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Investigation of the content of brief samples of writing of high school students Balasa, Joseph 1983

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INVESTIGATION OF THE CONTENT OF BRIEF SAMPLES OF WRITING OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS By JOSEPH BALASA B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1983 c) Joseph Balasa, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 11,1983 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT B r i e f w r i t t e n samples of high school students (83grade 11 and 12) were content analyzed f o r the p r e f e r e n t i a l use of verbs, nouns or a d j e c t i v e s . C o n s i s t e n c y of p r e f e r e n c e a c r o s s time (7 - 10 days) and t e s t i n g mode word l i s t s versus s h o r t prose passage was assessed. For 14 s u b j e c t s (5 noun, 5 verb, 4 a d j e c t i v e dominant), the G o t t s c h a l k Human R e l a t i o n s Scale s c o r i n g was used to determine the magnitude of emotions asso-c i a t e d with the dominant use of verbs, nouns and a d j e c t i v e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the students p r e f e r r e d the noun dominant response mode. Verb dominant students comprised a s m a l l e r group, while very few students p r e f e r r e d the a d j e c t i v e dominant response mode. Expressed p r e f e r e n c e f o r the dominant response mode was found to be h i g h l y s t a b l e over time and c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s the t e s t i n g mode. Students d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e i r dominant response mode even when they were requested to a l t e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l views and "take a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t stand." The G o t t s c h a l k Human R e l a t i o n s Scale scores i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r the 14 s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s , the noun dominant group d i s p l a y e d the g r e a t e s t v a r i a n c e i n the magnitude of emotions. The h i g h e s t a b s o l u t e magnitudes of emotion were a s s o c i a t e d with the a d j e c t i v e dominant response mode. Verb dominant students d i s p l a y e d high and s t a b l e emotional magnitudes. i i i The results of the present study are examined i n view of possible educational and therapeutic implications, and suggestions regarding future research are made. Supervisor i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 II THE PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH 6 LITERATURE REVIEW 6 Content - Psychological States 6 Model I Behaviour and Model II Behaviour.. 8 Content Analysis 11 Summary and Conclusions 24 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3 0 Purpose of the Study 30 Rationale 31 Objectives 32 III METHOD 3 3 Subjects 33 Materials 34 Procedure 35 Data Analysis ^1 Tests of Consistency ^1 Consistency over time 4 1 Consistency over test mode 41 V CHAPTER Page IV RESULTS 4 3 Description of the Experimental Groups 4 3 Tests of Consistency 43 Consistency over time 4 3 Consistency over test mode 44 Summary 4 6 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 6 0 Summary of Results 60 Conclusions 62 Implications for Education 67 Recommendations for Future Research 72 REFERENCES , 7 9 APPENDIX A The Gottschalk-Gleser Method of Measuring the Magnitude of Psychological States 82 B Form I (a/b), Form II (a/b) and Scored Samples .. 87 v i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Pre-Test Conditions 47 Table 2: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Post-Test Conditions 48 Table 3: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Pre-Test and Post-Test Conditions 49 Table 4: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Scores Across Test Periods (combined Tables 1 and 2) for Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) 5 0 Table 5: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students According to Gender into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Treatments I and II 51 Table 6: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Changes for the Experimental and Control Groups for NOUN DOMINANT High School Students 5 2 v i i Page Table 7 : Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Changes for the Experimental and Control Groups for VERB DOMINANT High School Students 53 Table 8 : Values Obtained on Gottschalk's HUMAN  RELATIONS SCALE for the Magnitude of Emotions i n the VERB/NOUN/ ADJECTIVE Categories 5 4 Table 9: Di s t r i b u t i o n of the Scores from the HUMAN RELATIONS SCALE for the Calculation of the Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) 55 Table 10: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into DOMINANT Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Pre-Test (Form I) and Post-Test (Form II) Conditions 56 Table 11: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into DOMINANT Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Combined Pre- and Post-Test Conditions 57 Table 12: Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ ADJECTIVE under Treatments I and II 58 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page Figure 1: Values Obtained for the Magnitude and Frequency of Emotions on the Gottschalk HUMAN RELATIONS SCALE in the VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE Categories 59 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of t h i s thesis sums up long and involved e f f o r t s on my part. My work was illuminated by meeting many outstanding s c i e n t i s t s , teachers and others who greatly contributed to the understanding of the framework required to accomplish this study. In acknowledging t h e i r contribu-tions, I wish to thank them here. To Dr. Marshall A r l i n , I thank for his encouragements at the beginning of my studies, to Dr. P a t r i c i a Kennedy A r l i n , for demonstrating the merit of quick and accurate thinking in s c i e n t i f i c discourse, and to Nancy S. Suzuki for introducing me to the i n t r i c a c i e s of research i n language usage. My special thanks go to Dr. Stephen F. Foster, Dr. Roy Travis and Dr. J. Gordon Nelson. Drs. Nelson and Travis, serving on my committee, gave me much f r i e n d l y and helpful advice. Dr. Foster, my advisor, demonstrated an utmost under-standing of my often very e r r a t i c and probably grandoise ideas, and helped me to reduce them to manageable s c i e n t i f i c approaches. For his help, I am extremely g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y , my great appreciation i s expressed to my companion, Sue, to my students and friends on whom many of the p i l o t studies were carr i e d out, and to the volunteer teachers and students without whose help t h i s study could not have been done. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Personality i s expressed through the p a r t i c u l a r f o c i i t maintains. These f o c i i n turn are characterized by the speci-f i c responses produced by the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n to the physical and psychological s t i m u l i . The responses in turn form patterns about which one i s at least p o t e n t i a l l y conscious. In t h i s way awareness i s not an uninterrupted, complete or continu-ous process, but rather a fluctuating one between aspects of the outer (physical) and the inner (psychological) environments. Hebb (1949) proposed that the i n d i v i d u a l functions by u t i l i z i n g a "frame of reference" which continuously stimulates the inner environment of the i n d i v i d u a l by s e l e c t i v e l y l i m i t i n g processing of external s t i m u l i . Argyris (1976\ researching i n d i v i d u a l decision making, found that individuals hold "micro theories of action" which they use i n decision making. Yet, he also found that people espouse c e r t a i n theories of action and claim to use those theories in t h e i r decisions, but, in fact, they use another set of theories to decide on their actions. Further, individuals are completely unaware of t h i s process. L i n g u i s t i c responses are considered by many researchers as representative of the i n t e r a c t i o n of the physical and psycho-l o g i c a l environments. Paivio (1963), Lambert & Paivio (1956) note the r e l a t i o n between language and the a b i l i t y to learn to memorize words in p a r t i c u l a r sequences. 2 Gottschalk & Gleser (1969) view language as a variety of learned human behaviour, which can be used to indicate the emotional and cognitive dispositions of in d i v i d u a l s . West & Foster (1976, p. 57) emphasize the r e l a t i o n of parts of speech to p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r n a l conditions or "states" of the i n d i v i d u a l . They note the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nouns as symbols for " h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y . " Anderson (1975, p. 183), examining the nature of language, notes that the re a l power of language i s in i t s prepositional nature. Prepositions i n th e i r most primitive and concrete form seem to be a special kind of pattern i n d i c a t i v e of relations to some patterns i n the non-verbal system. The non-verbal world i s represented through classes of words. Nouns represent things, prepositions represent s t a t i c r e l a t i o n s , while verbs represent changes. Davitz & Davitz (1959) remarked that the communication of feelings i s e s s e n t i a l l y a problem i n discrimination and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Considering the above, the i n d i v i d u a l , through producing and processing language, ir r e s p e c t i v e of whether i t s form i s written or spoken, w i l l perform i n the l o g i c a l or the emotional domains of his/her psychological environments. Since the stimuli perceived and processed w i l l tend to f a l l into the two basic c a t e g o r i e s — l o g i c a l with i t s ongoing experience process orientation and emotional with i t s tendency to d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n --the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be faced with the task to produce language equivalents in order to present or to communicate his/her 3 psychological dispositions. Correspondingly, then, the nature of the language productions should be i n d i c a t i v e of the dynamics of the p a r t i c u l a r domains of processing. Considering the above, language production can be looked upon as having several objectives. As a cause, i t can express the psychological interactions experienced by the in d i v i d u a l regardless of the l e v e l of awareness or subconscious processes, while, as an e f f e c t , i t communicates these processes to the outside world. Through t h i s communication with the outside, physical world, special relationships can be formed and a "frame of reference" can be established (Hebb 1949) . This frame of reference then i s used to est a b l i s h both the quanti-t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of the individual's r a t i o n a l i t y . Since the language production of the i n d i v i d u a l i s the r e s u l t of various processes within the frame of reference, through a content analysis of the language output, written or spoken, i t should be possible to determine, at least i n part, the psychological states or experiences of the i n d i v i d u a l . Undoubtedly, there are many ways content analysis can be approached, but for the purposes of t h i s study, the l e x i c a l or verbal features of in d i v i d u a l written language production w i l l be examined. Here, content analysis i s considered in terms of H o l s t i (1967), as quoted by Gottschalk et a l (1969 , p. 2), that "Content analysis i s any technique for systemati-c a l l y and objectively i d e n t i f y i n g specified c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of messages." 4 Gottschalk and Gleser (1969) and Gottschalk et a l (1969 ) designed an approach to content analysis which employs quanti-f i c a t i o n as an important a t t r i b u t e of determining psychological states while, at the same time, attempts to di s t i n g u i s h q u a l i -t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t emotions and subcategories of these emotions. They remark that the method of content analysis they propose also aims to analyze the latent deeper meanings embedded in the content. A number of content analysis scales were developed by the above authors which measure such e f f e c t s as h o s t i l i t y (inner and outer directed), s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n , human re l a t i o n s , etc. The Gottschalk scales approach content analysis mainly on the basis of "molecular" (themes) l e v e l , but mention i s made of computer assisted systems being developed where, for example, the h o s t i l i t y outward dimension i s assessed only from verbs (Gottschalk, 1973) . Steingart et a l (1979) and Freedman et a l (1979), u t i l i z i n g some of the content analysis scales proposed by Gottschalk, found s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between body and hand movements, speech primacy and emotional states l i k e overt and covert h o s t i l i t y . Steingart et a l concluded that d i f f e r -ences i n how cognitive organization i s revealed by communica-ti v e behaviour i s linked to differences in anxiety expression. Thus, the function, and not necessarily the content of an emotional response, seems to influence the status of cognitive organization and, subsequently, behaviour. 5 Similar conclusions were made by Gottschalk and Uliana (1974) while studying the influence of such body movements as lip-touching. They found that some persons were influenced regarding the content of t h e i r thoughts by evoking memories of o r a l functions when lip-touching, whereas i n other persons lip-touching appeared as a function of thoughts present in the cognitive structure. Evidence suggests that through content analysis i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t emotional states, both q u a l i t a t i v e l y and qua n t i t a t i v e l y . Content analysis can also be related to physical movements and simultaneous speech production thus becoming i n d i c a t i v e of the "frame of reference" which, according to Hebb (1949), influences the nature of processing of the in d i v i d u a l and l i m i t s the perception of p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l i . 6 CHAPTER II THE PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH In Chapter I, the concepts of content analysis were discussed and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to content analysis were b r i e f l y mentioned. Procedures employed by a number of researchers suggest that content analysis i s a s i g n i f i c a n t tool i n both psychological and educational settings. Chapter II consists of a discussion of the relevant research as i t concerns thi s study; the purpose, rationale and objectives of the study are provided. LITERATURE REVIEW CONTENT - PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES Buckminster F u l l e r (1981, p. 343) remarked that no human has ever sensed outside of s e l f d i r e c t l y but only through nerve-related processes interpreted i n the brain. He believed that, as a r e s u l t of t h i s outside-to-inward flow of sensing, patterns are created which, in turn, w i l l manifest through unique behaviours. This seems to support Hebb 1s (1949) idea of a "frame of reference" both for processing and reproducing s t i m u l i . The individual's frame of reference consists of six components: concepts, structures, a f f e c t s , needs, values and i n t e r e s t s . The six components act as a special screen for the processing of external stimuli and, thus, the i n d i v i d u a l interprets external stimuli i n terms of the frame of reference. Thus, the frame of 7 reference assures s e l e c t i v i t y i n terms of the external stimu-l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . Some highly intense external stimuli are not screened out by t h i s process. Individuals, on the other hand, usually ignore many v i s u a l , auditory and other potential s timuli (West & Foster, 1976, pp. 56-82). Interaction of the external and i n t e r n a l stimuli i n i t i a t e s cognition and i s demonstrated through some kind of behaviour. Argyris (1976) indicated the "frame of reference" effects in the decision making process of the i n d i v i d u a l . Although e x p l i c i t l y he did not use the term, his remark that people seem to have "micro theories of action" which they use in decision making i s not far removed from Hebb 1s idea of the "frame of reference" as discussed i n educational terms by West & Foster (1976, Ch. 3). Argyris investigated the decision making process in i n d u s t r i a l environments by asking top management personnel to state goals and objectives i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s and to describe processes (methods) by which to accomplish the stated objectives. The managers also had to indicate the concepts or theories they believed to employ i n t h e i r decision making. Analyzing the responses, Argyris discovered that the managers were t o t a l l y unaware of the fact that they u t i l i z e d a d i f f e r e n t set of theories to a r r i v e at t h e i r decisions than they stated (believed) they used. Further, they were unable to change even aft e r extensive practice. Argyris offered the idea that most people are unaware that they develop two sets of theories for decision making: theories espoused which they believe are 8 used, and theories in use which, remarkably d i f f e r e n t than the espoused ones, they a c t u a l l y employ to arr i v e at a decision. How the frame of reference i n humanistic terms can operate i s best indicated by A r g y r i s 1 model of behaviour. Based on the above-mentioned experiments, Argyris concluded that two basic kinds of behaviour are produced in response to the experimental conditions he described. Model I Behaviour and Model II Behaviour Model I behaviour i s characterized by the practice of human beings to react to the environment much the same as the thermostat reacts to the temperature of the room in which i t i s placed, then produce corrective reactions according to a set of micro-theories. These theories i n use are very d i f f e r -ent from the theories believed to be u t i l i z e d in the decision making. Human beings using Model I behaviour are unaware of the existence of the two sets of theories and when they become aware, they tend to be unable to change. This i n a b i l i t y to change then becomes threatening to the point that i t i n h i b i t s further learning. Thus, Model I, which i s a p a r t i c u l a r example of the operation of the frame of reference, i s a s e l f -regulating cognitive process which i s mainly going to r e s u l t i n maintenance of the already-accepted environment, as perceived by the i n d i v i d u a l . Argyris reported that out of 1,000 subjects tested from a l l walks of l i f e , 95% of the individuals performed in this manner. 9 Model II behaviour i s compared to a double-loop-learning process where the responses and behaviours displayed are under constant scrutiny and study for the purpose of avoiding " s e l f -sealing" behavioural processes. In t h i s model, the theories in use and the theories espoused are conscious units of cogni-t i v e functioning, and are predictive i n nature rather than t r a d i t i o n seeking as i n the case of Model I behavioural responses. In s o c i a l terms, the contents of human psychological functioning were described by Botkin et a l (1979). Society and individuals t y p i c a l l y employ the processes of maintenance or shock learning. This consists of producing t r a d i t i o n a l responses to the environment and learning through reaction to the events rather than a n t i c i p a t i n g them. In maintenance learning, great shocks are necessary to change the t r a d i t i o n a l reactive responses of s o c i e t i e s or i n d i v i d u a l s . Model I behaviour seems to describe t h i s state i n a more operation-a l i z e d way. Model II behaviour has predictive elements and integrated processes for advanced learning. Botkin's concepts of a n t i c i -patory and p a r t i c i p a t o r y learning suggest similar approaches. Anticipation i s the a b i l i t y to foresee coming events and evaluate t h e i r e f f e c t s . It requires not only learning from experience, but also experiencing envisioned situations. Anticipation i s also the creation of new a l t e r n a t i v e s . A n t i c i -pation must be complemented by p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Thus, the authors 10 (Botkin et al,1979) stress that the process of a n t i c i p a t i o n i s a mental a c t i v i t y , while p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s o c i a l one. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s essential to any s o c i a l l y meaningful a n t i c i -pation since more and more people use t h e i r talents to obstruct rather than to create due to the fact that they are not involved i n the decision making, but f e e l required to perform according to decisions handed down to them. Model II behaviour describes these elements i n operational terms and in terms of the i n d i v i d u a l decision making process. Cognitive processes are seen as being created in the human mind i n response to the external and i n t e r n a l perception of s t i m u l i . Hebb's frame of reference i s useful i n approaching the idea of the i n i t i a t i o n of these cognitive processes. Botkin et a l (1979) suggest the cognitive structures u t i l i z e d further to process st i m u l i , and thus to maintain the structures present by constantly adding to them. The r e l a t i o n of the content to the r e s u l t i n g psychological state i s emphasized by pointing out the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r types of stimuli (maintenance shock learning versus a n t i c i p a t o r y / p a r t i c i p a t o r y learning). The authors reject t r a d i t i o n a l responses in favour of innovative expectations. The content which i s easy to i d e n t i f y in the cognitive structures described by Botkin et a l (not to be understood as the only content) i s the idea that t r a d i t i o n a l and innovative elements have d i f f e r e n t values, also, that innovative elements should become more important at present than t r a d i t i o n a l ones. 11 These are concepts according to Hebb which when processed w i l l r e s u l t i n the formation of the cognitive structures, or, in other words, could be taken as indicators of the psycholog-i c a l states of the responding i n d i v i d u a l ( s ) . Thus, the content gains relevance to the state (psychological) of the i n d i v i d u a l . The nature of this psychological state of the ind i v i d u a l i s better indicated by the approach suggested by Argyris. Through his model, one can gain useful understanding as to the nature of the cognitive structures created and employed by the in d i v i d u a l . I t i s also possible to follow the creation of new cognitive structures (Model II behaviour) to some extent. CONTENT ANALYSIS Responses e s s e n t i a l l y r e f l e c t attempts to communicate the psychological state of the i n d i v i d u a l . Social i n t e r a c t i o n b a s i c a l l y contains forms of communication comprised of a set of responses and behaviours with the purpose of communicating the psychological states of in d i v i d u a l s . The processes of communication have been analyzed and studied from many view-points. The intere s t of t h i s investigation has focused on the l e x i c a l or verbal features of communication and learning in a school setting. Gottschalk, Wignet and Gleser (1969) mentioned the tend-ency in early d e f i n i t i o n s of content analysis to consider only the syntactic and semantic elements in verbal responses (Kaplan, 1943; Janis,1949; Berelson,1952). In recent studies, broader 12 d e f i n i t i o n s appeared i n c l u d i n g pragmatics, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s i g n s (words) to the people t h a t produce or r e c e i v e them (Osgood, 1959; Marsden, 1965; H o l s t i , 1967) . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r uses the broad d e f i n i t i o n proposed by H o l s t i (1967) and quoted by G o t t s c h a l k et a l (1969): Content a n a l y s i s i s any technique f o r s y s t e m a t i -c a l l y and o b j e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f messages. S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s expressed the n o t i o n t h a t o b t a i n i n g p r e c i s e and o b j e c t i v e measurements of the k i n d and i n t e n s i t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiences i s extremely d i f f i c u l t (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969; Gottschalk, 1979; S t e i n g a r t et al,1979) . C l i n i c a l p s y c h o a n a l y s i s e m p i r i c a l l y determined t h a t unconscious motives s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e and d i s t o r t p e r c e p t i o n , t h i n k i n g and memory, and t h a t we are l a r g e l y unaware of t h i s . Reports of s u b j e c t i v e experience thus may be imperfect and our a p p r a i s a l s of the s e l f or ot h e r s may be h i g h l y d i s t o r t e d (Gottschalk and Gleser,1969, p. 2; Chapman,1967). N i s b e t t and Wilson (1977) argued t h a t people o f t e n cannot r e p o r t on the e x i s t e n c e o f c r i t i c a l s t i m u l i , thus, the accuracy of s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s i s so poor as to suggest t h a t any i n t r o -s p e c t i v e access t h a t may e x i s t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to produce c o r r e c t or r e l i a b l e r e p o r t s . When people r e p o r t on the e f f e c t s of s t i m u l i , they do t h i s based on some a p r i o r i t h e o r i e s about the c a u s a l connections between stimulus and response. The memory of the c o g n i t i v e processes t h a t operated on the s t i m u l i i s g e n e r a l l y ignored. 13 Subjective reports about higher mental processes are sometimes correct but mainly due to the i n c i d e n t a l l y correct employment of the a p r i o r i causal theories. Gottschalk and Gleser (1969) stressed the tendency of the learning and behaviour theories of focusing on action and frequency of response, making few i f any inferences of the inner, subjective states of the human being. They propose an approach to content analysis of short, spoken speech samples which would u t i l i z e the respective strengths of the psycho-analytic model, the learning theory model and the l i n g u i s t i c model. Through the content analysis method developed mainly by Gottschalk and Gleser and used i n numerous studies (Steingart et al,1979; Gottschalk,1975, 1971, 1973; Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969a and 1969b), complex psychological states were assessed and numerical approximations were provided, assessable in terms of p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The authors report that the method of content analysis they developed was applied to only a few of the r e l a t i v e l y large number of fee l i n g , motivational or cognitive states communicated through language, but express the opinion that the method i s suitable for many other theoret-i c a l and p r a c t i c a l considerations i n both the content and the form of speech behaviour. A detailed description of the Gottschalk content analysis of speech for the human relations scale i s given i n Appendix A. Discussing the possible applications of the Gottschalk scales, the authors suggest a multitude of directions for future 14 research and emphasize the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of content analysis to such areas as: abstractions, thought processes, emotional processes, action processes, states of being, etc. If content analysis i s attempted along the l i n e s of examining single word—grammatical—categories, and afte r making counts of such categories, the researcher may subsequently have to decide how such information i s to be put together in order to draw mean-ing f u l conclusions (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969a, p. 287-289). The above authors did not follow t h i s l i n e of investiga-tion but directed t h e i r e f f o r t s on larger units within the speech samples with t h e i r main interests concentrated toward psycho-therapeutic applications. The purposes of thi s study are directed to the educational implications of content analysis which were b r i e f l y mentioned by the authors. Also, written expression w i l l be analyzed here for ease and r e l i a -b i l i t y of scoring. When spoken samples were compared to written samples of speech, both were found to be equally i n d i c a t i v e of the measured psychological states. Written samples tended to be shorter and some subjects, e s p e c i a l l y mentally disturbed ones, found i t d i f f i c u l t to produce written samples of s u f f i c i e n t length (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969) for the purposes of analysis. This aspect of t h e i r findings concerning the d i f f e r -ence between producing written or spoken speech samples should not be as pronounced on the high school l e v e l . It i s assumed to hold that written samples generally w i l l be shorter than spoken samples would be for the same time unit of testing. 15 Although i t appears that the length of the test samples d i r e c t l y influences r e l i a b i l i t y , the e f fects of such influence w i l l be controlled through the regulation of time for the completion of the responses (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969 ; Gottschalk et a l , 1969 ). Through u n i t i z a t i o n of the responses in case of longer speech samples, or control of available time for the responses, they found that d i f f e r e n t lengths or rates of responses could be compared. The Gottschalk scales, r e l y i n g on larger units for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r psychological states, are e s p e c i a l l y sensitive to variations in speech fluency. In some instances, which could be overly s i g n i f i c a n t i n case of short speech samples, verbal samples contained no scorable references in certain categories. In t h i s case, longer units for coding might be more important than the "atomistic" or single word class type of scoring c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which t h i s study w i l l r e l y on. As content analysis can be approached from many viewpoints, so i t i s possible to examine the relationship of language to demonstrated behaviour. West and Foster (1976, p. 57) emphasize the r e l a t i o n of parts of speech to p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r n a l condi-tions or "states" of the i n d i v i d u a l . More in l i n e with Gottschalk's "atomistic" indicators, they also note the charac-t e r i s t i c s of nouns as symbols for " h i s t o r i c a l " r e a l i t y . This emphasizes a certain s t a t i c fixedness at the expense of "ongoing" experience. 16 Hayakawa (1964) d e t a i l s the process of a r r i v i n g at t h i s s t a t i c fixedness and gives some indications why the process res u l t s i n or indicates a psychological state. Language behaviour has to be approached i n l i g h t of the relationship between language and r e a l i t y . This difference i s the re s u l t of the inte r a c t i o n of our nervous system and the "object" of our experience. Something which i s "not-words" i s being expressed in words. The process of abstraction gives the insight of how t h i s i s accomplished and maintained by the in d i v i d u a l . Since everything i n the nervous system i s in a constant change, and, since everything i n the outside r e a l i t y i s equally i n constant change, the in d i v i d u a l i s going to experience only a small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l object (reality) and, on the basis of the p a r t i a l observation, i t w i l l select the language equivalent for designating the object in r e l a t i o n to the in t e r n a l state. Thus, while the designated object w i l l be labeled (this i s usually an a b s t r a c t i o n — a noun)^ and w i l l be considered in l i g h t of the relat i o n s h i p of the inner and outer environments at the moment of observation, i f i t i s to be useful for future use, i t has to have a certain quality of "a state" which can be extended to similar situations by a l l members of the c o l l e c t i v e where the language i s spoken. This h i s t o r i c a l state i s arrived at by ignoring differences. Hayakawa demonstrates th i s process s t a r t i n g with "cow", notes that "Bessie the cow" i s lower on the abstraction ladder as i t i s limited to only one cow--Bessie. Further abstractions from cow can be "livestock" to "farm assets" to "assets" to "wealth". These are labels and, on the most basic l e v e l s , they function as nouns. 17 This d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g (ignoring differences) can go on on many level s providing us with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of abstrac-tions. Generally, the more differences are ignored, the larger the inclusion class becomes, but, correspondingly, the higher the abstraction becomes while the d e f i n i t i o n s become more and more vague. Ultimately we can a r r i v e at expressions which in nature are highly abstract and may include very wide classes of content or referents. Hayakawa i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s process through the "abstraction ladder" and the idea of "Bessie, the cow". Ultimately, he showed that the abstract "wealth" could be used to refer to Bessie, although, as he remarked, "almost a l l reference" was l o s t to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Bessie, the cow (1964, p. 176-179). An e a r l i e r , more educational approach to the idea of r e l a t i v i s t i c state of perception can be found i n the works of Herbart (1895; 1898a; 1898b; 1913). Herbart advanced the idea of apperception which he under-stood as b a s i c a l l y extending the senses or perception into new areas of learning. This could be accomplished (Herbart, 1898, p. 208) through spontaneous handling of new thoughts. For t h i s to occur, normal perception w i l l have to be associated to other "feelings and ideas". He maintained that for any perception to occur, feelings and ideas must be handled spontaneously. The basic tools of learning i n his view, then, are the thoughts of the learner. Feelings also r e g i s t e r as thoughts, but are sensed by the learner as d i f f e r e n t from the "ideas" which seem 18 to form the l o g i c a l elements i n the cognitive structure. This i s a very similar idea to the "abstraction" process described by Hayakawa. It i s important to note that the apperceptive function r e l i e s on the role of l o g i c a l and emotional elements but, due to the associative interaction, these elements seem to change th e i r function and form a new domain. To best understand t h i s process of apperceiving, or extending the perception into new areas of learning, i t i s going to be i l l u s t r a t e d here by a process of mixing two colours. Take RED for LOGIC and BLUE for EMOTIONS. When we mix the two colours, we create a new one—PURPLE. This new colour, while composed of red and blue, w i l l always appear as purple. It i s possible to separate the two colours and recreate the elements of blue and red, but once they are mixed together, they w i l l appear as a new colour or a new category. In t h i s way, one can assume that the APPERCEPTIVE DOMAIN involves a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t cognitive process which i s created by the int e r a c t i o n of the l o g i c a l and emotional cognitive processes. To use the colour analogy further, one can surmise the interactions and estimate how the associations function. Purple i s a rather unstable colour in that any amount of blue w i l l immediately a l t e r i t toward a bluish purple (more emotional than l o g i c a l associations), while any amount of red w i l l make the purple more reddish (more l o g i c a l than emotional associations). Thus, a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of components w i l l 19 a l t e r the interaction and make the apperception d i f f e r e n t . Emotional elements are unstable and may appear to be quite j u s t i f i e d to the ind i v i d u a l when they reach the l e v e l of aware-ness (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969, pp. 13-14). The l o g i c a l elements, on the other hand, are largely predictable within an agreed-upon frame of reference (Hayakawa, 1964; H a l l , 1976; Howell and Vetter, 1976). When the two components, the l o g i c a l and the emotional, come together, the s t a b i l i t y of the apperceptive domain becomes questionable. One can i l l u s t r a t e t h i s dynamic functioning of the apper-ceptive domain by examining the i n t u i t i v e functioning. I n t u i -t i v e leaps can be quite predictable, usually when l o g i c i s dominant i n the i n t u i t i o n . Other times, e s p e c i a l l y when seem-ingly there i s no " j u s t i f i c a t i o n " for the p a r t i c u l a r idea to occur, new discoveries can be made based on a f e e l i n g that the idea i s "just r i g h t " . Becoming aware of the emotional components of the apperception can suddenly r e s u l t i n success without much obvious l o g i c a l support. What seems best to characterize the Apperceptive Domain i s that i t r e l i e s on normal perception components of lo g i c and emotions but i t can not function exclusively in either. The components make i t an ASSOCIATIVE CONDITION which seems to suggest a certa i n "state l i k e " behavioural application or indications. The Ladder of Abstraction (Hayakawa, 1964) i l l u s t r a t e s the use of exclusions to arr i v e at higher and higher l e v e l s of abstraction. In the creation of larger and larger classes 20 symbolized by single words, the processes inherent i n the ind i v i d u a l members belonging to the p a r t i c u l a r abstraction w i l l be largely excluded. The form of the abstract may, though, imply the processes without d i r e c t l y describing them. This, in the case of nouns, suggests an " h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y " or a state l i k e emphasis rather than an ongoing experience (West and Foster, 1976, p. 57). The l e v e l of abstraction i n the case of nouns may be i n d i c a t i v e of the apperceptive modes of thinking. The expres-sion, "Some nouns are more nouns than others", can be explained by examining i f a noun emphasizes more the l o g i c a l process elements or the emotional "rightness". To i l l u s t r a t e the notion of more "nounness", one can refer to an example offered by Harth (1983, p. 236). He pointed out that the noun "sensation" describes a subjective experience which lacks an appropriate verb. "The verb 'to sense' di r e c t s attention to the sensory apparatus and i t s physical response rather than to the subjective experience of a sensation." Thus, one can accept that the smoke detector senses the presence of smoke, but nobody would say i t i s having a sensation. Compar-ing the nounness of "sensation" to that of "the sense" leaves one with no other option than to " f e e l " sensation as a "more noun". "Sense", on the other hand, may or may not always be considered as a noun. The nounness w i l l be largely determined by the contextual use and not the " f e e l i n g " associated with th i s word. 21 As indicated in the introduction, Anderson (1975, p. 183) suggested that the power of the language i n i t s most primitive form seems to be a special kind of pattern of relationships among classes and t h e i r referents i n the verbal system. Patterns in the verbal system, then, seem to correspond to other patterns i n the non-verbal system. Thus, the non-verbal world i s represented through classes of words where nouns represent things, prepositions represent s t a t i c r e l a t i o n s , while verbs represent changes. Prepositions often can become the objects of thoughts and when operations are performed on them, a world of l o g i c i s opened up. Anderson seems to indicate that l o g i c i s a process of performing cer t a i n operations which seems to be best indicated through the use of verbs. Through the use of verbs, then, one can reference a system of changes or processes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l o g i c . The p o s s i b i l i t y of one word (or one grammatical word class) referencing the inherent processes i n the deep structure of language was suggested by several investigators (Howell and Vetter, 1976; Vetter and Howell, 1971; Lenneberg, 1967). The i n i t i a l a c q u i s i t i o n of language by children i s characterized by single word utterances which may be used by the children as very primitive, undifferentiated forms of sentences. The widely held b e l i e f of the above researchers i s that these utter-ances incorporate the germs of a grammar. Due to the limited nature and number of these utterances, i t i s believed that 22 the context i n which they are used w i l l modify the deep s t r u c -t u r e i m p l i c a t i o n s . Howell and V e t t e r ( 1 9 7 6 , p. 2 2 3 ) b e l i e v e t h a t these one-word u t t e r a n c e s are i n f a c t l a b e l s i n which the "grammatical q u e s t i o n " i s not r e l e v a n t . By s t u d y i n g these one-word u t t e r -ances, the authors b e l i e v e an understanding of e a r l y concept formation can be gained. Some important i n d i c a t i o n as to the way t h i s single-word r e f e r e n c i n g i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l of the c o g n i t i v e processes r e f e r e n c e d comes from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of Brown and B e l l u g i ( 1 9 6 4 ) . They concluded t h a t , a t l e a s t i n E n g l i s h , the sequenc-ing of two words marks a new stage of development i n the c h i l d ' s use of language. The two-word sequence i s not a mere j o i n i n g of two independent e n t i t i e s . Single-word u t t e r a n c e s c a r r y primary s t r e s s and have t e r m i n a l i n t o n a t i o n contour, but, when, f o r example, "push" and "car" are put i n t o a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c -t i o n , "push c a r " , the "push" w i l l c a r r y a l e s s e r s t r e s s and lower p i t c h and w i l l l o s e i t s t e r m i n a l contour. The "car", on the o t h e r hand, w i l l g a i n higher p i t c h and r e t a i n i t s primary s t r e s s and contour. T h i s seems to be i n d i c a t i n g the a p p e r c e p t i v e c o n d i t i o n s represented through the use of nouns (which most single-word u t t e r a n c e s are or f u n c t i o n as such, e s p e c i a l l y i f one accepts them as " l a b e l s " ) s t i l l being dominant, while the more p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d i n i t i a l l o g i c somewhat de-emphasized. T h i s c o u l d be the r e s u l t of the f e e l i n g on the p a r t of the c h i l d t h a t the l o g i c of thought processes was once a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d i n 23 the apperception and need not be re-emphasized again on the same l e v e l . To determine the semantic relationships, a care-f u l analysis of the context i n which the utterances occurred must be accomplished (Howell and Vetter, 1976, p. 226). The communication of feelings i s e s s e n t i a l l y a problem in discrimination (Davitz and Davitz, 1959). The discrimination i s usually accomplished according to some scales of judgement (Hayakawa, 1964). The language of every-day l i f e shows a multi-valued orientation, except i n the case of v i o l e n t quarrels and controversies. In a s i t u a t i o n of actual combat, the perception of the participants narrows down to the concepts of "myself and the enemy". This i s accompanied by muscular tension, accelerated heart beat and c i r c u l a t i o n , and'the release of hormones by the adrenal glands into the blood stream to contract the a r t e r i e s to slow down the blood flow in case of injury. This i s a "two valued" orientation. Discrimination i s accomplished according to opposites. If something i s not good, i t must be bad. When language i s used instead of actual combat, and the primitive outlets for expressing fear, hatred or anger are not r e a d i l y available, verbal assaults are substituted which are accompanied by similar physiological e f f e c t s as actual combat but probably of lesser i n t e n s i t y . Thus, some individuals who are quick to lose tempers and slow to regain them are in an almost constant state of emotional tension. In these instances the "two valued orientation" may become a way of l i f e (Hayakawa, 1964, pp. 230-231). 24 The language of every-day l i f e i s usually less r e s t r i c t e d and emotional q u a l i t i e s are expressed along "multi-valued orientations". We have "very bad", "not bad", " f a i r " , "very good", etc. The greater the number of d i s t i n c t i o n s , the greater the number of courses of action implied (Hayakawa, 1964, p. 249). The increased a b i l i t y to discriminate comes mainly through the increase of interests according to Hayakawa. The two valued orientation i s an ind i c a t i o n of a single i n t e r e s t . The degree of emotional commitment i s expressed through the multi-valued orientation, which, in turn, i s represented through the a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between emotions. This seems to be best represented through the use of adjectives. Adjectives seem to i d e n t i f y the existence or presence of emotional responses, while d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s or gradations of emotions are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d through the three degrees of comparison or through the p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t i v e or predicative use of the adjectives (Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, 1957). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS An individual's frame of reference i s a highly selective screen between him and his external world. This screening structure determines the way various stimuli are or are not attended to. Largely, as a re s u l t of the function of the screen, the stimuli attended to and the resultant responses show discrepancies i n that a response i s not an exact r e p l i c a 25 of the stimuli producing i t . Obviously, a response i s only a representation of the processing of the various s t i m u l i . In this way, responses can be richer than the stimuli i n i t i a t i n g them due to the incorporation of the already exi s t i n g internal stimuli with the incoming external ones (Hebb, 1949). Selective attention and emphasis within the frame of reference r e s u l t s i n what can be considered as a context which i s a conceptual model comprised of not only the stimuli attended to or screened out, but also what i s referenced by the stimuli or responses on conscious or subconscious l e v e l s . Spoken language i s an abstraction of an event, while writing can be considered as an abstraction of spoken language which serves as a reminder of what somebody did or said (Hall, 1967, p. 75). Abstractions are created within a context and th e i r meaning should be examined within the o r i g i n a t i n g context (Hayakawa, 1964; Howell and Vetter, 1976; Erown and B e l l u g i , 1964). The importance of the context i s emphasized by Hall (1976) when he stressed the notion that language productions being only simpli-f i e d or altered variations of the real events they describe, r e l y for a part of th e i r meaning on contextual use. Hayakawa (1964), i l l u s t r a t i n g the processes of abstracting, noted that higher abstractions are produced through the process of exclu-sions. Only those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an experience are retained for the higher abstractions which can coincide with other events. In t h i s way, much of the d e t a i l s are l o s t referencing d e t a i l s of p a r t i c u l a r processes making up the ind i v i d u a l member 26 of the abstractions, but an a l l - i n c l u s i v e p r i n c i p l e i s generated which allows communications of extreme complexity. In t h i s way, language productions can be representative of large units of cognitive patterning of the "not-word" patterns. These "not-word" patterns are, then, the psycho-l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l and the speech patterns are only the representational aspects of these psychological r e a l i t i e s (Anderson, 1975; Hayakawa, 1964). Considering the above, the conclusion can be drawn that language spoken or written i s a context within which the psychological patterns of the individuals are represented. Words are only representations of the "non-word" patterns, and, depending on the degree of abstraction, they may become representative of smaller or larger patterns. Stimuli on one l e v e l of abstraction can be assessed as one type not p a r t i c u l a r l y important, while, on other (higher or lower) level s of abstraction, the same stimuli may become extremely important. In t h i s way, d i f f e r e n t stimulus dimensions can be created by the i n d i v i d u a l . Several stimulus dimensions can combine into a domain where p a r t i c u l a r types of patterns w i l l be processed, stored or created. Thus, we can, u t i l i z i n g the exclusion process for abstracting suggested by Hayakawa, produce p a r t i c u l a r types of words which i n the context of the language w i l l stand for, or reference, large uniform areas of cognitive processes and conditions. 27 Logical processes are similar to the processes creating the language i n that they r e l y upon an agreed set of rules and values and become activated i n the process of being compared to the accepted rules as relevant dimensions for judging. The process orientation i s of primary importance, while the context serves as the frame i n which the process can operate. The context of l o g i c i s c l o s e l y t i e d i n with the culture setting of the i n d i v i d u a l , but the process orientation of l o g i c i s not. Thus, we can assume that words which reference the domain of l o g i c a l processing w i l l only be representative and w i l l not become the domain i t s e l f . An access to the presence of those patterns comprising the emotional domain i s b a s i c a l l y a process of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . While the l o g i c a l domain r e l i e s on orderly and predictable patterns which are highly context referenced, the emotional domain i s not necessarily an orderly one. Arbitrary d i s t i n c -tions are as v a l i d as those based on orderly processes. The nature of processing i s discrimination i n degree or i n t e n s i t y . The context i n which these discriminations take place i s highly i n d i v i d u a l , although some general conditions p r e v a i l for a l l individuals, t h i s i s achieved mainly through the use of the language responses. As noted above, adjectives are word classes best suited to reference the emotional domain. Adjectives can function comparatively, a t t r i b u t i v e l y and pr e d i c a t i v e l y . In a l l th e i r functions they b a s i c a l l y discriminate between referents to things (nouns) and process (verbs). 28 T h e o r i e s of emotion e x h i b i t the widest p o s s i b l e d i v e r s i t y to the p o i n t t h a t some t h e o r i s t s even doubt the e x i s t e n c e o f emotions independently e n t e r i n g i n t o the organism's informa-t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . Others formulate emotions as p a r t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t y i t s e l f ( S t e i n g a r t et a l , 1979). For the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the l a t t e r view w i l l be accepted. T h i s was supported by S t e i n g a r t et a l when they remarked i n the c o n c l u s i o n s of t h e i r study concerning language behaviour and hand movements t h a t , based on t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , emotions s i g n i f y important d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t a t u s of i n f o r -mation p r o c e s s i n g ( c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ) d u r i n g communication behaviour. The nature o f the r e l a t i o n between emotions and other c o g n i t i o n i s not so c l e a r l y emphasized by r e s e a r c h e r s . While the n o t i c e was made of the d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of emotions from t h a t o f p h y s i c a l movements or even l o g i c , t here seems to be no agreement to anything e l s e than the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of emotions on other forms of c o g n i t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n s i d e r s Herbart's understanding of app e r c e p t i o n as an example of how l o g i c a l c o g n i t i v e components can i n t e r a c t with those o f emotional ones and r e s u l t i n an ext e n s i o n o f new knowledge. I t i s acknowledged here t h a t t h i s approach, which i n c l u d e s such t h i n g s as i n s t i n c t s , i n t u i t i o n s , e t c . , seems a b i t i d e a l i z e d i f taken to an extreme. The purpose here i s not to imply t h a t a l l a p p e r c e p t i v e a c t i v i t y w i l l r e s u l t i n ext e n s i o n of the knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l , 29 but to propose a th e o r e t i c a l framework to examine the i n t e r -action of processes and emotional responses to these processes through s p e c i f i c language productions. As indicated before, nouns seem to be most suited to reference the apperceptive domain. Verbs expressing operations on various cognitive struc-tures w i l l be assumed to reference l o g i c a l cognitive a c t i v i t i e s , thus, w i l l be taken as indicators of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the l o g i c a l domain. Adjectives performing discriminations and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s w i l l be taken to represent the emotional domain. Content analysis within the confines of t h i s investigation w i l l be considered i n terms of l i n g u i s t i c (written) productions. Although a certa i n degree of a r b i t r a r i n e s s i s present i n the assertion of what p a r t i c u l a r word classes represent in the cognitive organizations of the i n d i v i d u a l , e s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s study can be considered as an extension of what Gottschalk c a l l s "atomistic" approach to content analysis of high school students' writing. Given that available research i s almost non-existent as d i r e c t l y bearing on t h i s approach, a certa i n a r b i t r a r i n e s s i s hard to avoid. An attempt had to be made to assemble relevant facts from widely scattered investigations to develop the framework suitable to th i s approach. This was done to the best a b i l i t i e s of th i s investigator. It i s believed that the investigation of any response or behaviour, as demonstrated through short, written samples of high school students, analyzed in a predetermined and systematic manner, 30 w i l l improve the understanding of the psychological r e a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l and eventually r e s u l t i n improvements i n design-ing i n s t r u c t i o n a l interventions. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The present study investigates the p r e f e r e n t i a l use of the following three word classes by high school students as demon-strated i n b r i e f written samples of language productions: verbs, nouns and adjectives. The study addresses the following questions: 1) What i s the extent of consistency of choice concerning the use of p a r t i c u l a r word classes? 2) What changes can be expected i n the word class choice across time and testing mode? 3) How w i l l the dominant word class counts be effected when students are asked to a l t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l stand and take a d i f f e r e n t one? 4) W i l l students show d i f f e r e n t magnitudes of emotional involvement (as indicated by the Human Relations Scale) under the three word class categories? 5) W i l l there be an inte r a c t i o n e f f e c t between the dominant word class and the emotional involvement of subjects? 31 6) W i l l the mental thrust, as indicated by the p a r t i c u l a r dominant word class counts, predetermine the way students w i l l be able to consider s p e c i f i c responses? RATIONALE The rationale for t h i s study comes from the need to i d e n t i f y simple ways useful i n normal classroom settings, to determine the p r e f e r e n t i a l thinking styles of high school students. It i s widely held by researchers that special testing almost always produces the expected findings. An impartial and independent assessment of the d i s p o s i t i o n of the students under these conditions seems lim i t e d . It i s f e l t by many that there i s a need for assessing psychological dispositions i n natural settings and that these psychological dispositions have serious bearing on the actual performance of individuals (Gottschalk, 1975; Hayakawa, 1964). In educational settings, a simple testing procedure may r e s u l t in the timely design of e f f e c t i v e interventions to increase or produce o r i g i n a l learning. An educator, aware of his students' psychological states, can more e f f e c t i v e l y judge the necessary methods to be employed to avoid such occurrences as disenchantment or s o c i a l a l i e n a -tion which, under classroom conditions, can r e s u l t in p a r t i a l achievement or none at a l l . At present, the Gottschalk content analysis scales u t i l i z e b r i e f spoken samples of speech to determine such psychological 32 s t a t e s as h o s t i l i t y or human r e l a t i o n s , but the assessment i s achieved through complicated s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s which, while y i e l d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n about the p a r t i c u l a r psycho-l o g i c a l s t a t e s , are not e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d f o r classroom use. OBJECTIVES As i n d i c a t e d i n the r a t i o n a l e above and i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, the main o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study a r e : 1) to expl o r e the extent o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f ch o i c e concerning the use of verbs, nouns and a d j e c t i v e s ; 2) to examine the i n f l u e n c e o f the p a r t i c u l a r dominant word c l a s s on l a t e r p r o c e s s i n g and responding; 3) to examine the nature of i n t e r a c t i o n of p a r t i c u -l a r word c l a s s e s and how they r e l a t e to the mental t h r u s t (dominant response mode) of the i n d i v i d u a l i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . To address these o b j e c t i v e s , assumptions were made as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the occurrence o f verbs i d e n t i f y i n g the engagement of l o g i c a l processes, nouns r e f e r e n c i n g the apper-c e p t i v e domain and a d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i n the emotional domain. 33 CHAPTER III METHOD Chapter III includes description of the populations sampled and discussion of the experimental procedures used, including the two written forms used to obtain b r i e f samples of writing. The f i n a l section of t h i s chapter discusses the data analysis used in t h i s study. SUBJECTS A group of 92 volunteer subjects were tested i n i t i a l l y . Thirty-eight female and f i f t y - n i n e male grades 11 and 12 students from a suburban high school i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o n s t i -tuted Group I. Group II was composed of 8 3 students of the i n i t i a l group of high school students: f i f t y - f i v e males and twenty-eight females. A t o t a l of nine students were dropped from the study due to circumstances preventing re-testing (1 verb dominant, 7 noun dominant and 1 adjective dominant). Students were drawn on a voluntary basis from d i f f e r e n t academic and vocational subject areas. These subject areas were: Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Art, Metalwork, Computer Science and Mathematics. An i n i t i a l attempt was made to record the achievement standing of a l l students, but t h i s was discontinued a f t e r i t became evident that not a l l co-operating teachers were w i l l i n g to do thi s for a l l the students. Instead, a request was made to try to include an equal number of high, medium and low achievers. This was agreed to by the classroom 34 teachers but no data were available l a t e r to confirm the ov e r a l l success of thi s attempt. It was judged by the experi-menter to be reasonably successful. The 83 students tested and re-tested represented approxi-mately 9% of the t o t a l school population. The percentage breakdown per t o t a l subject matter population i s not available due to the fact that the school operates on a semester schedule and enrolment varies from time to time. Also, both grade level s (11 and 12) i n the school may e n r o l l i n any grade l e v e l subject. It i s estimated that between 15% and 25% of students engaged in a p a r t i c u l a r subject area at the time of testing were p a r t i c i p a t i n g . However, t h i s may be considered a f a i r l y good representation. MATERIALS The materials used i n t h i s experiment consisted of two typed forms. Form I consisted of two parts. Part one requested the subject to write down any ten words. Part two provided a stimulus word and the subject was asked to respond to i t . Stimulus words were chosen to give as l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n as possible to the notion of what kind of answers were expec-ted; at the same time, an attempt was made to provide words to which a l l subjects can respond i n some manner. Form II, the re-test form, consisted of two parts as well. In part one, the subjects were given eight words which were taken either from th e i r i n i t i a l responses (control group) or provided according to the experimental conditions (experi-35 mental group) and were asked to write down what important communication came to them. In part two, subjects were asked to take a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t stand to th e i r o r i g i n a l stand and explain i t in writing. Both Form I and Form II were folded before being given to the subjects. Subjects had to complete part one on both forms before they could see part two. Both Form I and Form II are included i n Appendix B with the stimulus words i n i t i a l l y employed in Test I. Form I included sp e c i f i e d time l i m i t s for both parts (2-3 minutes), but Form II limited the length of responses by co n t r o l l i n g the available space for writing (Appendix B). PROCEDURE I n i t i a l l y , Form I was administered to a group of male and female grade 11 and grade 12 students. The form was folded on the indicated f o l d l i n e (Appendix B) and the forms were given to each subject teacher for presentation to the volunteering students. Each teacher was asked to try to ensure as much as possible that both male and female students would p a r t i c i p a t e . The teachers were asked to try to also ensure that a good mix-ture of high, medium and low achievers would p a r t i c i p a t e . Nine volunteer teachers participated from ten d i f f e r e n t subject areas. The subject areas represented were chosen from the vocational, art, language and science sections. It was reasoned that since no random selection of students was poss-i b l e , t h i s selection of volunteer subjects would s t i l l provide an adequate sampling procedure. The teachers were instructed 36 to give the following information i n addition to the instruc-tions presented on the forms: Mr. X (the name of the investigator was given) i s conducting an experiment with a possible follow-up l a t e r . He would l i k e some volunteers to p a r t i c i p a t e . The forms given here are designed to give you enough in s t r u c t i o n to respond to them i n any way you wish. After reading the top part, and answering i t , you can unfold the sheet and complete the bottom part as well.- Please do not unfold the paper before you have completed the top part. Testing was done in the regular classrooms where the students attended lectures. Tests were administered either before class began, during the class, or immediately aft e r a l l i n s t r u c t i o n and assignments were completed i n the course of regular sessions. No systematic attempt was made to admini-ster the tests i n any other way. Students were asked to obey the time l i m i t s set out i n the instructions on the sheets (2-3 minutes) but no attempt was made to control for obeying the time l i m i t s other than aft e r approximately f i v e minutes, the forms were co l l e c t e d (for d e t a i l s of Form I, see Appendix B) . After the i n i t i a l t e sting was completed, the forms were scored as to the number of VERBS, NOUNS and ADJECTIVES pro-duced i n the course of responding to the conditions set out in Form I. Both parts of the form were scored independently. Part one of Form I had to be scored i n the following manner: In the preceding p i l o t studies as well as in th i s one, d i f f i -c u l t i e s were experienced i n c l a s s i f y i n g words into word classes when the context was not c l e a r l y indicated. It i s the nature 37 of the language (English) that many words, depending on the contextual use, can function in a l l three word class categor-ies. To avoid making "educated guesses" concerning the way the student intended to use the p a r t i c u l a r word, the same word was counted into a l l of the word classes i t could have belonged, given the proper contextual reference. (This prac-t i c e was followed only to c l a s s i f y verbs, nouns and adjectives.) When the words appeared i n a context, the d i f f i c u l t y i n scoring was not experienced. Words were c l a s s i f i e d according to the i r function into the appropriate verb, noun or adjective word classes. Part (a) of Form I asked the student to write down ten words i n two minutes maximum allowed time. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l a s s i f y i n g words were uniformly experienced in part (a) for a l l students. Both parts of Form I were scored and combined to divide subjects into three categories, depending on the highest counts of verbs, nouns or adjectives. In a very few instances, where subjects double loaded on two word classes, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into the dominant group was decided on the basis of scores obtained from texts (Form I, part (b)) rather than from simple word productions. This was decided i n order to avoid biasing the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of individuals into predominantly noun categories. Previous p i l o t studies indicated that the dominant response mode to "Write down X words" i s nouns. The f i r s t part of Form I, i n most cases, resulted in l i s t i n g ten words, and only very seldom in production of any texts. 38 When d o u b l e l o a d i n g s o c c u r r e d , u s u a l l y t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l i e d on t h e d o m i n a n t l o a d i n g o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h s c o r i n g t h e s e c o n d p a r t ( p a r t (b)) o f Form I . A l l o t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o word c l a s s g r o u p s were p e r f o r m e d b a s e d on t h e combined s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on Form I, b o t h p a r t (a) and p a r t ( b ) . T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e t h r e e word c l a s s l o a d i n g s . The f o l l o w i n g s t i m u l u s words were p r e s e n t e d , a s i n g l e word t o e a c h s u b j e c t , w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f s u b j e c t a r e a , w o u l d be a b l e t o r e s p o n d i n some manner: POINT, A POINT, LINE, A LINE, SPACE, TIME, SPACE-TIME, TIME-SPACE, METALWORK, DESIGN The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r words q u o t e d above was b a s e d on t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d be a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o t h e s e words w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y and s p o n t a n e o u s l y . The words u s e d were c o n s i d e r e d common enough t o be p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r y and n o t t o s u g g e s t any " r i g h t " o r "wrong" a n s w e r s . A l l words, e x c e p t "metalwork" were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s . " M e t a l w o r k " was r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d o n l y t o t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e m e t a l w o r k c l a s s e s . Under t h e r e - t e s t c o n d i t i o n (Form I I , p a r t s (a) and ( b ) ) , t h e i n i t i a l t h r e e g r o u p s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o d o m i n a n t v e r b , noun o r a d j e c t i v e g r o u p s ( s c o r e s f r o m Form I) were f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two e q u a l p a r t s f o r e a c h word c l a s s . I n t h i s manner, s i x g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s were f o r m e d . F o r e a c h r e s p e c t i v e word c l a s s c a t e g o r y , t h e g r o u p s were i n i t i a l l y b a l a n c e d ( i n t h e r e - t e s t 39 treatment, some subjects were l o s t from a l l groups - see page 33 f o r breakdown), but the word c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s were not balanced among each other due to the tendency of the subjects to respond i n noun terms more than i n any of' the other two c a t e g o r i e s . No attempt was made to balance any of the groups according to sex. Students under each word c l a s s were randomly s p l i t i n t o two groups of CONTROL and EXPERIMENTAL. In p a r t (a) of Form I I , a set of eight words were pre-sented to the students. A request was made to i n d i c a t e what important communicatio n they had r e c e i v e d from the words presented. The e i g h t words were considered s u f f i c i e n t to p r o p o r t i o n -a l l y balance the three word c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n 12% - 15%. A smaller number of words could have r e s u l t e d i n l e s s f l u e n t responding, while a l a r g e r number of words may have r e s u l t e d i n " t i r i n g " the students and i n c r e a s i n g chances of not respond-i n g to a l l of the cue words. P r i o r p i l o t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t when subjects were asked to provide ten words, the i n i t i a l f i v e to e i g h t words were given w i t h h a r d l y any pause, but the next two words seemed very hard to provide. Thus, i t was considered here that the upper l i m i t of e i g h t words would be appropriate to e l i c i t the maximum spontaneous responding. For the c o n t r o l group, words were s e l e c t e d from the p r e - t e s t (Form I) and an attempt was made to p r o p o r t i o n a l l y represent the s c o r i n g i n a l l three c a t e g o r i e s f o r each student 4 0 within 12% - 15%. This meant that the dominant high score was present as well as the sub-scores i n the other two categories. No new words were added to the stimulus words under any of the control treatment groups. For the experimental groups, new words were selected. These were chosen to support the dominant word class scores of each of the students. The words were selected to refer to the student's contextual references on Form I, but they were not the same words used by the student. This meant that i f , for example, the subject scored highest on nouns on the pre-test, then new nouns from the student's contextual references were generated and presented in the post-test, further supporting the dominant category of the subject's scores from Form I. In part (b) of Form II, both the control and the experi-mental subjects were asked to take a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t stand than i n part (a) of Form II, and explain i t as f u l l y as they could. The elapsed time between the pre-test (Form I) and the post-test (Form II) was between seven and ten days. Both parts of Form II were scored and the scores were combined to esta b l i s h i f the subjects changed categories or remained i n the same word class category as they scored on Form I. Table 2 indicates the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the students into the three word class loadings. 41 DATA ANALYSIS Tests of Consistency Consistency of preference of using verbs, nouns or adjectives was measured i n two ways. 1) Consistency over time. For each subject, a dominant word class category was assigned aft e r completion of Form I. Seven to ten days l a t e r , the same subject was tested and a dominant word class category was again assigned a f t e r comple-tion of Form II. For each word class category, the d i s t r i b u -tion of students with respect to the word class categories they occupied on Form I and Form II, a comparison was made using a chi square analysis for two related samples. The Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) was computed for Form I and Form II to test the agreement of ranking sub-jects into VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE word categories under the two treatment conditions (Forms I and I I ) . 2) Consistency over test mode. For Form I and Form II, a chi square analysis to determine the significance of d i f f e r -ences among the three independent word class categories was computed. Cochran's Q was computed to compare Form I to Form II. This test i s recommended (Siegel, 1956) for testing whether three or more matched sets of frequencies or propor-tions d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among themselves. A chi square analysis for two independent samples was computed for compari-son of preference of word class categories for male and female subjects. Control and experimental groups with combined male/ 42 female subjects were compared using a chi square analysis for two independent samples for the NOUN and VERB categories. For f i v e highly fluent (90 words or more produced on Form II) subjects i n the VERB and NOUN categories, and for four subjects i n the ADJECTIVE category, Gottschalk's Human Relations Scale was scored. The mean scores for each word class category were computed. A graphic representation was used to present the scores (see Figure 1 and Table 8). The Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance was computed for the scores obtained on the Human Relations Scale to test the agreement of the three word class categories measuring d i f f e r -ent magnitudes of emotions (Table 9). 43 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Chapter IV presents a description of the experimental groups of subjects and the results of analyses. Description of the Experimental Groups There were 83 students from grades 11 and 12 tested on both Form I and Form I I : 55 males and 28 females. Based on the scores obtained on Form I, 16 males and 5 females were c l a s s i f i e d as VERB DOMINANT (pages 37-38; t o t a l 21 subjects). 36 males and 21 females (total 57 subjects) were c l a s s i f i e d as NOUN DOMINANT (pages 37-38). 3 males and 2 females (total 5 subjects) were c l a s s i f i e d as ADJECTIVE DOMINANT. The groups, VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE dominant (pages 37-38), 2 di f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (x =15.69, df=2, p=\001; Table 1). Tests of Consistency 1) Consistency over time. On the post-test (Form I I ) , again the groups VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE dominant d i f f e r e d s i g n i -2 fxcantly (x =8.64, df=2, p=.02; Table 2), but there was no significance between the two treatment conditions (Form I and Form II) (x2=5.23, df=2, p>.05; Table 3). Kendall's C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) indicated nearly perfect agreement between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores obtained under the two treatment conditions and that of a "perfect" theore t i c a l model represented by the Kendall W (Table 4, N=83, k=3, S=10.02, W=0.00002). Siegel (1956 , p. 230) suggested that t h i s kind of use of the W i s j u s t i f i e d . Here, i t i s 44 taken that the W indicates the consistency of the phenomena associated with the various word class categories under the two treatment conditions (Forms I and I I ) . 2) Consistency over test mode. Consistency of word class preference was not a function of sex. The males did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the females on the combined scores (Form I and Form II) i n th e i r preference of using VERB/ NOUN/ADJECTIVE dominant word classes (x2=.56, df=2, p>. 05; Table 5). The pr o b a b i l i t y to perform on either of the forms (Form I and Form II) was the same for a l l groups of VERB/NOUN/ 2 ADJECTIVE dominant word classes. (Cochran's Q, x =5.23, df=2, p>.05) Table 3 indicates the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of students (male/female) into the dominant word class categories under the two treatment conditions (Form I and Form I I ) . The test of group differences for the experimental and control groups under the VERB and NOUN dominant word classes showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences using the chi square for two independent samples. No test for differences for the ADJECTIVE dominant groups were performed since the small size of these groups made i t meaningless to compute any scores. Si m i l a r l y , only the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the combined male/female groups were examined due to the small samples of female subjects i n 2 some of the categories (x =1.1714, df=l, p>.05 - NOUN dominant, 2 x =.0111, df=l, p>.05 - VERB dominant). The frequency d i s t r i -butions for the changes are presented i n Table 6 for the NOUN dominant groups, and in Table 7 for the VERB dominant groups. 45 The values on the Gottschalk Human Relations Scale showed differences in the magnitude of emotions associated with the d i f f e r e n t word class categories, with ADJECTIVE dominant subjects having higher scores than either of the VERB dominant or NOUN dominant subjects. The VERB dominant subjects showed the least variations, while the NOUN dominant subjects showed the most variations. ADJECTIVE dominant subjects had the highest mean score, while NOUN dominant subjects had the lowest mean score. This scale i s claimed to indicate the presence and measure the magnitude of certa i n emotions associated with the notion of human r e l a t i o n s . For more on the Gottschalk Human Relations Scale, refer to Appendix A. Table 8 indicates the obtained values on the Human Relations Scale. Figure 1 presents the same data through a graph. The obtained value of the Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) was very small (W=.0042). This indicates l i t t l e possible agreement between the three word class categor-ies and th e i r associated magnitude of emotions (as measured by the Human Relations Scale). This i s taken to indicate that the d i f f e r e n t word class categories were associated with s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t magnitudes of emotions. Table 9 gives the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores from the Human Relations  Scale (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969) for 14 highly fluent high school students. It must be noted that the Human Relations Scale may y i e l d p o s i t i v e and negative values. In the calculations of the 46 Kendall W, i t was considered appropriate to regard p o s i t i v e and negative values as indi c a t i n g a certain degree (magnitude) of emotions. Therefore, the obtained scores were used as absolute values rather than negative or pos i t i v e ones. A l l calculations are based on the absolute values of the scores. (Calculations based on the r e l a t i v e values of the scores yielded W=.0027 which was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the W=.0042 for the absolute values of the scores.) Summary The grouping of subjects into VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE dominant categories revealed s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n frequency. This significance was equally v a l i d for both test modes and across testing time. Although there were ind i v i d u a l changes i n categories from Form I to Form II, these were not s i g n i f i c a n t on a group/category l e v e l . There were no s i g n i -f i c a n t differences found as to the preference of word class categories according to gender either. Further, the experi-mental and control conditions did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence the word class preferences of either sex or under the combined treatment conditions. The values obtained on the Human Relations Scale were d i f f e r e n t for a l l word class categories, with the ADJECTIVE dominant subjects obtaining the highest values, while the NOUN dominated subjects showed the greatest variance. 47 Table 1 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Pre-Test Conditions (Form I - Parts a & b) Condition VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVES Form I Part a 4.33 76.66 3.66 Form I Part b 21.00 55.00 5.00 i3, x2=15. 69, df=2, p <.05 (significant) Note: S p l i t c r e d i t assigned to subjects double or t r i p l e loading on categories. 48 Table 2 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Post-Test Conditions (Form II - Parts a & b) Condition VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVE Form II Part a 25.83 53 . 33 3.83 Form II Part b 46.50 36 . 50 2 . 00 N=8 3, x2=8.64, df=2, p<.05 (significant] 1 Note: S p l i t c r e d i t assigned to subjects double or t r i p l e loading on categories. Table 3 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n into Categories of under Pre-Test and Post-Test of High School Students VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE Conditions (Form I & Form II) Test VERBS NOUNS ADJECTIVE Form I a & b 25.33 131.66 8.66 Form II a & b 72.33 89.83 5.83 N=83, x2=5.23, df=2, p>.05 (n.s Note: S p l i t c r e d i t assigned to subjects double or t r i p l e loading on categories. 50 Table 4 Di s t r i b u t i o n of Scores Across Test Periods (combined Tables 1 and 2; Form I a/b and Form II a/b) for Kendall's C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) Word Form I Form II Category a b a b VERB 4 .33 21. 00 25.83 46 . 50 NOUN 76.66 55. 00 53 . 33 36. 50 ADJECTIVE 3.66 5.00 3.83 2 .00 N=83, k=3, s=10.02, W=0.00002 Note: Here, the W i s an index of divergence of the actual agreement shown in the data from the maximum poss-i b l e (perfect) agreement (Siegel, 1956, p. 230) that a l l parts of a l l tests measure the same phenomenon associated with VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE word classes. 51 Table 5 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of High School Students According to Gender into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Treatments I & II (Form I & Form II) Treatment I & II VERB NOUN t ADJECTIVE Males (N=55) 65.83 145.66 11.16 Females (N=28) 31. 83 75.83 3 .33 x 2 = .56, df=2, p>.05 (n.s.) 52 Table 6 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Changes for the Experimental and Control Groups for NOUN DOMINANT High School Students Treatment Noun Verb Control 15 9 Experimental 2 5 8 x2=1.1714, df=l, p>.05 (n.s.) Note: Students changed category from noun dominant to verb dominant. No subject changed to the adjective dominant category. Table 7 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Changes for the Experimental and Control Groups for VERB DOMINANT High School Students Treatment Verb Noun Control 9 2 Experimental 8 2 x2=.0111, df=l, p>.05 (n.s.) Note: A l l subjects changed to noun dominant category. No subjects changed to adjective category. 54 Table 8 Values obtained on Gottschalk's HUMAN RELATIONS SCALE for the Magnitude of Emotions in the VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE Categories for a Small Sample of Highly Fluent Subj ects S Verbs Nouns Adj ecfives 1 1. 54 .72 1.27 2 1.54 . 00 1.29 3 1.52 -1.44 2. 96 4 1.74 1.65 2 . 39 5 1.65 -1.61 - -X = 1.59 X = 1.08 X = 1.97 Note: The means are calculated based on absolute values of the scores. 55 Table 9 Dis t r i b u t i o n of the Scores from the Human Relations Scale (Gottschalk & Gleser, 1969) for the Calculation of the Kendall C o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance (W) Human Relations Scale Word Class Scores for Emotions (H.R. Scale) S l S2 S 3 S4 S5 Verb 1. 54 1. . 54 1. 52 1 .74 1 .65 Noun 0.72 0. . 00 -1. 44 1 .65 -1 .61 Adjective 1.27 1. .29 2. 96 2 . 39 0 .00 N=14, k=3 , s=8 . 6438 , W= . 0042 Test of Significance 2 x =. 1638 , df= 13, 05 (n . s . ) Note: The low value of the W (.0042) indicates that the d i f f e r e n t word class categories are associated with d i f f e r e n t magnitudes of emotion. 56 Table 10 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of 83 High School Students (55 Males, 28 Females of Grades 11/12) into DOMINANT CATEGORIES of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Pre-Test (Form I) and Post-Test (Form II) Conditions Form I (a & b) Male Female Total Verb 16 5 21 Noun 36 21 57 Adjective 3 2 5 x2=1.2626, df=2, p>.05 (n.s. Form II w , „ -, m , , r i \ Male Female Total (a & b) Verb 21.5 13 34.5 Noun 31.5 15 46.5 Adjective 2.0 0 2.0 x2=1.3073, df=2, p>.05 (n.s.) Note: S p l i t c r e d i t assigned to two subjects for double  loading on categories. 57 Table 11 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of 8 3 High School Students (55 Males, 28 Females of Grades 11/12) into DOMINANT CATEGORIES of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Combined Pre- and Post-Test (Form I & II) Conditions Form I (a/b) Form II (a/b) Male Female Total Verb 37 . 5 18 55.5 Noun 67 . 5 36 10 3.5 Adjective 5.0 2 7 . 0 x2=.1774, df=2, p>.05 (n.s.) Note: S p l i t categories assigned to two subjects for double loading on categories. 58 Table 12 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of 83 High School Students (55 Males, 28 Females of Grades 11/12) into Categories of VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE under Treatments I (Form I a/b) and II (Form II a/b) Males/Form I (N=55) Verb Noun Adj ective (a) 3.50 49.83 3.33 (b) 16 . 00 34 . 00 3 . 00 Males/Form II (a) 16 . 33 35.83 2 .83 (b) 30. 00 26 . 00 2 . 00 Females/Form (N=28) I (a) 0.83 26.83 0.33 (b) 5. 00 21. 00 2 . 00 Females/Form II (a) 9. 50 17 . 50 1. 00 (b) 16 . 50 10. 50 0.00 Note: S p l i t categories were assigned to subjects double and t r i p l e loading on categories. 59 3* 1 2 3 4 5 subjects FIGURE 1 Values obtained for the Magnitude and Frequency of Emotions on the Gottschalk Human Relations Scale f o r selected highly fluent subjects i n the VERB,NOUN,ADJECTIVE Categories 60 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Summary of Results The objectives of thi s study (as described on pages 31-32) were to: 1) explore the extent of consistency of choice concerning the use of verbs, nouns and adjectives; 2) examine the influence of the p a r t i c u l a r dominant word class on l a t e r processing and responding; and 3) examine the nature of inte r a c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r word classes and how they relate to the mental thrust of the individuals in educational settings. Accordingly, the study was designed to obtain evidence which would address or answer the following s p e c i f i c questions: 1) What i s the extent of consistency of choice concerning the use of p a r t i c u l a r (VERBS/NOUNS/ADJECTIVES) word classes? 2) What changes can be expected in the word class choice across time and testing mode? 3) How w i l l the dominant word class counts be effected when students are asked to a l t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l stands and take a d i f f e r e n t one? 61 4) W i l l students show d i f f e r e n t magnitudes of emotional involvement (as indicated by the Human Relations Scale) under the three word class categories? 5) W i l l there be an int e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between the dominant word class and the emotional involvement of subjects? 6) W i l l the mental thrust, as indicated by the parti c u -l a r dominant word class counts, predetermine the way students are able to consider s p e c i f i c responses? The r e s u l t s f u l f i l l these objectives since the data answer the foregoing questions. In summary, i t was found that: 1) high school students, regardless of sex, s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n th e i r choice of using VERB/NOUN or ADJECTIVE word classes as th e i r dominant response mode. Further, the dominant response mode i s maintained consistently across time (7 to 10 days) and across test mode (Form I and Form I I ) . 2) high school students do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l dominant word class category when asked to take a d i f f e r e n t stand to that of th e i r preferred one expressed previously. 3) small samples of highly fluent high school students show d i f f e r e n t magnitudes of emotional involvement on the Human Relations Scale under the three word class categories. 4) small samples of highly fluent students under ADJECTIVE dominant response mode showed the highest emotional magnitudes, while students under VERB dominant response mode 62 showed the l e a s t v a r i a b i l i t y . Students under NOUN dominant response mode showed the most v a r i a b i l i t y of emotional magnitudes. 5) some changes had o c c u r r e d i n the use of dominant response c a t e g o r i e s on i n d i v i d u a l bases under the d i f f e r e n t treatment c o n d i t i o n s ; they were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant concerning the experimental group as a whole. Students were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , but showed d i f f e r e n t emotional involvement under the r e s p e c -t i v e response modes. T h i s l e a d s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the mental t h r u s t , as measured by the dominant word c l a s s , had more i n f l u e n c e i n c o n s i d e r i n g s p e c i f i c responses than d i d the treatment c o n d i t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n s I t i s d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e the f i n d i n g s of the present study to p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h other than w i t h i n the framework suggested i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . The need to i d e n t i f y simple ways u s e f u l i n normal classroom s e t t i n g s to determine the p r e f e r e n t i a l t h i n k i n g s t y l e s of high school students i s experienced by t e a c h e r s . Although instruments e x i s t to determine t h i n k i n g s t y l e s , they are e i t h e r too lengthy and complicated, or r e q u i r e high l e v e l t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the r e s u l t s . In classroom i n t e r v e n t i o n , r e s u l t s of such t e s t i n g w i l l be f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by the continuous i n t e r a c t i o n o f students with teachers, b r i n g i n g 63 the matter of teacher influence on the performance of the students into question. Decisions made under these conditions must be cautiously made, at best. Classroom teachers, on the other hand, often are interested in not the general d i s p o s i t i o n of students, but a p a r t i c u l a r observation related to s p e c i f i c lessons or topics. To accomplish any understanding of the momentary response of the i n d i v i d u a l students to p a r t i c u l a r topics under considera-tion, a content analysis of short, written or spoken samples of students' work can be performed. This could be u t i l i z e d to gain p o t e n t i a l l y useful information as to the presence or absence of any degree of i n t e r e s t , and the capacity of the individual student for constructive, mutually productive, or s a t i s f y i n g human relat i o n s h i p (-Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969, p. 220). Gottschalk and Gleser (1969) advanced the idea that the r e l a t i v e magnitude of such capacity or need as indicated above, often seemed to be an important factor in how well patients responded to treatment, or how successful one was in a career or i n learning from others. The r e s u l t s of the present study indicate that the students tested employed certain word classes (VERBS/NOUNS/ ADJECTIVES) in a highly consistent manner, but that i n d i v i -duals d i f f e r e d i n their preference as to the response mode. Many students seemed to habitually use more nouns than verbs, and only very few students habitually employed the adjectives 64 as t h e i r dominant response mode when writing short answers to the kind of stimulus used here. Previous researchers noticed the r e l a t i o n s h i p of adjectives and nouns in memorizing. (Paivio, 1963; Lambert and Paivio, 1956) Both researchers found that NOUN-ADJECTIVE word groups were learned more e a s i l y when the nouns preceded rather than followed the adjectives. They pointed out that the habitual use of the English language would suggest that the ADJECTIVE-NOUN order i s the more common use of the l i n g u i s t i c patterns, but that the habitual use of the language seems to be overridden by other factors when memorizing adjectives and nouns. Unfortunately, while the function of nouns acting as conceptual "pegs" from which t h e i r modifiers can be hung, was used to explain the approach to the i n v e s t i -gations, no s a t i s f a c t o r y explanations were provided as to why adjectives could not accomplish t h i s function. In the present study, i t was theorized that adjectives reference the emotional domain where the main function i s to discriminate and d i f f e r e n t i a t e . (Davitz and Davitz, 1959) One would expect that to discriminate, the object or subject of discrimination has to be s p e c i f i e d beforehand. This could be the nature of the "peg". The noun would focus attention on the object or subject of thought, and only a f t e r t h i s focusing i s achieved can the individual proceed with d i f f e r -e ntiation or discrimination. This order seems to come easier to individuals i n spite of the language-imposed constraints 65 and could be considered representative of a person's psycho-l o g i c a l state (Paivio, 1963; Lambert and Paivio, 1956). Some indications that the emotional domain i s referenced by adjectives comes from the investigation of a small group of adjective dominant students i n the study. The Gottschalk Human Relations Scale was used to obtain scores for the frequency and magnitude of emotions which t h i s scale i s supposed to measure. (For more on t h i s scale, see Appendix A.) Adjective dominant students had the highest scores of the three word class groups i n the study. This i n d i c a t i o n (in the expected direction) of higher emotional involvement for adjective-oriented high school students has to be taken with some caution due to the primarily small sample of p a r t i c i p a -ting students and the lack of other outside measures confirm-ing the above findings. The notion of apperception was mainly developed along the explanations offered by Herbart (pages 17-22) and was compared to the mixing of colours. The mixing of colours represented the interaction of the two domains. It was pointed out that d i f f e r e n t amounts of emotions or l o g i c w i l l expectedly be associated with d i f f e r e n t nouns. In some nouns, the more l o g i c a l elements i n others, the more emotional elements w i l l p r e v a i l . The expectations under the Human Relations Scale, then, would be a fluctuation in the emotional elements for students with the noun dominant response mode. This was again confirmed, but the same 66 cautious acceptance i s urged as i n the case of the adjective dominant students due to small sample sizes. Verb dominant response mode was expected to show the most stable emotional involvement. The magnitude of the emo-tions i n i t i a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r verb-logical response was not the subject of t h i s investigation, but i t was expected that once the action was i n i t i a t e d , the emotional involvement would not show great variations but would remain steady for a l l subj ects. These expectations were also confirmed on the Human Relations Scale for the verb dominant subjects. In a l l three categories, only a small number of students were compared on the Human Relations Scale. The reason for this was that only a very limited number of students were c l a s s i f i e d into the adjective dominant cl a s s . And, in order to make any comparison somewhat meaningful, i t was decided to compare the performance only of those highly fluent students who s a t i s f i e d the 70-100 word performance c r i t e r i o n suggested by Gottschalk. The re s u l t s obtained tend i n the expected d i r e c t i o n for the p a r t i c u l a r word class categories. This, although with caution, i s taken as an optimistic i n d i c a t i o n that further research, designed to examine these aspects associated with the dominant response mode of the subjects, would be warranted. Further support for the above conclusions comes when the consistency over time and test mode i s taken into account. 67 Some changes were noted in individual scores, and a number of subjects changed dominant response modes, but t h i s was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (see Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). The changes seemed to f a l l into a pattern where the verb dominant subjects (both male and female) changed to noun dominant subjects, while the noun dominant subjects changed to verb dominant ones. Any changes occurring in the adjective dominant category was to noun dominant response mode. This suggests that the i n i t i a l number of words produced might not have been a large enough sample to properly determine the individual's dominant response mode. Gottschalk also suggested a minimum number of words to be taken for v a l i d measurement of indi v i d u a l psychological states or moods. It was also stated that a minimum of 7 0 words were required i n t h e i r studies to r e l i a b l y employ the various Gottschalk scales. In the present study, no minimum l i m i t s were entertained, but a l l indications are that the small sample of word productions w i l l r e s u l t i n errors when c l a s s i f y i n g students into dominant word class categories (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969; Gottschalk et a l , 1969) . Implications for Education The classroom teacher i s continuously faced with the c o n f l i c t between t e s t - s p e c i f i c learning as measured by p a r t i -cular tests, and the broader domain of desirable learning outcomes. The resultant learning under these conditions 68 becomes compartmentalized into i s o l a t e d b i t s of knowledge. The functioning of the student i s thus viewed i n l i g h t of the separate subject matters and iso l a t e d sets of testable s k i l l s . Above a l l , no uniform c r i t e r i a are available to consider any unity of knowledge. Knowledge i s considered and accepted only in terms of the tests administered. It i s a phenomena observed i n high school that large numbers of students at one time or other w i l l be "turned o f f " to learning. Testing done under these conditions w i l l not be a true indicator of the student's knowledge, but, rather, his/her willingness, i n c l i n a -tion, motivation, etc. to comply with the testing. Education implies, and often i s supposed to have, much broader connotations. At present, testing, at least for scholastic achievement, does not allow the examination of such things as, for example, willingness to learn or to be tested. These concepts i n the students' perceptions can occupy import-ant proportions. For the educator, i t can be more important to examine than to determine the actual degree of learning as i t relates to the topics under study. The present study established that students u t i l i z e language d i f f e r e n t l y under similar conditions of testing. Assumptions were made i n the rationale for t h i s study as to the referencing of p a r t i c u l a r domains through VERBS, NOUNS and ADJECTIVES. These assumptions were that verbs largely could be i n d i c a t i v e of l o g i c a l nouns of apperceptive and adjectives of the emotional domains. The present study could 69 not confirm these assumptions beyond any doubt, but provided indications that the p o s s i b i l i t y exists to assume the above relationships. While generalizations have to be cautious at this point, one can see the possible uses of a content analysis based on short, written samples of high school students. The method involves minimal int e r a c t i o n of the teacher with the students, while scoring the method requires a simple counting of the relevant words into VERB/NOUN/ADJECTIVE categories. Apart from the cautious conclusions being drawn on the basis of t h i s study, s i g n i f i c a n t insights can be gained as to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ind i v i d u a l students. Several of the Gottschalk v a l i d a t i o n studies report single words being used to determine the presence of feelings, moods or emotions (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969). Adjective check l i s t s were developed to measure h o s t i l i t y ( h o s t i l i t y inward -directed against the s e l f , and h o s t i l i t y outward - directed toward others). Subjects were asked to cross out words which they f e l t did not apply to t h e i r feelings and check o f f the ones which applied to them. Short, written samples obtained from high school students can be re a d i l y analyzed through a count of the relevant word categories without r e l y i n g on the report of subjective experience and, at the same time, much of the teacher-student interaction may be avoided. A scoring system could be developed using the relevant word categories to detect the l o g i c a l and not only the emotional parts measured by the Gottschalk method. This system then could be validated 70 against other v a l i d tests of personality (Edwards Personal Preference Scale, Matching Familiar Figures Test, 16 pf, et a l ) . Students seem to be consistent in t h e i r response mode under d i f f e r e n t testing conditions and across time (7-10 days) with the largest number of students preferring the noun dominant response mode. The classroom teacher, by analyzing several short, written samples of a student, can gain an understanding of the psychological responses of the student. If the otherwise noun dominant student suddenly changes dominant response modes from test to test, t h i s may be reason to pay more attention to the student and f i n d out what the causes may be for the i r r e g u l a r performance. It could be emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s or simple i n a b i l i t y to follow the l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n . The method of content analysis offered here can not at t h i s time determine what the causes may be, but i t may give an early i n d i c a t i o n of some future problems developing and to the possible nature of problems experienced by the student. Although most students responded i n noun dominant modes, the p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining only the adjectives or other secondary loadings and using them as indicators of the various psychological states was not explored. Adjective check l i s t s employed i n the Gottschalk v a l i d a t i o n studies to detect emotions could be compiled from the written responses just as e a s i l y as from separate tests. S i m i l a r l y , verbs or nouns could be separated and examined as indicators of psychological states. 71 In s k i l l or action based i n s t r u c t i o n , the verb-oriented response mode seems to be more relevant. The student who per s i s t s in a noun response mode may have a too-general under-standing of the topic. On the other hand, adjective-orienta-tion may indicate procrastination or indecision. Future research may prove the relat i o n s h i p of the pa r t i c u l a r word classes to various domains. This would provide an educationally d i f f e r e n t approach to assessing student performance. It also could be developed to produce a framework for integration of various subject matters into a composite whole. This would allow the classroom teacher to continuously follow the progress of students with minimal interference, while, at the same time, design appropriate intervention to promote s p e c i f i c learning outcomes. An appropriate application (after more research on thi s t o p i c ) , in the opinion of thi s investigator, could be mastery learning in normal classroom setting where d i f f e r e n t students could proceed with equal rate of learning toward a set learning outcome, achieving the same l e v e l of comprehension under in d i v i d u a l learning interventions. At present, t h i s i s mainly impossible to accomplish due to time constraints imposed on the operations within the learning environment i n regular school settings. When the diagnostic tools are simple and quick to admini-ster, the teacher i s free to i n d i v i d u a l i z e the ins t r u c t i o n and, thus, allow the student to accomplish the stated learning tasks. 72 The present study o f f e r s some of the basic concepts and procedures for the development of such a diagnostic tool applicable i n regular classroom settings. Recommendations for Future Research It i s the opinion of thi s researcher that the implications of t h i s study far outreach the actual findings. P i l o t studies were conducted i n the e a r l i e r stages of this research, where adults from d i f f e r e n t professions and trade backgrounds as well as elementary and high school students were asked to write down words. The main purpose of these p i l o t studies were to determine i f short or very short, spontaneous written samples would be i n d i c a t i v e of how individuals respond to the environment. The p i l o t studies indicated that even as short a verbal sample as f i v e words may be used to esta b l i s h patterns i n responding to the environment. The i n i t i a l responses i n these short samples suggested an ind i c a t i o n of some kind of deter-mination on how to best respond to the stimuli presented to the subjects. In other words, intentions were displayed to form or display a "frame of reference" to assess the nature of the stimuli presented. When ten words were obtained from subjects, the i n i t i a l attempt to esta b l i s h the "frame of reference" was displayed, but also some indications were produced as to the intent of what to do with the information gained by the processing of s t i m u l i . 73 This phenomenon did not seem to be always on the l e v e l of conscious decision making. The subjects, on the other hand, regardless of age, sex or education, tended to group into mostly noun dominant, secondly verb dominant, and only very seldom adjective dominant response modes. This did not seem to change even when one of the subjects used the d i c t i o n -ary to give the required speech samples. The p i l o t studies asked for only independent words, but did not explore i f the word categories would be used in the same way i n sentences or short texts. Although an assumption was made that in sentences as well as i n single-word produc-tions the majority of the subjects would tend to use nouns as the dominant response mode, i t was not expected that the proportions would be so extreme as results indicated l a t e r (see Tables 1, 2 and 3). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the subjects into mainly noun and verb dominant categories produced conditions where the adjec-t i v e dominant group was so small that there were doubts as to the usefulness to compare the adjective group to the rest of the subjects. This put constraints on the study. Future studies could eliminate t h i s apparent unwillingness of high school students to produce adjectives by inc l u s i o n i n the design of requests to produce as many adjectives versus nouns or verbs i n a given time as they can. This would ensure that with some adjust-ments, the Human Relations Scale could be applied to a l l 74 subjects. This would, i n turn, allow broader conclusions to be made as to the frequency and magnitude of emotions associ-ated with the three dominant response modes. Some of the Gottschalk scales (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969, p. 148) implied or suggested such possible uses with single-word responses. To test how thinking styles relate to p a r t i c u l a r word classes, one could measure subjects' performance on appro-priate outside c r i t e r i a before and a f t e r obtaining short, written samples, and examine the relationship of the d i f f e r e n t dominant response modes to the thinking processes employed by the subjects. Human speech i s one aspect of behaviour that communicates emotions, sensory experiences, memory, plans and one's assess-ment of events and objects (Gottschalk and Gleser, 1969). The nature of t h i s communication i s under frequent examination by researchers and educators. The framework of t h i s study allows one to pose questions as to the interactions of l i n g u i s t i c habits and constraints imposed by the use of c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c forms. The present study gave some indications that language habits or testing conditions may be shed in preference to cer t a i n cognitive patterns when short, written samples are considered. Further, when one i s asked to a l t e r one's views, these patterns do not seem to be disturbed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Paivio (1963) also noticed that language constraints can be 75 ignored when other factors override the habitual use of the language. This kind of approach could give several directions for future research. For example: Would the findings of the study presented h e r e — t h a t English-speaking high school students tend to select noun dominant modes of responding— primarily hold true for other language groups? This question would have to be considered i n l i g h t of the contentions of some investigators that language largely determines the nature of perceptions or even the presence and detection of certain s t i m u l i . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s i s possible by comparing the Navaho Indians to the English-speaking populations. Navaho being a verb-oriented language would not allow grouping into nouns or adjectives for the preferred response modes. The study of the Navaho language reveals that nouns or adjectives as d i s t i n c t word classes do not ex i s t (Kluckhohn and Leighton, 1948). To convey the meaning of most Navaho words, i n English one must produce whole sentences. On the other hand, the Navaho can not r e a d i l y generalize to abstract events l i k e r a i n . While the English language allows a variety of ways to express that i t i s raining, the Navaho must make fin e r speci-f i c a t i o n s to report whether he, himself, experienced the rain, or has reason to believe that rain has been f a l l i n g for some time in his l o c a l i t y , or the experience of the phenomenon was conveyed to him by others. 76 Whorf (1940) argued that i n English, we divide most of our words into noun and verb categories that have d i f f e r e n t grammatical and l o g i c a l properties. Nootka, a language of Vancouver Island, then, seems to us to contain only verbs; t h i s implies that the speakers have a monistic view of nature, and a l l kinds of events are treated through a single class of words. In Nootka, the English "house" may be "a house occurs", " i t houses", etc. The Nootka terms are i n f l e c t e d for durational and temporal nuances. The house can thus be an enduring house, a temporary house, etc. These terms seem l i k e verbs to the English speaker. One can study the constraints of the language on the user under these conditions, but i t i s not clear i f influenced by the language, the frame of reference was constructed to exclude cer t a i n types of stimuli or the absence of c e r t a i n stimuli caused the language to develop along d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . Under the assumptions that verbs reference l o g i c a l operations i n the cognitive structure, the study of d i f f e r e n t language conditions within the Navaho could provide useful information i f the above assumptions were correct. Nootka may also be useful for t h i s kind of research. The Navaho and Nootka findings raise the question of the frame of reference creating the environment, or i f the envir-onment precludes c e r t a i n stimuli from ever becoming conscious and, thus, active in the awareness of the user of any p a r t i -cular language. The Whorf-Sapir concept of l i n g u i s t i c 77 r e l a t i v i t y (Whorf, 1956), whereby language i s considered as largely responsible for the organizing and shaping of experi-ence, has not been set t l e d , but i t has been a source of fascination and much debate (Howell and Vetter, 1976, p. 360). A possible approach, using the model offered through t h i s study, might be worth exploring further. Another more p r a c t i c a l consideration would be to i n v e s t i -gate the consistency of dominant response modes of high school students over a longer time period. These findings could provide some understanding of how stable the dominant response mode of individ u a l s would be over a school year; comparing th i s to grade point averages, IQ scores and personality measures could provide possible indicators as to the expected learning outcomes when lessons are presented through mainly noun, verb or adjective dominant presentations. It i s conceivable that the learning outcome may be p a r t i a l l y dependent on teaching s t y l e . Teaching style i s suggested here to be examined i n terms of how the teacher presents cert a i n topics. What are the dominant presentation modes of the teacher as compared to the students? Would the teacher who uses highly d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and discriminating lecturing techniques be as e f f e c t i v e in achieving the expected learning outcomes as the one using verb or noun-oriented approaches? The p o s s i b i l i t y exists that p a r t i c u l a r topics are better presented through dominant noun responses than dominant adjective or verb techniques. 78 An i n s t r u c t i o n a l unit designed around the idea of i n t e n t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l i n g the balance of p a r t i c u l a r word classes during presentation of a topic could control the largely i n t u i t i o n a l approaches used to design presentations. Obviously, the ideas for further research presented here do not exhaust a l l the possible applications of the content analysis proposed here, but they do provide some directions future research might take. 79 REFERENCES Anderson, Barry F., Cognitive Psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1975, 143-245. Argyris, Chris, Theories of Action that Inhibit Individual Learning. American Psychologist, September 1976, 638-654. Botkin, James W., Elmamdjra, Mahdi, Malitza, Mircea, No Limits  to Learning. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979. Buckminster F u l l e r , R., C r i t i c a l Path. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981. C a r r o l l , J. B. (Ed.) 1956. Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press. Chapman, Loren, J., I l l u s o r y Correlation i n Observational Report. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal  Behavior, 1967, 6, 151-155. De Garmo, Charles, Herbart and the Herbartians. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916. Dunkel, H. B., Herbart and Education. New York: Random House, 1969. Dunkel, H. B., Herbart and Herbartianism: An 'Educational Ghost Story. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970. Gottschalk, L. A., Quantification and Psychological Indicators of Emotions: The Content Analysis of Speech and Other Objective Measures of Psychological States. In L. A. Gottschalk, M.D., The Content Analysis of Verbal  Behavior: Further Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. Gottschalk, L. A., The Psychoanalytic Study of Hand-Mouth Approximations. In L. A. Gottschalk, M. D., The Content  Analysis of Verbal Behavior: Further Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. Gottschalk, L. A., The Application of a Method of Content Analysis to Psycholtherapy Research. In L. A. Gottschalk, M.D., The Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior: Further  Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. 80 Gottschalk, L. A., Children's Speech as a Source of Data Toward the Measurement of Psychological States. In L. A. Gottschalk, M.D., The Content Analysis of Verbal  Behavior: Further Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. Gottschalk, L. A., and Uliana, R. (1974), An Experimental Study of Influence of Hand Mouth Stimulation of Content Free Association. Unpublished Manuscript, c i t e d i n L. A. Gottschalk, The Psychoanalytic Study of Hand  Mouth Approximations. In L. A. Gottschalk, M.D., The Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior: Further  Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. Gottschalk, L. A., and Gleser, G. C , The Measurement of  Psychological States Through the Content Analysis of  Verbal Behavior. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969. Gottschalk, L. A., Wignet, C. N., and Gleser, G. C , Manual  of Instructions for Using the Gottschalk-Gleser Content  Analysis Scales. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969. Hal l , Edward T., Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Press/ Doubleday, 1976 ,-Harth, E r i c , Windows on the Mind. New York: Q u i l l , 1983. Hayakawa, S. I., Language i n Thought and Action. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1964. Herbart, J. F., The Science of Education. Boston, New York, Chicago: D. C. Heath & Co., 1895. Herbart, J. F., Application of Psychology to the Science of Education. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898(a). Herbart, J. F., Outlines of Educational Doctrine. London: MacMillan & Co.,Ltd., 1913. Herbart, J. F., Letters and Lectures on Education. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., Ltd.; Syracuse, New York: C. W. Bardeen, 1898(b). H o l s t i , O. R. , Loomba, J. K. and North, R. C , Content Analysis. In The Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. G. Lindzey and E. Aronson. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1967. 81 Howell, Richard W., and Vetter, Harold J., Language i n Behavior. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1976. Lambert, W. E., and Paivio, A., The Influence of Noun-Adjective Order on Learning. Canadian Journal of  Psychology, 1956, 10(1), 9-12. Nisbett, R. E., and Wilson, T. D., T e l l i n g More than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes. Psychological Review, 1977, Vol. 84, Number 3, 231-259. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., and Tannenbaum, P. H., The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, Chicago, and London: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1957 Paivio, Allan, Learning of Adjective-Noun Paired Associates as a Function of Adjective-Noun Word Order and Noun Abstractness. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1963, 17(4), 370-379. Sapir, Edward, Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1921.. Siegel, S., Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956 . Steingart, I., Grand, S., Margolis, R., Freedman, N., and Buchwald, C , A Study of the Representation of Anxiety in Chronic Schizophrenia. In L. A. Gottschalk, M.D., The Content Analysis of Verbal Behavior: Further  Studies. New York: S. P. Medical & S c i e n t i f i c Books, 1979. West, C. K. and Foster, S. F., The Psychology of Human  Learning and Instruction i n Education. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1976, C. 3, 55-89. 82 APPENDIX A The Gottschalk-Gleser Method of Measuring the Magnitude of Psychological States It i s claimed that the r e l a t i v e magnitude of a psycho-l o g i c a l state can be v a l i d l y estimated from the typescript of two to f i v e minutes of speech of an in d i v i d u a l (Gottschalk, 1975). Written samples produced in the same time l i m i t s tend to be shorter but provide s i m i l a r l y v a l i d estimates. Variations i n the content of verbal behaviour can account for such psychological states as anxiety, h o s t i l i t y outward, h o s t i l i t y inward, s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n , human r e l a t i o n s , hope, achievement s t r i v i n g s , etc. To determine the magnitude of any one psychological state at any one period of time, the scales r e l y on the following: 1) the frequency of occurrence of categories of statements; 2) the degree to which the verbal expression represents or i s pertinent to the ac t i v a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c psychological state; 3) the degree of personal involvement of the speaker attributed to the relevant feelings, actions or events. Mathematically, the degree of d i r e c t representation i s indicated by the weighting factor. Higher weights, by 83 APPENDIX A ( c o n t ' d ) i n f e r e n c e , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e v e r b a l sample i s c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s t r o n g , c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s ( f e e l i n g s , e v e n t s , e t c . ) . R e p r e s s e d o r c o m p l e t e l y u n c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g s o f any k i n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d n o t t o r e p r e s e n t s t a t e s o f h i g h m a g n i t u d e , and a r e w e i g h t e d z e r o . E a c h t h e m a t i c c a t e g o r y i s a s s i g n e d t h i s n u m e r i c a l w e i g h t i n g w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e l a t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e t h e m a t i c c a t e g o r y i s a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . The p r o d u c t o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f use o f p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s o f v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s and t h e n u m e r i c a l w e i g h t s a s s i g n e d t o e a c h t h e m a t i c c a t e g o r y a r e u s e d as o r d i n a l measure o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . T h i s means t h a t when t h e s p e a k e r e x p e r i e n c e s g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l o r f e e l i n g i n v o l v e m e n t s , i t i s assumed t h a t more r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made t o t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e m a t i c c a t e g o r i e s ; t h u s , m u l t i p l y i n g t h e w e i g h t o f t h e c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e number o f t h e m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l s t a t e . The r a t e o f s p e e c h may v a r y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e same i n d i v i d u a l may v a r y f r o m t i m e t o t i m e o f t e s t i n g . I n o r d e r t o compare v e r b a l s a m p l e s composed o f d i f f e r e n t numbers o f words, a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r i s u s e d . T h i s c o r r e c -t i o n f a c t o r e x p r e s s e s t h e s c o r e o f t h e f e e l i n g s t a t e o f t h e s p e a k e r s i n terms o f a common d e n o m i n a t o r - - t h e s c o r e p e r 100 words. 84 APPENDIX A (cont'd) The HUMAN RELATIONS SCALE used i n t h i s study u t i l i z e s the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r by t a k i n g the t o t a l raw score and d i v i d i n g i t by the number of words spoken or w r i t t e n and m u l t i p l y i n g t h i s by 100. To reduce the skewness of the score d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the square r o o t of the c o r r e c t e d scores i s o b t a i n e d . The authors c l a i m t h a t t h i s method (square r o o t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) tends to make the o r d i n a l s c a l e approximate the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i n t e r v a l s c a l e . For more indepth study o f the v a r i o u s s c a l e s developed by the authors, one i s r e f e r r e d to the works c i t e d before (Gottschalk and G l e s e r , 1969; G o t t s c h a l k , Wignet and G l e s e r , 1969) . The Human R e l a t i o n s S c a l e was developed with the purpose of p r o v i d i n g a systematic instrument f o r a q u a n t i t a t i v e estimate of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree of i n t e r e s t i n and h i s c a p a c i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e , mutually p r o d u c t i v e or s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C l i n i c a l impressions seemed to i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e l a t i v e magnitude of such a c a p a c i t y or need was an important f a c t o r i n how w e l l p a t i e n t s responded to treatment, how s u c c e s s f u l l y a person i s advancing i n h i s / h e r c a r e e r , or even how w e l l one l e a r n s i n s c h o o l . Content c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e s : h e l p i n g , s u p p o r t i n g , p r o t e c t i n g o t h e r s ; warm, l o v i n g , c o n g e n i a l human r e l a t i o n s ; m i s s i n g o t h e r s when they are away; ma n i p u l a t i v e , e x p l o i t i v e , c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; d i s p l a y -8 5 APPENDIX A (cont'd) ing and withholding a f f e c t i o n , i n t e r e s t , approval, etc. (For more information and complete scale, see Gottschalk and Gleser, 1 9 6 9 , pp. 220-227). Various content categories considered constructive in re l a t i n g to other people were assigned p o s i t i v e weights while other categories l i k e competition or aggression were assigned negative weights. It i s possible to show a zero score on th i s scale i f the negative and positi v e weights are balanced. The authors reported several studies for validations of the scale. I t was assumed that the Human Relations Scale was measuring a factor similar to the needs for a f f i l i a t i o n and nurturance as measured by the Edwards Personal Preference  Scale. The correlations between scores on the Human Relations Scale and the a f f i l i a t i o n , nurturance and succorance scales of the Edwards Schedule were reported to be .36, .53, .36. Correlations with Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and f i r s t and second quarter grade point averages of college freshmen were found s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . On the other hand, couples with good marital adjustment obtained higher scores than couples with poor marital adjustment when tested on the Human Relations Scale. The couples were asked to make up stores j o i n t l y to four TAT cards. In a preliminary investigation, an interscorer r e l i a b i l -i t y of .85 i s also reported by the authors for two independent 86 APPENDIX A (cont'd) scorers. The results are considered highly encouraging by Gottschalk and Gleser (1969) . 87 APPENDIX B Form I (a/b) PLEASE WRITE DOWN TEN WORDS. (Time: two minutes) (fold line) PLEASE RESPOND TO THE WORD BELOW. (Time: three minutes) NAME GRADE MALE/FEMALE 88 APPENDIX B (cont'd) Form I I (a/b) NAME WHAT IMPORTANT COMMUNICATION COMES TO YOU FROM ( f o l d l i n e ) TAKE A TOTALLY DIFFERENT STAND TO YOUR ORIGINAL IDEAS AND EXPLAIN IT AS FULLY AS YOU CAN 89 APPENDIX B (cont'd) SAMPLE: VERB CONTROL STUDENT: MALE M N/V A/N N N N/V FORM I: (a) today, Pack man, school, l a t e , Renee, desk, work, M/v ' M N/V pen, paper, name VERB: 4/NOUN: 9/ADJECTIVE: 1 A H A N V V (b) Metal work, metal work: learning how to work N V V with metal. Shaping, creating with your N V V W A imagination, planning to make something useful. A N v v v Different machinery to learn how to use, f i l i n g , V V V V V grinding, sanding, forging, shaping a l l have to V A N do with metal work. VERB: 15/NOUN: 7/ADJECTIVE: 4 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM I: VERB DOMINANT (based on Part b) N V A A N ^ FORM II: (a) Imagination i s the most important thing i n metal N N H V V work or pretty well anything else, creating i s A N v equally important learning you get that while V • V N you work you need s k i l l s but not a great deal because you learn with experience. Shaping, V V V V V use, make, a l l have to do with creating and imagination. To do refers to learning i f you V V A V have a l l these you be good at what you do. VERB: 18/NOUN: 1O/ADJECTIVE: 5 V A N V N (b) To be any good experience leads to everything V V V/ V else. Creating, learning, planning etc. I don't V know. VERB: 7/NOUN: 2/ADJECTIVE: 1 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM II: VERB DOMINANT 90 APPENDIX B (cont'd) SAMPLE: NOUN CONTROL STUDENT: MALE V/H V/M N/V N N/V FORM I: (a) k i l l , s t e a l , school, soccer, sports, people, N/V A, V/N V/N weather, sunny, h i t , run VERB: 7/NOUN: 9/ADJECTIVE: 1 N V M V N V (b) a l i n e i s something taught in math. It i s a N N N V V s/ segment of points. A l i n e doesn't have to be A A A M straight or any s p e c i f i c length. VERB: 6/NOUN: 7/ADJECTIVE: 3 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM I: NOUN DOMINANT (based on Parts a and b) rt V A H V FORM II: (a) something that i s straight, an object, i t s N V v H A here, problems, must do something, how long, N N N part of something, goals VERB: 4/NOUN: 7/ADJECTIVE: 2 (b) a l i n e i s slang for cocaine, two l e t t e r s with V N A V an " i " , to do with school, another term to do N with math . VERB: 4/NOUN: 9/ADJECTIVE: 1 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM II: NOUN DOMINANT 91 APPENDIX B (cont'd) SAMPLE: ADJECTIVE CONTROL STUDENT: MALE V A N A V FORM I: (a) deceive, homely, mystery, majestic, describe, A A A A homesick, d i g n i f i e d , crafty, because, modern VERB: 2/NOUN: 1/ADJECTIVE: 6 A N N N (b) A f u t u r i s t i c world about motion and the act of v N m A moving. Motion, outerspace, f u t u r i s t i c VERB: 1/NOUN: 5/ADJECTIVE: 2 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM I: ADJECTIVE DOMINANT (based on Parts a and b) A A A N A FORM I I : (a) homely, f o r l o r n , lonely, mystery, haunting, A A A A A N scary, craft y , sneaky, sly, f u t u r i s t i c , space, A N V V N well developed. The future-there won't be one, N M V M A motion, movement, moving, motion, modern-A everyday (meaning: old styled, common place) VERB: 3/NOUN: 7/ADJECTIVE: 12 A * V N V (b) Homely - l i k e to stay around home and stay out M N A N N of trouble. Mystery - a high point i n a book. A A A N V A Crafty - very good at things to do. F u t u r i s t i c N V N A everything made of p l a s t i c and other non-N A A M breakables. The future - f u l l of nuclear wars. N A N K Motion - a continual movement in outerspace. V A Moving - . Modern - nowadays. VERB: 6/NOUN: 13/ADJECTIVE: 11 CLASSIFICATION ON FORM. I I : ADJECTIVE DOMINANT 

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