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The acquisition of Cantonese phonology Tse, Sou-Mee 1982

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THE ACQUISITION OF CANTONESE PHONOLOGY by SOU-MEE TSE M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1975 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 © Sou-Mee Tse, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . ~ . - L i n g u i s t i c s Department of _ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 23, 1982 DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s study d e s c r i b e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of phonology by three c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g Cantonese as t h e i r n a t i v e language. Wai, the primary subject i n the study, was observed l o n g i t u d i n a l l y f o r a p e r i o d of a year. Wing and Ching, the other two s u b j e c t s , were observed c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y f o r purpose of comparison. U n l i k e other s t u d i e s of the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese phonology, t h i s study proposes an e x p l i c i t set of a n a l y t i c procedures and c r i t e r i a f o r the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g Cantonese. The a n a l y s i s uses Ingram (1981) as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . A l t o g e t h e r , I present four kinds of p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s . They are (1) phonetic a n a l y s i s , (2) a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , (3) s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s , and (4) p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s . In the phonetic a n a l y s i s , I look at two aspects of the c h i l d r e n ' s phonetic a b i l i t y . These are (1) the t o t a l number of segmental sounds and the a r t i c u l a t i o n s c o r e s , which are the gross q u a n t i t a t i v e measures of the phonetic a b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n ' s speech, and (2) the a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l segments. Based on these r e s u l t s , I set up an inventory of the e a r l y sounds a c q u i r e d i n Cantonese. I t i s f e l t that such an inventory can be compared to those of other Cantonese s u b j e c t s and to those of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g other languages. In the a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , I d i s t i n g u i s h two types of r e d u p l i c a t e d forms in the s u b j e c t s ' speech. Type A forms are l i m i t e d to 'baby t a l k ' . The e q u i v a l e n t of t h i s type of r e d u p l i c a t e d form i n Cantonese i s the baby t a l k 'baabaa' f o r sheep, or 'kaka' f o r car i n E n g l i s h . Type B forms are cases where the c h i l d r e d u p l i c a t e d the a d u l t model. In studying the young c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n Cantonese, i t i s necessary to look f o r both types of r e d u p l i c a t i o n to separate the c h i l d who a c t u a l l y r e d u p l i c a t e s from the one who i s simply r e p e a t i n g r e d u p l i c a t e d models. The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s from E n g l i s h (e.g. Fee and Ingram, 1982) which show that r e d u p l i c a t i o n occurs e a r l y and then decreases g r e a t l y . I t i s a l s o found that the g r e a t e s t number of the Type A forms are nouns. The, second g r e a t e s t number are verbs. A d j e c t i v e s / a d v e r b s are the l e a s t frequent. The s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s compares the phonology of. the c h i l d ' s words to t h e i r a d u l t models to determine the matches and mismatches between them. In order to q u a n t i f y t h i s , I adopt two measures to c a l c u l a t e the extent to which matches occur. They are the p r o p o r t i o n of matches and the p r o p o r t i o n of data. The p r o p o r t i o n of matches i s the number of matches over the t o t a l number of a d u l t sounds attempted by the c h i l d . The p r o p o r t i o n of data i s the number of sounds attempted over the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e sounds in Cantonese. Based on these measures, the s u b s t i t u t i o n of sounds of each subject i s examined and compared with the o t h e r s . Moreover, I a l s o e s t a b l i s h a h i e r a r c h y of i v d i f f i c u l t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l segments f o r Wai. As f a r as the tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s are concerned, the r e s u l t s j u s t i f y the g e n e r a l f i n d i n g that the mastery of tones occurs w e l l i n advance of the mastery of segments. A l l the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d made few e r r o r s . In Cantonese, i t has been proposed that a tone sandhi r u l e i s commonly observed (Chao, 1947). The r u l e s t a t e s that when an upper even tone (tone value 53:) i s fo l l o w e d by another upper even tone (tone value 53:) or a high e n t e r i n g tone (tone value 5:), the f i r s t s y l l a b l e w i l l become the tone value 55:. The s t a t u s of t h i s Cantonese sandhi r u l e , however, has been c h a l l e n g e d i n J.K.Tse (1978). He looked at the a c q u i s i t i o n of tone development of h i s son f o r 30 months, and found no i n s t a n c e s of the tone value 53:. From these data, he concluded that there i s no systematic evidence to support the Cantonese sandhi r u l e d e s c r i b e d above. In the speech data of the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study, a l l the upper even tones produced by the s u b j e c t s belong to the tone value 55:. There i s no incide n c e of 53: v a r i a n t . Thus my r e s u l t s support those of J.K. Tse. B i a n - y i n (changed tone) i s a l s o examined. In Cantonese, i t i s commonly agreed that there are two products of B i a n - y i n , (1) a high r i s i n g tone, which i s s i m i l a r to the upper r i s i n g tone (35:), and (2) a hig h l e v e l tone, s i m i l a r to the upper even tone (55:). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that most of the cases of B i a n - y i n belong to the f i r s t category and that they a l l appear i n nouns. P h o n o l o g i c a l processes are g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s about the c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t i o n s . They are n a t u r a l tendencies the c h i l d uses to s i m p l i f y a d u l t t a r g e t sounds. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study show that there are processes that are shared by a l l the s u b j e c t s , and others that are not. For example, a l l the s u b j e c t s have the process of t e n s i n g vowels. T h i s suggests that i t i s a common process among the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n . In a d d i t i o n to l o o k i n g at the Cantonese produced by the s u b j e c t s , t h i s study a l s o examines the E n g l i s h l o a n -words i n Wai's speech. Her loan-words f i t the r u l e s given by H.N. Cheung (1972). For example, the E n g l i s h /\/ becomes a /p/ i n the loan-word, and a vowel / i / i s o f t e n added to the loan-word for the E n g l i s h word that ends with a / s / , forming a new s y l l a b l e . Some loan-words in Wai's speech are [npm 1pa 2] 'number', and [ t s u ' s i 4 ] ' j u i c e ' . Although E n g l i s h words and phrases occupied only a very small part of the vocabulary i n Wai's speech, I look at a l l the E n g l i s h words and phrases that she used. Based on S.M. Tse (1978), the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that Wai's p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s i n E n g l i s h consonants are very s i m i l a r to those made by the Cantonese a d u l t s who are l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language. The study a l s o compares the p h o n o l o g i c a l systems of E n g l i s h and Cantonese and argues that the phonology of Cantonese i s e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than that of E n g l i s h . Two v i reasons are put f o r t h to support the argument. They are (1) the more complex system i n the E n g l i s h consonants and (2) the a s s i s t a n c e of the t o n a l system in the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese. Moreover, I compare the r e s u l t s of the p r o p o r t i o n s of matches between the Cantonese s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study and the E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s based on Ingram (1981). The r e s u l t s show that the Cantonese s u b j e c t s performed b e t t e r i n matching the a d u l t models. F i n a l l y , t h i s study moves from the a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d ' s phonology to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of the parents' speech on the c h i l d . T h i s i s a t o p i c that has seldom been emphasized by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The speech of Wai's parents d i f f e r s i n the use of the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . The f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t d i s t i n g u i s h e s both /!/ and /n/ i n i t i a l s , while that of the mother has a l l the /n/s r e p l a c e d by / 1 / s . I examined Wai's use of [1] and [n] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s that r e q u i r e d / l / and /n/ i n the f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t to see how these d i f f e r e n c e s i n the input language a f f e c t e d her p r o d u c t i o n . F i r s t of a l l , [1] and [n] f r e e v a r i e d throughout a l l s e s s i o n s f o r both / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s . During t h i s time, Wai went through two p e r i o d s of development. The f i r s t p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r e f e r e n c e f o r n a s a l i z a t i o n , l a s t i n g from 1;7(14) to 2;0(27). The second p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p r e f e r e n c e f o r l a t e r a l i z a t i o n , and extended approximately from age 2; 1(24) and up. These data show that Wai c o n s i d e r e d [1] and [n] to be a llophones of a v i i s i n g l e phoneme. At t h e end o f t h e s t u d y , however, Wai was on t h e verge of a d o p t i n g theramother' s d i a l e c t . v i i i Acknowledgement I t would of course be impossible to acknowledge everyone who has c o n t r i b u t e d to the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . By f a r the most i n f l u e n t i a l person has been P r o f e s s o r David Ingram. He has given me t h o u g h t f u l a t t e n t i o n and encouragement throughout my graduate s t u d i e s , f o r which I am unable to express adequately my profound g r a t i t u d e . His i n f l u e n c e can be seen throughout the t h e s i s . I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n to my s u p e r v i s o r y committee: P r o f e s s o r David Ingram, P r o f e s s o r John G i l b e r t , P r o f e s s o r Dale Kinkade, P r o f e s s o r E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k , and P r o f e s s o r Pat Shaw of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r k i nd h e l p and understanding, and i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m . I a l s o wish to thank P r o f e s s o r A.P. Benguerel f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e suggestions i n one of my c h a p t e r s , and Mr. Tom Trueman f o r p r o o f r e a d i n g my t h e s i s . To the f o l l o w i n g I am a l s o indebted f o r t h e i r g r e a t e s t a s s i s t a n c e ' in v a r i o u s ways: Miss Evelyn Kong, Mr. and Mrs. Hong-Lin Tse, Mr. and Mrs. Hok-Ling Tse, Miss C h r i s t i n a Tse, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Chow, Mr. Chuck Mah, Mrs Gaelan de Wolf, members of the Leung's f a m i l y , and l a s t but not the l e a s t , the three s u b j e c t s , Wai, Ching and Wing. F i n a l l y I wish to thank my p a r e n t s , Mr. And Mrs. Cheuk-Kit Tse, to whom t h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d . For a l l the years I have been i n s c h o o l , they have o f f e r e d me the g r e a t e s t support of every .means. ix G l o s s a r y of n o t a t i o n s used i n the study /C'/ - i n d i c a t e s an a s p i r a t e d consonant, e.g. / p 1 / i s an a s p i r a t e d v o i c e l e s s b i l a b i a l stop. N / - i n d i c a t e s a Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d form, i . e the form that i s only l i m i t e d to 'baby-talk' s y l l a b l e ( s ) . For example, \ / [ h a i " h a i * ] 'to w a l k , r e d u p l i c a t e d form'. O - i n d i c a t e s a Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d form, i . e . a c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n of an a d u l t r e d u p l i c a t e d form. I t i s mostly used i n the address form of k i n s h i p terms. For example, Ofma'ma 1] 'mother'. ® - a l s o i n d i c a t e s a Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d form. In these forms, however, the tones of the s y l l a b l e s are d i f f e r e n t , e.g. ® [ p a u p a 1 ] ' f a t h e r ' . T h i s kind of r e d u p l i c a t e d form i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a v a r i a n t of the r e g u l a r Type B form i n d i c a t e d by 0. ® - i n d i c a t e s a s y l l a b l e that has undergone the B i a n - y i n p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t i n g tone i s a high l e v e l tone s i m i l a r to the upper even tone (tone 1 ) . * - i n d i c a t e s a s y l l a b l e that has undergone the B i a n - y i n p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t i n g tone i s a high r i s i n g tone s i m i l a r to the upper r i s i n g tone (tone 2). X ( ) -parentheses with an e n c l o s e d tone i n d i c a t e the u n d e r l y i n g tone of the s y l l a b l e before the B i a n - y i n p r o c e s s . 4 x i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . v i i i GLOSSARY OF NOTATIONS ix LIST OF TABLES xv LIST OF FIGURES x v i i i Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n and Overview of the A c q u i s i t i o n o f . Chinese 1 1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2. Previous S t u d i e s on Chinese Language A c q u i s i t i o n : An Overview 4 Chapter 2. An O u t l i n e of Cantonese Phonology 27 2.1. General Background 27 2.2. An O u t l i n e of Cantonese Phonology 29 2.2.1. S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e 29 2.2.2. D e s c r i p t i o n 30 Chapter 3. Methodology: Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s 47 3.1. The Subjects 47 3.1.1. Wai 47 3 . 1 ".2 . Ching 53 3.1.3. Wing 54 3.2. T r a n s c r i p t i o n 55 3.2.1. Procedure 55 3.2.2. Interjudge R e l i a b i l i t y 56 3.3. Data A n a l y s i s 59 x i i 3.3.1. The Mo n o s y l l a b l e s or Zi as the Basic U n i t of A n a l y s i s 61 3.3.2. G l o s s a r y of Some Fundamental Terms 62 3.4. Phonetic A n a l y s i s 63 3.5. A n a l y s i s of R e d u p l i c a t i o n 76 3.6. S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s 81 3.7. P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s 88 3.7. Samples Analysed 93 Chapter 4. The A c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese by Wai, Ching, and Wing 96 4.1. Phonetic S t a b i l i t y 96 4.2. R e s u l t s of the Phonetic A n a l y s i s 99 4.2.1. Measures of Phonetic Development 100 4.2.2. The A n a l y s i s of I n d i v i d u a l Segments 103 4.2.3. An Inventory of the E a r l y Sounds Ac q u i r e d i n Cantonese 115 4.3. R e s u l t s of the R e d u p l i c a t i o n A n a l y s i s 115 4.4. R e s u l t s from S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s 120 4.4.1. The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches and the P r o p o r t i o n of Data 120 4.4.2. The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches f o r I n d i v i d u a l Segments 124 4.4.3. Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n 133 4.4.4. The A c q u i s i t i o n of the Tone Sandhi Rule i n Cantonese 139 4.4.5. B i a n - y i n (changed Tone) 142 4.5. R e s u l t s from the P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s .... 143 x i i i 4.6. The A n a l y s i s of Homonymy 148 4.7. E n g l i s h Loan-words i n Wai's Speech 154 4.8. E n g l i s h Words and Phrases Used i n Wai's Speech .... 156 4.9. Is the Cantonese Phonology E a s i e r to Acquire than the E n g l i s h Phonology? 160 Chapter 5. The I n f l u e n c e of the D i f f e r e n t D i a l e c t s of the Parents' Speech On The C h i l d 173 5.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 173 5.2. / I / And /n/ in Cantonese 175 5.3. The D i a l e c t a l D i f f e r e n c e i n the Speech of the C h i l d ' s Parents 176 5.4. The D i a l e c t a l I n f l u e n c e of the Parents on the Speech of the C h i l d 179 5.4.1. The Two P e r i o d s of Development 188 Chapter 6. C o n c l u s i o n 192 6.1. Comparison of Subjects 192 6.2. The A c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese 194 6.3. Concluding Remark 197 BIBLIOGRAPHY I99 APPENDIX 1 209 APPENDIX 2 320 APPENDIX 3 329 APPENDIX 4 331 APPENDIX 5 333 APPENDIX 6 335 APPENDIX 7 336 APPENDIX 8 339 x i v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 - A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l on the A c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese 23 Table 2 - A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l on the A c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese Phonology . 24 Table 3 - I n i t i a l Consonants of Cantonese 31 Table 4a - F i n a l s of Cantonese: A Phonetic D e s c r i p t i o n .... 35 Table 4b - F i n a l s of Cantonese: A Phonemic D e s c r i p t i o n .... 35 Table 5 - The Cantonese Tone System 40 Table 6 - The Cantonese Tone System with Examples 41 Table 7 - Dates, Ages, and Number of C h i l d Utterances Produced by Wai f o r Twenty-five Sessions 51 Table 8 - Re s u l t s of Interjudge R e l i a b l i t y Test between T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2 57 Table 9 - R e s u l t s of Interjudge R e l i a b i l i t y Test between A) T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2, and B) T r a n s c r i b e r 2 and T r a n s c r i b e r 3 60 Table 10 - Some Common P h o n o l o g i c a l Processes Found in the Speech of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Young C h i l d r e n 89 Table 11 - Names, Ages, and Sample S i z e s of the Three Subjects Studied 97 Table 12 - The Index of Phonetic S t a b i l i t y for the Sessions f o r Wai, Wing and Ching 98 Table 13 - The T o t a l Number of Sounds f o r Wai at 6 Sessions 101 Table 14 - T o t a l Number of Sounds f o r Ching and Wing 102 Table 15 - A r t i c u l a t i o n Scores f o r Wai at 6 Sessions 104 Table 16 - A r t i c u l a t i o n Scores f o r Ching and Wing 105 Table 17 - The Occurrence of Cantonese I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants in Wai's Sessions 106 Table 18 - The Occurrence of Cantonese V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i n Wai's Sessions 107 Table 19 - D i v i s i o n of Wai's Segments i n t o those 'acquired' and those 'not Acquired' 108 Table'- 20 - A H i e r a r c h y of the Frequency of Occurrence of Sounds f o r Wai i n Terms of A r t i c u l a t i o n Scores 111 Table 21 - The Phonetic I n v e n t o r i e s f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants f o r Ching and Wing 113 Table 22 - The Phonetic I n v e n t o r i e s f o r V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c s f o r Ching and Wing 114 Table 23 - Summary of Segments Acquire d by Wai, Ching and Wing 116 Table 24 - P r o p o r t i o n and Number ( i n Parentheses) of R e d u p l i c a t i o n s f o r Wai at 6 Sessions f o r S e l e c t e d Measures of R e d u p l i c a t i o n 117 Table 25 - P r o p o r t i o n and Number ( i n Parentheses) of R e d u p l i c a t i o n s f o r Ching and Wing f o r S e l e c t e d Measures of R e d u p l i c a t i o n 118 Table 26 - P r o p o r t i o n of Matches and P r o p o r t i o n of Data f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants, and V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants f o r Wai Across Six Sessions 121 Table 27 - P r o p o r t i o n s of Matches and Data f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants, and V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants x v i for Ching and Wing 122 Table 28 - The Matches, S u b s t i t u t i o n s , and P r o p o r t i o n of Matches for Each Sound Segment for Wai across 6 Sess ions 1 25 Table 29 - A H i e r a r c h y of D i f f i c u l t y for I n i t i a l Consonants, F i n a l Consonants, and V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants for Wai 128 Table 30 - Matches, S u b s t i t u t i o n s , and Instances of No Data for Cantonese I n i t i a l Consonants, F i n a l Consonants, V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants for Ching and Wing . . . . 1 3 0 Table 31 - The Main S u b s t i t u t i o n s Made by the Subjects throughout a l l the Sess ions 131 Table 32 - The P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n for the Subjects S tudied 134 Table 33 - Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s for the Nine Cantonese Tones, i n Non-redup l i ca ted and Redup l i ca ted Forms for Wai at S ix Sess ions and Ching and Wing 136 Table 34 - P h o n o l o g i c a l Proces ses , t h e i r P r o p o r t i o n s of Occurrence and Scores i n Terms of L e v e l of Frequency for Wai ' s S ix Sess ions 144 Table 35 - P h o n o l o g i c a l Proces ses , and t h e i r Frequencies for Ching and Wing i n terms of P r o p o r t i o n s of Occurrence and L e v e l 146 Table 36 - The P r o p o r t i o n s of Homonymous Forms for the Cantonese-speaking Subjects 152 Table 37 - The P r o p o r t i o n s of Homonymous Forms for 10 E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Subjects 153 x v i i Table 38 - E n g l i s h Loan-words Used i n Wai's Speech throughout the 25 Sessions 155 Table 39 - E n g l i s h Words/Phrases Used i n Wai's Speech 157 Table 40 - Some Common S u b s t i t u t i o n E r r o r s Made by the Sub j e c t s i n I n i t i a l s i n S.M. Tse's Study (1978) and Wai's E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n E r r o r s 158 Table 41 - A D i s p l a y of the Major Consonants i n E n g l i s h along with I, M, and F Rows to I n d i c a t e I n i t i a l , m e d i a l , and F i n a l S y l l a b l e P o s i t i o n s 162 Table 42 - A D i s p l a y of the Consonants i n Cantonese along with I,and F Rows to I n d i c a t e I n i t i a l and F i n a l S y l l a b l e P o s i t i o n s 163 Table 43 - P r o p o r t i o n of Matches f o r 12 E n g l i s h Normal C h i l d r e n f o r Consonants 166 Table 44 - P r o p o r t i o n of Matches f o r the Cantonese Subjects f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants , 167 Table 45 - The P r o p o r t i o n of the Occurrences of C l l and [ n j I n i t i a l s f o r the Combined /!/ and /n/ I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e s 182 Table 46 - The Use of f l j and U n J i n Wai's Speech i n Words of the Father's D i a l e c t that are /!/ or /n/ I n i t i a l s ...186 x v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 - The P r o p o r t i o n of Occurrence of t l ] and L n ] I n i t i a l s 183 F i g u r e 2 - The P r o p o r t i o n of Occurrence of [1] and [n} i n Words of the D i a l e c t of the Father that are / l / or /n/ I n i t i a l s 187 / 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE ACQUISITION OF CHINESE 1.1. INTRODUCTION In the process of p h o n o l o g i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n , the c h i l d must a c q u i r e the a b i l i t y both to a r t i c u l a t e sounds (phonetic a b i l i t y ) and to use the c o n t r a s t i v e elements or 'phonemes' of that language (phonemic a b i l i t y ) . With respect to phonetic a b i l i t y , i t i s common knowledge that some sounds are more d i f f i c u l t than o t h e r s , although i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n vary i n t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s with s p e c i f i c sounds (c. f . Ingram, C h r i s t e n s e n , Veach and Webster, 1980). A l s o , the c h i l d needs to a c q u i r e the phonemes of the language, a task that p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s s i n c e each language s e l e c t s d i f f e r e n t sound c l a s s e s to f u n c t i o n as i t s phonemes. L a s t l y , the c h i l d must a l s o a c q u i r e the p h o n o t a c t i c p a t t e r n s (e.g. permissable s y l l a b l e types) and p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s (e.g. tone sandhi) . of the language. Over the l a s t one hundred years, numerous s t u d i e s of v a r y i n g methodologies and approaches to a n a l y s i s have been conducted to determine how c h i l d r e n accomplish both of these g o a l s . From these s t u d i e s , we have come to understand some of the major p a t t e r n s c h i l d r e n demonstrate i n a c q u i r i n g a p h o n o l o g i c a l system. Some important recent work i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s by Jakobson (1941), Stampe (1969), Moskowitz (1970), Menn (1971), Waterson (1971), Smith 2 (1973), Ingram (1974), Ferguson and Farwell (1975), and Kiparsky and Menn (1977). Most of these studies, however, have been on how English-speaking children acquire phonology. To establish a theory of development, however, i t i s necessary to broaden one's scope beyond that of a single language. To quote Bowerman (I973,p.l), the dominant question in th i s area i s as follows: "Are there universals of language acquisition i . e . s i m i l a r i t i e s in the way a l l children acquire language regardless of the par t i c u l a r language to which they are exposed?". Toward th i s end, some studies on the acquisi t i o n of language by children acquiring a f i r s t language other than English have appeared, notably Somoan (Kernan,1969), Luo (Blount, 1969), Mandarin (Clumeck,1977), Thai (Tuaycharoen, 1977) and others. (See Slobin,l973 for an extensive record of the languages that have been studied). The present study i s an attempt to provide a detailed study on the acquis i t i o n of Cantonese phonology. For the last ten years, there has been increasing interest in the study of how children acquire Chinese. Most of the research, however, has focussed on the acqu i s i t i o n of Mandarin. Regarding Cantonese phonology, the only published studies are those on the acq u i s i t i o n of tones by J.K.Tse (1978) and Light (1977). The present study involves the analysis of data c o l l e c t e d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y from a c h i l d acquiring Cantonese as her native language. The c h i l d , 'Wai', was seen once every two weeks for a period of one 3 year i n her home i n Vancouver, Canada. For purposes of comparison, some c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l speech samples were a l s o c o l l e c t e d from two other Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n , 'Ching' and 'Wing'. The p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a n a l y s i s of these data w i l l proceed as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n 1.2. of Chapter 1 reviews the major s t u d i e s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese done mainly i n China and i n North America from 1759 to 1980. Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the e a r l y p e r i o d of l i n g u i s t i c development, up to 3 years of age. Chapter 2 prese n t s a general overview of Cantonese, f i r s t i n terms of general f e a t u r e s of the language, f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e of Cantonese phonology. Chapter 3 d e a l s with the methodology of the study and i s roughly d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : (1) data c o l l e c t i o n , and (2) data a n a l y s i s . Regarding the f i r s t p a r t , the language background of s u b j e c t s ' parents and t h e i r home environment i s d e s c r i b e d . Most of t h i s s e c t i o n i s spent d i s c u s s i n g 'Wai', the main s u b j e c t . The second p a r t of Chapter 3 d i s c u s s e s the way i n which the data are analysed. B a s i c a l l y , the study d e a l s with four kinds of p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s , based on Ingram (1981). These are (1) phonetic a n a l y s i s , (2) a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , (3) s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s , and (4) p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s . Since Cantonese i s the language being i n v e s t i g a t e d , some m o d i f i c a t i o n s of Ingram's procedures and forms have been made and some other analyses have been added. Chapter 4 presents the r e s u l t s of each a n a l y s i s i n 4 d e t a i l . When p o s s i b l e , a n a l y s e s of the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n are compared to r e s u l t s from E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , based on Ingram (1981). As expected, the comparison shows c l e a r l y that Cantonese phonology i s much e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than that of E n g l i s h . The chapter w i l l end with a d i s c u s s i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of tone, and tone sandhi r u l e s . Chapter 5 moves from the a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d ' s phonology to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of . the i n f l u e n c e that d i f f e r e n t p a r e n t a l d i a l e c t s has on the c h i l d ' s language. In the course of the study, i t was noted that the speech of Wai's parents d i f f e r s i n the use of the / I / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . The f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t d i s t i n g u i s h e s b o t h . / I / and /n/ i n i t i a l s , while that of the mother has a l l the /n/s r e p l a c e d by /1/s. T h i s chapter looks at Wai's use of / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s a c r o s s v a r i o u s s e s s i o n s to see how these d i f f e r e n c e s i n the input language a f f e c t e d her p r o d u c t i o n . As might be expected, t h i s s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d a great d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y f o r Wai, and her attempts to d e a l with i t lead to some i n t e r e s t i n g s t r a t e g i e s that are d i s c u s s e d . The c o n c l u s i o n , Chapter 6, w i l l c o n t a i n a summary of the important f i n d i n g s . 1.2. PREVIOUS STUDIES ON CHINESE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION; AN OVERVIEW As s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 1.1., there has r e c e n t l y been a growing i n t e r e s t among l i n g u i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and 5 educators i n the study of how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e Chinese. The l i t e r a t u r e i s by now q u i t e r i c h , although i t s treatment, from a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t of view, i s f a i r l y new. T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s an overview of s t u d i e s of a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese, most of them being done i n China and i n North America. 1n China, the f i r s t recorded l i t e r a t u r e of how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e language i s repo r t e d by J i a n g Yong (>1 1681-1762) i n the middle of the seventeenth century ( 1759). In h i s book, e n t i t l e d Y i n Xue Bian Wei (^4|]|^&. S t u d i e s of Phonology), he devotes one chapter to a d i s c u s s i o n of the sounds produced by the young c h i l d . Kim (1977) has r e c e n t l y summed up the chapter as f o l l o w s : (1) J i a n g gave out h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l view r e g a r d i n g why young babies cannot produce meaningful u t t e r a n c e s d u r i n g the e a r l y stage of speech development. The reasons were because 'the a i r from the heart has not yet f i l l e d the space beneath the tongue' ( f ) ' and 'the two elements f i r e and metal i n the southwest have not yet (2) The emergence of the i n i t i a l consonants /m,t,k,ts/ were d e s c r i b e d i n that o r d e r . J i a n g ' s use of metaphysical elements such as ' a i r from the h e a r t ' , ' f i r e and metal i n the southwest' has l e d some Chinese l i n g u i s t s (e.g. Wang,1934) to conclude that the whole chapter of the book i s v a l u e l e s s . J i a n g ' s o b s e r v a t i o n of the order of emergence of the four i n i t i a l consonants been fused together' ( 6 / m , t , k , t s / , however, s h o u l d deserve some c r e d i t , s i n c e J i a n g ' s c l a i m of o r d e r i n g was v e r y s i m i l a r t o those l a t e r p r e d i c t e d by Jakobson (1941) and r e p o r t e d by E r v i n - T r i p p (1966). The modern st u d y of c h i l d language, w i t h e x a c t r e c o r d i n g of o b s e r v a t i o n s , b e g i n s around the m i d d l e of the 20th c e n t u r y . Some of the more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o b s e r v o r s a r e Kuo (1937), Chen (1947), and Chao (1935,1951). Kuo (1937), i n a B.A. g r a d u a t i o n essay e n t i t l e d A s t u d y of language  development of C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n , d i s c u s s e d s t a g e s of development of language i n l i g h t of the P i a g e t i a n s c h o o l of c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t 2 . H.C. Chen (1947) was the f i r s t p s y c h o l o g i s t t o p u b l i s h a day-to-day o b s e r v a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s language l e a r n i n g . Chen has been c o n s i d e r e d one of the most famous c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n the h i s t o r y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n C h i n a . In h i s s t u d y , he o b s e r v e d i n g r e a t d e t a i l the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c developments of h i s son from the age of 99 days t o 2 y e a r s and 5 months. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the c o n t e n t of Chen's study i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h a t of N i c e ' s study (1925). He d i s c u s s e s the s i z e of the c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y and i t s growth over t i m e , and c l a s s i f i e s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of sentences i n the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s , such as s t a t e m e n t , q u e s t i o n and so on. For example, i n a time span of e i g h t h o u r s , Chen r e c o r d e d t h a t h i s son (age 2;5) spoke 922 u t t e r a n c e s which c o n t a i n e d 2368 words. The average l e n g t h of each u t t e r a n c e 7 was 2.6 words. In addition, Chen also pointed out that f r i c a t i v e s such as / s / and /&/ were the most d i f f i c u l t group of sounds for young children to acquire. His son was s t i l l having d i f f i c u l t y with the f r i c a t i v e s at the age of 2; 4. Chen concluded that i t takes less time to acquire Chinese than to acquire English (Y.X. Zhang,1968 p.23). He based this on the fact that there are more f r i c a t i v e s in English than in Chinese (as Chen claimed), and his belief that the c h i l d takes less ' e f f o r t ' to learn a monosyllabic language l i k e Chinese than a p o l y s y l l a b i c language l i k e English. Whether his conclusion i s j u s t i f i e d or not needs further investigation. Overall, however, according to Chao (1951), most of the claims in Chen's study are psychological rather than l i n g u i s t i c (Chao,1951, footnote 1). Y.R. Chao i s one of the few l i n g u i s t s who devoted special attention to the study of c h i l d language before the middle of the century.His study in 1935 e n t i t l e d Fang-Yan- Xinq Bian-Tai Yu-Yin San Lie ( Q % <Jf. % =- fa'J Three examples of the d i a l e c t a l nature of abnormal pronunciation) i s perhaps one of the e a r l i e s t studies in the description of the c h i l d ' s language. In t h i s study, Chao has recorded the phonologies of three 'non-standard d i a l e c t s ' , two of which are young children's speech. At the time of recording, the two children were 2 1/2 and 4 years of age. Both were learning the Peiping d i a l e c t as their 8 n a t i v e language. Chao compared t h e i r speech with that of the a d u l t , and noted that c h i l d r e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e p l a c e d some of the a d u l t sounds. For example, i n the speech of the f i r s t c h i l d , the a d u l t words of the / t ^ / s e r i e s were r e p l a c e d by the / t s / s e r i e s . In the speech of the second c h i l d , except f o r the a s p i r a t e d v e l a r stop, a l l the a d u l t a s p i r a t e d stops, i . e . /p'/, and / t ' / were r e p l a c e d by t h e i r n o n - a s p i r a t e d ones, i . e . /p/ and / t / . Chao's most c i t e d a r t i c l e in the study of c h i l d language i s h i s c l a s s i c study i n 1951 e n t i t l e d The Cantian  i d i o l e c t : an a n a l y s i s of the Chinese spoken by a 28 month  o l d c h i l d . T h i s study i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the speech of h i s granddaughter 'Canta' at the age of 28 months. Three aspects of language are looked a t : phonology, grammar and vo c a b u l a r y . Although born and reared i n America, Canta had been surrounded mainly by speakers of standard Mandarin. Canta's speech i s c o n s i d e r e d by Chao as 'a form of Mandarin or Mandarin i n the making'(p.116). She had some con t a c t with E n g l i s h , as w e l l as borrowings from E n g l i s h i n the Chinese she heard. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a few E n g l i s h words i n her speech, but, as Chao claimed, 'she adopts them i n t o her own p h o n o l o g i c a l system much more than do the b i l i n g u a l speakers around her' (p. 1 1 6) .. Regarding Chao's a r t i c l e , two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are worth mentioning. F i r s t , as s t a t e d by Chao h i m s e l f , t h i s i s a synchronic r a t h e r than a d i a c h r o n i c study. Most s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d phonology i n the l i t e r a t u r e are 9 d i a c h r o n i c , c o v e r i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of time. On the other hand, Chao's a r t i c l e i s a synchronic study i n which he g i v e s a f u l l s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d ' s phonology d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r one-month p e r i o d . He seldom mentions preceding or f o l l o w i n g stages. In f a c t , as commented on by Ferguson and S l o b i n (1973), Chao's a r t i c l e i s a ' b r i l l i a n t ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the synchronic study of c h i l d language (p.14). Second, Chao was h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by Jakobson's c l a i m (1941) that p h o n o l o g i c a l development c o n s i s t s of the c h i l d c o n s t r u c t i n g a system of c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n h i s own system. That i s , the phonology of a c h i l d at a given time i s a phonemic system of i t s own, independent from the a d u l t system. T h i s was a general assumption h e l d by most i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the 40's and 50's, and i s manifested i n Chao's r e f e r e n c e to the Chinese spoken by h i s .grandchild as 'the Cantian i d i o l e c t ' . A f t e r Chao's study i n 1951, there seems to have been a l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n the study of the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese f o r the next 15 y e a r s . I t i s not u n t i l the end of the 60's that a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n the area are found again. In 1968, H.L. L i of the U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya completed her M.A. t h e s i s ( w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h ) e n t i t l e d The development  of the syntax of a Cantonese-speaking c h i l d from 1;6 to 2;6  years of age. T h i s i s the f i r s t complete study on c h i l d syntax, as w e l l as ; the f i r s t study ever attempted on a Cantonese c h i l d . Before, a l l the s t u d i e s d e a l t with the 10 a c q u i s i t i o n of Mandarin, r a t h e r than any other p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t . In t h i s study, L i observed the s y n t a c t i c development of her pre c o c i o u s l i t t l e s i s t e r 'May Ha' f o r a year ( from 1;6 to 2;6). The speech data were analysed a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g f i v e main s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n s : simple sentence p a t t e r n , topic-comment c o n s t r u c t i o n , imperative p a t t e r n , i n t e r r o g a t i v e p a t t e r n and j o i n e d c l a u s e s . In a d d i t i o n , the use of f i n a l p a r t i c l e s was a l s o a n a l y s e d . At each stage,-synchronic a n a l y s i s was given and a d i a c h r o n i c a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s was d i s c u s s e d . L i s t a r t e d r e c o r d i n g May Ha's speech at a time when the f i r s t combinations of words took p l a c e (around 1;4). The time of data c o l l e c t i n g was not r e g u l a r . L i k e the rese a r c h being done i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of E n g l i s h , most r e s e a r c h i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese can be d i v i d e d i n t o two types, namely, d i a r y s t u d i e s , and l a r g e sample s t u d i e s . A d i a r y study t y p i c a l l y i s one i n which a s i n g l e c h i l d (or a few c h i l d r e n ) i s observed by a parent observer who makes phonetic n o t a t i o n s on the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s over a p e r i o d of time, u s u a l l y without any s p e c i f i c time t a b l e of o b s e r v a t i o n s . In E n g l i s h , the two most d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of t h i s type are Leopold's study (1947) of h i s daughter 'Hildegard' from b i r t h to two years of age, and Smith's study (1973) of h i s son 'Ahmal' from two to four years of age. In Chinese, Chen's study (1947) and L i ' s study (1968), as mentioned above, are 11 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s type. The most comprehensive data on how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e languages over s e v e r a l years come from l a r g e samples of speech from l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t age ranges. These s t u d i e s are not concerned with how i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n s t r u c t u r e language, so that the r e s u l t s q u a n t i f y data f o r s e l e c t e d age l e v e l s . From 1967 to 1975, i n China, a l l the s t u d i e s being done i n t h i s area, with the exception of L i ' s study, which was done in M a l a y s i a , belong to the type of l a r g e sample s t u d i e s . Some major ones are L i n (1967), Chu (1969), Yang, Xiao and Yang (1974) and Zhang and Qiu (1974). G e n e r a l l y speaking, these s t u d i e s are h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p u b l i c a t i o n s of McCarthy's book Language  development of the pr e s c h o o l c h i l d (1930), and Templin's book C e r t a i n language s k i l l s i n c h i l d r e n : t h e i r development  and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p (1957). The Chinese s t u d i e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r attempts to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on language development and i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with v a r i a b l e s on l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n . Perhaps the best of these s t u d i e s i s the study by Yang, Xiao and Yang (1974)(in C h i n e s e ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s e l i c i t e d speech samples from 273 c h i l d r e n , ranging i n age from 3;6 to '9;5 years, by showing them f l a s h c a r d s ' w i t h p i c t u r e s . There were 135 boys and 138 g i r l s . T h e i r speech samples were analysed i n terms of 42 measures. Some of the prominent ones were t o t a l number of words used, t o t a l number of ut t e r a n c e s used, type-token r a t i o (TTR), and 1 2 number of nouns, a d j e c t i v e s , adverbs and other grammatical items used. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o looked at the c o r r e l a t i o n of language development with i t s v a r i a b l e s , such as age, sex, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and socio-economic s t a t u s of the p a r e n t s . Some major r e s u l t s are as f o l l o w s : (1) there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the language development and age, as w e l l as the socio-economic s t a t u s of the p a r e n t s . (2) there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the language development between boys and g i r l s from 3;5 to 5;5 (based on TTR r e s u l t s ) . However, from 5;5 and up, g i r l s have higher TTR than boys. Another major study that i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s p e r i o d of l a r g e sample s t u d i e s i s C P . Chu (1969). Chu examined the development and sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use of language and vocabulary of 60 elementary school c h i l d r e n . 20 c h i l d r e n from each of the f i r s t , t h i r d and f i f t h grades were chosen. Each s u b j e c t was asked to p r o v i d e a short s t o r y upon p r e s e n t a t i o n of three TAT p i c t u r e s . The speech data were analysed i n terms of measures such as sentence s t r u c t u r e s and p a r t s of speech. Chu concluded that there i s no sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount of t a l k i n g , sentence s t r u c t u r e s , and p a r t s of speech f o r the three grades, that the sentence l e n g t h i n c r e a s e s as the c h i l d grows o l d e r , and that the o l d e r group has a higher percentage of complex sentence s t r u c t u r e s . Other s t u d i e s of t h i s p e r i o d are S.C. L i n ' s (1967) 13 study which compared mean le n g t h of sentences between orphanage and o r d i n a r y c h i l d r e n , and Zhang and Qiu's (1974) study which analysed the common vocabulary that i s used in the compositions of t h i r d to s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n . In s h o r t , i t i s c l e a r that the p e r i o d of 1967 to 1975 was dominated by l a r g e sample s t u d i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s were i n t e r e s t e d in l o o k i n g at the c o r r e l a t i o n between the development of language and i t s v a r i a b l e s , and t h e i r viewpoints were u s u a l l y more p s y c h o l o g i c a l than l i n g u i s t i c . The only e x c e p t i o n i s a study by S.C. L i n (1971) which looked at the phonetic development of Taiwanese i n f a n t s . In t h i s study, s i x Chinese i n f a n t s i n Taiwan were observed. The age of the s u b j e c t s ranged form 0;0(14) to 2;3. Tape r e c o r d i n g s of each i n f a n t were made once a month, o r d i n a r i l y with a 600-ft.tape (one t r a c k ) completed in an o b s e r v a t i o n . The speech was then t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o I.P.A. Among the f i n d i n g s , L i n gave a more d e t a i l e d report of the a n a l y s i s of one of h i s s u b j e c t s ' speech, Subject D at 1;10. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s the sounds that are d i f f i c u l t for Subject D to produce:(p.193: some symbols have been modified) Infant D's M i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n at 1;10 Sounds produced by adult P' t ' k' t s ' s 1 - t -P -k §- h-Sounds produced by i n f a n t P t k t s t s . j -h -h -h missing 1 4 From the t a b l e , L i n concluded that a s p i r a t e d / p , t , k , t s / i n Taiwanese are d i f f i c u l t f o r young c h i l d r e n to produce and that u n a s p i r a t e d stops are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r them. As f a r as the a c q u i s i t i o n of tone i s . concerned, L i n p o i n t e d out that tones of words aire always produced c o r r e c t l y by the s u b j e c t s (he d i d not s p e c i f y which s u b j e c t ( s ) , however), except that the end of the lower even tone i s r a i s e d very h i g h 3 . Since 1975, there has been an amazing i n c r e a s e of i n t e r e s t i n the study of c h i l d language. One can say i t i s a blooming p e r i o d i n the study of t h i s a r e a . T h i s i n c r e a s e d emphasis on c h i l d phonology i s i n l a r g e p a r t s t i m u l a t e d by the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Aphasie, und Allgemeine  Lautegestze Kindersprache (Jakobson., 1 941) . Moreover, there has a l s o been a marked change in the approach to the study of c h i l d r e n ' s language. T h i s change has been toward more l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of the language of c h i l d r e n . Instead of only l o o k i n g at the c o r r e l a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s language development and i t s v a r i a b l e s , such as those s t u d i e s dominating the p e r i o d of 1968 to 1975, or only l o o k i n g at the output of the c h i l d , e.g. C.S. L i n (1967), there i s an i n s i s t e n c e on determining the r u l e behavior behind that output as w e l l . Some r e s e a r c h e r s are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r r e s u l t s i n l i g h t of some t h e o r e t i c a l framework, such as the theory of i r r e v e r s i b l e s o l i d a r i t y suggested by Jakobson (1941). A good example i s Jeng's study (1979) .which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. 15 Before surveying the main a r t i c l e s i n c h i l d phonology, i t i s worthwhile mentioning the work of Erbaugh (1978) i n the study of c h i l d syntax. Erbaugh s t u d i e d two young c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of Mandarin syntax i n Taiwan. The speech of the 24-month-old boy 'LH' was taped d u r i n g f r e e p lay i n h i s home in seven one-hour s e s s i o n s over the course of two weeks. LH's Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) f o r the seven s e s s i o n s was 2.33 or at a l e v e l of Brown's Stage II (Brown, 1973). The second c h i l d i n the study was a g i r l named 'JR', who was taped from her 31st through her 33rd month. A t o t a l of nine hours of tapes was made du r i n g f r e e p l a y over the course of e i g h t weeks. JR's mean MLU over the nine tapes was 3.57 which would plac e her i n Brown's Stage IV. The data were t r a n s c r i b e d and compared with those of Chao's study (1951). A c r o s s c u l t u r a l comparison with both Chinese c h i l d r e n and F i n n i s h , Samoan, and Luo speaking c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d by Bowerman (1973) and others was g i v e n . L a s t l y , a t o p i c of d i s c o u r s e type i n l i g h t of S c o l l o n (1974) and Peters (1976) was a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Erbaugh only mentioned b r i e f l y the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones. She found that the tones of the two s u b j e c t s were p r a c t i c a l l y p e r f e c t , while t h e i r segmentals were s t i l l u n d e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and u n s t a b l e . T h i s f i n d i n g was i n l i n e with what had a l r e a d y been found i n other s t u d i e s (e.g. Chao, 1951). In recent years, there has been an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t 16 i n l o o k i n g at the ways i n which c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e tone. One reason i s that the study of a c h i l d ' s t o n a l development can provide i n s i g h t i n t o the a c q u i s i t i o n process s i n c e tone i s s i m i l a r to other f e a t u r e s such as i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s i n being suprasegmental, and yet i t s l i n g u i s t i c s t a t u s i s l e x i c a l . S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s have been asked: (1) Is the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones s i m i l a r to a c q u i s i t i o n of segments? (2) When do c h i l d r e n begin to use p i t c h i n a l e x i c a l way? And (3) Is there an order, or sequence, i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones? (Clumeck,1980). Four a r t i c l e s , namely, L i and Thompson (1977), Hashimoto (1980), J.K. Tse (1978), and L i g h t (1977) have been p u b l i s h e d i n the area of t o n a l development. L i and Thompson's study i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t i s the f i r s t s ystematic study of i t s k i n d . They looked at data that came from 17 c h i l d r e n of Mandarin-speaking f a m i l i e s i n Taiwan. The c h i l d r e n ranged i n age between 1;6 and 3;0. L o n g i t u d i n a l data over a p e r i o d of about 7 months were c o l l e c t e d f o r 10 of these c h i l d r e n and more sporadic data were c o l l e c t e d f o r the other 7. Each c h i l d was v i s i t e d about 3 weeks. Speech data were e l i c i t e d by asking the c h i l d to name p i c t u r e s . In Mandarin Chinese, the t o n a l system i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w e d : (1) High tone 55:* (2) R i s i n g tone 35: (3) Dipping tone 214: (4) F a l l i n g tone 51: 17 (5) N e u t r a l tone (occurs when a s y l l a b l e i s unstressed) They concluded that r i s i n g tones are more d i f f i c u l t to p e r c e i v e and to produce than f a l l i n g tones, that the c o r r e c t tone system i s a c q u i r e d r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y , u s u a l l y w i t h i n the space of approximately four months, and i s mastered w e l l i n advanced of the segmental system, that the stages of tone a c q u i s i t i o n are uniform a c r o s s a number of s u b j e c t s , and that tone sandhi r u l e s are le a r n e d when c h i l d r e n begin to produce multi-word u t t e r a n c e s . A more recent a r t i c l e i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of Mandarin tone i s by Hashimoto (1980). She s t u d i e d the t o n a l development of her daughter ' J i n g - J i n g ' from 0;11(17) to 2;6. The r e s u l t s showed that by age 1;8, she was able to d i s t i n g u i s h a l l f i v e tones i n Mandarin. By age 2, an i n t e r e s t i n g p l a y p a t t e r n with tones was observed. Her f a v o r i t e p a t t e r n of p l a y -was to take any d i s y l l a b i c word and g i v e i t the t o n a l p a t t e r n high-low. Very o f t e n , a monosyllabic word i s broken i n t o two s y l l a b l e s by lengt h e n i n g the vowel with low-high p a t t e r n or r e d u p l i c a t i n g i t with high-low p a t t e r n . F i n a l l y , with the evidence of the p l a y p a t t e r n s with tones, Hashimoto suggested that p i t c h l e v e l i s the most b a s i c and s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of tones, and that l e v e l tones are the e a s i e s t to c o n t r o l , while contour tones are more d i f f i c u l t to master. S p e c i f i c to Cantonese, J.K. Tse (1978) d i d a 18 l o n g i t u d i n a l case study on h i s son P a t r i c k ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese tones. His data were mainly i n the form of a p a r e n t a l d i a r y , c o n s i s t i n g of w r i t t e n records made durin g s p e c i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s o c c u r r i n g every 3-4 weeks f o r a p e r i o d of 28 months, p l u s some 20 minutes of tape-recorded data that covered the 29th to the 30th month of the s u b j e c t ' s a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s . From these data, he formulated an order of tone a c q u i s i t i o n . He a l s o observed that p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c tones began as e a r l y as the 10th month,and that the time span from P a t r i c k ' s f i r s t u t t e r e d tone to the l a t e s t a c q u i r e d tone covered a t o t a l p e r i o d of only e i g h t months, from 1;2 to 1;9. A l s o , he found that the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones was completed much e a r l i e r than a c q u i s i t i o n of segmental phonemes, and that no tone sandhi phenomena were found i n P a t r i c k ' s speech. L i g h t (1977) d i d a l o n g i t u d i n a l study on h i s Cantonese-speaking daughter's c o n f r o n t a t i o n with b i l i n g u a l i s m . ' C l a i r e ' was born i n Hong Kong, and moved to the U.S. with her f a m i l y when she was 1;4. Tapes were made to observe the development of tones and syntax. With respect to her tones, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t hat the c h i l d showed a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of her t o n a l system at 1;7. I t was found that many of her i n c o r r e c t t o n a l usages r e f l e c t e d p i t c h - c o n t o u r approximation of the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t items. For example, monosyllables i n the t o p i c p o s i t i o n tended to take the high l e v e l or high f a l l i n g tone 19 ( i . e . tone one in t h i s s t u d y ) , [ s y n 1 ] "syn"" 'boat', and [ j i 1 ] " j i 2 " 'paper'; and the f i r s t s y l l a b l e s of the p o l y s y l l a b l e s tended to take the high l e v e l or high f a l l i n g tone as w e l l , [pi»j1 kwo2 ] "pir^kwO 2" 'apr\le' , and [ S P U 1 k p n 1 ( j i 1 ) ] " s p u 2 k p n 1 j i 1 " 'TTssye (+diminutive)' (p.265). H.N. Cheung (1972) has s t a t e d a r u l e c l a i m i n g that m onosyllables in i s o l a t i o n and s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s of p o l y s y l l a b l i c words borrowed i n t o Cantonese take the hig h l e v e l tone. Given t h i s , C l a i r e ' s t o n a l approximations of E n g l i s h i n t o n a t i o n s f i t Cheung's r u l e f o r borrowing. L i g h t f i n a l l y concluded that the t o n a l p a t t e r n s of borrowed words, or words l e a r n e d i n Cantonese v i a an E n g l i s h -speaking environment, are governed by r u l e s . R e c e n t l y , an attempt was made by Clumeck (1977) to look at the a c q u i s i t i o n of Mandarin phonology. T h i s was a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of a c h i l d 'M' a c q u i r i n g Mandarin as h i s f i r s t language in the San F r a n c i s c o Bay Area. According to Clumeck, the c h i l d was, on the whole, much l e s s v e r b a l than many c h i l d r e n reported i n the c h i l d language l i t e r a t u r e . He e x h i b i t e d a very slow development i n h i s use of speech as a communicative t o o l . From the age of 1;2 to 2;8(2), v i s i t s were made once every 2 weeks and were from 1.5 to 3 hours long. The study c o n s i s t e d of 2 p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t extended from the age of 1;2 to 1;10. I t was a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s "proto-language" in which he invented h i s own sound-meaning correspondences f o r communicative 20 purposes. Clumeck observed t h a t both the segmental forms and the p i t c h contours of d i f f e r e n t "proto-words", or e a r l y v o c a b l e s , c o r r e l a t e d with t h e i r communicative f u n c t i o n s . I t was a l s o found that there were frequent changes i n usage from being an e x p r e s s i o n of communicative i n t e n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the proto-language to being a l e x i c a l f e a t u r e of words a f t e r the c h i l d had begun to model h i s speech on the a d u l t language. The second p a r t of h i s study covered the p e r i o d from 1;10 to 2;8(2). I t d e s c r i b e d the c h i l d ' s p h o n o l o g i c a l development f o l l o w i n g the s w i t c h to words based on a d u l t models. I t was found that although the c h i l d produced very l i t t l e spontaneous speech, he r e a d i l y i m i t a t e d . The forms of h i s i m i t a t i o n s were subject to strong c o n s t r a i n t s on the co-occurrence of s y l l a b l e s w i t h i n words. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the c h i l d had a p r e f e r e n c e f o r words whose s y l l a b l e s were i d e n t i c a l to each other, or at l e a s t were s i m i l a r p h o n e t i c a l l y . These c o n s t r a i n t s g r a d u a l l y r e l a x e d over time. In a d d i t i o n , the study a l s o c o n t a i n e d a s e c t i o n that d e s c r i b e d the phonetic and p h o n o l o g i c a l aspects of the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of a s p i r a t i o n i n s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l stops and of the f r i c a t i v e system. The i n f l u e n c e of Jakobson (1941) i s q u i t e evident i n Jeng (1979). Jeng attempted to f i n d out i f Jakobson's laws of i r r e v e r s i b l e s o l i d a r i t y a l s o a p p l i e d to the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese. The s u b j e c t s were h i s two sons, 'Jeng Wei' recorded from 2 months to 20 months of age, and 'Jeng Hung' 21 recorded from 15 months to 31 months. Jeng confirmed the f o l l o w i n g of Jakobson's c l a i m s (1941): (1) back rounded vowels presuppose t h e i r c o rresponding f r o n t unrounded vowels. (2) the l i q u i d / l / i s one of the l a s t sounds a c q u i r e d by the c h i l d . However, the data d i d not support the c l a i m that back consonants presuppose f r o n t vowels. Jeng a l s o adds that the almost simultaneous appearance of the a s p i r a t e d s t o p s , n a s a l s , f r i c a t i v e s except / f / , and the r e t r o f l e x l i q u i d / r / i s not accounted f o r i n Jakobson's theory.Regarding vowels, Jeng p o i n t e d out that i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l system of Jeng Hung, the vowels / i / , /e/, and / a / form a v e r t i c a l s p l i t as Jakobson p r e d i c t e d , but the l a b i a l i z e d vowel /a w //, which developed i n t o the diphthong /au/ at 17.5 months, does not f i t n e a t l y i n t o the p a t t e r n . One a r t i c l e that attempts to make use of the data from the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese as evidence f o r a theory of sound change i s Hsieh (1972). Hsieh t e s t e d the hypothesis of l e x i c a l d i f f u s i o n which s t a t e s that " i n the sound s h i f t A > B, any item 'a' of category A may s t a r t from i t s o r i g i n a l form 'a', pass through i t s synchronic v a r i a t i o n 'a'-'b' and f i n a l l y reach i t s i n n o v a t i v e form 'b' (p.90). He s t u d i e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of the i n i t i a l v e l a r phonemes of a Taiwanese-speaking f o u r - y e a r - o l d f o r a p e r i o d of ten weeks. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n i t i a l v e l a r phonemes are a c q u i r e d g r a d u a l l y a c r o s s l e x i c a l items, and thus supported 22 the p r i n c i p l e of l e x i c a l d i f f u s i o n . Moreover, the r e s u l t s of the speech data supported Jakobson's c l a i m (1941) that the a c q u i s i t i o n of back consonants presuppose the a c q u i s i t i o n of f r o n t consonants, but c o n t r a d i c t e d the c l a i m that the a c q u i s i t i o n of f r i c a t i v e s presuppose the a c q u i s i t i o n of stops i n c h i l d language. Table 1 summarizes the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese (up to 1980). Table 2 l i m i t s these f u r t h e r to j u s t those s t u d i e s i n the area of phonology. Table 2 i n d i c a t e s that most of the s t u d i e s have d e a l t with the a c q u i s i t i o n of Mandarin. As f a r as the Cantonese phonology i s concerned, there are only two a r t i c l e s , namely, L i g h t (1977) and J.K. Tse (1978), both of which are on the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones. Thus f a r , there has not been any systematic study of the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese segmental phonology and how t h i s i n t e r a c t s with .tone a c q u i s i t i o n . 23 Table 1: A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l on the A c q u i s i t i o n of Chinese A r t i c l e s i n E n g l i s h A r t i c l e s i n Chinese I . Phonology S.C.Lin (1971) Hsieh (1972) Clumeck (1977) L i and Thompson (1977) J.K.Tse (1978) Jeng (1979) Hashimoto (I98O) J i a n g (1975) ' d i s c u s s i o n i n Kam (1977). i n E n g l i s h ' Chao (I935)'with E n g l i s h summary' I I . Syntax C.S.Lin (1967) L.H.Li (1968) Erbaugh (1978) Chu (1969) Yang,Xiao and Yang (197*0 Zhang and Qiu (197^) I I I . Phonology and Syntax Chao (1951) Li g h t (1977) Chen (19^7) ' d i s c u s s i o n i n Y.X.Zhang (1968),in Chinese; and Chao (1951),in E n g l i s h ' IV. Language and C o g n i t i o n None Kuo (1937) ' d i s c u s s i o n i n L.H.Li (1968),in E n g l i s h ' 24 T a b l e 2: A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l on t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f C h i n e s e Phonology M a n d a r i n Cantonese Taiwanese(a Min d i a l e c t ) 1. J i a n g (1759) 1. L i g h t (1977) 1. S.C. L i n (1971) 2. Chao (1935, 1951) 2. J.K.Tse (1978) 2. H s i e h (1972) 3- Chen (19^7) 4. L i and Thompson (1977) 5- Clumeck (1977) 6. Jeng (1979) 7- Hashimoto (1980) 2 5 Chapter 1: Footnotes 1 The new Pin-yin romanization system i s used for the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of Chinese terms, including personal and place names. The only exception is for well-known places, such as Canton, Hong Kong, Swatow, and Shanghai. Also, rather than trying to overstandardize personal names to a single romanization, the romanization that has already been established for the famous Chinese l i n g u i s t s and psychologists such as Y.R. Chao, F.K. L i , S.L. Wong and H.C. Chen i s likewise used here. 2 Kuo's study is b r i e f l y mentioned in L.H. L i ' s thesis (1968). The a r t i c l e i s unavailable at the present time. 3 The following is a table of the tonal system in Taiwanese (a Min d i a l e c t ) : ( From S.C. Lin,1971,p.191, Table 1) Notations and D e s c r i p t i o n s of Taiwanese Tones T r a d i t i o n a l Naming No t a t i o n & examples D e s c r i p t i o n s Tone l e v e l s Upper even a h a l f h i g h and even 444 Upper r i s i n g a f a l l s from high to mid 543 Upper f a l l i n g a low and even 111 Upper abrupt ap , at, ah, ak short and h a l f low 22 Lower even A a r i s e s from low to mid 123 Lower f a l l i n g a h a l f low and even 222 Lower abrupt ap , a t , ah, ak short &.nd h i g h 55 26 4 Chao (1930) pr o v i d e d a way of r e p r e s e n t i n g tones by d i v i d i n g the p i t c h range i n t o f i v e l e v e l s , numbered 1 to 5, where 1 corresponds to low, 3 to mid, and 5 to h i g h . 27 CHAPTER 2. AN OUTLINE OF CANTONESE PHONOLOGY 2.1. GENERAL BACKGROUND i ; : The Chinese language f a m i l y i s commonly d i v i d e d i n t o s i x groups. They are Mandarin, Wu, Xiang, Gan-Hakka, Cantonese and Min (Yuan et al.,1960, F.K. L i , 1939). The term Cantonese, known i n the l i t e r a t u r e as Yue Yu, o f t e n r e f e r s to the d i a l e c t of Canton C i t y or to the whole group of s i m i l a r d i a l e c t s . As a d i a l e c t group, Cantonese i s spoken i n the c e n t r a l and southwestern p a r t s of Guangdong p r o v i n c e and the southern p a r t of Guangxi p r o v i n c e . W ithin t h i s area, Cantonese i s d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f i v e •subgroups: (1) Yue Hai (most of the P e a r l R i v e r D e l t a and along the West R i v e r ) . (2) Qin L i a n (Qinzhou, Leizhou, e t c . ) (3) Gao L e i (Gaozhou, Leizhou, e t c . , i n the most southern part of Guangdong). (4) S i I (the Four D i s t r i c t s : Taishan, X i n g h u i , K a i p i n g , and Enping, to the southwest of Canton C i t y ) . (5) Gui Nan (southern Guangxi Wuzhou, Rongxian, Y u l i n g , Bopai, e t c . ) 1 Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) have estimated that i n Mainland China, the t o t a l number of Cantonese speakers was around 27 m i l l i o n . The f i g u r e was based on the census of 1953 and amounted to 5% of . the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of China at that 28 time. The number i s presumed to be higher at p r e s e n t . Hashimoto (1972) has estimated that a c c o r d i n g to the r a t e of growth of p o p u l a t i o n i n China, the number would be around 37.5 m i l l i o n by the end of 1970 (p.10). The above estimate does not i n c l u d e overseas Cantonese speakers. Although there i s no f i g u r e f o r the number of Cantonese speakers r e s i d i n g abroad, i t i s w e l l known that Cantonese and Fukienese (Min d i a l e c t ) speakers c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r i t y of the overseas Chinese (Kao,l971). S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t has been p o i n t e d out by Chao (1947) that the great m a j o r i t y of Chinese immigrants i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada are Cantonese speakers. T h i s p i c t u r e remains the same, because the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the present-day Chinese immigrants to North America are Cantonese speakers from Hong Kong and the Four D i s t r i c t s , l y i n g to the southwest of Canton (Vancouver Immigrant Resources Center, p e r s o n a l c ommun i c a t i o n ) . The v a r i e t y of Cantonese spoken i n the c i t y of Canton and Hong Kong has c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e , and i s regarded as the standard form of Cantonese (Chao,1947, H.N. Cheung,1972). I t i s u s u a l l y the form of Cantonese f o r e i g n e r s or Chinese from other p r o v i n c e s would expect to l e a r n . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , Hong Kong i s f a r t h e r away from Canton than some neighbouring p l a c e s such as Nanhai, Panyu, or Dongguan. However, the form of Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong i s very s i m i l a r to that spoken i n Canton, but d i f f e r e n t from the forms spoken i n the above-named p l a c e s . 29 Hashimoto (1972) a t t r i b u t e d t h i s phenomenon to the f a c t t h a t the a n c e s t o r s of the m a j o r i t y of Cantonese speakers i n Hong Kong came from Canton d u r i n g the l a s t century and a h a l f or so (p.70). The v a r i e t y of Cantonese d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study i s the one that i s spoken i n Hong Kong. 2.2. AN OUTLINE OF CANTONESE PHONOLOGY 2.2.1. S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e The Chinese s y l l a b l e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e s c r i b e d by Chinese p h o n o l o g i s t s as having three p a r t s : ( 1 ) the i n i t i a l , or f i r s t consonants, (2) the f i n a l , or segments f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l , and (3) the tone (Wong,1940, Chao,1947 and o t h e r s ) . In Cantonese, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a s y l l a b l e to have . no i n i t i a l segment, and i s then s a i d to c o n t a i n the 'zero i n i t i a l ' . If an i n i t i a l segment i s present, i t i s e i t h e r a consonant or a g l i d e . The f i n a l c o n s i s t s of a s y l l a b i c segment and an o p t i o n a l ending. The s y l l a b i c segment i s u a u a l l y a vowel. I t may a l s o be a n a s a l consonant i f i t i s the only c o n s t i t u e n t in the s y l l a b l e . The o p t i o n a l ending i s e i t h e r a g l i d e , a n a s a l , or a stop. One can d e s c r i b e the Cantonese s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e by the f o l l o w i n g formula (Hashimoto, 1972, p.88): 30 where C stands f o r consonant, G f o r g l i d e , and V f o r vowel. The s u b s c r i p t 1 stands f o r p r e v o c a l i c segments and s u b s c r i p t 2 f o r p o s t v o c a l i c segments. N o t i c e that the formula excludes the case where the s y l l a b l e c o n s i s t s only 2.2.2. D e s c r i p t i o n The d e s c r i p t i o n of the Cantonese phonology that f o l l o w s i s mainly based on the works by Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) , Hashimoto (1972), Wong (1940) and my own o b s e r v a t i o n s . The speech of the parents of the major sub j e c t 'Wai' i s a l s o taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Other c o n s u l t e d works are Chao (1947), Wang (1957), L.H. L i n (1964), and H.N. Cheung (1972). (A) I n i t i a l s The i n i t i a l consonants of Cantonese are shown i n Table 3. B a s i c a l l y the i n i t i a l consonants l i s t e d i n each of the above works are more or l e s s the same. The only d i f f e r e n c e i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i b i l a n t s e r i e s . In Wong (1940), the s e r i e s of s i b i l a n t s i s recorded as a l v e o l a r s , i . e . ? t s / , / t s ' / and / s / . Whereas i n H.N. Cheung (1972), and L.H. L i n (1964), they are marked as p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r s , i . e . AC/, /ty/, and /</. In some other s t u d i e s , such as Hashimoto (1972) and Yuan et a l . (1960), they are i n d i c a t e d by both s e r i e s of s i b i l i a n t s , i . e . the a l v e o l a r s and the p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r s . I t i s noted that any c h o i c e of the s e r i e s of a s y l l a b i c n a s a l , such as /m/ or A ) / . 31 T a b l e 3: I n i t i a l Consonants of Cantonese U n a s p i r a t e d A s p i r a t e d N a s a l s F r i c a t i v e s & Semi-Stops Stops C o n t i n u a n t s vowels L a b i a l s p p' m f D e n t a l s t t 1 n 1 A l v e o l a r s / P a l a t o - t s / t $ t s ' / t j ' s/5 j a l v e o l a r s V e l a r s k k' 0 h L a b i a l i z e d -v e l a r s kw kw' w 32 depends on one's i d i o l e c t . As p o i n t e d out by Hashimoto (1972), the s i b i l a n t s vary from a d e n t a l ( h i s s i n g sound) to a p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n (hushing sound). In her i d i o l e c t , they are pronounced with d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n 2 . In Table 3, both s e r i e s of s i b i l a n t s are recorded. Other p o i n t s that need to be mentioned a r e : (1) In Cantonese i n i t i a l s , the stops and a f f r i c a t e s are d i v i d e d i n t o a v o i c e l e s s u n a s p i r a t e d s e r i e s and a v o i c e l e s s a s p i r a t e d s e r i e s . (2) The s i b i l a n t s e r i e s / t s / , / t s ' / , / s / or / t j " / , / t ^ ' A / j V and / f / , /h/ occur only i n i t i a l l y and never i n other p o s i t i o n s . For example, /ts ' S V 'car / f e i 1 / ' f l y ' / s e i 3 / 'four' / t s S 1 / 'older s i s t e r ' / h e i V happiness' (3) In Cantonese, the l a t e r a l consonant / l / occurs only i n i t i a l l y . For example, / l a n 6 / 'broken' / l i p 9 / 'to hunt' (4) Because of the i n f l u e n c e of neighbouring d i a l e c t s , a merger of c e r t a i n i n i t i a l s i n the speech of some Cantonese speakers i s found. Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) and Chao (1947) have rep o r t e d some i n s t a n c e s . H.N. Cheung (1972), has a l s o observed some s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i e t i e s of Cantonese spoken i n the c i t i e s of Canton and Hong Kong. T h e i r works are summarized as f o l l o w s : (a) In the c i t y of Canton, a great m a j o r i t y of the Cantonese speakers maintain a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between /n/ and /!/, such as / n e i 5 / 'you', and / l e i s / 'Lee, surname'. 33 However, there are a s m a l l number of speakers who s u b s t i t u t e / l / f o r /n/. Thus / n e i 5 / and / l e i 5 / can be heard as / l e i 5 / . In Hong Kong, the c o n f u s i o n of /n/ and / l / i s very common (H.N. Cheung,1972). Furthermore, i t i s noted that speakers u s u a l l y r e p l a c e /n/ with / l / , r a t h e r than / l / with /n/. (b) Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) n o t i c e d that most Cantonese speakers i n the c i t y of Canton s t i l l maintain the d i s t i n c t i o n between the A)/ i n i t i a l and the zero i n i t i a l . For example, a word l i k e /Di3/ 'love' w i l l not be pronounced as / i j o i 3 / . However, there i s a tendency f o r a small number of speakers to interchange / r j / i n i t i a l with the zero i n i t i a l . Some examples a r e : / 3 i 3 / i s pronounced as / r p i 3 / ' l o v e ' , and / o n 1 / as / i p n 1 / 'comfortable'. In Hong Kong, the great m a j o r i t y of people pronounce the zero i n i t i a l with the /J^/ i n i t i a l . H.N. Cheung (1972,p.2) has made the f o l l o w i n g remark:'Except f o r a few exclamation p a r t i c l e s , n e a r l y a l l words with zero i n i t i a l s are pronounced with / f j / i n i t i a l s . I t has come to a stage that most speakers o f t e n c o n s i d e r themselves wrong i f they pronounce words of zero i n i t i a l s without / / j / i n i t i a l s ' . (c) In the v a r i e t y of Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong, the i n i t i a l s /kw/ and /kw'/, when followed by the f i n a l s /3^/r /Ok/, u s u a l l y l o s e t h e i r l a b i l i z e d f e a t u r e , /kw^rj 2/ becomes /k?*) 2/ 'wide', /kw ' o» j 1 / becomes / k ' ^ * j 1 / ' l i g h t ' , and /kwok 8/ becomes / k s k 8 / 'country'. 34 (B) F i n a l s As mentioned i n S e c t i o n 2.2.1., the f i n a l c o n s i s t s of a vowel, or a vowel followed by e i t h e r a consonant or a g l i d e . I t may a l s o c o n s i s t of a s y l l a b i c n a s a l . In Cantonese, there are two s y l l a b i c n a s a l s , namely /m/, and A ) / , i Table 4a g i v e s a phonetic d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i n a l s . As shown in the t a b l e , the f i r s t column i n d i c a t e s that there are seven vowels which can stand a l o n e . P h o n e t i c a l l y these vowels have d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s f o r l e n g t h and q u a l i t y before g l i d e s and consonants, the s p e c i f i c value being p r e d i c a t a b l e on the b a s i s of the p a r t i c u l a r f i n a l segment. No t i c e that there i s a l s o an 8th vowel, i . e . /p/, i n the t a b l e . I t i s always short and i s r e s t r i c t e d to co-occur with a f i n a l consonant or g l i d e . As one can see from the f i r s t two rows, t h i s vowel i s i n c o n t r a s t with the vowel / a / i n every occurrence. From the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the components of the f i n a l s as shown in Table 4a, one can see t h a t each of the f o l l o w i n g p a i r s i s i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n : [e] and [ £ : ] , [ 0 ] and [oe:], [o] and [ O : ] , [ I ] and [ i : ] , and [u] and [ u : ] . To c i t e an example, in Row u: of Table 4a, [u:] appears i n the f o l l o w i n g o c c a s i o n s : by i t s e l f , f o l l o w ed by a g l i d e / i / , a n a s a l /n/, and a stop / t / , whereas [v] i s followed by a stop /k/ and a n a s a l /n/. That i s to say [u:] and [y] do not c o n t r a s t with each other. Chao (1947) has a l s o a s s i g n e d C y : J as an a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t of £ u : J . T a b l e 4a: F i n a l s o f Cantonese P h o n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n a: a: i a: u a :m a: n a :rj a :p a:t a: k P i f u Tpffl p n p ! ) p p p t Pk e= e i £i:.k «: <py cevk 0 : 0 : i ou D:n i : i : U i :m i : n i : p i : t Ik U: u: i u:n U : t Uk y: y:n y: t S y l l a b i c n a s a l s : m g T a b l e 4b: F i n a l s o f Cantonese - Phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n (based on Wong, 1940) / a / a a i au am an *9 ap at ak /v/ P i p u pm p n PP Pt pk /£/ 8 e i € k /oe/oe cey c£n oer, oe,t O&k /o/6 D i ou On Dt' Ok / i / i i u im i n i p i t i k / u / u u i un urj ut uk /y/ y yn y t S y l l a b i c n a s a l s m i 0 1 36 However, most p h o n o l o g i s t s s t i l l maintain /y:/ as d i s t i n c t i v e from /u:/ because of c e r t a i n apparent c o n t r a s t s in t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . For example, the c o n t r a s t of the /u:/ and /y:/ vowels are manifested i n the minimal p a i r s l i k e [ k y : t 8 ] 'to decide' and [ k u : t 8 ] 'to i n c l u d e ' . In t h i s study, /u:/ and /y:/ are c o n s i d e r e d to be d i f f e r e n t phonemes. In s h o r t , one can conclude that the long/short d i s t i n c t i o n of Cantonese vowels i s d i s t i n c t i v e only i n the p a i r / a / versus /¥>/, but can be shown to be redundant i n a l l other p a i r s . The d i v i s i o n of Cantonese vowels i n t o a long and s h o r t group i s f i r s t proposed by Chao (1947). However, Hashimoto (1972) has remarked that the term 'tense-lax' may be more a p p r o p r i a t e , because the d i f f e r e n c e i s not only a matter of l e n g t h , but a l s o of q u a l i t y . Her term 'tense-lax' i s used i n the sense of Jakobson and H a l l e (1961). As r e p o r t e d by Fok (1974), Chan (1968) i n her M. A. t h e s i s e n t i t l e d S p e c t r a l P r o p e r t i e s of Cantonese Vowels, has i n d i c a t e d that the r e s u l t s of her measurement of d u r a t i o n and s p e c t r a l q u a l i t y of Cantonese vowels have shown that the seven vowels / i : , y: £,: , oe: , a:, O:, u:/ are c o n t r a s t e d with t h e i r short c o u n t e r p a r t s by q u a l i t y , and the . vowel / a : / i s only c o n t r a s t e d with /p/ by l e n g t h , i n s t e a d of by q u a l i t y . In t h i s study, as one w i l l see l a t e r , the speech data of the c h i l d r e n are f i r s t t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y , but i t i s then t r e a t e d phonemically i n the process of a n a l y s i s and 37 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s i s done so because of the f o l l o w i n g reason: the main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s to provide an e x p l i c i t set of a n a l y t i c procedures and c r i t e r i a f o r the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g Cantonese. For most of the s t u d i e s of t h i s kind, such as Weiner,1979, S h r i b e r g and Kwiatkowski, 1979, and Ingram, 1981, broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n a n a l y s i s i s adopted. When narrow phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s used, the chance f o r e r r o r i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of an e x p l i c i t measure i s decreased ( c . f . Ingram, 1981 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s ) . Moreover, one of the h i g h l i g h t s of t h i s study i s the attempt to compare the r e s u l t s of the Cantonese data with that of the E n g l i s h data p r o v i d e d by Ingram (1981). In Ingram's study, a broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s used i n the a n a l y s i s of data. Thus f o r comparison purposes, i t i s f e l t t h a t a phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n of the Cantonese f i n a l s w i l l be more a p p r o p r i a t e . The use of a narrow t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n our a n a l y s i s would l e a d to even more d e t a i l s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese, but these w i l l need to be l e f t f o r fu t u r e r e s e a r c h . Thus f a r , there have been many treatments i n phonemicizing the system of Cantonese f i n a l s ( f o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n , see Hashimoto, 1972). Table 4b give s the phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i n a l s used i n t h i s study. I t i s based on Wong (1940). H i s system uses I.P.A. and i s the most widely adopted phonemic system i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of Cantonese sounds. U n l i k e o t h e r s , Wong's 38 system i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by not c o n s i d e r i n g l e n g t h as a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e but only as a f e a t u r e i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . Notice that although Wong's phonemic a n a l y s i s emphasizes the phonemic p r i n c i p l e and i s concerned with the "complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n " of the vowels, he i s not c o n s i s t e n t with h i s treatment of the vowels [e] and [ o ] . T h i s can be seen by the f o l l o w i n g comment from Kao (1971,p.35): 'Wong's symbols are a p p a r e n t l y meant to be broad pho n e t i c , not phonemic, symbols. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r e v i dent f o r [e] and [ o ] , which have a very l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n and would be combined with other vowels, i f phonemization were to be attempted.' (2) The Ending An ending c o n s i s t s of e i t h e r a g l i d e , a n a s a l , or a stop. Regarding the stops /p/,/t/,/k/, Wise (1963) has n o t i c e d that they are u n a s p i r a t e d and unreleased when pronounced. That i s , f i n a l /p/,/t/,/k/, which t y p i c a l l y are r e l e a s e d i n other languages, are not i n Cantonese. The l i p s remain c l o s e d at the end of /p/, the tongue c l i n g s to the a l v e o l a r r i d g e at the end of / t / , and the back of the tongue c l i n g s to the s o f t p a l a t e at the end of /k/. They are sometimes d e s c r i b e d as g l o t t a l i z e d or i m p l o s i v e . Fok (1974), i n a study e n t i t l e d A P e r c e p t u a l Study of  Tones i n Cantonese, has i n d i c a t e d that the stop f i n a l s u s u a l l y cut the vowel n u c l e i to about h a l f of i t s length by ' g l o t t a l i z a t i o n ' , i . e . by c l o s u r e of the v o c a l c o r d s . Thus, words which end i n /p / , / t / , / k / have been assi g n e d to a 39 d i f f e r e n t category of tones: e n t e r i n g tones. (3) Jones and Woo (1912) have a l s o i n c l u d e d another v a r i e t y of the high f r o n t vowel, i . e . / i / , i n the vowel system of Cantonese. I t i s a vowel intermediate between / i / and /y/, i . e . an / i / with s l i g h t l i p - r o u n d i n g added. An example of the use of t h i s vowel i s a f t e r / t s / as i n / t s i 5 / 'resemble' (Jones and Woo, 1912, p . x i i i , o p . c i t . ) . However, i t has been p o i n t e d out that Cantonese speakers i n Hong Kong u s u a l l y use a l i p - s p r e a d i n g / i / i n such a case. The use of t h i s s l i g h t l y l i p - r o u n d e d /*/ has been regarded as r e g i o n a l (from the Shuntak region) (Fok,l974). In t h i s study, l i k e t h a t of others such as Chao (1947), Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) , and Hashimoto (1972), the vowel / i - / i s not i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n . (C) Tones T r a d i t i o n a l l y , nine tones are recognised. T h i s view i s h e l d by most Chinese p h o n o l o g i s t s such as Wong (1940), Chao (1947), and Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) . In t h i s study, nine tones are assumed. Table 5 l i s t s the tones with t r a d i t i o n a l terminology and t h e i r p i t c h contours (Chao, 1947,p.24). To f a c i l i t a t e the d e s c r i p t i o n of tones i n t h i s study, a number i s used f o r each l e x i c a l tone, ranging from 1 to 9. An example f o r each of tone i s gi v e n . They are l i s t e d i n Table 6. In g e n e r a l , s e v e r a l p o i n t s stand out i n the t o n a l system of Cantonese. They are as f o l l o w s : (1) Some p h o n o l o g i s t s t r e a t Cantonese as having only 6 4 0 T a b l e 5: The Cantonese Tone System Even R i s i n g Upper 1 1 A 53: o r 55: 35 Going E n t e r i n g H i g h M i d d l e H 1 H 33: 5: 33: Lower NJ 21: 23 : 22: o r 22 4 1 T a b l e 6: The Cantonese Tone System w i t h Examples Number T r a d i t i o n a l S t o n e Tone v a l u e Example' c l a s s 1 upper even 53: o r 55: fain ' grade' 2 upper r i s i n g 35= f a n - "'powder' 3 upper g o i n g 33: f a n • ' s l e e p ' 4 l o w e r even 21: f a n '.burn' 5 l o w e r r i s i n g 23: f a n ' s t r i v e ' 6 l o w e r g o i n g 22: f a n 'share* 7 h i g h e n t e r i n g 5?* f * t ; , 'sudden' 8 m i d d l e e n t e r i n g 33: f a t • 'law' 9 low e n t e r i n g 2: f f c t t ' p u n i sh' 42 tones (the f i r s t 6 i n Table 6). T h i s view i s c h i e f l y r epresented i n the study of Jones and Woo (1912). They c o n s i d e r the a c t u a l value of the e n t e r i n g tones (Tones 7,8 and 9 i n Table 6), which r e f e r to s y l l a b l e s with / p / , / t / , / k / endings, to be i d e n t i f i a b l e with tones 1,3, and 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although Chao (1947) s t i l l maintained a system having nine o p p o s i t i o n s , as i s shown in Table 5, he agreed with Jones and Woo i n making the f o l l o w i n g remark: 'The t r a d i t i o n a l ' e n t e r i n g tone' c o n s i s t s of s y l l a b l e s ending i n /p/,/t/,/k/. So f a r as melody or key i s concerned, no new tone i s i n v o l v e d ' (p.24). (2) As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 5, the upper even tone (tone 1) has s p l i t i n t o two t o n a l v a l u e s , i . e . 53: or 55:. T r a d i t i o n a l l y these two forms are c o n s i d e r e d to be phonetic v a r i a n t s of a s i n g l e tone. T h i s view i s supported by Y.S. Cheung (1969) and H.N. Cheung (1972). In two recent s t u d i e s , J.K. Tse (1973,1978) has argued that 55: and 53: are u n c o n d i t i o n e d f r e e v a r i a n t s . He concluded h i s 1978 study by saying 'though we dare not say that a s p l i t of upper even tone i n t o 55: and 53: a c c o r d i n g to grammatical c a t e g o r i e s i s impossible i n the f u t u r e , i t does not seem true now at l e a s t not at the present stage of development of the v a r i e t y of Cantonese' (p.202). In t h i s study, we f o l l o w the t r a d i t i o n a l view in order to allow f o r comparison between t h i s and other s t u d i e s , and thus the data are t a b u l a t e d with r e f e r e n c e to 9 tones. 43 (D) Tone Change Two d i f f e r e n t processes are i n v o l v e d with respect to the change of tones i n Cantonese.. (1) Tone Sandhi T h i s i s the change i n the a c t u a l value of tones when s y l l a b l e s are i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n (Chao, 1947,p.27). In Cantonese, p r a c t i c a l l y every s y l l a b l e r e t a i n s i t s tone value whether i t stands alone or whether i t appears with another s y l l a b l e . One tone sandhi r u l e i s commonly observed: That i s , when an upper even tone (tone 1, value 53:) i s f o l l o w e d by another upper even tone (tone 1, value 53:) or a high e n t e r i n g tone (tone 7, value 5:), the f i r s t s y l l a b l e w i l l remain high throughout, i n s t e a d of f a l l i n g and s t a r t i n g high again with the second s y l l a b l e . For example, /kou 1/+/sanV (53:+53:)> /kousan/ (55:+53:) 'high mountain' /kou 1/+/tsuk 7/ (53+5:)> /koutsuk/ (55:+5:) ' p u p i l ' (2) B i a n - y i n U n l i k e Tone Sandhi which i s q u i t e automatic and mechanical, B i a n - y i n i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d . I t i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with a s p e c i a l kind of meaning,e.g. a f a m i l i a r t h i n g or person one o f t e n speaks of, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t o n a l environment. When compared with the same morphemes 53= ( tone 1) 5: ( tone 7) 44 which are not i n v o l v e d i n tone change, the morphemes with B i a n - y i n are u s u a l l y more c o l l o q u i a l and i n f o r m a l i n s t y l e . In Cantonese, B i a n - y i n has two products. They are (1) a h i g h r i s i n g tone, with the tone value s i m i l a r to the upper r i s i n g tone (tone 2, value 35: ) 3 , and (2) a high l e v e l tone , s i m i l a r to the upper even tone (tone 1, value 55:)(Hashimoto, 1972). In p r e s e n t i n g s y l l a b l e s with the high r i s i n g B i a n - y i n and the high l e v e l B i a n - y i n i n t h i s study, they w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by a '*' and a '®' r e s p e c t i v e l y . The u n d e r l y i n g tone w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n parentheses. For example, / t ' u i * / ' t a b l e ' i s d e r i v e d from / t ' o i V ' t e r r a c e , stage', and i t i s shown as /t'oi* <-ay i n the data. (a)The high r i s i n g B i a n - y i n T h i s type makes up the most cases of B i a n - y i n i n Cantonese. Some examples of t h i s type are as f o l l o w s : /jy*CO/ (21 :>35: ) ' f i s h ' / kpi* C 5>/ (33:>35:) ' t r i c k ' / l e i * (23:>35:) 'plum' In a d d i t i o n to having i t s s p e c i a l i z e d meaning of f a m i l a r i t y , a s s o c i a t e d meanings such as d i m i n u t i o n , unimportance and contemptuousness are sometimes observed. One well-known example i s : /hTpu6mun*C°>' (22:+21 : >22:+35: ) ' b a c k d o o r ' i n c o n t r a s t with [ t s i 3 m u n " ] (33:+21:)'central door of entrance'(Hashimoto,1972,p.94). Besides nouns, a few adverbs and verbs a l s o belong to 45 t h i s type of B i a n - y i n . For example, /lcen * l p u * (21 :+21 :>21 :+35:) ' i n t u r n ' /ma'ma*^ (21 :+21 :>21 :+ 35:) ' f a i r ' The c o n d i t i o n i n g f o r B i a n - y i n i s not p r e d i c t a b l e . Very o f t e n i t i s o b l i g a t o r y i n some combinations but o p t i o n a l i n o t h e r s : o b l i g a t o r y / s p i ^ u i * ^ 6 ^ 'younger s i s t e r ' o p t i o n a l : / s i u 1 r p " / or / s i u 1 r p * 'roast goose' (b) The high l e v e l B i a n - y i n T h i s type of B i a n - y i n i s much more l i m i t e d i n s c a l e and o f t e n concerns nouns. For example, / p ^ 1 l e i (S^y (55:+2l>55+55:) ' g l a s s ' / w u 1 j i J ) © C ^ ( 55: +2 1 :>55:+55:) ' f l y ' Again, the c o n d i t i o n i n g f o r t h i s type of B i a n - y i n i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e . The same morphemes may undergo the change i n some environments but not i n o t h e r s . For example, o b l i g a t o r y / t p i 6 m e i ®0>y ( 22 :+23 : >22 :+55 : ) 'the l a s t ' opt i o n a l : / s a u 1mei */ or /sau 1mei © C 5 ^ ' f i n a l l y ' 46 Chapter 2: Footnotes 1 Yuan et a l . , op.cit.,p.179. 2 Both parents of the major subject Wai have d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n t h e i r s i b i l a n t s . The author, who was born i n Swatow but grew up i n Hong Kong, notes that h i s s i b i l a n t s are a l s o pronounced with d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . 3 Chao (1930) assig n e d a tone value of 25: f o r t h i s product of B i a n - y i n , whereas Hashimoto (1972) and Yuan et a l . (1960) assigned 35:. In t h i s study, the tone value 35: i s r ecognised f o r t h i s product of B i a n - y i n . 47 CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 3.1. THE SUBJECTS T h i s study d e s c r i b e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of phonology by three c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g Cantonese as t h e i r n a t i v e language. One of these, Wai, i s the primary subject i n the study, being observed l o n g i t u d i n a l l y f o r a p e r i o d of one year. The other two s u b j e c t s , a boy named Wing, and a g i r l , Ching, were observed c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y f o r purposes of comparison. A l l t h ree c h i l d r e n were born and brought up i n e x c l u s i v e l y Cantonese-speaking f a m i l i e s . 3.1.1. Wai Wai's parents are n a t i v e speakers of Cantonese. Wai's fa t h e r was born i n Canton, and moved to Hong Kong when he was about twelve. Wai's mother was born i n Hong Kong. Her mother i s a n a t i v e of Canton, and her f a t h e r , a n a t i v e of Swatow, where a Min d i a l e c t i s spoken. Wai's mother claimed that she should be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t i v e speaker of Cantonese, s i n c e she c o u l d only understand a few words of her f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t . Both of them came to Canada i n 1970 and had been s e t t l e d here for•about 7 years when the f i r s t v i s i t f o r the purpose of t a p i n g Wai took p l a c e . Wai's f a m i l y l i v e d i n a house i n Chinatown, Vancouver. A l l the neighbors of Wai were Chinese, except f o r a few non-Chinese r e s i d e n t s who l i v e d i n a low-cost housing 48 p r o j e c t a block away to the west. L i k e most of the homes i n that area, Wai's home was rather small and o l d . I t had a small k i t c h e n , a small l i v i n g room and two bedrooms. Most of Wai's a c t i v i t i e s were r e s t r i c t e d to the l i v i n g room. The l i v i n g room was about 10' X 12', with a t a b l e i n the cor n e r . T h i s was used both as a d i n i n g t a b l e and, sometimes as a p l a y i n g t a b l e where Wai c o u l d put her toy s . When asked whether Wai had ever gone out of the house to p l a y , Wai's mother r e p l i e d that s i n c e there was heavy t r a f f i c o u t s i d e , Wai was not allowed to leave the house by h e r s e l f . When the f i r s t t a p i n g took p l a c e , Wai's f a t h e r , a Ph.D. i n mathematics, was working f o r a small f i r m i n downtown Vancouver. During the p e r i o d of the t a p i n g s , he was a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s three n i g h t s a week i n order to get h i s accounting diploma. T h e r e f o r e , Wai's mother was the primary c a r e t a k e r . There was one other c h i l d i n the f a m i l y , a young g i r l who was about two months of age d u r i n g the f i r s t t a p i n g of Wai's speech. Wai's mother, who had a Master's degree i n mathematics, d i d not seek employment o u t s i d e . Instead, she stayed at home l o o k i n g a f t e r the two c h i l d r e n and the house. Wai's p a t e r n a l grandparents had j u s t a r r i v e d from Hong Kong i n Canada to j o i n Wai's f a m i l y two months before the end of the c o l l e c t i o n of Wai's speech samples. They were l i v i n g i n the basement of the house. In a study of t h i s kind, i t i s of course c r u c i a l to e s t a b l i s h that Wai was e s s e n t i a l l y i n a Chinese l e a r n i n g environment. The evidence that t h i s was the case comes from 49 s e v e r a l sources. F i r s t , d u r i n g the v i s i t s , a l l the co n v e r s a t i o n s between both parents and me were conducted i n Cantonese. In f a c t , I r a r e l y heard them speak E n g l i s h and coul d not even determine t h e i r l e v e l of E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . O c c a s i o n a l l y , they asked me to suggest ways to improve t h e i r spoken E n g l i s h . Thus i t was f e l t that they were s t i l l not very c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r E n g l i s h , and that they used Cantonese i n the home of n e c e s s i t y . Second, even i f t h e i r E n g l i s h were b e t t e r , i t i s u n l i k e l y they would have used i t with Wai. Though both parents r e c e i v e d some education i n Canada, t h e i r view on the use of Chinese was a ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' one. That i s , they b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d should grow up l e a r n i n g Chinese. On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , Wai's pare n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the mother, i n d i c a t e d that they would l i k e to make sure that Wai c o u l d speak and w r i t e Chinese. A l s o , the mother r e p o r t e d to me that a l l the r e l a t i v e s , neighbors, and f r i e n d s who f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d the f a m i l y were Cantonese-speaking people, mostly recent immigrants from Hong Kong. The only p l a c e that Wai c o u l d have been exposed to a language other than Cantonese was from the t e l e v i s i o n i n her home. I was t o l d t h a t Wai f r e q u e n t l y l i k e d to watch cartoons on t e l e v i s i o n . Thus, a few E n g l i s h words appeared in Wai's speech samples which might have been pi c k e d up from the t e l e v i s o n . These E n g l i s h words or phrases, however, occupied only a very small vocabulary i n her speech (see Chapter 4 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n ) . To Wai's 50 disappointment, the t e l e v i s i o n was out of order many times d u r i n g the year of data c o l l e c t i o n . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Wai o f t e n r a i s e d the c o n d i t i o n of the t e l e v i s o n d u r i n g the t a p i n g s . For example, in Sessions 1 and 3, Wai s a i d [ k e i 1 k e i 1 l a n 6 l a n 6 ] 'machine b r o k e n ' ( r e f e r r i n g to the t e l e v i s i o n ) . In s h o r t , i t was concluded that d u r i n g the p e r i o d of c o l l e c t i o n of . data, Wai's environment was almost e x c l u s i v e l y Cantonese-speaking, and her exposure to E n g l i s h was minimal. The f i r s t s e s s i o n took p l a c e on May 8,1977.when Wai was 1;7(14)(one year seven months and f o u r t e e n days), and the l a s t one on May 23, 1 978 when Wai was 2; 8(11) . A l t o g e t h e r there were twenty f i v e s e s s i o n s of data c o l l e c t i o n over t h i s one year p e r i o d , (see Table 7) I purposely chose a time of the day f o r v i s i t s when both parents would be p r e s e n t . T h i s was done in order to observe the i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d and both parents. For the f i r s t two s e s s i o n s , the f a t h e r was present and i n t e r a c t e d with the c h i l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s involvment was l e s s a c t i v e d u r i n g subsequent s e s s i o n s . At those times, he was o f t e n busy s t u d y i n g f o r h i s accounting courses i n one of the two bedrooms i n the house. A l l the t a p i n g s were made i n the small l i v i n g room d e s c r i b e d above. The tape r e c o r d e r , a Uher 4000 R.I.C., was p l a c e d on the t a b l e i n the c e n t e r of the room. The mother was u s u a l l y the i n t e r a c t o r with the c h i l d , while I observed 51 T a b l e 7: Dates, ages, and numb e r o 6 f c c h i l d u t t e r a n c e s produced by Wai f o r t w e n t y - f i v e s e s s i o n s S e s s i o n Number Date of V i s i t Age Number of C h i l d U t t 1 May 8,1977 1;7(14) 285 2 May 21,1977 1;7(27) 340 3 June 5,1977 1 ;8.(11) 253 4 June 20,1977 1 58(26) 104 5 J u l y 5,1977 1;9(1D 270 6 J u l y 19,.1977 1;9(25) 393 7 Aug.2,1977 1;10(9) 294 8 Aug.16,1977 1;10(30) 351 9 Sept.12,1977 1 ;11(26) 342 10 Sept.27,1977 2;0(11) 333 11 Oct.13,1977 2;0(27) 332 12 Oct.27,1977 2;1(11) 299 13 Nov.10,1977 2;1(24) 356 14 Nov.28,1977 2;2(12) 271 15 Dec.15,1977 2:3 310 16 Jan.3,1978 2;3(18) 294 17 Jan.16,1978 2;4(1) 294 18 Feb.1,1978 2;4(17) 299 19 Feb.15,1978 2;5(2) 303 20 Mar.6,1978 2;5(22) 273 21 Mar.20,1978 2j6(7) 298 22 Apr.3,1978 2;6(21) 311 23 Apr.20,1978 2;?(8) 256 24 May 9,1978 2;7(27) 232 25 May 23,1978 2;8(11) 281 B i r t h d a y : September 24,1975 52 and took notes on the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n at the time of each u t t e r a n c e . Any c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e that I co u l d not i n t e r p r e t would be d i s c u s s e d with the mother a f t e r the completion of the t a p i n g . Each s e s s i o n took about an hour. The f i r s t h a l f hour of each s e s s i o n was spent conversing with the mother about how the c h i l d was doing with her language duri n g the past two weeks. The next h a l f hour was devoted to a c t u a l t a p i n g . Wai was a hea l t h y , b r i g h t and h i g h l y v e r b a l c h i l d . In most s e s s i o n s , she spent the time p l a y i n g and t a l k i n g with her toys and Lego b l o c k s , drawing p i c t u r e s on some blank paper, and r i d i n g her t r i c y c l e . Sometimes, she ran to the k i t c h e n to get something, but would come back r i g h t away. During most of the s e s s i o n s , she was busy with her own a c t i v i t i e s , and i t seemed that my presence d i d not cause any d i s t u r b a n c e of her emotional and v e r b a l behaviors. Wai's mother f u n c t i o n e d very smoothly as a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r f o r Wai and they i n t e r a c t e d a great d e a l . Whenever Wai f e l t bored dur i n g the s e s s i o n , her mother would ask Wai to name the o b j e c t s i n the Chinese P i c t o r i a l Book. Apparently Wai was taught these o b j e c t s b e f o r e , because she c o u l d c o r r e c t l y name most of them i n the book. Her f a v o r i t e a c t i v i t y was p u t t i n g a l l her toys one by one i n t o a box, and then pushing the box upside down to l e t a l l the toys f a l l on the f l o o r . Then she would ask her mother to help her p i c k up the toys and put them back i n t o the box f o r her. 53 There were only two d e v i a t i o n s from the above format over the 25 s e s s i o n s . In Session 4, there was an unexpected mechanical problem with the tape r e c o r d e r , and only 104 u t t e r a n c e s were c o l l e c t e d . Otherwise, the q u a l i t y of the tapes was good. For Session 9, I was out of town, and asked a f r i e n d , who was a l s o a n a t i v e speaker of Cantonese, to r e p l a c e me. She was taught the procedure and attended Session 8 with me t o observe f i r s t hand the a c t u a l t a p i n g p r o c e s s . 3.1.2. Ching Ching, a g i r l , was born on May 2,1977 in Toronto, O n t a r i o . Her f a t h e r i s a n a t i v e of Chaoan, Guangtong Province where a Min d i a l e c t i s spoken, but he moved to Hong Kong when he was f o u r . Her mother, a n a t i v e speaker of Cantonese, was born i n Shanghai but a l s o l e f t f o r Hong Kong when she was very young. Both of them l i v e d i n Hong Kong for more than twenty years before emigrating to Canada. As f a r as I c o u l d determine, Cantonese was the only language spoken i n the home. Ever s i n c e Ching was born, the mother was asked to p r o v i d e speech samples of Ching. So f a r four tapes of Ching's speech, approximately 30 minutes each, have been c o l l e c t e d , at the f o l l o w i n g ages: 0;1(10), 1;6(2), 1;8 < 5), and 2;2(29). I was able to be present d u r i n g the t h i r d t a p i n g , which took p l a c e i n her home i n Toronto. The 54 procedure was s i m i l a r to that of Wai. The mother i n t e r a c t e d with the c h i l d while I took notes of the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n at the time of each u t t e r a n c e . During the s e s s i o n , Ching was p l a y i n g and t a l k i n g with her toys and a p l a s t i c cup from the Macdonald's hamburger c h a i n . She was a l s o busy f o l l o w i n g orders from her mother, such as going to the ki t c h e n to get some ice-cream f o r h e r s e l f , or going to the bedroom to get a p e n c i l f o r me. G e n e r a l l y speaking, Ching was l e s s independent than Wai. She u s u a l l y f o l l o wed her mother wherever she went. 3.1.3. Wing Wing, a boy, was born on February 8, 1979 i n Toronto, O n t a r i o . Wing's f a t h e r , a n a t i v e of Chaoan, Guangtong Prov i n c e , l e f t f o r Hong Kong when he was two. He grew up i n Hong Kong u n t i l he came to Canada i n 1977. Wing's mother was born i n Hong Kong and c o u l d speak only Cantonese. When Wing was about e i g h t months of age, he went back to Hong Kong with h i s parents f o r nine months. He returned t o Toronto with h i s mother, while h i s f a t h e r remained i n Hong Hong to pursue business i n t e r e s t s . Two s e s s i o n s , about h a l f an hour each, were tape recorded. The f i r s t was when Wing was 0;4(20), and was done to look at 'mother t a l k ' . The second s e s s i o n took p l a c e when Wing was 2;0(6). Wing was a very a c t i v e c h i l d , and e a s i l y got bored when p l a y i n g with j u s t one t o y . Most of h i s a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e d of running back and f o r t h in the 55 house. Consequently, i t was comparatively d i f f i c u l t to tape h i s speech. During the t a p i n g , Wing was surrounded by three i n t e r a c t o r s . One was h i s mother, and the other two were h i s e l d e r c o u s i n s who were i n t h e i r mid-teens. I remained as the observer, again r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g notes.The t a p i n g took p l a c e i n a small f a m i l y room with the door locked so that Wing c o u l d not run away. The ta p i n g began with the mother as k i n g Wing to name o b j e c t s i n a s e r i e s of Chinese p i c t u r e cards designed to teach young c h i l d r e n simple v o c a b u l a r y . He c o u l d only r e c a l l h a l f of the o b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y . When Wing got bored with t h i s a c t i v i t y , h i s cou s i n s gave him h i s f a v o r i t e toys one by one i n order to keep h i s a t t e n t i o n and c a r r y on the c o n v e r s a t i o n s with him. G e n e r a l l y speaking, Wing was p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e and r a t h e r v e r b a l f o r h i s age. 3.2. TRANSCRIPTION 3.2.1. Procedure The tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d by myself ( T r a n s c r i b e r 1 ) and a u n i v e r s i y student who was i n Asian S t u d i e s and Philosophy ( T r a n s c r i b e r 2). We are both n a t i v e speakers of Cantonese, and have t r a i n i n g i n phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n . A Uher Lehrgerat tape recorder was used i n order to get a b e t t e r playback system. A l l the tapings of the odd-numbered s e s s i o n s were f i r s t t r a n s c r i b e d by T r a n s c r i b e r 1 -and were 56 doublechecked by T r a n s c r i b e r 2. A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l the tapings of the even-numbered s e s s i o n s were f i r s t t r a n s c r i b e d by T r a n s c r i b e r 2 and doublechecked by T r a n s c r i b e r 1. Notes taken d u r i n g the tapings were used duri n g the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . A f t e r the t r a n s c r i b i n g and doublechecking of a s e s s i o n , any di s c r e p a n c y between ut t e r a n c e s that were t r a n s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t l y was d i s c u s s e d by the t r a n s c r i b e r s . A l l of the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s were numbered f o r r e f e r e n c e purposes. The t r a n s c r i p t i o n system used was that of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic A s s o c i a t i o n . E v e r y t h i n g s a i d by or to the c h i l d , as w e l l as any necessary n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , was i n c l u d e d i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Adult u t t e r a n c e s were t r a n s c r i b e d somewhat more bro a d l y , although s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was given to t h e i r i n i t i a l consonants. 3.2.2. Interjudge R e l i a b i l i t y 100 u t t e r a n c e s from each of the speech samples Session 1 and Ses s i o n 10 were s e l e c t e d f o r a r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t . The broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of both t r a n s c r i b e r s were compared. The t e s t i n v o l v e d the comparison of both the i n i t i a l s and the f i n a l s of the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s . The r e s u l t s are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 8. Three g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be made from the r e s u l t s : (1) The agreement was higher i n i n i t i a l s , 88.5%, than in f i n a l s , 80%. Both t r a n s c r i b e r s f e l t t h a t vowels showed 57 T a b l e 8: R e s u l t s o f i n t e r j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t between T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2 S e s s i o n 1 S e s s i o n 10 Average I n i t i a l ( I ) 86% 91% 88.5% F i n a l (F) 78% 82% 80% Average (I+F /2) 82% 86.5% 84.25% Tone 94% 96% 95% 58 more phonetic f r e e v a r i a t i o n and l e s s s t a b i l i t y than the consonants. T h i s o f t e n made the d e t a i l s of the a n a l y s i s of the vowels l e s s c l e a r - c u t . (2) The agreement was h i g h e r i n Session 10, an average of 86.5% than in Session 1, an average of 82%. T h i s seems to suggest that (a) the more the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were done, the more f a m i l i a r the t r a n s c r i b e r s became with the s t y l e of word a l t e r n a t i o n s and s u b s t i t u t i o n s of the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s , and (b) the o l d e r the c h i l d was, the more s t a b l e was her p h o n o l o g i c a l system, and hence, the higher agreement between the two t r a n s c r i b e r s . (3) The agreement was r a t h e r high i n tones. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e an 94% agreement in Session 1, and an 96% i n S ession 10 between the two t r a n s c r i b e r s . Both t r a n s c r i b e r s f e l t that the tones of the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s were c l e a r and s t a b l e . They were much e a s i e r to t r a n s c r i b e than the i n i t i a l s or the f i n a l s . Since the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were not done independently, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t t r a n s c r i b e r had an e f f e c t on the second t r a n s c r i b e r . To check t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , a sample of 100 u t t e r a n c e s from Ses s i o n 11 was s e l e c t e d . I t was t r a n s c r i b e d independently by a u n i v e r s i y student in l i n g u i s t i c s ( T r a n s c r i b e r 3). She i s a n a t i v e speaker of Cantonese and has had some experience in t r a n s c r i b i n g Cantonese. Her t r a n s c r i p t i o n was then compared to those, done by T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2. Again, both i n i t i a l s and f i n a l s were 59 c o n s i d e r e d . The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 9. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that there was an 82.5% agreement between T r a n s c r i b e r s 1 and 3, and an 82% agreement between T r a n s c r i b e r s 2 and 3 on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the i n i t i a l s and f i n a l s . Moreover, there was an 95% agreement between T r a n s c r i b e r s 1 and 3, and an 97% agreement between T r a n s c r i b e r s 2 and 3 on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of of the tones. 3.3. DATA ANALYSIS Although there has been an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the study of Chinese language a c q u i s i t i o n d u r i n g the l a s t ten years, the analyses to date are c o n s p i c u o u s l y i n f o r m a l or n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e i n t h e i r procedures. Instead, one f i n d s comments l i k e the f o l l o w i n g , taken from L.H. L i (1968,p.302): "The f o l l o w i n g i s . a b r i e f summary of the c h i l d ' s sound system at . . . . I t i s the r e s u l t of ob s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than of a s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . " The present study r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t attempt to propose an e x p l i c i t set of a n a l y t i c procedures and c r i t e r i a f o r the p h o n o l o g i c a l . a n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g Cantonese. The a n a l y s i s uses Ingram (1981) as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . Since Cantonese i s d i f f e r e n t from E n g l i s h i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the procedures, forms and measures have been made. One of the reasons f o r adopting Ingram's procedures i s that they allow comparison ac r o s s s t u d i e s t o be done in a more - a n a l y t i c -and q u a n t i t a t i v e 60 T a b l e 9: R e s u l t s of i n t e r j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t between a) T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and 3, and b) T r a n s c r i b e r 2 and T r a n s c r i b e r 3 T r a n s c r i b e r s 1 & 3 T r a n s c r i b e r s 2 & 3 I n i t i a l ( I ) 89% 85% F i n a l (F) 76% 79% Average (I+F/2) 82.5% 82% Tone 95% 97% 61 manner. Four kinds of p h o n o l o g i c a l analyses w i l l be presented, these being (1) phonetic a n a l y s i s , (2) a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , (3) s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s , and (4) p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s 1 . A set of seven forms have been designed to r e c o r d the data i n these analyses (see Appendix 1 f o r sample of these, and the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r u s e ) . 3.3.1. The M o n o s y l l a b l e s or Zi_ as the B a s i c Unit of  A n a l y s i s Chao (1947) d i s t i n g u i s h e s two kinds of subunits i n Chinese speech, namely ' z i ' and ' c i ' . According to him, ' ' z i ' or 'the monosyllable' p l a y s the same p a r t i n Chinese l i f e as a 'word' p l a y s i n E n g l i s h . I t .is the commonest 'small change* of everyday speech. I t i s 'the kind of t h i n g which a c h i l d l e a r n s to say, which a teacher teaches c h i l d r e n to read and w r i t e i n s c h o o l , which a t e l e g r a p h o f f i c e counts and charges you f o r . . . ( p . 3 7 ) ' . Examples for t h i s kind are / t ' i n 1 / 'sky', / t e i 6 / ' e a r t h ' , and / j P n * / 'man, person'. The second kind i s c a l l e d ' c i ' or ' s y n t a c t i c word' by Chao (1947). In a n a l y s i n g the s t r u c t u r e of Chinese speech, one a l s o f i n d s that i t i s not always the monosyllable that can be spoken independently, but o f t e n combinations of two or more s y l l a b l e s . These u n i t s , u s u a l l y made up of more than one s y l l a b l e , are l e a r n e d terms and not everyday words 2(Chao,1947). Examples of t h i s kind are / f e i 1 k e i 1 / 62 ' f l y / p l a n e - a e r o p l a n e ' , / f r p k 7 p a n 2 / 1 b l a c k / b o a r d - b l a c k b o a r d ' , and / f e i 1 k e i 1 s i 1 / ' f l y / p l a n e / p e r s o n - p i l o t ' . They are sometimes c l a s s i f i e d under 'the p o l y s y l l a b l e type of ' c i ' ' . Chao f u r t h e r c l a i m s that examples of t h i s type are not q u i t e as c l o s e - k n i t as the E n g l i s h words " p a r t i c u l a r " , "random", but more l i k e words of the "strawberry", " b l a c k b i r d " type. In t h i s study, ' z i ' has been adopted as the b a s i c u n i t of a n a l y s i s , a p r a c t i c e common i n s t u d i e s of Chinese phonology (e.g. Wong, 1940, Hashimoto, 1972, and o t h e r s ) . The p o l y s y l l a b l e type of ' c i ' or ' s y n t a c t i c word' w i l l be broken down i n t o separate d i s t i n c t s y l l a b l e s . The only exception i s when d e a l i n g with the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms, such as [ l a n 6 l a n 6 ] ' b r o k e n , r e d u p l i c a t e d form', where words w i l l not be broken down i n t o two d i s t i n c t s y l l a b l e s . 3.3.2. G l o s s a r y of some Fundamental Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms, taken from Ingram (1981) are used to d i s c u s s d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the data base. The data below are used to exemplify these: C h i l d : H Age: 1;5 / f a n 1 / ' r e t u r n ' [ f a n 1 ] (2 times) [ f P n 1 ] [wpn 1] / f a n 6 / ' r i c e ' [ f a n 6 ] (3 times) [ f P n 6 ] / f a 1 / 'flower' [ f a 1 ] 63 [fan 1] / t s ' f c 1 / 'car' [ts'g. 1 ] (a) Lexical Type : An adult s y l l a b l e used by the c h i l d . The data above represent four l e x i c a l types, namely, / f a n 1 / , 'return', / f a n 6 / ' r i c e ' , / f a 1 / 'flower', and /ts'g, 1/ 'car'. (b) Phonetic Token : Any attempt to produce a l e x i c a l type. For example, the s y l l a b l e /fan 1/'return' has four, / f a n 6 / ' r i c e ' has four, / f a 1 / 'flower' has two, and /ts'£ 1/ 'car' has one. Altogether there.are eleven phonetic tokens in the data. (c) Phonetic Type : A d i s t i n c t phonetic shape for any pa r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l type. In the data, there are eight phonetic types. / f a n 1 / 'return' has three, / f a n 6 / 'ri c e ' has two, / f a 1 / 'flower' has two, and / t s ' g 1 / 'car' has one. (d) Phonet ic Form : A d i s t i n c t phonetic shape independent of l e x i c a l type. There are seven phonetic forms in the data. They are [ f a n 1 ] , [ f p n 1 ] , [wpn 1], [ f a n 6 ] , [ f p n 6 ] , [ f a 1 ] , [ t s ' g 1 ] . Notice that the phonetic form [fan 1] represents two phonetic types. It only counts once in the phonetic forms. Syllables with the same segments but with d i f f e r e n t tones are treated as d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s or 'words', e.g./fan 1/ vs. / f a n 6 / . 3.4. PHONETIC ANALYSIS The phonetic analysis examines the speech sounds that a c h i l d produces, the end product being a phonetic inventory of the c h i l d ' s consonants, vowels, and basic 64 s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e s 3 . In t h i s a n a l y s i s , the c h i l d ' s speech i s t r e a t e d as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d system (Smith,1973). The emphasis i s on the c h i l d ' s speech sounds, r a t h e r than the a d u l t t a r g e t sounds. The phonetic a n a l y s i s makes use of the f o l l o w i n g four forms: They are (1) Lexicon S h e e t ( s ) , (2) Inventory Sheet-Phonetic Forms, (3) Item and R e p l i c a Sheet, and (4) Summary Sheet. The use of each i s d e s c r i b e d below: Lexicon Sheet : T h i s form records the c h i l d ' s p h o n o l o g i c a l data, arranged i n the a l p h a b e t i c a l order of the a d u l t models. At the top of the sheet, two headings, l e x i c a l types and phonetic types, are i n d i c a t e d . L e x i c a l type, as d e f i n e d , r e f e r s to the a d u l t s y l l a b l e attempted by the c h i l d , and phonetic type, the c h i l d ' s phonetic p r o d u c t i o n or pr o d u c t i o n s of that p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l type. S y l l a b l e s are entered on the forms from the o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . Although the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s are i n narrow t r a n s c r i p t i o n , they are entered onto the L e x i c a l Sheet i n a broad t r a n s c r i p t i o n . A number i s as s i g n e d to each of the l e x i c a l and phonetic types. The arrangement of the data i n such a way all o w s one to have a quick r e t r i e v a l of the c h i l d ' s speech forms. The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample Lexicon Sheet based on the h y p o t h e t i c a l p h o n o l o g i c a l data i n S e c t i o n 3.3.2.: 65 types l e x i c a l phonetic 1 •" l -f a l l f a 1 1 2 f a n 1 2 f a n . 1 h f a n . \zl f p n 1 15 1 wpn 3 f a n b 1 6 f a n b(3X 7 - 6 f > n 4 tS'£ 1 1 8 t s ' e 1 Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d H 1 ; 5 Inventory Sheet-Phonet ic Forms : As mentioned before , a phonet ic form r e f e r s to a d i s t i n c t phonet ic shape independent of l e x i c a l type . Each of the c h i l d ' s phonetic forms i s entered onto the Inventory Sheet, based on i t s i n i t i a l segment. Phonet ic forms that have the same i n i t i a l segments are entered i n t o the same box on the Sheet. W i t h i n each box, there are three columns: Consonant-Vowel (CV) s y l l a b l e s go i n t o the l e f t -mos t column, Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (CVC) s y l l a b l e s go i n t o the r ight-most column, and Consonant-Vowel-Gl ide (CVG) s y l l a b l e s go i n t o the middle column. These are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of some h y p o t h e t i c a l d a t a . 66 CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 1 1 1 — — p a 1 n a u 1 i p a t 8 t o 2 31 4 t a i  J\ tPm —A—. —J—jc. • ' - ~ p , i - ? P D 1 PT?u 1 PTtt' t a 1 ! 1 1 i 7 I p i u I p a t 1 1 | | 1 1 i i I i i f a 1 | f e i 1 1 f ? n ^ I l o u 1 f u ^ | 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 \ 1 1 The only exception to the above arrangement i s f o r the two s y l l a b i c nasal f i n a l s , i . e . /m/, / r j / " . These two f i n a l s are s p e c i a l l y assigned to a box which i s i n the lower r i g h t -hand c o r n e r . Any occurrence of the s y l l a b i c n a s a l w i l l be entered on as f o l l o w s : S y l l a b i c Consonants I I If a s i n g l e l e x i c a l type has more than one phonetic type, a l l the phonetic types that begin with the same sound w i l l be connected with a t i e - b a r . An example of the use of a v e r t i c a l t i e - b a r f o r / f a n / 1 , ' r e t u r n ' [ f a n 1 ] , [ f p n 1 ] i s shown below: 67 CV c v c cvc I l ^ f a n 1 N I I 1 - I I I Here the c h i l d has produced two phonetic forms for one l e x i c a l type. An example of a h o r i z o n t a l t i e - b a r f o r some h y p o t h e t i c a l data i s /wan 2/ 'to p l a y ' [wa 2], [wan 2], and [wau 2 ]: CV CVG CVC The t i e - b a r i n d i c a t e s that these three forms were a l l produced f o r the same word. The number of times a phonetic form occurs a c r o s s l e x i c a l types i s shown by counting l e x i c a l types beside the phonetic form. The phonetic form [ f a n 1 ] f o r / f a n 1 / ' r e t u r n ' ,and / f a 1 / 'flower' would be entered i n the / f / box as [ f a n 1 ] (2 t i m e s ) . These homonymous l e x i c a l types are a l s o c i r c l e d on the L e x i c a l Sheet, e.g. 68 types le x i c a l phonetic 1 f a I ( fantO 1 f a n i 1 ' 1 For an example of completed Inventory Sheet, see Appendix 1 . I tern and R e p l i c a Sheet : The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s sheet i s to summarize the data from the Inventory Sheet-Phonetic Forms. There are four major box diagrams on the page, two diagrams f o r the top of the Cantonese i n i t i a l consonants, and two at the bottom f o r the f i n a l s . The f i n a l s are broken down i n t o v o c a l i c s , f i n a l consonants, and s y l l a b i c consonants f o r the sake of a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . The number of phonetic forms f o r each sound i s entered i n t o the two box diagrams on the l e f t of the page. The two diagrams on the r i g h t are blank and are to be f i l l e d i n with the c h i l d ' s p r o d uctions f o r the t a r g e t sounds i n the corresponding boxes to the l e f t . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example of how i n i t i a l consonants are recorded on the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet. Suppose, f o r example, that the c h i l d has the forms: [ p ' a i 3 ] , and [ p p i 3 ] (4 times) f o r the a d u l t word / p ' a i 3 / 'to d i s t r i b u t e ' . The topmost p a r t of the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet w i l l appear as f o l l o w s : 69 Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s p m f P4 In the l e f t box diagram, the entry of 1 next to /p'/ i n d i c a t e s that the c h i l d produced one phonetic type that began with a [ p ' J . The diagram on the r i g h t shows that the c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t i o n for the a d u l t ' s /p'/ was [p] (4 times ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , with the same data, the top l i n e of the two bottom diagrams that i n d i c a t e s y l l a b l e f i n a l s w i l l have the f o l l o w i n g markings: b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consonants I i J u au P b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Conssnants In cases with phonetic types connected by t i e - b a r s , the number of phonetic forms i s entered over the number of l e x i c a l types, e.g. 0 70 I n v e n t o r y S h e ^ t - R ^ t , i c form CVG I i ! i L ^ n d _ _ R e p l i c a Sheet CV c v c w a 2 T , wau 2-p 2 1 wan I w The entry of 3/1 of the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet shows there were 3 phonetic types, but only one l e x i c a l type. This i s done so that one w i l l not count a segment as frequent in case i t i s only used in one s y l l a b l e . Cases with m u l t i p l e phonetic types are entered a l s o with the number of phonetic forms over the number of l e x i c a l types, e.g. I n v e n t o r y S h e e t - P h o n e t i c f o r m . Item and R e p l i c a Sheet CV CVG CVC f a L f a n On the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet, / f / i s marked by 2/3, i n d i c a t i n g that there are two phonetic forms for three l e x i c a l types. T h i s i s done in order that one w i l l not count a sound as frequent i f i t occurs only i n the same phonetic context. 71 Summary Sheet : The major task of t h i s sheet i s to summarize the r e s u l t s of the four kinds of a n a l y s e s . For the Phonetic A n a l y s i s , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s shown: (1) Information regarding the sample s i z e : T h i s records the number of the l e x i c a l types, phonetic types, phonetic tokens, and phonetic forms. (2) The c r i t e r i o n of phonetic frequency: As argued i n Ingram (1981), a sound should not be c o n s i d e r e d part of a c h i l d ' s phonetic i n v e n t o r y unless i t occurs a c e r t a i n number of times. U n t i l the above study, however, no one had proposed a way to decide what i s an a p p r o p r i a t e frequency. Ingram proposed a c r i t e r i o n of phonetic frequency f o r E n g l i s h , which i n essence d i v i d e s sounds i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : (1) frequent, (2) used , and (3) t r a n s i t i o n a l . (Though not d i s c u s s e d i n Ingram., there i s a c t u a l l y a f o u r t h category, not used, which c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d as i n f r e q u e n t sounds and sounds never used.) The c r i t e r i o n of frequency proposed i n s i m p l i f i e d form i s that a sound should be used at l e a s t once every 25 words to be c o n s i d e r e d 'used*. T h i s number i s s e l e c t e d because i t approximates the number of E n g l i s h consonants. Below I propose -a c r i t e r i o n f o r phonetic frequency adapted to Cantonese. The c r i t e r i o n of phonetic frequency i s d i f f e r e n t f o r s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and s y l l a b l e f i n a l segments. For s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l s , the f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n i s made. F i r s t , the sum of the l e x i c a l types and phonetic forms i s d i v i d e d by 2. Then, t h i s number i s d i v i d e d by 19 and rounded o f f to the 72 nearest whole number. Nineteen i s chosen on the a r b i t r a r y  assumption t h a t , given 19 i n i t i a l consonants i n Cantonese, any sound used by the c h i l d should occur at l e a s t once i n any random s e l e c t i o n of 19 phonetic forms or l e x i c a l types. The r e s u l t of t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s the number of times a sound i n a p a r t i c u l a r sample needs to occur to be c o n s i d e r e d 'used' by the c h i l d . Here i s an example of how t h i s i s c a l c u l a t e d . Suppose that the c h i l d ' s sample c o n s i s t s of 130 l e x i c a l types and 90 phonetic forms. The f o l l o w i n g formula would be used: C r i t e r i o n of o o n -> * n 6 ( = 110 ; ±f£ = 5-7 ) Frequency 2 19 The sum of the l e x i c a l types and phonetic forms g i v e s us a mean sample s i z e of 110 ( a f t e r d i v i d i n g by 2). T h i s number d i v i d e d by 19 y i e l d s 6, which i s the number of times a sound would need to occur i n t h i s sample to be c o n s i d e r e d 'used' by the c h i l d . The c r i t e r i o n of frequency makes i t p o s s i b l e to d i v i d e sounds i n t o (1) sounds used, (2) t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds, and (3) frequent sounds. I t i s used on the sheet d e s c r i b e d above as f o l l o w s : F i r s t , the frequency of the c h i l d ' s segments i s entered on the top l e f t d i s p l a y of the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet. Next, a l l the sounds that meet the c r i t e r i o n of frequency are c i r c l e d . I f two numbers are given, the lower number i s used. For example, i f a sound i s entered as 2/3, then 2 i s compared to the c r i t e r i o n of frequency. 73 Sounds that do not meet the c r i t e r i o n of frequency are c o n s i d e r e d t r a n s i t i o n a l and p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s i s i f t h e i r frequency i s at l e a s t one-half of the c r i t e r i o n . For example, i f [p'] occurs 4 times and the c r i t e r i o n i s 5, then [p'] i s t r a n s i t i o n a l , s i n c e 4 i s below c r i t e r i o n but above one h a l f of 5, which i s 2.5 (or 3 f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r poses). Sounds that meet the c r i t e r i o n of frequency more than once are c o n s i d e r e d 'frequent', and are marked by an a s t e r i s k f o r each time they double the c r i t e r i o n . For example, i f [p'] occurs 20 times and the c r i t e r i o n i s 5, then 20 d i v i d e d by 5 equals 4 which i s 3 times beyond c r i t e r i o n , and tp'] would be shown p****. F i n a l l y a l l of t h i s i n formation i s summarized on the Summary Sheet under the heading ' S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l ' . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example showing how the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s as recorded on the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet are entered onto the Summary Sheet. Child's phonetic inventory a) Syllable I n i t i a l s ©% ®% ®*% ®% ©% ®% ©% ®% kw kv' 09 ^  Phonetic Analysis a) Sy l l a b l e I n i t i a l p p' m Cf) t s t s ' S 4 .CO) h 74 The use of the c r i t e r i o n of frequency f o r f i n a l segments, which c o n s i s t of v o c a l i c s , s y l l a b i c consonants, and f i n a l consonants, i s the same as above except that numbers other than 19 are used. T h i s d i f f e r s from Ingram (1981) who uses the same number for i n i t i a l and f i n a l segments. Fot f i n a l v o c a l i c s , 18 i s used an a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e based on the assumption that given 18 v o c a l i c s i n the Cantonese f i n a l s , any sound used by the c h i l d should occur at l e a s t once i n any random s e l e c t i o n of 18 phonetic forms or l e x i c a l types. The number for c a l c u l a t i n g the c r i t e r i o n f o r s y l l a b i c consonants i s 1. T h i s a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e i s based on the f a c t t h at there are only two s y l l a b i c consonants i n Cantonese, namely, /m/, and A ) / . Of these two, the s y l l a b i c /m/ i s l i m i t e d t o . one s y l l a b l e only, namely, the negative marker i n c o l l o q u i a l speech (see footnote 4). As f o r the f i n a l consonants, the a r b i t r a r y number 12 i s assigned. T h i s i s based on the f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n : Of the 55 f i n a l s i n Cantonese, there are 34, or 62%, that end with f i n a l consonants. When the f i n a l s are d i v i d e d i n t o v o c a l i c s , s y l l a b i c consonants, and f i n a l consonants, there are 18 v o c a l i c s and 2 s y l l a b i c consonants or a t o t a l of 20. Hence 62% of 20 y i e l d s a whole number of 12. Here i s an example of how t h i s i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r f i n a l segments. Let us assume a sample of 130 l e x i c a l types and 90 phonetic forms. The c r i t e r i o n of frequency w i l l be 6 f o r f i n a l v o c a l i c s and 9 f o r f i n a l consonants, as shown below: 75 F i n a l V o c a l i c s C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the used, t r a n s i t i o n a l and frequent f i n a l sounds i s the same as e x p l a i n e d f o r i n i t i a l sounds. Two Measures of Phonetic A b i l i t y : A f t e r the phonetic inve n t o r y i s determined, there are two measures of phonetic a b i l i t y that are c a l c u l a t e d . The f i r s t , the T o t a l Number of  Sounds i s the sum of the sounds that meet the c r i t e r i o n of frequency f o r s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s . The Summary Sheet i n c l u d e s a place f o r these to be shown, as e x e m p l i f i e d below. ( A l s o see Appendix 1 f o r a completed summary s h e e t ) . S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Number o f Sounds 5 (2): Number o f Sounds 3 :(1) p m ( f ) m* n t * n (1) p ( t ) t s T o t a l Number of Sounds f o r both S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l 8 (3) 6_ ( 2|2= I l O , - ^ = 6.1 ) 9_ ( ^ f 2 - = 110; = 7.8 ) 76 The second measure i s the A r t i c u l a t i o n Score which i s a more p r e c i s e measure than the T o t a l Number of Sounds. T h i s measure a s s i g n s p o i n t s to sounds in the phonetic invent o r y i n the f o l l o w i n g way: three p o i n t s f o r each frequent sound ( i . e . those with at l e a s t one a s t e r i s k ) , two p o i n t s to those which are 'used', i . e . meet the c r i t e r i o n of frequency, and one p o i n t to t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds. The score i s c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r i n i t i a l s and f i n a l s , and then added for a t o t a l s c o r e . The A r t i c u l a t i o n Score f o r the above example i s as f o l l o w s : S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l 3 X 1 ( t * ) 2 X 4 (p,m,n,ts) 1 X 2 ( f , l ) S y l l a b l e F i n a l 3 X 1 2 X 2 1 X 1 (m*) (n,p) (t ) A.S. T o t a l = 3 .= 8 = 2 13 A.S. T o t a l = 3 = 4 = 1 13 8 T o t a l A.S. f o r s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l and f i n a l = 21 The A r t i c u l a t i o n Score f o r each s e s s i o n i s shown on the Summary Sheet. 3.5. ANALYSIS OF REDUPLICATION R e d u p l i c a t i o n , a common f e a t u r e of c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y 77 sound systems, i s the process which the c h i l d uses to repeat the s y l l a b l e of a word. In Cantonese, r e d u p l i c a t i o n occurs i n cases l i k e /ma3/ 'horse' [ma 3ma 3]. In t h i s example, each of the two s y l l a b l e s i n the c h i l d ' s form i s i d e n t i c a l i n both segments and tones. I f a c h i l d produces two s y l l a b l e s that are i d e n t i c a l i n both segments but not in tones, such as [ma 3ma 2], or two s y l l a b l e s that are i d e n t i c a l i n tones but not i n segments, such as [ f a 3 m a 3 ] , they are not c o n s i d e r e d as r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. There are two exceptions to t h i s c o n d i t i o n on r e d u p l i c a t i o n . The f i r s t e x c e p t i o n concerns k i n s h i p terms such as f a t h e r , mother, and e l d e r s i s t e r . In Wai's and Ching's f a m i l i e s , /pa"pa 1/ ' f a t h e r ' , /ma amaV 'mother', and /kD akD 1/ 'elder b r o t h e r ' o c curred, while Wing's f a m i l y used / p a 1 p a 1 / r /ma 1ma 1A and / k ^ k D 1 / . In f a c t , both forms of address are commonly heard. In t h i s study, the address form of k i n s h i p terms such as / p a u p a 1 / , /ma'ma1/ and others that are i d e n t i c a l i n segments but not i n tones are c o n s i d e r e d as r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. The second e x c e p t i o n concerns r e d u p l i c a t e d forms which have undergone the process of B i a n - y i n (see Chapter two f o r d e t a i l s ) . T h i s process changes the tones on some of the r e d u p l i c a t e d s y l l a b l e s , e.g. /pai® ^ p a i 3 / ' to b i d goodbye'. In t h i s study, any r e d u p l i c a t e d form that has undergone B i a n - y i n w i l l be co n s i d e r e d as a r e d u p l i c a t e d form as w e l l . In the s t u d i e s of how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e Chinese, r e d u p l i c a t i o n appears to be -a common f e a t u r e i n the c h i l d ' s 78 e a r l y system, and one o f t e n f i n d s the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms i n the data of v a r i o u s s t u d i e s (Jeng, 1979, J.K. Tse, 1978, and o t h e r s ) . D e s p i t e t h i s , no formal a n a l y s i s has ever been attempted. Thus t h i s a n a l y s i s i s the f i r s t attempt to provide a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of how Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n use r e d u p l i c a t i o n . The r e d u p l i c a t i o n used by a c h i l d can be separated i n t o two types. The f i r s t type (Type A) i s the case where a r e d u p l i c a t e d speech form i s the r e s u l t of r e d u p l i c a t i n g an a d u l t s y l l a b l e , e.g. / p o 1 / ' b a l l ' [ p D 1 p D 1 ] . The second type (Type B) occurs i f the c h i l d models a r e d u p l i c a t e d a d u l t s y l l a b l e . Examples of t h i s type are (1) k i n s h i p address, such as / t s u k 7 t s u k 7 / 'uncle', (2) the r e d u p l i c a t i o n of monosyllabic a d j e c t i v e s f o l l o w e d by the marker / t e i 2 / with the meaning of 'a 1 i t t l e . . . , s u c h as / h u ^ h u r y H e i 3 / 'a l i t t l e red', and / l a 3 l a 3 t e i 2 / 'a l i t t l e c o l d ' , and (3) 'onomatopaeic' r e d u p l i c a t i o n of monosyllabic a d j e c t i v e s , such as / l p p 9 l p p 9 l y n ^ / ' d i s o r d e r l y ' (Hashimoto, 1972). In the study of the young c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t i o n , i t i s necessary to look f o r both types of r e d u p l i c a t i o n to separate the c h i l d who a c t u a l l y r e d u p l i c a t e s from the one which i s simply modeling r e d u p l i c a t e d models. The a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n proceeds as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , a l l the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d on the Lexicon Sheet as being one of the two types of r e d u p l i c a t i o n . Next, a l l the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms t h a t occur i n the data are p l a c e d on a separate page 79 c a l l e d the R e d u p l i c a t i o n Sheet. (see Appendix 1 f o r an example). Each r e d u p l i c a t e d form i s examined f o r i t s p a r t of speech, e.g. verb, noun, a d j e c t i v e and so on, to see i f t h i s i s a determinant of the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. The f o l l o w i n g i s a p a r t i a l example of a h y p o t h e t i c a l R e d u p l i c a t i o n Sheet: REDUPLICATION SHEET C h i l d R e d u p l i c a t e d form ( g l o s s ) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. 1 6 n 6 l a n l a n * broken' a d j . Type A 2. ma ma 'grandmother' noun Type B 3. 1 1 PS PD • b a l l ' noun Type A To measure the degree of r e d u p l i c a t i o n used, I c a l c u l a t e d the p r o p o r t i o n of r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. T h i s i s done s e p a r a t e l y f o r Type A and Type B r e d u p l i c a t i o n s . The P r o p o r t i o n of R e d u p l i c a t e d Forms i s the r e s u l t of d i v i d i n g the t o t a l number of phonetic forms i n t o the number of r e d u p l i c a t e d forms (Type A or B). The measure i s a l s o c a l c u l a t e d f o r the separate p a r t s of speech. The next page i s a sample R e d u p l i c a t i o n Sheet showing these c a l c u l a t i o n s for a h y p o t h e t i c a l set of data, (see next page) 80 Session No. 1. REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d H 2; 0 Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech l a n ' l a n •' ' b r o k e n ' a d j . Type A/Type B Type A 2. ma. ma 'grandmother' noun Type B 3. 1 1 PD PD-.. • b a l l ' noun Type A k. - I * -1 f e i f e i • f l y ' verb Type A 5. har); hairj. •walk' verb Type A 6. 2 2 i o I D 'get' verb Type A 7. 4 l ma . ma-1 mother' noun Type B 8. 1 mau: maU .1 'cat' noun Type A 9 9 9 mipt ymyt 7 ' p o l i s h ' verb Type A 10. 2 per) P€ i ) 2 'cake' noun Type A 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Summary of Data Number of : 10 Proportion of: .10 8 .08 .02 100 1 .00 .50 3 • 38 .12 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 81 3.6. SUBSTITUTION ANALYSIS T h i s a n a l y s i s compares the c h i l d ' s words to t h e i r a d u l t models to determine the matches and mismatches between them. In the study of a m u l t i - s y l l a b i c language such as E n g l i s h , one encounters the dilemma of needing to decide i f the e x i s t e n c e of a m b i s y l l a b i c segments i n noncompound words such as 'paper' should be used as the u n i t of a n a l y s i s f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of segment p o s i t i o n ( c f . Ingram (1981) f o r a d e t a i l e d review). Since the monosyllable i s the b a s i c u n i t i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , one does not have t h i s problem f o r Cantonese. The main d e c i s i o n to be made concerns the kind of frequency c r i t e r i o n to be used. For example, suppose we have the f o l l o w i n g data from a Cantonese-speaking c h i l d on the p r o d u c t i o n of /k/: / k i u 3 / 'to c a l l upon' [ k i u 3 ] ; / k o u 1 / 'high' [ k o u 1 ] ; / k a i 1 / ' s t r e e t ' [ k a i 1 ] , [ k ' a i 1 ] , [ y j a i 1 ] . I f phonetic types are used as the u n i t of a n a l y s i s , then /k/ i s only c o r r e c t 3 out of 5 times. But i f l e x i c a l types are used, then 2 out of 3 show c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n . The s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s f o r Cantonese was done in the f o l l o w i n g way. I used each of the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s forms: Lexicon S h e e t ( s ) , Inventory S h e e t - L e x i c a l Types, Item and R e p l i c a Sheet, and Summary Sheet. Entry of the c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t e s : The L e x i c a l Types from the Lexicon Sheet were p l a c e d i n t o boxes on the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l consonants. If the a d u l t model was produced c o r r e c t l y by 82 the c h i l d , only the number of the l e x i c a l item was entered. T h i s was put i n t o the l e f t m o s t column of the a p p r o p r i a t e box of the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet. I f the c h i l d d i d not c o r r e c t l y produce the. a d u l t i n i t i a l consonant, I entered the whole a d u l t s y l l a b l e i n t o the rightmost column, with the c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t e shown d i r e c t l y above the sound attempted. For example, /f*>n 1/'to d i s t r i b u t e ' [wpn 1]. J 1 J If a sound was d e l e t e d , I entered '0', e.g. /hoeyV'to go' [cey 3]. hoe u If there was more than one s u b s t i t u t e , each one was entered once. For example, / f a n 1 / 'to r e t u r n ' [wan 1], [wpn 1], [ l a n 1 ] f o r / f / would be entered: f {a. n 83 If there were s e v e r a l phonetic types a l l with the same s u b s t i t u t e , I only entered the s u b s t i t u t e once. For example, / f a n 1 / 'to r e t u r n ' [wan 1], [wpn 1], [wa 1]: The same procedure was used f o r s y l l a b l e f i n a l s , i n c l u d i n g v o c a l i c s , s y l l a b i c consonants, and f i n a l consonants. For example, / f a n 1 / 'to r e t u r n ' [ f p n 1 ] f o r / a / would be entered: a: f a n / f a n 1 / 'to r e t u r n ' [ f a 1 ] f o r f i n a l /n/ would be entered: 7> ,_• ~<X TV 1 -84 The Item and R e p l i c a Sheet c o n t a i n s separate boxes f o r tones. In t h i s way, a l l s u b s t i t u t e s made by the c h i l d are recorded. The design of the box f o r tones i s d i f f e r e n t from those f o r segments. Only the s u b s t i t u t e s are i n d i c a t e d , not the c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n s . For example, / f a n 1 / 'to re t u r n ' [ f a n 2 ] would be entered: I Tones n _ i > -fan2' To summarize, i f the c h i l d produced [k'an 2] f o r . t h e a d u l t form /kpm 6/ 'to p r e s s ' , a completed sheet would c o n t a i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t e s : * f 6 0 n I •k A Determination of the c h i l d ' s matches and s u b s t i t u t e s : Next, the c h i l d ' s matches and s u b s t i t u t e s were entered i n t o the diagrams on the rightmost side of the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet. The upper diagram i s f o r the i n i t i a l consonants, and 85 the lower diagrams are f o r the f i n a l s . Each blank box in the rightmost diagrams i s to show the sound produced by the c h i l d f o r the a d u l t model given i n the corresponding box in the l e f t m o s t diagrams. The f o l l o w i n g procedure was used to do t h i s : (a) F i r s t , s u b s t i t u t e s produced at l e a s t twice for each a d u l t sound were entered, with t h e i r frequency i n d i c a t e d . For example, Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s Child's substitutions a) Syllable I n i t i a l s P' m This shows that the c h i l d used 6 l e x i c a l types with a tp'] s u b s t i t u t e , and 2 with a [m] s u b s t i t u t e f o r a d u l t /p/. (b) D e l e t i o n s were entered as '0' and with t h e i r frequency. (c) If there were no attempts at an a d u l t t a r g e t , or e l s e no sound occurred more than once, a dash i n the box i n d i c a t e d 'no data'. (d) If no s u b s t i t u t i o n s o c c u r r e d at l e a s t twice, and at l e a s t two s y l l a b l e s showed c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n , a check was p l a c e d i n the box. S u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r tones were not i n d i c a t e d in the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet. Instead, they were entered on the Summary Sheet d i r e c t l y from the Inventory S h e e t - L e x i c a l Types. 86 Summary : The S u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s on the Summary Sheet c o n t a i n s a d i s p l a y of three p a r t s . They are (1) i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, (2) v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants, and (3) tones. Here, the most frequent s u b s t i t u t e s and matches from the Item and R e p l i c a Sheet were summarized.(see below) S u b s t i t u t i o n Anal^si.It ( l ) I n i t i a l f.ivl Final Consonants • I • • — — KAJ v/ •15 ) 1 Proportion of Data aa/25) & Matches -11 ( 17 ) (2) Vocalics and Syllabic Consonants i v/ 1 1? a. ai / 3 i ou V u v/ ui — i u 0£ U e ei / au m i a TP 0 pu 0.. f — Proportion of Data ( '7/20) & Matches -Sk ( ^  / l~J ) 13) Tones Non-reduplicated Form 1 2 3 1< 5 6 7 8 9 4 Reduplicated Form Total Number of : Tone .Substitutions Jj) Phonetic Tokens ^ // Proportion of Tone Substitutions • <?4 87 Two measures were c a l c u l a t e d , based on these data (1) the P r o p o r t i o n of Data, and (2) the P r o p o r t i o n of Matches. The P r o p o r t i o n of Data i s a score which i n d i c a t e s the amount of data y i e l d e d by the sample. As f a r as the Cantonese i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants are concerned, the P r o p o r t i o n of Data i s the number of consonants attempted over the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e consonants, which f o r Cantonese i s 25. That i s , there are 25 p o s s i b l e blanks to be f i l l e d i n the above f i r s t diagram. In the above sample, the P r o p o r t i o n of Data i s .88 or (22/25). The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches i s the p r o p o r t i o n obtained by d i v i d i n g the number of sounds f o r which there are data i n t o the number of matches. For example, i n the above diagram of i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, there are 16 p o t e n t i a l matches f o r the i n i t i a l consonants, and 6 f o r the f i n a l consonants. Thus, the p r o p o r t i o n s are .75 (12/16) and .83 (5/6) f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l segments. The t o t a l P r o p o r t i o n of Matches i s .77 (17/22). The same measures are c a l c u l a t e d f o r v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants. The P r o p o r t i o n of Data i s the number of v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants attempted over the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants i n Cantonese, i . e . 20. As shown i n the second diagram, the P r o p o r t i o n of Data i s .85 (17/20), and the P r o p o r t i o n of Matches i s .82 (14/17). A separate measure, the P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s , was used f o r tones. T h i s i s determined by 88 d i v i d i n g the t o t a l number of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s by the t o t a l number of Phonetic Tokens. For example, the t h i r d diagram i n the above example i n d i c a t e s 10 cases of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s , and 211 cases of Phonetic Tokens f o r a p r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s of .04 (10/211). 3.7. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS ANALYSIS Recently, attempts to analyse a c h i l d ' s language i n t o p h o n o l o g i c a l processes have dominated r e s e a r c h i n language a c q u i s i t i o n (cf.Ingram,1974,1981). P h o n o l o g i c a l processes, based on Stampe (1969), are g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the c h i l d ' s s u b s t i t u t i o n s . They are n a t u r a l tendencies the c h i l d shows to s i m p l i f y a d u l t t a r g e t sounds. For example, Wai at age 2;8(11), showed the followed speech forms: Adult form ( g l o s s ) C h i l d form 1 1 rj am ' e x a c t l y ' rj a 2 2 wan 'to p l a y ' wa Q O kap ' dove' k a J In t h i s case, i t i s s a i d t h at the c h i l d has a p h o n o l o g i c a l process of f i n a l consonant d e l e t i o n . Ingram (1976b), based on res e a r c h from a v a r i e t y of sources, has p o s i t e d some common p h o n o l o g i c a l processes found i n the speech of young c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language. They are l i s t e d i n Table 10 (from Ingram,1976b, p.15, Table 2). 89 T a b l e 10: Some common p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s f ound i n t h e speech o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g young c h i l d r e n (from Ingram, 1976b, T a b l e 2) S y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e p r o c e s s e s 1. D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonant - e.g. out CoCwJ , b i k e C bay] 2. R e d u c t i o n o f c l u s t e r s - t h e r e d u c t i o n o f a consonant c l u s t e r t o a s i n g l e consonant, e.g. f l o o r Dfdr], step^flUp} 3. D e l e t i o n o f u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s - e.g. banana [naena.] 4. R e d u p l i c a t i o n - e.g. r a b b i t [W*wae], noodle C r U A n u ] A s s i m i l a t o r y p r o c e s s e s 5« P r e v o c a l i c v o i c i n g o f consonants - consonants t e n d t o be v o i c e d when p r e c e d i n g a vowel - e.g. pen [b f n l ,teadCdi] 6. D e v o i c i n g o f f i n a l c o n s onants - e.g. bedCbtt], bigtb'Kl 7. N a s a l i z a t i o n o f vowels - vowels t e n d t o t a k e on t h e n a s a l i t y o f a f o l l o w i n g n a s a l consonant, e.g. f r i e n d Tf >"€J 8. V e l a r a s s i m i a l t i o n - a p i c a l consonants t e n d t o a s s i m i l a t e t o a f o l l o w i n g v e l a r consonant, e.g. duck C 3^ 1*3 9. L a b i a l a s s i m i l a t i o n - e.g. t o p C bap] 10. P r o g r e s s i v e vowel a s s i m i l a t i o n - an u n s t r e s s e d vowel w i l l a s s i m i l a t e t o a p r e c e d i n g s t r e s s e d v o w e l , e.g. appl e C ?aba/) S u b s t i t u t i o n processes 11. S t o p p i n g - f r i c a t i v e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y o t h e r sounds a r e ' r e p l a c e d w i t h a s t o p consonant, e.g. s e a t £ " t i t ] 90 Table 10- continued 12. Fronting of velars - velar consonants tend to be replaced with alveolar ones, e.g. book CbutJ 13. Fronting of p a l a t a l s - s i m i l a r to above, e.g. shoe L~Stl3 Ik. Denasalization - the replacement of a nasal consonant with an o r a l one, e.g. no[«Aow], home C lou.b] 15 G l i d i n g - the substitution of a glide (jw3 or Cy] for a l i q u i d sound, i . e . t i l , \r~\, e.g. rock [wa.K] , lap CjaepJ 16. Vocalization - the replacement of a s y l l a b i c consonant with a vowel, e.g. apple [ »po3 17. Vowel n e u t r a l i z a t i o n - the reduction of vowels to a central [a] or C^J , e.g. bath [ b&tJ , book [ boxj 91 Since the n o t i o n of p h o n o l o g i c a l process i s based on inherent tendencies toward s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the c h i l d , one would expect s i m i l a r processes to appear i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese. D i f f e r e n c e s should r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from the model language in i n i t i a t i n g c e r t a i n processes over o t h e r s . For example, the r e d u c t i o n of c l u s t e r s i s no problem when the model language has no c l u s t e r s . To date, no study has attempted a p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s of Cantonese. To get an idea of what processes might be expected, I examined randomly s e l e c t e d samples of the f i r s t three s e s s i o n s with 'Wai', and the s e s s i o n with 'Wing'. These p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s were used to c o n s t r u c t the P h o n o l o g i c a l Processes Sheet (see Appendix 1). On i t , three g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of p h o n o l o g i c a l processes are i n d i c a t e d . The f i r s t category comprises S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e Processes , i . e . those processes that tend to s i m p l i f y the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e . The process of d e l e t i n g the f i n a l consonant, f o r example, i s one such p r o c e s s . The second k i n d i s S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes, which re p r e s e n t s processes that r e p l a c e an a d u l t sound with a simpler one. These do not r e f e r to neighboring sounds, and oft e n a f f e c t e n t i r e c l a s s e s of sounds, not j u s t i n d i v i d u a l ones. The f o l l o w i n g are some processes that belong to t h i s c a t e gory: Stopping: Wai at 1;7(14) / t s p i 2 / 'diminutive s u f f i x ' [ t p i 2 ] A f f r i c a t i o n : Wai at 1;7(14) / s f c V ' t o w r i t e ' [ts\2] 92 Monophthongi sa t ion : Wai at 1 ; 8( 1 1 ) / k a i 1 / ' s t r e e t ' [ k a 1 ] L a x i n g : Wai at 1;17(27) / f a n 1 / ' t o r e t u r n ' [ fpn 1 ] F r o n t i n g : Wing at 2;0(6) / k p i 1 / ' c h i c k e n ' [ t f i 1 ] The l a s t group i s tha t of A s s i m i l a t o r y Processes , i . e . those that make one segment more l i k e another one in the s y l l a b l e , e . g . Wai at 1 ; 7 ( 27 ) / p i n 1 - - ( t o u 6 ) / ' w h e r e ? ' [ p i p 7 ] The process a n a l y s i s proceeded as f o l l o w s : F i r s t , each s u b s t i t u t i o n on the Inventory S h e e t - L e x i c a l Types was examined and a p h o n o l o g i c a l process proposed for i t . T h i s process was entered on the P h o n o l o g i c a l Processes Sheet, a long w i t h i t s p r o p o r t i o n of f requency. Thi s p r o p o r t i o n represents the number of times the process o c c u r r e d , g iven environments where i t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y o c c u r . For example, Laxing of vowels and d iphthongs : -> *P -33 ( 2/6 ) a i > p i .50 ( 3/6 ) The processes that occurred were then p laced i n t o a column of the Summary Sheet that r e f l e c t e d i t s p r o p o r t i o n of occurrence . The example above of the Laxing of vowels and diphthongs would be entered on the Summary Sheet as f o l l o w s : Laxing of vowels and diphthongs (X -~i> p | q i — * p i 0 - ZOfo 21 -1*9% 50 -79% 80 -100$ 93 The Summary Sheet consequently would c o n t a i n a l l the processes that o c c u r r e d along with t h e i r general frequency. 3.7. SAMPLES ANALYSED Because of the e x t e n s i v e amount of data c o l l e c t e d from Wai, as w e l l as the p r o x i m i t y of the s e s s i o n s , I decided to s e l e c t s i x of the tw e n t y - f i v e s e s s i o n s as anchor p o i n t s f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . I t was f e l t that t h i s would give a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e of Wai's l o n g i t u d i n a l development. The s e s s i o n s chosen f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are 1,5,10,15,20, and 25. The data from these s e s s i o n s were analyzed f o r each of the analyses d i s c u s s e d above. Other s e s s i o n s were used as r e f e r e n c e s whenever necessary. From the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l samples, I chose Session 3 of Ching and Session 2 of Wing fo r a n a l y s i s . These s e s s i o n s were s e l e c t e d because they are c l o s e r to the two speech samples of Wai i n terms of age. At Session 3, Ching was 1;8(5), which i s c l o s e to Wai at Ses s i o n 5, 1,9(11). At Ses s i o n 2, Wing was 2;0(6), which i s very c l o s e to Wai at Sess i o n 10, 2;0(11). The s e l e c t i o n of these speech samples i n terms of the cl o s e n e s s of age all o w s us to have a b e t t e r ground f o r comparing the d i f f e r e n t a spects of speech development of these s u b j e c t s . 94 Chaper 3: Footnotes 1 U n l i k e Ingram (1981), t h i s study excludes the a n a l y s i s of homonymy as one of the major p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s . Instead, a new a n a l y s i s , the a n a l y s i s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , i s added. Although homonymous forms are a l s o found i n the s u b j e c t s ' speech, t h e i r occurrence i s i n f r e q u e n t . In t h i s study, the a n a l y i s of homonymy i s c o n s i d e r e d to be of l e s s importance. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the a n a l y s i s of homonymy, and a comparison of the homonymous forms between the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s and the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s i s given i n Appendix 2. 2 ' C i ' can a l s o be a monosyllable. Examples of t h i s type are / t ' i n 1/'sky', / t e i 6 / ' e a rth', and /jpn 4/'man, person'. They are sometimes c l a s s i f i e d under the term 'the monosyllable type of c i * . In f a c t , ' z i ' and. 'the monosyllable type of c i ' are o f t e n o v e r l a p p i n g and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i s very d i f f i c u l t to t e l l . U s u a l l y , they are t r e a t e d e q u a l l y , and are c a l l e d 'the mo n o s y l l a b l e s ' . 3 Tone i s mentioned to a l e s s e r extent i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n of the s u b j e c t s ' o c c a s i o n a l ' e r r o r ' i n tones w i l l be found i n S e c t i o n 3.3.5. u These two s y l l a b i c n a s a l s occur only with the lower tones and are l i m i t e d to a few s y l l a b l e s i n Cantonese. The s y l l a b i c /m/ i s l i m i t e d to one c o l l o q u i a l form only, namely the form f o r the negative marker /m/ (Wong,1940). Hashimoto (1972) adds another marginal form, i . e . the a t o n i c form of 95 /m6/ f o r i n d i c a t i n g agreement. The s y l l a b i c consonant/*)/ i s l i m i t e d to three forms, namely, / r j V 'a surname', i / r j 5 / ' f i v e ; a f t e r n o o n ' , and / r j 6 / 'misunderstanding'. 96 CHAPTER 4. THE ACQUISITION OF CANTONESE BY WAI, CHING, AND WING 4.1. PHONETIC STABILITY The data from Wai, Ching, and Wing were f i r s t observed fo r i n f o r m a t i o n about the sample s i z e . Table 11 presents the number of t h e i r l e x i c a l types, phonetic types, phonetic tokens, and phonetic forms f o r the s e s s i o n s a n a l y s e d . From i n f o r m a t i o n recorded i n t h i s t a b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine the degree of s t a b i l i t y i n the samples by l o o k i n g at the r e l a t i o n between the number of L e x i c a l Types and Phonetic Types of each s e s s i o n . R e c a l l that Phonetic Types are d i s t i n c t phonetic forms f o r a d u l t models or l e x i c a l types. T h e r e f o r e , a higher number of phonetic types i n r e l a t i o n to l e x i c a l types i n d i c a t e s an unstable vocabulary. The f o l l o w i n g formula was used to examine s t a b i l i t y : i n d e x o f p h o n e t i c s t a b i l i t y : Number of P h o n e t i c Types - Number of L e x i c a l Types Number of L e x i c a l Types The index i n d i c a t e s the extent of phonetic v a r i a t i o n s i n the c h i l d ' s attempts to produce a d u l t s y l l a b l e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the lower the index of phonetic s t a b i l i t y , the more s t a b l e the c h i l d ' s speech i s . Table 12 presents the index of phonetic s t a b i l i t y f o r the data i n Table 11. From Table 12, we can see that Wai's speech becomes more s t a b l e as she gets o l d e r ; the index of phonetic 97 Table 11: Names, ages, and sample s i z e s of th e t h r e e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d C h i l d S e s s i o n Number Age L e x i c a l Types P h o n e t i c Types P h o n e t i c Tokens P h o n e t i c !?orms Wai 1 1;7(14) 179 236 410 215 5 1 ; 9 ( H ) 169 218 518 205 10 2;0(11) 190 239 715 219 15 2;3 153 191 510 182 20 2;5(22) I67 188 633 183 25 2;8(11) 198 221 589 216 Wing 2 2;0(6) 114 129 211 120 C h i n g 3 1:8(5) 40 59 150 54 98 T a b l e 12: The i n d e x o f p h o n e t i c s t a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e s s i o n s f o r Wai, Wing and C h i n g C h i l d S e s s i o n L e x i c a l P h o n e t i c i n d e x o f Number Types Types s t a b i l i t y Wai 1 179 236 • 30 5 169 218 .28 10 190 239 .26 15 153 191 .Zk 20 I67 188 • 13 25 198 221 .11 Wing 2 Ilk 129 • 13 C h i n g 3 ko 59 • ^7 99 s t a b i l i t y drops s t e a d i l y from .30 at Session 1 to .11 at Session 25. From Sessions 1 to 15, there i s a gradual decrease of .02 at each s e s s i o n . At Session 20, a b i g drop occurs from .24 to .13, a d i f f e r e n c e of .11. In terms of Wai's s t a b i l i t y , the important change takes p l a c e s between Session 15 and Session 20. A comparison of Ching's r a t e with that of Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n shows that Ching's r a t e i s much higher than Wai's. It y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n c e of .17 (.47 - .30). Ching, t h e r e f o r e , has much more phonetic v a r i a t i o n than even Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n . Wing, on the other hand, has a lower index, .13, which matches Wai's performance at Session 20. Since we do not have l o n g i t u d i n a l data from Wing and Ching, however, we cannot decide whether they are two extreme types of c h i l d r e n r e g a r d i n g phonetic v a r i a t i o n , or simply at d i f f e r e n t stages of development. L a t e r analyses w i l l h e l p shed l i g h t on t h i s i s s u e . Wing i s e i t h e r h i g h l y s t a b l e i n h i s p r o d u c t i o n , or more advanced in h i s development. 4.2. RESULTS OF THE PHONETIC ANALYSIS T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l c o n s i d e r three aspects of the c h i l d r e n ' s phonetic a b i l i t y . These a r e : (1) the T o t a l Number of Sounds and the A r t i c u l a t i o n Score, (2) the a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l segments, and (3) the establishment of the c h i l d r e n ' s phonetic i n v e n t o r i e s . 100 4.2.1. Measures of Phonetic Development Table 13 p r e s e n t s the T o t a l Number of Sounds of the s i x s e s s i o n s with Wai. As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the measure of the T o t a l Number of Sounds i s a gross measure of phonetic development. Presumably the more sounds a c h i l d uses, the more advanced he or she i s . From these data i t i s c l e a r Wai does not i n c r e a s e the number of sounds over the p e r i o d s t u d i e d . For example, a comparison of Sessions 1 and 25 f o r s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l consonants shows the same number of sounds a c q u i r e d . The same i s the case f o r the f i n a l v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants. In Session 1, there are 10 used and 3 t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds (a t o t a l of 13 sounds), whereas i n Session 25, there are 8 used and 7 t r a n s i t i o n a l sounds(a t o t a l of 15 sounds). There i s only a d i f f e r e n c e of 2 sounds between these two s e s s i o n s . As f o r the f i n a l consonants, in Session 1, there are 3 sounds used, whereas in S e s s i o n 25, there are 3 used and 1 t r a n s i t i o n a l (a t o t a l of 4 sounds). T h i s y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n c e of 1 sound. Table 14 presents the T o t a l Number of Sounds f o r the s e s s i o n s f o r Ching and Wing . We can see that the t o t a l s f o r Ching are lower than any of Wai's s e s s i o n s . For example, the t o t a l of 20 sounds f o r Ching i s 10 (or 33% l e s s ) below that of Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n , which i s 30 sounds. Wing, however, i s more advanced than Ching, and much c l o s e r to Wai.Wing's t o t a l of 28 sounds i s only 2 l e s s 101 T a b l e 13: The t o t a l number o f sounds f o r Wai at 6 s e s s i o n s Segments 1 5 S e s s i o n 10 Number 15 20 25 S y l l a b l e i n i t i a l - consonants 9(5) 10(2) 8(4) 8(4) 9(5) 9(5) S y l l a b l e f i n a l - v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b l e s -consonants 10(3) 3 9(6) 3(2) 10(4) 3 9 CO 3 10(4) 2(2) 8(7) 3 ( D T o t a l 23(7) 22(9) 20(10) 20(8) 21(11) 20(13) T a b l e 14: T o t a l number of sounds f o r C h i n g and Wing Segments C h i n g Wing S y l l a b l e i n i t i a l - consonants 9 6(3) S y l l a b l e f i n a l - v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b l e s 6(4) 9(5) -consonants 11 3(2) T o t a l 16(4) 18(10) 103 than the f i r s t s e s s i o n f o r Wai, and matches the 28 sounds used by Wai at Session 15. While Wing i s comparable to Wai on t h i s measure, we w i l l need to r e s o r t to other ones to see how Wing w i l l compare ac r o s s the 6 s e s s i o n s observed for Wai. The c a l c u l a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s A r t i c u l a t i o n Score i s a more p r e c i s e score than the T o t a l Number of Sounds. The r e s u l t s on t h i s measure are presented f o r Wai i n Table 15, and f o r Ching and Wing i n Table 16 . The r e s u l t s on t h i s measure are comparable to those observed f o r the l e s s p r e c i s e T o t a l Number of Sounds. F i r s t , Wai shows no drop over the 6 s e s s i o n s . Second, the comparison with Ching and Wing i n d i c a t e s that Ching i s not as advanced as Wai, and that Wing i s much c l o s e r to Wai. The score does, however, show that Wing's score of 52 i s lower than any of Wai's sc o r e s . T h e r e f o r e t h i s measure suggests that Wing i s s l i g h l t y l e s s advanced than Wai was at the f i r s t s e s s i o n . 4.2.2. The A n a l y s i s of I n d i v i d u a l Segments Tables 17 and 18 present i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t u a l segments used by Wai. Each segment i s shown in terms of whether each i s ' t r a n s i t i o n a l ' , 'used', or 'used beyond c r i t e r i o n ' . A l s o the t o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score i s given f o r each segment across the s i x s e s s i o n s . These r e s u l t s f o r Wai are summarized in Table 19, which d i v i d e s the v a r i o u s segments i n t o 'acquired' and 'not i. a c q u i r e d ' sounds. In doing t h i s , a l l s i x s e s s i o n s with Wai 104. T a b l e 15: A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e s f o r Wai at 6 s e s s i o n s Segments 1 S e s s i o n 5 Number 10 15 20 25 S y l l a b l e i n i t i a l 24 23 22 21 26 25 -consonants S y l l a b l e f i n a l 23 - v o c a l i c s & 28 27 26 27 27 s y l l a b l e s -consonants 6 9 6 6 6 8 T o t a l 58 59 54 54 59 56 T a b l e 16s A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e s f o r C h i n g and Wing Segments C h i n g Wing S y l l a b l e i n i t i a l - consonants 21 17 S y l l a b l e f i n a l - v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b l e s 18 27 -consonants 2 8 T o t a l 41 52 106 Table 1?: The occurrence of Cantonese i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants i n Wai's s e s s i o n s based on whether each was (1) t r a n s i t i o n a l (C), (2) used, C, (3) twice c r i t e r i o n or more, C* , or (4) never occurred, blank. . . .... Consonants i S e s s i o n A.S. I n i t i a l : 1 5 10 15 20 25 T o t a l n a s a l s m- . rn m (m) m (m) rn 10 n- (n) n n (n) (n) (n) 8 3 - (3) 1 stops p- (p) p.* P (p) P P 11 p'- P' P* (p' ) (P* ) 6 t - t * t t t t '• t 14 t ' - t ' t ' ( f ) ( f ) ( f ) 7 t s - t s t s t s * t s ;' t s * t s 15 t s' - (ts- ) ( t s 1 ) t s ' t s ' ( t s ' ) 7 k- k k k* k k k:^ 14 k 1 - 0 kw - 0 kw' - 0 f r i c a t i v e s s- s s s s s* s 13 f - U ) 1 approximants 1- 1 (1) (1) 1 1 8 h- h h h h h h 12 o- ( j ) ( j ) j j j j 10 w- (w) (w) (w) 3 F i n a l : n a s a l s -m (m) (m) 2 -n n n n n n n 12 -3 9 g* 3 9 0 r 14 stops -p (p) 1 - t 0 -k k k k k (k) k .11 10? •Table 18: The occurrence of Cantonese v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants i n Wai's s e s s i o n s based on whether each was (1) t r a n s i t i o n a l (V), (2) used, V, (3) twice c r i t e r i o n or more, V*, or (4) never occurred, blank. '— V o c a l i c S: S e s s i o n A.S. vov/els 1 5 10 15 20 25 T o t a l i i * i i * i * i * i * 17 y 0 u u u u U u u 12 £ e * £ * E £• E * 16 oe. U ) (* ) 2 0 j * D * D 3 * 3 * 16 a a * a * a-* a a * a * 17 P p* TP* P P p * TP 15 diphthongs ai ( a i ) ; (ai) (ai) (ai)." (as) 5 p i P i P i P i P i p i ( P i ) 11 e i ( e i ) e i ( e i ) ( e i ) e i e i 9 a-.y r.y) 1 o i 0 ui 0 ail (a-C (at;) (a'.'O 3 (pu). (T?u) (Pu) p u (Pu) (pu) ' 7 ou OU (ou) OU (ou) (ou) (ou) 8 i : U ( i i O A.i • '•) 3 . s y l l a b i c consonant s m 1 m 0 • m 9 m i !) 4 " m i m n m 12 8 108 Table 1.9': D i v i s i o n o f Wai's segments i n t o t h o s e ' a c q u i r e d ' and th o s e 'not a c q u i r e d ' . To be ' a c q u i r e d ' , a sound must be 'used' i n a t l e a s t t h r e e s e s s i o n s , and be 'used' o r t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e s e s s i o n s . A r t i c u l a t i o n S c ores a re shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s . I n i t i a l c onsonants F i n a l consonants V o c a l i c s & S y l l a b l e s A c q u i r e d rn-(10) n-(8) -n(12)-»)(l&) n d7) u.-(l2) P- (11) t - ( l 4 ) k - ( l 4 ) - k ( l l ) £ (16) O (16) t s - ( 1 5 ) a (17) P(15) s-(13) h-(12) j - ( i o ) e i ( 9 ) P i ( U ) m • (12) Not A c q u i r e d 0 - d ) -m(2) y (o) P' -(6) f - ( 7 ) k'-(0) kw-(0) - p ( D -t(o) ce (2) t s ' - ( 7 ) kw' - (0) a i (5) au (3) f - (1) Vu(7) w- (3) l-(8) oi (o) u'f (0) ou(8) i U (3) 0(8) 109 are c o l l a p s e d together. Since a sound r e c e i v e s a score of 2 p o i n t s when i t i s 'used', and there are s i x s e s s i o n s observed, we c o u l d set 12 as a general score to say a sound has been a c q u i r e d across the s i x s e s s i o n s . T h i s score, however, appears to be too s t r i n g e n t . For example, i t would e l i m i n a t e f i n a l /k/, which has a score of 11, even though the sound occurs i n f i v e of the s i x s e s s i o n s as used and once as t r a n s i t i o n a l . The f o l l o w i n g weaker c r i t e r i o n was used: .A sound was co n s i d e r e d a c q u i r e d i f i t was 'used' i n at l e a s t three s e s s i o n s and 'used' or ' t r a n s i t i o n a l ' i n the other t h r e e . T h i s weaker measure y i e l d s the a c q u i r e d sounds for Wai presented i n Table 19 . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 19, one sees that f o r i n i t i a l consonants, except f o r the u n a s p i r a t e d l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r stop /kw/, a l l the u n a s p i r a t e d sounds were a c q u i r e d . On the other hand, none of the a s p i r a t e d stops and a f f r i c a t e s were a c q u i r e d . The reason that the a s p i r a t e d l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r stop /kw'/ i s not a c q u i r e d i s probably due to the in f r e q u e n t occurrence of t h i s sound i n the language system, /kw'/, together with the l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r stop /kw/, can only appear together with a l i m i t e d number of f i n a l s . Hashimoto (1972) h a s . i n d i c a t e d that /kw/ i s r e s t r i c t e d only to 15 f i n a l s (out of 53), and /kw'/ i s r e s t r i c t e d only to 7 f i n a l s . In a d d i t i o n , as mentioned before i n Chapter 2, H.N. Cheung (1972) has found that i n the v a r i e t y of Cantonese spoken i n Hong Kong, the i n i t i a l s /kw/ and /kw'/, when fo l l o w e d by the f i n a l s /of\/ and /jk/ u s u a l l y l o s e t h e i r 110 l a b i a l i z e d f e a t u r e . For example, /kwjn,2/ 'wide' becomes / k o r j 2 / , /kw'Dr) 1/ ' l i g h t ' becomes /k' o r ) 1 / and /kwok 8/ 'country' becomes /kok 8/. Other sounds that were not a c q u i r e d are i n i t i a l /ry, /f/,/w/ and / l / . As f o r the f i n a l consonants, two out of three n a s a l s were a c q u i r e d , i . e . /n/ and A}/. A l s o there i s only one f i n a l stop that was a c q u i r e d , i . e . /k/. I t seems that Wai has a s l i g h t n a s a l p r e f e r e n c e . As f o r the v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c s , one sees the b a s i c vowels were a c q u i r e d , except for the two f r o n t rounded vowels /y/ and / a s / . However, i n terms of diphthongs, only 2 out of 10 diphthongs (20%) were a c q u i r e d . They are / e i / and / " p i / . S y l l a b i c /m/ was a c q u i r e d but / § / was not. Based on the A r t i c u l a t i o n Scores f o r the sound segments in Table 19, I set up a h i e r a r c h y of the frequency of occurrence of i n d i v i d u a l segments f o r Wai. I t i s presented i n Table 20. I t s purpose i s to see which sound segments are more p r e f e r r e d , and which ones are l e s s p r e f e r r e d or not attempted by Wai. From Table 20, one sees that among v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants, / i / , /a/, /o/ and / £ / are the most frequent sounds, whereas A i / , / u i / , /y/ are the l e a s t frequent ones. Among i n i t i a l consonants, / t s / , / t / , /k/, and / s / are the most frequent sounds, whereas /w/, A)A / f / , /k/,/kw/ and /kw'/ are the l e a s t f r equent. Among f i n a l consonants, /^ )A A/ a n <3 A/ are the most frequent sounds, with t h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n scores ranging from 14 to 11, I l l T a b l e 20 : A h i e r a r c h y of t h e f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e of sounds f o r Wai i n terms of A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e s . Rank i n i t i a l c o nsonants f i n a l c onsonants . v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c consonants A.S.-" 1 i a 17 2 16 3 t s - 15 4 t - k- 14 5 s- 13 6 h- -n m u • 12 7 P- -k V i 11 8 m- j - 10 9 e i 9 10 1- n- 9 ou i 8 11 t ' - t s ' - 7 12 P' - 6 13 ai . 5 14 w- au i u 3 15 -m ot 2 16 3 - f - -P oey 1 17 k- kw-kw' - t Di • ui . y 0 1 12 whereas the a r t i c u l a t i o n scores f o r /m/, /p/ and / t / are rather low, ranging from 2 to 0. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that Wai mainly used A)A /n/ and /k/ f i n a l s i n her speech, while the other three f i n a l s were seldom used. Since only one s e s s i o n was observed f o r Ching and Wing, t h e i r data can be presented i n the form of t h e i r phonetic i n v e n t o r i e s f o r t h e i r s e s s i o n s . Table 21 presents the phonetic i n v e n t o r i e s f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants for the s e s s i o n s from Ching and Wing. Table 22 does so f o r the v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b l e s . Sounds are shown a c c o r d i n g to whether they were 'used beyond c r i t e r i o n ' , 'used', or ' t r a n s i t i o n a l ' . Sounds that never occurred are p l a c e d i n the 'not used' column. As- i n d i c a t e d i n Table 21, one sees that f o r the i n i t i a l consonants, both Ching and Wing had more or l e s s the same number of sounds. For Ching, there were 9 sounds, and f o r Wing, 10 sounds. In f a c t , the main d i f f e r e n c e between these two c h i l d r e n was i n the use of f i n a l consonants. For Ching, only one sound was used, i . e . ./k/. Whereas f o r Wing, except f o r /p/, a l l the other f i n a l consonants occur. As shown in Table 22, Wing has used a l l the e i g h t b a s i c vowels i n Cantonese. He was the only one that had achieved t h i s among the three s u b j e c t s . Ching, l i k e Wai, d i d not a c q u i r e the two f r o n t rounded vowel / y / and /ce/. With respect to diphthongs, both Ching and Wing used the same number of diphthongs i n a l l the s e s s i o n s . As for s y l l a b i c consonants, Ching d i d not use any, whereas 113 Table 21 : The phonetic i n v e n t o r i e s f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants f o r Ching and Wing. Ching Wing i n i t i a l f i n a l i n i t i a l f i n a l used • •m-p-* t - * le-t s - * t s ' -* s- h-w--k m-p- t - * t s -t s ' -( f - ) s-* (h-) 3--m -n - J ) (-t) (-k) not used n- r j -v'p'- t ' - k'-kw-kw' -f -1-j --m -n -Q -p - t n- r j -p'- t ' - k-k' -kw-kw' -1-w--P r • f 114 T a b l e 22 : The p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r i e s f o r v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b l e s f o r C h i n g and Wing C h i n g Wing V o c a l i c s S y l l a b l e s V o c a l i c s S y l l a b l e s used i (u) i * y u i 8 0 £ (<*) 3 a •* a p * (a i ) . (ou) ( a i ) . ou ( e i ) a u e i ( i u ) u i (au) not used y oe p m i 0 1 0 « P i p u oe.y i U oi , P i oey 0« pu 115 Wing used one, i . e . /m/. 4.2.3. An Inventory of the E a r l y Sounds Acquired i n  Cantonese From the data p r e s e n t e d above, i t i s p o s s i b l e to set up an i n v e n t o r y of the f i r s t sounds a c q u i r e d i n Cantonese. To do t h i s , I have taken a l l sounds that appear as 'used' i n the phonetic i n v e n t o r i e s of at l e a s t two s u b j e c t s . These are shown in Table 23. Those sounds 'used' by a l l three s u b j e c t s are c i r c l e d to separate t h e i r more secure s t a t u s i n the a n a l y s i s . Data l i k e t h a t i n Table 23 can be used f o r comparison to that from other Cantonese s u b j e c t s to see the b a s i c sounds a c q u i r e d , and a l s o to data from c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g other languages . 4.3. RESULTS OF THE REDUPLICATION ANALYSIS Table 24 presents the p r o p o r t i o n s of r e d u p l i c a t i o n on v a r i o u s measures f o r Wai a c r o s s the s i x s e s s i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The same r e s u l t s are presented f o r Ching and Wing i n Table 25. As i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n 3.5., Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are l i m i t e d to 'baby t a l k ' i n the c h i l d ' s speech. One seldom f i n d s the use of t h i s type during a normal a d u l t - t o -a d u l t c o n v e r s a t i o n . The e q u i v a l e n t of the Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d form i n Cantonese i s the baby t a l k 'baabaa' f o r sheep, or 'kaka' fo r car i n E n g l i s h . Type B forms are cases where the c h i l d r e d u p l i c a t e s a r e d u p l i c a t e d a d u l t 116 Table 23 : Summary of segments a c q u i r e d by Wai,Ching, and Wing. Sounds are shown that were 'used' by at l e a s t 2 s u b j e c t s . C i r c l e d sounds are those 'used' by a l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s . I n i t i a l consonants 0 © k-t s ' -F i n a l consonants | V o c a l i c s & S y l l a b l e s •n - g © © 0-P ei 11? T a b l e 24: P r o p o r t i o n and number(in p a r e n t h e s e s ) o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n s f o r Wai a t 6 s e s s i o n s f o r s e l e c t e d measures of r e d u p l i c a t i o n Measure o f R e d u p l i c a t i o n 1 5 Wai' s 10 s e s s i o n 15 20 25 R e d u p l i c a t e d forms .20(44) .09(20) .11(25) •09(17) •08(15) .09(20) Types o f R e d u p l i c a t i o n Type A .16(36) •06(13) .06(14) .05(9) .05(10) .05(11) Type B .04(8) •P3(7) .05(11) •05(9) •03(5) .05(10) Form C l a s s of Type A R e d u p l i c a t i o n s No uns .58(21.) .46(6) .71(io) .66(6) .40(4) •45(5) Verbs •30(12) .46(6) .14(2) .22(2) •30(3) .27(3) A d j e c t i v e s / Adverbs •08(3) .07(1) .14(2) .11(1) •30(3) .27(3) 118 Ta b l e 25: P r o p o r t i o n and number ( i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) of r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r C h i n g and Wing f o r s e l e c t e d measures o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n Measure of r e d u p l i c a t i o n C h i n g Wing R e d u p l i c a t e d forms .49(2?) .10(12) Types of r e d u p l i c a t i o n Type A Type B .31(17) .18(10) .07(8) .03(4) Form C l a s s o f Type A r e d u p l i c a t i o n Nouns Verbs .64(11) .18(3) .75(6) .25(2) A d j e c t i v e s / Adverbs .18(3) .00(0) 119 model. For Wai, we can see that the p r o p o r t i o n s f o r both are low, from .03 to .06 ac r o s s the s e s s i o n s except f o r Session 1' where she has a p r o p o r t i o n of .16 Type A r e d u p l i c a t i o n s . Thus i t i s only i n t h i s case, that we f i n d much r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g from E n g l i s h ( Fee and Ingram, 1982) that r e d u p l i c a t i o n occurs e a r l y and then decreases g r e a t l y . The f i g u r e s f o r Ching and Wing show a c o n t r a s t i n t h i s regard ( c f . Table 25). We have seen from the r e s u l t s of the phonetic analyses that Ching i s the l e a s t advanced c h i l d i n the study. Her r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n confirms t h i s , as she has .31 f o r Type A, showing a great d e a l of r e d u p l i c a t i o n , and twice as much as Wai at her hi g h e s t s e s s i o n , Session 1. Wing, on the other hand, i s c l o s e r to Wai, and h i s p r o p o r t i o n f o r Type A i s only .07, comparable to Wai's p r o p o r t i o n f o r Sessions 5 through .25. Ching a l s o has many more Type B r e d u p l i c a t i o n s , .18, than e i t h e r of the other two s u b j e c t s . As f a r as the number of k i n s h i p terms are concerned, Ching used more than the other two s u b j e c t s . The r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s a l s o p r o v i d e s us with a p i c t u r e of which p a r t s of speech are r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. Cantonese r e d u p l i c a t e d forms can be nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s , or adverbs, while E n g l i s h r e d u p l i c a t i o n s are u s u a l l y nouns, e.g. 'baby' [ b i b i ] . Since Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are mostly nouns, here the a n a l y s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on Type A r e d u p l i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s show that Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are mostly nouns, and then 1 20 verbs. The a d j e c t i v e / a d v e r b r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are the l e a s t frequent, although these i n c r e a s e across the 6 s e s s i o n s f o r Wai. 4.4. RESULTS FROM SUBSTITUTION ANALYSIS 4.4.1. The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches and the P r o p o r t i o n of Data Table 26 presents the p r o p o r t i o n of matches and the p r o p o r t i o n of data f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants fo r Wai across s i x s e s s i o n s . The same r e s u l t s are presented f o r Ching and Wing in Table 27 . As mentioned before i n : C h a p t e r 3, the p r o p o r t i o n of matches i s the number of matches over the t o t a l number of a d u l t sounds attempted by the c h i l d . Based on the r e s u l t s of the p r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r Wai a c r o s s s i x s e s s i o n s , one sees that i n g e n e r a l , Wai's r a t e of matching the a d u l t ' s sounds gets higher as she gets o l d e r . For i n i t i a l consonants, and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants, Wai's r a t e s are i n c r e a s i n g a c r o s s the s i x s e s s i o n s , except f o r a s l i g h t decrease at Session 5 and Session 15 f o r the i n i t i a l consonants (.81 f o r both s e s s i o n s as compared to .87 f o r Sessions 1 and 10). For f i n a l consonants, the r a t e s seem to f l u c t u a t e more. However, based on the mean p r o p o r t i o n , one sees that Wai's rate of matching the a d u l t ' s sounds becomes 121 Table 26 : P r o p o r t i o n of matches and p r o p o r t i o n of data f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants f o r Wai ac r o s s s i x s e s s i o n s Measures 1 5 Sessions 10 15 20 25 •> T o t a l P r o p o r t i o n of matches i n i t i a l '•" ' consonants • 87 .81 • 87 .81 .87 .94 .86 f i n a l consonants .83 • 50 • 83 .66 1.00 .83 • 78 v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c consonants .68 • 72 • 72 • 76 • 89 • 89 • 78 X • 76 • 74 .80 .81 • 90 • 90 .82 P r o p o r t i o n of data i n i t i a l & f i n a l con-sonants (n/25) .88 .88 .88 .88 .88 .92 • 89 v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c consonants(n/20 ).95 • 90 • 90 • 85 • 95 • 95 .92 X • 91 • 89 .89 • 87 • 91 • 93 • .90 122 Ta b l e 27: P r o p o r t i o n o f matches and p r o p o r t i o n of d a t a f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s , and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c con-sonants f o r C h i n g and Wing. Measures Ch i n g Wing P r o p o r t i o n o f matches i n i t i a l c onsonants ,89 • 78 f i n a l consonants 1.00 .66 v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c c onsonants ' -75 .82 X .84 .82 P r o p o r t i o n of d a t a i n i t i a l & f i n a l c onsonants .44 .80 v o c a l i c s u&" s y l l a b i c consonants .40 .85 X .42 .82 123 higher throughout the s e s s i o n s . The only exception i s a s l i g h t decrease at Wai's Session 5 (.74 as compared to Session 1, .76). Since the p r o p o r t i o n of matches may vary a c c o r d i n g to the number of sounds attempted, i t i s a l s o important to c a l c u l a t e the p r o p o r t i o n of data. T h i s i s the number of sounds attempted over the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e sounds, which f o r Cantonese i s 45 (19 f o r the i n i t i a l consonants, 6 f o r the f i n a l consonants, and 20 f o r the v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants). As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 26, i t was found that Wai's p r o p o r t i o n of data i s r a t h e r constant throughout the s i x s e s s i o n s . T h i s can be shown from the r a t e s of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants, the v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants. We can conclude from these data that Wai attempts most Cantonese sounds (a mean t o t a l of .90 as i n d i c a t e d i n the p r o p o r t i o n of d a t a ) , and that these p r o d u c t i o n s are accurate most of the time ( a mean t o t a l of .82 as i n d i c a t e d i n the p r o p o r t i o n of matches). As shown i n Table 27, the mean t o t a l s of the p r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r both Ching and Wing are almost the same (.84 f o r Ching, and .82 f o r Wing). In f a c t , these are comparable to two of Wai's s e s s i o n s , i . e . Session 10 and Session 15 (.80 and .81 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Based on the high matching r a t e s of these three s u b j e c t s , one can suggest that t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s are rather accurate during the s e s s i o n s under study. As f o r the p r o p o r t i o n of data shown i n Table 25, i t 124 was found that Ching's r a t e s i n a l l the c a t e g o r i e s are twice as low as Wai's. For example, the mean p r o p o r t i o n of data f o r Ching i s .42, whereas f o r Wing, i t i s .82. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that Ching does not attempt most of the Cantonese sounds. Despite t h i s , however, our data, as has been i n d i c a t e d , showed that Ching's p r o p o r t i o n of matches i s rat h e r h i g h . In f a c t , her r a t e (.84) i s higher than that of Wing (.82) and some of the s e s s i o n s of Wai, such as Sessions 1,5,10 and 15. Based on the r e s u l t s from the p r o p o r t i o n s of matches and data, one can conclude that Ching i s a c a u t i o u s l e a r n e r of Cantonese. Instead of attempting many of the a d u l t ' s sounds at one time, she would r a t h e r concentrate her e f f o r t on few sounds, and produce them a c c u r a t e l y . 4.4.2. The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches f o r I n d i v i d u a l Segments Table 28 presents the p r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r the Cantonese i n i t i a l consonants, f i n a l consonants, v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants f o r Wai acro s s 6 s e s s i o n s . From Table 28, i t i s c l e a r that c e r t a i n sounds are e a s i e r f o r Wai than f o r o t h e r s . In examining the data f o r the more d i f f i c u l t sounds, I w i l l i n t e r p r e t sounds with no data as d i f f i c u l t sounds, s i n c e young c h i l d r e n w i l l o f t e n attempt sounds that they cannot u t t e r (Ferguson and F a r w e l l , 1975; Ingram, 1981). Of the mean p r o p o r t i o n of matches a c r o s s a l l s e s s i o n s f o r Wai, I e s t a b l i s h e d a h i e r a r c h y of d i f f i c u l t y 125 : The matches, s u b s t i t u t i o n s , and p r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r each sound segment f o r Wai acro s s 6 s e s s i o n s . Target sound Sessions P r o p o r t i o n 1 5 10 15 20 25 of matches* i n i t i a l con-sonants m V V y y 1. 00 n / V y y y y 1. 00 0 s/ V V y y 1. 00 p V y y t y • 83 p' y y y p • 83 t y t • y y • 83 t ' y y y y y 1 . 00 t s t t t t t y .17 t s ' V V y y y 1 . 00 k V • V y V 1 . 00 k' y .1*7 kw . 00 kw' . 00 s t s t s t s t s t s y 0.17 f w V • .83 1 V y y y y 1 . 00 h V y y 1 . 00 D V V y y y 1 . 00 w N / 1 . 00 f i n a l con-sonants m V V n n \ / • 67 n y 0 y .50 V V V .83 p </ y 1 . 00 t y y V y y y l.oo k V y y y • 33 Table 28 -continued 126 Target sound 1 5 10 Sessions 15 20 25 Proport i o n matches # v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c con-sonants i V y V y y 1. 00 u V y y y y y 1 . 00 oe y y y u D y U D .67 a V p P.Pi y TP • 33 IP V y >/ y y 1. 00 y i i y y V • 50 i i i y y .50 0 y u a y a u. y • 50 ai P i P i P i Tpi y y • 33 P i y y y y y 1 . 00 e i i y y i i • 50 oe.y y y y y 1 . 00 Of V .17 ui y y y •67 au y y p u y y • 83 P u y y y y y 1 . 00 ou 0 y y • 67 i l l y y v y y y 1 . 00 m y y y y y 1 . 00 0 y y y .67 6 Blanks are counted as non-matches i n c a l c l u a t i o n of p r o p o r t i o n of matches 127 f o r the i n d i v i d u a l segments. Table 29 presents the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r Wai . If we compare the order of d i f f i c u l t y with that of the frequency of occurrence of sounds for Wai i n Table 20, we f i n d that the two h i e r a r c h i e s do not match with each other very w e l l . The sound [ t s ] , f o r example, i s the most frequent i n i t i a l consonant i n Table 20. As an a d u l t model, however, i t i s matched by only .17. A c o n t r a d i c t o r y p i c t u r e can be observed with respect to the f i n a l consonant [ t ] . In the phonetic i n v e n t o r y , the sound i s very i n f r e q u e n t . I t i s l i s t e d as the lowest f i n a l consonant in terms of the frequency of occurrence, whereas Table 29 shows i t as one of the e a s i e s t sounds among the s i x f i n a l consonants. T h i s type of c o n t r a d i c t i o n can a l s o be found i n vowels. For example, [a] i s c o n s i d e r e d to be one of the most frequent vowels in the h i e r a r c h y of the frequency of occurrence of sounds, whereas i n the order of d i f f i c u l t y , i t i s p l a c e d as one of the second lowest. The p r o p o r t i o n of matches i s only .37. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y of o r d e r i n g of the same sound i n the two h i e r a r c h i e s i s a l s o r e p o r t e d i n Ingram's study (1981). In h i s study, he found a case i n which [ t ] i s one of the e a s i e s t sounds f o r the E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s to produce i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . The data i n h i s S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s however showed that i t was matched by only 7% of the c h i l d r e n who attempted i t . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h at [ t ] i s one of the more d i f f i c u l t E n g l i s h sounds to a c q u i r e . Ingram d i s c u s s e d t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y in terms of the d i f f e r e n c e between phonetic and 128 Table 29: A h i e r a r c h y of d i f f i c u l t y f o r i n i t i a l consonants, f i n a l consonants, and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonants f o r Wai. Rank i n i t i a l consonants f i n a l consonants v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c consonants P r o p o r t i o r of i matches 1 m- n- rj -t - t s - k-1- h-j - w--p - t i - u> TP a t . y TPu i a m « 1. 00 2 p- p'- t -f --o a u • 83 3 -m flfc u"« ou 0 •67 4 -n y 8 D e i .50 5 -k a a i • 33 6 t s - k- s- • i .17 7 kw - kw' - . 00 129 s u b s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y . He concludes" i t may be that there i s a u n i v e r s a l h i e r a r c h y i n the a r t i c u l a t o r y a b i l i t y f o r a c h i l d to produce d i f f e r e n t sounds; but the a b i l i t y to a c q u i r e a p a r t i c u l a r sound w i t h i n a language w i l l depend on the l i n g u i s t i c circumstances of that sound w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r p h o n o l o g i c a l system"(p.102). In Table 28, the main s u b s t i t u t i o n s used by Wai f o r 6 s e s s i o n s are a l s o presented. Table 30 l i s t s the matches and s u b s t i t u t i o n s used by Ching and Wing . Based on the r e s u l t s of these two t a b l e s , the main s u b s t i t u t i o n s used by these three s u b j e c t s are summarized i n Table 31. The number of p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n i n which each s u b s t i t u t i o n o c c u r r e d i s shown i n parentheses. By comparing the data of Ching's s e s s i o n and Wai's s e s s i o n s , i t i s noted these two s u b j e c t s exemplify d i f f e r e n t s u b s t i t u t i o n p a t t e r n s . For example, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 31, Wai's / t s / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by a [ t ] , whereas Ching's / t s / i s pronounced c o r r e c t l y . While Wai's / s / i s r e p l a c e d by a [ t s ] , Ching's / s / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by a [ t ] . In terms of vowel s u b s t i t u t i o n , Wai's / a / i s o f t e n r e p l a c e d by a [ T P ] , whereas f o r Ching, i t i s the other way around. Wing and Wai a l s o show d i f f e r e n t s u b s t i t u t i o n p a t t e r n s . For example, i n i n i t i a l consonants, Wing's /k/ i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by a [ t ] , whereas Wai does not have any s u b s t i t u t i o n e r r o r f o r the sound. F i n a l l y , while both Wing 130 Ta b l e 30: Matches, substitution?, and i n s t a n c e s o f no d a t a f o r Cantonese i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s , f i n a l c o n s onants, v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c c onsonants f o r C h i n g and Wing. Bl a n k i n d i c a t e s no d a t a . T a r g e t Sound C h i n g Wing Target Sound C h i n g Wing i n i t i a l v o c a l i c s & consonant s s y l l a b i c con-m V v / sonants i >/ V a u y p v / oe . u p* y a p t >/ y IP a a t ' y y t s t V y t s ' V y 0 \ / y k V t ai v / k* P i ai . kw t e i y kw' oty s t DI v/ f y Ul y 1 V aU h 0 PU j y ou \/ w y iu N / f i n a l m consonants ft m V U • n m 3 y n -p t k 131 Table 3 1 : The main s u b s t i t u t i o n s made by the s u b j e c t s throughout a l l the s e s s i o n s (based on Tables 25 and 27).The number of s e s s i o n s t h a t each s u b s t i t u t i o n occurred rn or that" a're'without data i s shown i n -parentheses . .Blanks.. ihdicate. ;.correct matches . S u b s t i t u t i o n s Target sound- WaT Ching •Wing i n i t i a l consonants n no data no data no data no data P t(15) P' p(25) ' t t ' ( 5 ) no data no data t s t ( i , 5 , l o , l 5 , 2 0 ) . k t k' no d a t a ( l , 5 . 1 0 . 15,20) no data no data kw no data( a l l no data t s e s s i o n s ) kw' no data ( a l l no data no data s e s s i o n s ) s t s ( l , 5 . 1 0 , 1 5 , 2 0 ) t f w ( l ) no data 1 no data h 0 j no data w no data f i n a l consonants m n(10,15) no data n 0(5,15) no data m J^(25) 3 0(5) n p no data t no data k 0(1,5) 132 Table 31-continued Target sound Wai Ching Wing v o c a l i c s & s y l l a b i c consonants u no data <£ u o (15,25) no data u a y P ( l,5,10,20) P i ( 1 0 ) i '.(1,10) no dat a (5) no data a no data P a 6 i (1,5,10) 0 a (5,15) u (5,20) aj p i ( l , 5 , i o , l 5 ) no data a'f e i i (1,15,25) no data oey no data no data DI no d a t a ( l , 5 , 1 0 , 1 5 20) no data UI no data(10,15) no data aU. . -pu(lO) i?u no data ou D (1,5) no data i u - no data m no data I no data(15,25) no data no data 133 and Wai s u b s t i t u t e [P] f o r /a/, Wing has another s u b s t i t u t i o n , i . e . / a / i s r e p l a c e d by [P], i n d i c a t i n g that Wing i s t r e a t i n g [a] and [V] as two a l l o p h o n e s . 4.4.3. Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n Most recent s t u d i e s (e.g. Clumeck, 1977, J.K.Tse,1978, L i and Thompson, 1977) have agreed that tone a c q u i s i t i o n i s accomplished w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y short p e r i o d , and that the mastery of tones occurs w e l l i n advance of the mastery of segmentals. In t h i s study, our r e s u l t s seem to j u s t i f y the above f i n d i n g s . Table 32 presents a p r o p o r t i o n of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s for the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . The p r o p o r t i o n i s obtained by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l number of phonetic tokens i n t o the t o t a l number of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 32, Wai makes few tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s . As she gets o l d e r , the p r o p o r t i o n gets even lower, with a p r o p o r t i o n of about .004 (1/589) by Session 25. I f one compares her s u b s t i t u t i o n s of both segmentals and tones, i t i s q u i t e obvious that she has more e r r o r s i n segmentals than i n tones. G e n e r a l l y speaking, both Ching and Wing have a higher p r o p o r t i o n of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n than Wai, although t h e i r s are s t i l l q u i t e low. A l l of Ching's tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s are a s s o c i a t e d with the r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. Although the s u b j e c t s do not make many tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look at what the tones are that the c h i l d r e n have the most problems withn and what 134 Table 32: The p r o p o r t i o n of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . Measures 1 5 10 Wai 15 20 25 Ching Wing no.of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n 7 7 3 3 4 1 6 M0 no. of phonetic tokens 410 518 715 510 633 589 150 211 p r o p o r t i o n of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n . 02 . 01 . 00 . 01 . 01 .00 . o4 .05 135 the tones are that are being s u b s t i t u t e d . Table 33 presents i n f o r m a t i o n on tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s of a l l the s u b j e c t s throughout a l l the s e s s i o n s . The t a r g e t tones have been separated i n t o r e d u p l i c a t e d and n o n r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. With the n o n r e d u p l i c a t e d form, one sees that there are two tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s that occur most f r e q u e n t l y . F i r s t , the 1st tone, high l e v e l (tone value 55: 1) i s r e p l a c e d by the 3rd tone, upper going (tone value 33:). T h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n occurs twice i n Wai's Session 1 and a l s o i n Wing's s e s s i o n . The second s u b s t i t u t i o n , found mostly i n Wing's s e s s i o n , i n v o l v e s the replacement of the upper r i s i n g tone (tone 2, 35:) by the lower r i s i n g tone (tone 5, 23:). T h i s type of tone s u b s t i t u t i o n has a l s o been recorded i n J.K. Tse's study (1978). He found t h a t h i s Cantonese su b j e c t 'Y.L.' had c o n f u s i o n between these two tones even in a stage which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p r o d u c t i v e use of two-word c o n s t r u c t i o n s and the emergence of longer sentences. He suggested that t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s due to the f a c t that the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of these two tones are very s i m i l a r and that the c o n t r a s t i s made only by the p o i n t s of the r i s e , one r i s i n g higher than the other. As f o r r e d u p l i c a t e d forms, Ching i s the one who makes the most tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s . A l l of them are Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. As has been i n d i c a t e d , t h i s type i s l i m i t e d t o the address form of k i n s h i p terms i n t h i s study. In Cantonese, i t i s f e l t that there i s a d i s t i n c t i v e way of saying the k i n s h i p terms depending on each i n d i v i d u a l 136 T a b l e 33: Tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e n i n e Cantonese t o n e s , i n n o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d and r e d u p l i c a t e d forms f o r Wai a t s i x s e s s i o n s and C h i n g and Wing. Target t o n e 1 5 10 15 20') 25 T o t a l C h i n g ; Wing non-r e d u . 1 3(2X) 5 6 4 3(2X) 3(2X) 2 4(2X) 3,1,^ 3 1 5 1 4(3X) K3X) 3(2X) 5 5(6x) 3 4,5 4(2X)1 1 4{-3X.) 1 (2X) 5 4 3 3 5 6 4 2 4,2 4 7 ' 8 9 r e d u . 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 1 4 4 (3X) 4 4 6 6 1 37 f a m i l y . Very o f t e n one f i n d s that the tones i n a d d r e s s i n g the same k i n vary from one f a m i l y to another. For example, in Wai's and Ching's f a m i l i e s , /pa f tpa 1/ ' f a t h e r ' , /ma"ma 1/'mother' and / k o 4 k 0 1 / ' e l d e r brother' are used, whereas i n Wing's f a m i l y , / p a 1 p a V , /ma'ma1/ and / k 3 1 k 3 V are used. In f a c t , both ways are commonly heard. In Ching's case, she sometimes used more than one set of tones i n a d d r e s s i n g her parents and r e l a t i v e s . In a d d r e s s i n g her f a t h e r , she uses three forms which are d i f f e r e n t i n tones. They are /pa"pa 1/, /pa'pa 1/ and / p a " p a V . Among them, only the f i r s t one i s used i n the f a m i l y . However, s i n c e the other two c o u l d be heard i n other f a m i l i e s , s t r i c t l y speaking, they cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as ' e r r o r s ' . N o t i c e that i t would be c o n s i d e r e d an ' e r r o r ' i f the form had never been heard before, or i f i t sounds 'funny' to the t r a n s c r i b e r s . The next page i s a l i s t of the forms of k i n s h i p terms used by Ching that are d i f f e r e n t from those used i n her f a m i l y . Under the a d u l t form category, I f i r s t l i s t the k i n s h i p term used i n the f a m i l y . Other forms with a check are those that are found i n other Cantonese-speaking f a m i l i e s . Ching's forms marked with an 'X' are ones that are not a c c e p t a b l e forms, i . e . they are not heard elsewhere. These ones are c o n s i d e r e d s u b s t i t u t i o n e r r o r s . The next page g i v e s some examples of Ching's Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. 138 Adult form . 4. 2 v 7 4 1 2. k3 4 4 3. ma ma 4 1 4. ts£ t s e v7 tse1tse1 4 1 5 • pa pa / 1 1 \/ pa pa 6. mui mui / .2 .2 v mux mui Gloss 'grandfather' ' e l d e r brother' 'grandmother' 'el d e r s i s t e r ' ' f a t h e r ' Ching's form • 2 . 2 ja j a . 4. 4 j a j a 4 4 kD kD . 4 1 (21X) 6 6 ma ma 1 1 tsg t s e (4X) 4 4 ts& t s e (3X) pa pa (6X) 4 4 pa pa .4 .4 mui mui .2 .2 mui mui .6 .6 mui mui v/ mui^mui^ (not commonly used) Phonetic Tokens: 45 C h i n g ' s p a t t e r n of s u b s t i t u t i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . As one can see from the above l i s t , except for the Number 3 form [ma 6ma 6] (adult form /ma4ma V ' g r andmother ' ) , she w i l l f i r s t use the tone of one of the s y l l a b l e s as a base and apply i t to the other s y l l a b l e . Whether i t i s the tone of the f i r s t s y l l a b l e or that of the second s y l l a b l e that i s used as the base i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e . 1 39 4.4.4. The A c q u i s i t i o n of the Tone Sandhi Rule i n Cantonese As f a r as the a c q u i s i t i o n of the tone sandhi r u l e i n Cantonese i s concerned, there have been few s t u d i e s . Chao (1951) i s the f i r s t attempt to look at how the c h i l d a c q u i r e s the Mandarin tone sandhi r u l e s . In Mandarin, there are two b a s i c tone sandhi r u l e s , both of which a f f e c t the d i p p i n g t o n e 2 . The f i r s t one r a i s e s the d i p p i n g tone to a r i s i n g tone before another d i p p i n g tone. The second one changes the d i p p i n g tone to a low l e v e l tone before a high, r i s i n g or a f a l l i n g tone. These two r u l e s can be represented g r a p h i c a l l y as f o l l o w s : Chao r e p o r t s that f o r h i s subject Canta at 2;4, the f i r s t tone sandhi r u l e i s " only beginning to be l e a r n e d " (p.33). L i and Thompson (1977), i n studying 17 young Mandarin-speaking c h i l d r e n , have found that t h i s r u l e does not appear u n t i l a stage when the c h i l d r e n are capable of producing longer sentences. With respect to the second r u l e , both Chao and L i and Thompson found that i t i s a c q u i r e d sooner than the f i r s t r u l e . At the end of L i and 1. > ^ before 2. 140 Thompson's study, they have concluded that the tone sandhi phenomena a s s o c i a t e d with the d i p p i n g tone i n Mandarin are a c q u i r e d , with i n f r e q u e n t e r r o r s , as soon as the c h i l d begins to produce h i s own multi-word u t t e r a n c e s . Based on the r e s u l t s of the above s t u d i e s , one gets a r a t h e r c l e a r p i c t u r e of the a c q u i s i t i o n of the Mandarin tone sandhi r u l e s . However, as f a r as the Cantonese sandhi r u l e i s concerned, the p i c t u r e seems to be confused. As mentioned i n Chapter 2, Chao (1947) has suggested that a tone sandhi r u l e i s commonly observed i n Cantonese. I t i s when an upper tone (tone value 53:) i s f o l l o w e d by another upper even tone (tone value 53:) or a high e n t e r i n g tone (tone value 5:), the f i r s t s y l l a b l e w i l l remain h i g h throughout the f i r s t s y l l a b l e , i n s t e a d of f a l l i n g d u r i n g the f i r s t s y l l a b l e and s t a r t i n g high again with the second s y l l a b l e , ( c f . d i s c u s s i o n in Chapter 2). The s t a t u s of t h i s p u t a t i v e Cantonese sandhi r u l e however has been co n t e s t e d i n J.K. Tse (1973), as r e p o r t e d i n J.K. Tse (1978). He claims t h a t both 53: and 55: are unc o n d i t i o n e d f r e e v a r i a n t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s upper even t o n e 3 . Since speakers of Cantonese use them int e r c h a n g e a b l y , the r u l e suggested by Chao should be c o n s i d e r e d as a 'phonetic r a t h e r than a r u l e - g o v e r e d sandhi phenomenon'(J.K. Tse, 1978, p.201). In h i s 1978 study, Tse looked at the a c q u i s i t i o n of tone development of h i s son 'Y.L.' f o r 30 months. From h i s r e s u l t s , he concluded that there i s no systematic evidence to support the Cantonese 141 sandhi r u l e d e s c r i b e d above. In f a c t , he found that Y.L. seldom has a v a r i a n t tone 53: f o r h i s upper even tone. Only very r a r e l y c o u l d he de t e c t a f a l l of the high l e v e l tone. In t h i s study, I examined the speech of the s u b j e c t s to see i f there were any i n d i c a t i o n s of tone sandhi r u l e s . Appendix 3 l i s t s a s e r i e s of s y l l a b l e p a i r s with each s y l l a b l e made up of e i t h e r of two upper r i s i n g tones i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n , or an upper even tone f o l l o w e d -by a high e n t e r i n g tone (tone 7). The tone value f o r each s y l l a b l e was scored based on whether the sandhi r u l e occurred or not. Since Hashimoto (1972) has suggested that the sandhi r u l e goes beyond c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c boundaries, s y n t a c t i c boundaries were ignored. From Appendix 3, i t was found that a l l the f i r s t tones of the s y l l a b l e p a i r s produced by the s u b j e c t s belong to the the tone value 55:. There was no i n c i d e n c e of a 53: v a r i a n t . In f a c t , t h i s absence of the v a r i a n t 53: i s common in a d u l t speech. Boyle (1970) has found that i n present day standard Cantonese as spoken i n Hong Kong, the high f a l l i n g v a r i a n t 53: seems to be dying out. Many people do not even have i t i n t h e i r speech. They use the high l e v e l v a r i a n t 55: to r e p l a c e the hig h f a l l i n g one. A p r e l i m i n a r y -study was conducted to see i f the parents of the s u b j e c t s made any d i s t i n c t i o n between the 53: and 55: v a r i a n t s . According to Boyle (1970), f o r people who c o n t r a s t the 53: and 55: -variants i n t h e i r speech, the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s on the 1 42 l e f t are pronounced with a high f a l l i n g v a r i a n t 53:, and those on the r i g h t are pronounced with a h i g h l e v e l 55: High f a l l i n g 53: High l e v e l 55: 1 sam 'three' sam ' c l o t h i n g ' 2 f n ' d i v i d e ' f n 'minute' 3 hD+sa 'Mr. Ho' hok^ sa 'student' 4 s i 'think' s i 'poetry' The parents were asked to read these words. The r e s u l t s showed that none of the parents had the v a r i a n t 53: when reading the above s y l l a b l e s . A l l the 53: s y l l a b l e s on the l e f t were read with the 55: tone. With respect to the r e s u l t s of the absence of the v a r i a n t 53: i n the c h i l d r e n ' s data, they j u s t i f y J.K. Tse's (1978) f i n d i n g to a great extent. As mentioned, Tse r e p o r t e d that only very r a r e l y c o u l d he d e t e c t a f a l l of the h i g h l e v e l tone. I f i t happened, i t was u s u a l l y at the end of an u t t e r a c e . In t h i s study, we do not f i n d any f a l l of the h i g h l e v e l tone i n the s u b j e c t s ' speech. 4.4.5. B i a n - y i n (changed Tone) Appendix 4 l i s t s a l l the s y l l a b l e s with B i a n - y i n f o r the s u b j e c t s . As i n d i c a t e d , there are two products of Bian-y i n , (1) a high r i s i n g tone, which i s s i m i l a r to the upper r i s i n g tone (tone 2), and (2) a high l e v e l tone, s i m i l a r to the upper even tone (tone 1). In Appendix 4, s y l l a b l e s with the f i r s t type are p l a c e d on the l e f t , and those of the second type are on the r i g h t . The f o l l o w i n g two p o i n t s are 143 noted: F i r s t , Hashimoto (1972) has s t a t e d that besides nouns, a few adverbs and verbs a l s o belong to the type of high r i s i n g B i a n - y i n . Some examples of adverb and verb s y l l a b l e s are : /l o e n 6 l P u * / ' i n t u r n ' , / j p t 7 m e i * / ' c o n s i s t e n t l y ' and /maama*/ ' f a i r ' . In our data, i t i s shown that a l l the s y l l a b l e s i n t h i s group are nouns. N e i t h e r adverb nor verb i s found. Second, i t appears that the number of hig h r i s i n g B i a n - y i n i s much higher than the high l e v e l B i a n - y i n . The r e s u l t i s expected, because i n Cantonese, the hig h l e v e l B i a n - y i n i s much more l i m i t e d i n i t s frequency of occurrence as w e l l as i n i t s s c a l e than the high r i s i n g B i a n - y i n (Hashimoto, 1972). In our data, only four cases of t h i s type of B i a n - y i n are found. 4.5. RESULTS FROM THE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS ANALYSIS Tables 34 and 35 l i s t the p h o n o l o g i c a l processes used by Wai, Ching and Wing. In each t a b l e , the p r o p o r t i o n of occurrence of each process i s marked by a score, given i n the f o l l o w i n g way: 1 p o i n t f o r 0 to 20% use of process, 2 p o i n t s f o r 21 to 49% use, 3 p o i n t s f o r 50 to 79% use, and 4 p o i n t s f o r 80 to 100% use. The score i s shown i n parentheses i n the t a b l e s . For Wai, the mean score f o r each process was determined f o r the s i x s e s s i o n s . Separate scores are given f o r each segment that underwent a process. S e s s i o n s which get a zero because the process never o c c u r r e d are l e f t blank on the t a b l e s . 144 Table 34 : P h o n o l o g i c a l and scores i n terms of processes, t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s l e v e l of frequency f o r Wai's of occurrence s i x s e s s i o n s Consonants Stopping: t s — * t A f f r i c a t i o n : s » t s Nasal "backing: n > < J m * n D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants| k — > 0 3 —> 0 n — ^ 0 D e n t a l i s a t i o n : p — » t D e a s p i r a t i o n : P'—> P G l i d i n g : f — > w C l i d e d e l e t i o n : j 0 A s p i r a t i o n : t ^ t ' V o c a l i c s L a x i n g of vowels & diphthongs: a — > V a i. — y p i a u — ? p u .30(2) .13(1) .12(1) .18(1) .22(2) .33(2) .20(1) ,42(2) •33(2) 22(2) 08(1) .40(2) .12(1 ) .24(2) .08(1) .18(1) .33(2) .66(3) -33(2) .40(2) .23(2) .09(1) .15(1) 42(2) .15(1) .25(2) •43(2) .40(2) .40(2) .20(1) .60(3) 13(1) 22(2) .22(2) 1.33 1.50 1.17 1.33 1-33 i . oo i . oo l .17 1.33 1.33 l . oo l . oo 1-33 2. 00 l .17 145 T a b l e 3 4 - c o n t i n u e d Vowel r a i s i n g : £ — » i • •50(3) •33(2) •15(1) 1 • 50 Cfc — > u •40(2) •50(3) 1 • 50 0 — * u .20(1) 1 .00 Monothongizat i o r o f d i p h t h o n g s : ou — > D .18(1) •33(2) 1 .17 e i — > i •25(2) •43(2) -.40(2) 1 • 50 Vowel b a c k i n g : 0£ —-» u .40(2) •50(3) 1 50 0£ — » 3 .40(2) •75(3) 1 50 Vowel u n r o u n d i n g : y » i •50(3) •50(3) 1. 67 Vowel l o w e r i n g : D — > a .13(1) •13(1) 1. 00 D i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n a — * p i : •09(1) 1. 00 146 Table 35 s P h o n o l o g i c a l processes,and t h e i r f r e q u e n c i e s f o r Chin^ and Wing i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n s of occurrence and l e v e l . ' P h o n o l o g i c a l Process Ching Wing Consonants Stopping: s — * t 1.00(4) F r o n t i n g : k —> t .81(4) kw-» t 1.00(4) I n i t i a l consonant d e l e t i o n : h — > ft .43(2) Nasal f r o n t i n g : •23(2) n —} m • 50(3) V o c a l i c s Tensing of vowels & diphthongs: P i —> a •50(2) T a 1.00(4) •23(2) L a x i n g of-vowel: a —>ip .2 3(2) Vowel backing: •50(3) Vowel . r a i s i n g oe. -» u •50(3) 147 With respect to Wai's consonants, i t i s found that stopping, a f f r i c a t i o n , n a s a l backing and d e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants are the most frequent p h o n o l o g i c a l processes. Of the d e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonant processes, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 32, k> 0 i s the most frequent one (X* .67). For v o c a l i c s , four frequent processes are found. They are l a x i n g of vowels and diphthongs, vowel backing, monothongization of diphthongs, and vowel r a i s i n g . Of the l a x i n g of vowels and diphthongs processes, a>P, and a i > •pi are the more frequent ones, and au > p u i s the l e a s t f r e quent. Of the vowel r a i s i n g process, £ > i i s the most frequent one (X 1.00). The monothongization of diphthongs i s a means of s i m p l i f y i n g the v o c a l i c s t r u c t u r e . Although an o p p o s i t e process, namely the d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n of vowels i s a l s o found i n Wai's data, i t has the lowest frequency. From Table 34, i t i s a l s o noted that the process of vowel r a i s i n g i s more frequent than i t s o p p o s i t e process, i . e . the process of vowel lowering. In comparing the frequency of occurrence of processes of the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d , one sees that there are processes that are shared by the s u b j e c t s , and others that are not. For consonants, one frequent process found i n both Wai and Ching i s stopping. I t i s not, however, found i n Wing's data. On the other hand, Wing has a unique process that i s not found i n the other c h i l d r e n , f r o n t i n g . Nearly a l l h i s v e l a r s , such as /k/ and /kw/ are r e p l a c e d by [ t ] . Another of Wing's frequent processes, n a s a l f r o n t i n g , i . e . t) > n, 1 48 and n > m, suggests that Wing has a tendency to r e p l a c e h i s more 'backward sounds' with those produced with a more forward p a r t of the tongue. For vowels, i t was found t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s have the process of t e n s i n g . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that t h i s i s a common process among the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n . Moreover, i t should be noted that Wing a l s o has a process of l a x i n g of vowels. Both of these processes have the same score . By t r a c i n g the sounds i n v o l v e d i n these two processes ( c f . T a b l e 35), i t i s suggested that Wing i s t r e a t i n g both [a] and [P] as allophones of one phoneme i n s t e a d of separate phonemes as i n the a d u l t language. 4.6. THE ANALYSIS OF HOMONYMY In Ingram's study (1981), one of the main p h o n o l o g i c a l analyses of the c h i l d r e n ' s language i s the a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d ' s homonymy. An e x p l i c i t set of measures to determine the extent to which a c h i l d uses homonyms i s proposed. In t h i s study, as w i l l be seen l a t e r , the homonymous forms used by the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s are rather l i m i t e d . Thus only p a r t of Ingram's a n a l y s i s i s employed". The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l p h o n o l o g i c a l data are intended to e x p l a i n the d e f i n i t i o n s of the terms used i n t h i s study: ' homonymous form homonymous t y p e .3 3 3 h r hoy 'to e a t ' ; j r 'ear* 1 1 1 ts':> SD 'to c l i m b ' ; ts*£ ' c a r ' 149 C h i l d homonymy : when a c h i l d produces the same phonetic form f o r two or more a d u l t s y l l a b l e s that normally are not homonymous, e.g. [ h i 3 ] f o r both / h o 3 / and / j i 3 / i n the above d a t a . Homonymous form : a phonetic form of the c h i l d ' s that r epresents two or more l e x i c a l types, e.g. [ h i 3 ] , and [ t s ' o 1 ] are homonymous forms. Homonymous type : a l e x i c a l type that has a homonymous form as one of i t s phonetic types, e.g. both /ho3/ / j i 3 / , and /soW , / t s ' t 1 / are homonymous types. The procedures f o r determining the extent to which a c h i l d uses homonymous forms are as f o l l o w s . R e c a l l that i n S e c t i o n 3.4.,the homonymous forms and types are c i r c l e d i n the Lexicon Sheet. For a n a l y s i s purposes, I f i r s t entered a l l the c i r c l e d homonymous forms and types i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces of the Homonymy Sheet as shown on the next page. T h i s sheet i s s p e c i a l l y designed f o r the re c o r d i n g and a n a l y s i s of the homonyms i n the c h i l d ' s speech. Then I determined the 'p r o p o r t i o n of homonymy'. Th i s was done by d i v i d i n g the 'number of homonymous forms' by the 'number of phonetic forms', i . e . , no. o f homonymous forms ,. „ , — — = p r o p o r t i o n of homonymous no. of p h o n e t i c forms forms Appendix 2 c o n s i s t s of the completed data of homonymous forms f o r the 6 s e s s i o n s with Wai, and the s e s s i o n s with Wing and Ching. 150 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d Homonymous forms Homonymous types 2. 3. h. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9-10 T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: Total Number of Phonetic Forms: Proportion of Homonymous Forms: 151 Table 36 prese n t s the p r o p o r t i o n s of the homonymous forms f o r the v a r i o u s s e s s i o n s of the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 36, i t i s seen that the s u b j e c t s d i d not use many homonymous forms i n t h e i r speech. T h i s can be shown by comparing the p r o p o r t i o n s of the homonymous forms between the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s and E n g l i s h -speaking s u b j e c t s . The data of the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s i s taken from Ingram's study (1981). F o l l o w i n g the same procedure as d e s c r i b e d above, Ingram s t u d i e d the homonymous forms of 15 normal E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n . Since some of the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d by Ingram are younger than the Cantonese su b j e c t Wai was i n her f i r s t s e s s i o n (age:1;7(14)), to begin with, I r u l e d out the age d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups of s u b j e c t s by d e l e t i n g some s u b j e c t s i n the E n g l i s h group. A l t o g e t h e r , 10 s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d . The p r o p o r t i o n s of t h e i r homonymous forms are l i s t e d i n Table 37. As i n d i c a t e d i n Tables 36 and 37, the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s d i d not use as many homonymous forms as the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s d i d . T h i s can be supported by l o o k i n g at the mean of the p r o p o r t i o n s of the homonymous forms of these two groups of s u b j e c t s . For the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s , the mean of the p r o p o r t i o n i s .025. Whereas f o r the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s , the mean i s .09, which i s about 3.5 times as hig h as that of the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s . Based on the above data, one can conclude that the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n use more 152 Ta b l e 36: The p r o p o r t i o n s o f homonymous forms f o r t h e C a n t o n e s e - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s C h i l d S e s s i o n No. Age P r o p o r t i o n Wai 1 1;7(14) .02 5 1:9(11) • 03 10 2;0(11 ) .03 15 2:3 .03 20 2;5(22) . 02 25 2;8(11) .03 Wing 2 2;0(6) . 02 C h i n g 3 1:8(5) . 02 x .025 153 T a b l e 37: The p r o p o r t i o n o f homoymous forms f o r 10 E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s (based on Ingram, 1981, Table 13) C h i l d Age P r o p o r t i o n J e n n i f e r ?:i 1;11 .02 M l ; 9 .03 D a n i e l 1;10-2;0 .05 Amy 1;8-1;9 .14 P h i l i p 1;7 .11 Ruth 2;0 .12 A 2;0 .12 Jacob 1;8 .10 DeCamp 2;1 .16 Joan 1 ;11 .10 X .09 1 54 homonymous form than the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s . 4 . 7 . ENGLISH LOAN-WORDS IN WAI'S SPEECH Since Hong Kong has been a B r i t i s h Colony for almost 150 year s , i t i s common to hear Cantonese speakers use E n g l i s h loan-words i n t h e i r d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n . Table 38 l i s t s the E n g l i s h loan-words used i n Wai ' s speech throughout the 25 se s s ions . H . N . Cheung (1972) has s t a t ed some r u l e s for borrowing words i n t o Cantonese from E n g l i s h . Wai ' s p r o d u c t i o n of the E n g l i s h loan-words she has acqu i red f i t the f o l l o w i n g ru l e s from Cheung: (1) Tones: E n g l i s h monosy l l ab le s in i s o l a t i o n and s t ressed s y l l a b l e s of p o l y s y l l a b l e words borrowed i n t o Cantonese take the h igh f a l l i n g tone, i . e . Tone 1. A l l of Wai ' s l o a n -words f o l l o w t h i s r u l e . (2) Vowel : E n g l i s h / \ / w i l l become a / P / i n the loan-word. For example, E n g l i s h loan-word Sessions of occurrence i 1 2 number ['nAmb^j [npm pa*] 17, 21 (3) Consonants: The E n g l i s h i n i t i a l a s p i r a t e d v o i c e l e s s stops w i l l remain the same as i n the borrowed words. For example, E n g l i s h loan-word Sessions of occurrence c u s h i o n ['k'usjan] ' [k'u 1soen 23 19, 20 155 Table .38 : E n g l i s h loan-word? used i n Wais speech throughout the 25 s e s s i o n s Loan-words * t s u 1 s i 4 • t s ' i ^ s i 4 mai ^ npm^pa 2 k'u . sften E n g l i s h j u i c e J_'d^u: s j c h i p s I ' t ^ i p s J mike [_'maik3 number [' n^mbd-l] c u s h i o n p k' u: Jgn] Sessions of occurrence 7,8,9,10,11,15,17,22 7,10 13 17,21 19, 20 ^Although these two loan-words are not f r e q u e n t l y used i n Hong Kong, they are commonly heard i n the Chinese community i n Vancouver. Thus, they are to be con s i d e r e d as loan-words i n t h i s study. 156 (4) a vowel / i / i s o f t e n added to the loan-word f o r the E n g l i s h word that ends with a / s / , forming a new s y l l a b l e . For example, English loan-word Sessions of occurrence juice C'dju:sl [ts^si^J 7,8,9,10,11,15,17,22 chips f t j i p s ] [ts' i^ -si*] 7, 10 4.8. ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES USED IN WAI'S SPEECH E n g l i s h words and phrases occupied only a very small vocabulary i n Wai's speech. Table 39 presen t s a l l the E n g l i s h words and phrases that were used by Wai throughout the 25 s e s s i o n s . In S.M. Tse (1978), I compared the consonants of E n g l i s h and Cantonese consonants using the c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s h y p othesis i n Lado (1957), to observe the common p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s that Cantonese speakers make i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . Seven Cantonese speakers from Hong Kong who had been i n Canada ranging from three months to ei g h t months were chosen to read a ' d i a g n o s t i c passage'. Table 40 compares some of the common e r r o r s made by the s u b j e c t s to those made by Wai. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that Wai's p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s i n E n g l i s h consonants are very s i m i l a r to those made by the Cantonese-subjects (mostly a d u l t s ) . I t should be n o t i c e d that i n pronouncing the E n g l i s h words, Wai i n most cases uses the g l o t t a l stop / ? / to rep l a c e the 157 Table 39: E n g l i s h words/phrases used i n Wai's speech E n g l i s h words/ p h r a s e s P h o n e t i c forms o f a n a t i v e speaker of E n g l i s h P h o n e t i c forms of Wai S e s s i o n s of o c c u r r e n c e u n c l e 1,2,3,5,7,8, 10,12,13,14,15 mom b l e s s e s [ma p€Si ju-J 1, you a u n t i e [ a e n t i ] 5,6,7,8,9,10, 12,13,15 deep and wide U d » : p ^ w a i d 3 C t i ? a n ? w a i J 5,6,8,9 Joe C <*y*l C t s o u 3 5,'6 Grace C & e / i s i 3 12,13,14,22 I don't know f a i doun? h o u ] 14 f o o t b a l l t f w ? b a t J C K p > 3 15 h e l l o 16 one C WPHJ 17 two C t u 3 17 f i v e [ f a ^ I l C ? a i 3 17 up t o you C Ap t 9 J U - 3 (Vtu j u ] 18 Macdonald 21 New Y o r k C h a - . j ^ & 3 18,21 158 Table 40: Some common s u b s t i t u t i o n e r r o r s made by t h e s u b j e c t s i n S.M. Tse's s t u d y (1978) and Wai's E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s based on Ta b l e 3^. E n g l i s h phoneme P r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s by t h e s u b j e c t s P r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s by Wai and examples A / A / b l e s s e s C p^Sl] A / A / Macdonald CmoTtOKGuJ don't £ fun] deep r t , p ^ A / A / Grace CKeisiJ / d j / A s / Joe CtSouJ f i n a l A / , / t / & A / g l o t t a l s t o p deep C t i ? ] up CP ?J r , , Macdonald L t3r»o*JI f o o t b a l l Cfw 7poJ A / o m i s s i o n o r A / Grace CKeiS'J m e d i a l o r f i n a l A / o m i s s i o n f o o t b a l l Cfu ? p^J f i n a l A / o m i s s i o n f i v e C -FatJ 159 E n g l i s h f i n a l /p/, / t / , and /k/. T h i s o f t e n happens e i t h e r i n s y l l a b l e f i n a l l y , such as [ma?t nou] 'Macdonald' and [fu?p ] ' f o o t b a l l ' , or i n word f i n a l l y , such as [ v-? ] 'up' and [ t i ? ] 'deep' (Wai a l s o has [ t i p ] f o r 'deep'). Although / ? / does not e x i s t i n Cantonese, i t i s commonly observed that Cantonese speakers who are l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second or f o r e i g n language o f t e n use i t to r e p l a c e the E n g l i s h f i n a l /p/, / t / , and /k/. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i n Wai's Cantonese data, / ? / has not been found to r e p l a c e the Cantonese f i n a l /p/, / t / and /k/ 5. As f a r as the g l o t a l stop i s concerned, s i n c e she only used the g l o t t a l stop i n her p r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h , one c o u l d suggest that she had the r e a l i s a t i o n that she was using two language systems. One should be c a u t i o u s , however, i n making such a c l a i m . I f i t was true that Wai r e a l i s e d that she was l e a r n i n g two language systems, how c o u l d we account for her s u b s t i t u t i o n of the Cantonese sounds f o r the E n g l i s h sounds, such as the Cantonese i n i t i a l /p/, /t/,and /k/ f o r the E n g l i s h i n i t i a l /b/, /d/, and /g/ r e s p e c t i v e l y ? A l s o , how c o u l d we account for the appearance of the c o r r e c t E n g l i s h f i n a l /p/ i n the word [ t i p ] 'deep'? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there i s only a very small E n g l i s h vocabulary in Wai's speech which prevents us from making any s u b s t a n t i a t e d c l a i m with respect to how many systems that Wai r e a l i z e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s p r o v i d e s a good follow-up t o p i c f o r i n v e s t i g a t o r s of f i r s t and second language a c q u i s i t i o n s to look i n t o . 160 4.9. IS THE CANTONESE PHONOLOGY EASIER TO ACQUIRE THAN THE  ENGLISH PHONOLOGY? In the f i e l d of c h i l d language, one major i n t e r e s t i s to compare the a c q u i s i t i o n of one language with that of another. To date, most works have been found i n the comparison of the s y n t a c t i c system, and, to a c e r t a i n extent, the semantic systems of d i f f e r e n t languages ( c . f . Slobin,1973). As f o r the comparison of d i f f e r e n t phonologies, there seems to have been fewer s t u d i e s . Thus, i t has been suggested that more emphasis should be placed on the c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s of how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e phonology (Ingram, 1979). With t h i s i n mind, t h i s s e c t i o n attempts to compare the p h o n o l o g i c a l systems of E n g l i s h and Cantonese, and argues that Cantonese phonology i s e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than E n g l i s h . The f o l l o w i n g two p o i n t s are given to support the argument: (1) The degree of complexity: E n g l i s h consonantal  system versus Cantonese consonantal system In comparing the two consonantal systems of both languages, i t i s noted that i n Cantonese, a l l words are m o n o s y l l a b i c . Consequently, a consonant can only occur i n e i t h e r w o r d - i n i t i a l or w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n , whereas in E n g l i s h , i n a d d i t i o n to the i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s , a consonant can a l s o appear i n the word-medial p o s i t i o n . For example, /p/ i s the medial consonant i n the word 'paper'. Olmsted (1971) has found that c h i l d r e n w i l l f r e q u e n t l y use 161 d i f f e r e n t s u b s t i t u t e s f o r an a d u l t sound depending on i t s p o s i t i o n . I t f o l l o w s that an a d d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n w i l l p robably cause more complexity f o r the c h i l d . Table 41 c o n t a i n s a d i s p l a y of the major consonants i n E n g l i s h along with I, M, and F rows to i n d i c a t e i n i t i a l , medial, and f i n a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . The source of t h i s t a b l e i s Ingram (1981). Table 42 i s a d i s p l a y of the consonants in Cantonese along with I and F rows to i n d i c a t e i n i t i a l and f i n a l . s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . As i n d i c a t e d i n these Tables 41 and 42, one can see that i n Cantonese, there are only 19 i n i t i a l consonants, but i n E n g l i s h , there are 22. Moreover, only 6 consonants can be found in . f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n Cantonese, whereas in E n g l i s h , there are 21. I f one counts the number of the squares in the t a b l e s that i n d i c a t e the number of consonants o c c u r r i n g i n a l l the p o s s i b l e words or s y l l a b l e s , one sees that the number in the E n g l i s h t a b l e t o t a l s 69, whereas i t t o t a l s 25 i n Cantonese. Even i f we add the two s y l l a b i c consonants to the t o t a l of the Cantonese consonants, the f i g u r e s t i l l shows that E n g l i s h has about 2.5 times more than Cantonese. Moreover, the e x i s t e n c e of the consonant c l u s t e r s i n E n g l i s h makes i t s consonantal system even more complicated. R e s u l t s of s t u d i e s have shown that the a c q u i s i t i o n of consonant c l u s t e r s appears to be r a t h e r l a t e (Smith, 1973, Olmsted, 1971, and Ingram, 1976a). I t has a l s o been p o i n t e d out that 162 Table +1: A d i s p l a y of the major consonants i n E n g l i s h along with I, M*,and F rows to i n d i c a t e i n i t i a l , medial, and f i n a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s (from the Sample of Summary Sheet i n Ingram, 1981) min g p b t d k g t{ d;, f Q s 5 v ft •/. ? w j r 1 h t— L X L X n J_i I mm i & T o t a l No.of squares:69 Note t h a t I have s u b s t i t u t e d ' M ' f o r 'medial* r a t h e r than Ingram's term'A' f o r ' a m b i s y l l a b i c ' . 163 Table 42: A d i s p l a y of the consonants i n Cantonese along with I and F rows to i n d i c a t e i n i t i a l and f i n a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s m n I F D . P P' * t ' t s t<s' k k' kw kw' 5 f i h j w T o t a l No.of squares: 25 1 64 i t i s common to hear c h i l d r e n reduce a c l u s t e r to one element, and t h i s process of consonant r e d u c t i o n l a s t s f o r s e v e r a l months f o r some c h i l d r e n (Ingram, 1976a). In a d d i t i o n , i n Cantonese the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e formation i s simple ( c . f . d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 2). I t s s y l l a b l e types are a l s o r a t h e r l i m i t e d . There are only about 630 d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s i n the language (Wong, 1940) 6. There i s l i t t l e m o r phological e l a b o r a t i o n , whereas in E n g l i s h , p o l y s y l l a b i c words are r a t h e r common7. T h i s f u r t h e r enhances the complexity of the E n g l i s h system. Thus, i n comparing the consonantal systems of the two languages, one sees that the E n g l i s h system i s more complex than the Cantonese one. T h i s leads one to argue that i t would take a longer time f o r a c h i l d to a c q u i r e the E n g l i s h phonology than the Cantonese one. To s u b s t a n t i a t e my argument f u r t h e r , I w i l l compare r e s u l t s of the p r o p o r t i o n of matches of the Cantonese and E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n . As i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n 4.4., one of the measures i n the s u b s t i t u t i o n a n a l y s i s i s to q u a n t i f y the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to match the a d u l t models. For example, i f a c h i l d has a t o t a l p r o p o r t i o n of matches of .15 i n a l l the p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants i n Cantonese, i t w i l l be suggested that the c h i l d i s only matching the a d u l t i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants 15 % of the time. Ingram (1981) has c a l c u l a t e d the p r o p o r t i o n of matches of the E n g l i s h consonants of 15 normal c h i l d r e n . T h e i r ages range from 1;5 to 2;1. The procedure used i n d e r i v i n g the 165 p r o p o r t i o n of matches i s s i m i l a r i n both groups of c h i l d r e n . With the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data i n both Cantonese and E n g l i s h , i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare the p r o p o r t i o n of matches of consonants between these two groups of s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . In Ingram's study, some of the s u b j e c t s are younger than the Cantonese su b j e c t Wai i n her f i r s t s e s s i o n . So to begin with, I r u l e out the age d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups of s u b j e c t s by d e l e t i n g three younger s u b j e c t s i n the E n g l i s h group. Moreover, out of the s i x s e s s i o n s with Wai i n the Cantonese group, I i n c l u d e only the f i r s t t h r e e . The other three s e s s i o n s , when Wai i s o l d e r than the o l d e s t c h i l d i n the E n g l i s h data, are excluded. Thus the f i r s t t h r ee s e s s i o n s , i . e . Sessions 1,5, ;and 10, together with Ching's and Wing's s e s s i o n s , are the b a s i s f o r the Cantonese data. The p r o p o r t i o n of matches of the E n g l i s h and Cantonese s u b j e c t s , together with t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s of data f o r consonants are l i s t e d i n Tables 43 and 44. Based on the r e s u l t s of the p r o p o r t i o n of matches of h i s s u b j e c t s , Ingram has d i v i d e d them a r b i t r a r y i n t o four groups. They a r e : I: (0-.25) Low; I I : (. 26-.50) Moderately low; I I I : (.51-.75) Moderately high; IV: (.76-1.00) High. For the Cantonese s u b j e c t s , the same c r i t e r i o n of grouping i s a l s o used. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 43, i t i s seen that among the E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s , 2 f a l l i n t o Group I, 5 i n t o Group I I , and 5 i n t o Group I I I . No c h i l d f a l l s i n t o Group 166 Table 43: P r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r 12 E n g l i s h normal c h i l d r e n f o r consonants ( e x t r a c t e d from Ingram, 1981, Table 14) C h i l d Age T o t a l Group P h i l i p l ; 7 .14 I A 2;2 .24 I Amy 1;8-1;9 • 29 I I Jacob 1;8 .33 I I Ruth 2;0 • 38 I I R 1 ;10 .46 I I Joan 1 ;11 .49 I I D a n i e l 1;l0-2;0 • 52 I I I M 1:9 .53 I I I Jon 1;8 • 56 I I I J e n n i f e r 1 i l l • 57 I I I DeCamp 2;1 .60 I I I X .42 16? Table .44.: P r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r the Cantonese s u b j e c t s f o r i n i t i a l and f i n a l consonants (based on Tables '26 and 27) C h i l d & S e s s i o n No. Age T o t a l Group Wai 1 1;7(14) .82 5 1; 9 (11) • 65 I I I 10 2;0(11) .85 IV Ching 1;8(5) .94 IV Wing 2;0(6) • 75 I I I X .8.0 168 IV, i . e . the High group. The mean p r o p o r t i o n of matches f o r the s u b j e c t s i s .42. However, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 44, the Cantonese s u b j e c t s d i d b e t t e r than the E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s . Out of the t o t a l 5 s e s s i o n s , 2 s e s s i o n s f a l l i n t o Group I I I , and 3 f a l l i n t o Group IV. No c h i l d , or no s e s s i o n with Wai, belongs to Group I or Group I I . The mean f o r the Cantonese data i s .80, which i s about twice the mean of the E n g l i s h data. In s h o r t , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the Cantonese s u b j e c t s are doing b e t t e r i n matching the a d u l t consonants. I t seems that i t takes l e s s time to a c q u i r e the Cantonese consonants than the E n g l i s h ones. (2) The a s s i s t a n c e of the t o n a l system There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body of l i t e r a t u r e of suprasegmental aspects of language, i . e . s t r e s s , tone, i n t o n a t i o n , e t c . , which suggests that these aspects of language are a c q u i r e d r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y (e.g. Kaplan, 1970, Lenneberg, 1967 and o t h e r s ) . With respect to the a c q u i s i t i o n of tone i n Chinese, i t has been found that the t o n a l system i s mastered w e l l i n advance of the segmental system (Chao, 1951, J.K. Tse, 1978, L i and Thompson, 1977, and r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y ) . Based on these r e s u l t s , I argued that the e a r l i e r a c q u i s i t i o n of the t o n a l system can a s s i s t the a c q u i s i t i o n of the segmental system. For example, a Cantonese-speaking c h i l d has lear n e d the s y l l a b l e /ma1/ 'mother'. P h o n e t i c a l l y , one can say that he has l e a r n e d the segments /m/ and /a/, together with the 169 tone. I f he hears another s y l l a b l e /ma 3/ 'horse' that has the same segmental p a r t as the f i r s t one but with a d i f f e r e n t tone, apart from l e a r n i n g how to c o n t r a s t the meanings of these s y l l a b l e s , what he has to l e a r n i n the second s y l l a b l e i s i t s s p e c i f i c tone with the same set of segmental p a r t s that he i s a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with. Since tone i s e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than the segment, presumably i t would not cause much d i f f i c u l t y f o r the c h i l d , whereas i n E n g l i s h , except f o r a few homonyms that appear i n the language, a c h i l d has to l e a r n a d i f f e r e n t set of segmental combinations whenever he l e a r n s a d i f f e r e n t word. Although a suprasegmental p a t t e r n such as i n t o n a t i o n i s a c q u i r e d at an e a r l y age, i t i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be phonetic i n the E n g l i s h language. In f a c t , i n t o n a t i o n i n E n g l i s h does not h o l d as 'important' a p o s i t i o n as tone i n Cantonese. The d i f f i c u l t y of E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n i n c o n t r a s t i n g two words p h o n e t i c a l l y can be shown i n t h e i r more frequent use of homonyms than the Cantonese s u b j e c t s ( s e e S e c t i o n 4.6.). Thus i t seems that tone has played a r o l e i n the process of a s s i s t i n g the Cantonese c h i l d r e n in a c q u i r i n g t h e i r speech. Although we have some evidence to support our argument that Cantonese phonology i s e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than E n g l i s h phonology, i t does not mean that other systems of Cantonese are a l s o e a s i e r to a c q u i r e . Erbaugh (1978) has s t a t e d that Chinese grammar depends very h e a v i l y on non-surface concords of s e l e c t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y with r e s p e c t to the verbs which must be marked for a s p e c t u a l 170 beginning, ending, and completion, and which are s t a t i v e , a c t i o n or p r o c e s s . She s t u d i e d two Mandarin-speaking two-y e a r - o l d s and found t h a t , with respect to s e l e c t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , the s u b j e c t s had very high e r r o r r a t e s . Thus there appear to be some f e a t u r e s i n the language system that take a longer time to be a c q u i r e d . 171 Chapter 4: Footnotes 1 I t w i l l be noted i n S e c t i o n 4.4.4. to f o l l o w that the parents' d i a l e c t s do not give any evidence of a 53: v a r i a n t f o r the 1st tone. 2 The four b a s i c tones i n Mandarin are as f o l l o w s : (Chao,1930) has p r o v i d e d a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p l a c i n g a tone contour l i n e corresponding to the p i t c h a g a i n s t a v e r t i c a l l i n e which i n d i c a t e s the t o t a l p i t c h range of the speaking v o i c e . 1. High tone 55: 2. R i s i n g tone 35: 3. Dipping tone 214: 4. F a l l i n g tone 51: 3 T h i s view i s a t r a d i t i o n a l one, supported by Wong (1940), Yuan et a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) and o t h e r s . However, i t has been argued that each of these two forms has i t s own phonemic s t a t u s , and should be t r e a t e d as two separate tones (Tseung, 1964, Y.S. Cheung, 1969, H.N. Cheung, 1972). Tseung has argued that 55: i s s a i d to be a s s o c i a t e d with nominals, while 53: i s s a i d to be a s s o c i a t e d with non-nominals. u In Ingram (1981), the r a t i o s and p r o p o r t i o n s of the homonymous forms and types of the c h i l d ' s speech are c o n s i d e r e d . However, in t h i s present study, only the p r o p o r t i o n of the homonymous forms i s c o n s i d e r e d ( f o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n , see Ingram, 1981). 5 As has mentioned i n Chapter 2, /p/, / t / , and /k/ i n 172 Cantonese are u n a s p i r a t e d and unreleased (Wise,1963), and are sometimes d e s c r i b e d as g l o t t a l i z e d or i m p l o s i v e . However, the t r a n s c r i b e r s f e e l t h a t the g l o t t a l stop that i s produced by the n a t i v e E n g l i s h i n connected speech, such as 'Where i s [\7] ( i t ) ? ' (Shockey, 1973) i s d i f f e r e n t from the Cantonese f i n a l /p/, / t / , and /k/ i n terms of t h e i r p l a c e s of a r t i c u l a t i o n . The E n g l i s h g l o t t a l stop i s produced somewhat f u r t h e r back than the Cantonese f i n a l s t o p s . 6 I f one i n c l u d e s the occurrence of d i f f e r e n t tones i n a s y l l a b l e , the number of s y l l a b l e s would be around 1800 (Chao, 1947). 7 B a s i c a l l y , one can d i s t i n g u i s h three types of words in E n g l i s h . They are monosyllabic words, p o l y s y l l a b i c compound words, and p o l y s y l l a b i c non-compound words. An example f o r each type i s as f o l l o w s : monosyllabic word: ' b i t ; p o l y s y l l a b i c compound word: 'blackboard'; and p o l y s y l l a b i c non-compound word: ' f i n g e r ' (Ingram, 1981). 173 CHAPTER 5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFERENT DIALECTS OF THE PARENTS' SPEECH ON THE CHILD 5.1. INTRODUCTION I t i s r a t h e r common f o r a c h i l d to grow up i n an environment where both parents speak two d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of the language (Weir, 1962, Smith, 1973, Sc-ollon, 1974, and o t h e r s ) . However, the i n f l u e n c e of the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of the parents' speech on the c h i l d has not been emphasized. In phonology, one a r t i c l e which b r i e f l y mentioned t h i s kind of i n f l u e n c e i s Weir's study (1962). She looked at the speech of her son 'Anthony' and found that he had a high f l u c t u a t i o n of v o i c e d and v o i c e l e s s stops i n the f i n a l p o s i t i o n of words, e.g. [ b l g ] - [ b l k ] ' b i g ' , and [ r g d ] - [ r g t ] 'red' (p.47). She a t t r i b u t e d the f i n a l v o i c e l e s s stops of the words produced by Anthony to her d i a l e c t of E n g l i s h . In her E n g l i s h , the f i n a l v o i c e d stops of the words are r e p l a c e d by the v o i c e l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s f e a t u r e of the n e u t r a l i s a t i o n of v o i c e at the end of the words in E n g l i s h i s c a r r i e d over from her n a t i v e Czech. In s p i t e of the f a c t that f e a t u r e s of the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s spoken by the p arents may i n f l u e n c e some l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c h i l d ' s speech, l i t t l e work has been done in t h i s regard. Very o f t e n , t h i s 174 i n f l u e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d to be of minor importance. A qu e s t i o n o f t e n a r i s e s when one attempts to account f o r the i n f l u e n c e of d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of the parents on the c h i l d ' s speech. I t i s the qu e s t i o n of determining whether a c e r t a i n p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c h i l d ' s speech i s due to the d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e of the parents, or i t i s simply a process of the c h i l d ' s own system. V e l t e n (1934) has warned i n v e s t i g a t o r s of c h i l d language that one should be c a u t i o u s i n a t t r i b u t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of the c h i l d ' s p r o n u n c i a t i o n to d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e . V e l t e n s t u d i e d the p h o n o l o g i c a l development of h i s daughter Joan a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h . Although he d i d not s t a t e what kinds of d i a l e c t s the parents spoke, i t i s mentioned that 'French and Norwegian are f r e q u e n t l y spoken' (p. 85). He observed a p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Joan's speech and made the f o l l o w i n g comment: ' I t i s w e l l to be wary of a t t r i b u t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s i n an i n f a n t ' s p r o n u n c i a t i o n to d i a l e c t a l or other s p e c i a l i n f l u e n c e . In Joan's language, e.g. the high vowel /U/ resembled at f i r s t a narrow Scandinavian /of sound, as i n Norw.,Swed. Sol [swl] 'sun', Swed. Blimma [blwma] 'flower'. I should have been i n c l i n e d to a s c r i b e t h i s to Norwegian i n f l u e n c e (even though short [w] does not occur i n Norwegian) i f I had not heard the i d e n t i c a l sound i n the speech of small c h i l d r e n who have c e r t a i n l y never heard a word of S c a n d i n a v i a n . ' ( f o o t n o t e 20, p.85) Desp i t e t h i s , however, i t i s f e l t t h a t one should not 175 r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of the i n f l u e n c e of the d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of the parent's speech on the c h i l d . In f a c t , o v e r l o o k i n g t h i s matter c o u l d l e a d to m i s s i n g some of the important phenomena i n the process of a c h i l d ' s language development. The present a n a l y s i s examines l o n g i t u d i n a l data from Wai and presents stages of language development that r e s u l t e d from having two parents who spoke d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of Cantonese 1. The s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e that was a problem f o r Wai was occurrence of / l / and /n/ i n Cantonese. 5.2. /!/ AND /n/ IN CANTONESE Both /!/ and /n/ are phonemes in Cantonese. Each appears i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n ( c f . d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 2). However, i t i s widely rep o r t e d that there are some Cantonese speakers who do not have i n i t i a l /n/ i n t h e i r speech, but r e p l a c e i t with / l / (Chao, 1947, L.H. L i n , 1964, Hashimoto, 1972, Yuan et a l . , 1960, and H.N. Cheung, 1972). For example, both / l a m 4 / 'south' and /nam 4/ 'male' are pronounced as /lam 4/, and both / l e i 3 / 'plum' and / n e i 3 / 'you' are pronounced as / l e i 3 / . T h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n of / l / f o r /n/ i s presumably the i n f l u e n c e of the neighboring Nanhai d i a l e c t (L.H. L i n , 1964, Hashimoto, 1972). Those speakers who have t h i s type of s u b s t i t u t i o n u s u a l l y have problems i n pronouncing E n g l i s h words beginning with /n/. Very o f t e n , the /n/ i s r e p l a c e d by /!/. For example, the E n g l i s h word 'night' i s pronounced l i k e ' l i g h t ' (S.M. Tse,1978). In Canton, i t i s 176 estimated that about one-fourth of the Cantonese speakers do not have i n i t i a l /n/ i n t h e i r speech (Chao, 1947). In Hong Kong, i t has been claimed that t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s f a r more common among speakers (H.N. Cheung, 1972). Thus, with r e f e r e n c e to the i n i t i a l s / l / and /n/ i n Cantonese, one can d i s t i n g u i s h two types of speakers, namely (1) those who d i s t i n g u i s h both i n i t i a l s / l / and /n/ i n t h e i r speech , and (2) those who do not have i n i t i a l /n/ i n t h e i r speech, and the /n/ i s r e p l a c e d by / l / 2 . 5.3. THE DIALECTAL DIFFERENCE I_N THE SPEECH OF THE CHILD'S  PARENTS The c h i l d ' s f a t h e r belongs to the f i r s t type of speakers, and the c h i l d ' s mother to the second type. T h i s d i a l e c t a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r speech was f i r s t observed d u r i n g the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the tapes of Wai's speech samples. I t was f u r t h e r confirmed by the r e s u l t s of a speech survey of the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s . A speech survey of the parents was conducted f o r three purposes, namely (1) to p r o v i d e more speech data of the f a t h e r r e g a r d i n g h i s treatment of / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s , s i n c e Wai's f a t h e r d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e much dur i n g the t a p i n g of Wai's speech, (2) to f i n d out i f the parents were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r treatment of / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . i n t h e i r speech, and (3) to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on how each parent pronounced the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s that were produced by the c h i l d d u r i n g 177 the s e s s i o n s . The survey mainly i n v o l v e d asking each parent to read a l i s t of s y l l a b l e s . t f i a t were made up of the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . Most of the s y l l a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t were the ones that appeared i n the s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s of Wai's speech samples (see next s e c t i o n ) . In the course of a l l the s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s Wai pronounced 30 d i f f e r e n t /!/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s and 20 d i f f e r e n t /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s (see Appendix 5 ) . In t h i s survey, 20 /!/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s and 14 /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s that appeared i n Wai's speech samples were chosen. The r e s t of them were not i n c l u d e d because they were s y l l a b l e s that were too c o l l o q u i a l and c o u l d not be represented i n common Chinese c h a r a c t e r s (see below). Since there were only 14 /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s , 6 more taken from Wong (1940) were added to make up the number of 20. These were s y l l a b l e s that were commonly found i n d a i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s . Thus there was a t o t a l number of 40 combined / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . In the word l i s t , each s y l l a b l e would occur twice. I t was arranged i n a way such that the s y l l a b l e would occur once in i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , f o l l o w e d by other added s y l l a b l e ( s ) ; and once i n medial or f i n a l position'. The purpose of t h i s was to f i n d out whether the d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n of the s y l l a b l e would a f f e c t the c o n s i s t e n c y of i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n . A l t o g e t h e r , there were 80 items. They were a l l w r i t t e n i n Chinese c h a r a c t e r s , so that no b i a s toward one p r o n u n c i a t i o n over another would occur. A l l the c h a r a c t e r s 1 78 were f a i r l y simple. I t was expected any n a t i v e speaker who has completed j u n i o r high school i n Hong Kong should be able to recognise them. The 40 / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s are l i s t e d i n Appendix 6. Those /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s that were taken from Wong (1940) are i n d i c a t e d by 'an a s t e r i s k ' . Appendix 7 pr e s e n t s the word l i s t with 80 items, each with added s y l l a b l e ( s ) . A l l the items were randomly arranged. The t a r g e t s y l l a b l e s are u n d e r l i n e d . Both parents were asked to read the l i s t of words one by one. Before t h e i r readings, they were t o l d t h at the purpose of the survey was to f i n d out the fundamenatal frequency between the male and female speakers. A l l of t h e i r readings were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d . Emphasis was p l a c e d on the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s of the t a r g e t s y l l a b l e s . The r e s u l t s confirmed my impression about the parent's d i a l e c t s . Of the twenty / l / i n i t i a l s , both parents always produced [ 1 ] . On the twenty /n/ i n i t i a l s , however, the f a t h e r produced only [ n ] , and the mother [ 1 ] . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was very c o n s i s t e n t , r e g a r d l e s s of the s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . The mother never used an i n i t i a l /n/ i n her rea d i n g . A l l the /n/s were r e p l a c e d by / 1 / s 3 . Thus f a r , we have confirmed that Wai's f a t h e r belongs to the type of speaker who d i s t i n g u i s h e s both i n i t i a l s / l / and /n/ i n t h e i r speech. Wai's mother belongs to the type of speaker who does not have i n i t i a l /n/ i n t h e i r speech, and the /n/ i s re p l a c e d by / l / . In the development of Wai's speech, one can make two p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t i o n s with respect 179 to the /!/ and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . F i r s t , one can p r e d i c t that Wai w i l l grow up speaking both d i a l e c t s . T h i s would mean that she would use the mother's p a t t e r n when speaking to her mother, and the f a t h e r ' s when speaking to her f a t h e r . I f so, Wai's l e x i c a l types would only have [1] when the mother i s addressed, but both [1] and [n] when add r e s s i n g the f a t h e r . Our data can a l s o show when such d i a l e c t s e n s i t i v i t y begins. Second, one can a l s o p r e d i c t that Wai a c q u i r e s only one of the two d i a l e c t s i n her spoken language. T h i s can e i t h e r be the f a t h e r ' s or the mother's. If so, she should use one d i a l e c t or the other r e g a r d l e s s of who i s spoken t o . 5.4. THE DIALECTAL INFLUENCE OF THE PARENTS ON THE SPEECH OF THE CHILD A l t e r n a t e s e s s i o n s of Wai's speech data were chosen fo r an examination of Wai's a c q u i s i t i o n of l e x i c a l types with / l / and /n/. There were 13 speech samples, r e p r e s e n t i n g Sessions 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,21,23,and 25. Appendix 8 pr e s e n t s a l l the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s of each s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n . A l s o , i t g i v e s the phonetic forms fo r the same s y l l a b l e s as used by the f a t h e r and mother, as w e l l as the phonetic forms of the s y l l a b l e s based on the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of Wong (1940). The p r o n u n c i a t i o n based on Wong's book i s c o n s i d e r e d to be 'standard' and i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Cantonese d i a l e c t spoken in the c i t y of Canton. 180 For each of Wai ' s ses s ions ana lysed , I c a l c u l a t e d the t o t a l numbers of phonet ic tokens and phonetic types for both / l / and / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . For example, the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l data e x e m p l i f i e s the count that was made: / l / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s F ather's form C h i l d 1 ' s form i ^ l a n 'broken' l a n (2X) l e i 'come' l e i l u k 9 'deer* l u k 9 » Q nuk y (2X) .3 •milk* .3 na.1. n e i ^ ' you' l e i - 5 (2X) .5 n e i (2X) Phonetic Tokens T o t a l Number = 1 1 t l ] i n i t i a l s = 6 L nj i n i t i a l s = 5 Phonetic Types T o t a l Number = 7 11] i n i t i a l s = 4 [nj i n i t i a l s = 3 Also I looked at (1) the use of / l / and / n / i n the language addressed to Wai by the parent s , and (2) the use of / l / and / n / by Wai as she addressed her parent s . The a n a l y s i s revea led that the fa ther only a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d in Sess ion 1. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s l i m i t s our view of the f a t h e r ' s r o l e , but the data from Sess ion 1 at l e a s t p rov ide some impres s ions . In Sess ion 1, the fa ther used 15 / n / i n i t i a l s and 33 / ! / i n i t i a l s . The mother used 9 181 / l / i n i t i a l s . These data show t h a t Wai i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d w i t h two d i s t i n c t d i a l e c t s which i t needs t o s t a i g h t e n o u t . Ta b l e 45 and F i g u r e 1 p r e s e n t the use of [n] and [1] i n Wai's speech a d d r e s s e d t o her mother f o r a l l s e s s i o n s , and her f a t h e r f o r S e s s i o n 1 i n p h o n e t i c t o k e n s . The p r o p o r t i o n s of Wai's use of [1] and [n] i n i t i a l s i n both p h o n e t i c tokens and t y p e s are g i v e n f o r the 13 s e s s i o n s s t u d i e d i n the T a b l e . F i g u r e 1 shows the same da t a a c r o s s a . l l the s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s . S i n c e the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o p o r t i o n of p h o n e t i c tokens and p h o n e t i c t y p e s was l i t t l e , o n l y p h o n e t i c t y p e s are c a l c u l a t e d . As i n d i c a t e d , i n S e s s i o n 1, we can see t h a t War i s u s i n g [1] .^ . [n] forms t o both p a r e n t s . She i n d i c a t e s no code s w i t c h i n g i n h i s r e g a r d . R a t h e r , the use of these i s random. For example, here i s a sample d i a l o g u e between Wai and her mother a t S e s s i o n 1. (1) Wai: npi-5 ( n a i ^ ' m i l k ' - a d u l t form based on Wong, 'milk' 1940) 6 S 4 . 6 , - 5 (2) Mother: h r i l a i J m h f i l l P i ^ i s ' l a i ^ ' not i s ' l P i ^ ' •milk i s ' l a i ^ ' , but not ' l p i ^ ' (3) Wai: n a i ^ 'milk' (4) Mother: h p i 6 la?, l a i ^ l a i ^ h o u 2 jpm 2 r i g h t milk(redup.) good d r i n k ' r i g h t , m i l k i s good to d r i n k ' 182 Table 45 : The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e s o f [ 1 ] and [ n } i n i t i a l s f o r t h e combined / l / and / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s i n p h o n e t i c t o k e n s and p h o n e t i c t y p e s i n Wai's speech a d d r e s s e d t o h e r p a r e n t s f o r a l l t h e s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s . S e s s i o n . 1 P h o n e t i c Tokens P h o n e t i c Types ana p a r e n t a d d r e s s e s 11] i n i t i a l [ n ] i n i t i a l T o t a l [1] i n i t i a l [ n ] i n i t i a l T o t a l i n ph. t o k e n s no . p r o p . no. p r o p . No . no . prop. no . prop. No . 1.mother 10 6 . 2 0 4 • 13 TI 4 . 2 0 2 .10 f a t h e r 21 8 .26 13 .42 j x 6 . 3 0 8 .40 20 3.moth er 26 12 .46 14 • 54 26 9 • 50 9 • 50 18 5 . " 2-8 9 • 32 19 .68 28 5 .28 13 • 72 18 7. " 26 2 .08 24 • 92 26 2 .13 13 • 87 15 9. " 24 2 .08 22 .92 24 2 .18 9 .82 11 11 . " 50 4 .08 46 .92 50 3 . 2 0 12 . 8 0 15 1 3 . " 14 8 •57 6 .43 14 5 • 50 5 • 50 10 15- " 5P 31 .62 19 • 38 50 10 • 55 8 • 45 18 17. 27 20 • 74 7 .26 27 9 . 6 0 6 .40 15 19- " 53 46 .87 7 • 13 53 11 •69 5 • 31 16 2 1 . " 37 34 • 92 3 .08 37 13 • 87 2 • 13 8 2 3 . " 43. 39 .91 4 . 0 9 43 15 .88 2 .12 17 2 5 . " 58 54 • 93 4 .07 58 19 .86 3 .14 22 F i g u r e 1: The p r o p o r t i o n of occurrence of [13 & Cn] i n i t i a l s i n Wai's phonetic types f o r a l l the s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s (based, on Table 4 5 ) P r o p o r t i o n 1.00, S e s s i o n Number 184 Based on the c h i l d ' s r e p l y ( l i n e 3), one sees that even though her diphthong has been changed from / i / to / a i / r her /n/ i n i t i a l , which i s d i f f e r e n t from the mother's, remains unchanged. T h i s c o u l d suggest that the c h i l d i s not aware of the d i f f e r e n c e between the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s . Her p r o d u c t i o n of / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s at t h i s time i s dependent on her own system. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the mother's comment on Wai's p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( l i n e 4) i n d i c a t i e s that even though her own form of the s y l l a b l e 'milk' i s [ l a i 5 ] , she shows approval of the c h i l d ' s form which i s a /n/ i n i t i a l (see l i n e 3). T h i s suggests that the mother h e r s e l f i s not aware of the d i f f e r e n c e between the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s , or i t may be that even though she does not have /n/ i n i t i a l s i n her speech, p e r c e p t u a l l y she c o n s i d e r s anyone who uses / l / f o r /n/ i s to be c o r r e c t . Given that Wai i s mostly around the mother, and that a l l subsequent s e s s i o n s are with the mother, one might p r e d i c t that [1] use would become more frequent. The data, however, are not that d i r e c t . [1] use a c t u a l l y drops over the next 4 s e s s i o n s (5,7,9,11), while [n] dominates. Then, they r e t u r n to a random p a t t e r n at Session 13. The reverse t r e n d s t a r t s at Session 15 and continue so that by Session 25, Wai i s mostly using [ 1 ] . T h i s suggests that a f t e r an i n i t i a l judgement to use [ n ] , she has s e t t l e d on f o l l o w i n g the mother's p a t t e r n . If Wai were a c q u i r i n g the mother's p a t t e r n of speech, one would p r e d i c t that the use of [n] would e v e n t u a l l y show 185 a r e s t r i c t e d use to [n] words to the f a t h e r , and then l o s e i t a l t o g e t h e r . Table 46 prese n t s the use of [n] and [1] f o r the f a t h e r ' s /n/ and / l / i n i t i a l s . S e ssions 1 and 3, 5 and 7, 9 and 11, 13 and 15, 17 and 19, and 21 and 23 are grouped i n t o p a i r s . The term f r e e v a r i a t i o n stands f o r the use of both [1] and [n] i n i t i a l s f o r an a d u l t l e x i c a l type. F i g u r e 2 g i v e s a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Table 46. As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2, Wai has an o v e r a l l higher preference f o r / l / r a t h e r than /n/ words throughout a l l the s e s s i o n s . At any s e s s i o n , the p r o p o r t i o n of / l / words i s always over .50. I t has i t s peak at Sessions 5 and 7. Conversely, the use of /n/ words at any s e s s i o n i s always lower than .50. The hi g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n that i t reaches i s ..48 at Sessions 13 and 15. Moreover, one sees that with r e f e r e n c e to the f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t , the c o r r e c t use of /!/ i n i t i a l s i s rather low throughout the s e s s i o n s from 1 to 11. Des p i t e the f a c t that Wai's use of / l / words reaches i t s hi g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n at Sessions 5 and 7, i t s p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t n e s s of .14 shows that i t i s the lowest throughout a l l the s e s s i o n s s t u d i e d . From Sessions 9 and 11 onwards, the p r o p o r t i o n gets h i g h e r . I t reaches i t s peak at Sessions 21 and 23, with a p r o p o r t i o n of .96. Then i t goes down s l i g h t l y and reaches .86 at Session 25. As f o r the c o r r e c t use of /n/ i n i t i a l s , i t g i v e s more or l e s s an opposite p i c t u r e . S t a r t i n g from Sessions 1 and 3, the p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t use of /n/ i n c r e a s e s and T a b l e 46 • The use of 111 and [n3 i n Wai's speech i n words of t h e f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t t h a t a r e / l / o r / n / i n i t i a l s . s e s s i o n no . t o t a l no . of l e x i c a l t y p e s c o r r e c t A / use of f r e e I_n] v a r . t o t a l c o r r e c t A / use o f f r e e v a r . t o t a l f r e e v a r i a t i o n t o t a l 1 ,3 26 •28(5) •19(3) • 5 0 ( 8 ) . 6 2 ( 1 0 ) . 4 0 ( 4 ) . 2 0 ( 2 ) .40 (4) . 3 8 ( 1 0 ) .46(12) 5 , 7 28 .14(3) . 6 8 ( 1 5 ) .18(4) • 7 9 ( 2 2 ) • 8 3 ( 5 ) . 0 0 ( 0 ) •17(1) . 2 1 ( 6 ) •18(5) 9 ,11 24 • 2 3 ( 3 ) . 6 2 ( 8 ) •15(2) •54(13) • 3 6 ( 4 ) •64(7) . 0 0 ( 0 ) .46(11) .08(2) 1 3 , 1 5 23 •42(5) •42(5) . 1 7 ( 2 ) •52(12) • 2 7 ( 3 ) .46 (5) • 2 7 ( 3 ) .48(11) . 2 2 ( 5 ) 1 7 , 1 9 2? • 6 3 ( 1 0 ) . 2 5 ( 4 ) •13(2) • 5 9 ( 1 6 ) • 2 ? ( 3 ) • 5 5 ( 6 ) .18(2) . .41(11) . 1 5 ( 4 ) 21 , 23 35 . 9 6(24) . 04 (2) . 0 0 ( 0 ) • 7 4 ( 2 6 ) . 2 2 ( 2 ) • 7 8 ( 7 ) . 0 0 ( 0 ) • 2 6 ( 9 ) . 0 0 ( 0 ) 25 20 . 8 6 ( 1 2 ) . 0 0 ( 0 ) .14(2) . 7 0(14) . 1 7 ( 1 ) • 8 3 ( 5 ) . 0 0 ( 0 ) • 3 0 ( 6 ) . 1 0 ( 2 ) 18? F i g u r e 2: The p r o p o r t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e o f 111 & Cn] i n Wai's speech i n words o f t h e f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t t h a t a re / l / o r / n / i n i t i a l s (based on Table 46) use o f / n / words c o r r e c t use o f / n / .^.. 4*»»». a. Use o f / l / words c o r r e c t use o f / l / P r o p o r t i o n L O G .401 .204-779 TTTT5 — w ! w 2 1 ;23 S e s s i o n Number 188 reaches i t s peak at Sessions 5 and 7, with a p r o p o r t i o n of .83. Then i t goes down and reaches i t s lowest p r o p o r t i o n of .17 at Session 25. 5.4.1. The Two Periods Of Development Based on Tables 45 and 46, as w e l l as F i g u r e s 1 and 2, two main p e r i o d s i n the development of Wai's / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s are proposed. They are (1) the preference of n a s a l i z a t i o n , and (2) the preference of l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . (1) The preference of n a s a l i z a t i o n T h i s p e r i o d ranges from Session 1 to Session 11, i . e . when Wai i s from 1;7(14) to 2;0(27) years of age. The c h i l d ' s speech i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a higher dominance of [n] i n i t i a l s f o r both the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . The replacement of [1] i n i t i a l s i s not found i n the parent's speech, and as i n d i c a t e d in footnote 2 of t h i s c hapter, i s r a r e l y found among Cantonese speakers. The c h i l d ' s high occurrence of [n] i n i t i a l s i n her speech seems to i n d i c a t e that her speech i s dependent on her own system. Moreover, s i n c e the c h i l d has more a c c e s s i b i l i t y to hearing the [1] i n i t i a l s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n why the c h i l d p r e f e r s to use the [n] i n i t i a l , i n s t e a d of the [1] i n i t i a l . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s that i n Cantonese, the n a s a l s /m/, /n/, and A)/ can appear i n both i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n s , whereas / l / can only appear i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s h i g h occurrence of n a s a l s i n Cantonese s y l l a b l e s might lead the c h i l d to p r e f e r to use a n a s a l when she i s i n a 189 p e r i o d i n which her speech i s s t i l l dependent of her own system f o r the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . One can a l s o think of another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . In E n g l i s h , s t u d i e s which looked at the ages of a c q u i s i t i o n of speech sounds have found t h a t n a s a l s are a c q u i r e d e a r l i e r than l i q u i d s (Templin, 1957, Olmsted, 1971). For example, Templin (1957) gave an a r t i c u l a t i o n t e s t to 480 c h i l d r e n , 60 at each of the f o l l o w i n g ages - 3;0, 3;6, 4;0, 4;6, 5;0, 6;0, 7;0, and 8;0. The r e s u l t s showed that most c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e d the n a s a l s /m, n, / by age 3, whereas both l i q u i d s / l / and / r / were not a c q u i r e d . Jeng (1979) has a l s o found that the l a t e r a l l i q u i d / l / appeared l a t e r than a l l other consonants in h i s s u b j e c t who was a c q u i r i n g Mandarin as h i s n a t i v e language. Thus f a r , there has been no study to present i n f o r m a t i o n on the ages of a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese speech sounds. N e v e r t h e l e s s , based on the E n g l i s h and Mandarin data, one can i n f e r that the a c q u i s i t i o n of the n a s a l /n/ i s e a s i e r than that of the l i q u i d / l / i n Cantonese. If t h i s proves to be c o r r e c t , then i t may be the reason why Wai p r e f e r r e d /n/ over / l / i n her speech d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . (2) The high preference of l a t e r a l i z a t i o n T h i s p e r i o d extends approximately from Session 13 and up, i . e . age 2;1(24) and up. In t h i s p e r i o d , the c h i l d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the high p r e f e r e n c e of [1] i n i t i a l s i n her speech. T h i s dominance of [1] i n i t i a l s f o r the / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s i n her speech seems to suggest that at 190 t h i s time the c h i l d ' s speech i s very c l o s e to the mother's d i a l e c t . Of course, one can f u r t h e r c l a i m that the c h i l d i s now ready to f o l l o w the mother's d i a l e c t i n the use of [1] i n i t i a l f o r both / l / and /n/ i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s . But one should a l s o be c a u t i o u s t h a t , s i n c e there i s no speech data beyond Session 25, there might be some p o s s i b i l i t y of another f l u c t u a t i o n . In s p i t e of t h i s , however, i t i s my b e l i e f that Wai w i l l end up adopting the mother's d i a l e c t . T h i s i s based on the idea that the amount of the language input i s important i n determining which d i a l e c t i s p r e f e r r e d by the c h i l d . I t i s b e l i e v e d that the more time that the c h i l d hears a c e r t a i n d i a l e c t , the more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t he or she w i l l i n c l i n e to i t . In Wai's case, s i n c e the mother i s the primary source of language input to the c h i l d , Wai w i l l grow up speaking the mother's d i a l e c t r a t h e r than the f a t h e r ' s . 191 Chapter 5: Footnotes 1 During the p e r i o d of v i s i t s , when Wai was between 1;7(14) to 2;8(11), she spent most of the time i n the house. Because of the heavy t r a f f i c o u t s i d e the house, she r a r e l y played with other c h i l d r e n i n the s t r e e t . Thus the parents were assumed to be the primary source of l i n g u i s t i c input to the c h i l d . 2 I t i s only /n/ that i s r e p l a c e d by / l / . The replacement of /n/ by / l / i s very r a r e l y observed (H.N. Cheung, 1972). 3 Three other Cantonese-speakers r e c e n t l y from Hong Kong were asked to read the words i n the l i s t . In t h e i r readings, no /n/ i n i t i a l has been found. T h i s f i n d i n g seems to support H.N. Cheung's c l a i m (1972) that the absence, of i n i t i a l /n/ i s very common among Cantonese speakers i n Hong Kong. 192 CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , I have presented a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese phonology by three young c h i l d r e n . Two kinds of data were i n v o l v e d . They are the l o n g i t u d i n a l data of the primary s u b j e c t Wai, and the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data of the two other s u b j e c t s , Ching and Wing. Throughout the d i s c u s s i o n , the r e s u l t s of the analyses of Wai were o f t e n compared with those of Ching and Wing. T h i s comparison enabled one to have some general idea as to which s u b j e c t was more 'advanced' or l e s s 'advanced' in h i s / h e r p h o n o l o g i c a l development. Since there were no l o n g i t u d i n a l data f o r Ching and Wing, I o f t e n compared Ching's s e s s i o n , age 1;8(5), with Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n , 1;7(14), and Wing's s e s s i o n , 2;0(6), with Wai's te n t h s e s s i o n , 2;0(11 ) . They were so chosen because of the c l o s e n e s s of t h e i r ages. 6.1. COMPARISON OF SUBJECTS From these comparisons, one can summarize the two general f i n d i n g s as f o l l o w s : (A) Ching manifested an o v e r a l l less-advanced phonetic a b i l i t y than Wai was at S e s s i o n 1. The best evidence comes from the r e s u l t s of (1) phonetic s t a b i l i t y , (2) the t o t a l number of sounds a c q u i r e d and a r t i c u l a t i o n s cores, and (3) Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. 193 In the r e s u l t s of the index of phonetic s t a b i l i t y , a comparison of Ching's rate with that of Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n shows that Ching's r a t e i s much hi g h e r . I t y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n c e of . 17 (.47 - .30) ( c f . Table 12). As mentioned in S e c t i o n 4.1., a higher r a t e means a higher i n s t a b i l i t y of the phonetic p r o d u c t i o n . Ching, t h e r e f o r e , i s l e s s s t a b l e than Wai. With respect to the t o t a l number of sounds a c q u i r e d , Ching had- a t o t a l of 20 sounds i n her. s e s s i o n , whereas Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n had a t o t a l of 30 ( c f . Tables 13 and 14). T h i s i n d i c a t e s that Ching i s 10 sounds (or 33.3%) below that of Wai. The same p i c t u r e can be found in the r e s u l t s of the a r t i c u l a t i o n s c o r e s . Ching a c q u i r e d a t o t a l of 41 i n her s e s s i o n , whereas Wai had 58. T h i s y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n c e of 17. The r e s u l t s of Ching's Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms f u r t h e r confirms that Ching i s l e s s advanced. Ching had a p r o p o r t i o n of .31 i n her p r o d u c t i o n , whereas Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n had only .16. Ching's p r o p o r t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e twice as much as what Wai had. T h i s shows that Ching has made a great number of Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms in her product i o n . (B) Wing's o v e r a l l phonetic performance can be comparable to that of Wai at S e s s i o n 10. From the r e s u l t s of v a r i o u s a n a l y s e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine who i s more advanced in phonetic a b i l i t y . In f a c t , except fo r the index of the phonetic s t a b i l i t y t h a t 1 94 shows Wing i s s i g n i f i c a n t s u p e r i o r to Wai at Session 10 (Wing's index: .13; Wai's index: .26), the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s suggest that Wing and Wai are almost the same in t h e i r phonetic a b i l i t y . T h i s can be shown in the r e s u l t s of the analyses of t o t a l number of sounds a c q u i r e d and a r t i c u l a t i o n scores, and Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms. For example, as i n d i c a t e d i n Tables 13 and 14, Wing a c q u i r e d a t o t a l of 28 sounds, whereas Wai a c q u i r e d a t o t a l of 30. T h i s y i e l d s only a d i f f e r e n c e of 2 sounds. In the r e s u l t s of the a r t i c u l a t i o n s cores, Wing has a score of 52, whereas Wai had 54. Again t h i s y i e l d s a d i f f e r e n c e of 2. In f a c t , these d i f f e r e n c e s can be c o n s i d e r e d to be l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t i f one compares them with those between Ching's s e s s i o n and Wai's f i r s t s e s s i o n . As f o r the p r o p o r t i o n of Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms, Wing had .06, whereas Wing had .07 The d i f f e r e n c e i s only .01, which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be rather minimal. In s h o r t , one can c l a i m that Wing's o v e r a l l phonetic performance can be comparable to that of Wai at Session 10. 6.2. THE ACQUISITION OF CANTONESE T h i s study has attempted to p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese. I have examined the development of the sound systems of Wai, Wing, and Ching through the use of four a n a l y s e s , namely, phonetic a n a l y s i s , a n a l y s i s of . r e d u p l i c a t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , and p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s . 195 The major f i n d i n g s on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese are as f o l l o w s : (1) The phonetic a n a l y s i s has determined the e a r l y sounds a c q u i r e d i n Cantonese. Though only based on three s u b j e c t s , these data can be compared to those of other Cantonese s u b j e c t s and to those of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g other languages. Our r e s u l t s showed t h a t the f o l l o w i n g sounds are used by at l e a s t two s u b j e c t s : the i n i t i a l consonants /m, p, t , t s , t s ' , s, j , k, h/, the f i n a l consonants /n, k , ^ j / , and the v o c a l i c s / i , £, , u, 3 , a, p , e i / . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the s u b j e c t s had a c q u i r e d a s u b s t a n t i a l part of the phonology of Cantonese. For example, at 2;8 (11), Wai had a c q u i r e d use of a l l Cantonese phonemes except the i n i t i a l consonants / r j , k', kw, kw', f / , the f i n a l consonants /p, t / and the v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c consonant /y,oe, D i , u i , 0/. (2) As f a r as r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s concerned, the r e s u l t s showed that r e d u p l i c a t i o n appears to be a common fe a t u r e i n the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d ' s e a r l y system. I t i s a l s o found that the great m a j o r i t y of the r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are nouns, and then verbs. The a d j e c t i v e / a d v e r b s r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are the l e a s t frequent. A c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of Wai's Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms has r e v e a l e d that r e d u p l i c a t i o n occurs e a r l y and then decreases g r e a t l y . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with that from E n g l i s h (Fee and Ingram, 1982). F i n a l l y , we have found that Ching, the l e a s t advanced c h i l d in t h i s study, has twice as many r e d u p l i c a t e d forms as Wai 196 at Session 1. T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e that the l e s s advanced a c h i l d i s i n her a r t i c u l a t i o n , the more r e d u p l i c a t e d forms are to be found i n her speech. (3) The P r o p o r t i o n of Matches compares the phonology of c h i l d ' s words to t h e i r a d u l t models to determine the r a t e of matches. Based on the r e s u l t s of the P r o p o r t i o n of Matches, the f o l l o w i n g two f i n d i n g s are worth n o t i n g . F i r s t , Wai's rate of matching the a d u l t ' s sounds i n c r e a s e d a c r o s s the s e s s i o n s (from .76 at Session 1 to .90 at Session 25). Secondly, I have compared the P r o p o r t i o n of Matches of consonants between the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n and the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n scored much higher than the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n . That i s , the Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n are doing twice as w e l l i n matching the a d u l t models. These r e s u l t s l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that Cantonese phonology i s e a s i e r to a c q u i r e than that of E n g l i s h . T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d as a r e s u l t of (1) the more complex system of E n g l i s h consonants, and (2) the a s s i s t a n c e of the t o n a l system. The a n a l y s i s of homonymous forms i n d i c a t e d that the s u b j e c t s only used a minimal number of homonymous forms i n t h e i r speech. T h i s i s shown by comparing the p r o p o r t i o n of the homonymous forms between the Cantonese-speaking and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s . The E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , based on Ingram (1981), were found to use 3.5 times more homonymous forms than the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s . I 197 a t t r i b u t e t h i s low r a t e of homonymy of the Cantonese-speaking s u b j e c t s to the t o n a l system i n Cantonese. The e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n of tone enables the Cantonese c h i l d to disambiguate p r o d u c t i o n s that would otherwise be homonyms due to c o n s t r a i n t s on segments. In E n g l i s h , however, the c h i l d has to r e l y more or l e s s s o l e l y on the segments of the word. Although i n E n g l i s h , suprasegmental f e a t u r e s such as i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s p r o v i d e some h e l p i n 'processing' the word, but they are not l e x i c a l as tone i s i n Cantonese. The r e s u l t s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l process a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that there are processes that are shared by the s u b j e c t s , and others that are not. For vowels, i t was found that a l l s u b j e c t s have the process of t e n s i n g . Stopping, which i s a common process i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n (Ingram, 1976b), i s a l s o found i n the speech of both Wai and Ching. L a s t l y , one of the frequent processes of Wai, namely, d e a s p i r a t i o n , i s a l s o r e p o r t e d to be rather frequent i n the Taiwanese-speaking c h i l d r e n (S.C. L i n , 1971). 6.3. CONCLUDING REMARK One s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , among ot h e r s , i s the suggestion of an e x p l i c i t set of a n a l y t i c procedures and c r i t e r i a i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g Cantonese. Although i t has never been mentioned, i t has been thought that the same set of procedures and c r i t e r i a can a l s o apply to the a n a l y s i s 198 of the speech of language delayed c h i l d r e n . Thus f a r , the speech samples used here only covered the normal Cantonese-speaking c h i l d r e n . I t f o l l o w s that a good c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s study i s to analyse the speech of some language delayed c h i l d r e n by using the same procedures and c r i t e r i a . In doing t h i s , one w i l l be ab l e to make the necessary change and e l a b o r a t i o n . 199 BIBLIOGRAPHY Blount, B. 1969. 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Han-yu fang-yan g a i yao (?if^i%'h , O u t l i n e of Chinese d i a l e c t s ) . Peking: Wen-zi gai-ge-chu-ban-she. Zhang, Y.X. 1968. Er-tong z h i yu-yan yu s i -xiang ( % % i i | | ^ " ^ > t 5 > ' T h e l a n 9 " u a 9 e a n d thought of c h i l d r e n . ) Taiwan: Zhong Hua Shuyu. Zhang, C.X. and W.Z. Qiu 1 974. Guo-xiao, zhong, gao-nan-ji er-tong zuo-wen chang-yong z i - h u i y a n - j i u ( l £ /K^ % ^ f\f 'Pf* H % A study of the use of vocabulary i n the composition of primary school p u p i l s . ) Zhong-guo er-tong xing-wei de f a-zhan ( ^  1 § ) % \ 4 J ftMa4t,The development of behaviors of the Chinese c h i l d r e n ) , ed. by G.S. Yang and C.X. Zhang ( \% %% ,i^J^T^ ' 239-416, Taiwan: Huan-yu chu-ban-she. 209 Appendix 1 (a) The forms t h a t are used i n t h i s s t u d y : ( i n o r d e r ) 1. I n v e n t o r y Sheet ( P h o n e t i c Forms) 2. I n v e n t o r y Sheet ( L e x i c a l Types) 3 . Item and R e p l i c a Sheet k. R e d u p l i c a t i o n Sheet 5. P h o n o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s Sheet 6. Summary Sheet 210 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 , 1 1 | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | I 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I | 1 1 1 1. I | 1 1 ,1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 | I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I • 1 ? v , 1 1 1 1 1 1 " . 1 | 8 1 I | | 1 1 | | 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I | 1 S v l l a h i c Consonants 1 1 1 I m 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 211 Session No. Name & Age of INVENTORY SHEET C h i l d L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants 1 — _ 1 -1 212 Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants Tones -» — > Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s p P' m f t t' n 1. ts t s ' s j k k' h kw kw' w b) S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d Consonants i u <£ a i au m P y 0 P i pu n t a e i ou 0 k oey i u S y l l a b i c Consonants Oi u i m i 0 1 Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s V o c a l ics Consonants S y l l a b i c Consonants 214 Session No. 1. 2. 3. h. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 -10. 11. 12. 13. Ik. 15-Name & Age of REDUPLICATION SHEET C h i l d Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B Summary of Data Number of : Proportion of: Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms Session No Name & Age C h i l d PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops Sub s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping A f f r i c a t i o n Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other Processes Assimilatory Processes 216 .Session No. Name & Age of SUMMARY SHEET C h i l d Sample L e x i c a l Phonetic Phonetic Phonetic s i z e Types : Types : Tokens : Forms : Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency ( ) Numher of Sounds A r t i c u l a t i o n Score b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants Final- Consonants-.' C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: . .. C r i t e r i o n of Frequency--:.:. Vocalics ( ) - _ _ _ ( ) Syl.Cons._l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds Number of Sounds S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score T o t a l Number of Sounds Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Substitu t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants m n Q p pJ-ft t ' t s t s ' k k'to'kw' s f 1 h j v - j I 1 [ ( / ) 1 1 I 1 I 1 : [ J ( / ] Proportion of Data ( /25) & Matches ( / ) 21? (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i P a i Di'- ou u. y P i u i • t u -at e e i au rn a 0 oey pu 0 ! P r o p o r t i o n o f Data ( /20) & Matches ( / ) (-3) Tones-Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 -T o t a l Number of Tone 'Substitutions. Phonetic Tokens P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants Stopping A f f r i c a t i o n F r o n t i n g •Monophthongisation d.f -diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other processes 0 - 20 % 21-1+9% 50 - 79 % 80 - 100 % 218 Appendix 1 (b) The complete forms f o r t h e s e s s i o n s t h a t are s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 219 Session No. / LEXICON SHEET types l e x i c a l phonetic T types l e x i c a l phonetic Name & Age of C h i l d , • , _ V types l e x i c a l phonetic 37 fa J if* 2_Q_ y " 7 3 7 4 W ' -64 W p h 4 ftt^ 4o 4OLC' 6 M, 4 41 . i f » 4 4 3> put} u. 12 21 4 4 U3 lo f /kw / A ji-u7i i-u PS ii:q ii.ufri H f e e ' f e i /kw'/ A / A / 12 Ua * U?JALL'U «.' 137 U&L Id A / W W W 6( 62 torn-i L _ k i _ i l 21 API: iKgpflfr) fey L O O 67 f a: ..2 W I 2, 2 i s . 10 3 3 1 ^htixl 10 72 .4 1'1 h u . ^ 220 Session No. '_ LEXICON SHEET (ibrr&M&d) Name & Age of C h i l d , . , . x (AJOA, J J 7('4) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic. l e x i c a l phonetic / l / 1 \V p V j * « p. ^ loft h& \noiS 1 IT n a ' V 4 1 p p V i V ' l U T p Y V " rJ J w J X 1 i , 1 ] / 14 ^ ; j s 1*01 ijfl. ^  ,,2t> p i : m Tf\O.J 1 7 rr|fl,V4v) i-JT l 7 ^ ? /P/ | . n '.nil',' iw y , / V L O i i iCft i 1 1* p<a l ho3 p a r 1«/p\,-.i,p'„u'«IJ» p ' l iuy^' 11 h a / W Itof DA. DA.. p i n a . IS1 ima i * Jo', b->V l l o f'D^'r^l /S/ 1 | Sr»w l)U SPn1 1 hog ^ V i x ) ! ' 6 ' S b a ' lis* <TPU,' I fe4 WJU* I*7 1, ' 2 ItlO hi — . . 1 1 8 pi-"} 2 llil h f v I J . \ J , i^v '<:v. ' 1137 v^'^Vo.: U Vnt?u r (if*) *6 pi d h(4- P|;n '04 S i : * l«1 5 5 ' p — j — j — XL pou,' l(lf paw n«o r.^,,z 1 ' I. /P'/I life 55 3 / n / | *7 p V f c S lilt, p'pi* i i h ^ t r HIT nvfndti ' D W ! > W '•f V lf«r- s i l , V ^ l it fo p V M PV. V2y> "° s i n ' l l * S f V 13 noe -M 2 11* I c t i L - ^ W - p k i M . p > J ^ 221 Session No. / LEXICON SHEET (JUTIQ^AAJU.^ Name & Age of C h i l d , . (AJAC / ; 7 Q4-j types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 114 SM,'.*)5 Wl i V i t ' p i ? l l 7 t t| ?L 3 t i u f ) ' 1U U'l SU: rw) / J , ? ! Ink 5H SM irt<;u su. j J j j St| * lift 5<W J l l rt S I 1 1 tV"> ' t i l l t ' i n ' 1 J 1 A / 1 I3f 1 . 1 2 - f W A s - / | rto f l l B t o ix 5 nf tsii1 lk-i t/i « 3 n f c u ^ W l i i r t o J t ^ l.si t s ^ i V b o ti'x>y\ l|«.tu,Vu:M . Jw t P L 4 I ui t a h.6 l l U t , p» 6 ftz t u r f " l iH IUK* 1 fa f < V la* t *V ?S&| 12? t*' I l k t D ' C J ^ A s / I 12(1. t ^ . 4 f i : 4 Ai T V * 1 U«r s r ' l i w t o it' likf tou. tyu tSPL 5 " hJf t s It, f V , J U.L ts>i * L(, t su * I ikr t o a li1o t * t z 1 L lift^Uv Iff) f S ^ V J t4 t v * . n t j ' t f l l t s ^ t s c e ? H f . : « ' lit.} t . h6nv) j£7-tsu*ku»il t *u^ t s i ^ I'tr f.*, A " 'V* . — « — . i r «i7t5t 4tsr/' k W t s ? ' & /w/ 1 W*tfU 1? 1 ID t r ft1 b i 1 J H i tsV ts V 1 ft u j * - n ^ U n C,l<) 1 Ml ,t.<i 1 ' i f l A V j 17b u y p i ^ IAW I^ PI^  222 Session No. '  LEXICON SHEET ("/fc^m&ru^) Name & Age of C h i l d , . , - . types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 1 | IH wic-' W MIL V a > 1 ' I 1 I 1 / i p / | | 1 1 1 1 ! • * | 1 i . . i | | / a : / | 1 m <x 1 A * | I j ,11, a * I 1 " A-VK) • 1 | 1 r F |UJ J '| ' J 1 a^:.ps«t?.i.|yJ I | J r ;r r /P/ i 1 1 | 1 ' J j J -/ I 1 1 | | 1 1 1 1 . l I | 1 | | | 1 1 I 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 i i 223 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d Ua^ /;lQ</-) cv CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 1 1 1 1 1 p:>- 1 p o u 1 r DIM x t l ' ' „ ' i 1 i ^ 1 J-A (pa i p • n i lU j t P h M tsf.->l t«l. x | t s u l * oft- 1 ! n i K T tjl 1 ^  W t p * * I f-Sl' 1 1 t s u V . hD ' 1 T JJ t i ^ 1 t f i u ' 1 ti.ni^  t ? 5 1 to* 1 ti n C t S l : 1 1 + 1 tail* I h i . -A 1 , t P l « L _ t i , J 2 * . | ' p a l ' 1 1 I | p V ' ^ ' p V u ' l I tJn*\ tV 3> tV:^ + 1 V > JI + ™ « + ' 5 1 ±. ) i ^ L > M ISi; 1 tSftit tsa.M tV<H r.Wi j I I f A j * 1 1 t, 5 I l e u 3 1 ! • A I L i i \€ 1 ii U7 1 f P i ' 1 j P t ' ^r—^— — — — — — — — — — — — 1 1 i -| | J J ! 1 1 IGCK)2-i. i I i J <H i J < 1 .^ t ?u r 1 SI «l' J | | J J . 1 1 K )pt t ' 1 1 . J J 1 | S M - ' I S3.l 2 l V Si:«M| I YS'H 'N s ^ H * ' Slr/Pl S y l l a b i c Consonants V ^ ' J I s M i ? 1 7 * s i ! ' I 1 1 ' I 9 ' 1 I 1 1 I 224 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms ^COKCIMMJUJC^ Name & Age of C h i l d . r,,.\ CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 1 I 2 1 1 wu.li 1 4 ' l o * h P U a ' T ^ i ' J AP*,* 1 1 h * i h i V U.tf [ U * T 4 B V , y i J k t f . 1 1 1 1 1 t h & W l 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 2 r 1 L Qho KGH l sif\a-v\ \ 1 1 i 1 1 h A M 1 1 1 1 n s V 1 I 1 i \ i v W 1 1 1 1 I 4- 1 h, v W I W I 1 1 1 | 1 | — 1 1 1 1 I I ha. \/ ' \/G I N/C hu t A/ J 2 ^ S y l l a b i c Consonants m i j L -8 225 Session No. / INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants Name & Age of C M l d ^ /:7f*\ S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants FY/ pec i 22 "It 1 3i» Soe^ - J l 23 7* — J v „ 12 | V t J 71 4 I 1 o 111 keen • * v. i'— H i • ' * l~ J < ^ > PH S t Op i 3 1 3 DV- h , *7 7 ^ J £ n 3 *s i« J IS'? f - 3^ 1 — - 1 — 1 % fa h S i Ten f 1 n wu • 1 r •a i Dn f P i '1 u 3 4 4-0 3o V n o 4 3 t o l i S I F t , ; 3 tou. fan t<T 2.1 PC.if t a d "7 - i l l *7 I ft* „ n ~ 4? 6~0 W s w in 100 \-' •n i (o\ m \o\ li'o t'/tl t c o I \ol A i /o/ /33 101 oa.s-W f)3 hu *.» J 7 h8L*J t nu. J cs- 8 j J 31 4-1? [ I (To) 3S~ 1 6? • "226 1 (cov&Mtf^ Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants Tones — » 4 a. * w — > 1 Y\(K 4 J 3 ^ > 4.1 2. —» J — > -> 1 ~* 1 —> ^ _ i 0 21 13$ ~ n — 1 V T i n V 1 O t h e r s -a pf-i J r ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s (p) % ©% Session No. ' -•' Name & Age of y y y ®*% ©% ®% c h i l d kJtu, / ; 7 C ' 0 y y y y t(4) y y ® % k' ®% y — y y • kw kw1 — y b) S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics Consonants b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants © 0 ( a i ) 7 au ®\ u ®* ©*? Ce i) '(S3) oey s i u 4 / ui 4. E 4 C O S y l l a b i c Consonants ®i (D y ' t o - • v/ y i to y — s/ y V y V S y l l a b i c Consonants y y ro -v3 228 Session No. / REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d 6uW 1)1 C/4-) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. 'to f l y ' verb A 2. 1 1 'shoe' noun A 3. tarn 4 harv ^ 'to walk' verb A k. |IU • 1 \u . 'to shake' verb A 5. J 'street' noun A 6. &PM,2APU* 'dog' noun A T. 'piano' noun A 8. to teach' verb A 9 'grandfather' 1 noun B 10. J j 'chicken' noun A 11. ' s k i r t ' noun A 12. Ifln fc l a t a - 'broken' adjective A 13. 'to get'' verb A Ik. 'beautiful'' adjective A 15. ® h i a 4 ma ' 'mother' noun B Summary of Data Number of : hk 36 Proportion of: .20 .16 .0^ 215 1.00 Form Class of Type A Reduplication 12 33 21. ^8. .08 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 229 REDUPLICATION SHEET,(continued) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 16. i i wia. to a. 'mother' noun B IT. i I 'cat' noun A 18. 'to clean' verb A 19. wvi-t"1 k n i t . 1 'to peel o f f verb A 20. 1. i vnoit k*<3u. 'hat' noun A •21. • t * <0 'younger s i s t e r ' noun B 22. 4 4 'teeth' noun A 23. <g» ... rjw, j-v 4 l r > a 1 ) 4 . > 'father' noun B 2k. 1 1 1 1 ' h a l l ' noun A 25. - 1 r os. 'cookie' noun A 26. | y r J i i > . i P PI p PI 'to peel o f f verb A 27. l r 1 t P ALL P OU 'to carry' verb A 28. I I • 1 » 1 ' cup' noun A 29. p U.L . p UA . 'comb' noun A 30. 'to k i s s ' verb A 31. 'uncle' noun ' B '•' 32. 1 1 'book' noun A 33. S «j S ij 'to read' verb A ' 3k. T OU.^  T. OU 'rabbit' noun A 35. <S> 'elder s i s t e r ' noun B 36. 'to thank' verb A 37. 'word' noun A 38. 'Pig' • noun A ... ^ j j 39. • i s a n Uft.n 'orange' noun A ko. J: J 'vegetable' noun A hi. 230 REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) UJ-ai I •• <2. Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B t s o f t s ' * } * ' l o n s ' adjective A i _ -r ' 4*- • 4 'insect' noun A •+2- TSU y t s a g ^  U3. wVl^pj^ 'child's name' noun B^  1 . „ . „ 8" ' duck' noun A •+•+• ap. ap.  231 Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET ^ < / ; 7 QQ S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops 4L > <f) (X/b) 0-33  S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping f s — » t (4/(3) 0-30  A f f r i c a t i o n S —» ts C^/il) 0-1$  Fronting ' Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs ei —M CVsQ p-is" OU—*J C*/») o f t Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other Processes Assimilatory Processes 232 Session No. L SUMMARY SHEET Name & Age of Ch i l d U)OUL I i 7 04-} Sample L e x i c a l Phonetic Phonetic Phonetic s i z e Types : ll*} Types : A i & Tokens : 4-10 F o r m s : ^ 1 S Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency Number of Sounds t t' b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l c j J Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants a '1 A r t i c u l a t i o n Score C*> Cj) 3.4-s C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics JJ_ ( I±L - t0-<\ ) Syl.Cons._l ' A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds / 0 (_& \ U, F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency-: • l L ( 4 f ) A r t i c u l a t i o n Score fc> Number of Sounds ^ n i 4 "P* a ** Cel) ok) . ' S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score _ To t a l Number of Sounds <3 3 ^ 7 ) Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms • I Type B reduplicated forms • Q S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I F v/ V s/ t • — — — ts / V / V V #3 (r,4>) Proportion of Data ^ 89_(^/25) & Matches • 8* ( /# / 233 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i V a i PI D i — ou 0 u • y i P i / u i '• • i u / <& / e • e i i au • m i / a P 0 oey / •pu / 0 1 / P r o p o r t i o n of Data ( /^/20) & Matches >£g ( / i //^ ) (3) Tones Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 k 5 6 T 8 9 3 0«) / 3 T o t a l Number of ' .: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s 7 Phonetic Tokens 4-10 j " " " — P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s » Qo^  P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants Stopping t s => -t A f f r i c a t i o n S -—> F r o n t i n g Laxing of vowels and diphthongs ou. * J) el -—i a — i > p at — P I Other processes • f > VO 8 > / t a 0 - 20 % 21 - k9% 50 - 79 % 100 # 234 Session No. 5" LEXICON SHEET types types Name & Age of C h i l d . ^ . types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 4* A u 2 i 4 u V « ) - - — — • - ^ 1 J 1 \ •) a \ la. 1 1 1 U ? » n 9 2-"? >PD1 Ut iph^ 2 tat & 12. i a t . ^ 24 | PV*' In p't 1 3 i j W 1 3 < < p o i x > *• I f , , * l r J 1 i J- % / i / i *7 J i m . . Ut j\mJ / V | J 'APJ^ hi joej 4 !%• -Co, I.V4 -Ba,' A / i 4 In* * A ka . 2 h a* A / 1 Iff] m?*)' M 1>PLVM) ff> lo XLJLSLI 6° h~? frx) 1£_ JoW Lu »2 han ho.}\\l h t A p n 4 31 l a u 4 43 /pfc-31 mpP 14 S4 life ha 4l 4?'fo0 If ^ In U l g JtJ^lLJiJLJi iA! 6 l ifttej 11 h 9 T 44 £LJj£jf mi) 6f hge-j-I L J L 7 ^ 7 " 21 4G A - i-.n f c '1 U t f . ^ 2 i n h a e . - g f o J * * Jo.i.u; q m a - ' 7» >nfl 4 ' A T I T T $-0 4<?M,Wii 73 H^VxO-42-2,35 Session No. 5  LEXICON SHEET ( N a m e & Age of C h i l d • . y \ u)<<ic I; <j (n) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 63 won 1 " h o u ' 5 ^ -j-i ^ / n / « ' r ' v i i« ' r k 1 UL KIPI 4 hi? h P i * h.7 H I 1 i1 io/VrO ^" m V III* fci " fav) L f nj>n f c I fro n i n ^ *1 p ^  i i 4 , IK* pa A x ) 1 / y i , / P ' / | IK3 ' I 6? n o a r If* n a u y lo r s. iV^ 18T o ^ <?* p V IIO1 p p . ' ^ l l » t C P , 5 1*' p'J;.* Ilil' p i . V ^ lu« <;*i? /P/ i « P ^ i 4 llu K pa 1 IIJG p a ^ ' t o ) ^ iio ' p ^ > 1 ,' i n pp t v$x^ i r j , ' ^ IH* p ^ J «/ S o e ^ l'*i soty 72.® 4 1 lee L 4 ' 7? p a 1 If1 paV?*> p',..i.\3 ll<& P a t - 3 ' 1 l r p f l . ( ' f i p/j V / s / | 13 ropA1 ll(l Ua 1 % p a t " 1 14 p a t . 1 |11 s a , / ' '"1 1 1 A / I 236 Session No. 3  LEXICON SHEET (^rUi^uuC) Name & Age of C h i l d • - - \ (A)OA, I j J ( " ) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic i u i L 1 I I A s - / i nr t . V l i f l r t ' p i D is* t s S * >* t ^ ^ : lib f > n 4 lit© V U 4 lift t p p * i n t\J l*» t V u J llw f /i p 8 (38 t W I|f2 f „ , / •tot*'*' 1 IjoTts^^id iw t p & * " llVL tP&TfcO 131 t i B L i ' l « tWft*> /w/ | l i d t W •*i iftr f. '„V HI t w n ' t p * w ' tfz ^ p ™ 2 " llfco t p r i Y « > . A s / | t->-n* 1*2 f o K \ 7 m v T < « . i j t ^ ^ l i i 7 t s p i j l t ! i P i | ' L r 0 4 Ilk t .r»fA*> I * .t/pi.' 7 t o f c P t ' ^ 111? I A / P * * llM- tu;n* KW tspC l|«1 t.SDi 1 Ilk WD A 4 ll«* .2t t , ; * a ) l f r r t * * * / > » > lt(, t * P ^ lift t . S p ^ ( > 0 ifck w / i v n f e ' ^ ^ 1^ IV? t ^ P p " 7 1/11 t W / Y ^ 1 i 1? t 4 & U 7 Xnk / V i nl t i l * ki tik8 to tspu i ' m ti.-wi1- life? f im^ru) Im / t so* lift ± s x 2 1 ifc 1 1 ^ 1/10 -f^4y k1«>ts«: L hi* tsS W l .....1 .' ._ i i i t o n 6 Ini t o i A a O l ' f l t s i - ^ lilt t s i ^ A : / 1 I i * *£:>•> lis* f W M l t s o e , / * — - ' • — ! J 7 1 1 lit tsU -h^ 1 , 1 ; ! 237 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. £~ Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d UJOM Ijj(ll) CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC t i 1 - ' rAa'iJ APP* pa^ > p * i 3 y p « - ^ ^ h - « J 1 W l p> ^ O&T 1 h3K) L-1 tnuF 1 t b w 2 I i Jhpu1 1 1 i I L i s 1 1 f.>rf I 1 ' 1 ' 7 1 1 p i n I r t O ^ J 4 , 5 T W 1 I ' t u ^ l 1 i , . t f | 1 1 t r - f c * 1 1 . * 1 p PIT 1 1 1 t i . V j p 3 - 1 P W 1 r 1 ' 1 1 P p l . 1 ' 1 tu/rj' 1 ' J .3 1 1 1 1 1 }>'.;* | | 1 hd;* 1 l J 1 ilPM* 1 p W ' 1 t L a 1 t, a f M s" 1 l o p i 1 1 ha .r^ i > 1 ' n u r 1 1 t i e « ' l t V ^ ' 1 1 1 tfc.£"l f-J, fc3 1 1 1 J f . W 1 W i W 1 IS-' J 1 1 h * . ^ i i i i J i i 1 1 i S y l l a b i c Consonants m 1 w 4 ' * 1 J ') { s a ^ P , n i W 1 1 l W ' ? | 0 « 1 1 w r j l f 5 o e ^ 1 s # h 1 ! INVENTORY SHEET Session No. S~ Phonetic Forms (^nvCwuM ) Name & Age of J C h i l d CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 4 11 m i l 4 11 WW- I ACL M L for* K I D hi a ts- -tsp tsp jar n s V l a 3 l f -, in* .tsV S y l l a b i c Consonants m i 9 1 239 Session No. INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants Name & Age of C h l l d !:<?*>) S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants > 11 **1 V 1 n a -2. a. j l 0 12 1 J ! 4 PE.' iz zi J <r4 1 I p .1 47 7 f 10 ' u., 1° ~ 1 100 12) io! ft' * . h l SV>h3 « 1 2 1 i"4 3 6f 4-I ' t t - . 1 4 - —P— l | >« 1. H -J 2 ^ ° n ^' S %j i n 44 j 1-3 tu »f >p / 2 0 * i uM Kg w J 1/2- V ^7 J '11* <&> • , • in . p 1 t r ? 31 -(??) trav> ~ j « -few* a . : * i4 tat 1 ! -111 i4 '•' i pt-vs 4 I oo s< 4 1 J j ?— 1X7 /•I t * ^ j , i n ts J.-j j KA U'A4 144 - 4 4 - 7 i>"7 1 * T J 1 8 | I 0 J J 74 —'—t— [ 1*4 6( I I I 71 .'*7 © . % h ^ J ca J tfl.-l. A.U.. , U t 2 2 Itt? 4* 1 ^ V3 *7 S3,- 'I I (2) W l • j 24 0 Inventory Sheet S (<**tf»**tL^ L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants w JkL, IT in 3r H (ii) °*lf? 43 (10 l p e u " ISI Oth e r s j 4 1 ts*>u-13] i -Tones i>> 2 —> A D 3 —> f. l . - l l . t V u r —> —» w/Y>nT —> —> —> Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ®% Session No. 3 Name & Age of y/ / © I J j r ®% c h i l d U/M / ; T7 f " ) V t s 7r ®% / • V kw kw* — y b) S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics Consonants b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants ©4 <3>/< C«07 (ai)6 Cau) 7 y / ©,3 ©* @<< €>,3 iu 3 oi V . ZD S y l l a b i c Consonants <§>'\<3)' / W W v/ *)<>-> • S y l l a b i c Consonants 242 Session No. 4" Name & Age of REDUPLICATION SHEET C h i l d Uj<&C I (//) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. ha.L B Ui 5 'crab' noun A 2. 'to walk' verb A 3. fo. P H . * & p « 2 ' dog' noun A k. la m 2 -law 2 . 'basket' noun A 5. 0 4 i Ma m<a 'mother' noun B 6. <g> P A 4 p a ' 'father' noun B 7. i 1 pai ® pat 'to b i d goodbye ' verb B 8. 1 1 L p U nejx 'to give' verb A 9 I I p a i ^ p a i * 'to row' verb A 10. ' 1 4 ' ' p a * p ^ * 'grandmother' noun B 11. 'to eat' verb A 12. 'uncle' noun B 13. tr>vn2 tpynX 'to throw' verb A 1U. 'p a i n f u l ' adjective A 15. J J 'orange' noun A Summary of Data Number of : Proportion of: -20 ' 4^0.9', 13 r- .. .06 / r03> Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Form Class of 20.S 1.00 Phonetic forms Type A 6 A 6 Reduplications V e r b reduplicated forms 6 .k6 . . Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms .07 2k3 UJcu, S REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 16. 'to-' 'thank' verb A IT. 'to s i t ' verb A 18. kIPl W 7 I 'child's name' noun B 19. -4 knui mwi ^0'younger s i s t e r ' noun B 20. . 1 1 1* 'cat' noun A 21. 22. 23. 2k. 25. 26. 27-28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35. 36. 37. < 38. 39. ko. 244 Session Wo. Name & Age of C h i l d \JOLC I ; ? ( l t \ PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals tj —» <f> (%4.) OPS Stops A —> <f> ( V f ). S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping U — » t C2/<t) 0-t3 A f f r i c a t i o n S » ts ( f f i ) Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs OU » D (3A) 0-33  Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a — » P Cx/xi) *08 cui — > Pi (4-/*) o • !>(> Other Processes fit 0*0$ -h — » » J ( y,0) 0 3.0  J » U (3/is) O ^ O t W J — » a (x/is) o ./3 Assimilatory Processes 2 4 5 Session No. 5" SUMMARY SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d UiOuu I J 9 C") Sample s i z e L e x i c a l Types : / (? f Types Phonetic Analysis Phonetic Phonetic Phonetic c^ / J 7 Tokens : 6~7 £ Forms : 9. Of a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency 10 Number of Sounds / 0 ( ^ O p* p' hn tS K b) Syl l a b l e F i n a l ^ Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants A r t i c u l a t i o n Score £3 a) C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics / fc) ,( Syl.Cons. 1 1$ 91 fo-3 ) F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency-. . / A A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds ^ {(> ) ; u Coe) (AO. c^y A r t i c u l a t i o n Score C\ Number of Sounds ) O O i Lou) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score T o t a l Number of Sounds _ Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : .Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms ' Substitut i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants A m n )« -t t ' t s t s ' k'k'kw kw' s f 1 I F • v/ • t' s/ t — — — ts «/ s/ • • 3 y I {'3//C) Proportion of Data (J /^25) & Matches 73 ( M> I ^  $ 246 (2) Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants i V a i PL D i — ou 0 u y — P i u i • i u V <£ V e i e i • au • m • / a 0 oey • pu 0 1 Proportion of Data » °j ( /&/20) & Matches • 7^ ( 1$ //? ) (3) Tones Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 3,1, 4 4 T o t a l Number of \: Tone Substitutions. 7 Phonetic Tokens !>"l8 Proportion of Tone Substitutions • Q / Phonological Process Analysis Deletion of f i n a l consonants 1 — * 4> 4 , — * (t • -J ' Stopping ts —> t A f f r i c a t i o n s —> ts Fronting Monophthongisation of diphthongs OU —-» D Laxing of vowels and diphthongs CL * P at —> *>( Other processes t — > t> J —> u 3 — ^ ct 0 - 20 % 21 - 49 f« 50 - 79 # 80 - 100 % 247 Session No. 10 LEXICON SHEET types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l Name & Age of C h i l d . x types phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 7 - , i 1 1 / ! / 1 A / 1 S'zAa-u4 1 j . f—^  111? i vV 1 ^t^W) J L.t ... i , 14 ^ J l?« V ^ I P^K)3 4 f u J k f u J * ".Vr"7 l.fc Jj of7 j 'ii t.sPn' I A/ | ZS j l ? ^ I.?4 jPuy/j2>)Ul Jb 2 l&l *6 ipn^ hr Jj>u l j i " * l^, 3 IU L->> 1 hat 4 19 hat4 zf i s 4 !?£ j i 4 bl 413*,' 143 — i § * 8 YiCLvn ^  l | 0 kprvi z$ U:* In J\9* hi W ItA A#;VI^ 1 K a n ^ II h f l u ^ l/Z h P n 4 * — 1 1 * 'i io hpi.1 h?(Jp5rx) i L n G 1/4 l^pi^S*) 3z ^ , u 4 14/ J;,u 4 r t , ^ A * ia 33/11 u4u u 4 Ifz u a 4 i 1 LA? 13 h ? r . ' I|(, InDi. J! J r . J J <? i4 U-e/* 1 il (KPL5 R J. , , J .. 1 ,A'/I ^ if Ii? h'n rt l 1 , ^ I70 Jks*£ it hfm4 I'4 ou, ^v J J . J 3 n hoa5" I 2 0 hous A / I / ! / 1 U i j W In - U ' 146, dip?) A-y 9* 1 1 7 ' K.4.'r^ 1" t a c t * |jg A A 3 141 1A3 41 ^ P u 6 IT3 K P U . * J Iz4 h(£^4£x>ta Jkfx-n '41 JU . n * l7r nj'-V4x) 6? ^ ^ I7t n o A r ^ 248 Session No. / O LEXICON SHEET ^n& y v u ^ _) Name & Age of C h i l d types' l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic (4 £ u 4 b l JLeSri L i u , P 1* i i i * /m/ 1 l ' * ( f^3> I /P/ | l»» * a J fo'pa* h a - l » 7p * • 1 ••• * • •"" IT* p a i P l l o ? ' p a V W So a?sa:i3W SPL'SPI3 M pa a In* PA-UV^  let 5 a HI'. IW tp»*i 1 M^ni. u pan' Itl p i a pj a 1 lol S P L * l«fc S P l * ft*) ^ 'ppf : " 1 il/i' p p C 1 lie* W l«l s W I l i ^ t W k h ' p t W l i o l <:PP7 IK* SCI' /n/ | 4Z p e r * IW p f l L p O l ten S P U . ' W S PU ' r 1 Y ill S£ ' 1(4* S?.V*«) 1 ft pj&L 6 i»t p€<> ' Im fx./> I«* p ^ W If m . 1 114- h.'a/x) u\ si'.! l i H s i ' Iff ' 1 , 1 r > 71 m tt3 tt3 l»tt t.S(,V 11 DI n' IP* DrhVttO j I 5* ^ f l t u 2 - l f? 0pi'n , (>rr ) , k , > /Vn IJ J J V | j J 1 1 | ' 1 /V I / P ' / ! •'fsiV i , r l yr^C«) Session No. /o LEXICON SHEET types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic Name & Age of C h i l d , . . /- v cd<nt & ; o C") types l e x i c a l phonetic M i s * . 1* H t « * 4 * Its- i su j ' 'tor tsujfti t u n 1 1 H I x ||Jf S t , 2 lU tsu ' '*>! tsu ' 1 AB/ I I l a ^ ^ z x ) ! A / m Uvi1 lit* tW/fc) 1 1 A s ' / i u? ^ ta 145- t < P « * Utt f SP.V4X) itf t A 1 U t A ' M l n£ tspA* l i f t •••h>A1^|itf . t < y l«i t A A j IH t e a 4 life* f a i 4 M t s i » n ' h * r t p A 1 i7o^Wfrs'puP lt?i7*^Vr^ l i t ± a l J l | U t a t S if I Tss.t t s s A i7i t A _ * l * * i A u 3 * f - ' ^ lifer t , f f s t V rt° tsi » 1 3 nz t A * li»7 f A * m ts". 1 1_! t s ' . ^v ) L * I tftu2 Ilt7 t o u ( 2 x ) ISA tsi * l l H ^ / Yv*> H4 " t V . u 4 W t A u * 13* tote4 Iltf tou^t) IKT t s i > 1(13 C t > D til tu P \M it, +<i n 1 l i f t t . ^ i r ] 1 i in T A I A lifi" f s i l c W F ts'urfcU A ' / | i» tsA \M> tsoiifcO n L t * W 1*3 t A t 1 134 f a Ino t ' f i . n 2 iq t<:rtu5 lin tsouVzd (71 t s a:*)' H t A ^ { ^ fir t ' p i x tin f-'piV?*) J 1 J I6( ts«e-h' ' lw t-scth'fU • /w/ 1 |/3?t,A4 ' ' H ( f f l T D t".<;<*V U tsoeu2" lust A 7 ' inrtV?' 250 Session No. iO LEXICON SHEET (to*£A*MU) Name & Age of J C h i l d uJ<u, £ ; O (H) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 1*2 t V P L 4 U/fl..4 T A3o h EL. lis- '• 7 * 7 " in ^ 4 HL f o 3'1° u.4 ' Ml a-3 flu) *1 u4-7 251 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. 10 Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d cv CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC pa." 1 pax1 1 pa W t , 4 t p * i ' I tat 2 tsrai ' 1 t spn ' ' 4 1 ' I I 1 t * 5 l / t a , \ l W 1 CSM2I t o . . l l J L t . l / T N p e i l ' /-pf.tf\ pi 1 p U b Vp?.vi... y. 1 1 pj-h 1 W 1 t/,# t s j 1 L Si tc 1 c s i n 1 tV)/^ 1 t m C 1 1 t , - l Y faoi/ 1 t 1 i L i t P ^ til.-' 1 t<n,> 1 tsaei, 8 1 I ts i ; 2 1 "Cci Lc" 1 tsii A — • * — T T — ya i — i — v ^ , — j -tsi. 1 tsa.it 1 t S M ' l r t ,5 . v / 3 J p o u, 1 tsv: I tsoew . i 1 x > 3 1 , > J\ 1 1 1 t | K)' l 1 1 1 1 l | J 1 t o n e r s * i t s u n ' I 1 I t s ' i 3 1 t ^ T t s W I I 1 1 l i i 1 .. ; 1 | i i Wfl.^ 1 W PC2" 1 \AI& *f w ,A-' , /1\vi?i t 1 Wit 1 1 1 1 1 su • 1 ,9 pa' 1 C i . J ^ 1 1 1 1 r-J 2. , , | SM.. 1 1 Si.h 1 fe* i A ^ . 4 ' 1 1 * s 4  1 s r n * _ S v l l a b i c Consonants 8 1 1 f v f e 9 j ? | rv>4 j 1 i 1 I 1 i i 1 ? 1 L I — 252 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. /O Phonetic Forms ^ytardi^Md \ W ame & Age of J C h i l d UJ<U 3L}Q Qi) CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVCr i - i I OU 1 I p**i hi*4 l I i^ a.rl /iei4 1 hailJ1 1 1^ 4 1 1 4 , i r i J 1 J 1 W. I I iMff 1 1 1 M J i U i 1 1 | 1 1 1',.* | 1 1 1 1 I J 1 1 1 | | | lvi>\ A*4 1 | M 2 1 K ^ L 4 1 I h o 2 i K ' P L 2 1 1 \ hpi hv ry A> J i AW \ckv»K\ 1 | 1 1 | l ^ h o n r > 1 | 1 1 1 J 1 A ^ i * 1 I i 1 I — i.r.i^i„jfc, ...I, . „.,- -A 1 I V i v<r i \/c 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 i 1 1 a 1 1 1 l 1 Q J 1 1 1 1 1 I S v l l a b i c Consonants 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 9 1 1 __ 1. 1 1 1 I 1 253 Session No. t o INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name & Age of Chila i; o0<) *J1 3? V 1 SS 4o 4 / ploo * . 10/ (or } i o i 4 ' . 2 2 (13 J i • h h> b\ <W |3Sr io7 sSa m 137 104 m> @ v J n i 17 9 n i 7f? 1 0 * ^ ) S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics IT Consonants -254 I I Inventory Sheet ^<** lO L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants J<1 i u 2.1 11 ? 2 i / f a I f l Othe r s t oq -J J Tones  ts'pu2, Z ! t s P U P — » — > —> Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ®% Session No. /£/ -• Name & Age of • V • y C h i l d (^<K c3 ; o C//) • v/ y t 1— ®% ®% tC-s) / \/ ®% s/ • y y kw kw' 00# y b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consonants b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s V o c a l i c s Consenants oe. <j. 60, oey $-. u i ,J m 7 3. S y l l a b i c Consonants P L 6) PU(2) ' C O 'to y y y P t C O s/ y y y S y l l a b i c — Consonants — V J 256 REDUPLICATION SHEET Session No. 1SL Name & Age of C h i l d (AJ<LI, SLj 0 Q1) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1 • -j-u, 3 -j^ u * ' P a n t s ' n o u n A 2. 3. k. 4.- • 'to shake' verb 1 feet' noun CO 'child's name' noun mother 1 noun 6. ® WUL >rmI * 'younger s i s t e r ' noun T- hcg j1kipe(j2' 'daughter' 8- <g) pfl. 4 p & J 'father' noun noun 9 • _ & f l L f t 8 > 'to b i d goodbye' verb 10, 11. 'bun' noun JlEt 'pen' noun 12. b€ 'Wai's s i s t e r nickname' noun 13. p V p'f, ' 'hip' noun 1 1 + . 'child's name' noun 15. S a i ? s e n * ' t o d r y ' verb Summary of Data Form Class of Type A Reduplications Number of : Proportion of: 25 .11 14 .06 11 .05 219 1.00 2 .14 10 • TI 2 .14 A A B B B A A A Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) 257-UI<XC : 10 Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 16. 5 3 S i n <i 1 s t r i n g ' noun A • IT. 'uncle' • 'aoun • B 18. 'chair' noun A 19. VJ J . +-> 3 L o u l o u ' r a b b i t ' noun A 20. tWi3 t\v\ ' p a i n f u l ' adjective A 21. « J 4 1 (55 1 s t 'elder s i s t e r ' noun B 22. 'mouth' noun A 23. t s P U ISPK 'ugly' adjective A 2k. -f ' 4 r ' 4 'noisy' adjective A 25. W P l / ' u P l * 'child's name' noun B 26. 27-28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3U. 35. 36. 37-38. 39. 1+0. 25.8: Session Mo. I 0  Name & Age of C h i l d & °*" * \ 0 C'f) PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops Sub s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping t.< —> t fiAr) O-'J A f f r i cation <S —> ts ( k/q) 0 3) Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs Other Processes Laxing of vowels and diphthongs at —>PI 033 Assimilatory Processes 259 Session No. 10 SUMMARY SHEET Name & Age of Ch i l d tJ<CU, <a; o (u ) Sample L e x i c a l Phonetic Phonetic s i z e Types : I *f 0 Types : <3J^ Tokens : 7 Phonetic Analysis Phonetic Forms : c2 / J a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency // \ ' - — — - i v i ) <3» ' 7 Number of Sounds 8 (4- \ A r t i c u l a t i o n Score <^  ol p Cvn) t X* Cfs>:> b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l V o c a l ics and S y l l a b i c Consonants 5 J Cu;) C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics // ( ^ F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Syl.Cons._l_ If //•3 ) 2o4- _ A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds /Q (4-} ; * e A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds 3 = U ) i 0 4 u Cat) C«u.) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score T o t a l Number of Sounds J 0 (7*0 Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms •0 £ Type B reduplicated forms • 0£ S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I F V • • • • t • — — — • • TV s/ • • • Proportion of Data _0j2_( /25) & Matches 0-?£( / f / 3ft) 260 (2) Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants i V V / a i D i — ou / u y i / u i • •• • i u . . / ce. s/ e i e i au VU m / a 0 o£y / pu V 0 I / Proportion of Data Q .<j ( /£/20) & Matches OjJ ( 1$ I l8 ) (3) Tones Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 T o t a l Number of ".: Tone Substitutions J Phonetic Tokens J IS Proportion of Tone Substitutions Q . QOty  Phonological Process Analysis Deletion of f i n a l consonants Stopping t< > tr — fc.... , " " • J - — - • A f f r i c a t i o n 5 » ts Fronting Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a — > P at > V>i au }Pu Other processes I > i hi — * n *j » / a • PL J 0 - 20 % 21 - 49 f 50 - 79 f° 80 - 100 % 261 Session Wo. /5" LEXICON SHEET . ' _ Name & Age of • C h i l d IAJOA, 9~ j 3 types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic 1 A / 1 z i \ P u . A " >5 j P i / i -Pan ' 1 I £a 'ftft U i p u r 2.3 19. 3 1*1 ) £ J r ^ ) p _ a 3 C^aD 1 . A ' / 1 i 4 fu, 3 Ii- y V J it V v ..... j ^ i , x r j . 4 l i l J i 4 lR j l u 3 U 1 1 IU ' 133 tf.iA* /V i A/ | ,5-1 i a 3 l n - / A - . V j « ) i ha> 4 p.'a..4 M ho I 0 h a t 4 ho U i + 4 h p i * l«» A / 1 io U L 6 l u hpi 4riW 32 &0..:1 In A<x Vzx) .«r fo4. l U ioei, f «l h p p * c t i h 3 k p r * ° » 3 * \ & & l Itf U V s x ) a lib ^>H*W* . 3 4 - W H1 A a t J si Hu V I W m . ^ |4« l iTPI ' I*. h:>i* life h :>L? f * } i a uJ 1* A / | iS" L o / / I'l LnuS i ' /^yia 4wa ' 1^  i M a 4 ^ ' / * iL Vioe.ivi llS U<ftu3fTrt J I ^ UJ? Apmz i44 W fco m a t s wa.^rt) / j / I 31 I P U 3 14-r ^ P U 3 n 1 1 W Ii4 ) l W J J \ If j io jpwi fo) i p t 1 1" i P t 1 4 3 J . W I 41 i , n ' ' 1*3 ^ p t 7 |4* J ta . 4 Itt A ^ ' Ul j P * 4 [*4 Jfru 4 2-6-2 Session Wo. LEXICON SHEET /oflXwutd) Name & Age of V C h i l d uJcu. 9<j3 types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic B M s i < 1 &1 yvjo u a lit VMOU^ |)i n 1 pinny) <tf ^ | U S" s i 6 M ,„® fc *a6ri fc *tf} bS mui. wui mut Mui 1 n*7 _ 1 1 loo SI n 1 S 1 | / n / I 1 N L las... * ^ n/v. * 1 io* seen* 1'^  Seen 5 I ho n p u * I8* M M 2 /PV I is p"a* I'04 p ' a 4 il5l _ 1 5 2 •) 71 K&U.%it7U* I*2- ItuLu. lo3 S C M f I"1 Sflt-n H h ^ t r 1^ m&l*" r 3 I ' ^ i 4 " i3 m ' I*4 *«>Y4*> J l , H 74 n . m 4 Jt,*£M r i ' / B / I is- 1 11 wi 'r?0 id ^ F I'01 ™ V J | 14 SPI* m'Cisy£> A/ | 5 P p n I"2 S P p 1 H A . 1 l « t +.„ V r f 1/ Spp'spp 1 l 1 ^ SPlApp"ta <\i S P u . ' I"4 fcu « t A f " l ' W ^ P ' l , n » I / p / | foVp^'1 p«yHtt s€-D" 1,10 v I'4' (tC) " f + i : ' l^ t T ' ^ 263 Session No. O  LEXICON SHEET £<L<rnsCwu*Cct} Name & Age of C h i l d • types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic «« t s u j ' U < 3 L r P 1 1 •4 tflu.' I,s1 toe,1 no f ^ 1 I'*1 WYia*) •4o uu <° 1m f.su^ 1 1 m f n u J I*3 tot/ J 1 J i l i u tot> "HiwAw A s ' / | 1 '41 t s ' a i * liTX t . A 4 i I A ' / 1 l ^ t s W l(fl t * W 1 1 I 114 t W l , r 1 t W t s V l i U t A ? 1 I l*b^'i:J -1*3 t^ ' ' 3 j 1 1 .H t ' iu- 3 m t'u.-? .41 outsoitlWt^ou tsoul 1 1 j 1 1 ./ J M 1 1 l A s / | wa A wa 1 1 ISO WD 3 ||$ u ; D , 3 1*1- tpp7' 1 I t ^ 1 l i t r ts> A V 1 i I 1 l f<w.' Iftf tsr, 1 / a . / | 1 a 3 lift a Y^ r-0 I •,Wr*k,.7fc,?|l7o ts.'tsi* 1 , 3 f e t s . A In/ ts .Vfid A / I 1 l 1 M t so-A 8 1 i • 264 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. / 5" Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC t a ' / U - i ' J t i n ' 1 t s i 4 "tspV 1 tsd W pa i ' p i n 1 i i i ' L . t , i , - l 1 s t u J ta-pM t s ? ^ l tsPi' l-tsi-W. | 1 | tS£1 1 -fcsr'h I I I 1 1 teu 1 fpm t s , 1 I 1 tspt1 p'a • t 1 I V | . K 3 1 p i ^ 1 ton' 1 t r n 2 1 ) a 1 1 1 ' J J Ci. 1 1 t.rt* tsw.1 1 ts«< 4 1 , J -/ 1 w f-su 6 1 1 t spp 1 | I 1 t / „ * *• j 1 1 Ui^ 1 . 1 | J l i 1 , 1 1 i M - ^ 1 | i i 1 | | ! i wa. I» I uyp/.4 j t<6* 1 t s 'W 1 UvA . U / D M I J i i ,C i/ r S € J 1 San 1 t * ' . . 3 l t , W l ' I 1 1 I 1 ts ViTl i 1 .. i , —  — —  • •—•— —.-—— ,i w fc x 51 t .1 1 1 1 t s W l 1 si 4 1 i ma 1 1 mOui_ 1 wpn 4 1 A * nN H * A - 4 1 w i a i ^ 1 b i p C ' ' 1 1 5"! h 1 hA,L S * l b a f ft** 1 Will * " l w i t ' 1 1 1 c i A * I n ^ i 1 v>o 1 1 1 1 See ^ m r 6 1 vnii*" 1 . i h I ' / S o e n \ S v l l a b i c Consonants • 1 i L V > 1 I ! 1 1 1 i ? 1 - J - — U ^ L 8 • L : 1 265 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms 3(*<nvCUtut<^ \ Name & Age of y C h i l d CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC h5 1 &H4 1 JkfZf h. ' 1 i o e ^ ^ i . . ^ I 1 1 k>x 1 **u* 1 A i ' m ' | | A > / 1 W l 1 1 I | | | I d 3 | \J. * , J. i J 2 | 1 1 I f . * J. 1 | J-> H.--U 1 \PVT | | 1 )< 3 f ,i U 4 1 j P t 1 | | 1 i \  1 u l J , J i | | | | l 1 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 1 1 | J | | 1 1 1 I 1 ^ 1 h a , I 4 U f > « V 1 VG 1 1 1 I S 4 1 •Put' 1 1 h t > , 4 1 D r 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 a r 1 nut 1 1 1 1 . 1 h o L * 1 | | 1 h o u r ' I 0 5 1 | l i | | | J | l i | | 1 1 | 1 1 i r | - J Q 2 r 1 n^4" 1 mm'. . i i S v l l a b i c Consonants 1 1 i i ? 1 1 1 i i 1 1 1 i ? 1 . ' 1 ! , J 266 Session No. / 5~" INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants Name 8s Age o f [ C h i l d a . - ^ S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants 26? Inventory Sheet UltlL Iff (tonttmAAltt L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants J * '! las 0 Others -Tones fun-' —> St SCO* * 5" Un. *1 —» J —» I — > - » • s -> Child's phonetic inventory ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ( $ > % Session No. ' J . Name & Age of *6> / y c h i l d cJo^ «* ;3 / y /*-®># tcsy 4 Q ) tr~* ®% y V kw kw* • — b) S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics Consonants b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants ai 4. au ^ ©n (ou) 7 ui <3, m6 P 4 <SHr (3>4 0 0 S y l l a b i c Consonants y y 14, O) w0> V • aft) • •'CO — w 0 y y y S y l l a b i c Consonants / — t o O N 00 ,269 Session No. IS REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d \J(U. . 3 j 3 Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B i . W f p * h y p * 'box*. noun A 2. kaay lay.1 'sleep' noun A 3. k^fo! 'elder brother' noun B 'neck' noun A j 5.. ^ P b i H ' w i 4 'piano' noun A 'mother' noun B 4 - 4 T. mpn m f ^ 'to smell' verb A o. Mui mui. 'younger s i s t e r ' noun B 9 (2) p a 4 p a : ' 'father noun B I I 10. S b p ' s p p 1 'wet' adjective A • I i i . suJ> V^iA- 1 'uncle' noun B 12. f a : * " f a * 'to h i t ' verb A 13. <g> t s ? 4 " t S 2 : ' 'elder s i s t e r ' noun B lU. t s i l t « * 'paper' noun A 15. t s V u t s P u 1 'child's name' noun B Summary of Data Number of : 18 Proportion of: .lo • o5 • 05 ' 182 1.00 Form Class of 2 Type A Reduplications 6 .22 .66 .11 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms ' Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 2?;o REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 16 . [, SOh, IS Pit 'grass' noun A L L 17. UJVL 'child's anme' noun B_ l 8 « <29 j r 4 j ? * ^ ' g r a n d f a t h e r ' noun 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 2U. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35. 36. 37-38. 39. 1+0. 271 Session No. is-Name & Age of C h i l d Ulojj c3 j A PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping tS — t ffi) 0-43  A f f r i c a t i o n S ts (^/ai) 0 ^   Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs et — i (3/j) o43  Laxing of vowels and diphthongs CLL — PL (i/y) o-(>o  Other Processes De*iZ*£cytfts»v ^ AX&K, f> — » t ( */JT) Q-4-0 1/AUXZ ROML^ cr —+ u (2/tr) 0-4o \/*t>HX kastAj^ (X.—+U. C*/s-) 0 -4-d PC —> o C x/r) 0-9-0 Assimilatory Processes 272 Session No. /S" SUMMARY SHEET Sample L e x i c a l Phonetic s i z e Types : Types : /Cj / Phonetic Analysis Name & Age of C h i l d hJ^i c3 ; 3 Phonetic Phonetic Tokens : b~l0 Forms : itol a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency ^ Number of Sounds C p ) /ho t < » T ««' b) Syl l a b l e F i n a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Cf) CD s Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics 3_( ft Syl.Cons. 1 J F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency-: ,i4- ( 4 f -/a, A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Jh A r t i c u l a t i o n Score <^  7 Number of Sounds ^ ) Number of Sounds A. Cou> I 0 P* a* Cet> S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score To t a l Number of Sounds Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms • O £" S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants 4 AQJCI) .05' m n w I F s/ V t • y t V • — — n y • V A/ 3 y y/ y Proportion of Data _(<2a/25) & Matches 77 ( ' 7 / a«}) 273 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i V V • a i PL D i — ou • u V y v± / u i • i u 6 • e i i au m / a • 0 a oP.y ipu / 0 1 — P r o p o r t i o n of Data -$5 ( 11/20) & Matches • ~J & ( 13 / l~J ) 13) Tones Non-reduplicated Form 1 2 3 1+ 5 6 7 8 9 6 1 / Reduplicated Form T o t a l Number of \: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s ^? Phonetic Tokens S~/ 0 P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s . QOS  P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants Stopping ts •—> * A f f r i c a t i o n F r o n t i n g ei. — - v / Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a .• L —> P l Other processes j —* ^ t D — » a -yyy —> -H - n—>, -n oe — » ct* oe — > o U - *U 70 21 - 49 % . 50 - 79 fo 80 - 100 f° 274 Session No. LEXICON SHEET - ' Name & Age of C h i l d QUO* d- ;,TU*) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic A / 1 * i\A l ^ l Y " 4 ' it, .1 4 n t , : V J O A / ' 3 f u * 3. Ifu.ViO 11? )|: 4S" 9*\ 4 l5b J f o J V i ^ A / | 13* ^T^ix^u 9a.rh isn i» jfj ft"" l*i J u l 1 I to h p n 4 j 132 ^ u Y ^ JLvv\L t n a u ' t ha ;u 4 • J J J J 41 i n 1 l.rt / . ^ f t ^ ) A / | 8 kp».4 la hPiV^<) 4 K P I 1 U h p t 7 si 4 A * 134 hJcw&W to* Isn - t o ' " -IC KO i ' l|0 KO i'C4x) 3} -fepu1 l3t W f i » ) | Ii"<? i ^ 4 ... 12. (nOli" 111 fookVl'*) 34 i n 2 U l i o ' A d U l r)3 l&o K»^y&s) ' " - " V j 3S- iy.3 hi i y \ ^ i ^ h ^ j k i J • J a t ^ e ; 1 1*4 W Irt JP^ . 162 M jkn9- Jketcvdls* JLtdf* I&3 ^ 1 14 i V (PL* ' l4 JPL 3 JPL 3 l+i 1 j_ t^_ j i k. J.V.. . ^ . l . K IS 1 P h i 1 ii? \ pm A / 1 j . — - j — - — — it yout l i t 1 i W 31 i n n 3 ltt-*i.if n i p n * C 4 ) l i 7 4o u x Itt i r k 3 \t jpp^ Ii.* Vp* I41 V H I . ' ^ o u W S'7 ^ 1 l£4 KV)<E !^x) 4c V / k , / 1 • -j-** 1 20 j p u * U i j W f ^ O m A U j Ut-fecgM^wd 1/ 4 ^ 4 60 VMM, h 1 KHU.fl 1 1 1*2 i s 2 In is.VtfO 1 1 / n / 1 275 Session No. olO LEXICON SHEET (_ <LOYX^UUJ^} Name & Age of C h i l d types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l types phonetic M « i J | h i i . ^ 4 x J ? 3 S a n H3 S f l h 107 t v t 1 ' u o t p L 2 " I H S P l ' I'rV S P l ' 10? t v 7 l > " U l t p l V " ) / / l o f . t p ^ 'w tp«* }(> s W h i spiV &7 SPD 7 I<?1 S P P 1 lui t v o * l ^ t P D ^ w ) ! /p/ I <?i S } * 1 I O I < o 2 14 t 1 h 1 , l i i X t i . y i L to se/ 2 " ho2 se / * uS" t i ^ se/ J lto3 sex 5 K ( , t o u 1 I i3otou "r io) ffl p « . : t ' 111 ' p P t * W 2 Il04-5IS" Jul t r w > t f laf i t fO 4S" ^ i fe IfrkST s i fc luft ti,. l « i t u V _ i 1 * 7 0 — j s . . s t j . l l I%\ porta*) <?k S i ^ liot s r i ^ x ) 1 72 p U 4 I f i p f j A t a & A ' / 1 -n ps. J U3 p*,' 97 S I ^  si:ftW Vf p i V IW pi.n'fificS ||0<? tS l . fe* 1 75" D I .'h P i n '«T D i n p i n it s u i 7 (no suifo*) / ' l a / ' ' ' i t . ni U Ifrb D I u <?fsu r ^ i l l t l S u * 7 S Q l 1 , ^ t , , u S t V M 5 l « ( , t l H H V u 5 1 1 1 100 Su fe* l u i S U ^ . 9 llSI t I t r a / p ' / 1 fo/ Cu-nV III* S u n 3 C 3 * ) i ^ f ' . u 4 I n M V ^ i ? p W I t f P W A / 1 J 1 J • i . i 1 . I . $0 p W f0 p W A s / 1 1 1 H t ^ L 3 iiit fy.itod io5l7L;-nfc lin t o ^ f t x ) 276 Session No. d o LEXICON SHEET fst^lwwC) Name & Age of ' C h i l d . UJOA, A ; 5- ( 2 . 2 ) types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic ol t s m 1 t W ib-i ts-Si 1 m t s V * J t s V 1 , 1 1 t 5 ' f ' | --' ll^otspD1 ' l U t - S P D ^ * ) iw» U\ 1 lm t.<7' 1 1 _ _. .. 1(31 tSa' 2- M ts3 Vlv) Il74 tsu ' j 1 Ittts'i « liw t s ' i * 1 1 IftUf *fs<.' 1 | 3 T tsr' l«ri t s i M 1 1 u r l - . M . 5 mist1 »«n wa-V I'll iA/A.Vix\I 1 \hL tsi 4 li« tsi ?^x> 1ST* I*1 UT8 I ^ I ^ A * 1 131 tsi n llS"4 t < i n3 iy<| .u\rL.v\X Irt1 \AjCL.*(nA 1 u8 tsi litf tsi-n"a«) , v"' 2 i ita0 i ^ I 1 n<? tsou.1 'lit tsou.1 1(21 4 4.,J I 1 l4o tsoe n** lirl tsotJ" i t . i I A I P H 1 l/£i vVPnVuM 1 (41 t^n 1 " l/i'J? tsoen* 1 142 tsu V luff tsu'n'A,*) I(>?WL..L' llH v w u i ^ 3 * : M t ^ U flt/Su* (Utsur) tsa n 1 l 4 4 tsuh'' k( tsu A O / V J l.fci t u ^ lit* * " \ life.J^ViTx) I4<f tsu. 2 liU tsM Yr*) a , „ y . , . — . 1 1.— . 1 i4t tsa 1^4 ts u V?x) /a/ 1 1 J 1 ' lib? 9 * htt o 3 l / t s ' / , j | 1  . 4 1 t s V « Ilk? t A 4 / a ; / 1 1 l« ts'vt"' Uf. t ^ P t " 7 lU zi 3 III! A Vc4d 1 M t w u ' lit! ^VKYnd*^pWI ' , 5jop l nAj ' 1 V i 2. 1 ai 1 i f ' < i J * J 1 1 llU t V a/k^ l <il.t.S,l2„l JGI fcifa* } 1 1 \ INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Q^O Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d ld<su & jS" C2.1 CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC na„ 1 p a i 1 put} t a X r 1 1 / " . * i ' 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 J  1 p;iu 1 pd if t * * 1 T>.L3 f a.p1 I ^ 2 1 W 1 ^ . 1 1 > J > 1 1 n ! - 1 I tpl I t p p ' I fe, ^ 1 ^ 1 1 I t p L 4 • t u > ' <h.t>u! 1 P A ; 5 1 p a u* 1 I trtuf I t i 0* 1 £ a 1 ' 1 1 ' 4 1 1 > TI p 1 p'nu? 1 I t w " I f ' - ^ 1 ' ' I I I 1 p:>. 1 1 tou. I tu rj° I 1 1 . 1 I 1 1 1 t r u 3 1 1 1 S 3 2 1 . Sot 3 1 1 IkaeJ 1 1 1 S L 5 " 1 1 s a V 1 l 1 1 1 »1 1 < C P U . ' t P p l ! I 1 . wu 1 1 1 /- u/ajn z\ 1 1 s . i 1 1 |( , V 1 1 W A V 1 1 . T u V 1 1 v — — — — — 1 1 ! 1 h«t* 1 -tV 1 1 la.J> 1 1 h e n 1 j 1 h^p.ij^l ' wow 2"! 1 KM U L 1 1 1 1 1 L V 1 1 I 1 S v l l a b i c Consonants 1 1 1 fr-Vu5 1 t u V | ? 1 « ^ i 1 1 1 1. i-'U 1 t u. n T 1 1 1 1 ? 1 9 J 1 -™ ! 1 1 * — - — L 1 J i 278 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms (^CcmluvuMA ) Name & Age of J C h i l d cv CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC t s i 1 luWK U^1 hi.' 1 no,**' 1 1 - \ D 1 1 ' 1 i Y\\ •n-> I 1 C s i 1 1 tsflu'i t**!fcJ 1 1 J 1 | I | I i | | 1 tsu* 1 1 f^oe / 1 | 1 | 1 | fcsr*! 1 f s u > 1 1 l • 1 1 1 1 | — — — - — - - — -* -1 | 1 | I | 1 1 I j 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 r ) 1 V 1 l ?P I I I 1 1 • 11 1 V I ^ \ 1 1 1 > iu->' I i s t ' V 1 VC{ VC | / . J 3 ' T N - • 5 , J. a. C\\l\\ l i u 3 1 \m* 1 | 1 1 1 i 1 1 J i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i S v l l a h i c Consonants 1 1 i I I ? | 1 1 I I | | j 1 1 1 I 9 1 1 1 I I '279 Session No. Xo INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name- & Age of C h l l d ^ a ,-.->- ( x x S S y l l a b l e F i n a l l3 3o to . i ^ 4 n o - F\ A f t 3V. m 3) j 4 i t a J P . Sa t*i 33 2<? 11 (31) f 1 i p t 1 h 1 J 2 15 J A" 1/. 17 h n — M — k z ft (Jo) t V Aw fl* » U 2 4} 103 4? —3 <r S3 V A" I (05- to — H — 5 3 104 (To) S f t l _ v.* f» Ts Pi* n o J • PU ,1 if-7 1 w H i H eta 107 (00) (HT) 1*1 £T - l i t 11 4 i y7 3 4 1 S"8 ft: 5 T 1 37 1 $0 60 (?) @ ) i l l ^ 2 $ > t $ ; 4 7 3 3 4 ^ 3 I U : i ? a-1 HI 4 o 4 ? (41 if. 47 I 1 4 ,h" * i.s-' n 4£ IS'? I 1 1 1 I IM 1 ^ 5 280 Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants Tones hau-fe S i —> no o Others > 11 .n j 1 Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s Session No. c* 0 Name & Age of x/ y y &% <3fb C h i l d U/&A, £ lb~ ( l 2 \ / y y ©% • 6 0 G*% ( D . % ts(s) y ®% ®% V — y y kw kw' — * 4 b') S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics Consonants * s c»07 au J • y 4 el COU3P «y 4-= i / ui 3 mA-S y l l a b i c Consonants (D/i b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants y y y y / / y V y V y y y y S y l l a b i c — Consonants y y 282 Session No. 2.0 REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d u W a i 5 C ^ 2 - ) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. 1PI, 1 fei 'naughty' adjective A 2. 111) ' b e a u t i f u l ' adjective A 3. J J • i HitfU YnclU 'cat' noun A' 1+. ® t> * CO 'younger s i s t e r ' noun B 5. $ pa 4 pa 1 'father' noun B 6. 1 1 pin pin; 'pony t a i l ' noun A 7. i 4 . 1 * C4) p 3 p.3 , 'grandmother' noun B 8. 'uncle' noun B 9 'to throw' verb A 10. + i 3 . " 3 'to jump' verb A 11. & tsf4tsr ' 'elder s i s t e r ' noun B 12. tsuVtSu 'clock' noun A . 13. ts PU tsW 'shameful' adjective A 11+. 'to play' verb A 15. a Pa o* 'duck' noun A Summary of Data Number of : 15 10 Proportion of: .08 .05 .03 15 1.00 Form Class of Type A Reduplications 30 .1+0 30 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic'forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 285 Session No. °? 0 Name & Age of C h i l d UJOAJ * ] Cxl) PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e Processes D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping ts —» f C/2.1) 0°f A f f r i c a t i o n -S —> £s (t/iv) 0 • IS" F r o n t i n g S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes ( V o c a l i c s ) Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other Processes A s s i m i l a t o r y Processes 284 Session No. Sample s i z e L e x i c a l SUMMARY SHEET Phonetic Name & Age of C h i l d U)&A, O* 6" ( 2 7-\ Phonetic Phonetic Types : / &~J Types : / Tokens : Forms : Phonetic Analysis i?3 a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency Number of Sounds A r t i c u l a t i o n Score ^ 4 t* ts* •A, b) S y l l a b l e - F i n a l V o c a l ics and S y l l a b i c Consonants Ct'J ts' C O j F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics 10 ( I2g = f 7 ) lit Syl.Cons. 1 A r t i c u l a t i o n Score C r i t e r i o n of Frequency-: . / 4- ( U£ r J4-S ) A r t i c u l a t i o n Score o Number of Sounds ol ^ £ ) Number of Sounds / p (4- ) £ => P i 7j>* a * 6 I h 0 Cp) Ck) O a l S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l Artie (VU) i Lculation Score $~ 9 T o t a l Number of Sounds oX / C11^ Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms • 0 5~ Type B reduplicated forms • OA S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I F y y y t y y — — — ts • y y y v/ y y y /.QV( 6/4) Proportion of Data • $f ( <l«ty25) & Matches • f / ( 4 •285 (2) Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants i p • a i • D i — ou u y P i u i '• i u <£ e >/ e i au / m i • a p 0 <£y / pu / 0 u__ Proportion of Data .frf ( /f/20) & Matches > ffi ( / y / /$ ) 13) Tones Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 1+ 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 5 T o t a l Number of ' .: Tone Substitutions Phonetic Tokens Proportion of Tone Substitutions • QQ &  Phonological Process Analysis Deletion of f i n a l consonants Stopping t<, - > t A f f r i c a t i o n x > ir^ Fronting Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a > v> Other processes 2 1 " W % 50 _ T 9 f 8 o _ 1 0 Q f0 286 Session No. as LEXICON SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d . • ^ . n r \ types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic 2 op^n ' 1 ^  fan!(id ^ j P p 4 ^ j P p 1 3 ! ( W 3 ^ f a 3 4 f t ' 4 f * ' i s jp r ' * U1 j p f 5- fa-* l.f fu^x) ^ J ,W ho tWm*) T 1 A / 1 T7 151 £ U u U *%) A*..* »k i f 3 7 hau 4 , I7 U i V t d « j i * ' Ity j'l4 N 4.110s 161 * m V 8. tarn* IS Ua^ h k>iza*) (o Upi f e Iff) hpi^ i l i ) / J 4 1 • 4-3b \ia,7 l?7 |iUL/ f)l AM," 1^4 ^u.. 2 j Ii III JUAV 37 joe ^ l?J j f l P / . ^ ) — f — i — — i - j - f — L f t — 13 ^ p i i 2 I 13 hvu2 j u ^ l 4 t ) i M : ^ V > 1 14 hi1 114- A ' / 1 i \ - lootz Iir UDI2r<?x) J.7 JJ A / 1 it, l ^ i / * I n U Li la 1 142 AO,} fer 16/ A W * ^ 17^ AkJfte i g hi*) 2 Itf h i V « W 144 W J /kw' / 1 1 2-2 Uoe u 3 1 hdwVtO 47 Ivun2- H W A / 1 ^ )*'Jf U Iff i P i V i * : A? A 3 I72 - & - . J f 7 « ) 7« JJ/i.nt 11^  A . n £ ^ | 287 Session No. LEXICON SHEET (^WWvU&tf) Name & Age of C h i l d types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic mi. ft m i x / MOO l i^ 'rtx ' <x I T 1L 1? Ktrj 10. M a l l m . * f e i i o r i - ^ 4 10/, I I ^ f > -4 M i 9- / in 7 I 0 ( I I 1 . I y^m lips r^atn n am v\a K ) P n 3 lief rfthTu^giM <;am.' lM s a m ' 9* 9= 1^ h l(^r<;a>) A / ha ^ W l d Hid:- 44 /p/ ma, a-.' Hi] ST I* Tl I 2 y . I II/, X 1x4 ll37 SPfcVzij) ' iff Stfu- .2 14 O 4 4 4 10 tK&Yu) fe 5r f 111. St «4*7 ' ^ c l ^ 0 , t ) 2 --^ I'H pa.nz'p<tf\l fr IM?1 11^  Cf4V»0 Ho 1Q l ^ t 17 -FT pen -L h»1 lu Ik sr l lH yi til HI -5i : k 3 ' l f£Xl l i J fo> J i l l • mug? (0 »a>. Jiil ^ i » a ^ 11 I Zp_lZ_J. / n / 288 Session Wo. 3 6" LEXICON SHEET ^ ^ffyvCi^ed ) Name & Age of y C h i l d f . n . . . 'IAJOA. 3.; % ( n ) types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic types l e x i c a l phonetic A / 1 m t a i i n t:A VJ«) rtt ta. i** in tA-i. f c 111 t * V i<r) t a . - ^ 1 164 tS/sr.' Ini fwL. ' |l& V « ' Uo/, t«;f ' | Ik- t s P . x life f s P iVaO l t f l ^ i r * ? ^ l w t s m . ^ S 3 l to f . p » i x l i ra t p i * . 2 Iff f n l Iff 2 t<A * — *•—i •• .. T-. v v - —v- r -iW- t W lirt tpn 3 l6£ I B txp« ' 1 U t s U * W f s P n 4 l i f t 7 > r ^ tspu 4 l iK: t s pu f e lifei t i v itf i i . t ' lit? K . t V i ? 0 HI ts, > Ul .M1 1*7 I7i f./.ri 2- l i ft /Tfl.n2-If2 u;S 5 I2U- w/3 113 t . o V ITI - t j i , u / - J 170 W " 1^ t<ru3 ! {]k wu . Ii«7 w/u I i i t7<?t«P \M t(KUJ nr fsou.! 111! t W r t * ! I7i t<rtU4 l / ^ . t s o i t 4 i l^ l v^ u-.n^  Ui? u/u^V 2-^ A V | 177 Uati % W U ^ 1 1 | i * t /v i . 1 h i t t\>C(U) lilt t s ^ 9 / m / , liT t W A 1170 t Vu+ J7? tsoen2 W < 3 W ) l^ T 4 bio m 4 Ox> in, t V I'n tY. ' 171 t s u - J 3 I'tf tu j j ? ? I / a : / I W t i n * 1*73 K » f i i i d : J ^ l ( 0 4 n c ^ — ; — 1 — 289 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. A 5" Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d cv CVG eve cv CVG cvc cv CVG CVC ?ah 1 pa i ' 1 pa ta. 1 t*i> 1 t *« 1 t sa^t sp i x l bin 1 pa 1 pa L 3 1 pan ti. ' 1 tvi!° 1 ipV 1 tsa.' 1 eW" 1 tsp^'. 1 <• • 1 » 1 1 P> 1 DP I 1 pi *»„ 1 t 3 i r 1 W tS>Z ! t s i l A ' l t$«4*. pr 1 .p«i l n a- IP ti fcT tei> 1 fct?>)2 J t s ! - f c 1 W U tsirf. 1 pu* 1 1 W 1 tt^ I f s u ^ l t S6u.^ tsun*" J .pi 1 P 4\* 1 p, |ja ... tea 4 1 tu h* 1 1 tsarf 1 1 1 | J 1 to£i^ 1 1 1 1 I I I fcpiSl ts'oe t1 4A ? ' &LL.11 U 1 tV.' 1 t V 1 t A f ts u nz 1 1 1 t 'y^l t \ t * tsV3 is 1 0 1 til* 1 t u A 2 1 /•t<;oe rf. 1 l 1 1 1 ; 1 W , ^ ' wa 11 u/ui5 lya.-n1 US -\ ^Sa*n 's I I t ^ 1 i PU* 1 r | . w f t . ^ l 1 iuD n T ' K ! • 2 1 ? 1 ^ 2 | 1 sa \c 1 1 \£.2 I IIU.'-* 1 1 P»» 1 3 1 1 J1 WD- 1 1 w u n b 1 S o . 1 sar\ I i t - * 1 1 I I L U I P P ' u>uJ 1 1 1 , "• J I J . J J.1 r 1 S ' a 3 1 spp 1 1 f i 3 1 1 1 P r ' 1 I r l toa rft ma/* Kv»a u 1 ma V 1 J I 1 1 ^  , 1 4 4-1 * I Y > L ' 1 I 1 S in ' iml.-1 1 IMU^ 1 1 s-ut>! 1 -W ' WAa 1 1 1 1 S-Ii f ) j J 1 imu.A 1 1 i ^ i *a..i* SvlJ,at>ic Consonants 1 wiur 2 , ' «o x 1 U* 1 £a> m | mt 1 1 if..» 1 fru' 1 A-tf 1 1 * i ' 1 -eecr ' ? 1 1 1, 1 290 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms (jOn&xviAJLtC) Name & Age of C h i l d Oil cv CVG CVC CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC 4a' 1 W l l*V 1 i At J 1 W " A.A.-.n1 1 1 1 | | 1 ^ULu* kytd' 1 i | J I 1 1 APU? I 1 I i 1 | As* 1 &u ' I yo€ 1 nei4" 1 KID ^ 1 1 A** I W I l*-h* 2 1 1 Mu 1 1 4ur,' 1 1 " JL 1 1 1 &PH4 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 | A ' ^ A ' w * 1 A W 5 V 1 \/6r 1 VC 1 1 s>\ 1 P t 1 l AV> 1 V H 1 I ! 1 1 1 i 1 t i l l ha ^ 1 kai ^ 1 lia n^" 1 1 ' 1 . hVl W 1 h* p 1 1 | 1 1 1 hPi* 1 h i A* 1 1 i 1 1 hpu2 1 h» KJ' 1 1 1 I I 1 h a i 1 1 hu :^ ) 1 1 8 i 1 |^flur 1 1 ho a* 1 1 l j i 1 1 f)oey I I I 1 1 1 teiZJ • I i , J j I I I | ha -T hrt4*i 1 1 R v l l f l h i r HnnRnnants 3 1 1 1 | ! T 1 1 1 ^ 1 i i i 1 1 1 9 1 1 ! 291 Session No. INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name & Age of C h i l d S y l l a b l e F i n a l I " 4 4 4 , > 3 % tu i»| 14 a . ) m 2 4 mm 1 l o t ( 0 2 J io& 4 } 7? i t 47 !o'7 44 S-2 48 (ioD t<>M 3 1 ' 1 , 7 l'4 2 4o J U i _ <T4 wa h i l'5>" H 4V 4 i l l 4 ' T v -(frf) i f ) u s - pa- illiu> „ 1 X I,in < Hi 2 3 1 1 1— \% 131 7o /4-0 12 S] <W ^ au j P | 2 W € 4 pi.jjau-1ST 3° 7 1 81 ^ y (23 J 31 1^ «H 32: © ) ^ > t V *>7 LSPl* P a . 3 t IbS *s * 7 loo 10 a , • x r •• S4 a1 n i 4£ 4? 40 . i6g * r f f W ) i ^ t * ¥ (U) ha* Iff i t J i>"7 It J t A l <?/ p ' ^ C l | 100 100 # 1(1*1) • Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants 1 u ! 113 Ifco — _ 0 • I Tones  p a u —» p a n — » Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ®% Session No. ©23" <• Name & Age of / PC*-) y y n C h i l d UJ^C o\ j & (u) / y y y <£>% t(S) y y ®% 0 ®% y y y kw kw* — — b) S y l l a b l e Finals Vocalics Consonants b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants ©I4 ®'1 * 4 (?»>;. ® a . si c-),„ Q&Y)C u i ^ C O , < 3 > „ *« (4 k /7 S y l l a b i c Consonants s/ y y y y V y y y y y y y y y S y l l a b i c y Consonants y / — 294 Session No. REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d UJCtc Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. noun 'bright' adjective 3- A U, AM, rj 'grandfather' noun 'angry' adjective 5- ® h i ft-4 W i f i . ' 'mother' noun B 6. 'grandmother' noun 7. ® J ^ l l l ^ m U i * ^ 'younger s i s t e r ' noun \<\ m yam. 9 (g) pq 4 'exactly' adverb 'father' noun B 10. p q . p " p a r 'to b i d goodbye' verb 8 2 i 1 1 • p Q L . p £ t 'to shake' verb A 12. a n pan 'wood' noun A 13. ® p i ^ p r ' 15. sog^soeuj 'baby' noun B 'wet' adjective 'water' noun Summary of Data Number of : Ji 11 10 Proportion of: • 09  • 05  -.05." 216 1.00 Form Class of 3 • 27 Type A Reduplications-.27 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 295 REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) 16. IT. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 2k. 25. 26. 27-28. 29-30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. ho. Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B « T n 1 'uncle' noun B 9U k S U - f t 'bucket' noun A t$M Z tsi 2 'to cook' verb A 'to stay' verb A 'tea* noun A 4 - C 4 ) 'grandfather' noun 296 Session No. ^ &  Name & Age of C h i l d U)(U 3 j <9 ([i j PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops • Sub s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping tS ~? A f f r i c a t i o n Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other Processes 1/Wtl RotA^ui oe —» u (^/&) oS'o Assimilatory Processes 297 Session No. Sample s i z e L e x i c a l SUMMARY SHEET Phonetic Name & Age of C h i l d IAJA^J A j Q I ) Phonetic Phonetic Types : / *j £ Types : i A / Tokens : L\'8 f Forms : & / -b Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency / / { - ^JLl 10.$ ) £j ( ) A r t i c u l a t i o n Score <HS~ Number o f Sounds b) S y l l a b l e p Cp') a s ) ^ ' Final • ^  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: V o c a l i c s JJ_ ( - - ^ r - = l'f> ) S y l . C o n s . _ l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score 3 Number of Sounds $ ) J F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: A r t i c u l a t i o n Score (P Number of Sounds J f / J ^ 3 •* £ P O ^au) rn S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score T o t a l Number of Sounds 62 0 ( ^ ' ^ A n a l y s i s of R e d u p l i c a t i o n ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n of : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms • 0 5" Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms ' O S~ S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I F / V ? y y • y y — — y / y j * V s/ V y I A S f/ £) P r o p o r t i o n o f Data ^3/25) & Matches • 9 1 ( * 1 I 33 ) 298 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i P / ai v/ D i 1/ ou • u v/ y / "Pi / ui • ./ iu a e J ei I au V HI / a • 0 / Ay / pu 0 • — P r o p o r t i o n o f Data -f_T ( / / /20) & Matches • _ ^ ( H / if ) 13) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form R e d u p l i c a t e d Form 1 2 3 5 6 T 8 9 / T o t a l Number o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s / P h o n e t i c Tokens SSJ P r o p o r t i o n o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s . QQ /  P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  " > <f> I I " 1  Stopping ts > t A f f r i c a t i o n F r o n t i n g Monophthongisat ion o f diphthongs e i > /• L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs Other processes p ' — > p oe — » 2> i r ct — > u* 0 - 20 % 21 - 49 # 50 - 79 ?° 80 - 100 % 299 Session No. LEXICON SHEET - Name & Age of C h i l d types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic i fa ' 11 fa . ' f " ) » W IAT tpi>> i 3 fpn 3 13 /m/ | 4 - f 3 > K « ' ^Pv*a 1 W A . . ' 1$ M 1 >Hfl.A-y: r f^.' I r ' f e ^ IT 4 * a-fV' ltf* lit) l ^ ^ 2 wx 4 fr'n^WffW A i 5 131 -ta i f y o k i™a u.' '5'* U,' I / h / 1 »1 h i tp^' |tf ^< ^  hS"3 mi* 6 f^| 11 \\ax 4 J hai 4 U at 4 Ii4 t v V 1 ITS wwi^ 1 49 moa* IvL toou? 9 hpi> if hpiVsx) 3 2 / $ou.' h£ tow, 10 h>D 1 Mi h p p V 2 X > W l .1 lU h i * I l 5 ^ a « a S III kvi ' H4 - , i ' 3* l u , ' b4 . . t a ' 1? hu-ri 4 UC t>uV" A u V l4t> tu. V J . J / j / 1 /kw/ | /p/ | l<t jPt" 1 lit J P I ° Jkuin 1 41 t a ' n pa ' l£o pa* In ia t pa-' jpd: p4 . . |3ft Ax) I S ' | € J 5 / * I I ? c4 pa' M ' ' ^ ' tp ' h 'C j - ) ^ ).^ IH J U ^ l O 1 ! 3-> pa t* I6j(pll3> JI ii-H. U 0 ii. | , 1 • 1 ' paw '«t I D A U tt pvv * r pvt.' if | u p / a ^ i 4 l4j i a £ a t!> A / 1 l^Vc»> ^ DPu f e IAS?' pPu.6 300 Session No. LEXICON SHEET A^/ .^W,) Name & Age of ' C h i l d * W A ; 0(6) types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic ti 'OKA2 ho i?iu.a(ix) A / I A s ' / i A ' / «*f<W I"f t W In r> A. W° i n f a - 6 4f p', * 4 P../jV») Jtf I P V If! 1.1 t s ' ^ * l»*ts*»vVd 1 1 1 J j 1 J *i t . „ 8 lu^ t .4to>| " 1 i /B/ 1 ^ . i ^ ^ l w ^ t f d A / 1 j Ls sa.vn b<r <: t>m /Yx) <?/ W 1/02 t V " Ml (A/a ">l»*WA:r£M .4 saV liG saV id l a <l win 4 4i SPL' In S&L' n t i V ta'taV is t ^ , 6 Iw t o i f e 1 A / i M sV* M so* 1 ho s*„ 3 Ifa SVLC**) A ' / | II s t 1 l?i sf. 2 | A : / , i3 si 1 1^ si" 1 A s / 1 74 SI,* U f Si V <K TAPI* U i ISPL2 Ii- ^ l , 4 |JST S l 4 ( » I4 sri" 1^ s i.4V»> <?7 I'" tsi ' 7J sfift«jl IK SAJ*" I K tsi 1 71 l M Si/Vfc>|l* t s r f e l"i tSi-W I *o < ^ He s u - 2 h i t s . * ^ ts..n «j 1 Si .*(••<• l^.^oeA! LL*J^J?*fe 301 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. A , Phonetic Forms CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC Name & Age of C h i l d • , CV CVG CVC P 4 1 pA-1 '/pa t M U . ....! ;p.tV 1 p/2. f1 I t a ' 1 f.pi' /tl.n 'x i a y . 1 ' P i ^ 1 t-*. 2 1 l lt< «' J 1 1 t s f lcV i* 1 4 , ' J 1 f • 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 {P \ 1 frflu! 1 i an ' t x V I t-sWl/tsW. 1 r r ' 1 1 p^-.tll ta?rf„'i>l tb^ ' 1 1 t-)li!° 1 tlr>m l 1 1 1 1 i t,6u3 1 t.-Pp : :l l • I I I l | . fA_!. 1 fee' 1 -|W I • 1 /tPn ' v 2 i i r ^ j—7 /.fx. y 1 fpn 3 1 i tprf V ' i r i it,,2« 1 S I . 5 1 i s i —•— — 1 I I I i W r ; „ l T \ I I ™ ' > f 1 1 I l S . ^ — ••' '• •••• —1 —1 i i 4 ^ 1 - -^ PH 1 1 1 1 i i . 1 1 i i . toft - 1 h * f tJ__J_J_j__3 1 h A . m 1 i 1 1 n a 1 1 K n p * « j 4 iV J. t^ >A I i^iou-* 1 1 I J 1 , 5 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l+Wi _ S v l l a l i ) i c Consonairts I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 9 1 1 - i 1, 302 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. Phonetic Forms^Ccr*AMw&<zL^ Name 8s Age of CV CVG CVC CV CVG- CVC C h i l d CV CVG CVC U 3 ? 1 W l f 4 < d & 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 ' • | | 1 1 1 1 fca:l<*l U p p * 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I i t ^ i \ W U i p f J 1 i l l 1 jt L 1 j i u 31 ja -t1 1 1 1 I J. j , J i • ^ J1- 1 i j i - v 1 1 I 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 V VOr J L L S y l l a b i c Consonants m i 9 I 303-Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l S y l l a b l e F i n a l Consonants Vocalics Consonants log ' Ho 1 HI 0 <? 4, 3 io 11 l,S" n m Tones | P z. --U- — » P 6" 1 -•u -> — * p e t 8 1 t — » — » C s W — > -> S . o e u y — > t s i •* t s ^ r t o n . * — > 304 Session No. INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name & Age of C h i l d ( / J / S y l l a b l e F i n a l t- 1 c ~ a? IS 3:1 " 2-7 4C u -33L V S(fW 6 4 —-H 1- — ' 0 m± MO »2 pt 63 11 3 pPt 3 r V 4V 10 PPh b - So 14 —!_JL_ i.a-.n 13 n ai 7 .a: t 3.1 IS 34 4L 5s JTJT I i 1 A"! \ 64 ts*?? V J 3y 9 / X.) ( i t ) V V o J • ; l 1 1 1 «N M Y 1/ > - f — ' u 67 1 n-f _ 1 —(.><• ts A*) * 1 V p i t l 4 • IWP h |0t) tsovi ^T 55 - 4 1 3 10/ J I sl _ 4 i Jr I07 10 ^1 4 1 94 *itf : - " . " J * 4 o 3 4 M n *^ *o4 II 41 *k i t .. 1 + , 1 I 1 • Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ®"/» k' kw kw' w • * ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d iJj*^ £ ] 0 (<o ) b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consonants ©9 0)4 ( a i ) 4 ( a u ) 4 Gic, © < ' ui P i a, S y l l a b i c Consonants " Child's su b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s 1 1/ V ' 1 — v/ / — — — / b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants V y %/ V v / s/ F C«fc> y y — y — y y S y l l a b i c Consonants y o 306 Session No, REDUPLICATION SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d -tJyt*^, £,) O ((}) Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. 4 • 4- 'grandfather' noun B 2. ' f r u i t ' noun A 3. 'foot' noun A k. ma ma 'mother1 noun B 5. Ma 3 ma * 'horse' noun A 6. ' grandmother' noun B 7. o<\. ' pa.1 'father' noun B 8. i r 'pen1 noun A 9 1 J t. J ^ f , ^ 'to f a l l ' verb A 10. ts'f. W 'car' noun A 11. t-a 2 to,2 'to h i t ' verb A 12. a P * a p s 'duck' noun A 13. Ik. 15. Summary of Data Number of : 12 8 Proportion of: .10 .07 .03 12 1.00 Form Class of Type A Reduplications .25 .75 .00 Reduplicated forms Type A reduplicated forms Type B reduplicated forms Phonetic forms Verb reduplicated forms Noun reduplicated forms Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 307 Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET A j 0 S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a —> i* cye) Other Processes Stops Su b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping A f f r i c a t i o n Fronting 0 / Au) --> t Cx/iX too Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs ' * - OVUUlA.uOHs -TV — ? -n -> f C - y V - U . 7 U 0 iJ a J ~ h —* o S~6 P —> v / o Ot —> 0 6-0 . a ot —> 0 .6' 0 a Assimilatory Processes 308 Session No. SUMMARY SHEET Sample L e x i c a l Phonetic s i z e Types : Types : /J^ Tokens Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name & Age of Ch i l d UJWJ 0 (h ) Phonetic Phonetic ,3, / / Forms / £ 0 C r i t e r i o n of Frequency 6 Number of Sounds G (S ) ( a3ft. ni A r t i c u l a t i o n Score t *** t S Ctsy> s ** b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l V o c a l ics and S y l l a b i c Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics Jo ( " 6$ ) Syl.Cons. 1 . ) F i n a l Consonants A r t i c u l a t i o n Score 3. 7 Number of Sounds <j ^S") C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: /o ( - ^ Z = ?-75" ) Number of Sounds /a A r t i c u l a t i o n Score U J L ) i D c Ci) y D • P** a - * * (fra) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score ff <^ T o t a l Number of Sounds l £ ( l t > ) Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms • O 7 Type B reduplicated forms • 03 S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I F • * — y y — y t — t — y y y P _ y , y y y S Proportion of Data 0 (<^  0/25) & Matches » 75 ( /S" / ol o) 309 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i • P a i v/ D i v OU u \/ y • P i I »/ u i ' — i u et K e • e i y au m • a *» 0 / oey — 1 P u • 0 — P r o p o r t i o n o f Data jL&T_( /7/20) & Matches • ff<3 ( /f / / 7) (3) Tones Non-reduplicated Form Reduplicated Form 1 2 3 U 5 ' 6 T 8 9 3 (1*) Q 4 Total,Number of .: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s Phonetic Tokens ot I I P r o p o r t i o n of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s » 0$  P h o n o l o g i c a l Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants Stopping A f f r i c a t i o n A — * t Au/ —> t. Monophthong!sation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs a > v Other processes 1? — » 3 6t * U * - h - — ^ - * n -n —> - 1 J 0 - 20 % 21 - 49 % 50 - 79 ^ - 100 % 310 Session Wo. 3 LEXICON SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d types types types l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic l e x i c a l phonetic '^ rnau' watt ' l 0 wttulwau/J ' s U ' 1 ^  t % 'tt / 1—' —P"—^— IS" m u i ' | u kvxut ' 'HisM.-'tsii ' I18 Mill wut ^ taut WUJ. 1 1 tnu.1 mui A / | = Ji /La ' U Kfl:' |.1i__Ha_ 4 4 U i 4 K a / I | . - . i i P i . t I4t .t_Uv I A / I I M V H P . 1 to t a M ( l >f P a 1 IV pfl./n^bi U J H U ? 1 A / | 1 tai'plvJ A* / i : J J J. J . 2 i Wo tr>L | a J- V'- 4 . J J 1 A / 1 1 .: ^ ' j_.fn4t?(„ „4..:4t.-s...a 1-5 f ,*t..V«.| L JQ_>|' Ilo ipi.' |» V p4 i tp4?; t liJ p_A.^ pei> £ - 1 . l 1 ' 1 F R A s ' / | In r j u l 1 A s ^ 3 is* f.v}tsV.y l o ^ H . ' l * A D 4 - > 4 4 iv!,* I t f 'p ik 4 • =5 ^ . i /V j | J A / | H l i t \ J U - n life i-i.r) nrn j / 1 *1 W i n ' li1f-u/p.V„0 1 " ] 1 » 1 311 INVENTORY SHEET Session No. 3 Phonetic Forms Name & Age of C h i l d a • , CV CVG CVC ' CV CVG CVC CV CVG CVC / P 4 ' V TA. £ 1 ppt? tsoei)2 1 1 |Vl i 1 pat1 ta2 I roe^  iW.i^Ns.H 1 p^ 1 p tvT ti* 1 + . ^ L 1 tut1 1 tsu-' ! 1 1 1 1 t * i 2 1 J 1 1 I | 1 1 I 1 | h V * l 1 1 1 Yl*Al l t . S V I 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 | | i i 1 l 1 1 I l l | 1 | 1 1 SI l l 1 1 1 1 s ^ r j 1 | 1 1 1 I 1 1 I § 1 1 I 1 1 I rAoV ia.J}\ i U t f 1 V G 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | i • 1 • 1 " •"— 1 1 1 i i^a.'- 1 lAiau,' 1 1 ha-.* 1 M k * 1 1 1 1 i I 1 I 1 1 | 1 1 S v l l a b i c Consonants 1 1 YWJ I 1 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 J , 9 1 1. 1 1 1 i l l 312 Session No. INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Name & Age of C h i l d Consonants S y l l a b l e F i n a l Vocalics Consonants p *7 V a 1 3* h i \$ «• '1 - 4 - »* 2.0 i) * i n 1 1 t P n l i t -U'n t ai , J J 1 '<? 3 ^ — p V tt>r t , II 1.0 t<Pi B , — t,ts , 3 ^ 31 J 3 * / t S 3S t W oe-3 4 i r *V» h 1 u I % IO 8 I ii | I • i I. . I 1 I • 313 Inventory Sheet L e x i c a l Types (continued) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l Consonants S y l l a b l e F i n a l V o c a l i c s Consonants Tones 3 - i <K i A : t s t 4 t s t : 4- 2 — » —> 1 0 1 Lers " " • • -— 1 -Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s ®# f'/> t ' 1 k' ©V kw kw» ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consonants © 5 GO, <£ Yl * / <?oa oey i u Oi © 4 m P n t ® 7 S y l l a b i c Consonants Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s • — . V — — V v/ — — y • — b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l s Vocalics Consenants m V .— — — y — - : -- — — — — — — S y l l a b i c Consonants I->-315 Session No. Name & Age of REDUPLICATION SHEET C h i l d /CJkjur^ I j.9 Reduplicated form (gloss) Part of speech Type A/Type B 1. 'flower' noun A 2. i 1 Ufl.i : 4kftr 'shoe' noun A . 3. i * 4 i ? 4 'grandfather' noun B k. J J ' f r u i t ' noun A 5. 'elder s i s t e r ' noun B 6. 'elder brother' noun B 7. 'beautiful' adjective A 8. J J h\A 4 ma.1 'mother' noun B 9 wa.:4 Kha^ 'grandmother' noun B 10. i i 'cat' noun A 11. tout'.'mui.: * ^ )'younger s i s t e r 'noun B 12. <s> * father' noun B 13. pau 1 p/iii^ ' f u l l ' a djective A 14. 'pen' noun A 15. r r 'nose' noun A Summary of Data Number of : Proportion of:. 27 . 49 Reduplicated forms 17 .31 Type A reduplicated forms 10 .18 Type B reduplicated forms 27 1.00 Phonetic forms Form Class of 3 .18 Verb reduplicated forms A . 11 .64 Noun reduplicated forms Reduplications 3 .10 Adj./Adv. reduplicated forms 316 REDUPLICATION SHEET (continued) R e d u p l i c a t e d form (gloss) P a r t of speech Type A/Type B 16. I T . 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 2k. 25-26. 27-28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. ft p V 4 p S 4 'grandmother' noun B 'to k i s s ' verb A seen* SAPM* 'water' noun A •- J • J 'uncle' noun B i i su s"tt . 'book' noun A Ta. tvi. 'to h i t ' verb' A 'younger b r o t h e r ' noun B t s i 3 t s i 2 'paper' noun A 'mouth' noun A - J J 'to s i t ' verb A ' car' noun A 'smart' a d j e c t i v e A 31? Session No. S Name & Age of C h i l d PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l consonants Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes (Consonants) Stopping 5 —> f A f f r i c a t i o n Fronting Substitution Processes (Vocalics) Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other Processes ft™**** Of Ctoi'tff*) 4*4 . fr/ »q / ; (1/4.) o 6'd Assimilatory Processes 318 Session No. SUMMARY SHEET Name & Age of Ch i l d /CAwig. / / 9 Cs) Sample s i z e L e x i c a l Phonetic Types : 4.,-, Types : 6" ^ Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l C r i t e r i o n of Frequency Number of Sounds *j  b) S y l l a b i c F i n a l V o c a l ics and S y l l a b i c Consonants C r i t e r i o n of Frequency: Vocalics 3 ( 43- =• <3 -4 ) ' o Syl.Cons. 1 Phonetic Phonetic Tokens : /S"0 Forms : $~^ {. A r t i c u l a t i o n Score F i n a l Consonants• C r i t e r i o n of Frequency-: , 4 ( 41 -- 3-9 A. A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number of Sounds C f4\ i C<0 CctO' A r t i c u l a t i o n Score _ Number of Sounds / (Ou) -CCl 4, S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score T o t a l Number of Sounds /6 (4-) Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) Proportion of : Type A reduplicated forms O • B / Type B reduplicated forms O • f$ S u b s t i t u t i o n Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants I — — v/ — • \l — — — • — — • — — F — — — — /•gQ(^/c?) Proportion of Data • 4~4 ( H /25) & Matches ft> ( / o / / / ) 319 (2) Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants i • V a 1 a i — D i — ou u y "Pi u i ' V i u — ct — e v/ 1 e i _ au a 0 • oey — pu — 0 L_— Proportion of Data • 4 ( 9 /20) & Matches '7S ( ^ / £ ) 13) Tones Non-reduplicated Form 1 2 3 5 • 6 7 8 9 Reduplicated Form 4a 4.4 4 / 1 .2 4- 4 4- 4 CJx) T o t a l Number of \: Tone Substitutions £ Phonetic Tokens /S~V Proportion of Tone Substitutions . 0 4 >  Phonological Process Analysis Deletion of f i n a l consonants Stopping ^ _ I 1 * -> * A f f r i c a t i o n Fronting Monophthongisation of diphthongs Laxing of vowels and diphthongs Other processes pt — * a t p — ± a 2 1 - 49 % 50 _ 79 f 8 o _ 1 0 0 f 0 Appendix 321 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. /  Name & Age of c h i l d uJg^j i • 7 (lit. \ Homonymous forms Homonymous types 1. V\\ 3 $\f. 3 'eat' j l 3 'ear'  2. i m . ' tldl " s t r e e t ' W ' c h i c k e n W'tortoise' 3. _____JLH4?L AVI1, c h i c k e n ' ' d°g' h. AU1 ^ p | " c h i c k e n ' Jklj1 'machine' 5. _ 6. 8. 9. 10 T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: 4 322 5. 6. 9. 10 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. • Name & Age of c h i l d UICKAI I Qi) Homonymous forms Homonymous types • l . P h ' | f t n / ' r e t u r n ' -ppr>' 'sleep' 2. Jb 3 ' f r u i t' ll* ' c l a s s i f i e r ' •I' i I 3 . Sa - • S f l - 'sand' $ J 'to comb' U. S PI 'to dry' S PL* ' s m a l l ' f a 2 fa: * 'to h i t ' t a t 2 ' b e l t ' tug. ^ . , tur}.. 6 ' fr/pA-to exerciset-suij; t ,'-(j<^t)a n d' 7. t }pl* t a l * ' ' - ( j « f)' sun' f p LS ' (pkt L running 8. T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f Phonetic Forms: P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: o i 323 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. J_D Name & Age of C h i l d LAJZU C£ ; 0 (II ) Homonymous forms Homonymous types ^ E L 2 , ' l o c a t e d i n ' / ^ 2 - 'to get up' Jko, ' ' ( j l ^ ) - n o w ' J^>pl 'chicken' gym ' g ° l d ' Av*\l ' d a r e tQ' - 9 1,. 2. ' A r t ' 3. h. 5. t s a 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 ^ 5" ' to b i t e ' yyaS ' p a r t i c l e ' s a r , » ' t o dry' t ) ? ^ . s t 0 0 i . 3 ' - ( j l r f ) C h i n e s e ' ^ a - 4 'together' frs>-.& 'word' t s M t o l i v e ' T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: 2-1 *j P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: * Q 3 32^ HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. Name & Age of C h i l d UJOUL 2 'j 3 Homonymous forms Homonymous types i , 3 j ?pn 3 ' t 0 s l e e P ' UaS ' t 0 g 0 d o w n ' 2 , u j ' A u g ' 'work' t s i i j ' (3» ) to l i k e ' 3. t s & t ' * SS-I* ' t o k i s s ' f s ? l / ' c l a s s i f i e r ' )4. £ , ' fg/p' 'ground' t s » ' ' t o k n o w ' 5- f spt 2 t s p / . ^ 'diminutive f o r i n ^ ^ 2 'to wash' 6. ,  7. 8. 9. • •  10 T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: h T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: 192. P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: -_Q_ •1„ 325 HOMONYMY SliEET Session No. <9lO Name & Age of chi ld id Out 2)5" (22.) Homonymous forms Homonymous types U ®a r\<&y 'to go' 4ioeij* ' her,.she,it' 2. i | 3 jif ' e a r ' j I U 3 ' W a n t t 0 ' 3. S j? S Vi 'to wash' Sfeu 'hand' •h. " 5. 6. •, .... .. : 7. . 9. 10 T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: 3 HA 8. 9. 10 326 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. £ 5 Name & Age of C h i l d UJOA. j g ( l l ) Homonymous forms Homonymous types 2 h j Z ' - ( j ' l J ) c a n ' h & j 2 'to get up' A d 3 i ^ ' - ( f c , ' ) c o f f e e ' UJ 'dove' jj^j $ ^ 0 3 ' c l a s s i f i e r ' ^ D 'cover' n i j " 4 £.i ' t 0 t u r n ' r-'g6 ' t 0 ge-fc-.v.' • 5 - f s , i° ^- S | l. C '-(•fcai)oneself' | y 'to l i v e ' 6. CL Q ' I' Q, ' q u e s t i o n ' p a r t i c ' l e ' " 7- t su j * f ^ i r j 2 ' t 0 m a k e ' tsoe^'use .force' " l , 2. 3. T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: ~~J T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: - 2 - ' ^ ° P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: i_i-LJL. •1„ h. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 327 HOMONYMY SHEET Session No. 3. Name & Age of c h i l d uJx/ng a; 0(6) Homonymous forms Homonymous types pqt 8 pq t% • eight' p p t 1 'pencil' 4 ' T R E E ' ^ 1 ^ ' T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: 3 328 HOMONYMY SHEET Se s s i o n No. 3 Name & Age of. C h i l d <CHAS»AJ ij&Ct) Homonymous forms Homonymous types i„ _ _____ [ j s ^ ^ ' e l d e r s i s t e r ' Tjs*? 'car' 2. 3. V . k. • 5. 6. . . _  7. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9-10 T o t a l Number of Homonymous Forms: ' T o t a l Number of Phonetic Forms: P r o p o r t i o n of Homonymous Forms: . f) __, 329 Appendix 3- A l i s t of the series of s y l l a b l e pairs,with each s y l l a b l e p a i r made up of either of two upper r i s i n g tones i n juxtaposition, or an upper even tone followed by a high entering tone f o r the subjects studied. Wai C h i l d form 'gloss' Child form 'gloss' wu vk"pi 'tortosise' .. 0 . kat - ^ k a l - ^ ' street, redu. Session f o m , p^ po ' b a l l , redu. J.' form* f e i 5 5 f e i 5 5 'to f l y . redu.form' kei^^kei^-^ 'machine, redu. form' sy "^sy 'book,redu.form' kpu-^kei-^ 'chicken' su ^ s u ^  'to comb,redu. form' Session ma r^tspu-?^ ' (ma ®-)-^ ' •" ' Mother Chow' sa " ^ t p n ^ 'beach' so• p i:rr^ 'to do a pony t a i l ' matt maU J ' cat, redu. form* pa ^ t s p u 5 5 " '(pa:^)- Father Chow' t'oey^^ts'g s S 'push the car' ts'£-^ts'£ car,redu.form' Session sy ^ ^pau 'book case' !io sin. ^^tst>i^^'put i t f i r s t ' p'i r^jSpi ' c h i l d ' s name h o i 5 5 s i n 5 5 '13 ®-put i t aside' j p m 5 5 k e i ^ *lu:k®-tape recorder' w u - ^ t s o u ^ 'dirty' t s ' a ^ j j i u . ^ ' put the hand closed to the waist' Session fpn-^fur) J J 'to work' 15 cjcr kai ^ s i r i 'go outside f i r s t ' j p m ^ k e i ^ 'luk®-tape recorder' ko -^ko.-^ 'elder brother' Session wu,-5-5-tsou^^ 'dirty' one l e f t ' p in 5 5 p i n ^ 'pony t a i l ' mail mau ' cat' S e s s i o n 25 25 f e i g e l ' a e r o p l a n e ' tt tt tsur] - ^ t s u n - ^ ' c l o c k . r e d u . form'  •lu!<;®-tape tt . tt _pm k e i r e c o r d e r ' k O - • ^ s i n ^ 'ts'tf-rj ®-s i n g a song f i r s t ' f £ ^ s i K ^ 'ka®- brown c o l o u r ' 330 tt tt pa fan ' f a t h e r comes back' tt sa JJfan J J % c l o s e i t ' wu - ^ t s o u - ^ ' d i r t y ' k D ij ^ k o rj ' b r i g h t ' f a -^sa-rj 'peanut' C h i n g C h i l d form ' g l o s s ' C h i l d form ' g l o s s ' f a . ^ f a 5 5 ' f l o w e r , redu.form' sy sy 'book,redu. form' wlpi n w p i ^ 'smart' << mau mau ' c a t , r e d u form' ts'g. ^ts'£ ^ ' c a r ! Wing C h i l d form 'goss' C h i l d form ' g l o s s * pa ^ p a ' f a t h e r ' tt tt ma ^ms.- 'mother' ts'£ ^ t s ' g ^ ' c a r ' Note: Any s y l l a b l e w i t h t h e tone e n c i r c l e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e tone i s marked a c c o r d i n g t o i t s tone number, i n s t e a d of i t s tone v a l u e . 331 Appendix 4 The B i a n - y i n processes of the subjects s t u d i e d across a l l the sessions: C h i l d & Session No. High R i s i n g B i a n - y i n C h i l d Form High L e v e l B i a n - y i n C h i l d Form Wai: 1 hun ^ j p n ^ ^ ' b e a r ' k ( 4 ) nam. jt»rrt v ''man' n a r \ ^ k £ » ) * ^ ^ e y e glasses' t s 'fltQ • k£JJ. » 1 D K * v y ; ' deer' t e i 6 h a ' f l o o r ' j i \ a n * ' ^ ^ ' e a r r i n g ' wu-^tip. * ( 9 ) ' b u t t e r f l y ' tin 6wa * ( 6 ) 'telephone' J S ^ J S * ^ 'grandfather' mui muj 'younger s i s t e r ' Wai 5 n o K . ^ t e i * ^ 'get to the f l o o r ' P ' D ^P 'D * ^ ' grandmother' mui 6mui 'younger s i s t e r ' • \ i u r)- jG^' lemon' pas C > ^ p a i ; 3 , t o b i d goodbye' Wai 10 l i ^ - ^ l i i j " * ^ ' c h i l d ' s name' mui 6mul * ( 6 ) ' y o u n g e r s i s t e r ' »jah 3k£rj * ( 3 ) ' e y e glasses' t i t t A / v a * ^ 'telephone' k p n ^ j y . * ^ 'goibden f i s h ' pal ® ^ p a i 3 , t o b i d goodbye' Wai 15 j g - ^ j € * ^ ^ 'grandfather' h p p * ^ 'box' mui 6mui * ( 6 ) ' younger s i s t e r t e i * ^ 'ground' Wai 20 n a m ^ j p n * ^ 'man' ha V ) 5 k£;n* ( 3 ) ,eye glasses' mui 6 m u i . - ( 6 c ) - y S S n | l ^ l i s t e r Wai 25 Appendix- ^--continued t e i ^ h a * ^ ^ ' g r o u n d ' hx>p* {^ ^ h-Pp* ^ ) . box, r e d u . t e i ^ h a 'ground' 6 , ( 6 ) , mui mui .* 'younger s i s t e r ' ' one d o l l a r ' toai b i d goodbye' _ _L_ _ U V L i j p n t s ' i h *^'' oneg r a n d f a t h e r ' 332 ^ p a i 3 'to C h i n g j£ • _€ * ' g r a n d f a t h e r ' p ' o p ' o * ''grandmother 6 , . , ( 6 ) , mui mui'.* 'younger s i s t e r ' Wing 6 _ ( 6 ) . T " mui mui * v 'younger s i s t e r ' j y * ^ ' f i s h ' t a n 'wa •• >-s i ' t e l e p h o n e ' t s i n * v ' 'money' Note: '*' i n d i c a t e s a B i a n - y i n ; The tone number i n p a r e n t h e s i s a f t e r t h e '*' i n d i c a t e s t h e o r i g i n a l tone b e f o r e t h e p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e . 333 Appendix 5: The / ] _ / and / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s t h a t appeared i n th e s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s of Wai's speech samples;:.. / l / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s s y l l a b l e s g l o s s 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10. 11. 12. 13-14. 15-16. 17. 18. 19-20. 21 . 22. 23-24. l a l o u 5 ' e x c l a m a t i o n p a r t i c l e ' •two' • o l d ' / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s s y l l a b l e s g l o s s 13.* 'to get' l o . 2 L > 2 , t o get, redu, form' -l a n 'broken' l a n ^ l a n ^ 'broken, redu.form' 'to f a l l ' 'come' • b e a u t i f u l ' i 3 f e 9 l e i * l£ 3 ' b e a u t i f u l , -' * r e d u . form' x i 3 , l e i l u K 5 l a ^ lam ' •to g e t ' 'to f a l l a p a r t ' 'reason' 'to r e c o r d ; deer' '(pa )-trumpet' 'basket' 1. 2. 3-4. 5-6. 7-8. 9-10. 11. Il2. 3-nogy lavn 2 l a m 2 ' b a s k e t , r e d u . l o u l e i 1 form' 1 road' 1 •' (VD L )-glass' l i g l i t j c h i l d ' s name l a 6 ' - ( t ' a t 8 ) , d i r t y ' l i K 9 'power' l P u ^ ' - ( p i ^ J - t o ski} n i 4 5 nam n i u n e i -n£ 1 3 nam ^ = 3 nai 3 nai ^naL . 1 n i . nau = 14. n i l l •15. n > 6 16. j!7-18. 19. 20. n£u 2 < nifn .4 nin " 4 'female' 'to open a b o t t l e ' 'male' ' b i r d ' ' you' ' q u e s t i o n p a r t i c l e ' ' ( t o u 3 ) -tummy' ' m i l k ' , ' m i l k , r e d u . form' • t h i s ' ' ( h o u ) - l o n g t i m e ' ' b r i d e ' 'to s c o l d ' ' u r i n e ' ' -(mT>i 3), a k i n d o f r i c e ' ' b o t t o n ' ' b o t t o n , redu, form' 'to s t i c k t o ' 'be a b l e t o ' 'year' 33^ . 6 25- l e i 26. 1PP 7 27. l a K 28. ID 3 29-1 l p u 30. 'sharp' ' c l a s s i f i e r ' ' p a r t i c l e ' 'exclamation p a r t i c l e ' '(ma J )-,monkey' 'cage' 335 Appendix 6 The 40 / ] _ / a h d / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s t h a t a re used i n t h e word l i s t . / l / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s 1. l u 3 'cage' . 2 'female' 2. 1 l p u '(ma:^)-monkey' 4 nam * 'male' 3- l p p 7 ' c l a s s i f i e r f o r r i c e ' n i u 5 ' b i r d ' 4. -. .6 l e i 'sharp' neiP 'you' 5--. 4 lTPU ' - ( p i r n ) t o s k i ' J n a i ^ 'milK' 6. UK' 9 'power' no I 6 ' p a i e n t , a d j . ' 7- l e i 1 i ' (pa: )-' !3glass' noer,2 ' b r i d e ' 8. l o u 'road' 6 nau ; 'to s c o l d ' 9- l a m 2 'basket' '• . 6 niU. ' u r i n e ' 10. l a 3 ' - ( p a: ) trumpet' 6 n i n -' - ( m p i 3 ) , a k i n d of r i c e ' 11. l u K 9 •to r e c o r d ' 'year' -i o 12. l e i 5 'reason' . 4 m m 'to s t i c k t o ' 13- l p t 7 'to f a l l a p a r t ' ~ 2 npu ' b o t t o n ' 14. ' b e a u t i f u l ' 4 npr) 'able t o ' 15. l e i * 'come' 4 *nu rj 'farmer' 16. l o K 9 • t t o f t a l l ' 4 *nyn 'warm' 17- l a n 'broken' 3 * n o u y ' b r a i n ' 18. ID 2 'to g e t ' *nim ^ 'to r e c i t e * 19- l o u 5 • o l d ' . 4 * n e i ' nun' 20 1 * 9 5 •two' 3 * n o u y 'hardworking' Appendix 7 The 80 items of / l / and / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s i n t h e speech s u r v e y o f Wai's p a r e n t s s y l l a b l e s / l / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s s y l l a b l e i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s y l l a b l e y i n a m e d i a l :o.r df ifta'lrpd s i t i o n Chinese c h a r a c t e r s meanings Chi n e s e c h a r a c t e r s meanings 1. 'there i s c h i c k e n i n t h e cage' 2. I i ML ' c h i c k e n cage' , 1 l p u 3- 'how do you w r i t e t t h e word '1 u'?' h4. 4 11. 'monkey' • 1PP ? 5. S * i £ ¥ £ 'every r i c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o get' 6. - %% fc 'a r i c e ' f l e i 6 7- M % 'consequence' 8. 'very s h a r p ' , -i 4 - l p u 9. •to s k i ' 10. 'the younger s i s t e r i s s k i i n g ' / l i K 9 11. 'power' 12. 'very p o w e r f u l ' v . l e i 1 13. 'how do you w r i t e t h e word ' l e i ' ? ' 14. iJS. i & ' g l a s s ' l o u 15- 'every r o a d can r e a c h t h e d e s t i n a t n a t i o n ' 16. i o n ' 'road' lam- 17- 'there i s f l o w e r i r t h e b a s k e t ' 18. .'the b a s k e t i s f u l l of f]>owe l a 3 19- 'trumpet' 20. 'the younger s i s t e r has a trumpet' l u K 9 21. 'tape r e c o r d e r ' 22. 'the f a t h e r i s r e c o r d i n g ' l e i 5 23. 1 r e a s o n ' 24. 'reason' l p t 5 25- 'the s k i n p e e l s o f f 26. 'the younger s i s t e r ' s s k i n i s p e e l e d o f f ' 1€ D 3 27. 'the b e a u t i f u l g i r l ' 28. 'very p r e t t y ' l e i * 29- ' r e t u r n - home 1 30. & 'come back' 10K 9 31- * S i ' i t r a i n s ' 3 2 . 'be c a r e f u l g o i n g up and down' 6 l a n 33- ' r o t t e n a p p l e ' 34. 'eat r o t t e n apple I D 2 35. 'to get t h e a p p l e ' 36. •don't get i t ' l @ u 5 37- 'mouse' 38. 1 B 4l 'he i s o l d ' l ( t K ) 5 39. v3g ^ 'two y e a r s of age' 40. tfc t £ j f i 'the younger s i s t e r i s two y e a r s o l d ' s y l l a b l e / n / i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e s s y l l a b l e i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n C hinese c h a r a c t e r s meanings s y l l a b l e i n m e d i a l o r f i n a l p o s i t -i o n C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s meanings noey nam n i u -he i 5 41. 43. 45 i: 47- fr* '1% 'woman' 'man' • b i r d ' 'how are you?'! 42, 44, 46, 48, 4$ 4fc U 'she i s a woman' 'he i s a man.' • l i t t l e b i r d ' 'how are y o u , l i t t l e s i s t e r ? ' 3 j nai J 49. " f e vfc 'cream' 50. 'milk' . 3 r o i 51. 'patience' 52. t.f fa* 'very long' ^ 2 nc£ 53- 'the house of the 54. ** 3*- 'bride' "bride's parents' 6 nau. 55- 'to scold someone' 56. 'very crowded' • , 6 niU.' 57- ft. 1T3- * 'urine stinks' 58. 'wet the bed' 6 n 0 59-'a kind of r i c e ' 60. 'eat the sticky r i c e .. 2 nipu 61. 'cranky' 62. t ^ * 4 ''button''-: ,. 4 min. 63. •be happy every-64. 'new year' year' . 4 m m 65-'to s t i c k the pap-er' 66. -% & 'don't s t i c k the paper' 4 4 nu 67. ' a b i l i t y ' 68. 'possible' 69. 'farmer' 70. 'poor farmer' 4 nyn , 71. •warm water' 72. 'warm' 3 nou 73-'brain' 74. 'brain' . 6 m m v 75-'to r e c i t e ' 76. • i i « & 'don't know how to r e c i t e ' .4 nei 77. ' nun.'' 78. 'she i s a nun' 3 nou 79- % -h 'hardworking' 80. 'work hard every-year' Appendix 8 34 o Session No. / LEXICON SHEET N a m e & A g S ° f C h i l d U)g^ I J 7 (l4-) Wong father mother c h i l d id ' JLa. ' Inr.vf I*, rf Ion* 4-i 2 \T)D In-) £ U 1 fa* J J J J JC.& >^ i.-.n*> ii & \ nam Sam* J A. PA ^ T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: j / T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: £p [,13 i n i t i a l s : IS~ [ 1 ] i n i t i a l s ': IQ [ n ] i n i t i a l s : / (p [n] i n i t i a l s : / Q • 341 Session No. 3_ LEXICON SHEET K a m S & A g e ° f c h i l d U)oU. 1)3 OO Wong f a t h e r mother c h i l d A / tin1 id* i d * *» _•— ... •_. - ... • _r^/ -Vy-— • <">•___.4.^  In* ma n"ina^t A / i I, i.. . — . — — \_> nqi 3 ha/ J nflV. 3 J . l a _ _ r — • ''V; V -T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: ot 4 T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: 18 _ 1 _ i n i t i a l s : M ^1] i n i t i a l s ': <^  [ n ] i n i t i a l s : _/__ [ n ] i n i t i a l s : 342 Session No. _T _ LEXICON SHEET N a m S & A g S ° f Child (AJdU j j f ( / , ) Wong father mother c h i l d A / i a ' fn ' • t o J /A 3 i W Petit) 9.am £a.mzmm1' JQpt-» flpi-if PVV /pP Pn1 i "~ • *\s <J ' • »——-— ^ i-* 7 J l ( X . r\$Cz*) / , 2 4. h..' / , ' .. njjjz. J Total No. of Phonetic Tokens: & C? L l _ i n i t i a l s : [n] i n i t i a l s : / * J Total No. of Phonetic Types: /9 [13 i n i t i a l s : _> £n] i n i t i a l s : J^ 3^3 Session No. ~~f Name & Age of LEXICON SHEET C h i l d _lA}<^ l j t O _ C $ - ) Wong f a t h e r mother c h i l d A / seme xr i»__ .- . -_ . i , '__-(«->-«_jj-_i^-_;*r-n_ir, .v - -« hP.i/ tr^— # ... Kit r) ntJf . Pi. y J *J nix 0 JS J -/_ i 1 -111 • • • 1 • "*\y *V- —_-*» P/X vn in a mV-Jt^i lf\} 2.9 A} y J • . J J j j A / h ^ . t - 4 mi ^ in lan * i ricen n i Kll (2X) T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: /_>" _1_ i n i t i a l s : 61 [13 i n i t i a l s : -3. £n] i n i t i a l s : «3. L n ] i n i t i a l s 344 Session No. _ _ _ _ J ^ . Name & Age of L E X I C 0 » SHEET w __J_^_uJ^aX Wong f a t h e r mother c h i l d M la * A , J ____ / . V * ^ Z in d nCi <>) n o V(vd L i f t * * * * n,\r\ hit] J J J J J J L nctu. fin a -f9 i 10'- i 10 ' W- to i J3 n o ' T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: 3^ 1.13 i n i t i a l s : cT. [ n j i n i t i a l s : <j, <3y. T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: / / [13 i n i t i a l s : o^. [ n ] i n i t i a l s : Q ( 345 Session Wo. / / LEXICON SHEET K a m S & A g S ° f C h i l d y o ng f a t h e r mother c h i l d A / tn 1 Pa.fi. t / a n fe JT.Pn' 9 -> 2 . £ V J?*t 9 if v Psj far* n?nz i lr\ l / , ' » f ' /* ' hf.1 nA »o £ft tt * P.ceJ J J J ~'J T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: S'Q T o t a l No, of Phonetic Types: [.13 i n i t i a l s : ^ [ 1 ] i n i t i a l s : [ n ] i n i t i a l s : j^L £n] i n i t i a l s : / 346 Session No. Name & Age of Child (A)CL{ <* >' / (Q4-) Wong father mother c h i l d A / 4 J* ——V fc.. fa* i m 1 J J J • Total No. of Phonetic Tokens: / ^  Total No. of Phonetic Types: tZ> t_l] i n i t i a l s : H 113 i n i t i a l s : [ n j i n i t i a l s : L\ [n] i n i t i a l s : S LEXICON SHEET 3^7 Session No. LEXICON SHEET Name & Age of C h i l d a . 3 Wong f a t h e r mother c h i l d A / /:>.*« /aJQx) PuM, ^ 1,1^ fa* MA. /fr " - / q n i l 1(3*) fa* A / n ^ p H l - J 4 1 •nf. ' i f : -Y*0 £aL ** 2 h i < Li' T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: j~Q L13 i n i t i a l s : i / [ n j i n i t i a l s : 1 T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: / f f [ 13 i n i t i a l s ': / 0 £n] i n i t i a l s : Session No. t ~] LEXICON SHEET W a m e & A g e o f Wong father mother c h i l d A / f r , ' fn 1 ' A ^ v ^ ~r 1 ' t17R^ Pah 4 Pari / a n ^ lcu<° inou!0 PPA\<° ft'i*' « ^ 1 J - 4 J n v , K i r ' T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: c\ 7 T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: [S L13 i n i t i a l s : <JL 0 [13 i n i t i a l s ": ^ [ nj i n i t i a l s : ~~J £n] i n i t i a l s : £ 3^9 Session No. _/_^ Name & Age of LEXICON SHEET ^ ^ J ^ J ^ ^ J Wong f a t h e r mother c h i l d A/ p ^ : « ^ . 4 « J S 4 9 /fiu? -6v<3 f t * ) ' * n L /n.tf* / a 1 fa 1 ^ r _ p r - . e . « . _ _ . . . . / p p 1 / v p 1 /*.*• I D 0*1 m n ) P u z /*</ T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: 5^".^  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: / L I ] i n i t i a l s : 4-L [ 1 ] i n i t i a l s ': / / [ n ] i n i t i a l s : ~~7 [ n ] i n i t i a l s : 350 Session No. 61/ LEXICON SHEET N a m S & A g 6 ° f C h i l d jA)(kA, *;/>(!) Wong father mother c h i l d A / - f o g * J P M - Y / A C * 2 ft 2 Ox) Pn3 fr>Ji>:} fuj ' P u d q J a / n / 2 fi*. u Z J -z piA. Hi ' <n>J J, ' LiAq*l *^^^4-f.m* T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: L13 i n i t i a l s : 3^-[ n j i n i t i a l s : v3 T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: I $ [13 i n i t i a l s : /3 £n] i n i t i a l s : 351 Session No. &l3 LEXICON SHEET N a m S & A g S ° f c h i l d UJOA, (&) Wong father mother c h i l d A / / , 2 jp.nz l a 3 /-» ' //if« r Im y f.xrt y A n 3 j . I A' jP.un •* K k< / .^ p to *GU ' J , J / n / n i ; . ' Total No. of Phonetic Tokens: T J Total No. of Phonetic Types:_/ L I ] i n i t i a l s : ,j<-^ [ 1 ] i n i t i a l s ': /J • [n] i n i t i a l s : £n] i n i t i a l s : 352 Session No. ol S Name & Age of LEXICON SHEET n / \ C h i l d __kJ^_£.Jj&QLL) Wong father mother c h i l d u 3 lak S laA 1 IanM A ' 1 A n J An* 0 J 4 A s P„: 'A* J J J 7 i f , ' £ , Y ' ^ J l ir\IIA. B T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: [.13 i n i t i a l s : S^j-[n} i n i t i a l s : A-S8 T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: c3c$ £13 i n i t i a l s ': / <^  £n] i n i t i a l s : ^ 3 

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