UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Participation in voluntary organizations and status inconsistency Knapen, Joseph Mathijs Peter 1981

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PARTICIPATION IN VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS AND STATUS INCONSISTENCY by JOSEPH MATHIJS PETER KNAPEN C a n d i d a a t , U n i v e r s i t y of T i l b u r g , 1967 Doctorandus, U n i v e r s i t y of T i l b u r g , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 (c) Joseph M a t h i j s P e t e r Knapen, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date November 28, 1981 nF-fi 17/19) i i ABSTRACT While i t i s an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s , the more complex i s s u e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a t t e r n of i n d i v i d u a l s ' rank p o s i t i o n s i n s e v e r a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t i l l remains u n s e t t l e d . The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o reexamine L e n s k i ' s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s an o b s t a c l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h a t p e o p l e who have i n c o n s i s t e n t , or u n e q u a l l y e v a l u a t e d , s t a t u s e s are o f t e n exposed t o d i s t u r b i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . They r e a c t t o those e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h a tendency t o a v o i d or withdraw from c e r t a i n forms of s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s have fewer memberships and a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i n d i v i d u a l s whose s t a t u s e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t . The hypotheses a r e t e s t e d i n a secondary a n a l y s i s of survey d a t a f o r samples of employed a d u l t s i n two Canadian c i t i e s . The s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s a r e e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income. S e v e r a l s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s a r e used, each d e f i n e d i n terms of d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of r anks on a p a i r of s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s . The a n a l y s i s i s g u i d e d by the a ssumption t h a t a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t may be c o n c e i v e d as due t o s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the c o n s t i t u e n t s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . Such e f f e c t s might be p r e s e n t when an a d d i t i v e model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and a g i v e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e p roves t o f i t the d a t a i n a d e q u a t e l y . The a n a l y s e s , u s i n g a dummy-variable m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n f o r m a t , r e v e a l t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between obse r v e d v a l u e s on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e s and the v a l u e s p r e d i c t e d by a model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l and do not show the p a t t e r n s e x p e c t e d under the h y p o t h e s e s . Moreover, a n o n a d d i t i v e model, which i n c l u d e s a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e i n a d d i t i o n t o the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which i t i s formed, f a i l s t o e x p l a i n even a moderate amount more v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e s than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i t i v e model. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n c y between a c h i e v e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s e s has no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on membership or o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , over and above the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the p r o p o s i t i o n of a n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s not s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a of t h i s r e s e a r c h . I t i s suggested t h a t t h e s e n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by dubious assumptions i n the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument so f a r as i t r e l a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . However, the i d e a t h a t f r u s t r a t i n g and u n p l e a s a n t s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s may a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s ^ s e n s i b l e and d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS i v Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x INTRODUCTION 1 The Research Problem 1 Purpose and Scope of the Study 3 S y n o p s i s of the T h e s i s 5 CHAPTER 1 VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS: FUNCTIONS AND PARTICIPATION 7 V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s D e f i n e d 8 V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e 12 The Mass S o c i e t y P e r s p e c t i v e 13 The P l u r a l i s t View 16 P e r s o n a l Consequences of P a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r Members 19 V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Modern Urban S o c i e t y : An A p p r a i s a l 21 E x t e n t of Membership ." 21 A c t i v e Involvement 24 I n t e r n a l O p e r a t i o n of O r g a n i z a t i o n s ,26 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 27 V Page CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL ARGUMENTS 31 De t e r m i n a n t s and C o n d i t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s 31 S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and P a r t i c i p a t i o n 37 The Concept of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y 37 E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y : F i n d i n g s from P r e v i o u s R esearch 47 The Hypotheses 52 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 55 Data Sources and Samples 55 Measurement of the V a r i a b l e s 59 Dependent V a r i a b l e s 60 Independent V a r i a b l e s 69 Methods of A n a l y s i s 74 The Core Problem: I s o l a t i n g the E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y 74 S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y E f f e c t s as S t a t i s t i c a l I n t e r a c t i o n 81 G e n e r a l S t r a t e g y i n Data A n a l y s i s 85 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE ANALYSES 89 S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and Membership i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s 90 The P o r t A l b e r n i Sample 90 The Vancouver Sample: Men 105 The Vancouver Sample: Employed Women 116 Summary 122 v i Page S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and H o l d i n g O f f i c e i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s 125 F i n d i n g s f o r the Three Samples 126 Summary 141 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 143 C o n c l u s i o n s 143 Some Reasons Why the A n t i c i p a t e d E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y Were Not Found 147 Problems i n D e f i n i n g S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y ..... 148 The Unknown F a c t o r : E x p e r i e n c e of S t r e s s 152 W i t h d r a w a l Only as a L a s t R e s o r t 158 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l R e t r o s p e c t i o n 162 A n a l y s i s Model A p p r o p r i a t e ? 162 The Problem of M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y 167 The E f f e c t s of Socioeconomic S t a t u s on P a r t i c i p a t i o n 173 C o n d i t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A C o n c l u d i n g Note 178 LIST OF REFERENCES 186 APPENDIX 197 v i i LIST OF TABLES Tab l e Page 1. Number of Memberships i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples ( P e r c e n t a g e s and Summary S t a t i s t i c s ) 63 2. Number of O f f i c e s H e l d i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples ( P e r c e n t a g e s and Summary S t a t i s t i c s ) 68 3. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the Number of Memberships i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) 94 4. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) 96 5. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) . 100 6. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of Number of Memberships on P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Men) .... 107 7. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s (Vancouver Sample: Men) 108 8. Summary of the E f f e c t s of Three Types of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership (Vancouver Sample: Men) 113 9. Dummy-Variable • R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of Number of Memberships on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 120 v i i i T a b l e Page 10. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 121 11. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 121 12. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n of Respondents H o l d i n g O f f i c e i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) 133 13. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) 134 14. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) 134 15. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n O f f i c e - H o l d e r s on P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Men) 135 16. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s (Vancouver Sample: Men) 136 17. Summary of the E f f e c t s of Three Types of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g (Vancouver Sample: Men) 138 18. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n O f f i c e - H o l d e r s on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 139 i x T a b l e Page 19. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 140 20. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) 140 21. A s s o c i a t i o n s Between Measures of Socioeconomic S t a t u s and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples 198 22. A s s o c i a t i o n s Among Measures of Socioeconomic S t a t u s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples 199 23. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample. N=513) 200 24. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men. N=398 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) 201 25. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of E d u c a t i o n a l and Income S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men. N=392 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) 202 26. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of O c c u p a t i o n a l and Income S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men. N=384 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) 203 27. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and Stan d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women. N=137) 204 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To the members- of my a d v i s o r y committee - George Gray, Henry Hightower, M a r t i n M e i s s n e r , and Reg Robson - I e x p r e s s my thanks f o r g u i d i n g me w i t h t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , c r i t i c a l commentary, and p a t i e n c e t o the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o M a r t i n M e i s s n e r and George Gray, who s u c c e s s i v e l y a c t e d as r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r s and have been v e r y generous i n p r o v i d i n g a d v i c e and encouragement. I a l s o want t o thank them f o r making the da t a a v a i l a b l e t h a t were used i n the r e s e a r c h . An i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s work has been the supp o r t i n many ways of B r i g i t t e Knapen. 1 INTRODUCTION A s t r i k i n g f a c e t of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of urban i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y i s the e x i s t e n c e of numerous and d i v e r s e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Such groups i n c l u d e , f o r example, c i v i c and c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l , hobby, and s p o r t s c l u b s , f r a t e r n a l l o d g e s , o c c u p a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and a v a s t a r r a y of s p e c i a l - i n t e r e s t g roups. The importance of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and f o r s o c i e t y as a whole has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d . By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d a s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which t o pursue l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ; they get a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n , and they have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make new and more s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . F u r t h e r , inasmuch as v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s promote c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of members, they a r e a means t o get t h i n g s done. At the m a c r o - l e v e l of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s e groups l i e s i n t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r l o c a l community and t o mediate between them and l a r g e r s o c i a l u n i t s . The R esearch Problem A l t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e , a l a r g e p a r t of the Canadian a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n does not belong t o any of these groups, and t h e r e a r e many members who do not tak e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e i r 2 o r g a n i z a t i o n . G i v e n t h a t t h i s form of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has major consequences f o r the s o c i a l system and f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know i t s d e t e r m i n a n t s and t o u n d e r s t a n d the c o n d i t i o n s under which p e o p l e a r e l i k e l y t o become i n v o l v e d i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s a f i r m l y and e m p i r i c a l l y a s c e r t a i n e d f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l s t a t u s . In g e n e r a l , a person i s more l i k e l y t o be a member of a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o be an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t , and t o be an o f f i c e r or committee member t o the e x t e n t t h a t he or she i s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , b e t t e r e d u c a t e d , has an o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i g h e r p r e s t i g e , earns a h i g h e r income, and has a more h i g h l y e v a l u a t e d e t h n i c background. But s i n c e people occupy rank p o s i t i o n s i n s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s of s o c i a l s t a t u s , the q u e s t i o n was posed as t o whether the r e l a t i o n s among t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on the v a r i o u s s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s may perhaps have something t o do w i t h the way they t h i n k , f e e l , and behave. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g s t a t u s e s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t (or p o o r l y c r y s t a l l i z e d , i n c o n g r u e n t , i m b a l a n c e d - - o t h e r l a b e l s t h a t have been used t o denote the same phenomenon) have d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e w a r d i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and as a r e s u l t tend t o withdraw from v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s argument, which was f i r s t advanced and e m p i r i c a l l y examined by L e n s k i (1956b) 25 y e a r s ago, appeared t o a t l e a s t have the p o t e n t i a l t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e our a b i l i t y t o 3 account f o r v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t o r a i s e s o c i o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h a t phenomenon above the l e v e l of e n c y c l o p a e d i c , knowledge. Up t o now, however, t h i s promise has not been f u l f i l l e d . For i n s e v e r a l o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has an u n f a v o u r a b l e impact on p a r t i c i p a t i o n the h y p o t h e s i s has not escaped u n s c a t h e d . The f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a r e mixed and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The problem a d d r e s s e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e n , i s once a g a i n : I s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y a c o n d i t i o n t h a t i n h i b i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s : When we take i n t o account the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s , do i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s b e l o n g t o fewer v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and are they l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s ? Purpose and Scope of the Study As a l r e a d y s a i d , a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer t o those q u e s t i o n s on the b a s i s of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has so f a r not y e t been g i v e n . Yet the concept of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s one of the most i n t u i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g i n s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y , and the argument l i n k i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n has some p l a u s i b i l i t y . I t seems premature t o d i s m i s s i t as i n v a l i d or t o c o n c l u d e t h a t r e s e a r c h on t h i s t o p i c ' i s no l o n g e r u s e f u l or n e c e s s a r y . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o t r y t o s t r e n g t h e n the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y 4 argument, t o keep s e a r c h i n g f o r s o l u t i o n s t o the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n v o l v e d , and t o s u b j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s of a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l t e s t s . The main purpose of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o e x t e n s i v e l y r e t e s t the above h y p o t h e s i s and t o a s s e s s the m e r i t s of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument as a s o c i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In the t i t l e of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , " p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s " i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y p l a c e d b e f o r e , " s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y " . By p u t t i n g the two components i n t h a t o r d e r I have meant t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s study o r i g i n a t e s i n an i n t e r e s t i n the problem why some peopl e p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i l e o t h e r s do n o t , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e t h i s b e h a v i o u r . But the study does not p u r p o r t t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t s scope i s much more l i m i t e d , f o r i t d e a l s w i t h o n l y one such p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e , t o w i t , the degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Nor i s i t , on the o t h e r hand, my i n t e n t i o n t o c a r r y out a comprehensive t e s t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y . S t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has been used t o e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r s and a t t i t u d e s . But t h i s study examines the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument f o r o n l y one p a r t i c u l a r type of b e h a v i o u r , namely, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 5 S y n o p s i s of the T h e s i s In Chapter 1 the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t s of the study a r e o u t l i n e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of some of the f u n c t i o n s v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been s a i d t o p e r f o r m . These c l a i m s a re e v a l u a t e d i n the l i g h t of a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e on the e x t e n t and n a t u r e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n th e s e groups i n modern N o r t h American s o c i e t i e s . Chapter 2 b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f l o o k a t the ways s o c i o l o g i s t s have t r i e d t o account f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Then the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y concept i s d i s c u s s e d and the main arguments c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d . Drawing upon th e s e and upon the r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h I have f o r m u l a t e d f o u r hypotheses t o be t e s t e d . T h i s t e s t i n g i n v o l v e s a secondary a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g d a t a , and Chapter 3 d e s c r i b e s the d a t a s o u r c e s and samples. F u r t h e r , the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s i s o u t l i n e d and the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y adopted i n the r e s e a r c h i s i n t r o d u c e d and d i s c u s s e d . Ample room i s made f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t y p i c a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y the problem of s e p a r a t i n g the e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y from s t a t u s e f f e c t s . Chapter 4 c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s . I t i s u n a v o i d a b l y d a t a - i n t e n s i v e , s i n c e the number of a n a l y s e s i s l a r g e and t h e r e a r e many r e s u l t s t o p r e s e n t . These show t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on membership and 6 o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y from the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s per se. In Chapter 5 the c o n c l u s i o n s are s t a t e d and the i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn o u t . The major c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t as f a r as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s concerned an e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s unnecessary and u n p a r s i m o n i o u s . Reasons f o r the l a c k of support f o r the hypotheses a r e sought i n some dubious assumptions i n the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument. But the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . The c h a p t e r and the study a r e c o n c l u d e d w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 7 CHAPTER 1 VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS: FUNCTIONS AND PARTICIPATION What a r e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Why study v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? What i s i t about t h e s e groups t h a t makes them s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and s o c i o l o g i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g ? These q u e s t i o n s form the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r of the main c o n c e p t s and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g about the r o l e s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y and i n the l i f e of i n d i v i d u a l s . To what e x t e n t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can and a c t u a l l y do pe r f o r m the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o them i n s o c i a l t h e o r y i s a s s e s s e d n e x t . T h i s a p p r a i s a l i s based on e x i s t i n g e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P a r t of the v a s t l i t e r a t u r e of s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a rea i s b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d . These i n t r o d u c t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s do not d i r e c t l y bear upon the r e s e a r c h problem p r o p e r . They ser v e t o s k e t c h the broader c o n t e x t w i t h i n which the s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c r e l e v a n c e of the r e s e a r c h problem can be a s s e s s e d . 8 V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s D e f i n e d A v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s commonly d e f i n e d as a p r i v a t e group of p e r s o n s , more or l e s s f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d , which e x i s t s t o s e r v e some common i n t e r e s t s of the members or t o pursue a s p e c i f i c g o a l , and i n which membership, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and w i t h d r a w a l depend upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own c h o i c e . Such a group i s n o n p r o f i t and i t s members a r e u s u a l l y not p a i d f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ( s e e , f o r example, A x e l r o d , 1956; S i l l s , 1968:362-3; Smith and Freedman, I 9 7 2 : v i i i ) . For a c l e a r comprehension of the phenomenon of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s u s e f u l t o examine t h i s d e f i n i t i o n more c l o s e l y . One of the problems i n d e f i n i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n s the p r e c i s e meaning of the term " v o l u n t a r y " . V o l u n t a r i n e s s i s t y p i c a l l y thought t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p h y s i c a l or l e g a l c o e r c i o n , a s c r i b e d s t a t u s , and the need t o earn a l i v i n g . That i s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which membership i s mandatory or a c q u i r e d t h rough b i r t h or de t e r m i n e d by d i r e c t economic r e m u n e r a t i o n a r e not v o l u n t a r y . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , v o l u n t a r i n e s s i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t o i n v o l v e a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of d i s c r e t i o n and freedom of c h o i c e . 1 How the s e c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d and a p p l i e d i n or d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h v o l u n t a r y from i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s 1 I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the a d j e c t i v e " v o l u n t a r y " r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the b e h a v i o u r of i n d i v i d u a l s and o n l y i n a d e r i v e d sense t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h i s term a p p l i e s t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i l e a c t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y as members. 9 a m a t t e r i n d i s p u t e . For i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n as t o whether or not t r a d e u nions and o t h e r w o r k - r e l a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and c h u r c h e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the c a t e g o r y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as Rose (1965:392-3) has not e d , the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t the e s s e n t i a l , d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s t h a t e n t r a n c e , e x i t , and involvement r e s t on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f r e e c h o i c e , makes the above d e f i n i t i o n v i r t u a l l y t a u t o l o g i c a l , s i n c e " v o l u n t a r y " i m p l i e s f r e e c h o i c e . The n o t i o n s of v o l u n t a r i n e s s and freedom of c h o i c e a l s o imply t h a t a person makes an i n d i v i d u a l and c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o j o i n a p a r t i c u l a r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , a f t e r h a v i n g weighed the advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of such an a c t i o n . However, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s " f r e e c h o i c e " i s always l i m i t e d t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e x t e n t by s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . These s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a r e of t h r e e major t y p e s : (a) the o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e , which a f f e c t s c h o i c e by p r e s e n t i n g a l i m i t e d number and v a r i e t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o the i n d i v i d u a l ; (b) d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s — p a r e n t s , c h i l d r e n , spouse, f r i e n d s ; (c) the v a l u e s , norms, and s a n c t i o n s of s o c i e t y and i t s subgroups which b i a s a person's c h o i c e s ( P a l i s i , 1968). The v o l u n t a r y c h a r a c t e r of b e h a v i o u r and of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e s t r i c t e d by these s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s i n t h a t they i n f l u e n c e or even compel people t o • j o i n and ta k e p a r t i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t has been suggested t h a t v o l u n t a r i n e s s t h e r e f o r e i s a matter of degree, something t h a t i s best c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a c o n t i n u o u s dimension r a t h e r than as a dichotomy (see Rose, 1965:392; Smith et a l . , 1972:163-5). Thus, 10 i t becomes an e m p i r i c a l m a t t e r t o d etermine whether and t o what e x t e n t a p e r s o n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s v o l u n t a r y . 1 V o l u n t a r i n e s s i s o n l y one of s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s i m p l i e d i n the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n c e p t . When v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o n v o l u n t a r y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y , b u s i n e s s e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , government a g e n c i e s ) , the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a , each of which i s a v a r i a b l e , seem t o be e s s e n t i a l . 1. V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e those o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which a f f i l i a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and r e s i g n a t i o n a r e o p t i o n a l , i n the sense t h a t t h e s e a c t i o n s depend t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on the c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , r a t h e r than b e i n g mandatory^or c o e r c e d . 2. Membership i s o b t a i n e d and m a i n t a i n e d by meeting c e r t a i n m i n i m a l c o n d i t i o n s , u s u a l l y payment of dues and s h a r i n g a common o r i e n t a t i o n . S p e c i f i c performance, such as r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e , i s u s u a l l y not a c o n d i t i o n f o r r e t a i n i n g 1 P a l i s i went a s t e p f u r t h e r and argued t h a t " s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s and groups a r e always i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l group p r e s s u r e s , t h e r e i s no f r e e c h o i c e , t h e r e i s no v o l u n t a r y b e h a v i o r , and f i n a l l y , t h e r e are no [ f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ] " ( P a l i s i , 1968:400). He proposed t o r e p l a c e the concept of v o l u n t a r i n e s s by the concept of d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l f o r c e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see, however, t h a t t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n of an a d m i t t e d l y vague n o t i o n by a n other e q u a l l y hazy n o t i o n l e a d s t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a l i s i ' s s t a n d p o i n t i s d i c t a t e d by h i s u n n e c e s s a r i l y narrow d e f i n i t i o n of v o l u n t a r i n e s s , w h i l e he uses " s o c i a l f o r c e " i n a v e r y broad sense. " V o l u n t a r i n e s s " means the absence of any s o c i a l f o r c e , which i n t u r n i s d e f i n e d as any f a c t o r t h a t i n f l u e n c e s a person t o behave i n a c e r t a i n way and i s not the p r o d u c t of r a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 11 membership. 3. The m a j o r i t y of members do not r e c e i v e payment f o r t h e i r p a r t - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; they p a r t i c i p a t e as v o l u n t e e r s . 4 . The c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l of the a c t i v i t i e s of the members a r e i n p r i n c i p l e d e m o c r a t i c , r a t h e r than a u t o c r a t i c . 5. V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re e s t a b l i s h e d t o ser v e and promote p r i m a r i l y the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r membership or some segment of s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than those of owners. V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s come i n many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and i n l a r g e numbers. Examples are p o l i t i c a l and c i v i c groups (such as r a t e p a y e r s a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , h e a l t h and c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s (such as the Kinsmen R e h a b i l i t a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n ) , f r a t e r n a l and v e t e r a n s s o c i e t i e s (such as the Masons and the R o y a l Canadian L e g i o n ) , e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s (such as the I t a l i a n - C a n a d i a n C l u b ) , p a r e n t s a s s o c i a t i o n s (such as p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , e d u c a t i o n a l and hobby c l u b s (such as the power squadron and a p i g e o n - r a c i n g c l u b ) , s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s (such as a S o f t b a l l or a b o w l i n g c l u b ) , c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (such as the Vancouver H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ) , p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s (such as the Canadian S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y A s s o c i a t i o n and the J a y c e e s ) , c h u r c h e s and c h u r c h - r e l a t e d groups (such as the men's or women's c l u b a t a c h u r c h ) . 1 2 V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e S o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s emanates from what may be c o n s i d e r e d t o be the d i s t i n c t i v e t a s k of s o c i o l o g y : the a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of groups, f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , communities, and s o c i e t i e s . 1 The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of a community, and of modern urban s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , i s b u i l t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h r o u g h f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s i s not t o deny t h a t the i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a m i l y members, r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , or n e i g h b o u r s are b a s i c elements of community s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . But a l a r g e p a r t of a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l l i f e t a k e s p l a c e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , be i t i n s c h o o l , w o r k - o r g a n i z a t i o n , h o s p i t a l , army, p r i s o n , or i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s l a s t type of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as one of the l o c i of i n d i v i d u a l involvement i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e i s what concerns us h e r e . A prominent p r o p o s i t i o n i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g about the meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s e r t s t h a t they s e r v e t o i n t e g r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o t h e i r l o c a l community and the l a r g e r s o c i e t y (see L i t w a k , 1961; Babchuk and Edwards, 1 The term " s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " i s used t o r e f e r t o the r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , as e x p r e s s e d i n r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n and communication, of i n d i v i d u a l s and o t h e r s o c i a l u n i t s w i t h i n a g i v e n s o c i a l system. In t h i s sense the term i s almost synonymous w i t h s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from " f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " , i . e . , a group i n which the a c t i v i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l members and v a r i o u s subgroups a r e c o o r d i n a t e d by f o r m a l l y s t a t e d r u l e s t h a t govern the r e l a t i o n s between incumbents of s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d p o s i t i o n s and t h a t d e f i n e the r o l e s they a r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m i n the p u r s u i t of e x p l i c i t l y f o r m u l a t e d g o a l s . 13 1965). However, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have not always been viewed i n such a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t . As a review of the l i t e r a t u r e shows, over the y e a r s t h e r e has been a remarkable r e v e r s a l i n the way s o c i o l o g i s t s have i n t e r p r e t e d the r o l e of t h e s e groups i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of community and s o c i e t y . The Mass S o c i e t y P e r s p e c t i v e E a r l y s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s r e g a r d e d the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r modern form as an i n d i c a t i o n of the emergence of mass s o c i e t y . A c e n t r a l theme i n the w r i t i n g s of Durkheim, T o e n n i e s , Simmel, P a r k , W i r t h , and o t h e r s concerns the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a s i m p l e homogeneous t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y w i t h a " n a t u r a l " consensus and s o l i d a r i t y i n t o a modern, heterogeneous and h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i e t y , and the consequences of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n f o r the s o c i a l o r d e r of the new, u r b a n i z e d s o c i e t y . I t was suggested t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n the s c a l e of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n — b r o u g h t about by i n c r e a s i n g d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , a c c e l e r a t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , expanding range of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication--was accompanied by a breakdown of the p r i m a r y - g r o u p s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . In t h i s v i e w , k i n s h i p , the c h u r c h , neighbourhood, and l o c a l community have l o s t t h e i r importance as s o u r c e s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and mechanisms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . There i s i n s t e a d a g r e a t e r dependence upon and i n v o l v e m e n t i n f o r m a l secondary groups, i n c l u d i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which s e r v e as s u b s t i t u t e f o r the i n t i m a t e and i n t e g r a t i n g bonds of k i n s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p . 1 4 T h i s s h i f t from p r i m a r y t i e s t o secondary and segmental i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h l a r g e r numbers of p e o p l e was a l s o taken t o mean t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were becoming more i m p e r s o n a l , i n s t r u m e n t a l , s u p e r f i c i a l , and t r a n s i t o r y . The s p e c u l a t i o n s by these s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s about modern urban s o c i e t y and i t s emergent ways of l i f e , and e s p e c i a l l y the b l e a k p i c t u r e of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i v i n g i n l a r g e c i t i e s , were not s u p p o r t e d by the f i n d i n g s of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s done i n c i t i e s , s i n c e the l a t e 1940's. C a r e f u l e t h n o g r a p h i c and s u r vey r e s e a r c h i n t o the s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c i t y r e s i d e n t s showed the p e r s i s t e n c e of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l l i f e i n urban a r e a s . 1 C l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s h i p t i e s , and c o n t a c t s w i t h a c q u a i n t a n c e s — w h o may l i v e e i t h e r i n the neighbourhood or more l i k e l y e l sewhere i n the c i t y — c o n t i n u e t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r most u r b a n i t e s . The p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e s o c i a l networks may be d i s p e r s e d throughout the c i t y and the s o c i a l bonds l i n k i n g them may be l e s s p l a i n l y v i s i b l e i n the c i t y than i n a s m a l l town or v i l l a g e , t h e r e i s no c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t such i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e absent or l e s s c l o s e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e has been l i t t l e by way of e m p i r i c a l s u p port f o r the t h e s i s t h a t i nvolvement i n f o r m a l secondary groups i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g s t r o n g p r i m a r y group r e l a t i o n s . I f a n y t h i n g , these two modes of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 A summary of t h i s body of r e s e a r c h appears i n Greer (1962:89-97). See a l s o Craven and Wellman (1973) and Kasarda and J a n o w i t z (1 974) . 15 appear t o support and r e i n f o r c e each o t h e r . Members of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s tend t o have more numerous t i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , and f e l l o w workers than do nonmembers ( A x e l r o d , 1956; R e i g r o t z k i , 1956:184-9; A l l a r d t e t a l . , 1958). C o n v e r s e l y , i n d i v i d u a l s r i c h i n k i n s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p r e s o u r c e s b e l o n g t o more v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t e more a c t i v e l y i n the s e groups (Booth, 1972). B e s i d e s , as we now know, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y a much more l i m i t e d r o l e i n the s o c i a l l i f e of peop l e than was assumed by the e a r l y t h e o r i s t s of urban s o c i e t y . T h i s r e l a t i v e l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e beyond the narrow c o n f i n e s of k i n s h i p and f r i e n d s h i p was d e p l o r e d by many s o c i o l o g i s t s and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s of the p e r i o d a f t e r the second w o r l d war. Then the p r e v a i l i n g view, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the e a r l i e r c o n c e p t i o n s , was t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p o w e r f u l i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s t h a t p r e v e n t the  s l i d e towards a mass s o c i e t y . The mass s o c i e t y concept i s a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the d e p i c t i o n of the modern l a r g e c i t y as a dense and heterogeneous, s e t t l e m e n t where detachment from p r i m a r y groups, i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n , and anonymity a r e the t y p i c a l q u a l i t i e s of l i f e ( W i r t h , 1938). I s o l a t i o n or a t o m i z a t i o n i s a l s o what c h a r a c t e r i z e s , a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the mass s o c i e t y . On the s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , i t s b a s i c f e a t u r e i s the v i r t u a l absence of autonomous secondary g r o u p s - - o r the l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n them where they do e x i s t - - t h a t l i e between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s p r i m a r y groups on the one hand and l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i c 16 s t r u c t u r e s w i t h g r e a t power on the o t h e r . In W i l e n s k y ' s words: On the one s i d e s t a n d s the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s narrow c i r c l e of k i n and c l o s e f r i e n d s , immersed i n h i s p a r o c h i a l c o n c e r n s , w i t h an almost b u c o l i c c ontentment, r e t r e a t i n g from a w o r l d of m u l t i p l y i n g c r i s e s , grown too complex. On the o t h e r s i d e s t a n d a p o w e r f u l s t a t e and the g r e a t mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the c i t y — c o r p o r a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , t r a d e u n i o n — c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by o f f i c i a l s and an a c t i v e m i n o r i t y , as d i s t a n t from the r a n k - a n d - f i l e as the media of mass communication. And n o t h i n g s t a n d s  between. ( W i l e n s k y , 1960:560. Emphasis added). Such a s t r u c t u r a l vacuum, i t was f r e q u e n t l y argued, poses a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o the s t a b i l i t y of the s o c i e t y and i t s d e m o c r a t i c system. A b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s of mass s o c i e t y t h e o r y i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e i s o l a t e d , who are p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o community and s o c i e t y , and who are c u t o f f from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s whose p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t them, w i l l be the most s u s c e p t i b l e t o the a p p e a l of t o t a l i t a r i a n i d e o l o g i e s and w i l l become the prime t a r g e t s f o r m o b i l i z a t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n by l e a d e r s of e x t r e m i s t mass movements (Kornhauser, 1959). The P l u r a l i s t View One of the major bulwarks a g a i n s t the development of an a t o m i s t i c mass s o c i e t y i s the e x i s t e n c e of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of independent secondary groups t o r e p r e s e n t the many d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s i n s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s o - c a l l e d p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , a l a y e r of secondary groups, of which v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are the major example, forms a d i v e r s i f i e d 1 7 i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f i l l i n g i n the space between i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . In t h a t sense, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e " i n t e r s t i t i a l " (Booth, 1975; Edwards and Booth, 1973:5). They connect and i n t e r s e c t w i t h the major i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y (the f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , the economy, the p o l i t y ) and form the l i n k a g e s between t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . As m e d i a t i n g mechanisms v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e a r e a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i e t y . 1 From such a p o i n t of view Rose (1965:418-24), f o r example, has a s c r i b e d the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F i r s t , they d i s t r i b u t e i n f l u e n c e and power a t the g r a s s - r o o t s l e v e l and c o u n t e r a c t the t r e n d towards c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of power i n l a r g e p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Second, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o the e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r members by h e l p i n g them u n d e r s t a n d how s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e 1 The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d by de T o c g u e v i l l e and Durkheim. De T o c q u e v i l l e ([1835] 1954) argued t h a t p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y , s p e c i a l - i n t e r e s t groups p r o v i d e a check and c o u n t e r f o r c e a g a i n s t the growing power of c e n t r a l i z e d government i n modern s o c i e t i e s . He saw v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s as i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l freedoms and the maintenance of a s t a b l e d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Durkheim (1957) s t r e s s e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s cannot r e l a t e themselves d i r e c t l y t o such l a r g e e n t i t i e s as communities and s o c i e t y . T h e i r s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r m e d i a t e subgroups s m a l l enough t o a l l o w d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n among most members of these groups. He suggested t h a t i n modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y o c c u p a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o f u l f i l t h e s e m e d i a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s . 18 i n s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , they p r o v i d e a t r a i n i n g - g r o u n d f o r f u t u r e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s (see a l s o Hausknecht, 1962:10; L i p s e t e t a l . , 1956:69-92). T h i r d , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p a r a p o l i t i c a l i n n a t u r e and a r e p o t e n t i a l a c t i o n g roups. As such they can be p o w e r f u l a gents of s o c i a l change and i n n o v a t i o n . But they may e q u a l l y be a r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo and - t o p r e s e r v e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . F o u r t h , the e x i s t e n c e of a v a r i e t y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s l e a d s , t h r o u g h o v e r l a p p i n g memberships, t o c r o s s - p r e s s u r e s which decrease the p r o b a b i l i t y of s e v e r e s o c i a l c o n f l i c t a l o n g a s i n g l e l i n e of c l e a v a g e i n s o c i e t y . Membership i n s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s means segmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l i m i t e d commitment t o each group. Such weak i n t e r p e r s o n a l t i e s a c r o s s group b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s , which promote t o l e r a n c e and which a r e the bases of m a c r o s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n (see a l s o B l a u , 1974:623). F o l l o w i n g a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t and more r e c e n t approach, one might say t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e s a person i n a s o c i a l network of i n t e r a c t i o n and communication ( C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , I 9 7 7 : c h a p t e r 8; Craven and Wellman, 1973). In c o n t r a s t w i t h the s m a l l and c l o s e - k n i t networks of p r i m a r y t i e s w i t h k i n and f r i e n d s , a network based on f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s l o o s e l y k n i t but e x t e n s i v e . That i s , the t i e s between the members of the net are g e n e r a l l y weak and t h e r e a r e many more i n d i r e c t l i n k s . Viewed from the a n g l e of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the community, such l a r g e l o o s e - k n i t communicative networks w i t h 19 many i n d i r e c t t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t because they connect a g r e a t number of i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, and l a r g e r c o l l e c t i v i t i e s w i t h one a n o t h e r . They e s t a b l i s h c h a n n e l s of ( p o t e n t i a l ) communication and i n f l u e n c e between th e s e s o c i a l u n i t s and can th e r e b y s e r v e t o i n t e g r a t e them and t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of m u l t i p l e o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships i s t h a t they c r e a t e l i n k s between s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e networks. A person who belongs t o two or more v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n n e c t s the members of each group t o those of the o t h e r , and i s t h e r e f o r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n expanding the range of network c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o them. As an im p o r t a n t p a r t of the community's communication network v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be used t o m o b i l i z e people f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n when some i s s u e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t h a t i s of conc e r n t o the community or a segment of i t . By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o o b t a i n a c c e s s t o the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s ( i n f o r m a t i o n , s e r v i c e s , funds) t h a t f l o w t h r o u g h t h i s network. The more e x t e n s i v e the network l i n k a g e s based on o v e r l a p p i n g memberships i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , the g r e a t e r the number and d i v e r s i t y of peop l e who can be reached and the wider the range of r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e . P e r s o n a l Consequences of P a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r Members In d i s c u s s i o n s of the r o l e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a d i s t i n c t i o n i s o f t e n made between the f u n c t i o n s of the s e groups f o r the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the l a r g e r s o c i a l system and the 20 consequences of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the members themselves (see Babchuk and Edwards, 1965; S i l l s , 1968). From a s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t because they a r e a source of s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l support f o r t h e i r members and g i v e them a sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a s m a l l , m e a n i n g f u l group. S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r f r i e n d s h i p and a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p among members. These networks of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n can be p o s t u l a t e d t o be a mechanism t h a t performs f u n c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those performed by the e x i s t e n c e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t o w i t , t o f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n of the member i n t o the a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e r e b y i n t o the l a r g e r system as w e l l ( C u t l e r , 1973:144). F u r t h e r m o r e , as Hausknecht (1962:119) has s u g g e s t e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can e x t e n d a person's s o c i a l h o r i z o n beyond the narrow c i r c l e of r e l a t i v e s , c l o s e f r i e n d s , and n e i g h b o u r s . I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r broader and more d i v e r s e s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and hence f o r " s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n " . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may a l s o have "the f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l and economic advancement" (Rose, 1965:423). Membership of s o c i a l c l u b s i n p a r t i c u l a r i s o f t e n a means t o enhance one's p r e s t i g e , t o come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e , or t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s . 21 Another b e n e f i t s a i d t o a c c r u e t o members of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e r i v e s from the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n mentioned e a r l i e r . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n g i v e s members an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s and t o d e v e l o p l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Modern Urban S o c i e t y : An A p p r a i s a l The v a r i o u s arguments reviewed above c o n t a i n r a t h e r i d e a l i z e d c o n c e p t i o n s of what v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ought t o be and t o do i n a p l u r a l and d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . To what e x t e n t do t h e s e i d e a l i z a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the f a c t s ? There now e x i s t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t e n a b l e s us t o a s s e s s whether v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s do indeed p e r f o r m the d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o them by s o c i a l t h e o r y , and mass s o c i e t y / p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . The f a c t o r s t h a t a re p e r t i n e n t t o such an a p p r a i s a l i n c l u d e (a) the e x t e n t of membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; (b) the degree of i n v o l v e m e n t by members i n these groups; and (c) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n a t u r e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . A b r i e f l o o k a t some of the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e as i t r e l a t e s t o thes e i s s u e s i s i n o r d e r . E x t e n t of Membership I f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e so i m p o r t a n t f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and f o r the 22 p r e s e r v a t i o n of a s t a b l e d e m o c r a t i c system as the p l u r a l i s t t h e s i s s t i p u l a t e s , then s u r e l y membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be f r e q u e n t and w i d e s p r e a d . T h i s appears not t o be the c a s e , however. Data from n a t i o n a l sample s u r v e y s conducted i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n Canada between 1954 and 1968 i n d i c a t e t h a t a t the most about h a l f of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n (between 36 and 51 per c e n t ) i n each of the two c o u n t r i e s belonged t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o t h e r than t r a d e u n ions and t h a t no more than o n e - t h i r d of a d u l t Canadians and Americans were members of more than one v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i g u r e s a r e h i g h e r , of c o u r s e , when union membership i s t aken i n t o a c c o u n t . In Canada between 55 and 64 per c e n t of the r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g u n i o n s , w h i l e the membership r a t e s f o r samples from the U n i t e d S t a t e s hovered around 55 per c e n t . The p e r c e n t a g e s of p e rsons who belonged t o two or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s ranged from 21 t o 36 per c e n t (see Wright and Hyman, 1958:287; Hausknecht, 1962:23; Hyman and W r i g h t , 1971:195-6; Almond and V e r ba, 1963:302; C u r t i s , 1.97 l a : 1 54-7, l 9 7 l b : 8 7 4 - 5 ; F r i z z e l l and Z u r e i k , 1974). These n a t i o n a l e s t i m a t e s of the e x t e n t of membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y i n l i n e w i t h the f i n d i n g s from s e v e r a l l o c a l s t u d i e s (see A x e l r o d , 1956; Zimmer and Hawley, 1 959; C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:192f f ) . Warburton (1969:81-2), f o r i n s t a n c e , found t h a t 46 per c e n t of h i s sample of a d u l t s from the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a rea d i d not b e l o n g t o any v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n except p o s s i b l y a w o r k - r e l a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i . e . , u nion or p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ) . Only 27 23 per c e n t of the respond e n t s were members of more than one v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . For c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e , N o r t h America even lower r a t e s of membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d ( e . g . , Booth, 1975; C u r t i s , 1971a, 1971b; Almond and Verba, I963 : c h a p t e r 11; R e i g r o t z k i , 1956:164). I s h o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y add, however, t h a t the e v i d e n c e from the v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l and l o c a l s u r v e y s i s not u n i f o r m . 1 To i l l u s t r a t e , Babchuk and Booth (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t 80 per cent of t h e i r p a n e l of Nebraska respondents belonged t o a t l e a s t one v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , and almost h a l f of them (46 per c e n t ) were members of t h r e e or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They a l s o noted t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the membership r a t e s r e p o r t e d i n v a r i o u s s t u d i e s a r e p r o b a b l y i n p a r t ^due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were d e f i n e d and t o d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s of s a m p l i n g , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and a n a l y s i s . 2 However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e disagreement about the f a c t t h a t membership, i n v o l v e m e n t , and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c l a s s - b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of members of the h i g h e r s o c i a l s t r a t a . 1 Much of t h i s r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e has been r e v i e w e d by Smith and Freedman (1972:chapter 5) and Smith (1975). 2 Babchuk (1973) has p o i n t e d out t h a t most s u r v e y s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y b i a s e d toward u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g membership r a t e s because of the e x c l u s i o n of c e r t a i n groups of the p o p u l a t i o n ( the young, the aged) and a l s o because of such problems as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of q u e s t i o n s and r e c a l l by the respondent. 24 A c t i v e Involvement Even more than membership per se, the degree t o which members a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s of importance f o r a s s e s s i n g the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether members a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e the b e n e f i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l l e g e d t o p r o v i d e . When s t u d i e s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o c u s e d on t h i s a s p e c t they g e n e r a l l y found t h a t the m a j o r i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n members p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r a t h e r e r r a t i c manner. They pay t h e i r dues, but o t h e r w i s e a r e not v e r y a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n of members who a t t e n d meetings r e g u l a r l y , who s i t on committees, or who h o l d o f f i c e u s u a l l y i s s m a l l ( A x e l r o d , 1956; Warburton, 1969:84-7; G r e e r , 1962:91). And i t i s t h i s m i n o r i t y who, t o g e t h e r w i t h e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s and the h i r e d s t a f f , i n e f f e c t " r u n " the o r g a n i z a t i o n . What do the s e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s of the s t u d i e s c i t e d here and many o t h e r s imply f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the r o l e s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n contemporary N o r t h American s o c i e t i e s ? S i n c e l a r g e segments of the p o p u l a t i o n a r e not a f f i l i a t e d w i t h v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o n l y a m i n o r i t y of thos e who do be l o n g a re a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , i t would appear t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e not n e a r l y as imp o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , m e d i a t i o n , and d i f f u s i o n of power as i s e n v i s a g e d i n the p l u r a l i s t i d e a l . F u r t h e r , the f a c t t h a t m u l t i p l e o r g a n i z a t i o n membership i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e means o n l y l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c r o s s - p r e s s u r e s - through o v e r l a p p i n g memberships. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of 25 v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n m i t i g a t i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s and i n r e d u c i n g the r i s k of l a s t i n g c l e a v a g e s i n s o c i e t y may be e x a g g e r a t e d . B e s i d e s , i t i s not a p r i o r i e v i d e n t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s always has a s a l u t a r y i n f l u e n c e i n terms of promoting s t a b i l i t y and m o d e r a t i o n . What makes t h a t assumption q u e s t i o n a b l e i s the tendency of p e o p l e t o j o i n t h o s e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o t h e r i n t e r e s t groups whose o b j e c t i v e s are i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r own. The e x i s t e n c e of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of such groups, each p u r s u i n g i t s own l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t s , t h e r e f o r e means a l s o c o m p e t i t i o n and s t r i f e f o r advantage. These p r o c e s s e s , i n t u r n , may i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n f l i c t and d i v i s i v e n e s s . Another p o i n t of c r i t i c i s m f o l l o w s from the overwhelming e v i d e n c e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether i t i s mere membership or a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t or l e a d e r s h i p , i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s . S i n c e t h i s i s t r u e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n ; p e o p l e of lower s o c i a l s t a t u s , t h o s e who can g a i n the most from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( l e a r n i n g s o c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s , comprehension of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , and so on) f r e q u e n t l y are not members. Whatever p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s and advantages r e s u l t from p a r t i c i p a t i o n , they are not d i s t r i b u t e d u n i f o r m l y throughout s o c i e t y (Hausknecht, 1962:122-3; Warburton, 1969:95). 26 I n t e r n a l O p e r a t i o n of O r g a n i z a t i o n s F i n a l l y , how f a r i t can be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e arenas f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t by t h e i r membership and p l a c e s f o r t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e i n democracy depends not o n l y on the e x t e n t t o which members s e i z e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but above a l l on the p r e v a l e n c e of d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . L i k e any o t h e r k i n d of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t e n d t o d e v e l o p b u r e a u c r a t i c and o l i g a r c h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they grow o l d e r and become l a r g e r . The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f l e c t s the demands and p r e s s u r e s from the environment i n which the o r g a n i z a t i o n has t o o p e r a t e . I t i s l o g i c a l , t h e n , t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , which a r e so w i d e s p r e a d i n modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , a r e a l s o m a n i f e s t i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the l a r g e r , more p o w e r f u l ones. At the sa'me t i m e , i n most o r g a n i z a t i o n s the average member p a r t i c i p a t e s l i t t l e and i s w i l l i n g t o l e a v e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r o u t i n e f u n c t i o n i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o the l e a d e r s and a h a n d f u l of a c t i v e members. T h i s , c o u p l e d w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of the above f a c t o r s , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the development of o l i g a r c h y ( M i c h e l s , [1915] 1958; L i p s e t e t a l . , 1956) . B u r e a u c r a t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , o l i g a r c h i c c o n t r o l , and " p l e b i s c i t a r y membership" ( G r e e r , 1962:105) i n many v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are s e r i o u s ' impediments t o the h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g of d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s e s i n such groups. For c r i t i c s of the mass s o c i e t y and p l u r a l i s t arguments t h i s s i t u a t i o n has 27 been reason t o q u e s t i o n the e f f i c a c y of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a c o u n t e r - i n f l u e n c e t o the m a s s i f y i n g t e n d e n c i e s i n modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . Indeed, v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s may t hemselves have s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p a r a l l e l t o those i d e n t i f i e d by mass s o c i e t y t h e o r i s t s a t the s o c i e t a l l e v e l and t h e r e b y a c t u a l l y s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e r a t h e r than t o m i t i g a t e the a l i e n a t i v e consequences a s c r i b e d t o mass s o c i e t y ( C u t l e r , 1973:143). C o n c l u d i n g Remarks The moderate r a t e s of membership, low l e v e l s of a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , and o l i g a r c h i c t e n d e n c i e s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d , have g i v e n cause f o r a more c a u t i o u s and more c r i t i c a l assessment of the r o l e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Thus, Hausknecht (1962:chapter 7) c o n c l u d e d h i s study w i t h the somewhat p e s s i m i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n the p a s t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may have performed the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o them by s o c i a l t h e o r y — n a m e l y , m a i n t a i n i n g an " i n f o r m e d c i t i z e n r y " , d i s t r i b u t i n g power and i n f l u e n c e , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t o c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of i n t e r e s t and o p i n i o n , b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l i n n o v a t i o n and r e f o r m , promoting "human f e l l o w s h i p " - - , but t h a t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n these a r e a s has d e c l i n e d i n contemporary N o r t h American s o c i e t i e s . T h i s i s a c c e n t u a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the s t a t e and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u b s i d i a r i e s have s t e a d i l y t aken over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the h a n d l i n g of major i s s u e s and problems 28 t h a t i n former t i m e s were l e f t t o the c a r e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , l a r g e c e n t r a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r e x p e r t a p p a r a t u s have o f t e n d i s p l a c e d the s m a l l and l e s s s t r o n g l y o r g a n i z e d v o l u n t a r y groups as the a c c e p t e d spokesmen f o r v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s (Mayntz, 1960; R o s s i d e s , 1966:32-6). And y e t t h e s e government a g e n c i e s and n a t i o n a l p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s may a l s o s t i m u l a t e the f o r m a t i o n and maintenance of l o c a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In o r d e r t o o p e r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h i n l o c a l communities and neighbourhoods, the e x t e r n a l a g e n c i e s need t o have p o i n t s of c o n t a c t w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of those a r e a s . L o c a l v o l u n t a r y groups a r e used as c h a n n e l s of communication, as means t o d i s t r i b u t e and o r g a n i z e r e s o u r c e s , and as mechanisms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l (Taub et a l . , 1977). A l t h o u g h t h e r e are good reasons f o r q u e s t i o n i n g 1 the most p r e t e n t i o u s c l a i m s of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p l u r a l i s t s about the f u n c t i o n s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s o c i e t y and i n d i v i d u a l s , we s h o u l d not l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a l s o e m p i r i c a l s u pport f o r some of the h y p o t h e s i z e d consequences of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t has been shown t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and encourages p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Persons who b e l o n g t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o have a f e e l i n g of p o l i t i c a l p o t e n c y , t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n and informed about p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s , and t o v o t e i n e l e c t i o n s (see Almond and V e r b a , I963:chapter 11; L i p s e t et a l . , I 956:chapter 5; O l s e n , 1972; C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:209-14; R e i g r o t z k i , 1956:176-80; Greer 29 and O r l e a n s , 1962) . In a more g e n e r a l sense, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c r e a s e s c o n t a c t w i t h and f a c t u a l knowledge of the l o c a l community and the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and i t s t i m u l a t e s awareness of s o c i a l problems and involvement i n c i v i c s e r v i c e s . In s h o r t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p a r t of a " c o n f i g u r a t i o n of l i n k a g e s " between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i a l environment (Hausknecht, 1966:chapter 6; see a l s o A l l a r d t e t a l . , 1958). As was mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s u l t s i n p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h o t h e r members ( C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:193; Kasarda and J a n o w i t z , 1974) and i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ( A x e l r o d , 1956; R e i g r o t z k i , 1956:184-9). And P h i l l i p s (1967) found t h a t both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s and h a p p i n e s s . In c o n c l u s i o n a few remarks about the c o n n e c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h l e i s u r e . T h i s i s s u e i s seldom e x p l i c i t l y t r e a t e d i n t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s of the f u n c t i o n s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a form of o r g a n i z e d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . T h i s i s most o b v i o u s i n the case of s p o r t and hobby c l u b s , f r a t e r n a l l o d g e s , s o c i a l c l u b s , and so f o r t h . The main purpose of t h e s e s o - c a l l e d e x p r e s s i v e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s t o meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e needs of t h e i r members. But i n s t r u m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n s (such as s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i o n g r o u p s ) , whose o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s are p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d o u t s i d e the group i t s e l f toward the s o c i e t y / 30 or some segment of i t , a l s o have a l e i s u r e c h a r a c t e r i n the sense t h a t they make demands on the d i s c r e t i o n a r y time of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g members. 1 I t may be t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are no l o n g e r a b l e or s u i t e d t o p e r f o r m the same s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s as they have done f o r the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s . But these groups, i n t h e i r m u l t i t u d e and v a r i e t y , p r o v i d e the arenas i n which p e o p l e can e x p r e s s t h e i r l e i s u r e and they a r e undoubtedly an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of modern urban s o c i e t y . Not everyone, however, i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as we have seen. A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n belongs t o such groups, but t h e r e a r e a l s o many peopl e who are n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . Which f a c t o r s determine p a r t i c i p a t i o n and what a r e the c o n d i t i o n s under which i n d i v i d u a l s become i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e groups? I t i s t h i s i s s u e of the d e t e r m i n a n t s and c o n d i t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t forms the wider c o n t e x t and p r o v i d e s the s p e c i f i c problem of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 1 On the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s a l o n g an i n s t r u m e n t a l - e x p r e s s i v e d i m e n s i o n , see Gordon and Babchuk (1959) and Jacoby and Babchuk (1963) . 31 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL ARGUMENTS Det e r m i n a n t s and C o n d i t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s I t i s well-documented t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s not d i s t r i b u t e d u n i f o r m l y throughout s o c i e t y . Some segments of the p o p u l a t i o n a r e more l i k e l y t o be j o i n e r s than o t h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n members ar e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , ' w h i l e o t h e r s are h o t . In f a c t , the b u l k of s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a c h on f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been concerned w i t h the q u e s t i o n : what k i n d of p e o p l e j o i n and p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and what k i n d of p e o p l e do not b e l o n g , or i f they do, a r e nominal members o n l y ? One c o u l d t a k e the view t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s a r e b a s i c a l l y the r e s u l t of p e o p l e ' s d i f f e r i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s and needs; t h a t t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s do so t o s a t i s f y a "need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n " . Such a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms of p r e f e r e n c e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r l o o k s the many s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 32 v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 S o c i o l o g i s t s have t y p i c a l l y approached the problem of d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by examining membership, i n v o l v e m e n t , and l e a d e r s h i p i n r e l a t i o n t o sociodemographic and r o l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s . The l i s t of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s l o n g and v a r i e d . I t i n c l u d e s , f o r example, age, sex, p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , e t h n i c i t y and r a c e , e d u c a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n the community, mass media exposure, i n f l u e n c e s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and so on. And the number of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n which such i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been examined as p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s too l a r g e even t o mention. B e s i d e s , i t i s unnecessary t o d i s c u s s the . f i n d i n g s of those i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n g r e a t d e t a i l h e r e , s i n c e e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w s and summaries of t h a t body of r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a r e a v a i l a b l e e lsewhere ( e . g . , Payne et a l . , 1972; S mith and Freedman, !972:chapter 6 ) . 2 An e x c e p t i o n must be made 1 T h i s remark i s not i n t e n d e d t o suggest t h a t s o c i a l f a c t o r s are the o n l y i n f l u e n c e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n or t h a t t h i s form of b e h a v i o u r i s not a l s o a f f e c t e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l -p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . On the c o n t r a r y . I t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t the impact of s o c i a l f a c t o r s i s o f t e n mediated by p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s and d i s p o s i t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e s . See M u l f o r d and K l o n g l a n ' (1972), Reddy and Smith (1972), and Smith and Freedman (1972:173-5) f o r r e v i e w s of the l i t e r a t u r e on p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 The r e view by Payne et a l . (1972) i s of added v a l u e because i t c o n t a i n s a s y n o p s i s of the major hypotheses about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l background v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have been t e s t e d and c o n f i r m e d i n e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h ( m a i n l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) up t o 1971. These p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e r a t e d i n terms of s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which the r e l a t i o n s h i p has been found. 3 3 f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s i s s u e has d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l argument t o be p r e s e n t e d s h o r t l y and f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . No o t h e r v a r i a b l e has been used more o f t e n t o e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and no o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e has more c o n s i s t e n t l y been found t o be r e l a t e d t o v a r i o u s measures of p a r t i c i p a t i o n than s o c i a l s t a t u s . Membership, a t t e n d a n c e , and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g a l l become more f r e q u e n t as the l e v e l of so c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n c r e a s e s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, or some composite index a r e used t o measure t h i s v a r i a b l e ( s ee, f o r example, Hodge and Treiman, 1968; Hodge, 1970; Hyman and W r i g h t , 1971; C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:chapter 8 ) . The type of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n people bel o n g t o a l s o v a r i e s w i t h s t a t u s . P e r s o n s of lower s o c i o e c o n omic s t a t u s a r e most l i k e l y t o belong t o t r a d e u n i o n s , f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l c l u b s — o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o n c r e t e and d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s of members and which p r o v i d e immediate and p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s . In c o n t r a s t , p e rsons from the m i d d l e and upper socioeconomic s t r a t a tend t o j o i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have more a b s t r a c t and i n t a n g i b l e g o a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , c i v i c and s o c i a l s e r v i c e groups, c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s o c i a l c l u b s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s (see Mayntz, 1960). The e v i d e n c e from e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t s of socioeconomic s t a t u s as w e l l as o t h e r s o c i a l rank 34 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p o i n t s i n the same d i r e c t i o n : " H e a l t h y m i d d l e -aged, h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , n a t i v e b o r n , w h i t e - c o l l a r , and upwardly m o b i l e members of the l a b o r f o r c e b e l o n g t o more f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y groups than persons i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s " (Booth, 1972:187). S o c i a l s t a t u s , i n i t s v a r i o u s forms, i s an im p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s e v i d e n t l y r e l a t e d t o many d i f f e r e n t background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s of i n d i v i d u a l s , our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s remains f r a g m e n t a r y . To some e x t e n t t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o an o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n w i t h the e m p i r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d e t e r m i n a n t s and c o r r e l a t e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than w i t h d e v e l o p i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t a r e inf o r m e d by t h e o r y . Thus, d e s p i t e the w e a l t h of d a t a accumulated i n t h i s a r e a of s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h over the y e a r s , we s t i l l "have l i t t l e more than a v a s t number of e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , a s e r i e s of l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d hypotheses (or r a t h e r "hunches"), and a l o t of l o o s e ends. However, t h e r e e x i s t s a c e r t a i n amount of r e s e a r c h work t h a t has moved beyond the b a s i c stage of d e m o n s t r a t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and has t r i e d t o o f f e r more p r o f o u n d e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s share a fo c u s on the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e or h i n d e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . What makes these s t u d i e s s t a n d out from the k i n d of r e s e a r c h r e f e r r e d t o above i s the 35 c o n c e r n t o p r o v i d e at l e a s t some t h e o r e t i c a l argument as t o why and how t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s can be ex p e c t e d t o make i t easy or d i f f i c u l t f o r people t o j o i n and become i n v o l v e d i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The study by A l l a r d t and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1958) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s approach. They h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s u c c e s s f u l and re w a r d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g i v e n form of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y l e a d s t o more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h a t a c t i v i t y and t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n more a c t i v i t i e s . They found t h a t the respondents (young people aged 10 t o 29) who took p a r t i n a wide range of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s (such as r e a d i n g books and p e r i o d i c a l s , g o i n g t o dances and movies, involvement i n gangs and peer groups, v i s i t i n g ) were more l i k e l y t o belong t o a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o h o l d m u l t i p l e memberships than those w i t h a narrow range of a c t i v i t i e s . How the tempor a l d i m e n s i o n of human a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by B l a k e l o c k ( i 9 6 0 ) and Gray (1975). In both s t u d i e s i t was found t h a t s h i f t workers p a r t i c i p a t e d l e s s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than n o n - s h i f t w o r k e r s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r such p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e a f u n c t i o n of the degree i n which a person's time s c h e d u l e matches the s c h e d u l i n g of- community l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S h i f t workers o p e r a t e on a time s c h e d u l e t h a t i s out of phase w i t h the modal time s c h e d u l e of the community. T h i s c o n d i t i o n of "temporal m a r g i n a l i t y " .reduces t h e i r chances t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n / 36 o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e . 1 There i s y e t another d i m e n s i o n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As M e i s s n e r (1971) has shown, the t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l f e a t u r e s of i n d u s t r i a l work i n f l u e n c e workers' a c t i v i t i e s away from the j o b . When a worker i s c o n f i n e d t o a f i x e d work a r e a , when h i s work a c t i v i t y i s paced by machine or p r o d u c t i o n l i n e , when h i s j o b t a s k s a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y dependent on the work of o t h e r s , he has l i t t l e d i s c r e t i o n over the arrangement of h i s work. H i g h t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s a l s o c u r t a i l or i n h i b i t o n - t h e - j o b s o c i a l c o n t a c t s between w o r k e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s who f o r a l o n g time have e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h degree of t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t and/or s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i n t h e i r work, tend t o a v o i d a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e w o r k i n g - h o u r s f o r which s o c i a l and d i s c r e t i o n a r y s k i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d , such as f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An argument i n a s i m i l a r v e i n i s t h a t c h a o t i c e x p e r i e n c e s i n w o r k l i f e a r e bound t o c a r r y over i n t o o t h e r spheres of a c t i v i t y and s p e c i f i c a l l y have an ad v e r s e impact on s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P eople whose work h i s t o r i e s a r e p u n c t u a t e d by d i s o r d e r l y j o b changes ( W i l e n s k y , 1961) or by f r e q u e n t or l o n g p e r i o d s of unemployment (Pope, 1964) a r e l i k e l y t o have l o s t a g r e a t d e a l of t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and s k i l l s t o 1 B e s i d e s s h i f t workers t h e r e a r e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of peopl e whose o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and f o r a normal s o c i a l l i f e i n g e n e r a l , a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by time or s c h e d u l i n g problems. An obvio u s example are m a r r i e d women who a r e employed but who a l s o s h o u l d e r the bul k of household d u t i e s . 37 a c t i v e l y engage i n s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t , they t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than persons w i t h o r d e r l y c a r e e r s or w i t h s t e a d y employment throughout t h e i r w o r k l i v e s . A c e r t a i n amount of s t a b i l i t y and or d e r i n one's l i f e i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n , i t seems, f o r involv e m e n t i n v a r i o u s forms of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c q u i r e a c o m p l e t e l y new dimensio n when the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of a pe r s o n ' s v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s i s t a ken i n t o a c c o u n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t has been argued, v a r i e s not o n l y w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s , but a l s o w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree i n which the rank p o s i t i o n s an i n d i v i d u a l , o c c u p i e s i n s e v e r a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s a r e i n l i n e w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h a t i s , a r e c o n s i s t e n t . S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and P a r t i c i p a t i o n The Concept of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y In complex s o c i e t i e s each person o c c u p i e s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s , some of which a r e ranked r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r p o s i t i o n s i n a g i v e n d i m e n s i o n of s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n or i n e q u a l i t y . Together the s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s of s o c i a l rank d e f i n e a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s t a t u s or " s t r a t i f i c a t i o n space" (Hope, 1975). I n d i v i d u a l s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h i s s t a t u s space i n 'terms of t h e i r rank p o s i t i o n s on each of the component 38 d i m e n s i o n s of s t a t u s . T h i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l view of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n — w h i c h o r i g i n a t e s i n the work of Max W e b e r — r a i s e s the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s and among i n d i v i d u a l s ' rank p o s i t i o n s i n them. D i f f e r e n t t y p e s of s t a t u s t e n d t o re a c h a common l e v e l over t i m e , so t h a t - an i n d i v i d u a l ' s rank on one s t a t u s dimension c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s or her ranks on o t h e r s t a t u s d imensions ( B e n o i t - S m u l l y a n , 1 9 4 4 : 1 6 0 ) . Such a s t a t e of " s t a t u s e q u i l i b r i u m " i s a matter of degree, however, s i n c e i t i s always b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and s o c i a l change. At any g i v e n p o i n t i n time t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l s whose ranks i n s e v e r a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s a re i m p e r f e c t l y matched, or m i s a l i g n e d . That i s , they h o l d h i g h rank on one s t a t u s dimension and low rank on a n o t h e r . " T h e o r e t i c a l l y i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e of a n o n - v e r t i c a l d i m e n s i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l or f a m i l y s t a t u s - - t h a t i s , a c o n s i s t e n c y d i m e n s i o n . " ( L e n s k i , 1 9 5 4 : 4 0 5 ) . S t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y i s p r e s e n t when an i n d i v i d u a l ' s rank p o s i t i o n s on s e v e r a l v e r t i c a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s a r e comparable, t h a t i s , are a t the same h o r i z o n t a l l e v e l . I t s c o n v e r s e , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i s d e f i n e d as the e x t e n t t o which t h e r e i s i n e q u a l i t y or imbalance among the ranks an i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s on the v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s of s t a t u s . That d i s t i n c t b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and p a t t e r n s of conduct a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t rank p o s i t i o n s i n each of the major s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s i s an i n s i g h t f i r m l y c o d i f i e d i n the body of s o c i o l o g i c a l knowledge. Whether the degree of i n c o n s i s t e n c y 39 among a p e r s o n ' s s e v e r a l s t a t u s e s "would be c a p a b l e of a c c o u n t i n g f o r some of the v a r i a n c e i n . . . b e h a v i o r which i s l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d by t r a d i t i o n a l methods of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s " , as L e n s k i (1954:405) e x p e c t e d , i s s t i l l an i s s u e of debate. When L e n s k i ' s now c l a s s i c a r t i c l e appeared, however, the concept of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y seemed p r o m i s i n g enough t o touch o f f a whole new l i n e of r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i o u s forms of b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s by r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s n o n v e r t i c a l a s p e c t of s t a t u s . 1 The s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument as d e v e l o p e d by L e n s k i , J a c k s o n , and o t h e r s s t a t e s t h a t the o c c u p y i n g of i n c o n s i s t e n t rank p o s i t i o n s on s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s i s a s ource of s t r e s s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned and l e a d s t o d i s t i n c t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l r esponses which r e p r e s e n t a t t e m p t s t o reduce the s t r e s s . These r e a c t i o n s may 1 For an account of the o r i g i n and e a r l y t h e o r e t i c a l development of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , see Demerath (1965:129-135). As mentioned above, t h i s concept can be t r a c e d t o Weber's view of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , i . e . , as o r d e r e d a l o n g t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e h i e r a r c h i e s : c l a s s , s t a t u s ( s o c i a l h o n o u r ) , and power. A q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y l a t e r B e n o i t -Smullyan (1944) i n t r o d u c e d the n o t i o n of s t a t u s e q u i l i b r a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between what he saw as the b a s i c t y p e s of s t a t u s : economic s t a t u s , p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s , and p r e s t i g e s t a t u s . Both Weber and B e n o i t - S m u l l y a n were concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the consequences of m u l t i p l e i m p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n s f o r the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t i e s , r a t h e r than f o r i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r . I t was Hughes' (1945) d i s c u s s i o n of the "dilemmas and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of s t a t u s " t h a t f o c u s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on the problems of s t a t u s a m b i g u i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . L e n s k i (1954) then f o l l o w e d up on t h e s e i d e a s w i t h an e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , or l a c k of " s t a t u s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n " as he c a l l e d i t . L e n s k i ' s paper was the s t i m u l u s t o the subsequent p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h . 40 t a k e the form o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m , p r e j u d i c e , s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , and psy c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s . L e n s k i ' s o r i g i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r was t h a t p e r s o n s whose s t a t u s e s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t occupy an ambiguous p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y and, as a r e s u l t of the c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e demands p l a c e d upon them, are l i k e l y t o be exposed t o " s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s of an u n p l e a s a n t or f r u s t r a t i n g n a t u r e " ( L e n s k i , 1954:412). J a c k s o n (1962), a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l i c a t e the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n t e r v e n i n g between the s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e a c t i o n s t o i t , suggested t h a t the b a s i c problem u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l a m b i g u i t y and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s t h a t of c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . Each s t a t u s p o s i t i o n c a r r i e s w i t h i t n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the b e h a v i o u r of the incumbent of t h a t p o s i t i o n " and the be h a v i o u r of the pe o p l e w i t h whom he or she i n t e r a c t s . When a person has s t a t u s e s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t , the e x p e c t a t i o n s he has of o t h e r p e o p l e , o t h e r s have of him, and he has of h i m s e l f w i l l o f t e n be i n c o n f l i c t . J a c k s o n then argued t h a t these c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s r e s u l t i n f r u s t r a t i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y , which i n t u r n l e a d t o p s y c h i c s t r e s s . F r u s t r a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t from s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y because the i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l i s unable or u n w i l l i n g t o f u l f i l the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r p e o p l e , w h i l e t h e s e o t h e r s do not s a t i s f y h i s demands on them. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n such a s i t u a t i o n b oth the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t person and h i s or her i n t e r a c t i o n p a r t n e r s w i l l 41 f e e l u n c e r t a i n as t o what they can r i g h t f u l l y expect of each o t h e r and how i n t e r a c t i o n s h o u l d be c o n d ucted. The r e s u l t i s t h a t the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t ' s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s become u n p l e a s a n t , h i s s e l f - i m a g e becomes l e s s s t a b l e , and h i s s t r e s s i s h e i g h t e n e d . In l a t e r w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t , L e n s k i based h i s argument about the d i s t u r b i n g consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l on the p o s t u l a t e t h a t "men a r e s t r o n g l y m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t " ( L e n s k i , 1967:298; see a l s o 1966:26-31,87). In i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s s e l f - i n t e r e s t i m p l i e s t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h f o r o n e s e l f the most f a v o u r a b l e s o c i a l i d e n t i t y p o s s i b l e . T h i s means t h a t a person who h o l d s h i g h rank on one s t a t u s dimension and low rank on another w i l l p r e f e r t o t h i n k of him- or h e r s e l f i n terms of the h i g h e r s t a t u s . He w i l l expect the people w i t h whom he i n t e r a c t s t o a l s o d e f i n e him a c c o r d i n g t o h i s h i g h e s t s t a t u s and t o a c c o r d him the d e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t t h a t b e f i t s t h a t rank p o s i t i o n . However, these o t h e r s too a r e concerned t o maximize t h e i r own s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s . I t may be t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o r e j e c t the i n c o n s i s t e n t ' s s t a t u s c l a i m s and t o t r e a t the person on the b a s i s of h i s lower s t a t u s . The r e s u l t of a l l t h i s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s whose s t a t u s e s are i n c o n s i s t e n t w i l l be f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r s t a t u s a s p i r a t i o n s and s u f f e r embarrassments and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s . Thus, as L e n s k i ' s b a s i c t h e s i s s t a t e s , p e r s o n s w i t h a low degree of s t a t u s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n a re more l i k e l y t o be s u b j e c t e d t o d i s t u r b i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n the i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s and have g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e w a r d i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n than o t h e r s ( L e n s k i , I956b:459). 42 One way i n which i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s may r e a c t t o t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s , L e n s k i s u g g e s t e d , i s t o withdraw from s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . In a d d i t i o n t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n a wide v a r i e t y of o t h e r b e h a v i o u r s and a t t i t u d e s have been r e l a t e d t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , t e s t i f y i n g t o the g r e a t a p p e a l t h i s concept has had f o r s o c i o l o g i s t s as an e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e . 1 A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an i n t u i t i v e p l a u s i b i l i t y t o the i d e a t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s may have i m p o r t a n t consequences f o r b e h a v i o u r , work i n t h i s a r e a has from the s t a r t been beset by problems and has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m on e m p i r i c a l , c o n c e p t u a l , and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l grounds. The main t h r u s t of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a t t a c k s was d i r e c t e d a t the measurement of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and the e m p i r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i t s e f f e c t s . C r i t i c s have p o i n t e d out t h a t most s t u d i e s f a i l e d t o show t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of v e r t i c a l s t a t u s . Many s o - c a l l e d i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s may s i m p l y be due t o the d i r e c t e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure was c o n s t r u c t e d (see M i t c h e l l , 1964; Hyman, 1966; Duncan, 1966; B l a l o c k , 1966, 1967a, 1967b; Hodge and S i e g e l , 1970). T h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y p e n e t r a t i n g c r i t i c i s m t o which I s h a l l r e t u r n l a t e r . 1 An enumeration of the many b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l r e sponses supposed t o be consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and a l s o e x t e n s i v e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h a t r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , can be found i n W i l s o n and Zurcher (1976). See a l s o Geschwender (1967) f o r d e t a i l e d r e v i e w s of the o l d e r e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 43 S t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h has a l s o been c r i t i c i z e d on the ground t h a t the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and v a r i o u s dependent v a r i a b l e s i s i n c o n c l u s i v e and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g . For almost every type of b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e t h a t has been r e l a t e d t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e r e a re f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t i n g s t r o n g i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , t r i v i a l e f f e c t s or none a t a l l , and p o s i t i v e as w e l l as n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . B e s i d e s , the r e s u l t s of o l d e r (pre-1964) s t u d i e s , which g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d s u p port f o r hypotheses of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , have come t o be viewed w i t h renewed s u s p i c i o n because of the absence of p r o p e r c o n t r o l s f o r e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . S i n c e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y a p p a r e n t l y has so l i t t l e e x p l a n a t o r y power, some c r i t i c s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s no need f o r t h i s concept i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y ( K e n k e l , 1956; Treiman, 1966; Laumann and S e g a l , 1971; O l s e n and T u l l y , 1972; J a c k s o n and C u r t i s , 1972). F i n a l l y t h e r e i s the c r i t i c i s m t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument i s i n a d e q u a t e l y s p e c i f i e d , and t h a t t h i s may account f o r the c o n f u s i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h . The c h a i n of r e a s o n i n g by which s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s l i n k e d t o i t s h y p o t h e s i z e d consequences i n v o l v e s many assumptions and i n f e r e n t i a l l e a p s . For example, i t i s assumed t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s m o b i l i z e c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h a t o b j e c t i v e , o b s e r v e r - d e f i n e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s accompanied by d i s t u r b i n g and s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t 4 4 t h i s s t r e s s l e a d s t o c e r t a i n forms of s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o u r , such as w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . But t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s and i n t e r v e n i n g s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s u s u a l l y remain unmeasured and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h b oth s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and i t s b e h a v i o u r a l outcomes a r e seldom examined e m p i r i c a l l y (Geschwender, 1967; S t e h r , 1968; Box and F o r d , 1969; Meyer and Hammond, 1971). As a r e s u l t of t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s , s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument. One of these r e f i n e m e n t s f o l l o w e d from the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t would seem d e s i r a b l e i n c r e a s i n g l y t o f o c u s r e s e a r c h on the consequences of p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . . . r a t h e r than upon the consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y as i n d i c a t e d by some o v e r a l l measure. ( L e n s k i , I956a:36. Emphasis added). D i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y - - f o r i n s t a n c e , a c o m b i n a t i o n of h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and low income s t a t u s as opposed t o low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s but h i g h income status--may g i v e r i s e t o d i f f e r e n t , even o p p o s i t e , r e a c t i o n s . F a i l u r e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between them c o u l d e a s i l y obscure the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a measure of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a g i v e n dependent v a r i a b l e . L i k e w i s e , most r e s e a r c h e r s now d i s t i n g u i s h between i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t i n v o l v e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r anks on the d i m e n s i o n s of a s c r i b e d ( e . g . , e t h n i c i t y ) and a c h i e v e d ( e . g . , o c c u p a t i o n ) s t a t u s (see, f o r i n s t a n c e , Goffman, 1957; J a c k s o n , 1962; Broom and J ones, 1970; O l s e n and T u l l y , 1972). 45 A d i f f e r e n t t y p o l o g y of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y p a t t e r n s , based on the a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s e s i n terms of i n v e s t m e n t s and rewards, was proposed by Geschwender (1967). He t r i e d t o e x p l a i n , w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l framework, the v a r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l consequences.of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i d e n t i f i e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . Geschwender suggested t h a t the t h e o r y of c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e expanded w i t h p o s t u l a t e s from the t h e o r y of d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e c o u l d s e r v e t h a t f u n c t i o n . H i s argument i s based on the assumption t h a t p e o p l e d e f i n e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and e t h n i c s t a t u s e s as i n v e s t m e n t s and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s e s as rewards. I t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t the rewards a person r e c e i v e s s h o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the i n v e s t m e n t s , a b e l i e f t h a t i s based upon the p e r c e p t i o n of the c o n n e c t i o n t h a t n o r m a l l y e x i s t s i n s o c i e t y between the two q u a l i t i e s . Geschwender argued t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s a s i t u a t i o n i n which reward and investment s t a t u s e s do not match. I t l e a d s t o the development of d i s s o n a n c e among s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e l d c o g n i t i o n s . C o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e i s an e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t t i n g s t a t e which produces t e n s i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Persons whose i n v e s t m e n t s exceed the rewards r e c e i v e d - - f o r example, h i g h e t h n i c or e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s combined w i t h low o c c u p a t i o n a l or income s t a t u s — a r e underrewarded. T h e i r sense of j u s t i c e i s v i o l a t e d and they w i l l f e e l angry because of the i n s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n s on t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s . Overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s , the o p p o s i t e t y p e , have r e c e i v e d h i g h e r rewards than what i s b e l i e v e d t o be f a i r and j u s t f o r t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s : t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l or e t h n i c 46 s t a t u s i s low w h i l e they have h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l or income s t a t u s . They w i l l e x p e r i e n c e g u i l t . 1 People w i l l r e a c t i n c e r t a i n ways t o reduce the d i s s o n a n c e c r e a t e d by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . These r e a c t i o n s t a k e the form of c o p i n g or noncoping r e s p o n s e s . Coping responses i n c l u d e p r e j u d i c e , upward m o b i l i t y s t r i v i n g ( t r y i n g t o r a i s e the lower s t a t u s ) , and a t t e m p t s t o change s o c i e t y and i t s s t a t u s system. Noncoping responses i n c l u d e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , s e r i o u s symptoms of s t r e s s , and s u i c i d e . From the s e assumptions Geschwender then d e r i v e d a number of p r e d i c t i o n s about p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r a l r e a c t i o n s t o s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i n c l u d i n g the two p a t t e r n s mentioned above (see Geschwender, 1968; Broom and Jones, 1970; W i l s o n and Zurcher., 1976 f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s ) . Geschwender's work i s one of s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument and o t h e r " t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y " w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( T a y l o r , 1973; Hornung, 1977). On the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s i d e , B l a l o c k (1967a) has p o i n t e d out the f o r m a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s on the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y , s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , s t a t u s i n t e g r a t i o n , and on s t r u c t u r a l or c o m p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s . A l l 1 House and H a r k i n s (1975:400) have o f f e r e d a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n - o c c u p a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l and low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s may f e e l " o v e r l o a d e d " , because t h e i r t r a i n i n g , a b i l i t y , and e x p e c t a t i o n s do not match the demands of t h e i r j o b s . On the o t h e r hand, persons whose e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s i s h i g h e r than t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s s h o u l d f e e l u n d e r - u t i l i z e d or " u n d e r l o a d e d " . Both o v e r l o a d and u n d e r l o a d may produce s t r e s s . 47 t h e s e s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r m u l a t i o n s can be e x p r e s s e d by the same m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n model. O t h e r s have extended t h i s s t r a t e g y t o demonstrate the f o r m a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p a r a l l e l s between the s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y and the s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y ( T a y l o r , 1973; T a y l o r and Hornung, 1979). 1 E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y : F i n d i n g s from P r e v i o u s Research L e n s k i (1956b) had argued t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y exposed t o d i s t u r b i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and l a b o u r under u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . L e n s k i d i d not have the d a t a t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s d i r e c t l y . But he reasoned t h a t the d e n i a l of rewards i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i l l l e a d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s t o withdraw or shy away from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n where p o s s i b l e , so as t o d i m i n i s h the f r e q u e n c y and impact of the u n p l e a s a n t s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s which a r i s e from the i n c o n s i s t e n c y among t h e i r s t a t u s e s . Such w i t h d r a w a l and a v o i d a n c e , i f they o c c u r , a r e most l i k e l y t o m a n i f e s t themselves 1 T a y l o r i n c l u d e d among the s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s , b e s i d e s the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e s i s , c e r t a i n f o r m u l a t i o n s of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , the G i b b s - M a r t i n t h e o r y of s t a t u s i n t e g r a t i o n , and the B l a u - D a v i s p r i n c i p l e of s t r u c t u r a l or c o m p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s . Hornung added t o t h i s l i s t v a r i o u s s o c i a l exchange f o r m u l a t i o n s such as d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e (Homans), s o c i a l e q u i t y (Adams), and the t h e o r y of s t a t u s v a l u e (Berger and a s s o c i a t e s ) . The c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s i n c l u d e Osgood's a t t i t u d e c o n g r u i t y , H e i d e r ' s s t r u c t u r a l b a l a n c e , and F e s t i n g e r ' s d i s s o n a n c e f o r m u l a t i o n s . See T a y l o r (1973), Hornung (1977), and T a y l o r and Hornung (1979) f o r d e t a i l s and r e f e r e n c e s . 48 i n the a r e a of r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e t i o n a r y and v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t i s t o say, w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , and f e l l o w workers away from work, and w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . U s i n g d a t a on i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h n e i g h b o u r s and co-workers ( o f f the job) and on membership and involvement i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , L e n s k i c o n s t r u c t e d an index of the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . On the b a s i s of t h i s index he c a t e g o r i z e d each respondent as a s o c i a l i s o l a t e or an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . He found t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e of i s o l a t e s was l a r g e r among persons c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y than among those w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . F u r t h e r , s t a t u s , i n c o n s i s t e n t s were l e s s a c t i v e than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s i n the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which they had j o i n e d f i v e or more y e a r s ago. T h i s i n a c t i v e s t a t e of l o n g - s t a n d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t i e s was taken as e v i d e n c e of the i n c o n s i s t e n t s ' g r a d u a l and p a r t i a l w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F i n a l l y , compared w i t h s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s , r e s p o n d e n t s whose s t a t u s e s were i n c o n s i s t e n t l e s s o f t e n i n i t i a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s o c i a b l e reasons (the e x p e c t a t i o n of p l e a s u r a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s ; a d e s i r e t o meet new p e o p l e and t o make new f r i e n d s ) . S i n c e L e n s k i ' s s t u d y t h e r e have been s e v e r a l o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o t e s t h i s hypotheses about the u n f a v o u r a b l e impact of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As i s the case f o r so many o t h e r s u b s t a n t i v e a r e a s t o which the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y 49 argument has been a p p l i e d , t h e s e s t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y produced c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n f u s i n g r e s u l t s . Bauman (1968), f o r example, p r e s e n t e d d a t a s u g g e s t i n g t h a t m i d d l e - c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s a r e more l i k e l y t o have s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n than p e r s o n s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . T h i s f i n d i n g of c o u r s e c o n t r a d i c t s a c e n t r a l assumption i n L e n s k i ' s argument, namely t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y l e a d s t o u n p l e a s a n t and s t r a i n e d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . What i s more, another a n a l y s i s of the same d a t a f a i l e d t o produce e v i d e n c e of a n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Bauman, 1968:49). Geschwender (1968) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , compared t o s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s , persons whose s t a t u s e s are i n c o n s i s t e n t tend (a) t o have fewer memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , (b) t o show a lower l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and (c) t o h o l d fewer o f f i c e s and p o s i t i o n s i n t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s would be l e s s l i k e l y t o use t h e i r f r e e time i n a s o c i a b l e manner. Both hypotheses r e c e i v e d moderate support from the d a t a . The n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the e x p r e s s i v e , s o c i a l t y p e , but was l e s s e v i d e n t f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As f o r the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s were found t o b e l o n g t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t o be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t o h o l d o f f i c e s and committee p o s t s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n d e n t s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between t h e i r 50 o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s e s — t h e s o - c a l l e d "reward i n c o n s i s t e n t s " — a l s o tended t o withdraw from s o c i a l l i f e . For ot h e r t y p e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s the d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s were l e s s c l e a r . Hodge (1970:203-4) r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s of a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s which showed t h a t s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the net e f f e c t of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s was much l a r g e r than t h a t of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y . The most e x t e n s i v e t e s t so f a r of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y has been c a r r i e d out by Jac k s o n and C u r t i s (1972; see a l s o C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , I 9 7 7 : c h a p t e r 8 ) . The f i n d i n g s of t h e i r s t udy d i d not support hypotheses about n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t any i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s almost always d i s a p p e a r when the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e p r o p e r l y c o n t r o l l e d . A c o n s p i c u o u s gap i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h i s the p a u c i t y of e f f o r t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y f o r the be h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s of women. But t h i s i s not an e x c e p t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . The study of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l has f o r the l o n g e s t time n e g l e c t e d women and has concerned i t s e l f almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the p r o c e s s e s and p a t t e r n s of s t a t u s a t t a i n m e n t and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y among men. Of c o u r s e , i n the l a s t t e n y e a r s or so i n t e r e s t i n the s t a t u s of women has grown d r a m a t i c a l l y . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e has 51 been a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n the number of p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and income a t t a i n m e n t of women, w i t h the v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y of women, and w i t h the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system, by sex ( i . e . , s e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ) . Examples a r e the s t u d i e s by Tyree and Treas (1974), Treiman and T e r r e l l (1975), Guppy and S i l t a n e n (1977), B l i s h e n and C a r r o l l (1978), Wolf and F l i g s t . e i n (1979). But t h i s r e c e n t t r e n d t o devote more a t t e n t i o n t o women's e x p e r i e n c e s - - b o t h i n t h e i r own r i g h t and as they compare w i t h t h o s e of men—has not y e t been extended t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h . In t h i s a r e a almost a l l s t u d i e s have r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r samples t o men or have used combined male-and-female samples. A n a l y s e s t h a t a re f o c u s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on women a r e r a r e (see Hodge, 1970, f o r an example). The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t s t o f i l l t h a t gap, i n p a r t a t l e a s t , by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y f o r a subsample of women. S i n c e t h a t i s s u e has h a r d l y been e x p l o r e d t o d a t e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say what t o expect of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Should we assume t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women than on t h a t of men? What l i t t l e e v i d e n c e b e a r i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e r e i s su g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s not the c a s e . Hodge (1970:203-4), examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and v a r i o u s measures of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , found the p a t t e r n s of the s e r e l a t i o n s t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r f o r 52 men and women.1 S i n c e t h e r e a l s o i s n o t h i n g i n the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument i t s e l f t h a t s u g gests t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n c y a f f e c t s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n a d i f f e r e n t way than t h a t of men, i t w i l l t e n t a t i v e l y assumed t h a t the b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t i n g a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o l d s t r u e f o r women as w e l l as f o r men. The Hypotheses Taken t o g e t h e r , the mixed and c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n p r e v e n t a d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n about the v a l i d i t y of L e n s k i ' s o r i g i n a l p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E v i d e n c e from r e c e n t and b e t t e r a n a l y z e d r e s e a r c h seems t o suggest t h a t t h i s supposed i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t i s not p r e s e n t . However, the r e m a i n i n g a m b i g u i t y on t h i s p o i n t may be f u r t h e r reduced by s u b j e c t i n g the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s t o more e m p i r i c a l t e s t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s e s the q u e s t i o n once a g a i n : Do i n d i v i d u a l s who occupy rank p o s i t i o n s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than 1 J a c k s o n (1962:478) i n i t i a l l y r e p o r t e d marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses (symptoms of s t r e s s ) of men and women t o e d u c a t i o n - o c c u p a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . However, a r e - a n a l y s i s of the same da t a f a i l e d t o produce e v i d e n c e t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s v a r i e d by sex (see J a c k s o n and Burke, 1965:561). 53 i n d i v i d u a l s whose ranks on s e v e r a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s are c o n s i s t e n t ? The two main hypotheses a r e as f o l l o w s : (1) A f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , p ersons w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s have fewer memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than p e r s o n s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . (2) A f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , p ersons w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than persons w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . A second q u e s t i o n i s whether t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c t y p e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s problem c o n c e r n s the e f f e c t s of two o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n s .of i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n v o l v i n g s t a t u s e s t h a t can be r e g a r d e d as investment and reward. In one p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument i t i s proposed ( c f . Geschwender, 1967) t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who have made l a r g e e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t s but have r e c e i v e d s m a l l rewards i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l or income s t a t u s , a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y prone t o w i t h d r a w a l i n t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , s i n c e t h e s e underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s w i l l be angered by t h e i r d e p r i v a t i o n and perhaps see themselves as f a i l u r e s . On the o t h e r hand, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n a l investment but h i g h rewards w i l l e x p e r i e n c e o n l y a m i l d form of d i s s o n a n c e ; they have a c h i e v e d some measure of s u c c e s s d e s p i t e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l h a n d i c a p . Thus, overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s s h o u l d be l e s s i n c l i n e d t o a v o i d , or withdraw from, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s , 54 The secondary h y p o t h e s e s , c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i f i c t y p e s of sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e as f o l l o w s : (3) A f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s have fewer memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s . (But both underrewarded and overrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s have fewer memberships than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s ) . (4) A f t e r t a k i n g i n t o account the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s . (But both a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be o f f i c e - h o l d e r s than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s ) . The o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h e s e hypotheses i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 4 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . 55 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Data Sources and Samples The d a t a a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s tudy come from two sample s u r v e y s conducted by r e s e a r c h e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 and 1971. The f i r s t s e t of d a t a was taken from M e i s s n e r ' s survey of g a i n f u l l y employed a d u l t s i n P o r t A l b e r n i , a s m a l l i n d u s t r i a l community on Vancouver I s l a n d . 1 In 1965, when the survey was t a k e n , the p o p u l a t i o n i n the P o r t A l b e r n i a r e a was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000. F o r t y - f i v e per cen t of the working a d u l t s were employed by a l a r g e f o r e s t - p r o d u c t s p r o c e s s i n g company, the l a r g e s t s i n g l e employer i n the a r e a . The j u s t p u b l i s h e d c i t y d i r e c t o r y was used t o draw a random sample from a l l persons employed by the company and a s e p a r a t e random sample" from those persons who, were w o r k i n g e l s e w h e r e . Three t i m e s as many company employees as o t h e r w o r k i n g a d u l t s 1 A c t u a l l y the study area encompassed not o n l y the c i t y of P o r t A l b e r n i but a l s o the a d j a c e n t a r e a s . For the sake of b r e v i t y , however, I s h a l l r e f e r t o t h i s s u r v e y and the sample by the name of the p r i n c i p a l c i t y . / 56 were s e l e c t e d , because the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of the study was t o determine the c o n d i t i o n s and consequences of i n d u s t r i a l work i n l a r g e p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s and l e v e l s of t e c h n o l o g y . As a r e s u l t of t h i s o v e r s a m p l i n g of company employees, the t a r g e t sample c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y of male workers w i t h manual j o b s who were p a i d an h o u r l y wage. Only a few women and s e l f - e m p l o y e d p e r s o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the sample, w h i l e p e o p l e w i t h o u t p a y i n g j o b s - - t h e young, the r e t i r e d , h o u s e w i v e s — w e r e e x c l u d e d a l t o g e t h e r . I n t e r v i e w i n g was done by t r a i n e d graduate s t u d e n t s i n May and June of 1965. The s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s about the s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of work, work h i s t o r i e s , l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and v o t i n g i n f o u r p a s t e l e c t i o n s . I n t e r v i e w s were completed w i t h 239 company employees and 69 persons working e l s e w h e r e . T h i s t o t a l of 308 r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d 78 per cent of the t a r g e t sample. To c o r r e c t f o r the o v e r s a m p l i n g of company employees, the responses of the 69 working a d u l t s not employed by the company were weighted by a f a c t o r of 4, so t h a t i n the a n a l y s i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n s would c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e found i n the s a m p l i n g p o p u l a t i o n . Sample s i z e a f t e r w e i g h t i n g t o t a l s 515. 1 1 A r e s e a r c h c h r o n i c l e g i v i n g d e t a i l s of the s a m p l i n g and w e i g h t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g i s p a r t of M e i s s n e r ' s (1967) r e p o r t . 57 The second d a t a s e t came from the Vancouver Urban S t u d i e s P r o j e c t . 1 The main o b j e c t i v e of the r e s e a r c h was t o e x p l o r e how the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of urban r e s i d e n t s i n a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i s a f f e c t e d by the urban s o c i o - e c o l o g i c a l e nvironment. I n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d on i n d i v i d u a l and hous e h o l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the n a t u r e of work, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , i n f o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s and f e l l o w w o r k e r s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , v o t i n g i n s e v e r a l e l e c t i o n s , h o u s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y . The study used a m u l t i s t a g e , p u r p o s i v e l y s t r a t i f i e d , unequal c l u s t e r , random s a m p l i n g d e s i g n . The f i r s t s t e p i n v o l v e d the p u r p o s i v e s e l e c t i o n of e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n G r e a t e r Vancouver ( i . e . , the c i t y of Vancouver p l u s s u r r o u n d i n g suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) t h a t were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of soc i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and st a g e i n the f a m i l y l i f e - c y c l e . For example, one r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a chosen r e p r e s e n t e d a " s o c i a l a r e a " ( B e l l , 1969) w i t h a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h low socioeconomic s t a t u s . The next s t e p was to randomly s e l e c t households w i t h i n the s t r a t i f i e d sample a r e a s . By means of the 1970 c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s e i g h t s e p a r a t e l i s t s of a l l households w i t h i n the s e l e c t e d a r e a s were c o m p i l e d . From each of these enumeration l i s t s an i n i t i a l sample of 1 The p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s were George Gray, S c o t t M e i s , Jack Scheu, and K a t h i e S t o r r i e . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the sam p l i n g and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s was taken l a r g e l y from Scheu's (1975) d i s s e r t a t i o n . 58 households was randomly drawn. To be e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o the sample a household had t o c o n s i s t of a t l e a s t one m a r r i e d c o u p l e of which one or both spouses were f u l l - t i m e employed a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . . Upon e s t a b l i s h i n g the e l i g i b i l i t y of a h o u s e h o l d , the i n t e r v i e w e r s then s e l e c t e d husband and w i f e as r e s p o n d e n t s . I n t e r v i e w s were conducted by i n t e r v i e w i n g teams composed of a male and a female graduate s t u d e n t . Husband and w i f e were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y but s e p a r a t e l y i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e i r home by an i n t e r v i e w e r of t h e i r own sex. A t o t a l of 822 i n t e r v i e w s were completed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w p e r i o d from J u l y 1971 t o F e b r u a r y 1972. The 411 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s f o r whom u s a b l e d a t a were o b t a i n e d r e p r e s e n t a response r a t e of 58 per c e n t . The s a m p l i n g d e s i g n i n the Vancouver study has r e s t r i c t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s based on these d a t a . S i n c e the p r i m a r y s a m p l i n g u n i t s - - t h e e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s — w e r e p u r p o s i v e l y chosen on the b a s i s of nonrandom, e c o l o g i c a l c i t e r i a , one cannot l e g i t i m a t e l y g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s beyond the households of the sampled r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t o the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of G r e a t e r Vancouver. A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n a r i s e s from the p u r p o s i v e e x c l u s i o n of c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of p e o p l e from the sample, most n o t a b l y u n m a r r i e d , d i v o r c e d or s e p a r a t e d p e r s o n s , c h i l d r e n , and m a r r i e d c o u p l e s i n which both husband and w i f e were unemployed or r e t i r e d . The d a t a from the P o r t A l b e r n i study t h a t were used i n t e s t i n g the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y hypotheses p e r t a i n t o the e n t i r e w e i g h t e d sample of 515 r e s p o n d e n t s . But the sample of 59 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s from Vancouver was s u b d i v i d e d by sex, and data f o r men and women were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y . Of the subsample of wives o n l y the 139 g a i n f u l l y employed women were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n was imposed by the c h o i c e of o c c u p a t i o n as one of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which measures of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were c o n s t r u c t e d . A s s i g n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t o women who do not work o u t s i d e the home f o r pay would c r e a t e a n a l y t i c a l problems, as I s h a l l e x p l a i n l a t e r . . The a c t u a l s i z e of the w o r k i n g sample i n a g i v e n a n a l y s i s was a f f e c t e d by m i s s i n g d a t a and the way i n which th e s e were h a n d l e d . In a l l a n a l y s e s , r e s p o n d e n t s f o r whom i n f o r m a t i o n on any of the r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s was not a v a i l a b l e were e x c l u d e d . As a r e s u l t of such l i s t w i s e d e l e t i o n of. m i s s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , the sample s i z e v a r i e d somewhat from one a n a l y s i s t o a n o t h e r . The a c t u a l number of cases on which a g i v e n a n a l y s i s was based i s r e p o r t e d w i t h each t a b l e . Measurement of the V a r i a b l e s How p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d w i l l be d e s c r i b e d f i r s t . Then f o l l o w s an account of the d e f i n i t i o n and measurement of the independent v a r i a b l e s -s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 60 Dependent V a r i a b l e s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s was d e f i n e d by two v a r i a b l e s : ( 1 ) the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s of which the respondent i s a member, and ( 2 ) the number of o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s or committee memberships the respondent p r e s e n t l y h o l d s , or has h e l d i n the p a s t , i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r q a n z i a t i o n s . The number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships h e l d by a respondent from P o r t A l b e r n i was de t e r m i n e d from answers t o the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s : (a) Are you a member of a t r a d e u n i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , or a t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n ? What i s the name of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ? (b) Are you a member of a c h u r c h or o t h e r r e l i g i o u s group? What i s the name of the c h u r c h (group) you belong t o ? (c) Of what o t h e r groups a r e you a member? S p o r t s , f r a t e r n a l or c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c l u b s , r e c r e a t i o n , PTA, and so f o r t h . What i s the name of the group? (d) Are t h e r e any o t h e r groups you belong t o ? Respondents i n the Vancouver sample were asked: (a) Are you a member of any p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s or u n i o n s ? Would you name them? Probe: Are you a member of any ot h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e p r i m a r i l y f o r pe o p l e i n your l i n e of work? (b) Are you a member of a c h u r c h or a r e l i g i o u s group? What i s the name of the c h u r c h or group? (c) Are you a member of any ( o t h e r ) groups, c l u b s , or a s s o c i a t i o n s such a s : 1. s p o r t s , r e c r e a t i o n , and hobby c l u b s 2. f r a t e r n a l , c i v i c , and c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 3. s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s • 4. PTA and o t h e r c h i l d r e n a c t i v i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s 5. o r g a n i z a t i o n s of r a t e p a y e r s , t e n a n t s Would you name them? 61 The membership v a r i a b l e used i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s does not i n c l u d e membership i n t r a d e u n i o n s . The e x i s t e n c e of union shop c l a u s e s , which r e q u i r e workers t o j o i n a union as a c o n d i t i o n of employment, r a i s e s doubts about the v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e of union membership. Where unions a r e s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d and have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over the employment chances of w o r k e r s , few can a f f o r d not t o j o i n . I f union membership i s indeed o f t e n c ompulsory, then i n c l u d i n g i t i n the sum of a respondent's memberships might a t t e n u a t e the s t r e n g t h of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , i f any, on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r , as L e n s k i (I956b:459) has not e d , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i l l l e a d people t o s t a y away or withdraw from u n i o n s i f t h i s would j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 1 For these r e a s o n s , unions were l e f t out of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c o u n t i n g the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which the respondent b e l o n g s . 2 1 L e n s k i (l956b:459) has a l s o s u g g e s t e d , however, t h a t p ersons w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s may a c t u a l l y be a t t r a c t e d t o un i o n s and become a c t i v e members. The reason i s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has been found t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " l e f t i s t " p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and w i t h p r e f e r e n c e f o r change i n the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . S i n c e u n i o n s a r e o f t e n seen as c a t a l y s t s of these changes, they c o u l d accommodate such o r i e n t a t i o n s . For t h a t reason too i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o a n a l y z e union membership a t l e a s t s e p a r a t e l y from membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 About 65 per c e n t of the P o r t A l b e r n i sample belonged t o a t r a d e u n i o n . Among the Vancouver respondents u n i o n membership was much l e s s f r e q u e n t : 27 per cent of the m a r r i e d men and o n l y 11.5 per ce n t of the employed m a r r i e d women were members of a u n i o n . 62 Membership of a c h u r c h or a r e l i g i o u s group was i n c l u d e d i n the sum of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To be s u r e , t h i s i s as much a p o i n t of c o n t r o v e r s y as i s the i n c l u s i o n or e x c l u s i o n of t r a d e u n i o n s . Church membership i s u s u a l l y o m i t t e d as i n v o l u n t a r y because i t i s thought t o be a s c r i p t i v e - - o n e i s "born i n t o " the c h u r c h of h i s or her p a r e n t s . But i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s argument i s s t i l l v a l i d i n p r e s e n t - d a y c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In modern s o c i e t y i t i s e a s i e r , f o r a d u l t s a t l e a s t , t o change from the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n of one's p a r e n t s , and many people do so ( S m i t h , 1975). T h i s element of c h o i c e j u s t i f i e s the i n c l u s i o n of c h u r c h membership. The p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver samples by the number of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o which the respondent belongs are g i v e n i n T a b l e 1. About 76 per cent of the r e s p o n d e n t s i n the P o r t A l b e r n i sample and 78 per c e n t of the m a r r i e d men i n the Vancouver sample r e p o r t e d membership i n a t l e a s t one v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . H a l f of the Vancouver men and more than o n e - t h i r d (37 per c e n t ) of the P o r t A l b e r n i r espondents belonged t o more than one o r g a n i z a t i o n . A f t e r t h r e e memberships the d i s t r i b u t i o n s drop o f f r a p i d l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t membership of more than t h r e e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e l a t i v e l y j r a r e (10 t o 14 per c e n t ) . In comparison w i t h the membership f i g u r e s i n these two samples, which c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y or f o r the most p a r t of males, the p i c t u r e f o r an a l l - f e m a l e subsample i s d i f f e r e n t . Among the employed m a r r i e d women i n the Vancouver sample 62 per cent r e p o r t e d t o be members of a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h i s can 63 T a b l e 1. Number of Memberships i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples ( P e r c e n t a g e s and Summary S t a t i s t i c s ) PORT ALBERNI VANCOUVER Number of T o t a l Employed Memberships Sample Men Women None 24. 1% 21.9% 38. 1% One 38.6 28.5 32.4 Two 12.4 21.4 16.6 Three 14.4 12.3 7.9 Four 6.2 5. 1 2.9 F i v e 1 .4 4.9 1 .4 S i x 1 .5 3.9 0.7 Seven 0.6 0.5 0.0 E i g h t 0.8 1 .5 0.0 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% N (515) (407) (139) Mean 1 .58 1 .92 1.12 SD 1 .54 1 .79 1 .24 Note: Membership i n t r a d e unions i s e x c l u d e d 64 be compared w i t h the 78 per cent f o r the Vancouver men. M u l t i p l e membership was a l s o l e s s f r e q u e n t among t h e s e women (30 per c e n t ) than among t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s (50 per c e n t ) . These sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e x t e n t of membership a re l a r g e r than those r e p o r t e d i n some o t h e r s t u d i e s ( e . g . , C u r t i s , 1971b: 874-5; Hausknecht, 1962:31-2; Babchuk and Booth, 1969; Booth, 1972). T h i s d i v e r g e n c e -in f i n d i n g s may a r i s e from the f a c t t h a t my a n a l y s i s was r e s t r i c t e d t o employed women. Employment, s t a t u s and membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d i n t h i s sample of Vancouver women. A l t h o u g h not shown i n Ta b l e 1, 75 per cent of the Vancouver women who were not employed belonged t o a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . For employed women t h i s f i g u r e was 62 per c e n t , as we have j u s t seen. T h e r e f o r e , when a l l women were c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r employment s t a t u s , the p e r c e n t a g e members was o n l y s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r than t h a t f o r the male subsample (70 v e r s u s 78 per c e n t ) . That employed women a r e l e s s l i k e l y than not-employed women t o j o i n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can p r o b a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the g r e a t e r demands t h a t the c o m b i n a t i o n of domestic c h o r e s and an o u t s i d e j o b makes on t h e i r t i m e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t r a d e u n i o n s were e x c l u d e d , one has t o say t h a t membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s e x t e n s i v e among Vancouver and P o r t A l b e r n i r e s p o n d e n t s . The p r o p o r t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s who be l o n g t o one v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n or more,are g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r than those r e p o r t e d f o r l o c a l and n a t i o n a l 65 samples i n o t h e r Canadian s t u d i e s . 1 A p o i n t t o keep i n mind, however, i s t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s between f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s s t u d i e s p r o b a b l y a r e l a r g e l y due t o d i f f e r i n g r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s . For one t h i n g , e s t i m a t e s of the e x t e n t of membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by the format and the c o n t e x t of the q u e s t i o n s t h r o u g h which i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t i s e l i c i t e d (Wright and Hyman, 1958:32; Hausknecht, 1962:127-9; Babchuk and Booth, 1969:32; Smith, 1975:250). The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s used i n the P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver s u r v e y s c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l d e t a i l e d items on membership and i nvolvement i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s may have had the e f f e c t of f a c i l i t a t i n g r e c a l l by the r e s p o n d e n t s , so t h a t f a i r l y c omplete and a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n were o b t a i n e d ( C u r t i s , 1971b). F u r t h e r m o r e , the h i g h r a t e s of membership found here undoubtedly a l s o r e f l e c t the c o m p o s i t i o n of the samples. As mentioned, both s t u d i e s d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t t e d c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of p e o p l e from t h e i r s a m p l . e s — c h i l d r e n , unemployed and r e t i r e d p e o p l e , p ersons who were s i n g l e , s e p a r a t e d , or d i v o r c e d , and so f o r t h . These r e s t r i c t i o n s would a l s o tend t o i n c r e a s e membership r a t e s i n comparison w i t h samples t h a t a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of a p l a c e or the c o u n t r y as a whole. 1 See, f o r example, C u r t i s (1971a, 1971b), Warburton (1969), F r i z z e l l and Z u r e i k (1974). Some of the f i n d i n g s on s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e memberships from th e s e s t u d i e s were mentioned i n Chapter 1. 66 H o l d i n g o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The second p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e i s the sum of a l l p a s t and p r e s e n t o f f i c e s and committee memberships h e l d i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O f f i c e - h o l d i n g was chosen as a measure of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s involvement i n the a f f a i r s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As was suggested e a r l i e r , a b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as a t t e n d i n g meetings or h o l d i n g o f f i c e , i s more r e l e v a n t f o r e v a l u a t i n g the a l l e g e d m e d i a t i n g r o l e and i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than mere membership. A person who h o l d s o f f i c e i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e t o o t h e r members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the c h a i n of communication. Such a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e t h e r e f o r e i s of importance i n the f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l networks w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k s w i t h o t h e r groups. O f f i c e - h o l d i n g i s a l s o a more s p e c i a l i z e d form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n than a t t e n d a n c e ; i t r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r communication s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e w i t h members and w i t h o t h e r o f f i c e r s . There i s no r e a s o n , of c o u r s e , t o e x c l u d e t r a d e u n i o n s from t h i s v a r i a b l e . A l t h o u g h membership may o f t e n be compulsory, a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s o b v i o u s l y i s v o l u n t a r y , and members are under no o b l i g a t i o n t o h o l d o f f i c e i n t h e i r u n i o n . To determine o f f i c e - h o l d i n g members of the P o r t A l b e r n i sample were asked, f o r each v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which they r e p o r t e d membership: (a) Do you h o l d any k i n d of p o s i t i o n ? How would you d e s c r i b e i t ? (b) Are you a member of any committee? What i s i t c a l l e d ? 67 (c) Have you ever had a p o s i t i o n , or have you been a c t i v e i n any o t h e r way b e f o r e ? What was i t ? In the Vancouver survey the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were asked about each o r g a n i z a t i o n of which the respondent was a member: (a) Do you h o l d any k i n d of p o s i t i o n or a r e you a member of any committee? (b) Have you ever h e l d a p o s i t i o n or been a member of a committee b e f o r e ? Table 2 shows the p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of number of o f f i c e s h e l d i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O f f i c e - h o l d i n g i s q u i t e common among the respondents from P o r t A l b e r n i and the men i n the Vancouver sample: about 50 per c e n t r e p o r t e d t o h o l d or t o have h e l d one or more o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Even more remarkable i s the l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of P o r t A l b e r n i r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h more than two p r e s e n t or p a s t o f f i c e s . In s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s i n t h e s e two samples i s the 25 per c e n t of employed m a r r i e d women from Vancouver who were or had been o f f i c e r s of a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s i s h a l f the p e r c e n t a g e t h a t was found f o r the Vancouver men. 1 1 Data p r e s e n t e d by Booth (1972:189) show t h a t male-female d i f f e r e n c e s i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g v a r y w i t h the type of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He found t h a t men dominated the l e a d e r h i p of i n s t r u m e n t a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e . g . , p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s , community a c t i o n g r o u p s ) , w h i l e women were more l i k e l y than men t o h o l d o f f i c e i n e x p r e s s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s (such as c h u r c h - r e l a t e d groups and r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) . 68 Ta b l e 2. Number of O f f i c e s H e l d i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples ( P e r c e n t a g e s and Summary S t a t i s t i c s ) Number of O f f i c e s H e l d PORT ALBERNI T o t a l Sample VANCOUVER Men Employed Women None 47.0% 49.6% 74.8% One 18.3 29.9 20.2 Two 11.7 13.9 5.0 Three 8.5 3.2 0.0 Four 6.4 2.0 0.0 F i v e 2.1 0.7 0.0 S i x or more 6.0 0.7 0.0 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% N (515) (411 ) (139) Mean 1 .52 0.83 0.30 SD 2.19 1.11 0.56 Note: Number of o f f i c e s h e l d i s the t o t a l number of pa s t and p r e s e n t o f f i c e s and committee memberships i n a l l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t r a d e unions 69 Independent V a r i a b l e s Measures of s t a t u s . The d e f i n i t i o n i n i t s e l f of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y and i t s c o n v e r s e , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , does not p r e s c r i b e how the s e c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be measured, nor does i t s t i p u l a t e which s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s s h o u l d be used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure. Y e t , as L e n s k i (l956a:368) has noted, one cannot assume " t h a t any c o m b i n a t i o n of s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s when put t o g e t h e r t o form a measure of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y , or c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , w i l l y i e l d t he same r e s u l t s . " L e n s k i (1954, 1956b) h i m s e l f s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, and e t h n i c i t y as the b a s i c s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s , and most subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s have used the same v a r i a b l e s of a subset of them. A l t h o u g h the c r i t e r i a a r e not always e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , the c h o i c e of the s e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s seems t o be gu i d e d by the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , o t h e r than the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d a t a . In N o r t h American s o c i e t i e s o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , income, and e t h n i c i t y (1) are i m p o r t a n t bases f o r the s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t people make i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r ; (2) they m o b i l i z e s t r o n g b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands; (3) t h e r e i s a degree of consensus i n the p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r a n k i n g of p o s i t i o n s a l o n g t h e s e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s ; (4) t h e r e e x i s t s some consensus t h a t c e r t a i n s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s a re normal and/or a p p r o p r i a t e (see L e n s k i , 1954, 1956b; Goffman, 1957; J a c k s o n and C u r t i s , 1968:135-136). 7 0 The s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s chosen f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study are e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and i n c o m e — t h e b a s i c components of a c h i e v e d socioeconomic s t a t u s . The s t a t u s e s of a respondent were d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y as h i s or her r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n these t h r e e s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s . Each h i e r a r c h y was r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i m p l e o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e w i t h t h r e e o r d e r e d c a t e g o r i e s : low, medium, and h i g h s t a t u s . The measures of t h e s e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the c h o i c e of the c u t t i n g - p o i n t s were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the a n a l y s e s based on the Vancouver d a t a and those based on the P o r t A l b e r n i d a t a . 1 In the Vancouver study e d u c a t i o n was measured as the l a s t type of f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g the respondent had a t t e n d e d and the number of y e a r s a t t e n d e d t h e r e . The t h r e e l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = l e s s than completed h i g h s c h o o l medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = completed h i g h s c h o o l h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was o r i g i n a l l y measured by a 17-c a t e g o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the H o l l i n g s h e a d O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s S c a l e (see Bonjean et a l . , 1 The d i v i s i o n of each s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s had t o be done, of c o u r s e , w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which the d a t a were o r i g i n a l l y coded. But an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g low, medium, and h i g h rank on any g i v e n s t a t u s v a r i a b l e was t o choose th e s e c u t - o f f p o i n t s i n such a way as t o ensure t h a t t h e r e were enough cases i n each s t a t u s c a t e g o r y . That the c u t t i n g - p o i n t s on the e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n measures d i f f e r f o r the Vancouver and P o r t A l b e r n i d a t a i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t c o m p o s i t i o n of the two samples. 71 1967:441-8). For men, the c a t e g o r i e s were c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s as f o l l o w s : h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = e x e c u t i v e s and p r o p r i e t o r s of l a r g e c o n c e r n s , and major p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; managers and p r o p r i e t o r s of medium-sized b u s i n e s s e s , and l e s s e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l of l a r g e c o n c e r n s , owners of s m a l l independent b u s i n e s s e s , and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; c l e r i c a l and s a l e s w o r k e r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , and owners of l i t t l e b u s i n e s s e s low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = s k i l l e d , s e m i - s k i l l e d , and u n s k i l l e d manual w o r k e r s . Because the same d i v i s i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n would have c r e a t e d too s m a l l a h i g h s t a t u s c a t e g o r y f o r the employed women, the c u t t i n g - p o i n t between h i g h and medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was lowered somewhat: h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = e x e c u t i v e s and p r o p r i e t o r s of l a r g e c o n c e r n s , and major p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; managers and p r o p r i e t o r s of medium-sized b u s i n e s s e s , and l e s s e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l of l a r g e c o n c e r n s , owners of s m a l l independent b u s i n e s s e s , and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = c l e r i c a l and s a l e s w o r k e r s , t e c h n i c i a n s , and owners of l i t t l e b u s i n e s s e s low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = s k i l l e d , s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d manual w o r k e r s . Income s t a t u s was d e t e r m i n e d from the r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l income i n d o l l a r s i n 1970. C u t - o f f p o i n t s t o d e f i n e the t h r e e l e v e l s of income s t a t u s a r e : low income s t a t u s = $7,999 or l e s s medium income s t a t u s = $8,000 t o $13,999 h i g h income s t a t u s = $14,000 or more. 72 In the a n a l y s e s based on d a t a from the P o r t A l b e r n i study o n l y e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n were used as s t a t u s d imensions because d a t a on income were not a v a i l a b l e . E d u c a t i o n was measured as the l a s t grade f i n i s h e d i n s c h o o l . The o r i g i n a l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of t h i s v a r i a b l e were c o l l a p s e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s as f o l l o w s : low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = grade 8 or l e s s medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = some h i g h s c h o o l (grades 9 - 1 1 ) h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s = c o mpleted h i g h s c h o o l or more. O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was d e t e r m i n e d from a f i v e - c a t e g o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the l e v e l of s k i l l . The c a t e g o r i e s were combined t o g i v e t h r e e l e v e l s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s as f o l l o w s : h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = p r o f e s s i o n a l s and managers; t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l , and s a l e s p e r s o n n e l medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = s k i l l e d manual workers low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s = s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d manual w o r k e r s . Measurement of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Now t h a t the s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s t o be used i n the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y have been chosen, the next problem i s how t o c o n s t r u c t a measure of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . In the o l d e r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h t h i s problem was t y p i c a l l y h a n d l e d i n one of two ways. In one p r o c e d u r e the c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r each s t a t u s v a r i a b l e i s computed. The m i d p o i n t of the p e r c e n t i l e range f o r each c a t e g o r y or i n t e r v a l of a g i v e n v a r i a b l e i s the s c o r e a s s i g n e d t o r e s p o n d e n t s f a l l i n g i n t h a t c a t e g o r y or i n t e r v a l . A measure of 7 3 d i s p e r s i o n of the r espondent's p e r c e n t i l e s c o r e s on the v a r i o u s s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i s computed t o g i v e h i s or her s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y s c o r e , ( e . g . , L e n s k i , 1954, 1956b; Demerath, 1965; Bauman, 1968). The a l t e r n a t i v e procedure i s t h a t the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s are t r i c h o t o m i z e d and c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d ; the " d i s t a n c e s " between the rank l e v e l s on d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e used t o d e r i v e a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e (see J a c k s o n , 1962; Geschwender, 1968). Whatever the measurement t e c h n i q u e , the sample i s then d i v i d e d i n t o groups of respondents w i t h s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s d i f f e r i n g i n degree of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The o p e r a t i o n a l - i z a t i o n of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h i s r e s e a r c h conforms t o the l a t t e r , rank-d i f f e r e n c e p r o c e d u r e . S t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d two a t a t i m e . As we have seen, each v a r i a b l e was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e o r d e r e d c a t e g o r i e s or s t a t u s l e v e l s . Thus, c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a p a i r of s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s produced a m a t r i x of n i n e d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s . Each s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n was then c l a s s i f i e d as c o n s i s t e n t , m o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t , or s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t — d e p e n d i n g upon the d i f f e r e n c e between the rank on one s t a t u s v a r i a b l e and the rank on the o t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e . Together these t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s form the "degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y " v a r i a b l e and they were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y = the c o m b i n a t i o n s of r anks t h a t a r e the same: h i g h , medium, or low rank on b oth s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s (HH, MM, LL) moderate s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y = the c o m b i n a t i o n s of ranks t h a t d i f f e r by o n l y one r a n k - s t e p : medium rank on one s t a t u s v a r i a b l e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e i t h e r low or h i g h rank on the o t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e (ML, MH, LM, HM) s harp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y = the c o m b i n a t i o n s of ranks t h a t 74 d i f f e r by two s t e p s : h i g h rank on s t a t u s v a r i a b l e A and low rank on s t a t u s v a r i a b l e B, or v i c e v e r s a (HL, LH) . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l measure of degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y I have d i s t i n g u i s h e d two s p e c i f i c forms or p a t t e r n s of sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , namely underreward and o v e r r e w a r d . They are d i s c r e p a n c i e s between two s t a t u s e s one of which r e p r e s e n t s an investment and the o t h e r a reward. The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e s e two forms. of sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y a r e as f o l l o w s . Overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s are the r espondents who h e l d low rank on the dimension of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s but h i g h rank on e i t h e r the o c c u p a t i o n a l or income s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s — t h e rewards they have r e c e i v e d exceed t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s . Underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s are the r e spondents who combined h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s w i t h e i t h e r low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s or low income s t a t u s — t h e i r investment i s g r e a t e r than the rewards r e c e i v e d . Methods of A n a l y s i s The Core Problem: I s o l a t i n g the E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y The proper t e s t of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s r e q u i r e s t h a t one c o n t r o l s f o r the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure i s c o n s t r u c t e d . I t i s w e l l known t h a t e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, as w e l l as o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s of s t a t u s a r e r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B e f o r e one. can c l a i m 7 5 t o have found a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t , one must show t h a t t h i s " e f f e c t " i s not due merely t o the e f f e c t s of one or more of the c o n s t i t u e n t s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . The o l d e r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y s t u d i e s by L e n s k i and o t h e r s can be c r i t i c i z e d f o r h a v i n g f a i l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . By s i m p l y comparing dependent v a r i a b l e s c o r e s f o r c a t e g o r i e s of persons w i t h c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s , w i t h o u t adequate c o n t r o l s f o r s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e s e s t u d i e s may have confounded apparent s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s w i t h the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . Because of t h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f l a w , which was f i r s t exposed by M i t c h e l l (1964), the r e s u l t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h b e f o r e 1964 have come t o be r e g a r d e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n . In r e p l y t o M i t c h e l l ' s c r i t i c i s m , L e n s k i (1964) s e t f o r t h a d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e , which would make i t p o s s i b l e t o determine whether s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has an e f f e c t on a dependent v a r i a b l e over and above the e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . In L e n s k i ' s r e v i s e d p r o c e d u r e two t r i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d t o form a 3 x 3 t a b l e i n which the c e l l e n t r i e s a r e the p e r c e n t a g e s of respondents w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , f o r example, b e l o n g i n g t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . The sum of the p e r c e n t a g e s i n any p a i r of c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s of the t a b l e ( e . g . , h i g h - h i g h and low-low) a r e compared w i t h the sum of the p e r c e n t a g e s i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a i r of i n c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s ( h i g h - l o w and low-h i g h ) . I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e i s s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e , the two sums s h o u l d be 76 e q u a l . 1 I f the sum of the p e r c e n t a g e s i n the i n c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s d i f f e r s from the sum i n the c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s , then the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i n t h e i r e f f e c t s on the dependent v a r i a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o L e n s k i , such an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the presence of a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t : " i n s t a t i s t i c a l terms, my h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n s t a t u s g e n e r a t e an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t " ( L e n s k i , 1964:326). Hyman (1966) has shown t h a t L e n s k i ' s "comparison of sums" t e c h n i q u e does not q u i t e succeed i n s e p a r a t i n g the e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y from the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n terms of which the i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e i s d e f i n e d , and may sometimes even l e a d t o er r o n e o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the h y p o t h e t i c a l d a t a i n the t a b l e below, i n which t h e r e a re two d i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the f i g u r e s i n the body of the t a b l e r e p r e s e n t p e r c e n t a g e s f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e (Hyman, 1966:121). S t a t u s A High Low High 30 80 S t a t u s B Low 10 60 I t can be r e a d i l y seen t h a t the sum of the p e r c e n t a g e s i n the h i g h - h i g h and low-low c e l l s i s e q u a l t o the sum of the 1 T h i s i s the same as s a y i n g t h a t the s i z e of the pe r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s between the rows s h o u l d be the same r e g a r d l e s s of columns, and v i c e v e r s a . There i s l i k e l y t o be some d i f f e r e n c e between the two sums or p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s due t o e r r o r s i n s a m p l i n g , measurement, and 'so f o r t h . 7 7 p e r c e n t a g e s i n l o w - h i g h and h i g h - l o w c e l l s (90 per c e n t ) . U s i n g L e n s k i ' s c r i t e r i o n we would c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s t h e r e f o r e a r e absent i n these d a t a . When we examine the t a b l e more c l o s e l y , however, a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f : A low/B h i g h i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the -dependent v a r i a b l e , w h i l e the o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n of A high/B low i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t . (Both s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s would be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e ) . Because the e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y p a t t e r n s a r e of the same magnitude (amounting t o 35) but o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n , they e x a c t l y c a n c e l . In t h i s case L e n s k i ' s p r o c e d u r e i n d i c a t e s no i n t e r a c t i o n and hence the absence of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s w h i l e i n f a c t t h e r e a r e such e f f e c t s . But i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h emselves a r e a s s o c i a t e d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e . I f s t a t u s v a r i a b l e A i s n e g a t i v e l y and s t a t u s v a r i a b l e B p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the dependent v a r i a b l e , then the s i m p l e c o m b i n a t i o n of th e s e e f f e c t s a c c o u n t s f o r the o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s . I n c o n s i s t e n t s w i t h low s t a t u s on A but h i g h s t a t u s on B combine s t a t u s e s t h a t a r e the most f a v o u r a b l e f o r the b e h a v i o u r i n q u e s t i o n . They t h e r e f o r e show "a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e than the c o n s i s t e n t s , who combine the most p r e d i s p o s e d s t a t u s w i t h the l e a s t p r e d i s p o s e d s t a t u s . Because the A high/B low i n c o n s i s t e n t s combine the two l e a s t p r e d i s p o s e d s t a t u s e s they have the low e s t p e r c e n t a g e . In s h o r t , the f i g u r e s 78 i n the t a b l e c o u l d have been produced by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a l o n e , which make i t o n l y appear t h a t t h e r e a r e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s of o p p o s i t e s i g n . Both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i n terms of e i t h e r o p p o s i t e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s or o p p o s i t e s t a t u s e f f e c t s , a r e q u i t e p l a u s i b l e . But they cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h the comparison-of-sums t e c h n i q u e . The r e a s o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Hyman, i s t h a t i t does not t a k e i n t o account the n a t u r e of the a s s o c i a t i o n s between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e . S i m i l a r a m b i g u i t i e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o ccur when L e n s k i ' s p r o c e d u r e r e v e a l s the e x i s t e n c e of s t a t i s t i c a l . i n t e r a c t i o n i n a g i v e n s e t of d a t a . B l a l o c k (1967b:305-7) g i v e s an example t h a t c l e a r l y d emonstrates t h a t i n t h i s case to o t h e r e are many a l t e r n a t i v e ways of b r e a k i n g down the r e s u l t s i n t o a d d i t i v e and i n t e r a c t i o n components, depending on what the s i z e and,/or d i r e c t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and of s t a t u s • i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e a r e assumed t o be. The c r u x of the problem i l l u s t r a t e d above i s t h a t the same dat a are e q u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h , and t h e r e f o r e w i l l not by themselves d i s c r i m i n a t e between, e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t a t t r i b u t e v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e t o (1) a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s taken s e p a r a t e l y , or (2) the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , or (3) a c o m b i n a t i o n of main s t a t u s e f f e c t s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s (see Hodge and S i e g e l , 1970; Hodge, 1970; J a c k s o n and C u r t i s , 1972; C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 79 1977:136-8). As B l a l o c k (1966, 1967a, 1967b, 1967c) has made c l e a r , t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s a s p e c i a l case of the more g e n e r a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem of i d e n t i f y i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s i n systems of r e c u r s i v e l i n e a r e q u a t i o n s . 1 An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem a r i s e s when t h e r e a r e too many unknowns f o r s o l u t i o n , as i s the case when one of the independent v a r i a b l e s i s an ex a c t m a t h e m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n of some of the o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e s . When s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s d e f i n e d as an e x a c t f u n c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , t h e r e i s no e r r o r term i n the e q u a t i o n f o r the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e ) , t h e r e a r e o n l y two p i e c e s of e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on each respondent but one i s t r y i n g t o e s t i m a t e the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . In a s e t of s i m u l t a n e o u s e q u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t h e r e a re i n f i n i t e l y many s e t s of v a l u e s f o r the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t would s a t i s f y the e q u a t i o n s . On the b a s i s of the d a t a one cannot d i s t i n g u i s h among the c o u n t l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s means t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f y the e f f e c t s of the v a r i a b l e s . The same problem a r i s e s when the da t a a re p r e s e n t e d and a n a l y z e d i n c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s . O r d i n a r i l y one would t r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e r e i s a s e p a r a t e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t 1 B l a l o c k (1966, 1967a) has shown t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem i s not p e c u l i a r t o the a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y d a t a , but i s l i k e l y t o be encountered a l s o i n the t e s t i n g of hypotheses about e f f e c t s of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , the s t a t u s i n t e g r a t i o n t h e o r y , and i n the a n a l y s i s of s t r u c t u r a l and c o m p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s , a l l of which have s u b s t a n t i v e and f o r m a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument. 80 by showing t h a t w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s formed by the c r o s s -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s the dependent p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e v a r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . But because s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f i e d i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , i t i s l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o h o l d the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t and a t the same time v a r y the i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e . The reason q u i t e s i m p l y i s t h a t w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y formed by the c o n j u n c t i o n of a s t a t u s from each of s e v e r a l d imensions t h e r e can be no v a r i a t i o n i n the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of s t a t u s e s . Thus, w i t h i n - c a t e g o r y v a r i a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s or b e h a v i o r c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d by w i t h i n - c a t e g o r y v a r i a t i o n i n s t a t u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n - t h e r e i s none. (Hodge and S i e g e l , 1970:515. Emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s problem i s t h a t one cannot by p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l means i s o l a t e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s from the main e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t o det e r m i n e the magnitudes of the v a r i o u s e f f e c t s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e a p r i o r i r e s t r i c t i o n s on some of the s e e f f e c t s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g the number of unknowns. One way of d o i n g t h i s i s t o make assumptions about the s i z e and/or d i r e c t i o n of the s t a t u s e f f e c t s or the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . For example, one c o u l d assume a p r i o r i t h a t one of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s has no e f f e c t on the dependent v a r i a b l e , or one might s p e c i f y the s i g n of the s t a t u s e f f e c t s . T h i s i s the s t r a t e g y proposed by Hyman (1966). Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o make assumptions about the e f f e c t of s t a t u s 81 i n c o n s i s t e n c y i t s e l f : whether or not the d i r e c t i o n of the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ( h i g h - l o w or l o w - h i g h ) makes a d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e i r e f f e c t s on the dependent v a r i a b l e . In a d d i t i o n t o the above s o l u t i o n B l a l o c k (1966:55-8; I967a:799-801) has d i s c u s s e d a number of o t h e r ways t o handle the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem. But he has a l s o remarked t h a t none of them i s l i k e l y t o y i e l d e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s . The problem i s t h a t some of the assumptions i n t h e s e proposed s o l u t i o n s a r e u n r e a l i s t i c ( e . g . , t h a t the e f f e c t of one or the o t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e i s z e r o ) and a l l of them depend f o r t h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n on a much more r i g o r o u s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e way of t e s t i n g f o r the e x i s t e n c e of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s w h i l e a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the e f f e c t s of the s e p a r a t e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g t h i s method, i t i s u s e f u l t o e x p l a i n more f u l l y the c o n c e p t u a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l developments t h a t f o l l o w e d on the r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y s t u d i e s . S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y E f f e c t s as S t a t i s t i c a l I n t e r a c t i o n An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o r e c o g n i z e i s t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and measurement of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s have undergone a change i n the c o u r s e of the debate. F o l l o w i n g L e n s k i (1964), many r e s e a r c h e r s have s u b s e q u e n t l y t r e a t e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s as s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n 82 between two or more s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r a c t i o n , or n o n a d d i t i v i t y , r e f e r s t o the s t a t e of a f f a i r s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h a g i v e n independent v a r i a b l e depends on, or v a r i e s w i t h , the v a l u e s or c a t e g o r i e s of some o t h e r independent v a r i a b l e ( s ) . Hypotheses of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s imply t h a t the e f f e c t of one s t a t u s v a r i a b l e on the b e h a v i o u r or a t t i t u d e i n q u e s t i o n i s not the same a c r o s s a l l l e v e l s of the o t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , and v i c e v e r s a . I f one assumes t h a t the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s have a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s , so t h a t they a f f e c t the dependent v a r i a b l e i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r , then the e x i s t e n c e of s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n can be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t may be p r e s e n t . However, we are c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t s i m p l y e q u a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s w i t h an i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . As a l r e a d y mentioned, Hyman (1966) noted the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e a r e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i n a g i v e n s e t of d a t a but no s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n (when h i g h - l o w and l o w - h i g h i n c o n s i s t e n c y p a t t e r n s have o p p o s i t e e f f e c t s ) . And B l a l o c k (1967b, 1967c) has p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n among the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s may occur f o r many o t h e r reasons than i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s (such a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , measurement and s p e c i f i c a t i o n e r r o r s ) . Thus, a l t h o u g h the presence of i n t e r a c t i o n can h e l p uncover s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o determine how much and which p a r t of i t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 83 N e v e r t h e l e s s , s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h a t are used t o d e f i n e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has become the b a s i s f o r d e c i d i n g whether or not t h e r e i s an e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on a g i v e n dependent v a r i a b l e over and above the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y the s t r a t e g y i n r e c e n t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h has been t o f i r s t t e s t the adequacy of a s t a t i s t i c a l model t h a t assumes the e f f e c t s of the s e p a r a t e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t o be s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e . D e v i a t i o n s of the o b s e r v e d dependent v a r i a b l e s c o r e s from the p r e d i c t i o n s of t h i s a d d i t i v e model p o i n t t o s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . A s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t may be i n f e r r e d i f a model t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the main e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a l s o a l l o w s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , e x p l a i n s more v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e than t h e ' s i m p l e a d d i t i v e model. B a s i c a l l y t h i s approach f o l l o w s the p r i n c i p l e of parsimony: s t a y w i t h the s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s i n terms of o n l y a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i f i t works almost e q u a l l y w e l l as the more complex i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n terms of a s p e c i a l s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . T h i s method of a n a l y s i s was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d and demonstrated by Duncan (1964, 1966:90-5). I t was s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s ( f o r example, J a c k s o n and Burke, 1965; Treiman, 1966; Broom and J o nes, 1970; J ackson and C u r t i s , 1972; O l s e n and T u l l y , 1972; Hornung, 1977). T h i s i s a l s o the approach adopted i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 8 4 D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t has been w i d e l y a p p l i e d and has i n t r o d u c e d more r e f i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h , t h i s method has not ended the d i s p u t e over which i s the p r o p e r way t o a n a l y z e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y d a t a . On the c o n t r a r y . Hope (1975, 1978) argued t h a t Duncan's s t a t i s t i c a l d e s i g n — c a l l e d the " s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e " m o del 1 by H o p e — i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e as a means f o r t e s t i n g hypotheses of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . H i s major p o i n t of c r i t i q u e i s t h a t t h i s model. i s a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n as s e t out by L e n s k i i n h i s papers of 1954 and 1956. A c c o r d i n g t o Hope, L e n s k i o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y as a d i f f e r e n c e between g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t a t u s and v a r i o u s s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of s t a t u s . The g e n e r a l or o v e r a l l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n r e p r e s e n t s the s h a r ed e f f e c t s of the s p e c i f i c s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s d e f i n e d as d e v i a t i o n s from t h i s v e r t i c a l d i mension of g e n e r a l s t a t u s . However, the c o n c e p t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t i n f o r m s the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model - i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t : s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the s e p a r a t e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the g e n e r a l s t a t u s dimension has d i s a p p e a r e d a l t o g e t h e r . 1 T h i s name r e f e r s t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c arrangement of the dependent v a r i a b l e s c o r e s (means or p r o p o r t i o n s ) i n a square t a b l e formed by the c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . The s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model i s a n o n l i n e a r v a r i a n t ( i n v o l v i n g the use of m u l t i p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s or dummy-v a r i a b l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ) of the l i n e a r a d d i t i v e model p r e s e n t e d by B l a l o c k (1966, 1967a; see a l s o L e n s k i , 1964). Hope's c r i t i c i s m s a p p l y t o both k i n d s of a d d i t i v e model. 85 Hope contends t h a t the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o L e n s k i ' s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y and as such cannot s e r v e as a t e s t of t h a t t h e o r y . Hope f u r t h e r o b j e c t s t h a t the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model, as the s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g hypotheses of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , i s b i a s e d a g a i n s t the d e t e c t i o n of such e f f e c t s . So, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t when d a t a a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h t h i s method, a model p o s i t i n g o n l y a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i s u s u a l l y found t o g i v e a good f i t . G e n e r a l S t r a t e g y i n Data A n a l y s i s To t e s t f o r the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a two-stage a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y was f o l l o w e d . The f i r s t s t e p was t o a s s e s s whether a s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e model i n v o l v i n g o n l y the main e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e s an a c c e p t a b l e f i t t o the d a t a . An a d d i t i v e model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a dependent v a r i a b l e Y and two independent v a r i a b l e s X^ and has the g e n e r a l form Y = a + b-, X-, + bz X 2 + e y ( 1 ) The c o e f f i c i e n t s b-| and b£ e x p r e s s the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of X-) and X 2 on Y. For example, suppose t h a t the dependent v a r i a b l e i s the number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h a t the X's r e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The a d d i t i v e model then s t a t e s t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n e d u c a t i o n a l 86 s t a t u s (X-| ) a l s o i n c r e a s e s , by a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y bi , the number of memberships and t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e w i l l be the same r e g a r d l e s s of what the l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( X 2 ) i s . L i k e w i s e , the e f f e c t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s on membership i s independent of the e f f e c t of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . T h i s model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s r e p r e s e n t s the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n t e s t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t over and above the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e r e i s a l s o a n e g a t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . On the b a s i s of the a d d i t i v e model r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s were formed f o r p r e d i c t i n g v a l u e s on the dependent p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e s from the independent s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . I f the v a l u e s p r e d i c t e d by the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n c l o s e l y match the obser v e d v a l u e s , then the v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s i m p l e sum of the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s (and t o r e s i d u a l e f f e c t s due t o " e r r o r " ) . The model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s would be adequate t o account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e r e i s no need t o p o s t u l a t e a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . S u b s t a n t i a l and s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , however, between obser v e d and p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s w i t h the dependent p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e a r e not s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e , but t h a t the s t a t u s e s i n t e r a c t i n t h e i r e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which c o u l d i n d i c a t e a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . T h i s means t h a t a d i f f e r e n t , n o n a d d i t i v e model may be r e q u i r e d . 87 The second s t e p , t h e n , was t o c o n s i d e r a model t h a t e x p l i c i t l y a l l o w s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t o r e p r e s e n t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . Such a n o n - a d d i t i v e model may be w r i t t e n as Y = a + b 1X 1 + b 2 X 2 + b 3 ( X 1 , X 2 ) + e Y (2) T h i s model i n c l u d e s terms f o r the main e f f e c t s of X-i and X 2 as w e l l as a term f o r the e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n between these two v a r i a b l e s , denoted by the e x p r e s s i o n (X<|,X£).1 T r a n s l a t e d i n terms of our example, Model (2) a s s e r t s t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s on membership, t h e r e i s a l s o an e f f e c t due t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s , t h a t i s , s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y or i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n i s whether such a n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model has g r e a t e r e x p l a n a t o r y power than a s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e model of s t a t u s e f f e c t s o n l y . I f , by a d d i n g an i n t e r a c t i o n term f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s t o the a d d i t i v e model, we a r e a b l e t o e x p l a i n a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e s , we may c o n c l u d e t h a t a genuine s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t i s a t work and not merely s t a t u s e f f e c t s . But i f Model (2) does not e x p l a i n a t l e a s t a moderate amount more v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n than does Model '(1 ) , then the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s w i l l be 1 T h i s model i s c a l l e d a n o n a d d i t i v e model because i t c o n t a i n s an i n t e r a c t i o n term r e p r e s e n t i n g the n o n a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of X^ and X 2 . But s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g t h i s model i s s t i l l a d d i t i v e i n form s i n c e the i n t e r a c t i o n term i s added t o the e q u a t i o n . 88 r e t a i n e d because of i t s g r e a t e r s i m p l i c i t y and parsimony. In t h a t case the c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , net of the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . The a c t u a l a n a l y s i s was done by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n w i t h dummy v a r i a b l e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e the e f f e c t due t o i n t e r a c t i o n between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from the main e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s e s taken s e p a r a t e l y . I t a l s o a l l o w s us t o determine whether a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model e x p l a i n s enough a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o j u s t i f y a c c e p t i n g i t i n s t e a d of the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . The dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e and the s p e c i f i c r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s used i n the a n a l y s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the next c h a p t e r . 89 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE ANALYSES T h i s c h a p t e r d i v i d e s i n t o two major p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t r e p o r t s on the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In the second p a r t the r e s u l t s on s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g a r e p r e s e n t e d . W i t h i n each p a r t I examine s u c c e s s i v e l y the f i n d i n g s f o r the respond e n t s from P o r t A l b e r n i , f o r the men i n the sample of m a r r i e d c o u p l e s from Vancouver, and f o r employed women i n the Vancouver sample. 1 The g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of the a n a l y t i c a l s t r a t e g y were o u t l i n e d i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , but the d e t a i l s of the t e c h n i c a l p r o c e d u r e s have y e t t o be d e s c r i b e d . T h i s w i l l be done i n the s e c t i o n below, i n which the P o r t A l b e r n i d a t a a r e s c r u t i n i z e d f o r e v i d e n c e of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 In the s e a n a l y s e s I am not concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e samples per se, but r a t h e r w i t h the p r e s ence and d i r e c t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i n each of the t h r e e d a t a s e t s . 90 S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and Membership i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s The t e s t of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y hypotheses s t a r t e d from the assumption t h a t the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s used t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y a f f e c t membership and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r and i n an a d d i t i v e way. I then l o o k e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e f i t t o the p a t t e r n s of v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Such inadequacy would show up as l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e d l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and those p r e d i c t e d on the b a s i s of a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . The P o r t A l b e r n i Sample Dummy-variable m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . To c o n s t r u c t the e q u a t i o n s f o r p r e d i c t i n g v a l u e s on the measures of p a r t i c i p a t i o n m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n w i t h dummy v a r i a b l e s was used. The s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e i s as f o l l o w s . Each c a t e g o r y or l e v e l of the t r i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a s e p a r a t e b i n a r y - c o d e d v a r i a b l e . On each of thes e s o - c a l l e d "dummy" v a r i a b l e s r espondents were g i v e n a s c o r e of 1 i f they were i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e . O t h e r w i s e a s c o r e of 0 was a s s i g n e d . Thus, the e d u c a t i o n v a r i a b l e g e n e r a t e d t h r e e new v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g low, medium, and h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . A person w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y degree, f o r 91 i n s t a n c e , r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of 1 on the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and a s c o r e of 0 on the two dummies f o r low and medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s s i g n e d s c o r e s of 1 and 0 on the t h r e e dummy v a r i a b l e s c r e a t e d from the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . 1 The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r p r e d i c t i n g the mean number of memberships from e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a f t e r c o n v e r s i o n i n t o dummy v a r i a b l e s i s as f o l l o w s : M = a + b 1 Em + b 2 Eh + b 3 Om + b^ Oh (3) where M = the p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Em = the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , Eh = the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , Om = the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , Oh = the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , a = the r e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t , and the b i = the u n s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dummy s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . 1 Dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s has the advantage t h a t i t does not r e q u i r e i n t e r v a l - s c a l e measurement and makes i t p o s s i b l e t o use r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s w i t h o r d i n a l and nominal d a t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t a v o i d s ' the r e s t r i c t i v e assumption of c o n v e n t i o n a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e be l i n e a r . The dummy v a r i a b l e s c r e a t e d from the c a t e g o r i e s or v a l u e s of the o r i g i n a l independent v a r i a b l e s a r e n o m i n a l , and t h e r e f o r e n o n c ontinuous and unordered ( T a y l o r , 1973:1198,1201). T h i s f e a t u r e a l l o w s the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dummy-variable p r e d i c t o r s t o conform t o any n o n l i n e a r i t y t h a t may be p r e s e n t i n the d a t a . S u i t s (1957), Cohen (1968:427-32), M i l l e r and E r i c k s o n (1974), and Myles (1978) have g i v e n e x p o s i t i o n s , i n g r e a t e r or l e s s d e t a i l , of the dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e . 92 Note t h a t the dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s have been l e f t out of the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . T h i s was done t o a v o i d e x a c t l i n e a r dependence and t o ensure t h a t unique e s t i m a t e s of the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . 1 These o m i t t e d c a t e g o r i e s , however, a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the e f f e c t s of the dummy s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n the e q u a t i o n . The p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c e n t s , b'L , measure the net e f f e c t s of the dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r the two o t h e r l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . These e f f e c t s a r e ex p r e s s e d as d e v i a t i o n s , p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , from the dependent v a r i a b l e s c o r e p r e d i c t e d f o r ca s e s i n the o m i t t e d low s t a t u s c a t e g o r y . Thus, r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b<| i n E q u a t i o n (3) i s i n t e r p r e t a b l e as the net d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships f o r responde n t s who have medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and the p r e d i c t e d mean f o r respondents w i t h low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The e f f e c t s of the two o m i t t e d dummy v a r i a b l e s a r e c o l l e c t e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t a. Respondents w i t h low s t a t u s on both the dimension of e d u c a t i o n a l 1 For any g i v e n c a s e , the sum of the s c o r e s on the t h r e e dummy v a r i a b l e s c r e a t e d from a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e i s e q u a l t o one. The v a l u e f o r the t h i r d dummy v a r i a b l e i s c o m p l e t e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the f i r s t two dummies. Because of t h i s dependence among the v a r i a b l e s the i n c l u s i o n of a l l t h r e e dummy v a r i a b l e s would make the s e t of normal e q u a t i o n s f o r e s t i m a t i n g the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s u n s o l v a b l e . To o b t a i n unique s o l u t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s on the e q u a t i o n s . T h i s may be done by o m i t t i n g one of the dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r each independent v a r i a b l e , which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o p r e - a s s i g n i n g the v a l u e of 0 t o the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r dummy v a r i a b l e ( c f . S u i t s , 1957). 93 s t a t u s and the d i m e n s i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s form a j o i n t r e f e r e n c e c a t e g o r y a g a i n s t which the e f f e c t s of medium and h i g h s t a t u s a r e compared and i n t e r p r e t e d . The v a l u e s of a and the b's o b t a i n e d from the o r d i n a r y l e a s t - s q u a r e s s o l u t i o n of the above r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , u s i n g the P o r t A l b e r n i d a t a , are g i v e n i n column 1 of T a b l e 3. 1 With t h e s e f i g u r e s s u b s t i t u t e d i n E q u a t i o n (3) we can compute the p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of ranks on the d imensions of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . For example, the mean number of memberships p r e d i c t e d from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r P o r t A l b e r n i respondents w i t h medium e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i s 1.16 -.079 + 1.023 = 2.10. The p r e d i c t e d mean f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h low rank on both s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s i s j u s t 1.16, the v a l u e of the r e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t . In t h a t case the o t h e r c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e a l l z e r o , as the dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r medium and h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s would have the v a l u e 0. In a s i m i l a r way, p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s of the membership v a r i a b l e were computed f o r each of the o t h e r groups of respondents w i t h a d i s t i n c t c o m b i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . 1 T a b l e 23 i n the Appendix p r e s e n t s the m a t r i x of z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and the means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l the v a r i a b l e s t h a t were used i n the dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s based on the P o r t A l b e r n i d a t a . The computer r o u t i n e used t o s o l v e the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s i n t h i s and subsequent a n a l y s e s i-s the s t a n d a r d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n program i n SPSS (Nie e t a l . , 1975). 94 T a b l e 3. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the Number of Memberships i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s on . E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Independent V a r i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A d d i t i v e Model N o n a d d i t i v e Model E d u c a t i o n : Grade 8 or l e s s * * Grade 9-11 -.079 (.150) -.070 (.160) HS compl or more .455 ( . 188) .425 (.189) O c c u p a t i o n : Semi- & u n s k i l l e d * * S k i l l e d . 1 20 ( . 155) .161 (.158) White c o l l a r 1 .023 (.168) 1 .036 (.168) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . 103 ( . 143) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .518 (.261) R e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t 1.160 1 .063 R 2 . 1 35 . 1 42 N 513 513 * Dummy v a r i a b l e omi t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 95 The p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships were then compared w i t h the ob s e r v e d means i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c e l l s of the (two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e ) t a b l e formed by the c r o s s -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . By examining the d e v i a t i o n s of the obser v e d means from the p r e d i c t e d means we can determine whether the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i s adequate t o account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean number of memberships between s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t r espondents or whether a d i f f e r e n t model i s c a l l e d f o r . D e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s . The l e f t - h a n d p o r t i o n of T able 4 c o n t a i n s the observed mean number of memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the n i n e c a t e g o r i e s of P o r t A l b e r n i r e spondents w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The c e l l s on the main d i a g o n a l of the t a b l e r e p r e s e n t the c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . Sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the two c e l l s i n the upper r i g h t and lower l e f t c o r n e r s of the t a b l e . The r e m a i n i n g f o u r c e l l s r e p r e s e n t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t a r e m o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . The f i r s t t h i n g t o n o t i c e i s the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of the dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h each of the two independent s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . 1 The row means and column means show t h a t the mean 1 A l t h o u g h e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e weak. Somers' d c o e f f i c i e n t computed f o r a 3 x 2 t a b l e of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and membership i s o n l y +.09, and +.14 f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s w i t h membership. When measured by gamma the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n i s somewhat h i g h e r : +.24 and +.37 r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Ta b l e 21 i n the A p p e n d i x ) . 96 Ta b l e 4. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Observed Mean Number of Memberships (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d Means OCCUPATION STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Means EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .97 (98) 1 .22 (91 ) 1 .90 (21 ) 1.17 (210) -.19 +.14 +.28 Medi urn 1 .45 (55) 1.15 (65) 1 .50 (28) 1 .33 (148) +.17 -.05 -.24 Hi g h 2.75 (16) 1 .95 (63) 2.64 (76) 2.37 (155) +.57 -.15 0.0 Column means 1 .30 (169) 1.41 (219) 2.26 (125) 1 .58 (513) 97 number of memberships i n c r e a s e s w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a l or o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The main d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean number of memberships occur between respondents who h o l d h i g h rank on the di m e n s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s (completed h i g h s c h o o l or more) and those w i t h medium or low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( l e s s than completed h i g h s c h o o l ) , and between,respondents w i t h h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( w h i t e c o l l a r ) and those w i t h medium or low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( b l u e c o l l a r ) . F u r t h e r , i f we loo k a t the e n t r i e s on the d i a g o n a l r u n n i n g from the upper l e f t t o the lower r i g h t c o r n e r s of the t a b l e , we see t h a t the means become l a r g e r as we move from the group w i t h c o n s i s t e n t low s t a t u s e s t o the group w i t h c o n s i s t e n t h i g h s t a t u s e s . And t h e r e a re a l s o c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s between these means and the means i n the o t h e r c e l l s of the t a b l e . The q u e s t i o n of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e , however, i s whether the v a r i a t i o n i n the mean number of memberships f o r groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n - o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s p a t t e r n s c o u l d have been produced by a s i m p l e c o m b i n a t i o n of the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . That i s , do the n i n e means i n the c e l l s of the t a b l e e x h i b i t an a d d i t i v e p a t t e r n ? I f they do, they w i l l c l o s e l y match the means p r e d i c t e d from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . But i f t h e r e i s s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , ' and hence a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t , then the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n w i l l y i e l d p r e d i c t i o n s of the mean number of memberships t h a t d i f f e r from the obser v e d means. I t i s now c l e a r what c o n s t i t u t e s e v i d e n c e f o r or a g a i n s t the h y p o t h e s e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s 98 w i l l , be r e j e c t e d i f c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the observed means i n the c e l l s of the t a b l e and the means p r e d i c t e d by the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e main h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership over and above the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s d e f i n i n g i t . In o p e r a t i o n a l terms t h i s means t h a t respondents w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s have, on the average, fewer memberships than e x p e c t e d under the assumption of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . Thus, e m p i r i c a l support f o r t h i s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s h i n g e s on l a r g e and n e g a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between the obser v e d mean number of memberships and the mean p r e d i c t e d by the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n those c e l l s of the t a b l e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The f i g u r e s i n the r i g h t - h a n d h a l f of Table 4 are the d i f f e r e n c e s between the obser v e d means and the p r e d i c t e d means. O v e r a l l , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , or d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v i t y , a r e moderate a t b e s t , a l t h o u g h they a r e f a i r l y l a r g e i n the two c r u c i a l c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g s h a r p i n c o n s i s t e n c y between e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . I t i s not o n l y the s i z e of the d e v i a t i o n s t h a t i s r e l e v a n t , however. We must a l s o c o n s i d e r the d i r e c t i o n i n which the observ e d means d e v i a t e from the p r e d i c t e d means. When the observed mean i s l a r g e r than the p r e d i c t e d mean, the d e v i a t i o n has a p o s i t i v e s i g n . On the o t h e r hand, a n e g a t i v e s i g n i n d i c a t e s a s m a l l e r - t h a n - p r e d i c t e d mean. S u r p r i s i n g l y , the d e v i a t i o n s f o r the two s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups are p o s i t i v e , p r e c i s e l y the o p p o s i t e of what was e x p e c t e d . The p o s i t i v e 99 d e v i a t i o n s suggest t h a t i n the P o r t A l b e r n i sample i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s e s have, on an a v e r a g e , more memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than would be expected i f the e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n were s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e . D e v i a t i o n s of the observed from the p r e d i c t e d means i n a d i r e c t i o n c o n t r a r y t o what the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s i m p l i e s a l s o occur i n s e v e r a l o t h e r c e l l s . Respondents who h o l d low rank on both s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s , and whose s t a t u s e s t h e r e f o r e a r e c o n s i s t e n t , b e l o n g t o fewer v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than p r e d i c t e d . And i n two of the f o u r c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g moderate s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y the o b s e r v e d mean i s l a r g e r than the p r e d i c t e d mean. In f a c t , o n l y moderate i n c o n s i s t e n c y a t h i g h s t a t u s l e v e l s - - h i g h s t a t u s on one d i m e n s i o n and medium s t a t u s on the o t h e r — i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e v i a t i o n s of the e x p e c t e d s i g n . These s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g s about the s i z e "and the d i r e c t i o n of the d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e brought out more c l e a r l y i n T a b l e 5. I t shows the weighted o b s e r v e d and p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships f o r the t h r e e groups of respondents d i f f e r i n g i n degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 1 There i s h a r d l y 1 Each o b s e r v e d c e l l mean i n the 3 x 3 t a b l e was m u l t i p l i e d by the number of cases i n t h a t c e l l . The w e i g h t e d c e l l means were ag g r e g a t e d a c r o s s the c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y , moderate s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Each sum was d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of c a s e s i n the c e l l s over which the summation was done. T h i s y i e l d e d the weighted o b s e r v e d mean number of memberships f o r each of the t h r e e o r d e r e d c a t e g o r i e s of the i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e . The same proced u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r the means p r e d i c t e d from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . 100 any d i f f e r e n c e now between the ob s e r v e d and p r e d i c t e d means f o r the c a t e g o r i e s of respondents whose e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a re c o n s i s t e n t or m o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . However, the mean number of memberships obse r v e d f o r respondents w i t h s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s d e v i a t e s from the mean p r e d i c t e d on the b a s i s of the model of a d d i t i v e e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n e f f e c t s ; and t h i s o b s e r v e d mean- i s l a r g e r , not s m a l l e r , than the p r e d i c t e d v a l u e . T a b l e 5. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y Mean Number Observed of Memberships Ex p e c t e d D i f f e r e n c e N Cons i s t e n t 1 .55 1 .64 -.09 239 M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 1 .50 1 .48 + .02 237 S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 2.27 1 .86 + .41 37 T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the two o p p o s i t e forms of sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y between e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s d i f f e r i n t h e i r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The secondary h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s have, on an av e r a g e , fewer memberships than do overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s . T r a n s l a t e d i n o p e r a t i o n a l terms of our t e s t i n g s t r a t e g y t h i s means t h a t the n e g a t i v e 101 d e v i a t i o n f o r the group of r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s but low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (upper r i g h t c o r n e r of T a b l e 4) s h o u l d be l a r g e r than the n e g a t i v e d e v i a t i o n f o r r e spondents w i t h low e d u c a t i o n a l but h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (lower l e f t c o r n e r of T a b l e 4 ) . The f a c t t h a t both d e v i a t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e i n v a l i d a t e s the h y p o t h e s i s , even though t h e i r s i z e i s d i f f e r e n t f o r the two groups, and the s m a l l e r p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n f o r the underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t , net of the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , t h i s type of s h a r p i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a lower mean number of memberships than the o p p o s i t e t y p e — o v e r r e w a r d e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . A s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model. The f a i r l y l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between obse r v e d and p r e d i c t e d means i n the two c e l l s f o r sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y g i v e cause f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e i s s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and hence t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y does have an e f f e c t on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n i s whether t h i s e f f e c t i s i m p o r t a n t enough t o warrant abandoning the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i n f a v o u r of the more complex n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model. One c r i t e r i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g the importance of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n d e t e r m i n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the a b i l i t y of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t o e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e s over and above the v a r i a t i o n t h a t can be e x p l a i n e d by the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s / 1 02 themse l v e s (see Broom and Jon e s , 1970; Olse n and T u l l y , 1972; House and H a r k i n s , 1975; Hornung, 1977). A d o p t i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n of net e x p l a n a t o r y power we ask t h a t the a d d i t i o n of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e as a p r e d i c t o r t o the b a s e l i n e model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i n c r e a s e , by a t l e a s t a moderate amount, the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d i n membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W i t h a view t o t h a t i s s u e a n o n a d d i t i v e model o f s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s was c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e model d i f f e r s from the a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model i n t h a t i t i n c l u d e s a s e p a r a t e i n t e r a c t i o n term f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i n a d d i t i o n t o terms f o r the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . By expanding E q u a t i o n (3) w i t h dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y we o b t a i n the dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model: M = a + b-) Em + b2 Eh + b3 Om + b^ Oh + bs Dm + b^ Dh (4) In t h i s e q u a t i o n Dm sta n d s f o r the dummy v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t h a t were d e f i n e d as mo d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . Dh i s the dummy v a r i a b l e f o r sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y between the two s t a t u s e s . The p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s b$ and b^ , measure the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of moderate and sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , net of the main e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n . Here t o o , the e f f e c t s of the two i n c o n s i s t e n c y l e v e l s ' a r e e x p r e s s e d as 103 d e v i a t i o n s from the mean number of memberships p r e d i c t e d f o r the o m i t t e d c a t e g o r y of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The l a s t column i n Ta b l e 3 shows the r e s u l t s of the o r d i n a r y l e a s t - s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n of memberships on e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and i n c o n s i s t e n c y between these two s t a t u s e s . I t i s noteworthy t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h moderate and sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y a re p o s i t i v e , a l t h o u g h on the b a s i s of the h y p o t h e s i s we would expect them t o be n e g a t i v e . However, t h i s f i n d i n g i s h a r d l y a s u r p r i s e i n view of what the f i r s t p a r t of the a n a l y s i s has r e v e a l e d . I t merely c o n f i r m s t h a t , i f a n y t h i n g , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y tends t o i n c r e a s e r a t h e r than d e c r e a s e the mean number of memberships. How l a r g e an i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d i n membership a c c r u e s from the a d d i t i o n of the dummy s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y ' v a r i a b l e s t o the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n ? T h i s can be de t e r m i n e d by comparing the v a l u e s of the c o e f f i c i e n t of m u l t i p l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n R 2 f o r E q u a t i o n (3) and E q u a t i o n ( 4 ) . A d i f f e r e n c e between the R 2's r e p r e s e n t s the increment i n the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y t o the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n E q u a t i o n (4) but not i n E q u a t i o n ( 3 ) . The R 2 v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the two e q u a t i o n s a r e shown i n the l a s t row of Ta b l e 3. They i n d i c a t e t h a t the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n e x p l a i n s 13.5 per cen t of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the number of memberships 104 i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 The n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n e x p l a i n s 14.2 per cent of the v a r i a n c e . In o t h e r words, the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model, combining terms f o r the main a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s w i t h a term f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , a c c o u n t s f o r 0.7 per cent more of the v a r i a n c e i n memberships than the s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e model of the e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e of l e s s than one per cen t i s too s m a l l , by any s t a n d a r d , t o a t t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p l a n a t o r y power t o the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e . In s h o r t , from the p a t t e r n of d i f f e r e n c e s between observed and a d d i t i v e l y p r e d i c t e d means f o r groups of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t respondents i t a t f i r s t l o o k e d as though e d u c a t i o n - o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s a s s o c i a t e d , but p o s i t i v e l y , w i t h membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , however, t h i s apparent s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y 1 That e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a d d i t i v e l y account f o r no more than 13.5 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n memberships may be something of a s u r p r i s e i n the l i g h t of the well-documented r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s f i n d i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r , but i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t i t i s a secondary m a t t e r . What c o u n t s i n e v a l u a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r model i s not the a b s o l u t e p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e t h a t the model i s a b l e t o e x p l a i n , but r a t h e r i t s e x p l a n a t o r y power i n comparison w i t h some o t h e r model. In o t h e r words, w i t h the a n a l y t i c a l s t r a t e g y adopted here "the c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n i s not how much of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n can be e x p l a i n e d , but whether a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n c l u d i n g terms f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e x p l a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n [ p a r t i c i p a t i o n ] than one r e s t r i c t e d t o terms f o r the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . " (Broom and Jo n e s , 1970:994. Emphasis added) . 1 0 5 e f f e c t p r o v e d t o be e x t r e m e l y weak, s i n c e i t adds v e r y l i t t l e t o the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n memberships a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a l o n e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the s e f i n d i n g s i s postponed u n t i l we have had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o o k a t the outcomes of the o t h e r a n a l y s e s . In the next s e c t i o n the a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and membership c o n t i n u e s w i t h the e x a m i n a t i o n of r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r the Vancouver samples. A f t e r t h a t , d a t a b e a r i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , the second measure of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e p r e s e n t e d . The r e p o r t on the r e m a i n i n g r e s u l t s can be b r i e f . The a n a l y s e s proceeded a l o n g the same l i n e s as d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d above, and t h e r e i s rto need t o r e p e a t the d e t a i l s of the a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . The o n l y major v a r i a t i o n s c oncern the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s t h a t were e n t e r e d i n t o the a n a l y s e s ; they w i l l be noted and e x p l a i n e d a t the a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s i n the t e x t . The Vancouver Sample: Men Three t e s t s of the hypotheses l i n k i n g membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were performed w i t h d a t a from the sample of Vancouver men. L e v e l of income was used as a t h i r d measure of s o c i a l s t a t u s , i n a d d i t i o n t o l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and l e v e l of o c c u p a t i o n . Each t e s t r e l a t e s the membership v a r i a b l e t o a p a i r of s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and to the 106 s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e c o n s t r u c t e d from them. 1 The r e s u l t s of the t h r e e a n a l y s e s are shown i n T a b l e s 6, 7, and 8. A l t h o u g h i t may l o o k c o m p l i c a t e d , T a b l e 6 has the same s t r u c t u r e as the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s e d T a b l e 3. Now we a r e d e a l i n g , however, not w i t h one but w i t h t h r e e p a i r s of dummy-variable r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , one p a i r f o r each of the t h r e e problems. Column 1 g i v e s the r e s u l t s of the r e g r e s s i o n of memberships on e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n , based on the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . In column 2 a r e the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , which i n c l u d e s dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r moderate and sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y between e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n a d d i t i o n t o the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . L i k e w i s e , the next two columns p r e s e n t the s o l u t i o n s of the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n and income (column 3) and of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o n a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n w i t h s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s (column 4 ) . F i n a l l y , columns 5 and 6 c o n t a i n the r e s u l t s of the two r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s i n which o c c u p a t i o n and income are the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . 2 1 An a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g a l l t h r e e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a t once proved t o be u n f e a s i b l e . S i m u l t a n e o u s c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income c r e a t e s 27 c a t e g o r i e s s e v e r a l of which c o n t a i n e d o n l y a few c a s e s or none a t a l l . I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o draw any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n from f i n d i n g s based on such s m a l l numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s , s i n c e the p o s s i b i l i t y of random f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the d a t a i s so l a r g e . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s w i t h two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a t a time a r e r e p o r t e d . 2 The c o r r e s p o n d i n g t a b l e s w i t h z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , means, and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s used i n each of the t h r e e a n a l y s e s are g i v e n i n the Appendix ( T a b l e s 24, 25, and 26) . 1 07 T a b l e 6. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of Number of Memberships on P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Men) Independent V a r i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A-f NAn A NA A . NA E d u c a t i o n : HS not completed * * * * Completed HS ( .389 .207) .361 ( .217) ( .470 .196) .426 (.205) U n i v e r s i t y ( .698 .218) .628 (.233) ( .891 .195) .848 (.203) O c c u p a t i o n : Manual * * * * A d m i n - c l e r - t e c h n ( .286 .210) .357 (.230) .250 ( .201 ) .195 ( .205) Exec-manager-prof 1 ( .501 .233) 1 .571 (.248) 1 . 127 (.226) 1 .069 (.226) Income: Under $8000 * * * * $8000 - $13999 ( .220 .212) . 1 67 ( .228) .129 ( .220) .254 ( .226) $14000 & more 1 ( .816 .245) 1 .868 (.251) 1 .483 ( .269) 1 .491 ( .271) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t * * * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t -.144 (.192) .059 (.183) -.314 ( . 169) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t -.235 (.327) -.294-(.321) .524 ( .507) R e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t .963 1.016 .883 .916 .935 1 .039 R 2 .223 .225 .280 .282 .293 .303 N 398 398 392 392 384 384 -|- A d d i t i v e model n N o n a d d i t i v e model * Dummy v a r i a b l e o m i t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 108 T a b l e 7. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s (Vancouver Sample: Men) Observed Mean Number of Memberships (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d Means OCCUPATION STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Means EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low 1 .07 (81 ) 1.14 (21 ) 1 .00 (7) 1 .08 (109) +.11 -.21 -.66 Medium 1.11 (64) 1 .73 (45) 2.09 (32) 1 .53 (141 ) -.14 +.09 +.14 High 2.46 (26) 2.86 (35) 3.16 (87) 2.97 (148) 0.0 +.01 0.0 Column means 1 .30 (171 ) 2.00 (101 ) 2.77 (126) 1 .94 (398) INCOME STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS Hi g h Row Means EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .96 (45) 1.10 (20) 2.00 (8) 1.11 (73) +.08 -.25 +.23 Medium 1.17 (95) 1.51 (55) 1 .95 (55) 1 .47 (205) +.07 -.06 -.04 High 2.32 (25) 3.50 (26) 3.60 (63) 3.30 (114) -.38 +.33 +.01 Column means 1 .28 (165) 1 .94 (101) 2.78 (126) 1 .93 (392) ( c o n t i n u e d ) 109 T a b l e 7. ( c o n t i n u e d ) Observed Mean Number of Memberships (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d Means INCOME STATUS OCCUPATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Means OCCUPATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .91 (34) 1 .08 (26) 2.67 (6) 1.14 (66) -.03 -.11 +.61 Medium 1 .04 (70) 1 .49 (80) 1 .96 (54) 1 .46 (204) -.02 +.18 -.23 High 3.00 (4) 2.26 (27) 3.65 (83) 3.30 (114) +.58 -.41 +.10 Column means 1 .07 (108) 1 .56 (133) 2.97 (143) 1 .95 (384) 1 10 T u r n i n g now t o T a b l e 7 we can see t h a t i n t h i s sample of Vancouver men too t h e r e a r e c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean number of memberships f o r the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of respondents w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of ranks on a g i v e n p a i r of s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s , be they e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and income, or o c c u p a t i o n and income (see the l e f t - h a n d h a l f of Tab l e 7 ) . The q u e s t i o n i s whether these d i f f e r e n c e s i n membership can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o a s p e c i a l s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t . The e v i d e n c e b e a r i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n the r i g h t - h a n d h a l f of Ta b l e 7. The f i g u r e s shown t h e r e c e r t a i n l y do not f o r c e the c o n c l u s i o n upon us t h a t the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i s c l e a r l y i n adequate t o account f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n the d a t a . For t h a t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the observ e d c e l l means and the c e l l means computed from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y too s m a l l and the p a t t e r n s of d e p a r t u r e s from a d d i t i v i t y too u n s y s t e m a t i c . Yet i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t the l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n s i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s a r e found i n those c e l l s t h a t r e p r e s e n t extreme i n c o n s i s t e n c y between ranks on the two s t a t u s d imensions c o n s i d e r e d i n any p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s . A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s f o r the s i x s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups t h e r e f o r e i s i n o r d e r . The d i r e c t i o n i n which the obser v e d means d e v i a t e from the p r e d i c t e d means says something about the n a t u r e of any r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and membership i n 1.11 v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership. To be congruent w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s the means i n the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s must be s m a l l e r than the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n p r e d i c t s , t h a t i s , the d e v i a t i o n s f o r the s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups s h o u l d be n e g a t i v e . However, the e v i d e n c e on t h i s p o i n t i s mixed: h a l f of the d e v i a t i o n s i n the s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t c e l l s have a p o s i t i v e i n s t e a d of the expected n e g a t i v e s i g n . A d i s c r e p a n c y a l s o appears i n the f i n d i n g s about the h y p o t h e s i z e d d i f f e r e n c e i n the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of the two forms of i n v e s t m e n t - r e w a r d i n c o n s i s t e n c y . L o o k i n g a t the f i g u r e s i n the t o p p a n e l of T a b l e 7 we see t h a t the mean number of memberships i s s m a l l e r than p r e d i c t e d (-.66) f o r the c a t e g o r y of men w i t h the i n c o n s i s t e n t c o m b i n a t i o n of h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , w h i l e t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the observed and p r e d i c t e d means f o r i n c o n s i s t e n t s who have low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s but h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . I f sha r p i n c o n s i s t e n c y between e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s does have an u n f a v o u r a b l e impact on membership, i t seems t o a f f e c t p e rsons who a r e underrewarded indeed more s e v e r e l y than overrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s . However, when, income s t a t u s i s the reward dim e n s i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s the investment d i m e n s i o n , the p a t t e r n i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . Men w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n s t a t u s but low income s t a t u s - - t h e underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s - - h a v e , on the average, more memberships than p r e d i c t e d by the a d d i t i v e 1 12 r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . The o p p o s i t e i n c o n s i s t e n c y type of low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and h i g h income s t a t u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s m a l l e r - t h a n - e x p e c t e d mean number of memberships. Not o n l y i s t h i s ' r e s u l t i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s h a r p i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a g r e a t e r n e g a t i v e impact on membership f o r underrewarded than f o r overrewarded i n d i v i d u a l s , i t a l s o means t h a t the e f f e c t of underrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h i s case i s not n e g a t i v e a t a l l , but p o s i t i v e . 1 A note of c a u t i o n must be added. Most of the c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y c o n t a i n o n l y a few c a s e s . S i n c e the means f o r those c e l l s were computed on a s m a l l number of c a s e s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of random f l u c t u a t i o n s i s q u i t e l a r g e . T h i s f a c t o r s h o u l d be taken i n t o account i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i z e and s i g n of the d e v i a t i o n s f o r the s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups. A more s t a b l e i f l e s s d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e emerges" when the means are aggr e g a t e d f o r groups of c o n s i s t e n t , m o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t , and s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t men. Ta b l e 8 shows t h a t , where c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s w i t h e i t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l or income s t a t u s a r e co n c e r n e d , the d e v i a t i o n s of 1 The d i s t i n c t i o n between overrewarded and underrewarded forms of i n c o n s i s t e n c y does not a p p l y when o c c u p a t i o n and income a r e the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . In the i n v e s t m e n t - r e w a r d t e r m i n o l o g y t h e s e two s t a t u s e s a re reward d i m e n s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , p ersons w i t h s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s e s may be c a l l e d "reward i n c o n s i s t e n t s " (Geschwender, 1967). However, the argument about the d i f f e r e n t i a l impact of o p p o s i t e t y p e s of reward i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not as s t r o n g as i n the case of i n v e s t m e n t - r e w a r d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . And as the t h i r d p a n e l of Ta b l e 7 shows, any e f f e c t i s the same f o r both t y p e s of oc c u p a t i o n - i n c o m e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 1 1 3 Ta b l e 8. Summary of the E f f e c t s of Three Types of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership (Vancouver Sample: Men) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y Mean Number of Memberships Observed E x p e c t e d D i f f e r e n c e N EDUC/ iTIONAL STATUS AND OCCUPATIONAL STATUS C o n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 2.06 2.00 +.06 1.72 1.78 -.06 2.15 2.29 -.14 213 1 52 33 EDUCJ ^TIONAL STATUS AND INCOME STATUS C o n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 2.17 2.16 +.01 1.69 1.65 +.04 2.24 2.47 -.23 1 63 196 33 OCCUI NATIONAL STATUS AND INCOME STATUS C o n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 2.30 2.19 +.11 1.48 1.67 -.19 2.80 2.20 +.60 1 97 1 77 1 0 1 1 4 the o b s e r v e d means from the p r e d i c t e d means f o r s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups a r e reduced i n s i z e . In both t h e s e cases an a d d i t i v e model appears t o g i v e a f a i r l y good o v e r a l l f i t t o the observed means i n the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y and moderate.and sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Such i s not the c a s e , however, when the s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s a r e o c c u p a t i o n and income. What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g here i s the l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e between the weighted o b s e r v e d and p r e d i c t e d means f o r men i n the c a t e g o r y of sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The p o s i t i v e s i g n means t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s whose o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s e s a r e e x t r e m e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t have, on an av e r a g e , more memberships than i s p r e d i c t e d under the assumption t h a t the e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e . Once a g a i n , the i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y tends t o promote i n s t e a d of h i n d e r membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t remains t o be seen, however, whether t h i s l a r g e d e v i a t i o n from a d d i t i v i t y can be taken as f i r m e v i d e n c e t h a t an i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t i n v o l v i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s e s does indeed e x i s t . The p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , or i n c o m e — t a k e n two a t a t i m e — v a r i e s between .223 and .293 (see Ta b l e 6 ) . C o n s i d e r what happens t o the squared m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t R 2 when each s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n i s expanded w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n terms r e p r e s e n t i n g the e f f e c t s of i n c o n s i s t e n c y between the two s t a t u s e s i n q u e s t i o n . 1 15 The s o l u t i o n s of these n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n columns 2, 4, and 6 of Table 6. When the R 2's a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these e q u a t i o n s a r e compared w i t h the R 2's o b t a i n e d f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n s , i t can be r e a d i l y seen t h a t the a d d i t i o n of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s t o the b a s i c e q u a t i o n d i d not produce, i n any of the t h r e e a n a l y s e s , even a moderate i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d r e l a t i v e t o what the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s themselves a r e a b l e t o e x p l a i n . The l a r g e s t improvement i n R 2 was o n l y .01, or 1 per c e n t ; t h i s was o b t a i n e d by i n c l u d i n g dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r moderate and sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y between o c c u p a t i o n a l and income s t a t u s i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The amount of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e i n memberships t h a t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y when t h i s i s d e f i n e d i n terms of e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n or e d u c a t i o n and income was a t r i v i a l t w o - t e n t h s of one per cent i n both i n s t a n c e s . C l e a r l y , t h e n , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y as measured here has v e r y l i t t l e e x p l a n a t o r y power of i t s own once the independent e f f e c t s of the component s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s have been taken i n t o a c c o u n t . These f i n d i n g s merely u n d e r l i n e what the e a r l i e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the d e v i a t i o n s of obs e r v e d means from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s r e v e a l e d , namely t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s net of the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s per se. In terms of the c r i t e r i o n of i n c r e m e n t a l e x p l a n a t o r y power as w e l l t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model i s b e t t e r s u i t e d than a s t r i c t l y 1 16 a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model t o account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean number of memberships among groups of men w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . The Vancouver Sample: Employed Women The a n a l y s e s performed so f a r were based on d a t a from samples t h a t c o n s i s t e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y or f o r the most p a r t of male r e s p o n d e n t s . I t i s t r u e , the P o r t A l b e r n i sample does i n c l u d e women, but t h e i r number (86) i s too s m a l l t o be t r e a t e d as a s e p a r a t e group i n the a n a l y s i s . We now t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s among women. The d a t a f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s once a g a i n come from the Vancouver Urban S t u d i e s P r o j e c t and p e r t a i n t o the spouses of the men who were c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s e s . However, the a n a l y s i s i s l i m i t e d t o those m a r r i e d women who were g a i n f u l l y employed. The reason f o r t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y of a s c e r t a i n i n g r e l e v a n t s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r women who do not work o u t s i d e the home f o r pay. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the problem c o n c e r n s the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of women commonly d e s i g n a t e d as housewives. A l t h o u g h housework, or " h o u s e w i f e r y " , i s u s u a l l y not r e g a r d e d as an o c c u p a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i s r o u t i n e l y e x c l u d e d from o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s or p r e s t i g e s c a l e s , i t would be q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t r e a t housework as an o c c u p a t i o n h a v i n g a t l e a s t medium s o c i a l rank ( E i c h l e r , 1977:155-8). A s s i g n i n g medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t o not-employed women f o r t h e i r r o l e as 117 h o u sewife and i n c l u d i n g them i n the a n a l y s i s c r e a t e s a problem, however. S i n c e employment s t a t u s i s c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the dependent p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e s , the prop e r way of t e s t i n g the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y hypotheses on the female subsample would be t o c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t of t h i s v a r i a b l e and t o conduct s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s f o r women who a r e employed and those who a r e not . In a s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s of housewives, however, o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s would not be a v a r i a b l e but a c o n s t a n t : e v e r y respondent has the same medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . That s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o u l d then not be used i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure. On the o t h e r hand, i f no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between housewives and employed women, the a n a l y s i s would be hampered by another u n d e s i r a b l e consequence of the i n c l u s i o n of housewives. S i n c e housewives c o n s t i t u t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two-t h i r d s of the t o t a l female sample, the number of women w i t h medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s would be v e r y l a r g e r e l a t i v e t o the number of women i n the h i g h and low s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . Another way t o d e a l w i t h the problem i s t o a t t r i b u t e t o not-employed women the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of t h e i r husbands. The u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s t h a t a housewife does not po s s e s s s o c i a l s t a t u s of her own but d e r i v e s i t from her husband's s t a t u s . I d e c i d e d not t o f o l l o w t h i s p rocedure here because i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a t l e a s t two re a s o n s . F i r s t , a l t h o u g h i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t the husband's o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s r e f l e c t s upon the s o c i a l s t a t u s of h i s h o u s e w i f e - w i f e , i t appears a l s o t h a t "the h o u s e w i f e o c c u p a t i o n i t s e l f p o s s e s s e s some independent s t a t u s and t h a t d e r i v e d and independent s t a t u s i n t e r a c t w i t h 118 each o t h e r . " ( E i c h l e r , 1977:164). The second o b j e c t i o n stems from the n a t u r e of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h a t were used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . In eve r y o t h e r a n a l y s i s thus f a r o n l y d i m e n s i o n s of a c h i e v e d s t a t u s were c o n s i d e r e d . I f husband's o c c u p a t i o n were taken as i n d i c a t o r of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of a hou s e w i f e t h i s would be a d e v i a t i o n from the p a t t e r n of comparing o n l y the res p o n d e n t s ' a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s . T h i s i s so because o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of the husband, an a c h i e v e d s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , becomes a measure of a s c r i b e d s t a t u s when i t i s a s s i g n e d t o the w i f e : a s t a t u s not o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the woman's own achievements but d e r i v e d from her husband's a c t i v i t i e s . In s h o r t , the i n c l u s i o n of women who are not employed p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the a n a l y s i s when we w i s h t o use o c c u p a t i o n as one of the b a s i c s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s i n the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , the a n a l y s i s was r e s t r i c t e d t o g a i n f u l l y employed (and m a r r i e d ) women. F u r t h e r , the o n l y s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d a r e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . 1 The p r o c e d u r e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i s f a m i l i a r by now. As b e f o r e , the a n a l y s i s s t a r t e d w i t h e v a l u a t i n g the g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t of a r e g r e s s i o n model t h a t p o s i t s a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s on the dependent v a r i a b l e . 1 Income was not used as a s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n i n t h i s a n a l y s i s because i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l income of the employed women was in c o m p l e t e and i t s r e l i a b i l i t y q u e s t i o n a b l e . 119 The f i r s t column of T a b l e 9 shows the s o l u t i o n of. the r e g r e s s i o n of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n memberships on e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n f o r the 137 employed m a r r i e d women i n the Vancouver sample. 1 The mean number of memberships a c t u a l l y found f o r each of the ni n e subgroups of women w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 10. I t a l s o shows the s i g n e d d i f f e r e n c e s between these o b s e r v e d means and the means p r e d i c t e d from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . There i s not much p a t t e r n t o the s e d i f f e r e n c e s : p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d e v i a t i o n s a r e s c a t t e r e d t hroughout the t a b l e . However, some of the l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s o c c u r i n the c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g m o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . The observed mean number of memberships f o r thos e women who have a s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t c o m b i n a t i o n of low e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i s s m a l l e r (-.29) than would be ex p e c t e d i f the e f f e c t s of the s e two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were a d d i t i v e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h i s subsample t h e r e were no respondents w i t h the o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n of h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . T h i s a l s o makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e the secondary h y p o t h e s i s about the d i f f e r e n c e i n the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t of underrewarded and overrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 See Table 27 i n the Appendix f o r the m a t r i x of c o r r e l a t i o n s , means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . 1 20 Tabl e 9. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of Number of Memberships on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Independent V a r i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A d d i t i v e Model N o n a d d i t i v e Model E d u c a t i o n : HS not completed * * Completed HS .117 (.198) .027 ( .235) U n i v e r s i t y 1 .274 ( .292) 1 .097 ( .358) O c c u p a t i o n : Manual * * C l e r i c a l & s a l e s . 1 57 (.257) .180 (.265) Exec-manager-prof .854 (.309) 1 .056 (.373) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .013 (.207) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t -.521 ( .517) R e g r e s s i o n Constant .548 .576 — R 2 .289 .296 • N 1 37 1 37 * Dummy v a r i a b l e o m i t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 121 T a b l e 10. Observed Mean Number of Memberships and D e v i a t i o n s from Means P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Observed Mean Number of Memberships (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d Means OCCUPATION STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Means EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium Hig h Low .79 (14) .25 (8) • • • (0) .59 (22) +.24 -.42 Medium .69 (35) .78 (37) 2.29 (7) .87 (79) -.02 -.04 +.31 High 1.11 (9) 1 .92 (12) 2.53 (15) 1 .97 (36) -.29 +.40 -.15 Column means .78 (58) .95 (57) 2.45 (22) 1.12 (137) T a b l e 11. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on Membership (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y Mean Number Observed of Memberships Expected D i f f e r e n c e N C o n s i s t e n t 1.18 1.19 -.01 66 M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 1 .05 1 .00 + .05 62 S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 1.11 1 .40 -.29 9 1 22 On the whole, the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s appears t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the d a t a on membership, as T a b l e 11 shows. The w e i g h t e d p r e d i c t e d means f o r the c o n s i s t e n t and mo d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups of women match the observed means r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . True, t h e r e i s a n e g a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e of moderate s i z e f o r the c a t e g o r y of women w i t h s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s e s , but i t p e r t a i n s t o o n l y n i n e c a s e s . Column 2 of Ta b l e 9 shows the r e s u l t s of the r e g r e s s i o n i n which e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n as w e l l as degree of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were i n c l u d e d as independent v a r i a b l e s . The a d d i t i o n of terms f o r moderate and sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t o the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n c r e a s e s R 2 from .289 t o .296. T h i s means t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a d d i t i v e l y account f o r 28.9 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n memberships h e l d by these women, w h i l e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e x p l a i n s an a d d i t i o n a l 0.7 per c e n t . In t h i s sample of employed women t o o , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y does not have a marked impact on membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s over and above the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s which make up the i n c o n s i s t e n c y t y p e . Summary B e f o r e moving on t o the next problem i t may be u s e f u l t o r e c a p i t u l a t e the main f e a t u r e s and r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s up t o now. 123 The p r i n c i p a l h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d i n t h i s p a r t of the r e s e a r c h was t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s have fewer memberships i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i n d i v i d u a l s whose s t a t u s e s are c o n s i s t e n t , t a k i n g i n t o the account the d i f f e r e n c e s due t o the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . That t e s t i n g was e x t e n s i v e : a t o t a l of f i v e a n a l y s e s were performed, which i n v o l v e d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s of socioeconomic s t a t u s , t h r e e k i n d s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and d a t a from d i f f e r e n t samples. The a n a l y s i s s t a r t e d i n each case from a s i m p l e a d d i t i v e model, one which s t a t e s t h a t membership i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a f f e c t e d by two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r . Behind t h i s i s the c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , i s a consequence of ' i n t e r a c t i o n between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e f i n e the i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e . An i n d i c a t i o n t h a t such e f f e c t s may be p r e s e n t i s the i n a b i l i t y of the a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model t o a d e q u a t e l y account f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n membership by s t a t u s . In t h r e e of the f i v e a n a l y s e s the b a s e l i n e a d d i t i v e model p r o v i d e d an a c c e p t a b l e f i t t o the d a t a . The mean number of memberships p r e d i c t e d from the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h d i s t i n c t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s matched the o b s e r v e d means r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of the absence of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s was the f i n d i n g t h a t n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s , which e x p l i c i t l y c o n t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n terms f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i n a d d i t i o n t o terms f o r the main e f f e c t s of the component s t a t u s 1 24 v a r i a b l e s , e x p l a i n e d h a r d l y more v a r i a n c e i n memberships than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . The i n c r e a s e i n R 2 was .002 i n two c a s e s and .007 i n the t h i r d , i n d i c a t i n g an improvement of l e s s than 1 per c e n t i n the amount of e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e . In the two o t h e r a n a l y s e s — i n v o l v i n g the P o r t A l b e r n i sample ( e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n ) and the sample of Vancouver men ( o c c u p a t i o n and i n c o m e ) — t h e a d d i t i v e model appeared l e s s s u i t e d t o d e s c r i b e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean number of memberships among groups of p ersons w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s . What i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g here i s t h a t the d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v i t y , a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e i n the s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t groups, d i d not e x h i b i t the p a t t e r n t h a t s h o u l d have been found i f s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y had indeed the u n f a v o u r a b l e impact on membership the h y p o t h e s i s assumes. The n a t u r e of the d e v i a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t any^ e f f e c t of the t y p e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n q u e s t i o n i s a p o s i t i v e one. However, such e f f e c t s proved t o be e x t r e m e l y weak. The a d d i t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s t o the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s reduced the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n memberships l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the component s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s by o n l y a minute f r a c t i o n (.007 and .010). On the whole, t h e n , t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u f f i c i e n t ground to r e j e c t the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , which s t a t e s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership net of the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s per se. 125 Nor do the d a t a l e n d s u p p o r t t o the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the "underreward" type of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s a more s e r i o u s h i n d r a n c e t o j o i n i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i s the o p p o s i t e t ype of " o v e r r e w a r d " . The d e v i a t i o n s of obser v e d from p r e d i c t e d means e i t h e r d i f f e r e d l i t t l e between c a t e g o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s e two ty p e s of sh a r p s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y or seldom d i f f e r e d i n the way conform t o the h y p o t h e s i s . S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y and H o l d i n g O f f i c e i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s A l t h o u g h s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e v i d e n t l y makes p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n so f a r as membership i s co n c e r n e d , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t i t does have a d e f i n i t e , u n f a v o u r a b l e impact on s o c i a l l y more demanding forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as a t t e n d i n g meetings or h o l d i n g o f f i c e . O f f i c e - h o l d i n g , as an i n d i c a t o r of a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . A person who h o l d s o f f i c e has t o communicate and c o o r d i n a t e w i t h members and o t h e r o f f i c e r s . By v i r t u e of h i s or her p o s i t i o n an o f f i c e r or committee-member i s a l s o h i g h l y v i s i b l e t o o t h e r p e o p l e i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s have d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e w a r d i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y tend t o a v o i d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which they may be s u b j e c t e d t o u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i l e o f f i c e - h o l d i n g p r e c i s e l y r e q u i r e s f r e q u e n t 126 i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , then we may expect t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than persons w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . F i n d i n g s f o r the Three Samples The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and o f f i c e -h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s was examined i n f i v e a n a l y s e s p a r a l l e l t o those d e a l i n g w i t h membership. Of c o u r s e , the dependent v a r i a b l e was d i f f e r e n t , but i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s — samples, measures of s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s — t h e a n a l y s e s were the same. The r e s u l t s of th e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12 up t o T a b l e 20 i n c l u s i v e (see a l s o the t a b l e s i n the A p p e n d i x ) . But b e f o r e p o i n t i n g out the main p a t t e r n s i n these d a t a I s h o u l d e x p l a i n what k i n d of dependent v a r i a b l e we are d e a l i n g w i t h here and how the v a r i o u s q u a n t i t i e s o b t a i n e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d . O f f i c e - h o l d i n g , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was o r i g i n a l l y measured as the t o t a l number of o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s and committee memberships t h a t the respondent h e l d or had h e l d i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the samples on t h i s v a r i a b l e were e x t r e m e l y skewed t o the r i g h t , even more than on the membership v a r i a b l e (see T a b l e 2 ) . T h e r e f o r e , number of o f f i c e s h e l d was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a new v a r i a b l e w i t h o n l y two c a t e g o r i e s : o f f i c e - h o l d i n g and not o f f i c e - h o l d i n g . T h i s dichotomous c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e was then dummy-coded i n the way d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r - - 1 f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , 0 o t h e r w i s e - - a n d i n 127 t h a t form used as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n an o r d i n a r y l e a s t -squares r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 1 A p p l i c a t i o n of r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n t h i s case i s d e f e n s i b l e , because under one-zero c o d i n g of the dichotomous dependent v a r i a b l e the p r o p o r t i o n of c a s e s f a l l i n g i n the c a t e g o r y coded 1 (the p r o p o r t i o n o f f i c e - h o l d e r s ) i s a l s o the mean of the d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the v a l u e s p r e d i c t e d by the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d : they are the exp e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n of c a s e s i n the c a t e g o r y " o f f i c e - h o l d i n g " , g i v e n placement i n a p a r t i c u l a r j o i n t c a t e g o r y of the independent dummy v a r i a b l e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e the net e f f e c t of a g i v e n dummy independent v a r i a b l e e x p r e s s e d as a net i n c r e a s e i n the exp e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s r e l a t i v e t o the p r o p o r t i o n e x p e c t e d f o r the o m i t t e d c a t e g o r i e s . 1 M e t h o d o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y frown upon the use of o r d i n a r y l e a s t -s quares r e g r e s s i o n w i t h dummy dependent v a r i a b l e s . The reason i s t h a t a dependent v a r i a b l e which has o n l y the v a l u e s 0 and 1 w i l l not be n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d nor g e n e r a l l y have c o n s t a n t v a r i a n c e a t each l e v e l of the independent v a r i a b l e s . V i o l a t i o n of thes e assumptions makes e s t i m a t e s of the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e based on the F - s t a t i s t i c q u e s t i o n a b l e ; a more a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e i s l o g - l i n e a r a n a l y s i s (Knoke, 1975). Or, i f one wishes t o a p p l y r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o a dichotomous dependent v a r i a b l e , i t i s recommended t o use a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of o r d i n a r y l e a s t - s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n , such as the G r i z z l e - S t a r m e r - K o c h t e c h n i q u e , which i s based on a g e n e r a l i z e d ' (weighted) l e a s t - s q u a r e s r o u t i n e (see S w a f f o r d , 1980; K u e c h l e r , 1980). In the p r e s e n t c a s e , however, r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used as a d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l , not as a means t o make s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s beyond the samples. That the u s u a l r e g r e s s i o n assumptions of h o m o s c e d a s t i c i t y and normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of the dependent v a r i a b l e were not met has no consequences f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the q u a n t i t i e s produced by the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . / 128 From the f i g u r e s i n the f i r s t column of Ta b l e 12 we see t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , the p r e d i c t e d p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s among P o r t A l b e r n i r espondents w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i s .399 + .242 + .042 = .683. We can compute i n a s i m i l a r way the p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s e x p e c t e d f o r a l l o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The f i g u r e s i n the c e l l s of the 3 x 3 t a b l e s formed by c r o s s - c l a s s i f y i n g two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t (1) the observ e d p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s among the respondents c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one of the n i n e d i s t i n c t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s , and (2) the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e observed p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s and the p r o p o r t i o n s p r e d i c t e d by a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n which the two independent s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a re assumed t o have s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s . As b e f o r e , a n e g a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the ob s e r v e d p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e -h o l d e r s among respondents w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n i s s m a l l e r than one would expect on the b a s i s of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . A p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e means a l a r g e r - t h a n - e x p e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s . One might n o t i c e (see T a b l e s 13, 16, 19) t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between observed and p r e d i c t e d p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s a re g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r than the d i f f e r e n c e s between o b s e r v e d and p r e d i c t e d mean number of memberships. T h i s may be somewhat m i s l e a d i n g because the s m a l l e r s i z e of the d e v i a t i o n s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g t h e r e i s a c l o s e r match between obse r v e d and p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s 1 29 and t h a t the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s i s more adequate t o e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g than i n membership. That the d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s a re g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a consequence of the f a c t t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s . The v a l u e s of a p r o p o r t i o n can range between z e r o and one, whereas the upper l i m i t of the range of v a l u e s t h a t a mean can ta k e on i s u n d e f i n e d . S i n c e a p r o p o r t i o n has a s m a l l e r range of p o s s i b l e v a l u e s than a mean, the observed and p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s as w e l l as the d i f f e r e n c e s between them ten d t o be s m a l l e r f o r p r o p o r t i o n s ( o f f i c e - h o l d e r s ) than f o r means (number of memberships). C o n s i d e r the d e v i a t i o n s i n the t e n c e l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s k i n d s of sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y between e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income s t a t u s ( T a b l e s 13, 16, and 19). The main f i n d i n g s about the s i z e and s i g n of the d e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v i t y can be summarized as f o l l o w s : (1) Only i n f o u r of the ten c e l l s d i d the obser v e d p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s d e v i a t e by a moderate margin (.169 t o .423) from the p r o p o r t i o n s t o be ex p e c t e d i f the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were a d d i t i v e . D e v i a t i o n s from a d d i t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s were v e r y s m a l l or n o n e x i s t e n t i n the o t h e r c e l l s . (2) Only i n t h r e e c e l l s was t h e r e a n e g a t i v e d e v i a t i o n , t h a t i s , the obser v e d p r o p o r t i o n of responde n t s who ever h e l d o f f i c e was s m a l l e r than p r e d i c t e d by the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . In s i x c e l l s the d e v i a t i o n s were p o s i t i v e . Perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h i s . The f o u r l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n s a l s o happened t o be p o s i t i v e , so t h a t i n 130 t h o s e i n s t a n c e s the ob s e r v e d p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s exceeded the p r e d i c t e d p r o p o r t i o n s . We can r e s t a t e t h i s f i n d i n g by s a y i n g t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of a person h o l d i n g o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s when h i s or her e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( P o r t A l b e r n i sample) or h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and income s t a t u s (men i n the Vancouver sample) a r e s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t i s g r e a t e r , not s m a l l e r , than expected under the assumption of a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e f o r e , i f we were t o i n f e r from these d e v i a t i o n s — m o d e r a t e i n s i z e a t b e s t — t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s qua s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n a re p r e s e n t , then i t would have t o be c o n s i d e r e d as e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t the , h y p o t h e s i s of n e g a t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s on o f f i c e - h o l d i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no support i n the s e d a t a f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s a r e even l e s s l i k e l y than overrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a l l t h r e e samples t h e r e i s h a r d l y any d i f f e r e n c e i n the magnitude of the d e v i a t i o n s f o r c a t e g o r i e s of r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h o p p o s i t e t y p e s of sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y , no mat t e r whether th e s e i n v o l v e c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s or c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n s t a t u s and income s t a t u s . 1 1 Only when the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a re o c c u p a t i o n and income i s t h e r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the s i z e of the d e v i a t i o n s f o r the two t y p e s of sharp i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n f o r the Vancouver men who have low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i g h income s t a t u s i s t w i c e as l a r g e as t h a t f o r r e spondents w i t h h i g h o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s but low income s t a t u s . 131 As f o r the e x p l a n a t o r y power of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , the main f i n d i n g i s t h a t here too measures of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e x p l a i n v e r y l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e once the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s have been t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . T h i s becomes e v i d e n t when the R 2 v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g o n l y two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s are compared w i t h the R 2's f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o n a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n s i n which a l s o i n t e r a c t i o n terms f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s were i n c l u d e d ( T a b l e s 12, 15, and 18). For the e n t i r e s e t of a n a l y s e s , the l a r g e s t increment i n the pe r c e n t a g e of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g t h a t c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by adding dummy s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s t o the p a i r of s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a l r e a d y i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was a mere 1.6 per c e n t . That f i g u r e was o b t a i n e d i n the case of the employed m a r r i e d women from the Vancouver sample, where s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y was d e f i n e d i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The i n c r e a s e s i n R 2 t h a t r e s u l t e d from the i n c l u s i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s i n the a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y s l i g h t l y l a r g e r f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g than f o r memberships. But i t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g t h a t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d w i t h e i t h e r a s t r i c t l y a d d i t i v e model of s t a t u s e f f e c t s or a n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model was q u i t e s m a l l : none of the ten r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s y i e l d e d an R 2 v a l u e l a r g e r than .08. The s m a l l e r R 2's can be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o the f a c t t h a t o r d i n a r y l e a s t - s q u a r e s r e g r e s s i o n was used w i t h a dichotomous 1 32 dependent v a r i a b l e . 1 1 When number of o f f i c e s h e l d was used as the dependent v a r i a b l e , the R 2 v a l u e s were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than those r e p o r t e d here f o r the dummy o f f i c e - h o l d i n g v a r i a b l e . But i t s t i l l remains t r u e t h a t the same independent s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a t i o n i n membership than i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , r e g a r d l e s s whether the l a t t e r i s measured as a d i s c r e t e i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e or as a dichotomy. 1 33 T a b l e 12. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n of Respondents H o l d i n g O f f i c e i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Independent V a r i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A d d i t i v e Model N o n a d d i t i v e Model Educat i o n : Grade 8 or l e s s * * Grade 9-11 .046 (.051) .069 (.053) HS compl or more .242 (.063) .224 (.063) Occupat i o n : Semi- & u n s k i l l e d * * S k i l l e d .042 (.052) .067 ( .053) White c o l l a r .141 (.057) . 148 (.056) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t -.008 ( .048) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .221 (.088) R e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t .399 .372 R 2 .069 .081 N 513 513 * Dummy v a r i a b l e o m i t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 1 34 T a b l e 13. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d P r o p o r t i o n s OCCUPATION STATUS . EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Prop. EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .367 (98) .440 (91 ) .810 (21 ) .443 (210) -.032 -.005 +.169 Medium .436 (55) .508 (65) .643 (28) .507 (148) -.005 +.021 -.040 High .750 (16) .571 (63) .750 (76) .677 (155) + .210 -.015 -.032 Column prop. .426 (169) .500 (219) .736 (125) .532 (513) / T a b l e 14. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y P r o p o r t i o n Observed Of f i c e - H o l d e r s E x p e c t e d D i f f e r e n c e N C o n s i s t e n t .527 .545 -.018 239 M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .498 .510 -.012 237 S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .784 .597 + . 187 37 1 35 T a b l e 15. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n O f f i c e - H o l d e r s on P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Men) Independent V a r i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A-f- NAn A NA A NA E d u c a t i o n : HS not completed * * * * Completed HS ( . 1 04 .064) .119 (.067) .090 (.063) .087 (.066) U n i v e r s i t y ( .084 .067) .116 (.072) .094 ( .062) .091 (.065) Occupat i o n : Manual * * * * A d m i n - c l e r - t e c h n ( .020 .065) -.046 (.071 ) -.021 ( .065) -.013 ( .066) Exec-manager-prof ( . 1 29 .072) .098 (.077) .085 ( .073) .078 (.073) Income: Under $8000 * * * * $8000 - $13999 .075 ( .068) .071 .067 (.073) (.071) .097 (.073) $14000 & more .214 (.078) .218 .183 (.080) (.087) .205 (.088) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t -* * * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .052 ( .059) .004 (.059) -.005 ( .055) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .112 ( . 101 ) -.023 ( . 102) .305 (.164) R e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t .415 .393 .349 .351 .394 .366 R 2 .036 .040 .041 .041 .038 .047 N 402 402 396 396 388 388 -f- A d d i t i v e model n N o n a d d i t i v e model * Dummy v a r i a b l e o m i t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 136 Ta b l e 16. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , by P a i r s of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s (Vancouver Sample: Men) Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d P r o p o r t i o n s OCCUPATION STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Prop. EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .395 (81 ) .571 (21 ) .571 (7) .440 (109) -.020 +.052 +.072 Medium .391 (64) .467 (45) .531 (32) .447 (141 ) -.004 -.032 +.052 High .615 (26) .657 (35) .604 (91 ) .618 (152) +.071 +.009 -.024 Column prop. .427 •(171) .554 (101 ) .585 (130) .510 (402) INCOME STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Prop. EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium High Low .356 (45) .450 (20) .375 (8) .384 (73) +.007 +.011 -.068 Medium .421 (95) .509 (55) .527 (55) .473 (205) -.003 -.005 +.009 High .560 (25) .654 (26) .657 (67) .636 (118) -.003 +.001 0.0 Column prop. .424 (165) .535 (101 ) .585 (130) .505 (396) ( c o n t i n u e d ) T a b l e 16. ( c o n t i n u e d ) Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d P r o p o r t i o n s INCOME STATUS OCCUPATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Prop. OCCUPATIONAL STATUS Low Medium Hig h Low .382 (34) .346 (26) .667 (6) .394 (66) -.012 -.027 +.188 Medium .443 (70) .450 (80) .556 (54) .475 (204) -.018 +.010 +.010 High 1 .00 (4) .556 (27) .644 (87) .636 (118) +.423 0.0 -.018 Column prop. .444 (108) .451 (133) .612 (147) .510 (388) t 138 T a b l e 17. Summary of the E f f e c t s of Three Types of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g (Vancouver Sample: Men) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y P r o p o r t i o n O f f i c e - H o l d e r s Observed E x p e c t e d D i f f e r e n c e N EDUC; ^TIONAL STATUS AND OCCUPATIONAL STATUS C o n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .498 .522 -.024 .507 .488 +.019 .606 .534 +.072 217 1 52 33 EDUC; VTIONAL STATUS AND INCOME STATUS Co n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .527 .527 0.0 .485 .482 +.003 .515 .534 -.019 1 67 196 33 OCCUI 3ATIONAL STATUS AND INCOME STATUS C o n s i s t e n t M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .522 .528 -.006 .480 .488 -.008 .800 .518 +.282 201 177 10 139 T a b l e 18. Dummy-Variable R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s of the P r o p o r t i o n O f f i c e - H o l d e r s on E d u c a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n : A d d i t i v e and N o n a d d i t i v e Models (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Independent Var i a b l e s U n s t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r s i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) A d d i t i v e Model N o n a d d i t i v e Model Educat i o n : HS not completed * * Completed HS .036 (.081 ) .061 (.095) U n i v e r s i t y .267 (.119) .287 ( . 145) O c c u p a t i o n : Manual * * C l e r i c a l & s a l e s .031 ( . 105) .008 ( . 108) Exec-manager-prof. .014 ( . 126) .015 ( . 152) S t a t u s C o n s i s t e n c y : C o n s i s t e n t * M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .110 (.084) S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t -.024 ( .210) R e g r e s s i o n C o n s t a n t . 1 69 . 1 20 R 2 .046 .062 N 1 37 1 37 * Dummy v a r i a b l e o m i t t e d from r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n 1 40 Ta b l e 19. Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s and D e v i a t i o n s from P r o p o r t i o n s P r e d i c t e d Under Model of A d d i t i v e S t a t u s E f f e c t s , . by E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Observed P r o p o r t i o n s O f f i c e - H o l d e r s (N's i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) Observed Minus P r e d i c t e d P r o p o r t i o n s OCCUPATION STATUS EDUCATIONAL Low Medium STATUS High Row Prop. EDUCATIONAL STATUS Low Medium H i g h . Low .214 (14) . 1 25 (8) • • • (0) .182 (22) +.045 -.080 Medium .200 (35) .189 (37) .714 (7) .241 (79) 0.0 -.047 +.247 High .111 (9) .417 (12) .333 (15) .306 (36) -.072 +.198 -.117 Column prop. .190 (58) .228 (57) .455 (22) .248 ( 1 37) Tabl e 20. Summary of the E f f e c t of E d u c a t i o n - O c c u p a t i o n S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y on O f f i c e - H o l d i n g (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women) Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y P r o p o r t i o n Observed Of f i c e - H o l d e r s E x p e c t e d Di f f e r e n c e N C o n s i s t e n t — .227 .270 . -.043 66 M o d e r a t e l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .290 .234 + .056 62 S h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t .111 .183 -.072 9 / 141 Summary The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s second s e t of a n a l y s e s was t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s as measured by o f f i c e -h o l d i n g . In a l l e s s e n t i a l r e s p e c t s the r e s u l t s of the s e a n a l y s e s were p a r a l l e l t o those o b t a i n e d e a r l i e r c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and membership. The b a s i c model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s gave the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y f i t t o the d a t a i n the same two ca s e s as b e f o r e : when the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n ( P o r t A l b e r n i sample) or o c c u p a t i o n and income (men i n the Vancouver sample). Another p o i n t of s i m i l a r i t y here was t h a t the observed p r o p o r t i o n s of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s among per s o n s w i t h s h a r p l y i n c o n s i s t e n t 1 s t a t u s e s were l a r g e r than e x p e c t e d under the a d d i t i v i t y a s s u m p t i o n . O f f i c e - h o l d i n g seemed t o be f a v o u r a b l y a f f e c t e d , i f indeed a t a l l , by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of the above k i n d . In the t h r e e o t h e r c ases the obser v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o p o r t i o n of o f f i c e - h o l d e r s between groups of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s c o u l d be a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y i n the f i n d i n g s on o f f i c e - h o l d i n g and membership e x t e n d s , as a ma t t e r of c o u r s e , t o the second stage of the two-pronged a n a l y t i c a l s t r a t e g y , i n which ' the net e x p l a n a t o r y power of a n o n a d d i t i v e model of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s was a s s e s s e d . I f s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e a l l y has an e f f e c t , even a p o s i t i v e one, on o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , then i t s 1 42 i n c l u s i o n as an independent v a r i a b l e i n the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s s h o u l d have produced at l e a s t a moderate i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g over and above the p r o p o r t i o n e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s d i d not happen. Increments i n R 2 were v e r y s m a l l : from .009 t o .016 i n t h r e e of the f i v e a n a l y s e s , and v i r t u a l l y n i l i n the o t h e r two. In the l i g h t of these r e s u l t s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e r e i s a genuine s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t on o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , net of the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i t s e l f . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s p a r t of the r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , do not s u pport the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o h o l d o f f i c e i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than are s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n h o l d s f o r the secondary h y p o t h e s i s t o o ; t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t underrewarded s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s a r e even l e s s l i k e l y than overrewarded i n c o n s i s t e n t s t o be o f f i c e - h o l d e r s . 1 4 3 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS I s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y a c o n d i t i o n t h a t d i s c o u r a g e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? That i s the main q u e s t i o n t h i s study has sought t o answer. S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s i n v o l v e d t r y i n g t o determine whether s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o any e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t a t u s per se. The r e s u l t s of the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h i s i s not the c a s e . What remains t o be done i s t o s t a t e the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be drawn from the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and t o s e t out t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n s 1. The f i r s t and p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the r e s e a r c h hypotheses a r e not s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a . By i m p l i c a t i o n , the argument t h a t l e a d s t o the s e hypotheses i s open t o q u e s t i o n . 2. In p a r t i c u l a r , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has no a p p r e c i a b l e and s y s t e m a t i c e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y from the e f f e c t s of the component 144 s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h e m s e l v e s . 3. E d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and i n c o m e — t h e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s from which s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measures were c o n s t r u c t e d — a l l a r e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4. A n o n a d d i t i v e model of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s t h a t a l l o w s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i s unnecessary t o e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y . s t a t u s . 5. To d e s c r i b e how s o c i a l s t a t u s a f f e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p o s i t an a d d i t i v e model s t a t i n g t h a t the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s e x e r t t h e i r e f f e c t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r . 6. However, the a b i l i t y of such models of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s t o account f o r v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l e s s than i m p r e s s i v e . In v a r i o u s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n e d o n l y moderate t o s m a l l p o r t i o n s of the v a r i a n c e i n memberships and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g . A ffew comments t h a t may h e l p d e f i n e the scope of these c o n c l u s i o n s a re i n o r d e r . I t i s not a s s e r t e d t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g t h a t c o n c l u s i o n i s not w a r r a n t e d by the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s . The c o n c l u s i o n more p r e c i s e l y i s t h a t once the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s t h emselves on p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e taken i n t o account t h e r e e v i d e n t l y i s no s p e c i a l e f f e c t due t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . What the r e s u l t s show i s t h a t the d a t a do not d i s c r i m i n a t e between two a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s : one which sees the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d by t h e i r rank p o s i t i o n s on a p a i r of s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s but such t h a t the e f f e c t of one s t a t u s i s 145 independent of the e f f e c t of the o t h e r , and one which p o s i t s a n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t i n a d d i t i o n t o the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of the component s t a t u s e s . In f a c t b oth models ar e e q u a l l y adequate, or i nadequate f o r t h a t m a t t e r , t o account f o r the p a t t e r n s of v a r i a t i o n i n the two forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e d h e r e . However, the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e x p l a n a t i o n i s r e j e c t e d because i t i s not n e c e s s a r y and t h e r e f o r e u n p a r s i m o n i o u s . The n o n a d d i t i v e model of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i s b oth c o n c e p t u a l l y and s t a t i s t i c a l l y more c o m p l i c a t e d than the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s o n l y . S e l e c t i n g the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model, r a t h e r than the a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model, t h e r e f o r e cannot be j u s t i f i e d on the ground t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e r e x p l a n a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r such a c h o i c e would have t o be found i n s u p e r i o r e x p l a n a t o r y power. But the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model f a i l s on t h i s p o i n t as w e l l ; i t does not enable us t o e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n much b e t t e r and more c o m p l e t e l y than a s i m p l e r model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . Without t h i s e m p i r i c a l p a y - o f f t h e r e i s no need nor warrant f o r the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n t r o d u c e d by the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y c o n c e p t , no matter how i n t e r e s t i n g and i n t u i t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e i t may be. In a s s e s s i n g the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from them one s h o u l d be aware of t h e i r l i m i t e d range. The o n l y k i n d of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study i s t h a t d e f i n e d by s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e l d ranks on d i m e n s i o n s of a c h i e v e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . Had the a n a l y s e s i n c l u d e d o t h e r forms of 1 46 s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , f o r i n s t a n c e c o m b i n a t i o n s of a c h i e v e d and a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s , the r e s u l t s would perhaps have been d i f f e r e n t . Another p o i n t t o bear i n mind i s t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e based on d a t a f o r respondents from two s p e c i f i c commmunities; they cannot s i m p l y be g e n e r a l i z e d beyond the Vancouver and P o r t A l b e r n i samples. On the o t h e r hand, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n does not s t a n d a l o n e i n i t s i n a b i l i t y t o f i n d c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy a r e g e n e r a l l y i n l i n e w i t h those of o t h e r r e c e n t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h i n which the a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model was used as the b a s e l i n e f o r t e s t i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s e s . As such t h e s e r e s u l t s add t o the a l r e a d y s u b s t a n t i a l body of n e g a t i v e e v i d e n c e about the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on v a r i o u s k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s ( f o r example, J a c k s o n and Burke, 1965; Treiman, 1966; Broom and J o n e s , 1970; O l s e n and T u l l y , 1972; J a c k s o n and C u r t i s , 1972; C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:113-5). In the remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r I s h a l l e l a b o r a t e the c o n c l u s i o n s and the f i n d i n g s t h a t l e d t o them. In d o i n g so I s h a l l draw out t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument, e s p e c i a l l y so f a r as i t r e l a t e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l s t a t u s ; and f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may promote or d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 147 Some Reasons Why the A n t i c i p a t e d E f f e c t s of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y Were Not Found What may account f o r the l a c k of e m p i r i c a l s u pport f o r the hypotheses t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on membership and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? P a r t of the answer t o t h a t q u e s t i o n most p r o b a b l y l i e s i n the argument i t s e l f : some of the assumptions and premi s e s by which the concept of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h i t s h y p o t h e s i z e d c o r r e l a t e s may be q u e s t i o n a b l e , perhaps even wrong. As any o t h e r attempt t o determine the consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y f o r b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e d a number of as s u m p t i o n s . Among them the t h r e e f o l l o w i n g seem t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r the e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and they t h e r e f o r e deserve c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n . 1 The f i r s t of these assumptions u n d e r l i e s the measurement of the independent v a r i a b l e , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . I t i s assumed t h a t o b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y c o i n c i d e s w i t h the respondent's own e v a l u a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s or her s t a t u s e s . The second assumption c o n c e r n s the p r o c e s s e s i n t e r v e n i n g -between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and i t s b e h a v i o u r a l outcome. I t i s assumed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 1 Many more assumptions than the few s i n g l e d out here f o r a b r i e f e v a l u a t i o n a r e i n v o l v e d i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y . For c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , see the a r t i c l e s by Box and F o r d (1969), Meyer and Hammond (1971), and Hartman (1974). 148 The t h i r d a ssumption has t o do w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and the s t r e s s g e n e r a t e d by i t . A v o i d i n g s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r people where p o s s i b l e i s not the o n l y , or even a v e r y l i k e l y , way i n which s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s may t r y t o d e a l w i t h the d i s t u r b i n g consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y l e a d s t o n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s tendency t o withdraw from s o c i a l l i f e , i m p l i e s the assumption t h a t o t h e r s t r e s s - a v o i d i n g or s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g mechanisms have been u n s u c c e s s f u l or are not a v a i l a b l e . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t t h e s e assumptions were not e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i e d , as they u s u a l l y are not i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h . One p o s s i b l e r e a s o n , t h e n , f o r not f i n d i n g the h y p o t h e s i z e d n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h a t any or a l l of the assumptions a r e i n v a l i d . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the p r o c e d u r e s used t o measure s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and t o t e s t f o r t h e i r e f f e c t s on the dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e . In what f o l l o w s these t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s a r e d e v e l o p e d a l i t t l e f u r t h e r and brought t o bear upon the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h . Problems i n D e f i n i n g S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y The f i r s t assumption l i s t e d above draws us i n t o the d i s p u t e over the r o l e of what has been c a l l e d " s u b j e c t i v e " , or r e s p o n d e n t - d e f i n e d , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y as opposed t o " o b j e c t i v e " , or r e s e a r c h e r - d e f i n e d , i n c o n s i s t e n c y . As was 149 mentioned i n Chapter 2, a major p o i n t i n the c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h i s the charge t h a t i t has n e g l e c t e d t o f o c u s on the s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , even though the p r o c e s s e s assumed i n the v a r i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n s of the t h e o r y a r e c l e a r l y s u b j e c t i v e . One of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i s : s h o u l d the i n v e s t i g a t o r r e l y upon the i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d r a t h e r than himse-lf t o d e f i n e what c o n s t i t u t e s c o n s i s t e n c y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y ? In the t y p i c a l r e s e a r c h study i n which an o b j e c t i v e approach t o measuring s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s employed, as i s the case h e r e , i t i s the r e s e a r c h e r who d e t e r m i n e s a r espondent's rank p o s i t i o n on each s t a t u s dimension and who d e c i d e s whether the v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t or i n c o n s i s t e n t . Thereby i t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed t h a t the measurement o p e r a t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r p a r a l l e l the s u b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s by which the r e s p o n d e n t s themselves p e r c e i v e t h e i r rank p o s i t i o n s and e v a l u a t e t h e i r s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . However, t h i s assumption may be f a l s e . What the r e s e a r c h e r d e f i n e s as c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s c o m b i n a t i o n s does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h what respon d e n t s c o n s i d e r c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t , a p o i n t t h a t s e v e r a l w r i t e r s have made ( f o r example, M i t c h e l l , 1964:317; M a l e w s k i , 1966:303-4; S t e h r , 1968:96; Box and F o r d , 1969:195-7; N e l s o n , 1973112-5). I t t h e r e f o r e i s i m p e r a t i v e , a c c o r d i n g t o these c r i t i c s , t o r e l y more d i r e c t l y upon the respondents and ask them whether they themselves r e g a r d t h e i r s t a t u s p a t t e r n s as c o n s i s t e n t or 150 i n c o n s i s t e n t . 1 S t e h r (1968) and N e l s o n (1973) have argued t h a t such a s u b j e c t i v e measure based upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i s or her v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s i s a more adequate i n d i c a t o r of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y than the c o n v e n t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e measures. A number of r e s e a r c h e r s have e m p i r i c a l l y examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o b j e c t i v e l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , w i t h r e s u l t s t h a t seem t o l e n d support t o t h e s e s u b j e c t i v i s t c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s . For example, S t a r n e s and S i n g l e t o n (1977) found t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e was l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b j e c t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measures and v a r i o u s s u b j e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . A l s o , the more s u b j e c t i v e the measure, t h a t i s , the more the respondent h i m s e l f was a l l o w e d t o d e c i d e whether or not h i s s t a t u s e s were i n c o n s i s t e n t , the s m a l l e r the c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the o b j e c t i v e measures. In a n other study ( S t e h r , 1971:45-6) i t was found t h a t o n l y 20 per c e n t of the r espondents who p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s t a t u s e s as i n c o n s i s t e n t were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d as i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure. 1 Measures of s u b j e c t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the degree i n which respondent's p e r c e p t i o n s and judgements e n t e r measurement o p e r a t i o n s . But a t y p i c a l o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e or p e r c e i v e d i n c o n s i s t e n c y , f o r i n s t a n c e between o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and income s t a t u s , would i n v o l v e q u e s t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g s o r t : "Think of p e o p l e who have jo b s about as h i g h l y r e g a r d e d as y o u r s . Would you say t h a t most people who have j o b s w i t h about t h a t much p r e s t i g e have much h i g h e r , somewhat h i g h e r , about the same, somewhat l o w e r , or much lower incomes than you have?" ( S t a r n e s and S i n g l e t o n , 1977:257). 151 These f i n d i n g s suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s e r i o u s measurement e r r o r . By f o l l o w i n g the o b j e c t i v e approach t o measuring s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y I may have c l a s s i f i e d some respondents as s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t who themselves would c o n s i d e r t h e i r s t a t u s e s as c o n s i s t e n t , w h i l e on the o t h e r hand c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s might t h i n k of t h e i r s t a t u s e s as i n c o n s i s t e n t . T h i s means, S t e h r (1968:98; 1971:46) would su g g e s t , t h a t the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measures used here a r e p r o b a b l y i n v a l i d and t h a t t h i s may e x p l a i n why the h y p o t h e s i z e d e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not found. How p l a u s i b l e t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s cannot be d e f i n i t i v e l y answered h e r e . The d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h d i d not p e r m i t the i n c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the a n a l y s e s . I t t h e r e f o r e i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e on e m p i r i c a l grounds whether s u b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s a more adequate p r e d i c t o r of n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i s o b j e c t i v e , r e s e a r c h e r - d e f i n e d i n c o n s i s t e n c y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t the use of a s u b j e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y would have produced s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . T h i s doubt i s prompted by ano t h e r major f i n d i n g from the st u d y by S t e h r (1971). To a n a l y z e the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s he used a s u b j e c t i v e as w e l l as an o b j e c t i v e measure of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . As a l r e a d y s a i d , t h e r e was l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l c orrespondence between the two i n c o n s i s t e n c y measures. But a l s o , and t h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g , n e i t h e r proved t o be r e l a t e d t o the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n q u e s t i o n . E v i d e n t l y , 152 the k i n d of i n c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e — o b j e c t i v e or s u b j e c t i v e - - m a d e no d i f f e r e n c e t o the k i n d of r e s u l t S t e h r o b t a i n e d . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s p r o b a b l y not so much any i n v a l i d i t y of the o b j e c t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure as the e x p l a n a t o r y weakness of the concept of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i t s e l f t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the absence of s u b s t a n t i a l and s y s t e m a t i c s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . Whereas d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t the p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n between p e o p l e , the c o n s i s t e n c y or i n c o n s i s t e n c y of a person's s t a t u s e s may not be as s i g n i f i c a n t and m e a n i n g f u l an i s s u e i n the e x p e r i e n c e of s o c i a l a c t o r s as the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument a s s e r t s . Perhaps t h e r e i s t r u t h i n the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " s o c i o l o g i s t s s t u d y i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y may have imposed upon t h e i r s u b j e c t s c o n c e p t s which have l i t t l e meaning f o r them" ( S t a r n e s and S i n g l e t o n , 1977:264). The Unknown F a c t o r : E x p e r i e n c e of S t r e s s The second assumption c o n c e r n s the p r o c e s s or mechanism t h a t i n t e r v e n e s between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and i t s h y p o t h e s i z e d b e h a v i o u r a l or a t t i t u d i n a l c o r r e l a t e s . The s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument, r e g a r d l e s s of i t s s p e c i f i c f o r m u l a t i o n , i s g u i d e d by the assumption t h a t the e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s i s mediated by the e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s . In the p r e s e n t case of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h i s c e n t r a l assumption t a k e s the form of p o s t u l a t i n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s whose s t a t u s e s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t f r e q u e n t l y 153 e x p e r i e n c e d i s c o m f o r t and f r u s t r a t i o n i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , which i n t u r n l e a d s them t o withdraw from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t i s "not s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y o b j e c t i v e l y d e f i n e d but r a t h e r s t r a i n s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n s t r a i n r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s of the i n d i v i d u a l . " ( S t e h r , 1968:96. Emphasis added). However, i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s which a r e presumed t o form the l i n k between s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o u r i n the form of a r e t r e a t from s o c i a l l i f e , were not measured i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . I n s t e a d I have r e l a t e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y d i r e c t l y t o the dependent p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e b y making the u s u a l assumption t h a t the ( o b j e c t i v e ) i n c o n s i s t e n c y measure i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y an i n d i c a t o r of the i n t e r v e n i n g s t a t e — t h e e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s ( S t e h r , 1968:96). Without e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the ma t t e r we cannot be c e r t a i n t h a t r e spondents whose s t a t u s e s were d e f i n e d as i n c o n s i s t e n t do i n f a c t e x p e r i e n c e s t r e s s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . The p o i n t i s t h a t t h i s assumption too may be e r r o n e o u s , or dubious at - l e a s t . Such a c o n c l u s i o n would f i n d some su p p o r t i n the r e s u l t s from Bauman's (1968) s t u d y , one of the few a t t e m p t s t o e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y l e a d s t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . C o n t r a r y t o what he h y p o t h e s i z e d , Bauman found t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n l e s s o f t e n than d i d s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t s . Bauman suggested t h a t t h i s unexpected / 1 54 f i n d i n g c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the f a i r l y h i g h r a t e s of m o b i l i t y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t e x i s t e d i n the a r e a s from which h i s sample came. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l i e s i n the c o n t e x t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e i t i m p l i e s . To what e x t e n t and i n what way s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n f l u e n c e s i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r depends i n a g r e a t measure on the s t a t u s arrangements i n the communities i n which i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e and u l t i m a t e l y on the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system of the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e ( C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:16). I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a person whose s t a t u s e s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i l l f i n d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l and w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s e r i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n a l problems i f many o t h e r p e o p l e i n h i s s o c i a l environment have i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . As B l a l o c k (I967a:799) has remarked, L e n s k i ' s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e s i s does not e x p l i c i t l y s t i p u l a t e t h a t i t i s the r a r i t y of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y which causes i n d i v i d u a l s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t t o e x p e r i e n c e s t r e s s ; but one may j u s t l y say t h a t the assumed c o n n e c t i o n between i n c o n s i s t e n c y and s t r e s s becomes r a t h e r tenuous i f s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t u r n s out t o be a r e l a t i v e l y common and w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon (Treiman, 1966:653). S t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s c e r t a i n l y not e x c e p t i o n a l among the respondents i n our samples. In terms of a s i m p l e c o n s i s t e n t -i n c o n s i s t e n t dichotomy, 53 per c e n t of the r espondents i n P o r t A l b e r n i have i n c o n s i s t e n t ranks on the d i m e n s i o n s of e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s (see T a b l e 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , about h a l f of the men i n the Vancouver sample e x h i b i t some k i n d of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y — t h e f i g u r e v a r i e s between 46 and 58 per c e n t , depending upon the p a i r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , 1 55 or income s t a t u s (see Ta b l e 8 ) . F i f t y - t w o per cent of the employed women i n the Vancouver sample are i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s e s (Table 11). Extreme s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , of c o u r s e , c h a r a c t e r i z e s a much s m a l l e r number of res p o n d e n t s i n each group: between 3 and 8 per c e n t . These f i g u r e s p r o b a b l y a r e f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p r o p o r t i o n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t s i n the p o p u l a t i o n s from which the samples were drawn. In f a c t one s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t many a d u l t s i n Vancouver and P o r t A l b e r n i show s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y of one type or a n o t h e r . In a complex and h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i e t y as Canada i s nowadays, the system of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a t the l e v e l of the s o c i e t y and at the community l e v e l i s not v e r y r i g i d or h i g h l y c r y s t a l l i z e d . The v a r i o u s d imensions of s o c i a l rank a re o n l y l o o s e l y r e l a t e d , as i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s (between p r e s e n t ranks on two d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s d i mensions as w e l l as between p r e s e n t and p a s t ranks on the same s t a t u s dimension) o f t e n a r e moderate a t b e s t . 1 T h i s means t h a t r a t e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y i n the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and i n s p e c i f i c communities t e n d t o be f a i r l y h i g h . Moreover, these two i n d i c a t o r s of the f l e x i b i l i t y of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n systems s t a n d i n a c y c l i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r . V e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s the fr e q u e n c y of s t a t u s 1 T h i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i e s t o the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n between the socioeconomic s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n the P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver samples (see Ta b l e 22 of the A p p e n d i x ) . 1 56 i n c o n s i s t e n c y , w h i l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t e n l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y (Goffman, 1957:279-80; Hartman, 1974:719). A person whose rank p o s i t i o n s i n s e v e r a l s t a t u s h i e r a r c h i e s a t a g i v e n time a r e c o n s i s t e n t c r e a t e s an imbalance between h i s ranks when he moves up or down i n one s t a t u s h i e r a r c h y . On the o t h e r hand, a person whose s t a t u s e s a re i n c o n s i s t e n t may t r y t o a c h i e v e _ c o n s i s t e n c y by changing one of h i s s t a t u s e s , t h a t i s , by becoming s o c i a l l y m o b i l e . The l a t t e r case s u g g e s t s t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s o f t e n o n l y temporary (such as f o r the b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e whose e d u c a t i o n does not match h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and who i s working towards a u n i v e r s i t y degree) or the normal s i t u a t i o n i n c e r t a i n s t a g e s of an a d u l t ' s l i f e or c a r e e r (as i n the case of the r e s i d e n t p h y s i c i a n whose p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e l y low income w i l l i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y once he s t a r t s p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e ) . I f i t i s c o r r e c t t h a t f o r many--perhaps even m o s t - - a d u l t s t h e r e e x i s t s , a t one time or another and f o r s h o r t e r or l o n g e r p e r i o d s , an i n c o n s i s t e n c y between t h e i r v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s , then t h e r e i s a l s o good reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s seldom the p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b i n g e x p e r i e n c e i t i s a l l e g e d t o be--except perhaps when the i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s extreme and/or l a s t i n g or permanent. So, s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s may not be s e v e r e l y h i n d e r e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s or have g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e w a r d i n g p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n than s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t p e r s o n s . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t i s r e l e v a n t t o p o i n t t o another p o s s i b l y i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a t u s 157 i n c o n s i s t e n c y and the e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s . Whether s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y a c t u a l l y g e n e r a t e s c o n f l i c t and s t r e s s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s would seem t o a l s o depend, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , on how much v a l u e s o c i a l a c t o r s p l a c e upon h a v i n g s t a t u s e s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t and how much importance they a t t a c h t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e i n g e n e r a l (Broom and J o n e s , 1970:999-1000). One might f u r t h e r argue (Laumann and S e g a l , 1971) t h a t s t a t u s - m i n d e d p e r s o n s p r o b a b l y show g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the s t a t u s - l i n k e d b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s of o t h e r s and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more i n c l i n e d t o f i n d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y s t r e s s f u l than i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e l e s s concerned w i t h s t a t u s and the c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e i r v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s . I t may be t h a t i n Canadian s o c i e t y c o n c e r n w i t h such m a t t e r s i s l e s s p e r v a s i v e and l e s s p r e s s i n g than s o c i o l o g i s t s tend t o b e l i e v e . Perhaps we cannot assume t h a t s t a t u s and s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y — a t l e a s t not when i t c o n c e r n s e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and i n c o m e — h a v e g r e a t s a l i e n c e i n the e x p e r i e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n our two communities. I f t h a t i s so, then the embarrassments, h u m i l i a t i o n s , and o t h e r d i s t u r b i n g s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e presumed t o r e s u l t from such s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s may be e x a g g e r a t e d . 1 1 T h i s p o i n t has been made by Seeman (1977) f o r hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . He i s c r i t i c a l of the s t a t u s - c e n t e r e d t h e o r i z i n g i n American s o c i o l o g y and the r e l u c t a n c e of many s o c i o l o g i s t s t o abandon e s t a b l i s h e d n o t i o n s about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s t a t u s change and the c e n t r a l i t y of m o b i l i t y - m i n d e d n e s s i n contemporary American s o c i e t y , d e s p i t e the l a c k of c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t o s u s t a i n such c o n v i c t i o n s . 1 58 ' L i k e w i s e , one can have h i s doubts about o t h e r s t a t u s a ssumptions i m p l i e d i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y p r o p o s i t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , " i t i s s c a r c e l y a u n i v e r s a l law of human i n t e r a c t i o n " (Broom and J ones, 1970:1000) t h a t a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r s t o t h i n k of him- or h e r s e l f i n terms of the h i g h e r s t a t u s w h i l e o t h e r s have a tendency t o t r e a t him or her i n terms of the l o w e s t s t a t u s . I t may be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t s o c i a l a c t o r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a f a v o u r a b l e i d e n t i t y ; i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t they w i l l i n a l l i n t e r a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n s t r y t o g a i n a c c e p t a n c e i n terms of t h e i r h i g h e s t s o c i a l rank and t h a t they always w i l l r e a c t t o a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l on the b a s i s of h i s l o w e s t rank. T h i s would r e q u i r e the a d d i t i o n a l a ssumption t h a t p e o p l e have a d e s i r e f o r h i g h s t a t u s as a f i r s t -o r d e r p r i o r i t y , r a n k i n g above a l l t h e i r o t h e r g o a l s (Box and F o r d , 1969:192), an assumption which i s o b v i o u s l y u n r e a l i s t i c . For t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e n , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s run a c o n s t a n t r i s k of b e i n g r e b u f f e d , embarrassed, a f f r o n t e d , and f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . W i t h d r a w a l Only as a L a s t R e s o r t But even i f a p e rson's s t a t u s e s are c o r r e c t l y d e f i n e d as i n c o n s i s t e n t , and even i f such a person does e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s and d i s c o m f o r t as a r e s u l t of the i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he or she does not respond t o the e x p e r i e n c e d s t r e s s i n the supposed manner, namely by 159 w i t h d r a w i n g or s h y i n g away from c e r t a i n forms of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The reason i s t h a t t h e r e a re o t h e r ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s can a v o i d or reduce the s t r e s s e s and c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r e assumed t o f o l l o w from h a v i n g i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . I t has been noted by L e n s k i h i m s e l f (1954:412; I956b:460) and by o t h e r s ( e . g . , Goffman, 1957; Geschwender, 1967; Hyman, 1967) t h a t w i t h d r a w a l i n t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i s a r a t h e r d r a s t i c r e a c t i o n t o the s t r e s s f u l consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , i n t h a t i t s e v e r s the person's t i e s w i t h the community. But as Geschwender (1967:169) has argued, a t t e m p t s t o a v o i d or d i m i n i s h s t r e s s w i l l move from the s i m p l e t o the complex, from the m i l d t o the extreme. I t f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t w i t d r a w a l from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o oc c u r o n l y when, o t h e r , l e s s d r a s t i c modes of a v o i d i n g or r e d u c i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y - i n d u c e d s t r e s s a r e not p o s s i b l e or d i d not have the d e s i r e d e f f e c t . Among t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r e s s - a v o i d i n g and s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g mechanisms i s v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y . I n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s as a r e s u l t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y may attempt t o a c h i e v e c o n s i s t e n c y among t h e i r s t a t u s e s , and th e r e b y e l i m i n a t e the source of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , by r a i s i n g the lower s t a t u s t o the l e v e l of the h i g h e r s t a t u s when o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y e x i s t ( M a l e w s k i , 1966:305-6). U n l i k e a s c r i b e d s t a t u s ( e . g . , r a c e , e t h n i c i t y , s e x ) , a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s such as e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income can be changed. T h i s means t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t ranks on v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s of a c h i e v e d s t a t u s can o f t e n be brought i n t o l i n e w i t h each o t h e r through s t a t u s 160 change, t h a t i s t o say, t h rough i n d i v i d u a l v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y . T h i s method of r e d u c i n g s t r e s s i s u s u a l l y not p o s s i b l e , however, when the i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s between a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s o n l y and i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n v o l v i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n of low a s c r i b e d s t a t u s and h i g h a c h i e v e d s t a t u s . A l t h o u g h m o b i l i t y may be an e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y t o reduce s t r e s s r e s u l t i n g from i n c o n s i s t e n c y among a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s , i t u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s a l o n g p e r i o d of time and c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t . However, the c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e i n modern s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r o p t i o n s which a l l o w them t o get around the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n c y more q u i c k l y and w i t h g r e a t e r ease. I t has been suggested t h a t the h i g h degree of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and the f r e q u e n c y of s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y i n modern s o c i e t y e n a b l e people t o c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e the s e p a r a t e a r e a s of t h e i r s o c i a l l i v e s , make i t easy f o r them t o s e g r e g a t e t h e i r a u d i e n c e s , and a l l o w them c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g " b i o g r a p h i e s " t o s u i t the v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i n which they f i n d t h e m s e l v e s . Under those c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s l i k e l y t o e l i c i t r esponses i n the form of r e d e f i n i n g the meaning and s a l i e n c e of c e r t a i n s t a t u s e s , c o n c e a l i n g low s t a t u s ( e s ) , • p l a y i n g d i f f e r e n t r o l e s based on d i f f e r e n t s j t a t u s e s , and even a d o p t i n g a new s e l f - i m a g e (Box and F o r d , 1969:193-4; Goffman, 1967:280-1; Treiman, 1966:653; Hyman, 1967:395). These avenues f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s e s produced by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y would be e a s i e r t o f o l l o w and would have b e t t e r chances of s u c c e s s , once a g a i n , i n the case of a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s 161 than w i t h more v i s i b l e , a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s . 1 In s h o r t , a n o ther e x p l a n a t i o n why s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y was found t o have no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be t h a t p e o p l e w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s g e n e r a l l y manage t o s i d e s t e p or a l l e v i a t e the s t r e s s f u l consequences of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y by means o t h e r than w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Such a d r a s t i c and noncoping r e a c t i o n t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i l l most p r o b a b l y be shown o n l y by those s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l s who f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s have not succeeded i n a v o i d i n g or d i m i n i s h i n g s t r e s s by s i m p l e r and more measured responses and who have r e s i g n e d t hemselves t o i t t h a t they a r e unable t o change the c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s the cause of t h e i r u n p l e a s a n t s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . S i n c e by t h i s l i n e of r e a s o n i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s u l t s i n w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l l i f e o n l y i n a l i m i t e d number of c a s e s , one s h o u l d perhaps not expect t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o show up v e r y c l e a r l y i n d a t a from broad samples such as those used f o r the a n a l y s e s h e r e . 1 That i t i s e a s i e r t o a v o i d or reduce s t r e s s when the i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s between a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s than when an a s c r i b e d s t a t u s and an a c h i e v e d s t a t u s a r e i n v o l v e d may be a reason why a s c r i b e d - a c h i e v e d s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s have more o f t e n been found t o have e f f e c t s ( e . g . , J a c k s o n , 1962; Broom and Jones, 1970). T h i s u n d e r l i n e s K e n k e l ' s (1956) comment t h a t one s h o u l d not expect s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s t o occur i r r e s p e c t i v e of the n a t u r e of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . I t f u r t h e r i m p l i e s t h a t the use of o n l y a c h i e v e d s t a t u s e s may have reduced the chances of f i n d i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . 1 62 The upshot of the remarks made here and i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s i s t h i s . Perhaps i t i s t r u e t h a t i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s s t r e s s f u l and l e a d s t o w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s . But t o make a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y more p r e c i s e l y the c o n d i t i o n s under which a d i f f e r e n c e i n rank p o s i t i o n s on s e v e r a l s t a t u s d imensions i s p e r c e i v e d as i n c o n s i s t e n c y , t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s u l t s i n the e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s , and the v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s s t r e s s a re l i k e l y t o be a c t i v a t e d . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l R e t r o s p e c t i o n A n a l y s i s Model A p p r o p r i a t e ? No o t h e r a s p e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h has evoked as much c o n t r o v e r s y as i t s methodology. Indeed, the c r i t i c i s m s on t h i s p o i n t o f t e n a r e so fundamental and the problems r a i s e d t h e r e i n so d i f f i c u l t t o r e s o l v e t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r cannot but wonder whether the r e s u l t s of h i s or her i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e perhaps a f f e c t e d t o an u n a c c e p t a b l e degree by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s . As noted above, the d e f i n i t i o n and measurement of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y have f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n the d i s p u t e . But the l o g i c and method of a n a l y z i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y d a t a have even more o f t e n been the f o c u s of c r i t i c i s m . In Chapter 3 the s e c r i t i c i s m s were reviewed a t some l e n g t h , from M i t c h e l l ' s (1964) 163 exposure of the inadequate c o n t r o l f o r s t a t u s e f f e c t s i n o l d e r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y s t u d i e s , t o Hope's (1975, 1978) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d p r o c e d u r e s t o i s o l a t e and i d e n t i f y i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s have put s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h on the wrong t r a c k . In p a r t i c u l a r , a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s b u i l t around the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model (Duncan, 1964, 1966) and the l i n e a r a d d i t i v e model ( B l a l o c k , 1966, 1967a; L e n s k i , 1964) were c r i t i c i z e d by Hope on the grounds t h a t t h e s e models m i s r e p r e s e n t L e n s k i ' s o r i g i n a l s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y f o r m u l a t i o n and a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e as ways of t e s t i n g f o r the e x i s t e n c e of i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s . That most e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s e s i n which t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s were used have found s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t o have o n l y n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t s or no e f f e c t a t a l l on the b e h a v i o u r or a t t i t u d e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e b e s i d e the p o i n t . The c r u c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t i f Hope's c r i t i c i s m i s j u s t i f i e d , my n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s about any e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y on p a r t i c i p a t i o n might a t l e a s t p a r t l y be due t o the c h o i c e of an u n s u i t e d a n a l y t i c a l d e s i g n , namely the square-a d d i t i v e model. I n s t e a d of the. s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model Hope (1975) proposed the " d i a m o n d - a d d i t i v e " model, which i n h i s view does a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t L e n s k i ' s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y and can be used t o t e s t i t . The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s model i s e x p r e s s e d i n a diamond-shaped t a b l e , which r e s u l t s from the 45-degree r o t a t i o n of the c o n v e n t i o n a l square i n c o n s i s t e n c y t a b l e . The c e l l e n t r i e s i n the body of the diamond t a b l e a r e the same as i n the square t a b l e , but the meaning of the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l a x e s - - t h e 1 64 rows and c o l u m n s — i s d i f f e r e n t . In the square each a x i s i s a s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n and the row means and column means show the e f f e c t s of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s on the dependent v a r i a b l e . The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i n the i n c o n s i s t e n c y diamond on the c o n t r a r y i s a d i m e n s i o n of g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t a t u s (the sum of the s e p a r a t e s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ) . T h e r e f o r e , the column means show the e f f e c t s of o v e r a l l s t a t u s . The v e r t i c a l d i m e n s i o n i s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y (the d i f f e r e n c e between the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ) and the row means show the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t degrees and d i r e c t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . What makes Hope's approach t o a n a l y z i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y (and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ) d a t a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the L e n s k i - B l a l o c k and Duncan p r o c e d u r e s i s t h a t i t s t a r t s w i t h a s i n g l e dimension of g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t a t u s r a t h e r than w i t h s e p a r a t e s p e c i f i c s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s which a r e assumed t o a f f e c t the dependent v a r i a b l e i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r . The s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e q u a t i o n i n Hope's model i n c l u d e s a term f o r the sum of the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s as the g e n e r a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n p l u s a term f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s as the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y d i m e n s i o n . I f t h i s e q u a t i o n e x p l a i n s c o n s i d e r a b l y more of the v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e than the e q u a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of o n l y the g e n e r a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , then a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t has been demonstrated. House (1978) has p a r r i e d Hope's a t t a c k on the square-a d d i t i v e and l i n e a r a d d i t i v e models w i t h a c r i t i q u e of the method of a n a l y s i s proposed by Hope. I t has two major f l a w s , 165 a c c o r d i n g t o House. F i r s t , the d i a m o n d - a d d i t i v e model y i e l d s e v i d e n c e of an i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t whenever the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s have unequal e f f e c t s on the dependent v a r i a b l e . 1 T h i s r e d e f i n i t i o n of a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t as a s i m p l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t s of two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s i s c o m p l e t e l y out of s t e p w i t h the sense i n which the term i s now commonly un d e r s t o o d and used by s o c i o l o g i s t s , namely as s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , as a d i f f e r e n c e between d i f f e r e n c e s ) . B e s i d e s , i t makes i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s so commonplace t h a t they are t r i v i a l ; almost a l l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s have somewhat d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s on a g i v e n dependent v a r i a b l e . Thus, almost every a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s a f f e c t e d by v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of s t a t u s would a l s o be a f f e c t e d by s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , Hope's diamond model i s not u s e f u l f o r the a n a l y s i s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s , and h i s c r i t i c i s m s of the c o n v e n t i o n a l a d d i t i v e models do not c h a l l e n g e the n e g a t i v e e v i d e n c e o b t a i n e d i n a n a l y s e s i n which these models were a p p l i e d . House and Hope agre e , however, t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the square and diamond models i s not so much s t a t i s t i c a l as c o n c e p t u a l . In f a c t , the b a s i c i s s u e i n the c o n t r o v e r s y i s how s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d . 1 House (1978:441) has shown t h a t the u n s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e q u a t i o n [Y = B 1(X-]+X2) + B 2 ( X 1 - X 2 ) ] i n Hope's system can be d e r i v e d from those i n the b a s i c • a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s e q u a t i o n (Y = b-i X i + b 2 X 2 ) i n the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model. For example, i t can be shown t h a t B^ = (b>|-b2)/2. 166 That i s a l s o apparent from what House r e g a r d s as the second major f l a w i n Hope's diamond model: the assumption of a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n of g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t a t u s . To c o n t r o l d i f f e r e n c e s i n v e r t i c a l s t a t u s when a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y means, i n Hope's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h a t one s h o u l d c o n t r o l d i f f e r e n c e s i n rank on t h i s g e n e r a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n . House p o i n t s out t h a t composite d i m e n s i o n s of g e n e r a l s t a t u s appear t o have l o s t t h e i r e m p i r i c a l u t i l i t y . E v i d e n c e of r e c e n t s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n r e s e a r c h c e r t a i n l y does not s u pport the n o t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e g e n e r a l s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n forms the b a s i s of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system of s o c i e t y , a t l e a s t not of contemporary s o c i e t i e s i n N o r t h America. For example, C u r t i s and J a c k s o n (1977:315) c o n c l u d e d from t h e i r s tudy t h a t " b e h a v i o r i s not shaped by p o s i t i o n on some g e n e r a l d i m e n s i o n of rank ... . I n t h e i r e f f e c t s on v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r , the rank d i m e n s i o n s seem t o a c t s e p a r a t e l y and not v i a some g e n e r a l d i m e n s i o n . " (See a l s o Hodge,' 1970; Hodge and S i e g e l , l 9 7 0 ; C u r t i s and S c o t t , 1979:12-4). Would the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have been d i f f e r e n t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r i s i t l i k e l y t h a t n o n t r i v i a l and i n t e r p r e t a b l e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s would have been found, i f the a n a l y s e s had f o l l o w e d the method proposed by Hope? Hope's c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s about the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model have u n d e n i a b l y demonstrated t h a t t h e r e a r e s h o r t c o m i n g s i n the type of a n a l y s i s performed h e r e . A l s o , h i s d i f f e r e n t but i m a g i n a t i v e approach t o a n a l y z i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c y (and m o b i l i t y ) d a t a and h i s c a l l t o put t h e o r y b e f o r e a n a l y s i s must be taken / 167 s e r i o u s l y . But i t i s not i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s t h a t the diamond-a d d i t i v e model i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o t e s t f o r the presence of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s than i s the s q u a r e - a d d i t i v e model. A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s i n which both these models a r e a p p l i e d t o the same s e t of d a t a would p r o b a b l y go a l o n g way t o answer the above q u e s t i o n . 1 T h i s much i s c l e a r , however. The matter w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o s e t t l e because u l t i m a t e l y the p o i n t a t i s s u e , as noted above, i s how s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y s h o u l d be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . I t i s i n t h i s a r e a above a l l t h a t f u r t h e r work i s needed, by c l a r i f y i n g the b a s i c c o n c e p t s and by s p e c i f y i n g the n a t u r e of the a d d i t i v e and n o n a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s as w e l l as the c o n d i t i o n s under which they can be ex p e c t e d t o o c c u r . The Problem of M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y I t i s no doubt c o r r e c t t h a t the a n a l y t i c a l s t r a t e g y f o l l o w e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s by d e s i g n a r a t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s (Hope, 1975, 1978; House, 1978). P i t t i n g the n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model a g a i n s t the s i m p l e r model of o n l y a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s the a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y p l a c e s the burden of pro o f on the former. T h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m , however, may have been u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y augmented by a f r e q u e n t and p o t e n t i a l l y troublesome concomitant of 1 ' In t h i s c o n t e x t i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Hope's diamond model has not found wide a p p l i c a t i o n i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h , or a t l e a s t the r e s u l t s of any s t u d i e s i n which d a t a were a n a l y z e d w i t h the diamond model have not y e t found t h e i r way i n t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s . 168 m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s : i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the independent v a r i a b l e s , or m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y . When two or more p r e d i c t o r s i n a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , the s t a n d a r d e r r o r s of the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l be q u i t e l a r g e and e s t i m a t e s of the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l be u n s t a b l e , v a r y i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y from one sample or from one independent r e p l i c a t i o n t o the n e x t . The h i g h e r the degree of m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y the more s u s c e p t i b l e t o the e f f e c t s of s a m p l i n g e r r o r and the l e s s r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e s of the c o e f f i c i e n t s become. 1 T h i s can e a s i l y cause m i s l e a d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f on the b a s i s of the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s one a t t e m p t s t o make i n f e r e n c e s about the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i o u s independent v a r i a b l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a g i v e n dependent v a r i a b l e (see B l a l o c k , 1963). I t has been argued ( A l t h a u s e r , 1971; Broom and Jones, 1970) t h a t m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i s apt t o be a problem i n a n a l y s e s i n v o l v i n g a n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n which c o n t a i n s i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s i n a d d i t i o n t o the s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e s from which they a r e c o n s t r u c t e d . R e g r e s s i o n models of t h i s k i n d a re f r e q u e n t l y used i n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h . When the e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n between v a r i a b l e s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a p r o d u c t term, the c o r r e l a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e w i t h 1 In the extreme c a s e , when the independent v a r i a b l e s a r e p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d , the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s cannot be i d e n t i f i e d u n i q u e l y . M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y , as B l a l o c k (1963:264) has p o i n t e d o u t , i s t h e r e f o r e a s p e c i a l case of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem, mentioned e a r l i e r i n Chapter 3. 169 the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s w i l l u s u a l l y not be z e r o , may . i n f a c t be s u b s t a n t i a l . These i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the independent v a r i a b l e s i n the n o n a d d i t i v e e q u a t i o n have as r e s u l t t h a t the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e tends t o be d e p r e s s e d r e l a t i v e t o the e s t i m a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s . I t - was not the purpose of the a n a l y s e s i n t h i s study t o a s s e s s the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . T h e r e f o r e , i f the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y would be s m a l l e r than o t h e r w i s e due t o m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y , t h i s i n i t s e l f need not pose a s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n problem. However, what happens t o t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e x p l a n a t o r y power of the n o n a d d i t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of the a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s model, based on a comparison of the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e s t h a t each of the competing models i s a b l e t o e x p l a i n . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t R i s a f u n c t i o n of the p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ; d e p r e s s i o n of the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n ( i . e . s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y ) v a r i a b l e l i m i t s the i n c r e a s e i n R 2 t h a t can be a c h i e v e d by a d d i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e t o the two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a l r e a d y i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . As Gordon e x p l a i n s , the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s o n l y a t r i v i a l amount w i t h each new v a r i a b l e , r e f l e c t i n g the f a c t t h a t l i t t l e new i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g added; t h a t the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n cannot d e c r e a s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the common p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e i s c o n s e r v e d , a l t h o u g h i t 1 70 does get spread out over more and more r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , each becoming s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r as new redundant v a r i a b l e s a re f e d i n t o the problem. (Gordon, 1968:595). In o t h e r words, i f the independent s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s i n the n o n a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s s i o n e q u a t i o n s a r e h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , t h i s may be a reason why the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y model e x p l a i n s o n l y l i t t l e more v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n than the model of a d d i t i v e s t a t u s e f f e c t s . How much m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i s t h e r e i n our r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s ? For one t h i n g , the t r i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , but t h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d s i n c e they a l l r e p r e s e n t d i m e n s i o n s of socioeconomic s t a t u s . On the o t h e r hand, a s s o c i a t i o n s between e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income are o n l y m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g , w i t h v a l u e s of K e n d a l l ' s Tau b r a n g i n g between +.32 and +.47 (see T a b l e 22 i n the A p p e n d i x ) . T h i s t o o i s as i t s h o u l d be g i v e n the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r a t e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver samples. (As noted e a r l i e r , h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s would p o i n t t o a f a i r l y r i g i d s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system, w i t h l i t t l e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y ) . However, the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , and the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s as w e l l , were e n t e r e d i n the form of dummy v a r i a b l e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s and i t are the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the s e dichotomous independent v a r i a b l e s w i t h v a l u e s of 1 and 0 t h a t a c t u a l l y d etermine t o what ''extent m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i s a problem i n these a n a l y s e s . The r e l e v a n t d a t a a re g i v e n i n the Appendix t a b l e s 23 up t o 27 i n c l u s i v e , which c o n t a i n the 171 z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r the v a r i o u s r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 4. There a r e t h r e e d i s t i n c t s e t s of c o r r e l a t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t , the c o r r e l a t i o n between two dummy v a r i a b l e s which t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s or s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e ; f o r example, the c o r r e l a t i o n between medium and h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s o r between moderate and sh a r p s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . These c o r r e l a t i o n s were n e g a t i v e . T h i s cannot be o t h e r w i s e because the s e t of dummy v a r i a b l e s c r e a t e d from a t r i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s or s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . Membership i n a g i v e n o r d e r e d c a t e g o r y of the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e , say h i g h e d u c a t i o n , n e c e s s a r i l y means nonmembership i n any o t h e r c a t e g o r y (medium or low e d u c a t i o n , but the dummy f o r the low c a t e g o r y of each v a r i a b l e i s o m i t t e d ) (Cohen, 1968:429). The s t r e n g t h of the c o r r e l a t i o n between such (1,0) d i c h o t o m i e s depends upon the s i z e of each membership group (the c a t e g o r y w i t h v a l u e 1) and the t o t a l sample s i z e . 1 In our a n a l y s e s t w o - t h i r d s of thes e c o r r e l a t i o n s were low (< .30) t o moderate (< .50) and the remainder s u b s t a n t i a l (> .50). 1 The product-moment r ( i . e . , the p h i c o e f f i c i e n t ) between two b i n a r y - c o d e d (1,0) dummy v a r i a b l e s Xj_ and Xj i s rfj = - V ni nj /[ (n-n L ) (n-nj )] where nj. and nj a r e the number of cas e s i n the "1" c a t e g o r y of each dummy v a r i a b l e and n i s the t o t a l sample s i z e (Cohen, 1968:429). 1 72 Second, the c o r r e l a t i o n between two dummy v a r i a b l e s , each of which r e p r e s e n t s a c a t e g o r y or l e v e l of a d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s v a r i a b l e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s and medium o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . These c o r r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y low, a l t h o u g h the h i g h s t a t u s l e v e l s were m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d . T h i r d , the c o r r e l a t i o n between two dummy v a r i a b l e s , one of which r e p r e s e n t s the degree of i n c o n s i s t e n c y between rank l e v e l s on two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and one of which r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l on e i t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e ; f o r example, between h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and sharp e d u c a t i o n - o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . With a few e x c e p t i o n s c o r r e l a t i o n s between dummy s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and the dummy v a r i a b l e s f o r moderate and sharp s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were not s t r o n g . Nor i s t h e r e any p a r t i c u l a r reason why they s h o u l d be. I t i s i n a c c u r a t e t o a s s e r t t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e s a r e "by d e f i n i t i o n " i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and t h a t the problem of m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i s " b u i l t i n t o " s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s e a r c h (Broom and Jon e s , 1970:995, 999). T h i s may be c o r r e c t when the i n t e r a c t i o n v a r i a b l e f o r s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s the pro d u c t of two or more s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ; but when the v a r i a b l e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n dummy-variable form, i t i s an e m p i r i c a l , not a d e f i n i t i o n a l m a tter whether and t o what e x t e n t the s t a t u s and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y v a r i a b l e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d . In our r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s t h e s e independent v a r i a b l e s a r e m o s t l y weakly, sometimes m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d . Moreover, i t i s p r e c i s e l y the advantage of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h a t i t i s a b l e t o handle such i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the independent v a r i a b l e s . * 173 C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the dummy independent v a r i a b l e s were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d we s h o u l d not be unduly concerned about m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y - c a u s e d d i s t o r t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s of the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n so f a r in c r e m e n t s i n R 2 are c o n c e r n e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o bear i n mind when a s s e s s i n g the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 4 t h a t even l e s s e r degrees of m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s have been shown t o cause problems, which a re not always r e c o g n i z a b l e by l a r g e s t a n d a r d e r r o r s and/or s u b s t a n t i v e l y u n l i k e l y r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (see B l a l o c k , 1963; Gordon, 1968; A l t h a u s e r , 1971). The E f f e c t s of Socioeconomic S t a t u s on P a r t i c i p a t i o n A major c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study i s t h a t we need not p o s i t n o n a d d i t i v e models of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e f f e c t s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n among c a t e g o r i e s of p e o p l e w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n s . R e j e c t i o n of a s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y e x p l a n a t i o n as unnecessary _ i m p l i e s t h a t , u n t i l t h e r e i s p r o o f t o the c o n t r a r y , an a d d i t i v e model i s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . That i s t o say, the e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and income s t a t u s a r e g e n e r a l l y independent of each o t h e r . However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n must be q u a l i f i e d i m m e d i a t e l y . A l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between socioeconomic s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be most s i m p l y and p a r s i m o n i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t e d by an a d d i t i v e model, i t i s a l s o 174 c l e a r t h a t the e x p l a n a t o r y power of such models i s not e x a c t l y overwhelming. As we have seen i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , the f i v e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s i n which number of memberships was r e g r e s s e d on two s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a t a time y i e l d e d R 2 v a l u e s r a n g i n g from .135 t o .293 (see T a b l e s 3, 6, and 9 ) . With the a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e - h o l d i n g we o b t a i n e d R 2 , s t h a t were even c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r : between .036 and .069 (see T a b l e s 12, 15, and 18). These v a l u e s a r e w i t h i n the range of the p r o p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t s o c i a l s t a t u s i s u s u a l l y found t o be c a p a b l e of e x p l a i n i n g . 1 They do mean, however, t h a t more than 70 per cen t of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n memberships and upwards of 93 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g remained u n e x p l a i n e d by the a d d i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . 1 I t i s worth m e n t i o n i n g t h a t the R 2 v a l u e s found here f o r memberships and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e almost the same as those r e p o r t e d by C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s i n c l u d e d a l a r g e r number of s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s . U s i n g d a t a f o r a d u l t male household-heads from s i x d i f f e r e n t American c i t i e s t h ey found t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n the number of memberships t h a t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by r e g r e s s i n g t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e on 17 s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s — i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and i n c o m e - - v a r i e d between .25 and .39. The 17 v a r i a b l e s a d d i t i v e l y a ccounted f o r between 10 and 17 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n o f f i c e - h o l d i n g ( C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977:132; c h a p t e r 8 ) . Another study of which the f i n d i n g s on t h i s p o i n t a r e p a r a l l e l l e d by the f i n d i n g s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s Hodge's. In an a n a l y s i s based on d a t a from a sample of r e s i d e n t s of a suburban county a d j a c e n t t o Washington, D.C., Hodge (1970:190) found t h a t f o u r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s ( e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , income, f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ) a c c o u n t e d f o r about 15 per cent of the v a r i a n c e i n the number of memberships of both men and women (see a l s o Hodge and Treiman, 1968). 175 T h i s r a t h e r modest performance of e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n and income i n e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can no doubt be a s c r i b e d i n p a r t t o f l a w s i n the measurement of th e s e v a r i a b l e s . S t i l l a p a r t from random e r r o r s , the measures of the t h r e e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y c r u d e , w h i l e i n a d d i t i o n , the c h o i c e of the c u t t i n g p o i n t s f o r h i g h , medium, and low s t a t u s on each d i m e n s i o n i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y . As f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n measures, the membership v a r i a b l e was skewed and the o f f i c e -h o l d i n g v a r i a b l e was t r e a t e d as a dichotomy; w i t h t h i s k i n d of dependent v a r i a b l e s the l e v e l of e x p l a n a t i o n p o s s i b l e a l s o i s l i k e l y t o be reduced. F u r t h e r , the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of u n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e a l s o r e f l e c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a f f e c t e d by many o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income which we're not measured' and were not e x p l i c i t l y e n t e r e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . They i n c l u d e o t h e r s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as n o n s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . Some of t h e s e o m i t t e d f a c t o r s a r e known t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n (see Chapter 2) but were l e f t out of t h e s e a n a l y s e s because they were not i m m e d i a t e l y r e l e v a n t t o the purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . O t h e r s may be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n but are not known. But the most i n t e r e s t i n g reason why the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a d d i t i v e l y e x p l a i n e d o n l y modest p o r t i o n s of v a r i a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i t s e l f . C u r t i s and J a c k s o n (1977:15-6) have argued t h a t when r a t e s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y or a g i v e n community are h i g h , as i n d i c a t e d by low t o moderate 176 c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s , the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l s t a t u s on i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s w i l l be weakened. S t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s become t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h v a r i o u s mechanisms: f e l t d e p r i v a t i o n or s a t i s f a c t i o n , s t a t u s - r e l a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s , p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s of the same s t a t u s . But when s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y , so t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of s t a t u s r i g i d i t y , t hese mechanisms f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t u s e f f e c t s i n t o b e h a v i o u r w i l l not work as c l e a n l y . For i n s t a n c e , someone low on a g i v e n s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n may f e e l l e s s d e p r i v e d i f he or she i s compensated by h i g h s t a t u s on a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i g h rank i n one r e s p e c t i s perhaps reduced by low rank i n a n o t h e r . F i n a l l y , the w i d e l y r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between socioeconomic s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the d a t a a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , or income s t a t u s belonged t o more v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and were more f r e q u e n t l y o f f i c e - h o l d e r s than p e r s o n s w i t h low rank on any of these s t a t u s d imensions (see T a b l e 21 i n the A p p e n d i x ) . The p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between a c h i e v e d s o c i o e c o n o m ic s t a t u s and f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of r e s o u r c e s and m o t i v e s . J o i n i n g a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and h o l d i n g o f f i c e r e q u i r e the a b i l i t y t o communicate and e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y , a c c e s s t o s o c i a l c o n t a c t n etworks, f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and a r e m o t i v a t e d by norms and v a l u e s about s o c i a l 177 i n t e r a c t i o n , p r e s s u r e s from work o r g a n i z a t i o n and the community, and o t h e r s o c i a l ( s t a t u s - r e l a t e d ) e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t can be argued t h a t h i g h rank on the di m e n s i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income s t a t u s p r o v i d e s more of these r e s o u r c e s and s k i l l s and i n c u l c a t e s such m o t i v a t i o n t o a g r e a t e r degree than low s o c i a l s t a t u s ( C u r t i s and J a c k s o n , 1977: c h a p t e r 8 ) . In summary, the e f f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and income s t a t u s on membership and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a d d i t i v e , p o s i t i v e , and m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g . What t h i s p a t t e r n of e f f e c t s , combined w i t h o n l y moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s , i m p l i e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r ough the communities can be argued a l o n g the l i n e s suggested by C u r t i s and J a c k s o n (1977:327-9). That the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s a l l had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t means t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h i g h on a l l t h r e e s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e more i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p y i n g a l l low rank p o s i t i o n s . But i t i s u n l i k e l y , g i v e n the o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t the communities are s h a r p l y d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n socioeconomic s t a t u s i n t o an a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g camp and a n o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g camp. F i r s t of a l l , e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income had o n l y moderate e f f e c t s on membership and o f f i c e - h o l d i n g , e x p l a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amounts of v a r i a n c e i n the s e v a r i a b l e s . People h o l d i n g h i g h rank on a g i v e n s t a t u s d i m e n s i o n were not markedly d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n from p e o p l e low on t h a t d i m e n s i o n . 1 78 F u r t h e r , because the e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were a d d i t i v e , low rank i n one r e s p e c t may be compensated by h i g h rank i n a n o t h e r . A d d i t i v i t y i m p l i e s t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l of someone w i t h low rank on one dimension of socioeconomic s t a t u s but h i g h rank on a n o t h e r dimension w i l l be somewhere between the p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l of persons w i t h low s t a t u s on b o t h d i m e n s i o n s and t h a t of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h s t a t u s on both d i m e n s i o n s . F i n a l l y , g i v e n t h a t the s t a t u s d imensions were not s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , many people i n f a c t do combine low s t a t u s on one dimension w i t h h i g h ( e r ) s t a t u s on another d i m e n s i o n , t h a t i s , they have i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e a re l a r g e numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s who e x h i b i t s i m i l a r , moderate l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e n , one may expect p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o be s p r e a d g r a d u a l l y t h r o u g h o u t the communities, w i t h o u t sharp d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by socioeconomic s t a t u s . C o n d i t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A C o n c l u d i n g Note So f a r as t h i s study has been a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e , s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s not a s e r i o u s h i n d r a n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s i n i t s e l f i s a u s e f u l p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n but i t does not s u b s t a n t i a l l y enhance our knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s o c i a l f a c t o r s t h a t do hamper or f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . To say t h a t more work needs t o be done 179 i n t h i s a r e a i s both a c l i c h e and a t r u i s m . B e s i d e s t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y as y e t unknown d e t e r m i n a n t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n we s h o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h r e e x a m i n i n g and r e t e s t i n g a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s on the c o n d i t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t among the l a t t e r a r e a p a i r of arguments which s t a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s u n f a v o u r a b l y a f f e c t e d by d i s o r d e r l i n e s s of work h i s t o r y ( W i l e n s k y , 1961) and p a s t unemployment (Pope, 1964). They a r e r e l e v a n t i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t because they resemble i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s the argument l i n k i n g low l e v e l s of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Guided by the view t h a t the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y the i n t e g r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n community and s o c i e t y , are p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n of c u m u l a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n the economic o r d e r , W i l e n s k y (1961) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d e r l i n e s s of work h i s t o r y and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y most a d u l t s more or l e s s f r e q u e n t l y change j o b s , o c c u p a t i o n s , employers, and i n d u s t r i e s d u r i n g t h e i r w o r k l i f e . The sequence of j o b s o c c u p i e d over time c o n s t i t u t e s a p e rson's work h i s t o r y . The work h i s t o r y i s o r d e r l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t f i t s the model of " c a r e e r " , t h a t i s , "a s u c c e s s i o n of r e l a t e d j o b s a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h y of p r e s t i g e , t h r o u g h which persons move i n an o r d e r e d (more-or-l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e ) sequence" ( W i l e n s k y , 1961:523). An o r d e r l y c a r e e r , a c c o r d i n g t o W i l e n s k y , f o s t e r s s t r o n g work a t t a c h m e n t s , g i v e s s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y t o a person's w o r k l i f e , and l e a d s t o the development of a " l i f e p l a n " . These 180 q u a l i t i e s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b i n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o community and s o c i e t y and t h i s bond w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n wide s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For the same r e a s o n s , but then the o t h e r way round, a d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r y i n which s u c c e s s i v e j o b s or o c c u p a t i o n s a r e n e i t h e r f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d nor h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r d e r e d i s accompanied by a g r a d u a l d e c l i n e i n the v i t a l i t y of a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l l i f e . W i l e n s k y suggested t h a t workers whose work h i s t o r y i s o r d e r l y p a r t i c i p a t e more i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than workers w i t h d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r i e s , a h y p o t h e s i s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d by h i s d a t a . An o b v i o u s source of d i s o r d e r l i n e s s of the work h i s t o r y i s unemployment. I t i s w e l l known t h a t b e i n g out of a j o b i n t e r f e r e s w i t h an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e . But what about any l o n g -term consequences? Do the s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s of unemployment perhaps cumulate? These a r e q u e s t i o n s Pope (1964) asked; i n p a r t i c u l a r , he t r i e d t o determine whether the e x p e r i e n c e of r e c u r r e n t or extended unemployment i n the p a s t l e a v e s permanent marks and c o n t i n u e s t o have an ad v e r s e e f f e c t on the i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of workers l o n g a f t e r t h e i r r e -employment. Pope's argument, s i m i l a r t o W i l e n s k y ' s , i s t h a t a s t a b l e j o b , or a_t l e a s t j o b changes under c o n t r o l of the worker, p r o v i d e s c o n t i n u i t y and s e c u r i t y i n one's l i f e . T h i s a l l o w s the worker t o d e v e l o p a long-range p e r s p e c t i v e and broader i n t e r e s t s , which s t i m u l a t e wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the community. Unemployment, on the o t h e r hand, i s an u n s e t t l i n g e x p e r i e n c e , accompanied by l o s s of f i n a n c i a l 181 r e s o u r c e s and p r e s t i g e and perhaps even by f e e l i n g s of shame. The embarrassments i n consequence of t h e i r j o b l e s s n e s s may l e a d unemployed p e r s o n s t o r e t r e a t from s o c i a l l i f e . A v i c i o u s c i r c l e d e v e l o p s of d e c l i n i n g m o t i v a t i o n t o seek c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s , d w i n d l i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s and i n c r e a s i n g u n e a s i n e s s i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , f u r t h e r i s o l a t i o n , and so on. The more f r e q u e n t and p r o l o n g e d the p e r i o d s of unemployment or temporary l a y - o f f , the more l a s t i n g the consequences of reduced m o t i v a t i o n t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and of weakened c o n f i d e n c e i n one's a b i l i t y t o conduct s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . Pope h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t workers who i n the p a s t underwent l o n g or r e p e a t e d p e r i o d s of j o b l e s s n e s s have, even a f t e r r e g a i n i n g employment, lower l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s than workers who have enjoy e d steady employment throughout t h e i r w o r k l i v e s . The r e s u l t s of Pope's study showed a moderate, n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between c u m u l a t i v e economic d e p r i v a t i o n ( t h r o u g h i n v o l u n t a r y l o s s of work) and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These summaries, however b r i e f they may be, s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o b r i n g the main p o i n t t o the f o r e : t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o i n t s of s i m i l a r i t y between the d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r y and economic d e p r i v a t i o n arguments and between these two and the 182 s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument. 1 At the r o o t of each argument l i e s the n o t i o n t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of o r d e r and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e , b o t h i n h i s own e x p e r i e n c e and i n the p e r c e p t i o n of o t h e r s , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and hence f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s p a t t e r n , a d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r y , and unemployment are a l l forms of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y . A l l t h r e e c i r c u m s t a n c e s are thought t o l e a d t o the same b e h a v i o u r a l r esponse: a tendency t o withdraw i n t o i s o l a t i o n and i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e t r e a t from s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n f o r m a l as w e l l as f o r m a l . But the s i m i l a r i t y among the t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s goes f u r t h e r than t h a t ; i t extends t o the dynamics u n d e r l y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each of the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , d i s o r d e r l i n e s s of work h i s t o r y , and unemployment on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re assumed t o be 1 T h i s i s y e t another i n s t a n c e of the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument b e i n g r e l a t e d t o o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s . In Chapter 2 i t was. noted t h a t s e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( B l a l o c k , 1967a; T a y l o r , 1973; Hornung, 1977) have p o i n t e d out the s u b s t a n t i v e as w e l l as f o r m a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument and o t h e r t h e o r i e s of s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , s t a t u s i n t e g r a t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l or c o m p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s , d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , and t h e o r y of s t a t u s v a l u e ) . I have a l s o mentioned a t t e m p t s t o show the s i m i l a r i t i e s between these s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y ( s t r u c t u r a l b a l a n c e , a t t i t u d e i n c o n g r u i t y , c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e ) , and t o i n t e g r a t e the two c l a s s e s of t h e o r y (Geschwender, 1967; T a y l o r , 1973; T a y l o r and Hornung, 1979). 183 mediated by s i m i l a r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l mechanisms and p r o c e s s e s , namely c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s , r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n , u n s t a b l e s e l f - e s t e e m , d i s c o m f o r t i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and v a r i o u s o t h e r forms of s t r e s s , d i s r u p t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , d e c r e a s e d s k i l l s a t communication and i n t e r a c t i o n . In o t h e r words, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t u s e s or w i t h a work h i s t o r y p u n c t u a t e d by u n p r e d i c t a b l e , random job changes or by r e c u r r e n t j o b l e s s n e s s a r e thought t o keep away or withdraw from v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the same re a s o n : b e i n g s u b j e c t t o u n p l e a s a n t and s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , which d i m i n i s h t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n t o seek c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and l e s s e n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s u c c e s s f u l l y conduct s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e r e b y d i s c o u r a g i n g them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As mentioned, W i l e n s k y and Pope found e m p i r i c a l support f o r t h e i r h y p o t h e s e s . Both d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r y and p a s t unemployment were m o d e r a t e l y and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t l e a s t among c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of workers (the b e t t e r e d u c a t e d , h i g h e r - i n c o m e , and r e l a t i v e l y younger p e r s o n s ) . On the o t h e r hand, the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y has no a p p r e c i a b l e impact on p a r t i c i p a t i o n (net of the e f f e c t s of s t a t u s ) . T h i s d i v e r g e n c e of the d i s o r d e r 1 i n e s s and economic d e p r i v a t i o n hypotheses on the one s i d e and the s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y h y p o t h e s i s on the o t h e r as t o t h e i r e m p i r i c a l f a t e i s somewhat p u z z l i n g i n view of the s i m i l a r i t i e s among the arguments t h a t g i v e r i s e t o them. 184 Perhaps c h a o t i c e x p e r i e n c e s i n the l a b o u r market, i n the form of d i s o r d e r l y j o b s h i f t s and unemployment, a r e much more d i s r u p t i v e of a person's l i f e , w i t h c u m u l a t i v e and f a r l o n g e r l a s t i n g a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , than i s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y (except when i t i s extreme and/or permanent). But i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by the r e s u l t s of the o r i g i n a l s t u d i e s by W i l e n s k y and Pope i s not as c o n c l u s i v e as appears a t f i r s t s i g h t . P a r t i c u l a r l y W i l e n s k y may have c o n t a m i n a t e d the t e s t of h i s hypotheses by u s i n g an o r d e r l i n e s s -o f - c a r e e r measure t h a t does not d i s t i n g u i s h a n a l y t i c a l l y between the v e r t i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n of j o b s ( i . e . , upward o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y ) and the h o r i z o n t a l s u c c e s s i o n of j o b s w i t h i n the work h i s t o r y ( M e i s s n e r , 1967). What i s more, the p r o p o s i t i o n s of W i l e n s k y and Pope have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e than L e n s k i ' s s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y argument and f a r fewer a t t e m p t s a t r e p l i c a t i o n of the s e s t u d i e s or r e t e s t s of the hypotheses have been made. Yet the s e p r o p o s i t i o n s must be s u b j e c t e d t o f u r t h e r and c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i f we a r e t o o b t a i n d e f i n i t e answers t o the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d above. A p r o m i s i n g approach would be t o r e t e s t a l l t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s on the same body of d a t a . C r u c i a l t o such a s i m u l t a n e o u s t e s t i s t h a t the data i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s and o t h e r s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s , so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o measure the assumed i n t e r v e n i n g mechanisms and t o a n a l y z e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h both the dependent and the independent v a r i a b l e s . 185 E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r i t was suggested t h a t the assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and e x p e r i e n c e of i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t r e s s and between t h i s s t r e s s and the tendency t o withdraw from s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e , and t h a t t h i s may be one reason why the h y p o t h e s i z e d n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y were not found. L i k e w i s e , t h e r e may be q u e s t i o n s about the assumed l i n k s i n the c h a i n of o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n - s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of s t r e s s - b e h a v i o u r a l response i n the d i s o r d e r l i n e s s of work h i s t o r y and economic d e p r i v a t i o n arguments. The main p o i n t i s t h a t t h e s e i n t e r v e n i n g p r o c e s s e s and mechanisms cannot be assumed; they must be e m p i r i c a l l y d emonstrated. In or d e r t o i n c r e a s e our knowledge of the c o n d i t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t we d e v e l o p t h e o r i e s t h a t c l e a r l y s p e c i f y t h e i r c a u s a l s t r u c t u r e and e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e the c o n d i t i o n s under which o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s l i k e d i s o r d e r l y work h i s t o r y , unemployment, and s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s u l t i n n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n or l e a d t o w i t h d r a w a l from p a r t i c i p a t i o n . U n l e s s we know more about the u n d e f i n e d and unmeasured c o n s t r u c t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the s e t h e o r i e s i t w i l l remain d i f f i c u l t t o pass a d e c i s i v e judgment on t h e i r v a l i d i t y as e x p l a n a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 186 LIST OF REFERENCES A l l a r d t , E r i k , P. J a r t t i , F. J y r k i l a and Y. L i t t u n e n 1958 "On the c u m u l a t i v e n a t u r e of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . " A c t a S o c i o l o g i c a 3:165-72. Almond, G a b r i e l A. and Sidney Verba 1963 The C i v i c C u l t u r e : P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e s and Democracy i n F i v e N a t i o n s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . A l t h a u s e r , Robert P. 1971 " M u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y and n o n - a d d i t i v e r e g r e s s i o n models." Pp. 453-72 i n H. M. B l a l o c k , J r . ( e d . ) , C a u s a l Models i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e . A x e l r o d , M o r r i s 1956 "Urban s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 21:13-8. Babchuk, N i c h o l a s 1973 "The f u t u r e of the s o c i o l o g y of l e i s u r e : the case of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 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Smith, D a v i d H. and R i c h a r d D. Reddy 1972 " C o n t e x t u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n . " Pp. 299-319 i n D. H. Smith, R. D. Reddy and B. R. B a l d w i n ( e d s . ) , V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n Research 1972. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D. C. Heath. Smith, D a v i d H. , R. D.-'Reddy and B. R. Ba l d w i n 1972 "Types of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n : a d e f i n i t i o n a l e s s a y . " Pp. 159-95 i n D. H. Smi t h , R. D. Reddy and B. R. Ba l d w i n 195 ( e d s . ) , V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n Research 1972. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D. C. Heath, S t a r n e s , C h a r l e s E. and Royce S i n g l e t o n , J r . 1977 " O b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y : a s e a r c h f o r e m p i r i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . " The S o c i o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 18:253-66. S t e h r , N i c o 1968 " S t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y : the t h e o r e t i c a l concept and i t s e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t . " P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 11:95-9. 1971 " S t a t u s k o n s i s t e n z . " K o e l n e r Z e i t s c h r i f t f u e r . S o z i o l o g i e und S o z i a l p s y c h o l o g i e 23:34-54. S u i t s , D a n i e l B. 1957 "Use of dummy v a r i a b l e s i n r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . " J o u r n a l of the American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 52:548-51 . S w a f f o r d , M i c h a e l 1980 "Three p a r a m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e a n a l y s i s : a n o n t e c h n i c a l commentary." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 45:664-90. Taub, R.T., G.P. Surgeon, S. L i n d b l o m , P.B. O t t i and A. B r i d g e s 1977 "Urban v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , l o c a l i t y based and e x t e r n a l l y i n d u c e d . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 83:425-42. T a y l o r , Howard F. 1973 " L i n e a r models of c o n s i s t e n c y : some e x t e n s i o n s of B l a l o c k ' s s t r a t e g y . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 78:1192-1215. T a y l o r , Howard F. and C a r l t o n . A . Hornung 1979 "On a g e n e r a l model f o r s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y . " S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods & Research 7:259-87. T o c q u e v i l l e , A l e x i s de 1954 Democracy i n America (1835). 2 v o l s . New York: V i n t a g e Books. Treiman, Donald J . 1966 " S t a t u s d i s c r e p a n c y and p r e j u d i c e . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 71:651-64. Treiman, Donald J . and K e r m i t T e r r e l l 1975 "Sex and the p r o c e s s of s t a t u s a t t a i n m e n t : a comparison of working men and women." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 40:174-201. 196 T y r e e , Andrea and J u d i t h T reas 1974 "The o c c u p a t i o n a l and m a r i t a l m o b i l i t y of women." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 39:293-302. Warburton, T. Rennie 1969 A Survey of S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s Research C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C olumbia, (mimeo) W i l e n s k y , H a r o l d L. 1960 "Work, c a r e e r s , and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e J o u r n a l 12:543-74. 1961 " O r d e r l y c a r e e r s and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n : the impact of work h i s t o r y on s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n the m i d d l e mass." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 26:521-39. W i l s o n , Kenneth L. and L o u i s A. Zurcher 1976 " S t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l movements: an a p p l i c a t i o n of Goodman's h i e r a r c h i c a l m o d e l i n g . " The S o c i o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 17:520-33. W i r t h , L o u i s 1938 "Urbanism as a way of l i f e . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 44:1-24. Wolf, Wendy C. and N e i l D. F l i g s t e i n 1979 " S e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n : d i f f e r e n c e s i n power i n the work s e t t i n g . " S o c i a l F o r c e s 58:94-107. W r i g h t , C h a r l e s R. and H e r b e r t H. Hyman 1958 " V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n memberships ol American a d u l t s : e v i d e n c e from n a t i o n a l sample s u r v e y s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 23:284-94. Z e l d i t c h , J r . , M o r r i s and Bo Anderson 1966 "On the b a l a n c e of a s e t of r a n k s . " Pp. 244-68 i n J . B e r g e r , M. Z e l d i t c h , J r . and B. Anderson ( e d s . ) , S o c i o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s i n P r o g r e s s . V o l . 1. B o s t o n : Houghton and M i f f l i n . Zimmer, B a s i l and Amos H. Hawley 1959 "The s i g n i f i c a n c e of memberships i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . " American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y 65:196-201. 197 A P P E N D I X 198 T a b l e 21. A s s o c i a t i o n s Between Measures of Socioeconomic S t a t u s and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s (Y) Sample S t a t u s Var i a b l e s (X) Membership Dy.x Gamma (N) O f f i c e Dy.x - H o l d i n g Gamma (N) P o r t A l b e r n i Educat i o n + .09 + .24 513 + .18 + .36 513 Occupat i o n + .14 + .37 515 + .16 + .31 515 Vancouver: men Educat i o n + .14 + .40 407 + .11 + .21 41 1 Occupat i o n + .17 + .48 398 + .13 + .25 402 Income + .20 + .56 392 + .16 + .31 396 Vancouver: employed women Educat i o n + .17 + .37 1 39 + .13 + .34 1 39 Oc c u p a t i o n + .24 + .49 1 37 + .07 + .19 1 37 Note: A s s o c i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e Somers' d (asymmetric) and Goodman and K r u s k a l ' s gamma computed f o r a d i c h o t o m i z e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e (member, not member; o f f i c e - h o l d e r , not o f f i c e - h o l d e r ) and a t r i c h o t o m i z e d s t a t u s v a r i a b l e (low,medium, h i g h s t a t u s as d e f i n e d i n Chapter 3 ) . 199 T a b l e 22. A s s o c i a t i o n s Among Measures of Socioeconomic S t a t u s f o r P o r t A l b e r n i and Vancouver Samples Sample P a i r of S t a t u s V a r i a b l e s Coef f i c i e n t s Tau b Gamma (N) P o r t A l b e r n i E d u c a t i o n & O c c u p a t i o n + .36 + .53 513 Vancouver: men E d u c a t i o n & O c c u p a t i o n + .47 + .67 402 E d u c a t i o n & Income + .32 + .49 396 O c c u p a t i o n & Income + .46 + .69 388 Vancouver: employed women E d u c a t i o n & O c c u p a t i o n + .33 + .52 1 37 Note: A s s o c i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e K e n d a l l ' s t a u b and Goodman and K r u s k a l ' s gamma. S t a t u s v a r i a b l e s were t r i c h o t o m i z e d i n t o low, medium, and h i g h s t a t u s as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. 200 T a b l e 23. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n ( P o r t A l b e r n i Sample. N=513) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 No. of memberships 1 .00 2 He l d o f f i c e .41 1 .00 3 Medium e d u c a t i o n -.10 -.06 1 .00 4 High e d u c a t i o n .25 .23 -.49 1 .00 5 Medium o c c u p a t i o n -.10 -.03 .02 -.08 1 .00 6 High o c c u p a t i o n .34 .19 -.03 .38 -.42 1 .00 7 Moderate i n c o n s . -.05 -.06 .42 -.27 .13 -.07 1 .00 8 Sharp i n c o n s . . 1 3 . 1 4 -.24 .21 -.18 .08 -.26 1 .00 Mean 1 .58 .53 .43 .24 .29 .30 -.46 .07 Stan d , d e v i a t i o n 1 .54 .50 .50 .43 .45 .46 .50 .26 Note: W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the f i r s t v a r i a b l e (number of memberships), a l l v a r i a b l e s a re dummy (0,1) v a r i a b l e s . 201 T a b l e 24. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men. N=398 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 No. of memberships 1 .00 2 H e l d o f f i c e .45 1 .00 3 Medium e d u c a t i o n .02 .06 1 .00 4 High e d u c a t i o n .31 .09 -.40 1 .00 5 Medium o c c u p a t i o n -.17 -.09 . 1 1 -.14 1 .00 6 High o c c u p a t i o n .44 . 16 -.03 .45 -.57 1 .00 7 Moderate i n c o n s . -.10 .00 .21 -.18 .46 -.23 1 .00 8 Sharp i n c o n s . .04 .06 -.18 -.07 -.22 .26 -.24 1 .00 Mean 1 .94 .51 .25 .32 .35 . 37 .38 .08 St a n d , d e v i a t i o n 1 .79 .50 .44 .47 .48 .48 .49 .28 See note t o Ta b l e 23. 202 T a b l e 25. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of E d u c a t i o n a l and Income S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men. N=392 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 No. of memberships 1 .00 2 H e l d o f f i c e .44 1 .00 3 Medium e d u c a t i o n .00 .04 1 .00 4 H i g h e d u c a t i o n .32 .10 -.41 1 .00 5 Medium income -.27 -.06 .03 -.12 1 .00 6 H i g h income .49 .16 -.04 .32 -.67 1 .00 7 Moderate i n c o n s . -.14 -.03 -.05 -.09 .48 -.35 1 .00 8 Sharp i n c o n s . .05 .01 -.18 -.05 -.32 .31 -.30 1 .00 Mean 1 .93 .50 .26 .32 .52 .29 .50 .08 Stand, d e v i a t i o n 1 .80 .50 .44 .47 .50 .45 .50 .28 See note t o T a b l e 23. 203 T a b l e 26. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of O c c u p a t i o n a l and Income S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Men..N=384 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 No. of memberships 1 .00 2 H e l d o f f i c e .44 1 .00 3 Medium o c c u p a t i o n -.16 -.08 1 .00 4 High o c c u p a t i o n .44 .15 -.56 1 .00 5 Medium income -.29 -.06 .10 -.24 1 .00 6 High income .49 .15 -.15 .48 -.69 1 .00 7 Moderate i n c o n s . -.22 -.05 -.09 -.13 .31 -.29 1 .00 8 Sharp i n c o n s . .08 .10 -.12 .08 -.17 .04 -.15 1 .00 Mean 1 .95 .51 .35 .37 .53 .30 .46 .03 S t a n d , d e v i a t i o n 1.81 .50 .48 .48 .50 .48 .50 .16 See note t o T a b l e 23. 204 Tab l e 27. Zero-Order C o r r e l a t i o n s , Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of Measures of S t a t u s , Degree of S t a t u s I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Vancouver Sample: Employed Women. N=137) (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 1 No. of memberships 1 .00 2 He l d o f f i c e .59 1 .00 3 Medium e d u c a t i o n -.12 -.04 1 .00 4 High e d u c a t i o n .48 .21 -.37 1 .00 5 Medium o c c u p a t i o n -.23 -.02 .12 -.23 1 .00 6 High o c c u p a t i o n .42 .08 -.10 . 42 -.70 1 .00 7 Moderate i n c o n s . -.05 .09 -.17 -.12 .18 -.14 1 .00 8 Sharp i n c o n s . .00 -.08 -.22 -.12 -.31 .44 -.24 1 .00 Mean 1.12 .25 .42 . 16 .58 .26 .45 .07 Stand, d e v i a t i o n 1 .23 .43 .49 .37 .49 .44 .50 .25 See note t o T a b l e 23. 

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