UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Accommodation and cultural persistence : the case of the Sikhs and the Portuguese in the Okanagan Valley… Joy, Annamma 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A1 J69.pdf [ 14.41MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095597.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095597-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095597-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095597-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095597-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095597-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095597-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095597-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095597.ris

Full Text

ACCOMMODATION AND CULTURAL PERSISTENCE: THE CASE OF THE SIKHS AND THE PORTUGUESE IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by ANNAMMA -JOY M.A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Anthropology/Sociology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c") Annamma Joy, 1982 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree, that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th is thes is for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of ANTHROPOLOGY & SOCIOLOGY The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e 30.7.'82. ABSTRACT There are two themes t h a t are expl o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t i s an e x a m i n i a t i o n of the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , d e f i n e d here as the process of l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s n a t i v e to another group. The second i s comparative and examines the causes f o r the r e l a t i v e success t h a t the Portuguese had i n l e a r n i n g to accommodate and be accepted i n Canada. By the same token the sources of a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s f o r the Sikhs w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . The two groups are comparable along s e v e r a l dimensions such as age, education, s k i l l s , knowledge of E n g l i s h on a r r i v a l and so on. Learning t o be e f f e c t i v e i n Canada means understanding and a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n g i v e n c o n t e x t s . The spheres t h a t I have i d e n t i f i e d as important are the workplace and the community i n which they l i v e . The other spheres that come under s c r u t i n y as a r e s u l t of the s p i l l o v e r of p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s and experiences are the f a m i l y , and the sphere of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s . The workplace, I argue, i s a c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n wherein a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e . Secondly, the establishment of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r . While the formation of an e t h n i c enclave might serve as a support system f o r newcomers, i t a l s o i s o l a t e s and separates them from o t h e r s . i i i The Sikh d e f i n i t i o n of i d e n t i t y i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , with r e l i g i o n providing an anchorage for a l l other spheres such as the family, caste, v i l l a g e , and occupation. In sort, individuals did not experience l i f e a c t i v i t i e s as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or unrelated. Given the contexts of ambivalence and h o s t i l i t y they perceived and/or experienced i n Canada, the a c q u i s i t i o n of new forms of thought were neither seen as a challenge nor a necessity; but as a threat to t h e i r i d e n t i t y . The Portuguese model, on the other hand, recognizes the d i s t i n c t i o n between public and private l i v e s . To them being "Portuguese" and/or "Catholic" are primarily private matters. Also, by and large they gave importance to ind i v i d u a l achievement over corporate i d e n t i t y . To them, acculturation and ethnic i d e n t i t y were complementary modes for the d e f i n i t i o n of themselves within the Canadian context. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables x L i s t o f F i g u r e s x i i L i s t of Maps x i i i Acknowledgements x i v CHAPTER 1: TOWARDS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 1 A c c u l t u r a t i o n 4 CHAPTER 2: DIMENSIONS OF THE REGIONAL MODEL 20 General I n t r o d u c t i o n 21 The E a r l y Years from 1850-1900 24 Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan 30 Vernon 30 The Rutland D i s t r i c t 32 Southern Okanagan 33 F a i r v i e w 33 The Coming of the Chinese and A n t i - C h i n e s e Sentiment 34 Summary 36 1900-1950 37 Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan 38 Vernon 3 8 Southern Okanagan 45 O l i v e r D i s t r i c t 45 A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the F r u i t I n d u s t r y 49 Summary 52 1950-1962 54 V PAGE Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan 61 Vernon 61 Rutland D i s t r i c t 63 Southern Okanagan 63 O l i v e r D i s t r i c t 63 Summary 66 1962-1975 67 Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan 71 The Lumber I n d u s t r y 71 Tree F r u i t I ndustry 72 I n t e r - E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s 76 Southern Okanagan 77 I n t e r - E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s 78 Summary 82 CHAPTER 3: TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CANADIAN CULTURAL MODEL 88 A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 88 P r e f e r r e d and Non-Preferred Groups 91 I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Racism 93 Changes i n Post-War Immigration P o l i c i e s 96 CHAPTER 4: IN THE FIELD: A PROFILE OF SIKH AND PORTUGUESE IMMIGRANTS 105 Some Me t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 112 Motives to Migrate 119 The Sikhs 119 The Portuguese 121 Pre-Migrant C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 12 3 Rural-Urban Background 12 3 The Sikhs 123 The Portuguese 124 Family Background 124 The Sikhs 124 The Portuguese 125 v i PAGE Job A s p i r a t i o n s 127 The Sikhs 127 The Portuguese 128 Age on A r r i v a l 12 9 The Sikhs 129 The Portuguese 130 Knowledge of E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l 130 The Sikhs 131 The Portuguese 133 Education and S k i l l s 133 The Sikhs 133 The Portuguese 13 5 F i r s t Jobs and M o b i l i t y 13 7 The Sikhs 13 7 The Portuguese 140 Conc l u s i o n s 140 CHAPTER 5: THE MEANING OF WORK 143 The Pioneer Sikhs 148 Case Study 1 - F i r s t Generation P i o n e e r s 149 Second Generation 150 T h i r d Generation 151 The Pioneer Portuguese 153 Case Study 2 153 Second Generation 154 The Later S e t t l e r s (Sikhs) 155 The Sawmill S e t t i n g 156 The L o c a l Sawmill 157 C o n f l i c t i n g S i t u a t i o n (Sikhs) 161 Semantics of the Workplace 161 Group 1 168 Group 2 169 C o n f l i c t i n g S i t u a t i o n s (Portuguese) 170 Working Women (Sikhs) 173 Working Women (Portuguese) 175 V i c a r i o u s R i t u a l i z a t i o n 177 Con c l u s i o n s 179 CHAPTER 6: THE MEANING OF LAND AND PROPERTY OWNERSHIP 183 Sikh P e r s p e c t i v e s 190 Portuguese P e r s p e c t i v e s 191 v i i PAGE Land and P r o p e r t y Ownership (Portuguese) 192 Small Farmers 193 Medium-sized Farms 195 Category A (5-10 Acres) 196 Category B (10-20 Acres) 197 Large Farmers 200 Home Ownership i n C i t i e s and Towns 200 S i k h P e r s p e c t i v e s 202 S i n g l e Family Homes/Multi-Residential U n i t s 203 Low D e n s i t y Areas/High D e n s i t y Areas 207 Portuguese P e r s p e c t i v e s 208 C o n c l u s i o n s 211 CHAPTER 7: THE FAMILY 216 A S i k h Pioneer Family - Case Study 1 219 F i r s t G eneration 219 Second Generation 219 T h i r d Generation 220 D i s c u s s i o n 220 The Portuguese Family 22 5 Case Study 2 230 Second Generation 230 The Newcomers (Sikhs) 231 The Extended Household 232 Case Study 3 232 D i s c u s s i o n 233 Case Study 4 235 The Portuguese 236 Case Study 5 236 Second Generation 237 C e l e b r a t i o n of L i f e - c y c l e Ceremonies 238 The Sikhs 238 The Naming Ceremony 239 The Portuguese 239 Marriage Ceremony 240 Case Study 6 240 Weddings i n Canada 241 D i s c u s s i o n 241 Marriage Ceremony - The Portuguese 242 A Canadian-Portuguese Wedding 243 Case Study 7 243 v i i i PAGE D i s c u s s i o n 244 A T y p i c a l Portuguese Wedding 245 Case Study 8 245 D i c u s s i o n 246 Death Ceremony The Sikhs 247 The Portuguese 248 C h i l d Rearing (Sikhs) 248 F r i e n d s h i p and Family T i e s with Other Sikhs 249 C h i l d Rearing (Portuguese) 250 Kin and F r i e n d s h i p Networks (Portuguese) 250 Summary 2 51 CHAPTER 8: BELIEFS AND RITUALS 257 Issues R e l a t i n g to Sikh I d e n t i t y 261 S e c t i o n 1 261 A. The Maintenance of Keshas, or Long Hair 2 61 B. The Kirpan, or Sword 267 Summary of Cases A and B 270 Issues R e l a t i n g t o Portuguese I d e n t i t y 2 72 Se c t i o n 1 272 A. The Maintenance of the Portuguese P r i e s t 272 B. The Maintenance and Upkeep of the Church 276 Summary of Cases A and B 279 S e c t i o n 2 279 C. The Rehat Maryada 2 79 D. The Gurudwara or the Temple 283 Summary of Cases C and D 286 S e c t i o n 2 287 C. The Maintenance of Portuguese L i t u r g y and R i t u a l 287 Summary of Case C 288 S e c t i o n 3 289 E. The Langar, or the "Free Ki t c h e n " 289 F. I n t e r - R e l i g i o u s Marriages 291 Summary of Cases E and F 292 S e c t i o n 3 292 D. Inter-Denominational Marriages 292 Summary of Case D 294 S e c t i o n 4 294 Case F 294 i x PAGE S e c t i o n 4 295 E. The Feast o f Fatima 295 The Legend of Fatima 299 Summary of Case E 303 Con c l u s i o n s 2304 CHAPTER 9: THE MEANING OF "COMMUNITY" 307 Southern Okanagan 308 The Northern P e r s p e c t i v e 325 Con c l u s i o n s 332 CHAPTER 10: CONCLUSION 334 BIBLIOGRAPHY 345 APPENDIX 1: TABLE XXXI 360 X LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 39 i n 1921 II E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y o f Kelowna 40 I I I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 41 i n 1931 IV E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 42 i n 1941 V E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 5 7 i n 1951 VI E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n P e n t i c t o n i n 1951 58 VII E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 59 i n 1961 V I I I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y o f Kelowna, 60 P e n t i c t o n , and Vernon i n 1961 IX E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y 69 i n 1971 X E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t i e s of Kelowna, 70 P e n t i c t o n and Vernon i n 1971 XI Comparative Value of Land i n the Okanagan 74 XII Comparative L i s t of Canadian and Portuguese 75 Growers and the Land They Own X I I I Number of Sikhs, Portuguese and Canadians 113 Who Were Interviewed XIV F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g to Sikh and Portuguese 122 M i g r a t i o n XV F a m i l i a l Landholdings of the Sikhs i n the 12 6 Punjab XVI Knowledge of E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l Among the 132 Sikhs X I TABLE PAGE XVII Knowledge of E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l Among the Portuguese XVIII E d u c a t i o n a l Background of the Sikhs XIX E d u c a t i o n a l Background of the Portuguese XX Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In the V a l l e y XXI Land and P r o p e r t y Ownership Among the Portuguese i n the V a l l e y XXII P r o p e r t y Ownership Among Sikhs i n Vernon XXIII Property Ownership of Sikhs i n Rutland XXIV Baptisms Recorded f o r the Years 1959- 1977 ( O l i v e r C a t h o l i c Church) XXV C o n f i r m a t i o n s Recorded f o r the Years 1960- 1975 ( O l i v e r C a t h o l i c Church) XXVI Issues R e l a t i n g t o E t h n i c I d e n t i t y XXVII L i s t of Canadians Interviewed XXVIII Southern Okanagan P e r s p e c t i v e s on "Community" XXIX L i s t of I n s t i t u t i o n s i n O l i v e r and Rate of Portuguese P a r t i c i p a t i o n XXX L i s t o f I n s t i t u t i o n s and Rate of Sikh P a r t i c i p a t i o n XXXI D e s c r i p t i o n of the V a r i o u s Contact Si t u a t i o n s 134 136 138 185 194 205 206 254 256 260 309 319 322 329 360 x i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Responses of Sikhs with Respect to the 167 Issue of Removing the Turban LIST OF MAPS PAGE Map 1 Map of the Okanagan V a l l e y 2 3 x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Cr o s s i n g n a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l boundaries i s o f t e n a d i f f i c u l t and p a i n f u l p r o c e s s . The i n i t i a l excitement and adventure o f t e n clouds the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n coming t o terms with the new con t e x t . However, such a t r a n s i t i o n would not have been easy without the support and guidance P r o f e s s o r Brenda Beck p r o v i d e d me from the very b e g i n n i n g . She was r e a l l y concerned with my p h y s i c a l and emotional w e l l being b e s i d e s the o b l i g a t o r y academic and i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g . Mere words are not adequate t o express my f e e l i n g s towards her and Dave E l k i n s f o r a l l they have done. My committee members have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d i n no small measure t o the c l a r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y t h i s t h e s i s may have. E s p e c i a l l y P r o f e s s o r s Cohn and Fernando have p a t i e n t l y read p r e v i o u s d r a f t s of t h i s t h e s i s , and giv e n me the needed c r i t i c a l input and encouragement. P r o f e s s o r s Powell and Wood have a l s o g i v e n me t h e i r share of time and ad v i c e e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s tages. I a l s o wish t o thank my husband, Baba f o r the many hours spent i n s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . W r i t i n g a t h e s i s i s a long and l o n e l y p r o c e s s . Without the support of my f r i e n d s and c o l l e g u e s both at U.B.C. and Concordia U n i v e r s i t y , i t would have been d i f f i c u l t . X V Special thanks are due to Mrs. Guay who I met by accident i n Montreal and who had grown up i n the Okanagan Valley. She typed the thesis and the seemingly endless modifications to i t . I hope that t h i s thesis meant more to her than just another assignment. She r e a l l y stood by me through a l l the changes i n the manuscript. To the families and friends i n the Okanagan Valley who must remain anonymous I can only say - without their cooperation there would have been no d i s s e r t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , to members of my own family who love me no more or less for my accomplishments, I wish to say - thank you for being there. -1-CHAPTER 1 TOWARDS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Th i s t h e s i s i s a study of change - an attempt t o understand the nature, the process and the consequences of change brought about by co n t a c t with other c u l t u r e s . Ear-l i e r s t u d i e s of i n t e r - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s and modernization focussed p r i m a r i l y on the impact of p o l i t i c a l and economic domination i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. However, migrants from l e s s i n d u s t r i a l i z e d areas of the world to s o c i e t i e s l i k e Canada p r o v i d e an e q u a l l y important oppor-t u n i t y t o study change. C u l t u r a l encounters can generate many forms of responses a t both the l e v e l of ideas and of a c t i o n s . In t h i s t h e s i s a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o the e v a l u a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and acceptance of new modes of thought and i t s consequences f o r two groups - the Sikhs and the P o r t u -guese. Members of both groups have l i v e d i n Canada s i n c e the t u r n of the century ( L a i : 1976, Anderson and Higgs: 1976). The Sikhs have been a more n o t i c e a b l e group, not on l y i n terms of t h e i r appearance, but a l s o i n terms of the press coverage they have r e c e i v e d over the years and the h i s t o r y of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t them (Mehta: 1973, L a i : 1976, Buchignani: 1977). In the Okanagan V a l l e y they are more re c e n t , having been a t t r a c t e d t o jobs i n the lumber -2-i n d u s t r y , while the Portuguese have been a t t r a c t e d t o jobs i n the orchards. A c c o r d i n g to Anderson and Higgs (1976: 187) "Portu-guese s e t t l e m e n t s i n Canada have come of age." Now there i s a second g e n e r a t i o n , born and brought up i n Canada, who are seeking t o e s t a b l i s h themselves here not as f o r e i g n e r s or as the c h i l d r e n of f o r e i g n e r s , but as c i t i z e n s . W i t h i n t h i s context, the documentation of the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of the Portuguese i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the h i s t o r y of Canada. The same i s a p p l i c a b l e to the Sikhs as w e l l . T h i s t h e s i s performs one step i n t h i s p r o c e s s . M i g r a t i o n to a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced country where jobs were a v a i l a b l e was an a t t r a c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n t o members of both groups. However, i n the i n i t i a l stages t h i s was o n l y a temporary measure f o r both the Sikh and the Portuguese p i o n e e r . They thought of themselves as merely s o j o u r n e r s - migrant workers who hoped t o r e t u r n to t h e i r homeland w i t h i n a few years (Buchignani: 1977, L a i : 1976, Anderson and Higgs: 1976). I t was o n l y l a t e r t h a t they decided to stay. T h i s i d e a of permanent settlement took v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms such as f a m i l y reunions, buying p r o p e r t y , b u i l d i n g a temple or a church and so on. In the course of time these i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves underwent' s u b s t a n t i a l a l t e r a t i o n s . They both d e v i a t e d from, and -3-s w e r v e d t o w a r d s , t h e c u l t u r a l f o r m s t h e y h a d o n c e k n o w n i n v a r y i n g p e r m u t a t i o n s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s . I n t h i s s e n s e t h e n b o t h t h e S i k h s a n d t h e P o r t u g u e s e w e r e a n d a r e c a u g h t u p i n t h e s t r u g g l e o f m a k i n g s e n s e o f t h e i r p a s t a n d g i v i n g d i r e -c t i o n t o t h e i r f u t u r e . I t i s how t h e y m a k e s e n s e o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g t h o u g h t s , t h e i r e f f o r t s a t m a k i n g a n d c r e a t i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l c o h e r e n c e t o t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t e x p e r i e n c e t h a t I h o p e t o d o c u m e n t . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m a j o r q u e s t i o n t h a t i s p u r s u e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s u c c e s s o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n a c c o m m o d a t i n g a n d b e i n g a c c e p t e d i n C a n a d a . S i m u l -t a n e o u s l y , i t a l s o d e a l s w i t h s o u r c e s o f a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s f o r t h e S i k h s . E x p l a n a t i o n s o f i n t e r - e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s h a v e a l w a y s u s e d a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n w h i c h v e r y o f t e n i s b r o u g h t a b o u t b y c o l o n i z a t i o n , a n n e x a t i o n , i n v a s i o n , c o n t r a c t u a l l a b o u r a n d v o l u n t a r y m i g r a t i o n ( S c h e r m e r h o r n : 1 9 7 0 , G o r d o n : 1 9 6 4 ) . T h e t e r m s t h a t h a v e h a d w i d e c u r r e n c y i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c u l t u r a l e n c o u n -t e r s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a r e " a s s i m i l a t i o n " a n d " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m " a s s i m i l a t i o n " i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e , a s i t a s s u m e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s move a l o n g a b i - p o l a r c o n t i n u u m f r o m t h e u n a s s i m i l a t e d e n t r y p o i n t t o t h e a s s i m i --4-l a t e d p o i n t . Thus l o s s of i d e n t i t y of newcomers i s d i s c u s s -ed as an i n e v i t a b l e outcome. Even the most systematic account g i v e n by Gordon (1964) i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n understanding the r e a c t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to the host c u l t u r e . Besides, e n t e r i n g i n t o primary groups and networks does not n e c e s s i t a t e nor imply l o s s of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . A c c u l t u r a t i o n The concept of " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " , on the other hand, i s more u s e f u l and comes c l o s e s t to my own e x p l a n a t i o n of accommodation and c u l t u r a l p e r s i s t e n c e . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s r e p l e t e with d i s c u s s i o n s of the a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s . The d e f i n i t i o n t h a t I f i n d most a p p l i c a b l e to my r e s e a r c h i s g i v e n by K i e f e r (1974) i n her study of Japanese Americans. A c c o r d i n g to K i e f e r (1974: 86) " a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s the process of l e a r n i n g by members of one c u l t u r a l group of s k i l l s and values n a t i v e to another group.' To which I would add the f o l l o w i n g : "Such t h a t the immigrant i s e f f e c t i v e i n the new context." Such a d e f i n i t i o n allows us to make d i s t i n c t i o n s between the adoption of new p r a c t i c e s and the maintenance of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . That i s , i n d i v i d u a l s can become c u l t u r a l l y adept i n t h e i r new context without a l o s s of " s e l f " . - 5 -B u t t h e i n q u i r y d o e s n o t s t o p h e r e . A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n t h a t i s r a i s e d d e a l s w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s u c c e s s o f i m m i g r a n t g r o u p s i n a d a p t i n g a n d b e i n g a c c e p t e d i n a new c o u n t r y . T h u s , t h i s s t u d y b o t h e x p l o r e s t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s a n d i d e n t i f i e s t h e r e a -s o n s f o r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s u c c e s s o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e o v e r t h e S i k h s . B u t b e f o r e I e n t e r i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a b o v e , l e t u s b r i e f l y e x a m i n e t h e c o n c e p t o f " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " . T h e f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e r m a c c u l t u r a t i o n w a s g i v e n b y R e d f i e l d , L i n t o n a n d H e r s k o v i t s ( 1 9 3 8 : 1 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m : " A c c u l t u r a t i o n c o m p r e h e n d s t h o s e p h e n o m e n a w h i c h r e s u l t w h e n g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s come i n t o f i r s t h a n d c o n t a c t , w i t h s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f e i t h e r o r b o t h g r o u p s . " S e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a r e o f f e r e d a n d B e a l s ( 1 9 5 3 ) h i g h l i g h t s t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s i n t e r m s o f t h e f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. W h a t i s m e a n t b y c o n t i n u o u s f i r s t h a n d c o n t a c t ? 2. W h a t i s t h e r e l a t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r e c h a n g e ? 3. W h a t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d a s s i m i l a t i o n ? 4. I s a c c u l t u r a t i o n a p r o c e s s o r a c o n d i t i o n ? - 6 -I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o " A c c u l t u r a t i o n i n t h e A m e r i c a s " H e r s k o v i t s ( 1 9 6 7 : 5 6 ) d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o s o me o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a n d u s e f u l f a c e t s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . He s a y s , " t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n r a r e l y r e s u l t s i n e i t h e r c o m p l e t e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s n e w l y e x p e r i e n c e d n o r d o e s c o n t a c t f a i l t o l e a v e i t s m a r k o n a r e c i p i e n t c u l t u r e e v e n w h e n t h e r e i s m a r k e d h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d i n n o v a t i o n s w h e t h e r i m p o s e d o r f r e e l y a c c e s s i b l e . I n some c a s e s o f c o n t a c t a c c e l e r a t e d c h a n g e s o c c u r , a n d may r e s u l t i n u n s u s -p e c t e d r e s i s t a n c e s t h a t t a k e t h e f o r m o f n a t i v i s t i c o r n a t i o n a l i s t i c m o v e m e n t s w h i c h a p p e a r d e c a d e s a f t e r a p a t h y a n d a c q u i e s a n c e h a s s e e m e d a n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t . I n s i t u -a t i o n s w h e r e c h a n g e i s a c c e p t e d , r e v i s i o n s a r e made w i t h i n t h e o l d s c h e m e , a n d w h e r e c h a n g e i s f o r c e d , v a l u e s a n d b e l i e f s may b e k e p t s e c r e t l y u n t i l s u c h t i m e w h e n t h e r e i s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b r i n g i t t o t h e o p e n . " S u c h a d e s c r i p t i o n i s r i c h i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , e v e n w i t h i n t h e s a m e g r o u p , a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n i t s h i s t o r y , t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r -a t i o n may t a k e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s s u c h a s r e t e n t i o n a n d r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F u r t h e r new s y m b o l s m i g h t b e a d o p t e d t o f i t o l d t h e m e s , o r o l d s y m b o l s m i g h t b e i n f u s e d w i t h new m e a n i n g s t o m o b i l i s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a d d i t i o n o f new s k i l l s a n d v a l u e s a l s o r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n s o f d o m i n a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o T e s k e a n d N e l s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) t h e r e i s a m p l e e v i d e n c e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s i s b i - d i r e c t i o n a l . H o w e v e r , in situations of colonization and missionary a c t i v i t y , the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that quite often s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s related to e t h n i c i t y and thereby affects the nature and di r e c t i o n of acculturation. The term that has been applied to refer to this process in i t s extreme form i s "forced acculturation" (Teske & Nelson: 1974). The use of the term "forced acculturation" i t s e l f suggests a change i n values of the incoming group toward that of the receiving group. However, as Linton (1940) points out, though the acceptance of c u l t u r a l elements i s accelerated, there need not be an accompanying change in values. Further, from the perspective of the incoming group, they might: one, choose defensive i s o l a t i o n ; two, adopt new means without a corresponding adoption of the relevant goals; three, choose to adopt the new means i n order to support existing goals sometimes for the s p e c i f i c purpose of r e s i s t i n g the compulsory adoption of the goals of the lending group; and f i n a l l y , four, choose to dissociate themselves from the dominant c u l t u r a l forms. What i s more, learning new ways and s k i l l s need not a f f e c t a l l aspects of an individual's l i f e . More recent studies in e t h n i c i t y echo the same concerns in understanding the retention of c u l t u r a l forms in the process of c u l t u r a l contact and change. Cohen (1978) - 8 -s p e c u l a t e s t h a t i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e t h i s m i g h t b e d u e t o a s h i f t a m o n g t h e o r i s t s f r o m t h e c o n c e p t o f " t r i b e " t o t h a t o f " e t h n i c g r o u p " . B a r t h ( 1 9 6 9 ) l i k e w i s e s u g g e s t s t h a t a d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r -e n c e s b e t w e e n p e o p l e d o e s n o t i n a n y s i m p l e w a y c o r r e l a t e w i t h a b r e a k d o w n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . B e r r a m e n ' s ( 1 9 7 5 ) s t u d y o f c a s t e s i n I n d i a d e a l s w i t h t h e s a m e i s s u e o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f i d e n t i t y . I n a l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d o n a n o n - l i n e a r m o d e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n . W h e t h e r i t b e a s i t u a t i o n o f i n e q u a l i t y o r o t h e r w i s e , t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e c o n t a c t h a s n o t m e r e l y r e s u l t e d i n a d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e o l d e r v a l u e s a n d n o r m s t h a t i s c r u c i a l f o r o n e ' s w e l l b e i n g , b u t a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o l d a n d / o r a n a d d i t i o n o f new t e c h n i q u e s a n d s t r a t e g i e s . K i e f e r ' s s t u d y ( 1 9 7 4 ) o f t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s o f J a p a n e s e A m e r i c a n s i n S a n F r a n c i s c o s u p p o r t s t h e s ame t h e m e . T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new s e t o f r u l e s , s h e a r g u e s , d o e s n o t d i s p l a c e t h e o l d . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y a r e a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e x i s t i n g r e p e r t o i r e . A s a n d w h e n a s i t u a t i o n d e m a n d s a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v -e d d r a w u p o n t h e i r s o u r c e s t o a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y . T h i s i s n o t a l w a y s a n e a s y p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s o n e o f i n e q u a l i t y a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s . I f i n d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n u s e f u l t o -9-t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t a s s u m e l i n e a r i t y . I t a l l o w s f o r h u m a n f l e x i b i l i t y a n d a d a p t a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t s i t u -a t i o n s . I t a l s o a l l o w s u s t o e x p l o r e a n d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n u m b e r o f c u l t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s . I n s t e a d o f a s k i n g f o r o r o b s e r v i n g t h e e v i -d e n c e s u g g e s t i v e o f c u l t u r a l b o r r o w i n g , i t a l l o w s u s t o e x p l o r e t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i v e o f c u l t u r a l p e r s i s t e n c e a s w e l l . F u r t h e r , a s we s a w e a r l i e r , w h i l e a s s i m i l i a t i o n i s u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l , a n d d e p e n d e n t o n t h e o u t - g r o u p ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s , a c c u l t u r a t i o n d o e s n o t a l w a y s d e p e n d o n t h e s e f a c t o r s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e e m p h a s i s l i k e w i s e i s p l a c e d o n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a s a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l , n o n - l i n e a r p r o c e s s . I t i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e h o s t ' s c u l t u r a l w a y s , b u t a l s o t h e u s e o f s u c h k n o w l e d g e i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t s . F u r t h e r , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e o r t h e a t t e m p t t o b e c o m e b i - c u l t u r a l d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o l o s s o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . One o f t h e e f f e c t i v e a n d t i m e -t e s t e d w a y s b y w h i c h t h i s p r o b l e m h a s b e e n c u r t a i l e d i s b y d e f i n i n g c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f l i f e a s m o r e i m p o r t a n t f o r c u l t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s ( s e e B a r t h 1 9 6 9 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , b e c o m i n g a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e a n i n d i v i d u a l f r o m s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b e i n g t h e h e a d o f a n e x t e n d e d h o u s e h o l d o r t h e l e a d e r o f a n e t h n i c o r g a n i z a -t i o n . W h a t i t m i g h t i n c l u d e , h o w e v e r , i s a r e - i n t e r p r e t a -- 1 0 -t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s u c h t h a t i t d o e s n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s o r h e r w o r k l i f e . O f c o u r s e , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h i s o c c u r s t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l a c c u l t u r a t e s t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n ; t h a t i s , h e o r s h e i n c r e a s -i n g l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e new r o l e . F u r t h e r s u c h a d a p t a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y w h e n p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e l i v e s a r e s u f f i c i -e n t l y c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d a n d w h e n t h e r e i s a r e d u c t i o n o f t i m e s p e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y d u t i e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . S i n g e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , a r g u e s t h a t b u s i n e s s m a n a g e r s i n M a d r a s c i t y h a v e r e s o r t e d t o s u c h s t r a t e g i e s . I f s u c h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e i n t h e I n d i a n c o n t e x t , why d o e s i t p o s e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s i n C a n a d a ? T h e same q u e s t i o n c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e a s w e l l . I n a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , a p a r t f r o m a f e a r o f t h e new, l e a r n i n g may b e r e t a r d e d b y 1) p e r c e p t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l l o s s a n d i d e n t i t y ; a n d 2) b y r e a l o r p e r c e i v e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . L e t u s e x a m i n e t h e s e t w o f a c t o r s m o r e c a r e f u l l y . P e r c e p t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l l o s s o r t h r e a t t o e t h n i c i d e n t i t y may a r i s e d u e t o a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . B u t m o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t o n e c a n i d e n t i f y t h e s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s a s b e i n g l o c a t e d i n t h e v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e i m m i g r a n t a n d h o s t - 1 1 -c u l t u r a l m o d e l s ( B r e t o n , R e i t z a n d V a l e n t i n e : 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e s h o c k t h a t f o l l o w s t h e e n c o u n t e r s i n some i n s t a n c e s h a s t e n s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s a s a m e a n s t o f i l l t h e v o i d t h a t i s e x p e r i e n c e d . C o m m u n i t i e s s u c h a s t h e H u t t e r i t e s a n d D o u k h a b o r s i n C a n a d a a c t i v e l y s e e k t o s e p a r a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , b a s e d o n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . F u r t h e r , w h e n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p o u n d e d b y r e a l o r p e r c e i v e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i t i s n o t u n u s u a l f o r m e m b e r s o f t h e g r o u p t o f a l l b a c k o n w h a t i s " k n o w n " a n d " f a m i l i a r " . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m o d e s o f t h o u g h t a n d b e h a v i o u r a r e r e - i n f o r c e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f a m b i v a l e n c e a n d a l i e n a t i o n . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s e m p h a s i z e d a s a p e r t i n e n t mode f o r c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h e f o r c e s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h i n t h e h i s t o r y o f some e t h n i c g r o u p s , a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d u s e o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y a r e s e e n a s m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , i t i s n o t a l w a y s o r n e c e s -s a r i l y s o . T h e y c a n a n d d o b e c o m e c o m p a t i b l e m o d e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . S i n c e t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e S i k h s a n d P o r t u g u e s e h a v e h a d t o a c c o m -m o d a t e i s C a n a d a , t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e i n t h e y h a v e t o a c t a r e t h o s e s e t b y t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l m o d e l . W h i l e o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t d o c u m e n t s s u c h a s t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e p o r t o n m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m , n e w s p a p e r s , -12-books and a r t i c l e s o u t l i n e some g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l Canadian c u l t u r a l model, i t i s d u b i o u s whether i t i s a m o n o l i t h i c , i d e n t i f i a b l e e n t i t y or u n i t . E l l i o t (1979) I s a j u i r (1978) among o t h e r s have r a i s e d the i s s u e o f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the term "Canadian c u l t u r e " . I s i t one n a t i o n or two? Where do the o t h e r c u l t u r e s f i t i n ? As f a r as t h i s s t u d y i s concerned, the "Canadian c u l t u r a l model" i n c o r p o r a t e s the immigrants p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c u l t u r a l o r d e r i n Canada. Ne e d l e s s t o say i t r e p r e s e n t s a s m a l l group o f i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . However, i t i s the y a r d s t i c k they use t o measure t h e i r s u c c e s s a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f t h i s model a r e , 1) t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e spheres of a c t i v i t y ; and 2) t h e emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l achievement and s t a t u s over c o r p o r a t e forms of a p r i v a t e n a t u r e such as f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y . F u r t h e r , d o m e s t i c l i f e , and r e l i g i o n are d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y p r i v a t e a s p e c t s and a r e encouraged t o remain as such. To the e x t e n d t h a t t h i s model emphasizes the importance of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , i n a s o c i e t y governed by r a t i o n a l p u r p o s i v e i d e a s and a c t i o n and the s e p a r a t i o n of spheres of a c t i v i t y , i t comes c l o s e t o B e r g e r ' s (1973) e x p l a n a t i o n of the c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "modernity". -13-I f n a t i v e immigrant models do not r e c o g n i z e such c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , or i f immigrants f e e l i s o l a t e d and d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , t h e y w i l l not r e s o r t t o l e a r n i n g new ways or d e f i n i n g themselves a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t h e new con-t e x t s . T h i s i s what has happened t o the S i k h s . They saw a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f " s e l f " and r e a c t e d t o such p r e s s u r e s by r e s o r t i n g t o e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . The P o r t u g u e s e , on the o t h e r hand, m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f " s e l f " by c o n f i n i n g i t t o t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s , and a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t h e p u b l i c sphere. Thus, t o the S i k h s " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " was r e p l a c e d by a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n and i n t e n s i f y t h e p r o c e s s o f e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; t o t h e P o r t u g u e s e way o f l i f e , i t was f e a s i b l e t o pursue a d u a l i d e n t i t y , i . e . , a p r i v a t e P o r t u g u e s e i d e n t i t y and a p u b l i c Canadian i d e n t i t y . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s i s the argument I d e v e l o p i n each of the c h a p t e r s i n t h i s t h e s i s . I argue t h a t the S i k h c u l t u r a l model i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , w i t h r e l i g i o n o c c u p y i n g a p i v o t a l r o l e and i n t e g r a t i n g a l l o t h e r s pheres o f an i n d i v i -d u a l ' s l i f e . The c e n t r a l i t y o f r e l i g i o u s symbols i n s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the c o r e of t h e i r n a t i v e model. Even the I n d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n r e c o g n i z e s the r i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l S i k h s t o c a r r y a sword i n p u b l i c . S i k h i d e n t i t y thus spans b o t h the s p i r i t u a l and t e m p o r a l , and combines the s a c r e d and s e c u l a r spheres such t h a t a " t r u e -14-S i k h " sees h i s or her e n t i r e l i f e as a stage f o r c u l t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n . F u r t h e r , the emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l as the autonomous u n i t of a c t i o n i s not h i g h l y developed or a r t i -c u l a t e d i n I n d i a (see Dumont 1965 f o r a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s theme). I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to e s t a b l i s h i t s v a l i d i t y . A l l I wish to h i g h l i g h t i s the importance p l a c e d on the c o n t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s to the "common good" or c o r p o r a t e u n i t s such as the f a m i l y , r a t h e r than on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s achievement or s t a t u s (see a l s o I z m i r l i a n : 1979). Thus Sikh i d e n t i t y emerges as a composite of the v a r i o u s aspects of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , such as c a s t e , f a m i l y , v i l l a g e and o c c u p a t i o n . I t a l s o c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with the concept of "segmented i d e n t i t y " which i s the essence of the Canadian model. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, that under c o n d i t i o n s of ambivalence and h o s t i l i t y , the Sikhs found i t d i f f i c u l t t o understand and draw the d i s t i n c -t i o n s between t h e i r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i v e s , and develop a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s ' o f " s e l f " . In a g e n e r a l sense they can be d e s c r i b e d as e x h i b i t i n g low c u l t u r a l awareness but h i g h e t h n i c l o y a l t y . The n a t i v e Portuguese model, on the other hand, re c o g n i z e s the d i s t i n c t i o n between these two spheres and, to - 1 5 -a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n r e l i g i o n a n d e t h n i -c i t y . O n l y a s f o r e i g n e r s , d i d t h e q u e s t i o n o f h o w t o a c t p u b l i c a l l y o r w h a t t o u s e a s c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i n g t h e m -s e l v e s a r i s e . F e r n a n d e z ( 1 9 7 9 ) e l a b o r a t e s o n t h e s a m e t h e m e i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n M o n t r e a l . A c c o r d i n g t o h i m , t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e " c o m m u n i t y " ( i . e . , P o r t u g u e s e c o m m u n i t y ) m e d i a t e s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i r p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e l i v e s . I n d e e d , h e m a k e s t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e P o r t u g u e s e t a k e s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s t o d e f i n e a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r b o t h i n t h e p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e s p h e r e s . I n my o w n s t u d y , t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n r e l i g i o n a n d e t h n i c i t y w i t h i n a " p u b l i c " c o n t e x t i s e m p h a s i z e d a s a d i l e m m a f o r many p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e c r i t i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e m o d e l i s t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t o f w o r k a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d a c t i v i t i e s ( s u c h a s l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p ) a s s p h e r e s w h e r e i n c u l t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n w a s m i n i m a l . L e a r n i n g t o b e e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e s e s p h e r e s a s we s h a l l s e e w a s n o t a l w a y s e a s y o r c o n -f l i c t f r e e . Y e t t h i s p o s e d n o t h r e a t t o t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f " s e l f " . A s t i m e p a s s e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t o l e r a n c e r e d u c -e d t h e i r o w n p e r c e p t i o n s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d t h e r e b y r e t a r d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e t h n i c l o y a l t y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e n , t h e y i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n a r e a s o f l i f e w h e r e i n a c c u l -t u r a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y , a n d o t h e r s w h e r e p e n e t r a t i o n w a s m i n i m a l . A c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d e t h n i c i d e n t i t y w e r e p u r s u e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . - 1 6 -T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r m e m b e r s o f b o t h g r o u p s , n e e d -l e s s t o s a y , v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n many i n s t a n c e s i t i n c r e a s e d i n t e r - e t h n i c c o n f l i c t a n d r e d u c e d t h e p o s s i b i l i -t i e s o f s o c i e t a l c o h e s i o n . B y a n d l a r g e t h e S i k h s h a v e b e e n d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t ( B u c h i g n a n i : 1 9 7 7 ) a n d r a n k e d l o w i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s r e s i d i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d e l s e w h e r e i n C a n a d a . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s , t h e S i k h s h a v e r e j e c t e d a t t e m p t s t o i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o n t a c t a n d h a v e c h o s e n c o n f r o n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . T h e P o r t u g u e s e , m e a n w h i l e , h a v e f o u n d a l a r g e r m e a s u r e o f a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e v a l l e y a n d e l s e w h e r e ( A n d e r s o n & H i g g s : 1 9 7 6 ; A l p h a a o & D a R o s a : 1 9 8 1 : 2 7 6 ) ; i n t u r n , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f r e s p e c t a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a t l e a s t s ome o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d v a l u e s o f C a n a d i a n l i f e . A t t h e s a me t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e y a l s o e x p r e s s t h e f e a r t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s w i l l m e r g e w i t h i n t h e m a i n -s t r e a m o f C a n a d i a n l i f e . T h e u s e o f n a t i v e m o d e l s a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t b e -c o m e s p r o b l e m a t i c i f i t i s d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l b a g g a g e b a s e d o n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s o r s e e n a s a s t a t i c s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s . I n d e e d , o n e o f t h e l e s s o n s f r o m t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t a n i d e a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d a s a y a r d s t i c k f o r m e a s u r i n g c u l t u r a l r e t e n t i o n o r a s s i m i l a t i o n . -17-To a v o i d t h e s e p i t f a l l s I r e l y p r i m a r i l y on the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by r e s p o n d e n t s , a l t h o u g h a v a i l a b l e ethno-g r a p h i c d a t a on the S i k h s and the Por t u g u e s e was u s e f u l i n drawing some c o n c l u s i o n s . Elements o f t h e model f u r t h e r became ap p a r e n t i n the i n t e r a c t i v e and c o n f l i c t i n g s i t u -a t i o n s . The f o r m a t i o n o f f a c t i o n s and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f n a t i v e and new models encountered i s a l s o s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l awareness and the p r e -f e r e n c e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t i n the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t . L i k e w i s e my d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Canadian model i s based on d i s c u s s i o n s , s h o r t i n t e r v i e w s and h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s . A l t h o u g h i t i s s p a r s e , g i v e n the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s i t p r o v i d e s some v a l i d a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s i d e n -t i f i e d by t h e immigrants t h e m s e l v e s . To summarize, the major f e a t u r e s o f my framework f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : 1) A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a n o n - l i n e a r p r o c e s s and does not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o l o s s o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . I t i s o n l y under c o n d i t i o n s o f h o s t i l i t y t h a t e t h n i c i t y becomes paramount. 2) G r e a t e r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between immigrant models and the h o s t s o c i e t y produces g r e a t e r problems i n t e r - e t h n i c c o n t a c t and a c c u l t u r a t i o n . i n - 1 8 -T h e r e s t o f t h e t h e s i s d o c u m e n t s t h i s p r o c e s s . C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3 a r e a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e c o n c e r n s o f C a n a d i a n s a t b o t h t h e n a t i o n a l a n d l o c a l l e v e l a n d t o d e f i n e " i n s i d e r s " a n d " a l i e n s " . F r o m t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s t h e m a j o r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e n a t i o n a l a n d r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l m o d e l w i l l b e d e l i n e -a t e d . T h i s w i l l s e t t h e s t a g e f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n c o n g r u -e n c e b e t w e e n h o s t s o c i e t y a n d i m m i g r a n t c u l t u r a l m o d e l s . I n C h a p t e r 4 t h e a s p e c t s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i m m i g r a n t s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e o u t l i n e d . My p u r p o s e h e r e i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e - m i g r a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n C h a p t e r 5, t h e c o l l i s i o n s a n d a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s m o d e l s i n t h e w o r k w o r l d i s e x a m i n e d . C h a p t e r 6 o u t l i n e s t h e m e a n i n g s a t t a c h e d t o h o u s i n g , l a n d a n d p r o p e r t y o w n e r -s h i p b y t h e i m m i g r a n t s , a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e m o d e l s a n d C a n a d i a n d e f i n i t i o n s . I n C h a p t e r 7 t h e f a m i l y i s e x a m i n e d a s a f o r u m w i t h i n w h i c h new i d e a s a r e t e s t e d , a d o p t e d o r r e j e c t e d . T h e p l u r a l i z a t i o n a n d s e p a r a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s f r o m o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i s e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r 8. I f C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3 a r e a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e a C a n a -d i a n c u l t u r a l m o d e l b a s e d o n h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , i n C h a p t e r 9 t h e o p i n i o n s o f a f e w C a n a d i a n s a r e s o u g h t t o t e s t t h e v a i l i d i t y o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o -19-community and good c i t i z e n s h i p a l l go to show that i d e n t i t y i n Canada i s segmented. Chapter 10 t i e s a l l these themes together and pre-sents a summary of the major findings. -20-CHAPTER 2 DIMENSIONS OF THE REGIONAL MODEL To understand the process of accommodation and c u l t u r a l p e r s i s t e n c e among the Sikhs and the Portuguese i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , one has to have some understanding of the h i s t o r y and nature of i n t e r - e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s i n the v a l l e y . That i s , how d i d newcomers ( i n t h i s case immi-gran t s ) n e g o t i a t e group s t a t u s w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n a l s e t -t i n g ? An understanding of t h i s process of i n c o r p o r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h i n r e g i o n a l boundaries w i l l a l l o w us t o examine the contexts w i t h i n which the Sikhs and the Portuguese a c t e d . Events of the past are then not j u s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n c i d e n t s but are c o n s t a n t l y r e i n t r o d u c e d and r e e v a l u a t e d i n the new c o n t e x t s . In t h i s sense h i s t o r y i s not merely background but very o f t e n occupies the foreground. T h i s chapter i s not by any means comprehensive i n i t s coverage of i n c i d e n t s that r e l a t e to the h i s t o r y of the r e g i o n as a whole. The qu e s t i o n s t h a t concern me are: Who were the e a r l y s e t t l e r s ? How d i d they e s t a b l i s h themselves s o c i a l l y and economically? How d i d they t r e a t newcomers? P a r t i c u l a r l y , what were t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to immigrants from A s i a and southern Europe? What changes o c c u r r e d over the years? I t i s hoped that answers to these q u e s t i o n s w i l l s e t -21-the stage for understanding ethnic relations i n the v a l l e y at present. The purpose here i s not only to i d e n t i f y the regional contexts for i n t e r - c u l t u r a l encounters, but also to specify the dimensions of the l o c a l c u l t u r a l model. There are d i f f i c u l t i e s in presenting such ideas. Several frameworks have to be overlaid one upon another, such as the temporal, the geographical, the economic, the communal and ethnic. While each of these factors are s i g n i f i c a n t and relate to the others, in this chapter, I wish to convey the l i n k s between community and e t h n i c i t y within the socio-economic context of the Okanagan Valley. For these puposes, I w i l l examine four times periods as follows: 1850-1900, 1900-1950, 1950-1962, 1962 to the pre-sent. My sources are h i s t o r i c a l reports of the valley, newspaper a r t i c l e s , novels and a few interviews with old timers. While each of these data bases produce problems for the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , they are individual interpretations of what the community was l i k e , what i t i s , and what they would l i k e to see. They are, then, documents that pertain to the search for both in d i v i d u a l and group i d e n t i t y . General Introduction The Okanagan region extends from the international - 2 2 -b o u n d a r y n o r t h t o t h e S h u s w a p l a k e . T h e r e g i o n e n c o m p a s s e s a n a r e a o f some 1 8 5 m i l e s f r o m n o r t h t o s o u t h a n d 1 3 5 m i l e s f r o m e a s t t o w e s t . I t c o v e r s 1 1 , 4 0 6 s q u a r e m i l e s o f l a n d a r e a , o r 3 . 2 % o f t h e p r o v i n c e a n d i n 1 9 6 6 c o n t a i n e d a p o p u -l a t i o n o f 1 1 2 , 8 5 0 , o r 6% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l ( G o v e r n -m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 1 9 7 1 : 1 9 ) . - S e e Map I -T h e b u l k o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d a l o n g t h e v a l l e y o f t h e O k a n a g a n r i v e r , a n d n o r t h w a r d i n t o t h e v a l l e y o f t h e S h u s w a p . H o w e v e r , s m a l l e r e x t e n s i o n s o u t w a r d a s i n t h e C o l d s t r e a m a n d S i m a l k a m e e n a r e a , a l s o e x i s t . T h i s p a t t e r n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a t e s b a c k t o t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e v a l l e y . T h e a m o u n t o f c u l t i v a b l e l a n d , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n , a n d t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k s b y s t e a m e r a n d r a i l a l l s e t t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n . L a n d a n d c l i m a t e h a v e a l w a y s b e e n t h e m a j o r a t t r a c -t i o n s o f t h e v a l l e y . T h e a r e a i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y l o w t o m o d e r a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n , w a r m t o h o t s u m m e r s a n d m i l d w i n t e r s . T h i s i s f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d b y t h e t o p o g r a p h y . T h e c o a s t a l m o u n t a i n s a l t e r t h e a i r m a s s e s t h a t f l o w f r o m t h e P a c i f i c s o m u c h t h a t t h e m o i s t u r e i s r e d u c e d i n t h e f o r m o f r a i n b e f o r e i t r e a c h e s t h e v a l l e y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e v a l l e y i s i n t h e r a i n shadow r e g i o n . The w a t e r l i k e w i s e m o d e r a t e s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a i r . W a t e r v a p o u r r e p r e s e n t s a l a t e n t s o u r c e o f h e a t e n e r g y w h i c h i s r e l e a s e d when c l o u d s a r e f o r m e d . I t a l s o a c t s a s a b l a n k e t t o r e t a r d h e a t l o s s f r o m t h e e a r t h on c l e a r c o l d n i g h t s ( W i l l i s t o n : 1 9 5 7 ) . I t i s l i t t l e w o nder, t h e n , t h a t t h e v a l l e y h a s a t t r a c t e d a n d c o n t i n u e s t o a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s f r o m a l l p a r t s o f C a n a d a . To t h e s e s e t t l e r s , a t l e a s t i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d e s p e c i a l l y f r u i t f a r m -i n g was o f c o n s i d e r a b l e importance."*" W h i l e a g r i c u l t u r e a n d f r u i t f a r m i n g a r e i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f i n c o m e t o many o f t h e s e t t l e r s , o t h e r i n d u s -t r i e s s u c h a s f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g a n d t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s a r e a t t r a c t i n g more e m p l o y m e n t . We w i l l come t o t h i s a t a l a t e r p o i n t . The E a r l y Y e a r s From 1850-1900 The Okanagan V a l l e y , l i k e o t h e r p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was s e t t l e r c o u n t r y a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e s e new s e t t l e r s w e r e i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e g r o u p . The s p i r i t o f a d v e n t u r e t h a t h a d a t t r a c t e d them t o t h e v a l l e y was t e m p e r e d b y t h e r o u g h c o n d i t i o n s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d and the n e c e s s i t i e s o f group l i v i n g . Under such t r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s what was e x p e c t e d o f the s e s e t t l e r s , and what was most r e q u i r e d was t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f each o t h e r . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t o have more of one's own k i n d reduced the u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r and was indeed a minimum a s s e t . T h i s i s i n f a c t an i m p o r t a n t theme t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h the memoirs of many p i o n e e r s i n the v a l l e y . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the f a b r i c o f s o c i a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e v a l l e y one has t o know the g e n e r a l s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of the c o u n t r y and t h e p r o v i n c e as w e l l . What were c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the p r o v i n c e were a l s o deemed s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e v a l l e y . As we saw e a r l i e r , one e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e o f such i n f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n t h e i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c i e s o f the Canadian government and i t s p r o v i n c i a l v a r i a t i o n s . These l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s grew out of t h e f e a r s and d e s i r e s o f t h e dominant i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the c o u n t r y . S i n c e Canada was a B r i t i s h c o l o n y , the o n l y way o f r e s t r i c t i n g the f l o w o f immigrants from o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d and t o p r e s e r v e the c o u n t r y f o r t h e s e " p r e f e r r e d " s e t t l e r s was t h r o u g h the i m p o s i t i o n o f l e g a l p o l i c i e s . I n t u r n , those immigrants who were deemed d e s i r a b l e o r t o l e r a b l e a t t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s were a l s o d e s i r a b l e a t the r e g i o n a l and s e t t l e m e n t l e v e l s . Those who d i d not f i t t h e s e c r i t e r i a o f s e l e c t i o n were - 2 6 -l i k e w i s e u n s u i t a b l e a n d e x c l u d e d f r o m s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e y w e r e t h u s c l a s s i f i e d a s m a r g i n a l t o t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d t h e s e t t l e m e n t . T h a t t h i s p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n h a d s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e O k a n a g a n i n p a r t i c u l a r i s w h a t we s h a l l t u r n t o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t w h i t e man t o s e t f o o t i n t h e v a l l e y w a s D a v i d S t u a r t o n a P a c i f i c F u r C o m p a n y m i s s i o n i n 1 8 1 1 , i t w a s n o t m u c h b e f o r e 1 8 5 0 t h a t o t h e r w h i t e s e t t l e r s c a m e i n t o t h e v a l l e y . T h e i m p e t u s f o r t h i s move came f r o m t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n t h e C a r i b o o r e g i o n , w h i c h a t t r a c t e d m a n y s e t t l e r s , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . T h e O k a n a g a n w a s a c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e t o r e s t , f e e d a n d w a t e r t h e h o r s e s . I n f a c t t h e c i t y o f V e r n o n , i n t h e n o r t h e n d o f t h e v a l l e y , i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e h a d s u c h m o d e s t b e g i n n i n g s ( H o l l i d a y : 1 9 4 8 ) . L i k e w i s e i n t h e s o u t h , O s o y o o s , w h i c h w a s t h e p o i n t o f e n t r y f o r t h o s e f r o m s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r , b o a s t e d o f a c u s t o m h o u s e i n a d d i t i o n t o a f e w h o m e s . T h e f a m o u s p i o n e e r s o f t h e t i m e w e r e J u d g e H a y n e s who w a s a p p o i n t e d t o O s o y o o s ; T h e o d o r e K r u g e r ; Tom E l l i s , who l i v e d a r o u n d P e n t i c t o n a n d K e r e m e o s ; C o r n e l i u s O ' K e e f e ; a n d P r i c e E l l i s o n , who l i v e d i n t h e V e r n o n d i s t r i c t . A l l o f t h e m made l a r g e p r e - e m p t i o n s o f l a n d a n d o w n e d many h e a d o f c a t t l e 2 ( O r m s b y : 1 9 7 6 ) . -27-Despite r e f e r e n c e s to these e a r l y s e t t l e r s , the c r e d i t of opening up the v a l l e y f o r l a r g e s c a l e settlement i s a t t r i b u t e d to the C a t h o l i c f a t h e r s of the Oblate order who founded a m i s s i o n i n the i n t e r i o r which i s now i n c o r p o r -a t e d w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of Kelowna. They were a l s o r e c o g n i z e d as pioneer o r c h a r d i s t s whose apple t r e e s p l a n t e d i n 1878 are s t i l l s a i d t o be f l o u r i s h i n g i n the area ( W i l l s t o n : 1957). L e s t i t be thought t h a t ranching and a g r i c u l t u r e were the o n l y a t t r a c t i o n s f o r s e t t l e r s i n the v a l l e y , l e t me add t h a t t h e r e were a l s o s e v e r a l mining o p e r a t i o n s . In the south, i n p a r t i c u l a r , there was the l i t t l e mining town of F a i r v i e w . There were a l s o s e v e r a l other o p e r a t i o n s i n the adjacent Simalkameen V a l l e y between Keremeos and P r i n c e t o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n those e a r l y days was by pack and saddle or by boats and canoes. I t was not u n t i l 1896 that a road was completed from Kelowna and Kamloops. Those who came i n from the west from P r i n c e t o n or Hope had to make new t r a i l s t o enter the v a l l e y . From records of the e a r l y s e t t l e r s or p i o n e e r s i t i s not hard t o see that many of them were from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . From the beginning, the t r a d i t i o n of having good c i t i z e n s from England, S c o t l a n d , I r e l a n d or Wales was -28-emphasized and made i t s mark on the v a r i o u s settlements that sprung up (Aiken et a l : 1959). L i f e i n the v a l l e y was d i f f i c u l t and there were many hard s h i p s that the s e t t l e r s had to overcome. A glimpse of such t r i a l s and t r o u b l e s of everyday l i f e i s recorded i n the memoirs of Susan A l l i s o n , the wife of a pioneer who spent s e v e r a l years of her l i f e i n the v a l l e y . She w r i t e s , (Ormsby: 1976: 43) "We had moved i n t o our new home (1874) i n December on Christmas Eve. I t was very warm and comfortable. The o n l y drawback was water - the cooking and d r i n k i n g water my hus-band packed from a d i s t a n c e . The washing water had t o be melted snow and i t was hard work to melt enough." She goes on to say that the n e a r e s t neighbours on both s i d e s were at l e a s t 45 m i l e s away. However, d e s p i t e the d i s t a n c e , the f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n between them must have been tremendous because Mrs. A l l i s o n w r i t e s , "That winter the l a k e f r o z e over and we sent our teams over to the m i s s i o n f o r oats and f l o u r . I t got so c o l d t h a t winter, that the mercury f r o z e i n the thermometers. We f o r t u n a t e l y had l o t s of shed and s h e l t e r f o r the c a t t l e . That counted as much as e x t r a feed but E l i (a neighbour) who had no s h e l t e r f o r h i s c a t t l e on one or two e x c e s s i v e l y c o l d n i g h t s had men on horseback armed with whips d r i v i n g them around and around i n h i s c o r r a l . We o n l y l o s t about 50 head of c a t t l e that winter i n s p i t e of the c o l d but we were de-c i d e d l y s h o r t of f l o u r , r i c e , sugar, s a l t , and many other t h i n g s . " (Ormsby: 1976: 46). -29-I f Mrs. A l l i s o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n sheds l i g h t on the economic problems t h a t they faced, the d e s c r i p t i o n of another pioneer, Mr. Hardy, as recorded by Mrs. G e l l a t e l y p o i g n a n t l y expresses the l o n e l i n e s s , the s t r u g g l e s and the inner s t r e n g t h that was needed w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l to c r e a t e a meaningful e x i s t e n c e . She w r i t e s (1958: 14) "As he t a l k e d , one c o u l d v i s i o n i t a l l , the e x i l e l o n e l y at t h i s season (Christmas) though he would scorn to admit i t a t any other time. Then seeking the s o l i t u d e of the c a b i n , with hands t h a t tremble with excitement he opens l e t t e r s and perhaps p a r c e l s from home. T i d i n g s of loved ones f a r away -of joy, of sorrow. Then h i s hope of r e t u r n i n g home when he s t r i k e s i t r i c h (which he s u r e l y must do a t some not so d i s t a n t date) d i e s as he v i s i o n s a h e a r t h more d e s o l a t e than h i s own. For death has entered and l e f t a v o i d that w i l l nevermore be f i l l e d . P r e s e n t l y with a s i g h he gathers up the s c a t t e r e d pages, f o l d s them away and with them the dreams of home... But what of those who look l o n g i n g l y f o r m a i l that never comes? No m a i l l Nothing! Have they f o r g o t t e n so soon? Has h i s p l a c e been f i l l e d so e a s i l y ? S i l e n t l y he turns away and seeks the s o l i t u d e of the h i l l s which never change. There he conquers the overwhelming l o n e l i n e s s , the b i t t e r n e s s that i s worse than death - to r e t u r n anon and take up once more the t a n g l e d threads of h i s e x i s t e n c e . " Whether Mrs. G e l l a t e l y ' s account i n a c t u a l i t y represented the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l s she records i s not as important as the problems she i d e n t i f i e s and the s o l u -t i o n s to them. In p a r t i c u l a r , the s o l a c e the landscape p r o v i d e s , and the s t r u g g l e f o r imparting meaning to e x i s t e n c e i s e v o c a t i v e of the t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s of pioneer l i f e . -30-From these d e s c r i p t i o n s , based on the l e t t e r s or d i a r i e s of these e a r l y s e t t l e r s , one can p i c t u r e the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s f o r e x i s t e n c e . The s t r u g g l e to make a l i v i n g , coupled with a d e s i r e to tame the land and make i t t h e i r own, were both r e f l e c t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r ethos that guided and i n s t r u c t e d the establishment of these s e t t l e m e n t s . Having d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y the t r i a l s and problems of pioneer l i f e i n the v a l l e y , I w i l l b r i e f l y enter i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the growth of towns and s e t t l e m e n t s . Since i t i s not f e a s i b l e or r e l e v a n t t o d e s c r i b e a l l the l i t t l e towns and s e t t l e m e n t s , I have chosen to d i v i d e the v a l l e y i n t o two b a s i c d i s t r i c t s - N o r t h e r n / C e n t r a l Okanagan and Southern Okanagan. In each of these d i s t r i c t s I w i l l o n l y r e f e r to the h i s t o r y of those settlements and towns that have a t t r a c t e d the Portuguese and the Sikhs, these as they are r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study. I t i s to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t we s h a l l now t u r n . Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan  Vernon The town of Vernon was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1892 and, as b e f i t s a growing settlement, s t o r e s , h o t e l s and a new cou r t house were b u i l t . There was even a f i r e b r i g a d e s e t up i n 1893. U n t i l then s c h o o l had been h e l d i n a l i t t l e s c h o o l -31-house, but a new one was c o n s t r u c t e d . The s c h o o l house a l s o served as a venue f o r church s e r v i c e s b e f o r e churches were c o n s t r u c t e d . There was even a s e c t i o n of the town which was p r e d i c t e d to become "Chinatown" (Theresa: 1971). The i n s t i t u t i o n s that were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the same p e r i o d i n c l u d e d a r e a l e s t a t e and insurance f i r m t h a t p layed an a c t i v e r o l e i n the development of the c i t y . L i k e -wise t h e r e was a drug s t o r e , a j e w e l r y s t o r e , a bank, a f u n e r a l home and even a sash and door f a c t o r y . There was a s p r i n g brewery t h a t came i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n 1891. In s h o r t , Vernon was a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t town. For many years i t was the center of i n d u s t r y and by f a r the l a r g e s t settlement i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . From a v a i l a b l e sources, such as the c e n t e n n i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , and the s h o r t h i s t o r y of Vernon as r e c a l l e d by p i o n e e r s and o t h e r s , i t i s f a i r l y p l a u s i b l e to say t h a t even as e a r l y as the 1860's, and subsequent years u n t i l 1890, the l a r g e s t number of immigrants were from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . In any event, from 1892, with a f a i r amount of confidence, we can say t h a t Vernon a t t r a c t e d s e t t l e r s p r i m a r i l y from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . T h i s was the year that Lord Aberdeen took over the Coldstream ranch from Vernon Forbes, and e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t commercial f r u i t farm. The l a n d was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o l o t s and was s o l d mostly to s e t t l e r s from -32-I r e l a n d , England, S c o t l a n d and Wales, e s p e c i a l l y from S c o t l a n d . H o l l i d a y (1948: 189-190) observes, " S o c i a l l i f e i n Vernon up to t h i s time has been very f r e e and easy and u n s p o i l e d by any sense of c l a s s but as E n g l i s h people from the so c a l l e d upper c l a s s e s began to come i n with t h e i r f a m i l i e s , many of them seemed unable or u n w i l l i n g to shed t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s : they formed a d i s t i n c t i v e e x c l u -s i v e s o c i a l s e t among themselves, people who f o r some ob-scure reason thought they were s u p e r i o r to the c o l o n i a l s . . . And i t ' s a c u r i o u s t h i n g t h a t other towns i n the v a l l e y were almost f r e e of t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . . . Many of these people bought lan d on the Coldstream ranch p a r t of which had been s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 20 acre l o t s f o r f r u i t growing and on these they b u i l t l i t t l e bungalows, p l a n t e d f r u i t t r e e s and then proceeded to enjoy l i f e w ith t e n n i s , shooting and f i s h i n g , and a l l the s o c i a l f r i v o l t i e s of Vernon mistakenly imagining they would c a r r y on thus i n d e f i n i t e l y and that the f r u i t t r e e s would take care of themselves. Some of them had p r i v a t e incomes and managed a l r i g h t . Others waded i n and worked l i k e good ones, and e v e n t u a l l y most of them took h o l d and became r e a l working f r u i t growers. And i t was c e r t a i n l y a more h e a l t h y and s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e than they would have probably had i n the o l d country." Although H o l l i d a y ' s account i s j o u r n a l i s t i c as w e l l as i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , i t s t i l l i s w r i t t e n by an Englishman, who observed o t h e r s who came i n l a r g e numbers l a t e r than he d i d . The Rutland D i s t r i c t In 1869, when the Oblate f a t h e r s came i n t o the v a l l e y , they camped near Duck Lake, which i s c l o s e t o Rut-land, b e f o r e they e s t a b l i s h e d themselves f u r t h e r i n the Okanagan M i s s i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g year, two French Cana-dians are d e s c r i b e d as having recorded 160 acres of l a n d . -33-In 1871, the f i r s t g r i s t m i l l f o r the e n t i r e d i s t r i c t was set up by a German, F r e d e r i c k Brent (Rutland C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). In 1893, a group of new s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d by covered wagons from Idaho. They preempted lan d along M i s s i o n Creek. L i k e Vernon, s e v e r a l s t o r e s , l i v e r y s t a b l e s and a post o f f i c e were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Rutland d i s t r i c t . In a d d i t i o n there were school houses and churches. However, Rutland never expanded and a t t r a c t e d s e t t l e r s as other c i t i e s i n the v a l l e y d i d . Among the s e t t l e r s who are mentioned, i t must be noted that Rutland had a f a i r share of immigrants from south of the border. There were a l s o c i t i z e n s of Swedish back-grounds t h a t s e t t l e d here. In a d d i t i o n there were s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s . Rutland, t h e r e f o r e , had more of an e t h n i c melange than Vernon (Rutland C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). Southern Okanagan: F a i r v i e w Not much i s r e p o r t e d of the l i t t l e mining town of F a i r v i e w that e x i s t e d p r i o r to the establishment of O l i v e r . I t was e s s e n t i a l l y b u i l t around mining, and once these a c t i v i t i e s ceased, the town s i t e was a l s o abandoned. That i t must have been a t h r i v i n g l i t t l e community i n the l a s t two decades of the 19th century can be seen from the e x i s --34-tence of the s t o r e s , the s c h o o l , the government house, the l i v e r y s t a b l e s and even a grand h o t e l . L i k e other towns i n the v a l l e y , there were both Americans and s e t t l e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s i n l a r g e numbers ( O l i v e r and D i s t r i c t C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971: 7-8) . The Coming of the Chinese and A n t i - C h i n e s e Sentiment In these e a r l y y e ars of settlement l i t t l e mention i s made of the presence or c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Chinese to the Okanagan V a l l e y . That there must have been f a m i l i e s of Chinese o r i g i n i n the i n t e r i o r can be seen from the p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s to the presence of Chinese l a u n d r i e s , b u i l d i n g s i n which they l i v e d i n p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n s of the town, or t h e i r involvement i n mining a c t i v i t i e s . In Mrs. A l l i s o n ' s r ecords there i s mention of the type of mining the Chinese d i d a f t e r the white s e t t l e r s had f i n i s h e d with i t (Ormsby: 1976). Other accounts of p i o n e e r s or s e t t l e r s a l s o g i v e us an idea of how the Chinese were regarded by them. Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , N i c h o l s o n (Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Report: 1962: 108) who was a s e t t l e r w r i t e s , "With the departure from the Simalkameen of white miners they were r e p l a c e d by t h e i r f a i t h f u l f o l l o w e r s , John China-man who has mined on the south f o r k and on the Tulameen almost c o n t i n u o u s l y to the p r e s e n t day." -35-N i c h o l s o n ' s account of the ways of the Chinese whom he r e f e r s t o as "John Chinaman" i s very deprecatory i n s t y l e . But when one compares t h i s to the r e f e r e n c e s to the Chinese i n other p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n V i c t o r i a , t h i s comes as no s u r p r i s e . In a book r e c a l l i n g e a r l y days i n the v a l l e y , author H o l l i d a y (1948: 179) d i s c u s s e s the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t concerning the death of a Chinese r e s i d e n t . Whether i t c l a s s i f i e s as f i c t i o n or not, at l e a s t some i n s i g h t can be gained. He w r i t e s , "One t h i n g t h a t no one seemed to have thought about was a cemetery: we were suddenly faced with t h i s l a c k when an unknown Chinaman d i e s on us. Nobody would be p u b l i c s p i r i t -ed enough to a l l o w the corpse to be b u r i e d on t h e i r premises and the government agent was i n a quandry: he wrote to V i c t o r i a f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s as to what should be done about i t , but i n the meantime the Chinaman d i d not improve by keeping. Nobody knew anything about embalming corpses and f i n a l l y he j u s t had to be b u r i e d , and the government agent stowed him away i n h i s back garden." The year was 1889. In another account (Theresa 1971: 42) of the h i s t o r y of Vernon, the author notes, "As e a r l y as 1892 i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the Chinese s e c t i o n of the town where b u i l d i n g s and b u s i n e s s were being e r e c t e d would become known as Chinatown. Many of these b u i l d i n g s have stood s i n c e the 1890's and take t h e i r p l a c e among the landmarks of Vernon." -36-A l t h o u g h t h e above statement does not throw l i g h t on how t h e C h i n e s e were viewed, a subsequent remark t a k e n from a Vernon newspaper and r e p o r t e d by Theres a (1971: 42) i s somewhat r e v e a l i n g . She o b s e r v e s , "An amusing note i n an i s s u e o f the Vernon News o f 1893 p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a new Chi n e s e l a u n d r y had j u s t been opened and was r u n by Ah say! and Look t h e r e ! " A l t h o u g h s t a t e m e n t s such as t h e above a r e few and f a r between, i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s t h e t r e a t m e n t o f the Chin e s e i n the v a l l e y a t l e a s t u n t i l 1900, i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e y p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e d the same t r e a t m e n t as o t h e r C h i n e s e e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They were d i s e n -f r a n c h i s e d i n 1875, and i n 1878 t h e y were b a r r e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p u b l i c works. When the r a i l w a y was completed, a t t e m p t s were made not o n l y t o r e s t r i c t e n t r y , b u t t o g e t r i d o f those who were a l r e a d y t h e r e (Ward: 1973). As f o r the Japanese and S i k h s who were a l s o i n c l u d -ed i n the c a t e g o r y o f " O r i e n t a l s " , t h e r e were none i n the v a l l e y u n t i l t he t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . Summary What emerges from t h i s p e r i o d i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between those who b e l o n g t o the community and those who do -37-not. It i s indeed clear that the former included those who were "desirable" or preferred immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, while the l a t t e r included those p a r t i c u l a r l y from Asia. These two groups co-existed, although a great deal of antipathy and h o s t i l i t y was meted out to the Asians. Within the "core community" i t s e l f , there was a great deal of va r i a t i o n in customs and t r a d i t i o n s . However, the rigours of establishing a "community" and of domesticating the land promoted a sense of "we-feeling" and cooperation. There was a great deal of overlapping networks, and "community" was not only defined i n terms of "action" but i n terms of feelings as well. Those who f e l l outside these parameters were the "outsiders", some of whom would obtain acceptance. They were known as aliens and were relegated to the ou t s k i r t s of the settlements. The most important groups to remain as outsiders were the "Orientals". Thus early on in the development of community l i f e in the valley, an emphasis was placed on l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l i d e n t i t y over and above ethnic group l o y a l t y . However, i t was also clear that some groups were preferred over others. Colour and race were the measures by which cultures were s t r a t i f i e d . 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 5 0 The turn of the century ushered in a new phase of -3 8-d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e v a l l e y , a n d a number o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , E u r o p e and A s i a w e r e t r i c k l i n g i n . T h i s was p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e b e t t e r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k s , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y , and t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e r o a d s i n t h e v a l l e y . The p r o s p e c t s o f f r u i t f a r m i n g l i k e w i s e b r o u g h t i n a number o f r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s who saw t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l a n d boom i n t h e v a l l e y . We w i l l , as i n t h e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , d i s c u s s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e n o r t h , c e n t r a l a n d t h e s o u t h end o f t h e v a l l e y . N o r t h e r n a n d C e n t r a l Okanagan  V e r n o n S i n c e 1 9 2 1 , t h e C a n a d i a n c e n s u s p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s c a t e g o r i z e d b y e t h n i c i t y f o r D i v i s i o n 3 ( i n c l u d e s t h e s u b d i v i s i o n 3A, w h i c h i s t h e Okanagan and Shuswap a r e a , a n d s u b d i v i s i o n 3B, w h i c h i s t h e S i m a l k a m e e n a r e a ) a n d q u i t e o f t e n f o r t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s l i k e K e l o w n a , P e n t i c t o n a n d V e r n o n . W h i l e t h e y a r e i n c o m p l e t e , t h e y s t i l l p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f e t h n i c g r o u p s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e v a l l e y . - s e e T a b l e s I , I I , I I I , I V --39-TABLE I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1921 OKANAGAN SIMILKAMEEN TOTAL 13,621 TOTAL 7,45 7 BRITISH E n g l i s h 6, 534 3, 794 I r i s h 1,488 934 Scot 2,632 1,467 Others 166 114 EUROPEAN French 438 152 A u s t r i a n 66 43 B e l g i a n 56 6 Dutch 129 68 F i n n i s h 47 11 German 313 142 Greek 2 8 Hebrew — 4 I t a l i a n 162 92 P o l i s h 46 20 Russian 161 32 Scandinavian 348 258 Ukranian 10 2 Others 175 75 ASIATIC Chinese & Japanese 786 203 Others 11 -Indians 23 2 Black 3 2 U n s p e c i f i e d 25 28 Source: 1921 Canadian Census -40-TABLE I I * E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y of Kelowna KELOWNA - TOTAL 2,520 POPULATION MALE FEMALE E n g l i sh 1,105 541 564 I r i s h 413 199 214 Scot 562 288 274 Others - - -French 103 37 66 A u s t r i a n 10 5 5 B e l g i a n 7 2 5 Chinese 114 114 0 Dani sh 1 0 1 Dutch 3 0 3 German 22 10 12 Hungarian 69 37 32 I t a l i a n 47 28 19 Japanese 7 4 3 Norwegian 11 7 4 P o l i s h 4 2 2 Russian 8 3 5' Swedish 27 12 15 Swiss 7 3 4 *Information f o r o n l y c i t y o f Kelowna was a v a i l a b l e . Source: 1921 Canadian Census -41-TABLE I I I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1931 SUBDIVISION 3A SUBDIVISION 3B (OKANAGAN & UPPER (SIMILKAMEEN SHUSWAP) RIVER) TOTAL 24,662 TOTAL 11,059 BRITISH E n g l i s h 9,589 4,469 I r i s h 2,471 1,248 Scot 4,015 2,253 Others 376 230 EUROPEAN French 656 216 A u s t r i a n 326 72 B e l g i a n 70 4 Czech/Slovak 125 85 Dutch 285 114 F i n n i s h 24 17 German 1,834 399 Hebrew 4 2 Hungarian 128 53 I t a l i a n 321 181 P o l i s h 229 41 Roumanian 86 11 Russian 348 228 Scandinavian 664 554 Ukranian 408 11 Others 60 316 ASIATIC Chinese & Japanese 1,696* 214 Other 78 1 Indian & Eskimo 841 317 U n s p e c i f i e d 28 23 * The A s i a t i c p o p u l a t i o n (Chinese and Japanese) had more than doubled i n s u b d i v i s i o n 3A by 1931. Source: 1931 Canadian Census -42-TABLE IV E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1941 3A 3B Kelowna Vernon P e n t i c t i BRITISH E n g l i s h 11,246 6,280 2,070 2, 507 3, 205 I r i sh 2,754 1,698 484 425 581 Scot 4,478 2,632 895 742 918 Others 406 327 112 26 62 EUROPEAN French 937 404 179 162 134 A u s t r i a n 333 120 30 68 18 B e l g i a n 127 26 14 31 15 Czech/Slovak 143 180 13 18 3 F i n n i s h 31 33 5 2 2 German 2,480 929 383 278 173 Hungarian 347 186 119 40 38 I t a l i a n 374 264 137 11 66 Jewish 15 - 1 12 — Dutch 569 364 82 872 112 P o l i s h 716 136 58 208 30 Roumanian 205 37 44 26 6 Russian 902 276 156 132 85 Scandinavian 914 794 146 135 202 Ukranian 1,085 1,131 52 171 5 Other 115 380 28 12 57 ASIATIC* Chinese 524 146 71 112 41 Japanese 721 30 25 1 14 Other 32 7 2 1 -Indian & Eskimo 604 388 _ 2 3 Other & Not St a t e d 248 90 12 5 7 TOTAL 30,306 15,040 5 ,118 5.209 5.777 Note: P o p u l a t i o n breakdown by e t h n i c groups i n the major c i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e i n the 1941 census. *No major a l t e r a t i o n s i n s i z e of A s i a t i c p o p u l a t i o n . Source: 1941 Canadian Census -43-At the t u r n of the century, there was g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y i n Vernon. In 1902 a h i g h s c h o o l was b u i l t i n the c i t y , one of two schools i n the i n t e r i o r . The v a l l e y a t t r a c t e d many s e t t l e r s from other p a r t s of Europe, and even A s i a . Thus there was a s i z e a b l e group of B r i t i s h , Scandinavians, Germans, I t a l i a n s , i n a d d i t i o n to Japanese and Chinese. The Sikhs are not i d e n t i f i e d as a category. The f i r s t Japanese t o come i n t o the area d i d so i n 1911 and worked i n the sawmill. L a t e r a few other f a m i l i e s a r r i v e d ( i n 1915 and 1916) from the coast where they had been employed i n f i s h i n g . They took to working on the farms and e v e n t u a l l y were a b l e t o buy p r o p e r t y . The f i r s t Japan-ese f a m i l y t o own l a n d i n Rutland d i d so i n 1923. They were to l a t e r take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the f r u i t and vegetable a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the v a l l e y . L i k e the Japanese i n Vernon, there i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h at they had hard times d u r i n g the two wars. The f i r s t t h r e e decades of the century witnessed the e s t a b l i s h -ment of the Japanese United Church and the Japanese Buddhist Church. Most of the f a m i l i e s who came i n t o the i n t e r i o r were Buddhists, many of whom converted t o C h r i s t i a n i t y t o escape censure. -44-I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the f i r s t S i k h s s e t t l e d i n the v a l l e y . A c c o r d i n g t o the h i s t o r i c a l r e p o r t (1971) t h r e e S i k h s came t o R u t l a n d i n 1909. I n 1913 s e v e r a l o t h e r s f i l t e r e d i n , b u t t h e y formed o n l y a s m a l l n u c l e u s . The e a r l y l i f e of t h e s e S i k h s e t t l e r s i n the v a l l e y has not r e c e i v e d any a t t e n t i o n except a p a s s i n g mention i n the h i s t o r i c a l r e p o r t s . S i n c e I had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r v i e w a t l e a s t some o f the o l d e r f a m i l i e s i n the a r e a , a d e s c r i p t i v e account o f l i f e f o r the S i k h s i n the f i r s t f i f t y y e a r s o f the c e n t u r y was p o s s i b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o one o f them, "Canadians d i d n o t want us as n e i g h b o u r s or t o buy o r c h a r d s . We were supposed t o l i v e away from t h e main r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . P e o p l e l o o k e d a t our t u r b a n s and the t r a d i t i o n a l o u t f i t s t h a t our women wore, w i t h d i s g u s t and s u s p i c i o n . We kept m a i n l y t o o u r s e l v e s . " I t became c l e a r t h a t t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e s e t t l e r s were not v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the f a t e o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d , t h e number of S i k h s e n t e r i n g Canada was v e r y s m a l l i n comparison t o o t h e r European i m m i g r a n t s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o Mehta (1972), between 1921-22 t h e r e were 13, and i n 1925-26 t h i s number had o n l y i n c r e a s e d t o 60. I t was not u n t i l the f i f t i e s t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l t e r e d . -45-A c ceptance i n the community of R u t l a n d was v e r y d i f f i c u l t i n the e a r l y y e a r s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e were o n l y a h a n d f u l of S i k h s h e r e . Some of the E n g l i s h who had some c o n t a c t s w i t h I n d i a n s i n the army were f r i e n d l y and h e l p e d them get j o b s . There were, however, a number of I t a l i a n s and Germans i n R u t l a n d , and the f a c t t h a t t h e s e two groups had t o f a c e tough t i m e s as w e l l , made them more a m i c a b l e towards th e E a s t I n d i a n s . There were i n f a c t two r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t e r s i n R u t l a n d . One comprised of the p r e f e r r e d groups from n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n Europe, and the second c o m p r i s e d of the Japanese, the I t a l i a n s and E a s t I n d i a n s . A c c o r d i n g t o one o f my i n f o r m a n t s , the Germans even r a i s e d the N a z i f l a g , much t o the c h a g r i n o f a l l the o t h e r members of t h e community. T h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d not improve u n t i l the 1950's when the c l a u s e r e g a r d i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n o f Germans and I t a l i a n s was removed and t h e y were a l l o w e d t o come i n t o the c o u n t r y (Hawkins: 1972). South e r n Okanagan - O l i v e r D i s t r i c t When the mine i n F a i r v i e w was c l o s e d down, i t seemed t h a t the town a l s o r e c e i v e d i t s d e a t h k n e l l . The o n l y o t h e r nearby s e t t l e m e n t was i n Osoyoos, i n the s o u t h . I t was not u n t i l 1921 t h a t the town of O l i v e r was e s t a b l i s h e d . A f t e r World War I t h e government of B r i t i s h C olumbia, under the then P r e m i e r the Honourable John O l i v e r , was concerned about s e t t l i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i n g i t s war -46-v e t e r a n s . The a r e a s o u t h o f P e n t i c t o n was found s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s e purposes and the government pur c h a s e d l a n d from t h e South Okanagan Land Company. They c a l l e d t h i s t h e South Okanagan l a n d p r o j e c t , and t h e i r p l a n was t o l a y out the i r r i g a b l e a r e a i n t o 10 a c r e l o t s w i t h p r o p e r water s u p p l y . The terms o f t h e c o n t r a c t were t h a t l a n d c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d w i t h a down payment o f 10% and w i t h 20 y e a r s r e m a i n i n g t o pay t h e b a l a n c e ( O l i v e r and D i s t r i c t C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). When t h e y found t h a t t h e r e were not enough men from B r i t i s h Columbia t o purchase the l a n d , they opened i t t o o t h e r s . By 1921, l i k e a l l o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n the v a l l e y , O l i v e r had i t s own s t o r e , g r o c e r s , b u t c h e r s , plumbers, r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s , shoe r e p a i r e r s , garage mechanics and lumber w o r k e r s . I n the 1930's O l i v e r even had i t s own a i r p o r t . For the f i r s t 25 y e a r s O l i v e r remained an unorgan-i z e d d i s t r i c t . I t was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a v i l l a g e i n 1946, and by 1966, the O l i v e r r u r a l a r e a came under the j u r i s d i c -t i o n of the R e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o f Okanagan-Simalkameen. L i k e o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s , O l i v e r had i t s own s c h o o l s and c h u r c h e s . Among the churches t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y y e a r s were the U n i t e d c h u r c h , the A n g l i c a n c h u r c h , t h e P e n t a c o s t a l c h u r c h , the L u t h e r a n c h u r c h and t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . -47-During the e a r l y years i n O l i v e r the l a r g e s t groups of s e t t l e r s were from the B r i t i s h I s l e s and n o r t h e r n Europe. The German community was welcome u n t i l the war s t a r t e d . With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s p e c i a l immigration cl a u s e l i m i t i n g the numbers of Germans and I t a l i a n s , t h i n g s became d i f f i c u l t ( O l i v e r and D i s t r i c t C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971) . The other groups t h a t have had d i f f i c u l t times are the Chinese and the Japanese. The f a c t that there were no East Indians i n O l i v e r u n t i l the 1960 1s i s q u i t e r e v e a l i n g i n i t s e l f . There were not many r e s i d e n t Japanese or Chinese i n the south end of the v a l l e y , e i t h e r . As e a r l y as 1906, a few Chinese were d r i v e n out of town. They had been brought i n t o the v a l l e y to c l e a r the l a n d . "A w e l l attended meeting of the v i g i l a n t e committee threatened to b o y c o t t merchants who would not s i g n a p e t i t i o n a g a i n s t the i n t r u s i o n of the Chinese. Matters got out of hand, and a group of whites chased the Chinese out of town. F i v e r e s i d e n t s were found g u i l t y and f i n e d $25 or 30 days i n j a i l . One p a i d the f i n e , but the remaining four r e f u s e d to do so. As they l e f t the c o u r t house, they were cheered by a crowd of c i t i z e n s and a c o l l e c t i o n of $55 was q u i c k l y gathered toward p a r t i a l payment of the f i n e s , but the four r e f u s e d to accept i t , p r e f e r r i n g to martyr themselves i n the v i l l a g e j a i l . " (Morton: 1922: 199). As l a t e as 1941 there was another i n c i d e n t t h a t was r e p o r t e d i n the l o c a l newspaper. I t was s a i d that the O l i v e r Board of Trade f o r m a l l y r e - a f f i r m e d i t s stand t h a t no O r i e n t a l s be allowed i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . - 4 8 -A n o t h e r r e p o r t i n t h e same n e w s p a p e r n o t e d , ( O l i v e r C h r o n i c l e : 1941) " E a r l y s e t t l e r s w e r e n o t h e s i t a n t i n r u n n i n g O r i e n t a l s o u t o f t h e a r e a . Back i n t h e 1930's a n g r y g r o w e r s i n t h e d i s -t r i c t c h a s e d o u t a C h i n e s e f r o m t o w n b e c a u s e t h e y f e a r e d t h a t he w o u l d u n d e r c u t t h e wage s t r u c t u r e i n t h e a r e a . " T h i s s i t u a t i o n b e g a n t o a l t e r i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s when t h e r e w e re more J a p a n e s e and C h i n e s e i n t h e a r e a . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e a t p r e s e n t o n l y a few f a m i l i e s o f C h i n e s e , J a p a n e s e and E a s t I n d i a n o r i g i n s . I n t h e S i m i l k a m e e n a r e a , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1921 c e n s u s t h e r e w e re 203 C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e . T h e r e was o n l y a v e r y s l i g h t i n c r e a s e b y 1931 (214) a n d b y 1941 t h e r e was a d e c l i n e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e . I n P e n t i c t o n , t h e r e w e re o n l y 55 i n d i v i d u a l s o f J a p a n e s e a n d C h i n e s e o r i g i n . I n a l l t h e t h r e e c e n s u s ' t h a t w e re t a k e n , t h o s e o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p w i t h a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e o f t h o s e o f German, D u t c h a n d S c a n d i n a v i a n o r i g i n . M e n t i o n must a l s o be made o f t h e s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n m a i n l y f r o m P o l a n d , R u s s i a and t h e U k r a i n e . -49-A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the F r u i t I n d u s t r y What we have d i s c u s s e d thus f a r i s j u s t a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e growth of s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e v a l l e y . As we saw, most of t h e s e towns and v i l l a g e s c e n t e r e d around the f r u i t i n d u s t r y , which was the main a t t r a c t i o n f o r most s e t t l e r s t o the v a l l e y . The h i s t o r y o f t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y i s then c r i t i c a l t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of where the P o r t u g u e s e f i t i n the l a r g e r p i c t u r e . One o f t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e s , as we s h a l l see, was the q u e s t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i o n . The g r e a t e s t s t r u g g l e was t o g e t t h e f a r m e r s t o agree t o a c t as a group r a t h e r t h a n as i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s problem was compounded when new s e t t l e r s came i n s i n c e t h e y d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y agree t o the e s t a b l i s h e d norms and p a t t e r n s . The P o r t u g u e s e are a good example o f one such group t h a t had t o l e a r n the r u l e s o f c o o p e r a t i v e m a r k e t i n g and s e l l i n g . I t i s w i t h t h i s i n mind, t h a t we can t a l k about the changes i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g o f the i n d u s t r y from the e a r l y decades of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . As we saw e a r l i e r , the p l a n t i n g o f a p p l e t r e e s i n the M i s s i o n d i s t r i c t by the O b l a t e F a t h e r s was the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of such an e n t e r p r i s e . I t was not u n t i l 1908, however, t h a t the v a l l e y became the c e n t e r o f the i n d u s t r y - 5 0 -i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t w a s a l s o i n t h e s a m e y e a r t h a t t h e O k a n a g a n F r u i t U n i o n w a s f o u n d e d . T h e g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m t h a t t h e i n d u s t r y f a c e d d u r i n g a l l t h e s e y e a r s w a s o n e o f m a r k e t i n g . D e s p i t e e f f o r t s made b y t h e d i r e c t o r s , t h e c o n c e p t o f c o o p e r a t i o n w a s n o t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d n o r a c c e p t e d . I n 1 9 1 3 , h o w e v e r , t h e g r o w e r s f i n a l l y u n i t e d t o f o r m t h e O k a n a g a n U n i t e d G r o w e r s . T h i s new m a r k e t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s a c o o p e r a t i v e , n o n - s t o c k , n o n - p r o f i t , c e n t r a l s e l l i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g a g e n c y s u p p o r t e d i n p a r t b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . A s a r e s u l t , a t l e a s t u n t i l 1 9 2 3 , a b o u t 1 , 0 0 0 g r o w e r s h a d s i g n e d u p a n d h a d o b t a i n e d a l m o s t t o t a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e P r a i r i e m a r k e t . B u t t h i s s u c c e s s w a s s h o r t l i v e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e w a r t h e f a r m e r s h a d h o p e d f o r a n e x p a n d i n g m a r k e t i n t h e w e s t , b u t t h i s w a s n o t t o b e . T h e i r f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t i n c o o p e r a t i o n h a d f a i l e d o w i n g t o n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p r e s s u r e s . B y 1 9 2 7 i t w a s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e o n l y w a y t o s t a b i l i z e p r i c e s a n d t o e n s u r e a m a r k e t f o r t h e f r u i t w a s t o g e t t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l g r o w e r s i n t h e m a r k e t i n g o f t h e i r f r u i t . T h e p a s s i n g o f t h e N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s M a r k e t i n g A c t ( i n 1 9 3 4 ) , a t l e a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v e g e t a b l e a n d f r u i t i n d u s t r y , s t r o v e t o k e e p s ome c o n t r o l o v e r t h e n u m b e r o f s h i p p e r s o f f r u i t b y i s s u i n g l i c e n c e s a n d s e t t i n g a m i n i m u m p r i c e . H o w e v e r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s a c t w a s l a t e r c h a l l e n g e d i n - 5 1 -1 9 4 1 o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e h a d t a k e n o v e r s ome o f t h e d u t i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l f i e l d o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h u s i t s e e m s t h a t t h e a t t e m p t made a t c o o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g h a d o n c e a g a i n f a i l e d . T h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s w e r e t e r r i b l e y e a r s f o r t h e 4 g r o w e r s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e " N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s M a r k e t i n g A c t " . A s s o o n a s t h i s w a s p a s s e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r u i t B o a r d w a s o r g a n i z e d . I n 1 9 3 6 t h e y s e t u p t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r e e F r u i t L i m i t e d , w h i c h h a d l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o s u p e r v i s e p r o d u c t f l o w a n d p r i c e s e t t i n g . I t w a s o n l y i n 1 9 4 0 t h a t t h e B o a r d w a s g i v e n c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f t h e m a r k e t i n g o f a p p l e s b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h a n o r d e r i n c o u n c i l u n d e r t h e War M e a s u r e s A c t ( L e e : 1 9 7 6 ) . I n 1 9 4 6 t h e p r e s e n t S u n R y p e P r o d u c t s L i m i t e d w a s f o r m e d . I t s f u n c t i o n w a s t o u s e l o w e r g r a d e s o f f r u i t a n d c u l l s t o p r o d u c e j u i c e . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r u i t B o a r d d r e w i t s a u t h o r i t y f r o m t h e m a r k e t i n g A c t s p a s s e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s w e l l a s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . I t s m a i n d u t i e s w e r e t o s e t p r i c e s a f t e r t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s , t o d e s i g n a t e a s e l l i n g a g e n c y f o r t h e m a r k e t i n g o f t h e f r u i t , t o e m p l o y i n s p e c t o r s t o c h e c k o n p r o h i b i t e d m o v e m e n t s o f f r u i t , t o p r o v i d e l i c e n c e s f o r g r o w e r s w i t h o n e o r m o r e a c r e s o f t r e e -52-f r u i t s and to r e g u l a t e and c o n t r o l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of a l l f r u i t s i n the area (Lee: 1976). The marketing agency f o r the Board was an i n d u s t r y owned company c a l l e d the B r i t i s h Columbia Tree F r u i t L i m i t e d . In 1946 the Sun Rype products was e s t a b l i s h e d that processed wastes, c u l l s , and low grade f r u i t . In 1970 another s u b s i d i a r y , the B r i t i s h Columbia Tree Fr e s h Storage L i m i t e d was e s t a b l i s h e d t o augment storage f a c i l i t i e s by p r o v i d i n g some c o n t r o l l e d atmosphere storage areas f o r the i n d u s t r y . T h i s of course ensured the market of a r e g u l a r supply of f r u i t a f t e r the h a r v e s t (Lee: 1976). Summary The war years proved t o be a d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d f o r s e t t l e r s i n the v a l l e y . E s p e c i a l l y the farmers faced a gr e a t d e a l of u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . While c o o p e r a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l and promoted, no guarantees were made r e g a r d i n g the income t h a t they would r e c e i v e . Many of them sought to d i v e r s i f y , and fought to remain independent, which i n i t s e l f was not an unusual response. Acco r d i n g t o Hedley (1979) s i m i l a r experiences were encountered by farmers i n c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . Since Canada i s c a p i t a l i s t i n i t s economic o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s through r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h i s c a p i t a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t farmers d i s p o s e of t h e i r goods and o b t a i n goods i n exchange. In c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , as i n the Okanagan, c o o p e r a t i o n was seen as an a l t e r n a t i v e and as a means of c o n t r o l l i n g or a f f e c t i n g the outcome of exchange. However, with f a i l u r e s i n the use of such methods, the c o s t - p r i c e p r e s s u r e s f o r c e d farmers to a l t e r or change the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n . They r a l l i e d together as a group i n the Okanagan and e s t a b l i s h e d the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . Subsequently they e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own company, to market t h e i r p r o d u c t s . I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d that l a r g e numbers of immigrants were e n t e r i n g the country and making t h e i r way to the v a l l e y . There were a number of immigrants from the e a s t e r n and southern p a r t s of Europe. At f i r s t they were segregated, but g r a d u a l l y they o b t a i n e d acceptance w i t h i n the community boundaries. The Asi a n s , however, d i d not r e c e i v e much s o c i a l acceptance, although i t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t they were allowed to own p r o p e r t y and to vote as w e l l . In a l l other ways they were marginal to the "core community". W i t h i n t h i s l a t t e r group i t s e l f there were those who were most d e s i r a b l e and those who were not. During the f i r s t world war the Germans and I t a l i a n s were d i s l i k e d i n t e n s e l y . I t was not u n t i l the 1950's that t h i s began to a l t e r . Those who were both e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y dominant were s e t t l e r s from the B r i t i s h I s l e s or some p a r t s of Northern Europe. The other Europeans, a l t h o u g h The r e s t -54-e c o n o m i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , were s o c i a l l y p e r i p h e r a l , were b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y p e r i p h e r a l . I n t h i s p e r i o d , as i n e a r l i e r t i m e s , t h o s e who were a t t h e c o r e i n t e r a c t e d i n t e n s e l y w i t h each o t h e r . They d e f i n e d community i n terms o f b o t h f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n . T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n was not me r e l y c o n f i n e d t o them, b u t a l s o t o o t h e r p e r i p h e r a l groups who extended i t o n l y t o th o s e who were members. But t h e y a l w a y s remained m a r g i n a l t o t h e r e s t o f the s e t t l e m e n t . As i n e a r l i e r t i m e s , r a c e and c o l o u r c o n t i n u e d t o be the b a s i s on which c u l t u r e s were s t r a t i f i e d . F i n a l l y , committment t o the l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t over and above c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y was c e n t r a l i n c o o r d i n a t i n g community l i f e . 1950-1962 A f t e r the wars, changes were made i n the immigra-t i o n p o l i c i e s o f the Canadian government. What was e s s e n -t i a l l y an e x c l u s i o n i s t p o l i c y began t o l o s e i t s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r . For i n s t a n c e , the c l a u s e p r o h i b i t i n g the e n t r y o f Germans and I t a l i a n s was l i f t e d (Hawkins: 1972) and t h e y were g i v e n a much b e t t e r r e c e p t i o n . L i k e w i s e , i n the case of d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s from Hungary a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n i n 1956, Canada was much more open i n her r e c e p t i o n and - 5 5 -s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s e n e w c o m e r s o n t h e l a n d . Y e t t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e A s i a n s r e m a i n e d t h e s a m e . C a n a d a w a s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e g o a l o f n o t m a k i n g " a n y f u n d a m e n t a l a l t e r a t i o n s " i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y a l t h o u g h i m m i g r a t i o n l a w s a s a w h o l e w e r e r e l a x e d ( H a w k i n s : 1 9 7 2 : 1 1 7 ) . I f o n e w e r e t o t h i n k o f i m m i g r a t i o n l a w s a s c r e a t i n g c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s w i t h m o s t p r e f e r r e d n a t i o n a l s a t t h e c o r e a n d u n d e s i r a b l e s a t t h e p e r i p h e r i e s , o n e c a n g a i n a b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e C a n a d i a n s i t u t i o n . T h o s e a t t h e c o r e e n j o y e d t h e m o s t p r i v i l e g e s . T h e y w e r e a d m i t t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f t r a d e o r s k i l l l e v e l s i n t o t h e c o u n t r y a l o n g w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . T h e n c a m e t h e c o u n t r i e s t h a t w e r e p r e f e r r e d , a n d l a s t l y , t h e A s i a n s . T h e l a t t e r g r o u p m e m b e r s w e r e a l l o w e d t o s p o n s o r t h e i r i m m e d i a t e f a m i l i e s o n c e t h e y h a d t a k e n C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s h i p . I t w a s n o w o n d e r t h e n t h a t u n t i l t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s t h e n u m b e r o f i m m i g r a n t s c o m i n g i n f r o m t h e l e a s t p r e f e r r e d c o u n t r i e s w e r e l i m i t e d . I t w a s a l s o d u r i n g t h e f i f t i e s t h a t t h e P o r t u g u e s e i m m i g r a n t s b e g a n t o e n t e r C a n a d a . T h e n u m b e r s i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a l o n g w i t h t h o s e o f t h e S i k h s . T h e c e n s u s d a t a f o r 1 9 5 1 a n d 1 9 6 1 , p r o v i d e s u s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o n e t h n i c g r o u p s f o r d i v i s i o n 3 a s a w h o l e a s w e l l a s f o r t h e m a j o r c i t i e s i n t h e v a l l e y . O f s p e c i a l -56-i m p o r t a n c e t o n o t e i s t h e c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n s w i t h s t e a d y i n c r e a s e o f t h o s e o f German, I t a l i a n , D u t c h , P o l i s h , R u s s i a n , S c a n d i n a v i a n and U k r a n i a n o r i g i n s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n 1951, i n P e n t i c t o n c i t y , c l e a r l y t h o s e o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n s w e r e n u m e r i c a l l y t h e l a r g e s t . I n 1 9 6 1, no m a j o r c h a n g e s i n p a t t e r n s e m e r g e d . T h o s e o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n s c o n t i n u e d t o b e n u m e r i c a l l y s t r o n g , a l o n g w i t h t h e Germans, U k r a n i a n s and S c a n d i n a v i a n s . B u t b e f o r e we e n t e r i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e two g r o u p s , l e t us t a k e a l o o k a t t h e t h r e e s u b - a r e a s i n t h e Okanagan V a l l e y t h a t w e r e t o p r o v i d e them w o r k and s h e l t e r . - s e e T a b l e s V, V I , V I I , V I I I --57-TABLE V E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1951 B.C. DIVISION 3* POPULATION MALE FEMALE B r i t i s h 42,592 21,320 21,272 French 2,473 1, 236 1, 237 A u s t r i a n 940 475 483 Czech/Slovak 671 363 308 F i n n i sh 139 72 67 German 9,074 4,587 4,487 Hungarian 758 381 377 I t a l i a n 1,008 553 455 Jewish 25 13 12 Dutch 2,168 1,114 1,054 P o l i s h 1, 289 637 652 Russian 4,423 2, 224 2, 199 Scandinavian 3,380 1,793 1,587 Ukranian 2, 787 1,422 1, 365 Other 1,124 593 531 Chinese 443 406 37 Japanese 2, 188 1,178 1,010 Other 82 43 39 Native Indian & Eskimo 1,031 538 493 Other & Not S t a t e d 1,091 591 500 TOTAL 77.686 39,521 38,165 * Information f o r o n l y d i v i s i o n 3 was a v a i l a b l e . (The p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s i n A and B were not a v a i l a b l e . ) Source: 1951 Canadian Census -58-TABLE E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n VI P e n t i c t o n i n 1951 PENTICTON* POPULATION MALE FEMALE B r i t i s h 7,605 3, 691 3,914 Fr e n c h 290 141 149 A u s t r i a n 42 13 29 Czec h / S l o v a k 50 25 25 F i n n i sh 11 5 6 German 653 301 352 Hung a r i a n 75 36 39 I t a l i a n 131 62 69 Je w i sh 2 1 1 Dutch 247 121 126 P o l i s h 116 53 63 R u s s i a n 247 124 123 S c a n d i n a v i a n 554 270 284 U k r a n i a n 121 50 71 Other 156 94 62 C h i n e s e 33 31 2 Japanese 55 30 25 Other 6 4 2 N a t i v e I n d i a n & Eskimo 6 4 2 Other & Not S t a t e d 148 75 73 TOTAL 10.548 5, 131 5.417 * P o p u l a t i o n breakdown by e t h n i c i t y was a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r P e n t i c t o n . S ource: 1951 Canadian Census TABLE VII E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1961 3A 3B O l i v e r * Osoyoo: B r i t i s h 30,884 16,305 892 430 French 2,134 972 88 18 German 8,403 3, 298 334 240 I t a l i a n 937 469 28 8 J ewish 7 5 - — Dutch 2,282 1,040 104 23 P o l i s h 1, 245 282 18 14 Russian 1,342 670 85 15 Scandinavian 2,589 1,458 72 56 Other European 3,262 2,054 108 158 A s i a t i c 1, 546 130 3 -N a t i v e & Eskimo 884 337 5 5 Other & Not S t a t e d 632 330 11 12 TOTAL 58.692 27.843 1,774 1.022 *Data was a v a i l a b l e f o r O l i v e r and Osoyoos as w e l l . Source: 1961 Canadian Census TABLE VI I I E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y of Kelowna, P e n t i c t o n , and Vernon i n 1961 KELOWNA PENTICTON VERNON Pop u l a t i o n Male Female P o p u l a t i o n Male Female P o p u l a t i o n Male Female B r i t i s h 7,368 3,563 3,805 9,120 4,488 4,632 5,507 2,618 2,889 French 458 218 240 478 228 250 358 168 190 A u s t r i a n 273 121 152 146 80 66 198 98 100 Czech/Slovak 51 20 31 89 43 46 35 16 19 F i n n i s h 20 13 7 12 5 7 31 12 19 German 2,326 1,121 1,205 1,144 563 581 1,314 619 695 Hungarian 118 57 61 196 105 91 66 32 34 I t a l i a n 309 156 153 209 105 104 118 63 55 Jewish - - - 1 0 1 1 0 1 Dutch 427 213 214 396 188 208 294 150 144 P o l i s h 168 74 91 145 63 82 353 185 168 Russian 311 155. 156 308 142 166 166 93 73 Scandinavian 538 262 276 792 363 429 428 221 207 Ukranian 270 112 158 271 134 137 835 407 428 Other 177 99 78 290 149 141 146 72 74 Chinese 62 43 19 27 23 4 145 106 39 Japanese 98 61 37 30 17 13 87 48 39 Other 48 23 ' 25 2 0 2 2 2 0 Native/Eskimo 1 1 0 19 9 10 24 10 14 Black - - - - - - 1 0 1 Other & Not Stated 165 72 93 184 91 93 141 64 77 TOTAL 13,188 6,384 6,004 13.859 6,796 7.063 10.250 4.984 5.266 Source: 1961 Canadian Census -61-Northern and C e n t r a l Okanagan  Vernon Since 1941 the p o p u l a t i o n i n the northern end of the v a l l e y had g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d . The growth i n p o p u l a t i o n was l i k e w i s e matched by a growth i n a g r i c u l t u r e . I t had d i v e r s i f i e d tremendously and i n c l u d e d t r e e f r u i t s , v e g e t a b l e seed, g r a i n , d a i r y i n g , p o u l t r y and l i v e s t o c k . F u r t h e r , approximately 8,000 acres of land were i r r i g a t e d by the Vernon I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , which expanded i n 1920. Likewise, d e s p i t e setbacks, t r e e f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n had improved. Lumber was a l s o a major source of income i n the d i s t r i c t . A c c o r d i n g to an Economic Study (1973), e x t e n s i v e l o g g i n g i n the area d i d not begin u n t i l a f t e r World War I I . In the l a t e 1940's and e a r l y 1950's there was a boom which was f o l l o w e d by a p e r i o d of c o n s o l i d a t i o n , as the most a c c e s s i b l e timber was exhausted. The d a i r y i n d u s t r y was a c h a l l e n g e to both a g r i c u l -t u r e and l o g g i n g . The d a i r y b e l t i n the northern Okanagan was the l a r g e s t i n the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e . The -62-t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y h a d a l s o e x p a n d e d a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w a s s t i l l d o i n g s o . W h a t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i s t h a t t h e r e w a s a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n o w i n g t o t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f V e r n o n a s a n i d e a l r e t i r e m e n t c e n t r e . T h i s h a d i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d m a r k e d a g r o w i n g t r e n d i n t h e r e g i o n . T h e m i l d c l i m a t e , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e , made t h e O k a n a g a n a n a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e f o r r e t i r e m e n t . P l a n s f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e t o w n s o r t h e i n d u s t r i e s w o u l d h a v e t o t a k e t h i s f e a t u r e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e f i f t i e s a n d t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s w i t n e s s e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n s t a -t i o n s . M o d e r n t e l e p h o n e f a c i l i t i e s w e r e a l s o i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e f i f t i e s ( T h e r e s a : 1 9 7 1 ) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e A s i a n s w e r e g i v e n s o me c o n c e s s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n u m b e r o f e n t r a n t s a l l o w e d . A s w a s t r u e i n t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a , t h o s e who w e r e C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s w e r e a l l o w e d t o s p o n s o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . S i n c e t h e n u c l e u s o f S i k h s e t t l e r s w a s v e r y s m a l l , t h e n u m b e r o f f a m i l i e s t h a t c a me t o t h e v a l l e y w a s a l s o v e r y s m a l l . R u t l a n d D i s t r i c t -63-U n l i k e Vernon, however, R u t l a n d d i d not e x p e r i e n c e the r a p i d pace o f growth. But t h i s i s not t o say t h a t t h e r e was no growth a t a l l . Among o t h e r v e n t u r e s , such as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Board o f Trade and the R u t l a n d F i r e B r i g a d e , the R u t l a n d Water Works D i s t r i c t was a l s o formed ( R u t l a n d C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). T h i s was t o p r o v i d e f o r d o m e s t i c water o n l y , s i n c e the number o f s u b d i v i s i o n s o f l a n d had s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d . The v a l u e o f such a system t o a growing town s i t e can h a r d l y be o v e r l o o k e d ( R u t l a n d C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). Among the groups t h a t came t o R u t l a n d i n t h i s p e r i o d were the S i k h s . As we n o t e d e a r l i e r , t h e n o r t h end o f t h e v a l l e y had always a t t r a c t e d them, e s p e c i a l l y because of the s m a l l n u c l e u s o f S i k h s l o c a t e d t h e r e s i n c e the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h i s i n c r e a s e was l a r g e l y due t o the s p o n s o r s h i p programme o f the government. I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t many o f t h e o l d e r f a m i l i e s began t o buy l a n d and p r o p e r t y . S o u t h e r n Okanagan - O l i v e r D i s t r i c t I n 1946, O l i v e r was made i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t had a l s o d i v e r s i f i e d i n terms o f i t s i n d u s t r i e s , a l t h o u g h -64-a g r i c u l t u r e a nd p a r t i c u l a r l y t r e e f r u i t s c o n s t i t u t e d a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f i t s i n c o m e . D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d t h e r e w e re l a b o u r s h o r t a g e s . T h i s d e a r t h i n t h e s u p p l y o f r e l i a b l e l a b o u r p r o m p t e d t h e move t a k e n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o e n c o u r a g e l a b o u r e r s f r o m s o u t h e r n E u r o p e . The P o r t u g u e s e came t o t h e v a l l e y i n 1 9 5 5. The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t on P o r t u g u e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t h e f i f t i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e movement f r o m P o r t u g a l was n o t e n t i r e l y due t o p u s h f a c t o r s , s u c h a s e c o n o m i c d i s a s t e r s , and t h e l i k e . C a n a d a was a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t i n g u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r f r o m P o r t u g a l a n d I t a l y a s w e l l . " F o r t h e 1954 programme a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e g o v e r n m e n t t h e P o r t u g u e s e movement c o m p r i s e d 200 r a i l w a y t r a c k w o r k e r s f o r t h e R.F. W e l s h Co., 700 a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s f o r m i x e d f a r m s , and up t o 50 t r a d e s m e n w i t h a l l s e l e c t i o n s t o be c o n d u c t e d i n t h e A z o r e s . I n 1955 t h e a p p r o v e d movement c o n s i s t e d o f 900 f a r m l a b o u r e r s and 50 t r a d e s m e n t o be s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e P o r t u g u e s e m a i n l a n d . I n 1956 a s i m i l a r programme was a p p r o v e d b u t w i t h s e l e c t i o n f r o m t h e A z o r e s . F o r t h e 1957 i m m i g r a t i o n programme, i n l i n e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l e x p a n s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h e programme i n c l u d e d 2,000 f a r m l a b o u r e r s (1,000 f r o m t h e A z o r e s and 1,000 f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d ) a s w e l l a s 50 t r a d e s m e n . S u b s e -q u e n t l y a 1,000 t r a c k w o r k e r s f r o m t h e A z o r e s f o r t h e R.F. W e l s h Co. was a l s o a u t h o r i z e d i n 1 9 5 7 . " ( H a w k i n s : 1972: 5 0 ) . A b o u t t h e same t i m e s e r i o u s d o u b t s were h e l d a s t o t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n C a n a d a ( H a w k i n s : 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e s e u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s w e re a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s p o n s o r e d movement o f more u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r f r o m t h e s e p a r t s . I n t h e Okanagan, t h e c o m i n g o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e was -65-viewed as a mixed blessing. While the farmers in the d i s t r i c t were very glad for the r e l i a b l e help, non-farmers were concerned about the numbers of u n s k i l l e d labourers and their r e l a t i v e s moving into the small settlements. Most of them came to Penticton, Naramata, Oliver and Osoyoos. Later, others moved into the central and northern end of the v a l l e y . It i s also reported that on occasion, domestic helpers were treated with contempt, e s p e c i a l l y in the Naramata area. In Oliver i t s e l f , there were occasional outbursts of resentment from l o c a l s when the Portuguese formed l i t t l e groups on the street corners and spoke in their mother tongue. 5 However, the records of the Rotary Club, e s p e c i a l l y in the 1950's, suggest that there was a concerted e f f o r t by the l o c a l s to enable the Portuguese and other newcomers in the area to s e t t l e . For these purposes the Club hosted the new Canadian night. What i s pertinent to note i s the use of the term "assimilation" with respect to the new Canadians. The celebration of the New Canadian Night lasted u n t i l 1960, although i t was only i n the 1957 report that the Portuguese were mentioned. It was clear that there were not many of them, and from what my i n f o r --66-mants have s a i d , t h e r e were o n l y 10-15 f a m i l i e s i n a l l of O l i v e r and Osoyoos. Summary There were two i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . F i r s t l y , t h a t the v a l l e y began t o a t t r a c t a new group o f s e t t l e r s , t h e aged. The c l i m a t e and the l i f e s t y l e a t t r a c t e d p e o p l e from a l l p a r t s o f Canada t o spend t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s i n t h e v a l l e y . S e c o n d l y , i t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n laws came under r e v i s i o n , and A s i a n s a l o n g w i t h o t h e r groups were a l l o w e d t o sponsor immediate r e l a t i v e s . The a c u t e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e i n t h e v a l l e y was p a r t i a l l y remedied by e n c o u r a g i n g Portuguese workers t o immigrate t o Canada. These new immigrants remained p e r i p h e r a l t o the c o r e community, which was q u i t e d i v e r s e i n c o m p o s i t i o n . The communities had s i z a b l e numbers o f f a r m e r s and n o n - a g r i c u l -t u r a l w orkers a l i k e . Moreover, t h e r e was a growing number o f o l d age p e n s i o n e r s or t h o s e who wished t o r e t i r e e a r l y . I n t h i s sense then, t h e r e were s e v e r a l c o r e s . D e s p i t e the l i f t i n g o f t h e ban on i m m i g r a t i o n from A s i a , r a c e and c o l o u r c o n t i n u e d as dominant f a c t o r s i n the l i f e o f t h e v a r i o u s communities. F i n a l l y , t he emphasis on -67-l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l i d e n t i t y c o n t i n u e d t o h o l d sway. 1962 U n t i l the P r e s e n t D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d many more changes were i n t r o d u c -ed i n t o the v a l l e y . I n 1965, p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d f o r the purposes o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g a r e a s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e t o be known as R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . There were t h r e e i n the v a l l e y , N o r t h e r n , C e n t r a l and South e r n Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . The prime purpose was t o t a k e j o i n t a c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t c o u l d be b e t t e r h a n d l e d i n a c o o p e r a t i v e manner than by each of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as w e l l as t o e x t e n d t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o t h e u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . R u t l a n d thus came under the C e n t r a l Okanagan D i s t r i c t , Vernon remained i n t h e n o r t h and O l i v e r b e l o n g e d t o the South e r n Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( R u t l a n d C e n t e n n i a l Committee: 1971). I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n laws were r e d e f i n e d and which r e s u l t e d i n the unprecedented i n c r e a s e i n the number of S i k h s and Po r t u g u e s e as w e l l as o t h e r groups i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . We w i l l b e g i n w i t h the N o r t h e r n and C e n t r a l Okanagan D i s t r i c t s . What i s c u r i o u s t o n o t e i s t h a t t h e r e i s no mention of the S i k h s or the Po r t u g u e s e even a t t h i s s t a g e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r o v i d e s t h e breakdown and numbers o f e t h n i c -6 8-p o p u l a t i o n s i n the C e n t r a l Okanagan, the Northern Okanagan ( p r e v i o u s l y D i v i s i o n 3A) and the Okanagan-Similkameen d i s t r i c t s . The continued predominance of those of B r i t i s h , German, Dutch, Scandinavian and Ukranian o r i g i n i s important to note. - see Tables IX, X -TABLE IX E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i n 1971 CENTRAL OKANAGAN NORTH OKANAGAN OKANAGAN-SIMILKAMEEN Po p u l a t i o n Male Female P o p u l a t i o n Male Female P o p u l a t i o n Male Female B r i t i s h 26,300 12,950 13,350 17,800 8,775 9,025 25,015 12,514 12,505 French 2,240 1,120 1,120 1,440 740 695 1,695 895 800 A u s t r i a n 420 205 215 145 70 75 260 145 115 Chinese 120 65 60 165 85 85 70 45 25 Czech 130 70 65 220 125 90 225 120 105 F i n n i s h 100 35 70 100 55 45 65 40 25 German 9,720 4,890 4,825 5,010 2,555 2,455 5,085 2,475 2,615 Hungarian 575 295 285 265 155 115 785 425 360 I t a l i a n 840 465 370 160 85 75 635 345 285 Japanese 575 320 255 390 230 160 110 55 50 Jewish 15 10 5 30 10 20 30 15 10 Native Indian 430 220 210 700 380 325 700 395 305 Black 10 5 5 5 5 0 10 0 10 Dutch 1,670 885 790 1,155 580 575 1,360 710 650 P o l i s h 880 415 460 810 415 400 555 270 285 Ru s s i an 775 390 390 390 175 215 530 235 300 Scandinavian 2,045 1,035 1,010 1,760 905 855 2,210 1,180 1,035 Slovak 45 30 15 70 30 35 35 15 20 Ukranian 1,820 905 915 2,620 1,325 1,300 1,175 565 615 West Indian - - - - - — 15 5 10 Other & Unknown 1,470 755 720 810 405 410 2,180 1,155 1,030 TOTAL 50,180 25,055 25,125 34,040 17.095 16,945 42,750 21,600 21,150 Source: 1971 Canadian Census - 7 0 -T A B L E X E t h n i c P o p u l a t i o n i n t h e C i t i e s o f K e l o w n a , P e n t i c t o n a n d V e r n o n i n 1 9 7 1 C e n t r a l N o r t h O k a n a g a n O k a n a g a n O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n K e l o w n a V e r n o n P e n t i c t o n 0 1 i v e r * O s o y o o : B r i t i s h 1 0 , 5 3 0 6 , 9 0 5 1 1 , 3 4 5 1 , 6 6 5 1 , 3 6 5 F r e n c h 9 6 5 5 2 0 7 0 0 75 5 7 5 A u s t r i a n 1 2 5 55 1 2 0 — _ C h i n e s e 8 0 1 0 5 2 0 — _ C z e c h 70 70 1 3 0 — — F i n n i s h 2 0 65 10 — — G e r m a n 3 , 6 1 5 1 , 9 5 0 1 , 9 1 0 3 6 0 3 1 0 H u n g a r i a n 2 7 0 1 3 0 2 1 5 3 0 1 1 5 I t a l i a n 3 9 0 70 2 7 5 5 2 0 J a p a n e s e 1 2 0 1 6 0 15 — — J e w i s h 5 2 5 10 — — N a t i v e I n d i a n 75 6 0 5 5 2 0 5 B l a c k 5 — 5 _ _ D u t c h 4 8 5 4 1 5 5 2 5 55 2 0 P o l i s h 3 4 0 3 5 0 2 4 0 50 25 R u s s i a n 2 6 5 1 8 0 2 8 0 3 0 2 0 S c a n d i n a v i a n 6 7 5 6 6 0 1 , 0 3 0 5 5 6 0 S l o v a k 10 - 2 5 — _ U k r a n i a n 7 5 5 1, 2 8 0 6 2 5 4 0 30 W e s t I n d i a n - - — — — A s i a n - - — 5 2 0 O t h e r & U n k n o w n 6 2 0 2 7 5 6 1 5 1 3 0 1 3 0 T O T A L 1 9 . 4 2 5 1 3 , 2 8 0 1 8 , 1 5 0 2. 5 2 0 2 . 6 9 5 * O l i v e r a n d O s o y o o s a r e i n c l u d e d i n O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n c e n s u s d i v i s i o n . S o u r c e : 1 9 7 1 C a n a d i a n C e n s u s -71-Northern and Central Okanagan  The Lumber Industry Part of the a t t r a c t i o n of the v a l l e y to the Sikhs was the opportunities for employment in the forest indus-tr y . In 1969, there were 40 stationary m i l l s and 108 portable m i l l s in the region (Okanagan Economic Study: 1971). Of these m i l l s , since many of the smaller ones operated intermittently, 7% accounted for approximately 45% of the t o t a l capacity and more than hal f of the t o t a l production (Okanagan Economic Study: 1971). The current trend i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s away from the smaller bush m i l l s , both portable and stationary, to large complexes located on r a i l (Okanagan Economic Study: 1971: 74). This i s not to say that the smaller portable m i l l s are to be phased out, but that with the l i m i t placed on arable land that can be used for agriculture, and thereby a r e s t r i c t i o n on forest land, a reduction in the number of farmer-operated m i l l s can be expected over time. Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited f i r s t entered the Okanagan forest industries i n 1965 with the purchase of S.M. Simpson Limited of Kelowna, which in turn owned Lumby Timber Company and the Trautman Garraway Limited at Peachland. In 1969 the company purchased Armstrong Sawmills Limited with m i l l s at Armstrong, Enderby and Falkland, and in 1970 Pondosa -72-Pine Company at Monte Lake was a l s o purchased. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , l a r g e s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s were planned f o r the f u t u r e , and the s m a l l e r p l a n t s that have always been p a r t of the Okanagan landscape were to be phased out. In a d d i t i o n , i n 1957, the f i r s t plywood f a c t o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Kelowna by S.M. Simpson (now Crown Z e l l e r b a c h ) . In 1969 another f a c t o r y was b u i l t near Armstrong t h a t employed approximately 100 people. In a d d i t i o n to the pulp m i l l , other other o r g a n i z a -t i o n s d e a l i n g with wood products a l l f o r e c a s t e d the p r o s p e r -ous f u t u r e of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n the v a l l e y . T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y As we saw e a r l i e r , c o o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g was an important f e a t u r e of the Okanagan t r e e - f r u i t i n d u s t r y . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t (Hudson: 1973) the f r u i t i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e d the economic base f o r an annual c o n t r i b u t i o n of over $50 m i l l i o n to the Okanagan r e g i o n ' s economy. The economic h e a l t h of the i n d u s t r y was of paramount importance i n r e l a t i o n to the continued growth of the area. Since 1960 there had been a steady i n c r e a s e i n the valu e s of l a n d p l a n t e d t o o r c h a r d . T a b l e XI p r o v i d e s us an estimate g i v e n by the Farm C r e d i t C o r p o r a t i o n . P a r t of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i c e s can be e x p l a i n e d by the s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y . S i n c e 1972, however, a l a n d f r e e z e was i n t r o d u c e d by which a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c o u l d n ot be s o l d f o r h o u s i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s . S i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e government o p e r a t e d a s s i s t a n c e programme, f r u i t g rowing has had more a p p e a l t o the younger and new f a r m e r s . Those growers who were not o b t a i n i n g economic y i e l d s and whose r e t u r n s p e r pound were lower due t o i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y were t o r e c e i v e t e c h n i c a l and monetary a s s i s t a n c e . L i k e w i s e the c r o p i n s u r a n c e and p r i c e s t a b i l i z a t i o n schemes were v e r y i m p o r t a n t programmes f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the v i a b i l i t y o f the f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n the v a l l e y A c c o r d i n g t o the 1976-77 l i s t o f the B r i t i s h C olumbia F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n t h e r e were a t o t a l 2,194 growers i n the v a l l e y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , a l t h o u g h i n c o m p l e t e , b r e a k s t h i s down f u r t h e r . - see T a b l e X I I --74-TABLE XI Comparative V a l u e o f Land i n the Okanagan AREA VALUE OF LAND PLANTED TO ORCHARD (PER ACRE) S $ $ 1960 1970 1973 Simalkameen 1,000 2,200 2,800 O l i v e r - O s o y o o s 1,600 2,800 3, 200 P e n t i c t o n - N a r a m a t a 1,500 2,500 3,000 Summerland-Westbank 1,000 2, 500 3,000 Kelowna 1,200 3,800 ^3,500 Winfield-Oyama 800 3,000 3,000 Source: Hudson: 1973:9. An Economic Study o f the Tree F r u i t I n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. - 7 5 -TABLE XII Comparative L i s t of Canadian and Portuguese Growers  and the Land They Own (1976-1977) T o t a l Number of T o t a l Acreage Number of Acres Number of of A l l Portuguese Owned by Okanagan Okanagan L o c a l s Growers Portuguese Growers Growers Kamloops 0 0 5 45 Salmon Arm 0 0 24 275 Vernon-Coldstream 0 0 110 1,682 Oyama 0 0 100 974 W i n f i e l d -Okanagan Centre 2 19 .5 152 1,915 Glenmore 5 134.5 62 1, 224 South & East Kelowna Se M i s s i o n 3 31.8 172 3,367 Westbank-Peachland 0 0 115 1, 238 R u t l a n d - E l l i s o n 3 36 140 2, 880 Summerland 5 74.2 246 2,104 P e n t i c t o n 14 194.7 201 1,530 Naramata 5 66.9 85 880 Kaledon-Okanagan F a l l s 0 0 44 449 Keremeos-Cawston 2 22.0 118 1,860 O l i v e r 55 689.2 327 3,330 Osoyoos 62 903.3 194 2, 316 Creston 0 0 99 1,015 156 2 ,170 .8 2,194 27,084 Note: T h i s t a b l e was compiled from data g i v e n to me by the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . I cr o s s -checked t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n with the l i s t s p r o v i d e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the d i f f e r e n t l o c a l chapters as w e l l as the l i s t s p r o v i d e d by the d i r e c t o r s of the v a r i o u s c o o p e r a t i v e s . -76-Between 1962 and 1976 the p o p u l a t i o n i n the n o r t h -ern and c e n t r a l Okanagan V a l l e y i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t of the F e d e r a l I n d u s t r i a l I n c e n t i v e Programme and the expansion of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y (Plan - Vernon: 1973: 9). Vernon alone, which had a p o p u l a t i o n of 10,250 i n 1961, i n c r e a s e d to 11,423 i n 1966 and to 13,285 i n 1971 (Okanagan Economic Study: 1971: 151). During t h i s same p e r i o d , there had a l s o been a steady growth i n the number of people who r e t i r e d here. F i g u r e s f o r the c i t y of Vernon alone suggests that they are a f o r c e to be reckoned with i n a l l the planned programmes. In 1971, f o r i n s t a n c e , they comprised 19.8% of the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n (Plan - Vernon: 1973: 10). Kelowna, P e n t i c t o n , and other towns have s i m i l a r l y a t t r a c t e d r e t i r e d people. I n t e r - e t h n i c R e l a t i o n s In a r e p o r t w r i t t e n by Smitheram (1976) of e t h n i c t e n s i o n s of l o c a l i t i e s i n the v a l l e y i t was noted that i n Kelowna, there was no e v i d e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t e t h n i c groups. Acco r d i n g to Smitheram (1976:8), "There i s a d i s t i n c t i o n between u n d e s i r a b l e s and r e s p e c t a b l e people, but there i s no d e f i n i t i o n of the same. The c i t y c o u n c i l has both Chinese and Japanese s e r v i n g as Alderman." In the Vernon d i s t r i c t , "there i s a l i t t l e evidence of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n although East Indians c l a i m that t h e i r members have been beaten by white men f o r no apparent r e a -son. They are a f r a i d t o take p a r t i n p u b l i c events because -77-of bad experiences and some are reluctant to take part i n recent folk f e s t i v a l s . Chinese and Japanese seem to be accepted well in the c i t y , although this has not always been so. There i s also some open c o n f l i c t between two factions of Ukranian people." In Penticton, there i s no discrimination against any ethnic group. These reports, although questionable i n terms of indices of discrimination used, suggest that there are some tensions between the groups c i t e d and the rest of the population. At present, at least, the media from time to time report on the p o s i t i v e aspects of multi-culturalism (Kelowna Courier 1977). Southern Okanagan In 1969, there were four packing houses and one cannery in the d i s t r i c t . Industries of a manufacturing nature that were linked to the orchard industry also existed. There was one mining company that was involved i n obtaining s i l i c a in the area (Oliver and D i s t r i c t Centennial CommitVee: 1971). Although a g r i c u l t u r a l industries are the most important, the forest industries have also been a t t r a c t i n g employees in the d i s t r i c t . Thus, for instance, the branch of the Northwood m i l l s that was established at Okanagan F a l l s drew many people from Oli v e r . It provided 90 new jobs at this s i t e , in addition to the jobs in the woods. - 7 8 -L i k e w i s e i n P e n t i c t o n , Y e l l o w L a k e S a w m i l l s L i m i t e d e r e c t e d a new s a w m i l l i n 1 9 6 9 t o r e p l a c e a s m a l l e r o n e d e s t r o y e d b y f i r e . T h e c o m p a n y , w h i c h w a s a s u b s i d i a r y o f G r e e n w o o d F o r e s t P r o d u c t s , h a d t i m b e r l i c e n c e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n O k a n a g a n ( O k a n a g a n E c o n o m i c S t u d y : 1 9 7 1 ) . T h u s f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s a t t r a c t e d l a b o u r f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e v a l l e y a s w e l l ( O k a n a g a n E c o n o m i c S t u d y : 1 9 7 1 ) . I n t e r m s o f t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , m a n y i m p o r -t a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d . I n t h e s i x t i e s , a n e e d f o r a m a l g a m a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p a c k i n g h o u s e s w a s f e l t , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t w o m a j o r p a c k i n g h o u s e w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e O l i v e r - O s o y o o s d i s t r i c t . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , o n e o f t h e m w a s n a m e d t h e O l i v e r - O s o y o o s C o o p e r a t i v e G r o w e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d t h e o t h e r w a s c a l l e d t h e H a y n e s c o o p e r a t i v e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i g u r e s p r o v i d e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r u i t G r o w e r s A s s o c i a t i o n t h e r e w e r e a t o t a l o f 5 2 1 g r o w e r s who b e l o n g e d t o b o t h c o o p e r a t i v e s . Among t h e s e t h e r e w e r e 1 1 7 ( 2 2 . 4 5 % ) P o r t u g u e s e . T h e y o w n e d 1 , 5 9 2 . 5 a c r e s o f l a n d u n d e r f r u i t c u l t i v a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e many o r c h a r d i s t s who d o n o t b e l o n g t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r u i t G r o w e r s A s s o c i a t i o n a n d who p r e f e r t o w o r k p r i v a t e l y . I n t e r - e t h n i c R e l a t i o n s A s l a t e a s 1 9 6 2 , t h e O l i v e r C h r o n i c l e ( S e p t e m b e r 27: 62) r e p o r t e d the case o f a mo t e l owner who r e f u s e d t o make r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r a Japanese Canadian i n the v i l l a g e o f O l i v e r . The f o l l o w i n g week an a r t i c l e i n the e d i t o r i a l column appeared, d i s c u s s i n g the a t t i t u d e s o f the p e o p l e o f O l i v e r towards O r i e n t a l s , e s p e c i a l l y around the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . A c c o r d i n g t o the a r t i c l e , t h e r e was a f e a r of h i r i n g a C h i n e s e cook and s e l l i n g C h i n e s e f o o d i n the v i l l a g e . One o t h e r e d i t o r i a l t h a t same year announced a s o l u t i o n t o the Doukhabor problem i n Canada. Between 1962 and 1965 t h e r e were n o t many i n s t a n c e s r e l a t e d t o i n t e r - e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s t h a t appeared i n the p a p e r s . But i n 1966, t h e r e were a r t i c l e s about "new r e s i d e n t s and new c i t i z e n s " . I t was i n the same y e a r an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t was made of a "Portuguese" r e s i d e n t o f t h e a r e a who, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s , was f i n e d f o r i n t o x i c a t e d d r i v i n g and f o r f a i l i n g t o have h i s h e a d l i g h t s on h i s c a r ( O l i v e r C h r o n i c l e : 1966). However, t h e matter was br o u g h t up i n the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . M e n t i o n of t h i s i n c i d e n t v i s a v i s the e n t i r e P o r t u g u e s e community was a l s o made. From 1967 onwards, a t l e a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the Po r t u g u e s e community, r e f e r e n c e s were o f a more p o s i t i v e n a t u r e . I t was a l s o i n the same y e a r t h a t , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , a P o r t u g u e s e f i l m was shown i n O l i v e r . Among the - 8 0 -l o c a l c o n c e r t s h e l d a n n u a l l y , m e n t i o n w a s made o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e . F r o m 1 9 6 7 o n w a r d s t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n O l i v e r s e t u p a t r a d i t i o n o f c e l e b r a t i n g t h e f e a s t o f F a t i m a . I n 1 9 6 8 a p i c t u r e o f t h e c e l e b r a t i o n w a s p r e s e n t e d o n t h e f r o n t p a g e a l o n g w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f t h e f e a s t . F u r t h e r , i n 1 9 7 0 , w h e n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f e a s t w a s g i v e n , a n o t e w a s made o f t h e u s e o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e a n d C a n a d i a n f l a g d u r i n g t h e f e a s t . W h a t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e s e r e p o r t s , i s t h e p o s i t i v e m e n t i o n made o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n t h e v a l l e y . N o n e t h e l e s s , c u l t u r a l c l a s h e s b e t w e e n C a n a d i a n s a n d o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s d i d n o t c e a s e . I n 1 9 7 3 , t h e I n k a m e e p I n d i a n c h i e f ^ c h a r g e d a m o t e l i n O l i v e r o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t I n d i a n s . I n t h e s a m e y e a r t h e r e w a s a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " A r c h i e B u n k e r l i v e s r i g h t h e r e " . T h e s t o r y t h a t w a s r e l a t e d w a s t h a t o f a n E a s t I n d i a n c o u p l e o f s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s who e x p r e s s e d a n i n t e r e s t i n b u y i n g p r o p e r t y i n t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e r e a c t i o n s t h e y r e c e i v e d w e r e v e r y n e g a t i v e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e r e w a s a n e x c e r p t f r o m a n a c c o u n t o f t h e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s E a s t I n d i a n a n d C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s t h a t w a s f e l t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e t i t l e o f t h e a r t i c l e w a s " A s s i m i l a t i o n i s t h e K e y t o A v o i d i n g R a c i a l P r e j u d i c e " . A n e x c e r p t f r o m t h e a r t i c l e r e p o r t e d : ( O l i v e r C h r o n i c l e : 1 9 7 4 ) . - 8 1 -"A c o n s e r v a t i v e member o f p a r l i a m e n t h a s f i n a l l y s a i d w h a t a l o t o f u s h a v e b e e n r e l u c t a n t l y t h i n k i n g f o r a l o n g t i m e , b u t h a v e n o t h a d t h e c o u r a g e t o s a y . A h e a v y s t r e a m o f A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s i s i m p o s i n g a g r e a t s o c i a l b u r d e n o n t h i s c o u n t r y a n d t h e i r a d m i t t a n c e t o C a n a d a c a n n o t b e i n a n y w a y b e e x p e c t e d t o s o l v e t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n t h e c o u n -t r i e s f r o m w h e r e t h e y c o m e . R o n H u n t i n g t o n , MP f o r C a p i l a n o h e a t e d l y d e n i e d h e i s r a c i s t a n d c a l l e d f o r t i g h t e r i m m i g r a -t i o n l a w s . ' C h i n e s e a n d E a s t I n d i a n s who c a n n o t b e p r o p e r l y a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e c o u n t r y a n d who c a n n o t f i n d j o b s s u i t a b l e t o t h e m a r e b e i n g a d m i t t e d u n d e r t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t . T h e s e p e o p l e a r e c o m i n g i n s o r a p i d l y t h a t t h e y a r e n o t f i t t i n g i n p r o p e r l y w i t h t h e f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y . T h e y a r e l o c a t i n g i n g h e t t o s , d o z e n s t o a h o u s e . T h e y c o me i n p l a n e l o a d s 3 0 0 a t a t i m e a n d t h e r e i s j u s t n o w a y t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e m . . . A r e we t o b e s o s t u p i d t h a t we c a n n o t l e a r n f r o m t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d i n E n g l a n d b y t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d e n t r y o f s e v e r a l m i l l i o n c o l o u r e d p e o p l e a n d A s i a n s f r o m t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h c o u n t r i e s ? E v e n t h e s a n c t i m o n i u s E n g l i s h s o p r o u d o f t h e i r l o n g h i s t o r y o f a c c e p t a n c e o f f o r e i g n e r s h a d t o b u r y t h e i r p r i d e a n d t i g h t e n i m m i g r a t i o n l a w s t o a v e r t r a c i a l c a t a s -t r o p h e . T h e w o r s t t h i n g w h i c h e v e r h a p e n e d i n N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d w a s t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f S c o t s h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s a g o , a n d we a l l k n o w t h e p r o b l e m . T h e y a r e a l l w h i t e . T h e y h a p p e n w h e n r a c e s f o r o n e r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r c a n n o t a s s i m i -l a t e . " T h e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e S i k h s a n d o t h e r A s i a n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t c a n b e e x t e n d e d t o c o v e r t h e v a l l e y a s w e l l . F r o m 1 9 7 3 o n t h e r e w e r e a r t i c l e s f e a t u r i n g t h e n u m b e r o f new c i t i z e n s t o C a n a d a , m a ny o f whom w e r e P o r t u g u e s e . I n 1 9 7 6 , o n e o f t h e o l d e s t r e s t a u r a n t s i n O l i v e r w a s b o u g h t b y a C h i n e s e c o u p l e who w e r e t h e f i r s t f a m i l y t o l i v e i n t h e t o w n . T h e s e l a t e r n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s s u g g e s t a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n p e r c e p t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e s o f a t l e a s t t h e p e o p l e o f O l i v e r t o w a r d t h e P o r t u g u e s e . A l t h o u g h a c t s o f d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n a n d p r e j u d i c e a r e n o t common, A s i a n g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e C h i n e s e a n d E a s t I n d i a n s , w e r e n o t l o o k e d u p o n w i t h f a v o u r . Summary -82-There was no doubt t h a t f a r r e a c h i n g changes had o c c u r r e d i n the v a l l e y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n alone was tremendous. While lumber was an im-p o r t a n t f a c t o r , c o n s t r u c t i o n , manufacturing, community and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s were a t t r a c t i n g the l a r g e s t number of employees. As a r e s u l t , the d i s t i n c t i o n between the a g r i c u l t u r a l and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l workers had i n c r e a s e d . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s w i t h i n the core community a l s o c o n t i n u e d . There were o l d t i mers and newcomers. There were farmers and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . There were e s t a b l i s h e d Canadians and new immigrants. While race and c o l o u r were not o v e r t l y used i n these d i s t i n c t i o n s , the p r e f e r e n c e f o r people who looked s i m i l a r continued. Despite a l l these changes, i t was q u i t e c l e a r that committment to the l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t or community was i m p e r a t i v e . The e x t e n s i o n of the same p r i n c i p l e i m p l i e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f to the l o c a l u n i t , the r e g i o n a l u n i t , the p r o v i n c i a l u n i t and then to the n a t i o n a l u n i t . To use the image of c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , the i n d i v i d u a l who was at the core was seen as c o n t r i b u t i n g to s o c i e t y from the s c a l e of a s m a l l l o c a l i t y to the n a t i o n . -83-F i n a l l y , in the regional, c u l t u r a l model, as in the national model, community above c u l t u r a l or sub-group l o y a l t y and ind i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y over c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y were recognized. In both instances, the d i s t i n c t i o n between public community a c t i v i t i e s and private ethnic or c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s was also maintained. - 8 4 -C H A P T E R 2  FOOTNOTES I n d e e d i t i s s a i d o f o n e o f t h e e a r l y l a n d d e v e l o p e r s , a n d f o u n d e r o f t h r e e s e t t l e m e n t s ( N a r a m a t a , P e a c h l a n d a n d S u m m e r l a n d ) t h a t : " A s h e s a t o n t h e v e r a n d a h o f h i s S u m m e r l a n d h o m e , h e w a s o f t e n b e g u i l e d b y a p a n o r a m a s p r e a d a l o n g t h e o p p o s i t e s h o r e , a c r o s s a s t r e t c h o f some t h r e e m i l e s o f w a t e r . He g a z e d w i t h l o n g i n g e y e s a t t h e b e a u t i f u l ' n i n e m i l e p o i n t ' a n d h e c o u l d v i s u a l i z e a l o v e l y l i t t l e t o w n w i t h p e r f e c t b e a c h e s a n d b e a u t i f u l h o m e s w i t h a m a t c h l e s s v i e w o v e r l o o k i n g L a k e O k a n a g a n . " ( A i k e n , C. e t a l : 1 9 6 7 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e o f T h o m a s E l l i s ( 1 8 4 4 - 1 9 1 8 ) . H e l e f t D u b l i n f o r S o u t h a m p t o n t o s a i l t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n 1 8 6 6 h e a n d a p a r t n e r , o n e M c F a r l a n d , o p e n e d a t r a d i n g p o s t a n d g e n e r a l s t o r e a t P e n t i c t o n . B y 1 8 6 5 , h e h a d a c q u i r e d a g r e a t a m o u n t o f l a n d i n t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e O k a n a g a n L a k e , s a i d t o h a v e i n c r e a s e d o v e r t i m e . I t i s s a i d , t h a t h i s e s t a t e e x t e n d e d f r o m 15 m i l e s n o r t h o f P e n t i c t o n t o O s o y o o s . I n a d d i t i o n t o o w n i n g l a n d h e i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d a s o w n -i n g m a n y h e a d s o f c a t t l e . A s o n e o f t h e p a r t n e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a t t l e C o m p a n y , f o u n d e d i n 1 8 9 3 , h e w a s i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f i m p o r t i n g c a t t l e a n d s h e e p i n l a r g e n u m b e r s f r o m O r e g o n , p a s t u r i n g t h e m n e a r P r i n c e t o n , a n d -85-d r i v i n g them over t h e Hope t r a i l t o the c o a s t . I n 1905, the South Okanagan Land and Development Company p u r c h a s e d h i s l a n d and c a t t l e f o r the sum o f $400,000. The s y n d i c a t e l a i d out a t o w n s i t e i n P e n t i c t o n , and by 1909 the d i s t r i c t o f P e n t i c t o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d (Ormsby: 1976: 166) T. C. Haynes (1831-1888), l i k e w i s e , was b o r n i n I r e l a n d , and as a young man moved t o Canada. I n 1862 he was a p p o i n t e d t o Osoyoos as c o n s t a b l e , c l e r k and revenue o f f i c e r . I n 1864 he was a p p o i n t e d j u s t i c e of the peace i n the Osoyoos and Kootenay d i s t r i c t . H i s p u r c h a s e s o f l a n d i n the a r e a i s reckoned a t 22,000 a c r e s . I n 1895, a f t e r h i s d e a t h , h i s t r u s t e e s conveyed t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Land and Investment Company 20,776 a c r e s o f l a n d a t Osoyoos f o r $65,000 (Ormsby: 1976: 167). However, as one o f my i n f o r m a n t s p o i n t e d o u t , i n the n o r t h e r n Okanagan, e s p e c i a l l y around R u t l a n d , t h e r e was l e s s a n t i p a t h y towards the Japanese, u n l i k e the s o u t h e r n end o f t h e v a l l e y . He was happy t o be a l l o w e d t o p l a y - 8 6 -o n t h e v a r i o u s s p o r t s t e a m s i n t h e d i s t r i c t , a n d h e r e c a l l s a n o c c a s i o n w h e n h i s t e a m w e n t t o O l i v e r t o p l a y . D u r i n g t h e game, m u c h t o h i s c h a g r i n , s ome o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e a u d i e n c e s h o u t e d o b s c e n i t i e s a t h i m . 4 ) T h e s t r u g g l e s o f t h e f a r m e r s i n t h e s e y e a r s w e r e n e v e r t o b e f o r g o t t e n . A l l n e w c o m e r s t o t h e v a l l e y i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d s w e r e made a w a r e o f t h e s e i n i t i a l p r o b -l e m s . H o w e v e r , i t w a s n o t a l w a y s t h e c a s e t h a t t h e y a c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . T h u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t a s o w n e r s w e r e n o t w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h i s p r o c e s s . T h e y h a d a l w a y s b e e n i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m e r s a n d t h e y d i d s e e a t f i r s t t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f c o o p e r a t i v e f a r m i n g . O n l y l a t e r w e r e t h e y a b l e t o a c c e p t t h i s c o n c e p t . 5 ) U n t i l 1 9 5 9 t h e R o t a r y C l u b i n O l i v e r o r g a n i z e d w h a t w a s k n o w n a s "New C a n a d i a n N i g h t " . H o w e v e r , t h i s d i d n o t m e a n t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e e n d e d t h e s a m e y e a r . I n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n o r g a n i z e d s e v e r a l p r o g r a m s s u c h a s , f o r e x a m p l e , a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s m o r g a s b o a r d . 6 ) L o c a l I n d i a n b a n d s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s r e g i o n a l m o d e l a n d s e t a n i m p o r t a n t p r e c e d e n t f o r s e p a r a t e , e t h n i c a l l y d i s t i n c t l i v i n g a r e a s . V a r i o u s I n d i a n b a n d s h o l d l a r g e -87-amounts of a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , recreational, as well as r e s i d e n t i a l land in the valley, some of t h i s land has been leased and even the game farm i n Penticton i s on reserve land. More recently the Indians had begun to c u l t i v a t e s i g n i f i c a n t acreages of crops such as grapes. The trend i n recent years has been toward more l o c a l band control in the use of reserve land. -88-CHAPTER 3 TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CANADIAN CULTURAL MODEL A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e My purpose here i s tw o - f o l d . F i r s t , to p r o v i d e a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l background of immigration p o l i c i e s i n Canada and then t o h i g h l i g h t the dominant n a t i o n a l concerns that c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding of the Canadian c u l t u r a l model. H i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s at the n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l w i l l be used as measures of the changing contexts of t o l e r a n c e , encouragement and h o s t i l i t y to newcomers. We w i l l b e g i n with the o r i g i n s of immigration c o n t r o l and then l e a d i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of some of the more s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the Canadian c u l t u r a l model. The term "Canadian C u l t u r a l model" assumes t h a t there i s indeed a m o n o l i t h i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s i d e n t i f i a b l e . However, i n Canada, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to speak of any such f a c t o r . A c c o r d i n g t o E l l i o t (1979) there are a t l e a s t three p o s i t i o n s t h a t are v o i c e d . 1) Canada i s a n a t i o n - s t a t e , a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y that i s o f f i c i a l l y b i l i n g u a l a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l . -89-2) S e c o n d l y , t h a t Canada i s composed o f two n a t i o n s - i . e . , the F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . I t s t r e s s e s the p a r t n e r s h i p between t h e s e two groups wherever t h e r e a r e communities composed of t h e s e two groups. 3) G e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P a r t i - Q u e b e c o i s , t h i s view c o n s i d e r s Quebec as a F r e n c h n a t i o n i n Canada. As i f t h e s e d i v i s i o n s were not enough, t o c o m p l i c a t e the d i s c u s s i o n of the Canadian c u l t u r a l model, we have t o contend w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r components of t h i s model. A c c o r d i n g t o I s a j i w (1978:31) t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t seven l a y e r s i n contemporary Canadian c u l t u r e . 1) t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e , i . e . , a c u l t u r e which i s common t o a l l modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , and which p u t s a premium on s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and homogeniety. 2) the A n g l o - C e l t i c c u l t u r e , which i s r o o t e d i n P r o t e s t a n t i s m and the B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and which has i m p r i n t e d i t s e l f on Canadian n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 3) t h e Quebec F r e n c h c u l t u r e . 4) o t h e r e t h n i c s u b - c u l t u r e s . 5) r e g i o n a l s u b - c u l t u r e s which r e p r e s e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the A n g l o - C e l t i c c u l t u r e . 6) p o p u l a r s u b - c u l t u r e , i . e . , the c u r r e n t i n - p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n which a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c c e s s i v e change. -90-7) and c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e , i . e . , p a t t e r n s d e v e l o p i n g as a r e s u l t of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a l l other l a y e r s of c u l t u r e , and c e n t e r i n g around the use of s o c i a l l y f o r b i d d e n drugs, r a d i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i d e a l s , r e l i g i o n s i d e a l s taken from other r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and the 1 i k e . The emphasis he p l a c e s i s on t e c h n o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e that most immigrants r e a d i l y a c cept. In t h i s chapter, the emphasis i s on "immigrant p e r c e p t i o n s of the Canadian c u l t u r a l model". They use t h i s concept i n order to i n t e r p r e t and a c t a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n the g i v e n c o n t e x t s . Most important of a l l , the r e c o g n i t i o n of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s depend on p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l contexts and the immigrants experiences t h e r e i n . Immigration P o l i c i e s The r e s t r i c t i o n s on immigration, brought i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n the e a r l y years of the t w e n t i e t h century, have had a number of antecedents. P r i o r to the Immigration Act of 1910, the Canadian government had taken measures t o r e g u l a t e the flow of immigrants, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West. There were s e v e r a l attempts not o n l y to bar people of d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l o r i g i n s (such as the Chinese, the Japanese and the East I n d i a n s ) , but there were a l s o attempts to deny admission to other n o n - p r e f e r r e d people of European o r i g i n s . Indeed, what was remarkable about the Immigration Act of 1910 was i t s -91-e x c l u s i o n a r y nature (Green: 1976; 14). A c c o r d i n g l y , Canada r e s e r v e d the r i g h t s to r e s t r i c t or r e g u l a t e e n t r y to "those deemed u n d e s i r a b l e because of c l i m a t i c , i n d u s t r i a l , s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l , labour, or other requirements, or those deemed u n d e s i r a b l e because of t h e i r customs, h a b i t s , modes of l i f e , and methods of h o l d i n g p r o p e r t y and t h e i r probable a b i l i t y to become a s s i m i l a t e d . " (Mehta: 1973, Hawkins: 1972). The s t i p u l a t i o n s of t h i s Act suggested t h a t the model t h a t was p r e f e r r e d by both the people and the government, at l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l phases, was one of a n g l o - c o n f o r m i t y . As Ward (1973) p o i n t e d out, there was a tremendous concern to keep Canada " B r i t i s h " . One major o b s t a c l e to the process of keeping out " a l i e n s " was the demands f o r labour i n a s e t t l e r s o c i e t y . Much of the work of c l e a r i n g the l a n d had to be done, and not many were w i l l i n g to do t h i s demeaning job. People were a l s o needed to s e t t l e the l a n d . Thus i t can be seen t h a t the economic needs of t h i s new s o c i e t y matched n e i t h e r the s o c i a l p o l i c i e s of the government nor the wishes of i t s dominant group. One of the ways t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y was r e s o l v e d was through the s t i p u l a t i o n of " p r e f e r r e d " and "non-preferred" c a t e g o r i e s of immigrants. P r e f e r r e d and Non-Preferred Groups One outcome of the above r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the -92-d e f i n i t i o n of those areas from which immigrants were p r e f e r -red. These areas i n c l u d e d the B r i t i s h I s l e s , the United S t a t e s , Northern and Western Europe, a l l of which were not too d i f f e r e n t from Canada i n terms of language and customs. F o l l o w i n g t h i s group were those from E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l Europe, and f i n a l l y those from Southern Europe. A l l other immigrants were c l e a r l y not p r e f e r r e d . Moreover, those from these l a t t e r areas were f o r c e d t o c a r r y a p a s s p o r t and v i s a t h a t were i s s u e d abroad, while those from the " p r e f e r r e d " areas were exempt. For South A s i a n s i n g e n e r a l and Sikhs i n p a r t i c u l a r i t was a major problem. They were not o n l y i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t of the O r i e n t a l menace, but many of them a l s o came i n the midst of a severe d e p r e s s i o n (1907-8). I t was not long b e f o r e they found themselves i n a subordinate p o s i t i o n . Since i t was not p o s s i b l e to r e l o c a t e these unwanted f o r e i g n e r s i n B r i t i s h Honduras, Canadians opted f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e - to i s o l a t e them from mainstream Canadian l i f e (see Buchignani 1977 f o r more d e t a i l s ) . On the other hand, although the Portuguese have had a h i s t o r y of immigration to B r a z i l , France and other p a r t s of Europe most of them d i d not come t o Canada u n t i l the f i f t i e s . T h i s p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment l a s t e d almost t i l l the f i f t i e s , with some minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s d u r i n g the war -93-y e a r s. Even the a p p r a i s a l o f the e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s made i n the f o r t i e s o u t l i n e d i n the speech made by Prime M i n i s t e r McKenzie K i n g , d i d not i n c l u d e any major r e v i s i o n s . Among o t h e r f a c t o r s i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f immigrants t o Canada, he e n u n c i a t e d the need f o r e n s u r i n g the r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n (Green: 1976; 14, Mehta: 1973). As a r e s u l t , the advantages which a c c r u e d t o immi-g r a n t s from t h e most p r e f e r r e d c o u n t r i e s were many. They were a d m i t t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f s k i l l s or o c c u p a t i o n a l back-ground. Even w i t h the r e v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1953, ( B u c h i g n a n i : 1977, Mehta: 1973) A s i a n s were the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d group, and then o n l y depen-d e n t s and c l o s e r e l a t i v e s o f t h o s e who were Canadian c i t i -zens were e l i g i b l e f o r a d m i s s i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Racism I n k e e p i n g w i t h the r a c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e domi-nant A n g l o - C a n a d i a n group, laws were passed t o r e g u l a t e , and t o r e s t r i c t and s e g r e g a t e i m m i g r a n t s . Thus, f o r example, the C h i n e s e were d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y by the p a s s i n g o f the Ch i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1885 (Ward: 1973). The i m p o s i -t i o n o f a head t a x o f $50, which i n 1903 was r a i s e d t o $500 p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e f f e c t i v e l y c u r t a i l i n g t he f l o w o f i m m i g r a n t s i n t o the c o u n t r y . A l t h o u g h an a c t passed i n -94-1923 (Mehta: 1973) was t o remove the head t a x , o t h e r mea-s u r e s were adopted t o c u r b t h e growth i n numbers. The o r d e r i n c o u n c i l t h a t came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1930 f i r m l y e x c l u d e d a l l A s i a t i c s from e n t e r i n g Canada except immediate f a m i l y mem-b e r s . And the d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f th o s e who were a l r e a d y h e r e d e a l t t h e f i n a l blow. They were thus e f f e c t i v e l y b a r r e d from s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y . I n the case o f t h e Japanese, many o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on the C h i n e s e were a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o them. E a s t I n d i a n s were a l s o t o r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t a t the hands o f the dominant group from the time o f t h e i r a r r i v a l . They were charged a head t a x i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g b a r r e d from v o t i n g . The " c o n t i n u o u s j o u r n e y c l a u s e " ( B u c h i g n a n i : 1977) was a l s o a p p l i e d t o them. There were even a t t e m p t s t o r e s e t t l e them i n the B r i t i s h Honduras ( B u c h i g n a n i : 1977). F i n a l l y the Order i n C o u n c i l o f 1930 e f f e c t i v e l y put an end t o the number o f immigrants t h a t were e l i g i b l e t o come i n t o the c o u n t r y . One s t r i k i n g outcome o f th e s e i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c i e s was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of immigrants from Europe. The B r i t i s h had managed t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r n u m e r i c a l dominance up t o t h i s p o i n t , y e t t h e Fr e n c h had a l s o succeeded i n b e i n g the l a r g e s t homogenous r e g i o n a l group. -95-The group of immigrants t h a t were t o remain w i t h o u t any s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r numbers were the A s i a n s . T h e i r p r o p o r t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n remained r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l compared t o N o r t h e r n and Western European groups (see K a l b a c h : 1978: 86-87). N e e d l e s s t o say, the n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f immigrant groups i s a major f a c t o r i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n and maintenance of power. W h i l e the above s t e p s were t a k e n t o ensure the c h a r a c t e r o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems i n Europe were a l s o g o i n g t o have an impact on p o l i c y d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . I n 1939 the o r d e r s i n c o u n c i l t h a t were i s s u e d r e f u s e d a d m i s s i o n p r i m a r i l y t o n a t i o n a l s o f German or I t a l i a n o r i g i n s , a l t h o u g h o t h e r n a t i o n a l s who were from c o u n t r i e s under the A x i s powers were a l s o r e f u s e d e n t r y (Green: 1976; 1 4 ) . I n e f f e c t , t h e n , t h e Canadian government, t h r o u g h i t s use o f s t i p u l a t i o n s o f p r e f e r r e d and n o n - p r e f e r r e d c a t e -g o r i e s , i t s p o l i c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s , and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r a c i s m , had succeeded i n m a i n t a i n -i n g t h e dominant f e a t u r e s o f White Anglo-Saxon s o c i e t y . The " a l i e n s " who were a l r e a d y h e r e , were s e g r e g a t e d from p a r t i -c i p a t i n g i n t h e main stream o f Canadian l i f e . They were by a l l d e f i n i t i o n s ( W i r t h : 1965) r e l e g a t e d t o a m i n o r i t y group s t a t u s . They were not o n l y h e l d i n low esteem, b u t s o c i a l l y -96-i s o l a t e d and i n some i n s t a n c e s p h y s i c a l l y s e g r e g a t e d . They were a l s o g i v e n unequal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l and occupa-t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and advancement. Thus, one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s i n the Canadian c u l t u r a l model was the r a c i a l c a t e g o r y . Non-whites were deemed t o be i n c a p a b l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the w e l f a r e of Canada. Changes i n Post-War I m m i g r a t i o n P o l i c i e s The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e changes i n p o l i c i e s f o r i m m i g r a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the post-war p e r i o d , have been numerous. As e a r l y as t h e f i f t i e s A s i a n s who had become c i t i z e n s were a l l o w e d t o sponsor t h e i r c l o s e k i n . A l t h o u g h , n u m e r i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e was no major advance over t h e p r e v i o u s decade, t i e s w i t h the homeland were renewed and the q u a l i t y o f l i f e o f t h e v a r i o u s groups was improved. A t the same time p o l i c i e s towards r e f u g e e s a l s o came under some r e v i s i o n s . I n 1956, soon a f t e r the H u n g a r i a n R e v o l u t i o n , more h u m a n i t a r i a n g e s t u r e s were made by Canada, and t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f t h e s e r e f u g e e s took p l a c e w i t h l e s s m i s g i v i n g s (Hawkins: 1972). The Germans and the I t a l i a n s who had been p r e v e n t e d from e n t e r i n g Canada i n the t h i r t i e s were now a l l o w e d e n t r y . A l l i n a l l , t h i s was a f i r s t move towards t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c y t h a t was t o come l a t e r . 1 -97-The regulations passed in 1962 were r a d i c a l . They wiped out a l l clauses that were exclusionary in terms of either r a c i a l or c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The c r i t e r i a for entry into the country was based on a point system with education and s k i l l s receiving top p r i o r i t y . Three cate-gories were introduced as follows: independents, sponsored groups and nominated groups. One obvious outcome of t h i s resolution was that Canada attracted large numbers of highly educated and s k i l l e d labour. Although the consequences of such migration were to l a t e r become an international issue (especially the "brain drain" Hawkins: 1972) i t was generally f e l t that i n keeping with the demands of a technological society, Canada preferred to have s k i l l e d and educated immigrants. While this new p o l i c y was a tremendous improvement over the previous r a c i s t p o l i c i e s , i t did l i t t l e to encour-age immigrants from outside of the "preferred areas". B r i t a i n , Northern and Western Europe continued to send immigrants with their higher education and occupational s k i l l s . Between 1967 and 1973, the rules were relaxed, and the p r i v i l e g e s of v i s i t o r s to Canada greatly altered. It was during t h i s period, that they were allowed to change their status as v i s i t o r s and apply for immigration. The increase in number of Asians, and Southern Europeans de--98-serves s p e c i a l mention. In 1973, however, the p r i v i l e g e s of v i s i t o r s were c u r t a i l e d , and in the following years more stringent measures r e l a t i n g to employment needs of Canada were introduced. From 1977 on, the nominated category of immigrants was no longer in use. This period is of p a r t i c u l a r significance in that i t witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t groups. What were e s s e n t i a l l y t i g h t l y controlled and numerically weak groups in Canada suddenly swelled in i t s ranks. It i s perhaps needless to add that the p r o f i l e s of these p a r t i c u l a r communities have altered considerably and have serious implications for the future d i r e c t i o n s of the respective groups. Although post-war immigration p o l i c i e s do not re-cognize r a c i a l categories, the importance of colour cannot be denied. Both the 1973 and 1977 r e s t r i c t i o n s made i t clear that rapid growth of those v i s i b l e ethnic groups a l -ready here was not possible, at least through immigration. The best that the government f e l t i t could do for these groups was to integrate them into the mainstream of Canadian l i f e . O f f i c i a l l y since 1971 Canada has been committed to a p o l i c y of multi-culturalism within a b i l i n g u a l framework. Although the o f f i c i a l languages are English and French, other c u l t u r a l groups are encouraged to develop and maintain their ethnic i d e n t i t y . - 9 9 -D e s p i t e m a n y p r o t e s t s l o d g e d a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n a n d u s e o f c u l t u r e a s " t r a d i t i o n a l b a g -g a g e " t o b e d i s p l a y e d a t c e r t a i n t i m e s a n d p l a c e s , i t s t i l l r e m a i n s t h a t o p t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o m e m b e r s o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s t o w o r k w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s t o d e f i n e a n d a c h i e v e s ome o f t h e g o a l s t h e y h a v e s e t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h u s t h e o r i g i n a l m o d e l o f a n g l o -c o n f o r m i t y h a s g i v e n w a y t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e C a n a d i a n m o s a i c . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e i n t e n t o f a m u l t i - c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s t o m a ke C a n a d a n o t o n l y a t t r a c t i v e t o i m m i g r a n t s b u t a l s o t o e a s e t h e l o t o f v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . I n t h a t s e n s e i t i s q u a s i - p l u r a l i s t i c . T h e a i m o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s t o a s s u r e m e m b e r s o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h a t t h e y w o u l d h e l p t h e m i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f s y m b o l s p e c u l i a r t o t h e i r h e r i t a g e w h i l e e n c o u r a g i n g t h e m t o p a r t i -c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h e w o r k f o r c e , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d i n t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e c o u n t r y ( B u r n e t : 1 9 7 3 ) . I n s u c h a m o d e l e t h n i c i t y i s i d e n t i f i e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , a l t h o u g h c o m m u n a l l o y a l t y i s t o b e s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f a l l C a n a -d i a n s o r t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . T h u s e t h n i c i t y , a l t h o u g h p u b l i c a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d , i s p r i m a r i l y a p r i v a t e m a t t e r a n d i s n o t e x p e c t e d t o i n t e r f e r e i n t h e c o u r s e o f p u b l i c l i f e . -100-Th i s does not, however, mean th a t " e t h n i c " c e l e b r a t i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s are not to be d i s p l a y e d p u b l i c a l l y . There are many problems a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and implementation of t h i s p o l i c y . For in s t a n c e , what does the term " c u l t u r e " mean and how i s i t d e f i n e d from a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t of view. F u r t h e r , what do e t h n i c groups have to g i v e up and what do they have to l e a r n i n order to be p a r t of the Canadian mosaic. In a d d i t i o n , i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as w e l l as economic and power d i f f e r e n c e s have h a r d l y been examined w i t h i n t h i s framework (Burnet: 1973). The major attempt made i n the m u l t i - c u l t u r a l and the new immigration p o l i c i e s was to reduce the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o l o u r and creed i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y . Despite such problems, t h e r e seems to be however, a gen e r a l push toward a hyphenated model of i d e n t i t y to r e -p l a c e the e a r l i e r n o t i o n s of an g l o - c o n f o r m i t y or a s s i m i l a -t i o n . Needless to add, the ways i n which immigrants understand, e v a l u a t e , i n t e r p r e t and a c t upon t h i s p o l i c y i s c r u c i a l f o r i t s success. T h i s t h e s i s i s a modest attempt i n such a p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r , the importance of a hyphenated i d e n t i t y w i l l be c l e a r o n l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the r e c o g n i t i o n of -101-the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e g a r d l e s s of c o l o u r and c r e e d (Canadian Human R i g h t s A c t : 1978). The freedom o f speech and w o r s h i p f u r t h e r t e s t i f y t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s made between the v a r i o u s spheres o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the Canadian c u l t u r a l model. The dim e n s i o n s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. The d i s t i n c t i o n between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s . 2. The emphasis p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l achievement and work i d e n t i t y over and above e t h n i c group l o y a l t y . 3. The d i s t i n c t i o n between n a t i o n a l and or l o c a l r e s i d e n -t i a l i d e n t i t y and communal or e t h n i c l o y a l t y . 2 4 . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . 5. And f i n a l l y t h e confinement o f r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y t o the p r i v a t e sphere. For b o t h S i k h s and P o r t u g u e s e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e Canadian model i n v o l v e s the use o f opposed c a t e g o r i e s such as work and non-work (or l e i s u r e ) p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s , i n d i v i d u a l and group i d e n t i t y , r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y and so on. These c a t e g o r i e s a r e l a r g e l y s e p a r a t e a t the l e v e l i d e a s and o f a c t i o n . The Po r t u g u e s e model comes c l o s e r t o the Canadian c u l t u r a l model from a co m p a r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . The S i k h model on the o t h e r hand i n v o l v e s c a t e g o r y b l e n d s or c o n t i n u o u s h i e r a r c h i e s . T h e i r work b l e n d s i n t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , and r a t i o n a l p u r p o s i v e - 1 0 2 -work i s encompassed by s p i r i t u a l or moral v a l u e s . To be a "good S i k h " i s to empahsize the p r i m o r d i a l nature of i d e n t i t y i n a l l spheres of l i f e . E t h n i c i t y or Sikh i d e n t i i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e i n t o p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i d e n t i t y . To summarize, while the e a r l i e r p o l i c i e s of the government r e f l e c t e d the endorsement of anglo-conformity, there were c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s of changes made with r e s p e c t c o l o u r and creed. The use of the term " m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m " i t s e l f i s a r e f l e c t i o n of such a l t e r a t i o n s . However, p r e -j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n toward c o l o u r e d or d i f f e r e n t groups i s not outmoded. Indeed, i t i s r e a l or p e r c e i v e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n that p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the a c c u l -t u r a t i o n of newcomers. - 1 0 3 -C H A P T E R 3  FOOTNOTES 1. D u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s ( i n 1 9 2 9 ) a n o r d e r i n c o u n -c i l c a m e i n t o e f f e c t s t i p u l a t i n g a m o n g o t h e r c l a u s e s t h e a d m i t t a n c e o f " a g r i c u l t u r i s t ( s ) " h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t m e a n s t o f a r m i n C a n a d a ( G r e e n : 1 9 7 6 ; 1 4 ) . A n o t h e r c a s e i n p o i n t w o u l d b e t h e s c h e m e p r o p o s e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t t o s e t t l e " D u t c h f a r m w o r k e r s " a f t e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s e v e r a l f a r m s i n H o l l a n d d u r i n g t h e w a r . A c c o r d i n g t o G r e e n ( 1 9 7 6 ) C a n a d a s t i l l s a w i m m i g r a t i o n a s a m e a n s o f s a t i s f y i n g e x c e s s d e m a n d s f o r l a b o u r i n t h e b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y o n f a r m s . S i n c e H o l l a n d h a d a n e x c e s s o f r u r a l w o r k e r s , a m u t u a l l y f a v o u r a b l e a g r e e m e n t t o t r a n s f e r t h e m t o C a n a d a c o u l d b e r e a c h e d . I n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h p r e f e r e n c e w a s g i v e n t o p e o p l e w i t h t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s a n d e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e w a s s t i l l a l a r g e n u m b e r who w e r e u n s k i l l e d , o f r u r a l o r i -g i n s a n d p o o r l y e d u c a t e d . M a n y w e r e a d m i t t e d e a r l y o n , a n d i t i s t h e i r s p o n s o r e d r e l a t i v e s t h a t c a m e i n l a r g e n u m b e r s l a t e r . H a w k i n s ( 1 9 7 2 ) n o t e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s p o n s o r e d h a v e b e e n d r a w n f r o m S o u t h e r n E u r o p e , p r i m a r -i l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u x o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d , r u r a l p a r t s o f t h i s r e g i o n i n t h e e a r l y -104-post-war y e a r s , t h e s t r o n g f a m i l y a r e a s , and the economic p r e s s u r e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o e m i g r a t e from t h o s e t h e r e . As a p o s t s c r i p t t o t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e c l a u s e o f r a c i a l background must a l s o be added. I t was made q u i t e c l e a r , t h a t i n t h e case o f t h o s e o f A s i a t i c o r i g i n , none o f t h e normal p r o c e d u r e s would a p p l y (Green: 1976; 14, L a i : 1976) . 2. T h i s argument i s c o g e n t l y d e v e l o p e d by Dusenbery (1979) i n h i s paper "Canadian I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y : The Impact on Vancouver " S i k h " and " R e l i g i o n s " a d a p t a t i o n . -105-CHAPTER 4 IN THE FIELD; A PROFILE OF SIKH AND PORTUGUESE IMMIGRANTS My i n t e r e s t i n d o i n g f i e l d w o r k i n the Okanagan began i n t h e summer of 1975, when I d i d an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f a s m a l l community i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. Naramata was my c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . There was a s c h o o l f o r l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g i n the v i l l a g e , which s t u d e n t s from a l l over B r i t i s h Columbia a t t e n d e d , and I was a s s u r e d o f a p l a c e t o s t a y . S e c o n d l y , i t was n o t on the main highway c o n n e c t i n g t h e so u t h and n o r t h ends o f t h e v a l l e y . Naramata was a good example o f a s e t t l e m e n t t h a t was s l o w l y becoming l e s s s e l f s u f f i c i e n t . That i s , i t was becoming an a d j u n c t o f P e n t i c t o n which was a l a r g e r c i t y about 10 m i l e s west o f i t . F u r t h e r s i n c e my i n t e r e s t was i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r c h a r d l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e s , i t was an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n . I t was, t h e r e t h a t I r e c e i v e d my f u l l i n i t i a t i o n i n t o s m a l l community l i f e . I t was a l s o t h e r e t h a t I c o n s t a n t l y h e a r d about l a b o u r s h o r t a g e s f o r p i c k i n g f r u i t and how some immig r a n t s made more r e l i a b l e o r c h a r d workers t h a n o t h e r s . The l i t t l e p a c k i n g house on the edge o f t h e l a k e p r o v i d e d s e a s o n a l j o b s f o r s e v e r a l Doukhabors from the Kootenay r e g i o n . They l i v e d i n l i t t l e c a b i n s f o r the p e r i o d t h a t t h e y were h i r e d . One e v e n i n g i n l a t e summer, when the ch u r c h was h o l d i n g a l i t t l e f e t e , I became aware o f t o the -106-f e e l i n g s t h a t many o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n Naramata had towards them. H o l d i n g a h i g h t e a was p a r t o f t h i s custom and l i t t l e t a b l e s w i t h a t t r a c t i v e t a b l e c l o t h s were s e t out a l o n g w i t h c a n d l e s , and s i l v e r c u t l e r y . However, near the e n t r a n c e o f t h e h a l l was a l o n g t a b l e , t h a t had a paper t a b l e c l o t h , w i t h n e i t h e r c a n d l e s nor s i l v e r w a r e . I was p u z z l e d and asked the o r g a n i s e r o f t h e t e a , as t o why t h i s was so. I was t o l d r a t h e r q u i c k l y and summarily t h a t the t a b l e was r e s e r v e d f o r the Doukhabor workers from t h e p a c k i n g house. On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , I became f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s towards South A s i a n s as w e l l . I n f u t u r e pages I s h a l l r e f e r t o t h e s e i m m i g r a n t s as E a s t I n d i a n s o r S i k h s because t h e s e were the l o c a l terms used t o r e f e r t o them. There were o n l y two f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n Naramata t h a t summer. S i n c e many f r i e n d s from P e n t i c t o n v i s i t e d them, however, i t always seemed t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f a c t i v i t y . One o f t h e o l d e s t members o f Naramata s a i d t o me e a r l y on: "The E a s t I n d i a n s i n Naramata c r e a t e problems. They go from house t o house h a g g l i n g f o r h i g h e r wages. Some o r c h a r d i s t s d i s l i k e them so much t h a t t h e y chase them away. Some o f them f a l l f o r the r u s e and h i r e them. However they have not a l l been r e l i a b l e o r good w o r k e r s . There i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e y would show up i n your o r c h a r d t o complete t h e i r work the n e x t day. I f t h e y g e t h i g h e r wages, t h e y go t o t h a t o r c h a r d i n s t e a d w i t h o u t l e t t i n g you know. They a l s o evade t a x e s . The f i r s t $250 a worker g e t s i s exempt from t a x e s . So when the t i m e comes th e y ask t o be p a i d $249 and then ask t h e r e s t t o be p a i d t o t h e i r wives or c h i l d r e n . -10 7-That way t h e i r r e c o r d s a r e s t r a i g h t and t h e y do not have t o pay t a x e s l i k e the r e s t o f us. S e v e r a l y e a r s ago the Douk-habors d i d t h e same t h i n g . As f o r the Po r t u g u e s e s i n c e t h e r e a r e n o t v e r y many h e r e , they do not cong r e g a t e t o -g e t h e r . They a r e v e r y h o n e s t and h a r d w o r k i n g . I n O l i v e r , however t h e r e have been some problems because o f the l a r g e number o f P o r t u g u e s e l i v i n g t h e r e . On the whole, however, t h e y were more d e s i r a b l e than o t h e r i m m i g r a n t s . " I n t he f a l l o f 1976, I was read y t o do f i e l d w o r k i n the v a l l e y . I had proposed t o s t u d y the S i k h s ( E a s t I n -d i a n s ) and P o r t u g u e s e i n terms o f t h e i r adjustment t o Canadian l i f e . I chose these two groups p a r t l y because o f the v e r b a l a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d toward them by o t h e r com-munity members. F u r t h e r the members o f b o t h groups had begun t o a r r i v e i n t h e v a l l e y i n the 1950's and 1960's. So i n terms o f t h e i r l e n g t h o f s t a y i n Canada, the two were more or l e s s comparable. The P o r t u g u e s e s e t t l e d m o s t l y around O l i v e r , and Osoyoos, the f r u i t o r c h a r d end of the v a l l e y . The E a s t I n d i a n s o r S i k h s seemed t o have p r e f e r r e d the n o r t h e r n Okanagan around Vernon and R u t l a n d , m a i n l y because o f t h e s a w m i l l s . There were members of b o t h groups s c a t t e r e d e l s e w h e r e , b u t one c o u l d d e t e c t a d e f i n i t e n u c l e u s i n the s o u t h and t h e n o r t h end o f t h e v a l l e y r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s was a l r i g h t because I was keen on u n d e r s t a n d -i n g t h e r e g i o n a l d i m e n s i o n o f group a d a p t a t i o n . A l s o , because I had a l r e a d y spent some time i n Naramata, a s m a l l town o f f t h e main highway, I was now read y t o l i v e i n one o f the l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s . Hence, I e v e n t u a l l y spent c l o s e t o -108-seven months i n O l i v e r and Osoyoos, and a s i m i l a r amount of time i n R u t l a n d and Vernon. S i n c e R u t l a n d t e c h n i c a l l y comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f Kelowna c i t y , I a l s o spent time c o l l e c t i n g d a t a from v a r i o u s ^ m a j o r b u s i n e s s groups i n Kelowna. Thus I have had some f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e o f l i v i n g i n a l l o f t h e s e v a r i o u s towns and v i l l a g e s and have e x p e r i e n c e d a f l a v o u r o f the v a l l e y as a whole. I n O l i v e r , I was t a k e n t o be a Goanese P o r t u g u e s e . As a r e s u l t , s e v e r a l o f the P o r t u g u e s e f a m i l i e s came t o speak t o me a f t e r the P o r t u g u e s e mass. The p r i e s t h i m s e l f was v e r y c o r d i a l and c o o p e r a t i v e . S i n c e t h e r e were two p r i e s t s , an E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c and a P o r t u g u e s e , I was a b l e t o g e t answers from b o t h o f them on many o f the same ques-t i o n s . The P o r t u g u e s e p r i e s t had a l i s t o f a l l h i s p a r i s h members which he was w i l l i n g t o s h a r e w i t h me. Others who n o r m a l l y a t t e n d e d E n g l i s h mass were l i s t e d i n the E n g l i s h r e g i s t r y . I a l s o spent a few weeks meeting p e o p l e and g e t t i n g rough e s t i m a t e s on the number of P o r t u g u e s e l i v i n g i n the s o u t h end o f t h e v a l l e y . E v e n t u a l l y I c o m p i l e d a l i s t o f a l l t h e s e f a m i l i e s l o c a t e d i n the O l i v e r / Osoyoos a r e a . Based on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n I was a b l e t o sample a l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s t h a t I w i s h e d t o i n t e r v i e w . One o f the c o n c e r n s I had i n c h o o s i n g i n f o r m a n t s was the number of - 109-year s they had spent in Canada. I was fortunate enough to speak to some families who were oldtimers or pioneers. Likewise a l i s t obtained from the orchardists and the Water Board was valuable in i d e n t i f y i n g families on small farms, medium sized farms and large farms. Most of my Portuguese informants were farmers, although I managed to talk to a few young Portuguese sawmill and construction workers whose fathers owned orchards. In t o t a l I was able to interview 39 Portuguese fa m i l i e s . By t h i s I mean I spent time with a l l the members of each such household. It took several hours and sometimes days to complete one interview. Most people inv i t e d me to stay for a meal which made i t easier to get to know them. Usually I helped out with the preparation of the meal or took care of the children while the mother cooked. Since I was trying to learn Portuguese from a per-f e c t l y b i l i n g u a l friend, I became quite popular with both adults and children. I would say things that a l l of them found quite funny. In most cases I found that the men were less f a c i l e with English than the women and children. Since many of the women had worked with other Canadians in the cooperative, i n the c r e d i t union, or in a bank they had learned the language well. The men, on the other hand, had spent most of their time alone in the orchard or with Portu-guese friends. They did not come into contact with other Canadians on a regular basis unless i t was for a meeting of -110-t h e c o o p e r a t i v e or of p a c k i n g house members. I a l s o a t t e n d -ed P o r t u g u e s e mass on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . I n R u t l a n d , as t h e r e was no S i k h temple, i t was h a r d e r t o get the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n about S i k h r e s i -d e n t s . However b e i n g an A s i a n m y s e l f , I got t o know a few f a m i l i e s . These p e o p l e were g r a c i o u s enough t o h e l p me c o m p i l e a l i s t and then h e l p e d me make the n e c e s s a r y c o n t a c t s . Through them I a l s o made s i m i l a r c o n t a c t s i n Vernon. I n a l l I i n t e r v i e w e d 40 S i k h f a m i l i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some l i t e r a t u r e on t h e Po r t u g u e s e i n t h e v a l l e y , I have n ot come a c r o s s a n y t h i n g w r i t t e n about the S i k h s . I can t h e r e f o r e make o n l y a p p r o x i m a t i o n s as t o the number o f f a m i l i e s s e t t l e d i n t h i s r e g i o n . A l t o g e t h e r t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 S i k h f a m i l i e s i n the v a l l e y . A few l i v e i n P e n t i c t o n , Naramata, Summer l a n d , P e a c h l a n d and Westbank. A l l the o t h e r s a r e l o c a t e d i n R u t l a n d , Kelowna and Vernon. The P o r t u g u e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n the Okanagan V a l l e y i s a b i t l a r g e r , 4,500 perons i n a l l (Anderson & H i g g s : 1976: 103). T h i s would mean about 1,000 pe r s o n s i n and around O l i v e r a l o n e . I asked my i n f o r m a n t s about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r h i s t o r y i n Canada, about t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o o t h e r groups, t h e i r e t h n i c a f f i l i a t i o n s , t h e i r work h i s t o r i e s and - I l l -a ttitudes, their land and property ownership, their b e l i e f s and r i t u a l s , and about changes in their own family t r a d i -tions. I also obtained information on individual p a r t i c i -pation in clubs, voluntary organizations, churches, temples, friendship networks, v i s i t i n g patterns, t r a v e l in the v a l l e y and outside of i t , and so on. My primary concern was to understand the complex pattern of c u l t u r a l change and c u l t u r a l persistence which has become manifest in p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n this area. It i s important to mention that I also interviewed a number of s e t t l e r s of other ethnic backgrounds who were resident in these same communities. I was interested i n knowing how other members of the Canadian population viewed these two groups of newcomers. Since I knew i t would be unwieldy to draw a sample from the general population, I decided to choose key individuals instead. I spoke to teachers, businessmen, p r i e s t s , club presidents, immigration o f f i c e r s , labour managers and so on. In this way i t became possible for me to get a h i s t o r i c a l perspective on the v a l l e y as well as to gain some understanding of the general expectations and hopes concerning community l i f e . In other words these interviews threw l i g h t on the nature of incorporation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Sikh and Portuguese subgroups in each of these communities, as viewed by -112-o t h e r s . By the end o f my s t a y I had i n t e r v i e w e d 42 p e r s o n s o f o t h e r backgrounds. F i n a l l y , i n O l i v e r I was g i v e n f r e e a c c e s s t o a l l community r e c o r d s and newspapers. I n R u t l a n d and Vernon, I was a l l o w e d p a r t i a l a c c e s s . I r e g r e t not h a v i n g been a b l e t o p a r a l l e l a l l my r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s i n these two a r e a s . I n a l l , however, my 15 month s t a y i n the v a l l e y , p l u s my subsequent v i s i t s , were enough t o g i v e me s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o complete t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e X I I I p r o v i d e s a breakdown by e t h n i c groups on the number of p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d . Some M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s As i n a l l e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s , problems e x i s t as t o the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f d a t a . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have had t o r e l y on "key i n f o r m a n t s " - p e o p l e who t h e y a s s e s s as b e i n g knowledgeable about the c u l t u r e . T h i s t a k e s time as does e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t w i t h the members of t h e community. A minimum p e r i o d o f a y e a r i s thus u s u a l l y con-s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d a t a and the w r i t i n g o f an ethnography ( R o s s i : 1980). The q u a l i t y of the d a t a , o f c o u r s e , w i l l depend on, among o t h e r t h i n g s , the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e meanings a t t r i b u t e d -113-TABLE X I I I Number o f S i k h s , P o r t u g u e s e and Canadians  Who Were I n t e r v i e w e d S i k h P o r t u g u e s e Canadian T o t a l O l i v e r 0 34 17 51 Osoyoos 0 5 5 10 R u t l a n d 20 0 10 30 Vernon 20 0 10 30 TOTALS 40 39 42 121 (Source: i n t e r v i e w s ) -114-t o b o t h t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the d a t a t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r has t o be s e n s i t i v e and a t t e n t i v e toward the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s s u m p t i o n s , and o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . The sample t h a t I i n t e r v i e w e d were f a i r l y r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f t h e two groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a -t i o n , t i m e spent i n Canada, age, e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the i n i t i a l l i s t was c o m p i l e d from the names g i v e n by a few key i n d i v i d u a l s , I sought i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r secondary s o u r c e s as w e l l . T h i s way, I a v o i d e d m e r e l y o b t a i n i n g the names o f the f r i e n d s or a c q u a i n t a n c e s o f the key i n d i v i d u a l s . A l t h o u g h the i n t e r v i e w s themselves were e x t e n s i v e , I t r i e d t o go back t o the f a m i l y on o t h e r s o c i a l as w e l l as f a c t f i n d i n g m i s s i o n s . A l s o , whenever p o s s i b l e , I asked them q u e s t i o n s t h a t were r e - p h r a s e d so as t o guard a g a i n s t m i s - i n f o r m a t i o n (Appendix 1 w i l l c l a r i f y t he con-t e x t s f o r the i n t e r v i e w s ) . I r e a l i z e the problems o f o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i n v o l v e s r e c o l l e c t i n g f a c t s o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e and/or a p r i v a t e n a t u r e . To a v o i d such an e m b a r r a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n , I u s u a l l y gave them a sh e e t o f paper w i t h q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o income, o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l or the f a m i l y i n the c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n and o t h e r demographic d a t a . U s u a l l y , a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w was over one o f t h e spouses answered t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w h i l e the o t h e r took me around the o r c h a r d , - 1 1 5 -o r s h o w e d me t h e home o r g a r d e n . T h e a c c u r a c y o f s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , q u e s t i o n a b l e . H o w e v e r , i t w a s u s e f u l a t l e a s t t o b r o a d l y c a t e g o r i z e t h e m a l o n g c e r t a i n d i m e n s i o n s . E s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t i s , a n d w a s , a t i m e -c o n s u m i n g m a t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h f a r m e r s who w o r k f r o m d a w n u n t i l d u s k . T h i s r o u t i n e i s b r o k e n o n l y i n t h e w i n t e r . T o s h o r t c i r c u i t t h i s p r o c e s s , I a c c o m p a n i e d t h e m t o t h e o r -c h a r d a n d h e l p e d w i t h w h a t e v e r I c o u l d . T h i s v e r y o f t e n m e a n t t h a t I h a d t o c l i m b 14 f o o t l a d d e r s w i t h a b a g t h a t c o u l d h o l d a t l e a s t 10 p o u n d s o f f r u i t . O v e r t h e b r a n c h e s l a d e n w i t h f r u i t , I f o u n d t h a t i t w a s e a s y b o t h t o a s k q u e s t i o n s a s w e l l a s t o g e t t h e a n s w e r s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , I l e a r n t v e r y q u i c k l y h o w t o a s s e s s a n d p i c k f r u i t . I n r e t r o s p e c t , I r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s w a s t h e m o s t p r a c t i c a l w a y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r c h a r d l i f e , w h i c h I c o u l d n o t h a v e o b t a i n e d e i t h e r t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r i n t e r v i e w s . A l s o , s i n c e t h e f a r m e r s w e r e a t e a s e a n d d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y w e r e w a s t i n g t i m e , I f e l t t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a -t i o n w a s b e t t e r . W i t h t h e i n i t i a l r e s e r v e b r o k e n , I f o u n d t h a t I was a n a c c e p t a b l e , i n t e r e s t e d a n d t r u s t w o r t h y " o u t s i d e r " . S i n c e w o r d g e t s a r o u n d , I w a s a l s o m o r e r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d b y o t h e r s a s a n o b s e r v e r a t c o o p e r a t i v e m e e t i n g s o r o t h e r c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s . -116-In the Sikh si t u a t i o n , I had an advantage, as I was seen as one of them. This had disadvantages as well, although f a m i l i a r i t y with the culture saved me a great deal of time. After they were s a t i s f i e d that I was pursuing a doctoral degree in Anthropology, I was more readi l y accept-ed. However, i t took a great deal of tact and understanding to be at ease and obtain the necessary information e s p e c i a l -l y from the men. As in the Portuguese s i t u a t i o n , I t r i e d to reciprocate as much as possible by babysitting, helping with the household chores, tran s l a t i n g , getting information about matters that they did not have the time to explore and so on. They were also proud to show me o f f as a doctoral student because i t helped improve their general image in the community. In addition, introducing me to their co-workers, bosses and friends was a public display of their knowledge of the ways of the community. Consequently, i t gave them a sense of achievement. Entry into lumber m i l l s was more d i f f i c u l t and more formal. It necessitated making appointments and wearing a hard hat. However, after the introductions were over I was taken into the centre of the m i l l . Although I could not stay and record signs, utterances or conversations, I was allowed into the coffee room during breaks. On such occasions, I was acutely aware of the advantages of knowing other Canadian workers ( i . e . , non-Sikhs). In the minds of - 1 1 7 -t h e s e w o r k e r s , I w a s n o t m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t i n g o n e e t h n i c g r o u p , a n d t h e r e f o r e I c o u l d a s k q u e s t i o n s t h a t m i g h t n o t h a v e o t h e r w i s e b e e n p o s s i b l e . I w a s a l s o v e r y a c t i v e i n c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s , a n d w a s p r e s e n t a t m a n y s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l m e e t i n g s o r e v e n t s . I w a s a l s o a s k e d t o s p e a k a b o u t I n d i a a n d I n d i a n c u l t u r e i n c l a s s r o o m s , a t t h e R o t a r y C l u b , Women's G r o u p s a n d s o o n . A l l i n a l l , I t r i e d t o r e c i p r o c a t e a s much a s p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f c a s e s t u d i e s i s n o t u n u s u a l i n e t h n o g r a p h i c w r i t i n g . E v e n t h o u g h , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " t h a t i s p r o v i d e d o f f e r s i n s i g h t s n o t u s u a l l y c a p t u r e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I f e e l t h a t a t t i t u d e s , e m o t i o n s , v a l u e s a n d m e a n i n g s a r e e s s e n t i a l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g h u m a n n a t u r e . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , I a g r e e w i t h B e r r a m a n ( 1 9 6 2 : 3 6 8 ) t h a t " e t h n o g r a p h e r s , l i k e a l l s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e d i l e m m a o f how t o b e o b j e c t i v e a b o u t a s u b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n : how t o b e s c i e n t i f i c a n d ( n o t o r ) h u m a n i s t i c . " H a v i n g d i s c u s s e d t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n , I now w i s h t o p r o v i d e a p r o f i l e o f t h e S i k h a n d P o r t u g u e s e i m m i g r a n t s . My p u r p o s e i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o -118-d e s c r i b e and compare the two groups a l o n g s e l e c t e d dimen-s i o n s . I n b o t h c a s e s , I make the d i s t i n c t i o n s between p i o n e e r s and newcomers. T h i s c o n t r a s t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the d i s c u s s i o n on the S i k h s , s i n c e t h e r e was a gap o f a t l e a s t 30 y e a r s between the e a r l y p i o n e e r s and the l a t e r i m m i g r a n t s who came i n the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s . The f a m i l i e s o f t h e s e p i o n e e r s , who had been i n s u l a t e d from P u n j a b i c u l t u r e were t o some e x t e n t more b i - c u l t u r a l than t h o s e who came l a t e r . For the P o r t u g u e s e i n the v a l l e y t h e r e was o n l y a d i f f e r e n c e o f 5-8 y e a r s between the p i o n e e r s and t h e l a t e r i m m i g r a n t s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s P o r t u g u e s e a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n terms o f t h o s e who came w i t h grown c h i l d r e n and t h o s e who d i d n o t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t d e s p i t e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n age, knowledge o f E n g l i s h , and e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l s , t h e two groups d i f f e r e d p r i m a r i l y on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o the d e f i n i -t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , and i n d i v i d u a l achievement and s t a t u s . We w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The S i k h s have been i n Canada s i n c e the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , w i t h a v e r y s m a l l n u c l e u s i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . I n the s i x t i e s , however, t h e number grew r a p i d l y and by 1969, t h e r e were 39,972 im m i g r a n t s i n Canada. S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e numbers i n c r e a s e d and a t p r e s e n t i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e are about 200,000 i n Canada ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e from P a k i s t a n , F i j i , U n i t e d Kingdom, C a r i b b e a n , South - 1 1 9 -E a s t A s i a a n d E a s t a n d C e n t r a l A f r i c a ) h a l f o f whom a r e l o c a t e d i n O n t a r i o . O f t h i s a b o u t 6 0 , 0 0 0 l i v e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( W o o d : 1 9 7 9 ; F r o e s e & C a m p b e l l : 1 9 7 6 ) . S t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o t h e n u m b e r o f S i k h i m m i g r a n t s i n t h e v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o t h e r t h a n V a n c o u v e r w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s i z e a b l e c o m m u n i t i e s i n Kam-l o o p s , M e r r i t , P r i n c e G e o r g e , R u t l a n d , V e r n o n a n d K e l o w n a . L i k e w i s e , t h e P o r t u g u e s e h a v e b e e n a t t r a c t e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o t h e r l a r g e s e t t l e -m e n t s i n e a s t e r n a n d c e n t r a l C a n a d a . I n 1 9 7 3 , i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e a t l e a s t 2 5 , 5 0 0 P o r t u g u e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e a r e a b o u t 4 , 5 0 0 l o c a t e d a r o u n d O l i v e r , O s o y o o s a n d P e n t i c t o n ( A n d e r s o n & H i g g s : 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e e a r l i e s t i m m i g r a n t s c a me i n 1 9 5 5 a n d w o r k e d o n t h e f a r m s . W i t h t h i s a s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n l e t u s l o o k a t t h o s e who w e r e p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y . M o t i v e s t o M i g r a t e - T h e S i k h s T h e f i v e p i o n e e r s i n t h i s s t u d y c a m e t o C a n a d a i n t h e h o p e o f m a k i n g a b e t t e r l i v i n g . T h e y h a d h e a r d o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f w o r k i n g a n d l i v i n g a b r o a d . T h e o t h e r 3 5 c a m e b e c a u s e o f b o t h t h e p e r c e i v e d a d v a n t a g e s o f -120-earning a l i v i n g and the networks of friends and kin who resided here. Thus they had access to information about employment opportunities, and Canadian l i f e in general. Among those who came in the 1960's, the majority had been encouraged by friends or r e l a t i v e s to immigrate to Canada. Many of my respondents also noted that they had observed the effects of money earned abroad, or "foreign money" as they c a l l e d i t , i n the towns and v i l l a g e s where they came from. Very often, they would describe the type of houses b u i l t by individuals who had l i v e d and earned abroad. There was, of course, a marked difference between the newly constructed cement and brick houses and the older thatched row houses (see also Singh: 1959). However, a cautionary note must also be introduced, because despite a l l the hardships in Canada, when immigrants return they tend to g l o r i f y their experiences here. Also, when d o l l a r s are converted into rupees, the amount of money earned i n Canada appears to be much larger than what they and others have known in the v i l l a g e s . Although to those interviewed i t had become increasingly clear that working abroad would serve to a l l e -viate the s i t u a t i o n at home, their images of their l i v e s i n Canada had not yet taken shape. Those who had no r e l a t i v e s envisaged a work span of f i v e years, in which time they hoped to make s u f f i c i e n t money and return. But for others - 1 2 1 -who h a d r e l a t i v e s , t h e p r o s p e c t o f r e t u r n i n g w a s n o t s o w e l l d e f i n e d . T h e P o r t u g u e s e I n t h e c a s e o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e , m i g r a t i o n w a s i n i t i a t e d b y t h e i n t e r e s t s h o w n i n t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t t o w a r d s a t t r a c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r ( A n d e r s o n a n d H i g g s : 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s w a s a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e P o r t u g u e s e i m m i -g r a n t s a n d t h e S i k h s . H o w e v e r , j u s t l i k e t h e S i k h s , t h e P o r t u g u e s e a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d e a r n m o r e t h a n t h e y e v e r d i d i n t h e v i l l a g e s o f P o r t u g a l . M a n y o f t h e m t a l k e d a b o u t r e t u r n i n g w i t h m o n e y t o b u y p r o p e r t y i n t h e v i l l a g e s t h e y h a d l e f t b e h i n d . T h e C a n a d i a n l a b o u r s h o r t a g e o f t h e f i f t i e s w a s a s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t p r o m o t e d t h i s n e e d . A s we s h a l l s e e , i t h a d i t s e f f e c t s o n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e P o r t u g u e s e f e l t w i t h l i f e i n t h e v a l l e y . T h e q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t a i l s o n m i g r a t i o n f o r t h e t w o g r o u p s c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e I V . H a v i n g l o o k e d a t some o f t h e c a u s e s f o r m i g r a t i o n , l e t u s b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r s ome o f t h e p r e - m i g r a t i o n f a c t o r s t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e t w o e t h n i c g r o u p s i n C a n a d a . A m o n g t h o s e d i s c u s s e d a r e t h e r u r a l - u r b a n b a c k -g r o u n d , l a n g u a g e a n d e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d s k i l l s . F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g -122-TABLE XIV t o S i k h and Po r t u g u e s e M i g r a t i o n S i k h s 1. Newcomers N = 35 I n f o r m a t i o n from f r i e n d s i n Canada : 28 I n f o r m a t i o n from r e l a t i v e s i n Canada : 7 2. P i o n e e r s N = 5 Heard about Canada T o t a l = 5 40 3. Po r t u g u e s e N = 39 I n f o r m a t i o n from customs o f f i c i a l s and government a i d e d programmes : 5 I n f o r m a t i o n from r e l a t i v e s i n Canada : 30 I n f o r m a t i o n from f r i e n d s i n Canada T o t a l = 4 39 (S o u r c e : I n t e r v i e w s ) -123-P r e - M i g r a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R u r a l - U r b a n B a c k g r o u n d : I n C a n a d a , a t p r e s e n t , c h a n g i n g s t i p u l a t i o n s i n i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c i e s h a v e h a d a n e f f e c t o n r e d u c i n g t h e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e f r o m r u r a l s e t t i n g s . P a r t i -c u l a r l y , p o s t - w a r i m m i g r a t i o n h a s b e e n g r e a t l y t a i l o r e d t o s u i t t h e n e e d s o f a m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . T h i s i s a p a t t e r n t h a t h a s l i t t l e s e m b l a n c e t o w h a t h a p p e n e d i n t h e 1 9 t h a n d e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . M o s t o f t h o s e e a r l i e r i m m i -g r a n t s w e r e n o t o n l y u n s k i l l e d b u t p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r o m t h e r u r a l a r e a s . I n f a c t , u n t i l t h e f i f t i e s t h e r e w a s a d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s o r f a r m e r s ( H a w k i n s : 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e S i k h s T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e S i k h s I i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e f r o m v i l l a g e s . O f t h e 4 0 i n my s a m p l e , t h e r e w e r e 22 f a m i l i e s f r o m v i l l a g e s i n t h e J u l l u n d e r d i s t r i c t o f t h e P u n j a b , n i n e f r o m H o s h i a r p u r , f o u r f r o m K a p u r t h a l a a n d t h e r e s t w e r e f r o m A m r i t s a r . T h u s , o n t h e w h o l e , J u l l u n d e r a n d H o s h i a r p u r w e r e t h e c e n t r e s o f e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e P u n j a b . H o w e v e r , t h o s e who h a d a n y u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n h a d r e c e i v e d i t i n t h e n e a r b y t o w n s o r c i t i e s . S o d e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e r u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s , m a n y o f t h e m h a v e h a d some u r b a n e x p o s u r e . A l m o s t 7 5 % o f t h e S i k h s i n t e r v i e w e d h a d s p e n t a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s i n a c i t y . The P o r t u g u e s e -124-Th e P o r t u g u e s e were m o s t l y from the ma i n l a n d and the A z o r e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , those from the ma i n l a n d were from t h e n o r t h and c e n t r a l p a r t s of P o r t u g a l . Among t h o s e from the A z o r e s , many were from the i s l a n d s o f F a y a l , San M i g u e l and T e r c e i r a . I n the case o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e , however, o n l y 13% had a minimum urban exposure o f t h r e e y e a r s . The e f f e c t t h i s v a r i a b l e had on t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f t h e s e two groups s u g g e s t s t h a t urban exposure i s n o t an i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . F a m i l y Background - The S i k h s As n o t e d e a r l i e r , the S i k h s were m o s t l y from v i l -l a g e s where t h e i r f a m i l i e s owned l a n d . The amount o f l a n d owned i n the v i l l a g e s can be used as a rough measure of the importance and s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y i n the Punjab as i s t r u e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f I n d i a . L i k e w i s e , the Punjab has been i d e n t i f i e d as a p r o v i n c e w h e r e i n a t l e a s t the m i d d l e p e a s a n t r y have earned h i g h e r incomes (Mandelbaum: 1970) than the r e s t o f I n d i a . A l s o , i t must be n o t e d t h a t i n many o f the v i l l a g e s , l a n d has been brought under tube w e l l i r r i g a t i o n , and many fa r m e r s now own t r a c t o r s . F u r t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n terms of t h e i r f a m i l y ' s l a n d h o l d i n g s r e v e a l s t h e r e were n i n e who were s m a l l f a r mers ( l e s s than -12 5-f i v e a c r e s ) ; 14 f a m i l i e s who owned between 5-20 a c r e s of l a n d ; s i x o t h e r s w i t h f a m i l y h o l d i n g s o f the o r d e r o f 30 a c r e s ; and f i n a l l y , s i x c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as c a p i t a l i s t f a r m e r s , w i t h more than 30 a c r e s , p a r t i a l l y mechanized, who c o u l d a f f o r d t o send t h e i r sons t o urban c e n t e r s f o r a good e d u c a t i o n . Farming was a f a m i l y v e n t u r e and d e s p i t e the changes implemented s i n c e I n d i a n independence, the f a m i l y o p e r a t e d as a c o r p o r a t e u n i t . I n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l i a l l a n d h o l d i n g s of the S i k h s can be o b t a i n e d from T a b l e XV. T h e i r dependency on each o t h e r took s e v e r a l forms. Each s i b l i n g h e l p e d the o t h e r s b o t h t o have a b a s i c educa-t i o n , and t o c a r r y on t h e f a m i l y o c c u p a t i o n . Even when th e y took j o b s o u t s i d e the v i l l a g e , f a m i l y r e m i t t a n c e s were s e n t t o h e l p t h e p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s . The f a m i l y , t h u s , had t o work as a c o r p o r a t e u n i t . Performance o f d u t i e s and a sense of o b l i g a t i o n was foremost i n t h e i r minds; i t i s not s u r -p r i s i n g , t hen, t h a t the p e o p l e I i n t e r v i e w e d s t r e s s e d t h i s n o t i o n over and over a g a i n . The P o r t u g u e s e As was t r u e f o r the S i k h s , t h e P o r t u g u e s e were i n t e r e s t e d i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n a t home. -126-TABLE XV F a m i l i a l Land H o l d i n g s o f the S i k h s i n the Punjab ( R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f I n f o r m a n t s ) 1. Newcomers Number of A c r e s L ess than 5 a c r e s = 9 Between 6-20 a c r e s = 14 Between 20-30 a c r e s = 6 More than 30 a c r e s = 6 35 2. P i o n e e r s L e s s t h a n 5 a c r e s = _5 5 TOTAL = 40 (Source: I n t e r v i e w s ) - 1 2 7 -M o s t h o p e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d w o r k f o r a s h o r t s p a n o f 3-4 y e a r s , m a k e s u f f i c i e n t m o n e y a n d t h e n r e t u r n . O f t h e 3 9 i n t e r v i e w e d , 2 9 w e r e f r o m f a r m i n g b a c k g r o u n d s . M o s t w e r e f r o m h o u s e h o l d s t h a t w o u l d b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s m a l l f a r m e r s ( i . e . , w i t h l e s s t h a n 5 a c r e s o f l a n d ) . A d d i t i o n a l i n c o m e w a s made t h r o u g h f a r m w o r k , o r d o i n g o d d j o b s i n t h e t o w n s , b u t r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t h e y w e r e p o o r . S i n c e P o r t u g a l h a d a l o n g h i s t o r y o f e m i g r a t i o n , i t w a s n o t a s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e men t o l e a v e . T h e i r o n l y m i s g i v i n g w a s t h a t t h e y h a d v e r y l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f C a n a d a a n d c o n d i t i o n s h e r e . T h e y k n e w o f m i g r a n t c o n d i t i o n s i n B r a z i l , C a l i f o r n i a , G e r m a n y , a n d F r a n c e , b u t n o t C a n a d a . T h e men i n t h e r e m a i n i n g 10 f a m i l i e s h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s , l a b o u r e r s , g a s s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s o r w o r k e d i n t h e p o l i c e f o r c e . T o t h e m , o f c o u r s e , C a n a d a w a s a l a n d w h e r e m o n e y c o u l d b e m a d e . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e y h a d come f r o m b a s i c a l l y n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s . A t m a r r i a g e , c h i l d r e n l e f t t h e i r p a r e n t a l h o m e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r o w n, a n d a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e s t r o n g t i e s w i t h t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n , t h e e m p h a s i s w a s o n t h e f a m i l y o f p r o c r e a t i o n . A s we s h a l l s e e , t h i s f e a t u r e w a s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n . J o b A s p i r a t i o n s - T h e S i k h s O n c e a g a i n , t h e r e w a s a g r e a t d e a l o f a m b i g u i t y a s t o w h a t s p e c i f i c j o b s t h e S i k h s ' w o u l d d o i n C a n a d a . Some -128-heard from their r e l a t i v e s that jobs in the lumber industry were l u c r a t i v e and hoped to be employed there. Others had heard that since Sikhs had problems i n sawmills, these jobs were not so easy to come by. Others, then, were w i l l i n g to work in d i f f e r e n t occupations. There were yet others who were w i l l i n g to do anything, as long as they were here in Canada. Since most did not see themselves as permanent residents, the type of job, and status attached to the job, was not an immediate concern. What i s most interesting i s that, regardless of what the Sikhs saw as their future occupation, they were very e x p l i c i t about how much they would earn and what they would do with their earnings. Instead of t a l k i n g about working with complicated machinery or what i t would be l i k e to be i n Canada, those who were interviewed talked about owning a car, driv i n g to work, wearing good clothes, and owning t e l e v i s i o n s and radios. I argue that i t i s this theme of consumption, in conjunction with their f a m i l i a l obligations, that provided an anchor around which the Sikhs oriented themselves, and made the separation from home and country possible. The Portuguese In terms of the jobs they hoped to have, the Portu--12 9-guese were q u i t e s u r e o f w o r k i n g as farm hands. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y due t o the f a c t t h a t Canada had a d v e r t i s e d f o r farm w o r k e r s . O t h e r s hoped t o work on the r a i l r o a d . There was, t h e r e f o r e , l e s s a m b i g u i t y i n t h e i r minds as t o what t h e y would do once t h e y a r r i v e d h e r e . B e s i d e s , the s e c u r i t y o f w o r k i n g on t h e l a n d u n t i l t h e y had found t h e i r own way i n t h i s s t r a n g e c o u n t r y was a v e r y c o m f o r t i n g thought t o many of them. F i n a l l y , the p r o s p e c t o f e a r n i n g a l i v i n g t h a t was f a r b e t t e r than t h e y c o u l d ever have hoped f o r i n P o r t u g a l p r o v i d e d them w i t h an anchor around which they o r i e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s , and prompted them t o l e a v e home and n a t i o n . Age on A r r i v a l - The S i k h s The age o f t h e immigrant has o f t e n been c i t e d as an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n the a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s (Richmond: 1973). I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t younger immigrants had the p o t e n t i a l f o r making the n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s t o l i f e i n Canada. K i e f e r ' s s t u d y (1974) a l s o s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s based on age t h a t have an impact on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i r t y o u t o f my 35 i n f o r m a n t s were between the ages o f 25-35; the o t h e r f i v e were over 35. T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e wives were u s u a l l y f i v e y e a r s younger. -130-The Portuguese In t h i s study, 70% of those i n t e r v i e w e d were between the ages of 30-40 wi t h a few exc e p t i o n s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . Many of them were married and had f a m i l i e s . T h e i r wives were u s u a l l y 2-3 years younger. There was not much d i f f e r e n c e i n age between the two groups. Knowledge of E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l Language has always been an important i s s u e i n the Canadian context of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so s i n c e the r e p o r t i n the l a t e s i x t i e s of the Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m , (1967: 137) which s t i p u l a t e s t h at "when an immigrant a r r i v e s i n Canada he has one of two fundamental c h o i c e s t o make. Whether a person chooses to l i v e i n French or E n g l i s h Canada he i s f o r c e d to adapt to the environment i n which he w i l l l i v e . " In Quebec, the passage of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l B i l l 63 made i t q u i t e c l e a r that knowledge of the French language on or b e f o r e a r r i v a l i s e s s e n t i a l and t h a t the c h i l d r e n of these immigrants with exceptions would a t t e n d French medium sc h o o l s (Hawkins: 1972). The rec e n t B i l l 101 has l i k e w i s e sparked a great d e a l of concern among the no n - E n g l i s h and non-French p o p u l a t i o n i n Quebec. With the p o i n t system i n - 1 3 1 -o p e r a t i o n , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t knowledge o f e i t h e r E n g l i s h or Fr e n c h i s a p r e - c o n d i t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d the norms and mores o f Canadian s o c i e t y , and t o be e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n such a system. D e t a i l s on t h i s can be seen from T a b l e X V I . The S i k h s D e s p i t e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , many o f t h e S i k h s were n ot c o m p l e t e l y a t ease w i t h E n g l i s h . A l t h o u g h they c o u l d f i l l i n a p p l i c a t i o n forms, and make themselves u n d e r s t o o d , t h e y d e s c r i b e d t h a t i t was h a r d a t l e a s t i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s . There were o n l y s i x S i k h s who c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as b i l i n g u a l ; s e v e n t e e n o t h e r s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d f u n c t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e . A l l o t h e r s had t o have h e l p t o make themselves u n d e r s t o o d and t o g e t j o b s . C o u p l e d t o g e t h e r , an I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n and a mi n i m a l w o r k i n g knowledge o f E n g l i s h c r e a t e d l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r chances t o o b t a i n j o b s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because i t made them r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e were r e a l l y o n l y c e r t a i n o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o them a t l e a s t i n the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , and t h a t t h e y were l u c k y i f they c o u l d manage t o ge t employment. Knowledge of -132-TABLE XVI  E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l Among the Skihs 1. Newcomers N = 35 Men Women Good r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and speaking = 6 -F u n c t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e = 17 25 Poor = 12 10 35 35 2. Pioneers Poor 5 5 TOTAL = 40 40 (Source: Interviews) The Portuguese -133-Apart from a smal l number of Portuguese who had a hi g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , a l l the other Portuguese c o u l d h a r d l y speak E n g l i s h on a r r i v a l . They had to l e a r n to communicate, and as they d i d not go i n t o i n d u s t r i a l jobs, t h i s handicap was not c o n s i d e r e d a problem. Each f a m i l y worked on a farm, and l e a r n i n g farming s k i l l s d i d not r e q u i r e a b a s i c know-ledge o f E n g l i s h . The f i r s t words they p i c k e d up were p i c k i n g , pruning and f e r t i l i z i n g . Once the farmers were s a t i s f i e d with the type of workers they had, they t r i e d t o teach them E n g l i s h . In some cases the farmer's w i f e taught E n g l i s h to the wives and c h i l d r e n of those immigrants. U n f o r t u n a t e l y no p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s f o r the Sikhs i n t h i s study. D e t a i l s on knowledge of E n g l i s h among the Portuguese can be ob t a i n e d from T a b l e XVII. E d u c a t i o n and S k i l l s - The Sikhs In a d d i t i o n to the language requirement, i n Canada high e r e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s are h i g h l y valued as en t r y c r i t e r i a . In f a c t , s i n c e 1967 these are among the most important c r i t e r i a f o r b e i n g accepted as an immigrant. One e f f e c t o f such a system i s t h a t i t has c r e a t e d a s o - c a l l e d " b r a i n d r a i n " from the l e s s e r developed c o u n t r i e s -134-TABLE XVII Knowledge of E n g l i s h on A r r i v a l Among the Portuguese Men Women Knew nothin g = 34 39 F u n c t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e = _5 _0 TOTAL — il 39 (Source: Interviews) -135-(Hawkins: 1972). I t has a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y curbed the r u r a l , u n s k i l l e d p o p u l a t i o n from t h e s e same c o u n t r i e s from m i g r a t -i n g . T h i s a l s o has a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e r number o f s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l from N o r t h e r n and Western Europe, the " p r e f e r r e d " a r e a s o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o b e g i n w i t h . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r i m m i g r a t i o n s e l e c t i o n a l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t has perhaps a t b e s t f u r t h e r s e r v e d t o c o n c e a l r a c i a l b i a s e s ( B u r n e t : 1975). More i n f o r m a t i o n on e d u c a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from T a b l e X V I I I . I n t h e case o f t h e S i k h s , and perhaps o t h e r South A s i a n s , i t has e f f e c t i v e l y curbed the i m m i g r a t i o n p r o c e s s . Those who came, a t l e a s t i n the s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , d i d so because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s who were s e t t l e d h e r e . I n my sample a l m o s t 75% had over n i n e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . The P o r t u g u e s e I n terms o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background t h e r e was f a r g r e a t e r homogeniety among the Po r t u g u e s e than among the S i k h s . Out o f t h e 39 t h e r e were f i v e who had a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . A l l o t h e r s had grade f o u r (see a l s o Anderson and H i g g s : 1976). T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of comparison t o the S i k h s , because the P o r t u g u e s e saw themselves as p r i m a r i l y w o r k i n g on farms which d i d not - 1 3 6 -T A B L E X V I I I E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e S i k h s T o t a l = N = 4 0 ( c o u p l e s ) 1. N e w c o m e r s Men Women B e l o w 9 y e a r s = 5 4 B e t w e e n 9 y e a r s - 12 y e a r s - 24 2 8 U n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e -u n i v e r s i t y = 3 3 G r a d u a t e d e g r e e = 3 -3 5 3 5 2. P i o n e e r s B e l o w 9 y e a r s = 5 5 T O T A L = 4 0 4 0 ( S o u r c e : I n t e r v i e w s ) -137-r e q u i r e knowledge or s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s . The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n P o r t u g u e s e , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not have h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e and s t a t u s i n the community. For more d e t a i l s see T a b l e XIX. F i n a l l y , t h i s p r o f i l e would n o t be complete i f t h e r e was no mention o f j o b m o b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h i t has a l i m i t e d impact on a c c u l t u r a t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t f i n d i n g a j o b i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a or i n d u s t r y t h a t t h e y have hop-ed f o r i s an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , immigrants f e e l a g r e a t e r sense o f achievement and commitment t o b o t h the l o c a t i o n and i n d u s t r y . F i r s t J o b s and M o b i l i t y - The S i k h s I n 1976, a l m o s t a l l the S i k h s I i n t e r v i e w e d worked i n s a w m i l l s . Of t h i s group, f o u r had worked on the r a i l r o a d p r i o r t o becoming l a b o u r e r s i n the lumber m i l l s . One worked as a d a i r y farmer i n the lo w e r m a i n l a n d b e f o r e he took a j o b as a p l a n e r . Another had worked i n h i s u n c l e ' s s t o r e b e f o r e he took a j o b i n t h e s a w m i l l . S i x o t h e r s had worked on a farm b e f o r e t h e y o b t a i n e d j o b s i n the s a w m i l l . Twenty o t h e r s who worked i n s a w m i l l s i n Kamloops, Golden and Vancouver moved i n t o the v a l l e y because t h e i r r e l a t i v e s l i v e d h e r e . Only t h r e e o b t a i n e d j o b s i n the m i l l r i g h t away. - 1 3 8 -T A B L E X I X E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e N = 3 9 ( c o u p l e s ) Men Women M o r e t h a n 4 y e a r s = 5 0 4 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n - 3 4 3 9 T O T A L — 1 2 3 9 ( S o u r c e : I n t e r v i e w s ) -139-The a t t r a c t i o n o f w o r k i n g i n the s a w m i l l i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , because as th e y saw i t , i t was a form o f j o b t r a i n i n g t h a t would put them i n good s t e a d f o r the f u t u r e . Working i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on a farm would make i t e a s i e r t o f i n d j o b s i f these S i k h s were t o move. I n p a r t i c u l a r , s i n c e B r i t i s h Columbia r e l i e d so h e a v i l y on i t s lumber, j o b s c o u l d be found w i t h c e r t a i n t y . F i n a l l y , o f c o u r s e , t h e h o u r l y r a t e was v e r y h i g h , and t h e y c o u l d work o v e r t i m e . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s not so h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s a w m i l l j o b s , a l t h o u g h a l m o s t a l l were green c h a i n workers and lumber p i l e r s . The f i v e p i o n e e r s found work on farms b e f o r e t h e y bought l a n d or became s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . T h e i r p r e s e n t j o b s a t l e a s t s uggest t h a t t h e y a r e employed i n t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s which they p r e f e r r e d . I n some ways, t h e S i k h s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h what t h e y have made of themselves i n Canada - and more so w i t h what th e y have a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h h a r d work, such as c a r s , homes and o t h e r consumption i t e m s . Y e t th e y a r e n o t always r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s or have s t a t u s i n the community. T h e i r commitment t o the community i s a l s o n ot v i s i b l e because i n the eyes o f t h e o t h e r s , t h e y have not c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s o c i a l l i f e o f the community. - 1 4 0 -T h e P o r t u g u e s e T h e r e w e r e o n l y f o u r w h o s e f i r s t j o b s i n C a n a d a w e r e o n t h e r a i l r o a d . T h e o t h e r 3 5 w o r k e d a s p i c k e r s o n t h e o r c h a r d s . T h e y h o p e d e v e n t u a l l y t o o w n o r c h a r d s t h e m -s e l v e s . A t p r e s e n t , a l l 3 9 own o r c h a r d s , a l t h o u g h t h e s i z e o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s v a r i e s . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e o w n e r s h a s a v e r y s p e c i a l e f f e c t o n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a n d v i e w s a b o u t t h e i r w o r k . S i n c e t h e P o r t u g u e s e h a v e a g o o d l i f e s t y l e o n t h e o r c h a r d s a n d t h e y a r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t e i n t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e v a l l e y , t h e y d o n o t p l a n t o move e l s e -w h e r e ( s e e a l s o A n d e r s o n & H i g g s : 1 9 7 6 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e y o w n l a n d , t h e y a r e r e s p e c t e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . A l -t h o u g h a s y e t t h e y d o n o t p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h e s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e y d o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f r u i t c o o p e r a t i v e , v o t e d u r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n s a n d h a v e a l i f e s t y l e t h a t i s c o m p a r a b l e t o o t h e r f a r m e r s i n t h e a r e a . C o n c l u s i o n I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n . L i k e o t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , I h a v e h a d my s h a r e o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e s a n d p r o b l e m s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g m y s e l f i n t h e v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s . A l t h o u g h I w a s a c c e p t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c i r c l e s , I w a s v i e w e d a s a n i n t e r e s t e d a n d s y m p a t h e t i c o u t s i d e r . -141-In the second half I have presented a p r o f i l e of the members of the two groups that I interviewed. Among the pre-migrant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the factors that were important to both the Sikhs and the Portuguese, were, motives to migrate, family background and perceived job opportunities and aspirations. These factors allow us to understand dimensions that are related to native immigrant models. Both the Sikhs and the Portuguese had heard of and seen the effects of immigration in the towns and v i l l a g e s that they l i v e d i n . Although the Portuguese had not come i n large numbers to Canada before the f i f t i e s , they had heard about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of working and l i v i n g on farms and were aware of the preference that Canada showed toward farm workers. I n i t i a l l y the Portuguese, l i k e the Sikhs, had only short term plans. They were sure of farm jobs and were confident of making money without much d i f f i c u l t y . Their expectations were then more e a s i l y matched with the condi-tions that they experienced. The Sikhs, however, had higher expectations and had to reorient themselves to the r e a l i t i e s of Canadian l i f e . Apart from these differences in motives and job aspirations, there were also differences in family l i f e s t y l e and background. The obligations and t i e s of kinship that extended beyond the nuclear household and which did not -142-cease when t h e r e l a t i v e s came t o Canada, made i t e a s i e r f o r the S i k h s t o s l i p i n t o the ways o f l i f e t h a t t h e y had known i n I n d i a . E f f o r t s were n o t q u i c k l y o r e a s i l y made t o accom-modate t h e r u l e s o f t h e new c o u n t r y . The P o r t u g u e s e , n ot u n l i k e the S i k h s , a l s o used k i n and f r i e n d s h i p networks t o immigrate t o Canada. The marked d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t once the r e l a t i v e s were h e r e , o b l i g a -t i o n s t o extended k i n ceased. The emphasis f o r i n s t a n c e was no l o n g e r on the f a m i l y o f o r i g i n b u t on the f a m i l y o f p r o c r e a t i o n - an i n d i c a t i o n o f the importance o f i n d i v i d u a l achievement and s t a t u s . Other f a c t o r s such as age, edu-c a t i o n and knowledge o f E n g l i s h on a r r i v a l which a r e n o r m a l l y viewed as h e l p i n g or r e t a r d i n g the p r o c e s s have l i t t l e use as p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s s i n c e b o t h groups were comparable on t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s . Having c o n s i d e r e d some o f the i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f b o t h groups, we s h a l l n e x t c o n s i d e r some d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e Canadian c u l t u r a l model a t t h e n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l . -143-CHAPTER 5  THE MEANING OF WORK There a r e s e v e r a l themes t h a t I e x p l o r e i n t h i s c h a p t e r . F i r s t , t he w o r k p l a c e i s an a r e n a where c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r s o c c u r and wh e r e i n newcomers l e a r n e f f e c t i v e means of s u r v i v i n g i n t h e system. The onus i s on newcomers t o make the e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d and o p e r a t e i n the new con-t e x t . S e c o n d l y , t h a t "work" i s s e p a r a b l e from a l l o t h e r spheres o f a c t i v i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t "work i d e n t i t y " i s d i s t i n c t from a l l o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s o f " s e l f " . The c o r o l -l a r y t o t h i s i s t h a t , a t l e a s t i n the w o r k p l a c e , the empha-s i s i s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance and i d e n t i t y i n the t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f h i s / h e r j o b , and not on any e x p r e s s i o n s o f c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c l o y a l t y . T h i s i s not t o argue t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s the o n l y v a l u e t h a t i s emphasized i n the w o r k p l a c e . The work group composed o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , based on a c o n t r a c t u a l system i s i n d e e d e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t . But t h e essence o f such a group e t h o s i s n o t ba s e d on e t h n i c or k i n s h i p t i e s . I n essence, t h e n , p u b l i c work i d e n t i t y i s not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h p r i v a t e e t h n i c or r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y . For new immigrants i n p a r t i c u l a r , t he di m e n s i o n s o f t h i s c u l t u r a l model a r e n o t so a p p a r e n t . For tho s e who -144-p e r c e i v e o r e x p e r i e n c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s w i t c h i n g i d e n t i t i e s i s p a i n f u l a n d c o n f u s i n g . T h e common r e s p o n s e t o t h i s i s t o c l e a v e t o t r a d i t i o n a l o r k n o w n f o r m s o f e t h n i c l o y a l t y . I t i s t o a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s t h a t we s h a l l now t u r n . T h e a r g u m e n t t h a t i s a d v a n c e d h e r e i s t h a t i m m i g r a n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d a c c e p t a n c e i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e d e g r e e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t i e s e m b e d d e d i n t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l m o d e l s a n d t h e c o n t e x t s ( o f h o s t i l i t y , t o l e r a n c e , o r a c c e p t a n c e ) t h a t t h e y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n . T h e a l t e r n a t e a r g u m e n t t h a t c a n b e made t o d i s c u s s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s u c c e s s o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e a n d t h e S i k h s i s t o d r a w t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n P o r t u g u e s e a s p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s a n d S i k h s a s w a g e l a b o u r e r s . T o a l a r g e e x t e n t , i t i s t r u e t h a t P o r t u g u e s e i m m i g r a n t s t o o k l o w p a i d j o b s t h a t n o o t h e r C a n a d i a n s w a n t e d a n d t h a t t h e y w o r k e d t h e i r w a y u p . T h e " r a g s t o r i c h e s s y n d r o m e " r e i n f o r c e s t h e b e l i e f i n t h e l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y i n C a n a d a ( s e e M a r c h a k 1 9 7 5 ) . A l s o , i f o n e w e r e t o a r g u e t h a t t h e P o r t u g u e s e w e r e m o s t l y f a r m e r s b e f o r e t h e y i m m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a a n d h e n c e h a d l i t t l e t r o u b l e i n b e c o m i n g c o m m o d i t y p r o d u c e r s , i t c a n b e s h o w n ( l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r ) t h a t t h e y t o o h a d t o l e a r n c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h e h a r d w a y . T h e -145-future of the autonomous farmer as we s h a l l see i n Canada was bleak. Many Portuguese thus not only had to become members of the f r u i t cooperative but also had to stop being involved in the "peddling" of f r u i t . In the case of the Sikhs, i t can be argued that farmers, and small businessmen shared a better chance of being accepted in the community than longshore men or sawmill workers. Indeed in the lower Frazer Valley there are many Sikh farmers who have received the attention of Manpower and Immigration through h i r i n g mal-practises. Likewise, those who own l o c a l stores or newstands do not receive any more acceptance than sawmill workers. Thus the fact that the Portuguese were commodity producers and the Sikhs were wage labourers does not completely explain their respective settlement patterns in Canada. In order to understand the i n t r i c a c i e s involved, one has to examine the c u l t u r a l models. Both the Sikhs and the Portuguese do not make a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between work and non-work, but recognize the s i g n i f i c a n c e of kin networks in organizing economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . However, while the Sikhs (as we s h a l l see) emphasize an undifferentiated i d e n t i t y defined primar-i l y by r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , the Portuguese make the d i s --146-t i n c t i o n between r e l i g i o u s and ethnic i d e n t i t y and confine both to their private l i v e s . These models are in turn evaluated and undergo al t e r a t i o n s in the settlement process. Although acculturation does not necessitate a po s i -t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the host group, i t does involve learning strategies and s k i l l s by which the newcomer becomes e f f e c t i v e . By t h i s I mean, as a minimum requirement an ind i v i d u a l has to not only obtain but also keep his/her job. The process might be arduous and may depend on factors such as education, s k i l l s , p r ior experience and so on. In addition, individuals might encounter and experience h o s t i l i t y . Nevertheless an individual's success w i l l depend on his or her a b i l i t y at managing work i d e n t i t y within such a context. The use of the term "work i d e n t i t y " i s i t s e l f suggestive of the separation of such an i d e n t i t y from other aspects of one's l i f e . In i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s in general, the job that one performs plays an important r o l e i n the development of s e l f concepts and images. Such segmentaliza-ti o n further requires that individuals move away from the a l l embracing notions of c u l t u r a l or ethnic l o y a l t y . The Sikhs, who were thrust into such an i n d u s t r i a l environment, had to learn very quickly that these separa-tions were imperative. However, r e a l or perceived h o s t i l i t y retarded the learning process. Indeed, many of them saw i t - 1 4 7 -a s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f " s e l f " . T h e P o r t u g u e s e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e a n y m a j o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e i r mode o f e m p l o y m e n t : t h e y w e r e f a r m w o r k e r s , a n d l a t e r , t h e y b e c a m e f a r m o w n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . I n C a n a d a , a s i n a n y o t h e r p a r t o f t h e w o r l d , f a r m o w n e r s d o n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h e s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k a n d n o n - w o r k . T h e y a r e t h u s a n i n t e r e s t i n g e x c e p t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e s o f a n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . T a k i n g t h i s a r g u m e n t o n e s t e p f u r t h e r , i t c a n a l s o b e a r g u e d t h a t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a n d c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s o f f a r m e r s d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y o f c o u r s e t h a t f a r m c o m m u n i t i e s i n g e n e r a l a n d f a r m e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r l a g b e h i n d o t h e r s e c t o r s o f a s o c i e t y , o r t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e s e e n o r s t u d i e d a s s e p a r a t e g r o u p s . A s H e d l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) a r g u e s , t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e f a m i l y f a r m a n d t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t h a v e d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d t h e m i s t h e h i s -t o r y o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n c o m p e t i n g m o d e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , a c o n f l i c t i n w h i c h t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e d o m e s t i c c o m -m o d i t y mode o f p r o d u c t i o n h a s b e e n c o n t i n u o u s l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e h e g e m o n y o f c a p i t a l . I n t h e O k a n a g a n V a l l e y , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d t h e m e c h a n i z a -t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y f a r m e r s who a r e d r a w n i n t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o n t e x t . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t o f c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n a n d -148-m e c h a n i z a t i o n , l e a r n i n g t o be e f f e c t i v e was i n d e e d s t r e s s f u l t o the P o r t u g u e s e . The i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e of t o l e r a n c e t u r n e d i n t o one o f m i l d h o s t i l i t y as t h e models t h e y e x p e r i -mented w i t h were i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h the models of the o t h e r f a r m e r s i n the v a l l e y . However, t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y from the p u b l i c sphere worked t o t h e i r advantage. They found a g r a d u a l a c c e p t a n c e i n the community. I t i s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e events t h a t we s h a l l t u r n i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. Case s t u d i e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t w i l l be p r o v i d e d i l l u s t r a t e t h i s main argument - t h a t t h e degree of connectedness or s e p a r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s spheres o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n c u l t u r a l models t h a t i m migrants b r i n g w i t h them, and t h e c o n t e x t s t h a t t h e y f i n d t hemselves i n , have a tremendous impact on the degree of a c c e p t a n c e or non-acceptance i n the community, and t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The P i o n e e r S i k h s Of t h e 40 S i k h f a m i l i e s t h a t I i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e r e were f i v e who were o l d t i m e r s or l o n g term r e s i d e n t s i n the v a l l e y . I n t h e s e f i v e c a s e s g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s can be d i s c e r n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a t t i t u d e s and work p r a c t i s e s . The o t h e r 35 were r e l a t i v e l y newcomers. I would l i k e t o b e g i n -149-with a three g e n e r a t i o n a l case study of a t y p i c a l pioneer f a m i l y i n order to h i g h l i g h t t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of new s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s , d e s p i t e the c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on them. Case Study 1: F i r s t Generation "Pioneers" In 1910, Mr. Singh came t o Canada as an immigrant. His f i r s t job was as a l a b o u r e r i n a r a i l r o a d company i n Vancouver. In 1914 he came to Kelowna. He had very l i t t l e e d u cation, knew p r a c t i c a l l y no E n g l i s h , and hoped to s t a y for a few y e a r s , make some money and then r e t u r n to I n d i a . As h i s widow observed, he c o u l d not have chosen a more inopportune moment to a r r i v e i n Canada. The h o s t i l i t y towards East Indians and O r i e n t a l s i n g e n e r a l was very h i g h i n the p r o v i n c e . 1 In the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , owing to the tremendous s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, they were excluded from v i r t u -a l l y a l l aspects of s o c i a l l i f e . F u r t h e r , t h e i r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the work world was c u r t a i l e d . C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y was the o n l y means by which they adapted to the s t r u c t u r e of p r o d u c t i o n i n the v a l l e y . They were v i r t u a l l y excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the community. He was indeed l u c k y to f i n d a job on a farm. E v e n t u a l l y , he sharecropped i n the Rutland area. There were a few Chinese and Japanese who l i v e d there, u n l i k e other p a r t s of the v a l l e y . Returning to I n d i a was a l s o not f e a s i b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g the long d i s t a n c e , the l a c k of t r a v e l f a c i l i t i e s and money. In 1922, however, he went home, was married and i n the next year r e t u r n e d t o Canada. I t was not u n t i l 1929, t h a t he c o u l d b r i n g h i s wife and c h i l d over. Since the 1930's Indians were allowed to own p r o p e r t y and h i s f a m i l y worked together as a u n i t and were abl e to save money and a c q u i r e l a n d . In the 1950's he was a b l e to s e t up a t r u c k i n g b u s i n e s s . He had three daughters and f i v e sons. In the i n i t i a l phases any attempt a t l e a r n i n g new s t r a t e g i e s and s k i l l s would not have succeeded because of - 1 5 0 -t h e h o s t i l i t i e s e x p r e s s e d t o w a r d S i k h s . T h e n a t i v e S i k h m o d e l o f f a m i l y u n i t y a n d c o o p e r a t i o n w o r k e d t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e a n d d i d n o t a l t e r i n t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h r e e f a c t o r s t h a t h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e c h a n g e s w e r e s e t i n t o m o t i o n . F i r s t , i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s S i k h s w e r e a l l o w e d t o own p r o p e r t y . S e c o n d l y , t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e e d u c a t e d i n C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e w a s a l s o a m o v e t o w a r d e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . S e c o n d G e n e r a t i o n A l l t h e s o n s r e c e i v e d a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a n d a l l b u t o n e l e f t home t o f i n d e m p l o y m e n t . A t t h e f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , t h e l a n d w a s n o t d i v i d e d a n d a l t h o u g h t h e o l d e s t ( M r . A t w a l ) w a s t h e m a n a g e r a l l o t h e r s r e c e i v e d t h e i r s h a r e s f r o m t h e p r o f i t s o n a n a n n u a l b a s i s . W h i l e t h e d a u g h t e r s w e r e m a r r i e d t o I n d i a n men o n l y t w o o f t h e s o n s m a r r i e d I n d i a n women. T h e o l d e s t w a s o n e o f t h e t w o . T h e m a n a g e m e n t o f h i s f a t h e r ' s f a r m a n d t h e t r u c k -i n g b u s i n e s s w a s i n d e e d a v e r y t i m e c o n s u m i n g p r o p o s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , a s t h e o w n e r o f a l a r g e o r c h a r d , h e w a s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . He f e l t t h a t h i s f a t h e r h a d n o t made a n a t t e m p t t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l b a r r i e r s . L i v -i n g a n d l e a r n i n g i n a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y c a n b e v e r y t r y i n g , h e o b s e r v e d , u n l e s s y o u a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e l i f e a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . He w a s t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e w a t e r b o a r d t h r e e t i m e s . He d e v e l o p e d a p u b l i c o r w o r k i d e n t i t y w i t h w h i c h h e w a s p e r f e c t l y a t e a s e . A t home l i k e w i s e h e s p o k e P u n j a b i , a t e I n d i a n f o o d a n d e n j o y e d I n d i a n m u s i c . A c c o r d i n g t o h i m , h i s m a r r i a g e t o a n I n d i a n woman a l l o w e d h i m t o m a i n t a i n a n d d e v e l o p h i s " e t h n i c i d e n t i t y " . B y b e i n g a n e n t r e p r e n e u r , i n a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y , t h e i n t e r - c u l t u r a l e n c o u n t e r s w e r e e a s i e r t o m a n a g e . H i s f a t h e r ' s e x c l u s i o n f r o m w h i t e s o c i e t y h a d m o t i v a t e d h i m t o b e i n b u s i n e s s . I n h i s t i m e , b e i n g a b u s i n e s s m a n i n a s m a l l t o w n b r o u g h t h i m r e s p e c t a n d p o w e r . I n a d d i t i o n o w n i n g a n -151-o r c h a r d b r o u g h t him i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r o r c h a r d i s t s i n the v a l l e y . Thus the development o f a b i - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was p o s s i b l e a t l e a s t i n t h e second g e n e r a t i o n . Coupled w i t h the f a c t t h a t t h e r e were n o t l a r g e numbers o f E a s t I n d i a n s i n the v a l l e y , p r i o r t o the 1960's, i t s e c u r e d f o r them a r e s p e c t from the r e s t of the community t h a t i s not so app a r e n t t o d a y . I n the second g e n e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h p r o p e r t y con-t i n u e d t o be owned j o i n t l y , the c h i l d r e n l e f t home t o f i n d j o b s e l s e w h e r e . T h e i r knowledge o f E n g l i s h opened new v i s t a s f o r them, u n l i k e t h e i r p a r e n t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e o l d e s t son, d e s p i t e h i s many d u t i e s , found time t o s o c i a l i z e and i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the l o c a l f a r m ers and businessmen. F u r t h e r , t h e s e p a r a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s a l l o w e d him t o d e v e l o p a b i - c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Thus t o him S i k h i d e n t i t y was s e p a r -a b l e from l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l and work i d e n t i t y . T h i r d G e n e r a t i o n I n g e n e r a l , Mr. A t w a l 1 s c h i l d r e n a r e f i n a n c i a l l y i n dependent. Of h i s f o u r c h i l d r e n , one of the sons h e l p s h i s f a t h e r r u n t h e t r u c k i n g b u s i n e s s . He i s m a r r i e d t o an I n d i a n w h i l e the o t h e r has m a r r i e d a Canadian. H i s two d a u g h t e r s l i k e w i s e work i n the c r e d i t u n i o n . One i s m a r r i e d t o a C a n a d i a n and t h e o t h e r t o an I n d i a n . To a l l o f them "work" i s s e p a r a t e and an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y i n Canada. On the whole, a l l f o u r c h i l d r e n a r e not as b i -2 c u l t u r a l as t h e i r f a t h e r . Those w i t h I n d i a n spouses have -152-a h i g h e r chance of d e v e l o p i n g an I n d i a n or p r i v a t e i d e n t i t y a t home, while at the same time having a p u b l i c or work i d e n t i t y . One other f a c t o r t h a t i s important to note, i s t h a t i n the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n , the importance of f a m i l y c o o p e r a t i o n i n a s t r i c t economic sense was on the d e c l i n e . F u r t h e r , the f a m i l y ' s c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y was matched by a growing r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l achievement and autonomy. A l s o , the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Sikhs dress, t a l k and g e s t u r e l i k e other Canadians. F i n a l l y , the de-emphasis on the f a m i l y as a c o r p o r a t e u n i t encouraged the development of a "work" i d e n t i t y separate from e t h n i c group i d e n t i t y . T h i s became c l e a r when I i n t e r v i e w e d the sons and daughters of Sikhs who were born i n Canada. For i n s t a n c e , Mr. Atwal's c h i l d r e n were twice removed from t h e i r Punjabi h e r i t a g e . They were gi v e n more o p t i o n s and a b e t t e r education by t h e i r parents who had a b e t t e r understanding of how the Canadian system worked. For i n s t a n c e when Mr. Atwal's daughter s a i d to me, "I am not d i f f e r e n t from my f r i e n d s a t the C r e d i t Union," she was making an e f f o r t t o communicate the i d e a that there r e a l l y were no d i f f e r e n c e s between her and her f r i e n d s i n the way t h a t she thought about her job or performed i t . She -153-had gone t o s c h o o l w i t h them, p l a y e d w i t h them and had a c q u i r e d t h e knowledge n e c e s s a r y t o g e t a j o b , r e t a i n i t , o r even l e a v e i t f o r a n o t h e r . I n o t h e r words, she had u n d e r s t o o d t h e c u l t u r e o f work and non-work i n Canada. The P i o n e e r P o r t u g u e s e The f i r s t s e t t l e r s came t o the v a l l e y i n the e a r l y 1950's. Thus, u n l i k e the S i k h s , t h e r e was no n u c l e u s p r i o r t o t h i s p e r i o d . A l s o , t h e y were r e c e i v e d more f a v o u r a b l y due t o the s h o r t a g e of farm w o r k e r s . Most o f them had o n l y a grade f o u r e d u c a t i o n and knew l i t t l e E n g l i s h . They were h i r e d as f r u i t p i c k e r s . L i k e the S i k h s they wanted t o make money, and then r e t u r n home. T h i s d i d not happen, however, and w i t h i n a few y e a r s t h e y were a b l e t o buy the o r c h a r d s t h e m s e l v e s . Case Study 2 Mr. Cory came t o Canada i n the mid 1950's. He was one o f the few who immi g r a t e d t o the v a l l e y a t t h a t t i m e . He g o t a j o b as a f r u i t p i c k e r . But he was i s o l a t e d . There were no o t h e r P o r t u g u e s e nearby t o t a l k t o . H i s w i f e j o i n e d him a y e a r l a t e r . He then sponsored h i s b r o t h e r , who worked f o r him f o r a w h i l e . The f a m i l y worked t o g e t h e r as a u n i t and saved enough money t o buy t h e i r own o r c h a r d . He had two da u g h t e r s who a t t e n d e d the l o c a l s c h o o l . They h e l p e d i n the o r c h a r d i n the summer. T h i s f a m i l y d i d not e x p e r i e n c e much p r e j u d i c e o r -154-d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t them. Jobs were n ot h a r d t o come by on o r c h a r d s and thes e j o b s r e q u i r e d l i t t l e s k i l l or knowledge o f E n g l i s h . I t was not l o n g b e f o r e the f a m i l y c o u l d e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f f i r m l y i n the community. F u r t h e r , t h e new o c c u p a t i o n d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h e s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n between work and non-work. Thus t h e r e was no p r e s s u r e t o d e v e l o p a "work i d e n t i t y " as d i s t i n c t from any o t h e r forms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The r e - l o c a t i o n o f members ( i . e . , s i b l i n g s ) as soon as t h e y were f i n a n c i a l l y independent s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s and achievement was g i v e n more emphasis than c o r p o r a t e f a m i l y i d e n t i t y . For i n s t a n c e a l t h o u g h Mr. Cory sponsored h i s b r o t h e r and gave him a home; the l a t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f s e p a r a t e l y as soon as i t was p o s s i b l e . L i k e the C o r y ' s , o t h e r P o r t u g u e s e f a m i l i e s d i d the same. Second G e n e r a t i o n Mr. Cory's d a u g h t e r s a r e a t u n i v e r s i t y . W h i l e t h e y a r e happy t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s made i t , i n O l i v e r , t hey do not w i s h t o l i v e t h e r e . To them, work meant l e a v i n g home and l i v i n g i n the c i t y . I n the second g e n e r a t i o n the move toward a segment-ed work i d e n t i t y was r a p i d . The case s t u d i e s o f the p i o n e e r P o r t u g u e s e and S i k h f a m i l i e s show t h a t the models b o t h groups b r o u g h t w i t h them were a l t e r e d i n Canada. W h i l e i t took t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s o f S i k h s t o d e v e l o p a work i d e n t i t y -155-that was d i s t i n c t from any other i d e n t i t y , the second g e n e r a t i o n Portuguese were moving i n the same d i r e c t i o n . S t i l l , the contexts and c o n d i t i o n s v a r i e d . The Portuguese, on the whole, were r e c e i v e d with more t o l e r a n c e , while the Sikhs experienced h o s t i l i t y . Secondly, the choice of work-i n g on a farm and e v e n t u a l l y owning i t , meant t h a t there was l e s s p r e s s u r e on them to develop and maintain a "work i d e n -t i t y " . F i n a l l y , t h e i r i s o l a t i o n on the farms prevented them from forming any e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and seeking refuge i n such a c o l l e c t i v i t y . The L a t e r S e t t l e r s (Sikhs) Having examined some of the changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the l i f e - c y c l e and settlement of the p i o n e e r s and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g i n the v a l l e y , l e t us now take a look at the newcomers. They c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y i n my sample. They had come to Canada mainly i n the 1960 1s. These men were mostly manual and u n s k i l l e d workers. In f a c t , there were o n l y s i x who had jobs e i t h e r as foremen or h e l d jobs that i n v o l v e d some knowledge and s k i l l ; the r e s t were merely green c h a i n workers, lumber p i l e r s and so on. The i n d u s t r i a l m i l i e u , which i s t h e i r everyday work world, imposed c o n s t r a i n t s on them t h a t are not of the same order or magnitude as the Portuguese e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s to a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t h a t we s h a l l now t u r n . -156-The Sawmill Setting As discussed in an e a r l i e r chapter, one of the important changes that has taken place i n the lumber industry i s that smaller independent operations that existed u n t i l the f i f t i e s are a l l but gone. They have been bought out or replaced by large organizations with branch plants i n the v a l l e y . Such a move represents a s h i f t from a market economy to a planned or corporate economy (Galbraith 1968). One can also argue that the change in the structures have brought about a corresponding change in the values. The strong emphasis on a d i s t i n c t i o n between the in d i v i d u a l and society was no longer tenable within the "managed economy". The legitimacy of such a new system had to therefore come from more than a mere i n d i v i d u a l . It had to come from the group - in this instance, the technocracy (Galbraith 1968). The emphasis, thus, was on the group and the individual's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the group was defined i n terms of a professional commitment. The group consisting of these important individuals provided emotional and s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n to i t s members. However, values outside of work such as equality, community and family were not necessarily propogated by the group. This s h i f t in emphasis from the autonomous in d i v i d u a l to one who i s part of a group does not -157-n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y the i m p o r t a n c e of the c o l l e c t i v e . The r e q u i r e m e n t s of a c a p i t a l i s t t e c h n o l o g y have o n l y c r e a t e d a new market system and the i n d i v i d u a l c o n t i n u e s t o be s u b j e c t t o i t . Thus, th e v a l u e o f b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y "the p r o p r i e t o r o f h i s / h e r p e r s o n " i s s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d (Wright 1975). W h i l e not a l l members of a s o c i e t y b e l o n g t o the " t e c h n o c r a c y " the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o the group i s s h a r e d by a l l (Wright 1975). The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r a p l a n n e d market economy and t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f such an economy t o members o f the s o c i e t y . Economic growth and p r o f i t s then c o n t i n u e t o a f f e c t t h e c o r p o r a t i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l who works f o r i t . The L o c a l S a w m i l l The s a w m i l l t h a t I v i s i t e d was h i g h l y mechanized. There were, b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g two a r e a s - the f i r s t which i s t h e c e n t r a l a r e a i s where the head sawyer, the s e t t e r and o t h e r sawyers work t o g e t h e r t o c u t and t r i m the l o g s i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e s i z e s . I t i s a n o i s y o p e r a t i o n and n e c e s s i t a t e s an e l a b o r a t e n o n - v e r b a l communication system. The o t h e r a r e a which i s p e r i p h e r a l s p a t i a l l y and s o c i a l l y , i s where the s o r t i n g , green c h a i n work and f e e d i n g o f l o g s onto the j a c k l a d d e r t a k e s p l a c e (see M e i s s n e r and P h i l p o t t 1975 f o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s a w m i l l s e t t i n g ) . -158-S i n c e most of the S i k h s were lumber p i l e r s , s o r t e r s and g reen c h a i n workers l i k e o t h e r co-workers t h e y can a l s o be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g p e r i p h e r a l t o the c e n t r a l o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e s a w m i l l . The S i k h s were acknowledged as good workers p a r t i c u l a r l y by the management. They even o b t a i n e d o v e r t i m e work i n most i n s t a n c e s . S i n c e many of them had S i k h f r i e n d s b o t h on and o u t s i d e o f the w o r k p l a c e , they c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t each o t h e r s homes, t a l k i n P u n j a b i , and t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h each o t h e r on the j o b . Such a c t i v i t i e s were i n the eyes o f Canadians a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e work group. As a r e s u l t , t hey d i s l i k e d and o s t r a c i z e d them. I n t e r - e t h n i c c o n f l i c t s between S i k h s and Canadian's i n B r i t i s h Columbia has had a l o n g h i s t o r y (see L a i 1976, Buchignan 1977). I n the Okanagan i t i s more r e c e n t , s i n c e l a r g e r numbers of S i k h s came i n the l a s t two or t h r e e decades. I n g e n e r a l the c o n f l i c t i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h the d e n i g r a t i o n o f v i s i b l e symbols, p a r t i c u l a r l y the " t u r b a n " by C a n a d i a n s , even though many of t h e S i k h s do not wear one (see a l s o M e i s s n e r & P h i l p o t t 1975). I t p o l a r i s e s workers i n t o two groups - S i k h s and n o n - S i k h s . S i k h s a r e seen as competing f o r w e l l - p a i d j o b s w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . They a r e d e s c r i b e d as " c u r r y i n g f a v o u r " w i t h management t o g e t -15 9-o v e r t i m e work. However, more r e c e n t l y when c o n f l i c t s between S i k h s and Canadian workers e r u p t e d even t h e i r employers were wary o f h i r i n g o t h e r S i k h s . To the S i k h s , such problems on the j o b were v e r y s t r e s s f u l . They r e a d i l y c o n f i d e d t h a t t h e y had removed t h e i r t u r b a n s and shaved t h e i r beards ( t h e i r r e l i g i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e y m a i n t a i n t h e s e e x t e r n a l symbols o f the f a i t h ) . But t h e y were r e f e r r e d t o as "ragheads". T h e i r a m b i v a l e n c e was f u r t h e r e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n s about why t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p w i t h o t h e r S i k h s on the j o b was d e n i g r a t e d . Was not f r i e n d s h i p a p r i v a t e m a t t e r ? B e s i d e s why were t h e y n o t t r e a t e d l i k e o t h e r workers who d i d t h e i r j o b w e l l ? I n o t h e r words, most o f my i n f o r m a n t s were c o n f u s e d as t o the n a t u r e and meaning o f work i n the s a w m i l l s . For most o f them t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r work were l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t . They found i t d i f f i c u l t t o p o s i t i o n t hemselves r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s (non S i k h s ) i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . There-f o r e , i n most cases the r e l e v a n t " o t h e r s " were S i k h s . I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e n , t h a t t h e y f a c e d a tremendous mea-su r e o f u n c e r t a i n t y . Thus, t o them work i d e n t i t y was not d i s t i n c t from e t h n i c and/or f a m i l y i d e n t i t y . Most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , s i n c e r e l i g i o n was n o t s e p a r a t e from e t h n i c i d e n --160-t i t y , i t permeated a l l t h e i r l i f e a c t i v i t i e s and g e n e r a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f h o s t i l i t y and c o n f l i c t . U n l i k e the S i k h s , the Po r t u g u e s e found i t e a s i e r t o d i s c u s s t h e i r work and non-work a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e the m a j o r i t y were owners o f medium-sized o r c h a r d s by t h e l a t e 1960's and 1970's, t h e y were proud o f t h e i r achievement and i d e n t i f i e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r work. D e s p i t e t h e use o f k i n networks i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s , members were encouraged t o be independent as soon as i t was p o s s i b l e . Thus t h e i r n a t i v e model r e c o g n i z e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l achievement and f a m i l y s t a t u s and i d e n t i t y . F u r t h e r , owing t o the n a t u r e o f t h e j o b , l i k e o t h e r Canadian f a r m e r s , t h e y d i d n o t make a sha r p d i s t i n c t i o n between work arid non-work. Ownership, t h e y soon r e a l i z e d , e n t a i l e d many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and much e f f o r t . However, i n the l a s t few y e a r s they have been f o l l o w i n g t h e Canadian p a t t e r n o f t a k i n g a c o u p l e o f weeks o f f t o t r a v e l t o Reno, H a w a i i o r t o v i s i t P o r t u g a l . A l t h o u g h work was a c e n t r a l a s p e c t of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t t h e y d i d not c e l e b r a t e f e a s t s or e n j o y c a r n i v a l s e t c e t e r a . To most the s e p a r a t i o n o f work from o t h e r spheres o f l i f e was - 1 6 1 -l a r g e l y unknown. F i n a l l y , i n terms of f u l f i l l m e n t on the job, most of them f e l t t h a t they had found the v o c a t i o n of t h e i r c h o i c e . I t was not o n l y work, but a way of l i f e . They were t h e i r own masters. C o n f l i c t i n g S i t u a t i o n s f o r the Sikhs As noted e a r l i e r most of the Sikhs experienced a sense of m a r g i n a l i t y and expressed a sense of ambivalence toward t h e i r work l i f e i n Canada. T h i s took many forms. In p a r t i c u l a r I wish to b r i e f l y e x p l o r e one p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e (of removing the t u r b a n ) , which i s sometimes presented as the i s s u e of wearing hard h a t s . Semantics of the Workplace A c c o r d i n g to the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of the Sikhs, wearing a turban ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 8 i n d e t a i l ) i s one of the important symbols of the f a i t h . A t r u e S i k h i s e n j o i n e d to be d i s t i n c t i n p h y s i c a l appearance as an a r t i c l e of f a i t h . T h e r e f o r e , to ask a Sikh to remove h i s turban i s being c r i t i c a l of h i s r e l i g i o n . D e spite t h i s important r e l i g i o u s i n j u n c t i o n , most Sikhs i n Canada have abandoned t h e i r turbans and, i n keeping -162-with company laws, worn hard hats in the workplace. Yet this important concession or accommodation has not received recognition from other workers, who s t i l l refer to them as "ragheads". In this connection i t i s also important to note the reference made to them as "flashy" foreigners based on the colour of their turbans. Yellow coloured turbans in par t i c u l a r r e f l e c t the happy mood that i s associated with the Baisaki F e s t i v a l and spring i n general (Singh: 1959). Although in this context, the reference i s to the colour of the turban that could vary from red, to mustard yellow, or white, there i s much to be said about the colour of their clothing as well. As one perceptive immigrant pointed out there i s an order to be learnt even in the clothes people wear. An examination of the underlying assumptions and messages conveyed through a t t i r e w i l l c l a r i f y the sign i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l differences in such a mundane matter. In many studies of ethnic groups, r e f e r -ences are made to the differences in clothing between ethnic groups and the host society. Usually the occurrence i s adjudged as a temporary feature and therefore does not receive much discussion. What i s not usually highlighted i s the meaning associated with wearing the right colours, and the right clothes at the right time for members of the host society. -163-The c h o i c e o f c o l o u r , t e x t u r e and m a t e r i a l used f o r c l o t h i n g i s a v e r y u s e f u l and u n o b t r u s i v e measure o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s and s t a t u s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a community. An example o f t h i s i s p r o v i d e d by Newman (1975: 66) i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Bud McDougald as a man whose "grooming i s i m p e c c a b l e ; (whose) t h r e e p i e c e s u i t s a r e f a s h i o n e d a t 271 pounds each, by the f i r m o f Huntsman's, one o f S a v i l e Row's most e x c l u s i v e t a i l o r s ; (and whose) E n g l i s h bench made shoes are c a r v e d from the s k i n s o f young a l l i g a t o r s . " A l t h o u g h Bud McDougald i s t h e P r e s i d e n t o f a l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n , t h o s e who work under him a t the m a n a g e r i a l l e v e l s a l s o s h a r e some o f t h e s e c u l t u r a l norms. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , M o l l o y ' s (197 7) g u i d e t o d r e s s i n g f o r men and women i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e . The language o f c o l o u r s , t e x t u r e s and s t y l e s have t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e a t one's o c c u p a t i o n or even when an i n d i v i d u a l i s no t w o r k i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s room f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , one can p r e d i c t w i t h a f a i r amount o f a c c u r a c y the s t y l e s i n d i v i d u a l s choose. C l e a r l y i n a b l u e - c o l l a r s i t u a t i o n such f o r m a l i t y i s n o t common. Blu e j e a n s , lumber j a c k e t s and the c a s u a l approach t o d r e s s i n g i s t h e r u l e . S a w m i l l workers do n o t make a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n between work and non-work i n t h e i r c l o t h i n g p r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l . W i t h e x c e p t i o n s such as g o i n g t o c h u r c h or a t t e n d i n g f o r m a l community f u n c t i o n s ( p r i m a r i l y - 1 6 4 -o n w e e k e n d s ) t h e y g e n e r a l l y d r e s s c a s u a l l y . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f w o o d c u t t e r s i n t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t d a y s , i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e c o w b o y . T h e " r o u g h a n d r e a d y " l o o k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b l u e j e a n s a n d l u m b e r j a c k e t s a r e p a r t o f t h e m y t h o f t h e o p e n i n g u p o f t h e w e s t ( W r i g h t 1 9 7 5 ) . W h e t h e r s a w m i l l w o r k e r s c a n b e e q u a t e d t o c o w b o y s i s d e b a t a b l e . H o w e v e r , o n e c a n s t r e t c h t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e s y m b o l s ( i n c l u d i n g c l o t h i n g ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w e s t w a r d e x p a n s i o n c a n b e g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s a s w e l l . T h u s , t h e e t h o s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c l o t h e s s a w m i l l w o r k e r s w e a r , i s p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l m y t h o f t h e w e s t - a m y t h t h a t h a s l i t t l e m e a n i n g f o r S i k h s . I n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s , a n y w a y , t h e s e s t i p u l a t i o n s a r e n o t q u i t e c l e a r . A l t h o u g h s y s t e m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n w a s n o t o b t a i n e d , g e n e r a l r e m a r k s a b o u t c l o t h i n g s t y l e s made b y S i k h s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s c o n t e x t . P r o p e r a t t i r e i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d a s t h e u s e o f c l e a n a n d p r e s s e d c l o t h e s . T h e a d v a n t a g e o f s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l o v e r c o t t o n s l i e s i n t h e s a v i n g o f t i m e , a n d e n e r g y i n v o l v e d i n i t s m a i n t e n a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e i n I n d i a , t h e u s e o f s u c h m a t e r i a l b y t h e u p p e r a n d m i d d l e c l a s s e s m a k e s i t a s t a t u s s y m b o l . T h u s t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f s u c h m a t e r i a l f o r c u l t u r a l , f u n c t i o n a l , a n d r e a s o n s o f p r e s t i g e i s common i n C a n a d a . M a n y S i k h s w e a r b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d p o l y e s t e r p a n t s , s h i r t s a n d t u r b a n s w i t h l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n a s t o t h e m a t c h b e t w e e n m a t e r i a l s u s e d , t e x t u r e s , p r i n t s o r p l a i d s a n d c o l o u r s . -165-I n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e f l e c t on the S i k h c u l t u r a l model t h a t i n v o l v e s c a t e g o r y b l e n d s or c o n t i n u o u s h i e r a r c h i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s i s f l u i d and t h e r e i s no c l e a r r e c o g n i t i o n o f r i g h t and wrong c o m b i n a t i o n s . To t a k e a c o n c r e t e example, Canadians ( N o r t h Americans i n g e n e r a l ) r e c o g n i z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between b l u e c o l l a r , w h i t e c o l l a r and e l i t e s u b - c u l t u r e s i n the usage o f c a r s , c l o t h e s and houses and perhaps work toward becoming upwardly m o b i l e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from "Moving Up I n S t y l e " ( N a i f e h & Smi t h : 1982; 23) h e l p s t o h i g h l i g h t what I mean. "There's an o l d s a y i n g t h a t t r u e w e a l t h speaks o n l y i n w h i s p e r s because i t knows everybody i s l i s t e n i n g . The same i s t r u e o f s t y l e . When you buy a c a r , f o r example, a v o i d b u y i n g t h e most e x p e n s i v e c a r you can f i n d because i t ' s the most e x p e n s i v e c a r you can f i n d . The same a p p l i e s t o c l o t h i n g . There's no r e a s o n t o buy a $500 s u i t when you can buy a p e r f e c t l y good one f o r $300 or even $200. Spending money j u s t t o spend i t i s always w a s t e f u l and almost always u n s t y l i s h . The S i k h s , on the o t h e r hand, t e n d t o e r r i n the d i r e c t i o n o f e x c e s s i v e m a t e r i a l i s m i n the c l o t h e s t h e y wear and t h e c a r s t h e y d r i v e . A p a r t from b e i n g i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h the t y p e o f work t h e y do, and n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s t h e y v i o l a t e the sense o f c u l t u r a l o r d e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , w h i t e c o l l a r workers or the e l i t e s i n t h i s s o c i e t y . -166-Among the 35 r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e r e were o n l y two who had removed t h e i r t u r b a n s i n I n d i a . A l l o t h e r s had removed them i n Canada. W i t h r e s p e c t t o removing the t u r b a n , a t l e a s t most o f them (75%) f e l t t h a t i t was an i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r compromise. T h i s group we s h a l l r e f e r t o as Group 1. Only a s m a l l number e x p r e s s e d i n t e n s e antagonism and anger over t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . We w i l l r e f e r t o them as Group 2. They f e l t t h a t i t was a tremendous i m p o s i t i o n on t h e i r r e l i g i o u s freedom, and t h e y s u p p o r t e d the e f f o r t s o f t h e "Shiromani A k a l i D a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada" (a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a l i s t group) t o f i g h t f o r r e l i g i o u s freedom and exemption from w e a r i n g a h a r d h a t . Thus, the S i k h s were d i v i d e d over t h i s i s s u e , w i t h o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n r e f u s i n g t o make the n e c e s s a r y c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n terms o f t h e r e s p o n s e s I r e c e i v e d , i t was a l s o n o t so d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y t h e res p o n s e s i n t o two l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s - t h e s o c i a l and t h e p e r s o n a l . The f i r s t c a t e -g o r y o f r e s p o n s e s r e f e r r e d t o p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s such as c o n f o r m i t y t o Canadian r u l e s , e nhancing one's j o b o p p o r t u n i -t i e s , b e i n g p a r t o f the workgroup, and so on. The second c a t e g o r y o f r e s p o n s e s was n e g a t i v e i n i t s c o n t e n t and i n d i -c a t e d d i s p l e a s u r e a t b e i n g termed as f i l t h y , u n p r e d i c t a b l e and c r a f t y . -167-FIGURE 1: Responses of Sikhs with Respect to the Issue of Removing the Turban SEEK AVOID Being c a l l e d " f l a s h y raghead". Being p a r t of the work group. A d j u s t i n g to Canadian l i f e . A l i e n , o u t s i d e r Improving one's job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . U n p r e d i c t a b l e , untrustworthy, c r a f t y A v o i d i n g hazards to h e a l t h . D i r t y , f i l t h y . SOCIAL PERSONAL -168-Group 1 - They recognized the contextual difference between Canada and India. Thus the importance of the turban as a mark of "Sikh i d e n t i t y " was altered, by re-defining Sikh i d e n t i t y at the l e v e l of ideas and not at the day-to-day behavioural l e v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the workplace. They also f e l t that they worked under hazardous conditions. They knew that employers preferred to h i r e Sikhs who had removed their turbans. Besides, i f they were to move from the valley, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of being hired elsewhere were greater. F i n a l l y , they deemed i t important to avoid public devices of separation and s o c i a l distance. As far as the personal factors were involved, ther was bitterness and resentment. The term "raghead" had implications of being s o c i a l l y f i l t h y and d i r t y : that i s , they were regarded as outcasts or a l i e n s . There was also the connotation of being unpredictable, stupid and untrust-worthy. Although the responses they gave were embedded i n h i s t o r i c a l context, they were concerned about the e f f e c t i t would have on their l i f e chances and opportunities in Canada. Thus i t was necessary for them to compartmentalize their work i d e n t i t y from their c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y . In the process, they were affirming the importance of the i n d i v i -dual over the group to which he belonged. -169-Group 2 - From the perspective of the small group who a c t i v e l y sought to obtain exemptions on r e l i g i o u s grounds, the term "raghead" took on a completely d i f f e r e n t meaning. They did not make a d i s t i n c t i o n between the s o c i a l and the personal. They f e l t that r e l i g i o u s factors were important to their s e l f i d e n t i t y , and should not be compromised. Although at present they have ceased to wear turbans, they envisage a future when they would revert to the same custom. In p a r t i c u l a r they mentioned the case of Great B r i t a i n , where Sikhs are allowed to wear their turbans, and they hope that i t would be the same i n Canada. What i s perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t i s the case they make for the r e l i g i o u s rights of individuals in i n d u s t r i a l nations. Most of them f e l t that a l t e r a t i o n s in the f a i t h was a sign of weakness and lack of f a i t h . They argued that militancy has been a h i s t o r i c a l factor in the formation of the Sikh community (see McLeod: 1970). They a l l agree that in order to be a true Sikh, one had to maintain the t r a d i t i o n a l symbols of the f a i t h . What i s intere s t i n g about t h i s group of informants i s their use of h i s t o r i c a l instances to solve a contemporary problem. By doing so they contribute to an increased or heightened sense of " i n group" or "we fe e l i n g " , and d i f f e r -entiate themselves from "outsiders". This increased sense -170-o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s a mechanism w i t h which t h e y reduce c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t , c o n f u s i o n and a l i e n a t i o n t h a t t h e y f e e l i n Canada. F i n a l l y , s i n c e t h i s t e c h n i q u e has worked i n the p a s t , i t i s t h e i r hope t h a t i t w i l l work a t p r e s e n t . I n summary, th e n , t h e r e was d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the community w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . W h i l e some f e l t a n o r m a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l i d e a s i s not f e a s i b l e ( t h e e x t r e m i s t g r o u p ) , o t h e r s f e l t t h a t a t l e a s t some b e h a v i o u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s a re i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o l i f e i n Canada. The importance o f t h e S i k h c u l t u r a l model t h a t emphasizes work p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e i n f o r m e d by moral and s o c i a l v a l u e s can h a r d l y be i g n o r n e d . The importance o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e or the group i s a l s o u n l i k e the emphasis o f the i n d i v i d u a l and group i n a p l a n n e d economy. The l a t t e r i s p r i m a r i l y a work group committed t o p r o f i t s and the growth o f m a r k e t s . The former, on t h e o t h e r hand, i n s u r e s a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r d e r t h a t s u c c e s s f u l l y l i m i t s the growth o f subsystems o f p u r p o s i v e - r a t i o n a l a c t i o n (Habermas: 1970). C o n f l i c t i n g S i t u a t i o n s ( P o r t u g u e s e ) I n the case o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e the move toward the c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y had r e n d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y f o r farmers t o t h i n k o f themselves as p a r t o f a -171-c o o p e r a t i v e , t h r o u g h t h e s i g n i n g o f c o n t r a c t s . The image of the autonomous rugged farmer c o u l d no l o n g e r be m a i n t a i n e d , because the f r e e market economy c o u l d n o t ensure t h e i r s u r v i v a l ( f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e market c o n d i t i o n s o f the f r u i t i n d u s t r y r e a d Ormsby, M. 1958). Y e t t h e mechanism o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e (work group) had o n l y m i n i m a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r ~ i m a g e s o f themselves i n t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t marketed the f r u i t were m a i n l y farmers t h e m s e l v e s . A l s o on the o r c h a r d s , d e c i s i o n making was s t i l l l a r g e l y i n d i v i d u a l . The checks and b a l a n c e s t h a t a f f e c t e d such a b e l i e f came o n l y w i t h a c t i v i t i e s such as p e d d l i n g t h a t t h r e a t e n e d the new economic o r d e r . A l t h o u g h new c o n c e p t s were not imposed on them w i t h the same v i g o r as was the case w i t h the S i k h s , n o n e t h e l e s s s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s were g e n e r a t e d on the j o b . Ownership o f o r c h a r d s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i r e n t r y i n t o f r u i t c o o p e r a t i v e s and i n v o l v e m e n t i n c e n t r a l s e l l i n g - an a r e a where t h e y had v e r y l i t t l e knowledge. T h e i r d e c i s i o n t o s e l l f r u i t b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t l y as w e l l as through t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o v o k e d a s t r o n g r e a c t i o n from o t h e r Canadians. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was, o f c o u r s e , c o n t r a r y t o a l l n o t i o n s o f c o o p e r a t i o n and f a i r -n e s s , and t h e y were c l a s s i f i e d as " p e d d l e r s " . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were non-Portuguese i n t h e a r e a who were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n and c e n s u r e was d i r e c t e d -172-t o w a r d them. As a r e s u l t , some o f them were e x p e l l e d from t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ; o t h e r s , whose g u i l t c o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h -ed, were warned. T h i s a c t i v i t y o f p e d d l i n g was n o t a new phenomenon a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e . As t h e p r e s i -d e n t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F r u i t G rowers A s s o c i a t i o n o b s e r v e d , "The s t o r y o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n h a s b e e n p a r t o f t h e s t o r y o f w e s t e r n a g r i c u l t u r e t h e s t o r y o f men who h a d t o f i g h t h a r d , f o r t h e r i g h t t o r u n t h e i r own a f f a i r s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e w r e s t i n g a l i v i n g f r o m a new l a n d and e s t a b -l i s h i n g t h e i r homes... p e d d l i n g a c t i v i t y i s n o t a l o n e i n t r y i n g t o u n d e r m i n e o u r i n d u s t r y , d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n t e d rumours t h a t a r e u n f o u n d e d a r e a l s o t o blame f o r some o f o u r p r o b l e m s . I t i s n o t enough t o be o r g a n i z e d i n name o n l y , we must a l s o be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n o u r o b j e c t i v e s and e f f o r t s . " P e d d l i n g was t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e many p r o b l e m s t h a t p l a g u e d t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y , and i n w h i c h t h e P o r t u g u e s e were i m p l i c a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no w r i t t e n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s e f f e c t , d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h n o n - P o r t u g u e s e o r c h a r d i s t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h i s . S e v e r a l C a n a d i a n s , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t e l l i n g me t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e v a l l e y and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s o u t h e r n Okanagan, made r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e coming o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e and t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t e n s u e d . They f e l t t h a t t h e P o r t u g u e s e d i d n o t know o f o r g a n i z e d v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n . I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e n , t h a t t h e y were t r e a t e d i n a h o s t i l e f a s h i o n . -173-After the i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t and the removal of offenders from the cooperative l i s t , there was a l u l l . Some of the o r i g i n a l members, who had either l e f t or had been thrown out, were now showing an interest i n getting back. In the meantime, their orchards had grown i n size, and the process of handling, packaging and f i n a l l y s e l l i n g t h e i r f r u i t was far too much of a s t r a i n on them. Some who had Canadian friends in the cooperative sought their help to re-gain entry. Once they were i n , they also attended cooperative meetings and were aware of the new trends in f r u i t growing. Although they did not quite understand a l l the procedures involved, they were concerned about how their personal l i v e s would be affected by such factors and changes. This was an opportunity for them to demonstrate their committment to the l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l unit, and they did. Working Women (Sikhs) Among the newcomers, most women worked on farms a f r u i t pickers. In some cases, they were hired as a group to work on a plant nursery, and worked a l l year around with other Sikh women. However, there were others who worked as maids or kitchen hands in the l o c a l restaurants. Despite the fact that they had children they went out to work. They thus contributed to the family income. -174-S i n c e many o f them worked t o g e t h e r on a farm, or worked w i t h o t h e r n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g immigrant w o r k e r s , t h e i r knowledge o f E n g l i s h was l i m i t e d . There were no c o m p l a i n t s about t h e i r work, however, and s i n c e the farmers were dependent on s e a s o n a l l a b o u r , t h e y d i d not f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n j o b s . I n my d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e s e women about t h e i r w o r k i n g l i v e s , i t was c l e a r t h a t e a r n i n g an income d i d not a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o e g a l i t a r i a n i s m i n the house-h o l d . I n i t i a l l y , when the women e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n over t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the f a m i l y , and made demands, the husbands d i d n o t seem v e r y p l e a s e d . G r a d u a l l y the men became used t o the i d e a o f s e p a r a t e bank a c c o u n t s , and i n some i n s t a n c e s , h e l p i n g t h e i r w i v e s w i t h the h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . Some even p r o u d l y p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y had "working w i v e s " . I n e v a l u a t i n g c h a n g i n g r o l e s o f w o r k i n g women, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o b e a r i n mind t h a t t h e r e i s no l i n e a r r e l a -t i o n s h i p between c o n t r i b u t i n g t o economic a c t i v i t i e s and h i g h e r s t a t u s f o r women (Sanday: 1976). Nor was t h e r e a move toward " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " on t h e j o b . L i k e the men, t h e y d i d n o t make a s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n between work and non-work. - 1 7 5 -To them, the j o b was a means o f s u p p l e m e n t i n g the f a m i l y income. F u r t h e r , i t b r o k e the monotomy o f t h e i r d a i l y c h o r e s and e n a b l e d them t o meet o t h e r women and make f r i e n d s . Working Women (Portugu e s e ) As was t r u e i n the case o f t h e S i k h s , the P o r t u -guese women worked as w e l l . I n the i n i t i a l y e a r s they worked as p i c k e r s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r husbands. When th e y bought t h e i r own o r c h a r d s ( s m a l l farms a t f i r s t ) t h e y had t o c o n t i n u e h e l p i n g t h e i r husbands. The o n l y way t h e y c o u l d save money t o buy more l a n d was not t o use h i r e d h e l p . The f a m i l y t h e r e f o r e worked as a u n i t . But w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o f o r c h a r d and the r e t u r n s on them, t h e r e was r e a l l y no need f o r the women t o work. The women, thus f r e e d from o r c h a r d work, o b t a i n e d j o b s i n the p a c k i n g house. There a r e s e v e r a l p o i n t s t o note i n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n from w o r k i n g on the f a m i l y o r c h a r d t o w o r k i n g o u t s i d e the home. I n t h e i n i t i a l phases, i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t b o t h husband and w i f e work o u t s i d e the home, as p i c k e r s . I n t h a t s i t u a t i o n t h e w i f e worked w i t h the husband, or i f she ob-t a i n e d a j o b as a d o m e s t i c , i t was on the recommendation o f the o r c h a r d i s t who sponsored o r h i r e d them. Thus the n e t -work t h a t was e s t a b l i s h e d b o t h among t h e Po r t u g u e s e them-- 1 7 6 -selves and between their Canadian employers and themselves -provided a security for working outside. In the next phase when they were able to buy small orchards themselves, the women worked on the family orchard, whereas i t was customary for the man to work on farms other than h i s own. Thus, although i t was imperative for women to work, they worked on their own farm. When the farms grew bigger in size, the revenue or returns also improved. At this point i t was not even necessary for women to work f u l l time on their own orchards. They could have hired help. Now a l l they did were the household chores, tended to kitchen gardens or poultry. Thus freed from f u l l time orchard labour, many women obtained jobs outside the home, usually i n the packing house. This act of moving out of the house by the women can be seen as an indicator of acculturation. Perhaps, to some extent there was greater i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with their jobs and with other Canadian women who worked outside the home. As one Portuguese woman observed, "When I joined the packing house, there were not too many other Portuguese women here. Since I knew English, I could e a s i l y get along with the other Canadian women. I soon got a supervisory p o s i t i o n , and in the seventies when more Portu-guese women were hired, I was asked to help in r e c r u i t i n g them. Some of them were extremely self-conscious about using English. Others although fluent i n English, s t i l l preferred to use Portuguese with their Portuguese friends. There i s -177-y e t a n o t h e r group who f e e l t h e i r chances o f m o b i l i t y a r e h i g h e r i f t h e y speak o n l y i n E n g l i s h a t work. I n 1977 t h e r e were some problems between a few o f the P o r t u g u e s e women and o t h e r Canadian w o r k e r s . A u t h o r i t i e s i n the p a c k i n g house then made i t mandatory t h a t a l l workers communicate o n l y i n E n g l i s h on t h e j o b . " On the whole, P o r t u g u e s e women, l i k e t h e i r hus-bands, d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e much d i s l o c a t i o n . Farm l i f e gave them s e c u r i t y and c o n t r o l . I n any ev e n t , b e i n g a farm owner was what most a s p i r e d f o r . As one of them s a i d , " I n P o r t u g u a l we were poor. We c o u l d never own t h i s much l a n d . We would have been w o r k i n g f o r o t h e r farmers or on our own s m a l l p i e c e o f l a n d w i t h not much hope f o r a b e t t e r l i f e . Here we have e v e r y t h i n g we want." I n t h a t sense, u n l i k e t h e S i k h women, t h e y had l i t t l e cause f o r s t r e s s . V i c a r i o u s R i t u a l i z a t i o n L a s t b u t not l e a s t o f a l l , t he use o f v i c a r i o u s r i t u a l i z a t i o n as a mechanism f o r c o p i n g w i t h change by the S i k h s d e s e r v e s mention. S i n c e most o f my S i k h i n f o r m a n t s were w o r k i n g l o n g h o u r s , or had t o d r i v e l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o g e t t o t h e i r j o b s , t h e y found t h a t t h e y had v e r y l i t t l e time f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . So they o b t a i n e d tapes o f the p r a y e r s which t h e y p l a y e d i n the morning w h i l e g e t t i n g r e a d y , or on t h e i r way t o work. Sometimes, s i n c e the n o i s e l e v e l -178-was h i g h i n the s a w m i l l , t h e y would say the p r a y e r s t o t h e m s e l v e s . Or as one o f them s a i d t o me, he m e d i t a t e s on the j o b . Such v i c a r i o u s ways o f p e r f o r m i n g the r i t u a l d u t i e s s u ggest t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s o f l i v i n g i n a new and i n d u s t r i a l m i l i e u a r e n o t t o t a l l y d i s r u p t i v e o f a t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e , b u t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a l l o w f o r the performance o f b o t h s e t s o f r o l e s and d u t i e s . However, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e y use t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o reduce a n x i e t y as w e l l . I n p a r t i c u l a r music i s an i m p o r t a n t t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l . The S i k h s l i s t e n e d t o and used t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s music as a s t r e s s - r e d u c i n g mechanism. As one o f them o b s e r v e d , " I f I can l i s t e n t o a few K i r t a n s w h i l e s h a v i n g or d r i v i n g t o work, I a l m o s t always have a good day. When I come home, I l i k e t o l i s t e n t o l i g h t P u n j a b i music, most o f t h e t i m e . " The use o f the s e two d i s t i n c t forms o f music i s worthy o f a t t e n t i o n . I t a l m o s t seemed as i f t h e y were p r e p a r i n g themselves w i t h the t y p e o f music c r i t i c a l t o t h e i r sense o f b e i n g i n t h e morning and unwinding w i t h music t h a t r e q u i r e d l e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n and a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n the s a n c t i t y o f t h e i r homes a t n i g h t . The two m u s i c a l forms can a l s o be l o o k e d upon as r i t u a l s o f t r a n s i t i o n t h a t s e p a r a t e s the home from t h e w o r k p l a c e i n the morning and a l l o w s an i n d i v i d u a l t o r e t u r n t o i t a t the end o f the day. -179-Th e Portuguese, likewise, use similar techniques e s p e c i a l l y i n the summertime, when they have to work in the orchard. The men invariably stay back to work on a Sunday while the women and children attend mass. However, when mass is over they do not linger to meet their friends, but return to their homes and j o i n their husbands at work. Some of the women f e e l that there i s no need to attend mass every Sunday or on other weekdays p a r t i c u l a r l y when the workload i s heavy. But they are forced to do so because of their fear of gossip as well as being chastized by the p r i e s t for their m a t e r i a l i s t i c ways. Conclusions The rules of the workplace place immense demands on new immigrants. In i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s such as Canada, i t exerts a powerful influence on the s e l f concepts and images that people develop. To be a m i s f i t in such a context can have a c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t on individuals and their perfor-mance. This was the experience of the Sikhs. While many alte r a t i o n s as recorded e a r l i e r were made, some fundamental issues of "self-hood" had to be examined. This was by no means an easy process, because - 1 8 0 -1 ) t h e S i k h s h a d t o make t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k i d e n t i t y a n d a l l o t h e r f o r m s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 2) F u r t h e r , t h e y h a d t o s u b o r d i n a t e c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y a n d f a m i l y i d e n t i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l w o r k a c t i v i t y . 3) F i n a l l y , t h i s n o t o n l y i n v o l v e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n f r o m e t h n i c i t y , b u t a l s o t h e c o n f i n e m e n t o f b o t h t o t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e . I t w a s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e S i k h s w e r e d i v i d e d o n t h e a b o v e i s s u e s . W h i l e a f e w b e g a n t o c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , o t h e r s s t r u g g l e d t o c o m e t o t e r m s w i t h i t . T h e l a t t e r f e l t t h r e a t e n e d a n d v i e w e d a n y a c c e p t a n c e o f C a n a d i a n n o r m s a s a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y r a t h e r t h a n a s a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e . T o t h e m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y w a s t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n a n d t h i s i s t h e p a t h t h e y t o o k . T h e P o r t u g u e s e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d d i d n o t f a c e s u c h p r e s s u r e s . T h e i r c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n made i t e a s i e r f o r t h e m t o e v a l u a t e a n d a c c o m m o d a t e t o C a n a d i a n l i f e . T h e e m p h a s i s t h e y p l a c e d o n i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s t h e y made b e t w e e n r e l i g i o u s / e t h n i c i d e n t i t y a n d w o r k i d e n t i t y made t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n l e s s p r o b l e m a t i c . -181-CHAPTER 5  FOOTNOTES See B u c h i g n a n i N. (1977) f o r d e t a i l s . T h i s i s what K i e f e r (1974) means when she t a l k s about " a c c u l t u r a t i n g t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n " . That i s , an i n d i v i -d u a l l e a r n s t o p r e f e r the new r o l e and i t s a t t e n d a n t p r i n c i p l e s and b e h a v i o u r . I n the case o f the s e young-s t e r s , i t was v e r y c l e a r t h a t a t l e a s t two o f them had v e r y l i t t l e i n c l i n a t i o n t o c a r r y on a t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e y had been s o c i a l i z e d i n . These two were a l s o m a r r i e d t o Can a d i a n s , and t h i s made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o r e t a i n h a b i t s and f a m i l y customs. The o t h e r two had not spent much time i n I n d i a , a l t h o u g h t h e i r spouses were P u n j a b i . They were not f l u e n t i n the use of the language and were not c u r r e n t w i t h the p r o c e d u r e s and r i t u a l p e r formances t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s took f o r g r a n t e d . -182-CHAPTER 5 FIGURES FIGURE 1: Responses of Sikhs with Respect to the Issue of Removing the Turban Page 167 -183-CHAPTER 6 THE MEANING OF LAND AND PROPERTY OWNERSHIP I n t h i s c h a p t e r the main c o n c e r n i s w i t h l a n d use p a t t e r n s and t y p e s o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r ship among the S i k h s and the P o r t u g u e s e i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . As we saw i n the l a s t c h a p t e r , one o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s t h a t an immigrant has t o t a k e i s t o f i n d a s t a b l e j o b and a r e g u l a r s o u r c e o f income. I f he succeeds i n d o i n g so and saves the money earned, the n e x t s t e p i s t o send f o r h i s / h e r f a m i l y . Once the f a m i l y a r r i v e s , ( s ) h e t a k e s o t h e r measures t o e s t a b l i s h r o o t s i n the community. Buying a home, or even r e n t i n g one u n t i l such time when an i n d i v i d u a l can a f f o r d one, and e n t e r i n g i n t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h " r e l e v a n t o t h e r s " i s a b e g i n n i n g . However, t h e r e a r e c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on immigrants by the l a r g e r community t h e y choose t o l i v e i n . I n some i n s t a n c e s h o s p i t a l i t y i s m i n i m a l toward a newcomer. There i s a f e a r t h a t c e r t a i n groups would l o w e r the v a l u e of p r o -p e r t y . There i s a l s o t h e a d d i t i o n a l f e a r t h a t t h e y would i n t r o d u c e new elements t h a t might t h r e a t e n a tenuous communal s t a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y e n v i s a g e or p e r c e i v e . These parameters p r o v i d e g u i d e s f o r immigrant a c t i o n s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h our d e f i n i t i o n o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n as - 184-t h e l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s n a t i v e t o a n o t h e r group, we s h a l l e x p l o r e t h i s p r o c e s s i n l a n d o w n e r ship and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f the S i k h s and t h e Por t u g u e s e i n the v a l l e y . As i n the work w o r l d , S i k h s were c o n s i d e r e d a l i e n and g e n e r a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e i n the community, whereas the Po r t u g u e s e d i d not r e c e i v e such h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n s . The h y p o t h e s i s advanced h e r e r e c o g n i z e s b o t h the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o n t e x t s which members o f b o t h groups e n c o u n t e r e d , as w e l l as the d i s p a r i t i e s between t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l models and t h e new models. Throughout my e n t i r e s t a y i n the v a l l e y , I was c o n s t a n t l y aware o f the p r e - o c c u p a t i o n o f Canadians w i t h z o n i n g , l a n d use p a t t e r n s and h o u s i n g . From my d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h a few c i t i z e n s , and from j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and h i s t o r i -c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e some o f t h e c o r e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a n d . They p r e s e n t an o r d e r t h a t can be b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d a l o n g two d i m e n s i o n s . The f i r s t i s g e n e r a l and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f l a n d use c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s i n the r e g i o n as a whole; t h e o t h e r i s more s p e c i f i c and p e r t a i n s t o the l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t . They a r e as f o l l o w s : - see T a b l e XX --185-TABLE XX Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n REGIONAL CATEGORIES LOCAL CATEGORIES A g r i c u l t u r a l / I n d u s t r i a l Renter/Owner U r b a n / R u r a l S i n g l e F a m i l y / Lake/Land M u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l U n i t s V a l l e y / M o u n t a i n s Low D e n s i t y / H i g h D e n s i t y S u b u r b / C i t y ( N o te: G e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f l a n d use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were o b t a i n e d from P l a n - V e r n o n 1973, Hudson's 1973 Report t o the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and The Economic Study of the Okanagan-Shuswap Region 1971. However, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s , o l d t i m e r s and a few newcomers h e l p e d t o sharpen the above c o n t r a s t s . ) -186-To newcomers s u c h an o r d e r i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a p parent y e t t h e y must l e a r n t h a t coming t o terms w i t h t h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s i m p e r a t i v e t o a d a p t a t i o n . Why are the c a t e g o r i e s opposed t o each o t h e r , and what a r e the d i f f e r -ences between them t h e y ask? I n answer t o t h a t , we have t o r e c a p i t u l a t e the main f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l model. As we saw e a r l i e r , u n t i l the Second World War a g r i c u l t u r e was the most i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y i n the v a l l e y . The advent o f low c o s t r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n soon a f t e r the g o l d r u s h days had been a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y o f a g r i c u l t u r e . A l t h o u g h a t f i r s t wheat and b e e f seemed t o be the main p r o d u c t s , c o m m e r c i a l f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n soon came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . The i d e a t h a t one c o u l d make a good l i v i n g from an o r c h a r d was v e r y p e r s u a s i v e b o t h i n Canada and abroad, and p e o p l e began t o pour i n t o the v a l l e y . There was an e x p e c t e d l a n d boom, and l a n d development companies and community i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s came i n t o b e i n g . S e t t l e m e n t s a r o s e and expanded based on the o r c h a r d i n d u s t r y . A l l o t h e r s were sec o n d a r y and s u p p o r t e d t h e e x i s t i n g c o r e . Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , a l m o s t e v e r y town had a s a w m i l l t h a t b a s i c a l l y p r o v i d e d t h e l o c a l m a n u f a c t u r e r s w i t h c r a t e s and s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s f o r the f r u i t (Okanagan Economic Study: 1971). -187-However, the h i s t o r y of the Okanagan i s not en t i r e -l y congruent with the h i s t o r y of the f r u i t industry. In fact, the l a t t e r has not e n t i r e l y been a successful one; there were setbacks from the very beginning. Frost damage to the crop, lack of a central marketing organization, lack of a regular and assured market for the f r u i t : a l l had served to lessen i t s economic v i a b i l i t y . The opening of the Hope-Princeton highway i n the south end of the valley, and the Rogers Pass in the north, brought i n an in f l u x of t o u r i s t s and led to a s i g n i f i c a n t increase and expansion of this industry. There was also an expansion in the forest industries; what was once a small l o c a l establishment in each town became a centralized and c a p i t a l intensive venture. There had also been a marked increase in the manufacturing and service industries. What has occurred over time, then, i s a gradual decrease i n the importance of agriculture and p a r t i c u l a r l y the f r u i t industry. It i s no longer the core industry; indeed at present, there i s not one core, but several in the v a l l e y . The impact of these changes in the v a l l e y has been tremendous. There has been an increase in the number of people who have very l i t t l e to do with agriculture. Conse-quently, their r e l a t i o n s h i p to the land i s of an order that i s d i s t i n c t from that of the farmers. What was once a g r i c u l t u r a l land has now been apportioned into i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l land. This has resulted i n a c o n f l i c t of -188-i n t e r e s t s between farmers and o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , i n terms o f l a n d use p a t t e r n s , the op p o s i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes and l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . As a r e s u l t o f , and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the above, t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g d e m a r c a t i o n between urban and r u r a l a r e a s . W h i l e i n an e a r l i e r phase, towns and o u t l y i n g o r c h a r d s were d i s t i n c t , t o day the e x t e n s i o n s and i n r o a d s o f c i t y d w e l l i n g s and l i f e s t y l e s i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y -s i d e a re tremendous. F u r t h e r w i t h i n t h e s e urban c e n t e r s d i s t i n c t i o n s between commercial space, m u l t i - f a m i l y d w e l l -i n g s and s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a re more marked. For i n s t a n c e , i n Vernon and Kelowna t h e r e a r e a r e a s b o t h w i t h i n the c i t y and on the o u t s k i r t s (near the l a k e s ) where the p r o p e r t y v a l u e has r i s e n a s t r o n o m i c a l l y i n the l a s t few y e a r s . These a r e a s are p r i m a r i l y s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l zones, which house l a r g e r than average homes and w e l l -manicured gardens. I n the newer a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , on the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s more c o n c e r n w i t h e f f e c t i v e use o f space and cheaper h o u s i n g . As a r e s u l t t h e r e a r e more d u p l e x e s , t r i p l e x e s , a p a r t m ents, townhouses as w e l l as s i n g l e homes w i t h s m a l l e r gardens. -189-In addition to the above there has been an interest on the part of both a g r i c u l t u r i s t s and non-agriculturists i n the preservation of the "wilderness". In the towns and c i t i e s this finds expression in forms such as parks and recreation grounds, and camping grounds and reserves outside these urban boundaries. Notably, since the lakes are a major a t t r a c t i o n to the valley, c e r t a i n sections of land around these lakes have been maintained as public land. Since the lake i s an important asset to the valley, land around the lake has a higher value than inland. With the current shortage of land for r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, l o t s that have been carved out of the mountainside, providing a good view of the valley, have also escalated in value. To under-stand land use patterns in the valley, the differences between a r g i c u l t u r a l / i n d u s t r i a l , urban/rural, lake/land, valley/mountains are major themes that have to be taken into consideration. These concepts that new immigrants are con-fronted with must be interpreted and incorporated into their actions. As i f these differences between groups were not enough, differences in terms of e t h n i c i t y have also tended to complicate matters. In the early h i s t o r y of these settlements, undesirable immigrants were v i r t u a l l y excluded from the main stream of community l i f e . Their s o c i a l mar-g i n a l i t y found expression in s p a t i a l segregation as well. Thus, for example, there were Japanese and Chinese enclaves either in the o u t s k i r t s or H i s t o r i c a l Society Report: -190-in the inner 1962: 109). c i t y (Okanagan As we saw e a r l i e r , acceptance into the community was generally defined i n terms of the contributions made to the general well being of a l l i t s c i t i z e n s . Reciprocity, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in voluntary organizations, active contribu-t i o n to the church and i t s related a c t i v i t i e s were a l l incorporated within such a d e f i n i t i o n . Being a good c i t i z e n was dependent on personal i n t e g r i t y as well as communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A common code for conduct thus provided a framework for belonging to the community. Sikh Perspectives By and large, Sikh immigrants who came i n the 1960's, unlike the pioneers, did not wish to own orchards or farm land. They were no longer l e g a l l y helpless or d i s -criminated against as the oldtimers had been. Thus, land ownership was not a strategy for coping with a new and h o s t i l e context. They preferred to buy land i n India instead. By sending money home on a regular basis, they could enhance their family status in the v i l l a g e or hometown. Their concepts of land ownership was thus t i e d to d e f i n i t i o n s of -191-family, communal and v i l l a g e status (Helweg: 1979). In Canada, however, they bought houses as soon as they could afford i t . These homes are primarily in the newer areas of the c i t y which are also m u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l . Most of the Sikhs bought duplexes and triplexes which brought i n revenue. By choosing to buy homes rather than orchards, they i d e n t i f i e d with the other non-agriculturists in the l o c a l communities. Such an endorsement, in turn, necessitated the appreciation of the categories that are meaningful to non-a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . Most of a l l , as we s h a l l see l a t e r , they had to learn to i d e n t i f y with the l o c a l -r e s i d e n t i a l unit instead of the ethnic group. Portuguese Perspectives The Portuguese, on the other hand, were f r u i t pickers on orchards when they f i r s t arrived. They were allocated cabins to l i v e in by their employers. With the savings they made, they began to work on improving them. Since many of them knew what to do, they worked at i t at their l e i s u r e . Such i n i t i a t i v e did not pass unnoticed. They earned respect i n the eyes of their employers. They were not seen as renters, because they were concerned with property value, l i v i n g conditions and environment. Thus, by subscribing to behaviour that was valued by members of the -192-community, th e s e a c t i v i t i e s were viewed as a t t e m p t s t o become p a r t o f t h a t community. From a P o r t u g u e s e p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e was an im-provement i n t h e i r q u a l i t y o f l i f e . The i d e a o f c o n v e r t i n g a c a b i n i n t o a home was a s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p . T h i s a t t i t u d e towards ownership as e x p r e s s e d by the P o r t u g u e s e i s n o t p e c u l i a r t o t h o s e who l i v e i n the Okanagan, b u t i s shared by P o r t u g u e s e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada as w e l l . I n a s t u d y c a l l e d "The Other Economy", the a u t h o r Krohn (1977) d i s c u s s t h e way i n which t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n c r e a s e d the v a l u e o f p r o p e r t y i n a M o n t r e a l neighbourhood. Thus, t h e i r i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s t o s e t t l e were vi e w e d f a v o u r a b l y by o t h e r Canadians. E v e n t u a l l y , t h e y bought the o r c h a r d s t h e m s e l v e s . Land and P r o p e r t y Ownership ( P o r t u g u e s e ) A c c o r d i n g t o a r e p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l -t u r e (1974), f r u i t o r c h a r d s i n the v a l l e y were c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Orchards from 1-5 a c r e s were d e f i n e d as "hobby farms"; those w i t h 5-25 a c r e s were c a l l e d s m a l l farms. I n t h e Okanagan, 58% o f t h e farmers f a l l under t h i s l a t e r c a t e -g o r y and own up t o 57% o f the l a n d . Medium s i z e d o r c h a r d s ranged between 25-60 a c r e s ; about 8% b e l o n g i n t h i s c a t e g o r y and own about 24% o f the l a n d . Any farm w i t h over 60 a c r e s was c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e and o n l y 1% o f t h e farmers b e l o n g e d t o -193-t h i s c a t e g o r y , a l t h o u g h t h e y owned up t o 11% o f t h e l a n d . The hobby o r c h a r d owners c o n s t i t u t e 22% o f a l l growers and o p e r a t e about 6% o f t h e o r c h a r d l a n d . W i t h i n t h e s e r e g i o n a l parameters t h e r e were l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s as w e l l . A l t h o u g h ownership o f p r o p e r t y and l a n d i n the v a l l e y was a means o f a c h i e v i n g s t a t u s , t h i s was by no means c o n c l u s i v e . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f f r u i t was a c r u c i a l f a c t o r . The l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n each community t h a t l o o k e d a f t e r t h e s e a f f a i r s were the f r u i t c o o p e r a t i v e s , t o w hich most f a r m e r s b e l o n g e d . Those P o r t u g u e s e who became farmers were a l s o judged by the same p r i n c i p l e s . I n i t i a l l y , we saw e a r l i e r , t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o f r u i t p e d d l i n g laws c o n f i n e d them t o a m a r g i n a l r o l e . - see T a b l e XXI -S m a l l Farmers C o n t r a r y t o t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e P o r t u -guese c o n s i d e r t h o s e who own between 2-5 a c r e s o f l a n d as s m a l l f a r m e r s . I n my sample o f 39 f a m i l i e s t h e r e were seven f a m i l i e s t h a t owned l e s s than f i v e a c r e s o f l a n d . Among t h i s group, many were p r o p o s i n g t o buy a l a r g e r o r c h a r d as soon as th e y had saved money. From t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h i s -194-TABLE XXI Land and P r o p e r t y Ownership Among the Portuguese i n the V a l l e y Less than 5 acres 7 5 - 1 0 acres = 10 10 - 20 acres = 16 20 - 50 acres = 5 over 50 acres = _1 TOTAL = 39 (Source: I n f o r m a t i o n was obtained through i n t e r v i e w s and then cross-checked with the assessment l i s t p r o v i d e d by the l o c a l water board.) -195-was j u s t an i n i t i a l phase i n t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . I n most i n s t a n c e s t h e r e was a minimum o f f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d a c q u i r e even a s m a l l o r c h a r d . 1 As was t r u e i n the e a r l i e r phase, t h e men r e m o d e l l e d t h e i r homes i n t h e i r s p a r e t i m e and the f a m i l y worked t o g e t h e r on the farm. I n s h o r t , s e l f h e l p and f a m i l y c o o p e r a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s e farmers n ot o n l y t o buy l a n d b u t a l s o t o make i t e c o n o m i c a l -l y f e a s i b l e . F u r t h e r , i n a decade the v a l u e o f t h e l a n d had do u b l e d (Hudson Rep o r t : 1973). Not o n l y had l a n d become more v a l u a b l e , b u t a l s o t h e improvements made, such as r e m o d e l l e d homes, c o l d s t o r a g e rooms, garages and sheds had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e s c a l a t i o n o f o r c h a r d p r i c e s . I n t h i s phase, ^then, t h e r e was a c l e a r use o f communal space. They were p r o p e r t y owners and p a i d t a x e s . They had a s t a k e i n the p r o p e r t y v a l u e s o f the n e i g h b o u r -hood. They were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e economic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the community such as the c o o p e r a t i v e s . Thus ownership o f p r o p e r t y cemented t h e i r t i e s t o the l o c a l community. Medium S i z e d Farms A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n made by P o r t u g u e s e f a m i l i e s , those who owned between 5-20 a c r e s o f l a n d were medium s i z e d f a r m e r s . But w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made between those who owned up t o 10 - 1 9 6 -a c r e s ( C a t e g o r y A ) a n d t h o s e w i t h m o r e ( C a t e g o r y B ) . C a t e g o r y A ( 5 - 1 0 A c r e s ) A m o n g t h o s e I i n t e r v i e w e d , 10 f a m i l i e s f e l l u n d e r t h i s c a t e g o r y . On t h e a v e r a g e , t h e y h a d a b o u t n i n e a c r e s o f l a n d o f w h i c h 8.5 a c r e s w a s u n d e r f r u i t c u l t i v a t i o n . On t h e r e s t o f t h e l a n d t h e y h a d a l i t t l e v i n e y a r d , a s m a l l k i t c h e n g a r d e n a n d s o m e t i m e s a l i t t l e s h e d w h e r e t h e y k e p t p o u l t r y o r g o a t s . L i k e o t h e r s , t h e y h a d made e x t e n s i v e r e n o -v a t i o n s . T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e w i l l c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t . R e s p o n d e n t 1 T h e h o u s e w a s v e r y s m a l l a n d r u n d o w n w h e n we b o u g h t t h i s p l a c e a n d J o e h a d t o s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e a n d m o n e y o n i t . He b u i l t a u t i l i t y r o o m , e n l a r g e d t h e l i v i n g r o o m , a d d e d a d i n i n g r o o m , a n d f i n i s h e d t h e b a s e m e n t . S u c h i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e n o t s e e n a s d i s t a s t e f u l o r "new" b y t h e C a n a d i a n s . A l m o s t a l l o f t h e m l i v e d i n h o u s e s t h e y h a d b o u g h t m a n y y e a r s a g o , a l t h o u g h i m p r o v e m e n t s o r a d d i t i o n s w e r e made w h e n f a m i l y s i z e o r i n c o m e s i n c r e a s e d . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i r l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s w a s t h a t t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s d i d n o t c h a n g e . T h e P o r t u g u e s e w e r e n o d i f f e r e n t . C a t e g o r y B (10-20 a c r e s ) -197-There were 16 f a m i l i e s whom I i n t e r v i e w e d who c o u l d be thus c l a s s i f i e d . The range o f l a n d owned v a r i e d from 11.5 a c r e s t o 20 a c r e s . Some o f them had l i v e d i n O l i v e r f o r a t l e a s t 15 y e a r s . They had o r i g i n a l l y worked as p i c k e r s , then bought s m a l l o r c h a r d s , and g r a d u a l l y expanded the s i z e o f t h e i r o r c h a r d s . There was o n l y one f a m i l y t h a t had not l i v e d i n O l i v e r f o r such a l e n g t h o f t i m e . But a p a r t from t h i s f a m i l y most o t h e r s had bought t h e i r o r c h a r d s i n t h e mid s i x t i e s and had made good i n v e s t m e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i c e s o f o r c h a r d s , o f c o u r s e , v a r i e d w i t h t h e t y p e o f house and farm equipment t h a t came w i t h i t . I n 1961 an e l e v e n a c r e o r c h a r d c o s t $38,000. T h i s i n c l u d e d b o t h a house as w e l l as a p i c k e r ' s c a b i n on the l o t . I n 1965 an e l e v e n a c r e o r c h a r d s o l d f o r $45,000, a g a i n w i t h a p i c k e r ' s c a b i n and farm equipment. But by 1975, an e l e v e n a c r e o r c h a r d c o s t $122,500. Land p r i c e s had i n d e e d e s c a -l a t e d . I t i s v e r y c l e a r t h a t i n O l i v e r the p r i c e o f one a c r e o f l a n d had more than d o u b l e d s i n c e 1960. Once an a r e a t h a t d i d n o t a t t r a c t many f a r m e r s , O l i v e r had now become an e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e d i s t r i c t . The P o r t u g u e s e i n p a r t bene-f i t e d from t h i s growth, a l t h o u g h t h e y were t o a l a r g e e x t e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c r e a s i n g the v a l u e o f the p r o p e r t y . I n -198-a d d i t i o n t o r i s i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , i n 1972, the p o l i c y of the government t o f r e e z e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d gave a tremendous b o o s t t o a g r i c u l t u r e (Hudson: 1973). A l t h o u g h farmers o b j e c t e d t o t h i s p o l i c y , which p r e v e n t e d them from s e l l i n g t h e i r own l a n d a t a g r e a t e r p r o f i t , t h e r e was g e n e r a l a g r e e -ment t h a t t h i s was a measure t h a t would b o t h h e l p them and p r e v e n t the i n d u s t r y from d y i n g o u t i n the v a l l e y . A l s o , w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l impetus from t h e c r o p i n s u r a n c e p r o -gramme, farmers were r e c e i v i n g b e t t e r p r o f i t s . I t was e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o be i n t h e f r u i t b u s i n e s s , and a l s o e n j o y a good l i f e s t y l e . S i n c e t h e y had h e l d on t o the l a n d , t h e P o r t u g u e s e now were the l a r g e f a r mers i n the d i s t r i c t . They sought t h e i r i d e n t i t y t h r ough the l a n d . As one o f them o b s e r v e d , " I n P o r t u g a l we cannot a f f o r d t o have l a n d . Land was o n l y f o r the r i c h . We worked on the l a n d or h e l d s m a l l p l o t s . Even then i t was t o o e x p e n s i v e and we never hoped t o have the l a n d we have h e r e . I n Canada the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a re b e t t e r . We c o u l d save enough money and borrow the r e s t from the Farm C r e d i t O f f i c e because we have good bank c r e d i t r a t i n g s . A t f i r s t I bought f i v e a c r e s , then 10, and now I have a l m o s t 20 a c r e s . R i g h t now my p r o p e r t y v a l u e i s v e r y h i g h and I am a r i c h man. I c o u l d never have been so r i c h back home. I r e a l i z e d t h i s when I v i s i t e d P o r t u g a l . My f r i e n d s were s t i l l i n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t I saw them i n . Ownership of p r o p e r t y was v e r y r e s t r i c t e d . " A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e a re some q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between those who own up t o 10 a c r e s and t h o s e who own up t o 20 a c r e s . I t was a t t h i s s e t t l e m e n t s t a g e some f a m i l i e s d e c i d e d t o b u i l d new - 1 9 9 -h o m e s o n t h e i r o r c h a r d s - A s o n e o f t h e m t o l d me, t h i s i s a w a y t o g e t a r o u n d t h e p r o b l e m i m p o s e d b y t h e l a n d f r e e z e . S i n c e t h e y c o u l d n o t s u b d i v i d e t h e l a n d a n d a l l o w h o m e s t o b e b u i l t , t h e y c o u l d a t l e a s t h a v e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h a v -i n g a l a r g e m o d e r n h o u s e o n t h e i r p r o p e r t y . T h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e z o n i n g l a w s , w a s f e a s i b l e i f a n i n d i v i d u a l o w n e d o v e r f i v e a c r e s o f l a n d , a n d p r o p o s e d t o h o u s e f a m i l i e s who w e r e i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l b u s i n e s s . T h u s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s r e n t e d t h e o l d e r h o m e s t o p i c k e r s o r o t h e r f a r m w o r k e r s w h i l e t h e y l i v e d i n t h e i r m o d e r n h o m e s . T h i s p h a s e b e g a n i n 1 9 7 5 , a n d s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g n e w h o m e s o n t h e i r l a n d , s o m u c h s o t h a t t h e s a y i n g g o e s t h a t i n O l i v e r " o n e h a d t o k e e p u p w i t h t h e P e r e i e r a s a n d F e r r e i r a s a n d n o t t h e J o n e s " . I n s u m m a r y , t h e n , s e v e r a l p o i n t s c a n b e m a d e . T h i s p h a s e c a n b e d e s c r i b e d a s o n e o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n . T h o s e who c o u l d a f f o r d i t , b o u g h t a t l e a s t 15 a c r e o r c h a r d s . T h e y n o t o n l y r e m o d e l l e d t h e i r o l d h o m e s , t h e y b u i l t n e w o n e s . T h e r e w a s a c l e a r s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t t h e y h a d i n i t i a t e d t h a t w a s a p p l i c a b l e n o t o n l y a m o n g P o r t u g u e s e t h e m s e l v e s , b u t b e g a n t o b e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r c i t i z e n s i n O l i v e r a s w e l l . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y f o l l o w e d i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f e a r l i e r s e t t l e r s . T h e o l d o r d e r w a s m a i n t a i n e d w h i l e t h e new g r o u p s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s s t e p b y s t e p i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . -200-Large Farmers Anyone who owned more than 20 a c r e s o f l a n d was, a c c o r d i n g t o the P o r t u g u e s e , a l a r g e farmer. There were o n l y s i x f a r m e r s who f e l l under t h i s c a t e g o r y . Of t h e s e s i x , one farmer owned 105 a c r e s o f l a n d , b u t the o t h e r s had l e s s t h a n 40 a c r e s . Those w i t h l a r g e r farms tended t o employ a l a r g e r number o f h i r e d w o r k e r s , many o f whom were not o f Po r t u g u e s e o r i g i n . But by and l a r g e t h e r e was a tendency t o h e l p each o t h e r o u t d u r i n g the f r u i t s e ason. Having l o o k e d a t t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s between l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes and l a n d f o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s , l e t us t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f house and p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p i n the towns and c i t i e s . Home Ownership i n C i t i e s and Towns By c h o o s i n g t o l i v e i n an urban c e n t r e , i n d i v i d u a l s are f o r c e d t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e m s e l v e s . I n g e n e r a l , o w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y i s viewed n o t o n l y as an i n v e s t m e n t , b u t a l s o g i v e s the i n d i v i d u a l more power i n the community. Many i n d i v i d u a l s c h e r i s h t he hope o f owning, r a t h e r t h a n r e n t i n g , a home. To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n I - 2 0 1 -s h a l l u s e V e r n o n a s a n e x a m p l e . I n 1 9 7 1 , o u t o f t h e 4 , 1 7 5 2 h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e c i t y , 2 , 6 9 2 w e r e o w n e d ( C a n a d i a n C e n s u s : 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s f i g u r e c o u l d b e u s e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f t h e v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o o w n e r s h i p a s o p p o s e d t o r e n t i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h y i n o w n e r s h i p a s w e l l . T h e o w n e r o f a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d home i s h e l d i n h i g h e s t e e m , a s o p p o s e d t o o n e who o w n s a n a p a r t m e n t o r a d u p l e x . T o w n h o u s e s a r e r a t e d b e l o w s i n g l e -d e t a c h e d h o m e s , a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s p e o p l e who l i v e i n s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d h o m e s move t o t o w n h o u s e s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v e g r o w n u p a n d l e f t . T h e y d o n o t s e e w h y t h e y s h o u l d n o t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f l i v i n g i n a t o w n -h o u s e , w h e r e t h e y d o n o t h a v e t o l o o k a f t e r t h e y a r d , o r c a n g o a w a y o n h o l i d a y s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o g e t s o m e b o d y t o l o o k a f t e r t h e h o u s e . T h e r e n t e r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s i n a n i n s e c u r e p o s i t i o n . W h a t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t h e may n e v e r c h a n g e h i s s t a t u s . A l t h o u g h i t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o b e a r e n t e r , b e c a u s e m o s t f a m i l i e s s t a r t o f f t h a t w a y , i t i s -i m p o r t a n t t o k e e p t h e c a t e g o r i e s d i s t i n c t . P e o p l e who l i v e i n a r e a s t h a t a r e a s s i g n e d o n l y f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o m e s w o u l d n e v e r a g r e e t o a n a p a r t m e n t g o i n g u p i n t h e i r n e i g h -b o u r h o o d . T h e r e i s a c o n s t r a i n t o n s p a c e a n d f a c i l i t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o f a c t o r s s u c h a s n o i s e a n d p o l l u t i o n . T h i s i s - 2 0 2 -one of the reasons people flee from the inner c i t y . Further, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t for people to keep the rules when they l i v e in such close proximity. Thus, there i s a sancti t y associated with home and hearth. There are also the implications for being a good c i t i z e n and contributing to the community. Sikh Perspectives From the point of view of the Sikh community, rent-ing was a very convenient form of tenure, e s p e c i a l l y when the immigrants were single. It saved them the trouble which the maintenance of a house involved. Besides, i t was not hard to rent and i t did not involve much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Nor did i t involve getting loans from the bank and paying them back. The usual mode was for three or four bachelors to rent a home. (Aurora: 1967 describes a sim i l a r pattern among the Sikhs in England). On the other hand, they also f e l t that owning a house was very important, e s p e c i a l l y when their families joined them. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true i f they had children. According to them, they did not have to depend on others to allow them to rent their house or suite. They had also discovered that i t was possible to borrow money from - 2 0 3 -t h e b a n k a t l o w i n t e r e s t r a t e s , a n d t h a t o b t a i n i n g c r e d i t w a s a m e a n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g o n e s e l f i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h u s b u y i n g a h o u s e w a s n o t h a r d a t a l l . B e s i d e s , i f a f e w f r i e n d s w a n t e d t o l i v e t o g e t h e r i n t h e same n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e y c o u l d d o s o . A s o n e o f t h e m r e m a r k e d , " o w n e r s h i p i s a n i m p o r t a n t t h i n g , e v e n i f i t i s a h o u s e o r a c a r . P e o p l e r e s p e c t y o u . " W h a t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , i s t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f b r o t h e r h o o d , t o t h a t o f a n e t h n i c g r o u p l i v i n g i n a s e c t o r o f t h e c i t y , i . e . , c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n k i n m e m b e r s ( a f f i n a l a n d c o n s a n g u i n e a l ) i n a l o c a l s e t t i n g ( A u r o r a : 1 9 6 7 ) . W h a t s e e m e d t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d c o n t r a s t s i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s o w n e r s h i p b e t w e e n t h e S i k h s a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e l a t t e r i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l s t a g e s i n t h e l i f e - c y c l e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t y p e o f h o u s e a n d t h e f o r m o f t e n u r e . A t a l l p o i n t s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n t o k e e p t h e c a t e g o r i e s d i s t i n c t . T h e S i k h s s e e m e d t o i n d i c a t e c o n c e r n w i t h t h e s e t t l e m e n t c y c l e . S i n g l e F a m i l y H o m e s / M u l t i - R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t s I n C a n a d a , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s n o t o n l y o n e o f c l a s s b u t o n e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l i f e c y c l e a s w e l l . S i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d h o m e s a r e p r e f e r r e d b y t h o s e w ho h a v e c h i l d r e n a n d who w a n t t o e s c a p e t h e h o r r o r s o f t h e c r o w d e d -204-inner c i t y . Social a r r i v a l in the community i s usually witnessed by the ownership of single detached homes. Associated with this ownership i s a certai n amount of freedom and privacy which other forms of home ownership do not lend themselves to. That i s , physical boundaries are manipulated to maintain s o c i a l distance and privacy. Among the Sikh families who l i v e d i n Vernon alone, 17 from my sample of 20 l i v e d i n one p a r t i c u l a r high den-s i t y , r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood. Further, 14 out of the 20 owned duplexes, while s i x had single detached homes. Of the l a t t e r , there were only three who l i v e d i n low density r e s i -d e n t i a l areas. As most of them observed, the major c r i t e r i a for l i v i n g here were low cost of housing and proximity to friends. The average cost of a duplex was $23,000 while a single detached home cost $38,000 or more. The other advan-tages they saw were the p o s s i b i l i t y of car pools and sharing l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . In summary, then, the formation of an enclave was a spontaneous reaction to the alie n a t i o n f e l t in the new context. - see Table XXII and Table XXIII -- 2 0 5 -T A B L E X X I I P r o p e r t y O w n e r s h i p A m o n g t h e S i k h s i n V e r n o n N = 2 0 NEW M i x e d r e s i d e n t i a l a n d l o w e r i n c o m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d = 17 OWNED A d j a c e n t d u p l e x e s = 8 D u p l e x e s 6 S i n g l e f a m i l y h o m e s = 3 17 OLDER S i n g l e f a m i l y h o m e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s 3 T O T A L = 2 0 ( S o u r c e : I n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e a s w a s p r o v i d e d b y r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s . ) - 2 0 6 -T A B L E X X I I I P r o p e r t y O w n e r s h i p o f S i k h s i n R u t l a n d N = 2 0 N u m b e r o f H o u s e h o l d s S i n g l e f a m i l y h o m e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d = 4 Homes o n a g r i c u l t u r a l l y z o n e d l a n d = 4 D u p l e x o w n e r s i n m i x e d r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s = 8 S i n g l e f a m i l y o w n e r s i n m i x e d r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s = _ 4 T O T A L = 2 0 ( S o u r c e : I n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e a s w a s p r o v i d e d b y r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s . ) -207-Low D e n s i t y A r e a s / H i g h D e n s i t y A r e a s A l o n g w i t h the concept o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes, i n d i v i d u a l s p r e f e r low d e n s i t y a r e a s as w e l l . I n a s i n g l e -f a m i l y zone t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of p r i v a c y and space. T h i s would n ot be p o s s i b l e i f t h e y were t o l i v e i n a h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a . H i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s a re a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r i m e , d e l i n q u e n c y , r a c i a l t e n s i o n s , p o l l u t i o n and n o i s e . H i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s a l s o a r e l i k e l y t o be m i x e d - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t a s t e f u l t o home owners because o f the l o w e r i n g o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and because t h e y a r e t r a n s i e n t neighbourhoods. To members o f t h e com-mu n i t y such t r a n s i e n t m i l i e u s a r e a t h r e a t t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . What i s o u t o f p l a c e i s a l s o seen as danger-ous. The f l i g h t t o the suburbs i s one o f the many a l t e r n a -t i v e s p e o p l e choose. The S i k h f a m i l i e s i n Vernon can be d e s c r i b e d as l i v i n g i n the subu r b s . They p r e f e r r e d t o l i v e away from the c o r e o f t h e c i t y because t h e y d i d not want t o be h a r a s s e d o r t h e i r p r o p e r t y v a n d a l i z e d . Thus, the move t o the suburb was a mechanism t o a v o i d o r m i n i m i z e r a c i a l t e n s i o n s and h o s t i -l i t i e s and was not m o t i v a t e d by a w i s h t o i d e n t i f y w i t h l o c a l - C a n a d i a n r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . B e s i d e s , once t h e y moved t o the subur b s , t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o make i t an e t h n i c e n c l a v e demonstrated an on-going i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g - 2 0 8 -c u l t u r a l norms o f v i s i t i n g , exchange o f g i f t s , l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s and so on. I n summary, t h e n , t h e r e were c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r -ences between what they chose t o do and what Canadians d i d . The d i s t i n c t i o n t h e y made between the i n n e r c i t y and the su b u r b s , a l t h o u g h s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r t o Canadian m o t i v e s , were p r i m a r i l y a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y . The c r i t e r i a t h e y used were p r o x i m i t y t o k i n , f r i e n d s , t r a v e l n e tworks and low c o s t h o u s i n g . They had, t h e r e f o r e , t o l e a r n t o make the d i s t i n c t i o n between l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y b e f o r e t h e y would be ac c e p -t a b l e i n the l a r g e r community. P o r t u g u e s e P e r s p e c t i v e s What i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i s t h a t by t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o become farmers or o r c h a r d owners, t h e y had chosen a l i f e -s t y l e t h a t i n v o l v e d low d e n s i t y d w e l l i n g s and low d e n s i t y a r e a s . F u r t h e r , t h e y made a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o improve t h e i r houses. A l t h o u g h a t f i r s t t h e y d i d not own these c a b i n s , t h e y l e f t t h e i r mark on the l a n d . They improved these c a b i n s w i t h b e t t e r plumbing and e l e c t r i c i t y , thus c o n v e r t i n g t h e c a b i n i n t o a home. L i k e w i s e when they bought a s m a l l o r c h a r d , they worked on the house. E l a b o r a t e -209-changes were usually made to the l i v i n g room and the k i t -chen. The women crocheted laces and tablecloths that adorned the rooms, and there was also extensive use of glass and c r y s t a l . The kitchens were also modernized with a l l the necessary appliances. When these farms were sold or expanded to become medium sized farms, the houses were also enlarged. In some cases, a new house would be b u i l t on an adjacent l o t that they owned. These new houses were completely modern and had at l e a s t three or four bedrooms, attached baths and a com-3 pleted basement. In essence, i t can be seen that the Portuguese had a step l i k e progression from the position of farm workers to medium sized farm owners. Each progressive stage was char-acterized by their special e f f o r t s to improve and enhance thei r l i f e s t y l e s . Farming was a l u c r a t i v e occupation for them because, unlike other farmers, they did not h i r e any outside labour: i t was a family concern. Since they had bought land when i t was not expensive, they had made a p r o f i t a b l e investment. Each stage i n t h i s process of mobility was further highlighted by status markers. Yet i t cannot be said that the Portuguese have been t o t a l l y accepted in the community. Rather they are con-stantly negotiating for s o c i a l space. As farm workers - 2 1 0 -they found general acceptance in a community that lacked steady, r e l i a b l e farm labour. Their e f f o r t s to improve their dwelling units, as i t enhanced property values, found favour in the eyes of their employers. As workers, they generally had a good reputation. Within about f i v e years of their settlement i n Canada they were able to buy their own homes and orchards, increasing the market value. So con-t r a r y to the fears held by Canadians that with the coming of the Portuguese their property values would diminish, the property values were in fact enhanced. Further, most fami-l i e s l i v e d i n separate households. Thus, the family follow-ed the pattern of separation in the course of i t s l i f e cycle, and with each marriage, the son or the daughter moved out. In the case of old parents, they l i v e d close by a l -though separately. The fear of high density dwellings that i s associated with foreigners was not experienced. The type of l i f e s t y l e they chose resulted i n no neighbourhoods that were exclusive to the Portuguese. They were scattered a l l around the town, and were not v i s i b l e in the town center unless they were a v a i l i n g themselves of the services of the town. Discussions with Canadians i n 01iver-Osoyoos suggested that although i t i s a stereotype, there i s a general fear of over-crowding associated with foreigners; i n th i s case the Portuguese. Because there was no gross v i o l a t i o n of the p r i n -c i p l e s that were valued by the community, the Portuguese did -211-not suffer as much as other immigrants. Although they were newcomers, i n many ways d i s t i n c t i n terms of their clothing, their food, their language, they were f i r s t considered as good and trustworthy workers, then small orchard owners, subsequently large orchard owners, and f i n a l l y , good c i t i -zens. In the f i n a l analysis, their commitment to the l o c a l - r e s i d e n t i a l unit was the fundamental reason why they were accepted i n the community. Conclusions Canadian zoning patterns r e f l e c t , to some extent, the values of an i n d u s t r i a l society. They do represent some sort of an outcome of the clash of interests between members of a society. Even in r u r a l areas such concerns are not only v i s i b l e but important. To a new immigrant the underlying order of an i n d u s t r i a l society i s not re a d i l y apparent. To the Sikhs, f i r s t as single men, renting was a convenient form of tenure. There were no t i e s that bound them to the settlements that they l i v e d i n ; nor were there any r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The image of the s p a t i a l s e t t i n g f i t t e d very well with the image of themselves as both new-comers and single adults. A l l this changed when they were married and/or when their families joined them. They were -212-no longer single nor newcomers. Settlement patterns, as a res u l t , took a d i f f e r e n t form. Since they were employed at the sawmills, they began to purchase homes in the v