UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The generalization of understanding to behaviour : the role of perspective in enlightenment Shelton, Georgia Anne 1982

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THE GENERALIZATION OF UNDERSTANDING TO BEHAVIOUR: THE ROLE OF PERSPECTIVE IN ENLIGHTENMENT . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 THESIS -SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (De p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by GEORGIA ANNE SHELTON i n MAY, 1982 Georgia Anne Shelton, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date (/fa- JSj DE-6 (2/79) .Abstract The q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and b e h a v i o u r : Does i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s c h a n g e s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r ? G e r g e n (1973) r a i s e d t h i s q u e s t i o n and a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . He p o s i t e d an " e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t " as a r e s u l t o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n as t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The f i r s t s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e s u b j e c t s were e x p o s e d t o an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a -t i o n . V o l u n t e e r s who d e m o n s t r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f M i l g r a m ' s ( 1 9 6 3 ) b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d y o f o b e d i e n c e were s u b s e q u e n t l y a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e x p e r i m e n t t h a t i n f a c t e m b o d i e d t h e same p r i n c i p l e s as M i l g r a m ' s . The s u b j e c t s , t h o u g h t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o u r i n M i l g r a m ' s s t u d y , n o n e t h e l e s s b e h a v e d i n a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , c o e r c i n g a s u p p o s e d l y d i s t r e s s e d p e r s o n ( a c t u a l l y a c o n f e d e r a t e ) t o c o n t i n u e an u p s e t t i n g t a s k f o r t h e s a k e o f a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g . S u b j e c t ' s d e m o n s t r a t e d s c a n t a b i l i t y t o b r i n g t h e i r p r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a s p o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f o b e d i e n c e and c o m p l i a n c e t o b e a r on t h e i r c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n o r t o e v e n c o n s i d e r that i t m i g h t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o do s o . Two more s t u d i e s e x p l o r e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s f a i l u r e o f an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t . I n t h e s e c o n d s t u d y o b s e r v e r s w a t c h e d a v i d e o - t a p e d s i m u l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s t u d y . O b s e r v e r s i n one c o n d i t i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y were w a t c h i n g a t a p e o f r e a l e v e n t s as t h e y had o c c u r r e d t o t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . O b s e r v e r s i n t h e o t h e r c o n d i t i o n were t o l d t h a t t h e y were w a t c h i n g a c t o r s r o l e - p l a y a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . T h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n p r o d u c e d d i f f e r e n t i a l a r o u s a l and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n o b s e r v e r s ' a b i l i t y t o comprehend t h a t t h e ^ s u b j e c t s i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y were e n g a g i n g i n b e h a v i o u r s p a r a l l e l t o t h o s e of. t h e t e a c h e r s . A t h i r d s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c o g n i t i v e a t t e n t i o n i s c a p t u r e d by s i t u a t i o n a l m e a n i n g s t h a t a r e made s a l i e n t . T h i s s t u d y b r i n g s t o g e t h e r two l i n e s o f r e a s o n i n g . T a y l o r & F i s k e ' s ( 1 9 7 5 ; 1978) f o c u s - o f - a t t e n t i o n e f f e c t and the. f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e work o f E i s e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 7 0) and S c h u t z ( 1 9 7 0 ) . O b s e r v e r s were a g a i n p l a c e d i n one o f two c o n d i t i o n s . In one o b s e r v e r s were s e n s i t i z e d to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m u l t i p l e meanings i n a s i t u a t i o n and g i v e n what Goffman (1972) has c a l l e d the d r a m a t u r g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e y r e a d about and v i e w e d the v i d e o - t a p e of the; f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t . O b s e r v e r s i n the o t h e r c o n d i t i o n were g i v e n a p e r s p e c t i v e and t a s k t h a t d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to m i n u t e b e h a v i o u r a l d e t a i l s o f the same. The h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t o b s e r v e r s i n t h e m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n would be a b l e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t many- more l e v e l s of meaning and t h e r e f o r e be a b l e to v i e w the, f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t from the p o i n t of v i e w o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The dependent v a r i a b l e was the a b i l i t y to s u r m i s e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the o t h e r c o n d i t i o n would have t h e i r a t t e n t i o n so r i v e t e d on d e t a i l s of the e x p e r i m e n t t h a t t h e y would n o t be a b l e to e a s i l y r e - o r i e n t to t h e more g l o b a l a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d . B o t h of t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s were c o r r o b o r a t e d . The c o n c l u s i o n from t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t i s a c o g n i t i v e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t whose a c h i e v e m e n t depends upon a frame of r e f e r e n c e t h a t i s d e f i n e d by the q u e s t i o n "what's g o i n g on h e r e " . Whether or n o t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l b r i n g t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g to b e a r on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r depends on t h e p e r c e i v e d s a l i e n c e , and a v a i l a b i l i t y , of t h a t u n d e r s t n a d i n g at the t i m e of the b e h a v i o u r . Many s i t u a t i o n a l a s p e c t s c o n s p i r e to make an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . i i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v Acknowledgement v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 R e s u l t s , Study I 32 D i s c u s s i o n , 40 R e s u l t s , Study 2 49 D i s c u s s i o n 51 I n t r o d u c t i o n , Study 3 55 R e s u l t s , Study 3 73 D i s c u s s i o n 77 B i b l i o g r a p h y 100 A p p e n d i c e s 107 T a b l e s 119 L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e I P a r t i c i p a n t s i n E x p e r i m e n t I 119 T a b l e I I Means o f P e r c e i v e d D i s t r e s s 120 T a b l e I I I E x p e r i m e n t e r s who Wanted to Stop 121 T a b l e IV E x p e r i m e n t I I , C h i - S q u a r e 122 T a b l e V E x p e r i m e n t I I I , F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T 123 v Acknowledgement s In a d i s s e r t a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g t h r e e s t u d i e s and c o n d u c t e d o v e r a span of s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e r e a r e many acknowledgements to be made. Fo r e m o s t among t h e s e a r e to s c h o l a r s whose i n t e r e s t , i n v o l v e m e n t , and commitment made t h i s work p o s s i b l e when a m y r i a d of f a c t o r s c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t i t . P e t e r S u e d f e l d posed the q u e s t i o n of how to d e s i g n an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t e x p e r i m e n t on a l o v e l y I n d i a n Summer V a n c o u v e r m o r n i n g . Over the y e a r s he was a l w a y s t h e r e w i t h s u p p o r t , b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and f i n a n c i a l , to g u i d e my e m b r y o n i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g to m a t u r a t i o n . And whenever my own v i s i o n f a i l e d he r e i n v e s t e d me w i t h f a i t h i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s work. Don D u t t o n s t e p p e d i n to r i d e h e r d on an, a t t i m e s , unmanageable seeming p r o j e c t and an even more u n g o v e r n a b l e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . A l l t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h an even hand and an un-r e l e n t i n g e n t h u s i a s m f o r w h i c h I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l . Beyond the o b v i o u s s u p p o r t I ' l l a l w a y s remember the l a u g h t e r and s h e e r e x c i t e m e n t o f i d e a s . An enormous debt i s owed to my c o n f e d e r a t e s i n the f i r s t s t u d y , V i c k i P r e s t o n , S h e l l e y G o l d s t e i n , R. John E v a n s , and F r a n k Wislow. I f t h e r e i s a h e a v e n f o r r e s e a r c h e r s i t must be p o p u l a t e d by p e o p l e l i k e t h i s who t u r n e d i n d a i l y p e r f o r -mances of t h e h i g h e s t c a l i b r e . A l s o to the s u b j e c t s i n the f i r s t s t u d y who gave of t h e i r time i n a most d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . C a r o l e Meyers was an i n v a l u a b l e a s s e t i n c o n d u c t i n g the t h i r d e x p e r i m e n t and i n b e i n g a f r i e n d o v e r the y e a r s , a l w a y s e x c i t e d by t h i s work. Lynn A l d e n was most h e l p f u l w i t h c r i t i c i s m and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . My t h a n k s a l s o to S t a n l e y M i l g r a m f o r h i s g r a c i o u s comments and e n c o u r a g e m e n t , to Mark Zanna, 0 J H a r v e y , and T e r r y A n d e r s e n . To Mark C r o s k e and Tim M c T i e r n a n f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l campanion-s h i p . D e v o t e d f r i e n d s l i k e J e s s Brewer and Jed S h a p i r o a l s o s u p p o r t e d and e n c o u r a g e d me t h r o u g h many d i f f i c u l t t i m e s . J e f f Ash h e l p e d me s m i l e t h r o u g h the a n g u i s h of a d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d o f w r i t i n g . To Lynn R e i d , l o a n manager a t the Bank of M o n t r e a l , goes a s p e c i a l t h a n k s f o r h e r g e n e r o u s h e l p . Rae S u l l i v a n has been a t y p i s t i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n of c h e e r f u l and e f f i c i e n t women who ease the way. L a s t l y , I want to a cknowledge a s p e c i a l debt to the p e o p l e of Canada and t h e i r government, t h o s e g e n t l e , i n d u s t r i o u s p e o p l e who t o o k i n an A m e r i c a n , gave h e r t o t a l and a l w a y s s e c u r e , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and s a f e haven i n t h e i r b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y . v i We s h a l l n o t c e a s e from e x p l o r a t i o n And t h e end o f a l l our e x p l o r i n g W i l l be to a r r i v e where, we s t a r t e d And to know the p l a c e , f o r t h e f i r s t time These l i n e s from E l i o t ' s L i t t l e G i d d i n g e x p r e s s a p h i l o s o p h y o f b o t h p e r s o n a l knowledge and c o l l e c t i v e h i s t o r y t h a t i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y b o t h c o n g r u e n t w i t h and d i v e r g e n t f r o m many c l a s s i c a l p r o n ouncements on s o c i e t y v i s a v i s h i s t o r y . They a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e c y c l i c a l v i e w s o f h i s t o r y t h a t p r o c l a i m a g r e a t i m m u t a b i l i t y i n human a f f a i r s : Our u n c e a s i n g r e l i v i n g o f o u r h i s t o r y b e c a u s e o f our i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n f r o m our p a s t . V o l t a i r e ( i n Tuchman, 1978, p. X I V ) , t h e c y n i c i n the wake o f the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , put i t t h u s : " H i s t o r y n e v e r r e p e a t s i t s e l f , man a l w a y s d o e s " . B a r b a r a Tuchman ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p o i n t s out t h a t T h u c y d i d e s made t h i s p r i n c i p l e the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of h i s work (p. X I V ) . H e g e l ( 1 8 3 7 ) , though he b e l i e v e d i n the p r o g r e s s o f S p i r i t , c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h i l e t h e r e were men who had i n s i g h t and moved h i s t o r y ( o r r a t h e r S p i r i t moved t h r o u g h them), most men were v i c t i m s . Hartman ( 1 9 5 3 ) , t h e s t u d e n t of H e g e l , has d e s c r i b e d the common man, v i c t i m , as " i n a way, g u i l t y o f h i s own d e a t h and s u f f e r i n g b e c a u s e he does n o t r i s e to the o c c a s i o n , t h e human p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s e e i n g the w h o l e n e s s of t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n " (p. X X X V I I ) . Kant ( 1784) l i k e w i s e f o u n d mankind r e c a l c i t r a n t i n i t s a b i l i t y to l e a r n f r o m i t s p a s t and e x h o r t e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i t h S apere AudeI (Have c o u r a g e to use y o u r r e a s o n ) ( p . 3 ) . Only c o u r a g e would h e l p man a t t a i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t , t h e r e l e a s e , from' a s e l f - i m p o s e d b l i n d n e s s ( " t u t e l a g e " was the e x a c t word H e g e l u s e d ) . But Kant was more o p t i m i s t i c t h a n V o l t a i r e , w i t h h i s amused c y n c i s m , ; or H e g e l , w i t h h i s b e l i e f i n an i n e x o r a b l e S p i r i t t h a t used h e r o e s and v i c t i m s a l i k e as pawns i n a g r a n d scheme. Kant b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h f r e e d o m , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e e d o m from t h a t t u t e l a g e imposed upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y l a z y by the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a v a r i c i o u s , men c o u l d a c h i e v e e n l i g h t e n m e n t . In our own t i m e s K e n n e t h C l a r k (1969) has e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t d e s p i t e "the r e c e n t t r i u m p h s of s c i e n c e , men h a v e n ' t changed much i n the l a s t two t h o u s a n d y e a r s " and " i n c o n s e q u e n c e we must s t i l l t r y to l e a r n f r o m h i s t o r y " . B a r b a r a Tuchman (1978) c o n s i d e r s t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y to have been much l i k e our own, t h a t i s t o s a y , c a l a m i t o u s , and q u o t e s D r y d e n t h a t "mankind i s e v e r the same and n o t h i n g i s l o s t out o f n a t u r e , t h o u g h e v e r -t h i n g i s a l t e r e d . " C o l l i n w o o d (1972) a d i s s i d e n t v o i c e of o p t i m i s m , d e c l a r e s the argument t h a t h i s t o r i c a l s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e t o be an "open s o p h i s t r y " ; A c t u a l l y , the argument i s a c o u n s e l of d e s p a i r , , b a s e d on r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t a c e r t a i n a t t e m p t e d method o f s t u d y i n g the mind has b r o k e n down, and on f a i l u r e to e n v i s a g e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f any o t h e r . (p. 205) But n o t o n l y h i s t o r i a n s d i s a g r e e about the e x t e n t 2 and consequences of "enlightnenment." The s t a t u s of s o c i a l psychology as a science, has been the t o p i c of an e n e r g e t i c debate (.Gergen, 1973, 1976 ; Schlenker, 1974, 1976; Elms, 1975; Manis, 1975; Hendrick, 1976; H a r r i s , 1976) i n part c o n c e p t u a l l y centered on the very i s s u e of i n d i v i d u a l s ' a b i l i t y to l e a r n from h i s t o r y , and t h e r e f o r e not repeat i t . One very i n f l u e n t i a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l paper (Gergen, 1973) has argued that the methods and data of s o c i a l p s y c h o l -ogy do not meet the c r i t e r i a d e f i n i n g a s c i e n c e . Gergen maintains that w i t h i n a true s c i e n c e "broad generaliza-t t i o n s can be e s t a b l i s h e d with a high degree of confidence, e x p l a n a t i o n s can be empirically t e s t e d , and mathematical tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s can be f r u i t f u l l y developed" because the events s t u d i e d are s t a b l e over time (p.309). S o c i a l psychology, by c o n t r a s t , must deal with " f a c t s that are l a r g e l y nonrepeatable and which f l u c t u a t e markedly over time" (p.310). This changing world of s o c i a l f a c t s precludes a " t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l l y v a l i d " s c i e n c e . Schlenker (1974), Manis (1975) and H a r r i s (1976) have responded with the c l a i m that Gergen's conception of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i s l i m i t e d and that the l o g i c a l s t a t u s of the problems i n the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are e q u i v a l e n t . While the debate on t h i s i s s u e can be expected to a p p r o p r i a t e l y continue on p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounds, Gergen has r a i s e d one i s s u e which everyone, i n c l u d i n g Gergen (1976) has agreed i s an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n : to what extent does the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of 3 knowledge change t h e b e h a v i o u r i t d e s c r i b e s ? The t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e o f s o c i a l f a c t s has been i n p a r t a t t r i b u t e d by G e r g e n to the e f f e c t s o f a " p r o t r a c t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m " (p. 310) i n . w h i c h the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t i s engaged, w i t h th e r e s t of s o c i e t y . By means of e d u c a t i o n , magazines., n e w s p a p e r s , and t h e mass media, t h e t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y a r e communicated to t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . E m e r g i n g from t h i s f e e d b a c k l o o p a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y k n o w l e d g e a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c u r r e n t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . Such i n d i v i d u a l s a r e l i k e l y , i n G e r g e n ' s v i e w , t o undergo b e h a v i o u r a l change as the r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s : (a) e x p o s u r e to t h e " p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s " of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , and (b) e x p e r i e n c i n g an " e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t " . The p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y r e f e r s to t h e norms of p r o p e r or d e s i r e a b l e b e h a v i o u r i m p l i e d i n t h e o r i e s o f s u c h phenomena as c o n f o r m i t y , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , o b e d i e n c e , p e r s u a s i b i l i t y , e t c . G ergen b e l i e v e s t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n of t h e s e norms t h r o u g h d i s s e m i n a t i o n of t h e t h e o r i e s t e n d s to " p r o p a g a n d i z e th e u n w i t t i n g r e c i p i e n t s " (p.312) of t h i s knowledge i n t o b e h a v i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the i m p l i e d norm. Over ti m e a c q u i e s e n c e changes the f r e q u e n c y o f p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d b e h a v i o u r s . The phenomenon o f an " e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t " , as d e f i n e d by G e r g e n , i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t 4 t h e y a r e f u l f i l l i n g a r o l e , p e r f o r m i n g an a c t , or b e h a v i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d by b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t s . When p e r s o n s r e c o g n i z e t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i s a f f e c t e d b e c a u s e " s o p h i s t i c a t i o n as to p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s l i b e r a t e s one from t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " (p.313) A c c o r d i n g l y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dynamics o f b e h a v i o u r may i n c r e a s e a l t e r n a t i v e s to a c t i o n by s e n s i t i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s to i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g on them and by making s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h h i t h e r t o p a s s e d u n n o t i c e d ( p . 3 1 3 ) . Thus, f o r example, G e r g e n a s s e r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e aware of t h e r e s e a r c h on the r e a s o n s why p e o p l e do not h e l p i n e m e r g e n c i e s w i l l r e c o g n i z e and t h e r e f o r e a c t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t have been r e p o r t e d t o g o v e r n the b e h a v i o u r of b y s t a n d e r s ( L a t a n e & D a r l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . L i k e w i s e knowledge t h a t a r o u s a l can a f f e c t one's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e v e n t s may g i v e r i s e to c a u t i o n when a r o u s a l i s known to be h i g h . O v e r a l l , "knowledge i n c r e a s e s a l t e r n a t i v e s to a c t i o n and p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e m o d i f i e d or d i s s o l v e d " ( p . 3 1 3 ) . S e v e r a l p r o v o c a t i v e q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d by Gergen's a r g u m e n t s : (a) what e f f e c t s do communicated norms have on e s t a b l i s h e d b e h a v i o u r ; (b) t o what e x t e n t do i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e rgo b e h a v i o u r a l l i b e r a t i o n as a c o n s e q u e n c e of u n d e r -s t a n d i n g b e h a v i o u r a l d y n a m i c s ; and (c) i f e i t h e r of t h e s e phenomena i s p r e v a l e n t , what a r e t h e l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t a t u s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y as a s c i e n c e ? To t h i s l a s t q u e s t i o n S c h l e n k e r (1974) has c o u n t e r e d t h a t "any n o n i s o l a t e d or open s y s t e m i s s u b j e c t to the i n t r u s i o n o f u n f o r e s e e n e v e n t s w h i c h s e r v e to d i s c o n f i r m s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h o u t s e r v i n g t o i n v a l i d a t e t h e t h e o r i e s f r o m w h i c h t h e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d ( p . 6 ) . Hence, the e f f e c t s of p u b l i c a w areness o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h a r e examples o f t h e k i n d s o f p e r t u r b a t i o n s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n any open s y s t e m . H a r r i s (1976) has p o i n t e d out t h a t many a p p l i e d and t h e o r e t i c a l b r a n c h e s o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s must c o n t e n d w i t h p e r t u r b a t i o n s as f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m s . H e i s e n b e r g e l a b o r a t e d a p r i n c i p l e s p e c i f y i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i s t i c n a t u r e of o b s e r v e r - p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n s . L e a v i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s a s i d e , t h e most damaging c r i t i c i s m of G e r g e n ' s a n a l y s i s comes from S c h l e n k e r ' s (1974) commentary. S c h l e n k e r p o i n t s out t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y i s n o t now n o r has i t e v e r been p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c a t a l o g u i n g s o c i a l f a c t s . The c o n t e n t of norms i s n o t t h e i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t ; i t i s t h e p r o c e s s of norm i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o p e r o b j e c t of s t u d y . I f p e o p l e chang b e h a v i o u r i n r e s p o n s e t o the p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s of a t h e o r y t h a t i s y e t a n o t h e r example .of the g e n e r a l domain o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e . But the c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s : does the conr, u n i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h change e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r ? What about the a n a l o g o u s p r o c e s s o f i n s i g h t i n t h e r a p y ? C l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y has been s t r a n g e l y mute on t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h e r e e x i s t s no body o f r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c , though c l i n i -c i a n s u s u a l l y have an i d e a o f the p l a c e o f i n s i g h t i n t h e r a p y . S c h l e n k e r (1974). w o n d e r s , i n terms o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s , i f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge a r e d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r l e s s " e n l i g h t e n e d " i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . H i s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t . W h i l e t h i s c o n c l u s i o n seems j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f the e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e o f any a c a d e m i c p s y c h o l o g i s t , the argument t h a t knowledge b r i n g s change r e m a i n s s e d u c t i v e . . At the b a s i s o f a l l a t t e m p t s a t s o c i a l change and the enormous e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r e d u c a t i o n i s the b e l i e f t h a t "the t r u t h s h a l l s e t you f r e e " . W h i l e the n a t u r e o f " t r u t h " i s moot, ,the s e n t i m e n t e x p r e s s e s a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t has been b a s i c to the f o r m a t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s f o r the l a s t two h u n d r e d y e a r s , i . e . , t h a t m a nkind, f r e e d of the d i s t o r t e d t h i n k i n g c o n d i t i o n e d by e x p o s u r e to a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s and b e l i e f s , would c o n t i n u e " i t s onward march, a l b e i t w i t h t a r d y s t e p s , toward an e v e r - n e a r i n g p e r f e c t i o n " ( T u r g o t , 1750). P h i l o s o p h e r s o f the p e r i o d from w h i c h Gergen d e r i v e s h i s e f f e c t , t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , a r d e n t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t " e d u c a t i o n can change e v e r y t h i n g " ( H e l v e t i u s , 1 7 7 4 ) . As t h e h i s t o r i a n D u r a n t has n o t e d , t h e s u s t a i n i n g dogma of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t was " t h e b e l i e f i n t h e i n f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e improvement and e x t e n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n " (1963 , p.715 ) . Unbounded f a i t h i n t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f mankind's c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n may have s u f f e r e d some s e t b a c k s f r o m t h e time of the P h i l o s o p h i e s to our own, y e t many of us p e r s i s t i n a n a i v e b e l i e f i n an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t as d e m o n s t r a t e d by our s u r p r i s e t h a t , f o r example, p s y c h i a -t r i s t s have an u n u s u a l l y h i g h s u i c i d e and d i v o r c e r a t e , t h a t many p h y s i c i a n s a r e o v e r w e i g h t and smoke c i g a r e t t e s , or t h a t a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t may f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e and shy i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . The s u r p r i s e p r e s u p p o s e s a " t h e y s h o u l d know b e t t e r " a s s u m p t i o n t h a t d o e s n ' t seem e n t i r e l y u n j u s t i f i e d . A f t e r a l l , i f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s c a n n o t b r i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e t o b e a r on t h e i r own r e l e v a n t l i f e p r o b l e m s , how a r e the r e s t of us to cope? F u r t h e r , most o f us can p r o b a b l y remember an e v e n t i n our own l i v e s , or t h a t o f someone we know, i n w h i c h u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i d l e a d t o an i m p o r t a n t change i n t h e way of d o i n g t h i n g s . Gergen has r a i s e d an i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n f o r s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y to a d d r e s s . Review o f R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e A l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t i n t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s on b e h a v i o u r has e x i s t e d i n t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l 8 l i t e r a t u r e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s have not been d i r e c t e d toward a s p e c i f i c o r i n d e p t h s t u d y of t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t . A r e v i e w of some of t h e s e s t u d i e s i s p e r t i n e n t and, p l e a s e e x c u s e , e n l i g h t e n i n g . I n s p i r e d by t h e P a r a b l e o f t h e Good S a m a r i t a n , D a r l e y and B a t s o n (1973) p e r f o r m e d a b y s t a n d e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d y i n an a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e t h e p e r s o n a l i t y and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o h e l p i n g . S u b j e c t s were P r i n c e t o n U n i o n T h e o l o g i c a l s e m i n a r i a n s who had e i t h e r r e a d t h e p a r a b l e o r had r e a d a n o t h e r p a r a g r a p h c o n c e r n i n g v o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s of s e m i n a r i a n s . On t h e i r way t o g i v e . a t a l k on w h i c h e v e r message t h e y had r e a d and under t h e p r e s s u r e o f e i t h e r a h i g h , m o d e r a t e , o r low h u r r y c o n d i t i o n , t h e s e m i n a r i a n s had to p a s s by a p e r s o n ( c o n f e d e r a t e ) slumped i n a doorway and c o u g h i n g . S u s p e c t i n g t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e p a r a b l e would i n c r e a s e t h e s a l i e n c e of norms f o r h e l p i n g , D a r l e y and B a t s o n had p r e d i c t e d an o v e r a l l main e f f e c t f o r h e l p i n g i n t h e p a r a b l e c o n d i t i o n . A s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d d e c r e a s e d h e l p i n g as a f u n c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e t o h u r r y . W h i l e t h i s l a t t e r h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d , t h e message v a r i a b l e d i d n o t p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e l p i n g . S i n c e a t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r a b l e i s t h a t t h e p r i e s t and L e v i t e who p a s s t h e v i c t i m were p r o b a b l y h u r r y i n g to some o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n as d i c t a t e d by t h e i r r o l e s , D a r l e y and B a t s o n f o u n d i t 9 i r o n i c that: " ( a s e m i n a r i a n ) i s l i k e l y t o keep g o i n g e v e n i f he i s h u r r y i n g t o s p e a k on t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e Good S a m a r i t a n , t h u s i n a d v e r t e n t l y c o n f i r m i n g t h e p o i n t o f t h e p a r a b l e " ( p . 1 0 7 ) . I n d e e d s e v e r a l s e m i n a r i a n s , h u r r y i n g t o g i v e t h e i r t a l k on t h e p a r a b l e s t e p p e d o v e r t h e c o n f e d e r a t e ' s body i n t h e i r r u s h . T h u s , e v e n w i t h t h e norm f o r h e l p i n g made e x t r e m e l y s a l i e n t , t h e s e m i n a r i a n s were q u i t e s u s e p t i b l e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e t o h u r r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r a p p o i n t e d t a s k s . G r e e n w a l d ( 1 9 7 5 ) has r e - a n a l y z e d D a r l e y and B a t s o n ' s d a t a and c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e m i g h t have b e e n a s l i g h t l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two message c o n d i t i o n s . W h i l e t h i s may be s o , i t i s s t i l l s u r p r i s i n g l y c o u n t e r -i n t u i t i v e , f r o m a p e r s p e c t i v e o f ' e n l i g h t e n m e n t ' t h a t so few s e m i n a r i a n s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e " v i c t i m " , much l e s s o f f e r e d h e l p . D a r l e y and B a t s o n p o i n t o u t t h a t i t w o u l d be i n a c c u r a t e t o s t r o n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s e m i n a r i a n s as " c o n s c i o u s l y n o t i n g ( t h e c o n f e d e r a t e ' s ) d i s t r e s s , and c o n s c i o u s l y c h o o s i n g t o l e a v e h i m i n h i s d i s t r e s s " ( p . 1 0 7 ) R a t h e r t h e s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e seemed t o n a r r o w t h e " c o g n i t i v e map" ( T o l m a n , 1948) so t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n " p e r s o n i n d i s t r e s s " was n o t p r o c e s s e d and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t q u e s t i o n o f an e t h i c a l i s s u e was n o t p e r t i n e n t ( t h o u g h f o r some s u b j e c t s t h e e t h i c a l i s s u e a p p a r e n t l y d i d have some r e l e v a n c e as t h e y seemed a n x i o u s and a r o u s e d ( p . 1 0 8 ) C o n f l i c t r a t h e r t h a n c a l l o u s n e s s , as t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s p o i n t o u t , seems the a p p r o p r i a t e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why t h e s e s e m i n a r i a n s d i d n o t h e l p . T h e i r f i r s t commitment had been t o h e l p the e x p e r i m e n t e r ; s t o p p i n g to h e l p t h e c o n f e d e r a t e would mean, i n t h e h i g h h u r r y c o n d i t i o n , t h a t t h e y would d i s r u p t t h e t a s k t h e y had been a s s i g n e d . P e o p l e who a r e i n a h u r r y a r e r u s h i n g " b e c a u s e somebody depends on t h e i r b e i n g somewhere" ( p . 1 0 8 ) . A s t u d y t h a t a t t e m p t e d to d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e a t t i t u d e change w i t h " e n l i g h t e n m e n t " was K a t z , M c C l i n t o c k , and S a r n o f f ' s (1959) r e s e a r c h on p r e j u d i c e . A g a i n , t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s was n o t w i t h e n l i g h t e n m e n t , per s e , but w i t h the e f f e c t s o f " i n s i g h t " a b o u t th e p s y c h o d y n a m i c s o f p r e j u d i c e on p r e j u d i c e d s u b j e c t s who were e i t h e r h i g h , m o d e r a t e , or low i n e g o - d e f e n s i v e n e s s . A c o m p a r a b l e group was g i v e n a message t h a t e x p l a i n e d p r e j u d i c e i n terms o f c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . I n s i g h t was f o u n d to r e d u c e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p r e j u d i c e on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n t h e c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s message, b u t o n l y f o r t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who were m o d e r a t e l y e g o - d e f e n s i v e . The o t h e r s were n o t a f f e c t e d , t h o u g h p r e s u m a b l y f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . Those who were h i g h i n e g o - d e f e n s i v e n e s s were s e e n as r e s i s t i n g i n s i g h t w h i l e t h o s e who were low e g o - d e f e n s i v e p r e s u m a b l y d i d n o t have a m o t i v a t i o n a l b a s i s to t h e i r p r e j u d i c e . W h i l e t h e i n s i g h t message had some s u c c e s s , i t s e f f i c a c y was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o the m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s s t u d y . Thus, the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e message was i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , or schemas ( T e s s o r , 1978), t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e d i n t o the s i t u a t i o n . In a n o t h e r s t u d y (West, Gunn, and C h e r n i c k y , 1975) c r i m i n o l o g y s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e b u r g l a r y o f an a d v e r t i s i n g f i r m ; t h e r e q u e s t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n came from a p e r s o n known t o the s u b j e c t s as a l o c a l p r i v a t e i n v e s t i g a t o r and was worded to f i t one o f f o u r c o n d i t i o n s . In two o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s the s u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e U.S. I n t e r n a l Revenue S e r v i c e (IRS) needed to g e t m i c r o f i l m s o f t h e r e c o r d s o f an a d v e r t i s i n g agency t h a t was s u s p e c t e d of d e f r a u d i n g t h e IRS o f a l a r g e amount of money. S u b j e c t s i n one o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were o f f e r e d c o m p l e t e immunity i f c a u g h t ; i n t h e o t h e r t h e y were e x p l i c i t l y t o l d t h a t t h e y would r e c e i v e no immunity i f c a u g h t . In a t h i r d c o n d i t i o n t h e b u r g l a r y was s u p p o s e d l y s p o n s o r e d by a c o m p e t i n g a d v e r t i s i n g f i r m t h a t o f f e r e d $2000 to t h e s u b j e c t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The f o u r t h c o n d i t i o n was a c o n t r o l i n w h i c h the b u r g l a r y was e x p l a i n e d as a d r y r u n to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the b u r g l a r y p l a n s were w e l l d e s i g n e d ( p . 5 7 ) . W h i l e the c o n c e r n of t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s was p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s of e a c h of t h e c o n d i t i o n s and how t h e s e a f f e c t e d the a t t r i b u t i o n s o f a c t o r s and o b s e r v e r s , embedded i n t h e s t u d y was the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t . Would a b u r g l a r y whose p u r p o s e was to h e l p the government n a i l a b i g - t i m e t a x e v a d e r be more r e a d i l y a g r e e d to t h a n one whose p u r p o s e was to h e l p a competing, f i r m get an edge i n t h e m a r k e t , o r one whose o n l y p u r p o s e was t o t r y o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s p l a n s ? And, p a r t i c u l a r l y , would c r i m i n o l o g y s t u d e n t s a g r e e to t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n the wake o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s l y p u b l i c i z e d W a t e r g a t e p o l i t i c a l c r i m e s whose p e r p e t r a t o r s j u s t i f i e d t h e i r a c t i o n s as bein.g i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ? They d i d . The government s p o n s o r s h i p / w i t h immunity c o n d i t i o n e l i c i t e d c o m p l i a n c e a t a much h i g h e r r a t e t h a n the o t h e r t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e l o w e s t r a t e o f c o m p l i a n c e (5 s u b j e c t s out o f 100) was i n t h e government s p o n s o r s h i p / n o immunity c o n d i t i o n . W h i l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h i s low r a t e may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e p o s s i b l e h o s t i l i t y o f s u b j e c t s t o w a r d the IRS, i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t t h e s t r o n g d e c l a r a t i o n o f no immunity ( t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s toward non-c o m p l i a n c e by making t h e p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s v e r y s a l i e n t ) was the c a u s e . On the o t h e r hand, i f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s were c o r r e c t i n t h e i r s u p p o s i t i o n , t h e n c o m p l i a n c e i n t h e immunity c o n d i t i o n would be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of a more esteemed g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c y . As i t was, n e a r l y h a l f (45 out o f 100) of t h e immunity c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s r e a d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e immunity c o n d i t i o n u n d e r -e s t i m a t e d by h a l f t h e number of s u b j e c t s who would a g r e e to p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y between o b s e r v e r e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c t o r s ' b e h a v i o u r has been a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g i n the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . M i l g r a m ( 1 9 7 4 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t a group of p s y c h i a t r i s t s , c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and m i d d l e c l a s s a d u l t s e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y "a p a t h o l o g i c a l f r i n g e , n o t e x c e e d i n g one or two p e r c e n t " (p.30) w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o t h e end o f t h e s h o c k b o a r d i n M i l g r a m 1 s now famous o b e d i e n c e to a u t h o r i t y s t u d y . Even o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s who know t h e r e s u l t s o f M i l g r a m ' s (1963) r e s e a r c h u n d e r e s t i m a t e the s i t u a t i o n a l f o r c e s a c t i n g on the t e a c h e r s . W h i l e o b s e r v i n g a r e p l i c a t i o n o f M i l g r a m ' s s t u d y o b s e r v e r s p r e d i c t l e s s o b e d i e n c e t h a n the known ( t o them) b a s e l i n e r a t e ( B i e r b r a u e r , 1973; Ross, B i e r b r a u e r , Hoffman, 19 76) . These s u b j e c t s a p p a r e n t l y made what i s c a l l e d the " f u n d a m e n t a l a t t r i b u t i o n e r r o r " i n u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of s i t u a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s i n c o n t r o l l i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r ( R o s s , 1977;; N i s b e t t & R o s s , 1 9 8 0 ) . The f u l l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s " e r r o r " u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s r e f e r e n c e to o b s e r v e r s o v e r e s t i m a t i n g d i s p o s i t i o n a l  f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n to u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g s i t u a t i o n a l o n e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e c o n c l u s i v e l y d e m o n s t r a t e s o n l y the l a t t e r phenomenon. N i s b e t t & Ross (1980) a r g u e , however, t h a t " t h e r e i s r e a s o n to s u s p e c t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t a r a t h e r g e n e r a l " d i s p o s i t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y " i s s h a r e d by a l m o s t e v e r y o n e s o c i a l i z e d i n our c u l t u r e " ( p . 3 1 ) . I t can be a r g u e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s e l f - s e l e c t i n t o s i t u a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n s ( D u t t o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . However, N i s b e t t & Ross (1980) p o i n t t o t h e f a i l u r e of r e s e a r c h e r s t o " d e m o n s t r a t e a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n b e h a v i o u r demanded by t h e d i s p o s i t i o n a l v i e w ( c f . H a r t s h o r n e & May, 1928; Newcomb, 1929; and more g e n e r a l l y M i s c h e l , 1968; N i s b e t t & Ross., 1980, p . 3 2 ) . M i l g r a m (1974) a f f i r m s t h e n o t i o n o f a d i s p o s i t i o n a l i d e o l o g y of t h e o b s e r v e r . I n a n a l y z i n g t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n by t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s t u d e n t s , and a d u l t s as t o why t h e y would have d i s o b e y e d i n t h e o b e d i e n c e s t u d y , M i l g r a m (1974) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e e r r o n e o u s p r e d i c t i o n s f o l l o w f r o m a c e n t r a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t : a p e r s o n a c t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r way b e c a u s e he has d e c i d e d to do so. A c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n a p h y s i c a l -s o c i a l s e t t i n g , b ut t h i s i s m e r e l y t h e s t a g e f o r i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The b e h a v i o r i t s e l f f l o w s from an i n n e r c o r e o f t h e p e r s o n ; w i t h i n t h e c o r e p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a r e w e i g h ed; g r a t i f i c a -t i o n s a s s e s s e d , and r e s u l t i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n . (p.31) Yet m i g h t i t not be t h e c a s e t h a t some s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s a r e more amenable t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s ? F o r i n s t a n c e , Staub (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n a p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r e x p e r i m e n t a t l e a s t one p e r s o n i n 70% of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s gave as a r e a s o n f o r t h e i r h e l p i n g b e h a v i o u r t h a t t h e y had h e a r d about p e o p l e o f t e n n ot h e l p i n g when t h e y s h o u l d have and d i d not want t o "be l i k e t h a t " ( p . 3 3 7 ) . Rayko (1975) a t t e m p t e d an e x p l i c i t e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s s t u d y u s i n g a c l a s s i c b y s t a n d e r i n t e r v e n t i o n d e s i g n ( L a t a n e & D a r l e y , 1 9 7 0 ) . Female s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e a d an e s s a y e n t i t l e d e i t h e r (a) " S c i e n t i f i c F i n d i n g s About H e l p i n g i n E m e r g e n c i e s " ( R e l e v a n t I n f o r m a t i o n C o n d i t i o n ) o r (b) " S c i e n t i f i c F i n d i n g s About M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n " ( C o n t r o l C o n d i t i o n ) . The " R e l e v a n t I n f o r m a t i o n C o n d i t i o n " c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n . The e s s a y i n f o r m e d t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t i n c r e a s e d numbers of b y s t a n d e r s d e c r e a s e d h e l p i n g b e h a v i o u r and e x p l a i n e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i n terms of d i f f u s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e cue v a l u e of n o n - r e a c t i n g o t h e r s . I t was w r i t t e n to be n e u t r a l w i t h r e s p e c t to p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s . S u b j e c t s i n b o t h c o n d i t i o n s were r e q u i r e d t o walk to a n o t h e r b u i l d i n g and g i v e a s h o r t v i d e o - t a p e d t a l k on t h e e s s a y t h e y had r e a d . W h i l e w a i t i n g to g i v e t h e i r t a l k s t h e s u b j e c t s saw a workman e n t e r t h e w a i t i n g room and c a r r y h i s t o o l s i n t o y e t a n o t h e r room where he p r o c e e d e d t o make a p p r o p r i a t e w o r k i n g sounds w i t h hammer and saw. H a l f of t h e s u b j e c t s ( i n t h e t o g e t h e r c o n d i t i o n ) were t h e n j o i n e d by a n o t h e r young woman ( c o n f e d e r a t e ) who d i d n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s but m e r e l y made n o t e s f r o m p o s t e d n o t i c e s . F o r t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e a l o n e c o n d i t i o n no one a p p e a r e d a f t e r t h e workman d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e o t h e r room. W i t h i n a few m i n u t e s t h e r e was a c r a s h and c r i e s of p a i n f r o m t h e workman. At s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s , up to 30 s e c o n d s , t h e workman c o n f e d e r a t e c o n t i n u e d t o moan; t h e n , s i l e n c e . S u b j e c t s were g i v e n s i x m i n u t e s t o h e l p . The woman c o n f e d e r a t e i n t h e t o g e t h e r c o n d i t i o n a p p e a r e d s t a r t l e d at. t h e sound o f t h e c r a s h , but t h e n c o n t i n u e d h e r c o p y i n g , i g n o r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n . U s i n g a l a t e n c y measure o f h e l p i n g , Rayko f o u n d t h a t w h i l e h a v i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n d i d speed up h e l p i n g , ( r e d u c e d t h e l a t e n c y of t h o s e who h e l p e d ) a b s e n c e o f t h e c o n f e d e r a t e was, as p r e d i c t e d by L a t a n e and D a r l e y ' s (1970) m o d e l , as good a p r e d i c t o r o f h e l p i n g . Rayko c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i s r e s u l t s , i n terms of t h e e f f i c a c y of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n upon b e h a v i o u r were o n l y " s u g g e s t i v e " . S e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n Rayko's d e s i g n as a s e r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h a t an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t c a n n o t be measured i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e b y s t a n d e r i n t e r v e n t i o n model since, an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t of s o r t s i s embedded i n t h e m o d e l . The t h e o r y p r e d i c t s t h a t making h e l p i n g b e h a v i o u r s a l i e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e h e l p i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e c o n f e d e r a t e d i d not p e r f o r m as an e n t i r e l y " n o n - r e a c t i n g o t h e r " . Her s t a r t l e r e s p o n s e , a l b e i t n o t f o l l o w e d by any h e l p f u l or I n q u i r i n g b e h a v i o u r , d i d p o s s i b l y h e l p c o n f i r m f o r t h e s u b j e c t t h a t s o m e t h i n g was g o i n g on. The s e c o n d c r i t i c i s m c o n c e r n s t i m e . The b y s t a n d e r i n t e r v e n t i o n model ( D a r l e y & -Latane, 1968) does n o t make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t b e h a v i o u r removed i n time f r o m the e f f e c t s o f " h e l p i n g " h a v i n g been made s a l i e n t . In Rayko's s t u d y the e n l i g h t e n m e n t m a n i u p l a t i o n and t h e measurement of i t s e f f e c t s were v i r t u a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l , so t h a t no d i f f u s i o n o f s a l i e n c e e f f e c t s would be e x p e c t e d . G e r g e n ' s e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t t h e o r y can be seen to have b o t h a t r i v i a l and i m p o r t a n t c a s e . I n the t r i v i a l c a s e we would expose s u b j e c t s to a model of s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r and t h e n w i t h o u t d e l a y put them i n t o an i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I t would n o t be s u r p r i s i n g i f t h e r e were some e f f e c t on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . To t e s t f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s i n t h i s way i s to n o t o n l y t r i v i a l i z e G e rgen's argument, b u t t o i m p l i c i t l y , though n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y , e x p r e s s an a p r i o r i c y n i c i s m about our s u b j e c t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e , t o say n o t h i n g of i g n o r i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on a t t e n t i o n ( E a s t e r b r o o k , 1959 ; Tolman, 1948) P r e s u m a b l y , Gergen i s n o t t a l k i n g a bout the t r i v i a l c a s e o f how i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l behave f i v e m i n u t e s a f t e r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . H o p e f u l l y he i s a d d r e s s i n g the much more p r o f o u n d q u e s t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l knowledge on b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o v e r t i m e and i n a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t s . G i v e n t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s do n o t have th e power, o r d i n a r i l y , to s c h e d u l e the w o r l d ' s e v e n t s to happen i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i r l e c t u r e s a b o u t r e l e v a n t s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r s , and d i r e c t l y o t i t s i d e t h e i r l e c t u r e h a l l s , any t h e o r y a b o u t e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s must be one t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e p a s s a g e o f time and t h e s h i f t i n g n u a n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . G i v e n i t s import, f o r the d i s c i p l i n e of s o c i a l psychology,, Gergen's t h e o r y needs to be t e s t e d i n s i t u a -t i o n s where the r e c i p i e n t s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l knowledge a r e r e q u i r e d t o (a) g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r knowledge t o a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t s ( s i t u a t i o n s ) and (b) do so a t a t i m e removed from i t s a c q u i s i t i o n . O t h e r w i s e we a r e e n g a g i n g i n r e c o g -n i t i o n t a s k s c o n d u c t e d i n a vacuum f r e e of t h e c o m p e t i n g s t i m u l i o f t h e ' r e a l w o r l d ' . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s t u d i e s must be c a r r i e d out as f i e l d s t u d i e s , o n l y t h a t our d e s i g n s must have th e v i r t u e of e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i s m ( A r o n s o n & C a r l s m i t h , 1968) e n g a g i n g our s u b j e c t s and s i m u l a t i n g t h e r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h th e e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t i s l i k e l y to o c c u r . D e s i g n R e q u i r e m e n t s C o n c e p t u a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m f o r s t u d y i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n v o l v e s b o t h a t e m p o r a l d i m e n s i o n and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l / b e h a v i o u r a l demand. At some time A, a sub-j e c t i s t h o r o u g h l y i n f o r m e d about an e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g , or s e t o f f i n d i n g s , and a s s o c i a t e d t h e o r i e s . Sometime a f t e r t h i s , a t t i m e B, the s u b j e c t i s put i n t o a s i t u a t i o n where she o r he i s to engage i n a b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s , i n i t s e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e ) i d e n t i c a l to t h a t s t u d i e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a b o u t w h i c h t h e y have been i n f o r m e d . T h i s t a s k t h e n becomes a complex one o f g e n e r a l i z i n g one's u n d e r -s t a n d i n g a c r o s s time to r e l e v a n t s i t u a t i o n s i n an e n v i r o n m e n t o f cues competing.; f o r one's a t t e n t i o n . I f G ergen i s c o r r e c t , t h e e a r l i e r e x p o s u r e to s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y s h o u l d p r e d i s p o s e i n d i v i d u a l s to behave d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y ( l e s ) . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s t u d y to be r e p o r t e d h e r e (and unknown a t t h e time to the c u r r e n t a u t h o r ) B r a n t (1978, 1981) a t t e m p t e d a d i r e c t t e s t o f G e r g e n ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s a t i s f i e s t h e above c r i t e r i a . S u b j e c t s who had h e a r d a l e c t u r e on M i l g r a m ' s (1963) o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y s t u d y were s u b s e q u e n t l y ( s e v e r a l weeks to two months) e n l i s t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a " l e a r n i n g " e x p e r i m e n t u s i n g M i l g r a m ' s o r i g i n a l remote c o n d i t i o n (no f e e d b a c k from the l e a r n e r ) . B r a n t ' s r e s u l t s were c l e a r c u t . H i s s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n -c r e a s e d the l e v e l o f shock to t h e l e a r n e r and i n t h e p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w were n o t a b l e to i d e n t i f y the s i t u a t i o n t h e y had j u s t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n as one s i m i l a r to t h e s t u d y t h e y had r e a d / h e a r d about and d i s c u s s e d ! When a s k e d what t h e y t h o u g h t had been the p u r p o s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t t h e y had c o m p l e t e d , t h e y n o t o n l y i n s i s t e d t h a t i t had been t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f p u n i s h m e n t on l e a r n i n g ( t h e u s u a l c o v e r s t o r y ) , but t h e y c o u l d n o t c o r r e c t l y remember t h e r e a l p u r p o s e o f M i l g r a m ' s e x p e r i m e n t e i t h e r . One i n d i v i d u a l who t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e was some r e s e m b l a n c e between t h e two o p i n e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f b o t h e x p e r i m e n t s was t o s t u d y t h e f r u s t r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s when t h e y have t o d e a l w i t h s l o w l e a r n e r s (!) ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Not o n l y were t h e s e s u b j e c t s n o t a b l e to g e n e r a l i z e f r o m t h e i r s u p p o s e d c l a s s r o o m u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d e s t r u c t i v e o b e d i e n c e to t h e i r c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , b ut t h e y had n o t r e m e m b e r e d / u n d e r s t o o d / i n t e r -n a l i z e d t h e one a s p e c t t h a t one would have t h o u g h t most s a l i e n t : t h a t one i s a p t to be d e c e i v e d i n a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t . A r e v i e w o f t h e s e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t s may n o t be e a s y to come by when i n d i v i d u a l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o v e r t i m e ( B r a n t , 1978, 1981; West, e t a l , 1975) or when t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h s i t u a t i o n a l ( D a r l e y & B a t s o n , 1973) o r i n t r a p s y c h i c demands ( K a t z , e t a l , 1 9 5 9 ) . B r a n t ' s s t u d y c o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t h i s t e a c h e r s had c o n c e i v a b l y , been s u b j e c t e d t o a c o n f u s e d or i n c o r r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f M i l g r a m ' s work o r t h a t t h e y had t a k e n a c o l l e c t i v e c a t n a p d u r i n g t h a t s e t o f l e c t u r e s . Whatever happened, t h e y c l e a r l y f a i l e d t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e i r c l a s s r o o m u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r or to t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of a s o c i a l p a t t e r n (an o b e d i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t ) . As H e r b a r t (1816, i n K i n t s c h , 1974) put i t , t h e new i n f o r m a t i o n was not c o n n e c t e d i n a m e a n i n g f u l way w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s n o r w i t h i m a g i n e d f u t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s . In T u l v i n g ' s ( i n K i n t s c h , 1974) more e l e g a n t l a n g u a g e , t h e c l a s s r o o m l e c t u r e s , w h i l e p r o b a b l y e n c o d e d i n s e m a n t i c memory (and t h e r e f o r e r e t r i e v a b l e f o r a s e m a n t i c t a s k , s u c h as an exam), were n o t encoded i n e p i s o d i c memory, the memory o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . In one o f t h o s e happy though p u z z l i n g i n s t a n c e s of s e r e n d i p i t y t h a t haunt the r e s e a r c h e n t e r p r i s e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t to be r e p o r t e d h e r e was d e s i g n e d p r i o r to B r a n t ' s s t u d y and as though i n r e s p o n s e to i t s c r i t i c s . In o r d e r to g i v e Gergen's h y p o t h e s i s as much chance f o r s u p p o r t as p o s s i b l e , t h e p l a n i n t h i s s t u d y was a l s o to use as the h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d th e s e r i e s of e x p e r i -ments by M i l g r a m (1963, 1974) on o b e d i e n c e to a u t h o r i t y . T h i s r e s e a r c h has had a tremendous amount o f p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n a number of n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s , and even a d r a m a t i z e d t e l e v i s i o n s p e c i a l , as w e l l as h a v i n g been d e s c r i b e d i n a l m o s t e v e r y b a s i c p s y c h o l o g y t e x t s i n c e the r e s e a r c h was p u b l i s h e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s s u b j e c t s t e n d e d to behave i n a manner t h a t i s n o t h i g h l y a p p r o v e d by our c u l t u r e , so t h a t one would e x p e c t newly i n f o r m e d p a r t i c i p a n t s to become aware of the p a r a l l e l s and f o l l o w d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s . M i l g r a m ' s r e s u l t s have been r e p l i c a t e d i n s e v e r a l o t h e r c u l t u r e s ( M a n t e l l & P a n z a r e l l a , 1976; Shanab & Yahya, 1977), w i t h c h i l d r e n (Shanab & Yahya, 1977), and s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h b o t h males and f e m a l e s ( M i l g r a m , 1974; S h e r i d a n & K i n g , 1 9 72). T h i s body o f r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t M i l g r a m ' s r e s u l t s were not u n i q u e to New Haven d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e , nor to a p a r t i c u l a r s e x , age, or s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a n d i n g ( M i l g r a m , 1 974). In the o r i g i n a l M i l g r a m s t u d i e s , the s u b j e c t ( t e a c h e r ) was l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t he was a d m i n i s t e r i n g e l e c t r i c s h o c k s of i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y to a n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t ( l e a r n e r ) whenever the l a t t e r made an e r r o r i n r e c a l l i n a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i m e n t . Most o f the t e a c h e r s obeyed b o t h th e i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t c o n s t r a i n t s of the e x p e r i m e n t and c o n t i n u e d to a d m i n i s t e r ' s h o c k s ' ( a c t u a l l y of c o u r s e no s h o c k s were d e l i v e r e d and the s u p p o s e d l e a r n e r was i n f a c t a c o n f e d e r a t e o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r ) u n t i l a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l was r e a c h e d . Most p e o p l e e x p r e s s amazement a t M i l g r a m ' s r e s u l t s and do not u n d e r s t a n d how h i s s u b j e c t s c o u l d have a l l o w e d t h e m s e l v e s to be m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o t h a t k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r . They a l s o t e n d to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y would not have p a r t i c i p a t e d ( N i s b e t t & B o r g i d a , 1975; M i l g r a m , 1 9 7 4 ) . The main i s s u e i n v o l v e d i s t h a t the t e a c h e r s , though v i s i b l y u p s e t and d i s t r e s s e d a t the s i t u a t i o n , c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s demands t o go on s h o c k i n g the y e l l i n g , u p s e t l e a r n e r . M i l g r a m has e x p l a i n e d h i s r e s u l t s by p o i n t i n g out c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t p r e d i s p o s e d t h e t e a c h e r s to c o m p l i a n c e ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I m p o r t a n t among t h e s e a r e : (1) t h e d i s t r e s s o f t h e l e a r n e r was b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e s c i e n t i f i c i m p o r t a n c e and v a l u e of t h e experiment.-(2) an a p p a r e n t l y l e g i t i m a t e and o t h e r w i s e b e n e v o l e n t a u t h o r i t y s a n c t i o n e d and i n s i s t e d upon t h e s e a c t i o n s . (3) t h i s a u t h o r i t y a c c e p t e d f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f a t e o f t h e l e a r n e r , i n s i s t i n g t h a t w h i l e the s h o c k s may be t e m p o r a r i l y p a i n f u l t h e y would c a u s e no permanent damage. Reduced to a s t a t e m e n t of i t s e s s e n t i a l s , t h i s was a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h one p e r s o n a g r e e d to s e v e r e l y d i s t r e s s a n o t h e r p e r s o n a t t h e b e h e s t o f y e t a t h i r d p e r s o n f o r the sake o f a s u p p o s e d l y i m p o r t a n t e x p e r i m e n t when t h a t e x p e r i -ment was managed and s a n c t i o n e d by a l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y who a c c e p t e d f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s . In the s t u d y to be r e p o r t e d h e r e s u b j e c t s who d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the M i l g r a m s i t u a t i o n were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e x p e r i m e n t whose d e f i n i n g e s s e n t i a l s were t h e same. The s u b j e c t s were r e c r u i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t . A l l were v o l u n t e e r s and men and women were i n c l u d e d i n e q u a l numbers. They were t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h M i l g r a m ' s d e s i g n and r e s u l t s , and t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and memory o f M i l g r a m ' s work was t e s t e d to e n s u r e t h a t i t was a d e q u a t e and a c c u r a t e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a t t h e " l a c k of r e a l s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g " o f t h e way M i l g r a m ' s s u b j e c t s had c o n t i n u e d to c o o p e r a t e , and e x p l a i n e d t h e p o s s i b l e i m p o r t a n t s c i e n t i f i c / s o c i a l / e t h i c a l b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d by " d e v e l o p i n g a more t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o b e d i e n c e phenomenon". I t was e x p l a i n e d t o t h e s u b j e c t t h a t one i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e o r i g i n a l e x p e r i m e n t s was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ( M i l g r a m or one of h i s c o l l e a g u e s ) and t h e t e a c h e r . The c u r r e n t e x p e r i m e n t was e x p l a i n e d as a s t u d y to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s t a t u s and e x p e r t i s e of t h e o r i g i n a l " p r o f e s s i o n a l " e x p e r i m e n t e r s were i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n e l i c i t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . Our own s t u d y , i t was e x p l a i n e d , would use s t u d e n t s as e x p e r i m e n t e r s t o t r y to u n d e r s t a n d " j u s t who w i l l be s e e n as a l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y " i n a d e s t r u c -t i v e o b e d i e n c e s i t u a t i o n . The s u b j e c t was a s k e d i f she or he were i n t e r e s t e d i n h e l p i n g t o e x p l o r e t h i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . I f t h e s u b j e c t a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e she or he was a s k e d to s e r v e as t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , r u n n i n g a n a i v e t e a c h e r i n a M i l g r a m - l i k e s i t u a t i o n ; t h a t i s , t h e t a s k was to i n s i s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e to g i v e s i m u l a t e d s h o c k s t o a l e a r n e r who was a c t u a l l y a c o n f e d e r a t e as i n M i l g r a m ' s o r i g i n a l work. I n f a c t , unknown to t h e s u b j e c t ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d e x p e r i m e n t e r ) n o t o n l y was t h e l e a r n e r a c o n f e d e r a t e , b ut the " n a i v e t e a c h e r " was a l s o an a c t o r ( a c t r e s s ) c o n f e d e r a t e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The t e a c h e r ' s s c r i p t c a l l e d f o r him or h e r to e x p r e s s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to c o n t i n u e w i t h the s t u d y , c r i t i c i z e t h e m i s t r e a t m e n t b e i n g i n f l i c t e d on t h e l e a r n e r , and i n g e n e r a l behave as many o f t h e r e l u c t a n t t e a c h e r s d i d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y , b ecoming v e r y a n x i o u s and d i s t r e s s e d . The h i g h l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e t e a c h e r becoming d i s t r e s s e d was e m p h a s i z e d t o the e x p e r i m e n t e r , though the i n v e s t i g a t o r a s s u r e d the e x p e r i m e n t e r s t h a t she ( t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) t o o k f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t e a c h e r ' s  w e l f a r e and t h a t e x p e r i e n c e had shown t h a t t h e t r a u m a t i c  e f f e c t s on the t e a c h e r were n o t l o n g t e r m . Thus, the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s were a s k e d t o s t u d y a b e h a v i o u r whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . In e f f e c t , t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s , f o r the sake of a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a g r e e d to d i s t r e s s t h e t e a c h e r i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d why t h e t e a c h e r was w i l l i n g t o d i s t r e s s the l e a r n e r f o r t h e sake of a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g . r METHOD Subj e c t s F i f t e e n male and f i f t e e n f e m a l e I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s , drawn from a p o o l of v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h r e e p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were e l i m i n a t e d d u r i n g an i n i t i a l t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w b e c a u s e t h e y e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e s t r e s s d u r i n g an e x p e r i m e n t . A p p a r a t u s A p p a r a t u s i n c l u d e d a 18 x 2 4 i n c h f a k e s h o c k g e n e r a t o r made of s h e e t m e t a l w i t h t h r e e rows of 10 push b u t t o n s . T h e s e push b u t t o n s were l a b e l e d w i t h t h e su p p o s e d v o l t a g e l e v e l , b e g i n n i n g w i t h '15' and c o n t i n u i n g by i n c r e m e n t s of 15 t o 450. Two l a r g e wood and m a s o n i t e room d i v i d e r s were u s e d to s e p a r a t e t e a c h e r and l e a r n e r . A one-way window a l l o w e d v i e w i n g s o f t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i -m e n t a l s e t t i n g . P r o c e d u r e A f t e r an i n i t i a l t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w , s u b j e c t s who a g r e e d t o come i n f o r an i n t e r v i e w t o f i n d o ut what t h e e x p e r i m e n t was a b o u t were b r i e f e d a t t h e l a b o r a t o r y . Q u e s t i o n i n g d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a l m o s t a l l (25) o f t h e s u b j e c t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h some p r e s e n t a t i o n of 2 M i l g r a m ' s 1963 o b e d i e n c e s t u d y (had h e a r d l e c t u r e s about i t ; s e e n f i l m s a n d / o r t e l e v i s i o n d r a m a t i z a t i o n "The T e n t h L e v e l " ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r ( t h e a u t h o r ) t h e n gave them the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : T h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o t a k e a n o t h e r l o o k at M i l g r a m ' s s t u d y f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of who i s seen as a l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y . To t e s t t h e n o t i o n t h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s c a n sometimes ge t p e o p l e t o do t h i n g s t h e y m i g h t n o t o t h e r w i s e do we were g o i n g t o use n o n - p s y c h o l o g i s t s , i . e . u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s to a c t as e x p e r i m e n t e r s . A group of t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s had been l o c a t e d f r o m o u t s i d e t h e u n i v e r s i t y who had a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i -p a t e i n a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i m e n t . The r o l e o f t h e l e a r n e r would be p l a y e d by a c o n f e d e r a t e as i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y . The s u b j e c t s were t h e n a s k e d i f t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y m i g h t be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . A s y n o p s i s of M i l g r a m ' s work was handed t o e a c h v o l u n t e e r who was i n t e r e s t e d ( A p p e n d i x I_) . A f t e r t h e s u b j e c t had r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l t h e i n v e s t i -g a t o r r e t u r n e d to t h e room and r e q u e s t e d answers to t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (a) why had M i l g r a m s t u d i e d o b e d i e n c e ; (b) what happened d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , i . e . , how had t h e t e a c h e r s b e h a v e d , what had t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d ; ( c ) what s o r t of j u s t i f i c a t i o n had been o f f e r e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e and c o n t i n u e ; (d) how had M i l g r a m e x p l a i n e d t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e t e a c h e r s . The s y n o p s i s had e m p h a s i z e d t h e d i s t r e s s of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had c o n t i n u e d to p e r f o r m t h e i r t a s k s b e c a u s e of t h e a p p a r e n t l e g i t i m a c y and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and b e c a u s e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r had e x p l i c i t l y a c c e p t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e s e f a c t s were 2 r e - e m p h a s i z e d to t h e v o l u n t e e r s . T w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s u b j e c t s were s u r e t h a t t h e y would have s t o p p e d when t h e l e a r n e r e x p r e s s e d p a i n , s i x were not s u r e , and one was s u r e t h a t she would have f o l l o w e d o r d e r s f u l l y . A l l were a s k e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y aimed at u n d e r s t a n d -i n g t h e M i l g r a m phenomenon. Those who d e c l i n e d were a s k e d q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r r e a s o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r whether i t w a s . b e c a u s e t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d ( e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t ) , b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t i t would be a bad t h i n g t o do ( p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s ) , or some o t h e r r e a s o n ( e . g . , p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t ) . T h e s e s u b j e c t s were t h e n c o m p l e t e l y d e b r i e f e d and a s k e d not to d i s c u s s t h e r e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . Those who a g r e e d to p a r t i c i p a t e were t o l d t h a t t h e i r t a s k would n o t be an easy one, b e c a u s e th e t e a c h e r s p r o b a b l y would show extreme c o n c e r n , j u s t as i n M i l g r a m ' s r e s e a r c h . However, t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r j u d g i n g whether someone was e x p e r i e n c i n g too much d i s t r e s s and f o r t e r m i n a t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t i f n e c e s s a r y . The s u b j e c t was t h e n shown t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l rooms and b r i e f e d on d e t a i l e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r r u n n i n g t h e s e s s i o n . P r e p a r a t i o n f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l S e s s i o n Upon r e p o r t i n g f o r t h e s e s s i o n , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t was g i v e n a p r a c t i c e r u n by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . The p a r t i c i p a n t ( f r o m now on c a l l e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ) was r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s b i l i t y f o r t h e o u t c o m e , and t h e a u t h o r i t y t o t e r m i n a t e t h e e x p e r i m e n t , l a y w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s j o b was t o u r g e t h e t e a c h e r t o c o n t i n u e a d m i n i s t e r i n g s h o c k s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r was a l l o w e d t o t e r m i n a t e t h e e x p e r i m e n t o n l y i f t h e t e a c h e r u n e q u i v o c a l l y r e f u s e d t h r e e t i m e s t o p u s h a p a r t i c u l a r b u t t o n . I n t h a t c a s e , o r a f t e r t h e 450 v o l t b u t t o n had b e e n p u s h e d , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was to end t h e s e s s i o n and d e b r i e f t h e t e a c h e r . T h i s w o u l d i n v o l v e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e a l n a t u r e and i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s t u d y , an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e l e a r n e r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t most p e o p l e went up t h r o u g h 450 v o l t s i n t h e c a s e o f t h o s e t e a c h e r s who had t h e m s e l v e s done s o . When t h e t e a c h e r seemed c a l m , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w o u l d t a k e h i m o r h e r t o a n o t h e r room t o f i l l o u t an a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t and p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t a p e r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w . The e x p e r i m e n t e r was t h e n t o r e t u r n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room and l i k e w i s e f i l l o u t an a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t and p a r t i c i p a t e i n a t a p e r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w . The c h e c k l i s t a s k e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t o r a t e h i m s e l f , t h e t e a c h e r , and how he t h o u g h t t h e t e a c h e r p e r c e i v e d them on a 1—5 s c a l e on s u c h a d j e c t i v e s as " t e n s e " , " o b e d i e n t " , " a n g r y " , " c a l m " , " f r i e n d l y " . I n a c t u a l i t y , t h e c h e c k l i s t and i n t e r v i e w were u s e d o n l y w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . E x p e r i m e n t a l S e s s i o n When t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was r e a d y t o b e g i n , t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e went o u t and j o i n e d t h e s u p p o s e d l y n e w l y - a r r i v e d t e a c h e r . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n went o u t t o welcome t h e " s u b j e c t s " , e x p l a i n e d t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i m e n t , and c o n d u c t e d t h e r i g g e d draw. The e x p e r i m e n -t e r t h e n e s c o r t e d t h e two s u b j e c t s t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s , and e x p l a i n e d t h e s h o c k a p p a r a t u s t o t h e l e a r n e r " i n a v o i c e l o u d enough f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o h e a r . " R e t u r n i n g t o t h e t e a c h e r , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r e x p l a i n e d t h e word l i s t , t h e s h o c k a p p a r a t u s , and what t o do i f t h e l e a r n e r made a m i s t a k e . The r e a d i n g o f t h e word l i s t by t h e t e a c h e r t h e n b e g a n . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e l e a r n e r b e g an m a k i n g m i s t a k e s , and a t e a c h h i g h e r s h o c k l e v e l g a v e i n c r e a s i n g e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a i n b a s e d on a s t a n d a r d s c r i p t . I n r e s p o n s e , t h e t e a c h e r - c o n f e d e r a t e e x p r e s s e d u n e a s i n e s s , t h e n became q u i t e a n x i o u s , • a n g r y , on t h e v e r g e o f t e a r s ; c u r s e d , c o m p l a i n e d o f s t o m a c h p a i n s , a s k e d f o r a g l a s s o f w a t e r , and p l e a d e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o s t o p t h e s e s s i o n , a t one p o i n t i m p l y i n g t h a t p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s w e r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n " y o u r damned e x p e r i m e n t . " On t h e b a s i s o f a m e m o r i z e d s c r i p t , t h e s e r e s p o n s e s w e re g r a d u a t e d i n i n t e n s i t y as t h e v o l t a g e l e v e l went up. A t 3 no p o i n t d i d t h e t e a c h e r r e f u s e t h r e e t i m e s to push any of t h e b u t t o n s , the p r e - a r r a n g e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t e r m i n a t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . At t h e end of t h e " l e a r n i n g " phase t h e p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n were f o l l o w e d . R e s u l t s Of t h i r t y p a r t i c i p a n t s who came i n f o r t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w , 26 a g r e e d to s e r v e as t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ( T a b l e I ) . L a t e r , two (m a l e s ) of t h e 26 a s k e d to be r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e ag r e e m e n t , g i v i n g t h e combined f a c t o r s o f f l u and f i n a l exams as t h e i r r e a s o n s . They were not r e p l a c e d . The f o u r i n i t i a l r e f u s a l s were t h r e e women and one man. One woman and t h e man s a i d t h e y f e l t s o r r y f o r t h e M i l g r a m ' s t e a c h e r s and d i d n ' t t h i n k i t was r i g h t t o put anyone t h r o u g h t h a t k i n d of s t r e s s . Upon b e i n g a s k e d t h e d e b r i e f i n g q u e s t i o n s , ( f o c u s e d on M i l g r a m ' s e x p e r i m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , ) t h e y b o t h " d i s c o v e r e d " t h e p a r a l l e l s between t h e t e a c h e r and e x p e r i m e n t e r r o l e s . The two r e m a i n i n g women r e f u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y p e r s o n a l l y c o u l d h a n d l e t h e r o l e . One s a i d t h a t t h e i d e a of sho c k , even i f f a k e , t e r r i f i e d h e r , b u t t h a t she would p a r t i c i p a t e i f we c o u l d use a n o t h e r f o rm of a v e r s i v e s t i m u l i . She a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h e p a r a l l e l s when a s k e d t h e d e b r i e f i n g q u e s t i o n s . The o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t d i d n o t . The t h r e e who saw t h e p a r a l l e l s . s a i d t h a t t h e y had f e l t q u i l t y a t r e f u s i n g and the d i s c u s s i o n had given them a r a t i o n a l reason f o r r e f u s i n g . Twenty-two p a r t i c i p a n t s completed the experiment, urg i n g the teacher to push the 450 v o l t button. Only two terminated the experiment p r i o r to t h i s p o i n t . One p a r t i c i p a n t who terminated the experiment d i d so at 360 v o l t s , commenting l a t e r "she (the teacher) was going to go on and I j u s t couldn't see p r o l o n g i n g her agony. I decided that i f we got to 360 ( v o l t s ) that would prove the experiment." The other p a r t i c i p a n t became confused about the i n s t r u c t i o n s t h i n k i n g that a c o n d i t i o n f o r t e r m i n a t i o n had been met. He expressed dismay over t h i s and v o l u n t e e r e d to run another teacher, promising not to get confused "next time." During the d e b r i e f i n g two p a r t i c i p a n t s (males) expressed s u s p i c i o n about the teacher. Both of these p a r t i c i p a n t s had completed the experiment. When asked why they had continued, they gave i d e n t i c a l reasons: there was a good chance that the teacher was " r e a l " and they d i d n ' t want to r u i n the experiment. Upon having t h e i r s u s p i c i o n s confirmed they both expressed d i s a p p o i n t -ment saying that they would much r a t h e r have been i n charge of a r e a l experiment. Interview R e s u l t s Twenty-two p a r t i c i p a n t s saw the teachers as being 3 v e r y d i s t r e s s e d , n i n e on a t e n p o i n t s c a l e . T h e d e c e p t i o n was q u i t e e f f e c t i v e . I n d e b r i e f i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e a c t o r s . E i g h t e e n o f t h e t w e n t y - t w o u n d e r s t o o d , i n t h e a b s t r a c t , a l l t h e e l e m e n t s n e e d e d t o d r a w t h e p a r a l l e l s . O n l y two h o w e v e r , w e r e a b l e t o make s p e c i f i c a n d c l e a r s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r a n d t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r . The p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s : 1. How a r e y o u ? I s e v e r y t h i n g OK? ( P a r t i c i p a n t d i s c u s s e d a n y i m m e d i a t e f e e l i n g s h e r e ) . I t was t h e n e x p l a i n e d t h a t a s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n s w o u l d f o l l o w . 2. F r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , w h a t was h a p p e n i n g t o t h e l e a r n e r ? On a s c a l e o f one t o t e n how d i s t r e s s e d was t h e l e a r n e r s e e n t o be by t h e t e a c h e r ? Was t h i s s t r e s s p r i m a r i l y p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l ? Mean = 9.68; p r i m a r i l y p h y s i c a l , b u t f e m a l e s o f t e n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e w e r e e l e m e n t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a i n a l s o . ( T a b l e I I ) . 3. Why d i d t h e t e a c h e r go on? What was c o n t r o l l i n g h e r o r h i s b e h a v i o u r ? D i d t h e t e a c h e r ' s o b e d i e n c e seem t o r e s u l t m o s t l y f r o m h i s o r h e r p e r s o n a l i t y , t h a t i s d i d t h e t e a c h e r j u s t seem t o be a n o b e d i e n t p e r s o n , or f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t were extreme i n t h i s c a s e ? O v e r w h e l m i n g l y t h e t e a c h e r was seen as b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . O n l y one s u b j e c t saw t h e ( f e m a l e ) t e a c h e r as h a v i n g a "weak" p e r s o n a l i t y . The o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s s t r o n g l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r p e r c e p -t i o n s of t h e t e a c h e r as a b a s i c a l l y good p e r s o n who g o t c o n f u s e d i n t h e p r e s s u r e o f the s i t u a t i o n . From y o u r p o i n t of v i e w ( t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s ) what was h a p p e n i n g to t h e t e a c h e r ? On a s c a l e of one to t e n how s t r e s s e d was t h e t e a c h e r ? What k i n d of s t r e s s was t h i s p r i m a r i l y , p h y s i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l ? What k i n d of r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t of t h e t e a c h e r would have been i n d i c a t i v e of s u c h h i g h s t r e s s t h a t you would have t e r m i n a t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? Mean = 8.95; s t r e s s was seen as p r i m a r i l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r was s e e n to be s u f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l symptoms,that r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s , e .g., headache and stomachache ( T a b l e I I ) . Two of t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s r a n from t h e room when t h e t e a c h e r a s k e d f o r w a t e r and i n q u i r e d o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i f "we s h o u l d n ' t s t o p . " The i n v e s t i g a t o r a s s u r e d them t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t " s h o u l d go on" and t h e y r e t u r n e d to t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room. The o t h e r s u b j e c t s c a l m l y f a c e d t h i s t e a r f u l r e q u e s t by t h e t e a c h e r and t o l d them t h e y would have to w a i t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . D i d you e v e r w i s h t o s t o p t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? Why d i d n ' t you? D i d you e v e r w i s h t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would s t o p t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? Twenty s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e y d e f i n i t e l y wanted to s t o p t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T y p i c a l l y t h e y s a i d " I d i d n ' t want to make h e r (him) go on." They e x p r e s s e d sympathy f o r t h e p l i g h t o f t h e t e a c h e r , p o i n t i n g out t h a t t h e t e a c h e r d i d n ' t want to be d o i n g t h i s and was not a c r u e l p e r s o n . In r e s p o n s e to "why d i d n ' t y o u ? " o n l y f i v e of t h e twenty-two r e s p o n d e d w i t h " I was o b e y i n g y o u " and t h u s a s s i g n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The o t h e r s s t a u n c h l y r e f u s e d to do t h i s , s a y i n g t h i n g s l i k e " I was i n t h e r e and i t was my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ; " p r o b a b l y I s h o u l d have s t o p p e d i t but I wanted to g e t f i n a l r e s u l t s . " Thus t h e s e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t e x h i b i t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o u n d by M i l g r a m , but a r e i n l i n e w i t h M a n t e l l ' s (1973) s t u d y on t h e a s c r i p t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - i n o b e d i e n c e s t u d i e s . " D i d you e v e r w i s h t h a t I ( i n v e s t i g a t o r ) would s t o p t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? " S e v e n t e e n s a i d t h e y d e f i n i t l y w i s h e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r had s t o p p e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The o t h e r s e v e n s a i d d e f i n i t l y n o t . ( T a b l e I I I ) . Which do you t h i n k was h i g h e r , t h e s t r e s s of t h e l e a r -n e r as s e e n by t h e t e a c h e r , or t h e s t r e s s of t h e t e a c h e r as s e e n by you? In l i n e w i t h t h e i r p r e v i o u s e s t i m a t e s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t the l e a r n e r ' s s t r e s s as seen by t h e t e a c h e r was somewhat h i g h e r b u t , and t h i s was s t r o n g l y e x p r e s s e d , t h e y f o u n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s d i s t r e s s to be n e a r l y c o m p a r a b l e . They d i d n o t see t h e t e a c h e r as s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s t r e s s e d t h a n t h e l e a r n e r . Do you t h i n k t h e t e a c h e r l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g from d o i n g t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ? How do you t h i n k she (he) w i l l j u s t i f y h e r ( h i s ) b e h a v i o u r to t h e m s e l v e s ? The t y p i c a l (17) r e s p o n s e was t h a t t h e t e a c h e r would l e a r n how e a s y i t i s to a c q u i e s c e i n t h e h u r t i n g o f someone e l s e and t h a t t h i s would g i v e t h e t e a c h e r s t r e n g t h to r e s i s t s u c h p r e s s u r e s i n t h e f u t u r e . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s were n o t s u r e how t h e t e a c h e r was g o i n g t o j u s t i f y h i s ( h e r ) b e h a v i o u r , b u t o f t e n e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s would do a good c l i n i c a l / t h e r a p e u t i c j o b w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n making them f e e l b e t t e r a b o u t i t . 8. D i d you l e a r n a n y t h i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t ? 15 e x p e r i m e n t e r s commented on t h e s u r p r i s e o f l e a r n i n g how d i f f i c u l t i t was to be an a u t h o r i t y They f e l t t h e y had g a i n e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e r e c i p r o c a l n a t u r e of a u t h o r i t y and o b e d i e n c e 20 r e m a r k e d on t h e d i f f e r e n c e between h e a r i n g / r e a d i n g about e x p e r i m e n t s and t h e r e a l i t y of " b e i n g t h e r e " i n p e r s o n . One male s u b j e c t commented t h a t he had a l w a y s t h o u g h t p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t s were " r i n k y - d i n k " b u t t h a t t h i s e x p e r i m e n t changed h i s mind. He t h o u g h t now t h a t p s y c h o l o g y m i g h t r e a l l y be about s o m e t h i n g . 9. Do you t h i n k t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t j u s t i f i e s p u t t i n g t h e t e a c h e r under s u c h s t r e s s ? S u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d on t h i s and o f t e n s i n g l e s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s e d a m b i v a l e n t s e n t i m e n t s . F o r example: " y e s , but i t was a w f u l l y s e v e r e , b u t i f we f i n d s o m e t h i n g o u t , but I'm not s u r e " . F i f t e e n f e l t t h a t i t was j u s t i f i e d , b u t o n l y f o r " r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s " . The c u r r e n t s t u d y i n g e n e r a l q u a l i f i e d , b u t o n l y i f we were v e r y c a r e f u l how we h a n d l e d t h e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s and s e l f - e s t e e m . 10. Would you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y a g a i n i f asked? Ten s a i d d e f i n i t e l y y e s , b u t f o u r t e e n s a i d t h e y d i d n ' t t h i n k s o . They had f o u n d i t a d i f f i c u l t t a s k and d i d n ' t l i k e t o c a u s e s u c h s t r e s s f o r a n o t h e r human b e i n g . They d i d t h i n k i t had been w o r t h w h i l e , b u t f e l t t h e y knew enough a b o u t i t . Two o f t h e s e s a i d d e f i n i t e l y n o t . O n l y f i v e s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e y had not f e l t p e r s o n a l l y d i s t r e s s e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a g a i n q u e r i e d about t h e i r f e e l i n g s and g i v e n t i m e to d i s c u s s them. They were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was b e i n g t h o r o u g h l y d e b r i e f e d by a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t and r e m i n d e d t h a t f o l l o w u p s of M i l g r a m ' s s u b j e c t s had shown them to s u f f e r no permanent damage fr o m t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . When t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s seemed t a l k e d o ut and c a l m t h e y were a l l o w e d to l e a v e w i t h e ncouragement t o c a l l t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i f t h e y had any f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s or f e e l i n g s a bout the e x p e r i m e n t t h a t t h e y w i s h e d t o d i s c u s s . They were t o l d t h a t we would get i n c o n t a c t w i t h them when t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d to g i v e them t h e " f i n a l r e s u l t s . " They were a s k e d a g a i n n o t to d i s c u s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . When the s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d t h e s u b j e c t s were d e b r i e f e d by a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r who was aware of t h e g e n e r a l d e s i g n b u t d i d n o t know who c o n t i n u e d and who d i d n o t . They were t o l d t h a t t h i s was an o p p o r t u n i t y to l o d g e any c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e e x p e r i m e n t o r i n v e s t i g a t o r , and to d i s c u s s n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t h e y had toward t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The d e b r i e f i n g t h e n c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d a g a i n to see i f the s u b j e c t s c o u l d d i s c o v e r f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h e p a r a l l e l s between the t e a c h e r and e x p e r i m e n t e r r o l e s ( A p p e n d i x About h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s were a b l e to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s • d u r i n g the q u e s t i o n s . A l l o f t h e o t h e r s f i n a l l y " g o t i t " when q u e s t i o n s about t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r were i n c l u d e d ("from G e o r g i a ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , what was h a p p e n i n g t o you"; "do you t h i n k t h a t i t was d i s t r e s s i n g f o r G e o r g i a to watch t h e e x p e r i m e n t r u n a g a i n and a g a i n " ) . No s u b j e c t s c o m p l a i n e d of b e i n g t r e a t e d b a d l y to the d e b r i e f e r . Some e x p r e s s e d embarrassment a t h a v i n g been d e c e i v e d , i . e . , h a v i n g bought t h e c o v e r s t o r y , b u t , l i k e M i l g r a m ' s s u b j e c t s , t h e y a f f i r m e d t h e i r e a r l i e r comments abo u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s t u d y . A common s t a t e m e n t was to t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e had been f a s c i n a -t i n g and t h e y w o u l d n ' t have m i s s e d i t . E x t e m p o r a n e o u s l y t h e y o f f e r e d c o m p l i m e n t s a b o u t t h e c l e v e r n e s s o f t h e d e s i g n and t h e t h o r o u g h l y b e l i e v a b l e way i n w h i c h i t was c a r r i e d o u t . Most o f them a g r e e d t h a t t h e y would n e v e r t r u s t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a g a i n , b u t e x p r e s s e d t h i s i n amused, not b i t t e r t o n e s . 3 DISCUSSION At t h e end o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t we were l e f t w i t h many q u e s t i o n s and n o t a l i t t l e a s t o n i s h m e n t . We d i d n ' t y e t know ab o u t B r a n t ' s (1978, 1981) work w h i c h was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and t h e r e f o r e had no i d e a o f the t e n a c i t y o f t h e o b e d i e n c e / c o m p l i a n c e r e s p o n s e even a f t e r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p o s u r e to models o f s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y w h i c h , i n G e r g e n ' s v i e w , s h o u l d " s e n s i t i z e one to f a c t o r s t h a t m ight l e a d .... i n t o s o c i a l l y d e p l o r a b l e a c t i o n s " ( p . 3 1 1 ) . I n d e e d , i n b o t h B r a n t ' s s t u d y and t h e one r e p o r t e d h e r e , a l l of the s u p p o s e d l y " e n l i g h t e n e d " s u b j e c t s " h a v i n g hearrd t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f what was to o c c u r i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .... t h o u g h t i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g " ' ! ( B r a n t , 1 9 7 8 ) . In t h e c u r r e n t e x p e r i m e n t , g r e a t c a r e was t a k e n to a s s u r e and a s s e s s the s u b j e c t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l a s p e c t s o f M i l g r a m ' s work. S u b j e c t s amply d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e " p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s " i n t h a t t h e y e x p r e s s e d amazement and c o n c e r n t h a t M i l g r a m ' s t e a c h e r s had been w i l l i n g to s e v e r e l y d i s t r e s s a n o t h e r p e r s o n f o r the sake o f an e x p e r i m e n t . They a l l s p e n t t i m e c o n s i d e r -i n g what t h e y might have done i n the same s i t u a t i o n . They were g i v e n g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r o b a b l e d i s t r e s s . R e p e a t e d l y t h e y were g i v e n v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r own r o l e t h a t was s e m a n t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l to i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . They l i s t e n e d t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r say " o f c o u r s e I t a k e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e t e a c h e r , " and t h e n used t h a t v e r y p h r a s e t h e m s e l v e s to r e a s s u r e t h e " d i s t r a u g h t " t e a c h e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . Y e t most o f t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s d i d not r e c o g n i z e t h e i r t a s k as b e i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r . T h i s was so even t h o u g h t h e y d e s c r i b e d t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r i n v e r y s i m i l a r l a n g u a g e ("she ( t h e t e a c h e r ) went on b e c a u s e she had v o l u n t e e r e d and f e l t she had t o ; I f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e t t i n g f i n a l r e s u l t s " ) . What a c c o u n t s f o r most of t h e s u b j e c t s f a i l i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i l e two ( f e m a l e ) s u b j e c t s underwent an " a h a " e x p e r i e n c e ? The one s u b j e c t who got i t on h e r own was a b l e t o p i n p o i n t t h e e x a c t moment o f , and s t i m u l u s t o , h e r " e n l i g h t e n m e n t . " She had p e r f o r m e d v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n t h e r o l e of e x p e r i m e n t e r . Some m i g h t say t h a t she was q u i t e c o l d and n o n - r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e d i s t r e s s of t h e t e a c h e r (an o b s e r v e r d i d say t h a t and i m p l i e d t h a t t h i s was unbecoming i n a woman). W h i l e f i l l i n g o u t an a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t t h i s s u b j e c t was b e w i l d e r e d when she had t o r a t e b o t h t h e t e a c h e r and h e r s e l f on t h e a d j e c t i v e " o b e d i e n t " . She m u l l e d t h i s o v e r f o r a w h i l e and t h e n , d r a m a t i c a l l y , d r o p p e d h e r p e n c i l , h e r eyes w i d e n i n g and mouth o p e n i n g . T h i s was a l o o k o f sudden 4 c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h a t would be r e c o g n i z e d i n any c u l t u r e ( B a s s i l i , 1979; Ekman and O s t e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . She s a t s h a k i n g h e r head f o r a moment and t h e n c o m p l e t e d t h e l i s t . When t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e n t e r e d t h e room w i t h a ta p e r e c o r d e r t h e s u b j e c t v e r y e x c i t e d l y p r o c l a i m e d " I j u s t f i g u r e d s o m e t h i n g o u t ! Oh my God!" and t h e n , subdued, s i g h i n g w i t h h e r eyes m o m e n t a r i l y c l o s e d , " I f e e l so s i l l y " . I n t h e i n t e r v i e w t h a t f o l l o w e d she was a b l e t o v e r y c l e a r l y and w i t h no p r o m p t i n g s t a t e t h e "meaning" of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e v e n t s . She s a i d , " I was d o i n g to h e r ( t h e t e a c h e r ) e x a c t l y what she was d o i n g t o t h e l e a r n e r . I made h e r go on and on and she was r e a l l y u p s e t and i t was a l l j u s t f o r t h e sake of g e t t i n g i t done b e c a u s e i t seemed r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t . And I bought t h a t and she was r e a l l y h u r t i n g but i t was t h e t a s k , you j u s t g e t f o c u s e d on i t . " Towards t h e end of t h e i n t e r v i e w t h i s woman, who knew no f o r m a l a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y made an e l o q u e n t s t a t e m e n t of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l a t t r i b u t i o n e r r o r ( R o s s , 1 9 7 7 ) : "You a l w a y s t h i n k i t ' s them, l i k e t h e N a z i s , t h a t i t ' s j u s t t h e way t h e y a r e and t h e n you f i n d o ut t h a t i t ' s you t o o , t h a t i n t h e r i g h t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , maybe i t ' s r e a l l y a l l of u s . " What t h i s woman t o l d us was t h a t i t n e v e r o c c u r r e d to h e r to t h i n k about t h e meaning o f h e r own b e h a v i o u r t h e e v e n t s u n t i l she had t o r a t e h e r s e l f on o b e d i e n c e . F o r most o f the o t h e r s u b j e c t s t h i s r a t i n g p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . They had e i t h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s o b e d i e n t or m o d e r a t e l y so w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g any r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r o b e d i e n c e and t h a t of t h e t e a c h e r . T h i s woman had not seen h e r s e l f i n t h o s e terms a t a l l and was p e r p l e x e d a t b e i n g a s k e d to do so. One way o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g what happened was t h a t she q u i c k l y p e r f o r m e d a r o l e a n a l y s i s and l o o k e d a t h e r s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , s o m e t h i n g she had n o t done b e f o r e . At t h a t p o i n t she no l o n g e r saw h e r s e l f as t h e t o t a l l y f r e e a g e n t she had assumed, b u t saw a l l t h e s u b t l e p r e s s u r e s and c o n t r o l s and t h e web o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s t h a t encompassed h e r . As l o n g as she saw h e r s e l f as a f r e e a g e n t , a c t i o n and i n t e n t i o n seemed to o r i g i n a t e w i t h h e r (she was to c o n t r o l t h e t e a c h e r ; r u n the e x p e r i m e n t ) . Her t h o u g h t s had been f o c u s e d on "how am I g o i n g to g e t t h e t e a c h e r t o keep g o i n g . " She saw h e r s e l f as a c t i n g upon, n o t as b e i n g a c t e d upon. The i n v e s t i g a t o r had, a f t e r a l l , f o c u s e d a l l a t t e n t i o n on t h e t e a c h e r and t h i s c o g n i t i v e s l e i g h t - o f - h a n d was e f f e c t i v e i n e l i m i n a t i n g s e l f - a n a l y s i s . As soon as a s e l f - r e f l e x i v e t a s k was i n t r o d u c e d i t a l l f e l l i n t o p l a c e f o r h e r . But what of t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s ? C l e a r l y t h e y d i d no t p r o c e s s the i n f o r m a t i o n as d i d t h i s woman; b u t why n o t ? The r e s e a r c h group was d i v i d e d i n i t s o p i n i o n s 4 among t h r e e e x p l a n a t i o n s . Two o f them r e p r e s e n t v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . The f i r s t i s an o l d e r , m o t i v a t i o n a l l y - b a s e d v i e w o f man as e g o - d e f e n s i v e , a d i s s o n a n c e r e d u c e r whose a c t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d to s a v e f a c e and a v o i d i n t e r n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h one's own i r r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r ( F e s t i n g e r , 1 9 57). The o t h e r comes out of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g model and does n o t c o n s i d e r m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n a t t r i b u t i o n a l e r r o r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w c o g n i t i v e w i r i n g and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s p r e d o m i n a t e i n t h e s o - c a l l e d s e l f - s e r v i n g b i a s e s (Bern, 1969; R o s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . The t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n was t h a t t h e r e were, i n f a c t , no p a r a l l e l s . I f so, t h e n th e " t e n t h l e v e l " h y p o t h e s i s (named a f t e r t h e t e l e v i s i o n drama a b o u t M i l g r a m ' s work whose theme was t h e same as t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ) was u n i q u e to t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s and our " u n e n l i g h t e n e d " s u b j e c t s were i n f a c t " v e r i d i c a l p e r c e i v e r s o f r e a l i t y " ( H e i d e r , 1 9 58). T h i s l a s t would have to be a p r o b a b i l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s i n c e two s u b j e c t s d i d draw t h e p a r a l l e l s , one w i t h o u t any h e l p from t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and o t h e r s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s e p a r a l l e l s . But p e r h a p s t h e p a r a l l e l h y p o t h e s i s would not o c c u r t o most p e o p l e and t h e r e f o r e , i n terms of an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t , t h e e x p e r i m e n t was not v a l i d . A c c o r d i n g l y , one of our h y p o t h e s e s was t h a t e g o - d e f e n s i v e n e s s a c c o u n t e d f o r our s u b j e c t s ! f a i l u r e t o draw the p a r a l l e l s .between the t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r v i s - a - v i s the l e a r n e r and t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r v i s - a - v i s the t e a c h e r . When se e n as u n c o n s c i o u s and n o n - d e l i b e r a t e , t h i s d e f e n s i v e n e s s was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s u b j e c t s ' use of p a r a l l e l e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t were c o u c h e d i n d i f f e r e n t t e r m i n o l o g i e s when e x p l a i n i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r v e r s u s t h e i r own ("the t e a c h e r had t o c u t h e r s e l f o f f from the l e a r n e r i n o r d e r to go on"; " I had to d e t a c h my- s e l f f r o m the t e a c h e r i n o r d e r to r u n c t h e e x p e r i m e n t " ) . Thus i t c o u l d be s u r m i s e d t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s , who had o v e r w h e l m i n g l y (29 out of 30) e x p r e s s e d dismay and wonderment at t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e M i l g r a m s t u d y c o u l d n o t now f a c e t h e i r own p a r a l l e l b e h a v i o u r . In o t h e r words, the p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s d i d n o t p r e v e n t them p a r t i c i p a t i n g , b u t might s u b s e q u e n t l y make d e n i a l a n e c e s s a r y s t r a t e g y . I f i t were t h e c a s e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s p r e c l u d e d i n s i g h t , t h e n o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s who were n o t p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d (had n o t v i o l a t e d t h e p r e s c r i p t i v e b i a s a g a i n s t d e s t r u c t i v e o b e d i e n c e ) s h o u l d be a b l e to see t h e p a r a l l e l s , i f t h e s e " r e a l l y " e x i s t e d . Our n e x t e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The p l a n i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t was to have o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s watch a v i d e o t a p e o f t h e f i r s t s t u d y . ( I n a c t u a l i t y t h e v i d e o t a p e was of a s i m u l a t i o n o f the f i r s t s t u d y . The o r i g i n a l t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s ( f e m a l e s and male s ) p l a y e d t h e i r r o l e s as b e f o r e . The p a r t s of the e x p e r i m e n t e r s were p l a y e d by two g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , one male, one f emale.) The o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s were g i v e n t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n as the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s had been g i v e n (same c o v e r s t o r y ; same s y n o p s i s o f M i l g r a m ' s w o r k ) . What d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d t h e s e s u b j e c t s was t h e i r o b s e r v e r p e r s p e c t i v e . They would n o t be a s k e d t o engage i n any b e h a v i o u r t h a t c o u l d v i o l a t e an e t h i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n and p r e s u m a b l y would n o t s u f f e r f r o m a m o t i v a t i o n a l l y b a s e d d i s t o r t i o n i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e v e n t s . I f ego d e f e n s i v e n e s s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s ' i n a b i l i t y to see the p a r a l l e l s between the t e a c h e r ' s a c t i o n s / r o l e and t h e i r own, t h e n n o n - i n v o l v e d o b s e r v e r s s h o u l d be more l i k e l y to see t h o s e p a r a l l e l s . S u b j e c t s t a p e d r e s p o n s e s were a n a l y z e d by a r a t e r who was b l i n d as to t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s . METHOD Subj e c t s Our s u b j e c t s were 90 s t u d e n t s from u n d e r g r a d u a t e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s who had not y e t d i s c u s s e d M i l g r a m ' s work o t h e r t h a n i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a s s e s . In t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n t w e n t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s were r u n . P r o c e d u r e These o b s e r v e r - s u b j e c t s were a s k e d to watch a v i d e o -t a p e of a " r e a l " e x p e r i m e n t . P r i o r to v i e w i n g the f i l m t h e y were g i v e n t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n as the e x p e r i m e n t e r -s u b j e c t s i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d y , r e a d t h e same s y n o p s i s of M i l g r a m ' s work, e t c . They were l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was the r e a l s u b j e c t . The o b s e r v e r s were a s k e d to watch t h e v i d e o - t a p e ( i n f a c t a s i m u l a t i o n of t h e e x p e r i m e n t j u s t r e p o r t e d ) and t h e n answer, i n w r i t t e n f o r m , a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f what happened. (See A p p e n d i x I I ) . R e s u l t s The o b s e r v e r s became n o t i c e a b l y a r o u s e d v i e w i n g the f i l m . T h e i r a g i t a t i o n ( v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l ) was o b v i o u s to t h r e e r e s e a r c h e r s who watched them. The o b s e r v e r s were q u i t e v o c a l about i t a f t e r v i e w i n g the f i l m i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I f our o b s e r v e r s were a r o u s e d we c o u l d n o t t e s t the e g o - d e f e n s i v e h y p o t h e s i s i n d e p e n d e n t of an a r o u s a l h y p o t h e s i s ( c o g n i t i v e n a r r o w i n g due to a r o u s a l ) ( E a s t e r b r o o k , 1 9 59). A n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s showed s c a n t a b i l i t y to a n a l y z e t h e s i t u a t i o n . Only one s u b j e c t out of t w e n t y - t h r e e drew any p a r a l l e l s between t h e r o l e of t h e t e a c h e r and t h a t of the' e x p e r i m e n t e r . The o t h e r s gave answers t h a t had some e l e m e n t s b u t were c o n f u s e d or were u n a b l e to draw any p a r a l l e l s a t a l l . Nor were t h e y a b l e to answer i n any d e t a i l q u e s t i o n s about the e x p e r i m e n -t e r - s u b j e c t s . In c o n t r a s t t h e y c o u l d w r i t e i n d e t a i l a bout the t e a c h e r . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was r i v e t e d on t h e t e a c h e r whom t h e y r a t e d as b e i n g e x t r e m e l y d i s t r e s s e d (9.2 on t h e t e n - p o i n t s c a l e , T a b l e Second D e s i g n G i v e n t h a t t h e v i d e o - t a p e a p p e a r e d to be a p o w e r f u l l y a r o u s i n g s t i m u l u s , we d e c i d e d to see i f we c o u l d p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t i a l a r o u s a l by v a r y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n about i t . We d e c i d e d t o r u n a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e same as t h e f i r s t w i t h one e x c e p t i o n . The s e c o n d group was to be t o l d t h a t t h e y would see a c t o r s p l a y i n g the r o l e s o f e x p e r i m e n t e r , t e a c h e r , and l e a r n e r i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l e x p e r i m e n t . We r e a s o n e d t h a t o b s e r v e r s would e x p e r i e n c e l e s s a r o u s a l and e m p a t h i c i n v o l v e m e n t i f t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d i s t r e s s o f the t e a c h e r was b e i n g a c t e d out and t h a t t h e v i d e o - t a p e r e p r e s e n t e d an e n t i r e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . One more group o f t h e " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n was r u n , and two grou p s o f the " r o l e - p l a y i n g " D c o n d i t i o n were r u n . In a l l , 90 s u b j e c t s v i e w e d t h e f i l m . A r a t e r , b l i n d to the e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s , s c o r e d t h e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s to t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . . Any p a r a l l e l n o t e d between the a c t i o n s / r o l e of t h e t e a c h e r and' t h a t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was s c o r e d as a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e . The s e c o n d s e s s i o n of t h e " r e a l " e x p e r i m e n t was c o m p a r a b l e to the f i r s t . . T h r e e :out of twenty-two s u b j e c t s drew the p a r a l l e l s . The o t h e r s were u n a b l e to draw t h e p a r a l l e l s c l e a r l y or t o w r i t e i n d e t a i l a bout t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . They showed a l l t h e same s i g n s of a g i t a t i o n as t h e f i r s t group and one o b s e r v e r became so u p s e t she had to l e a v e the room. The two s e s s i o n s of t h e " r o l e - a c t i n g " c o n d i t i o n were m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t i n tone from the " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n . S u b j e c t s l a u g h e d somewhat n e r v o u s l y , b u t n o t a t a l l w i t h the t e n s i o n o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . A s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y by D u t t o n , P r a t t , and B o r r i e (1979) v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l of t h e " r e a l " e x p e r i m e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e a r o u s a l o f t h e " r o l e - p l a y i n g " c o n d i t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s o f t h e " r o l e - p l a y i n g " c o n d i t i o n were a l s o s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e of the " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n . (See T a b l e I V ) . Over h a l f o f the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n (29 out of 45) drew the 2 p a r a l l e l s (X " P < . 0 0 1 ) . F u r t h e r , and most p e r t i n e n t , t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was much more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between t h e t e a c h e r and t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . Twenty of t h e s e o b s e r v e r s commented on s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s of t h e 4 e x p e r i m e n t e r ("she was, f i d d l i n g ' w i t h h e r p e n c i l " ) and made n o n - r o l e d e f i n e d a t t r i b u t i o n s ("she seemed n e r v o u s " ; " i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r t o do"; "she l e a r n e d t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to be an. a u t h o r i t y ; " ) as opposed t o the r o l e - d e f i n e d a t t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e " r e a l " o b s e r v e r s , ("she was w a t c h i n g the t e a c h e r " ; "she was making the e x p e r i m e n t work"; "she l e a r n e d what she s e t out to l e a r n , whether the t e a c h e r would go o n " ) . D i s c u s s i o n Taken t o g e t h e r t h e s e two e x p e r i m e n t s i l l u m i n a t e how c a p t i v a t i n g some a s p e c t s o f an e x p e r i e n c e can be a t the expense of our a b i l i t y to c o n s i d e r o t h e r , p o t e n t i a l l y e q u a l l y i n f o r m a t i v e , a s p e c t s ( T a y l o r & F i s k e , 1978). The r e s u l t s of the s e c o n d ( o b s e r v e r ) s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a r o u s a l c o u l d be a s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e of t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s to e i t h e r s t o p the e x p e r i m e n t (due to an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t ) o r , s u b s e q u e n t l y , to see the p a r a l l e l s between t h e i r own r o l e and t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r . L i k e b o t h D a r l e y and B a t s o n ' s (1973) h u r r y i n g s e m i n a r i a n s and the o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h e r -a r o u s a l " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s l i k e l y underwent a n a r r o w i n g o f t h e c o g n i t i v e map ( Tolman, 1938). T h i s n a r r o w i n g does n o t r e q u i r e a r o u s a l , b u t i s a c c e n t u a t e d by i t ( T a y l o r & F i s k e , 1 9 7 8 ) . The o b s e r v e r s i n the " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n were l e s s a b l e to t h i n k about the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s t h a n th e o b s e r v e r s i n the " r o l e - p l a y i n g " c o n d i t i o n whose a t t e n t i o n was more d i s t r i b u t e d between the t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r . Thus, T a y l o r and F i s k e ' s c l a i m t h a t " c a u s a l p e r c e p t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by where one's a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d w i t h i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t h a t a t t e n t i o n i t s e l f i s a f u n c t i o n of what i n f o r m a t i o n i s s a l i e n t " (p.253) was a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . T a y l o r and F i s k e f u r t h e r a r g u e t h a t " i n f o r m a t i o n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s a l i e n t p e r s o n or a t t r i b u t e i s s t o r e d a t t h e top o f t h e m e n t a l heap o r i n some e a s i l y r e t r i e v e d f o r m " (p. 2 7 0 ) . Why t h i s i s so i s not; y e t a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r , b u t i t a p p e a r s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t e n t i o n a f f e c t s p r i m a r i l y the r e t r i e v a l p r o c e s s and s e c o n d a r i l y t h e e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s ( p . 2 7 0 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n about a n o n - s a l i e n t p e r s o n i s s t o r e d , i . e . e n c o d e d , b u t n o t i n a f a s h i o n t h a t makes i t as r e t r i e v a b l e as i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a s a l i e n t p e r s o n . To the o b s e r v e r the t e a c h e r i s more s a l i e n t f o r two r e a s o n s : (a) he or she i s u p s e t , y e l l i n g , s w e a r i n g , i . e . moving and n o v e l , ( T a y l o r & F i s k e , 1978) as c o n t r a s t e d to t h e r e l a t i v e l y c alm, i n c h a r g e , s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r ; and (b) t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s t h e o b j e c t of s t u d y . T a y l o r and F i s k e make t h e p o i n t t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y may be the most i m p o r t a n t m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r i n the p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e e f f e c t . They s u g g e s t t h a t c o g n i t i o n s can be a f f e c t e d i n much the same way. P e r s o n s i n any s i t u a t i o n must f i g u r e out "what's g o i n g on?". B o t h t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s and the o b s e r v e r s were g i v e n , w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e x p l i c i t n e s s , a r e a s o n a b l e , c o n g r u e n t to the e v e n t s , s i t u a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , i . e . , t h a t t h e p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y was to s t u d y t h e o b e d i e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r . In g e n e r a l , we a l l assume t h a t e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n d u c t e d to s t u d y s u b j e c t s and n o t e x p e r i m e n t e r s . The c o g n i t i o n , "what i s the meaning o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s b e h a v i o u r and r o l e " i s n o t made s a l i e n t i n most d i s c u s s i o n s o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , M i l g r a m ' s work on o b e d i e n c e has p r o b a b l y e l i c i t e d more o f t h i s s o r t o f a n a l y s i s t h a n any o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t i n p s y c h o l o g y . The o b s e r v e r s u b j e c t s were a l l from u p p e r - d i v i s i o n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s and were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o b e d i e n c e s t u d i e s . S t i l l , t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was l a r g e l y r i v e t e d on the t e a c h e r . The o b s e r v e r s i n the " r o l e - p l a y i n g " c o n d i t i o n were f a r more l i k e l y to see some p a r a l l e l s between the p r e d i c a m e n t s of t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r , and even more l i k e l y to a t t e n d to t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n -t e r t h a n t h e o b s e r v e r s i n t h e " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n . We s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t e n t i o n e f f e c t may be i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s i t u a t i o n as r o l e - p l a y i n g . In the " r e a l " c o n d i t i o n t h e o b j e c t of s t u d y i s the t e a c h e r and a t t e n t i o n i s n a t u r a l l y d i r e c t e d towards t h i s s a l i e n t p e r s o n , the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r p r o b a b l y becomes a b a c k g r o u n d s t i m u l u s . In t h e " r o l e - a c t i n g " c o n d i t i o n however, b o t h t h e t e a c h e r and the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r a r e o b j e c t s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t o b s e r v e r s may wonder how w e l l t h e y w i l l e a ch e n a c t t h e i r r o l e s and what k i n d of drama t h e y a r e a b l e t o c r e a t e . Goffman (1959;.in H a r r e , 1972) c l a i m s t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of any s i t u a t i o n i s enhanced by a s s u m i n g the d r a m a t u r g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , and t h a t " a d o p t i n g the d r a m a t u r g i c a l model .... i s a way o f a t t a i n i n g the g e n e r a l s t a n d p o i n t from w h i c h i t becomes p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r t h e e.th.ogeny of an e p i s o d e , the r o l e s and meaning w h i c h e x p l a i n what i s done and what i s s a i d " ( p . 4 1 3 ) . The d r a m a t u r g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t g i v e s t h e o b s e r v e r a c o g n i t i v e means of a m e l i o r a t i n g t h e e n g u l f m e n t of h i s or h e r a t t e n t i o n by a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e or p e r s o n . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s s o r t of a n a l y s i s i t h e o b s e r v e r s i n t h e r o l e - p l a y i n g c o n d i t i o n were g i v e n some r o l e - d i s t a n c e . However, the t a s k of t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n back towards the i n d i v i d u a l s i n s i d e the drama. Thus i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e o b s e r v e r s were n o t a b l e to p r o d u c e an i n t e g r a t e d a n a l y s i s , " s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from t h e p o i n t o f view o f a u t h o r , p r o d u c e r and d i r e c t o r " ( H a r r e , 1972, p . 4 1 6 ) . In the n e x t , and l a s t , e x p e r i m e n t we a t t e m p t to p r o v i d e t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e f o r o b s e r v e r s w i t h a d i r e c t d e f i n i t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . Imagine y o u r s e l f coming upon t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e : In t h e g a r d e n o f a c o u n t r y house, i n p l a i n v i e w of p a s s e r s - b y on t h e s i d e w a l k o u t s i d e , a b e a r d e d man can be o b s e r v e d d r a g g i n g him-s e l f , c r o u c h i n g , round t h e meadow, i n f i g u r e s of e i g h t , g l a n c i n g c o n s t a n t l y o v e r h i s s h o u l d e r and q u a c k i n g w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n . ( W a t z l a w i c k e t a l . , 1967) Had you t h e f o r t u n e t o walk by at t h a t moment would you have known what was g o i n g on or would you have been one of "a row of d e a d - w h i t e f a c e s : a group o f t o u r i s t s ... s t a n d i n g a t t h e f e n c e and s t a r i n g h o r r i f i e d " ? . I f you had been a r e s i d e n t o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d you m ight have e x p l a i n e d , i n amused t o n e s , t h a t t h e c r o u c h i n g q u a c k i n g man was t h e renowned e t h o l o g i s t K o n r a d L o r e n z i n t h e m i d s t o f one o f h i s i m p r i n t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h d u c k l i n g s t h a t were h i d d e n i n t h e t a l l g r a s s ( L o r e n z , 1952, p.43 i n W a t z l a w i c k , e t a l . , 1 9 6 7 ) . To t h o s e who know n o t h i n g of e t h o l o g y o r i m p r i n t i n g you c o u l d have o f f e r e d f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s about t h e s c o p e and p u r p o s e s of t h e s c i e n c e of e t h o l o g y , t h e i m p r i n t i n g h y p o t h e s i s , and t h e u b i q u i t o u s l y e c c e n t r i c b e h a v i o u r of f i e l d e t h o l o g i s t s . Most of y o u r a u d i e n c e p r o b a b l y would have murmured "Oh, I s e e " and t u r n e d back to now watch an e t h o l o g i s t engage i n some w e l l r e a s o n e d b e h a v i o u r g i v e n h i s v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s . As you c o n t i n u e d down the walk you might have o v e r h e a r d t h e comments of a few d i s s i d e n t s unmoved t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n by y o u r e r u d i t e e x p l a n a t i o n , b u t most would have been a s s u a g e d , no l o n g e r f e a r i n g t h a t t h e y had come upon a madman i n t h e g r i p of an a v i a n d e l u s i o n . In t h e book from w h i c h t h i s s c e n a r i o comes, P r a g m a t i c s of Human Commu n i c a t i o n, W a t z l a w i c k e t a l . (1967) g i v e many examples o f t h e s e e m i n g l y i n c o m p r e h e n -s i b l e n a t u r e o f e v e n t s when " t h e ran g e of o b s e r v a t i o n i s n o t wide enough t o i n c l u d e t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e phenomenon o c c u r s " ( p . 2 0 ) . F a i l u r e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e " i n t r i c a c i e s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between an e v e n t and t h e m a t r i x i n w h i c h i t t a k e s p l a c e " l e a v e s t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h a t o t a l m y s t e r y o r " i n d u c e s him t o a t t r i b u t e t o h i s o b j e c t o f s t u d y c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s the o b j e c t may n o t p o s s e s s " ( p . 2 1 ) . To make, t h e n , a d i s p o s i t i o n a l a t t r i -b u t i o n . As n o t e d by Jon e s and D a v i s (1965) t h e s e a r c h f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f t e n t e r m i n a t e d when a d i s p o s i t i o n i s i n f e r r e d . "Madman" would s e r v e s i n c e t h e i m p l i c i t c o n s e n s u a l norms about c r a z i n e s s i n c l u d e the a c t i n g out of c o u n t e r - n o r m a t i v e b e h a v i o u r ( q u a c k i n g ) . H a v i n g made an a t t r i b u t i o n ( s u c h as " c r a z y " ) we a r e sel d o m p r e s s e d to s e a r c h f o r o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s . R a t h e r we adduce e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e a t t r i b u t i o n . The m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s i n Rosenhan's (1973 ) s t u d y , h a v i n g j u d g e d t h e c o n f e d e r a t e s t o be m e n t a l l y i l l , f o u n d f u r t h e r c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s i n t h e 5 t r u e h i s t o r i e s of n o r m a l p e o p l e . Kanouse (1972) a r g u e s t h a t i n g e n e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y seek f o r a " s i n g l e s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r any e v e n t , r a t h e r t h a n one t h a t i s t h e b e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n " ( p . 1 3 1 ) . When a good ( s e e m i n g l y s u f f i c i e n t ) e x p l a n a t i o n comes to mind, the l a y s c i e n t i s t (Kelley. :, 1971 ) o r i n t u i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t ( N i s b e t t & R o s s , 1980) i s : s u b j e c t t o few c o n t i n g e n c i e s , i n t h e c o u r s e of e v e r y d a y l i f e , t h a t would m o t i v a t e a f u r t h e r s e a r c h ( u n l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s who know t h a t t h e y w i l l have t o j u s t i f y t h e i r work to c r i t i c a l c o l l e a g u e s , and who must make the p r e t e n s e , a t l e a s t i n p r i n t , o f f o l l o w i n g an " o b j e c t i v e " s e t o f r u l e s of i n f e r e n c e ) . Kanouse s t a t e s t h a t : T h i s b i a s may r e f l e c t a t e n d e n c y to t h i n k of u n i t a r y e v e n t s and a c t i o n s as h a v i n g u n i t a r y ( r a t h e r t h a n m u l t i p l e ) c a u s e s ; i n d i v i d u a l s may assume, i n e f f e c t , t h a t no more t h a n one s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o e x i s t f o r a s i n g l e phenomenon. Thus, when more t h a n one s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h one he a d o p t s may depend p r i m a r i l y on w h i c h of t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s i s most s a l i e n t . (p.131) As has been w e l l documented ( J o n e s & D a v i s , 1965; N i s b e t t & V a l i n s , 1971; K e l l e y , 1971; N i s b e t t & Ross, 1980) t h e most s a l i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n of an e v e n t f o r o b s e r v e r s i s o f t e n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n s of t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . More p a r t i c u l a r l y , one a c t o r i s apt t o seem e s p e c i a l l y c a u s a l l y e f f i c a c i o u s by v i r t u r e of s t a n d i n g o u t , or b e i n g s a l i e n t , i n some way. The s a l i e n t a c t o r may be h i g h -l i g h t e d b e c a u s e o f any one of a number of a r b i t r a r y f a c t o r s . In one s t u d y ( T a y l o r & F i s k e , 1975) d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s composed of e i t h e r a l l w h i t e s or w h i t e s and one b l a c k were v i d e o - t a p e d . The s c r i p t s . w e r e t h e same f o r b o t h g r o u p s . However, o b s e r v e r s w a t c h i n g the v i d e o - t a p e s b e l i e v e d t h a t when the one b l a c k d i s c u s s a n t spoke one s e t of l i n e s he was f a r more i m p o r t a n t i n c o n t r o l l i n g and l e a d i n g t h e group t h a n when a w h i t e d i s c u s s a n t o c c u p i e d t h e same s e a t and spoke the same l i n e s . In a s e r i e s of e x p e r i m e n t s T a y l o r and F i s k e (1978) have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t mere s a l i e n c e w i l l s t r o n g l y a f f e c t o b s e r v e r s ' a t t r i b u t i o n s even when the h i g h l i g h t e d p e r s o n i s i n f a c t no more a c t i v e or c a u s a l t h a n any o t h e r a c t o r . T a y l o r and F i s k e make the p o i n t t h a t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t i o n a l b i a s r e f l e c t s a f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n e f f e c t . I f t h e s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n th e a c t o r , i s made s a l i e n t t h e n o b s e r v e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o make s i t u a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s . However, and t h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t , a c t o r s a r e more l i k e l y to seem s a l i e n t t h a n a r e s i t u a t i o n s u n l e s s a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t i s made to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n . E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s have been o f f e r e d a l o n g p e r c e p t u a l l i n e s ( H e i d e r , 1958; J o n e s & N i s b e t t , 1971) • A c t o r s t a l k , move, and a r e s i m p l y more g i v e n to i m mediate p e r c e p t i o n t h a n a r e s i t u a t i o n s . S i t u a t i o n s a r e comprehended, n o t seen,, though we may use t h e l a n g u a g e of p e r c e p t i o n t o d e s c r i b e our c o m p r e h e n s i o n , as i n "now I see what's g o i n g on". D r e t s k e (1969) has d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y t h e use o f t h e metaphor o f s i g h t i n t h e a c t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n h i s volume S e e i n g and Knowing. More c o r r e c t l y we m i g h t say " I r e a l i z e what's g o i n g on" but our e x t e n s i v e use of " s e e i n g " t o mean r e a l i z i n g , or u n d e r s t a n d i n g , may r e f l e c t t h e c u l t u r a l p r i m a c y o f s i g h t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k nowledge. In any e v e n t , knowing t h a t one p e r s o n has s t r u c k a n o t h e r by v i r t u e of h a v i n g s e e n t h e blow i n v o l v e s an a c t o f knowing c o n s i d e r a b l e l e s s a b s t r a c t t h a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f f a c t o r s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n t h e blow. In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s e s t h e answer t o t h e " f u n d a m e n t a l a t t r i b u t i o n e r r o r " phenomenon may be t h e r e s u l t of a c o m b i n a t i o n o f many f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a r e (1) l e s s i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n ; (2) r e q u i r e more c o g n i t i v e work, i n p a r t b e c a u s e (3) our l a n g u a g e abounds i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s w h i l e o f f e r i n g few d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s (Bern & F u n d e r , 1978 ). W h i l e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s " e r r o r " i n a t t r i b u t i o n , our E u r o p e a n c o l l e a g u e s c o n s i d e r t h a t N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y i s i t s e l f g u i l t y o f a s i m i l a r b i a s . T a j f e l (1972) c l a i m s t h a t f o r A m e r i c a n s " t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e g e n o t y p e of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y " ( p . 9 5 ) . He i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c b i a s by q u o t i n g B e r k o w i t z (1962 ) on a g g r e s s i o n and group r e l a t i o n s : G r a n t i n g a l l t h i s , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s s t i l l i n c l i n e d t o emph a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d of group r e l a t i o n s . D e a l i n g s between g r o u p s u l t i m a t e l y become p r o b l e m s of t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I n d i v i d u a l s d e c i d e t o go to war; b a t t l e s a r e f o u g h t by i n d i v i d u a l s ; and p e a c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . (p.167) To N o r t h A m e r i c a n " e a r s " t h i s argument makes s u r f a c e s e n s e . Y e t how many of us u n d e r s t a n d i t ' s f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e d u c t i o n i s t i c n a t u r e ? Read T a j f e l ' s t e l l i n g p a r a p h r a s e : G r a n t i n g a l l t h i s ( i . e . t h e b i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s s t i l l i n c l i n e d to e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i e l d o f group . r e l a t i o n s i n terms o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . D e a l i n g s between g r o u p s c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e p s y c h o l o g y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Governments d e c i d e t o go to war; b a t t l e s a r e f o u g h t by a r m i e s ; and peace i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e government. (P.97) T a j f e l (1972) and M o s c o v i c i (1972) have b o t h a r g u e d t h a t by and l a r g e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y has framed s o c i a l p r o c e s s i n i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l t e r m s . M o s c o v i c i admonishes us f o r our " n u m e r o s i t y " (p.55) a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , i . e . how does t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e i n d i v i d u a l -change i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . " S o c i a l " t h e n means t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e a g g r e g a t e of i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s . M o s c o v i c i c l a i m s t h a t w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s N o r t h A m e r i c a n p s y c h o l o g i s t s l o c a t e t h e s o c i a l In b e h a v i o u r and t h u s assume t h a t s o c i a l behav-i o u r i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d as l i k e any o t h e r b e h a v i o u r , "as b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d by t h e same p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s e s as o t h e r k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r , and by t h e same systems of p h y s i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n " ( p . 6 1 ) . A tongue i n cheek r e f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e d i s p o s i t i o n a l b i a s w r i t t e n by some f u t u r e h i s t o r i a n o f p s y c h o l o g y might r e a d l i k e t h i s : T h e r e was a u b i q u i t o u s t e n d e n c y among N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t o f o c u s upon the i n d i v i d u a l when t r y i n g to u n d e r s t a n d what were i n f a c t s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . These " s u b j e c t s " n i c e l y r e f l e c t e d t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and most p a r t i c u l a r l y -the i d e o l o g y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h i t s e l f f a i l e d to " l o c a t e b e h a v i o u r i n t h e s o c i a l " . I r o n i c a l l y , when N o r t h A m e r i c a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t t r i b u t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s t h e i r q u i t e n a t u r a l ( g i v e n t h e i r i d e o l o g y ) o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r s a t t h e expense o f s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s was a n a l y z e d by i n v e s t i g a t o r s as a c o g n i t i v e " s h o r t c o m i n g " l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e r . These r e s e a r c h e r s f a i l e d t o comprehend t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c b i a s . The modern r e a d e r may f i n d i t e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h a t t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i s p o s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r own t h e o r i e s a b o u t d i s p o s i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s . However i t must be remembered t h a t knowledge of a phenomenon does n o t r e n d e r one a u t o m a t i c a l l y immune t o t h e e f f e c t s o f the phenomenon. The p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e arguments about a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e a p p e a l i n g and i n some measure c o r r e c t , b u t t h e y do n o t o f f e r a g e n u i n e l y s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . P r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y f o c u s on what i s g o i n g on i n s i d e t h e ( a l b e i t " u n i v e r s a l " ) p e r c e i v e r r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f t h e frames o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t d e t e r m i n e what i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t i n an e v e n t . T h a t o b s e r v e r s f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r makes s e n s e g i v e n t h e c u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s about the i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t of a n a l y s i s . B e r k o w i t z (1962) a v e r s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l goes t o war and t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes p e a c e . O b s e r v e r s ' a t t r i b u t i o n a l " e r r o r s " a r e , i n f o r m , no d i f f e r e n t . I f we as s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , have f a i l e d to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t r u l y s o c i a l i n our t h e o r i e s s h o u l d we be s u r p r i s e d t h a t o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s d o n ' t ? I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e n o r m a t i v e l y b a s e d i n our c u l t u r e and s c i e n c e . T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n . A r e we so c u l t u r a l l y bound t h a t we c a n n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t c o n t e x t u a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r o r a r e we o n l y most l i k e l y t o f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The l a t t e r seems t o be t h e c a s e . Popper (1972) would add t h a t o u r t h i n k i n g can o n l y be as good as our t h e o r i e s . That t h e o r i e s , be t h e y o f t h e e x p l i c i t f o r m a l i z e d t y p e or the l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d , g e n e r a l f r a m e -work v a r i e t y d i r e c t :our; a t t e n t i o n to t h o s e a s p e c t s o f a s i t u a t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . T a y l o r and F i s k e (1978) a r g u e t h a t w h a t e v e r i s made most s a l i e n t w i l l become c e n t r a l to a c a u s a l a n a l y s i s . We assume t h e n t h a t i n the a b s e n c e o f a m a n i u p l a t i o n t h a t d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to c o n -t e x t u a l f a c t o r s , or a r o l e a n a l y s i s , our s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n , and e x p l a n a t i o n s w i l l r e f l e c t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and of t h e f i e l d of p s y c h o l o g y and t h a t t h e y w i l l e x p l a i n e v e n t s i n terms of d i s p o s i t i o n s o f a c t o r s . In t h e f i r s t two e x p e r i m e n t s r e p o r t e d h e r e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t e x p l a i n e v e n t s i n d i s p o s i t i o n a l t e r m s . They be-l i e v e d t h e t e a c h e r went on due to s t r o n g s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s p r o b a b l y combined to a c c o u n t f o r t h i s : (a) t h e y had been g i v e n M i l g r a m s ' e x p l a n a t i o n of o b e d i e n c e w h i c h s t r e s s e d t h e s t r o n g s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s on the t e a c h e r , and (b) t h e y knew t h a t t h e r e was h i g h c o n -s e n s u s ( K e l l e y , 1971) i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f s u b j e c t s , ( c ) t h e y c o u l d s e e , o v e r a p e r i o d of time (30-min) the a c t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t e r i n a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e t e a c h e r . However, the y d i d a l l o w t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o be c a p t u r e d by the t e a c h e r , h i s or h e r d i s t r e s s , and d i d n o t s t e p b a c k to l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n l a r g e r t e r m s , i n c l u d i n g t h e meaning of the e x p e r i m e n t e r s ' a c t i o n s , and the p u r p o s e s of the i n v e s t i -g a t o r . In t h e n e x t , and l a s t e x p e r i m e n t , we w i l l a t t e m p t to r e v e r s e t h i s f i n d i n g by m a n i p u l a t i n g o b s e r v e r s ' f rames o f r e f e r e n c e . E i s e r (1971b i n T a j f e l , 1972) i n d i s c u s s i n g d i m e n s i o n a l s a l i e n c e , i . e . what, frame of r e f e r e n c e has t h e h i g h e s t p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g used to i n t e r p r e t e v e n t s , s a y s t h a t "a d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e as s u c h may t e l l one f a r more about h i s " a t t i t u d e " t h a n would any mere measure of f a v o u r a b i l i t y ( a f t e r S h e r i f & H o v l a n d , 1961; and Upshaw, 1965) .... i t may, i n d e e d , go some way towards p r o v i d i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s a t t i t u d e " ( i n T a j f e l , 1972, p . 8 3 ) . A l e x a n d e r (1970) f u r t h e r a r g u e s t h a t we can o n l y b e g i n to g e n e r a l i z e e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s to s p e c i f i e d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s when we t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ' s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n t h a t : U l t i m a t e l y , most of the human b e h a v i o u r s t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y w i l l want to e x p l a i n do o c c u r i n n o r m a t i v e l y a n c h o r e d and s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s . . . w e might b e t t e r a t t e m p t to c o n t r o l , measure and m a n i p u l a t e the s o c i a l l y v a l i d a t e d i n t e r p r e t i v e f r a m e w o r k s - -the s i t u a t i o n a l m e a n i n g — t h a t s u b j e c t s use i n d e f i n i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s . I r o n i c a l l y the e x p e r i m e n t e r e f f e c t may be the most i m p o r t a n t phenomenon to be s t u d i e d as opposed to t r y i n g to e l i m i n a t e i t . In t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t s u b j e c t s who watched a p e r f o r m a n c e ( t h e r o l e - a c t i n g c o n d i t i o n ) and e x p e r i e n c e d l e s s a r o u s a l ( D u t t o n , 1979) were more a b l e t o g e n e r a t e at l e a s t one p a r a l l e l between t h e a c t i o n s of t h e t e a c h e r and t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who watched what t h e y were l e d t o b e l i e v e was a " r e a l " i n t e r a c t i o n . But i n no c a s e d i d any o b s e r v e r -s u b j e c t d e m o n s t r a t e a g r a s p o f t h e g l o b a l s i t u a t i o n o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e meaning of t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t i n terms of an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t . We now move t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t i s a f u n c t i o n of a frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t makes s a l i e n t t h e i n t e r p l a y of many l e v e l s o f . m e a n i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n . In h i s book G o d e l , E s c h e r and Bach: An . ' E t e r n a l G o l d e n B r a i d , computer s c i e n t i s t D a v i d H o f s t a d e r (1980) w r i t e s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t a l l o w s f o r e x a c t l y t h i s t a s k o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g . m u l t i p l e 1 m e a n i n g s . H i s t o p i c , t h e l i m i t s o f a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , i s e l u c i d a t e d i n terms of s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l s y s t ems as m a n i f e s t e d i n G o d e l ' s t h e o r e m ( a l l c o n s i s t e n t a x i o m a t i c f o r m u l a t i o n s of number t h e o r y i n c l u d e u n d e c i d a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s ) , Bach's c a n o n s , and t h e p a r a d o x i c a l d r a w i n g s of E s c h e r . Read H o f s t a d e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Bach's m u s i c a l i n n o v a t i o n : The i d e a of a canon i s t h a t one s i n g l e theme i s p l a y e d a g a i n s t i t s e l f . T h i s i s done by h a v i n g " c o p i e s " of t h e theme p l a y e d by t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i n g v o i c e s . (p.8) L o v e r s of Bach d e l i g h t i n t r a c i n g the i n t e r w e a v i n g v o i c e s p l a y i n g t h e theme a g a i n s t i t s e l f . I t i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s k of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h o r d e r and i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e l i t e r a t u r e as a " s t r a n g e l o o p " ( p . 1 0 ) , a phenomenon t h a t o c c u r s "whenever, by moving upwards ( o r downwards) t h r o u g h t h e l e v e l s o f some h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m , we u n e x p e c t e d l y f i n d o u r s e l v e s r i g h t back where we s t a r t e d " ( p . 1 0 ) . H o f s t a d e r c l a i m s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y to comprehend t h i s p r o c e s s depends on " j u m p i n g out of t h e s y s t e m " (p.37) and t h a t " i t i s an i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t i t can jump out o f t h e t a s k w h i c h i t i s p e r f o r m i n g , and s u r v e y what i t has done" ( p . 3 7 ) . Note how H o f s t a d e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e p a r a l l e l ' s our e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n (p.54) of Goffman's d r a m a t u r g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m w h i c h one g a i n s r o l e - d i s t a n c e and i s a b l e t o deduce t h e r u l e s and meanings of an e p i s o d e . We a r e most i n t e l l i g e n t t h e n when we n o t o n l y a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k a t hand, but when we g a i n d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t a s k and p l a c e i t w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t . Rokeach (1973 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , c r e a t e d s t a b l e v a l u e change i n s u b j e c t s who were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the i m p l i c i t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of v a r i o u s v a l u e s t h e y p r o f e s s e d . T e s s o r (1978) a r g u e s t h a t . i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l s t r i v e f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r schema t h a t i s b e i n g p r o c e s s e d b u t do n o t , i n g e n e r a l , c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n t e r s c h e m a c o n s i s t e n c y . The i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t H o f s t a d e r w r i t e s of i s p r e c i s e l y the a b i l i t y to c o n s i d e r , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s e v e r a l schemas c o n c e r n i n g t h e same o b j e c t or e v e n t . To d e c e n t e r , i n P i a g e t ' s t e r m s , from a p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n , or a s p e c t , o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . The r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d b a c k to E l i o t ' s l i n e s f r o m h i s poem L i t t l e G i d d i n g w i t h w h i c h t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n b e gan: We s h a l l n o t c e a s e from e x p l o r a t i o n And the end of a l l our e x p l o r i n g W i l l be to a r r i v e where we s t a r t e d And to know the p l a c e f o r the f i r s t t i m e E l i o t ' s theme i s t h a t human meaning i s g a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s l i f e - l o n g and ar d u o u s t a s k o f r e - c o n s i d e r i n g , r e - e v a l u a t i n g , e x p l o r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . O nly t h e n can we t r u l y see the t h i n g , t h e p e r s o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n . The m y r i a d p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e subsumed w i t h i n y e t a l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e . Then we may say "now I see what's g o i n g on". In t h i s l a s t e x p e r i m e n t a l l s u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d to r e a d a w r i t t e n a c c o u n t t h a t e x p l a i n s what happened, from t h e p o i n t of view of t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s , i n the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s a c c o u n t d e s c r i b e s s t e p by s t e p , the sequence o f e v e n t s , what was s a i d , r e s p o n s e s , e t c . , but makes no m e n t i o n of the meaning o f the e x p e r i m e n t from th e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , or o f f e r s any a n a l y s i s o f the e v e n t s . A l l s u b j e c t s t h e n watch the v i d e o - t a p e s i m u l a t i o n of t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t t h a t o b s e r v e r s i n t h e s e c o n d s t u d y w a t c h e d . S u b j e c t s a r e i n one of two c o n d i t i o n s . H a l f r e c e i v e a s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s ( p r i o r t o r e a d i n g t h e a c c o u n t or v i e w i n g t h e f i l m ) t h a t s e n s i t i z e s them to t h e many p o s s i b l e l e v e l s of meaning i n any s i t u a t i o n and d e f i n e s t h e i r t a s k as f i g u r i n g out what the meaning of, the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t was from the p o i n t of v i e w o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I f T a y l o r and F i s k e ' s (1975; 1978) p o i n t - o f - v i e w e f f e c t g e n e r a l i z e s from p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s to c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s (as h a s , i n l i m i t e d f o r m , been d e m o n s t r a t e d ) t h e s e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be a b l e to g e n e r a t e th e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s i t u a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g would c o r r o b o r a t e our h y p o t h e s i s t h a t an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t i s a f u n c t i o n o f a frame of r e f e r e n c e t h a t makes s a l i e n t t h e meanings of r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r t h a n f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The o t h e r s u b j e c t s w i l l be g i v e n a s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t d e f i n e s t h e i r t a s k as r e c a l l i n g , f rom t h e i r r e a d i n g and v i e w i n g , as many c o n c r e t e i n s t a n c e s o f b e h a v i o u r as p o s s i b l e . These s u b j e c t s , 68 f o c u s e d on m o l e c u l a r a s p e c t s of the s i t u a t i o n , s h o u l d have t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y c a p t u r e d t h a t t h e y won't, as t h e s a y i n g g o e s , be a b l e to see t h e f o r e s t f o r t h e t r e e s . Methods S e c t i o n E x p e r i m e n t T h r e e Subj e c t s : S u b j e c t s were 30 v o l u n t e e r s drawn from i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s . T h e r e were 4 males and 26 f e m a l e s . M a t e r i a l s : M a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of e x p e r i m e n t 1, two s e t s of i n s t r u c t i o n s (one f o r e a c h c o n d i t i o n ) , and a v i d e o - t a p e s i m u l a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t 1 ( t h e same v i d e o -t a p e used i n e x p e r i m e n t 2 ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n ( A p p e n d i x ) was d e s i g n e d to g i v e t h e r e a d e r e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s had r e c e i v e d . The t e a c h e r ' s c o n f e d e r a t e s t a t u s was n o t r e v e a l e d . Nor was t h e t r u e p u r p o s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The d e s c r i p t i o n c o n t a i n e d o n l y t h e s e q u e n t i a l d e t a i l s o f t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t . The two s e t s of i n s t r u c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o two c o n d i t i o n s , t h e m o l a r and t h e m o l e c u l a r , and e a c h was r e a d b e f o r e r e a d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and v i e w i n g t h e v i d e o - t a p e . The m o l a r s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x ) a l e r t e d the s u b j e c t s t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of m u l t i p l e meanings or p e r s p e c t i v e s i n any s o c i a l e p i s o d e and i n f o r m e d them t h a t t h e i r t a s k would be t o f i g u r e out what had been g o i n g on i n e x p e r i m e n t 1 from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The o t h e r s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e m o l e c u l a r s e t , d i r e c t e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n c r e t e , m i n u t e a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r i n t h e s i t u a t i o n and i n f o r m e d them t h a t t h e i r t a s k would be to r e c a l l as many o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of b e h a v i o u r as t h e y c o u l d f o l l o w i n g t h e i r v i e w i n g of t h e vi d e o - t a p e . , The v i d e o - t a p e was t h e same as t h a t used i n e x p e r i m e n t 2 and c o n s i s t e d of a s i m u l a t i o n of e x p e r i m e n t f i l m e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n room and f o c u s e d on t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r and t h e t e a c h e r c o n f e d e r a t e . The l a s t m a t e r i a l was a m a t c h i n g t a s k i n s t r u m e n t ( A p p e n d i x ) . I t r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t s to f i r s t match and t h e n r a t e t h e d e g r e e of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e t e a c h e r and t h o s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . P r o c e d u r e : A f t e r a r r i v i n g a t t h e r e s e a r c h o f f i c e s u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h e y would be r e a d i n g an a c c o u n t o f an e x p e r i m e n t and t h e n w a t c h i n g a v i d e o - t a p e s i m u l a t i o n of t h a t e x p e r i m e n t . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o s i g n a c o n s e n t form a l l o w i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r to r e p o r t t h e i r r e s p o n s e s anonymously. S u b j e c t s were t h e n g i v e n one of t h e two s e t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s t o r e a d a l o n g w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . S u b j e c t s who were i n t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n were a s k e d to g e n e r a t e two examples of how .the meaning of a s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t d e p e n d i n g on one's p e r s p e c t i v e a nd/or r o l e i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s s e r v e d as a m a n i p u l a t i o n c h e c k on t h e s u b j e c t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c o n c e p t of m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s . I f a s u b j e c t c o u l d n o t do t h i s he or she was a l l o w e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t u d y b u t t h e d a t a was thrown o u t . A l l s u b j e c t s n e x t r e a d t h e same d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t ( A p p e n d i x ) . When t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e i r r e a d i n g t h e y w a t c hed t h e v i d e o - t a p e . W i t h t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e v i d e o - t a p e s u b j e c t s i n t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n were a s k e d to g e n e r a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s to t h e o s t e n s i b l e one ( s t u d y i n g t h e o b e d i e n c e of t h e t e a c h e r ) . Each s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s were t a p e r e c o r d e d . The s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r a t e the c o n f i d e n c e t h e y had i n t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s on a s c a l e of 1 to 10. They were t h e n a s k e d i f t h e y had a s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s ( o r more) and, i f so t o r a t e i t . Each t i m e the s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o e l a b o r a t e h i s or h e r h y p o t h e s i s as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . S u b j e c t s i n t h e m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n were f i r s t g i v e n t h r e e m i n u t e s t o r e c a l l as many i n s t a n c e s of c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o u r as t h e y c o u l d . Then t h e y were a s k e d i f i t had o c c u r r e d t o them, d u r i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g o r v i e w i n g , t h a t s o m e t h i n g b e s i d e s t h e o s t e n s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n , as above, had been o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e n p r o c e e d e d as w i t h the m o l a r c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s . F i n a l l y , a l l s u b j e c t s were a s k e d to c o m p l e t e th e m a t c h i n g t a s k . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t a s k t h e y were a l l a s k e d i f t h e y wanted to make any changes i n t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t what was h a p p e n i n g i n the v i d e o - t a p e d e x p e r i m e n t . At the c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s e t a s k s a l l s u b j e c t s were f u l l y d e b r i e f e d . They were t o l d t h a t t h e y had been i n one of two c o n d i t i o n s and t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s were d e s i g n e d to e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t h e e v e n t s . The o r i g i n a l e x p e r i m e n t was e x p l a i n e d to them i n d e t a i l , i n c l u d i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s . Any q u e s t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t s had were answered. S u b j e c t s i n the m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r f a i l u r e to see "what was g o i n g on" was e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e d i s t r a c t i o n c o n d i t i o n t h e y were i n . R e s u l t s : The main measure was t h e s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y to g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s . A r a t e r , b l i n d to t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s , a n a l y z e d the r a n d o m l y p r e s e n t e d t a p e - r e c o r d e d r e s p o n s e s of s u b j e c t s from b o t h c o n d i t i o n s . In t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n 12 out of 15 s u b j e c t s g e n e r a t e d , as t h e i r f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , about the meaning of t h e e x p e r i m e n t , the i d e a t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was r e a l l y s t u d y i n g the i n t e r p l a y between the t e a c h e r and the e x p e r i m e n t e r w i t h t h e i d e a of s e e i n g whether the e x p e r i m e n t e r would go on b e c a u s e the e x p e r i m e n t e r was i n f a c t e n g a g i n g i n the same b e h a v i o u r as the t e a c h e r . A l l o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r was f o r c i n g the t e a c h e r to go on i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t the t e a c h e r was s u f f e r i n g i n t h e same f a s h i o n as was t h e s u p p o s e d l y , t h e l e a r n e r , and t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s had f a i l e d to a n a l y z e t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r and r o l e . T h r e e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Of t h e t h r e e however, one s u b j e c t d i d g e n e r a t e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n t o t a l b e f o r e v i e w i n g t h e v i d e o - t a p e and t h e n r e v i s e d t h a t o p i n i o n a f t e r w a t c h i n g t h e v i d e o - t a p e . H i s r e a s o n was t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r was n o t c o m p a r a b l e to the s u p p o s e d p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g of the l e a r n e r . T h i s r e s p o n s e r e f l e c t e d an i n t r i g u i n g d i f f e r e n c e between our male and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s t h a t was an u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y we d i d n o t have enough males to i n c l u d e t h i s as a p a r a m e t e r . In the m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n males t o l d us t h a t p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g was worse t h a n e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g w h i l e our f e m a l e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t t h a t e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g o f the t e a c h e r was f a r worse t h a n the s u f f e r i n g of the l e a r n e r as p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i m e n t . In the m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n o n l y one s u b j e c t g e n e r a t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r v i e w i n g t h e v i d e o - t a p e and c o m p l e t i n g the bogus r e c a l l t a s k . The o t h e r f o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s were b a f f l e d a t t h e q u e s t i o n and c o u l d not g e n e r a t e any h y p o t h e s e s .other t h a n the o s t e n s i b l e one. A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the. matching' t a s k , however, a l l t h e s e , s u b j e c t s were a b l e to g e n e r a t e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s h y p o t h e s i s . The m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s a l l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k made the meaning o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t o b v i o u s but t h a t t h e y had been t o o d i s t r a c t e d by the r e c a l l t a s k to g i v e any t h o u g h t t o a n a l y z i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t from any o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . M o l a r c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s were c o n v i n c e d however, t h a t t h e t r u e meaning of the e x p e r i m e n t was o b v i o u s and t h a t t h e y would have s e e n t h i s meaning whether or n o t t h e y had r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the m o l a r and m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t p ^ . 0 0 5 ( F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T, see T a b l e ) . The m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s ' t h r e e m i n u t e r e c a l l ( o f c o n c r e t e i n s t a n c e s o f b e h a v i o u r ) r e s p o n s e s were a l s o a n a l y z e d by t h e r a t e r . The c a t e g o r i e s . w e r e (a) r e f e r e n c e to t e a c h e r ; (b) r e f e r e n c e to e x p e r i m e n t e r ; (c) r e f e r e n c e t o l e a r n e r ; (d) r e f e r e n c e to s i t u a t i o n , and (e) r e f e r e n c e to i n t e r a c t i o n between a, b, or c. The r e s u l t s ( T a b l e ) were t h a t s e v e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e o b s e r v e r ' s r e s p o n s e s were d i r e c t e d towards the t e a c h e r , t h u s f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t i n g our e a r l i e r f i n d i n g t h a t as o s t e n s i b l e (and d i s t r e s s e d ) " o b j e c t " of t h e e x p e r i m e n t t h e t e a c h e r i n d e e d " e n g u l f s the ( a t t e n t i o n a l ) f i e l d " ( H e i d e r , 1 9 5 8 ) . F u r t h e r , s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n s e s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the t e a c h e r m e n t i o n e d the e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f the t e a c h e r . T h i s may r e f l e c t t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of f e m a l e t o male o b s e r v e r s . S i x t e e n p e r c e n t of the r e s p o n s e s were d i r e c t e d towards the e x p e r i m e n t e r and a l l of t h e s e were i n s t r u m e n t a l ("the e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r go o n " ) . D i s c u s s i o n The m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s m a n i p u l a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e i n d i r e c t i n g o b s e r v e r s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t e a c h e r and t h o s e of t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t e t h e ease w i t h w h i c h 12 out of 15 s u b j e c t s i n t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n g e n e r a t e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . A l l t w e l v e e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e p a r a l l e l s between t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r - t e a c h e r dyad and t h e t e a c h e r - l e a r n e r dyad were o b v i o u s • Not one seemed aware o f t h e power of t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s i n e l i c i t i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . N i s b e t t and W i l s o n (1977) have r e p o r t e d t h i s phenomenon. In t h e i r summary o f t h e work on i n d i v i d u a l s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r own p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s e s N i s b e t t and W i l s o n c o n c l u d e t h a t " . . . ( a ) the i n f l u e n t i a l s t i m u l i a r e u s u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y o b s c u r e - t h e i n d i v i d u a l has no i d e a what f a c t o r s prompted th e s o l u t i o n ; and (b) even the f a c t t h a t a p r o c e s s i s t a k i n g p l a c e i s sometimes unknown to t h e i n d i v i d u a l , p r i o r t o t h e p o i n t t h a t a s o l u t i o n a p p e a r s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( p . 2 4 0 ) . F o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k i n c r e a s e d t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l judgement ( T a b l e The m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s were o r i g i n a l l y u n a b l e t o r e - o r i e n t , or d e c e n t e r , from t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n to them, i . e . r e c a l l i n g c o n c r e t e i n s t a n c e s of b e h a v i o u r i n an e x p e r i m e n t . C o m p l e t i o n of t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k e f f e c t e d t h e r e - o r i e n t a -t i o n . One i s rem i n d e d of t h e G e s t a l t f i g u r e - g r o u n d e x e r c i s e s . In one a d r a w i n g i n c o r p o r a t e s a p i c t u r e o f a s t y l i s h young woman and a p i c t u r e o f an o l d woman. F o r example, t h e jawbone o f t h e young woman i s t h e p r o f i l e of the nose o f t h e o l d woman. A p e r s o n can u s u a l l y see one, b u t n o t b o t h , of t h e p i c t u r e s . P e o p l e w i l l t r y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y t o see t h e o t h e r b u t o f t e n f a i l u n t i l t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i s drawn to p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of t h e d r a w i n g t h a t o u t l i n e t h e o t h e r woman. And s o , we c l a i m , i t i s w i t h our c o m p r e h e n s i o n of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . S u b j e c t s i n t h e m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n f i x e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on one d i m e n s i o n o f a n a l y s i s , c o n c r e t e i n s t a n c e s o f b e h a v i o u r . The m a t c h i n g t a s k a l l o w e d them to i n c r e m e n t a l l y r e - o r i e n t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A g a i n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t e t h a t upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k t h e s e s u b j e c t s f o u n d t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t o b v i o u s , b u t , i n th e e x a s p e r a t e d words of one s u b j e c t , " I was so d i s t r a c t e d t r y i n g to remember a l l t h o s e b e h a v i o u r s ! " . S c h u t z (1970) has a r g u e d t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( a t t e n t i o n ) i s t h e m a t i c and t h a t i n most c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e theme i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p r o b l e m a t hand. I n d i v i d u a l s t e n d to a c c e p t an i m p l i e d and/or- g i v e n d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s some p r o b l e m a t i c a l a s p e c t a l e r t s them t o c o n t i n u e p r o c e s s i n g a v a i l a b l e s i t u a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or t o seek f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . -The q u e s t i o n "what's g o i n g on h e r e ? " a c t s as a g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t o r , or g u i d e , t h a t i n i t i a t e s a s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . W a l k i n g i n t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t may be a l e r t to t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t i f h i s or h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y h e u r i s t i c * ( T v e r s k y & Kahneman, 1973) i s g u i d i n g t h e s e a r c h t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l c e a s e upon t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a " s u i t a b l e " e x p l a n a t i o n ( N i s b e t t & R o s s , 1980). The e c o l o g y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1974) i s su c h t h a t t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e l e n g t h of a s u b j e c t ' s s e a r c h a r e p r o b a b l y (a) t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e c o v e r s t o r y , i . e . , i t p r o v i d e s a c o n g r u e n t , s u i t a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e e v e n t s w i t h o u t any o b v i o u s l o o p h o l e s , (b) t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i s m of the d e s i g n ( e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n i s engaged and t h e e v e n t s have a c o m p e l l i n g q u a l i t y ) and (c) t h e a p p a r e n t c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . These c r i t e r i a h a v i n g been met t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n f o r t h e s u b j e c t to t h i n k t h a t t h i n g s a r e n o t what t h e y *A h e u r i s t i c i s a j u d g e m e n t a l s t r a t e g y u s e d i n an i n f e r e n t i a l t a s k . The a v a i l a b i l i t y h e u r i s t i c i s i n use when a p e r s o n s e l e c t s an e v e n t or o b j e c t as c a u s a l on t h e b a s i s o f i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y f r o m p e r c e p t i o n , memory-, o r i m a g i n a t i o n ( T v e r s k y & Kahneman, 1973, i n N i s b e t t & Ro s s , 1980) seem. S c h u t z and Luckmann (1973) c o n t e n d t h a t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i a l l i f e we a l w a y s a r b i t r a r i l y t e r m i n a t e e x p l i c a t i o n and our s o l u t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p a r t i a l . Our s t o c k of knowledge and i t c o r r e l a t i v e s chemata of t y p i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m t h e d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of p r o c e s s e s of e x p l i c a t i o n , and e x h i b i t s t h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n of p a s t s i t u a t i o n a l p r o b l e m a t i c s . (p.13) We a r b i t r a r i l y d i s c o n t i n u e our e x p l i c a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no n a t u r a l , n e c e s s a r y p l a c e w i t h i n t h e e x p l i c a t i o n to s t o p . E x p l i c a t i o n i s e n d l e s s , but our t i m e and p u r p o s e s a r e n o t : "We can say t h a t our n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e of d a i l y l i f e i s p e r v a s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d by a p r a g m a t i c m o t i v e " ( p . 6 ) . " P r a g m a t i c " a s h e r e r e a d as b e i n g o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s th e p r o b l e m a t hand, whether or n o t t h a t p r o b l e m would be c l a s s i f i e d as p r a g m a t i c . F o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t , as f o r us a l l , " t h e s i t u a t i o n needs t o be d e t e r m i n e d o n l y i n s o f a r as t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r m a s t e r i n g i t " ( p . 1 1 5 ) . S c h u t z and Luckmann do n o t d e a l w i t h m a s t e r y and p r a g m a t i s m as components of a c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g y . One wonders i f o t h e r c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g i e s f a c i l i t a t e a more r e f l e c t i v e a p p r o a c h . M c C l e l l a n d ' s (1968; 1975) work on " r u l e b o o k s " o f a s o c i e t y i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d . R u l e books a r e t h e c u l t u r a l documents whose r e a d i n g makes c l e a r t h e c o g n i t i v e s y stems w h i c h th e members of a c u l t u r e a r e s u p p o s e d t o s h a r e (1975, p . 1 2 5 ) . H i s b e s t known work a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s was an a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r i e s and t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t o r y themes to s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . W h i l e German s t o r i e s e n c o u r a g e c h i l d r e n to be s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d and to g a i n s t r e n g t h by f a c i n g r e a l i t y head on, I n d i a n l i t e r a t u r e i s f u l l o f t h e m o r a l t h a t a p p a r e n t h u m i l i t y i s a p o w e r f u l s t r a t e g y , and t h a t t h i n g s a r e n e v e r what t h e y a p p e a r to be ( 1 9 7 5 ) . C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e s t o r y u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e the i d e a o f m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the m o l a r c o n d i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n , T h r e e B l i n d Men  and the E l e p h a n t , i s I n d i a n . T h e o r e t i c a l l y E a s t I n d i a n s might be more shrewd t h a n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s i n a n a l y z i n g an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t m a n i p u l a t i o n . However, as B r i c k m a n (1978) has w r i t t e n , f o l l o w i n g Barnum, " p e o p l e can e a s i l y be e n g r o s s e d i n a s i t u a t i o n by p l a y i n g on t h e i r s u s p i c i o n s as by p l a y i n g on t h e i r c r e d u l i t y " ( p . 8 ) . A l e r t n e s s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t e meanings p r o v i d e s no g u a r a n t e e s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t r u t h . B u t , a l a s , n o t h i n g d o e s . Even where awareness o f a l t e r n a t e meanings e x i s t s , t h e r e can be no f o r m a l i z e d s e t o f r u l e s t o i n f o r m one of how t o d e c i d e between one meaning and a n o t h e r . T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e even w i t h i n a s c i e n c e . Q u i t e d i v e r g e n t v i e w s o f f u n d a m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s e x i s t i n a l l s c i e n c e s . The l i t e r a t u r e o f a s c i e n c e c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f a c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s ( P o p p e r , 1 9 7 2 ; L a k a t o s , 1 9 7 0 ) , t h o u g h d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c t i m e a p a r t i c u l a r v i e w may have a c h i e v e d a s c e n d e n c y . S i l v e r m a n (1975) has d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e v i s i n g a f o r m a l i z e d s e t o f r u l e s f o r any a c t i v i t y , s o c i a l or o t h e r w i s e . For. how a r e we to know t h a t we a r e f o l l o w i n g t h e r u l e s c o r r e c t l y ? W i t t g e n s t e i n (1970, i n S i l v e r m a n , 1975) b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e a m b i g u i t y of f o r m a l i z e d r u l e s e x t e n d e d even to m a t h e m a t i c s : But can i t be s e e n f r o m a r u l e what c i r c u m s t a n c e s l o g i c a l l y e x c l u d e a m i s t a k e i n t h e employment o f r u l e s of c a l c u l a t i o n ? What use i s a r u l e t o us h e r e ? M i g h t n ' t we ( i n t u r n ) go wrong i n a p p l y i n g i t ? (1970 e d i t i o n , p a r a . 26, i n S i l v e r m a n , 1975, p.54) B o t h W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s and S i l v e r m a n ' s answer echos S c h u t z and Luckmann's (1973) s o l u t i o n : our r u l e s t e l l us what t o do i n n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i . e . what we need t o know to n o r m a l l y m a s t e r t h e s i t u a t i o n , what common-sense t e l l s us to do. ( p . 5 5 ) . Common-sense, however, i s o n l y the o r d i n a r y c o n s e n s u s of o p i n i o n , t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d ( S i l v e r m a n , 1975, p.64) ways o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h i n a community g i v e to one a n o t h e r i n v a r i o u s ways. Not o n l y i s common-sense n o t o r i o u s l y f a u l t y ( t h e e a r t h i s f l a t and the c e n t r e o f the s o l a r s y s t e m ) : a n d t i e d t o l o c a l norms o f b e h a v i o u r , b u t w i t h i n a community t h e r e may be many c o n t r a d i c t o r y common-sense maxims. T e s s o r (1978) has r e v i e w e d a number o f t h e s e ( a b s e n c e makes th e h e a r t grow f o n d e r ; out o f s i g h t , out of mind; b i r d s o f a f e a t h e r f l o c k t o g e t h e r ; o p p o s i t e s a t t r a c t ) . N a v i g a t i n g the morass of s e l f - e v i d e n t t r u t h s can be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k a t b e s t . l e s s o r ' s argument i s t h a t we f o c u s on a p a r t i c u l a r maxim b e c a u s e o f s a l i e n c e , a l a T a y l o r and F i s k e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and t h e n become more c o n f i d e n t of i t s e x p l a n a t o r y power as we c o n t i n u e "to p r o c e s s i t ( t h i n k w i t h i t ) d r a w i n g i n more and more c o n f i r m i n g examples t o s u p p o r t o u r p o s i t i o n . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f p r o c e s s i n g d a t a t h r o u g h a n o t h e r schema ( p o i n t o f view) d e c l i n e s d r a m a t i c a l l y as p r o c e s s i n g of the e a r l i e r schema c o n t i n u e s . N i s b e t t and Ross (1980) r e p o r t a s i m i l a r phenomenon i n w h i c h i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n s a r e " v a l i d a t e d " and s t r e n g t h e n e d (p. ) . Now l e t us a p p l y t h i s l i n e of r e a s o n i n g to t h e to t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s i n the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t and to Gergen's e n l i g h t e n m e n t h y p o t h e s i s . These s u b j e c t s a r r i v e d a t a c r e d i b l e a p p e a r i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g and, w h a t e v e r t h e i r i n i t i a l s u s p i c i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g l y f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on one. a s p e c t , t h e p r o b a b l e a c t i o n s of t h e t e a c h e r . They d i s c u s s e d t h e t e a c h e r s ' b e h a v i o u r i n M i l g r a m ' s (1964) e x p e r i m e n t ( p r o c e s s e d t h e schema t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was t h e o b j e c t o f s t u d y ) . T h i s i m p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n , w i t h i t s theme ( S c h u t z , 1973) of t e a c h e r -a s - o b j e c t , c a p t u r e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n a f o c u s - o f - a t t e n t i o n e f f e c t ( T a y l o r & F i s k e , 1 9 7 8 ) . They were p r e s e n t e d w i t h an o s t e n s i b l e t a s k of some d i f f i c u l t y , i . e . , m a s t e r i n g the r o l e of l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y and p e r s u a d i n g the t e a c h e r to go on i n the f a c e of the t e a c h e r ' s r e s i s t e n c e . T h e r e were many d i s t r a c t i n g t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s to be a s s i m i l a t e d . I t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e t h i r d s t u d y t h a t the d i s t r a c -t i o n of a t a s k t h a t f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of a s i t u a t i o n can e f f e c t i v e l y p r e c l u d e a more g l o b a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . As S c h u t z (1973) a r g u e s , the i n d i v i d u a l works to d e t e r m i n e the s i t u a t i o n o n l y so f a r as i s needed to m a s t e r i t ( p . 1 1 5 ) . The s i t u a t i o n t o o k shape f o r the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s on b o t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l (as i t was e x p l a i n e d to them and t h e y were r e q u i r e d to r e f l e c t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g to t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) and the s t r u e t u r a l / b e h a v i o u r a l l e v e l (as t h e y had to i m a g i n e p e r f o r m i n g t a s k s , a d a t e f o r the s e c o n d phase was s e t , e t c . ) . From the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e a n o t a b l e a s p e c t of the s i t u a t i o n was t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t was d i r e c t e d towards d e c e i v i n g t h e t e a c h e r and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s had to p e r f o r m c o m p e t e n t l y to m a i n t a i n t h a t d e c e p t i o n t h u s e n s u r i n g t h a t the s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r s would t a k e t h e i r r o l e s e r i o u s l y as had the t e a c h e r s i n M i l g r a m ' s (1964) s t u d y ( B r i c k m a n , 1978). B r i c k m a n has a r g u e d t h a t the c e n t r a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y i s the i s s u e of what i t means to p e o p l e to know t h a t t h e y a r e s u b j e c t s i n an e x p e r i m e n t ( p . 7 ) . S u s p i c i o n , he s a y s , i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f r e a l i s m i n s i d e b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i t y and t h e mundane r e a l i t y of o r d i n a r y e v e r y d a y l i f e . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t the p r o c e s s o f c l e a r i n g up s u s p i c i o n s i n c r e a s e s t h e r e a l i t y o f any s i t u a t i o n . F o r c i n g our s u b j e c t s to make s e n s e ( o u r s e n s e ) of ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s commits them to t h e i r s o l u t i o n s and " i f the e x p e r i m e n t i s done p r o p e r l y , s u b j e c t s w i l l o r d i n a r i l y have no b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r what i s h a p p e n i n g t h a n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n the e x p e r i m e n t e r g i v e s them" ( B r i c k m a n , 1978, p . 8 ) . The s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y o f the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t m i m i c k e d t h a t of a " s t i n g " i n w h i c h a p e r s o n i s conned w h i l e b e l i e v i n g t h a t he or she i s i n f a c t c o n n i n g someone e l s e . When t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s e n t e r e d t h e s e c o n d phase of the e x p e r i m e n t , where t h e y had t o e n a c t the r o l e of the e x p e r i m e n t e r , t h e y were a g a i n d e l u g e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n a s p e c t o f the e x p e r i m e n t . T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e was from i n s i d e t h e p r o d u c t i o n of an e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i t y . So f a r as t h e y c o u l d s e e , t h e y were h e l p i n g to p r o d u c e the i l l u s i o n w h i c h would e n g u l f t h e t e a h c e r . A g a i n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was & x . u s e i on m i n u t e a s p e c t s of t h e s i t u a t i o n , i . e . , how t o t e c h n i c a l l y c o n d u c t the e x p e r i m e n t , what t o a t t e n d t o i n o r d e r to s a t i s f y e x p e r i m e n t a l c r i t e r i a ( t h e t e a c h e r must u n e q u i v i c a l l y say "no" t h r e e t i m e s on any one b u t t o n ) , what t o say to make i t b e l i e v a b l e t o the 81 t e a c h e r t h a t the l e a r n e r was s t r a p p e d down and c o u l d n ' t l e a v e , e t c . ) . P e r f o r m a n c e a n x i e t y was i n d u c e d by making the s u c c e s s of the e x p e r i m e n t encumbent upon the s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r s ' a t t e n t i o n to and enactment of t h e s e m y r i a d d e t a i l s . I n i t i a l l y the r o l e of the e x p e r i m e n t e r would have seemed u n r e a l . B r i c k m a n (1978) w r i t e s of r o l e s : The p o i n t i s t h a t a l l r o l e s , i n a game, i n an e x p e r i m e n t , or i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d , a r e u n r e a l a t f i r s t and become p r o g r e s s i v e l y , i n e l u c t a b l e more r e a l t h r o u g h our own b e h a v i o u r and o t h e r p e o p l e ' s r e s p o n s e s (P-9) At f i r s t one does n o t f e e l , f o r example, r e a l l y m a r r i e d or r e a l l y a p r o f e s s o r • , , As we c o n t i n u e to a c t out t h e r o l e , and e x p e r i e n c e o t h e r ' s r e s p o n s e s as c o n g r u e n t to our e x p e c t a t i o n s of the r o l e , i t becomes r e a l . W i t h i n our e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , s h o r t l i v e d as i t was (30 m i n u t e s ) , t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s of d i s t r e s s , a n g e r , p l e a d i n g , t r e a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r as an a u t h o r i t y p r o b a b l y c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e r e a l i t y . B r i c k m a n (1978) has o u t l i n e d two p r o c e s s e s whose c o m p l e t i o n c o n t r i b u t e to the a t t r i b u t i o n o f r e a l i t y to a s i t u a t i o n . E x t e r n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s the e x p e r i e n c e t h a t one's a c t i o n s a r e p r o d u c i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e w o r l d a p p r o p r i a t e to and c o n g r u e n t w i t h the a c t i o n s . F o r example, th e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s i n s i s t e d t h a t the t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e s h o c k i n g t h e l e a r n e r and t h e t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d d i s t r e s s , dismay and a n g e r , n o t h i l a r i t y . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s e x p e c t e d t h i s r e s p o n s e as n o r m a l , g i v e n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n t e r n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , the o t h e r p r o c e s s , i s the e x p e r i e n c e t h a t one's own f e e l i n g s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e e v e n t s t h a t a r e h a p p e n i n g . I n i t i a l l y , i n the enactment of a r o l e , t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s a p t to be low. We don't know how an e x p e r i m e n t e r , f o r example, f e e l s w h i l e e n a c t i n g the e x p e r i m e n t e r r o l e . F o r most of the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n c r e a s e d as t h e e x p e r i m e n t c o n t i n u e d . They f e l t d i s t r e s s e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , a t c a u s i n g someone e l s e d i s t r e s s . T h e i r r o l e , however, d i d n o t a l l o w them to e x p r e s s t h i s d i s t r e s s o u t w a r d l y , t h u s p l a c i n g them i n a d i s s o n a n t s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y had to f e e l one way and a c t a n o t h e r . Many of t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s m e n t i o n e d t h i s c o n f l i c t . They s a i d t h e y f e l t c o n c e r n f o r t h e t e a c h e r but c o u l d n ' t l e t h e r o r him know i t . To h a n d l e the i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t the s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s " d e t a c h e d " t h e m s e l v e s . They r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y had no i d e a of the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a u t h o r i t i e s f a c e d i n e n a c t i n g t h e i r r o l e s . An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t of B r i c k m a n ' s t h e s i s i s t h a t a g e n t s ( e . g . e x p e r i m e n t e r s ) who seek to e n t r a p o t h e r s i n a r o l e ( e . g . t e a c h e r ) may t h e m s e l v e s become e n t r a p p e d i n t h e i r own r o l e . . The common-sense a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t s our a t t e n t i o n to the o s t e n s i b l e " o b j e c t " o f e n t r a p m e n t ( t e a c h e r i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e ) and o b s c u r e s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o c e s s on t h e s u b j e c t . I n t h e t h i r d , m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e , e x p e r i m e n t t h e m o l a r c o n d i t i o n o b s e r v e r s were g i v e n , 1 i n g i u s t i c a l l y , a p e r s p e c t i v e from w h i c h b o t h t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t l y . Z i m b a r d o ' s (1971) p r i s o n s i m u l a t i o n s t u d y p r o v i d e s a s t r i k i n g example o f t h e e n t r a p m e n t o f the e x p e r i m e n t e r . F a c i n g a p o s s i b l e " p r i s o n b r e a k " h y p o t h e t i c a l l y l e d . by a v o l u n t e e r who had been r e l e a s e d from the s t u d y , Zimbardo r e c o u n t s how h i s own d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n e v o l v e d from " s i m u l a t i o n s t u d y " to " r e a l p r i s o n " ; I was s i t t i n g t h e r e a l l a l o n e , w a i t i n g f o r the i n t r u d e r s to b r e a k i n so t h a t we c o u l d s p r i n g our M a c h i a v e l l i a n c o u n t e r - p l o t . I n s t e a d , who s h o u l d happen a l o n g but one o f my c o l l e a g u e s , a h a r d - h e a d e d e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t who, h a v i n g l e a r n e d t h a t we were d o i n g an e x p e r i m e n t , came to see what was g o i n g on. I d e s c r i b e d o n l y b r i e f l y what we were up to b e c a u s e I was a n x i o u s to g e t r i d o f him, s i n c e I t h o u g h t the i n t r u s i o n would e r u p t a t any moment. He t h e n a s k e d me a v e r y s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : "Say, what's the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y ? " To my s u r p r i s e , I got r e a l l y a n g r y a t him. Here I had a p r i s o n b r e a k on my h a n d s , the s e c u r i t y of my men and t h e s t a b i l i t y o f my p r i s o n was a t s t a k e and I have to c o n t e n d w i t h t h i s b l e e d i n g -h e a r t , l i b e r a l , a c a d e m i c , e f f e t e d i n g d o n g whose o n l y c o n c e r n was f o r a r i d i c u l o u s t h i n g l i k e an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . The n e x t t h i n g he'd be a s k i n g me about was r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , the dummy! I t wasn't u n t i l some time l a t e r t h a t I r e a l i z e d how f a r i n t o the e x p e r i m e n t I was a t t h a t p o i n t . (p. 10) Z i m b a r d o ' s e x p e r i e n c e (and h o n e s t y , f o r w h i c h a l l r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o the human c o n d i t i o n can be d e e p l y g r a t e f u l ) i s v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g . In G e r g e n 1 s (1973) terms s h o u l d n o t Z i m bardo's " s o p h i s t i c a t i o n as to p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " have l i b e r a t e d him " f r o m t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " ( p . 313)? I f i t i s so t h a t "knowledge i n c r e a s e s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o a c t i o n and p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e m o d i f i e d o r d i s s o l v e d " ( p . 3 1 3 ) . t h e n what happened? The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n b r i n g s us f u l l c i r c l e back to t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e l u s i v e e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some w r i t e r s m ight a r g u e t h a t Z i m b ardo's a c t i o n s , and t h o s e of t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s ( t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e ) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e y were not " s o p h i s t i c a t e d as t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " . T h i s argument would o n l y beg; t h e q u e s t i o n and r a i s e t h e s p e c t r e of the o l d competency v e r s u s p e r f o r m a n c e d i s t i n c t i o n . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s were a b l e to d i s c u s s t h e dynamics of o b e d i e n c e i n t e l l i g e n t l y . Zimbardo has d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s competence as a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i n k e r f o r y e a r s and more p r o l i f i c a l l y t h e n most i m a g i n e d c r i t i c s . In s i m p l e s t t e r m s , and p e r h a p s t o no one's s u r p r i s e , i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g does n o t e a s i l y and i s o m o r p h i c a l l y t r a n s f e r to b e h a v i o u r . Competence does n o t g u a r a n t e e p e r f o r m a n c e , E v e r y o n e may g r a n t t h i s . But why? Or, more e x a c t l y , how? I f we a n a l y z e the p r o b l e m w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of a f a i l u r e ( o f an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t , f o r example) t h e n we a r e l e f t w i t h a p e s s i m i s t i c view o f 89 t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between our c o g n i t i o n and b e h a v i o u r . However, i f we v i e w c o g n i t i o n as y e t a n o t h e r t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r ( a l b e i t c o v e r t ) t h e n we can r e f r a m e t h e p r o b l e m as one of c o m p e t i t i o n between b e h a v i o u r s w i t h unknown and v a r y i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The a s s i g n m e n t of t h o s e p r o b a b i l i t i e s depends n o t o n l y on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h o s e b e h a v i o u r s ( o r h e r e , schemas) w i t h i n the i n -d i v i d u a l (and t h e r e f o r e on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s h i s t o r y ) but c o i n c i d e n t a l l y on t h e s t r u c t u r e of the e x p e r i e n c e i n w h i c h th e b e h a v i o u r i s to be m a n i f e s t e d , i . e . on the c o n t e x t of t h e s i t u a t i o n and the c o m p e t i t i v e power of v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . What i s most r e a l f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y have a c o m p e t i t i v e edge i n d e t e r m i n i n g b e h a v i o u r , be i t c o g n i t i v e or m u s c u l a r . B r i c k m a n (1978) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ' s " c a t e g o r i e s o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y be s u p p l e m e n t e d i n a n o t h e r way. We need terms to r e p r e s e n t t h e components t h a t d e t e r m i n e whether an e x p e r i e n c e i s s e e n as r e a l o r n o t , t o r e p r e s e n t w hether an e x p e r i m e n t has p h e n o m e n d o g i c a l v a l i d i t y (my e m p h a s i s ) o r n o t " ( p . 2 2 ) . B r i c k m a n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e c o n c e p t of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y g i v e s us a needed e n t r e i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g why p r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g may be l e s s t h a n r o b u s t i n e f f e c t i n g c o n g r u e n t a c t i o n s . 90 P.heno.menological v a l i d i t y i s to be d i s t i n g u i s e d f r o m i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y by s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a . I n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y i s the s o r t o f t r u t h t y p i c a l l y s o u g h t by r e s e a r c h -e r s when d e s i g n i n g and c o n d u c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t s . To s a t i s f y t h e c r i t e r i a of i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y (a) outcomes must be unambiguous, (b) e v i d e n c e i s p r o v i d e d by c a l c u l a t i o n , ( c ) the f o c u s i s on u n i f o r m i t y , and (d) i t i s t y p i f i e d by e x p e r i m e n t s (p. 2 3 ) . W i t h i n p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y however (a) outcomes must be m e a n i n g f u l , (b) e v i d e n c e i s p r o v i d e d by i n v o l v e m e n t , ( c ) f o c u s i s on d i v e r s i t y , and (d) i t i s t y p i f i e d by games (p.23) . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s s t r i v e to b r i n g r a t i o n a l o r d e r to t h e f l u x of s o c i a l phenomena by b r i n g i n g t h e s e phenomena w i t h i n t h e sco p e of i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s s c a n t e v i d e n c e t h a t l i f e i s l i v e d , i . e . , i s e x p e r i e n c e d as v a l i d , by t h e c r i t e r i a of i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y . In f a c t i n s i s t e n c e t h a t e v e n t s i n one's l i f e meet t h e c r i t e r i a of i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e s a n e u r o t i c s t y l e ( S h a p i r o , 1965 ) i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r e d i c t i v e o f a h o s t of s t r e s s - r e l a t e d syndromes. C o n c o m i t a n t l y , a t t e m p t s t o l e a d l i f e e n t i r e l y by the c r i t e r i a of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y ( " i t j u s t f e e l s r i g h t " ) a r e e q u a l l y p r e d i c t i v e of d i f f i c u l t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i z e as w e l l a n e u r o t i c s t y l e . In B r i c k m a n ' s words " r e t a i n i n g a c h i l d ' s d e d i c a t i o n to i n t e r n a l 91 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s l i k e l y to make a p e r s o n e i t h e r s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d - o r h o s p i t a l i z e d " (p. 1 8 ) . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e n o t b e i n g a d v i s e d t o abandon i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y i n a leap, f r o m A p o l l o n i a n r a t i o n a l i t y t o D i o n y s i a n e c s t a c y i n . t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o c i a l phenomena, b u t o n l y to r e c o g n i z e t h a t s o c i a l phenomena, when t h e y m a t t e r to p e o p l e , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c r i t e r i a o f p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y . / The " m i s b e h a v i o u r of humans" to p a r a p h r a s e B r e l a n d and B r e l a n d (19 ) t h a t we n o t i c e i n our a t t r i b u t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s ( t h a t s u b j e c t s make " o u t r a g e o u s " a s s u m p t i o n s ) r e f l e c t s our o v e r - r e l i a n c e on t h e c r i t e r i a of i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y a t the expense of accommodating, t h e o r e t i c a l l y and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y . In terms of an e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t , i n t e l l e c t u a l k nowledge must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n b o t h s ystems o f v a l i d i t y . T h i s r e a s o n i n g b r i n g s us b a c k to K i n t c h ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f s e m a n t i c and e p i s o d i c memory. I t would a p p e a r t h a t l e c t u r e s and a r t i c l e s about s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena whose p r e s e n t a t i o n i s b a s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on i n f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y a r e p e r h a p s e n c o d e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n s e m a n t i c memory and t h e r e f o r e most e a s i l y r e t r i e v a b l e f o r s t r i c t l y s e m a n t i c t a s k s . I f we want t r a n s f e r t o b e h a v i o u r t h e n we p r o b a b l y need to s i m u l t a n e o u s l y encode i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n e p i s o d i c memory. We c a n n o t p r e t e n d t o know how to e f f i c i e n t l y do t h i s , b ut t h e r e s e a r c h we a r e c u r r e n t l y p l a n n i n g w i l l e x p l o r e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Our s t u d e n t s p r o b a b l y b e s t remember a c c o u n t s of r e s e a r c h t h a t meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y and a r e t h e r e f o r e encoded w i t h i n e p i s o d i c memory. From Bickman's (1978) arguments games meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a and " s h o u l d be a n a t u r a l c o n c e r n f o r s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y as s c i e n c e , as h i s t o r y , and as a v e h i c l e f o r p e r s o n a l g r o w t h " ( p . 2 8 ) . He e n v i s i o n s p o t e n t i a l games t h a t would engage p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n f o c u s on s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s , and make p o s s i b l e the o b s e r v a t i o n o f " f u n d a m e n t a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e i r own or o t h e r p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o r " ( p . 2 9 ) . W h i l e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d f a u l t y i f more t h a n one outcome i s p o s s i b l e , the c o n c e p t o f games " c o n v e y s th e i d e a of an e n t e r p r i s e i n w h i c h a v a r i e t y of outcomes a r e p o s s i b l e and r e a s o n a b l e " ( p . 2 8 ) . The i n v o l v e -ment p o s s i b l e i n games b r i n g s them c l o s e r to t h e r e a l w o r l d c o n c e r n s of our s u b j e c t s . Games may be t h o u g h t of as r e l a t i v e l y s a f e e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h p e o p l e can have a c c e s s to e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be u n a c c e s s b i l e to them (sometimes t r a u m a t i c , sometimes e c s t a t i c ) and can o b s e r v e how t h e y and o t h e r p e o p l e h a n d l e t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s (p.29) E d u c a t i o n t h a t employes th e use of games as b o t h r e s e a r c h and l e a r n i n g t o o l s would c o n c e i v a b l y p r o v i d e the e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y to t r a i n i n d i v i d u a l s to "jump out o f t h e s y s t e m " , H o f s t a d e r ' s (1979; see p.66 o f t h i s work) s i n e qua non of i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o u r . F i n e s and V e r r i e r (1976 , i n B r i c k m a n , 1980,. p.29) w r i t e of t h e power of e d u c a t i o n a l drama/games i n i n t e g r a t i n g c h i l d r e n s ' u n d e r -s t a n d i n g of b o t h i d e a s and. e m o t i o n s . As c u r r e n t l y t a u g h t , much of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y a p p a r e n t l y l e a v e s our s t u d e n t s f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y would n o t have obeyed, c o n f o r m e d , or f a i l e d t o h e l p . The p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s i s s i m p l y n o t c o n v e y e d i n ways t h a t would be s u b s e q u e n t l y b e h a v i o u r a l l y u s e f u l . As many of our s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s c o n c e d e d " I had no i d e a " . P e o p l e who have no i d e a of what- s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y " r e a l l y " t a l k i n g about may w e l l be a b l e to c o m p e t e n t l y p a s s exams on the t o p i c . They c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d to be e n l i g h t e n e d . E t h i c a l I s s u e s Now we t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o the i s s u e of e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s about e x p e r i m e n t s i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s a r e d e c e i v e d , s t r e s s e d , and f o r c e d to; f i n d o u t t h a t t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f b e h a v i n g i n a s o c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d f a s h i o n . At t h i s d a t e the l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c is.; e x t e n s i v e and r e m a i n s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . The American. P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (1973) was moved, p r i m a r i l y by the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g M i l g r a m ' s work on o b e d i e n c e , to e s t a b l i s h e t h i c a l g u i d e l i n e s to be f o l l o w e d i n r e s e a r c h w i t h human p a r t i c i p a n t s . W h i l e the APA g u i d e l i n e s s t i l l a l l o w the use of d e c e p t i o n and i n d u c t i o n o f s t r e s s i f c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s p r o t e c t i v e of the s u b j e c t a r e c a r e f u l l y employed, i t i s common, i f n o t o f f i c i a l , p r a c t i c e i n u n i v e r s i t y p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t s to e x c l u d e any r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h d e c e p t i o n of t h e s o r t u sed by M i l g r a m , or i n the f i r s t s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e , i s c o n s i d e r e d . P r o b a b l y t h e most common q u e s t i o n a s k e d of the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r a t c o n f e r e n c e s and l e c t u r e s where she has d i s c u s s e d h e r work i s "how d i d you get t h a t by the e t h i c s c o m m i t t e e ? " . What a r e we to make of t h i s ? The o s t e n s i b l e answer would be t h a t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have come of age and p a s s e d a landmark i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s answer, w h i l e p r e t t y and p e r h a p s s a t i s f y i n g to the l i b e r a l s e n t i m e n t s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r l o o k . F o r i s n ' t i t c u r i o u s t h a t t h e u p r o a r was e l i c i t e d by an e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e t h a t was i t s e l f a l a n dmark i n t h e c a r e f u l h a n d l i n g of t h e w e l l - b e i n g of s u b j e c t s . P r i o r to M i l g r a m ' s work no one had c o n s i d e r e d so c a r e f u l l y and a c t e d so p r o p h y l a c t i -c a l l y of t h e r e s i d u a l e f f e c t s on s u b j e c t s . F o l l o w i n g M i l g r a m ' s o b e d i e n c e s t u d i e s t h e f o c u s of e t h i c a l a t t e n t i o n was p r i m a r i l y on t h e use of d e c e p t i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e s to d e c e p t i o n s u c h as r o l e - p l a y i n g ( M i x o n , 1972, 1974; Kelman, 1972; G r e e n b e r g , 1967; H a m i l t o n 1974 i n G e l l e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s seemed i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n was " i n some ways s i m i l a r to t h a t of the con a r t i s t " ( G e l l e r , 1978, p . 2 2 0 ) . To a s c i e n c e whose c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e a p p e a r s d e d i c a t e d to what M o s c o v i c i (1972) has c a l l e d t h e " p s y c h o l o g y of the n i c e p e r s o n " the c o m p a r i s o n would be anathma. The b a t t l e o v e r r o l e - p l a y i n g v e r s u s d e c e p t i o n i s s t i l l p i t c h e d and the r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d to G e l l e r (1978) f o r t h e most r e c e n t r e v i e w and e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n t h i s a r e a . G e l l e r meakes an e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n between the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e o f d e c e p t i o n v e r s u s r o l e - p l a y i n g and t h e e t h i c a l i s s u e . I f r o l e - p l a y i n g were m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y sound f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a l l t y p e s o f s o c i a l phenomena i t s c r i t i c s would p r o b a b l y have l i t t l e to s a y . D e c e p t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s a r e d i f f i c u l t to c a r r y out and an a l t e r n a t i v e method would be a p p r e c i a t e d . That s a i d , l e t ' s t u r n to the e t h i c a l i s s u e and i t ' s o r i g i n s . Bickman and Z a r a n t o n e l l o (19 7 8) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h d e c e p t i o n and outcome c o u l d be i n d e p e n d e n t l y a s s e s s e d . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d to r a t e t h e h a r m f u l n e s s o f o b e d i e n c e -t y p e c o n d i t i o n s i n a 2X2 d e s i g n i n c o r p o r a t i n g d e c e p t i o n or no d e c e p t i o n , and h i g h or low o b e d i e n c e ( p . 8 3 ) . The r e s u l t s show no e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c e p t i o n . However s u b j e c t s i n t h e h i g h o b e d i e n c e c o n d i t i o n s " r a t e d the e x p e r i m e n t as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h a r m f u l t o t h e v o l u n t e e r s ( t e a c h e r s ) t h a n s u b j e c t s i n the low o b e d i e n c e c o n d i t i o n s " ( p . 8 3 ) . However t h i s harm was n o t r e l a t e d to s t r e s s s i n c e d i s o b e d i e n t t e a c h e r s were seen as s u f f e r i n g more d i s t r e s s t h a n o b e d i e n t t e a c h e r s . Bickman and Z a r a n t o n e l l o c o n c l u d e t h a t " i f most o f M i l -gram's s u b j e c t s had d i s o b e y e d , h i s e x p e r i m e n t would have n o t r e c e i v e d as much c o n d e m n a t i o n " ( p . 8 4 ) . Even t h o u g h the d i s t r e s s o f the d i s o b e d i e n t s u b j e c t s would have been p e r c e i v e d t o be h i g h e r (as has been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d , G e l l e r , 1978; M i l g r a m , 1 9 7 9 ) . P a r c e l i n g out d e c e p t i o n and s t r e s s as the p r i m a r y n o x i o u s f a c t o r s we a r e l e f t w i t h the " u n f l a t t e r i n g p o r t r a y a l o f human n a t u r e d i s c o v e r e d u s i n g d e c e p t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s " (p.85) and e x p o s i n g our s u b j e c t s to t h i s p o r t r a y a l w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . These f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t t h e e a r l i e r e x p r e s s e d s e n t i m e n t s of M. E r i k s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) : T h a t ( M i l g r a m ' s ) p i o n e e r work i n t h i s f i e l d i s a t t a c k e d as b e i n g u n e t h i c a l , u n j u s t i f i a b l e , u n i n f o r m a t i v e , o r any o t h e r d e r o g a t i v e d i s m i s s a l i s to be 97 e x p e c t e d , s i m p l y b e c a u s e p e o p l e l i k e to s h u t t h e i r eyes to u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r (p.278) In a w o r l d drama p u n c t u a t e d by My L a i , J o n e s t o w n , the gas chambers o f N a z i Germany and c o u n t l e s s o t h e r h o r r o r s j u s t how m o r a l i s i t f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s o f w e l l -e d u c a t e d , a f f l u e n t s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s s u p p o r t e d by t a x - p a y e r s money to r e t r e a t i n t o the s a f e t y o f p a p e r and p e n c i l measures t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d e t h i c a l l y s a n i t a r y ? I b e l i e v e i t i s time f o r s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s to ask t h e m s e l v e s some h a r s h e r e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s t h a n i s i t r i g h t to use d e c e p t i o n i n e x p e r i m e n t s . The r e a d e r i s a s k e d to c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g t h o u g h t e x p e r i m e n t . Imagine y o u r s e l f i n a s i t u a t i o n o u t s i d e the bounds of y o u r n o r m a l l y s a f e , w e l l - r e g u l a t e d m i d d l e - c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t where the d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s i t u a t i o n may change a t any moment and you and y o u r l o v e d ones may be at the mercy of f o r c e s t h a t p r e s s u r e t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d you i n t o o b e d i e n c e and c o m p l i a n c e . You have one c h o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r . You can choose to be among p e o p l e whose e t h i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s have p r e v e n t e d them from e v e r h a v i n g c o n d u c t e d or p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e x p e r i m e n t s l i k e the f i r s t one r e p o r t e d h e r e or M i l g r a m ' s . Or, you c o u l d c h o o s e to be among p e o p l e who have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e s e t h i n g s f i r s t hand. Who have some i d e a o f t h e i r l i m i t s . Who know t h e i r own and o t h e r ' s s u s e p t i b i l i t i e s . I f you would c h o o s e the f o r m e r t h e n you a f f i r m f a i t h i n the e n l i g h t e n m e n t e f f e c t , t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l p r o t e c t y o u . As f o r me, I would r a t h e r be among p e o p l e t y p i f i e d by t h e woman s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r who s a i d : You a l w a y s t h i n k i t ' s them, l i k e t h e N a z i s , t h a t i t ' s j u s t the way t h e y a r e and t h e n you f i n d out t h a t i t ' s you t o o , t h a t i n t h e r i g h t c i r c u m s t a n c e s maybe i t ' s r e a l l y a l l . o f u s . BIBLIOGRAPHY A l e x a n d e r , L.N., & Z u c k e r , L.G., & B r o d a y , C.L. E x p e r i m e n -t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a u t o k i n e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s : C o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s and j u d g e m e n t a l c o n v e r g e n c e . Soc i o m e t r y , 28 , 108-122. A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . E t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e c o n d u c t of r e s e a r c h w i t h human p a r t i c i p a n t s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1973 , 28 , 7 9-80. A r o n s o n , E., & C a r l s m i t h , J.M. E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . In G. L i n d z e y & E. A r o n s o n ( E d s . ) , Handbook o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , ( V o l . 2) (2nd Edn) R e a d i n g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , 1968, 1-79. B a s s i l i , N.M. E m o t i o n r e c o g n i t i o n : The r o l e of f a c i a l movement and the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f upper and l o w e r a r e a s of the; f a c e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1979, 37, 2049-2058. Bern, D. S e l f - p e r c e p t i o n : An a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e phenomena. P s y c h o l o g y Review, 1967, 74, 183-200. Bern, D., & F u n d e r , D.C. P r e d i c t i n g more of the p e o p l e more of the t i m e ^ A s s e s s i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of s i t u a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1978, 8 5 , 485-501. B e r k o w i t z , L. A g g r e s s i o n : A s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962. Bickman, L. & Z a r a n t o n e l l o , M. The e f f e c t s of d e c e p t i o n and l e v e l of o b e d i e n c e on s u b j e c t s r a t i n g s of the M i l g r a m s t u d y . P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 1978 , h_, 81-85. B i e r b r a u e r , G. E f f e c t of s e t , p e r s p e c t i v e , and t e m p o r a l  f a c t o r s i n a t t r i b u t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. B r a n t , W. S i t u a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e , r a c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s and c o n f o r m i t y i n l a b o r a t o r y a g g r e s s i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Oregon S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , C o r v a l l i s , 1978 . B r e l a n d , K. & B r e l a n d , M. The m i s b e h a v i o r o f o r g a n i s m s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1961 , 16 , 681-684. B r i c k m a n , P. Is i t r e a l ? In H . H a r v e y , e t a l . , ( E d s . ) , New D i r e c t i o n s i n A t t r i b u t i o n R e s e a r c h , H i l l s d a l e : L awrence E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , 1978. B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. Toward an e x p e r i m e n t a l e c o l o g y of human d e v e l o p m e n t . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1977. C l a r k , K. C i v i l i z a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1970. C o l l i n g w o o d , R.G. The I d e a of H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. D a r l e y , J . & B a t s o n , C D . "From J e r u s a l e m to J e r i c h o " : A s t u d y of s i t u a t i o n a l and d i s p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s i n h e l p i n g b e h a v i o r . 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C o g n i t i v e  P s y c h o l o g y , 1973, _5 , 2 0 7 - 2 3 2 . Upshaw, H.S. The e f f e c t o f v a r i a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f j u d g m e n t s o f o p i n i o n s t a t e m e n t s f o r T h u r s t o n e s c a l e s : E q u a l a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l s . J o u r n a l o f  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 19 6 5 .. 2_, 60-69. West, S.. Gunn, S.P., & C h e r n i c k y , P. U b i q u i t o u s W a t e r g a t e : An a t t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 19 7 5 , 3_2 , 55-65 . Z itnb a r d o , P.. Haney, C. & B a n k s , W. The S t a n f o r d p r i s o n e x p e r i m e n t : T r a n s c r i p t s o f t a p e s , 1 9 7 1 . APPENDIX I The s t u d y of o b e d i e n c e was i n i t i a t e d by S t a n l e y M i l g r a m i n 1963 a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y . M i l g r a m d e v e l o p e d a l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e w h i c h p r o v i d e d a s y s t e m a t i c way to measure o b e d i e n c e . The e x p e r i m e n t worked l i k e t h i s : i f you were a s u b j e c t i n t h e s t u d y , you r e a d an ad i n t h e newspaper or r e c e i v e d one i n t h e m a i l , a s k i n g f o r v o l u n t e e r s f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t . The j o b would t a k e about an h o u r . So you make an a p p o i n t m e n t and go to an o l d Romanesque s t o n e s t r u c t u r e on H i g h S t r e e t w i t h t h e i m p o s i n g name of The Y a l e I n t e r a c t i o n L a b o r a t o r y . I t l o o k s s o m e t h i n g l i k e a b r o a d c a s t i n g s t u d i o . I n s i d e you meet a young, c r e w - c u t man i n a l a b o r a t o r y c o a t who s a y s he i s J a c k W i l l i a m s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r c i t i z e n who i s f i f t y i s h w i t h an I r i s h f a c e , an a c c o u n t a n t , a l i t t l e o v e r w e i g h t , and v e r y m i l d and h a r m l e s s - l o o k i n g . T h i s o t h e r c i t i z e n seems n e r v o u s and p l a y s w i t h h i s h a t w h i l e t h e two o f you s i t and l i s t e n to J a c k W i l l i a m s e x p l a i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . " I t i s a b o u t l e a r n i n g , " s a y s J a c k W i l l i a m s i n a q u i e t , k n o w l e d g e a b l e way. " S c i e n c e does n o t know much about th e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h p e o p l e l e a r n and t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s to f i n d out about n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . N e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s g e t t i n g p u n i s h e d when you do s o m e t h i n g wrong, as opposed t o p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t , w h i c h i s g e t t i n g r e w a r d e d when you do s o m e t h i n g r i g h t , t h e n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n t h i s c a s e i s e l e c t r i c s h o c k . " Then J a c k W i l l i a m s t a k e s two p i e c e s o f p a p e r , p u t s them i n a h a t , and s h a k e s them. One p i e c e o f p a p e r i s s u p p o s e d t o say " t e a c h e r " and t h e o t h e r , " l e a r n e r . " He a s k s you e a c h t o draw one to see w h i c h you w i l l be. The m i l d - l o o k i n g a c c o u n t a n t draws one, h o l d s i t c l o s e to h i s v e s t , l o o k s a t i t and s a y s " l e a r n e r . " You l o o k a t y o u r s . I t s a y s " t e a c h e r . " You do not know t h a t t h e d r a w i n g i s r i g g e d and b o t h s l i p s say " t e a c h e r . " The e x p e r i m e n t e r b e c k o n s t o t h e m i l d - m a n n e r e d " l e a r n e r . " "Want t o s t e p r i g h t i n h e r e and have a s e a t , p l e a s e ? " He s a y s , "you can l e a v e y o u r c o a t on t h e back of t h a t c h a i r . . . r o l l up y o u r r i g h t s l e e v e p l e a s e . Now what I want to do i s s t r a p down y o u r arms t o a v o i d e x c e s s i v e movement on y o u r p a r t d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s e l e c t r o d e i s c o n n e c t e d to t h e s h o c k g e n e r a t o r i n t h e n e x t room. "And t h i s e l e c t r o d e p a s t e " he s a y s , s q u e e z i n g some s t u f f o u t o f a p l a s t i c b o t t l e and p u t t i n g i t on t h e man's arms, " i s t o p r o v i d e a good c o n t a c t and t o a v o i d a b l i s t e r o r b u r n . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s now, b e f o r e we go i n t o t h e n e x t r oom?" You d o n ' t have a n y , b u t t h e l e a r n e r a s k s how d a n g e r o u s t h e s h o c k s a r e . W i l l i a m s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , s h a k e s h i s head c a s u a l l y . "On n o , " he s a y s . " A l t h o u g h t h e y may be p a i n f u l , t h e y ' r e n o t d a n g e r o u s . A n y t h i n g e l s e ? " f N o t h i n g e l s e . And so y o u p l a y t h e game. The game i s f o r y o u t o r e a d a s e r i e s o f word p a i r s : f o r e x a m p l e , b l u e - g i r l , n i c e - d a y , f a t - n e c k . When y o u f i n i s h t h e l i s t , y o u r e a d j u s t t h e f i r s t word i n e a c h p a i r and t h e n a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e l i s t o f f o u r o t h e r w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e c o n d word o f t h e p a i r . The l e a r n e r , f r o m h i s r e m o t e , s t r a p p e d - i n p o s i t i o n , p u s h e s one o f f o u r s w i t c h e s t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h e f o u r a n s w e r s he t h i n k s i s t h e r i g h t one. I f he g e t s i t w r o n g , y o u p u s h a s w i t c h t h a t b u z z e s and g i v e s h i m an e l e c t r i c s h o c k . And t h e n y o u go t o t h e n e x t w o r d . You s t a r t w i t h 15 v o l t s and i n c r e a s e t h e number o f v o l t s by 15 f o r e a c h wrong a n s w e r . The c o n t r o l b o a r d goes f r o m 15 v o l t s on one end t o 450 v o l t s on t h e o t h e r . I f , a t any p o i n t , y o u h e s i t a t e , Mr. W i l l i a m s t e l l s y ou t o go on. I f y o u s t i l l h e s i t a t e , he t e l l s y o u a g a i n . E x c e p t f o r some t e r r i f y i n g d e t a i l s , w h i c h w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n a moment, t h i s i s t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The o b j e c t i s t o f i n d t h e s h o c k l e v e l a t w h i c h y o u d i s o b e y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r and r e f u s e t o p u l l t h e s w i t c h . When S t a n l e y M i l g r a m f i r s t w r o t e t h i s s c r i p t , he t o o k i t t o f o u r t e e n Y a l e p s y c h o l o g y m a j o r s and a s k e d them what t h e y t h o u g h t w o u l d h a p p e n . He p u t i t t h i s way: o u t o f one h u n d r e d p e r s o n s i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r e d i c a m e n t , how w o u l d t h e i r b r e a k - o f f p o i n t s be d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g t h e l-5 - t p - 4 5 0 v o l t s c a l e ? They t h o u g h t a few w o u l d b r e a k o f f v e r y e a r l y , most w o u l d q u i t s o m e p l a c e i n t h e m i d d l e and a few w o u l d go a l l t h e way t o t h e end. The h i g h e s t e s t i m a t e o f t h e number who w o u l d go a l l t h e way t o t h e end was t h r e e . M i l g r a m t h e n p o l l e d some o f h i s f e l l o w s c h o l a r s i n t h e p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t . They a g r e e d t h a t v e r y few w o u l d go t o t h e end. M i l g r a m t h o u g h t so t o o . In h i s p i l o t e x p e r i m e n t s , M i l g r a m u s e d Y a l e s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s . E a c h of them pushed t h e shock s w i t c h e s , one by one, a l l t h e way t o t h e end o f t h e b o a r d . So he r e w r o t e t h e s c r i p t to i n c l u d e some p r o t e s t s f r o m t h e l e a r n e r . At f i r s t , t h e y were m i l d , g e n t l e m a n l y , Y a l i e p r o t e s t s , b u t , " i t d i d n ' t seem t o have as much e f f e c t as I t h o u g h t - i t would or s h o u l d , " M i l g r a m r e c a l l s . "So we had more v i o l e n t p r o t e s t a t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e p e r s o n g e t t i n g t h e s h o c k . A l l of t h e t i m e , of c o u r s e , what we were t r y i n g t o do was n o t to c r e a t e a macabre s i t u a t i o n , but s i m p l y to g e n e r a t e d i s o b e d i e n c e . And t h a t was one of t h e f i r s t f i n d i n g s . T h i s was n o t a t e c h n i c a l d e f i c i e n c y of t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h a t we d i d n ' t get d i s o b e d i e n c e . I t r e a l l y was t h e f i r s t f i n d i n g : t h a t o b e d i e n c e would be much g r e a t e r t h a n we had assumed i t would be and d i s o b e d i e n c e would be much more d i f f i c u l t t h a n we had assumed." As i t t u r n e d o u t , t h e s i t u a t i o n d i d become r a t h e r macabre. The o n l y m e a n i n g f u l way to g e n e r a t e d i s o b e d i e n c e was t o have t h e l e a r n e r p r o t e s t w i t h g r e a t a n g u i s h , n o i s e , and vehemence. The p r o t e s t s were t a p e - r e c o r d e d (so t h a t a l l t h e t e a c h e r s o r d i n a r i l y would he a r t h e same sounds and n u a n c e s ) . The p r o t e s t s s t a r t e d w i t h a g r u n t a t 75 v o l t s ; p r o c e e d e d t h r o u g h a, "Hey, t h a t r e a l l y h u r t s , " a t 125 v o l t s ; got d e s p e r a t e w i t h , " I c a n ' t s t a n d t h e p a i n - - d o n ' t do t h a t , " a t 180 v o l t s ; r e a c h e d c o m p l a i n t s of h e a r t t r o u b l e a t 195; an a g o n i z e d scream a t 285; a r e f u s a l to answer a t 315; and o n l y h e a r t - r e n d i n g , ominous s i l e n c e a f t e r t h a t . S t i l l , s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of t h e s u b j e c t s — e v e r y d a y , o r d i n a r y p e o p l e l i k e y ou and m e — o b e d i e n t l y k e p t p u s h i n g t h o s e l e v e r s a l l t h e way up to 450 v o l t s . F o r more t h a n s e v e n y e a r s now S t a n l e y M i l g r a m has been t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out what makes o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s so o b e d i e n t . The most o b v i o u s a n s w e r — t h a t p e o p l e a r e mean, n a s t y , and b r u t i s h — w o n ' t do. The s u b j e c t s who gave t h e s h o c k s t o t h e l e a r n e r t o t h e end o f t h e b o a r d d i d n o t e n j o y i t . They g r o a n e d , p r o t e s t e d , f i d g e t e d , a r g u e d , and i n some c a s e s were s e i z e d by f i t s o f n e r v o u s , a g i t a t e d g i g g l i n g . "They even t r y t o g e t out o f i t , " s a y s M i l g r a m , "but t h e y a r e somehow engaged i n s o m e t h i n g f r o m w h i c h t h e y c a n n o t l i b e r a t e t h e m s e l v e s . They a r e l o c k e d i n t o a s t r u c t u r e , and t h e y do n o t have t h e s k i l l s or i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t o d i s e n g a g e t h e m s e l v e s . " M i l g r a m , b e c a u s e he m i s t a k e n l y has assumed t h a t he would have t r o u b l e g e t t i n g p e o p l e to obey t h e o r d e r s t o s hock t h e l e a r n e r , went to a l o t o f t r o u b l e to c r e a t e a r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e was c r e w - c u t J a c k W i l l i a m s and h i s l a b o r a t o r y c o a t . Then t h e r e were t h e o t h e r a p p u r t e n a n c e s o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y w h i c h e m i t t e d t h e s i l e n t message t h a t t h i n g s were b e i n g p e r f o r m e d h e r e i n t h e name o f s c i e n c e , and were t h e r e f o r e g r e a t and good. When you c o n s i d e r t h e seeming a u t h e n t i c i t y of t h e s i t u a t i o n , you c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h e agony some of t h e s u b j e c t s went t h r o u g h . I t was p u r e c o n f l i c t . As M i l g r a m e x p l a i n s t o h i s s t u d e n t s , "when a p a r e n t s a y s to h i s c h i l d , 'don't s t r i k e o l d l a d i e s , ' you a r e l e a r n i n g two t h i n g s : t h e c o n t e n t , and a l s o , t o obey a u t h o r i t y . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t s between t h e two e l e m e n t s . " APPENDIX I I Answer each o f the q u e s t i o n s , one at a t i m e , f i n i s h i n g e a ch i n s e q u e n c e b e f o r e g o i n g on to the n e x t . 1. From the t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t of vi e w , what was h a p p e n i n g t o the: l e a r n e r ? Rate any e f f e c t s on t h e l e a r n e r on a s a c l e of 1 to 10. 2. Why d i d t h e t e a c h e r go on? Do you see i t as a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r t h e s i t u a t i o n he f o u n d h i m s e l f i n ( o r b o t h ) ? What r o l e d i d the e x p e r i m e n t e r p l a y i n the t e a c h e r g o i n g on? 3. From the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s p o i n t of view, what was h a p p e n i n g to the t e a c h e r ? Rate any e f f e c t s on the t e a c h e r on a s c a l e of 1 to 10. 4. Why d i d the e x p e r i m e n t e r go on? What was c o n t r o l l i n g h i s / h e r b e h a v i o u r ? 5. Do you t h i n k the t e a c h e r l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g from b e i n g i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ? I f s o , what? 6. Do you t h i n k the e x p e r i m e n t e r l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g from b e i n g i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ? I f so, what? 7. Do you see any p a r a l l e l s between the t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s the l e a r n e r and t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s b e h a v i o u r towards the t e a c h e r . I f s o , p l e a s e e x p l a i n . APPENDIX H I The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t were u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . They v o l u n t e e r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e x p e r i m e n t t h a t was e x p l a i n e d t o them as e s s e n t i a l l y a r e p l i c a t i o n of M i l g r a m ' s famous o b e d i e n c e to a u t h o r i t y s t u d y . The v o l u n t e e r s were t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h M i l g r a m ' s work. They were t h e n t o l d t h a t i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n t h e y would be p l a y i n g t h e r o l e of e x p e r i m e n t e r and t h a t t h e r e would be a l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e ( j u s t as t h e r e had been i n M i l g r a m ' s s t u d y ) . T h e i r j o b , as e x p e r i m e n t e r 1 , would be to u r g e a n a i v e t e a c h e r — s u b j e c t to c o n t i n u e s h o c k i n g t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . Of c o u r s e , t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r -a t e wasn't g e t t i n g s h o c k e d and. t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s knew t h i s . The r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r d o i n g a r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s w e l l - k n o w n s t u d y were: (1) " t o f i n d out i f p e r s o n s who were n o t i n f a c t l i g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t i e s ( i . e . , u n d e r g r a d u a t e v o l u n t e e r s ) c o u l d g e t t h e same l e v e l o f o b e d i e n c e as t h e o r i g i n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r h a d ; " and (2) " b e c a u s e we b e l i e v e t h a t we have no r e a l s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why p e o p l e a r e w i l l i n g t o d i s t r e s s o t h e r s f o r the sake o f an i m p o r t a n t end, l i k e s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " The s t u d e n t e x p e r i m e n t e r s were r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s i n M i l g r a m ' s s t u d y had not j u s t b l i t h e l y s h o c k e d t h e l e a r n e r , but had t h e m s e l v e s become e x t r e m e l y d i s t r e s s e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e s u p p o s e d l y r e a l and s e v e r e d i s t r e s s of t h e l e a r n e r . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e p l i c a t i o n would e l i c i t t h e same h i g h l e v e l o f d i s t r e s s among t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s : t h a t t h e y would become u p s e t , p e r s p i r e , f e e l p a n i c , and p e r h a p s c r y . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s were a d v i s e d t h a t t h e y m i g h t have to c a l l upon a l l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s to i n s i s t t h a t t h e d i s t r a u g h t t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t c o n t i n u e to shock th e l o u d l y p r o t e s t i n g . , c r y i n g l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . The s t u d e n t -Jexperimenters were a s s u r e d t h a t , though t h i s m i g h t be d i f f i c u l t , t h e y s h o u l d remember t h a t we had a l r e a d y done a p i l o t s t u d y and t h a t t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s s u f f e r e d no l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s f r o m e i t h e r t h e d i s t r e s s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t o r from h a v i n g t o f a c e the f a c t t h a t u l t i m a t e l y , t h e y had been w i l l i n g to d i s t r e s s a n o t h e r p e r s o n (a) f o r t h e sake o f an experiment-, and (b) i n o b e d i e n c e to t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would be w a t c h i n g from a one-way o b s e r v a t i o n window and would s t o p t h e e x p e r i m e n t i f she t h o u g h t t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t was becoming to d i s t r e s s e d . The s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r d i d not have t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w e l f a r e of t h e tea'che'r—subject . T o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was assumed by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . A l l t h e s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r needed t o do was c o n s i s t e n t l y i n s i s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s hock t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . The day of t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r , l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e , and s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r got t o g e t h e r t h i r t y m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e t e a c h e r was due t o a r r i v e . At t h i s t i m e t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r l e a r n e d a l l t h e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s ( i . e . , how t o e x p l a i n t h e " l e a r n i n g " e x p e r i m e n t , how t o e x p l a i n t h e use of t h e " s h o c k b o a r d , " e t c . ) T h i s was a p r a c t i c e p e r i o d f o r t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r -i m e n t e r so t h a t she or he would a t l e a s t a p p e a r to be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s and competent t o c a r r y out t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T e a c h e r s c o u l d n o t , a f t e r a l l , be e x p e c t e d t o obey e x p e r i m e n t e r s who d i d n ' t know how t o e x p l a i n an e x p e r i m e n t . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r was g i v e n as l o n g as was n e c e s s a r y to f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e ( n e v e r more t h a n 60 m i n u t e s ) . I f t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t a r r i v e d b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r was r e a d y , t h e f o r m e r was a s k e d to w a i t and g i v e n an a p o l o g y f o r t h e d e l a y . When e v e r y t h i n g was r e a d y .to go, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r went i n t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n room and t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e went out a back d o o r . The l a t t e r w a l k e d a r o u n d t h e b u i l d i n g , came i n t h e f r o n t door ( a p p a r e n t l y a r r i v i n g f o r an e x p e r i m e n t ) , and j o i n e d t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t , s t r i k i n g up a c o n v e r s a t i o n ("Are you h e r e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t t o o ? " , e t c . ) . The s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r w a i t e d a few m i n u t e s and t h e n went out to g e t t h e "two" s u b j e c t s , p r e t e n d i n g o f c o u r s e not to know t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e . A l l t h r e e came back t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l room and t h e e x p e r i m e n t began. T h e r e was a h i g h l e v e l o f c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s a l l s e s s i o n s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e d i d a c o m p e l l i n g j o b o f p o r t r a y i n g m o u n t i n g d i s t r e s s . At t h e low l e v e l s of s h o c k , t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e made s m a l l n o i s e s , l i k e • a q u i e t " o u c h ! " These b u i l t up to l o u d e r g a s p s , c r y i n g o u t , p l e a d i n g to be l e t out of t h e e x p e r i m e n t (remember, t h e l e a r n e r i s s u p p o s e d l y s t r a p p e d down), and s c r e a m i n g and p o u n d i n g . The t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s l i k e w i s e became d i s t r e s s e d . T h e i r d i s t r e s s t e n d e d to f o l l o w t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e ' s d i s t r e s s . The t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s moved from s l i g h t g i g g l i n g ; t o e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n about t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e ("Are you s u r e t h i s i s o k a y ? " ) ; to s t r o n g l y q u e s t i o n i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t ("I'm n o t s u r e t h i s i s r i g h t " ) ; to g e t t i n g e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t , and f a i r l y o f t e n , c o m p l a i n i n g o f a head or stomach a c h e . By t h e t i m e the l a s t t h i r d o f t h e t h i r t y shock l e v e l s were r e a c h e d , t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s were v e r y u p s e t and r e p e a t e d l y i m p l o r e d t h e s t u d e n t -e x p e r i m e n t e r t o s t o p the e x p e r i m e n t . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s f o u n d i t e m o t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t to c o n t i n u e i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s s h o c k t h e l e a r n e r - c o n f e d e r a t e , t h o u g h t h e y were a b l e t o c a r r y out t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s to do s o . Two s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s h a l t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t to ask t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s h o u l d c o n t i n u e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a s s u r e d them t h a t t h e t e a c h e r had n o t r e a c h e d an i n t o l e r a b l e l e v e l o f d i s t r e s s and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t . They d i d so, tho u g h somewhat r e l u c t a n t l y . When t h e e x p e r i m e n t was o v e r , t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i -m e n t e r s d e b r i e f e d t h e t e a c h e r , i m p r e s s i n g upon them t h a t most p e o p l e d i d c o n t i n u e to t h e 4 5 0 - v o l t l e v e l and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n ' t see t h e i r own b e h a v i o u r i n d o i n g so as d e v i a n t . B o t h t h e s t u d e n t - e x p e r i m e n t e r s and t h e t e a c h e r - s u b j e c t s were t h e n i n t e r v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y t o g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r m u t u a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e o b e d i e n c e s i t u a t i o n . APPENDIX IV You w i l l be r e a d i n g an a c c o u n t / w a t c h i n g a v i d e o t a p e of a s o c i a l e p i s o d e : i n t h i s c a s e an a c c o u n t o f what went on i n an e x p e r i m e n t . As you may be aware, i t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e to v i e w a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . E ach p e r s o n may i n t e r p r e t what i s g o i n g on f r o m h e r or h i s own s e t of a s s u m p t i o n s and not t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t t h e y have o n l y a p a r t of a l a r g e r r e a l i t y . The c l a s s i c s t o r y of the t h r e e b l i n d men and t h e e l e p h a n t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n . E ach of t h e b l i n d men g r a b b e d h o l d o f a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h e e l e p h a n t . E a c h became s u r e t h a t h i s " p a r t " was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e w h o l e . They each h o t l y d e n i e d t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e o t h e r s ' a c c o u n t . I n a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a p e r s o n may b e l i e v e t h a t he or she i s c a r r y i n g out a r o l e , f u l f i l l i n g a f u n c t i o n , o r o t h e r w i s e b e h a v i n g i n a f a s h i o n t h a t has a p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g . L a t e r , t h e p e r s o n may f i n d t h a t h i s o r h e r b e h a v i o u r had a v e r y d i f f e r e n t m e aning. E r v i n g S o f f m a n has r e f e r r e d to t h i s as t h e "drama" a s p e c t o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . I n o u r n o r m a l , e v e r y d a y dramas t h e r e may o r may n o t be " d i r e c t o r s " : p e r s o n s whose i n t e n t i o n s a r e s h a p i n g or i n f l u e n c i n g t h e meaning of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . In a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t t h e r e a r e d e f i n i t e l y d i r e c t o r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s s t r i v e t o s e t up an e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e "meaning." In e x p e r i m e n t s i n v o l v i n g d e c e p t i o n , t h i s t r u e meaning i s k e p t a s e c r e t f r o m t h e s u b j e c t . T h u s , t h e s u b j e c t : has one s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t what i s t r u e i n t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r may have a n o t h e r . In s u c h a w e l l d i r e c t e d "drama" as an e x p e r i m e n t , f o r w h i c h a s c r i p t was c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c r e a t e s t h e meaning. We want you t o r e a d t h e a c c o u n t / w a t c h the v i d e o t a p e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and t r y t o i m a g i n e what t h e meaning o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ( i . e . , what q u e s t i o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n ) . You w i l l be g i v e n a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , the d e s i g n f e a t u r e s , who d i d what t o whom, how e v e r y o n e r e a c t e d — b u t you a r e to come up w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f why t h i s drama was s t a g e d . What a r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f what the. i n v e s t i g a t o r i s " s e e i n g " ? L e t y o u r r e a d i n g / v i e w i n g be d i r e c t e d by t h e i d e a t h a t " t h i n g s a r e not a l w a y s what t h e y seem," and see what you come up w i t h . APPENDIX V You w i l l be r e a d i n g an ac c o u n t / " w a t c h i n g a v i d e o t a p e of a s o c i a l e p i s o d e : i n t h i s c a s e an a c c o u n t of what went on i n an e x p e r i m e n t . As you a r e p r o b a b l y aware, any s o c i a l e p i s o d e ( e x p e r i e n c e ) i s made up of doze n s and dozens o f m i n u t e b i t s o f b e h a v i o u r . You w i l l be g i v e n t h e d e t a i l s o f what went on i n an e x p e r i m e n t (who d i d what to whom, how e v e r y o n e r e a c t e d ) and y o u r t a s k w i l l be t o remember, a t t h e end o f y o u r v i e w i n g / r e a d i n g , as many i n s t a n c e s o f c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o u r as you can.. By i n s t a n c e s o f c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o u r we mean what was s a i d ( i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e ) , g e s t u r e s , s e q u e n c e s o f g e s t u r e s . You can e i t h e r s t r i n g t h e s e t o g e t h e r , as t h e y happened, o r you c a n memorize u n c o n n e c t e d b i t s of b e h a v i o u r . Which s t r a t e g y you use i s up t o y o u - - j u s t t r y t o come up w i t h as many i n s t a n c e s as you c a n . You w i l l be g i v e n t h r e e m i n u t e s to r e p o r t , v e r b a l l y , what you remember a f t e r y o u r v i e w i n g / r e a d i n g . Then t h e i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e p r o c e d u r e and t h e e x p e r i m e n t w i t h y o u . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s about what i s b e i n g a s k e d of y o u , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l be happy to answer y o u r q u e s t i o n s a n d / o r p r o v i d e you w i t h examples of c o n c r e t e b e h a v i o u r s . APPENDIX VI Below a r e two colums o f e v e n t s . One o f them d e s c r i b e s e v e n t s d i r e c t e d towards o r e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e t e a c h e r . The o t h e r d e s c r i b e s e v e n t s t h a t were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s or e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The t e a c h e r ' s l i s t i s more or l e s s a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r o f t h e h a p p e n i n g o f t h e e v e n t s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s l i s t has been mixed up. P l e a s e m a t c h the e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e t e a c h e r w i t h t h e ones o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a t most c o r r e s p o n d . By " c o r r e s p o n d " i s meant t h e d e g r e e to w h i c h an e x p e r i e n c e of t h e t e a c h e r m a t c h e s o r seems i n some d e g r e e s i m i l a r to an e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e x p e r i -m e n t e r . Match a l l i t e m s as w e l l as you can on t h e s h e e t p r o v i d e d . Put t h e l e t t e r b e s i d e t h e number. Then r a t e t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e m a tch o r r e l a t i o n s h i p on a s c a l e o f one (no r e l a t i o n s h i p ) t o s e v e n ( i d e n t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . E v e n t s d i r e c t e d towards or e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r 1. T e a c h e r a s s u r e d t h a t e x p e r i m e n t i s s c i e n t i f i -c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . 2. T e a c h e r g i v e n a s h o c k to e n s u r e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s h o c k s w i l l be p a i n f u l f o r t h e l e a r n e r . 3. L e a r n e r e x p r e s s e s g r e a t d i s t r e s s , y e l l s o u t , and c r i e s . 4. L e a r n e r p l e a d s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r t o s t o p . 5. T e a c h e r t o l d t h a t t h e l e a r n e r w i l l s u f f e r no permanent damage. 6. T e a c h e r t o l d t h a t ( s ) h e must c o n t i n u e , t h a t ( s ) h e must f i n i s h . E v e n t s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s or e x p e r i e n c e d by e x p e r i -m e n t e r a. T e a c h e r e x p r e s s e s g r e a t d i s t r e s s , y e l l s and c r i e s . b. I n v e s t i g a t o r seen as l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . c. . E x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l be okay i n t h e l o n g r u n . d. E x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h a t ( s ) h e i s to c a r r y e x p e r i -ment o u t t o t h e end. Not g i v e n o p t i o n t o t e r m i n a t e . D e c i s i o n t o t e r m i n a t e up to i n v e s t i g a t o r . e. T e a c h e r p l e a d s w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r to s t o p . 7. E x p e r i m e n t e r s e e n as l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y by t h e t e a c h e r . 8. T e a c h e r t o l d t h a t e x p e r i m e n t e r a c c e p t s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f a t e of t h e l e a r n e r . f . E x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h a t t e a c h e r s u s u a l l y become q u i t e d i s t r e s s e d i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e e x p e r i -m enter u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s p a i n f u l f o r t h e t e a c h e r . g. E x p e r i m e n t e r a s s u r e d t h a t e x p e r i m e n t i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . h. E x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r a c c e p t s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a t e o f t e a c h e r . TABLE I A g r e e d to p a r t i c i p a t e 26 R e f u s e d 4 L a t e r d e c l i n e d 2 Completed e x p e r i m e n t 22 S t o p p e d e x p e r i m e n t 2 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n E x p e r i m e n t I TABLE I I D i s t r e s s of l e a r n e r from t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w 9.68 D i s t r e s s o f t e a c h e r from e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w 8.95 Means of P e r c e i v e d D i s t r e s s 120 TABLE I I I E x p e r i m e n t e r s who wanted to s t o p 20 E x p e r i m e n t e r s who d i d n o t want to s t o p 2 E x p e r i m e n t e r who wanted to s t o p and d i d E x p e r i m e n t e r s who wanted to Stop TABLE IV Saw P a r a l l e l D i d Not R e a l 4 41 A c t o r s 29 16 E x p e r i m e n t I I -- C h i - S q u a r e , P < .001 TABLE V Complete h y p o t h e s i s No h y p o t h e s e s M o l a r 12 M o l e c u l a r 1 14 ( F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T, P < .005) E x p e r i m e n t I I I , F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T 

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