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Missionary analogues : the descriptive analysis of a development aid program in Fiji Peck, Pamela J. 1982

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MISSIONARY ANALOGUES: THE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF A DEVELOPMENT AID PROGRAM IN F I J I  by  PAMELA J . PECK B.A., Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 B.S.W., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 M.S.W., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August  ©  1982  Pamela J . Peck, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  shall  not  be  of  Anthropology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  September 2 0 ,  &  Sociology  Columbia  1982  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department of  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood that  the  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  - i i -  ABSTRACT  The t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f a development aid  program i n F i j i .  There a r e two d i m e n s i o n s t o the i n q u i r y .  First,  the  r u r a l development scheme i s acknowledged t o be about F i j i a n s ,  about what t h e y t a k e t o be t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and about t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a program o f p l a n n e d s o c i a l change.  A t t h e same t i m e ,  the a i d program i s s e t w i t h i n the framework o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l voluntary  agency.  Hence, t h e s t u d y i s a l s o about Europeans and t h e i r  c u l t u r e and about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a program o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l development a i d . Moreover, t h e problem i s viewed i n h i s t o r i c a l perspective voluntary  and from t h a t vantage p o i n t t h e c u r r e n t  phase o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  development i s seen as a s e c u l a r i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e m i s s i o n i -  zation of F i j i  more than a c e n t u r y ago.  The t h e s i s t r a c e s t h e  p a r a l l e l i s m between C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n and w o r l d development as a c e n t r a l theme. The t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e major P a r t s : of T r a d i t i o n , t h e Phenomenology of Change.  o f Development and t h e  W i t h i n each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s ,  from a d i s c u s s i o n  the  o f the epiphenomena  Phenomenology  Phenomenology  the a n a l y s i s  t o the phenomena t o  progresses phenomenology.  These t h r e e P a r t s o f t h e t h e s i s a r e preceded by two c h a p t e r s i n P a r t I w h i c h p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e problem and t h e method and o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e s e t t i n g and a r e c o n c l u d e d by a s i n g l e c h a p t e r i n P a r t V w h i c h summarizes t h e argument and  conclusions.  - i i i -  In P a r t na  I I o f the  i t o v o v a k a v i t i ("the  s t u d y , I e x p l o r e the F i j i a n r e n d e r i n g  F i j i a n way  o f l i f e " ) as a framework w i t h i n  w h i c h t o examine the m i s s i o n a r y i n p u t on the one  hand and  international  Through an  development program on the o t h e r .  o f a c t i v i t i e s and c h i e f and  culture while  the  of  i tovo v a k a v i t i . Fijian  second s e t belongs to a p o s t - c o n t a c t F i j i .  When  are p l a c e d i n h i s t o r i c a l  seen t o r e f e r to the m i s s i o n i z a t i o n o f F i j i c u l t u r e which the m i s s i o n a r i e s f u r t h e r l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n , predicated  sets  s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s r e f e r s to a p r e - c o n t a c t  these l a t t e r structures  man  analysis  I d e t e r m i n e t h a t t h e r e are two  i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the c u r r e n t  I argue t h a t one  the  i d e a s r e l a t i n g t o one's d u t y t o k i n , one's d u t y t o  one's d u t y t o God,  interrelated  of  represented.  and  perspective,  they  are  i t s c o l o n i z a t i o n by  the  T a k i n g the a n a l y s i s to a  i t i s argued t h a t the model o f the moral  on the m i s s i o n a r y goal  p r e - c o n t a c t i tovo v a k a v i t i .  i s i n c o n s i s t e n t with that of  the  In the a r e a s o f economy, p o l i t y and  r e l i g i o n , the m i s s i o n a r y emerges as a t r a n s f o r m e r o f the t r a d i t i o n a l Fijian  culture. Part  o f the  I I I o f the  s t u d y i s concerned w i t h a d e s c r i p t i v e  r u r a l development scheme.  analysis  A f t e r e x a m i n i n g i t s major program  objectives  o f e n c o u r a g i n g commercial a g r i c u l t u r e , the development o f  leadership  p o t e n t i a l , and  "enhancing the q u a l i t y o f l i f e " ,  t o an a n a l y s i s o f the u n d e r l y i n g t a k i n g an h i s t o r i c a l i n t o two  perspective,  structures.  the  that i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  once a g a i n l e n d s i t s e l f t o an  sets of i n t e r r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s .  C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n while  And  I proceed  The  inquiry  f i r s t set p e r t a i n s  l a t t e r r e f e r s to w o r l d development.  to  While  - iv -  the  f o r m e r i s seen as p r e c u r s o r t o t h e l a t t e r , both s e t s a r e shown  t o s h a r e common s t r u c t u r a l  f e a t u r e s , namely, u n r e s t r i c t e d  p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Continuing the a n a l y s i s a t a t h i r d level  exchange,  individuality.  o f a b s t r a c t i o n , I provide  a model o f t h e moral man c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m i s s i o n i z a t i o n and development g o a l .  L i k e h i s m i s s i o n a r y p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e n , t h e European  development agent emerges as a t r a n s f o r m e r o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  culture.  In P a r t IV o f t h e s t u d y , t h e emphasis i s on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e YMCA r u r a l '  work program as a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  .  f  development agency and t h e r e c i p i e n t community as n a t i v e agent.  through the rural  worker  I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f two community development schemes  w i t h i n t h e program r e v e a l s t h a t what a t f i r s t g l a n c e appear t o be dissimilar  approaches a r e , a t t h e same t i m e , a response t o t h e same  u n d e r l y i n g phenomena.  Both t h e r u r a l  worker who appears t o be i n  agreement w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  c u l t u r e and t h e one who appears t o be i n  opposition to i t are, i n fact,  similarly called  c u l t u r e and t o change i t . the  upon t o s t a n d  beyond  The n a t i v e a g e n t , l i k e t h e m i s s i o n a r y and  development a g e n t , emerges as a t r a n s f o r m e r o f c u l t u r e .  Hence,  i n t h e a r e a s o f economy, p o l i t y and r e l i g i o n , t h e development a i d program i s seen as analogous t o t h e m i s s i o n i z a t i o n o f F i j i .  - V -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  x  LIST OF FIGURES  x i i  A NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY  xi i i  GLOSSARY OF F I J I A N TERMS A NOTE ON F I J I A N TRANSLATIONS  . .'  xiv  . . .  xviii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  PART I .  '. . . x i x  INTRODUCTION  1  C h a p t e r 1.  The Problem and t h e Method  3  C h a p t e r 2.  The People and t h e S e t t i n g  23  PART I I . THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF TRADITION  . .  52  Chapter 3.  T r a d i t i o n as Epiphenomenon  C h a p t e r 4.  T r a d i t i o n as Phenomenon  102  C h a p t e r 5.  T r a d i t i o n as Phenomenology  158  PART I I I . THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT  54  179  C h a p t e r 6.  Development as Epiphenomenon  181  Chapter 7.  Development as Phenomenon  214  C h a p t e r 8.  Development as Phenomenology  260  PART IV. THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF CHANGE  274  Chapter 9.  Change as Epiphenomenon  276  Chapter 10.  Change as Phenomenon  316  Chapter 11. Change as Phenomenology  360  - vi -  PART V.  CONCLUSION Chapter 12.  370 M i s s i o n a r y Analogues  372  BIBLIOGRAPHY  376  APPENDICES  383  1  YMCA R u r a l Work Budget, 1979  384  2  CIDA F i n a n c i a l S t a t e m e n t , F i j i Development Program:  386  3  A Note About F i e l d w o r k  1978-82  • • • •  387  - vi i -  TABLE OF CONTENTS (Expanded)  PART I .  INTRODUCTION C h a p t e r 1.  The Problem and t h e Method The Problem. The Argument. T r a d i t i o n , Development and Change D e f i n e d . A Theoretical Perspective. Epiphenomenon, Phenomenon and Phenomenology D e f i n e d . The Methodology. O u t l i n e o f t h e Study.  C h a p t e r 2.  The People and t h e S e t t i n g Introduction. H i s t o r i c a l Background o f t h e Development A i d Program. Scope o f t h e Program within F i j i . D e s c r i p t i o n o f Two Rural Areas within F i j i . The YMCA Rural Worker as N a t i v e Agent.  PART I I .  THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF TRADITION C h a p t e r 3.  T r a d i t i o n as Epiphenomenon Introduction. One's Duty t o K i n : Yam Gardening and K e r e k e r e ; R e p a i r i n g t h e Bure; P r o v i s i o n f o r E d u c a t i n g t h e Young; A Summary Statement. One's Duty t o C h i e f : The C h i e f ' s Yam Garden; H o u s e - b u i l d i n g on t h e School Compound; A Summary Statement. One's Duty t o God: Na Lotu Wesele; The K a l o u ; A Summary Statement. T r a d i t i o n asEpiphenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  C h a p t e r 4.  T r a d i t i o n as Phenomenon Introduction. Yavusa ( F e d e r a t i o n ) ; U n i t o f K i n s h i p Organization. Vanua ( C o n f e d e r a t i o n ) : U n i t o f Territorial Association. Kalou (God): D e i f i e d P a t r i a r c h a l A n c e s t o r . Lotu ( C h r i s t i a n i t y ) : From E x t e r n a l God-Figure t o I n t e r n a l C h r i s t - F i g u r e . M a t a n i t u (Government): From P a t r i a r c h a l A u t h o r i t y t o P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democracy. Koro ( V i l l a g e ) : From L o c a l i t y t o U n i t o f Local O r g a n i z a t i o n . Tradition as Phenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  - viii -  C h a p t e r 5.  T r a d i t i o n as Phenomenology Introduction. Phenomenology o f t h e S o c i a l World: Economic Man; P o l i t i c a l Man. Phenomenology o f the S e l f : R e l i g i o u s Man; I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d P e r s o n a l i t y . T r a d i t i o n as Phenomenology: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  PART I I I . THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT C h a p t e r 6.  Development as Epiphenomenon Introduction. The Development o f Commercial Agriculture. The Development o f L e a d e r s h i p Potential. Enhancing t h e Q u a l i t y o f L i f e . The R u r a l Worker as Agent and R e c i p i e n t . Development as Epiphenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  C h a p t e r 7.  Development as Phenomenon Introduction. U n r e s t r i c t e d Exchange: C h r i s t i a n C h a r i t y ; F o r e i g n A i d . P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democracy: The C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n ; The Development Agency. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d I n d i v i d u a l i t y : The C h r i s t i a n Goal o f C o n v e r s i o n ; The Development Goal o f I n d i v i d u a t i o n . Development as Phenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  C h a p t e r 8.  Development as Phenomenology Introduction. Phenomenology o f t h e S o c i a l World: Economic Man; P o l i t i c a l Man. Phenomenology o f t h e Self: R e l i g i o u s Man; I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Individuality. Development as Phenomenology: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  PART IV. THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF CHANGE C h a p t e r 9.  Change as Epiphenomenon Introduction. The Development o f Commercial Agriculture: Reinvestment t h r o u g h V e i l a l a v i i n Gau; Reinvestment t h r o u g h G a l a l a i n Ra. The Development o f L e a d e r s h i p P o t e n t i a l : S t a t u s Quo w i t h i n P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democracy i n Gau; " U n s t a t u s i n g t h e Quo" through P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democracy i n Ra. Enhancing t h e Q u a l i t y o f L i f e : I n d i v i d u a l i t y t h r o u g h Worship i n Gau; Des a c r a l i z i n g the Church i n Ra. Change as Epiphenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  - ix -  Chapter  10.  Change as Phenomenon Introduction. Yavusa v e r s u s Koro: Reinstating K i n s h i p i n Gau; R e - d e f i n i n g V i l l a g e i n Ra. Vanua v e r s u s M a t a n i t u : R e i n s t a t i n g C h i e f t a i n s h i p i n Gau; R e - d e f i n i n g L e a d e r s h i p i n Ra. Kalou versus Lotu: R e i n s t a t i n g God i n Gau; Re-defining Church i n Ra. Change as Phenomenon: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement.  Chapter  11.  Change as  Phenomenology  Introduction. Phenomenology o f the S o c i a l World: Economic Man; P o l i t i c a l Man. Phenomenology o f the S e l f : R e l i g i o u s Man; S e l f w i t h i n a Theology o f Development. Change as Phenomenology: A C o n c l u d i n g Statement. PART V.  CONCLUSION Chapter  12.  Missionary  Analogues  The Problem R e - s t a t e d . M i s s i o n a r y Epilogue.  Analogues.  -  X  -  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  I  YMCA o f F i j i ,  II  Rural Work Program S t a t i s t i c s , 1979  28  III  P o p u l a t i o n o f Gau I s l a n d  33  IV  P o p u l a t i o n o f Lovu V i l l a g e by Age, Sex and Mataqal i  36  V  VI  VII VIII IX  X XI  R u r a l Work Budget:  1974  25  P o p u l a t i o n o f Ra V i l l a g e s : Total, F i j i a n , Sex and Household D i v i s i o n s  41  P o p u l a t i o n o f F i j i by Race: 1976 Comparison . . .  41  1966 and  Number o f G a l a l a from Three Ra V i l l a g e s , 1979  41  P o p u l a t i o n , Land Use and Sources o f Income by Mataqal i , Mataso  44  Secondary School Fees R a i s e d V i l l a g e , 1979  71  i n a Gau  Copra S a l e s by Month f o r 1979 i n a Gau Village  71  Annual Income from A l l Sources f o r 14 Households i n a Gau V i l l a g e , 1979  XII  M o n t h l y Budget f o r One Gau Household,. 1 9 7 9 .  XIII  Traditional  XIV  Vanua L e a d e r s h i p o f the People o f Lovu  Social  72 ...  74  S t r u c t u r e o f Lovu V i l l a g e . . . 112  Village.  118  XV  Land Tenure i n Lovu V i l l a g e  147  XVI  Indigenous and Emergent I n s t i t u t i o n s o f Na i Tovo V a k a v i t i I n s t i t u t i o n s o f C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n and World Development  151  XVII  215  - xi-  XVIII  Lovu M e t h o d i s t Church:  XIX  C o n t r i b u t e d Income t h r o u g h C h o i r C o m p e t i t i o n : M e t h o d i s t Church o f F i j i 1 6 t h Annual C o n f e r e n c e  XX.  XXI  XXII  XXIII  XXIV  XXV  XXVI  F i n a n c e s , 1979  Proposed Sources f o r O p e r a t i n g Expenses: YMCA o f F i j i Ten Year Revenue Replacement YMCA o f F i j i  219  220  .225  Plan: 226  M e t h o d i s t Church and YMCA E x p e n d i t u r e Categories  227  Annual Bazaar C o n t r i b u t i o n s : Fiji, 1981  228  YMCA o f  R o l e s and F u n c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e M e t h o d i s t Church o f F i j i  .230  YMCA o f Gau A g r i c u l t u r e Committee T a r g e t s f o r Root C r o p s , 1977-1979 . . . . . . . . . Comparison i n S i z e o f YMCA C l u b Garden and I n d i v i d u a l Member Garden f o r a F i v e Year P e r i o d  280  .281  - xii-  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  2-1  Map o f F i j i  30  2-2  Map o f Gau I s l a n d  2-3  Traditional  ...  and M o d i f i e d  . Fijian  32 Bure  on Gau I s l a n d  35  2-4  Map o f V i t i  40  2- 5  Principal  Levu  F i g u r e s i n t h e YMCA Rural  Work Program  47  3- 1  R e p a i r i n g t h e Bure  68  6- 1  The C y c l e o f L e a r n i n g  7- 1  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Gau I s l a n d Church C i r c u i t O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e YMCA o f F i j i , 1971 . . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a YMCA V i l l a g e Club: Suggested S t r u c t u r e  7-2 7-3 7-4  Organizational  200  231 235 236  S t r u c t u r e o f t h e YMCA  Of Lovu  237  9-1  L a y o u t o f t h e Farm o f G a l a l a M a r i k a  285  9-2  The S o l e v u  295  9-3  The New Church B u i l d i n g  308  Program o f E v a n g e l i s m i n a Gau V i l l a g e  345  10-1  - xiii  -  A NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY  For  n a t i v e terms t h e s t a n d a r d F i j i a n  o r t h o g r a p h y i s used.  Thus,  b i s pronounced l i k e rmb i n t i m b e r  £  i s pronounced 1 i k e th_ i n though  d i s pronounced l i k e nd_ i n handy  For  example:  £  i s pronounced l i k e n£ i n s i n g e r  1  i s pronounced l i k e ng i n f i n g e r  Cakobau mataqali  i s pronounced Thakombau i s pronounced m a t a n g a l i  In quoted t e x t s where F i j i a n  terms were t r a n s c r i b e d by t h e a u t h o r t o  c o r r e s p o n d w i t h E n g l i s h p r o n u n c i a t i o n , I have r e v e r t e d t o F i j i a n o r t h o g r a p h y f o r c l a r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y .  - xiv -  GLOSSARY OF F I J I A N TERMS  bati  h i s t o r i c a l l y , the subject of a matanitu and e s p e c i a l l y a w a r r i o r  bete  t h e p r i e s t o f a god  buli  t h e n a t i v e o f f i c e r i n charge o f a d i s t r i c t  bure  traditional  bure-kalou  temple ( a l s o bure n i k a l o u )  colacola  a burden c a r r i e d on t h e s h o u l d e r  galala  independent farmer  ibe  a mat, woven from t h e l e a v e s o f t h e  F i j i a n t h a t c h house  pandanus p l a n t kai  person o f  kakase  gossip, back-biting, slander  kalou  god, " g h o s t "  Kalou  god o f C h r i s t i a n i t y  kalou-vu  root-god, r e f e r r i n g to a d e i f i e d ancestor  kamunaga kati  r i c h e s , p r o p e r t y , u s u a l l y a t e c h n i c a l word used i n f o r m a l exchange ceremonies lottery  kerekere  a system o f g a i n i n g t h i n g s by begging f o r  ( a l s o Na K a l o u )  them from a member o f one's own group koro kumuniyau 1ala  '  village wealth gathering t h e o r d e r o f a c h i e f r e q u i r i n g work t o be done  leqa  problem, t r o u b l e  lewa  r u l e , command, a u t h o r i t y , judgement  - XV -  loloma  love,  lotu  the c h u r c h , Christian  magiti  a feast  matanitu  a p o l i t i c a l federation modern u s e , a k i n g d o m , c o u n t r y , government  matanivanua  a chief's  mataqali  the primary society  masumasu  prayer,  qase  elder  qele  earth,  ratu  h o n o r i f i c p a r t i c l e and t i t l e o f r a n k , b e f o r e names o f m a l e s who a r e c h i e f s  roko  a t i t l e of honour, l a t e r i n charge of a d i s t r i c t  sau  c h i e f l y power: or p r o h i b i t i o n  saurara  oppression  sautu  p e a c e and p l e n t y , i n the land  sevusevu  a ceremony c o n s i s t i n g of of the yaqona r o o t which t h e c u s t o m a r y way  solevu  a large gathering of people f o r the c e r e m o n i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods  sol i  gift,  sulu  a p i e c e o f c l o t h wrapped round the l o i n s ; i n modern u s e , c l o t h and c l o t h i n g i n g e n e r a l  tabua  whale's  talatala  missionary; minister  pity,  or  mercy,  grace  Christianity,  to  banquet presented  official local  be a  to  others  of vanua; i n independent  herald d i v i s i o n of  Fijian  supplication  soil  a native  by e x t e n s i o n , t h e of a high c h i e f  a state  of  officer  commandment  well-being  the p r e s e n t a t i o n i s accepted i n  offering  tooth i n modern  usage,  an  ordained  - xvi -  taukei  owner, n a t i v e  tikina  district  tokatoka  an extended f a m i l y u n i t , l a r g e r than the v u v a l e and s m a l l e r than the m a t a q a l i  tovo  custom, manner, h a b i t  tui  a k i n g or  turaga  a c h i e f , master  turaga-ni-koro  a village  uvi  yam  v a k a d r a u n i kau  sorcery, devil  vakasama  a n a l y s i s , common sense  vakatawa  l o c a l c h u r c h l e a d e r a t the vanua or d i s t r i c t level  vakaturaga  c h i e f l y , i n a c h i e f l y manner  vakavanua  customary  vakaviti  Fijian  vakavuvuli  local  vale  a house  vanua  l a n d , r e g i o n , but e s p e c i a l l y the p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y under the l e a d e r s h i p o f a c h i e f  veiganeni  the b r o t h e r - s i s t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y sense  vei 1alavi  communal work  veiqaravi  worship,  veisau  change  vei t a l i a  one's own  vei vakatorocaketaki  development  veiwekani  kinship  sovereign  headman  worship  (adj.) church  l e a d e r at the v i l l a g e  service  will  and  pleasure  level  - xvii  -  Vi t i  Fiji  voivoi  l e a v e s o f t h e pandanus p l a n t , used i n the weaving o f mats  vu  r o o t , source  vuvale  a household, a f a m i l y  yalo  spirit  yaqona  kava, the r o o t o f the P i p e r  yavu  the f o u n d a t i o n o f a h o u s e , a n c e s t r a l  yavusa  t h e l a r g e s t k i n s h i p and s o c i a l d i v i s i o n of F i j i a n s o c i e t y , c o n s i s t i n g of the d e s c e n d a n t s o f one o r i g i n a t o r (vu)  yau  goods, w e a l t h , r i c h e s , p o s s e s s i o n s  methysticum site  - xviii -  A NOTE ON F I J I A N TRANSLATIONS  Most o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n F i j i were f i r s t r e c o r d e d i n F i j i a n translated into English.  f o r the present study  (Bauan d i a l e c t ) and s u b s e q u e n t l y  My p r i n c i p a l  t r a n s l a t o r and r e s e a r c h  a s s i s t a n t was S e m i s i Loco o f Gau I s l a n d who p o s s e s s e s n o t o n l y a f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h but a remarkable interpretation. for  intuition  for linguistic  To a s s i s t us i n t h e t a s k o f t r a n s l a t i o n as w e l l as  f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n o f F i j i a n t e r m s , we made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  New F i j i a n D i c t i o n a r y  (Government o f F i j i ,  1941) c o m p i l e d by A. C a p e l l .  T h i s work i s a r e v i s i o n o f t h e f i r s t d i c t i o n a r y o f t h e F i j i a n  language  c o m p i l e d by t h e Rev. David Hazelwood and p u b l i s h e d i n 1850. In a d d i t i o n , we were a s s i s t e d i n t h e t a s k by G.B. M i l n e r ' s F i j i a n Grammar (Fiji  Government P r e s s , 1972).  specialized i n linguistics o f Oceanic l a n g u a g e s .  M i l n e r , an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t by t r a i n i n g ,  and devoted much o f h i s c a r e e r t o t h e study  H i s F i j i a n Grammar i s based on f i e l d w o r k i n and  near Bau on t h e i s l a n d o f V i t i  Levu;  t h e p e o p l e o f Gau and u n d e r s t o o d Ra.  t h e Bauan d i a l e c t i s spoken by  i f n o t always spoken by t h e p e o p l e o f  - xi x -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  "My s u c c e s s e s way  t o them was p r e p a r e d  t h o s e who have p r e p a r e d  a r e n o t my own", w r o t e Thomas M e r t o n ; by o t h e r s " .  I w i s h here t o acknowledge  t h e way f o r me.  F i r s t , I want t o thank t h o s e who a l l o w e d me t o study Dennis O l i v e r , Semisi  "The  them:  Loco, E l o n i G o n e y a l i , t h e p e o p l e from t h e  v i l l a g e s o f Gau and Ra i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , o t h e r s from t h e YMCA o f F i j i , p e o p l e i n t h e YMCA o f Vancouver and i n t h e Canadian International  Development Agency.  I would e s p e c i a l l y thank t h e people  o f Lovu v i l l a g e on Gau i s l a n d who b u i l t a house f o r me and c a r e d f o r me w h i l e I d i d my f i e l d w o r k t h e r e . in  And I thank E l o n i f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e  B u r e n i t u and t h e C h i e f o f Mataso and h i s f a m i l y f o r l o o k i n g a f t e r me  w h i l e I worked t h e r e ; I want e s p e c i a l l y t o mention J o s e v a t a , t h e C h i e f ' s s o n , who a s s i s t e d me g r e a t l y w i t h my r e s e a r c h i n Ra. A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a , I thank P r o f e s s o r C.S.  Belshaw who s e r v e d b o t h as Chairman o f my Ph.D. Committee and  T h e s i s A d v i s o r f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f my program, P r o f e s s o r K.O.L. B u r r i d g e whose i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n f l u e n c e has been v e r y g r e a t , and P r o f e s s o r T.  Fernando whose c r i t i c a l  mind I a p p r e c i a t e .  I would a l s o mention  P r o f e s s o r E. W h i t t a k e r who had t h e courage t o t e a c h g r a d u a t e  students  phenomenology as a l e g i t i m a t e and p r o m i s i n g method o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l enquiry; her i n f l u e n c e , l i k e t h a t o f Professor Burridge, i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . Funding f o r t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d Development Research C e n t r e , Ottawa, and I am e x t r e m e l y  by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l grateful for their  generous and f l e x i b l e s u p p o r t .  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e Government o f  Fiji  t o c a r r y o u t my r e s e a r c h i n t h a t  f o r g r a n t i n g me p e r m i s s i o n  country.  - xx  -  In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t ,  I thank Ms. S y l v i a  Chan f o r t y p i n g and Mr. Tom Coombes f o r maps and d r a w i n g s ; t h e d r a w i n g s a r e based on photographs t a k e n f o r me by Randy Ormston d u r i n g my p e r i o d o f f i e l d w o r k i n F i j i . Two p e r s o n s I would e s p e c i a l l y thank.  The f i r s t i s Semisi  L o c o , my p r i n c i p a l t r a n s l a t o r and r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t .  I t was a l e n g t h y  and d i f f i c u l t a s s i g n m e n t I r e q u i r e d o f him and he e x e c u t e d i t e x c e e d i n g l y well.  He remained w i t h t h e t a s k n o t o n l y when i t was i n t e r e s t i n g and  easy b u t a l s o when i t was r o u t i n e and d i f f i c u l t .  I acknowledge h i s  courage i n u n d e r t a k i n g t h e unusual assignment o f w o r k i n g under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a European woman w h i l e l i v i n g i n a t r a d i t i o n a l F i j i a n society.  I hope t h a t any d i f f i c u l t y t h i s might have caused him would  be more t h a n o f f s e t by a l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p intellectual  and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  growth and p e r s o n a l development.  The o t h e r s p e c i a l  person  i s my husband, Randy Ormston, who s t a y e d w i t h me when he c o u l d and s u p p o r t e d me i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way when he c o u l d n o t . He perhaps b e s t knows t h e h e i g h t s and depths o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t accompanied of t h i s doctoral  the producing  thesis.  In t h a t I remain i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e and cannot d i s c h a r g e the  debt d i r e c t l y , I o f f e r t h e f r u i t o f my l a b o u r i n t h e hope t h a t i t  m i g h t p r e p a r e t h e way f o r t h e achievements o f o t h e r s .  -  1 -  PART I . INTRODUCTION  - 2-  The q u e s t i o n r a i s e d i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t What i s development? but What i s i t s c a u s e , i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e and i t s goal i n God's judgement? I f we c a l l t o mind t h e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f development i n g e n e r a l as 'the autonomous a c t i v i t y o f man to a c h i e v e a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f d i g n i t y and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y ' , o r 'the t o t a l i t y o f p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s and human s o c i e t i e s seek c o n s t a n t l y t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s ' , then we a r e g i v e n a p o s i t i v e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r q r a s p i n g t h e t h e o l o g i c a l meaning o f t h i s phenomenon i n God.~ - N.A. N i s s i o t i s , i n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A C h r i s t o l o g i c a l Phenomenology o f Development  - 3-  CHAPTER 1.  THE PROBLEM AND THE METHOD.  The Problem  The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f a r u r a l development scheme which began i n F i j i  i n t h e e a r l y 1970's and  continues i n t o the present.  r e s e a r c h upon w h i c h much o f  The f i e l d  the a n a l y s i s i s based was c o n d u c t e d i n F i j i However, I have documented  t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r 1979.  t h e program from i t s i n c e p t i o n  i n 1972  t h r o u g h t o t h e end o f t h a t decade, i n c l u d i n g , where t h e a n a l y s i s w a r r a n t s , f o l l o w - u p data from t h e y e a r s 1980 and 1981.  Hence, t h e  s t u d y i s about F i j i a n s , about what t h e y t a k e t o be t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and about t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o a program o f planned s o c i a l change. The above framework, however, p r o v i d e s t h e s e t t i n g f o r a b r o a d e r i n q u i r y , a s t u d y w i t h i n a s t u d y , as i t were.  For t h e r u r a l  development scheme i s p a r t o f a f o r e i g n a i d program, o r g a n i z e d and managed t h r o u g h t h e channel o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y The p r i n c i p a l n o n - F i j i a n  agency.  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e members o f t h e YMCA's o f  Canada and New Z e a l a n d and p e r s o n n e l from t h e Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, the o f f i c i a l Government  o f Canada.  aid-granting  i n s t i t u t i o n o f the  Hence, t h e study i s a l s o about Europeans and  t h e i r c u l t u r e , and about t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a p r o c e s s o f c r o s s cultural  development a i d .  - 4-  The  d i s s e r t a t i o n , t h e n , as i t s s u b - t i t l e s u g g e s t s , i s t h e  d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f a development a i d program i n F i j i .  But t h e  t i t l e i t s e l f f e a t u r e s t h e word ' m i s s i o n a r y ' and something needs t o be s a i d about t h e prominence g i v e n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . Those from t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  community i n v o l v e d i n t h e a i d v e n t u r e  would n o t , I t h i n k , see themselves o f t h e term. did to  (and s t i l l  And, g i v e n t h e ambience o f o p i n i o n about what m i s s i o n a r i e s do i n some p l a c e s ) , t h e y would perhaps n o t want o t h e r s  r e g a r d them as such.  historical  as m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h e common usage  However, t h i s i s t o c a s t both t h e ( p r i n c i p a l l y )  m i s s i o n a r y endeavor and p r e s e n t - d a y  development programs  o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i n t o o narrow a frame.  I n my  o p i n i o n , t h e r e i s a fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two.  I will  f i r s t s t a t e my p o s i t i o n i n g e n e r a l terms and then i n d i c a t e how t h e present study i s organized.  The  Argument  My argument i s , b r i e f l y , t h a t t h e r e i s an parallel  unmistakeable  between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r p r e a c h i n g and development  a g e n t s and t h e i r " s p e e c h i n g " .  Those e a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l C h r i s t i a n s  who moved o u t o f t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e m i s s i o n f i e l d s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and t h e P a c i f i c f i r m l y i n t e n d e d and e x p e c t e d  t o r e p l a c e what  they c o n s i d e r e d t o be a pagan r e l i g i o n w i t h a C h r i s t i a n one. The m i s s i o n compounds, C h r i s t i a n c o l o n i e s , and an a r r a y o f C h r i s t i a n s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and h o s p i t a l s were t o s e r v e as t h e groundplan f o r  - 5 -  t h a t u n i v e r s a l Christendom.  But i f they were not always t o r e a l i z e  a s i z e a b l e and v i g o r o u s C h r i s t i a n d i s c i p l e s h i p i n these faraway p l a c e s , t h e i r s was  a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a much more fundamental and  character.  determinant  F o r , p r e c i s e l y because o f what i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g  and  p r a c t i c e i s p e c u l i a r t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , m i s s i o n a r i e s were the agents o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n even i f they were not aware o f i t . The words  " r e l i g i o u s " and  " s e c u l a r " a r e u s u a l l y taken t o  be o p p o s i t e s , and C h r i s t i a n i t y has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e sphere o f r e l i g i o n . in  its ritualistic,  And  r e l i g i o n i t i s , of course,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s .  when we examine more c l o s e l y i t s h i s t o r i c a l t h r u s t , we end  r o o t s and  d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n Gospel  t o r e l i g i o n a t the same t i m e .  But  theological  advocates  and  spells  As p o i n t e d out by t h e o l o g i a n s  an  like  R u d o l f Bultmann, D i e t r i c h B o n h o e f f e r and Paul T i l l i c h , t h e r e i s sufficient theological of the  ground f o r an a t t a c k on  " r e l i g i o n " i n the name  GospelJ The  B i b l e , t r e a t e d as an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l monograph (which i t  i s i n any c a s e ) , p r o v i d e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f human h i s t o r y as a w h o l e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h a s t o r y o f c r e a t i o n and c u l m i n a t i n g i n a v i s i o n o f the g a t h e r i n g together o f a l l peoples for  mankind.  Juxtaposed  and the f u l f i l l i n g o f God's purpose  w i t h the books o f the Old Testament, t h a t  c o l l e c t i o n o f p o e t r y , p r a y e r s , l e g i s l a t i o n and g e n e a l o g i e s r e c o r d i n g the h i s t o r y and t h e  'law' o f a chosen p e o p l e , i s the New  the h e a r t o f which i s an i n v i t a t i o n t o a l l men historical  drama through  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  r e s p o n s i b l e s o n s h i p t o God,  e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f i g u r e o f Jesus  Christ.  Testament a t  the F a t h e r , as  - 6 -  T h i s Gospel message i s fundamental u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man  to the H e b r a i c - C h r i s t i a n  and h i s p l a c e i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d . F o r , on the  one hand, i t i s an i n v i t a t i o n t o deal b o l d l y and c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h the c r e a t e d w o r l d and a l l  i t s powers.  And on t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s a  d e l i v e r a n c e from t h e f e a r o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s powers o f the cosmos. As S t . Paul w r o t e i n one o f h i s l e t t e r s t o t h e e a r l y churches i n A s i a Minor:  D u r i n g o u r m i n o r i t y , we were s l a v e s t o the e l e m e n t a l s p i r i t s o f t h e u n i v e r s e . But when t h e term was c o m p l e t e d , God s e n t H i s own Son, born o f a woman, born under t h e law, t o p u r c h a s e freedom f o r the s u b j e c t s o f t h e l a w , i n o r d e r t h a t we might a t t a i n the s t a t u s o f sons ( G a l a t i a n s 4:3-5).  The C h r i s t i a n Gospel i s a d e s a c r a l i z i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d which s e t s men control.  f r e e from t h e 'law' t o i n v e s t i g a t e , t o a l t e r and t o  In t h e p r o c e s s , i t e r o d e s t h e c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n o f t h i n k i n g  characteristic of so-called traditional  s o c i e t i e s and s u b s t i t u t e s i n  i t s p l a c e a l i n e a r one, a way o f t h i n k i n g about t h e s e l f and t h e w o r l d w h i c h a c c e p t s change as n o r m a l , demands a f a r - r e a c h i n g s h i f t o f a l l e g i a n c e , and l o o k s f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h i s - w o r l d l y g o a l s .  Its  e f f e c t i s t o put an end t o t h e o n t o c r a t i c p a t t e r n o f s o c i e t y , t h a t societal Men  form which r e p l i c a t e s t h e s o c i a l o r d e r from the cosmic one.  no l o n g e r suppose  t o Heaven.  t h e y need t o b u i l d a tower whose top w i l l  reach  - 7-  The words o f S t . Paul have l i t t l e o r no meaning today t o the m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e who.deal b o l d l y and c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h d e s a c r a l i z e d n a t u r e t h r o u g h t h e modern methods o f i n q u i r y i n t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  Nor do t h e y l i e c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e  i n t h e minds o f t h o s e who, t h r o u g h a h o s t o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y international  secular  v o l u n t a r y agencies, disseminate the b e l i e f t h a t the  c o n d i t i o n s o f human l i f e can be r a d i c a l l y b e t t e r e d . human w e l f a r e a r e r a r e l y defended  Programs o f  on t h e o l o g i c a l grounds today.  Indeed,  t h a t p r o c e s s o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n which t h e C h r i s t i a n Gospel so s u c c e s s fully  b o l s t e r e d withdraws  such a r e a s o f thought from t h e c o n t r o l o f  what a r e b e l i e v e d by some t o be r e v e a l e d r e l i g i o u s t r u t h s . legacy i s there, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l aid  s  But t h e  development a g e n c y and f o r e i g n  program d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y an exemplar o f t h a t s u r v i v a l . The p o i n t i s , t h e n , t h a t t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s have not l e f t  the scene.  They a r e a c t i v e s t i l l ,  e x t e n t s , t h r o u g h t h e 'development'  achieving, to greater o r l e s s e r of the so-called t r a d i t i o n a l  societies  what t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d heathen ones.  In both c a s e s , t h e goal i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e  same: a t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  environment  through an on-going  p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l and community development i n o r d e r t o change t h e s o c i a l o r d e r a n d , i n t u r n , be changed by i t . T r a d i t i o n , development,  change: t h e s e a r e t h e key c o n c e p t s .  And because t h e y f e a t u r e so p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e t h e s i s , I want t o c l a r i f y how t h e y a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d .  - 8 -  T r a d i t i o n , Development and Change D e f i n e d  Webster's d i c t i o n a r y o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g (among o t h e r s ) o f ' t r a d i t i o n ' . i n a massive  I t i s "a c u l t u r a l  definition  c o n t i n u i t y embodied  complex o f e v o l v i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s ,  conventions  and i n s t i t u t i o n s r o o t e d i n the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p a s t and e x e r t i n g o r i e n t a t i n g and n o r m a t i v e New  International  emic approach  i n f l u e n c e on the p r e s e n t " (Webster's  D i c t i o n a r y 1966:2422).  and t h a t i s t h e c r i t i c a l  t r a d i t i o n a l way  of l i f e .  Third  The d e f i n i t i o n r e f l e c t s  an  f e a t u r e i n the present context.  What i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d ' F i j i a n t r a d i t i o n ' here w i l l t h o s e F i j i a n s engaged i n t h e r u r a l  an  be t h a t which  development scheme t a k e t o be  their  Hence, t r a d i t i o n r e f e r s here n e i t h e r t o a  s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d (such as p r e - c o n t a c t F i j i ) ( c f .  f o r example,  B r e w s t e r 1937;  Williams  Deane 1921; Thomson 1908;  t h e H a k l u y t S o c i e t y 1925)  Water-house 1866;  nor t o any p a r t i c u l a r  o f F i j i a n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r "the F i j i a n way 1964;  Hocart 1952;  W a t t e r s 1969;  Nayacakalou  and o t h e r s ) .  1975,  1978;  1860;  ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e "  Roth 1953;  ( c f . Belshaw  S a h l i n s 1962;  R a t h e r , i t r e f e r s t o what i s s i g n i f i c a n t ,  m e a n i n g f u l , ' r e a l ' , o r o t h e r w i s e c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e by the a c t o r s who  a r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f the p r e s e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y . Development, l i k e t h e n o t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n , i s f r a u g h t w i t h  a m b i g u i t y i n p a r t because so much and v a r i e d a c t i v i t y i s a d m i t t e d under i t s rubric.  But i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , as i n the case o f t r a d i t i o n ,  emic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r e v a i l .  Hence, what i s taken t o be the meaning  o f development i n the c u r r e n t s t u d y i s c o n f i n e d t o t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g  -  of  9 -  i t and e x p r e s s i o n g i v e n to i t by t h o s e w i t h i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  v o l u n t a r y agency whose t a s k i t i s to f o r m u l a t e , a d m i n i s t e r and f u n d the r u r a l  development scheme.  And, f i n a l l y , what a r e we t o understand  by  'change'?  i t can be r i g h t l y s a i d t h a t p e o p l e and t h e i r c u l t u r e s a r e all  the time.  context.  changing  Among Webster's d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h i s one: change i s  "the a c t i o n o f making something (1966:374).  For  d i f f e r e n t i n form, q u a l i t y o r s t a t e "  I t i s the above u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a p p l i e s i n the p r e s e n t  Hence, change here r e f e r s t o t h o s e a c t i o n s and i d e a s which  i n d i c a t e a c a l c u l a t e d and d e l i b e r a t e d e p a r t u r e from the e s t a b l i s h e d ways o f d o i n g and t h i n k i n g about t h i n g s .  A Theoretical Perspective  In aid  p r e s e n t i n g my a n a l y s i s o f a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  development  program, I have d e p a r t e d somewhat from t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l  approaches  t o t h e s t u d y o f development i n F i j i .  such as Belshaw ( 1 9 6 4 ) , F i s k (1971) and Watters  (1969).  I r e f e r here t o works  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Hayden (1954), Spate  (1959), Ward  In t h e s e s t u d i e s , the a u t h o r s , f o r the  most p a r t , c o n c e r n themselves w i t h t h e e x p r e s s e d need f o r development in  Fiji  and suggest means and p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s which might e x p e d i t e  the p r o c e s s .  For example, Watters f o l l o w s Spate i n recommending  " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " and a community o f independent Belshaw i n p r o p o s i n g changes i n l a n d p o l i c y . for  training individual  farmers.  Ward f o l l o w s  Hayden s u g g e s t s the need  s p e c i a l i s t s t o be p a r t o f community development  - 10 -  teams.  And  Fijians  be e n c o u r a g e d t o move o u t o f  positions debate  Fisk  recommends,  among o t h e r  i n s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y  such p o l i c y recommendations  some o f  them -  but  and d i f f e r e n t  that  own r i g h t .  the  rural  A n d some o f  undertaken  may w e l l  the argument  I do t a k e  another  no n e e d t o make t h e m .  analysis,  - although  l i v e s of  a r e no p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  that  the  i n the  what  people.  up i s not  development Moreover, because  are grand p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n have made a n d  the academics. is  to  issue with  current study  the d e c i s i o n s they  Fijian  rural  I d i s c o v e r e d , i n the course of  Fijians  confound  some  My p u r p o s e  an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  there felt  industry.  come t o  i n the  that  v i l l a g e s and t a k e  to  means  I  the  things,  my their  programs  They c e r t a i n l y c h a l l e n g e  h i n d e r e d by t h e  s o - c a l l e d "communal  system". In perspective experience.  p u r s u i n g my g o a l , and a m e t h o d o l o g y It  and methodology method world. of  was f o r of  purpose  above  goal  t h e method o f  different  from the  contrasts And,  looked for  that  The  i s to d e s c r i b e s t r u c t u r e s of The  I  which values  phenomenology.  the o b j e c t i v e world.  below,  this  then,  the  a theoretical  r e a l i t y of  I turned  goal  of  to  the  t o one w h i c h s e e k s t o  phenomenology  points out  involves  inductive o r i e n t a t i o n of  as a  to  explain  i n the  a procedure empirical  inner  philosophy  phenomenology  subjective orientation  a s Luckman  the  the features  statement  quite  science".  D e s p i t e the s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r o f i t s method and the v a s t programme o f phenomenological research i n a u g u r a t e d by H u s s e r l and c o n t i n u e d by the f o l l o w i n g generations of phenomenologists, phenomenology i s not a s c i e n c e i n the common u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e word. I t s p e r s p e c t i v e i s ' e g o l o g i c a l ' ( i . e . , t a k i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g as t h e c e n t r e o f a system o f c o o r d i n a t e s on which t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r l d i s mapped) and ' r e f l e x i v e ' : i t r e i n s t a t e s human e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s p l a c e as the p r i m a r y datum about t h e w o r l d and i t d e s c r i b e s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e by t u r n i n g and r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i n t e n t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f exp e r i e n c e . The p e r s p e c t i v e o f egomism s c i e n c e , f o r e x c e l l e n t h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s , i s n e i t h e r based on, nor i s i t r e f l e x i v e a s , a mode o f knowledge. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e phenomenological method o f a t t e n d i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e s p r e c i s e l y as they p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s , i . e . , as a s t r u c t u r e o f m a n y - l a y e r e d i n t e n t i o n s , i s not and cannot be one o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e . The phenomenological method i s more r a d i c a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e than any method o f an e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be - o r even want t o become (1978:7-8).  Phenomenology, t h e n , i s not concerned  with objects or  events  as such but r a t h e r w i t h t h e meaning o f t h o s e o b j e c t s and events as a r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e mind. we  l i f e and move toward  In t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t ,  b e g i n w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s and  the " e v e n t s " i n each o f t h e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l t r a d i t i o n , development and change.  concrete  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f those experiences. we  To a p p l y i t s methodology,  b e g i n w i t h t h o s e s o c i a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y  f e a t u r e s o f everyday  they  i d e a s which c o n s t i t u t e  areas o f i n q u i r y , namely,  From t h e r e we move t o an  investigation  o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o r " s t r u c t u r e s " t o which the above data refer.  And  f i n a l l y , through  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f exchange models t o  - 12 -  r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between p e r s o n and i n s t i t u t i o n we  strive  f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the ( c u l t u r a l ) experience.  These s t a g e s o r l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s , as i t were,  c o r r e s p o n d t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f epiphenomenon, phenomenon and phenomenology.  Taken t o g e t h e r , they a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a  d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t r a d i t i o n , development and change i n the present ethnographic context.  D e f i n i t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e  three methodological categories follow.  Epiphenomenon, Phenomenon, and Phenomenology D e f i n e d  The d e p a r t u r e p o i n t f o r t h e above e x e g e s i s i s a t t h e l e v e l o f epiphenomenon.  An epiphenomenon, by d e f i n i t i o n , i s "a secondary  phenomenon accompanying a n o t h e r phenomenon and thought o f as caused by i t "  (Webster T h i r d New  International  r e f e r t o B a r t h ' s t r a n s a c t i o n a l model  D i c t i o n a r y 1966:764).  (1966) which views  Here I  individuals  e x e r c i s i n g c h o i c e w h i l e i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s and i n c e n t i v e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f which over t i m e produce s t a t i s t i c a l social  l i f e w i t h i n a community o f p e r s o n s .  regularities in  Elsewhere, Barth w r i t e s :  What we see as a s o c i a l form i s , c o n c r e t e l y , a p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e h a v i o r by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s and on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . I would argue t h a t i t i s not u s e f u l t o assume t h a t t h i s empirical pattern i s a sought-for condition, w h i c h a l l members o f t h e community e q u a l l y v a l u e and w i l l f u l l y m a i n t a i n . R a t h e r , i t must be r e g a r d e d as an epiphenomenon o f a g r e a t v a r i e t y of processes i n combination (1967:662).  - 13 -  In o t h e r words, what we  o b s e r v e as r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l  a c t i o n a r e epiphenomena o f a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s or t r a n s a c t i o n s . At t h e second l e v e l o f i n q u i r y , we move t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e phenomena t o which t h e r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n r e f e r . In my  usage o f t h e t e r m 'phenomenon', I r e f e r t o S a r t r e ' s  definition.  S a r t e ' s n o t i o n o f phenomenon i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l ; t h a t i s , i t p r e supposes f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a s u b j e c t .  This i s i n order that Sartre's  phenomenology have an o n t o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n .  To S a r t r e , the  phenomenon i s t h e " r e l a t i v e - a b s o l u t e " ( c f . S a r t r e i n Hartmann 1966:04). In o t h e r words, t h e phenomenon has t o appear t o someone b u t , a t same t i m e , i t e x i s t s i n i t s own the p r e s e n t  right.  Applying  Sartre's notion i n  c o n t e x t , the phenomena r e f e r t o those s t r u c t u r e s as  apprehended by t h e a c t o r s The  themselves.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s u b j e c t and  the phenomenon i s  the b a s i s o f S a r t r e ' s phenomenology ( c f . Hartmann 1966:8-15). p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n , t h e ways i n w h i c h the w o r l d itself his  ( i . e . , t h e ways i n w h i c h one  hence, o p e r a t e s w i t h i n i t .  "re-presents"  The  Husserl  "presents"  the w o r l d  forms t h r o u g h what  c a l l e d Lebenswelt ( l i f e - w o r l d ) , t h a t  t o t a l i t y formed by the t h i n k i n g ego  and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  i t i s a c t i v e l y engaged ( c f . R i c o e u r  1967).  The  world i n which  notion of " s t r u c t u r e "  here employed i n c l u d e s t h a t system o f s t r u c t u r e as comprehended by the r e s e a r c h e r .  to  t a s k o f phenomenology,  t h e n , becomes an a t t e m p t t o i n t e r p r e t s t r u c t u r a l the German p h i l o s o p h e r  In the  p e r c e i v e s , u n d e r s t a n d s and i n t e r p r e t s  w o r l d ) i n f l u e n c e the ways i n which one  h i m s e l f and,  the  T a k i n g S a r t r e ' s p o s i t i o n as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , we  r e t u r n t o the methodology o f phenomenology.  -  14  -  The Methodology  In d e t e r m i n i n g how t o e x p r e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s u b j e c t and t h e phenomena, I began w i t h Schwimmer's exchange model i n h i s s t u d y o f Exchange i n t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e ' o f the O r o k a i v a (1973).  The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f Schwimmer's model i n t h e p r e s e n t  c o n t e x t i s h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a phenomenological  perspective.  In  Schwimmer's framework, we a r e a b l e t o v i e w an exchange as b e g i n n i n g w i t h ego's  experience of a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  ego e x p e r i e n c e s a l t e r ' s w o r l d as t r a n s c e n d e n t .  In o t h e r words, An i m p o r t a n t  implication  o f t h e above p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t any o b j e c t o f exchange can be i d e n t i f i e d from one v i e w p o i n t w i t h t h e g i v e r and from a n o t h e r v i e w p o i n t w i t h the r e c e i v e r . dimension  To i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s  a n a l y t i c a l l y , we can t h i n k i n terms o f an exchange c y c l e  which c o n t a i n s three p a i r s of elements: and a l t e r ) ;  (2) t h e concepts  (1) t h e exchange p a r t n e r s (ego  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  w h i c h e n t e r i n t o the  t r a n s a c t i o n on e i t h e r s i d e ; and (3) t h e a c t s and o b j e c t s  (resources)  w h i c h m e d i a t e t h e movement o f the c o n c e p t s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s the two p a r t i e s  ( c f . Schwimmer 1973: 56-61).  between  Schwimmer, o f c o u r s e ,  was t h i n k i n g i n terms o f a c t u a l exchange p a r t n e r s whereas I am w i t h ego's s o c i a l w o r l d a t t h e l e v e l o f phenomenology.  concerned  In o t h e r words,  t h e c y c l e o f exchange i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t e x i s t s between a s u b j e c t and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o r apprehended s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s l i f e - w o r l d . model o f exchange can be s c h e m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as below.  The  - 15 -  A c t i v i t e s and Ideas (Mediating Elements)  Subject (Ego)  The  Concepts and Understandings  \  \  Concepts and Understandings  Phenomenon (Alter)  A c t i v i t i e s and Ideas (Mediating Elements)  above model i s a c o n t i n u o u s  one  and  r e f e r s t o what I  t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y as a " p o s i t i v e " exchange c y c l e . model i s r e p r e s e n t e d  by a broken c i r c l e and  t o be " n e g a t i v e " ones.  A  designate discontinuous  I i n d i c a t e t h e s e models  In o t h e r words, " p o s i t i v e " and  "negative"  r e f e r t o the s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the institutional  world.  When the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d and  record a  s u b j e c t i v e meaning s t r u c t u r e , a second s u b j e c t i s added t o the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l dyad. ego,  How  t o d e a l w i t h p e r s o n s o u t s i d e the  original  persons termed "monads" by H u s s e r l , i s a d i f f i c u l t y f o r  phenomenological philosophy between t h e s u b j e c t and hence m e a n i n g f u l one, the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  and methodology.  For w h i l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p  his perceived r e a l i t y i s a transcendental  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a second s u b j e c t  and  observing  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f i r s t , o b j e c t i f i e s i t .  The  p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p as it  i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n the mind o f the o r i g i n a l  subject.  The  knowledge  - 16 -  he hopes t o g a i n i s what t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t S c h u t z termed i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e understanding"  (Schutz 1953 i n Natanson  "genuine  1963).  Therefore,  he must attempt t o d u p l i c a t e t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n i n h i s  own mind.  How i s t h i s t o be a c h i e v e d ? To r e s t a t e , t h e p r i n c i p a l  d e r i v e a method which w i l l  a i m o f t h e phenomenologist i s t o  a l l o w him t o deal i n an o b j e c t i v e way w i t h  the s u b j e c t i v e meaning o f human a c t i o n .  Therefore, the l o g i c a l  c o n s t r u c t ( i . e . , t h e thought o b j e c t s o f the s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t ) must be  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e thought o b j e c t s formed by men i n e v e r y d a y in  o r d e r t o deal w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l  reality.  F o l l o w i n g Schutz  life (1953),  t h e model c o n s t r u c t , i n o r d e r t o meet t h e above r e q u i r e m e n t , must be in accordance w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p o s t u l a t e s .  F i r s t , i t must be  l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , t h a t s t r i c t l y l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r b e i n g an important  f e a t u r e by which s c i e n t i f i c thought o b j e c t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from t h e t h o u g h t o b j e c t s c o n s t r u c t e d by common sense t h i n k i n g o f men i n their daily l i f e .  S e c o n d l y , i t must be s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  s c i e n t i s t has t o d e t e r m i n e what model o f an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t e d and what t y p i c a l  contents  The  mind can be  can be a t t r i b u t e d t o i t i n o r d e r  to e x p l a i n t h e observed f a c t s which a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f the a c t i v i t y o f t h a t mind i n an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s o c i a l  relation.  And t h i r d l y , t h e  s c i e n t i f i c model o f human a c t i o n must be c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way t h a t an a c t i o n performed by a p e r s o n i n h i s common sense w o r l d  would  be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r t h e a c t o r h i m s e l f as w e l l as f o r h i s f e l l o w men i n terms o f common sense i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f everyday  life.  - 17 -  The  above p o s t u l a t e s i m p l y an i m p o r t a n t  d i s t i n c t i o n , namely  t h a t d i f f e r e n c e between r a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t s o f models o f human a c t i o n on t h e one hand and c o n s t r u c t s o f models o f r a t i o n a l the o t h e r .  human a c t i o n on  The s c i e n t i f i c c o n s t r u c t s a r e models o f r a t i o n a l  action  but t h e y a r e n o t c o n s t r u c t s o f a c t i o n s performed by l i v i n g beings i n s i t u a t i o n s d e f i n e d by them.  The s c i e n t i f i c c o n s t r u c t i s a model o f  a model, as i t were - a f i c t i t i o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s artificial important  environment c r e a t e d by.the s o c i a l  operating w i t h i n the  scientist.  because when we r e t u r n t o t h e r i c h c o m p l e x i t y  This i s of social  life  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e model c o n s t r u c t s do n o t c o m p l e t e l y to  conform t o s i t u a t i o n s d e f i n e d i n r e f e r e n c e  t r a d i t i o n , development o r change.  The c o n s t r u c t s , however, a l l o w  us t o d e s c r i b e p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s c u l t u r a l being w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y agency and a s a p r o d u c t I have adopted S c h u t z  1  and t o approximate  s e t t i n g , w i t h i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  of their model  interaction.  (above) i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e the  phenomenological f e a t u r e s o f the s o c i a l world.  The s o c i a l w o r l d i s  t h a t everyday i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e world o f c u l t u r e , " i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e because we l i v e i n i t as men among o t h e r men, bound t o them t h r o u g h common i n f l u e n c e and work, u n d e r s t a n d i n g of understanding  f o r o t h e r s " (Schutz  o t h e r s and b e i n g an o b j e c t  1940 i n Luckman (Ed.) 1978:135).  I t i s t h e s h a r e d w o r l d o f economic and p o l i t i c a l w o r l d as apprehended by t h e a c t o r .  r e l a t i o n s , the s o c i a l  - 18 -  There i s one f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n o f t h e L e b e n s w e l t  (life-  w o r l d ) w h i c h i s y e t t o be i n c l u d e d and t h a t i s t h e w o r l d o f mind o r spirit  (Geist),  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n w h i c h a r e r e l i g i o u s meanings and  u l t i m a t e l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c o n s c i o u s ego and t h e s e l f . The n o t i o n o f s e l f , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a q u a n t i t y which i s s u p e r o r d i n a t e t o t h e ego.  In o t h e r words, i t embraces not  o n l y t h a t w h i c h i s c o n s c i o u s and r e l a t e d t o i n t e n t i o n a l o b j e c t s b u t the  whole o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e " p s y c h e w h i c h has as i t s r e f e r e n t a l l  we c a l l  'culture . 1  that  The s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d  p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l a l s o i s .  I r e f e r t o t h e above dimension  i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h r o u g h r e f e r e n c e t o a phenomenology o f t h e s e l f . I m i g h t j u s t as c o r r e c t l y have d e s i g n a t e d i t i n terms o f a phenomenology 3  of  s p i r i t as does Hegel i n h i s c l a s s i c work ( c f . H y p p o l i t e 1974). The phenomenology o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d and t h e phenomenology  of  t h e s e l f a r e n o t so much d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s as c a t e g o r i e s which  r e f e r t o each o t h e r .  Indeed, one a r r i v e s a t a phenomenology o f the  s e l f t h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e elements w h i c h make up t h e s o c i a l w o r l d .  Through t h e above p r o c e s s , t h e  p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t d e t e r m i n e s what model o f a c u l t u r a l mind can be c o n s t r u c t e d ( i . e . , what t y p i c a l c o n t e n t s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o i t ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , the a n a l y s i s proceeds from a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e as apprehended  by t h e a c t o r t o a model c o n s t r u c t o f t h e s e l f  as comprehended by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . In d e v e l o p i n g a phenomenology o f t h e s e l f , I acknowledge, i n a d d i t i o n t o Hegel Binswanger  (above) t h e work o f t h e German-born  psychiatrist  ( c f . S p i e g e l b e r g 1972:193-232) who used the phenomenological  - 19 -  method i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d and t r e a t h i s p s y c h i a t r i c patients.  Binswanger  c o n s t r u c t e d a phenomenological  on H e i d e g g e r i a n f o u n d a t i o n s .  anthropology  S p e c i f i c a l l y , he adopted  conception o f Dasein (Being).  Heidegger's  To H e i d e g g e r , D a s e i n was not t o be  t h o u g h t o f as ' b e i n g ' i n a p a s s i v e sense.  D a s e i n was B e i n g - i n - t h e -  W o r l d , moving w i t h i n one's e n t i r e s u r r o u n d i n g s r a t h e r than merely responding t o a world o f i n t e n t i o n a l objects.  The w o r l d and t h e  i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d be t h o u g h t o f as c o r r e l a t i v e s i n s y m b i o s i s . Perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Binswanger's D a s e i n s a n a l y s e ( a n a l y s i s o f B e i n g - i n - t h e - W o r l d ) t o a phenomenological a n t h r o p o l o g y was h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f l o v e as a p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between an I and a Thou.  One w i l l  note t h e i n f l u e n c e  o f Buber's  o n t o l o g y here ( c f . Buber, t r a n s l a t i o n by Kaufmann 1970) and we l e a r n from S p i e g e l b e r g (1972:196) t h a t Buber was a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r t o t h e s a n a t o r i u m a t K r e u z l i n g e n where Binswanger worked. f o r Binswanger  The I and t h e Thou  (as f o r Buber) form a We r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e s u l t i n g i n a  s o l i d a r i t y and a r e l a t e d n e s s , a sense o f We-hood, as i t were.  Dasein,  i n t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i s n o t so much what each man i s f o r h i m s e l f but r a t h e r what t h e We-ourselves a real  i s . Binswanger  believed that f o r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p e r s o n one has t o s t u d y him i n s i d e  this  We r e l a t i o n s h i p .  O u t l i n e o f t h e Study  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f a development t h e n , c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e major P a r t s :  a i d program,  The Phenomenology o f T r a d i t i o n ,  - 20 -  The Phenomenol&gy  o f Development and t h e Phenomenology o f Change.  W i t h i n each o f t h e above t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e a n a l y s i s p r o g r e s s e s from a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e epiphenomena t o t h e phenomena t o phenomenology.  W i t h i n t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y we a r e concerned both w i t h  a phenomenology o f t h e s o c i a l  w o r l d and a phenomenology o f t h e s e l f .  The above a n a l y s i s i s preceded by a second c h a p t e r i n P a r t I which p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p l a c e and t h e people and i s concluded by a s i n g l e c h a p t e r at through  i n P a r t V w h i c h summarizes t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  t h e above d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s .  arrived  - 21 -  Footnotes  I make r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e w r i t e r s as below. Bultmann (b. 1 8 8 4 ) , German t h e o l o g i a n and New Testament s c h o l a r , advocated a d e m y t h o l o g i z i n g o f t h e New Testament. He was a p i o n e e r o f form c r i t i c i s m , the s t u d y o f t h e o r i g i n and development o f t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the Gospels. Bultmann made a case f o r d e m y t h o l o g i z i n g not o n l y t h e V i r g i n B i r t h and t h e Empty Tomb but a l s o the I n c a r n a t i o n , R e s u r r e c t i o n , A s c e n s i o n and Second Coming. He argued t h a t t h e s e phenomena d e r i v e from the mythology o f J e w i s h a p o c a l y p t i c and H e l l e n i s t i c G n o s t i c i s m . For Bultmann, t h e Gospels are the p r o d u c t s o f a b e l i e v i n g community. The o b j e c t o f f a i t h i s not the h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s but C h r i s t preached as God's redemptive a c t . In t h i s r e g a r d , h i s t o r i c a l s k e p t i c i s m does not undermine faith. B o n h o e f f e r (b. 1906) was a German Lutheran p a s t o r who t a u g h t a t h e o l o g y o f a "church f o r t h e w o r l d " . His r e v o l u t i o n a r y thought can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main phases o r p e r i o d s : (1) h i s work about e c c l e s i o l o g y , t h e s t u d y o f the d o c t r i n e o f t h e c h u r c h , e s p e c i a l l y t h e n o t i o n o f C h r i s t e x i s t i n g as t h e C h u r c h ; (2) h i s work on C h r i s t o l o g y where he i n t e r p r e t e d f a i t h as d i s c i p l e s h i p ; and (3) h i s development o f t h e n o t i o n o f d i s c i p l e s h i p i n t o a t h e o l o g y o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h C h r i s t i a n s and n o n - C h r i s t i a n s in secular responsibility. B o n h o e f f e r w r o t e about the " n o n - r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Gospel i n a w o r l d come o f age" and o f " n o n - r e l i g i o u s C h r i s t i a n i t y " . Tillich (b. 1 8 8 6 ) , German-U.S. p h i l o s o p h e r and t h e o l o g i a n , developed an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t a s k o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y by v i e w i n g C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i n r e l a t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by c l a s s i c a l and modern p h i l o s o p h y . Tillich a l l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h a group o f German i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n the R e l i g i o u s S o c i a l i s t movement w h i c h sought to b r i n g t o g e t h e r a new s p i r i t u a l o u t l o o k and e f f e c t i v e power i n o r d e r t o renew and shape t h e p o l i t i c a l o r d e r . For an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e t h e o l o g y o f t h e s e t h i n k e r s , I r e f e r the r e a d e r t o the f o l l o w i n g : Bultmann's Kerygma and Mythos, 5 volumes, 1948-55; B o n h o e f f e r ' s L e t t e r s and Papers from P r i s o n and C h r i s t o l o g y ; and T i l l i c h ' s R e l i g i o u s R e a l i z a t i o n , The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n , S y s t e m a t i c T h e o l o g y and The Courage To Be. T h i s i s not t o p r e c l u d e , o f c o u r s e , t h e phenomenological t r e a t m e n t I g i v e t o 'development' i n the c o u r s e o f the study.  - 22 -  3  Hegel's c l a s s i c work i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as "Phenomenology o f M i n d " and sometimes as "Phenomenology of S p i r i t " . The d i f f i c u l t y comes i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e word G e i s t . I t a k e t h e n o t i o n o f G e i s t t o mean something which i n c l u d e s both t h e i d e a o f 'mind' and o f ' s p i r i t ' , a k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l s e l f , as i t were. And phenomenology, as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , r e f e r s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ' s e l f and t h e ' o t h e r ' . P a r a p h r a s i n g Hegel's phenomenology, H y p p o l i t e w r i t e s , " C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t a k e n as i t o f f e r s i t s e l f , and i t o f f e r s i t s e l f as a r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r - o b j e c t , world, o r nature. I t i s q u i t e t r u e t h a t t h i s knowledge of the other i s a self-knowledge. But i t i s no l e s s t r u e t h a t t h i s s e l f - k n o w l e d g e i s a knowledge o f t h e o t h e r , a knowledge o f the w o r l d . Thus, we d i s c o v e r i n the v a r i o u s o b j e c t s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s what c o n s c i o u s n e s s is i t s e l f : 'The w o r l d i s a m i r r o r i n which we r e d i s c o v e r o u r s e l v e s ' . " (1974:20).  - 23 -  CHAPTER 2.  THE  PEOPLE AND  THE  SETTING.  Introduction  The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o a c q u a i n t t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e p l a c e s and the people f e a t u r e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l  I begin  s k e t c h o f the development a i d program i n o r d e r  that i t s international  and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l dimensions  may  be e s t a b l i s h e d .  I then i n c l u d e a s h o r t s e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h e scope o f t h e program within F i j i . in  Fiji  F o l l o w i n g , I move t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f two r u r a l  areas  whose community development programs are a n a l y s e d i n the  present study.  And  finally,  I i n d i c a t e how  t h e p e o p l e i n t h o s e same  a r e a s came t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e development a i d scheme.  Historical  Background o f t h e Development A i d Program  E a r l y i n 1971,  the T r u s t Board o f t h e Suva Youth C e n t r e , a  v o l u n t a r y y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Suva, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p i t a l o f extended for  an i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e YMCA o f New  youth i n F i j i .  responded,  In May  Zealand t o e s t a b l i s h programs  o f t h a t y e a r , the YMCA  s e n d i n g Mr. Dennis O l i v e r , one o f t h e i r  S e c r e t a r i e s , to t h a t country.  o f New  Zealand  experienced  W i t h i n a few weeks o f h i s a r r i v a l ,  m e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h community l e a d e r s i n Suva to determine problem  a r e a s which  Fiji,  should r e c e i v e concentrated e f f o r t .  The  the principal  - 24 -  c o n c e r n s were determined t o be t h e f o l l o w i n g : h i g h l e v e l s o f unemployment, p a r t i c u l a r l y among young p e o p l e ; r a t e o f m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l high l e v e l o f e a r l y school  an a c c e l e r a t i n g  communities t o t h e urban c e n t r e ; a  l e a v i n g ; s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r i n g per  c a p i t a incomes between urban p e o p l e and t h e i r r u r a l and  a decline i n local  food p r o d u c t i o n accompanied by an i n c r e a s e i n  the i m p o r t o f f o r e i g n f o o d s t u f f s . (FAO). s u r v e y  counterparts;  A Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n  b e i n g completed a t t h e same t i m e " t o i d e n t i f y , study and  e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s systems and approaches t o e d u c a t i n g r u r a l youth f o r a vocation i n farming" the  and t r a i n i n g  ( O l i v e r 1976:38) r e i n f o r c e d  concerns. By mid-1971, Mr. O l i v e r , now t h e new General  Secretary of  what would e v e n t u a l l y become an independent YMCA o f F i j i , had prepared a d r a f t development p l a n t o g u i d e t h e new agency's work f o r a one-year period.  A management committee o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s  a s s o c i a t i o n was formed,  composed o f y o u t h l e a d e r s and p e r s o n s w i t h s k i l l s and/or a t t i t u d e s deemed appropriate.  The new committee i n F i j i  and t h e New Zealand  E x e c u t i v e Committee approved t h e d r a f t development p l a n .  National  And a YMCA  r u r a l work program, w i t h i t s own R u r a l Work Committee, came i n t o existence. In o r d e r t h a t t h e new r u r a l work program c o u l d be implemented, a budget was needed.  The a l l o c a t e d sum a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s f i r s t  o f o p e r a t i o n was a mere  F$250.0oJ  year  A l e t t e r w r i t t e n by t h e new General  S e c r e t a r y t o a M i n i s t r y i n t h e Government o f F i j i o f a g r a n t t o employ a YMCA r u r a l worker b e g i n n i n g  l e d to the p r o v i s i o n i n 1972.  In t h e  - 25 -  f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f Mr. O l i v e r , t h e program attracted  t h e s u p p o r t o f Canadian U n i v e r s i t y  S e r v i c e s Overseas  (CUSO) who agreed t o p r o v i d e f o r e i g n a i d t o t h e amount o f F $ l l , 5 0 0 . 0 0 t o be spent o v e r 1974,  1975 and 1976 on t h e employment and s u p p o r t o f  t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l r u r a l workers. o f Governors  o f t h e Vancouver  E a r l y i n 1974, a member o f t h e Board  YMCA, f o l l o w i n g a v i s i t  an i n t e r e s t by t h e YMCA's o f B r i t i s h Columbia  to F i j i ,  indicated  i n a s s e s s i n g t h e needs  o f t h e YMCA o f F i j i  w i t h a view t o s u p p o r t , and an i n i t i a l g r a n t o f  F$500.00 was g i v e n .  The same y e a r , a p r i v a t e company o p e r a t i n g i n  Fiji  ( c f . T a b l e I ) agreed t o s u p p o r t t h e development o f t h e program  t h r o u g h a g r a n t o f F$4,903.00 each y e a r f o r 1974, 1975 and 1976 f o r t h e employment o f a f u r t h e r t h r e e r u r a l w o r k e r s . was  now a b l e t o draw up i t s f i r s t  The R u r a l Work Committee  budget o f s i g n i f i c a n c e as i n T a b l e I  below.  TABLE I . YMCA o f F i j i : R u r a l Work Budget - 1974.  Income CUSO Emperor T r u s t M i n i s t r y o f Youth Vancouver YMCA C l u b Fees Movies  Expenditures $4,230 4,903 1,044 500 200 100  $10,977  S a l a r i e s (7 w o r k e r s ) P r o v i d e n t Fund Housing Transport Administration Sprayers Subsidy Public Relations Training Seeds Research Sundry  $6,804 330 1,750 600 460 138 100 355 150 100 190 $10,977  - 26 -  A l s o i n 1974, t h e C o u n c i l o f O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r R e l i e f S e r v i c e s Overseas for  1974,  (CORSO) o f New  Zealand g r a n t e d F$5,000.00 per y e a r  1975 and 1976 f o r t h e employment o f an a d d i t i o n a l  workers.  And  four rural  f o l l o w i n g an i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e program i n e a r l y  by a member o f t h e Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia  1974  YMCA, an a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o the  A g r i c u l t u r a l A i d Fund and t o the Canadian  International  Development Agency (CIDA) - Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s D i v i s i o n for of  support o f the F i j i B r i t i s h Columbia  R u r a l Work Program.  The p r o v i n c i a l  Government  approved a g r a n t o f C$32,000.00 f o r use d u r i n g  1975, 1976 and 1977, and l a t e r t h e same y e a r (1974), CIDA approved a r e q u e s t f o r C$90,300.00 t o be s h a r e d between r u r a l work and vocational  t r a i n i n g programs f o r t h e same t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d .  procurement  The  o f t h e s e funds e n a b l e d t h e income o f t h e r u r a l work  program t o r i s e t o F$25,894.00 i n 1975 and t o F$40,000.00 i n 1976. Steady i n c r e a s e s c o n t i n u e d and by 1979, t h e y e a r o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , t h e r u r a l work budget had r e c e i p t s o f F$l12,842.00 j u s t o v e r F$100,000.00.  (Budget d e t a i l s f o r t h e y e a r ending December  31, 1977 appear i n Appendix In May association, YMCA's.  and e x p e n d i t u r e s o f  A.)  o f 1977, the YMCA o f F i j i  became an  independent  g a i n i n g d i r e c t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e World A l l i a n c e o f  The New  Z e a l a n d s t a f f member w i t h d r e w and t o d a y , a l l p o s t s ,  i n c l u d i n g t h e top e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n o f General S e c r e t a r y , are by i n d i g e n o u s p e r s o n n e l .  P r i o r t o t h e s e e v e n t s , CIDA, through the  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l channel o f the YMCA o f Vancouver, C$90,300.00 t o the F i j i  filled  had c o n t r i b u t e d i t s  v o l u n t a r y agency as Phase I o f the  Fiji  - 27 -  Development Program. of  These f u n d s , d i s b u r s e d i n 1975-76 i n t h e amount  C$50,300.00 and i n 1976-77 t o t h e sum o f C$40,000.00, were used,  among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o pay t h e s a l a r i e s o f s i x t e e n f i e l d  workers  whose YMCA c l u b s i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred v i l l a g e s r e g i s t e r e d an o v e r a l l membership o f 3,019 p e r s o n s .  The t o t a l  number o f persons  r e a c h e d t h r o u g h t h e r u r a l work program was e s t i m a t e d t o be 10,900 including children. its of  Fiji  Development Program, a g a i n t h r o u g h t h e channel o f t h e YMCA  Vancouver.  follows:  A t p r e s e n t , CIDA i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o Phase I I o f  The agency's d i s b u r s e d o r p r o j e c t e d payments a r e as  1978-79 - C$57,410.00;  C$42,870.00  1979-80 - C$53,305.00;  1980-81 -  and 1981-82 - C$5,000.00 f o r a t o t a l a i d g r a n t o f  C$158,585.00 ( c f .  Appendix 2 ) .  Scope o f t h e Program w i t h i n  Fiji  D u r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h y e a r , 1979, t h e YMCA r u r a l work program, w i t h s u p p o r t i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs, was o p e r a t i n g i n 80-100 v i l l a g e s i n various parts o f F i j i .  According t o the quarterly  reports  s u b m i t t e d by t h e maximum twenty f i e l d workers - (a minimum o f e i g h t e e n YMCA r u r a l workers were a c t i v e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e r e s e a r c h ) the  f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e r u r a l work program.  (These f i g u r e s a r e drawn from t h e 1979 Annual Report o f t h e YMCA o f Fiji  and would appear t o be rough e s t i m a t e s . )  - 28 -  TABLE I I .  R u r a l Work Program S t a t i s t i c s , 1979: YMCA o f F i j i .  Period  Villages  January - A p r i l May  - August  September - December  Members  Program  Users  100  5,300  10,000  80  5,000  10,000  80  . 5,000  10,000  Hence, i n e i g h t e e n t o twenty a r e a s w i t h i n F i j i , a s i n g l e r u r a l , w o r k e r implements a community development villages.  program  i n an average o f f i v e  I t i s t h e membership o f t h e s e v i l l a g e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e  r e c r u i t e d from t h e i r ranks t o be the agents o f the change p r o c e s s , who  a r e t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f development a i d . Of t h e maximum twenty a r e a s w i t h i n F i j i  program  where the r u r a l work  i s b e i n g implemented, we a r e concerned i n t h i s s t u d y w i t h  two.  The f i r s t i s Gau, an i s l a n d i n t h e L o m a i v i t i c h a i n , and the second i s Ra, a p r o v i n c e on the main i s l a n d o f V i t i  Levu.  The f o l l o w i n g  section  d e s c r i b e s t h e s e two a r e a s .  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Two  R u r a l Areas w i t h i n  Fiji  The 320 i s l a n d s which make up the F i j i  a r c h i p e l a g o spread  between l a t i t u d e s 15 degrees and 22 degrees s o u t h o f the e q u a t o r , and s t r a d d l e the 180th m e r i d i a n o f l o n g i t u d e e s t a b l i s h e d as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  \  - 29 -  dateline  (Cf. map  of F i j i  p.  30 ).  Extending  thousands o f square m i l e s o f the s o u t h e a s t  o v e r some hundreds o f  P a c i f i c Ocean, F i j i  covers  the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l a n d area o f 7,055 square m i l e s , r a n g i n g the l a r g e s t i s l a n d of V i t i 4,011  Levu ( l i t e r a l l y ,  square m i l e s t o t i n y a t o l l s and  Of the 320  "Big F i g i " ) with i t s  i s l e t s only yards i n  i s the l a r g e s t i s l a n d i n the L o m a i v i t i group and  fourth largest island in F i j i . Levu and  I t l i e s approximately  i s l a n d w i t h r o l l i n g and  h i l l y r e l i e f and  i s d e s c r i b e d as t a l a s i g a  i s the  60 m i l e s  can be reached by boat and more r e c e n t l y by  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the i s l a n d s o f L o m a i v i t i , Gau  soil  circumference.  i s l a n d s , o n l y 105 a r e i n h a b i t e d . Gau  of V i t i  from  east  aircraft.  i s a v o l c a n i c high  a lower c o a s t a l f r i n g e .  ("sunburnt", " d e s e r t " , " b a r r e n " ) .  Climatic  c o n d i t i o n i s m o d e r a t e l y d r y w i t h r a i n f a l l measuring 200-250 cm. inches).  A p a r t from the lower  low a g r i c u l t u r a l  value although  possible.  farming  f o r e s t r y i s becoming a use and  Along the c o a s t , f r a m i n g  in  with  pineapple  the s e a , accented  beauty by an o f f s h o r e r e e f , y i e l d s an abundance o f f i s h and I s l a n d has  very  the r i d g e o f a r a b l e l a n d where  i s done, coconut p l a n t a t i o n s t h r i v e and  Gau  (80-100  s l o p e s near the c o a s t , the l a n d has  f e r t i l i z a t i o n the growing o f s p e c i a l i z e d cash c r o p s such as is  The  seafood.  sixteen v i l l a g e s in a l l , with a total  the l a t e s t Census (1976) o f 2,226 persons.  The map  o f Gau  in  population on p.  shows the p o s i t i o n s o f the v i l l a g e s on the i s l a n d , and T a b l e I I I on indicates total  p o p u l a t i o n , F i j i a n p o p u l a t i o n , sex and  numbers f o r each o f the  villages.  household  32 p.33  - 31 -  The  v i l l a g e s o f Gau a r e q u a s i - s u b s i s t e n c e communities  w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g cash income.  S u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r e on  f a r m i n g and f i s h i n g ; cash income i s d e r i v e d p r i n c i p a l l y f r o m c o p r a and more r e c e n t l y from government l a b o u r on roads and o t h e r p u b l i c facil ities. In d a y - t o - d a y f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , men a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r o o t c r o p s w h i l e women, f o r t h e most p a r t , p r o c u r e f i s h which i s t h e principal  protein.  Agricultural  production i s carried  o u t f i r s t and  f o r e m o s t w i t h t h e doka ( d i g g i n g s t i c k ) , used f o r d a l o ( t a r o ) and u v i (yam)  planting.  F o r weeding and c u t t i n g  sele (long-blade k n i f e ) . and  an i n d i v i d u a l magiti fish  i s the  More r e c e n t l y , t h e motaiva ( d i g g i n g f o r k )  t h e s i v i (spade) have e n t e r e d  f i s h both w i t h l i n e s  i n t h e bush, t h e t o o l  (siwa)  into agricultural  and w i t h nets  (qoli).  production.  Women  The former t a s k i s  one w h i l e t h e l a t t e r c a l l s f o r a communal e f f o r t .  For  ( f e a s t ) o r s i m i l a r o c c a s i o n s where a l a r g e and q u i c k s u p p l y o f  i s r e q u i r e d , men go t o t h e r e e f w i t h s p e a r s , m o s t l y t h e s a i s a i ,  l o c a l l y c r a f t e d from a s t e e l  r o d f i t t e d w i t h a piece o f rubber.  For  s u r f a c e s p e a r i n g , t h e y use t h e moto w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a l o n g wood h a n d l e w i t h about s i x s h o r t s t e e l  rods a f f i x e d .  Spearguns a r e making  t h e i r appearance as a r e n y l o n f i s h i n g nets t o r e p l a c e s t r i n g ones, and  lead weights  t o r e p l a c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l sea s h e l l s .  and c o r k a r e both used t o keep f i s h i n g nets a f l o a t . basketry i s s t i l l wear t h e noke, back.  Baskets  i n evidence  on t h e i s l a n d .  Coconut husks  Traditional  W h i l e f i s h i n g , women  a b a s k e t woven from coconut l e a v e s and s t r a p p e d t o t h e c a l l e d su s e i ,  c a r r y i n g root crops.  a l s o woven from l e a v e s , a r e used f o r  - 32 -  F i g u r e 2-2.  Map o f Gau I s l a n d .  - 33 -  TABLE I I I .  Village  Lamiti  P o p u l a t i o n o f Gau I s l a n d . Government o f F i j i )  Total  Fijian  (Source:  Male  1976  Census,  Female  Housi  223  223  98  125  35  61  61  26  35  13  Levuka  133  133  63  70  23  Lovu  143  143  71  72  27  Malawai  143  143  79  64  24  Nacavanadi  154  154  72  82  28  Navukelagi  123  123  61  89  89  Qarani  147  Sawaieke  Lekanai  62  18  39  50  15  145  71  76  23  155  155  84  71  27  Somosomo  131  131  67  64  19  Vadravadra  172  170  82  90  27  Vanuaso  166  166  90  76  27  Vione  145  144  66  79  20  Yadua  56  56  30  26  6  Nukuloa  •  - 34 -  The bure,  traditional  house i n Gau,  as i n a l l o f F i j i ,  i s the  a t h a t c h c o n s t r u c t i o n i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o c l i m a t e and a v a i l a b l e  natural resources.  In r e c e n t y e a r s , the b u r e ,  communal l a b o u r t o b u i l d  and m a i n t a i n , i s f a s t  which r e q u i r e s d i s a p p e a r i n g , being  r e p l a c e d most o f t e n by a wood frame c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r , where w e a l t h a l l o w s , t h e cement b l o c k house.  In i n t e r m e d i a r y c a s e s , the  Fijian  bure undergoes m o d i f i c a t i o n , perhaps h a v i n g t h a t c h w a l l s and t i n r o o f i n g (Cf.  F i g u r e 2-3).  In the v i l l a g e o f Lovu, the p r i n c i p a l  field  i n the s t u d y , f o r example, o u t o f a t o t a l o f 28 h o u s e h o l d s , were l i v i n g i n the F i j i a n b u r e ,  the remaining  1979  twelve  research year,  Two  During  begun.  t h e r e were no wood houses o r m o d i f i e d F i j i a n bure i n the  further villages  i n t h e Gau  the  t h e appearance o f t h e f i r s t cement b l o c k  house i n t h e v i l l a g e , and a second b l o c k c o n s t r u c t i o n was t o 1953,  one  on wood beams,  houses were o f wood c o n s t r u c t i o n .  I witnessed  only s i x  n i n e had m o d i f i e d F i j i a n b u r e ,  f a m i l y l i v e d i n a home made o f t i n r o o f i n g i r o n supported and  location  s t u d y , named V a d r a v a d r a and  u n d e r g o i n g s i m i l a r changes i n housing Together the three v i l l a g e s  Prior village.  Yadua, are  patterns. o f L o v u , Vadravadra and  Yadua make  2 up a c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f v i l l a g e s o f a paramount c h i e f . i n t o matagali  known as a vanua  under the l e a d e r s h i p  W i t h i n each v i l l a g e , the p o p u l a t i o n i s d i v i d e d  ( " c l a n " , i n a s e n s e , but more p r o p e r l y , a l a n d - h o l d i n g  u n i t whose members a r e , f o r the most p a r t , a p a t r i l i n e a l descent The  28 h o u s e h o l d u n i t s i n Lovu v i l l a g e r e p r e s e n t f o u r d i s t i n c t  Table  IV on p. 36  relation  shows the t o t a l  t o age, sex and m a t a g a l i .  group) .  matagali.  v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n o f 173 persons i n The  v i l l a g e o f Yadua, s i t u a t e d  Figure  2-3.  T r a d i t i o n a l ( u p p e r ) and M o d i f i e d F i j i a n B u r e on Gau I s l a n d .  (lower)  - 36 -  TABLE IV.  Population  Lewenisau  o f Lovu V i l l a g e by Age, Sex and M a t a q a l i .  Ratu  T u i Lovu  Waravi  M  F  M  F  M  F  M  F  0-4  7  7  4  3  2  3  1  0  27  5-9  6  1  4  4  2  1  0  0  18  10-14  8  2  3  7  4  0  0  0  24  15-19  6  5  2  4  2  1  0  0  20  20-24  2  2  4  5  3  1  2  1  20  25-29  1  1  3  1  1  3  0  1  11  30-34  3  4  1  1  1  1  0  0  11  35-39  2  1  1  3  1  1  1  o• „  10  40-44  2  3  1  0  0  0  0  0  6  45-49  3  1  1  4  1  0  0  0  10  50-54  0  1  2  0  1  2  0  0  6  55-59  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  3  60-64  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Over 64  2  2  2  1  0  0  0  0  7  Subtotal  43  30  29  33  19  13  4  2  Total  73  62  32  6  Total  173  - 37 -  approximately island  f i v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f Lovu a l o n g the c o a s t o f the  ( c f . map  p. 32  ), c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t h o u s e h o l d s ,  p o p u l a t i o n o f 53 p e r s o n s d i v i d e d i n t o two m a t a q a l i .  with a  Vadravadra, the  l a r g e s t v i l l a g e o f the t h r e e , l y i n g a l m o s t midway between Lovu and Yadua and  a l s o s i t u a t e d on t h e c o a s t , has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 210  representing four mataqali The  Gau  and  28  persons,  households.  v i l l a g e s i n t h e s t u d y f o l l o w a somewhat t r a d i t i o n a l  p a t t e r n o f l a y o u t w i t h t h e v a l e n i moce ( s l e e p i n g houses) s u r r o u n d i n g an open g r e e n space known as t h e r a r a . a r e t h e v a l e n i koro  Behind t h e s l e e p i n g houses  ( c o o k i n g houses) and the v a l e l a i l a i  (toilets).  The most p r o m i n e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l t h r e e v i l l a g e s i s the v a l e n i l o t u ( c h u r c h b u i l d i n g ) and each o f t h e t h r e e v i l l a g e s now centre.  One  primary  s c h o o l , s i t u a t e d near Lovu, s e r v e s the  v i l l a g e s , o f f e r i n g grades one  through  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l on t h e i s l a n d and  eight.  uvi  (yam)  p r i n c i p a l d i e t i n Gau,  villages. c o n s i s t i n g o f r o o t crops - d a l o  ( b r e a d f r u i t ) and  kumala (a v a r i e t y o f sweet p o t a t o ) .  b e l e , a s p i n a c h - l i k e l e a f and cabbage. sea a n i m a l s , p o r k , beef and  magiti  (taro),  (two v a r i e t i e s o f banana), balawa ( p i n e a p p l e ) ,  t h e r e a r e l e a f y f o o d s such as r o u r o u ,  and  There i s a j u n i o r  and t a v i o k a ( c a s s a v a ) - and f i s h , i s r e a d i l y supplemented w i t h  mago (mango), vudi and j a i n a uto  three  k i n d e r g a r t e n programs have r e c e n t l y  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n each o f the t h r e e The  has a community  In a d d i t i o n ,  the l e a f o f the t a r o p l a n t , B e s i d e s the v a r i e t y o f  fish  c h i c k e n are common, e s p e c i a l l y f o r  ( f e a s t ) when foods a r e u s u a l l y baked i n the l o v o  F i s h and o t h e r foods a r e o f t e n cooked w i t h coconut m i l k p r o v i d i n g o i l i n the F i j i a n d i e t .  And  supplementing  (earth-oven). (lolo),  the l o c a l  food  - 38 -  supply are imported  items such as b i s c u i t s , t e a , r i c e , f l o u r ,  t i n n e d f i s h and corned  beef.  I t would be easy t o r o m a n t i c i z e v i l l a g e l i f e setting  sugar,  i n Gau.  The  i s m a g n i f i c e n t , the c l i m a t e t r o p i c a l w i t h some s e a s o n a l  variation  and  t h e r e i s an abundant f o o d s u p p l y .  But d e s p i t e the  f a v o u r a b l e s e t t i n g and abundance o f t r o p i c a l f o o d , t h e p i c t u r e o f a South Seas p a r a d i s e where g o a l s a r e e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d does not adequately  describe  resources necessary  the way  of l i f e  i n Gau.  I t i s t r u e t h a t the  f o r a c o m f o r t a b l e m a t e r i a l l i f e are  b u t they demand c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o u t i l i z e . in  the production o f d a i l y food, the b u i l d i n g  shelters,  V i l l a g e r s work hard  and m a i n t a i n i n g  e d u c a t i n g and c a r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ,  the r e q u i r e m e n t s  of ceremonial  t o assume t h a t i n a p r i m a r i l y  life.  available,  and  of  satisfying  I t i s e q u a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , however,  s u b s i s t e n c e economy a l l o f one's e f f o r t s  a r e a b s o r b e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g a minimum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g .  For i n  a d d i t i o n t o m e e t i n g t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f d a i l y l i f e , t h e r e i s time f o r yaqona (kava) d r i n k i n g , t a l a n o a ( s t o r y - t e l l i n g ) , s i n g i n g , w o r s h i p p i n g , gossiping  and  resting.  e x p e r i e n c e , t o be The  Village  l i f e on Gau  visiting,  i s a many-faceted  sure.  p r o v i n c e o f Ra i s l o c a t e d on the n o r t h s i d e o f V i t i  the main i s l a n d i n t h e F i j i  group.  Levu,  Measuring at i t s g r e a t e s t dimension  40 m i l e s by 24 m i l e s , Ra c o v e r s a l a n d mass o f more than 500 square m i l e s . The  commercial f o c a l  p o i n t o f the p r o v i n c e i s R a k i r a k i ,  from Suva, the c a p i t a l o f F i j i .  Ra p r o v i n c e i s reached  some 99 m i l e s by t r a v e l l i n g  f r o m Suva a l o n g t h e Kings Road, a g r a v e l - t o p highway r u n n i n g a l o n g  the  - 39 -  north coast of V i t i  Levu.  P a s t R a k i r a k i , f u r t h e r west a l o n g  Kings Road, a r e t h e towns o f Tavua, Ba, Lautoka and off  the Kings  Nadi.  the  Running  Road w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e are a number o f f e e d e r  by w h i c h many o f t h e v i l l a g e s i n Ra a r e r e a c h e d . shows the p o s i t i o n o f Ra p r o v i n c e and  The map  roads  on p.  the major commercial  40  centres  4  on V i t i  Levu. The  v i l l a g e s o f Ra i n c l u d e d i n t h e study a r e B u r e n i t u i n  Nalawa D i s t r i c t and  the combined v i l l a g e s o f N a r i k o s o  and  Nakorovou,  more commonly r e f e r r e d t o as Mataso, i n Nakorotubu D i s t r i c t . on p. 41  indicates population  s t a t i s t i c s f o r the three  ( t o t a l and  F i j i a n ) , sex and  Table V  household  villages.  Much o f what I have d e s c r i b e d a b o u t t h e v i l l a g e s i n Gau a p p l i e s t o Ra. and  However, Ra p r o v i n c e  i s a commercial cane-growing  the e f f e c t s o f a cash economy are more r e a d i l y f e l t here.  while Lomaiviti province F i j i a n s known as i Taukei province  i s i n h a b i t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by ("owners")  i s s e t t l e d both by i Taukei  been brought t o F i j i  ( c f . T a b l e I I I , p. 33 and  I n d i a n s , the l a t t e r  from I n d i a as i n d e n t u r e d  B r i t i s h Colonial Administration.  breakdown o f F i j i T a b l e VI on p. 41  as a whole whereas Gau  be c o n c e n t r a t e d  Moreover, Melanesian ) Ra having  sharing  Levu, r e f l e c t s the e t h n i c L o m a i v i t i do  shows t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f F i j i  While the Melanesian to  and  area  l a b o u r e r s under the  Hence, Ra p r o v i n c e ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the i s l a n d o f V i t i  also  by  not.  race.  F i j i a n s i n Ra c o n t i n u e , f o r t h e most p a r t ,  i n v i l l a g e s , the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , by c o n t r a s t ,  i s d i s p e r s e d , s i t u a t e d mostly  a l o n g main roads c r e a t i n g a r i b b o n - l i k e  -  Figure  2-4.  Map o f V i t i p o s i t i o n of  40  -  Levu. (The Ra p r o v i n c e  i l l u s t r a t i o n shows r e l a t i v e to major commercial c e n t r e s . )  - 41 -  TABLE V.  P o p u l a t i o n o f Ra V i l l a g e s : T o t a l , F i j i a n , Sex and Household D i v i s i o n s . (Source: 1976 Census, Government o f F i j i )  Village  Total  Fijian  Male  Female  Burenitu  188  186  94  94  33  Narikoso  139  139  75  64  24  85  85  42  43  13  Nakorovou  TABLE V I .  Households  P o p u l a t i o n o f F i j i by Race: 1966 and 1976 Comparison. (Source: 1976 Census, Government o f F i j i )  Race  1966  1976  Fijians  202,176  259,932  Indians  240,960  292,896  Part-Europeans  9,687  10,276  Europeans  6,590  4,929  Rotumans  5,797  6,822  Chinese  5,149  4,652  Other  6,095  7,291  273  1,270  476,727  588,068  P a c i f i c Islanders  Others Total  TABLE V I I .  Number o f G a l a l a From Three Ra V i l l a q e s , 1979. (Source: R u r a l Worker, Ra)  Total  Mataqali  Households  Galala  Burenitu  210  6  28  15  N a r i koso  100  6  14  8  52  2  8  4  Nakorovou  - 42 -  p a t t e r n , w i t h no f o c a l p o i n t o t h e r than perhaps a v i l l a g e s t o r e . In  t h a t I n d i a n s outnumber t h e M e l a n e s i a n s  i n the t o t a l  population  and a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n commercial c e n t r e s and cane-growing a r e a s , t h e i r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t i e s present a very real F i j i a n v i l l a g e system i n p l a c e s l i k e Ra.  t h r e a t t o the  For i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r  the F i j i a n t o compete w i t h h i s I n d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t i n commercial a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e he m a i n t a i n s communal o b l i g a t i o n s i n t e g r a l F i j i a n way  of l i f e " .  known as g a l a l a F r a s e r , who  to  "the  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t a movement  (independent  farmer)  has met w i t h some success  completed a s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n and  ( i . e . , during F i j i ' s colonial  e r a ) , suggests  i n Ra.  l a n d use i n Ra i n  1969  t h a t the g r e a t e s t l o c a l Q  c h a l l e n g e t o t h e v i l l a g e system i s t h e g a l a l a , he w r i t e s :  In 1959 t h e r e were some 180 g a l a l a i n Ra, r e p r e s e n t i n g a l m o s t 14% o f t h e F i j i a n males a c t u a l l y engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . These were men who w i s h e d t o be f r e e d from communal t a s k s a t the behest o f t h e T u r a g a - n i - k o r o ( v i l l a g e headman), to be a l l o w e d t o work t h e i r own l a n d c o m m e r c i a l l y , and t o s h i f t t h e i r r e s i d e n c e away from the v i l l a g e i f they so w i s h e d . To become a g a l a l a a man had t o make formal a p p l i c a t i o n through the o f f i c i a l d i s t r i c t headman ( B u i i ) to the p r o v i n c i a l headman ( R o k o ) , g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o f his a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y . . . and pay a y e a r l y r a t e t o compensate t h e v i l l a g e f o r l o s s o f h i s s e r v i c e s ( i n B r o o k f i e l d 1973:88-9).  Since F i j i  gained  independence from B r i t a i n i n 1970,  r u l e s f o r becoming g a l a l a no l o n g e r h o l d .  the above  However, t h e moral i s s u e  c o n c e r n i n g communal d u t i e s w i t h i n the v i l l a g e  (as opposed t o formal  - 43 -  s t a t u t e s r e g a r d i n g same) r e m a i n s .  And w h i l e commercial  activities  do not n e c e s s i t a t e e i t h e r l e a v i n g the v i l l a g e o r w i t h d r a w i n g  from  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n customary a c t i v i t i e s , some f a r m e r s do l e a v e  and  some a l t e r t h e i r l i f e T s t y l e s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  T a b l e V I I on p.  i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f g a l a l a i n r e l a t i o n t o o v e r a l l  41  population  and  k i n s h i p c a t e g o r i e s i n the t h r e e v i l l a g e s i n c l u d e d i n the  study.  And  T a b l e V I I I on p. 44  sources  o f income  The  by m a t a q a l i  summarizes p o p u l a t i o n , l a n d use and f o r the two  v i l l a g e s making up Mataso.  R u r a l Worker as Change Agent  The  v i l l a g e s o f Gau  and  Ra d e s c r i b e d above seem f a r removed  from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l i m a t e s u r r o u n d i n g i n Suva.  I want now,  t h e n , t o r e l a t e how  the new  v o l u n t a r y agency  the people o f these two  rural  a r e a s came t o be r e c i p i e n t s o f the development a i d program. E a r l y i n 1972,  while a candidate  f o r the M e t h o d i s t  a t the P a c i f i c T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e i n Suva, a young man E l o n i Goneyali i n t h e new  was  assigned  YMCA o f F i j i .  ministry  from Ra named  a f i e l d w o r k placement w i t h Dennis O l i v e r  In E l o n i s words, 1  One o f t h e v e r y p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c i n g p e o p l e who came i n t o my l i f e t h a t y e a r was Dennis. A f t e r two o r t h r e e weeks o f b e i n g t h e r e w i t h him, and he e x p l a i n e d and e x p l a i n e d and e x p l a i n e d , I got what he was t r y i n g t o s a y , and I s t a r t e d t o get i n t o a c t i o n . Then I asked him, " W e l l , D e n n i s , what i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f my doing t h i s work i n Ra?"  Population, Land Use and Sources of Income by Mataqali, Mataso.  TABLE VIII.  Galala  Land (acres)  Cane  149  No  Land far away; no road to i t .  Cane labour.  1000  No  Land not s u i t a b l e .  Cane labour;  Comment  Other Cash Sources  Population  Households  Navutu  103  13  Sarava  29  Vaturua  43  1500  No  Land not suitable.  Cane labour.  Navuvulo  40  1100  Yes  Two men planting 25 acres each.  Cane labour.  Maqamulagi  20  150  No  Land suitable but no road to i t . Cane labour.  Nadraukawa  34  0  Mataqali  c a t t l e grazing.  Yes  Leasing 150 acres from another  Cattle grazing.  mataqali of which part used for cane growing. Nakorotabu  28  1500  Yes  Namulau  21  1000  Yes  Planting cane on own land.  Cattle grazing.  One man planting on 100 acres;  Cane labour,  other land not suitable. Narau  48  1600  Yes  A l l men plant cane on own land.  Lease of 100 acres to Indians.  - 45  -  He s a i d , "Why Eloni?" I s a i d , "Because I would l i k e t o do i t . " "No, y o u ' r e a t a l a t a l a ( " m i n i s t e r " ) . " I s a i d , "No, I've not made up my mind y e t . B e s i d e s , t h i s i s the t a l a t a l a ' s r o l e , d e a l i n g w i t h the p e o p l e . " So he s a i d , " I t ' s up t o you. You can do i t i f you want t o . " So I went t o t h e p r i n c i p a l o f P.T.C. and I t o l d him t h a t I was g o i n g to do something d i f f e r e n t a f t e r t r a i n i n g there. And he s a i d , "Oh, boy, you put me i n t o t r o u b l e . You put t h i s college into trouble." I s a i d , "Why?" "Because the M e t h o d i s t s s e n t you here on a S c h o l a r s h i p so you c o u l d go back and s e r v e the church. I f you p i c k a d i f f e r e n t r o u t e now, the people w i l l suspect t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n of t r a i n i n g r a d i c a l m i n i s t e r s . P e o p l e a r e g o i n g t o t u r n away from t h e c h u r c h . " I s a i d , "Oh, I don't worry about what t h e M e t h o d i s t s say; I w o r r y about what my f a i t h s a y s . " He l a u g h e d , "Oh, E l o n i . " I s a i d , " I f I go back t o a normal m i n i s t e r i a l r o l e i n t h e c i r c u i t now, I w i l l d i e . I w i l l d i e short. I don't want t h a t t y p e o f l i f e . A fullt i m e p a r i s h m i n i s t e r - t h a t ' s no l i f e ; i t ' s mere repetition." "Oh, a l r i g h t " , he s a i d , "Pray hard and l i s t e n t o God. And t a l k t o y o u r o t h e r p r o f e s s o r s here a t the College. At t h e end, i f you s t i l l h o l d on t o t h a t t h i n g , r i g h t , go. I ' l l be p l e a s e d w i t h you. That's q u i t e a new t h i n g . "  Eloni  d i d " h o l d on t o t h a t t h i n g " ,  and when he completed h i s  theological  t r a i n i n g , he r e t u r n e d t o h i s n a t i v e Ra as a r u r a l worker w i t h the YMCA. The p e o p l e i n Gau g o t t h e YMCA message i n a d i f f e r e n t They f i r s t heard about the r u r a l work program on the r a d i o . man  from t h e v i l l a g e o f Lovu  explains:  way.  A young  - 46 -  We heard t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t . That was back i n 1973 d u r i n g o u r grog p a r t y ( i . e . , yaqona d r i n k i n g ) here one n i g h t . I t was an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Dennis O l i v e r and E l o n i G o n e y a l i . They were e x p l a i n i n g about t h e YMCA and what i t i s t r y i n g t o do. They t a l k e d about t h e y o u t h , urban d r i f t , community development, r u r a l development, t h e problems i n the government programs, so many t h i n g s . The p e o p l e l i s t e n e d and t h e y were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d . So t h e y s t a r t e d t a l k i n g about i t , and a f t e r t h e y d i s c u s s e d i t a w h i l e , t h e y d e c i d e d we needed more i n f o r m a t i o n . So Jone ( i . e . , one o f t h e v i l l a g e r s ) was g o i n g t o Suva and somebody s a i d , "Why don't we send a l e t t e r w i t h J o n e ? " So a l l t h e s e young men w r o t e a l e t t e r ; t h e y s a i d , "We need more information. P l e a s e come and e x p l a i n i t t o u s . " So Jone went t o Suva and he came back, and he t o l d us t h a t t h e y s a i d t h e y would come. That t h e y t h e m s e l v e s would come and e x p l a i n i t t o us. But they t o l d Jone some t h i n g s about i t and he was r e a l l y e x c i t e d and, you know, when we were d r i n k i n g grog o r g o i n g o u t t o t h e g a r d e n s , he would t e l l us about i t . So t h e y came h e r e , Dennis and T a n i e l a ( i . e . , an i n d i g e n o u s man h i r e d by t h e YMCA). They came by boat and they s t a y e d two days h e r e . We had o u r meeting i n t h e Rate's ( i . e . , c h i e f ' s ) house. Dennis t a l k e d i n E n g l i s h and T a n i e l a t r a n s l a t e d . The p e o p l e got more i n t e r e s t e d from l i s t e n i n g t o what he s a i d about what t h e YMCA b e l i e v e s , about what t h e YMCA does. So a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g t h e y t o l d us i t was f o r t h e community t o d e c i d e . . I f t h e community d e c i d e s i t wants t o j o i n t h e YMCA, we can w r i t e a l e t t e r back to t h e o f f i c e . Or i f we d e c i d e r i g h t now, we can l e t them know r i g h t away. So we d e c i d e d r i g h t then t o j o i n t h e YMCA.  The f o l l o w i n g day, a young man named J o v e l i s i s e l e c t e d by t h e v i l l a g e t o be t h e YMCA r u r a l w o r k e r . to  Cavuka was  He t r a v e l l e d  Suva f o r a six-week t r a i n i n g program a t t h e YMCA o f f i c e and r e t u r n e d  to do r u r a l  development on Gau.  In 1976, J o v e l i s i was promoted t o t h e  p o s t i n g o f R u r a l Work D i r e c t o r f o r t h e YMCA o f F i j i  and a n o t h e r young  man from t h e same v i l l a g e , named S e m i s i Loco, was a p p o i n t e d t h e new 9 r u r a l worker f o r Gau.  - 47 -  Figure 2-5.  Principal Figures in the YMCA Rural Work Program  - 48  -  Given t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e we proceed now village  life.  t o a ' d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t r a d i t i o n a l  setting, Fijian  - 49 -  Footnotes  R u r a l work e x p e n d i t u r e s e x p r e s s e d i n F i j i a n d o l l a r s a r e c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e exchange r a t e o f F $ l . 0 0 = C$1.28. The phenomenon o f vanua i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 4. The  concept o f mataqali  i s e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter 4.  For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l geography and r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f Ra p r o v i n c e , I r e f e r t h e r e a d e r t o t h e work o f R.M. F r a z e r who completed a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n on Land Use and P o p u l a t i o n i n Ra P r o v i n c e , F i j i ( A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1961). In t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , see a l s o and e s p e c i a l l y h i s a r t i c l e s "A S o c i a l and Economic H i s t o r y o f Ra P r o v i n c e " i n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e F i j i S o c i e t y , 1962-3, V o l . 9 (1968) and "The F i j i a n V i l l a g e and t h e Independent Farmer" i n B r o o k f i e l d ( E d . ) , The P a c i f i c i n T r a n s i t i o n , Edward A r n o l d , London, 1973. The n o t i o n o f i t a u k e i ("owner") does n o t appear i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p r e - c o n t a c t o r e a r l y c o n t a c t F i j i . I t would seem t o be a name which came t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the M e l a n e s i a n F i j i a n s as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n f l u x o f t h e I n d i a n m i g r a n t s as p e r f o o t n o t e 6 below. However, i t i s not c l e a r t o me whether i t a u k e i i s a name t h e F i j i a n s o f M e l a n e s i a n s t o c k gave t o themselves o r one which was a t t r i b u t e d t o them i n view o f t h e development o f l a n d t e n u r e p o l i c y . The l a n d p o l i c y i s s u e i s t a k e n up i n C h a p t e r 4. P r i o r t o t h e c e d i n g o f F i j i t o B r i t a i n , t h e need f o r o u t s i d e l a b o u r i n F i j i had been met by men r e f e r r e d t o as ' P o l y n e s i a n ' a l t h o u g h t h e y were p r i m a r i l y from t h e M e l a n e s i a n a r e a s o f the New Hebrides and Solomon I s l a n d s (as w e l l as t h e G i l b e r t s and o t h e r i s l a n d g r o u p s ) . S i r A r t h u r Gordon, t h e f i r s t Governor o f t h e new c o l o n y , d e c i d e d on a p o l i c y t o use i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r from I n d i a . W r i t e s Burns, "In view o f the p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e o f t h e F i j i a n s t o t h e i r I n d i a n f e l l o w c i t i z e n s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c a l l t h a t i t was S i r A r t h u r Gordon, one o f t h e g r e a t e s t champions o f t h e F i j i a n p e o p l e , who f i r s t proposed t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f I n d i a n s . He had p r e v i o u s l y been Governor o f M a u r i t i u s , where I n d i a n i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r had been i n t r o d u c e d as e a r l y as 1834. N o t h i n g was done f o r a w h i l e but as ' P o l y n e s i a n ' l a b o u r became s c a r c e r ( p a r t l y because o f c o m p e t i t i o n from  - 50 -  Queensland) and t h e F i j i a n s , d e p l e t e d i n numbers by t h e measles e p i d e m i c , were unable o r u n w i l l i n g t o p e r f o r m r e g u l a r work, Gordon r e v i v e d t h e p r o p o s a l i n 1877. A f t e r l o n g n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Government o f I n d i a a scheme f o r i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r was agreed upon. "The p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e scheme were t h a t v o l u n t e e r s were r e c r u i t e d by agents i n I n d i a and a f t e r s i g n i n g c o n t r a c t s were t r a n s p o r t e d t o F i j i a t t h e expense o f t h e employers t o whom they were l a t e r a s s i g n e d . The c o n t r a c t i n each case was w i t h t h e F i j i Government and t h e l a b o u r e r bound h i m s e l f t o work where he was d i r e c t e d f o r a term o f f i v e y e a r s i n r e t u r n f o r agreed wages and accommodation. He c o u l d then work f o r a n o t h e r f i v e y e a r s f o r whom he p l e a s e d and was a f t e r t h i s e n t i t l e d to f r e e passages back t o I n d i a f o r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y . I t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t f o r t y women s h o u l d be brought t o F i j i f o r e v e r y one hundred men. "The f i r s t i m m i g r a n t s h i p a r r i v e d from I n d i a i n May 1879, w i t h 481 l a b o u r e r s on board. Between t h a t date and 1916, when t h e i n d e n t u r e system was a b o l i s h e d , some 62,000 I n d i a n s were brought t o F i j i under i n d e n t u r e and o f t h e s e o n l y about o n e - t h i r d e x e r c i s e d t h e i r r i g h t t o r e p a t r i a t i o n ; some even o f these s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c i d e d t o come back t o F i j i . There were a l s o a few i m m i g r a n t s who came from I n d i a a t t h e i r own expense, but t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n F i j i (205,068 a t t h e end o f 1961) a r e t h e descendants o f indentured l a b o u r e r s . I t i s estimated that o v e r 92 p e r c e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s now i n F i j i were born i n t h e c o l o n y " (1963:110-11). F o r a more complete account o f t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e i n F i j i , c f . , f o r example, J.W. C o u l t e r , F i j i : L i t t l e I n d i a o f t h e P a c i f i c (1942); K.L. G i l l i o n , The F i j i I n d i a n s : C h a l l e n g e t o European Dominance: 1920-1946 (1977); A.C. Mayer, Peasants i n t h e P a c i f i c : A Study o f F i j i I n d i a n R u r a l S o c i e t y (1961) and by t h e same a u t h o r , I n d i a n s i n Fiji (1963). A d i s c u s s i o n o f communal o b l i g a t i o n s i n t e g r a l t o "the F i j i a n way o f l i f e " i s taken up i n d e t a i l i n P a r t I I o f t h e study. The YMCA r u r a l work program i n Ra c e n t r e s on t h e i s s u e o f g a l a l a and i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n P a r t IV o f t h e s t u d y . I n i t i a l l y , s e l e c t i o n o f YMCA r u r a l w o r k e r s was u n d e r t a k e n by p l a c i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n t h e newspaper, then s h o r t l i s t i n g and i n t e r v i e w i n g r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n b e i n g made by t h e R u r a l Work Committee. Hence, as i n c r e a s i n g funds were secured f o r t h e program, a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were p l a c e d and t h e R u r a l Work Committee d e c i d e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l  - 51 -  c a n d i d a t e s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e were u s u a l l y s e v e r a l r e q u e s t s by v i l l a g e s f o r t h e YMCA s e r v i c e , and s e l e c t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e o r a r e a t o be s e r v e d d i d n o t u s u a l l y precede s e l e c t i o n o f t h e r u r a l worker. As a r e s u l t , t h e r e were cases where t h e r e was no matching o f a r u r a l w o r k e r t o a s p e c i f i c area o f work. In o t h e r words, t h e R u r a l Work Committee was making a d e c i s i o n t o a p p o i n t a man t o an unknown a r e a w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h e p e o p l e of t h a t a r e a . E v e n t u a l l y i t was found t h a t sometimes p e o p l e would s a y t h e y approved o f a p a r t i c u l a r worker so as not t o o f f e n d t h e YMCA b u t then d i d n o t work w i t h t h e o u t s i d e r once he g o t s e t t l e d i n t h e community. As a r e s u l t of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , a p o l i c y o f having the v i l l a g e s e l e c t i t s own c a n d i d a t e i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e R u r a l Work Committee was d e c i d e d upon. T h i s p r o c e d u r e seems t o be working w e l l . Hence, i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e appointment o f S e m i s i Loco as t h e r u r a l worker i n Gau represents the c u r r e n t p o l i c y w h i l e t h a t o f Eloni Goneyali i n Ra i s somewhat o f a s p e c i a l c a s e .  - 52 -  PART I I . THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF TRADITION  -  53 -  And how do we keep our balance? Tradition! You may ask me how our t r a d i t i o n got s t a r t e d . I don't know, but I ' l l t e l l you t h i s : because of t r a d i t i o n , each one of us knows who he i s and what God expects him to do. Without our t r a d i t i o n , our l i v e s would be as shaky as a f i d d l e r on the roof.  - T e v i a , in Fiddler on the Roof  - 54 -  CHAPTER 3.  TRADITION AS EPIPHENOMENON.  Introduction  F i j i a n s have a way of r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r c a l l i t n a . i tovo v a k a v i t i .  It  'tradition . 1  They  translates "the F i j i a n way of l i f e "  and i s taken to mean that d i s t i n c t l y F i j i a n way of doing things. Today, when F i j i a n s i n Gau (and in Ra) make reference to that way of l i f e , they a r t i c u l a t e indigenous culture in terms of three i n s t i t u t i o n a l arenas:  vakavanua (customary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) ,  vakamatanitu (governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) and vakalotu functions)J  (religious  The above categories r e f e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , to s o c i o -  economic, p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s spheres of l i f e .  And given that these  three spheres go together to make up part of what we c a l l  'culture',  we should expect to find an interconsistency or inter-relatedness among the parts.  In the. present-day s i t u a t i o n of F i j i a n s on Gau, however,  the above i s not the case.  Na i tovo vakaviti does not there refer to  a d i s t i n c t l y F i j i a n way of l i f e but rather to an uneasy partnership of indigenous and European i n s t i t u t i o n s , creating an ambience where the F i j i a n i s caught in the current of change, prodded on the one side by allegiance to foreign i n s t i t u t i o n s he c a l l s his own and on the other by an a f f i n i t y to a no longer viable c u l t u r a l past. This current state of cultural p l u r a l i s m , as i t were, seems to elude detection as F i j i a n s continue to speak as though na i tovo vakaviti were a t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e juxtaposed with the p o s s i b i l i t y of a new  - 55 -  and  d i f f e r e n t one.  Note, f o r example, the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by  N a y a c a k a l o u , A F i j i a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t w r i t i n g about h i s own  culture.  But the i r o n y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e p e o p l e a r e i n the m i d d l e o f a p e r i o d o f a c c e l e r a t e d s o c i a l change, t h e r e i s s t i l l d i s c u s s i o n as to whether o r not t o change t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e . On the one hand t h e r e are e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t h a t t h e y a r e not b e i n g h e l p e d enough t o e n t e r t h e modern w o r l d o f c o m p e t i t i v e economic e n t e r p r i s e , w h i l e on the o t h e r , t h e r e i s an e m p h a t i c demand t h a t t h e y must not a l t e r t h e i r way o f l i f e . The c o n f l i c t i s eased p a r t l y by the b e l i e f t h a t one can compete w i t h i n the framework o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and p a r t l y by r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . The f i r s t b e l i e f i s strongly l i n k e d with published views on government p o l i c y , and the second w i t h the i n f l u e n c e o f those who, e i t h e r through s e l f i n t e r e s t o r u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e outcome o f change, b e l i e v e t h a t the o l d o r d e r i s worth p r e s e r v i n g f o r i t s own sake (1975:03).  Nayacakalou i s c o r r e c t about the p r e d i c a m e n t . a l l o w i n g f o r a c h o i c e which does not i n r e a l i t y e x i s t .  Many F i j i a n s  are  For not o n l y does  the F i j i a n no l o n g e r have the o p t i o n o f . " p r e s e r v i n g the o l d o r d e r f o r i t s own  s a k e " ; he has not had  more than a c e n t u r y and  ago,  the o p t i o n a t a l l .  The  "old order"  f i r s t t h r o u g h the p e r s u a s i o n  o f the  fell  missionaries  l a t e r through c o l o n i z a t i o n . The  f o l l o w i n g three chapters  w h i c h make up P a r t I I o f  t h e s i s expand t h e above p o s i t i o n on F i j i a n those F i j i a n s life.  The  ( p r i n c i p a l l y ) i n Gau  ' t r a d i t i o n ; t h a t i s , what 1  take to be t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way  purpose o f the d e s c r i p t i o n i s t w o - f o l d .  e s t a b l i s h , t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f e v e n t s and ' t r a d i t i o n ' which i n f o r m s  the  the F i j i a n  F i r s t , I want to  i d e a s , the essence o f  as to "who  of  he i s and what  God  the  - 56 -  e x p e c t s him to do".  The goal here i s t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  " F i j i a n t r a d i t i o n " which w i l l  l e n d i t s e l f t o comparison  a n a l y s i s o f development i n P a r t I I I o f t h e s t u d y .  w i t h my  S e c o n d l y , I want  t o i n d i c a t e , w i t h i n the above d e s c r i p t i o n , which elements  r e f e r to a  p r e - c o n t a c t c u l t u r e and which r e f l e c t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f e x t e r n a l s p e c i f i c a l l y Europeanization.  The purpose  elements,  here i s t o p r o v i d e a framework  w i t h i n w h i c h t o c o n s i d e r t h e d a t a o f the p r e s e n t - d a y development a i d program i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s h i s t o r i c a l m i s s i o n i z a t i o n c o u n t e r p a r t , a l s o in Part I I I . I enter the e x p l o r a t i o n of F i j i a n epiphenomenon.  Much o f what I w i l l  ' t r a d i t i o n ' a t the l e v e l  i n c l u d e i n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r might  w e l l d e s c r i b e dimensions o f socio-economic, p o l i t i c a l i n various parts of F i j i .  of  and r e l i g i o u s  life  However, the goal here i s not t o s t r i v e f o r a  generalized description of F i j i a n culture.  The purpose  i s instead to  p r e s e n t data from Gau a t a f i r s t o r d e r o f a b s t r a c t i o n and t o make some p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t s about t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . t h e more g e n e r a l p i c t u r e and how will  (1)  these data r e f e r to  t h e y compare w i t h e x i s t i n g  be taken up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  s a t i s f y two c r i t e r i a :  How  ethnographies  The d a t a which are i n c l u d e d  t h e y r e p r e s e n t t y p i c a l , on-going  and i d e a s w i t h i n each o f t h e t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n a l  a r e n a s , and  activities (2)  c o r r e s p o n d t o those same spheres o f a c t i v i t y which are i n t e g r a l  they t o the  development a i d program ( o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f P a r t I I I ) . In t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  s p h e r e , I am f o c u s s i n g on a c t i v i t i e s and i d e a s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d ( s p e c i f i c a l l y yams), s h e l t e r  and  e d u c a t i o n , and t h e s e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one's duty t o k i n w h i c h , i n Gau a t l e a s t , i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f v e i l a l a v i  as communal work  - 57 -  on b e h a l f o f t h e community.  In t h e p o l i t i c a l  realm, I w i l l describe  two e v e n t s w h i c h , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , i l l u s t r a t e one's duty t o c h i e f w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e n o t i o n o f v a k a t u l e w a v a k a t u r a g a as a system o f c h i e f l y command.  The t h i r d a r e a f o c u s s e s on r e l i g i o u s meanings and one's duty  t o God t h r o u g h t h e c o n c e p t o f v e i g a r a v i  ( w o r s h i p ) and t h e data i n c l u d e  e v e n t s and i d e a s o c c u r r i n g both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e f o r m a l c h u r c h program.  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , a l l o f t h e above d a t a a r e taken  from Gau, t h e p r i n c i p a l  f i e l d location  i n the study.  The Ra data a r e  r e s e r v e d f o r P a r t IV where t h e Ra r u r a l development program d e s c r i b e d t h e r e p r o v i d e s a f i t t i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f Gau i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s emphasized  i n Chapter 2 between t h e Gau and Ra areas  of  Fiji.  VEILALAVI:  2  ONE'S DUTY TO KIN.  Yam G a r d e n i n g and Kerekere  As s u b s i s t e n c e c u l t i v a t o r s w i t h some cash income, Gau I s l a n d e r s spend a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r w o r k i n g hours i n t h e i r  gardens.  Each man m a i n t a i n s h i s own garden on m a t a q a l i ( c l a n , i n a s e n s e , but more properly a land-holding unit) land.  Two p r i n c i p a l  r o o t crops - t a v i o k a  ( c a s s a v a ) and d a l o ( t a r o ) - a r e p l a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y w h i l e a t h i r d r o o t c r o p , u v i (yam), i s p l a n t e d communally. long storage p o t e n t i a l .  Yam i s a s e a s o n a l c r o p and has  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c r u c i a l food i t e m - (cassava  and t a r o a r e n o t s t o r a g e c r o p s ) - and l i k e t a r o , f e a t u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n c e r e m o n i a l exchanges.  In Gau, when yam season - August  through  O c t o b e r - a p p r o a c h e s , each man's garden i n t u r n i s p l a n t e d by t h e community  - 58 -  of a d u l t males.  In exchange, the h o s t gardener p r o v i d e s  J  noon-day meal and  the  the e v e n i n g ' s yaqona (kava) d r i n k i n g f o r t h a t p l a n t i n g  day. The  yam  i n the p a r t o f Gau  garden r e p r e s e n t s where I worked.  cassava p l a n t a t i o n s , the occasion calls for a ritual  something o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e In c o n t r a s t t o t a r o patches  o f a young man's f i r s t yam  o b s e r v a n c e known as the r o v a .  the g i v i n g away o f t r a d i t i o n a l w e a l t h and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p l a n t i n g o f the new  and  garden  This event i n v o l v e s  a communal f e a s t i n g upon  garden.  The  preparations  for  t h e r o v a a r e made by the f e m a l e a d u l t s o f the y o u t h ' s m a t a g a l i . t h e women see t h a t t h e p l a n t i n g i s c o m p l e t e d , one davui  (the trumpet s h e l l  r o v a i s ready. s t i c k s and  the d a v u i ,  r a c e f o r the r o v a .  He who  (whale's t o o t h , the most v a l u a b l e runner-up w i l l masi  t h e men  leave t h e i r  that  form o f t r a d i t i o n a l w e a l t h ) .  s h e a t h s o f the pandanus p l a n t , d r i e d and soap, and  the  digging  The  s u l u ( p i e c e o f c l o t h ) or  the r e m a i n i n g w e a l t h - k e r o s e n e , v o i v o i  perhaps some c a n d i e s and  the  gets t h e r e f i r s t w i l l win a tabua  l i k e l y receive a t r a d i t i o n a l  (tapa c l o t h ) , and  o f them blows  known as the t r i t o n ) t o a l e r t the men  Upon h e a r i n g  When  (the  p r e p a r e d f o r the making o f m a t s ) ,  the l i k e - w i l l  remainder o f those t a k i n g p a r t i n the p l a n t i n g .  be s h a r e d by  Then t h e y f e a s t  the together.  In t h a t no s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y accompanies the i n i t i a t i o n o f a young man's c a s s a v a p l a n t a t i o n o r t a r o p a t c h , and, and  whereas yam,  as opposed t o c a s s a v a  t a r o , i s communally p l a n t e d , the rova seems to me  t o be s y m b o l i c  the young man's a d m i s s i o n i n t o the community o f a d u l t males i n the  4 context  o f r e c i p r o c a l r i g h t s and  duties regarding  communal  labour.  of  - 59 -  Recent o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r cash employment, p r i n c i p a l l y  the  b u i l d i n g o f a government road around t h e i s l a n d , and t h e c o m p l e t i o n of  a l o c a l a i r s t r i p and t e r m i n a l , have p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n  on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f communal p l a n t i n g . who to  t a k e s on a temporary  For w h i l e a  man  o r permanent wage-earning p o s i t i o n can  continue  p l a n t c a s s a v a o r t a r o i n h i s s p a r e t i m e , h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  communal e f f o r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h yam  p r o d u c t i o n i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e .  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o whether the r e m a i n i n g v i l l a g e m a l e s , almost all  o f whom a r e k i n - r e l a t e d , w i l l  w a g e - e a r n i n g member.  c o n t i n u e t o p l a n t t h e yam  C l e a r l y , t h i s c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t i n v o l v e s a moral  dilemma and c h a l l e n g e s the i d e o l o g y o f t r a d i t i o n a l D u r i n g t h e 1979 v i l l a g e meeting for  i n Gau  exchange.  r e s e a r c h y e a r , a d e c i s i o n was made i n a  t h a t t h e yam  gardens o f t h o s e u n d e r t a k i n g l a b o u r  cash would no l o n g e r be communally p l a n t e d .  d e c i s i o n was  garden o f a  a sentiment expressed  d u r i n g yam  The  g e n e s i s o f the above  p l a n t i n g where the  c o n v e r s a t i o n l e d t o t h e s o l u t i o n t h a t , i f t h o s e v i l l a g e r s who cash income want a yam  are e a r n i n g  g a r d e n , t h e y s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e money t o the  community. When c a s h - e a r n i n g members were i n f o r m e d o f the d e c i s i o n , t h e i r responses were v a r i o u s .  One  r e p l i e d , " I f t h a t ' s the p l a n , I don't  want t o t a k e p a r t i n any more v i l l a g e f u n d - r a i s i n g , and when t h e r e ' s a soli  ( o f f e r i n g ) , I won't c o n t r i b u t e . "  Another went t o some kinsmen i n  a n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e and, p r e s e n t i n g a tabua traditional  way,  (whale's  t o o t h ) i n the  r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e y p l a n t h i s garden f o r him; they d i d .  A t h i r d went q u i e t l y and p l a n t e d h i s yam  garden by h i m s e l f .  5  - 60  The p r o d u c t i o n o f yam  -  i s one element i n the moral e q u a t i o n .  A second d i m e n s i o n i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . the t r a d i t i o n a l  Here a g a i n , t h e t e n s i o n between  and t h e emergent becomes e v i d e n t .  a t l e a s t , a c h o i c e : he can d i s p o s e o f h i s yam yields additional  s u r p l u s - f o r a yam  garden  t o one's h o u s e h o l d consumption needs - by s e l l i n g h i s  yams o r by g i v i n g them away. to a t r a d i t i o n a l  For one has, i d e a l l y  I f he does the l a t t e r , one i s r e s p o n d i n g  system o f d e l a y e d r e c i p r o c i t y known as k e r e k e r e whereby  one can "borrow" from k i n i n time o f need, t h e r e b y p l a c i n g  himself  under o b l i g a t i o n t o respond t o a s i m i l a r r e q u e s t on some f u t u r e o c c a s i o n . K e r e k e r e i s d e f i n e d i n the New  F i j i a n D i c t i o n a r y (1973) as "a system o f  g a i n i n g t h i n g s by begging f o r them from a member o f one's own group - a r e c o g n i z e d system i n F i j i a n s o c i e t y "  (95).  However, as S a h l i n s  (1962)  p o i n t s o u t , k e r e k e r e i s not s i m p l y " b o r r o w i n g " and i s c e r t a i n l y not "begging" as we g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e p r a c t i c e s .  Kerekere  derives  from t h e v e r b kerea which means " t o r e q u e s t " and t h e r e q u e s t might be a good o r a s e r v i c e o r t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f a c h i e f o r so f o r t h .  In o t h e r  words, k e r e k e r e i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o economic t r a n s a c t i o n s i n the narrow sense o f t h e word.  Indeed, i t has no p r e c i s e analogue i n European  economic t h i n k i n g because one o f t h e c r i t i c a l kinship.  features of kerekere  Sahlins writes:  K i n s h i p between donor and r e c i p i e n t i s an i n d i c a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of kerekere. Most r e q u e s t s a r e made t o kinsmen w i t h i n the home community, b u t i n any case the person p u t t i n g the r e q u e s t and the p o t e n t i a l donor s h o u l d be kinsmen. T h i s does not i n f a c t r e s t r i c t the sphere o f k e r e k e r e i n any way because k i n s h i p can always be w i d e l y extended t h r o u g h c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  is  - 61 -  d e v i c e s , o r i f n e c e s s a r y through t h e i d e a t h a t a l l F i j i a n s - o r a l l humanity - have a common origin. The avenues o f k e r e k e r e open t o j u s t about anyone a person meets. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f k i n s h i p f o r kerekere i s t h a t k i n e t h i c s , the o b l i g a t i o n t o g i v e s u p p o r t , a i d , and c o m f o r t , dominate t h e t r a n s a c t i o n . The economic o r t h e u t i l i t a r i a n element o f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n i s once again subordinated t o the s o c i a l , kinship element (1962:203-4).  The  f o l l o w i n g datum c o l l e c t e d by S a h l i n s on t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g ( t o Gau)  i s l a n d o f Moala perhaps  b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e above p r i n c i p a l .  E a r l y i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f k e r e k e r e I asked a man t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r y n a i v e q u e s t i o n : "Suppose two men, one a r e l a t i v e o f y o u r s and one n o t , had something t h a t you needed, which would you go t o ( f o r k e r e k e r e ) ? " The r e p l y was t o t h i s e f f e c t : "I would go t o my r e l a t i v e , o f c o u r s e . I f he d i d n ' t g i v e i t t o me, and t h e o t h e r man d i d I would know t h a t t h e o t h e r man was r e a l l y my relative." (1962:204).  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f k e r e k e r e i s t h a t any such r e q u e s t s h o u l d r e f e r t o a l e g i t i m a t e need o r 1eqa ("problem"). disagrees  Hence, S a h l i n s  (as do I ) w i t h Roth's (1953) p e r c e p t i o n o f k e r e k e r e where  " i f a person admired  something  b e l o n g i n g t o a n o t h e r , i t was handed over  as i f t h e a c t o f a d m i r a t i o n had been a r e q u e s t t o p a r t w i t h i t " ( 3 6 ) . W r i t e s S a h l i n s , "Perhaps  t h i s i s t r u e among F i j i a n s l i v i n g i n European  c e n t r e s , but i t i s not the t r a d i t i o n a l  form o f k e r e k e r e "  (1962:441).^  As p r a c t i s e d on Gau, k e r e k e r e may r e f e r t o t h e c a s u a l " b o r r o w i n g " o f some f o o d s t u f f s , soap o r kerosene  f o r immediate needs,  o r r e p r e s e n t a more f o r m a l and c o s t l y r e q u e s t as i n t h e example below.  - 62 -  On  t h i s o c c a s i o n , which took p l a c e d u r i n g 1979,  have a r r i v e d from a n e i g h b o u r i n g Ceremonially  p r e s e n t i n g two  a delegation of  v i l l a g e on the same i s l a n d .  tabua t o the v i l l a g e c h i e f and  assembled m a l e s , they make t h e i r  men  the  request.  We have s e t t l e d on a p i e c e o f l a n d which belongs t o the V u n i v a l u ( i . e . , the paramount chief). So t h i s y e a r we want t o t a k e a sevu ( " f i r s t - f r u i t s " ) o f the l a n d we a r e u s i n g t o the V u n i v a l u . We have been l o o k i n g around to see what we've g o t ; i t d o e s n ' t s u i t our need. We don't have enough t o t a k e . So t h a t i s why we have come here t h i s e v e n i n g . We want t o t a k e something t o t h e landowner on whose l a n d we a r e s e t t l i n g . The kamunaga ( r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c e r e m o n i a l l y p r e s e n t e d t a b u a ) i s not enough; i t i s too s m a l l . I f i t i s u g l y , we hope t h a t you w i l l see i t as g o o d - l o o k i n g ; i f i t i s s m a l l , we hope t h a t you w i l l see i t as a b i g t h i n g . We put the i c o l a c o l a ("burden t o the s h o u l d e r " ) on you now and we hope t h a t we won't go back empty. We a r e sure t h a t we are going to r e c e i v e h e l p from you. The words o f the kamunaga ( i . e . , the speech accompanying the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t a b u a ) a r e l o n g which are p r e s e n t e d up t o the C h i e f Ratu ( i . e . , a formal t i t l e s i g n i f y i n g c h i e f l y s t a t u s ) and o t h e r s under him. 7  The  p r e s e n t a t i o n r e c e i v e s the f o l l o w i n g r e p l y , spoken by a v i l l a g e e l d e r  r e p r e s e n t i n g the C h i e f Ratu.  I'm t o u c h i n g t h e kamunaga ( i . e . , he has taken the tabua i n h i s h a n d s ) , t h e kamunaga vakaturaga ( t h e c h i e f l y p r e s e n t e d t r a d i t i o n a l w e a l t h ) , the kamunaga o f l i f e , the kamunaga o f f i r m n e s s . Our b l o o d s h a l l be t h i c k , ( i . e . , our k i n s h i p s h a l l be s t r o n g ) . May you g e t what you need.  - 63  He  -  hands t h e tabua t o h i s matanivanua ( l i t e r a l l y , " f a c e o f the  referring  t o the spokesman f o r the c h i e f ) .  land",  The matanivanua now  speaks.  I'm u n t y i n g ( i . e . , r e c e i v i n g ) t h e kamunaga from the hands o f the C h i e f R a t u , the kamunaga w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d from the C h i e f Tui £. ( i . e . , t h e h i g h e s t r a n k i n g c h i e f from t h e requesting v i l l a g e . ) We r e c e i v e the kamunaga with a high f e e l i n g . What you have come f o r s h a l l be done because we have r e c e i v e d t h e kamunaga f o r the p u r p o s e i t was presented. We s h a l l do our d u t y v e r y w e l l . Our b l o o d s h a l l be t h i c k and t h e lewa ( r u l e , command) o f t h e vanua ( " l a n d " , r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to a t e r r i t o r y under the l e a d e r s h i p o f a c h i e f ) s h a l l be f i r m .  Then, f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l made as a sevusevu ( o f f e r i n g wealth is  o f two  tabua.  custom, a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f yaqona (kava) i s of f i r s t - f r u i t s )  i n r e t u r n f o r the  presented  The matanivanua f o r the c h i e f o f the host  village  speaking:  To the C h i e f Tui Q. Here i s a s m a l l yaqona, the sevusevu o f the kamunaga which has a l r e a d y been presented As you know, we were not p r e p a r e d f o r y o u r coming, so y o u ' l l see t h a t the yaqona i s n o t enough f o r t h i s o c c a s i o n . We a l r e a d y a c c e p t the purpose o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n you have made. We w i l l s u r e l y do i t because i t i s our custom, t h e custom w h i c h the F i j i a n i s w e l l known f o r by o t h e r r a c e s i n F i j i . You a r e not f o r e i g n e r s to t h i s p l a c e ; you know t h a t v e r y well We'll s u r e l y do i t because i t i s our custom...  And  a spokesman f o r the d e l e g a t i o n from the r e q u e s t i n g v i l l a g e  the yaqona.  receives  - 64 -  I'm l i f t i n g t h e s e v u s e v u , t h e sevusevu o f t h e vanua ( " l a n d " , r e f e r r i n g t o a t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l t e r r i t o r y ) , t h e sevusevu v a k a t u r a g a (the c h i e f l y p r e s e n t e d y a q o n a ) , t h e sevusevu which i s p r e s e n t e d by my vanua from t h e C h i e f Ratu t o t h e Chi e f T u i Q_. Na_ vosa k a c i na ba k e i Bau! ( l i t e r a l l y , "Shout t h e w a l l s o f Bau", Bau b e i n g t h e c h i e f l y i s l a n d o f F i j i ) . T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n g l o r i f i e s t h e F i j i a n custom! Our c h i l d r e n s h a l l be w e l l e d u c a t e d . T h i s vanua s h a l l have p e a c e f u l l i v i n g . L e t ' s have na k a l o u g a t a n i l o l o m a ("the b l e s s i n g o f l o v e " ) t h i s year.  Two weeks l a t e r , a d e l e g a t i o n o f men from t h e donor  village  j o u r n e y e d t o t h e r e q u e s t i n g v i l l a g e t o d e l i v e r t h e k e r e k e r e o f yams. C e r e m o n i a l l y p r e s e n t e d and r e c e i v e d , t h e yams mediated reiterating  speeches  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f k i n s h i p , a hope t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  system o f l e a d e r s h i p would remain f i r m , and a c o n c e r n t h a t t h e p e o p l e of t h e two v i l l a g e s , many o f whom a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h b l o o d and m a r r i a g e , would c o n t i n u e t o see t o each o t h e r ' s needs. the  vakatale,  In t h e c l o s i n g speech o f  a ceremony g r a n t i n g p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e d e l e g a t i o n t o  l e a v e , t h e h o s t v i l l a g e reminds them:  Today we s t a r t up a new way o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between y o u and us. W e l l , I might be wrong i f I c a l l i t a new t h i n g ; i t ' s j u s t an o l d thing. I t has t o be k e p t a l i v e . The door i s open t o a l l o f you. You can always come i n and go out. Ask f o r water i f you l i k e , a l s o f o r food  Through e v e n t s such as t h e k e r e k e r e u v i o u t l i n e d above, t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l custom o f b o r r o w i n g and g i v i n g i s t e s t e d and  - 65 -  reaffirmed.  The donor v i l l a g e p a r t s w i t h 18 b a s k e t s  (approximately  400 pounds) o f yam i n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e c i p i e n t s may i n t u r n g i v e them away. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i n t h e s t a t e m e n t quoted above, t h a t the s p e a k e r f i r s t s u g g e s t s t h a t a new k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d . That he then c o r r e c t s h i s assessment and r e a f f i r m s an age-old  custom speaks t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e  i d e o l o g y o f t r a d i t i o n a l exchange. kerekere  Should one c o n t i n u e  t o respond t o  o f yams a t a t i m e when i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r cash income  mean t h a t one might s e l l  h i s s u r p l u s yams r a t h e r than g i v e them away?  The  s i t u a t i o n poses a moral dilemma as t h e f o l l o w i n g datum r e v e a l s .  The  s p e a k e r i s t h e YMCA r u r a l w o r k e r f o r Gau and he i s t e l l i n g me about a  c o n v e r s a t i o n he had w i t h a young f a r m e r on t h e i s l a n d e a r l y i n 1979.  I had a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h A. a few days ago and he s a i d he has a l o t o f yams t h i s y e a r . So I threw a j o k e t o him, " W e l l , you might end up w i t h a l o t o f k e r e k e r e a t t h e end o f t h e year". He s a i d , "No, t h a t was l a s t y e a r ! But i f I end up w i t h k e r e k e r e , i t doesn't matter. A l r e a d y t h e people a r e s t a r t i n g t o come t o me . with kerekere". So I s a i d , " B e t t e r t r y t o stop it". He s a i d , "No, i t ' s n o t my way. I ' l l j u s t g i v e them away. That's a F i j i a n man; t h a t ' s my way". I s a i d , " W e l l , i f y o u s t o p i t , they won't come a g a i n and k e r e k e r e . But i f you keep g i v i n g , t h e y ' l l keep coming and y o u ' l l have nothing l e f t . Why don't y o u stop i t and t r y to s e l l y o u r yams?" He s a i d , "You want t o p u t me i n t o a n o t h e r k i n d o f l i f e , t h e l i f e o f buying t h i n g s ! " In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ways, i t d o e s n ' t l o o k r i g h t to s e l l things to others. It's a l i t t l e b i t cold to the F i j i a n . It's r e a l l y against t h e i r way o f l i f e . The sense o f b u y i n g t h i n g s , they say i t i s t h e I n d i a n way. I t i s n o t good. The F i j i a n way i s good.  - 66 -  R e p a i r i n g t h e Bure  The b a s i c household u n i t i n Gau i s composed o f a man, h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n and perhaps some dependent r e l a t i v e s .  He m a i n t a i n s  h i s compound on a s p e c i f i e d p i e c e o f v i l l a g e l a n d b e l o n g i n g matagali,  to h i s  t h a t compound c o n s i s t i n g , i n most c a s e s , o f a s l e e p i n g house  ( v a l e n i moce), a c o o k i n g house ( v a l e n i k u r o ) and a t o i l e t  (vale  lailai).  The b u i l d i n g and maintenance o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f yam p r o d u c t i o n . labour  Each man i s e n t i t l e d t o communal  f o r h i s p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r and he, i n t u r n , has communal  g obligation And, and  f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e bure ( F i j i a n house) f o r o t h e r s .  as i n yam p r o d u c t i o n ,  the host i s responsible  f o r t h e mid-day meal  t h e e v e n i n g ' s yagona d r i n k i n g f o r t h o s e days he i s t h e b e n e f a c t o r  t h e communal e f f o r t .  (Cf. i l l u s t r a t i o n  i n F i g u r e 3-1).  A p a r t from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l replaced  of  bure i s f a s t  being  by wood and b l o c k c o n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e communal p r a c t i c e o f  b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g  t h e bure i s coming under p r e s s u r e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r cash labour.  from incoming  As i n t h e case o f t h e yam g a r d e n , some  s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e v i l l a g e c o n c e r n whether o r n o t t o b u i l d and maintain  t h e s h e l t e r s o f those f a m i l i e s whose a d u l t m a l e s , because o f  p a i d l a b o u r , a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e communal a c t i v i t y . On t h i s o c c a s i o n , 9 T. :  t h e m a t t e r has been brought up a t a v i l l a g e meeting. 9 About R. As we know, he i s w o r k i n g f o r p a i d l a b o u r now. But he t o l d me h i s s l e e p i n g house needs r e p a i r and he t o l d me t o ask t h i s c o u n c i l i f t h e v i l l a g e can b u i l d h i s house. I t o l d him t h a t t h e v i l l a g e a l r e a d y made a d e c i s i o n t h a t f o r t h o s e r e c e i v i n g p a i d l a b o u r , b e t t e r i f they g i v e some money f o r t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g . But I commented t o him, ' S u r e l y t h e v i l l a g e w i l l see t o  - 67 -  t h i s ; i t ' s their responsibility to build a s l e e p i n g house f o r any v i l l a g e r ' . But I t o l d him I w o u l d l i s t e n t o t h e v o i c e o f this council. I would l i k e t o g i v e a comment about what T. has s a i d . He has a l r e a d y g i v e n h i s judgement t o R. So what's t h e use o f b r i n g i n g i t up a g a i n a t a v i l l a g e meeting? I'd l i k e t o ask a l l o f us not t o make a m i s t a k e l i k e t h a t again. Because i f y o u want t h e v i l l a g e t o make a judgement about i t , then don't say a n y t h i n g t o t h a t man. You a l r e a d y t o l d him i t ' s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the v i l l a g e t o b u i l d i t . So i f you want t h e v i l l a g e t o make a d e c i s i o n on i t , then d o n ' t say a n y t h i n g t o t h a t f e l l o w . I f you want t o j u d g e i t , then j u s t t e l l him t h e v i l l a g e s h o u l d b u i l d t h e house w i t h o u t him p a y i n g f o r i t . I f you don't want t o j u d g e i t , then say n o t h i n g t o him about i t . T e l l him y o u ' l l t a k e t h e m a t t e r t o t h e v i l l a g e m e e t i n g and l e t them make a d e c i s i o n on i t . Because i f we a l r e a d y make an agreement w i t h t h a t p e r s o n , then come here and change t h e judgement a g a i n , i t w i l l be f r u s t r a t i n g t o him. I was j u s t t h i n k i n g about t h e p l a n we a l r e a d y have f o r t h e yam p l a n t i n g ( i . e . , n o t t o p l a n t t h e gardens o f those w o r k i n g f o r c a s h income). So t h a t ' s why I brought i t up i n t h e v i l l a g e meeting t o hear the voice of the council. W e l l , we mustn't f r u s t r a t e them so much. J u s t speak o u t s t r a i g h t what y o u t h i n k . I t h i n k you have some power t o make d e c i s i o n s on m a t t e r s l i k e t h a t . (Chairman o f t h e c o u n c i l ) think of that decision?  W e l l , what do you people  I think i t ' s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the v i l l a g e to b u i l d h i s s l e e p i n g house. I'd l i k e t o g i v e a n o t h e r comment about the d i s c u s s i o n g o i n g on. As we a r e v i l l a g e r s , a l s o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n (i.e., t h e YMCA) we a r e i n , you know we always want t o keep t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p good, t h e way we r e l a t e t o each o t h e r . I t h i n k t h a t i f we a r e going t o use money, i t w i l l t a k e away t h e good r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s a l r e a d y here. I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r us t o have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p i f we don't t a k e hands t o g e t h e r . L i k e houseb u i l d i n g , we must do i t f a i r l y t o everybody.  -  Figure  3-1.  R e p a i r i n g the  68 -  Bure.  - 69 -  Three weeks l a t e r , t h e s l e e p i n g house was  repaired.  And  s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , t h e b e n e f i c i a r y gave the sermon a t the r e g u l a r Sunday morning  church s e r v i c e .  Luke, c h a p t e r 10, v e r s e 29: s a i d unto J e s u s , 'And who  He chose as h i s S c r i p t u r a l r e a d i n g  "But he, w i l l i n g t o j u s t i f y h i m s e l f ,  i s my n e i g h b o u r ? ' " F o l l o w i n g i s a summary  o f h i s sermon.  T h i s i s t h e q u e s t i o n asked by a p r e a c h e r o f the l a w , o r we can s a y , a g r e a t r e l i g i o u s man. To me, t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t he a s k e d , he a l r e a d y knew t h e answer. He j u s t wanted t o t e s t J e s u s . What happened i n t h a t s t o r y i s what o f t e n happens t o us t o d a y , o r t o many r e l i g i o u s men and women today. We dodge the problems o f o t h e r p e o p l e ; we dodge o u r d u t y . Two months ago, I was v e r y u p s e t about t h e r e s u l t s o f a meeting h e l d t h e n . Those who a r e p a i d l a b o u r , t h e i r yam gardens mustn't be planted. I would say t h a t t h i s i s n o t a good S a m a r i t a n . A good S a m a r i t a n l o v e s everybody. But my upset was changed a g a i n l a s t week when my s l e e p i n g house was r e p a i r e d . We must t r y t o loloma ( " l o v e " ) everybody.  P r o v i s i o n f o r E d u c a t i n g the Young  Secondary  schools i n F i j i ,  operate a fee schedule f o r attendance. s c h o o l f e e s i n Gau Each man  both p r i v a t e and government, The s o u r c e o f payment f o r  i s d e r i v e d , i n l a r g e p a r t , from t h e s a l e o f c o p r a .  m a i n t a i n s a c o p r a p l a n t a t i o n on h i s m a t a q a l i l a n d and when cash  income i s needed, he has ready a c c e s s t o coconuts and t o t h e i r s a l e to the government c o o p e r a t i v e t h r o u g h v i l l a g e - o p e r a t e d c o o p e r a t i v e s t o r e s . Cash payment i s immediate.  However, w h i l e the income from c o p r a i s  - 70 -  i n d i v i d u a l l y earned  - the income a man  earns from c o p r a i s c o n s i d e r e d  h i s p r i v a t e income - r a t h e r t h a n pay t h e s c h o o l f e e s f o r h i s c h i l d r e n d i r e c t l y from t h e s e e a r n i n g s , he t a k e s p a r t i n a v i l l a g e t h e income from which  i s used f o r the secondary  e l i g i b l e school c h i l d r e n i n the v i l l a g e . secondary  s c h o o l c h i l d i n t u r n host  e d u c a t i o n o f a l l the  Hence, the p a r e n t s o f each  a kati  ( o f f e r i n g ) b e f o r e the s c h o o l y e a r commences. are expected  fund-raising,  ( l o t t e r y ) o r perhaps a s o l i A l l members o f the  t o a t t e n d and p a r t i c i p a t e , the men  village  p r o b a b l y having c u t c o p r a  e a r l i e r t h e same day. The c o s t o f secondary School  i n 1979 was  to a school y e a r . Viti  s c h o o l f e e s i n t h e Gau  J u n i o r Secondary  r e c o r d e d a t $76.00 per term, t h e r e b e i n g t h r e e terms A p r i v a t e secondary  Levu, a t t e n d e d by some Gau  s c h o o l on the main i s l a n d o f  secondary  s t u d e n t s , charged  $96.00 i n s c h o o l f e e s f o r t h e t h r e e terms p l u s an a d d i t i o n a l textbooks.  a total  of  $10.00 f o r  Accommodation and food were not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s sum;  students  boarded w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n o r around Suva, t h e i r p a r e n t s f r e q u e n t l y s e n d i n g f o o d t o t h e household  to defray the c o s t .  f u n d - r a i s i n g r e s u l t s i n one Gau  Table  and  school education.  cost.  The  table  1979.  A b r i e f glance at Table r a i s e d through the k a t i  below o f t h e  v i l l a g e i n d i c a t e s the amount c o n t r i b u t e d  t h r o u g h communal e f f o r t i n r e l a t i o n t o the above o v e r a l l shows f i g u r e s f o r 1978  IX  IX i n d i c a t e s t h a t the amount o f money  i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o c o v e r the c o s t s o f  secondary  M o r e o v e r , i f we examine t h e r e c o r d s o f c a s h income  from c o p r a s a l e s o f t h e two c o o p e r a t i v e s t o r e s i n t h e v i l l a g e , i t i s e q u a l l y a p p a r e n t t h a t , a p a r t from a n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r which damages the c o p r a p l a n t a t i o n - ( n o t e , f o r example, i n  Table X (p. 7 1 ) , a sharp  - 71 -  TABLE IX.  Secondary School  Fees R a i s e d i n a Gau V i l l a g e , 1978 and 1979.  Student  1978  1979  1  $71.15  $75.33  2  71.14  58.07  3  75.10  4  63.28  5  62.95  6  64.03  7  62.83  52.41  8  49.58  36.13  9  38.40  10  46.12  51.34  49.11  11 12  38.82  13  30.63  14  92.01  TABLE X.  36.63  Copra S a l e s by Month f o r 1979 i n a Gau  Cooperative 1 January February March April May June July August September October November December Total  $629.18 355.65 540.25 1,157.94 538.34 334.58 91.35 85.45 95.44 37.30 39.26 72.73 $3,977.47  Village.  Cooperative 2  $394.77 402.06 283.27 279.71 601.72 234.65 224.47 279.22 155.39 161.66 178.55 248.60 $3,444.07  Total  $1,023.95 757.71 823.52 1 ,437.65 1,140.06 569.23 315.82 364.67 250.83 198.96 217.81 321.33 $7,421.54  - 72 -  i n c r e a s e f o l l o w e d by a sudden d e c r e a s e i n c o p r a s a l e s r e s u l t i n g  from  t h e damage caused by H u r r i c a n e M e l i i n March o f 1979) - c o p r a i s a good s o u r c e o f income f o r meeting e d u c a t i o n c o s t s and t h e l i k e .  Table X  shows c o p r a s a l e s f o r each month