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Nutrient availability of wheat feed screenings in broiler diet Wolde-Tsadick, Maheteme Selassie 1982

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NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT FEED SCREENINGS IN BROILER DIET by. Maheteme S e l a s s i e jWolde-Tsadick B.Sc,  H a i l e S e l a s s i e I U n i v e r s i t y , 1962  M . S c , Oklahoma S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P o u l t r y S c i e n c e  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981  ©  Maheteme S e l a s s i e  Wolde-Tsadick.  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Poultry Science  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  A p r i l 15,  1982  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  C o n t e n t and a v a i l a b i l i t y feed screening broiler  o f n u t r i e n t s i n t e n wheat  s a m p l e s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g day o l d  chicks. The m e t a b o l i z a b l e  screenings  energy  (WFS)in a b a l a n c e d  0.05) h i g h e r  (ME) v a l u e  o f wheat  d i e t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  control diet.  (P > 0.05) h i g h e r  than  The t o t a l i n these  (diet three).  significantly  the c o n t r o l d i e t .  average a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f s i x t e e n amino  f e e d s t u f f s r a n g e d f r o m 66% ( c o n t r o l ) t o 84% Among l i m i t i n g  l y s i n e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y availability  than  D i e t s o n e , t w o , f o u r , s e v e n , t e n and e l e v e n  f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i p s w h i c h were  acids  (P >  t h a n wheat w h i c h was u s e d as a c o n t r o l d i e t .  G r o w t h p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l WFS s a m p l e s were h i g h e r  had  feed  essential  amino a c i d s ,  (P > 0.05) h i g h e r  f o l l o w e d by t h r e o n i n e  (83%)  (67%) and  in  methionine  (64%). The a v e r a g e a v a i l a b i l i t y elements 84%  chemical  ( C a , P, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn) r a n g e d f r o m 59% (Zn) t o  ( C u ) . Among t h e c h e m i c a l  was t h e h i g h e s t phosphorus  of the studied  n u t r i e n t s t e s t e d , copper  t o be f o l l o w e d by manganese ( 7 6 . 5 7 % ) and  ( 7 4 . 1 4 % ) and t h e l e a s t was z i n c ( 5 9 % )  availability  (84.28%)  value.  in  ii i  The has  r e s u l t s of these studies  an a c c e p t a b l e p o t e n t i a l t o r e p l a c e  margin of p r o f i t  to the  producer.  indicated that wheat w i t h  WFS  reasonable  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  vii  L I S T OF APPENDIX TABLES  —  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  INTRODUCTION  1  I.  LITERATURE REVIEW  4  1.  Wheat  4  A.  Protein  5  B.  Metabolizable  C.  Chemical - Elements  2.  Energy  13  \-j  Rapeseed  19  A.  Protein  22  B.  Metabolizable  C.  C h e m i c a l Element..  D.  Toxicity (a)  Energy  Glucosinolates  _—  27 30 34 1  34  V  Page (b) (c) (d) •(e)  3.  4. II.  III.  Tannins Erucic acid Gums Phytate  39 41 42 43  E. - S a f e t y L e v e l  43  F.  47  Processing  Buckwheat  50  A.  Protein  52  B.  Effect of Processing  56  Weed Seeds  58  MATERIALS AND METHODS  60  A.  Amino A c i d A v a i l a b i l i t y  B.  Metabolizable. Energy  C.  Chemical Element Study  63  D.  Feeding T r i a l  67  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Study  Study  60 63  68  A  B o t a n i c a l Composition  68  B  Chemical A n a l y s i s  70  C  Metabolizable  72  D  Body W e i g h t G a i n  T  C h e m i c a l Element."'-:  Energy  76 81  vi  Page F  Chemical  Element  Availability  86  1-.. C a l c i u m  • 88  2. P h o s p h o r u s  88  3. M a g n e s i u m  91  4. Manganese  91  5. C o p p e r  92  '-6. Z i n c .G-  Amino A c i d A v a i l a b i l i t y  93 o f Wheat F e e d S c r e e n i n g s  E c o n o m i c E v a l u a t i o n o f Wheat F e e d S c r e e n i n g s  IV.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  -.  94 104  112  V.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  115  VI.  APPENDIX TABLES  137  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  Page  1  Composition  o£ s y n t h e t i c  2  Composition  of experimental  3  Botanical  composition  screenings  (purified)  diet—  diet  62 64  o f wheat f e e d  69  (%)  4  Chemical  analysis  o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s 71  5  Chemical  analysis  of experimental  6  G r o s s and m e t a b o l i z a b l e experimental diet  7  A v e r a g e body w e i g h t f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and feed e f f i c i e n c y of b r o i l e r chicks at four weeks o f age ----•? •- 77  8  Content of s i x chemical elements presentv,in .wheat feed-screenings  82  9  Content o f s i x . chemical elements present i n . experimental d i e t  85  Chemical element experimental diet  87  10  diet  energy o f  availability  73 75  of  11  Amino  acid  composition  o f experimental diets  12  Amino a c i d screenings  composition  o f wheat feed  96  97  viii  Page 13  Amino acid a v a i l a b i l i t y of experimental d i e t fed to chicks  14  Wholesale price l i s t of d i e t ingredients as based on March 27, 1981 p r i c e •  107  15  Average feed consumption, feed conversion,, feed cost per kg gain and m o r t a l i t y of b r o i l e r fed diets based on wheat and wheat feed screenings to 4 weeks of age •  108  98  ix  L I S T OF APPENDIX TABLES  Appendix  Page  1  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r f e e d consumpt i o n o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s __  137  2  Analysis of variance f o r metabolizable e n e r g y o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  138  3  A n a l y s i s o f variance f o r feed o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  139  4  efficiency  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r body w e i g h t g a i n o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  140  5  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  141  6  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r chemical element a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  1  142  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would f i r s t est  like  t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a n d deep-  a p p r e c i a t i o n t o myvmajor p r o f e s s o r , D r . D.B.  whose a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l , attitude in which  Bragg,  coupled w i t h h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c  a n d t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e many t i m e d e m a n d i n g I was e n g a g e d , p u t s me s o l i d l y  c o u l d n o t have had b e t t e r  guidance,  o p p o r t u n i t y a n d I am so g r a t e f u l . unsurpassing  projects  i n h i s debt.  I  advice or breadth of H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  : kindness a r e s t r o n g l y admired  a n d w i l l be  l o n g remembered. I am a l s o  i n d e b t e d t o t h e members o f my  Graduate  S t u d i e s Committee f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e preparation of the manuscript: of  Animal  Kitts,  Department  S c i e n c e , D r . R.C. F i t z s i m m o n s , D e p a r t m e n t o f P o u l t r y  S c i e n c e and D r . J . V a n d e r s t o e p , I would l i k e graduate  D r . W.D.  t o thank  D e p a r t m e n t o f Food S c i e n c e . a l l t e c h n i c i a n s , farm  and g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s o f the Department o f  Poultry Science f o rt h e i r  stimulation,  i n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p  t h e y p r o v i d e d as w e l l a s t h e s h e e r p l e a s u r e o f t h e i r A note of  workers,  company.  o f a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t  P o u l t r y S c i e n c e f o r t h e space  and f a c i l i t i e s  g r e a t l y enhanced t h e n a t u r e o f t h e study. D e p a r t m e n t seemed t o r e a l i z e  which  have  Moreover, the  t h a t i t was t h e s t u d e n t h i m s e l f ,  r a t h e r than c r e d i t s , and p r o j e c t s  t h a t was t h e e n d p r o d u c t  xi  of a graduate program. U.B.C. n o t o n l y  This  a fruitful  a t t i t u d e h a s made my t i m e a t  educational  adventure but years  of- hard work f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g an academic treasure. I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f E t h i o p i a and Canada whose c o l l a b o r a t e d ble.  e f f o r t s made t h i s  I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P o u l t r y  once a g a i n f o r t h e c r u c i a l through f e l l o w s h i p s this project  financial assistance  and t e a c h i n g  into successful  study p o s s i Science provided  assistantships to bring  completion.  M. S. Wolde-Tsadick  INTRODUCTION  In the past  s e v e r a l decades, the a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f more a r a b l e l a n d , t h e a b u n d a n c e o f r e s o u r c e s , t h e l o w c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e l e s s g l o b a l p o p u l a t i o n e t c . have b e e n t h e c a u s e o f e a s y and p r o s p e r o u s However, as t i m e w i n d s - u p n a t u r e  life  i s t a k i n g away i t s  g e n e r o s i t y , p a r t l y o f man's f a i l u r e n e s s t i o n and s e v e r e Consequently,  f o r mankind.  i n proper  conserva-  exploitation of natural resources.  the exhaustion of resources  phenomenal p r o b l e m t o mankind. i n t e l l e c t must d e c i d e problem through  i s becoming a  Therefore,  t h e human  to challenge the c r y s t a l i z i n g  repairing  t h e damage and i n s t a l l i n g t h e  proper  c o n s e r v a t i o n measures i n a c o l l a b o r a t e d e f f o r t  before  i t i s too l a t e . The  cost of feed i n the p o u l t r y production  industry represents c e r e a l s comprise  65-70% o f t h e t o t a l  a b o u t 75% o f t h e d i e t .  c o s t and a t p r e s e n t , To c h a l l e n g e t h e  i n c r e a s i n g t h r e a t o f i n f l a t i o n and t o i n c r e a s e t h e m a r g i n of the producer's to continue  profit  as w e l l  as t o e n a b l e  consumers  enjoying the f l a v o u r of the industry's product  at a reasonable major concerns  price,  i t i s considered  t o be one o f t h e  of the p o u l t r y n u t r i t i o n i s t s  t o f i n d ways  and means t o c u t down t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n .  2.  Wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s o b t a i n e d i n t h e p r o c e s s c l e a n i n g wheat g r a i n s c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f b r o k e n wheat k e r n e l s .  The  b a r l e y , rapeseed,  remainders  flax  and  dust  Feeds A c t  (1967) c l a s s i f i e d  a r e composed o f c r a c k e d  ( B i e l y and  Pomeranz, 1975).  The  of b o t a n i c a l Weed s e e d s  Western Canadian r a n g i n g from  the wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  occur  t o 6%.  These l e v e l s  ( T k a c h u k and M e l l i s h ,  availability practical t i o n has  o f such  use  at l e v e l s  are e q u i v a l e n t to  1977).  In s p i t e of  Relatively  little  for efficient utilization  T h i s l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n was  of  (Schroeder  ejt a l . , 1974)  c o n c e r n i n g weed s e e d s WFS  little  to  these  emphasized i n a crop  i n w h i c h much o f t h e  were t a k e n from M o r r i s o n  data  (1959).  have changed i n b o t a n i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n  Canada d u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e due rapeseed  the  informa-  r e c e n t c a t a l o g u i n g o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f weed and seeds  to the i n f l u e n c e  contamination during harvest, storage  an  million  been a v a i l a b l e to animal n u t r i t i o n a l i s t s  materials.  the  :  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f weed s e e d s ,  i s made o f them.  provide guidelines  on  i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount i n g r a i n .  a n n u a l weed s e e d p r o d u c t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 bushels  into  composition.  g r a i n c o n t a i n s weed s e e d s  0.5%  farm  Canada  f o u r major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h were m a i n l y based percentage  shrunken  s e e d , o a t , w i l d b u c k w h e a t and  weeds and  of  and  of  3.  transportation; limited the  also  information  the on  n u t r i t i o n v a l u e o f WFS.  individual ingredients  i n the  following  nutrient use  availability  and  i n m a x i m i z i n g the  w h e a t f e e d s c r e e n i n g s and replacer  p r e s e n t i n WFS  are  Therefore, discussed  l i t e r a t u r e review.  T h i s s t u d y was  for  review of l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d  in poultry  designed to  investigate  provide compositional  the information  e f f i c i e n c y of u t i l i z a t i o n also a potential cereal  ration.  of  crop  4.  I.  LITERATURE REVIEW  Wheat f e e d the  screenings  are  f e e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g company and  varies of high  a by-product used are  i n c o m p o s i t i o n from sample to sample. q u a l i t y screenings  f r o m more t h a n 601 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90%  whole  undesirable  ( t h i n or  weed s e e d s .  material  (Harold  to destroy  l e v e l has  of l i v e s t o c k r a t i o n s Relatively  little  information  of these  The  1.  poultry  screenings  s t r a w , c h a f f and  other  screenings  burning  o r by  (dockage)  fine  i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a 1959;  has  to provide  Scott  grinding portion  e_t a l _ . , 1 9 6 9 ) .  been a v a i l a b l e to guidelines  for  poultry  efficient  materials.  p o t e n t i a l advantage o f wheat s c r e e n i n g s  that of lower cost to the  to  e_t a l _ . , 1980) .  (Morrison,  or animal n u t r i t i o n i s t s formulation  and  vary  High q u a l i t y g r a i n  b e e n by  seed v i a b i l i t y  Observation  shrunken) g r a i n  T r a d i t i o n a l d i s p o s a l of the local  which  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y may  c o n t a i n m i n i m a l amounts o f d i r t ,  at the  a material  by  to the  f e e d m a n u f a c t u r e r s and  is  in turn,  producer.  Wheat Wheat i s one  broiler diet.  The  of the p r i n c i p a l  major n u t r i t i o n a l  cereals  in  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f wheat  5.  a r e p r o t e i n and e n e r g y .  The r a n g e o f i t s e n e r g y c o n t e n t i s  b e t w e e n 2800-3120 k e a l / k g  (NRC, 1976) d e p e n d i n g on t h e  variety.  A.  Protein J o h n s o n e_t a _ l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) showed t h a t t h e p r o t e i n  content  o f wheats from the World C o l l e c t i o n v a r i e d  6% t o 2 2 % , w i t h t h e h i g h e s t 13%  t o 14%.  essential  f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n between  I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f some  amino a c i d s r i n p r o t e i n i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e  decreasing and  from  content  Farrell,  o f c r u d e p r o t e i n i n t h e wheat  1 9 7 5 ; Shoup e_t a l _ . , 1 9 6 6 ) .  (Ivan  I v a n and F a r r e l l  (1975) a l s o s t a t e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t t h a t a s i m i l a r r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d  by o t h e r s  I v a n and F a r r e l l amino a c i d s  as w e l l .  In studies with  (1975) f o u n d t h a t  the sequence o f l i m i t i n g  i n a 13% c r u d e p r o t e i n  (CP) wheat was  threonine,  and m e t h i o n i n e , w h e r e a s w i t h  threonine,  v a l i n e and m e t h i o n i n e w e r e l i m i t i n g  g r o w t h and f e e d amino a c i d s  conversion  ratio:.  rats,  10% CP  lysine,  lysine, f o r maximum  (FCR) and a f u r t h e r  (isoleucine, histidine,  four  t r y p o t o p h a n and  t y r o s i n e ) f o r FCR o n l y .  I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d by t h e same  authors that  on t h e p a t t e r n o f e s s e n t i a l amino  acids  information  i n t h e p r o t e i n o f a l o w c r u d e p r o t e i n wheat w i l l n o t  6.  n e c e s s a r i l y apply P r o l i n e was  t o a medium o r h i g h c r u d e p r o t e i n w h e a t .  f o u n d t o be  appreciably higher  an e x c e p t i o n  i n w h e a t c o n t a i n i n g 15.9%  H o w e v e r , i n l o w p r o t e i n (8.5 a c i d s s u c h as higher and  lysine,  ( M a r c h and  i n t h a t i t was  1973).  h i s t i d i n e were a l l  P r o l i n e , glutamic  p h e n y a l a n i n e have a l l been r e p o r t e d  increasing Bradley,  level  protein.  - 11.7%) w h e a t s a m p l e s amino  a r g i n i n e and  Biely,  ~  of p r o t e i n i n hard  acid  to i n c r e a s e  wheat  with  (Hepburn  and  1965). Data p u b l i s h e d  a general  by  a number o f w o r k e r s i n d i c a t e  u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f amino a c i d s  t h e ; p r o t e i n o f wheat o v e r a v a r i e t y o f sample t y p e s .  Thus,  l y s i n e percentage tends to r i s e  as t h e p r o t e i n c o n t e n t  lowered  inverse r e l a t i o n  (Pomeranz, 1971).  This  hold only at p r o t e i n l e v e l s ( L a w r e n c e e t a l _ . , 1958) . a c i d s show s i m i l a r Glutamic  A r g i n i n e and  Bradley,  Since  a c i d from a n u t r i t i o n a l relative  lysine  5.7) amino  reported  (Hepburn  i s t h e most l i m i t i n g and  decreases,  i s t h a t a l l w h e a t s now  The  (N x  p r o l i n e have been  standpoint,  to p r o t e i n content  e q u i v a l e n t on  seems t o  some o t h e r  c o r r e l a t e d with p r o t e i n content  1965) .  being  the net  produced are  essentially  contents  arginine,  histidine  and  amino  overall  (Pomeranz, 1971).  of l y s i n e ,  and  i t increases  a nutritional basis  valine, threonine,  is  inverse correlations with protein.  a c i d , p h e n y a l a n i n e and  positively  effect  l e s s t h a n 13.5%  in  tryptophan,  a s p a r t i c a c i d are a l l  i n the aleurone  p r o t e i n t h a n i n t h e f l o u r y endosperm  teins;  a c i d and p r o l i n e show a r e v e r s e  glutamic  relation.  As i n t h e c a s e o f s h o r t s , b r a n p r o t e i n i s l a r g e l y cell  aleurone  p r o t e i n and shows a s i m i l a r amino a c i d p a t t e r n .  Wheat germ c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r richest  p a r t s o f wheat k e r n e l  i n e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s The f i r s t - l i m i t i n g  and  pro-  flour  i s lysine.  threonine  ( L a w r e n c e e_t al_. , 1958) .  amino a c i d o f b o t h w h o l e wheat  The s e c o n d - l i m i t i n g amino a c i d i s  and i s o l e u c i n e t h e t h i r d .  In the cases of  wheat germ and wheat p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e  t h e amount o f  amino a c i d s t o t h e amount o f e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s values  show a much b e t t e r b a l a n c e ,  acid being  i s the  the only  (A/E)  limiting  amino  i s o l e u c i n e (Pomeranz, 1971). Results  o f s t u d i e s by I v a n and F a r r e l l  (1975)  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e q u a l i z i n g o f d i e t s on an a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r than t o t a l and  feed  l y s i n e b a s i s , would give  conversion  ratio  similar  i n t h e g r o w i n g p i g when d i e t s  c o n t a i n p r o t e i n from d i f f e r e n t sources. ment w i t h o t h e r and  rates of gain  observations  O'Grady, 1 9 7 1 ; O s t r o w s k i  This  i s i n agree-  ( J o n e s e t a l . , 1965; L y n c h e t a l . , 1971).  However, i t  was e m p h a s i z e d by t h e same a u t h o r s t h a t t h i s  applies  when none o f t h e o t h e r  are l i m i t i n g .  e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s  D i f f e r e n c e s between animal s p e c i e s i n f l u e n c e on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y p r o t e i n source  only  have a marked  o f amino a c i d s  ( S a r w a r and B o w l a n d , 1975) .  f r o m t h e same  8.  with  high  (1974) .  necessarily  p r o t e i n q u a l i t y as  S a l m o n and  shown by  correlate Dunkelgod  These w o r k e r s used d i f f e r e n t wheat c u l t i v a r s w i t h  varying The  H i g h p r o t e i n l e v e l does n o t  p r o t e i n l e v e l s and  growth r a t e of c h i c k s  chicks  as  increased  experimental as  the  animal.  protein level  wheat d e c r e a s e d i n o r d e r of c u l t i v a r s C h i n o o k , I n d i a Glenlea that  and  the  wheat o f  L e m h i 53.  In t h e i r r e p o r t ,  growth response of c h i c k s l o w e r p r o t e i n l e v e l may  66,  they mentioned  led diets  be  of  containing  attributed i n part  to  i m p r o v e d amino a c i d b a l a n c e o f t h e i r l o w e r p r o t e i n  wheats.  I t may  of  a l s o be  m e a l t h a t was  r e l a t e d t o the required  increased  to b a l a n c e the  i m p r o v e m e n t i n amino a c i d b a l a n c e .  proportion  diet with  The  r e s u l t of  experiment i s i n agreement w i t h p r e v i o u s l y tions  ( S o s u l s k i e_t a l _ . , 1963; As  widely  i t was  H e p b u r n and  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  i n crude p r o t e i n content.  protein content i s ascribed  This  a  reported Bradley,  soybean  resultant this observa1965).  the wheat c r o p  varies  wide v a r i a t i o n i n  to c u l t i v a r  and  cultural factors.  There i s evidence of v a r i a t i o n i n n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t between cultivars Sosulski  i n a d d i t i o n to v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e e t a l _ . (1963) r e p o r t e d  that  the  relative levels  o f n i n e amino a c i d s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d changes i n the controlled  protein level  cultivar.  with  o f T h a t c h e r w h e a t grown u n d e r  environment c o n d i t i o n s .  M c D e r m o t t and  Pace  9.  (1960) a t t r i b u t e d t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r l y s i n e a n d a r g i n i n e levels  i n lower p r o t e i n wheats t o a lower p r o p o r t i o n  p r o t e i n f r a c t i o n s g l i a d i n and g l u t e n i n of these wheats.  In comparison  and h a r d r e d w h e a t , M o r a n ' s w h i t e wheat c o n t a i n s for the chick  of the  i n t h e endosperm  between s o f t w h i t e wheat  (1971) r e p o r t  a more d e s i r a b l e  states  amino a c i d  that  soft  balance  than hard r e d wheat.  M a r c h e t aJL. (1961) a l s o o b s e r v e d  that diets  t a i n i n g wheat o f h i g h e r p r o t e i n c o n t e n t , supplemented f i s h meal, reduced chicks  the growth  i n comparison  protein content. consistent  with  difference  with  and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y o f  diets containing  H o w e v e r , M a r c h and B i e l y  from wheats c o n t a i n i n g  i n the n u t r i t i o n a l  wheat o f l o w e r (1973) f o u n d no  q u a l i t y of protein  d i f f e r e n t levels of protein.  T h e r e f o r e , based Dunkelgod  rate  con-  on t h e r e p o r t  (1974) d i e t s b a s e d  o f S a l m o n and  on l o w e r p r o t e i n w h e a t and  balanced with  s u i t a b l e p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s may p r o d u c e  better  performance  wheat. better  growth  i n comparison  higher  protein  The l o w e r p r o t e i n q u a l i t y c u l t i v a r s a p p e a r e d amino a c i d b a l a n c e  than h i g h e r p r o t e i n  I t has been suggested e t a l . , 1966) t h a t diet  with  i s used  the l i m i t i n g  as e f f i c i e n t l y  the food intake  t o have  wheats.  by some w o r k e r s amino a c i d i n an  (Yoshida imbalanced  as i n t h e c o n t r o l d i e t , p r o v i d e d  c a n be m a i n t a i n e d .  From t h e a s p e c t o f  10.  nitrogen is  utilization,  a d e f i c i e n c y o f a s i n g l e amino  a n a l o g o u s i n e f f e c t , t o an e x c e s s o f t h e o t h e r  acids  at the l e v e l  Tonzetich, lacking these  of the l i m i t i n g  1950).  i n order to e l u c i d a t e  are  t h e m e c h a n i s m o f some o f  of a n u t r i e n t  o f the n u t r i e n t absorbed  i s defined  imply that  absorption  of a  i t is utilized  ( C a l h o u n e t a l . , 1960 ; F o r d ejt aJL_. , 1 9 6 7 ) , i t must accepted that  an u n a b s o r b e d n u t r i e n t  b o l i c processes.  as  (McNab and S h a n n o n ,  A l t h o u g h i t has been argued t h a t  n u t r i e n t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  i s lost  be  t o t h e meta-  The d e f i n i t i o n h a s b e e n f u r t h e r  criticized  (McNab and S h a n n o n , 1974) b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y microfloral its  destruction  importance  values obtained  studies  (e.g.,  ammonia),  ( O u s t e r h o u t ejt a_l. , 1959;  N e s h e i m and C a r p e n t e r , 1967; S a f e r However, i n l a t e r  of  o f some u n a b s o r b e d n u t r i e n t o r  a l t e r a t i o n t o a b s o r b a b l e compounds  o f no n u t r i t i o n a l  the  still  changes.  proportion  1974) .  amino  ( M a r c h , B i e l y and  However, more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s  The d i g e s t i b i l i t y the  one  acid  with  and C o a t e s ,  birds  1971).  ( B r a g g et_ a l . , 1965)  corresponded to b i o l o g i c a l values or  e f f i c i e n c y with which ingested  nutrients  are u t i l i z e d .  Furthermore, the deaminating or other reactions  of the  m i c r o f l o r a do n o t a f f e c t t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s (McNab and S h a n n o n , 1 9 7 4 ) .  11.  R e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s by McNab and Shannon (1974) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the true d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f wheat and  content  ( 8 4 . 7 % ) was c l o s e l y c o m p a r a b l e t o b a r l e y , m a i z e  oats.  However, i n t h e amino a c i d t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y  o f l y s i n e was f o u n d i t was  of the nitrogen  lower  t o be s l i g h t l y  than the crude  higher  (80.8%),  although  protein.  U n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s  will  an improvement i n  p r o t e i n q u a l i t y be o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e u n l e s s c a l o r i e is  sufficient  t o meet e n e r g y demands.  I n most f o o d s , t h e b i o l o g i c a l amino a c i d s i s p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d tibility  intake  of the p r o t e i n .  availability  by t h e o v e r a l l  of the  diges-  However, t h e r e a r e c r i t i c i s m s  o f t h i s m e t h o d among r e s e a r c h e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y a c i d s w i t h i n a p r o t e i n and t h e measurement o f amino a c i d d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  may  considering the n u t r i t i o n a l interest w i l l of s p e c i f i c important experiment  area.  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  availabilities  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d as a v e r y (1979) c o n d u c t e d  using d i f f e r e n t p l a n t sources  s t u d i e s , they  was t h e m a i n f a c t o r  o f l y s i n e and t h r e o n i n e  an  to supply the  As a c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e i r  stated that d i g e s t i b i l i t y  In  q u a l i t y o f p r o t e i n s the main  A c h i n e w h u and H e w i t t  dietary proteins.  individual  t h e r e f o r e be j u s t i f i e d .  be t h e amounts and b i o l o g i c a l  amino a c i d s .  b e t w e e n amino  determining  i n the untreated  12.  and u n a u t o c l a v e d s o y a - b e a n - p r o t e i n i s o l a t e .  H o w e v e r , upon  treatment w i t h heat the decrease i n the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f l y s i n e d i d not f u l l y ability.  account f o r the r e d u c t i o n i n a v a i l -  The t e c h n i q u e u s e d  known as " i l e a l "  i n their  experiments  was  ( d i s s e c t i n g out the i l e u m from Meckel's  d i v e r t i c u l u m t o 40mm p r o x i m a l t o t h e i l e o - c a e c a l  junction  and r e t a i n c o n t e n t s f o r a n a l y s i s ) . Regardless of the s i t u a t i o n , demand o f t h e b o d y i s f o r c a l o r i e s . intake i s adequate,  the o v e r r i d i n g  Unless the energy  the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  be i n a n e g a t i v e  n i t r o g e n b a l a n c e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e amount o f p r o t e i n i n the d i e t or i t s b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e .  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e  c a l o r i c v a l u e o f the d i e t even d u r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  from  a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f s e m i s t a r v a t i o n was e m p h a s i z e d  by  the r e s u l t s o f the Minnesota S t a r v a t i o n Study al.,  (Keys e_t  1950). Wheat and wheat p r o d u c t s c o n t a i n p r o t e a s e  tors  ( C r e e k and V a s a i t i s ,  b u t t h e r e do n o t a p p e a r  1962; S h y a m a l a and Lyman,  t o be p r e s e n t i n q u a n t i t i e s  enough t o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t  e f f e c t on p r o t e i n  Wheat germ c o n t a i n s a t h e r m o l a b i l e d e s t r o y e d i f good u t i l i z a t i o n t o be o b t a i n e d by p o u l t r y e t a l . , 1968) .  inhibi1964), large  utilization.  i n h i b i t o r w h i c h must be  o f w h e a t germ n u t r i e n t s i s  ( A t t i a and C r e e k , 1 9 6 5 ; M o r a n  13.  Several workers K o h l e r , 1964; H u t c h i n s o n m i l d cooking  treatments  ( M i l n e r and C a r p e n t e r ,  1969;  et_ al_. , 1964) h a v e shown t h a t improve the n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f  wheat o r f l o u r . M i l d heat l e v e l s of water, o f wheat.  i n the presence  of r e l a t i v e l y  g e n e r a l l y improve the n u t r i t i o n a l  However, h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s  ( P o m e r a n z , 1 9 6 2 ; H e p b u r n e_t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ) . loss during processing i s of lysine  value  with limited  r e d u c e p r o t e i n q u a l i t y o f wheat and wheat  occurs mainly  high  moisture  products The most  (10-20%).  important  The  loss  i n t h e c r u s t and i s a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o  nonenzymatic browning  ( e . g . , r e a c t i o n o f f r e e amino g r o u p s  with reducing  (Pomeranz, 1971).  sugars)  Several investigators  (Gray  e_t a l . , 1960;  M o r r i s o n ejt a l . , 1 9 6 1 ; I v a n and F a r r e l l , that  1975) h a v e r e p o r t e d  i t i s n o t o n l y by n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n , o r due t o  processing nor i n h i b i t o r y  f a c t o r s t h a t e s s e n t i a l amino  shows a d e f i c i e n c y on a g i v e n f e e d o r d i e t , b u t e v e n being  available at a required l e v e l  c a n be shown due t o i n t e r a c t i o n . t h e two e s s e n t i a l this  respect.  acid  after  i n the d i e t , d e f i c i e n c y  L y s i n e and t h r e o n i n e a r e  amino a c i d s w h i c h a r e w e l l  identified in  14.  B.  Metabolizable  Energy  (ME)  F o r most p u r p o s e s , n e t e n e r g y i s t h e m e a s u r e o f greatest u t i l i t y .  T h e r e a r e two p o p u l a r  p r o c e d u r e s f o r ME  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , v i z , i n d i c a t o r method and t o t a l method.  collection  The l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e demands t h e a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e -  ment o f f e e d consumed and e x c r e t a v o i d e d . difficult  to perform  This  i s extremely  s i n c e c h i c k s have a tendency t o  spill  f e e d and some e x c r e t a t e n d s t o be r e t a i n e d on t h e w i r e mesh f l o o r s o f t h e c a g e s . i n v o l v e s the handling  Further, total  and s t o r a g e  collection  of r e l a t i v e l y  large  q u a n t i t i e s o f e x c r e t a , an u n n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e when an indicator  i s employed.  In favour  of the i n d i c a t o r  f a c t t h a t e x c r e t a samples f r e e from c o n t a m i n a t i o n f e e d may be r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d . technique  i s the with  I t i s true that the i n d i c a t o r  involves a d d i t i o n a l chemical  analyses.  However,  i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two p r o c e d u r e s S i b b a l d et_ a l . (1960) f o u n d t h e i n d i c a t o r than the  the t o t a l  c o l l e c t i o n method.  i n d i c a t o r method was  feeds  technique  accurate  B a s e d on t h e s e  employed i n d e t e r m i n i n g  used i n t h i s p r o j e c t .  relatively  t o be more p r e c i s e facts, t h e ME o f  For the purpose of having  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e wheat ME v a l u e ,  a eleven  d i f f e r e n t wheat v a r i e t i e s w h i c h w e r e drawn f r o m t h e same l o t s had been d i s t r i b u t e d  to three d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s  - v i z , Animal Resources I n s t i t u t e  - A g r i c u l t u r e Canada  15.  (Agr.  Can.), U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph  B r i t i s h Columbia The  (U.G.) and  (U.B.C.) ( S i b b a l d ,  U.B.C. ME  values,  University  1975).  obtained  with  c h i c k s , have  a l o w e r o v e r a l l mean t h a n do  t h e U.G.  vs  t - t e s t o f t h e mean  3.48  reveals  k c a l / g DM.  A paired  significant  (P £  laboratories. the  values  0.05)  Much o f t h e  of  chick values,  3.19  values,  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  two  d i f f e r e n c e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to  f o r Neepawa, P i t i c  and  Stewart wheats  (Sibbald,  1975) . The is  t h a t U.G.  most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e u s e d chromium s e s q u i o x i d e  w h e r e a s U.B.C. r e l i e d with the  24-h  periods  test diets.  on  The  an i n d i c a t o r ,  c o l l e c t i o n of  of s t a r v a t i o n before  and  excreta  after  feeding  o v e r a l l mean o f U.B.C. v a l u e s  l o w e r t h a n f r o m U.G. Sibbald  total  as  assays  The  p o s s i b i l e explanation  (1975) r e f e r r i n g t o G u i l l a u m  and  are  given  Summer's  (1970)  work i s t h a t n u t r i e n t i n t a k e s below the m a i n t e n a n c e ment d e p r e s s ME  values  when s t a r v a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d  by  requirein  ME  assay. A p a r t from the i n ME  values  among e l e v e n  of t h i s b i o l o g i c a l are not  s l i g h t differences that  occurred  t e s t e d wheat v a r i e t i e s the  a s s a y and  others  s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r i a b l e i n ME  result  show t h a t w h e a t v a r i e t i e s value  (Sibbald,  1975).  16.  Wheat m i l l i n g  by-products  are r e l a t i v e l y low  i n m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy and h i g h i n f i b e r 1979) .  The n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e s e  reviewed  i n detail  by many w o r k e r s  M o r a n a n d Summers, 1 9 7 0 ) . that high pressure up  (Cave e t al_. , 1 9 6 5 ; demonstrated  steam p e l l e t i n g o f r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  efficiency f o r chicks.  on  f e e d s t u f f s has been  I t has been c l e a r l y  t o 501 wheat b y - p r o d u c t s  Netke  ( D i n 'et a l _ . ,  i m p r o v e d g r o w t h and f e e d  Apart  f r o m p r o c e s s i n g , A s i a and  (1971) h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t p u l l e t s  grew  satisfactorily  a d i e t composed o f 60% w h e a t b r a n and 30.9% g r o u n d n u t  m e a l when a d e q u a t e l y  s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h m i n e r a l s and  vitamins. C h i u and Pomeranz  (1967) h a v e s t u d i e d t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w h e a t k e r n e l s i z e and c h e m i c a l composition. increase  In t h e i r r e p o r t they  i n the weight  small decrease  Concentrations hand, h i g h e r  o f t h e k e r n e l was a c c o m p a n i e d by a  i n the percentage  s u b s t a n t i a l decrease  i n the percentage  i n small than  different  o f ash present.  i n l a r g e k e r n e l s ; and t h e l e v e l  i n the bran  (including aleurone)  germ p o r t i o n s o f t h e k e r n e l t h a n Coppock  o f p r o t e i n and by a  o f f r e e and bound l i p i d s w e r e , on t h e o t h e r  o f f a t was h i g h e r  and  stated that a two-fold  (1956) , f r o m a s u r v e y  l a b o r a t o r i e s employing  and  i n t h e endosperm.  Cookson  of values obtained i n v a r i o u s methods o f  17.  e x t r a c t i o n , concluded o f f a t were 4.5% Shollenberger  t h a t the approximate average  i n bran,  10% i n germ, and 1.2%  i n endosperm.  e_t a l _ . (1949) i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y  s a m p l e s o f known o r i g i n  showed  that the f a t content  wheat d e p e n d s more on t h e c u l t i v a r  o f M a r c h and B i e l y  The  of  observations  (1973) i n d i c a t e t h a t f a t c o n t e n t  i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to k e r n e l weight. was, t h e r e f o r e , i n a c c o r d  of  t h a n upon t h e e n v i r o n -  m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i t i s grown.  of l i p i d s  levels  Kernel  surface  w i t h the greater  was area  concentrations  i n t h e b r a n and germ p o r t i o n s s i n c e t h e s e  portions  c o n s t i t u t e d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l weight i n smaller  kernels. The r e p o r t o f Salmon ^arid D u n k e l o d  (1974) i n d i c a t e s ,  t h a t t h e w h e a t t h a t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a v a i l a b l e f o r f e e d use i s ~ t h a t w h i c h has f a i l e d standards for as  f o r hard  t o meet t h e q u a l i t y  r e d s p r i n g w h e a t , and may  feeding purposes than c u l t i v a r s feed  specifically  wheat. Feed e f f i c i e n c y  s e v e r a l wheat v a r i e t i e s 53 and P i t i c  62).  s t u d i e s have been r e p o r t e d  ( C h i n o o k , I n i a 66, G l e n l e a ,  The P i t i c  a higher metabolizable However,  intended  be l e s s d e s i r a b l e  energy  62 v a r i e t y was (ME) v a l u e  using Lemhi  shown t o h a v e  than a l l the r e s t .  s i m i l a r work w h i c h was done by G a r d i n e r  h a s shown no d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e d c o n v e r s i o n  ratio  (1973) between  18.  diets containing P i t i c According  62 v s . o t h e r w h e a t s o r  t o an a s s e s s m e n t by  S a l m o n and  Dunkelgod  t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d c o n v e r s i o n a l o n e may reliable  i n d i c a t o r o f ME  t i o n data.  M a r c h and  62,  although  (1974),  n o t be  a  i n the absence of c a r c a s s  Biely  s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n ME Pitic  corn.  composi-  (1973) a l s o r e p o r t e d a  con-  v a l u e among t h r e e s a m p l e s  t h e i r a v e r a g e o f ME  v a l u e s was  of  near  t h a t o f 30 o t h e r s a m p l e s t e s t e d .  C.  Chemical The  Elements  s t u d i e s of Lorenz  and  t h a t h a r d wheats were h i g h e r t h a n Zn, w h i l e s o f t w h e a t s c o n t a i n e d  Loewe (1977) h a v e shown  s o f t w h e a t s i n Fe  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  T h e i r s t u d i e s a l s o showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e t i o n between the p r o t e i n c o n t e n t wheat b l e n d s content  positive and  Ca,  Fe,  s o f t w h e a t and  c o r r e l a t i o n was  Zn c o n t e n t s .  and  and  Cu c o n t e n t  Ca, Mg,  Na,  and  and  Cu  correla-  K, Mn  and  between p e r c e n t  content  also  hard  between  s o f t wheat b l e n d , a  found  K.  o f h a r d w h e a t s and  S o f t wheat a s h was  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Zn, Mn, (Lorenz  K,  o f t h o s e w h e a t s and In  Ca  and  and  ash  Cu. significant  p r o t e i n and significantly  in soft  wheat  Loewe, 1 9 7 7 ) .  C o m b i n i n g a l l c l a s s e s o f w h e a t , i t c a n be from the data of Lorenz  and  seen  Loewe (1977) t h a t wheat p r o t e i n  is  significantly  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Ca,  Aw-Yong  (1980) has  c o n c e n t r a t i o n and Mg,  Mn,  Cu  wheat.  and  I t was  Fe  and  K  content.  done c o n s i d e r a b l e w o r k  availability  Zn)  Zn,  of s i x minerals  (Ca,  found t h a t the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of phosphorus high,  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a l c i u m , m a n g a n e s e , z i n c and g e n e r a l l y low.  availability phosphorus  Furthermore, i t appears t h a t  of copper  (78.5%),  calcium  ( 6 7 . 4 % ) f r o m wheat and  (53.5%),  zinc  low  in availability.  and  corn  s a m p l e s was  ( 4 9 . 6 % ) and  of the  i n g r e d i e n t were t e s t e d .  linear.  The  r e t e n t i o n a t l o w e r l e v e l s may and  manganese  However, (48.4%) were  values  be  feed  of  minerals  ingredient,  availability  and  although, feed-  greater absorption due  less competition  by p r o t e i n l i g a n d s f o r m i n e r a l  levels  In t h i s p a r t of h i s  show t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m i n e r a l  of d i g e s t i b i l i t y  chicks.  d i f f e r e n t when v a r i o u s  i n c r e a s e s w i t h lower l e v e l s of the  i s not  samples ranged  shown t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  stuff levels  and  observed.  of minerals  experiment, r e s u l t s  the  S i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n among w h e a t  Aw-Yong (1980) has  feed  whereas, copper  (71.0%),  triticale  from moderate to h i g h f o r the b r o i l e r magnesium  P,  from a s e r i e s of c e r e a l g r a i n s i n c l u d i n g  and m a g n e s i u m f r o m a l l t h e c e r e a l g r a i n s was  was  on  to the  and  improvement  f o r the b i n d i n g  t r a n s p o r t s i n the  gut.  sites  20.  2.  Rapeseed Among t e n d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e s o f w h e a t  used i n t h i s seed  screenings  s t u d y , w h e a t i s t h e m a j o r component and  i s the  t h i r d ' m a j o r component.  R a p e s e e d grown i n Canada c o n s i s t s o f two B r a s s i c a n a p u s L. referred  and  B.  Campestris  t o as t h e " A r g e n t i n e  respectively. similar  glucosinolate  levels  (Downey et_ a_l. , 1974) . high  price  necessitate  of p r o t e i n  consideration  the " P o l i s h t y p e " , species  (thioglucoside  increasing  contents  of  f o r animal  In a d d i t i o n to being  c h i c k e n s may  contain  a t l e v e l s up  t o 15%  in economical  m e a l as a p r o t e i n  (RSM)  q u a l i t y of b r o i l e r  commercial-type  rations containing  their  shown t h a t  chickens  RSM.  has  an any  chickens The  f e d RSM  supplement  a).  Steedman et_ a l _ . ( 1 9 7 9 a ) c o n d u c t e d meal  source  i n Canada f o r b r o i l e r  (Steedman e t a l . , 1979  whether rapeseed  feed  p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t  Thus, commercial r a t i o n s rapeseed  rape-  scarcity  of other p r o t e i n sources  of protein.  s t u d y has  are  especially in their  ingredients  to produce i n Canada, rapeseed  o r n o t on t h e e a t i n g  commonly  l a r g e s t producer  The  poultry ration formulation.  to determine  species,  o f Canada, 1972).  Canada i s t h e w o r l d ' s  and  They a r e  t y p e " and  composition,  as p e r R a p e s e e d A s s o c i a t i o n  seed  L.  M e a l s p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e two  i n chemical  p r o t e i n and  rape-  experiment influence fed  r e s u l t of are  acceptable  21.  in quality. reported  t h a t the  r a t i o n s may I t was the  In another t r i a l , i n c l u s i o n of  Steedman e t a l _ (1979b) a l s o 151  Span RSM  have c a u s e d a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n e a t i n g q u a l i t y .  also stated  i n the  report  that  some d i f f e r e n c e s  q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of chickens  frozen  in broiler  storage  have been n o t e d  q u a l i t y of the  a t t r i b u t a b l e to  , generally  treatments i n v e s t i g a t e d d i d not  the  i n f l u e n c e the  storage eating  broilers.  R a p e s e e d i s grown f o r o i l e x t r a c t i o n w i t h residue  being  in practical  used i n animal feeds. d i e t s has  glucosinolates  considerable the  low  and  inhibit utilization  applied the  by  the  goitrin.  the  of the  meal  concentration  presence of t o x i n s  such  P l a n t breeders are  making  toxin levels,  of a v a i l a b l e energy continues  but to  o f the meal i n d i e t s f o r m o n o g a s t r i c s .  t h i s p r o b l e m J o n e s and  Sibbald  s e v e r a l methods o f p r o c e s s i n g  level  use  i t s low  progress towards reducing  concentration  Realizing  The  b e e n l i m i t e d by  o f a v a i l a b l e e n e r g y and as  in  of a v a i l a b l e energy.  (1979) h a v e  i n order  In the  report  to of  increase their  investigation,  they s t a t e d that f r a c t i o n a t i o n permitted  the p r o d u c t i o n  o f meals of c o m p a r a t i v e l y  bolizable TME  energy  r e c o v e r e d was  input.  (TME) not  values,  but  high  true  meta-  i n most i n s t a n c e s  s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater  than the  B o i l i n g w h o l e s e e d w i t h w a t e r f o r 20 m i n .  the TME  appeared  22  t o c a u s e an  i m p r o v e m e n t , as d i d h o t  whole seed.  The  most c o n s i s t e n t  hexane e x t r a c t i o n of o i l s . presume t h a t  the  physical  water e x t r a c t i o n  benefit  J o n e s and  resulted  Sibbald  the  oils  but  also  production  o f e d i b l e and  i n the manufacture of h i g h  as  barley  Rapeseed i s  now  grain  (Downey e_t a l _ . , 1974) .  Protein The  ultimate  in biological  importance of p r o t e i n  functions.  The  is i t s role  amount o f p r o t e i n  made a v a i l a b l e f o r b o d y use  and  required  f o r i m m e d i a t e m e t a b o l i c p r o c e s s e s i s known  " r e t a i n e d " or  "stored" protein  These w o r k e r s found t h a t p r o t e i n per value of  gram o f RSM  96 mg  protein  and  that  f r o m 84-104  d i e t consumed c o m p a r e d w i t h  studies  gram s o y b e a n m e a l indicated that  the  This  reduction  mg a  diet. digestibili  i s r e d u c e d when t h e m e a l i s h e a t e d i n  presence of water.  as  B a y l e y , 1970) .  chickens stored  p r o t e i n per  In v i t r o  (Cho  beyond  consumed,  digested  o f RSM  for  industrial  C a n a d a ' s t h i r d most v a l u a b l e  c r o p f o l l o w i n g w h e a t and  A.  only  p r o t e i n meals  s u i t a b l e f o r supplementing animal d i e t s . firmly established  amount  absorption.  T h e r e f o r e , r a p e s e e d - i s important not i t s p o t e n t i a l i n the  from  (1979)  treatment increased  o f o i l a v a i l a b l e f o r d i g e s t i o n and  of  the  i s y e t more p r o n o u n c e d  23.  when t h e m e a l i s h e a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f c a r b o h y d r a t e . P r o t e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y was e n h a n c e d i n w h i c h h a d b e e n detoxified. be  Digestibility  o f p r o t e i n does n o t a p p e a r t o  l i m i t e d by t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r  meal  ( M a r c h and S a d i q ,  M a r c h and S a d i q their  i n vivo  1974).  f i b e r content of the  Further  i n their  report,  (1974) h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t o f  studies  indicated pre-feeding  chicks  a high  f i b e r d i e t d i d n o t i m p r o v e e n e r g y u t i l i z a t i o n by t h e s e c h i c k s when t h e y w e r e f e d a R S M - c o n t a i n i n g d i e t . t r e a t m e n t o f RSM r e s u l t e d i n a d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h was o n l y p a r t i a l l y  Heat  i n chick  growth  o v e r c o m e by l y s i n e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n .  H o w e v e r , h e a t t r e a t m e n t o f RSM h a s no e f f e c t on t h e ME value  o f the meal. While d i g e s t i b i l i t y  is  an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t ,  protein that  i s retained  of p r o t e i n or storage reflects the  Cho  the p r o p o r t i o n i s also  of the digested  important.  The r e t e n t i o n  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new t i s s u e s  the n u t r i t i o n a l  amino a c i d s  o f the p r o t e i n used i n a d i e t  b a l a n c e and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  i n the protein.  and B a y l e y  (1970) f o u n d t h a t  t h e amino  of the p r o t e i n i n a pre-pressed, solvent-extracted campestris, the  B.  RSM w e r e f r o m 2-14% l e s s a v a i l a b l e t o p i g s  amino a c i d s  of a similar diet containing  o u t by s e v e r a l w o r k e r s t h a t t h e r e  than  soybeam m e a l .  R e g a r d i n g t h e amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n , pointed  acids  i t has been  i s no o b v i o u s  24.  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e m e a l s f o r any p a r t i c u l a r amino (Rapeseed  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, A major  rapeseed meal  1972).  s t o r a g e p r o t e i n e x t r a c t e d from  commercial  ( B . c a m p e s t r i s L. v a r . Span) was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  b o t h c h e m i c a l l y and u l t r a s t r u c t u r a l l y .  The 12S g l y c o p r o -  t e i n was f o u n d t o c o n t a i n 1 2 . 9 % (w/w) c a r b o h y d r a t e ing o f arabinose, galactose, glucose, i n o s i t o l ,  The r a p e s e e d a l e u r o n e g r a i n s c o n t a i n  bodies which  suggest the presence o f p h y t i c a c i d .  amino a c i d p r o f i l e  consist-  glucosamine,  and manose.  acidic  acid  globoid The  o f t h e 12S g l o b u l i n was d o m i n a t e d  amino a c i d s , g l u t a m i c a n d a s p a r t i c w h i c h  f o r an o i l s e e d a l e u r i n .  by t h e  i s typical  T h e r e was a s c a r c i t y o f t h e s u l f u r -  c o n t a i n i n g amino a c i d s c y s t i n e a n d m e t h i o n i n e .  Tryptophan  was n o t d e t e c t e d f r o m a p t o l u e n e s u l f o n i c a c i d h y d r o l y z a t e of p r o t e i n  (Gill  and T u n g ,  A significant arginine Summers  1978).  i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n l y s i n e and  i n RSM d i e t s h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d b y s e v e r a l (1976)  has c o n d u c t e d  workers.  a study to evaluate e f f e c t s  or a r g i n i n e , l y s i n e , m e t h i o n i n e , potassium a c e t a t e or p o l y vinylpyrrolidine  (PVP) s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f RSM o n  o f c h i c k s and l a y i n g h e n s . purpose  As t h e a u t h o r s t a t e d , t h e  of potassium accetate included  to i n v e s t i g a t e  performance  i n t h e s t u d y was  i t s e f f e c t on a r g i n i n e - l y s i n e  i m b a l a n c e and  s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h PVP was d e s i g n e d t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about  t h e growth  depressing effects of tannic  A c c o r d i n g t o Summers' (1976)  acid.  report, a significant  i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n a r g i n i n e and f e e d s o u r c e was n o t e d . The  addition of lysine resulted  i n a marked d e c r e a s e i n  w e i g h t g a i n and f e e d consumption.  The d e p r e s s i o n was  c o m p l e t e l y overcome by s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h Arginine failed diet.  t o show a r e s p o n s e when a d d e d t o t h e RSM  P o t a s s i u m a c e t a t e a l l e v i a t e d b u t d i d n o t overcome  the d e p r e s s i o n i n performance tion.  arginine.  noted w i t h l y s i n e  PVP h a d no e f f e c t on p e r f o r m a n c e .  suggest that the t a n n i c a c i d the reduced performance Leslie  This  supplementawould  i s not a causative factor i n  e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h RSM  and Summers  (1975)  i n their  diets. s t u d y o f amino  a c i d b a l a n c e o f RSM f o u n d t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n o f i s o l e u c i n e and p h e n y a l a n i n e , amino a c i d s w h i c h a r e c a l c u l a t e d first gain.  limiting  i n RSM, f a i l e d  to give a response  t o be  i n weight  H o w e v e r , s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f RSM w i t h a r g i n i n e and  methionine r e s u l t e d  i n enhanced performance  addition of lysine resulted weight gain.  while the  i n a marked d e p r e s s i o n i n  The p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f s u c h  g i v e n b y t h e a u t h o r s was due t o amino a c i d f a c t o r s which might rather than j u s t  affect  the metabolism  results  imbalance or o f amino  acids  l o o k i n g a t amino a c i d a d e q u a c y as s u c h .  26.  It  i s w e l l known t h a t e x c e s s l y s i n e c a n r e s u l t  i n an i n c r e a s e al.  i n the requirement f o r a r g i n i n e  ( L e w i s e_t  1 9 6 3 ; J o n e s e t al_. , 1966; Dean and S c o t t , 1 9 6 8 ) .  a r e s p o n s e h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d , f o r t h e most p a r t  Such on  c a s e i n d i e t s where t h e r a t i o o f l y s i n e t o a r g i n i n e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2:1. t h e s e amino a c i d s is  However, l o o k i n g a t t h e l e v e l s o f i n RSM,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:1.  and  i t may be n o t e d t h a t  Hence, w i t h  l y s i n e , one w o u l d n o t e x p e c t t o s e e t h e l y s i n e ,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3%  ( L e s l i e and Summers, 1975) and t h e r e t h a t a r g i n i n e may p l a y et a l . , 1967).  (Leslie  excretion  (Fuller  I f t h i s were t r u e , t h e r a t i o o f " a v a i l a b l e  f o r normal metabolic  ( w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d by t h e  processes),  I t has a l s o b e e n r e p o r t e d excretory  tannins  i s work i n d i c a t i n g  a role i n tannin  a r g i n i n e " to l y s i n e i n casein  1961;  i n casein  Summers, 1 9 7 5 ) . Rapeseed meal c o n t a i n s  bird  ratio  such l e v e l s o f a r g i n i n e  a r g i n i n e antagonism noted f o r d i e t s high and  their  products  may be c l o s e r t o 2:1.  t h a t one o f t h e t a n n i n  i s 4-0 m e t h y l g a l l i c  K a d i r v e l e_t a_l. , 1 9 7 0 ) .  c h o l i n e o r m e t h i o n i n e may  acid  ( B o o t h et_ a l . ,  Thus m e t h y l g r o u p s  from  a l s o be u s e d i n t h e e x c r e t i o n  process. According acid a v a i l a b i l i t y  t o N w o k o l o e t a l . (197 7)  t h e amino  o f RSM r a n g e s f r o m 78.4% t o 95.9%  with  27 .  an a v e r a g e o f 91.9%. w h i c h was  availability.  However, most w e r e  colostomized  bility 63%  broiler  coefficients  t o 80%.  signi-  ducibility  chicks  Tao e t a l _ . (1971)  showed t h a t t r u e  However, B r a g g e t a l . (1969) showed higher  than colostomized  used balance t r i a l s t o 92% f o r RSM.  values chicks.  with  greater  repro-  S a r w a r e_t a l _ . (1975)  t o show amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y  trials  i s not u t i l i z e d  procedure.  that  do n o t i n c l u d e a method f o r m e a s u r i n g Therefore,  an endogenous  correc-  i n c a l c u a l t i n g the apparent digest!-::  r e s u l t i n g i n a lower value  ability  o f 83%  Commenting on t h e e f f e c t o f u s i n g  e n d o g e n o u s amino a c i d s .  bility  from  that  d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s , N w o k o l o ejt a l . (1977) s t a t e d digestibility  digesti-  f o r 16 amino a c i d s o f RSM v a r i e d  normal c h i c k s provided  tion  showed  l o w e r t h a n f o r s o y b e a n m e a l w h i c h was one o f t h e  p r o t e i n sources used f o r comparison. using  of methionine  78.4% a v a i l a b l e , t h e e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s  r e l a t i v e l y high ficantly  With the exception  Further  compared t o t h e a v a i l -  i n their  comment, t h e a u t h o r s  a l s o s t a t e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l methods o f d e t o x i f i c a t i o n o f RSM h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d .  The p r o d u c t p r o v i d e s  s o u r c e o f e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s level  of a v a i l a b i l i t y .  a good  and a r e l a t i v e l y  Therefore,  RSM c a n be  high  incorporated  as a m a j o r p r o t e i n s o u r c e i n t h e d i e t o f g r o w i n g  animals.  28.  Bell  and  Giovanetti  (1973) h a v e s u g g e s t e d  that  whenever a need a r i s e s to s u b s t i t u t e soybean meal f o r adjustment should w e l l as  be made t o k e e p d i e t s i s o c a l o r i c  isonitrogenous.  This  o f p r o t e i n i n RSM  i s lower  f o r soybean meal  ( 8 9 . 2 % ) and  ability  o f p r o t e i n and  B. M e t a b o l i z a b l e  i s because the  been the  various  this w i l l  presumably of  influence  RSM  lowering  the  energy  (ME).  Energy e v a l u a t i o n  Bell  the  d i g e s t i b l e e n e r g y i n t a k e by p i g s  and  m i c e " ('Bell,. 1969)  of d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g was  no  statistical  was  Nevertheless, value  of  the  RSM  rapeseed.  (1969) showed (McDonald,  significantly  soybean meal  (SBM).  that 1969)  lower than  that  However,  there  d i f f e r e n c e between the d i g e s t i b l e  energy r e s u l t i n g from the preliminary  (removing  of d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g  (1969) and  diet  However,  t r y i n g t o i m p r o v e t h e ME  f i b e r content of  s t u d i e d by M c D o n a l d  acids.  i n the p o u l t r y  methods have been a p p l i e d  p l a n t g e n e t i c i s t s are by  avail-  i n d i v i d u a l amino  h u l l ) which r e s u l t s i n improved v a l u e s .  RSM  digestibility  Energy  low m e t a b o l i z a b l e  processing  as  ( a v e r a g e 75.9%) t h a n i s t h a t  A major concern i n u s i n g has  RSM,  s t u d y by  various  Bayley  rapeseed meals.  (1969) w i t h b a r r o w  In a  pigs,  the  29.  t h e r e was a 10% i n c r e a s e i n d i g e s t i b l e RSM when t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y  o f crude  energy v a l u e s f o r  f i b e r o f RSM was  i n c r e a s e d f r o m 38 t o 57% by s t e a m - p e l l e t i n g . I n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f ME f o r t e s t RSM,  Bayley  (1969) i n v e s t i g a t e d f a c t o r s known t o a f f e c t ME v a l u e  such  as : (a)  p o s s i b l e l e v e l s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n o f RSM i n t h e basal d i e t of chickens without  impairment o f  d i g e s t i o n and a b s o r p t i o n b y c r u d e (b)  fiber  age o f t h e c h i c k e n and l e n g t h o f t i m e  content,  and d i e t  was f e d t o g i v e r e l i a b l e v a l u e s , and (c)  e f f e c t o f s t e a m - p e l l e t i n g and r e g r i n d i n g t h e RSM. I t was f o u n d  t h a t ME v a l u e s  (a) w e r e  when RSM was s u b s t i t u t e d a t t h e 40% l e v e l ,  reliable  (b) i n c r e a s e d  w i t h age w i t h a maximum a t 4 weeks o f age ( v a l u e to that o f mature r o o s t e r s ) , when s o l v e n t and p r e - p r e s s and  reground  processed  ( c ) were s l i g h t l y  s o l v e n t m e a l s were  and (d) w e r e s l i g h t l y  reduced steam-pelleted  i n c r e a s e d when  m e a l s w e r e s t e a m - p e l l e t e d and r e g r o u n d  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, 1972). found  similar  t h a t ME" v a l u e s  (Rapeseed  C l a n d i n i n (1969),  however,  f o r RSM d i e t s consumed by c h i c k e n s  4 weeks o l d w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y values determined  expeller  lower  (p <_ 0.05)  than  when c h i c k e n s w e r e 6 weeks o l d .  30.  ME v a l u e  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between rapeseed  samples b u t they a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  except perhaps i n the  case o f chickens.  Most c o n s i s t e n t l y , d i e t s  expeller-processed  RSMs, p r o d u c e d t h e h i g h e s t  regardless various with  o f whether c h i c k e n s ,  l e v e l s o f RSMs.  instances, reflected  ME  values  mice o r p i g s were f e d t h e  L o w e s t ME v a l u e s  RSMs h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t  containing  usually  crude f i b e r content.  however, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  I n many  i n ME v a l u e s  t h e l e v e l o f r e s i d u a l o i l i n t h e RSMs  coincided  apparently (Rapeseed  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, 1972). According the  t o .the r e s u l t o f v a r i o u s  Rapeseed U t i l i z a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e  Bayley  (1969) a n d C l a n d i n i n  (1968-1969),  (1969) i n d i c a t e d t h a t  f a c t o r y m e a l s may be o b t a i n e d This  Program  studies of  satis-  f r o m any v a r i e t y o f r a p e s e e d .  indicates that the various  methods f o r e v a l u a t i n g  the meals b i o l o g i c a l l y d i d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e a higher  ranking  o f one v a r i e t y o v e r a n o t h e r .  the  trails  was  i n f l u e n c e d more b y t h e o t h e r  the  total  Evidence o f  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r a n k i n g ,of i n d i v i d u a l RSMs  d i e t than by s p e c i e s  or by method o f p r o c e s s i n g  i n g r e d i e n t s m a k i n g up  and v a r i e t y o f r a p e s e e d  the meals.  31.  C.  Chemical  Elements  Holmes and i n c l u s i o n o f RSM chickens  at the  c a u s e d an  C l a n d i n i n and  Roberts 30%  level  increased  Heard  that  i n the d i e t of  the growing  incidence of p e r o s i s .  (1968) h a v e r e p o r t e d  t h a t RSM  t a n n i n s h a v e b e e n shown b y  Since contains  a b o u t 3%  tannins  Geissman  (1956) t o f o r m c o m p l e x e s w i t h m e t a l i o n s i t seemed  reasonable  and  (1963) r e p o r t e d  to p o s t u l a t e t h a t perhaps the h i g h e r  o f p e r o s i s n o t e d by Holmes and on RSM  Jurd  c o n t a i n i n g d i e t s was  Roberts  due  and  incidence  (1963) i n  chickens  to p a r t i a l d e f i c i e n c y of  manganese. Supporting (1963),  the h y p o t h e s i s  r e s u l t s of Seth  and  when b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s meal or a c o m b i n a t i o n mentary sources  o f Holmes and  C l a n d i n i n (1973) showed t h a t were f e d r a t i o n s i n w h i c h  o f RSM  and  SBM  served  o f p e r o s i s was  n o t e d i n the c h i c k s f e d the  I n c r e a s i n g the  level  r a t i o n d i d not  appear to lower  indicated T h i s was  o f manganese .in t h e  study  the  study  the by  lowest  latter  RSM  soybean  suppleincidence ration.  containing  incidence of p e r o s i s . Nwokolo e_t a l _ . (1976)  t h a t manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y was the  as  o f p r o t e i n a:" s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  R e s u l t s of the  Roberts  56.7%  for  compared to the o t h e r m i n e r a l s  RSM. under  ( C a - 7 1 . 7 % , P-74.8%, Mg-61.1%, Z n - 5 7 . 6 % , C u - 6 2 . 2 % ) .  These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t  the  r e s u l t s of Seth  and  Clandinin  32.  (1973) a l t h o u g h , t h e Part as p h y t i n ,  the  incidence  of p e r o s i s  origin  calcium-magnesium s a l t  i s considered  low  due  Published  values for plant  However, the  minerals  to the  those of Taylor  content of p h y t i c  due  a c i d and  12.0%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  h a v e shown t h a t and  Zn)  the was  or crude f i b e r .  to both p h y t i c Bragg  the  a c i d and  Bragg  40%  The  phytic  (Taylor,  major  (1977) , t h e  i n RSM  was  r e s u l t s of t h e i r  a f f e c t e d by  also  crude  (1974) has  stated  -  1.92%  studies (Ca,  P,  Mg,  either phytic  i n their report inverse  acid  that  relationship  fiber.  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  content  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o SBM.  showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e  l e v e l s of the  and  (1965).  crude f i b e r  adversely  among RSMs t e s t e d .  of the  r e t e n t i o n of a l l m i n e r a l s  I t was  plant  to d i f f e r e n c e of methodology.  The  t r a c e m i n e r a l s o f RSM  results  ( N e l s o n 'e_t a l . ,  influence  s e v e r a l m i n e r a l s showed s i g n i f i c a n t  the  hexa-  f i n d i n g s o f N w o k o l o et_ a l .  A c c o r d i n g t o N w o k o l o and  Cu  inositol  exists  r e s u l t s show a v a i l a b l e p h o s p h o r u s  recent  c o n t r a d i c t i o n m i g h t be  Mn,  of  f e e d s t u f f s o f b e t w e e n 30  (1977) c o n t r a d i c t  and  reported.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of phosphorus i n f e e d s t u f f s of  acid present.  1965).  not  of the phosphorus i n p l a n t m a t e r i a l s  phosphoric a c i d , which chelates 1968).  was  v a r i a t i o n i n the  However, w i t h other minerals  the (Ca,  exception P,  Fe,  Mg,  of  His content of Mn,  copper,, Zn  33.  and  Se)  were h i g h e r  normally  cited  i n RSM  f o r SBM.  than the  The  corresponding  a u t h o r has  on  the b a s i s of content  alone,  is  a b e t t e r source of these m a t e r i a l s R a p e s e e d m e a l has  t h a n SBM related  and  to i t s content  Along the RSM  and  zinc binding  same l i n e ,  p h y t i n and reducing Ca,  Mg,  greater  Mn  N w o k o l o and  According  As  Cu  as  to the  not  been o b s e r v e d .  the  I t has  which i s r e q u i r e d  g r o w t h and  investigate  be  et a l . ,  (1977) f o u n d  bind  1976).  that  z i n c , making i t assumptions,  factors involved  in  a l s o of  incidence  t h i c k e r long  P,  w h i c h may  contains  i n chicks  the  availability  about  as  twice  lower  (Motzok,  c o n d u c t e d a number o f s t u d i e s I n h i s r e p o r t , he  has  as w e l l  c o n t r i b u t e to  leg  bones)  in  decrease zinc  f o r n o r m a l bone f o r m a t i o n  the problem.  of  t h a n i n b i r d s f e d SBM  species  bone a b n o r m a l i t i e s  (1976) has  (Seth  b e e n shown t h a t p h y t a t e s  other  SBM  capacity  appears to  o n l y of z i n c but  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t RSM  as much p h y t i n as  RSM  SBM.  binding  authors  ( p e r o s i s , s h o r t e r and  d i e t o f c h i c k s and  that  well.  i n c h i c k s f e d d i e t s w i t h RSM  Motzok  Bragg  i t i s s t a t e d above, h i g h e r  abnormalities  growth.  zinc  o f bound t a n n i n s  availability  and  than i s  c a p a c i t y o f RSM  f i b e r a p p e a r t o be  the  suggested  i t would appear t h a t  rapeseed p r o t e i n concentrate  less available.  values  1976). to  stated  that  34.  although  zinc supplementation  o f SBM d i e t s h a d no a p p a r e n t  e f f e c t on t h e g r o w t h o f c h i c k s , t h e d a t a additional Further  zinc  indicate  i s r e q u i r e d w i t h RSM f o r maximum  i n h i s r e p o r t he a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t  that growth.  supplemental  z i n c a n d / o r manganese h a d no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on l e g a b n o r m a l i t i e s w h i c h were p r e v a l e n t w i t h SBM and RSM d i e t s .  t o a b o u t t h e same d e g r e e  However, t h e i n c i d e n c e o f p e r o s i s  was a p p r e c i a b l y h i g h e r w i t h RSM t h a n w i t h SBM d i e t s . h i s c o n c l u s i o n , the author data  admitted  In  that h i s experimental  are inadequate to e x p l a i n the high  incidence of l e g  abnormalities. The reported  R a p e s e e d A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada  that there  v a r i o u s RSMs.  i s considerable mineral  Further,  i t was p o i n t e d  (1972) h a s variation  out that the v a r i a -  t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e m i n e r a l of the s o i l s  on w h i c h t h e r a p e s e e d was grown.  of processing minerals higher did  h a d no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n the meals.  content  soybean meal.  content The  type  e f f e c t on t h e amounts o f  M o s t RSMs, h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n e d  of a l l minerals  among  e x c e p t copper and z i n c  a than  35.  D.  Toxicity (a) The  as s a l t s .  Gluco s i n o l a t e s glucosinolates  They a r e u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as p o t a s s i u m  a l t h o u g h , t h e complex o r g a n i c widely  cation sinapine  (Kjaer,  stem,  occur throughout a p l a n t  l e a f , and seed.  They a r e a l w a y s  by an enzyme s y s t e m c a p a b l e o f h y d r o l y z i n g sinolates.  However t h e r e  (Tookey  and W o l f f ,  1970).  substrate  In the e a r l y  enzyme was c a l l e d m y r o s i n o r m y r o s i n a s e .  e t a l . (1961)  coined  t h e name g l u c o s i n o l a s e  t h e name g l u c o s i n o l a t e . of Biochemistry  t h e enzyme  i n the i n t a c t literature, Ettlinger  to parallel Union  'thioglucosidase'  1965),  E a r l y problems  i n feeding  RSM t o l i v e s t o c k w e r e  f o u n d t o be c a u s e d b y g l u c o s i n o l a t e s , that  accompanied  Recently the International  recommended t h e t e r m t o be  ( F l o r k i n and S t o t z ,  including  the gluco-  i s ample e v i d e n c e t h a t  separated from i t s g l u c o s i n o l a t e  the  •  1960).  root,  plant  occurs  ( s i n a l b i n ) as i t i s u s u a l l y i s o l a t e d  Glucosinolates  is  salts,  among C r u c i f e r s a n d i s t h e c a t i o n a c c o m p a n y i n g  p-hydroxybenzyl-GS  the  a r e a n i o n s and o c c u r i n p l a n t s  are found t o v a r y i n g  a f a m i l y o f compounds  l e v e l s i n r a p e s e e d as w e l l as  i n o t h e r c r o p s s u c h as c a b b a g e and m u s t a r d .  When t h e s e e d  36.  i s crushed i n the presence o f moisture, glucosidase  (myrosinase) hydrolyses  present to release of t o x i c organic  glucose,  is oxazolidinethione the  production  in-impaired and  and i s g o i t r o g e n i c  isothiocyanate,  Other g o i t r o g e n i c  nitrile  have been i d e n t i f i e d f r o m 10-12 mg/g  RSM  At least  performance  with resulting  (Miller  s u b s t a n c e s may  include  d e p e n d i n g on  seven  glucosinolates  i n rapeseed which range (Jones,  compounds  interfering  and t h i o c y a n a t e  environmental conditions.  and a group  hormone t h y r o x i n e ,  g r o w t h and r e p r o d u c t i v e  B i e l y , 1978).  sulphate  One o f t h e s e t o x i c  of the metabolic  thio-  the glucosinolates  inorganic  compounds.  t h e enzyme  approximately  1979).  The number o f i d e n t i f i e d p l a n t g l u c o s i n o l a t e s i s now more t h a n 70 ( K j a e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . c h a r a c t e r i z e d by K j a e r Kjaer  Most o f t h e s e have been  and c o - w o r k e r s .  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , a l l 300 e x a m i n e d s p e c i e s  According  to  of Cruficerae,  contain  f r o m one t o s e v e n g l u c o s i n o l a t e s .  species  from the r e l a t e d  Nearly  a l l the  f a m i l i e s Capparidaceae, Morih-  g a c e a e , T o v a r i a c e a e , and R e s e d a c e a e , as w e l l a s , some species lates  from u n r e l a t e d  (Kjaer, As  by  families contain  glucosino-  1973). s t a t e d above g l u c o s i n o l a t e s  an a s s o c i a t e d  wet,  plant  thioglucosidase  raw p l a n t m a t e r i a l  are  hydrolyzed  enzyme s y s t e m w h e n e v e r  i s crushed.  G l u c o s e and a c i d  37.  sulfate  i o n are always r e l e a s e d  as p r o d u c t s .  g l u c o n p o r t i o n may u n d e r g o an i n t r a m o l e c u l a r f o l l o w i n g the h y d r o l y s i s to give  The  organic  rearrangement  an i s o t h i o c y a n a t e .  such a r e a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e g l u c o n forms a n i t r i l e , the  loss of sulfur.  organic the  thiocyanate  occur.  expected isothiocynates  cyclize  cause  hemorrhagic could  and v a r i o u s liver  liver.  glucones i n d i c a t e d that  that  K to the feed  compounds  s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f g l u c o n e s were used  o f l a y i n g hens.  on egg i o d i n e and  R e d u c t i o n o f egg  appeared  t o be more r e l a t e d t o t h i o c y a n a t e  to t o t a l  glucosinolates.  s i n o l a t e RSM  mortality  ( P a p a s e_t a l _ . , 1979) .  to study the e f f e c t o f g l u c o s i n o l a t e s status  feeding  damage and m o r t a l i t y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o I t was a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d  a c t i v e groups  thyroid  1980).  v a r i a b l e amounts o f i n t a c t  R a p e s e e d m e a l , r a p e s e e d e x t r a c t s and with  t o an  They may  (Liener,  be r e d u c e d m a r k e d l y b y a d d i n g v i t a m i n  or d r i n k i n g water  with  glucosinolates  are n o t formed.  Layer d i e t s containing  RSM may  From some  t o form o x a z o l i d i n e - 2 - t h i o n e s  glucosinolates  often  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a rearrangement may  Without  iodine  i o n (SCN) t h a n  T h i s may be due t o l o w  gluco-  s u c h as Tower c a u s e d a d e c r e a s e s i m i l a r t o  o r l a r g e r t h a n M i d a s RSM o r e x t r a c t s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d levels of t o t a l  glucosinolate.  to d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g  Addition of  intact glucosinolates  large  thioglucosidase  increased  thyroid  38 .  s i z e ahoye g l u c o s i n o l a t e s  alone.  Thyroxine l e v e l s remained  n o r m a l e v e n when t h y r o i d s w e r e g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d (Papas et a l . , 1979). The u s e o f RSM content.  second f a c t o r which i s a d e t e r r e n t  to the  i n monogastric animal d i e t s i s i t s higher Rapeseed  has a d a r k , h a r d s e e d c o a t  fiber  containing  a condensed  p o l y p h e n o l based complex w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s  substantial  amount o f f i b e r t o c o m m e r c i a l RSM.  a  Typical  c r u d e f i b e r c o n t e n t s o f c o m m e r c i a l A r g e n t i n e and P o l i s h RSMs a r e u n a c c e p t a b l y h i g h ; (Jones,  i t ranges between  13-16%  1979). Hobson-Frohock  et_ a l _ . (1973) w e r e t h e f i r s t  to  show t h a t t h e f i s h y o d o r r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e i n c l u s i o n o f RSM  i n t h e r a t i o n o f b r o w n - s h e l l e d egg l a y e r s was  t h e p r e s e n c e o f t r i m e t h y l a m i n e (TMA). demonstrated that the l e v e l  o f RSM  b r o w n - s h e l l e d egg l a y e r s i n f l u e n c e d  I t has  t o m e t a b o l i z e TMA  was  ( C l a n d i n i n and R o b b l e e , 1 9 7 8 ) .  to  been  i n the l a y i n g r a t i o n of the degree o f f i s h y  o d o r and a s u g g e s t i o n has b e e n made t h a t the b i r d  due  the a b i l i t y  of  genetically controlled Bolton  ejt a l (1976)  showed  t h a t a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o l a y i n g f i s h y eggs i s t h e p r e s e n c e of a semi-dominant  gene t h a t has v a r i a b l e  d e p e n d i n g on e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s .  Their  expression studies  t h a t b r o w n egg l a y e r s , f e d a r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g  RSM,  showed which  39.  are  k e p t i n f l o o r p e n s a r e more p r o n e t o l a y i n g f i s h y eggs  than those maintained  i n laying batteries.  Recently,  H o b s o n - F r o h o c k e t a l . (1977) and C l a n d i n i n have r e p o r t e d sinapine  that  t h e s o u r c e o f t h e TMA  which i s present  e t a l _ . (1977)  i n s u c h eggs i s  i n RSM a t a l e v e l  o f about 1 t o  ii?  ±20.  Besides " f i s h y eggs" the i n c i d e n c e  of " l i v e r  h e m o r r h a g e " h a s a l s o b e e n n o t i c e d b y C l a n d i n i n e_t a l . (1976). that  In view of t h e i r  l e v e l s o f RSM  f i n d i n g s , t h e y h a v e recommended  i n e x c e s s o f 5% s h o u l d  n o t be f e d t o  S i n g l e Comb W h i t e L e g h o r n hens and t h a t no RSM s h o u l d included  i n t h e r a t i o n o f brown-egg l a y e r s .  exogenous s o u r c e s o f t h i o g l u c o s i d a s e  In a d d i t i o n ,  s u c h as g r a i n c o n -  t a m i n a t e d w i t h mustard seed o r r a p e s e e d , should permitted  to get i n t o r a t i o n s containing Goiter  o f RSM has  n o t been c o n s i d e r e d  RSM.  The g o i t r o g e n i c  e f f e c t o f RSM  as a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m when RSM i s  i n r a t i o n a t recommended l e v e l s f o r v a r i o u s  o f l i v e s t o c k and p o u l t r y . since  n o t be  i s a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n due t o t h e i n c l u s i o n  i n the p o u l t r y d i e t .  included  classes  I t h a s b e e n o f some c o n c e r n ,  e v e n a t recommended l e v e l s o f i n c l u s i o n o f RSM,  t h y r o i d enlargement has been n o t e d . in milk  be  some  Low l e v e l s o f i o d i n e  and eggs were o b s e r v e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f h i g h  glucosinolate  (RSM) i n d a i r y and l a y e r s r a t i o n .  (Proceedings  40.  (106)  - 5 t h I n t e r . R a p e s e e d C o n f . 2:210, 1978) a n d i n  r a t i o n f o r cows ( I w a r s s o n ,  1973 ; I w a r s s o n e_t a l _ . , 1 9 7 3 ) .  I t h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n Sweden t h a t s u p p l e m e n t i n g r a t i o n s f o r d a i r y cows w h i c h c o n t a i n h i g h g l u c o s i n o l a t e RSM w i t h extra  iodine results  iodine content. egg  i n the production  of milk with  T h e r e i s no s i m i l a r w o r k r e p o r t e d on  content.  (b)  Tannins  Tannins are p l a n t p o l y p h e n o l i c a molecular  weight greater  most common t a n n i n .  t h a n 500.  substances  d i e t a r y substances  Tannins a r e found i n v a r i o u s  (e.g.,  i r o n and c a l c i u m  the t a n n i n and, t h e r e f o r e , prevent  which can produce l i v e r n e c r o s i s  (Miller  Tannins are u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d and  plants  Some  salts)  will  subsequent and B i e l y , into  toxicity 1978).  hydrolyzable  c o n d e n s e d c a t a g o r i e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  structural  d i f f e r e n c e s and d i v e r s e h y d r o l y t i c r e a c t i v i t i e s G a y o n , 1972) .  with  Tannic a c i d i s the  s u c h as s p r u c e b a r k , o a k a c o r n s a n d r a p e s e e d .  bind  higher  (Ribereau-  T a n n i n s have been e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d  b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on (a) g r o w t h o f a n i m a l s ( G l i c k a n d J o s l y n , 1970) and b i r d s  (Chang and F u l l e r , 1 9 6 4 ;  M a r q u a r d t et_ a_l. , 1977) , (b) p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n  (Vohra  e t a l . , 1966) a n d ( c ) m e t a b o l i z a b l e  o f feeds  ( Y a p a r a n d C l a n d i n i n , 1972) .  energy value  41.  Chicks to  tannins  a r e f o u n d t o be more s e n s i t i v e t h a n  in their  feeds.  cause growth d e p r e s s i o n . metabolizable  e n e r g y and  has  leads  and  any  its to  ME  i n RSM  value.  tannins affects  Biely,  by Y a p a r and  tend  to lower  high 1978) .  Clandinin  t h e ME  tannin content  value  of the  to a d v e r s e l y  of  high affects  A d d i t i o n of a r g i n i n e to a p o u l t r y d i e t  c o r r e c t the problem o f t a n n i n  acid,  of  ( M i l l e r and  f r a c t i o n ' would tend  since a r g i n i n e i s being  a r g i n i n e a v a i l a b i l i t y may  contains approximately b e e n shown by  (Summers, 1 9 7 4 ) .  used f o r the e x c r e t i o n of  C l a n d i n i n and  has  feces  i n c r e a s e i n the  protein-low hull  as 1%  to the e x c r e t i o n of  been suggested  (1972) t h a t t a n n i n s RSM  little  Tannin also adversely  l e v e l s of n i t r o g e n i n the It  As  rats  Heard  be  However, tannic  lowered.  (1968) r e p o r t e d  3% o f t a n n i n s .  F e n w i c k and  seems  that  RSM  However, t h i s  Hoggan (1976) t o  value  include  sinapine.  This c h o l i n e ester of s i n a p i c a c i d c o n s t i t u t e s  a b o u t 1.5%  o f RSM  a p p e a r t h a t RSM  c o n t a i n s o n l y a b o u t 1.5%  Relatively l i t t l e tannins  i n RSM.  ( M u e l l e r et a l . , 1978).  Hence, i t would of  tannins.  i s known a b o u t t h e c h e m i c a l B a s e d on  their  nature  f i n d i n g s o f Leung et_ a l .  (1979) t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e c o n d e n s e d t a n n i n s r a p e s e e d h u l l s c a n n o t be  C y a n i d i n was  of  e x t r a c t e d by common s o l v e n t s .  Condensed t a n n i n s were e s t i m a t e d by w e i g h t .  of  detected  t o be..;0.1% o f t h e as t h e  principal  hulls  42.  degradation product  of the  isolated polymeric flavanols  which i m p l i e s t h a t condensed t a n n i n s e x i s t polymers of l e u c o c y a n i d i n s . ability  s o l e l y as  In v i e w o f the low  low  extractability  hulls,  s y s t e m o f t h e b i r d s and  solely  In view of  of condensed t a n n i n s from  a b s o r p t i o n of these polymeric  digestive be  extract-  of condensed t a n n i n s , i t appears to e x i s t  as t h e p o l y m e r s o f l e u c o c y a n i d i n s i n RSM.  the  rapeseed  compounds by  animals  the  would  the  probably  insigificant.  (c) The  Erucic Acid e x t r a c t e d o i l from rapeseed  a c i d , w h i c h has  contains erucic  been p r o v e n to reduce p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r -  mance o f v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l  animals  levels.  o f e r u c i c a c i d has  reduced  However, the c o n t e n t f r o m 45%  cultivars  i n past c u l t i v a r s  ( M i l l e r and  Biely,  when f e d a t  t o 1%  rapeseed i n animal  oil.  1978) .  The  fatty acid that exists  However, e r u c i c a c i d  lipids  ( M i l l e r and  experimental  (1973) showed t h a t r a p e s e e d e f f e c t on egg  been  i n modern  E r u c i c a c i d or c i s - 1 3 - d o c o s e n o i c chain unsaturated  high  Biely,  evidence oils  acid  in glycerides in  i s not  commonly  found  1978). r e p o r t e d by S l i n g e r  exerted a  p r o d u c t i o n , egg w e i g h t  i s a long  and  depressing  hatchability.  43.  The  s u p p r e s s i o n o f r e p r o d u c t i v e performance  due  to the presence of erucic a c i d .  This author reported  t h a t r a p e s e e d o i l s were o f m a r k e d l y  l o w e r ME and r e s u l t e d  i n poorer growth (a  and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y t h a n  (a) a n AV b l e n d  commercial m i x t u r e o f a n i m a l and v e g e t a b l e f a t con-  taining  some r a p e s e e d o i l ) , (b) r a p e s e e d o i l f o o d s  (acidulated  soap s t o c k s from r a p e s e e d o i l ) and ( c )  e r u c i c a c i d rapeseed  (LEAR) o i l .  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the removal crude o i l s the  was t h e r e f o r e  ispartially  The e v i d e n c e  low  also  o f t h e gums p r e s e n t i n t h e  responsible f o r the reduction i n  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e .  (d)  Gums  Gums a r e one o f t h e c h e m i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o f RSM. Its  chemical nature i s not yet w e l l defined  metabolic  interaction. The  e f f e c t o f r a p e s e e d gums on l a y i n g  m o r t a l i t y h a s b e e n s t u d i e d b y M a r c h e_t a l _ . results of their difference  i n spite of  bird  (1978).  The  s t u d y show t h a t t h e r e was a s t r a i n  i n t h e r a t e o f m o r t a l i t y and t h e b i r d s f e d  RSM, t h e M i d a s  gums h a d t h e h i g h e s t m o r t a l i t y .  r a p e s e e d gums a r e r e p o r t e d ( L a l l M a r c h 1977) t o be w e l l u t i l i z e d adverse e f f e c t .  The e a r l y  However,  and S l i n g e r , 1974; by growing b i r d s w i t h o u t  s t u d i e s w i t h RSM i n d i c a t e d  that  44.  goitrogens mortality  and e r u c i c a c i d were r e s p o n s i b l e  ( M a r c h and S o o n g , 1976 ; V'ogt e_t a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) .  (e)  Phytate  Another concern i n using centrate stated and  f o r high  rapeseed p r o t e i n  i s the e f f e c t s o f the phytate content.  e a r l i e r , p h y t a t e i s a common component  oilseeds.  stressed  r a t s f e d r a p e s e e d p r o t e i n as t h e o n l y  source r e s u l t e d  with  I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d  i n a zinc deficiency.  sufficient  (1977) h a v e a l s o r e p o r t e d  their  studies.  highly  protein  deficiency  Safety  Nwokolo  rats  and  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s from  Level  T h e r e has b e e n n o , w e l l d e f i n e d suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e . the  that  t o complex the p h y t i c  i n the p r o t e i n concentrate.  Bragg  E.  This  zinc  by s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e d i e t s o f p r e g n a n t  z i n c i n amounts  acid present  cereals  Phytate appears to s e l e c t i v e l y bind  (Jones, 1979).  was.overcome  As  of  i n foods  con-  type o f b i r d s  One  safety  level  s h o u l d have t o i d e n t i f y  (layers or b r o i l e r s ) ,  type of animals  (ruminant or m o n o g a s t r i c ) , type o f rapeseed, nature of the  processing,  and o t h e r components o f t h e r a t i o n b e f o r e  m a k i n g any d e c i s i o n on s p e c i f i c s a f e t y  level  of  RSM.  45.  F u l l - f a t Tower r a p e s e e d  i s a high energy,  good  q u a l i t y p r o t e i n p r o d u c t c o n t a i n i n g about  42% f a t and 22%  protein.  (4.65 K c a l / g )  Its metabolizable  as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e W h i t e double the value included  energy value Leghorn  f o r Tower m e a l .  i n broiler  e f f e c t s on g r o w t h ,  r o o s t e r s , was a l m o s t Tower r a p e s e e d was  r a t i o n s up t o 20% w i t h o u t any d e l e t e r i o u s feed u t i l i z a t i o n  and c a r c a s s  quality.  H o w e v e r , t h y r o i d w e i g h t s o f t h e b i r d s i n c r e a s e d when 1 0 % o r more o f t h e s e e d was f e d . Tower s e e d a p p e a r e d n u t r i t i v e value.  Cooking o f the f u l l - f a t  t o have l i t t l e  The p e r f o r m a n c e  o r no i n f l u e n c e on i t s of starting-growing  t u r k e y p o u l t s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g 21.5% o f t h e a u t o c l a v e d full-fat  Tower r a p e s e e d was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h o s e f e d s o y b e a n  meal c o n t r o l . the  The good p e r f o r m a n c e  suggest that t h i s  high glucosinolate c u l t i v a r s .  still  produces  o f Canada,  cultivar  i s superior  H o w e v e r , Tower  some t h y r o i d e n l a r g e m e n t  (Rapeseed  rapeseed Assoc.  1977). Summers  and  c h i c k s and  t u r k e y p o u l t s on d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g t h e h i g h l e v e l s o f  Tower r a p e s e e d w o u l d to  of b r o i l e r  (1974)  reported that using  20% o f RSM  3% r a p e s e e d o i l i n l a y e r s d i e t d i d n o t a f f e c t egg  p r o d u c t i o n a n d egg q u a l i t y .  Ten p e r c e n t r a p e s e e d o i l  r e d u c e d egg p r o d u c t i o n b u t h a d no a d v e r s e e f f e c t o n egg  quality.  I n v i e w o f Summers  t h a t up t o 10% o f RSM c a n be u s e d  (1974) w o r k , i t a p p e a r s i n practical  laying  46.  r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g 17% o r p r o t e i n .  A r e d u c t i o n i n egg  p r o d u c t i o n was n o t e d when 15% RSM was i n c l u d e d layers diet.  T h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  c o u l d be i m p r o v e d by v a r i o u s amino a c i d  i n the  performance  additions  ( e s p e c i a l l y a r g i n i n e and m e t h i o n i n e ) t o t h e d i e t  (Summers,  1976). Full-fat, laying rations  cooked,  Span r a p e s e e d was i n c l u d e d i n  a t 5% w i t h o u t a n y d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s .  The  l e v e l o f egg p r o d u c t i o n d e c r e a s e d and i n c i d e n c e o f hemorrhagic  liver  syndrome i n c r e a s e d when t h e r a p e s e e d  was f e d a t h i g h e r l e v e l s  (10-15%).  However, t h e t r e a t m e n t s  u s e d h a d no e f f e c t on s i z e and p r o x i m a t e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the l i v e r s  and h e a r t s o f t h e b i r d s .  Egg q u a l i t y ,  feed  c o n v e r s i o n and body w e i g h t s were n o t a f f e c t e d b y any o f the t r e a t m e n t s , but a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n t h y r o i d was n o t e d as t h e l e v e l increased  (Rapeseed  o f t h e r a p e s e e d i n t h e r a t i o n was  A s s o c . o f Canada,  R a p e s e e d was f e d t o s t a r t i n g replacement p u l l e t s  size  1977). and g r o w i n g  as t h e s o l e p r o t e i n s u p p l e m e n t  at levels  up t o 17% o f t h e d i e t w i t h o u t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e subsequent  r a t e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n o r egg mass.  introduction of a high level  An a b r u p t  ( 1 9 % ) o f RSM i n t h e d i e t s o f  l a y i n g b i r d s which had n o t p r e v i o u s l y been f e d t h e meal resulted  i n an i m m e d i a t e  drop  i n t h e r a t e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n .  47.  Feeding of s i m i l a r d i e t s to p u l l e t chicks maturity  demonstrated  affected  by e a r l y g o i t r o g e n  to the t h y r o t r o p i n of feeding  RSM  that  until  sexual  the t h y r o i d g l a n d i s permanently intake  stimulation  but remains  ( M a r c h , 1977) .  responsive The  on t h e t h y r o i d s i z e and h i s t o l o g y  effects  persisted  a f t e r t h e b i r d s were s h i f t e d t o t h e soybean meal d i e t fed that feeding  d i e t f o r 67 w e e k s . o f RSM  continuous  The  at high l e v e l s  increase  long  term  (19.0-19.6%)  (91 w e e k s ) resulted in  i n the s i z e of the t h y r o i d gland  d i s r u p t i o n of the e p i t h e l i a l  tissues.  The  and  thyroid  and  modi-  f i c a t i o n observed i n the progency of c h i c k e n s f e d the l e v e l o f RSM i n the eggs.  was  r e l a t e d t o a low c o n c e n t r a t i o n  of dietary  the r e s u l t t h a t  were r e d u c e d  l e v e l s up t o 7.5%  was  i n t o the t h y r o i d  included  extended time p e r i o d  ova  i n l a y i n g hen r a t i o n s  Increasing  at  mortality  the d i e t a r y  t o 10% had no e f f e c t s on t h e s i z e o r  composition of l i v e r s  gland  1977).  w i t h o u t any a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on  i n increased  of  amounts r e a c h i n g t h e d e v e l o p i n g  o r r a t e o f egg p r o d u c t i o n .  result  iodine  ( M a r c h and L e u n g ,  Span RSM  o f Span RSM  iodine  T h i s a p p e a r s t o be c a u s e d b y d i v e r s i o n  a high proportion with  of  high  level  gross  and h e a r t s o f l a y i n g b i r d s , b u t d i d  thyroid  s i z e , and f e e d i n g  f o r an  (6 m o n t h s ) p r o d u c e d c h a n g e s  c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e o f the l i v e r  stroma such that  i n the normal  48.  i n t e g r i t y could  not  be m a i n t a i n e d and  f a m i l i a r hemorrhagic l i v e r  this resulted in  syndrome.  The  o f l i v e r h e m o r r h a g e i n l a y i n g b i r d s was the  d i e t a r y glucosinolate content,  u s e d , as w e l l as was  the  period  the  incidence  associated s t r a i n of  the  level with  birds  of time over which the  meal  fed. Tower RSM  t o 12.7%  was  w i t h o u t any  or m o r t a l i t y . mended l e v e l  f e d t o l a y i n g hens a t l e v e l s  d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on  T h i s may of  5%  suggest t h a t the  RSM  L e g h o r n h e n s c o u l d be  i n the  d o u b l e d i n the  recom-  c a s e o f Tower m e a l .  is s t i l l  when 10  o f Tower m e a l i s i n c l u d e d  diets  current  production  d i e t s f o r S i n g l e Comb W h i t e  However, t h e r e t o 15%  egg  up  a problem i n maintaining  egg  in laying  size hen  (Rapeseed A s s o c . o f Canada, 1977).  F.  Processing The  glucosinolates  i n the p r o c e s s i n g  o f RSM  are  of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  f o r several reasons  (Rapeseed  A s s o c . of Canada, 1972): (1)  I t i s i m p o r t a n t to p r e v e n t the undesirable  products,  isothiocyanates,  formation  oxazolidinethione  from g l u c o s i n o l a t e s .  of and  This  is  49.  achievedfby the use o f heat t o destroy thioglucosidase, (2)  that hydrolyses  t h e enzyme,  glucosinolates.  G a r e must be t a k e n t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s u s e d (210°F-225°F) i n t h e p r o c e s s do n o t r e s u l t i n the  complexing of p r o t e i n molecules to other  compounds, w i t h nutritional  eventual  availability  reduction  i nthe  o f amino a c i d s , e s p e c i a l l y  lysine. It  i s believed  t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o be  more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e method u s e d f o r o b t a i n i n g from the rapeseed. digestibility to p r a c t i c a l  Despite  the recognized  and amino a c i d c o n t e n t ,  differences i n  RSM  supplemented  d i e t s has o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e  equal to that obtained  with  soybean meal  supplemented  d i e t s , when t h e d i e t s w e r e k e p t i s o n i t r o g e n o u s caloric.  This  requires  a s l i g h t l y higher  t o meet t h e p r o t e i n l e v e l higher values.  the o i l  crude f i b e r  and i s o -  c o n t e n t o f RSM  o f soybean meal, r e s u l t i n g i n  c o n t e n t and l o w e r m e t a b o l i z a b l e  energy  T h e s e d r a w b a c k s , may be o f f s e t b y t h e i n c l u s i o n  o f e x t r a f a t i n t h e d i e t o r by a p p r o p r i a t e high-energy c e r e a l grains  selection of  (Rapeseed A s s o c . o f Canada,  1972). There i s evidence t h a t can  hydrolze  intestinal  some o f t h e g l u c o s i n o l a t e s  microorganisms  even though the  50.  d i e t c o n t a i n s no  thioglucosidase.  utmost importance to prevent l a t e s during rapeseed As  i t was  B. n a p u s RSM RSM  i t i s of  h y d r o l y s i s of the  glucosino-  processing.  s t u d i e d by W e t t e r and  Craig  i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e B.  by h i g h e r  contained  Therefore,  oxazolidinethione content.  (1959)  the  campestris  Polish-type  RSM  the h i g h e s t c o n t e n t  of the other g l u c o s i n o l a t e  Sosulski  a t t e m p t e d t o remove  product.  g l u c o s i n o l a t e by seed r a t i o  (1977) has  dilute  o f 3:1,  alkali  i n two  the  extractions, using a solvent:  stages  a t 80°C.  Feeding  experi-  m e n t s w i t h r a t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d i f f u s i o n e x t r a c t i o n had little  e f f e c t on  meal, but  t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f amino a c i d s i n Span  i s o l a t i o n of p r o t e i n s g e n e r a l l y improved  a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e by Genetic being u t i l i z e d t i o n o f RSM.  method w h i c h i s  I n t h e German F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c ,  Winter  s e e d may  v a r i e t i e s w i t h l e s s than be  a v a i l a b l e i n a few  p r o d u c e d and  rich  through  years.  gluco-  pmol/g I t seems  i n p r o t e i n , o i l or both  the f i b e r content  (Robbelem et a l . , 1980).  30  composi-  rapeseed  e r u c i c a c i d have been d e v e l o p e d  possible that v a r i e t i e s be  i s another  r e s e a r c h devoted to the removal of t o x i c  sinolates. defatted  engineering  10%.  t o remove t h e u n d e s i r a b l e c h e m i c a l  v a r i e t i e s w i t h no breeding  about  the  may  a l s o be  may  decreased  51.  L a t e l y , Jones processing (1973).  method w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o a p r o c e s s by O h l s o n  He r e p o r t e d  containing fat  (1979) h a s d e v e l o p e d t h e F R I - 7 1  65-70%  that rapeseed p r o t e i n  concentrates  p r o t e i n are r e a d i l y obtained  i s efficiently  extracted  using  when t h e  t h i s method.  This  w a t e r e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s removes o v e r 90% o f t h e g l y c o sinolates  and r e s u l t s i n a h i g h  Nutritional  quality protein  e v a l u a t i o n work u s i n g  concentrate.  the p r o t e i n e f f i c i e n c y  r a t i o method h a s c o n s i s t e n t l y shown t h e r a p e s e e d p r o t e i n concentrates parable  3.  t o be s u p e r i o r  or superior  to other  o i l s e e d s and com-  to casein.  Buckwheat Buckwheat  (Fagopyrum  esculentum) i s not a c e r e a l  ( G r a m i n e a e ) b u t a member o f t h e f a m i l y P o l y g o n a c e a e . i s a summer a n n u a l , h a s a s h o r t  g r o w i n g s e a s o n o f 10 t o  12 w e e k s , and a p p e a r s t o h a v e a s p e c i a l c a p a c i t y in cool climates  under a wide range o f s o i l  I t c a n grow on s o i l s economic  g r a i n o f buckwheat 1947; M a r s h a l l , fruit  of insufficient  yields (Farrell,  1976).  i s a dry f r u i t  1969).  It  The b l a c k  t o grow  conditions.  fertility  with  Like the c e r e a l s , the ( W i n t o n and W i n t o n , h u l l s o f the t r i a n g u l a r  are not suited- f o r monogastric feed.  Structurally,  52.  .they have l i t t l e The  seed p r o p e r  in that  i n common w i t h b r a n c o a t s (groat)  i s s i m i l a r to that of  i t c o n s i s t s of s t a r c h y  (Pomeranz and  Robbins,  e n d o s p e r m and  cereals oily  embryo  to determine  s u p p l e m e n t t o b u c k w h e a t f o r optimum  z a t i o n o f i t s p r o t e i n and it  cereals.  1972).  A l t h o u g h more w o r k i s r e q u i r e d most a p p r o p r i a t e  o f the  e n e r g y by m o n o g a s t r i c  (Farrell,  samples.  s e c o n d m a j o r component i n w h e a t  A l t h o u g h buckwheat i s not  a c e r e a l g r a i n , i t i s used interchangeably in l i v e s t o c k feeding  programs.  I t i s an  o f l y s i n e (Lyman e t a_l. , 1956) grains.  H o w e v e r , i t was  value  information method on  of stock  that  the  i t should  cereals  excellent the  source  cereal  (1956)  hull  e f f e c t of  content.  processing  of buckwheat. be  Little  Morrison  ground f o r a l l c l a s s e s  except p o u l t r y . There i s a s l i g h t l y  p r o b l e m n o t i c e d by  c l a s s o f a n i m a l when f e d b u c k w h e a t . reported  as  l e s s than oats f o r l i v e s t o c k  n u t r i t i v e value  (1956) r e p o r t e d  with  compared w i t h  because of i t s higher  i s a v a i l a b l e on  the  classed  s u g g e s t e d by M o r r i s o n  t h a t b u c k w h e a t i s w o r t h 10% feeding  and  1976).  Buckwheat i s the screening  utili-  animals,  does a p p e a r t o h a v e p o t e n t i a l as b o t h a p r o t e i n  energy source  the  Morrison  t h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y , b u c k w h e a t g r a i n and  certain  (1949) the  green  53.  fodder or itching  straw cause p e c u l i a r e r u p t i o n s  of the  skin.  This  may  be  c a u s e d by  b e c a u s e o f p h o t o s e n s i t i z a t i o n c a u s e d by ( M c C o l l u m et_ a_l. , 1939) . the  white or  I t was  and  intense the  a fluorescent  also reported  light-colored portions  skin  of the  that  hide  dye only  are  affected.  A.  Protein The  main o u t s t a n d i n g  wheat p r o t e i n s  i s the  high  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  l y s i n e content  6.1%), which i s higher  t h a n i n any  Among t h e  proteins  a t 4.2%  c e r e a l s , oat  buckwheat p r o t e i n s of glutamic  contain  a c i d and  aspartic acid.  p r o l i n e , but  and  (Waggle e t a l . , 1966; Studies  are  grains,  low  concentrations  rich  in arginine  and  s o u r c e o f ammonia i s  form of amides; the  i n w h e a t and  o f Pomeranz and  69%  i n oat  Robbins  amino a c i d s was  correlated with protein content. Robbins  Compared t o c e r e a l  of corres-  proteins  R o b b i n s et_ al. , 1 9 7 3 ) .  shown t h a t none o f t h e  Pomeranz and  grains.  a s p a r t i c a c i d s , a b o u t 56%  t h o s e amino a c i d s w e r e i n t h e p o n d i n g v a l u e s w e r e 85%  the  cereal  of  richest in lysine  relatively  Assuming t h a t  m a i n l y from glutamic  of the  are  (Robbins e t al_. , 1973).  (average  buck-  significantly  B a s e d on  (1972) h a v e s t a t e d  (1972) h a v e  their  that  findings  increasing  p r o t e i n c o n t e n t p r o b a b l y does n o t i m p a i r amino a c i d p a t t e r n  the e x c e l l e n t  o f b u c k w h e a t p r o t e i n s , and t h a t  b r e e d i n g and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s t o i n c r e a s e content might not decrease the b i o l o g i c a l wheat.  However,  plant  protein  value  o f buck-  s u c h d e c r e a s e s were o b s e r v e d i n w h e a t  ( J o h n s o n e_t al_. , 1970) . B i e l y and Pomeranz  (1975) have e v a l u a t e d  n u t r i t i v e value  o f buckwheat u s i n g  mental animal.  The r e s u l t o f t h e i r  t h a t buckwheat p r o v i d e d value  proteins  I t was  a l b i n o r a t s as an e x p e r i -  also reported  s t u d i e s have  the best source of high  i n the p l a n t kingdom  of d r i e d non-fat milk  the  indicated biological  (92.3% o f t h e  value  s o l i d s and 81.4% o f d r i e d w h o l e e g g ) . t h a t b u c k w h e a t h a s enough l y s i n e f o r  the g r o w t h o f c h i c k e n .  Comparing the p r o t e i n q u a l i t y  b e t w e e n t h e c u l t i v a t e d b u c k w h e a t and t h e w i l d b u c k w h e a t , i t was r e p o r t e d was  t h a t the l y s i n e c o n t e n t o f w i l d buckwheat  somewhat l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d b u c k w h e a t .  The d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d w i t h in proteins  e s s e n t i a l amino  (1976) a l s o d i d s i m i l a r w o r k on b u c k w h e a t .  r e s u l t s h a v e shown t h a t when b u c k w h e a t was  r a t s w i t h o u t any p r o t e i n s u p p l e m e n t , i t was t o wheat and o a t s . n o t i c e d was  acids  o f w i l d and c u l t i v a t e d b u c k w h e a t w e r e m i n o r .  Farell His  the other  The o n l y  limiting  fed to  always s u p e r i o r  amino a c i d he h a s  i s o l e u c i n e i n the growth o f weanling r a t s .  55.  I n t h e c a s e o f p i g s , b u c k w h e a t was n o t f o u n d t o be t o wheat and f e e d c o n v e r s i o n poorer  due t o t h e l o w e r  r a t i o was  digestible  superior  significantly  energy  concentration  of buckwheat. As i t i s s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  i t i s the view of  s e v e r a l workers t h a t the p r o t e i n q u a l i t y o f buckwheat is  superior to that normally  found i n the c e r e a l g r a i n s .  However, t h e a p p a r e n t d i g e s t i b i l i t y and  e n e r g y i s n o t as h i g h  of dry matter  nitrogen  as f o u n d i n s e v e r a l o t h e r  grains.  T h i s c a n be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f f i b e r c o n t e n t , is probably  a l a r g e component  of the h u l l s .  which  Nevertheless,  t h e p r o t e i n s o f b u c k w h e a t were shown t o h a v e e x c e l l e n t supplementary value  to the c e r e a l grains  (Sure,  1955;  W y l d e t al_. , 1958) . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l y s i n e concentrations as g l u t a m i c  of h i s t i d i n e  a c i d decreased.  i n c r e a s e d as t h e  and a r g i n i n e i n c r e a s e d , H i s t i d i n e was  positively  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a r g i n i n e and n e g a t i v e l y w i t h acid,  i s o l e u c i n e , and l e u c i n e .  Negative  glutamic  correlations  were f o u n d b e t w e e n a r g i n i n e and a s p a r t i c a c i d , glutamic  a c i d , g l y c i n e and a l a n i n e .  aspartic  a c i d i n c r e a s e d as a l a n i n e  was  correlated positively with  alanine;  glutamic  a c i d was  and  threonine,  Concentration increased.  of  Threonine  s e r i n e , g l y c i n e , and  correlated with glycine, alanine  and p h e n y l a l a n i n e ; and p h e n y l a l a n i n e ;  g l y c i n e was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  a n d i s o l e u c i n e was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  l e u c i n e a n d v a l i n e (Pomeranz a n d R o b b i n s , Correlations n e u t r a l and a c i d i c  alanine  1972).  among b a s i c amino a c i d s o r among  amino a c i d s w e r e p o s i t i v e ; c o r r e l a t i o n s  b e t w e e n b a s i c amino a c i d s , and a c i d i c o r n e u t r a l a c i d s were n e g a t i v e . of p r o t e i n s  The r e s u l t s p o i n t  that are c o n s i s t e n t l y r i c h  (Pomeranz and R o b b i n s ,  amino  to the presence i n amino  acids  1972).  Furthermore, the glutamic  a c i d content  i n proteins  o f t h e wheat e n d o s p e r m  i s h i g h compared t o l o w l e v e l s i n  the  i s true  germ;  the opposite  i n f r a c t i o n s o f buckwheat.  The o n l y m a j o r s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e germ o f wheat and b u c k w h e a t was t h a t b o t h c o n t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e endosperms. glutamic content  rich  o f buckwheat h y d r o l y z a t e s  confirm  of soluble proteins.  r e p o r t s on h i g h  Such s o l u b l e  proteins  o f buckwheat  (Pomeranz and  1972). Pomeranz  and R o b b i n s  (1972) r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  f o r m e a n i n g f u l a n d more r e l i a b l e method tion  l o w ammonia  i n l y s i n e a n d may a c c o u n t f o r t h e e x c e l l e n t  amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n Robbins,  l y s i n e , r e l a t i v e l y low  a c i d and p r o l i n e , and r e l a t i v e l y  concentrations are  The h i g h  more a r g i n i n e t h a n t h e  i s c a l c u l a t i n g the r a t i o  of protein  of specific  evalua-  e s s e n t i a l amino  57.  a c i d s t o t h e sum o f t h e e s s e n t i a l comparison  o f t h e A/TE  amino a c i d s ( A / T E ) .  r a t i o w i t h the  A  egg-reference  p a t t e r n y i e l d s a chemical score which  indicates  the  limiting  amino a c i d s ;  t h e l o w e r t h e v a l u e , t h e more l i m i t i n g t h e  amino a c i d .  Thus, i n wheat, l y s i n e ,  i s the f i r s t  amino a c i d , t h e n e x t two a r e t h r e o n i n e and In agreement w i t h f e e d i n g t e s t s o f Sure amino a c i d a s s a y s o f Pomeranz  isoleucine.  (1955) t h e c h e m i c a l  and R o b b i n s  (1972)  t h a t b u c k w h e a t h a s a b e t t e r b a l a n c e and b e t t e r for  supplementing  foods  t h a n do c e r e a l  I n c o n c l u s i o n , Pomeranz criticize  limiting  indicate  potential  grains.  and R o b b i n s  (1972) do  t h e amino a c i d a n a l y s e s method f o r p r o t e i n  q u a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n b e c a u s e t h i s method does n o t a s s e s s o r m e a s u r e one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r s  that  n u t r i t i v e value of a food, i t s d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  determine  "Chemical  s c o r e s " s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y as a p o w e r f u l convenient  B.  and  screening tool.  Effect of Processing As d e b r a n n i n g  o f c e r e a l g r a i n s (Pomeranz and  M a c M a s t e r s , 1970) d e h u l l i n g o f b u c k w h e a t i n c r e a s e d t h e protein content.  Similarly,  the dark f l o u r  f e e d c o n t a i n e d more p r o t e i n , t h e l i g h t  flour  and b u c k w h e a t less,  and  58 .  hulls  the l e a s t p r o t e i n  among t h e m i l l i n g  (Pomeranz and R o b b i n s , 1 9 7 2 ) .  Similar  fractions  r e s u l t s were  also  r e p o r t e d by Coe (1931) . The amino a c i d p a t t e r n  o f m i l l e d buckwheat  f r a c t i o n s d i f f e r s from the p a t t e r n grains.  In wheat, p r o t e i n s  stantially  of milled  cereal  i n white f l o u r contain  l e s s l y s i n e and i n d a r k f l o u r s l i g h t l y  than i n the whole k e r n e l .  kernel  proteins.  i n c r e a s e s from about 28.5% i n t h e whole  t o 3 4 . 5 % and 29.6% i n w h i t e a n d d a r k f l o u r s ,  respectively. i n germ. in proline  I t d e c r e a s e s t o 16.2% i n b r a n and t o 14.0%  Similar  changes t o those i n g l u t a m i c a c i d  c o n t e n t o f wheat p r o d u c t s .  buckwheat f r a c t i o n s d i f f e r e d l i t t l e tion;  less  M i l l i n g wheat s h i f t s t h e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e m a i n amino a c i d o f s t o r a g e Glutamic acid  sub-  However,  occur  milled  i n amino a c i d  composi-  only the h u l l s which are unsuited f o r monogastric  a n i m a l c o n s u m p t i o n d i f f e r e d i n amino a c i d from that  i n the edible  fractions.  composition  Despite  of the m i l l i n g process, there are only small i n amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n o f p r o t e i n s of d e h u l l e d buckwheat g r o a t  imperfections differences  among t h e t i s s u e s  (Pomeranz a n d R o b b i n s ,  1972).  59.  4.  Weed Seeds There i s l i t t l e  evaluation  nutritional  o f weed s e e d s i n p o u l t r y d i e t n o r i n a n y c l a s s  of l i v e s t o c k . livestock that  work done r e g a r d i n g  R e g a r d i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f weed s e e d t o  feed  H a r o l d and Nalewaja  (1977) h a v e  i f weed s e e d s w e r e removed f r o m a l l s m a l l  screenings), harvested.  t h i s would r e p r e s e n t o n l y  of t h i s  p o t e n t i a l f o r the  i n l i v e s t o c k r a t i o n s and a l l o c a t i o n  grain to alternate  uses.  Many weed s e e d s a r e i n a d v e r t e n t l y during  the harvest of small  tion of grain  grain crops.  harvested  This  contamina-  i s termed "dockage" and r e p r e s e n t s  m a t e l y 1 t o 5% o f t h e g r a i n d e l i v e r e d (Harold  g r a i n s (as  1% o f t h e c r o p  There remains a c o n s i d e r a b l e  replacement of grains  stated  and N a l e w a j a , 1977).  to country  Dockage l o s s e s  totalled  $43,000,000 i n 1954 a n d l o s s e s  handling  t h e d o c k a g e added a n o t h e r $6,000,000  Robbins,  1962). Tkachuk and M e l l i s h  weed s e e d s a r e h i g h  associated  do  with  ( C r a f t s and  (1976) h a v e r e p o r t e d  amino a c i d a n a l y s i s  t h a t many weeds h a v e an e x c e l l e n t e s s e n t i a l amino b a l a n c e and a h i g h e r  elevators  i n Canada  i n p r o t e i n and o i l c o n t e n t .  m o r e , i t was e m p h a s i z e d t h a t  approxi-  that Furthershowed acid  c o n t e n t o f e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s  t h e commonly grown c e r e a l  grains.  than  59a,  Weed s e e d s most commonly p r e s e n t (dockage) from  s m a l l g r a i n s i n most a r e a s  are w i l d buckwheat, green oats. these  of North  and y e l l o w f o x t a i l ,  T h u s , t h e m i n e r a l and  and  ( H a r o l d and N a l e w a j a ,  A l t h o u g h weed s e e d s do valuable nutrients,  America wild  amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n  seeds are o f s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f t h e i r  dominance i n s c r e e n i n g s  1976)  i n screenings  some w o r k e r s  of  pre-  1977).  contain nutritionally ( T k a c h u k and  Mellish,  h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t some weed s e e d s l i k e f l i x w e e d ,  stinkweed  and  f a l s e r a g w e e d do c o n t a i n t o x i c  substances  and w i l l r e q u i r e p r o c e s s i n g b e f o r e t h e y c a n be u s e d f o r food or  feed.  II.  MATERIALS AND METHODS  Wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s e v a l u a t i o n were c o l l e c t e d local  feed manufacturing  subjected to n u t r i t i o n a l  from normal d e l i v e r i e s  to the  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g a ten-week p e r i o d .  D u p l i c a t e s a m p l e s o f e a c h wheat s c r e e n i n g w e r e analyzed  f o r gross  energy, crude  e t h e r e x t r a c t , crude (A.O.A.C.,  1965).  on a d r y m a t t e r  fiber,  total  a s h and d r y m a t t e r  A l l analytical  basis.  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  among means d e t e r m i n e d  r e s u l t s were  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  d e s c r i b e d under each t r i a l to  p r o t e i n (% N x 6 . 2 5 ) ,  expressed  arrangement i s  l i s t e d below.  (Snedecor,  content  Data were  subjected  1956) and d i f f e r e n c e s  by m u l t i p l e range t e s t  (Duncan,  1955) .  A.  Amino A c i d A v a i l a b i l i t y The b r o i l e r c h i c k s  amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y housed i n s t a i n l e s s  Study (3 weeks o l d ) u t i l i z e d  s t u d y were u n i f o r m  steel  f o r the  i n s i z e and w e r e  t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y contoTled  metabolism  cages.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  completely  randomized design  a r r a n g e m e n t was a  i n v o l v i n g eleven  experimental  d i e t s f e d t o f o u r r e p l i c a t e groups of f o u r c h i c k s each. feeding t r i a l  and a n a l y s i s were c a r r i e d  out a c c o r d i n g to  The  t h e p r o c e d u r e o f B r a g g e t a l _ . (1969) . analysis  The method  o f e n d o g e n o u s amino a c i d s e x c r e t e d  included  by the c h i c k .  The amount o f e n d o g e n o u s amino a c i d s was s i g n i f i c a n t  and  c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h i s f a c t o r was n e c e s s a r y i n a v a i l a b i l i t y calculations  to d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y a v a i l a b i l i t y  apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  T e s t c h i c k s were f e d c o m m e r c i a l  s t a r t e r d i e t s t o t h r e e weeks o f age. the  t e s t , t h e y were s u p p l i e d  0.3% f e r r i c and  with  At the beginning  s t a r t e r feed  to the s t a r t e r r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g the marker. subjected  (Unmarked f e c e s ) .  output during  the  period.  returned  Feces from the  t o t h e s y n t h e t i c d i e t were c o l l e c t e d The n e x t d a y , t h e same p r o c e d u r e  except that the t e s t d i e t (Table  synthetic diet.  in eleven  containing  1) f o r a f o u r h o u r  They were s u b s e q u e n t l y f a s t e d f o r two h o u r s and  repeated,  of  oxide marker f o r f o u r hours, f a s t e d f o r s i x t e e n hours  f e d a s y n t h e t i c d i e t (Table  chicks  from  was  2) r e p l a c e d  the  D r y m a t t e r c o n s u m p t i o n and f e c a l d r y m a t t e r  t h e e x p e r i m e n t were r e c o r d e d .  ( d i e t ) d i f f e r e n t wheat s c r e e n i n g  c o n t r o l d i e t ) and f e c e s  Amino  acids  samples ( i n c l u d i n g  c o l l e c t e d from each sample  u n d e r t e s t w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y amino a c i d a n a l y s i s (Moore e t a l . , 1958) f o l l o w i n g h y d r o l y s i s w i t h h o u r s a t 121°C.  3N HC1 f o r f i f t e e n  Table 1.  Composition of synthetic (purified) diet  Ingredients Sucrose Cellulose* Corn oil  g/kg (D. M.) 810.17 89.83 100.00  *Cel1u-f1 our , Nutritional Biochemical Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio.  63.  B.  M e t a b o l i z a b l e Energy Study M e t a b o l i z a b l e energy (ME) of wheat s c r e e n i n g s  was determined u s i n g three-week-old  broiler chicks.  There  were f o u r r e p l i c a t e s of f o u r c h i c k s each p e r t r e a t m e n t . The t e s t d i e t s c o n t a i n e d wheat s c r e e n i n g a t a l e v e l o f 61% i n s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r an equal amount of the d i e t a r y wheat (Table 2 ) .  The assay p e r i o d was f i v e days and  sampling  of the e x c r e t a and feed was i n the l a s t two days of the experiment.  A l l samples of f e e d and f e c e s were composited  and subsampled f o r a n a l y s i s .  Feed consumption and e x c r e t a  output were determined by the a c i d i n s o l u b l e ash method of Vogtmann e_t al_.  (1975) .  Gross energy and n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t  of f e e d and f e c e s were determined (A.O.A.C., 1965).  The  e x c r e t a were f r o z e n and l y o p h i l i z e d p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s . N i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n was determined and ME v a l u e s were c a l c u l a t e d w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n of 8.22 K c a l / k g n i t r o g e n r e t a i n e d ( H i l l and Anderson, 1958).  C.  Chemical Element  Study  U t i l i z a t i o n o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and copper from wheat feed s c r e e n i n g s s t u d i e d w i t h three-week-old four replicates  broiler chicks.  was  There were  ( f o u r c h i c k s each) p e r d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t .  Table  2.  Composition  Ingredients  of experimental  diet  Wheat Control  Screenings %  Wheat  61.0  -  -  61.0  25.0  25.0  Meat m e a l (501 p r o t e i n )  6.5  6.5  Animal  6.0  6.0  Limestone  0.5  0.5  Premix*  1.0  1.0  Wheat  screenings  Soybean meal (48.5%  protein)  tallow  1 - V i t a m i n p r e m i x s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f d i e t : V i t a m i n A, 11,000 I . U . ; V i t a m i n D , 880 I.C.U.; V i t a m i n E, 10 I.U.; V i t a m i n K, 2.2 mg;' V i t a m i n B -j 2 > 13.2 meg; . . R i b o f l a v i n , 6.6 mg; I C a p a n t o t h e n a t e , 24.2 mg; N i a c i n , 36.2 mg, B i o t i n , 0.04 mg; C h o l i n e C h l o r i d e , 500 mg. 2 - M i n e r a l p r e m i x s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f d i e t : NaCl, 3.52 g; Mn, 86 mg; Zn,.49 mg; Cu, 7.7 mg. 3  T e s t b i r d s w e r e f e d a s t a r t e r d i e t c o n t a i n i n g known n u t r i t i o n a l requirements maintained and,  f r o m one day t o 21 d a y s o f a g e . i n a b a t t e r y brooder  during the f i r s t  were  21 d a y s  t h e r e a f t e r , g r o u p s o f f o u r b i r d s of:.u'niform s i z e  transferred all  Chicks  to metabolism  cages.  On t h e 22nd day o f a g e ,  c h i c k s were s u p p l i e d w i t h f e e d  0.3% f e r r i c  (starter diet) containing  oxide marker f o r f o u r hours.  hours of f a s t i n g ,  After sixteen  on t h e 2 3 r d d a y , a s y n t h e t i c d i e t  was f e d f o r f o u r h o u r s .  (Table  recorded.  hours.  On t h e 2 4 t h day o f a g e , t h e same p r o c e d u r e except  synthetic diet. procedure  that the t e s t feed  Total marker-free  collection f e c e s were  c o l l e c t e d a n d t h e f e c e s w e r e d r i e d a t 85°C f o r 24  content:  s a m p l e s were a n a l y z e d  was  ( T a b l e 2) r e p l a c e d t h e  F e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and f e c e s  w e r e t h e same.  The f o l l o w i n g  consumed  Once a g a i n , t h e s t a r t e r d i e t c o n t a i n i n g  t h e m a r k e r was f e d f o r f o u r  repeated  hours.  f o r t h e i r chemical  the s y n t h e t i c d i e t , experimental  element  d i e t s , the  w h e a t f e e d s c r e e n i n g s and t h e f e c e s f r o m c h i c k s on t h e experimental atomic  diets.  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w e r e made u s i n g  absorption spectrophotometry  temperature 36 h o u r s .  1)  F e c e s f r o m c h i c k s on t h e  s y n t h e t i c d i e t w e r e c o l l e c t e d a n d t h e amount o f f e e d was  were  f o l l o w i n g a low  d r y a s h i n g a t 450°C i n t h e m u f f l e f u r n a c e f o r The p h o s p h o r u s , a s w e l l a s , o t h e r m i n e r a l s c a n  66.  be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e a s h s a m p l e . used  i n this  The a n a l y t i c a l  method  s t u d y was as d e s c r i b e d i n "The a n a l y s i s o f  Agricultural  Materials"  and F o o d , U.K., 1 9 7 3 ) .  (Ministry of Agriculture,  Fisheries  C a l c i u m , magnesium, manganese,  z i n c and c o p p e r were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e u s e o f a J a r r e l A s h atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer. v/w) was r e q u i r e d  Phosphorus  Ultraviolet with  the i n t e r -  when c a l c i u m and magnesium were  was d e t e r m i n e d by a U n i c a m SP1800  Spectrophotometer  ammonium m o l y b d a t e .  following  following  Mineral  e x p r e s s e d on a d r y m a t t e r The  oxide (0.5%  i n the t e s t s o l u t i o n t o reduce  f e r e n c e from phosphorus analyzed.  Lanthanium  color  development  c o n t e n t o f a l l samples  was  basis.  f o r m u l a was u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e  percent mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y  following  analysis  o f f e e d and  excreta:  P e r c e n t c h e m i c a l element  where TCEI  availability  =  TCEI -" (TFCEE - EFME) ------ „^„ —: -— x 100 TCEI J  T  = T o t a l Chemical Element Intake from ingredient (experimental diet)  TFCEE. = T o t a l  F e c a l Chemical Element Excreted  EFME = Endogenous F e c a l Chemical Element Excreted (synthetic) or p u r i f i e d  diet  excreta).  67.  D.  reeding  Trial  The t r i a l design  involving  a r r a n g e m e n t was a c o m p l e t e l y  eleven experimental  diets  (including  d i e t w h i c h was a s t a n d a r d wheat - T a b l e 2 ) . fed  randomized  Each d i e t  t o t h r e e r e p l i c a t e g r o u p s o f t e n a day. o l d b r o i l e r  Chicks of uniform brooders. steel  feeders  approximately  and w a t e r e r s .  Test  and c o n t r o l  and f e e d c o n v e r s i o n r a t i o w e r e c a l c u l a t e d ill-health.  battery  ad l i b i t u m i n s t a i n l e s s  i s o c a l o r i c and i s o n i t r o g e n o u s .  examined d a i l y f o r s i g n s o f  was  chicks.  s i z e were housed i n s t a i n l e s s s t e e l  F e e d and w a t e r were p r o v i d e d  control  diets Growth  and b i r d s  were rate were  III.  A.  DISCUSSION  B o t a n i c a l Composition The  was  RESULTS AND  nutritive  determined  v a l u e o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  using ten d i f f e r e n t  samples.  The  (WFS)  botanical  c o m p o s i t i o n o f the wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g samples i s presented  i n Table  3.  The  highest percentage  b o t a n i c a l c o m p o n e n t s was  wheat  was  w i l d buckwheat  1 2 % ) ; w h e r e a s , t h e l o w e s t were  and  o a t h a v i n g an a v e r a g e o f 0.22%  The  nutritional  minimal  (Ave.  (Ave.  76%).  among  and  c o n t r i b u t i o n of both  Farm weeds  rapeseed  flax  (1.5%) were t h e t h i r d  was  second  highest  and o a t s w i t h  such  The percent• b o t a n i c a l ,  t h e same.at a b o u t  lowest  flax  0.28%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  amounts p r e s u m a b l y w o u l d be small.  c o m p o s i t i o n o f b a r l e y and  The  i n the  4%.  botanical  composition. U n d e r t h e Canada F e e d s A c t  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , No.  1 feed  screenings s h a l l contain: (a)  hot  l e s s t h a n 35% b r o k e n  or shrunken  grain  or  both, (b)  n o t more t h a n  7%  (c)  not more t h a n  3% o f s m a l l weed s e e d s ,  and  dust,  of crude  fiber, chaff, hulls  Table  Sample  Cracked ~-wheat  3.  Botanical composition  Cracked barley  Rapeseed  o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  Flax seed  Oats  (Percent)  Wild Buckwheat  Farm weeds  cl Miscellaneous  1  82.4  5.6  1.9  0.1  0.3  9.4  0 .1  0.3  2  72.0  6.9  5.2  -  -  12.8  1.6  1.5  3  75.3  3.6  3.9  0.2  -  13.8  0.8  2.4  4  78.4  1.2  6.5  0.3  0.5  10.4  1.6  1.2  5  74.3  7 .1  1.4  0.1  0.4  14.1  1.7  0.9  6  76.9  -  7.2  0.2  0.3  11.1  2.5  1.8  7  73.9  3.1  5 .1  0.4  0.3  12 . 8  1.6  2. 8  8  76.2  2.7  3.7  0.4  0.4  12.6  2.2  1.9  9  73.9  3.7  3.1  0.3  0.4  14.5  2.4  0.7  10  80.1  5.5  1.5  0.2  0.2  11.3  0.7  0.7  Means  76.3  3.9  4.0  0.2  0.3  12.3  1 .5  1 .4  S t r a w , s e e d c o a t s , r o c k s , dust,- e t c .  (d)  n o t more t h a n  6%  d u s t , w i l d and  s m a l l weed s e e d s ,  domestic  (e)  n o t more t h a n  (f)  w i l d b u c k w h e a t and of l e s s  chaff, hulls,  m u s t a r d , and  8% w i l d o a t s ,  rapeseed,  and  small p o r t i o n s of other  seeds  value.  B a s e d on t h e above s t a t e d g r a d e d e f i n i t i o n , a l l t e n wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s project  s a m p l e s w h i c h were u t i l i z e d  s a t i s f y t h e s t a n d a r d o f number one  in this  f e e d wheat  screenings.  B.  Chemical The  Analysis chemical  i s shown i n T a b l e  4.  a n a l y s i s o f f e e d wheat I t shows t h a t wheat f e e d  h a v e an a v e r a g e p r o t e i n c o n t e n t p e r gram.  Regarding  amino a c i d s t h a n do  and  c o n t r i b u t o r to the  i t has  4431  calories  been r e p o r t e d an of  commonly grown c e r e a l s .  a potential  improvement of the p r o t e i n q u a l i t y , I t was  a l s o r e p o r t e d by  a high b i o l o g i c a l  Based  the second major  ( T a b l e 3) assumed t o be  i t s higher f i b e r content. t h a t b u c k w h e a t has  and  also higher content  i n f o r m a t i o n , w i l d b u c k w h e a t was  component o f s c r e e n i n g s  screenings  (1977) t h a t many weeds have  e x c e l l e n t amino a c i d b a l a n c e  on t h i s  o f a b o u t 14%  the p r o t e i n q u a l i t y ,  by T k a c h u k and M e l l i s h  essential  screenings  Sure  despite (1955)  value f o r proteins i n  T a b l e 4.  C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s (dry matter b a s i s ) .  Screening sample  Dry matter  Crude protein  Crude fiber  Ether extract  1  85.0  13. 8  2.2  3.1  2.4  4332  2  85.2  14.1  2.5  5.2  2.9  4473  • 3  85. 2  13. 8  3.4  4.0  2.2  4433  4  85.1  13. 7  2.7  5.5  2.6  4496  5  84.4  14.1  3.3  3.7  2. 2  4322  6  85.2  13.0  3.8  6.1  2.6  4464  7  84. 3  13. 8  2.7  5.7  3.0  4510  8  84.0  12.9  4.4  4.6  2.9  4458  9  84.1  14. 2  2.5  5.0  3.2  4434  10  84.1  13.7  4.2  3.3  2.1  4390  84. 7  13. 7  3.2  4.6  2.6  4431  Means  Ash  Calories/g  the p l a n t kingdom s o l i d s and  81.4%  (92.3%  of the value of d r i e d non-fat  of d r i e d whole  milk  egg).  R e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e w o r k o f S t a p l e t o n e_t al.  (1980) i n w h i c h a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p was  e t h e r e x t r a c t and The  ash c o n t e n t  f i b e r contents  o f wheat i s 1.4%  c o n s i d e r a b l y lower and  Nalewaja  t h e weed  C.  among s c r e e n i n g  (Table 4).  The  ash  ( S t a p l e t o n e t al_. , 19 80) w h i c h i s screenings.  (1977) i t was  mineral content. screenings  than  2.6%  the  screening:samples.  of s c r e e n i n g s appears uniform  samples w i t h the average b e i n g content  i n most  shown b e t w e e n  From t h e s t u d y o f  shown t h a t weed s e e d s had  Therefore,  the h i g h ash c o n t e n t  (as c o m p a r e d t o w h e a t ) may  be due,  Harold  a high  of  i n p a r t , to  seeds.  M e t a b o l i z a b l e Energy The  values  gross  e n e r g y and m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y  of the e x p e r i m e n t a l  r a n g e f r o m 5008 t o 5179 respectively.  The  ME  d i e t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  k c a l / k g and  values  in this  (P > 0.05)  D i e t 2 shows t h e h i g h e s t ME study.  The  h i g h ME  6  and  t o 4065 k c a l / k g ,  obtained with a l l experimental  d i e t s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r diet.  f r o m 3197  (ME)  than  the  v a l u e o f any  value of d i e t  o f i t s h i g h e t h e r e x t r a c t , p r o t e i n and  2 is a  gross  control  diet tested reflection  energy  value  Table  5.  Chemical a n a l y s i s  (dry matter  basis).  Dry matter  Crude protein  Crude fiber  Ether extract  Ash  1  85.6  22.2  ,4.0  10.8  6.7  2  87.4  22.7  3.6  12.0  5.7  3  88.1  22.8  5.6  11 .4  6.6  4  85.8  22.7  4.0  12.3  5.6  5  86.4  23.2  4.5  10.9  5.9  6  87.5  22.1  4.1  12.1  5.6  7  86.0  23.0  4.1  11.2  6.1  8  86. 5  22.9  3.6  1 1 .0  5.2  9  87.1  22.5  4.2  10.8  5.7  10  88.1  23.5  4.0  10.4  6.0  11 *  85.1  21.0  4.7  10.1  5.7  .86,7 -  2 2.6  4.1  .11 • 1  5.9  Diet  Means-- ...  *  of experimental d i e t  Control  diet  (Table  5).  However, such  f o r d i e t 6.  a r e f l e c t i o n does n o t h o l d  The h i g h e t h e r e x t r a c t  and g r o s s  ( T a b l e 5) o f d i e t 4 was a r e a s o n a b l e ME v a l u e .  D i e t 9 was t h e l o w e s t  i n ME v a l u e energy.  calorie  parallel  among e x p e r i m e n t a l  t h e l o w ME v a l u e o f d i e t s  to the low values o f ether e x t r a c t e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case  diets  available  9 and 1  and g r o s s  value  to i t s high  f o l l o w e d by d i e t 1 i n d i c a t i n g lower  Again,  true  correspond  calories,  o f d i e t 1.  T h e r e were p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ' b e t w e e n t h e g r o s s energy and t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l diets.  H o w e v e r , an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c r u d e  f i b e r content observed. gross  (Tables  5 § 6) and m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y was  The c o n t e n t  o f crude  energy but a v a i l a b l e  higher protein  levels.  components and crude  protein  e n e r g y was v a r i a b l e  Therefore,  f i b e r account  b e t w e e n t h e ME o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l Previous workers  appears t o improve among t h e  i t appears t h a t  energy  f o r most o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s diets.  (Carpenter  and C l e g g , 1 9 5 6 ;  D a v i d s o n e t i l l . , 1961) r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a r a p i d capable  of measuring a v a i l a b l e  e n e r g y and d e r i v e d  equations  f o r p r e d i c t i n g m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy from chemical of f e e d s t u f f s . confirmed  The e q u a t i o n  of Carpenter  composition  and C l e g g  by S i b b a l d e t a l . (1963) as c a p a b l e  assay  (1956),  of predicting  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n .  However,  T a b l e 6.  D  ^  Gross and m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy o f d i e t (dry matter basis) .  Gross energy (kcal/kg)  e t s  experimental  Metabolizable* energy (kcal/kg)  1  5070  3239  2  5152  4065  3  5171  cd 3768  4  5171  3811  C  5  5008  3543  d  6  5179  3626  d  7  5110  cd 3473  8  5130  3561  d  9  5153  3197  a  10  5178  3678  11 * *  4626  2525  5076  3485  Average  d r  b  C Q  C Q  c d  e  * V a l u e s b e a r i n g t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P < 0.05); d i f f e r e n t ** C o n t r o l  diet  t h e i r ME tool  p r e d i c t i n g e q u a t i o n does not  for evaluating a l l feedstuffs.  Nwokolo  (1977) t h a t o n l y t h e ME  p r e d i c t e d w i t h any cottonseed Bragg  seem t o be I t was  a  reliable  reported  of c o t t o n s e e d meal  by  was  degree o f a c c u r a c y compared t o soybean,  and p a l m k e r n e l m e a l s .  (1977) d e v e l o p e d  Furthermore,  Nwokolo  an e q u a t i o n f o r r a p e s e e d  meal  and  after  o b s e r v i n g l i m i t e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a s i n g l e e q u a t i o n f o r many f e e d s t u f f s due and  Clegg  to v a r i a t i o n  i n chemical composition.  (1956) u t i l i z e d m a i n l y  in deriving t h e i r equation. extremely  high content  oats, a f a i r l y  cereal  These i n g r e d i e n t s have  by-products an  o f s t a r c h and w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  low c o n t e n t  most c e r e a l g r a i n s .  c e r e a l s and  Carpenter  of crude  f i b e r as c o m p a r e d t o  Such a p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n c a n n o t  be  a p p l i e d to a l l c l a s s e s of feed i n g r e d i e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y  to  compounded i n g r e d i e n t s (wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s ) , w i t h a r e s p e c t a b l e degree of accuracy. e q u a t i o n has  D.  not m a t e r i a l i z e d  Body W e i g h t The  in this  predictive  study.  Gain  replacement  o f wheat  feed screenings i n b r o i l e r significant  Therefore, a  rations resulted  g a i n s i n body w e i g h t  E x c e p t i o n s were o b s e r v e d significantly different  ( c o n t r o l d i e t ) w i t h wheat statistically  of the c h i c k s (Table 7).  with diets (P < 0.05)  in  1 and from  6, w h i c h  the c o n t r o l  were diet  not  T a b l e 7.  Diet  A v e r a g e b o d y w e i g h t f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y o f b r o i l e r c h i c k s a t f o u r weeks o f age.  Body w e i g h t gain per b i r d (g)  1  860  2  885  b c  3  894  b c  4  87 7  5  91 2  6  81 9  7  905  8 9  a b c  b c  C  Feed c o n s u m p t i o n p e r b i r d (g)  1363  a b c  1 388  14 8 5 d c  1355  1330  a  bed  1 .55  a  1 .62  b  a b  1432  : b t d  be 872  1419  10  926  C  1 499  11*  787  a  1 285  Average  875  1399  b  c  "•  d  a  a  1 .55  he 886 D C  1.57  '  b c d  D C  a  b  1424  c  1 .58  1 .61  a b  1 4 1 3  a b  a b c d  Feed e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o (feed consumed/gain)  d  1 .57 1 .62  b  1 .63  b  1 .57 1 .63  a  a  b  1 .59  Means w i t h i n c o l u m n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r (P < 0.0 5 ) . *  Control  diet  (diet  11).  The l o w f a t c o n t e n t  s a m p l e no. 1 ( T a b l e 4) was t h e l o w e r body w e i g h t weight  was  shown as p a r t o f t h e e f f e c t  (Table 7 ) .  on  I n g e n e r a l , t h e body  i m p r o v e d w i t h wheat s c r e e n i n g s w h i c h a p p e a r s t o  be a f f e c t e d observed  o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g o f  by t h e h i g h e r ME v a l u e s o f t h e s e  diets.  I t was  e a r l i e r by S t a p l e t o n e t a l _ . , 1980, t h a t when  diets  c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r wheat o r wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s w e r e made t o c o n t a i n t h e same f a t l e v e l s , no s i g n i f i c a n t was o b s e r v e d  in final  body w e i g h t s  difference  a t f o u r weeks i n t h e  feed e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o s . I n f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n , t h e r e was no significant difference control  diet  (11) .  between d i e t s  A l l the rest  1, 2, 4, 6 and t h e  of the experimental  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P > 0.05) h i g h e r i n f e e d than the c o n t r o l significantly  diet.  Although  of the diets  consumption  diets  1, 2, 4 and 6 were n o t diet,  i n c o n s u m p t i o n was o b s e r v e d ; showed more o r l e s s a u n i f o r m  (Table 7 ) .  High  diets  consumption  (P > 0.05) h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l  higher numerical value the r e s t  statistically  otherwise, feed  feed consumption of d i e t  10 d o e s  show a p a r a l l e l m a t c h t o h i g h f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o and h i g h body w e i g h t  gain.  Gross energy,  energy v a l u e s o f d i e t  as w e l l  as, metabolizable  10 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P >  higher i n comparison to other d i e t s . wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e no. 10.  0.05)  D i e t 10 i n c l u d e s T h e r e was no s p e c i f i c  n u t r i e n t component s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t c a n be particular  sample from  feed screenings. second  observed  in this  the c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the wheat  In f a c t ,  the crude  f i b e r c o n t e n t was  h i g h e s t w h e r e a s t h e e t h e r e x t r a c t v a l u e was  the  next  to  t h e l o w e s t among w h e a t f e e d s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e s t h a t were tested i n this The  study  (Table 4).  b o t a n i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f wheat f e e d  ( T a b l e 3) shows t h a t s a m p l e no. of  w h e a t , w i l d b u c k w h e a t and  on t h e s e energy be  figures,  source.  On  an e x c e l l e n t  are d e f i c i e n t  10 has  80, 11 and  rapeseed,  i t i s obvious  screenings 1  percent  respectively.  Based  t h a t wheat i s t h e m a j o r  the o t h e r hand, buckwheat i s b e l i e v e d t o  source  (Lynan,  of l y s i n e  i n which  e t a l . , 1956).  r e p o r t the average content of l y s i n e r e s u l t o f s t u d i e s by B i e l y and  other ingredients  R o b b i n s e t a l . (1973) as 6.1%.  Pomeranz  t h a t buckwheat p r o v i d e s the b e s t source  Moreover,  (1975)  indicated  of high, b i o l o g i c a l  v a l u e p r o t e i n s i n the p l a n t kingdom  (92.3%  dried non-fat milk s o l i d s  of d r i e d whole egg).  this  r e g a r d , b u c k w h e a t may  the c r u c i a l  essential  and  81.4%  of the v a l u e  p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e  amino a c i d  ( l y s i n e ) at  satisfactory  t i s s u e p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s t o promote  growth.  to rapeseed,  contribute a beneficial utilization.  effect  the low l e v e l  for efficient  of In  in providing  levels for efficient With.regard  the  would  nutrient  The t y p e o f r a p e s e e d raw  and u n p r o c e s s e d  present  of which the l e v e l  i n t h e s a m p l e s was of glucosinolates  (a f a m i l y compound) m i g h t be h i g h enough t o c a u s e disorder.  I t was r e p o r t e d by M i l l e r  when t h e s e e d  i s crushed  and B i e l y  i n the presence  enzyme t h i o g l u c o s i d a s e h y d r o l y s e s  metabolic  (1978) t h a t  of moisture, the  the g l u c o s i n o l a t e s present  t o r e l e a s e g l u c o s e , i n o r g a n i c s u l p h a t e and a g r o u p o f t o x i c o r g a n i c compounds. was f o u n d  One o f t h e s e  compounds, o x a z o l i d i n e t h i o n e ,  t o be g o i t r o g e n i c , i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n  o f t h e m e t a b o l i c hormone t h y r o x i n e and r e s u l t i n g  i n impaired  g r o w t h and r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e . Such t o x i c  chemical  would have been p r e s e n t metabolic diet  substances  i n negligible  (oxazolidinethione)  amounts t o c a u s e a  d i s o r d e r due t o v e r y l o w amounts o f r a p e s e e d  10 w h i c h as a r e s u l t  for diets  a t t r i b u t e d high feed  3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10.  The h i g h f e e d  in  consumption consumption  l e d t o i n c r e a s e d t o t a l p r o t e i n and e n e r g y i n t a k e and retention; diet  t h e r e f o r e , t o h i g h e r average d a i l y g a i n .  10 was h i g h e r  Moreover,  (P * 0.05) i n f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o  than  the r e s t o f the d i e t s . The a v e r a g e f e e d e f f i c i e n c y showed an e x c e l l e n t f e e d c o n v e r s i o n r a t i o w i t h 1.59 gm o f f e e d p e r gram o f body weight.  The f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o was g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by  t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f b i r d s f e d d i f f e r e n t wheat s c r e e n i n g  diets.  81.  The c o n t r o l  d i e t showed b o t h  consumption; whereas, d i e t s g r o w t h on s l i g h t l y and  g r o w t h and f e e d  1, 2 and 4 p r o v i d e d  less feed.  Similar  (P < 0.05)  adequate  D i e t 6 showed t h e l e a s t  f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n among e x p e r i m e n t a l  significantly 10.  reduced  lower  diets  and was  i n growth than d i e t s  5, 7 and  e x p r e s s i o n h a s b e e n shown w i t h f e e d e f f i c i e n c y  w i t h the exception of d i e t s Contrary the replacement  3, 8 and 9.  to the f i n d i n g s  o f S t a p l e t o n e t a_l. (1980) ,  o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s w i t h wheat  diet) i n broiler diets h i g h e r body w e i g h t  resulted  gains.  in significantly  (control  (P >  The h i g h e r body w e i g h t  However, t h e b o d y w e i g h t to either  wheat s c r e e n i n g s  0.05)  gain  t r u e i n a l l s c r e e n i n g samples which are r e p o r t e d here  related  growth  holds (Table 7 ) .  o f t h e c h i c k s was n o t d i r e c t l y  t h e f a t content, o f i n d i v i d u a l samples o f or of i n d i v i d u a l d i e t s .  E. C h e m i c a l E l e m e n t s The chemical elements o f i s presented  i n Table  experimental  diets  calcium content  screenings  8 and t h e m i n e r a l c o n t e n t  i s presented  i n Table  9.  of the  The  average  o f t h e wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s was 0.15  w i t h a r a n g e o f 0.13 p e r c e n t no.  t h e wheat f e e d  t o 0.18 p e r c e n t .  2, 7, 8 and 9 w e r e h i g h e r t h a n  percent  Samples  average f o r the s c r e e n i n g s ,  Table  8.  Content o f s i x chemical elements present i n wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s * .  Ca  P  Mg  Mn  Screenings Sample  Cu  Zn  ppm  °'o  1  0 .13 .  0,.19  0.. 31  6  4  23  2  0.. 18  0,. 13  0..31  9  2  40  3  0 .14 ,  0 .. 11  0..29  5  1  53  4  0 .. 13  0 .08 ,  0..24  4  2  36  5  0.. 13  0..09  0.. 33  8  2  34  6  0.. 13  0.. 13  0 .36 .  7  5  36  7  0 .. 18  0,.17  0..35  7  2  33  8  0 .. 18  0.. 18  0 .35 .  8  5  49  9  0.. 17  0.. 17  0 . 34  7  -  21  10  0.. 14  0..08  0.,29  5  2  20  0. . 15  0.. 13  0.. 32  7  3  35  Average/ mineral  * Dry matter  basis  83.-  w h i l e t h e o t h e r s c r e e n i n g s were o f lower  than average c a l c i u m  content. Sample no. 1 was t h e h i g h e s t  (.19%) i n p h o s p h o r u s  c o n t e n t f o l l o w e d b y s a m p l e s n o . 8, 7 and 9 (.18%, .17% and .17%, in  respectively).  The l o w e s t p h o s p h o r u s c o n t e n t was  s a m p l e s n o . 4 a n d 10 w i t h a v a l u e o f 0.08%.  phosphorus content  o f t h e s c r e e n i n g s was  The a v e r a g e  0.13%.  The magnesium c o n t e n t o f t h e s c r e e n i n g s 0.32% w i t h a r a n g e o f 0.29% t o 0.36%.  shown  Although  averaged  screening  s a m p l e n o . 6 showed t h e h i g h e s t and s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e s n o . 3 and  10 showed t h e l o w e s t magnesium c o n t e n t , i t a p p e a r s t h e  c o n t e n t o f t h i s m i n e r a l among s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e s was even.  In comparison  fairly  w i t h c a l c i u m and p h o s p h o r u s , t h e  a v e r a g e magnesium c o n t e n t was h i g h e r  (more t h a n d o u b l e )  than  t h e a v e r a g e o f b o t h c a l c i u m and p h o s p h o r u s . M a g n e s i u m c o n t e n t was h i g h e r t h a n any c h e m i c a l examined i n t h i s p r o j e c t . manganese  L i k e magnesium, t h e c o n t e n t o f  i n s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e s seems t o be f a i r l y  constant  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s a m p l e s no. 4, 3 and 10 w h i c h relatively  l o w (4 ppm,  element  5 ppm,  and 5 ppm,  were  respectively).  Sample n o . 2 h a s t h e h i g h e s t manganese c o n t e n t w i t h 9 ppm. The o v e r a l l a v e r a g e o f t h e manganese c o n t e n t o f t h e w h e a t f e e d s c r e e n i n g s s a m p l e s was  7 ppm.  84.  The s a m p l e s was to  average copper content  3 ppm.  C o p p e r was  other minerals.  The  6 was  lowest  copper content  not w i t h i n d e t e c t a b l e l i m i t s . s a m p l e no.  the  ( T a b l e 8) o f  The  h i g h e r t h a n any  i n amount c o m p a r e d  o f s a m p l e no.  copper content  relatively  no.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e low c o n t e n t  3.  s c r e e n i n g s a m p l e s c a n be to  screening  content  c o n s t a n t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of  samples  of copper i n the  supplemented w i t h i n o r g a n i c copper  supply the c h i c k requirement  of t o x i c  was  sample.  c a l c i u m , the  o f c o p p e r was  9  of  other screening  S i m i l a r t o m a n g a n e s e , magnesium and  9 and  screening  and  t h e r e i s no  or adverse  effects  from t h i s  Z i n c was  the t h i r d  lowest  possibility  element.  i n content  of  the  s c r e e n i n g samples compared t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s h a v i n g  an  a v e r a g e o f 35 ppm  samples.  The  content  no. 3 was  of the ten d i f f e r e n t  o f z i n c r a n g e s f r o m 20 ppm  investigated t o 53 ppm.  t h e h i g h e s t i n z i n c c o n t e n t w i t h 53 ppm  f o l l o w e d by  s a m p l e no.  1 were found respectively.  8 w i t h 49 ppm.  t o be v e r y l o w  Sample and  S a m p l e s no.  i n z i n c w i t h 20,  21 and  10, 23  9  and ppm,  Table  9.  Content of s i x chemical elements present i n experimental d i e t (dry matter b a s i s ) .  Ca  P  Mg  Mn  Diet  Cu  Zn  ppm  %  1  1.70  0.81  0.51  182  36  104  2  1.47  0.84  0.48  164  42  95  3  1.38  0.91  0.52  198  46  108  4  1.75  0.84  0.45  135  36  66  5  2.01  0 . 74  0.50  155  31  90  6  1/35 '  0.74  0.51  159  39  105  7  1. 73  0.84  0.45  143  38  91  8  1.89  0.86  0.49  144  33  98  9  2.06  0.81  0.50  143  28  99  10  1.65  0.81  0.51  186  51  100  11*  1.55  0.84  0.45  162  33  98  A v e r a g e / 2.08 mineral  0.83  0.49  161  37  96  *Control  diet  F.  Chemical  Element  Availability  Several factors chemical elements. the p h y t i c a c i d  One  i n f l u e n c e the b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  (inositol  hexaphosphoric  chelates mineral elements, animals  of  suggest  Davies  and N i g h t i n g a l ,  animals.  P h y t a t e has  shown t o f o r m  s t a b l e complexes i n v i t r o  Mn,  ( O b e r l e a s , 1973).  Ca  affecting mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y ethylenediaminetetraacetate vitamins, antibiotics (Armstrong 1964;  and  e t a l . , 1953;  Other  1975).  Zn, ^ o ,  recognized fiber,  factors  oxalate,  (EDTA), p r o t e i n and  amino  acids,  chemical"elements  K r a t z e r e t a l . , 1959;  O'Dell e t a l . ,  Kirchgessner et a l . ,  availabilities  in experimental diets  the  a l s o been  w i t h Cu,  are crude  S t e e n b o c k , 1955 ; R i t c h i e  Percent  to  i n t e r a c t i o n between  N i e l s o n e t a l . , 1966;  M e i n t z e r and  which  that phytate probably chelates part  a l l c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d by  Fe and  factors i s  r e d u c i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y  ( N e l s o n e t a l _ . , 1968;  These workers  acid)  of  1961;  e_t 'a!L. , 1963).  o f s i x d i f f e r e n t chemical "elements  are presented  i n Table  10.  Average  availability  f o r a l l chemical elements v a r i e d from 59.1% (Zn) to  84.0%  Of  (Cu) .  z i n c was  a l l s i x chemical elements tested f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y  the lowest w h i l e copper  availability.  was  C a l c i u m , magnesium and  the h i g h e s t i n zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y  were  Table  10.  Chemical-element a v a i l a b i l i t y  of experimental  diet.  Chemical-: E l e m e n t Diets  Ca  p  Mg  Mn  Cu  Average/ diet  Zn  ab *  1  74.7  74.0  72.0  75.9  85.4  51.6  72.3  2  76.9  71.4  70.7  77.3  89.7  65.0  75.2  3  75.3  75.6  67 . 2  78. 2  92.0  61.9  75. 0  b c  4  74.1:.  81. 1'-/  66 . 5  74.5  89.2  57 .4  73. 8  a b c  b c  ah  5  68.6  72.2  66.1  73.9  85.9  52.1  69.8  6  71. 9  78.7  .71.6  81.9  90 . 8  7  68.0  69.6  64.8  71.1  84.0  62.9  70.1  8  66.5  71.9  65.1  71.4  86.3  46.9  68.0  a  9  70.0  70.9  63.4  77.4  70.9  57.6  68.4  a  10  75.8  70.8  72.2  77.8  85.2  57.3  73.2  75 . 9  d U  78.5  C  d U  a b c  ab  1.1** Average  75.1 72.5  74 . 1 a  * Means o f d i f f e r e n t ** C o n t r o l  diet.  73.7  62.6 a b  superscripts  67.5  78. 7 C  '76.2  69.6 bd  84.5  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  61. 1 59.l  e  between d i e t s  70 . 2 . 72.2  :  (P<0.05).  below the average of  (72.21), each having  72.51, 67.5% and 59.1%,  1.  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  value  respectively.  Calcium Calcium  76.9%  (diet  availability  ranged  from  2) w i t h an a v e r a g e o f 72.5%.  was t h e h i g h e s t i n c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y remaining  diets.  diet 2  compared t o t h e fiber  i s among  a f f e c t chemical element a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The  s t u d i e s a r e i n agreement w i t h t h e adverse  e f f e c t o f crude  fibre.  feed screenings  ( T a b l e 4) and e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s  the r e s u l t s  8) t o  Experimental  As i t was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r ,  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which r e s u l t s of these  66.5% ( d i e t  Both  i n chemical  a n a l y s i s o f wheat  showed t h a t t h e f i b e r c o n t e n t  (Table 5 ) ,  o f s a m p l e 2 was  v e r y l o w , w h e r e a s , t h e a s h c o n t e n t was h i g h .  D i e t 8 showed  the lowest percentage  (Table 10).  A l s o , both  s a m p l e s 2 and 8 h a d t h e h i g h e s t  content  i n comparison  samples  (Table 8 ) .  may a c c o u n t is  2.  of calcium a v a i l a b i l i t y  (0.18%) c a l c i u m  w i t h o t h e r wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g  The h i g h e r l e v e l  of organic calcium  i n p a r t f o r l o w e r Ca a v a i l a b i l i t y .  result  i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h N w o k o l o e t a_l. , 1977 and Aw-Yong, 1980.  Phosphorus P h o s p h o r u s a v a i l a b i l i t y was t h e t h i r d  all  This  the chemical  elements  highest of  t e s t e d w i t h 74.1% average  (Table 10).  89.  The v a l u e (diet  of this mineral  availability  r a n g e s b e t w e e n 69.6%  7) and 8 1 . 1 % ( d i e t 4 ) . Phosphorus  of plant o r i g i n  i s considered  a v a i l a b l e due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p h y t a t e s . phosphorus  values  are between  applied  (1960) o b s e r v e d t h a t approximately old  chicks  f o u r week o l d c h i c k s  36% t o 49% o f t h i s  Temperton  and C a s s i d y  that chicks u t i l i z e d The u t i l i z a t i o n  retained  while  phosphorus.  (1964), however,  as d e m o n s t r a t e d by S a l m a n and M c G i n n i s  Their  report  different  i n d i c a t e d that phosphorus  0.6% p l a n t p h o s p h o r u s phosphorus.  phosphorus.  (1968).  utilization in  0.3% p l a n t p h o s p h o r u s  from i t s u t i l i z a t i o n  reported  from v e g e t a b l e sources i s  high  rations containing  s i x week  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% o f p h y t a t e  o f phosphorus  origin  Ashton et al_.  20% o f p h y t a t e p h o s p h o r u s  retained  Available  to feedstuffs of plant  30% and 40% ( T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 ) .  poorly  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n rations containing  o r 0.3% p l a n t p l u s  0.3%  either  inorganic  The availability different  r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t o f p h o s p h o r u s was  from  s t u d y showed t h a t  significantly  the r e s t of the chemical  c a l c i u m and manganese  (Table 10).  (P <  elements  (0.08%) o f the wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  ( T a b l e 9) w h i c h  most o f t h e p h o s p h o r u s s o u r c e was ingredients On a b i l i t y was  from  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t  the  the o t h e r hand, the lowest phosphorus diet  7 i n which  the phosphorus content  a n a l y s i s v a l u e showed t h e  t o be  the t h i r d h i g h e s t  w i t h o t h e r samples.  The  from  other chemical  that  availwas  However, the wheat  ( T a b l e 8)  r e s u l t of t h i s  t h a t p h o s p h o r u s a v a i l a b i l i t y was  was  (Table 2).  screenings chemical  of calcium.  test  supplemented  4 (Table 9).  different  However,  indicated  identical with diet  content  content  (Table 8).  the content of phosphorus i n the experimental the average  here  availability  i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d to the lowest  s l i g h t l y over  except  (1977).  D i e t 4 showed t h e h i g h e s t p h o s p h o r u s (81.1%) w h i c h  0.05)  Results reported  a r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h r e s u l t s o f Nwokolo  in  feed  phosphorus comparison  study  indicated  significantly  elements  the  w i t h the °  (P <_  0.5)  exception  5.  Magnesium The  diet  availability  r a n g e s b e t w e e n 62.61  (diet  o f magnesium o f t h e ( d i e t s 11  - c o n t r o l ) and  12.2%  (Table 10).  Magnesium  10) w i t h t h e a v e r a g e o f 67.5%  content  o f t h e wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s was  comparison of the r e s t of the m i n e r a l s t h e magnesium c o n t e n t  significantly  significantly  4.  f a i r l y high i n (Table 8).  However,  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s was  c a l c i u m and p h o s p h o r u s was  experimental  (Table 9).  (P < 0.05)  h i g h e r than  Magnesium  lower  t h a n Ca,  lower  than  availability Cu, Mn  or P  and  Zn.  Manganese The  screenings d i e t s was study  content  o f manganese was  low  ( T a b l e 8) w h e r e a s t h e c o n t e n t much h i g h e r  (Table 9).  i n d i c a t e d t h a t manganese was  the average  ( 7 6 . 2 % ) and  81.9%  6)  (diet  (Table 10).  experimental  R e s u l t s of the next  feed  availability  to the h i g h e s t (diet  7)  on and  R e s u l t s of the a v a i l a b i l i t y significantly  elements except  was  p o i n t e d o u t by G a l l u p and  and  Patton  phosphorus Norris  (1939) t h a t b i r d s had  manganese due  of  r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 71.1%  i n d i c a t e t h a t manganese was other chemical  i n the wheat  different  from  (Table 10).  ( 1 9 3 9 a , b)  and  a high requirement  test  It  Wilgus for  t o poor a b s o r p t i o n of the m i n e r a l from the  diet.  W h i l e t h e recommended manganese r e q u i r e m e n t i n p o u l t r y diets  i s 55 ppm  Nwokolo the  (NAS - NRC, 1 9 6 0 ) , i t was r e p o r t e d by  (197 7) t h a t t h e p r o b l e m w i t h manganese seems t o be  low content i n p r o t e i n supplements  availability. levels  T h i s work a l s o  r a t h e r than poor  indicated that at dietary  o f p r o t e i n s o u r c e n o r m a l l y u s e d t o meet t h e p r o t e i n  requirements of c h i c k s , a high supplemental l e v e l of manganese w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y i n most d i e t s , e v e n manganese f r o m c e r e a l g r a i n s was e f f e c t i v e l y  5.  though  utilized.  Copper There  pertaining exists  i s n o t much i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  t o t h e c h e m i c a l n a t u r e o r form i n which  i n foods.  large variations  F a r r e r and M i s t i l i s  (1967) h a v e  i n copper a v a i l a b i l i t y .  copper reported  P h y t a t e has been  r e p o r t e d b y D a v i s 'et a_l (1962) t o r e d u c e a b s o r p t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n of copper. Mistilis  D e s p i t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f F a r r e r and  (1967) , r e s u l t s o f t h i s  s t u d y showed no l a r g e  variations with the exceptions of diet highest a v a i l a b i l t i y  ( 9 2 . 0 % ) and d i e t  showed t h e l o w e s t ( 6 9 . 6 % ) a v a i l a b i l i t y percentage higher  3 w h i c h showed t h e 11 ( c o n t r o l ) w h i c h (Table 10).  (84.5%) o f copper a v a i l a b i l i t y  was  (P > 0.05) t h a n o t h e r c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t s  Mn a n d Z n ) .  Average  significantly ( C a , P, Mg,  T h i s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f  phytate were  6.  ( D a v i s e t a_l. , 1962) and o t h e r u n i d e n t i f i e d  factors  minimal.  Zinc Regarding  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  of zinc, results  of this  s t u d y a r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h N w o k o l o 'et a _ l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Furthermore, vegetable  i t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t p h y t a t e  1964; O ' D e l l  (Lease  e t a l . , 1960; L i k u s k i  i d e n t i f y phytate  availability  study,  Forbes, Since  i t is difficult  as t h e o n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f a c t o r f o r l o w  o f z i n c and o t h e r m i n e r a l s .  However,  (as r e p o r t e d by s e v e r a l w o r k e r s ) i s one f a c t o r identified  that interferes with mineral  Therefore,  i t i s assumed t h a t p h y t a t e  average z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y  was  well  and p o s s i b l y o t h e r  significantly  any o t h e r m i n e r a l i n c l u d e d i n t h i s Findings of t h i s  phytate  availability.  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the low a v a i l a b i l i t y  availability  and  e t a l . , 1972; N w o k o l o e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) .  p h y t a t e was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  than  of  f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s has b e e n i m p l i c a t e d i n r e d u c i n g  zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y  to  content  value.  The  (P < 0.05)  study  lower  (Table 10).  study p e r t a i n i n g to mineral  a g r e e w i t h Aw-Yong  (1980),  i n t h a t , as t h e  concentration of a given mineral increases the rate of availability  decreases  t r u e i n the case  and v i c e v e r s a .  of copper.  Both  T h i s was  t h e wheat f e e d  specially screenings  mineral content  and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  diet, mineral  content  showed c o p p e r t o be t h e l o w e s t m i n e r a l component and y e t significantly  (P > 0.05) h i g h e r i n a v a i l a b i l i t y  than  other  minerals. S i m i l a r t o other research, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study on  G.  indicated the e f f e c t  o f f i b e r and m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n  availability.  Amino A c i d A v a i l a b i l i t y  o f Wheat F e e d  The amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n experimental i n Tables  diets  experimental  a n d wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  diets  are displayed  There were  i n t h e amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y  (AAA) among  ( T a b l e 13) and t h e same a p p e a r e d t o be  t r u e f o r t h e amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n samples  and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  1 1 , 12 a n d 1 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  differences  Screenings  o f wheat f e e d  screening  ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f t h e amino  availability  results  showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  (P <, 0.05) d i f f e r e n c e among s a m p l e s among amino a c i d s significantly  (Table 1 3 ) .  as w e l l as  Amino a c i d s s h o w i n g  h i g h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s were l y s i n e ,  a r g i n i n e , g l u t a m i c and p h e n y a l a n i n e . significantly  lower  acid  Those w i t h  histidine,  (P < 0.05)  a v a i l a b i l i t y were g l y c i n e a n d i s o l e u c i n e .  C y s t i n e has been found t o undergo d e s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g HCL h y d r o l y s i s w i t h t h e amount o f d e s t r u c t i o n b e i n g  direct  essentially cystine this  inversely proportional  i n t h e sample.  study.  isoleucine  Also,  to the concentration  T h e r e f o r e i t was n o t i n c l u d e d i n  some d e s t r u c t i o n may o c c u r i n g l y c i n e ,  and m e t h i o n i n e .  A p r o b l e m o f t h e same n a t u r e has  b e e n e x p e r i e n c e d b y M u z t a r and S l i n g e r reported  that  destruction  cystine  contained  much l e s s c y s t i n e  destruction  of this  i n t h e i r report  they stated  than feed,  HCL d u r i n g  protein hydrolysate  are possible  differences  i n t h e AAA  was  the  total  Diets  preparation  and by b a c t e r i a  values. i n t h e AAA  3, 5 and 6 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n  amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e .  Whereas, d i e t s  lower i n the t o t a l  a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e compared t o t h e o t h e r d i e t s  amino a c i d (Table 13).  a v e r a g e v a l u e s i n t o t a l AAA o f d i e t s 3, 5 and 6  encompass t h e h i g h  p r o t e i n q u a l i t y of the t e s t  The l o w e s t a v e r a g e v a l u e s (basal)  caused  c a u s e s f o r some o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  9 a n d 11 w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The h i g h  excreta  generally  of methionine  There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among d i e t s .  that  the r e l a t i v e  amino a c i d i n e x c r e t a  Thus, v a r i a b l e d e s t r u c t i o n  in excreta  They  as a r e s u l t o f b a c t e r i a l a c t i o n i n t h e c h i c k e n  Further,  by  (1980a).  and m e t h i o n i n e a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o  excreta.  greater.  of  ingredients.  i n t o t a l AAA o f d i e t s 9 and 11  w h i c h encompass t h e l o w p r o t e i n q u a l i t y o f t h e t e s t  ingredients.  Table  11.  Amino  acid  composition  of  experimental  diets  (dry matter  basis).  I:xperiment;il D i e t s (o)  Average amino  Amino A c i d  acid  composition  10  Lysine  1,.264  1..059  1..338  1,.136  1,.214  1.,259  1,.181  1,.185  1. 229  1..327  1,,079  1.212  Histidine  0..549  0..470  0,. 566  0..505  0..522  0..551  0,.514  0,.526  0. 532  0.,565  0..474  0.529  1..754  1..437  1.595  Arginine  1..683  1,.378  1,.750  1,.479  .1,.598  1.,619  1,.576  1.575  1.643  Aspartic Acid  2..301  1..911 -  2,.403  2 .048  2 .254  2,,239  2..140  2 .173  2. 260  2..396  1.,917  2.196  0. 898  0,.913  0..746  0.822  Threonine  0,.904  0.,743  0..912  0,.796  0..854  0,.589  0..818  0..812  Serine  1..228  1..058  1..280  1..119  1,.182  1..213  1,.156  1..172  1.240  1.,336  1..069  1.194  4,.611  4. 590  4.,681  4..295  4.547  Glutamic A c i d  4..664  4..216  4..655  4,.430  4..416  4..635  4..414  Proline  1..825  1..588  1,,827  1..632  1,.633  1..736  1,.699  1,.713  1.751  1..873  1.,750  1.745  1..402  1..400  1,.330  1.413  1.,567  1.,494  1.296  1..248  1..594  1..305  1,.351  1..254  1,.043  1..315  .1.,098  1,.152  1..201  1..165  1..150  1. 199  1.,303  1.,167  1.889  Valine  1..115 •  0., 939  1,.141  0,.992  1..046  1,.089  1..035  1,.040  1. 086  1,,169  0.,963  1.060  Methionine  0..232  0.,172  0.. 193  0.. 154  0..167  0..126  0..211  0,.186  0. 188  0,.199  0.,180  0.184  1soleuc ine  0..894  0..753  0..915  0,.796  0,.845  0.,865  0,.832  0..847  0. 877  0,,933  0..748  0.851  Glycine  1..513  Alanine  leucine  1..734  1..473 •  1..761  1.,572  L..651  1..700  1..632  1,,622  1. 709  1..801  1.,523  1.663  Tyrosine  0..766  0..648  0..762  0,.698  0..727  0,.740  0.,715  0..740  0. 792  0,.797  0..698  0.741  Phcnylalaninc  1..118  0..947  1.,124  1..021  1..055  1..100  1..046  1,.073  1.094  1.,151  0.. 967  1.071  *Basal  diet  Table  12.  Amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n o f wheat feed screenings  Wheat Feed Screenings  (dry matter  basis)  Samples {%)  Amino A c i d 3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Average amino acid composition  1  2  Lysine  0 .273  0..386  0..271  0 .327  0,.389  0,.499  0..386  0..415  0.,365  0.,365  0,.368  Histidine  0,.206  0..265  0..187  0 .223  0,.275  0,.343  0.,259  0,,288  0. 234  0.,272  0..256  10  Arginine  0..472  0..663  0..470  0 .545  0,.659  0,.845  0.,593  0,.701  0. 566  0.,561  0.,607  Aspartic Acid  0,.601  0..723  0..609  0 .841  0,.728  0,,891  0.,672  0.,691  0. 636  0.,694  0.,709  Threonine  0..295  0..366  0..296  0,.364  0,.376  0.,472  0. 359  0.!349  0. 309  0.,345  0.,353  Serine  0..485  0..568  0..456  0,.535  0..595  0.,727  0. 543  0.,594  0. 492  0.,577  0.,567  Glutamic A c i d  2.,798  3. 184  2.,568  2,.898  3,.376  4.,026  3. 045  3. 356  3. 165  3. 460  3.,188  Proline  0.,966  1. 042  0. 883  1..041  1,,102  1.,503  0. 994  1. 322  1. 231  1. 250  1. 134  Glycine  0. 407  0. 509  0. 406  0,.486  0.,534  0. 698  0. 504  0. 575  0. 502  0. 515  0. 514  Alanine  0. 399  0. 471  0. 395  0..458  0.,487  0. 632  0. 451  0. 521  0. 438  0. 465  0. 471  Va1i ne  0. 433  0. 515  0. 409  0.,471  0.,526  0. 650  0. 497  0. 529  0. 465  0. 521  o. 502  Methionine  0. 060  0. 093  0. 058  0.,056  0.,077  0. 109  0. 090  0. 087  0. 113  0. 053  0. 080  Isoleucine  0. 319  0. 413  0. 297  0.,342  0.,417  0. 505  0. 391  0. 428  0. 387  0. 416  0. 392  Leucine  0. 645  0. 831  0. 610  0.,705  0. 864  1. 049  0. 802  0. 912  0. 795  0. 854  0. 807  Tyrosine  0. 291  0. 379  0. 275  0. 318  0. 389  0. 471  0. 343  0. 406  0. 321  0. 387  0. 358  Phenyl  0. 450  0. 563  0. 420  0. 493  0. 591  0. 714  0. 541  0. 620  0. 507  0. 587  0. 548  alanine  Table 13. Amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f experimental  diets fed t o chicks.  Experimental Diets(!) Amino Acid  • Amino Acid 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  -  11**  Mean  Lysine  85  83  91  81  88  88  83  86  79  76  78  83 i* •  Histidine  83  81  90  79  87  88  79  84  75  80  76  82  85 cde  Arginine  86  83  92  84  89  90  82  86  79  85  81  Aspartic Acid  72  65  83  71  79  79  66  71  60  67  63  Threonine  69  65  81  69  77  66  61  68  56  65  61  Serine  71  70  83  72  81  80  67  73  63  71  68  Glutamic Acid'  83  83  90  86  89  89  79  85  73  79  79  Proline  76  76  86  78  85  84  72  77  66  73  75  h  h i  1  70  67 de£g c d  72  83 fgh h i  7 7  Glycine  55  54  74  -  66  65  -  52  -  52  -  Alanine  70  69  85  74  80  80  68  71  55  67  67  7  Valine  74  70  87  77  82  81  71  74  64  70  12  7 4  Methionine  67  62  77  66  74  57  65  61  47  67  60  64  Isoleucine  57  51  72  56  67  66  55  55  49  50  48  Leucine  78  75  86  78  83  83  74  78  68  76  74  Tyrosine  75  72  85  71  60  82  69  75  65  73  77  57 fgh defg  72  Phenyl alanine  79  76  87  80  84  85  75  80  70  77  77  7 9  7lbc  84  Average of t o t a l amino acid  "  7 4  cd  e  7 0  bc  D i f f e r e n t superscripts among experimental  7^  e  79  de  67  b  74  c d  61  a  7 1  bc  66  60 |.de£ b  efg c  b  7 7  ghi  a b  d i e t s and amino acids are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P< 0.05).  ** Basal d i e t . IJ3  CO  99.  One AAA  might s p e c u l a t e t h a t to a c e r t a i n degree  i s g o v e r n e d by  feed intake.  However, e x a m i n a t i o n  energy value of the t e s t  the v a l u e s of m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy  ( T a b l e 6) and  of the  i s often quite variable.  that f o r p o u l t r y feed purposes, determine  feedstuffs  was  a c i d s such  amounts.  t h a t one  Furthermore,  results They  they s t a t e d to  o f n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino i n the  T h e i r comment, b a s e d on  might s a c r i f i c e  as h i s t i d i n e and  between  o f amino a c i d s i n  amino a c i d s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t  in plentiful  assumption,  Similar  i t i s not necessary  p r e c i s e l y the a v a i l a b i l i t y  a c i d s or the e s s e n t i a l  7)  S l i n g e r (1980a, b ) .  a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t i e s feedstuffs  (Table  relationship  m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y , f e e d i n t a k e and AAA. h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d by M u z t a r and  and  metabolizable  feed intake value  ingredients indicates l i t t l e  the  accuracy  t y r o s i n e to ensure  this  o f amino  accurate  v a l u e s f o r l y s i n e and a r g i n i n e . The i n Table similar  4.  proximate  R e s u l t s of chemical  o f t h e WFS  (Sample 6 ) . to 14.21%  The  r a n g i n g f r o m 3.051  p r o t e i n content  (Sample 9 ) .  o f WFS  The  The  not  presented  indicated  C r u d e f a t showed (Sample 1) t o  r a n g e d f r o m 12.85%  a v e r a g e t o t a l amino  ( T a b l e 12 ,) was  t h e amount o f p r o t e i n .  are  composition  l e v e l s w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s .  highest v a r i a t i o n ,  content  analyses  the  6.14% (sample  acid  completely p r o p o r t i o n a l to  amino a c i d  levels  showed  8)  100.  relatively in  w i d e v a r i a t i o n s t h a t may be e x p e c t e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n  seed c o m p o s i t i o n .  content  of this  study  f o r h i s t i d i n e and a r g i n i n e i n WFS  h a r d wheat and  Results  (NRC, 1 9 7 7 ) . a n d l o w c o n t e n t  phenylalanine.  i n composition glutamic lowest  t o wheat.  was h i s t i d i n e  in total  i n comparison  Among a l l amino a c i d s o f f o l l o w e d by p r o l i n e .  amino a c i d s  ( T a b l e 12/) .  similar  WFS, The  f o l l o w e d by t y r o s i n e , e x c l u d i n g  amino a c i d s  with  i n valine, leucine  O t h e r e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s were  a c i d was t h e h i g h e s t  containing  showed a h i g h  sulfur  Sample 6 was t h e h i g h e s t  f o l l o w e d by s a m p l e 8.  The  lowest  was s a m p l e 3 f o l l o w e d by s a m p l e 1 ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . In respect histidine,  t o t h e e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s ,  a r g i n i n e and p h e n y l a l a n i n e  availability  with  the value  respectively  (Table  13), i n d i c a t i n g e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n  a v e r a g e v a l u e was 66%.  reduced  (diet  of  11)  9 has a l o w e r a v e r a g e (61%) I n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r WFS  amino a c i d s  i n d i e t 9 showed  samples  generally  availability. Nesheim  for  The b a s a l d i e t  Diet  than the b a s a l d i e t .  tested, the t o t a l  were t h e h i g h e s t i n  o f 8 3 % , 8 2 % , 85% and 7 9 % ,  t h e s e e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s .  value  lysine,  (1965) s u g g e s t e d t h a t f a c t o r s  l o w e r e d amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y  included protein-sugar  from feed  responsible  ingredients  interactions i n feedstuffs with  levels of p r o t e i n , p r o t e i n - f a t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g  low  101.  carbonyl  products reacting with  f r e e amino g r o u p s ,  o f p l a n t o r i g i n and h e a t t r e a t m e n t d u r i n g S o u t h g a t e and D u r n i n  (1970) r e p o r t e d  of the dietary f i b e r increased, of p r o t e i n  (and t h e r e f o r e  processing.  t h a t as t h e i n t a k e  the apparent  amino a c i d s )  digestibility  and o t h e r  constituents decreased.  Several workers  Tao e t al_. , 1 9 7 1 ; F l i p o t  e t ' a l . , 1971) have a l s o  c r u d e f i b e r as a d i e t a r y f a c t o r r e d u c i n g digestibility  absorption  content  of proteins.  either ether  amino a c i d Nelson  Therefore,  o f t h e p r o t e i n was  f o r t h e l o w amino a c i d  highest  usually limiting  non-essential  a c i d content  mainly  e s s e n t i a l amino and m e t h i o n i n e  A r g i n i n e was t h e  among b o t h e s s e n t i a l and  amino a c i d s .  Results  from t h i s  study  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e amino  o f t h e FWS v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  especially true with limiting  64% a v a i l a b l e .  (85.%) i n a v a i l a b i l i t y  i t would  availability.  a c i d s , l y s i n e ( 8 3 % ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r with only  (1967)  r e d u c e d i g e s t i o n and  e x t r a c t n o r by crude f i b e r .  Among t h e t h r e e  was l o w e s t  implicated  However, d i e t 9 was n o t a f f e c t e d by  appear t h a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y responsible  could  dietary  (Dammers, 1 9 6 5 ;  i n protein feedstuffs, while  suggested that phytate  inhibitors  This i s  t h o s e amino a c i d s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d  i n chick diets,  i . e . methionine, l y s i n e ,  threonine.  102.  It w i l l  be n o t e d t h a t  the methionine content ranged  0.053% i n t h e c a s e o f s a m p l e TO sample  9.  great.  The m a g n i t u d e  t o 0,113  i n the case of  o f t h e l y s i n e v a r i a t i o n was  I t -ranged f r o m 0.271%  (Sample  3) t o 0.499%  T h r e o n i n e showed t h e n e x t h i g h e s t m a g n i t u d e r a n g i n g f r o m 0.295% single  WFS  sample  acids,  or even The  acids  (Sample  1) t o 0.472%  showed s u p e r i o r i t y  content.  The  and 81% a v a i l a b l e high v a r i a t i o n  i n diet  (i.e., diet  3.  amino  o f t h e amino  the  5 has a v a l u e o f 60%  value).  variability  in diet  were n o t as e x t r e m e  has  of  f o r t h r e o n i n e and  shown  85%  availability tyrosine,  and n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s as w e l l d i d  Extreme  v a r i a t i o n was  m e t h i o n i n e w h i c h was  variations.  observed i n the case of  47% a v a i l a b l e  i n diet  9 and  77%  Among n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s a l a n i n e ,  and s e r i n e  9  of  3 w h i c h as  A l t h o u g h the magnitude  show a g r e a t d e a l o f a v a i l a b i l i t y  3.  No  limiting.  Similarly, tyrosine  availability  in diet  6).  56% a v a i l a b l e  value i n comparison to d i e t  other e s s e n t i a l  6).  g r e a t e s t e x t r e m e s were o b s e r v e d  availability  variations  (Sample  in a l lessential  i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y  i n t h e c a s e o f t h r e o n i n e w h i c h was  acid  (Sample  i n those which are considered differences  also  of v a r i a t i o n ,  ( T a b l e 13) w e r e e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n was  of the t o t a l  from  showed g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n  o t h e r n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s .  available aspartic  i n comparison to  Alanine a v a i l a b i l i t y  value  103.  ranged  from  55% i n d i e t  9 t o 85% i n d i e t  showed a m e a s u r a b l e v a r i a t i o n , d i e t value while diet  3 showed 8 3 % .  n o n - e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d w h i c h ranged  from  63% d i e t  3.  Aspartic acid  9 showed 60%  availability-  S e r i n e was t h e t h i r d showed h i g h  9 t o 83% d i e t  variation;•it  3.  The amino a c i d a v e r a g e c o m p o s i t i o n o f WFS by S t a p l e t o n e t a l . (19 3.0) showed h i g h e r glutamic acid, proline, equal  (lysine,  (aspartic acid, serine, glycine,  study.  w i t h WFS  tyrosine  used i n t h i s  o f wheat f e e d s c r e e i n g s w i t h wheat  a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n r e p o r t e d by S t a p l e t o n e t al_. t h a t WFS  lower  alanine, valine,  v a l u e s i n comparison  A comparison  histidine,  a r g i n i n e , c y s t i n e and m e t h i o n i n e ) ,  ( t h r e o n i n e , l e u c i n e and i s o l e u c i n e ) and  and p h e n y a l a n i n e )  was h i g h e r .  v  to the  A c c o r d i n g t o T k a c h u k and  Mellish  (1977) , t h e amino a c i d c o n t e n t  present  i n s c r e e n i n g s have an e x c e l l e n t amino a c i d  The c h e m i c a l  essential  o f weed s e e d s  amino a c i d s i n c o m p a r i s o n  c o m p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n WFS  S t a p l e t o n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) and t h e one u s e d i n t h i s not  significant; particularly  p r o t e i n content which o f WFS  used i n t h i s  was  study.  amino  (19 80) showed  T h i s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d d u e  c o n t a m i n a t i o n w i t h weed s e e d s .  w i t h improved  reported  usually  balance to cereals.  by study  was  the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  l e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t a g e  i n favour  104.  Concerning study comprises  b o t a n i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , WFS  an a v e r a g e v a l u e o f 76%,  c r a c k e d wheat, rapeseed, respectively. WFS  rapeseed,  w i l d b u c k w h e a t and  In comparison  c o n s i s t e d o f 67%,  8%,  variability  12% and farm  3%  of cracked  farm weeds, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  c a u s e o f v a r i a t i o n i n amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n .  for  comparison.  availability ingredient  H.  Both  o f WFS  t h r e a t to the comfort academicians,  e f f i c i e n c y and  study the  effective  Screenings  d e p r e s s i o n and  and p e a c e f u l l i f e  r e c e s s i o n become a of man/kind,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s  product  as w e l l  t o remove t h e  the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y s t r i v e s improved  an  no  to r e s u l t s w i t h wheat.  assume a c o l l a b o r a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y As  the  T h e r e were  a s a m a j o r g r a i n s o u r c e was  inflation,  These  a major  t h e amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n and  i n comparison  As  be  Thus,  on amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y  E c o n o m i c E v a l u a t i o n o f Wheat F e e d  threat.  wheat,  showed m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s .  literature  .  weeds,  i n b o t a n c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n a p p e a r s t o be  r e p o r t s i n the  2% o f  to S t a p l e t o n et a l . (1980),  7% and  w i l d b u c k w h e a t and  were i n g r e d i e n t s w h i c h  4%,  used i n t h i s  should existing  for greater  q u a l i t y , a t t e n t i o n needs t o  f o c u s e d on t h e e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y o f m i n i m i z i n g  c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n of the  i n d u s t r y ' s p r o d u c t . Recent  the events.  105.  namely  high cost of l i v i n g  and  high  interest  r a t e s , have s u b s t a n t i a l l y e n c o u r a g e d r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s be  geared  on u t i l i z i n g  waste or by-products.  i t e m s w h i c h u s e d t o be  considered  C u r r e n t l y , c e r t a i n of the  costs of p r o d u c t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y  to  variable  f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s and  c o s t s have r i s e n more r a p i d l y t h a n o t h e r c o s t s .  as  fuel  I t appears  t h a t b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s i n g w o r l d demands f o r f e e d g r a i n s energy, these h i g h e r c o s t s are not previous as one  levels.  Furthermore,  likely  to descend  wheat s t i l l  to  r e m a i n s t o be  of the major c e r e a l g r a i n s i n p o u l t r y d i e t s .  o f the major o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s economic f e a s i b i l i t y  s t u d y was  and  used  One  to evaluate  o f r e p l a c i n g wheat w i t h w h e a t  the  feed  screenings. The  f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s p r i c e , t h e mean b o d y  weights,  f e e d c o n v e r s i o n , f e e d c o s t and m o r t a l i t y a r e p r e s e n t e d Tables  14 and  15, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Feed i n g r e d i e n t s p r i c e  b a s e d on A b b o t s f o r d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h o l e s a l e p r i c e M a r c h 27,  (P > 0.05)  higher feed c o n v e r s i o n , lower  d i e t s 5,  dated  h i g h e r body w e i g h t  f e e d c o s t and  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of d i e t  the absence  10, has  10.  However, t h r e e p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y  shown by d i e t  10.  D i e t s 3, 8 and  h i g h e r body w e i g h t  9 a l s o produced  g a i n but  at  gain, of  b e e n shown by  7 and  (P > 0.05)  was  1981. A significantly  mortality  in  was  significantly  significantly  106.  (P < 0.05) cost.  lower  r a t e o f f e e d c o n v e r s i o n and h i g h e r  As i n t h e c a s e  of diet  9 t h e r e was h i g h e r  D i e t s 1, 2 and 4 p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y body w e i g h t  c o n v e r s i o n and l o w e r gain, diet  (P > 0.05)  feed cost. Apart  mortality.  (P < 0.05)  g a i n , h o w e v e r , t h e l o w e r body w e i g h t  compensated f o r by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  feed  lower  gain  higher  was feed  f r o m l o w e r body  weight  1 h a s a l s o shown t h r e e p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y .  comparison o f c o n t r o l d i e t  (diet  11) w h i c h c o m p r i s e s  a major i n g r e d i e n t w i t h other d i e t s which comprise feed s c r e e n i n g s , the c o n t r o l d i e t produced (P < 0.05)  l o w e r body w e i g h t  g a i n , lower  A wheat  as  wheat  significantly  feed conversion  h i g h e r f e e d c o s t and w i t h s e v e n p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y  and  incidence  ( T a b l e 15) . Apart  from the c o n t r o l d i e t  (diet  11), i ti s  e v i d e n t from the d a t a t h a t b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t shown s i g n i f i c a n t l y efficiency,  (P < 0.05)  seems t o be a r e f l e c t i o n  i n g more t h a n  The t y p e  unprocessed  of such poor performance  of high rapeseed  f i v e percent  performance e s p e c i a l l y  and  The r e s u l t  s e v e r i t y o f amino a c i d u n b a l a n c e .  efficiency.  gain, feed  and h i g h e r f e e d c o s t and m o r t a l i t y t h a n b i r d s  subjected to other diets.  and  l o w e r body w e i g h t  6 have  of rapeseed  i n body w e i g h t of rapeseed  content  (Table  S a m p l e s o f WFS  3)  contain-  have shown p o o r g a i n and i n f e e d  contained  i n WFS  was  raw  which i s b e l i e v e d to contain g l u c o s i n o l a t e s ,  Table  14.  Wholesale p r i c e l i s t of d i e t ingredients b a s e d on M a r c h 27, 1981 p r i c e .  Percent of ingredient i n the d i e t  Ingredients  b  Ingredient price/metric t o n ($)  Diet ingredient p r i c e / k g ($)  187 .0  0. , 12  61  180 .0  0 ..11  Soybean meal  25  509 .0  0. .13  Meat meal  6. 5  451 .0  0 ,.03  Animal  6. 0  555 .0  0 ..04  Limestone  0 .5  38. 0  0. .01  Premix  1. 0  1.37/kg  0, .01  61  Wheat Wheat f e e d screenings  a  b  or #1  tallow  Wheat d i e t / k g = 34.0vt Wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s / k g  = 33.0<t  T o t a l w e i g h t o f d i e t = 70 kg  as  108.  T a b l e 15.  Diet  Average feed consumption, feed c o n v e r s i o n , f e e d c o s t p e r kg g a i n and m o r t a l i t y o f b r o i l e r f e d d i e t s b a s e d on w h e a t and w h e a t f e e d s c r e e n i n g s t o 4 weeks o f a g e .  Feed consumption (kg)  Feed conversion (feed/gain)  b  3  b  50.24  b  -  a  57.92  a  -  49.60  b  -  49.60  b  -  1.36  b  1.59  b  2  1.39  b  1.57  3  1.44  a  1.81  4  1.36  b  1.55  b  5  1.41  a b  1.55  b  6  1.33  b c  1.83  a  7  1.42  a b  1.58  b  8  1.43  1.85  a  9  1.42  1.83  a  10  1.45  3  1.57  1.29  C  1.84  l l  1  Control  a b  Mortality (%)  50.88  1  a  Feed c o s t U/kg g a i n )  58.56  a  10  50.56  b  -  59.20  a  -  58.56  a  7  b  50.24  b  3-  a  60.72  a  7  (wheat)  Means w i t h t h e same s u p e r s c r i p t a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t (P ^ 0.05) .  significantly  109.  a substance earlier.  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e t a b o l i c d i s o r d e r as s t a t e d  Despite  i t s higher f i b e r content  show a h i g h e r l y s i n e WFS  samples  ( 3 , 5,  composition g a i n and weight  content  7, 8 and  and  9) w i t h a h i g h e r  g a i n and  The  control diet  higher  1 1 ) , two  w i t h higher percentage significantly of d i e t  composition  (P < 0.05)  samples  (1 and  gain.  and  (Table 3).  g a i n p e r f o r m a n c e was  potential  the b r o i l e r producer lies  As  As  The o f body weight  rapeseed and  a result  the  of  poor.  feed  o f r e p l a c i n g wheat g r a i n  i n increased  o f p r o d u c t i o n o f f e e d w h i c h s h o u l d be  i n the  relatively  availability  This should l e a d to consequent savings  to the b r o i l e r  4)  o f wheat  economic advantage to  w i t h wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s  the  o f wheat have p r o d u c e d  l o w e r body w e i g h t  o f w i l d buckwheat  the body w e i g h t The  o f WFS.  S i m i l a r to  masked t h e e f f e c t o f low p e r c e n t a g e  manufacturer  be  2, i t seems t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h  high percentage this,  o f t h e WFS  weight  body  feed e f f i c i e n c y v a l u e s might a l s o  (diet  11),  percentage  o f w i l d b u c k w h e a t have shown a h i g h e r body  feed e f f i c i e n c y response.  e f f e c t has  to  i n amino a c i d a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e  a t t r i b u t e d t o i m p r o v e d amino a c i d b a l a n c e .  case  failure  reflected  i n the  cost  i n lower  cost  producer. d e c r e a s i n g c o s t o f f e e d consumed p e r g a i n as t h e WFS  the economic worth  kilogram  r e p l a c e s wheat i n d i c a t e s  (a minimum o f $10.0  saving per ton  of  110.  WFS)  o f WFS  contributed to b r o i l e r production.  e c o n o m i c w o r t h o f WFS used i n t h i s  depends on t h e g r a d e o f WFS  s t u d y was  g r a d e #1),  $10.0 this  b e t w e e n wheat and WFS  per m e t r i c t o n ) .  The  net (the  high metabolizable  v a l u e as c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l d i e t differential  The  ( w h e a t ) and  (WFS  was  feed p r i c i n g procedure  energy  the  cheaper  one  price  by  used i n  study employed a s i n g l e c o s t f o r i n g r e d i e n t s i n v o l v e d  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  d i e t w i t h r e g a r d to the d i f f e r e n c e i n  n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t were r e v e a l e d by feed manufacturer  chemical  analysis.  s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t  i n n u t r i e n t content  on  The  of d i f f e r e n c e s  feed costs i n determining  the  value of feed grains of d i f f e r i n g n u t r i t i o n a l value  relative and,  most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r c e r e a l g r a i n by monogastric  a n i m a l w i t h human w o u l d be  substantially  minimized. T h i s s t u d y has  r e v e a l e d an i n t r i n s i c d i f f e r e n c e  b e t w e e n wheat c e r e a l g r a i n and WFS broilers.  The  in diets  growing  r e s u l t s d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t d i e t s b a s e d on  w i t h s u i t a b l e p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s may g r o w t h p e r f o r m a n c e and cereal  for  WFS  produce b e t t e r  f e e d e f f i c i e n c y t h a n w i t h wheat  grain. F u r t h e r economic a n a l y s i s of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of  c h a n g e s i n p r o t e i n and e n e r g y v a l u e s and  amino a c i d l e v e l s ,  other n u t r i t i o n a l  metabolizable  characteristics  of c e r e a l  Ill:  grains  i n t e r m s o f t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n o f meat o r eggs  w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o t h e p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y as a g u i d e i n purchasing  feed g r a i n s .  112.  IV.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  B o t a n i c a l and c h e m i c a l content  and a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  composition,  chemical  amino  element and a v a i l a b i l i t y  and m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s determined.  acid  Amino a c i d a n d c h e m i c a l  were  e l e m e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y as  w e l l a s m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d growing  broiler  chicks.  Day o l d b r o i l e r  was a l s o s t u d i e d u s i n g w h e a t  using  c h i c k performance  ( c o n t r o l ) a n d wheat f e e d  screen-  i n g s as a major c o n s t i t u e n t o f t h e d i e t . Wheat was t h e h i g h e s t  (761) b o t a n i c a l component  f o l l o w e d by w i l d buckwheat ( 1 2 % ) .  Among t h e l e a s t w e r e :  b a r l e y and rapeseed  ( 4 % ) , f a r m weeds ( w i l d b u c k w h e a t , g r e e n  and y e l l o w f o x t a i l ,  and w i l d o a t s ) ' ( 4 % ) , o a t s  flax  (0.22).  values  The c h e m i c a l  o f a b o u t 14% c r u d e  e x t r a c t , 3.17% c r u d e  a n a l y s i s o f WFS shows  close.  fibre  a n d 2.6% a s h . diets  in broiler  were  I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e w h e a t d i e t w h i c h was  u s e d a s a c o n t r o l d i e t , t h e ME v a l u e o f WFS was (P > 0.05) h i g h e r .  average  p r o t e i n , 4431 c a l / g m , 4.61 e t h e r  The ME v a l u e s o f WFS i n b a l a n c e d relatively  ( 0 . 2 8 ) , and  The r e p l a c e m e n t  rations resulted  (P > 0.05) g a i n s e x c e p t  o f wheat w i t h  in statistically  f o rdiets  significantly  1 a n d 6.  WFS  significant Although  1 and 6 produced h i g h e r growth performance than  samples  the c o n t r o l  113.  diet the difference  was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  However, th.e r e s u l t o f f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n showed o n l y  diets  1, 2, 4 and 6 w h i c h were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e control  diet.  The f e e d e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o f o r d i e t s  1, 2, 4,  7 a n d 10 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l T h e r e was an a c c o u n t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e balanced diets  r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  b e t w e e n s a m p l e s , as w e l l limiting  i n t h e AAA among  a n d i n amino a c i d c o m p o s i t i o n o f WFS  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  Among of lysine  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e r e s t o f e s s e n t i a l acids  (83%) f o l l o w e d  was t h e l e a s t (85%)  by t h r e o n i n e  (64%) a v a i l a b l e .  (67%) w h i l e  Arginine  literature  Results obtained indicate  that  was t h e h i g h e s t  b o t h i n amino  of s i x chemical  ( C a , P, Mg, Mn, C u , Zn) were a l s o  determined  WFS s a m p l e s .  R e s u l t s h a v e shown an a v e r a g e v a l u e ( d r y  matter basis)  of:  from  0.15%, 0.13%, 0.32%, 7 ppm, 3 ppm and  35 ppm f o r C a , P, Mg, Mn, Cu and Z n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . average a v a i l a b i l i t y 84%  acid  compared t o wheat.  C o m p o s i t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y elements  non-essential  i n t h i s s t u d y and i n t h e  WFS a r e b e t t e r  c o m p o s i t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y  amino  methionine  i n a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e among e s s e n t i a l and  amino a c i d .  samples.  difference  as b e t w e e n amino a c i d s .  e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s ,  diet.  The  o f m i n e r a l s r a n g e d f r o m 59% (Zn) t o  ( C u ) . Among t h e t e s t e d  m i n e r a l s , copper  (84.28%),  114.  manganese  ( 7 6 . 5 7 ! ) and p h o s p h o r u s  (74.14%) showed t h e  h i g h e s t a v a i l a b i l i t i e s , whereas, z i n c  (59%) was t h e l e a s t  available. 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A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r f e e d consumption of wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq.  Mean Sq.  Error  Treat  11  0.13622  12383.0  -  Error  25  0.10347  4311.3  -  Total  35  0.23969  -  -  F-Value  Prob.  2.8723  0.14846  138.  Appendix Table 2.  A n a l y s i s of variance f o r metabolizable energy o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq,  Treat  11  0.52049  Error  24  0.14887  Total  35  0.53537  Mean Sq  0.47317 6203.0  Error  F-Value  Prob.  76.280  0.7077  139.  Appendix Table 3.  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r f e e d e f f i c i e n c y of wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq.  Mean Sq.  Error  F-Value  Prob.  Treat  11  0.61303  0.55730  -  14.413  0.50952  Error  24  0.92800  0.38667  -  Total  35  0.70583  -  -  140.  Appendix Table 4.  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r body weight g of wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq.  Mean Sq.  Error  Treat  11  0.54239  0.49308  -  Error  24  0.47550  0.19812  -  Total  35  0.10179  -  -  F-Value  Prob.  2.4887  0.29968  -  141.  Appendix Table 5.  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r amino a c i d a v a i l a b i l i t y of wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq.  Treat  11  8089.3  ^ }° Acid  15  27796.0  Error  165  9232.4  55.954  -  Total  191  45117.0  -  -  miT  Mean Sq. 735.39 1853.0  Error  F-Value  Prob.  -  13.143  0.40109  -  33. 117  0.12256  142.  Appendix Table  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r c h e m i c a l - e l e m e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wheat f e e d s c r e e n i n g s .  Source  DF  Sum Sq,  Mean Sq,  Treat  11  650.49  59.136  5  4351.50  Error  55  1071.90  Total  71  6073.90  Mineral  870.30 19.489  Error  F-Value  Prob.  3.0344  0.31280  44.657  0.21825  

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