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The acquisition of Cantonese phonology Tse, Sou-Mee 1982

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THE  ACQUISITION OF CANTONESE PHONOLOGY by SOU-MEE T S E  M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of Minnesota,  1975  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  of L i n g u i s t i c s  this thesis  the required  as  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April  ©  conforming  COLUMBIA  1982  Sou-Mee T s e , 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree that  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  understood for  that  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  not  be  Linguistics _  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  April  23,  1982  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  ~ . Department o f  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  written  Abstract This  study  describes  the  acquisition  three  c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g C a n t o n e s e as  Wai,  the  primary  longitudinally other  two  procedures  and  of  its  analysis,  (2) and  the  children's of  the  gross  the  Cantonese.  starting  cross-sectionally  for  ability. the  these  can and  Chinese analytic  a n a l y s i s of uses  Ingram  I present  are  (1)  four  phonetic  r e d u p l i c a t i o n , (3) s u b s t i t u t i o n process  analysis. at  These are  (2)  the  two  (1)  articulation  q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e s of  subjects  analysis  They  of  s e t of  phonological  a n a l y s i s , I look  sounds and  inventory  Cantonese  the  acquisition  The  (4) p h o n o l o g i c a l  Based on  an  observed Ching,  explicit  analyses.  e a r l y sounds a c q u i r e d  such  language.  was  Wing and  point. Altogether,  a n a l y s i s of  phonetic  the  f o r the  c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h , and  segments.  of  p r o p o s e s an  criteria  phonetic  segmental  the  study  phonological  analysis,  study,  observed  studies  acquiring as  In  were  other  phonology, t h i s  kinds  the  native  by  comparison.  Unlike  (1981)  in  f o r a p e r i o d of a y e a r .  subjects,  p u r p o s e of  children  subject  their  of p h o n o l o g y  results,  I s e t up  compared  to those  total  phonetic  analysis  be  the  scores,  the  in Cantonese.  aspects  It to  of an  of  the  number  which  are  ability  of  individual inventory  is those  of  felt  that  of  other  of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g  other  languages. In types  of  the  analysis  of  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  reduplication, I distinguish i n the  subjects'  two  s p e e c h . Type A  forms a r e  l i m i t e d to  type  reduplicated  of  'baabaa' forms  for  are  it  is  reduplication  to  reduplicates  from  reduplicated  English  also  are  separate  the  Fee  reduplication is  to  the  found that  nouns.  the  Ingram,  e a r l y and greatest  m a t c h e s and this,  by  two  of  child.  sounds attempted in  the  the  the  C a n t o n e s e . Based on  sounds of  each s u b j e c t  others.  Moreover,  the  order the  of  Type  findings  that  Type A are  A  from  show  It  forms verbs.  to  i s the  sounds  data  number of  i s the  establish  which the  number  number  of  sounds  substitution  a  the  attempted  possible  compared  of.  quantify  of m a t c h e s and  adult  of  to  extent  these measures, the  also  of  repeating  phonology  of matches  i s e x a m i n e d and I  in  models t o d e t e r m i n e  number of  total  the  the  proportion  over  adult  actually  number  them. In  proportion  who  which  compares  The  the  B  frequent.  proportion  total  Type  both types  analysis  number of  their adult  They a r e  talk  then d e c r e a s e s g r e a t l y .  measures t o c a l c u l a t e  d a t a . The  matches over the  to  baby  simply  1982)  least  m i s m a t c h e s between  occur.  proportion of  words  I adopt  matches  the  for  with  greatest  substitution analysis  child's  the  this  reduplication  is  and  A d j e c t i v e s / a d v e r b s are The  who  r e s u l t s of  second  reduplicated  child  consistent  the  The,  one  of  English.  look  are  occurs  in  i s the  child's  necessary  forms  (e.g.  child  young  m o d e l s . The  reduplicated  for car  the  the  equivalent  i n Cantonese  'kaka'  where  studying  Cantonese,  form  sheep, or cases  m o d e l . In  'baby t a l k ' . The  with  hierarchy  of the of  iv  difficulty As  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  f a r as the tone  results  justify  the  tones occurs w e l l All  segments f o r Wai.  substitutions general  finding  i n advance of the  rule  Cantonese,  that  the  the mastery of  mastery  i t h a s been p r o p o s e d  i s commonly o b s e r v e d  that  when  by a n o t h e r entering  an upper upper tone  (Chao,  even  even  tone  of  segments.  tone  (tone  sandhi  rule,  however,  1947).  (tone  value  a tone  sandhi  rule  states  The  value  5:),  has  that  ( t o n e v a l u e 53:) i s f o l l o w e d  become t h e t o n e v a l u e 55:. The  53:)  the f i r s t  status been  of  or  this  53:.  systematic  in  described study, belong  a b o v e . In t h e s p e e c h  a l l the  Cantonese, products  results  even  Thus my r e s u l t s  Bian-yin  level  upper  Cantonese  of  is  tones produced  tone,  Bian-yin,  similar  indicate  the f i r s t  tone)  commonly  t o t h e upper  that  the  of tone  t h e r e i s no sandhi  rule  by t h e s u b j e c t s  i s no i n c i d e n c e  of  53:  s u p p o r t t h o s e o f J.K. T s e .  (changed  it  J.K.Tse  data of the s u b j e c t s of t h i s  t o t h e t o n e v a l u e 55:. T h e r e  variant.  similar  the  will  of tone development  From t h e s e d a t a , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t  evidence to support  high  Cantonese  s o n f o r 30 months, and f o u n d no i n s t a n c e s o f  value  a  syllable  challenged  ( 1 9 7 8 ) . He l o o k e d a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  to  concerned,  t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d made few e r r o r s . In  his  are  agreed  (1)  rising to most  is  a  that  (35:), upper  examined. there  high r i s i n g  tone the  also  are  (2)  tone  they a l l appear  a  high  ( 5 5 : ) . The  of the cases of B i a n - y i n  c a t e g o r y and t h a t  two  tone, which i s  and  even  In  belong  i n nouns.  Phonological child's child this  processes  substitutions.  are  They  are  uses to s i m p l i f y a d u l t study  show t h a t  all  the  subjects,  the  subjects  suggests speaking In the  and  have  that  there  natural  target  are  others  the  generalisations  that  process  are of  not.  addition  to  looking  this  at  the  Cheung  (1972). For  example, t h e  a  /p/  i n the  l o a n - w o r d , and  loan-word  f o r m i n g a new [npm pa ]  f o r the  syllable.  Although small  S.M.  Cantonese-  the  The English Cantonese  of  the  words  errors by  a second  the  becomes added  with  a  phrases occupied  to  /s/, are  only  i n Wai's s p e e c h ,  results  she  indicate  look  used.  Based  that  Wai's  very  the  are  Cantonese a d u l t s  who  a  I  i n E n g l i s h consonants are  similar learning  language.  Cantonese  is easier  given  i n Wai's s p e e c h  phrases that  s t u d y a l s o compares t h e and  rules  'juice'.  and  vocabulary  (1978),  made  E n g l i s h as  4  E n g l i s h words and  Tse  those  [tsu'si ]  loan-  i s often  ends  by  English  E n g l i s h /\/  a vowel / i /  Some l o a n - w o r d s  English  part  pronunciation to  This  produced  f i t the  E n g l i s h word t h a t  'number', and  2  on  by  vowels.  s t u d y a l s o e x a m i n e s the  H.N.  all  shared  example, a l l  Cantonese  by  at  of  children.  loan-words  very  the  results  are  For  tensing  words i n Wai's s p e e c h . Her  1  that  i t i s a common p r o c e s s among t h e  subjects,  the  the  tendencies  s o u n d s . The  processes  about  and  to acquire  phonological  argues than  that that  the of  systems  of  phonology  of  English.  Two  vi  reasons are the  more  the  put  f o r t h to  complex  assistance  Cantonese.  s t u d y and  The  results  the  phonology  investigators. the  dialect the  / l /  / l /  /n/  and  differences First  of  sessions went  period  the  adult  the  in  all,  [n]  the  [1]  through  /n/  show t h a t  Wai  considered  the  of  influence  by  other  The  initials, by  dialect  to  from age [ 1 ] and  The  that  I examined  see  required how  these  production.  throughout a l l  During  for  the  father's  this  d e v e l o p m e n t . The  for  time, first  nasalization,  second p e r i o d  lateralization,  2; 1(24) [n]  in  while  /1/s.  varied  a preference 2;0(27).  of  emphasized  s y l l a b l e s that  of  the  child.  initials.  preference  approximately  performed  the  /n/  free  periods by  in  s p e e c h on  replaced  [n]  to  extended  of  language a f f e c t e d her  and  1;7(14) the  /n/s  and  the  (1981).  analysis  syllables.  and  father's  two  Ingram  Wai's p a r e n t s d i f f e r s  in i n i t i a l  input  of  subjects  subjects  the  parents'  initial  both /!/  f o r both / l /  by  the  a l l the  i n the  characterized  b a s e d on  consideration  s p e e c h of  [ 1 ] and  from  Cantonese  s e l d o m been  /n/  results  of  models.  The and  (2)  acquisition  the  Cantonese  has  is characterized  lasting  the  (1)  c o n s o n a n t s and  the  compare  that  mother has of  Wai  to  distinguishes  Wai's use  in  t h i s s t u d y moves from  is a topic  of  a r g u m e n t . They a r e  English  subjects  d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of  This  of  the  the  system  I  that  i n matching  child's  tonal  English  show  Finally,  use  the  i n the  of matches between  this  the  system  Moreover,  proportions  better  of  support  to  and be  up.  These  is and  data  a l l o p h o n e s of  a  vii  s i n g l e phoneme. A t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y , h o w e v e r , was  on t h e v e r g e o f a d o p t i n g t h e r a m o t h e r ' s d i a l e c t .  Wai  vi i i  Acknowledgement It  would  e v e r y o n e who By  f a r the  Ingram.  of  has  am  influential  has  encouragement  given  the  person  John  be  seen  Pulleyblank, British  has  Pat  Columbia  for their  kind  to  thank  for their  Professor  suggestions  in  proofreading the  one  my  Mr.  Tse,  Mr.  Mrs.  the  Finally Cheuk-Kit years  greatest  and  Shaw of help  and  to  my  Professor  Professor  the  E.G.  University  of  understanding,  and  for  and  I also  his  Mr.  Tom  wish  invaluable Trueman  I have been  for their Kong, Mr.  Hok-Ling Tse,  Chow, Mr.  Chuck  Mah,  Leung's  family,  and  to  t o whom t h i s  of  indebted  s u b j e c t s , Wai,  wish  support  also  Mrs.  the  three I  Tse,  Ingram,  ways: M i s s E v e l y n  Peter  W o l f , members o f least,  His  for  thesis.  f o l l o w i n g I am  and  f o r which I  appreciation  Kinkade,  chapters,  and  thesis.  Benguerel  of my  David  gratitude.  invaluable c r i t i c i s m .  A.P.  assistance' in various Hong-Lin  studies,  David  Dale  Professor  particular  To  Professor  thesis.  attention  profound  the  this  been P r o f e s s o r  g r a t i t u d e and  and  in  Tse,  throughout  acknowledge  w r i t i n g of  graduate  committee: P r o f e s s o r  Gilbert,  to  thoughtful  my  w i s h t o e x p r e s s my  supervisory  the  to  u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s a d e q u a t e l y my  I  the  impossible  me  throughout  i n f l u e n c e can  de  be  contributed  most  He  course  thank  thesis is  in school,  e v e r y .means.  and  Mrs.  Miss C h r i s t i n a  C h i n g and  my  greatest  parents,  Mrs last  Gaelan but  not  And  Mrs.  For  all  Wing. Mr.  dedicated.  t h e y have o f f e r e d me  the  ix  Glossary /C'/  - i n d i c a t e s an a s p i r a t e d aspirated  N/  of n o t a t i o n s  voiceless  -indicates that  a  i s only  Type  -indicates production used  in  forms,  however,  different,  e.g.  reduplicated regular  ®  form  similar  the  similar  of  ®[pa pa ] u  form  syllable(s).  For  an  form'.  i.e. a  form.  correct  I t i s mostly  kinship  terms.  indicated  resulting even  resulting  t o t h e upper  the  has  For  by  syllables This  undergone the  tone  (tone  a  high  kind  tone  of  of the  is  Bian-yin level  tone  1).  undergone the  tone  are  0.  is  has  In t h e s e  t o be a v a r i a n t  tone  rising  form.  'father'.  1  i s considered  t o t h e upper  The  of  tones  - i n d i c a t e s a s y l l a b l e that process.  i . e the  a Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  Type B form  The  is  1  'mother'.  - i n d i c a t e s a s y l l a b l e that process.  *  form  form,  form,  reduplicated  address  indicates  /p /  'to w a l k , r e d u p l i c a t e d  of an a d u l t  1  -also  e.g.  'baby-talk'  a Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  the  study  stop.  A reduplicated  l i m i t e d to  example, Ofma'ma ]  ®  i n the  consonant,  bilabial  example, \ / [ h a i " h a i * ]  O  used  a high  (tone  2).  Bian-yin  rising  tone  X  (  )  -parentheses underlying  with tone  of  an  enclosed the s y l l a b l e  tone  indicate  b e f o r e the  the  Bian-yin  process.  4  xi  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  vii i  GLOSSARY OF NOTATIONS  ix  L I S T OF TABLES  xv  L I S T OF FIGURES Chapter  xviii  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  and O v e r v i e w  of the A c q u i s i t i o n  of.  Chinese  1  1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  1.2.  Previous  Studies  on C h i n e s e Language A c q u i s i t i o n :  An O v e r v i e w Chapter  4  2. An O u t l i n e  of Cantonese  Phonology  2.1. G e n e r a l B a c k g r o u n d 2.2. An O u t l i n e  of Cantonese  27 27  Phonology  29  2.2.1. S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e  29  2.2.2. D e s c r i p t i o n  30  Chapter  3. M e t h o d o l o g y :  Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s  47  3.1. The S u b j e c t s  47  3.1.1. Wai  47  3 . 1".2. C h i n g  53  3.1.3. Wing  54  3.2. T r a n s c r i p t i o n  55  3.2.1. P r o c e d u r e  55  3.2.2. I n t e r j u d g e 3.3. D a t a A n a l y s i s  Reliability  56 59  xii  3.3.1. The M o n o s y l l a b l e s  or Z i  as  the  Basic  Unit  of  Analysis  61  3.3.2. G l o s s a r y  o f Some F u n d a m e n t a l Terms  62  3.4. P h o n e t i c  Analysis  63  3.5. A n a l y s i s  of R e d u p l i c a t i o n  76  3.6. S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s  81  3.7. P h o n o l o g i c a l  88  Process Analysis  3.7. Samples A n a l y s e d Chapter  93  4. The A c q u i s i t i o n o f C a n t o n e s e by Wai, C h i n g , and  Wing  96  4.1. P h o n e t i c 4.2. R e s u l t s  Stability  96  of the P h o n e t i c  4.2.1. M e a s u r e s o f P h o n e t i c  Analysis  99  Development  100  4.2.2. The A n a l y s i s  o f I n d i v i d u a l Segments  4.2.3. An I n v e n t o r y  of  the  Early  Sounds  103 Acquired  in  Cantonese  115  4.3. R e s u l t s  of the R e d u p l i c a t i o n  4.4. R e s u l t s  from S u b s t i t u t i o n A n a l y s i s  4.4.1.  Proportion  The  Analysis  115 120  o f M a t c h e s and t h e P r o p o r t i o n  of  Data  120  4.4.2. The P r o p o r t i o n  o f M a t c h e s f o r I n d i v i d u a l Segments 124  4.4.3. Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n 4.4.4. The  Acquisition  133 of  the  Tone  Sandhi  Rule  Cantonese  139  4.4.5. B i a n - y i n 4.5. R e s u l t s  in  (changed Tone)  from t h e P h o n o l o g i c a l  142 Process A n a l y s i s  .... 143  xi i i  4.6. The A n a l y s i s 4.7.  English  o f Homonymy  Loan-words  148  i n Wai's S p e e c h  4.8. E n g l i s h Words and P h r a s e s Used 4.9.  Is  5.1.  to Acquire  .... 156 than  Phonology?  5. The I n f l u e n c e  Parents'  i n Wai's Speech  the Cantonese Phonology E a s i e r  the E n g l i s h Chapter  154  160  of the D i f f e r e n t  Dialects  of  the  S p e e c h On The C h i l d  173  Introduction  173  5.2. / I / And / n / i n C a n t o n e s e 5.3.  The  Child's  Dialectal  Difference  in  Influence  of  the  of the C h i l d  6. C o n c l u s i o n  6.1. C o m p a r i s o n  of Cantonese  6.3. C o n c l u d i n g Remark  APPENDIX  Parents  on  the 179 188 192  of S u b j e c t s  6.2. The A c q u i s i t i o n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Speech o f t h e 176  5.4.1. The Two P e r i o d s o f Development Chapter  the  Parents  5.4. The D i a l e c t a l Speech  175  192 194 197 I99  1  209  APPENDIX 2  320  APPENDIX 3  329  APPENDIX 4  331  APPENDIX 5  333  APPENDIX 6  335  APPENDIX 7  336  APPENDIX 8  339  xiv  L I S T OF TABLES  Table Table  1 - Available  M a t e r i a l on t h e A c q u i s i t i o n  2 - Available  of Chinese  M a t e r i a l on t h e A c q u i s i t i o n  23  of Chinese  Phonology  .  24  Table  3 - Initial  Consonants of Cantonese  Table  4a - F i n a l s  of Cantonese: A P h o n e t i c  Table  4b - F i n a l s  o f C a n t o n e s e : A Phonemic D e s c r i p t i o n .... 35  Table  5 - The C a n t o n e s e Tone System  Table  6 - The C a n t o n e s e Tone System w i t h  Table  7 - Dates,  Produced Table  8  -  Results  Table  D e s c r i p t i o n .... 35  40  Number  Examples  of  Child  41 Utterances  Sessions  of I n t e r j u d g e  51  Reliablity  Test  between  1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2  57  9 - R e s u l t s of I n t e r j u d g e R e l i a b i l i t y  Transcriber and  and  by Wai f o r T w e n t y - f i v e  Transcriber Table  Ages,  31  1 and T r a n s c r i b e r 2, and  Test  B)  between A)  Transcriber  2  Transcriber 3  60  10 - Some Common P h o n o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s e s  Found  i n the  S p e e c h o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Young C h i l d r e n Table  11 - Names, Ages,  Subjects Table  and  Sample  Sizes  89 of  the  Three  Studied  97  12 - The Index o f P h o n e t i c  Stability  f o r the Sessions  f o r Wai, Wing and C h i n g Table  13 - The T o t a l  Number o f Sounds  98 f o r Wai a t 6 S e s s i o n s 101  Table  14 - T o t a l  Number o f Sounds f o r C h i n g  and Wing  102  Table  15 - A r t i c u l a t i o n  Scores  f o r Wai a t 6 S e s s i o n s  104  Table  16 - A r t i c u l a t i o n  Scores  f o r Ching  105  Table  17  -  The O c c u r r e n c e  Consonants Table  18  -  Syllabic Table  The  Occurrence  Consonants  those  Table'-  20  of C a n t o n e s e  of  Cantonese  -  -  Syllabics Table  and  o f Wai's Segments  107  into  those  'acquired'  'not A c q u i r e d '  Consonants 22  Vocalics  i n Wai's S e s s i o n s  A Hierarchy  21 - The P h o n e t i c  Table  and F i n a l 106  108  of t h e F r e q u e n c y  Sounds f o r Wai i n Terms o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Table  Initial  i n Wai's S e s s i o n s  19 - D i v i s i o n  and  and Wing  23 - Summary  111 and  Final  and Wing  Phonetic  f o r Ching  of  Scores  Inventories for I n i t i a l  f o r Ching The  of Occurrence  113  Inventories  f o r V o c a l i c s and  and Wing  114  o f Segments A c q u i r e d  by Wai,  Ching  and  Wing Table  116 24  -  Proportion  Reduplications  for  and Wai  Number  at  6  ( i n Parentheses)  Sessions  for  of  Selected  Measures of R e d u p l i c a t i o n Table  25  -  Proportion  Reduplications of Table  and  f o r Ching  Number  and Wing  ( i n Parentheses) for Selected  of  Measures  Reduplication  118  26 - P r o p o r t i o n o f M a t c h e s and P r o p o r t i o n o f D a t a f o r  Initial  and F i n a l  Consonants Table  117  C o n s o n a n t s , and V o c a l i c s a n d S y l l a b i c  f o r Wai A c r o s s  Six Sessions  27 - P r o p o r t i o n s o f M a t c h e s and D a t a  Final  Consonants,  121 for Initial  and V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  and  Consonants  xvi  f o r Ching and Wing  122  Table 28 - The Matches, S u b s t i t u t i o n s ,  and  Proportion  of  Matches f o r Each Sound Segment f o r Wai a c r o s s 6 S e s s i o n s 1 25 Table  29  -  A  Hierarchy  of  Difficulty  for  Consonants, F i n a l Consonants, and V o c a l i c s and  Initial Syllabic  Consonants f o r Wai  128  Table 30 - Matches, S u b s t i t u t i o n s , and I n s t a n c e s of No Data for  Cantonese  Initial  Consonants,  Final  Consonants,  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants f o r Ching and Wing Table 31 - The Main  Substitutions  Made  by  the  ....130  Subjects  throughout a l l the S e s s i o n s Table  32  -  The  Proportion  131 of Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the  Subjects Studied  134  T a b l e 33 - Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r the Nine Cantonese i n N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d and R e d u p l i c a t e d Forms  for  Tones, Wai  at  S i x S e s s i o n s and Ching and Wing Table  34  -  Phonological  136  P r o c e s s e s , t h e i r P r o p o r t i o n s of  Occurrence and Scores i n Terms of L e v e l of Frequency f o r Wai's Six Sessions  144  Table 35 - P h o n o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s e s ,  and  their  Frequencies  f o r Ching and Wing i n terms of P r o p o r t i o n s of Occurrence and L e v e l Table  36  -  146 The  Proportions  Cantonese-speaking T a b l e 37 - The  of Homonymous Forms f o r the  Subjects  Proportions  English-speaking Subjects  of  152 Homonymous  Forms  for  10 153  xvi i  Table  38  -  English  throughout  Loan-words  Table  40 - Some Common  Table  in  Used  i n Wai's  Substitution  Initials  in  41 - A D i s p l a y o f t h e with  Initial,medial,  Errors  S.M.  Speech Made  T s e ' s Study  I,  M,  Major  157  by  the  (1978) and  and  and F i n a l  158  Consonants F  Syllable  42 - A D i s p l a y o f t h e C o n s o n a n t s  with  Speech  English Pronunciation Errors  along  Table  Wai's  155  39 - E n g l i s h W o r d s / P h r a s e s  Wai's  in  t h e 25 S e s s i o n s  Table  Subjects  Used  Rows  in to  English Indicate  Positions in  I,and F Rows t o I n d i c a t e I n i t i a l  162  Cantonese  and F i n a l  along  Syllable  Positions Table  43  Children Table for Table  of  -  Proportion  of  Matches  f o r 12 E n g l i s h Normal  f o r Consonants  166  44 - P r o p o r t i o n o f M a t c h e s Initial  and F i n a l  f o r the Cantonese  Consonants  Subjects  ,  167  45 - The P r o p o r t i o n o f t h e O c c u r r e n c e s o f C l l a n d [ n j  Initials Table  163  f o r t h e Combined  / ! / and / n / I n i t i a l  46 - The Use o f f l j a n d U n J i n Wai's the Father's D i a l e c t  Speech  Syllables in  182  Words  that a r e /!/ or /n/ I n i t i a l s  ...186  xvi i i  L I S T OF  Figure  1  -  The  Proportion  FIGURES  o f O c c u r r e n c e o f t l ] and L n ]  Initials Figure  183  2 - The P r o p o r t i o n  Words  of  the D i a l e c t  o f O c c u r r e n c e o f [ 1 ] and of the F a t h e r t h a t  Initials  are / l /  [n}  in  or / n / 187  /  1  CHAPTER INTRODUCTION AND  1.1.  THE  ACQUISITION OF  CHINESE  INTRODUCTION In  must  the  process  acquire  (phonetic  respect  of  individual  are  1980).  phonemes of  function  as  contrastive  i t is  (c.f.  in  common than  their  Ingram, the  phonemes.  knowledge  that  to  presents  although  patterns  phonological  rules  the  hundred y e a r s ,  Veach  and  acquire  the  difficulties  child  must  (e.g. permissable  (e.g.  with  sound c l a s s e s  the  phonotactic  or With  difficulties  different  Lastly,  sounds  ability).  others,  needs  that  child  elements  Christensen,  child  selects  the  articulate  (phonemic  language, a task  its  the  t y p e s ) and  vary  language  to  difficult  Also,  the  each  acquire  more  sounds  the  language  ability,  acquisition,  both  t o use  that  children  specific Webster,  ability  and  to phonetic  sounds  since  of p h o n o l o g i c a l  the  ability)  'phonemes'  some  OVERVIEW OF  1.  tone  to  also  syllable  s a n d h i ) . of  the  language. Over varying  last  one  m e t h o d o l o g i e s and  conducted  to  these  goals.  some  of  acquiring  the  determine From t h e s e major  a p p r o a c h e s t o a n a l y s i s have how  includes  studies  by  Moskowitz  (1970),  Menn  children  s t u d i e s , we  patterns  a phonological  numerous s t u d i e s  accomplish  have come t o  children  Jakobson (1971),  (1941), Waterson  been  both  of  understand  demonstrate  s y s t e m . Some i m p o r t a n t  of  recent  Stampe (1971),  in work  (1969), Smith  2  (1973),  Ingram  (1974),  Ferguson  and F a r w e l l  Kiparsky and Menn (1977). Most of these have  been  on  (1975), and  studies,  how E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  however,  children  acquire  phonology. To e s t a b l i s h a theory of development, it  i s necessary  however,  t o broaden one's scope beyond  that of a  s i n g l e language. To quote Bowerman (I973,p.l), the dominant q u e s t i o n i n t h i s area i s as f o l l o w s : "Are there of  language  acquisition  c h i l d r e n acquire  i.e. similarities  language  regardless  universals  i n the way a l l  of the p a r t i c u l a r  language t o which they are exposed?". Toward t h i s end, some studies  on  acquiring  a  the a c q u i s i t i o n first  language  of language other  than  by c h i l d r e n English  have  appeared, notably Somoan (Kernan,1969), Luo (Blount, 1969), Mandarin  (Clumeck,1977),  Thai  o t h e r s . (See Slobin,l973 f o r an languages that have been The  (Tuaycharoen, extensive  study  of  the  present study i s an attempt t o provide a d e t a i l e d  t e n years, there has been of how c h i l d r e n  research,  record  studied).  study on the a c q u i s i t i o n of Cantonese last  1977) and  however,  phonology.  For  increasing interest  acquire  has focussed  Chinese.  Most  the  i n the  of the  on the a c q u i s i t i o n of  Mandarin. Regarding Cantonese phonology, the only p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s are those on the a c q u i s i t i o n of tones (1978) and L i g h t a n a l y s i s of data acquiring  (1977). collected  Cantonese  by  J.K.Tse  The present study i n v o l v e s the longitudinally  as her n a t i v e  from  a  child  language. The c h i l d ,  'Wai', was seen once every two weeks f o r a  period  of  one  3  year  in  her  home  in  V a n c o u v e r , Canada. F o r p u r p o s e s  comparison,  some c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  collected  from  'Ching'  as  follows: Section  China  and  i n North  placed  on t h e e a r l y  also  children,  language,  first  roughly data  of Chinese  from  in  terms  of  3 deals with  divided  into  analysis.  general  the f i r s t  the study  analyses,  based  and  Cantonese  is  modifications  the of  which  Ingram  the  phonology.  home  and  (1981).  language Ingram's  part  of  data  are  Chapter  3  analysed.  phonological  T h e s e a r e (1) p h o n e t i c (3)  process  being  substitution  analysis.  Since  investigated,  procedures have been  the r e s u l t s  environment  i s spent d i s c u s s i n g  four k i n d s of  phonological  4 presents  of the  p a r t , the language  of r e d u p l i c a t i o n ,  made and some o t h e r a n a l y s e s Chapter  second  deals with  on  (4)  The  in  (2) a n a l y s i s  analysis,  this  subject.  Basically,  analysis,  of  way  features  of  two p a r t s : (1) d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and  section  the  in  overview  of C a n t o n e s e  is  discusses  done m a i n l y  general  and t h e i r  'Wai', t h e main  1 reviews the  the methodology of the study  Regarding  Most  will  d e v e l o p m e n t , up t o  background of s u b j e c t s ' parents described.  data  1759 t o 1980. Emphasis i s  2 presents a  f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e  Chapter  these  p e r i o d of l i n g u i s t i c  of age. Chapter  Cantonese,  (2)  America  of  1.2. o f C h a p t e r  s t u d i e s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  3 years  were  Cantonese-speaking  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a n a l y s i s  proceed  is  other  samples  and 'Wing'.  The  major  two  speech  of  of  some  and forms have been added. each  analysis  in  4  detail.  When  children  are  children,  end  sandhi  to  a  the  from  English-speaking As  expected,  Cantonese phonology of E n g l i s h . The  the  is  much  chapter  will  a c q u i s i t i o n of  t o n e , and  course  of  the  of  The  by  /n/  the  study, i n the  while  /1/s.  that  This  great  deal  with  it  chapter  syllables  discussed. summary o f  might  be  of d i f f i c u l t y lead The the  PREVIOUS  use  of  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the As  to  the  tone  influence  that  c h i l d ' s language. that  the  / I / and  the  the  mother has  looks  a t Wai's various  input  language  f o r Wai,  this and  interesting Chapter  In  speech  /n/  of  initial  distinguishes both./I/  across  conclusion,  the c h i l d ' s  noted  of  expected,  some  important  on  i t was  father's dialect  initial  production.  analysis of . the  d i a l e c t s has  differs  initials,  replaced  from  consideration  parental  syllables.  1.2.  that  Cantonese-speaking  (1981).  than t h a t  5 moves  Wai's p a r e n t s  how  the  rules.  different  and  of  results  Ingram  a d i s c u s s i o n of  phonology  /n/  on  acquire  Chapter  the  to  shows c l e a r l y  to  with  compared based  comparison easier  possible, analyses  and  a l l the use  /n/s  of /  sessions  l  to  see  affected  her  s i t u a t i o n created  her  attempts  strategies 6,  will  to  /  a  deal  that  are  contain  a  CHINESE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION;  AN  findings.  STUDIES ON  OVERVIEW As growing  stated  in Section  interest  among  1.1.,  there  linguists,  has  recently  been  psychologists,  a and  5  educators  i n t h e s t u d y o f how c h i l d r e n  literature from  a  i s by now q u i t e  linguistic  section  rich,  point  of  g i v e s an o v e r v i e w  Chinese,  most  of  them  a c q u i r e C h i n e s e . The  although view,  of  is  studies  being  i t s treatment, fairly  of  new.  This  acquisition  of  done i n C h i n a and i n N o r t h  America. 1n  China,  children (>1  the  acquire  In  Studies  of  language  is  h i s book, e n t i t l e d Phonology),  discussion  of  (1) J i a n g why  young  during  the early  space  fused  cannot  philosophical  view  meaningful  development.  to  a  regarding utterances  The  f  (  and m e t a l  i n t h e southwest  reasons  ) ' and ' t h e  have  not y e t  together' (  i n that  consonants  use o f m e t a p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s  heart',  'fire  linguists  order  /m,t,k,ts/  order.  Jiang's  the  chapter  by t h e young c h i l d . Kim  produce  the tongue'  and m e t a l  s u c h a s ' a i r from  i n t h e southwest'  ( e . g . Wang,1934)  whole c h a p t e r o f t h e book of  century  up t h e c h a p t e r a s f o l l o w s :  stage of speech  fire  were d e s c r i b e d  Chinese  Yong  (^4|]|^&.  Y i n Xue B i a n Wei one  how  Jiang  of the seventeenth  (2) The emergence o f t h e i n i t i a l  the  by  of  'the a i r from t h e h e a r t has not y e t f i l l e d t h e  beneath  elements  reported  produced  summed  literature  devotes  gave o u t h i s  babies  were b e c a u s e  he  t h e sounds  (1977) h a s r e c e n t l y  been  recorded  1681-1762) i n t h e m i d d l e  ( 1759).  two  first  to  h a s l e d some  conclude  that  the  i s valueless. Jiang's observation  o f emergence o f t h e f o u r  initial  consonants  6  / m , t , k , t s / , however, Jiang's  claim  should  deserve  o f o r d e r i n g was  p r e d i c t e d by J a k o b s o n  some  very s i m i l a r  (1941) and  reported  credit,  since  to those  later  by  Ervin-Tripp  (1966). The  modern  study  of  child  language,  r e c o r d i n g of o b s e r v a t i o n s , b e g i n s around  with  the middle  exact of  the  2 0 t h c e n t u r y . Some o f t h e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o b s e r v o r s Kuo  ( 1 9 3 7 ) , Chen ( 1 9 4 7 ) , and Chao ( 1 9 3 5 , 1 9 5 1 ) .  i n a B.A.  graduation essay e n t i t l e d  development  of  Chinese  d e v e l o p m e n t of l a n g u a g e  children,  in light  c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . H.C. to  c h i l d r e n ' s language  study discussed  (1947)  publish  a  learning  . Chen has  in  great  developments and  s c h o o l of the  the  been c o n s i d e r e d  one  the  psychological  of h i s son  f r o m t h e age  first of  history  r e s e a r c h i n C h i n a . I n h i s s t u d y , he  detail  of  observation  o f t h e most famous c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n psychological  language stages  was  day-to-day  (1937),  of  of the P i a g e t i a n  Chen  2  psychologist  A  Kuo  are  and  of  observed  linguistic  of 99 d a y s t o 2 y e a r s  5 months. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the c o n t e n t  somewhat  similar  to  that  of  of  Nice's  Chen's study  d i s c u s s e s t h e s i z e o f t h e c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y and over  t i m e , and  classifies different  the  c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s , such as s t a t e m e n t ,  on. F o r e x a m p l e , i n recorded  a  t h a t h i s son  time  span  (age 2;5)  c o n t a i n e d 2368 w o r d s . The  average  t y p e s of  of  is  (1925).  He  i t s growth  sentences  in  q u e s t i o n and  eight  s p o k e 922  study  so  hours,  Chen  utterances  which  l e n g t h of each  utterance  7  was  2.6  words.  In  addition,  f r i c a t i v e s such as / s / and group still  Chen a l s o p o i n t e d out that  /&/  were  the  most  difficult  of sounds f o r young c h i l d r e n to a c q u i r e . H i s son having d i f f i c u l t y with the f r i c a t i v e s at the  age  was of  2; 4. Chen  concluded  that  it  takes  Chinese than to a c q u i r e E n g l i s h based  this  on  (as Chen c l a i m e d ) , and  the c h i l d takes l e s s  language  further  Whether  his  belief  a  polysyllabic  language  like  h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d or not needs  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . O v e r a l l , however, a c c o r d i n g to  (1951),  He  ' e f f o r t ' to l e a r n a monosyllabic  l i k e Chinese than  English.  (Y.X. Zhang,1968 p.23).  the f a c t that there are more f r i c a t i v e s i n  E n g l i s h than i n Chinese that  l e s s time to a c q u i r e  most  of  the  claims  in  p s y c h o l o g i c a l rather than l i n g u i s t i c  Chen's  Chao  study  (Chao,1951,  are  footnote  1). Y.R.  Chao  is  one  of  the few l i n g u i s t s who  devoted  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the study of c h i l d language before the middle of the c e n t u r y . H i s study i n 1935 e n t i t l e d Xinq B i a n - T a i Three  Yu-Yin San L i e ( Q  examples  of  the  <Jf.  %  dialectal  p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) i s perhaps one of the the  description  of  the  Fang-Yan-  nature  % of  earliest  =- fa'J abnormal  studies  in  c h i l d ' s language. In t h i s study,  Chao has recorded the phonologies  of  three  'non-standard  d i a l e c t s ' , two of which are young c h i l d r e n ' s speech. At the time  of r e c o r d i n g , the two c h i l d r e n were 2 1/2  of age. Both were l e a r n i n g the  Peiping  dialect  and 4 years as  their  8  native  language.  the a d u l t ,  and  Chao  noted that  some o f t h e a d u l t first  child,  replaced child,  compared  adult  except  i . e . /p'/,  ones,  Chao's most  cited  idiolect:  an a n a l y s i s  granddaughter  or  study  at  in  the  i n 1951  the  A l t h o u g h b o r n and  Mandarin  with E n g l i s h , Chinese  were r e p l a c e d  study  entitled  study i s a d e s c r i p t i o n 'Canta'  speech  age  the  by a  28  as w e l l  of  resulted  She  from  had  article,  mentioning. F i r s t ,  structural  studies  than  had  Mandarin  English  do  and  in  English  the  the  words i n into  her  bilingual  (p. 1 1 6) ..  Chao's  rather  Three  some c o n t a c t  phonological  speakers around her'  month  Mandarin.  'a form of  i n a few  s y s t e m much more  28  grammar  standard  by Chao as  as b o r r o w i n g s  child  months.  own  synchronic  their  The C a n t i a n  s p e e c h , b u t , as Chao c l a i m e d , 'she a d o p t s them  a  by  of  her  worth  adult  i n America, Canta  making'(p.116).  she h e a r d . T h i s  Regarding  second  o f t h e s p e e c h of h i s of  reared  speakers  i s considered in  the  the were  stop, a l l the  o f t h e C h i n e s e spoken  s u r r o u n d e d m a i n l y by  Canta's  /t'/  series  of  of language a r e l o o k e d a t : phonology,  vocabulary. been  velar  article  is his classic  This  /t^/  In t h e s p e e c h  and  replaced  i n the speech of the  of  i . e . / p / and / t / .  language  child.  of  f o r the a s p i r a t e d  stops,  non-aspirated  aspects  words  speech with that  systematically  F o r example,  by t h e / t s / s e r i e s .  aspirated  old  children  sounds.  the  their  two  as s t a t e d  than  of c h i l d  a  characteristics  by Chao h i m s e l f ,  diachronic  phonology  are  this is  study.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  Most are  9  diachronic, other he  covering a considerable  hand, Chao's a r t i c l e gives  a  full  phonology d u r i n g mentions  is  a  a particular  by  child  language  or  following  i s , the  phonemic system.  a  of  highly  a  investigators  in  the  Chao's r e f e r e n c e  loss for  of the  1968,  H.L.  the  years  of age.  syntax,  as  at  a  given  assumption  and  50's,  as  article study  of  claim  the  child system.  time  is  from the held  and  spoken by  i n 1951,  there  study  the  of  I t i s not  published  L i of  syntax  fact,  Jakobson's  independent  Chinese  i n the  15 y e a r s .  articles  of  own,  40's  t o the  interest  thesis  seldom  a  adult  by  most  i s manifested  in  h i s .grandchild  as  idiolect'.  that  M.A.  In  synchronic  i n f l u e n c e d by  general  Chao's s t u d y  next  child's  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , Chao's the  the  which  He  d e v e l o p m e n t c o n s i s t s of  its  was  After  the  stages.  Slobin  p h o n o l o g y of a c h i l d  system  Cantian  in  s y s t e m of c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n h i s own  This  'the  of  On  (p.14).  (1941) t h a t p h o n o l o g i c a l  That  study  analysis  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  S e c o n d , Chao was  constructing  time.  one-month p e r i o d .  F e r g u s o n and  'brilliant'  synchronic  structural  preceding  commented on  is a  p e r i o d of  in  the U n i v e r s i t y  (written  acquisition  until  the  area  of  seems t o have been a  the  end  are  Malaya  well  Cantonese c h i l d .  first  as ; t h e Before,  first  a l l the  complete study  The  the  60's  again.  1;6  study  on  her  to  attempted  dealt  In  development  from  ever  studies  Chinese  completed  in English) entitled  i s the  of  found  of a C a n t o n e s e - s p e a k i n g c h i l d This  of  with  2;6  child on  a  the  10  acquisition  of  Mandarin,  rather  t h a n any o t h e r  particular  dialect. In t h i s of  study, L i observed  her p r e c o c i o u s l i t t l e  1;6 t o 2 ; 6 ) . The s p e e c h following  f i v e main  pattern,  topic-comment  interrogative use  of  the  combinations  divided  into  Ha's  observer  was at  a  place  time  over  in  a  table  study  typically  of  started  the  first  phonetic period  time,  of  this  age,  study  two  t o f o u r y e a r s o f a g e . In C h i n e s e , study  (1968),  c a n be  which  the  child's  w i t h o u t any  English,  birth  the  t o two  as  mentioned  study  two study years  (1973) o f h i s son 'Ahmal' Chen's  a  by a p a r e n t  type a r e Leopold's  of  Smith's  on  of  and l a r g e  i s one i n  usually  o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . In  studies  of C h i n e s e studies,  notations  of  acquisition  i s observed  ' H i l d e g a r d ' from  Li's  stage,-  1 ; 4 ) . The t i m e o f  the  (1947) o f h i s d a u g h t e r and  Li  when  (around  the  analysis  discussed.  a few c h i l d r e n )  makes  detailed  pattern,  c l a u s e s . In a d d i t i o n ,  t y p e s , namely, d i a r y  (or  time  sentence  was n o t r e g u l a r .  two  who  utterances  and  simple  imperative  research i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  child  ( from  was a l s o a n a l y s e d . A t e a c h  speech  studies. A diary  specific  patterns:  t h e r e s e a r c h b e i n g done most  single  'May Ha' f o r a y e a r  construction,  of words t o o k  English,  most  syntactic  structures  data c o l l e c t i n g  sample  development  a n a l y s i s was g i v e n and a d i a c h r o n i c  May  Like  syntactic  d a t a were a n a l y s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  particles  different  recording  sister  p a t t e r n and j o i n e d  final  synchronic  the  from  (1947)  above,  are  11  representatives on  how  from  children  large  across  this  a c q u i r e languages  different  so t h a t  age  from  ranges.  w i t h how i n d i v i d u a l  1967 t o 1975, i n C h i n a ,  comprehensive  over  large These  several  numbers o f c h i l d r e n are  structure  for selected  not  language,  age  levels.  a l l t h e s t u d i e s b e i n g done i n  a r e a , with t h e e x c e p t i o n of L i ' s study,  Some  data  y e a r s come  studies  children  the r e s u l t s q u a n t i f y data  in M a l a y s i a , belong  Yang  t y p e . The most  samples o f s p e e c h  concerned  From  of t h i s  t o the type of  m a j o r ones a r e L i n ( 1 9 6 7 ) ,  large  w h i c h was done  sample  Chu ( 1 9 6 9 ) ,  studies.  Yang, X i a o a n d  (1974) and Zhang a n d Q i u ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Generally  speaking,  these  are  heavily  o f M c C a r t h y ' s book  Language  influenced  by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s  development  of the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d  book C e r t a i n and  language  skills  interrelationship  characterized language  by t h e i r  variables  on l a r g e  Xiao  elicited from  3;6  pictures. samples  There  samples '9;5 were  ones were  of  their  The C h i n e s e to  gather  Templin's  development studies  are  information  i t s interrelationships  on with  studies  is  the  study  by  ( 1 9 7 4 ) ( i n C h i n e s e ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s from  273 c h i l d r e n  y e a r s , by s h o w i n g  , ranging  them f l a s h  135 boys a n d 138 g i r l s .  were a n a l y s e d  prominent number  to  and  of these  and Yang  speech  (1957).  and  numbers o f c h i l d r e n .  Perhaps the best Yang,  (1930),  in children:  attempts  development  studies  cards'with  Their  speech  i n terms o f 42 m e a s u r e s . Some o f t h e  total  utterances  i n age  number  used,  of  words  type-token  used,  ratio  total  (TTR), and  12  number o f nouns, items  used.  correlation such of  as  adjectives, The  investigators  of l a n g u a g e  age,  sex,  development  intelligence,  t h e p a r e n t s . Some major (1)  there  a d v e r b s and  is  a  language development  and  results  positive  and age,  other  grammatical  also  looked  with  its  at  variables,  socio-economic  a r e as  the  status  follows:  correlation  between  the  as w e l l as t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  s t a t u s of the p a r e n t s . (2) t h e r e development  i s no  between  on TTR  results).  higher  TTR  than  Another period  boys  and  However,  difference  girls  from  from 3;5  5;5  and  major  study  sample  that  studies  the development  children  upon  and  subject  is  CP.  Chu  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  was  presentation  no  sex  the that  parts  in  and p a r t s  sentence length the  sentence  older  asked  to  the  Chu  i n t h e use o f  and  children.  fifth  provide  such  grades  a  short  The  speech  as  of t a l k i n g  sentence there i s  , sentence  f o r the t h r e e grades,  i n c r e a s e s as t h e c h i l d  group  (1969).  concluded that  amount  of speech  this  pictures.  of measures  of s p e e c h . Chu  difference  structures,  have  of  school  third  of t h r e e TAT  d a t a were a n a l y s e d i n terms s t r u c t u r e s and  (based  girls  i s representative  from e a c h o f t h e f i r s t ,  were c h o s e n . E a c h story  language  t o 5;5  up,  l a n g u a g e and v o c a b u l a r y of 60 e l e m e n t a r y 20  i n the  boys.  of l a r g e  examined  significant  that  grows o l d e r ,  has a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f  and  complex  structures.  Other  studies  of t h i s  period  are  S.C.  Lin's  (1967)  13  study  which  compared  o r p h a n a g e and study the  was  ordinary  which analysed  compositions In  short,  dominated  interested  mean  by  the third  only  looked  looking  at  language  this The  exception  at  the  age  of  six  the  recordings ordinarily  Among  the  analysis The  period  its  by  of  (one  was  than  Lin  track)  then  linguistic.  one  D  of  his  table to  subjects'  gives  the  speech,  infants.  2;3.  once  a  Subject  some  are  Tape month, in  into  an  I.P.A. of  D at  the 1;10.  difficult  symbols  In  observed.  completed  sounds t h a t  produce:(p.193:  which  to  transcribed  the their  (1971)  0;0(14) made  were  and  Taiwanese  were  1975  between  f i n d i n g s , L i n gave a more d e t a i l e d r e p o r t of  in  to  researchers  i n Taiwan were  form  infant  1967  variables,  S.C.  infants  ranged  speech  (1974)  i s used  correlation  development of  each  The  following  Subject  the  with a 600-ft.tape  observation.  the  more p s y c h o l o g i c a l  subjects  Qiu's  that  s t u d i e s . The  and  Chinese  of  Zhang and  between  s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n .  i s a study  phonetic  study,  to  sample  v i e w p o i n t s were u s u a l l y The  sentences  common v o c a b u l a r y  large  of  of  c h i l d r e n , and  i t i s c l e a r that  in  development  of  length  have  for been  modified) Infant  Sounds produced  by a d u l t  P'  Sounds produced by i n f a n t P  D's  Mispronunciation  t'  k'  ts'  t  k  ts  s  1  ts . j  at  1;10  -t  -P  -k  §  -h  -h  -h  missing  -  h-  1 4  From t h e  table,  Taiwanese that  L i n concluded  are  difficult  u n a s p i r a t e d stops are As  f a r as  pointed  out  correctly  tone  that  the  on  to produce  and  substituted of  of  (he  has  phonology  always  not  t h e end  Lin  produced  specify  of t h e  which  lower  even  an  amazing  language.  One  i n c r e a s e of  can  say  it  is  children's  i s i n l a r g e p a r t s t i m u l a t e d by  of  linguistic  language.  analysis  of  Aphasie,  i n the approach  T h i s change has  the  language  l o o k i n g at the c o r r e l a t i o n  development dominating  and  its  output  1968  of t h e c h i l d , on  determining  as  well.  Some  justifying  their  results  framework,  such by  as  Jakobson  to  the such  1975,  e.g.  C.S.  the  rule  (1941). be  A  of  (1967),  at  there  i s an  behind  that  interested  some  example  d i s c u s s e d below.  studies  looking  irreversible  good  language  those  or o n l y  more  I n s t e a d of  child's  behavior  in light  study  been t o w a r d  as  Lin  there  to the  researchers are also  t h e t h e o r y of  (1979) .which w i l l  Allgemeine  of c h i l d r e n .  of  variables,  t h e p e r i o d of  und  (Jakobson., 1 941) . M o r e o v e r ,  been a marked change  suggested  aire  did  been  s t u d y of c h i l d  Kindersprache  of  output  i s . concerned,  3  translation  also  insistence  tone  words  that  f o r them.  high . there  child  has  study  f o r young c h i l d r e n  p e r i o d i n the study of t h i s a r e a . T h i s i n c r e a s e d  Lautegestze  the  very  i n the  English  only  in  subjects  1975,  a blooming  /p,t,k,ts/  however), except  Since  emphasis  tones  the  is raised  interest  aspirated  the a c q u i s i t i o n  by  subject(s),  that  in  theoretical solidarity is  Jeng's  15  Before it  is  the  study  s u r v e y i n g t h e main a r t i c l e s  worthwhile  children  of  mentioning  child  in their of  Erbaugh  acquisition  speech  free  p l a y i n h i s home i n s e v e n of  for  seven  the  Stage  II  girl  named  two  s e s s i o n s was  (Brown,  1973).  'JR',  who  3 3 r d month. A t o t a l free  play  over  over  with  Stage  those  of  comparison and  Luo  was  light  of  taped  was The  3.57  Erbaugh  t o n e s . She  practically  found  perfect,  underdifferentiated w i t h what had  (1974)  and  A  and  found  (1976)  of t h e  the  two  her  in  compared cultural Samoan,  (1973)  and  other  was  also  acquisition  s u b j e c t s were  segmentals  in  MLU  of d i s c o u r s e type i n  unstable. This finding  a l r e a d y been  her  mean  Finnish,  briefly  their  a  during  place  cross  and  Peters  the tones  while and  would  topic  o n l y mentioned  through  weeks. JR's  (1951).  a  (MLU)  Brown's  made  d e s c r i b e d by Bowerman  Lastly,  that  31st  of t a p e s was  children  the  i n t h e s t u d y was  from h e r  which  study  over  of  d a t a were t r a n s c r i b e d  children  Scollon  level  child  c o u r s e of e i g h t  Chao's  given.  discussed.  Chao,  was  with both Chinese  speaking  others  of  IV.  second  taped d u r i n g  of U t t e r a n c e  or at a  The  young  i n Taiwan.  sessions  Mean L e n g t h  2.33  was  (1978) i n two  syntax  'LH'  one-hour  of n i n e hours  the  the nine tapes  Brown's  2 4 - m o n t h - o l d boy  weeks. LH's  studied  of Mandarin  The  course  phonology,  t h e work o f E r b a u g h  syntax.  the  in child  were was  still in  studies  line (e.g.  1951). In  r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e has  been an  increasing  interest  16  in  looking  reason  i s that  provide  When  And of  the a c q u i s i t i o n  suprasegmental, Several  acquisition (2)  into  to other features  lexical.  children  the study of a c h i l d ' s  insight  similar being  a t t h e ways i n w h i c h  and  t o n a l development process since  such as i n t o n a t i o n yet  questions  to  been  begin t o use p i t c h  (3) I s t h e r e an o r d e r , o r s e q u e n c e , tones?  been  articles,  in  Thompson's s t u d y  from The  17  Li  the  of  i n the  is  (1) I s t h e segments?  in a lexical  and  area of tonal  i s significant  way?  acquisition  children  Longitudinal  data  in  over  age a  collected  about  3 weeks. Speech name  f o r the  period  child  to  pictures.  system  i s described  tone  (2) R i s i n g  tone  have L i and  the  Mandarin  55:* 35: 214:  (4) F a l l i n g  51:  first came  i n Taiwan. and  3;0.  7 months were sporadic  child  elicited  (3) D i p p i n g t o n e tone  1;6  of about  as f o l l o w e d :  (1) H i g h  is  families  7. E a c h  were In  i t  and more  other  data  (1977)  development.  between  f o r 10 o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n  were  (1977),  looked at data that  of Mandarin-speaking  ranged  Thompson  Light  i n that  s t u d y o f i t s k i n d . They  children  collected  namely,  ( 1 9 8 0 ) , J.K. T s e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , a n d  published  systematic  is  (Clumeck,1980).  Four Hashimoto  tone  status  asked:  acquisition  can  and s t r e s s i n  i t s linguistic  have  of tones s i m i l a r do c h i l d r e n  a c q u i r e t o n e . One  by  data  was v i s i t e d asking  the  Chinese, the tonal  17  (5) N e u t r a l t o n e is  correct within  and tone  stages  system  well of  subjects, children A  and  more  The  i n advanced  that  of  interesting  pattern  monosyllabic lengthening  word the  reduplicating evidence  of  suggested  control,  the  that  o f t o n e s , and  to  in  months,  and  is  system,  that  the  learned  1;8,  tones  when  0;11(17) t o  was By  able age  to  2,  an Her  t o t a k e any  disyllabic  word  high-low. into  Very  two  low-high pattern. with  pattern  or  Finally, tones,  t o n e s a r e more d i f f i c u l t Tse  a by  tones are the  J.K.  often,  syllables  i s t h e most b a s i c  Cantonese,  tonal  observed.  patterns  level  Mandarin  the  from  she  of  was  with  level  studied  Mandarin.  broken  that  while contour  Specific  by age  with high-low play  usually  are  'Jing-Jing'  pattern is  pitch  She  with  vowel  it  rules  (1980).  p l a y -was  tonal  the  quickly,  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  tones  of  that  multi-word u t t e r a n c e s .  pattern  g i v e i t the  feature  sandhi  showed t h a t  play  four  to  a r e u n i f o r m a c r o s s a number of  daughter  five  difficult  tones,  of the segmental  tone  her  a l l  more  falling  approximately  Hashimoto  distinguish  and  of  results  favorite  than  recent a r t i c l e  by  are  i s acquired relatively  begin to produce  is  tones  tone a c q u i s i t i o n  development 2;6.  rising produce  the space  mastered  tone  to  syllable  unstressed)  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t perceive  ( o c c u r s when a  with  the  Hashimoto and  salient  easiest to  (1978)  to  master. did  a  18  longitudinal  case  s t u d y on h i s son P a t r i c k ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of  C a n t o n e s e t o n e s . H i s d a t a were m a i n l y parental special a  diary,  of w r i t t e n  recorded  of  28  months,  data that  subject's  plus  acquisition  every  some  c o v e r e d the 29th  to the  process.  perceptual discrimination  early  as  the  Patrick's  first  covered  a  10th  uttered  total  1;9. A l s o ,  period  he f o u n d  completed  much  phonemes,  and t h a t  Patrick's  speech.  Light  t h e U.S. to  did  'Claire'  the  a disintegration many of h e r  pitch-contour  incorrect of  i t e m s . F o r example, m o n o s y l l a b l e s tended  to  take  the  high  acquired  months, from of  tone 1;2 t o  tones  of  was  segmental  were  found  study  in  on  his with  level  1;4. T a p e s were  tones  and  indicated  of her t o n a l  approximation  from  i n Hong Kong, and moved  of  showed  span  confrontation  when she was  development  observed  time  longitudinal  t o her tones, the r e s u l t s  that  the  of  t o n e s began as  acquisition  was b o r n  for  month  also  acquisition  respect  found  He  s a n d h i phenomena  a  system  tonal the in or  a  t h e s e d a t a , he  latest  daughter's  w i t h her f a m i l y  observe  to the  than  no t o n e  Cantonese-speaking  that  the  earlier  30th  From  of o n l y e i g h t  that  (1977)  bilingualism.  tone  of  3-4 weeks  of l i n g u i s t i c  month,and  form  20 m i n u t e s of t a p e -  f o r m u l a t e d an o r d e r of t o n e a c q u i s i t i o n . that  the  r e c o r d s made d u r i n g  observation sessions occurring  period  the  consisting  in  that  the  child  a t 1;7. I t was  English  high  made  syntax. With  usages  the  to  topic  reflected equivalent position  falling  tone  19  (i.e.  tone  [ji ]  one i n t h i s  "j i "  1  polysyllables as  tended  1  in  polysyllablic  words  tone. Given  isolation  concluded  that  words,  or  learned  environment,  Recently, look  at  first  study  exhibited  tonal  tonal  in  and  claiming  that  syllables  of  take  the high  approximations f o r borrowing.  patterns  Cantonese  of  of  Light  borrowed  v i a an E n g l i s h -  by r u l e s .  was made  by  of Mandarin  of a c h i l d  Clumeck  (1977)  phonology.  'M' a c q u i r i n g  to  T h i s was a  Mandarin  as h i s  i n t h e San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a . A c c o r d i n g  the c h i l d  many c h i l d r e n  stressed  a r e governed  an a t t e m p t  language  Clumeck,  the  the a c q u i s i t i o n  longitudinal  a rule  f i t Cheung's r u l e  falling  (+diminutive)'  i n t o Cantonese  Claire's  finally  words  and  borrowed  this,  intonations  'TTssye  (1972) h a s s t a t e d  the  'apr\le' ,  2  1  and  of  or high  "pir^kwO " 1  'boat',  syllables  the high l e v e l  2  2  monosyllables  speaking  first  "spu kpn ji "  1  ( p . 2 6 5 ) . H.N. Cheung  English  the  t o take 1  1  level  and  w e l l , [pi»j kwo ]  [SPU kpn (ji )]  "syn""  1  'paper';  2  tone  study), [syn ]  was, on t h e w h o l e , much l e s s  reported i n the c h i l d  a very  communicative  slow  tool.  were made once e v e r y  development From  language  verbal  than  literature.  i n h i s use of speech  t h e age o f 1;2 t o 2 ; 8 ( 2 ) ,  2 weeks a n d were from  to  1.5 t o  He  as a  visits  3  hours  first  part  long. The  study  extended  from  of  child's  own  the  consisted  of  2  parts.  The  t h e age o f 1;2 t o 1;10. I t was a "proto-language"  sound-meaning  description  i n w h i c h he i n v e n t e d h i s  correspondences  for  communicative  20  purposes. and  Clumeck  the p i t c h  vocables, was a l s o  observed  that  both the segmental  c o n t o u r s of d i f f e r e n t  correlated found t h a t  with t h e i r  "proto-words",  communicative  t h e r e were f r e q u e n t  period  f e a t u r e of  the c h i l d  had begun t o model h i s s p e e c h on  the  of h i s study covered the p e r i o d  from  language. second  part  2;8(2).  development  It  described  following  models.  I t was  little  spontaneous  the  found t h a t  of h i s i m i t a t i o n s  the  although the c h i l d  s p e e c h , he r e a d i l y  were s u b j e c t  to strong  within  child  for  had  identical  a  preference  to  each  phonetically.  described child's  Jeng  of  the  or  recorded  from  i m i t a t e d . The  forms  constraints  on t h e  at  the  whose s y l l a b l e s least  were  and  gradually  were  similar  that  phonological  of a s p i r a t i o n  a s p e c t s of the  in syllable-initial  stops  system.  of Jakobson  solidarity  The  very  the study a l s o c o n t a i n e d a s e c t i o n  (1979). Jeng attempted  Chinese.  produced  over  acquisition  irreversible  on a d u l t  words. S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  words  constraints  phonetic  influence  phonological  relaxed  of the f r i c a t i v e The  of  other,  These  In a d d i t i o n ,  child's  s w i t c h t o words b a s e d  c o - o c c u r r e n c e of s y l l a b l e s  and  usage  of the proto-language t o being a l e x i c a l  to  time.  in  during the  The 1;10  functions. It  intent  words a f t e r adult  or e a r l y  changes  from b e i n g an e x p r e s s i o n of c o m m u n i c a t i v e  forms  subjects  2 months  (1941) i s q u i t e  to find  also  out i f Jakobson's  applied  were  evident  to the  h i s two s o n s ,  in laws  acquisition 'Jeng Wei'  t o 20 months o f a g e , and 'Jeng  Hung'  21  recorded  from  following  15 months t o 31  of J a k o b s o n ' s  (1) back front  rounded  unrounded (2)  by t h e  months.  claims  vowels  presuppose  the l i q u i d  / l /  i s one  almost  simultaneous  appearance  nasals,  fricatives  support  except / f / ,  out t h a t  Hung, t h e v o w e l s  / i / ,  Jakobson  predicted,  developed  into  neatly One  of  into  the  and  acquired  but  A  >  of  diffusion item  stops,  liquid / r /  system  vowel  17.5  t o make use  Chinese  as  of  Jeng  split  /a /, w /  as  which  months, does  not  of the d a t a  from  e v i d e n c e f o r a t h e o r y of  (1972). H s i e h t e s t e d which 'a'  states  form  'a', pass t h r o u g h  'a'-'b'  and  finally  of  that  c a t e g o r y A may its  four-year-old  weeks.  showed t h a t  across  lexical  hypothesis  start  synchronic  of the i n i t i a l  a Taiwanese-speaking results  the  " i n t h e sound  reach i t s innovative  the a c q u i s i t i o n  gradually  the  theory.Regarding vowels,  attempts  original  acquired  the r e t r o f l e x  the l a b i a l i z e d  any  The  that  / a / form a v e r t i c a l  B,  studied  adds  back  pattern.  change i s H s i e h  lexical  that  aspirated  i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l / e / , and  that  acquisition  claim  the  the d i p h t h o n g /au/ a t  article  of  the  vowels. Jeng a l s o  not accounted f o r i n Jakobson's  Jeng p o i n t e d  He  sounds  child.  front  sound  their corresponding  of the l a s t  consonants presuppose  the  the  vowels.  not  fit  confirmed  (1941):  However, t h e d a t a d i d  is  Jeng  for  initial  form velar  a  i t e m s , and  from i t s variation  'b'  (p.90).  phonemes o f  period  velar  shift  of  ten  phonemes a r e  thus supported  22  the  p r i n c i p l e of l e x i c a l  of  the  the  acquisition  of s t o p s 1  acquisition  Table the  of  namely,  is  Light  presuppose  material  on  (up t o 1980). T a b l e 2 l i m i t s  most  in  the  area  of the s t u d i e s As  there  (1977) and J.K.  far are  Tse  of have  of and  the claim the  the how  the these  phonology. dealt  with  as  the  Cantonese  only  two  articles,  (1978), both of which a r e  o f t o n e s . Thus f a r , t h e r e has  phonology  acquisition.  available  Mandarin.  study  the  that  language.  the  concerned,  systematic  segmental  in child  that  of  presuppose  fricatives  those studies  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n any  of  Chinese  2 indicates  acquisition  consonants  results  (1941)  c o n s o n a n t s , but c o n t r a d i c t e d  summarizes  to just  phonology  back  acquisition  acquisition Table  of  of f r o n t  the  further  the  speech data supported Jakobson's c l a i m  acquisition  that  d i f f u s i o n . Moreover,  acquisition this  of  interacts  not  been  Cantonese with  .tone  23  Table 1: A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l on t h e A c q u i s i t i o n of C h i n e s e A r t i c l e s i n Chinese  Articles i n English I . Phonology  Jiang  S.C.Lin (1971) Hsieh  (1975) ' d i s c u s s i o n  i n Kam  (1972)  (1977). i n E n g l i s h '  Chao ( I 9 3 5 ) ' w i t h  Clumeck (1977)  English  summary'  L i and Thompson (1977) J.K.Tse  (1978)  Jeng (1979) Hashimoto (I98O) I I . Syntax C . S . L i n (1967)  Chu  L . H . L i (1968)  Yang,Xiao and Yang (197*0  Erbaugh  Zhang and Q i u (197^)  (1978)  (1969)  I I I . Phonology and S y n t a x Chen (19^7) ' d i s c u s s i o n i n Y.X.Zhang ( 1 9 6 8 ) , i n C h i n e s e ; and Chao ( 1 9 5 1 ) , i n E n g l i s h '  Chao (1951) Light  (1977)  IV. Language and None  Cognition Kuo (1937) ' d i s c u s s i o n i n L.H.Li (1968),in  English'  24  T a b l e 2: A v a i l a b l e M a t e r i a l o n t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f C h i n e s e Phonology Mandarin  1. J i a n g  1. L i g h t  (1759)  2. Chao  (1935,  3- C h e n  (19^7)  1951)  4. L i a n d Thompson (1977) 5- C l u m e c k 6. J e n g  (1977)  (1979)  7- H a s h i m o t o  Cantonese  (1980)  (1977)  2. J . K . T s e  Taiwanese(a Min dialect) 1. S.C. L i n (1971)  (1978) 2. H s i e h  (1972)  25  Chapter 1  1:  Footnotes  The  new  P i n - y i n romanization  t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of Chinese terms, place  names.  The  rather  than  Kong,  personal  and  i s f o r well-known p l a c e s ,  Swatow,  and  Shanghai.  Also,  t r y i n g to o v e r s t a n d a r d i z e p e r s o n a l names to a  s i n g l e romanization, established  for  psychologists H.C.  including  only exception  such as Canton, Hong  system i s used f o r the  the romanization  the  such  famous  as  Y.R.  that has a l r e a d y been  Chinese Chao, F.K.  linguists L i , S.L.  and  Wong and  Chen i s l i k e w i s e used here. 2  Kuo's study  (1968). The 3  The  i s b r i e f l y mentioned in L.H.  article  i s u n a v a i l a b l e at the present  following i s a table  Taiwanese (a Min  Li's thesis  of  the  d i a l e c t ) : ( From S.C.  tonal  time. system  in  Lin,1971,p.191, Table  1) Notations Traditional Naming  Notation examples  and &  D e s c r i p t i o n s of Taiwanese  Upper  even  a  h a l f high  Upper  rising  a  f a l l s from t o mid  Upper  falling  a  low  Upper  abrupt  Lower  even  Lower  falling  Lower  abrupt  ap , a t , ah, ak A  and  short low  and  and  half  r i s e s from t o mid  a  h a l f low even short  &.nd  even  high  even  a  ap , a t , ah, ak  Tone  Descriptions  low  and  high  levels  444 543 111 22  123 222 55  Tones  26  Chao  4  dividing where  (1930) p r o v i d e d a way  the p i t c h  range  into  five  of r e p r e s e n t i n g levels,  t o n e s by  numbered  1 c o r r e s p o n d s t o low, 3 t o mid, and 5 t o h i g h .  1 t o 5,  27  CHAPTER 2. AN  2.1.  GENERAL BACKGROUND The  six  groups.  term  are  and M i n (Yuan known  to the d i a l e c t  similar  spoken  family  dialects.  Wu,  As  a  and southwestern p a r t s  into  the  of the P e a r l  River  The  a s Yue Yu, o f t e n  group,  of Guangxi  into  Gan-Hakka,  o r t o t h e whole  dialect  i s divided  divided  L i , 1939).  i n the l i t e r a t u r e City  :  Xiang,  e t a l . , 1 9 6 0 , F.K.  and t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t  a r e a , Cantonese  i s commonly  Mandarin,  of Canton  i n the c e n t r a l  province this  They  Cantonese,  refers  i;  Chinese language  Cantonese  of  OUTLINE OF CANTONESE PHONOLOGY  group  Cantonese i s of  Guangdong  province. Within following  five  •subgroups: (1)  Yue  t h e West  H a i (most  (Qinzhou, L e i z h o u ,  (3) Gao L e i  (Gaozhou,  southern  part  (4)  Si  Kaiping,  Gui Bopai,  Yuan  amounted  Leizhou,  etc., in  et  I  ( t h e Four  Nan  Districts:  (southern  etc.)  most  5%  Taishan,  of Canton  Guangxi  Xinghui,  City).  Wuzhou,  Rongxian,  1  al.(l960)  have  estimated  number o f C a n t o n e s e  The f i g u r e to  the  of Guangdong).  the t o t a l  million.  etc.)  and E n p i n g , t o t h e s o u t h w e s t  (5)  China,  and a l o n g  River).  (2) Q i n L i a n  Yuling,  Delta  was b a s e d  on t h e  of . the t o t a l  that  i n Mainland  s p e a k e r s was a r o u n d 27 census  population  of  1953 and  of China a t that  28  t i m e . The  number  Hashimoto of  (1972)  growth  around  is  presumed  has  The  million  by  in  China,  t h e end  above e s t i m a t e d o e s  speakers.  Although  be  there  of  not is  1970  Cantonese  and F u k i e n e s e (Min d i a l e c t )  majority  of the o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e  has  been  majority  pointed  of  out  Chinese  Canada a r e C a n t o n e s e same, b e c a u s e immigrants  Canton  by  North  Immigrant  Cantonese  known  that  speakers c o n s t i t u t e  that  the  i n the U n i t e d  a  picture  great  States  and  remains  the  of the p r e s e n t - d a y C h i n e s e a r e Cantonese  the Four D i s t r i c t s ,  (Vancouver  be  f o r t h e number o f  i t i s well  This  America  would  overseas  (1947)  immigrants speakers.  rate  (Kao,l971). S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  Chao  the l a r g e m a j o r i t y  to  Hong Kong and  abroad,  to the  (p.10).  figure  speakers r e s i d i n g  present.  number  include no  at  according the  Cantonese  it  higher  estimated that  of p o p u l a t i o n  37.5  to  lying  speakers  from  t o the southwest  Resources  Center,  of  personal  c ommun i c a t i o n ) . The and  variety  Hong  prestige,  Kong and  (Chao,1947, Cantonese expect  of Cantonese has  spoken  considerable  i n the c i t y  cultural  and  i s r e g a r d e d as t h e s t a n d a r d form of H.N.  Cheung,1972).  foreigners  to l e a r n .  or C h i n e s e  of  It i s usually  social Cantonese  t h e form o f  from o t h e r p r o v i n c e s  Geographically,  Hong Kong  t h a n some n e i g h b o u r i n g p l a c e s  Panyu,  Dongguan. However, t h e form o f C a n t o n e s e  i n Hong Kong different  i s very similar  from t h e forms  to that  spoken  such  spoken  would  i s farther  from C a n t o n or  Canton  as  Nanhai, spoken  i n Canton,  i n t h e above-named  away  but  places.  29  Hashimoto that  the  Hong  (1972) a t t r i b u t e d t h i s ancestors  Kong  half  or  so  this  study  2.2.  AN  of  came  The  i s the  that  or  (2)  consonants,  others).  'zero  and  initial  initial'.  either  a  segment  segment  is  consonant The One  I f an  or  final,  the  tone  the  a  an a  i f i t i s the  formula  the  initial  uaually  describe  following  a  described  traditionally parts:(1) or  in  for  segment glide.  optional  only  It  said  The  initial, following  to c o n t a i n  the  final  Cantonese s y l l a b l e  it  The be  the  structure  a  syllabic a  nasal  syllable.  a n a s a l , or a  p.88):  is  c o n s i s t s of  also in  and to  present,  may  by  syllable  ending.  is either a glide,  1972,  a  is  constituent  (Hashimoto,  the  segments  i s then  vowel.  described  (Wong,1940, Chao,1947  i t is possible  and  o p t i o n a l ending can  and  i n Hong Kong.  three  segment, and  consonant  syllabic  is  having  (3)  In C a n t o n e s e ,  have . no  speakers in  century  Cantonese  i s spoken  syllable as  initial,  last  fact  CANTONESE PHONOLOGY  Chinese phonologists  the  the  the  Structure  Chinese  first  to  of C a n t o n e s e  v a r i e t y of  one  OUTLINE OF  The  majority  from C a n t o n d u r i n g  (p.70).  2.2.1. S y l l a b l e  the  phenomenon  by  stop. the  30  where C s t a n d s The  f o r consonant,  subscript  subscript formula  2  for prevocalic segments.  segments  Notice  e x c l u d e s t h e c a s e where t h e s y l l a b l e  and  that  the  consists  only  n a s a l , s u c h a s /m/ o r A ) / .  Description  The  description  follows  of  i s mainly based  Hashimoto speech taken  stands  for postvocalic  of a s y l l a b i c  2.2.2.  1  G f o r g l i d e , and V f o r vowel.  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Wong  of  the  Wang  Cantonese  that  (1940) and my own o b s e r v a t i o n s .  p a r e n t s o f t h e major  (1957),  phonology  on t h e works by Yuan e t a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) ,  into consideration.  (1947),  the  Other  L.H.  subject  consulted  Lin  'Wai' i s a l s o  works  (1964),  The  are  Chao  and H.N. Cheung  (1972). (A)  Initials The  initial  consonants  of  Cantonese  are  shown  in  T a b l e 3. Basically above is  the i n i t i a l  listed  i n each  works a r e more o r l e s s t h e same. The o n l y  the d e s c r i p t i o n  the  consonants  series  of  of t h e s i b i l a n t  sibilants  is  difference  s e r i e s . In Wong  (1940),  recorded as a l v e o l a r s , i . e .  ?ts/,  / t s ' / and / s / . Whereas  L.H.  L i n (1964),  t h e y a r e marked a s p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r s , i . e .  AC/,  /ty/,  /</.  and  In  in  of the  H.N.  some  Cheung  other  Hashimoto  (1972) and Yuan e t a l . ( 1 9 6 0 ) ,  by  series  both  palato-alveolars.  of s i b i l i a n t s , I t i s noted  (1972),  studies,  as  they a r e i n d i c a t e d  i . e . the a l v e o l a r s  that  such  and  and t h e  any c h o i c e o f t h e s e r i e s  31  T a b l e 3: I n i t i a l C o n s o n a n t s o f C a n t o n e s e Unaspirated Stops  Aspirated Stops  Nasals  Fricatives & Continuants  Labials  p  p'  m  f  Dentals  t  t  n  1  1  Semivowels  Alveolars/ Palato-  ts/t$  ts'/tj'  s/5  j  alveolars Velars  k  k'  Labializedvelars  kw  kw'  0  h  w  32  depends  on one's  idiolect.  (1972), t h e s i b i l a n t s a  palatal  need  vary  articulation  they a r e pronounced both  series  of  voiceless  into  aspirated  /t^'A/jV  and  by  Hashimoto  (hissing  sound) t o  ( h u s h i n g s o u n d ) . In h e r i d i o l e c t , articulation .  In T a b l e  2  are r e c o r d e d . Other p o i n t s  initials,  a  /ts'S  V  /tsS / 1  voiceless  3, that  series  /fei /  'older  sister'  of  Cantonese (1947)  / t s / , /ts'/,  1  'fly'  has a l s o  of  9  /tj"/,  and never i n  consonant  / l / occurs  'to hunt'  of the i n f l u e n c e initials  reported  of n e i g h b o u r i n g d i a l e c t s , in et  the  speech  al.(l960)  some i n s t a n c e s . H.N.  some  Cantonese  subtle spoken  i n the c i t i e s  of Canton, a  speakers maintain a c l e a r such as / n e i / 5  as  of  some  and  Chao  Cheung  differences  works a r e summarized  In t h e c i t y  /!/,  or  'four'  3  lateral  /lip /  certain  Hong Kong. T h e i r  Cantonese  /s/  / h e i V happiness'  the  'broken'  observed  varieties  s e r i e s and a  initially  /sei /  s p e a k e r s i s f o u n d . Yuan  have  (a)  unaspirated  affricates  F o r example,  (4) B e c a u s e merger  and  F o r example,  'car  initially. 6  stops  series.  (3) I n C a n t o n e s e ,  /lan /  the  / f / , /h/ occur only  other p o s i t i o n s .  and  from a d e n t a l  sibilants  (2) The s i b i l a n t  a  out  t o be m e n t i o n e d a r e :  divided  only  pointed  with dental  (1) I n C a n t o n e s e are  As  (1972),  between  the  o f C a n t o n and  follows:  great  majority  distinction  'you', and / l e i / s  of  the  between / n /  'Lee, surname'.  33  However,  there  substitute as  In  5  v e r y common  speakers  with  /n/.  in  example,  /rpi / In the  Hong  like  /Di / 3  /on /  with  the  /kw/  /J^/  'love'  will  and  usually  not  becomes / k ? * ) / 'wide',  /kw'o»j /  and  8  2  1  / k w o k / becomes / k s k /  be  /rj/ initial  with  3  / i s pronounced  I t has  without  of C a n t o n e s e  their  initial.  for a  as  pronounce  H.N.  becomes  'country'.  for a  wrong  by  few  initials  come t o a  spoken  labilized  Cheung  zero  //j/  /kw'/, when f o l l o w e d lose  the  i s a tendency  initial.  initials.  initials  the v a r i e t y  /Ok/,  8  the z e r o  o f t e n c o n s i d e r themselves  p r o n o u n c e words of z e r o  noted  Cantonese  f o l l o w i n g remark:'Except  /fj/  / l /is  maintain  n e a r l y a l l words w i t h  with  heard  'comfortable'.  1  made t h e  speakers  In  be  r a t h e r than / l /  and  interchange  as / i p n /  1  who  is  Kong, t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e  pronounced  /3^/r  initial  Some e x a m p l e s a r e : / 3 i  particles,  initials  it  still  to  exclamation  the  Canton  speakers  has  (c)  can  t h a t most  However, t h e r e  initial  t h a t most  of  t h e A)/  (1972,p.2)  are  5  noticed  /ijoi /.  initial.  zero  al.(l960)  word  ' l o v e ' , and  3  speakers  /lei /  5  3  number of  zero  Thus / n e i / and  city  a  as  of  r e p l a c e /n/ with / l / ,  between  pronounced  the  et the  distinction  number  Cheung,1972). Furthermore,  usually  Yuan  speakers  small  small  Hong Kong, t h e c o n f u s i o n o f / n / and  (H.N.  that  For  a  / l / f o r /n/.  /lei /.  (b)  are  stage  if  they  initials'. i n Hong Kong, the  finals  feature, /kw^rj / 2  /k'^*j / 1  'light',  34  (B)  Finals As  mentioned  i n S e c t i o n 2.2.1., t h e  a v o w e l , or a vowel glide.  It  may  f o l l o w e d by  also  Cantonese, there are  either  consist two  of  syllabic  final  a  a  c o n s i s t s of  consonant  syllabic  or  nasal.  n a s a l s , namely  a In  /m/,  and  A)/, i Table As  shown  there  4a  i n the  are  these  glides  Notice  a  first  two  there  final  i n every  shown  in  followed [y]  To  i n the  glide  also  Table pairs  [u:].  / i / , by do  stand  b a s i s of  i s a l s o an s h o r t and  vowel  and  specific  8th vowel,  As  that  one  i s in contrast  quality  value  final  can  being  segment.  i . e . /p/,  restricted  or g l i d e .  finals.  alone. Phonetically  particular  is  the  indicates  for length the  the  of  in  the  to  co-occur  see  from  with  the  the  vowel  the  finals  occurrence.  [ 0 ] and  appears  column  values  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  following  and  first  consonants,  consonant  rows, t h i s  From  a  the  I t i s always  with  and  and  on  that  table.  [£:],  the  description  s e v e n v o w e l s w h i c h can  predicatable  as  table,  v o w e l s have d i f f e r i n g  before  /a/  gives a phonetic  4a,  assigned  one  t h e components of can  see  i s i n complementary [O:]  [oe:], [o] and cite  an  example,  ,  a n a s a l /n/, and  as  an  each  distribution:  [ I ] and  by  u:  of  the  [e]  and  [ i : ] , and of Table  itself,  4a,  each o t h e r . allophonic  That  [u:] by  [v]  is  i s t o say  Chao  [u]  followed  a s t o p / t / , whereas  a n a s a l /n/.  c o n t r a s t with Cy:J  and  that  i n Row  following occasions:  a s t o p /k/ not  of  (1947)  variant  of  [u:] has £u:J.  Table 4a: F i n a l s of Cantonese a:  a: i  a: u  a :m  a: n  Pi  fu  Tpffl  pn  Phonetic a :rj  a  !)  pp  p  :p  description a:t  a: k  pt  Pk  e=  ei  £i:.k  «:  <py  cevk  0 :  0:i  ou  i:  i:  D:n U  i :m  u: i  U:  y: Syllabic  nasals:  i: n  i:t  Ik  u:n  U:t  Uk  y:n  y:t  g  m  T a b l e 4b: F i n a l s o f C a n t o n e s e ( b a s e d on Wong, /a/  a  au  am  an  /v/  Pi  pu  pm  pn  /£/ 8  ei  /oe/oe  cey  /o/6  Di i  /u/  u  - Phonemic  description  1940)  ai  /i/  i:p  *9  ap  at  ak  PP  Pt  pk €k  c£n ou iu  On im  in un  ui  /y/ y Syllabic nasals  oer,  yn m i  0 1  ip urj  oe,t  O&k  Dt'  Ok  it  ik  ut  uk  yt  36  However,  most  distinctive in  their  of  the  phonologists  from / u : /  and  pairs  like  this  study,  /y:/  [ky:t ]  p a t t e r n s . For  vowels are  'to d e c i d e '  8  /u:/  and  /y:/  are  distinction  of C a n t o n e s e v o w e l s  all  other The  and  /¥>/,  but  of  group i s f i r s t  Hashimoto  (1972) has  be  appropriate,  more  matter is  of  used  length,  i n the  entitled  Spectral  the  be  Fok  that  seven  In of  the  is  then  of  include'.  t o be  be  minimal In  different  the  Cantonese  vowels  p r o p o s e d by  Chao  long/short only  in  the  redundant  in  Jakobson  (1974),  Chan  Properties  the  the  results  of  with /a:/  /  i : , y:  their is  into  a  (1947).  term  long  However,  'tense-lax'  d i f f e r e n c e i s not  a l s o of q u a l i t y . Her of  vowels  . vowel  instead  'to  is distinctive shown t o  contrast  the  that  and  term  (1968) i n her  M.  A.  Cantonese  her  measurement of  short  counterparts  only  contrasted  a:,  with  u:/  quality, /p/  by  As  has  duration  shown O:,  by  a  thesis  Vowels,  have  oe: ,  only  (1961).  of  £,: ,  may  'tense-lax'  Halle  s p e c t r a l q u a l i t y of C a n t o n e s e v o w e l s  contrasted the  conclude  can  contrasts  in  considered  because the  sense  by  and  8  remarked t h a t  but  reported  indicated  [ku:t ]  as  pairs. division  short  can  and  s h o r t , one  /a/ versus  /y:/  example, t h e  manifested  phonemes. In  pair  maintain  b e c a u s e of c e r t a i n a p p a r e n t  distributional  /u:/  still  that are and  length,  by q u a l i t y .  this  study,  c h i l d r e n are  as  one  will  first  treated phonemically  see  later,  the  speech  data  t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y , but i t i n the  process  of  analysis  and  37  interpretation. reason:  the  explicit  This  main  i s done s o b e c a u s e  objective  set of a n a l y t i c  phonological  analysis  and  transcription  Kwiatkowski, analysis  transcription  this  is  is  used,  1979,  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  decreased  ( c . f . Ingram,  Moreover, attempt that  analysis  more  to  o f an  1981  study,  a  explicit  this  by  Ingram is  but these w i l l  need  to  of t h i s ) . i s the data with  used  In  i n the  i tis  finals  felt  will  transcription  more d e t a i l s  is  (1981).  purposes,  a p p r o p r i a t e . The u s e o f a narrow  Cantonese,  measure  study  of the Cantonese  t o even  phonetic i s greatly  of the Cantonese  o f d a t a . Thus f o r c o m p a r i s o n  lead  narrow  transcription  a phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n  1981, b r o a d  for error  of  provided  broad  Weiner,1979,  for a discussion  highlights  data  as  When  f o r the  Cantonese. For  a n d Ingram,  chance  compare t h e r e s u l t s  a n a l y s i s would of  the  of the E n g l i s h  Ingram's  that  one o f  such  adopted.  increased,  following  criteria  acquiring  kind,  the  the  s t u d y i s t o p r o v i d e an  p r o c e d u r e s and  of c h i l d r e n  most o f t h e s t u d i e s o f Shriberg  of t h i s  of  be  i n our  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  be  left  for  future  research. Thus  far,  phonemicizing detailed  there  the  system  discussion,  phonemic d e s c r i p t i o n  It  i s b a s e d on Wong most  widely  transcription  of  of  been  many  Cantonese  see Hashimoto,  the  the  have  (1940). H i s system  Cantonese  finals  in  (for  a  1972). T a b l e 4b g i v e s  of the f i n a l s  adopted  treatments  phonemic  used  in this  study.  u s e s I.P.A.  and i s  system  sounds. U n l i k e  in  others,  the  Wong's  38  system  i s characterized  distinctive  feature  distribution.  Notice  by  but o n l y that  e m p h a s i z e s t h e phonemic "complementary consistent This  can  be  seen  for  distribution  of  the  and  and would  a  analysis  and i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e the  vowels,  following  symbols  as  i n complementary  he  t r e a t m e n t of the vowels  n o t phonemic,  [e]  length  a l t h o u g h Wong's phonemic  principle  by  'Wong's  broad phonetic, evident  his  considering  as a f e a t u r e  distribution"  with  (1971,p.35):  not  are  apparently  [ o ] , which be combined  [ e ] and [ o ] .  comment  symbols. T h i s have with  from  Kao  meant t o be  is a  i s not  particular  very  other  limited  vowels,  if  p h o n e m i z a t i o n were t o be a t t e m p t e d . ' (2) The E n d i n g An  ending  consists  of e i t h e r  stop. Regarding the  stops  noticed  are  that  they  i n other  remain c l o s e d alveolar  at  the  t o the soft  are  described  Tones  end  of  which t y p i c a l l y a r e  /p/,/t/,/k/  to the  a n d t h e back o f t h e of  /k/.  They  or i m p l o s i v e . A Perceptual  that  t o about h a l f  i . e . by c l o s u r e in  /t/,  entitled  indicated  c u t t h e vowel n u c l e i  which  has  u n r e l e a s e d when  p a l a t e a t t h e end  (1974), i n a study  'glottalization', words  end  as g l o t t a l i z e d  i n Cantonese, has  usually  (1963)  l a n g u a g e s , a r e n o t i n C a n t o n e s e . The l i p s  tongue c l i n g s  Fok  or a  Wise  and  /p/,/t/,/k/,  a nasal,  a t t h e end o f /p/, t h e t o n g u e c l i n g s  ridge  sometimes  /p/,/t/,/k/, unaspirated  pronounced. That i s , f i n a l released  a glide,  the  Study of  stop  finals  o f i t s l e n g t h by  of the v o c a l  cords.  have been a s s i g n e d  Thus, to a  39  different  category  (3) J o n e s variety system and  of  of tones: e n t e r i n g tones.  a n d Woo  the  high  of Cantonese.  / y / , i . e . an / i /  example /tsi /  of  the  However, Hong  use of t h i s  as  regional like  al.(l960), included  i.e. / i / ,  another  i n t h e vowel  with  lip-rounding  slight  of  this  vowel  slightly  added.  / t s / as i n  p.xiii,  op.cit.).  Cantonese / i /  speakers i n  i n such  l i p - r o u n d e d / * / has been  ( f r o m t h e Shuntak that  of o t h e r s such  and  Hashimoto  region) as  a case. regarded  ( F o k , l 9 7 4 ) . In t h i s  Chao  (1972),  An  i s after  1912,  use a l i p - s p r e a d i n g  (1947),  the  Yuan  vowel  /i-/  et  i s not  i n the discussion.  Tones Traditionally,  held  are  nine  by most C h i n e s e  (1947),  assumed.  To  a r e r e c o g n i s e d . T h i s view i s  p h o n o l o g i s t s s u c h a s Wong  Table  5  and t h e i r  facilitate  number  i s used  9. An example Table  tones  and Yuan e t a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) .  terminology  a  included  i n t e r m e d i a t e between / i /  ( J o n e s a n d Woo,  usually  The  (C)  vowel,  i t h a s been p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  Kong  study,  front  also  I t i s a vowel  use  'resemble'  5  (1912) have  In t h i s  lists  pitch  the  contours  the d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each  f o r each  lexical  of tone  (1940),  study,  tones  with  (Chao,  of tones tone,  nine  Chao tones  traditional  1947,p.24). in this  ranging  study,  from  1 to  i s g i v e n . They a r e l i s t e d i n  6. In  system  general, several of Cantonese.  points  stand  out  in  the  tonal  They a r e a s f o l l o w s :  (1) Some p h o n o l o g i s t s t r e a t  Cantonese as h a v i n g  only 6  40  T a b l e 5:  The C a n t o n e s e Tone S y s t e m Rising  Even Upper  1 1  53:  or  55:  A 35  Going  H  33:  Entering High  5:  Middle  H  1  33:  Lower  NJ 21:  23 :  22:  or  22  41  Table Number  6:  The C a n t o n e s e Tone S y s t e m w i t h  Examples  TraditionalStone class  Tone v a l u e  Example'  1  upper even  53:  fain  2  upper r i s i n g  35=  f a n - "'powder'  3  upper g o i n g  33:  f a n • 'sleep'  4  lower even  21:  fan  '.burn'  5  lower r i s i n g  23:  fan  'strive'  6  lower going  22:  fan  'share*  7  high entering  5?*  f * t ; , 'sudden'  8  middle  33:  f a t • 'law'  9  low e n t e r i n g  2:  ffctt  entering  o r 55:  ' grade'  'punish'  42  tones  (the  first  represented  i n the  consider and  9  6  study  the a c t u a l in  Table  6),  respectively.  Table of  the  which  t o be  6).  Jones  v a l u e of  /p/,/t/,/k/ endings, 6  in  refer  Although  Chao  J o n e s and  ending  in  concerned,  no  new  tone  indicated  split  into these  variants  a single  Cheung  (1969)  studies,  J.K.  are unconditioned study  by  upper even  tone  categories  is  true  now  study,  we  are  and  impossible least  53:  not  of  between t h i s and  or  he  key  is  tone  (tone  or  55:.  53:  argued  In  phonetic  concluded  not  say  by  two  t h a t 55:  the  view  and  53:  his  1978  that a s p l i t to  stage  (p.202).  in order  tones.  of  grammatical  present  studies,  reference to 9  Y.S.  recent  f u t u r e , i t d o e s not  of C a n t o n e s e '  other  5,  a  syllables  i s supported  according  at  and  f o l l o w i n g remark:  i.e.  He  dare  traditional  tabulated with  1,3,  in Table  (1972).  i n the  the v a r i e t y  f o l l o w the  comparison data  of  55:  we  with  (p.24).  T h i s view  variants.  7,8  maintained  melody  values,  Cheung  'though  into  tones  t h e upper even  (1973,1978) has  at  development  tone.  free  saying  5,  the  as  (Tones  forms a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be  H.N.  Tse  with  consists  far  tonal  two  and  So  in Table  Traditionally of  tone'  They  syllables  i s shown  is involved'  two  to  i n making  'entering  /p/,/t/,/k/.  (2) As 1) has  Woo  (1912).  (1947) s t i l l  agreed  traditional  Woo  identifiable  n i n e o p p o s i t i o n s , as  'The  and  is chiefly  e n t e r i n g tones  system h a v i n g with  T h i s view  In  to allow  and  thus  seem of this for the  43  (D) Tone Change Two the  different  processes are  change of tones (1) Tone This  in  i n the a c t u a l  juxtaposition  practically  whether  another  to  Sandhi  are  Cantonese,  with respect  Cantonese..  i s t h e change  syllables  value  in  involved  it  every  v a l u e of  (Chao,  syllable  One  tone  sandhi  when  1947,p.27).  retains  s t a n d s a l o n e o r whether  syllable.  tones  In  its  tone  i t appears  with  rule  is  commonly  observed:  That  is,  followed  when  remain  starting  ( tone  1)  5:  ( tone  7)  upper  by a n o t h e r  a high entering will  an  53=  upper  tone  even even  ( t o n e 7,  high  tone tone  (tone  1, v a l u e 53:)  instead  h i g h a g a i n w i t h the second (53:+53:)>  1  1, v a l u e 53:)  v a l u e 5:), the  throughout,  /kou /+/sanV  (tone  of  syllable.  /kousan/  first  or  syllable  falling For  is  and  example,  (55:+53:)  'high  mountain' /kou /+/tsuk / 1  (2)  (53+5:)> / k o u t s u k /  7  'pupil'  Bian-yin  Unlike mechanical,  Tone  Sandhi  Bian-yin  usually  associated  familiar  thing  of  environment.  tonal  (55:+5:)  which  is  quite  automatic  i s morphologically conditioned. It with  or p e r s o n  a special one  often  kind  speaks  and is  of m e a n i n g , e . g . a of,  irrespective  When compared w i t h t h e same morphemes  44  which  are  Bian-yin  not  i n v o l v e d i n tone  a r e u s u a l l y more c o l l o q u i a l  In C a n t o n e s e , a  high  rising  upper  rising  level  tone  they  respectively. parentheses. / t ' o i V the  tone,  with  1972). In  presenting  indicated  be  underlying  by  tone  F o r example, / t ' u i * / stage',  and  a  the  a  high  (tone  1,  value  with  the  Bian-yin in this '*'  will  'table'  to  (2)  syllables  the h i g h l e v e l  (1)  and  be is  a  '®'  indicated derived  from <- y  i t i s shown as /t'oi*  in  a  in  data.  This  Bian-yin  t y p e makes up  Cantonese.  the  most  Some examples of t h i s  /jy*CO/  (33:>35:)  'trick'  /lei*  (23:>35:)  'plum'  addition  familarity, unimportance  to  having  associated and  /hTpu mun*C°>' 6  with  its  Bian-yin  in  follows:  meanings  specialized such  contemptuousness are  w e l l - k n o w n example  contrast  of  t y p e a r e as  /kpi* >/  In  cases  (21 :>35: ) ' f i s h '  C 5  in  and  3  will  style.  value s i m i l a r  35: ) ,  and  'terrace,  informal in  p r o d u c t s . They a r e  the tone  Bian-yin  The  and  t o t h e upper even tone  (a)The h i g h r i s i n g  One  two  ( t o n e 2, v a l u e  , similar  rising  study,  B i a n - y i n has  tone  55:)(Hashimoto, high  change, t h e morphemes w i t h  as  meaning of diminution,  sometimes  observed.  is :  (22:+21 : >22:+35: ) [tsi mun"] 3  'backdoor'  (33:+21:)'central  door  of  entrance'(Hashimoto,1972,p.94). Besides  nouns, a few  adverbs  and  verbs  a l s o belong  to  45  this  type of B i a n - y i n . /lcen * l p u *  (21 :+21 :>21 :+35:)  /ma'ma*^ The often  F o r example,  (21 :+21 :>21 :+ 35:)  conditioning  for Bian-yin  i t i s obligatory  ' i n turn'  'fair' i s not p r e d i c t a b l e .  Very  i n some c o m b i n a t i o n s b u t o p t i o n a l i n  others: obligatory optional: (b) This and  often  /spi^ui*^ ^ 6  'younger  sister'  / s i u r p " / or / s i u r p * 1  The h i g h  'roast  1  level  goose'  Bian-yin  type of B i a n - y i n  i s much more  limited  in  scale  c o n c e r n s nouns. F o r example,  / p ^ l e i (S^y  (55:+2l>55+55:) ' g l a s s '  /wu jiJ)©C^  ( 55: +2 1 :>55:+55:) ' f l y '  1  1  Again,  the  conditioning  for this  type  of B i a n - y i n i s  u n p r e d i c t a b l e . The same morphemes may u n d e r g o t h e change i n some e n v i r o n m e n t s b u t n o t i n o t h e r s . obligatory/tpi mei 6  ®0>y  F o r example,  ( 22 :+23 : >22 :+55 : ) ' t h e l a s t '  opt i o n a l : / s a u m e i */ o r / s a u m e i © C ^ ' f i n a l l y ' 1  1  5  46  Chapter  2:  Footnotes  1  Yuan  et a l . , op.cit.,p.179.  2  Both  p a r e n t s o f t h e major s u b j e c t  articulations in  Swatow  sibilants 3  product al. is  but  in their grew  s i b i l a n t s . The a u t h o r ,  up  in  Hong  Kong,  are a l s o pronounced with d e n t a l  Chao  (1930)  have who  notes  dental was  born  that  his  articulation.  a s s i g n e d a t o n e v a l u e o f 25: f o r t h i s  o f B i a n - y i n , whereas H a s h i m o t o  (1960) a s s i g n e d 35:. In t h i s recognised for this  Wai  product  (1972) and  study,  the tone  of B i a n - y i n .  Yuan  et  value  35:  47  CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS  3.1.  THE SUBJECTS This  study d e s c r i b e s the a c q u i s i t i o n  three c h i l d r e n One  of  learning  these,  Wai,  being  observed  other  two s u b j e c t s ,  Cantonese  Cantonese-speaking  subject  a boy named Wing, and  three children  were b o r n  phonology  native  f o ra period  were o b s e r v e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y All  as t h e i r  i s the primary  longitudinally  of  language.  i n the study,  o f one y e a r . The a  f o r purposes  and brought  by  girl,  Ching,  of comparison.  up i n e x c l u s i v e l y  families.  3.1.1. Wai Wai's p a r e n t s a r e n a t i v e father was  was  about  mother  born  i n Canton,  is  a native  she  should  of Canton,  Cantonese,  since  be  i n Hong  Kong.  and her f a t h e r ,  i s spoken.  considered  she c o u l d  Wai's  a n d moved t o Hong Kong when he  t w e l v e . Wai's mother was b o r n  Swatow, where a M i n d i a l e c t that  speakers of Cantonese.  a  Her  a n a t i v e of  Wai's mother c l a i m e d native  only understand  speaker  of  a few words o f  her  father's dialect.  Both  o f them came t o Canada  and  h a d been s e t t l e d  here  f o r • a b o u t 7 y e a r s when t h e f i r s t  visit  f o r the purpose Wai's f a m i l y  All  o f t a p i n g Wai took  lived  i n a house  non-Chinese  residents  who  lived  in  1970  place.  i n Chinatown,  t h e n e i g h b o r s o f Wai were C h i n e s e ,  in  except a  Vancouver. for a  low-cost  few  housing  48  project that  a block  area,  small  away t o t h e w e s t . L i k e most o f t h e homes i n  Wai's home was r a t h e r  kitchen,  a small  of Wai's a c t i v i t i e s living  as  12',  X  Wai  Wai replied  When  that  the  table  i n the  Wai's  a young g i r l  Master's degree outside. children  During  diploma.  of  nights  she s t a y e d  Wai  child of  Wai's did  t o get  i n the family,  age  during  not  paternal  the  mother, who h a d a seek  employment t h e two  grandparents  i n Canada t o j o i n Wai's o f Wai's  had  family speech  i n t h e basement o f t h e h o u s e .  kind,  i t i s of  was e s s e n t i a l l y  e n v i r o n m e n t . The e v i d e n c e  in  Wai's mother was t h e  t h e end o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n  of t h i s  firm  a t home l o o k i n g a f t e r  Wai's  s a m p l e s . They were l i v i n g  that  small  a week i n o r d e r  two months  a r r i v e d from Hong Kong  establish  for a  Therefore,  speech.  and t h e h o u s e .  months b e f o r e  p l a c e , Wai's f a t h e r , a  T h e r e was one o t h e r  Wai's  outside,  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e t a p i n g s , he  i n mathematics,  Instead,  In a s t u d y  took  working  who was a b o u t  taping  was h e a v y t r a f f i c  t h e h o u s e by h e r s e l f .  taping  c l a s s e s three  primary caretaker.  just  a  room. The  gone o u t o f t h e house t o p l a y ,  t o leave  first  accounting  first  a  asked  since there  Vancouver.  attending  his  had  p u t h e r t o y s . When  i n m a t h e m a t i c s , was  downtown was  had e v e r  was n o t a l l o w e d  Ph.D.  t o the l i v i n g with  a p l a y i n g t a b l e where Wai c o u l d  mother  It  T h i s was u s e d b o t h a s a d i n i n g t a b l e a n d , sometimes  whether  two  10'  and o l d .  room a n d two bedrooms. Most  were r e s t r i c t e d  room was a b o u t  corner.  living  small  that  this  course  crucial  i n a Chinese  to  learning  was t h e c a s e comes  from  49  several  sources.  conversations  In  could  even  proficiency. improve  they if  fact,  determine  spoken  not very  have  English  used  education  were b e t t e r ,  should  up  grow  Wai's p a r e n t s ,  immigrants The  i t  view  is  make  t h e mother  neighbors,  that  to  place  that  from  the  however, speech  told  on t e l e v i s i o n .  Wai's  speech  Wai c o u l d  (see Chapter  that  some  child  that  they  speak a n d w r i t e that  a l l the visited  mostly  recent  have been e x p o s e d the  Wai f r e q u e n t l y  T h u s , a few E n g l i s h  samples  televison. occupied  would  Kong.  was  in  me  people,  her  cartoons  even  occasions,  f r i e n d s who f r e q u e n t l y  t h a n C a n t o n e s e was from  I  that  their  indicated  language other home.  and  received  that  Wai c o u l d  were C a n t o n e s e - s p e a k i n g  only  they  they  On s e v e r a l  reported  and  that  on t h e use o f C h i n e s e was a  Chinese.  sure  ways t o  Second,  unlikely  e s p e c i a l l y t h e mother,  from Hong  English  English,  i s , they b e l i e v e d  learning  to  Chinese. Also,  family  of t h e i r  i n t h e home o f n e c e s s i t y .  one. That  the  of  t h e y a s k e d me t o s u g g e s t  i n Canada, t h e i r  relatives,  level  i t w i t h W a i . Though b o t h p a r e n t s  like  a l l the  E n g l i s h . Thus i t was f e l t  'traditional'  would  visits,  them speak E n g l i s h a n d  their  confident  used Cantonese  their  the  I r a r e l y heard  Occasionally,  their  were s t i l l  during  between b o t h p a r e n t s and me were c o n d u c t e d i n  Cantonese. not  First,  4 for  television liked words  a  English very  further  words  small  or  appeared up  phrases,  vocabulary  discussion).  in  t o watch  w h i c h might have been p i c k e d  These  only  to a  To  i n her Wai's  50  disappointment, during note  the year that  during said  the t e l e v i s i o n  often raised  t a p i n g s . For  [kei kei 1  6  of o r d e r  I t was  many  times  interesting  t h e c o n d i t i o n of  example,  lan lan ]  1  out  of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .  Wai  the  was  in Sessions  the  to  televison  1 and  3,  Wai  'machine b r o k e n ' ( r e f e r r i n g t o  6  the  television). In  short,  i t was  concluded  collection  of .  exclusively  Cantonese-speaking,  was  the  first  last  one  I  over  environment and  the  the  interacted  May  was  almost  exposure to E n g l i s h  one  year  between  the  d u r i n g subsequent  he  was  often  busy  one  of t h e All  the  described placed  usually  the  table  the  interactor  f a t h e r was  the  small  r e c o r d e r , a Uher  i n t h e c e n t e r of with  order  to  parents.  present  his  s e s s i o n s . At  when  and  involvment those  times,  courses  in  house.  t a p i n g s were made i n tape  data  7)  both  for his accounting  bedrooms i n t h e  a b o v e . The  on  studying  of  in  and  and  2; 8(11) .  for v i s i t s  done  Unfortunately,  active  was  (see T a b l e  the c h i l d  sessions,  the c h i l d .  Wai  of t h e day  Wai  days),  sessions  period,  less  two  when  five  a time  8,1977.when  fourteen  p r e s e n t . T h i s was  interaction  with  1 978  twenty  chose  two  p l a c e on May  was  was  her  months and  23,  were  would be  first  took  seven  this  purposely  parents  observe  on  there  collection  For  session  1;7(14)(one year  Altogether  both  Wai's  minimal. The  was  data,  t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of  the  the c h i l d ,  living  room  4000 R.I.C., room. The while  I  was  mother observed  51 T a b l e 7: D a t e s , a g e s , a n d numb e r o 6 f c c h i l d u t t e r a n c e s p r o d u c e d b y Wai f o r t w e n t y - f i v e S e s s i o n Number  sessions Age  Date o f V i s i t  Number o f C h i l d U t t  1;7(14)  285  21,1977  1;7(27)  340  3  J u n e 5,1977  1 ;8.(11)  253  4  J u n e 20,1977  1 8(26)  104  5  J u l y 5,1977  1;9(1D  270  6  J u l y 19,.1977  1;9(25)  393  7  Aug.2,1977  1;10(9)  294  8  Aug.16,1977  1;10(30)  351  9  Sept.12,1977  1 ;11(26)  342  10  Sept.27,1977  2;0(11)  333  11  Oct.13,1977  2;0(27)  332  12  Oct.27,1977  2;1(11)  299  13  Nov.10,1977  2;1(24)  356  14  Nov.28,1977  2;2(12)  271  15  Dec.15,1977  2:3  310  16  Jan.3,1978  2;3(18)  294  17  Jan.16,1978  2;4(1)  294  18  Feb.1,1978  2;4(17)  299  19  Feb.15,1978  2;5(2)  303  20  Mar.6,1978  2;5(22)  273  21  Mar.20,1978  2j6(7)  298  22  Apr.3,1978  2;6(21)  311  23  Apr.20,1978  2;?(8)  256  24  May  2;7(27)  232  25  May 23,1978  2;8(11)  281  1  May 8,1977  2  May  9,1978  B i r t h d a y : S e p t e m b e r 24,1975  5  52  and  t o o k n o t e s on t h e n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n a t t h e  of  each  utterance.  interpret  would be d i s c u s s e d  completion The  first  with  of the t a p i n g .  mother  language during  about  Wai  sessions,  her  toys  and  kitchen  to  any  Wai's  Lego b l o c k s ,  partner Wai to  of  name  the  spent  an h o u r .  conversing  was d o i n g  with her  h a l f hour  was  c h i l d . In with  d r a w i n g p i c t u r e s on some b l a n k Sometimes, she r a n  b u t would come back she  was  busy  to  right  with  the  away.  her  own  emotional  functioned  very  and  verbal  smoothly as a  i n t e r a c t e d a great  behaviors.  conversational deal.  Whenever  t h e s e s s i o n , h e r mother would ask Wai  objects  in  Wai was t a u g h t  the  Chinese  these objects  Pictorial  before,  Book.  b e c a u s e she  c o r r e c t l y name most o f them i n t h e book. Her f a v o r i t e  activity  was p u t t i n g a l l h e r t o y s  and  then  fall  on t h e f l o o r .  her  pick  her.  was  the  seemed t h a t my p r e s e n c e d i d n o t c a u s e  her  bored during  Apparently could  i t  f o r Wai and t h e y  felt  took about  the c h i l d  her t r i c y c l e .  and  mother  after  t h e time p l a y i n g and t a l k i n g  get something,  disturbance  mother  b r i g h t and h i g h l y v e r b a l  D u r i n g most o f t h e s e s s i o n s , activities,  I c o u l d not  taping.  she s p e n t  p a p e r , and r i d i n g  that  two weeks. The n e x t  was a h e a l t h y ,  most  the  session  how  the past  to actual  with  Each s e s s i o n  h a l f hour o f e a c h  the  devoted  Any c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e  time  pushing  up  the  one by one  into  a  box,  t h e box u p s i d e down t o l e t a l l t h e t o y s Then toys  she would a s k h e r and p u t them back  mother  to  help  i n t o t h e box f o r  53  There over  were o n l y two  t h e 25  sessions.  mechanical  problem  deviations  In S e s s i o n 4, with  the  u t t e r a n c e s were c o l l e c t e d . t a p e s was a  who  was  Otherwise,  r e p l a c e me.  She  was  Session  w i t h me  8  I was  also a native taught  above an  the  only  104  of  the  quality  out of town, and  asked  of Cantonese,  procedure  first  format  unexpected  r e c o r d e r , and  speaker  the  t o observe  the  t h e r e was  tape  good. F o r S e s s i o n 9,  friend,  from  and  to  attended  hand t h e a c t u a l  taping  process.  3.1.2. C h i n g Ching, a g i r l , Ontario.  Her  was  father  P r o v i n c e where a Min Hong Kong when he Cantonese,  was  when  was  for far  she  more t h a n as  spoken  a  May  native  2,1977 of  i s spoken,  f o u r . Her  i n Shanghai  twenty  in  Chaoan, G u a n g t o n g but  he  mother, a n a t i v e but a l s o  Toronto,  left  moved  to  speaker  of  f o r Hong Kong  of them l i v e d  i n Hong Kong  y e a r s b e f o r e e m i g r a t i n g t o Canada.  determine,  Cantonese  was  the o n l y  As  language  i n t h e home. s i n c e C h i n g was  provide  speech  Ching's  speech,  collected, 2;2(29).  taping,  on  v e r y young. Both  I could  Ever  and  is  dialect  was  born  born  samples  of  the  mother  Ching.  So  I was  following able to  took  place  ages: be in  each,  0;1(10),  present her  was  asked  f a r four  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m i n u t e s  at the  which  born,  home  tapes of  have  1;6(2),  during  to  the  been  1;8 < 5 ) , third  in Toronto.  The  54  procedure  was s i m i l a r  to that  with the c h i l d  w h i l e I took  situation  the  at  time  C h i n g was p l a y i n g  plastic  cup  also to  busy  each  was  the  non-linguistic  utterance.  and t a l k i n g  During  as  t o g e t some i c e - c r e a m f o r h e r s e l f ,  less  the  w i t h h e r t o y s and  o r d e r s from h e r m o t h e r , s u c h  t o t h e bedroom t o g e t a p e n c i l Ching  of  interacted  a  t h e M a c d o n a l d ' s hamburger c h a i n . She was  following  the kitchen  notes  of  session,  from  o f W a i . The mother  independent  f o r me. G e n e r a l l y  going  or going speaking,  t h a n Wai. She u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d  her mother w h e r e v e r she went.  3.1.3. Wing Wing, a boy, was b o r n Ontario.  Wing's  Province,  left  born  with  native  he came t o Canada i n  i n Hong Kong and c o u l d  Wing was a b o u t Kong  a  8, 1979 i n of  Chaoan, Guangtong  eight  his  1977.  months o f a g e , he went  parents  for  t o pursue Two  business  sessions,  r e c o r d e d . The f i r s t  Wing's  nine  back  about  half  an  hour  each,  was when Wing was 0 ; 4 ( 2 0 ) ,  2;0(6).  g o t b o r e d when p l a y i n g  activities  in  Hong  were  tape  consisted  second  and was done  Wing was a v e r y a c t i v e  his  Hong  interests.  when easily  to  remained  The  was  When  months. He r e t u r n e d t o  t o l o o k a t 'mother t a l k ' . Wing  mother  speak o n l y C a n t o n e s e .  T o r o n t o w i t h h i s mother, w h i l e h i s f a t h e r Hong  Toronto,  f o r Hong Kong when he was two. He grew up i n  Hong Kong u n t i l was  father,  on F e b r u a r y  with just  session  one  took  place  c h i l d , and  t o y . Most  o f r u n n i n g back a n d f o r t h  of  i n the  55  house. Consequently, his  speech.  During  interactors. elder the  One was h i s m o t h e r , a n d t h e o t h e r  observer, place  again  in their  asking  picture  cards  vocabulary.  f a m i l y room w i t h  He  to  could  only  c o r r e c t l y . When Wing g o t  Generally verbal  3.2.  remained  t h e door  taping  teach  bored  speaking,  with  of  this  taping  with  the  of Chinese  children  half  as  l o c k e d so  began  young  recall  him h i s f a v o r i t e  keep h i s a t t e n t i o n  by t h r e e  two were h i s  Wing t o name o b j e c t s i n a s e r i e s designed  gave  I  t o tape  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g notes.The  i n a small  mother  simple  the o b j e c t s  activity,  his  t o y s one by one i n o r d e r t o  a n d c a r r y on t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h h i m . Wing was p h y s i c a l l y  active  and  rather  f o r h i s age.  TRANSCRIPTION  3.2.1.  Procedure  The and  mid-teens.  Wing c o u l d n o t r u n away. The  cousins  difficult  t h e t a p i n g , Wing was s u r r o u n d e d  c o u s i n s who were  took that  i t was c o m p a r a t i v e l y  tapes  a universiy  Philosophy  were t r a n s c r i b e d by m y s e l f student  who  better  in  Asian  ( T r a n s c r i b e r 2 ) . We a r e b o t h  C a n t o n e s e , a n d have t r a i n i n g Uher  was  Lehrgerat playback  tape  i n phonetic  recorder  (Transcriber 1 )  was u s e d  Studies  and  n a t i v e speakers of transcription. i n order  A  t o get a  s y s t e m . A l l t h e t a p i n g s o f t h e odd-numbered  s e s s i o n s were f i r s t  t r a n s c r i b e d by T r a n s c r i b e r 1 -and  were  56  doublechecked tapings  of  a  Phonetic  child,  as  doublechecked tapings  the  any  the  discrepancy  by used and  between  was  discussed  utterances  used  was  that  Association. Everything  well  as  any n e c e s s a r y included  were t r a n s c r i b e d  special  were  transcribing  child's  system  i n f o r m a t i o n , was  utterances  although  the  first  were  purposes.  transcription  situational Adult  and  After  session,  for reference  International the  2  a l l the  were  t h a t were t r a n s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t l y  The  to  of  the t r a n s c r i b e r s . A l l of  numbered  Accordingly, sessions  during  transcription.  doublechecking  by  Transcriber  1. N o t e s t a k e n  the  2.  even-numbered  by  Transcriber  utterances  Transcriber  the  transcribed  during  by  attention  was  of  said  by  the or  non-linguistic  i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  somewhat given  more  to  broadly,  their  initial  from e a c h o f t h e s p e e c h s a m p l e s  Session  consonants.  3.2.2. I n t e r j u d g e  Reliability  100 u t t e r a n c e s 1 and S e s s i o n broad The the  10 were s e l e c t e d f o r a r e l i a b i l i t y  transcriptions  test  of  both  indicated  of  the  i n Table  child's  80%.  the  initials  and  The r e s u l t s a r e  8.  (1) The agreement was h i g h e r finals,  of both  utterances.  Three g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d  in  The  t r a n s c r i b e r s were compared.  i n v o l v e d the comparison  finals  test.  Both  be made from t h e r e s u l t s : in i n i t i a l s ,  transcribers felt  that  88.5%, vowels  than showed  57  T a b l e 8:  Results  Transcriber  of interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y  1 and T r a n s c r i b e r Session 1  test  between  2 S e s s i o n 10  Average  86%  91%  88.5%  78%  82%  80%  Average (I+F/2)  82%  86.5%  84.25%  Tone  94%  96%  95%  Initial Final  (I)  (F)  58  more  phonetic  free  consonants. This the  vowels l e s s (2)  The  v a r i a t i o n and  often  made t h e  agreement was  higher  86.5%  than  in Session  to  suggest  that  (a)  stable  agreement (3) results in  and  was  were c l e a r than  the  10  is  felt  and  11  a  of  the  was  the  in  the  higher  tones. 1,  and  child's  The  an  96% Both  utterances  to  a sample  of  I t was  of  those,  done  transcription  transcribe  100  both  and  has  3). had  transcription  and  To  from  independently  Transcriber  initials  first  utterances  (Transcriber  C a n t o n e s e . Her by  the  transcriber.  transcribed  Cantonese  done  independently, of  second  in l i n g u i s t i c s  Again,  more  transcribers.  were not  the  in t r a n s c r i b i n g  2.  of  child's the  hence,  high  two  on  selected.  to  was,  done,  finals.  effect  speaker  seems  style  the  in Session  t o n e s of  the  student  average  This  the  of  They were much e a s i e r  that  an  82%.  child  rather  the  the  an  10,  transcribers.  agreement  that  or  had  compared  Transcriber  analysis  became w i t h  the  transcriptions  native  experience then  94%  stable.  the  a universiy  the  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were  s y s t e m , and  was  this possibility,  Session  is  two  between  possible  transcriber check  an  initials  Since it  phonological  indicate  a v e r a g e of  substitutions older  agreement  transcribers  an  more t h e  the  between t h e  Session  1,  and  (b)  her  The  the  in Session  transcribers  alternations  utterances,  by  the  more f a m i l i a r t h e  word  d e t a i l s of  than  clear-cut.  of  the  less s t a b i l i t y  She some was  1  and  finals  were  59  considered. The  The r e s u l t s a r e shown  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that  between T r a n s c r i b e r s Transcribers and  finals.  2  3.3. DATA  was an 82.5% agreement between  and 3 on t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  1  Transcribers  there  9.  1 and 3, and an 82% agreement  Moreover, t h e r e  Transcribers  in Table  and  3,  was an and  an  initials  95%  agreement  between  97%  agreement  between  2 and 3 on t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f o f t h e t o n e s .  ANALYSIS  Although there study  of  Chinese  years,  the analyses  has been an i n c r e a s e d  language a c q u i s i t i o n d u r i n g  in  their  comments  the  procedures.  following,  informal  Instead,  taken  in  the  the l a s t ten  to date are conspicuously  non-quantitative like  interest  or  one f i n d s  from  L.H. L i  (1968,p.302): "The  following  sound  system a t . . . . I t  observation The an  present explicit  is.a brief  rather  study  Since  than  of a s c i e n t i f i c the f i r s t  attempt  of c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g  a n a l y s i s u s e s Ingram  t o propose  is  different  modifications  of  procedures  s t u d i e s t o be  done  is in a  f o r the  Cantonese.  (1981) a s i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . from the  m e a s u r e s have been made. One o f t h e Ingram's  analysis."  s e t o f a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s and c r i t e r i a  Cantonese  respects,  of the c h i l d ' s  i s the r e s u l t of  represents  phonological.analysis The  summary  English  in  procedures, reasons  that  they allow  more  -analytic  several  forms  for  adopting  comparison -and  and  across  quantitative  60  T a b l e 9:  R e s u l t s of i n t e r j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y  a ) T r a n s c r i b e r 1 and  3,  and  b) T r a n s c r i b e r  test  between  2 and  Transcriber  3 Transcribers  1 & 3  Transcribers  Init i a l (I)  89%  85%  Final  76%  79%  82.5%  82%  95%  97%  Average  (F)  (I+F/2) Tone  2 &  3  61  manner.  Four  presented, of  kinds  of  these being  reduplication,  process  been d e s i g n e d  to  Appendix  1  (1)  (3)  phonological  phonetic  analysis,  analysis . A the  data  description  of  3.3.1. The  Monosyllables  of  will (2)  analysis set  1  sample  their  analyses  substitution  record  for  phonological  in  of  these  these,  analysis  ,  seven  be  and  (4)  forms have  analyses  and  the  (see  following  use).  or  Zi_  as  the  Basic  Unit  of  Analysis Chao Chinese ''zi' life  (1947)  distinguishes  s p e e c h , namely or  as  a  'the  change*  which  a  office  monosyllable'  of  child  children  to  this  kind  /jPn*/  'man,  (1947).  one  also  can  be  or  more  are  to  write  say, in  the  of  subunits  same p a r t  It  .is  which  /tei /  him,  commonest of  a teacher which  in  in Chinese  kind  a  for...(p.37)'.  'sky',  to  the  i s 'the  school,  c h a r g e s you 1  thing  teaches telegraph  Examples  for  'earth',  6  and  person'. kind  is called  In a n a l y s i n g  the  syllables. syllable,  These are  ' c i ' or  a l w a y s the  but  often  Chinese  of  terms this  by  speech,  monosyllable  that  c o m b i n a t i o n s of  two  u n i t s , u s u a l l y made up  learned  Examples  ' s y n t a c t i c word'  s t r u c t u r e of  i t i s not  independently,  words (Chao,1947). 2  plays  speech. It  /t'in /  f i n d s that  spoken  t h a n one  and  kinds  ' c i ' . According  English.  everyday  and  second  Chao  in  learns  read  counts  The  ' z i ' and  'word' p l a y s  'small  two  and kind  not are  of  more  everyday /fei kei / 1  1  62  'fly/plane-aeroplane', and  /fei kei 1  further  under  claims  "random",  but  "blackbird"  type.  phonology The  a  down  English  like  words  practice  common  type  into  of  in  words w i l l  as [ l a n l a n ] 6  6  n o t be b r o k e n  distinct  with  the  to  following  down i n t o  terms,  discuss different  below a r e u s e d Child:  H /fan / 1  taken  dimensions  to exemplify  from  1  [fan ] 6  [fPn ] 6  1  'flower'  Chinese  will  [fa ] 1  be  The o n l y  where  syllables.  Terms Ingram  of the data  these:  [fan ]  unit  reduplicated  two d i s t i n c t  (2 t i m e s )  1  /fa /  of  word'  child's  [wpn ] 'rice'  as the b a s i c  syllables.  1  6  "strawberry",  1972, and o t h e r s ) .  [fPn ]  /fan /  'ci''.  type a r e not  studies  Age: 1;5 'return'  of  ' b r o k e n , r e d u p l i c a t e d form',  3.3.2. G l o s s a r y o f some F u n d a m e n t a l The  are  "particular",  the  of ' c i ' or ' s y n t a c t i c  separate  type  words  ' z i ' h a s been a d o p t e d  i s when d e a l i n g  such  They  of t h i s  ( e . g . Wong, 1940, H a s h i m o t o ,  exception forms,  black/board-blackboard',  examples  the  more  polysyllable  broken  1  'the p o l y s y l l a b l e  that as  study,  of a n a l y s i s ,  2  1  q u i t e as c l o s e - k n i t  In t h i s  7  si / 'fly/plane/person-pilot'.  1  sometimes c l a s s i f i e d Chao  /frpk pan /  (3 t i m e s )  (1981) a r e u s e d base.  The d a t a  63  [fan ] 1  / t s ' f c / 'car'  [ts'g. ]  1  1  (a) L e x i c a l Type : An a d u l t s y l l a b l e used by the c h i l d . The data above represent four l e x i c a l  types,  namely, / f a n / , 1  ' r e t u r n ' , / f a n / ' r i c e ' , / f a / 'flower', and / t s ' g , / 'car'. 6  1  1  (b) Phonetic Token : Any attempt t o produce a l e x i c a l For  example,  type.  the s y l l a b l e / f a n / ' r e t u r n ' has four, / f a n / 1  6  ' r i c e ' has four, / f a / 'flower' has two, and / t s ' £ / 'car' 1  1  has one. A l t o g e t h e r there.are eleven phonetic  tokens  i n the  data. (c)  Phonetic  particular phonetic has  Type  :  A  l e x i c a l type. types.  distinct In  /fan / 1  the  phonetic data,  there  are  eight  ' r e t u r n ' has t h r e e , / f a n /  'rice'  6  two, / f a / 'flower' has two, and / t s ' g / 1  1  (d) Phonet i c Form : A d i s t i n c t phonetic of  lexical  type.  d a t a . They are [fa ], 1  There  [fan ],  r e p r e s e n t s two phonetic phonetic  forms.  different  tones  are 1  [wpn ], 1  the  independent forms i n the  [fan ], 6  phonetic  types. I t only counts  form once  [fpn ], 6  [fan ] 1  i n the  treated  as  different  syllables  or  vs. / f a n / . 6  PHONETIC ANALYSIS The  a  shape  S y l l a b l e s with the same segments but with  'words', e . g . / f a n /  3.4.  that  'car' has one.  seven phonetic  1  Notice  1  are [fpn ],  1  [ts'g ].  shape f o r any  child  inventory  phonetic a n a l y s i s examines the speech sounds that produces, of  the  the  end  child's  product  consonants,  being  a  phonetic  vowels, and b a s i c  64  syllable is  s t r u c t u r e s . In t h i s  treated  emphasis adult  as  a  target  speech  Forms,  sounds,  Lexicon  Sheet  phonological  data,  :  This  arranged  models.  types  Sheet(s),  i s described  and p h o n e t i c  as d e f i n e d , r e f e r s  the  child,  and  form  i n the  records  Syllables  are  entered  are  type,  the  transcription,  forms  Lexical  Sheet  assigned  t o each of the l e x i c a l  arrangement  a  phonological  a  broad  of the data  retrieval sample  in  they  i n such  data  Sheet  in Section  from  Lexical  phonetic  A  phonetic  utterances onto number types.  the is The  one t o have a  speech  f o r m s . The  based  on  the  type.  the o r i g i n a l  entered  a way a l l o w s  3.3.2.:  headings,  lexical  transcription.  of the c h i l d ' s Lexicon  are  of  a t t e m p t e d by  the c h i l d ' s  and  order  two  child's  of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r on  child's  indicated.  the  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . Although i n narrow  Sheet-  the  alphabetical  types,  phonetic  or p r o d u c t i o n s  is  the  below:  to the adult s y l l a b l e  production  quick  than  (2) I n v e n t o r y  At the t o p of the s h e e t ,  type,  are  rather  (3) Item and R e p l i c a S h e e t , and (4) Summary  S h e e t . The use o f e a c h  lexical  ( S m i t h , 1 9 7 3 ) . The  a n a l y s i s makes use o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r  f o r m s : They a r e (1) L e x i c o n  adult  speech  sounds.  phonetic  Phonetic  the c h i l d ' s  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d system  i s on t h e c h i l d ' s  The  the  analysis,  3  following  hypothetical  65  types lexical 1  •"  l - ll  fa  fa  3  fan.  fan  h  1  Name & Age o f Child  1  phonetic  independent forms  is  initial  5  f a n . \zl fpn  1  1  1  -  f>n  6  1 8t s ' e  1  Inventory Sheet-Phonetic a  ;  b  b  tS'£  fan  1  1  15 wpn 1 6 f a n (3X 7  4  No.  H  12 2  Session  phonetic  form  refers  to  of l e x i c a l t y p e . entered  onto  Forms a  : As mentioned  distinct  Each of the  before,  phonetic child's  shape phonetic  the I n v e n t o r y S h e e t , based on  segment. P h o n e t i c  forms t h a t have the same  its  initial  segments are e n t e r e d i n t o the same box on the S h e e t . W i t h i n each  box,  there  are  s y l l a b l e s go i n t o the Consonant and  (CVC)  t h r e e columns: left-most  syllables  Consonant-Vowel-Glide  middle  column.  some h y p o t h e t i c a l  These data.  are  Consonant-Vowel  column,  Consonant-Vowel-  go i n t o the r i g h t - m o s t (CVG)  (CV)  syllables  go  column, into  the  shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of  66  CV  1  CVG  CVC  pa —A—.  n a u• —J—jc.  1  p ,  PD  1  1  i  ' i- p~a t -  ?  |fei  1  1  nasal  specially hand  will a  1  i  i  t o t h e above  finals,  assigned  4  l o u  1  to  1  1  1  1  arrangement  i . e . /m/,  / r j / " . These  a box w h i c h  i s f o r the  two f i n a l s a r e  i s i n the lower  of t h e s y l l a b i c  two  nasal  right-  will  be  on as f o l l o w s :  a  single  lexical  be c o n n e c t e d w i t h  below:  tie-bar  Consonants  I  a l l the p h o n e t i c  vertical  shown  1  \  I type,  1  1  Syllabic  If  1  I  c o r n e r . Any o c c u r r e n c e  entered  tPm  1  1  exception  31  \  J  1  1  1  syllabic  CVC  !  f ? n ^  |  only  1  I  i  fu^|  The  t a  t a i  2  |  i f a  CVG  to  8  PT?u 1 PTtt' 1 i 7 I p i u I p a t  | 1  CV  1——  1  types  type  has more  that begin  a tie-bar.  for /fan/ , 1  than  with  An example  one  phonetic  t h e same  sound  o f t h e use  'return' [ f a n ] , 1  of  [fpn ] is 1  67  CV  cvc  cvc  I  l^fan  I  I  1  -  the  lexical  child  has  type.  An  hypothetical  data  N  I  I Here  1  I  produced  two  phonetic  forms  example o f a h o r i z o n t a l i s /wan / 2  'to  play'  for  tie-bar  [wa ], 2  one  f o r some  [wan ],  and  2  [wau ]: 2  CV  The  tie-bar  produced  lexical  types  1  [fan ] 1  circled  (2 on  that  times  i s shown by  f o r m . The  /fa /  CVC  these  three  a  phonetic  counting  phonetic  'flower'  form  would  form  lexical  [fan ]  be  1  Lexical  Sheet,  e.g.  occurs types  across  beside  the  for / f a n / 'return'  entered  t i m e s ) . T h e s e homonymous l e x i c a l the  forms were a l l  same word.  number o f  phonetic ,and  indicates  f o r the  The  CVG  1  i n the types  / f / box are  as  also  68  types lexical  1  1  phonetic  (fantO  f a I  fani 1  '  1  For  an  example  of c o m p l e t e d I n v e n t o r y  S h e e t , see A p p e n d i x  1 . I tern and R e p l i c a sheet  is  Phonetic page,  to  summarize  diagrams  consonants,  and two a t  syllabic  consonants  analysis.  The number  The  into  sounds  in  following  that  times)  topmost follows:  part  box  bottom  diagrams  for  into vocalics, for  the  the  final  sake  of p h o n e t i c  the  on  of  forms  are  child's  a  for  blank  Sheeton  the  initial  finals.  The  more each  and  detailed sound  is  o f t h e page. are  to  be  f o r the t a r g e t  to the l e f t . o f how  t h e Item and R e p l i c a  initial  3  word / p ' a i /  of t h e Item and R e p l i c a  3  consonants  S h e e t . Suppose, f o r  has t h e f o r m s : [ p ' a i ] ,  f o r the a d u l t  this  c o n s o n a n t s , and  productions  boxes  i s an example  the c h i l d  of  from t h e I n v e n t o r y  t h e two box d i a g r a m s on t h e l e f t  with  recorded  example, (4  the  i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  The  objective  the t o p of the Cantonese  two d i a g r a m s on t h e r i g h t  filled  are  the data  for  a r e b r o k e n down  entered  : The main  Forms. T h e r e a r e f o u r major  two  finals  Sheet  and  [ppi ]  'to d i s t r i b u t e ' .  Sheet w i l l  appear  3  The as  69  Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e  Initials m  p  In  the  left  indicates began child's  the  box  diagram,  the  produced  a [ p ' J . The d i a g r a m  substitution  times).  P4  f  that the c h i l d  with  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  for  Accordingly,  the  with  entry one  of 1 next  phonetic  on t h e r i g h t adult's  indicate  type  that  shows t h a t t h e  /p'/  t h e same d a t a ,  two b o t t o m d i a g r a m s t h a t  t o /p'/  was  [p]  (4  t h e t o p l i n e of  syllable  finals  will  have t h e f o l l o w i n g m a r k i n g s :  b) S y l l a b l e  Finals  Vocalics  I  i  J  Consonants  u  au  b) S y l l a b l e  P  Finals  Vocalics  In  cases  with  phonetic  number o f p h o n e t i c lexical  t y p e s , e.g.  forms  Conssnants  types is  connected  entered  over  by t i e - b a r s , t h e the  number  of  0  70 Inventory CVG  CV  w  2  a  She^t-R^t,ic  T ,wau  form  Ii!iL^nd__Replica  Sheet  cvc  2-p 1  wan  2 w  I  The  entry  were  3 phonetic  done  so  case  of 3/1  that  o f t h e Item and R e p l i c a S h e e t  types,  one w i l l  i t i s o n l y used  phonetic  types  forms o v e r  Inventory CV  but o n l y  not count  a segment  i n one s y l l a b l e .  are entered  a l s o with  t h e number of l e x i c a l  Sheet-Phonetic form.  CVG  one l e x i c a l  Cases  shows  type.  This  is  as f r e q u e n t i n with  multiple  t h e number o f  types,  there  phonetic  e.g.  I t e m and R e p l i c a  Sheet  CVC  fan  fa  L On  the  Item  indicating lexical count  and  Replica  that there are  types.  This  is  a sound as f r e q u e n t  phonetic  context.  Sheet, two done  / f /  phonetic  forms  in order  i f i t occurs  i s marked by for  2/3, three  t h a t one w i l l  only  in  the  not same  71  Summary summarize  Sheet  the  :  results  the  Phonetic  (1)  Information the  tokens,  and  phonetic  (2) The  criterion  Ingram  (1981),  child's  phonetic  number of  times.  proposed  a way  of  least  number  in  frequent,  The  once e v e r y  the  form  25  types,  the  phonetic  argued  occurs  a  appropriate  divides , and  (3)  to  I  one  had  frequency.  into  for three  transitional.  is actually  s u b d i v i d e d as  a fourth  infrequent  c r i t e r i o n of  considered  propose  a  certain  frequency  sounds  in  p a r t of  however, no  i t approximates  syllable  frequency  the  be  used  'used*. T h i s number  of  -a  criterion  for  is  different  for  Cantonese. frequency final  following calculation and  As  i s t h a t a sound s h o u l d  Below  and  number  For  This records  phonetic  words t o be  adapted  l e x i c a l types this  of  (2) u s e d  c r i t e r i o n of p h o n e t i c  initials,  i s to  i s shown:  considered  it  i n Ingram., t h e r e  in s i m p l i f i e d  initial  Then,  be  sounds n e v e r u s e d . ) The  syllable  the  not  u s e d , w h i c h c o u l d be  frequency  size:  frequency:  i s an  essence  consonants.  phonetic  of  what  i s s e l e c t e d because  English  sheet  analyses.  phonetic  unless  criterion  discussed  at  this  of  the above study,  to decide  (Though not  proposed  sample  phonetic  Until  (1)  and  kinds  types,  inventory  which  of  following information  a sound s h o u l d  a  task  forms.  categories:  sounds  four  the  lexical  Ingram p r o p o s e d  not  major  the  regarding  of  category,  of  A n a l y s i s , the  number  English,  The  phonetic  i s d i v i d e d by  segments. For i s made. F i r s t ,  forms 19 and  syllable the  sum  by  2.  rounded o f f to  the  is  divided  72  nearest  whole  assumption  number. N i n e t e e n i s c h o s e n on  that,  given  19  initial  any  sound u s e d by t h e c h i l d  any  random s e l e c t i o n  The  result  sound  in  a  considered Here that  of  of  this  should  i s an example  90 p h o n e t i c  sample  f o r m s . The  Criterion  forms o r l e x i c a l  needs  this  consists  of  following  of  o  to  occur  types.  to  o  i s calculated. 130  lexical  f o r m u l a would > *  n  = 110  (  ;  be  size  by  19  sound would  of  110  (after  yields  6,  need t o o c c u r  dividing  which  in this  be  and  used:  n  5-7  )  19  o f t h e l e x i c a l t y p e s and p h o n e t i c  mean sample  Suppose  types  ±f£ =  2  Frequency  divided  in  i s t h e number o f t i m e s a  o f how  6  sum  once  'used' by t h e c h i l d .  the c h i l d ' s  The  occur a t l e a s t  calculation sample  arbitrary  consonants i n Cantonese,  19 p h o n e t i c  particular  the  by  forms g i v e s us a 2). This  number  i s t h e number o f t i m e s a sample  to  be  considered  'used' by t h e c h i l d . The sounds (3)  into  (1) sounds  frequent  above  as  segments Replica of  c r i t e r i o n of f r e q u e n c y makes i t p o s s i b l e used,  sounds. I t i s  follows: i s entered  First,  (2) t r a n s i t i o n a l  used the  on  S h e e t . N e x t , a l l t h e sounds  lower  number  2/3,  then  i s u s e d . F o r example, 2  is  compared  sheet  frequency  on t h e t o p l e f t  f r e q u e n c y a r e c i r c l e d . I f two  the  display that  numbers  to  divide  sounds,  and  described  of the  child's  o f t h e Item  and  meet t h e c r i t e r i o n are  i f a sound  given, i s entered  the as  t o t h e c r i t e r i o n of f r e q u e n c y .  73  Sounds t h a t  do  not meet  the  considered  transitional  frequency  is  at  example,  if  [p']  then  is transitional,  [p']  above  one  half  purposes). than  example,  of  5,  Sounds t h a t  for  each  20  divided and  which  the heading  t h e a n a l y s i s as  they  ®*%  equals  i s 2.5  of  frequency  an  the c r i t e r i o n .  For  the  criterion  is  i s 3 times  beyond  Finally  all  t h e Summary S h e e t  i s an  example  r e c o r d e d on  t h e Summary  the  showing how Item  and  the  5,  of  under  Replica  results Sheet  Sheet.  Phonetic A n a l y s i s  Initials a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  p  p'  m  ts  ts'  Cf)  ®%  4  ®% kv'  more  Initial'.  ©% ®%  ©%  but  by  4 which  on  i s 5,  practical  a r e marked  double  For  criterion  (or 3 f o r  shown p * * * * .  ©% ®% kw  4 i s below  t i m e s and  Child's phonetic inventory a) S y l l a b l e  are  criterion.  the c r i t e r i o n  ' f r e q u e n t ' , and  i s summarized  'Syllable  following  e n t e r e d onto  5  frequency  the  meet t h e c r i t e r i o n  t p ' ] would be  information  The  since  time  by  of  4 t i m e s and  i f [ p ' ] o c c u r s 20  criterion, this  occurs  of  placed in parenthesis i f their  one-half  once a r e c o n s i d e r e d  asterisk  then  least  and  criterion  09 ^  S  .CO)  h  of are  74  The  use  of  segments, w h i c h and  final  the  criterion  consist  of  of v o c a l i c s ,  consonants,  is  the  frequency syllabic  for  consonants,  same as above e x c e p t  numbers o t h e r t h a n  19 a r e u s e d . T h i s  differs  (1981)  the  for i n i t i a l  who  uses  segments. F o t figure the  final  based  on  Cantonese  at least  forms  or l e x i c a l  criterion figure  syllabic  any  the  consonants  there  that  only,  namely, t h e n e g a t i v e marker  number  i s assigned.  calculation: or  62%,  end  into  consonants, or  Of  that  divided  for  the  is  the This 55  vocalics,  is  child of  18 p h o n e t i c  are  only  two  A)/.  and  based  on  and  o f 20  following  there are  2 syllabic  yields  (see  arbitrary  the  consonants,  Of  syllable  the  c o n s o n a n t s . When t h e  18 v o c a l i c s  the  arbitrary  t o . one  consonants,  in  should  i n c o l l o q u i a l speech  syllabic  a t o t a l of 20. Hence 62%  18 v o c a l i c s  namely, /m/,  f i n a l s i n Cantonese,  with f i n a l  there are  final  arbitrary  1. T h i s  limited  final  calculating  fact  t h e s y l l a b i c /m/  4).  for  that  Ingram  and  an  the  is  i n Cantonese,  footnote  given  consonants  two,  12  that  number  from  used  u s e d by  these  As  is  random s e l e c t i o n  The  syllabic on  sound  i n any  types.  i s based  18  the assumption  once  for  number  vocalics,  finals,  occur  same  final  34,  f i n a l s are and  final  consonants  a whole number o f  12. Here  i s an example of how  this  is calculated  s e g m e n t s . L e t us assume a sample o f  130  90 p h o n e t i c f o r m s . The  frequency w i l l  final  vocalics  and  c r i t e r i o n of  9 for final  lexical  for  consonants, as  types be  final and 6 for  shown below:  75  Final  Vocalics  Criterion Final  o f Frequency  2|2=  (  I l O , - ^  = 6.1  )  = 7.8  )  Consonants  Criterion  The  6_  o f Frequency  determination  final  sounds  of  ( ^ f - = 110; 2  the used, t r a n s i t i o n a l  i s t h e same a s e x p l a i n e d  Two M e a s u r e s o f inventory  9_  Phonetic  i s determined,  Ability  and  for i n i t i a l  :  After  frequent sounds.  the  phonetic  t h e r e a r e two m e a s u r e s o f p h o n e t i c  ability  t h a t a r e c a l c u l a t e d . The f i r s t ,  Sounds  i s t h e sum o f t h e sounds t h a t meet t h e c r i t e r i o n  frequency Summary  for syllable Sheet  exemplified summary  initial  includes  below.  and  a place  the T o t a l  final  positions.  f o r these  ( A l s o see A p p e n d i x  Number o f  1  The  t o be shown, a s  for  a  completed  sheet).  Syllable  Initial  Number o f S o u n d s  Syllable 5  (2):  Final  Number o f Sounds  p  m  (f)  m*  t*  n  (1)  p  n (t)  ts T o t a l Number o f Sounds f o r b o t h Final  of  8  (3)  Syllable  Initial  and  3 :(1)  76  The  second  measure  i s the A r t i c u l a t i o n  a more p r e c i s e measure t h a n This  measure  inventory frequent points of  assigns  i n the sound  to  the  points  following  way:  those  which are  sounds three  one  'used',  point  to  score  i s calculated separately  then  added  for  a total  t h e above example  i s as  (t*)  2X4  (p,m,n,ts)  Sounds.  i n the  phonetic  points one  The  for  asterisk),  i . e . meet  for i n i t i a l s  which i s  of  the  transitional  score.  finals,  Articulation  two  criterion  sounds.  and  each  The and  Score f o r  follows: A.S.  Initial  3 X 1  1 X 2  to  Number  ( i . e . those with at l e a s t  f r e q u e n c y , and  Syllable  Total  Score  13  Total  = 3  .= 8  (f,l)  =  2  13 Syllable  A.S.  Final  3 X 1  (m*)  = 3  2 X 2  (n,p)  = 4  1X1  (t)  = 1  Total  8 T o t a l A.S. The  Articulation  Summary  3.5.  for syllable Score  initial f o r each  and  final  session  = is  21 shown  on  the  Sheet.  ANALYSIS OF  REDUPLICATION  Reduplication,  a  common  feature  of c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y  77  sound  systems,  i s the process  repeat  the s y l l a b l e  occurs  in  cases  which  the c h i l d  o f a word. I n C a n t o n e s e ,  like  3  3  each  identical  i n b o t h segments a n d t o n e s . I f a  in  that  t o n e s , such as in  are identical  [ma ma ], 3  or  2  two  to  this  condition  exception concerns and  /pa"pa /  ' f a t h e r ' , /ma maV  1  elder  kinship  mother,  sister.  occurred,  /ma ma A  and / k ^ k D / .  commonly  heard. In t h i s  1  terms  1  as in  reduplicated reduplicated Bian-yin changes e.g.  tones  as  a  1  used  and  two  that  studies  reduplication  appears  'elder  /pa pa /r 1  of address  others  that  exception  undergone  1  are  are  concerns  the process of  for details).  b i d goodbye'.  the  are  father,  /kD kD /  b o t h forms  second have  has  c o n s i d e r e d as a r e d u p l i c a t e d In  such  This  on some o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d  3  form  There  on r e d u p l i c a t i o n . The  family  1  which  /pai® ^ p a i / ' to  reduplicated  Wing's  The  (see Chapter the  forms.  3  but not i n tones a r e c o n s i d e r e d as  forms. forms  3  terms  /ma'ma /  1  segments  are  s t u d y , t h e a d d r e s s form o f k i n s h i p  /pa pa /, u  that  I n Wai's and C h i n g ' s f a m i l i e s ,  In f a c t ,  1  such  identical  while  produces  such as [ f a m a ] ,  'mother', a n d  a  brother'  child  syllables  t o n e s b u t n o t i n segments,  exceptions  first  this  i n b o t h segments b u t n o t  they a r e not c o n s i d e r e d as r e d u p l i c a t e d two  In  3  o f t h e two s y l l a b l e s i n t h e c h i l d ' s form i s  syllables  identical  to  reduplication  /ma / ' h o r s e ' [ m a m a ] .  example,  two  uses  of  In  undergone  this  process  syllables, study,  Bian-yin  any  w i l l be  form a s w e l l .  how  children  t o be -a common  acquire  feature  Chinese,  i n the c h i l d ' s  78  early  s y s t e m , and  forms  i n the data  1978,  and  ever  been  attempt  others).  type  syllable, (Type  adult  B)  form  occurs  of  marker / t e i /  with  2  i f the  of  1972). is  such  In t h e  necessary  separate which  the  First,  meaning  r e d ' , and  9  of  type  'a  the L e x i c o n  types  reduplication.  where a an  second  (1)  kinship  (2)  the  f o l l o w e d by  the  1ittle...,such  as  /la la 3  3  tei /  'a  2  of  9  little  monosyllabic (Hashimoto,  t h e young c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t i o n , i t types  actually  reduplicated  Sheet  as  of  reduplication  reduplicates  reduplication  on  separated  reduplicated  are  reduplication  f o r both who  be  1  as / l p p l p p l y n ^ / ' d i s o r d e r l y '  of  first  Cantonese-  a  of  child  occur  1  the  to look  the  [ p D p D ] . The  adjectives  indicated  forms t h a t  is  'uncle',  7  forms a r e  being  one  Next, a l l the c h i l d ' s  i n the data  are  from  the  to one  models. proceeds  a l l the c h i l d ' s r e d u p l i c a t e d  of  has  reduplicating  monosyllabic  study  analysis  this  7  i s simply modeling The  analysis  can  models  /tsuk tsuk /  'onomatopaeic'  adjectives,  Tse,  i s the case  r e s u l t of  child  cold',  (3)  A)  'ball'  1  'a l i t t l e  and  J.K.  how  a child  (Type  i s the  /hu^huryHei / 3  by  /po /  as  reduplication  analysis of  reduplicated  1979,  formal  picture  type  Examples  such  (Jeng,  no  this  used  e.g.  syllable.  address,  the c h i l d ' s  reduplication.  first  speech  this,  general  use  t y p e s . The  reduplicated  finds  Thus  reduplication  two  adult  Despite  attempted.  children  The  often  of v a r i o u s s t u d i e s  to provide a  speaking  into  one  p l a c e d on  as  follows.  specifically of  the  two  reduplicated  a separate  page  79  called  the  example). of  Reduplication  Each  Sheet.  reduplicated  form  (see  Appendix  i s examined  s p e e c h , e.g. v e r b , noun, a d j e c t i v e and  this  i s a d e t e r m i n a n t of the  The  following  Reduplication  is  a  child's  partial  for  1 f o r an its  so on,  t o see i f  reduplicated  example  of  a  part  forms.  hypothetical  Sheet:  REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated  form  (gloss)  Child Part  o f speech  Type A/Type  1.  6 6 lan lan  *broken'  adj.  Type A  2.  ma  'grandmother'  noun  Type B  3.  PS  • ball'  noun  Type A  1  n  ma 1  To  PD  1  measure  calculated  the  done s e p a r a t e l y Proportion the  total  degree  proportion  of  reduplication  of r e d u p l i c a t e d  f o r Type A and Type B  of R e d u p l i c a t e d number o f  reduplicated calculated  the  forms  forms  (Type  or  A  f o r the s e p a r a t e p a r t s  is  a sample  Reduplication  for  a hypothetical  reduplications.  Sheet  into  B).  the  The  s e t of d a t a , (see next  The  of d i v i d i n g number  measure  o f s p e e c h . The showing  I  forms. T h i s i s  Forms i s t h e r e s u l t  phonetic  used,  B  of  is also  next  page  these c a l c u l a t i o n s page)  80  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET R e d u p l i c a t e d form 1.  lan  2.  ma. ma  3.  (gloss)  ' l a n •'  1  PD  1  PD-..  Child P a r t o f speech  'broken'  adj.  2; 0  H  Type A/Type B Type  A  'grandmother' noun  Type B  •ball'  noun  Type A  •fly'  verb  Type A  •walk'  verb  Type A  'get'  verb  Type A  noun  Type B  5.  - I * -1 fei f e i har); hairj.  6.  io  7.  'cat'  noun  Type A  9  ma . ma1 .1 mau: maU 9 9 mipt m y t  'polish'  verb  Type A  10.  2 2 per) P € i )  'cake'  noun  Type A  k.  8.  2 2 ID 4 l  y  1  7  mother'  11. 12.  13. 14. 15. Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  Proportion of:  10  .10  8  .08  .02 100  1 .00 .50  3  R e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms P h o n e t i c forms Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  • 38  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  .12  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  81  3.6.  SUBSTITUTION ANALYSIS T h i s a n a l y s i s compares  adult  models  to  the  determine  between them. In t h e s t u d y such  as  decide  English, if  the  noncompound unit  words  Ingram  monosyllable not  have  a  such  as  for  i s the b a s i c problem  'to  'street' used out of  as  unit  [kai ] 1  the  ambisyllabic  of we  mismatches language  of n e e d i n g  to  segments  in  3  /kou / 1  [yjai ].  1  If  1  of a n a l y s i s , if lexical  position  analysis, The  one  does  main d e c i s i o n criterion  have t h e f o l l o w i n g the  the  r e v i e w ) . S i n c e the  frequency  on  [kiu ];  , [k'ai ], unit  in this  their  s h o u l d be u s e d a s  detailed  f o r Cantonese.  child  upon'  of 5 t i m e s . But  to  from  of  /k/:  'high' [ k o u ] ;  /kai /  1  then /k/  be  data  production  phonetic  to  1  types  are  i s only c o r r e c t  types are used,  then  2  3  out  3 show c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n . The  the  substitution  following  forms: Item Entry the  call  and  multi-syllabic  'paper'  a  suppose  Cantonese-speaking 3  to  f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f segment  F o r example,  /kiu /  matches  a  of  be made c o n c e r n s t h e k i n d used.  words  e n c o u n t e r s t h e dilemma  (1981)  this  the of  existence  of a n a l y s i s  (cf.  one  child's  way.  Lexicon  and  I used  R e p l i c a Sheet,  Lexicon  Sheet  Sheet  consonants.  If  and  the  Inventory Summary  : The  were p l a c e d  into  adult  to  was  following  done i n analysis  Sheet-Lexical  Types,  Sheet.  substitutes  according the  f o r Cantonese  each of  Sheet(s),  of the c h i l d ' s  Replica  analysis  their  model was  Lexical b o x e s on  Types t h e Item  syllable produced  from and  initial  correctly  by  82  the c h i l d ,  only  t h e number  This  was p u t i n t o  box  of  the  correctly  of the l e x i c a l  t h e l e f t m o s t column  Item  whole  the  child's  attempted.  adult  was  the  entered.  appropriate  and R e p l i c a S h e e t . I f t h e c h i l d  p r o d u c e the. a d u l t  the  of  item  syllable  substitute F o r example,  initial into  shown  consonant,  the rightmost directly  1  I  entered  column,  above  /f*>n /'to d i s t r i b u t e '  d i d not  the  with sound  [wpn ]. 1  1  J  J If  a  sound was d e l e t e d ,  I entered  '0', e . g . / h o e y V ' t o go'  [cey ]. 3  hoe u  If  there  once. F o r [lan ] 1  was more t h a n one s u b s t i t u t e , example,  f o r / f / would  /fan / 1  be f  'to  entered:  {a. n  e a c h one was  return'  [wan ], 1  entered [wpn ], 1  83  If  there  were  substitute,  I  several only  example, / f a n /  same  including  procedure  vocalics,  consonants. /a/  entered  'to return'  1  The  would be  For  1  substitute  [wan ], 1  was  example,  types a l l with  the  [wa ]:  for  syllable  For  1  consonants,  /fan /  'to r e t u r n '  for final  / n / would be  1  t h e same  once.  [wpn ], 1  used  syllabic  finals,  and  final  [fpn ] for 1  entered: a:  /fan /  phonetic  'to r e t u r n '  fan  [fa ] 1  7>  -  ,_• ~<X TV 1  entered:  84  The  Item and R e p l i c a  tones.  In  this  Sheet  contains  way, a l l s u b s t i t u t e s  separate  the  f o r segments. Only correct  return'  [ f a n ] would 2  I  adult  _i  form /kpm / 6  *  f  the  a r e i n d i c a t e d , not  example,  1  'to  if  2  the c h i l d  'to press',  0  of  produced  a  2  completed  the  nI  sheet  for.the would  child's  •k  A  matches  and s u b s t i t u t e s  the c h i l d ' s matches and s u b s t i t u t e s on t h e r i g h t m o s t s i d e  S h e e t . The upper  [k'an ]  substitutes:  6  diagrams  /fan /  -fan '  >  the f o l l o w i n g  Determination Next,  from  be e n t e r e d :  summarize,  contain  For  i s different  Tones n  To  the s u b s t i t u t e s  productions.  for  made by t h e c h i l d a r e  r e c o r d e d . The d e s i g n o f t h e box f o r t o n e s those  boxes  diagram  :  were e n t e r e d i n t o  o f t h e Item  i s f o r the i n i t i a l  and  Replica  c o n s o n a n t s , and  85  the  lower  the  rightmost  child the do  diagrams  are f o r the f i n a l s .  diagrams  Each blank  box i n  i s t o show t h e sound p r o d u c e d  by t h e  f o r t h e a d u l t model g i v e n  l e f t m o s t d i a g r a m s . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e  each  First,  adult  indicated.  substitutes  sound  were  produced  entered,  used  to  a) S y l l a b l e  substitute,  and 2 w i t h  used  occurred  more  types  with  their  frequency.  a t an a d u l t t a r g e t ,  than  once,  a tp']  a  dash  or  else  i n t h e box  'no d a t a ' .  (d) I f no s u b s t i t u t i o n s least  two s y l l a b l e s  placed  i n t h e box.  Substitutions Replica  Types.  frequency  f o r a d u l t /p/.  as '0' and w i t h  (c) I f t h e r e were no a t t e m p t s sound  6 lexical  a [m] s u b s t i t u t e  (b) D e l e t i o n s were e n t e r e d  Summary  their  m  shows t h a t t h e c h i l d  indicated  with  twice f o r  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials  P'  This  at least  F o r example,  Child's phonetic inventory  and  was  box i n  this: (a)  no  i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Sheet.  Sheet  occurred at  showed c o r r e c t  f o r tones  twice,  and  at  p r o d u c t i o n , a check  was  were not i n d i c a t e d  Instead,  directly  least  from  they  were  i n t h e Item  entered  the Inventory  on  the  Sheet-Lexical  86  Summary  : The S u b s t i t u t i o n  contains final (3)  a display  consonants,  analysis  of three  from t h e Item and R e p l i c a  (l) Initial  the  Summary  Sheet  They a r e (1) i n i t i a l and  (2) v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c  t o n e s . H e r e , t h e most  Substitution  parts.  on  frequent  c o n s o n a n t s , and  substitutes  and matches  Sheet were s u m m a r i z e d . ( s e e  below)  Anal^si.It f.ivl  F i n a l Consonants I  •  •  — —  •  v/  KAJ  •15  )  1 Proportion of Data  aa/25) & Matches  -11 (  )  17  (2) Vocalics and S y l l a b i c Consonants i  v/  u 0£ a  v/  1?  U  e  TP  0  1 a.  /  ai ei  3i  ou  ui au  /  iu m  —  i 0  pu  Proportion o f Data  V  .. f  -Sk  ( '7/20) & Matches  —  ( ^ / l~J )  13) Tones Non-reduplicated Form 1  2  3  1<  5  6  Reduplicated Form 7  8  9  4 T o t a l Number of : Tone .Substitutions Jj) Phonetic Tokens ^ // Proportion of Tone Substitutions  • <?4  87  Two m e a s u r e s were c a l c u l a t e d , the  Proportion  The  Proportion  amount  of  Cantonese  over  of  the t o t a l is  filled  the  The  the  .83  (5/6)  possible  first  diagram.  of Matches  of  of  i s .82  matches.  For  and  final  for  blanks to sample,  there  example,  consonants,  are  data  i n t h e above  there  are  16  c o n s o n a n t s , and 6 f o r t h e  t h e p r o p o r t i o n s a r e .75 (12/16) and and  i s .77 are  final  segments.  The  total  (17/22). calculated  The P r o p o r t i o n  of p o s s i b l e  consonants vocalics  for  of Data  vocalics  and  i s t h e number  attempted  and s y l l a b i c  over  the  consonants  i . e . 20. As shown i n t h e s e c o n d d i a g r a m ,  the  i s .85 ( 1 7 / 2 0 ) , and t h e P r o p o r t i o n o f  (14/17).  separate  Substitutions,  which  i s the p r o p o r t i o n obtained f o r which  syllabic  Data  the  attempted  In t h e above  o f sounds  consonants.  Proportion  concerned,  i s .88 o r ( 2 2 / 2 5 ) .  initial  and  the  f a r as t h e  i s , t h e r e a r e 25 p o s s i b l e  same m e a s u r e s  Cantonese,  A  consonants are  As  consonants,  of Data  for  sample.  of  t h e number  number  Matches  the  indicates  of consonants  25. T h a t  of Matches  vocalics  total  by  which  (1)  of Matches.  i s t h e number  c o n s o n a n t s . Thus,  syllabic  in  number  score  matches f o r t h e i n i t i a l  Proportion  of  Data  of i n i t i a l  The  a  and f i n a l  number  potential final  yielded  Proportion  by d i v i d i n g  diagram  is  i n t h e above  Proportion  into  of Data  initial  Cantonese be  o f D a t a , and (2) t h e P r o p o r t i o n  data  Proportion  b a s e d on t h e s e d a t a  was  measure, used  the  Proportion  for tones. This  of  Tone  i s d e t e r m i n e d by  88  dividing total  the t o t a l  number  diagram  of  of  Phonetic  tone  proportion  and  211  substitutions  Tokens.  i n t h e above example  substitutions,  3.7.  number  F o r example,  indicates  cases  of  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  10  of  .04  third  of  tone  Tokens  for a  (10/211).  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS ANALYSIS Recently, attempts to a n a l y s e a c h i l d ' s  phonological acquisition based  on  child's child Wai  the  the  cases  Phonetic  by  p r o c e s s e s have d o m i n a t e d (cf.Ingram,1974,1981).  Stampe  (1969),  substitutions. shows  a t age  They  to s i m p l i f y  2;8(11), Adult rj am wan  are  i n language  Phonological  processes,  natural  target  showed t h e f o l l o w e d form  1 2  (gloss)  case,  p r o c e s s of  sounds.  Ingram sources,  Child  found their  'to p l a y '  wa  (1976b),  that  example,  forms:  1 2  some  ka  the c h i l d  has a  J  phonological  deletion.  based  l a n g u a g e . They  Ingram,1976b, p.15,  the  O  ' dove'  on  research  common  i n t h e s p e e c h o f young first  the  form  rj a  consonant  has p o s i t e d  For  speech  'exactly'  i t i s said  final  about  tendencies  Q  kap  In t h i s  into  research  generalizations  are  adult  language  phonological  children  are l i s t e d  Table 2).  from a v a r i e t y  acquiring in  Table  of  processes English 10  as  (from  89  T a b l e 10:  Some common p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s f o u n d i n t h e  speech o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g young c h i l d r e n  (from Ingram,  1976b, T a b l e 2) Syllable 1.  structure processes  Deletion of f i n a l  consonant  2. R e d u c t i o n o f c l u s t e r s  - e . g . o u t CoCwJ , b i k e C bay]  - t h e r e d u c t i o n o f a consonant  c l u s t e r t o a s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t , e . g . f l o o r Dfdr], step^flUp} 3. D e l e t i o n o f u n s t r e s s e d  syllables  4. R e d u p l i c a t i o n - e . g . r a b b i t  - e . g . b a n a n a [naena.]  [W*wae],  noodle  CrUAnu]  Assimilatory processes 5« P r e v o c a l i c v o i c i n g o f c o n s o n a n t s - c o n s o n a n t s t e n d t o be v o i c e d when p r e c e d i n g a v o w e l - e . g . p e n [ b f n l , t e a d C d i ]  6. D e v o i c i n g o f f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s - e . g . bedCbtt], bigtb'Kl 7.  N a s a l i z a t i o n o f vowels - vowels t e n d t o t a k e on t h e n a s a l i t y o f a f o l l o w i n g n a s a l c o n s o n a n t , e . g . f r i e n d T f >"€J  8. V e l a r a s s i m i a l t i o n - a p i c a l c o n s o n a n t s t e n d t o a s s i m i l a t e to  a f o l l o w i n g v e l a r c o n s o n a n t , e . g . d u c k C 3^1*3  9. L a b i a l a s s i m i l a t i o n - e . g . t o p C bap] 10. P r o g r e s s i v e v o w e l a s s i m i l a t i o n - a n u n s t r e s s e d will apple  vowel  a s s i m i l a t e t o a p r e c e d i n g s t r e s s e d vowel, e.g.  C ?aba/)  S u b s t i t u t i o n processes 11.  S t o p p i n g - f r i c a t i v e s and o c c a s i o n a l l y o t h e r sounds a r e ' r e p l a c e d w i t h a stop consonant, e.g. seat £ "tit]  90 Table 1012.  continued  Fronting  of v e l a r s  - v e l a r consonants tend to  r e p l a c e d with a l v e o l a r ones, e.g. 13.  Fronting  book  be  CbutJ  of p a l a t a l s - s i m i l a r to above,  e.g.  shoe L~Stl3 Ik.  Denasalization  - the  w i t h an o r a l one, 15 G l i d i n g - the  replacement of a n a s a l consonant  e.g.  no[«Aow], home C lou.b]  s u b s t i t u t i o n of a g l i d e (jw3 or  f o r a l i q u i d sound, i . e . t i l ,  \r~\, e.g.  Cy]  rock [wa.K] ,  l a p CjaepJ 16.  Vocalization  - the  w i t h a vowel, e.g. 17.  replacement of a s y l l a b i c  consonant  apple [ »po3  Vowel n e u t r a l i z a t i o n - the  reduction  of vowels to  a c e n t r a l [ a ] or C^J , e.g.  bath [ b&tJ , book [ boxj  91  Since inherent  the  tendencies  would e x p e c t of  n o t i o n of p h o n o l o g i c a l process toward  similar  simplification  processes  model For  language  in i n i t i a t i n g  example,  i n the c h i l d ,  t o appear  Cantonese. D i f f e r e n c e s should  result  certain  i s based  on one  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n primarily  processes  the r e d u c t i o n of c l u s t e r s  from  over  the  others.  i s no p r o b l e m when  t h e model l a n g u a g e h a s no c l u s t e r s . To  date,  analysis might the  no s t u d y  has attempted  o f C a n t o n e s e . To g e t an  be e x p e c t e d ,  first  I examined  idea  sessions with  'Wing'.  These  preliminary  construct  the P h o n o l o g i c a l Processes  1).  i t , three  processes  are  Syllable tend  Structure  to simplify  deleting  the  process.  represents simpler often  the s y l l a b l e  The s e c o n d  affect  , i.e.  for  replace  entire  with  were  used  (see  Appendix  of  those  structure.  o n e . These do n o t r e f e r  session  to  phonological  category  comprises  processes  The  that  process  example,  kind i s Substitution that  samples o f  Sheet  first  consonant,  processes  selected  categories  Processes  final  processes  observations  The  process  what  'Wai', and t h e  general  indicated.  of  randomly  three  On  a phonological  i s one  Processes,  of such  which  an a d u l t sound w i t h a  to neighboring  sounds,  c l a s s e s of sounds, not j u s t  o n e s . The f o l l o w i n g a r e some p r o c e s s e s  and  individual  that belong  to  this  category: Stopping:  Wai  at  1;7(14)  /tspi / 2  'diminutive  suffix'  [tpi ] 2  Affrication:  Wai a t 1;7(14) / s f c V ' t o w r i t e '  [ts\ ] 2  92  M o n o p h t h o n g i s a t i o n : Wai at L a x i n g : Wai at  1;17(27) / f a n 1 /  F r o n t i n g : Wing at  that  syllable, Wai at  make  'to return'  2;0(6) / k p i 1 /  The l a s t group i s t h a t those  1 ; 8( 1 1 ) / k a i 1 / ' s t r e e t ' [ k a 1 ]  of  'chicken'  Assimilatory  [tfi1]  Processes  one segment more l i k e another  1 ; 7 ( 27 ) / p i n 1 - - ( t o u 6 ) / ' w h e r e ? '  substitution examined  on  and  the  Inventory  one i n the  with  [pip7] follows: F i r s t ,  was  a p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s proposed for i t .  This  its  Sheet-Lexical  each  Types  p r o c e s s was e n t e r e d on the  Phonological  proportion  of  Processes  frequency.  environments where i t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y o c c u r . For L a x i n g of vowels and  -> *P  -33  ( 2/6  )  > p i  .50  ( 3/6  )  p r o c e s s e s that o c c u r r e d were then p l a c e d Sheet  occurrence.  The  diphthongs  would  given example,  diphthongs:  ai  of the Summary  Sheet,  This proportion  r e p r e s e n t s the number of times the p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d ,  The  , i.e.  e.g.  The p r o c e s s a n a l y s i s proceeded as  along  [ fpn 1 ]  that  reflected  its  i n t o a column proportion  of  example above of the L a x i n g of vowels and be  entered  on  the  Summary  Sheet  as  follows: L a x i n g o f v o w e l s and (X  0  -  ZOfo  21  -~i> p  -1*9%  |  diphthongs q  50  i  — *  -79%  p  i  80 -100$  93  The  Summary  processes  Sheet  consequently  that occurred  along  would  with  their  contain  a l l the  general  frequency.  3.7. SAMPLES ANALYSED B e c a u s e o f t h e e x t e n s i v e amount o f d a t a Wai,  as w e l l as t h e p r o x i m i t y  select  a n a l y s i s . I t was  representative  picture  The  s e s s i o n s chosen  25.  The d a t a  the  analyses  references samples, for  from t h e s e  that  this  would  o f Wai's l o n g i t u d i n a l  s e s s i o n s were a n a l y z e d  necessary.  chose S e s s i o n  give  a  development.  a n a l y s i s a r e 1,5,10,15,20, and  d i s c u s s e d above. Other  whenever I  s e s s i o n s as anchor p o i n t s f o r  felt  for this  from  of the s e s s i o n s , I decided to  s i x of t h e t w e n t y - f i v e  detailed  collected  of  s e s s i o n s were u s e d a s  From  3 of Ching  f o r each  the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and S e s s i o n  2 o f Wing  a n a l y s i s . T h e s e s e s s i o n s were s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e  closer  t o t h e two s p e e c h s a m p l e s o f Wai i n t e r m s o f a g e . A t  Session  3, C h i n g  was 1 ; 8 ( 5 ) ,  Session  5, 1 , 9 ( 1 1 ) . A t S e s s i o n  very  c l o s e t o Wai a t S e s s i o n  these  speech  allows  us  different  samples to  have  aspects  in a  which  is  close  to  2, Wing was 2 ; 0 ( 6 ) ,  Wai  at  which i s  10, 2 ; 0 ( 1 1 ) . The s e l e c t i o n o f  terms better  of  the  ground  of speech development  closeness for  of  age  comparing the  of these  subjects.  94  Chaper  3: F o o t n o t e s Unlike  1  analysis  of  analyses.  Ingram homonymy  Instead,  reduplication, found  in  In t h i s  considered  to  type  tones  analyis  is  Tone  is  /tei /  is  Nevertheless,  a  o f homonymy, and a the  Cantonesesubjects i s  of  c i * . In  difficult  mentioned  A  discussion  will  be f o u n d  and a r e l i m i t e d i s limited  to  the term  'the  ' z i ' and. ' t h e and  their  U s u a l l y , they a r e  'the m o n o s y l l a b l e s ' . a  lesser  extent  in  this  of the s u b j e c t s ' o c c a s i o n a l ' e r r o r ' i n S e c t i o n 3.3.5. n a s a l s occur  only with  t o a few s y l l a b l e s  syllabic  /m/  the  f o r t h e n e g a t i v e marker /m/  (1972) a d d s a n o t h e r  this  4  overlapping  to t e l l .  of  and /jpn /'man,  under  fact,  of c i ' a r e o f t e n  very  Examples  'earth',  6  T h e s e two s y l l a b i c  form  is  homonymy  English-speaking  be a m o n o s y l l a b l e .  type type  of  occurrence of  importance.  e q u a l l y , and a r e c a l l e d  tones  their  They a r e sometimes c l a s s i f i e d  difference  section.  analysis  2.  1  monosyllable  u  the  the  / t ' i n /'sky',  monosyllable  3  the  of the a n a l y s i s  and  the  homonymous forms a r e a l s o  speech,  less  excludes  t h e major p h o n o l o g i c a l  analysis,  study,  description  subjects  are  treated  new  of  ' C i ' can a l s o  person'.  in  be  i n Appendix 2  of  one  study  o f t h e homonymous forms between  speaking given  as  subjects'  infrequent.  comparison  this  i s added. A l t h o u g h  the  quantitative  a  (1981),  t o one c o l l o q u i a l  marginal  form,  the  lower  i n Cantonese. form  The  o n l y , namely  (Wong,1940). H a s h i m o t o  i . e . the atonic  form  of  95  /m / 6  for indicating  limited  to  three  a g r e e m e n t . The forms,  syllabic  namely,  consonant/*)/ i s  / r j V 'a  surname',  i /rj / 5  'five;  a f t e r n o o n ' , and / r j / ' m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' . 6  96  CHAPTER THE  4.1.  ACQUISITION OF  CANTONESE BY  WAI,  CHING, AND  WING  PHONETIC STABILITY The  for  4.  data  from  Wai,  i n f o r m a t i o n about  t h e number of tokens,  and  From  their  the  phonetic  to  determine  samples  by  looking  that  Phonetic  size.  the  degree  the  Phonetic  in  relation  T y p e s of  lexical  phonetic  types  types. in  unstable vocabulary.  The  phonetic  analysed. table,  stability  each  a  to l e x i c a l  is  in  the  number  of  Recall  forms f o r a d u l t  higher types  formula  number indicates  was  used  of an to  stability:  index of phonetic  stability:  Number o f P h o n e t i c T y p e s - Number o f L e x i c a l Number o f L e x i c a l The  index  the  child's  Accordingly,  indicates  the  lower  stable  index  of p h o n e t i c  the  From T a b l e stable  the e x t e n t  attempts  more  more  it  session.  phonetic  following  presents  between t h e  Therefore,  relation  11  this of  observed  types,  sessions  recorded  at  Table  types, phonetic  Types are d i s t i n c t  m o d e l s or  examine  Wing were f i r s t  forms f o r t h e  information  T y p e s and  and  sample  lexical  possible  Lexical  Ching,  as  to the  child's stability  12,  we  she  can gets  index speech  variations  adult  in  syllables.  of p h o n e t i c  stability,  the  i s . Table  12 p r e s e n t s  the  f o r the data see  Types  of p h o n e t i c  produce  Types  that  older;  in Table  Wai's the  speech  index  of  11. becomes phonetic  97 T a b l e 11: Names, a g e s , a n d s a m p l e s i z e s  of the three  subjects  studied Child  Wai  L e x i c a l Phonetic Phonetic Phonetic !?orms Tokens Types Types  Session Number  Age  1  1;7(14)  179  236  410  215  5  1;9(H)  169  218  518  205  10  2;0(11)  190  239  715  219  15  2;3  153  191  510  182  20  2;5(22)  I67  188  633  183  25  2;8(11)  198  221  589  216  Wing  2  2;0(6)  114  129  211  120  Ching  3  1:8(5)  40  59  150  54  98  T a b l e 12: for  The i n d e x o f p h o n e t i c  s t a b i l i t y f o r the sessions  Wai, Wing and C h i n g index of stability  Child  Session Number  Lexical Types  Wai  1  179  236  • 30  5  169  218  .28  10  190  239  .26  15  153  191  .Zk  20  I67  188  • 13  25  198  221  .11  Ilk  129  • 13  59  • ^7  Wing  2  Ching  3  ko  Phonetic Types  99  stability Session  drops  25.  decrease  steadily  From S e s s i o n s  of  .02  occurs  from  Wai's  stability,  Session  .24  at each  15 and  to  It  a  therefore,  .13, we  types  in  not  of  is  a  S e s s i o n 20, of  .11.  cannot  shed  stages  light  on  a big  In  section  children's Number  of  analysis the  THE  of  phonetic Sounds  at  drop  terms  of  between  20. rate with  t h a t of Wai's  r a t e i s much h i g h e r of  .17  the  (.47  -  than  than  o t h e r hand, has  longitudinal decide  data  whether  from  they  regarding phonetic of  development.  this  i s s u e . Wing  first Wai's.  .30).  variation  h i s p r o d u c t i o n , or more a d v a n c e d  RESULTS OF  .11  gradual  change t a k e s p l a c e s  much more p h o n e t i c  children  This  of  important  of C h i n g ' s  have  different  4.2.  there  1 to  even Wai's index,  20.  Since  Wing and  Ching,  are  two  variation, Later  Ching,  a lower  w h i c h matches Wai's p e r f o r m a n c e a t S e s s i o n do  help  15,  a difference  s e s s i o n . Wing, on  however, we  at  to  at Session  s e s s i o n . At  difference  has  .30  1  shows t h a t C h i n g ' s  yields  first  the  Session  A comparison session  .13,  from  extreme or  simply  analyses  is either highly  will stable  i n h i s development.  PHONETIC ANALYSIS will  consider  ability. and  individual  the  These  aspects  are:  Articulation  segments, and  c h i l d r e n ' s phonetic  three  (3) t h e  inventories.  (1)  the  Score,  of  the Total  (2)  the  establishment  100  4.2.1. M e a s u r e s of P h o n e t i c Table  13  presents  six  s e s s i o n s w i t h Wai.  of  the  Total  phonetic uses,  of  Wai  does not  period  s t u d i e d . For  for syllable  vocalics  and and  he  or  same  whereas  i n S e s s i o n 25,  sounds(a  total  15 s o u n d s ) .  consonants,  1,  in Session  Table sessions for  for  less)  Ching  are the  lower total  below t h a t  sounds.  case  for  (a t o t a l  there are and  and  the  13  Wing,  much c l o s e r  of  of  20  Wai's  however,  is  final  7  sounds),  transitional  for  the  3 sounds u s e d , 1 transitional  . We  any  1 and  1, t h e r e a r e  of  As  a difference  than  the  i s only a difference  sessions.  and Wing  i t is  same number of  of  can  of  of  final whereas  (a  total  1 sound.  14 p r e s e n t s t h e T o t a l Number o f Sounds  Ching  example,  This yields  child  sounds o v e r  In S e s s i o n  There  t h e r e are 3 used  a  of S e s s i o n s  t h e r e are 8 used  two  4 sounds).  sounds  shows t h e  the  sounds  2 s o u n d s between t h e s e  of  is  measure  i s . From t h e s e d a t a  consonants.  3 transitional  S e s s i o n 25,  she  the  the  g r o s s measure o f  t h e more  consonants  syllabic  in  a  example, a c o m p a r i s o n  The  of  is  i n c r e a s e t h e number o f  initial  sounds a c q u i r e d .  Number o f Sounds o f  Sounds  development. Presumably  t h e more a d v a n c e d  10 u s e d  the T o t a l  As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r ,  Number  clear  25  Development  see  that  Wai's  for the  the  totals  sessions.  For  sounds f o r C h i n g  i s 10  (or  33%  first  which  is  30  more  t o Wai.Wing's t o t a l  of  session, advanced 28  sounds  than  Ching,  i s only 2  and less  101  T a b l e 13: The t o t a l number o f s o u n d s f o r W a i a t 6 s e s s i o n s Segments Syllable i n i t i a l -consonants  1  5  S e s s i o n Number 10 15  9(5)  10(2)  8(4)  10(3)  9(6)  10(4)  -consonants  3  3(2)  3  Total  23(7)  22(9)  Syllable final -vocalics & syllables  20(10)  20  25  9(5)  9(5)  10(4)  8(7)  3  2(2)  3(D  20(8)  21(11)  20(13)  8(4)  9  CO  T a b l e 14:  T o t a l number o f s o u n d s f o r C h i n g and W i n g  Segments Syllable i n i t i a l -consonants Syllable final -vocalics & syllables -consonants Total  Ching  Wing  9  6(3)  6(4)  9(5)  11  3(2)  16(4)  18(10)  103  than used on  the  first  by Wai  session  at Session  t h i s measure, we  see  how  for  Wai.  Wing  The  more p r e c i s e  and  on  are  precise  Total  Wing that  of  and  Wing  the c h i l d ' s the T o t a l  that  to  Ching  t o Wai.  scores.  Therefore  measure  slighlty  less  this  advanced  t h a n Wai  A n a l y s i s of  used  i s lower  Individual  18 p r e s e n t  by  Wai.  Each  whether e a c h  is 'transitional',  criterion'.  A l s o the t o t a l  each  segment a c r o s s t h e These r e s u l t s  which d i v i d e s  ones  to  Sounds.  The  in Table  15,  results  Wai  on  at the  less  no  drop  with Ching as  Wai,  s c o r e does, than  this  f o r the  shows  any  suggests  was  Wai  is a  observed  The  to  Score  f o r Wai  i s not as a d v a n c e d  52  segments  of  . The  those  sounds  6 s e s s i o n s observed  Number  16  show t h a t Wing's s c o r e o f  17 and  other  Second, the comparison  i s much c l o s e r  Tables  to  Articulation  Number o f S o u n d s . F i r s t ,  indicates Wing  in Table  28  i s comparable  need t o r e s o r t  comparable  6 sessions.  4.2.2. The  Wing  t h i s measure a r e p r e s e n t e d  f o r Ching  the  matches t h e  compare a c r o s s t h e  s c o r e than  measure  over  will  and  15. W h i l e  will  calculation  results  f o r Wai,  and  however, of  that first  and  Wai's  Wing  is  session.  Segments  information segment  on  the  i s shown  'used',  Articulation  or  i n terms o f  'used  Score  actual  beyond  i s given for  six sessions .  f o r Wai  are  summarized  t h e v a r i o u s segments  into  in  Table  19,  ' a c q u i r e d ' and  'not i.  acquired'  sounds.  In  doing t h i s ,  a l l s i x sessions with  Wai  104.  T a b l e 15:  Articulation  S c o r e s f o r Wai  at 6  sessions  S e s s i o n Number 1  5  10  15  20  25  24  23  22  21  26  25  &  28  27  26  27  27  23  -consonants  6  9  6  6  6  8  58  59  54  54  59  56  Segments Syllable  initial  -consonants  Syllable  final  -vocalics syllables  Total  T a b l e 16s A r t i c u l a t i o n Segments  S c o r e s f o r C h i n g and W i n g Ching  Wing  21  17  &  18  27  -consonants  2  8  41  52  Syllable  initial  -consonants Syllable  final  -vocalics syllables  Total  106 T a b l e 1?: The o c c u r r e n c e o f C a n t o n e s e i n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s i n Wai's s e s s i o n s based on w h e t h e r each was ( 1 ) t r a n s i t i o n a l ( C ) , (2) u s e d , C, ( 3 ) t w i c e c r i t e r i o n o r more, C* , o r (4) n e v e r o c c u r r e d , blank. . . ....  i  Consonants  1  5  10  rn  m  n-  (n)  n  3 -  (3)  Initial:  Session  15  20  25  (m)  m  (m)  rn  n  (n)  (n)  (n)  A.S. Total  nasals m- .  10 8 1  stops (p)  p.*  p'-  P'  P*  t-  t*  t  t' -  t'  t'  (f )  ts-  ts  ts  t s*  p-  t s' k-  P  P (p' )  t  t  (ts  (ts- )  (p)  1  t '••  (P* )  11 6  14  t  (f )  (f )  t s'  ts*  ts  ts'  ts'  ;  )  P  (ts' )  7 15  7  k  k  k*  k  k  k^  14 0 0 0  s  s  s  s  s*  s  13  :  k 1  kw kw' fricatives s-  f-  1  U)  approximants  1-  1  (1)  h-  h  h  o-  (j)  (j)  w-  (1)  1  1  8  h  h  h  h  12  j  j  j  j  10  (w)  (w)  3  (m)  2  (w)  Final: nasals -m -n  -3  (m) n  n  n  n  n  n  9  g*  3  9  0  r  stops -p  1  (p)  0  -t -k  12 14  k  k  k  k  (k)  k  .11  10? •Table 18: The o c c u r r e n c e o f C a n t o n e s e v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c c o n s o n a n t s i n Wai's s e s s i o n s b a s e d on w h e t h e r e a c h was ( 1 ) t r a n s i t i o n a l ( V ) , ( 2 ) u s e d , V, ( 3 ) t w i c e c r i t e r i o n o r more, V*, o r (4) n e v e r o c c u r r e d , b l a n k .  '— V o c a l i c S: vov/els  1  5  10  i *  i  i  u  u  u  u  £  e *  £  i  A.S.  Session  20  15 i  *  *  i  Total  25 *  i  *  y *  U  E  U )  oe.  u  u  12  £•  E *  16 2  (* )  0  j *  D *  D  3 *  a  a *  a *  a-*  a  P  p*  TP*  P  P  (ai)  (ai)  Pi  Pi  17 0  a * p*  3 *  16  a *  17  TP  15  (as)  5 11  diphthongs (ai);  ai pi  Pi  ei  (ei)  ei  (ai)."  (ei)  Pi  pi  (Pi)  (ei)  ei  ei  r.y)  a-.y  9 1  oi  0  ui  0 (a-C  ail ou  (at;)  (pu).  (T?u)  (Pu)  OU  (ou)  OU  (a'.'O  i :U  pu  (Pu)  (pu)  (ou)  (ou)  (ou)  (iiO  A.i • '•)  3 '7 8 3.  syllabic consonant s m  m  m  m  1  0  9  !)  •  m  i  i  m  n  4  "  m  12  8  108  T a b l e 1.9': those  Division  o f Wai's segments i n t o t h o s e  ' a c q u i r e d ' and  ' n o t a c q u i r e d ' . To be ' a c q u i r e d ' , a sound must be 'used'  i n a t l e a s t t h r e e s e s s i o n s , a n d be ' u s e d ' o r t r a n s i t i o n a l i n the  other three  s e s s i o n s . A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e s a r e shown i n  parentheses. Initial  consonants  Final  consonants  Vocalics &  Syllables  Acquired rn-(10)  n-(8)  P- (11)  t-(l4)  -n(12)-»)(l&) n k-(l4)  -k(ll)  d7)  u.-(l2)  £ (16)  O (16)  ts-(15) s-(13)  a  (17)  P(15)  h-(12)  j-(io)  ei(9)  Pi(U) m• (12)  Not  0-d) P' - ( 6 )  f-(7)  k'-(0)  Acquired  -m(2) -p(D  y  (o)  ce ( 2 )  -t(o)  kw-(0) t s ' - ( 7 ) kw' - (0)  ai  (5)  f - (1) w- (3)  au (3) Vu(7)  l-(8)  oi  ou(8)  (o)  u'f ( 0 )  i U (3)  0(8)  109  are  collapsed together.  2 p o i n t s when i t i s o b s e r v e d , we c o u l d has  been  Since  a sound  'used',  and there  s e t 12 a s a g e n e r a l  acquired  r e c e i v e s a score  across  the  are score  six  sessions  t o s a y a sound  six sessions. This  however, a p p e a r s t o be t o o s t r i n g e n t . F o r example, eliminate the  final  sound  /k/, w h i c h h a s a s c o r e  occurs  in five  once a s t r a n s i t i o n a l . used: at  .A  other for  three  three.  stop  stop  This  weaker measure y i e l d s i n Table  except  The r e a s o n  /kw'/  infrequent  Cheung  that  unaspirated  with  the  (out  sound  with  of 53),  (1972) h a s f o u n d  followed  in  Hong  Kong,  i n the sounds  a  due  velar  stop  the  by t h e f i n a l s /of\/ a n d  to the system,  /jk/  can  number o f f i n a l s .  only  i n Chapter  variety  initials  were velar  /kw/ i s r e s t r i c t e d  before  i n the  On t h e  /kw/,  a n d /kw'/ i s r e s t r i c t e d  that  velar  labialized  i n the language  limited that  initial  labialized  i s probably  the l a b i a l i z e d  together  was  and a f f r i c a t e s  aspirated  acquired of t h i s  for  sounds were a c q u i r e d .  In a d d i t i o n , as mentioned  spoken  criterion  the acquired  19, one s e e s  (1972) h a s . i n d i c a t e d  15 f i n a l s  finals.  that  i s not  /kw'/, t o g e t h e r  Hashimoto  though  19 .  f o r the  occurrence  appear  even  i f i t was 'used' i n  hand, none o f t h e a s p i r a t e d s t o p s  acquired.  only  weaker  acquired  /kw/, a l l t h e u n a s p i r a t e d  other  to  The f o l l o w i n g  i n d i c a t e d i n Table  consonants,  i t would  s e s s i o n s a n d 'used' o r ' t r a n s i t i o n a l '  Wai p r e s e n t e d As  o f 11,  score,  of t h e s i x s e s s i o n s as used and  sound was c o n s i d e r e d  least  of  of  only to 7  2, H.N.  Cantonese  /kw/ a n d /kw'/, when usually  lose  their  110  labialized /korj /,  feature.  /kw'Dr) /  2  acquired As  becomes are  were  acquired,  final  stop  has  a  slight  the  one two  acquired,  sees the front  but  They a r e  / § / was  of  on  in Table  segments  are  preferred  or  /f/,  of  three  there  not  I t seems f o r the  nasals  i s only  one  that  Wai  vocalics  and  except  / a s / . However, i n  10 d i p h t h o n g s  /"pi/.  not  I s e t up  Syllabic  /m/  20.  segments  I t s purpose  preferred,  attempted  by  20,  sees  one  consonants,  (20%)  was  were  acquired  / s / are  t h e most  /k/,/kw/ and  consonants,  /^)A  with  articulation  their  A/  initial  are  a n <  3 A/  the the  sound frequency  for  Wai.  see  which  which  that  ones  among  /o/  and  /ui/,  frequent  /kw'/  i s to  and  / i / , /a/,  Among  for  It  is  sound  are  less  vocalics  and  Wai.  s o u n d s , whereas A i / , ones.  Scores  a h i e r a r c h y of  individual  more  From T a b l e  and  As  Articulation  of  in Table  frequent  2 out  / e i / and  19,  presented  frequent  i . e . /k/.  of  b a s i c v o w e l s were a c q u i r e d ,  only  the  occurrence  syllabic  were  not.  Based segments  8  that  r o u n d e d v o w e l s / y / and  t e r m s of d i p h t h o n g s , acquired.  out Also  preference.  /kwok /  / l / .  two  A}/.  and  becomes  and  1  /f/,/w/ and  /n/  nasal  /k'or) / sounds  consonants,  i.e.  t h a t was  syllabics, for  final  'wide'  2  Other  8  /ry,  /kwjn, /  becomes  /kok /.  initial  f o r the  example,  'light'  1  'country'  For  /y/  /£/ are are  the  the  most least  c o n s o n a n t s , / t s / , / t / , /k/, sounds,  the  least  are scores  the  whereas frequent.  most  ranging  Among  frequent from  A)A  /w/,  final  sounds, 14  to  11,  Ill  T a b l e 20  :  A h i e r a r c h y o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f sounds  f o r Wai i n terms Rank  of A r t i c u l a t i o n  initial consonants  final consonants  Scores. .vocalics syllabic  1  i  A.S.-"  & consonants  a  17  2  16  3  ts-  4  t-  5  s-  6  h-  -n  m •  7  P-  -k  Vi  8  m- j -  15 k-  14 13  1- n-  11  t' -ts'-  12  P'  8  ou  i  7 ai  w-  .  au  15 3 -  9  9  13  17  11  ei  10  16  12  10  9  14  u  f  -  k- kwkw'  6 5  i u  3  -m  ot  2  -P  oey  1  -t  Di •  ui .  y  0  1 12  whereas t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n rather  low,  mainly  ranging A)A  used  from  only  Wing, t h e i r phonetic  t h e s e s s i o n s from  whether  were  'transitional'. 'not u s e d ' Asinitial the and  consonants. Whereas  in  consonants,  these  10  sounds. two  Wing,  had a c h i e v e d t h i s  for  basic  form  of  their  21 p r e s e n t s  final  occurred  one  consonants  according  to  'used', o r  are  sees  and Wing had  placed  In  fact, was  more  the in  main  in  for  /p/,  in Table  the  the  use  He was  three  of diphthongs  consonants,  Ching  both  less  sounds,  of  final  i . e . ./k/.  22, Wing has  respect to diphthongs,  or  a l l the other  i n Cantonese.  among  f o r the  difference  o n l y one sound was u s e d ,  vowels  t h e same number  that  t h e r e were 9  d i d n o t a c q u i r e t h e two f r o n t  /ce/. W i t h  syllabic  and  For Ching,  except  that  used  the  criterion',  21,  children  eight  and  while  f o r C h i n g and  sessions. Table  never  Table  o c c u r . As shown  Wai,  in  beyond  of s o u n d s .  the  like  Wai  and Wing. T a b l e 22 does so f o r  both Ching  For Ching,  for  consonants  'used  that  column.  indicated  f o r Wing,  / t / are  speech,  Sounds a r e shown  Sounds t h a t  same number  between  Ching  her  observed  for i n i t i a l  and s y l l a b l e s .  they  in  was  for their  inventories  the v o c a l i c s  the  session  inventories  and  used.  d a t a c a n be p r e s e n t e d  the p h o n e t i c for  were s e l d o m  one  /p/  2 t o 0. T h i s i n d i c a t e s  / n / and / k / f i n a l s  the o t h e r t h r e e f i n a l s Since  s c o r e s f o r /m/,  final  used a l l  t h e o n l y one  subjects. rounded Ching  Ching,  vowel / y / and  Wing  i n a l l the s e s s i o n s .  did  not  As  use any, whereas  113 T a b l e 21  :  The p h o n e t i c  consonants  inventories  for initial  and f i n a l  f o r C h i n g and Wing. Wing  Ching  f inal  initial  f inal  initial  used -k  • •mp-*  p-  t - * le-  -m  m-  ts-  t s ' -*  ts' (f-)  h-  s-*  w-  -J)  (-k)  (h-) 3-  not  v'p'-  (-t)  t-*  ts-*  s-  -n  n- r j -  -m  -n  t ' - k'-  -p  -t  used  -Q  np'-  rj-  -P  t ' - k-  kw-  k' -  kw' -  kwr•  kw' -  f1-  1j-  w-  f  114  T a b l e 22 : The p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r i e s f o r v o c a l i c s a n d s y l l a b l e s f o r C h i n g and Wing Wing  Ching Syllables  Vocalics  Syllables  Vocalics  used i  (u)  8  0  i * y  u  £  3  (<*) a  a •* (ai).  (ou)  (ei)  au  i  p*  (ai).  ou  ei  (iu)  (au)  ui not  used  0  m i  «  0  y  1  oe p Pi  pu  Pi  oe.y  iU  oey  oi ,  0«  pu  115  Wing u s e d  4.2.3.  one,  An  i.e.  /m/.  Inventory  of  the  Early  data presented  above,  Sounds  Acquired  in  Cantonese From up  an  To in  the  i n v e n t o r y of  do  this,  shown  in  are  basic  Data  other  like  Table  THE  24  and  analysis.  presents  Wing  in Table As  The  forms a r e l i m i t e d  to  adult  the  use  reduplicated  form  for  or  cases  where  to  by  all  more s e c u r e 23  can  status for  s u b j e c t s t o see  the  data  be  three  used  from  children  .  t h e p r o p o r t i o n s of a c r o s s the  Section  six  reduplication  sessions  are presented  of t h i s  type  The  i n Cantonese  'kaka'  the  3.5.,  'baby t a l k '  conversation.  sheep,  Cantonese also  s u b j e c t s . These  'used' their  'used'  on  selected  f o r Ching  and  25. in  finds  two  in Table  same r e s u l t s  indicated  seldom  Cantonese.  REDUPLICATION ANALYSIS  v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s f o r Wai for  that  other  languages  RESULTS OF  least  to separate  t o t h a t from  in  a l l sounds t h a t a p p e a r a s  Those s o u n d s  sounds a c q u i r e d ,  learning  4.3.  23.  circled  the a n a l y s i s .  comparison  sounds a c q u i r e d  i n v e n t o r i e s of a t  in Table  subjects  first  I have t a k e n  the p h o n e t i c  are  the  i t i s p o s s i b l e to set  for car  child  Type  A  reduplicated  i n the c h i l d ' s  speech.  One  d u r i n g a normal a d u l t - t o -  equivalent i s the  baby  in English.  of  the talk  Type  A  'baabaa'  Type B forms  are  reduplicates a reduplicated adult  116  Table  23  Summary o f segments a c q u i r e d  :  Sounds a r e shown t h a t Circled  sounds  Initial  were  are those  consonants  'used' by a t l e a s t 2  'used'  Final  by a l l t h r e e  © ts' -  k  -  and  Wing.  subjects.  subjects.  consonants | V o c a l i c s & S y l l a b l e s •n  0  by W a i , C h i n g ,  -g  © ei  0-P  ©  11? T a b l e 24:  Proportion  f o r Wai a t 6 s e s s i o n s  and number(in p a r e n t h e s e s ) o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e l e c t e d measures of r e d u p l i c a t i o n  Measure o f  Wai' s s e s s i o n 1  Reduplication Reduplicated  5  10  15  20  25  forms .20(44) .09(20) .11(25) •09(17) •08(15) .09(20)  Types o f Reduplication Type A  . 1 6 ( 3 6 ) • 0 6 ( 1 3 ) .06(14) . 0 5 ( 9 )  .05(10) .05(11)  Type B  .04(8)  .05(11) •05(9)  •03(5)  .05(10)  .46(6) .71(io) . 6 6 ( 6 )  .40(4)  •45(5)  •P3(7)  Form C l a s s o f Type A Reduplications No u n s  .58(21.)  Verbs  • 3 0 ( 1 2 ) .46(6)  .14(2)  .22(2)  •30(3)  .27(3)  Adjectives/ Adverbs  •08(3)  .14(2)  .11(1)  •30(3)  .27(3)  .07(1)  118 T a b l e 25: P r o p o r t i o n a n d number ( i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r C h i n g and Wing f o r s e l e c t e d measures o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n Measure of reduplication  Ching  Wing  .49(2?)  .10(12)  Type A  .31(17)  .07(8)  Type B  .18(10)  .03(4)  Nouns  .64(11)  .75(6)  Verbs  .18(3)  .25(2)  Adjectives/ Adverbs  .18(3)  .00(0)  Reduplicated  forms  Types o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n  F o r m C l a s s o f Type A reduplication  119  m o d e l . F o r Wai, we are  low,  Session  from  1'  c a n see t h a t  .03  where  reduplications.  from  occurs early Ching  and  25).  We  that  Ching  (  This  Fee  is  Wing  i s the l e a s t  either  number o f k i n s h i p other The picture  two  deal  The  in this  session,  of  or  nouns,  concentrated Type  ( c f . Table analyses  study.  Her  .31 f o r  and t w i c e  as  1. Wing, on t h e f o r Type A  for Sessions  5  reduplications,  subjects.  As  f a r as t h e than  subjects. analysis  parts  reduplicated  reduplicated  for  t e r m s a r e c o n c e r n e d , C h i n g u s e d more  which  adjectives,  finding  a s she has  Session  find  figures  the  h a s many more Type B two  we  A  reduplication  regard  in  this,  Type  the  of r e d u p l i c a t i o n ,  of t h e o t h e r  reduplication  Cantonese  that  greatly.  .07, c o m p a r a b l e t o Wai's p r o p o r t i o n  than  .16  t o Wai, and h i s p r o p o r t i o n  t h r o u g h .25. C h i n g a l s o  usually  that  confirms  i s closer  the  1982)  both  except f o r  case, t h a t with  advanced c h i l d  proportion  showing a g r e a t  hand,  for  from t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p h o n e t i c  other  .18,  consistent  show a c o n t r a s t  have seen  of  in this  and Ingram,  at her h i g h e s t  only  proportion  i t i s only  much a s Wai  is  a  and t h e n d e c r e a s e s  reduplication Type A,  has  Thus  English  proportions  t o .06 a c r o s s t h e s e s s i o n s  she  much r e d u p l i c a t i o n .  the  forms  forms  are  can  mostly  us  with  nouns,  verbs,  reduplications Since here The  forms a r e m o s t l y  the  a  forms.  nouns,  [bibi].  reduplications.  A reduplicated  be  while English  'baby'  on Type A  provides  of s p e e c h a r e r e d u p l i c a t e d  adverbs, e.g.  also  Type  are B  analysis  results nouns, and  show then  1 20  verbs.  The  least  frequent,  sessions  4.4.  adjective/adverb  for  these  26  proportion vocalics  presents  of  data  and  27  As  for  initial  i s the  before  :  number of m a t c h e s o v e r  p r o p o r t i o n of m a t c h e s f o r Wai  adult's  in  sounds g e t s  rates are slight  attempted  that  consonants,  and  decrease  Sessions  by  (.81  1 and  the  general, higher  vocalics  increasing across  consonants  matches  6  Data  and  the  consonants  and  across  six  Wai  f o r Ching  at Session for 10). F o r  both  as  and  Wing  and the  t h e p r o p o r t i o n of total  gets  number  B a s e d on  across  Wai's she  3, the  child.  rate  the  six  For  Session  15  f o r the  consonants,  t h a t Wai's r a t e of m a t c h i n g  the  to  the  initial  consonants,  s e s s i o n s as compared  final  sessions,  s i x s e s s i o n s , except  5 and  of  results  of m a t c h i n g  older.  syllabic  f l u c t u a t e more. However, b a s e d on sees  the  P r o p o r t i o n of  for  in Chapter  of  sees  the  .  sounds  one  across  final  are presented  adult the  the  and  consonants  same r e s u l t s  mentioned  matches  are  ANALYSIS  t h e p r o p o r t i o n of  syllabic  s e s s i o n s . The Table  increase  P r o p o r t i o n of M a t c h e s and  Table  forms  Wai.  RESULTS FROM SUBSTITUTION  4.4.1. The  in  although  reduplicated  Wai's for  a  initial .87  r a t e s seem  t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n ,  for to one  t h e a d u l t ' s sounds becomes  121 Table  26  initial  :  Proportion  and  final  c o n s o n a n t s f o r Wai  o f m a t c h e s and p r o p o r t i o n  consonants, across  and v o c a l i c s  of data f o r  and  syllabic  s i x sessions Sessions  1  5  10  15  20  25  initial '•" ' consonants  • 87  .81  • 87  .81  .87  .94  .86  final consonants  .83  • 50  • 83  .66  1.00  .83  • 78  vocalics & syllabic consonants  .68  • 72  • 72  • 76  • 89  • 89  • 78  • 76  • 74  .80  .81  • 90  • 90  .82  .88  .88  .88  .88  .88  .92  • 89  • 90  • 90  • 85  • 95  • 95  .92  • 89  .89  • 87  • 91  • 93  Measures Proportion matches  of  X Proportion data  of  initial & f i n a l consonants (n/25)  vocalics & syllabic c o n s o n a n t s ( n / 2 0 ).95  X  •> T o t a l  • 91  •  .90  122  T a b l e 27: P r o p o r t i o n o f m a t c h e s and p r o p o r t i o n o f d a t a f o r initial  and f i n a l  c o n s o n a n t s , and v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c  s o n a n t s f o r C h i n g and W i n g . Measures  Ching  Wing  Proportion of matches initial final  consonants  consonants  vocalics &  ,89  • 78  1.00  .66  syllabic  consonants  '  X  -75  .82  .84  .82  .44  .80  .40  .85  .42  .82  P r o p o r t i o n of data initial &  final  consonants vocalics  u&"  syllabic  consonants  X  con-  123  higher  throughout  slight  decrease  Session  1,  a t Wai's S e s s i o n  the  number of  calculate  for  sounds a t t e m p t e d ,  the  proportion  final  syllabic found  that  r a t e s of  the  and high  the  shown  in  of  (.84  Session  matching  and We  and  as  can  is a  compared  to  according  to  initial  (.80  and  rates  the  27,  data),  the  time  was  constant from  the  vocalics  from t h e s e  and  data of  and that  .90  that  as  these  ( a mean t o t a l  of  mean  Ching  totals  and  of  Wing a r e  f o r W i n g ) . In  respectively). these  productions  are  of  matches). the almost  fact,  these  of Wai's s e s s i o n s , i . e . S e s s i o n .81  6 and  it  shown  (a mean t o t a l  the  .82  26,  the  of  sounds,  i s rather  be  conclude  f o r both  two  number  consonants,  Table  data  of  to  f o r the v o c a l i c s  in  sounds  and  important  i s the  consonants,  most of  Table  vary  also  20  of  proportion  to  that their  for  f o r the  final  matches  s e s s i o n s under As  exception  number of p o s s i b l e  indicated  f o r Ching,  15  is  i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of  comparable  suggest the  As  are accurate  proportion same  (.74  data. This  proportion  initial  indicated  As  only  s i x s e s s i o n s . T h i s can  in  productions  are  (19  consonants,  consonants.  indicated  the  of  a t t e m p t s most C a n t o n e s e  as  5  it  total  i s 45  Wai's the  syllabic  .82  the  consonants).  throughout  Wai  over  f o r Cantonese the  The  p r o p o r t i o n of matches may  sounds a t t e m p t e d which  sessions.  .76).  Since the  the  three rather  Based  subjects, accurate  10  on  the  one  can  during  study. p r o p o r t i o n of d a t a  shown i n T a b l e  25, i t  124  was f o u n d twice data  that  Ching's r a t e s  in  a s low a s W a i ' s . F o r example, f o r Ching  indicates sounds.  C h i n g does n o t a t t e m p t  Despite  this,  showed t h a t  however, Ching's  rather  high.  of Wing  (.82) and some o f t h e  Sessions  1,5,10  proportions Ching  is  attempting would  In f a c t  on  o f matches and  data,  one  p r o d u c e them  concentrate  Cantonese  Table Wai  initial  28,  than  difficult  than  Wai,  can  is that  such  conclude  at  as  that  Instead  one  time,  of she  on few s o u n d s , and  consonants i t  sounds,  since  they cannot  matches  6  f o r the vocalics  sessions.  From  c e r t a i n sounds a r e e a s i e r f o r the  data  for  the  more  i n t e r p r e t sounds w i t h no d a t a a s  young c h i l d r e n w i l l  that  Ingram,  1981). Of t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n f o r Wai, I  Segments  consonants,  across  In e x a m i n i n g I will  of  final  f o r Wai  i s c l e a r that  sounds,  for Individual  sounds  sessions  has been  matches  Cantonese.  the proportion  consonants,  f o r others.  difficult  as  of  of  effort  of Matches  28 p r e s e n t s  syllabic  This  t h e r e s u l t s from t h e  sounds  her  .82.  accurately.  4.4.2. The P r o p o r t i o n Table  of  many o f t h e a d u l t ' s  rather  data,  sessions  learner  is  (.84) i s h i g h e r  Based  cautious  it  proportion  15.  a  and  are  most o f t h e C a n t o n e s e  our  , her rate  categories  t h e mean p r o p o r t i o n o f  i s .42, whereas f o r Wing,  that  indicated,  and  a l l the  utter  often  attempt  ( F e r g u s o n and F a r w e l l ,  established  a  1975;  o f matches a c r o s s a l l  hierarchy  of d i f f i c u l t y  125  :  for  The m a t c h e s ,  s u b s t i t u t i o n s , and p r o p o r t i o n  e a c h sound segment f o r Wai  Target  sound  6 sessions.  Sessions  1  5  m  V  V  n  /  V  y  0  s/  V  V  p  V  y  y  initial sonants  across  10  o f matches  Proportion  15  20  25  of matches*  y  1. 00  y  y y  y  1. 00  y  y  1. 00  con-  p'  t  y  t  y  t'  y  y  t•  y  • 83  y  p  • 83  y  y  • 83  y  y  y  y  1 . 00  t  t  t  y  .17  V  y  y  y  1 . 00  y  V  1 . 00  y  kw  .1*7 . 00  kw'  . 00  ts  t  ts'  V  k  V  t  V  •  k'  s  ts  f  w  1  V  h  V  D w  V  ts  ts  V  •  y  ts  y  ts  y  y  V  y  y  y  0.17  y  .83 1 . 00  y  1 . 00 1 . 00  y  1 . 00  N/  f i n a l consonants m  V  V  n  n  y  0  y  p k  \/  V </  y  y  V V  • 67 .50  V  V t  n  y y  y y  y y y  .83 1 . 00  l.oo  • 33  126 Table  28  Target  -continued  sound  Sessions  1 vocalics syllabic sonants  10  5  Proport ion  15  20  y  y y y  25  matches #  & con-  V V y  i u  oe a  y y y p y  V  IP y  i  V  i ai  Pi  y  Pi ei  i  oe.y Of  y y  ui au Pu ou  0  ill  y y y  m  0  y y  u  u  a  Pi  y y y y y y y  D  y y y  P.Pi >/  i i  i  y  0  V  y  a  Pi  Tpi  y y  i  1 . 00  U D  .67  TP  y V y y y y  y y u.  y  y y i  y  pu  y y v y y  y y  y y y  y y y y y y  1. 00  • 33 1. 00  • 50 .50  • 50 • 33 1 . 00 • 50  V y y y y y y  1 . 00 .17 •67  • 83 1 . 00 • 67 1 . 00 1 . 00 .67  6  Blanks of  are counted  matches  as non-matches  in calcluation  of p r o p o r t i o n  127  for of  the  individual  this  a n a l y s i s f o r Wai  If  we  compare  frequency find  of  t h a t the  very  segments. T a b l e  well.  the  order  sound  initial  however,  i t i s matched by  be  observed  the p h o n e t i c listed  as  frequency of type  the  consonant  with  lowest  easiest  only  vowels  .37.  the  second  lowest.  This discrepancy  final  of  in  29  model,  in  of  frequency  t e r m s of  most  the  This For  frequent  occurrence  of  i t i s placed  as  p r o p o r t i o n of matches  o r d e r i n g of  one  vowels.  the of  the  as  consonants.  found one  [ t ] . In  shows i t  of d i f f i c u l t y ,  The  adult  most  infrequent. It i s  six final be  the  we  other  the  consonant  i s very  t o be  order  an  consonant  also  i s considered  As  20,  each is  the  A contradictory picture  whereas T a b l e  i n t h e h i e r a r c h y of  of  20.  to the sound  in Table  example,  .17.  sounds among t h e  s o u n d s , whereas i n t h e  results  t h a t of  match w i t h  for  final  of c o n t r a d i c t i o n can [a]  not  in Table  i n v e n t o r y , the the  the  with  sounds f o r Wai  respect  of o c c u r r e n c e ,  example,  one  of  [ts],  frequent  can  of d i f f i c u l t y  h i e r a r c h i e s do  The  presents  .  occurrence two  29  i s only  same sound  i n the  two  hierarchies i s also reported  i n Ingram's s t u d y  (1981).  In  his  i n which  of  easiest  study,  he  found  sounds f o r t h e  p o s i t i o n . The  data  showed  i t was  that  attempted  i t . This  difficult discrepancy  in  a case  [ t ] i s one  E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s to produce his  Substitution  matched by  indicated  only  that  7%  of  Analysis the  [ t ] i s one  in  final  however  children of  the  E n g l i s h sounds t o a c q u i r e . Ingram d i s c u s s e d i n terms of  the  the  d i f f e r e n c e between p h o n e t i c  who more this and  128 T a b l e 29: final  A hierarchy  consonants,  of d i f f i c u l t y  and v o c a l i c s  and  for initial syllabic  consonants,  consonants f o r  Wai. Rank  1  initial consonants  final consonants  vocalics & syllabic consonants  m- n-  -p  i-  t-  2  rj  -  t s - k-  -t  TPu  j-  m«  w-  f-  3  -o  au  -m  flfc ou  4  -n  y ei  5  -k  a  6  ts-  7  kw -  k-  s-  kw' -  TP  at  1- h -  p- p'- t -  u>  •i  Proportior of i matches  1. 00  .y i a  • 83  u"«  •67  0 8 a  D  i  .50  • 33 .17  . 00  129  substitutional there for  acquire  In  circumstances  phonological  Table  sessions  are  these  28,  the  two  used  by  main  are  session  shown  parentheses.  in  session  and  exemplify indicated  different in Table  by  /a/  i s often  the  other Wing  patterns. frequently  on  within  a  the  Wai  matches  . B a s e d on  in Table  31.  comparing i t i s noted  the  the  The  these  number  occurred of  two  For  and  results  by  data  these  for 6  of is  Ching's subjects  example,  replaced  as  by  a  / t s / i s pronounced c o r r e c t l y . While by  by  Wai  example,  replaced  substitution  depend  a  [ts],  t e r m s of a  Ching's  /s/  is  often  v o w e l s u b s t i t u t i o n , Wai's  [ T P ] , whereas f o r  Ching,  it  is  around.  and For  Wing  lists  Wai's / t s / i s o f t e n  [ t ] . In  replaced  way  30  substitution patterns.  31,  ability to  language w i l l sound  that  ability  main s u b s t i t u t i o n s u s e d  By  Ching's  a  the  i n which each s u b s t i t u t i o n  Wai's / s / i s r e p l a c e d replaced  articulatory  that  Table  Wai's s e s s i o n s ,  whereas  a  be  s u b s t i t u t i o n s u s e d by  summarized  particular  may  s o u n d s ; but  of  C h i n g and  t a b l e s , the  subjects  it  system"(p.102).  a l s o presented.  substitutions  three  i n the  to produce d i f f e r e n t  linguistic  [t],  concludes"  a p a r t i c u l a r sound w i t h i n  particular  of  He  i s a universal hierarchy  a child  the  difficulty.  error  by  also  show  in i n i t i a l a  different  c o n s o n a n t s , Wing's /k/  [ t ] , whereas Wai  f o r the  substitution  sound. F i n a l l y ,  does not while  have  is any  b o t h Wing  130  T a b l e 30: M a t c h e s , s u b s t i t u t i o n ? , a n d i n s t a n c e s o f no d a t a f o r Cantonese i n i t i a l syllabic Target  consonants,  consonants  Sound  consonants, v o c a l i c s  f o r C h i n g and Wing. B l a n k i n d i c a t e s  Ching  Wing  initial consonant s m  final  V  v/  Target  Sound  vocalics syllabic sonants i  a  Ching  v/  p* t  y y  >/  oe  data. Wing  V y  >/  .  u  p  a IP  no  & con-  u  p  and  a  a  y  t'  y  ts  t  V  y  0  \/  y  ts' k  V V  y t  ai  t  Pi ei  k* kw kw' s  t  DI  y  Ul  1  V  aU  h  0 y y  j w final consonants m  V  n  m  p t k  ai .  y  oty  f  3  v/  y  n  v/  y  PU  ou  \/  iu  N /  m ft  U• -  131  Table 31: all  the  that  The  m a i n s u b s t i t u t i o n s made by t h e  s e s s i o n s ( b a s e d on T a b l e s 25  each  s u b s t i t u t i o n o c c u r r e d rn  and  s u b j e c t s throughout  2 7 ) . T h e number o f s e s s i o n s  o r t h a t " a're'without  data i s  shown i n - p a r e n t h e s e s . .Blanks.. i h d i c a t e . . c o r r e c t matches . ;  Target  sound-  WaT  Substitutions Ching  •Wing  initial consonants n  P  t(15)  P'  p(25) '  t  t'(5)  ts  no  data  no  data  no  data  no  data  no  data  no  data  t(i,5,lo,l5,20). t  k k'  no  kw  data(l,5.10. 15,20)  no  data  no d a t a ( a l l sessions)  no  data  kw'  no d a t a ( a l l sessions)  no  data  s  ts(l,5.10,15,20)  f  w(l)  1  no  data t  no  data  t no  data  no  data  0  h j  no  data  w  no  data  final consonants m  n(10,15)  no  data  n  0(5,15) J^(25)  no  data  3  0(5)  n  p  no  data  t  no  data  k  0(1,5)  m  132 Table Target  31-continued Ching  Wai  sound  Wing  vocalics & syllabic consonants no  data  no  data  u  P(l,5,10,20) Pi(10)  no  data  P a  y  i '.(1,10) no dat a ( 5 )  no  data  6  i  (1,5,10)  0  a u  (5,15) (5,20)  aj  pi(l,5,io,l5)  no  data  u u o  <£ a  (15,25)  a  a'f ei  i  (1,15,25)  oey DI  no d a t a ( l , 5 , 1 0 , 1 5 20)  UI  no  aU. .  -pu(lO)  no  data  no  data  no  data  data(10,15) no  data  no  data  iu-  no  data  m  no  data  no  data  i?u  ou  D (1,5)  no I  data(15,25)  no  data  no  data  no  data  133  and  Wai  substitute  substitution, Wing  Most Li  a relatively  of tones occurs w e l l In t h i s  substitutions  for  the t o t a l  tones,  segmentals and Wing Wai, tone  that  the  i n advance of the  mastery  of  seem t o j u s t i f y  the  the t o t a l  in  a  number  of  tone  of  Table  32,  are  tokens  makes  few  tone  the p r o p o r t i o n  gets  even  of a b o u t  obvious  that  have a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n theirs  phonetic  substitutions.  in tones. Generally  substitutions  proportion  Wai  .004  her s u b s t i t u t i o n s  i t i s quite  although  tone a c q u i s i t i o n i s and t h a t  presents  a proportion  than  J.K.Tse,1978,  period,  number o f t o n e  25. I f one compares and  another  t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . The p r o p o r t i o n i s  indicated  with  that  short  s u b s t i t u t i o n s . As she g e t s o l d e r , lower,  1977,  study, our r e s u l t s  by d i v i d i n g  As  has  [P], indicating  ( e . g . Clumeck,  f i n d i n g s . T a b l e 32  obtained  Wing  as two a l l o p h o n e s .  1977) have a g r e e d  within  segmentals.  into  [V]  [ a ] and  recent studies  accomplished  above  /a/,  Substitution  and Thompson,  mastery  for  i . e . / a / i s r e p l a c e d by  i s treating  4.4.3. Tone  [P]  (1/589) by S e s s i o n  of  speaking,  quite  associated  segmentals  she has more e r r o r s i n  of t o n e  are s t i l l  both  both  substitution  low. A l l of  with  Ching  the  than  Ching's  reduplicated  forms. Although substitutions, are  that  the  subjects  i t is interesting  the c h i l d r e n  do  not  make  t o l o o k a t what  have t h e most  many the  problems withn  and  tone tones what  134  Table 32:  The  proportion  of tone  substitution  f o r the  subjects  studied. Wai Measures  1  5  10  15  no.of tone substitution  7  7  3  3  410  518  715  510  . 02  . 01  . 00  . 01  no. o f phonetic tokens  proportion of tone substitution  20  25  4  633  . 01  Ching  Wing  1  6  M0  589  150  211  .00  . o4  .05  135  the tones are t h a t information throughout separated With two  on  are being s u b s t i t u t e d .  tone  substitutions  a l l t h e s e s s i o n s . The into  r e d u p l i c a t e d and  substitutions  that  the 1st tone, h i g h l e v e l the  3rd  tone,  substitution Wing's  The  23:). T h i s in  J.K.  subject in  ( t o n e 2,  fact  a s t a g e which  very  As the  He  saying  and  tone  the  that  one  the  of  also  of t h e s e  substitutions.  All  has  kinship  been  that  terms  (tone  been r e c o r d e d his  Cantonese  tones  of  even  them  who are  to the are the  this  type  in this  each  makes Type B  there i s a d i s t i n c t i v e on  of  longer  tones  i s t h e one of  5,  the o t h e r .  indicated,  depending  in  upper  i s made o n l y by  form of k i n s h i p terms  it is felt  the  two  h i g h e r than Ching  f o r m s . As  also  tone  emergence  forms,  This  t h e p r o d u c t i v e use  contrast  rising  by  found mostly i n  found t h a t  by  First,  33:). and  rising  has  there are  t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s due  properties  that  t o the address  the  the lower  and  for reduplicated  In C a n t o n e s e ,  by  been  replaced  value  replacement  is characterized  of t h e r i s e ,  reduplicated limited  is  c o n f u s i o n between t h e s e two  the p h y s i c a l  most  the  suggested  similar  points  that  frequently.  substitution,  ( 1 9 7 8 ) . He  constructions  that  sees  (tone  substitution  study  'Y.L.' had  sentences.  going  35:)  type of tone Tse's  two-word  one  1  involves  have  n o n r e d u p l i c a t e d forms.  o c c u r most  second  the s u b j e c t s  tones  o c c u r s t w i c e i n Wai's S e s s i o n 1  Wing's s e s s i o n , tone  a l l  (tone v a l u e 55: )  upper  session.  rising  of  target  the n o n r e d u p l i c a t e d form,  tone  T a b l e 33 p r e s e n t s  is  study. way  of  individual  136  T a b l e 33:  Tone s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e n i n e C a n t o n e s e  i n n o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d and r e d u p l i c a t e d  tones,  forms f o r Wai a t s i x  s e s s i o n s and C h i n g and Wing. Target tone  1  5  10  15  20')  25  6  4  3(2X)  3(2X)  1  5  4(3X)  5(6x)  Total  C h i n g ; Wing  nonredu. 1  3(2X) 5  2  4 ( 2 X ) 3,1,^ 1  3  K3X) 3(2X)  5 3  4,5  4(2X)1  1  4{-3X.) 1 (2X)  5  4  3  3  5 6  4  2  4  4,2  8  7' 9 redu. 2 2  4 2  4 4  4 4 2 2  4 4  4 1  4 4  4 4  6 6  (3X)  1 37  family. the  Very  often  one  finds  same k i n v a r y from one  in  Wai's  and  that  family  Ching's  the tones  to a n o t h e r . For  families,  /ma"ma / ' m o t h e r ' and / k o k 0 / '  elder  whereas  1  1  are  4  in  used.  case,  They the  her  parents  are /pa"pa /,  other  and  /pa'pa /  1  one  two  1  i s used  could  be  that  it  would  never  been h e a r d b e f o r e , o r  used list a  i n her  used  check  next  next  in  These page  reduplicated  that  an  if it  page  Ching's  1  in  some  tones.  sounds a  i f the  Notice form  had  to  the  of t h e forms  are d i f f e r e n t  from  i n the f a m i l y . Other  forms  in other  forms marked  with  of  first with  Cantonese-  an  'X'  i . e . they a r e not  examples  of  those  form c a t e g o r y , I  found  the  strictly  'funny'  list  only  since  'errors'.  'error'  is  in  In a d d r e s s i n g her  families,  as  the a d u l t  are  Ching's  tones  ones a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u b s t i t u t i o n  gives  forms.  /k3 k3V  of  However,  other  a r e not a c c e p t a b l e f o r m s ,  elsewhere.  used,  / p a " p a V . Among them,  considered  used  set  are d i f f e r e n t  family.  by C h i n g t h a t  those  families.  ones t h a t  be  f a m i l y . Under  are  and  considered  t h e k i n s h i p term  speaking  The  be  The  terms  are  1  one  which  heard  they cannot  kinship  'father',  1  /ma'ma / and  relatives.  i n the  speaking,  transcribers.  f t  b o t h ways a r e commonly h e a r d . In  she u s e s t h r e e forms  first  example,  /pa pa / brother'  /pa paV,  sometimes u s e d more t h a n  addressing father,  Wing's f a m i l y ,  In f a c t ,  she  1  in addressing  Ching's  are heard  errors. Type  B  138  Adult  form  . 4. 2  Gloss  Ching's  'grandfather'  4  ja j a  1  'elder  k3  2.  4  4  3.  ma ma  4.  ts£ t s e  4  1  v tse tse 7  1  4  brother'  4  4  1  6  6  kD  'elder  tsg t s e  sister'  'father'  (21X)  1  1  4  4  p a pa  4  p a pa  .4  mui mui  (4X) (3X) (6X)  4 .4  mui mui  .2  v mux mui v / mui^mui^  .  ts& t s e  1  .2  4  ma ma  \// p a 1p a 1  /  kD  'grandmother'  1  pa pa  6.  • 2.2 ja j a  . 4. 4  v7  5•  form  .2  .2  mui mui ( n o t commonly  used)  .6  .6  mui mui Phonetic Tokens: 45  C h i n g ' s p a t t e r n of s u b s t i t u t i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . As one  can  see  from the above l i s t , except  form [ma 6 ma 6 ] ( a d u l t first apply  form /ma 4 ma V  f o r the Number 3  'grandmother'),  use the tone of one of the s y l l a b l e s as it  the f i r s t  a  she w i l l base  and  to the o t h e r s y l l a b l e . Whether i t i s the tone of s y l l a b l e or t h a t of the second s y l l a b l e  used as the base i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e .  that  is  1 39  4.4.4. The As  far  Cantonese (1951)  two  rising  as t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  the  basic  attempt tone  to  tone . 2  The  first  rising  or  represented  a  tone  one  raises  t o a low  falling  graphically  1.  look  tone.  in  studies. a t how  child  In M a n d a r i n ,  there  tone.  These  as  follows:  >  ^  Chao  the  affect  the d i p p i n g  level  Cantonese  sandhi r u l e i n  both of which  tone b e f o r e another d i p p i n g  changes the d i p p i n g  few  sandhi r u l e s .  tone sandhi r u l e s ,  Rule  of the tone  t h e r e have been  first  the Mandarin  dipping  o f t h e Tone S a n d h i  i s concerned,  is  acquires are  Acquisition  The  the  tone t o a  second  one  tone b e f o r e a h i g h , two  rules  can  be  before  2.  Chao r e p o r t s first  tone  (p.33). L i  that  sandhi r u l e and  appear  producing rule,  until  Canta  sentences.  in  Li  than  and the  rule.  found At  the  learned" 17  this  are  respect  Thompson  first  2;4,  studying  have f o u n d t h a t  With  at  b e g i n n i n g t o be  a s t a g e when t h e c h i l d r e n  longer  sooner  (1977),  children,  b o t h Chao and  acquired  i s " only  Thompson  Mandarin-speaking not  for h i s subject  young  rule  does  capable t o the that  t h e end  of  second it  is  o f L i and  140  Thompson's s t u d y , phenomena  with  Based  tone rule  on  clear  rules.  i s concerned, in  sandhi  when  an  upper  upper even (tone  rule  tone  value  the p i c t u r e  the  throughout  the  the  syllable  first  syllable, The however in  J.K.  first  s t a t u s of has Tse  tone .  free  interchangeably, as a  the  at  the  instead  It  both  tone  remain  falling  high  during second  sandhi  (1973), 53:  and  55:  Cantonese  use  r a t h e r than  by  Chao  there  is  he  them  the  be  sandhi  of h i s  concluded  to support  upper  study,  development  f o r 30 months. From h i s r e s u l t s ,  are  should  a rule-govered  p . 2 0 1 ) . In h i s 1978  rule  as r e p o r t e d  class  suggested  systematic evidence  is  another  traditional  rule  tone  a  2).  Tse  the  As  that  entering  will of  'Y.L.'  no  sandhi  suggested  Cantonese  i n J.K.  of  Mandarin  h i g h a g a i n w i t h the  of  acquisition  gets a  confused.  high  speakers  1978,  one  the  be  syllable  putative  of  child  i n Cantonese.  or a  claims that  'phonetic  phenomenon'(J.K. T s e , looked  53:)  variants  Since  3  considered  He  the  i s f o l l o w e d by  in Chapter  been c o n t e s t e d  unconditioned even  this  (1978).  53:)  starting  (cf. discussion  to  observed  syllable,  of  (1947) has  first  and  as  are  utterances.  seems  (tone v a l u e  (tone v a l u e  sandhi  f a r as t h e C a n t o n e s e  2, Chao  i s commonly  5:),  tone  i n Mandarin  soon  acquisition  However, as  tone  the  o f t h e above s t u d i e s ,  of t h e  Chapter  as  multi-word  the r e s u l t s  picture  sandhi  mentioned tone  h i s own  that  the d i p p i n g tone  infrequent errors,  to produce  rather  have c o n c l u d e d  a s s o c i a t e d with  acquired, begins  they  Tse son that  Cantonese  141  sandhi  rule  Y.L.  seldom  Only  very  described  above.  has a v a r i a n t  tone  rarely  In  fact,  he  found  that  even  tone.  of the high  level  53: f o r h i s u p p e r  c o u l d he d e t e c t a f a l l  tone. In to  this  study,  I examined  the speech  s e e i f t h e r e were any i n d i c a t i o n s  Appendix  3 lists  syllable  made  up  juxtaposition, entering was  a  tone  rule  Since  either  (tone  on whether  Hashimoto  syllable  the the tone  the  sandhi  rising  rule  syntactic  In f a c t ,  in  speech.  each  tones i n a  high  syllable  occurred  or  that  the sandhi  boundaries,  syntactic  3, i t was f o u n d pairs  produced  this Boyle  that  incidence  of the v a r i a n t  (1970) h a s f o u n d  that  53: seems t o be d y i n g o u t . Many p e o p l e  55:  to  speech.  replace  was  conducted  any  distinction  to  Boyle  i n Hong Kong, t h e h i g h  They use t h e  the high f a l l i n g  high  in their  speech,  falling  do n o t even  level  the  variant  subjects  between t h e 53: and 55: v a r i a n t s . f o r people  53:  o n e . A p r e l i m i n a r y -study  t o see i f t h e p a r e n t s o f  (1970),  a  i n p r e s e n t day  variant  i t in their  of  53: i s common  Cantonese  have  a s spoken  tones  by t h e s u b j e c t s b e l o n g t o  was no  absence  a l l the f i r s t  standard  -variants  rules.  with  f o l l o w e d -by  (1972) h a s s u g g e s t e d  v a l u e 55:. T h e r e  variant. adult  tone  sandhi  pairs  o f two upper  subjects  were i g n o r e d .  From A p p e n d i x the  of tone  syllable  even  the  7 ) . The t o n e v a l u e f o r e a c h  goes beyond c e r t a i n  boundaries  of  of  of  o r an upper  s c o r e d based  not.  series  of  who c o n t r a s t  the following  made  According  t h e 53: and 55:  syllables  on  the  1 42  left  are  those  on  pronounced the  High  right  falling  with a high  falling  variant  are pronounced with a h i g h  level  53:  55:  High  level  53:, 55:  1  sam  'three'  sam  'clothing'  2  f n  'divide'  f n  'minute'  3  hD+sa  'Mr.  hok^ sa  'student'  4  si  'think'  si  'poetry'  parents  were a s k e d  The  Ho'  showed  that  reading  t h e above s y l l a b l e s .  left  none  to read  of t h e p a r e n t s  were r e a d w i t h  the  55:  With  to  the  respect  variant  53:  (1978)  finding  to  that  only  the h i g h  level  tone.  of  of an  level  4.4.5. B i a n - y i n Appendix  tone  (tone  the  u p p e r even  the  first  second  tone  rarely  (tone  the  justify As  c o u l d he  when  on  the  we  do  J.K.  the  Tse's  mentioned,  Tse  detect a f a l l  of  i t was  subjects'  syllables  usually  not  at  the  any  fall  Bian-yin  for  find  speech.  with  t h e r e a r e two  tone,  2 ) , and  a r e on  they  study,  a l l the  which  level  1 ) . In A p p e n d i x the  right.  left,  The  products  is similar  (2) a h i g h  t y p e a r e p l a c e d on  type  53:  Tone)  indicated,  tone  syllables  results  of t h e a b s e n c e of  extent.  i n the  rising  the v a r i a n t  53:  results  I f i t happened,  4 lists  (1) a h i g h  rising  very  The  tone.  great  (changed  s u b j e c t s . As  yin,  A l l the  u t t e r a c e . In t h i s  the h i g h  the  a  words.  had  i n the c h i l d r e n ' s d a t a ,  reported  end  these  and  of  Bian-  t o the  upper  tone, 4,  and  similar  syllables those  f o l l o w i n g two  of  to  with the  p o i n t s are  143  noted: F i r s t , nouns, high  a  Hashimoto  B i a n - y i n . Some  syllables  are  'consistently' that  Neither  :  number  high  level  examples  and /ma ma*/ ' f a i r ' . syllables  Bian-yin  B i a n - y i n . The r e s u l t the h i g h  level  high  rising  only  four cases  this  is  it  by  Wai,  Ching  occurrence the  34 and 35 l i s t  points  for  parentheses process scores  was  appears  that  than the  because  in  i t s scale  than  1972). In our d a t a ,  of B i a n - y i n  are found.  ANALYSIS  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  processes  way:  i s marked by a s c o r e ,  1 point  used  80  to  100%  given  f o r 0 t o 20% use o f p r o c e s s ,  f o r 21 t o 49% u s e , 3 p o i n t s  points  i t is  and Wing. In e a c h t a b l e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  of each p r o c e s s  following  7  i s much more l i m i t e d i n  4.5. RESULTS FROM THE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS Tables  /jpt mei*/  data,  expected,  (Hashimoto,  type  verb  g r o u p a r e nouns.  as w e l l as i n  Bian-yin  of t h i s  our  and  i s much h i g h e r  Bian-yin  of occurrence  the  in  besides  t o the type of  turn',  i s found. Second,  rising  that  adverb  In  a  of h i g h  frequency  of  'in  6  a l l the  Cantonese,  stated  a l s o belong  /loen lPu*/  adverb nor verb  the  its  has  few a d v e r b s and v e r b s  rising  shown  (1972)  use.  are given  Sessions  which  occurred  are l e f t  for  The  the  f o r e a c h segment get  a  blank  zero  2  f o r 50 t o 79% u s e , and 4 score  is  shown  i n t h e t a b l e s . F o r Wai, t h e mean s c o r e determined  in  six  that  because  on t h e t a b l e s .  in  f o r each  sessions.  Separate  underwent a  process.  the  process  never  144 Table and  34  Phonological processes, t h e i r  :  scores  i n terms of l e v e l  p r o p o r t i o n s of  o f f r e q u e n c y f o r Wai's s i x  occurrence sessions  Consonants Stopping: ts —*  t  .30(2)  .13(1)  .12(1) .23(2)  .09(1)  .18(1)  .22(2)  .33(2)  .15(1)  .15(1)  1.33  Affrication: s  » ts  42(2)  1.50  N a s a l "backing: n  > <J  m  *  .20(1)  n  ,42(2)  .25(2)  1.17  •43(2)  1.33  D e l e t i o n of f i n a l consonants|  0 0 0  k —>  3 —>  •33(2)  22(2)  1-33  08(1)  i . oo 13(1)  n — ^ Dentalisation: p — »  i . oo  .40(2)  t  .40(2)  l .17  Deaspiration: P'—>  22(2)  P  1.33  Gliding: f —>  w  .40(2)  1.33  Clide deletion:  0  j  .20(1)  l . oo  Aspiration: t  .12(1 )  ^ t'  l . oo  Vocalics Laxing of vowels & diphthongs:  V  .24(2)  .08(1)  .18(1)  a i.  —ypi  .33(2)  .66(3)  -33(2) .60(3)  2. 00  au  —?pu  .40(2)  l .17  a  —>  .22(2)  1-33  145 Table  34-continued  Vowel raising: £  —»  i •  Cfc  —>  u  •40(2)  0 —* u Monothongizat ior of diphthongs: ou ei  —>  —>  1 • 50  •50(3) •33(2) •15(1) •50(3)  1 • 50  .20(1)  1 .00  D  .18(1) •33(2)  i  1 .17  •25(2)  •43(2)  -.40(2)  1 • 50  .40(2)  •50(3)  1 50  .40(2)  •75(3)  1 50  Vowel backing: 0£  —-»  u  0£ —» 3 Vowel unrounding: y » i Vowel lowering: D  —>  a  Diphthongization a —* p i  :  •50(3)  •50(3)  .13(1)  1. 67  •13(1) •09(1)  1. 00 1. 00  146 Table  35  s  Phonological processes,and  their  f r e q u e n c i e s f o r Chin^  and Wing i n t e r m s o f p r o p o r t i o n s o f o c c u r r e n c e and l e v e l . '  Phonological  Process  Ching  Wing  Consonants Stopping:  s —* t  Fronting:  k —> t  .81(4)  kw-» t  1.00(4)  I n i t i a l consonant deletion: h — > ft  .43(2)  Nasal  1.00(4)  fronting: •23(2) n —}  m  • 50(3)  Vocalics Tensing of vowels & diphthongs: P i —> a T Laxing Vowel  a  of-vowel: a —>ip  •50(2) 1.00(4)  •23(2) .2 3(2)  backing: •50(3)  Vowel . r a i s i n g oe. -» u  •50(3)  147  With  respect  stopping,  are  deletion  Table  32,  k>  vocalics, laxing  of  final  four  •pi  one  i s a means of  From  found  Table  raising i.e.  the p r o c e s s  the  that  For consonants, Ching  is  d a t a . On  than  the  one  stopping.  such  Wing's  frequent  vowel  backing,  a>P, > pu  and  It  and  are  i is  its  >  least  the  of  the  ai  i s the  most  diphthongs  structure.  the  lowest  Although vowels  frequency. of  opposite  of o c c u r r e n c e  sees  vowel  process,  s u b j e c t s , and  is  not,  are  processes,  others  found  processes processes  that are  not.  i n b o t h Wai  and  however, a unique  children, /kw/  of  that there are  frequent process  i n the o t h e r as /k/  They  lowering.  frequency  the  For  found.  t h a t the p r o c e s s  t h e o t h e r hand, Wing has  found  velars, of  i t has  frequent  by  .67).  namely t h e d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n of  of v o w e l  shared  au  the v o c a l i c  s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d , one are  (X*  process, £ >  noted  comparing  indicated  v o w e l r a i s i n g . Of  processes,  i t is also  more  one are  and  as  monothongization  i n Wai's d a t a , 34,  is  In  not  1.00). The  final  in  o n e s , and  raising  of  processes,  diphthongs,  frequent  simplifying  deletion  that  Of  processes  diphthongs  opposite process,  is also  of  (X  i t i s found  phonological processes.  diphthongs,  the vowel  and  frequent  and  of  more  f r e q u e n t . Of  an  most  vowels  the  frequent  consonant  frequent  o f v o w e l s and  are  frequent  the  monothongization  consonants,  nasal backing  t h e most  0 is  of  laxing  Wai's  affrication,  consonants the  to  found  i n Wing's  process  that  is  fronting. Nearly a l l h i s  r e p l a c e d by nasal  [t].  fronting,  Another  i . e . t) >  n,  1 48  and more  n > m,  'backward  forward all that  this  of the  a tendency  those  tongue. For  Moreover,  of  laxing  vowels,  same s c o r e . By  treating instead  In  (cf.Table both  of  THE  35),  [ a ] and  [P]  the  as  the  extent  this  study,  used  by  The intended  to explain  study:  .3  ts':>  explicit  be  Wing a l s o  these  has  processes  of  a  have  i n v o l v e d i n these  two  that  Wing i s  one  phoneme  language.  of  t h e main p h o n o l o g i c a l i s the a n a l y s i s  s e t of m e a s u r e s t o uses  seen  later,  the d e f i n i t i o n s  of  the  homonymous rather  SD  3 1  In  forms  limited.  i s employed". phonological of  the  data  terms  used  homonymous t y p e y  the  determine  homonyms i s p r o p o s e d .  s u b j e c t s are  hypothetical  ho 1  indicates  '  homonymous f o r m h r  that  i n the a d u l t  Ingram's a n a l y s i s  following  that  Cantonese-speaking  suggested  language  the Cantonese-speaking  Thus o n l y p a r t of  more  found  This  allophones  to which a c h i l d as w i l l  is  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , one  the c h i l d r e n ' s  homonymy. An  of  sounds  it  i t was  a  HOMONYMY  Ingram's s t u d y of  noted  Both  s e p a r a t e phonemes as  ANALYSIS OF  analyses child's  tracing  with  tensing.  i t s h o u l d be  of vowels.  to r e p l a c e h i s  produced  i s a common p r o c e s s among t h e  processes  this  Wing has  s u b j e c t s have t h e p r o c e s s o f  process  4.6.  that  sounds' w i t h  part  children.  the  suggests  3  ' t o e a t ' ; j r 'ear* ' t o c l i m b ' ; ts*£  1  'car'  are in  149  Child form  homonymy  :  when a c h i l d  f o r two o r more a d u l t  homonymous,  e.g.  produces  syllables  [ h i ] for 3  t h e same p h o n e t i c  that  normally a r e not  both  / h o / and / j i  form  of  3  /  3  i n the  above d a t a . Homonymous  form  : a  phonetic  represents  two  or  more  [ t s ' o ] a r e homonymous 1  Homonymous  type  lexical  ,  /ts't1/  The child  : a lexical  Section  type  homonymous  that  h a s a homonymous /ho3/  both  / j i / ,  form and  3  that  in  3.4.,the homonymous forms and t y p e s a r e c i r c l e d i n  all  homonymous  the  circled  appropriate  spaces  page.  recording speech.  This  I  Appendix  2  of  of  specially  the  determined  consists  homonyms  entered into  the  on  the  shown  in  the  f o r the child's  t h e ' p r o p o r t i o n o f homonymy'.  t h e 'number o f homonymous  forms'  forms', i . e . ,  ,. „ , = p r o p o r t i o n o f homonymous forms  the completed  f o r t h e 6 s e s s i o n s w i t h Wai, and  Wing and C h i n g .  types  designed  is  o f homonymous f o r m s — — o f phonetic forms  no.  and  first  sheet  t h e 'number of p h o n e t i c  no.  forms  I  as  and a n a l y s i s Then  purposes,  o f t h e Homonymy Sheet  T h i s was done by d i v i d i n g  forms  3  forms a r e a s f o l l o w s . R e c a l l  For analysis  by  e . g . [ h i ] , and  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which a  the L e x i c o n Sheet.  next  that  a r e homonymous t y p e s .  procedures  uses  types,  child's  forms.  as one o f i t s p h o n e t i c t y p e s , e . g .  /soW  the  d a t a o f homonymous the  sessions  with  150  HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  Homonymous forms  Homonymous types  2. 3.  h. 5. 6. 7. 8. 910  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  151  Table  36  presents  forms f o r t h e v a r i o u s indicated use  i n Table  many  homonymous  forms  the  speaking  subjects. i s taken  procedure  than  some  as  of  (age:1;7(14)),  between t h e s e  listed As  speaking the  i n Table  indicated subjects  at  the  forms o f t h e s e speaking  forms  subjects the  and  English-speaking  (1981). F o l l o w i n g the Ingram  studied the children.  s t u d i e d by Ingram a r e y o u n g e r  with,  in I  her  first  ruled  out  two g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s  of t h e i r  the  age  by d e l e t i n g 10  subjects  homonymous  Tables  36  and  forms  37, t h e C a n t o n e s e -  d i d n o t u s e a s many homonymous subjects  mean  of  subjects,  which  as that  3.5 t i m e s a s h i g h  the  speaking  subjects.  Based  the  conclude  that  English-speaking  by  Cantonese-  the proportion  Whereas f o r t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  on  as  o f t h e homonymous  two g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s . F o r the  forms  d i d . T h i s c a n be s u p p o r t e d  mean o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s  the  session  37. in  subjects,  i s about  English-  English-speaking  The p r o p o r t i o n s  English-speaking  looking  o f t h e homonymous  i n the E n g l i s h group. A l t o g e t h e r ,  were c o n s i d e r e d .  d i d not c a n be  s u b j e c t Wai was begin  As  speech. This  above,  normal  studied.  the subjects  their  of  described  to  some s u b j e c t s  are  data  the subjects  the Cantonese  difference  in  f r o m Ingram's s t u d y  homonymous forms o f 15 Since  that  Cantonese-speaking The  o f t h e homonymous  of the s u b j e c t s  the proportions  between  same  sessions  36, i t i s seen  shown by c o m p a r i n g  subjects  the proportions  t h e mean  of the  above  i s .025.  data,  children  i s .09,  Cantoneseone use  can more  152  T a b l e 36: The p r o p o r t i o n s Cantonese-speaking Child Wai  Session  No.  o f homonymous f o r m s f o r t h e  subjects Age  Proportion  1  1;7(14)  .02  5  1:9(11)  • 03  10  2;0(11 )  .03  15  2:3  .03  20  2;5(22)  . 02  25  2;8(11)  .03  Wing  2  2;0(6)  . 02  Ching  3  1:8(5)  . 02  x .025  153  T a b l e 3 7 : The p r o p o r t i o n o f homoymous f o r m s English-speaking subjects  f o r 10  (based on Ingram, 1981, Table  13) Age  Child Jennifer M  ?:i  Proportion  1;11  .02  l;9  .03  Daniel  1;10-2;0  .05  Amy  1;8-1;9  .14  Philip  1;7  .11  Ruth  2;0  .12  A  2;0  .12  Jacob  1;8  .10  DeCamp  2;1  .16  Joan  1 ;11  .10  X  .09  1  homonymous form than the C a n t o n e s e - s p e a k i n g  4.7.  54  subjects.  ENGLISH LOAN-WORDS IN WAI'S SPEECH S i n c e Hong Kong has been a B r i t i s h Colony  150  years,  it  is  common  the  throughout H.N.  English  almost  to hear Cantonese speakers  E n g l i s h loan-words i n t h e i r d a i l y lists  for  conversation.  loan-words  used  in  Table  Wai's  use 38  speech  the 25 s e s s i o n s . Cheung  (1972) has  s t a t e d some r u l e s f o r  borrowing  words i n t o Cantonese from E n g l i s h . W a i ' s p r o d u c t i o n E n g l i s h loan-words she has a c q u i r e d  fit  of  the f o l l o w i n g  the rules  from Cheung: (1)  Tones: E n g l i s h m o n o s y l l a b l e s i n i s o l a t i o n  s y l l a b l e s of p o l y s y l l a b l e  words  take the h i g h f a l l i n g t o n e , words f o l l o w t h i s (2)  i.e.  borrowed  and  into  stressed Cantonese  Tone 1. A l l of W a i ' s  loan-  rule.  Vowel: English / \ / w i l l  become a / P / i n the  loan-word.  For example, English number  (3)  loan-word i ['nAmb^j  Consonants: The  stops  will  remain  Sessions  1 2  [npm  pa*]  English  17,  initial  the same as  of occurrence  21  aspirated  voiceless  i n the borrowed words.  For  example, English cushion  loan-word ['k'usjan]  ' [k'u soen 3 1  2  Sessions 19,  20  of occurrence  155  T a b l e .38 : E n g l i s h the  loan-word? u s e d  i n Wais s p e e c h  throughout  25 s e s s i o n s Loan-words *tsu  1  s i  4  • t s ' i ^ s i mai  4  ^  npm^pa  2  k'u . sften  ^Although  j u i c e J_'d^u: s j  7,8,9,10,11,15,17,22  chips I't^ipsJ  7,10  mike [_'maik3  13  number [' n^mbd-l]  17,21  c u s h i o n p k' u: Jgn]  19, 20  t h e s e two l o a n - w o r d s  are not f r e q u e n t l y  i n Hong Kong, t h e y a r e commonly h e a r d i n Vancouver. in this  study.  Sessions of occurrence  English  i n the Chinese  Thus, t h e y a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s  used community  loan-words  156  (4) a vowel English For  / i /  i s often  word t h a t  added  t o t h e loan-word  for  the  ends w i t h a / s / , f o r m i n g a new s y l l a b l e .  example,  English  loan-word  juice C'dju:sl  [ts^si^J  chips f t j i p s ]  [ts' i^-si*]  4.8.  Sessions of occurrence 7,8,9,10,11,15,17,22 7, 1 0  ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES USED IN WAI'S  SPEECH  English  a  vocabulary English  words a n d p h r a s e s o c c u p i e d o n l y i n Wai's  speech.  Table  words a n d p h r a s e s t h a t  39  very  small  presents a l l the  were u s e d by Wai  throughout  t h e 25 s e s s i o n s . In  S.M.  English  and  analysis  Cantonese  hypothesis  pronunciation learning  T s e (1978),  English.  who h a d been  those  that  Seven  the consonants of  using  the contrastive  (1957), t o observe Cantonese  Cantonese  i n Canada r a n g i n g from  months were c h o s e n compares  compared  consonants i n Lado  errors  I  t h e common  speakers  make  in  s p e a k e r s from Hong Kong t h r e e months  t o read a ' d i a g n o s t i c  to  passage'.  eight  T a b l e 40  some o f t h e common e r r o r s made by t h e s u b j e c t s t o  made  by  pronunciation  W a i . The r e s u l t s  errors  inEnglish  indicate  consonants  that  Wai's  are very  similar  t o t h o s e made by t h e C a n t o n e s e - s u b j e c t s ( m o s t l y a d u l t s ) . I t should Wai  be  noticed  that  i n most c a s e s u s e s  i n pronouncing  theg l o t t a l  theEnglish  words,  stop / ? / t o replace the  157  T a b l e 39: E n g l i s h w o r d s / p h r a s e s u s e d i n W a i ' s s p e e c h  E n g l i s h words/ phrases  P h o n e t i c forms o f a native speaker of E n g l i s h  Phonetic of Wai  forms  uncle mom you  1,2,3,5,7,8, 10,12,13,14,15  [ma  blesses  [  auntie  football  Cti an wai J ?  ?  Ctsou3 C &e/isi 3  Grace know  ju-J  f a i doun h o u ] ?  tf w ba t J  C K p > 3  ?  C WPHJ  two  [  five  C  Ap  fa^Il t 9  JU-3  Macdonald York  5,'6 12,13,14,22  15 16  one  New  5,6,8,9  14  hello  up t o y o u  1,  5,6,7,8,9,10, 12,13,15  C <*y*l  Joe  p€Si  aenti]  U d»:p ^ w a i d 3  deep a n d wide  I don't  Sessions of occurrence  Ctu3 C ?ai3  (Vtu j u ]  17 17 17 18 21  Cha-. j ^ & 3  18,21  158  T a b l e 4 0 : Some common s u b s t i t u t i o n e r r o r s made b y t h e s u b j e c t s i n S.M. T s e ' s s t u d y  (1978) and Wai's E n g l i s h  p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s b a s e d o n T a b l e 3^. Pronunciation errors by t h e s u b j e c t s  English phoneme  Pronunciation errors by W a i a n d e x a m p l e s Cp^Sl]  A /  A /  blesses  A /  A /  M a c d o n a l d CmoTtOKGuJ don't £ f u n ] deep t , ^ r  A /  A /  Grace  /dj/  As/  Joe  final A/, /t/ & A /  glottal stop  p  CKeisiJ CtSouJ  deep C t i ] up C P J , , Macdonald L t3r»o*JI f o o t b a l l Cfw poJ ?  ?  r  7  A / medial or final A / final  A /  omission or A /  Grace  CKeiS'J  omission  football  omission  five  Cfu?p^J  C -FatJ  159  English in  final  /p/,  syllable  [fu?p and  / t / , and  finally,  ] 'football', [ t i ? ] 'deep'  / ? / does not that  Cantonese  s e c o n d or English  or  final  her  i s concerned, production  the  it  should was  be  true  language of  of  the  Cantonese  / t / and since  that  t h a t Wai  As  only  word  [ t i p ] 'deep'? U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  a  good  second  stop  in had  systems.  learning  substitution  sounds,  how  there  s u c h as  English  could  we  final is  claim  for  language a c q u i s i t i o n s to  with  only  the  initial account  /p/  respect  Nevertheless, investigators look  into.  If two  in a  the very  i n Wai's s p e e c h w h i c h p r e v e n t s  realized.  topic  was  correct English  substantiated  follow-up  the  she  language  f o r the  respectively? Also,  many s y s t e m s t h a t Wai  that  in  glotal  glottal  f o r her  /k/  the  from making any  she  /t/,and  vocabulary  the  a  the  replace  as  the  two  English  the  to  suggest  f o r the  for  English  found  account  /d/,  a p p e a r a n c e of  replace  i n making s u c h a c l a i m .  that  we  observed  E n g l i s h as  to  far  using  however,  'up'  Although  commonly  used  could  was  [ v-? ]  'deep').  it  and  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough,  5  /b/,  small  /g/  /p/,  use  either  'Macdonald'  learning  /k/ .  one  could  sounds  initial and  are  been  realised  s y s t e m s , how  is  not  she  she  cautious,  Cantonese  it  /k/.  / ? / has  happens  s u c h as  [ t i p ] for  who  English,  realisation  One  a l s o has  / t / , and  /p/,  often  [ma?t nou]  language o f t e n  Wai's C a n t o n e s e d a t a ,  stop  as  in Cantonese,  /p/,  final  This  i n word f i n a l l y ,  speakers  foreign  Cantonese  such  (Wai  exist  /k/.  this of  to  us how  provides first  and  160  4.9.  IS THE  CANTONESE PHONOLOGY EASIER TO  ACQUIRE THAN  THE  ENGLISH PHONOLOGY? In to  the f i e l d  compare  another.  the a c q u i s i t i o n To  comparison extent,  date,  of the  the  phonologies,  on  has been the  most  works  syntactic  As  for  there  this  argues that English.  with  been and,  a  of  fewer  i n the certain  different  studies.  should  of how  of  languages ( c . f .  comparison  studies  is  that  found to  of d i f f e r e n t  more emphasis  interest  Thus,  be  placed  children  acquire  1979).  systems  Cantonese  The  have  seems t o have been  i n mind, t h i s  phonological  major  language  system,  the  suggested that  (Ingram,  With the  of one  cross-linguistic  phonology  l a n g u a g e , one  semantic systems  Slobin,1973).  it  of c h i l d  section of  English  phonology  following  two  attempts  to  compare  and C a n t o n e s e ,  i s easier  to  p o i n t s are given  acquire  and than  to support the  argument: (1) The  degree  of  system v e r s u s Cantonese In  comparing  languages,  the  or  English,  in addition  consonant  can a l s o appear  example,  /p/  Olmsted  two  consonantal in  Consequently,  word-initial  consonantal  systems  Cantonese,  a consonant  word-final  to the i n i t i a l  a l l  and  final  i n the word-medial  found that  children  are  occur in  whereas  in  positions,  position.  i n t h e word will  of both  words  can o n l y  position,  i s the m e d i a l consonant  (1971) has  English  c o n s o n a n t a l system  i t i s noted that  monosyllabic. either  complexity:  a  For  'paper'.  frequently  use  161  different  substitutes  position.  It  probably  cause  contains with  follows  and  F  the  rows  to  syllable  Ingram  (1981). T a b l e  final.syllable As that but can  Cantonese,  English,  there  are  squares  in  the  indicate  I and  are  .final 21.  two  Cantonese consonants, 2.5 of  consonantal studies  have  its will  Table  in English  of  and  this table  the  41  along  medial,  consonants  indicate  the  initial  is in and  the  figure  more  shown  that  the  Ingram,  initial  the  indicate  can  see  consonants,  6  consonants  number the  possible  number  i n the  to  still  of  the shows  the  number  of  words  or  English  in Cantonese.  clusters more  1971,  one  table  Even  if  we  total  of  the  that  English  than Cantonese. Moreover,  even  be  42,  i n C a n t o n e s e , whereas i n  consonants  consonant  to  19  the  system  appears  and  counts  all  the  times  clusters and  child.  Moreover, only  i t t o t a l s 25  syllabic  41  only  that  that  sees  whereas  are  tables  one  existence  of  rows t o  I f one  syllables,  about  the  source  position  in  has  F  22.  occurring  the  The  on  position  initial,  is a display  consonants  add  for  major c o n s o n a n t s  there  there in  69,  additional  in these Tables  found  totals  sound d e p e n d i n g  positions.  in English, be  42  with  indicated  in  an  positions.  along  adult  complexity  of  final  Cantonese  that  more  a display  I , M,  f o r an  rather  1976a). I t has  in  English  complicated. acquisition late also  (Smith,  makes Results  of 1973,  been p o i n t e d  the its of  consonant Olmsted, out  that  162  Table with  +1: A d i s p l a y  o f t h e major consonants  I , M*,and F rows t o i n d i c a t e  syllable  positions  initial,  ( f r o m t h e Sample  i n English medial,  o f Summary  along  and  final  Sheet i n  Ingram, 1981)  min  t—  g  p  b  t  d  k  L X L X n  g  t{ d;, f  Q  s  5 v ft •/.  Total  I have s u b s t i t u t e d ' M ' f o r  Ingram's term'A' f o r  j  w  r  I mm  J_i  Note t h a t  ?  No.of  'medial*  'ambisyllabic'.  squares:69  rather  than  1  i  h  &  163  T a b l e 42:  A display  with I and positions  m  n  of the  F rows t o  D.P  P'  *  consonants  indicate  t' t  s  initial  t<s' k  k'  i n Cantonese and  kw  final  kw'  5  along  syllable  f  i  I  F  Total  No.of s q u a r e s :  25  h  j  w  1 64  it  i s common t o h e a r  element,  and  children  reduce  t h i s p r o c e s s of consonant  s e v e r a l months f o r some c h i l d r e n In  addition,  formation syllable about 1940) .  Thus,  than  the  Cantonese  would  take a longer  words  sees that  This  the  further, I will  substitution  leads  for a child  Cantonese compare  analysis  4.4., is  has  total  of  be  suggested that  initial  and  Ingram of  final  from  final  only  to argue  that i t  the  1;5  of the  of  proportion  measures the  .15  matching  child  i n a l l the i t will  the  adult  o f matches  children. Their  procedure used  in  child's  if a  i n Cantonese,  15 % o f t h e t i m e .  The  my  speaking c h i l d r e n .  consonants  t o 2;1.  English  substantiate  is  15 n o r m a l  two  complex  the c h i l d  consonants of  This  of the  F o r example,  consonants  whereas  i s more  quantify  matches  (Wong,  system.  (1981) has c a l c u l a t e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n  the E n g l i s h  range  and  one  to  models.  initial  To  only  7  r e s u l t s of the  t o match t h e a d u l t  possible  are  common .  to acquire  and E n g l i s h  in Section  proportion  one  one.  ability a  system  2). I t s  language  are rather  the E n g l i s h  one. time  the  indicated  There  the c o n s o n a n t a l systems  of matches o f t h e C a n t o n e s e As  the  Chapter  t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e E n g l i s h  one  than  in  structure  morphological elaboration,  polysyllabic  i n comparing  phonology  in  one  1976a).  limited.  syllables  is little  languages,  argument  rather  to  lasts for  syllable  ( c . f . discussion  different  enhances  the  cluster  reduction  (Ingram,  Cantonese  types are a l s o  English,  further  in  simple  There  6  in  is  630  a  in deriving  ages the  165  proportion  of  children. and  With  English,  matches  matches  is  similar  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  i t i s possible  in  both  of data  t o compare  of c o n s o n a n t s between t h e s e  groups  i n both  the  of  Cantonese  proportion  two g r o u p s o f  of  subjects  studied. In  Ingram's s t u d y ,  than  the Cantonese  begin  with,  subject  English  The  other  three  sessions, and  Cantonese and  data.  his  are  on  subjects,  groups.  proportion  subjects,  together  with  the Cantonese  the  a l s o u s e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e  of  o f matches o f into  IV:  (.76-1.00)  t h e same c r i t e r i o n  subjects,  for  four  I I : (. 26-.50) M o d e r a t e l y  For  English  with  43 and 44.  them a r b i t r a r y  They a r e : I : (0-.25) Low;  the  first  proportions  the r e s u l t s of the p r o p o r t i o n  subjects,  the o l d e s t the  basis  their  i n Tables  Ingram h a s d i v i d e d  three.  of matches of t h e E n g l i s h  I I I : (.51-.75) M o d e r a t e l y h i g h ;  among  the  in with  10, t o g e t h e r  ;  are  than Thus  1,5, and  low;  is  subjects  the f i r s t  excluded.  sessions,  The  only  when Wai i s o l d e r  f o r consonants a r e l i s t e d Based  younger  s e s s i o n . So t o  younger  I include  i . e . Sessions  Wing's  Cantonese  data  sessions,  i n the E n g l i s h data,  Ching's  are  group. Moreover, out of the s i x s e s s i o n s  i n the Cantonese group,  three  Wai i n h e r f i r s t  by d e l e t i n g t h r e e  Wai  child  subjects  I r u l e o u t t h e age d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two  groups of s u b j e c t s the  some o f t h e  43,  2 fall  it  High.  of g r o u p i n g  is  seen  that  i n t o Group I , 5 i n t o  G r o u p I I , and 5 i n t o G r o u p I I I . No c h i l d  falls  i n t o Group  166  Table  43: P r o p o r t i o n  o f m a t c h e s f o r 12 E n g l i s h  c h i l d r e n f o r consonants Table  (extracted  f r o m Ingram,  14)  Child  Age  Total  Philip  l;7  .14  I  A  2;2  .24  I  1;8-1;9  • 29  II  Jacob  1;8  .33  II  Ruth  2;0  • 38  II  R  1 ;10  .46  II  Joan  1 ;11  .49  II  • 52  III  Amy  Daniel  1;l0-2;0  Group  M  1:9  .53  III  Jon  1;8  • 56  III  Jennifer  1 ill  • 57  III  DeCamp  2;1  .60  III  X  .42  normal 1981,  16?  Table for  .44.: P r o p o r t i o n o f matches  initial  and f i n a l  f o r the Cantonese  consonants  (based  on T a b l e s Group  Age  Total  1  1;7(14)  .82  5  1; 9 ( 1 1 )  • 65  III  10  2;0(11)  .85  IV  Ching  1;8(5)  .94  IV  Wing  2;0(6)  • 75  III  Child Wai  &  Session  No.  X  .8.0  subjects '26 and  27)  168  IV,  i . e . the High group.  the  subjects  Cantonese  The mean p r o p o r t i o n  i s .42. However, a s i n d i c a t e d  subjects the  d i d better  Out  of  III,  and 3 f a l l  Wai,  b e l o n g s t o G r o u p I or  Cantonese  total  data  than  5 sessions,  the  English  i n t o Group I V . No c h i l d ,  i s .80, w h i c h  i n T a b l e 44, t h e  2 sessions  Group  o f matches f o r  fall  i n t o Group  o r no s e s s i o n  I I . The  i s about  subjects.  mean  with  f o r the  t w i c e t h e mean o f t h e  English data. In  short,  subjects It  the  results  are doing better  seems t h a t  consonants  i t t a k e s l e s s time  (2) The a s s i s t a n c e is  suprasegmental intonation, language  1967  system  system  (Chao,  in  a  syllable  /ma /  learned  of  Cantonese  well  literature  i.e. stress,  that  early  others).  i n Chinese,  this  acquisition  tone,  (e.g. Kaplan,  With  i n advance  study).  Based  respect  1970, to  found t h a t  the  the  segments  /m/  the  1977,  on t h e s e r e s u l t s , I  segmental child  'mother'. P h o n e t i c a l l y ,  the  of the segmental  a c q u i s i t i o n of the t o n a l of  of  these a s p e c t s of  i t h a s been  Cantonese-speaking 1  the  system  language,  relatively  the e a r l i e r  the  consonants.  1951, J.K. T s e , 1978, L i and Thompson,  results that  the a d u l t  body  suggests  i s mastered  example,  has  of  and  of tone  tonal  assist  aspects  the Cantonese  ones.  substantial  are acquired  acquisition  argued  a  that  to acquire  of the t o n a l  e t c . , which  Lenneberg,  and  i n matching  than t h e E n g l i s h  There  indicate  has  system can  system. learned  one c a n s a y t h a t  For the he  and / a / , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e  169  tone. the  I f he h e a r s a n o t h e r same  segmental  syllable  part  different  t o n e , a p a r t from  meanings  of  second  syllable  segmental tone  these  would  not  English,  cause  for a has  to learn  not The  hold  language. as  homonyms Thus  can  Cantonese  also  Chinese concords respect  intonation  a position  Cantonese tone  we  has  grammar of  more  appear  selectional  the  segmental  word.  Although  i s acquired  in  English  tone  in  at  two  words  use  of  4.6.).  i n t h e p r o c e s s of their  to support  speech.  our  argument  to a c q u i r e than  English  other  s y s t e m s of  (1978) has  heavily  be  does  Cantonese.  frequent  restrictions,  t o t h e v e r b s w h i c h must  it  in  s e t of  in acquiring  to a c q u i r e . Erbaugh very  of  whereas i n  subjects(see Section  i s easier  depends  set  with. Since  in contrasting  have some e v i d e n c e  i t does not mean t h a t easier  as  played a role  children  phonology  i n the  c o n s i d e r e d t o be p h o n e t i c i n  shown i n t h e i r  the Cantonese  phonology, are  the  i t seems t h a t  Although that  be  that  intonation  of E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n  than  assisting  fact,  'important'  difficulty  phonetically  In  the  presumably  learns a different  i t i s usually  the E n g l i s h  t h e same  a different  an  with a  to learn  f o r the c h i l d ,  homonyms  p a t t e r n s u c h as  age,  has  but  has  contrast  t h e segment,  a suprasegmental early  to  tone w i t h  that  one  i s already familiar  few  whenever he  how  what he  much d i f f i c u l t y  a child  combinations  he  to a c q u i r e than  except  language,  that  first  learning  syllables,  'horse'  3  the  is i t s specific  parts  i s easier  as  /ma /  marked  on  Cantonese  stated  that  non-surface  especially for  with  aspectual  170  beginning, action  ending,  or p r o c e s s . She  year-olds  and  restrictions, there that  and  appear take  found the to  completion,  a l o n g e r time  which a r e  stative,  s t u d i e d two  Mandarin-speaking  that,  respect  s u b j e c t s had be  and  with very  high error  some f e a t u r e s i n t h e t o be  to  acquired.  two-  selectional rates.  language  Thus system  171  Chapter  Footnotes  It will  1  the  4:  be n o t e d  parents'  variant  dialects  f o r the The  2  a  in  Mandarin  provided  a  graphic  line line  of the speaking  4. F a l l i n g  51:  argued  tone  each  status,  and  (Tseung,  1964,  Tseung  has  nominals,  as  follows:  representation  indicates  is a traditional  Yuan e t a l . ( l 9 6 0 ) and that  are  to  the  by  pitch  the t o t a l  pitch  35: 214:  (1940),  53:  55:  tone  T h i s view  that  e v i d e n c e of a  corresponding which  3. D i p p i n g t o n e  3  follow  voice.  tone  2. R i s i n g  n o t g i v e any  tones  vertical  1. H i g h  4.4.4. t o  tone.  basic  has  do  a tone contour  against range  1st  four  (Chao,1930) placing  in Section  of t h e s e  should  be  Y.S.  that  forms  treated  55:  i s said  supported  o t h e r s . However,  Cheung,  argued  w h i l e 53:  two  one,  has as  1969,  two  be  Wong  i t has  own  been  phonemic  separate  H.N.  i s said to  its  by  tones  Cheung,  1972).  t o be a s s o c i a t e d associated  with  with non-  nominals. u  In Ingram  homonymous forms considered. proportion detailed 5  (1981), and  However,  types in  of  this  see  has m e n t i o n e d  Ingram,  and  the  is  p r o p o r t i o n s of  child's  present  o f t h e homonymous forms  discussion, As  the r a t i o s  study,  the  speech  are  only  the  considered  (for  a  1981).  i n Chapter  2, /p/,  / t / , and  /k/ i n  172  Cantonese are  are unaspirated  sometimes  and  described  However, t h e t r a n s c r i b e r s is  unreleased  as feel  glottalized that  p r o d u c e d by t h e n a t i v e E n g l i s h  as  'Where i s [\7]  the  Cantonese  (it)?'  final  places  of  produced  somewhat  /p/,  articulation. further  back  and  implosive. stop  that  i n connected speech, 1973)  and /k/  The  or  the g l o t t a l  (Shockey, /t/,  (Wise,1963),  than  is different  in  English  such  terms  of  glottal  the  from their  stop  Cantonese  is  final  stops. 6  a  syllable,  (Chao, 7  in  I f one  includes the  Basically,  for  one  They  compound words,  'bit;  number o f s y l l a b l e s  would  tones i n  be a r o u n d  1800  1947).  English.  example  the o c c u r r e n c e of d i f f e r e n t  and  each  polysyllabic  polysyllabic  can d i s t i n g u i s h  are  monosyllabic  polysyllabic type  three  t y p e s of  words,  words  polysyllabic  non-compound  words.  An  i s as f o l l o w s : m o n o s y l l a b i c word:  compound  non-compound word:  word: 'finger'  'blackboard'; (Ingram,  1981).  and  173  5.  CHAPTER THE  INFLUENCE OF  THE  DIFFERENT DIALECTS OF SPEECH ON  5.1.  is  environment the  and  rather  others). of  common  (Weir,  the  that  he  had  stops  In  at  the  a high the  [blg]-[blk]  'big',  attributed  the  Anthony  final  voiceless voice  from her In  final  of  end  Czech.  spite  of  linguistic  spoken  This  of  the  the by  done  in  words feature  that  of  this  different  has  not  been  study  (1962).  son  'Anthony' and  voiced  and  of  words  In h e r  of  may  voiceless e.g.  (p.47).  the  are  found  words,  'red'  She  produced  English,  replaced  the  features  the  the  Weir's  in English  parents  characteristics been  child  s t o p s of  words  fact  the  of  1974,  briefly  English.  the  Sc-ollon,  which  [rgd]-[rgt]  voiceless  an  different dialects  position  d i a l e c t of  native  dialects  work has  of  in  article  is  fluctuation  stops  the  the  her  t o grow up  1973,  one  influence  counterparts. at  s p e e c h on  and  child  influence  s p e e c h of  final  t o her  voiced  of  a  speak two  phonology,  in  of  CHILD  Smith,  the  parents'  mentioned t h i s kind looked  1962,  However,  emphasized.  She  for  where b o t h p a r e n t s  language  dialects  by  PARENTS'  INTRODUCTION It  of  THE  THE  the  by  the  neutralisation is carried  of  the  over  different  influence  some  c h i l d ' s speech,  little  regard.  Very  often,  this  174  influence  is  question  considered  often arises  influence  of  to  be  of  when one a t t e m p t s  different  dialects  speech.  certain  phonological characteristic  has  a process  warned  of the c h i l d ' s  investigators  child's  studied  dialects and  of the  of c h i l d  pronunciation  English.  Although  the parents  spoke,  following 'It  characteristic  i s well  to  be  or o t h e r  influence.  of  daughter  Joan  what  kinds of  that  'French  ( p . 8 5 ) . He o b s e r v e d  a  and made t h e  special  in  In  Joan's  Sol  [blwma]  ' f l o w e r ' . I s h o u l d have been i n f l u e n c e (even  language,  [ s w l ] 'sun', inclined  though s h o r t  i n N o r w e g i a n ) i f I had n o t h e a r d  the speech  of s m a l l c h i l d r e n  who  this,  however,  i t i s felt  /of  Swed. Blimma to  ascribe  [w] does n o t  the i d e n t i c a l  have  a word of S c a n d i n a v i a n . ' ( f o o t n o t e Despite  e.g. the  a narrow S c a n d i n a v i a n  as  t o Norwegian  individual  pronunciation to d i a l e c t a l  at f i r s t  Norw.,Swed.  attributing  sound,  heard  of h i s  mentioned  of  an i n f a n t ' s  h i g h v o w e l /U/ r e s e m b l e d  in  (1934)  influence. Velten  of Joan's speech  wary  in  occur  is  comment:  particularities  this  or i t  t h a t one s h o u l d  he d i d n o t s t a t e i t is  speech  particularities  to d i a l e c t a l  Norwegian a r e f r e q u e n t l y spoken'  phonological  whether a  Velten  language  individual  on t h e  child's  own s y s t e m .  t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l development  acquiring  parents  i n f l u e n c e of the p a r e n t s ,  be c a u t i o u s i n a t t r i b u t i n g the  the  A  f o r the  I t i s the q u e s t i o n of d e t e r m i n i n g  due t o t h e d i a l e c t a l  simply  importance.  t o account  of  child's  is  minor  certainly  sound never  20, p.85) t h a t one s h o u l d n o t  175  rule  out the p o s s i b i l i t y  dialects  of  overlooking important  the  phenomena  from  that  The Wai  resulted  dialects problem  5.2.  parent's  present  in  o c c u r r e n c e of / l /  /n/  are  syllable  Cantonese  their  s p e e c h , but r e p l a c e  Lin,  1964,  speakers  1972).  For  'male'  /lei /  'plum' and  This  substitution  influence  of  are  of t h e  substitution  i t with 1972,  the  language  different that  was  a  and / n / i n C a n t o n e s e .  in  Cantonese.  / l / for  usually beginning  have  words  replaced  by /!/. F o r example,  /n/  Nanhai  1972). T h o s e  'light'  1960,  /lam /  /lam /,  s p e a k e r s who  Tse,1978).  as  H.N. and both  /lei /. 3  (L.H.  have  in  with /n/. Very o f t e n ,  (S.M.  and  presumably  dialect  the E n g l i s h  L.H.  and  4  problems  /n/ i n  'south'  4  is  are  1947,  'you' a r e p r o n o u n c e d  3  of  as  there  initial  / l / (Chao,  pronounced  /nei /  that  not have  both  Each  (cf. discussion in  Yuan e t a l . ,  example,  English  like  do  neighboring  Hashimoto,  pronounced  of  development  feature  position  who  Hashimoto,  /nam /  1964,  phonemes  initial  some  3  specific  fact,  longitudinal  spoke  2 ) . However, i t i s w i d e l y r e p o r t e d  Cheung,  some  examines  p a r e n t s who  In  / n / IN CANTONESE  B o t h / ! / and  4  to missing  s t a g e s of l a n g u a g e  The  1  / ! / AND  different  on t h e c h i l d .  analysis  and p r e s e n t s  was  of the  t h e p r o c e s s of a c h i l d ' s  Cantonese .  f o r Wai  Chapter  in  lead  from h a v i n g two  of  appears  speech  t h i s matter c o u l d  development. data  of the i n f l u e n c e  word  the Lin,  this  type  pronouncing the /n/ i s 'night'  In C a n t o n ,  is  it is  176  estimated do  not  that  about  have  o n e - f o u r t h of the  initial  /n/  in their  Hong Kong,  i t has  far  more  common among s p e a k e r s  with  r e f e r e n c e to the  one  can  who  distinguish  and and  5.3.  distinguish  THE  two  both  (2) t h o s e who the /n/  speech  been c l a i m e d t h a t  initials  this  (H.N.  / l /  not  / l /  have  i s r e p l a c e d by  / l /  and  /n/  /n/  initial 2  1947).  In  characteristic  Cheung,  and  speakers  (Chao,  t y p e s of s p e a k e r s ,  initials  do  Cantonese  1972).  in  Thus,  Cantonese,  namely  (1)  in their  /n/  is  those  speech  in their  ,  speech,  .  DIALECTAL DIFFERENCE I_N THE  SPEECH OF  THE  CHILD'S  first  t y p e of  PARENTS The  child's  speakers,  and  dialectal observed speech  t h e c h i l d ' s mother  difference  samples.  I t was  further  purposes,  survey  namely  the  the  second  their of  confirmed  s i n c e Wai's  treatment father  did  not  their  speech,  each  parent  pronounced  syllables  that  Wai's  the  results  of  treatment  were p r o d u c e d  for three  data  of  /n/  (2) t o f i n d  .in  initial  of  by  out  much i f the  o f / l / and  and  (3)  the / l /  the  initial  participate  initial  how  by  / l / and  in their  on  first  conducted  p a r e n t s were c o n s i s t e n t  information  was  tapes  speech  of  t a p i n g o f Wai's s p e e c h ,  syllables  This  parents.  o f t h e p a r e n t s was  his  type.  speech  the  (1) t o p r o v i d e more  regarding  syllables,  to  to the  between  s u r v e y of the c h i l d ' s  A speech  during  belongs  d u r i n g the t r a n s c r i p t i o n  a speech  father  father  /n/  to gather and  the c h i l d  /n/  during  177  the  sessions. The  a  survey  list  of  initial list  mainly  involved asking  syllables.tfiat  s y l l a b l e s . Most  were  t h e ones t h a t a p p e a r e d  a l l the  /!/  syllables  ( s e e next  syllables  and  (see Appendix  syllables  i n the  i n the selected  sessions  section).  20  In  different  5 ) . In t h i s  and 14 / n / i n i t i a l  survey,  syllables  included  because  they  colloquial  and c o u l d  n o t be r e p r e s e n t e d  initial to  found  was  in daily  initial  appeared  were  common  were  from Wong  conversations.  number o f 40 c o m b i n e d  t h e word l i s t ,  arranged  and  6 more t a k e n  /n/  that  in  there  different  in  initial once to find  syllable  14 / n /  (1940) were a d d e d  Thus  would o c c u r  the s y l l a b l e  that  there  were  was  a  syllables.  twice.  It  would o c c u r  was once  position,  followed  by o t h e r  added  i n medial  or f i n a l  position'.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  out  whether  would a f f e c t  Altogether, Chinese  a way s u c h t h a t  too  Chinese  only  / l / and / n / i n i t i a l  each s y l l a b l e  in  o f them were n o t  syllables  Since  course  30  make up t h e number o f 20. These were s y l l a b l e s  total  in  (see below).  syllables,  commonly  In  were  the  20 / ! / i n i t i a l  that  Wai's s p e e c h samples were c h o s e n . The r e s t  characters  read  included  s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s Wai p r o n o u n c e d  initial  to  were made up o f t h e / l / a n d / n /  of t h e s y l l a b l e s  of Wai's s p e e c h samples of  each parent  there  characters,  pronunciation  the  different  the consistency  were 80 i t e m s . so  over a n o t h e r  that  syllable(s);  position  of  the  of i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  They were a l l w r i t t e n i n no  would o c c u r .  bias  toward  one  A l l the c h a r a c t e r s  1 78  were f a i r l y has  s i m p l e . I t was e x p e c t e d  completed  able  to  recognise  syllables  are  syllables  that  'an a s t e r i s k ' . items,  junior  each  them.  listed  Appendix with  one. of  parents Before  were  their  Appendix  target  asked  The  [ 1 ] . On produced  the only  are  80 were  underlined.  o f words one by that  the purpose  fundamenatal  frequency readings  E m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on t h e / l / syllables. i m p r e s s i o n about  / l / initials, twenty  both  [ n ] , and  was v e r y c o n s i s t e n t ,  positions.  The  never  the  the parent's  parents  /n/ i n i t i a l s ,  distinction  mother  with  speakers. A l l of t h e i r  r e s u l t s c o n f i r m e d my  produced father  the  of the t a r g e t  Of t h e twenty  list  A l l t h e items  r e a d i n g s , t h e y were t o l d  dialects.  initial  (1940) a r e i n d i c a t e d by  syllables  out  /n/  Those / n / i n i t i a l  t o read the l i s t  taped and t r a n s c r i b e d . /n/ i n i t i a l s  6.  syllable(s).  between t h e male and f e m a l e  and  / l / and  7 p r e s e n t s t h e word  t h e s u r v e y was t o f i n d  were  40  from Wong  added  who  s c h o o l i n Hong Kong s h o u l d be The  in  were t a k e n  r a n d o m l y a r r a n g e d . The Both  high  any n a t i v e s p e a k e r  always  however, t h e  mother  [1].  This  r e g a r d l e s s of the s y l l a b l e used  an i n i t i a l  /n/ i n her  r e a d i n g . A l l t h e / n / s were r e p l a c e d by / 1 / s . 3  Thus f a r , we have c o n f i r m e d to  the type  and  /n/ i n their  of  speaker  and  t h e / n / i s r e p l a c e d by / l / .  speech,  of speaker  t h a t Wai's f a t h e r  who d i s t i n g u i s h e s  both  s p e e c h . Wai's mother b e l o n g s  who does n o t have  initial  initials / l / to  the  /n/ i n their  In the development  one c a n make two p o s s i b l e  belongs  predictions  with  type  speech, o f Wai's respect  179  to  the  /!/  predict would  t h a t Wai mean  speaking her  and  t o her  spoken  the  sensitivity  of who  so,  an  with  she  well  as  both  [1]  and  can  also  show when  S e c o n d , one  can  data  of  either  should  the  be  use  two  the one  [n]  also  such  predict  dialects  father's  dialect  when  i n her or  or t h e  the other  to.  THE  PARENTS ON  THE  SPEECH  CHILD sessions  of  Wai's s p e e c h  examination  of Wai's a c q u i s i t i o n  /  /n/.  l  / and  8  selected  There  were  session. Also,  the p h o n e t i c  Wong's book  as  of  of 13  were c h o s e n  lexical speech  types  samples,  used  Wong  by  (1940). to  and  /n/  initial  be  the  f a t h e r and  syllables The  25.  syllables  i t g i v e s the p h o n e t i c  forms of t h e  i s considered  representation Canton.  of  data  1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,21,23,and  same s y l l a b l e s  pronunciation  of  t h e m o t h e r ' s p a t t e r n when  but  p r e s e n t s a l l the / l /  the  This  [1]  Appendix  for  dialects.  would o n l y have  Sessions  each  can  types  representing  of  one  to  one  i s spoken  both  f a t h e r ' s when  DIALECTAL INFLUENCE OF  Alternate for  only  First,  speaking  Our  T h i s can  regardless  THE  the  begins.  acquires  language.  THE  speaking  would use  father.  If  OF  she  i s addressed,  mother's.  5.4.  grow up  syllables.  I f s o , Wai's l e x i c a l  addressing  Wai  initial  m o t h e r , and  when t h e mother  that  will  that  father.  dialect  /n/  forms  mother,  based  on  the  p r o n u n c i a t i o n based  'standard'  the Cantonese d i a l e c t  spoken  and  as  on  is  the  i n the  city  180  For each of W a i ' s s e s s i o n s a n a l y s e d , I c a l c u l a t e d total  numbers  both / l / and following  of  phonetic  /n/  initial  the  tokens and p h o n e t i c t y p e s syllables.  For  for  example,  the  h y p o t h e t i c a l data e x e m p l i f i e s the count t h a t was  made: Father's  form  C h i l d ' s form 1  li a n ^  'broken'  lan  lei  'come'  lei  'deer*  luk  / l / initial syllables  luk  9  (2X)  9  »Q nuk  (2X)  y  .3  /n/ i n i t i a l syllables  nei^  •milk*  .3 na.1.  ' you'  lei-  (2X)  5  .5  (2X)  nei Phonetic  Tokens  T o t a l Number  =11  Phonetic  T o t a l Number = 7  initials  = 6  11] i n i t i a l s  = 4  L nj i n i t i a l s  = 5  [nj  = 3  tl]  A l s o I l o o k e d at addressed  (1)  initials  the use of / l / and / n / i n the  to Wai by the p a r e n t s ,  / n / by Wai as she addressed  her  participated  in  Session  view of the f a t h e r ' s provide  some  language  and (2) the use of / l / and parents.  The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the  least  Types  father  only  actively  1. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s l i m i t s our  r o l e , but the data from S e s s i o n i m p r e s s i o n s . In S e s s i o n  used 15 / n / i n i t i a l s and 33 / ! / i n i t i a l s .  1  at  1, the f a t h e r  The mother used 9  181  /l/ initials.  These data  w i t h two d i s t i n c t Table  45  her  and F i g u r e  father  for  1 present  studied  being  presented  tokens  Session  and  t h e use of [n] and  t o her mother 1  p r o p o r t i o n s o f W a i ' s use o f [1] phonetic  is  d i a l e c t s w h i c h i t needs t o s t a i g h t e n o u t .  i n Wai's speech a d d r e s s e d and  show t h a t Wai  types  i n the Table. Figure  in  for  a l l sessions,  phonetic  and [ n ]  tokens.  initials  in  f o r t h e 13  are given  [1]  1 shows t h e same  data  The both  sessions across  a.ll t h e s e l e c t e d s e s s i o n s . S i n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the proportion little,  of  phonetic  only phonetic  As i n d i c a t e d , [1]  using  phonetic  1, we c a n  see  types  that  ^. . [ n ] f o r m s t o b o t h p a r e n t s . She h i s regard. Rather,  was  War  is  i n d i c a t e s no  the use of these  is  F o r e x a m p l e , h e r e i s a s a m p l e d i a l o g u e between  Wai  and her mother a t S e s s i o n  ( 1 ) Wai:  npi-5 'milk'  lai  (3) Wai: Mother:  J  'lai^'  •milk  4  S  hri is  1.  ( n a i ^ ' m i l k ' - a d u l t form based 1940)  6 (2) M o t h e r :  (4)  and  types are c a l c u l a t e d .  in Session  code s w i t c h i n g i n random.  tokens  m not  is 'lai^',  . 6 , - 5 hfi  llPi^  is but  'lPi^' not  'lpi^'  nai^ 'milk' hpi  6  la?,  right 'right,  lai^lai^  hou  2  jpm  m i l k ( r e d u p . ) good milk  i s good t o  drink'  2  drink  on Wong,  182  T a b l e 45 initials  :  The p r o p o r t i o n  of the occurrences of [1]  f o r t h e c o m b i n e d / l / and / n / i n i t i a l  and [ n }  syllables i n  p h o n e t i c t o k e n s and p h o n e t i c t y p e s i n W a i ' s s p e e c h to her parents  f o r a l l the selected  addressed  sessions.  Session P h o n e t i c Tokens P h o n e t i c Types . 1 ana p a r e n t 11] i n i t i a l [ n ] i n i t i a l T o t a l [1] i n i t i a l [ n ] i n i t i a l T o t a l addresses no. p r o p . No . no . p r o p . no . p r o p . No . i n p h . t o k e n s no . p r o p . 1.mother father  10 21  6 8  .20 .26  3.moth e r  26  12  5.  "  2-8  7.  "  4  • 13  TI  j  x  4  .20  2  .10  6  8  .40  9  • 50  18  20  .46  13 14  • 54  26  9  .30 • 50  9  • 32  19  .68  28  5  .28  13  • 72  18  26  2  .08  24  • 92  26  2  .13  13  • 87  15  "  24  2  .08  22  .92  24  2  .18  9  .82  11  11 . "  50  4  .08  46  .92  50  3  .20  12  .80  15  13.  "  14  8  •57  6  .43  14  5  • 50  5  • 50  10  15-  "  5P  31  .62  19  • 38  50  10  • 55  8  • 45  18  27  20  • 74  7  .26  27  9 .60  6  .40  15  9.  17.  .42  19-  "  53  46  .87  7  • 13  53  11  •69  5  • 31  16  21.  "  37  34  • 92  3  .08  37  13  • 87  2  • 13  8  23.  "  43.  39  .91  4  .09  43  15  .88  2  .12  17  25.  "  58  54  • 93  4  .07  58  19  .86  3  .14  22  Figure  1:  The  proportion  of occurrence  initials  i n Wai's p h o n e t i c  sessions  (based, on  Table  types  [13  f o r a l l the  45)  Proportion  1.00,  Session  of  Number  &  Cn]  selected  184  Based  on  the  c h i l d ' s reply  though  her  her  i n i t i a l , which  /n/  diphthong  remains unchanged. T h i s aware Her  of  the  of  on  / l /  her  she  5  /n/  initial  herself /n/  (see  initials,  all  that  the  next  they  return  trend  initial the  one  not  the be  and at  mother's,  child /n/  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough,  the  the  (line  4) i n d i c a t i e s  syllable  'milk'  even  i s t o be  that  the  though  she  Session using  15  and  the  the  she  [ n ] , she  / l /  and not  considers  m o t h e r , and  mother,  use  one  actually [n]  Session  continue  [1]. This  t o use  mother  correct.  (5,7,9,11), w h i l e at  is a  does  would become more f r e q u e n t .  t o a random p a t t e r n  is  c h i l d ' s form w h i c h  suggests  d i r e c t . [1]  not  is  the  with  is  initials.  this  speech, p e r c e p t u a l l y  are  r  time  i s mostly around  that  judgement  / l /  the the  even  i / to / a i /  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  that  for /n/  use  i s mostly  Wai  3). This  Wai  [1]  of  that  from /  that  initials  form of  i n her  4 sessions  mother's If  own  sessions  s t a r t s at  Wai  /n/  sees  from  suggest  system.  i t may  that  however, a r e  25,  or  subsequent  predict  could  aware of  uses / l /  Given  different  and  line  initials  anyone who  is  shows a p p r o v a l  i s not  have / n /  been c h a n g e d  Wai's p r o n u n c i a t i o n  even t h o u g h h e r  [lai ],  one  has  own  m o t h e r ' s comment on that  3),  d i f f e r e n c e between the  production  dependent  (line  so  suggests has  that might  The  data,  drops  over  dominates.  Then,  13.  The  that  reverse  by  that  Session  after  s e t t l e d on  an  following  pattern. were a c q u i r i n g  would p r e d i c t  that  the  the  mother's p a t t e r n  use  of  [n]  of  speech,  would e v e n t u a l l y  show  185  a  restricted  use t o [ n ] words t o t h e f a t h e r , and t h e n  it  a l t o g e t h e r . Table  46 p r e s e n t s  the  f a t h e r ' s / n / and / l /  7,  9  and  grouped use  11,  The t e r m  a graphic  indicated  preference  15,  in  for / l /  over  Conversely, lower  .50.  It  13 and  t h e c o r r e c t use of  use  Sessions shows  gets with  / l /  it  of  proportion  It  from  / l / words  that  5 and 7.  is  always  i t reaches i s  /!/  initials  is  1 t o 11. D e s p i t e i t s highest of  throughout  11  rather  low  the f a c t  that  proportion at  correctness  of  .14  a l l the s e s s i o n s  onwards,  the  proportion  i t s peak a t S e s s i o n s  21 and 23,  i t goes  down  slightly  and  i t gives  more  25.  f o r t h e c o r r e c t use of / n / i n i t i a l s ,  p i c t u r e . S t a r t i n g from S e s s i o n s of  is  to the f a t h e r ' s  o f .96. Then  proportion  a l l the  reference  9 and  reaches  .86 a t S e s s i o n  higher  with  the lowest  From S e s s i o n s  type.  46.  i t s peak a t S e s s i o n s  words r e a c h e s  is  l e s s an o p p o s i t e the  of Table  2, Wai h a s an o v e r a l l  5 and 7, i t s p r o p o r t i o n  a proportion  As  3,  of  higher.  reaches  or  the sessions  that  studied.  lexical  the  15.  M o r e o v e r , one s e e s t h a t  Wai's  f o r an a d u l t  the p r o p o r t i o n  has  and  for  t h a n / n / words t h r o u g h o u t  .50. The h i g h e s t  ..48 a t S e s s i o n s  throughout  stands  t h e use of / n / words a t any s e s s i o n  than  dialect,  free variation  Figure  rather  1 and 3, 5  19, and 21 and 23 a r e  representation  s e s s i o n s . A t any s e s s i o n , always  Sessions  17 and  [ 1 ] and [n] i n i t i a l s  2 gives  As  t h e u s e o f [ n ] and [ 1 ] f o r  initials.  and  into pairs.  of both  Figure  13  lose  correct  use o f / n /  1  and  i n c r e a s e s and  T a b l e 46 • The u s e o f 111 and [n3 i n W a i ' s s p e e c h i n w o r d s o f t h e f a t h e r ' s / l / or / n / i n i t i a l s . session t o t a l no . o f no . l e x i c a l correct types  A / use o f f r e e I_n] v a r .  d i a l e c t that are  A / total  correct  free v a r i a t i o n  use o f  free var.  total  total  1,3  26  •28(5)  •19(3)  •50(8)  .62(10)  .40(4)  .20(2)  .40(4)  .38(10)  .46(12)  5,7  28  .14(3)  .68(15)  .18(4)  •79(22)  •83(5)  .00(0)  •17(1)  .21(6)  •18(5)  9,11  24  •23(3)  .62(8)  •15(2)  •54(13)  •36(4)  •64(7)  .00(0)  .46(11)  .08(2)  13,15  23  •42(5)  •42(5)  .17(2)  •52(12)  •27(3)  .46(5)  •27(3)  .48(11)  .22(5)  17,19  2?  •63(10)  .25(4)  •13(2)  •59(16)  •2?(3)  •55(6)  .18(2) . .41(11)  .15(4)  2 1 , 23  35  . 9 6 ( 2 4 ) . 04 (2)  .00(0)  • 74(26)  .22(2)  •78(7)  .00(0)  •26(9)  .00(0)  25  20  .86(12)  .14(2)  .70(14)  .17(1)  •83(5)  .00(0)  •30(6)  .10(2)  .00(0)  18? Figure  2: The p r o p o r t i o n o f o c c u r r e n c e o f 111 & Cn] i n  Wai's speech i n words o f t h e f a t h e r ' s d i a l e c t t h a t a r e / l / or / n / i n i t i a l s  (based on T a b l e 4 6 ) use o f / n / w o r d s c o r r e c t use o f / n / .^.. *»»». . se o f / l / words 4  a  U  c o r r e c t use o f / l /  Proportion LOG  .401  .204-  779  TTTT5  —w!w  S e s s i o n Number  2 1  ;  23  188  reaches .83. .17  i t s peak a t S e s s i o n s  Then  i t goes down and  at Session  5.4.1. The  two  P e r i o d s Of  of  nasalization,  This i.e.  child's [n]  and  child's  is  indicate  Moreover, the  [1]  prefers  s i n c e the  initials,  /m/,  /n/,  positions, This high the  and  the  as  from  / l /  of  and  of  among [n]  speech  the  A ) / can  has  /n/  preference  1  to Session  in  found  footnote  2  i n s t e a d of  in  her  own  o n l y appear  to  [1]  initial in i n i t i a l  i n Cantonese  t o p r e f e r t o use  the  the this The  seems  system. hearing  the  i n Cantonese, both  of  speech  t o e x p l a i n why  i s that  of n a s a l s  on  in  speakers.  i n her  of  syllables.  not  Cantonese  The  dominance  initial  is  11,  of age.  more a c c e s s i b i l i t y  initial,  can  /n/  i s dependent  appear  whereas / l /  2,  lateralization.  a higher  initials  i t is difficult [n]  1 and  / l / and  (1)  Session  initials  found  child  occurrence  Figures  of Wai's  preference  indicated  explanation  child  w e l l as  nasalization  [1]  t h a t her  possible  lead  of  occurrence  One  of  the  rarely  t o use  as  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  s p e e c h , and  high  p r o p o r t i o n of  1;7(14) t o 2;0(27) y e a r s  f o r both  is  46,  the  ranges  replacement  chapter,  and  (2)  i s from  speech  parent's  a p r o p o r t i o n of  Development  a r e p r o p o s e d . They a r e  period  initials  The  45  preference  when Wai  with  i t s lowest  i n the development  syllables  (1) The  to  Tables  main p e r i o d s  initial  reaches  7,  25.  Two  B a s e d on  5 and  child  initial.  the  nasals  and  final  position.  syllables  a n a s a l when she  might  i s in a  189  period  i n which her  system  f o r the  One  can  English, speech than  6;0,  sounds  (1957)  7;0,  that  other as  / l /  and the  present  the  are  test  showed /  by  / l /  the  nasal  /n/  why  Wai  one  is  can  infer  easier  p r o v e s t o be  p r e f e r r e d /n/  children,  4;0, most  5;0,  children both  Jeng  (1979) has  also  later  than  all  a c q u i r i n g Mandarin has  been  of  of  no  study  acquisition  b a s e d on the  that  4;6,  whereas  ages  that  than  t o 480  3,  was  speech sounds. N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  earlier  age  l a n g u a g e . Thus f a r , t h e r e on  of  example,  3;6,  appeared who  In  For  that  acquired.  liquid  acquired  1971).  articulation  information  the  of  English  acquisition  of  the  liquid  / l /  in  c o r r e c t , then  i t may  be  the  over / l / i n her  speech  during  period. (2) The This  up,  nasals  n,  own  a g e s of a c q u i s i t i o n  Olmsted,  results  her  possible explanation.  the  in his subject  Cantonese. If t h i s  this  1957,  /m,  lateral  Mandarin data,  reason  that  / r / were not  consonants  Cantonese and  The  nasals  his native  to  found  at  of  syllables.  f o l l o w i n g a g e s - 3;0,  8;0.  the  dependent  initial  of a n o t h e r  gave an  the  and  acquired  found  have  (Templin,  e a c h of  liquids  /n/  also think  liquids  at  and  is s t i l l  s t u d i e s which l o o k e d  Templin 60  / l /  speech  period  i . e . age  characterized speech. initial  high  preference  the  up.  high  i n her  In  this  preference  T h i s dominance of syllables  lateralization  extends approximately  2;1(24) and by  of  [1]  speech  from S e s s i o n  period, of  initials seems t o  [1]  the  13  and  child  is  initials  f o r the  / l /  suggest  in  her  and  /n/  that  at  190  this  time t h e c h i l d ' s  dialect. now  initial  to follow for  also  both  another  This  that  preferred that  important by  that,  is  that  the  mother  spite  Wai  in  rather  than  that  be  of t h i s ,  incline  i s the primary grow  the f a t h e r ' s .  however,  t h e amount  dialect,  of  i t i s my dialect.  that  dialect  is  t h e more  time  t h e more l i k e l y  t o i t . In Wai's c a s e ,  speaking  data  of the language  which  s o u r c e of language up  But one  possibility  the mother's  It i s believed  [1]  i s no s p e e c h  some  determining  hears a c e r t a i n  will  there  end up a d o p t i n g  he o r she w i l l  child,  initial  since  might  In  the c h i l d .  the c h i l d  the c h i l d i s  syllables.  b a s e d on t h e i d e a  is  that  / l / a n d /n/  there  Wai w i l l  claim  t o the mother's  i n t h e use o f  fluctuation.  is  input  25,  close  the mother's d i a l e c t  be c a u t i o u s  beyond S e s s i o n  belief  i s very  Of c o u r s e , one c a n f u r t h e r  ready  should  speech  input  the mother's  to  it  since the  dialect  191  Chapter  5: F o o t n o t e s During  1  1;7(14) house.  to  the period 2;8(11),  of v i s i t s ,  she  spent  most  Because of the heavy t r a f f i c  rarely  played  when  with other c h i l d r e n  It  is  replacement Cheung,  were  readings,  initial  only  of  i n the s t r e e t .  /n/  /n/  by  that  is  i n the she  Thus t h e  s o u r c e of l i n g u i s t i c  replaced  / l / i s very r a r e l y  other Cantonese-speakers asked  to  by  / l / . The  observed  recently  (H.N.  from  r e a d t h e words i n t h e l i s t .  no / n / i n i t i a l  s u p p o r t H.N.  Kong.  of the time  1972). Three  3  to  between  to the c h i l d . 2  Kong  was  o u t s i d e t h e house,  p a r e n t s were assumed t o be t h e p r i m a r y input  Wai  h a s been  Cheung's c l a i m  found. T h i s  (1972) t h a t  / n / i s v e r y common among C a n t o n e s e  In t h e i r  finding  the  Hong  seems  absence,  speakers  of  i n Hong  192  CHAPTER  6.  CONCLUSION  In of  this  dissertation,  the a c q u i s i t i o n  children.  Two  longitudinal  cross-sectional Wing.  of  of  of Wai  the  in  the  two  other  one  more  the  Ching's  and  session,  their  these  findings  (A) C h i n g ability from  than  the  number o f  the and  of  the  of C h i n g  and  'advanced'  there  Wai's  2;0(6), so  less  idea  were  no  first with  chosen  session,  Wai's  because  tenth  of  the  the  two  ages.  SUBJECTS comparisons,  one  can  summarize  as f o l l o w s :  manifested  Wai  and  the  Wing, I o f t e n compared  with  were  young  t o have some g e n e r a l  and  session,  They  COMPARISON OF From  Ching  Wai,  those  'advanced' or  1;8(5),  Wing's  2;0(11 ) .  c l o s e n e s s of  general  for  s e s s i o n , age  1;7(14),  6.1.  data  three  results  h i s / h e r p h o n o l o g i c a l development. Since  longitudinal  description  s u b j e c t s , Ching  were o f t e n compared w i t h  t o w h i c h s u b j e c t was  by  subject  discussion,  enabled  a  were i n v o l v e d . They a r e  primary  of  Wing. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n as  data  the  data  Throughout  analyses  of C a n t o n e s e p h o n o l o g y  kinds  data  I have p r e s e n t e d  was  results  an  at Session  of  forms.  less-advanced  1. The  (1) p h o n e t i c  sounds a c q u i r e d and  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  overall  best  evidence  stability,  articulation  phonetic  (2) t h e  s c o r e s , and  comes total (3)  193  In  the  comparison  of  shows t h a t  of  Ching's  Ching's  difference in  r e s u l t s of  of  . 17  Section the  stable  than  With  14).  first  below  to  of  in  41  further  great  20  of Wai's f i r s t higher.  ( c f . Table  Ching,  of  of  had  It  12).  a  session  yields  As  a  mentioned instability  therefore,  is  less  number  number of  had  in  a total Ching  The  her.  of  30  is  10  sounds session,  13  sounds  33.3%)  (or  be  found  Ching acquired  whereas Wai  whereas  ( c f . Tables  same p i c t u r e can scores.  acquired,  had  58.  This  and  in  a  the  total  yields a  17. of  Ching's  that  .31  only  as  total  sounds  session,  results  much  stability,  r a t e means a h i g h e r  articulation  confirms  session  the  Wai.  her  proportion  as  of the  difference The  of  session  that of  that much  .30)  indicates that  results  of p h o n e t i c  Wai. respect  This  -  is  production.  C h i n g had- a t o t a l Wai's  rate  a higher  phonetic  index  rate with  (.47  4.1.,  the  Ching  i n her .16.  what Wai of  Type  A  reduplicated  i s l e s s a d v a n c e d . C h i n g had  production,  whereas  Ching's p r o p o r t i o n had.  Type  This  A  forms  Wai's  first  is therefore  shows t h a t  reduplicated  C h i n g has forms  a  twice made a  in  her  product ion. (B) comparable  Wing's to that  From the to  determine  fact,  except  overall of Wai  r e s u l t s of who  at  phonetic Session  various  i n d e x of  the  can  be  10.  analyses,  i s more a d v a n c e d  f o r the  performance  i t is  in phonetic  phonetic  difficult ability.  stability  In  that  1 94  shows  Wing  is  significant  (Wing's i n d e x :  .13;  suggest  that  Wing  phonetic  ability.  analyses  of  superior  Wai's i n d e x : and  This  Wai  can  total  number  example,  indicated in Tables  of  This  yields  of  the  Wai  28  54.  Again  scores,  this  d i f f e r e n c e s can  if  compares them w i t h  Wai's  first  reduplicated difference minimal. phonetic  session.  only  short,  one  Session  10.  6.2.  ACQUISITION OF  This  examined and  Ching  phonetic  comparable  30.  results  52,  whereas  In  fact,  significant session  o f Type A .07  t o be  The  rather  Wing's to that  and  overall of Wai  at  CANTONESE  on  the  acquisition  of  development  substitutional  of  a  the  2.  less  that  to  the  analysis,  of  i s considered  attempted  through  For  whereas Wing had  has  the  forms.  proportion  study  information  and  total  a score  claim  be  acquired  2 s o u n d s . In  the  .06,  can  the  Wing a c q u i r e d  a  t o be  their  of  between C h i n g ' s  which  can  results  14,  10  results  same i n  a d i f f e r e n c e of  for  .01,  the  acquired  those  As  performance  THE  13 and  Session  general  reduplicated  considered  f o r m s , Wing had is  In  be  at  sounds  Wing has  yields  these one  A  a d i f f e r e n c e of  articulation  had  Type  s o u n d s , whereas Wai only  almost  of  scores,  total  and  the  shown i n the  articulation as  .26),  are  be  t o Wai  of  the  use  Cantonese.  detailed I  sound s y s t e m s of Wai, of  analysis  a n a l y s i s , and  provide  four  analyses, of .  phonological  have Wing,  namely,  reduplication,  process  analysis.  195  The  major  f i n d i n g s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f C a n t o n e s e  are  as  follows: (1)  The  phonetic  sounds a c q u i r e d  analysis  has d e t e r m i n e d  i n C a n t o n e s e . Though o n l y  subjects,  these  data  Cantonese  subjects  can  be  p, and  by  speaking, the  the  t o those  the f o l l o w i n g  the i n i t i a l  t , t s , t s ' , s, j , k, h / , t h e f i n a l vocalics  on  acquired  initial  / i , £, ,  subjects  use  consonants  consonants  /p,  of other  u,  3 ,  consonants  of  p,  e i / . Generally  a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of  a l l Cantonese  /rj,  k',  kw,  /m,  consonants /n, k , ^ j / ,  a,  had a c q u i r e d  other  sounds a r e  p h o n o l o g y o f C a n t o n e s e . F o r example, a t 2;8  had  three  and t o those of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g  a t l e a s t two s u b j e c t s :  the  based  compared  l a n g u a g e s . Our r e s u l t s showed t h a t used  the e a r l y  kw',  ( 1 1 ) , Wai  phonemes e x c e p t t h e f/,  the  t / a n d t h e v o c a l i c s and s y l l a b i c  final  consonant  /y,oe, D i , u i , 0 / . (2)  As f a r a s r e d u p l i c a t i o n  showed t h a t the  that  the great  are  child's  majority  nouns, a n d t h e n v e r b s . forms  the  r e d u p l i c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a common  Cantonese-speaking  found  i s concerned,  The  early  system. I t i s a l s o  adjective/adverbs  A careful analysis  forms h a s r e v e a l e d  occurs  then d e c r e a s e s g r e a t l y . T h i s  consistent  with  and that  from E n g l i s h Ching,  that  (Fee and  o f Wai's  reduplication finding i s  Ingram,  Finally,  we have f o u n d t h a t  in  s t u d y , h a s t w i c e a s many r e d u p l i c a t e d  this  forms a r e  reduplicated  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d early  feature i n  of the r e d u p l i c a t e d  the l e a s t frequent.  results  the l e a s t advanced  1982). child  forms a s Wai  196  at  Session  a child are  1. T h i s  i s i n her a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  t o be  found  (3) The of  child's  rate  seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  i n her  First,  o f M a t c h e s compares  words  their  to  on  following  across  the  Session  25). Secondly,  sessions  Matches of consonants  the r e s u l t s two  that  the Cantonese-speaking  than  the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  Cantonese English. complex assistance The subjects their the  of  only  Ingram  homonymous forms  Session the  scored  to  acquire  of  indicate  much  higher  Cantonese-  consonants,  the that  than t h a t (1) and  at  children  conclusion  of  the  of  more  (2)  the  that  the  system. indicated  number o f homonymous forms i n  i s shown by c o m p a r i n g  forms  .90  i n matching  easier  English  noting.  1 to  i s , the  the  result  of  increased  results  to  as a  the  Proportion  led  used a minimal  homonymous  worth  sounds  s u b j e c t s . The  a n a l y s i s o f homonymous forms  speech. T h i s  on  is  of the t o n a l  English-speaking based  at  c h i l d r e n . That  i s explained  system  .76  children  results  phonology This  the a d u l t ' s  a r e d o i n g t w i c e as w e l l  These  phonology  between t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  Cantonese-speaking  models.  are  I have compared  the  adult  the  of t h e P r o p o r t i o n  findings  (from  and  children  forms  a d u l t models t o determine  Wai's r a t e o f m a t c h i n g  speaking  t h e more r e d u p l i c a t e d  Proportion  the  advanced  speech.  of matches. Based  Matches,  the l e s s  between  s u b j e c t s . The  the p r o p o r t i o n  of  the C a n t o n e s e - s p e a k i n g  and  English-speaking  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , were f o u n d t o use than the  Cantonese-speaking  3.5  children, t i m e s more  subjects.  I  197  attribute speaking early  this  acquisition  to  child  of  of  homonymy  constraints  has t o r e l y  intonation  system  subjects, that  in English,  solely  and  that  of  the  namely,  1976b),  i s also  Lastly,  in  homonyms  however, t h e segments features  as tone  of such  phonological  the  i s i n Cantonese. process  of  analysis  a r e s h a r e d by t h e  a r e n o t . For vowels,  process  i t was f o u n d  tensing.  Stopping,  i n the English-speaking c h i l d r e n  found  i n the speech  of  both  Wai  one o f t h e f r e q u e n t p r o c e s s e s o f Wai,  deaspiration,  frequent  c h i l d to  be  the  there are processes that  and o t h e r s t h a t  Ching.  The  and s t r e s s p r o v i d e some h e l p i n ' p r o c e s s i n g '  i s a common  (Ingram,  on  suprasegmental  a l l s u b j e c t s have t h e p r o c e s s  which  Cantonese.  on s e g m e n t s . I n E n g l i s h ,  more o r l e s s  results  indicated  in  would o t h e r w i s e  t h e word, b u t t h e y a r e n o t l e x i c a l The  of the Cantonese-  tone e n a b l e s the Cantonese  productions that  t h e word. A l t h o u g h as  rate  subjects to the tonal  disambiguate due  low  is  also  reported  Taiwanese-speaking  to  be  children  rather  (S.C.  Lin,  1971).  6.3.  CONCLUDING REMARK One  among  significant  others,  is  analytic  procedures  analysis  of  never of  contribution the  children  been m e n t i o n e d ,  suggestion  and  criteria  acquiring  of  this  of  an e x p l i c i t  in  the  Cantonese.  i t h a s been t h o u g h t  p r o c e d u r e s and c r i t e r i a  dissertation,  phonological  Although  that  can a l s o apply t o  s e t of  i t has  t h e same s e t the  analysis  198  of  the  speech of language d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n .  s p e e c h samples speaking this  used here o n l y  children.  study  is  delayed children In  doing t h i s ,  I t follows  to  analyse  by u s i n g  one w i l l  change and e l a b o r a t i o n .  Thus f a r , t h e  c o v e r e d the normal that  a good  continuation  the  speech  o f some  t h e same p r o c e d u r e s and be  Cantonese-  able  to  make  the  of  language criteria. necessary  199  BIBLIOGRAPHY Blount,  B.  1969.  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Han-yu f a n g - y a n g a i  , Outline  P e k i n g : Wen-zi  xiang  %  i  |  1968. E r - t o n g  z h i yu-yan y u s i -  | ^ " ^ > t 5 >  '  of c h i l d r e n . ) Taiwan:  T  h  Zhong  e  l a n  9"  u a  9  e  (l £ /K^  er-tong  de  school pupils.)  f a-zhan  (^ 1§) % \  zuo-wen ^  %  A study o f t h e use o f v o c a b u l a r y primary  (  239-416, T a i w a n : Huan-yu  changf\f  'Pf* H  i n the composition of  Zhong-guo e r - t o n g x i n g - w e i 4J  ftMa4t,  The  of b e h a v i o r s o f t h e C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n ) ,  Yang a n d C.X. Zhang  d  1 974.  G u o - x i a o , zhong, g a o - n a n - j i yan-jiu  n  Hua Shuyu.  Zhang, C.X. and W.Z. Q i u  yong z i - h u i  a  \% %% ,i^J^T^ chu-ban-she.  development e d . by G.S.  '  %  209  Appendix 1 The f o r m s t h a t a r e u s e d i n t h i s  (a) study:  1. I n v e n t o r y  Sheet  ( P h o n e t i c Forms)  2.  Inventory  Sheet  (Lexical  3.  I t e m and R e p l i c a S h e e t  Types)  k. R e d u p l i c a t i o n S h e e t 5. P h o n o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s 6.  Summary S h e e t  Sheet  ( i n order)  210  CV  CVG  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child  CVC  CV  CVG  1  1  1  CVG  CVC  1  1  |  1  1  1  |  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  '  1  ,  1  1  1  |  I  1  1  I  1  1  I  1  I  |  1  1  1.  I  |  1  1  ,1  1  1  1  1  1  1 I  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  I  | 1  1  1  1  1  ,  CV  1  1  1  v  CVC  1  1  1  1  1  1  |  8  I  1  |  1  1  I  1  1  1  1  I  •  1  1  1  1  ? "  .  1  I  |  |  1  1  |  |  1  1  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  I  |  1  1  1  1  I  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  Svllahic m  1 1  9  1  1  Consonants  211  S e s s i o n No.  INVENTORY SHEET Lexical Syllable I n i t i a l  Name & Age o f Child  Types Syllable Final  Consonants  Vocalics  Consonants  1 —  _  1  -  1  212  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types Syllable  (continued)  Initial  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  Tones  -» — >  Final Consonants  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Initials Session  No.  p  P'  m  f  Name & Age o f  t  t'  n  1.  Child  ts  ts'  s  k  k'  h  kw  kw'  b) S y l l a b l e  j  w  Finals  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  i  u y  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Consonants  ai  au  m  P  0  Pi  pu  n  t  a  ei  ou  0  k  oey  iu  <£  Syllabic Consonants  Oi ui  m  i  0 1  Vocalics  Finals Consonants  Syllabic Consonants  214 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET R e d u p l i c a t e d form  (gloss)  Child P a r t o f speech  Type A/Type B  1. 2.  3.  h. 5. 6.  7. 8. 9 10. 11. 12. 13. Ik. 15Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  Proportion of: R e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  P h o n e t i c forms Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  S e s s i o n No Name & Age Child PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET Syllable Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Consonants)  Stopping Affrication Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  Assimilatory  Processes  216 .Session No. Name & Age o f SUMMARY SHEET  Child  Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  Phonetic  Phonetic  size  Types  Types  Tokens  Forms  :  :  :  :  Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency  (  Numher o f Sounds  Articulation  b) S y l l a b l e  ) Score  Final  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants  F i n a l - Consonants-.'  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency--:.:.  Vocalics  . ..  (  )  - _ _ _ (  Syl.Cons._l  )  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Number o f Sounds  Number o f Sounds  Syllable  I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n  Score  T o t a l Number o f Sounds Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Substitution (l)  Initial m  n  Q  Analysis and F i n a l p pJ-ft  Consonants  t ' t s t s ' k k'to'kw' s  -  1 1I 1I 1 P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  j  I  f  1  1  h j  v  [  (  : [J (  /25) & Matches  (  (  /  )  / )  /  ]  21? (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants  i  P  ai  u.  y  at  e  Pi ei  a  0  oey  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  (  ou  Di'ui • au  rn  pu  0  tu-  !  /20) & Matches  (  /  )  (-3) TonesN o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form 1  2  3  6  5  Reduplicated 7  8  Form  9  T o t a l Number o f Proportion Phonological  Tone ' S u b s t i t u t i o n s .  P h o n e t i c Tokens  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  Stopping  Affrication  Fronting  •Monophthongisation d.f -diphthongs  Laxing  o f vowels and diphthongs  Other p r o c e s s e s  0 - 20  %  21-1+9%  50 - 79 %  80 - 100  %  218  Appendix 1  The  (b)  complete forms f o r the s e s s i o n s  in this  study.  that  are  selected  219  /  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f , •  Child  lexical  phonetic  lexical  lexical  phonetic  T y  4W  37  737  "  _  V  types  types  types  ,  fa  phonetic  if*  J  2_Q_ '  -64  Wph  4o 4OLC'  ftt^  4  41  4  3>  12  21 lo  6 M,  f  4  4  4  4  .if  put} /kw  U3  »  u.  /  A ji-u7i i-u PS ii:q ii.ufri  /kw'/  H fee'fei A /  A /  12 Ua * ?JALL'U U  «.' 137 U&L  Id  A /  W W W  6(  62 torn-  21 API: iKgpflfr)  fey  i L _ k i _ i l  67 i s .  10  331  ^htixl  W  LOO ..2  a:  fI 2,  10 72  1'1 h u . ^  .4  2  220  S e s s i o n No.  (ibrr&M&d)  LEXICON SHEET  ' _  Name & Age o f Child , .  ,  types lexical  types phonetic  lexical  h&  loft  IT n a ' V 1 J J 4  r  LO  pi  l i  7  i iCft  IS  na.  w  ^ ; j  s  J X 1*01 ijfl. ^  ^  U  Vnt?u  /P/ i  1  1  ima i *  I*  1*  p<a  |  .  ^  'lUTpYV" i, ]/ t> p i : 1  llof'D^'r^l  ^Vix)!' ' 6  1, ' ItlO h i .  —  .  8  pi-"} J  2  I  |  *7  h ^ t HIT nvfndti lit 11*  I c t i L -  fo  y,/V  p'liuy^'  /S/  1  Sr»w  l)U SPn  Sba'  lis* <TPU,'  |  1  1  I  2  1  h(4- P|;n  pid p  '04 S i : * — j — j — l(lf paw 1 '  /P'/I p V f c lilt, S  p V  1  iw  ,  llil h f v . \ J , i ^ v ' < : v . ' 1137 v^'^Vo.:  'DW  r  '.nil','  1« p\,-.ip'„u'«IJ»  Jo', b->V  (if*) *6  r  2  p.  ,,2  /  Itof DA. DA..  I.  13 n o e - M  1  n  11 h a / W  XL pou,'  ii  pViV  p  ho3 p a r  l  7  /n/  «  ?  hog  fe4 WJU*  pVj*  rr|fl,V4v)  1 7  i-JT  \V  1  phonetic  S  14  Tf\O.J  lexical  \noi  1  m  x  types phonetic.  / l /  .  7('4)  (AJOA, J J  n«o  r.^,,  z  life 55  3  p'pi*  !>W M  l«1 5 5 '  '•f  PV. V y> "° 2  ^W-pkiM.p>J^  V sin'  lf«r- s i l , V ^  l l *S f V  221  /  S e s s i o n No.  (JUTIQ^AAJU.^ Name & Age o f  LEXICON SHEET  Child  ,  .  (AJAC / ; 7 types lexical  phonetic  114 SM,'.*) 1U  lexical  ll7tt|?L  lexical  ,  J SM St| *  tiuf)'  3  ? !  j s uj . irt<;u lift 5<W llrt SI  J  1  1  tV">' A /  1 lk-i t/i «  tsii  1  till t ' i n '  I3f  1.12-fW  rto f  l l B t o ix  nfcu^W  liirto  1  t a h.  6  l l U t,p»  12(1. t ^ . liw  Ilk  6  ftz t u r f "  J  t ^ l.si t s ^ i V b o  liH  IUK*  .  L(, t s u * 1  I ikr t o a  Hf.:«'  Jw f < V  Ai T V *  likf tou.  ti'x>y\ tPL  4  I  1  4  t o it'  1 |  la* t*V?S&|  As/I  tD'CJ^ fi:  4  As-/  3  fa 12? t*'  J  5  l|«.tu,Vu:M ui  phonetic  U'l SU: rw) J  j Ink 5H  nf  types phonetic  iVit'pi?  Wl  5  /  types  Q4-j  tyu t S P L "  li1o  L  It, f V , J  hJf t s  5  1  t*t  U«r s r ' U.L ts>i *  z  Iff) f S ^ V J t 4 t v * . n t j ' t f l l  lift^Uv  ts^tsce?  lit.} t . h nv) 6  j£7-tsu*ku»il I'tr f.*, . «i7t5t tsr/' k W t s ? ' & 1? 1 ID t r ft b i J H i tsV ts V  t*u^ t s i ^  A  "  —«—.  'V*  i r  4  W*tfU  1  1  /w/  1  ft u j * 1  A V  j  1  Ml ,t.<i  1  n  ^ U n  ,l<)  C  'ifl 17b u y p i ^  IAW  I^PI^  222 S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  types lexical  ("/fc^m&ru^) Name & Age o f Child , . types  phonetic  lexical  1  MIL V a >  W  wic-'  /ip/  . . /a:/  i  <x  m  A*  1  ,11, a * F  r  I " 1  |  1  1  '  1  !  1  i  | | |  | 1  I  | U J '| ' J 1 ^a:.p«t?.i.|y | J r i  1 1  J  s  /P/  I  ' 1  |  |  j  J  I  J  ;r r  J -/  1  1  1  |  1  I  1  | |  1 1  1 .  1 I  |  |  1  1  l  | |  1  1  I  '  1  .  |  •  A-VK)  -  phonetic  1  |  *  lexical  I  1  •  ,  types phonetic  1  IH  '  1  1  1  1  i  i  j  223  INVENTORY SHEET  Session  Phonetic  Name & Age o f Child  Forms  No.  Ua^  cv 1  1 p o u 1r  1  ' „ ' i  (p  oft-  CV  1  p:>a  CVC  CVG 1  i^  1  i  1 x  DIM  p • 1  n  T  hD ' 1  l j tPhM  i  n i K T  !  CV  CVG  t l '  J-A  1  CVC  CVG  1^ W  tj  l  JJ  ti^  1  t ?  1  5  +  t p * *  tfiu'  I  f-Sl'  ti.ni^ ti n  1  to* 1 1 tail* I hi.-A ,  tSl:  C  1 I  p V ' ^ ' p V u ' l  1  tV > tV:^ 3  t n*\ J  +  tV<H 1  t, 5  '  r.Wi  I  l e u  3  j  1  i.  1  i  i  ^r—^—  1  1  |  1  tsuV  .  1  1  .  |  I  | V>  JI  |  .^t?u  A1I  tsa.M  I f A j *  «l'  i  1  !  SI  1  r  2  J  M  ii U7 L1 i  J  J  J <H J |  i  J  <  | J J. . K J ) p t Jt '  1  1  I  V  1  2  i  I  ?  j P t '  1 IGCK)-  1  SM-'I S3.l l Si:«M| YS'H'N ^ H * ' Slr/Pl S y l l a b i c V^' I s M i 1 si! ' I ' I ' 1 I 1 1 s  ™ «  1  \€  |  +  ±. ) i ^ L >  5 1  ———————————  1 1  tsul*  ISi; 1I tSftit  ! •  f Pi'  1  1  +  1  x|  1  tPl«L_ti,J2* ' p a l '  CVC  t«l.  tsf.->l  U  /;lQ</-)  Consonants 7 *  1  9  I  224  INVENTORY SHEET  Session  No.  P h o n e t i c Forms ^COKCIMMJUJC^ Name & Age Child .  CV 1  CVG  I  1  CVC 2  wu.li  1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  CV  1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 | 1  CVG  CVC  4'  l o *  h P  U a ' T ^ i ' J  h * i  h  U.tf  [  1 1  1  i  V  t h 1 r1  2 KGH  Qho  CV  l sif\a-v\  AP*,*  4BV i , y  U * T  J k t f  1 nsV i \ 41I h, v W  1 1  | 1  l  h A M i W 1 I W I v  I  —  I  \/ ' \/G I  ha.  .  i  1 1 1 1  CVC  W  \  r,,.\  CVG  &  L  of  N/C  hu t  J 2 ^ A/  Syllabic m  Consonants  i  j  L  -8  225  /  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f INVENTORY SHEET Syllable  Lexical Initial  C  V  ^  d  i  "It  23  J  4  71  H  St  *s Si  *7 i«  3  13  • * v. i'—  7^  J  £  IS'?  f  1  h  fa  n  ^3 —-1— 1 %  wu • 1  •a i  r  D  u  '1  n 34  3o  V  to  liS  t,; 3  tou.  fan  I F 2.1  t<T  -ill  „  n  PC.if  t a d  I ft*  *7  4?  ~  W  I  3  fn-  43  s  w  100  m  in  \-'  A i  hu 7 8  (To)  j  (o\  t'/tl t c o  li'o  /o/ 101  /33  cs-  i  •n  \ol f)3  "7  6~0  \o\  J  ,  h  1  no  J [  • ' * l~  Hi DV-  4-0  W  —J v„ 12 | 111  J  f Pi  I  Soe^  <^>  i  Ten  1 3i»  7* I1 o  J  Op  Final Consonants  22  keen P  /:7f*\  Vocalics  FY/ pec t  l  Syllable  Consonants  - J l  M  Types  .s-  oa  h8L*J  J  t nu.  4-1?  31 3S~  *.»  1? 6  •  "226  1 (cov&Mtf^ I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types  (continued)  Syllable I n i t i a l  Syllable  Consonants  Final  Vocalics  Consonants  ^ _ i 0 21  13$ ~  V  n  Tin  V  1  Others -  a pi J f  r  Tones —  1  w Y\(K  »  *  4  J3  ^ > 2.  —» — >  -> 1 1  4 a.  — >  ~* —>  4.1 J  —  1  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  (p)  %  ®*% ®% • kw  ©% ©%  y  y  ®%  kJtu,  child  y  y  y  t(4)  y  / ; 7 C ' 0  ®%  y  y y  y  —  y y  1  —  b) S y l l a b l e  b) S y l l a b l e  Finals Consonants  Vocalics  (ai)  © 0  ®\  y  -•' Name & Age o f  k' kw  '  u  ©*?  7  au  E  y 'to-  '(S3)  ei  oey  s  i u  Consenants  Vocalics  4  ®* C )  Finals  v/  •  CO  4  y  y  V  y  V  i to  y  Syllabic Consonants  s/  Syllabic Consonants  —  /  ui  4.  ® i (D  y  y  ro -v3  228  Session  /  No.  Name & Age o f Child  REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated  form  (gloss)  Part  o f speech  6uW  Type A/Type B  'to f l y '  verb  A  'shoe'  noun  A  'to walk'  verb  A  'to shake'  verb  A  'street'  noun  A  'dog'  noun  A  T.  'piano'  noun  A  8.  to teach'  verb  A  9  'grandfather'  noun  B  10.  'chicken'  noun  A  11.  'skirt'  noun  A  'broken'  adjective  A  'to get''  verb  A  'beautiful''  adjective  A  'mother'  noun  B  1.  1  1  2. 3.  tarn  k.  |IU • J  harv ^  4  1  \u .  5. 6.  12.  &PM, APU* 2  1  J  Ifln  fc  j  lata-  13. Ik.  15. ®  C/4-)  1)1  hi a  ma  4  '  Summary o f D a t a Number o f : hk  .20  Reduplicated  36  .16  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  .0^  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  1.00  P h o n e t i c forms  215 Form C l a s s o f Type A Reduplication  Proportion of: forms  12  33  Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  21.  ^8.  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  .08  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  229  REDUPLICATION  R e d u p l i c a t e d form  16.  i  wia. to a.  i  i  IT.  I  18. 19.  wvi-t" k n i t .  20.  1. i vnoit k*<3u.  1  • t  •21.  1  SHEET,(continued)  (gloss)  P a r t o f speech  Type A/Type B  'mother'  noun  B  'cat'  noun  A  'to c l e a n '  verb  A  'to p e e l o f f  verb  A  'hat'  noun  A B  * < 0 'younger s i s t e r ' noun 'teeth'  noun  A  'father'  noun  B  'hall'  noun  A  'cookie'  noun  A  'to p e e l o f f  verb  A  'to  verb  A  ' cup'  noun  A  29.  'comb'  noun  A  30.  'to  verb  A  31.  'uncle'  noun  'book'  noun  A  'to  verb  A '  'rabbit'  noun  A  35. <S>  'elder  noun  B  36.  'to  verb  A  noun  A  noun  A  'orange'  noun  A  'vegetable'  noun  A  4  22.  4  ... rjw, j-v 4 l 23. <g» r > a 1 ) 4 . >  1  2k.  25. 26. 27. 28.  32.  -  1  1  1  1  r  os.  y r J i > .i P PI p PI l r 1 t P ALL P O U I I |  i  •  1 »  1  p U.L . p UA .  1 S «j  1 S ij  33. 3k.  T OU.^ T. OU  39. • ko.  kiss'  read'  sister'  thank'  'word'  37. 38.  carry'  'Pig' ... ^ j  j  i s a n Uft.n J: J  •  '  B '•'  230 REDUPLICATION SHEET  (continued)  UJ-ai I••<2. R e d u p l i c a t e d form  hi. i _2  •+-  U3.  (gloss)  Part  A  '  -r '  'insect'  noun  A  ' c h i l d ' s name'  noun  B^  4*- •  4  TSU y tsag ^  wVl^pj^  1.  „ .  •+•+•  ap.  „  ap.  8"  ' duck'  adjective  Type A/Type B  t s o f t s ' * } *  l o n s  '  o f speech  noun  A  231  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  ^  <  / ;  7  QQ  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals  Stops  4L  S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes Stopping  > <f) ( /b) X  (Consonants)  fs—»  t (4/(3) 0-30  S —» ts C^/il)  Affrication  0-33  Fronting  0-1$  '  S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  ei  —M  CVsQ  p-is"  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  Assimilatory  Processes  OU—*J  C*/»)  o f t  232  L  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  SUMMARY SHEET Sample  Lexical  size  Types  : ll*}  Phonetic  Phonetic  Types  Tokens  : A i &  U)OUL  Ii7  Phonetic  : 4-10  F  o  r  m  s  :  ^  1  S  Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency Number o f Sounds  C*>  t'  t b) S y l l a b l e F i n a l  Cj)  s  Consonants  (  I±L  Syl.Cons._l  F i n a l Consonants C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency-:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: V o c a l i c s JJ_  3.4-  Score  jJ  c  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  - t0-<\ )  '  4  (  •lL  Articulation  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Number o f Sounds  U,  n  i  "P* a **  Cel) o k )  f  )  Score fc>  / 0 (_& \  Number o f Sounds  Syllable  '1  a  Articulation  .  ^  4  '  I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n  Score _  T o t a l Number o f Sounds  <3 3 ^ 7 )  Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  • I  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  •Q  Substitution  Analysis  ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants  V  I  v/  F  / V  s/  t  • —  — — ts  /  V #3 (r,4>)  V  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data ^ 89_(^/25)  & Matches  • 8*  ( /# /  04-}  233 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i  V  u  •  <&  /  e  P  0  a  i  y  Proportion  •  —  ou  0  u i '•  •  /  au  •  iu mi  •pu  /  0  ( /^/20) & Matches  >£g  ai  PI  Di  Pi ei  /  oey  /  o f Data  i  1  /  /  ( / i //^  )  (3) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form 1  2  k  3  3 0«)  6  5  Reduplicated T  8  Form  9  3  /  T o t a l Number o f ' .: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s Proportion Phonological  7 " "  j  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  Process  4-10  P h o n e t i c Tokens  "  —  » Qo^  Analysis D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  Stopping  ts  => -t Affrication  -—>  S  Fronting  ou.  * J)  -—i  el Laxing  a  o f vowels and  —i>  at  diphthongs  p — P I  Other p r o c e s s e s •f  > VO  t  0 - 20  %  8  > /  a  21  -  k9%  50 - 79 %  100  #  234  5"  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f Child .  lexical  -\ 2 3  *•  phonetic  —  la.  —  •  -  lexical  11 U?»n9 12. i a t . ^  ijW  13  2-"?  24  \ •)  >PD  Ut  1  In  | PV*'  4* A u  a  phonetic  i4uV«)  2  i p h ^1  p't  J  1  J-  i  %  /i /  *7 J i m . . Ut j\mJ J'APJ^ hi joej  4  lexical  <<poix>  lr  If,,*  J  ^ 1  tat &  1  phonetic  1  A /  i  In* *  Aka. h a*  /  V  !%• -Co,  4  i |  I.V4 -Ba,'  2  A /  Iff] m?*)'  1  M  1>PLVM) ff> lo  XLJLSLI 6°  1£_  JoW  »2 han  Lu  ho.}\\l  31  h t A p n  l a u  43 / p f c -  4  31 mpP life ha ^  In U l  4l  S4  4?'fo0  g  6 l ifttej  JtJ^lLJiJLJiiA! 11  mi)  h  ILJL  9 T  Utf.^  2  A T I T T  i n  hae.-gfoJ**  Jo.i.u;  £LJj£jf  44  4G A - i - . n  21 '1  h~? fr  4  14  If  .  types  types  types  ^  6f  hge-j-  7^7"  fc  q  $-0 4<?M,Wii 42-  ma-'  7» >nfl 4  '  73 H ^ V x O -  x)  2,35  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET (  N  a  m  e  5  & Age o f  Child  • .  y  \  u)<<ic I; <j (n) types lexical  types phonetic  63 w o n " 1  '  h o u  -j-i  ^  lexical  h.7  HI  Lf  nj>n  lexical  phonetic  ^  «'  KIPI  phonetic  5  /n/ UL  types  r  ' v  ii« '  r  k  1  hi? h P i *  4  i 1 io/VrO ^" m V  1  III* fci " fav)  Ifron i n ^  fc  *1 p ^ i i  IK* pa A x )  4,  1 / y  , /P'/|  i  6? n o a  nau  If*  r  18  T  ^ <?* p V  o  1*' p'J;.*  /P/ K  pa  72.®  i  lr  1  p f l  in  fi  .('  pat"  pptv$x^ ir  If1 paV?*>  1  13 %  ,'  lee L 4 '  1  4  7? p a  «  P ^ i  4  1  p/j  ' I  lor  s.iV^  V  ropA  14 p a t .  1  1  IIO1 p p . ' ^ l  l»t C P ,  Ilil' p i . V ^  lu« < ; * i ?  5  llu iio ' p ^ >  IIJG p a ^ ' t o ) ^  1  IK3  y  j , ' ^ IH* p ^ J  p',..i.\ ll<& P a t ' 1 /s/ | 3  ll(l  Ua  «/  S o e ^ l'*i  3  1  |11 s a , / ' '"1  1  1  A/  I  soty  236  S e s s i o n No.  (^rUi^uuC)  LEXICON SHEET  types lexical  Name & Age o f Child • - \ (A)OA, I j J ( " )  types phonetic  lexical  types phonetic  iuiL  lexical  phonetic  I  1  I As-/  nr  lib f > n  lift t p p *  (38 llw f /i p lVL tP&TfcO 131  tp&*"  lid HI  t w n '  t  lit©  4  t  W  I|f2  i  is* t s S *  >*  t ^ ^ :  •tot*'*' 1  IjoTts^^id  4  f„,/  l « tWft*>  tiBLi'  •*i  W  VU  l*» t V u J  i n t\J 8  iw  liflrt'piD  t.V  3  /w/  |  iftr f.'„V  tp*w'  llfco  tfz ^ p ™ " 2  tpriY«>  . A s / | t->-n*  Lr  0  .2t t , ; *  1*2 4  a )  foK\  7  Ilk t.r»fA*> llM- tu;n*  m T<«.ijt^^lii7tspijlt!iPi|' v  .t/pi.' KW tspC I*  t 4  U7  &  t^Pp"  lift 7  ton  Ilk WD A  1  t . S p ^ ( > 0 ifck w / i v n t W / Y ^  to t s p u i ' lift ±sx .....1  l  A:/ I i * *£:>•> *  —  - ' • —  lis* !  f  W J  Ml  f e  ll«* '^^  1^  i  1  2  1/10 -f^4 y k1«>ts«: L hi* tsS W Ini t o i A a O l ' f l t s i - ^ lilt t s i ^  4  IA/P**  1  /V  1  iii  1/11  111?  ^  Xn  8  6  f c P t '  k  nl t i l * ki tik Im/tso* m ti.-wi - life? f im^ru)  ifc 1 1 ^  t o  l|«1 t.SDi  l f r r t * * * / > » > lt(, t * P ^ IV?  i1?  7  .' ._  1  tsoe,/  7  1 1 1  lit t s U - h ^ ,  1  ;  !  237  CV  CVG  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child UJOM  CVC  CV  CVG  CVC  CV  pa^ > p * i p>  ^  O&T i I  1  1  1  1  h-«J  L  i  1  s  tnuF  1  1 tbw  I  2  i Jhpu  1  4,  I r t O ^ J  T  5  I ' t u ^ l  .  * p3r  p PIT  1  1  1  I  1 f.>rf  1 ' 7 p i n  1  APP*  W l  1  h3K) -  L  '  CVC  rAa'iJ  ti -'  yp«-^^  Ijj(ll)  CVG  1  3  £~  W 1  1  i,.tf|  1  1  1 tr-fc*  1  1 t i . V  '  1 tu/rj'  |  |  1  j  P W1  1  '1 . 1 1 P ' p l.3 1  1  1  J  1  1 }>'.;*  1 hd;*  1 pW ' i > 1 ' nu r 1  i  1  1 1  i  t  1  1  '  i  La  M  1 t, a f  1 tie«'l  tV^  1 tfc.£"l  f- , fc  1  W  1  1  J  J  l  1  "1  lopi  s  1 1  w  r  j l f  1  1  h a .r^  f . W  1  IS-'  i  i  1  1  ') { sa^P,ni l W ' 1  ilPM*  3  1  J  5oe^  W  1  1  i  i  h*.^ J  i Syllabic m 1  J  1  J  W  1s#  h  1  Consonants w4  '  * 1  1  ?  |  0 «  !  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  S~  P h o n e t i c Forms (^nvCwuM ) Name & Age o f J CV  CVG  CVC  CV  CVG  CVC  Child  CV  CVG  CVC  4 11  m i l  4  11  WW- I  ACL  for*  M L  K I D  a  hi  ts-  -tsp  jar tsp  n s Vl a f-  .tsV  3  , in*  Syllabic m  i  9  1  l  Consonants  239 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f INVENTORY SHEET C  Syllable  L e x i c a l Types Initial  1  12  J!  4  <r4  1  *.  ~ j  ' u.,  iz  zi  1°  47 ~1 100 h  i"4  j 1-3  a.:  -111  >p /  t u »f J  ° *n i  2 0 1/2-  * i4  i4  •  ,  p  • in  1 i  '•' 4  tr?  J  -441  [ 1*4  |I0  6(  .'*7  % Ut  h  ^  ©  (2)  uM  ^7  tat !  ?  'A4  —'—t—  74  .  71 tfl.-l.  J  *7  ^' S  j —  1* T  J J  4*  I  -J  H  in  2 2  Itt?  >« 1.  1  1  pt-vs 1 J  III  J ca  31 -  U  i>"7  7 8  V  (??)  .  j KA 144  I ' t t - .  l|  <&>  I oo s< 4 t*^j , /•I ts J.-j  1X7  3  4—P—  '11*  -  SV>h  2 ^  J  trav> few*  l 3  6f  -  44  «  .1  1 %j  w  p  12)  4  Kg  PE.'  I  l0  io!  2  in  Consonants  a. j  10  «  Final  -2.  7f  1  !:<?*>)  d  a  n  1  J  ft'  l  Vocalics  **1 V  11  l  Syllable  Consonants  >  h  S3,- 'I  W l  A.U..  1^  ,  V3  • j  24 0  S (<**tf»**tL^  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types Syllable  (continued)  Initial  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  w JkL,  Consonants  in  IT 3r  H  (ii) °*lf?  (10  43  p  l  eu"  ISI Oth e r s 41  ts*>u-  13] i -  Tones  i>>  2  —> —>  f. l . - l l .  —> —» —> —> —>  AD  3  t Vu  r  w/Y>n  T  Final  j  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  ®% ts  y/  Name & Age o f  ®%  ©IJjr  3  child  U/M  / ; T f " 7  )  V  /  ®%  7r  •  kw  kw*  b) S y l l a b l e  Finals Consonants  (ai)6  /  ©,  7  ©*  y  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  y  V —  ©4 <3>/< C«0  Cau)  Vocalics  /  7  Finals Consenants  v/  WW *)<>->  3  @<<  ZD  €>,3 iu 3  Syllabic Consonants  oi V.  /  <§>'\<3)'  •  Syllabic Consonants  242  S e s s i o n No.  4"  Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated 1.  form  h a . L Ui B  5  2. 3.  fo. P H . * & p «  k.  la m l a w 2 -  2  2 .  4  5.  0  6.  <g> P A p a '  7.  Ma  i  m<a  (gloss) 'crab'  1 pai ® p1 at 1  P a r t o f speech noun  Uj<&C I  (//)  Type A/Type B A  'to walk'  verb  A  ' dog'  noun  A  'basket'  noun  A  'mother'  noun  B  'father'  noun  B  4  i  Child  B  'to b i d goodbye ' verb  L  8.  p I UI  nej  'to g i v e '  verb  A  x  9  pai^pai *  'to row'  verb  A  10.  '14''  'grandmother'  noun  B  11.  'to e a t '  verb  A  12.  'uncle'  noun  B  'to throw'  verb  A  'painful'  adjective  A  'orange'  noun  A  13.  p a *p ^  *  tr>vn tpyn 2  1U.  X  J  J  15.  Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  -20 13  Proportion of:  ' 4^0.9', r-  ..  Reduplicated  .06 /  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  r03> Form C l a s s o f Type A  20.S 6  P h o n e t i c forms  6  Reduplications  V  .  6  forms  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  1.00 A  forms  e  r  b  reduplicated  forms  .k6 .  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms .07  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  2k3  UJcu, S REDUPLICATION SHEET  16.  R e d u p l i c a t e d form'to-' ( g'thank' loss)  IT.  18.  kIPl W 7 I  19.  knui  20.  -4 .  mwi 1  (continued)  P a r t verb o f speech  'to s i t '  verb  A  ' c h i l d ' s name'  noun  B  noun  B  noun  A  ^0'younger 11* ' c a t '  sister'  21. 22. 23. 2k.  25. 26.  2728. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. ko.  Type A/Type B A  <  244 S e s s i o n Wo. Name & Age o f Child  \JOLC I ; ?  ( l t \  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion of f i n a l  consonants  tj — » <f> (%4.)  Nasals  A  Stops  —>  S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  Affrication  <f> ( V f ).  (Consonants)  U  Stopping  OPS  — » S  t C /<t) 2  0-t3  » ts ( f f i )  Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  »  OU  D  ( A) 3  0-33  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  a  — »  P C /xi) *08 x  cui — > Pi (4-/*)  o • !>(>  Other P r o c e s s e s  -h —»»J  fit 0*0$  J  t W  A s s i m i l a t o r y Processes  ( y, ) 0  0 3.0  » U (3/is) O ^ O  J — » a ( /is) x  o ./3  245  5"  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f  Sample  Phonetic  Lexical Types  size  : / (? f  Phonetic c^/J  Types  : 9. Of  Forms  Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  10  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency Number o f Sounds  p*  Articulation  / 0 ( ^O  p'  hn  tS  £3  Score  a)  K  b) S y l l a b l e  Final  ^  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Criterion  Final  Consonants  Vocalics  /fc),(  1$  -  fo-3 )  ./A  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Syl.Cons. 1 Articulation  u  91  Score  Number o f Sounds  ;  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency .  o f Frequency:  (AO.  Initial  )  O O  c^y  i  A  Lou) Syllable  C\  Number o f Sounds  ^ {(> )  Coe)  and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n  Score  T o t a l Number o f Sounds _ Analysis  of Reduplication  (l) Proportion  o f : .Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  Substitution (l) I n i t i a l m I  •  F  •  n  and F i n a l Consonants t ' t s t s ' k'k'kw kw' s  v/ • t's/ t 3  Proportion  '  Analysis  )« -t  — —  —  f  1  ts «/ s/  •  y o f Data  (J ^/25)  & Matches  C")  Phonetic  : 6~7 £  Tokens  7  IJ 9  UiOuu  Child  SUMMARY SHEET  73 ( M> I ^ $  I {'3//C)  246 (2)  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c i  V  u  y  a  i  o f Data  •  ei  oey » °j  Di au  •  m•  /  0 1  pu  •  iu  0 V  ou  —  ui •  Pi  —  0  Proportion  PL  ai  e  V  <£  Consonants  • 7^  ( /&/20) & Matches  ( 1$ //?  )  (3) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  2  1  3,1,  3  h  6  5  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form  7  8  9  4  4  T o t a l Number o f \: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s . Proportion Phonological  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  1  —  4,—*  4> '  *  P h o n e t i c Tokens  !>"l8  •Q /  Process A n a l y s i s Deletion of f i n a l  -J  7  consonants  (t  •  Stopping  ts —>  t Affrication  s —>  ts  Fronting  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs OU  —-»  D  L a x i n g o f vowels  *  CL  and diphthongs  at  P  —>  *>(  Other p r o c e s s e s t  J 3  —>  t>  —>  u  —^  ct  0 - 20 %  21 - 49 f«  50 - 79 #  80 - 100  %  247  10  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f Child .  lexical i  / ! /  1  1  A/  1  j  .  phonetic  lexical  phonetic  7-,  types  types  types  ^  k f u  J  4  ivV  l?« V  J  |  ^  1 hat  19§ hat *  —i  8 1 Kan ^  YiCLvn ^  l|0  II  7  h 11  P  z$  l  4  In  U:*  'ii t.sPn'  \9*  j i " * l^, IU L->> bl 413*,' 143  ^ , u 14/ ;,u rt,^A* 33/11 u u u Ifz u a i 1 L A? J  4  J! J r  A#;VI^  4  5  s  tact*  ^  JJ A/ In - U ' v  |jg  AA  3  .  .  J  J  J <?  ..  ,A'/I ^  1  rt l , ^ 1  J 3  / ! / I 146, dip?) A-y 9*  141  1A  h(£^ £x>ta Jkfx-n  I  70  Jk *£ s  1 1  1 ' K.4.'r^ 7  3  41 4  ia  4  R  if Ii? h'n it hfm I' ou, n hoa " I 2 0 hou Ui j W  4  4  i4 U-e/* 1 il (KPL5 J. , ,  Iz4  ItA  W  * 'i  13 h ? r . ' I|(, InDi.  J  l&l  2  3  hi  J  I  4  n  4  1"  j  3  I.?4 jPuy/j2>)Ul Jb  J  4  1  4  ^PK)  ZS j l ? ^  iiio hpi. h?(Jp5rx) Ln 1/4 l^pi^S*) 3z G  I  l.fc j of  *6 ipn^ hr j>u zf i s !?£ j i  4  kprvi hflu ^  l/Z  * —  ^t^W)  * ".Vr"  J  4  1  J  7  A/  S'zAa-u 1  ... i ,  L.t  f u  phonetic  f—^  14 4  lexical  1  111? J  x  ^Pu  6  IT3  KPU.*  '41 J U . n *  l7r nj'-V4x) 6?  ^  ^  I7t  n  o  A  r  ^  248  / O  S e s s i o n No.  ^ n & y v u ^ _)  LEXICON SHEET  (4 £ u  L  lexical  phonetic  JLeSri  b l  iu,P  phonetic  lexical  phonetic 4  types  types  types' lexical  Name & Age o f Child  1*  i i i *  /m/  1 /P/ fo'pa* •  1  •••  *  •  •""  l'*(f^3> I  | ha-  l»»  J  l»7p*  W So a?sa:i W SPL'SPI M pa a In* PA-UV^let 5 a HI'. IW tp»*i  IT* p a i P  3  3  llo?'p V a  1  M^ni. u pan' Itl p i a pj a 1 lol S PL* l«fc S P l * ft*) ^'ppf:" il/i' p p C lie* W l«l s W l i ^ t W k h ' p t W l i o l <:PP IK* SCI' S PU 4Z per* IW p f l L p O l ten S P U . ' W ' r 1 Y ill S £ ' 1(4* S?.V*«) 1  I /n/  * a  1  7  |  1  ft  pj&L  i»t p€<> Im f x . / >  6  '  I«* If 71  m.  1  m tt  3  114- h.'a/x) Iff tt  u\ '  1  ,  liH s i '  l»tt t.S(,V IP* DrhVttO  I * ^fltu - lf? pi'n >rr k, /Vn J  j  1  si'.!  r >  1  3  11 DI n'  J  p ^ W  5  2  0  ,  ,  )  (  J  V |  /V  j  J 1  I  1  /P'/  |  !  >  '  I  •'fsiV  i  ,  r  l  yr^C«)  /o  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f Child , .  lexical  lexical  phonetic  /-  types lexical  phonetic  M i s * .  phonetic  Ht«*4*  1*  Its- i s u j ' 'tor  tsujfti t u n  ||Jf  x  HI  St,  A / u? IH  ^ tea  4  life*  J  l  lit ± a l  *  f-'^  tftu  13*  tote4  2  P  A'/  i  4  tat  S  f a  U  lifer  L*I  til tu  |  ta  Ilt7  I  Uvi  lit* t W / f c )  145-  t<P«*  Utt f SP.V4X) itf  n£ tspA*  lift  M  tsi»n'  h*r t p A  if I Tss.t  tssA  t , f  f s t V  rt°  »1  As'/  ISA  Iltf  tou^t) IKT  \M  it,  i |  tsi * tsi> +<i  n1  t A  134 f a  Ino  t'fi.n  fir t ' p i x  tin f-'piV?*)  2  i7i t A _ *  t.^ir]  lust A ' 7  inrtV?'  l**iAu3  ts".  1_! t s ' . ^ v )  1  4  W  tAu*  1  F ts'urfcU  \M> tsoiifcO n L t * W 1*3 tAt1 lin tsouVzd (71 t s a:*)' H t A ^ { ^  I6( ts«e-h' ' l w t-scth'fU •  ''H(fflTD  j  nz t A * li»7 f A *  3  J  |/3?t,A 4  l«i t A A l  l l H ^ / Yv*> H4 " t V . u 1(13 C t > D lift  U t A ' M l  1  in T A I A lifi" f s i l c W i» tsA iq t<:rtu5  i  1 i7o^Wfrs'puP t?i7*^Vr^  m  tou(2x)  1  1  •••h>A1^|itf . t < y  tsi  1 1  la^^zx)!  I  m  1  1  '*>! tsu '  lU tsu '  2  AB/  v  cd<nt & ; o C")  types  types  .  t".<;<*V U  tsoeu2"  /w/  1 1  J  250  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET (to*£A*MU) J  iO  Name & Age o f Child  uJ<u, £ ; O (H) types  types  lexical  phonetic  1*2 t V P L  U/fl..  4  lexical 4  A3o hE L .  lis  '•  -  7*7"  in  ^  4  HL  f  Ml  o 3  '1° u.4  a-3 flu) '  *1 u4-  7  T  types phonetic  lexical  phonetic  251  cv  CVG  1  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child  CVC  pa." 1 pax ' 4  1  '  1  CV  pa W  t*  J L t . l / T N p e i l '/-pf.tf\ pi 1 p U b p?.vi... . 1 1 pj-h V  CVG  CVC  t,4  1  II  10  INVENTORY SHEET  5  CV  CVG  CVC  t p * i ' I tat tsrai' 1 t s p n ' W 1 CSM I t o . . l 2  l/ta,\l  2  l  y  1 W 1 t/,# 1 tV)/^ 1 t m 1 1t,-l  tsj  c sin  L Si tc 1  1  C  Y  1  i  1  I  L  i t P ^  til.-' tsi; tsi. tSM ' 2  — • * — T T —  p o u, .i  1  1x>  1 1  3 1  1  I  1  , >  J\  1  |  I l  1 i  t  1 t< ,> 1 tsaei, 1 "Cci Lc" 1 tsii A ya i — i — v ^ , — j 1 tsa.it 1 l t,5.v/ J 8  n  3  r  tsv: I tsoew  1 t | K)'  l  1  faoi/  l  1  1  1  J 1 t o n e r s * i t sun' I ts'i 1 t ^ T t s W I ; i 1 .. 1 | i i 3  Wfl.^ 1 W PC " 1 \AI& *f w A-' , / 1\vi?i 1 Wit 1 1 1 1 1 su • 1 ,9 pa' 1 C i . J ^ 1 1 1 r-J 2. , , | 44 ' 1 1 1 1 sSM.. s rSi.h n * * _Svllabic fe* i A ^ . 2  ,  t  1  1  1  1 i  i i  L  I  fvfe  j  9  1  I 1  ?  |  1 1 Consonants  rv>4  j  1 ?  8  1 —  252  INVENTORY SHEET  P h o n e t i c Forms  ^ytardi^Md  Wa  \  J  CV  CVG  CVC  CV  /O  S e s s i o n No.  CVG  m e & Age o f Child  CVC  CVG UJ<U  CV  r  hi*4 l  I i^a.rl /iei4 1 hailJ1 1  1  4  1  ,  i  r  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  |  1  |  lvi>\ A*4  1  1 1  l  __  J  1  1 |  A  ^  i  *  1  1  1  |  1 1  1  a  1  Q  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1.  1  J  1  i  1 K ^ L  ho  2  i  4  |  1 —  \/c  i.r.i^i„jfc, ...I,  1  I  1  1  1  1  I Svllabic  1  hv  ry  l^honr>  1 1  1  I  1  K'PL2  1  1  1  2  i  1  1  M  J  \ hpi  I  V i v<r  1  |  1  A> i AW \ckv»K\ J  I |  1  1 |  I iMff  iU i 1 1',.*  1  1  1  J 1 W. I  1  |  |  i  1^  J  1 1  1  -  i  I OU4 11 I p**i  J  i  Qi)  CVC 3L}Q  1  1  9  1 I  .  „.,-  I  -A  i  1  Consonants  I  1  1  253  to  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f INVENTORY SHEET Syllable  Chila  L e x i c a l Types Initial  Syllable Vocalics  IT  *J1 V  3?  1  4o  SS  4 / loo  p  * .  10/  (or  }  ioi  4  '.22 (13  J  i•  h  h> b\ <W |3Sr  io7  137  104  @  m>  n i 17 ni  0*  7f?  ^ )  1  9  sSa  v  J  m  i; o0<)  Final Consonants  -254 I  I ^<**  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types  (continued)  Syllable I n i t i a l  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  2.1  ?2  11 i  /fa  Ifl  Othe r s t  oq J  J Tones  ts'pu  2,  Z!  —»  — >  —>  ts P U P  Final Consonants  i u  <1  J  lO  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  ®%  /£/  -• Name & Age o f Child  t  (^<K c3 ; o  C//)  1—  V  •  v/  ®%  y \/  •  s/  y  y  00#  kw'  b) S y l l a b l e  y  •  tC-s) /  ®% ®% kw  •  y  Finals  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  Consonants  oe. <j.  m  Vocalics  7  oey $-.  Consenants  PL  'CO  60,  Finals  3.  'to  6)  PU(2)  y s/  y  y  y  P t C O  Syllabic Consonants  y  y  Syllabic Consonants  —  ui  ,J  —  V  J  256  S e s s i o n No.  1SL  Name & Age o f Child  REDUPLICATION SHEET R e d u p l i c a t e d form •  1  -j-u,  -j^u  3  *  4.-  2.  (gloss)  'P  •  a n t s  '  1  CO  k.  feet'  ' c h i l d ' s name' mother  WUL  >rmI *  -  hcg  jkipe(j'  8- <g)  pfl.  T  9  ®  •_  & f l  1  4  2  p&  Lf  J  t 8 >  10, 11.  JlEt  12.  b€  13.  p V  1  o  u  n  SLj 0  Q) 1  Type A/Type B A  verb  A  noun  A  noun  B  noun  'younger s i s t e r '  noun B  'daughter'  noun  'father'  noun  'to b i d goodbye'  verb  B  'bun'  noun  A  'pen'  noun  A  'Wai's s i s t e r nickname' noun  p'f, '  1 1 + .  15.  o f speech n  'to shake'  3.  6.  Part  (AJ<LI,  Sai? sen *  'hip'  noun  ' c h i l d ' s name'  noun  '  verb  t o  d r  y'  A  Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  Form C l a s s o f Type A  Proportion of:  25  .11  R e d u p l i c a t e d forms  14  .06  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  11  .05  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  219  1.00  2  .14  10  • TI  2  .14  Reduplications  P h o n e t i c forms Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  257UI<XC : 10 REDUPLICATION SHEET  Reduplicated  16.  3  5  Sin  form 1  <i  IT.  18.  21.  J J. tWi3 t\v\ « J  22. (55  1st  23.  tsPU  2k.  -f '  19. 20.  25. 26.  2728. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3U.  35. 36. 3738. 39. 1+0.  V  +-> L o u  l o u  4  (continued)  (gloss)  P a r t o f speech  Type A/Type B  string'  noun  A •  'uncle'  • 'aoun  • B  'chair'  noun  A  ' rabbit'  noun  A  'painful'  adjective  A  'elder  noun  B  'mouth'  noun  A  'ugly'  adjective  A  'noisy'  adjective  A  ' c h i l d ' s name'  noun  B  3  sister'  1  ISPK  4  r  '  W P l / ' u P l *  4  25.8:  S e s s i o n Mo.  I0  Name & Age o f Child PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Processes Deletion  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops Substitution  Processes  Stopping  t.<  A f f r i cation  (Consonants)  —> t fiAr)  <S —>  O-'J  ts ( k/q) 0 3)  Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation  o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  Assimilatory  at  —>PI  Processes  033  & °*"  *  \ 0 C'f)  259 10  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  SUMMARY SHEET Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  size  Types  Types  : I *f 0  Phonetic  Phonetic  : <3J^  Tokens  <a; o (u )  tJ<CU,  : 7  : c2 / J  Forms  Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency  //  \  '- — —  <3» Number o f Sounds  8 (4- \  p t  Articulation  F i n a l Consonants  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: //  (  ^ If  Syl.Cons._l_  //•3  ;* e  Cat) C«u.)  4  i  0 and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  Substitution (l) I n i t i a l  F  V TV  J 0  of Reduplication  (l) Proportion  I  3  Number o f Sounds  u  • 0£  and F i n a l Consonants  • •  s/ • •  •  Proportion  •0 £  Analysis  •  o f Data  )  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  T o t a l Number o f Sounds Analysis  _ = U  /Q (4-}  Number o f Sounds  Initial  2o4-  )  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Syllable  J Cu;)  5  Cfs>:>  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  Vocalics  <^ ol  Score  Cvn)  X* Final  b) S y l l a b l e  - i v i)  '7  •  t  •  _0j2_(  —  —  —  /25) & Matches  • •  0-?£( / f / 3 f t )  (7*0  260 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  V  /  u  y  ce.  e  i  V  i  s/  a  Consonants  / ei  i  /  o£y  0  Proportion  Di  ai  o f Data  ou  /  iu m  . ./  —  ui •  •• •  au  VU V  pu  Q .<j ( /£/20) & Matches  /  /  0 I  OjJ  ( 1$ I l8  )  (3) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  1  2  3  h  6  5  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form  7  8  9  T o t a l Number o f ".: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s Proportion Phonological  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  J  P h o n e t i c Tokens  J  IS  Q . QOty  Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  t<  —fc...., " " • J -  Stopping —-  >  tr  •  Affrication  5  ts  » Fronting  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels  a  — >  P  at  > V>i  au  }Pu  and diphthongs  Other p r o c e s s e s  I a  > i  •  0 - 20 %  hi  —  *  PL  21 - 49 f  n  *j  J  » /  50 - 79 f°  80 - 100  %  261  S e s s i o n Wo. LEXICON SHEET  /5"  . ' _ Name & Age o f • Child 9~ j 3  IAJOA, types  types  lexical  phonetic  1  A/ i -Pan'  lexical  1  zi  4  fu,  \Pu. "  3  ^  3  C^aD  Ii-  y V i ,  19.  ha>  0  hat  4  hpi*  l«»  io  U L  lu  «l  hpp*  r  J  1  it  J  xr j .  .A'/  v  V lil  4  3  |  i  J  i  4  U 1 IU ' 133 tf.iA*  /V ,5-1 i a  ho  6  c t i  h3  U  i +  A/  32 &0..:  kp *°»  *\  1  4  3  r  ^>H*W*  h:>i*  life  h:>L?f*}  &&  Lnu  iL  Vioe.iv llS  U<ftu fTrt  i  I  J  /j/  Itf  l  .«r In A<x Vzx)  Ul  j P *  1  4  ho  H1 A a t  .34-W  i a u  J  fo . 4  lU  ioei,  f  U V s x ) si  J  Hu V  IWm.^  A/  1*  S  |  4  4  3  ^  UJ? Apm  I  11W J j  I  M  i ' / ^ y i a w a ' 1^ i M a ^ ' / *  L o / / I'l  ipt  ln-/A-.Vj«)  3  1  hpi riW  iS"  If  i  4  4  i  1  |4« l i T P I '  n  1  4 p.'a..  a lib I*.  phonetic  )£ r^)  1*1  3  lR j l u A/  lexical  >5 j P i /  A  U i p u  2.3  ..... j  phonetic  1 I £a 'ftft  p_a  types  31 I P U  i44  z  fco m a  W  14-r ^ P U 3  3  Ii4  ) l W J \ io jpwi fo)  1"  iPt  1*3  ^pt  [*4 J f r u  43J.W  1  7  4  |4* J t a .  4  I41i,n' Itt  A^'  '  t  s  wa.^rt)  2-6-2  Session LEXICON SHEET /oflXwutd)  Wo.  Name & Age o f Child  V  uJcu. types  types  types lexical  lexical  phonetic  lexical  phonetic  phonetic B  &1 yvjo u  ,„®  bS  lit V M O U ^  a  fc  fc  *a6ri  mui. wui  mut Mui  |)i n  *tf}  1 pinny)  <tf  ^  |US  1  loo  I  /n/ L  las... *  ho  npu*  ^  n/v.  I* M 8  71 K&U.%it7U* I*  2-  H  h^t  i3 m  '  74 n . m  is-  r  1  N 1  1  M  *  /PV  2  ItuLu.  r  1^ m&l*" I*  p"a* I'  n  lo3  SCMf  11  wi  i  r  /B/  I'  01  14 SPI*  <\i  |  1'^ Seen  5  I  _  5 2 •) Sflt-n  I"  1  l  , H  '  id  1/  1  1  S1  I  'r?0  5Pp  _  6 M  "  4  J  Jt,*£M  4  n*7  1  4  *«>Y4*>  4  " si  il5l  p'a  1  Msi<  1  I ' ^ i  3  SI  io* seen*  I  04  is  9<j3  m  ™V  I" S P p 2  1  F  J  |  A/ |  'Cisy£>  n  ^  H  A .  «  tA  1  l«t  +.„ V r f  l'  ^  S p p ' s p p l ^ SPlApp"ta 1  SPu.'  1  I"  4  l  , n  fcu  f"  W  P'  »  I /p/  |  foVp^' p«yHtt -D" 1  s€  1,10  v  I' ' (tC) 4  "f+i:'  l^tT'^  263  S e s s i o n No.  £<L<rnsCwu*Cct}  LEXICON SHEET  Child types lexical  lexical  tflu.'  I,s1  I'*1 W Y i a * ) •4o  no f ^ 1 m liu  fnu  toe,1  I*3  J  tot> A'/  "HiwAw  l,r1 m  3  ./ As/  1  1m f.su^  1 1  1  i  J  As'/|  1  '41 t s ' a i * liTX t . A  i  4  l^tsW  l(fl t * W  1  tsV  liUtA?  1  t W t'u.-?  l*b^'i:J -1*3 t ^ ' ' 3 j  .41  wa A  |  1  f<w.'  1*1litr  outsoitlWt^ou tsoul  M  J  ISO  t ^  phonetic  I  1  114 t W .H t'iu-  u  lexical  U<3LrP 1  u <° J  tot/  types phonetic  «« t s u j ' •4  Name & Age o f •  types phonetic  O  tpp 7 ' ts>  Iftf t s r ,  1  • *k,.7fc,?|l7o ts.'tsi* ,3fe t s . A In/ t s . V f i d  WD  3  AV  j  1 1  1  wa  I  1  I  1  1  1 1 l 1 1  ||$ u ; , 1 D  3  1  I i I l  /a./  1 |  a3  lift a Y^r-0  I  ,Wr  A  1  1  / I  1 l 1  M  tso-A8 1  i  •  1  264  CV  CVG  |  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child  CVC  i ii  pa 1  i  ' p i n ' L  I  I p'a  I •  t  1  l  CVG  CVC  t a '  /U-i'J  tin'  ,  ,  l  1  IV|.K  3  ) a 1 1  1  CV  . t i - 1 tu  |  1  1  1'  1  ,  |  I  1  .  s  1  1  J J Ci. -/  i  1  i  M - ^  ,  wa. I» I uyp/.  4  J i rS€ J  I  . U / D M  1  .. i , 51  1 mOu  1  H*A-  ft**  4  fpm  ton' 1  trn  i_  1  wpn  4  1 tsi  ts?^l tS£1  1 -fcsr'h  ts,1 I  1 tspt 1 1  w  f-su *• j  1  1  1  |  i  i  |  |  !  i  1  1  ,C i/ 1 San  1  1  j t<6* 1 t s ' W  1  1 t*'.. l t , W l  4 A * nN  m r  6  1 Will * " l w i t '  1  1 ciA*  1 vnii*" 1 •  1  1  I  1  1  1 . I  i  i  tsWl  1 i  1  S  1 See ^ i '/Soen \  h  L  ' I  1 hA,L *l b a f  1 5"! h  1  UvA  1 ts ViTl 1  si  1  1  Ui^  3  I wfcx 1  1  S v l l a b i c Consonants  V>  !  i  - J - — U ^ L 8  1 ? •  1 L  4  1  I n ^ i v>o  ts«<  1 tspp1  1  6  1 t / „ * J  .1  l-tsi-W.  tsPi'  2  1 w i a i ^ 1 bipC'' 1  "tspV 1 tsd W  4  |  i  CVC  1  — —— — —• — •— • —-— . — ,i  t  CVG  1 t.rt* tsw.  1  1  ma  1  1 1  CV  ta-pM  J  1 teu  p i ^  J  / 5"  INVENTORY SHEET  :  1  265  INVENTORY SHEET  Session  P h o n e t i c Forms3(*<nvCUtut<^ \  Name & Age o f Child  y  CV  CVG  CVC  CV  h  CVG  ' 1  1 k> 1 **u* 1 A i ' m ' x  W l  1  A>/  \J.  3 |  I d  * , J.  i  1  )<  i  l  1  If.*  1  \  J.  H.--U  1  |  1  1  1  |  1  V  Uf>«  4  ht>,  1  1  5  D  1  a  1  I  r  |  J  |  1  1  1  1  1  n^ " 4  1  4  1  •Put' 1  1  1  r  VG  1  r  1  1  nut 1  1  i  J  I  1  1  1 1  1 1  '  1  0  CVC  5  1  l l  |  1 |  I  |  |  | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  1  I  1  1  1 1  1  hoL* 1 hou '  1  .  1  4  1  I  \PVT  , J  1  1  r  j Pt  |  S  -JQ2  1  4  1  ha,I  CVG  2  J  J->  1  1 |  1  CV  ^ i . . ^  1 |  l J  u  1 ^  ,i U  f  3  1  i o e ^  1  1  1  CVC  5  &H4 1 JkfZfh.  1  No.  i i  1  1  | |  |  | |  | |  .  |  i mm'.  .  i i  i  r i i  i i  | Svllabic  ?  1 1  ?  1  !  Consonants  ,  J  266  / 5~"  S e s s i o n No.  INVENTORY SHEET Syllable  L e x i c a l Types Initial  Consonants  Name 8s Age o f C h i l d  Syllable Vocalics  [  a.- ^ Final Consonants  26?  UltlL  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types  Syllable Vocalics  '! 0  Others  -  Tones  fun-'  —>  St SCO* * —»  I  —  5" Un. *  1  J  —»  >  -»  ->  Final Consonants  J*  las  (tonttmAAltt  (continued)  Syllable I n i t i a l Consonants  Iff  •s  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic  inventory S e s s i o n No.  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  'J  *6>  . Name & Age o f  ($>%  child  cJo^  y  /  «* ;3  y  /  /*-  ®>#  tr~*  tcsy  4 Q )  ®% kw  y kw*  b) S y l l a b l e  V  — •  Finals  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  Consonants  ai  4.  au ^  ©n  6  m  P4  <SHr (ou)  7  (3>4 0 0  Finals Consenants  Vocalics  y  V  y • •  14,  O) w0>  w0  aft)  y y  •'CO  Syllabi c Consonants  y  Syllabic Consonants —  ui  <3,  /  to —  ON  00  ,269  Session  IS  No.  Name & Age o f Child  REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated  form  i.  Wfp*  hyp*  2.  kaa  lay.  3.  k^fo!  y  1  T.  4 - 4 mpn m f ^  o.  Mui mui.  10.  pa pa:' I I S b•p ' s p Ip  ii.  suJ>  12.  fa:*" f a *  9  (2)  P a r t o f speech  Type A/Type B  'box*.  noun  A  'sleep'  noun  A  noun  B  'neck'  noun  A  'piano'  noun  A  'mother'  noun  B  'to s m e l l '  verb  A  s i s t e r ' noun  B  'father  noun  B  'wet'  adjective  A  'uncle'  noun  B  'to h i t '  verb  A  'elder  noun  B  'paper'  noun  A  ' c h i l d ' s name'  noun  B  'elder  j ^PbiH'wi  5..  (gloss)  4  brother'  'younger  4  \J(U. . 3 j 3  1  V^iA-  1  13. <g> t s ? " t S 2 : ' 4  lU.  tsi t«*  15.  tsVutsPu  l  1  sister'  Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  18  182 Form C l a s s o f Type A Reduplications  Proportion of: .lo  Reduplicated  forms  • o5  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  • 05 '  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms '  1.00  2  .22  6  .66  .11  forms  P h o n e t i c forms Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  2?;o  REDUPLICATION SHEET ( c o n t i n u e d )  R e d u p l i c a t e d form 16 .  17. l8  [, SOh, IS Pit L  UJVL  « <29 j r 4 j ?  19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  2U. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.  32. 33. 3k.  35. 36. 3738. 39. 1+0.  (gloss)  P a r t o f speech  'grass'  noun  Type A/Type B  A  L  * ^  ' c h i l d ' s anme' 'g  r  a  n  d  f  a  t  h  e  r  '  noun noun  B_  271 is-  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  Ulojj  c3 j  A  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET Syllable Structure  Processes  Deletion of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Consonants)  tS  Stopping  —  Affrication S  t  ffi)  0-43  ts (^/ai) 0 ^  Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  et —  i (3/j) o43  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs CLL  —  PL  (i/y)  o-(>o  Other Processes  De*iZ*£cytfts»v ^  1/AUXZ  \/*t>HX  AX&K,  ROML^  kastAj^  f> — » t  cr —+ u  A s s i m i l a t o r y Processes  o  Q-4-0  ( /tr)  0-4o  2  (X.—+U. PC —>  ( */JT)  C*/s-)  C /r) x  0  0-9-0  -4-d  272  /S"  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f hJ^i  Child  SUMMARY SHEET  c3 ; 3  Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  Phonetic  Phonetic  size  Types  Types  Tokens  Forms  :  : /Cj /  : b~l0  :  Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency  ^ A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Number o f Sounds t  < »  ««'  T b) S y l l a b l e  Cf) CD s  /ho  Cp)  J  Final  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  F i n a l Consonants  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency-:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: Vocalics  3_(  ,i4-  ft  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number o f Sounds  ^  Score  Number o f Sounds  <^ 7  Jh  A.  )  P* a* Cet> Initial  4/a,f -  Articulation  Syl.Cons. 1  Syllable  (  0  I  Cou>  4  and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e T o t a l Number o f Sounds  AQJCI)  Analysis of Reduplication  .05'  ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  • O £"  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Substitution (l) I n i t i a l m I F  Analysis and F i n a l Consonants w  n  s/V  t •  3 y y/  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  y t  V •  —  —  n  y  •  V  A/  y _(<2a/25) & Matches  77 (  ' 7  / a«})  itol  273 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Consonants i  V  V  u  V  y  a  6  •  v±  ei  •  PL  Di  /  ui •  i  au  oP.y  a  0  •  ai  P r o p o r t i o n o f D a t a -$5  —  ou  •  iu m  0 1  /  ipu  ( 11/20) & Matches  • ~J &  / —  ( 13 / l~J )  13) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  1  2  6  3  1+  6  5  Reduplicated  7  8  Form  9  /  1  T o t a l Number o f \: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  ^?  Proportion  QOS  Phonological  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  .  P h o n e t i c Tokens  S~/ 0  Process A n a l y s i s Deletion of f i n a l  consonants  Stopping ts  •—>  *  Affrication  Fronting  ei. — - v  /  Laxing  o f vowels and a  diphthongs .•  L  —>  Pl  Other processes  j —* D  ^  — » a  t -yyy —>  - n—>, oe oe — > —  U  -  *U  70  »  21 - 49 %  -H -n  ct* o  .  50 - 79  fo  80 - 100 f°  274 S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  -'  Name & Age o f Child QUO*  types lexical  types phonetic  A/  lexical  i\  it,  3 fu *  l^  A  n  4  .1  11?  |  nau'  t  ha;u  ft""  8 kp».  K P I  1  IC KO i '  4  U  hpt  si  7  l|0 KO i'C4x) 3} 111  (nOli"  j  ' " - " V  J  4A*  J  'l4  it  yout  lit  n  ipn*  1  C 4 )  jpp^  )|:  13*  ^T^ix^u  l*i  Jul  l5b J f o J V i ^  4  9a.rh  I  1  isn  to  hpn  j  4  JLvv\  L  41  i n  /.^ft^)  l.rt  1  -fepu  1  l3t  JPL  3  JPL  at  ^ e ;  M  jkn -  ii?  li7  Ii.*  \  Wfi»)|  hi 1*4  1  i y \ ^ i ^ h ^ j k i  Irt JP^.  W  Vp*  V  -j-**  I&3  4o  I  41  u  Itt i r k  x  /  k  ,  /  S'7  ^  l£4  1  KV)<E  !  1  1  is.VtfO 1  —  3  ^ouW  VHI.'  1  . — - j — - —  j  ltt-*i.if  ^  1 1  A/  Ui j W f ^ O m A U j In  162  JLtdf*  pm 3  ...  4  r) l&o K»^y&s)  l+i 31 i n n  i ^  3  Jketcvdls*  9  -to'"-  Ii"<?  Ul io'AdUl  2  3  1 iW  Isn  to*  J.V.. . ^ . l . K  4c 2  t , : V J O  134 hJcw&W  3S- iy.  14 i V (PL* j _ t ^ _ j i k. IS 1Phi  1*2 i s  A/  |  fookVl'*)34 i n  •  jpu*  ' '  4  J J  3  20  lY"  la hPiV^<)  4  •  phonetic  132 ^ u Y ^  • J J  A/  \t  lexical  4S" 9*\  i» jfj  12.  types phonetic  3. Ifu.ViO  A/  4  ;,TU*)  1 *  t  d-  Ut-fecgM^wd  1/ 60  1  4 VMM, h  ^ 1  1  1 /  n  /  1  4 KHU.fl  ^x)  275  Session (_ <LOYX^UUJ^}  LEXICON SHEET  olO  No.  Name & Age  of  Child  lexical  M  «i  lexical  phonetic  hi  J |  San  H3  H  SPl'  I'rV  / /  }(> s W  ffl _i  I  p«.:t' 1 *  7  ll 72  pU  -n  ps.  'pPt*  111 0  —js..stj.  I%\ Ifi  4  J  Vf p i V  porta*) pfj ta&  U3  p*,'  IW pi.n'fificS  D I  1 /p'/  i?  p  W  • i . i $0 p W 1  I<?1  S}*  1  to  se/ "  ho2  ^  se/  lto3 s e x  7  2  J  Si  SPP  "UltplV")  lof.tp^  'wtp«*  lui  1  <o  IOI  ^  IfrkST s i liot  1  K(, t o u  5  Jul luft  fc  1  .  f0 1  s u i  7  I  (no  <?fsu r ^ i l l t l fe*  Cu-nV A/  PW  Ii3otou"rio)  1  trw>  tflafitfO  ti,.  l«i 1  suifo*) Su* SQl 7  1  ,^t ,u tV ,  S  SU^.  III*  Su C3*) i ^ f ' . u n  9  3  5 M  l«(, t l H H V u llSI t I  lui  J  As/ fy.itod  iiit  3  fc  lin  to  ^ftx)  tra  InMV^  4  1  .  io5l7L;-n  1  1  pW H t ^ L  tuV  si:ftW ||0<? t S l . f e *  it  L  t i  sri^x)  97 S I ^  fo/  Itf  liiXti.yi  1,  A'/  100 S u  1  h  l^tPD^w)!  uS"  se/*  S  fe  tvo*  14 t 1  2  Il04-5I "  2  <?k  2  h i spiV  <?i  ^ i  'uotpL "  1  10? t v 7 l >  A  75" .'h P i n '«T D i n p i n / ' la/' ' ' i t . ni U Ifrb D I u 1  SPl'  SPD  4S"  107 t v t  Sflh  &7  W  phonetic  lexical  phonetic  i.^4xJ?3  I  /p/  types  types  types  1 1  J  5  276  d o  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET fst^lwwC) '  Name & Age o f Child .  A ; 5- ( 2 . 2 )  UJOA, lexical  ol t s m  1  phonetic  lexical  t W  ib-i ts-Si  'lUt-SPD^*)  1(31 tSa' -  iw» U\  1 , 1 1t 5  ' ' f  |  lm t.<7' 1  1  M t s 3 Vlv)  2  Ittts'i «  Il74 tsu '  j  liw t s ' i *  1  IftUf *fs<.' |3  T  l«ri t s i  tsr'  url-.M.5 \hL  tsi  li« tsi ^?x> 1ST*  4  131 tsi  »«n wa-V  1  llS"4 t < i n  n  I*  1  , v"'  u8 tsi  litf tsi-n"a«) n<? tsou. 'lit tsou. it.i I A I P H l4o tsoe n** lirl tsotJ" (41 t ^ n " l/i'J? tsoen* 142 tsu V luff tsu'n'A,*)I(>?WL..L' M t ^ U flt/Su* (Utsur) tsa n 1  2  UT8 I ^ I ^ A *  1  1  1(21  4 4.,J  I  l/£i vVPnVuM  1  J  llH  vwui^3*:  l.fci t u ^ lit* * " \ life.J^ViTx) liU tsM Yr*) /a/ 1 1^4 ts u V?x) lib? 9 * htt o 1 ' a  .  y  j  .41 t s V « Ilk? t A l« ts'vt"' Uf. t ^ P t "  , „ . , . — . 1 1.—  3  /ts'/,  |  /  4  7  1  1  1  1  /V  l 4 4 tsuh'' k( tsu A O  I4<f tsu. i4t tsa  1  i ^ I  0  1  2  1  i ita  1  J  1  1  X  L  _ _. ..  1  I'll iA/A.Vix\I  iy<| .u\r .v\ Irt1 \AjCL.*(nA  3  --'  1 1  1  M  mist  phonetic  m tsV* J  1  s  ll^otspD  lexical  phonetic  t V  1  types  types  types  lU zi  a 3  ;  / 1 III!  llU t V a / k ^ } <il.t.S,l2„l JGI fcifa*  1  l 1  A  Vc4d  MV ti w u ' lit! ^1 V K iY nf d * ^' p W<I ' 5i jJo p* nJA1j ' 2. 1 ai ,  1 1  l  1 1 1 1 l 1  \  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child  Q^O  ld<su & jS" C2.1  CV  CVG  1 pai 1  na„ r  CVC  . * i  1 1 / "  '  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  put} t a  '  J  1 T>.L  t**  >  P A ; 1 p a u* 1 > TI 1 p ' 4 1 p'nu? 1  1  ''III  p:>.  1  1  1  CV  f a.p  ^  I  1  3  5  1  CVC  2  1  S  l  1 1  L  5  2  "  I  tp  •  ' <h.t>u! 1  I  trtuf I t i 0*  I  tw"I f'-^  L  tu>  1  rj°  1  3  3  1 sa  1  C  P  U  .  t  '  1  1  I  1  1 1  I  1  V  l  »1 <  1  £ a 1 '  ^  1 IkaeJ 1  1 .Sot 1  1  1  1  .  I fe, ^  1 tru  S3  1 ^  I tpp'  4  1  1  1W  tpl  tou. I t u  1  CVC  I  .  1  CVG  X  J  pd if n !-1 >  1  CVG  1  1  1  p;iu  1  CV  Pp  !  I  1  . wu 1  1 /- u/ajn \  1  z  |(  1  1  1  1  1  v  —  —  —  —  ,  WAV  V  1  1 s . i  1  1  1  .TuV  — 1  !  1  -tV 1  1 h«t* 1  1 la.J> 1  1  j '  1  1  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  !  1 h^p.ij^l  wow "!  1  -™  1  2  KM U L  1  hen  1  1  L V  fr-Vu 1 t u V  1 1.  5  i-'U  1 t u.  n  1 1 S v l l a b i c Consonants  |  ?  1  1  « ^  i  1  T  ? 1  1  1  * — - — L  1  9  1  J  1  Ji  278  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms (^CcmluvuMA )  Name & Age o f Child  J  cv  CVC  CVG  CV  t s i luWK U^ 1  1  tsflu'i  1  tsu*  1  1  i  1  1  t**!fc  J  1 fsu>  fcsr*!  I  |  |  | |  1  1  1  • 1  1  1  iu->'  /.  J  'T - • l N  C\\ \\ 3  1  liu  ?  V I ^ \ I ist'  5 , . 3  a.  J  1  1  1 1  1  1  1 1  1 1  1  1  1  1  CVC  Y\\ J  D  1  •n-  >  1  1  I  |  |  1  |  1  |  1  1  j  1  I  I  1  1 VC{  '  1  i  1  1 V  \  I  1  I  lP  -  1  1  r) V  CVG  1 no,**'  1 f^oe / 1  1  CV  hi.'  1  Csi 1  CVC  CVG  1  1  |  1  |  l•  1  1— — — - — -  1  -  I  |  I  j  1 1  1  —  -* -  1  1 1  >  |  VC  1 1  \m*  | i  i  J  1 1  1 i  i I  I I 1  1  Svllahic  I ? | | |  I9 I  1 I  Consonants  j  1  '279  Xo  S e s s i o n No. Name- & Age o f INVENTORY SHEET Syllable  l  3  L e x i c a l Types Initial  to  . i  3o 3)  ^4  a  33  ^  C h l l d  a ,-.->- ( x x S  Syllable  F\  no-  j  3V.  Aft  4 J  Final  m  it  P .  Sa t*i  2<?  11  (31) f  J  1  h  ipt1  J  2  A"  15  17  1/.  h  k z  —M—  n t V  Aw  U  2  4} V  S3  S  ftl_  no  Hi  v.*  f  »  104  J•  eta  £T  34  5T  60  1  37  (?)  @) 3  if. n  34  a-1  47 4£  (00) 4i S  8  $0  IU:i?  HI  4o  IM  w (HT)  1" 1  ^3  IS'? I  if-7  1  11 y7  Ts Pi*  ,1  107  -lit  (41  (To) PU  H  1*1  A" I  —H—  to  53  t$;47  —3 <r  4?  (05-  ft:  (Jo)  ft  fl* »  103  i.s-'  1  I I  1  4  1 ^5 1 1 1  i l l  ^2$>  4? ,h" *  280  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types Syllable  (continued)  Initial  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  no  o  Others  > 11  j  1  Tones  haufe Si  —>  .n  Final Consonants  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  c* 0  x/  Name & Age o f  &%  <3fb  ©% • 6 0  G*% ( D . %  ®% kw  Child  U/&A,  /  £ lb~ ( l 2 \  y  y  y  y  ts(s)  ®%  V  kw'  y  —  y  y  —  * 4  b') S y l l a b l e  Finals  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  * s y  4  Consonants  c»07  au  J•  m  Vocalics  C3 OU  P  «y 4  Syllabic Consonants  3  y  /  y  V  y y  y  V  y y  y  y  Syllabic Consonants  —  =i / ui  Consenants  y  A-  /  el  Finals  (D/i  y  y  282  2.0  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION R e d u p l i c a t e d form 1.  1PI, 1 fei  2.  111) J  3.  1+.  HitfU  ®  5. $  pa  7.  pa  4  i 3  9  11. 12. 13.  +i  3  3."  & tsf tsr ' 4  tsuVtSu ts PU  tsW  11+. 15.  Part  o f speech  a Pa  o*  a i5 C^ -) 2  Type A/Type  'naughty'  adjective  A  'beautiful'  adjective  A  noun  A'  noun  B  noun  B  noun  A  noun  B  'uncle'  noun  B  'to throw'  verb  A  'to jump'  verb  A  'elder  noun  B  'clock'  noun  A  'shameful'  adjective  A  'to  verb  A  noun  A  'cat' 'younger  sister'  ,  p.3  8.  10.  (gloss)  'father'  1  uW  Child  1 'pony t a i l ' pin; 4 . 1 * C4) 'grandmother'  pin p  i  YnclU t> * CO  1  6.  J  •  SHEET  sister'  play'  'duck'  B  .  Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  Proportion of:  15  .08  10  .05 .03  15 Form C l a s s o f Type A Reduplications  1.00  R e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  Phonetic'forms  30  Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  .1+0  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  30  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  285 S e s s i o n No.  °? 0  Name & Age o f Child PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET Syllable Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n P r o c e s s e s (Consonants) Stopping  ts —»  A f f r i cation  f C/2.1) 0°f  -S —> £s (t/iv) 0 • IS"  Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  M o n o p h t h o n g i s a t i o n o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  Assimilatory  Processes  UJOAJ * ]  C l) x  284 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f O*  U)&A,  Child  SUMMARY SHEET Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  Phonetic  Phonetic  size  Types  Types  Tokens  Forms  : / &~J  : /  :  6" ( -\ 27  i?3  :  Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency Articulation  Number o f Sounds  t*  CO  Ct'J  ts*  ts'  •A,  b) S y l l a b l e - F i n a l V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  j F i n a l Consonants  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency-:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: Vocalics  10  =  ( I2g  lit  Syl.Cons. 1  ^4  Score  f  7  . / 4- (  )  Articulation  U£ Score  Number o f Sounds  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  r J4-S ) o  ol ^£  / p (4- )  Number o f Sounds  Cp)  h  £ 7j>* Syllable  )  =>  Pi  a *  6I  (VU)  0  O al  A r t iLec u l a t i o n  I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l  Ck)  i  Score  T o t a l Number o f Sounds  $~ 9 oX /  C ^ 11  Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Substitution (l) I n i t i a l  F  y y  v/  • OA  Analysis and F i n a l Consonants  y  I  • 0 5~  y y  y  y  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  t y y  —  —  —  ts  •  /.QV(  y •  $f ( <l«ty25) & Matches  y  •  f/ (  4  6/4)  •285 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c i  p  u  y  e  <£  p  a  Consonants  •  ai  >/  Pi ei  0  Proportion  •  .frf  ou  u i '•  iu  au  /  <£y  o f Data  —  Di  mi  /  /  pu  •  0  u__  ( f / 2 0 ) & Matches  > ffi (  /  /  y  / /$ )  13) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  1  2  4  5  3  1+  6  5  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form  7  8  9  5  T o t a l Number o f ' .: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s Proportion Phonological  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  • QQ  P h o n e t i c Tokens &  Process A n a l y s i s Deletion of f i n a l  consonants  Stopping t<,  -  >  t  Affrication  x  >  ir^ Fronting  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels  and diphthongs  > v>  a  Other p r o c e s s e s  2  1  " W %  50 _  T 9  f  8 o  _  1 0 Q  f  0  286  as  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f Child . • ^ .  lexical  phonetic  lexical  2 op^n '  ^  1  3  !(W  3  4  ft'  4  5- fa-*  l.f  T  fan!(id  ^fa  ^  j Pp  lexical  phonetic  ^ j P p  4  £ U 7 hau  phonetic  3  isjpr'* f*' fu^x) ^ , W  U1 j p f ho tWm*)  J  1  T7  uU  4,  \  1  1  A/  r  types  types  types  n  *%) I7 U i V t d «  8. tarn* IS U a ^ h k>i a*)  151  A*..*  ji*'  Ity j'l  N 4.110  4  s  »k  if  3  161 * m  V  j  z  (o U p i Ii —  13 14  III f — i — —  ^pii hi  / J 4 1 3b \ia,7 l?7  Iff) hpi^ili)  fe  I 13 114-  2  1  i\- loot  z  2  i  - -f— f j  L  hvu  37 joe  ^  ju  ^  2  Itf h i V  1^4  J.7  M  1  A/  Li  la  1  « W  142  144  ^u..  2  1 1  l4t)i :^V>  A'/  Iir UDIr<?x) U  l?J  f)l AM,"  t —  2  it, l ^ i / * I n  ig hi*)  JUAV  • 4|iUL/ jflP/.^)  JJ AO,}  AW*  fer  16/  ^  17^ AkJfte  J /kw' / 1  W  1 2-2  Uoe u  ^  )*'Jf U  3  1  hdwVtO 47 Ivun2-  H Iff  A/  W  i P i V i * : A?  A  1 I72  3  7« J /i.n J  t  -&-. f7«) J  11^ A . n ^ | £  287  S e s s i o n No.  (^WWvU&tf)  LEXICON SHEET  Name & Age o f Child  lexical  types  types  types lexical  phonetic  lexical  phonetic  phonetic  MOO li^'rtx'  ft m i x /  mi.  <x  1L  IT  1?  10.  Ktrj  M a l l  m  .*  iiori-^4  fe  10/, I I  M i  >  ^  f  9-  /in  7  I  I0(  I  y^m K) n  1  .  amI v\a lips r^atn n lief rfthTu^giM <;am.'  9*  3  P  9=  A/ ^Wld  14 O 4  /p/  44 10  tK&Yu)  5r  ST  fr IM?1  Ho l^t  til  17 (0  • mug?  ^ i»a^ /n/  h  l(^r<;a>)  11  ll37 SPfcVzij)  1x4  'iff Stfu- .2  a-.' Hi]  ma, 4 4  I* 2  1Q  1^  lM s a m '  ha  Hid:-  fe  -4  Tl  I  y  2  .  111.  St  I  «4*7 f --^I'H pa.n 'p<tf\  -FT  pen -L  z  Ik s r  lu  HI - 5 i : k  c l  llH yi 3  'lf£Xlli fo> J  Jiil I  Zp_lZ_J.  0 , t )  11^ Cf4V»0  Jill  »a>.  X  '^ ^  l  h»1  II/,  288  3 6"  S e s s i o n Wo. LEXICON SHEET  ^^ffyvCi^ed )  Name & Age o f Child . .. .  y  f  n  'IAJOA.  lexical  A/ m  iin  ta  111 t * V  i<r) t a . - ^  —  (n)  lexical  phonetic  phonetic  t:A VJ«)  i n tA-i. f c  f.p»i  %  1  rtt ta. i**  to  lexical  phonetic  3.;  types  types  types  x  *•—i  iW- t W  1  lira t p i * . •• .. T-.  Ini f w L . ' |l& V « '  Ik- t s P .  life f s P i V a O l t f l ^ i r * ? ^ l w t s m . ^ S 3 l  x  Iff f n  2  v v - —v-  lirt tpn  164 tS/sr.'  r  -  3  l6£ fsPn  tspu  4  l  Iff 2  t<A *  IB  txp«'  lift  4  Uo/, t«;f ' |  1  UtsU*W  7 > r ^  liK: t s p u  fe  lifei t i v itf i i . t '  lit?  K . t V i ? 0 HI  ts, >  .M  1  Ul  I7i f./.ri 2 -  lift /Tfl.n 2  If2 u;S  Iii t7<?t«P  i*  \M  A V  |  t/vi.1  hit  t(KU  J  113 t . o V  ITI - t j i , u / - J  170 W "  1 ^ t<ru3  111! t W r t * !  I7i t<rtU  l/^.tsoit  177 Uati  %  W  U ^  liT t W A  1170 t V u +  J7? tsoen  in, t V  I'n t Y . '  171 t s u - J  2  3  i l^l v^u-.n^  4  1  1  lilt t s ^  t\>C(U)  I2U- w/3  5  ! {]k wu .  nr fsou.! 4  /m/  9  W<3W)  1*73 K » f  Ii«7 w/u  Ui? u/u^V 2 -^ |  l^T  , bio m O x >  4  4  I  I'tf t u j j ? ?  I  /a:/ W t i n *  1*7  d:J  iii —  ;  —  ^l(04nc^ 1  —  289  CVG  cv  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child  eve  ?a pa i ' pa pa 1 pa 1 pan h1  P>  1  » 1  DPI  pr 1 .p«i 1 pu* l  n  CVC x  1  1  1  Z  r  pi *»„  1  CVG  cv  1  3  <• • 1  cvc  ta. t*i> 1 t * « 1 t s a ^ t s p i l b i n ti.' 1 tvi!° 1 ipV 1 tsa.' 1 e W " tsp^'. 1 t3i 1 W tS> ! tsilA'l t$«4*. ti T tei> 1fct?>) J t s ! - 1 W U tsirf. 1 W 1 tt^ I f s u ^ l t 6 u . ^ tsun*"  1  L  1  CVG  cv  5"  A  a-IP  fc  1  2  f c  S  J  .pi 1 4A  P  1  1  ?  1  tea 1 tu h*  p, |ja ...  1  4\*  4  |J  1 to£i^ 1  1  I I I fcpiSl ' &LL.11 U 1 tV.' 1 t V 1 t A f 1 1 t'y^l t \ t *  1  z  1  til*  1  l  1  1  1  wa 1 u/ui 1  lya.-n  5  . wft.^l 3 1 WD- 1  1  1 iuD n 1 J1 1 wu n  T  u>uJ 1 ' 1  1  1 1  * I Y > L '  1  iml.- 1 IMU^  1  1 1 imu.A 1 ' WAa  1 wiur  1  ;  sa \c 1 1  I  J  S ' a 1 spp 3  W , ^ '  I t ^ 1 i PU* 1  2  1  r  ? 1  |  ^  2  |  1 \£. I IIU.'-* 1 1 P»» 1 2  sar\  , "•  1  V  '  1  I  I  I 1  it-*  J  1  .  1  fi  3 1  1 I I L U  J  1,  1^  1  I  P  P  '  J. r 1 1 Pr  1  1 s-ut>! 1 S-Ii  f)  1  4  1  if..» 1 fru' 1 A-tf * i ' 1 -eec '  4-  1 -W  J  j  1 i ^ i *a..i* «o U* 1 £a> x  ,  1 Sin'  1  1  2,  J  r  1  /•t<;oe rf.  !•  So.  0  r  1  1  b  3  tuA 1  -\ ^ S a * n ' s I  K  1  I ltoarft 1 ma  1  '  tsV  2  1  US  1  Kv»a u  ma/*  1  1 tsarf 1 ts'oe t ts u n is 1  1  1  SvlJ,at>ic Consonants  m  | mt  1 ?  1 1  1  290  INVENTORY  SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms (jOn&xviAJLtC)  cv  CVG  4a' At  J  1  CVC  W l  1 W  CV  CVG  Name & Age o f Child  CVC  CV  1 |  I  1  1 |  1  1  1  1  |  1 1  1 |  1 VC  1  1  1  1  1 APU I As* 1 & u ' I A** I W  kytd' 1  1  yo€  I l*-h* 4  1  i | J I i 1 nei " 1 KID ^ 1 1 u 4  2  4ur,' 1 &PH I 1  1  1  M  V  5  1  \/6r  1 Pt  V H 1  ha ^ 1 kai ^ 1 lia n^" . h V l W 1 h* 1 p  t  i  1 1  1 hpu 1 h» KJ' 1 hai i 1  1  1  |^flu 1  teiZJ , J j  I  1  1 ^  1  1 1  1  ' 1  1 1  i  1 1 1  I  •  1  j  i  1  i  1  1  I  I  |  1 Rvllflhir  ! T  i  1  I  1  1  1  hrt4*i  l  1  l  1 I I  1  l  !  i  )  1 f)oey I  1  1  1  r  31 1  1  hu :^  ho a* 1  ha -T  I  1 1  1  1  |  1 hPi* 1 h i A* 2  J  1  s>\  l AV> 1  "L  1 1  1  A'^A'w* 1AW  CVC  1 |  " A.A.-.n  ?  CVG  i  l*V 1  1 ^ULu*  Oil  9  1  i  ! 1  i |  HnnRnnants  1  I  8  291 S e s s i o n No.  INVENTORY Syllable  I"  4  4  4 ,  1 lot  L e x i c a l Types Initial  >  3  % (02  io&  Syllable  t u i » | 14  J  Final  a.)  m 24  7?  4}  !o'7  Name & Age o f Child  SHEET  47  i t  44  mm  48  S-2  (ioD t<>M  4o  2  l'4 l'5>"  4  ill u  Hi  <T4  4V  4'  wa  hi  Tv  -  i fI,in)< 1X  pa- illiu> „ 1 1 1—  s2 3  \%  7o  131  12  /4-0  S]  <W  ^ W  €  1ST  J  (23 «H  © )  au  4  j  pi.jjau-  IbS * s  7  3° 31 32:  1 81  S4 *r  LSPl*  7  loo  10  a1  ni  4£  i^  a  . 3  4?  t a  ,  • r •• x  40  (U)  t * ¥  ha*  J J  100  P  ff  W )  i t  ^ y  1^  *>7 *  |2  P  ^ >  tV  Iff  ' 1 ,U 7i _  H  (frf)  . i6g  3 1  J  i>"7  #  It  t A l <?/ p'^Cl|  100  1(1*1)  •  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types  (continued)  Syllable I n i t i a l  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  Consonants  u  1  !  113  Ifco  —_  0 •  I  Tones  pa u  —»  — »  p a n  Final  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  ®%  kw  UJ^C  Child  0  /  <• Name & Age o f  n  ®%  ©23"  o\ j &  (u)  PC*-)  y  y  y  y  y  /  <£>%  t(S)  ®%  y  y  y y  y  kw* —  —  b) S y l l a b l e  Finals  b) S y l l a b l e  Vocalics  ©I4  ®'1  ®a.  Consonants  *4 (?»>;.  si  c-),„ Q&Y)  ui  CO, <3>„  (4  ^  Vocalics  Consenants  y  s/ *« k  /7  Syllabic Consonants  C  Finals  V  y  y  y  y y  y y  y y y y  y  y  y  Syllabic Consonants  /  —  294  Session  No.  Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET R e d u p l i c a t e d form  (gloss)  Child Part  o f speech  3-  AM, rj  A U,  ®  5-  h i ft-4 W i f i . '  6. ®  7.  J^lll^mUi  * ^  \<\ m yam. (g) pq  9 10.  4  pq.p  "par  i  2 1  Type A/Type B  noun  1.  1  UJCtc  •  p Q L .  p £ t  12.  an  13. ®  pi ^pr'  15.  pan  sog^soeuj  'bright'  adjective  'grandfather'  noun  'angry'  adjective  'mother'  noun  'grandmother'  noun  'younger s i s t e r '  B  noun  'exactly'  adverb  'father'  noun  'to b i d goodbye' verb  B  8  'to shake'  verb  A  'wood'  noun  A  'baby'  noun  B  'wet'  adjective  'water'  noun  Summary o f D a t a Number o f :  R e d u p l i c a t e d forms  • 05  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  -.05."  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  216  1.00  P h o n e t i c forms  3  • 27  Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d  forms  11 10  of  of:  • 09  Ji  Form C l a s s  Proportion  Type A Reduplications-  .27  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  295  REDUPLICATION SHEET  Reduplicated  16.  9U  form  «T n k SU-ft  1  IT.  18.  t$M tsi Z  2  19. 20.  21. 22. 23. 2k.  25. 26.  2728.  2930. 31. 32. 33. 3k.  35. 36. 37. 38. 39. ho.  4-  C4)  (gloss)  P a r t o f speech  (continued)  Type A/Type B  'uncle'  noun  B  'bucket'  noun  A  'to cook'  verb  A  'to s t a y '  verb  A  'tea*  noun  A  'grandfather'  noun  296 S e s s i o n No.  ^ &  Name & Age o f Child  U)(U  3  j <9 ( i j [  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops  •  S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes Stopping  (Consonants)  tS  ~?  Affrication Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  1/Wtl  Assimilatory  Processes  RotA^ui  oe —»  u  (^/&)  oS'o  297 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  SUMMARY SHEET Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  size  Types : / *j £  Types  Phonetic  : L\'8 f  Forms  : & / -b  Analysis  a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency £j (  Number o f Sounds  //  {  - ^JLl  )  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  as)  S y l l a b l e' F i n a l  <HS~  ^  J  • ^  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  Final  Consonants  V o c a l i c s JJ_  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: ( - - ^ r - = l'f>  ) A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  Syl.Cons._l Number o f Sounds  $  3 •*  (P J f/J  Number o f Sounds  3  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  ^  10.$ )  Cp')  p  b)  Tokens  QI  Phonetic  Phonetic : iA /  Aj  IAJA^J  )  £PO  ^au)  rn  S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n S c o r e 62 0 ( ^ ' ^  T o t a l Number o f Sounds Analysis of Reduplication • 0 5"  ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  ' O S~  Substitution Analysis ( l ) I n i t i a l and F i n a l Consonants  I F  V  /  *  V  ? y y  s/  V  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  y  • y  —  —  y  j  / y  y ^3/25) & Matches • 9  I A S 1  (*  1  I 33 )  f/  £)  )  298 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c i  v/  u  a a  P  /  ai  v/  Di  1/  y  /  /  ui •  ./  J  "Pi ei  /  Ay  /  e  0  •  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data 13)  Consonants  I  pu  ( / / /20)  -f_T  iu  V  au  •  ou HI  /  0 •  —  & Matches  • _^  (  H / if  )  Tones N  1  2  o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form 3  6  5  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form 8  T  9  / T o t a l Number o f  Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  P r o p o r t i o n o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  /  P h o n e t i c Tokens  SSJ  . QQ /  Phonological Process A n a l y s i s  "  > <f>  D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  I  I  " 1  Stopping  ts  >  t Affrication  Fronting  M o n o p h t h o n g i s a t i o n o f diphthongs  ei  > /• L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other p r o c e s s e s  p'—>  i  0 - 20 %  p  r  21 - 49 #  oe  —»  ct  — >  2>  u*  50 - 79 ?°  80 - 100 %  299 S e s s i o n No. LEXICON SHEET  -  types  types  lexical  phonetic  i fa '  11 f a . ' f " )  4 r  - f  3  phonetic  W  IAT tpi>>  K  >  « '  Ir  'fe^  IT  4*  a - f V ' l t f * lit) l ^ ^  11  /  »1  1  J hai  4  \\ax  i  5  U  at  phonetic  i  ^Pv*a  A h  lexical  13  3  f^.'  /  types  lexical  » 3 fpn  Name & Age o f Child  /m/  |  WA..'  1$ M  1  wx  2  fr'n^WffW  4  131 -ta i f y o k i™a u.'  '5'*  h i tp^'  |tf ^< ^  hS"3 m i * f ^ |  hpi>  1  ITS wwi^  4  Ii4  4  10  h>D  1  .1 III  l<t j P t "  | €  hppV2X>  lU  hi*  -,i '  3  2  / $ou.'  tvV  l5^a«a 3* l u , '  l4t> tu.  /kw/  |  J  J 5 / *  lit  JPI°  In  ia t  Jkuin  1  ^  ).^  IH  JI  ii-H.  U 0  J  U ^ l O  W  l  /p/  |  pa '  l£o  .  41  ta  V  J  '  n  jpd:  ,  | A /  1  u  p /  a  ^ i  4  Ax)  p4..|3ft  '^'tp'h'Cj-)  M  •  1  paw  tt  if  pa*  3-> pa t* I6j(pll3>  |  ii.  pa' '  c4  !  1  toou?  S  pa-'  I I ?  IvL  1  b4 . . t a '  AuV  1 1  h£ tow,  I  UC t>uV"  4  / j /  I S '  Mi  H4  kvi '  1? hu-ri  hpiVsx)  if  U,' I 6  49 moa* 9  >Hfl.A-y:  1  lj  '«t  pvv  *r  ia  4  l^Vc»>  ^  DPu  f e  '  1  I  D  A  U  pvt.' £ a  t!>  IAS?' pPu.  6  300  S e s s i o n No.  A^/.^W,)  LEXICON SHEET  '  Name & Age o f Child  * types lexical  ti  types phonetic  'OKA  2  ho  lexical  A/  i?iu. (ix) a  W  A ;  0(6)  types phonetic  lexical  phonetic  As'/i  I  A'/ In r> A. W °  4f p', * 1 J 1  4  j  1  /B/ Ls  .4 4i  b<r  sa.vn  saV  s*„  st  i3  si  74 Ii-  SI,* ^l,  I4  sri"  7J  sfift«j  1  n tiV is t ^ ,  si"  Iw  I"f t W l»*ts*»vVd  1.1 t s ' ^ * "  A/  A'/  1  As/  id  ta'taV toi  1  f e  l l win a<  A/  i  A:/  ,  |  1  <K TAPI* U i ISPL  2  V  4  1^  si.4V»>  IK SAJ*"  I'" tsi ' K tsi  I  Si/Vfc>|l* t s r He s u hits.* ^  lM  Si .*(••<•  <?7 f e  l^.^oeA!  1  l"i tSi-W ts..n  2  «j  L *J^J?*fe L  j  " Ml (A/a ">l»*WA:r£M  |  1  i  1  1  so*  Si |JST S l ( »  4  6  2  U f  lu^ t.4to>|  1/02 t V  l?i sf. 1^  1  l  <^  <?/ W  <: t>m /Yx)  Ifa SVLC**)  3  8  ^.i^^lw^tfd  saV In S&L'  II  71 *o  *i t . „  liG  SPL'  fa-  P../jV») Jtf I P V If! 1 J  1  M sV* M  ho  in  «*f<W  6  I 1  4  301  CV  CVG  P4  1  .  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child •  CVC  pA-1  ....! ;p.tV  INVENTORY SHEET  '/pa  CV  t a' 1  I  1  a y . ' i ^ 1 t-*. 1  i  '  r1 p^-.tll '  1  . fA_!.  1  2 i  I  fee'  /.fx. y  V'  i  fpn  r  i  I  -|W  1  1  I  i  i  I  . toft -  4  1  s  -  I  1 1  1 1 1 1 1  i  1,  1  1  :  l  1  :1  t.-Pp  l l  I  tprf  I r  ; „ l T \— ••'  l S . ^  1  I  i i  hA.m 1 n a  i i  1 1  1  l+Wi  I  ™ ' > f  i  4 ^  i  .  —1  —1  - -^PH  i  K n p * « j I  J  I I 1  _ S v l l a l i ) i c Consonairts  1  1  '• ••••  1  1  1  1  5  1  1  l |  1 SI .  1  1  1 1 1 1 1  1  i  i W  h*ftJ__J_J_j__3  1 ,  1 tsflcVi*  1  ii it,,2« — • ——  1  5  1 ^  1 /tPn'v j—7  1  3  1 1  iV J. I i^iou-* 1  CVC  ^  r  I  1  t,6u  3  •  1  1 1 1 1  1  t-)li!° 1 t l r > m  1  •  •1  J  ta?rf„'i>l tb^'  1  1  CVG  1 frflu! 1 i a n 't x V I t-sWl/tsW.  r  1 1  l  f  1  J  {P \  1  l t< « '  P  4,  1  CV  /tl.n'x  f.pi'  2  1  t^>A  CVC  ,  U  t M  p/2. f  1  CVG  A,  9  I  1  I  1  1  302  CV  CVG  U ?  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  P h o n e t i c Forms^Ccr*AMw&<zL^  Name 8s Age o f Child  CVC  CV  CVG-  CV  CVG  CVC  1 1 1 1 ' • 1  1 W l 4 < d &  3  f  1 1 1 1 1  | |  | fca:l<*l  U p p *  1 1 1 1 1 it^i \ W U i p f J jt j i u 1 ja -t L  J. J1-  1  3  1  j, J 1  i  1 1  1 V  CVC  •  ^  iji-v ^  1  1 1 1 1 1 I  VOr  1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1  1  1 1  1  1 1  1  1 l  1  1 I  l  I  1  I  I  1  I 1  1  1  1  1  JLL  S y l l a b i c Consonants m  i  9  I  1  303-  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types  (continued)  Syllable I n i t i a l  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  log  Consonants  1  ' Ho HI  0 <?  4,  3  io 11  l,S"  n  m Tones  P z. --U-  |  P 6" -•u  —»  1  -> —  1  t  *  pet  8  —»  —»  C s W  — >  ->  S.oe  u  y  —>  t s i •* ton.*  ts^ — >  Final  r  304 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types Initial  Syllable  1c  t-  ( / J /  Syllable  ~  a?  IS  2-7  4C  V  -33L  S(fW—-H -  64  »2  MO  63  3  11  V n  ai  IS V  VoJ  >  |0t) 10/ I07  4  *o4  t  h  V  Jr :  -"."J*4o  3  «N  tsovi J  ^T  10 i  I  TT  J  J  64 ts*?? 9/  \  1  '  MY  u  1  1  t  l4  55  I M  *k  5s  n-f  p i  4 II  1  1  1  —(.><•  3  ^1 *itf  1  -f—  67  *1  -41 _4i  3.1  (it)  1  _  • IWP  —!_JL_ i.a-.n  1 A"! • ; l  A*)  b  4L  3y  r  3  .a: t  Ii  J  1/  ts  13  0  pt  PPh  7  34  V  — '  14  - So  u  pPt  10  4V  "  3:1  1  m±  X.)  Final  sl  94  n  *^ 41 ,  .. 1 + •  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  inventory  " Child's s u b s t i t u t i o n s a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials  S e s s i o n No.  1  1/  Name & Age o f  ®"/»  iJj*^  Child  £ ] 0 (<o  V'  )  1  —  /  v/  kw  w  kw'  •  b) S y l l a b l e  *  0)4  b) S y l l a b l e  4  (au)  4  Pi  a,  Gic,  Syllabic Consonants  ui  V  V  y  Consenants  y  %/  y  s/  v/ F C«fc>  ©<'  Finals  Vocalics  Consonants  (ai)  /  —  Finals  Vocalics  ©9  —  —  k'  y —  —  y y  Syllabic Consonants  o  y  306  Session  No,  Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated  form  4 • 4-  Child  (gloss)  Part  o f speech  -tJyt*^,  Type A/Type B  'grandfather'  noun  B  2.  'fruit'  noun  A  3.  'foot'  noun  A  noun  B  'horse'  noun  A  ' grandmother'  noun  B  'father'  noun  B  'pen  noun  A  verb  A  'car'  noun  A  'to h i t '  verb  A  'duck'  noun  A  1.  k. 5.  ma  'mother  ma  Ma ma * 3  6.  7.  o<\. ' pa. i r  8.  9  1  J  J^f,^  t.  10.  ts'f.  11.  t-a to,  12.  a  W 2  P *  2  aps  1  'to  1  1  fall'  £,) O  13. Ik. 15. Summary o f D a t a Number o f : 12  .10  Reduplicated  8  .07  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  .03  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  1.00  P h o n e t i c forms  .25  Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  .75  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  .00  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  12 Form C l a s s o f Type A  Proportion of:  Reduplications  forms  ((})  307  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  A j0  PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET S y l l a b l e Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Consonants)  Stopping Affrication 0  Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  /  Au)  --> t Cx/iX  too  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  a —>  i*  cy ) e  Other P r o c e s s e s ' *  -  -TV  OVUUlA.uOHs  —?  J  ~ h —* P —>  a  Assimilatory  Processes  C-yV  -n ->  a  .  f  a  v /  -  U  . 7 U  0  iJ  o S~6  o  Ot  —>  0 6-0  ot  —>  0 .6' 0  308  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f SUMMARY SHEET  Child  Sample  Lexical  Phonetic  Phonetic  size  Types  Types  Tokens  :  : /J^  0 (h  UJWJ Phonetic  ,3, / /  Forms  / £ 0  Phonetic A n a l y s i s a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  Criterion  6  o f Frequency G (S  Number o f Sounds  )  t *** tS Cts > y  b) S y l l a b l e  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  s **  )  Final  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c Criterion  F i n a l Consonants  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency:  o f Frequency:  V o c a l i c s Jo  (  Syl.Cons. 1  " 6$  (  - ^ Z = ?-75" ) /a  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score 3. 7  Number o f Sounds  U J L )  <j ^S")  Number o f Sounds  y  Ci)  /o  )  .  A r t i c u l a t i o n Score  D  i  •  a-**  P** Syllable  a3ft. ni  (  Initial  D  (fra)  and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n  Score  T o t a l Number o f Sounds  c  ff <^ l £ ( l t > )  Analysis of Reduplication ( l ) P r o p o r t i o n o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  •O 7  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  • 03  Substitution (l) I n i t i a l  Analysis and F i n a l Consonants  I F  •  ,  _y  *  y y  —  y  y  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  —  y t  —  t  —  y y y  P  y  S 0 (<^ 0/25) & Matches  » 75 ( /S" / ol o)  )  309 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c i  •  u  \/  et  K  a  *»  P y  e 0  Consonants  • •  /  P r o p o r t i o n o f Data  v/  Pi ei  I »/  y  au  oey  —  1P  ui '  j &T_( /7/20) L  OU  v  Di  ai  —  •  u  iu m  •  0  —  •ff<3(  & Matches  /f / / 7)  (3) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  1  2  3  U  5 '  3 (1*) Q  6  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form  T  8  9  4  Total,Number o f  .: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  P r o p o r t i o n o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  »  ot I I  P h o n e t i c Tokens 0$  Phonological Process A n a l y s i s D e l e t i o n o f f i n a l consonants  Stopping  Affrication  A Au/  —  *  —>  t t.  Monophthong!sation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  a  >  v  Other p r o c e s s e s 1?  —»  3  -h -n  J  0 - 20 %  —>  21 - 49  *  6t  -—^  U  *  -*n  -1  %  50 - 79  ^  - 100 %  310  3  S e s s i o n Wo. LEXICON SHEET  types  types  types  phonetic  lexical  phonetic  lexical  Name & Age o f Child  'sU '  '^rnau' watt ' wttulwau/J IS" m u i ' | u kvxut ' l0  1—'  /  —P"—^—  I 1 8 Mill wut  Ji /La ' U Kfl:' |.1i__Ha_ 4 U i K a / 4  A/ >f  A/ J  Pa  |  J  tnu.1  J  1  A /  L  JQ_>|' £  -  |» p4i p4?;  .  J  H  A*/ i  l  A D  4  t  '  1  - >  ^  ^'j_.fn4t?(„  .: V  rjul  =5  H lit\ U-n  U J  Wo  I  t a M ( l  to  1  U  ?  1  : tr>L  J J  In  /V  I M V H P .  .t_Uv  I4t  t  i  Ilo ipi.'  •  I  2  1  lo^H.'l*  |=  |.-.iiPi.  tai'plvJ  1  1  A/  V'- 4  |a-  .  1  mui  pfl./n^bi  ^ t % 'tt  'HisM.-'tsii '  I  IV  1  1  J. J .  1  ^tautWUJ. 1  4  phonetic  lexical  4  1  F  R  As'/  As^3 4  iv!,*  Itf'pik  .  j life i-i.r) nrn j /  1-5 f ,*t..V«.|  a  liJ p_A.^pei>  t  1  4  „4..: t.-s...  | 1  J  |  is* f.v tsV.y }  4  i A/ | *1 W i n '  li1f-u/p.V„0  1 1  »  " ]  1  311  INVENTORY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  3  P h o n e t i c Forms  Name & Age o f Child •  ,  a  CV  CVG  CVC  / P 4 ' V TA. £ 1 |Vl 1  p^  i  1  I  |  1  CVG  CVC  CV  pat1 ta I roe^ iW.i^Ns.H ti* 1 + . ^ 1 tut 1 tsu-' ! ptvT 1 t*i 1 1 1  1  1  2  1 1  l l  I  1  J  I  | l  1  1  s ^ r j  1  1  1  I  1  1  I  §  1  1  AoV  1  1  1  1  1  |  1  1  1  1  1.  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  •  1  1  1  |  •  1 1  I  1  1  i  ha-.* 1 M k * 1  1  i  1  lAiau,' 1  1  i l  1  1  1  1  1 VG  iUtf  I  " •"—  1 |  I  ia.J}\  r  1  J  |  I  i^a.'-  1 SI l  1 1  lt.SVI  l  1  1  tsoei) 1  1  1 Yl*A 1 |  |  1  CVC  2  1 1  CVG 2  L  1  1  1  CV  ppt?  1  1  hV*l  '  YWJ J  1  1  i  I  |  1  S v l l a b i c Consonants  I  1 ?  1 1  , 9  1  1  i  1  l  l  312  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f Child  INVENTORY SHEET L e x i c a l Types Initial  Syllable  Syllable  Consonants  p  *7 «•  \$  '1  V  Vocalics  a  3*  1  -4-  2.0  Final Consonants  hi »* i)  n  * i  1  1 tPnl  it  -  t  U'n  J  ai ,  1 <' ?  J  V t  ,  t,ts , ,  —  J t S  3S  —  tt>r II  1.0  3^  31/  3*  3^  p  t<Pi B  oe-  t W  3  4  ir *V» h  1u  IO  | I.  .  I  1  8  I  I  I  I  % ii  •  i  •  313  I n v e n t o r y Sheet L e x i c a l Types Syllable  (continued)  Initial  Syllable  Consonants  Vocalics  Final Consonants  1  0  1  Lers  "  -  —  1  -  Tones 3 <K i  tst tst: 42 4  —»  —>  i A :  "••  C h i l d ' s phonetic a) S y l l a b l e  ITEM AND REPLICA SHEET  inventory  Child's substitutions a) S y l l a b l e I n i t i a l s  Initials S e s s i o n No.  ®#  '/>  Name & Age o f  1  Child  f  t'  ©V  k' kw  GO,  Consonants  <£  l  m  P  n  t  <?o  v/  V  iu  —  y  —  .—  Finals Consenants  —  —  —  —  y -  Syllabic Consonants  .  —  Vocalics  ®7  a  oey  V  b) S y l l a b l e  Y  */  —  •  Finals  Vocalics  © 5  V  —  kw»  b) S y l l a b l e  —  •  : -  —  —  —  -  —  —  Syllabic Consonants  Oi  © 4  m  I->-  315  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f REDUPLICATION SHEET Reduplicated 1.  form  i Ufl.i kftr  (gloss)  Child P a r t o f speech  /CJkjur^ I j.9 Type A/Type B  'flower'  noun  A  'shoe'  noun  A.  'grandfather'  noun  B  'fruit'  noun  A  1  2. 3. k.  :4  i* J  4  i J  ?  4  5.  'elder  noun  B  6.  ' e l d e r b r o t h e r ' noun  B  7.  'beautiful'  adjective  A  J ma.  'mother'  noun  B  4  'grandmother'  noun  B  'cat'  noun  A  s i s t e r 'noun  B  * father'  noun  B  'full'  adjective  A  'pen'  noun  A  'nose'  noun  A  8.  J h\A  4  wa.:  9  14.  i  tout'.'mui. * ^)'younger :  11.  13.  Kha^  i  10.  12.  1  sister'  < s > pau  r  1  p/iii^  r  15. Summary o f D a t a  Number o f :  Form C l a s s o f A  Proportion of:.  27  . 49  R e d u p l i c a t e d forms  17  .31  Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  10  .18  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  27  1.00  P h o n e t i c forms  3  .18  Verb r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  . 11  .64  Noun r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  3  .10  Adj./Adv. r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  Reduplications  316  REDUPLICATION SHEET ( c o n t i n u e d )  R e d u p l i c a t e d form  16. I  T  ft  p V  p S  4  4  .  18.  seen* •- J  19. 20.  su  21.  Ta.  i  SAPM* • J  i s"tt . tvi.  22. 23.  t s i tsi 3  2k. - J  25-  26. 27-  28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3k. 35.  36. 37. 38. 39. 40.  2  J  (gloss)  P a r t o f speech  Type A/Type B  'grandmother'  noun  B  'to k i s s '  verb  A  'water'  noun  A  'uncle'  noun  B  'book'  noun  A  'to h i t '  verb'  A  'younger b r o t h e r ' noun  B  'paper'  noun  A  'mouth'  noun  A  'to s i t '  verb  A  ' car'  noun  A  'smart'  adjective  A  31? S e s s i o n No.  S  Name & Age o f Child PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS SHEET Syllable Structure Deletion  Processes  of f i n a l  consonants  Nasals Stops S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes Stopping  (Consonants)  5 —>  f  Affrication Fronting S u b s t i t u t i o n Processes  (Vocalics)  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels and diphthongs  Other P r o c e s s e s  ft™****  Of Ctoi'tff*) 4*4  .  Assimilatory  Processes  fr/  » q / ; (1/4.)  o 6'd  318 S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f SUMMARY SHEET Sample  Lexical  size  Types  Phonetic  : 4.,-,  Types  6" ^  :  /CAwig. / / 9 Cs)  Child Phonetic  Phonetic  Tokens  Forms  : /S"0  : $~^{.  Phonetic Analysis a) S y l l a b l e  Initial  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency *j  Number o f Sounds  b) S y l l a b i c  Articulation  Score  Final  V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c  F i n a l Consonants•  Consonants  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency-:  C r i t e r i o n o f Frequency: Vocalics  3  ( 43' o  Syl.Cons. 1 A r t i c u l a t i o n Score Number o f Sounds  i  =• <3 -4  ( 41  , 4  )  Articulation  -- 3-9  Score _  Number o f Sounds  A.  /  C f4\  C<0 CctO'  4, (Ou) -CCl  Syllable  Initial  and F i n a l : T o t a l A r t i c u l a t i o n  Score /6  T o t a l Number o f Sounds Analysis  of Reduplication  (l) Proportion  Substitution (l) I n i t i a l  I F  (4-)  Proportion  O •B /  Type B r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  O • f$  Analysis and F i n a l Consonants  — — — —  o f : Type A r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  — •  v/  —  \l — — — •  — — • — —  —  o f Data  /•gQ(^/c?)  • 4~4 ( H /25)  & Matches  ft> (  /  o  / //)  319 (2) V o c a l i c s and S y l l a b i c i  •  u  1  a  V y  ct  —  a Proportion  e  v/  0  •  o f Data  Consonants ai  •4  pu  —  ( 9 /20)  V  iu  —  0  —  au  _  oey  ou  —  ui '  "Pi ei  1  Di  —  L_—  & Matches  '7S  (  ^  / £  )  13) Tones N o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d Form  1  2  3  6  5 •  R e d u p l i c a t e d Form  8  7  4a  9  1  .2  4T o t a l Number o f \: Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s Proportion Phonological  o f Tone S u b s t i t u t i o n s  £  4.4  4  /  4-  4  CJx)  4  P h o n e t i c Tokens  /S~V  . 04>  Process A n a l y s i s Deletion of f i n a l  consonants  Stopping  ^_  I  1 *  ->  *  p—±  a  Affrication  Fronting  Monophthongisation o f diphthongs  L a x i n g o f vowels  and diphthongs  Other p r o c e s s e s  pt  2 1  - 9 % 4  — *  50 _ 79 f  at  8 o  _  1 0 0  f  0  Appendix  321  HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  /  Name & Age o f  uJg^j i •  child Homonymous forms  1.  V\\  2.  im.'  3. h.  3  _____JLH4?L  AU  1  Homonymous  $\f.  3  tldl  AVI  1,  'eat'  7 (lit.  types j l  'ear'  3  "street' W'chicken  ^p|"chicken'  W' d  Jklj  1  'machine'  5.  _  6.  8. 9.  10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms:  P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  4  '  t o r t o i s e  ' °g'  chicken'  T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms:  \  322  HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No. • Name & Age o f UICKAI  child Homonymous forms •l.  Jb  3.  Sa - •  U.  S PI  5.  fa  6.  tug.  7.  t }pl*  -ppr>' ' s l e e p '  | f t n / 'return'  '  3  •I'  f r u i t  ll*  '  i Sfl-  'classifier'  I $ J  'sand'  ' t o comb'  'to d r y ' fa:  2  ^  Qi)  Homonymous t y p e s  Ph'  2.  I  .  S PL* ' s m a l l ' tat  * 'to h i t '  ,  tur}.. t a  6  ' fr/pA-to  'belt'  2  exerciset-suij; '-(j<^t)  l * ' ' - ( j « f)' s u n '  t,  f pL  S  8. 9. 10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: Proportion  o f Homonymous Forms:  oi  ' (pkt L  and  '  running  323  HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  J_D  Name & Age o f Child Homonymous forms  2.  'Art'  3.  6. 7.  2  'located i n ' / ^  ,  Jko, ' ' ( j l ^ ) - n o w ' gym  h.  5.  Homonymous t y p e s ^EL  1,.  tsa  C£ ; 0 (II  LAJZU  -9  ^  s a r  'g°  '  3 fr -.&  dry'  ' t o g e t up'  -  J^>pl Av*\  5" ' t o b i t e '  ,»'to  s>  l d  2  yya t  )  ?  'chicken' '  l  a  r  e  tQ  '  'particle'  S  ^  .  ' -(jlrf)Chinese'^ a  'word'  d  tsM  8. 9. 10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms:  2-1 *j  P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  *Q 3  s  t  0  0  i .  4 'together' t  o  l  i  v  e  '  )  32^  HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f  UJOUL  Child Homonymous forms i,  2  j?pn  ).  £, ' 2  5-  6.  3  , u j' t s & t ' *  4  Homonymous t y p e s  3  3.  '  t  0  s  l  e  e  P '  Ua  A u g ' SS-I*  'to  ts»  'diminutive  ' '  g  0  d  o  w  n  '  t s  8. •  10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms:  h  T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms:  192.  -_Q_  t  o  k  n  o  forin^^  7.  P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  0  'work'  ,  9. •  t  f s ? l / 'classifier'  kiss'  tsp/.^  spt  '  S  fg/p' 'ground'  f  2 'j 3  w  2  '  ' t o was  325  HOMONYMY SliEET  S e s s i o n No.  <9lO  Name & Age o f  child Homonymous forms •1„  Homonymous t y p e s  U ®a  2.  i|  3.  S j?  r\<&y jif  3  •h.  S Vi  '  e  ' t o go' a  r  '  4ioeij* ' her,.she,it' jI U  ' t o wash'  '  3  Sfeu  "  5. 6.  •,  2)5" (22.)  id Out  .... ..  :  7..  9. 10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  3  HA  W  a  n  t  t  0  '  'hand'  326 HOMONYMY SHEET  Session  No.  £ 5  Name & Age o f  Child Homonymous forms  2.  A d  3.  jj^j  h j  Z  h&j  '-(j'l )can' J  i^'-(fc,')coffee'  3  $  nij " 5 -  Homonymous t y p e s  2  l,  ^  tsuj*  t 0 t u r n  ^  '  Q f^irj  ' I' 2  '  t 0  ' t o g e t up' 'dove' 'cover'  D  r-'g  6  S|l  s  7-  'classifier'  '  2  UJ  ^- . C '-(•fcai)oneself' |  f , i°  CL  3 0  £.i  4  6.  jg(ll)  UJOA.  '  t  y  ge-fc-.v.'  •  'to l i v e '  Q, ' q u e s t i o n ' p a r t i c ' l e ' m a k e  '  tsoe^'use . f o r c e ' "  8. 9. 10  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms: T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: Proportion  0  o f Homonymous Forms:  ~~J - 2 - ' ^° i_i-LJL.  "  327 HOMONYMY SHEET  S e s s i o n No.  3.  Name & Age o f child Homonymous forms •1„  pqt  8  Homonymous  pq  t  %  4  • eight'  '  T R E E  '  uJx/ng  types  p p t  ^  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10  T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  1  1  h.  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms:  a;  3  'pencil'  ^  '  0(6)  328  HOMONYMY SHEET  3  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f . Child  Homonymous forms i„  ij&Ct)  <CHAS»AJ  Homonymous t y p e s  ______  [js^^'elder  s i s t e r ' Tjs*?  'car'  2. 3. k.  V  . •  5. 6. 7.  .  .  _  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  910  T o t a l Number o f Homonymous Forms:  '  T o t a l Number o f P h o n e t i c Forms: P r o p o r t i o n o f Homonymous Forms:  . f) __,  329 Appendix 3- A l i s t of the s e r i e s of s y l l a b l e p a i r s , w i t h each s y l l a b l e p a i r made up of e i t h e r of two upper r i s i n g tones i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n , or an upper even tone f o l l o w e d by a high e n t e r i n g tone f o r the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . Wai C h i l d form  'gloss'  wu  'tortosise'  v  k"pi ..  . kat - ^ k a l - ^ Session 0  p^ fei  po 5 5  fei  5 5  S e s s i o n ma ^tspu-?^ ^ ' •" ' r  sa  "^tpn^  so•  f  o  maU  J  S e s s i o n sy ^^pau  'gloss'  kei^^kei^-^  ' s t r e e t , redu. sy ,  'machine, redu. form'  "^sy  'book,redu.form'  m  ' b a l l , redu. J.' form*  kpu-^kei-^  'chicken'  'to f l y . redu.form'  su  'to comb,redu. form'  ' (ma ®-)Mother Chow'  pa ^ t s p u "  'beach'  t'oey^^ts'g  p i : r r ^ 'to do a pony tail'  matt  !  C h i l d form  ^su ^  s  s i n . ^^tst>i^^'put i t f i r s t '  5 5  sin  S e s s i o n fpn-^fur)  15  ' c h i l d ' s name  5  5  '13 ®-put i t aside'  J  J  'to work'  cjcr kai  ^siri  S e s s i o n wu,-5-5-tsou^^  'push the c a r '  ts'£-^ts'£  car,redu.form'  jpm  *lu:k®-tape recorder'  5 5  kei^  io  hoi  S  ' cat, redu. form* 'book case'  p ' i r^jSpi  ' ( p a : ^ ) - Father Chow'  5 5  'go o u t s i d e first' 'dirty'  wu-^tsou^ ts'a  left'  ^ j j i u . ^ ' put the hand c l o s e d to the w a i s t '  jpm^kei^  'luk®-tape recorder'  ko -^ko.-^  'elder b r o t h e r '  pin mail  one  'dirty'  5 5  pin mau  ^  'pony t a i l ' ' cat'  330 fei  gel  'aeroplane'  tt tt  tsur] - ^ t s u n Session 25  25  _pm  . tt kei  tt  kO-•^sin ^  f £ ^ s i K ^  -^'clock.redu. form'  pa  tt tt fan  'father back' tt  sa  fan  JJ  J J %  close i t '  •lu!<;®-tape recorder'  wu - ^ t s o u - ^  'dirty'  'ts'tf-rj ® s i n g a song first'  k D ij ^ k o rj  ' bright'  f a -^sa-rj  'peanut'  'ka®- brown colour'  comes  Ching C h i l d form  'gloss'  C h i l d form  fa. ^ f a  'flower, redu.form'  mau  sy  5  5  sy  wlpi n w p i ^  'book,redu. form'  mau  ts'g. ^ t s ' £  <<  'gloss' 'cat, redu form' ^'car!  'smart' Wing  C h i l d form pa ma  C h i l d form  'goss'  ^ p a ' f a t h e r ' tt tt ^ms.-  ts'£  'gloss*  ^ t s ' g ^'car'  'mother'  N o t e : Any s y l l a b l e w i t h t h e t o n e e n c i r c l e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e t o n e i s marked a c c o r d i n g i t s tone  value.  t o i t s t o n e number,  instead of  331 Appendix 4 The B i a n - y i n p r o c e s s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d a c r o s s a l l t h e sessions:  Wai: 1  High L e v e l  High R i s i n g B i a n - y i n  Child & S e s s i o n No.  Child  Bian-yin  C h i l d Form  Form  ^jpn^^'bear' k (4) nam. jt»rrt ''man' nar\^k£»)*^^eye glasses' hun  v  t s 'fltQ • k£JJ. » 1 D K *  ' deer'  v y ;  tei ha  'floor'  6  \an*'^^  ji  wu-^tip. * tin w a * 6  J  S  ^  J  mui Wai 5  S  *  (  (  9  6  'earring' 'butterfly'  )  'telephone'  )  'grandfather'  ^  muj  'younger s i s t e r '  noK.^tei*^ P 'D  • \ i u r ) - G ^ ' lemon' j  'get t o t h e floor'  ^P 'D * ^ ' grandmother'  pas C > ^ p a i ; bid  mui mui l i ^ - ^ l i i j " * ^ mui mul * 6  »jah  Wai 15  ( 6 )  k£rj *  'younger sister'  ( 3 )  'eye  glasses'  tittA/va*^  'telephone'  kpn^jy.*^  'goibden f i s h '  jg-^j€*^^  'grandfather'  hpp*^  'box'  mui m u i * 6  t e i * ^ Wai 20  ' c h i l d ' s name'  ( 6 )  ' younger  sister  'ground'  n a m ^ j p n * ^ 'man' ha V ) k £ ; n * mui mui.5  (3),  6  goodbye'  pal ® ^ p a i  3  bid 3  to  'younger sister'  6  Wai 10  3 ,  eye glasses' -ySSn|l^lister  ( 6 c )  ,  goodbye'  to  332  Appendix- ^--continued tei^ha *^^'ground' Wai  25  hx>p* {^ ^h-Pp* ^ ) . box, r e d u .  toai  tei^ha 'ground' 6 , ( 6 ) , mui mui .* 'younger  bid  ^ p a i  3  'to  goodbye'  sister' _  _L_ _  U  V  L  i j p n t s ' i h *^'' 'one one  dollar'  grandfather' Ching  j£ • _€ * p'o mui  'grandfather'  p'o * 6  ''grandmother  ,.,(6),  mui'.*  'younger sister'  Wing  mui  6  _ v( 6 ) . "  mui *  'younger T  sister' jy * ^ tan  'wa ••• >-s i ' t e l e p h o n e '  tsin *  Note:  'fish' v  '  'money'  '*' i n d i c a t e s a B i a n - y i n ; The t o n e number i n p a r e n t h e s i s a f t e r t h e '*' i n d i c a t e s t h e o r i g i n a l process takes place.  tone before the  333 A p p e n d i x 5: The / ] _ / a n d / n / i n i t i a l the  selected sessions  o f W a i ' s s p e e c h samples;:..  / l / initial  /n/ i n i t i a l  syllables  syllables  syllables  gloss 'exclamation particle'  la  1  s y l l a b l e s t h a t appeared i n  2  •two' lou 5  3 4  •old' 'to get'  13.* lo. L> 2  5  2 ,  2.  ni  'to open a bottle'  34.  nam  6.  9  'to  3  9  'female'  'broken'  7-  redu.form' i fe lei*  8  nogy  5-  l a n ^ l a n ^'broken,  8.  fall'  9-  'come'  10.  •beautiful'  10.  'beautiful, redu. form'  11.  3,  •to g e t '  Il2.  1314.  lei 5  'reason'  15-  luK  'to r e c o r d ; deer'  16.  la  17.  lam'  18.  lavn l a m ' basket, redu. form'  19-  lou  20.  lei lig  11. 12.  21 . 22. 2324.  l£ x i  3  -'  *  '(pa  ^  la liK  L  18.  19. )-glass' 20.  c h i l d ' s name '-(t'at ) , dirty' 8  9  lPu^  'power' ' - ( p i ^ J - t o ski}  5  'bird'  3 nam ^  ' (tou )tummy' 3  =3  'milk'  nai  , 'milk,redu. 3 form' nai ^naL •this' . 1 ni. '(hou)-long time'  'bride'  n£u  j!7-  'male'  'question particle'  ) - t r u m p e t ' 16.  road' 1 •' (VD  6  1  n>  1  litj  n£  4  ' you'  •15.  2  1  nei  -  nau  apart'  'basket'  2  niu  314.  'to f a l l  gloss  1.  t o get, redu, form' -  lan  6  syllables  'to s c o l d '  =  'urine'  nill  ' -(mT>i ), a kind of rice' 'botton' 3  6  2  <  redu,  'to s t i c k t o '  nifn .4  nin "  'botton, form'  4  'be a b l e t o ' 'year'  33^  .6  2526.  lei  27.  laK  28.  ID  29-  lpu  30.  1PP  7  3  1  'sharp' 'classifier' 'particle' 'exclamation particle' '(ma )-,monkey' J  'cage'  335 Appendix 6 The 4 0 / ] _ / a h d / n / i n i t i a l  s y l l a b l e s t h a t a r e used i n t h e word  list. /l/ initial  syllables  . 2  'cage'  1.  lu  2.  lpu  3-  lpp  4.  5-  lei -. 4 lTPU  6.  UK'  7-  lei  8.  lou  9-  lam  10.  la 3  11. -i o  luK  12.  lei  5  'reason'  13-  lpt  7  'to f a l l  3  1  '(ma:^)-monkey' 'classifier for rice'  7  -. .6  /n/ initial  'female'  4 'male' nam * 'bird' niu 5  neiP  'sharp' '-(pirn ski'  )to  syllables  'you' ^ 'milK'  nai  J  9  1  nau ;  '-(pa: •to  15.  lei*  16.  loK  17-  lan  18.  ID  19-  lou  20  1*95  9  2  5  noer,  2  .  6  niU.  6  ) trumpet'  record'  3  'year'  nin 4  ~ 2 npu npr)  'urine' '-(mpi ), a kind of r i c e '  . mm apart'  'bride'  6 'to s c o l d '  '•  'beautiful'  14.  'paient, a d j . '  'road' 'basket'  9  6  no  !  2  I  'power' i ' ( p a : )-' 3glass'  'to s t i c k t o ' 'botton'  4  'able t o ' 4 'farmer'  'come'  * n u rj  •ttoftall'  *nyn  'broken'  *nou  'to g e t '  * n i m ^ 'to r e c i t e *  •old' •two'  4 'warm'  3 y  .4 *nei 3 *nou y  'brain'  ' nun' 'hardworking'  Appendix 7  The  80  items  o f / l / and  /n/ i n i t i a l  syllables  i n the  speech survey  of Wai's  parents / l / initial  syllables  syllable Chinese  ,  1  lpu  v  meanings  characters  1.  'there i s chicken i n the cage'  2.  Ii  ML  'chicken  3-  'how do y o u w r i t e t h4. t h e w o r d '1 u'?'  4  11.  'monkey'  5.  S  7-  M  *i £ ¥ £  - %% fc  cage'  8.  'very  •to s k i '  10.  'the y o u n g e r is skiing'  11.  'power'  12.  'very  13.  'how do y o u w r i t e the word ' l e i ' ? '  14.  lou  15-  'every road can 16. reach the destinat ion' nation'  'road'  lam-  17-  ' t h e r e i s f l o w e r i r 18. the basket'  .'the b a s k e t o f f]>owe  3  19-  'trumpet'  20.  'the y o u n g e r s i s t e r has a t r u m p e t '  21.  'tape  22.  'the f a t h e r i s recording'  lei  ?  6  l p u4  -i  l i K .  Chinese  'consequence'  f  /  meanings  s y l l a b l e y i n a m e d i a l :o.r d f i f t a ' l r p d s i t i o n  6.  1PP  -  characters  position  'every r i c e i s d i f f i c u l t to get'  •  ,  in initial  syllables  9. 9  l e i  la luK  9  1  %  recorder'  iJS.  i&  'a r i c e ' sharp' sister  powerful'  'glass'  is  full  lei  5  lpt  5  1€  3 D  lei*  10K  6 2  l@u  5  l(tK)  'reason'  'the s k i n p e e l s off  26.  'the younger sister's skin i s peeled o f f '  27.  'the b e a u t i f u l girl'  28.  'very  29-  ' r e t u r n - home  30.  1  25-  31-  9  lan  ID  24.  23.  'rotten  35.  'to  37-  'mouse' v3g  1  apple'  /n/ i n i t i a l syllable  syllable  'be c a r e f u l g o i n g up a n d down' 'eat r o t t e n  get t h e a p p l e ' 36.  38.  i ninitial  Chinese characters  pretty'  'come b a c k '  34.  'two y e a r s o f a g e ' 40.  ^  &  32.  rains'  33-  39.  5  'it  Si  *  reason'  apple  •don't g e t i t ' 1B  4l  'he i s o l d ' 'the younger s i s t e r i s two years o l d '  tfc t £ j f i  syllables syllable i nmedial or f i n a l position Chinese characters meanings  position  meanings  4$ 4fc  U  'she  i s a woman'  noey  41.  'woman'  42,  nam  43.  'man'  44,  'he i s a man.'  niu -  45 i:  •bird'  46,  •little  he i  47-  5  fr* '1%  'how a r e you?'!48,  bird'  'how a r e y o u , l i t t l e sister?'  3  j 49.  . 3 roi ^ nc£  nai  J  2  6 nau. • , 6 niU.' 6  " f e vfc  'cream'  50.  51.  'patience'  52.  53-  'the house of the 54. "bride's parents'  55-  'to  57-  ft. 1T3-  *  'milk' t.f  fa*  'very l o n g '  ** 3*-  'bride' 'very crowded'  s c o l d someone' 56.  'urine  stinks'  58.  'wet t h e bed' 'eat  the s t i c k y  rice  59-  'a k i n d of r i c e '  60.  .. 2 nipu  61.  'cranky'  62.  ,. 4 min.  63.  •be happy everyyear'  64.  . mm  65-  'to s t i c k the pap- 66. er'  67.  'ability'  68.  'possible'  69.  'farmer'  70.  'poor farmer'  71.  •warm water'  72.  'warm'  73-  'brain'  74.  'brain'  75-  'to  76.  77.  ' nun.''  78.  'she i s a nun'  'hardworking'  80.  'work hard everyyear'  n  0  4 4 4  nu  4 nyn , 3 nou . 6 mm v  .4 nei 3 nou  79-  %  -h  recite'  t ^  ''button''-:  *4  'new year'  -%  •i i «  &  &  'don't s t i c k the paper'  'don't know how t o recite'  Appendix 8  34 o S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  SHEET  N  a  m  e  &  Child  g  ° U)g^  S  f  I J7  JLa. '  '  id  I*, rf  Inr.vf Ion*  (l4-)  child  mother  father  Wong  A  /  i  \T)D  £U  4In-)  2  1  fa* J  J  J  ^ > i.-.n*>  \  nam  JC.&  ii & Sam* PA  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c  Tokens:  j  /  J  J  A.  ^  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c  Types:  [,13 i n i t i a l s  :  IS~  [1] initials  ':  IQ  [n] i n i t i a l s  :  / (p  [n] i n i t i a l s  :  /Q  •  £p  341 3_  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  SHEET  K  a  m  S  &  child  Wong  father  A/  tin id*  A  g  e  °  f  U)oU. 1)3 OO  mother  child  1  *»  i d *  _•—  .. •_. - ... • _r^/  <">•___.4.^  In*  ma A/  -Vy-— •  n"ina^t  i I,  nqi  ha/  3  .la__  J  r  —•  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: _1_ i n i t i a l s  :  M  [n] initials  : _/__  — \_>  nflV.  J  3  —  i.. . — .  ot 4  ''V;  V -  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: 18 ^ 1 ] i n i t i a l s ': <^ [ n ]i n i t i a l s :  342 _T  Session No. LEXICON  SHEET  N a m S  &  A g S  Child  father  Wong  A/  ia  '  • t o  °  f  (AJdU  mother  _  j  j  f  (/,  )  child  fn ' /A  J  3  i W Petit) 9.am  PV V  "~  •  *\s  <J  ' •  £a.m mm ' z  1  JQpt-» flpi-if  /pP  i  Pn  1  »——-—  ^ i* 7  J l ( X . r\$Cz*)  /,  2  4. h..'  /,'  .. njjjz.  J  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: & C ?  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: /9  L l _ initials :  [13 i n i t i a l s  :  _>  [n] i n i t i a l s : / *J  £n] i n i t i a l s  :  J^  3^3  LEXICON  S e s s i o n No. Name & Age o f  SHEET  ~~f  C h i l d _l }<^  ljtO_C$-)  A  Wong  father  mother  child seme x r i » _ _ . - . - _ . i , '__-(«->-«_jj-_i^-_;*r-n_ir, . v - - «  A/  hP.i/  tr^—  #  S  Pi.  J  0  /_ i  J• .  A/  h^.t-  4  J * J-  y  nix  1  - • 111  lf\}  y  ... Kit r) ntJf J .  • • • "*\y *V1  —_-*»  2.9 A}  J J  j  mi  in  ^  lan *  Kll ricen  n i  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: _1_ i n i t i a l s  :  61  £n] i n i t i a l s  : «3.  mV-Jt^i  in a  P/X vn  j i (2X)  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: /_>" [13 i n i t i a l s Ln]  initials  :  -3.  344 S e s s i o n No. _ _ _ _ J ^  .  Name & Age o f L E X I C  Wong  la  M  0»  SHEET  father  *  A, ^  / . V *  u  ____  mother  child  J  Z  J  in d  J  L  fin  nCi  <>)  no  V(vd  n,\r\  L i f t * * * *  J  nctu.  i  __J_^_ J^aX  w  J  J  hit] J  a -f  9  10'- i 10 '  to i J  W-  3  n o '  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens:  3^  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types:  1.13 i n i t i a l s  : cT.  [13 i n i t i a l s  : o^.  [nj  : <j, <3y.  [n] i n i t i a l s  :  initials  Q  //  345  ( S e s s i o n Wo. LEXICON  SHEET  K  a  m  S  &  A  g  S  °  // f  Child  y g  father  on  A/  tn  child  1  Pa.fi. t .  mother  9 ->  /an  JT.Pn'  fe  2  £V  J?*t  9  if v  Psj  far*  n?n  z  lr\ l  /, '  i  /* '  '  » f  P.ceJ  »o £ft tt *  J  J  J  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: ^  [.13 i n i t i a l s  :  [n] i n i t i a l s  : ^jL  hf.  S'Q  1  nA  ~'J  T o t a l No, o f P h o n e t i c Types: [1] initials : £n] i n i t i a l s  : /  346 Session No. LEXICON  Name & Age of  SHEET  Child  Wong  A/  father  (A)CL{  mother  <* >' / (Q4-)  child  4  J* ——V fc..  fa*  i  m  1  J  J J •  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens:  /^  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types: tZ>  t_l] i n i t i a l s  :  H  113 i n i t i a l s :  [nj  :  L\  [n]initials  initials  : S  3^7 S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  Name & Age o f  SHEET  Child  father  Wong  A/  a  .3  child  mother  /:>.*« /a Qx) J  PuM, ^  1,1^ fa* "  /fr  A/  n  ^  -/  MA. q  fa*  p  -J  1(3*)  n i l  l H  4  if: -Y*0  •nf. '  1  £aL ** 2  <  hi  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens:  j~Q  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: / f f  :  i /  [ 13 i n i t i a l s ': / 0  initials :  1  £n] i n i t i a l s :  L13 i n i t i a l s [nj  Li'  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  Wong  A/  SHEET  father  fn  fr, '  W  a  m  e  &  A  g  e  o  t ~]  f  mother  child  1  '  A ^ v ^  ~r  1  '  t17R^ Pah  Pari  4  / a n  ^  lcu<°  inou!  0  PPA\<°  ft'i*' «  ^  1  J  - J 4  n v ,  Kir'  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: L13 i n i t i a l s  :  [ nj i n i t i a l s  :  <JL 0 ~~J  c\ 7  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: [13 i n i t i a l s £n] i n i t i a l s  ":  ^  :  £  [S  3^9 Session No. LEXICON  A/ p  Wong  father  ^ : «  ^.4  Name & Age o f ^ ^ J  SHEET  mother  «  _/_^  ^  J  ^  ^  child  JS4  9  -6v<3  / u? fi  ft*)'* n  L  /n.tf* /a /pp  ^ _pr-.e.«.__.... r  1  fa  / v p  1  1  1  /*.*•  ID  0*1  m n )Pu  z  /*</  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c LI]  initials  [n] initials  : 4-L :  ~~7  Tokens:  ^5".^  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c [1]initials  ':  [ n ]i n i t i a l s  :  Types: / /  /  J  350 S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  SHEET  N  a  m  S  &  A  g  6  Child  Wong A  father  jA)(kA,  mother  -fog*  /  °  J  P  61/  f  *;/>(!)  child  M  -  Y  /AC*  ft Ox) 2  2  Pn  3  fr>Ji>:  }  fuj 'a J  P u d  q  /n/  2  fi*. u  J -z Hi  <n>  '  Z  piA.  J  J, '  LiAq*l *^^^4-  f.m*  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Tokens: L13 i n i t i a l s  :  [nj  :  initials  3^v3  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: I $ [13 i n i t i a l s  :  £n] i n i t i a l s :  /3  351 &l3  Session No. LEXICON  Wong  A/  /,  la  SHEET  father  N a m S  &  A g S  child  ° UJOA,  mother  2  f  (&)  child  jp.n  z  3  /-» '  //if« A nj .  Im  r  y  f.xrt  y  3  I  A'  jP.un •*  K k<  p  to  *GU  /.^  ' J , J  /n/ ni;.'  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Tokens: T J LI] initials  : ,j<-^  [n] i n i t i a l s :  T o t a l No. of Phonetic Types:_/ [ 1 ] i n i t i a l s ': /J £n] i n i t i a l s :  •  352 ol S  S e s s i o n No. LEXICON  Name & Age o f  SHEET  n  u  child  mother  father  \  __kJ^_£.Jj&QLL)  Child  Wong  /  3  lak  S  laA  1  Ian  M  A  '  An  J  1  0 A  J  An*  4  P„: 'A*  s  J  J  J  7  if,' £, ir\IIA. T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c [.13 i n i t i a l s  :  S^j-  [n} i n i t i a l s  :  A-  3  Tokens:  Y ' ^ J l  B  S8  T o t a l No. o f P h o n e t i c Types: £13 i n i t i a l s ': / <^ £n] i n i t i a l s  :  ^  c3c$  

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