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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Politics, unions, and the new middle class : a study of white-collar workers in Britain Robbins, Allan R. 1981

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P O L I T I C S , UNIONS, AND THE NEW MIDDLE C L A S S : A STUDY OF WHITE-COLLAR WORKERS IN B R I T A I N b y ; ALLAN R. RQBBINS ^ B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , ( B e r k e l e y ) , 1966 . M . A . * - M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA N o v e m b e r 1981 0 A l l a n R. R o b b i n s , 1981 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date MlAJ^dlA I fi i i P o l i t i c s , U n i o n s , a nd t h e New M i d d l e C l a s s : A S t u d y o f W h i t e - C o l l a r W o r k e r s i n B r i t a i n A b s t r a c t The t h e s i s p o r t r a y s the B r i t i s h w h i t e - c o l l a r worker i n r e l a t i o n t o f o u r domains of a n a l y s i s : the workplace, the t r a d e union, the c l a s s system, and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . I t s e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s d e r i v e from in-depth i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 134 " s t a f f employees of Midland Products", a l a r g e manufacturing c o r p o r a t i o n i n Nottingham. At Midland, the broad e v o c a t i o n "the r i s e o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work" obscures the cleavage i n non-manual job types between l i g h t c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s and b e t t e r - p a i d , h i g h l y - r a n k e d , and s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s . I t a l s o obscures a cleavage among the s t a f f employees between women, who are more s a t i s f i e d a t work and l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n promotion, and men, who are r e l a t i v e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d and more ambitious. Moreover, men dominate the b e t t e r , and women the most j u n i o r and p o o r e s t -p a i d jobs at the company. N e v e r t h e l e s s , women are much l e s s l i k e l y than men v o l u n t a r i l y to a f f i l i a t e w ith trade unions. Women are a l s o more h o s t i l e t o the power unions h o l d i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . Midland's modal t r a d e u n i o n i s t i s male, orde r , s u g g e s t i v e l y more s e n i o r i n the h i e r a r c h y , but u n l i k e l y to s u b s c r i b e to unionism's h i g h p r i n c i p l e s . The s t a f f employees are s h a r p l y d i v i d e d by c l a s s i d e n t i t y ; j u s t 52% s e l f - c l a s s i f y i n g as middle c l a s s . "Many b e l i e v e themselves, and on the c o n v e n t i o n a l measure are, upwardly mobile. But a middle or working c l a s s i d e n t i t y i s a poor guide to s t a f f employee views on workplace and s o c i a l i s s u e s . Nor does i t r e f l e c t the profound o c c u p a t i o n a l i n -e q u a l i t i e s they experience a t the company. Most s t a f f employees i d e n t i f y w i t h and vote f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . The Tory c o a l i t i o n i n c l u d e s v i r t u a l l y a l l those r a i s e d i n C o n s e r v a t i v e homes, tog e t h e r w i t h many r a i s e d by L i b e r a l s and L a b o u r i t e s . I n t e r - p a r t y m i g r a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y common among the sons and daughters of manually-employed L a b o u r i t e s who are s u b j e c t i v e l y mobile. Yet 30% of Midland's s t a f f employees are L a b o u r i t e s , which i s an important b a r r i e r to the normative coherence of the stratum. Owing p r i m a r i l y t o the growth of non-manual L a b o u r i t e s , the outlook i s f o r even more fragmentation i n B r i t a i n ' s new middle c l a s s . Coupled with analogous changes i n the i n d u s t r i a l working c l a s s , the power of "the c l a s s dynamic" may be much attenuated i n the 1980s. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Ch a p t e r 1 An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s Study Background 1 The M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s P r o j e c t : O b j e c t i v e s and Approach 8 Summary Overview 14 The M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s Study: T e c h n i c a l Notes 2 4 The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System 28 The Sample 30 Demographics o f t h e Sample 3 3 Cha p t e r 2 W h i t e - C o l l a r Workers, W h i t e - C o l l a r Work 39 M i d l a n d ' s Jobs and Workers: An I n t r o d u c t i o n 41 The Job S a t i s f a c t i o n o f S t a f f Employees 44 O r i e n t a t i o n s t o Work 49 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n and O r i e n t a t i o n t o Work 60 C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n s 61 Demographic C o r r e l a t e s o f Work-Related A t t i t u d e s 6 6 The S t r u c t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s o f W h i t e - C o l l a r Jobs 71 S t r u c t u r a l I n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s 78 The Two C l u s t e r s : Demographic Bases 82 The Two C l u s t e r s : A t t i t u d i n a l C o r r e l a t e s 88 C o n c l u s i o n s 94 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd) Page C h a p t e r 3 W h i t e - C o l i a r U n i o n i z a t i o n 98 W h i t e - C o l l a r U n i o n i z a t i o n a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s 101 The W h i t e - C o l l a r Unions 104 The M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n 108 Sources o f U n i o n i z a t i o n 109 The U n o r g a n i z e d Workers 115 U n i o n i z a t i o n : Two P l a u s i b l e E x p l a n a t i o n s 123 Union C h a r a c t e r 135 Union C h a r a c t e r a t M i d l a n d 140 Union C h a r a c t e r and Gender 15 3 C o n c l u s i o n s 157 Ch a p t e r 4 The Domain o f C l a s s 161 Ha r r y Braverman: The S t a f f Employee as Working C l a s s 16 2 R a l f D a h r e n d o r f : The S t a f f Employee as " B u r e a u c r a t " and Member o f t h e R u l i n g C l a s s 16 8 D a v i d Lockwood: The S t a f f Employee as M i d d l e C l a s s 174 C. W r i g h t M i l l s : The S t a f f Employee as "New M i d d l e C l a s s " 180 Four Answers 18 8 C l a s s I d e n t i t y and I t s Measurement 190 C l a s s I d e n t i t y and O c c u p a t i o n , 19 3 C l a s s I d e n t i t y as S o c i a l I n h e r i t a n c e 202 The Consequences o f C l a s s I d e n t i t y 211 C o n c l u s i o n s 233 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (concld) Page Chapter 5 P o l i t i c a l L i f e 245 P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 247 Par t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and V o t i n g Behaviour 250 The P o l i t i c a l Environment of Midland Products 257 S o c i a l M o b i l i t y 263 C l a s s I d e n t i t y and P o l i t i c a l P a r t i s a n s h i p 266 Fath e r ' s P a r t i s a n s h i p , C l a s s I d e n t i t y , and Par t y P r e f e r e n c e 2 72 Trade Unionism and P o l i t i c a l P a r t i s a n s h i p 279 C l a s s Coherence and P o l i t i c a l P a r t i s a n s h i p 287 Conc l u s i o n s 290 Chapter 6 Of Time and D i v e r s i t y at Midland Products 29 7 W h i t e - C o l l a r Workers and W h i t e - C o l l a r Work 299 Trade U n i o n i z a t i o n 310 The Domain of C l a s s 318 P o l i t i c s 326 Conc l u s i o n s 348 Chapter 7 Some Consequences of the Ri s e o f White-C o l l a r Work 350 Trade U n i o n i z a t i o n 35 3 C l a s s 365 P o l i t i c s 380 B i b l i o g r a p h y 390 Appendix 1: Recent Changes i n the I n d u s t r i a l , O c c u p a t i o n a l and Labour Force S t r u c t u r e 400 of the Developed S o c i e t i e s Appendix 2: The I n t e r - P a r t y Migrants 416 Appendix 3: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 420 v i L i s t o f Tables; and F i g u r e s No. T i t l e Page F i g u r e 1 Midland Products H i e r a r c h i c a l S t r u c t u r e 27 1. S t a f f Employee Grades and L e v e l s 32 2. Turnout 32 3. The Weight F a c t o r and F i n a l Sample 32 4. Departmental R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the F i n a l Sample 34 5. Gender 35 6. Age i n Years 35 7. Education 35 8. Years a t Midland 36 9. Weekly Rates of Pay, A f t e r Deductions 36 10. Time a t Present Grade 36 11. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Items 47 12. Elements of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 48 13. P r e f e r r e d Work C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 55 14. P r e f e r r e d Work C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Type 56 15. A Comparison of P r e f e r r e d Job C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Three S t u d i e s 5 8 16. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by O r i e n t a t i o n t o Work 62 17. O r i e n t a t i o n to Work by Career O r i e n t a t i o n s 65 18. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by Career O r i e n t a t i o n s 65 19. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by Gender 69 20. Career O r i e n t a t i o n s by Gender 6 9 M a t r i x 1 79 Ma t r i x 2 8 3 21. Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s by Job Type 87 22. Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s by L e v e l 87 M a t r i x 3 9 0 23. Career O r i e n t a t i o n s and Job S t r u c t u r e 9 3 24. U n i o n i z a t i o n a t Midland Products 105 vi i L i s t o f Tables and F i g u r e s (contd) No. T i t l e Page 25. Reasons f o r A f f i l i a t i o n : Organized Workers 112 26. U n i o n i z a t i o n by Exposure to Unions 114 27. " V i c t i m i z a t i o n " a t Midland Products 117 28. Unorganized S t a f f Employees and U n i o n i z a t i o n 119 29. Reasons f o r R e f u s i n g to J o i n a Union, Unorganized S t a f f Employees 119 30. The Socio-Demographic and S t r u c t u r a l Sources of U n i o n i z a t i o n 131 31. U n i o n i z a t i o n by Age by Gender 133 32. U n i o n i z a t i o n by E d u c a t i o n by Gender 134 33. Union C h a r a c t e r by U n i o n i z a t i o n : Seven F i n d i n g s 144 34. O r i e n t a t i o n Toward Unionism by U n i o n i z a t i o n 148 35. P r o x i m i t y to Trade U n i o n i s t s 149 36. Support f o r Trade Union/Labour Party T i e s 149 37. Power i n B r i t a i n ; Trade Unions and B i g Business, Three S t u d i e s 151 38. Union Ch a r a c t e r and Gender 156 39. C l a s s S e l f - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by O c c u p a t i o n a l Type, B u t l e r and Stokes, 1963 and 1970 195 40. C l a s s I d e n t i t y by Occupation: Three Measures 19 7 41. C l a s s I d e n t i t y and Work-Related A t t i t u d e s 199 42. C l a s s I d e n t i t y by Three Socio-Demographic F a c t o r s 200 43. F a t h e r ' s Occupation, Midland Study 20 3 44. C l a s s I d e n t i t y by F a t h e r ' s Occupation 206 45. C l a s s I d e n t i t y by P e r c e i v e d C l a s s O r i g i n s 206 46. C u r r e n t C l a s s I d e n t i t y by S u b j e c t i v e C l a s s O r i g i n s and F a t h e r ' s Occupation 20 9 47. Three Items on C l a s s Imagery 215 48. C l a s s Imagery: Four Groups 217 49. F r a t e r n a l D e p r i v a t i o n and C l a s s I d e n t i t y 221 50. U n i o n i z a t i o n and C l a s s I d e n t i t y 225 vi i i L i s t of Tables and F i g u r e s (contd) No. T i t l e Page 51. Union Ch a r a c t e r by U n i o n i z a t i o n by C l a s s I d e n t i t y 228 52. Trade Unionism and F r a t e r n a l D e p r i v a t i o n 230 53. C l a s s and P a r t y : Two S t u d i e s 232 54. C l a s s and Par t y by C l a s s I d e n t i t y 234 55. F a t h e r ' s P a r t y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : Midland and N a t i o n a l (1970) 252 56. " O r i g i n a l " and " F i n a l " P arty S e l f - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Midland and N a t i o n a l (1974) 252 57. 1970 V o t i n g Behaviour by Party S e l f - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 254 58. Respondent's P a r t y S e l f - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by Father's P a r t y P r e f e r e n c e 256 59. I n t e r - P a r t y M i g r a t i o n P a t t e r n s 256 60. P r o p o r t i o n Labour Among Major P a r t y Supporters by Occupation and C l a s s I d e n t i t y , Midland Products and N a t i o n a l , 1963 268 61. P a r t y P r e f e r e n c e by C l a s s I d e n t i t y and O r i g i n s 270 62. P a r t y P r e f e r e n c e a c r o s s Four Large Groups 270 63. P r o p o r t i o n Labour by C l a s s I d e n t i t y and Father's P a r t y , Respondents Raised by Manuals 274 64. Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Labour-to-Conservative Migrants 277 65. U n i o n i z a t i o n by Par t y Preference 281 66. Union C h a r a c t e r by U n i o n i z a t i o n and P a r t i s a n s h i p 2 83 67. U n i o n i z a t i o n by P a r t i s a n s h i p and Gender 285 68. Union C h a r a c t e r by P a r t i s a n s h i p W i t h i n C l a s s e s 288 69. Educ a t i o n by Gender by Age 305 70. Women a t Work by Education and Age 307 71. Women i n Unions 314 72. Union Ch a r a c t e r by Age and Gender 317 73. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Four Groups by Age 321 74. C l a s s Imagery and Union Ch a r a c t e r by Age and C l a s s I d e n t i t y 324 ix L i s t o f Tables and F i g u r e s (concld) No. T i t l e Page 75. F a t h e r ' s Party by Respondent's Age, Manual Fa t h e r s Only 329 76. Fa t h e r ' s P a r t y by Respondent's Age, Non-Manual Fath e r s Only 329 77. Fa t h e r ' s P a r t y by Respondent's Age 331 78. Fa t h e r ' s Major Party P r e f e r e n c e by Occupation by Age 331 79. P a r t y P r e f e r e n c e by Father's P a r t y and Age 333 80. S t a b l e and Migrant P a r t y Support by Respondent's Age 335 81. U n i o n i z a t i o n and C l a s s I d e n t i t y by Age and P a r t i s a n s h i p 338 82. Union C h a r a c t e r and C l a s s Imagery by P a r t i s a n s h i p and Age 340 83. P a r t i s a n I n t e n s i t y by P a r t y and Age 346 84. Average Weekly Ea r n i n g s , A l l I n d u s t r i e s , S e l e c t e d Years i n L S t e r l i n g 370 X Acknowledgements T h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not and would not have been completed without the support and encouragement gi v e n to me by many i n d i v i d u a l s . The heavy debt I owe the s t a f f employees and management of "Midland Products" i n Nottingham r e q u i r e s no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n here. T h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to a l l o w the study to take p l a c e was, q u i t e simply, a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r i t s undertaking. My deepest g r a t i t u d e extends a l s o to George Bain of the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Warwick, f o r h i s v a l u a b l e guidance, and to B r i a n Towers of the U n i v e r s i t y of Nottingham f o r h i s k i n d support d u r i n g the e a r l y stages of the p r o j e c t . As i t happens, however, the more d i f f i c u l t p a r t s of t h i s t h e s i s were c a r r i e d out not i n the Midlands of England but i n Canada. The Canada C o u n c i l and the I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s a t UBC p r o v i d e d generous and much-needed f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Computing Centre and S o c i a l Science Data A r c h i v e s made t h e i r resources f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e to me although I was and remain u n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h a t u n i v e r s i t y . S p e c i a l thanks are due to Conrad Winn f o r h i s h e l p i n b r i d g i n g t h a t gap. For h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to t o l e r a t e my slow and uneven pro g r e s s , I am p r o f o u n d l y indebted to David E l k i n s of UBC, my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r . Any v i r t u e s readers may f i n d i n the t e x t r e s u l t from the v a l u a b l e suggestions he made about e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s . K e i t h Banting and M a r t i n Meissner a l s o p r o v i d e d very h e l p f u l comments about both t e c h n i c a l and t e x t u a l aspects of the p r e s e n t a t i o n , and I thank them here f o r t h e i r k i n d support. For v a r i o u s good and c o m p e l l i n g reasons, the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s has r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of time. I t has meant long hours away from my f a m i l y . Owing to the f r a c t i o u s temper of these times, I b e l i e v e t h a t the c o n t i n u i n g p a t i e n c e and l o v i n g support of my w i f e and my c h i l d r e n has been q u i t e remarkable. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , w i t h h e a r t f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s ' t o C l a r a , David, Alex, and J e n n i f e r L o u i s e . Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Midland Products Study Chapter 1 An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Midland Products Study-Background They are as f r e q u e n t l y female as male, managers as workers, and content as d i s s a t i s f i e d as producers. They are keen i n d i v i d u a l i s t s who have o r g a n i z e d themselves i n t o the f a s t e s t - g r o w i n g component of the trade union movement. They are hard to d e f i n e , and y e t they are as f a m i l i a r to us as the people i n the next o f f i c e . T h e i r p l a c e i n the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of developed c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s a q u e s t i o n n e i t h e r they nor those who have s t u d i e d them can answer w i t h assurance. And p o l i t i c a l l y , w h i le they may soon be the m a j o r i t y of our labour f o r c e s , we know not how to c o u r t them as a b l o c . Some t h i r t y years a f t e r C. Wright M i l l s f i r s t drew wide-spread a t t e n t i o n to the non-manual stratum i n White C o l l a r / and more than twenty years a f t e r David Lockwood's comprehen-s i v e examination of B r i t i s h c l e r i c a l employees, The B l a c k -coated Worker, there remains a dearth of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s on w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. T h i s l a c k i s a l l the more remarkable i n England g i v e n the continued i n t e r e s t p a i d to the i n d u s t r i a l "^White C o l l a r : The American Middle C l a s s e s (New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951) . 2 Lockwood, David, The B l a c k c o a t e d Worker (London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1958) . - 2 -w o r k i n g c l a s s , n o t a b l y i n t h e r e c e n t t h r e e - v o l u m e s e r i e s o n 3 The A f f l u e n t W o r k e r , a p r o j e c t o v e r s e e n b y L o c k w o o d a n d J o h n G o l d t h o r p e . W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f w o r k c a r r i e d o u t 4 i n F r a n c e b y M i c h e l C r o z i e r , o f f i c e w o r k e r s h a v e a l m o s t e v e r y -w h e r e a t t a i n e d a k i n d o f i n v i s i b i l i t y a s t h e y c h a l l e n g e m a n u a l w o r k e r s f o r n u m e r i c a l s u p r e m a c y i n t h e c i v i l i a n w o r k f o r c e s o f t h e a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s o f t h e W e s t . Some p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t i s no d o u b t s i m p l y d e f i n i t i o n a l . D e s p i t e n u m e r o u s a t t e m p t s i n t h e l a s t f i v e d e c a d e s , we a r e u n a b l e t o c l o s e o n a p r e c i s e d e f i n -i t i o n o f who i s a w h i t e - c o l l a r o r n o n - m a n u a l w o r k e r . We h a v e s o u g h t d i c h o t o m i e s t h a t m i g h t u n a m b i g u o u s l y s e p a r a t e p r o d u c t i o n f r o m w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , s u c h e x a m p l e s a s " w h i t e - c o l l a r " - : a s a g a i n s t " b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s " o r " m e n t a l " a s a g a i n s t " p h y s i c a l " a r e c o m m o n p l a c e , b u t t h e s e a t t e m p t s h a v e n o t r e s o l v e d t h e p r o b -l e m . ^ We h a v e t r i e d t o s p e c i f y t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t w h i t e - c o l l a r b u t n o t m a n u a l w o r k e r s u n d e r t a k e o n t h e j o b , a n d we h a v e f o u n d t h a t many o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , b e i n g o n c e t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f m a n a g e m e n t , h a v e i m p l i c i t l y b e e n " d e l e g a t e d " t o w h i t e - c o l l a r , J o h n G o l d t h o r p e , D a v i d L o c k w o o d , F r a n k B e c h h o f e r , a n d J e n h - . i f e r P i a t t , The A f f l u e n t W o r k e r : I n d u s t r i a l A t t i t u d e s a n d B e -h a v i o u r (196 8 ) , The A f f l u e n t W o r k e r i n t h e C l a s s S t r u c t u r e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , a n d P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o u r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a l l p u b -l i s h e d b y C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 4 M i c h e l C r o z i e r , T h e W o r l d o f t h e O f f i c e W o r k e r ( C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) a n d The B u r e a c r a t i c P h e n o m -i n u m ( L o n d o n , T a v i s t o c k , 1 9 6 5 ) . 5 A u s e f u l s u r v e y o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w a s made b y G e o r g e B a i n a n d R o b e r t P r i c e ; "Who i s a W h i t e - C o l l a r E m p l o y e e ? " , b y B r i t i s h J o u r -n a l o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ( V o l . 1 0 , N o . 3 , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 7 2) p a g e s 3 2 5 - 3 3 9 . - 3 -workers by the owners of c a p i t a l or management.^ But neither the often-vague delineation of these functions nor the_ i m p l i -cation of delegation have resulted i n an e f f e c t i v e means of d i s -criminating manual from non-manual tasks. For the present, we are i n c l i n e d to agree with Bain and Price that these attempts to specify rigorously the true nature and harder l i m i t s of white-c o l l a r as against b l u e - c o l l a r work are based on "real d i f f e r -7 ences which should not be forgotten." But they also note: 'White-collar employee' i s a vague term. Its meaning d i f f e r s between countries, and even within a single country i t often means one thing to one person and some-thing else to another.^ Not being able to define p r e c i s e l y who i s and who i s not a white-collar worker, we have never succeeded i n setting l i m i t s and boundaries to the evolving non-manual stratum as a whole. This has, i n M i l l s ' view, not only confused our understanding of non-manuals as workers, i t has also confounded our reading of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l implications of the growth of white-collar work: When we consider the vague boundary l i n e s of the white-collar world, we can e a s i l y understand why such an occupational salad i n v i t e s so many c o n f l i c t i n g theories and why general images of i t are l i k e l y to d i f f e r . There i s no one accepted word for them; white c o l l a r , s a l a r i e d employee, new middle F r i t z Croner, Sociologie der Angestellten, (Cologne, Kiepen-hauer & Witsch, 1967) and Die Angestellten i n der Modernen  Gesellschaf t, (Bonn, Sozialer F o r t s c h r i t t , 1953). 7 Bain and Price, op.cit., page 337. Ibid, page 325. In search of the B r i t i s h middle c l a s s , John Bonham has resorted to the expression "not working c l a s s " . The Middle Class Vote (London, Faber and Faber, 1954) sets out the "constituent groups" on pages 48-49, and 53-70. - 4 -c l a s s are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . During the h i s t o r i c a l span covered by d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s , the o c c u p a t i o n a l groups com-pos i n g these s t r a t a have changed; and a t g i v e n times, d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i s t s i n pur^' .:.:.: s u i t of b o l s t e r i n g data have s p o t l i g h t e d one or the other groups composing the t o t a l . So c o n t r a s t i n g images of the p o l i t i c a l r o l e of the w h i t e - c o l l a r people can r e a d i l y e x i s t s i d e by s i d e (and perhaps even both be c o r r e c t ) . 9 In contemplating t h i s q u e s t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t -i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r i s e of w h i t e - c o l l a r work, a com-;.::' p a r i s o n w i t h the development of the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t c o u l d not be more r e v e a l i n g . No one would c l a i m t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and the formation of the working c l a s s were processes whose impact was c o n f i n e d to the workplace and t o the domain o f lab o u r r e l a t i o n s . Yet no one today s e r i o u s l y advances the p o s i t i o n t h a t the r i s e of w h i t e - c o l l a r - w o r k , a process of arguably equal magnitude as a labour f o r c e change, w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y revolutionize':', the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the developed c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . To judge by s u s t a i n e d s c h o l a r l y commitment, i t i s the much s m a l l e r number of manual t e c h n i c i a n s who comprise "the new working c l a s s " t h a t i s h e i r to the a t t e n t i o n p r e v i o u s l y p a i d to the p r o l e t a r i a t proper."^ ^ M i l l s , o p . c i t . , page 291 1 0 S e e Serge M a l l e t , La Nouvelle C l a s s e O u v r i e r e ( P a r i s , E d i t -ions de S e u i l , 1963); P i e r r e B e l l e v i l l e Une Nouvelle C l a s s e O u v r i e r e ( P a r i s , E d i t i o n s de S e u i l , 1963); Andre Gorz, S t r a t e - g i e O u v r i e r e e t N e o c a p i t a l i s m e ( P a r i s , E d i t i o n s de S e u i l , 1964) and t r a n s l a t e d as A S t r a t e g y f o r Labour (Boston, Beacon Pr e s s , 1967); A l a i n Tourame, The P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l Society^(New York, Random House, 1971). - 5 -The i s s u e i s not one of numbers f o r , d e s p i t e some un-c e r t a i n t y a t the margins, they are c l e a r enough."*"^ The i s s u e , r a t h e r , i s the c h a r a c t e r of and.coherence w i t h i n the non-manual stratum as an e n t i t y i n r e l a t i o n not j u s t to the workplace but a l s o to the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s and p o l i t i c a l systems-;of the developed c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . I t i s always e a s i e r to d e r i v e "the c h a r a c t e r " of a body of i n d i v i d u a l s from b e l i e f as a g a i n s t o b s e r v a t i o n , and t h i s has, i n M i l l s ' view, c o l o u r e d most analyses o f the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r i s e of w h i t e - c o l l a r work: Most of the work t h a t has been done on the new middle c l a s s and i t s p o l i t i c a l r o l e i n v o l v e s more g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s of the course of c a p i t a l i s t development. That i s why i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s o r t out i n a simple and y e t systematic way what gi v e n w r i t e r s r e a l l y t h i n k of the white-c o l l a r people. T h e i r views are based not on an-examination of t h i s stratum as much as on, f i r s t , the p o l i t i c a l program they happen t o be f o l l o w i n g ; second, the d o c t r i n a l p o s i t i o n , as regards the p o l i t i c a l l i n e - u p of c l a s s e s , they have p r e v i o u s l y accepted; and t h i r d , t h e i r judgement i n regard to the main course of tw e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l society.-'-? Because we know the composition and dynamics of the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , we know as w e l l j u s t where w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s — o r most of them, i n any ca s e — m u s t f i t . Because we know where they must f i t , we know as w e l l which p o l i t i c a l p ostures are a v a i l a b l e to non-manuals , ^''"Appendix 1 pr e s e n t s data from s e v e r a l sources on the t r a n s -n a t i o n a l growth of w h i t e - c o l l a r work. 12 M i l l s , o p . c i t . , page 292. - 6 -and which they w i l l d o u b t l e s s l y assume. Perhaps nowhere has t h i s proven t r u e r than i n England. Co n v e n t i o n a l B r i t i s h a n a l y s i s has long d i v i d e d the working :'.v from the "middle" c l a s s a t the manual/non-manual l i n e . Thus W. G. Runciman i n h i s c e l e b r a t e d study R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n and S o c i a l J u s t i c e concludes: I f , however, one looks i n broad terms at the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of an advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y such as B r i t a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t not to see t h a t the b i g g e s t s i n g l e d i v i s i o n i s t h a t between the two . out of three people, the head of whose household works w i t h h i s hands, and the ;. one out of t h r e e , the head of whose house-h o l d does not.-^ So s t r o n g i s t h i s convention t h a t David B u t l e r and Donald Stokes, who grouped "lower non-manuals" i n t o the work-in g c l a s s i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n of P o l i t i c a l Change i n B r i t a i n , p l a c e these e l e c t o r s i n the middle c l a s s i n the second e d i t i o n 14 o f the same volume without a s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of the matter. T h i s i s not to say t h a t there are no grounds t h a t c o u l d be adduced f o r such a change. Ever s i n c e Lockwood's p i o n e e r i n g i n q u i r y concluded t h a t a narrowing has been o c c u r r i n g i n the i JW.G.Runciman, R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n and S o c i a l J u s t i c e , (London, Penguin Books, 1972) page 55. See a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n of "The Manual/Non-manual D i s t i n c t i o n i n Appendix 3). " ^ B u t l e r , David and Stokes, Donald T., P o l i t i c a l Change i n  B r i t a i n ( f i r s t e d i t i o n , London Penguin Books, 1971), and (second e d i t i o n , 1977). For a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e a s o n i n g of the f i r s t approach see M i c h a e l Kahan, David B u t l e r and Donald Stokes, "The A n a l y t i c a l D i v i s i o n of S o c i a l C l a s s " , B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y ( V o l . 17, No. 2, June 1966) pages 122 -132. - 7 -earnings and b e n e f i t s gaps between manual and non-manual workers, a spate of s t u d i e s has appeared, most of them arguing t h a t good and sound ( i . e . economic) reasons continue to j u s t i f y t r e a t i n g B r i t i s h manuals and non-manuals as members 15 of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . In p a r t f o r d e f i n i t i o n a l problems, i n p a r t f o r "con-v e n t i o n a l " reasons, and perhaps i n p a r t because of develop-ments w i t h i n the working c l a s s i t s e l f , w h i t e - c o l l a r workers remain d i s t i n c t l y underresearched r e l a t i v e to t h e i r sheer numerical importance i n the B r i t i s h labour f o r c e . The q u e s t i o n i s what i s needed to r e d r e s s t h i s imbalance. In f a c t what i s now r e q u i r e d may e a s i l y be summarized. We need d e t a i l e d e m p i r i c a l study of the w h i t e - c o l l a r worker qua worker, qua trade union member, i n the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and qua.'j_ e l e c t o r . We need to develop:^ through a case-by-case pro-ce s s , those b a s i c b u i l d i n g -blocks—now i n such s h o r t s u p p l y — on which, subsequently, more comprehensive and t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the w h i t e - c o l l a r worker must i n e v i t a b l y depend. F i n a l l y , we must r e s i s t our m a n i f e s t pr e o c c u p a t i o n "^See f o r example D. Wedderburn and C. C r a i g , " R e l a t i v e D e p r i v a t i o n i n Work", Mimeo, B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Ad-vancement. :of i S c i e n c e , Exeter,.1969.; ..Frank. P a r k i n , "Class In- e q u a l i t y and P o l i t i c a l Order (London, P a l l a d i n Books, 1972) . pages 25-6, Runciman, o p . c i t . , page 56; and Richard Hyman, " I n e q u a l i t y , Ideology, and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s " , B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s (Vol.12, No.2, J u l y , 1974), page 171. Of these a n a l y s t s i t i s o n l y Hyman who does not b e l i e v e "a c l a s s boundary d i f f e r e n t i a t e s w h i t e - c o l l a r workers from manual workers", a p o s i t i o n Hyman c h a r a c t e r i z e s as " f a c i l e " , (page 186). - 8 -w i t h a l l w h i t e - c o l l a r workers acr o s s a l l the developed s o c i e t i e s i n order to co n c e n t r a t e more c a r e f u l l y on some w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n one advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . I t i s a g a i n s t these same requirements t h a t the Midland Products study was o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d . A s i n g l e step i n the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n , the Midland study i s a l s o l i m i t e d by time, r e s o u r c e s , and the forbearance of management and s t a f f i n one l a r g e B r i t i s h manufacturing c o r p o r a t i o n . The study i s more d e s c r i p t i v e than would be i d e a l , but i t i s d e s c r i p t i v e i n p r o p o r t i o n to the r e l a t i v e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of other e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers on which i t might have b u i l t . The Midland Products P r o j e c t : O b j e c t i v e s and Approach Of the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n advanced i n -d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s midway through the t w e n t i e t h century, Seymour M a r t i n L i p s e t has argued: The b a s i c p o l i t i c a l i s s u e o f the i n -d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , the i n c o r p o r a t i o n . . of the workers i n t o the l e g i t i m a t e body p o l i t i c , has been s e t t l e d . The key domestic i s s u e today i s c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g over d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i v -i s i o n o f the t o t a l product w i t h i n the framework of a Keynesian w e l f a r e s t a t e , and such i s s u e s do not p r e c i p i t a t e extremism on e i t h e r side.16 Seymour M a r t i n L i p s e t , P o l i t i c a l Man (New York, Anchor Books, 1963), page 82. - 9 -The t r a n s n a t i o n a l s c a l e of changes engendered by t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t i n t o Western l i b e r a l democracy has been very g r e a t indeed. The scope of these changes extends w e l l beyond the f a c t o r y gate to i n c l u d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f r e e trade unions and the r i g h t to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the domain of labour r e l a t i o n s ; d i -verse s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the advent of a l i t e r a t e mass c i v i l i a n workforce, whose c o l l e c t i v e presence i s perhaps most r e a d i l y s i g n a l l e d by the urban form and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r of the i n d u s t r i a l c i t y ; and, i n the p o l i t -i c a l domain, the c r e a t i o n of working c l a s s or labour p a r t i e s which have fought long, hard, and r a t h e r s u c c e s s f u l s t r u g g l e s to moderate economic i n e q u a l i t y and to secure an a r r a y of governmental p o l i c i e s and programs t h a t themselves can be summarized as the r i s e o f the w e l f a r e or " p o s i t i v e " s t a t e . In t h i s t h e s i s we s h a l l show t h a t the r e s u l t s o f the Midland Products p r o j e c t suggest t h a t the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the w h i t e - c o l l a r worker i n t o the B r i t i s h body p o l i t i c i s u n l i k e l y d i r e c t l y t o p r e c i p i t a t e f u r t h e r change of such s c a l e and scope. We s h a l l argue t h a t the p r i n c i p a l reason t h i s massive labour f o r c e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l not on i t s own produce f u r t h e r fundamental change i n the domains of' labour and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l l i f e i s because the stratum i n o c c u p a t i o n a l terms and the very i n d i v i d u a l s who form i t are both too d i v e r s e and too s u b j e c t to i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n to achieve the u n i t y and d i s c i p l i n e r e q u i r e d to a c t c o h e r e n t l y a s a c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t y . We s h a l l show t h a t n o t o n l y s h a r p o c c u p a t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s b u t a l s o s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s s u c h a s g e n d e r a n d e d u c a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n s l i k e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p i n t e r n a l l y d i v i d e B r i t i s h n o n - m a n u a l w o r k e r s i n t o numerous s u b - g r o u p s i n l a t e n t c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . ; F i n a l l y , we s h a l l a r g u e f r o m t h e M i d l a n d d a t a t h a t t h e B r i t i s h c a s e a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r i s e o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i t i e s , c a n p r o v e a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement, on t h e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , a n d o n p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r i n t o t h e B r i t i s h b o d y p o l i t i c may. m o s t n o t a b l y r e q u i r e a n d i n d i r e c t l y p r e c i p i t a t e m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r -p a r t y e l e c t o r a l c o m p e t i t i o n . A t b e s t , t h e s m a l l s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s c a n s u p p o r t , b u t n o t v a l i d a t e , t h e s e a r g u m e n t s . T h a t i s i t s o b j e c t i v e . The M i d l a n d p r o j e c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c a s e s t u d y i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f The A f f l u e n t W o r k e r s e r i e s : a p r o j e c t t h a t i s s e i z e d o f v e r y l a r g e q u e s t i o n s a g a i n s t w h i c h i t a r r a y s some r e l e v a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e M i d l a n d s t u d y i s by no means t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s t h a t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e t h e s i s s e t o u t a b o v e , n o r c a n i t d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f i t s own k e y i n t e r n a l f i n d i n g s . I f i t s h a r e s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f o t h e r c a s e s t u d i e s , t h e M i d l a n d p r o j e c t s h a r e s t h e i r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e : t h e r e s e a r c h - 11 -design has e c o n o m i c a l l y allowed a s y s t e m a t i c and c o n t r o l l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. The s t a f f employees of Midland Products are a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of B r i t i s h non-manuals, and there are few reasons ab i n i t i o to suspect t h a t important p r o p e r t i e s p r e s e n t i n the non-manual stratum more g e n e r a l l y would not f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r number. S u r e l y t h i s i s , i n any case, a matter f o r subsequent e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Given the very l a r g e q u e s t i o n s t h a t i n s p i r e d the p r o j e c t , the f o l l o w i n g pages have been o r g a n i z e d to f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n of many d i s c r e t e t o p i c s . These t o p i c s c l u s t e r q u i t e l o g i c a l l y i n t o the f o u r domains of a n a l y s i s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d : the workplace, the trade union movement, the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . Each of these f o u r domains i s the s u b j e c t of a chapter d e d i c a t e d to i t , a chapter t h a t c o n t a i n s the r e l e v a n t e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s found i n our study of Midland's w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. Given our o v e r r i d i n g concern f o r coherence, consensus, c o n f l i c t , and cleavage i n the non-manual stratum, the presen-t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s from the Midland study i n the next f o u r chapters takes s e v e r a l complementary forms i n each of them. F i r s t , i n each our i n i t i a l concern i s w i t h d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s , behaviour, and s o c i a l f a c t s whose r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e r i s e o f non-manual work a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s (and u s u a l l y much more g e n e r a l l y i n B r i t a i n ) a r e l a r g e l y s e l f - e v i d e n t . I n c l u d e d h e r e a r e m e a s u r e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n t o work, t h e v a r i a t i o n .and s t r a t -i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n w h i t e - c o l l a r work r o l e s , t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t y , c l a s s i d e n t i t y , and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p . We l e a r n a s u r p r i s i n g amount by r e f e r e n c e s i m p l y t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s a c r o s s a w h i t e - c o l l a r sample. S e c o n d l y , we s h a l l s e e k t o f i n d t h e most e c o n o m i c a l s t a t i s t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s . The " e q u a t i o n s " c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s w i l l t y p i c a l l y be begun by r e f e r e n c e t o q u i t e p r o x i m a t e i n f l u e n c e s — o r i e n t a t i o n s t o work on j o b s a t i f a c t i o n , t o t a k e one example, o r c l a s s i d e n t i t y on c l a s s i m a g e r y i n C h a p t e r 4. Sometimes, a l t h o u g h n o t o f t e n , we s h a l l need t o go no f a r t h e r . ..'But:.frequently we s h a l l f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e a r c h e l s e w h e r e f o r s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l p a t h s a r e f o l l o w e d i n e a c h o f t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s . T h e s e a r e ex-p l a n a t i o n s by means o f o b s e r v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l , s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c and c r o s s - d o m a i n f a c t o r s . . . V. W i t h r e s p e c t t o o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , we know t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a g o od d e a l o f v a r i a n c e i n t h e o b j e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f non-manual work r o l e s . A t M i d l a n d and i n g e n e r a l , " w h i t e -c o l l a r work" a g g r e g a t e s many d i s c r e t e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , some o f t h e s e d e f i n e d by p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y undemandi i n g , p o o r l y p a i d , and a l m o s t f a c t o r y - l i k e i n t h e r e s t r i c t e d - 13 -range of a c t i v i t i e s they r e q u i r e . Other non-manual occupa-t i o n s are more demanding and comparatively b e t t e r rewarded. While a l l are of course non-manual, t h i s v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the category demands c o n t i n u i n g s e n s i t i v i t y to i t s presence and to i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . S i m i l a r l y , i n view of the socio-demographic d i v e r s i t y l i k e l y to be captured i n any r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of white-c o l l a r workers, we must a l s o pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to the conse-quences of t h i s d i v e r s i t y . At Midland, we s h a l l have recourse r e p e a t e d l y to assess the r e l a t i v e importance of e d u c a t i o n , age, and gender on the t o p i c s of p r i o r i t y concern to us, f o r the sample i s an amalgam of b e t t e r - and l e s s - e d u c a t e d , o l d e r and younger, and male and female employees. To ignore these f a c t o r s i s to run the r i s k o f a t t r i b u t i n g to c o n t e x t u a l or to o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t s much more p o w e r f u l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d by i n h e r e n t socio-demographic v a r i a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , with r e f e r e n c e to cross-domain f a c t o r s , we s h a l l f i n d , most n o t a b l y i n the l a t e r stages of our p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h a t some d o m a i n - s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s are a l s o of c r i t i c a l importance to a theme under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the d i s c u s s i o n of another do-main. P a r t i s a n s h i p , f o r example, i s a fundamental source of d i s u n i t y i n labour r e l a t i o n s . But, as i n t e r e s t i n g l y perhaps, i t w i l l a l s o be determined t h a t such cases of cross-domain impact are r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s h y p o t h e s i z e d by others or t h a t are, on the face of the matter, h i g h l y p l a u s i b l e , simply do not h o l d a t Midland Products a c r o s s the domains of the study. - 14 -I n s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e f o r m o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , much o f t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n has i n e v i t a b l y b e e n p r e f i g u r e d . L e t us p a u s e h e r e t o c o n v e y i n summary f a s h i o n what w i l l emerge i n t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s . Summary O v e r v i e w The domain o f work i s t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r 2. I n q u e s t i o n f i r s t i s w h e t h e r t h e i n t e r v i e w e d w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , who s h a r e i n M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s a common e m p l o y e r and as " s t a f f e m p l o y e e s " a common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t l y s h a r e as w e l l a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e i r e m p l o y e r and t h e i r j o b s . Most b a s i c a l l y , we need t o e s t a b l i s h t h e amount o f n o r m a t i v e and a t t i t u d i n a l c o h e r e n c e on w o r k - r e l a t e d i s s u e s f o r a s t r a t u m d e f i n e d by work r o l e s , t o a s s e s s t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h i s s t r a t u m t o a c t c o l l e c t i v e l y as a l a b o u r f o r c e e n t i t y . The s e c o n d s u b j e c t a d d r e s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2 i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work r o l e s t h a t , when t a k e n t o g e t h e r , c a p t u r e what "the r i s e o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work" i n one l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o r p o r a -t i o n has p r e c i p i t a t e d . Here t h e e m p h a s i s i s on s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p r o d u c e r r o l e s , and on how t h e s e r o l e s v a r y and s t r a t i f y a t t h e company. F i n a l l y , t h e c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i n k a g e s between t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b s and t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . - 15 -A t t h e o u t s e t o f C h a p t e r 2, t h e n , t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f i m p o r t a n t w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s a r e d e v e l o p e d : j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n s t o work, and c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s . Most s t a f f e m p l o y e e s w i l l d i s c l o s e t h e h i g h r e l a t i v e j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n t h a t we have come t o e x p e c t g i v e n t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f s u c h f i n d i n g s among many g r o u p s o f w o r k e r s . The s t a f f em-p l o y e e s do, however, r e p o r t g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s as an e m p l o y e r t h a n w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r j o b s t h e y h e l d when i n t e r v i e w e d , and g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r a t e s o f payment t h a n w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s g o v e r n i n g p r o m o t i o n and a dvancement. A b o u t a f i f t h o f t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s w i l l be f o u n d t o v i e w t h e i r o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low s a t i s f a c t i o n - . I n s e e k i n g t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s r e l a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e b r o a d o r i e n t a t i o n s t o work b r o u g h t t o t h e employment r e l a t i o n s h i p by s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , o r i e n t a t i o n s t o work t h a t m o d a l l y e x p r e s s " i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n -t r i n s i c " a s a g a i n s t " t r a d i t i o n a l " v a l u e s , a r e l a r e l y u n r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . S a t i s f a c t i o n i s c a u s e d by two much more s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s p o n d e n t s h o l d f o r t h e i r c a r e e r s , t h e i r a s -p i r a t i o n s f o r an u l t i m a t e p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f non-manual employment. The h i g h e r t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e p i t c h e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e amount o f r e l a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t i s . , -16 -encountered. The second apparent cause of job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s the elemental f a c t o r of gender: we s h a l l f i n d t h a t female s t a f f employees are much more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs than are t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . We s h a l l show t h a t gender i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d as w e l l w i t h c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s , and t h a t i t u n d e r l i e s the presence of two l a r g e groups of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. The members of the f i r s t o f these groups are h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d a t work and q u i t e content with t h e i r p r e s e n t p l a c e s i n the white-c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y a t Midland. T h i s group : i's comprised by women. The members of the second group., r e p o r t much lower job s a t i s f a c t i o n and much higher c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . T h i s second group i s comprised by men. In examining f i v e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of non-manual work r o l e s a t the company, a p a r a l l e l s e t of c o n d i t i o n s i s r e v e a l e d . While the modal s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n i s c l e r i c a l i n nature, non-supervisory i n r e s p o n s i b l i t y , and not compara-t i v e l y w e l l p a i d , a l a r g e m i n o r i t y of s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n s v a r i e s q u i t e markedly from t h i s p r o f i l e . P o s i t i o n s i n t h i s second categ o r y e n t a i l h i g h e r average rank i n the c l a s s i f i c -a t i o n system used a t the company, n o n - c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , super-visory, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and c a r r y w i t h them high e r r a t e s of s a l a r y . Thus, there are at Midland Products two very d i f f e r e n t orders<o;f w h i t e - c o l l a r jobs, a d i v i s i o n masked by the p r a c t i c e of r e f e r r i n g to a l l non-manual workers a t the company as " s t a f f employees". There are, rather, "i!favoured c l u s t e r " - 17 -and " l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r " p o s i t i o n s . H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d two g r o u p s o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s whose w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t and two c l u s t e r s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s whose s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s a l s o d i f f e r m a r k e d l y , we s h a l l show t h a t t h e s e two s o u r c e s o f d i v e r s i t y i n t h e non-manual s t r a t u m a r e i m p o r t a n t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y - s a t i s f i e d , l e s s a m b i t i o u s and f e m a l e g r o u p o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s whose members h o l d most p o s i t i o n s i n t h e l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r o f w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b s . I t i s t h e r e l a -t i v e l y - d i s s a t i s f i e d , more a m b i t i o u s , and male g r o u p o f w h i t e -c o l l a r whose members d o m i n a t e t h e p o s i t i o n s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r . B e c a u s e men d i s c l o s e b o t h h i g h e r c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s and l o w e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e most s e v e r e w o r k p l a c e s t r a i n s i n t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r s t r a t u m a r e f e l t by t h o s e who on o b j e c t i v e g r o u n d s a r e a l s o t h e most p r i v i l e g e d . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t women a r e t o be f o u n d a t o r n e a r t h e b o t t o m o f t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y , i t i s women who d i s c l o s e t h e m s e l v e s •'• t o be n o t o n l y h a p p i e r i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s b u t a l s o q u i t e u n l i k e l y t o d e s i r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e on them. T h i s d o u b l e b i f u r c a t i o n o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work and w h i t e - c o l l a r v . .v w o r k e r s p r o v i d e s t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r i s e o f non-manual employment a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s has n o t c a l l e d i n t o b e i n g a c o h e r e n t l a b o u r f o r c e e n t i t y . I n C h a p t e r 3 t h e s u b j e c t i s w h i t e - c o l l a r t r a d e u n i o n i s m . We s e e k t o d e t e r m i n e , i n a s e t t i n g w h e r e any c h o i c e i s v o l -u n t a r y , t h e amount o f u n i o n i z a t i o n , i t s m o s t p r o x i m a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s , a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s t h a t a d v a n c e o r r e t a r d i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e company. The s t u d y was h e l d a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s e t t l e d moment i n t h e h i s t o r y o f M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s , and t h e s a m p l e c o n t a i n s t h r e e l a r g e g r o u p s o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s : a p l u r a l i t y o f t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s who had a f f i l i a t e d w i t h one o f f o u r w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r , a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r g r o u p o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s u n a f f i l i a t e d when i n t e r v i e w e d , a n d a s t i l l s m a l l e r g r o u p who m a i n t a i n e d m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t no s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n had b e e n c e r t i f i e d a s a b a r -g a i n i n g a g e n t f o r s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , i t a l s o means t h a t t h e s a m p l e n e a t l y c a p t u r e s t h e b r o a d o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o n o n -m a n u a l s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t a i n . The t u r n t o w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s a t M i d l a n d was w i d e l y t h o u g h t t o r e f l e c t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n and management. The f o r m e r h a d n o t b e e n c o n s u l t e d b e f o r e management had i m p o s e d a c ompany-wide c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m c o v e r i n g s t a f f e m p l o y e e s i n 1 9 6 7 , a move t o w a r d a much more b u r e a u c r a t i c s t y l e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a n t h a t known p r e v i o u s l y a t t h e company. W h i l e b e t t e r t h a n 40% o f t h e s a m p l e h a s v o l u n t a r i l y j o i n e d a w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n , t h e number d o i n g s o o u t o f f o c u s s e d r e s e n t m e n t o f t h e c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m i s d e t e r m i n e d t o be a c t u a l l y q u i t e s m a l l . - 1 9 -J o i n e r s more t y p i c a l l y v o i c e a p r u d e n t i a l d e s i r e to be r e p r e s e n t e d e f f e c t i v e l y t o management, while unorganized respondents are s i m i l a r l y more apt to be prudent, than p r i n c i p l e d i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of unions. Some d i r e c t p e r s o n a l exposure to trade unions i s a l s o a f a c t o r found to m i l i t a t e toward membership. These are the most proximate sources of unionism a t the company. The modal t r a d e u n i o n i s t a t Midland Products i s male, o l d e r , l e s s - e d u c a t e d but b e t t e r p a i d than h i s unorganized c o l l e a g u e . He a l s o c l u s t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r departments, d i v i s i o n s , and o f f i c e s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The modal tr a d e u n i o n i s t d i f f e r s s u g g e s t i v e l y along other w o r k - r e l a t e d dimensions, n o t a b l y i n h o l d i n g the h i g h e r - r a n k i n g jobs t h a t f a l l w i t h i n the favoured c l u s t e r of w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s . On the other hand, those not a f f i l i a t e d are found to be younger, b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d , a l i t t l e more content w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t p l a c e s i n the company h i e r a r c h y , and tend to be i n -cumbents of p o s i t i o n s t h a t dominate the l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r of non-manual o c c u p a t i o n s . These s t a f f employees are,.:once., again, q u i t e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y female. Despite t h e i r g r e a t e r apparent need f o r the s t r e n g t h and p r o t e c t i o n of trade unions, women are o n l y h a l f as l i k e l y to j o i n them as men. The " c h a r a c t e r " of w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n i z a t i o n a t Midland Products w i l l p e r f o r c e be e x p l o r e d i n d i r e c t l y . U n i o n i s t s are l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h union s e r v i c e s , and few f e e l t h e i r unions need much more power to r e p r e s e n t s t a f f employees - 20. -e f f e c t i v e l y . On a b a t t e r y o f s e v e n a t t i t u d i n a l q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e f i e l d o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s , M i d l a n d ' s union^.r i s t s do n o t d i f f e r f r o m t h e i r u n o r g a n i z e d c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o s i x . We s h a l l show t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s p l a c e u n i o n i z e d s t a f f e m p l o y e e s v e r y f a r i n d e e d f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e d , m i l i t a n t v a n g u a r d o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n movement. B u t t h e s e same r e s p o n s e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y n o t f a r o f f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f o p i n i o n o r i n t h e s p e c i f i c c a s e o f t h e " a f f l u e n t " manual w o r k e r s s t u d i e d by G o l d t h o r p e and Lockwood. M a l e and f e m a l e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s w i l l be shown t o d i f f e r s t r o n g l y n o t o n l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e p r o p e n s i t i e s t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s b u t a l s o i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e a t t i t u d i n a l p r o x i e s o f u n i o n c h a r a c t e r . Women a r e much l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t r a d e u n i o n i s m a t M i d l a n d t h a n men, and a r e more h o s t i l e t o o t o t h e power u n i o n s have a c h i e v e d i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . C h a p t e r 3, t h e n , r e v e a l s t h a t t h e d o u b l e b i f u r c a t i o n o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work and w o r k e r s o b s e r v e d i n C h a p t e r 2 i s a l r e a d y r e f l e c t e d i n t r a d e u n i o n i s m a t M i d l a n d , a l t h o u g h i n a f o r m t h a t may r u n c o u n t e r t o o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The i m p l i c -a t i o n s o f t h i s f i n d i n g a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n some d e t a i l . I n t h e domain o f c l a s s , t h e i s s u e s p o s e d by t h e r i s e o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work i n B r i t a i n a r e r a t h e r l e s s a c c e s s i b l e t h a n t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . T h u s , t o a d d r e s s a s e e m i n g l y c l e a r - c u t q u e s t i o n , t h e c l a s s p o s i t i o n o f w h i t e -c o l l a r workers, i n v i t e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e v e r a l c o n f l i c t i n g answers. The views of f o u r well-known t h e o r i s t s are s e t out i n the opening pages of Chapter 4, .and no con-sensus w i l l be found. With the e x c e p t i o n of C. Wright M i l l s , who b e l i e v e d t h a t the r i s e o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work has c a l l e d i n t o being a "new middle c l a s s " , each of the o t h e r approaches surveyed, w h i l e they^ " c o n t r a d i c t one another, w i l l be shown to p r e c l u d e the wholesale a l l o c a t i o n of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n t o any c l a s s — w o r k i n g , middle, or r u l i n g . For t h e i r p a r t , the Midland s t a f f employees r e a d i l y enough c l a s s i f y themselves i n terms of the most c o n v e n t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : middle c l a s s and working c l a s s . The modal s t a f f employee:chooses the former, but a much l a r g e r m a j o r i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e s as working c l a s s the home i n which i t was r a i s e d . Indeed, we s h a l l show t h a t most s t a f f employees had been r a i s e d by manual workers and were thus s o c i a l l y mobile on the c o n v e n t i o n a l measure. The Midland sample c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y of s t a f f employees who on p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e grounds r e p o r t they have achieved upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . There i s , however, a most i m p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o b j e c t i v e and a t t i -t u d i n a l i n d i c a t o r s of c l a s s m o b i l i t y , and our e x p l o r a t i o n s of c l a s s i d e n t i t y show t h a t the Midland sample i s an i n t e r e s t i n g amalgam of q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s : sons and daughters of manual workers who r e t a i n a working c l a s s i d e n t i t y as s t a f f employees; sons and daughters of manual workers who b e l i e v e themselves upwardly-mobile members of B r i t a i n ' s middle c l a s s ; and sons and daughters of non-manual workers who c h a r a c t e r i z e as middle c l a s s both t h e i r c l a s s of o r i g i n s and t h e i r p r e s e n t c l a s s p o s i t i o n s . While these three groups form a m a j o r i t y of the sample, we s h a l l a l s o f i n d t h a t r a t h e r l a r g e numbers of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers^ "misperceive" t h e i r c l a s s o r i g i n s ( f o r example, some t w e n t y - f i v e respondents r a i s e d by non-manual workers regard themselves and t h e i r o r i g i n s as working c l a s s ) . Once again, we s h a l l determine i n Chapter 4 t h a t some c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y i s presen t among the s t a f f employees, t h i s time i n r e l a t i o n to c l a s s o r i g i n s , c l a s s i d e n t i t y , and c l a s s imagery (perce p t i o n s of the c l a s s system). M i l l s ' new middle c l a s s i s i n r e a l i t y a stratum composed of workers w i t h v a r i e d f a m i l y backgrounds and s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s . Being a s t a f f employee does not seem to engender a common i d e n t i t y or shared o u t l o o k s on the s o c i a l order among Midland's non-manuals. Moreover, the s i g n i f i c a n t w o r k p l a c e i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t r e s i d e between men and women and between favoured and l e s s -favoured p o s i t i o n s are a l s o u n r e f l e c t e d i n measures of c l a s s i d e n t i t y . Midland's "working" and "middle" c l a s s members are found i n a l l l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h y , i n a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, and they have j o i n e d w h i t e - c o l l a r unions i n almost equal p r o p o r t i o n s . For the s t a f f employees, c l a s s i d e n t i t y has become a pe r s o n a l t h i n g , r e l a t e d more to a s u b j e c t i v e comparison of one's o r i g i n s and one's prese n t p o s i t i o n than to a common, - 23 -shared, and occupation-based source of s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s development i s c o n s i d e r e d a t the c l o s e o f Chapter 4 . Chapter 5 i s devoted to p o l i t i c s , and i n i t s opening pages shows t h a t the i n t e r e s t brought t o p o l i t i c s by s t a f f employees i s l i m i t e d , and t h a t the modest r a t e s of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of sample members f a l l w e l l w i t h i n expected ranges f o r B r i t i s h e l e c t o r s . The modal s t a f f employee i s a Tory i n i d e n t i t y , and the Co n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y has r e c e i v e d heavy m a j o r i t i e s i n the two g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s p r e c e d i n g the study. I t w i l l be demonstrated t h a t r e l a t i v e to t h e i r parents': p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e s and f r e q u e n t l y to t h e i r own o r i g i n a l p a r t y i d e n t i t i e s , l a r g e numbers of now-Tory s t a f f employees had once supported the L i b e r a l and Labour p a r t i e s . The i n t e r -p a r t y m i g r a t i o n observed a t Midland i s a process b r i n g i n g q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , and much of i t i s accompanied by the f a c t and/or the p e r c e p t i o n of i n t e r -g e n e r a t i o n a l upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . But we s h a l l a l s o f i n d t h a t not every s t a f f employee i s a Tory. The sons and daughter of non-manual and of s t r o n g l y -committed Labour p a r t i s a n s are q u i t e l i k e l y to r e t a i n t h i s p r e f e r e n c e and, i n a l l , almost three s t a f f employees i n ten support the Labour p a r t y . Although p l a i n l y d i v i d e d i n t h e i r p a r t i s a n i d e n t i t i e s , Tory and L a b o u r i t e s t a f f employees do not group d i s t i n c t i v e l y i n the favoured and l e s s - f a v o u r e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c l u s t e r s , do not express d i f f e r e n t w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s , and do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y on socio-demographic f a c t o r s . L a b o u r i t e s and T o r i e s w i l l a l s o be shown to be e q u a l l y l i k e l y t o have v o l -u n t a r i l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h w h i t e - c o l l a r t r ade unions, but a t the same time have very d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k s on unions and the t r a d e union movement more g e n e r a l l y . The f o u r chapters j u s t canvassed p r o v i d e the b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r a more t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these same themes i n the f i n a l two chapters of the study. The data presented and the r e s u l t s d e r i v e d i n a l l p a r t s of the study stem from a s i n g l e e m p i r i c a l study, and here i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to p r o v i d e some d e t a i l on the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the Midland Products p r o j e c t . The Midland Products Study: T e c h n i c a l Notes Notwithstanding the d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g w h i t e - c o l l a r work i n the a b s t r a c t , 134 i n d i v i d u a l s who would q u a l i f y under any d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e the sample f o r the study. T h e i r work i s mainly "mental" not " p h y s i c a l " ; they are s a l a r i e d , not p a i d by the hour; the men do indeed wear w h i t e - c o l l a r s and, f o r t h a t matter, t i e s t o work; they perform " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l " as a g a i n s t " p r o d u c t i o n and mainten-ance" r o l e s d e l e g a t e d to them by management on b e h a l f of c a p i t a l ; they work on the s t a f f s i d e of the w o r k s / s t a f f d i v i d e , - 25 -and are f o r t h i s reason r e f e r r e d t o as " s t a f f employees" a t the company. "Midland Products" i s the f i c t i t i o u s name of a very r e a l company i n the B r i t i s h Midlands. I t s head o f f i c e has been l o c a t e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l c i t y of Nottingham f o r many ye a r s . Long engaged i n the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and marketing of a famous l i n e of products, Midland i s by most measures a p r o f i t a b l e and prosperous f i r m . As agreed a t the time the study was undertaken, however, i t s t r u e i d e n t i t y and the exact l i n e o f products must remain a s e c r e t . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether, given the broad o b j e c t i v e s of the Midland Products Study, the Nottingham l o c a t i o n of the company would make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n u n u s u a l l y r i s k y . The q u e s t i o n may be answered i n the n e g a t i v e . Nikolaus Pevsner has r e m a r k e d , r e a s s u r i n g l y i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h a t " n e i t h e r the a r c h i t e c t u r e nor the landscape of Nottinghamshire r e a l l y rank w i t h England's 17 . . . f i n e s t . F u r t h e r , "In i t s h i s t o r y a l s o Nottinghamshire i s not 18 marked by many events o f prime n a t i o n a l importance." The County Borough of Nottingham i s and has long served 19 as a major p r o v i n c i a l c e n t r e . D e s p i t e some s l i g h t d e c l i n e i n r e c e n t decades, the p o p u l a t i o n o f the County Borough i s today about 300,00 0, or some 45% of the l a r g e r Nottingham p l a n n i n g D i s t r i c t . The D i s t r i c t , i n t u r n , p r o v i d e s a p l u r a l i t y of r e s i d e n t s of the Nottingham-Derbyshire Sub-region, which, f i n a l l y , 17 N i k o l a u s Pevsner, Nottinghamshire: The B u i l d i n g s o f England (Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1951) page 11. 18 I b i d , page 11. 19 For an i n f o r m a l h i s t o r y of the c i t y , see G e o f f r e y Trease, Nottingham: A Biography (London, MacMillan, 1970). - 25a -c o n s t i t u t e s 52.4% of the East Midlands Region. Nottingham i s the l a r g e s t s i n g l e c e n t r e i n a growing r e g i o n , but does not dominate i t i n the way t h a t Birmingham dominates the neighbouring, but more r a p i d l y growing, West Midlands Region. In both the West and East Midlands r e g i o n s , the manufacturing s e c t o r remains by f a r the l a r g e s t ; the s e r v i c e s e c t o r being somewhat l e s s developed but now i n c r e a s i n g i n 20 s i z e . U n l i k e the West Midlands, mining and q u a r r y i n g remain s i g n i f i c a n t elements of the i n d u s t r i a l economy i n the E a s t . N e i t h e r r e g i o n as y e t employs non-manuals i n r a t e s p r e v a i l i n g to the south (see the d i s c u s s i o n below, page 273 at f o o t n o t e 6 a ) • Given these s l i g h t r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s there i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t the East Midlands r e g i o n may not s a f e l y be regarded as b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the n a t i o n , nor t h a t Nottingham i t s e l f i s fundamentally u n l i k e a dozen other urban c e n t r e s across B r i t a i n of comparable s i z e . The s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l dimensions o f t h i s g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n are d i s c u s s e d below i n Chapter 5. Midland's s t a f f employees b e l i e v e t h a t the company w i l l c ontinue to f l o u r i s h i n the coming y e a r s . Midland has enjoyed a good l o c a l r e p u t a t i o n f o r p a c e s e t t i n g wage sett l e m e n t s and f o r l a y i n g - o f f few e s t a b l i s h e d workers, manual or non-manual. Only sharp changes of economic c o n d i t i o n s or consumer p r e f e r e n c e would l i k e l y pose major problems f o r Midland Products. 20 The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l has been drawn from B r i a n Towers, The Future P a t t e r n of Consumer Demand i n Greater Nottingham (Nottingham, Nottingham U n i v e r s i t y , 1972). - 25b -In i t s f a v o u r a b l e economic p o s i t i o n , i t s expanding o p e r a t i o n s , i t s d i r e c t dependence on consumer c h o i c e , i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e number of w h i t e - c o l l a r employees, and i t s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r n a l melange of " s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s " , Midland Products i s a promising s e t t i n g f o r a wide-ranging study of today's non-manual workers. Indeed, Midland's management so - 26 -saw t h e c o m p a n y a n d a g r e e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o n d u c t o f r e s e a r c h w i t h o u t , a t t h e same t i m e , p l a c i n g b i n d i n g c o n t r o l s o n i t s s c o p e . T h i s g e n e r o s i t y was p a r a l l e l e d b y t h a t o f t h e e x e c u t i v e s o f t h e s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i . e . , t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s a n d t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n . A l t h o u g h b o t h m a n a g e m e n t a n d s t a f f w i s h e d t o r e v i e w t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e o u t s e t o f r e s e a r c h , e a c h w a s c o n t e n t t o s e e i t a d m i n i s t e r e d s u b -s t a n t i a l l y a s i t h a d o r i g i n a l l y b e e n p r e p a r e d . F o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l d a y s b e g i n n i n g o n May 3 , 1 9 7 3 , some 200 s t a f f e m p l o y e e s a t M i d l a n d ' s N o t t i n g h a m h e a d q u a r t e r s w e r e i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d a n i n t e r v i e w d u r i n g c o m p a n y h o u r s a t a c o m p a n y o f f i c e . T h e r e c i p i e n t s o f t h i s i n v i t a t i o n c o m p r i s e d a s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e o f t h e c o m p a n y ' s s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , a s a m p l e s e e n t o b e b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s h a p e o f w h i t e -c o l l a r e m p l o y m e n t a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . F i g u r e 1 p r e s e n t s a m o d e l o f t h e c o m p a n y t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f d e -p a r t i n g f r o m a p u r e l y - r a n d o m s a m p l e . A s t h e s t r u c t u r e i s a s c e n d e d , r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e n c o u t e r e d a t e a c h s t e p . I n o r d e r t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r o f s e n i o r w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s w o u l d b e i n t e r v i e w e d , f i v e s t r a t a w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d a n d g i v e n a n a r t i f i c a l l y e q u a l s i z e o f 40 p e o p l e . T h i s c h o i c e w a s a l s o a n a t u r a l c o r o l l a r y o f t h e M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m f o r s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , . a n d , a s t h i s s y s t e m w i l l b e r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t h e r e t o d i s c u s s i t s p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s . - 27 -F I G U R E 1 MIDLAND PRODUCTS HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE STAFF EMPLOYEES' CLASSIFICATION LEVELS 0-6/2-6 0-5/2-5 0-4/2-4 0-3/2-3 0-2/2-2 5-4 to 7 2-0,1 1-9 90 169 205 256 406-128 50 - J 6-0 5-8,9 FOREMEN NUMBER AT LEVEL 4/73 PRODUCTION WORKERS - 28 -The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System As the main element of a company-wide reorganization i n 1967, a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was developed for a l l s t a f f employee positions at the company. Each job was considered in r e l a t i o n to every other position and ranked according to required background or selection c r i t e r i a , technical complexity of the tasks, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for supervision over the work of others, the consequences of error, and reporting relationships. Pr i o r to 1967, Midland's various departments and d i v i s i o n s had enjoyed a good deal of autonomy i n position description and, hence, i n job-ranking, s t a f f i n g procedures, and pay. The reorganization of 1967 sought to standardize the personnel administration system, and one r e s u l t of t h i s has been that the rules governing promotion and.advancement have become far more e x p l i c i t (or less idiosyncratic) than was reportedly the case before. The s t a f f employee c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system set out i n summary form below provides separate grades for male positions (0-2,3,4,5,6) and female positions (2-2,3,4,5,6). There are a d d i t i o n a l l y "junior trainee" grades for young women (1-9, 2-0, 2-1), and a p a r a l l e l graded ladder for foremen (5-4,5,6,7,8,9, and 6-0). The white-collar hierarchy at Midland i s sketched below. - 29 -The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System Male Employees 0-2 j u n i o r c l e r k s 0-3 s e n i o r c l e r k s 0-4 c o n t r o l c l e r k s , j u n i o r computer pro-rammers, j u n i o r t e c h n i c i a n s 0-5 o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , programmers 0-6 s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods a n a l y s t s , s e n i o r programmers, other s p e c i a l i s t s Female Employees 2-2 c l e r k / t y p i s t s , key punchers, j u n i o r s e c r e t a r i e s 2-3 s e n i o r c l e r i c a l workers 2-4 c o n t r o l c l e r k s , s e n i o r s e c r e t a r i e s 2-5 personnel o f f i c e r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods a n a l y s t s , d i r e c t o r ' s s e c r e t a r i e s 2-6 personnel o f f i c e r s , s e n i o r data pro-c e s s o r s , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s , s p e c i a l i s t s I t should be noted t h a t t h i s encompassing system aggregates a number of s m a l l e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. C l e r k s and computer programmers, to mention two examples provided above, c o u l d range from j u n i o r to s e n i o r . I t should be noted as w e l l t h a t some of these s m a l l e r l a d d e r s begin where ot h e r s l e a v e o f f . To maintain, c o m p a r a b i l i t y 'between- males and females, i t was decided t h a t " j u n i o r t r a i n e e s " c o u l d be omitted but t h a t foremen should be i n c l u d e d . Foremen were i n c l u d e d f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t , while i t i s t r u e t h a t a number of j u n i o r foremen (grades 5-4 to 7) work on the shop f l o o r o v e r s e e i n g the work of teams of manual workers, a good many (5-8,9,6-0) do not. - 30 -The s e p a r a t e f o r e m a n l a d d e r , l i k e t h a t o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s i n more c l a s s i c a l l y w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s , e n d s a t management-l e v e l p o s i t i o n s . T h i r d , f o r e m e n a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s a s " s t a f f " e m p l o y e e s , and a r e s o c o n s i d e r e d by o t h e r s t a f f e m p l o y e e s a n d by M i d l a n d ' s management. F o u r t h , f o r e m e n s h a r e t h e same w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s w i t h o t h e r s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , a f a c t o r l i k e l y t o i n d u c e e v e n c l o s e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . I f f o r e m e n a r e r i g h t l y i n c l u d e d a s s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , by t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h r a t e s o f p a y t h e y m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d among t h e more s e n i o r . F o r e men w i l l be s t u d i e d , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , a s a n i n t e g r a l c omponent o f t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , and e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y a s a s p e c i f i c w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b t y p e and a s a s e p a r a t e l e v e l i n t h e h i e r a r c h y . We s h a l l s e e t h a t f o r e -men a r e on some m e a s u r e s a d i s t i n c t i v e g r o u p a n d , w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , t h e y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h o s e i n t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y . The S a mple To c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e f a c t t h a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y f e w e r s e n i o r w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s e x i s t i n M i d l a n d ' s h i e r a r c h y , t h e s a m p l e was s t r a t i f i e d i n f i v e g r o u p s . F i r s t , M i d l a n d g r a d e s 0 - 5 / 2 - 5 a n d 0 - 6 / 2 - 6 w e r e c o l l a p s e d i n t o a s i n g l e s t r a t u m o f s e n i o r w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a t o r n e a r t h e t o p o f - 31 -the h i e r a r c h y . Secondly, each other l e v e l (0-2/2-2; 0-3/2-3; and 0-4/2-4) was a l s o d e s i g n a t e d a stratum. F i n a l l y , as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , foremen were i n c l u d e d as a separate stratum. In a l l , f i v e s t r a t a were c r e a t e d and f o r t y names were drawn randomly from company re c o r d s i n each. These 20 0 i n d i v i d u a l s were i n v i t e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d . In a l l , 135 or 68% were i n t e r v i e w e d by a team of i n t e r -viewers t h a t had been r e c r u i t e d l o c a l l y ( a l l having been t r a i n e d by major B r i t i s h p o l l i n g f i r m s ) . Turnout across the s t r a t a a t Midland was somewhat uneven and t h i s , as w e l l as the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n procedure used, m i l i t a t e d toward the c r e a t i o n of a weighting system. Table 1 p r o v i d e s data on the u n i v e r s e of non-manuals a t Midland, Table 2 on turnout, and Table 3 on the weighting system. To summarize b r i e f l y , the weighted sample corresponds q u i t e c l o s e l y to what would have been generated by a pe r f e c t l y - r a n d o m sample of one s t a f f employee i n t e n. The 13 4 respondents i n the weighted sample are q u i t e a d i v e r s e group of i n d i v i d u a l s , the p o s i t i o n s they h o l d a l s o vary markedly, and, i n a l l , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t they capture i n m i n i a t u r e most important tendencies and cleavages i n the u n i v e r s e from which they were drawn. One such f a c t o r i s simply p h y s i c a l space. The sampling procedure was q u i t e random w i t h r e s p e c t t o where those employed i n Midland's Enton headquarters would a c t u a l l y be l o c a t e d . The sample u l t i m a t e l y c o n t a i n e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from over twenty departments and - 32 -T a b l e 1 S t a f f E m p l o y e e G r a d e s a n d L e v e l s SAMPLE MIDLAND LEVEL GRADES MALES FEMALES TOTAL a "o A (Low) 0-2/2-2 41 365 406 31 B 0-3/2-3 86 170 256 19 C 0-4/2-4 148 57 205 15 D ( H i g h ) 0-5/2-5 153 16 169 19 0-6/2-6 86 4 90 E (Foremen) 5-4 t o 6-0 204 0 204 15 718 612 1330 99 T a b l e 2 T u r n o u t SAMPLE MIDLAND .:.. .... .... ., ~. . ACTUAL AS % ACTUAL AS % OF LEVEL GRADES INTENDED ACTUAL OF INTENDED TOTAL SAMPLE A 0-2/2-2 40 28 70% 21% B 0-3/2-3 40 33 83% 24% C 0-4/2-4 40 21 53% 16% D 0-5,6/2-5,6 40 35 88% 26% E 5-4 t o 6-0 40 18 45% 13% 200 135 68% 100% T a b l e 3 The W e i g h t F a c t o r a n d F i n a l Sample SAMPLE MIDLAND : "Hr..-: "• •' . X - ' • LEVEL GRADES "REQUIRED" ACTUAL WEIGHT F I N A L A 0-2/2-2 41 28 1.5 42 31 B 0-3/2-3 26 33 .8 27 20 C 0-4/2-4 21 21 1.0 21 16 D 0-5,6/2-5,6 26 35 .7 24 18 E 5-4 t o 6-0 20 18 1.1 20 15 134 135 134 100 - 33 -d i v i s i o n s , as i s shown i n Table 4. One department i s rep-r e s e n t e d by onl y f i v e s t a f f employees while most have twice t h a t number. The q u e s t i o n of whether, f o r example, Personnel i s r e a l l y s m a l l e r than the Sa l e s o f f i c e cannot be answered by these data, nor can the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the 17 people concerned i n terms of the departmental averages. But as a measure of p h y s i c a l space, department or d i v i s i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n the a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s . Demographics of the Sample Of the 133 0 s t a f f employees a t Midl.a.nd Products a t the time the i n t e r v i e w i n g was conducted, 718 (or 54%) were men and 612 (or 46%) were women. E x c l u d i n g the foremen, a l l o f whom were men, women form a m a j o r i t y of 54% of those i n the white-c o l l a r grades. The weighted sample i n c l u d i n g foremen was 47% male and with foremen removed was 62% female. On gender, women s t a f f employees were somewhat ov e r r e p r e s e n t e d p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n from which they were drawn (see Table 5). On other dimensions i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o v e r i f y the rep-r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the sample without access to c o n f i d e n t i a l p ersonnel f i l e s . F i v e s e l f - r e p o r t e d items o f i n f o r m a t i o n which would f a l l under t h i s r u l e are s e t out i n Tables 6-10. They are age i n y e a r s , e d u c a t i o n , years a t Midland, weekly r a t e s of pay, and time a t presen t grade. Table 4 Departmental Representation i n the F i n a l Sample Work Study Person- Market- Research Shop Shop Purchas- Sales Data Engin- Misc.* & Org. nel ing & Devel- A** B*** .'.ing & Pro eering Methods opment Supplies cessing % 4 5 ^ 6 8 :i 8 7 8 11 12 23 N (5) (6) (7) (11) (10) (11) (10) (11) (14) (16) (31) * "Misc" contains a l l those from smaller sub-units. ** "Shop A" i s located within the c i t y of Enton but was some miles distant from the central s i t e of Midland Products. *** "Shop B" has simply been renamed to preserve the anonymity of the company. - 35 -Table 5 Gender Gender N o. Male 63 47 Female 71 53 134 100 Table 6 Age i n Years Age N o. "o 22 and under 25.: 19 23 - 29 26 19 30 - 39 19 14 40 - 49 26 19 5 0 and more 37 28 Refused 2 1 135* 1 0 0 .Table . !7 Education Education N a o Some Post-Secondary 72 54 Secondary Only 56 42 Refused 6 4 134 100 From time to time the rounding procedure for weighted samples i n SPSS w i l l produce an error i n the number of cases reported. The magnitude of these errors i s always small. - 36 -Table 8 Years at Midland Years at Midland N Q. "O 0 - 3 24 18 4 - 9 35 26 10 - 19 27 20 20 - 29 20 15 3 0 and more 29 22 135 101 Table 9 Weekly Rates of Pay, A f t e r Deductions N a *o More than 1J50 17 13 h 45 - 49 11 8 * 40 - 44 8 6 £ 3 5 - 3 9 17 13 f, 30 - 34 19 14 fe 25 - 29 28 - 21 Less than £25 33 25 133 101 Table 10 Time a t Present Grade i-... '.. . .; • . • N a "5 Less than 6 months 8 . 6 6 - 1 2 months 17 13 1 3 - 2 4 months 25 19 2 5 - 36 months 26 19 37 - 48 20 15 49 - 60 20 15 61 months and more 19 14 135 101 - 37 -The youngest s t a f f employee i n t e r v i e w e d was 20 and the o l d e s t , 63. The average age of respondents was 34. Most had pursued s t u d i e s beyond secondary s c h o o l , but the v a r i e t y of a d d i t i o n a l formal e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by respondents r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l be c o n s i d e r e d simply as having r e c e i v e d some p o s t -21 secondary e d u c a t i o n . Many of the respondents were o l d - t i m e r s at Midland, a t h i r d o f the sample had been t h e r e f o r twenty years or more. The mean l e n g t h of s e r v i c e was 15.6 y e a r s . Rates of pay and time a t p r e s e n t grade i n the h i e r a r c h y both range w i d e l y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the sample captures the spread a t the f i r m n i c e l y . In summary, the sample i s s m a l l but c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u t e d to r e f l e c t not o n l y the socio-demographic composition of the p o p u l a t i o n of s t a f f employees at the company, but i t s h i e r -a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e as w e l l . I t c o n t a i n s w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n very s e n i o r and high-paying jobs as w e l l as those more j u n i o r . I t c o n t a i n s s t a f f employees who are r e l a t i v e newcomers to the company as w e l l as some who have spent t h i r t y and more years i n i t s employ. The study's f i r s t major emphasis i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l w h i t e - c o l l a r workers and t h e i r jobs. 21 Respondents i d e n t i f i e d no fewer than 12 types of s c h o o l s attended. The l a r g e s t c l u s t e r s were "Grammar School" (37%); "Secondary" (or "Secondary Modern") (32%); "Elementary" (10%); and a l l o t h e r s (e.g.,'"Public", "High", " B i l a t e r a l " , " C e n t r a l " , " T e c h n i c a l " , etc.) (21%). Grammar s c h o o l graduates were somewhat l e s s l i k e l y t o pursue post-secondary s t u d i e s than Secondary s c h o o l graduates (51% vs. 57%), but were more l i k e l y t o have r e c e i v e d a degree, diploma, or p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t e (41% vs. 32%). In a l l c a t e g o r i e s , however, post-secondary study predominantly i n v o l v e d b u s i n e s s , management, or s e c r e t a r i a l c o urses, along w i t h a mixed bag of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l p u r s u i t s . Grammar s c h o o l graduates accounted f o r f o u r of the s i x u n i v e r s i t y degrees earned by s t a f f employees. - 38 -Chapter 2 Wh'ite'-Collar Workers, W h i t e - C o l l a r Work - 39 -C h a p t e r 2 W h i t e - C o l l a r W o r k e r s , W h i t e - C o l l a r Work We must b e g i n o u r d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s i t s e l f , f o r i t i s e x c l u s i v e l y t h e domain o f work t h a t p r o d u c e s and d e f i n e s t h e s t r a t u m o f non-manual w o r k e r s . As i s s u g g e s t e d by i t s t i t l e , t h i s c h a p t e r a p p r o a c h e s t h e domain o f work f r o m two d i r e c t i o n s : by a m a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s h e l d by s t a f f e m p l o y e e s as i n d i v i d u a l s , and by an a n a l y s i s o f some f i x e d p r o p e r t i e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . A t h i r d s u b j e c t , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e a t t i t u d e s and t h e p o s i t i o n s h e l d by s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , i s i m p l i c i t i n t h i s d u a l i t y and w i l l r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n l a t e r . W i t h r e g a r d f i r s t t o w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s , t h e p u r -p o s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r and t o what e x t e n t M i d l a n d ' s w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a r e s a t i s f i e d by t h e j o b s t h e y p e r f o r m what t h e y v a l u e i n non-manual p o s i t i o n s more g e n e r a l l y , what t h e y w i s h t o a c c o m p l i s h o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r own c a r e e r s w i t h i n and o u t s i d e M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s , and how t h e s e t h r e e a t t i t u d e s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . Where p o s s i b l e , app-r o p r i a t e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h t h o s e f r o m s t u d i e s o f b l u e - c o l l a r o r manual w o r k e r s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t o a l l o w f o r an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a t t i t u d i n a l s i m i l a r i t y between members o f t h e s e two s t r a t a . - 4 0 -The amount of agreement within s t a f f employee ranks i s as well an important question, and the work-related attitudes Of non-manuals may reveal an absence of consensus not always detected i n studies of manual workers. To a s s i s t i n t h i s exploration, we s h a l l seek to account for variations i n job s a t i s f a c t i o n , orientation to work, and career orientations by reference to the socio-demographic factors of age, education, and gender which we have already found to render the Midland s t a f f employees quite a mixed group on just these dimensions. Our purpose i n s c u t i n i z i n g white-collar positions at the company i s not unlike our reasons for examining work-related attitudes. The r i s e of non-manual or white-collar work i s frequently evoked without s u f f i c i e n t attention to the de-t a i l s of the process. C. Wright M i l l s has described "the white-c o l l a r s a l a r i a t " as "an occupational salad" i n which are lumped jobs which, although a l l non-manual, are otherwise quite d i f f e r e n t i n terms of duties, rewards, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . While Midland Products has a comprehensive job c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n system for a l l s t a f f employee positions, the positions f i l l e d by white-collar workers d i f f e r among themselves for reasons other than t h e i r place i n the company hierarchy. How and along what additional dimensions white-collar jobs at the company vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one another are questions that deserve considered treatment. Some f i v e " s t r u c t u r a l " properties of s t a f f employee positions w i l l be scrutinized to e s t a b l i s h the extent of v a r i a t i o n across and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n within white-collar - 41 -producer roles i n one large manufacturing corporation. Once we have examined the d i s t r i b u t i o n of three im-portant work-related attitudes and have documented the p r i n -c i p a l properties that d i f f e r e n t i a t e white-collar positions, we s h a l l address the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between these attitudes and properties. We s h a l l , i n other words, seek to determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t linkages e x i s t between job structure and worker attitudes, or whether the more profound sources of a t t i t u d i n a l divergences are found i n extra-vocational influences.. Midland's Jobs and Workers: An Introduction The explorations of job s a t i s f a c t i o n , orientation to work, and career aspirations that occupy the pages to follow i n e v i t a b l y take an abstract and heavily quantitative form. By way of introduction to these materials, i t may be of value to speak more generally about the p l i g h t of the s t a f f employees who form the sample, to provide an overview of the r e l a t i o n -ship between the Midland workers, t h e i r jobs, and the company. We have already noted the optimism of the s t a f f employees, the fact that they perceive Midland Products as a successful com-pany. When asked to think back over the two or three years before the interview and to estimate how successful the company had been, not one respondent said i t had been either moderately or very unsuccessful. F u l l y 84% of the s t a f f employees said - 4 2 -Midland had recently been very successful. Asked about the coming three or four years, respondents were only s l i g h t l y less buoyant, as 98 ( 7 3 % ) r e p l i e d the company would continue to be very successful and 3 2 ( 2 4 % ) thought i t would be at le a s t moderately successful. The strength of t h i s optimism should perhaps be taken into account i n assessing materials following on job s a t i s f a c t i o n . No such consensus obtained on whether the company was growing or decreasing i n terms of the number of individuals i t employed. Just over a quarter of those interviewed said Midland had recently been growing, while about a t h i r d said employment had remained at about i t s (then) current s i z e . A slender p l u r a l i t y of s t a f f employees ( 3 4 % ) thought that Midland had declined i n size i n the preceding three years. With regard to redundancy or unemployment, 3 5 % said that some of Midland's manual or production workers had been " l e t go" i n the past year, and 4 6 % f e l t that some non-manual or s t a f f employees had been made redundant. Asked whether, i n t h e i r present jobs, they were person-a l l y concerned about being made redundant, only 8% answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y . Four respondents f e l t i t was very l i k e l y and six f e l t i t was f a i r l y l i k e l y that they themselves would be made redundant i n the next three or four years. Over 90% of those interviewed f e l t t h i s was not very l i k e l y to happen ..to them. As a footnote to these findings on the threat of re-dundancy, only six s t a f f employees had ever i n v o l u n t a r i l y been - 43 -out of work for as long as a month. The r e c i p r o c a l issue to redundancy among white-collar workers i s that of promotion and advancement. Asked whether the company's promotion p o l i c i e s were f a i r and clear or whether there are "ambiguities or unfair aspects to them" the sample s p l i t into almost equal groups. Just under half said that promotions p o l i c i e s were f a i r and cl e a r , and just over half said they were not. A majority of 52% said the p o l i c i e s should be changed. Less consensus marked the respondents' views on how p r e c i s e l y Midland's promotions p o l i c i e s should be changed: 14% said more emphasis should be placed on a b i l i t y , 7% said more should be placed on experience, and another 7% c i t e d biases against several personal q u a l i t i e s . But the largest groups of reformers were those saying that arrangements for promotion and advancement needed to be c l a r i f i e d and standardized across a l l the departments i n the company (34%) , and that less emphasis should be placed on the external re-cruitment of s t a f f employees (22%). Of course, the company reorganization of 1967 was intended to meet the f i r s t of these recommendations, although i t drew more unfavourable than favourable reaction, as we s h a l l see l a t e r . To be counterposed against the optimism of sample mem-bers i n regard to Midland's success and to the low salience of the threat of unemployment i s the finding that most s t a f f em-ployees do not expect to be promoted " i n the next year or two". Only 11 (8%) f e l t that a promotion was very l i k e l y coming to them, while 29% and 59% stated that t h e i r chances were only " f a i r l y good" or "not very good" respectively. How could the s o c i a l environment at the company be de-scribed? The Midland respondents were asked the following question: As you know, some companies are said to be marked by a great deal of competition between.employees who f e e l they must play p o l i t i c s to get ahead. Other companies seem more relaxed and the sense of com-p e t i t i o n i s not so great. How do you see Midland Products? Does i t have more or less continual competition with l o t s of p o l i t i c s , some competition and p o l i t i c s , or not very much? The responses to t h i s sprawling question would appear to place Midland Products among the more "relaxed" companies. Only 9% of those interviewed r e p l i e d that Midland could be characterized as having continual competition and l o t s of p o l i t i c s , while equal numbers indicated that "some" and "not very much" p o l i t i c s were played at the firm. The Job S a t i s f a c t i o n of Staff Employees The fa s t e s t route into the issue of job s a t i s f a c t i o n of white-collar workers i s the extension of the most common app-roach to measuring job s a t i s f a c t i o n among manual workers. The c e n t r a l i t y of three concrete and material workplace character-i s t i c s i s stressed: high rates of payment, secure and steady tenure, and pleasant conditions of work. The assumption i s t h a t workers look f o r j u s t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i r j o b s , and jobs which are seen to be more rewarding i n these terms are l i k e l y to produce more s a t i s f i e d workers than jobs t h a t are not. T h i s simple model dominates most s t u d i e s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n , as most such s t u d i e s have focussed on manual workers."^" I f t h e r e i s a d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s measure, or w i t h one simply a s k i n g , "How s a t i s f i e d are you w i t h your job?", i t i s t h a t most workers tend to g i v e h i g h l y f a v o u r a b l e answers, answers which do not accord w i t h other measures of job s a t i s f a c t i o n and have l i t t l e or no p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e . 2 The approach taken a t Midland Products attempted to per-mit w h i t e - c o l l a r workers to d i s c r i m i n a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one p r o p e r t y of t h e i r jobs from s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . In a d d i t i o n t o the p r e v i o u s l y - r e p o r t e d q u e s t i o n on promotions p o l i c y , respondents were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s about job s a t i s f a c t i o n : How would you say Midland Products comr pares w i t h other f i r m s you know of as a f i r m to work f o r ? Would you say i t i s S t a n l e y Seashore, "Job S a t i s f a c t i o n as an I n d i c a t o r of the Q u a l i t y of Employment" (paper presented t o the Symposium on  S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s and the Q u a l i t y of Working L i f e , March, 1973, and a v a i l a b l e from the Department of Labour, Government of Can-ada) , page 3-4. See a l s o Norman Bradburn, "Is the Q u a l i t y bf Working L i f e Improving?" (from the same Symposium). Angus Campbell, P h i l l i p Converse, and W i l l a r d Rogers have examined job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the context of the broader measure of q u a l i t y of l i f e , w h i l e reviewing many American s t u d i e s i n The  Q u a l i t y of American L i f e (New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1976). See Chapter 9, pages 287-320. T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t job s a t i s f a c t i o n measured along s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t dimensions i s a l a r g e determinant of p e r c e i v e d q u a l i t y of l i f e more g e n e r a l l y . 2 Robert Blauner, "Work S a t i s f a c t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l Trends i n Modern S o c i e t y , " i n Galenson and L i p s e t , Labour and Trade Union-ism (New York, Wiley, 1960) pages 343-44 and 356-60. better than most, about average, or worse than most? Compared to other jobs you might have, how s a t i s f i e d , i n general, would you say you are with your present job? Are you very sat-i s f i e d , moderately s a t i s f i e d , moderately d i s s a t i s f i e d or very d i s s a t i s f i e d ? In p a r t i c u l a r , how s a t i s f i e d are you with rates of payment here? How about working conditions here? The univariate d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the responses to these items comprise Table 11. By the conventional measure, they reveal a high degree of-.apparent- job s a t i s f a c t i o n , a r e s u l t which p a r a l l e l s r e s u l t s generated by use of the same measure with manual workers. The most favourable ratings attach to Midland Products as an employer, the next most favourable to pay and, then, to working conditions. S a t i s -faction with one's present position t r a i l s these other factors, and here may refer to a desire held by s t a f f employees to advance within the same company. Midland's promotion p o l i c i e s , as we have already seen, are d i s l i k e d by as many as half the s t a f f employees. Kendall's c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed for the four items and Table 12 shows the r e s u l t s . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n as a construct aggregates several related but far from i d e n t i c a l - 47 -T a b l e 1 1 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n I t e m s Q . 6 M i d l a n d a s E m p l o y e r Q . 7 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r e s e n t J o b Q . 8 R a t e s o f P a y m e n t Q - 9 W o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s Q . 1 0 P r o m o t i o n s P o l i c y i B e t t e r t h a n m o s t i i A b o u t a v e r a g e i i i W o r s e t h a n m o s t D K , o t h e r - i V e r y s a t i s f i e d i i M o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f i e d i i i " d i s s a t i s f i e d i v V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d i V e r y s a t i s f i e d i i M o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f i e d i i i " d i s s a t i s f i e d i v V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d i V e r y s a t i s f i e d i i M o d e r a t e l y s a t i s f i e d i i i . " d i s s a t i s f i e d i v V e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d i P l e a s e d i i S h o u l d b e C h a n g e d N Q. "o 1 1 6 87 15 11 3 2 1 3 4 1 0 0 61 45 61 45 9 7 3 2 1 3 4 99 97 72 34 25 3 3 0 0 1 3 4 100 79 59 45 34 8 6 2 1 134 1 0 0 64 48 69 52 1 3 3 1 0 0 The w o r k e r s i n t h e G o l d t h o r p e s t u d y a l s o r a n k e d t h e i r e m p l o y e r s " a s a f i r m t o w o r k f o r " , s e e I n d u s t r i a l A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o u r , p a g e s 7 2 - 3 . G o l d t h o r p e M a n u a l G o l d t h o r p e N o n - M a n u a l " B e t t e r t h a n M o s t " " A b o u t A v e r a g e " " W o r s e t h a n M o s t " O t h e r , D . K . 65 25 6 5 1 0 1 (N=229) 4 1 56 4 0 1 0 1 (54) - 48 -Table 12 Elements of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Present Rates of Working Promotions Job Payment Conditions Policy Midland as Employer .23 .18 .20 .33 Present Job .26 .27 .33 Rates of Payment .04* .18 Working Conditions .26 * Non-significant ^The correlations reported i n Table 12 are s i g n i f i c a n t to .05. Results of tests of significance are routinely reported for a l l tables, and most are at or near t h i s value. The small sample l i m i t s the kinds of s t a t i s t i c a l operations that can be used on the Midland data, and occasionally "suggestive" findings not s i g n i f i c a n t to .05 are reported with suitable caveats. - 49 -elements.^ The r e l a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed by sample members with t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s p a r a l l e l s a f i n d i n g made by Gold-thorpe of the Luton workers: 55% of h i s respondents p r e f e r r e d a job p r e v i o u s l y h e l d to the one c u r r e n t l y occupied.^ At Luton, the downplaying of presen t job occasioned a s h i f t i n a n a l y s i s away from job s a t i s f a c t i o n toward the wider s u b j e c t of o r i e n - -t a t i o n to work more g e n e r a l l y . The same course was f o l l o w e d i n the Midland Products study, as i t was f e l t important to allo w respondents who were m a n i f e s t l y more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r employer than w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t jobs t o express the broader e x p e c t a t i o n s they h e l d f o r the work r e l a t i o n s h i p . O r i e n t a t i o n s to Work Acc o r d i n g to Goldthorpe, the a f f l u e n t manual workers a t Luton had adopted an i n s t r u m e n t a l approach to work, an i n -strumentalism t h a t a l s o c o l o u r s and makes more c o n d i t i o n a l An attempt to c r e a t e a Guttman s c a l e from these items met with o n l y l i m i t e d success. A c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of .933 was achieved, w i t h minimum marginal r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of .846. The c o e f f i c i e n t of s c a l a b i l i t y / T 0CR-MMR^ was a d i s -~T^MMR ap p o i n t i n g .56. S c a l e - i t e m r a t i o s were the f o l l o w i n g : Midland as employer, .51; s a t i s f a c t i o n with present job, .46; r a t e s of payment, .09; working c o n d i t i o n s , .35; promotions p o l i c y , .48. ^ I n d u s t r i a l A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour, o p . c i t . , page 34. - 50 -t h e i r support of t h e i r t r a de unions and the Labour p a r t y . In-deed, t h i s s h i f t away from working c l a s s t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i s 7 p r e d i c a t e d upon t h e i r " i n s t r u m e n t a l " o r i e n t a t i o n s to work. Goldthorpe c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i s m as an o r i e n t a t i o n to work h e l d by "economic men": The primary meaning o f work i s as a means to an end, or ends, e x t e r n a l to the work s i t u a t i o n ; t h a t i s , work i s regarded as a means of a c q u i r i n g the income necessary to support a v a l u e d way of l i f e of which work i t s e l f i s not an i n t e g r a l p a r t . Work i s t h e r e -f o r e experienced as mere 'labour' i n the sense of an expenditure o f e f f o r t which i s made f o r e x t r i n s i c r a t h e r than i n t r i n s i c rewards. Workers a c t as 'economic men', seeking to minimise e f f o r t and maximise economic r e t u r n s ; but the l a t t e r concern i s the dominant one 8 Readers f a m i l i a r w i t h the work of B o t t and Young and Wilmott w i l l r e c o g n i z e j u s t how f a r removed the s u b j e c t of Goldthorpe's p o r t r a i t i s from " t r a d i t i o n a l working c l a s s " o r i e n t a t i o n s to manual work. Indeed Goldthorpe sketches the o r i e n t a t i o n t o work of "more t r a d i t i o n a l workers" i n terms of a " s o l i d a r i s t i c " o r i e n t a t i o n t o work: 'Goldthorpe, e t . a l . , I n d u s t r i a l A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour, op. c i t . , pages 14-42. For the s u b j e c t of working c l a s s t r a d i t i o n -a l i s m , the two seminal works are E l i z a b e t h B o t t , Family and  S o c i a l Network (London, T a v i s t o c k , 1971), and M i c h a e l Young and Peter Wilmott,„Family and K i n s h i p i n E a s t London (London, Pen-gui n Books, 1961). An emerging view c h a l l e n g e s some of the assumptions of both. See James Cousins and Richard Brown, "Patterns of Paradox",,.a paper submitted to the B r i t i s h S o c i a l S cience Research C o u n c i l Conference on the O c c u p a t i o n a l Community  of the T r a d i t i o n a l Worker, Mimeo, September 1972, and Frank P a r k i n , C l a s s I n e q u a l i t y and the P o l i t i c a l Order ( o p . c i t . ) , e s p e c i a l l y Chapter I I . 8 Goldthorpe, o p . c i t . pages 38-39 - 51 -I n t h i s c a s e , w h i l e w o r k , a s a l w a y s , h a s a n e c o n o m i c m e a n i n g , i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d n o t s i m p l y a s a m e a n s t o a n e n d b u t a l s o a s a g r o u p a c t i v i t y ; t h e g r o u p b e i n g e i t h e r t h e i m m e d i a t e w o r k g r o u p o r ' s h o p 1 , o r p o s s i b l y — s a y , i n a s m a l l f i r m — t h e e n t i r e e n t e r p r i s e . E c o n o m i c r e t u r n s f r o m w o r k a r e t h u s l i k e l y t o b e s a c r i f i c e d w h e r e ' m a x i m i s i n g ' b e h a v i o u r w o u l d o f f e n d g r o u p n o r m s a n d t h r e a t e n g r o u p s o l i d a r i t y : f o r e x a m p l e , w o r k e r s may l i m i t e a r n i n g s u n d e r a f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s c h e m e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h g r o u p o u t p u t n o r m s , o r s t a y ' l o y a l ' t o ' t h e i r ' f i r m when h i g h e r w a g e s c o u l d b e h a d e l s e w h e r e . . . . ^ I t i s j u s t t h i s i m p u t a t i o n o f t h e s o l i d a r i s t i c o r i e n -t a t i o n t o w o r k t o m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l w o r k e r s ( o r t o t h o s e i n m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l " o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s " ) t h a t h a s o c c a s i o n e d some r e c e n t a r g u m e n t t h a t G o l d t h o r p e , e t a l . , p e r h a p s o v e r s t a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e L u t o n w o r k e r s a n d o t h e r m a n u a l w o r k e r s . The t h i r d " i d e a l - t y p e " o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k i n T h e A f f l u e n t W o r k e r s e r i e s c o n c e r n s w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s d i r e c t l y . T h e y a r e s a i d t o p o s s e s s a . i . " b u r e a u c r a t i c " o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k , w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d a s f o l l o w s : T h e p r i m a r y m e a n i n g o f w o r k i s a s s e r v i c e t o a n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g i n c o m e a n d s o c i a l s t a t u s a n d f o r l o n g t e r m s e c u r i t y — t h a t i s , i n r e t u r n f o r a c a r e e r . E c o n o m i c r e w a r d s a r e r e g a r d e d n o t a s p a y m e n t f o r p a r t i c u l a r a m o u n t s o f w o r k d o n e o r l a b o u r e x p e n d e d , b u t r a t h e r a s ^ I b i d , p a g e s 4 0 - 4 1 " ^ S e e C o u s i n s a n d B r o w n , o p . c i t . , a n d C . T . W h e l a n , " O r i e n -t a t i o n t o W o r k : Some T h e o r e t i c a l a n d M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P r o b l e m s " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ( V o l . 1 4 , N o . 2 , J u l y , 1 9 7 6 ) p a g e s 1 4 2 - 1 5 8 . A • " r e p l i c a t i o n " w a s n o t e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s -f u l . S e e M a l c o m M a c K i n n o n , "Work I n s t r u m e n t a l i s m R e c o n s i d e r e d " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y ( V o l 3 1 , N o . 1 , M a r c h 1 9 8 0 ) , p a g e s 1 - 2 7 . emoluments a p p r o p r i a t e to a p a r t i c u l a r grade and f u n c t i o n or to a c e r t a i n l e n g t h of s e r v i c e . . . H Goldthorpe s t a t e s h i s " u l t i m a t e argument" i s t h a t " i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r work groups, t h e i r f i r m s , t h e i r unions and 12 t h e i r own economic f u t u r e " , the workers at Luton approximate 13 to an i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n to work. F u r t h e r , he w r i t e s , "our a f f l u e n t workers d i f f e r from w h i t e - c o l l a r employees and from more t r a d i t i o n a l workers ( i n ways) which the c o n t r a s t between an i n s t r u m e n t a l and a b u r e a u c r a t i c or a s o l i d a r i s t i c 14 o r i e n t a t i o n to work makes most r e a d i l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . " O r i e n t a t i o n to work i n the p r e s e n t study i s meant to serve as an analogue f o r job s a t i s f a c t i o n , but be l e s s bound to e v a l u a t i o n s of the p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s h e l d by sample members I t i s l i k e l y t h a t workers c a r r y t h e i r g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to work to a g i v e n job, whereas t h e i r job s a t i s f a c t i o n scores depend more on the p r o p e r t i e s of the job. The approach taken to o r i e n t a t i o n to work i n v o l v e d a search f o r q u a l i t i e s or char a c t e r i s t i c s i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l job t h a t would be important c r i t e r i a to w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of i t and l a t t e r l y of the jobs they a l r e a d y h o l d . "^Goldthorpe, e t a l . , I n d u s t r i a l A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour, o p . c i t . , pages 39-40. 12 I b i d . , page 42. 13 I b i d . , page 42. 14 A l i s t of ten such q u a l i t i e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was 15 drawn up and included i n the questionnaire. Respondents were asked to consider the l i s t as a whole, and then to choose the three most important q u a l i t i e s to them. The l i s t was composed of the following: a) Relaxed Supervision b) Pleasant Working Conditions c) A Strong and Active Union d) A Chance to Use One's Own I n i t i a t i v e e) Good P o s s i b i l i t i e s for Promotion f) High Rates of Payment g) Interest and Variety i n the Work I t s e l f h) Security of Employment i) A Chance to Work with People j) Good Relations Among Co-workers Respondents were then asked to indicate the single c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which they would "look f o r " f i r s t (second and third) i n a job. Included i n t h i s l i s t are a l l of the t r a d i t i o n a l e l e -ments pertaining to e x t r i n s i c rewards which were thought to comprise job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Also included are items that de-scribe the workplace qua s o c i a l system, such as good co-worker r e l a t i o n s , relaxed supervision and "a strong and active union". __ This l i s t i s drawn p r i n c i p a l l y from items used by D.E.Mercer and D.T.H.Weir for t h e i r study "Attitudes to Work and Trade Unionism among White-Collar Workers", Industrial Relations  Journal ( V o l . I l l No.2, Summer, 1972) pages 49-60. Other studies have used similar l i s t s . - 54 -T a b l e 13 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c h o i c e s made b y t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s i n t e r v i e w e d , b y f i r s t c h o i c e s o n l y a n d t h e n b y a l l t h r e e c h o i c e s . T a b l e 13 t h u s r a n k s t h e p r e f e r r e d q u a l i t i e s o f a j o b a s c h o s e n b y t h e s a m p l e . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s f o r j o b e v a l u a t i o n ( p a y , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , a n d s t e a d y t e n u r e ) a r e r a n k e d f i r s t ( t i e ) , f o u r t h , a n d f i f t h among f i r s t 16 c h o i c e s . When a l l t h r e e " v o t e s " a r e t a b u l a t e d , s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e f a l l s t o f i f t h p l a c e , p a y r e m a i n s f o u r t h , a n d p l e a s a n t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s d r o p s t o s i x t h p l a c e . O v e r a l l , a g a i n w i t h a l l c h o i c e s t a b u l a t e d , t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e c l e a r l y o u t r a n k e d b y t h r e e o t h e r s . T h e s e o t h e r q u a l i t i e s a r e " i n t e r e s t a n d v a r i e t y i n t h e w o r k i t s e l f " , " a c h a n c e t o u s e o n e ' s own i n i t i a t i v e , " a n d " g o o d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n " . T a b l e 14 t r i c h o t o m i z e s t h e s a m p l e b y o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k a n d s e p a r a t e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m w h a t m i g h t b e c a l l e d a n " i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c " o r i e n -t a t i o n t o w o r k . T h i s l a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i m -i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d b y M e r c e r a n d W e i r t o b e f a v o u r e d b y m a j o r i t i e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p u b l i c e m p l o y e e s , t e c h n i c i a n s , a n d 17 d r a u g h t s m e n , a n d b y a p l u r a l i t y o f c l e r k s i n t h e i r s t u d y . " ^ M e r c e r a n d W e i r i n c l u d e p r o s p e c t s o f p r o m o t i o n a l o n g w i t h p a y a n d c o n d i t i o n s i n a n " E c o n o m i c A s p e c t s " m e a s u r e . The a p p r o a c h h e r e i s s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e i r d a t a — i f r e a r r a n g e d — c o n f o r m t o t h e p a t t e r n f o u n d a t M i d l a n d . I b i d . , p a g e 5 2 . 17 I b i d , p a g e 5 2 . - 55 -Table 13 Preferred Work Characteristics FIRST CHOICE ONLY ALL THREE CHOICES Cha r a c t e r i s t i c N Rank N Rank g) Work Interest 28 21 1 69 17 2 h) Security of Tenure 28 21 1 47 12 5 d) Chance to Use I n i t i a t i v e 23 •? 17' 3 72 18 1 f) Rates of Payment 17 13 4 55 14 4 b) Working Conditions 13 10 5 38 9 6 e) Promotion Chances 12 9 6 62 15 3 j) Good Co-Worker Relations 9 7 7 34 8 7 a) Relaxed Supervision 3 2 8 11 3 8 c) Strong Union 1 1 9 3 1 10 i) Work with People 0 0 10 11 3 8 134 101 40: 100 - 56 -Table 14 Preferred Work Characteristics by Type FIRST CHOICES ONLY ALL THREE CHOICES (N) % (N) % TRADITIONAL f) High Rates of Payment h) Security of Tenure (58) 43 (140) 35 b) Pleasant Working Conditions OTHER ("Personalistic") j) Good Relations Among Co-Workers a) Relaxed Supervision (12) 9 (59) 15 c) A Strong and Active Union i) A Chance to Work with People INDIVIDUALIST/INTRINSIC g) Interest and Variety i n the Work I t s e l f d) A Chance to use One's Own I n i t i a t i v e (64) 48 (203) 50 e) Good P o s s i b i l i t i e s for Promotion 134 100 (402) 100 At Midland Products, the i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c orien-tat i o n to work gains strength over the three rounds of the "election", while the more t r a d i t i o n a l orientations to work are held by only one s t a f f employee i n three on t h i s f u l l e r measure. Most s t a f f employees disclose themselves to be more con-cerned with the i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t of the tasks they encounter at work than with the e x t r i n s i c rewards work brings; with the p a r t i c u l a r job held as part of a career pattern e n t a i l i n g ad-vancement than with the working conditions peculiar to i t ; with the opportunity to use one's own i n i t i a t i v e more than with expressing a shared s k i l l or a b i l i t y . A l l these elements cohere i n an i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c orientation to work that distinguishes a slender majority of Midland's s t a f f employees from the large minority of t h e i r more " t r a d i t i o n a l " colleagues. Just the same pattern has been found by the Mercer and Weir study of non-manuals. Table 15 presents the measures of orientation to work used at Midland, by Mercer and Weir, and by the Goldthorpe team at Luton. Owing to the s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t response categories i t i s impossible to make d e f i n i t e conclusions about the res u l t s of the three studies. But the clear weight of the evidence suggests that the three groups studied approach these matters very much i n the same way. Table 15 A Comparison of P r e f e r r e d Job C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n Three S t u d i e s Rank Luton Manual Mercer: and Weir, Non-manual Midland Products 1. "Opportunity f o r Use of S k i l l " " I n t e r e s t and V a r i e t y " "Chance to Use I n i t i a t i v e " 2. " V a r i e t y i n Work Tasks" "A Good S a l a r y " " I n t e r e s t and V a r i e t y " 3. "Autonomy, Room f o r I n i t i a t i v e " " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and I n i t i a t i v e ""Good Promotion Chances" 4. "B e t t e r P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s " " S e c u r i t y and Steady Income" "Rates of Payment" 5. "Be t t e r Pay" "Prospects of Promotion" " S e c u r i t y o f Tenure" 6. " I n t r i n s i c I n t e r e s t " A l l others "Pleasant Working C o n d i t i o n s " 00 I The evidence before us does not support Goldthorpe's claims that i n orientation to work may be found an important factor discriminating three types of workers. F i r s t , no great differences were observed i n Table 15 showing the aggregate preferences of respondents i n the three studies. On the face of the matter the preferences of the Luton workers were remark-ably close to those found by Mercer and Weir and at Midland Products. Secondly, both studies of non-manuals f a i l to con-firm the existence of ca ssizable number of white-collar workers who could be said to hold a "bureaucratic" orientation to work. Third, i t i s at least arguable that the " s o l i d a r i s t i c " orien-t a t i o n to work overstates b l u e - c o l l a r t r a d i t i o n a l i s m . For example, Centers and Bugental, i n an American study, counter-posed " i n t r i n s i c " q u a l i t i e s with " e x t r i n s i c " q u a l i t i e s i n a study of white- and b l u e - c o l l a r workers. The former were "work of i n t e r e s t " , "use of s k i l l or t a l e n t " , and "feelings of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a job well done". The l a t t e r were high pay, good co-workers and job security. They note, " I n t r i n s i c job components were more valued among white-collar groups than among bl u e - c o l l a r groups. Correspondingly, a l l three e x t r i n s i c job components were more valued i n b l u e - c o l l a r groups than i n 18 white-collar groups." 18 Richard Centers and Daphne Bugental, " I n t r i n s i c and E x t r i n -s i c Job Motivations among Different Segments of the Working Pop-ul a t i o n " , Journal of Applied Psychology (Vol 50, No.3, June 1966) page 196. - 60 -T h u s , t h e r e a r e some g r o u n d s f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t w h i t e -a n d b l u e - c o l l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t i n t h a t " i n t r i n s i c " c o m p o n e n t s a r e m o r e h i g h l y v a l u e d i n t h e f o r m e r a n d " e x t r i n s i c " m o r e h i g h l y v a l u e d i n t h e l a t t e r . B u t e v e n h e r e t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f a r e c e n t c o n v e r g e n c e : L o u i s D a v i s h a s r e v i e w e d t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h y o u n g e r b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , s u c h a s t h o s e a t L u t o n , a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e y a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y m o t i v a t e d b y s u c h f a c t o r s a s c o h e r e i n t h e i n d i -v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k f o u n d t o d o m i n a t e a t 19 M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . A n d t h e p r e s e n c e a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s o f a l a r g e m i n o r i t y o f n o n - m a n u a l s w i t h " t r a d i t i o n a l " o r i e n t a t i o n s t o w o r k o n l y h i g h l i g h t s t h e d a n g e r o f a t t r i b u t i n g i d e a l - t y p i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o a n y g r o u p o f w o r k e r s e n b l o c . The f a c t i s t h a t t h i s i s a m e a s u r e t h a t n e a t l y d i v i d e s t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s i n t o t w o l a r g e g r o u p s who a p p r o a c h t h e w o r k r e l a t i o n s h i p v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n a n d O r i e n t a t i o n t o Work The r e l a t i o n s h i p a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s b e t w e e n j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n a n d o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k may b e c o n s i d e r e d m o r e c l o s e l y . H i g h r e p o r t e d r a t e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d a m o d a l i n d i v i d u a l -i s m w e r e f o u n d t o d o m i n a t e among t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s . I t was o r i g i n a l l y p o s i t e d t h a t a n o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k — a c o h e r e n t s e t L o u i s D a v i s , " J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n R e s e a r c h : The P o s t - I n d u s t -r i a l V i e w , " I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ( V o l . 1 0 , N o . 2 , May 1 9 7 1 ) p a g e s 1 7 6 - 9 3 - 61 -of expectations for the work relationship—would not only s i g n i f y c r i t e r i a for the evaluation of a hypothetical job, but would also help to explain job s a t i s f a c t i o n observed for r e a l jobs. To te s t t h i s at Midland, additive scales were developed of both variables and cross-tabulated. Table 16 provides these data. Table 16 shows that no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and orientation to work. The sample members who exhibit highest r e l a t i v e s a t i s -f a c tion are equally l i k e l y to be i n d i v i d u a l i s t s or t r a d i t i o n -a l i s t s . Lower rates of reported s a t i s f a c t i o n are also expressed equally by holders of each orientation to work. The sources of s t r a i n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n white-collar work remain to be explained by factors other than non-manuals' contrasting pro-pensities to evaluate abstract features of jobs very d i f f e r e n t l y . Career Orientations In seeking to es t a b l i s h the s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the conditions of work for manual and non-manual workers, Runciman and Lockwood have both stressed the importance 2 0 of career earnings patterns to white-collar workers. Manual workers reach an earnings plateau very early i n t h e i r work-lives, while white-collar workers would normally achieve t h e i r peak 2 0 Runciman, op. c i t . , page 56, and Lockwood, op. c i t . , page 68. - 62 -Table 16 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by O r i e n t a t i o n to Work O r i e n t a t i o n t o W o r k H i g h l y Moderately I n d i v i d u a l i s t I n d i v i d u a l i s t Mixed T r a d i t i o n a l f J h l £ . •" 26 9 34 21 S a t i s f i e d Moderately 2 3 2 9 S a t i s f i e d Mixed 24 18 29 22 Moderately 1 7 D i s s a t i s f i e d H i g h l y D i s s a t i s f i e d 18 26 7 24 101 99 101 100 (N = 35) (39) (23) (37) X 2 sig.. = .49* In v i r t u a l l y a l l of the b i - v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s to follow,, a Chi-square t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be p r o v i d e d , although raw x? f i g u r e s and degrees of freedom w i l l be omitted. In the pre s e n t case, the raw x2 = 11.4 with 12 degrees o f freedom, which i s taken as a measure of the absence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s . e a r n i n g s i n t h e d e c a d e b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t b e c a u s e p r o m o t i o n f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e , i n a d d i t i o n t o a n n u a l i n c r e a s e s f o r e a c h g r a d e , i s a n o r m a l p a r t o f a w h i t e - c o l l a r c a r e e r . P r o m o t i o n f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e i s a c c o r d i n g l y a c o m p o n e n t o f G o l d t h o r p e ' s " b u r e a u c r a t i c " o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k , a n d was o f c o u r s e a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f W e b e r ' s m o d e l . T h u s , a w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r ' s p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o -w a r d h i s c a r e e r may be m o r e p r e d i c t i v e o f h i s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n t h e b r o a d e r o r i e n t a t i o n s t o w o r k d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . P r o -m o t i o n s , o r , a t l e a s t , " G o o d P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r P r o m o t i o n s " , was i n d e e d o n e o f t h r e e e l e m e n t s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i n t r i n s i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o w o r k . The s a m p l e a s a w h o l e r a n k e d i t s i x t h 2 1 among t h e i r f i r s t - c h o i c e e v a l u a t i o n s , a n d i t r o s e t o t h i r d 22 p l a c e w h e n a l l t h r e e c h o i c e s w e r e t a b u l a t e d . To a s c e r t a i n t h e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s i n t e r v i e w e d , a f a i r l y d i r e c t r o u t e was t a k e n . T h e y w e r e a s k e d , " I n t e r m s o f y o u r own c a r e e r , c o u l d y o u t e l l me how h i g h up i n t h i s f i r m — o r i n a n o t h e r — y o u w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y l i k e t o b e ? " The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n f e l l i n t o t h r e e m a i n g r o u p s . 21 B e h i n d " i n t e r e s t a n d v a r i e t y i n t h e w o r k i t s e l f " , " s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e " , " a c h a n c e t o u s e o n e ' s own i n i t i a t i v e " , " h i g h r a t e s o f p a y m e n t " a n d " p l e a s a n t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " . I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t h a t " p r o s p e c t s o f p r o m o t i o n " d i d n o t s c o r e a s h i g h i n t h e M e r c e r a n d W e i r s t u d y , a n d t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e i t e m may h a v e b e e n a f a c t o r . 22 B e h i n d o n l y " a c h a n c e t o u s e o n e ' s own i n i t i a t i v e " a n d " i n t e r -e s t a n d v a r i e t y i n t h e w o r k i t s e l f " . - 64 -F i r s t , 38 respondents of 29% of the sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were most content to be where they were i n the f i r m , and had no p a r t i c u l a r ambitions f o r promotion a t a l l . Secondly, 35 respondents or 27% of the sample s a i d they would e v e n t u a l l y l i k e to reach a more s e n i o r grade i n the s t a f f ranks ( i . e . , i n the w h i t e - c o l l a r g r a d e s ) . 23 T h i r d l y , 58 respondents (or 44% of the sample) s t a t e d a d e s i r e to reach the management grades a t Midland Products or another f i r m . T h i s l a r g e group c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o those who wished o n l y to reach "management" and those who wanted a p l a c e i n " s e n i o r management" at the company. Of these two groups, the former was much l a r g e r (N = 43, 33% of the sample) than the l a t t e r (N = 15, 12% of the sample). In other words, on l y a s m a l l number of the s t a f f employees a s p i r e openly and u n e q u i v o c a l l y to "the top". Many s t a f f employees do never-t h e l e s s wish to f i n d a p o s i t i o n i n the management grades above s t a f f employee s t a t u s . But most do not: those content w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s and l e v e l s and those seeking o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l improvements on t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s form a c l e a r m a j o r i t y of the Midland respondents (56%). I t was expected t h a t a s t a f f employee's c a r e e r o r i e n -t a t i o n would resonate w i t h h i s o r i e n t a t i o n to work, p a r t i c u l a r l y Three respondents r e f u s e d to s t a t e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s and were excluded from the subsequent t a b l e s . Table 17 O r i e n t a t i o n to Work by Career O r i e n t a t i o n s C a r e e r 0 r i e n t a t i 0 n s O r i e n t a t i o n to Work Content Q. •Q Higher S t a f f 0 0 Management g . "5 Senior Management 0. "o H i g h l y I n d i v i d u a l i s t 22 24 27 39 (37) Moderately I n d i v i d -u a l i s t 28 17 44 25 (41) Mixed 21 30 7 9 (21) T r a d i t i o n a l 29 100 (N = 38) 29 100 (35) 23 101 (43) 26 (33) 100 (15) S i g = .15 Gamma = .15* Table 18 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by ' Career O r i e n t a t i o n s C a r e e r 0 r i e n t a t i 0 n s Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Content Higher S t a f f 0, S e n i o r Management M a n a g e m e n t 0 0. -fi O H i g h l y S a t i s f i e d 38 23 8 12 (28) Moderately S a t i s f i e d 18 33 15 22 (28) Mixed 26 16 27 9 (29) Moderately D i s s a t i s f i e d 6 15 23 19 (20) Hi g h l y D i s s a t i s f i e d 12 100 (N = 38) . 13 101 (35) 27 100 (43) 39 (27) 101 (15) S i g = .02 Gamma = .36* In many of the b i - v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be d i s c u s s e d a Gamma w i l l be r e p o r t e d as a measure of the s t r e n g t h of the a s s o c i a t i o n between the v a r i a b l e s . - 66 -because a concern f o r promotions i s p a r t of the dominant i n d i v i d u a l i s m found a t the company. Table 17 suggests the e x i s t e n c e of a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the expected d i r e c t i o n : those who a s p i r e to management p o s i t i o n s express i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s to work s l i g h t l y more f r e q u e n t l y than those w i t h more modest c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s . A s t r o n g e r and much more i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p was de t e c t e d between ca r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Table 18 shows t h a t w h i t e - c o l l a r workers w i t h higher c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s r e p o r t much lower job s a t i s f a c t i o n than those w i t h lower ambitions. M a j o r i t i e s of respondents w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n s e c u r i n g management-level p o s i t i o n s are found on the d i s -s a t i s f i e d end of the job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e , w h ile those who a s p i r e o n l y to more s e n i o r s t a f f rank o r , e s p e c i a l l y , who are content to be where they are a t Midland Products, show high r e l a t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Seen d i f f e r e n t l y , 30 of the 47 most d i s a f f e c t e d s t a f f employees, a p r o p o r t i o n of f i v e i n e i g h t , a s p i r e to management p o s i t i o n s a t the company. Demographic C o r r e l a t e s o f Work-Related A t t i t u d e s We have found Midland's s t a f f employees to be, i n the main, q u i t e s a t i s f i e d a t work. A m a j o r i t y holds an o r i e n t a t i o n to work t h a t ranks i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and i n t r i n s i c job q u a l i t i e s over more concre t e and t r a d i t i o n a l rewards, although a s i g n i f -i c a n t m i n o r i t y i s t r a d i t i o n a l i s t on t h i s measure. T h i r d l y , we - 67 -have d e t e c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the r e p o r t e d c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s of s t a f f employees, as l a r g e numbers c l u s t e r i n each of the s i g n i f i c a n t steps forward a v a i l a b l e to white-c o l l a r workers at Midland. We have a l s o determined t h a t the job s a t i s f a c t i o n a s t a f f employee may express a r i s e s l e s s from h i s g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n to work than from h i s own p e r s o n a l c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s or ambitions. On the other hand, these c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s are o n l y weakly r e f l e c t e d i n the more a b s t r a c t measure of o r i e n t a t i o n to work. The next few pages r e p o r t the r e s u l t s of an a n a l y s i s of these w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s by the demographic f a c t o r s of age, e d u c a t i o n , and gender. Two of these have o n l y a l i m i t e d impact. Age and e d u c a t i o n (both measured here by years) are not s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h job s a t i s f a c t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n to work, or c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s . Younger s t a f f employees d i s c l o s e job s a t i s f a c t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n s to work, and c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s q u i t e s i m i l a r to t h e i r o l d e r c o l l e a g u e s : both groups are r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r j obs, h o l d i n d i v i d u a l i s t / i n t r i n s i c o r i e n t a t i o n s to work i n the main, and c o n t a i n management as-p i r a n t s and o t h e r s i n equal measure. R e l a t i v e to those s t a f f employees who had undertaken post-secondary i n s t r u c t i o n , those who had not were s l i g h t l y more t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i n t h e i r o r i e n -t a t i o n s to work and s l i g h t l y l e s s d e s i r o u s of a p o s i t i o n i n management. Both l e s s - and b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d s t a f f employees - 68 -r e v e a l e d the same hig h r e l a t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n , however. I t i s gender t h a t adds most to our understanding of the sources of v a r i a t i o n i n the wo r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s o f the s t a f f employees. The o r i e n t a t i o n s to work of Midland's women are only s l i g h t l y more t r a d i t i o n a l i s t than those of Midland's men, but very dramatic d i f f e r e n c e s indeed e x i s t between men and women i n r e l a t i o n to job s a t i s f a c t i o n and ca r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s . Table 19 shows t h a t a m a j o r i t y of women c l u s t e r i n the most-s a t i s f i e d c e l l s of the job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e w h ile a p l u r a l i t y of men c l u s t e r i n the l e a s t - s a t i s f i e d c e l l s . Seen d i f f e r e n t l y , o n l y a q u a r t e r of the most s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r workers are men, and o n l y a t h i r d of the most d i s s a t i s f i e d are women. But even more s t i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s r e s i d e i n the c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s o f men and women. Table 20 shows t h a t the most proximate a t t i t u d i n a l source of job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , r e p o r t e d ambitions f o r a management-level p o s i t i o n , i s fundamentally a male t r a i t a t Midland Products. I t i s men who i n the m a j o r i t y a s p i r e to management, w h i l e a p l u r a l i t y of women i s content a t pre s e n t l e v e l s and seeks no f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e . Thus there are two s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the wor k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of male and female s t a f f employees a t Midland Products. Moreover, there are two very d i f f e r e n t sources o f job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Midland's w h i t e - c o l l a r grades more g e n e r a l l y , c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s and gender. In an attempt to d i s e n t a n g l e the i n f l u e n c e of each of these twin sources of - 69 -Ta b l e 19 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n by Gender G e n d e Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Male % Female Q. "O Very H i g h 12 29 M o d e r a t e l y High 17 26 Mixed 24 21 M o d e r a t e l y Low 19 12 Ve r y Low 29 12 101 100 (N = 63) . (71) sxg, gamma ,02 .41 T a b l e 20 Ca r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n s by Gender G e n d e r Ca r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n s Male Q. "O Female Q. "O C o n t e n t 12 45 H i g h e r S t a f f 11 42 Management 57 10 S r . Management 21 3 101 100 s i g , gamma 0000 .76 j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s w e r e r e v i e w e d w i t h c o n t r o l s f o r g e n d e r a n d c a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d . The r e s u l t s show r e d u c t i o n s i n b o t h z e r o - o r d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s : t h e gamma b e t w e e n a s p i r a t i o n s a n d j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n d r o p s f r o m . 3 6 t o a f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l o f . 2 4 when g e n d e r i s c o n t r o l l e d , a n d t h e gamma b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d j o b s a t -i s f a c t i o n d r o p s f r o m . 4 0 t o a f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l o f . 1 1 when 24 a s p i r a t i o n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , b o t h o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d i m i n i s h e d , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e m a i n s i g n i f i c a n t , when c o n t r o l s a r e i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h i r d f a c t o r s . I n s u m m a r y , t h e d a t a show t h a t t w o g r o u p s p r e d o m -i n a t e among t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . The f i r s t g r o u p * i s h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d , e x p r e s s e s n o p a r t i c u l a r d e s i r e s f o r m a n a g m e n t - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s , a n d i s c o m p r i s e d b y w o m e n . The s e c o n d i s r e l a t i v e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d a t w o r k , d e s i r e s p o s i t i o n s i n m a n a g e m e n t , a n d i s c o m p r i s e d b y m e n . T o g e t h e r t h e s e t w o m o d a l g r o u p s a c c o u n t f o r o v e r h a l f t h e s a m p l e , w i t h t h e f o r m e r b y i t s e l f a g g r e g a t i n g 35% o f M i d l a n d ' s w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . A l t h o u g h some d i s s o n a n t c a s e s e x i s t , t h e m o s t ^"*The p r o c e s s o f c o n t r o l l i n g f o r o r i e n t a t i o n s e n t a i l s t h a t t h e s m a l l g r o u p o f women w i t h m a n a g e m e n t a s p i r a t i o n s i s g i v e n a s t a t i s t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e n u m b e r s . The same i s t r u e t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t o f t h e men n o t v o i c i n g a m b i t i o n s f o r m a n a g e m e n t . T h e c o n d i t i o n a l gammas i n t h e f i r s t r e l a t i o n -s h i p show t h a t i t i s among men t h a t t h e m a n a g e m e n t a s p i r a t i o n s / j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t i e i s s t r o n g e r . fundamental source of a t t i t u d i n a l cleavage i n the domain of work i s the simultaneous presence w i t h i n the non-manual stratum of men and women. The S t r u c t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s of W h i t e - C o l l a r Jobs David Lockwood has f o r c e f u l l y s e t out the reasons why the Midland Products study would be incomplete without some assessment of the s t r u c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a t under-l i e the work s i t u a t i o n of the s t a f f employees: Without .doubt i n . modern . i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y the most .important s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s shaping thei .psychology of the i n d i v i d u a l are those a r i s i n g out of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d i s t r i -b u t i o n . In other words, the 'work s i t -u a t i o n ' . For every employee i s p r e c i p i t a t e d , by v i r t u e of a g i v e n d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , i n t o unavoidable r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other employees, s u p e r v i s o r s , managers or cus-tomers. The work s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s the s e p a r a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , a f f o r d s p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ... w i t h and a l i e n a t i o n from o t h e r s , and con-d i t i o n s f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n , antagonism and s o l i d a r i t y . 2 6 Lockwood p o i n t s out t h a t a d i v i s i o n of labour p r e c i p i t a t e s work r o l e s t h a t are more than a s e t of d u t i e s performed r e g u l a r l y f o r pay. They a l s o r e q u i r e processes of adjustment to r e a l i t i e s t h a t are f i x e d and e x t e r n a l to the i n d i v i d u a l , and t h a t may p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t the way t h e i r Of the 29 s t a f f employees wi t h low r e l a t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n and a s p i r a t i o n s f o r management-level p o s i t i o n s , 2 5 are men. Of the 57 s t a f f employees w i t h high r e l a t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n and reduced a s p i r a t i o n s f o r advancement, 10 are men. 2 6Lockwood, The Blackcoated Worker, o p . c i t . , page 205 - 72 -jobs are experienced and ev a l u a t e d by those who hold them. For the next few pages we s h a l l t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to the p o s i t i o n s h e l d by the Midland Products s t a f f employees, and leave f o r the d u r a t i o n of t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n our e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e i r w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s . In making t h i s s h i f t , we move from the i n d i v i d u a l to the w h i t e - c o l l a r job as a u n i t of a n a l y s i s . I t i s our purpose to b r i n g to l i g h t the amount and kinds of v a r i a t i o n t h a t e x i s t across s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n s a t Midland Products, and to determine how these p o s i t i o n s are c l u s t e r e d i n h i e r a r c h i c a l and other r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To a s s i s t i n t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n some f i v e measures of s t r u c t u r e have been developed. The p r o p e r t i e s they stand f o r range w i d e l y , as b e f i t s the d i v e r s i t y of w h i t e - c o l l a r jobs i n the company. Taken together they a f f o r d the o p p o r t u n i t y to a r r a y each s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n on f i v e dimensions s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y , and thus to b r i n g to l i g h t how and around what dimensions w h i t e - c o l l a r jobs c l u s t e r or group. These f i v e p r o p e r t i e s are h i e r a r c h y , job type, super-v i s o r y f u n c t i o n , pay, and space. Two of these measures are c l e a r l y measures of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , i n t h a t they s i g n i f y t h a t some w h i t e - c o l l a r workers occupy p o s i t i o n s t h a t score "higher" than o t h e r s . Two others r e f e r to r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or f u n c t i o n s e n t a i l e d by groups of job s . One measure, "space", r e f e r s t o the f a c t t h a t w h i t e - c o l l a r workers are c l u s t e r e d i n p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e s , departments and d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . - 73 -I n more d e t a i l , t h e f i v e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f M i d l a n d ' s s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n s a r e : 1. H i e r a r c h y The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w h i t e - c o l l a r work a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s i s p l a i n l y h i e r a r c h i c a l . Each r e s p o n d e n t , whatever the n a t u r e o f t h e j o b he h e l d , o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n c l a s s i f i e d i n com-p a r i s o n t o a l l o t h e r p o s i t i o n s i n terms o f the t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t a s k s i n v o l v e d , t h e consequences of e r r o r , and t h e degree o f a u t h -o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r t h e work o f o t h e r s . T h i s h i e r a r c h y a c c o u n t s f o r the s a m p l i n g s t r a t e g y a t t h e company. Four w h i t e - c o l l a r g r a d e s , A, B, C, D were c r e a t e d and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n each were sampled randomly. Foremen were i n c l u d e d as a s e p a r a t e l e v e l (E) i n t h e m s e l v e s . The num-e r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t a f f employees w i t h i n t h i s h i e r a r c h y has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d , as has t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e sample. 2. Job Type Job Type i s t h e v a r i a b l e c r e a t e d by an anal-., y s i s o f t h e k i n d s o f f u n c t i o n s t h e i n t e r v i e w e d s t a f f employees r e p o r t p e r f o r m i n g i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r work a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . By t h i s measure the l a r g e s t c l a s s o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d - 74 -i s p r i m a r i l y l i g h t c l e r i c a l . S i x t y - s i x em-plo y e e s (49% of the sample) were judged t o be performing l i g h t c l e r i c a l f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g such groups as the accounts c l e r k s , t y p i s t s , key-punch o p e r a t o r s , correspondence c l e r k s , and p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r i e s of the company. As a group, l i g h t c l e r i c a l o ccupations form the h e a r t of w h i t e - c o l l a r employment both a t Midland Products and i n most other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s common to advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . The second job type i d e n t i f i e d was c l e r i c a l  s u p e r v i s o r y . I t i s here t h a t s e n i o r or c o n t r o l c l e r k s , those o v e r s e e i n g the work of ot h e r c l e r i c a l workers, are to be found. In a d d i t i o n to the d u t i e s of s u p e r v i s i o n , s t a f f employees grouped here perform a n a l y s i s o f compiled or prepared m a t e r i a l s , v e r i f y i n g and s c r u t i n i z i n g t h e i r content. The c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r s them-s e l v e s comprise the k i n d of t r a d i t i o n a l white-c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y t h a t might be found i n any l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . The c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n was adjudged to be a p p l i c a b l e to the a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d of twenty i n t e r v i e w e d s t a f f employees, o r 15% o f the sample. The cumulative p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l w h i t e - c o l l a r employment a t the company accounted f o r by the two - 75 -c l e r i c a l f u n c t i o n s was 64%. T h i r d , a ' d i s t i n c t group, i f somewhat s m a l l number of employees, performed d u t i e s r e l a t e d to the o v e r s i g h t of the process of p r o d u c t i o n a t Midland Products; a l l of them have been l a -b e l l e d foreman. T h i s f u n c t i o n was the c e n t r a l task of some 17 i n d i v i d u a l s or 12% of the sample. Not everyone c u r r e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d i n the foremen grades was performing foreman f u n c t i o n s . Twenty i n d i v i d u a l s were so c l a s s i f i e d , but on c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n three of them were excluded from t h i s grouping d e r i v e d from a c t u a l work-day a c t i v i t i e s . Some 32 respondents or a l i t t l e l e s s than a q u a r t e r of the sample c o u l d not be a l l o c a t e d i n t o any of the three c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d above. To-gether they comprise a f o u r t h group whose members h e l d such d i v e r s e occupations as s e n i o r l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n , p e r sonnel o f f i c e r , s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r , o r g a n i z a t i o n and methods a n a l y s t , branch manager, and marketing s p e c i a l i s t . I t i s here t h a t one e n c o u n t e r s " l i n e / s t a f f " d i s t i n c t i o n s , i n t h a t much l e s s than h a l f of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s group h e l d s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Others performed e s s e n t i a l l y a d v i s o r y or s t a f f f u n c t i o n s . In s p i t e of the d i v e r s i t y of the group r e l a t i v e to the c l e r i c a l s , c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r s , and foremen, i t was decided to c o n s i d e r them as a s i n g l e s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l job type. The S u p e r v i s o r y F u n c t i o n Of the four groups d i s c u s s e d under the func-t i o n a l heading of job type, two were h e a v i l y i n -v o l v e d i n performing s u p e r v i s i o n . C l e r i c a l super-v i s o r s were found p r i m a r i l y t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h the o v e r s i g h t of the performance of l i g h t c l e r i c a l s u b o r d i n a t e s . The foremen, on the other hand, were i n v o l v e d w i t h the process of p r o d u c t i o n at v a r i o u s l e v e l s and s u p e r v i s e d t h i s flow, men and women, and machinery a l l a t once. More s e n i o r foremen s u p e r v i s e d , however, onl y more j u n i o r foremen. In the f i n a l sample 48 respondents (37%) re p o r t e d t h a t they had p o s i t i o n s t h a t e n t a i l e d d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work of su b o r d i n -a t e s . T h i s l a r g e r group i n c l u d e s a l l the c l e r -i c a l s u p e r v i s o r s , a l l the foremen, on l y four of the l i g h t c l e r i c a l s , and nine of the s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l group. Some of the s u p e r v i s o r s i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s generous measure had r a t h e r l i g h t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Twenty-four (18%) were accountable f o r the work of ten.or fewer more j u n i o r o f f i c e r s . Another twenty-four occupied p o s i t i o n s to which more than ten subordinates r e p o r t e d . Thus the Midland p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as non-s u p e r v i s o r y , l i g h t (10 and under), and heavy (over 10) s u p e r v i s o r y , and i t i s t h i s measure of the s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n which i s used i n t h i s study. Rates of Payment L i k e l e v e l i n the w h i t e - c o l l a r grades, r a t e s of payment i s a l s o a measure t h a t de-s c r i b e s an i m p l i c i t h i e r a r c h y . The h i g h e s t -p a i d respondent, a foreman, earned over three times the weekly s a l a r y of the lowest p a i d , a young female c l e r k . In between, the remaining 132 respondents c o u l d be n e a t l y d i v i d e d i n t o t hree l a r g e groups: those earning l e s s than i.30 comprised 45% of the t o t a l , those earning 630 - 3 9 formed 28%, and those e a r n i n g *4 0 and more formed 27% of the sample. Space The s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of Midland Products i s a f u n c t i o n of the complex i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n of labour which has o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a l l modern man-u f a c t u r i n g concerns. In the w h i t e - c o l l a r grades, - 78 -the extent of t h i s d i v i s i o n of labour is.estim-ated by.the fact that representatives from twenty-four departments, d i v i s i o n s and o f f i c e s comprised the f i n a l sample for the present study. As re-ported before, some departments such as Sales and Engineering were well represented i n the sample. Others were collapsed into a miscellaneous group of presumably smaller sub-units i n the company. In a l l , ten departments, d i v i s i o n s , or o f f i c e s were studied in d i v i d u a l l y , ( s e e Table 4 , above). These f i v e measures of structure allow us to determine whether the white-collar work roles i n one large manufacturing corporation are accurately conceptualized 1 a:sJ belonging to a single stratum, or whether, by virt u e of s i g n i f i c a n t and concrete occupational differences, they are more accurately portrayed as forming d i s t i n c t i v e sub-strata. Structural Interconnections As might be expected, the f i v e s t r u c t u r a l properties of white-collar work roles we have developed are strongly associated with one another. Matrix 1 summarizes these s t r u c t u r a l interconnections i n s t a t i s t i c a l form, and most of. i t s c e l l s contain Tau c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t at .001. Matrix 1 summarizes the following information. F i r s t , hierarchy i s strongly r e f l e c t e d i n each other property. In M a t r i x 1  F i v e M e a s u r e s o f J o b S t r u c t u r e H i e r a r c h y J o b T y p e S u p e r v i s o r y F u n c t i o n P a y H i e r a r c h y J o b T y p e S u p e r v i s o r y F u n c t i o n P a y S p a c e * X , 4 8 * * X 60 71 47 41 46 51 X ,57 , 5 0 X , 3 8 vo„ * M e a s u r e d b y C r a m e r ' s V f o r n o m i n a l v a r i a b l e s ** The e n t r y s h o w s a K e n d a l l ' s T a u r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f . 4 8 . A l l e n t r i e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t . 0 0 1 . - 30 -r e l a t i o n t o job type, 95% of those performing l i g h t c l e r i c a l r o l e s are grouped i n L e v e l A, the most j u n i o r ; 81% of c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r s are found i n L e v e l s A and B; and 69% of those i n s p e e l a l i s t / 1 e c h n i c a 1 p o s i t i o n s are found i n L e v e l s C and D (the s e n i o r w h i t e - c o l l a r g r a d e s ) . The st r o n g e r c o e f f i c -i e n t between h i e r a r c h y and s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s i g n a l s t h a t most low-ranking w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s do not e n t a i l the o v e r s i g h t of sub o r d i n a t e s , while a m a j o r i t y of more s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s — n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the presence of many s e n i o r a d v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s i n the s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l c a t e g o r y — g e n e r a l l y does so. In r e l a t i o n t o pay, M a t r i x 1 r e v e a l s t h a t the h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n s i n Midland's w h i t e - c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the others c h i e f l y by the f a c t of higher pay. And, f i n a l l y , the matrix i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t h i g h l y - r a n k e d w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s c l u s t e r most unevenly ac r o s s Midland's i n t e r n a l departments, d i v i s i o n s , or "space." Indeed, the p r o p e r t y of space s i g n a l s t h a t t h i s a l s o holds f o r the v a r i o u s job types, f o r super-v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s , and f o r h i g h l y - p a i d r o l e s - - t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of v a r i a t i o n i s prese n t w i t h i n the work-roles performed i n adjacent o f f i c e s . As i l l u s t r a t e d by the p r o p e r t y of h i e r a r c h y , the most fundamental r e a l i t y c o n tained i n M a t r i x 1 i s t h a t f o u r o b j e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s d i v i d e s t a f f employee p o s i t i o n s i n t o two l a r g e c l u s t e r s , one r e l a t i v e l y - f a v o u r e d and one l e s s - f a v o u r e d . The s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r , more-favoured c l u s t e r i s formed by h i g h l y -- 81 -ranked, highly-paid, often supervisory positions that are held by the more senior c l e r i c a l supervisors, s p e c i a l i s t / technical o f f i c e r s , and, at Midland, foremen. The s l i g h t l y larger less-favoured cluster of white-collar positions i s comprised c h i e f l y by lower l e v e l , lower-paid l i g h t c l e r i c a l jobs that infrequently require the oversight of subordinates. The ordered hierarchy of white-collar work at Midland Products i s i n fact bifurcated and s t r a t i f i e d by these s t r u c t u r a l properties of non-manual work r o l e s . In speaking of white-collar work roles as forming two c l u s t e r s , we do not imply that there are no borderline or discrepant positions at the company, for that would not be the case. There are, i n f a c t , some r e l a t i v e l y junior s t a f f em-ployees holding s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l and c l e r i c a l supervisory positions. There are a few senior and highly-paid s t a f f employees holding l i g h t c l e r i c a l jobs. But the r e a l weight of the evidence at Midland i s that such cases are r e l a t i v e l y rare and that hierarchy, job type, supervision and pay function e s s e n t i a l l y as dichotomous influences: they discriminate l e s s -and more-favoured positions and, hence, clusters of positions. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g set of exceptions to t h i s rule that w i l l be discussed somewhat l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, however. For the present, the evidence shows c l e a r l y that pro-found i n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t between s t a f f employee positions at Midland Products, and that the stratum i s i n f a c t bissected into l e s s - and more-favoured c l u s t e r s . We turn now to the - 82 -socio-demographic foundations t h a t s u s t a i n these d i v i s i o n s . The Two C l u s t e r s : Demographic Bases I t i s our purpose i n t h i s s e c t i o n to examine the observed h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of w h i t e - c o l l a r work a t Midland by r e f e r e n c e to i t s demographic bases. We seek, i n other words, t o i d e n t i f y the way t h a t the d i v e r s e group of s t a f f employees a t Midland Products i s arrayed i n p o s i t i o n s t h a t d i v i d e d i s t i n c t i v e l y i n t o two c l u s t e r s , and to determine which s t a f f employees have gained access to the more-favoured and which t o the l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r o f w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b s . M a t r i x 2 i s comprised by K e n d a l l ' s Tau c o e f f i c i e n t s between the f i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f s t r u c t u r e and the demographic f a c t o r s of e d u c a t i o n , age, and gender. Without e x c e p t i o n , M a t r i x 2 r e v e a l s t h a t these s t r u c t u r a l and demographic f a c t o r s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one another. F i r s t , M a t r i x 2 shows t h a t b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d respondents are somewhat more l i k e l y t o h o l d f a v o u r e d - c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n s at Midland Products. They are found t o hold higher-ranked, n o n - c l e r i c a l , s u p e r v i s o r y , and b e t t e r - p a i d p o s i t i o n s , and to be d i s t r i b u t e d unevenly a c r o s s Midland's departments or p h y s i c a l space. In a l l , M a t r i x 2 shows t h a t b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d s t a f f employees do have moderately more success a t Midland than t h e i r l e s s - e d u c a t e d c o l l e a g u e s i n s e c u r i n g access to the favoured c l u s t e r . M a t r i x 2 a l s o r e v e a l s , however, t h a t age i n years i s a Matrix 2 The Two Clusters: Demographic Bases Education Age Gender Hierarchy Job Type Supervisory Function Pay Space* .21 (.006) .20 (.008) .20 (.01) .22 (.006 .41 (.02) .35 (.001) .19 (.01) .33 (.01) .34 (.001) .50 (.0003) .60** (.001) .30 (.001) .42 (.001) .62 ( .001) .52 (.00007) co * Measured by Cramer's V for nominal variables. ** The entry shows a Kendall's Tau c o e f f i c i e n t of .60, s i g n i f i c a n t at .001. - 84 -s l i g h t l y b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r than edu c a t i o n of a s t a f f employee's p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y of w h i t e - c o l l a r work. Older s t a f f employees are found d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n higher-ranked, s u p e r v i s o r y , n o n - c l e r i c a l , and b e t t e r - p a i d p o s i t i o n s t h a t form the favoured c l u s t e r . Younger s t a f f employees, except f o r those h o l d i n g "newer" s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s , occupy the bulk of Midland's l e s s - f a v o u r e d j o b s . But the demographic f a c t o r t h a t emerges i n Ma t r i x 2 as the best p r e d i c t o r of a p l a c e i n the favoured c l u s t e r i s gender. More than h a l f o f Midland's female s t a f f employees h o l d p o s i t i o n s i n the lowest l e v e l of Midland's h i e r a r c h y , and f u l l y 80% hold p o s i t i o n s i n the lowest two l e v e l s . B e t t e r than 67% perform l i g h t c l e r i c a l d u t i e s , and 80% ho l d non-sup-e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s . Three women i n fou r earn l e s s than £30 a week from t h e i r jobs a t Midland Products. By c o n t r a s t , male s t a f f employees dominate the highe r reaches of the w h i t e - c o l l a r h i e r a r c h y as w e l l as the foreman r o l e s , dominate the c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y and s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h -n i c a l r o l e s , and ho l d most s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g a l l but one of the jobs t o whom more than ten subordinates r e p o r t ) . F i n a l l y , a m a j o r i t y of men earns more than £;40 a week a t Midland--forming 95% of a l l s t a f f employees i n t h i s b r a c k e t . In s h o r t , i t i s men who hold most-favoured c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n s , and i t i s women who h o l d almost a l l o f those i n the l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r . - 85 -Fu r t h e r a n a l y s i s a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t the modest asso-c i a t i o n s between educ a t i o n and age and p o s i t i o n i n Midland's favoured c l u s t e r a r e , t o an extent, s p u r i o u s . When a c o n t r o l f o r gender i s i n t r o d u c e d , the r e p o r t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s between ed u c a t i o n and favoured c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n (measured by h i e r a r c h y and by pay) d e c l i n e from zero-order v a l u e s of .37 (hierarchy) and .36 (pay) to f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l v a l u e s of .26 and .24. Moreover, t h i s same procedure r e v e a l s t h a t the c o n d i t i o n a l gammas between educ a t i o n and h i e r a r c h y and pay f o r men (.37 and .32) are much st r o n g e r than those f o r women (.17 and .16). In other words, post-secondary e d u c a t i o n remains a moderately-powerful boost t o the success of males a t the company, but i t i s somewhat l e s s d e c i s i v e f o r females. S i m i l a r l y , age i n years i s moderately a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both h i g h e r rank and higher pay i n s t a f f employee ranks. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a c o n t r o l f o r gender does not i n t h i s case reduce these a s s o c i a t i o n s , but i t does s p e c i f y the o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . For men the c o n d i t i o n a l gammas between age and rank and pay are, r e s p e c t i v e l y , .61 and .59. For women, the e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e s are .42 and .47. For both men and women o l d e r age p r e d i c t s to higher and b e t t e r - p a i d p o s i t i o n s . But, once again, aging i s measurably of more b e n e f i t to men than to women. E a r l i e r we remarked t h a t there i s a s e t of exce p t i o n s - 86 -to the r u l e e s t a b l i s h i n g the favoured and l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r s a t Midland. T h i s s e t of exceptions r e s u l t s , once again, from the d i f f e r e n t treatment o f men and women at the company. I t i s c l e a r t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of the advantage a c c r u i n g t o men r e -s u l t s from t h e i r dominance of p o s i t i o n s t h a t f a l l w i t h i n the favoured c l u s t e r . But i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t there i s some i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n (not j u s t a c r o s s ) c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t some favoured c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n s a r e , as i t were, more favoured than o t h e r s . Table 21 shows t h a t i n the three e x c l u s i v e l y white-c o l l a r groups, l i g h t c l e r i c a l , c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y , and s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l , r a t h e r s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n pay e x i s t between men and women. S i m i l a r l y , when grade i n the h i e r a r c h y i s made the measure of favoured c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n , i t emerges t h a t there i s a premium p a i d t o males a t Midland Products f o r what c o u l d be argued t o be work of equal v a l u e . Table 2 2 shows t h a t , by i t s e l f , l e v e l p r e d i c t s reasonably w e l l t o p a y — a s we have seen b e f o r e — b u t t h a t w i t h i n each l e v e l i t i s men who are p a i d the l a r g e r s a l a r i e s . W i t h i n job types and w i t h i n l e v e l s , i t i s women who are disadvantaged, j u s t as they are acro s s job types and l e v e l s . Indeed, i t emerges a t Midland t h a t women h o l d no fewer than 33 of the 35 l i g h t c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s found i n l e v e l A, the base of the w h i t e - c o l l a r pyramid; they h o l d 10 of the 18 p o s i t i o n s a t l e v e l B, and on l y 5 of the 13 most s e n i o r l i g h t c l e r i c a l j o b s . Women hold a l l e i g h t of the s p e c i a l i s t / - 87 -Table 21 Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s by Job Type Light C l e r i c a l Men . "O Women o, o Less than 130 31 84 £30 • - £40 58 16 More than -B40 11 0 100 100 (N=17) (48) C l e r i c a l S p e c i a l i s t / .Supervisor Technical Men :.-Q. "5 .Women 9-"5 ' Men o. "5 .Women g, o 0 38 5 62 37 50 29 34 63 12 66 5 100 100 100 101 (12 ( 8) (17) (15) Table 22 Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s by Level Level A (Low) Level B Level C Level D (High) Men g. Women Q. •o Men Q, *o Women Q. "O Men o, "5 Women Q. "O Men Q. "O Women Q. "O Less than •1,30 (2) 93 36 75 0 38 4 17 £30 -- 40 - 7 57 20 69 62 24 66 More than 1,40 - 0 7 5 31 0 72 17 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 (N = 2) (41) (11) (16) (13) ( 8) (17) ( 6 ) - 88 -t e c h n i c a l p o s i t i o n s f o u n d a t l e v e l A , b u t o n l y s i x o f t h e t w e n t y m o s t s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s t e n d e n c y f o r women t o h o l d t h e l e a s t s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n j o b t y p e s i s s t r i k i n g l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r a t e s o f p a y . F u l l y 41 o f t h e 46 l o w e s t - p a i d l i g h t c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s , a n d 9 o f t h e 10 l o w e s t - p a i d s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l j o b s , a r e h e l d b y w o m e n . M e n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h o l d t h e o n l y t w o l i g h t c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s w h o s e i n c u m b e n t s a r e p a i d m o r e t h a n £40 p e r w e e k , e i g h t o f t h e n i n e h i g h e s t - p a i d c l e r i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s , a n d e l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e m o s t l u c r a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l j o b s . To sum u p t h e e v i d e n c e , o n e m i g h t s a y t h a t t h e s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c b a s e s o f t h e t w o c l u s t e r s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s r e v e a l t h a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s h a s o n l y m o d e s t c r e d e n t i a l s a s a m e r i t o c r a c y , s o m e w h a t s t r o n g e r c r e d e n t i a l s a s a g e r o n t o c r a c y , a n d u n i m p e a c h a b l e c r e d e n t i a l s a s a p a t r i a r c h y . B e y o n d t h i s , o n e c o u l d a l s o a r g u e t h a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s i s a m o r e g e r o n t o -c r a t i c t h a n m e r i t o c r a t i c p a t r i a r c h y . T h e Two C l u s t e r s : A t t i t u d i n a l C o r r e l a t e s L e t u s r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y t h e p r i n c i p a l f i n d i n g s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . O u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , . o f ' w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s h a s s h o w n t h a t t w o l a r g e g r o u p s d o m i n a t e t h e s a m p l e o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s : a f e m a l e g r o u p o f r e l a t i v e l y - s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s who d i s c l o s e r e d u c e d a m b i t i o n s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t , a n d a m a l e g r o u p o f l e s s - s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , m o s t o f - 89 -whom a s p i r e t o m a n a g e m e n t - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s . Our s t u d y o f f i v e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f w h i t e -c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s a t M i d l a n d b r o u g h t t o l i g h t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two o c c u p a t i o n a l c l u s t e r s : a l a r g e r , l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r o f l o w - p a y i n g , l o w - r a n k i n g , n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y and l a r g e l y l i g h t -c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s , and a s m a l l e r , m o r e - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r o f h i g h l y - p a i d , h i g h - r a n k i n g , s u p e r v i s o r y , and n o n - c l e r i c a l r o l e s . We have a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s o f e d u c a t i o n , age, and g e n d e r , i t i s t h e t h i r d t h a t p r e d i c t s most s t r o n g l y t o a g i v e n s t a f f e m p l o y e e 1 s p o s i t i o n between t h e s e two c l u s t e r s and w i t h i n e a c h c l u s t e r . I t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n t o s p e c i f y more d i r e c t l y t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e two g r o u p s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , and t h e two c l u s t e r s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r j o b s . F o l l o w i n g Lockwood, we w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e p r o f o u n d i n e q u a l i t i e s o f p o s i t i o n t h a t we have o b s e r v e d a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e work s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s w o u l d f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s . P e r h a p s t h e most r e m a r k a b l e f e a t u r e o f M a t r i x 3 i s t h e number o f "empty" c e l l s c o n t a i n i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t . T a u c o e f f i c i e n t s . W i t h o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t i e s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s a r e n o t a s s o c i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s t a f f employee a t t i t u d e s . L e t us d e a l w i t h t h e s e e x c e p t i o n s on a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s . F i r s t , a weak a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s between o r i e n t a t i o n Matrix 3 The Two Clusters: A t t i t u d i n a l Correlates Orientation to Work Job S a t i s f a c t i o n .. Career Orientations Hierarchy .13 Non-sig. .25** (.03) (.001) Job Type Non-sig. .15 .13 (.02) (.05) Supervisory Non-sig. - Non-sig. .20 Function ( . 0 0 7 ) Pay Non-sig. Non-sig. .26 Y (.001) Space* Non-sig. .11 - 3 4 (.05) (.04) * Measured by Cramer's V. **The entry shows a Kendall's Tau c o e f f i c i e n t of .25, s i g n i f i c a n t to .001. to work and hierarchy. This r e f l e c t s a tendency of those i n the lower-rank positions to disclose t r a d i t i o n a l orientations to work, a t r a i t shared as well by those i n the l i g h t c l e r i c a l occupational group. As the hierarchy i s ascended from l e v e l A to l e v e l D, the proportion of t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s declines from 39%, to 24% to 19%, to 18% of each stratum. Those scoring at the highly i n d i v i d u a l i s t end of the scale form a correspondingly greater share of the higher l e v e l s : 14% i n l e v e l A, 29%, 43% and 38% i n the most senior l e v e l (D). Secondly, with regard to j o b - s a t i s f a c t i o n , a bi-modal d i s t r i b u t i o n was detected i n the white-collar grades. High s a t i s f a c t i o n characterizes those at opposite ends of the white-c o l l a r hierarchy, while those i n the middle-level positions disclose highest r e l a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . It i s l i k e l y that the lower-ranking jobs s a t i s f i e d t h e i r incumbents by being rewarding i n t r a d i t i o n a l terms, and that the senior positions produced the same e f f e c t by challenging the i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r incumbents. Holders of middle-ranking positions, the most i n d i v i d u a l i s t group at Midland, may not have been so challenged i n t h e i r work, a finding suggested by t h e i r lower r e l a t i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n . Apart from these very modest relationships, the struc-t u r a l properties of white-collar jobs are almost wholly oblique to job s a t i s f a c t i o n and orientation to work. With respect to the former attitude, l i t e r a l l y nothing i s added to our explan-atory equation, which contains only gender and career - 9 2 -o r i e n t a t i o n s a s k e y s t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t M i d l a n d . M a t r i x 3 s h o w s a s t r i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s a n d j o b s t r u c t u r e . T h e s e d a t a r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t h i g h e r - r a n k i n g , n o n - c l e r i c a l , s u p e r -v i s o r y , a n d b e t t e r - p a i d s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , t h o s e who i n o t h e r w o r d s h o l d f a v o u r e d - c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n s , a r e q u i t e l i k e l y t o r e p o r t a m b i t i o n s f o r a p l a c e i n m a n a g e m e n t , w h e r e a s t h o s e i n l e s s - f a v o u r e d p o s i t i o n s r a r e l y d o s o . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s s h o w s , h o w e v e r , t h a t a c o n t r o l f o r g e n d e r r e d u c e s a l l o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 2 3 . E a c h o f t h e s e a p p -a r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i s c l a s s i c a l l y s p u r i o u s , i n t h a t a t h i r d f a c t o r , i n t h i s c a s e t h e g e n d e r o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t , c a n b e s h o w n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r v e d a s s o c i a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t r e m a i n s t h e c a s e t h a t t h e c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s c o f s t a f f e m p l o y e e s v a r y q u i t e m a r k e d l y , a n d t h a t t h o s e i n f a v o u r e d - c l u s t e r p o s i t i o n s , u n l i k e t h o s e i n l e s s -f a v o u r e d r o l e s , s t r o n g l y d e s i r e t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t o f a l l t h e w a y s s t a f f e m p l o y e e w o r k s i t u a t i o n s , t o u s e L o c k w o o d ' s e x p r e s s i o n , v a r y a n d s t r a t i f y , t h e o n l y o b s e r v e d l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s a n d e m p l o y e e a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n a d v a n c e m e n t . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , t h e p r o f o u n d i n e q u a l i t i e s o f p o s i t i o n a n d r e w a r d i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k a r e n o t r e f l e c t e d i n w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s . J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s e e m s o b l i q u e t o w o r k s i t u a t i o n a s d e f i n e d b y s t r u c t u r e , a - 93 -Table 23 Career Orientations and Job Structure Independent Dependent Zero-Order First-Order Variable Variable Gamma P a r t i a l by Gender Hierarchy Career Orientations .42 .04 Job Type Career Orientations .31 .05 Supervisory „ _ . , , . „ ~, T T - , , V , ^ 4 - ^ V . Career Orientations .34 .01 Function Pay Career Orientations .47 .05 - 94 -finding that surely c a l l s into question the force of Lockwood's claim that the "unavoidable r e l a t i o n s h i p s " encountered at work "condition feelings of i s o l a t i o n , antagonism and s o l i d a r i t y . " Conclusions At Midland Products i t i s c l e a r l y counter-productive to speak i n general terms of "the r i s e of white-collar work". This broad evocation masks r e a l i t y i n two ways. F i r s t , i t obscures that the non-manual stratum i s composed p r i n c i p a l l y by two groups of white-collar workers each with d i s t i n c t i v e work-related attitudes, each occupying markedly d i f f e r e n t kinds of positions., and each comprised by workers of opposite gender. Reference to the r i s e of white-collar work at Midland Products also masks the fac t that non-manual work aggregates two very d i f f e r e n t clusters of occupational types. Let us consider the second of these points f i r s t . One cluster of s t a f f employee positions r e f l e c t s c l e a r l y the sim-ultaneous influence of three trends common to o f f i c e work i n the developed s o c i e t i e s : the bureaucratization of the work-place, the mechanization of the o f f i c e , and the increased labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women. F i l e and accounts clerks, t y p i s t s , keypunchers, stenographers, secretaries, and recep-t i o n i s t s dominate numerically the ranks of Midland's s t a f f employees. At the company and throughout B r i t a i n the accommo-dation of a growing female labour force has been coterminous with the rapid p r o l i f e r a t i o n of such l i g h t c l e r i c a l positions that demand of t h e i r incumbents only average education and the - 95 -27 mastery of comparatively simple s k i l l s and routine operations. As we s h a l l discuss i n more d e t a i l l a t e r , many an-alysts are agreed that t h i s explosion of routine non-manual positions i s the main reason that the previously-privileged class standing enjoyed by blackcoated workers i s no longer i n accord with s o c i a l r e a l i t y . In the limited range of a b i l i t i e s they require, i n t h e i r location at the lowest lev e l s of the white-collar hierarchy, and i n t h e i r undemanding selection requirements, l i g h t c l e r i c a l jobs at Midland Products describe a less-favoured c l u s t e r of non-manual positions and p o t e n t i a l l y , as one observer has put i t , "a p r o l e t a r i a t i n a new form." But at Midland, i t would be a p r o l e t a r i a t that i s heavily female and b a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d at work. The second, smaller, and more-favoured cl u s t e r of white-c o l l a r jobs at the company i s very d i f f e r e n t from the f i r s t . As described i n Croner 1s theory of delegation, a residual although attenuated t i e to c a p i t a l or management exists formally for these positions, but the more profound differences between favoured-cluster and routine white-collar positions reside i n job content. Favoured-cluster positions also r e f l e c t workplace 27 In his assessment of the " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " of French o f f i c e work brought by the mechanization of the o f f i c e , Crozier notes: "The majority of white-collar tasks are (now) less i n t e r e s t i n g , less prestigious, and bring lower remuneration, but they are c a r r i e d out by women with reduced aspirations..." Crozier, op. c i t . , page 17. - 96 -trends: the increasing technical complexity of production processes at Midland and complementary developments .'in organ-i z a t i o n a l design and personnel administration, i n research and development, marketing, data processing and related information "sciences", a l l on the s t a f f side of the company. They are quite commonly advisory positions that do not e n t a i l l i n e management or weighty supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As a group favoured-cluster positions, whether l i n e or s t a f f , reveal a d i v e r s i t y not present i n positions i n the l e s s -favoured c l u s t e r . Many may be categorized as occupational groupings of semi-professional s p e c i a l i s t s , the need for whom has arisen as Midland has grown and modernized i t s operations. Favoured-cluster positions at the company nevertheless share cert a i n common att r i b u t e s , among them being senior bureau-c r a t i c l e v e l s and higher rates of pay. But perhaps most importantly, t h e i r incumbents d i f f e r markedly from incumbents of positions i n the less-favoured c l u s t e r . Thus, to return to the f i r s t point, the two clusters of white-collar jobs have come to be staffed by two d i s t i n c t i v e groups of white-collar workers. The f i r s t of these groups i s , as we have seen, female, quite s a t i s f i e d at work, and, i n the main, quite content with i t s position ; at. the base of the Midland white-collar hierarchy. It i s members of t h i s group who hold positions i n the less-favoured c l u s t e r : who pre-dominate among the routine c l e r i c a l occupational category, who - 97 -do not supervise the work of subordinates, and who receive the lowest s a l a r i e s paid to non-manuals by the company. The units i n which they comprise a majority r e f l e c t both t h e i r occupational and a t t i t u d i n a l likenesses. In contrast, t h e i r personal ambitions for career success and t h e i r low r e l a t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n reveal men to have very d i f f e r e n t work-related attitudes. They also dominate positions i n the more favoured c l u s t e r : the c l e r i c a l super-visory, s p e c i a l i s t / t e c h n i c a l , and of course foreman roles whose incumbents frequently supervise the work of others and receive higher rates of pay. Men work i n departments and units with higher average c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s , lower job s a t i s f a c t i o n scores, and higher average career aspirations. Owing to the profound importance of gender to both sides of the double b i f u r c a t i o n (personnel and position) of white-collar work at the company, we have found that the stratum as a whole displays more cleavage than coherence. Whether a stratum bissected so obviously by work-related attitudes, by occupational i n e q u a l i t i e s , and by the consequences of i t s own demographic composition can overcome these d i v i s i o n s to achieve unity i n the domain of labour r e l a t i o n s i s the question that underlies the next chapter of t h i s study. - 98 -C h a p t e r 3 W h i t e - C o l l a r U n i o n i z a t i o n - 9 9 -Chapter 3 W h i t e - C o l l a r U n i o n i z a t i o n Among the developed s o c i e t i e s of the West, the r i s e of w h i t e - c o l l a r work has been p a r a l l e l e d by the growth. of w h i t e - c o l l a r trade unionism. M i l l i o n s of non-manual workers now belong to trade unions. However i n most advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s even l a r g e r numbers do not belong; union " d e n s i t y " f i g u r e s f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r workers q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l y t r a i l behind those f o r manual workers."'" In the case of B r i t a i n aggregate trade u n i o n . d e n s i t y f o r a l l employed workers on l y achieved the l e v e l of .50 i n o 1974. Given the s t a b l e or d e c l i n i n g number of manual workers i n B r i t a i n ' s workforce, t h i s development has depended on the xGeorge Bain, D. Coates and E l l i s have noted, "But r e g a r d l e s s of the e x t e n t o f unionism among w h i t e - c o l l a r workers, i t i s not g e n e r a l l y as g r e a t as t h a t among manual workers. Only 13% of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers are u n i o n i s e d as compared to 56% of manual workers i n the United S t a t e s , 24% as compared with 42% i n Ger-many, 30% as compared to 81% i n A u s t r a l i a , 38% as compared wi t h 53% i n B r i t a i n , 58% as compared to 65% i n Norway, and 70% as compared to over 80% i n Sweden." S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n and  Trade Unionism (London, Heinemann Books, 1973) page 1. See a l s o A d o l f Sturmthal, " W h i t e - C o l l a r Unions: A Comparative . Essay" i n h i s W h i t e - C o l l a r Trade Unions (Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1966) pages 365-98. 2 See George Bain-, and Robert P r i c e , "Union Growth and Employ-mant Trends i n the United Kingdom, 1964-70", B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s (Vol 10, No. 3, November", 1972) page 367 and P r i c e and Bain, "Union Growth R e v i s i t e d , 1948-1974 i n P e r s p e c t i v e " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s (Vol.14, No. 3, November, 1976) pages 342-347. recruitment of previously unorganized workers, p r i n c i p a l l y the burgeoning ranks of non-manual workers. The record i s indeed cl e a r : from 1948 to 1974, a period i n which the number of manual workers i n unions held v i r t u a l l y constant, the number of unionized white-collar workers i n B r i t a i n increased from 3 under two m i l l i o n to over four m i l l i o n . Even t h i s rapid doubling of the numbers of white-collar trade unionists has only kept pace with the r i s e of white-collar work more gen-.. 4 e r a l l y since about 1964. It i s that year, i n other words, that marks the beginning of a narrowing of the "density gap" i n unionization rates between manuals and non-manuals i n Great B r i t a i n . Seen another way, the growth of both white-collar work and white-collar union membership has had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the mass base of the B r i t i s h trade union movement. Price and Bain report that by 1974 no fewer than 36% of B r i t a i n ' s trade unionists were non-manual workers, well up from the 1948 5 proportion of 21%. The trade union movement now more d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s the actual composition of the labour force. In the midst of these changes a number of important 3 Price and Bain, op. c i t , page 347. 4 Ibid, page 347. 5 Ibid, page 345. - 101 -i s s u e s r e s i d e . Some a n a l y s t s have argued t h a t the r o u t i n i z -a t i o n of much w h i t e - c o l l a r work and the b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n of i t s s e t t i n g p r e c i p i t a t e a c l a s s of u n s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r workers predisposed to j o i n unions. Others c o n t r a s t s t a r k l y the " c o l l e c t i v i s m " i n h e r e n t i n trade unionism w i t h the " i n -d i v i d u a l i s m " of the non-manual worker, c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the f u t u r e of w h i t e - c o l l a r unionism i s u n c e r t a i n a t b e s t . T h i r d , the " c h a r a c t e r " of w h i t e - c o l l a r t r a de unionism i s f e l t by some to be very u n l i k e the m i l i t a n t , p r i n c i p l e d c h a r a c t e r of manual or b l u e - c o l l a r t r a de unionism, a f a c t o r of profound importance to the f u t u r e of B r i t a i n ' s c o n s o l i d a t e d trade union movement. The Midland Products study a f f o r d s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to address each of these i s s u e s , and each w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter. We begin, however, wi t h l e s s sweeping q u e s t i o n s : the amount of trade unionism a t the company; the immediate sources from which i t comes; the extent of o p p o s i t i o n to white-c o l l a r unions a t Midland and i t s causes and sources; and a comparison of trade u n i o n i s t s and unorganized workers by r e f e r e n c e to w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s , job s t r u c t u r e , and dem-ographic: f a c t o r s .... W h i t e - C o l l a r U n i o n i z a t i o n a t Midland Products At the time of t h i s study, the s t r a t e g i c s i t u a t i o n f a c i n g the w h i t e - c o l l a r trade unions a t Midland Products i n Enton was approximately t h a t f a c i n g the w h i t e - c o l l a r t r a de - 102 -union movement i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . They had become i n both s e t t i n g s an i n c r e a s i n g l y v i a b l e f o r c e , and thus an i n c r e a s i n g l y v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. At n e i t h e r s c a l e were they, however, the s o l e such o p t i o n . At Midland Products i n May, 1973, and w i t h i n B r i t a i n g e n e r a l l y , three o p t i o n s e x i s t e d f o r non-manual s t a f f employees: they c o u l d j o i n w h i t e - c o l l a r unions; they c o u l d j o i n an e s t a b -l i s h e d " s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n " (or "company u n i o n " ) ; or they c o u l d remain unorganized. Of course, w i t h i n B r i t a i n as elsewhere, as M i l l s and subsequent a n a l y s t s have observed For most w h i t e - c o l l a r employees t o j o i n or not to j o i n a union has never been a l i v e q u e s t i o n , f o r no union has been a v a i l a b l e , o r , i f i t has, was not ener-g e t i c a l l y u r g i n g a f f i l i a t i o n . For these employees, the q u e s t i o n has been to organ-i z e or:.not to o r g a n i z e a union, which i s a very d i f f e r e n t p r o p o s i t i o n from j o i n i n g or not j o i n i n g an a v a i l a b l e union." Such was not the case a t Midland where membership i n f o u r separate and competing trade unions was d e t e c t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s . S t i l l , as a r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r of a l a r g e white-c o l l a r union p r i m a r i l y composed of female c l e r i c a l members 7 observed, many workers c o u l d f e a r " v i c t i m i z a t i o n by employers" where no one union has s o l i d i f i e d i t s p o s i t i o n as a b a r g a i n i n g M i l l s , White C o l l a r , op. c i t . , page 306 Personal i n t e r v i e w w i t h author - 103 -agent f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r grades (as was the case a t Mid l a n d ) . From another s i d e of t h i s q u e s t i o n , George Bain, e t a l . , have w r i t t e n : The q u e s t i o n of union membership i s r a r e l y a completely v o l u n t a r y d e c i s i o n . In h i g h l y u n i o n i s e d workplaces, i n d i f f -e r e n t o r u n w i l l i n g employees may be sub j e c t e d to such n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s as s o c i a l p r e s s u r e and o s t r a c i s m and, where the c l o s e d shop e x i s t s , the t h r e a t of d i s m i s s a l . Even where membership i s e s s e n t i a l l y ' v o l u n t a r y 1 , employees may be s u b j e c t e d t o such p o s i t i v e s a n c t i o n s as f r i e n d l y b e n e f i t s and d i s c o u n t schemes. In these s i t u a t i o n s , the d e c i s i o n to j o i n i s g e n e r a l l y going to be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n nature. Probably o n l y i n d e c i d i n g t o j o i n a union i n predominantly non-union s i t u a t i o n s , where i n the absence of r e c o g n i t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g l i t t l e d i r e c t economic p a y - o f f can be expected, i s the d e c i s i o n t o j o i n gen-e r a l l y going to i n d i c a t e a p r i n c i p l e d commitment to unionism.^ In i n determinate s i t u a t i o n s , p r e s s u r e f o r a f f i l i a t i o n or f o r i t s o p p o s i t e can thus reasonably be expected from a 9 v a r i e t y of q u a r t e r s . At Midland Products, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of union membership may be co n s i d e r e d a case i n p o i n t . Some w h i t e - c o l l a r employees had a f f i l i a t e d w i t h one or another of four t rade unions, others had j o i n e d the Midland Products S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s remained unorganized. G.S.Bam, e t a l . , S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n and Trade Unionism, o p . c i t . , page 156. 9 N e i t h e r the unions nor the Midland Products S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n was f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a b a r g a i n i n g agent f o r s t a f f employees at the time o f the i n t e r v i e w i n g . Thus the Midland u n i o n i s t s , to use Bain's language, should be marked by a compa r a t i v e l y h i g h degree of "a p r i n c i p l e d commitment to unionism." - 104 -Table 24 p r o v i d e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n observed at the company. The W h i t e - C o l l a r Unions Membership i n no fewer than f o u r w h i t e - c o l l a r unions was d e t e c t e d i n the course of the i n t e r v i e w i n g . A p l u r a l i t y of o r g a n i z e d (38%) and a m a j o r i t y of u n i o n i z e d (54%) s t a f f employees were members o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c , Tech-, n i c a l , and Managerial S t a f f s (ASTMS). 1 0 The next l a r g e s t group proved to be the Midland Products S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n (30% of a l l organized) f o l l o w e d by s m a l l e r number of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the three remaining w h i t e - c o l l a r unions. Each of the f o u r w h i t e - c o l l a r unions had been on the scene a t Midland Products f o r a l i t t l e over f i v e y e a r s . Most of t h e i r a c t i v e membership had a t one p o i n t been i n v o l v e d w i t h the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n , but had switched a f f i l i t a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the " i m p o s i t i o n " of the 1967 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . 1 1 Most of the union o f f i c e r s f e l t t h a t the scheme had u n j u s t l y been imposed by management without c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the s t a f f employees or w i t h the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n . 1 0 T h e N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r of ASTMS i s Mr. C l i v e J e n k i n s , an a g g r e s s i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l spokesman f o r u n i o n i z e d w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . For much of the h i s t o r y f o l l o w i n g , I am indebted to those s t a f f employees then s e r v i n g as union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r having g r a c i o u s l y consented to i n t e r v i e w s . Most of the s a l i e n t p o i n t s i n the h i s t o r y which emerges have, however, a l s o been d i s c u s s e d w i t h management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A "consensus" v e r s i o n f o l l o w s . - 105 -Table 24 Unionization at Midland Products % N Unorganized 39 52 Midland Products Staff Association 18 25 White-Collar Trade Unions 43 57 100 134 - 106 -At t h i s time i t was f e l t that nothing could more dramatically i l l u s t r a t e the fundamental weakness of the s t a f f association. Highly important issues of job grading and personal performance evaluation were at the heart of the new system, and input from those most d i r e c t l y affected had not been sought. Thus, the chief impetus for the formation of " r e a l " trade unions for white-collar workers at Midland Prod-ucts had come, i t was f e l t , from the actions of Midland's management. Regional and national o f f i c e r s of several white-collar unions expressed special i n t e r e s t i n the p l i g h t of the Midland s t a f f employees i n the years following 1967. Some provided substantial assistance i n the establishment of branches and l o c a l s . Five years had elapsed between t h i s period and the interviewing, and the unions were s t i l l consolidating t h e i r positions among s t a f f employees. The time of the interviewing, A p r i l , 1973, coincided \ with a nation-wide pay freeze brought down by the Heath government. Under the freeze, the c o l l e c t i v e bargaining system i n B r i t a i n was superceded by small fixed-formula i n -creases from time to time. It was widely f e l t that the freeze might prove to be a major incentive toward unionization on the part of previously unorganized workers. Pay rates were frozen although l i v i n g costs continued to r i s e . A turn toward union-i z a t i o n was e n t i r e l y predictable, or so i t seemed. The interviewed union representatives f e l t that the - 107 -s i t u a t i o n a t Midland Products was more complex, however, and t h a t the f r e e z e was probably r e t a r d i n g the growth of unions a t the company. For the f r e e z e had l i m i t e d the a b i l i t y o f the union to out-perform the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n i n o b t a i n i n g more 12 s a t i s f a c t o r y pay s e t t l e m e n t s . W h i t e - c o l l a r unions would nor-m a l l y have p r o v i d e d s k i l l e d n e g o t i a t o r s and c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h support to Midland u n i o n i s t s . These a s s e t s would have dwarfed s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . No longer would s t a f f employees depend on data on f i n a n c e s , c o m p a r a b i l i t y of r a t e s of payment, and o t h e r s u b j e c t s s u p p l i e d by management. Once the f r e e z e was l i f t e d , Midland's union a c t i v i s t s expected a s h o r t and d e c i s i v e p e r i o d of c o m p e t i t i o n between the unions and the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n . F u l l - t i m e , r e g i o n a l l y - b a s e d union o f f i c i a l s ' a s s i g n e d t o serve Midland Products' l o c a l s were indeed i n the process of a s s i s t i n g s t a f f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p o s t - f r e e z e claims f o r s a l a r y , working c o n d i t i o n s , and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s . With r e s p e c t to the coming success o f the trade unions a g a i n s t both Midland management and the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n , Midland's union a c t i v i s t s f e l t , "There i s no doubt". With r e s p e c t to the f u -t u r e of the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n , one ASTMS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ventured, "Come back i n two years and i t won't be here". 12 -Leo P a n i t c h notes t h a t union growth i s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by incomes p o l i c i e s , although when these c o l l a p s e there i s a p e r i o d of r a p i d , compensatory u n i o n i z a t i o n . S o c i a l Democracy and In-d u s t r i a l M i l i t a n c y ( C a m b r i d g e , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976), pages 218-219. A study of the e f f e c t s of the wage f r e e z e and the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Act 1971 on u n i o n i z a t i o n reaches the same c o n c l u s i o n . See B r i a n Weekes, I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s and the L i m i t s of Law (Oxford, B l a c k w e l l , 1975), page 230. - 108 -13 The Midland Products S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n The s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n had i t s r o o t s i n the waning days of the Second World War, and i n the s p e c i f i c need to f i n d an o r d e r l y means of d e m o b i l i z i n g Midland employees who had gone o f f to war. P r i o r t o t h a t time d i s c u s s i o n s between management and s t a f f employees had taken p l a c e on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s , l a r g e l y a t the p l e a s u r e , i f not always the i n i t i a t i v e , o f management. The e a r l y development of the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n was q u i t e slow and measured, which was perhaps a r e f l e c t i o n of the harmonious labour r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e enjoyed by the company from t h a t p e r i o d to the (then) r e c e n t p a s t . By the mid-1950's, th e r e was n e v e r t h e l e s s i n c r e a s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the scope and pace of a management-induced " c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s " , and management's s t u d i e d u n w i l l i n g n e s s to e x p l o r e s a l a r y q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n i t . In 1956, a c o n c e s s i o n was made to the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t i t , j o i n t l y w i t h manage-ment, would c o n s i d e r r a t e s of pay. Pay, redundancy p r o v i s i o n s , p e n s i o n s — t h e s e were the h e a r t of the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n ' s program f o r the f o l l o w i n g f i f t e e n y e a r s . S t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f e l t t h a t progress had been made on a l l f r o n t s . Between the s p r i n g of 1 ° JHere I am indebted to the i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e pro-v i d e d to me by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n a t Midland Products.' These r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n t e r v i e w e d sep-a r a t e l y from those of the w h i t e - c o l l a r unions. Here agai n , the h i s t o r i e s presented were d i s c u s s e d w i t h management. - 109 -1971 and t h e f a l l o f 1972, t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n had t a k e n t h e f u r t h e r s t e p o f s e e k i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n u n d e r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t ' s I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t 1971 (which c o u l d have g i v e n t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n a l e g a l s t a t u s and a p r i v i l e g e d 14 p a t h t o n e g o t i a t e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r ) . The i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e 1967 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m had " s h o c k e d " s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n members, and i t s l e a d e r s acknow-l e d g e d t h a t t h e r e had b e e n d e f e c t i o n s f r o m s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n r a n k s on t h i s i s s u e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o " u n i t e " w i t h t h e u n i o n s on a l l m o n e t a r y i s s u e s . I n g e n e r a l , i t w o u l d be "bus-i n e s s a s u s u a l " f o r t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e c o m i n g y e a r s . S o u r c e s o f U n i o n i z a t i o n I n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h b o t h w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n and s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h e q u e s t i o n was p u t as t o t h e s u c c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t e f f o r t s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . A g a i n , most u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p o i n t e d t o t h e pay f r e e z e as a m a j o r i m p e d i m e n t t o t h e i r e f f o r t s . The q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d a s t o why t h e e x i s t i n g members o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s had a f f i l i a t e d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . An ASTMS o f f i c e r f e l t t h a t h i s members had j o i n e d i n i t i a l l y b e c a u s e " t h e y were j e a l o u s o f t h e f a c t o r y f l o o r and f e l t t h e i r own s a l a r i e s s l i p p i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n " . B e c a u s e o f 14 F o r a c o n c i s e a c c o u n t o f t h e s e m a t t e r s , see L i n d a D i c k e n s , " S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t " , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s J o u r n a l ( V o l . 6 , No.3, Autumn, 1975) pa g e s 29 - 41. - 110 -gains enjoyed by p r o d u c t i o n workers, he f e l t s t a f f employees were t u r n i n g to unions i n an attempt to maintain the t r a d i -t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n r a t e s of payment between Midland's white- and b l u e - c o l l a r j o b s . He f e l t t h a t the g r e a t e r m i l -i t a n c y of p r o d u c t i o n workers over the l a s t few years had indeed eroded these d i f f e r e n t i a l s . Another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a w h i t e - c o l l a r union f e l t t h a t her membership was comprised c h i e f l y of those " d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n " as an o r g a n i z a t i o n . She f e l t t h a t the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n had been r e v e a l e d as a " t o o t h l e s s " body i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system a f f a i r of 1967, and t h a t her members wanted something more capable of d e a l i n g w i t h Midland management from a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h . Another view was t h a t i n many cases "someone has j u s t signed them up", r e f l e c t i n g t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n union d e n s i t y among the departments and d i v i s i o n s a t Midland Products was to an extent a f u n c t i o n of the l o c a t i o n of union a c t i v i s t s . A union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e added t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of h i s members had p r i o r experience of unions, and s p e c i f i c a l l y of w h i t e - c o l l a r unions, i n p r e v i o u s employments. "They're simply c a r r y i n g on other union a c t i v i t i e s " a t Midland Products. A l l union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n accord t h a t the l a r g e s t s i n g l e i n t e r n a l boost to union membership at Midland had been the " i m p o s i t i o n " of the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i n 19 67. P r i o r t o t h a t time, there had been rumblings of d i s c o n t e n t a g a i n s t the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n or a g a i n s t - I l l -management p r a c t i c e s but no s i n g l e cause emerged to prod the workers i n t o the a c t of e s t a b l i s h i n g w h i t e - c o l l a r t r a d e unions. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e x e c u t i v e of the Midland Pro-ducts S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t j o i n i n g the s t a f f a s s -o c i a t i o n was s t i l l "very much the t h i n g t o do" a t Midland Products. He s t a t e d t h a t he had support "everywhere" i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n was the s o l e company-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n of s t a f f employees. Some of h i s r e c e n t l y -e n r o l l e d members had a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n " i n the o p p o s i t i o n to the unions" because " i t ' s more i n keeping w i t h the nature of our work". Unions were seen as v e h i c l e s f o r b l u e - c o l l a r or p r o d u c t i o n workers, and were not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the " f a m i l y " which Midland Products remained. In order to r e t u r n hard i n f o r m a t i o n on motives f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , two q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , administered to the Midland w h i t e - c o l l a r workers which bear d i r e c t l y on the q u e s t i o n . A l l those respondents who were c u r r e n t l y members of s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s were asked, "Why d i d you j o i n ? " T h i s open-ended q u e s t i o n i n v i t e d a v a r i e t y of responses, and these have been s o r t e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s . Table 2 5 l i s t s the c a t e g o r i e s and the number of responses t h a t f e l l i n t o each. The m a j o r i t y f a l l h e a v i l y w i t h i n the f i r s t f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of response, w i t h References to the Future and a R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the Present Time by themselves accounting f o r almost h a l f the c i t a t i o n s . Perhaps of most s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the r e l a t i v e l y low frequency w i t h which the 1967 -- 1.12 -Table 25 Reasons for A f f i l i a t i o n : Organized Workers % N 1. References to the Future 27 22 ("It w i l l be helpful i n case of trouble") 2. Representation at the Present 2i 17 ("We need to be represented now.") 3 . Pressure from Co-Workers -^ g ^ 3 ("Why did I join? I was pushed into i t . " ) 4. P r i n c i p l e s of Unionism 2_5 ("All workers should have a union.") 5. Resented the 1967 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System 6 5 6. A l l others 15 12 101 82 - 113 -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was i d e n t i f i e d as a reason for a f f i l -i a t i o n . Analogously, only three respondents said that the immediate threat of redundancy (unemployment) led them to jo i n s t a f f organizations, and they are t a l l i e d i n the "other" t o t a l . I t could be argued that the reasons combined i n cat-egories one and two mask a certain amount of more well-focussed antipathy toward the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, but a l l respondents indicating that i t had anything to do with t h e i r decisions to a f f i l i a t e were placed i n category f i v e . The more general explanation of the r e s u l t s tabulated i n Table 2 5 i s that union a f f i l i a t i o n i s based upon a desire to be represented c o l l e c t -i v e l y to management. It i s a prudential act for most re-spondents, undertaken not so much i n anger or resentment as i n cooler, more c a l c u l a t i n g mood of white-collar work i n the circumstances of a p r i o r turn by management to a more bureau-c r a t i c style of operation. A second source of trade unions" at the company i s experience of trade unions i n the parental home and/or i n previous jobs held by respondents as adults. Twenty-four respondents had been raised i n trade union homes, twenty-eight had been members of unions before taking on t h e i r present jobs, and elevenvof i..thefn5had;=both:'f:orms of p r i o r exposure to trade unions. In a l l , just under half of the white-collar workers at Midland Products had d i r e c t and personal exposure to unions Table 2 6 U n i o n i z a t i o n by Exposure to Unions* E x p o s u r e t o U n i o n s U n i o n i z a t i o n None Unorganized 41 S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n 22 W h i t e - C o l l a r Union 37 100 .(N=69) Previous Job % 43 17 40 100 (28) Father o, "6 32 10 58 100 (24) Both Q. "O 27 18 55 100 ( I D s i g . = .19 Expressed d i f f e r e n t l y , 54% of trade u n i o n i s t s at Midland had some p r i o r exposure to trade unionism, while 56% of those ".'.un-a f f i l i a t e d had none. Exposure i s more common among men (63% a g a i n s t 41% f o r women), b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d respondents (57% as, • a g a i n s t 35%), and those r a i s e d by manual workers (56% as a g a i n s t 38% of the c h i l d r e n o f non-manuals). To be sure, exposure i s very h i g h among the c h i l d r e n of manual L a b o u r i t e f a t h e r s (78%) . - 115 -at one or more p o i n t s i n t h e i r l i v e s . As was i n d i c a t e d by a union o f f i c i a l , these respondents were s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y t o be t rade union members than s t a f f employees who had not p e r s o n a l l y been exposed t o unions b e f o r e . Table 26 p r e s e n t s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Respondents whose f a t h e r s had been trade u n i o n i s t s or who had themselves been: members of unions i n p r e v i o u s jobs (or both) were a l i t t l e more a c t i v e i n unions at Midland than respondents without such p r e v i o u s experience. In f a c t a m a j o r i t y of u n i o n i s t s a t the company had been exposed to unions e a r l i e r i n t h e i r l i v e s , w h i l e m a j o r i t i e s of s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n members and unorganized respondents had not. The p r u d e n t i a l d e s i r e f o r e f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a t pres e n t of " i n case of t r o u b l e " , and the presence i n s t a f f employee ranks of a l a r g e m i n o r i t y who had p e r s o n a l exposure to t r a d e unions both served to support the r i s e i n white-c o l l a r unionism a t the company. These were the most proximate sources of u n i o n i z a t i o n among Midland's white-c o l l a r workers. The Unorganized Workers S t i l l the q u e s t i o n remains why more s t a f f employees had not u n i o n i z e d and whether i n f l u e n c e was perhaps f e l t by the Midland employees to j o i n (or not) but was d i s r e g a r d e d . The p r a c t i c e of v i c t i m i z a t i o n , by which management di s c o u r a g e s - 116 -unionization by the systematic use of negative sanctions on union members, was f e l t to be one possible reason i n the uncertain conditions at Midland Products. Accordingly, two questions focussed attention on this.matter. Respondents were asked "Do you think that the company makes l i f e d i f f i c u l t for employees i n your position who are union members?" ("staff association members?"). And to ascertain whether the employees f e l t that a process of sele c t i v e v i c t i m i z a t i o n occurred at Midland Products, they were asked, "How about those who are es p e c i a l l y active i n union a f f a i r s , do you think the company holds t h i s against them?" ("staff association a f f a i r s ? " ) . The data i n Table 27 can be said to rule out the exis-tence of a widespread sense of jeopardy among the s t a f f em-ployees interviewed, although, perversely, these same data also cannot prove conclusively that v i c t i m i z a t i o n or the application of penalties of a lesser kind are not employed i n * 15 a few cases. Nevertheless, the finding which i n the present context i s of more importance i s that simple a f f i l i a t i o n with either the s t a f f association or a white-collar union and even holding a c t i v i s t status within them are not seen by the sample as acts Eleven of the twelve respondents currently holding union or s t a f f association posts r e p l i e d negatively to both questions. One respondent f e l t that s t a f f association and union a c t i v i s t s had been penalized for t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . - 117 -Table 27 ' V i c t i m i z a t i o n " a t Midland Products D i s - Don't m , , Aqree , „ T o t a l ^ Agree Know (N) "The company, makes l i f e d i f f i c u l t " f o r union members f o r s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n members "The company holds a c t i v i s m a g a i n s t . . . . " union members s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n members 3 1 6 5 96 98 90 91 1 1 4 4 100 100 100 100 (134) (134) (134) (134) - 118 -carrying heavy career-related consequences. Fear of r e p r i s a l does not account for present union a c t i v i t y l e v e l at Midland Products. Another possible reason why substantial numbers of s t a f f employees had not a f f i l i a t e d at Midland hearkens back to M i l l s , although i n d i r e c t l y . I t may be that many employees remain unorganized because no one had ever asked them to j o i n a union or the s t a f f association. When questioned about t h i s , the f i f t y - t h r e e unorganized workers turned out to be a com-posite of two groups of unequal s i z e . A clear majority had been in v i t e d to a f f i l i a t e as Table 28 shows. Of those who indicated they had not been asked to j o i n a union, of the s t a f f association, only a handful (two and three respectively) i n -dicated that, had they been asked, they would have joined. I t was not from fear 'of -victimization: nor: for want of having been asked to a f f i l i a t e that the overwhelming maj-o r i t y of unorganized s t a f f employees maintained t h e i r indepen-dence. The reasons they c i t e are set out i n Table 29. Two p r i n c i p a l reasons dominate the l i s t of rationales for remaining unorganized."1"6 The f i r s t , the absence of a personal need f o r a "^Although the question referred to "Staff Organizations" only fourteen respondents d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the s t a f f association from white-collar unions i n t h e i r r e p l i e s . Eight of those (57%) added that they were not personally interested i n the s t a f f association, four (29%) f e l t i t was no good or i n e f f e c t i v e , and two respondents put forward other reasons for refusing to j o i n . - I l l -Table 28 Unorganized Staff Employees and Unionization Respondent had been asked to j o i n . . . . a white-collar union the s t a f f association If asked, would have joined, a white c o l l a r union the s t a f f association Yes 69 64 10 15 No 31 36 90 85 Total 100 100 100 100 (N) (52) (47) (14) (17) Table 29 3. 4. 5, Reasons for Refusing to Join a Union.,  Unorganized Staff Employees No Personal Need ("I've no need to join") Rejection of Unions ("I don't agree with unions") Both 1 and 2 Fear of Management Reprisal A l l Other Reasons 40 31 4 4 20 99 (N) 18 13 2 2 9 45 - 120 -u n i o n , i s c l e a r l y a p r u d e n t i a l judgement t h a t r e f l e c t s a r e -s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e company and o f t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a u n i o n c o u l d b r i n g . The s e c o n d a p p e a r s t o be a much more p r i n c i p l e d r e j e c t i o n p f u n i o n s , i n v o l v i n g i n a b o u t e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d t r a d e u n i o n s g e n e r a l l y , u n i o n s f o r non-manual o r w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , and u n i o n s f o r t h e s t a f f e m p l o y e e s o f M i d l a n d P r o -d u c t s . We s h a l l s ee l a t e r t h a t some o f t h i s same a n t i - u n i o n s e n t i m e n t i s v o i c e d by many s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n members. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between p r u d e n t i a l n o n - j o i n e r s and p r i n c i p l e d n o n - j o i n e r s i l l u m i n a t e s t h e a c t u a l amount o f h a r d -c o r e o p p o s i t i o n t o w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n i s m among t h e u n o r g a n i z e d non-manuals (and p e r h a p s f o r a n o t h e r 20% o f t h o s e who a r e a l -r e a d y o r g a n i z e d i n t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n ) . The l a r g e r number o f u n o r g a n i z e d r e s p o n d e n t s have p e r s o n a l l y c a l c u l a t e d t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a f f i l i a t i o n and, f o r t h e moment, had n o t j o i n e d ( a b o u t as many s t a f f employee members w o u l d f a l l i n t h i s g r o u p ) . S t u d i e s o f o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t e r t i a r y s e c t o r c o m p a n i e s i n w h i c h w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n s a r e s e e k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d p e r h a p s r e v e a l d i f f e r i n g p r o p o r t i o n s o f p r i n -17 c i p l e d and p r u d e n t i a l n o n - j o i n e r s . A t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s , Q u i t e s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s have b e e n f o u n d e v e n w i t h i n t h e management g r a d e s o f one l a r g e B r i t i s h m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o r p o r a t i o n . See D a v i d W e i r , " R a d i c a l M a n a g e r i a l i s m : M i d d l e M a n a g e r s ' P e r -c e p t i o n s o f C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f I n d u s -t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ( V o l . 1 4 , No.3, November, 1976) p a g e s 324-338, e s p e c i a l l y 330. - 121 -c e r t a i n l y t h e p r u d e n t i a l a n d p o s s i b l y t h e p r i n c i p l e d n o n -j o i n e r s m i g h t f i n d c h a n g e d c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e a s u f f -i c i e n t i n d u c e m e n t t o a f f i l i a t e . A n y n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s f r o m c h a n g e d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , a n d new l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s l e g -i s l a t i o n t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f new p e r s o n n e l p o l i c i e s b y M i d l a n d m a n a g e m e n t c o u l d p l a u s i b l y a f f e c t a g g r e g a t e u n i o n d e n s i t y i n t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r g r a d e s a t t h e c o m p a n y . O f c o u r s e , o n c e a u n i o n i s a c c e p t e d a n d c e r t i f i e d , i t i s i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d t h e r e t o s t a y . The b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e who h a d o n c e b e e n t r a d e u n i o n -i s t s b u t who w e r e n o l o n g e r m e m b e r s a s s t a f f e m p l o y e e s , m i g h t b e a n e a r l y c l u e t o w h i c h way l a r g e r n u m b e r s w o u l d l i k e l y m o v e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t a c o -h e r e n t a n t i - u n i o n p h i l o s o p h y d i d n o t d o m i n a t e t h e v i e w s o f t h e u n o r g a n i z e d s t a f f e m p l o y e e s a t M i d l a n d P r o d u c t s . To p u r s u e t h i s p o i n t f u r t h e r , a l l r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e f a c t t h a t , Some o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e t h a t e m p l o y e e s j o i n w h i t e - c o l l a r s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e c a u s e , a l l i n a l l , t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a r e j u s t a b o u t l i k e t h o s e o f m a n u a l w o r k e r s . E i g h t y - f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s o r 66% o f t h o s e e x p r e s s i n g a n o p i n i o n ( s e v e n d i d n o t know) f e l t t h e s t a t e m e n t t o b e t r u e , f o r t y - t h r e e o r 34% f e l t t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t was n o t t r u e . T h e s e l a t t e r r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o s p e c i f y t h e " r e a l " r e a s o n s w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a f f i l i a t e w i t h s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d u n i o n s . O n l y t h i r t y - o n e r e s p o n d e n t s v e n t u r e d a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s . T h r e e l a r g e f a m i l i e s o f r e s p o n s e s c o m p r i s e d a b o u t - 122 -60% of the a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s put forward. They were Pressure from Co-Workers, Concern f o r S a l a r i e s and Working  C o n d i t i o n s , and the References to the Future i n descending order of importance. These f i n d i n g s may be t a p p i n g i n t o p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s r e s t i n g upong the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g a t Midland Products, i n p a r t i c u l a r upon the f a c t t h a t the company had enjoyed r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t labour r e l a t i o n s s i n c e the Second World War--the 1967 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g . For example, among w h i t e - c o l l a r workers there had not been a s i n g l e s t r i k e i n the h i s t o r y of the c o r p o r a t i o n . The problem of r e -dundancy had, owing to the a f f l u e n c e o f Midland Products, been "s o l v e d " by what a l l concerned regarded as a generous system of e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t . And, i t may be r e c a l l e d , s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith r a t e s of payment a t Midland Products was markedly h i g h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a p l u r a l i t y of the w h i t e - c o l l a r workers a t Midland Products had v o l u n t a r i l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h an organ-i z a t i o n e x p r e s s l y c r e a t e d to advance on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s the i n t e r e s t s o f the workers a g a i n s t those o f management', and con-form i n o u t l i n e to Bain's " p r i n c i p l e d " u n i o n i s t s . In order to present a f u l l e r , more rounded account of these w h i t e - c o l l a r trade u n i o n i s t s a t the company, the next s e c t i o n of the study c o n c e n t r a t e s on the a t t i t u d i n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and demographic underpinnings of trade unionism a t Midland. - 123 -U n i o n i z a t i o n : Two P l a u s i b l e E x p l a n a t i o n s I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e on w h i t e - c o l l a r workers c o n t a i n s two d i f f e r e n t hypotheses to e x p l a i n the way w o r k - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s and trade union membership might be c o n j o i n e d . Both hypotheses, however, invoke as c e n t r a l to the u n i o n i z a t i o n of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers f a c t s or a t t i t u d e s t h a t c e r t a i n l y h o l d a t Midland Products: f r u s t r a t i o n bred from an i n c r e a s i n g l y - b u r e a u c r a t i c and r a t i o n a l i z e d form of adminis-t r a t i o n i n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the m a n i f e s t i n d i v i d u a l i s m of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers. A. B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n I t i s again David Lockwood who draws our a t t e n t i o n to q u a l i t y of i m p e r s o n a l i t y i n the c o n d i t i o n s of work of non-manuals i n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a potent source of the a t t -i t u d e s t h a t u n d e r l i e trade unionism: When the mechanization and r a t i o n a l -i z a t i o n of o f f i c e work has proceeded to the extent t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e groups o f s e m i - s k i l l e d employees are c o n c e n t r a t e d t o g e t h e r , separated from managerial and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f s , p er-::.. forming continuous, r o u t i n i z e d and d i s -c i p l i n e d work, o f t e n rewarded i n a c c o r d -ance with p h y s i c a l output, w i t h l i t t l e chance of p r o m o t i o n — t h e n c l e r i c a l work becomes, i n terms of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment, extremely l i k e t h a t o f the f a c t o r y o p e r a t i v e . The sense of i s o -l a t i o n , i m p e r s o n a l i t y , the machine-dominated tempo of work, the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the u n i t a r y nature o f the product, are a l l reproduced i n v a r y i n g degrees.-^ Lockwood, o p . c i t . , page 92. See a l s o Weir, op.cit.,page 325. - 124 -The mechanization and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the modern o f f i c e i s i n Lockwood's view a concommitant of an i n c r e a s i n g l y -b u r e a u c r a t i c world, and " b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a s e t of c o n d i t i o n s extremely f a v o u r a b l e to the growth of c o l l e c t i v e 19 a c t i o n among c l e r i c a l workers." B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and trade unionism have i n f a c t been "mutually cumulative i n t h e i r -, e f f e c t s . " 2 0 Thus those who f i n d themselves i n low-paying r o u t i n e and r e p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s — p o s i t i o n s t h a t form the l e s s - f a v o u r e d c l u s t e r a t M i d l a n d — s h o u l d be those non-manuals most amenable to. a f f i l i a t i n g with w h i t e - c o l l a r unions. Trapped, s t a n d a r d i z e d , and without hope of s i g n i f i c a n t promotion, incumbents of semi-s k i l l e d c l e r i c a l jobs c o u l d be expected to abandon i n d i v i d u a l i s m to seek r e d r e s s through c o l l e c t i v e means, through trade unions. J u s t such an argument has a l s o been made by R a l f Dahr-endorf. C o n t r a s t i n g non-manual "bureaucrats" from non-manual " w h i t e - c o l l a r workers", the former occupying p o s i t i o n s t h a t are p a r t o f a h i e r a r c h y l e a d i n g to management and the l a t t e r occu-pyin g p o s i t i o n s t h a t do not, Dahrendorf argues t h a t i t i s among the l a t t e r t h a t "one would expect trade unions as w e l l as r a d -i c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to be s u c c e s s f u l . " More g e n e r a l l y , "the bureaucrats add to the b o u r g e o i s i e , as the w h i t e - c o l l a r workers 21 add to the p r o l e t a r i a t . At Midland Products, i t i s the 19 I b i d , page 141. 2 0 I b i d , pages 141 - 142. 21 R a l f Dahrendorf, C l a s s and C l a s s C o n f l i c t i n I n d u s t r i a l So-c i e t y (Palo A l t o , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959) pages 55-56. - 125 -p r o l e t a r i a t who n u m e r i c a l l y would g a i n more. B. I n d i v i d u a l i s m The second approach to trade unionism suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e on w h i t e - c o l l a r workers m i l i t a t e s toward a l e s s o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t o f the f u t u r e f o r unions o f non-manuals. W r i t i n g about the c l e r i c a l workers he has observed, A. J . M. Sykes s t a t e s t h a t they ...want to 'get on' as i n d i v i d u a l s ; they want promotion. They a c t i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e t the h i g h e s t value on i n d i v i d u a l i t y ; they t h i n k i t r i g h t and proper to do what b e n e f i t s them per-s o n a l l y , not what b e n e f i t s c l e r k s as a whole. Thus t h e i r i n t e r e s t s l i e i n r a i s i n g t h e i r own s t a t u s as i n d i v i d u a l s , not working through a tra d e union to r a i s e the s t a t u s of a l l c l e r k s . The way i n which they do t h i s i s by competing f o r promotion i n the o f f i c e , and by improving t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s through s e c u r i n g edu-c a t i o n a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a t .... n i g h t s c h o o l Or by p r i v a t e study. T h i s en-t a i l s d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the ^employer and s t r i k i n g i n d i v i d u a l b argains w i t h him on pay and c o n d i t i o n s . 2 2 The l i m i t l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i s m or egoism of the c l e r i c a l worker i s advanced as a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s p e c i e s , shaping and g i v i n g coherence to h i s o r i e n t a t i o n to work and, consequently, to trade unionism. I n d i v i d u a l i s m i s seen to be bound up with c o m p e t i t i o n f o r promotion and i s i n i m i c a l t o , among oth e r t h i n g s , the very p r i n c i p l e s which u n d e r l i e trade unionism: Trade unionism i s based upon u n i t y and c o l -l e c t i v e a c t i o n . Trade union members must surrender t h e i r r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n A.J.M.Sykes, "The Problem of C l e r i c a l Trade Unionism", S c i e n t i f i c Business, (Vol.2, No.2, August, 1964) page 177. - 126 -and c o m p e t i t i o n i n the cause of u n i t y . As a r e s u l t the i n d u s t r i a l worker has become ac-customed to r e g a r d anything which causes i n -d i v i d u a l c o m p e t i t i o n and d i s u n i t y as bad. He does not seek the advancement of the i n d i v i d u a l as such but the advancement of the group of i n d u s t r i a l workers of which he i s p a r t . Any preferment or promotion f o r the i n d i v i d u a l tends to c r e a t e d i s u n i t y , hence men are taught not to compete but to co-operate. 2"^ An i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n to work, encompassing keen d e s i r e s f o r promotion and advancement, does t y p i f y the mo-d a l s t a f f employee a t Midland Products. I t would seem t h a t few i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be more a d v e r s e l y designed f o r i n d i v i d u a l i s -t i c c l e r i c a l workers or non-manuals g e n e r a l l y than trade unions, Dahrendorf, t h i s time w r i t i n g about "bureaucrats" r a t h e r than " w h i t e - c o l l a r workers", concurs: But f o r bureaucrat, advancing h i s s t a t u s i s es-s e n t i a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l achievement. He has l i t t l e to hope from c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n which would leave h i s s t a t u s e x a c t l y where i t was i n r e l a t i o n to those w i t h whom he compares h i m s e l f , t h a t i s to a l l others who have stepped on a t l e a s t the f i r s t rung of the l a d d e r of s e r v i c e . In the s e r v i c e c l a s s , i n d i v i d u a l c o m p e t i t i o n takes the p l a c e of c o l l e c t i v e s o l i d a r i t y . 2 4 L e t us c o n s i d e r these two approaches i n order by r e f -erence to the f a c t s of the case a t Midland Products. F i r s t , the argument from the b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and r o u t i n i z a t i o n of 23 Sykes, op.ext., page 177. Sykes goes on from there to s t a t e : "In consequence the good trade u n i o n i s t supports h i s trade union r i g h t or wrong, and whether the case a t i s s u e a f f e c t s h i m s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l a d v e r s e l y or not. He knows t h a t i f he a c t e d on h i s i n t e r e s t s as an i n d i v i d u a l each time h i s union would be powerless 24 R a l f Dahrendorf, "Recent Changes i n the C l a s s S t r u c t u r e of European S o c i e t i e s " , Daedalus (Vol.93,No.1,Winter,1964) page 252. - 127 -c l e r i c a l work, to lowered job s a t i s f a c t i o n , to trade u n i o n i z a -t i o n f o r those trapped i n these f a c t o r y - l i k e non-manual po-s i t i o n s i s e a s i l y t e s t e d a t Midland. Our sample spans a number of non-manual o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l t h a t would q u a l i f y on any measure as r e l a t i v e l y low-paid, r e p e t i t i v e , and rule-bound ( j u n i o r c l e r -i c a l s and keypunchers, f o r example). Yet a t Midland i t i s not among the incumbents of these p o s i t i o n s t h a t high r e l a t i v e job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s found, as we have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . Nor are incumbents of low-ranking p o s i t i o n s or members of the l i g h t c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n a l group u n i o n i z e d i n even average propor-t i o n s : w h i t e - c o l l a r union d e n s i t y i n the sample i s 42%, among lowe s t - r a n k i n g w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i t i s 32%, and among a l l -l i g h t c l e r i c a l workers i t i s 40%. F i n a l l y , there:.is i n any case no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and trade union membership a t Midland (.11 a t .07). The most d i s -s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r workers are l e s s - d e n s e l y u n i o n i z e d than 25 t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n the adjacent, s t i l l d i s s a t i s f i e d , c e l l . While p l a u s i b l e , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t those who occupy the most r o u t i n e and r e p e t i t i v e non-manual jobs a t the company would be the most d i s s a t i s f i e d w h i t e - c o l l a r workers and hence the most eager r e c r u i t s t o trade unionism i s wrong on both counts. In-deed, the r e v e r s e i s t r u e r , as we s h a l l see s h o r t l y . With r e g a r d to the l e s s - o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t f o r white-c o l l a r unions t h a t i s suggested by t h e i r apparent i n d i v i d u a l i s m , 25 A c o n t r o l f o r gender reduces the weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between tr a d e union membership and job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t o .04 at .30. - 1 2 8 -the Midland p r o j e c t again permits a f a i r l y d i r e c t t e s t of the u n d e r l y i n g h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s t r u e t h a t most of the s t a f f em-ployees are i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , t h a t many express keen d e s i r e s f o r promotion and advancement, and t h a t some have been promoted more f r e q u e n t l y than o t h e r s . What i s not t r u e i s t h a t these most " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " w h i t e - c o l l a r workers have r e f r a i n e d from j o i n i n g trade unions. Measured as an o r i e n t a t i o n to work, un-a l l o y e d i n d i v i d u a l i s t s (those s c o r i n g i n the f i r s t c e l l ) are u n i o n i z e d i n above-average p r o p o r t i o n ( 4 5 % ) . Measured by a s p i r a t i o n s f o r a p o s i t i o n i n management, 5 0 % of these i n d i v i d u a l i s t s are t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , a d e n s i t y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than a