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Highway network planning and agricultural land preservation in conflict : the B.C. case Burke, Holger 1983

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HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING AND AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN CONFLICT: THE B.C. CASE By HOLGER BURKE M.A., The Un ivers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1983 © Holger Burke, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s cholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o f r s ^ . r s x V ^ r w \ E f c t y r ^ w V £W\c>w^  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Apr A 2.Z. } \c\€>3 DE-6 (.3/81) i i i ABSTRACT This thesis examines the existing conflict in British Columbia between highway network planning as undertaken by the Ministry of Transportation and Highways Planning Branch (Ministry) and agricultural land preservation which is under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Agricultural Land Commission (Commission). At the heart of the conflict is the fact that the Ministry does not view the Agricultural Land Reserve (A.L.R.) as a restriction to potential development and changes in land use nor does i t look at the Reserve as a major barrier to future highways. Consequently, the Ministry often superimposes a highway network plan (i.e. functional grid configuration) over the A.L.R. in spite of the Commission's concerns. Reasons for this conflict and, in particular, for the approach taken by the Ministry include: differing philosophies towards the use of a highway network plan (i.e. as a means to reinforce and effect desired land uses/land management programs); the traditional uncertainty associated with agricultural land preservation in B.C.; the uncertainty involved in highway network planning; and, a lack of co-ordination between the Commission and Ministry. The thesis then goes on to outline the implications that this conflict has to local area planning and to the development of land. The point is made that due to various legal requirements, financial incentives or other non-coercive measures, a municipality or regional district may become involved in the conflict and put in the difficult position of having to decide which provincial agency i t is going to listen to when preparing an official community plan, official settlement plan or official regional plan. Similarly, i v an a p p l i c a n t p r o p o s i n g t o s u b d i v i d e l a n d w i t h i n t h e A . L . R . may be p l a c e d i n t h e p o s i t i o n where he c an n o t g e t t h e n e c e s s a r y a p p r o v a l o f b o t h t h e M i n i s t r y and t h e Commiss i on due t o t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r a h ighway ne two rk p l a n . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a c o n c e r n o f t h e Commi s s i o n , a s e v i d e n c e d by numerous e xamp l e s , t h a t a h ighway ne two rk p l a n w h i c h a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t h e A . L . R . c an s e r v e a s an i m p e t u s t o d e ve l o pmen t . Thus , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t an e f f o r t must be made t o r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t and i t s r e s u l t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s . In l i g h t o f t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s exam ines some l o n g t e r m and s h o r t t e r m s o l u t i o n s f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h r e e l o n g t e rm s o l u t i o n s a r e l o o k e d a t : a change o f p h i l o s o p h y i n w h i c h h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g wou l d be used a s a t o o l t o c o n t r o l and d i r e c t d eve l opmen t ; t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l impac t a s se s smen t and r e v i e w p r o c e s s ( a s has been done i n O n t a r i o and S a s k a t c h e w a n ) ; a nd , t h e use o f an i n t e r m e d i a r y agency ( s u c h as t h e Env i r o nmen t and Land Use Commi t tee ) a s a means f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t . However , due t o v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i t i s summized t h a t none o f t h e s e s o l u t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l l y o r c o l l e c t i v e l y a r e an immed i a t e answer t o t h e c o n f l i c t be tween h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n i n B .C . I n s t e a d , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e u se o f a s h o r t r ange h ighway ne two r k p l a n ( t o be i n c l u d e d i n a l o c a l a r e a p l a n ) and a l o n g r a n g e h ighway ne two rk p l a n ( a s a s e p a r a t e document c o n t a i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f ea ch agency o r g roup i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h i s p l a n ) i s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be imp l emen ted now. F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h key p e r s o n n e l f r om t h e M i n i s t r y , Commiss i on and M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . I n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o o b t a i n e d f rom s e c o n d a r y published sources and the experience of other Canadian provinces solicited by mail. This was supplemented by the author's four years of working experience with the Commission (1977-81) wherein he was actively involved in the review of highway network plans as they affected the A.L.R. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page T ITLE PAGE i AUTHORIZATION i i ABSTRACT i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v i L IST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Pu r po s e o f t h e T h e s i s 1 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e T h e s i s 1 D e f i n i t i o n s 1 A s s u m p t i o n s 2 Me thodo l ogy 2 PART I THE CONFLICT A CHAPTER 2 HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 5 C o n c e p t u a l B a s i s 5 H i s t o r i c a l Deve lopment 6 Pu r po se and Use o f H ighway Ne twork P l a n s 10 Highway Ne twork P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 13 CHAPTER 3 AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 19 C o n c e p t u a l B a s i s 19 H i s t o r i c a l Deve lopment 19 Pu rpo se and F u n c t i o n o f t h e Commis s i on 22 R o l e i n H ighway Ne twork P l a n n i n g 24 v i i Page CHAPTER 4 THE CONFLICT. BETWEEN HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING AND 26 AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Nature of the Conflict 26 Reasons for the C o n f l i c t 32 1. D i f f e r i n g philosophies 33 2. The uncertainty of a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservation 37 3. Uncertainty i n highway network planning 38 4. Lack of co-ordination 39 Examples of the C o n f l i c t 41 PART II THE IMPLICATIONS 47 CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONFLICT TO LOCAL AREA PLANNING 48 Levels and Requirements of Local Area Planning i n B.C. 48 1. O f f i c i a l Community Plans 48 2. O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans 50 3. O f f i c i a l Regional Plans 52 Role of the Ministry of Transportation and Highways i n Local 54 Area Planning Role of the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i n Local 57 Area Planning The C o n f l i c t and Existing Solutions 59 1. Not including proposed road corridors i n a l o c a l area 59 plan which have not been agreed to by the Commission and Ministry. 2. Placing a cautionary stamp on the transportation map i n 62 a l o c a l area plan. Examples of the Co n f l i c t 64 Summary 69 v i i i Page CHAPTER 6 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONFLICT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LAND 71 S u b d i v i s i o n o f Land 71 Impetus t o Deve lopment 73 PART I I I THE SOLUTIONS • 76 LONG TERM SOLUTIONS 78 CHAPTER 7 CHANGE IN PHILOSOPHY - USE OF HIGHWAY NETWORK 79 PLANNING AS A TOOL TO CONTROL AND DIRECT DEVELOPMENT B a s i s f o r a Change i n P h i l o s o p h y 79 A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o n f l i c t i n B . C . 80 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Imp l emen t i ng t h i s Change i n P h i l o s o p h y 80 CHAPTER 8 APPLICATION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND 84 REVIEW PROCESS B a s i s f o r t h i s S o l u t i o n 84 A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o n f l i c t i n B . C . 90 D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s S o l u t i o n 92 CHAPTER 9 CONFLICT RESOLUTION BY AN INTERMEDIARY AGENCY 96 B a s i s f o r t h i s S o l u t i o n 96 A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o n f l i c t i n B .C . 97 D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s S o l u t i o n 101 Summary - Long Term S o l u t i o n s 103 RECOMMENDED SHORT TERM SOLUTION 104 CHAPTER 10 USE OF A SHORT RANGE AND A LONG RANGE HIGHWAY 105 NETWORK PLAN B a s i s F o r a Two-P l an App roa ch 105 S h o r t Range Highway Ne twork P l a n 105 Long Range Highway Ne two rk P l a n 107 Summary - Recommended S h o r t Term S o l u t i o n 113 CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: FIGURE 2: FIGURE 3: FIGURE 4: FIGURE 5: FIGURE 6: FIGURE 7: FIGURE 8: FIGURE 9: FIGURE 10: FIGURE 11: FIGURE 12: FIGURE 13: FIGURE 14: FIGURE 15: FIGURE 16: FIGURE 17: HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING STUDIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PLANNING BRANCH HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS IN B.C. EXAMPLES OF THE POTENTIAL LOSS OF LAND TO RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO CORRECT A GAP OR PROBLEM IN THE EXISTING NETWORK SYSTEM NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO SERVICE NON-FARM DEVELOPMENT LOCATED OUTSIDE OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO SERVICE THE POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE HIGHWAYS PHILOSOPHY TO LAND MANAGEMENT AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMISSION PHILOSOPHY TO LAND MANAGEMENT AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Preliminary CITY OF KELOWNA^ HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN LEVELS OF LOCAL AREA PLANNING DOCUMENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FLOW CHART FOR OFFICIAL SETTLEMENT PLAN PREPARATION AND ADOPTION PROVINCIAL COST-SHARING PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION AND HIGHWAYS PROPOSED SOLUTION FOR SHOWING HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANS IN A LOCAL AREA PLAN VILLAGE OF KEREMEOS HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN CITY OF MERRITT HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN DEWDNEY ALOUETTE REGIONAL DISTRICT HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN Page 9 11 17 27 29 30 31 34 36 42 49 53 56 61 66 67 70 FIGURE 18: HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS AS A TOOL TO CONTROL AND DIRECT DEVELOPMENT FIGURE 19: AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION REQUIRED IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS IN ONTARIO FIGURE 20: APPLICATION OF THE GUIDELINES FOR LINEAR DEVELOPMENT TO THE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS FIGURE 21: APPLICATION OF THE B.C. UTILITIES COMMISSION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS TO HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING FIGURE 22: USE OF AN INTERMEDIARY AGENCY TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS IN THE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS FIGURE 23: PROPOSED SHORT RANGE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS FIGURE 24: PROPOSED LONG RANGE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS Page 81 87 91 93 100 108 112 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o a cknow l edge t h e e x c e l l e n t a s s i s t a n c e o f b o t h h i s a d v i s o r s , D r . V. S e t t y Pendaku r and Mr . J i m P l o t n i k o f f , and h i s t y p i s t , M r s . Johanna F e e s e y , i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . A s p e c i a l word o f t h a n k s i s a l s o due t o my w i f e , J u d y , and d a u g h t e r , K a r i n (3 y e a r s o l d ) , f o r t h e i r m o r a l and s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s o f s t u d y . - 1 -CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Thesis: The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to: 1) describe the existing c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and the preservation of ag r i c u l t u r a l land i n B r i t i s h Columbia; 2) outline the implications of t h i s c o n f l i c t to l o c a l area planning and to the development of land; and, 3) examine some long term and short term solutions for resolving the c o n f l i c t and reconciling the various opposing elements. Structure of the Thesis: In accordance with the above noted objectives, the thesis i s divided into three parts: Part I The C o n f l i c t ; Part I I The Implications; and, Part I I I The Solutions. Definitions: For the purposes of t h i s thesis, 'highway network planning' and 'agricultural land preservation' are defined i n the following context. The term highway network planning refers s p e c i f i c a l l y to the process i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n which the Ministry of Transportation and Highways Planning Branch prepares "comprehensive road transportation network plans, strategies and functional layouts i n order to provide short and long term solutions to transportation problems for metropolitan, urban, regional and r u r a l areas" (Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1981 (a), pp. 421). These comprehensive plans, strategies and layouts id e n t i f y both existing and potential road corridors (be they a r t e r i a l s or collectors) which are to service a particular area. Typically, they take the format of an a e r i a l mosaic or map, which occasionally i s accompanied by a written report. In - 2 -doing these plans, a very long range perspective i s taken ( i . e . 80-100 years). Reference i s made to the Ministry i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n because i t i s usually the agency responsible or c r i t i c a l l y involved i n highway network planning. The term a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservation refers primarily to the statutory basis and process i n B r i t i s h Columbia whereby the Provincial Ag r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission has been established and charged v i a the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  Commission Act to "preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land" (1979, pp. 2). Thus, ag r i c u l t u r a l land i s defined as including only those lands so designated under t h i s Act as part of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (A.L.R.) and preservation i s defined as the le g a l basis and process by which the Commission protects t h i s land. Assumptions Underlying t h i s thesis i s the assumption that highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservation can be compatible i n the planning context. Thus, the thesis w i l l not get into suclyside issues as whether or not i t i s necessary to plan highways for the distant future i n l i e u of potential transport changes or energy constraints, whether i t i s economically desirable to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land, and so on. This i s not to say the thesis w i l l avoid c r i t i c a l l y analyzing how these two objectives are achieved. Methodology: For the purposes of t h i s thesis, information has been obtained from the Ministry of Transportation and Highways, Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s and the Provincial A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commisssion, as well as from secondary published sources. Personal interviews were also conducted with key personnel from these agencies and the experience of other Canadian provinces was s o l i c i t e d by - 3 -m a i l . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s upp l emen t ed by t h e a u t h o r ' s f o u r y e a r s o f w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commis s i on (1977-1981) w h e r e i n he was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f h ighway ne two rk p l a n s as t h e y a f f e c t e d t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . PART I THE CONFLICT - 5 -CHAPTER 2 HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA As a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n f l i c t between h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r amework , e v o l u t i o n and p r o c e s s i n w h i c h b o t h a r e u n d e r t a k e n . T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s and h i s t o r i c a l deve l opmen t o f h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g i n B . C . and t h e p u r p o s e , u s e and p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g a h ighway ne two rk p l a n . C h a p t e r 3 d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s and h i s t o r i c a l deve l opment o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n i n B . C . , t h e p u r p o s e and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commiss i on and i t s r o l e i n t h e h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C o n c e p t u a l B a s i s : The re a r e v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g t h e need and r a t i o n a l e f o r h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g . F o r examp l e , t h e r e i s some r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e wh i c h has a r gued a g a i n s t a l o n g r ange p e r s p e c t i v e t o h ighway ne two r k p l a n n i n g i n f a v o r o f s h o r t e r r ange p l a n n i n g ( S h o f e r and S t o p h e r , 1979, p p . 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ) . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s p o s i t i o n i t i s a rgued t h a t t h e r e i s t o o much u n c e r t a i n t y i n v o l v e d i n l o n g range p l a n n i n g and t h a t t r a f f i c and l a n d use c o n s i d e r a t i o n s change t o o r a p i d l y t o p l a n f o r t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e ( i . e . r e s t r i c t i o n s o f ene rgy s u p p l y ; c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t owa r d t he e n v i r o n m e n t ; movement t o w a r d s t h e c o n s e r v o r s o c i e t y ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e a r gumen t s , t h e r e i s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t a l o n g r ange p e r s p e c t i v e must be t a k e n i n h ighway ne twork p l a n n i n g ( C o u s i n s and He i g h t c h ew , 1975 , pp . 5 3 ) . Reasons f o r t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i n c l u d e : - 6 -long range planning al lows for choosing options which are the most favorab le ; long range planning i d e n t i f i e s future problems and prepares for them i n advance; long range planning can a s s i s t with planning c a p i t a l budgets; short-term act ions have long term impacts - f a i l u r e to assess these long-range impacts may lead to the adoption of short-run s t r a t e g i e s which w i l l generate future problems; and, short-range act ions are r a r e l y i s o l a t e d or independent events, they cont r ibute to the development of urban t ranspor ta t ion systems - long range planning can put these in to perspect ive . (Schofer and Stopher, 1979, pp. 200-201) In add i t ion to these reasons, i t could be argued that a highway network plan can be used as a means to c o n t r o l , regulate and d i r e c t development. I t i s t h i s long range perspect ive which has been adopted i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Again i t should be emphasized that the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s not to quest ion the v a l i d i t y of t h i s conceptual b a s i s , but rather to examine how highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion can be compatible i n a planning context . H i s t o r i c a l Development: During the 1950's and 1960's, very l i t t l e formal a t tent ion was paid to highway network planning i n B.C. Th is was the "epic per iod of road-bu i ld ing" i n which new roads were b u i l t throughout the province (Grove, 1981, pp. 17-18). What l i t t l e highway planning that was done was r e s t r i c t e d to the engineering aspects o f s p e c i f i c p ro jec ts ( i . e . route p ro jec t ions and layouts , design, plan preparat ion and cost est imates - Department of Highways, 1969, pp. 52-53). Gradual ly however, there arose a recogn i t ion that the province should a lso be protec t ing the operat iona l e f f ec t i veness and safety of i t s highway system - 7 -( S i n g e r , 1983 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o n t r o l l i n g a c c e s s o n t o and o f f t h e p r o v i n c i a l h ighway s y s t em ( v i a t h e C o n t r o l l e d A c c e s s H ighways A c t o r i g i n a l l y e n a c t e d i n 1953) and t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c o n t r o l s o v e r l a n d use ( i . e . d e p a r t m e n t a l i n p u t was s ough t on r e z o n i n g r e q u e s t s ; t h e a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r f u n c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u b d i v i s i o n s ; e t c . ) . However , due t o i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n deve l opment and p r e s s u r e s on t h e h ighway s y s t e m , and t h e r e s u l t i n g demand f o r b ypa s s e s a round c o n g e s t e d c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , t h e need f o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e , l o n g r ange p l a n n i n g app roa ch was r e c o g n i z e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n O c t obe r 1969 t h e p r o v i n c e c r e a t e d t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h w i t h i n t h e Depa r tmen t o f H ighways t o : " a s s i s t i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f t h e h ighway programme i n a more c omp r ehen s i v e manner" and , " a s s e s s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n eed s , d e t e r m i n e opt imum s o l u t i o n s , and s c h e d u l e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g e n g i n e e r i n g s y s t ems c o n c e p t s " (Depa r tmen t o f H i ghways , 1970 , p p . 83) D u r i n g i t s i n i t i a l few y e a r s , t h e s m a l l s t a f f o f t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t r a f f i c d a t a and t h e r o u t i n e p r o c e s s i n g o f c o n t r o l l e d a c c e s s p e r m i t s , s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s , o r d i n a r y e n t r a n c e p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s and r e z o n i n g r e q u e s t s (Depa r tmen t o f H i ghways , 1970 , p p . 8 3 ; 1971 , p p . 7 4 ; 1972 , p p . 8 2 ) . C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was a l s o d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s w o r k i n g w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1969) and t h e i r t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s t o p r o t e c t e x i s t i n g h i ghways by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e s u i t a b l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f l a n d use and h ighway p l a n n i n g and by p r o v i d i n g a d v i c e on s p e c i f i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was n o t u n t i l 1972-1973 t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g B r an ch i n i t i a t e d i t s f i r s t h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . These s t u d i e s were - 8 -f o r t h e S u n s h i n e C o a s t , C o u r t e n a y , Campbe l l R i v e r , P r i n c e Geo rge , P e n t i c t o n , Kamloops and Ke l owna (Depa r tmen t o f H i ghways , 1973 , p p . 6 8 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s was t h e same p e r i o d i n w h i c h a New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y was e l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l H ighway Sys tem S tudy t h a t t h e Depar tment p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and p r o v i d e d t e n y e a r f o r e c a s t s f o r ( P e n d a k u r , 1973 , 104 p p . ) , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Depa r tmen t o f R e g i o n a l E conomic E x p a n s i o n ' s commitments r e q u i r e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p l a n s and t h e d e b a t e o v e r a number o f ama l gama t i on ag reemen t s d u r i n g t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s were a l l p r o b a b l y f a c t o r s i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t t o do h ighway n e two r k p l a n s . S i n c e 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 , t h e P l a n n i n g B r an ch ha s u n d e r t a k e n a number o f a d d i t i o n a l n e two rk s t u d i e s ( s e e F i g u r e 1 ) . A t f i r s t , t h e s e ne two rk p l a n s were done f o r c o m m u n i t i e s r a n g i n g i n s i z e f r om 3 , 000 t o 5 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e (Depa r tmen t o f H i ghways , 1975 , p p . 7 6 ) . More r e c e n t l y , h ighway ne two rk p l a n s have been i n i t i a t e d f o r n e a r l y a l l a r e a s i n t h e p r o v i n c e w h i c h a r e l a r g e r t h a n 1000 p e o p l e ( S i n g e r , 1983 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . As t h i s p r o c e s s i s c o m p l e t e d , i t wou l d appea r t h a t t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h w i l l be i n p r e p a r i n g h ighway ne two rk p l a n s f o r s m a l l e r u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s , r e f i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s , p r o m o t i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e i n t o l o c a l a r e a p l a n s , and d o i n g t h e d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c ne two rk e l e m e n t s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d (1972 - 1 9 8 3 ) , t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h h a s c o n t i n u e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ( i . e . l i c e n s e p l a t e s u r v e y s , r o a d s i d e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e s c r e e n l i n e c o u n t i n g p r og r am, goods movement s u r v e y s , o r i g i n - d e s t i n a t i o n t a b u l a t i o n s , i n t e r s e c t i o n c o u n t s , s t u dy i n t o t h e t r a f f i c g e n e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l a n d u s e , summer h ighway - 9 -FIGURE 1: HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING STUDIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA F i s c a l Year New Studies I n i t i a t e d Authorized Studies Current Continued from Previous To ta l Years 1972 - 73 7 0 7 1973 - 74 18 7 25 1974 - 75 5 25 30 1975 - 76 18 25 43 1976 - 77 8 43 51 1977 - 78 9 49 58 1978 - 79 19 47 66 1979 - 80 13 43 60 1980 - 81 25 37 62 Sources: Department of Highways, 1973, pp. 68; 1974, pp. 76; 1975, pp. 76; 1976, pp. 62. Min is t ry of Highways and Pub l i c Works, 1977, pp. 69; 1978, pp. 74. M in is t ry of Transportaton, Communications and Highways, 1979, pp. 318; 1980, pp. 297. M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 ( a ) , pp. 421. - 10 -t r a f f i c c o u n t s , e t c . ) and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Revenue S h a r i n g A c t and Se conda r y Highway P r og r am ( i . e . d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l c o s t - s h a r i n g f u n d s ) o r t h r o u g h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g l o c a l a r e a p l a n s ( i . e . o f f i c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s ) . The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h a r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 2 . D e s p i t e i t s d i v e r s i f i e d appea r an ce , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f h ighway ne twork p l a n s c o n t i n u e s t o be one o f t h e B r a n c h ' s ma jo r d u t i e s . F o r examp l e , i n 1979-80 i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e H ighway P l a n n i n g B r a n c h ' s r e g u l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and c l e r i c a l s t a f f t i m e was s pen t i n t h e n e two r k p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Commun i ca t i on s and H ighway , 1980 , p p . 2 9 7 ) . Pu r po se and Use o f H ighway Ne twork P l a n s : Th roughou t t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f h ighway ne twork p l a n n i n g i n B . C . , t h e p u r p o s e h a s a l w a y s been t o i d e n t i f y p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r o a d c o r r i d o r s wh i ch a r e o r w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o d e v e l o p a b l e a r e a s o r t o accomodate changes i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n . In d o i n g t h i s , a v e r y l o n g r a n g e p e r s p e c t i v e has been t a k e n ( i . e . 80-100 y e a r s - M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1979 , p p . 3 9 ) . There a r e a number o f r e a s o n s commonly pu t f o r w a r d by t h e P l a n n i n g B r an ch f o r d o i n g a h ighway ne two rk p l a n . These i n c l u d e : 1. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t p o t e n t i a l ne twork c o r r i d o r s must be i d e n t i f i e d a t an e a r l y s t a g e w h i l e o p t i o n s a r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r r i g h t - o f - w a y p r o t e c t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n . S h o u l d t h i s n o t be done now, i t i s f e a r e d t h a t c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d u s e s c o u l d d e v e l o p and p r e c l u d e t h e s e o p t i o n s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e communi ty and t h e l a n d u s e s t h a t may be d e s i r e d i n t h e - 11 -FIGURE 2: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PLANNING BRANCH S T R U C T U R E F U N C T I 0 N S Min is ter of Transportat ion and Highways Deputy Min ister Ass is tant Deputy Min is ter - Operations Executive Director - Engineering D i v i s i o n Director of Planning Highways Annacis Planning System Sect ion Sect ion Invest igat ion Ana lys is Sect ion Municipal Programs Sect ion highway network planning major co r r ido r s tud ies - co-ord inat ion of the ent i re Annacis System Project - c o l l e c t i o n of t r a v e l data - computerization review of o f f i c i a l community and settlement plans techn i ca l resource on miscel laneous pianning matters administrat ion of the roads Section of the Revenue Sharing Act cont ro l of expenditures on secondary highways cost-shar ing on a r t e r i a l s , br idges and urban s t ree t renewal highway r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n recommendations to Municipal A f f a i r s on boundary extensions, restructures and new incorporat ions Systems Planning Sect ion - photograph -p r o v i n c i a l Approving Sect ion Regional Approving O f f i c e r s road system engineering ana lys i s of t h i s system c o n t r o v e r s i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s approvals research - subd iv i s ions - c o n t r o l l e d access permits - ordinary driveway permits - zoning bylaws - miscel laneous permits Adapted from: Min istry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (a) - 12 -f u t u r e ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and H i ghways , 1981 ( b ) , no p p . ) . Thus , by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e c o r r i d o r s now, t h e i r r i g h t - o f - w a y c an be p r o t e c t e d and a c q u i r e d and f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t a t a minimum c o s t t o t h e p r o v i n c e and w i t h a minimum d i s r u p t i o n t o t h e commun i t y . 2 . A h ighway ne two rk p l a n p e r m i t s a l l l e v e l s o f government t o p r o c e e d w i t h c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g o r l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h w i l l m i n i m i z e f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Commun i ca t i ons and H i ghways , 1979 , p p . 318; 1980 , p p . 2 9 7 ) . A l o n g r ange p e r s p e c t i v e i s t a k e n be cause o f c h a n g i n g deve l opment t r e n d s , l a n d use p a t t e r n s and government p o l i c i e s . 3 . I t e n a b l e s t h e M i n i s t r y t o p l a n f u n c t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s wh i c h w i l l p r e s e r v e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e e n t i r e r o a d s y s t e m , b a l a n c e c a p a c i t y amongst v a r i o u s ne two rk e l e m e n t s and p r e p a r e p r o p o s a l s f o r a phased c o n s t r u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o f u t u r e t r a f f i c demands (Depar tment o f H i ghways , 1976, p p . 6 2 ) . Thus , t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s o r p r ob l ems w h i c h need t o be r e c t i f i e d a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h e h ighway ne twork p l a n . Hav i n g i n i t i a t e d o r c o m p l e t e d a h ighway ne two rk p l a n , t h e r e a r e t h r e e ma jo r ways i n w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y p u t s i t t o use o r e n c ou r age s i t t o be u t i l i z e d e l s e w h e r e . These u s e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e 1981 A n n u a l R e p o r t ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and H i ghways , 1981 ( a ) , p p . 421) and a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s e a r l i e r n o t e d f o r d o i n g a h ighway ne two r k p l a n . 1. The M i n i s t r y e i t h e r s t r o n g l y en cou r age s o r may l e g a l l y r e q u i r e t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t adop t a ne two rk s t r a t e g y t o complement t h e i r l o c a l a r e a p l a n o r t o a c t a s t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n component o f t h i s p l a n . 2 . The M i n i s t r y u s e s a h ighway ne two rk p l a n t o a s s e s s a p p l i c a t i o n s f r om m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s e e k i n g p r o v i n c i a l c o s t - s h a r i n g f und s unde r e i t h e r t h e Revenue S h a r i n g A c t o r t h e Se conda r y Highway P r og ram. Under t h e Revenue - 13 -S h a r i n g A c t and r e g u l a t i o n s , a p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t o f up t o 50% o f t h e app roved s h a r e a b l e c o s t s on ma jo r m u n i c i p a l h i ghways i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y ( B . C . Reg . 536 /77 Revenue S h a r i n g A c t , 1977 , p p . 9 1 3 ) . I n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s e " s h a r e a b l e c o s t s " a r e r o a d r i g h t - o f - w a y a c q u i s i t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new r o a d s , improvement t o e x i s t i n g r o a d s , e t c . ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and H i ghways , 1980 , 6 p p . ) . Under t h e Se conda r y Highway P rog ram, t h e M i n i s t r y may e q u a l l y s h a r e t he c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s e c onda r y h ighway w i t h a m u n i c i p a l i t y and pay 40% o f t h e c o s t o f ma i n t e nan c e on s u c h a s e c o n d a r y h i ghway . I n c a s e s where t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s l e s s t h an 1000 , t h e M i n i s t r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n may be a s much a s 75% o f t h e c o s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and ma i n t e nan c e (H ighway A c t , 1979 , p p . 1 0 ) . However , i n b o t h o f t h e s e p r og r ams , a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i s g i v e n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y wh i c h has an ag r e ed upon h ighway ne twork p l a n . 3 . The h ighway ne two rk p l a n i s u sed i n t h e a p p r o v i n g p r o c e s s o f any l a n d d eve l o pmen t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t p r o v i d e s g u i d a n c e t o t h e a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r s f r om bo t h t h e m u n i c i p a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s and g i v e s them a f ramework f o r d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n s , a c c e s s , and t h e t r a f f i c i m p a c t s and i n t e r n a l l a y o u t o f ma j o r l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s . H ighway Ne twork P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : The d e c i s i o n t o p r e p a r e a h ighway ne two rk p l a n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a may o c c u r i n r e s p o n s e t o a number o f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . F o r e xamp l e , i n o r d e r t o g a i n a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a s p e c i f i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m ( i . e . c o n g e s t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t ) , t h e M i n i s t r y may d e c i d e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e e n t i r e h ighway s y s t em ( t o d e t e r m i n e t he need and l o c a t i o n f o r new r o a d s ) . O r , t h e M i n i s t r y may b e g i n a h ighway ne twork p l a n n i n g s t u d y i n r e s p o n s e t o deve l opmen t p r e s s u r e s and u r ban g r o w t h . I n t h i s - 14 -i n s t a n c e , i t may be f e l t t h a t a h ighway ne two rk p l a n i s r e q u i r e d t o accomodate t h i s d e ve l o pmen t . More f r e q u e n t l y , t h e d e c i s i o n t o p r e p a r e a h ighway ne two rk p l a n r e s u l t s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f a l o c a l a r e a p l a n by a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . S i n c e t h e M i n i s t r y e n c o u r a g e s o r r e q u i r e s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a h ighway ne two rk p l a n i n t h e s e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s , a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n e x i s t s f o r t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h t o c o m p l e t e i t s d e s i r e d ne two rk s t r a t e g y p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Hav i n g made t h i s d e c i s i o n , P l a n n i n g B r a n c h s t a f f meet w i t h o f f i c i a l s f r om t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and g i v e them a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t r y ' s p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h y . I n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d eve l opmen t o f h ighway ne two r k p l a n n i n g i n B .C . a l o n g w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e , r a t i o n a l e and use o f a h ighway ne twork p l a n . The P l a n n i n g B r an ch t h en b e g i n s t o work w i t h e i t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l s t a f f o r T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Commi t tee ( T . P . C . ) and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a f f i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p an a g r e e a b l e ne two rk s t r a t e g y . As a f i r s t s t e p , P l a n n i n g B r a n c h s t a f f u s u a l l y spend a few d ay s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a o b s e r v i n g t h e e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c p a t t e r n and g a t h e r i n g l a n d use d a t a . Then , i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s ( i . e . a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 o r l e s s ) , b o t h t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e x i s t i n g r o ad sy s t em and i t s l e v e l o f s e r v i c e ( a s d e f i n e d by t r a f f i c u se and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l commun i ty ) a r e a n a l y z e d . I n medium s i z e d c o m m u n i t i e s ( i . e . Kam loops , P r i n c e George o r Ke l owna - p o p u l a t i o n o f +_ 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) , t h i s a n a l y s i s may be supp l emen ted by h a r d d a t a a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h l i c e n s e p l a t e s u r v e y s , i n t e r s e c t i o n c o u n t s , hand m o d e l l i n g and so o n . Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s , gaps o r p r o b l e m s i n t h e ne two rk s y s t em a r e i d e n t i f i e d and c o r r e c t e d . N e x t , t h e P l a n n i n g B r an ch l o o k s a t t h e - 15 -p o t e n t i a l f o r deve l opmen t i n t h e commun i t y . I n d o i n g t h i s , b o t h l o c a l a r e a p l a n s and t h e M i n i s t r y ' s own p r e d i c t i o n s a r e u t i l i z e d . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s su ch a s t o p o g r a p h y , g r ow th r a t e , t h e economic ba se o f t h e a r e a , deve lopment t r e n d s , e t c . a r e examined and used t o make l o n g r ange ( i . e . 80 -100 y e a r ) p r o j e c t i o n s . A key e l emen t o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i o n s i s t h e M i n i s t r y ' s b e l i e f i n t h e c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f l a n d u s e and t h e r e a l i t y o f deve l opmen t p r e s s u r e s ( S i n g e r , 1983 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . Thus , a d o p t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t n o t h i n g i s e t c h e d i n s t o n e , t h e M i n i s t r y l o o k s beyond e x i s t i n g l a n d u se p a t t e r n s and c o n t r o l s ( i . e . f a r m l a n d w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e ) and o f t e n assumes t h a t t h e l a n d may be u sed f o r u r b an p u r p o s e s and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e c e r t a i n r o ad c o r r i d o r s . U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h i s a t t i t u d e i s one o f t h e ma jo r s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t between t h e M i n i s t r y and t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Comm i s s i o n . H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d f u t u r e deve l opmen t p o t e n t i a l , f u r t h e r h ighway ne two rk e l e m e n t s a r e added t o t h e h ighway ne two rk p l a n . Upon c o m p l e t i n g a p r e l i m i n a r y h ighway ne two rk p l a n , t h e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h t h e n d i s c u s s e s i t w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l s t a f f o r T . P . C . and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a f f . C o n f l i c t s and c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s a r e a t t e m p t e d t o be r e s o l v e d a t t h i s s t a f f l e v e l b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e h ighway ne two rk p l a n t o t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . S h o u l d s t a f f o r t h e T . P . C . be u n a b l e t o a g r e e t o a s p e c i f i c c o r r i d o r , t h e M i n i s t r y w i l l examine i t i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l and p o s s i b l y h i r e an i n d e p e n d e n t c o n s u l t a n t t o examine t h e m a t t e r . H a v i n g r e s o l v e d o r a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e t h e s e c o n f l i c t s o r i s s u e s , t h e p l a n i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o a r d f o r endorsement and i n c l u s i o n i n t o t h e i r l o c a l a r e a p l a n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t r y ' s 1980-81 A n n u a l R e p o r t , s u ch endorsement has been a c h i e v e d i n 36 ne two rk s t u d i e s ( M i n i s t r y o f - 16 -Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (a) , pp. 421). F igure 3 summarizes the process invo lved i n the preparat ion of a highway network p l a n . It should be noted, that throughout t h i s process the M in i s t ry s t rongly encourages the adoption and implementation of a func t iona l g r i d c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Th is con f igura t ion i s pre fer red to a r a d i a l or l i n e a r system because i t d i s t r i b u t e s t r a f f i c more evenly on a var ie ty of c o r r i d o r s rather than concentrat ing i t onto one or two routes (Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (b) , no p p . ) . Th i s in turn delays c a p i t a l expenditures and the negative impacts which would be required i n upgrading a road from two to four lanes . Another advantage of the func t iona l g r i d i s that i t serves to def ine neighbourhoods and the i n t e r n a l development wi th in them (S inger , 1983, personal communication). In u t i l i z i n g the func t i ona l g r i d con f igura t i on , e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l a r t e r i a l and c o l l e c t o r roads are i d e n t i f i e d on the network p lan . An a r t e r i a l i s intended to provide mob i l i ty and very l i t t l e access and usua l l y invo lves a r ight-of-way c o r r i d o r of 30-45 meters. A c o l l e c t o r provides access and mobi l i ty and usua l ly acts as a t r a n s i t i o n between a r t e r i a l s and l o c a l roads (which are designed for access and low speeds and which are not i d e n t i f i e d on a highway network p l a n ) . The r ight-of-way for a c o l l e c t o r ranges between 24-30 meters. Although the spacing of the network i s d i c ta ted by the amount of a c t i v i t y and the topography, the t y p i c a l spacing of a r t e r i a l s and c o l l e c t o r s i n a func t iona l g r i d i s 200-400 meters i n a c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , 400-800 meters i n a dense urban area, 800-1600 meters i n a suburban area, and 1600-3200 meters i n a r u r a l area (Min istry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 ( b ) , no p p . ) . - 17 -FIGURE 3: HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS IN B.C St eps I n i t i a t i o n Process Highways planning p o l i c y and concepts to reg iona l board, municipal counc i l or t e c h n i c a l planning committee. Highways suggests planning area T . P . C . recommends study to reg iona l board Regional board i n s t r u c t s T .P .C . to appoint a working committee Compile Background Data Highways compiles background informat ion Highways prepares maps, graphics and mosaics Develop Crude Plan Present Crude Plan - Highways prepares crude network plan Highways expla ins crude plan and i t s funct ion to working committee Ident i f y Contentious Issues Committee i d e n t i f i e s problems inc lud ing area of study Committee responds to concepts i n crude plans Committee i d e n t i f i e s content ious i ssues and may seek guidance from p r i n c i p a l s Committee requests f e a s i b i l i t y work necessary to reso lve i ssues Resolve Contentious Issues Endorsement Committee reso lves content ious i ssues Committee reports progress to T .P .C . and p r i n c i p a l s P r i n c i p a l s and T . P . C . approve pre l iminary proposals T . P . C . recommends proposals to reg iona l board with recommendation on pub l i c meeting Regional Board accepts proposals i n p r i n c i p l e Regional Board may hold pub l i c meeting Pub l i c Meeting held and agrees to plan Implementation Committee and p r i n c i p a l s develop p r i o r i t i e s for implementation P r i n c i p a l s resolve funding of p r i o r i t y Implementation occurs Plan review or amendment Adapted from: M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (b) , no pp; no date, no pp. - 18 -A f i n a l p o i n t w h i c h s h o u l d be n o t e d abou t t h e h ighway ne two rk p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y does n o t u s u a l l y document t h e r a t i o n a l e l y i n g b e h i n d any s p e c i f i c n e two rk p l a n o r r o a d c o r r i d o r . Thus , d e s p i t e t h e n i c e l y l a i d o u t p r o c e s s i n F i g u r e 3 , t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n e x p l a i n i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d , i s s u e s , o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n u sed and one must r e l y s o l e l y on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on t h e p l a n map i t s e l f . T h i s may be c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e M i n i s t r y b u t i t does no t a i d i n any s ub sequen t a t t e m p t s a t c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o r r e v i e w . - 19 -CHAPTER 3 AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Conceptual Bas i s : There are two major viewpoints regarding the concept of a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . On the one hand, i t i s argued that the market should determine whether or not land i s to be used for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Thus, i n the economist's terminology, the market should a l l o c a t e the land according to i t s highest and best use (Goldberg and Chin loy , forthcoming, pp. 157). On the other hand, i t i s a lso argued that the market does not adequately take in to account the future value the land w i l l have for a g r i c u l t u r a l product ion. According to t h i s viewpoint, soc ie ty must c o l l e c t i v e l y ensure that the p o t e n t i a l for a g r i c u l t u r a l use i s re ta ined for future generat ions (Fox, 1982, no pp.) In l i g h t of the fact that only 5% of the province i s capable of a g r i c u l t u r a l use, the l a t t e r viewpoint i s the one which has been adopted i n B r i t i s h Columbia (B .C . Land Commission, 1975, pp. 5 ) . Although arguments can be made from both viewpoints, the assumption underly ing t h i s t h e s i s i s that the e x i s t i n g conceptual bas is for a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B.C. i s the cor rec t one. H i s t o r i c a l Development: S im i la r to highway network p lanning, l i t t l e formal a t ten t ion was paid to the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n B.C. up u n t i l the 1970's. As a r e s u l t , i t i s estimated that p r i o r to 1972 approximately 15,000 acres of land per year was being consumed by urban sprawl around the province (B .C . Land Commission, 1975, pp. 5 ) . S ince B.C. i s such a mountainous province, with most of i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l land l y i n g i n the lowlands near e x i s t i n g urban centres , much of t h i s urban sprawl invo lved the p rov ince ' s l i m i t e d supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l land (Beaubien and Tabacnik, 1977, pp. 50). - 20 -In response to t h i s pressure, the newly e lec ted New Democratic Party (N.D.P.) passed an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l i n December 1972 f reez ing the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l land wi th in the prov ince . As descr ibed by Barry Smith, t h i s order and the ensuing B i l l 42 (the Land Commission Act) "set o f f perhaps the most hot ly contested i ssue both i n s i d e and outs ide the l e g i s l a t u r e that the province has experienced" (Smith, 1975, pp. 110). There were var ious i ssues invo lved i n t h i s controversy i n c l u d i n g : a concern over the manner i n which the l e g i s l a t i o n had been proposed, the lack of appropr iate appeal mechanisms and the fact that lands designated (or zoned) s u i t a b l e for a g r i c u l t u r e would not have to be acquired nor would the a f fec ted property owner have to be compensated (Baxter, 1974, pp. 8-14). However, despi te t h i s debate and var ious amendments, B i l l 42 was passed i n A p r i l 1973 by the N.D.P. government, with a l l the members of the opposi t ion vot ing against i t . Under the new act , a p r o v i n c i a l land commission was es tab l i shed cons i s t i ng of a chairman and commissioners appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Counc i l ( i . e . Cab ine t ) . In add i t ion to the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land, the Commission a l so o r i g i n a l l y had j u r i d i c t i o n for greenbel ts , land banks fo r urban and i n d u s t r i a l development and parkland for r e c r e a t i o n a l uses (Land  Commission Act , 1973, pp. 2180-2181). From the outset , the Land Commission Act (or as i t i s cu r ren t l y e n t i t l e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t ) , was given supremacy over a l l other acts with the exception of the P o l l u t i o n Contro l Act , Environment and Land Use Act and, more recent ly , the In terpre ta t ion Act . During i t s i n i t i a l years (1973-75), the newly es tab l i shed Commission d i rec ted much of i t s e f f o r t s towards the des ignat ion of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves throughout the prov ince . These Reserves were es tab l i shed and continue to be the areas over which the Commission has e x p l i c i t zoning powers - 21 -on a p r o v i n c i a l sca le (Manning and Eddy, 1978, pp. 12). Since 1975, the Commission's e f f o r t s have l a r g e l y revolved around the admin is t ra t ive c o n t r o l of the Reserve and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act and regu la t ions . In 1975, the New Democratic Party was defeated i n a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and replaced by the former governing party, the S o c i a l C r e d i t . Faced with a p iece of l e g i s l a t i o n which had caused considerable controversy, the S o c i a l Cred i t government amended the Land Commission Act i n two s i g n i f i c a n t ways i n 1977: 1. The object ive of the Commission was r e s t r i c t e d to the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l l and . Thus, the previous powers re la ted to greenbel ts , land banks and parkland were t rans fe r red to other agencies to administer . Although t h i s amendment d id not r e a l l y change the focus of the Commission, i t d id i nd i ca te to some degree that the S o c i a l Cred i t party was i n support of. r e ta in ing the a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion l e g i s l a t i o n enacted by the N.D.P. 2. An appeal route was es tab l i shed for app l i ca t i ons from p r i v a t e land owners. Under the new A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act and regu la t ions , a person d i s s a t i s f i e d with the dec i s i on of the Commission was now allowed to appeal an a p p l i c a t i o n for exc lus ion rece ived by the Commission a f te r 27 September 1977 (the date the Act was amended) d i r e c t l y to the Environment and Land Use Committee i f m i n i s t e r i a l approval was rece ived (B .C . Regulat ions  313/78, 1981, pp. 3 -5) . As a r e s u l t of t h i s l a t t e r amendment, the Environment and Land Use Committee (composed of m in i s te rs represent ing resource concerns, the p rov i s ion of s o c i a l se rv i ces and the p r o t e c t i o n of the natura l environment) has overruled the Commission on 17 appeals and allowed the exc lus ion of 842.3 hectares of land from the A .L .R . ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982 ( a ) , pp. 38-39). The exc lus ion of some of these lands under t h i s appeal - 22 -route ( i . e . Glouchester Propert ies i n Langley; Green Va l l ey Estates i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ) , has led to a pub l i c outcry about p o l i t i c a l patronage, the emasculation of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission and a general concern about the l o s s of q u a l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l land . I t has a l so been argued that t h i s appeal procedure promotes uncer ta inty over the v i a b i l i t y of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's future and the a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion program i n B.C. ( G i l l i s , 1980, pp. 95) . Purpose and Funct ion of the Commission; According to i t s current l e g i s l a t i o n , the ob jec t i ve of the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i s to : "(a) preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l and; (b) encourage the establishment and maintenance of farms, and the use of land i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve compatible with a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes; and (c) a s s i s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s i n the preparat ion of land reserve plans required under t h i s Ac t . " ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act , 1979, pp.2) In f u l f i l l i n g these o b j e c t i v e s , the Commission i s invo lved i n a number of d i f f e r e n t admin is t rat ive func t ions . For one th ing , i t cons iders a broad range of app l i ca t i ons re la ted to lands wi th in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. These app l i ca t i ons inc lude : d i r e c t government to government a p p l i c a t i o n s for exc lus ion or exemption for use or subd iv i s ion with in the A .L .R . ; a p p l i c a t i o n s from an i n d i v i d u a l to the Commission for exc lus ion ; appeals by an i n d i v i d u a l to the Environment and Land Use Committee on Commission dec i s ions ; a p p l i c a t i o n s for exemption for use or subd iv i s ion wi th in an A . L . R . ; a p p l i c a t i o n s for i n c l u s i o n in the A . L .R . ; and, a p p l i c a t i o n s pursuant to the subd iv i s i on and land use r e g u l a t i o n s . ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982 (b) , pp. 7-8) Other funct ions of the Commission are: maintaining and i n t e r p r e t i n g the o f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve maps; acqu i r ing and managing farmland p roper t i es ; administer ing the S o i l Conservation Act ; and, the continued f ine - 23 -tuning of the A.L .R. boundaries ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982 (b) , pp. 16-19). In add i t ion to these funct ions , the Commission has i nc reas ing ly become involved i n the review of l o c a l area p lans . Again, i n view of the fact that urban sett lements and a g r i c u l t u r a l lands are usua l ly located i n common areas ( i . e . v a l l e y bottoms), the Commission, out of necess i ty , has had to become invo lved i n the urban planning process (Graesser, 1981, pp .14) . The importance the Commission has placed on l o c a l area planning i n r e l a t i o n to the A .L .R . i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the fo l lowing quotat ions: "One of the ear ly developments fo l lowing the implementation of a farmland preservat ion p o l i c y i n B.C. was the r e a l i z a t i o n by l o c a l and reg iona l governments that they could no longer look upon a g r i c u l t u r a l lands as a never ending reservo i r for urban and i n d u s t r i a l development purposes. Since that time, a number of communities have been faced with the necess i ty of r e d i r e c t i n g t h e i r planning towards the use of non-farm lands as areas for future expansion. The Commission encourages t h i s process and i n the past year has i n i t i a t e d and a s s i s t e d wherever poss ib le the formulat ion of community and reg iona l p lans that are compatible with farmland preservat ion ob jec t i ves" ( P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, 1977, no pp.) "The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission has always recongized that planning for a g r i c u l t u r e cannot take place out of context with planning for other uses of l and . In t h i s regard, the Commission welcomed the amendments to the Munic ipa l Act , which encourages l o c a l and reg iona l governments to proceed with community and settlement planning for t h e i r areas. In order to r e l i e v e the pressures of urban expansion onto a g r i c u l t u r a l l and , urban growth must be r e - d i r e c t e d to non-ag r i cu l t u ra l areas. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, there fore , i s extremely support ive of the community and reg iona l plan concept and welcomes the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning process" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1978, pp. 6) "Perhaps the most important event now underway i n many areas of the province that w i l l determine land use i n the 1980's and fa r beyond, i s the development of o f f i c i a l community plans and settlement plans" (Kinnear - former Chairman of the Commission, 1980, pp. 12). - 24 -"During t h i s past year the Commission has given a high p r i o r i t y to achieving ac t i ve dialogue with reg iona l d i s t r i c t boards and e lec ted municipal o f f i c i a l s with a view of ach iev ing , i n concert with l o c a l dec i s ion makers, a more r a t i o n a l e approach to land use through forward planning" (M.F. C larke - Chairman's Comments i n P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1981, (a ) , pp. 9 ) . As of November 1982, i t i s estimated that the Commission has reviewed 73 o f f i c i a l community p lans, 83 o f f i c i a l settlement plans and 15 o f f i c i a l reg iona l plans ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982 ( c ) , no p p . ) . Role i n Highway Network Planning: In reviewing the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act and regu la t ions , i t would appear that the Commission i s l e g a l l y required to play an ac t ive ro le i n the highway network planning process. For example, under i t s subd iv i s ion and land use regu la t ions , the Commission's approval i s required for the "ded icat ion or cons t ruc t ion of new highway, road or ra i lway r ights-of -way" with in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (B .C . Regulat ions 8/81, 1981, pp. 28) . S i m i l a r l y , sec t ions 29 (1) and 30 respec t i ve l y of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act e x p l i c i t l y s ta te : "29 (1) Th i s Act and regu la t ions are not subject to any other enactment, whenever enacted, except the In te rpre ta t ion Act , the Environment and Land Use Act , the P o l l u t i o n Contro l Act and as provided i n t h i s Act or regu lat ions" "30 A min is ter or agent of the Crown s h a l l not exerc ise a power granted under another enactment except i n accordance with t h i s Act and regu lat ions" (1979, pp. 8 ) . However, despi te these l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s , the Commission i s not n e c e s s a r i l y asked to comment on highway network p lans . One reason for t h i s , i s that the subd iv i s ion and land use regu la t ions only apply should the M in is t ry a c t u a l l y decide to upgrade an e x i s t i n g a r t e r i a l or c o l l e c t o r road inc luded i n i t s highway network p lan, or , obta in the r ight-of-way and construct a proposed new - 25 -road. Since no ded icat ion or const ruc t ion i s usua l ly involved at the highway network planning stage, an argument can be launched that the M in i s t ry need not seek the Commission's approval under these regu la t ions . Although the Commission could argue before the courts that highway network plans which do not respect the A .L .R . are against the s p i r i t , i f not the l e t t e r , o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act , there are a number of reasons why i t has thus far avoided doing so . For one th ing , i t would be somewhat embarassing p u b l i c l y for one arm of government to be cha l leng ing another in the cour ts . A l so , i t i s doubtfu l that there would be any p o l i t i c a l support for t h i s type of a c t i o n . Although the Commission i s an independent agency of the Crown, the Lieutenant Governor i n Counc i l could at any time discharge the i n d i v i d u a l Commission members and rep lace them with new ones with a more " p o l i t i c a l l y acceptable" a t t i t u d e . F i n a l l y , i t i s quest ionable whether the Commission or M in i s t ry would want to incur the l e g a l cos ts involved i n a court b a t t l e dur ing these times of budget r e s t r a i n t . Further , s ince the Commission i s not represented on the Techn ica l Planning Committee or otherwise l o c a l l y , the only way i n which i t becomes aware of a highway network study i s i f i t i s advised by the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, the M in is t ry of Agr i cu l tu re representat ive on the T . P . C , or by the munic ipa l/regional d i s t r i c t s t a f f . In recent years , t h i s type of communication and co-operat ion has been l a c k i n g . Instead, the Commission has become appr ised of a highway network plan during i t s review and input i n to l o c a l area p lans . Unfortunate ly , of ten at t h i s stage much of the t e c h n i c a l work on the t ranspor ta t ion component of the plan has already been completed and may i n fact have been endorsed by the T .P .C . and reg iona l d i s t r i c t board or munic ipal c o u n c i l . Th i s may then lead to the c o n f l i c t descr ibed i n Chapters 4 and 5. - 26 -CHAPTER 4 THE CONFLICT BETWEEN HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING AND AGRICULTURAL LAND PRESERVATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Nature of the C o n f l i c t : In the preceding two chapters , the point has been made that B r i t i s h Columbia has made i t a p r o v i n c i a l ob jec t i ve to prepare highway network plans and a lso to preserve i t s l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l land . In order to f u l f i l l these two ob jec t i ves , the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The c o n f l i c t a r i s e s however, that i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s ob jec t i ve to prepare highway network plans, the M in is t ry does not view the A .L .R . as a r e s t r i c t i o n to p o t e n t i a l development and changes i n land use nor does i t look at the Reserve as a major b a r r i e r to future highways. Thus, adopting the a t t i t u d e that nothing i s etched i n stone, the M in is t ry often superimposes a highway network plan ( i . e . func t iona l g r i d conf igurat ion) over the A.L .R. i n sp i te of the Commission's ob jec t i ve to preserve t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l land and i t s concerns respect ing : the p o t e n t i a l pressure for subd iv i s ion and development r e s u l t i n g from these proposed road c o r r i d o r s ; the severence of e x i s t i n g l e g a l parce ls and farm u n i t s ; and, the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land to r ight-of-way and road c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s l a t t e r concern i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igure 4. There are genera l ly three types of network elements often proposed in a highway network plan which may impact the A .L .R . and cause concern to the Commission. 1. New c o r r i d o r s proposed to co r rec t a gap or problem i n the e x i s t i n g network system. - 27 -FIGURE 4: EXAMPLES OF THE POTENTIAL LOSS OF LAND TO RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION Example 1: 1 ki lometer of new road, assuming a 30 meter r ight-of -way, would use up approximately 3 hectares of l and . Example 2: In 1976, i t was estimated that there was 65,320 k i lometers of pub l i c road i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1979, pp. 11) . Assuming that these roads are 20 meters wide ( t h i s f i gure would vary g rea t l y around the province - i . e . a freeway might occupy 60 meters of r ight-of-way whereas an earth road might only invo lve 3 meters), approximately 130,640 hectares of land i n B.C. i s taken up with roadways ( t h i s i s a very crude estimate as unfortunate ly , accurate f i gures are not a v a i l a b l e ) . Example 3: The Province of A lber ta has estimated that i t has approximately 149,102 ki lometers of highways and roads occupying nearly 352,089 hectares of l and . From 1976 to 1980, 10,149 hectares were used for var ious highway and road const ruct ion a c t i v i t i e s i n A l b e r t a . i . e . 2858 hectares for new roads; 5327 hectares fo r road widening; 1055 hectares fo r new highways; 327 hectares for highway widening; and, 582 hectares for pub l i c works. (Webb, 1982, pp. 2) - 28 -F igure 5 i l l u s t r a t e s three examples of t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t example i s where a minor adjustment i s suggested i n order to improve the i n t e r s e c t i o n between two e x i s t i n g roads. The second example i s where a new highway c o r r i d o r i s proposed to f a c i l i t a t e eas ie r movement i n and through a r u r a l area. In the l a s t example, the spacing between the e x i s t i n g road system i s considered inadeguate from a func t i ona l g r i d perspect ive . Thus i n a l l three cases, new c o r r i d o r s are j u s t i f i e d from a t r a f f i c engineering b a s i s . However, from an a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion point o f view, the Commission may oppose these proposals should they sever e x i s t i n g l e g a l parce ls and d i s rupt es tab l i shed or p o t e n t i a l farm un i t s (thus encouraging reguests for subd iv is ion) or should they not be required for the rura l - farm t r a f f i c expected i n the area . 2. New c o r r i d o r s proposed to se rv i ce the non-farm development of land l y i n g outs ide of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. F igure 6 i l l u s t r a t e s an example of t h i s s i t u a t i o n where the M in i s t ry views the e x i s t i n g access to an area proposed for non-farm development as being i n s u f f i c i e n t . Although the Commission would c e r t a i n l y p re fe r such non-farm development to be located outs ide of the Reserve, i t may a l so pre fer a l t e r n a t i v e road c o r r i d o r s to be developed outs ide the A .L .R . to avoid higher c a p a b i l i t y lands . 3. New c o r r i d o r s proposed to se rv i ce the p o t e n t i a l development of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves (F igure 7 ) . Based on the assumption that the A .L .R . may be developed for urban purposes, t h i s type of network plan i s of most concern to the Commission because i t d i r e c t l y contravenes the ob jec t ive to preserve the land wi th in the - 29 -FIGURE 5: NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO CORRECT A GAP OR PROBLEM IN THE EXISTING NETWORK SYSTEM 1) Improve an i n t e r s e c t i o n : / proposed new road f 2) Ease movement: \^ i ( j proposed new road 3) Correct inadequate spacing: | proposed j new I road I I j - 30 -FIGURE 6: NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO SERVICE NON-FARM DEVELOPMENT LOCATED OUTSIDE OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE proposed new roads - 31 -FIGURE 7: NEW CORRIDORS PROPOSED TO SERVICE THE POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE _ 1 j- |-A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve | 1 1 \/4 //////// ° ^ / V T / \ | M S proposed new roads - 32 -A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. In proposing t h i s type of c o r r i d o r , the in tent of the M in i s t ry i s not to suggest or to i n i t i a t e the development of the A .L .R . for urban purposes, but rather to i d e n t i f y and protect the necessary c o r r i d o r s should t h i s development ever occur ( i . e . i n the long term, land wi th in the A.L .R. may be excluded by the Commission or the Environment and Land Use Committee). On the other hand, the concern of the Commission i s that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s c o r r i d o r on the highway network plan may create uncerta inty i n the mind of the bona-f ide farming community, create or ra i se expectat ions of non-farm development i n the mind of the speculator or developer, and may i n fac t s t imulate the very development the proposed road i s to s e r v i c e ( t h i s leads to the argument about which comes f i r s t , the road or the land uses?) . In each of these cases the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i s p r imar i l y re la ted to proposed new road c o r r i d o r s . T y p i c a l l y , l e s s concern i s r a i s e d with regard to the des ignat ion of e x i s t i n g roads as an a r t e r i a l or c o l l e c t o r s ince the Commission would usua l ly prefer the upgrading and development of an e x i s t i n g road to the constructon of a new one. Th is i s due to the fact that the e x i s t i n g road, except for the area of widening, has already d e b i l i t a t e d the land and already had i t s accompanying land uses, parce l conf igurat ions and adjustments es tab l i shed , whereas a new road would use up or d e b i l i t a t e more a g r i c u l t u r a l land and often would cause new uses to develop, sever l e g a l parce ls and d i s rupt farming u n i t s . Reasons for the C o n f l i c t : There are a number of reasons for the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, i n - 33 -p a r t i c u l a r , for the approach the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways has taken. 1. D i f f e r i n g Ph i losoph ies At the heart o f the c o n f l i c t between the M in is t ry and the Commission i s a d i f f e r i n g philosophy towards highway network p lanning. Although the M in is t ry recognizes that t ranspor ta t ion and land use/management are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , i t has not yet decided to use t ranspor ta t ion as a means to c o n t r o l , regulate and d i r e c t development. This philosophy i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the M i n i s t r y ' s standard presentat ion to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s who are cons ider ing a network study. In t h i s presentat ion , the fundamental t ranspor ta t ion goal i s descr ibed as being: "to f a c i l i t a t e the movement of people and goods w i th in and through the urban area i n a manner that i s cost e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t whi le endeavoring to maintain and improve the i n t e g r i t y and environment of neighbourhoods" (Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (b) , no p p . ) . As can be seen, no mention i s made of using a highway network plan as a t o o l i n guiding the movement of people and goods or i n e s t a b l i s h i n g neighbourhoods. Instead, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igure 8, a p r e d i c t i o n i s made of what the long term urban form i s to be (assuming that the A.L .R. i s not a r e s t r i c t i o n to p o t e n t i a l development and changes i n land use) and then, a land management and t r a f f i c management ( i . e . highway network plan) strategy i s developed to accomodate t h i s long term urban form and to achieve the des i red qua l i t y of t ranspor ta t ion s e r v i c e s . In cont ras t the philosophy of the Commission has been that highway network plans should be used to r e i n f o r c e and e f f e c t land uses and land management programs des i red by the government and p u b l i c . In other words, the Commission would pre fer that a highway network plan respect the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve - 34 -FIGURE 8: HIGHWAYS PHILOSOPHY TO LAND MANAGEMENT AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT -C6RM U*BAh/ F i r s t ^ Subsequent! Cycle f , t any time 1 C * c , a s ' QuaWty o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s Source: M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 (b) , no pp. - 35 -i f poss ib le and thus r e i t e r a t e the p rov ince ' s commitment to protec t ing i t s l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l land resource ( i . e . by not planning for the poss ib le development of the A . L . R . , the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways would be i n d i c a t i n g that i t was not prepared to b u i l d a new road i n the area thus discouraging the very development of concern to the Commission). Th is philosophy i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igure 9 i n which land management and t r a f f i c management are seen as t o o l s which can be used together to determine the long term urban form and the q u a l i t y of t ranspor ta t ion s e r v i c e s . Th is philosophy i s a lso r e f l e c t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's 1980 Annual Report wherein the Commission i n d i c a t e s that i t hopes to have an ear ly input in to highway network plans as "they are such important i n d i c a t o r s i n the o v e r a l l long range land use planning process which w i l l a f f e c t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves (1980, pp. 9 ) . Th is d i f f e r e n c e i n philosophy i s by no means new or unique. W.R. Blunden i n h i s book The Land Use/Transport System i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as the "chicken-and-egg" argument as to which comes from f i r s t - t ransport or land use (1971, pp. 1 ) . R.D. MacKinnon i n h i s d i s cuss ion on t ranspor ta t ion forecast ing i ssues s ta tes that t h i s i ssue " l i e s at the heart of many planning and fo recas t ing problems" (1970, pp. 2 ) . Simply s ta ted , but not so simply reso lved , the problem i s " t ranspor ta t ion f a c i l i t i e s a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n and perhaps the magnitude of populat ion and economic a c t i v i t y ; i n a d d i t i o n , however, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of populat ion and economic a c t i v i t y a f f e c t s the pattern of s p a t i a l flows through the t ranspor ta t ion system and thus, undoubtedly cond i t ions the choice concerning the hardware and software c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the system i t s e l f . . . T h e planner can forecast the populat ion d i s t r i b u t i o n for a c i t y or reg ion, and then attempt to develop a - 36 -FIGURE 9; COMMISSION PHILOSOPHY TO LAND MANAGEMENT AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Qua\H^ of Loi\^ Tcrnm ortalion Services U r V > ^ P o r w n - 37 -t ranspor ta t ion plan which i s most appropriate for that s i t u a t i o n . . . T h e d i f f i c u l t y of course with t h i s procedure i s that the t ranspor ta t ion system i t s e l f cond i t ions the c o n t r i b u t i o n of populat ion and economic a c t i v i t i e s " (MacKinnon, 1970, pp. 2 ) . Perhaps a f i n a l way of descr ib ing t h i s d i f f e rence i n philosophy between the Commission and the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways i s to quote Wi l l iam E. Cooper and Raymond D. V l a s i n ' s comparison between an e c o l o g i s t ( i . e . Commission) and an engineer ( i . e . M i n i s t r y ) . The e c o l o g i s t ' s perspect ive "has been to develop a sc ience of p ro tec t ing , r e p a i r i n g and conserving the phys i ca l i n t e g r i t y of the system" whereas the engineer " i s t ra ined to view a system under the cons t ra in t s of a set of des i red behaviora l c r i t e r i a and economic l i m i t a t i o n s " and whose "perspect ive i s one which asks what i s not there and how can the p h y s i c a l design of the system be a l t e r e d to achieve the des i red s p e c i f i c a t i o n s " (no date, pp. 1) . 2. The uncerta inty of a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion : One of the major reasons why the Min is t ry has not adopted the philosophy of the Commission or used highway network plans as a means to d i r e c t future development i s because of the uncer ta in ty t r a d i t i o n a l l y assoc iated with a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Edward W. Manning and Sandra S. Eddy descr ibe t h i s uncerta inty i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves of B r i t i s h Columbia: "When the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves were f i r s t introduced, much of the pub l i c genera l ly considered them to be a temporary measure - a " land f reeze" that would be removed at a l a t e r date. While considerable e f f o r t s have been made by succeeding governments to s t ress the fact that some form of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve zoning w i l l be a permanent B r i t i s h Columbia f i x t u r e , there s t i l l e x i s t s adequate doubt i n the minds of some to permit speculat ion i n the future ex istence of the ALR 's . " (1978, pp. 85-86). They a lso go on to note that : - 38 -" t h i s type of specu lat ion i n the future of the reserves as a whole i s in f luenced very s t rongly by any changes i n government or announced changes i n the composit ion of the Land Commission or i t s processes" and "can be seen i n the number of appl icatons for exc lus ions , subd iv i s ion and non-farm use rece ived a f te r any such announcement" (1978, pp. 86-87). Should the S o c i a l C r e d i t party be "a development party, l e s s determined to keep bu i l de rs away from prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land" as suggested by Beaubien and Tabacnik (1977, pp. 52), t h i s element of uncerta inty i s increased . A second source of uncerta inty already re fe r red to i n Chapter 3 i s the 1977 amendment to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act which al lows an i n d i v i d u a l to appeal the dec i s i on of the Commission to the Environment and Land Use Committee. The Commission i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as a d e f i n i t e problem i n i t s most recent Annual Report: "In add i t i on , the f i s c a l year saw a number of c o n t r o v e r s i a l and highly pub l i c i zed app l i ca t i ons where the dec i s ion of Cabinet or the Environment and Land Use Committee went contrary to the recommendations of the Commission. In some instances t h i s was in te rpre ted by some property owners to s igna l a " loosening" of the farmland preservat ion program and provide an impetus to make an a p p l i c a t i o n or to renew e f f o r t s on an e x i s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , thus having a snowbal l ing e f f e c t on the workload of the Commission" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982 (b) , pp. 15) . In view of these u n c e r t a i n t i e s the Min is t ry has chosen not to view the ALR as a r e s t r i c t i o n to growth or to the l o c a t i o n of future road c o r r i d o r s and has been re luctant to use a highway network plan to re in fo rce the Reserve. 3. Uncertainty i n highway network p lanning: Another reason the M in is t ry has adopted the philosophy i t has i s due to the uncerta inty assoc iated with highway network p lanning. According to Pa t r i ck 0 ' S u l l i v a n , Gary D. Holtzclaw and Gerald Barber, uncerta inty ( i . e . - 39 -about c o s t s , demand and u t i l i t y ) i s the fundamental problem i n t ransport network planning (1979, pp. 29 and 82) . Centra l to t h i s quest ion of uncer ta inty i s the fact that the demand for t ranspor ta t ion i s almost always a der ived demand, in f luenced by f ac to rs outside the t ranspor ta t ion system i t s e l f (MacKinnon, 1970, pp. 12-13). Thus, the t ranspor ta t ion planner has to make a subject ive judgement and speculate about the fu ture . The problem i n doing t h i s however, i s that often these f a c t o r s are d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Another problem i s that the t ranspor ta t ion planner has t o p red i c t what the goals and decision-making procedures of the "pub l i c" w i l l be i n the future (MacKinnon, 1970, pp. 4 ) . These are a l so d i f f i c u l t to measure and i d e n t i f y , and may i n fact not even e x i s t . Thus, the highway network planner i s faced with the dilemma of whether to plan with "expansionist optimism" or with "guarded f r u g a l i t y " (0*Su l l i van , Holtzclaw and Barber, 1979, pp. 68) . These types of problems are the ones that C. Kenneth Orsk i i d e n t i f i e s as being c r i t i c a l i n determining the future r o l e of the t ranspor ta t ion planner (1980, pp. 43-44). Again, i n view of these u n c e r t a i n t i e s , the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways has decided to assume the scenar io i n which a maximum amount of road c o r r i d o r s w i l l be required so as not t o preclude i t s future opt ions. 4. Lack of co -o rd ina t ion : A f i n a l reason for the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s because of the lack of co-ord inat ion between the M in i s t ry and the Commission. Th i s i s not to say that attempts haven't been made to achieve such c o - o r d i n a t i o n . In March of 1978, s t a f f from both the M i n i s t r y ' s Planning Branch and the Commission met to d iscuss matters of mutual concern. Th is was followed by an A p r i l , 1978 meeting - 40 -i n which the Min is t ry presented i t s planning philosophy to the Commissioners. However, despi te a few a d d i t i o n a l meetings, memoradums and l e t t e r s between the two agencies, communication has continued to be sporadic . Th i s i s p a r t l y due to the f a c t that the Commission i s not represented on the T .P .C . or otherwise l o c a l l y where the bulk of the highway network planning i s undertaken. Fur ther , s ince the M in i s t ry and Commission have developed d i f f e r e n t ph i losophies towards highway network planning, the s i t u a t i o n has been created wherein agreement i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve. Consequently, the Min is t ry probably knows what the concerns of the Commission w i l l be p r i o r to consu l t ing i t . L ikewise, there could be a tendency on the part of the Commission to refuse any new road c o r r i d o r s through the A .L .R . on the p r i n c i p l e o f the matter. Another fac tor which may have led to t h i s lack of co-ord inat ion i s that both agencies have tended to u t i l i z e a d i f f e r e n t time frame i n assess ing t ranspor ta t ion needs. As already mentioned, the M in i s t ry takes a long term perspect ive ( i . e . 80-100 y e a r s ) . The Commission however has tended to take a shorter perspect ive ( i . e . u n t i l more recent ly the Commission viewed planning matters from a 5-10 year pe rspec t i ve) . A f i n a l fac tor which has made i t d i f f i c u l t to co-ord inate highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion has been the Commission's re luctance to f i r m l y commit i t s e l f to a proposed al ignment. Th is i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the fo l lowing comment made by the Commission i n i t s review of e ight major highway network plans i n 1979: "The Commission has attempted to take long-range view point when reviewing these network p lans . However, s ince these network plans are long range ( i . e . 25-50 years) , the land use pattern wi th in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve may change wi th in t h i s time p e r i o d . For example, an area which i s present ly undeveloped may i n the future be used for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. Consequently, a future Commission may view d i f f e r e n t l y the proposed alignment shown on your present network p lans. It i s hoped that the chances of t h i s happening would be minimal" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 (a) , 2 pp.) - 41 -This makes i t d i f f i c u l t for the M in is t ry s ince i t means that a future Commission can always reverse the dec i s ion or commitment of a present Commission with regard to a s p e c i f i c c o r r i d o r which was agreed t o . Examples of the C o n f l i c t : One of the e a r l i e s t examples of the c o n f l i c t between the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission over a highway network plan i s i n the C i t y of Kelowna. In 1972-73, the M in i s t ry began doing a highway network plan for Kelowna as one of i t s e a r l i e s t planning s tud ies . U t i l i z i n g the f u n c t i o n a l g r i d con f igura t ion the M in is t ry i d e n t i f i e d a number of new road c o r r i d o r s which would a f f e c t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (see F igure 10) . P r i n c i p l e among these c o r r i d o r s was a proposal to extend S p a l l Road through southeastern Kelowna which conta ins some of the C i t y ' s most product ive orchard lands. In A p r i l , 1973 the M in is t ry formal ly agreed to a s s i s t with the const ruc t ion of S p a l l Road as part of the C i t y ' s amalgamation agreement. In response, the farming community completely opposed the S p a l l route and appeal led to the Commission for ass i s tance . In the summer of 1975, the Commission reso lved to re fuse the M i n i s t r y ' s request to extend S p a l l Road through the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve and the Commission had the fo l lowing to say on the proposed highway network p lan: "The Commission does not approve the app l i ca t i on of the Gr id Road concept to the Kelowna case. The Commissioners are not u n i v e r s a l l y opposed to the concept but they f e e l i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y inappropr iate where A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves are to be protected over the long run. To p lan , l e t alone to construct a g r i d network i n such areas, i n the Commission's considered view i s simply to i n v i t e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a f f i c , making i t harder i n future to r e s i s t urban development. We have expressed t h i s view to senior members of the Department on a number of occasions and we are hopeful that the Department w i l l develop a l t e r n a t i v e s which w i l l not lend themselves e a s i l y to non-a g r i cu l t u ra l development i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves i n the f u t u r e . " ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 (b) , l e t t e r o f correspondence). T i t l e revised: C i t y of Kelowna Preliminary Network Proposal - 42 -P r e l i m i n a r y FIGURE 10: CITY OF KELOWNA,HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN - 43 -Mary Rawson i n her book 111 Fares the Land a lso c i t e s t h i s example of S p a l l Road and the g r i d highway network p lan: "It has not been an easy v i c t o r y , and the Highways Department has not given up i t s i n t e n t i o n to impose a g r i d as the major road so lu t i on i n every town, but there i s now some y i e l d i n g to and accomodation of ag r i cu l tu re as a use of s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r i o r i t y " (1976, pp. 33) In 1980, the Commission was once again c a l l e d upon to review another proposed highway network plan for the C i ty of Kelowna. Th is time the Commission's review was re la ted to a number of other exc lus ion app l i ca t i ons from the C i t y . However, again the Commission ind ica ted that i t was not i n favor of u t i l i z i n g the g r i d road concept i n the Kelowna case i n view of the l o c a t i o n and important r o l e of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves. Fur ther , the Commission i nd i ca ted that i t s : "experience i s that the des ignat ion of g r i d roads without regard for the ALR increases the pressure fo r urban development w i th in the a g r i c u l t u r a l community. Should these roads be constructed, numerous l e g a l pa rce l s would be severed undoubtedly lead ing to subd iv i s i on requests and the d i s rup t ion of e x i s t i n g farm u n i t s , not to mention the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 (b) , l e t t e r o f correspondence). At t h i s time the Commission a l so r e i t e r a t e d i t s oppos i t ion to the extension of S p a l l Road through part of southeast Kelowna. Th is example not only i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion , but a lso shows the p o t e n t i a l danger of using a highway network plan which has not been agreed to by the Commission i n making p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . C l e a r l y , the promise to construct a number of roads on the proposed highway network plan was part of the p o l i t i c a l b a i t to encourage the amalgamation of the Kelowna area. A f te r making t h i s p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n , the M in i s t ry had to approach the Commission request ing i t s - 44 -approval for the var ious roads. Since the Commission subsequently refused one of the major components of t h i s amalgamation agreement, i t could be argued (perhaps l e g a l l y ) that the M in is t ry reneged on i t s agreement and should compensate the C i t y o f Kelowna. Th i s type of problem may occur again i n view of the fact that p o l i t i c a n s often l i k e to use a bypass or promised road as a means to gain p o l i t i c a l votes. Thus, although the s t a f f o f the M in i s t ry and Commission may recognize that a future road c o r r i d o r i d e n t i f i e d on a network plan i s only a proposed or t en ta t i ve alignment, decision-makers and p o l i t i c a n s may mistakenly use these c o r r i d o r s i n making a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . David Ashley i n h i s a r t i c l e on the uncerta inty of highway appra i sa l descr ibes t h i s problem i n the fo l lowing manner: " T r a f f i c model lers are we l l aware that the explanat ion of present and, even more so, future behaviour i s a f a l l i b l e undertaking and model fo recasts are best taken as gu ide l ines to a poss ib le future rather than f i rm p r e d i c t i o n s . Unfortunate ly , whi le the model ler should apprec iate these l i m i t a t i o n s , the decision-maker or user of the forecasts may t rea t them as per fec t p red i c t i ons" (1980, pp. 250). There are var ious other examples of the c o n f l i c t and lack of co -ord ina t ion between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n the past few years . In March of 1979, the Commission wrote d i r e c t l y to the Min is ter of Transpor tat ion , Communication and Highways (Hon. Alex V. Fraser) expressing i t s concern about t h i s problem: "The Commission would l i k e to meet with you at a conveniant time to d iscuss a number of proposals of your Min is t ry which e f f e c t A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve land . Recently some long-range Highways plans have come to our a t t e n t i o n , i n some cases a f t e r they had been discussed at pub l i c meetings. The Commission i s concerned with t h i s procedure because some Highways network plans have ser ious imp l i ca t ions for the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve and the Commission • wishes to have i t s concerns made known to Highways personnel before the plans are d iscussed with the pub l i c or e lec ted Boards and Counc i l s . - 45 -Two examples of immediate concern are plans fo r the Township of Langley and the D i s t r i c t of Surrey. In the Langley p lan , implementation of the g r i d system and the proposal to de-emphasize the Fraser Highway have given r i s e to a r t e r i a l road proposals through the Mi lner V a l l e y . The Mi lner Va l l ey i s noted for i t ' s ( s i c ) exce l lent s o i l s (C lass 2) and da iry operat ions . I t i s doubtful the a g r i c u l t u r a l community i n t h i s area cou ld withstand a d d i t i o n a l roads through the V a l l e y . Another highway proposal of concern i s the alignment of new Highway #10 which would a f f e c t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve i n the Township of Langley, as wel l as, the D i s t r i c t s of Surrey and D e l t a . In Surrey, the highway i s proposed to go through the Serpentine River f l o o d p l a i n . The Serpentine/Nicomekl River area i s an important vegetable and forage producing area . Although we have not had the opportunity to review a t ranspor ta t ion plan for the Mun i c ipa l i t y of De l ta , we have seen a proposal fo r the cont inuat ion of the new Highway #10 i n the v i c i n i t y of the Boundary Bay a i r p o r t through a prime a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a . " ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 ( c ) , l e t t e r of correspondence). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the requested meeting never d id take p lace and t h i s l e t t e r probably increased the communicative gap between the Planning Branch s t a f f and the Commission. Later i n the same year, the Commission expressed a s i m i l a r concern regarding the highway network plans proposed for Pr ince George and Creston. In both cases, the network p lans had already rece ived much exposure and had already been f u l l y endorsed without rece iv ing the Commission's input or approval . The Commission goes on to s ta te that i t : " i s concerned that i t has ob jec t ions to some of the proposals and yet the plans seem to have c r y s t a l i z e d to the point where any amendments may be d i f f i c u l t . We r e a l i z e that the process for the Commission to review these plans was only recent ly es tab l i shed but t h i s simply emphasizes the absolute necess i ty of c l ose co-operat ion at a very ear ly stage between our agencies so any problems can be reso lved" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 ( a ) , l e t t e r of correspondence). In more recent years, the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and - 46 -a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservation has surfaced i n the preparation and review of l o c a l area plans (discussed i n the next chapter). In summary however, i t i s clear that there i s a c o n f l i c t between these two objectives i n B r i t i s h Columbia. - 47 -PART I I THE IMPLICATIONS 0 0 - 48 -CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONFLICT TO LOCAL AREA PLANNING Having descr ibed the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning (as undertaken by the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch) and the preservat ion o f a g r i c u l t u r a l land (as undertaken by the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission), t h i s part of the thes i s reviews the imp l i ca t ions that t h i s c o n f l i c t can have. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s chapter o u t l i n e s the imp l i ca t i ons to l o c a l area planning ( i . e . o f f i c i a l community p lans, o f f i c i a l sett lement plans and o f f i c i a l reg iona l p l a n s ) . Chapter 6 goes on to examine the imp l i ca t i ons that the c o n f l i c t can have to the development of land ( s p e c i f i c a l l y to subd iv i s i on and as an impetus to development). Levels and Requirements of Loca l Area Planning i n B .C . : Under the Munic ipa l Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, there are three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of l o c a l area planning documents (see Figure 11) . These are: 1. O f f i c i a l Community P lans: O f f i c i a l community p lans only apply to those areas wi th in a m u n i c i p a l i t y , c i t y , town, d i s t r i c t or v i l l a g e . Sect ions 708 to 714 of the Munic ipa l Act (1981, pp. 198-200) o u t l i n e the s p e c i f i c requirements and process invo lved i n preparing an o f f i c i a l community p lan . In doing so, a "community p lan" i s def ined as: "an expression of p o l i c y for any use of l and , inc lud ing surfaces of water, or the pattern of subd iv i s i on of land, and e i the r or both may apply to any or a l l areas of the mun ic ipa l i t y" (1979, pp. 199). Such a community p lan may be expressed i n maps, plans and/or r e p o r t s . Upon preparing a community p lan, c o u n c i l may by bylaw designate i t as an " o f f i c i a l community p lan" a f t e r hold ing a pub l i c hear ing. Should such a bylaw be passed, - 49 -FIGURE 11: LEVELS OF LOCAL AREA PLANNING DOCUMENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA official regional plan a p p l i e s to a l l or pa r t of the regional d i s t r i c t official settlement plan a p p l i e s to a l l or p a r t s o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o u t s i de m u n i c i p a l i t i e s official community plan a p p l i e s to areas w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s Source: M in i s t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1979, pp. 8 - 50 -the official community plan would then be deposited with the inspector of municipalities for reference purposes only. In other words, an official community plan does not require the formal approval of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs (except where a village is involved). As a result, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs is not legally in a position to ensure that the official community plan complies with the provincial objective to prepare highway network plans and to preserve agricultural land. In reviewing the provisions of the Municipal Act i t is apparent that an official community plan does not have to include a highway network plan or policies respecting the preservation of agricultural land. Thus, in theory, a local council could adopt an official community plan without getting involved in the potential conflict between the Ministry of Transportation and Highways Planning Branch and the Provincial Agricultural Land Commission. In practice however, this does not typically happen. 2. Official Settlement Plans: Official settlement plans only apply to those areas of a regional district lying outside of a municipality, city, town, district or village. The purpose of an official settlement plan i s to document a statement of the intended future development of a particular area which will serve as a flexible and responsive guide to day-to-day decision-making on the part of Regional Boards, private citizens and public agencies such as School Boards (Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 1979, pp. 9). This documentation is to be in writing and may include plans, maps, tables and other graphic material. However, unlike an official community plan, a regional district board can  not adopt an official settlement plan until i t has been approved by the Minister of Municipal Affairs. Thus, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs is in - 51 -a l e g a l pos i t i on to ensure that both p r o v i n c i a l ob jec t i ves to prepare highway network plans and to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land are inc luded i n the o f f i c i a l settlement p lan . The Munic ipa l Act a l so s p e c i f i c a l l y requ i res that the fo l lowing be taken in to account i n an o f f i c i a l sett lement p lan: "810 (2) (e) the preservat ion and cont inuing use of a g r i c u l t u r a l land fo r present and future food p r o d u c t i o n ; . . . (h) the l o c a t i o n i n schematic form of a major road system for the plan a r e a ; . . . . " (1981, pp. 239). Thus, the ob jec t i ves and concerns of both the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission and the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch must somehow be incorporated i n t o an o f f i c i a l sett lement p lan . In doing t h i s , reg iona l d i s t r i c t s are i n s t r u c t e d i n the M in i s t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s ' Technica l Guide for the Preparat ion of O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans to e s t a b l i s h : " p o l i c i e s to ensure that the l o c a t i o n and const ruct ion of new roads and u t i l i t y or communication c o r r i d o r s w i l l have a minimal impact on farm holdings and operat ing a c t i v i t i e s " (1979, pp. 37) , whi le at the same time being t o l d that : "The road system designated i n the o f f i c i a l settlement p lan must be i n accordance with the 80-100 year r ight-of-way network prepared by the Highways Planning D i v i s i o n of the M in is t ry of Transpor tat ion , Communications and Highways." (1979, pp. 39). Thus, these t e c h n i c a l suggestions provide l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n to a reg iona l d i s t r i c t faced with the d i f f i c u l t problem of having to r e c o n c i l e two opposing p r o v i n i c a l ob jec t i ves and having to please both the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways and the Commission who may disagree about a highway network plan - 52 -proposed to be inc luded i n the o f f i c i a l settlement p lan . In any case, the comments and input of the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch and the Commission are sought e i the r d i r e c t l y or through the M in i s t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s i n an o f f i c i a l sett lement p l a n . F igure 12 i l l u s t r a t e s how t h i s process t y p i c a l l y takes p lace . 3. O f f i c i a l Regional P lans: The f i n a l l e v e l of l o c a l area planning document i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s an o f f i c a l reg iona l p lan . According to the Municipal Act , a reg iona l d i s t r i c t must prepare reg iona l p lans for a l l or par ts of the reg iona l d i s t r i c t . S im i la r to a community or sett lement p lan, a reg ional plan may be expressed i n maps, p lans, reports or by other means. The reg iona l board may by bylaw adopt the plan as i t s o f f i c i a l reg iona l p lan . In doing so, the approval of the Min is t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s , M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways or P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i s not l e g a l l y required under the Munic ipal Ac t . However, the Munic ipal Act does def ine reg iona l plan as meaning "a general scheme without d e t a i l for the projected uses of land wi th in the reg iona l d i s t r i c t , i nc lud ing the l o c a t i o n of major Highways (1981, pp. 237). Th is l a t t e r c lause could be i n t e r p r e t e d as requ i r ing that an o f f i c i a l reg iona l plan must inc lude a highway network p lan . Further , s ince the purpose of an o f f i c i a l reg iona l plan i s to act as a "long-range po l i cy guide to the p h y s i c a l development of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t " and to "serve as the framework for more d e t a i l e d p lans, i . e . o f f i c i a l settlement plans" (Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1979, pp. 8 ) , i t can be seen that the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion may have imp l i ca t ions to the implementation and use of an o f f i c i a l reg iona l p lan . - 53 -FIGURE 12: FLOW CHART FOR OFFICIAL SETTLEMENT PLAN PREPARATION AND APPROVAL PROCEDURE Regional District Initiates OSP Proposal Regional Board resolves to proceed with formulation of Official Settlement Plan Minister of Municipal Affairs advised of Regional Board In-tentions Proposal referred to TPC, APC, and RRMC for comments/recom-mendations respecting proposed] plan area boundaries TPC, APC, and RRMC comments forwarded to the Regional District within thirty days Copies to APC members, Provin-j d a i agencies, municipalities and other government bodies Ministry of Municipal Affairs notifies other Ministries/ agencies requesting they ad-vise the Ministry of any special considerations they want Included Minister of Municipal Affairs advises Regional Board of special considerations re-quired In plan Copy to RRMC Chairman for Information When OSP boundaries Issue unresolved, matter referred to ELUTC for recommendation Copies to respective prov-incial ministries/agencies including RRMC's R.D. Board Instructs R.D. staff to prepare OSP includ-ing matters required by Ministry of Municipal Affairs Copies of R.D. Board Inst-ructions forwarded to TPC and APC Regional District planning staff prepares Off icial Set-tlement Plan in consultation with TPC, APC, public, etc. TPC reviews draft Official Settlement Plan -»H Conflicts unresolved at re-gional level referred to ap-propriate body for resolution Bylaw given 1st and 2nd reading Public Hearing 12 13 Regional District Board consideration of possible changes Official Settlement Pian Bylaw given 3rd reading 15 Off icial Settlement Plan Bylaw adopted by Regional Board Plan referred to regional office of ministries/ agencies for confirmation T T Official Settlement Plan By-law submitted for approval to Minister of Municipal Affairs Minister of Municipal Affairs ensures no conflict between Official Settlement Plan By-law and provincial object-ives/policies Source: M in is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1979, pp. 31 - 54 -Role of the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways i n Loca l Area P lanning: As descr ibed i n Chapter 2, the M in i s t ry has taken an ac t i ve r o l e i n promoting the i n c l u s i o n of a highway network plan in to l o c a l area planning documents. As part o f t h i s promotion, i t i s pointed out to the l o c a l government and s t a f f that there are d e f i n i t e f i n a n c i a l advantages to endorsing and inc lud ing a highway network plan agreed to by the M in i s t ry i n to a l o c a l area plan (S inger , 1983, personal communication). For one th ing , the M in is t ry uses the endorsement and i n c l u s i o n of a highway network plan i n t o a l o c a l area plan as a means to determine which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are t o rece ive highest p r i o r i t y for cost sharing funds on major municipal roads (Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 ( a ) , pp. 421). Each f i s c a l year, a maximum of $15 m i l l i o n i s made a v a i l a b l e under the Roads Programme of the Revenue Sharing Act (Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1982, News Re lease) . Although the chegues are issued by the M in i s t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s , i t i s the Munic ipa l Programs Sect ion of the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch which determines who i s to rece ive these funds ( C u l l , 1983, personal communication). In doing t h i s , p ro jec ts are supported i n the fo l lowing order of preference: "1) those with in approved programs i n accordance with O f f i c i a l Community and Regional Plans conta in ing a t ranspor ta t ion component; 2) those w i th in approved programs planned i n accordance with approved t ranspor ta t ion network systems where no O f f i c i a l Community or Regional Plan e x i s t s ; 3) others which are determined by the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways to be of community wide s i g n i f i c a n c e and demonstrated necess i ty" (Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1980, pp. 1 ) . Another f i n a n c i a l i n cen t i ve fo r i n c l u d i n g a highway network plan in to a - 55 -l o c a l area plan i s the cost shar ing funds a v a i l a b l e under the Secondary Highway Program. Again, i n assess ing which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should q u a l i f y fo r the l i m i t e d p r o v i n i c a l funds a v a i l a b l e under t h i s Program, higher p r i o r i t y i s given to those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s with an endorsed highway network plan and adopted l o c a l area p lan . A f i n a l f i n a n c i a l incent ive for inc lud ing a highway network plan i n a l o c a l area plan i s that the Min is t ry a lso uses t h i s to determine which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are to q u a l i f y for p r o v i n c i a l cost -shar ing funds on a r t e r i a l highways and br idges . Although the const ruc t ion and maintenance of a r t e r i a l highways are the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Min is t ry (Highway Act, 1979, pp. 10), l i m i t e d funds are made a v a i l a b l e to se lec ted m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a s s i s t with the land se rv i ce funct ion ( i . e . curb and gut ters , i l l u m i n a t i o n , t r a f f i c s i g n a l s , landscaping) of these a r t e r i a l highways (Stewart, 1983, personal communication). S i m i l a r l y , cos t -shar ing funds are made a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a s s i s t with the replacement or const ruct ion of new br idges . Although other cons iderat ions are a lso taken in to account ( i . e . t r a f f i c usage, need, e t c . ) a higher p r i o r i t y would usua l l y be given to the mun ic ipa l i ty with an endorsed highway network plan and adopted l o c a l area p lan . Thus, i n add i t ion to any l e g a l requirements ( i . e . that an o f f i c i a l settlement plan must inc lude the l o c a t i o n i n schematic form of a major road system for the plan area) , there are a number of strong f i n a n c i a l i n cen t i ves for l o c a l governments to inc lude a highway network plan in to t h e i r l o c a l area plan and to a c t i v e l y invo lve the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highway Planning Branch. F igure 13 i l l u s t r a t e s the magnitude of these f i n a n c i a l incent ives and the competit ion for them. - 56 -FIGURE 13: PROVINCIAL COST-SHARING PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION AND HIGHWAYS F i s c a l Year Revenue  Sharing Act Secondary Highway Program A r t e r i a l  Highways Bridges 1972 - 73 N/A 58 mun 20 mun 4 mun 1973 - 74 N/A $146,798 $1,375,114 main, const . 12 mun 5 mun 1974 - 75 N/A $161,132 $1,465,007 main, const . 22 mun 7 mun 1975 - 76 N/A $148,913 $1,298,938 main, const . 11 mun 15 mun 1976 - 77 N/A $237,821 $1,511,594 main, const . 26 mun 7 mun 1977 - 78 N/A $266,022 $1,299,361 main, const . 29 mun 9 mun 1978 - 79 155 mun $303,131 $1,994,974 main, const . 27 mun 12 mun 1979 - 80 200 mun $269,576 $2,581,829 main, const . 12 mun 22 mun 1980 - 81 210 app l . $270,909 $2,477,335 main, const . Not A v a i l a b l e Not Ava i l ab le N/A - Not app l i cab le const . - cons t ruc t ion app l . - a p p l i c a t i o n s Source: mun. - m u n i c i p a l i t i e s main. - maintenance 69; 1974, pp. 77; 1977, pp. 70; Department of Highways: 1973, pp. 1975, pp. 77; 1976, pp. 64. M in is t ry of Highways and Pub l i c Works: 1978, pp. 74. M in i s t ry of Transpor tat ion , Communications and Highways: 1979, pp. 320; 1980, pp. 298. M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, 1981 ( a ) , pp. 423. - 57 -Role of the Provincial Agricultural Land Commission in Local Area Planning: In contrast to the Ministry, the Commission does not have any financial means to encourage local governments to take into account its concerns with respect to the preservation of agricultural land. The Commission does however, have some very explicit powers under the Agricultural Land Commission  Act: "15 (2) No person shall use agricultural land for any purpose other than farm use, except as permitted by this Act, the regulations or an order of the commission, on terms the commission may impose; "16 (a) a municipality or regional district, or any authority, board or other agency established by i t or person designated under the Local Area Act may not permit agricultural land to be used for other than farm use, or permit a building to be erected on the land except for farm use or for residences necessary to farm use or as permitted by regulation"; and, "31 (1) Nothing in this Act or the regulations affects or impairs the validity of a municipal or regional district bylaw relating to the use of agricultural land in an agricultural land reserve except in so far as the bylaw is inconsistent with this Act, the regulations or an order of the commission. In case of an inconsistency this Act, the regulations and the order prevail and the inconsistent portion is suspended" (1979, pp. 7-8) Thus, these sections of the Act could be imputed to suggest that a municipality or regional district can not authorize or permit land in an Agricultural Land Reserve to be used for non-farm purposes and that a local area plan which shows non-farm development is authorizing such development and therefore is contrary to the spirit, i f not the letter, of the law. Although the enforcement of these sections may be used as a threat, the Commission has thus far avoided pursuing this position before the courts for various reasons (i.e. the difficulty of one level of government taking legal action against - 58 -another; l ack of p o l i t i c a l support for such an ac t i on ; l e g a l cos ts invo lved; s i l e n c e of the Munic ipa l Act on the need to incorporate the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n t o an o f f i c i a l community p lan) . For a l l of these reasons, the Commission has instead attempted to encourage m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s to seek i t s co-operat ion through var ious non-coercive measures such as memorandums and pub l i c statements. For example, i n 1978 the Commission assigned at l e a s t one of i t s s t a f f members the task of l i a s i n g with l o c a l governments i n the preparat ion of plans which invo lve the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and cons iderat ion of the farming community ( B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1978, memorandum). In A p r i l 1979, the Commission sent out a second memorandum to a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t i n g that i t was of the opin ion that l o c a l area plans should c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e that lands with in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve are subject to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act and that subd iv i s ion and non-farm uses are not permitted unless approved by the Commission ( B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1979, memorandum). In August 1981, the Commission again emphasized the importance of i t s ear ly review of l o c a l area plans where A.L .R. land was involved ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1981 ( b ) , memorandum). Th is message i s r e i t e r a t e d i n the Commission and Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s ' l a t e s t publ ished document aimed at m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s (Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s and P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982, 15 p p . ) . As a r e s u l t of these e f f o r t s , and any l e g a l requirements ( i . e . that an o f f i c i a l settlement plan must take i n t o account the preservat ion and cont inuing use of a g r i c u l t u r a l land for present and future food product ion) , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s are i n c r e a s i n g l y seeking the Commission's input i n to the preparat ion - 59 -of a l o c a l area p lan . The C o n f l i c t and E x i s t i n g S o l u t i o n s ; In view of the f ac t that the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways and the Commission have become a c t i v e l y involved i n l o c a l area p lanning, due to l e g a l requirements, f i n a n c i a l i ncent i ves or other non-coercive measures, a mun ic ipa l i ty or reg iona l d i s t r i c t can be put i n to a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . On the one hand, the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch strongly suggests (supported with f i n a n c i a l incent ives) or l e g a l l y requ i res that the l o c a l agency inc lude i t s highway network plan i n t o the l o c a l area p lan. On the other hand, the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission requests that the l o c a l agency respect the A .L .R . i n i t s l o c a l area p lan . However, as already descr ibed i n Chapter 4, the Commission often i n the past has been unable to agree with the M i n i s t r y ' s highway network p lans which do not consider the A.L.R as a cons t ra in t to development or to the l o c a t i o n of func t iona l g r i d road c o r r i d o r s . Thus, the m u n i c i p a l i t i y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s dragged i n t o the c o n f l i c t and must decide which p r o v i n c i a l agency i t i s going to l i s t e n to . In order to r e c t i f y t h i s problem, the Commission, M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways and Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s have come up with two compromise s o l u t i o n s . These are: 1. Not i n c l u d i n g proposed road c o r r i d o r s i n a l o c a l area plan which have not been agreed to by the Commission and M i n i s t r y . Th is s o l u t i o n i s o u t l i n e d i n the Commission's August 1981 Memorandum to  a l l the Regional D i s t r i c t s and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Re: C o n f l i c t between A.L .R.  Designation and Loca l Land Use L e g i s l a t i o n : - 60 -"Where a r t e r i a l and c o l l e c t o r roads are proposed i n a p lan to pass through the ALR, the Commission p re fe rs that the routes not be s p e c i f i c a l l y located on the plan map unless already approved by the Commission. Those routes that the Commission i s not prepared to approve at the time of plan review, should not be shown on the plan map. Under c e r t a i n circumstances where the Commission apprec iates the need for a p a r t i c u l a r road proposal wi th in the time frame of the plan the route may be i d e n t i f i e d i n a general way with arrows toward the ALR and with the notat ion that a l l highway design and const ruc t ion through the ALR must rece ive Land Commission approval , and that the s p e c i f i c route l o c a t i o n s h a l l be p inpointed as need a r i s e s and i n consu l ta t ion with the Commission with a view to preserv ing a g r i c u l t u r a l land and re ta in ing workable farm un i t s" ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1981 ( b ) , memorandum). F igure 14 i l l u s t r a t e s how t h i s s o l u t i o n might look in p r a c t i c e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there are only a few examples of where t h i s so lu t i on or v a r i a t i o n s of i t have been used i n a l o c a l area plan ( i . e . Sicamous O f f i c i a l Settlement P lan; B l i n d Bay/Notch H i l l /Sor ren to O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan - P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1980 ( a ) , no pp . ; 1981 ( a ) , no p p . ) . There are a number of reasons why t h i s i s the case and why, i n re t rospect , t h i s i s not a very good s o l u t i o n . For one th ing , i t was not considered very s a t i s f a c t o r y to the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch (Singer , 1983, personal communication). Thus, the M in i s t ry has not promoted i t as a v i a b l e , long term so lu t i on to the c o n f l i c t between highway network plans and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . Another weakness of t h i s so lu t i on i s that i t c reates even more uncerta inty for the farming community and provides l i t t l e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n to p o t e n t i a l developers. The farmer faced with an arrow d i rec ted at h i s property would probably rather have a l i n e running through h i s farm so as to have some idea of where the proposed road may - 61 -FIGURE 14: PROPOSED SOLUTION FOR SHOWING HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANS IN A LOCAL AREA PLAN 1) Not showing the proposed road c o r r i d o r s through the A.L .R. which  haven't been agreed to by the Commission: A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve Urban Centre. / / / 2) Using arrows to show where proposed road c o r r i d o r s may pass  through the A .L .R . which have not been agreed to by the Commission. - 62 -go rather than being l e f t with the p ropos i t i on that i t w i l l go somewhere through h i s l and . S i m i l a r l y , for a developer to decide where to invest h i s time and money, he must have some idea where a future road c o r r i d o r w i l l be and where future access po ints to h i s development w i l l be l o c a t e d . F i n a l l y , as descr ibed by K. Cousins and R. Heightchew, the dec i s ion not to show where a road c o r r i d o r i s t o be located not only abdicates l o c a l c o n t r o l over the i s sue , but puts l o c a l e lec ted o f f i c i a l s i n a pos i t i on of not knowing what the future t ranspor ta t ion system i s to look l i k e (1975, pp. 2 ) . 2. P lac ing a caut ionary stamp on the t ransportat ion map i n a l o c a l area p lan . A more recent s o l u t i o n to a s s i s t reg iona l d i s t r i c t s with the c o n f l i c t between highway network plans and the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land during the preparat ion of a l o c a l area plan i s out l ined i n the M in i s t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s and P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's A Guide to the  Re lat ionsh ip Between A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves and Loca l Government Plans and  Bylaws: "The l e g i s l a t i o n for o f f i c i a l p lans requ i res a major road network be inc luded i n the p lan . Where the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways proposed road network plan shows roads which cross through the ALRs, the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for consu l ta t ion with the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. Where other l o c a l roads not on the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways road network plan are proposed to c ross through the ALR p lan , the l o c a l government must consul t with the Commission and obta in t h e i r endorsement. Where there are d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion on the l o c a t i o n of roads through the ALR, every attempt should be made to reso lve these with the Commission p r i o r to the f i n a l i z a t i o n of the p lan . I f the Commission has not approved of some components of the road network at the time of adoption of the p lan , i t i s recommended that a statement s i m i l a r to the fo l lowing be placed on the t ranspor ta t ion map of the plan to i n d i c a t e to the general publ ic that A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission approval i s s t i l l required p r i o r to road network cons t ruc t i on : The l o c a t i o n of these routes wi th in the ALR i s not to be - 63 -construed as having the endorsement of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. The cons t ruc t ion , upgrading or ded icat ion of these routes may not proceed without the approval of the Commission" (1982, pp. 10) . A number of l o c a l area plans have used t h i s cautionary stamp or v a r i a t i o n s of i t as a means to obta in both the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highway's and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's approval ( i . e . The Comox Va l ley O f f i c i a l Settlement P lan; Okanagan F a l l s O f f i c i a l Settlement P lan; Robson Va l ley O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan - P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1980 ( b ) , no pp . ; 1981 ( b ) , no pp . ; 1982 (a) , no p p . ) . Although t h i s statement does c l e a r l y s p e l l out the Commission's l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with respect to the ac tua l cons t ruc t ion , upgrading or dedicat ion of any network c o r r i d o r , t h i s s o l u t i o n a lso has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f these i s the danger that the stamp could be uniformly appl ied to a l l highway network plans thereby reducing the need for co-operat ion and d i s c u s s i o n between the M in i s t ry of T ranspor ta t ion and Highways and the Commission. Although the Guide does request t h i s consu l ta t i on , i t i s s t i l l to be determined whether or not i t w i l l take p lace . Another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s s o l u t i o n i s that i t may increase the uncerta inty that surrounds a highway network p lan . By p lac ing the suggested statement on the highway network p lan , a farmer, developer and approving o f f i c e r i s s t i l l uncerta in whether the Commission has approved a p a r t i c u l a r road c o r r i d o r or not s ince there i s no i n d i c a t i o n on the plan i t s e l f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between those c o r r i d o r s which have been agreed to and those which have not been agreed t o . The caut ionary stamp can a l so be c r i t i c i z e d in that i t appears to be incons is tent with the other reguirements contained i n the Guide to l o c a l governments. For example, with respect to non-agr i cu l tu ra l uses in the A.L.R, - 64 -the Commission and M in i s t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s make the fo l lowing strong statement: "It i s important to note that i f the Commission does not agree that the non-ag r i cu l tu ra l use i s warranted, the plan must designate the land for a g r i c u l t u r a l use. The l o c a l government w i l l have to f i n d an a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n for the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l use, or continue to negot iate an agreeable s o l u t i o n with the Commission. A plan with n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l des ignat ions not endorsed by the Commission would be i l l e g a l and i n contravent ion of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act . Furthermore, i t may a lso f a i l to adequately meet future land use needs i f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission w i l l not approve the use. I f the Commission does not agree with the proposals fo r non-agr i cu l t u ra l use of the ALRs, o f f i c i a l settlement plans submitted for approval under Sect ion 809 of the Munic ipal Act and o f f i c i a l community plans submitted for r e g i s t r a t i o n under sec t ion 307 w i l l not be favorably considered" (Min is t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s and P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, 1982, pp. 7 ) . In comparison, the statement and approach suggested for major road networks appears to l e t the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways o f f much e a s i e r . A f i n a l c r i t i c i s m of t h i s s o l u t i o n i s that i t i s d i s c r im ina to ry , t r e a t i n g a Crown agency d i f f e r e n t than pr ivate c i t i z e n s ( i . e . the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways does not have to respect the A .L .R . as i s expected of the general pub l i c and pr iva te land owner). This goes contrary to the o r i g i n a l thrust and cont inuing b e l i e f of the Commission that pub l i c and pr ivate development are subject to the same cont ro l s and r u l e s . In summary, i t i s be l ieved that ne i ther of these two compromise so lu t ions have adequately resolved the imp l i ca t ions that the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion can have on l o c a l area plans. Examples of the C o n f l i c t : There are a number of examples of how the c o n f l i c t betwen highway network - 65 -planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion has surfaced i n l o c a l area p lans . In 1980, the Commission was asked to review a d ra f t of the V i l l a g e of Keremeos O f f i c i a l Community P lan . In doing so, the Commission eventual ly agreed to everything wi th in the plan except the proposed highway network plan included wi th in i t (see Figure 15; P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1980 ( c ) , no p p . ) . S i m i l a r l y , i n 1979 the Commission was asked to comment on the Mer r i t t O f f i c i a l Community Plan a f ter i t had already been adopted by c o u n c i l . Again the Commission was concerned about the proposed highway network plan inc luded wi th in the o f f i c i a l community plan as i t inc luded two routes which would b i s e c t some exce l l en t a g r i c u l t u r a l land (see Figure 16). Despite these concerns the Mer r i t t O f f i c i a l Community Plan was deposited with the inspector o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 ( d ) , no p p . ) . A l i c e Graesser i n her t h e s i s examined f i v e case examples of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between smal l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. She descr ibes the c o n f l i c t between the highway network planning and the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and i t s imp l i ca t i ons to l o c a l area plans i n the fo l lowing manner: "The road network components of the community plans are one of t h e i r most problematic features for the Reserve system. The Keremeos, Armstrong and M e r r i t t p lans show major new roads routed through high q u a l i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l land not otherwise proposed for urban development. The source of these proposals i s not c l e a r , although the Armstrong and M e r r i t t rout ings probably o r ig ina ted with the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways. In i t s plan reviews, the Commission has c o n s i s t e n t l y expressed concern over road networks designed to pass across Reserve lands. The emphasis which c i r c u l a r s from the M in is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , the Municipal Act planning sec t ions , and l i n k s between community plans and p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l ass i s tance for road pro jec ts a l l g ive to road network proposals suggests that future r e l a t i o n s between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the Commission over road r ights-of-way could be acrimonious" (Graessner, 1981, pp. 161). - 66 -FIGURE 15: VILLAGE OF KEREMEOS HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN Source: P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1980 ( c ) , no po. - 67 -FIGURE 16: CITY OF MERRITT HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN Source: P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 ( d ) , no pp. - 68 -The P l a n n i n g Depar tment o f t h e T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has r e c e n t l y had t h e f o l l o w i n g comments t o make w i t h r e g a r d t o a p r opo sed h ighway ne two rk p l a n o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and H ighways w h i c h was t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e C h e r r y C r e e k - S a v o n a O f f i c i a l S e t t l e m e n t P l a n " " I t i s t h e f e e l i n g o f t h i s o f f i c e t h a t many o f t h e r o u t e s shown on t h e p l a n a r e u n n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n t h e n o rma l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , c o n t e x t , and t i m e f rame o f t h e O f f i c i a l S e t t l e m e n t P l a n . The i n c l u s i o n o f su ch r o u t e s p r e s u p p o s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d and l o c a t i o n o f deve l opmen t o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e a r e a s s e r v e d , may compromise t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e O f f i c i a l S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and r a i s e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f l a n d o w n e r s i n t h e a r e a . Many o f t h e r o u t e s shown t r a v e r s e l a n d s w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . I n t h e p a s t , we have found t h a t t h i s may c au s e d e l a y s i n t h e f i n a l a p p r o v a l o f t h e p l a n . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e comments o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commi s s i on , t h i s o f f i c e has f o r w a r d e d a d r a f t copy o f t h e M a j o r Road Ne twork P l a n t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n . " ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commiss i on F i l e s , 1983 , l e t t e r o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ) . A f i n a l examp le o f how t h i s c o n f l i c t c a n s u r f a c e i n a l o c a l a r e a p l a n i s t h e r e c e n t u p d a t i n g o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . One o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e o r i g i n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n ( w h i c h was c o m p l e t e d i n 1966) was t h a t i t d i d no t s e t o u t i n d e t a i l a r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m t o l i n k m a j o r u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s ( G r e a t e r Vancouve r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , 1981 , p p . 7 ) . As a r e s u l t , i n u p d a t i n g t h i s p l a n and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s , a l l f o u r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ( C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Dewdney A l o u e t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , G r e a t e r Van couve r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f F r a s e r -Cheam) i n c l u d e d a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ne two rk p l a n i n t h e s e p l a n s . In d o i n g t h i s , t h e i n p u t o f b o t h t h e M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and H ighways and t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land - 69 -Commission (s ince the preservat ion and enhancement of farmland was a p o l i c y object ive) was sought. T y p i c a l l y t h i s was done through the t e c h n i c a l planning committee, working committees, or correspondence. Again, as might be expected, the Commission of ten expressed i t s concern about some of the proposed road c o r r i d o r s being suggested by the M i n i s t r y . For example, i n the Dewdney A louette Regional D i s t r i c t (DARD) the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways was proposing that a c o r r i d o r fo r a new p r o v i n c i a l highway be i d e n t i f i e d on the DARD o f f i c i a l r eg iona l p lan . The Commission however had a number of s p e c i f i c concerns about t h i s proposa l . S i m i l a r l y , when presented to the p u b l i c , res idents i n Maple Ridge objected to the l o c a t i o n of the new p r o v i n c i a l highway. As a r e s u l t of these and other concerns, the t ranspor ta t ion network plan as contained i n the adopted o f f i c i a l reg iona l plan fo r the Dewdney A louette Regional D i s t r i c t only shows part of the p r o v i n c i a l highway (see Figure 17) . In other words, there remain la rge gaps and unresolved sec t ions of t h i s proposed c o r r i d o r . The point of t h i s example i s that although most reg iona l d i s t r i c t s have already adopted an o f f i c i a l reg iona l plan ( C u l l , 1983, personal communication), they may s t i l l be a f f ec ted by the c o n f l i c t between the Min is t ry and the Commission over highway network planning should they decide to amend or update t h e i r o f f i c i a l reg iona l p lans . Summary: In summary, c l e a r l y the c o n f l i c t between the highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion descr ibed i n Part I of the t h e s i s , has d e f i n i t e imp l i ca t ions to l o c a l area planning ( i . e . o f f i c i a l community p lans , o f f i c i a l settlement plans and o f f i c i a l reg iona l plans) which a f f ec t both municipal c o u n c i l s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t boards and t h e i r respect ive s t a f f . - 70 -FIGURE 17: DEWDNEY ALOUETTE REGIONAL DISTRICT HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN * - Locat ion of the P r o v i n c i a l Corr idor s t i l l to be determined through Maple Ridge and i n the Hatz ic Lake Area Source: P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1979 ( e ) , no pp. - 71 -CHAPTER 6 IMPLICATIONS OF THE CONFLICT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LAND In add i t ion to having i m p l i c a t i o n s to l o c a l area planning, the c o n f l i c t between the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch i n t h e i r preparat ion of highway network plans and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i n i t s attempt to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land can a lso have imp l i ca t i ons to the development of l and . Th is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case with respect to the subd iv i s ion of land and the p o s s i b i l i t y of the highway network plan ac t ing as an impetus to development. Subd iv is ion of Land: As already discussed i n Chapters 2 and 3, both the M in is t ry and the Commission exerc ise c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s over the subd iv i s ion of l and . Under the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act , the Commission has to approve any subd iv i s ion wi th in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (1979, pp. 6 ) . Should such an approval be given ( i . e . a subd iv i s i on fo r farm purposes), the Commission normally advises the var ious other agencies who w i l l have to approve the subd iv i s ion of i t s d e c i s i o n . As requ i red by the Highway Act and the Land T i t l e Act , the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways' Approving O f f i c e r i s one of these agencies whose approval i s a lso reguired for a s u b d i v i s i o n . In cons ider ing the s u b d i v i s i o n , the Approving O f f i c e r takes i n t o account a number of f ac to rs (Min is t ry of Highways and Pub l i c Works, 1976, 14 p p . ) . Included wi th in these i s whether or not the subd iv i s ion ( i . e . l o t c o n f i g u r a t i o n , access to the subd iv i s i on , t r a f f i c impact, and i n t e r n a l layout of the development) i s cons is tent with the M i n i s t r y ' s proposed highway network plan for the area. Should a proposed road c o r r i d o r be located through the area to be subdiv ided, - 72 -the Approving O f f i c e r would probably require that the r ight-of-way be dedicated to the prov ince . In doing t h i s however, the fur ther approval of the Commission w i l l be required s ince i t has to approve the " d e d i c a t i o n . . . o f new h ighway. . . r ights-of -way" (B .C . Regulat ions 8/81, 1981, pp. 28) and has to i ssue a c e r t i f i c a t e of order for the f i n a l subd iv i s ion plan before the r e g i s t r a r of land t i t l e s can accept the subd iv i s ion ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  Commission Act , 1979, pp. 6 ) . Should the Commission not agree to the r ight-of-way ded icat ion ( i . e . on the grounds that i t does not support the proposed road c o r r i d o r , be l i eves the ded icat ion to be excessive or f e e l s the r ight-of-way adversely a f f e c t s the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the subdivided p a r c e l ) , the subdiv ider may be placed i n the pos i t i on where he can not get the necessary approval of both agencies i n order to proceed with the s u b d i v i s i o n . A recent example of t h i s type o f problem was an a p p l i c a t i o n fo r subd iv i s i on which the Commission allowed i n the Telkwa area ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1981 ( c ) , no p p . ) . When the subd iv i s ion was r e f e r r e d to the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways, the Approving O f f i c e r requested that a r ight-of-way be dedicated for the proposed Telkwa Bypass (presumably which was part of the M i n i s t r y ' s o v e r a l l highway network strategy for the area) as part of the s u b d i v i s i o n . The Commission however, d id not consent to t h i s r ight-of-way ded icat ion as i t had not had the opportunity to review the e n t i r e Telkwa Bypass proposal (or the highway network plan for Telkwa). For tunate ly , i n t h i s instance the problem was reso lved by p lac ing a covenant on the property in favor of the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways under the Land T i t l e Act and the subd iv i s ion was f i n a l l y r e g i s t e r e d . Th is does however i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l for the c o n f l i c t between the M in is t ry and the Commission over a highway network plan or s p e c i f i c road c o r r i d o r to a f f e c t the - 73 -subdivison of l a n d . Impetus to Development One of the primary concerns of the Commission i n reviewing a highway network plan which adversely a f f e c t s the A.L .R. i s that i t w i l l serve as an impetus to development. For example, a developer, attempting to j u s t i f y the development of the A .L .R . , could support h i s proposal by arguing that the area has good access as suggested on a highway network p lan . Or, a land owner not i n te res ted i n farming, could use the l o c a t i o n of a highway c o r r i d o r through h i s property as a reason for subd iv i s ion or exc lus ion from the Reserve ( i . e . "the proposed roads cuts my property i n h a l f making i t too small to farm"). At the opposite end of t h i s extreme, a bona-f ide farmer may view a proposed road c o r r i d o r as a reason not to upgrade h is farm. For example, should the proposed co r r ido r cut through h i s house and barns and take up a la rge swath of h i s f i e l d s , the farmer may be very uncerta in about the future of h i s operat ion. Again, t h i s r e l a t e s back to the "chicken and egg" i ssue of which comes f i r s t - does the proposed road cause development or does the development cause the road? There are numerous a p p l i c a t i o n s on f i l e with the Commission which use the l o c a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g or proposed road as a reason for development. For example, the Commission has received a number of a p p l i c a t i o n s for subd iv i s ion as a r e s u l t of the proposed Creston Bypass, even though t h i s bypass i s not to be b u i l t i n the near future ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1977, no pp; 1980 (d) , no pp . ; 1982 (b) , no p p . ) . In Gibsons, one of the reasons for an a p p l i c a t i o n to exclude a property from the A.L .R. was that the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways held a covenant on a port ion of the property fo r the proposed Sunshine Coast Highway realignment ( P r o v i n c i a l - 74 -A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1981 (d) , no p p . ) . The Commission eventual ly refused t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n when i t was advised by the M in i s t ry that the const ruc t ion of the new highway would not take place for some time, i f at a l l . S i m i l a r l y , the Commission refused an a p p l i c a t i o n to exclude a por t ion of a property i n Cobble H i l l which was severed by a proposed road c o r r i d o r i d e n t i f i e d i n the Cobble H i l l O f f i c i a l Settlement P lan . In commenting on t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n the Commission s ta tes : "Although the Commission recognizes that the Cobble H i l l O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan shows the F i sher Road realignment as passing through the subject property , there i s no f i rm commitment by the M in i s t ry of Highways as to when the realignment w i l l be dedicated or constructed . The Commission i s not prepared to al low exc lus ion based on a matter which i s not yet f i n a l i z e d . " ( P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e s , 1982 ( c ) , l e t t e r of correspondence). A f i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of how a proposed road c o r r i d o r can have these types of impl icatons to development can be taken from the prev ious ly c i t e d proposal for a new p r o v i n c i a l highway i n the Dewdney Alouette Regional D i s t r i c t (see Chapter 5 ) . In a submission to a consul tant h i red to examine the proposed new highway (which was not to be b u i l t for a number of years ) , the Northern Alouette C i t i z e n s Against the Freeway Committee s ta te : "the l i n e on a map i s of more concern to the members o f t h i s community than the ac tua l b u i l d i n g of the road would be, fo r the l i n e would in f luence the value, the present development of the a f f ec ted land and future land use. The main concern of the consultant must be the f e e l i n g s and concerns of those present ly l i v i n g i n the community. I f the end r e s u l t of these studies i s only a l i n e on a map, the e f f e c t on the homeowners would be monumental. What cons iderat ions would a man g ive to the upkeep and development of a piece of property that was under the threat of expropr iat ion? What psycho log ica l e f f e c t must be f e l t by a community that r e a l i z e s that i t w i l l soon be s p l i t in to two? And what must the moral e f f e c t be upon a man who spent a l i f e t i m e developing h is property i n to an i d e a l merely to have i t destroyed by b ig government with budget concerns" (Dewdney Alouette Regional D i s t r i c t F i l e s , 1981, no p p . ) . - 75 -Whether or not these concerns and statements are v a l i d can be argued both ways, but i t would seem that the c i t i z e n s c e r t a i n l y be l ieved them to be t rue . In summary, these examples serve to i l l u s t r a t e how a highway network plan can act as an impetus to development. Th is can not only lead to a d d i t i o n a l pressures on the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve, but can a lso be confusing to the general pub l i c which i s faced with the c o n f l i c t between a highway network plan and the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land . - 76 -PART I I I THE SOLUTIONS - 77 -How can the conflict between highway network planning and agricultural land preservation described in the previous sections of this thesis be resolved? The purpose of this last part of the thesis is to examine a number of possible solutions which could be implemented in British Columbia to answer this question. In particular, the next three chapters examine three long term solutions to the conflict, namely: change in philosophy - use of highway network planning as a tool to control and direct development (Chapter 7); application of an environmental impact assessment and review process (Chapter 8); and, conflict resolution by an intermediary agency (Chapter 9 ) . Each of these are considered longer term solutions which could be implemented in the future. Chapter 10 contains the recommended short term solution (use of short range and long range highway network plan) which, i t is believed, could be implemented now. - 78 -LONG TERM SOLUTIONS - 79 -CHAPTER 7 CHANGE IN PHILOSOPHY - USE OF HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING AS A TOOL TO CONTROL AND DIRECT DEVELOPMENT Basis for a Change i n Phi losophy: There i s ample evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i n g that the future d i r e c t i o n of highway network planning should be as a t o o l to con t ro l and d i r e c t development. For example, Michael Bruton argues i n a number of p laces that t ranspor ta t ion planning must be used as a means to in f luence the evo lut ion of urban form and land use (1975 (a) , 251 pp . ; 1975 (b) , no p p . ) . Bruton goes on to s tate that "the f a i l u r e to recognize and u t i l i z e transport planning as one of the most important t o o l s for guiding and shaping the development of the urban e n v i r o n m e n t . . . . i s perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c i s m which can be l e v e l l e d at t ransport planners" (1975 ( a ) , pp .22) . S i m i l a r l y , Robert Knight has argued that t ranspor tat ion can be used as a t o o l i n p lanning, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the ob jec t i ves of environmental p rotec t ion and enhancement (1977, pp. 215-220). John H i r ten c a l l s t h i s "the new percept ion of t ranspor ta t ion" wherein t ranspor ta t ion i s o r iented toward achieving community development ob jec t i ves and mobi l i ty i s not t reated as the sole end (1973, pp. 227-282). Wi l f red Owen, i n h i s book on The Access ib le  C i ty a lso concludes that t ranspor ta t ion should be used as a t o o l for d i r e c t i n g urban forces and making a bet ter c i t y (1972, pp. 53). David Schulz , Joseph Schofer and N e i l Pederson p ick up on t h i s point s ta t ing that the t r a d i t i o n a l long range t ranspor ta t ion plan has "attempted to p red i c t the s a l i e n t a t t r i b u t e s of a d i s t a n t future , and then plan for i t " , whereas, the new task of such a plan should be to "provide a framework for he lp ing to improve the t ranspor ta t ion system of today along some des i rab le path to the future (1979, - 80 -p p . 4 4 4 - 4 4 5 ) . More recent ly , both Arthur Freed and Samuel Schwartz have i d e n t i f i e d t h i s change i n philosophy as the future chal lenge to the t ranspor ta t ion pro fess ion (1981, pp. 20-24; 1981, pp. 18-19). A p p l i c a t i o n to the C o n f l i c t i n B .C . : F igure 18 i l l u s t r a t e s how the use of highway network planning as a t o o l to con t ro l and d i r e c t development cou ld be appl ied i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a means for reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . C r i t i c a l to t h i s process would be the need to formulate goals and ob jec t i ves for the area i n quest ion (Bruton, 1975 ( a ) , pp. 32) . Th is would probably be done by l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s , aided by t h e i r admin is t rat ive or bureaucrat ic s t a f f . These goals and ob jec t i ves would be implemented through a comprehensive land use plan ( i . e . a long range plan for a region) which would inc lude the highway network plan and d i r e c t development as opposed to simply accomodating i t . Thus, i f the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land was an e x p l i c i t goal fo r the area, the land use plan and highway network plan would i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e areas where future urban development would be acceptable . These goals and ob jec t i ves i n turn could be r e i t e r a t e d through var ious p u b l i c a t i o n s , p lans, d i r e c t i v e s , gu ide l ines or pub l i c announcements. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Implementing t h i s Change i n Phi losophy: There are a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n accomplishing t h i s change of phi losophy. For one th ing , the philosophy that highway network planning be used as a t o o l to c o n t r o l and d i r e c t development ( i . e . away from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve) has not thus far been viewed very favorably by the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch. Thus, t h i s r a i s e s the quest ion of whether or not the M in i s t ry and Planning Branch can change the - 81 -FIGURE 18: HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS AS A TOOL TO CONTROL AND DIRECT DEVELOPMENT Steps Process Formulation of goals and ob jec t ives I n i t i a t i o n Compile Background Data Develop Crude Plan Present Crude Plan Ident i f y Contentious Issues -Resolve Contentious Issues Endorsement Implementation l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s , aided by admin is t ra t ive and bureaucrat ic input , formulate general goals and ob jec t i ves for an area ( i . e . preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land) Advise s t a f f to prepare land use plan and highway network plan s imul tan ious ly Highways and l o c a l government agree to study area. Highways compiles background information for highway network plan using s i m i l a r data and assumptions as i n land use plan Highways prepares maps, graphics and mosaics. Highways prepares crude network plan Highways expla ins crude plans to a working committee cons i s t i ng of l o c a l government and Commission s t a f f (poss ib ly others too) Committee responds to problems i n the highway network plan and land use plan Contentious i ssues documented Committee attempts to reso lve content ious i ssues Unresolved i ssues to l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s for d i r e c t i o n Pub l i c meeting to d iscuss goals and o b j e c t i v e s , land use plan and highway network plan Committee and p o l i t i c i a n s reso lve outstanding i ssues P o l i t i c i a n s f i n a l i z e goals and ob jec t i ves and land use/highway network plans Committee and p o l i t i c i a n s develop p r i o r i t i e s fo r implementation Resolve funding of p r i o r i t y Implementation occurs Plan review or amendment - 82 -philosophy i t has developed over the past decade towards highway network p lanning. As pointed out by Anthony Downs i n h i s book Inside Bureaucracy, i t i s of ten d i f f i c u l t for i n d i v i d u a l s or an organizat ion to change the mindset, a t t i tudes and p o l i c i e s which they have developed (1967, pp. 75-78). Further , i t i s doubtful that s t a f f of the Planning Branch would change t h i s philosophy which could have ser ious pub l i c imp l i ca t i ons ( i . e . the p o t e n t i a l pub l i c expense r e s u l t i n g from being caught without an adequate highway network) without f i r s t obta in ing the approval of the M in is ter of Transportat ion and Highways and probably the Environment and Land Use Committee and Cabinet . Would the p o l i t i c i a n s and government want to make such a p o l i c y dec is ion? Another d i f f i c u l t y i n implementing t h i s change of philosophy i s that i t would requ i re the e x p l i c i t formulat ion of goals and ob jec t i ves from the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , there seems to be l i t t l e des i re or perceived need to enunciate such a c l e a r p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y towards t ranspor ta t ion planning or land use p lann ing . Melvin Lev in and NormanAbend found t h i s to be one of the major problems i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s of t ranspor ta t ion planning s tud ies i n the United States : "Underlying a l l the primary problems i s the fundamental one of the lack of na t iona l goals and p r i o r i t i e s . There i s a bas ic lack of agreement (on even hard, systematic thought) or goa ls , p r i o r i t i e s , and ob jec t i ves f o r the nat ion and i t s urban areas. While t h i s chaot ic s ta te of a f f a i r s e x i s t s , dec i s ions w i l l continue to be made by a process of d r i f t , piecemeal p lans , and acquiescence to powerful s i n g l e - i n t e r e s t agencies" (1971, pp. 232). S i m i l a r l y , i n B r i t i s h Columbia, l i t t l e e f f o r t has been made to developing a comprehensive po l i cy which would l i n k highway network planning to the cont ro l and d i r e c t i o n of development ( i . e . land use p lann ing) . The co -o rd ina t ion of land use planning and highway network planning would - 83 -also be made d i f f i c u l t i n view of the fact that i n the past "the p ro fess iona l ph i losoph ies of the town planner and the t ranspor ta t ion engineer stand far apart" (Blunden, 1971, pp. 27) . A f i n a l d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s s o l u t i o n i s that i t would regu i re a strong commitment to the proposed goals and ob jec t i ves and the des i red con t ro l or d i r e c t i o n of development i d e n t i f i e d i n the comprehensive land use p lan . However, can such a commitment be made by the Commission and government respect ing the long term status of land wi th in t h e ' A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve? What about the u n c e r t a i n t i e s assoc iated with the preservaton of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( i . e . the appeal route to the Environment and Land Use Committee; changing views and percept ions of the Commission)? Although t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t y with any land use planning process and does not mean that one should not p lan , i t i s something which must be borne i n mind i n cons ider ing a change of philosophy i n the highway network planning process. In summary, these d i f f i c u l t i e s or quest ions r e i n f o r c e the b e l i e f that , although a change of philosophy and use of highway network planning as a t o o l to cont ro l and d i r e c t development may be the future d i r e c t i o n of highway p lanning, i t i s s t i l l a number of years away from being implementable as an immediate s o l u t i o n to the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. - 84 -CHAPTER 8 APPLICATION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS Bas is for t h i s So lu t ion : In looking at the experience of the United States and Canada, i t i s apparent that one of the ways i n which environmental cons iderat ions , such as the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l l and , could be incorporated in to highway network planning i s through an environmental impact assessment and review process. Thus, perhaps a s i m i l a r process and l e g i s l a t i o n could be enacted i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a means to reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . In the United States , the Nat ional Environmental P o l i c y Act (NEPA), es tab l i shed i n 1970, regu i res "each federa l agency to prepare a de ta i l ed statement of environmental impact before proceeding with any major ac t i on , recommendation, or report on proposals for l e g i s l a t i o n that may s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the g u a l i t y of the human environment" ( J a i n , Urban and Stacey, 1977, pp. v ) . According to Lou is Cohn and Gary McVoy, the Nat iona l Environmental Po l i cy Act : " i s without quest ion the most s i g n i f i c a n t p iece of environmental l e g i s l a t i o n to in f luence t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Th is law has two bas ic p rov i s ions re levant to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n : (a) i t r equ i res a systematic , i n t e r d i s c i p l i c a r y approach to project development, and (b) i t requ i res the preparat ion of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for any major federa l ac t ion s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t i n g the environment. These two prov i s ions have dramat ica l ly a l t e r e d the way i n which t ranspor ta t ion agencies d e l i v e r p ro jec ts to implementation and, p a r t i c u l a r l y the EIS reguirement, have i n some cases added years to the project schedule." (1982, pp. 2 ) . In Canada, the federa l government has es tab l i shed the Federa l Environmental Assessment and Review Process i n order "to ensure that the - 85 -environmental e f f e c t s of federa l p r o j e c t s , programs and a c t i v i t i e s are assessed ear l y i n t h e i r p lanning, before any commitments or i r revocab le dec i s ions are made" (Federa l Environmental Assessment Review O f f i c e , 1979, pp. 1 ) . Unl ike the United States however, t h i s process i s not l e g a l l y required and i s based l a r g e l y on the s e l f assessment approach ( i . e . the federa l agency i n i t i a t i n g the pro jec t i s respons ib le for doing an i n i t i a l assessment and for e s t a b l i s h i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of environmental impacts i n order to determine whether or not an environmental impact assessment and review i s needed). S ince, under the C o n s t i t u t i o n , highways are a p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , the Federa l Environmental Assessment and Review Process i s not d i r e c t l y app l i cab le to the i ssue of reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Looking at the p r o v i n c i a l exper ience, both the Province of Ontar io and Saskatchewan have adopted environmental assessment l e g i s l a t i o n and appl ied i t to highway p lanning. Ontar io , i n 1975, passed the Environmental Assessment Act which requ i res almost a l l p u b l i c sector agencies, unless s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted, to incorporate an environmental assessment i n to any publ i c undertaking (descr ibed as a proposal , plan or program i n respect of an enterpr i se or a c t i v i t y - Government o f Ontar io , 1977, 25 p p . ) . Because of i t s enormous scope, t h i s Act has been sa id to be the most important p iece of environmental l e g i s l a t i o n ever enacted i n Canada (Emond, 1978, pp. 31) . According to H.F. G i l b e r t , Deputy M in i s te r of the Ontar io M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Communications, "major p ro jec ts , with the highest p o t e n t i a l for s i g n i f i c a n t environmental impact, such as new highway bypasses of communities, new routes, and major rea l i gnments . . . i nvo lve an i n d i v i d u a l environmental assessment on each p r o j e c t , with de ta i l ed cons iderat ion of - 86 -environmental f ac to rs and extensive pub l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (1978, pp. 88) . G i l b e r t goes on to note that these p ro jec t s require two environmental assessments, one at the beginning of planning (when the route l o c a t i o n i s f i x e d ) , and one near the end of design (before tenders are c a l l e d ) and must rece ive the approval of the M in i s t ry of the Environment. Under the Environmental Assessment Act , the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Communications prepares the environmental assessment i n consu l ta t i on with the Min is t ry of the Environment and other p r o v i n c i a l agencies. Upon complet ion, the environmental assessment i s f i l e d with the Min is ter of the Environment who arranges for the review of the document by the Environmental Assessment Sect ion and other p r o v i n c i a l agencies and may order the proponent to carry out further research . A f ter re l eas ing the environmental assessment and i t s co-ord inated review to the p u b l i c , the M in is ter may require that a pub l i c hearing be held before the Environmental Assessment Board (a permanent board cons i s t i ng of a minimum of f i v e members chosen from outs ide the pub l i c se rv i ce by Cabinet for s t i p u l a t e d terms). I f a hearing i s not he ld , the M in i s te r of the Environment, with the concurence of Cabinet, decides whether or not to approve the undertaking. Should the matter be re fe r red to a pub l i c hear ing, the Environmental Assessment Board decides on the acceptance of the environmental assessment and the approval o f the undertaking. Cabinet, w i th in 28 days, may vary or resc ind the Board's dec i s ions (Couch, 1982, pp. 24-26). As part o f the review, the M in i s t ry of Agr i cu l tu re and Food i n Ontar io asks the type of informat ion i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igure 19 to be inc luded i n such an environmental assessment. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note however, that the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Communicatons made a commitment to inc lude the - 87 -FIGURE 19: AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION REQUIRED IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS IN ONTARIO 1) Soils - soil capability for agriculture: - classes of land in the affected area - percentage of each class on site - soils with capability for specialty crops such as fruit, vegetables, tobacco, etc. - classes of land in the surrounding area 2) Climate - general climate and its suitability for crop growth - any special climate effects which allow for growth of specialized crops 3) Present Use - crops grown - acreages of different crops - trends on crop production - acreages and types of specialty crops - livestock/poultry enterprises - types of livestock/poultry operations - size and number and location of operations - present zoning - agricultural and nonagricultural - does the project conform with the Official Plan? - are the subject lands important in supplying local markets? A. Drainage - percent of land on site that is drained and that requires drainage - surface and subsurface drains affected by the project - effects upon drainage of off-site farms 5. Effect of the Project Upon Agriculture - some effort should be made to define agricultural communities, and the way in which the project may change a farmer's linkages to his community - loss of crops and livestock/poultry - effect upon land values - effect on availability of farm labour - effects upon off-site farms: - restrictions upon crops grown or livestock produced - effect of noise generated by the project - effect upon compliance with the Agricultural Code of Practice by off-site farms - compensation arrangements for any restrictions that are imposed - the possibility of air pollution and its effect upon agriculture - 88 -Figure 19 cont. effects of the project upon future planning and resultant effect upon agriculture: changes that may occur in growth patterns demands for new services such as housing, transportation corridors, etc. restrictions upon future expansion of agricultural operations will the project restrict agricultural operations? 6) Leasing of Project Lands i f any of the project's lands are to be leased back to farmers: percentage, acreages and classes of land to be leased leasing arrangements (lease fees; length of leases; any restriction on crops and/or livestock produced and compensation or reduction in lease fee for restrictions; termination of lease provisions). 7) What policies will be applied to determine compensation to the land owners involved for land and crop loss incurred as a direct result of the project? Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Foodland Preservation Branch, Ontario. - 89 -study and consideraton of the environmental imp l i ca t ions of a l l major highway pro jec ts at the route l o c a t i o n stage of planning before the Environmental Assessment Act was enacted ( G i l b e r t , 1978, pp. 83) , thus i n d i c a t i n g a broader and more f l e x i b l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach than may e x i s t i n B.C. Saskatchewan, i n 1980, a l so passed an Environmental Assessment Act which g ives the Department of Environment "the author i ty to requ i re the proponent of a development to prepare an environmental impact statement; approval to proceed may be denied or given only i f the proponent agrees to f u l l y mi t igate any poss ib le adverse e f f e c t s on the environment" (Saskatchewan Environment, undated, no p p . ) . Under t h i s Act , a development: "means any pro jec t , operat ion or a c t i v i t y or any a l t e r a t i o n or expansion of any p r o j e c t , operat ion or a c t i v i t y which i s l i k e l y t o : i ) have an e f f e c t on any unique, rare or endangered feature of the environment; i i ) s u b s t a n t i a l l y u t i l i z e any p r o v i n c i a l resource and i n so doing pre-empt the use, or p o t e n t i a l use, of that resource for any other purpose; i i i ) cause the emission of any po l l u tan ts or create by-products, r es idua l or waste products which requ i re handling and d i sposa l i n a manner that i s not regulated by any other Act or r e g u l a t i o n ; iv) cause widespread pub l i c concern because of p o t e n t i a l environmental changes; v) involve a new technology that i s concerned with resource u t i l i z a t i o n and that may induce s i g n i f i c a n t environmental change; or v i ) have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the environment or necess i ta te a fur ther development which i s l i k e l y to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the environment." (Environmental Assessment Act , 1980, pp. 1-2). According to Saskatchewan Rural A f f a i r s , t h i s environmental impact assessment and review process i s the main admin is t ra t ive mechanism used to ensure a g r i c u l t u r a l land management when planning highways (1983, l e t t e r of correspondence). In t h i s process, Saskatchewan Highways and Transportat ion would normally be the proponent, the Environmental Assessment Sec re ta r i a t the co-ord inat ing review agency, and Saskatchewan Rural A f f a i r s being j u s t one of - 90 -the agencies to which a pro ject would be re fer red to fo r comment. A p p l i c a t i o n to the C o n f l i c t i n B .C . ; U n t i l r ecen t l y , B r i t i s h Columbia has not l e g a l l y enacted an environmental impact assessment and review process for major p r o j e c t s . Instead, B.C. has r e l i e d on the broad powers of the Environment and Land Use Act and var ious s p e c i f i c regu lat ions under other acts which set the cond i t ions for obta in ing development permits (O'Riordan, 1981, pp. 100). Under the Environment and Land Use Act , the Environment and Land Use Committee " i s to e s t a b l i s h and recommend programs to fos te r pub l i c concern and awareness of the environment, to minimize and prevent the despo i l i ng of the environment, occasioned by resource and land use development, and to report to the Cabinet on matters per ta in ing to the environment and land use" (Couch, Wi l l iam 3., 1982, pp. 11) . In order to accomplish t h i s , the E .L .U .C . has developed a number of sector Gu ide l ines , i n c lud ing Gu ide l ines for L inear Development which can be appl ied by the Committee to " P r o v i n c i a l Government p ro jec ts such as major pub l i c highways and major resource development roads" (1977, pp. 3 ) . To date these Guide l ines have not been app l ied to highway network p lann ing . Should however t h i s change i n the fu ture , F igure 20 i l l u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l highway network planning process under the Gu ide l ines fo r L inear Development. The enactment of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act i n 1980, i s the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach adopted by B r i t i s h Columbia towards an environmental impact assessment and review process . Under t h i s Act , a B r i t i s h Columbia U t i l i t i e s Commission was es tab l i shed to review and approve major energy p r o j e c t s . Such pro jec ts inc lude : transmiss ion l i n e s , p i p e l i n e s , transshipment or storage f a c i l i t i e s , hydro or thermal power p lan ts , - 91 -FIGURE 20: APPLICATION OF THE GUIDELINES FOR LINEAR DEVELOPMENT  TO THE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS  Steps Process I n i t i a l Review - Environment and Land Use Committee ( E . L . U . C . ) decides whether or not to apply the Guide l ines to the highway network plan - I f Gu ide l ines app l ied , M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways to proceed as ou t l i ned below Prospectus - Highways prepares a general prospectus fo r the highway network plan - Review by E .L .U .C . and other government m i n i s t r i e s - E s t a b l i s h Pro ject Steer ing Committee - Comments re layed to proponent Stage 1: Route S e l e c t i o n - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of major economic, environmental and s o c i a l impacts of a l t e r n a t i v e routes - Determine preferred routes - I n i t i a l p lans fo r m i t i g a t i o n , design and pub l i c consu l ta t ion - Submission to Project Steer ing Committee - C i r c u l a t i o n and review by m i n i s t r i e s - Consu l tat ion between Highways and Pro ject Steer ing Committee leading to an agreement on the terms of reference for the Stage II Report. Stage I I : Deta i led Assessment and Planning Highways prepares d e t a i l e d environmental, s o c i a l and economic impact assessment of the highway network p lan. Submit to Pro ject Steer ing Committee C i r c u l a t e and review by government m i n i s t r i e s Recommendation to E .L .U .C . E .L .U .C . Dec is ion E .L .U .C . g ives a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e or may decide to hold a pub l i c hearing I f a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e i s g iven, Highways may proceed to Stage III Stage I I I : Operat ional Plans - Preparat ion of f i n a l highway network plan and Approvals Procedures - Highways app l ies for necessary l i c e n s e s and permits re la ted to s p e c i f i c road c o r r i d o r s - P ro jec t Steer ing Committee monitors t h i s process - Implementation and Endorsement of Highway Network Plan Adapted from Environment and Land Use Committee, 1977, pp. 3-12; Couch, 1982, pp. 13-14 - 92 -energy use and an undertaking of any kind that the Lieutenant Governor in Council (Cabinet) designates to be significant in the matter of energy (Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1982, pp. 5-6). The important point of this example is that perhaps i t indicates a move on the part of the British Columbia government to a legally required and more formal environmental impact assessment and review porcess. Figure 21 shows how the B.C. Utilities Commission model could be applied to highway network planning. Difficulties with this Solution: There are a number of difficulties or questions related to the application of either the Guidelines for Linear Development or an environmental impact assessment and review process similar to the B.C. Utilities Commission which cause both of them to be longer term solutions to resolving the conflict between highway network planning and agricultural land preservation in B.C. For one thing, i t is questionable whether either of these solutions would receive the necessary political support. In view of British Columbia's traditional reliance on the Environment and Land Use Act and other statutes, politicians may consider this existing legislation (including the Agricultural Land Commission Act and its explicit powers) as being sufficient. It is also guestionable whether the Ministry of Transportation and Highways would be overly supportive to being subjected to an environmental impact assessment and review process since this undoubtedly would increase its workload and curtail some of the freedom i t currently enjoys. Since the Ministry is a large, well established agency, its opposition to this process could serve as a major barrier to its immediate application. Another difficulty in applying an environmental impact assessment and review process to highway network planning is knowing which environmental FIGURE 21: - 93 -APPLICATION OF THE B, C. UTILITIES COMMISSION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS TO HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING Steps P re l im inar ies to App l i ca t i on App l i ca t i on for Approval M i n i s t e r i a l Review Pub l i c Hearing (opt ional) Implementation and Endorsement Process Highways prepares a prospectus of the highway network plan Review by a Project Coordinat ing Committee and Working Committees D iscuss ion on the development of s i t i n g preference, benef i t/cost a n a l y s i s , environmental impact assessment, compensation/mitigation proposals and other informat ion needed for preparat ion of an A p p l i c a t i o n Highways prepares App l i ca t ion for Approval of highway network plan conta in ing the above noted information Review by Project Coordinat ing Committee fo r d e f i c i e n c i e s . M in is ter of Environment or other M in i s te r reviews the highway network p lan . May request Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways to co r rec t d e f i c i e n c i e s . The M in i s te r may approve the highway network plan o u t r i g h t , re fe r i t to a s p e c i a l environmental impact assessment and review agency for approval , or may require that a pub l i c hearing be h e l d . I f approved by the s p e c i a l environmental impact assessment and review agency ( i . e . B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission), Highways would s t i l l have to obta in the necessary approvals fo r the highway network plan from other government departments. P ro jec t Coordinat ing Committee develops terms of re ference for the pub l i c hearing Environmental Impact Assessment and Review Agency holds pub l i c hearings Recommendation to Cabinet Cabinet dec is ion on the highway network plan I f Cabinet approves the highway network p lan , Highways proceeds with implementation and endorsement. Adapted from Couch, 1982, pp. 13-16 - 94 -parameters are to be inc luded . Often prepared at a reconnaisance l e v e l , a highway network plan does not usua l ly invo lve the examination of the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s which are required i n doing an environmental impact statement. For example, the Gu ide l ines for L inear Development would require the M in is t ry to c o l l e c t a great deal o f very s i t e - s p e c i f i c in format ion . Th is would amount to an enormous undertaking i f requ i red for each and every highway network plan or proposed road c o r r i d o r . I t i s probably fo r t h i s reason that "long-range t ranspor ta t ion planning has been undertaken i n a p a r t i a l vacuum, i s o l a t e d to a large extent from environmental concerns" (ITE Technica l Counc i l Committee 6FA, 1976, pp. 40) . Other quest ions r e l a t e d to these so lu t i ons inc lude : who should make the f i n a l dec i s ion i f an environmental impact assessment and review process was es tab l i shed for highway network planning (the E . L . U . C , the M in is ter of Environment, a panel or commission, another bureaucracy)? w i l l t h i s decision-making agency or i n d i v i d u a l have the t e c h n i c a l expert ise for making dec i s ions r e l a t e d to highway network p lanning, a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion and other environmental cons iderat ions? how would t h i s environmental impact assessment and review process be implemented (a l e g a l requirement or based on the s e l f assessment approach)? should the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch be respons ib le for doing the impact assessment and does i t have the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t y to do t h i s ? would the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, with i t s e x p l i c i t l e g a l powers and j u r i s d i c t i o n over a g r i c u l t u r a l land, be w i l l i n g to abdicate i t s decision-making powers to another government agency and only be one of the - 95 -participants responsible for reviewing a highway network plan? Because of these various difficulties and questions, i t is believed that, although the environmental impact assessment and review process has been successfully applied elsewhere, i t is s t i l l a longer term solution for resolving the conflict between highway network planning and agricultural land preservation in British Columbia. - 96 -CHAPTER 9 CONFLICT RESOLUTION BY AN INTERMEDIARY AGENCY Bas is fo r t h i s S o l u t i o n : There are numerous examples where an intermediary agency i s used as a means fo r reso lv ing c o n f l i c t s . For example, the Labour Re lat ions Board of B r i t i s h Columbia has been es tab l i shed s p e c i f i c a l l y to handle var ious forms of labour d i sputes . Such d isputes are processed s t r i c t l y on an admin is t ra t ive bas is wherein the Board attempts to achieve a settlement before proceeding to the stage of a formal hearing and ad jud icat ion (Labour Re lat ions Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982, pp. 23) . The Ontar io Municipal Board i s another example of an intermediary or independent admin is t rat ive t r i b u n a l which reviews and decides upon appeals under the Planning Act , Munic ipal Act and other l e g i s l a t i o n ( i . e . appeals fo r amendment of r e s t r i c t e d area by-laws; appeals from Committees of Adjustment and Land D i v i s i o n Committees; assessment appeals; e t c . - Ontario Munic ipal Board, 1982, 19 p p . ) . In the majority of matters, there i s an appeal of the Board's dec i s ion to the Lieutenant Governor i n Counc i l . In Manitoba, an Interdepartmental Planning Board has been created with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f " . . . p r o v i d i n g an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y context wi th in which var ious land use proposals can be reviewed a n d . . . p r o v i d i n g an arena for information exchange where deput ies and departments can be kept up-to-date on a number of land r e l a t e d i ssues " (Manitoba Department of Highways and Transportat ion , 1983, l e t t e r of correspondence). Thus, the Department of Highways and Transportat ion would br ing t h e i r proposals to the Interdepartmental Planning Board as ear ly as poss ib le , an interdepartmental working group would be es tab l i shed and each member department would provide - 97 -their input and be part of the review process. According to the Manitoba Department of Agriculture, this process has been working quite well (1983, letter of correspondence). Should problems occur at the Interdepartmental Planning Board level, the matter could be referred to the Provincial Land Use Committee of Cabinet whose responsibilities include "to resolve land use issues involving more than one department and...to assess the land use/environmental impacts of some major projects...." (Manitoba Department of Highways and Transportation, 1983, letter of correspondence). Application to the Conflict in B.C.: Until recently, the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat in British Columbia fulfilled a similar function to Manitoba's Interdepartmental Planning Board. One of the primary purposes of this Secretariat was to resolve land use and resource conflicts (Ministry of Environment, 1980, pp. 68-69). As described in one of its earliest Annual Reports: "In dealing with resource allocation conflicts, the concept of the Secretariat has been to bring together teams comprising individuals from various resource departments who speak for the different interests and attempt to clarify the conflicts, understand the impacts of proposed developments, identify approaches for mitigation, quantify and assess these alternatives, and, finally, present preferred solutions to the Committee for final decision. Heavy emphasis is given to identification of opportunities for integrated resource management, though in the final analysis, political judgement and decision must prevail" (Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, 1976, pp. 8). Although disbanded in 1980, the Secretariat was respected, impartial, unbiased and technical and could have been used as an intermediary agency for resolving the conflict between highway network planning and agricultural land preservation. There are however, other existing agencies which could possibly be used to resolve this conflict. For example, according to its 1981 Program Directory, - 98 -the Min is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s ' r o l es i nc lude : "(a) encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g planning by l o c a l government; (b) ensuring that planning o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s of l o c a l government are cons is tent with the planning and development aims of the p r o v i n c i a l government; (c) co-ord inat ing p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and programs as they a f f e c t urban and r u r a l a r e a s ; . . . . " (1981, pp. MA-6, MA-7). S i m i l a r l y , the M in is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s Act e x p l i c i t y s tates that the Min is t ry i s to be "the medium of communication between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the Lieutenant Governor i n Counc i l " (1979, pp. 1) . Thus, one might look to the Min is t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s to act as an intermediary for reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a f f e c t s l o c a l governments doing a l o c a l area p l a n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y however, the M in is t ry has not done t h i s , i n d i c a t i n g that i t i s not prepared to hold up a l o c a l area plan because of a c o n f l i c t over a highway network plan ( C u l l , 1983, personal communication). Th is i s par t l y due to the fac t that the M in is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s be l i eves that both the Commission and Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways have the exper t i se and l e g a l power to reso lve the c o n f l i c t themselves. Another agency which cu r ren t l y e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia which could be used to reso lve the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion are the Regional Resource Management Committees (RRMCs). There are seven RRMCs around the province c o n s i s t i n g of senior s t a f f from the core m i n i s t e r i e s represented on the Environment and Land Use Committee ( i . e . Agr i cu l tu re and Food; Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources; Fores ts ; Industry and Small Business Development; Environment; Land, Parks and Housing; Munic ipal A f f a i r s ; Transportat ion and Highways; and, Intergovernmental - 99 -R e l a t i o n s ) . Reporting to the Environment and Land Use Technica l Committee, one of the purposes of the RRMCs i s to "seek r e s o l u t i o n of land use c o n f l i c t s " (Environment and Land Use Technica l Committee and Regional Resource Management  Committees - Roles and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , 1982, pp. 7) Where a consensus can not be reached at the RRMC l e v e l , the c o n f l i c t along with an appropr iate d e s c r i p t i o n of the i ssues and a l t e r n a t i v e courses of act ions are passed to the Environment and Land Use Technica l Committee (ELUTC) for r e s o l u t i o n . Cons is t ing of the var ious Deputy M in i s te rs of the Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC), the ELUTC "may, i f appropr iate , take a p o s i t i o n on such matters or conduct an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c o n f l i c t and then provide admin is t rat ive d i r e c t i o n to i t s member M i n i s t e r i e s " (Environment and Land Use  Techn ica l Committee and Regional Resource Management Committees - Roles and  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , 1982, pp. 7 ) . F i n a l l y , there i s the Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC) i t s e l f . As descr ibed by Jonathan O'Riordan, the goal of the Committee i s to seek a balance between resource and community development and environmental p rotec t ion through d i r e c t negot ia t ion and compromise between min i s te rs (1981, pp. 95-96). In accordance with t h i s ob jec t i ve , the Committee i s sa id to have considered a number of dec i s ions on resource a l l o c a t i o n as we l l as reso lv ing s p e c i f i c resource use c o n f l i c t s . F igure 22 i l l u s t r a t e s how such an intermediary agency might be used i n the highway network planning process i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a means for reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . - 100 -FIGURE 22: USE OF AN INTERMEDIARY AGENCY TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS IN THE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS Steps Process Initiation - Highways planning policy and concepts to regional board, municipal council or technical planning committee - Highways suggests planning area - T.P.C. recommends study to regional board - Regional board instructs T.P.C. to appoint a working committee Compile Background Data - Highways compiles background data - Highways prepares maps, graphics and mosaics Develop Crude Plan - Highways prepares a crude network plan Present Crude Plan - Highways explains crude plan and its function to working committee and Commission staff Identify Contentious Issues - Committee and Commission staff identify problems including area of study - Committee responds to concepts in crude plans - Committee and Commission staff identify contentious issues and may seek guidance from principals - Committee requests feasibility work necessary to resolve issues - Contentious issues documented Resolve Contentious Issues - Committee and Commission attempt to resolve contentious issues - Progress report to T.P.C. and principals - Commission, Council and/or Board decisions on plan and issues - Possible public meeting Unresolved conflicts to an intermediary agency along with necessary documentation Intermediary agency attempts to resolve the conflicts Decision relayed to principals Endorsement - Highways, Commission and local government adhere to decision of intermediary agency - Possible appeal route Conflicts to an Intermediary Agency Implementation - Committee and principals develop priorities for implementation - Principals resolve funding of priority - Implementation occurs - Plan review and amendment - 101 -D i f f i c u l t i e s with t h i s S o l u t i o n : One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s or concerns r e l a t i n g to the use of an intermediary agency i s the quest ion of whether or not i t s dec i s ions w i l l be i m p a r t i a l , t e c h n i c a l and c o n s i s t e n t . A l l of these cons iderat ions would have to be met for e i the r the Commission or M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways to be w i l l i n g to entrust the f i n a l dec i s i on on a highway network plan and i t s e f f e c t on the ALR to another agency. Would the ELUTC be i m p a r t i a l or would i t be swayed by the Deputy M in is ter o f Transportat ion and Highways who i s on the Committee? Since the Commission i s not represented d i r e c t l y or i n a consu l t ive r o l e on the RRMC, ELUTC or ELUC, the Commission l e g i t i m a t e l y might question whether these var ious poss ib le intermediary agencies have the t e c h n i c a l exper t i se or knowledge to adequately take in to account the need to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l and . Although the Min is t ry of Agr i cu l tu re and Food representat ive on these Committees could be the Commission's avenue of l i a s o n , the problem t r a d i t i o n a l l y has been that the M i n i s t r y ' s concern i s p r i m a r i l y a l l o c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l lands and programs, whereas the Commission's concern i s preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Thus, the perspect ive of the Min is t ry of Agr i cu l tu re and Food and the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission i s not always c o i n c i d e n t . Would dec is ions by the seven d i f f e r e n t RRMCs be cons is tent or would d i f f e r e n t a t t i tudes and approaches i n d i f f e r e n t regions lead to i ncons i s tenc ies? Since dec i s ions by the RRMCs are by consensus, w i l l t h i s consensus r e f l e c t a des i rab le so lu t i on i n the mind of e i ther the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways or Commission? A l l of these are p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s with using an intermediary agency as a means for reso lv ing the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion . - 102 -What should the s t ruc ture and composit ion of t h i s intermediary agency be? Should i t be an independent t r i b u n a l , appointed commission, bureaucrats or p o l i t i c i a n s ? Is there going to be an appeal route on dec is ions rendered by the intermediary agency? Would t h i s agency be respons ib le for r e s o l v i n g other c o n f l i c t s ( i . e . such as the Land Use Appeal Board that was suggested at one time i n the proposed Land Use Act for B r i t i s h Columbia - M in i s t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1980, pp. 25-26). Does the ELUC want to be bothered with each and every c o n f l i c t between the Commission and Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways over a highway network plan or should i t provide a po l i cy d i r e c t i o n on how to handle the c o n f l i c t for once and for a l l ? Do the Commission and Min is t ry want to bother with the ELUC, ELUTC, RRMCs or any intermediary agency? With a l l of these d i f f i c u l t i e s and unanswered quest ions, i t i s understandable why ne i ther the Commission or Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways are l i k e l y to be over ly anxious to use an intermediary agency to resolve t h e i r c o n f l i c t s and why t h i s i s a longer term s o l u t i o n to the problem. - 103 -Summary - Long Term So lu t ions : Of the three long term so lu t ions descr ibed i n the previous chapters , i t i s be l ieved that a change of phi losophy i s the most pre ferab le s o l u t i o n to the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Thus, rather than simply attempting to accomodate the long term urban form, the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch and P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, along with other government agencies, should attempt to d i r e c t development and locate proposed road c o r r i d o r s away from the prov ince 's l i m i t e d supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l land wherever p o s s i b l e . Th is b e l i e f admittedly stems from the author 's b ias that a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s a valuable resource which r i g h t f u l l y needs to be preserved. In order to accomplish t h i s change of phi losophy, a c l e a r p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y w i l l be required l i n k i n g together t ranspor ta t ion , a g r i c u l t u r e and land use p lanning. Although t h i s t h e s i s has r e s t r i c t e d i t s e l f to the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion , other environmental cons iderat ions should i n the future a lso be inc luded wi th in t h i s more comprehensive or integrated approach to p lanning. Undoubtedly, c o n f l i c t s or d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion w i l l occur i n t h i s planning process. In order to reso lve these, i t i s be l ieved that an interdepartmental working group (such as was the case with the Environment and Land Use Committee Sec re ta r ia t ) should be es tab l i shed to provide d i r e c t i o n and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . However, i n view of the fac t that t h i s i s s t i l l a long term s o l u t i o n , the fo l lowing chapter conta ins a s o l u t i o n which cou ld be implemented now i n order to resolve the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion i n B.C. and i t s imp l i ca t i ons to l o c a l area planning and the development of land . - 104 -RECOMMENDED SHORT TERM SOLUTION - 105 -CHAPTER 10 USE OF A SHORT RANGE AND LONG RANGE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLAN Basis For a Two-Plan Approach: The idea of using more than j u s t one highway network plan i s by no means unique. Joseph L. Schofer and Peter R. Stopher i n t h e i r argument for the need for long range t ranspor ta t ion p lanning, a lso argue that var ious scenar ios of what the future may e n t a i l should be developed using d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . Thus, rather than coming up with one b luepr in t of the fu ture , var ious plans should be produced (1979, pp. 202). Jan Van T i l used t h i s approach in developing f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t ranspor ta t ion and development scenar ios based on d i f f e r e n t assumptions with regard to energy supply and urban growth (1979, pp. 318-329). F i n a l l y , R.G. Rice argues i n favor of not only a long range t ranspor ta t ion p lan , but a lso for a short range plan (1977, pp. 83) . In view of the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways commitment to a s i n g l e long  range highway network plan (as opposed to var ious long range plans which would create too much u n c e r t a i n t y ) , i t i s be l ieved that the use of a short range and a long range plan i s the best s o l u t i o n . According to Mr. Greg Singer, Supervis ing Transportat ion Engineer with the Planning Branch, the M in i s t ry probably would not have any ob jec t ion to such a two plan approach (1983, personal communication). Short Range Highway Network P lan: The primary purpose of a short range highway network plan would be to inc lude i t i n t o a l o c a l area p lan . Thus, the short range highway network plan would have the same time frame as the o f f i c i a l community p lan , o f f i c i a l settlement plan or o f f i c i a l reg iona l plan ( t y p i c a l l y 5-10 y e a r s ) . The problem - 106 -with the approach present ly being used i s that the time frame and assumptions of the l o c a l area plan are t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t than those of the long range highway network plan ( i . e . 80-100 years) prepared by the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways which i s c u r r e n t l y being included in to the l o c a l area p lan . By developing a short range highway network p lan, only those a r t e r i a l s and c o l l e c t o r s required i n the next 5-10 years and re la ted to the expectat ions and development i n the l o c a l area plan would be i d e n t i f i e d . This would not only make the l o c a l area plan more cons i s tent , but would a l so r e l i e v e the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's concerns that the longer range highway network plan would be used for l o c a l decis ion-making, create uncer ta in t i es i n the eyes of the farming community, or cause development pressures from prospect ive app l i can ts . Th i s i n turn would re lease the l o c a l munic ipa l i ty or reg iona l d i s t r i c t from the predicament of having to decide which agency to please (the Commission regarding the need to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land or the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways with respect to the need to inc lude a long range highway network plan) when doing a l o c a l area p lan . F i n a l l y , the M in is t ry could use the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s short range highway network plan in to a l o c a l area plan as the bas is fo r assess ing p r o v i n c i a l cos t -shar ing app l i ca t i ons under the Revenue Sharing Act or the Secondary Highway Program. The process involved i n doing a short range highway network plan would be s i m i l a r to that of a long range plan and would probably occur s imul tan ious ly . A m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y team c o n s i s t i n g of s t a f f from the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch, P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission and the l o c a l agency would be involved i n both the short range and the long range highway network p lan . Again, the idea of a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y - 107 -team approach to highway network planning i s not new. The Ontario M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways has adopted t h i s approach s ince the ear ly 1970's (1983, l e t t e r of correspondence). S i m i l a r l y , Environment Canada i n i t s pub l i ca t i on Environmental Code of Good P r a c t i c e for Highways and Railways i d e n t i f i e s a m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y team approach as being necessary (1979, pp. 1 and 3 ) . In order to be success fu l , a co-operat ive a t t i tude would have to be adopted by the m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y team (Conradt and Fearnley, 1970, pp. 185). Thus, working together the Min is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch, Commission and l o c a l s t a f f would develop a short range highway network plan to inc lude in to the l o c a l area p lan . In most cases i t i s expected that agreement could be obtained amongst these d i f f e r e n t agencies. However, should a disagreement a r i se regarding the s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n of a proposed road c o r r i d o r (which i s to be b u i l t wi th in the time frame of the l o c a l area p lan) , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o r r i d o r would be i d e n t i f i e d as not having been agreed to . U l t imate ly , the Commission's approval would s t i l l be requ i red for the ac tua l ded icat ion or const ruc t ion of t h i s proposed road. The Commission and M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways would continue to have t h e i r normal input i n to the remainder of the l o c a l area p lan . F igure 23 i l l u s t r a t e s the process involved i n preparing a short range highway network p l a n . Long Range Highway Network Plan The purpose of the long range highway network plan would continue to be to i d e n t i f y present and future road c o r r i d o r s which are or w i l l be required to provide access to developable areas or to accomodate changes i n the i n t e n s i t y of land u t i l i z a t i o n . In doing t h i s , i t i s recommended that a 30-40 year time frame would be more appropr iate than the 80-100 year one cur ren t l y being used. S i m i l a r l y , t h i s long range highway network plan would not be inc luded i n a l o c a l area p lan, but instead would be contained i n a separate document. Th is document ( i . e . "Long Range Highway Network Plan for the C i ty of Kelowna") would inc lude a plan map or mosaic and a - 108 -FIGURE 23: PROPOSED SHORT RANGE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS Steps I n i t i a t i o n Compile Background Data Develop Crude Plan Present Crude Plan Ident i fy Contentious Issues Resolve Contentious Issues Endorsement Implementation Process Municipal Counci l or Regional Board decides to i n i t i a t e or update a l o c a l area plan E s t a b l i s h boundaries of the study area M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch and P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission advised Highways compiles background informat ion for the short range highway network plan (poss ib ly a lso for long range plan too) i . e . i d e n t i f y gaps or problems i n e x i s t i n g network Highway uses data and assumptions contained i n the proposed l o c a l area p l a n . Prepares maps, graphics and mosaics Highways prepares crude short range highway network plan Highways expla ins crude plan to a working committee of l o c a l government and Commission s t a f f Committee responds to problems i n the short range highway network plan Contentious i ssues documented Committee attempts to reso lve content ious i ssues Short range highway network plan inc luded in to l o c a l area plan Loca l area plan to pub l i c hearing Resolve any outstanding issues Loca l area plan adopted Committee develops p r i o r i t i e s fo r implementation Short range highway network plan used to assess p r o v i n c i a l cos t -shar ing funds Implementation occurs Plan review or amendment - 109 -wr i t ten d e s c r i p t i o n of each network element. Where agreement was not reached on a p a r t i c u l a r road c o r r i d o r ( i . e . agreement from not only the Commission, but a l so the l o c a l government, general publ ic and any other agency who comments on the proposed c o r r i d o r ) , that c o r r i d o r would be shown on the plan map or mosaic as not having been agreed t o . Thus, the plan map or mosaic would conta in both those a r t e r i a l s and c o l l e c t o r s which have been approved and those that have not. Included wi th in the wr i t ten d e s c r i p t i o n of each network element would be: the name of the network element; a general d e s c r i p t i o n of i t ( i . e . proposed r ight-of-way width; l o c a t i o n ; funct ion ; e t c . ) ; the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways reasons for proposing the network element and the expected time frame for i t ; the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission's p o s i t i o n ; the pos i t i on of the l o c a l Counc i l or Board and Technica l Planning Committee; and, the general p u b l i c ' s or s p e c i f i c groups' op in ions . Once again, the use of a separate document for a proposed long range t ranspor ta t ion plan i s not unique. The Province of Ontar io has long s ince made i t a po l i cy to produce planning and design documents throughout the var ious stages of a road pro ject development ( O l i v e r , 1974, pp. 46-47). L ikewise, the federa l government has i d e n t i f i e d documentation as being an important way "to encourage departments and agencies to incorporate environmental cons iderat ions i n to the conceptual stage of pro ject development" and which "should be used as a necessary and rout ine part of the o v e r a l l planning process" (Federal Environmental Assessment Review O f f i c e , 1978, pp. 4 ) . - 110 -There are a number of advantages to t h i s approach to doing a long range highway network p lan: 1. The long range highway network plan would not hold up the implementation of a l o c a l area p lan . 2. The p o s i t i o n of each agency involved i n the process would be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . At the present t ime, t h i s i s not r e a l l y the case ( i . e . the M in is t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch does not s tate i n wr i t ing i t s ra t iona le and time frame for a proposed network element; the comments and concerns of the Commission tend to get bur ied i n a f i l e rather than being c l e a r l y a v a i l a b l e ) . 3. People using or looking at the long range highway network plan ( i . e . a developer or farmer) w i l l be wel l advised i n advance of the status of each road c o r r i d o r . Thus, the speculator or developer hoping to use the long range highway network plan as a reason to subdivide some land wi th in the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve w i l l be forewarned of the Commission's p o s i t i o n on the matter. 4. Should an approving o f f i c e r wish to request the ded icat ion of some r ight-of-way as part of a subd iv i s ion approval , he w i l l be made aware of the fac t that he must f i r s t seek the input of the Commission for t h i s request . In order to avoid a c o n f l i c t wherein the appl icant can not get the necessary approvals for the s u b d i v i s i o n , i t w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the approving o f f i c e r and Commission to reso lve t h e i r respect ive pos i t i ons on the r ight-of-way ded i ca t i on . 5 . As a separate document, the long range highway network plan could be presented to the publ i c so as to be reviewed on i t s own mer i t s . Under the e x i s t i n g process, the only pub l i c exposure a highway network plan often receives is when i t is reviewed as part of the public hearing for a local area plan. The disadvantages of this approach is that i t will undoubtedly involve more work and could perhaps create a very cautious attitude toward long range highway network planning (i.e. the Commission might be reluctant to agree in writing and publicly to a proposed long range road corridor in fear that i t might lead to applications or development pressures based on this stated position - this problem could be overcome by indicating that the Commission's agreement to the proposed road corridor is based on the long range time frame identified by the Ministry of Transportation and Highways). In preparing a long range highway network plan, the Ministry could continue to initiate the planning process, compile background information and develop its own crude plan. The Ministry would then however, seek the involvement of the Commission and the local area people and work together with them as a multi-disciplinary team in an attempt to agree to a long range highway network plan. The plan would then be presented to the local elected officials and finally to the public. Although agreement would be actively sought at a l l of these levels, i t would not be absolutely necessary as the position of each agency or group involved in the plan at the various levels of involvement would be clearly documented. This long range highway network plan should also be reviewed regularly (i.e. every 5 years) in the future. Figure 24 summarizes the recommended process for doing such a long range highway network plan. - 112 -FIGURE 24: PROPOSED LONG RANGE HIGHWAY NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS Steps I n i t i a t i o n Compile Background Data Develop Crude Plan Present Crude Plan Ident i fy Contentious Issues Resolve Contentious Issues Formal Review (Poss ib le Endorsement) Implementation Process Highways decides to i n i t i a t e a long range highway network plan Highways planning po l i cy and concepts to reg iona l board, municipal counc i l or t e c h n i c a l planning committee Highways suggests planning area T . P . C . recommends study to reg iona l board Working committee of l o c a l government and Commission s t a f f es tab l i shed Highways compiles background informat ion Highways prepares maps, graphics and mosaics Highways prepares crude long range highway network plan Highways expla ins crude plan and i t s funct ion to working committee Committee responds to problems i n the long range highway network plan Contentious i ssues documented Committee attempts to reso lve content ious i ssues Plan and issues to Commission, Counc i l and/or Regional Board for dec i s ions P o s i t i o n s of Highways and reviewing agencies documented Long Range Highway Network Plan presented to the publ ic Attempt to reso lve outstanding content ious i ssues Input from publ ic review documented Poss ib le Endorsement Plan and documentation publ ished Committee and p r i n c i p a l s develop p r i o r i t i e s fo r implementation Implementation occurs Plan review or amendment every 5 years - 113 -Summary - Recommended Short Term S o l u t i o n : In summary, i t i s be l ieved that the two p lan approach to highway network planning ( i . e . a short range and a long range plan) would not only be a means of r e s o l v i n g the e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion , but would a l so meet the o b j e c t i v e s and concerns of the var ious actors invo lved i n t h i s process ( i . e . the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch; P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission; l o c a l mun ic ipa l i ty or reg iona l d i s t r i c t ; approving o f f i c e r ; M in is t ry of Munic ipa l A f f a i r s ; the farming community; developers; and the general p u b l i c ) . It i s a lso a s o l u t i o n which could be implemented now. - 114 -CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s has been t h r e e f o l d . The f i r s t ob jec t i ve was to descr ibe the e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and the preservat ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In doing t h i s , i t i s hoped that t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l not only i l l umina te the c o n f l i c t which e x i s t s , but w i l l a l so serve to c l a r i f y the background, nature and reasons f o r t h i s c o n f l i c t for the var ious actors invo lved ( i . e . the M in i s t ry of Transportat ion and Highways Planning Branch; P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission; M in is t ry of Munic ipal A f f a i r s ; l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and reg iona l d i s t r i c t s ; and the general p u b l i c ) . In other words, i f nothing e l s e , i t i s hoped that t h i s thes i s w i l l be used as an educat ional t o o l . The second ob jec t ive of t h i s t h e s i s was to ou t l i ne the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c o n f l i c t to l o c a l area planning and the development of l and . Th is was necessary i n order to p lace a perspect ive on the c o n f l i c t between highway network planning and a g r i c u l t u r a l land preservat ion ( i . e . who cares or so what i f there i s a c o n f l i c t ? ) . As descr ibed in Part I I , the c o n f l i c t can have ser ious imp l i ca t i ons to the preparat ion of o f f i c i a l community p lans, o f f i c i a l settlement plans and o f f i c i a l r eg iona l plans and to the subd iv i s ion of land or as a p o t e n t i a l impetus to development. In view of suggestions that the Munic ipa l Act be amended so as to conta in some o f the p rov i s ions of the prev ious ly proposed Land Use Act ( i . e . regu i r ing every l o c a l government to adopt an o f f i c i a l p l an ; r e g u i r i n g a l l o f f i c i a l plans to g ive cons iderat ion to "the use of land for present and future food product ion" and "the approximate l o c a t i o n o f proposed major s t r e e t s to serve the area covered by the p lan" ; r e q u i r i n g the approval o f the M in i s te r o f Munic ipal A f f a i r s - B i l l 72 Land Use - 115 -Act, 1982, pp. 8-9), the implications of the conflict to local area plans will be magnified (Cull, 1983, personal communication). Thus, an effort must be made to resolve this conflict. In accordance with this conclusion, the third objective of the thesis was to examine some long term and short term solutions for resolving the conflict and reconciling the various opposing elements. In reviewing the experience of other areas or as described in secondary published sources, it soon became apparent that there is no easy solution to the conflict. This probably comes as no surprise to the planning theorist or practitioner. Melvin M. Webber in fact, makes this very observation in his presentation On the Technics and  Politics of Transport Planning (1973, pp. 14). However, bearing this in mind, it is believed that the three long term solutions and one short term, easily implementable solution described in the latter part of the thesis represent the "best" theoretical and pragmatic solutions currently available for resolving the conflict between highway network planning and agricultural land preservation. Again, It is hoped that the thesis and discussions with key personnel from the Ministry of Transportation and Highways Planning Branch, the Provincial Agricultural Land Commission and Ministry of Municipal Affairs will stimulate the interest in pursuing the review and implementation of these solutions. - 116 -Bib l iography A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Ac t . 1979. Revised Statute Chapter 9, Queen's P r i n t e r for B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Ashley, David J . 1980. "Uncertainty i n the context of Highway Approval" . Transportat ion , v o l . 9, no. 3, pp. 249-267. Baxter, David. 1974. The B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act - A Review. Report No 8, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administrat ion Graduate Studies , Un ivers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. B.C. Land Commission. 1975. Keeping the Options Open. Commission Brochure, Burnaby, B.C. B.C. Reg 536/77 Revenue Sharing Ac t . 1977. 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