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The evaluation of a short-term holding system for the North American lobster, Homarus americanus Stockwell, Blair Alan 1983

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THE EVALUATION OF A SHORT-TERM HOLDING SYSTEM FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS by BLAIR ALAN B.Sc,  STOCKWELL  Trent U n i v e r s i t y , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of A g r i c u l t u r a l  Mechanics)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  January, 1983  (c)  Blair  Alan Stockwell,  1983  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by  department or by h i s or her  the head of  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  (3/81)  Columbia  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The  water  lobster from  quality  (Homarus  published  parameters  americanus)  literature.  of major  holding  importance  immediately  in  dissolved  and  design  were  indicated  of  reviewed  that  several  oxygen,  nitrite  oxygen  nitrogen)  could  i n the d e s i g n of commercial s h o r t - t e r m or  complete  water  i n t e r e s t were the changes  following  the  facilities  salinity,  where p a r t i a l  Of major  use  review  s o l i d s , ammonia  facilities  required.  for  holding The  (temperature, pH,  demand, suspended be  parameters  the  introduction  of  recycle  i n water  lobsters  is  quality  into  the  system. Monitoring biomass  of the changes  loading  commercial  rates  holding  approximately  1000  water  of  volume  recycled filtration  with  of  a  lobster  kg 17500  of  The  lobster  1.  quality was  carried  facility in  Normally consisting  out  typically  13  tanks  the  water  of  for different  drop  with  at  a  holds  a  system  i s completely aeration,  sand  sterilization.  indicated  important f a c t o r  temperatures  facility.  treatment  and UV  Results  and  i n water  that  water  i n the maintenance  holding  facility.  temperature  is  the  most  of water q u a l i t y and design  I t has  an  impact  on  lobster  i i i  metabolism, oxygen rate  demand  of  during  the of  the  the  first  of  0.5  h  level,  after  temperature  of  and  a  dissolved  1  compared  to  a  the  m g - a t  sand  present were  drop  An  and  17°C.  possibly  the  residence  units  Results  and  from  effectiveness levels  in  effective  the  the in  competition  UV  holding  of  normal  operating  from  oxygen  10.5  from  8.2  activity  water  at  the  was  in  the  bacteria.  controlling the  in  factors  establish  that  bacteria  mg-  regulating  to  showed  8.5  nitrification  heterotrophic  at  demand  to  and  holding  designed  water  regained  limited  the  to  were  kg,  detect  high  dissolved  13°C  important  sterilizers  controlling  at  the  to  from  5.5  very  time  a  1100  at  the that  deteriorated  respect  of  to  most  demonstrated  At  that  The  biochemical  affecting  levels  to  experiments of  with  attempt  indicated  as  often  dropped  9.0  and  introduction  load  oxygen  12  filter  at  was  period.  from  19°C.  filters  It  quality  lobster  as  3.3  water  critical  reduced,  to  well  Acceptable  was _ 1  as  lobster  particularly  the 7°C  water,  after  concentration.  gradually  concentration  ammonia.  temperatures,  deleterious  oxygen  oxygen  holding  nitrification  experimental a  dissolved  the  bacterial  units three  were test  temperatures. General maintenance temperature  recommendations of  a  control  short-term as  an  regarding lobster  essential  the  holding  design  design system  feature;  TOC  and  include: control  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i Vii ix Xii  1.0  INTRODUCTION  1  2.0  SPECIFIC RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  5  3.0  LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.2 M i c r o b i o l o g y / P a t h o l o g y 3.3 Temperature 3.4 pH 3.5 S a l i n i t y 3.6 D i s s o l v e d Oxygen 3.7 S o l i d s and Organic Carbon 3.8 Nitrogenous Compounds  6 6 8 10 11 13 14 15 18  4.0  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION  29  5.0  MATERIALS AND METHODS 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2 Sampling Requirements 5.3 T o t a l Organic Carbon versus Chemical Oxygen Demand 5.4 Time S e r i e s Experiments 5.5 S i l i c a Sand F i l t e r Experiments 5.6 U l t r a v i o l e t S t e r i l i z e r Experiments  38 38 40  EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 6.1 Sampling Requirements 6.2 T o t a l Organic Carbon v e r s u s Chemical Oxygen Demand 6.3 Time S e r i e s Experiments 6.4 S i l i c a Sand F i l t e r Experiments 6.5 U l t r a v i o l e t S t e r i l i z e r Experiments  49 49  6.0  42 43 44 46  51 53 66 93  Table of Contents  7.0  (cont'd)  DISCUSSION 7.1 Sampling Requirements 7.2 T o t a l Organic Carbon versus Chemical Oxygen Demand 7.3 Time S e r i e s Experiments 7.4 S i l i c a Sand F i l t e r Experiments 7.5 U l t r a v i o l e t  Sterilizer  8.0  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  9.0  RECOMMENDATIONS  10.0 LITERATURE CITED 11.0 APPENDICES  Experiments  vii L I S T OF TABLES Table  Title  Page  1  I m p o r t a n t w a t e r q u a l i t y p a r a m e t e r s t o be monitored i n a l i v e l o b s t e r s t o r a g e system  28  2  L o b s t e r h o l d i n g system equipment specifications  35  3  ANOVA t a b l e s h o w i n g r e s u l t s o f t h r e e - l e v e l n e s t e d a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o n ammonia-N samples t o d e t e r m i n e sample r e q u i r e m e n t s  50  4  Conditions f o r time-series experiments  54  5  Mean (Y) w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) c a l c u l a t e d f o r ammonia-N l e v e l s measured i n sample s e r i e s c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o s i l i c a sand f i l t e r e x p e r i m e n t s  68  6  Mean (Y) w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) c a l c u l a t e d f o r NO3-N l e v e l s measured i n sample s e r i e s c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o s i l i c a sand f i l t e r e x p e r i m e n t s  69  7  Summary o f d i s s o l v e d o x y g e n ( D O ) , pH a n d s a l i n i t y l e v e l s measured d u r i n g t h e s i l i c a f i l t e r experiments  70  8  I n i t i a l a n d f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , r a n g e , mean (Y)with 95% confidence i n t e r v a l s , standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) o f ammonia-N i n t i m e - s e r i e s s a m p l e s t a k e n p r i o r t o passage through t h e s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s  73  9  I n i t i a l a n d f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , r a n g e , mean (Y) w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) o f n i t r a t e - N i n t i m e - s e r i e s s a m p l e s t a k e n p r i o r t o passage through t h e s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s  74  10  I n i t i a l a n d f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , r a n g e , mean (Y) w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) o f n i t r i t e - N i n t i m e - s e r i e s s a m p l e s t a k e n p r i o r t o passage through t h e s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s  75  and  sand  Title H i g h e s t NH3-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r r e d during the time-series experiments c a l c u l a t e d f r o m m e a s u r e d t o t a l ammonia-N v a l u e s and pH.  ix L I S T OF Figure 1  FIGURES  Title  Page  Three dimensional diagram o f t h e boundary of l e t h a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r l o b s t e r s under v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of t e m p e r a t u r e , s a l i n i t y and oxygen.  16  System components and water lobster holding unit.  30  flow  pattern  of  3  One o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f s t a c k e d f i b e r g l a s s h o l d i n g tanks used f o r l o b s t e r storage.  31  4  One o f t h r e e s i l i c a s a n d f i l t e r s treatment of the lobster holding  32  5  One o f t h e t h r e e UV s t e r i l i z e r u n i t s c i r c u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t o f UV l a m p s .  6  R e f r i g e r a t i o n u n i t used t o m a i n t a i n h o l d i n g water temperature.  7  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n TOC holding water.  8  C h a n g e s i n TOC c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g representative time-series experiments.  56  9  Changes i n d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s recorded during representative time-series experiments.  58  a n d COD  used f o r water. showing  33  lobster  34  of lobster  52  10  pH c h a n g e s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g series experiments.  representative  time-  60  11  Changes i n ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e c o r d e d during representative time-series experiments.  62  12  Changes i n n i t r i t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s recorded during representative time-series experiments.  63  13  Changes i n n i t r a t e - N recorded d u r i n g representative time-series experiments.  64  14  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s during e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 7°C.  76  Title D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 7°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 1 a t 7°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 2 a t 7°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 7°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 7°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 1 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 1 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 2 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 2 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g experiment 2 a t 12°C. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 17°C.  XI Figure  Title  Page  27  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s during e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 17°C.  91  28  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s during e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 17°C.  92  29  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s during e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 17°C.  94  30  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s during e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 17°C.  95  31  D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N a n d n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 17°C.  96  32  Changes i n b a c t e r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e c o r d e d t i m e i n t h e a q u a r i u m a n d t a n k d u r i n g UV e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 7°C.  over  97  33  Changes i n b a c t e r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e c o r d e d t i m e i n t h e a q u a r i u m a n d t a n k d u r i n g UV e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 7°C.  over  98  34  Changes i n b a c t e r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e c o r d e d t i m e i n t h e a q u a r i u m a n d t a n k d u r i n g UV e x p e r i m e n t a t 12°C.  over  99  35  Changes i n b a c t e r i a l time i n the aquarium e x p e r i m e n t a t 17°C.  over  100  36  E f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e on oxygen consumption d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 0.25 h r o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e time-series experiments, e x p r e s s e d a s mg o f oxygen consumed p e r g o f l o b s t e r p e r h r , compared t o p u b l i s h e d v a l u e s from two literature sources.  112  37  E f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e on b a c t e r i a l rate i n the aquarium.  128  concentration recorded a n d t a n k d u r i n g UV  growth  xii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n must go t o t h e f o l l o w i n g : Dr. N.R. B u l l e y , who d i r e c t e d encouragement and a d v i c e .  this  research  and  provided  Professor L.M. S t a l e y , D r . R. B o s e a n d D r . T. Howard f o r s e r v i n g on t h e t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e a n d r e v i e w i n g t h i s t h e s i s . The staff of P a c i f i c Rim S h e l l f i s h f o r their support cooperation throughout the d u r a t i o n of t h i s research. Bernie during  S o u t h c o t t , f o r her generous support and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e t h e m i c r o b i o l i c a l work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s t h e s i s .  F r a n c e s B u c h a n , f o r h e r word processing g e n e r o u s commitment o f t i m e and e f f o r t document. Dr. P. L i a o , N. J a c k s o n a n d J . P e h l k e , assistance during t h i s research. Leslie  and  wizardry and h e r i n preparing this f o r their  technical  M a t t h e w s , f o r h e r h e l p w i t h one o f t h e f i g u r e s .  M i c h a e l F a t t o r i , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e i n t e c h n i c a l and n o n - t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s work. B.C. Science C o u n c i l , f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l support through t h e G r a d u a t e R e s e a r c h E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y Award programme. C h r i s H a t f i e l d , f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o HCL o f f i c e and s u p p l i e s f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d o c u m e n t .  equipment  1  1.0  INTRODUCTION  The  American Lobster  continues around  to be  the  fishery  globe.  will  important  on  statistics  increasing  but  Thomas 1973)  situation  coast  of  by  i n North  ensures  one  of  the  most  and  and  not  Duggan  A  lobster  summary  indicates  the  east  1980).  i t i s obvious  in this  q u a n t i t i e s landed  that  coast  Numerous  of  are  required  fishery.  has  from  It  their to  increased  in i t s  Canada  U.S.  (DeWolf  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have  data  (DeWolf that  alleviate  i s clear  of the  i n the  d e c l i n i n g lobster populations  regulations  effort  i n the  and  economically  America.  (1976)  and  America  that  the  North  Cobb  e x i s t s on  apparently  management  be  1954-1974  situation  reported  item  popularity to  east  food  lony been  i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r l o b s t e r i s r e f l e c t e d  Campbell  fishing  This  the  value  A similar  popular  continue  from  continuously  1974;  a very  (Homarus americanus) has  that  dramatically,  effective  the  in  1974;  critical  recent  whereas  years  lobster  l a n d i n g s have s l o w l y d e c l i n e d . The  apparent  consumer  demand,  commercial money  has  decline has  lobster  rearing.  various  biochemical,  lobster  aquaculture  United  A  a  in  through  coupled  great  deal  considerable  made a v a i l a b l e f o r  technological  Oceans.  States,  stocks,  generated  r e c e n t l y been  F i s h e r i e s and  in  Canada,  and  the  Sea  Grant  of  increasing interest  amount  of  research  the  in  federal into  the  aspects  of  Department  of  economic  through  S i m i l a r research  with  i s being Program.  funded Until  in  the this  2  research  leads  consumer  remains  Commercially probably found the  to  commercially dependent  viable  for  energy  intensive  research  technology  and  of  requiring  the  commercial  storage  types  of  units  utilize  for  holding  l a r g e , and  are  With  expansion  the  of  numerous n o n - l o b s t e r sites,  has  storage  in  ment.  an  borrowed  requirements holding those out  of  facilities, that  of  Partial  are  operations  for  technology  modified, holding  months  inland,  as  recirculation may  these are  holding  relatively  intertidal market  to  well  areas. include  as  inland lobster  in  quality  manage-  water and  maintain  utilized  in  these the  and  be  a  to  The  most  quality  water  useful energy  fields  suit  in  the  complex  control,  operations salt  quality  other  necessary,  also  control  various  live  water  of  in  live,  to  systems.  situated  sold  approach  when  to  temperature  is  a r e a s , as  reduce m o r t a l i t y  recycle  treatment  coastal  coastal  respect  complete  requiring  water  water,  lobster  with  necessity, or  live  specifically  lobster  are  nutrition,  six  sea  and  and  most  lobster  Traditionally,  sophisticated  treatment  will  solutions  Homarus  to  more  attempt to  water  been  producing  general,  In  product, has  come a  up  selected  the  stocks.  areas  and  of  temperature  r e s t r i c t e d to  The  the  1980).  of  facilities.  tions  that  include  catch  periods  ambient  provided  efforts  lobster  opera-  problems.  Botsford  operations,  natural  utilization,  ( J o h n s t o n and  Host  the  future  important  acquisition  lobster  culturing  near  a number o f  most  upon  lobster  emerge i n t h e  viable  are  require, medium. coastal  conservation.  3  With r e c i r c u l a t i o n though comes d e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y over time  due t o e v e n t u a l  1972;  build-up  of m e t a b o l i t i e s  A  number  of  units  developed  t o cope  (Getchell  1953; Wilder  1962,  Stewart  and  with  1977).  (Fisher et a l .  operating  different  divergent  of  have  these  and McLeese  many of the problems  from  been  problems  1957; Thomas  place  the  during  the l a s t  development  of  maintenance of market s i z e l o b s t e r s From a  a distributor's  number  storage.  These  of  include  aqua-  operations. that has  has s i g n i f i c a n t l y  designed  strictly  aided  f o r the  (Sastry 1975; Hand 1977).  or r e t a i l e r ' s  economic  t o both  i n lobster culture  few years  systems  i n lobster  those s e t out i n l o b s t e r  a r e common  As a r e s u l t , the i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t taken  aspects  1953; Wilder  1978).  procedures  Although the o b j e c t i v e s  are somewhat  holding,  are  al.  MeLeese and Wilder 1964; Ayres and Wood 1977; and Cormick  culture  in  et  S h l e s s e r and Tchobanoglous 1974; G r a v i t z e t a l . 1975) and  i n c r e a s e d pathogen c o n c e n t r a t i o n  and  (Hughes  point  advantages  (1) i n c r e a s e d  to  of view,  there  successful  live  flexibility  of marketing  and d i s p a t c h which can be c a r r i e d out at convenient times or on demand, and in  (2) reduced m o r t a l i t y  (3) insurance good  condition.  that  by m a i n t a i n i n g  the produce a r r i v e s  Long-term  storage  brings  animals i n water, at i t s d e s t i n a t i o n further  benefits,  particularly  t o those producers who a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  from  markets.  major  customers  can  be  Large  supplied  consignments with  equally  advantage can be taken of bulk packing  can  be  graded  isolated  built  up,  shipments,  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and,  4  most and  important  of a l l ,  l o b s t e r s may  more a b u n d a n t , a n d s t o r e d  be p u r c h a s e d  and s o l d  when  when  demand  cheaper  and p r i c e s  a r e a t a peak. It  is a  lobster  the  features listed  The  facility*  sale  to prototype  system  above t h a t  exists  and r e t a i l  holding  strictly  i s the subject  t r a d e , and i s r e l a t i v e l y  lobster  culturing  and t e c h n o l o g y  worthy  study.  holding  established  technology,  and  may  manage  situations of  have  and  on  viewpoint,  reported  the existing and  secondly  demands s o t h a t formulated  It this to  great  locations.  the research  demands  was f e l t  the design  that  thesis.  system  that  Therefore h e r e were system  It i s this  apparent  simple  in a  operation tested  to  variety  and  fabricate of  other  the overlying objectives  initially,  mainly  to evaluate  this  utilizes  i s relatively potential  compared  t o establish the  from  system  a  water  response the system  quality to  these  could  be  t o t h e managers o f t h e f a c i l i t y .  t h a t t h e knowledge a c q u i r e d live  of  when  makes  recommendations t o upgrade  and p r e s e n t e d  particular  and  of this  simple  facilities.  of design A  many  as a h o l d i n g o p e r a t i o n f o r whole-  simplicity of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  lobster  from  the study  of  h o l d i n g o p e r a t i o n c o u l d be a p p l i e d  and m a i n t e n a n c e  of future  live  seafood  storage  u n i t s and even i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e a q u a c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s .  • P a c i f i c R i m S h e l l f i s h L t d . - The L o b s t e r 1604 D u r a n l e a u , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Man  5  2.0  SPECIFIC  In  RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  response  preceeding  to  section,  the four  f o r m u l a t e d and a r e as 1.  To  establish,  overlying objectives outlined specific  from a l i t e r a t u r e  a short-term lobster  3.  To  determine  changes  lobsters  i n t o an e x i s t i n g  determine  quality  were  parameters  levels  immediately  changes  t h e most  i n the design  of  established  after  of  a  levels period  of of  water  introduction  short-term holding  i n the  during  important  facility.  i n the  parameters  review,  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  holding  quality  To  objectives  the  follows:  water q u a l i t y parameters  2.  research  in  of  system.  established short-term  water  lobster  holding. 4.  To  propose  basic  acceptable facility  water based  fulfillment  design quality on  the  criteria in a  the  short-term  results  o f O b j e c t i v e s 2 and  for  3.  maintenance lobster  obtained  of  holding  during  the  6  3.U  LITERATURE REVIEW  3.1  Introduction Due  and  i n part to recent e f f o r t s at commercial l o b s t e r r e a r i n g  natural  amount  of  Homarus great  of  describing  the  developed,  importance these  techniques  and  will  parameter intervals  be o u t l i n e d  the  sub-class  cially  species.  Homarus gammarus, t h e waters  Mediterranean, Isles;  and  Homarus  must  be  its  of  and  proving  lobster  holding  are  review  of  over  in a later  greatest  what  and the  sampling literature  belonging  which  contains  most o f  the  There  are  species  of  Arctic  Circle  centre  americanus  of  found  occuring  i n the  t o M o r o c c o and  distribution on  the  range  section.  i s a crustacean  two  is  Information  methods, from  has  is  literature  also obtained  a  before  lobsters  maintained.  European l o b s t e r ,  from the with  this  systems,  lobster  Malacostraca,  important  Atlantic  the  needed  of  parameters  i n more d e t a i l  Phylogenetically,  Although  of  a general p i c t u r e  needs  monitoring  was  requirements  is  operators  quality  holding  substantial  information that  and  e s t a b l i s h e d parameters with  of  o b j e c t i v e of  water  lobster  concerned  and  kind  a  available.  reality,  environmental  primary  which  in  is  investigation  invaluable to designers  establish  environmental  gammarus)  i t i s this  The  enhancement,  c u l t u r e becomes a basic  and  facilities. to  and  additional  lobster  and  regarding  (amer i c a n u s deal  be  management  literature  intensive  to  stock  the  Atlantic  to  commerlobster: eastern into  the  British coast  of  7  Northern  United S t a t e s and  There Hoiaarus  exists  that  ecology  concerned  with  useful  and  of  good  as  problems  T a y l o r 1975;  in-depth  with  live  lobster  look  lobster  holding  at  the  numerous  in lobster  an  water  storage.  system  w e l l as  as  p u b l i c a t i o n s on  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Cobb 1976;  These p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t  more  general  background  behavior,  specific  D o l i b e r 1973;  1979).  variety  provide  biology,  1909;  a  Canada (Headstrom 1979).  lobster  references  research  (Herrick  R i c h a r d s and  excellent  quality  Wickins  resource  problems  for a  associated  Unsatisfactory conditions  arise  as  a  result  of  in  either  a  animal  r e l a t e d a l t e r a t i o n s t o the environment or a l t e r a t i o n s caused external  influences.  employing  In  moderately  influence, minimum,  such  as  a  sophisticated  ambient  providing  land-based  a  suitable  the  animal  Research  efforts  Initially  water  density, the  more  likely  the  One quality  more  is  lobsters  concentrated  t o be  very  or  (Sastry and  be  supply  lobster  established were  can  external kept  is  to  which  procedures.  this  situation.  biochemical  problems  in  of p e r t u r b a t i o n was  important  there intense  a  available.  storage  ways  causing  very  to  behavioral characteristics  i n two  secondly what l e v e l  case.  environmental  live  reacted  characteristics  h o l d i n g , and each  have  investigators  behavioral  in  t h a t complicate  operation,  technology,  a i r temperature,  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s the b i o c h e m i c a l and of  holding  by  much are the  per  unit  lobster  acceptable  consideration dependent  is  upon  area  and  or  that animal volume  a s s o c i a t e d problems  Z e i t l i n - H a l e 1975;  S h l e s s e r 1974).  are  8  The  a g g r e s s i v e nature  juvenile  and a d u l t  and c a n n i b a l i s t i c  lobsters  b e h a v i o r a l problems t h a t occur A popular to  exist  as  tendencies  t h e most  o f both  significant  i n a h o l d i n g or c u l t u r i n g  system.  approach i n the design of l o b s t e r c u l t u r i n g systems i s  provide  individual  growth  chambers  b e h a v i o r a l a f f e c t s are minimized  (Chanley  economics of l o b s t e r  holding w i l l  alternative  must  methods  be  f o r each  and Terry  not allow  employed  animal  to  this  so that  1974).  The  approach, so  ensure  that  these  f a c t o r s are c o n t r o l l e d .  3. 2  Microbiology/Pathology Most  literature  related  to lobster  culture  s t a t e s t h a t b a c t e r i a l p o p u l a t i o n s must be c l o s e l y reduce  or e l i m i n a t e d i s e a s e .  densities, resulting virtually  When  in stressful  and  storage  controlled to  l o b s t e r s are held  a t high  c o n d i t i o n s , d i s e a s e s that are  unknown i n n a t u r a l environments may appear.  A recent  review of l o b s t e r m i c r o b i a l d i s e a s e s ( F i s h e r e t a l . 1978) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e are b a s i c a l l y s i x d i s e a s e s t h a t c o u l d c r e a t e problems i n h o l d i n g systems. Gaffkemia,  microbial  Haliphthoros shell  Included  epibiont  disease,  disease  appear  i n the review  and  disease,  Fusarium  t o be the most  are s h e l l Lagenidium  disease.  disease, disease,  Gaffkemia  common d i s e a s e s  and  affecting  l o b s t e r s h e l d i n a high d e n s i t y s i t u a t i o n . Gaffkemia  i s a systemic  disease  p o s i t i v e , t e t r a d forming  bacterium  variety  and Zwicker  homari  (Steward  and i s caused  by a Gram-  known as Aerococcus 1974).  viridans  A. v i r i d a n s  isa  9  normal no  component  mechanism  introduced  for  into  traditional  Rosen  (1970)  was  responsible gross  is  the The  soft  1967;  1970),  in  especially lobsters molting  for  reported  resulting  impaired  when  essential  in  the  the  by  of  the  1974).  an  almost  variety  similar with  are  do  minor  a  shell  of  not  are  crustaceans.  death  exoskeleton of  Sawyer  of  disease  may into (Rosen  entry  Taylor  also  cause  i s  gills  contagious  confinement, by  to  and  lobster  disease mass  and,  penetrate  may  The  the  lesions  portal  erosion  in  fungi  fatal,  disease  held  bacteria.  and  necrotic  chitinous  exchange.  Hess  i n a l l species;  invaders.  and  by  but  successfully  1965).  clear a  shows  bacteria  provide  shell  animals  drying  chitinolytic  microorganisms  gas  be  caused  reported  immediately  secondary  overcome  (McLeese is  not  that  can  Schapiro  Homarus  a  marred  irritation,  may  It  are  may  by  and  by  both  disease  but  or  first  caused  underlying  i t  punctures  claw  was  on  is  possesses  gaffkemia.  disease  disease  discoloration,  be  and  However  or  that  that  and  tissues  (1949)  to  chitinolytic  Rosen  crusher  report  pitted  tissues  epidermal  the  host.  (Steenbergen  shown  of  exoskeleton  cracks  lobsters  shell  signs  although  on  has  the  against  believed  for  exoskeleton  the  defense  the  by  the  (1970)  disease  and  occur.  hemocel of  of  of  shipment  l a c k of  (1937)  The  the  Rabin  Shell  flora  invasion  in  and  complete  the  'pegging'  exoskeleton Stewart  of  then  lobster  that holding  control  of  operation  microorganisms to  reduce  is  mortality  10  and  preserve  c o n t r o l can ing  health  be achieved  ozone  wavelength  sterilization  any  lobster  analysis  of  and  physical  water  to  appearance.  1977).  operation  system's a b i l i t y  techniques  ultraviolet  intensity  (Wheaton  holding  the  and  through a number of  the exposure of h o l d i n g  appropriate  of  lobster  (Ayres  Therefore  must  includ-  light  1978)  include  at  or  the  This  the  through  evaluation  some  sort  to c o n t r o l p o t e n t i a l l y  of  lethal  microorganisms. Along demands  with  of  physical  the  stored  and  are  and  considered systems.  the  biological  literature  parameters  or  and  lists  behavioral a  number  characteristics  that  of  must  i n a e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s s o r t . The most a p p r o p r i a t e temperature,  ammonia, n i t r i t e Suspended  lobsters  chemical  be c o n s i d e r e d parameters  aforementioned  and  nitrate  dissolved  important Therefore  pH,  (Hand 1977;  solids,  parameters these  salinity,  and  dissolved  Ayres and  organic  i n various  water q u a l i t y  Wood 1977).  carbon  holding  oxygen,  are  and  also  culture  characteristics will  be  examined with r e s p e c t to l o b s t e r h o l d i n g .  3.3  Temperature As  lobsters  with  most  can  tolerate  temperature  to which  other depend they  s i z e l o b s t e r s can withstand providng water  that  cooled  poikilotherms, to  the  considerable  were a c c l i m a t e d .  extent  In g e n e r a l ,  a wide range of water  f l u c t u a t i o n s are to  a  temperatures  gradual.  freezing point  or  that on  the  market  temperatures,  They  can  heated  to  survive 32°C  in  (Cobb  11  1976). the  Lethal  size  period  water  of the lobster,  of  starvation,  storage  (McLeese  such  dissolved  as  tolerance  a  Wood  temperature  by  temperatures mentioned the  3.4  salinity  between  to  i n a  holding  disease gaffkemia  the temperature  than  storage and  optimal, t h e water  10°C  reduced  (Ayres  environmental  and thus  i t s  tank  i s that  activity,  (McLeese low  and water  the previously  i s temperature  the slower  lobster parameters  i n maintaining  system  two-month  Since the lobster i s  holding  advantage  i n a lobster  quality  4.5°  1977).  a live  are less  i t s metabolism  further  i n  During  i t responds  are desirable A  water  by  by  the disease  dependent, progresses  e t a l . 1969).  pH The  defined  pH,  or  hydrogen  i o n concentration of  a  solution,  i s  by t h e e q u a t i o n : pH  =  - log  where  [H ]  =  Since  many  dissociation  +  occuring  Q  solutions  The  (1)  ion concentration  constants  f o r aquatic  parameter.  [H ] +  1  t h e hydrogen  i n aqueous  environment this  or  be m a i n t a i n e d  systemic  lower  (Stewart  other  i s reduced.  lowering  1958).  a r e not determined  factor  When  oxygen  animal  responses  Wilder  important  1977; C o r n i c k and Stewart  cold-blooded  both  an  1956).  should  levels  and a r e not a f f e c t e d  t o temperature  temperature and  temperature  f o r the chemical  a r e pH  organisms  equilibrium  (Wheaton  dependent,  i s strongly between  1977).  reactions  the chemical influenced  ammonia  (^3)  by a n (  ^  12  ammonium  (NH^)  effect.  is a  notable  example  There a r e a number o f b i o l o g i c a l l y  affecting sea  i n water  pH i n n a t u r a l  water  holding  water  systems.  of  mediated  this  pH  reactions  systems, two a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n The f i r s t  process  i s plant  and  animal r e s p i r a t i o n which tends t o decrease pH by the p r o d u c t i o n of  free  carbon  dioxide  (C0 ).  The  2  basic  reaction  i s as  follows: C  6 12°6 H  +  60 —^6C0 2  + 6H 0  2  (2)  2  The carbon d i o x i d e then combines with water t o produce c a r b o n i c acid  (H C0 ) 2  process time  3  which  results  is nitrification,  through the d i r e c t  3 shows the o v e r a l l  in a  which  pH  again  production  general  effect  (1970)  Hirayama on the  deal  i s 7.5-8.3. range  with  incorrect  exclusively water  to buffer  eventually of 1.0  water  Although t h e r e  seems t o  i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  the  understood and methods levels  i n a closed  equilibrates  meq.l  - 1  than the r e p o r t e d optimum. every  pH  pH range f o r marine  seem  to  vary.  (1970) r e p o r t s that when c a l c a r e o u s g r a v e l s a r e r e l i e d  alkalinity  10%  (3)  the a c c e p t a b l e  acceptance of t h i s  to  Equation  +  of low pH on animals i s p o o r l y  employed  ions.  this  2  c u l t u r e and h o l d i n g water be  second  reaction.  2  t o Spotte  The  tends t o reduce pH  of hydrogen  NH* + 2 0 — • N O " + H 0 + 2 H According  reduction.  .  sea water  a t about  Both  values  pH  7.5  system, with  are s l i g h t l y  an  lower  P a r t i a l water changes a t a r a t e of  two weeks, and r e g u l a r  or sodium b i c a r b o n a t e are u s u a l l y  addition  o f sodium carbonate  necessary t o keep the pH and  13  alkalinity  3.5  values within  (Spotte  1970).  Salinity Salinity  material, all  the  iodine  can  i n grams,  replaced  water  be  carbonate  oxidized  has  by  generally  to  salinity  excreted  by  antennal  having  gland  a  when  are  to  in  water  usually  gut,  (Dall  (Wood  and  lower  limit  of  are  The  system  of  their  excess  (ppt). and  aspect  of  i t s influence  on  osmoregulatory  the  surrounding  blood.  Excess  water  sea-  lower  critical  limited of  of  thousand  is  and  completely  generally  most  when  bromine  salinity  per  solid  seawater  the  The  parts  exhibit  while  33  coastal  ppt  or  low  i s  water  salt  is  by  the  excreted  a  are  below in  i s  juvenile  they  are  to  but  of  in  20 the  and  can  to  ppt  8  adult  not  and  less value  units  ppt  be  store  minimum  storage  about  waters  usually  possible  commercial  Salinity  for  they  down  10°C,  found  Although  It  salinity  1977).  tolerance  more.  water.  acceptable  Ayres  animals  salinities  brackish  temperatures  27 p p t  37  holding  that  having  considered  oxide,  of  1970).  of  water  to  salinities  typically  in  k i l o g r a m of  concentration  tolerate  naturally  lobsters  33  amount  a l l organic matter  variation.  below  salinity  acclimated found  from  lobster  or  total  T s u r i k o v 1971).  osmotic  the  Lobsters  and  Lobsters  above  the  converted to  estuaries,  live  when t h e  either  and  varies  osmoregulation. ability  been  considerable  in a  as  cholorine,  in tidal  subject  defined  c o n t a i n e d i n one  (Tsurikova  However,  is  the a c c e p t a b l e range  is  is the  Homarus  14  ( P h i l l i p s e t a l . 1980).  3. 6  Dissolved The  this  Oxygen  extraction  gas  to  water  aquatic animals. oxygen  demand  however, the  the  of  oxygen  are  o p e r a t i o n s of  rises  with  increasing  solubility  of  rises.  lobsters  rises  Wood  survive  oxygen  (McLeese weight with  when  levels  1956).  increasing  oxygen  depending and  systems  oxygen  activity  and  level  water  on  addition  of  importance  to  as  about  number o f  i s 7 o r 9 ppm  as  of  as the  sea-  requirements  the  temperature  also  The  tolerance optimal, 1  mg  has  from  the  been  lobsters per  and  1964).  7-13  factors  ppm  including  demand. on  i t has  oxygen  weight,  (McLeese  r e q u i r e m e n t s depend factors.  by  In  but the c l o s e r  normal  dissolved  temperature,  lobster  storage  storage density,  generally  body  increases  Under of  can liter  consumed p e r gram o f  body  contain  b i o c h e m i c a l oxygen  stress  produced  oxygen  and are  increasing  waters  i s reduced  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of water.  parameters low  lobster,  t h e amount  their  consumption  as  the  Increased s a l i n i t y  temperature  a  effect  i s that  amount o f o x y g e n  with  coastal  salinity  oxygen  The  decreases  conditions,  other  water  disproportionately  1977).  s t u d i e s of oxygen that  i n sea  satisfy  a f f e c t o f d e c r e a s i n g t h e oxygen  shown  the  critical  synergistic  to  storage increases  In  and  environmental temperature,  principles  require  ( A y r e s and  oxygen  The  c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e two  during  water  In a c o l d - b l o o d e d a n i m a l such as  temperature  water  from  accepted  animal  dissolved  to saturation  levels  15  the  better. The  tolerance  of  temperature  i s shown  (any  in  point  oxygen  3.7  i n the  graph  t e m p e r a t u r e and  Solids The  total  and  solids  present  suspended Public  Health  system  most  fraction assuming quality, problem.  water  solids,  represents a  specific  must  to  Association the  should that total The  et  form  and  removed  by  holding  dissolved  solids  concern  lies  in  following  effects  i n a lobster  holding  3.  damage  i n the presence  exertion noxious  and/or  of  to  of  In  solids  the most are  solids  a  (American  lobster or  holding  settleable  filtration,  supply not  is  be  small  a  of  good  serious  suspended may  and  have  and the  system: gills  (becoming  more  of t o x i c substances),  biochemical  adsorbed  mean  solids,  fractions  lobster  oxygen  conditions,  transport  the  the  matter  water  to  settleable  In  should  These  2.  of  methods  mechanical  fractions.  severe  1  Therefore,  volatile  particulate  organic  irritation  i n Figure  water.  i n which  between  volatile  1.  holding  a l . 1976).  available  major  and  combination  taken  determined.  solids  large  be  the  be  i s  the  differentiate  dissolved  of  specific  usually  content of  the  developed  salinity,  t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l graph  "solids"  residue  the  oxygen,  Carbon  term  however,  in  been  or  to  salinity).  Organic  general  instances,  have  the  lobsters  pollutants,  demand  and  creation  of  16  Figure 1. Three dimensional diagram of the boundary of lethal conditions for lobsters under various combinations of temperature, salinity and oxygen. T - region i n which temperature alone acts as a lethal factor. S - region i n which salinity alone acts as a lethal factor. 0 - region i n which oxygen alone acts as a lethal factor. [redrawn from McLeese(1956)]  17  4. The  increased first  two  The  the  chemical  a  when  salinity  Since very  generated emphasis  a  has  systems.  solids  in  Academy sould  The of  be  i s low  of  Data  Engineering  provided  with  summary  of  water  likely  should  than  As  level  for  adequate  for  25  water  particu(Iverson by  taking  fluc-  expected  levels are  .  lobster storage  suspended  The  National  at  suspended In  a  hatcheries  in This  as  at  communities  (1979)  solids - 1  estab-  m g « l ^.  salmonid  Oceans  be  unavailable  aquatic  a  little  in  to  and  25  to  very  protection  mg-l  place,  parameter  than  suspended  exceed  as  are  result,  that  of  F i s h e r i e s and  not  a  this  greater  of  such  medium  be  Sciences  a  criteria  refractory, is  i s not  operations of  chemically  complicated  tolerance  suggest  of  and  would  (1974) high  total  and  water.  measuring  Academy  concentration  pond more  of  are  unit.  holding  the  which  wastewater,  a saltwater  matter  lobster  quality  Department  maximum  holding  on  National  concentrations  the  on  a  determinations  feeding  holding  of  (BOD),  wastewater  holding  solid  placed  solids  Canadian  BOD  and  demand  degradable  measurements  recirculating  present.  both  i n the  lobster  been  lished  measures  sytem.  levels  amount in  content  concentration  solids  metabolism  small  oxygen  t o o b t a i n when u s i n g  Suspended  tuating  which  low  holding  difficult  critical.  organic  content,  using  most  biochemical  demand,  lobster  .  of  the  biodegradable  organic  difficult  1973)  e f f e c t s are  oxygen  oxidizable  larly  maintenance.  measurement  defines  from  system  the  states a  the that  salmonid figure  is  lobster  is  18  generally salmonid  more  tolerant  of  water  COD  suspended  quality  than  most  species.  Since  BOD,  complicated  by  and  organic  a  for  substitute  biochemical  these  carbon  the  oxygen  i n various types and  solids  various conditions inherent  system, t o t a l  1970)  poor  (TOC)  demand.  of  can  be  considered  suspended  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between  matter TOC  of w a s t e w a t e r s have been d e v e l o p e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  are  i n a lobster holding  levels  determination  determinations  discussed  as and  and  COD  (Eckenfelder  i n more d e t a i l  in a  later section.  3.8  Nitrogenous The  final  nitrogenous major  acid  the  usually  animals of  as  1973).  acid,  Nitrogenous lesser  including  as  ion  total  ion  major  The and  free As  well  does  produce  and  amino  acids  which  e x t e n t , by  the  The  of  three  animals  urea,  are  and  uric  end-product  is  ammonia  lobster  wastes are  that  ammonia,  of  making  t e r m ammonia u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o  NH^-N.  deamination  in  (NH^),  Homarus,  is  water.  nitrogenous  the  or  study  metabolism  ammonium The  this  holding  nitrogen  the  ammonium  mineralization  a  of  in  lobster  ammoniotelic.  analytically ammonia,  evaluation in  invertebrates,  sum  uric  of  compounds  (Campbell  marine  of  area  end-products  ammonia,  these  Compounds  to  excreted antennal  form  by  the  glands  (NH-j),  as  direct  minor a l l  determined excretion  amounts  of  eventually  ammonia gills, i n the  (Spotte  the  gut,  urea, undergo 1979).  and,  to  anterior ventral  19  part  o f t h e body t h r o u g h  segment o f t h e f i r s t When (Jasus made  urine  only  alone  was  urea,  21%  examined  ammonia  unidentified  urine  output  (Binns  has been  from  urine  and  feeding ation  food,  rate, or  ammonia dietary  compounds  readily  ammonia-ammonium  N where the  N  quantity  is  of  estimate  from  of  of  +  protein  excreted  as  be  theoretical  5  r  of nitrogen,  g*day~"*"  FKa  +  from  or  total the  of t h e feed: (4)  in  .- * -  utiliz-  f  supplied  4.  to the  ammonia  determined  can  the  Equation  of t h e  related  level,  in  the  of  the lobsters are  rate  intake  ( A l l e n and J o h n s t o n P  where  protein  with  rate  0.5%  A  o f ammonia  remainder  The  t o ammonia.  -  and  (Allen  theoretically The  i n g-day "*",  ration,  g a s , t h e more  a s g a s c a n be d e r i v e d  PH - K a  the  1969).  i s closely  nitrogen  (P/6.25) Q  Production  dissociated equation  =  feed  calculated  together  s u p p l i e d and t h e p r o t e i n c o n t e n t  i s the rate  proportion  1976).  converted production  q u a n t i t y of food  situation,  production  and  compounds  1957).  protein-nitrogen  conversion,  lobster  at approximately  b o d y w e i g h t p e r d a y f o r Homarus ( B u r g e r  consuming  spiny  nitrogen,  Peterson  estimated  In a c u l t u r e or n a t u r a l  the  and amino  of the t o t a l  being  side of the basal  antennae.  edwardsii), up  a p o r e on t h e l o w e r  proportion  i s the and  toxic  Johnston  metabolite,  available of  P is  total  nitrogen ammonium  from t h e Henderson-Hasselbach  1976): l o g -ffffff;  (5)  20  where C i s  the molar c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a c i d or base and X i s  amount of  strong  electrically  base t h a t  neutral.  conversion  factor  therefore,  it  No  is  is  to  conversion  0.80.  The  received meter  and  becomes  Compared to ing p l a c e a  and metabolism  system  quite  low,  patterns. lobster  designed  assuming  is  and not  high,  the  for  h o l d i n g water  As  is  that  a  the  from  0.65  fish  has  by  this  para-  result,  defined  ammonia  in  the  a much  of  l e v e l s of  feeding  is  of  storage  tak-  ammonia  should  s i m i l a r water  be  recycle  ammonia p r o d u c t i o n i n a  this  continuously  food,  production.  concentration  lobster  a low r a t e  toxic  ranges  where  both systems u t i l i z e  Even assuming  state  p r o v i d e d with  estimate  operation,  strictly  holding u n i t ,  when the  to  growout  ammonia-  1978).  held  difficult  Johnston,  importance of  facilities.  al.  being  a lobster  and  production  c u l t u r e have been et  nitrogen  actual  animals  due to the  growout  are  Allen  ammonia  solution  determined  calculate  aquatic  of  (Pettigrew  very  to  for  involved in f i s h  When l o b s t e r s  by  make the  and Armstrong (1981)  estimation  clearer fashion  in  Colt  factor  hatchery  variables  it  presented  f a r more a t t e n t i o n  in  empirically  impossible  ammonium p r o d u c t i o n . protein  must be added to  the  compound can  develop  r e c y c l e d without  treat-  ment or d i l u t i o n . The h y d r o l y s i s the  reaction  percentage  of  below,  of  ammonia i n  has  ammonium  n a t u r a l waters,  a pK value is  of  always  about  greater  9.0,  than  as  shown  so  that  the  of  free  that  by  ammonia (Spotte 1970). NH* + H 0 ^ 2  w  NH  3  + H 0 3  +  (6)  21  Factors  a f f e c t i n g ammonia  aquatic  culture  that  i n most  NH^. a one about  ammonium the  effect  at higher  result  of  the decreasing  i s  compounds, n i t r i t e  Nitrobacter.  by  two The  ammonium t o n i t r i t e NH The  reaction  +  and  to  pH  increase  of  A  1978).  The  hydrolysis  of  increased  increase  levels; the salinity of  free  (Hampson process two  and n i t r a t e .  other  effect  ammonia  as  toxic  Nitrification  n i t r i f i nitrogen  i s carried  Nitrosomonas  reaction  i n  1976).  known  bacteria,  stoichiometric  pH  Bidwell  activity  autotrophic  by  and  of  into  than  to  ionic strength  converted  toxic  ammonia  the b i o l o g i c a l oxidation  ammonia  mainly  result  shown  free  Bower  temperature  of increasing  Through cation,  1972;  been  more  and s a l i n i t y . of  importance i n  i t has  predominately  percentage  i s the  since  i s significantly  3  temperature  the  are of great  systems,  controlled  (Trussel  ions  solutions  out  by  tenfold  NH  i s  causes  temperature  based  6  extent  unit  holding  instances  Equation  lesser  is  and  hydrolysis  for  and  oxidation  of  by N i t r o s o m o n a s i s :  + 1.5  0  2  — •  f o r oxidation  2H  +  + H 0 2  of n i t r i t e  + N0"  (7)  2  t o n i t r a t e by  Nitrobacter  is: NO" Nitrite This  reaction  + 0.5  holding  2  — •  i s the ionized c a n be  N0~ + H At  0  water  pH  N  0  3  form  (8) of nitrous  acid,  a  weak  acid.  written:  +  — • HN0 and  (9)  2  temperatures  the  percentage  HN0 -N ?  22  ranges and  from  .0005  temperatures  general form  readily  to favor  t o be  percent  the  soluble  coordination  considered  .05  (Russo  nitrous  acid  i n water,  compounds,  dissociated  et  form.  showing  and  a l . 1981).  for  pH  are  in  tendancies  to  Nitrates  slight  most  completely  Low  purposes  can  be  ( L a t i m e r and  Hildebrand  in  i s  1951) . The not  mechanism  fully  regarded  or  as  plasma  the  Colt  fish  aquatic  effects  on  a  be  by  that  toxic  i s  whereas  the  hydrated  as  yet  'mass  metabolism.  soluble,  (1981)  to  law'  NH^  i s  freshwater  permeability  ammonia  categorize  organisms  cellular  under  level,  effects  on  disease,  the  eight  effects  osmoregulation, effects  tissue,  i t may  nitrogen  ammonia  NH^,  Armstrong  to  on  in  lobsters  of  ions,  i s  effects  of  (Milne et a l . 1958).  ammonia  on  of  to  toxicity  normal  i t i s lipid  low and  as  of  form  membranes  relatively  but  reversal  because  effects  ammonia  understood  prevention  fishes  of  on  on oxygen  lethal  toxic  general  headings  nitrogen  excretion,  transport,  effects  -  and  effects  effects  on  growth. On  the  cellular  from  ambient  NH^  with  elevation pronounced stability levels  of  water the  of  or  and on  (Campbell ammonia  the  release  metabolic  release  blood  effect  level,  of  may  cause  into i s  OH~.  Campbell a  also  reversal  can and  states of  blood to  subsequent  pH  reactions  the  converted  The  intercellular  enzyme-catalyzed 1973).  NH^  production an  perhaps  of  the  have  a  membrane that  high  glutamate  23 dehydrogenase the  reaction,  tricarboxylic  withdrawing  acid  alpha-ketoglutarate  c y c l e as w e l l  as decreasing  from  t h e amount  o f NADH a v a i l a b l e f o r o x i d a t i o n . Three p r i n c i p a l available blood NH*  to aquatic  t o the water with  like  Na ,  (1976)  As  by  through  1)  3)  conversion  previously  that  ammonia  excretion.  animals  including  Fromm  1971);  1971);  crab,  high  stated,  rainbow  goldfish, Callinectes  shrimp,  of  to  (Salmo  sapidus  Macrobrachium  t r a n s p o r t of compound  important  route  i n the blood  inhibit  for a  gairdneri  number  (Olson  and  et a l . 1976);  rosenbergii  This  aquaculture  because  animals  to  system this  effect  i s particuarly  the  inhibition  of  initial ammonia  important  reaction  of  excretion  may  i s also quite  ammonia  may  and  increased  an  effect  produce  likely  severe  of  Fromm  1978), reduce i n an aquatic be  the  rates.  sublethal concentrations  hyperplasia of the g i l l  permability  on o s m o r e g u l a t i o n  that  and  and t h e  (Armstrong  c e s s a t i o n o f f e e d i n g w h i c h i n t u r n may r e d u c e g r o w t h It  of  (Olson  t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f ammonia t o t h e e x t e r n a l medium w i l l ammonia e x c r e t i o n .  the  Hampson  auratus  (Mangum  from  the g i l l s .  demonstrated  Carassius  NH^  non-toxic  t h e most  levels  trout,  excretion are  2) e x c h a n g e  across  ammonia  I t has been  ammonia  diffusion  the g i l l s ,  lobsters i s diffusion  suggests  freshwater  of metabolic  animals:  and  +  urea.  utilized  routes  the animal  was o b s e r v e d  i n fish  to  of  epithelium  water.  This  by L l o y d and O r r  (1969).  Ammonia  can  have  a  serious, effect  on  the  ability  of  24  aquatic  species  effects  include  capacity oxygen the  to  ammonia  fish  damage  the  gills,  oxygen  due  to  histological  producing tissues can  spleen,  species  reasonable  cause  thyroid  on to  susceptible  to  to  96-h  3.1  mg'l  1967), 1978 ;  0.40  LC50  to  -  for  difficult lobster  to  et  of  al.  (Krous  capacity  to  hypoxia  and  respiratory  cells and  the  assess  animal the  and  lethal  kidneys, of  many  ammonia  and  ^  crustaceans  be  ranges  Tchobanoglous  is more  stress  Wickins  growth  and i s  Ball et  al.  to  6.0  animals  is  3.3  1975).  aquatic of  0.4  1976;  and  1976),  of  from  (Armstrong  ( E p i f a n i o and S r n a on  will  it  additional  (Colt for  but  concentrations.  un-ionized  quantitatively  minor c o n c e r n  in  a  facility.  toxicity  hemoglobin  increased  blood  in  blood's  parameters  to  aquatic  ammonia  1977 ;  ammonia  assess  holding  Nitrite  nitrite  mg«l  marine molluscs  Effects  of  2.31  Delistraty  mg-l ^  fish  an  Sublethal  blood  These  the  pH,  changes  suffering  of  of  the  1978).  and  an  if  value  for  - 1  to  difficult  that  disease  tissues.  1975).  are  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h ambient The  damage  tissue,  the  lowered  histological  disease expect  to  reduction  a  (Smart  ( S m i t h and P i p e r  Effects  oxygen  to  and  levels  liver,  transport  carry  demand,  cells  to  to et  carry  in  fish  is  due  ferrihemoglobin al.  1982).  oxygen;  cyanosis transport  may  if  or  part  suffient  the  does  not  methemoglobin  (Kiese in  to  methemoglobin  Methemoglobin  result  pigment  in  1974).  malacostracan  oxidation (MHb)  by  have  the  is  The  formed dominant  crustaceans,  25  such  as  Homarus,  likely  that  copper yet  of  been  the  a  greater  that  to  to  constituents  and  processes  this  apparent  Meade  (1977)  mental  ions  nitrite  may  be  uptake  tissues,  the  and/or  an  A  have  tested  for  their  mortality  and  the  induced  of  supporting  the  suggestion  uptake  the  gills  at  Yasutake number  1978; of  other  complex  chemical  processes  tolerance  to  nitrite  are and  a  in  ions  (Ca  of  been  observed  in a  seawater  and  ,  of  Cl~,  MHb,  a competitive and  a l .  1979).  factors  such  involved  in  nitrate  inhibition  as the  of  body  fluid  ion  Na ,  and  SO^)  reducing  is  and  environ-  +  1977;  be  integumentory  with  It  may  of  nitrite-  most  inhibition  Allen  chemical  Perrone  other  effectiveness in formation  et  + +  species  seawater  competitive  plasma  and  exhibits  Various  with  and  scanty  freshwater  protective effect of  (Crawford  Tomasso  i t has  tolerance.  gills  increase  levels. been  number  the  Homarus  fish  as  nitrite  notably  to  the  not  nitrogen  1977).  increased  result  through  as  associated  the  only  most  Allen  that  Although of  is  with has  that  toxic  It  conversion  inorganic  less  and  suggested  reports  1966). occur  toxicity  surprising  is significantly (Crawford  in  the  organisms,  environment  involved  such  both  i s not  a l . can  class.  (1977)  aquatic  situation  nitrite  but  relating Hand  et  reaction  animal  tolerance  other  This  oxidation  this  lobsters,  most  (Picket  hemocyanin  for  exists  to  fish.  same  reported  nitrate  than  hemocyanin  crustacean  information  much  is  findings  of  nitrate  Wedermeyer likely  behaviour  and  that  a  and  bio-  comparatively  high  e x h i b i t e d by  l o b s t e r s but  no  26  literature  i s available  Although due  to  the  because meet  high  water  with  compounds  (Cobb  those  acceptable  concentrations  of  of  ammonia-N  total  are optimal.  concentrations  have  been  estimated  and  reliable  i n f o r m a t i o n on  assays to  to  with  be  be  +  nontoxic  survived running  the  mg  at  (Hand  three up  1977).  and  tests  each  and  seawater  were  upon r e - e x p o s u r e  to these  compounds.  NO,,  the  monitoring  relatively of  these  found  3g  holding  f o r 24 will  hours, survive  i f  other  t o ammonia of • l  - 1  lobsters  96h  at  LC^g  for  lg  but  no  chronic  toxicity  Johnston  1976).  Similar  of  to  inoccuous  species  100  case  compounds  or  than  causing  were  ambient  Despite  for  survive  concentra-  mg«l \  NH^-N  must  higher  Values  mg  - 1  that  and  nitrogenous  rearing  25  showed t h e s e  In  can  of  exposure  0.1  concentrations  toxicity  to  3  (Allen  operation  grams  i n death.  NH -N • l  and n i t r a t e  in  longer  +  wastes  considerably  concentrations  available  nitrite  respectively  0.1  1.2  maintained,  tolerate  reports  to  result  at  lobsters  known  1.4  one  However,  can  can  animals  lobsters  be  lobsters  levels  they  factors.  metabolic  laws,  nitrite,  other  must  commercial  high  fact,  and  many  lower  is  any  G r a v i t z e t a l . (1975)  juvenile  conditions  In  nitrate to  toxic  environmental  1976).  o f ammonia,  enviroments.  from  to these  quality  of  comparatively  tions  most  build-up  s e t by  relating  of water  discharged  standards  in  levels  potential  water  at present  and  though  allowed be  500  mg«l  animals to  recover  f a r more  nature i s  of nitrogen  of  important  _ 1  that in  sensitive  NC^ in  and the  27  evaluation indicator  of  lobster  species  nitrification)  of  that  holding various  take  systems, chemical  place  in  a  results  of  since  they  processes  act  as  (such  as  recirculating  seawater  system. Table by  1  listing  summarizes the  monitored  during  indicates  an  are  appropriate evaluations  acceptable  potentially  the  lethal  natural conditions.  water  this  quality  literature parameters  of  lobster  level  for  each parameter.  values  and  levels  holding  to  be  review to  systems Also  expected  be and  listed under  Table  Important water q u a l i t y parameters t o be monitored i n a l i v e l o b s t e r s t o r a g e system. V a l u e s are l i s t e d f o r h o l d i n g , n a t u r a l , and p o t e n t i a l l y lethal conditions.*  1.  Holding  Parameter Temperature P  Conditions 6-7  (°C)  8.0-8.3  H  27  S a l i n i t y (ppt) Dissolved  Oxygen  (mg»l  Suspended  Solids  (mg«l~l)  Nitrogenous  Compounds  - 1  )  2  NO3-N  juvenile  juvenile  •Figures quoted **Based on LC50/  or j u s t below saturation  Conditions 0-25  7.5-8.4 29-34 4-10  Potentially -2 a n d  Lethal 32  5 and 9 8 and  45  2 and supersaturation  25  (mg-l~l)  Parameter NH3-N** 1 s t l a r v a l s t a g e 4th l a r v a l stage 1st juvenile 12th juvenile N0 -N  7-8  Natural  Holding  Conditions  Natural Conditions t o 0.3  1.3  100,  not l e t h a l a t 96 h r  0.014  500,  not l e t h a l a t 96 h r  0.07-21.0  are referenced 24-48 h r  i n the text.  Potentially 1.3 3.8 9.4 94.0  Lethal  possibly  100  possibly  500  29  4.0  SYSTEM  The  DESCRIPTION  general  system  layout  Rim  Shellfish i s outlined  the  system  water  include  storage  centrifugal 4),  three  the  ultraviolet  so  flow.  that  a  (UV)  holding  silica-sand  the  Both  and  3),  pump  and  filters  (Figure  arranged  5),  receives  one-third  in  a  of  specifications  of a a  (Figure  silica-sand  are  their  Pacific  (Figure  intake  6).  at  components  tanks  units  unit  pattern basic  centrifugal  sterilizers  components  The  sterilizer  (Figure  each  flow  and  a  filters parallel  the  are  water  listed  in  2. Water  the  unit  System  Table  fiberglass  2.  c i r c u l a t i o n pump, t h r e e  ultraviolet  fashion  water  i n Figure  reservoir,  refrigeration and  13  and  flow  through  reservoir,  pump. pump  From and  the  to  pumped  eventually  into by  loop.  i s  valves  and  water  any  the  unit  to  a  flows  exists extracted  reservoir  bypass  points  light  as  a  from in  exist  a  of  the  water  i s  from  the  UV  i n the  fashion.  water  where  the  i s i t The  circulation  reservoir,  cyclic  Water  reservoir.  self-contained the  intake  much  tanks  the  at  circulation  present.  holding into  the  the  where  microorganisms  back  by  filtration  ultraviolet  fiberglass  originates  basis  through  filters After  gravity  the  components  demand  silica-sand  destroy  refrigeration  returned  on  intensity  flows  Water  fed  i s removed.  high  sterilizers then  the  matter  to  i s  various  reservoir,  into  particulate exposed  which  the  chilled A  treatment  variety system  and of to  A  |ptofc# P I M P  t  Samp  C  Clfwifltiofi PtMip  D  SondFlttat*  t  UVSMriftian »- »  * -  •wraw ram  Figure 2. System components and water flow pattern o f l o b s t e r holding u n i t .  31  Figure 3. One of the three s e t s of stacked f i b e r g l a s s holding tanks used f o r l o b s t e r storage.  Figure 4. One of three s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s used f o r treatment of the l o b s t e r h o l d i n g water.  33  Figure 5. One of the three UV s t e r i l i z e r u n i t s showing c i r c u l a r arrangement of UV lamps.  Figure 6 . Refrigeraton u n i t used t o maintain l o b s t e r holding water temperature.  35  Table 2:  Lobster h o l d i n g system equipment and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , Specifications  Component intake  centrifugal circulation silica  0.47  pump  sand  I s  -  1  5.6 kW m o t o r r a t e d a t 9.5 l - s - a c t u a l a p p r o x i m a t e o u t p u t 6.5 I s -  pump filters  o p e r a t i n g p r e s s u r e , 345 kPa f i l t e r a r e a , 0.64 m  i  -  1  individual  2  Ultraviolet  sterilizers  refrigeration fiberglass tanks  unit  holding  system  560  W motor,  - 1  a t 2537 A  Freon-12,  rated  a t 30160 W  i n s i d e d i m e n s i o n s : 1.37x3.05x0.38 m a v e r a g e w a t e r d e p t h : 0.24 m average tank volume: 1003 1 i n s i d e d i m e n s i o n s : 0.97x3.35x2.64m average volume: 4500 1  reservoir average  60,000 yuWs.cm  volume  17,539  1  36  facilitate The (one  filter system  cycle  'fresh'  functions  coming  operations.  resulting  system  volume  change obtained  from  tion  of  warm)  in  water  the  i n the  quality  seasonal months  10  of  with  basis  are  a  the  usually  and to  be  expended  attempt  to  conserve  long  a  period  with  minor  the  intake  acute  once  of  the water  seawater opera-  usually treat  energy, as  concern  more  10%  holding  salinity  of  filter  complete  the  must  progressively  addition  'fresh'  to  basis  during  backwashed  adjacent  of  the  and  Therefore  associated  recycle  approximately  ( i . e . low  being  becoming  complete  Since  inlet  f o r as  problems  a  demand  days.  i n an  maintenance.  minutes)  filters  materials  variability,  but  a  quality  system  45  seawater.  marine  and  on  addition  fresh  Therefore,  recycled  on  the  every  poor  energy  water.  mainly  The  in  occurs  is  component  approximately every  seawater  backwash daily  backwash and  too  intake  water  i s  possible. water  The  exhibit  during  the  winter  during  spring  and  Pacific  Rim  summer. Lobster Shellfish from  the  introduction  i s a  routine  airport containers  to  class  for  the  being a  "selects"  1/  pounds; -  two  holding  procedure.  holding moved  particular  stocked:  quarter  and  the  Upon  (approximately  insulated weight  into  to a  class. "chix" 3/  the  -  one  "halves"  pounds  and  kg  animals  of  are  at of  a  shipment  lobster)  sorted  weight  one  over.  classes 2/  and  a  The  half  allocated  are  "quarters"  presently -  one  pounds;  lobsters  the  according  adjacent to tanks  pound; -  arrival  1000  site  Four  tanks  are  and  and  4/  then  37  individually possible. minutes  placed The  depending  available.  into  entire on  the  holding  procedure the  size  of  tanks  requires the  as  quickly  as  approximately  20  shipment  and  manpower  38 5.0  MATERIALS AND METHODS  5.1  Introduction Prior  it  t o a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of materials  i s important to point  water  (False  holding  Creek)  facility  project.  influenced  In general conditions  individual  system  facility Two  o f some will  local to  as  well  components  geographically  holding  demand design.  f o r independent  distant  storage  remain  had  a  Necessary day-to-day  t r e a t m e n t equipment  type  refrigeration  very  of s i t u a t i o n resulted system  after  one  A  employed  brief at the  lobster  have  and t h e o t h e r varies  with  f o r Japan  in  final  may  This  f o r a period dynamic  influence  on  system maintenance  also affected the timing  isolating  only  whereas l o b s t e r s h e l d f o r  on demand. definite  in  problems.  duration  destined  this  uncontrollable  for live  i n the system  made c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n this  the research  at the  of  study.  procedures  markets  the animals  weeks d e p e n d i n g  In a d d i t i o n water  of  in  difficulties  f o r o n e o r two d a y s ,  situation  backwashing  portion  by t h e company, one l o c a l l y  d i s t r i b u t i o n may  several  procedures  empirical  as  aid in illustrating  destination,  require  v a r i a t i o n i n make-up  the s i t u a t i o n resulted  As a r e s u l t l o b s t e r  market  the  of the operational  been e s t a b l i s h e d Japan.  seasonal  q u a l i t y , and o p e r a t i o n a l  background  outline  o u t how  and methods,  and d e s i g n  from  season  supply  and  experimental  such as  filter  of experiments.  u p g r a d i n g and difficult.  o f up  replacement  A prime  example  the upgrading  of the  of  operation  when i t  39  became o b v i o u s t h a t  the  original  u n i t was  inadequate during  the  warmer m o n t h s . Fluctuating changes i n the impact The  on  tuating water  consequential salinity  operation  at  be  the  procedures.  uously  out  at  was  of  the  times  complicating  upgrading  the  of  mechanized method o f  changing  salinity  levels  in  the  intake year  of  directly  to  experimental  the  dealing  fluc-  the  refrigeration  i n t a k e water temperature  efficient  study.  of  first  contributing  and  significant  that  control  during  seasonal  this  facility,  The  to a l l e v i a t e  a  during  problem  difficult  holding  and  a l s o had  Temperature  very  mortality  an  chronic  levels.  to  system helped but  water supply,  and  lobster  design  q u a l i t y , r e s u l t i n g from  investigations carried  proved  high  water  n a t u r a l sea  the  most  intake  with  system  problem,  the  has  continnot  been  developed. These  problems  investigations for  the  The  initial  test  finally  a  sterilizer  to  but  of  look  the  at  the unit.  i s included  by  the  sand  efficiency  unit  served  materials  functional  silica The  site  was  on  sampling  followed the  with  c a r r i e d out  establish  refrigeration  gation  project  experiments  monitoring,  components,  the  the  formulation  below.  series  at  associated  not  water i n part methods  the  system  time-series  filters  and  basis  summarized included  during  of  the  functional  examined  a  during  i n a d e t a i l e d independent  two  an  time-  monitoring,  capabilities  and  as  and  requirements  quality  and  system  ultraviolet capability  of  this  investi-  study  of  heat  40  balances A  test  on  site  was  also  organic  carbon  lobster  holding  5.2  content  This  t h e number  how  varied  was  number  of  five  of  from  water  two  from  of  total  of  120  tanks  and  3  tanks  was  randomly  operating  taken  five  of  the  five  4  and  at  The  of  omitted sample  tank.  the  at f u l l and  decision  on  i n the s t a t i s t i c a l  nitrate,  the  sample analysis  of  same  were  and  tanks.  analysis  a  time  analysed  were  taken,  the  tanks  for a  13  the  of  balanced the  when  9  the  at a l l locations  The  essential  samples  included  collected  to  system  individual  One a  the  i t was  included  create  holding capacity. a  of  tanks.  locations  were  Ten  site  order  from  Samples  tanks  to  in  chemical  i n 12  unstacked  A l l samples  objective  total  study  ammonia,  within  only.  12  the  approximately  i n each  locations  at  required  parameters,  ammonia)  samples.  analysed  demand  experiments  the c e n t r e , w i t h samples  mid-water.  1980).  between  thesis.  comparative  common l o c a t i o n s  The  samples  t o tank  by  use  this  monitoring  samples  (total  and  water  tank  ammonia-N  design.  oxygen  i n  in  the chemical  for  The  outlined  accomplished  each  (Monk  relationship  chemical  tanks' were  the time-series  nitrite  a  facility  water.  research  determine  cally  and  holding  the  holding  run to establish  Thirteen  during  areas  lobster  Requirements  establish  from  the  Sampling  during  to  at  four  corner  coming  from  system  was  were  requirements was  unstacked  experimental  the  results  stacked  to find  statistiwas the  made. most  41  suitable was of  tank(s)  and  accomplished variance  factors  that  unstacked alone;  carrying-out  outlined were  tank  format;  a  i n Sokal  tested  the tanks  and  nitrogen  analyses  experiments  Rohlf  included:  tank  -  This  analysis  (1969).  the  position  The  stacked  three  versus  top, middle,  the  bottom  or  tank.  required  outlined  t o sample.  t h r e e - l e v e l nested  and t h e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n each  All other  as  by  location with  for this  i n this  experiment  section  were  and t h e  performed  i n  (R) duplicate used  on  are  Method  a  Technicon  outlined  No.  Method  ammonia-N,  nitrite  analyser  are  respectively. for  following obtained  (1969) No. and  NH^-N  = =  most  reported formation  and  used  un-ionized  =  un-ionized  for  on  the 0.04  auto mg«l  - 1  0.25%  for nitrate.  The  reporting  the  results  nitrogen  NO~-N  =  nitrate  as  nitrogen  throughout  ammonia-N  due For  this to  nitrogen nitrogen  + i o n i z e d ammonia  as  NH..-N.  limits  are  (ammonium)  nitrite  of  I I .  variation  1.8%  ammonia  =  as  Industrial  Analyzer  and  - 1  of  i n  NO~-N  instances  Auto  methods  analyses:  i o n i z e d ammonia  ammonia-N  In  for nitrite  from n i t r o g e n  I I .  determinations  coefficients  The  Detection  0.04 ^ u g » l  be  .  Analyzer  Technicon  nitrate  will  II  (1971).  1  convention  NH*-N  and  0.2 m g - 1 " ,  0.95%  Auto  98-70W  Respective  ammonia-N,  Analyser  i n Technicon  33-69W  Industrial  Auto  document  minimal  example  when  ammonia  pH pH,  nitrogen  values  influence  are  on  the  temperature  and  42  salinity in  the  (Bower with the  5.3  values  Bidwell  overall  seawater  levels  a  t h e TOC  organic  used  samples  were  and  carbon Burns  1.40%  NH*-N  results,  ammonium  ions  i n  but were  have  a  on  and  were  o f TOC  range  holding  water  of  water.  background  prior  t o use Results  which  using  analyzer  loading  level  Model  these  and  915  the  conditions Three  analysed  total  i n  organic  described  by  t h e use of a d d i t i o n a l  of was  from  levels.  t h e method  involves  suppression  collected  a n d COD  loading  Beckman  f o r COD  carbon  the  on  (COD)  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  a  f o r the  demand  experiments.  of biomass  (1965)  reported  run to establish  variety  a  been  oxygen  not  f o r the test  using  organic  i n lobster  purposes.  c o l l e c t e d a t each  sulfate  (TOC) l e v e l s  i n the time-series t o examine  Demand information  i n the lobster holding  t o secure  and M a r s h a l l  total  of  to  no  data  chemical  of t e s t s  during  analyzer,  mercuric  of  virtually  carbon  1973)  used  f o r TOC  that  comparative  a n d COD  system  duplicate  The  total  analysis  an attempt  samples  value  constant  revealed  parameters f o r compartive  holding in  review  series  were  Water  ionized  vs Chemical Oxygen  (Iverson  o f TOC  obtained two  Carbon  Some  waste  Therefore,  NH^-N  maximum  hydrolysis  characteristics  lobster  a  r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e used  s  water.  solids  15°/oo  ( p K a ) o f 9.55.  regarding  holding  and  percent  1978),  Total Organic  exists  17°C  of  acid  A literature  of  7.7,  calculation  and  an  of  chloride  oxidation.  operated  using  the  43  procedures al.  outlined  in  Prior  to  (1976).  Hamilton  automatic  thoroughly of  5.4  Time-Series  dramatic  increases  The  minutes  set  response  shipments  typically  of  a  (e.g.  temperatures  first  experiment,  were  et  with  samples  analysed  variety  and  experiments  a  were  within  was  environmental lobster  occur  about  during 1000  animal density  of  one  change  the  kg)  from  background  ranging  from  These  from  7  to  ran f o r 2 4 hours, a  total  of  20  finally  a  hours.  An  initial  set  establish  (within  the  tanks,  10 percent  set  every  of  to  95  background  Except  was  values.  for  f o r the  the  prior  at  Eight  15  minute  next  remaining  obtained Sample  at  the  set  times.  hours  out  conditions  d u r a t i o n was  two  for  carried  quality  3 0 minutes  hour  samples  were  sampling  a set every  and  of  coast  rapidly  19°C).  intervals, hours,  rapid  east  into  5 or  water  during the f i r s t  f o l l o w e d by  resulting  introduction  experiments  initial  involved  monitor,  capacity.  time-series  which  to  biomass.  samples were c o l l e c t e d  to  the  at the h o l d i n g f a c i l i t y )  ten  under  run  analyzer  incoming animals are t r a n s f e r r e d  increasing  hours  in  (usually  of a r r i v a l  total  of  and  biomass  1 0 0 p e r c e n t of system A  12  the  syringe,  A l l samples  this  i n lobster  suppliers.  or  of  system  increases  15  into  Association  Experiments  purpose  time,  large  hypodermic  Health  collection.  The  from  Public  injection  homogenized.  hour  over  American  two  eight  to  each  requirements  were  44  established sample  set  center  of  percent the  consisting tanks  2,  recycle  of  5,  were  as  previously  four  8  and  0.5 12  in effect  1  outlined  samples  (Figure  obtained  2).  throughout  with  the  each  from  the  C o n d i t i o n s of  100  system  during a l l  experiments. The  this  water  quality  principle  oxygen,  carbon.  values Model  of  II^ ^  for  R  a  salinity  standard  organic  Beckman meter,  Sand  Mechanical been  well  include during  acts  filtering  It  the  present  respect primary as  a  to  by  pH  meter,  a  dissoled  oxygen  meter,  a  Technicon  a  Beckman  took  Auto  YSI  Analyser  Model  place within  i n darkness  of  study.  silica  manufacturers  therefore  designed  their  parameter  915  total  organic carbon determinations.  efficency  was  experiments  which  total  at  18  hours  of  4°C.  Experiments  documented  investigators.  its  57  and  and  determine  YSI  were s t o r e d  Filter  to  during  dissolved  nitrite-N,  portable  Model  monitored  salinity,  Chem-Mate  to chemical analysis,  5.5  pH,  nitrate-N,  analyser for total  a l l samples  were  employed  analysis,  collection,  with  a  were  thermometer,  nitrogen  Silica  that  experiments ammonia-N,  alcohol  carbon  parameters  Instruments  included 33  Prior  set  temperature,  organic  a  experimentally  to  performance  function  of  mechanical  suitable  substrate  for  this  the as  filters  and  redundant  mechanical  filters  were  biofilters.  filtration the  the  growth  has  independent  considered  test  Instead  sand  function evaluated  Along filter  of  to  with media  nitrifying  45  bacteria  which  order  to  evaluate  tion  process,  lobster  the  ments.  were  A  a  number  efficiency, Once was  the  was to  were  five  unit  was  system  at  times  for  not  in  with  and  of  17°C,  peak  and  were  ammonia  large  the  lobster  This  and  the  energy  sand  of  was  choosen  nitrogen  filters  were  three  of  that  in  a  a  dynamic source.  shortly  the  The  relatively be  after peak  introduction  relatively  compounds c o u l d arranged  in  system.  hours a f t e r  so  'conditioned  temperatures,  period  holding  period  sterilizer  their at  75  growth  conditioning  are  was  system  population  baceria  a  removal  approximately  a  for  based  frequency.  defined  of  experi-  reached  ultraviolet  (1970)  and  medium  treatment  of  in this  within four  period  inflow level three  seeding  i n the  filter  was  water  nitrifying  shipment,  the  passage  particulate  period  scheduled  loading  after  backwash  experiments were conducted  of  tent  a  routine formation  usually occurred  duration.  the  sand  the  which  Spotte  which  the  in  in  nitrification  and  Included  days  period a  capacity  operating.  one  the  silica  and  bacterial  consecutive  Duplicate 12°  maximum  and  including  installed  nitrifica-  levels  appropriate  blockage,  experimentation.  equilibrium  7°,  was  this  In  monitored.  to  #16  nitrate.  nitrate  the  prior a  interstitial  as  1  use  and  before  were  parameters  allowed  prior  determine  conducted  medium  and  immediately  to  of  operating  days  nitrite  filters  to  nitrite  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  sand  decision  to  possible  water  tests  size  ammonia  ammonia,  silica  On-site  on  the  holding  through  grain  oxidize  short consis-  ensured.  parallel  Since  configura-  46  tion, It  each  system  volume  system one  hour.  duplicate  lines  less  Samples  experiment  one  were  NO~N  calculated was  f o r each  sample  testing  was  s e t a t one  long  experiments  holding  silica  sand  water filters.  i n t h e main  o u t f l o w and  water  inflows.  NO^-N,  monitored  of the three i n rapid  and analysed  and  and  during  each  changes not  temperatures  succession  of  variation  The o b j e c t i v e  observed totally  from  f o r ammonia-N a n d  coefficients  set of results.  were  of the  tanks.  ports  that  2  required f o r  possible  NO^-N,  a n d pH w e r e  deviations  t o ensure  Ultraviolet This  the f i l t e r  i n Table  volume  the  established  was c o l l e c t e d  sampling  concentrations  individual  5.6  oxygen  o f 10 s a m p l e s  Standard  testing  the  t o both experiments a t each  of the input  NO~N.  from  f o r  i n t h e main h o l d i n g  Prior series  through  from  as  duration  drawn  analysed  Dissolved  much  periods.  was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h e one hour  conveniently  one meter  were  ammonia-N.  were  passage  were  as  during  samples  than  avoid  system)  experiment  minutes  after  points  to  of time  t o t h e approximate  the treatment  water,  five  water  and  Sampling  through  the test outlined  ( i . e . t h e amount  equivalent  treated  during  the specifications  Therefore,  Every  before  from  of water  t o pass  hour.  individually  turnover time  previously  a  studied  was c a l c u l a t e d  that a  was  of  this  i n ammonia-N  and  a  result  of  variation.  Sterilizer  s e t of  Experiments  experiments  was  designed  to  establish  the  47  effectiveness  of  the  controlling  bacterial  time-series  approach  from  four  t o seven  experiments  were  ultraviolet  levels was  days  w a s made  periods  of minimal  biomass  holding  test  fluctuation  temperature.  and  the  Four  a t 12° a n d  a l l experiments  would  influence  result  of  A  varying  i n the holding  production  at  water.  durations  on water  t o schedule  variations i n bacterial i n temperature  units  t w o a t 7°C, a n d one e a c h  An a t t e m p t  changes  with  depending  17°C,  that  i n the lobster  adopted  performed,  sterilizer  the  during  tanks only  so  from  ultraviolet  sterilizers. To  establish  ultraviolet bacterial without  unit  the  on  unit  the other  one  a  tank of of  ambient  temperature.  standard  a i r pump  the main  the  oxygen  system system)  the  of  was  The  water  holding  holding  while  tank  unit  p a r t i c u l a t e removal  had s t a b i l i z e d t h e aquarium  ( i . e . water tank  was  stocked  pratical as  time  provide  A 341 1 and  glass placed  isolating a  a  consistent  fitted  with  a  adequate  respectively.  with  an  operate  to insure  quality  and  to  water  was  time,  system  insuring  the  with  to  effectively  and coarse f i l t r a t i o n and  Due  functions.  tanks,  aquarium  over  constructed  lobster  of  water  b u t a t t h e same  treatment  holding  holding  holding  the entire  with  monitor,  sterilizers.  subsystem  was f i l l e d  portion  dissolved  of  primary water  to  recycling  sterilization  t h e main  characteristics  imperative  the  the use  ultraviolet  aquarium in  i n  influence  experimental  all  performance  i t was  levels  constraints  without  the  After  consistent  with  lobsters  at a  48  density  equivalent  sampling  was  water  and  introduction reached  a  that  of  the  main  holding  the and  level  samples holding  then  on  were tank  a  daily  considered  collected  animals  basis  were  determined  to  methods  Microbiological Association A  lobster  10 by  outlined  Societies  of  other  significance storage  period.  The  reported  here  manual  the  bacterial  harmful  standard  (1978)  levels  t o 'the  test  -1 colonies-ml  in  lobster  ).  aerobic  International and  Bacterial plate  counts  Association  American  Public  of  Health  (1976).  number  practical  both  after  until  potentially  (approximately  according  and  from  immediately  4  levels  system  initiated.  Duplicate aquarium  to  to  facility  results  experiments the  successful  were  conducted  obtained  but are outlined  submitted  to Pacific  and  from  this  i n part  tests  of  managing  of  throughout  peripheral in a  Rim S h e l l f i s h L t d .  the the  work  separate  direct live study  are not  operations  49  6.0  EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS  6.1  Sampling  Requirements  Sample q u a n t i t y monitoring  experiments was based  comparative system  values 1  water  samples  as o u t l i n e d  variation  mg.l  and sampling l o c a t i o n  among  .  120  Despite  analysis reveal  of  was very  very  variance  was  about  sample  was s i g n i f i c a n t  collected  samples  this  subtleties  determining  on a s t a t i s t i c a l throughout  i n the preceeding s e c t i o n .  samples  f o r the  f o r the t i m e - s e r i e s  low.  analysed low  a  requirements.  G e n e r a l l y the  was  7.2  from  i t was  felt  exercise  that To  holding  of ammonia-N  range  data  the  The range  worthwhile  the  a n a l y s i s of  could  be  determine  v a r i a n c e w i t h i n the h o l d i n g  as  and  9.0  that  an  i t might useful  whether  in  there  system the combined  r e s u l t s of ammonia-N d e t e r m i n a t i o n s from the sampling runs were subjected unequal location  to a sample  three-level sizes.  within  (Table 3 ) .  each  nested  analysis  Calculations tank  was  of v a r i a n c e  revealed  significant  that  with  choice  a t the 0.01  of  level  Further a n a l y s i s of the data employing the m u l t i p l e  comparison  Student-Newman-Keuls  test  acquisition  from  locations  the f i v e  R e s u l t s showed that  sample  the c e n t r a l  to  compare was  sampling p o s i t i o n  sample  c a r r i e d out. i n each  tank  was the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f i v e l o c a t i o n s t e s t e d . A series location 8.14  of t e n water  samples  collected  simultaneously at  5 (middle of each tank) had a mean ammonia-N value of  rng'l"  1  with  a  standard  deviation  of  0.07  mg^l  - 1  and a  50  3.  Table  ANOVA t a b l e s h o w i n g r e s u l t s o f t h r e e - l e v e l nested analysis of variance on ammonia-N samples to determine sample requirements.  Fs  SS  MS  3  0 .66  0 .22  0 .73 n s  8  2 .37  0 .30  1 .07 n s  48  13 .52  0 .28  error  60  0 .58  0 .01  Total  119  17 .13  Source  df  of variation  position Tank  (within  Location  F.05  position)  (within  [ 3 . 8 ] = 4.07  tank)  F.05  [8,48]  = 2.14  F.01  [48,60]  28 . 0 * *  =  1.89  51  coefficient duplicate be  of  variation  sampling  during  the  of  time  0.86%,  series  indicating  experiment  that  should  not  necessary. In  levels  summary, s t a t i s t i c a l throughout  the  picture  system,  samples  water  location  i n any  between was  the  samples one  6.2  of  an  The  that  stacked  no  assignment  of  of  from  or  obtain  the  a  the  central  difference  tanks  system  i n the  in  position  sample  the  tanks  to  significant  format  ammonia-N  conditions  collected  Since  three middle  Organic Carbon relationship  chemical  oxygen  of  tank  was  should  stacked  collected  in  holding  the  mean l o w  of of  51  lowest  virtually  (COD)  during  system ppm  283  v e r s u s C h e m i c a l Oxygen  between  demand  samples  the  indicated quality  be  coverage  the measured  made. include  format  and  the unstacked tanks.  Total  minimum  and  adequate the  water  sampled.  arbitrary  and  from  of  of  tanks  should  unstacked  found,  Efficient  tank  analysis  holding  representative  TOC  (V)  triplicates,  four  and  42  ppm  COD  as  based  7). 192  where  ppm,  levels  mean were  by  the  on  carbon  (TOC)  analysis  of  water  loading  rates  lobster levels with  a  ranged COD  and  from  maximum  a and  With  the  and  COD  levels  were  consistently  greater  than  TOC  percent.  significantly indicated  TOC  respectively.  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30  showed  organic  different  to a high of  identical,  minations  was  (Figure  concentration,  v a l u e s by  total  Demand  higher range  e x c e p t i o n of  Triplicate variation bars  COD  deter-  than  associated  TOC with  Figure 7. R e l a t i o n s h i p between TOC and COD of l o b s t e r h o l d i n g water. Range bars are provided f o r COD  concentrations.  53  each  point.  Maximum  highest  COD  small.  Since variation  shown.  The  regression  6.3  values,  variation  line,  load  January,  of  i n  a n d a mean  the  temperature  high  Salinities from to  varied  weight data  remained  temperature listed three  a  bars  three was  a r e not  points  shows  a  previous  on  the  kg +  data  e x p e r i m e n t a l biomass  from  Experimental  kg A  i n  (0/00)  at  were  run  at  7.0-8.0°C,  temperatures.  experiment during  ranging  experiment  6  1.  and  simplify  and  10)  presentation,  representative below,  also  of  data  Selection  based  on  The e s t i m a t e d l o a d  data  i s  of the  the size was  from  the three  the remaining  1,2,3,4,5,6). was  February, look  low of between  each  the  closer  a t mid-range  experiment  load.  1200  174.4.  during  sets  varied  t o a high of  year.  experiments  group  i s presented  representative  of  that  (Appendices  time-series  a minimum o f 675 kg d u r i n g  per thousand  (1, 3  ten  1980 e x p e r i m e n t  temperatures, a and  the  temperatures  maximum  constant  groups  elsewhere  the  having  repetition  experiments  water  o f 962.5  18.0-19.0°C  avoid  from  for  that  of  a l o w o f 1 7 0/00 d u r i n g  three  the  July  a h i g h o f 27 p a r t s  To  determined  the January,  three water  of  the  f o r the lowest value  was m i n i m a l , r a n g e  conditions  experiment,  1980  a  for  Experiments  also  1980  basically  f o r TOC ratio,  during  recorded  biomass  as t h e range  ( T a b l e 4) s h o w s  l o w o f 7.0°C  19°C  recorded  i s 1.67.  summary  experiments a  COD/TOC  Time-Series A  where  was  of  virtually  Table  4.  Experiment  Conditions  #  for time-series  Time(hr)  Date  experiments. T e m p e r a t u r e (°C) Air Water  Salinity  (o/oo)  Biomass Residual  Load (kg) Experimental  1  May  29/79  13:40  13.0  14.0  17  75  1050  2  June  27/79  14:45  18.5  22.0  21  85  820  3  July  21/79  13:45  19.0  26.0  23  105  1100  4  Aug  24/79  16:45  18.7  24.0  21  70  770  5  Sept  14/79  15 :50  16.0  21.0  19  55  840  6  Nov  9/79  16:05  12.0  13.0  27  150  1080  7  Jan  14/80  14:35  7.0  9.0  24  50  675  8  Feb  26/80  15:20  8.0  13.0  26  200  1200  9  May  23/80  13:30  7.5  17.0  25  80  980  10  Aug  19/80  16:15  8.0  23.0  28  110  1110  55  identical 1087  f o r the three  kg a n d a  additional feature  data  to  and  only  total  kg.  displayed  range  The  mean  analyser  of  variation  with  a  I n some  to highlight  TOC a  carbon  mean  of  instances a  (V)  of  of  when  on  conversion  factor  specific  time-series  experiments  temperatures. within  results  are An  These  0.1  fully  allowed f o r values.  305.8  to  1  mg^l " ". -  calculated  and  a  be  coefficient  of  considered  therefore  TC  1  to  were  and  TC  mg-l" .  7.8  results  the from  to  i n  the  Figure  data  dramatic  increase  after  the lobster  hour  I n most  t h e a n a l y s i s o f TOC  presented  common  i n a l lexperiments,  concentration.  TC of  results  value  was  which  was  a l l the  from  are  initial  the first  to  was  1.39  analysed f o r  analyser  high  samples  V  were  obtained.  TOC the  was s e t a t 0.97.  experiments  characteristics  to a  values  low  were  time-series  deviation of  the  the  combustion  the time-series  values  developed  19.1  these  applied  Representative  the  1.43%.  of  holding water  carbon  standard  based  time-series  from  inorganic  most  (TC)  carbon  low of  content  the  during  of lobster  inorganic  a  significant  of from  TOC  with  observed  with  and a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r  ranged  The  problems  inorganic  estimation  values  tion  be  total  50 s a m p l e s  operational  97.02%  will  i n the carbon  Therefore  the  d e v i a t i o n o f 32  technical  experiments,  TC  sets  choosen,  of the results.  Due column  standard  experiments  followed  instances  TOC  by  a  values  at  during the 8.  Several  a l l  i n TOC  three  concentra-  i n t r o d u c t i o n was  gradual reached  decline i n a  steady  56  TIME-SERIES TOC EXPERIMENTS I  5_  " §_  O  o h 9 x  e + * x  *-  o  EXPT EXPT EXPT EXPT  1 (13 C) 3 (19 C) 7 (7 C) 10 (8 C)  I  I  1  I  1  1  I  I  1  1  1  1  1  L  A  i'  i  Figure 8. Changes i n TOC concentxations recorded during representative time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was used t o emphasize changes i n TOC concentrations during the f i r s t three hours o f each experiment.  57  state all 10 a  at approximately  higher  than  a t 8°C  value  and  a  experiment peak  an  was  run  under  the 12  hour  to  value value  In water  TOC  level  (Figure  9).  recorded.  Within  value  biomass  At  initial  Within  30  h  approximately  DO 5.5  1  peak  of  experiment  0.25  hour,  and had 305.7  at  .  at  7 which half  was  of the  presented.  25.1  hours,  concentrations  mg-1  with  a  - 1  ,  final  i n the holding  slowly increased  than  DO  the i n i t i a l  3),  the  after  concentrations This  had  the  of  to a  (Time  highest  concentration  t h e DO h a d d r o p p e d  1  12  the  dramatically, within the f i r s t  minutes  -  a  i n  ^,  r u n a t 19°C  ,  0.50  13°C  mg-1  the f i n a l ,  recorded  at  - 1  and then  mg-1 " ".  18.1  (approximately  was  (Expt.  an  from  at  - 1  At  conditions i salso  DO  lower  19°C  - 1  .  with  - 1  .  experiments,  was  and  3 was  loading  164.0 m g - 1 - 1  was  - 1  were number  48.4 m g - 1  mg-1  o f 7 8 . 9 mg-1 data  levels  o f 405.1 m g - 1  25.4 m g - 1  experiments)  of t h e runs  shipment, 2.5  of  i n some c a s e s  which  temperature,  lobster  Experiment  o f 39.1 m g - 1  dropped,  state  was  was  89.4  hours  concentration  a l l four  30 m i n u t e s  0.75  purposes  discussed  initial peak  .  of  TOC  In experiment  concentration  at  and a f i n a l  much l o w e r  previously The  level  concentration  comparative  0) v a l u e s .  t h e experiment  - 1  - 1  and f i n a l  concentration  the i n i t i a l  36.1 m g - 1  hours, For  TOC  hour  316.1 m g - l  initial  0.50  (Time  during 12  1  was  value  initial  the i n i t i a l  maximum  hours,  3 t o 4 hours  8.1  15  steady  0)  value  experimental mg-1  introduction  was  - 1  of the  to a level  o f 3.4  mg-1  reached  steady  state at  value  a  represents  a  - 1  .  reduction  58  ° I  i  i  o-  i  HUE-SERIES DO EXPERIMENTS i  i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — ' — " — i —  L  e> EXPT 1 (13 C)  + EXPT 3 (13 C)  •i «  e> EXPT 7 (7  x  0  i  0  x EXPT 10 (8 C)  ' ! 0  S  '  l!o  '  V.6  ' !o 2  '  a!6  '  3'.0  4'i,  &  T!O  *>  «[o l i o l i O  TIME (HR)  Figure 9. Changes i n dissolved oxygen concentrations  recorded  during representative time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was to emphasize changes i n dissolved oxygen during the f i r s t three hours of each experiment.  59  in  ambient At  at  DO  - 1  .  A  within  was  the  Experiment concentration during  this state  reached  after  The  results  from  The a  minimum  increased pH 3  DO  generally higher 8°C  in  was  run  mg-1  1  a  - 1  .  value  the 0.5  was  of  measured 5.3  mg-1  experiment.  hours  at  This  which  increase  to  1  time  a  final  .  A  8°C  of  with  decrease  minimum  were  loading  value  an  in of  initial  DO  was  7.6  approximately  a l l carried-out conditions.  7,  similar  level  in  to  of  8.5  From  this  measured are  small  but  mg-l  in 8.5  DO  observed 0.75  mg-1  of  i n the in  showing 10  an  h.  A was  1  lower  the  DO  9.5  for 1  load  experimental  experiment  which  0.5  purposes  biomass  biomass,  mg-l"  at  approximately  comparative  much  10.5  - 1  h  10.  dropped  mark  concentration  to  in  the  gradually  mg-l" . 1  holding  water  Figure with  changes  initial  under  recorded  point  detectable  temperatures experiment  was  a than  those  presented  For  which  Other  to a steady-state  10  of  gradually  at  concentration  levels  and  hours  mg-1  DO  concentration  to  presented.  were  initial  initial  DO  6.6  experiment  experiment.  1,  runs  are  conditions  mg-1  h.  biomass  occurred,  of  3  additional  concentration  three  same  an  reaching  3  the  1.5  began  10.0  run  steady  the  for  10  of  1,  first  maintained  state value  nearly  minimum  concentration  steady  of  i n experiment  mg-1  occurred  the  concentration  13°C  8.9  level  DO  pH  10.  Changes  results of of  during  from  greater 7.1  was  experiments in  pH  were  experiments  at  magnitude.  At  recorded  with  60  Figure 10. pH changes recorded during r e p r e s e n t a t i v e time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was used t o emphasize changes i n pH during the f i r s t three hours of each experiment.  61  subsequent maximum final  measurements  only  minor  a n d minimum pH o f 6 . 9 , a t 1 h o u r ,  variation.  A  and 7.3, d u r i n g t h e  6 h o u r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were r e c o r d e d . Results  increase  from  experiment  immediately a f t e r  from a l e v e l this  showing  1  (13°C)  the lobster  show  pH  beginning  introduction  to  a t Time  o f 6.9 t o a maximum v a l u e o f 8.2 a t 2 . 5 - 3 . 0 h.  point,  pH was o b s e r v e d  to decline  gradually  0 At  t o a minimum  l e v e l o f 7.3 a t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r u n . Initial  pH  time-series recorded  pattern  during  observed  to  introduced  into  A  place  3  (19°C)  observed  A  after  gradual  was  6.6.  increase  after  the  maximum  pH  was  was  i n pH  was  was  were  reached  was i n i t i a t e d ,  recorded  As w i t h t h e o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s r e p o r t e d h e r e , t h e f i n a l  pH  level  of the holding  was h i g h e r t h a n  was  the  7.6.  the level  recorded  Time 0 o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Ammonia-N,  during in  t h e pH  until  at  at  water  when  1  measured  at  the experiment,  similar  lobsters  level  the experiment  decline  A  f o r experiment  substantial  shortly  t h e system.  a of  that  run.  1-2 h o u r s  point  termination  to  this  take  approximately which  i n experiment  tion  and  the representative  Figures  ture  NO~  1 1 , 1 2 , a n d 13 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1.3  mg-1  A  observed f o r the f i r s t much  more  concentrations  gradual  measured  time-series experiments are presented  o f 8°C i n e x p e r i m e n t was  NO^-N  At the lowest  10 t h e i n i t i a l steady  tempera-  ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a -  increase  i n ammonia-N  0.75 h. o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , f o l l o w e d  increase  to  the  maximum  level  of  was by a 2.3  62  Figure 11. Changes i n ammonia-N concentrations recorded during r e p r e s e n t a t i v e time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was used t o emphasize changes i n ammohia-N concentrations during the f i r s t three hours o f each experiment.  63  •  Z  i  TIME-SERIES NITRITE-N EXPERIMENTS i  i  i  e  © EXPT 1 (13 C)  •i  + EXPT 3 (19 C)  «  * EXPT 10 (8 C)  i  i  i  1  1  '  i  1  1  i  i  i  i  i  i—i—i—1_  -  4—e—e—©  —i 0  1  as  1  r—i 10  1  13  1  2X)  2JS  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  U  U  U  U  7.0  8.0  ftO  1  1— .  10.0 110  iio  TIME (HR)  Figure 12. Changes i n n i t r i t e - N concentrations recorded during representative time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was to emphasize changes i n n i t r i t e - N during the f i r s t three hours of each experiment.  64  TIME-SERIES NITRRTE-N EXPERIMENTS <  I  I  I  0  © EXPT 1 (13 C)  1  + EXPT 3 (19 C)  «  » EXPT 10 (8 C)  \  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  1  1  1  1  1  L  >  . , in  —i C '  Z q I V>LU  t— CE  .  or  in i-"  n  as  '  to  1  is  1  TO  '  5 TINE  1  iSo 4 i u  u  ig  ID  ilo no ito iio  (HR)  Figure 13. Changes i n n i t r a t e - N concentrations recorded during r e p r e s e n t a t i v e time-series experiments. A discontinuous time-scale was used t o emphasize changes i n n i t r a t e - N during the f i r s t three hours o f each experiment.  65  mg-l  - 1  ,  recorded  concentrations At  13°C mg-l "'"  of  the  lobsters  which  decline hour  a  was  4  maximum  4.3  recorded  - 1  5.0  8°C  remained other  was  at  after  mg-l  was  recorded  the introduction i n  concentration  at  - 1  1.5  h.  This  f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l 1.5  hour  The  period  dropped  most from  from  ammonia-N  h.  dramatic hour  6.3  3  to  to  4.9  concentration  was  the experiment  concentration at  and  19°C.  to a  13°C  h,  A  as  final  at  i n Figure  level  NOj-N  maximum  ammonia-N  12.  than  value  to  increased  point  during  maximum  a  gradual  the  time-series  In experiments NO^-N  10  experiments.  0.5  mg-l '*'. -  were of  and  concentrations  the  concentration NO~-N  similar  was  o f 3.7 mg-l"''' a t 12 h .  throughout less  mg*1~^  were  which  respectively,  constant  1.9  introduction to a  measured  f l u c t u a t i o n s were i n  1  the lobser 2.5  of  Results  t o a minimum l e v e l  are presented  fluctuations pronounced.  i n  of  level  observed.  experiment  after  mg^l"^  relatively  cases  6.4  ammonia-N  a t 12 h .  - 1  increase  i n system  concentrations  experiments at  of  t h e one  3  during  was o b s e r v e d  NO~-N  to  concentration  f o r experiment  of  began  decline  point  t o 1.7 m g - l  Immediately  ammonia-N  immediately  decline  over  this  .  produced  level  1  the  initial  rapidly  decline  general  mg-l  From  t h e ammonia-N  level  f o r the remainder  An  those  a  recorded  A  observed  0.  was m a i n t a i n e d  when  -  time  1  ammonia-N  point  mg-l "''.  of  at  -  concentration at  h.  i n experiment  3.3  to  1.5  gradually declined  at  rapidly  at  2.35  At  much mg-l  In 19°C more  - 1  was  66  recorded  a t 3.0  observed which NO^-N similar  point  to  results that  levels  resulted  to  increase  the  initial  26.6  mg'l  6 .4  Silica  level  i n  final and  13°C  NO^-N  value  final  NO^-N  At  hours  was  - 1  8°C  when  10.5  concentrations  NO^-N  i t began 12.  mg-l  the  a t hour  _ 1  a t which  a t hour  throughout  o f 13.3 m g » l  basically  experiment  o f 6.4 m g ' !  at  area l l  remained  f o r 6  was  of the run.  gradually.  -  decline  experiments  o f each  5 nig-l "*"  concentration  i n a  gradual  concentrations  t o a maximum  increase  slow  three  5 or 6 hours  began  NO^-N  gradual  - 1  The  .  The  experiment 12.  were  A t 19°C 23.9 a n d  respectively.  - 1  Sand  Results values  NO~-N  a  the termination  the  at approximately  increase  intial  for  f o rthe f i r s t  remained  point  continued until  i n  constant  h, a t which  Filter  reported  calculated  Experiments from  from  this  series  duplicate  of experiments  samples  taken  a t each  a r e mean sampling  period. To  establish  levels  water  samples  were  NO^-N  prior  to  Section  5.5. were  presented  i n Table  In  a l lcases  deviation  taken each  The mean,  variation  of  the  and  variation  analysed  experiment  standard  calculated 5  sample  deviation  f o r each  f o r ammonia-N  coefficient  of  expressed as a percentage  series  of  f o r ammonia-N as  outlined  and c o e f f i c i e n t  set of and  a  results  Table  variation  o f t h e mean  6  10 and i n of  and a r e  f o r NO^-N.  (the standard v a l u e ) was  less  67  Table 5 .  Temp.(°C)  7 12  17  Mean (Y) w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (V) c a l c u l a t e d f o r ammonia-N l e v e l s measured i n sample s e r i e s c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o s i l i c a sand f i l t e r experiments.  Expt. #  Y (mg-l" ) 1  S.D.(mg-l" ) 1  V (%)  1  0.4+0.02  0.01  2.5  2  1.3 + 0.22  0.11  8.5  1  1.5 + 0.18  0.09  6.0  2  7.6 + 1.35  0.69  9.1  1  13.6 + 2.63  1.34  9.9  2  6.3 + 0.71  0.36  5.7  68  Table 6 .  Temp.(°C) 7  12  17  Mean (Y) w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (V) c a l c u l a t e d f o r NO3-N l e v e l s measured i n sample s e r i e s c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o s i l i c a sand f i l t e r experiments.  Expt. #  _Y_(mg-l ) _1  S.D.(mg-l" ) 1  V  1  16.4  + 2.57  1.31  8.0  2  24.8  + 3.41  1.74  7.0  1  19.7  + 1.55  0.79  4.1  2  23.9  + 2.00  1.02  4.3  1  4.3  + 0.22  0.11  2.6  2  29.5  + 3.06  1.56  5.3  (%)  69  than  10%. The  and  silica  sand  i f possible  in  the  filter  achieve in  beds  the  Dissolved holding  sand  tanks  filters  and  a  and  28 p p t  Maximum  and  minimum  pH  both  with  phase the  of  pH  each  end  of  at  7°C  the  drop  the  first  12°C and  with from  values water mg«l~^  were at  each  to  before  salinity of  the  constant  taking  12  during  experiments, 1  each  and  2  was  occuring  and A  the  DO  minimum  drop  over  time  tempertures.  minor  going  from  from  9.8  to  was  recorded  from  7.3  to  mg^l ^ low  for loss  5.9  i n the  -  due  temperature.  substantial  some  three  drop  recorded  during  the  and  5.0  at  to the A  the  was  8.8  mg-l  ^  for  the  second.  At  low  DO  drop  experiment  recorded f o r the  oxygen  and  initial close  both mg-l  - 1  the  duplicate first 17°C  to  runs  at  during second. runs  maximum  from at  for  4.8  17°C, run  at  experiment  capacity  second  7°C.  recorded  in  carrying  but  at  the  For 9.1  the  7.  salinities  point  to  during  minimum first  9.5  main  experiment  respectively  usually  17°C).  i n Table  f o r example  and  passage  i n the  i s given  To  levels  after  (7,  place  loading.  were m o n i t o r e d  results  detect,  NC^-N  and  three temperatures  maxima  of  generally  that  was  much more  DO  going  7.5  monitored  to  values are presented f o r dissolved  run.  greater DO  and  f o r experiments  experiment  somewhat  NO^-N  and  experiment  experiments  A  ammonia-N,  summary  and  the  DO  ammonia  duplicate  25  activity  heavy  remained  between  designed  p e r i o d s of  at  pH  were  nitrification  were  (DO),  levels  fluctuated  any  during  water  oxygen  Salinity  experiments  objective  holding  through  were  quantify,  this  the  filter  as  DO  of  the  to  4.1  with DO  a  went  70  T a b l e 7.  Summary o f d i s s o l v e d o x y g e n ( D O ) , pH a n d s a l i n i t y l e v e l s measured during the s i l i c a sand  filter  experiments.  D.O.(mg.l Temp.(°C)  Expt.#  )  pH  max  min  max  min  Salinity  1  9.5  9.1  8.1  7.2  25  2  9.8  8.8  7.7  6.9  28  1  7.3  5.9  6.9  6.4  19  2  7.5  5.0  7.5  6.6  23  1  4.8  4.1  7.8  6.7  21  2  6.1  3.3  7.9  6.8  25  (o/oo)  71  from  6.1  12°C/ one  to  pH  hour  3.3  drops test  values  from  ammonia-N, these  NO~-N  experiments  presented  i n  this  concentrations of this  stable  data  ammonia-N have  three  filters  increased  nitrification  at  each  the oxidation  from  process,  concentrations  plotted  the  i s  of  time  of  these  of  f o r the three  filters  several to  i s  at  As  a  holding  through  i s rapid  and  remain  graphical  the  the  the  process  of thus the  assumptions and t h a t  no  affecting  compounds.  ammonia-N  minor  increasing  on  volatilization,  some  nitrate-N  and  to nitrate  NO^-N  determining  the  form  i s based  nitrogenous  i n  During  ammonia  and  the  passage  to  a l l  run.  involved  after  oxidized  nitrite as  each  concentratons  conversion  such  of  has  were  tended  from  temperature.  concentrations  over  analysis  concentration This  decreasing  at  over  during  parameter  decreased  ammonia-N  the  measured  duration  NO^-N  or  of nitrate.  other  unit  Although  excluded  data  and  was  the  are  Initial  water  that  level  throughout  presentation.  level  nitrite  these  decreasing  pH  ammonia-N  section.  experiments,  whether  experiment  NO~-N  only  i n  result,  o f one  and  fluctuation  fairly  the f i r s t  period.  during are  Except  _ J  were a l l i n t h e order  Although measured  mg'l '.  the  I n c r e a s i n g or  NO^-N each  were of  the  then test  temperatures. Presentation relatively compounds  of  constant throughout  the  data  inflow the  i n  this  fashion  concentration  duration  of  each  of  presupposes  a  nitrogenous  experiment.  As  72  outlined the  i n a previous section,  experimental design  to  a  minimum.  inflow were  illustrate  statistically 8,  figures during  9,  that  analysed  and  10  inflow  7°C  17°C.  ranged  to V  a  maximum  experiment from  a  1,  minimum  low of  of  value  of  the  10.5%  7.0%  at  17°C  presented  samples  (V) f o r  filter  1,  1,  from  a  at low  t o a h i g h o f 2.6% i n V  experiment  1,  2,  these  filter  varied  i n  constant  1,  1,  NO^-N  i n experiment  from  of variation  i n experiment  7°C.  NO^-N  relatively  2, a t 1 7 ° C  at  measures  and  are  i n experiment  into  reduced  these  i s evident  remained  inflow  2,  1.9%  results It  1.3%  2, f i l t e r  filter  maximum  and  f o r NO^-N  of  was  NO^-N  The c o e f f i c i e n t s  of  1.1% i n e x p e r i m e n t  fluctuation  ammonia-N,  concentrations  a  were i n c o r p o r a t e d  effect  respectively.  from  values  that  the  of  most e x p e r i m e n t s .  ammonia-N  of  t o ensure  concentrations  Tables  at  To  features  values filter  filter  2,  ranged 3,  at  to  the  a  same  temperature. Figures filters  for  14,  Initially rise minor  no  both  passage  and  a  decline  i n  NOj-N  larger,  results  at  NOy-N  pattern  ammonia-N  the 1  and  after  i n ammonia-N.  show  number  general  by  increase  slightly  16  ammonia-N  water  followed  decrease was  in  the holding  temperature,  and  experiment  fluctuations in  15  i n both  Although  the  were  filter from  parameters a  the magnitude  obtained  from  at  the  and  minor  detected  #1  concentrations  by  three  Although  levels  through  accompanied  results  7°C.  i s evident NO^-N  from  results. begin  finally  equally of  the  filters  this  to a  small changes  2  and  3  Table 8.  I n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , range, mean (Y) with 95% confidence i n t e r v a l s , standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (V) of ammonia-N i n time s e r i e s samples taken p r i o r t o passage through the s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s . Cone, ( m g . l ) Final Initial - 1  Temp.(°C) 7  12  17  Expt.#  Filter  #  Range Max  (mg-l - -) Min -  1  Y  S.D.  V (%) 3.3 1.7 1.3  1  1 2 3  0.7 0.5 0.9  0.6 0.8 0.9  1.3 0.9 1.1  0.6 0.3 0.5  0.9 0.6 0.8  + 0.06 +0.02 +0.02  0.03 0.01 0.01  2  1 2 3  1.7 1.8 1.2  1.8 1.5 1.2  2.1 2.0 1.5  1.4 1.2 1.0  1.7 1.7 1.2  +0.41 + 0.53 + 0.38  0.21 0.27 0.19  1  1 2 3  3.4 2.9 3.0  3.5 3.1 2.8  3.8 3.5 3.4  3.0 2.8 2.7  3.4 3.1 3.0  +0.41 +0.43 +0.37  0.21 0.22 0.19  6.2 7.1 6.3  2  1 2 3  7.4 7.0 7.3  7.3 7.3 7.7  8.1 7.8 7.9  7.0 7.0 7.0  7.6 7.4 7.6  +0.59 + 0.57 + 0.53  0.30 0.29 0.27  3.9 3.9 3.6  1  1 2 3  2.1 2.9 1.8  2.5 2.7 2.3  2.6 2.9 2.3  1.9 2.1 1.7  2.2 2.6 2.0  +0.41 +0.47 +0.41  0.21 0.24 0.21  9.5 9.2 10.5  2  1 2 3  3.8 3.4 3.9  3.3 3.1 3.8  3.8 3.9 4.1  3.0 2.9 3.0  3.4 3.4 3.6  +0.59 +0.65 +0.65  0.30 0.33 0.33  8.8 9.7 9.2  12.4 15.9 15.8  Table  9  I n i t i a l a n d f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , r a n g e , mean (Y) w i t h 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (V) o f n i t r a t e - N i n t i m e s e r i e s samples t a k e n p r i o r t o passage through t h e s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s .  C o n e , (mg • I " ) Final Initial 1  Temp.(°C) 7  12  17  Expt.#  Filter  #  R a n g e (mg • 1 - 1 ) Min. Max.  Y  S.D.  V  1 2 3  16.6 16.1 15.8  17.0 17.0 16.6  17.2 17.0 16.7  16.1 15.8 15.8  16.7 16.4 16.3  + 0.71 + 0.82 + 0.55  0.36 0.42 0.28  2.2 2.6 1.7  1 2 3  25.4 26.1 24.8  26.4 25.9 26.0  26.2 26.9 26.4  24.3 25.3 24.8  25.3 26.1 25.7  + 1.06 +0.84 + 1.04  0.54 0.43 0.53  2.1 1.6 2.1  1  1 2 3  19.1 18.9 19.4  19.7 19.5 20.2  19.8 19.5 20.2  18.8 18.7 18.9  19.3 19.1 19.7  +0.62 +0.51 +0.67  0.32 0.26 0.34  1.7 1.4 1.7  2  1 2 3  31.1 33.2 31.9  31.7 32.9 32.1  32.1 33.4 32.4  30.4 31.4 30.7  31.4 32.5 31. 5  + 0.95 + 1.02 +1.04  0.50 0.52 0.53  1.6 1.6 1.7  1  1 2 3  18.9 19.6 19.2  19.7 19.3 20.4  19.7 19 .9 20.4  18.8 18.8 18.7  19.2 19.3 19.5  + 0.55 +0.69 +0.96  0.28 0.35 0.49  1.5 1.8 2.5  2  1 2 3  39.4 38.6 39.9  39.6 39.2 39.9  41.0 39.2 40.8  38.6 37.7 38.8  39.8 38.5 39.5  + 1.14 +0.86 + 1.16  0.58 0.44 0.59  1.5 1.1 1.5  1  (%)  Table 10.  I n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , range, mean (Y) with 95% confidence i n t e r v a l s , standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (V) of n i t r i t e - N i n t i m e - s e r i e s samples taken p r i o r t o passage through the s i l i c a sand f i l t e r s . Cone, ( m g - 1 ) Initial Final -1  Temp.("O  12  17  Expt.#  Filter  #  Range ( m g - 1 ) Max. Min. -1  S.D.  V  (%)  1 2 3  54 59 50  56 53 56  60 61 58  54 50 50  56 55 55  + 3.3 +6.5 + 4.7  1.7 3.3 2.4  3.0 6.0 4.4  1 2 3  74 66 64  75 68 71  80 74 72  69 66 64  75 69 69  +7.3 +4.7 +4.5  3.7 2.4 2.3  4.9 3.5 3.3  1  1 2 3  105 100 111  103 109 108  112 110 115  99 100 108  106 106 111  +8.2 + 5.9 + 4.5  4.2 3.0 2.3  4.0 2.8 2.1  2  1 2 3  85 91 89  94 93 96  99 99 98  85 86 87  92 93 92  +7.4 + 6.3 + 6.9  3.8 3.2 3.5  4.1 3.4 3.8  1  1 2 3  69 65 61  74 72 75  77 75 75  65 64 61  61 69 69  +6.5 + 6.9 +9.4  3.3 3.5 4.8  4.6 5.1 7.0  2  1 2 3  164 171 158  163 174 169  174 177 174  160 165 158  168 171 168  +8.8 + 6.3 + 9.6  4.5 3.2 4.9  2.7 1.9 2.9  76  Figure 14. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t  7°C.  Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  77  Figure 15. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t  7°C.  Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  78  EXPERIMENT 1 AT 1 C FILTER 3 i  0 1  i — i — — i — i — i — ' — i —  1  —  1  —  1  —  1  © finnoNio-N + NITRflTE-N  Figure 16. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t 7°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  79  appear  similar  Results  t o those  from  the second  Figures  1 7 / 18 a n d 1 9 .  run  this  at  regular over  This  both  ammonia-N  after  passage  experiment. levels  of  for filter  experiment  Again,  temperature,  pattern  time.  measured  NOj-N  through  the  measured  during  true  levels  that  of the  appear or  at  any  2 and 3  i n  are a  first  be  any  where  no  change  termination  changes  i n  increase  almost  the  the experiment  to  NO^-N  for filters showed  filters  I t i s likely  not  decrease  i s particularly  are presented  the results  does  ammonia-N  and  a t 7°C  as w i t h  there  1.  the  of  the  parameter  result  of  sample  variation. At from  12°C  the f i r s t  ammonia-N passage  levels  NOj-N  through  filter  from  very  20-25  approximately  from  the By  concentrations inflow  levels  (Figures  levels 1 2  same  The 3  after of  for  of  as  and  of  began  1.5  approximately  show  true  the  experiment.  35  and  NO^-N  point,  increase  at  levels  were  ammonia-N  discharge  lower  1  than  NO^-N.  Results  NO^-N  outflow  and  same  after  this  outflow  for  that  t h e sand f o r  At  mg^l"  ammonia-N  generally  the  to  ammonia-N  Results  little  through  experiment.  was  22)  ammonia-N  the experiment  that  emerged.  very  passage  the  reverse  remained  21  that  approximately  showed  20,  changed  reveal  rate  t h e end  a t 7°C  f o r the duration  little  were  levels. filter  to that  concentrations  concentrations inflow  12°C  minutes  outflow  decreasing.  pattern  filter  changed  first  NO^-N  run at  and  Results  the  a similar  as  minutes  corresponding into  the  80  Figure 17. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t  7°C.  Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  81  EXPERIMENT 2 AT 1 C FILTER 2 i — i — i — i — i — i —  e H  1  —  1  —  1  —  1  —  1  © finnONIR-N + NITRATE-N  Figure 18. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 7°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations a r e represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  82  EXPERIMENT 2 AT 1 C F I L T E R 3 j  o H  i  1  i  1  1  i  i  i  I  i  •  •  '  i  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  L  o onnoNifl-N + NITRRTE-N  \  —i (LB  1 SJ  1  1 B.B  1  1 K J  1  1 210  1  1 2SJ)  1  1  1  30.0  1 3S.0  1  1 40J  1  1 4SJ)  1  1 510  I  /  1  5SJ  TinEtniN) Figure 19. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 7°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  ' 60J  83  Figure 20. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t  12°C.  Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  84  EXPERIMENT 1 AT 12 C F I L T E R 2 o  i  r>  rJ-  o  "M  LO  I  o *  I  I  I  i  i  i  1  1  I  I  1  1  I  I  I  L_  1  1  I  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  L  o pnnoNifi-N + NITRRTE-N  1  r—i  5J  1 V.D  1  CJ)  20.0  1—T 2SJ)  3&D  TIHE(fllN)  3SJ  40.0  45J)  S0.D  1  S5.0  Figure 21. Differences between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t 12°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1  6S.0  85  F i g u r e 22. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t  12°C.  Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  86  experiment.  At  that  constant  whereas  minutes  ammonia-N  move  ammonia-N inflow  significantly  NO~-N  outflow  until  NO^-N  dropped  and  closer  levels  concentration  point  the  i n  outflow  to  termination  relatively  concentration.  concentrations  together  continued  remained  which  i s  remain of  50  began  to  curious  similar  the  At  since  to  inflow  experiment  at  60  minutes. Filters second  1,  2,  experiment  outflow  At  between  b e t w e e n 1.5  a n d 2.0 mg  27  and  ammonia-N compared  from 28.  to  and  for  the  first  point  compared  to  and  inflow  water  The  recorded from  or  for  filters  final  i n Figures  decrease  outflow  2  was  experiment.  1 a t 17°C a r e p r e s e n t e d increase  the  concentrations  -  significant  of  concentrations  values.  outflow  and  remained  minutes  outflow  i n the  Inflow  compounds  l "^ a t t h e end of each  was  results 25).  15-20  ammonia-N  inflow  NO^-N  inflow  2 3 , 24  nitrogenous  experiment No  or  (Figures  similar  both  when  difference  very  of  that  t o decrease  Results  produced  a t 12°C  constant  experiment.  26,  3  concentrations  relatively  began  and  or  3.  i n  either  water  when  In  filter  1  -3  -1  NO.J -N  outflow  concentrations  above  inflow levels  close  to that  reverse as  the outflow  the from  inflow  at approximately  level  i s true  f o r ammonia-N level  2  at  about  of  A  to approximately much  (Figures  different 29,  1 and  mg  30  The  concentrations 1  mg  l  picture and  1  remained  the experiment.  i n f l o w and o u t f l o w  dropped  17°C  to  30-35 m i n u t e s  f o r the duration  concentration.  experiment  rose  31).  - 1  below emerged Results  87  EXPERIMENT 2 AT 12 C F I L T E R 1  — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i  0  © flnnoNifl-N  1  + NITRPJE-N  i  i  i  i  i  /  1  i  S.0  i  i  10.0  —  i  —  i  ISO  —  i  —  i  20.0  —  i  —  i  —  25.0  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  •  \  /  0-0  i  \  i  —  i  —  3O.0  i  TIME(tllN)  —  i  —  3S.0  i  —  i  —  40.0  i  —  i  —  45.0  i  —  i  —  50.0  i  —  i  —  i  55.0  Figure 23. Differences between f i l t e r 1 inflow and outflow ammonia-N and nitrate-N concentrations during experiment 2 at 12°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by positive and negative values respectively.  —  f  -  60.0  88  _i  o H  i  i  i  i  EXPERIMENT 2 AT 12 C FILTER 2 i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  c onnoNio-N + NITRATE-N  F i g u r e 24. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 12°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations a r e represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i  89  1  1  I  1  1  EXPERIMENT 2 FIT 12 C FITER 3  1  1  1  1—1—1—1  1—1—1  1—1—1—1—1—1—1—1—  o o RnnoNiA-N +- - - * NITRRTE-N  -  — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i  0.0  5.0  10.0  6.0  20.0  25.0  3Q.D  TlflE(MIN)  35.0  40.0  45.0  50.0  S5.0  F i g u r e 25. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 12°C. I n c r e a s i n g and decreasing c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e represented by p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v a l u e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i  60.0  90  F i g u r e 26. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and o u t f l o w ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 1 a t 17°C. I n c r e a s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v a l u e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  91  Figure 27. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow airmonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t 17°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  92  Figure 28. Differences between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 1 a t 17°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  93  from  filters  outflow  1  and  2  show  concentration with  substantial  decrease  in  a  dramatic  respect  ammonia-N  to  in  increase  inflow  the  of  the  experiment.  slightly  greater  ammonia-N. water  6.5  No  for  passing through  filters  NO^-N  or  Ultraviolet  sterilizer  evaluation  minimum each  of  formed (Figures  of  four  the to  33,  34,  low  an  insignificant concentration  per  tank  was  carried  at  12°  a  maximum  ml  plate  for  is for  measured  out  and  in  at  three  17°C,  and  varied  of  seven  counts  from days  were  graphical  A  was  when observed  main  throughout  a for  trans-  presentation  control the  a  result  which  factor  certain  amount  recorded,  but  compared  to  in  the  i s not in of  daily  aquarium  series  surprising  were  as  of with  since  bacterial  fluctuation  steadily system  remained  slightly  controlling  variations the  tank  entire  concentrations increased  important  dynamics.  control  recorded  lengths  Measured  levels  Background  i s  change  35).  temperature,  temperature population  7°C.  to  concentrations i n the  consistently  increasing  each  17°C  counts  Both  initiation  of  was  Experiment  at  at  10  Bacterial  experiments.  7°C.  days  runs  Log  32,  experiment  at  a  3.  Experiments  runs  the  that decrease  Sterilizer  one  after  and  water.  magnitude  than  increase  filter  the  Ultraviolet  duplicate  the  both  significant  temperatures,  at  For  NO^-N  levels  outflow  e v e n t s o c c u r r e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i n u t e s  of  in  considered increasing experiments  94  i  o  i  i  >  i  EXPERIMENT 2 RT 17 C FILTER 1 i  i  i  '  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  o nnnoNifl-N  ii—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—r 0.0  S.0  10.0  6.9  20.0  25.0  30.9  TinF.miN)  35.0  40.0  45.0  50.0  55.0  F i g u r e 29. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 1 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 17°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  60.0  — © finnoNio-N - -+ NITRATE-N i  -K  Figure 30. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 2 i n f l o w and outflow^aimonia-1 and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 17°C Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  96  F i g u r e 31. D i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r 3 i n f l o w and outflow ammonia-N and n i t r a t e - N concentrations during experiment 2 a t 17°C. Increasing and decreasing concentrations are represented by p o s i t i v e and negative values r e s p e c t i v e l y .  97  Figure 32. Changes i n b a c t e r i a l concentration recorded over time i n the aquarium and tank during UV experiment 1 a t 7°C.  Figure 33. Changes i n b a c t e r i a l concentration recorded over time i n the aquarium and tank during UV experiment 2 a t 7°C.  9  Figure 34. Changes i n b a c t e r i a l concentration recorded over time i n the aquarium and tank during the UV experiment a t 12°C.  100  Figure 35. Changes i n b a c t e r i a l concentration recorded over time i n the aquarium and tank during the UV experiment a t 17 °C.  101  progressed. All  experiments  were  t e r m i n a t e d when  bacterial  concentra-  4 tions  i n  the  aquarium  c o u n t s ml "*".  In  appeared  related  -  t o be  c o u n t s m"" -  both only  1  level  experiments 4-5  days  approximately concentration.  3  the  was  reached  aquarium, t o water  reached  at this were days  tank  bacterial  temperature.  temperature  17°C  (Figure  at (Figure  12°C 35)  10  concentrations AT  i n approximately  required at  approximately  7  7°C  the  10  4  days  during  32 a n d 3 3 )  whereas  (Figure to  reach  34)  and  the  same  102  7.0  DISCUSSION  7.1  Sampling  Requirements  Although was  low  for  the  statistical features  of  unstacked  the  to  tank  not  might  cascading  expected  system.  on  load,  and  pH  position of  the  of  was  in  and  two  the  conducted  these  results of  factors  such  the  found  be  be  factors,  in  the  the  storage  sample  required  holding time  was  greater  segment  to  accuracy It  i s of  the  the  stacked  and  were  average  and  of of  sample a  the  hold  the  most  work  three,  this  as  in  true  a  under  should  occur animal  The  central  representative  tank  at  the  movement  0.01 in  result.  taken  during  analysis  precision  believed  centre  ammonia-N  minimum.  and  the  hydrualic  samples  tanks, kept  no  water.  explain  of  noteworthy  temperature,  the  of  to f u l l y  number  analysis. this  analysis  study,  that  variation  holding to  some  may  as  the  format  level  amount  An  tanks  stacked  median  of  expected  representative a  of  reveal  between  stacked the  segment  was  concentrations throughout  reducing  experiments  in  have  significance.  By  these  tank  found  In  most  aggitation  tanks would  delayed  to  number  i n each  of  be  three  certain  a  ammonia-N  level  i t  Although  a  depending  Initially,  unstacked. be  in this did  the  to  i n ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  results  would  since  found  cases,  the  data.  the  be  variation  analysed  of  difference  compared  most  samples  format  was  overall  analysis  significant  it  the  By  was  the not  minimizing  was  achieved  the  analysis  provided  adequate  that  103  justification  7.2  f o r the sampling  Total Organic Biochemical  (COD) and  that  systems  waters.  These  problems  and  adopted.  Carbon v s . C h e m i c a l Oxygen  O x y g e n Demand  a r e methods holding  regime  have  (BOD) a n d C h e m i c a l  been  traditionally  t o determine  methods time  have  oxygen  associated  constraints  as  t o evaluate  the  Organic  (TOC) a n a l y s i s  Carbon  BOD a n d COD, t h u s m i n i m i z i n g TOC v a l u e s ments be  inturn could  carried-out  derived.  wastes  or  important  holding  no r e s u l t s water  from  have  i fany comparisons  them i n  a  inherent  Section of  published  a r e t o b e made  could  on l o b s t e r  this  with  The  measure-  so a r a t i o  TOC m e a s u r e m e n t s  been  using  problems.  t o a s e r i e s o f COD water  5,  replacement f o r  constraint  on t h e l o b s t e r h o l d i n g  Since  i n culture  the possibility  the time  be compared  with  as  Demand  of the holding  outlined  i t was d e c i d e d  Oxygen  used  demand  therefore, Total  Demand  ratio  i s  published  COD  f o r the  COD  a n d TOC  was  values. Although  variation  determinations, demonstrated established strong a  range 2.20  strong  (Figure f o r swine  correlation  reliable  water.  a  was  relatively  correlation  7).  An  wastes  i s a good  of values  found  f o r t h e COD/TOC  equally  ratio  strong  indication demand  f o r COD/TOC  published  between  COD  correlation  by B u l l e y and Husdon  i n d i c a t o r o f oxygen  The r a t i o  large  f o r other i s given  that  (1974).  o f 1.67 waste  This  TOC c a n b e u s e d  f o r the lobster falls  types.  by E c k e n f e l d e r  was  as  holding  within the A  value  of  (1970) f o r  104  the  effluent  higher  COD/TOC  Stenger 1.50  carbon.  considered Eddy It a  was  reported  that  high  composition  exhibiting  waste.  by A  Van  COD/TC  the municipal  be e x p e c t e d  t o be  water,  comparable o f weak,  and  medium  TOC  Hall  and of  inorganic  untreated  COD  much  wastewater  of  would  A  ratio  concentration  holding  on a s c a l e  domestic  wastewater.  indicating  lobster  weak  treated  3.60  comparatively  than  wastewater  of  given,  Although  different  of  f o r municipal  was a l s o a  biologically  ratio  (1963)  contained  and  from  somewhat domestic  levels  and strong  i s  (Metcalf  1979). may  be e x p e c t e d  wastewater  that  would  be  t h e s t o i c h i o m e t r i c COD/TOC approximately  equivalent  ratio  t o the  32 molecular (1970) from  ratio  states  that  zero,  when  oxidation,  to  inorganic COD/TOC result often  7. 3  2.66).  the ratio  i s resistant  5.33  methane  or  for  agents  not include resistent  many  organic  a l lt h e o r g a n i c  higher  water  BOD a n d COD  compounds  t o biochemical  range  The c o m p a r a t i v e l y  f o rthe lobster holding compounds.  would  t o dichromate  slightly  are present.  organic  Eckenfelder  limits  material  of resistent  recovered  (  the organic  determined  instances,  t o carbon  theorectically  reducing  ratio  totally most  o f oxygen  that  carbon  results  oxidation.  i n these  low  may b e a  are partially  or dichromate  when  may or In  compounds i s  i n t h e TOC a n a l y s i s .  Time-Series The w a t e r  Experiments quality  parameters  choosen  f o r study  during  this  105  series pH,  of  experiments  TOC,  biomass  ammonia-N, load,  constant  both  of  the  (12 h o u r s ) . tended  to vary  opposed  to  addressed developed tion  nitrite-N.  temperature  and  salinity  rectified  which  water  at  design  over  a  based done  was  a  duration  eventually  meets  part  of  the  was  (days  as  eventually  recommendations  thesis.  The to  now  between  refrigera-  replace  the  maintains the  6°C  established  the  parameters  period  on  i n place,  was  experiment  of these time  the  basically  each  installed  originally  with  condition  problem  for this  temperature  which  longer  i n  Along  of  both  oxygen,  remained  This  temperature  d u r i n g t h e work  temperature  short  The  undersized unit  holding  experiment.  i f monitored  hours).  system  grossly  each  t o t h e system  and  salinity,  and  relatively  Due  temperature,  nitrate-N  throughout  result  include  and  level  8°C,  for  a  this  parameter. As  far  as  the  salinity  can  be  considered  analysis  of the results.  the  holding  water  concentrations outlined levels were  matter  considered  of  included  i n a  effects  on  quality  were  compared  simplifies  30  to  to these  lobster  health,  work.  problem. manual  The here  the  levels  open  35  section,  this  concerned  salinity  i s not addressed  management  water  which  about  during  levels  a practical  when  review  concern  salinity  constant,  from  i n the literature  fluctuating  are  low  vary  adverse  a  experiments  G e n e r a l l y though,  were  which  can have a  time-series  ocean  o/oo.  low  problem  such of  i t was  Issues of this developed  As  salinity  and as  since  i n  during  sort the  106  course  of  lobster low  this  study  holding  during  the  and  Salinity  first  experiments  five  the  addition  developed  and  implemented  remaining  experiments.  acceptable  level  TOC  and  an  the  fraction  of  line  waste. (personal  holding waste will  the  remain  dramatic  of  vary  which  a  be  method  the  system  change  was  the  maintained  but  the  water  covering  calculated the  five  at  an  must  be  resulting  to  TOC  from  has  Dr.  depending i f the  the  on  Lo). the  to  found In  of  assume  to  of  for  of  that  TOC  in  dairy the  swine manure  fraction  the  lobster  is  lobster  material the  out  For  entering  that  large  wastes.  carbon  actuality  the  0.97.  be  determined  material  majority  reasonable  types  of  relatively  appear  detectable  been  V.  a  carbon  experiments  factor  is  not  (1974)  of  value  carbon  i n other  Husdon  total  time-series  i t does  levels  90%  from  conversion  organic  present  and  but  ratio  of  TOC/TC  high.  results increase  after  of  particularly  holding  period  salinity  during  97%  communication  water,  the  can  determined  carbon  i t i s quite  The  water  value  similar  will  to  were  approximately A  the  were  after  to  technique  due  established  Bulley  comprised  TOC  this  managers  dilution.  when c o m p a r e d  instance,  of  using  the  levels  salt  Salinity  empirically  Although  bulk during  concentrations  measurements using  of  continuously  evaporation  to  operation.  involving  monitored  presented  the  from in  the TOC  TOC  monitoring  concentrations  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  the  show in  the  animals.  an  immediate  lobster Two  and  holding  factors  may  107  be  contributing  lobsters  may  be  wastes with It the  to  superficially  a h i g h TOC  exterior the  of  holding  arrived  lobsters,  elevated  TOC  state  to  are  enough  to  recently  not  No  it  quite to  is  period  is  lobster results  shipping  food  in  the  second,  i n TOC  resuspension loading  large  holding  and  excreting  the  system  the  matter  the  animals  of  the  A  animals  lobster is  also  lobsters  substantial  depend of  on  how  the  food  during  east  coast,  have  been  days.  fecal  during  the and held  Therefore,  matter  will  relatively  be  short  experiments.  probable  previously  It  lobsters  factor  i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the of  after  introduced  f o r a number o f  time-series most  the  of  that  nature  from  amount  conclusively  the  period  eventually  newly  will  the  on  of  This  to  of  and  factor.  fecal  and  quantities  activities.  from p l a c i n g  or  carapaces  newly of  available  shipment w i t h o u t  increase  the  is  many  that  that  occurred  the  this  change.  that  a l o t t e d to the  The rapid  likely  unlikely  generated  hour  that  transported  immediately  to  quantities TOC  has  food  is  substantial  stated  recorded  conclusively  this  24  be  be  shipment  on  attributable  excreting  feeding  approximately  prior  not  cause  consumed.  is  cannot  will  no  observed  concentrations  difficult  first  material,  during  Although  ever it  are  or  lobsters  was  introduction  carrying  some m a t e r i a l  water.  fouling  The  level.  the  exterior  it  increase.  i s i n e v i t a b l e that  enter  are  this  settled  contributing lobster  i n the  tanks  amount as  the  introduction  material  substantial  to  during of  well  the  mixing as  from  108  lobster  movement  observed  to  be  suggests  that  experimental TOC.  This  slightly 13  however  the  which  during most  lobster  of  the holding  result  may  the form  after  the  by  concentrations  of deamination,  load  was  of  TOC  the  rather organic from  settling  settling  may  levels.  take There  temperature  increase  i n  water  over  that  operation.  this  of this  increase TOC  will  rise  increase  of proteins by  due  TOC  increase  i n oxygen  the l o b s t e r s , then  as determined  was  the  introduction  potential effect  Assuming  i n TOC  resulting  on  was  either  the  the higher  no  lobster  of normal  excretion  equivalent  during  i s the associated  water.  affect  temperatures  was  at  procedure,  activity,  of elevated  there  a t 8°C  significance  loading  an  higher  residual  biomass  i n resuspending  occuring  significant  of waste  and  have  the period  of  increase  the  the  was which  the  levels  smaller  increased  At higher  periods  health  ammonia-N  COD  The  of t h i s  shortly  load  at  f o r experiments  when  the animals,  Visually,  on  that  of  extends  some e v i d e n c e  The  The  the biomass  greater  as the increase  recorded  7)  activity  temperatures  similar  illustrates  temperatures,  experiments.  in  result  of the material.  observed  be  assuming  those  Lobster  higher  was n o t t h e c a s e ,  i n the tanks.  turbidity  at  should  (experiment  the a c t i v i t y  longer is  7°C  of  higher  rate  pronounced  increases  than  This  size  material  period.  A p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y much  at  reduced.  than  TOC  this  temperatures,  o r 19°C.  actual  more  larger  recorded  during  demand  i s i n part  a  i t i s possible  to mineralization,  i n the waste  t h e COD/TOC  ratio  material. of  1.67  109  would  be  approximately  values.  two  For example,  during  experiment  1  t h e peak was  equivalent  to  demand  aquaculture  i n  BOD .  a  published  data  generally  known  0.8  COD  Therefore  5  for a  median  that  i s  concentration  of  the  holding  identical  Oxygen water Nash  t o that  demand  varies  from  1981; Slone  background tanks.  or  Maximum  first  hour  of  as o u t l i n e d above.  after  the  One in  t o oxygen  water  tends  by a f f e c t i n g  carbonates  i s  Oxygen  1  expressed here  from  Eddy  1972).  the  as with  I t i s 0.4  If a  equivalent be  326  to  BOD  mg-l  - 1  ,  100  hatchery mg-l ^  are similar  measured  which  were  then  i s the  i n  the  observed  experiment  I t appears  (Brown  -  which  are that  holding and  to the lobster  during  the  substantially  the first  critical  period  hour with  demand.  systems  carbon  values  introduction  a d d i t i o n a l adverse  seawater  organic  lobser  which  mg«l~' '.  would  to  values  time-series  mg-l""'',  for fish  5  50  concentrations each  a t 13°C  f o r TOC.  a s BOD  state  higher  respect  water  approximately  steady  TOC  varies  and  then  determined  e t a l 1981),  of  estimated.  ratio  assumed  measured  t h e TOC  obtained  be  (Metcalf  0.6  as  usually  must  t h e BOD^/COD  of  high  543  results  ratio  value  almost  i s  the  o f wastes  325 of  operations  compare  as  concentration  approximately  BOD^/COD  variety  again  concentration  to a  thirds  present.  effect  i s that t o reduce  TOC  the dissolved the buffering  the solubility This  of high  concentrations  component  of the  capacity  of the  of the calcium  influence  on  buffering  and magnesium capacity  i s  110 a d d r e s s e d i n more d e t a i l The  i n the discussion  r e s u l t s from the d i s s o l v e d  clearly  that  the greatest  hour  after  lobster  1.5,  2 . 2 and 3 . 4 m g - l "  introduction exchange D.O.  introduction. were  1  a t 8 ° , 1 3 ° and  But s i n c e  over  calculations These  average  reveal  drops  is a  time  approximately after  lobster  Since  continuous  period,  tanks  dissolved  oxygen  respiration  weight  i n the  system of  7 0 0 g,  during  oxygen  oxygen process,  large  and  in  rate  errors  These  oxygen drops which  - 1  rates  were  were f r o m  c a n be  i n mg-g  lobster.  volume an  - 1  of  - 1  o f 1 7 , 5 0 0 1 , an average  experiment,  concentration  8 ° , 1 3 ° , and 1 9 ° C r e s p e c i v e l y  - 1  concentration  and  each  at  - 1  rate  water  0.094 m g . g . h , 0.138 m g - g . h  run.  0.25 h  the f i r s t  are comparatively  of  each  of  19°C respectively.  i n dissolved  an average  lobster  that  recorded  short  as a l o b s t e r  lobsters  drops  very  s h o u l d be m i n i m a l .  Assuming  - 1  show  the three experiments a r e i n a sense  these  a  changes  expressed h .  such  D.O.  interface  drops recorded during  occur  oxygen m o n i t o r i n g  o x y g e n demand o c c u r s w i t h i n  at the air-water  buffered.  on pH.  calculations  decreased  and 0 . 2 1 3 m g . g  during  calculated  at a  rate  - 1  the f i r s t from  of 1600  15 min. of  actual  dissolved  1 0 . 0 t o 8 . 5 a t 8 ° C , 8.9 t o 6.7 a t  1 3 ° C and 8 . 1 t o 4 . 7 a t 1 8 ° C . These lobster exist  values  oxygen  c a n be c o m p a r e d  consumption.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  A l l e n and J o h n s t o n  with  published  Two e m p i r i c a l l y  The f i r s t  estimates of  derived  estimates  i s an e q u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n  ( 1 9 7 6 ) b a s e d on t h e work o f M c L e e s e  (1964):  Ill  M where  M  = K  o  W  o  (10)  B  = quantity  Q  of oxygen  consumed  W  = weight  of the lobster  B  = an u n e x p l a i n e d parameter  (mg«hr  (g) derived  from u n p u b l i s h e d  data K  =  Q  U  = water  Using  the  following  10:  8 ° , 13° The  verses  source  temperature  lobsters  the oxygen  and  of  lobster-h  sets The  comparative developed  held  this  compare  similar  temperature consumption rates  - 1  at  literature  for  over  relationship for  the  increases each values.  mg•  of  8°,  oxygen  g"  values  the  generated 1  of  from  lobster-h"  rates  state  1  uptake  (1977)  rates  between  time-series  0.068,  and  0.99  respectively.  are of  i n the  temperatures. oxygen  The 36.  Although  consumption  e x p l a n a t i o n s can  and  ( i . e .  temperature)  approximately  mq-  literature  experiments  increasing  vs  corresponding to the  19°C  of  for  environmental  consumption  presented  range  exists  number  a n d Wood  0.048,  and  oxygen  data are presented i n Figure  a wide  with  i s an  rates  are  13°  temperature A  data  steady  consumption  consumption  favourably  be  by A r y e s  under  curve  o f 0^ c o n s u m p t i o n  oxygen  can  0.102  experimental temperatures  three  a  of  curve  temperature,  1  rates  parameter  respectively.  From  g"  established  0.056  conditions.  three  (°C)  consumption  a n d 19°C  size  0.0974)  previously  0.017,  second  market  U -  temperature  oxygen  Equation at  (0.0169  the double  be  put  0  2  actual the forth  Figure 36. E f f e c t of temperature on oxygen consumption during the f i r s t 0.25 hr of representative t i m e - s e r i e s experiments, expressed as mg o f oxygen consumed per g o f l o b s t e r per hr, compared t o published values from two sources.  literature  113  in  this  through  regard.  First,  tests with  the  unstressed  where as t h e l o b s t e r s used potentially high  under  activity  factors the  contribute  consumption material  (other  during  could  TOC,  an  present  in  the  immediately  after  responsible  f o r the higher  animals,  experiments  o f each  o x y g e n demand. additional  from  derived  than temperature)  the early part  result  were  s t r e s s and e x h i b i t e d  to increased  on  values  i n the time-series  considerable  levels  discussion  literature  the  holding  test.  Both  As o u t l i n e d i n  suspended  lobster introduction.  abnormally  increase  water  were  in  and  during  oxygen  dissolved  the  period  These f a c t o r s c o u l d  o x y g e n demand  be  observed  during  these  holding  tanks  never  experiments. Although reached of  dissolved  the p o t e n t i a l l y  the experiments  consumed  during  consideration success. with  the f i r s t with  the  results  maintaining carrying  that  level  presented a  low  capacity  rates  of  2 mg  a t which  of the runs  to  lobster  short-term  may  be  here  i s maximized  t h e oxygen  was  stress  temperature  a  major storage  associated  process,  higher.  the  lobster  be and  storage  illustrate  and  any  health  considerably  water  during  should  due t o t h e a d d e d  and  holding  the  level  hour  respect  introduction lethal  in  lethal  the rapid  It i s likely  potentially the  oxygen  the  Finally  importance so  that  metabolic  of  oxygen rate i s  minimized. Although any  of  the  potentially time-series  l e t h a l pH l e v e l s experiments,  the  d i d not occur changes  that  during were  114  measured  are  considered  Generally,  the  pH  lower  the  optimum  than  experiments  values  have  dealt  is  about  the  minor  deviation  synergistic quality and  from  the  biological lobster  and  holding  studying  the  pH  These  changes  8.3.  most  to of  known  from  potential  other  to  characterize the a  form  during  little  in  take  realtionships  observed  very  The  and  may  aquatic  resulting  are  pH  that  on  levels,  variation  with  Since  pH  range.  Better  reasons. were  effects  pH  processes  system.  8.0  of  experiments  i t difficult  associated  chemical  the  lethal  from  effects.  relationships  or  makes  number  effects  optimal  also  chronic  of  sublethal  resulting  a  during  the  extreme  long-term  for  range  test  with  meters  quantify  effect  to  effect  para-  recorded  holding  designed  organisms known  significant  water  cause  and  number  of  place the  the  in  basis  a  for  time-series  expeiments. No  significant  experiment  10  those  for  minor  made  at  such  influenced  by  environmental  and  At  13°  and  pH  was  observation  parameters at  low  nitrification are  2 significant  both  other  over-time as  in  This  also  temperature  Consistent at  the  pH  these processes. 1  8°C.  variation  processes,  variation  to  i s  which  and  also  either  the higher temperatures pH  which  or  are Low  arrest  i n experiments  changes d i d occur.  patterns 19°C.  down  used  only  Biochemical  temperature. slow  with  exhibit  respiration, by  during  consistant  temperature.  effected  tends  observed  o f pH For  change emerged d u r i n g  the  first  three  hours  experiments of  each  run,  115  pH  levels  increased to  than  the  time  which  brought  0  a  point approximately  value.  t h e pH  A  by  t h e end  the  i n c r e a s e i n pH  ture  experiments  tion  which  lobster  was  of each  a  appeared  in  The  pH  the  (the  then  possibly  compounds,  nitrification  overall, The a  oxidation  recycled  in a  low  generally  low  processes  or  pH they  the  holding water.  two  high  at  in  gradual  the  related  be Since  a  low  b e e n shown t h a t d i s s o l v e d  carbonate sites factor  particles  (Meyers is  the  and  thus Quin  mediating  reactions, particularly  general, reduction  were  the  and  pH.  usually  had  these  The  oxidation  c a p a c i t y of  low  during  c a p a c i t y may  addition,  organic  the have  carbon  experiments  and  i t  o r g a n i c s can coat the s u r f a c e s of  reducing the 1971;  carbon  experiment.  of  buffering  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w e r e h i g h d u r i n g much o f has  In  buffering  levels  In  discussed  organic  each  the  acidification  h o l d i n g system  to  after  in alkalinity  of  that  concentra-  exceeds  result  salinity  reduced.  of  systems  experiments,  to  the  tempera-  is  respiration.  beginning  may  high  monitoring  decline  be  observed  u n i t s of  shortly  response  animal  may  significantly  water  ammonia-N  values  temperature  1 o r 0.5  during both  i n the l o b s t e r  pH  then  e l e v a t e d ammonia-N  holding  higher  I t i s quite probable  holding  and  units  was  mineralization  in  seawater  relatively  been  from  resulting  of  declined  resulting  biological  run.  observed  result  introductions  below).  decline  down a g a i n t o w i t h i n  time 0 l e v e l initial  steady  1.5  Suess  effect  of  number o f 1970). pH  on  A  ionic very  aqueous  t h e h y d r o l y s i s o f ammonia.  exchange important chemical  116 Although  total  cantly  during  19°C,  calculations  levels by  (see  the  ammonia  first  Table  concentrations  two  hours of  showed 1).  that  NH-^-N  = 100/[1 + antilog  3  where p K a  experiments run  NH^-N  signifiat  13  reached were  d e r i v e d by W h i t f i e l d  and  toxic  calculated (1974):  (11)  (pKa (T)-pH)] s  = acid h y d r o l y s i s constant  s  never  concentrations  using the f o l l o w i n g equation % NH  increased  o f ammonium i o n s i n  seawater and  p K a ( T ) = p K a ( T = 298°K) + S  NH^-N  values  within  the  from t a b l e s presented concentrations levels  of  presented  These v a l u e s  are  Ammonia-N  also  during  the  and 13  4.1 and  NH^-N in  defined these  the  at  results  are  less  - 1  .  are  1 3 ° C and  than  first  during  0.5 which  during  of the  the By  rates  0.0219  mg  highest  total in  ammonia  Table  acceptable  mg  g  1  - 1  h"  11.  lobster  h"  1  generally  rate  0.5  h  of  into in  at  linear  This  was  increase  was  approximately  incorporating  at  1  a  experiment.  by  1.4, at  4.2  each  run  8,  the  previously  conversion c a l c u l a t i o n s  mg  corresponding  g"  in  greatest  first  expressed  The  0.0625  the  each  increased  respectively.  be  the  The  1  h  can  (1978).  obtained  NHj-N'l" .  l o b s t e r biomass parameters rates  were  outlined  the  - 1  8.5  from  increased  1  to  Bidwell  concentrations  mg-l" ^  lobster.h tures  7.5  calculated  Ammonia-N l e v e l s  19°C  range  substantially  period  recorded.  pH  i n Bower and  h o l d i n g l e v e l o f 1 . 3 mg  fashion  0.0324(298-T°K)  S  of to  8°C, 19°C.  ammonia-N.g the  three  0.0656 The  -1  tempera-  mg.g" . 1  only  of  h"  1  compara-  117  Table  11.  H i g h e s t NH3-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r e d d u r i n g t h e time s e r i e s experiments c a l c u l a t e d from measured t o t a l ammonia-N v a l u e s a n d pH.  8°C NH _ 3  N  Total  (mg-1  Ammonia-N  pH pKa  s  Time  - 1 )  (hr)  (mg-1  - 1  )  Temperature 13°C  19°C  0.005  0.15  0.17  2.2  6.0  4-7  7.1  8.1  8.1  9.51  9.68  9.51  0.75  2.0  1.5  118  tive  value  available  i n the  Logan  and  rates  were  established  Artemia  salina  on  Epifanio  developmental  literature  (1978).  In  this  for larval at  and  22°C.  U = - 0 . 3 3 l o g W-  and  V/ = l o b s t e r w e i g h t  -  stage  7  NH.j • mg mg  dry  wt '''* h -  -  calculation All  three  conversion  of  previously  Waste is  - 1  .h  The - 1  than Logan  there  appear  Epifanio  found  that  approximately  be  and  rates  of  this  made  for  a pH  resulting  Epifanio  to  comparison and a  from  this  the  19°C,  are  generated  from  the  excretion  data.  As  sources  of  13  and  two i m p o r t a n t  and e x c r e t i o n  to the external may  be  by  surface  mineralization the lobsters. of the lobster  significant.  calculated  high  value  from  of c u l t u r i n g system,  that  12.46/ i g  o f 8.0  calculated  at  rates  are generally  rates t o be  value  those  the  holding  an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e  experiments  both  .  ammonia-N  adhering  production  and  can  1  compounds by b a c t e r i a  material  ammonia  -  particularly  the  for  1  conversion  0.1.  mg»g  the  ammonia i n a l o b s t e r organic  gross  of  higher  stated,  -  c a l c u l a t i o n s by assuming  ratio  data  substantially  A  1  of  feeding  equation:  excreted  weight" , h  i n 0.0167  time-series  of  .  1  wet  wt.  lobsters  relationship  Logan  lobsters  the time-series wt./dry  excretion  i n mg  relationship  post-larval  ammonia-N. g  with wet  this  by  0.37  U = /ag NH-j.mg d r y w e i g h t ' * " , h  deriving  presented  ammonia  juvenile  i n the  where  In  work  The  s t a g e s was e x p r e s e d  i s that  compared  from  the  Although  the  time-series  to the results of  Logan  119  and  Epifanio  close  (1978),  considering  ammonia  culture  from  known  tionately  higher  more  food  lower  should  during a  water  result  of  possible  amounts  account  Since  o f ammonia  made  above,  the  processes  compound  particularly  a  effectively  source reduce  during  available  protein  anticipated system  or  the  no  that  with  the  generated  may  be  Although  such  a  i t i s  fashion, i t  as  suffi-  deamination based  on t h e  the short  period  therefore,  that  of  but  ammonia  excretion that  the concentration  critical  i s  i n the  can generate  during  case  explanation  i n this  a  available  t o be  are outstanding  particularly  i ti s propor-  matter.  i n the system  stable  a  introduction  be g e n e r a t e d  through  have  possible  ammonia  i n a  were  Although  holding  little  one  organic  i s t h e major  TOC  be  The  Epifanio  d i d n o t seem  I t i s concluded  trolling  lobster  may  utilize  the lobster  of  and  organisms  and  experiments of  conditions.  supply.  i n a  this  the bacteria  consideration.  Since  and  lobsters  after  are surprisingly  lobsters  i t would  s o m e a m m o n i a may  the lobsters  after  rate  f o r the quantities that  calculations  by  food  temperature  shortly  Logan  aquatic  portion  data  juvenile  adults,  mineralization  that  by  a regular  adult  lower.  u n l i k e l y that  under  by  substantial  holding  to  than  water  be  on  metabolic  of  of experimental  juvenile  the time-series  that  cient  with  that  excretion  slightly  sets  presented  experiments  efficiently  ammonia  is  rates  environment  generally  two  t h e two s e t s  excretion  determined  the  period  of  conthis  immediately  introduction. number  of factors  may  influence  ammonia-N  concen-  120  tration  i n the holding  it  i s difficult  in  ammonia-N  series the  concentration  lobsters.  substantial  that  load  should  lobster  may  of  be  of  minutes  after  the  producing  this  has  shown  Although rates  since  by  appears  may  increase that  limited  i n  temperature.  activities  with  excretion  and  the f i r s t  important  a  water  increase of  a  increased 15  or  factors  excretion.  excretion  by  that  holding  conditions  will  30 i n It  often  1969). were at  similar  8°C  13  and that  i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n the  This  respect  at  indication  This  temperatures.  t o note  time-  maintenance  of a l l the organisms  a t lower  important  less  the  dramatic  i n ammonia-N  rates  reduction  remains  the  and  be  and R a n d a l l  production  by  the i n  fact  ammonia-N  substantially  were reduced  holding  observation  to lobster  i s  holding  design.  Finally,  i n a l ltime-series  maximum  began  to  decline.  gradual  reduction  i n ammonia c o n c e n t r a t i o n  one  both  two  nitrification.  then  ammonia  a  of  and  experiments,  reached  or  of  time  the lobsters during  (Hoar  ammonia were  stressful  introduction  stress  was  particularly system  the  i n the design  The  for fish  metabolic  system  problem  ammonia-N  short-term  under  production  over  introductions,  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o reduced  this  system.  experienced  19°C,  proportion  observed  concern  activity  increase  what  the lobster  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , and i t i s t h i s  holding  been  be  Despite  after  after  t o determine  experiments  shortly  water  incidental  Volatilization  gradually c a n be  processes,  i s analogous  levels  attributed to  volatilization to  This  the  or  industrial  121  and  municipal  process above  i s pH 7,  ammonia the  waste  dependent.  the  wastewater  un-ionized does  turn  98%  the to  place  pH  Nitrification  prior  tend the  could  to  also  the  and  time-series  concentrations system, second,  which  whether  revealed toxic but  that  levels  been  reported  difficult Some  nitrite  and  NH^-N  during  in  the  system.  ever  and  of  this  potential  the  in low. in  system  first  during whether  time  in  the  nitrification,  and  did  Monitoring not  may  approach  experiments  result  virtually  from  nothing  concentrations  the has i t  problem.  nitrificaton  analysis.  in  also  reached.  on  11  reduction  time-series  Since  pH  holding  monitored  nitrate  the  is  which  i s  over  of  sub-lethal effects  to evaluate  nitrate  level  of  low,  establish changed  pH  aeration  lobster  holding were  is of  gradual  sub-lethal effects  regarding  indication  any  the  the  i n the  were  and  wastewater amount  the  agitating  25°C  volatilized  to  nitrite  by  to  wastewater At  in  for  time  levels  i t i s possible that detected  of  gas  The  the  compounds  of  a  This  increases  shifted  comparatively  i n d i c a t e some  toxic  concentrations  levels  is  would  as  concentrations  these  is  considerable  experiments  of  in  stripping.  wastewater  aeration.  account  nitrate  the  locations  over  air  air.  remain  rate  ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  of  ammonia  certain  of  removed  to  a  of  equilibrium  presence  the  at  that  Nitrite  pH  be  Although  levels  means  the  may  11  of  form.  take  system,  which  in  adjusted  aproximately  As  process  ammonia-ammonium  component  commonly  treatment  Although  is  evident minor  from  variations  the in  122  nitrite 19°C,  concentration  over  generally concentrations  all  the  time-series  gradually  gradual bacteria This  in  are  in  observed  d y n a m i c s and  effect  of  prising  nitrite,  that  prior  gradual  this  observation rate  of  rate  of  low  nitrite  time  nitrite  the  system  of  both  autotrophic  bacteria  7.4  Sand series  the  other  hand,  time-series  on  nitrifying  ammonia t o  bacterial  It  biological  somewhat  intermediate  increase. in  a  well  aged  by  Nitrosomonas  Nitrobacter, minor  sur-  product  in  One  nitrate.  population  for  is  The  of  concentration explanation  recycled is  nitrite  system,  equal  resulting  in  of  to  the  typially  variation  over  temperature  due  to  of  i s the  a l l three i t s  lobsters  nitrogenous  influence and  the  critical  on  the  factor  in  compunds metabolic  heterotrophic  and  present.  Filter of  during  that  signifiantly  and  stable  temperatures.  indication  the  at  1981).  though  activities  This  oxidation  concentration  holding  Silica  that  Armstrong  the  1973).  is  nitrate be  during  i s w e l l documented  change  concentrations  as  an  Speece  o x i d a t i o n by  appears  controlling the  may  ammonia  ( C o l t and It  not  the  higher  temperature  which  did  on  system o x i d i z i n g  1974;  nitrification,  the  is  particularly  relatively  Nitrate,  the  reaction kinetics (Meade  this  at  i n the  nitrification  to  remained  nitrate  present  recorded,  concentration  particularly  increase  were  experiments.  increased  experiments,  in  time  Experiments  experiments  was  carried-out  to  determine  123  whether  ammonia-N  oxidized  to  Results  discharge  the  two  from  At  2  and  sand  indicate  that  filters  are  generally  i n ammonia-N  and  nitrate-N  was  evidence  levels  A similar  pattern  of  observed.  At  of  nitrifation  1 a t 12°C, l e v e l s o f  i n the holding  ammonia-N  real  water  after  began  to  passage drop  at  p a t t e r n was o b s e r v e d i n  1 d u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t 2 a t 17°C. explanation  found  o f t h e v e r y low n i t r i f i c a t i o n  i n the conditions a s compared  optimum b i o f i l t e r number  biological  material,  under  t o those  which  outlined  the s i l i c a  of  factors  filter,  influence  including in  oxygen,  the  loading  water  water,  salinity,  hydraulic  sand  may  filters  i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r  the residence time  efficiency  temperature, pH,  surface (flow  the  the areas  per unit  surface  area),  filter,  ammonia l o a d i n g , a n d o r g a n i c l e v e l (Pettigrew  observed  performance.  compounds  dissolved  water  being  nitrification  experiments  limited  t h e same r a t e .  was  filters.  d e t e c t e d b u t no  temperatures  filter  An  toxic  of  a n d d e c r e a s i n g ammonia-N  began t o i n c r e a s e  approximately  A  variation was  process  sand  time-series  some  water  A t t h e 30 m i n mark i n e x p e r i m e n t  through  operate  7°C  holding  the  i n the s i l i c a  nitrate-N  nitrate-N  be  the  rates  higher  exists.  filter  through  concentrations  increasing  lobster  through the s i l i c a  nitrification low.  the  nitrate-N  d u r i n g passage  very  in  a  presence  of  concentration  of  of  the  volume  of the holding  et a l . 1978; Spotte  of  filtrant  of  filters  water  i n the  i n the recirculating  1979).  The  studies  of  124  Srna  and  Baggaley  increase and  of  12%  rate  that a  rate of  of  increases  altered  have  experiments.  and  oxygen  i s  (1972)  calculated  the  of  1.14  Although  many  saltwater  NO^-N  and  nitrification  kg  of  species salinity proceeds  seawater  systems  (Kauai  Available  surface  area  establishing  an  et  in a  effective  Assuming  that  other  accepted  that  the  kg  i s  that  marine  in  i s an  community  of  oxidized. tolerate  the  that  than  Mann  nitrifying  area  - 1  conversion  indication  i t  the  oxygen«kg  imporant  optimum,  surface  for  can  and  pH  Stankewich  freshwater  Kuhl  at  considerable  NO^-N  some  biofilter  the  filter  of  bacteria  not  sand  NO~-N  of  1964;  are  A  is  should  efficiently  to 1  and  biocides,  requirement  3.43  rapidly  conditions greater  oxyen  there  a l .  silica  most  nitrifying  more  factor  determined  NO~-N  changes,  slowed  accepted  as  nitrification.  oxygen-kg" of  such  7.0-8.2.  as  The  the  i f temprature  this the  of  stoichiometric to  slowed  decrease  biofilter  (1975)  for  50%  biochemical activity  during  range  1°C  an  by  i s generally  study performed  oxidized.  requires  up  system  required  NH^-N  1.5°C  It  aquaria  oxidation  compounds,  Baggaley  effective  of  a  8%.  toxic  seawater  nitrite  and  in a  holding  in their  an  NH^-N  by  in  temperature  speed  no  the  amount  of  30%,  nitrification  used  conversion  by  the  evident  Since  Srna  with  and  Reducing  i s often  influenced  7.45,  ammonia  oxidation  through  nitrifiers  that  i n temperature  abruptly.  passed  showed  ammonia  nitrite  lag period  are  increased  respectively.  oxidation the  4°C  (1975)  in  1962).  factor  in  bacteria.  is  generally  greater  the  125  concentration  of  intersticial the  fluid,  Ammonia time  gaps must be including  removal  increases  when  the  of  2xl0~  4  lb  (1974) (9xl0~  bacteria  be  - 1  any  i n  turn  the  retention  gpm  (5.68  load  -  7.46  and  NH^-N«ft"  an  ammonia  of  2  the  organic  upper  matter the  Mayo  1974).  loading  specific  medium  limit  filter  for  present  growth  oxygen  of  of  i n  the  heterotrophic  demand  and  reduces  oxidation. on  the evidence  as b i o f i l t e r s .  as  the f i l t e r  in  line  at  of  particulates.  (Liao  that  increases  suitability  i s to  silica  medium, remove  influence  i n t h e sand limit  the  Salinity,  First,  a  act  although reason  particulate  a negative  above  filters  the basic  i s organic,  time  presented sand  material  ammonia.  as  passage  of hydraulic  2.5  area  encourages  with  may  and  considered  associated  and  1.5  suggested  kg)  5  water  which  Based  tion  linearly  however,  free  inorganic  independent  surface  also  Finally,  recirculating  has  t o be  filter  area'day  design.  this  or  increases  i s between  biofilter  enough t o a l l o w  organic  and appears  . f t  a n d Mayo  ammonia  any  a  -2  Liao  surface  In  large  efficiency  loading  -1 I), min  bacteria.  filters  dissolved  course  sand  of  oxygen  large  determined, Second,  (approximately  effectiveness  the  s u i t a b l e l e v e l s during the experiments. Although i t i s almost c e r t a i n that  1  their i s used  the  filters  portion and as the  min)  filters  a n d pH  factors  reduce  A  on n i t r i f i c a t i o n .  of  to  f o r having  matter.  as p r e v i o u s l y  number  such  renten-  i s  i n  of  short  removing  were a l l maintained  a  limited  amount  of  126  nitrification that  the  i s taking  reduction  during  the  result  of  in  the  time-series oxidation  ammonia  holding  system  concern  p r o v i d e d water  ammonia  removal  ultraviolet  2537 A°,  for  the  destruction  in  combination  the  has  of  pressure  in controlling  system.  Although  consistent that  the  results  levels  (1968)  water  i s  filtration UV  closed by  in  who  best and  the  seawater  Bullock  and  of  a  a  suspension  process  need  In not  or the  be  a  10°C.  are  with  levels  UV in a  a  aquarium  system.  Stuckey  (1977)  show  i s  a  work  a  98%  the  irradiation  i s  lobster  the  holding did  generally  strong  reported  by  of  indication  Herald  Similar working  of  results on  five  These  Burrows  and  fish  hatchery  of  pressure  combination  reduction  of  that  temperature  radiation.  effect  amount  concentrations  sterilization by  near  preforming effectively.  the  that  ultraviolet  here  and  tank  or  organisms  considerable  bacterial  holding  at  pathogenic  presented  bacterial  accomplished  to  extent  a i r stripping.  aquatic  filtration  units  stated  irradiation  in  appears observed  large  irradiation,  increasing  i n agreement  Combs  used  with  sterilization are  (UV)  background  slightly  as  either  Results  effective  increase  a  bacteria  received  past.  i t  Experiments  of  attention  to  temperatures are kept below  Sterilizer  smaller  by  filters,  concentrations  i s  process such  use  or  sand  ammonia-N  The  30 jdra  the  nitrifying  removing  Ultraviolet  in  experiments  by  another  7. 5  place  et  a l .  bacteria were  (1971) in  a  obtained  gram-negative  127  bacteria  pathogenic to  The the  influence  aquarium  population direct ture  system.  temperature  was  The  of  effect  i s well  relationship  between  in  the  This  time-series  locate  a  segment  within  the  these  first  linear  and  plotted  was  based  two  segments against on  obtained  with  slope  0.1155.  the took  of  results  at  of  at  in 17°C.  bacterial  An  long  to  established  examining 33,  34,  35)  a  each  experiment.  rates  two  day  were  temperatures. linear  From  calculated Although i t  relationship of  was  initially  evident  10^  value  of  0.98  bacterial  counts^ml " ' -  4-5  days  1  was  i s  and  experiments,  the  to  period  coefficient  for  each  a  from as  i t  concenat  7°C  obtained  12°C. Bacterial  concentrations  i n the  2 approximately Hand  of  a  tempera-  over  reach  intermediate  was  32,  time-series  as  aquarium  water  a  relationship  the  and  (Figures  points,  This  twice  rate  by  respective  correlation  the  growth  growth  strong  approximately  tration than  a  population  four  experiment  derived  days  bacteria  this  extended  three  their  only  curves  that  or  was  on  in  In  aquarium  relationship  evident  temperature  bacterial  bacterial linear  particuarly  documented.  non-irradiated  37).  the  of  dynamics  (Figure of  fishes.  (1977)  lobster 500-2000 system,  counts-ml  reported  counts which  tanks  remained  at  -1  10  culturing  holding  that  system  per  ml  included  the had  but a  throughout marine a  the UV  the  intake  bacterial normal  sterilizer  water  count  operating was  experiments. used  in  ranging level  a  from  of  approximately  the 20  128  Figure 37. E f f e c t o f temperature on b a c t e r i a l growth r a t e i n the aquarium. Fates were c a l c u l a t e d over a two day p e r i o d from the l i n e a r segment o f each b a c t e r i a l t i m e - s e r i e s graph.  129  counts  per  ml.  system  presented  According  to  sufficient effect  is  the  /iWs.cm  flow  turbidity  rate of  are  serviced  the  holding  lamps  is  likely  suspended The  and  output  of  the  of  the  the  UV  to  Since  r e g u l a r l y (once operation by  inhibition  the  holding  a  an of  the  relationship:  and  accurate UV  lamps per the valve  penetration  light  i n the  to  may  be  level  the  1965;  are  and  of most  Koller  influencing  most  probable  quartz  sleeves  lamps,  and  quartz  and  the  sleeves  specificiations) flow  rate  system, is  holding  through  that  three  past  as  system  produced  Kelly  lamps  UV  year  dissolved material of  UV  water  managers,  the  energy  factors The  factors.  e l i m i n a t i o n of  1960;  other  system. of  the  Hanel  the  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n  required  for  in  of  for  species  system  a  that  UV  water.  transmission  exponential  seem  number  theoretically  bacterial  and  a  recorded  established is  compared  condition  regulated  that  a l l  (Phillips  of  the  of  energy  i t would  the  result  30,000 ^Ws-cm  species  are  counts  a  of  ,  and  efficiency  be  higher  specifications  rated  Thus  factors  may  kill  3,000  1965). the  100%  60,000  bacterial  here  the  The  between  slightly  ultraviolet  a  present.  The  i t  by  past is  the most  attributable  to  water.  water  follows  the  130  w h e r e TR  = transmission  e  = base of  a  = coefficient  d  = depth  RF Since  of  is  absorption  i s the  bacterial  with  of  particulate  (1965)  indicate  absorption light  reaching  increase 0.06  of  the  0.01  through  cm  coefficient  since  filtering  one  holding  than  will  0.008  would water.  coefficient lower  of  Data  increases effect in  water 60  to  absorption  for  vary  sharply  with  Koller to  (1965)  distilled for  a  Excluding by  holding  water.  is  turn  the  It  Even  at  Roller  of  water. from UV  an  value  UV  to  light  difficult  lobster  of  An  0.05  lobster  water  0.02  by  amount  is  the  a  varies  coefficient  coefficient  distilled  Koller  in  assigns  water,  mean  filtering  percent  55%.  percent  the  holding  the  of  absorption  absorption  drops  UV  of  the  on  the  of  the  presented  in  in a  coefficient  which  of  expect  presented lobster  system.  approximately  efficiency.  coefficient than  i t  the  with  filters,  small  of  estimate  cm)  travel  coefficient  coefficient  from  water  the  the  must  i n determining  The  significant  transmission the  10  microorganisms  in  10  in  a  water)  radiation  factor  sand  even  have  )  substantially  silica  that  may  UV  system.  vary  load  - 1  for  (approximately  the  the  (0.02  the  significant  in  (cm  (cm)  distance  likely  efficiency  absorption  water  small  kill  most  of  logarithm  reflections  average  sterilizer  will  natural  = surface  the  (%)  to  holding load  and  absorption much  lower  for  lobster  the  lowest  which  is  undoubtedly  this  low  coefficient  131  of  absorption  reduced the  by  provide  expected  point  fungal  to  the  UV  in  disease very  few  on  facility.  is a  measures, proper  to abate  the  and  as  of  test  fungus  in  of  problem.  as  the and  were  due  removing  filtration  be  no  in  in  a  system to  infected UV  as  more  and  Hanel  more  likely studies  of  with fungal  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  part  and  such  infections.  cases  various  holding  result  associated  general  At  a  specific  Gaffkemia  results.  infected such  for  of  be  a  are  generally  would  Although  presence  from  disease,  (Phillips  such  than  system.  diseases  are  bacteria  the period  levels  higher  fungal  organisms  water.  problem  are  filtration  may  l e s s common  is  demonstrate  UV  shell  are  water  diseases  disease  lobsters there  A  of  slightly  and  shell  than  negative  minor  animals  the  the  to  lobster  disease  fungal  during  produced  maintaining  Fusarium  holding  or  of  other  R o l l e r 1965)  the  observed  appropriate  taken  forms  that  f o r the  cm  figures  prior  Gaffkemia,  irradiation  water  holding  lobsters  and  1965;  These  significant  view,  (some  conducted  holding  diseases  most  of  indicates  survive not  two  disease  Kelly  were  25%.  10  of b a c t e r i a i n the holding  infection) several  resistant 1960;  levels  bacteria  Lagenidum Research  to  through  p a r t i c u l a t e removal  background  storage by  transmission  a possible explanation  the  caused  the  of  Although live  to  light  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15%  importance  and  of  UV  shipment times but this  of  shell usually study,  animals  and  irradiation,  are  132  8.0  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  An  o f t h e work  overview  important term  features  lobster  found holding that  associated  holding  between  Since  TOC i s a g o o d  this  determined  lower  published  This  may  water  be  that  TOC showed water  a dramatic  followed  good  demand  ratio for a  number o f  i n a  short-  correlation  concentration  was  i n the lobster i ti s likely  i n t h e system.  o f 1.67 w a s variety  t o organic  of  compounds  surface No  shown  waste  The t o be  waters.  i n the holding  after  the lobsters  rapid  of  temperature  decline  TOC  increases  was  introduced  to  approximate  into a  BOD  holding  hatchery  t h e system. equivalent  water  water.  t o be when  that  was 4 t o 5 t i m e s These  TOC a  high  oxygen  the  from of  the  existing  concentration  biomass  effect.  a smaller  biomass  Calculations with showed  after  material  between  as extreme  into the  i n TOC w a s a  and resuspension  d i d appear  not nearly  introduced  the increase  excretion,  o f t h e animals  were  were  generally  i n the holding  15 o r 30 m i n u t e s  that  lobster  but there  experiments  i n TOC c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown  and  lobster  the time-series  I t was c o n c l u d e d  external organics.  during  by a  result  fish  values  increase  immediately  combined  in  a  a  a r e r e s i s t a n t t o t h e COD d i g e s t i o n .  introduction.  the  quality  relationship i s strong  COD/TOC  due i n p a r t  monitoring  tanks,  First, TOC  reveals  water  measure o f oxygen  empirically than  and  here  with  system.  t h e COD  water.  reported  t h e TOC  oxygen higher demand  demand than  data of  levels  conditions  133  are  unduly  reduced of  oxygen  small  high  levels  Dissolved  the  when  synergistic  certain oxygen  introduction,  concentration. oxygen  i n the  general  the  to  first  published  point  of  higher  temperature)  oxygen  lower  that from  began  to but  the  water  to  Rates  of  of  the  to  the  most  A  drop  steady  state  (time  significantly activity  (higher  being by  the  "during in  the  calculated compared  showed  of  to  similar  consumption  rates  0)  dissolved  consumption  when  in  lobster  significant  consumption  time-series  under  after  consumption  the  optimal.  reduce  experiments  temperature  than  a  At  in  initial  to  and  lethal  considered  quantify.  act  the  significant  lobster  oxygen  oxygen  the  be  increase  after  be  less  increase  may  point, the  could  to  than  during  levels  immediately  factors  values for lobster respect  the  parameters.  oxygen  i t may  gradual  usually  minutes  with  quality  are  difficult  a  levels  trends  of  potentially  that  levels  experiments  15  recorded  water  observed  tanks subsided.  the  amount  with  exchange  reached  although  by  demand  Oxygen  a  was  at  First,  considerable  the  temperatures,  number  system  time-series  holding over  A  oxygen  lobsters.  was  reasons.  i s associated  with  other  i s very  followed  which  a  material  parameter  concentration  condition  the  effect,  conditions,  second,  never  drop  other  two  concentrations  of  did  for  gills.  experimental  water  critical  of the  d i d any  higher  and  interfers  experiments  nor  holding  This  which  oxygen  time-series  lobsters  particulate  the surface  levels,  to  availability,  suspended  TOC  across  stressful  at  oxygen  134  consumption  were  a l l higher  concluded  that  increased  o x y g e n c o n s u m p t i o n by  a  possible  factor  high  various  early  stage  after  has  TOC  lobster water  the  may  three  higher  high  over  increased  temperatures of  organic  to  production  rate  of  this  effected.  solubility  in  After  likely  from  to  holding  the  of  water of  Organic of  nitrate  the  of  the  sodium  during  the  showed ammonia  experiments  lobster excretion  and  a  processes  Due  monitored  early  compound  calculated  to  Generally,  nitrification  levels  due  time.  and  and  during  buffering capacity  the  material.  not  influx  and  l o b s t e r s most  reduce  the  ammonia  the  rate,  was  increased  the  adversely  rapidly due  pH  in  compounds  only  changes  stress,  excretion  nitrogenous  of  time-series  respiration.  reducing  result  indicative  to  did  appear  been  for  experiments  mineralization  due  so  is  stress  the  were  generally  animal  have  capacity  concentrations  pH  to  which  during  parameter  that  the  It  literature.  i n t r o d u c t i o n , the  Of  significant  to  water  problem  dropped  levels  carbonates.  time-series  of  the  experiments  and  are  l o b s t e r s due  of  this  the  calcium the  a  ammonia l e v e l  high  holding  carbon  the  the  processes.  nitrification  relatively  and  demand  in  of  values.  time-series levels  never  changes  As  as  shortly  was  biochemical  ammonia.  the  oxygen  pH  experiments,  such  higher  published  i n the experiments r e p o r t e d i n the  Although  the  the  than  and  at  possibly  initial  period  their  ammonia  reduced  volatilization  even  further.  the  change  An in  combined ammonia ammonia  135  concentration experiment juvenile  during  at  to  conditions probably  explain  under  maintaining consistent increase the  the  two  higher was  evidence  17°C  and  filter  important  place  7°C.  the  most  flow was  rate  evident  from  heterotrophic  a  significant  in  suspension.  i s concluded  controlling  that  bacterial  amount  t h e UV  changes  in  the  to nitrate  rapidly  thus  nitrate  any  at a was  relatively observed  experiments i s  from  number  a  concluded  i n  that  rate. experiments  of  being  limited  the high  system the  are  the  12 The  flow the  low  At  extent.  At  on  factors  nitrificiation  sterilizer  to  conducted  the f i l t e r s .  bacteria.  populations  of  during  through  of  rate  produced  significant  to  held  the  It  A  be  of  regulating factors are l i k e l y  competition  temperatures  during  resulted  at  the high  nitrification  of  for  stress  were  high  a t a low but d e t e c t a b l e  nitrification  high  the  compound  temperature.  this,  to  the time-series  ocuring of  for  temperature  concentraton  the  significant  oxidized this  calculated  lobster  nitrite  of  time-series  of f a c t o r s can  but  observed  Any be  No  the  rate  time-series  were  during  a  of  A number  system.  will  The  gradually  responsible  at  i n  level.  sand  It  than  significantly  the concentration  silica  taking  the  most  process  nitrification  and  minutes  difference  experiments.  nitrification  most  this  concentrations  time-series  and  30  higher  which  production  nitrite  the  was  contributed  ammonia  No  19°C  first  c u l t u r e d l o b s t e r s a t 22°C.  suggested  at  the  rate  higher may  be  i s effective  holding  water,  136  although  levels  did  increase  slightly  with  2 ture  (from  approximately  2 5 10  *  increasing  tempera-  -1  10  counts^ml  at  7°C  to  about  -1 counts.ml  water  bacterial  ture  but  at  17°C).  In  p o p u l a t i o n s were  growth  rates  were  the  not  non-irradiated  controlled  significantly  at  aquarium  any  slower  temperaat  lower  temperatures. Several here.  conclusions  First,  i t appears  introduction  are  significant.  In  higher as  observed  by  the the  from  the  short  term  effects  dramatic  recorded at that  during  the  generally  i s  were  impacts.  These  operation  but  second  important holding  to  not  most Over  term  in a  level  system.  at  effects  short  term  general conclusion  factor  h  after  cases  controlling Temperature  compared  the  be  holding  i s that water  directly  quality, was  intro-  15  that to  reached  30 the  short  critical  the  lobsters  for  effects to  the  showed  never  any  most  at  longer-term, water  which  may  the  lobster  period  stressful the  insignificant  long  after  12  i n most  the  a  a  lobster  parameters,  Therefore i t i s this  period.  improved  for  of  i n water  quality  minutes  presented  particularly  dramatically  but  0.  likely  water  work  probably  deterioration  15-30  improved  time  holding  resulted  first  period,  and  a l l instances,  monitoring  often  critical  period  A  most  drawn  established  Continued  quality  minutes  have  that  virtually  during  duction.  level  the  be  temperatures, substantial  measured  water  can  the  important  quality that  short in  may term  culturing  system. temperature  quality effects  in the  i s the the  oxygen  most  lobster carry-  137  ing  c a p a c i t y of the  activity kept  of  low  the  water, and  lobsters.  (6-8°C)  most  Therefore,  of  the  parameters can be maintained Although factor for  temperature  i n the design  lobsters,  quality  are  control  important  to monitor  absolute  metabolic can  be  water  quality  the  critical  levels.  appears  operation  the  temperature  to  be  a s u c c e s s f u l short-term  during  not  other  if  at s u i t a b l e  i t i s important  parameters  temperatures  of  more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  of  insurance  holding  system  a wide range of water the  system  against  since  low  deteriorating  h o l d i n g water q u a l i t y . Finally, reached lished from prove result  for  any  during several to be was  experiments ities  although  parameter the  fatal  to  observed at  the  at  the  less  on  number  were  critical  than  weakened  a  levels  experiments,  stress  higher  which  lethal  during  time-series  parameters  occured  unacceptable  potentially  combined  lobsters.  temperatures.  not  estabeffects  levels In  occasions A  never  period  acceptable  of  apparently  were  number  fact during of  this the  mortal-  attributable  l e v e l s of any one water q u a l i t y parameter.  may  to  138  9.0  RECOMMENDATIONS  A  number  of  general  and  maintenance  put  f o r t h based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s  1.  Temperature system the  of a  recommendations  short-term  control  design.  design  maintaining  i s an  The  of  any  lobster  holding  essential  holding  design  system  feature  unit  system  water  the  c a n be  study.  refrigeration  the holding  regarding  i n  holding  incorporated  should  temperature  be  into  capable  a t between  of  6 and  8°C.  2.  To  help  holding should new  3.  water  cleaned  the c r i t i c a l  the lobsters,  this  To  TOC  and  particulate  levels  after  lobster  prior  to the introduction  i n the  introduction/  tanks  of  each  shipment.  holding  4.  high  imediately  be vacuum  During of  control  water  period  immediately  additional  to satisfy  oxygen  after  should  the high  demand  be  introduction added  that  t o the  occurs  at  time.  minimize  introduction take  place  reduction  deterioration  of  i t i s suggested over  a  period  i n introduction  water  that  quality  upon  lobster  the introduction  process  of approximately rate  will  have  one hour.  a buffering  This effect  139  on  water  quality  introduction  acclimation  of  lobsters  period  quality  period,  seawater  at  the  rate to  holding  Depending  on  a  deteriorate  over  recommended system  require water  of  prior  to  rapid  introduction  difference  holding  to  between  temperature  ensure  a a  reach  level that  of  the  a of  is  period  individual design  q u a l i t y problems, monitoring  of  features  to  of a l l systems.  be  a  of  be  fresh  per  day, in  a  weeks.  as  water  quality  therefore  may  i t  carried-out  i s on  month.  holding deal  with  i t i s essential that  programme  minute  several such  change  lobster  30  quality  water  period,  water  the  volume  water  capacity,  more-or-less  addition  factors,  longer  complete  after  the  acceptable  over  a  system  a p p r o x i m a t e l y once every  unique  operation  10%  buffering  that  each  quality  from  system.  i f the  the  tended  variety  and  Although  and  system  temperature  the  system  i t i s assumed  sufficient  lobster  required  long-term steady-state  critical  was  result  5°C.  water  acceptable  be  temperature  than  Since  may  into a holding  shipping  greater  that  of l o b s t e r s i n t o a holding  An  the  impacts  part  of  system site a the  will  specific  basic  water  day-to-day  140  10.0  LITERATURE  CITED  A l l e n , P. 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Results  1  of  TOC m o n i t o r i n g i n mg l  2  3  -  1  , during  4  Experiment 5  the time- s e r i e s  experiments•  # 6  7  8  9  10  18.1  36.1  25.4  101.1  26.5  57.6  25.1  34.5  19.5  48.4  0.25  204. 4  261.9  310. 3  241.9  195.6  224.3  164.0  461.7  241.4  385.4  0.50  222.3  244.3  305.7  256.8  220.4  386.5  89.3  489.8  304.5  405.1  0.75  316.1  201.7  272.8  268.6  231.5  291.6  43.7  451.9  276.7  261.7  1.0  184.9  179.8  224.7  287.5  222.6  205.7  45.9  369.4  201.4  144.1  1.5  170.2  185.6  206.4  256.1  191.3  211.8  38.5  195.7  169.9  139.7  2.0  166.6  164.5  139.3  224. 3  176.1  225.1  33.2  181.2  144.6  117.5  2.5  161.1  143.8  91. 3  185.2  155.9  198.7  27.9  177.3  101.4  118.8  3.0  84. 4  150.2  82.9  168.7  138.4  169.4  36.5  186.4  93.3  105.9  4.0  86.4  138.7  84.1  177.8  115.6  181.7  39.4  169.5  56.5  102.6  5.0  42.8  121.4  78.5  191.2  96.4  176.4  32.9  171.7  50.1  112.1  6.0  46.3  126.3  75.4  176.4  105.1  144.9  40.1  168.1  52.4  101.9  7.0  36.7  109.9  74.3  165.1  86.7  150.1  35.7  156.9  46.5  98.5  8.0  38.9  84.1  83.7  154.6  101.9  139.3  29.9  159.4  56.7  87.6  9.0  50.1  77.6  80.2  149.8  68.9  127.4  34.8  145.6  60.9  94.5  10.0  40.5  89.8  75.1  159.6  76.4  115.5  39.4  151.3  55.4  96.8  11.0  38.0  81.3  81.5  150.1  56.8  111.2  36.8  149.6  52.3  101.6  12.0  36.1  75.7  78.9  145.9  6.1.5  104.1  39.1  141.8  48.5  89.4  0  Appendix  2.  R e s u l t s of d i s s o l v e d oxygen monitoring, experiments.  Experiment  i n mg  l "  1  ,  during  the  time-series  #  10  7  8  9  9.1  10.5  10.2  10.8  10.0  4.1  7.5  8.9  9.1  8.6  8.5  2.1  5.0  7.6  8.5  9.0  8.4  7.9  3.5  2.6  5.3  7.8  8.6  9.0  8.5  7.6  4.2  3.9  3.9  5.4  8.3  8.7  9.3  8.6  8.1  5.0  4.9  4.7  4.8  5.8  8.4  8.9  9.5  8.9  7.8  2.0  5.4  5.1  4.9  4.9  6.2  8.5  9.3  9.2  8.7  7.9  2.5  6.0  5.1  5.4  5.4  6.6  8.5  9.4  9.4  8.7  8.0  3.0  6.6  5.8  5.6  5.5  6.8  8.4  9.4  9.5  8.5  8.5  4.0  6.7  5.9  5.9  5.7  6.8  8.4  9.5  9.6  8.9  8.2  5.0  6.6  6.2  5.8  6.3  7.0  8.5  9.7  9.5  8.7  8.6  6.0  6.6  6.3  5.5  6.2  7.1  8.5  9.5  9.7  8.9  8.5  7.0  6.5  6.5  5.4  6.4  7.2  8.6  9.7  9.3  8.9  8.7  8.0  6.6  6.5  5.7  6.3  7.2  8.4  9.6  9.4  9.3  8.4  9.0  6.6  6.7  5.5  6.3  7.2  8.5  9.6  9.3  9.5  8.6  10.0  6.5  6.8  5.9  6.3  7.3  8.5  9.5  9.5  9.1  8.8  11.0  6.5  6.8  5.8  6.4  7.4  8.7  9.7  9.7  9.3  8.5  12.0  6.6  7.1  5.3  6.8  7.5  8.4  9.4  9.6  9.6  8.7  1  2  3  4  5  6  0  8.9  8.2  8.1  7.8  8.8  0.25  6.7  4.6  4.7  3.4  0.50  5.6  2.9  3.4  0.75  5.3  3.8  1.0  5.2  1.5  Time  (hr)  Appendix  3.  Results  of  pH  monitoring  during  the  time-series  Experiment  experiments.  #  10  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  6.9  7.6  6.6  7.3  7.2  8.0  7.7  7.6  7.8  7.1  0.25  7.4  7.7  7.2  7.3  7.4  8.1  7.8  7.6  7.7  7.2  0.50  7.5  7.9  7.3  7.5  7.2  8.0  7.6  7.5  7.9  7.0  0.75  7.8  8.0  7.5  7.6  7.4  8.3  7.7  7.7  7.9  7.1  1.0  7.7  8.0  8.0  7.6  7.3  8.4  7.7  7.8  8.0  6.9  1.5  7.9  7.8  8.1  7.4  7.5  8.6  7.6  7.9  7.9  7.0  2.0  8.1  8.0  8.0  7.6  7.7  8.6  7.6  7.9  8.1  7.1  2.5  8.2  7.9  8.0  7.7  7.8  8.7  7.6  8.2  8.0  7.2  3.0  8.2  7.7  8.1  7.6  7.7'  8.5  7.8  8.3  8.1  7.1  4.0  7.7  7.9  7.9  7.6  7.7  8.4  7.7  8.5  8.1  7.1  5.0  7.6  7.8  7.7  7.5  7.8  8.3  7.8  8.4  8.2  7.2  6.0  7.8  7.9  7.9  7.6  7.6  8.4  7.9  8.5  8.0  7.3  7.0  7.5  7.7  7.8  7.7  7.7  8.5  7.6  8.5  8.0  7.3  8.0  7.7  7.7  7.7  7.5  7.6  8.4  7.8  8.4  7.9  7.1  9.0  7.5  7.6  7.7  7.5  7.6  8.4  7.7  8.1  8.0  7.0  10.0  7.4  7.6  7.6  7.4  7.7  8.3  7.7  8.0  7.8  7.3  11.0  7.4  7.4  7.7  7.4  7.5  8.4  7.6  8.1  7.8  7.2  12.0  7.3  7.5  7.6  7.4  7.5  8.4  7.8  7.8  7.7  7.3  Time  (hr)  to  Appendix  4.  R e s u l t s o f ammonia-N experiments.  monitoring,  i n mg  Experiment  l "  1  ,  during  the  time-series  #  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  1  2  3  0  3.3  4.8  1.9  1.7  3.6  2.3  4.8  6.8  4.7  1.3  0.25  4.5  4.7  3.3  1.8  3.4  2.7  4.9  6.5  5.0  1.6  0.50  5.4  4.9  3.9  2.3  3.5  2.9  5.0  6.7  4.9  2.0  0.75  5.3  5.6  4.2  2.4  3.7  3.0  4.7  6.9  5.3  2.2  1.0  5.9  5.8  4.4  2.8  3.9  2.9  4.9  7.4  5.2  2.0  1.5  6.4  6.0  4.7  3.2  4.0  3.4  5.1  7.5  5.6  2.3  2.0  6.0  6.8  4.8  3.1  4.1  3.7  5.0  7.9  5.8  2.1  2.5  5.9  6.7  5.0  3.3  3.8  3.9  4.9  8.1  5.6  1.9  3.0  6.3  7.1  4.7  3.0  3.8  4.1  5.6  8.3  5.9  2.0  4.0  4.9  6.9  4.8  3.2  4.0  4.2  5.0  8.0  5.7  1.8  5.0  4.6  6.8  5.0  3.1  3.5  4.0  5.1  8.5  6.0  2.1  6.0  4.8  6.4  4.6  3.0  3.7  4.2  4.8  8.6  5.7  2.0  7.0  4.3  6.3  4.5  3.1  3.8  3.9  4.7  8.4  5.5  1.9  8.0  4.4  6.2  4.3  2.8  3.4  4.2  4.9  8.0  5.7  1.9  9.0  4.0  6.2  4.2  2.7  3.6  3.8  4.5  8.3  5.3  1.8  10.0  3.9  6.3  4.0  3.0  3.7  3.9  4.7  8.1  5.2  1.7  11.0  4.1  6.1  3.9  2.5  3.3  3.6  4.9  7.9  5.1  1.8  12.0  4.3  5.9  3.7  2.3  3.5  3.7  4.8  7.6  4.8  1.7  Time  (hr)  Appendix 5.  R e s u l t s of n i t r i t e - N monitoring, experiments.  i n mg  l" , 1  Experiment #  during the t i m e - s e r i e s  5  6  7  8  9  0.42  0.16  1.66  0.11  0.24  0.36  0.45  2.11  0.51  0.29  1.50  0.21  0.30  0.61  0.41  0.20  2.34  0.64  0.21  1.61  0.15  0.41  0.48  0.48  1.35  0.  1.86  0.48  0.33  1.55  0.22  0.29  0.29  0.47  1.0  1.38  0.43  2.28  0.77  0.25  1. 49  0.09  0.38  0.44  0.54  1.5  1.  0.85  1.77  0.86  0.47  1.50  0.14  0.44  0.71  0.39  2.0  1.44  0.78  1.59  0.91  0.40  1.39  0.20  0.52  0.78  0.41  2.5  1.49  0.94  1.56  1.04  0.56  1.47  0.18  0.43  0.68  0.33  3.0  1. 53  0.75  2.35  1.09  0.61  1.36  0.26  0.40  0.59  0.37  4.0  1.56  0.85  2.14  1.07  0.47  1.45  0.10  0.  0.50  0.43  5.0  1.59  0.57  2. 22  0.79  0.41  1.33  0.16  0.64  0.69  0.39  6.0  1.57  0.67  1.96  0.84  0.30  1.29  0.24  0.60  0.82  0.42  7.0  1.55  0.71  2.05  0.51  0.29  1. 20  0.31  0.59  0.75  0.47  8.0  1.52  0.69  1.79  0.69  0.30  1.31  0.23  0.70  0.79  0.50  9.0  1.48  0.80  1.91  0.75  0.26  1.37  0.15  0.65  0.58  0.56  10.0  1.45  0.64  1.83  0.86  0.39  1.25  0.19  0.49  0.51  0.58  11.0  1.43  0.59  1.64  0.70  0.24  1.17  0.22  0.38  0.43  0.58  12.0  1.42  0.72  1.59  0.62  0.32  1.28  0.17  0.45  0.49  0.56  1  2  3  4  0  1.33  0.19  1.89  0.25  1.34  0.24  0.50  1.34  0.75  Time  (hr)  41  21  51  10  cn  Appendix 6.  Results of nitrate-N monitoring, i n mg l " , experiments. 1  during the time-  Experiment # 5  6  7  8  10  9  1  2  3  4  10.5  16.5  23.9  83.4  21.8  18.3  11.6  15.9  5.9  4.8  0  0.25  11.0  18.4  24.6  80.6  22.4  17.4  9.6  16.4  4.9  4.7  0.50  11.1  16.8  22.3  79.4  23.8  16.9  9.9  15.1  5.1  5.1  0.75  11.2  15.6  23.1  80.9  22.6  18.1  10.4  14.8  6.4  4.5  11.1  17.5  23.8  76.6  24.1  19.5  11.6  15.5  5.8  4.9  1.0 1.5  11.3  18.1  23.6  81.4  24.8  19.0  10.8  16.6  5.5  5.3  2.0  11.6  17.4  24.0  81.5  25.3  21.  11.5  16.0  5.9  5.0  2.5  11.2  16.9  23.9  75.4  24.3  18.6  10.8  16.8  6.1  4.5  11.7  18.9  24.4  76.1  25.6  22.7  9.4  15.9  6.6  4.6  3.0 4.0  11.4  17.8  24.6  70.9  27.1  23.8  10.7  16.7  5.7  4.9  11.9  18.5  24.1  73.8  27.9  23.0  11.0  17.1  6.8  5.4  5.0 6.0  11.8  19.0  24.3  69.5  28.0  23.5  10.4  17.4  7.0  4.8  11.6  19.1  24.9  73.4  27.3  24.1  10.8  17.9  6.4  5.6  7.0 8.0  11.8  19.6  25.  69.6  28.4  23.  11.6  18.0  6.8  5.8  12.4  19.5  25.7  70.8  29.9  23.6  11.9  18.9  6.3  6.2  9.0  10.0  12.8  20.1  26.0  68.4  28.6  22.9  12.1  17.8  7.2  6.5  11.0  12.9  19.7  26.6  67.7  28.8  23.8  11.2  18.4  6.9  6.3  12.0  13.3  19.8  26.4  69.1  29.0  22.5  11.6  18.1  6.7  6.4  Time (hr)  2  4  2  r-  1  Ul  cn  

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