g . 77 and 483, F i g . 128), and on head r i n g s . Other human-size wooden s k u l l s (A. Hawthorn 1967: 121, F i g . 200) were presumably c a r r i e d on a board by the K i r i k a l a t l a l a a t t e n d a n t i n her dance to p l a c a t e the Hamatsa (A. Hawthorn 1967:120). Hamatsa r a t t l e s are o f t e n c a r v e d i n the shape o f s k u l l s . The d e p i c t i o n of the s k e l e t o n i s o f t e n reduced to a r i b d e s i g n ; i n t h a t form, i t i s p a r t of the a r t i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y of Northwest Coast a r t . 73. R i b s , or X-ray d e s i g n s , can be t r a c e d back i n p e t r o g l y p h s (Meade 1971:18) and t a t t o o s (Swan 1884). In t r a d i t i o n a l a r t they are found on many o b j e c t s l i k e shaman's d o l l s , charms and r a t t l e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f shamans, dead p e o p l e , coppers, even h e r a l d i c f i g u r e s . 5 A morbid m o t i f f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n Northwest Coast a r t i s a l o n g tongue hanging from the mouth. I t i s m o s tly seen on b e a r s , a l t h o u g h i t a l s o appears i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of human b e i n g s . For i n s t a n c e a l o n g s t r i a t e d tongue i s a f e a t u r e of the Coast S a l i s h Swaihwe' mask d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . The p r o t r u d i n g tongue has become a c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e o f the bear i n a r t , e i t h e r on totem p o l e s or on s m a l l c a r v i n g s . Sometimes i t o n l y s t i c k s out, sometimes i t i s t w i s t e d i n such a shape as to be mistaken f o r a l a b r e t ; sometimes i t hangs down to the knee and i s b e i n g grasped by the a n i m a l . On some Kwak i u t l p o l e s a human f i g u r e i s d e p i c t e d s q u a t t i n g on a bear's head whose tongue s t i c k s out. T h i s tongue m o t i f seems to symbolize death by hanging or s t r a n g l i n g and e s p e c i a l l y the death of b e a r s . I t a l s o r e c a l l s the t o u c h i n g o f tongues found on Raven r a t t l e s , which may connote a s h a r i n g o f power when two l i v e beings touch tongues, and the T l i n g i t t r a d i t i o n o f the quest o f o t h e r tongues by the shaman a p p r e n t i c e . 7.4. Death image On the T l i n g i t p o l e s o f C h i e f Shaiks at Wrangell (Barbeau 1950 V o l . I . : 182-183) and of C h i e f A r n t e e h at Kitwanga (1950:240) the bear s i t s on the top of the p o l e w i t h t i g h t l y c l o s e d eyes and tongue s t i c k i n g out. Si n c e the bear i s sometimes t r a d i t i o n a l l y snared and s t r a n g l e d --which r e c a l l s the A i n u way of p u t t i n g the bear to death, t h i s hanging tongue may w e l l i n d i c a t e the death o f the b e a r / On a T l i n g i t p o l e , the hero Ductb o l i s seen i n the act o f c u t t i n g a s e a - l i o n i n two. The s e a - l i o n , head down, shows a hanging tongue which p o r t r a y s i t s death (Barbeau 1950 V o l . I..:303). T h i s m o t i f a l s o appears on s l a v e -k i l l e r s on which the handles are ca r v e d i n the shape o f a human head showing an enormous tongue coming out o f the mouth, the "tongue" b e i n g the stone b l a d e . The m o t i f was r e c o r d e d by C a p t a i n Cook who d e s c r i b e s a tomahawk and i t s handle as " r e p r e s e n t i n g the head and neck of a human f i g u r e w i t h the stone f i x e d i n the mouth so as to r e p r e s e n t an enormously l a r g e tongue" (Badner 1966:27). A Kwakiutl k n i f e shows the same d e v i c e : the tongue of one o f the S i s i u t l heads i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the m e t a l l i c b l a d e . Among the T l i n g i t some masks r e p r e s e n t a w a r r i o r w i t h c l o s e d eyes and hanging tongue. Swanton c o l l e c t e d an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these masks: because they are put on f o r b a t t l e s "sometimes the s p i r i t gets t i r e d i n war time" (1908:467). Among the Kwakiutl of Vancouver I s l a n d , we f i n d v e r y r e a l i s t i c whole heads c a r v e d i n wood. These heads were used d u r i n g power demonstration c e r e m o n i a l s to d e c e i v e the s p e c t a t o r s i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t they were the heads o f d e c a p i t a t e d dancers who were supposed to be r e s u r r e c t e d l a t e r on (Boas 1955:184-185). The twin s t y l i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s o f dismemberment and s p l i t t i n g , which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f two-dimensional Northwest Coast a r t , have a l s o been l i n k e d by some s c h o l a r s to the shamanic death theme. Holm (1971:89) b e l i e v e s t h a t the p r i n c i p l e o f s p l i t t i n g and dismembering body p a r t s i s an a r t i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n which a l l o w s the p a r t s to be more e a s i l y arranged to adorn a g i v e n s u r f a c e . L i k e w i s e , a c c o r d i n g to Boas, the s p l i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a r t i s merely a t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s which al l o w s a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t to be reproduced on a f l a t s u r f a c e (Boas 1927: 223^224). On the o t h e r hand, George MacDonald sees a s i m i l a r i t y i n c o n c e p t i o n between the s h a m a n i s t i c d i s l o c a t i o n o f the body d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n and the d i s l o c a t i o n o f the f i g u r e i n two d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n s : A complementary b e l i e f i n the i n i t i a t i o n o f a shaman i s t h a t he i s co m p l e t e l y dismembered and disemboweled to homologize h i s body s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h a t o f the u n i v e r s e , a f t e r which he i s reassembled. A s i m i l a r concept i s seen i n the d e s i g n o f C h i l k a t b l a n k e t i n which atomized and reassembled c r e a t u r e s are in t e n d e d as cosmic statements i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the animal p o r t r a y e d . The u n i v e r s e i s of course c o n s t r u c t e d o f the body p a r t s o f the cosmic a n c e s t o r s (MacDonald 1981:227-228). F. de Laguna (1972:762) r a i s e s another i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t when she mentions t h a t the T l i n g i t language makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between body p a r t s when they form a l i v i n g body and when they are v i s u a l i z e d s e p a r a t e l y . Moreover, the words f o r body p a r t s are f r e q u e n t l y the same as f o r body p o s i t i o n s . We sh o u l d note t h a t dismemberment as such i s a concept known to Northwest Coast Indians and used d u r i n g r i t u a l s . D u ring the Kwa k i u t l Winter Ceremonial f o r i n s t a n c e , a woman dancer, f o l l o w i n g the Hamshamtses dancer, a l s o mimes the dismemberment of her body: A woman dancer, W i l e n k a g i l i s , d r e s s e d o n l y i n hemlock branches, and known as Great War Dancer, a c t s out the dismemberment of her own body. She urges a r e l u c t a n t XaXosenasco to dismember her. Her body r e c a p t u r e s i t s head and limbs and she i s whole a g a i n (Goldman 1975:92). 4. Journeys to Other Cosmic Worlds Whether i n the p r i v a c y o f one's dream or i n the p u b l i c performance o f a dancer r e e n a c t i n g a m y t h i c a l account, cosmic journeys are a fundamental theme i n Northwest Coast shamanic p r o c e d u r e s . Indeed journeys to the o t h e r worlds are n e c e s s a r y f o r both the i n i t i a t i o n o f the n o v i c e and f o r the h e a l i n g o f the s i c k . In t h i s l a t t e r c a s e , the j o u r n e y i s undertaken e i t h e r to d i s c o v e r the cause of the s i c k n e s s or to r e c o v e r the s o u l of the p a t i e n t which i s assumed to have de p a r t e d from the body. Among the Nootka ( E l i a d e 1974:248) the s t e a l i n g o f a person's s o u l c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the Dog Salmon s p i r i t s . They were e s p e c i a l l y dangerous when r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r home beneath the sea at the end of the Dog Salmon run. A c c o r d i n g to Drucker: The cure c o n s i s t e d i n the most d i r e c t p o s s i b l e approach to the problem: The shaman went out and r e c o v e r e d the s o u l . T h i s was no d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f a journey l i k e t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r some Coast S a l i s h . The Nootkan shaman, i n the f u l l s t r e n g t h of h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l power, ' a c t u a l l y went down under the sea', r e t u r n i n g d r i p p i n g wet and sometimes streaming b l o o d at nose and temples, c a r r y i n g the s t o l e n s o u l i n a l i t t l e bunch of eagle down i n h i s hands (Drucker 1951:210-1). Bancroft-Hunt adds t h a t : A l i n e was a t t a c h e d around the shaman's w a i s t so t h a t he would be a b l e to f i n d h i s way back, and he was then b e l i e v e d to j o u r n e y under the sea. . . . He f o l l o w e d the t r a c k s l e f t by the s o u l , w h i l e h i s a t t e n d a n t s waited on the beach and t i e d on a d d i t i o n a l l e n g t h s o f l i n e as h i s j o u r n e y took him f u r t h e r away ( B a n c r o f t -Hunt and Forman 1979:83). Northwest Coast a r t emphasized through i t s v i s u a l images a p i c t u r e o f shamanic cosmic journeys which d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from t h e i r S i b e r i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . As elsewhere, t r i p s to the o t h e r worlds are o f t e n suggested by the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of b i r d s such as e a g l e , raven t h u n d e r b i r d , swan or even a simple f e a t h e r . But they are a l s o symbolized 7 8 . by whales and f i s h , e s p e c i a l l y the salmon when the shaman t r a v e l s to the bottom o f the sea. The descent to the Underworld i s a l s o o f t e n p o r t r a y e d by animals which can d i v e or swim i n t o r i v e r s or l a k e s such as f r o g and l a n d -o t t e r . As mentioned b e f o r e , the theme of f l i g h t among Northwest Coast shamans i s not as f r e q u e n t as i n o t h e r areas of the w o r l d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s medicine men d i d t r a v e l up to the sky to o b t a i n s u p e r n a t u r a l h e l p . Marius Barbeau mentions some of these t r i p s i n h i s account of Tsimshian shamanism: Nooks came i n and s a i d 'I am i n w i t h a l l my h e l p e r s . They have h e l p e d me a l i t t l e , but I must c l i m b myself i n t o the sky to f i n d out what I can do'. So he went to a c o r n e r o f the house and f e l l i n t o a t r a n c e (Barbeau 1973:75). Another shaman d e s c r i b e s h i s v i s i o n f l i g h t f o l l o w i n g a r o b i n (Barbeau 1973:50). A Kwakiutl shaman song a l s o r e v e a l s the same theme: "I was taken away f a r i n l a n d to the edge o f the w o r l d by the m a g i c a l power o f heaven" (Boas 1930:47). The symbol of a canoe b r i n g s t o g e t h e r both f l y i n g and d i v i n g . H a e b e r l i n (1918:257) has g i v e n a d e t a i l e d account of a S a l i s h ceremony which i n c l u d e s an e c s t a t i c j o u r n e y to the Land o f the Ghosts i n an imaginary canoe. As H u l t k r a n t z e x p l a i n s : Among the S a l i s h around Puget Sound the medicine men perform a dramatic-mimic r i t e to r e s t o r e 79. a l o s t s o u l : equipped w i t h symbolic canoes and paddles they v i v a c i o u s l y enact the voyage to the l a n d of the dead, the b a t t l e w i t h the dead, and the r e c a p t u r e and r e s t o r a t i o n of the abducted s o u l ( H u l t k r a n t z 1967:91). The canoe i s an important t o o l among the gear o f the Northwest Coast shaman. As d e s c r i b e d by Isaac Tens, a G i t k s a n medicine-man, i t appears o f t e n i n v i s i o n s : "I a l s o dreamed of charms, the Mink (nes 1 i n ) , the O t t e r (watserh), and Canoe C r n a l ) " (Barbeau 1973:44). T h i s l a t t e r i s not an o r d i n a r y canoe but a "magical v e s s e l " (Vastokas 1973:129), a l i v i n g b e i n g which can not o n l y f l o a t on the ocean but can a l s o p e n e t r a t e the e a r t h or f l y a c r o s s space. Barbeau t e l l s how Isaac Tens notes t h a t : . "The canoe sometimes was f l o a t i n g on the water, sometimes on the c l o u d s " (1973:44). F u r t h e r i n a song a g a i n Tens r e c a l l s : A g r e a t n o i s e was r i s i n g out o f the canyon. I f e l l i n t o the water, but I landed i n the canoe t h a t was t h e r e . I d r i f t e d i n i t f u r t h e r then i t rose me i n t o the mountain (Barbeau 1973:53). T h i s canoe i s mentioned from the T l i n g i t to the Coast S a l i s h . I t i s sometimes a b e i n g v e r y much l i k e the S i s i u t l ; i t may a l s o be c a l l e d a ghost canoe or a " S i c k n e s s Boat" c o n t a i n i n g m a l e v o l e n t s p i r i t s : When I was taken i n t o the s k i e s , I b e h e l d the s i c k n e s s canoe i n which were s e v e r a l s p i r i t s , each w i t h a harpoon. As they saw a person w a l k i n g about, they threw t h e i r harpoon at the v i c t i m , who at once became i l l (Barbeau 1973:75). 80. These "magical canoes" are sometimes engraved stone mortars ( I n v e r a r i t y 1971:Fig. 55) or reproduced i n m i n i a t u r e i n a r g i l l i t e . Haida a r t i s t s have e x c e l l e d i n the c a r v i n g o f these m i n i a t u r e dug-out canoes crowded not o n l y w i t h shamans but w i t h t h e i r s u p e r n a t u r a l h e l p e r s (anthrope-and zoomorphic b e i n g s ) (Barbeau 1973:Fig. 79 to F i g . 87). The shaman i s a l s o a b l e to t r a v e l by ascending v e r t i c a l l y v i a b i r d s or rainbow, or by f o l l o w i n g a stream up to i t s source. The means most o f t e n mentioned i n cer e m o n i a l c o n t e x t i s a p o l e l i n k i n g the e a r t h to the sky or to a h o l e i n the sky. T h i s h o l e i s sometimes d e f i n e d as the p o i n t on which the sky i s r o c k i n g on i t s a x i s . The p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the shamanic p o l e and the h e r a l d i c masts o f the Northwest Coast Indians i s p r o b a b l y i n d i r e c t but i s worth s t u d y i n g as myths do c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s cosmic a x i s . For i n s t a n c e : The B e l l a C o o l a . . . imagine on the western h o r i z o n a mighty p o l e , which supports the sky and p r e v e n t s the sun from f a l l i n g down on the e a r t h . On top o f t h i s p o l e , which was e r e c t e d by the h i g h e s t god, i s se a t e d an eagle ( H u l t k r a n t z 1979:23-24). We a l s o f i n d t h i s i d e a o f a l o n g p o l e l i n k i n g heaven and e a r t h among the Haida: Upon the b r e a s t of"Sacred-One-Standing-and-moving" r e s t s the lower end of a p o l e or p i l l a r e x t e n d i n g to the sky; and when he i s about to move ( i . e . when an earthquake i s to o c c u r ) , a marten runs up to i t , p r o d u c i n g the th u n d e r i n g n o i s e which precedes . , . Down the same p o l e from heaven to e a r t h runs a s t r i n g c a l l e d " s t r i n g o f the 81. s h i n i n g heaven"; and when any one throws a stone a t a b u f f l e - h e a d , the b i r d p u l l s t h i s s t r i n g , b r i n g i n g down some o f the m a l l a r d f e a t h e r s which are on top of the p o l e . That i s snow (Swanton 1905:12-13). A c c o r d i n g to MacDonald (1981:229) a rope i s now s y m b o l i c a l l y stretched from the f r o n t a l p o l e to the beach to r e p r e s e n t the " S h i n i n g S t r i n g of Heaven" and no one i s a l l o w e d to c r o s s over t h a t rope. In T l i n g i t mythology the M i l k y Way was seen as a l o n g p o l e , w h i l e Tsimshian myths d e p i c t t h e i r w o r l d as f l a t and c i r c u l a r and r o t a t i n g on a p o l e (Boas 1895:278). But the p o l e which seems to have the most obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i d e a o f cosmic t r e e / A x i s Muridi i s c e r t a i n l y the C a n n i b a l Pole used among the K w a k i u t l d u r i n g the Hamatsa dance. The K w a k i u t l u n i v e r s e i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e w o r l d s : upper, middle and underworld. A copper p o l e r e p r e s e n t i n g the A x i s Mundi s y m b o l i c a l l y c r o s s e s the t h r e e cosmic areas i n the Ceremonial House at a c e n t r a l p o i n t which i s supposed to be the Centre o f the World. A c c o r d i n g to the myths, the shaman uses t h i s p o l e to t r a v e l from one world to another. T h i s p o l e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Ceremonial House by a cedar p o l e , about t h i r t y f e e t h i g h . The top, sometimes c a r v e d i n the shape o f a human head reaches out through the smoke hole t h a t i s "the door of the upperworld". In Hamatsa songs, the p o l e i s c a l l e d " M i l k y Way," (Boas 1987:459) Rainbow or even the Post o f the World or Centre 82. o f the World. When the Hamatsa comes back from h i s s e c l u s i o n i n the woods, he e n t e r s and e x i t s from the c e r e m o n i a l house by means of the p o l e , t h i s s i m u l a t i n g h i s climb i n and out of the Upperworld. Vastokas notes the e x p l i c i t l i n k between the C a n n i b a l Pole and the shamanic r i t u a l s : L i k e the S i b e r i a n shaman and the Mexican p o l e d a n c e r s , the C a n n i b a l Dancer climbs the c e r e m o n i a l p o s t to the r o o f o f the house i n a symbolic d r a m a t i z a t i o n of h i s i n i t i a t o r y and v i s i o n a r y j o u r n e y to the sky. The Northwest Coast C a n n i b a l Pole ceremony c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s the s h a m a n i s t i c p o l e of S i b e r i a and Mexico; t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the K w a k i u t l p o l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y s h a m a n i s t i c i n both f u n c t i o n and meaning, s e r v i n g as a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l pathway through t h r e e cosmic l e v e l s (Vastokas 1973:144). 5 - Shamanic T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as understood by Northwest Coast Indians i s not so much a p r o c e s s o f change as a way of'seeing. I t may show i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. The human/animal, animal/human t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s one o f the b a s i c ones though o b j e c t s may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as animated and can t r a n s f o r m i n t o animals, or s p i r i t s i n t o humans and back a g a i n . ^ T r a n s f o r m a t i o n then i s not so much a p r o c e s s as a q u a l i t y (Gue'don 1983 p e r s o n a l communication) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s o r , as we w i l l see l a t e r , to m u l t i p l e p o i n t o f view or r e a l i t i e s which focus on one e n t i t y . 83. The shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s p a r t o f the d i a l e c t i c o f l i f e and death a l r e a d y e x p l o r e d . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n may take p l a c e i n many ways. Shamanic i n i t i a t i o n i s o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as the a c t i o n of b e i n g devoured or swallowed by an animal. T h i s Devouring/Swallowing/Vomiting theme i s p r o b a b l y one o f the most r e c u r r e n t . I t s images i n t e r m i n g l e human and animal c r e a t u r e s and i t seems to be one o f the p r o t o t y p e s o f the shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Shamanic r e b i r t h , however, can be f a c i l i t a t e d i f the bones o f the person are l e f t i n t a c t . Durand (1969:245 i n R e i d 1981:104) p o i n t s out t h a t i n myths r e l a t i n g s t o r i e s about the e n g u l f i n g of humans by m y t h i c a l beings ( l i k e Gargantua or Jonas' whale f o r i n s t a n c e ) the word " a v a l a g e " (swallowing) i s always p r e f e r r e d to the word "croquage" (munching) because the a c t i o n o f swallowing has the p r o p e r t y o f keeping V l ' a v a l e " (the swallowed one) " i n d e f i n i m e n t " et miraculeusement i n t a c t " . M a r t i n e R e i d goes a step f u r t h e r s a y i n g t h a t : M o r s que l a manducation e s t n e g a t i o n a g r e s s i v e de 1'aliment, l e geste a l i m e n t a i r e (ou l e mythe de l a communion a l i m e n t a i r e ) c o n c r e t i s e ' par 1'avalage s'opere en vue non d'une d e s t r u c t i o n , 7 mais d'une t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 7 (Reid 1983:104) Translation T h i s i s why the twin concepts of d e v o u r i n g - v o m i t i n g are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o o t h l e s s beings such as the c a n n i b a l b i r d s o f the Hamatsa s o c i e t y as M a r t i n e R e i d p o i n t s out i n her d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n : 84. M o r s que l e monde animal r e e l entourant l e s Kwagul e s t un monde r e m p l i d'animaux fe'roces t e l s l e s l o u p s , l e s ours bruns et g r i z z l i , l e s e p a u l a r d s , pourquoi a v o i r c h o i s i l ' O i s e a u (en 1'occurence l e Corbeau) comme p r o t o t y p e des r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s symboliques du c a n n i b a l i s m e . Nous pouvons avancer de"s a p r e s e n t que c ' e s t parce que, en p l u s d ' e t r e c a r n a s s i e r , l ' o i s e a u r e g u r g i t e sa n o u r r i t u r e pour n o u r r i r ses p e t i t s et n'a pas de dents. En e f f e t , i l nous semble important de s o u l i g n e r que 1'avalage t e l q u ' i l se m a n i f e s t e dans l e s mythes ou l e s he'ros sont anthropophages, n ' e s t p o s s i b l e que parce que l e s monstres c a n n i b a l e s sont edente's. . , 8 (Reid 1981:104). T r a n s l a t i o n On many Haida, T s i m s h i a n and K w a k i u t l p o l e s , huge m y t h i c a l beings l i k e the bear or the whale are d e p i c t e d i n the p r o c e s s o f swallowing or v o m i t i n g a human b e i n g or an animal. These images c o r r e s p o n d to the v a r i o u s myths of the swallowing of the hero by a monster. E n t e r i n g the mouth o f the b e a s t , and l a t e r b e i n g i n g e s t e d corresponds to the i n i t i a t i c death which l e a d s to r e b i r t h . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t even i f the jaws of the S u p e r n a t u r a l Being h o l d i n g the v i c t i m seem v e r y t h r e a t e n i n g (sharp t e e t h ) the c h a r a c t e r who i s p a r t l y e n g u l f e d never seems to s u f f e r or be f r i g h t e n e d . On totem p o l e s , on the f r o n t w a l l s o f houses, and on screens e s p e c i a l l y , the iconography f r e q u e n t l y shows huge s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s h a l f swallowing humans or animals. M a r j o r i e H a l p i n comments on the use of such images among the T s i m s h i a n : Ceremonial "mouth" entrances o f c o u r s e , d i d not s u b j e c t T s i m shian guests to o v e r t r i d i c u l e , but the m e t a p h o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s must s u r e l y have 85. been t h e r e . The n o t i c e a b l e emphasis on mouths, or beaks (or stomachs) i n both ceremonial e n t r a n c e s , and house entrance p o l e s , a g a i n suggests a C a n n i b a l theme (1973:186). T h i s theme of Devouring/Swallowing/Vomiting i s a l s o found on many o t h e r a r t i f a c t s : masks, charms, combs, c a r v e d boxes and o t h e r s . V i s u a l l y i t i s sometimes, hard to say 9 whether the c r e a t u r e i s b e i n g devoured or b e i n g vomited. O f t e n the f r o n t s o f houses were d e c o r a t e d w i t h the p a i n t i n g o f a huge f a c e , i n such a way t h a t the mouth of the c r e a t u r e formed the door o f the house. The whole house appears as the huge body o f a s a c r e d animal. T h i s i d e a i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by George MacDonald: Duri n g r i t u a l performances, the house becomes the body o f the a n c e s t o r . The houseposts are the limbs o f the a n c e s t o r , the r i d g e p o l e i s the backbone and the r a f t e r s are i t s r i b s . The gable p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s the f a c e o f the a n c e s t o r , e i t h e r i n human or i n animal form, w i t h the door as i t s mouth (MacDonald 1981:228) . T h i s theme i s e x p l i c i t l y p a r t o f the Kwakiutl C a n n i b a l Ceremonial: the members of the s o c i e t y e r e c t e d a s c r e e n (or ma'wil) a c r o s s the r e a r end of the house. The s c r e e n or f r o n t w a l l o f the bedroom was p a i n t e d w i t h the f a c e of the C a n n i b a l S p i r i t or t h a t o f h i s s e r v a n t , the raven. When the n o v i c e reappeared he came out o f the mouth o f the p a i n t i n g . The danger o f e n t e r i n g f o r any but the worthy i n i t i a t e s , was i n d i c a t e d by the Devouring Mouth through which the n o v i c e passed. The C a n n i b a l S o c i e t y , 8 6 . the h i g h e s t ranked s o c i e t y among the Kwakiutl s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , d e r i v e s i t s o r i g i n from a c a n n i b a l b e i n g BaxbakuAlAriusXsi'waE, a famous b i r d w i t h an immensely l o n g beak which he uses to break the s k u l l o f h i s v i c t i m s i n o r d e r to eat the b r a i n s . Any i n d i v i d u a l meeting BaxbasuA1AriuXsi'WaE or one of h i s s u i t o r s might become a C a n n i b a l h i m s e l f . In the course of the i n i t i a t i o n the dancers -- the Haniatsas — eat f r e s h k i l l e d s l a v e and corpses (Boas 1897:441). When a Hamatsa r e t u r n s from the wood a f t e r b e i n g i n i t i a t e d , he b r i n g s a c o r p s e which i s eaten a f t e r h i s dance. E l i a d e (1958:71) assumes t h a t f o r the Hamatsa the f a c t of e a t i n g human f l e s h i s "the e v i d e n c e t h a t he has i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h the God". L i k e h i s madness, " h i s c a n n i b a l i s m i s p r o o f o f h i s d i v i n i z a t i o n " , or we c o u l d say: p r o o f o f h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r a w h i l e i n t o the s p i r i t who possesses h i m . ' ^ U l t i m a t e l y , however, as i n a l l shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the i n i t i a t e does come back, b r i n g i n g w i t h him the power he was g i v e n by the S u p e r n a t u r e l World. The Hamatsa dancer r e v e a l s i t i n h i s songs: BaxbakuAlAnuXsi'waE made me a w i n t e r dancer BaxbakuAlAnuXsi'waE made me pure I do not d e s t r o y l i f e , I am the l i f e maker (Boas 1897:508). 87. 6 - S p i r i t Combat From the T l i n g i t to the Nootka, shamans are s a i d to be t h r e a t e n e d by o t h e r shamans and a n t a g o n i s t i c powers. Myths r e l a t e how shamans have to f i g h t each o t h e r and each o t h e r ' s s p i r i t s . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f i g h t i n g i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by the f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f shamans i n war, e s p e c i a l l y i n the r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n s p r e c e d i n g the de p a r t u r e o f war e x p e d i t i o n s . In a l e c t u r e George MacDonald mentions: A shaman, though i t i s a shamanic d o l l , i s a l s o the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a w a r r i o r as he i s wearing a v i z o r , a mask and a war s h i r t . The shaman o f t e n wore wooden weapons, which may have seemed non f u n c t i o n a l but were r e a l l y aimed at f r i g h t e n i n g s p i r i t s ( L e c t u r e UBC, 1981). Combat between s p i r i t s or between shamans can sometimes be found i l l u s t r a t e d on Haida a r g i l l i t e p a n e l s and, as George MacDonald d e s c r i b e s i n a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n on shaman's gear, o c c a s i o n a l l y on shamans' capes. 8 8 . 7 - Shamanic Power Shamanic power, an i n t a n g i b l e e n t i t y , i s u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l a r t by metaphoric e v e n t s , such as encounters between human/animal/supernatural b e i n g s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o animals or non-human b e i n g s , and c o n t a c t s such as tongue t o u c h i n g , which encompasses the a c q u i s i t i o n or exchange o f s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t s . The m o t i f of tongue-touching appears on a number o f o b j e c t s , but e s p e c i a l l y on r a t t l e s and totem p o l e s . The r a t t l e s u s i n g t h i s m o t i f are the w e l l known Raven or C h i e f r a t t l e s ; the exchange takes p l a c e u s u a l l y between a shaman, o f t e n w i t h a b e a r - l i k e f a c e , and a f r o g , or a l a n d - o t t e r or a k i n g f i s h e r . As mentioned b e f o r e these r a t t l e s were the p r o p e r t y of shamans among the T l i n g i t , but were owned a l s o by c h i e f s i n o t h e r t r i b e s . Ridgeway (1906:145-148 quoted i n Badner 1966:19) suggests t h a t t h i s exchange of tongues r e p r e s e n t s the s e x u a l u n i o n between m o r t a l a n c e s t o r s and s u p e r n a t u r a l animals, i n which power i s t r a n s f e r r e d . Badner (1966:19) r e p o r t s t h a t the m o t i f r e p r e s e n t s a shaman a b s o r b i n g e i t h e r p o i s o n or the power of p r o d u c i n g e v i l a g a i n s t o t h e r p e o p l e ; t h i s o p i n i o n seems p o p u l a r among s c h o l a r s , and has r e c e i v e d a l o t of support. However, Drucker (1955:103) suggests t h a t i t might be meant to r e p r e s e n t a s p i r i t e x t r a c t i n g d i s e a s e from a s i c k person. A l l these o p i n i o n s converge around the same i d e a t h a t the 89. t o u c h i n g of tongues symbolizes the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f s u p e r n a t u r a l power. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to r e c a l l the T l i n g i t shamans' custom o f c o l l e c t i n g tongues, e s p e c i a l l y o t t e r s *. In b r i e f , from i t s r e c u r r e n t presence i n both mythology and a r t , we can see t h a t the tongue p l a y s an important r o l e which remains somewhat mys t e r i o u s to us, but i s d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shamanic a c t i v i t i e s . Power can a l s o be seen i n the d e p i c t i o n o f c r e a t u r e s of l i m i n a l worlds l i k e the Wildmen, the F o o l Dancer, or Tsonoqua, a l l beings who are always both human and non-human; or i t may be seen i n the d e p i c t i o n o f animals such as l a n d o t t e r , octopus, f r o g , bear, w o l f . (These c h a r a c t e r s who are b e l i e v e d to have the a b i l i t y to t r a n s f o r m i n t o human b e i n g s , and the metaphoric events, appear on p o l e s , house f r o n t s , r a t t l e s , masks, a r g i l l i t e a r t and on many o t h e r o b j e c t s ) . More r a r e l y , as f o r i n s t a n c e among the Kwakiutl (A. Hawthorn 1967:19) and the S a l i s h (Wingert 1949) power i s a l s o e x p l i c i t l y symbolized by the presence o f " d u n t s i k " -- or power boards -- on which the S i s i u t l appears i n cutaway (A. Hawthorn 1967:Fig. 219-230). Some m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s are the r e p o s i t o r y o f s u p e r n a t u r a l power and may evoke i t s p r e s e n c e : eagle down and f e a t h e r s , bear t e e t h , bear f u r , r e d c e d a r , r e d ocher, copper and c r y s t a l q u a r t z . They are found abundantly both i n the shaman's and the 90. c h i e f ' s p a r a p h e r n a l i a . Another way of r e p r e s e n t i n g power i s d e s c r i b e d g r a p h i c a l l y by George MacDonald: S u p e r n a t u r a l beings w i t h s p e c i a l powers most f r e q u e n t l y had exaggerated sense organs t h a t were f r i g h t e n i n g to behold. Some had eyes l i k e sea anemones (Swan, 1889) t h a t p u l s a t e d on the ends of long s t a l k s , some had l o n g p r o t r u d i n g tongues or exaggerated e a r s . Both horns and exaggerated ears have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shamanism s i n c e p a l e o l i t h i c times. Animal ears were much more s e n s i t i v e than were man's, a l l o w i n g them to understand the speech o f man and o t h e r animals. T h e i r s p e c i a l tongues all o w e d them to speak to each o t h e r . Among the T l i n g i t and the Haida t h e r e are many r e f e r e n c e s to b e a r s ' ears and tongues as a p r e r o g a t i v e of h i g h - r a n k i n g c h i e f s . In the a n c i e n t rock a r t o f the c o a s t (MacDonald., 1977.: p i . 27)shamans are d e p i c t e d w i t h the extended tongues, c u r l i n g e a r s , and s t a r i n g eyes t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the masters o f wealth (1981:231). Sometimes the Haida and the Tsimshian shamans used "s o u l - c a t c h e r s " * to r e c a p t u r e the l o s t s o u l of a p a t i e n t . When the s o u l was caught the shaman plugged the ends of the s o u l - c a t c h e r w i t h cedar bark u n t i l the s o u l c o u l d be r e t u r n e d to the body o f the s i c k man (Musee de 1'Homme, P a r i s 1969/70:Fig.117-118). T h i s o p e r a t i o n had to be v e r y prompt, because u n l e s s the s o u l was q u i c k l y r e c o v e r e d the p a t i e n t would d i e . The s o u l - c a t c h e r s , made from the l o n g bones o f animals ( u s u a l l y the femur of a bear) may r e p r e s e n t the S i s i u t l or one o f i t s e q u i v a l e n t s which are r e c u r r e n t themes i n Northwest Coast mythology. The f i n e s t s o u l - c a t c h e r s are 91. i n l a i d w i t h abalone, and red and b l a c k i n c i s i o n s emphasize the f o r m l i n e s . The s o u l - c a t c h e r s were a l s o used f o r s u c k i n g and blowing on the p a t i e n t where he f e l t p a i n . In the myth the double-headed snake which forms the s o u l -c a t c h e r i s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d as a c a n o e - l i k e c r e a t u r e and hence i s an a p p r o p r i a t e m y t h i c a l animal to h o l d and t r a n s p o r t s o u l s . " S o u l - c a t c h e r s are m e t a p h o r i c a l l y canoes" (Boas 1939:147 quoted i n Johnson 1973:11). T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by the development o f the shamanic s o u l -r e t r i e v a l performances among the Coast S a l i s h (SBeTDA'Q) i n the course of which shamans are supposed to t r a v e l about i n a canoe ( H a e b e r l i n 1918:249-257). The canoe i s r e p r e s e n t e d by rows o f c a r v e d and p a i n t e d p l a n k s , and the d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f the s e a r c h f o r the l o s t s o u l aboard "the 12 canoe" can l a s t s e v e r a l n i g h t s . M.F. Gue'don, i n a d e t a i l e d study o f the s o u l - c a t c h e r concludes as f o l l o w s : I do not know y e t i f the s o u l c a t c h e r s are to c a t c h s o u l s -- c e r t a i n l y , they i n t e r v e n e i n the r i t u a l -- but when and how i s s t i l l to be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t h i n k i t i s c l e a r the s o u l -c a t c h e r i s more than a " s o u l - t r a p " (Gue'don, 1978). Soul c a t c h e r s are extremely r i c h from a symbolic p o i n t of view - and a l l o w a l l k i n d s o f mental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s : -as a tube «to suck, to blow, to c o n t a i n ( i n c l u d i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t s o u l - c a t c h i n g . ) 92. • r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the shaman or shamanic body: i t ' s i n t e s t i n e , t h r o a t as w e l l as anus. •double headed tube means double mouth (but no tongue). as double headed, i t i s a l i v e - i t bears the s i g n s of h a v i n g t u r n e d i n t o not o n l y a l i v i n g t h i n g but a powerful one. I t has a mouth to devour or swallow and eat, mouth to speak, eyes to see, i t may "swallow" the s p i r i t or c a t c h i t . as animated b e i n g , i t i s at once • c r e a t u r e of the marshes ( i n between sea, land and s k y ) , o t t e r - l i k e , or s e a l - l i k e , •or o t t e r - c a n o e l i k e , i t c a r r i e s you away and back, •akin to the whale, the snake w i l l c a r r y i t s master i n the depth, •akin to the e a g l e , i t w i l l take the shaman up i n the sky (Gue'don 1978). We t h e r e f o r e f i n d i n the s o u l - c a t c h e r a c o n d e n s a t i o n of the shamanic i d e o l o g y from the shaman's p o i n t of view. But such compact e v o c a t i o n s of power are not r e s t r i c t e d to shamans: one of the most p r e s t i g i o u s o b j e c t s owned and worn by the c h i e f , the Raven r a t t l e ( r e f e r r e d to as C h i e f ' s r a t t l e or Welcome R a t t l e ) i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the "Throwing Dance" p r e r o g a t i v e of C h i e f s . I t i s found from the T l i n g i t to the Kwakiutl and i s an epitome of shamanic c h a r a c t e r s and themes. The h i s t o r y of the Raven r a t t l e i s complex. The Raven r a t t l e i s used mostly by c h i e f s (except among the T l i n g i t ) which l e d Swanton (1908:464 i n Gould 1973:42) to suppose t h a t they were o r i g i n a l l y p a r t of the shaman's p a r a p h e r n a l i a . Shamans use round r a t t l e s and o y s t e r - c a t c h e r r a t t l e s (Krause 1970: 196). 93. M. F. Gue'don, f o l l o w i n g Marius Barbeau's i n f o r m a t i o n notes t h a t the o r i g i n of items of the Tsimshian semhalait or throwing "dance" (which i s an i n i t i a t i o n ceremony) c l e a r l y l i n k s them to the v i s i o n quest complex. The raven r a t t l e was invented as a r e s u l t of the v i s i o n of a monster r i s i n g from a l a k e (Gue'don 1981:79-80). But the comp l e x i t y of the h i s t o r y of t h i s r a t t l e i s matched by the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of i t s d e s i g n , and the i n t r i c a c y w i t h which a l l the v i s u a l elements are combined. Here f o l l o w s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Raven R a t t l e : The main body of the r a t t l e i s u s u a l l y a raven w i t h o u t s t r e t c h e d beak and d i m i n u t i v e , swept back wings. A man, sometimes r e f e r r e d to as a shaman, r e c l i n e s on the b i r d ' s back w i t h h i s le g s p u l l e d c l o s e t o h i s chest and h i s hands c l a s p i n g h i s knees. H i s head r e s t s on the nape of the raven's neck w h i l e a k i n g f i s h e r h o l d s the man's tongue i n h i s b i l l . A v a r i a t i o n i n some r a t t l e s shows the head of a k i n g f i s h e r , a hawk, or another l i t t l e raven, f a c i n g away from the man. When t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i s used, t y p i c a l l y a f r o g i s s i t t i n g i n the man's l a p , the two c r e a t u r e s bound t o g e t h e r by t h e i r i n t e r l o c k i n g tongues. The underbody of the r a t t l e , or the b r e a s t of the raven, i s developed i n t o a secondary b i r d f a c e , commonly a hawk (E.L. Wade and L.L. Wade 1976:32). Wi l s o n Duff c o n s i d e r e d the raven r a t t l e as one of the keys to Northwest Coast Indian thought ( p e r s o n n a l communication M.F. Guedon) and a v i s u a l s y n t h e s i s (the l a t e W i lson Duff might have s a i d "a g i a n t pun") of a l l i t s main themes. Most of these themes can be l i n k e d t o shamanism. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t summarizes these themes. The f a c t t h a t t h i s r a t t l e i s not (except among the T l i n g i t ) , p a r t of the shamanic costume, but i n s t e a d an item of the c h i e f ' s r e g a l i a , c l e a r l y demonstrates the s t r e n g t h 9 4 . of Northwest Coast shamanic elements i n the c h i e f ' s c eremonial r o l e . I t a l s o shows the deep involvement of the a r t i s t w i t h shamanic themes. Although we are d e a l i n g w i t h a system which i s c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y so with the s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s which achieved t h e i r f u l l e s t expansion o n l y at the time of c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s , the components of t h a t system have been i n p l a c e f o r a very long time and pervade a l l Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of shamanic themes was achieved p a r t l y through the a r t . Northwest Coast ceremonial a r t indeed both r e f l e c t s the involvement of the shamanic i d e o l o g y i n Northwest Coast Ceremonial l i f e and promotes t h a t i d e o l o g y through v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a i t o n s . These r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are s t i l l c a r v ed, drawn and p a i n t e d today, as we w i l l see i n the next c h a p t e r . Table Na. 1 Raven R a t t l e - Summary of Shamanic Themes Characters O c c u r r i n g on Raven R a t t l e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A c t i o n Raven B i r d Crosses boundaries B r i n g s l i g h t t o humans (Sun - s u p e r n a t u r a l ) Hagwelorn Sea monster Source o f luck and wealth Dangerous (Gould 1973:34) Can swallow canoe Saso S p i r i t o f the sea Can t r a n s f o r m Shaman Cures, t r a n s f o r m s , crosses boundaries P u l l s h a i r o f w i t c h Sucks power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) *J Witch K i l l s Sucks power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) Demon K i l l s Sucks power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) Land O t t e r Crosses boundaries F a v o r i t e shaman's h e l p e r (tongue) Transforms Transmits power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) Frog Crosses boundaries A s s o c i a t e d i n g e t t i n g wealth Shaman's he l p e r (North) Transmits power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) K i n g f i s h e r Crosses boundaries F i s h i n g a b i l i t y A s s o c i a t e d w i t h g e t t i n g wealth Transmits power ( t o u c h i n g tongue) Table No. 1, Continued Raven R a t t l e - Summary of Shamanic Themes Characters O c c u r r i n g on Raven R a t t l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A c t i o n Octopus Crosses boundaries Helps F a v o u r i t e shaman's h e l p e r (North) Mountain Goat Favored by shaman (hooves, horns, wool) Helps Dog/Wolf Secret s o c i e t i e s ( i n i t i a t i o n ) Teaches o o 1 97. Chapter I I I - Footnotes 1 Although Boas and Duff f o c u s on Northern t r i b e s , Drucker -g i v e s evidence of the bear's importance among the Nootka of the South: "I n a d d i t i o n to Wolves, a number of c h i e f s among the Northern Nootkans 'owned' G r i z z l y Bears, who appeared w i t h the Wolves and might be used to kidnap the c h i e f ' s h e i r . A l l these G r i z z l y Bears were known to have been o b t a i n e d i n marriage from Southern K w a k i u t l n e i g h b o r s . They wore costumes of b e a r s k i n w i t h s n a r l i n g masks" (Drucker 1951:394). 2 "The w o l f mask i s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d on the top o f the head, as a headdress, and i s t i e d up w i t h a j u g u l a r under the c h i n . Some of these masks have a w h i r l i n g c o n t r i v a n c e f o r s c a t t e r i n g eagle down i n t o the a i r . Cedar bark and eagle f e a t h e r s u s u a l l y accompany the wearing of the mask. The f a c e of the dancer i s u s u a l l y blackened w i t h soot ( E r n s t 1952:27), or he wears b l a c k f a c i a l p a i n t i n g s . A l l along the Coast a t i n y w h i s t l e ' to i m i t a t e the v o i c e s o f the s p i r i t s p r e s e n t i n the ceremony' ( E r n s t 1952:87 note 19) i s h e l d i n the dancer's mouth" (Moogk 1980). 3 The c h i e f has to bathe n i g h t l y d u r i n g the waxing of e i g h t moons (November to A p r i l ) . He goes through a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the whale's b e h a v i o u r : swimming at slow pace, submerging and coming up making a n o i s e l i k e a whale 'blowing' f o u r times, then swimming a c i r c u l a r c o u r s e , i n the r i t u a l c ounter c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n . D u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d he has a l s o to observe a s t r i c t c o n t i n e n c e . H i s w i f e has an important r i t u a l p a r t to p l a y once the a c t u a l hunt has begun: she i s a metaphor o f the whale f o r the time b e i n g and has to l i e q u i e t l y on her bed covered w i t h new mats. I f she moves about the whale i s supposed to become r e s t l e s s and d i f f i c u l t to approach. The whale i s r i t u a l l y addressed by the t i t l e : " C h i e f ' s w i f e " or "Queen" (Drucker 1951:177). 98. Holm (1971:91) seems r e t i c e n t to accept the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of de Laguna and Emmons, and p r e f e r s to see these e y e s / f a c e s as "space f i l l e r s . " He t h i n k s t h a t they are t h e r e p u r e l y f o r d e c o r a t i v e purposes and t h a t they g i v e m u l t i p l e v i s u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s f o r the a r t i s t to p l a y w i t h : f i n s , e a r s , or f e e t becoming at the same time b i r d ' s beak or head of another animal a c c o r d i n g to the i m a g i n a t i o n or the whim of the a r t i s t . Some examples of the use of the r i b - m o t i f a r e : -shaman's s t a t u e t t e s (Barbeau 1 9 7 5 : f i g 66-67-13-70 Lommel 1967:21 PI.5) -salmon r a t t l e ( T l i n g i t ) on which the r i b s are cut away to a l l o w an e f f i g y f i g u r e of a shaman to see through ( B a n c r o f t 1979:72) -amulette i n a r g i l l i t e , showing an anthropomorphic f i g u r e w i t h apparent r i b s , p e t r o g l y p h - l i k e ( H i l l 1974: 104, 181). -charms ( J o n a i t i s 1978:65) v a r i o u s b e i n g s , zoomorphic l i k e , show r i b s and v e r t e b r a l column -copper - s o u l - c a t c h e r (Kwakiutl) ( I n v e r a r i t y 1971 PI.163) -box drum ( T l i n g i t ) (Gunther: 1966: 238. F i g . 267). The k i l l e r w h a l e p a i n t e d on the drum shows apparent r i b s -commemorative s t a t u e t t e ( T l i n g i t ) r e p r e s e n t i n g a man k i l l e d by the f a l l i n g o f a t r e e - s c r e e n ( T l i n g i t ) (Laguna 1 9 7 2 : f i g 91) t h u n d e r b i r d and two human l i k e c r e a t u r e s . "The o l d man s a i d , 'they are going to become something e l s e now. Wait u n t i l they do so, and you w i l l 'get' whatever i t i s ' . They paddled through the s c h o o l of K i l l e r w h a l e s and beached the canoe. The K i l l e r w h a l e s howl f o u r times l i k e wolves, and a white K i l l e r w h a l e i n the midst of the s c h o o l r o s e u p r i g h t i n the water to s i n g a s p i r i t song. Then the K i l l e r w h a l e s t u r n e d i n t o Wolves and emerged from the water. S a i y a t c a p i s gave a r i t u a l c r y . They d i d not d i s a p p e a r but simply r a n o f f i n t o the woods." (Drucker 1951:158) From T a l e s o f S u p e r n a t u r a l E x p e r i e n c e s ( t a l e s o f encounters w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s ) . " S a i y a t c a p i s " was a noble a n c e s t o r o f the wahinuxtakamlath l i n e a g e o f the E h e t i s a t . When he was a young man he had a 99, s e r i e s o f encounters i n which he was g i v e n p r i v i l e g e s f o r r i t u a l d i s p l a y s , and o t h e r s from which he d e r i v e d good l u c k and wealth power (Drucker 1951:157). " W h i l e m a s t i c a t i o n i s an a g g r e s s i v e n e g a t i o n o f f o o d , the a l i m e n t a t i o n gesture (or the myth o f a l i m e n t a r y communion) g i v e n i n t o c o n c r e t e form by the a c t of swallowing, i m p l i e s not d e s t r u c t i o n but t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " (Reid 1981:104). "While the r e a l animal w o r l d s u r r o u n d i n g the Kwagiulth i s a worl d f i l l e d w i t h f e r o c i o u s animals such as wolves, brown b e a r s , g r i z z l i e s and k i l l e r w h a l e s , why d i d they choose a b i r d ( i n t h i s case the raven) as a p r o t o t y p e o f symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f c a n n i b a l i s m ? We can now p o s i t t h a t i t i s because o f the f a c t t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g c a r n i v o r o u s , the b i r d r e g u r g i t a t e s i t s f o o d i n o r d e r to f e e d i t s c h i c k s , and has no t e e t h . Indeed, i t seems important to emphasize t h a t swallowing, such as i t appears i n the myths where the heroes are man-eaters, i s o n l y p o s s i b l e because the c a n n i b a l monsters are t o o t h l e s s " ( R e i d , 1981: 104-105). For example, I note the two f o l l o w i n g p o l e s : a) Gaping Mouth. A huge c h a r a c t e r i s c a r v e d at the bottom o f the entrance p o l e . The B e l l a C o o l a totem p o l e g i v e s us a v e r y good v i s u a l example (Barbeau 1950 V o l . II:545) the monster c a r v e d at the bottom o f the p o l e seems ready to e n g u l f any person p a s s i n g through h i s wide-opened mouth. Barbeau (1950 V o l . 11:871) suggests- t h a t the house s i t t i n g behind the p o l e c o u l d r e p r e s e n t the Giant C a n n i b a l . Anyone e n t e r i n g the house through the mouth of the monster would i n a way be devoured j u s t as the n o v i c e i s devoured when he e n t e r s the room of the C a n n i b a l . b) Snapping Beak. The bottom of the p o l e c a l l e d "The T h u n d e r b i r d o f Wawkyas" (Kwakiutl) (Barbeau 1950 V o l . 11:674) i s carved i n the shape o f an enormous beak which r e p r e s e n t s the entrance t o the house. I t c o u l d open and c l o s e r a p i d l y to admit guests on c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s s i o n s . The snapping beak/door d i d not accept s t r a n g e r s and o n l y worthy people c o u l d attempt to pass the door without b e i n g h u r t (Boas 1895:360) . We f i n d mention o f t h i s dangerous t h r e s h o l d i n Kwakiutl mythology -- the f a t h e r - i n - l a w says to h i s f u t u r e son-in-law: 100. Take c a r e b r o t h e r , when we e n t e r my house. When we e n t e r my house f o l l o w c l o s e on my heels....He t o l d h i s b r o t h e r the door o f h i s house was dangerous. They walked up to the door t o g e t h e r . The door has the shape o f a raven. I t opened and they jumped i n and the Raven snapped at him" (Boas, 1897:383) T h i s p a t t e r n of Devouring/Vomiting can be t r a c e d i n the metaphoric v o c a b u l a r y used by the K w a k i u t l i n t h e i r songs or i n t h e i r mythology. The e x p r e s s i o n 'mouth of a r i v e r ' has a d u a l metaphoric meaning of a s p i r i t who swallows men, and of the mouth o f a r i v e r which swallows salmon (Goldman 197 5 : l o ) . The sky appears as the Great Mouth of Heaven which takes the sun and swallows i t . When the e c l i p s e happens, the sky i s asked to d i s g o r g e i t s mouthful w i t h c r i e s o f 'Vomit ! Vomit ! ' (Goldman 1975:2ol). P r o p e r t y which i s g i v e n i s c a l l e d "vomited o u t " and p r o p e r t y r e c e i v e d i s supposed to be 'swallowed "' (Goldman 1975:15 ) . Here i s another shaman's cape. They a l s o wear the poncho type but they a l s o wear one j u s t around the s h o u l d e r s and t i e i t on. T h i s i s one of t h e s e . I t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g to see these r a t h e r gruesome f i g u r e s . T h i s a l l - d e v o u r i n g c r e a t u r e i n the c e n t e r who i s chewing up p e o p l e . I t has t e e t h o f i t s own but i t ' s o b v i o u s l y consuming people and here i s the shaman f l y i n g . There i s another shaman on the r i g h t s i d e who has h i s neck s l i t and b l o o d i s p o u r i n g out of the f i g u r e . So perhaps one i s benevolent and the o t h e r one i s m a l e v o l e n t on the o t h e r s i d e . On the r i g h t s i d e t h e r e i s another s c a l l o p e d edge, and i t i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t s huge t e e t h . So the whole t h i n g r e p r e s e n t s a b i g mouth which i s d e v o u r i n g the shaman h i m s e l f " (MacDonald, L e c t u r e U.B.C., 1981). "Masks are indeed s i m u l a t e d f a c e s o f wood o r , e x c e p t i o n a l l y , o f stone or copper, but they are a l s o the f a c e s o f power" ( H a l p i n 1981:284). 'This ceremony u s u a l l y took p l a c e at n i g h t i n mid-winter, the o n l y season when the t r a i l to the g h o s t - l a n d was p a s s a b l e . The Indians b e l i e v e d t h a t the seasons, and a l s o the time of the day i n the Land of the Dead were e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e to what they were i n t h i s w o r l d " ( H a e b e r l i n 1918:252). 10.1. CHAPTER IV - NORTHWEST COAST SHAMANIC THEMES IN JOE DAVID'S ART Modern Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s do not have the p r i v i l e g e o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the r i c h c u l t u r e which f e d the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i n the p a s t , or even w i t h i t s master a r t i s t s . Even though C h i l e t a s or Edenshaw f o r i n s t a n c e are a l i n k between the past and the p r e s e n t , they have never d i r e c t l y taught contemporary p a i n t e r s or c a r v e r s . I t i s up to the a r t i s t s to go to museums, to d i g out o l d works, to r e - l e a r n the v a r i o u s Northwest Coast s t y l e s through i m i t a t i n g and expe r i m e n t i n g (Ron Hamilton i n , Blackman 1 9 8 1 : 5 9 , Tim Paul i n Nu-tka 1 9 7 8 : 5 3 ) or to. p a r t i c i p a t e i n or sometimes r e - c r e a t e the ce r e m o n i a l l i f e o f t h e i r n a t i v e community. Many contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s t s ^ s a y they have r e t u r n e d to the a r t because of the a t t r a c t i o n o f i t s forms. But they a l s o c onfess t h a t because o f the r u p t u r e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e , they cannot t h o r o u g h l y i n t e r p r e t 2 the symbolism o f the o l d works. Yet, some a r t i s t s t a l k about t h e i r a r t as l i n k e d to the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and f o r many, the c o n t e x t i n which the a r t i s p r e s e n t e d to the audience i s an important approach to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a r t i t s e l f . And as the l i v e c e r e m o n i a l s are r e v i v e d , the a r t i s t s f i n d both a new 102. market f o r t h e i r works and a new source of i n s p i r a t i o n . T h i s may l e a d them back to the whole c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t behind the c e r e m o n i a l s (and thus behind the a r t ) . As Bob Dempsey ( T l i n g i t ) expresses i t so a p t l y : To r e a l l y understand the a r t , you have to understand the c u l t u r e , and the h i s t o r y , and you have to understand the p e o p l e . . . . to r e a l l y u nderstand the p e o p l e , you have to understand the s t o r i e s . . . . you can't s e p a r a t e the a r t from the people (Dempsey - 1979 Graphic C o l l e c t i o n ) . /• Joe David a l r e a d y has i n mind the dance he i s going to perform when he begins to carve the mask which goes w i t h i t . T a l k i n g about h i s Welcome Mask he s a y s : The masks, the Welcome masks I c a l l them, because they are my f a m i l y ' s name f o r them and each time I c a r v e d them I meant f o r t h a t purpose to f i t my f a c e and to go w i t h the dance I would  be a b l e to use". In c a r v i n g masks, a l l a l o n g , I have always t r i e d to see them i n the l i g h t o f the f i r e , not j u s t look at them from head on and t r i e d to f a s h i o n , t r y i n g to keep the eyes symmetrical and the l i p s s t r a i g h t , but I keep t u r n i n g them even upside down, p u t t i n g them i n the dark areas t r y i n g to see a dimmer l i f e i n them, t r y i n g to see shape r a t h e r than t h r e e dimensions, r a t h e r than the way I was l e a r n i n g through books and s l i d e s (David, L e c t u r e U.B.C. 11:28) (Emphasis added.) He comments on a w o l f mask t h a t he l i k e s p a r t i c u l a r l y and t h a t he uses i n h i s p e r s o n a l dance: The i d e a to carve t h i s mask comes from the Wolf Dance. So when c a r v i n g i t I had i n mind what movements I wanted to make and I emphasized the a n g l e s . . . t a k i n g the body of the w o l f , i t s l i f e , and t u r n i n g i t i n t o a dance (David, P e r s o n a l Communication 1982) . 10-3;. Modern Northwest Coast a r t i s t h e r e f o r e not o n l y a product o f c u l t u r e , i t i s a l s o one o f the f o r c e s o f i t s c o n t i n u i t y and renewal. T h i s c o n n e c t i o n between the I n d i a n a r t i s t and the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e may take many forms. I t i s my h y p o t h e s i s t h a t modern Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s so pervaded by the same shamanic themes which d e f i n e t r a d i t i o n a l a r t t h a t the work o f a number o f a r t i s t s has been i n f l u e n c e d and shaped by these themes. One o f these a r t i s t s i s Joe David f o r whom shamanism has become an e x p l i c i t source of images. As we w i l l see, r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s brought him not o n l y to a d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n o f h i s a r t , but e v e n t u a l l y to a new d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s l i f e . Joe David has become a prominent a r t i s t , both among h i s own community and among white c o l l e c t o r s . H is i n t e r e s t s are widespread and he i s openly f a s c i n a t e d by a l l t r i b a l s t y l e s o f the Northwest Coast, e s p e c i a l l y the West Coast where he was born, a Nootka. One t r a i t c h a r a c t e r i z i n g h i s works i s v e r s a t i l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n . His two-dimensional works range from w a t e r c o l o u r s , to banners, dance-screens, b l a n k e t s and s i l k s c r e e n s . H i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l a r t ranges from totem p o l e s to headdresses, masks, f r o n t l e t s , r a t t l e s and drums. He has not y e t done much j e w e l r y , except f o r a few items i n copper, i v o r y and bone t h a t he has made f o r c l o s e f r i e n d s . 1 0 4 . More and more he seems to have c o n c e n t r a t e d on o b j e c t s which are used c e r e m o n i a l l y r a t h e r than on o b j e c t s o f a s o l e l y e s t h e t i c n a t u r e . U n l i k e some o t h e r a r t i s t s o f the Coast, Joe David has never s u f f e r e d a complete r u p t u r e from h i s c u l t u r a l r o o t s . His c h i l d h o o d was spent i n the v i l l a g e o f O p i t s a h t , on Meares I s l a n d i n T o f i n o I n l e t . T r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and knowledge were emphasized by h i s f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y by h i s N i t i n a t f a t h e r , the l a t e H y a c i n t h David, who was an accomplished speaker, dancer and s i n g e r , and by h i s Clayoquot mother. Joe David took a r e a l i n t e r e s t i n the f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n s : As a k i d , going to p o t l a t c h e s and whatnot, I remember s e e i n g o l d t h i n g s t h a t were used i n dances and I k i n d o f remember, as a k i d i t was r e a l to me, i t was not t h e a t r i c s i n any way. I'd go t h e r e , they'd dance and s i n g t h e i r songs, and I b e l i e v e d e x a c t l y what I'd seen, so I p a i d a t t e n t i o n and i t s t u c k w i t h me. That way I l e a r n e d something r a t h e r than j u s t h a v i n g been amused or e n t e r t a i n e d (David i n Blackman 1978:12). E a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r Joe David c o n c e n t r a t e d on the t e c h n i c a l aspect o f h i s work, e x p l o r i n g many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . In 1971, he met Duane Pasco, a noted S e a t t l e c a r v e r , and B i l l Holm, a p r o f e s s o r of Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. Both men he l p e d him to become an a r t i s t and encouraged t h i s t e c h n i c a l experiments. T h i s t r a i n i n g s t r e n g t h e n e d Joe 105. David's d e t e r m i n a t i o n to work w i t h i n h i s own c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , and he e v e n t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d the s p i r i t u a l aspect o f h i s a r t , as we can see from h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Graphic C o l l e c t i o n Catalogue i n 1978: I t i s each a r t i s t ' s t a s k to i n t e r p r e t these s u p e r n a t u r a l and n a t u r a l laws, to t r a i n h i m s e l f and s t r i v e f o r p e r f e c t i o n i n these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I f o r one r e c o g n i z e t h i s f a t e . I r e s p e c t t h i s d e c i s i o n o f h i g h o r d e r . I s t r i v e f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I bathe i n s a c r e d waters, I s i n g s a c r e d songs and I r e c i t e words. The answers and r e s u l t s are r e f l e c t e d i n my p a i n t i n g s and c a r v i n g s ; my a c t i o n s r e f l e c t my c o n v i c t i o n s (David, Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s G u i l d , 1978). By the time t h i s c a t a l o g u e appeared, Joe David had h e l p e d to c r e a t e the Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s G u i l d , and h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n was both a r t i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l . Throughout Joe David's work are many examples of i c o n o g r a p h i c m o t i f s which seem o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to shamanic cosmology. For an o u t s i d e r to p e r c e i v e t h a t c o n n e c t i o n does n o t , o f c o u r s e , prove t h a t the m o t i f s and the shamanic ideas are connected i n the a r t i s t ' s mind. But from h i s own words we s h a l l see t h a t i t i s so. In the treatment which f o l l o w s , emphasis has been p l a c e d not j u s t on the images but a l s o on the a r t i s t ' s s tatements, which are quoted e x t e n s i v e l y because we are d e a l i n g w i t h a c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t u n f a m i l i a r to most o f us. Joe David's p r e v i o u s l y u n p u b l i s h e d commentary makes t h a t c o n t e x t more a c c e s s i b l e . 1 0 6 . 1 - Reference to the Nori-human World In keeping w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast a r t , the non-human worl d i s an e v e r - p r e s e n t theme i n Joe David's a r t . H i s main c h a r a c t e r s are animals from r e a l l i f e , l i k e the whale or the crow, and m y t h i c a l beings l i k e the t h u n d e r b i r d or the s u p e r n a t u r a l r a t . a) Animals. Of the twenty two k i n d s of animals p o r t r a y e d so f a r by the a r t i s t , the most f r e q u e n t are the t h u n d e r b i r d C14 t i m e s ) , the whale (14 t i m e s ) , the w o l f (10 t i m e s ) , the snake (8 times) and the raven (5 times) ( a l l except the whale both i n masks and p r i n t s ) . There i s no bear i n Joe David's work except f o r a cub t h a t he c a r v e d on the Haida p o l e c o n c e i v e d by B i l l Reid i n Skidegate i n 1976. 4 We have mentioned p r e v i o u s l y t h a t the bear i s an animal found m o s t l y i n the Northern c u l t u r e s . I t s c o u n t e r p a r t f o r the Southern area seems to be the w o l f . The f o u r animals which Joe David f a v o u r s a l l p l a y a predominant r o l e i n Nootka mythology, as w e l l as i n the Northwest Coast shamanic realm i n g e n e r a l . These are the w o l f , the t h u n d e r b i r d , the l i g h t n i n g snake and the whale. They are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , and form a s o r t o f q u a d r i l o g y i n Nootka cosmology as w e l l as v i s u a l a r t . Indeed, a l l f o u r animals are p a r t o f the same m y t h i c a l c y c l e and r i t u a l system. 107. These f o u r animals appear e i t h e r alone or i n groups o f two, t h r e e or f o u r . In Joe David's two d i m e n s i o n a l works they are g e n e r a l l y p a i r e d as wolf/whale, t h u n d e r b i r d / w h a l e , t h u n d e r b i r d / l i g h t n i n g snake. When the f o u r o f them appear t o g e t h e r , as i n the s c r e e n c r e a t e d f o r a Memorial P o t l a t c h (1977) , the t h u n d e r b i r d i s f l a n k e d by h i s a s s i s t a n t s the l i g h t n i n g snakes, and holds the whale i n h i s t a l o n s , w h i l e the wolf appears i n the whale's b e l l y . In t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l a r t , such as masks or p o l e s , the animal i s u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d a l o n e . Table 2 shows the frequency of usage of each animal o f the Nootkan q u a d r i l o g y . Table, 3 g i v e s the l i s t o f animals. A c c o r d i n g to Joe David, one of h i s f a v o r i t e animals i s the w o l f which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e to him. H i s Indi a n name "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth" means " S u p e r n a t u r a l White Wolf t r a n s f o r m i n g i n t o K i l l e r - w h a l e . " H is s i g n a t u r e on c e r t a i n p r i n t s and i n v i t a t i o n s i s composed of a w o l f ' s head whose tongue holds a s t a r i n i t s r o l l e d t i p (see r e p r o d u c t i o n page 137« I Table 2 - Frequency of Use of the Nootkan Quadrilogy Thunderbird L i g h t n i n g Snake Alone In group Alone i n group 1973 1974 1975 1977 1977 1977 1977 1978 1979 mask blanket dancer headdress r a t t l e f r o n t l e t cape banner drum 1971 s i l k s c r e e n 1971 water colour 1977 dance screen 1978 s i l k s c r e e n 1978 s i l k s c r e e n 1975 s i l k s c r e e n 1975 brush-holder 1979 s i l k s c r e e n 1980 mask 1971 water c o l o u r 1974 blanket 1975 s i l k s c r e e n 1977 dance screen 1980 mask o 00 o oo Wolf Alone 1973 mask 1973 mask 1975 s i l k s c r e e n 1977 mask 1979 mask 1980 mask 1981 mask Whale Cor K i l l e r Whale) In group 1971 water colour 1973 hat 1977 pole 1977 s i l k s c r e e n 1977 dance screen 1979 pendant 1981 s i l k s c r e e n Alone 1977 cape 1978 banner 1979 i n i t i a t i o n card i n group 1971 s i l k s c r e e n 1973 hat 1975 s i l k s c r e e n 1977 dance screen 1977 s i l k s c r e e n 1978 s i l k s c r e e n 1978 s i l k s c r e e n 1979 pendant 1980 drum 1981 s i l k s c r e e n 109. S i n g l e Beings Table 3 L i s t of Animals 1971 H a l i b u t 1972 Grouse 1972 B i r d 1974 K i n g f i s h e r 1975 T h u n d e r b i r d Dancer 1975 Whale (Welcome Dance) 1975 Serpent (Dancer) 1975 Wolf (Dancer) 1977 Crow 1977 Loon 1977 T h u n d e r b i r d 1977 Crow 1977 Raven/Rainbow 1977 S u p e r n a t u r a l Rat 1977 L i n g Cod 1978 O t t e r 1978 Crow (ka-In) Cedar Panel R a t t l e Box P r i n t P r i n t P r i n t P r i n t P r i n t R a t t l e R a t t l e R a t t l e Drum Drum P r i n t P r i n t Banner P r i n t S t a t i c S t a t i c S t a t i c Animated: -Catching F i s h Animated: •Transforming •Dancing Animated: -Transforming Dancing Animated: •Transforming •Dancing Animated: •Transforming • Dancing Animated: • F l y i n g Animated: • F l y i n g Animated: • F l y i n g Animated: S i n g i n g Animated: F l y i n g S t a t i c Animated: T r a n s f o r m i n g Animated: • Swimming Animated: • F l y i n g 110. 1978 Crane P o s t c a r d 1979 Hawk P r i n t 1979 T h u n d e r b i r d Drum 1979 T h u n d e r b i r d P r i n t 1979 Whale P o s t c a r d 1980 Whale Drum 1980 L i g h t n i n g Serpent Mask Animated: F l y i n g Animated: T r a n s f o r m i n g Animated: Shamanizing Animated: Shamanizing Animated: Swimming (Cosmic Journey) Animated: S p r a y i n g Swimming Animated: Dancing Groups 1971 1971 1973 1974 1974 1977 1977 1977 1978 1978 1980 Whale/Thunderbird Thunderbird/L.S./ Wolf K i l l e r w h a l e / W o l f Sea Wolf/Hamatsa Sea Wolf/Hamatsa Thunderbird/Whale L i g h t n i n g Serpent/ Wolf P r i n t W atercolour Watercolour Pole Drum Screen K i l l e r w h a l e / W o l f P r i n t (Ka-Ka-Winn-Chealth) K i l l e r w h a l e / W o l f P r i n t Thunderbird/Whale P r i n t ( S p i n d l e W h i r l ) Thunderbird/Whale P r i n t Whale/Chief P r i n t Harpooner S t a t i c S t a t i c Animated: . T r a n s f o r m i n g Animated: •Transforming Animated: •Transforming Animated •Moving Animated: • T r a n s f o r m i n g Animated: •Transforming Animated: • W h i r l i n g S t a t i c Animated: •Hunting 1 1 1 . Swan/Moon P r i n t (Moon Dance) K i l l e r w h a l e / W o l f P r i n t (Ka-Ka-Winn-Chealth I I ) Animated: • Swimming Animated: •Transforming 112. The a n i m a l s d e p i c t e d by Joe D a v i d a r e n o t s i m p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f a n i m a l s p e c i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the r a t d e p i c t e d i n t h e s i l k s c r e e n (Fig. 1) r e p r o d u c e d below, i s n o t a common one but a s u p e r n a t u r a l r a t g i f t e d by d e f i n i t i o n w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power. F i g u r e 1 S u p e r n a t u r a l Rat " E a t s Qwin" ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) Joe D a v i d d e s c r i b e s B a t s Qwin i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : T h i s i s a humanoid r a t . . . s u p e r n a t u r a l r a t . The b l a c k on t h e t o p r e p r e s e n t s t h e r a t e a r and here a g a i n w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s , l i k e the 1.13. heaven. The f r o n t one i s s m a l l e r than the second one. Some dimensions there...no body, j u s t arms, l i q u i d r i b b o n l i k e arms, no t a i l . The b l a c k r e p r e s e n t s i t s home, whatever i t may be...the e a r t h , and i t r e p r e s e n t s a l s o i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l cape, i t s w o r l d , i t s home, i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers. That's what he has been g i f t e d w i t h . And above, i t r e p r e s e n t s i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l songs and i t s l i n e a g e (David, U.B.C. L e c t u r e I, 1977:26). Let us note t h a t the a r t i s t has a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r : The mouse i l l u s t r a t e d here i n merman form has i n each palm a g r a i n of r i c e . Wrapped around him i s h i s house. The e a r t h , which he can t r a n s f o r m i n t o a c e r e m o n i a l cape above h i s head, i s the sky and u n i v e r s e . I b r i n g to him r i c e and g r a i n and f r u i t s f o r which, i n exchange, he a l l o w s me to roam the beaches and f o r e s t s of h i s l i t t l e i s l a n d w o r l d (David, Northwest Coast G u i l d , 1977). S i m i l a r l y , the l i n g cod i s a c h a r a c t e r which may f i r s t appear as a simple f i s h . But a c a r e f u l e xamination of the p i c t o r i a l treatment r e v e a l s more c o m p l e x i t y . The l i n g cod has been i l l u s t r a t e d t h r e e t i m e s : once i n the I n v i t a t i o n c a r d sent f o r H y a c i n t h David's Memorial P o t l a t c h ( F i g u r e 2) (1977)", once i n a s i l k s c r e e n ( F i g u r e 3) (1977) and once i n a f r o n t l e t ( F i g u r e 4) (1976). In a l l cases the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n theme i s i l l u s t r a t e d . 114. F i g u r e 2 L i n g Cod "Hanu Qwatchu" ( I n v i t a t i o n C a r d , 1977) 1 1 5 . F i g u r e 3 L i n g Cod "Hanu Qwatchu" ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) 116. In the I n v i t a t i o n c a r d ( F i g u r e 1) the l i n g cod shows a f i s h body but a human f a c e . In the p r i n t (shown be3»©w as F i g i r 2 ) and a c c o r d i n g to h i s m y t h i c a l o r i g i n , Hanu-Qwatchu i s no lo n g e r c o m p l e t e l y human but has been caught i n the pro c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o a l i n g cod. His f a c e s t i l l appears human: eyes, nose, l i p s , e a r s . The r i g h t hand i s a l s o human. But h i s l e f t arm has a l r e a d y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a f i s h f i n , and h i s bow l e g s a l r e a d y l o o k l i k e the f l u k e s o f the l i n g cod's t a i l . A b e i n g w i t h two round eyes and a l a r g e t o o t h l e s s mouth i s n e s t l e d on the c h e s t o f the l i n g cod man. A c c o r d i n g to the a r t i s t i t r e p r e s e n t s a b l a c k f i s h , and h i s l o n g -f i n g e r e d hand i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s dancing (Joe David p e r s o n a l communication). In the f r o n t l e t ( F i g u r e 4 ) , the f a c e o f the l i n g cod i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ; human f e a t u r e s , eyes, nose, mouth, cheek bones j u s t appear i n the wood. But the c a r v i n g i s p r e c i s e enough to l e t us guess t h a t the b e i n g p o r t r a y e d has been caught by the a r t i s t i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s : the eyebrows and the eyes are s t i l l v e r y human w h i l e the nose and the mouth have a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a f i s h - l i k e q u a l i t y . T h i s i s con f i r m e d by the a r t i s t ' s f o l l o w i n g statement: T h i s was made i n 1976 and g i v e n to B i l l Holm i n 1977, a t the p o t l a t c h . I t ' s T s i m s h i a n . I t r e p r e s e n t s the human f a c e o f the l i n g cod t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . So h i s f a c e i s human and h i s body i s l i n g cod (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:14). 117 F i g u r e 4 L i n g C o d " H a n u Q w a t c h u " ( F r o n t l e t , 1 9 7 6 ) 118. Sometimes, t h e meaning o f the work i s h i g h l y p e r s o n a l as i n the case o f the drum l a b e l l e d "Hawk" ( F i g u r e 5 ) . From Joe Da v i d ' s comments, we g l i m p s e t h e v i s i o n w h i c h gave b i r t h t o t h e image: F i g u r e 5 Hawk (Drum, 1979) The f i r s t t i m e I r e a l l y came t o word "Hawk" and wi n d and t h i n g s b l a c k f r i e n d s o f mine, who were programme as I i n t h e commercia p e o p l e from C h i c a g o . They c a l l c i t y o f " t h e Hawk and the Wind" o f t h o s e i n f l u e n c e s w i t h w h i c h i n t he Hawk...just t o say i t . . . Wind...when I say t h e "Hawk"... p i e r c i n g beak, when you say t h e terms w i t h t h e , i t was t h r o u g h i n t h e same 1 a r t t r a i n i n g . . . C h i c a g o the and i t was one I became i n t e r e s t e d t h e Hawk and t h e I t h i n k o f r e a l "Hawk", you 119. can have some grandeur...but you can e a s i l y t u r n w i t h t h a t beak and i t would s l i c e you w i t h i t s claws and...pointed beak, l i k e a hawk... u n p r e d i c t a b l e . When I c r e a t e d t h i s d e s i g n , i t was f o r a drum...it was i n a p e r i o d o f my l i f e when t h i n g s were r e a l l y calm and then s t a r t e d to change i n my p e r s o n a l l i f e . I am t r u e to my c r e a t i o n s and t h i s hawk i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t . I t ' s a c t u a l l y a p o r t r a i t o f X . . . I t ' s a p o r t r a i t o f what the wind brought to me ... I was making a drum and was wondering what I was going to put on t h i s drum and w h i l e I was doing t h i s , a l l of a sudden, I hear t h i s scream above me and I loo k up and i t ' s a c t u a l l y the whole c h a r t o f b l a c k and white which i s going to t r a n s f o r m f o r me i n f r o n t o f my eyes. I look up a g a i n and i t i s a g a i n s t the r e a l b r i g h t l i g h t and from the sound I t h i n k i t ' s a hawk... I am f i n a l l y ready to come to terms w i t h t h a t drum and my l i f e and t h i s s p i r i t , and I f e l t so g r e a t . And I am p a i n t i n g down t h e r e , and a l l o f a sudden, here comes t h a t same scream. I am on the beach, i t came over and I l o o k up and i t i s not a hawk, i t i s an osprey. I t has always been an osprey, T h i s d e s i g n i s an osprey. I t ' s a w e l l known b i r d , v e r y e a g l e - l i k e . I t ' s b l a c k and whi t e . I t ' s almost l i k e an ea g l e but i t ' s k i n d o f mixed. I t almost looks l i k e i t i s t r a n s f o r m i n g because o f the mixture o f b l a c k and whi t e . The osprey looks l i k e X..., u p t i l t (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I 1982:33-36). A l l these beings are c r e a t u r e s the a r t i s t has p e r s o n a l l y met, i n v i s i o n s or i n " r e a l " l i f e . They are a s s o c i a t e d i n one way or another w i t h h i s ce r e m o n i a l or p r i v a t e l i f e . They are r a r e l y f u l l y animal but u s u a l l y p a r t l y human. Joe David c o n s i d e r s them as t e a c h e r s or t r a n s f o r m e r s and always g i f t e d w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power as i n d i c a t e d by the v e r y mention of a d u a l nature p a r t i c i p a t i n g o f both the human and the animal. 120. D) M y t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r s -The W i l d Men, a f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t of Joe David, r e p r e s e n t c r e a t u r e s l i v i n g i n a l i m i n a l a r e a , e i t h e r a t the edge o f the f o r e s t or c l o s e to the ocean. They are s a i d to be g i f t e d w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l power which they t r a n s f e r to the humans who are s t r o n g enough to meet them. The W i l d Man i s more than a m y t h i c a l b e i n g f o r Joe David who speaks o f him i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: I have always somehow i d e n t i f i e d w i t h him i n the sense t h a t he was supposed to l i v e i n the woods and t h a t he was v e r y shy. Where I come from, he had no spoken language and t h e r e was no song f o r him; and a l l my c h i l d h o o d I v e r y seldom spoke. . . . Even people who know me sometimes, a l l of a sudden they have been a b l e to cut away a l l my e d u c a t i o n and see me as a W i l d Man when I am coming out of the f o r e s t to the beach. I r e a l l y c l o s e l y i d e n t i f y w i t h him, much more than w i t h a n y t h i n g e l s e ; t h a t ' s why I do a l o t o f them (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:5). For t h i s p e r s o n a l reason Joe David does not carve masks of the W i l d Men or the F o o l Dancer f o r a r t e x h i b i t s , but p r i m a r i l y f o r use i n ceremonials or p o t l a t c h e s . Joe D a v i d f a v o u r s e s p e c i a l l y the F o o l Dancer's mask t h a t he o f t e n wears at a r t i s t i c f e s t i v i t i e s . The W i l d Men's masks ( t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s Wolf masks) were worn at the K l u k w a l l e (Wolf I n i t i a t i o n R i t u a l ) s e t up by A r t Thompson i n Neah Bay where h i s c h i l d r e n and Ron Hamilton were i n i t i a t e d . Joe David d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between Bukwus whom he i d e n t i f i e s as the K w a k i u t l W i l d 121. Man, and Ulth-Ma-Chob-Wha (or Almeqo), the West Coast W i l d Man. Ulth-Ma-Chob-Wha i s o f t e n i d e n t i f i a b l e by h i s t u b u l a r mouth which r e c a l l s t h a t o f Tsonoqua -- w i t h whom he i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d . Joe David has a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d another W i l d Man (Puqmis) who i s more a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Ocean and the F o r e s t ; another c r e a t u r e , c l o s e to the W i l d Men, i s Nulmal, or the F o o l Dancer. We s h a l l study these f o u r c h a r a c t e r s as d e p i c t e d by the a r t i s t i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. i . Bukwus -Bukwus i s a f o r e s t s p i r i t . He appears i n the K l u k w a l l e masquerade, but o n l y as a minor c h a r a c t e r . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , he appears i n the Kwakiutl d l u w h u l a x a and o t h e r minor c e r e m o n i a l s . He i s a v e r y shy b e i n g , without s i g n i f i c a n t powers, who i s b e l i e v e d to be l o n g to a non-human race r a t h e r than b e i n g a t r a n s f o r m e d man (Penney 1981:102). Bukwus i s o f t e n named the " c o c k l e h u n t e r " because he i s fond o f d i g g i n g f o r sea s h e l l s on the beach. When a dancer i m i t a t e s BUkwus he i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by d i g g i n g i n the dance f l o o r w i t h l a r g e wooden claws (Olson 1954:248 i n Penney 1981:102). Joe David has c a r v e d s i x Bukwus masks, each s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . Joe remarks t h a t "Bukwus might have d i f f e r e n t 122 . f a c e s . He can have d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s . H e ' l l go from r e a l w i l d t o r e a l p l e a s a n t t h i n g . He t r a n s f o r m s " ( D a v i d , I n t e r v i e w K a t z I I I , 1981:5). T h i s f i r s t mask, f o r i n s t a n c e , bears a p e a c e f u l o r n e u t r a l e x p r e s s i o n (see F i g u r e 6, below):. F i g u r e 6 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1975 The next mask (1975) (see F i g u r e 7, f o l l o w i n g ) , i s , on the c o n t r a r y , r a t h e r f i e r c e . A g a i n Joe Da v i d mentions a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s time between the c h a r a c t e r 123. r e p r e s e n t e d and the owner o f the p i e c e : F i g u r e 7 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1975) R e a l s k e l e t a l . . . I made i t e s p e c i a l l y f o r a p e r s o n who o r d e r e d i t . He was so i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s c r e a t u r e t h a t on a camping t r i p , somewhere on t h e C o a s t , i n t h e woods t h i n g s were moving around; he j u s t t h o u g h t he was approached by t h i s t h i n g because he so b e l i e v e d i n him, f e l t him...and he wanted me t o make a Bukwus f o r him; so I made t h i s one and he o f c o u r s e a c c e p t e d i t and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t ( D a v i d , I n t e r v i e w K a t z I I I , 1981:8-9). F i g u r e 8 "Bukwus" (Mask, 1975) T h e ' t h i n g s above h i s head a r e h i s r a d a r s , h i s s e n s o r s . . . t o f i n d h i s f o o d . When he i s l o o k i n g f o r c o c k l e s on t h e beach he runs h i s hand o v e r th e s u r f a c e t o f e e l i f i t ' s o.k..."not so much i s i t t h e r e ? " because he can t e l l by t h e h o l e o r by o t h e r t h i n g i f i t i s t h e r e . . . a n d he i s r e a l l y shy. He w i l l n e v e r come around when p e o p l e can see him...so he i s v e r y c a r e f u l t o f e e l out i f t h i n g s a r e o.k. f o r him t o come. I t ' s t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s s e n s i t i v i t y . . . b e c a u s e he i s r e a l shy and s e n s i t i v e p e r s o n . He i s K w a k i u t l ( D a v i d , I n t e r v i e w K a t z I I I , 1981:3,4). 125. I c a r v e d t h i s . . . shaped i t out i n Neah Bay a f t e r s e e i n g an "owl" c l u b t h a t came out from O z e t t e , hundred and hundred years o l d . The massive brows r e a l l y impressed me and I i n c o r p o r a t e d i t i n t o The W i l d Man of the Woods. The nose i s to me s t r u c t u r e d i n a v e r y Seaweed s t y l e , the mouth a l s o (David, L e c t u r e I I , 1978:29). i i . Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha (or Almequo) (The West Coast W i l d Man of the Woods). Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha (or Almequo) i s c a l l e d a l s o the Cedar Bark Ogre or the White F o r e s t S p i r i t -- h a i y a h l i n (white i s always used i n h i s f a c i a l p a i n t i n g s ) (Penney 1981:97). He i s thought to be Tsdnoqua's husband ( E r n s t 1952:74). Alt h o u g h he i s not p e r m i t t e d i n s i d e the dance house he i s a v e r y important c h a r a c t e r i n the K l u k w a l l e c e r e m o n i a l and can be seen dancing f r a n t i c a l l y d u r i n g the s e v e r a l days o f the K l u k w a l l e , d e s t r o y i n g p r o p e r t y (Penney 1981:98, E r n s t 1952:16 S a p i r § Swadesh 1955:163). Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha i s l o a d e d w i t h power. H i s encounters w i t h men are dreaded, a l t h o u g h these e x p e r i e n c e s r e s u l t i n a t r a n s f e r o f s p i r i t power (Penney 1981:97) : To look a t Almeqho (Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha) square i n the f a c e meant death: the masks r e f l e c t the need to loo k at him from the s i d e . The f r o n t a l view i s dangerous because p o w e r f u l medicine runs from e i t h e r s i d e o f the nose ( S a p i r § Swadesh 1955:lo3). The cheek c r e s c e n t s running from the nose might v e r y w e l l r e p r e s e n t t h i s medicine (Penney 1981:98). 126. Joe D a v i d i l l u s t r a t e s t he power o f Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha i n a number o f ways. Some o f t h e s e masks show c r e s c e n t s on t h e s i d e o f the cheeks -- as mentioned by Penney (see F i g u r e 9, 1974 - mask) -- o t h e r s show deep f u r r o w s r u n n i n g a l o n g the jaw and i n t o the cheek (1972, L F i g u r e 10. The p r o f i l e i s always v e r y a c c e n t u a t e d w i t h l a r g e n o s t r i l s , hooked nose and a p r o t r u d i n g c y l i n d r i c a l mouth ( F i g u r e 11, 1973). T h i s mouth s y m b o l i z e s Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c two-tone c r y ( E r n s t 1952:17). E i g h t o f t h e s e masks have been c a r v e d by the a r t i s t . F i g u r e 9 "Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha" (Mask, 1974) 127. 128. F i g u r e 11 "Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha" (Mask 1973) 129. i i i - Pukmis -Puqmis, c a l l e d by E r n s t "The G h o s t l y Other W i l d Man" (1952:21) appears f r e q u e n t l y w i t h Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha d u r i n g the KlUkwaile performances. A c c o r d i n g to Penney (1981:97) Puqmis has no s p i r i t power and i s " l e s s s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g and more ghost." He i s a human b e i n g who can p a r t i a l l y e n t e r the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d by way of the f o r e s t . L i k e Ulth-Ma-Chdo-Wha,. Pukmis a l s o l i v e s i n the f o r e s t but i s seen more a l o n g the shore because of h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the ocean ( E r n s t 1952:70). Puqmis i s not always r e p r e s e n t e d by a f a c e mask ( E r n s t 1952:78, S a p i r § Swadesh 1955:252); the dancer may i n s t e a d rub h i s body and f a c e w i t h f l o u r and wear l o n g i c i c l e - l i k e f i n g e r n a i l s . A c c o r d i n g to Joe David the W i l d Man o f the Sea combines the i d e a o f death w i t h the i d e a of the ocean ( p e r s o n a l communication). The a r t i s t c a r v e d o n l y one mask o f t h i s k i n d , which he t r a d e d f o r a T s i m s h i a n mask w i t h Duane Pasco. The a r t i s t mentions: I t ' s one o f the s t r o n g e s t masks I ever made, i t comes from another dimension" (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , March 1981:15). (See F i g u r e 12, f o l l o w i n g ) . 130. F i g u r e 12 "Pukmis" (Mask, 1971) T h i s mask reminds the a r t i s t o f one o f h i s f a t h e r ' s s t o r i e s which he t e l l s as f o l l o w s : There i s the W i l d Man of the Sea. He i s a l l white and he r e p r e s e n t s the s p i r i t s o f people drown or l o s t at sea. Pukmis, they c a l l him. My f a t h e r , as a c h i l d remembered these c r e a t u r e s , the r e a l ones...they were two b r o t h e r s who were up f i s h i n g i n a canoe, who because of a storm f e l l from the canoe and got l o s t . And everybody thought the canoe had been crushed and t h a t the b r o t h e r s had drown at sea. But u l t i m a t e l y they made t h e i r way to the sea shore and wound 131. up behind the v i l l a g e . At n i g h t they were coming around the houses l o o k i n g f o r food. One n i g h t one of the b r o t h e r s was caught, c e r e m o n i a l l y tamed and brought back i n t o the s o c i e t y . The ot h e r one, I don't know what happened (David, L e c t u r e I, 1977:8). i v - The P o o l Panicer -Nuhmal, or F o o l Dancers, are f o r e s t - s p i r i t s --l i k e U1th-Ma-Chdo-Wha and Bukwus. A c c o r d i n g to Boas (1897:468 i n Penney 1981:98) they are s a i d to d w e l l on an i s l a n d f l o a t i n g i n a l a k e f a r i n the i n t e r i o r . Deep, i n c i s e d cheek markings running from each s i d e o f a b i g nose are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Nuhlmal mask. As i n the case o f Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha, Penney assumes t h a t "these r e p r e s e n t the mucus t h a t runs h a b i t u a l l y from the Nuhlmal's nose. Mucus i s the substance o f the Nuhlmal's power; he throws i t at those he wishes to i n s p i r e " (Boas 1966:183 i n Penney 1981:99). The Nuhlmal --' Kwakiutl c h a r a c t e r , -- appear i n the dances of the Hamatsa s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r w i t h the b i r d -monsters. They are c o n s i d e r e d as messengers f o r the Hamatsa but a l s o as buffoons and c o n t r o l l e r s o f the audience, making sure t h a t everybody i s behaving p r o p e r l y . They are n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r b o i s t e r o u s manners and r e p u l s i v e appearance (A. Hawthorn 1967:116). L i k e Ulth-Ma-Choo-Wha Nulmahl shows an a g g r e s s i v e and v i o l e n t temper. Any mention o f h i s nose, mucus or s m e l l may t r i g g e r a d e s t r u c t i v e o u trage. 1 3 2 . In Joe D a v i d ' s Nuhlmal ( F i g u r e 13, mask) the nose p r a c t i c a l l y become a muzzle g i v i n g the c r e a t u r e a k i n d o f f e l i n e a p p e a r a n c e . T h i s i s the F o o l D a n c e r , the p e r s o n they c a l l it^ Nuhlmal and I c a r v e d t h i s mask to use at a per formance B i l l Holm was g i v i n g i n S e a t t l e , at a H a i d a workshop t h a t he has b u i l t at h i s home and a l t h o u g h i t ' s a K w a k i u t l c h a r a c t e r t h e r e are some v e r y West Coas t f e e l i n g s about 133. t h i s p a r t i c u l a r mask. I used rubber cement to r e p r e s e n t the mucus which i s what you see on the nose a r e a , and I a l s o , i n the performance f a s h i o n e d a hook from wire and I had a f r e s h o y s t e r hanging from one of the n o s t r i l s . . a n d at the end o f the performance I rushed to Steve Brown and threw i t down h i s t h r o a t . . . a l o t of people were amazed...It gave t h i s man a l l the more l i f e . I p o r t r a y him as a k i n d o f d i r t y o l d man. I don't know what t h a t says about me b u t . . . I used t h i s mask at B i l l Holm's as a comic r e l i e f a f t e r the Hamatsa r i t u a l had been performed, and a few o f the S u p e r n a t u r a l t r a n s f o r m i n g beings had come through the b i g house...and suddenly i n walks t h i s l i t t l e , s l o p p y , c r a z y guy! and peop l e k i n d o f laugh and r e l a x and k i n d o f saw a l l t h a t f o r the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s as i t was r a t h e r than e x p e c t i n g to t h i n k at a l l the t h i n g s as a r e a l l y happening p o t l a t c h (David, L e c t u r e I I , 1978: 30-32). c - C e l e s t i a l Bodies -For Joe David the sun and the moon are p e r s o n a l i z e d , as they are i n West Coast mythology. The sun i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o u r times ( f r o n t l e t , mask, r a t t l e , p r i n t ) ; the moon f i v e times ( f r o n t l e t , mask, p r i n t ) . The two f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s are f r o n t l e t s ( F i g u r e s 14 & 15). They are good examples of the a r t i s t ' s treatment o f the theme, but do not a l l o w us t o reach the p e r s o n a l meaning which may be hidden i n them. 134. Sun F i g u r e 14 ( F r o n t l e t , 1975) 135. Fi g u r e 15 Moon ( F r o n t l e t , 1973) 136. D i s c u s s i n g t h i s t h i r d c e l e s t i a l p i e c e -- a mask --( F i g . 16) Joe D a v i d r e v e a l e d p a r t o f h i s p e r s o n a l symbology F i g u r e 16 Moon (Mask, 1979) To me, the moon i s f e m i n i n i t y and g u i d a n c e . I owe a l o t t o the moon. I am a male, and I i d e n t i f y c l o s e l y w i t h the sun. That's what happens i n many c u l t u r e s : the man i s the sun and the mother i s t he moon. So t h i s mask r e p r e s e n t s my f e e l i n g towards women. My f e e l i n g towards women who l o v e d me and women t h a t gave b i r t h , not j u s t i n s p i r a t i o n t o me but gave b i r t h t o c h i l d r e n , t o the new me. The moon has t a u g h t me i n c r e d i b l e t h i n g s . The Moon mask, i t ' s a l s o i n commemoration t o my v i l l a g e : Opitsah...my f a t h e r t o l d me t h e name means: "where the moon i s r i s i n g " ( D a v i d , I n t e r v i e w IV, K a t z 1981:30). 137. The s t a r i s used by many Nootka a r t i s t s and i s p a r t o f the West Coas t a r t i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y . Joe D a v i d employs i t i n two d i m e n s i o n a l works . The s t a r i s p a r t o f h i s f a m i l y c r e s t s . He draws o r p a i n t s i t e i t h e r i n a v e r y r e a l i s t i c or an a b s t r a c t way but does not p e r s o n a l i z e i t . I t appears i n the s i g n a t u r e when he s i g n s h i s p i e c e s w i t h a w o l f ' s head: a s t a r i s n e s t l e d i n the r o l l e d t i p o f the tongue; a n o t h e r one i s l odged i n a c u r l o f the h a i r s f l o w i n g back from the w o l f ' s head (see b e l o w ) . F i g u r e 17 Wolf (Joe D a v i d ' s S i g n a t u r e , 1975) Joe D a v i d a l s o f a v o u r s the ra inbow m o t i f and g i v e s i t a v e r y p o s i t i v e meaning . F o r h i m , i t s i g n i f i e s l i g h t , and we w i l l see i t i n a number o f p r i n t s which we w i l l d i s c u s s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the theme o f e c s t a s y . He began u s i n g i t i n 1977, on one o f h i s f a v o u r i t e p r i n t s , 138. "Rainbow Raven" which was made f o r a Memorial P o t l a t c h . The same d e s i g n i s found on a drum. R e c e n t l y , Joe David has used the rainbow a g a i n i n a p r i n t c a l l e d "Medicine Drum." In t h i s p r i n t the whole spectrum o f c o l o u r s has been reduced to j u s t two: green and b l u e . T h i s m o t i f i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n th r e e d i m e n s i o n a l form on the headdress o f a S e c r e t S o c i e t y ' s mask p r e s e n t e d i n the r e c e n t Chicago e x h i b i t i o n ( A p r i l 1982) (See F i g u r e 32, , page 156). d - Human Beings -The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f human beings i s r a r e i n Joe David's works and they are always i n v o l v e d i n some animal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . The o n l y f u l l y human b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n two d i m e n s i o n a l designs i s the Hamatsa i n i t i a t e on the I n i t i a t i o n drum. The oth e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , which may at f i r s t glance look l i k e human b e i n g s , are i d e n t i f i e d by Joe David as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an animal as a person ( L i n g Cod), or as a S u p e r n a t u r a l Being ( R a t ) , o r as f i l l e r s ( K i n g f i s h e r , Whale's t a i l ) . Human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n appears more f r e q u e n t l y i n the th r e e d i m e n s i o n a l works, i n p i e c e s p o r t r a y i n g e i t h e r human beings i n v o l v e d i n r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s , sometimes e x p l i c i t l y shamanic, such as the mask o f the Young Boy (See F i g u r e 18) i n the p r o c e s s o f b e i n g i n i t i a t e d and o f h i s f a t h e r (See F i g u r e 19), or the human s i d e 139. F i g u r e 18 Young Boy I n i t i a t e (Mask, 1979) 140. F i g u r e 19 F a t h e r (Mask, 1979) The Welcome masks form a d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y o f human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d by Joe D a v i d as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a n c e s t o r s . F i n a l l y a s e r i e s o f masks , m o s t l y c a r v e d i n T s i m s h i a n s t y l e , are l a b e l l e d " p o r t r a i t masks". But these " p o r t r a i t s " do not d e p i c t a c t u a l 141. b e i n g s . " P o r t r a i t mask" i s a term o r i g i n a l l y c o i n e d by wh i t e s to l a b e l s e r i e s o f T s i m s h i a n masks which r e p r e s e n t naxnok t h a t i s s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s or powers , r a t h e r t h a n human i n d i v i d u a l s ( H a l p i n 1974) . The f o l l o w i n g p o r t r a i t mask, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p r e s e n t s the F l y i n g F r o g C r e s t i shown below i n F i g u r e 20. F i g u r e 20 „ F l y i n g F r o g C r e s t (Mask, 1979) I would l i k e to s t r e s s a g a i n t h a t a l l the c h a r a c t e r s ( a n i m a l , m y t h i c a l b e i n g s , human b e i n g s and c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s ) 1 4 2 . d e p i c t e d b y J o e D a v i d b e l o n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n r i t u a l w o r l d . 2 - M y s t i c a l e c s t a s y A i d e d b y t h e a r t i s t ' s c o m m e n t s , we c a n d e t e c t t h e e c s t a s y t h e m e i n s e v e r a l o f h i s w o r k s . S u c h i m a g e s a s t h e r a i n b o w , a n d l i g h t i n g e n e r a l , a s w e l l a s t h e f i g u r e o f t h e r a v e n a r e d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f a n e c s t a t i c n a t u r e w h i c h g a v e t h e a r t i s t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n s . S u c h c o n n e c t i o n i s n o t o b v i o u s f o r t h e v i e w e r who d o e s n o t h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e a r t i s t ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d , b u t a p p e a r s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n a n u m b e r o f d e s i g n s . T h e s e r i e s o f r a i n b o w d e s i g n s , s p r i n g f r o m a v i s i o n w h i c h b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e i d e a s o f l i g h t , f l i g h t a n d j o u r n e y t o t h e s k y . T h e r a i n b o w i s t h e r e f o r e a s u m m a r y o f many s h a m a n i c t h e m e s b u t f o r J o e D a v i d , i t i s f i r s t o f a l l a n i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a l s y m b o l w h i c h i s a l s o o n e 7 o f t h e c r e s t s o f h i s f a m i l y . I n S k i d e g a t e I h e a r d my f a t h e r h a d p a s s e d a w a y . I w e n t o f f t h e w o o d s t o s i n g a n d p a y t r i b u t e . I l e f t t o a t t e n d t o t h e f u n e r a l . On my way I saw two r a i n b o w s o n S p r o u t L a k e a n d a r a v e n f l y i n g f r o m n o w h e r e . . . s o l i t a r y a c t i o n . . . p o w e r . . . I made a d r u m o u t o f t h a t v i s i o n ( D a v i d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A u g u s t 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r a i n b o w i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s k y a n d o t h e r c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s , a n d t h e m y t h i c a l f i g u r e o f R a v e n i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d b y t h e a r t i s t w i t h t h e r a i n b o w , b u t i s t h e r e 1 4 3 . r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n a p e r s o n a l f a s h i o n . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g emphasized as the demiurge or the clumsy r e - a r r a n g e r o f the w o r l d , Raven i s p r e s e n t e d by J o e David i n h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y important but o f t e n f o r g o t t e n r o l e o f o r i g i n a l shaman. For Joe David, Raven i s the b r i n g e r of l i g h t . The a r t i s t has used the rainbow and the raven m o t i f s e v e r a l t i mes. The th r e e f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s d i r e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e Joe David's v i s i o n and the p r o g r e s s i o n o f h i s i n t e r p r e t at i o n . The f i r s t p i e c e i s a drum ( F i g u r e 21) made f o r a Memorial P o t l a t c h . Here a raven i s d e p i c t e d i n the p r o c e s s o f f l y i n g , s t r e c h i n g h i s wings and d i s p l a y i n g a l l h i s f e a t h e r s . The sky above him i s c o m p l e t e l y invaded by the double rainbow w i t h i t s v i v i d c o l o u r s . ^ The second p i e c e i s a s i l k s c r e e n ( F i g u r e 22). The d e s i g n shows some v a r i a t i o n s from the drum, as here the raven has l o s t h i s human q u a l i t i e s . The f e a t h e r m o t i f encompasses the whole body. The c h a r a c t e r has transformed i n t o h i s b i r d s t a t e . 144. F i g u r e 21 Raven-Rainbow (Drum, 1971) 145. F i g u r e 22 Raven-Rainbow ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) T h i s rainbow was a r e a l g l o r i f i e d mass, i n the r e l i g i o u s sense of awakening i n t o another realm . . . l i k e my f a t h e r had passed away and he was never going to be there f o r me a g a i n p h y s i c a l l y . I t ' s going to be through a b i g s p i r i t u a l realm t h a t I would communicate w i t h him now (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981 : 3 7 ) . 146. The c o n n e c t i o n between ra inbow and b i r d i s a l s o e x p l i c i t l y shown i n the p r i n t r e p r o d u c e d below ( F i g u r e 23) l a b e l l e d " M e d i c i n e Drum D e s i g n " . The rainbow i s t h i n n e r than i n the p r e v i o u s works . F i g u r e 23 M e d i c i n e Drum D e s i g n ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1979) I am overwhelmed w i t h t h a t knowledge ( i n h e r i t e d from h i s f a t h e r ) but now I am"conf ident w i t h i t and I am a n c h o r i n g my p h y s i c a l s ense , my p h y s i c a l b e i n g and knowledge i n t o the r e a l m o f p l a n t m e d i c i n e s w h i c h i s b lue and g r e e n . . . I am c o n f i d e n t w i t h the knowledge but I am s t i l l p r a y i n g t h o u g h . . . s t i l l communicat ing w i t h t h i s o t h e r r e a l m , the moon. In t h i s p r i n g the main c h a r a c t e r i s a b i r d and the o n l y way i t c o u l d r e l a t e to the moon and see a n y t h i n g i n i t would be 147. i t s own b e i n g . I f a man were l o o k i n g at the moon he would see a man. Around i t ' s a r a i n b o w , i t s b l u e and g r e e n - - w h i c h i s r e l a t e d to p l a n t l i f e . I d i d not want to i l l u s t r a t e i t as s t r o n g l y as i n the Rainbow/ Raven p r i n t which had f i v e c o l o u r s , but I wanted to i l l u s t r a t e i t i n the m e d i c a l sense r a t h e r t h a n j u s t a v i s u a l e m o t i o n a l sense w i t h a l l the c o l o u r s o f the spec trum. So , i t ' s a much t h i n n e r . . . i t 1 s a much t h i n n e r . . i t ' s a much more c o n f i d e n t ra inbow than the o t h e r one ( D a v i d , I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:38) . (Emphasis a d d e d ) . Raven i s a l s o tw ice i l l u s t r a t e d i n p i e c e s based on the theme o f Raven S t e a l i n g L i g h t . F i g u r e 24 "Raven S t e a l i n g L i g h t " ( F r o n t l e t , 1976) 1 4 8 . I t was made i n 1976, and was t r a d e d to Steve Brown f o r a s i l v e r b r a c e l e t . T s i m s h i a n . T h i s one i s the human f a c e of a Raven c h i l d . T h i s i s the Raven s t e a l i n g the l i g h t . So i t ' s the sun, moon and Raven at the same time (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:14) The above round p i e c e ( F i g u r e 24) i s a f r o n t l e t r e p r e s e n t i n g Raven c h i l d s t e a l i n g l i g h t t o g i v e t o humans. In t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the myth the a r t i s t has chosen to s t r e s s the heavenly body Sun/Moon r a t h e r than the hero of the a c t i o n , Raven. T h i s e x p l a i n s the f u l l round f a c e encompassing n e a r l y the whole s u r f a c e of the f r o n t l e t . Raven c h i l d i s perched on the top of the Sun/Moon fa c e which he i s h o l d i n g i n h i s open wings. The theme of Raven S t e a l i n g L i g h t i s i l l u s t r a t e d a second time i n one of Joe David's most s t r i k i n g masks, ( F i g u r e 25") . F i g u r e 2 5 "Raven S t e a l i n g L i g h t " (Mask, 1976) 1 4 9 . The mask i l l u s t r a t e s the moment raven gets the box, opens the l i d and sees the l i g h t . He looks at i t , i t c o u l d be l i k e e t e r n i t y or a f r a c t i o n o f second. The b l a c k i n the eyes r e p r e s e n t s the raven as a human c h i l d l o o k i n g the f i r s t time i n t o the box... and the s m i l e i s the f e e l i n g f o r the l i g h t he b r i n g s t o the world... the Moon, the Sun... and then i t ' s a r e f l e c t i o n i n h i s eyes of the s u p e r n a t u r a l l i g h t . One day I w i l l carve the c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h i s f a c e . . . Raven w i t h the mouth opened and a s m i l i n g moon i n h i s eyes (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz, 1979:52). T h i s mask of the Hamatsa going through a t r a n c e ( F i g u r e 26) i s Joe David's f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an i n i t i a t e : F i g u r e 26 Hamatsa (Mask, 1973) The h a l f - o p e n mouth and the upturned eyes of the c h a r a c t e r i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n i t i a t e i s i n a deep t r a n c e 150. s t a t e . The mask i s s t a r k , unpainted, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a l a r g e b l a c k band encompassing the eyesocket area and the upperpart of the nose. A c c o r d i n g to E r n s t (1952:67-68) the i n i t i a t e s used t o p a i n t t h e i r f a c e s b l a c k t o s i g n i f y they had r e c e i v e d a s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t . B l a c k was a l s o used by w a r r i o r s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g an a t t a c k : "They blackened t h e i r f a c e s and put on t h e i r medicines f o r b e i n g unbeatable w a r r i o r s " ( S a p i r & Swadesh 1939: 165 and 453). 3. I n i t i a t i o n In Joe David's works, the theme of death does not appear ve r y o f t e n ; when i t does, i t i s as an element of the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d theme of i n i t i a t i o n . N e i t h e r i s the theme of i n i t i a t i o n v i s u a l l y o b v i o u s ; yet i t i s ve r y much p r e s e n t as the t i t l e o f a number of p i e c e s or the e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by the a r t i s t . In 1974, Joe David p e r s o n a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d the o l d i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l s through a s e r i e s of dreams. T h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d on a p o l e , the "Spokane P o l e " ( F i g u r e 27) which Joe David d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : I t r e p r e s e n t s the Sea-Wolf s u r f a c i n g , coming out of water and the Hamatsa dancer coming out of the mouth; the f a c e i n the bottom p a r t i s j u s t a f a c e r e p r e s e n t i n g the human p a r t o f the Sea-Wolf which i s me. Duri n g summer 1974, I took Frank C h a r l i e w i t h me and i t took us about f i v e weeks t o carve the p o l e . I t r e p r e s e n t s a s u c c e s s i o n of dreams t h a t I had t h i s p r e c e d i n g w i n t e r . We carved t h i s i n J u l y . . . In January I had a few dreams t h a t I was b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n the Hamatsa S o c i e t y and i t took p l a c e out i n the Sound. I was under water i n K e a l t h Bay, and I c o u l d see t h i s huge canoe above my head and I knew they were searching- f o r me when I saw them g e t t i n g near... I swooped o f f and come out of water. Coming out of water a seaweed was hanging... 151. and dancing on top of water and the Canoe People would come a f t e r me when I ' l l go down and t h i s went on f o r who knows how l o n g . . . . and t h e r e were a s e r i e s o f dreams where next time I jumped.... They had me i n s i d e the house and they were taming me. So t h i s p o l e r e p r e s e n t s these dreams. My Indian name i s Ka-Ka-Win-C h e a l t h which means t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of S u p e r n a t u r a l White Wolf i n t o K i l l e r w h a l e and t h i s p o l e was to r e p r e s e n t the dream coming out of me t r a n s f o r m i n g ; so I designed the p o l e w i t h a sea-wolf, c r e a t u r e s u r f a c i n g from the water, p l u n g i n g towards the sky... i t s mouth opening and t h i s Hamatsa dancing out of i t s mouth" (David, L e c t u r e II 1977:20 1979:15). F i g u r e 27 I n i t i a t i o n - Spokane ( P o l e , 1974) T h i s p o l e i s carved i n a v e r y r e a l i s t i c manner. The Hamatsa i n i t i a t e - - w h o p o r t r a y s Joe D a v i d - - i s l i f e - s i z e . The same i n i t i a t i o n i s a l s o expressed i n a drum ( F i g u r e 152. 28). On the f a c e of the drum, a young man c l a d i n the red band and red gown of the i n i t i a t e s comes out of the Sea-Wolf's jaws. The Sea-Wolf seems to be dancing. He i s h o l d i n g the man i n h i s jaws and a f i s h i n h i s fore-paw. We are reminded here of the c o n n e c t i o n between Wolf and K i l l e r w h a l e , s i n c e a f i n appears underneath the fore-paw and another one has r e p l a c e d the hind-paw. The small human f a c e appearing on the s u r f a c e of the f i n / t a l e i s blowing a flame-l i k e d e s i g n . Commenting on t h i s m o t i f , the a r t i s t s p e c i f i e d t h a t the flame r e p r e s e n t s the song of the dancer. F i g u r e 28 I n i t i a t i o n (Drum, 1974) The g a t h e r i n g of the w o l f ' s t a i l , which i s at the same time the d o r s a l f i n of the whale, and the man's head (appe a r i n g 153. i n the t a i l ) suggests a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power.° The drum ( F i g u r e ,29) and e s p e c i a l l y i t s e l a b o r a t e l y carved drumstick (see F i g u r e 29 shown below) i s a l s o c c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to death and i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l . The drumstick d e p i c t s "a c a n n i b a l b i r d h o l d i n g a human s k u l l w i t h v e r t a b r a e i n i t s beak" (MacNair 1980:171). A whale i s shown on the drum i t s e l f . F i g u r e 29 "Whale (Drum, Drumstick, 1979) Another mask ( F i g u r e 30) named " S p i r i t of the Raven Awaking the Hamatsa i n the Morning" b r i n g s the i d e a of 1 5 4 . awakening to the p i c t u r e : F i g u r e 30 " S p i r i t Awakening the Hamatsa i n the Morning" (Mask, 1975) Awakening appears a l s o i n the mask f o l l o w i n g ( F i g u r e j 3 1 ) where an obvious shamanic element i s the hanging tongue, which means death. But i f the c l o s e d eye and b l u e i s h c o l o u r of the r i g h t s i d e of the f a c e symbolize death, the wide open eye, the f e a t h e r - l i k e f a c i a l p a i n t i n g and l i g h t c o l o u r of the l e f t s i d e symbolize l i f e . So t h i s i s not a simple w a r r i o r ' s death but a cosmic death and r e s u r r e c t i o n . 1 5 5 . F i g u r e 31 Dead W a r r i o r (Mask, 1975) I n i t i a t i o n i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the image of the rainbow i n the mask reproduced on the f o l l o w i n g page ( F i g u r e 32) of a s e c r e t s o c i e t y ' s i n i t i a t e . Death i s now completely absent from the p i c t u r e . 156. F i g u r e 32 Sec r e t S o c i e t y I n i t i a t e (Mask, 1982) 4. Journeys i n Cosmic Worlds The theme of the cosmic journey i s evoked o n l y i n d i r e c t l y i n the p r i n t named "Memorial Canoe" ( F i g u r e 33). Without the comments of the a r t i s t we might simply i n t e r p r e t t h i s boat as the legendary "Soul Boat". Yet although t h i s p r i n t was c r e a t e d to commemorate the death of Joe David's f a t h e r , the boat stands, a c c o r d i n g to the a r t i s t , f o r h i s f a t h e r because 157. he used t o carve m i n i a t u r e canoes; and the departure of Hy a c i n t h David's s o u l i s symbolized by the detached s t e r n paddle: F i g u r e 33 Memorial Canoe ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) T h i s canoe stands f o r my f a t h e r . He was c a r v i n g m i n i a t u r e canoes. The paddles , those i n shadow r e p r e s e n t the s p i r i t of the deceased c h i l d r e n , seven... the paddles i n s o l i d c o l o r p o r t r a y the c h i l d r e n a l i v e . The detached s t e r n paddle r e p r e s e n t s the s p i r i t of my f a t h e r l e a v i n g f o r another realm. The s t a r s a p p e a r i n g i n the sky are my f a m i l y c r e s t s (David, P e r s o n a l Communication August 1979). The theme of the cosmic journey i s a l s o there i n the I n v i t a t i o n c a r d drawn f o r the opening of the Wood, Metal and Paper e x h i b i t h e l d i n Chicago i n December 1979 ( F i g u r e 34). Here we can d i s t i n c t l y see a human fa c e n e s t l e d i n 158. the blowhole of the whale. Dr. George MacDonald assumes (Pe r s o n a l Communication October 1982) t h a t such images c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the t r a v e l l i n g of the shaman to the Underworld, the whale b e i n g a f a v o u r i t e s p i r i t h e l p e r f o r the shaman and a guide to reach the hole l o c a t e d i n the middle of the sea through which the shaman c o u l d depart from t h i s w orld. F i g u r e 34 Whale ( I n v i t a t i o n Card, Chicago E x h i b i t i o n , 1977) 1 5 9 . A s i m i l a r j ourney i s i l l u s t r a t e d ( F i g u r e 3 5 ) on. the Crow R a t t l e , d e p i c t i n g a small humanoid c h a r a c t e r perched on the wings of the Crow, which would i n d i c a t e a cosmic journey i n the Upperworld. Joe David's comments c o n f i r m t h i s i n t u i t i o n : Raven ( R a t t l e , 1977) T h i s b e i n g on the top of the wings r e p r e s e n t s m e — The crow i s t a k i n g me and t e a c h i n g me t h i n g s and then t a k i n g me back and f l y i n g w i t h me (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz IV 1981: 5). 5. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The theme of shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t y developed i n a number of works. Indeed the concept of 160. t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has been so e l a b o r a t e d by Joe David as t o c o n s t i t u t e a l e i t m o t i v t o which the a r t i s t comes back agai n and a g a i n , not o n l y i n h i s works but a l s o i n h i s comments. One of h i s f i r s t p r i n t s t o d e p i c t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth", ( F i g u r e 36), i l l u s t r a t i n g h i s f i r s t I ndian name and designed i n 1976. In 1981, he made another p r i n t t i t l e d "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth I I " ( F i g u r e 37). F i g u r e 36 "Ka-Ka-Win-chealth" ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1977) 161. F i g u r e 37 "Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth I I " ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1981) In the f i r s t p r i n t , the c h a r a c t e r i s ambiguous, both wolf (through the s h a r p - p o i n t e d muzzle, the clawed f o r e -paw, the p o s i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t a i l ) and whale (through the blow h o l e , the d o r s a l f l i p p e r and the n e g a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the caudal f i n ) . In the second 162. p r i n t , the two components of the name are i l l u s t r a t e d i n more r e a l i s t i c manner; the two c h a r a c t e r s have r e t a i n e d t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s , but are v e r y animated and seem busy p l a y i n g a game t o g e t h e r . The body of the whale i s n e s t l e d i n t o the sway back of the w o l f . The o n l y d e t a i l b e t r a y i n g t h e i r common nature i s the w o l f ' s t a i l which i s a l s o the whale's s p r i n g i n g from a blow h o l e i n the shape of a blue s t a r . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s d e p i c t e d i n the two s i l k s c r e e n s and the d i f f e r e n c e between the two d e p i c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t s a p r o g r e s s i o n which was q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e on Joe David's p a r t : There are two p r i n t s i l l u s t r a t i n g my name Ka-Ka-Win-C h e a l t h : i n the f i r s t one, t h a t I made i n 1977, I t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth as r e a l young, as a pup, the wolf l o o k s l i k e a pup...and at t h a t p o i n t I began t o r e a l i z e t h a t I was going t o use the theme throughout my l i f e f o r d e s i g n and t h a t I was goi n g t o have t o go from r e a l young t o the appearance of o l d age; so Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth II i s a l i t t l e more o l d e r than t h a t , he i s not so new and b e w i l d e r e d than the f i r s t one, he has been i n the worl d . The f i r s t p r i n t i n t e n t i o n a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s a pup, he i s new i n the w o r l d , i t ' s h i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e of t h i s world, so he i s b e w i l d e r e d w i t h h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . . he  i s s h a r i n g two b o d i e s . Suddenly the wolf i s i n the water, and he has to adapt, he has to l e a r n t o c o n t r o l h i s b r e a t h i n g , he has to l e a r n to c o n t r o l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to be ab l e at w i l l t o go from one to the o t h e r . The second Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth has more c o n t r o l ; He has  l e a r n e d t o c o n t r o l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he has l e a r n e d t o c o n t r o l h i s b r e a t h i n g , b e i n g i n t o the ocean and on l a n d . . . he i s not so b e w i l d e r e d , he i s now more p l a y f u l . . . he i s i n a c i r c l e , a b l u e c i r c l e which t i e s a c t u a l l y the a i r , the wo r l d above water. Even i f the whale i s i n s i d e the water he has to come at the s u r f a c e f o r a i r . The K i l l e r w h a l e has patches of white and b l a c k , l i k e a l o t o f f i s h which have a white b e l l y and a b l a c k back. I t ' s a d i s g u i s e . . . I have no i d e a where I f i r s t h eard about t h a t . . . but I s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g t h a t K i l l e r w h a l e s and wolves, way back, chose the way they wanted t o go... one de c i d e d t o go on l a n d and the oth e r one d e c i d e d t o s t a y i n the ocean. There i s a l o t of 163. c l o s e communication between the two t h a t we s t i l l don't understand... l i k e w i t h other animals. Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth i s i n a c i r c l e , he i s now i n c o n t r o l , he f e e l s at home i n both worlds; t h a t ' s what the c i r c l e means, the c o n t r o l of a i r . I ' l l make a t h i r d , a f o u r t h , a f i f t h one t i l l I am a r e a l o l d man, I can imagine... when I w i l l be o l d and wise... but i t w i l l always be a white wolf (David, Int e r v i e w Katz IV, 1981:4)(Emphasis added). The i d e a of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n by Joe David through other means as w e l l . He has the t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t to dance h i s name Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i t i m p l i e s . In t h i s complex dance he wears a Whale ceremonial cape; by wearing i t , he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the c r e a t u r e and s y m b o l i c a l l y becomes a whale. He then dons the Wolf mask and by i m i t a t i n g the s w i f t and t w i r l i n g movements p o r t r a y i n g the w o l f ' s g a i t , he f u r t h e r " t r a n s f o r m s " the whale i n t o a wolf (see F i g u r e s 38 and 39 f o l l o w i n g ) . F i g u r e 38 Wolf (Mask, 1979) 164. F i g u r e 39 Whale ( C e r e m o n i a l Cape , 1977) Dances - - and e s p e c i a l l y masked dances - - are p l a y s on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and so are the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f d a n c e r s . The Dancers p r i n t s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i n a f o r c e f u l manner. The se t c o n t a i n s f o u r p r i n t s e n t i t l e d : "Welcome Dancer" (1) ( F i g u r e 40 ) , "Serpent Dancer" ( F i g u r e 4 1 ) , " T h u n d e r b i r d Dancer" (3) ( F i g u r e 42) and " C r a w l i n g Wolf Dancer" (4) ( F i g u r e 4 3 ) . 165. At f i r s t g l a n c e , i t seems t h a t Joe David wishes to present the c h a r a c t e r s of the K l u k w a l l e (Nootkan I n i t i a t i o n R i t u a l ) , but the a r t i s t i n s i s t s t h a t these c h a r a c t e r s are the ones who would appear i n a p o t l a t c h g i v e n by h i s f a m i l y and t h a t "they r e p r e s e n t the movement of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the dancer i n t o the c r e a t u r e he i s p o r t r a y i n g " (David, L e c t u r e UBC, I, 1977:20). We can a l r e a d y read a number of symbols by o u r s e l v e s . In the Welcome Dancer p r i n t , the dancer i s wearing' a Welcome mask. Through h i s mask and h i s ceremonial cape, he tra n s f o r m s i n t o an a n c e s t o r . F i g u r e 40 Welcome Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) The whale r e p r e s e n t s the p a i n t i n g on the back of h i s cape and the dancer i s p r e t t y slow from one s i d e of the room to the o t h e r , back and f o r t h , w i t h the guy's 1 6 6 . hands up; he has got a mask on t h a t he p u l l s up through... he never looks at us s t r a i g h t (David, L e c t u r e U.B.C. I I I 1978:34) In the "Serpent Dancer" p r i n t , the dancer wears a l i g h t n i n g snake mask: F i g u r e 41 Serpent Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) The head r e p r e s e n t s a headdress, and the r e s t r e p r e s e n t s the movement of the cape (David, L e c t u r e U.B.C. I l l 1978:36). Here the dancer has been caught half-way i n the pro c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; the r i g h t arm s t i l l l o o k s human, but the l e f t one has a l r e a d y transformed i n t o a s e r p e n t ' s claw. In the "T h u n d e r b i r d " p r i n t the a r t i s t i s s t i l l f o c u s s i n g on the 167. dance, but the dancer i s caught f u r t h e r i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s ; o n l y the two s m a l l hands emerging from under the wings are a reminder of h i s human-ness. F i g u r e 42 Thunderbird Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) I took the snake's body ... and I put human hands i n s t e a d , human hands h o l d i n g the cape. I s t a r t e d to p l a y around making t h i n g s look r i g h t . I f e e l f a i r l y s t r o n g w i t h these p r i n t s . The l e g on the r i g h t t h e r e r e p r e s e n t s the other s i d e . They look the same; they r e p r e s e n t the s i d e and the d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n the f o u r l e g s and the t h i g h s , i t ' s what I t r i e d to i l l u s t r a t e l i k e . . . s t r o n g towards you ( i n s t e a d ) of hanging from the s i d e . Now people always ask me to dance the T h u n d e r b i r d dance. My f a t h e r taught me how to dance i t . He was from a c h i e f ' s f a m i l y (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , 1979:12). 168. In the " C r a w l i n g Wolf Dancer" p r i n t below, the a r t i s t i s u s i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a dancer to compose the image. F i g u r e 43 C r a w l i n g Wolf Dancer ( S i l k s c r e e n , 1975) I t ' s j u s t going i n a c i r c l e , t u r n i n g . . . i t s h i n d l e g s , h i s t a i l hanging from the top above the body, b a l a n c i n g I got the i d e a from a s l i d e a f r i e n d took from Frank C h a r l i e . . . we d i d a ceremonial dance at Spokane when they r a i s e d the p o l e t h e r e . Somebody took a s l i d e of Frank dancing the Wolf Dance. And h i s l e g s and e v e r y t h i n g were up i n the a i r . "Push up, Push up!" he says to h i s f i n g e r s when he was j u s t t u r n i n g (David I n t e r v i e w Katz 11,1979:12). The dancer p e r f o r m i n g the wolf dance has c o m p l e t e l y transformed i n t o a wolf, except perhaps f o r h i s p o s t u r e : 1 6 9 . i n v e r t e d -- u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , f o r e paws on the ground and h i n d paws swaying i n the a i r a l o n g w i t h the t a i l . 9 6. S p i r i t Combat The theme of antagonism and s p i r i t combat seems to be t o t a l l y absent from Joe David's work. We should note here t h a t the a r t i s t a l s o a v o i d s any d e p i c t i o n of v i o l e n c e . H i s w i l d men are w i l d but never a g g r e s s i v e . The d e s i g n s showing two beings t o g e t h e r are a l l i n t e r p r e t e d by Joe David as e i t h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or c o o p e r a t i o n , never as f i g h t s . As mentioned e a r l i e r , even when Joe David i l l u s t r a t e s the i n i t i a t i o n p r o c e s s he does not emphasize the theme of death, but r e l i e s i n s t e a d on the i d e a of dream, l i g h t and awaking. H i s concept of power i s always geared toward harmony r a t h e r than d e s t r u c t i o n . The o n l y glimpse of the a s s o c i a t i o n of the Hamatsa i n i t i a t i o n w i t h death i s a drumstick r e p r e s e n t i n g a c a n n i b a l b i r d h o l d i n g a human s k u l l i n i t s beak and accompanying a drum merely r e p r e s e n t i n g a whale. 7. Shamanic Power The theme of power i s p r e s e n t everywhere i n Joe David's work: i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l q u a l i t y of a l l the c h a r a c t e r s , i n t h e i r m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s , i n the g i f t s brought by them. Joe David's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the theme of shamanic power f o l l o w s the t r a d i t i o n i n t h a t i t i s conveyed through the d e p i c t i o n of powerful b e i n g s ; these beings are o f t e n engaged i n some form of c o n t a c t w i t h the human world --170. shamanic power i s a f t e r a l l s u p e r n a t u r a l power c o n t r o l l e d by humans. Some are t r a n s f o r m i n g from human i n t o animal or s p i r i t , or an ambiguous combination of human and animal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Some are meeting w i t h a human c h a r a c t e r , some of the images d e r i v e from a p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t between the a r t i s t h i m s e l f and a n a t u r a l or s u p e r n a t u r a l world. These beings always have s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h because of t h e i r l i n k t o mythology. They b e l o n g c l e a r l y t o the w o r l d of s u p e r n a t u r a l power. T h i s i s s i g n i f i e d by the c h o i c e of c h a r a c t e r s , who are the main heroes of West Coast mythology. We have seen b e f o r e t h a t even i f some animals are g i f t e d w i t h more power than o t h e r s and become the h e l p e r s of the shaman more f r e q u e n t l y than o t h e r s , a l l of them possess power and might be the g u i s e of a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g ; they are a b l e t o t r a n s f o r m and are a l s o g e n e r a l l y the channel used by s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s t o communicate w i t h human b e i n g s . The v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n of power i s a l s o a c h i e v e d by s t y l i s t i c means, such as the use of c e r t a i n c o l o r s w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s y m b o l i c meaning,10 and the s i m p l i c i t y and s t r e n g t h of the d e s i g n . But a l l these endeavours would have l e s s impact without a s t r o n g r e f e r e n c e to an u n d e r l y i n g t r a d i t i o n . Power i s f e l t i n these images because of Joe David's f a i t h f u l n e s s t o the West Coast Indian s t y l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s , and because of h i s c o n s t a n t s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l themes. T h i s f e e l i n g i s moreover r e i n f o r c e d by the p i c t o r i a l c o n t e x t of the works. Because no e x p r e s s i o n s of time or space l o c a t e the c h a r a c t e r s c r e a t e d by Joe David, even though they are more r e a l i s t i c than i n the Northern t r a d i t i o n , they always r e -t a i n t h e i r m y t h i c a l q u a l i t y . For i n s t a n c e , c l o u d s or the h o r i z o n l i n e which surround some of the p r i n t s (and which are a remnant of the b i g s c r e e n s , a c c o r d i n g to Joe David) are d e p i c t e d i n a v e r y a b s t r a c t manner and do not l o c k the a c t i o n i n a s p e c i a l time or space. Joe David's c h a r a c t e r s have not "become i l l u s t r a t i o n s " , H they have not "become dependant upon a s t o r y f o r t h e i r meaning," they do not " r e q u i r e another episode b e f o r e and a f t e r the p a r t i c u l a r moment i n l i n e a r time b e f o r e they are m e a n i n g f u l " . On the c o n t r a r y , even though, or maybe because t h e i r c r e a t i o n r e f e r s t o v e r y p e r s o n a l events and f e e l i n g s , the meaning a t t r i b u t e d t o them i s t i m e l e s s . The v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n of power i s not o n l y a q u e s t i o n of theme or symbolism, i t a l s o depends ( a c c o r d i n g t o Joe David) on the a r t i s t h a v i n g mastered t e c h n i q u e and m a t e r i a l so as to a c h i e v e p e r f e c t i o n . Craftmanship i s power t o o : "There i s more power i n a p e r f e c t c i r c l e than i n a wobbly one" (David, Poole I n t e r v i e w 1979:15). Commenting on the f i r s t shaman's mask ( F i g u r e 44), Joe David draws our a t t e n t i o n t o the i d e n t i t y of the c h a r a c t e r : T h i s i s me. T h i s i s when I u s u a l l y see the power t h a t the o l d shamans have going i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s : h e a l i n g , d e s t r u c t i n g , i s o l a t i n g . That's what i t r e p r e s e n t s . Power can h e a l , power can k i l l . That's p r o b a b l y the u l t i m a t e of t h a t p e r i o d of me. And you know what i s going on and t h a t ' s a p e r f e c t d e s c r i p t i o n i t p r e s e n t s s o l i t u d e and thought, a man who gazes i n t o the sun, moon, s t a r s and i n the open f i r e at great l e n g t h f o r h i s powers of medicine, medicine meaning power; not j u s t power f o r i t s sake but f o r meaningful 1 7 2 . and h e a l i n g source... "harmony". Medicine i s harmony. When medicine works, i t ' s harmony (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz IV, 1981:5). F i g u r e 44 Shaman (Mask, 1979) The two other shaman's masks were carved i n 1982 . (See F i g u r e 45 and F i g u r e 46). One i s i n T s i m s h i a n s t y l e and has a v e r y p e a c e f u l appearance. The other i s i n West Coast s t y l e and loo k s f i e r c e , "angry" a c c o r d i n g t o Joe David ( p e r s o n a l communication). He wears a c r o w n - l i k e 173 headdress made o f wooden f e a t h e r s v e r y s i m i l a r to the top p a r t o f the Nootka w o l f masks. F i g u r e 45 Shaman (Mask, 198 2) ! 1 ^ Mr) L A r^^ y F i g u r e 46 (Mask, 1982) R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of shaman's h e l p e r of "Medicine S p i r i t " occur i n t h r e e masks ( S e e F i g u r e s 47, 48, and 49). Two were carved i n 1980 (Tsimshian and Haida s t y l e ) , one i n 1982 (Kwakiutl s t y l e ) . Commenting on the Ts i m s h i a n s t y l e M e d i c ine S p i r i t ( b l a c k f a c e w i t h a red eagle f a c i a l d e s i g n ) , Joe David s a y s : " I d i d not know i t s power u n t i l I was away from i t " (David, P e r s o n a l Communication May 1982). Another way of e x p r e s s i n g power i s to r e p r e s e n t human beings b e i n g a b l e t o achieve i t . We have mentioned a number of masks r e p r e s e n t i n g i n i t i a t e s f o r i n s t a n c e . But Joe David has not s h i e d away from the shaman h i m s e l f . There are i n h i s works th r e e p o r t r a i t s of shamans (Masks), t h r e e medicine s p i r i t s (masks) and l a s t but not l e a s t the v e r y t o o l s of a shaman: a shaman's drum w i t h a crow d e s i g n , a drum wit h a whale d e s i g n accompanied by a carved drumstick which d e p i c t s a c a n n i b a l b i r d consuming a human s k e l e t o n , a p r i n t l a b e l l e d "Medicine Drum De s i g n " w i t h a thunderbird-Moon-Bird d e s i g n and a br u s h - h o l d e r i n the shape of a s o u l - c a t c h e r , t h i s l a s t combining s i g n i f i c a n t l y the shaman's t o o l s w i t h the t o o l s of an a r t i s t . The c a r v i n g of shaman's masks came l a t e i n Joe David's development. I t was not u n t i l 1979 t h a t he carved the f i r s t one, f o l l o w e d by two o t h e r s i n 1982. Then he carved t h r e e shaman's h e l p e r s masks between 1980 and 1982: Some years ago, i n 1977, I knew I had to carve a whole s e r i e s of them. Three and f i v e are m a g i c a l numbers f o r me, powerful numbers... and I am 35 now; so I de c i d e d t o l e t i t go ( P e r s o n a l Communication: May 1982). 175. F i g u r e 47 Shaman's Helper (Mask, 1980) 176. F i g u r e 49 S h a m a n ' s H e l p e r ( M a s k , 1 9 8 2 ) 177. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the s o u l - c a t c h e r was one of the most important elements i n the shaman's gear . In the F i g u r e below (No. 50), we can see a range of ceremonia l o b j e c t s made of wood: boat-shaped d i s h e s , spoons, baton and a b r u s h h o l d e r . F i g u r e 50 Various o b j e c t s : Soul-catcher/Brushholder/Dishes/ M i n i a t u r e Canoe/Baton - 1975 178. The most important of t h i s group are the b r u s h h o l d e r and the m i n i a t u r e c a n o e - d i s h . The b r u s h h o l d e r borrows i t s shape from a s o u l - c a t c h e r . The l i g h t n i n g snake heads are p a i n t e d at each e x t r e m i t y and the t r a d i t i o n a l f a c e appears i n the c e n t r e . F i g u r e 51 S o u l - C a t c h e r - B r u s h h o l d e r , 1975 T h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l work becomes v e r y important when Joe David i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has not chosen the s o u l - c a t c h e r shape s o l e l y f o r e s t h e t i c but a l s o f o r symbolic reasons. With t h i s p i e c e he i s e x p l i c i t l y u s i n g shamanic metaphors and 179. i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n t o h i s a r t . The b r u s h h o l d e r i s h i s medicine t o o l i n t h a t i t doubles as an a r t i s t ' s r a t t l e ; i n the same sense h i s p a i n t i n g s are h i s medicine -- they act as h i s songs, as h i s s o u l - c a t c h e r . Joe David comments on t h i s b r u s h h o l d e r / s o u l - c a t c h e r : T h i s i s a b r u s h h o l d e r i n the form of a s o u l - c a t c h e r . It i s hollow and i n s i d e c a r r i e s the brushes. And i t i s a l s o a r a t t l e , but i t ' s an a r t i s t r a t t l e . I t ' s an i n n o v a t i o n i n the sense t h a t my p a i n t i n g s are my p e r s o n a l medicine. My p a i n t i n g s and t h i n g s are v i s u a l medicine ... i n o t h e r words what I have to say through my p a i n t e d l i n e s can be accepted by someone who i s i n the need i n the form of medicine to acquaint him with the beauty of l i n e , and the beauty of harmony. And a l s o you can r a t t l e i t . I use i t t h a t way. When I s i n g a song proper I can shake i t and the brushes i n here make the r a t t l e song. It belongs now to Duane Pasco. I have to make another one (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I 1981:21). T h i s merging of shaman and a r t i s t i s e x p l i c i t both i n the o b j e c t s and i n the comments. We need another l e v e l of study to f u r t h e r d e f i n e the power of the p a i n t e r and examine whether t h i s i s a metaphor or the e x p r e s s i o n of a r e a l correspondence. * * * * * * T h i s s h o r t survey i s s u f f i c i e n t , i n my o p i n i o n , to demonstrate how e x t e n s i v e l y Joe David's work uses t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast images and t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g shamanic i n s p i r a t i o n . Most of the themes we have examined to d e f i n e Northwest Coast shamanic cosmology are p r e s e n t here and are emphasized e x p l i c i t l y by the a r t i s t h i m s e l f . Yet some of the themes are o b v i o u s l y absent; t h e r e i s no mention f o r i n s t a n c e of v i o l e n c e or death. 180. Most of the themes used by the a r t i s t are not immediately v i s i b l e and we need the a r t i s t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n to grasp the f u l l meaning of the image. T h i s , I t h i n k , r e f l e c t s the p r o c e s s of i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n which took p l a c e i n the a r t i s t ' s mind. We are no l o n g e r d e a l i n g w i t h obedience to a r i g i d t r a d i t i o n , but r a t h e r with t h e c r e a t i o n of a p e r s o n a l w o r l d . T h i s i s expressed a l s o by the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t the a r t i s t c l a i m s to have e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s he d e p i c t s . The paradox here i s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l images are used both to p r e s e n t West Coast t r a d i t i o n a l Indian cosmology and the v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d world view of the a r t i s t . As we s h a l l see, t h i s paradox i s p a r t of Joe David's d e f i n i t i o n of Northwest Coast a r t i n g e n e r a l , and of h i s own work i n p a r t i c u l a r . 181. Chapter IV - Footnotes 1 -Norman Newton (1973:120-121) asks a q u e s t i o n of Bob Davidson c o n c e r n i n g the meaning of the a r t . Bob Davidson answers: " I don't know about t h a t .... A l l I know i s how to do i t . . . . . I guess i t ' s a f e e l i n g . R i g h t now I know what to look f o r i n t h i n g s , I u s u a l l y go to museums and look at what has been done, and t r y to get ideas from i t . And I a l s o f i n d myself t h i n k i n g i n Northwest Coast a r t . Some people t h i n k i n words. I can't t h i n k i n words; I guess you might say I t h i n k i n images --Northwest Coast a r t images." •Ron Hamilton i n t e r v i e w e d by Margaret Blackman (1981: 59) about h i s r e d i s c o v e r y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Northwest Coast I n d i a n s t y l e s answers: "I t r i e d t o c a l l up from my memory designs on o l d drums, headdresses and c u r t a i n s i n my home co u n t r y , the west c o a s t . When my memory f a i l e d , my i m a g i n a t i o n served me. When both f a i l e d , I turn e d t o photographs and the few books a v a i l a b l e at the time. Whenever I found an o l d p i e c e i n the house of a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e , I would make sketches w h i l e v i s i t i n g , take photographs i f p o s s i b l e , and spend time t r y i n g to see and understand some of what the o l d t i m e r s were doing ( p e r s o n a l communication, 1979)." •Tim P a u l , i n t e r v i e w e d about a r t by B e r n i c e Touchie (Nu-tka: 47-48) says: " I thought about a r t , and I wanted t o do i t . But I d i d n ' t r e a l l y have any thoughts t h a t I would be i n t o d e s i g n i n g of Northwest Coast a r t , Nootka a r t , or to be able t o r e c o g n i z e the d i f f e r e n c e s . . . . I t r e a l l y d i d n ' t mean a n y t h i n g to me, I d i d n ' t understand i t , I d i d n ' t know what was going on i n the forms and you know the elements t h a t were t h e r e , the separate s t y l e s and so on. I t j u s t worked s l o w l y , s o r t of p i c k e d at me and I f i n a l l y got i n t o i t . " 2 "The way the o l d t i m e r s used t o do t h e i r d e s i g n s i s the reason t h a t i t looked so good. The o n l y time they were a b l e t o see the masks was d u r i n g the p o t l a t c h . There never was a mask exposed i n f r o n t of anybody's eyes u n l e s s i t was used and brought out from behind the c u r t a i n when the p o t l a t c h s t a r t e d . A c h i e f who h i r e d a c a r v e r would send the c a r v e r i n t o the b i g houses where the p o t l a t c h e s were happening. The c a r v e r would observe the masks t h a t 182. were used, and j u s t by o b s e r v i n g he would c r e a t e i n h i s mind what he wanted to do. H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what he saw would be very d i f f e r e n t . I guess t h a t ' s why th e r e are so many d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of masks. You see so many, yet none of them are the same M(Smith, 1979, Graphic C o l l e c t i o n ) . "There has been a l o t of t h i n g s w r i t t e n about our a r t . A l o t of t h i n g s are not t r u e because i t was always w r i t t e n from o u t s i d e the c u l t u r e and always from a C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of view, never from an Indian p o i n t of view, and they would always r o m a n t i c i z e our people .... To r e a l l y understand the a r t , you have to understand the c u l t u r e , and the h i s t o r y , and you have to understand the people .... to r e a l l y understand the people, you have t o understand the s t o r i e s .... Our people b e l i e v e d at one time t h a t the animals were human, and when the l i g h t was brought to the world, the people t h a t had the f u r on turn e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t animals .... t h a t ' s why they r e p r e s e n t Raven sometimes as human or p a r t human when he's changing .... Raven was a c t u a l l y a t e a c h e r , and he helped our people. He taught the people the a r t . ' He taught them how to make canoes, how to make b i g houses, how to dry the f i s h .... You can't separate the  a r t from the people"(Dempsey, 1979 Graphic C o l l e c t i o n ) (Emphasis Added). The other animals p o r t r a y e d a r e : Animal # of times p o r t r a y e d A r t Object Land o t t e r 2 Banner R a t t l e H a l i b u t 1 R a t t l e Grouse 1 R a t t l e Crow 3 R a t t l e P r i n t Loon 1 R a t t l e Crane 1 Post Card Hawk 1 P r i n t K i n g f i s h e r 1 P r i n t S c u l p i n 1 P r i n t L i n g Cod 3 P r i n t Post Card F r o n t l e t 183. Animal # of Times P o r t r a y e d Ar t Object U n i d e n t i f i e d B i r d 1 Box Red Snapper 1 P r i n t Sea Wolf 1 Pole S u p e r n a t u r a l Rat 1 P r i n t Beaver 1 Pole ( M i n i a t u r e ) Frog 1 Mask (top) The absence of bears i n Joe David's work should not be taken to s i g n i f y t h a t the animal i s unimportant to him. Indeed i t has a v e r y important p l a c e i n h i s thoughts, as the f o l l o w i n g quote shows: "I am c l o s e t o , I would say, Indianness. I would t h i n k t h a t i t meant t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the n a t i v e person, the people of the West Coast, the Indianness of them i s the human-bear-human r e f l e c t i o n of the environment, of t h e i r s o c i e t y too, but m a i n l y of t h e i r environment" (David, P e r s o n a l Communication 1983) (Emphasis Added). From 1971 to 1974 Joe David has mainly d e p i c t e d animals i n s t a t i c p o s i t i o n . In 1974, w i t h the K i n g f i s h e r p r i n t , he begins i n t r o d u c i n g a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e , much more a c t i v e . From t h e r e on, the animals he p o r t r a y s are going to be i n v o l v e d e i t h e r i n the a c t s of d a i l y l i f e such as f i s h i n g , swimming, f l y i n g or of r i t u a l l i f e such as t w i r l i n g , d a n c i n g or t r a n s f o r m i n g i n t o something e l s e (See Table No. 2 l a b e l l e d " L i s t of animals". Joe David i s the f i r s t contemporary a r t i s t from the West Coast to use t h i s theme. Others have f o l l o w e d , n o t a b l y L y l e W ilson (Haida) with h i s p r i n t c a l l e d T r a d i t i o n , Time and Consequence (1981) where a shaman i s d e p i c t e d blowing a rainbow out of h i s mouth. The element appears a l s o on a v e r y o l d dance scr e e n which was d i s p l a y e d at Joe David's Memorial P o t l a t c h . There the rainbow i s s i n g l e but i t takes the form of a whole c i r c l e s u r r o u n d i n g the t h u n d e r b i r d , the main c h a r a c t e r of the s c r e e n . 184. Joe David had p r e v i o u s l y intended to use the theme of two cranes f l y i n g -- the c r e s t of h i s f a t h e r -- because he had seen two of these b i r d s f l y i n g above the sea i n Skidegate j u s t b e f o r e the announcement of h i s f a t h e r ' s death, which he had i n t e r p r e t e d as a bad omen. He changed h i s mind l a t e r on. The w o l f ' s t a i l c o n t a i n s the l i f e p r i n c i p l e of the wolf (Drucker 1951:127 and S a p i r & Swadesh 1939:8); man's l i f e p r i n c i p l e i s l o c a t e d at the crown of h i s head (Drucker 1951:341). The l i f e p r i n c i p l e of the whale i s i n the d o r s a l f i n ( S a p i r 1919:352). The merging of w o l f ' s t a i l , whale's d o r s a l f i n and man's head i s pr o b a b l y not f o r t u i t o u s but arranged i n the de s i g n to l o a d i t with the power c i r c u l a t i n g d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l . With the h e l p of Joe David, H i l a r y Stewart (C.N.P. Notes 1975) has d e s c r i b e d the u n f o l d i n g of these traditional dances and the meaning of the steps and movements. (a) "Among Coast S a l i s h red from ochre was the us u a l c o l o u r f o r fa c e p a i n t i n g because i t was "the f r i e n d " of a l l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s . P a i n t e d on the fa c e by a p r i e s t , i t helped a man's power, whatever h i s s i c k n e s s . The s p i r i t s of the west, north-west and east winds, however, and a l s o the thunder s p i r i t , r e q u i r e d b l a c k p a i n t from c h a r c o a l because they r o l l e d up b l a c k c l o u d s ... So, too, d i d the w a r r i o r s p i r i t s q a ' l a - a n , which came from the same r e g i o n , as d i d the northwest wind, though i t s song was d i f f e r e n t ; the powerful f i s h s p i r i t s k w a n i ^ l e c , because i t had b l a c k markings on i t s body; and the two-headed snake. When a man i n s p i r e d by the thunder s p i r i t performed h i s dance, b l a c k c l o u d s gathered and the thunder r o l l e d ; i f he wished h a i l t o f a l l a l s o , he daubed spots of red ochre over h i s b l a c k markings. One s p i r i t , the r e a l q w a ' x w q s t h a t was b e l i e v e d to dwell f a r out i n the ocean, or e l s e f a r o f f i n the mountains, demanded from i t s dancers f a c e - p a i n t i n g s i n both b l a c k and r e d . For each s p i r i t g u a r d i a n a s p e c i a l dancing costume was worn, and s p e c i a l markings p a i n t e d on the f a c e i n red or b l a c k , markings t h a t o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d some p a r t of the s p i r i t (e.g. of a g r i z z l y , the c l a w s ) . I t was from the costume and f a c e p a i n t i n g as w e l l as from the song t h a t the audience r e c o g n i z e d the s p i r i t t h a t presumably i n s p i r e d the dancer" Jenness 1955:41 n o t e ) . 185. (b) "The red cedar bark i s f a s h i o n e d i n t o ropes t h a t stand f o r wealth, and i n t o neck r i n g s t h a t suggest to Kwakiutl c e l e s t i a l phenomena. The r i n g s s h r i n k and expand l i k e the moon. Forms of l i f e hang from them and cascade from them. They are the most potent c a r r i e r s of "nawalak" (power). The red of the cedar i s seen as b l o o d , i n the u l t i m a t e sense as human b l o o d , but human b l o o d rendered powerful by b e i n g i n a s s o c i a t i v e form, by be i n g a s s o c i a t e d with the most human branch of a g e n e r a l i z e d human k i n d , and by i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r i n g , the c e l e s t i a l symbol" (Goldman 1975: 192-193). (c) " T h i s K a p k i n u y i i s a shaman. He i s b l a c k i n t h i s p a r t of him. T h i s one was the f i r s t (person) to be c r e a t e d ... she saw him th e r e w i t h h i s b l a c k marking here, w i t h a t u f t e d ornament on h i s head and w i t h marking about h i s eyes" ( S a p i r &. Swadesh 1939:165). (d) "We each had two knots of h a i r at both s i d e s of the forehead and s t r a i g h t s t r i p e s p a i n t e d on the f a c e . We turne d n u u t h l i m at the end of the song. The f a c e of nuuthlim. i s masked wi t h s t r a i g h t s t r i p e s " ( S a p i r & Swadesh 1978:126). (e) "He wears a headdress. I t i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l spearsman. He sees t h a t he has c h a r c o a l s t r i p e s a c r o s s the eyes. He f o l l o w s the b e i n g . He gets shaman power from t h a t " ( S a p i r &. Swadesh 1978:55). In the terms used by M a r j o r i e H a l p i n (Vancouver I n s t i t u t e L e c t u r e , March 17, 1979) to d e s c r i b e Northwest Coast t r a d i t i o n a l a r t ver s u s Northwest Coast modern a r t , such as Ksan. 186. CHAPTER V - ART ACCORDING TO JOE DAVID Joe David o f f e r s us a number of d e f i n i t i o n s o f a r t . They a l l make use of concepts which are p a r t o f shamanic cosmology. A r t i s the acknowledgement, t h a t i s "the d i s p l a y o f knowledge" which f o l l o w s the c o n t a c t w i t h the S u p e r n a t u r a l . Hence, the shamanic wor l d o f animals and power i s predominant i n Joe David's d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t and o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s s u b j e c t s . The concepts o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and power f i g u r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n Joe David's d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t and l e a d him to compare the a r t i s t to the shaman. L e t us note t h a t Joe David does not p l a c e much emphasis on a r t as an e c s t a t i c or i n i t i a t i c p r o c e s s ; n e i t h e r i s a r t i t s e l f p r e s e n t e d as a c o n t a c t w i t h the s u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d . The a r t i s t does not i n t r o d u c e the image he carves or p a i n t s as a means whereby he reaches o t h e r r e a l i t i e s but r a t h e r as a r e s u l t or an e x p r e s s i o n o f the v i s i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e . For Joe David the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the p r o d u c t i o n o f images. I t i n v o l v e s a p r e p a r a t o r y l i n k o f the a r t i s t w i t h the S u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d , an involvement w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i s f o r him a way to p r o j e c t h i m s e l f i n t o the non-human world he i s d e p i c t i n g . F i n a l l y he possesses a w i l l i n g n e s s 187. to accept the consequences of h i s a r t i s t i c a c t , t h a t i s the emergence of power. a) The S u p e r n a t u r a l Wdrld The S u p e r n a t u r a l w o r l d which has been Joe David's main source of a r t i s endowed by him w i t h d e f i n i t e q u a l i t i e s . Among West Coast p e o p l e , more importance i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y g ranted to animal s p i r i t s and monsters p o p u l a t i n g the i n l e t s and the f o r e s t s than to remote gods; a c c o r d i n g l y the C h r i s t i a n god i s d e f i n i t e l y not i n c l u d e d i n the cosmology of Joe David's a r t . On the o t h e r hand, n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l are t r a d i t i o n a l l y p a r t of the same continuum, r a t h e r than b e i n g opposed as they are i n the Western w o r l d . T h i s i n c l u d e s , as i n the o l d shamanic t r a d i t i o n , a p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of the animal. T h i s p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n i s c a r r i e d over from the m y t h i c a l to the n a t u r a l . The r e a l eagle seen on the beach i s u l t i m a t e l y s i m i l a r to the eagle i n the myth. T h i s i m p l i e s r e s p e c t f o r the animal as i t i s , and the p o s s i b i l i o f communication (or at l e a s t p e r c e i v i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f communication) w i t h i t . The t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t belongs a c c o r d i n g to Joe D a v i d , to a u n i v e r s e where any c o n t a c t w i t h what we c a l l n a ture may be the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of these s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s "who c a r r y and t r a n s m i t power." The a r t i s t who wishes to r e t a i n the q u a l i t i e s 188. of the p a s t i s l i n k e d w i t h the non-human world i n s e v e r a l ways, but f i r s t o f a l l through the channel of the myths and c e r e m o n i a l s where animals and o t h e r beings i n t e r v e n e as t e a c h e r s and sources of knowledge. Any approach to the non-human worl d p a r a d o x i c a l l y depends upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the human community, the r i t u a l s of which mediate t h i s knowledge: A r t i s r e a l l y a d i s p l a y of not so much we a l t h t h a t these S u p e r n a t u r a l C r e a t u r e s gave to our a n c e s t o r s , but the d i s p l a y of knowledge t h a t was shared w i t h them through these S u p e r n a t u r a l C r e a t u r e s . They worked hard and proved themselves worthy to the p o i n t . . . T h e y went to the mountains and r i v e r s and f a s t e d f o r days on end, and p r a y i n g , p r a y i n g . They were not a s k i n g f o r something to go back to and d a z z l e game w i t h . They were p r a y i n g f o r guidance, f o r g u i d i n g l e s s o n s . They were prayed f o r the r i g h t way to l i v e the r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s and b e l i e v e d t h a t what they were a s k i n g was j u s t , was the way i t has to be and they s t a y e d t h e r e u n t i l they were f i n a l l y g i v e n t h i s v i s i o n , u n t i l they had been f i n a l l y c o n t a c t e d by these S u p e r n a t u r a l C r e a t u r e s and they were g i v e n these s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s , they were g i v e n songs, they were taught dances to go w i t h them; so t h a t when these people went to p o t l a t c h , to t e a c h the r e s t o f the p e o p l e , i t would be more b e l i e v a b l e , the songs and the gear t h a t the c r e a t u r e s had g i v e n them (David, L e c t u r e U.B.C. I, 1977:17). Without p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a n c e s t r a l myth which shapes one's approach to the non-human wo r l d , the i n d i v i d u a l seeker would have no guidance i n h i s quest and the a r t i s t would f i n d no meaning i n h i s works; he would be unable to connect the images he c r e a t e s w i t h more than the merely human l e v e l , and unable to understand what Joe David c a l l s 189. "the wisdom and harmony of h i g h o r d e r . " The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i s to b u i l d t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g : You need a balance and a communication and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g to get a l o n g . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c r e a t i o n of the b a l a n c e . We are b a l a n c e d here w i t h them, we are not of them, they are not o f us. They are i n t o t h e i r own as we are i n t o our own, and they are f r e e t o c r e a t e and do as they wish, as we are f r e e to do and c r e a t e and express f o r o u r s e l v e s (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:10). The a s s o c i a t i o n of n a t u r a l and m y t h i c a l i s e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d by the a r t i s t i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f o u r animal c h a r a c t e r s which dominate h i s work: the t h u n d e r b i r d , l i g h t n i n g snake, wo l f and whale. These f o u r c h a r a c t e r s are brought t o g e t h e r by Joe David to form a symbolic s t r u c t u r e o f which the a t t r i b u t i o n o f these animals of a l i f e and awareness of t h e i r own i s an e s s e n t i a l component. For i n s t a n c e , f o r Joe David "the t h u n d e r b i r d always i l l u s t r a t e s and stands f o r s u p e r n a t u r a l t h i n g s , s u p e r n a t u r a l l i g h t s , s u p e r n a t u r a l rainbows, s u p e r n a t u r a l knowledge. High knowledge i s always r e p r e s e n t e d by a t h u n d e r b i r d i n my f a m i l y " (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:11). Moreover the t h u n d e r b i r d has a c l e a r v a l u e as an i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . Joe David says: The T h u n d e r b i r d m a i n l y belongs to the c h i e f s . Only the C h i e f s possess the T h u n d e r b i r d t e a c h i n g s and q u a l i t i e s . T h u n d e r b i r d i s symbolic of P r e s t i g e . There i s a l o t o f p e o p l e , l i k e Commoners, who would go through the Wolf R i t u a l and t h a t would not even touch a n y t h i n g which had a n y t h i n g to do w i t h T h u n d e r b i r d , because 190. they were not e n t i t l e d t o . 1 (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , Aug. 1979: 13-17) T h i s l i n k i n g of knowledge and s u p e r n a t u r a l power w i t h s o c i a l rank and p r e s t i g e i s one of the t r a d i t i o n a l elements c l e a r l y r e t a i n e d by Joe David. I t adds to a r t an element of n o b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i s expressed a l s o by the symbol of the snake. The snake i s 2 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h whaling . But i n Joe David's f a m i l y the snake, and what he c a l l s the Serpent Dance, are symbols of r e c o r d s : The Serpent Dance, i n West Coast p o t l a t c h i n g r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t i t was a moment of r e c o r d : you were going to demonstrate f a m i l y names, or t r a n s f e r names, and t h e r e were p a i d w i t n e s s e s . And i t was the f i r s t t h i n g you do a f t e r the welcoming of the g u e s t s . You want to demonstrate, you want to express what i s going to happen, and then once t h a t was e s t a b l i s h e d , then you would demonstrate your l o y a l t y , your complete knowledge, those f a m i l y l i n e a g e s , the power of f a m i l y l i n e a g e , the power o f h i g h knowledge. So, t h a t ' s why the Serpent Dance was one of the most used dances w i t h i n the f a m i l y because i t was a v a l i d a t i o n o f something, a r e c o r d (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , Aug. 1979:9-12). I t i s one of the s o c i a l d u t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t to h e l p m a i n t a i n these r e c o r d s and r e - v a l i d a t e the t r a d i t i o n s . On the o t h e r hand the two c h a r a c t e r s o f the animal q u a d r i l o g y which are more commonly met i n the everyday w o r l d , the w o l f and the whale, have become f o r Joe David a channel f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of nature and of the human c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e . 1 9 1 . In t h i s s t r u c t u r e d system the serpent i s opposed to the w o l f : The w o l f r e p r e s e n t s the knowledge, the a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge, the t e a c h i n g o f knowledge, and the s e r p e n t r e p r e s e n t s to me r e c o r d . The s e r p e n t and the w o l f are v e r y d i f f e r e n t . The s e r p e n t i s o f s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n , or m y t h i c a l o r i g i n , whereas the w o l f i s n a t u r a l , i t i s not m y t h i c a l , i t i s a r e a l t h i n g (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , Aug. 1979:13). The whale symbolizes the i s l a n d where Joe David l i v e s , the ocean, the w i l d e r n e s s , the elements, the power of knowledge: The West Coast people were the o n l y people on the Northwest Coast t r i b e s t h a t , l i k e say whaled, went a f t e r the whale, prepared f o r i t , c e r e m o n i a l l y p r e p a r e d to take the whale, to c a p t u r e the whale, which meant k i l l i n g i t , to b r i n g back to the people and f o r the consumption, they'd consume i t , t h e r e was not a t h i n g i n t h a t whale t h a t would be wasted. They had complete use f o r i t , most o f i t was food. You have an i n c r e d i b l e s p i r i t u a l communication of people i n an i n c r e d i b l y s p i r i t u a l communication w i t h the elements, w i t h the c r e a t u r e , massive c r e a t u r e , t h i s massive open ocean. T h i s massive sky, the massive depth of the ocean and the mass of the whale, the mass o f the mountain and the l a n d behind them. They were i n w h a l e . . . i n s p i r i t u a l communication w i t h the elements, they demonstrated i t . They b u i l t the most b e a u t i f u l and the most sea-worthy going canoes i n a l l the Northwest Coast and they hunted and c a p t u r e d the most b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e (David, I n t e r v i e w P o o l e , 1979:22) The w o l f corresponds to the woods, to the s u p e r n a t u r a l power, to the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d , but the w o l f i s f i r s t o f a l l a mediator between the human w o r l d and the w i l d e r n e s s . As the main i n i t i a t o r o f the West Coast people i n the 192. myths as w e l l as i n the Wolf's Dance, the w o l f stands f o r the s o c i a l and human s i d e o f the n a t u r a l powers: I t was main l y the t e a c h i n g i n t o the s o c i a l system o f the people o f the West Coast. The w o l f . . . i t was geared c o m p l e t e l y towards the young, the k i d s . They would be kidnapped at a c e r t a i n age t h e r e i n t h e Wolf R i t u a l you know, the dancers, the songs, the costumes, they would be t a k e n . . . i t would be d e c i d e d i n each f a m i l y which one would be kidnapped, which one would s t a r t to l e a r n and they would be taken by these people i n wolves costumes d u r i n g a r a i d at the b e g i n n i n g o f the Wolf r i t u a l and the p r o c e s s o f the v i l l a g e was to prepare f o r t h i s b i g f e a s t and prepare to l u r e the wolves and the c h i l d r e n back and w h i l e the k i d s were gone, they were j u s t taken o f f to sep a r a t e houses and they would be c a r e d f o r and taught a l l the w h i l e , they had been t h e r e p r o b a b l y w i t h some r e l a t i v e s , aunts, and each k i d would be... th e r e was no thought o f i s o l a t i o n o f b e i n g kidnapped o f f by r e a l wolves; i t was a l l drama, so the drama was a l l understood t h a t a . l o t o f t h a t t e a c h i n g came from the wolves, and you know l i k e say the songs, the myths, the dreams (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz 11,1979:26). We have mentioned a l r e a d y t h a t the wolf i s one o f Joe David's p e r s o n a l c r e s t s . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then, t h a t i n d e s c r i b i n g the symbolic f u n c t i o n o f the w o l f ( i . e . as mediator between the human and the s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l s ) he uses language which c o u l d e a s i l y be used to d e s c r i b e h i s own c a l l i n g as an a r t i s t : The wolves were important, but p r o b a b l y I l i k e to say on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , even i f they were p h y s i c a l j u s t l i k e the whales; the wolves connected them w i t h t h e i r s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s so i t was a whole d i f f e r e n t importance; t h e r e was a whole d i f f e r e n t realm i n v o l v e d . There must be an i n c r e d i b l e energy w i t h i n the Wolves 193. s o c i a l system t h a t a t t r a c t e d my p e o p l e . . . a  s o c i a l system to share t o g e t h e r . . . a n d more than l i k e l y the w o l f system s t i l l e x i s t s but now our people's s o c i a l system i s not as s t r o n g and as s t r u c t u r e d as i n the o l d days a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l o t of energy and knowledge... and i t c o u l d be a guess t h a t i f a system of thoughts s t a r t e d to r e g e n e r a t e i n t h i s area of wolves t h a t matches, l i k e say...was the e q u i v a l e n t to the energy and knowledge of the w o l f . . . t h e wolves c o u l d come back. I t c o u l d s t a r t coming back, t e a c h i n g s , dreaming, s i n g i n g and so f o r t h , . . . b u t not too many people b e l i e v e i n w o l f anymore...so they don't see them i n t h e i r dream too o f t e n (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I, 1979:45) (Emphasis added). I t i s d i f f i c u l t to say what Joe David's p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y adds to Nootka t r a d i t i o n , but I want to note t h a t the symbolic aspect o f the non-human w o r l d i s f o r Joe David v e r y p e r s o n a l as w e l l as based on t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g . The images he c a r v e s and p a i n t s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e to h i s own e x p e r i e n c e of both nature and t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so w i t h the w o l f : Looking at the t h i n g , the w o l f t h a t I f i n a l l y c a r v e d , the power of i t , the essence of i t , i s my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t , my p e r s o n a l c r e a t i o n o f i t , i t i s my l o v e and r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and awareness of the beauty and concept of w o l f . The knowledge o f w o l f , the powers of w o l f , the balance of w o l f , the c o l o r s o f w o l f , the t e x t u r e s and e x p r e s s i o n s o f w o l f . I have i n me the f e e l i n g s , t h i s awareness. You can b a s i c a l l y say I have the l o v e , I l o v e the w o l f , I l o v e my p e o p l e , I l o v e t h e i r a r t s t y l e , I l o v e t h e i r t o o l s and I l o v e t h e i r c o l o r s and when I c r e a t e , when I, Joe D a v i d , c r e a t e a West Coast w o l f , I am e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i n c r e d i b l e l o v e , t h i s i n c r e d i b l e power, t h i s i n c r e d i b l e awareness, t h i s i n c r e d i b l e communication 194. between these t h i n g s , these b e i n g s , the w o l f , me, the b e i n g o f the wood, the b e i n g o f our s o c i e t y , the b e i n g o f my f a m i l y , the b e i n g , the l i f e , the s p i r i t o f the songs and the dance and t h a t i s the s u p e r n a t u r a l sense of a l l t h a t . And We c r e a t e d them. We c r e a t e d the w o l f , we c r e a t e d the songs and dances, we c r e a t e d the communication w i t h them. We a p p r e c i a t e t h a t they were t h e r e to te a c h us what they d i d i n the sense o f t h e i r beauty and the sense o f t h e i r c u l t u r e . The sense o f t h e i r b a l a n c e and t h e i r p l a c e i n the environment, i n the world as we know i t , as we share i t and as we l i v e i n i t . There i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l i d e a and f o r c e behind these e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t we choose to say; t h a t i s of s u p e r n a t u r a l , i t i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l communication, i t i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l w o l f , i t i s a s u p e r n a t u r a l m y t h i c a l c r e a t u r e (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:23). b) The Concept of T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The u l t i m a t e consequence o f any c o n t a c t w i t h the non-human w o r l d , be i t through a d i r e c t meeting w i t h i t , or through working on images of i t , i s always a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Joe David t a l k s a l o t about t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t i s one o f the main concepts he uses to d e f i n e h i m s e l f : T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , I was born r i g h t i n the middle o f i t . I was born, n a t u r a l b i r t h , i n the v i l l a g e w i t h i n a p a r e n t a l system t h a t advocated the o l d ways. My par e n t s advocated and p r a c t i c e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; they p r a c t i c e d the unio n o f s u p e r n a t u r a l and n a t u r a l (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz II 1979:22). He i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y c a r e f u l about, the f u l l meaning of the term: 195. By " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " I mean the union o f n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l e n t i t i e s and powers and dreams. The v a l i d l i f e o f e x p r e s s i o n b e i n g born from both n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l , from myth and t e a c h i n g the h i g h knowledge o f the m y t h i c a l c r e a t u r e s and the b a s i c n a t u r a l knowledge o f human b e i n g s . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n means both o f those t h i n g s i n t o l i f e system of a f a m i l y or of a human b e i n g . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . . y o u t r a n s f o r m , I p e r s o n a l l y t r a n s f o r m i n t o m y t h i c a l b e i n g or another n a t u r a l b e i n g l i k e say a crow, a b i r d , o r a mammal, o n l y a t times o f my c e r t a i n t y . . . I sense i t i s a l l one and the same, a l l c r e a t i o n s stem from one b a s i c c r e a t i v e energy (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz 1979:22-23). Hi s f i r s t I n d i a n name, Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth, has to do w i t h t h i s u n i o n o f the n a t u r a l and the s u p e r n a t u r a l , a f a c t t h a t he l o v i n g l y emphasizes: My name and me, Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth, which means t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f S u p e r n a t u r a l White Wolf i n t o K i l l e r w h a l e i s the coming t o g e t h e r o f s e p a r a t e . . . d i r e c t l y f r o m . . . l e t say [on] one s i d e o f my f a m i l y system t h e r e was a man t h a t came from F r i e n d l y Cove, what they c a l l Nootka a r e a , which i s the Yukyot - which i s the name of the a r e a . There was a man at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , 1920.1930, who was a master c a r v e r t h e r e . There are a l o t of house p o s t s and p o l e s from t h a t area t h a t e x i s t and t h a t are r o t t i n g away, , the l a s t ones c a r v e d t h e r e by t h i s man C h i l e t a s . . . Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth, t h a t was a nick-name. He was m a r r i e d but they never had descendants and he knew my f a t h e r and my f a t h e r knew him. He knew my f a t h e r ' s i n t e r e s t and f e e l i n g s f o r c a r v i n g . My f a t h e r demonstrated c a r v i n g from c h i l d h o o d a l t h o u g h he never pursued or r e a l l y developed i t as an a r t form because he went i n t o Boarding S c h o o l , he went i n t o f i s h i n g , and went i n t o m a i n l y speaking. He t u r n e d t o be a Speaker f o r my people - I am now a combination o f an i l l u s t r a t o r as w e l l as a speaker - but he tu r n e d to m a i n l y speaking f o r my people and s t u d i e d and advocated the h i s t o r y o f the pe o p l e . He became t h a t . But t h i s man knew my f a t h e r when 196. he was young and r e a l i z e d t h a t he was a competent c a r v e r and c o u l d develop. He t o l d him t h a t he c o u l d use t h i s name, h i s name Ka-Ka-Win-Chealth. I t would be w i t h i n h i s r i g h t to use i t f o r h i m s e l f or to g i v e i t to one of h i s sons or someone w i t h i n the f a m i l y system. And my f a t h e r gave t h a t name to me when he r e a l i z e d t h a t I was cho o s i n g to be a c a r v e r , [ t h a t ] I was going to be an i l l u s t r a t o r , I was going to be a s c u l p t o r . . . so he gave me the name t h i s man had t o l d him to use...and connected the name w i t h our f a m i l y h i s t o r y o f wolves (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I 1979:27). T r a n s f o r m a t i o n may take p l a c e on many l e v e l s . For i n s t a n c e on November 6, 1981, Bob Davidson - a Raven -adopted Joe David i n t o h i s t r i b e and through t h i s a d o p t i o n Joe David has become an Eagle i n the Haida t r i b e . T h i s honour was a u t h e n t i c a t e d by the r e c e i p t o f a new name: Robert [Davidson] t o l d me the oth e r day t h a t my name t h a t he i s going to g i v e me i n Haida - we never knew t h i s - the name had to come through proper l i n e a g e on h i s p a r t . Robert had to go and seek f o r the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n s to be p r o p e r , and he f i n a l l y came back a f t e r the Masset t h i n g when he d e c i d e d he was going to do i t . . . h e came back to me and s a i d I have got one f o r you now. He cannot pronounce i t but he s a i d the t r a n s l a t i o n means " S u p e r n a t u r a l S p i r i t R i s i n g " . 3 That's the next s t e p . To me...my main s p i r i t has been K i l l e r w h a l e and Wolf, down on the ground, and a l l o f a sudden, I am g i v e n t h a t new name, and they c a l l i t S p i r i t R i s i n g , and another meaning f o r i t , i s S p i r i t R i s i n g from the Ground, g e t t i n g up, so i t ' s almost l i k e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , to t r a n s f o r m , to go from t h e r e . . . I have transcended the p h y s i c a l . I am now s u p e r n a t u r a l and I am going to grow. I am r e b o r n and I am going to g r o w . . . i t ' s the d i r e c t i o n o f my p a t h (David I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I 1981:61). U l t i m a t e l y , Joe David d e f i n e s even h i s own a r t i n terms of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : 197. My p e r s o n a l approach towards, whatever I do, be i t a p a i n t i n g or a s c u l p t u r e , i s from pure f e e l i n g ; a f e e l i n g t h a t s t a r t s deep w i t h i n me and gets so s t r o n g i t f i n a l l y s u r f a c e s . I t h i n k when you are p a i n t i n g a dance s c r e e n , or c a r v i n g a mask, you have to be t o t a l l y aware of i t s l i v e l y c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the f l i c k e r i n g f i r e l i g h t o f the b i g house. You must t r a n s f o r m y o u r s e l f i n t o t h a t c r e a t u r e — they t r u l y do have s p i r i t s and you must know how to a l l o w the s p i r i t to overtake your mind and body, l e t i t guide your p e r s o n a l s p i r i t (David, i n Stewart, C.P.N. Notes 1975). T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s not simply a change from one s t a t e i n t o another, but a union o f two s t a t e s or two b e i n g s , a s h a r i n g . In t h i s cosmology the seeker does not need to t r a v e l i n t o o t h e r w o r l d s , he a l r e a d y has access to these o t h e r w o r l d s , simply by a d o p t i n g the d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view o f the beings he meets. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as s h a r i n g i s a theme Joe David r e p e a t e d l y emphasizes. For example, commenting upon the t h u n d e r b i r d on one o f h i s banners Joe David says: I t i s a k i n d o f human hand r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e , r a t h e r than a claw. Things l i k e t h a t r e p r e s e n t to me the s h a r i n g , when I use them, j u s t the s h a r i n g o f energy o f t h a t s p i r i t u a l i d e a l i k e t h a t , through a human p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . Through the s h a r i n g o f those t e a c h i n g s , one becomes the o t h e r , the dancer and the t h i n g he i s p o r t r a y i n g , l i t t l e moments i n time t h a t emerge and are shared (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , 1979:54). The concept o f shared v i e w p o i n t a l s o a p p l i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e to the dancer, and t h e r e f o r e to the a r t i s t who c r e a t e s the mask: 198. I f the dancers wore a mask t h a t p o r t r a y e d a beaver or whether they wore a headdress t h a t p o r t r a y e d Wolf or E a g l e , i t was symbolic o f having merged and having shared as one, l i k e when you dance, i t ' s a symbolic gesture i n music and motion, and i n two or t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t i t i s symbolic o f having shared the same space, the same p o i n t of view o f t h a t o t h e r c r e a t u r e . I t means t h a t your c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s have shared the same space and have been com p a t i b l e . You have c r e a t e d a b e i n g t h a t was h a l f yours and h a l f i t s . You have been a b l e to p r o j e c t your c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t o t h i s c r e a t u r e and f i n d harmony and knowledge, and a c r e a t u r e t h a t w i l l share w i t h you. As long as the dancers have the mask on, i t means t h a t they are s t i l l i n the animal realm. When they take o f f the mask they are i n the human realm (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:11,14,17). T h i s d e p i c t i o n of " s h a r i n g of e n e r g i e s " and " s h a r i n g of i d e n t i t i e s " between the dancer and the animal he i n c a r n a t e s i s the reason why each a r t i s t i s c a l l e d to p e r c e i v e both the " n a t u r a l " and the " s u p e r n a t u r a l " so as to t r a n s l a t e and t r a n s m i t the knowledge born from t h i s s y n t h e s i s . I t i s an i n d i v i d u a l t a s k which i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the s o l i t a r y quest o f the shaman attempting to g i v e a human v o i c e and purpose to the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g he has met i n the w i l d e r n e s s . Such a c o n c e p t i o n of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as s h a r i n g of i d e n t i t y may be somewhat removed from E l i a d e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as metamorphosis, but i t i s a l s o v e r y c l o s e to what M a r i e - F r a n c o i s e Guedon d e s c r i b e s f o r the T s i m s h i a n Indians f o r whom shamanic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a k i n to a s h i f t i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y (Guedon, p e r s o n a l communication). 199. c) The Concept of Power The non-human worl d i s f o r Joe David a source o f power as i t i s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l shamans. The ways i n which Joe David d e f i n e s and d e s c r i b e s power i s however v e r y p e r s o n a l and o f f e r s a good example of how he r e f l e c t s upon t r a d i t i o n a l concepts and makes them h i s own. For Joe David the concept of power i s complex. L i k e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i t stems from two components: the s u p e r n a t u r a l ( i n c l u d i n g i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n nature) and the human. I t both " e x i s t s " o f i t s e l f , and expresses i t s e l f i n the i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s t r o n g enough to w i t h s t a n d i t s p r e s e n c e : Thousand years ago, the powers were a l r e a d y t h e r e . The powers t h a t are at my l i t t l e i s l a n d now are a combination of the n a t u r a l powers of t h a t wind and ocean and l a n d but the humans have p i c k e d up on i t and they knew about i t , they understood i t and they used i t w i t h i n themselves and t h a t compounded i t . The power i s i n d e s t r u c t i b l e . And the power...the power always has and always w i l l be, I t h i n k . And the power p r o p e l s i n t o e n d l e s s o t h e r dimensions o t h e r than the one we c l a i m to witness and d e a l w i t h on a p h y s i c a l p l a n e (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1978:16-17). While power may v a r y i n i n t e n s i t y and k i n d a c c o r d i n g to the r e c e i v e r and a c c o r d i n g to the donor, i t seems from the c o n t e x t o f myths t h a t animals, indeed a l l nature and i t s components, are primary owners o f powers. So are the s u p e r n a t u r a l beings whose form i s n e i t h e r human nor animals. Joe David r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s p i r i t s are v e r y important beings 200. a b l e to bestow v a r i o u s powers on men, such as the a r t o f c u r i n g , s k i l l at w h a l i n g , wealth and r i t u a l songs and dances. They can a l s o be v e r y dangerous i f encountered i n a s t a t e of r i t u a l u n c l e a n l i n e s s . But these s p i r i t s are a l s o d e f i n e d by Joe David as another m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the human power generated by b e l i e f . U l t i m a t e l y a l l power i s mental and, when p r o p e r l y understood and used, s p i r i t u a l : I b e l i e v e somehow, a l l what i s happening i s an energy form and i t i s our sense o f r e a s o n i n g b u i l t - i n human sense o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t t r ansforms i t i n t o these e v e n t s , transforms u n t i l you b e l i e v e t h i n k i n g i t i s a s p i r i t when i n f a c t i t may be j u s t an energy f e e l i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e t of knowledge t h a t you are l o o k i n g f o r . A l l you need to do i s look and you w i l l f i n d i t . I t w i l l come to you. The power i s the b e l i e f . . . t h e more you b e l i e v e i n i t , the more i t happens. The more you b e l i e v e i n a n y t h i n g , the more power you get. You j u s t have to riot b e l i e v e i n i t , then you are c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e o f i t , c o m p l e t e l y - l i k e you would c a l l -s a f e from i t , i t i s j u s t o u t s i d e t h a t c i r c l e ( David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I 1971 5/7). U l t i m a t e l y t h e r e i s power i n e v e r y t h i n g : I see, I see and f e e l powers, the powers, o v e r a l l powers. Not j u s t of the c r e a t i n g of the a r t , a l l the powers. The power o f each p e r s o n a l i t y , the power of each v o i c e , the power of each l a u g h , the power of each scream and c r y . The power of every p l a n t . The power of every ro c k . The power of every t r e e and the power o f every w o l f and bug (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:22). When people are aware o f t h a t power, they d e r i v e from i t the i n c e n t i v e and s t r e n g t h to c r e a t e the whole f a b r i c 201. of t h e i r s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l l i v e s . Power must be c o n t r o l l e d and c h a n n e l l e d . One of these channels i s a r t , t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l a r t : And you take people i n complete communication as the people were, and they have demonstrated, as t h e i r dances d i d w i t h t h e i r environment, w i t h the powers t h a t be. Knowing they had c o n t r o l o f i t . They took these powers and d i d the  obvi o u s , t h a t was the a r t , but they a l s o took and l e a r n e d from the power of those o t h e r l i f e f o r c e s , to power t h e i r own l i f e . There were d o c t o r s and t h e r e were s o r c e r e r s ; and t h e r e were song makers and th e r e were dreamers and the^e were, - I was going to say i l l u s i o n i s t s , m a g i c i a n s . The c r e a t o r s o f powers, they had the a b i l i t y to c r e a t e v i s u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , the s t i m u l a n t s f o r themselves and f o r anyone e l s e who wanted to concern w i t h . I t i s t h e i r knowledge, i t i s t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n . I t i s o f t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n , who i s concerned w i t h t h a t power, w i t h t h a t knowledge (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:22) (Emphasis added). As we can see, the human component of power, or r a t h e r i t s t r a n s l a t i o n , i s equated here a g a i n w i t h knowledge. Ceremonial g a t h e r i n g s are moments when t h i s knowledge i s d i s p l a y e d and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y through songs and dances: Power was accumulated and shared, when people came to p o t l a t c h , to dance, to a t t e n d ceremonies to a v i l l a g e the v i l l a g e r s would take t h e i r canoes up and b r i n g them to the top of the beach, sometimes r i g h t i n t o the dance h a l l s . . . and when the guests a r r i v e d they brought t h e i r canoes, and whenever they came and went t h e r e were always songs and speeches going on... the r e were h a r d l y a moment without songs...but the power, you have to imagine the c o n c e n t r a t e d power here, the j o y , and the s t r e n g t h o f the people underneath...eagle down on everybody... 202. They were i n v i t e d , they were welcome to t h i s knowledge and to the beauty and balance and harmony of t h i s f a m i l y . They were t h e r e to w i t n e s s i t . . . and to know t h a t p r o p e r t y and payment, l i k e you are t a l k i n g about they c a l l i t payment now, the g i v i n g of goods. They gave an amazing amount o f t h i n g s away and i t was j u s t the power, the power t h a t they have r e c e i v e d i n t h i s knowledge...Power was accumulated and shared. Accumulated. The s h a r i n g , i t shared w i t h the people and the people shared w i t h i t (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:22). The a r t i s t i s one of those who can communicate t h i s knowledge, and move between d i f f e r e n t kingdoms. T h i s may be one o f the reasons why Joe David i s fond o f l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r the v i s i o n o f the i s l a n d where he l i v e s (a t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n w h a l i n g v i l l a g e ) , the d e s c r i p t i o n of w h a l i n g r i t u a l , and the d e f i n i t i o n of h i s a r t : P l u s , you are a l s o on t h a t l i t t l e i s l a n d concerned w i t h a l l t h a t i s t h e r e . I t ' s not t h e r e no more j u s t because the houses a r e n ' t t h e r e and because you don't see the people on the beaches. I t i s t h e r e r i g h t now, i t always has been and i t i s s t i l l moving. The powers t h a t moved the whalers and the powers t h a t the whalers developed and moved themselves, those are s t i l l t h e r e . And t h a t ' s what you f e e l t h e r e . That's what you mean when you say "what's happening t h e r e ? what i s t h i s t h i n g ? " I know i t w e l l o n l y because I know t h a t . Because I am open enough to know t h a t ' s s t i l l t h e r e even though you can't see i t . I t h i n k j u s t the amount of time t h a t i t ' s taken to b u i l d i t , the i n t e n s i t y of i t , i t has to do w i t h the i n t e n s i t y o f i t . I f you were to take another l i t t l e a rea where whalers or something had spent even may be one t e n t h of t h a t time and t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n and t h a t energy i n t h a t s p o t , t h e r e would not be the same as l i k e t h e r e . There are hundreds, p r o b a b l y hundreds o f years gone i n t o what you f e e l t h e r e on t h a t l i t t l e i s l a n d . The f i n e s t of a l l , West Coast a r t and West Coast songs and dances, I t h i n k were a d i r e c t 203. e x p r e s s i o n of the balance they had found, the balance they found between them and the whales and them and the ocean, them and the sea and them and the sky (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:2), A g a i n , a r t i s here d e f i n e d as a m e d i t a t i o n , the e x p r e s s i o n of knowledge. As an a r t i s t , Joe David channels power; as he says "My whole work i s power" ( P e r s o n a l Communication). Power can be conveyed immediately through p e r f e c t i o n o f tec h n i q u e or p e r f e c t i o n o f b e i n g ; c r a f t m a n s h i p i s "power". As we can see, power i s a l s o harmony. T h i s i s another s t r o n g theme i n Joe David's d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t . I t i s found everywhere, not o n l y i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c a r v i n g but a l s o i n the p e r c e p t i o n of nature and indeed, i n any t h i n g or b e i n g which i s f u l l y i t s e l f . Harmony expresses i t s e l f i n many ways: The power o f the i s l a n d , i s o b v i o u s l y a combination and as f a r as I am concerned and as f a r as i t s t i m u l a t e s and as f a r as i t teaches me, the power of i t i s of i t s e l f , of i t s l o c a t i o n and of i t s shape. For i n s t a n c e , you ca n ' t t h i n k of the i s l a n d and another g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n a s i d e from t h i n k i n g i n a more b a s i c sense t h a t t h e r e i s more power i n a p e r f e c t c i r c l e than t h e r e i s i n a wobbly one. Each t h i n g i n i t s p l a c e has d i f f e r e n t power. I t has more power to us because we b e l i e v e i n t h a t p e r f e c t i o n . We're s t r i v i n g f o r i t . Of c o u r s e , the c i r c l e i s going to be of more power to us. But suppose we weren't concerned o u r s e l f w i t h the p e r f e c t i o n o f a c i r c l e , the p e r f e c t i o n o f a n y t h i n g but j u s t to f e e l l o o s e or to f e e l maybe more d i r e c t i o n of a s q u i g g l y one. You'd get more, you'd d e r i v e more power from i t . There i s an amazing amount of power on the i s l a n d . . . b e c a u s e of t h a t same v e r y reason. Because of how i t has been c r e a t e d and how i t s i t s w i t h i n i t s own environment. J u s t l i k e the power of any man and how he has c r e a t e d h i m s e l f and how he s i t s w i t h any s o c i e t y (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:20). 2 0 4 . Here a g a i n Joe David de p a r t s from what we know about the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of shamanic power and i t s c o n n o t a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t . For Joe Dav i d , power i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than o p p o s i t i o n , as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s s h a r i n g r a t h e r than d y i n g . The a r t i s t , t o o , i s a p a r t i c i p a n t . Because he i s of use to h i s p e o p l e , he i s p o w e r f u l ; and h i s power i n c r e a s e s to the ext e n t t h a t he acc e p t s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The a r t i s t i s not a commoner. He i s not a c h i e f , but l i k e a c h i e f he has access to the t r a d i t i o n a l l o r e . The a r t i s t i s t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n to r e - i n t e r p r e t or r e - i n v e n t h i s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . In the contemporary w o r l d o f broken customs and m i s p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n s , the Northwest Coast a r t i s t can r e v a l i d a t e the pa s t and r e - i n t e r p r e t i t i n terms a c c e p t a b l e to the modern market, as w e l l as to the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n , a p p r a i s a l and use of modern In d i a n a r t work. There i s some d i f f e r e n c e between the c h i e f and the a r t i s t and i t g i v e s the contemporary a r t i s t a new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The c h i e f i s the t e a c h e r o f the p e o p l e , the keeper o f the t r a d i t i o n . The a r t i s t , on the c o n t r a r y i s a c r e a t o r o f c u l t u r e ; i n t h i s sense, he i s a l s o a te a c h e r f o r h i s community: A l l you have to do, I t h i n k , i s a proper demonstration on your p a r t to convince them t h a t i t i s v a l i d . I t h i n k i t i s important and i t i s one of the t h i n g s t h a t I t h i n k i s s l i p p i n g out now w i t h i n the system o f p o t l a t c h i n g and a c c e p t i n g the 6 205. t e a c h i n g . . . I t has always been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e was always new songs, t h e r e was always new myths, new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e t h a t you have to keep i n v e n t i n g , you have to keep e x p e r i e n c i n g and I w i l l do i t p r o p e r l y . I have to c o m p l e t e l y c o n v i n c e the people o f the worth of i t ; the power of my p r e s e n t a t i o n i s going to r e f l e c t the power of the p r e s e n t a t i o n to me, but I p l a n to do t h a t , I p l a n to r e l a y t h a t you have to c o n t i n u a l l y i n v e n t , and I t h i n k a l s o my purpose i s c o n v i n c i n g them of the v a l i d i t y o f the modern p r e s e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n the modern knowledge and tech n o l o g y . I have to somehow convince them t h a t i t i s a r e a l and pro b a b l e avenue of e x p r e s s i n g and b u i l d i n g . I am c o m p l e t e l y f a s c i n a t e d w i t h s t o r i e s o f the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y o f people u s i n g what you c a l l advanced t e c h n i c a l knowledge to i l l u s t r a t e o l d myths. There i s a l o t to say about t h a t . . . I have to con v i n c e them t h a t the power i s s t i l l t h e r e , i n modern time l i k e i n o l d time, t h a t i t i s going on...Perhaps i t i s a s l e e p and i t w i l l bloom a g a i n , when people w i l l s t a r t to b e l i e v e i n i t again...You and I p a r t i c i p a t e i n keeping i t a l i v e and one o f these days, w i t h i n 10 or 30 y e a r s , somebody w i l l p i c k up the p i e c e s and put them t o g e t h e r and i t w i l l work a g a i n . . . My f a t h e r was b e l i e v i n g i n the v a l i d i t y o f modern times. He went to s c h o o l and he l i k e d i t (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , 1979:42-43). Power i s the power to be, to c r e a t e and u l t i m a t e l y to c r e a t e o n e s e l f . The a r t i s t r e p r e s e n t s power more c l e a r l y than most o t h e r human b e i n g s , but t h i s i s a p r e r o g a t i v e which belongs u l t i m a t e l y , a c c o r d i n g to Joe David, to everyone: People knew t h a t the f i s h d i d not go down t h e r e and t u r n to human b o d i e s , but they knew the power o f t h a t c a p a b i l i t y , t h a t p r o b a b i l i t y . You can c r e a t e i t i f you choose to t h i n k t h a t way, then i t ' s going to be t h a t way. I f you choose to t r a n s f o r m , you c o u l d look and be as you v e r y w e l l p l e a s e d . You have the power. You have the power to c r e a t e your own r e a l i t y . 206. You have the power to see t h i n g s the way you see f i t . To l i v e a c c o r d i n g to the way you see f i t . And r e l a t e to the o t h e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , animals or t r i b e s as you see f i t . We're u s i n g the same f o r c e . We have the same e n e r g y . . . i f you d i d n ' t have i t , you wouldn't p e r c e i v e i t ; I t h i n k you p e r c e i v e the t h i n g s you have energy f o r . The t h i n g s t h a t you have worked f o r , t h a t you want to see, t h a t you b e l i e v e you want to see. I t ' s j u s t d i r e c t i o n , i t ' s j u s t a d i r e c t i o n of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . You share t h a t power...that power i s t h e r e , t h a t energy i s t h e r e . I'm c o m p l e t e l y aware t h a t I possess powers and I can manipulate them. I manipulate powers, by manipulate I mean you have an awareness of i t , not t h a t you c o n t r o l i t and you d i r e c t i t , a l t h o u g h t h a t ' s what you can do. You are aware o f i t . I f you b e l i e v e i n i t , you become aware of i t , then you're w i t h i n the c i r c l e and the i n t e n s i t y and the s t r e n g t h o f my s p i r i t i s w idening because I'm c o r r e c t l y and p r o p e r l y d e a l i n g w i t h i t . Even i f you say i t i s never ending and you say i t i s never complete, i t i s always, i n a s t a t e o f becoming j u s t as we a r e . We become o f i t and i t becomes o f us^ We are not here f o r n o t h i n g . We're not here j u s t because i t ' s f u n to c a r v e , we're not here because i t ' s f u n to d r i v e a C o r v e t t e or we're not here because i t was f u n to r i d e a pony on the p l a i n or canoe on the c o a s t . We are here to develop. We are here to c r e a t e . We are here to c r e a t e deeper and deeper i n s i g h t s at a h i g h e r l e v e l of c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h i s p l a n (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:6-7). d) The A r t i s t arid the Shaman A l l t r u e a r t i s a l i n k w i t h and a channel to a h i g h e r realm which i s a t once nature as a whole and one's own s e l f : The most profound t h i n g coming out of a l l those e r a , a l l those c i v i l i z a t i o n s , i s the a r t . . . T h e artwork to me, i s the speaker of i t . I t h i n k the a r t , my a r t , i s my communication...! am a p h y s i c a l body w i t h i n a l l these o t h e r c u l t u r a l 207. t h i n g s . I am communicating w i t h my g r e a t e r s e l f . We are not j u s t human b e i n g s , not everybody i n the world...You are an i n c r e d i b l e b e i n g , t h i s i s an i n c r e d i b l e t r a v e l , t h i s i s an i n c r e d i b l e j ourney. Something i n c r e d i b l e brought you here and you s h o u l d at a l l times, i n a l l a c t u a l i t y , be i n communication w i t h t h i s g r e a t e r t h i n g , t h i s g r e a t e r i d e a , t h i s g r e a t e r movement. And t h a t ' s what a r t i s : I am communicating w i t h and aware o f t h i s g r e a t e r b e i n g (David, I n t e r v i e w P o o l e , 1979:15). The a r t i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s community i s more than a s o c i a l or even r i t u a l r o l e ; i t i s a s p i r i t u a l one: The whaler and hunter i s who he i s . . . t o b r i n g food to your p h y s i c a l b e i n g . The s i n g e r and the dancer i s the one who n o u r i s h e s your s p i r i t u a l b e i n g . The main o b j e c t i v e i s to f i n a l l y convey t h a t every human endeavour i s as equal to the next as a n y t h i n g . . . t h e r e i s no s u p e r i o r i t y . One b e i n g i s not s u p e r i o r to the o t h e r . For every a r t i s t , i n c l u d i n g myself, two d i m e n s i o n a l or t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t expresses the communication and t h a t i d e a o f the g r e a t e r b e i n g , the o v e r a l l encompassing i d e a o f c r e a t i n g and a g g r e s s i o n and peace, a l l of the shaman's works, a l l of the c h i e f ' s works, a l l of the geniuses o f the master a r t works were to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:68). When I asked him whether he c o u l d see the c o n n e c t i o n between shamanism and a r t , Joe David responded by d e f i n i n g shamanism: That's what Northwest Coast a r t i s a l l about... t h a t ' s what i t demonstrates. That people are under the power o f t h e i r own b e l i e f s . You form y o u r s e l f , your own b e l i e f s , your l i f e i s not d i r e c t e d by o t h e r s or any s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s . . . you are r e s p o n s i b l e of your own b e l i e f s . The shaman i s t h e r e to put you back on the r i g h t p a t h when you are away from i t (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:16). 208. He then proposed to d e f i n e the a r t i s t as a worker of power: The shaman's job i n the o l d days was to r e - a c q u a i n t anybody who was t r i c k e d or under an o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e . . . , t h e shaman was t h e r e to put you back on the r i g h t t r a c k when you were away from i t . He was going to r e - a c q u a i n t you w i t h your own power and the proper b e l i e f t h a t you c o u l d have the power to overcome i l l n e s s . He w i l l demonstrate through m a n i p u l a t i o n o f n a t u r e : 'I can manipulate f o r you these o b j e c t s , whether i t i s two d i m e n s i o n a l or t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t , song or dances. I can prove you t h a t you have p e r s o n a l l y the power'. I have t h i s power. I know the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f power as a shaman (David I n t e r v i e w Katz I I , 1979:10). L a t e r on, he completed the e q u a t i o n by r e v e a l i n g h i s a r t as a h e a l i n g p r o c e s s : "I can h e a l them...I can h e a l the people but they have to b e l i e v e . . . and I have a l r e a d y h e a l e d people i n a sense o f t h e i r b e l i e f s and my c u l t u r e , my s o n g s . . . j u s t l i k e X, j u s t l i k e Y even, I have sung songs, shaken r a t t l e s . I have shown them t h a t a person can have t h a t command. 'You can do i t ! ' t h a t means I have h e a l e d him... They d i d not b e l i e v e b e f o r e . . . b u t I have cured them. I t o l d them t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e . . . That i s the c u r i n g ; and I d i d i t through my a r t . I d i d i t through my r a t t l e , through my songs... through the e v o l u t i o n o f my d e s i g n s Y...looks at my d e s i g n s , he l i s t e n s to me, and he watches me and t h a t ' s p a r t of the c u r i n g " (David, I n t e r v i e w Katz I I I , 1981:84). Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s v e r y much a l i v e , and we acknowledge the c o n t i n u i t y of s t y l e and c o n t e n t which l i n k s i t w i t h the p a s t . Shamanic themes have endured i n Northwest Coast a r t and are s t i l l p r e s e n t today i n a s i t u a t i o n where shamanism i s almost dead, and a r t i s u s u a l 2 0 9 . d i v o r c e d from r i t u a l s e t t i n g . I t may ve r y w e l l be t h a t the same themes have been used f o r a gre a t l e n g t h o f time i n c o n t e x t s d i v o r c e d from shamanism as such. I t may be t h a t when the image i s powerful enough, i t a c t s as a t r i g g e r f o r a s e a r c h , b r i n g i n g the seeker back to the v e r y shamanic t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s h i n t e d at by the a r t . For c e r t a i n a r t i s t s , contemporary Northwest Coast a r t i s a door through which they renew t h e i r acquaintance w i t h shamanic c o n c e p t s , and sometimes tech n i q u e s and v a l u e s . Furthermore, Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s e s p e c i a l l y c o m p e l l i n g f o r the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t , i n t h a t i t s themes c a l l to l i f e m y t h o l o g i c a l and c o s m o l o g i c a l m o t i f s b e l o n g i n g to the o l d shamanic t r a d i t i o n . A Northwest Coast a r t i s t , even i n modern days, may choose to f o l l o w the l e a d p r o v i d e d by those themes, and l e t h i m s e l f be taught or transfo r m e d by the e n t i t i e s he i s d e p i c t i n g . The shamanic themes expressed by Northwest Coast a r t i s t s i n the past and which are s t i l l p r e s e n t today r e f l e c t deep concern f o r the human i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and Northwest Coast c u l t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . They d e f i n e the human realm by j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h the non-human realm, coming to terms w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p o i n t s o f view which are p a r t o f l i f e , as w e l l as w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n o f power, i n c l u d i n g one's own power. Shamanic i n o r i g i n -- and t h e r e f o r e powerful --210. they form a s e t which d e f i n e s the Northwest Coast hidden r e a l i t y . I have observed Joe David's e v o l u t i o n f o r s e v e r a l years (1976-1982) and I have n o t i c e d a s h i f t i n the focus o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n . S i n c e 1980, the masks he has c a r v e d are more and more r e l a t e d to the s u p e r n a t u r a l realm. In 1980 he c a r v e d h i s f i r s t shaman's mask and a medicine s p i r i t ' s mask, f o l l o w e d by t h r e e o t h e r shaman's masks i n 1981 and 1982, and t h r e e o t h e r medicine s p i r i t ' s masks. Moreover h i s p r o d u c t i o n i s now aimed mostly towards c e r e m o n i a l uses. Whether t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i n h i s works i s the d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of a g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l e v o l u t i o n or whether the t r a d i t i o n a l images which he i s asked to produce are l e a d i n g him to e x p l o r e shamanic i d e a s , Joe David has r e c o n s t r u c t e d a shamanic system o f h i s own i n which h i s way o f l i f e i s i n t e r t w i n e d t i g h t l y w i t h h i s a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to s e p a r a t e the a r t i s t or the images themselves as f a c t o r s i n t h i s e v o l u t i o n . Joe David was l e d to the p e r c e p t i o n o f powers p a r t l y because o f the demands o f h i s a r t ; he has become an a r t i s t because the power he f e e l s has to be expressed. In the t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d , such power would have been expressed i n shaman or whaler's r i t u a l s . In t h i s modern w o r l d , David meets the whale as a f i g u r e i n h i s drawing, and he meets the shaman through the d i s c i p l i n e of h i s 211. drawing s t y l e as w e l l as the c o r r e s p o n d i n g demands o f h i s l i f e s t y l e . T h i s i s how i n the Twentieth Century, he succeeds i n r e t a i n i n g h i s i d e n t i t y as a t r a d i t i o n a l West Coast a r t i s t . The c o s m o l o g i c a l s y n t h e s i s he i s c o n s t r u c t i n g i s h i s own. I t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l l o r e and concepts and contemporary e x p e r i e n c e s , even t r a d i t i o n from o t h e r North American I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . T h i s does not i n v a l i d a t e i t s shamanic q u a l i t i e s . George MacDonald has i n s i s t e d on the p a r t p l a y e d by i n n o v a t i o n i n shamanic technique and performances (MacDonald 1981: 227), and M.F. Guedon has s i m i l a r l y s t r e s s e d the r e l i a n c e of the t r a d i t i o n a l shaman on h i s own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and h i s independence v i s a v i s s o c i a l r u l e s and t r a d i t i o n a l w o r l d view (Guedon 1982:140). F o l l o w i n g these two a u t h o r s , we may f i n d i n the p a r t p l a y e d by hiw own e x p e r i e n c e i n Joe David's cosmology a f u r t h e r l i n k w i t h shamanism. 212. Chapter V - Footnotes I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare t h i s statement w i t h the one g i v e n i n the same year (1979) to Mike P o o l e : "Only the c h i e f s possessed the T h u n d e r b i r d dance, or i f a commoner had a T h u n d e r b i r d i n t h e i r l i n e a g e i t ' s because they were r e l a t e d somehow to a c h i e f ' s f a m i l y . But d u r i n g the Wolf R i t u a l people l i k e commoners would go through t h i s r i t u a l without even t o u c h i n g a f e a t h e r o f the T h u n d e r b i r d or had a n y t h i n g to do w i t h a T h u n d e r b i r d because they were not e n t i t l e d t o " (David, I n t e r v i e w Poole 1979:11). Such a comparison r e v e a l s the s t a b i l i t y o f Joe David's wording. "In h i s t o r y i t has been r e c o r d e d i n one o f the v e r s i o n t h a t on the West Coast man developed p r e t t y much the same s t r e n g t h as the M a r t i a l A r t of the O r i e n t : the STRIKE, THE CONCENTRATED STRIKE, the whaler, the c h i e f t h a t threw the harpoon at the whale, j u s t behind the p e c t o r a l f i n , was throwing a chunk o f yew o f 18 to 20 f e e t l o n g , 4 3/8" s o l i d d r i e d yew, which would be v e r y heavy, the weight, i f you can imagine t h a t , the throwing i n t o a whale... sure the people were b u i l t i n c r e d i b l y i n the o l d days, but I t h i n k t h a t t h i s c o n c e n t r a t e d s t r i k e came from the same i d e a as the L i g h t n i n g Snake... I do not t h i n k t h a t the L i g h t n i n g Serpent symbolizes any l i v e c r e a t u r e from the a r e a . I t h i n k i t symbolizes  the T h r u s t o f the harpoon s h a f t . On almost every barb, t h e r e was etched a l i g h t n i n g Snake d e s i g n on a l o t o f harpoon s h a f t s . I t s c a r v e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n i v o r y was o f t e n i n s e r t e d as a charm between the sharp m u s s e l - s h e l l s which formed the p o i n t s o f the harpoon employed i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y o f the wealth'' (David, L e c t u r e UBC 111:25-26). (Emphasis added). A c c o r d i n g to Robert Davidson the Haida name f o r " S u p e r n a t u r a l S p i r i t R i s i n g " i s " S k - I l - K - a a t h l - u u s " ( P e r s o n a l Communication Dec. 1983). 213. Conclus i o n Joe David's a r t p r o v i d e s a v i v i d example of the c o n t i n u i t y between t r a d i t i o n a l and modern Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s . P a r t of t h i s c o n t i n u i t y r e s i d e s i n the s o c i a l r o l e of the contemporary I n d i a n a r t i s t . I t may be t h a t the new s o c i a l v a l u e g i v e n the contemporary I n d i a n a r t i s t s by t h e i r n a t i v e communities b r i n g s them to accept t h e i r c u l t u r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as those who are i n c o n t a c t w i t h t r a d i t i o n s . The a r t i s t becomes an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t -- even an e s s e n t i a l one -- i n the c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l p r o c e s s . Joe David addressed t h i s i d e a e x p l i c i t y i n h i s l e c t u r e s ; i t e v e n t u a l l y leads to a r e - d e f i n i t i o n of the a r t i s t as a worker of power, t h a t i s a r i t u a l i s t s h a r i n g i n the world of the c h i e f , the i n i t i a t e and even the shaman-healer. In Joe David's case, the c o n t i n u i t y with the past i s a l s o expressed i n the themes he chooses to p r e s e n t i n h i s works. The images produced by Joe David demonstrate t h a t shamanic themes have indeed endured i n Northwest Coast a r t . But as s t a t e d e a r l i e r most of the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i n t e n t and meaning are not obvious i n most of the images themselves. They do not appear u n l e s s one i s guided by the a r t i s t ' s comments. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r the shamanic themes u n d e r l y i n g most of Joe David's p r o d u c t i o n . Though one can r e c o g n i z e shamanic elements i n many of h i s works, the f u l l e x t e n t of the i n f l u e n c e of shamanic ide a s on h i s a r t and h i s l i f e does not show u n t i l Joe David h i m s e l f r e t r a c e s the c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g to the p r o d u c t i o n of each p i e c e . U l t i m a t e l y h i s a r t i s shamanic not o n l y because o f the images but s t i l l more because o f the i n t e n t b ehind t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . I f Joe David i s at a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t i s t s , p a s t or p r e s e n t , the a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d here adds s i g n i f i c a n t l y to any t h e o r y which sees a r e l a t i o n s h i p between shamanism and a r t s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f an examination of images. The image i t s e l f may be l e s s important than i t s c o n t e x t . S t u d i e s based on a c o l l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c "shamanic" images such as s p i r a l s , t r e e s , c a n n i b a l beings or canoes, p r o b a b l y miss the most important element o f a l l , t h a t i s the c r e a t i v e v i s i o n o f the a r t i s t . Whether t h i s v i s i o n has to be born from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e or i s d i c t a t e d by t r a d i t i o n , i g n o r i n g i t p r e v e n t s the a n a l y s t from u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e x t e n t of the shamanic content o f the images. The shamanic elements i n Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t cannot, i n my o p i n i o n , be adequately understood without e i t h e r a s o l i d knowledge o f the t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast I n d i a n c u l t u r e s or the e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n by the a r t i s t h i m s e l f whenever p o s s i b l e . When Deborah Waite (1966) 215. and Joan Vastokas (1973) f o r example r e l y on the presence of v i s u a l themes to f i n d shamanism i n Northwest Coast a r t , they do not take e i t h e r of these i n t o account and t h e i r a n a l y s e s remain incomplete. Such a n a l y s e s are much more c o n v i n c i n g when the p o s i t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l as w e l l as the modern Indian a r t i s t s are examined: through h i s a r t the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t was a f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t i n the shamanic r i t u a l s o f h e a l e r s , c h i e f s and i n i t i a t e s ; he had d i r e c t a ccess to the shamanic cosmology. The modern a r t i s t , though s e p a r a t e d by time and change from the shamanic t r a d i t i o n s has, as Joe David has shown, the o p p o r t u n i t y to touch them through h i s work, and to r e - u n i t e i n a contemporary s y n t h e s i s the o l d i n i t i a t i c b e l i e f s and the new p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . To a p p r e c i a t e the f u l l c o n t e n t o f a shamanic image, or to work on i t , one may have to become a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the r i t u a l . In Joe David's terms: I t i s n e c e s s a r y to understand the s p i r i t u a l i t y o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e , and i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t , to sense the i n t e g r i t y o f these a r t i s t s ' works. Each a r t i s t ' s d e s i gns r e p r e s e n t d e t a i l e d accounts of p e r s o n a l communication w i t h the wisdom and harmony o f h i g h o r d e r (David, 1978, Graphic C o l l e c t i o n ) . Joe David p r o v i d e s us w i t h a contemporary window, through which we g l a n c e at the m a g i c a l and complex p r o c e s s o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i n a world e x p l i c i t l y c e n t e r e d i n shamanic concepts. One o f the c o n c l u s i o n s one may r e a c h from Joe David's i n t e r v i e w s , as w e l l as from h i s a r t works, i s t h a t 216. h i s images are not i l l u s t r a t i o n s . To use Joe David's terms, they are a " d i s p l a y o f knowledge." 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