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Residential rehabilitation as a rite of passage : a case study Northey, Bruce Albert 1983

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Residential R e h a b i l i t a t i o n As A Rite of Passage A Case Study-by Bruce Albert Northey B.A., Carleton U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 7 5 .S.W., Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 7 9 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES:': SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 © Bruce A l b e r t Northey, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publi c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S>or,<J? l^Ovk.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 Y 3 agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT This study examines the values, goals, methods and context of Camp Trapping, a wilderness-located r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program for teenage males i n c o n f l i c t with the law. The program i s located on a small lake approximately t h i r t y - f i v e miles south of Prince George, B r i t i s h Columbia. The study i s not an evaluation of the camp's effectiveness or an exploration into the problems or resolutions of juvenile delinquency. Instead i t focuses on Camp Trapping's r e l a t i o n s h i p to r i t e s of passage, an anthropological concept used to describe and explain a range of techniques used by a multitude of cultures i n t h e i r attempts to transform individuals from one state of social-psychological being to another. A series of interviews and a search of Camp Trapping documents provided a clear example of how the Trapping organization presents i t s e l f to the community. A f i v e week pa r t i c i p a n t observation study provided insight into the way Camp Trapping i s presented to i t s c l i e n t group and into i t ' s d a i l y operation. The information obtained from these sources was then compared to a body of anthropological therory concerning r i t u a l and r i t e s of passage. This comparison i n -dicates that Camp Trapping and r i t e s of passage share a number of aspects and that an anthropological exploration of s o c i a l work pract i c e provides valuable insights into the structures, purposes and value systems of s o c i a l service programs. The perspective I have used f o r t h i s study i s based p r i m a r i l y on a large body of theory created or expanded on by V i c t o r W. Turner. i i i Turner has focused on r i t u a l , myth and symbol i n general while paying p a r t i c u l a r attention to r i t e s of passage, a spe c i a l i z e d r i t u a l format. Perhaps his greatest contribution to anthoropological therory i s his work on the purposes and format of the mid or l i m i n a l stage of the three staged r i t e s of passage. I t i s during t h i s mid-stage of the r i t e that an experientially-based learning process attempts to induce the desired transformation. Turner has also provided us with the phrase " r i t e of a f f l i c t i o n " , i n d i c a t i n g a type of passage designed to take an i n d i v i d u a l from a cu l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d state of i l l - h e a l t h to one of health. He provides evidence that indicates that types of in d i v i d u a l i l l - h e a l t h can be associated with a marked degree of s o c i a l tension and stress. S p e c i f i c r i t e s of a f f l i c t i o n attempt to correct both the individuals and the society's i l l health. This study indicates that Camp Trapping shares goals, objectives, methods and format with these types of r i t e s . Camp Trapping creates a s p e c i f i c type of s o c i a l milieu, c a l l e d a c i r c u l a r -r e p e t i t i v e society, that encourages i n d i v i d u a l rather than s o c i e t a l change as a response to s o c i a l tensions and stress. This type of society i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y conducive to the use of r i t u a l for the re-dress of t h i s tension and c o n f l i c t . Within t h i s context, Camp Trapping uses a number of s p e c i f i c techniques to bond i t ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s to the desired value system and behavioural pattern. This study indicates that r e p i t i t i o n , ' i v paradox, the forced homo genaity of pa r t i c i p a n t s , the methodical use of means to induce physical and emotional stress and the use of sit u a t i o n a l l y - d e f i n e d symbols are a l l i n use at Camp Trapping. A l l these methods are associated with the l i m i n a l stage of an r i t e of passage. In a r i t u a l context, they are used i n an attempt to cat a l y i z e a transformation of world view, the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of a person's perception of his or her own p o t e n t i a l , and, as importantly, the p o s i t i v e reapraisal of the society's p o t e n t i a l . Ultimately, i t i s hoped that the r i t e w i l l create or strengthen a p o s i t i v e bond between the i n d i v i d u a l and the society. These r i t e s also attempt to provide meaning to and reconfirm the v a l i d i t y of the in d i v i d u a l and the society. This study also indicates that Camp Trapping could well be an example of a l o g i c a l extension of the r o u t i n i z a t i o n of Protestantism, i . e . a secular f a i t h . F i n a l l y , t h i s study provides a number of implications for s o c i a l work, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n respect to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs. I t provides a new perspective from which to examine the problems of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i a t i o n , values education and the reintegration of r e s i d e n t i a l treatment residents into the parent community. I t seriously questions our society's a b i l i t y to r e h a b i l i t a t e c e r t a i n of i t s members while the society i t s e l f continues to disassociate i t s e l f from the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process and i t s aftermath. I t also o f f e r s some tentative suggestions aimed at improving the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process and suggests that organizations l i k e Camp Trapping could well be used by s o c i a l workers i n an attempt to r e v i t a l i z e t h e i r own commitment to the aims and methods of the s o c i a l service profession. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGES Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s Acknowledgements Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 3.1 Camp Trapping - The Beginning Rites of Passage - Theory What Is Said : Documents Camp Trapping's Relationship to the Community 3.2 : Cariboo Action Training Society — Internal Structure 3.3 : Camp Trapping Scheduling 3.4 : The Therapeutic M i l i e u and Techniques at Camp Trapping 3.5 : Camp Trapping Values Chapter 4 : Key Informant Interviews : Introduction & Value Stance . : Camp Trapping's Moral/Ethical Perspective : Key Informants on Trapping's Goals Chapter 5 : What i s Done 5.1 : The F i r s t Three Months of the Winter-Spring 1982 Camp 5.2 : Camp Trapping - A Snapshot Chapter 6 : Analysis Chapter 7 : Implications for Soc i a l Work Epilogue : Camp Trapping & It's Relation to Protestantism I - i n i v - v v i v i i 1 - 8 9 32 63 131 136 137 147 183 242 304 322 31 62 135 64 - 73 74 - 85 86 - 97 98 - 130 135 153 146 \149 149 - 153 154 - 241 155 - 182 241 303 321 327 Footnotes 328 - 332 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Appendices:;1)Key Informants on Camp's Methods and Therapeutic M i l i e u 2) Key Informants on Miscelaneous Camp Trapping Aspects 3) Consent Form 4) Letter of Consent 5) Key Informant Interview Guideline Questions 6) Letter from the Camp Trapping After-care Coordinator to the Referring Agents i n respect to the Spring 1982 Follow-up study r e s u l t s . References PAGES 334 - 341 342 - 344 345 346 347 - 351 352 353 - 356 m i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE Chapter 1.1-1 Camp Trapping Logo 28 Chapter 2.1-1 Context of a Rite of Passage 36 2.1-2 Goals, Objectives & Methods of 60 a Rite of Passage 2.1-3 Attributes of Symbols: I 61 2.1-4 Attributes of Symbols: II 62 Chapter 3.1-1 Cariboo Action Training 73 Society's Relationship to the' Community 3.3rl Daily Schedule 95-96 3.3- 2 Basic Weekly A c t i v i t i e s 97 3.4- 1 Performance Chart 109 3.4-2 Chart System Rewards 112 3.4-3 Performance Chart De f i n i t i o n s 113 3.4-4 Chore Chart De f i n i t i o n s 114 - 115 3.4-5 The Conduct Code 116 Chapter 4.1-1 Key Informant Value Statements • -• 146 by Type of Informant Chapter 5.1-1 Camp Trapping's Layout 158 Chapter 5.1-1 Goal Comparison - Ri t u a l and 244 Camp Trapping ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am a greatly indebted to my thesis advisors, Dr. Richard Nann, Dr. John Crane, and Dr. John LeRoy. They have given t h e i r encourage-ment, support and constructive c r i t i q u e throughout the process of t h i s study. I would also l i k e to thank a l l those people i n Prince George who gave t h e i r time and enthusiasm to t h i s study. In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e to thank the s t a f f and students of the Winter-Spring 1982 Camp Trapping Program. I w i l l never forget t h e i r support, openness, and h o s p i t a l i t y . Invaluable discussion on and c r i t i q u e of t h i s study was provided by P h i l Kolbuc, Larry Tomboulian and Kuniko Miyanaga. Their insights, suggestions and support were very important. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to acknowledge the t o t a l and constant support of three very special people, my parents, who have always supported and encouraged me, and June, whose f a i t h , support and encouragement made t h i s study possible. 1 INTRODUCTION Camp Trapping i s a wilderness-located r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program for teenage boys who have run afoul of the law. This study does not, however, concern i t s e l f with the problem of juvenile delinquency. The symptom of law breaking i s i n c i d e n t a l and of minor importance to the perspective presented here. Nor i s t h i s study an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the Trapping program. Instead, Camp Trapping i s examined as an example of some of the values and methods promoted and used i n current r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r a c t i s e . To r e h a b i l i t a t e , i n a s o c i a l work sense i s to "....restore to a state of health, useful a c t i v i t y etc. through t r a i n i n g therapy and guidance" ( 1 ), selected inter-and intra-personal dynamics. Camp Trapping's r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process and the values t h i s process promotes are examined i n the l i g h t of current therories derived from the anthro-po l o g i c a l study of r e l i g i o n . The concept of ' r i t e s of passage' i s the p r i n c i p l e t h e o r e t i c a l construct guiding t h i s exploration. There are a number of reasons which lead me to choose t h i s perspective. F i r s t and most personally, I was an employee of Camp Trapping's for two years. During that time, I was struck by the s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t y between the Trapping program and the r i t e s of passage concept. This s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t y between r i t e s of passage therory and numerous processes i n Canadian society has been recognized by many. High school graduation, gang membership, marriage, college entrance and f r a t e r n i t y induction are just a few of the events we have been t o l d are forms of such r i t e s . When we 2 are t o l d , for example, that high school graduation i s a r i t e of passage, the association normally r e f e r s to the r i t u a l i z e d or standardized ceremonial process whereby the ' i n i t i a t e ' i s recognized by some group as having l e f t one status r o l e and entered another. While t h i s may well be an important aspect of r i t e s of passage, i t provides a rather obvious and uninformative comparison. The concept of r i t e s of passage has been studied i n some depth by, among others, V i c t o r W. Turner. I t i s Turner's more detai l e d examinations of these r i t e s which w i l l guide us through an indepth i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the why's and wherefore's of these r i t u a l sequences and t h e i r l i n k s to the society which creates them. This study indicates that Camp Trapping's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process bears much more than a s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance to the intentions and processes of r i t e s of passage. A second reason for using r i t e s of passage theory i n t h i s study l i e s i n the connection between r i t e s of passage and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n general. Reh a b i l i t a t i o n r e f e r s - for the purpose to t h i s study -exlusively to our society's attempts to cure or correct 'malfunctions' i n the s o c i a l and psychological a c t i v i t i e s of some of i t s members. Rehabi l i t a t i o n at Camp Trapping i s intended to prepare the student to assume a personal stance and behavioural pattern which allows him to function e f f e c t i v e l y within the guidelines set out by the parent community. I t implies that the previous stance and behavioural pattern were inappropriate. Camp Trapping i s thus designed to create a transformation within i t s students. Rites of passage are perhaps 3 one of the most ancient frameworks humankind has used i n our attempts to perform and validate such transformations. We could, perhaps, consider i t a prototype of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process. As such i t provides us with an opportunity to touch the roots and core of Trapping's transformative aspects. A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program designed to transform an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s i t u a t i o n a l l y defined inappropriate behaviours and attitudes i s a vehicle of s o c i a l control. So too, according to Turner, i s a r i t e of passage. Rites of passage i s a process which apparently encourages and condones personal transformations that r e i n t e r p r e t i n d i v i d u a l need i n a manner that reinforces:- s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and continuity. The Turnerian model of r i t e s of passage allows us to examine both the therapeutic and control aspects of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n process that s o c i a l workers often choose to see as s o l e l y therapeutic. I t high-l i g h t s the f a c t that therapy i s conducted within a given s o c i a l order. The rules and framework of which are accepted as given by those conducting the therapy or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The ' c l i e n t ' or student at Camp Trapping can only be considered r e h a b i l i t a t e d when he shows an acceptance of the rules and frame-work that the therapists take for granted. That the student may also f e e l better about himself may be a goal of equal importance to the therapists. Yet the Trapping graduate that f e e l s better about himself while continuing to operate outside of, or i n contradiction to, the rules and framework of society would never be considered as having been successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d . 4 Rites of passage theory outlines methods, objectives and goals that show us more c l e a r l y how these two aspects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -s o c i a l control and the enhancement of personal well-being - are intertwined i n an attempt to s a t i s f y both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l needs. I have not attempted to pass judgement on the s o c i a l control aspects of t h i s form of s o c i a l work, pr e f e r r i n g instead to be content with c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t i n g i t s existence. No one would deny that a society needs some means of insuring i t s s o l i d a r i t y and continuity i f i t i s to survive.. Whether or not s o c i a l work and s o c i a l workers should be a part of t h i s 'means' i s not a topic of t h i s study. What t h i s study does provide i s a c l e a r example of s o c i a l service workers involved i n a s o c i a l control process. Whether i t be for the society or the i n d i v i d u a l , Camp Trapping attempts to shape the in d i v i d u a l ' s perceptions and behaviours. Rites of passage theory takes us beyond the conventional expiations of how t h i s i s done. Sone of the methods that Turner has outlined i l l u s t r a t e the importance of a f f e c t and role modelling i n the therapeutic process. We are also shown how symbols, paradox, trauma and stress can be used as e f f e c t i v e educational techniques, p a r t i c u l -a r i l y i n the area of values education. Rites of passage theory reformulates the purpose and effectiveness of r e p i t i t i o n and assoc-i a t i o n , two f a m i l i a r aspects of operant and c l a s s i c a l conditioning. I t also reinforces the c a l l f o r , and provides a new. perspective on, the need for e f f e c t i v e aftercare and for strong consistent l i n k s 5 between the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program, the students, and the community at large. F i n a l l y , r i t e s of passage theory and the anthropological study of r e l i g i o n i n general helps us to discover and examine the fundamental value system and world view at work at Camp Trapping. I t allows us to place Camp Trapping i n an h i s t o r i c a l context which helps to c l a r i f y i t s ideology and perspective. As we s h a l l see, Camp Trapping appears to be one very good example of the secularization"of the protestant t r a d i t i o n . This d i r e c t l i n k with a mo r a l i s t i c salvation r e l i g i o n compels us to re-evaluate our stance as an applied s o c i a l science. It appears that Camp Trapping, and by implication, perhaps numerous therapeutic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs (and perhaps s o c i a l work i n general) are i n many respects secularized replacements f o r or extensions of our r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and values. This study provides another ins i g h t i n respect to our so c i e t i e s value system and world view. Most people are s o c i a l i z e d to accept and believe the perspective and ethics of t h e i r community. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n process provides them with a code of behaviour and reasons for complying with i t . I t enables them to choose a ro l e i n the society that w i l l more or less s a t i s f y both the indi v i d u a l ' s and the communitie's needs. Individuals are given a sense of meaning and relevance through the roles t h e i r society encourages them to play. I f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i s not bl a t a n t l y cohersive or t y r a n i c a l , the roles individuals choose must be played with conviction and f a i t h i f the society i s to maintain i t s e l f . To do so, ind i v i d u a l s 6 must successfully i n t e r n a l i z e t h e i r community's world view. Their l i f e experiences must reinforce the 'correctness' of t h i s world view. The community must provide periodic moments of reaffirmation of the world view which reinforce i n d i v i d u a l s ' r o l e s and reconfirm the po t e n t i a l f or each in d i v i d u a l ' s personal success i n the community. Individual's must f e e l and believe, i f only for periodic moments, that a l l i s well with themselves and t h e i r community, that who they are and what they can become are best served by t h e i r society, and that they and t h e i r society are i n tune with or guided by a power or 'truth' that transcends and validates the mundane r e a l i t i e s of existance. This study explores how one contemporary B r i t i s h Columbian r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resource for juvenile delinquents attempts to provide these fee l i n g s and b e l i e f s . Much of what follows i s a form of ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n . The information used to create t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was gathered from three main sources. Camp Trapping documents such as follow up studies (informal evaluations), s t a f f manuals, and brochures were examined i n an e f f o r t to obtain an idea of how the organization wished to present i t s e l f . Ten key informants were interviewed to obtain t h e i r perspectives on Camp Trapping's goals, values and methods. The informants were a l l connected with Camp Trapping i n some capacity, eg: s t a f f , d i r e c t o r , founder, r e f e r r i n g agent (user), and society board members. The information they provided was complied to provide a picture of how the relevant actors i n the Camp Trapping experience in t e r p r e t and v i s u a l i z e the program. These two sources of information, 7 the key informants and the documents, have been combined to form a major de s c r i p t i v e section of t h i s study which I have e n t i t l e d "What Is Said". The t h i r d and f i n a l means of information gathering was a p a r t i c i p a n t observation f i e l d study. In the l a t e spring of 1982 I l i v e d at Camp Trapping for approximately f i v e weeks. During t h i s time I pa r t i c i p a t e d i n the d a i l y camp a c t i v i t i e s ; working, playing, sleeping and eating with the residents. Much of my time was spent observing student and s t a f f i n t e r a c t i o n . This documentation was supplemented with casual conversations and semi-formal interviews with both s t a f f and students. Some of these interviews and most of the formal staff-student meetings were taped and l a t e r transcribed. I also read through the students' chart folders and the camp log or diary to obtain some i n k l i n g of the events and experiences t h i s p a r t i c u l a r staff/student group had shared between February 1982 (intake) and the time of my a r r i v a l i n May. The information from the pa r t i c i p a n t observation phase of t h i s study i s presented i n descriptive fashion i n the section e n t i t l e d "What Is Done". This study's de s c r i p t i v e chapters are presented with minimal int e r p r e t a t i o n and analysis although the reader must be reminded that my own perspective and t h e o r e t i c a l bias undoubtedly colour and shape the descr i p t i o n . I t i s my hope however, that t h i s description w i l l allow the reader to immerse him or herself for a while i n the l i f e s t y l e and perspective of Camp Trapping. I hope the reader may f e e l the texture of t h i s unique and fascinating 8 community and formulate h i s or her own ideas and impressions of the community. This study i s exploratory-descriptive i n scope and method. (2) The information i s presented i n a fashion which, encourages the readers to a r r i v e at t h e i r own conclusions. I have, however, provided a set of conclusions based on my int e r p r e t a t i o n of the camp and shaped by the t h e o r e t i c a l perspective found i n Chapter two. My reasoning i s deductive. I have started with a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which, provides a description of a general type of process. This description i s o l a t e s a number of key var i a b l e s , the presence of which implies the occurance of a s p e c i f i c process. An hypothesis could be stated as follows: 'If a r i t e s of passage form and techniques are i n use at Camp Trapping then variables x,y,z, etc. w i l l be present at Camp Trapping' The variables are outlined i n some d e t a i l i n Chapter two. No firm conclusions can be drawn from t h i s study. I t i s an i n i t i a l exploration; a f i r s t attempt to apply some knowledge gathered and theories formulated by anthropologists to a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l service program. Hopefully, the conclusions and implications I have drawn w i l l stimulate others to pursue si m i l a r avenues of exploration. Hopefully the s o c i a l service community may derive some i n s p i r a t i o n from t h i s study which could lead to improved r e h a b i l i t a t i o n design. 8a CHAPTER ONE CAMP TRAPPING - THE BEGINNING 9 CAMP TRAPPING - THE BEGINNING 'It was my contribution to t h i s world' - Bruce Hawkenson, Spring, 1982. Those who have heard the sto r i e s of Bruce Hawkenson's various endevours and impressive physical stamina would be surprised, perhaps with h i s unpretensious stature. His lean face and well-muscled neck are the only v i s i b l e clues to h i s almost legendary v i t a l i t y u n t i l he begins to speak. His voice i s clear and resonant. Although not overly loud, h i s voice e a s i l y f i l l s a room, compelling attention. When he begins to speak, an aura of s e l f confidence and intense involvement with the task at hand begins to surround him. Bruce Hawkenson i s the founder of Camp Trapping. His l i f e has been a r i c h complexity of struggle, ingenuity and experimentation. He i s perhaps best described as an eccentric, r u r a l entrepreneur. Hawkenson spent much of his childhood roaming the B r i t i s h Columbia i n t e r i o r with h i s mother and s i b l i n g s . Hawkenson's mother was a teacher and although she always provided f o r h i s family there were few luxuries i n t h e i r l i v e s . Hawkenson learned from experience that one needed few amenities to both survive and enjoy l i f e . As a young man, Hawkenson was quite r e l i g i o u s . He went to study for the ministry i n a American Baptist College. He never entered the minisry however and described himself as not being "overly r e l i g i o u s " i n a t r a d i t i o n a l sense when he started Camp Trapping i n 1971. 10 By the mid-60's Hawkenson was back i n Prince George working as a probation o f f i c e r . He soon became frustrated and despondant over the probation department's i n a b i l i t y to p u l l i t s adolescent c l i e n t s out of an increasing involvement i n criminal l i f e . The boys he worked with would c o n f i d e n t i a l l y express confusion, fear and f r u s t r a t i o n with t h e i r l i v e s , often i n d i r e c t contradiction to the bravado and enthusiasm for t h e i r l i f e s t y l e that they would exhibit with t h e i r peers. They were not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l i v e s but the corrections system could not o f f e r them vi a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Something, Hawkenson thought, had to done. The Idea of Camp Trapping The b r i e f and disconnected contact with c l i e n t s the probation o f f i c e r ' s r o l e allowed did not s a t i s f y Bruce Hawkenson. I f , he thought, he could just get a hold of these boys for a protracted length of time and become t o t a l l y involved i n t h e i r l i v e s , then perhaps something could be done. Camp Trapping was his answer. The actual form the camp was to take became a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of his past experiences, personal strengths and p r e d i l e c t i o n s . Hawkenson continually emphasized four major themes i n his concept-u a l i z a t i o n and operation of Camp Trapping. P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Involvement i n one's environment The boys were not to be coddled. The necessities of l i f e would be provided but i t was to be i n an environment that demanded the 11 boy's p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involvement. Without i t , t h e i r basic physical s u r v i v a l would not be possible. Without t h e i r involvement there would be no firewood, without firewood there would be no heat. It was to become that basic. Hopefully, the boys would begin to see that they could act to a f f e c t t h e i r own l i v e s i n a p o s i t i v e fashion. This was c r u c i a l f o r Hawkenson. He believes that (within l i m i t s ) "The worst thing you can do to a person i s do things for him. If you make things so secure for people that a l l they have to do i s eat and s h i t and sleep then they w i l l never become anything. They won't know how to become anything. If a person i s unable to look a f t e r himself then his freedom has been taken away. " 1. D i r e c t l y connected to t h i s idea of "becoming" through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the idea of struggle. Hawkenson believes that we have to have 'a resistance to puch against' or a 'test to meet' i n order to grow. In short, a person learns through meeting challenge and through the successes and f a i l u r e s that r e s u l t . Challenge and experiencing successes Challenges were to be presented i n a number of ways but they were a l l to be rooted i n the basic assumption that you can s t a r t with very l i t t l e yet 'create abundance' from i t . This sense of challenge was to pervade the camp and was to begin with learning to enjoy i t s environment even though there were few amenities and many rigorous tasks. This i s one example of what Hawkenson re f e r s to as 'starting with the p h y s i c a l ' . 12 A physical expression of challenge, endurance, achievement and community was v i t a l to him for a number of reasons. Physical challenge was something he was f a m i l i a r with and enjoyed. As a r e s u l t , his involvement i n i t and presentation of i t would be sincere and natural. It would not be a program he was presenting but instead a part of himself. In addition, the r e s u l t s of physical challenge were tangible, e a s i l y measured and i n r e l a t i v e l y close temporal proximinty to t h e i r cause. F i n a l l y , r e l a t i n g p h y s i c a l l y i s , i n Hawkenson's opinion, the f i r s t step i n a three step progression of natural r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g between people. As he sees i t , we become involved with each other i n i t i a l l y through some sharing of a physical task. His example i s playing sports. What follows i s a natural progression to r e l a t i n g 'mentally'. To follow up on h i s analogy, a f t e r the game the players w i l l meet over a beer to discuss such things as work and p o l i t i c s . As intimacy and t r u s t begin to develop, emotional concerns can be shared and discussed i n the t h i r d stage of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Hawkenson set up h i s camp to follow t h i s pattern and designed challenges to compliment each stage. The counsellors and 'modelling' Another e s s e n t i a l ingredient for the program was to be the nature of s t a f f involvement. Ideally Hawkenson would have l i k e d to run the camp with volunteers. P r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s denied t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y but he designed the program i n a way that would a t t r a c t people who were w i l l i n g to commit themselves t o t a l l y to the program. They were to believe i n i t and to l i v e i t i f they were to have any 13 e f f e c t . They had to be w i l l i n g to dedicate t h e i r l i v e s to the program for as long as they were involved i n i t . Working at Camp Trapping was to be a person's 'joy' or 'mission'. If they could not f e e l the program i n t h e i r 'hearts' they were not wanted. For Hawkenson, the i d e a l counsellor was to be a kind of superman model. He (Hawkenson hired only male counsellors) was to be young, p h y s i c a l l y f i t , happy and a t t r a t i v e . The students were to look at them and say "I want to be l i k e that". Hawkenson admits that he was looking for supermen models yet continues to maintain that i t i s the key ingredient to ensure such a program's success. The counsellors were to become involved with the students i n the same manner that they were involved with the program. Hawkenson f e l t i t was impossible to encourage change i n a person without a personal and intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p forming f i r s t . Each counsellor through his own unique personality was to form a meaningful r e l a t i o n -ship with some, i f not a l l , of the students. They were not to be carbon copies of each other or of Hawkenson. Sta f f s e l e c t i o n was c r u c i a l . Hawkenson would attempt to locate people who were unique in d i v i d u a l s , who could complement each other's strengths and who could express the s p i r i t and values of the program i n t h e i r own personalized manner. Each counsellor was to be a model or image of a successful and f u l f i l l e d person who could l i v e within society's l i m i t s . One of the generic aspects of t h i s image was to be what i s 14 most su c c i n c t l y summarized by reversing the C h r i s t i a n golden rule so that i t reads as "do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you." Ideally, a counsellor was never there merely to supervise and d i r e c t ; he was at the camp to p a r t i c i p a t e . I f he requested a student to cut firewood a l l day, the counsellor would also cut firewood a l l day. This value was even present in. d i s c i p l i n a r y consequences, he would p a r t i c i p a t e i n those consequences. Hawkenson f e l t that t h i s had the added benefit of ensuring that counsellors would have to exhaust a l l other means of changing a behaviour before he would consider any punitive form of d i s c i p l i n e . Evening Sessions Another important ingredient i n the program was a time f o r group r e f l e c t i o n , discussion and encouragement. In Hawkenson's time t h i s was not a structured group process. Although they sometimes used a pre-packaged l i f e s k i l l s program c a l l e d Zoom to guide t h e i r meetings, i t was a f a i r l y casual time when students and s t a f f could discuss the events, the d i f f i c u l t i e s and the delights of the day. Staff could use the Zoom sto r i e s to provide a message ("it was sort of l i k e t h e i r l i t t l e scripture and verse for the day") and would usually suggest that everyone take sometime to think of how they could do one thing a l i t t l e b i t better the next day. These small challenges were to be personal and did not have to be shared with the others. I t was a time for r e f l e c t i o n , private and public, on past events and future p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t was a time when the group could encourage an i n d i v i d u a l , reminice about a shared success, or plan for a future goal. 15 While these four program components were the heart of Camp Trapping, Hawkenson believed that t h e i r f u l l effectiveness could best be achieved i f each student had been personally interviewed by Hawkenson p r i o r to attending the camp, and had, as a consequence, made a personal decision to attend the camp and commit themselves to the program. In Hawkenson's time each student came to Camp aware that he had chosen to come. The student had to meet a ce r t a i n d escription even before he was interviewed as Hawkenson had a c l e a r idea of the type of student Camp Trapping could best serve. I t was to be for the 'hard core' juvenile delinquent, the one who had passed apparently unchanged through a l l other available resources. I t was not for any juvenile diagnosed as having a severe p s y c h i a t r i c problem, something Hawkenson f e l t incapable of handling. In addition, the boy had to be i n reasonably good physical condition. These were the preconditions for r e f e r a l . Every attempt was made to s a t i s f y them although not always with success. The Design and Environment of the Camp Trapping Program - F i r s t Year It took Hawkenson less that a year to move from the idea of Camp Trapping to i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . During h i s l a s t few months as a probation o f f i c e r he located an appropriate semi-wilderness setting t h i r t y miles south, of Prince George and four miles east of Highway 97. Trapping Lake (hence the name Camp Trapping) i s perched atop a ridge that i s approximately 600 feet above the highway. Its shores are ringed by a stand of pine, spruce and b i r c h 16 about a quarter of a mile thick. Outside t h i s r i n g the h i l l s i d e s have been logged and are now covered with scrub brush, young conifers and the occasional stand of b i r c h . The lake has been stocked with trout and i s home to beavers and a v a r i e t y of water fowl. In the autumn and winter strong winds rush along t h i s ridge, often ri p p i n g many of the t a l l , slender spruce from t h e i r precarious hold i n the sparse t o p s o i l . There were no neighbours to become f e a r f u l of a 'gang of delinquents' near t h e i r homes. There were no amenities, i n fa c t there were no buildings. Hawkenson leased two l o t s from the government and put up a couple of surplus quanset huts made of wood and canvas. In addition to fi n d i n g a l o c a t i o n , Hawkenson also had to locate funding. Although Prince George's s o c i a l service community supported him, the V i c t o r i a government was reluctant to provide any money. As a r e s u l t , the program started as a type of foster home, under the auspices of the Department (now Ministry) of Human Resources (MHR). Hawkenson, h i s wife Jay, and a young man who was an ex-probationer of Hawkenson's were to run the camp on f i v e d o l l a r s a day per student for a t r i a l period of three months. This amount had to be supplemented i f they were to survive. Hawkenson's f i r s t moneymaking idea was to have the camp parti c i p a n t s cut and s e l l b i r c h as firewood. Each student would get a portion of h i s earnings while the r e s t was to be put towards the camp's operation. 17 I f Hawkenson's operation was ever to move from foster home to r e s i d e n t i a l treatment centre status, he would have to have a private non-profit society to back him. Thus Cariboo Action Training Society was created to oversee the camp's operations. In Hawkenson's mind, the Society i n 1972 was only a figurehead. A l l the decisions were to be his and the Society existed to endorse them. F i n a l l y , there were the students. Hawkenson had no d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g them, having as he d i d the backing of the l o c a l MHR and Attorney General's (AG) o f f i c e s both of which saw a desperate need for a l o c a l , non-containment r e s i d e n t i a l treatment resource for t h e i r delinquent c l i e n t e l e . In June of 1971 Bruce and Jay Hawkenson along with t h e i r young assistant, were ready to open t h e i r door for business. The Camp Schedule During i t s f i r s t three years the camp's length and focus changed frequently, without however, changing the essence of the four key components. The f i r s t camp of three months duration set a general pattern. There was to be at l e a s t h a l f a day of hard physical work every day. The boys were to learn the value and necessity of earning a l i v i n g although the work had an a d d i t i o n a l , more mundane goal. The p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s demanded that money had to be earned i f the camp was to survive. As we have seen, the firewood s e l l i n g project began 18 for t h i s reason. I t continues to t h i s day although i t s revenues are no longer e s s e n t i a l . The boys and s t a f f would also h i r e themselves out for l o c a l odd jobs l i k e haying on nearby farms. By the following year the work program had expanded to include tree planting. The camp had also to be maintained. Much of the day was taken up i n the performance of routine tasks. Water had to be hauled from the lake for cooking, drinking and washing. The part i c i p a n t s had to f i n d and prepare firewood for t h e i r own consumption. L i v i n g quarters had to be kept clean and meals had to be prepared. In keeping with the physical nature of the program, each day would begin with a two — l a t e r four - mile run which always ended with a jump into the lake. Hawkenson also introduced a w e i g h t l i f i n g program. To keep clean, the residents resorted to a sweat lodge which i n the early years consisted of a dome-shaped frame of sapplings covered with p l a s t i c . The Hawkenson's and t h e i r camp apparently passed inspection. The r e f e r r i n g agents" were pleased with the r e s u l t s (although there was no o f f i c i a l evaluation) and were anxious to see the camp continue. Throughout the next three years the camp began to evolve. In the s p i r i t of experimentation, the camps varied i n length from three to ten months. Out-triping, which included backpacking and canoeing, became an important part of the program but never i t s p r i n c i p a l focus. Unlike, Outward Bound, Camp Trapping did not see short term, high r i s k wilderness a c t i v i t y as i t s p r i n c i p a l method. I t merely supp-lemented and provided more intense counter points for the more mundane routines of camp l i f e . They did experiment b r i e f l y with a pure 19 wilderness adventure format but even t h i s was i n addition to the regular camp routine, one group l i v i n g at Trapping Lake while another roamed the wilderness. An o u t - t r i p i n g adventure d i d become the standard format for the f i r s t few weeks of each camp. Hawkenson introduced t h i s i n i t i a l wilderness experience i n an attempt to compensate for one of the less a t t r a c t i v e r e s u l t s of Trapping's success. As the camp's reputation grew, r e f e r r a l s began to come i n from a l l parts of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia. As a r e s u l t , Hawkenson was unable to interview each boy p r i o r to t h e i r attendance. He was unable to obtain t h e i r personal commitment to the program before t h e i r a r r i v a l . In addition, some r e f e r r i n g agents were beginning to use possible attendance at Camp Trapping as a threat to control t h e i r c l i e n t s . To o f f s e t t h i s , Hawkenson thought i t best to take the boys to an i s o l a t e d wilderness environment to provide them with an ori e n t a t i o n to the s p i r i t of the program, to ensure that they could not run from the program and to attempt to e s t a b l i s h a personal r e l a t i o n s h i p with and obtain a commitment from each boy before they s e t t l e d down to the d a i l y routine at the lake. An academic program was added i n the program's second year when the Prince George School D i s t r i c t provided a teacher. Hawkenson thought that t h i s was a very important addition as i t allowed Camp Trapping a greater opportunity to focus on that second l e v e l of int e r a c t i o n which he c a l l e d the 'mental'. The academic program was designed f i r s t and foremost to teach, the joy of learning. By providing a continuous series of small academic successes and by using 20 the environment to provide an ex p e r i e n t i a l learning base, Hawkenson hoped that the students would come to f e e l more comfortable with the idea of school and more importantly, the idea of learning. Learning was to be presented as a v i t a l and integrated part of d a i l y l i f e and t h i s perspective was to be pers o n i f i e d i n the teacher's r o l e . The teacher was to p a r t i c i p a t e completely i n the program just l i k e any other s t a f f . He was to eat and sleep with the counsellors and students for f i v e days a week. By the time a teacher had arrived at Camp Trapping, the s t a f f component and involvement had changed. I n i t i a l l y , the Hawkenson's and t h e i r assistant had no time o f f . I t was a t o t a l commitment. By the spring of '72 a cook had been hired as well as another counsellor and every attempt was being made to provide two or three days o f f every two weeks or so. Before the end of i t s second year there were two counsellors per s h i f t and regular time o f f although the now standard week on, week o f f s h i f t was yet to develop. Camp Trapping was quickly developing a reputation of excellence. Referring agents were pleased with the r e s u l t s and impressed by the s t a f f s ' dedication. The students' work and dedication was also impressing the larger community. They established new records of e f f i c i e n c y and quantity i n tree planting and were viewed as dependable and energetic workers. One camp w i l l forever stand out i n Hawkenson's mind. I t has been 21 to date, what he describes as the greatest experience of his l i f e . This p a r t i c u l a r camp i s , at ten months duration, the longest i n Trapping's history. I t became a camp with a theme, almost an obsession. Hawkenson and his s t a f f decided that i t would be good to get the boys involved i n canoeing and canoe racing. They began with a rigorous physical t r a i n i n g program to get themselves and the boys into good physical condition. Wage labour was part of t h i s t r a i n i n g as they needed some means of aquiring canoes. The canoes were not to be bought however, but constructed by hand. With the help of t h e i r cook who was i n addition a highly s k i l l e d woodworker, the boys and s t a f f constructed t h e i r own racing canoes and then began to p r a c t i s e i n earnest. Before the ten months were up, Camp Trapping had won not only the junior d i v i s i o n of the Northern Hardware Canoe Race ( a d i v i s i o n created at Hawkenson's request) but had managed to win the B r i t i s h Columbia Junior's t i t l e , and adult races i n both Alberta and the state of Washington. Hawkenson notes that the camp ended with the races as a "..kind of reward, i t was a l l comaraderie and gung-ho t r a v e l l i n g down the road singing a song and d r i v i n g o f f into glory - i t was pretty strong s t u f f . " It also marked the time when Bruce Hawkenson began to disengage himself from d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the camp process. He had spent three years t o t a l l y dedicated to t h i s creation of h i s . He had established i t s c r e d i b i l i t y , obtained permanent funding and groomed h i s successor. I t was time for him to p u l l out. The 22 i n t e n s i t y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of h i s commitment took, i t s t o l l . There was no private time and there was a family to raise. .. There was no rest. Hawkenson believes that the counsellors' workload 1, and commitment "wasn't r e a l l y sane", nor were they OK sustainable for a long period of time. Commitment to the camp and the boys had to be, i n Hawkensons' mind "our mission and our joy and i t had to be done with a missionary z e a l " . He f e l t that t h i s was the only way Camp Trapping could be e f f e c t i v e and likened the involvement a counsellor had to have to i n l i s t i n g f o r m i l i t a r y service. For him,it was something you d i d for a few years to serve the country. A f t e r the war you could get on with your own l i f e . Hawkenson resigned as program d i r e c t o r i n the spring of 1974, passing the t i t l e on to Merl Gordon, a counsellor who had worked at the camp for two years. Both Gordon and P h i l Kolbuc, who was to assume the d i r e c t o r s h i p i n 1976, had worked with Hawkenson at the camp. As Hawkenson chose Gordon, so Hawkenson and Gordon chose Kolbuc. Although Kolbuc was the l a s t d i r e c t o r to have worked d i r e c t l y with Hawkenson, the succession continues to be c a r e f u l l y handpicked from the counselling s t a f f . Both Hawkenson and Gordon continue to s i t on the board of d i r e c t o r s and thus r e t a i n a major say i n the s e l e c t i o n of the d i r e c t o r . Both men t r y to avoid too much involvement however. This i s a conscious decision made early i n the camp's l i f e . Hawkenson believes each d i r e c t o r as well as each counsellor, must make the program his own. If the program i s to be directed and designed by an executive removed from i t s d a i l y operation, Hawkenson fe e l s that the s t a f f could no longer 23 operate or understand the program from t h e i r "hearts'. He believes that the program can only r e t a i n i t s freshness and v i t a l i t y i f the employees see i t as a creative expression of t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s . This has resulted i n a,rapidly evolving and diverse program. Each d i r e c t o r has added new components and worked from a unique perspective. In the following chapters we w i l l see that both the s i t e and the program have changed quite dramatically between 1974 and 1982. This t r a n s i t i o n did not occur overnight. Each d i r e c t o r has added at l e a s t one s i g n i f i c a n t program component and each has emphasized a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t therapeutic approach. The Spring 1982 version w i l l be described i n some d e t a i l , and while we w i l l see that Camp Trapping i s quite d i f f e r e n t from i t s o r i g i n a l design, we w i l l also be able to d i s t i n g u i s h a f a m i l i a r core. While t h i s core i s , i n part, attributabl e to the four key components outlined at the beginning of t h i s chapter,its essence l i e s i n the basic values and ideology Hawkenson provided. The Assumptions and Value System of Camp Trapping - F i r s t Years As we have seen, Bruce Hawkenson had trained for the Bapist ministry. By the time he was developing Camp Trapping however, he saw himself as " more of a s e c u l a r i s t , a l l the ideals (of the Ch r i s t i a n faith) were there but not wrapped up i n a r e l i g i o n . " Starting from t h i s foundation h i s f i r s t and most important assumption was that an i n d i v i d u a l " i s the most important thing i n the world ... The C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f i s that you're r e a l l y important to God - well, 24 I just l e f t out the word 'God"." Instead, Hawkenson maintained that an i n d i v i d u a l was the most important, the most precious thing to themselves and other i n d i v i d -uals. Specified further, each of the Camp Trapping students became important and precious to Hawkenson and the other s t a f f . His second assumption was that there was "a dynamic p o t e n t i a l within each i n d i v i d u a l that could, without exception, be developed. Following on t h i s , his t h i r d assumption maintained that an i n d i v i d u a l , having recognized the existance of t h i s p o t e n t i a l and having experienced some of i t s power, would want more, and more intense, instances of r e a l i z i n g that p o t e n t i a l . In otherwords, Hawkenson f e l t that developing one's p o t e n t i a l was i n t r i n s i c a l l y rewarding. In order to l i v e l i f e at i t s f u l l e s t , Hawkenson also assumes that one needs a sense of d i r e c t i o n or purpose to l i f e . In addition, one has to believe i n oneself, be s e l f confident and possess a po s i t i v e outlook on l i f e . Hawkenson did not believe that Camp Trapping would necessarily provide i t s students with these a t t r i b u t e s but he did consider them very important, i f not es s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s for the con s e l l i n g s t a f f . Another important assumption was that one could not learn or develop one's p o t e n t i a l without p r a c t i c e . Hawkenson believed that one of the major purposes of Camp Trapping was to provide appropriate designs or routines for e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g and then compell the 25 students to act out these designs and routines on a d a i l y basis. F i n a l l y , Hawkenson firmly believed that each person has a ' w i l l ' , a 'power of conscious, deliberate action' which allows and necessitates personal choice. From these assumptions grew a number of value statements. For example, i t wasn't enough to have a w i l l , one also had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to use it.According to Hawkenson, we have to act out our l i v e s , not s i t passively and receive or only react to another's i n i t i a t i v e . By the same token, i t wasn't enough to have a p o t e n t i a l , one had to act to r e a l i z e that p o t e n t i a l . For Hawkenson, a successful person would be productive, con-s t r u c t i v e and a 'go-getter'. The i d e a l Camp Trapping graduates should " t r y out every nerve and f i b r e i n t h e i r body, they should explore, they should accomplishi" Hawkenson says he i s d i s s a t i s f i e d with the competitive overtones of his ratio n a l e for advocating t h i s value, yet maintains i t i s based on personal s u r v i v a l . Those who are incapable of looking a f t e r themselves, who are dependent, within l i m i t s , on a system or other people, may not survive. For Hawkenson, dependancy also denies freedom through i n h i b i t i n g one's a b i l i t y to choose and act. 'Acting', i t s e l f c r u c i a l , was made even more valuable i f one could act with commitment and dedication. I t was important to be involved, or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f u l l e s t sense with one's environment. The counter-balance to t h i s action-oriented, one might say almost aggressive stance, lay i n Hawkenson's emphasis on sharing. One had to share for one's own good and the good of others. This 26 follows from the assumption that each i n d i v i d u a l i s precious and was expressed i n the emphasis Hawkenson placed on 1comaraderie'; the f a m i l i a l closeness he wished to develop at Trapping Lake. More s p e c i f i c value statements are included i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a Camp Trapping success. Not only would the graduate stop h i s law breaking, he would also become constructive and productive i n a r e l a t i v e l y consistent manner. For Hawkenson t h i s meant either working or going to school. In addition, the graduate should be able to re l a t e better to others. This could be shown, for example, i n an understanding of d i f f i c u l t family dynamics, obeying one's parents, or respecting one's probation o f f i c e r . F i n a l l y , thoughtful-ness should show i n the graduates' behaviour. They would be able to reason through d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s , a r r i v i n g at e f f e c t i v e and s o c i a l l y acceptable solutions. Hawkenson summaried t h i s value system i n a set of f i v e short statements which i s referred to today as the Camp Trapping philosophy. They are as follows: 1) I possess a l o t of worth as an i n d i v i d u a l , 2) I have the a b i l i t y to discover p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s , 3) I have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to develop these q u a l i t i e s within myself, 4) I can develop these by mental, physical and s p i r i t u a l exercise, and 5) I can only maintain my growth and success as I share i t with others. Those who are presently involved with Camp Trapping maintain that 27 these f i v e statements continue to be the camp's i d e o l o g i c a l foundation. Bruce Hawkenson also provided Camp Trapping with a logo which was to symbolically express h i s f i v e point philosophy (see figure He created t h i s logo to summarize Camp Trapping's essence i n one concise, e a s i l y recognized image. It s implications are straightforward, the water and trees i n d i c a t i n g a wilderness environment, the sun and h i l l t o p the goal of r e a l i z i n g one's p o t e n t i a l . The two ind i v i d u a l s helping one another up the h i l l express the process of challenge, sharing and cooperation. P h i l Kolbuc, the t h i r d program d i r e c t o r , added the phrase "helping one another help o n e s e l f 0 as a succinct caption which focuses our attention on the process elements of the logo. Problems Inherent i n the Program Design Bruce Hawkenson was very clear i n describing what he thought the program d i d for these boys as a general r u l e . I t was designed to "... shock them out of t h e i r l i n e of thinking. I had to take them away from t h e i r group and give them a r e a l shock treatment i n order to change a l l the patterns and then we'd give them a whole new experience, something to follow. Hopefully, they'd get excited by and dedicated to t h i s new pattern so that i t just might jog them loose from what they were doing." This shock treatment was to be delivered not only through the Figure 1 . 1 - 1 Camp Trapping Logo "Helping one another to help oneself" physical demands and rigorous environment, i t was also to come from the i n t e n s i t y and s i n c e r i t y of the s t a f f ' s involvement and the continual successes the boys experience. But Hawkenson was not b l i n d to the obvious problem that t h i s could create.... "One of the biggest dangers to anyone i s when they have a r e a l good experience and then go into a setting where they can't get that experience -then there's a big letdown. Sometimes i t ' s cruel to give something r e a l l y good because they can't have i t afterwards and they're so d i s s a p o i n t e d , a n d that U t o p i a n society that you set up was so unreal, that when they leave i t they become disappointed and j u s t say " to h e l l with i t , I've t r i e d i t and i t doesn't work". You can't l i v e on a continual shock. It's l i k e an orgasm, i t ' s not good to have i t a l l the time. People just don't wake up singing every morning." Hawkenson was not s a t i s f i e d with the t r a n s i t i o n back into the r e a l world. He knew from the s t a r t that t h i s was problematic yet made a conscious decision to develop the program as i t was, i n h i s opinion, far better than having no al t e r n a t i v e for these boys. The s t a f f attempted to reintegrate the students with discussions about the future, l e t t e r writing home, and v i s i t s from the families and others, but i t was not u n t i l 1977 that an aftercare program was i n i t i a t e d . Without consistent support i n the community, whether i t be from family, friends or professional caregivers, without some-one who wants to share the boys' recounting and analysis of t h e i r Camp Trapping experiences and help apply them to d a i l y l i f e , only the strongest w i l l e d could successfully integrate his new knowledge into h i s old habitat. 30 Further problems existed i n the d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n attempting to express the 'sharing' value. Although the camp provided many opportunities to share, i t was d i f f i c u l t to make the students appreciate the e s s e n t i a l r o l e sharing had i n ensuring an i n d i v i d u a l ' s success. "We emphasized i t a l o t " , said Hawkenson, "but that's a long ways down the l i n e , from exercising a muscle to exercising a s o c i a l muscle. Even most r e l i g i o u s people can't understand that they have to share things with the world. But some of i t did get across. A number of the kids wanted to come back and volunteer t h e i r time at Camp Trapping and that was them wanting to share. But i t was hard to get across; r e a l l y hard." The c r i t i c i s m most often l e v e l l e d at Camp Trapping was that i t appeared to create a dependancy. Some r e f e r r i n g agents f e l t that the boys came out needing Camp Trapping and s u f f e r r i n g from i t s absence. As we have already seen, Hawkenson acknowledges that t h i s occurred and that i t bothered him, as i t n a t u r a l l y would with h i s strong d i s t a s t e for dependency i n general. His only suggestion was that communities must become obligated to work more c l o s e l y with CATS during the weaning process. It was obvious to Hawkenson that the communities needed Camp Trapping. The increased funding and consistent waiting l i s t were evidence of t h i s need. I t had to be as much the .community's e f f o r t s as Camp Trapping's i f t h i s problem of dependancy was to be overcome. Hawkenson l e f t the program i n 1974 and has gone to on p r a c t i s e 31 what he preached. In eight years, he has developed one of the largest and most e f f i c i e n t tree planting operations i n B.C.. He has also gone on to win numerous canoe races. His passion appears to l i e i n constant action and c a t y a l i z i n g change i n his own l i f e . Even now he i s thinking of removing himself from h i s m i l l i o n d o l l a r business to pursue another e x c i t i n g and hopefully l u c r a t i v e business endevour. His new idea i s t y p i c a l l y high r i s k , novel and l a r g e l y unexplored. In continually t r y i n g to grasp for his own p o t e n t i a l , he has long since removed himself from intense involvement with Camp Trapping. Although he has l e f t i t behind, he w i l l never forget the experience "I always look back with extreme fondness at Camp Trapping. I think everybody has a need to act something out i n l i f e - I don't mean l i k e a drama where you're just playing. Camp Trapping was my -I was a missionary - i t was my contribution to t h i s world. I put my heart and soul into i t ; everything I had. I couldn't have given more energy or thought. I t might not have been much but I can look at i t and say that there i s n ' t a single thing I would have done d i f f e r e n t l y . To me i t ' s a great joy and i t s good - to t h i s day i t s good. I'm a proud man because of Camp Trapping." 31a CHAPTER TWO RITES OF PASSAGE - THEORY 32 RITES OF PASSAGE - THEORY I was f i r s t introducted to Camp Trapping i n the summer of 1976. Hired as a counsellor, I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two weeks of s t a f f t r a i n i n g p r i o r to being thrust into an arduous twenty-one day mountain hiking adventure with three other s t a f f members and twelve teenage boys. I t seemed a f i t t i n g introduction to a program that consumed and regulated much of my l i f e f o r the next two years. During those two years my fellow counsellors and I would often speculate about the effectiveness, purposes and design of the program. In the course of these r e f l e c t i o n s , I was reminded of something I had been introduced to through my readings i n the anthropology of r e l i g i o n . Camp Trapping, i t appeared, was very much l i k e what V i c t o r Turner had been r e f e r r i n g to as a r i t e of passage. This concept seemed to provide the only t h e o r e t i c a l perspective that could begin to explain why the idea of Camp Trapping would e x i s t i n the f i r s t place and why i t f e l t so appropriate for the task at hand. Turner had provided me with a set of t h e o r e t i c a l constructs that placed Camp Trapping i n a c u l t u r a l context and helped me to understand why c e r t a i n components of the Trapping experience existed. V i c t o r Turner has written a great deal. There i s no one book theory which synthesizes a l l he has said on t h i s subject. His ideas continue to grow and change, making i t d i f f i c u l t and perhaps 33 inappropriate to attempt to simplify and c o l l a t e a concise Turnerian view of r i t u a l , symbol, and r i t e s of Passage, Nevertheless I have attempted to do t h i s i n order to provide t h i s study with some shape and orderliness. Before presenting my interpretation of Turner's ideas, I must point out that I have a very narrow knowledge of anthropological theory i n general. Turner i s only one of many g i f t e d anthropologists attempting to make sense of patterns of human a c t i v i t y through the study of symbol and r i t u a l . Not a l l anthropologists agree with Turner's conceptualizations and a l l those who agree with him i n general do not necessarily agree with a l l he has written. To do j u s t i c e to anthropology, I should provide c r i t i q u e s of and points of view that d i f f e r from Turner's. I t i s not my intention however to c r i t i q u e Turner's 'doing' of anthropology, or h i s conclusions from an anthropological perspective. I t i s my intent to use what he and a few others have provided i n an attempt to describe and shed some l i g h t on one of the formalized methods our society uses i n i t s attempt to r e h a b i l i t a t e some of i t s more troublesome c i t i z e n s . Rites of Passage The term ' r i t e s of passage' was popularized by the Belgian f o l k l o r i s t Arnold Van Gennep i n 1908. He defined these r i t e s as "Patterns which accompany a passage from one cosmic or s o c i a l world to another" 1. Van Gennep goes on to suggest that every r i t e 34 of passage w i l l be subdivided into a sequential three stage system. The f i r s t stage he c a l l e d p r e l i m i n a l or separation r i t e s . There are designed to remove the p a r t i c i p a n t s from a former state and prepare them for the second or l i m i n a l stage. Rituals of p u r i f i c a t i o n often occur i n t h i s stage. The l i m i n a l or t r a n s i t i o n r i t e s provide a time during which the p a r t i c i p a n t s are suspended between the former status and the status yet to come, or, as Van Gennep puts i t 'he wavers between two worlds' 2. F i n a l l y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s begin to enter the new status by means of a reag-gregation or post-liminal r i t e . Val Gennep uses the term l i m i n a l (from La t i n , limnens - threshold/portal) i n recognition of the frequent use of a door or threshold to symbolize the t r a n s i t i o n point i n ancient r i t u a l . Any of these three stages can be downplayed or emphasized depending on the occasion. In addition, r i t e s of passage can be part of a larger r i t u a l sequence or, i f the trans-i t i o n a l stage i n long enough, can be found within another, broader r i t e of passage. 3. Using Van Gennep as h i s s t a r t i n g point, Turner has expanded and elaborated the concept of r i t e s of passage i n general while paying p a r t i c u l a r attention to the second, or l i m i n a l stage. Before examining what Turner has to say about the r i t e s of passage process, we should f i r s t take note of the types of r i t e s of passage that he has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . There are two. Rites of i n i t i a t i o n or l i f e c r i s i s r i t u a l s are the types with which, we are most f a m i l i a r . These are the ceremonial events marking a group of society's recognition or important times i n an indiv i d u a l ' s development that end a former and begin a new s o c i a l status. B i r t h , puberty, marriage and death are examples of times when r i t e s of i n i t i a t i o n tend ot occur. Entrance into a r e l i g i o u s organization, a street gang, a secret society and graduation from highschool may also be marked by such events. As Turner notes, r i t e s of i n i t i a t i o n not only concern the individuals on whom they are performed but also mark changes i n the relationships of a l l people connected with these i n d i v i d u a l s . 4. Rites of a f f l i c t i o n , the second type of r i t e of passage, are curative. Theoretically, a person need never pass through one although among the Ndembu the t r i b e with whom Turner did most of his early ethrographic research t h i s i s seldom the case. Turner has examined t h i s type of r i t e extensively and maintains that i s rep-resents the major theme i n Ndembu r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Upon manifesting s p e c i f i c disorders or misfortunes (usually concerned with bad luck i n hunting for men and reproductive disorders for women), a s p e c i f i c a f f l i c t i o n i s diagnosed and i t s corresonding curative r i t e prescribed. There are a number of in t e r e s t i n g points concerning these r i t e s which I believe w i l l a id us i n our understanding of Camp Trapping. F i r s t of a l l , though' the disorder's symptom may be ph y s i o l o g i c a l , the disorder's cause i s both s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l . I t i s said to stem from the a f f l i c t e d person's f a i l u r e to perform a s o c i a l l y demanded task associated with the honouring of a deseased ancestor. While t h i s diagnosis provides the rationale f or the r i t e ' s 36 Figure 2.1-1 Context of a Rite of A f f l i c t i o n F a i l u r e Re-diangosis Recognition of irrepr a b l e breech Breach of Custom, convention, harmony. Group and/or i n d i v i d u a l . Symptom-individual i-Diagnosis Rite of A f f l i c t i o n New Rite 1 Temporary or Permanent resolution/cure of breach and symptom. Cult membership Involvement i n future r i t e s Adept 37 performance, the ind i v i d u a l ' s a f f l i c t i o n i n e v i t a b l y occurs simultaneously amidst i n t e r or intra-group discord involving the groups or groups with which the i n d i v i d u a l i s associated. Turner believes that the r i t e of a f f l i c t i o n "becomes a matter of sealing up the breaches i n s o c i a l relationships simultaneously with ridding the patient of h i s pathological symptoms". 5. Socondly, upon the r i t e ' s completion, the patient becomes a c u l t member who can eventually become a practioner or adept of that s p e c i f i c r i t u a l through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n subsequent performances. Cult membership cuts across family and even t r i b a l boundaries. The following diagram i l l u s t r a t e s the general pattern of events sur-rounding a r i t e of a f f l i c t i o n . (See Figure 2.1-1) The Goals, Objectives and Methods of Rites of Passage Rites of passage i s a sub-category of r i t u a l . Although Turner i s somewhat vague i n h i s description of the goals of r i t u a l , he has provided some guidance i n t h i s respect. Thses same goals apply to the more s p e c i f i c type of r i t e we are examining. The goals Turner has i d e n t i f i e d as as follows: 1) communication, 2) control of aggression, 3) bonding, and 4) creation of an idea system concerning g u i l t and conscience. 6. 38 The broadest of these, communication, i s , at f i r s t glance almost too obvious. Turner, however, i s r e f e r r i n g to more than an exchange of information and ideas. He i s , I b e l i v e , r e f e r r i n g to the desire or need to communicate. What i s more, he i s r e f e r r i n g to the transmission of a f f e c t . Given Turner's i n t e r e s t i n 'communitas' (see page 43 ), we would be well advised to think of the word 'communion' and i t s implication of an intimate conversation and a common sharing. For Turner, r i t u a l attempts to control aggression by reaching back to one of the root causes of c o n f l i c t and aggression - the tension between natural drives and c u l t u r a l n e c e s s i t i e s , that i s , between what one wants to do for s e l f g r a t i f i c a t i o n and what one must do to preserve s o c i a l l i f e . S p e c i f i c r i t u a l s , or a common r i t u a l theme i n a given culture w i l l often deal with a more s p e c i f i c form of c o n f l i c t . Among the Ndembu for example* Turner found that the attempts to reduce the tension created by maternal descent and v i r i o l c a l i t y were usually embodied and addressed i n r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . In our own culture the theme may well be based on the tension between i n d i v i d u a l success and freedom and the need for s o c i a l control and s o l i d a r i t y . As a general r u l e , r i t u a l w i l l attempt to control aggression by communicating 'certain universal human values and p r i n c i p l e s upon which a l l must depend to survive and which transcend or preempt s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s . " 7. By appealing to these 'universal' values the r i t u a l practioners hope to transcend and domesticate the destructive, aggresive and d i v i s i v e impulses of individuals and communities so they may become w i l l i n g servants of s o c i a l order. In t h i s sense, control of aggression can be expanded to include the preservation of s o c i a l order, or as Turner puts i t to "nip r a d i c a l deviation i n the bud". 8. According to Turner, 'bonding' often r e s u l t s from overcoming the troublesome d i a l e c t i c and c o n f l i c t between nature and culture and between d i f f e r e n t aspects of culture. Successful bonding w i l l supposedly r e s u l t i n the "creation of a motivated idea system concerned with g u i l t and conscience." 9. Although he has provided us with one of the causes of bonding and one of i t s r e s u l t s , Turner does not provide a d e f i n i t i o n of the term i t s e l f . Funk and Wagnall's provides some ill u m i n a t i o n . A bond, i t states i s a "uniting force or influence...and a voluntary o b l i g a t i o n . " 10. The most obvious implication i s that the paricipants i n a r i t u a l become united to t h e i r society and each other. Within the context of Turner's theory, there i s another form of bonding. I r e f e r here to the property of p o l a r i t y which he ascribes to dominant symbols. Through i n t e r a c t i o n with a dominant symbol, the p a r t i c i p a n t experiences the ideology or value statement of the symbol manifested i n a p y s i o l o g i c a l sensation or r e a l i t y . Thus c e r t a i n values and ideologies are bonded to an ex p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i t y . Bonding, then, most probably relates to connecting the i n d i v i d u a l to his/her society i n general and connecting values to an ex p e r i e n t i a l referant i n the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e . The voluntary nature of bonding should not be ignored. Goal number two, control of aggression, implies 40 an external control for society's benefit whereas goal number three, bonding, implies an i n t e r n a l acceptance of one's allegiance to one's society and one's r o l e i n that society. This leads naturally, as Turner has indicated, to goal number four, "The creation of an idea system concerning g u i l d and conscience." 11. Turner does not include t h i s f i n a l goal i n his system, p r e f e r r i n g to see i t as a r e s u l t of bonding. I believe the two should be seen as d i s t i n c t goals. The phrase "idea system" implies a conscious awareness of a rationale with which the i n d i v i d u a l can j u s t i f y h i s or her behaviour. While bonding many provide the motivation, i t does not necessarily provide a conscious understanding of or a ra t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f or why one i s bonded. By separating the two, I hope to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between f e e l i n g to be a part of a moral world and the a r t i c u l a t e d rationale for being a part of that moral world. Turner sees r i t u a l as "...a device for establishing relationships between men". 12. As such they are pri m a r i l y educative, not i n the sense of aguiring s p e c i f i c technical s k i l l s , but i n the sense of acquiring s o c i a l s k i l l s and s o c i a l place. R i t u a l i s thus a form of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Rites of passage, as a type of r i t u a l , provides i t s own unique shape to t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n process. Objectives of Rites of Passage In current problem solving techniques and curriculum design, 41 the objectives of a process are defined by t h e i r measurability. They are worded i n a manner that connects goals to s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , the products or r e s u l t s of which are quantifiable. For my purposes, 'objectives' w i l l r e f e r to the experiences or sensations that the r i t u a l practioner wishes to induce i n the pa r t i c i p a n t s . We have seen that the o v e r a l l goal of a r i t e of passage i s the transformation of a i n d i v i d u a l or group from one s o c i a l state to another. In the prelim i n a l or separation state, the objective i s the e f f e c t i v e removal of the par t i c i p a n t s from the former state. The intentions here are to make i t very clear that the pa r t i c i p a n t s are no longer what they were, and to introduce the l i m i n a l state, where they w i l l have v i r t u a l l y no status. Although i t i s not always the case, separation i s often compared to or made to represent a state of death, infancy or prenatal existence. Radical changes i n clothing, hygiene, places of residence and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s are a l l common events. The separation stage attempts to remove a l l s t i m u l i considered superfluous to the intention of the r i t e . Turner does not pay much attention to t h i s stage. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine just when i t ends and the second, or l i m i n a l stage, begins. We might expect, however, that without an e f f e c t i v e :separation':"the part-Lcipant would be able to continue indulging i n or r e l a t i n g to his or her old habits and patterns to the detriment of any new learning. The post l i m i n a l or reaggregation stage has also received l i t t l e scrutiny. I t i s designed to reintregrate the pa r t i c i p a n t , complete 42 with, new status, into d a i l y non-liminal l i f e . I t i s also a time when the p a r t i c i p a n t s are integrating t h e i r new ways of thinking, acting and perceiving. They are beginning to s o l i d i f y - through ap p l i c a t i o n -a new perception of themselves, t h e i r society and t h e i r place within i t . Concurrently, the society i s s t a t i n g i t s acceptance of them i n t h e i r new r o l e s . Feasts, celebrations and graduations are just a few of the examples that are f a m i l i a r to us which are used to emphasize t h i s stage. I t may be appropriate to note here that passing through a r i t e does not guarantee a p a r t i c i p a n t f u l l status i n a new r o l e . As we have already seen with r i t e s of a f f l i c t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s new status i s defined more by a c c e s s i b i l i t y to new information, respect and r o l e s . He or she does not automatically become a practioner, but rather a junior practioner or apprentice i n the c u l t i c a c t i v i t i e s . We can safely assume that one does not automatically become anything i n i t s f u l l e s t sense. Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r i t e of passage one begins to become something. The Mid-Stage - L i m i n a l i t y L i m i n a l i t y i s the focus of most of Turner's attention. He has i n f a c t , uprooted the stage from i t s bracketed p o s i t i o n i n a r i t e of passage and transplanted i t into a v a r i e t y of other locations. He has transformed i t from a l i m i n a l stage into a l i m i n a l state. My categories of methods and objectives correspond to the d i s t i n c t i o n of stage and state, the objectives dealing exclusively with the i d e a l 43 state of mind of the liminary while the methods category outlines some of the techniques employed to create the state, i . e . what i s done i n the l i m i n a l stage. Objectives 1. The l i m i n a l state w i l l be the a n t i t h e s i s of the preceeding state. In h i s a r t i c l e on myth and symbol, Turner informs us that l i m i n a l i t y i s the a n t i t h e s i s of what preceeds i t C and the separation stage) and a preparation for what i s to follow. 13. This i s a very straight-forward statement that should provide us with our f i r s t i ndicator of whether or not we are entering l i m i n a l i t y . I f the previous state was, on the whole, one of routine adherence to order, the l i m i n a l state may be chaotic, spontaneous or unpredictable. Although Turner does not point t h i s out, h i s statement also implies that one might expect order i n the l i m i n a l stage i f i t was preceeded by chaos. 2. The Participants w i l l experience a state of communitas. Communitas i s another major focus of Turner's. He also r e f e r s to i t as anti-structure. He uses these terms to describe a r e l a t i o n a l q u a l i t y of f u l l unmediated communication, even communion, between d e f i n i t e and determinate i d e n t i t i e s , which arises spontaneously i n a l l kinds of group situations and circumstances." 14. We f i n d here support for our assumptions concerning communication as a goal of r i t u a l . 44 Turner elaborates. He distinguishes between three types of communitas, 11 spontaneous or e x i s t e n t i a l ; which simply appears to happen; 2) normative, which occurs when someone attempts to codify the spontaneous 1 v a r i e t y i n a set of e t h i c a l precepts and l e g a l r u l e s ; and 3) i d e o l o g i c a l ; once again an attempt to capture spontaneous communitas but t h i s time through the creation of a U t o p i a n blueprint for the reform of society. Turner believes t h i s l a t t e r type i s p r i m a r i l y l i m i n o i d , or l i k e , but not i d e n t i c a l to, l i m i n a l . If one experiences a state of communitas then one should be experiencing a r i c h , meaningful, d i r e c t and sincere communion with others and perhaps with an i d e a l expressed through others. The object, i d e a l , person or group with which one f e e l s t h i s communitas i n a r i t e of passage i s dependent on the objectives and goals of the s p e c i f i c r i t e and the society that has created i t . I t could be a god, the State, your ancestors- or perhaps a l l of the above. 3. The subjects w i l l experience the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of a l l that i s not manifest i n moral, d a i l y l i f e . 15. Turner makes reference to t h i s type of occurance from a number of perspectives. I t i s evident i n his discussion of the mulivo-c a l i t y and p o l a r i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of dominat symbols, the former allowing a number of ideals..and values to speak simultaneously and i n harmony, the l a t t e r connecting these ideals 45 and values to a tangible, e a s i l y understood and emotion-evoking r e a l i t y i n the pa r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e . According to Turner, another r i t e s of passage method which serves objective number three i s paradox. By showing us an harmonious association of elements and/or relationships which would normally be considered incongruent or impossible, we are reminded of and compelled to r e f l e c t on the normal associations and prescribed patterns. F i n a l l y , as normal l i f e i s segmented,differentiated, and often c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , a r i t e w i l l t y p i c a l l y attempt to manifest the existence of an all-pervading and benevolent unity underlying d a i l y l i f e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l explore and s c r u t i n i z e t h e i r society's norms and values. 16. Objective three paves the way for and i s a necessary precondition of objective four. This objective speaks for i t s e l f . I t sets our the p r i n c i p a l task for the parti c i p a n t s at le a s t i n respect to goal number four. Once again, how they do t h i s and what norms and values they s c r u t i n i z e w i l l depend on the p a r t i c u l a r r i t e and society i n question. "The irksomeness of moral r e s t r a i n t w i l l be transformed into a love of v i r t u r e . " 17. Needless to say, t h i s i s a t a l l order. In those s o c i e t i e s where 46 r i t e s of passage have been studied, there i s a continual r e -affirmation of values and r o l e s through r i t u a l and sanctioned l i m i n a l i t y . No one expects a r i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t to be once and forever transformed into a paragon of v i r t u e . What the r i t e s do i s to remind the individuals of the elements of virtuousness and, as importantly, remind them of the benefits and v i r t u r e s of being virtuous. We may suppose that while one i s i n a state of communitas one may temporarily achieve objective f i v e . 6. The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l experience and/or develop a sense of unlimited p o t e n t i a l at l e a s t for the duration of the r i t e . 18. You w i l l have noticed, perhaps, that objectives 3,4, and 5 could e a s i l y be goal statments of public schools i n post-i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . A t r a d i t i o n a l educator would be le s s f a m i l i a r and, perhaps, les s confortable with objectives 1,2, and 6. Along with communitas, objective s i x i s one of the cornerstones of Turner's theory of r i t u a l . I t i s h i s argument against the s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of r i t u a l which sees i t p r i m a r i l y as a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l order, and/or t e c h n i c a l l y i n s t r u c t i v e . According to Turner, r i t u a l i s i n s t r u c t i v e but more importantly, i t i s transductive. By expressing what must be and connecting the p a r t i c i p a n t to i t , the r i t e provides a great sense of power to the i n d i v i d u a l . By removing the boundaries that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a i l y l i f e and place l i m i t s on i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y , the r i t e provides an 47 unlimited sense of p o t e n t i a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . Since he or she i s formless, he or she has the p o t e n t i a l to create a new form out of a multitude of p o s s i b i l i t i e s and then maximize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s contained within the form. I say 'multitude of forms' guardedly a s , paradoxically, t h i s unlimited p o t e n t i a l has l i m i t s , bounded i n part by the r i t e i t s e l f and more completely by the society's d e f i n i t i o n of virtuousness which, i f a l l i s going according to plan, the p a r t i c i p a n t has come to love, thereby no longer seeing i t as an 'irksome r e s t r a i n t " . This freedom and p o t e n t i a l 'to be' may be l a r g e l y symbolic but when compared to the confinements of d a i l y l i f e i t can become a welcome and sought a f t e r release. In Turner's view l i m i n a l i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l ingredient of s o c i a l health. Like a battery charger, l i m i n a l i t y depends on the system i t regenerates. L i m i n a l i t y regenerates a society's members so that they i n turn can regenerate the society which then c a l l s upon periodic moments of l i m i n a l i t y to regenerate i t s members. Without l i m i n a l i t y , the society cannot renew i t s members' commitment and thus maintain i t s own structure. Without the structure however, l i m i n a l i t y could not maintain the society and i t s members at t h e i r more p r a c t i c a l or mundane l e v e l s . In d e - r i t u a l i z e d , p o r t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , l i m i n a l occasions are less l i k e l y to be exclusively c o l l e c t i v e and r e l i g i o u s i n nature. Many c u l t s , U t o p i a n movements, and the counter culture 48 of the 1960's are seen by Turner to be attempts to s t r i v e for l i m i n a l i t y as an end i n i t s e l f . For Turner, a permanent state of l i m i n a l i t y i s both impossible and undesireable as such a system could not maintain i t s e l f . For many of us, the l i m i n a l occasions are provided through a r t , music, drama, play, or membership i n a marginal of subgroup that does not preclude p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the larger society. These situations however are said to be unable to provide the same sense of p o t e n t i a l and bonding. They are l i k e l i m i n a l i t y but not i d e n t i c a l . Turner c a l l s such situations 'liminoid'. Liminoid situations are more i d i o s y n c r a t i c and experimental than the c o l l e c t i v e and well-established l i m i n a l i t y of pre-i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . Where they occur , there i s no longer a society-determined cycle of l i m i n a l i t y and structure. Instead, liminoid situations occur spontaneously i n l e i s u r e time. There i s more choice involved. An i n d i v i d u a l choosing one set of liminoid a c t i v i t i e s may be surrounded by neighbours who each have t h e i r own d i s t i n c t sets of liminoid a c t i v i t y . Where l i m i n a l occasions promote personal change, they also promote maintainance of society's status quo (not necessarily the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ) . Liminoid situations are quite free to, and often do, promote changes i n society's status quo. 49 A desire of need to experience communitas i s at the core of both situations however. They both provide an opportunity for individuals to examine cherished symbols of t h e i r society's by producing a "metalanguage (verbal and nonverbal) for t a l k i n g about the various languages of everyday." 19. When a p r e - i n d u s t r i a l society provides i t s people with communitas, i t w i l l usually be through a system of r i t u a l l y guarded and stimulated l i m i n a l i t y . Post i n d u s t r i a l society appears to allow rather than provide communitas through i d i o s y n c r a t i c liminoid s i t u a t i o n . While there i s more vari e t y and a greater element of choice, there are fewer safeguards available for both the i n d i v i d u a l and the society. 20. The Methods of the Liminal Stage Now that we have some idea of what a p a r t i c i p a n t i s intended to experience i n the l i m i n a l state, we should provide some i n d i c a t i o n of the means by which a r i t e of passage attempts to create that state i n the second or l i m i n a l stage. Any casual r e l a t i o n s h i p between method and objective i s l a r g e l y speculative. Moreover, the methods outlined here must be viewed as a recipe, that i s , t h e i r sum t o t a l may or should r e s u l t i n achieving the desired state (the objectives) and goals whereas,for example performing method number one would not necessarily create any one of the s p e c i f i c objectives. Recipes can be modified by the chef, ce r t a i n ingredients can be l e f t out or added without 50 r a d i c a l l y alterning the outcome. 1. Removal of the status d i s t i n c t i o n s amoung the par t i c i p a n t s f or  the r i t e ' s duration. This method i s f i r s t introduced i n the separation stage. Novices must often shed t h e i r clothing and go about naked or dressed poorly. A l l personal property i s removed. Although t h i s i s done to high-l i g h t t h e i r separation from, and i n a b i l i t y to, depend on a former status, i t also serves to i l l i m i n a t e any obvious status destinctions among the novices themselves. 21. Each p a r t i c i p a n t i s , i n respect to the practioners, the r i t u a l and the values which are presented, i d e n t i c a l and equal. This method may also serve to draw the pa r t i c i p a n t s together, i f not more c l o s e l y than would otherwise be the case, then at l e a s t more quickly. There are fewer b a r r i e r s between them. Bonding and communitas may both be served by t h i s method and i t may also stimulate thought concerning the purpose of status d i s t i n c t i o n s i n d a i l y l i f e . 2. Complete compliance of the par t i c i p a n t s to the practioners' demands and requests. Turner believes that t h i s method goes hand i n hand with method number one. I t i s another means of i l l i m i n a t i n g status d i s t i n c t i o n and denying c r e d i b i l i t y to any former way of being or acting. Both methods one and two are means of taking away a former way of being while simultaneously providing an i d e n t i t y with or bonding to 51 the group of pa r t i c i p a n t s . 3. Physical hardship and endurance. This method along with methods one and two, serves i n part to teach endurance, humility and obedience although Turner believes that the most important function of these three methods i s to "render the p a r t i c i p a n t s down into some kind of human prima materia... beneath a l l accepted forms of status." 22. I believe that i n ad-d i t i o n to t h i s , method three also has the e f f e c t of creating unforgettable i f traumatic experiences that are connected to the key values of the society. Although the experiences themselves may be p a i n f u l or d i f f i c u l t , passage through them i s remembered as a success, as a key to an improved status. One can see the r e l a t i o n here between these methods and the polar nature of symbols. They may not only teach endurance but more importantly, teach the value or benefit of endurance. This may be an appropriate time to mention Turner's b e l i e f that "the body can be regarded as a symbolic template for the com-munication of knowledge." 23. This i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y relevant to the effectiveness of the polar nature of r i t u a l symbols i n general and leads me to the conclusion that, i f Turner's analysis i s correct, r i t e s of passage which, u t i l i z e methods one through three are i n ef f e c t creating a portable symbol for the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In otherwords, when the graduate p a r t i c i p a t e s i n d i f f i c u l t a c t i v i t e s (physical or otherwise), when he i s humbled or finds that he must 52 obey, the s i m i l a r experiences he went through, i n the r i t e of passage w i l l be remembered but i n conjunction with the values which were attached to those r i t e s and with the f e e l i n g of success achieved by passing through the r i t e . These methods then can also be related back to goal number four. 4. Frequent paradoxical si t u a t i o n s , statements and behaviours. The betwixt and between nature of l i m i n a l i t y i t s e l f i s a form of paradox as Turner defines i t , i . e . , the s i t u a t i o n of "being both t h i s and that". 24. He goes on to provide further examples, describing masks and costumes that are both animal and man, and reminding us that pa r t i c i p a n t s are often treated as i f they are androgenous, or neither l i v i n g nor dead. The primary purpose of r i t u a l paradox i s to catalyze a s h i f t i n perspective. Presenting an incongrous r e l a t i o n s h i p i s said to remind the observer or p a r t i c i p a n t of the normal state of that r e l a t i o n s h i p and to stimulate r e f l e c t i o n on the difference between the two situations. Watzlawick et a l believe that paradox i s equally b e n e f i c i a l i n p s y c h i a t r i c treatment. They believe that the presentation of a paradox forces a s h i f t i n perspective, allowing the c l i e n t s to view the vi c i o u s c i r c l e they have entrapped themselves i n , i n a new, creative fashion which often r e s u l t s i n an e f f e c t i v e resolution of the problem. According to Walzawick et a l , paradox as therapy i s a form of second order change. I t i s based on the formual "not 'a'but also 'not not'a'", which forces"... the mind out of the trap of assertion and denial and into the quantum jump to the next higher l o g i c a l l e v e l . . . " 25. 53 In short, paradox as a t o o l of therapy and r i t u a l helps to o b j e c t i f y a l l that i s not manifest i n d a i l y l i f e , one of the c r u c i a l objectives of r i t u a l l i m i n a l i t y . 5. Frequent r e p i t i t i o n of acts, statements, roles and c r u c i a l values. Within a r i t u a l , within each stage of a r i t e of passage, or across a series of r i t u a l s , one i s l i k e l y to f i n d recurrent reference to or use of symbolic acts and r o l e s , c r u c i a l values and key phrases or expressions. Turner believes that there are three major reasons for t h i s . F i r s t l y , these r e p i t i t i o n s contain images, meanings f o r , and models of behaviour that are considered to be e s s e n t i a l c u l t u r a l elements. They must be known and remembered i f the society i s to be preserved. Secondly, the r i t u a l , or a series of r i t u a l s may present these s p e c i f i c images i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n a l patterns, providing the par t i c i p a n t s with examples of t h e i r pervasive u t i l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e . F i n a l l y , Turner, i n agreement with Edmond Leach, believes that the r e p i t i t i o n s serve to compensate the ambiguity created i n symbolic condensations. 26. As we have already mentioned b r i e f l y , symbols speak of many things at once and tend to disolve d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n favour of presenting pictures of a u n i f i e d wholeness. Symbols, i f they are to achieve t h e i r ends, tend to be ambiguous and vague i f one t r i e s to analize them or reduce them to t h e i r vaiour components. 6. The presentation of work as play. 54 Turner documents frequent occurances i n r i t u a l of what we would c a l l play or amusement. This documentation includes such things as joking, game playing, puns and r i d d l e s , gentle tauntings, clowns and the t r i c k s t e r myths. 'Work as play', i s , however, a f a r broader concept, confirmed by Turner's d e f i n i t i o n of play. He describes i t as "experimental behaviour ... any action or process undertaken to discover something not yet known". 27. L i m i n a l i t y encourages play, or conversely, spontaneous, self-motivated play as defined here may produce a state of l i m i n a l i t y or communitas. Turner maintains that there i s a freedom here, fenced, of course, by axiomatic values, to t r y out new ways of behaving, discarding and accepting them at w i l l . This seems to imply that a r i t e of passage w i l l contain occurances of what Canadian educators would c a l l e x p eriential education, or learning programs based on learning through active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one's environment. As one cur-riculum development project describes i t , "There should be a wide range of "doing" opportunities. I t i s through experiences with d i v e r s i t y that basic p r i n c i p l e s are learned and general effectiveness b u i l t " . 28. 7. The establishment and use of r i t u a l symbols. Symbols can be anything (objects, events, persons, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c t i v i t i e s , a period of time) i f "they are regarded by general consent as n a t u r a l l y t y p i f y i n g , representing or r e c a l l i n g , some thing or things by possession of analogous q u a l i t i e s or by assoc-55 i a t i o n i n fa c t or thought". 29. What i s more, Turner believes that r i t u a l symbols express a resolution of two opposing tendancies which are ultimately connected to the opposing tendancies of s e l f g r a t i f i c a t i o n and adherence to s o c i a l control. 30. Symbols have three properties which aid t h i s process. A symbol can represent many things simultaneously, even an en t i r e culture or b e l i e f system. Any one of these meaning can dominate the others depending on the specfic s i t u a t i o n . Turner c a l l s t h i s a symbol's mult i v o c a l i t y . In addition, through analogy or association, normally unrelated a c t i v i t i e s or things can become meaningfully related i n a symbol. This i s referred to as the u n i f i c a t i o n of disparate s i g n i f i c a t a . F i n a l l y , Turner ref e r s to a symbol's polar nature. Each symbol has an o r e c t i c or sensory pole connected to a c l u s t e r of natural and/or p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomena which tend to arouse desires and fe e l i n g s . The i d e o l o g i c a l pole provides referants to morality, s o c i a l order, norms and values. The symbol i s designed to connect these two poles such that the emotional power aroused by the former become associated with the i d e o l o g i c a l values. 31. The meanings a symbol may have are provided by a form of assoc-i a t i o n whether that be analogy, homology, opposition, c o r r e l a t i o n , or transformation 032) and by the dimensions i n which i t operates. There are three dimensions i s o l a t e d by Turner. The exegetic dimension refers to how symbols are described and 56 explained. I t has three semantic foundations: the nominal, or what i t i s c a l l e d ; the substantial, or the c u l t u r a l l y selected natural materials or properties; and the a r t i f a c t u a l , when i t i s an object fashioned by purposeful human a c t i v i t y . The second, or operational dimension ref e r s to what i s done with the symbol, while where and when the symbols come into play i s the t h i r d or p o s i t i o n a l dimension. 32. Turner d i f f e r e n t i a t e s two types of r i t u a l symbol. One i s the operational which i s said to be related to s p e c i f i c goals at s p e c i f i c times i n a r i t u a l . He has not ascribed the three properties of symbol to t h i s v a r i ety. Dominant symbols, on the other hand, possess these properties and w i l l recur throughout a r i t u a l and even a culture. These are the symbols that r e l a t e most strongly to the culture's entire value system. Sherry Ortner c a l l s them key symbols and provides us with three types; summarizing, concept elaborating and action elaborating. 33. Summarizing key symbols are said to synthesize a complex system of ideas and express an entire system at once. They also tend to be catalysts of emotion and/or objects or reverance. Elaborating key symbols work i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . They sort out and make comprehensible various complex and undifferentiated feelings and ideas i n a way that makes them communicable i n actions or words. They are seldom revered, instead they derive t h e i r power and "key" status due to t h e i r frequent occurance. Concept elaborating symbols provide categories for conceptualizing world 57 order usually through a root metaphor that i s able to illuminate s o c i a l or cosmological order. Action elaborating symbols provide key scenarios that formulate a culture's basic means - ends r e l a t i o n -ships i n actable forms, i . e . , a myth describing how one should act or even a r i t u a l that dramatizes the means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p . This may also include r i t u a l i z e d sequences enacted i n everyday l i f e which would not have the obvious dramatic q u a l i t y of a formal r i t u a l . 34. If Ortner i s correct, we not only have symbols i n r i t u a l but also r i t u a l as symbol. In summary, we have seen that symbols, when they are used, are teaching devices that provide values, ideologies, norms, etc., with a tangible and emotionally s i g n i f i c a n t ground. If e f f e c t i v e or ' a l i v e ' , they provide meaningful cognitive categories which help to order the world while simultaneously evoking an emotional attachment to the categories and t h e i r underlying value system. Additional Theoretical Concepts  Soc i a l Drama Turner also provides us with a model of the type of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n which r i t e s of a f f l i c t i o n would take place. Social dramas, as he c a l l s them are categorized by "units of aharmonic or disharmonic s o c i a l process a r i s i n g i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n " . 35. The four main phases of public action i n t h i s drama are: 1) an i n i t i a l breech, of regular, norm-governed s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , 2) a c r i s i s where the breech widens to the point that society i s 58 compelled to act. This stage also has l i m i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 31 redressive action, which i s that point to which r i t u a l or other action would be taken, and 4) reinegration, at which point the breech i s healed or recognized as irrevocable. 36. These scheme i s reminiscent of Van Gennep's, merely adding a category and applying the t o t a l scheme to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s also worth noting that f a i l u r e of the redressive action i s accepted as one of the consequences. What i s more important for the purposes of t h i s study i s that Turner's s o c i a l drama model i s intimately connected with h i s acceptance of Gluckman's assertion that c o n f l i c t w i l l be dealt with, i n t h i s drama-ritual framework within a c i r c u l a r - r e p e t i t i v e s o c i a l system. 37. Gluckman defines t h i s as a system i n which c o n f l i c t s can be resolved "... within the pattern of the system. The i n d i v i d u a l s who are members of the group and the p a r t i e s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p which constitute the parts of the system, change, but there i s no change in the character of those parts or the patterns of t h e i r independence". 38. This i s contrasted to a "changing s o c i a l system" which, allows changes i n the system i t s e l f . Frank. Young finds support for t h i s assertion i n h i s cross-c u l t u r a l examination of i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies. He notes that "dramatization i s the communication strategy t y p i c a l l y employed 59 by s o l i d a r i t y groups i n order to maintain t h e i r highly organized, but a l l tne more vunverable d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n " . 39. Summary Turner 1s t h e o r e t i c a l ruminations have provided us with a r e l a t i v e l y complex system. His work on r i t e s of passage has given us a framework of goals objectives and methods which should help us i n determining whether or not various s o c i a l dramatizations are using a r i t e of passage format - or something akin to i t -to achieve t h e i r ends. We have also been introduced to a theory which maintains that dramatizations of t h i s nature are most l i k e l y to occur i n a s p e c i f i c type of s o c i a l system, one that i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c i n i t s e l f yet promoting change i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. The following chapters w i l l provide a description of a s p e c i f i c microsystem, Camp Trapping. In chapters f i v e and six we s h a l l see i f these t h e o r e t i c a l constructs can help us to understand what i s occurring at Camp Trapping and how i t i s connected to i t s parent society. GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND METHODS CENTRAL TO A: RITE OF PASSAGE according to V i c t o r Turner GOALS OF RITUAL 1. Communication 2. Control of Agression 3. Bonding 4. Creation of a motivated idea system r e _ g u i l t and conscience OBJECTIVES OF RITES OF PASSAGE: The transformation of an individual or group from one state to another. PRELIMININAL -SEPARATION removal of subjects from 1) a former state. introduction to the r i t u a l 2) state. symbolic removal from former state. 3) LIMINAL The subjects w i l l experience a sense of communitas. The subjects w i l l experience the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of a l l that i s not manifest i n normal, day to day l i f e . The subjects w i l l develop and experience feelings of unlimited personal and/or group po t e n t i a l at POSTLIMINAL AGGREGATION - reintegration of subjects into d a i l y l i f e . - acceptance of subjects new state by others i n society at large. least for the r i t e ' s duration. 4) The irksomeness of moral constraint w i l l be transformed into a love of v i r t u e . 5) Subjects w i l l explore and scr u t i n i z e t h e i r s o c i e t i e s norms and values. METHODS physical removal from normal -Removal of status d i s t i n c t i o n s among subjects for s o c i a l environment. r i t e ' s duration. change i n dress, eating habits -Complete compliance of subjects to practioner's sexual status. demands and requests. symbolic death. -Establishment and use or r i t u a l symbols. -Physical hardship and endurance. -Frequent paradoxical situations, statements, behaviours -The presentation of work as play. -Frequent r e p i t i t i o n of acts, statements, symbol use. - not sp e c i f i e d - celebrations, feasts, graduations, b i r t h (symbolic), coming out. ATTRIBUTES OF SYMBOLS. :1 Turner and Ortner Symbols can be objects, events, persons, relationships, a c t i v i t i e s , or a period of time " i f they are regarded by general consent as naturally t y p i f y i n g , representing, or r e c a l l i n g , some things or things by possession of analogous q u a l i t i e s or by association i n fac t or thought". (Turner, Forest of Symbols, page 19.) Types Of Symbols Turner: Operational Dominant Spe c i f i c , related to c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d times, objectives, goals. Synthesizing, a l l embracing. Expressing pervasive and c r u c i a l c u l t u r a l values. KEY SYMBOLS Ortner: Elaborating Summerizing Differen t i a t e and make Synthesize a complex system of communicable s p e c i f i c feelings ideas and express an i n t i r e system and ideas. at once. Are often catalysts of not revered; often repeated. emotion and/or objects of reverence. a) Concept eleaborating provide categories for conceptualizing world order, usually through root metaphors illuminating s o c i a l or cosmological order. b) Action elborating provide key scenarios that formulate the culture's basic means-ends relationships i n acrable rorms. Includes r i t u a l i z e d sequences i n everyday l i f e . 62 ATTRIBUTES OF SYMBOLS ; II Symbols obtain meaning through: analogies homologies oppositions correlations transformations t h e i r dimensions .... Dimensions of Symbols 15. Exegetic: How symbols are described and explained. I t has three semantic foundations i) the nominal, what i t i s c a l l e d , i i ) the substantial, c u l t u r a l l y selected natural materials and properties. i i i ) the a r t i f a c t u a l , an object fashioned by purposeful human a c t i v i t y . 2) The Operational: What i s done with and to a symbol. 3) The P o s i t i o n a l : Where and when symbols are used. 63 CHAPTER THREE WHAT IS SAID - DOCUMENTS 64 Camp Trapping's Relationship to the Community : 3 . 1 Many who are f a m i l i a r with Camp Trapping think of i t as an i s o l a t e d wilderness program involving delinquent boys i n a rugged, spartan and high adventure l i f e s t y l e . While there i s an element of truth i n t h i s image, i t hides the i n t r i c a t e d web of connections Camp Trapping has with the community at large. Cariboo Action Training Society (CATS) i s t h i s web's most es s e n t i a l strand. When Hawkenson f i r s t created Camp Trapping, he was aware of the need for private society status. CATS was formed to s a t i s f y t h i s l e g a l requirement. Under B r i t i s h Columbian law any private treatment resource must be operated under the auspices of a non-profit society registered under the Societies Act i f i t expects to receive government funding and recognition. In i t s early years, Hawkenson viewed CATS as a necessary inconvenience. He made a l l the programming and budgetary decisions. The f a m i l y - l i k e o r i g i n a l structure and the very small budget during i t s early years enabled one person to assume the administrative and therapeutic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In 1982, with a s t a f f of fourteen and a budget of almost 300,000 d o l l a r s per annum, not including the aftercare or CAT house due to open i n the autumn, the administrative duties have become f a r more complex. In addition, public accountability becomes much more essen t i a l when the well-being of t h i r t y - s i x youths and fourteen employees depends on the judicious expenditure of half a m i l l i o n tax d o l l a r s a year. 6 5 A private non-profit society provides the l o c a l community with access to the control and monitoring of any program operating with public funds. Membership i s open to a l l members of the public with the exception of employees and funders. Members can attend meetings, question and c r i t i q u e expenditures, p o l i c i e s and programs, vote on issues and e l e c t the board of d i r e c t o r s . In theory, i t provides the government with an accountable corporate body. According to the current d i r e c t o r , the funders, and every r e f e r r i n g agent with whom I spoke, CATS i s the most e f f i c e n t and commited non-profit society they have every worked with. This reputation i s based on a number of elements. From a f i s c a l stand-point, i t i s conscientious and well managed. CATS i s not viewed as greedy or overly ambitious (empire b u i l d i n g ) . I t has never overspent i t s budget and i s always well audited. CATS members also have a reputation for neither shirking nor overstepping t h e i r r o l e i n respect to the program. Society members do not t r y to control the program, recognizing, as did Hawkenson, that the program d i r e c t o r and h i s s t a f f must f e e l that the program i s t h e i r s i f i t i s to be run e f f e c t i v e l y . In t h i s respect, the Society monitors the program from a values and ethics perspective, demanding only that i t stay within the g u i l d e l i n e s and tone estab-l i s h e d i n the f i v e point Hawkenson 'philosophy". Many so c i e t i e s are infamous for t h e i r i n t e r n a l bickerings and program manipulation. That t h i s does not occur at Camp 66 Trapping is. not too surprizing however, I t i s a small society, i t s membership never more than twenty i n d i v i d u a l s . Within the membership, one can f i n d four former Camp Trapping di r e c t o r s and two former Camp Trapping teachers. In short, the society membership i s aware of the needs of the program through t h e i r former d i r e c t involvement with i t s operation. In addition, members who have not ac t u a l l y worked f or Camp Trapping have often been i n v i t e d and encouraged to j o i n by present or former camp employees. The few who have joined purely out of personal i n t e r e s t have tended to be attracted by the CATS philosophy and aims and have shown no i n c l i n a t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the program. If such an i n c l i n a t i o n did e x i s t , one might assume that the former d i r e c t o r s and teachers i n the society and on the board of d i r e c t o r s provide an e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r to protect the camp from such i n c l i n a t i o n s . The Society i s generally viewed as being supportive of both i t s d i r e c t o r and his employees. The only c r i t i c i s m of the Society i s one agreed on by both i t s members and i t s employees. Individuals from both perspectives f e e l that the program would benefit from the Society's informal involvement with the s t a f f and the camp. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was suggested that society members should make a point of v i s i t i n g the camp more often to o f f e r t h e i r encouragement to both the students and the s t a f f . CAT'S structure i s l i k e any other Society's- A general meeting i s held once a year to e l e c t a board of direc t o r s to a one year 67 term. The board i s responsible for the society's routine work which includes regular l i a s o n with the program d i r e c t o r , the over-seeing of f i s c a l management, endorsement or r e j e c t i o n of proposed program changes, h i r i n g new program d i r e c t o r s as needed and monitoring t h e i r effectiveness, and operating monthly society meetings. The board always works i n close cooperation with i t s program d i r e c t o r and o f f i c e manger. If indepth study or planning i s needed for s p e c i f i c projects, the board can create a committee or task force for these purposes. Such was the case when CATS began to plan and lobby for i t s aftercare home. A quorum of society members must vote t h e i r agreement on any item p r i o r to i t becoming CATS p o l i c y . The society and board meet monthly with the program di r e c t o r who provides a report on the camp a c t i v i t i e s and administration. Other meetings are c a l l e d at need. i ' . ^Aside from providing community involvement with Camp Trapping, CATS i s the camp's o f f i c i a l l i n k to i t s funder, the Ministry of Human Resources (MHR). MHR does not have a mandate to provide f a c i l i t i e s for delinquent youth but i t does have a mandate to provide for or fund programs that provide s o c i a l services to the community which are c h i l d focused. In t h i s respect, Camp Trapping i s i n a rather unique p o s i t i o n , funded as i t i s by an agency that i s not i t s p r i n c i p a l user. MHR's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the foster home program had enabled i t to fund Hawkenson without seeking addi t i o n a l d o l l a r s for i t s 1971 budget. In addition, MHR and the Attorney General's o f f i c e were well aware that they shared many of t h e i r c l i e n t s . A 68 resource f o r one was equally b e n e f i c i a l to the other. As the program gained c r e d i b i l i t y i t retained i t s connections with MHR, although the idea of tr a n s f e r r i n g funding r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Attorney General's corrections branch had been agreed to i n p r i n c i p a l as early as 1977. This transfer has never occured. U n t i l recently t h i s was due pr i m a r i l y to Federal-Provincial cost sharing arrangements under the Canada Assistance Plan which, u n t i l 1978, excluded juvenile correction f a c i l i t i e s from Federal contributions. Rumour of a transfer of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s again i n the a i r , but i s unconfirmed. MHR has never been involved i n d i r e c t evaluation or design of the Camp Trapping progrma. MHR Region Five's Family and Children's Services Coordinator (F&CS) monitors the program informally through obtaining feedback from MHR s o c i a l workers with children i n the program and through consultation with the Prince George Southeast MHR o f f i c e ' s d i s t r i c t supervisor who i s theMinisty's d i r e c t l i a s o n with CATS. The F&CS i s also responsible f o r conducting budget negotiations with the program d i r e c t o r . In the past few years, the i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l Committee on Wilderness programs has, at MHR's request, conducted two evaluations of Camp Trapping. These evaluations were not concerned with the program per se but rather with s t a f f outdoor education competency and with the safety provisions at the camp and on o u t - t r i p s . 69 MHR has two other formal l i n k s with Camp Trapping. Each student who attends the camp must be a c h i l d under the Ministry's care. If t h i s i s not the case p r i o r to the student's attendance, he w i l l become a c h i l d i n care for the camp's duration. As a r e s u l t , every student has, i n theory, a s o c i a l worker responsible for h i s well being. The remaining l i n k i s found i n the Camp Trapping student selec t i o n process. A few weeks p r i o r to each camp, a representative from MHR and one from the Attorney General's juvenile probation branch (AG) meet with the program d i r e c t o r to evaluate the r e f e r r a l s and se l e c t twelve new students. They also select one or two second choices who w i l l be o f f e r r e d a place at the camp i f a space becomes availab l e . The s e l e c t i o n committee i s the only formal recognition of the important role that the AG's regional o f f i c e plays. In actual f a c t every student w i l l have had extensive involvement with a probation o f f i c e r who i s usually the p r i n c i p a l r e f e r r i n g agent and ongoing l i n k with the community at large. The r e f e r r i n g agent, whether a probation o f f i c e r or s o c i a l worker, i s responsible for getting the student to and from the camp, completing the CATS si x month and one year follow-up or evaluation forms, and for securing a l l aftercare arrangements. As most of the r e f e r r i n g agents are probation o f f i c e r s Camp Trapping s t a f f s ' primary l i n k to the s o c i a l service community has become the probation o f f i c e . With the advent of the CAT house, the probation o f f i c e w i l l have i t s f i r s t f i n a n c i a l l i n k with CATS through, i t s purchase of two of the six beds i n the home. 70 Camp Trapping has a d i r e c t l i n k with the. Prince George school d i s t r i c t . In 1982, the special education teacher i t provides worked three and one h a l f days a week at the camp for the duration of the regular school year. The teacher i s o f f i c i a l l y a s t a f f member of one of the l o c a l high schools, from which he obtains any supplies he may need. CATS has nothing to do with the funding of th i s p o s i t i o n although the program d i r e c t o r normally has some say i n the selecti o n of the teacher. The construction trades teacher i s also administered by the school board although the funding f o r the p o s i t i o n has been provided by the Federal government through i t s Job Creation Branch's Local Employment Assistance Program (LEAP). This funding was for a developmental stage only and w i l l not be renewed past September 1982. Current attempts are being made to secure funding from another source. These are the o f f i c i a l l i n k s Camp Trapping has with i t s parent community, although i n theory, Camp Trapping must also conform to the regulations set out i n the Community Care F a c i l i t i e s Licensing Act. There are however, other, less formal l i n k s . The most important of these,.is with the l o c a l p o l i c e , the Prince George RCMP detachment. They are frequently c a l l e d upon to search for and apprehend students who run from the camp (referred to as AWOL). Any student who AWOL's i s i n breech of h i s probation order and i s thus breaking the law. Camp Trapping s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r i l y the Program d i r e c t o r and aftercare coordinator, are frequent v i s i t o r s to the c i t y j a i l where they pick up t h e i r l o s t wards. The 71 p o l i c e are, i n respect to CATS, almost a second l i n e of defence. Camp Trapping students are never forced to stay at the lake but they are made quite aware of the fa c t that i f they run from the camp they w i l l be dealt with by the p o l i c e and courts. The p o l i c e then, have the same r e l a t i o n with Camp Trapping as they do with the rest of the community. Their ever present v i g i l a n c e acts as a deterent and control. The RCMP have another, more relaxed and informal connection. As part of the aftercare l i f e s k i l l s program, an RCMP constable w i l l spend an evening with the boys discussing various aspects of the law and p o l i c e work although the s p e c i f i c focus i s often on the issue of drinking and d r i v i n g . The aftercare program w i l l introduce the students to a number of community resources and perspectives. Each camp w i l l have v i s i t o r s from employers, educators, convicts, handicapped people, victims of crime and r e l i g i o u s leaders. Students usually spend some time at camp learning f i r s t a i d from the St. John's Ambulance and often v i s i t the l o c a l college, the apprenticeship board, the Canada Employment Centre and various i n d u s t r i a l worksites. In each of these situations at l e a s t one community member has volunteered some of h i s or her time to become involved with the students. Camp Trapping has also sponsored or taken part i n long distance runs with community groups, most noteably with the Prince George Roadrunners C a running club) and Canada Forces Base Baldy Hughes. 72 F i n a l l y , we must not forget to mention that family and friends are encouraged to v i s i t the camp on Sunday's a f t e r the f i r s t month of camp and that some counsellors and the aftercare co-ordinator are often i n frequent contact with these families i n an attempt to plan aftercare and explain and promote the Trapping program. We can begin to appreciate that Camp Trapping, f o r a l l i t s i s o l a t i o n and uniqueness, i s intimately connected to the community through a var i e t y of formal and informal channels. Figure 3.1-1 provides a scematic representation of these re l a t i o n s h i p s . 73 Figure 3.1-1 Cariboo Action Training Society's Relationship to the Community The Community Churches, Misc. Govt. Agencies C i t i z e n s , Convicts, Employers, Unions, Service Groups.  Attorney General Ministry of Human Resources! Funding (CAP) Federal Government Funding (LEAP) School I Board I R.C.M.P.I Student's Families Society and Board Members Informal inro. giving, involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n .  P u b l i c i t y - radio, T.V., newspaper Services & supplies  Rehab of community members, placement (security) employment, cash flow.  Funding (Cat House) Referral & Selection and Aftercare Control of Students Evaluation & funding (Camp Trapping and Cat House  Placement Resources, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of c l i e n t s , assessment. Academic teacher and supplies. ' LEAP Vocational Teacher & Equipment and supplies. Control & apprehension of students, information and i n s t r u c t i o n . Placement resource, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .of c l i e n t s , assessment.  Referral, s e l e c t i o n , aftercare. V i s i t s to camp, involvement i n aftercare B I 0 N R A ^ 1 Rehab , emporary r e s p i t e , problem solving.  I S 0 C I E T Y N G 74 Cariboo Action Training Society - Internal Structure: 3.2 CATS and Camp Trapping are h i e r a r c h i c a l . At the top, the society members have, i n theory, ultimate control of the Camp Trapping program. They e l e c t the board members who i n turn, hire the program d i r e c t o r . In actual f a c t , the program d i r e c t o r holds the most powerful and responsible p o s i t i o n . Through h i s recommendations, the d i r e c t o r can often ensure that even h i s successor w i l l be of hi s choosing. CATS has never hired a program di r e c t o r who has not worked i n a counselling p o s i t i o n at the camp. One former d i r e c t o r , though he spent two years at the camp as i t s teacher, spent the f i r s t month of hi s di r e c t o r s h i p as a counsellor i n order to f u l f i l l t h i s unwritten law. The Program Director The program d i r e c t o r i s responsible for the t o t a l operation of the camp. He must h i r e , supervise and dismiss a l l employees with the exception of the business coordinator who i s also hired by the board. With the help of the business coordinator, he must prepare the yearly budget and negotiate i t s settlement with MHR. The dire c t o r i s also responsible for the proper and e f f i c i e n t use of a l l operational and c a p i t a l assets. He must ensure that proper care and guidance i s provided to each student and that the s t a f f are appropriately trained. The di r e c t o r i s ultimately responsible for program implementation and 75 development, and l i a s o n with the public and government agencies. While i t i s not part of the job description, the d i r e c t o r w i l l i n e v i t a b l y spend as much time as possible i n i n t e r a c t i o n with s t a f f and students at the lake. He chairs the weekly s t a f f meeting and w i l l t r y to stay overnight at the camp at le a s t once every two weeks. I t i s also not uncommon to see the program d i r e c t o r on at lea s t one o u t - t r i p each camp. The maintainance of s t a f f rapport, s h i f t consistency and s t a f f morale are perhaps the d i r e c t o r ' s most c r u c i a l duties. I f the s t a f f do not f e e l h i s support, i f he does not encourage and c r i t i q u e t h e i r ideas for program inovation and implementation, a i d i n the resolution of i n t e r - s t a f f and staff-student c o n f l i c t then the program w i l l be i n serious jeporady. No matter how e f f i c i e n t l y the f i n a n c i a l , physical plant and l i a s o n duties are performed, Camp Trapping would collapse i f i t s s t a f f were not properly cared f o r . During my short stay at the camp the d i r e c t o r made, on average, two t r i p s weekly to the camp i n addition to h i s regular attendance at the weekly s t a f f meeting. He would often be at the lake well into the evening, whether i t was to resolve some s t a f f c o n f l i c t , attend an evening session, or personally interview and counsel p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome students. He was always on c a l l and had to pick up or take students to c e l l s a f t e r regular working hours on a number of occasions. Although counselling s t a f f had been staying at Camp Trapping for an average of one and a h a l f years since Mr. R a i l began his direct o r s h i p , he was often interviewing prospective counsellors and 76 making arrangements to ensure that the proper s t a f f compliment was always maintained. As we sat down to a formal interview one day i n March, he noticed that I was j o t t i n g down basic i d e n t i f y i n g information at the top of the interview schedule. "Put 'married' beside that one" he had said i n reference to the 'relationship to Camp Trapping 1 category. Although, i t was off e r r e d i n j e s t , h i s comment i s not far from the truth. In f a c t , employment at Camp Trapping i s generally considered to be rather r i s k y for a married i n d i v i d u a l . Employees normally become t o t a l l y involved i n the program, and few i f any spouses of Trapping s t a f f have avoided f e e l i n g at lea s t temporarily resentful of the program i f t h e i r mate has stayed with i t for any length of time. The Business Coordinator Of a l l the CATS s t a f f i n g p o s i t i o n s , t h i s i s the most o f f i c e bound. Although the duties may require occasional t r i p s to Trapping Lake, most of the business coordinator's time i s spent carrying out the administrative i n t r i c a c i e s of bookkeeping, purchasing, inventory control and a l l the s e c r e t a r i a l duties. The business coordinator i s , nevertheless, i n constant contact with s t a f f and students a l i k e . I t i s a rare day that you would not be able to fi n d a counsellor or student s i t t i n g comfortably beside the co-ordinator's desk t a l k i n g at length about the joys and t r i a l s of Trapping l i f e . The current coordinator, Ms. Olson, has been with 77 CATS longer than any other employee. Since 1977 she has worked with three program d i r e c t o r s , f i v e aftercare coordinators and scores of counsellors. The p o s i t i o n i s one of three without formal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to counsel or d i r e c t students. This r e l a t i v e l y neutral designation seens to allow a more relaxed r e l a t i o n s h i p between herself and the students. In a sense, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not unlike the joking or casual relationships many so c i e t i e s make a habit of providing i n at l e a s t one kinship category. The caretaker and the cook share t h i s relaxed, nonparental r o l e . The Caretaker The caretakes i s responsible for the maintainance of a l l buildings equipment and machinery necessary f o r the d a i l y functioning of the camp. This includes the power plant, the crawler t r a c t o r , the f u e l supplies, chainsaws, hand tools and b u i l d i n g supplies. If b u i l d i n g repairs are necessary he w i l l coordinate the work. The caretaker i s i n d a i l y contact with the students and often has one or two of them working at h i s side. I t i s not h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y however to monitor t h e i r behaviour. Although students are aware that counsellors w i l l ask him i f student performance i s acceptable, they are also aware that h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to the task at hand rather than to the student- Although he may 78 exert authority, he i s seldom viewed as an authority figure and i s thus able to maintain a more relaxed r e l a t i o n s h i p with the students. The Cook The cook has a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Like the caretaker, she works a normal eight hour day, f i v e days a week and does not sleep at the camp. Both of them drive i n from the nearby town of Hixon every morning. Both, have held t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f o r over three years. The cook has a student assistant who i s scheduled to work i n the kitchen for week long s h i f t s . Each student w i l l work i n the kitchen at l e a s t once during t h i s stay. With no d i r e c t monitoring r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , she i s usually able to e s t a b l i s h a comfortable rapport with the students, although, once again, the students are aware that the counsellors w i l l ask for her comments i n respect to student behaviour. Although i t can be hard work, most students look forward to t h e i r kitchen duty as a welcome respite from the more controlled environments of the worksites and the schoolroom. The cook i s responsible for preparing three meals d a i l y from Monday to Friday and for inventory control of a l l foodstuffs. The Aftercare Coordinator This i s perhaps the most unique and vaguest of Camp Trapping s t a f f postions. The job was created i n 1977 i n recognition of the d i f f i c u l t y most r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n graduates have i n trans-79 s f e r r i n g t h e i r newly acquired knowledge and behaviour back to t h e i r regular community. The ACC has become responsible for designing and implementing a l i f e s k i l l s component of the Trapping program that includes exposure to a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t community per-spectives, job search techniques and discussions concerning s p e c i f i c problem areas such as alcohol and drug abuse. The ACC i s also responsible for assessing student aspirations and opinions on a v a r i e t y of issues. This information i s shared with the counsellors and r e f e r r i n g agents, helping the counsellors to focus on s p e c i f i c problem areas and the r e f e r r i n g agents to plan for aftercare arrangements. The ACC i s not systematically involved with graduates as he must always focus on the students i n attendance. Camp Trapping graduate evaluations are conducted by the ACC who requests and analyzes the s i x month and one year follow-up questionnaires he receives from the r e f e r r i n g agents. Although he i s not d i r e c t l y responsible for s t a f f supervision, i t i s his duty to observe s h i f t continuity and to share these observations with the s t a f f . In addition, the ACC assumes the d i r e c t o r ' s r o l e i n h i s absence. On average, the coordinator spends two nights each week at the camp. This p o s i t i o n w i l l soon be s i g n i f i c a n t l y altered. With the advent of the aftercare home, the program d i r e c t o r w i l l become the executive d i r e c t o r s to CATS, the aftercare coordinator w i l l become the camp's d i r e c t o r and the CAT House w i l l be operated by a house 80 d i r e c t o r . The ACC's duties w i l l become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Camp Trapping d i r e c t o r . The Counselling Staff There are seven r e h a b i l i t a t i o n counsellors. One of these i s a r e l i e f . counsellor. While his duties are i d e n t i c a l to those of the other counsellors, h i s s h i f t i s f l e x i b l e . He or she w i l l be required to stand i n during a counsellor's absence or perhaps become a fourth s t a f f member i f there i s a p a r t i c u l a r i l y s t r e s s f u l time at the camp. The r e l i e f s t a f f w i l l never have to work more hours per camp than would be required of a s h i f t counsellor. The remaining s i x counselling positions are divided equally between two s h i f t s . At the present time each s h i f t has one female and two male counsellors. They are the backbone of the Trapping program. As a u n i t , each s h i f t must contain s k i l l s that range from expertise i n wilderness t r a i n i n g and s u r v i v a l to expertise i n group therapy and therapeutic design. Each counsellor must be p h y s i c a l l y f i t and have some wilderness experience as they are required to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s they provide for the students. A s h i f t runs for one week, beginning at noon each Monday, h a l f -way through the weekly s t a f f meeting. While at the camp, each counsellor i s on duty twenty-fours hours a day and eats, sleeps, and works with the students. A counsellor must be able to cut firewood with a swede saw for a f u l l work day, p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l 81 recreational a c t i v i t i e s including the morning run, ingage i n i n d i v i d u a l counselling sessions and c r i s i s intervention at any time, administer the behaviour modification program, p a r t i c i p a t e i n the evening group sessions and plan and implement ou t - t i p s . That i s not to say that a l l these events occur d a i l y , merely that the counsellors must be prepared to do them as required. Each counsellor i s designated as a key counsellor for a maximum of four students. She or he must prepare two reports each camp on these four, which normally involves e s t a b l i s h i n g a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with each of them. Each student has one key counsellor on each s h i f t . There i s no consistent s h i f t coordinator. Instead, each day one of the counsellors i s selected to act as the counsellor of the day (COD). As the COD, i t i s the counsellor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to coordinate the days events, assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n an emergency, make a l l f i n a l decisions and monitor the behaviour modification program. The counsellors are responsible for d e l i v e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the program on a d a i l y basis. As such they are responsible for the students' well being. They must ensure that the students l i v e and work i n a safe environment while simultaneously providing the challenges and motivations necessary to encourage the students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n camp l i f e . Their d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n with the students, t h e i r demand for work and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r administration 82 of the chart system and t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y for and encouragement of close personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s ensure that the counsellors w i l l receive the most intense emotional response from the students. As a r e s u l t , the counsellors are constantly involved i n emotionally draining interactions of a p o s i t i v e and negative nature as they develop these r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the students. Each counsellor attempts to develop these r e l a t i o n s h i p s through a genuine expression of her or h i s own personality as an i n t e r -pretation of Trapping's 'personality'. Although there i s a core program of therapeutic techniques and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , each counsellor i s responsible for t r a n s l a t i n g and/or improving that program through t h e i r own unique s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and perspectives. If a counsellor i s a g i f t e d musician, music lessions and sing alongs may become a part of the program. If a counsellor has geological or botanical expertise the students may be o f f e r r e d t r a i n i n g i n these areas. If a counsellor i s boisterous and gregarious she w i l l be encouraged to express the program i n a boisterous and gregarious fashion. A quiet and r e f l e c t i v e counsellor would be encouraged to express the program i n a way which w i l l not contradict or clash with h i s more subuded personality. Whatever t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n , a counsellor's expression of the program should be unaffected and genuine. I t i s the most emotionally demanding p o s i t i o n i n the program. If a counsellor i s not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g with the students and her fellow workers i t becomes evident immediately. Other 83 counsellors f e e l the stress of carrying an additional load while students become rese n t f u l at the lack of involvement they f e e l . Each counsellor i s under constant scrutiny from h i s colleagues and the students and there i s thus a constant pressure to perform consistently to the best of one's a b i l i t y . Counsellors on opposite s h i f t s are given the opportunity to work with one another through a complicated system of mid-shift change overs where one counsellor from each s h i f t exchange posi t i o n s . In the course of a year, each counsellore should have had the opportunity of working on both s h i f t s . This i s arranged i n an attempt to avoid s h i f t inconsistency, to improve s t a f f rapport, and to minimize the a b i l i t y of the students to play one s h i f t o f f on the other (students often attempt to gain p r i v i l e g e s or sympathy from one s h i f t by complaining about the cruelty or e x t o l l i n g the generosity of the other). The Alternate Education Teacher School D i s t r i c t 57 (Prince George) funds t h i s p o s i t i o n . The teacher i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y under the supervision of a Prince George highschool p r i n c i p a l . In actual f a c t , the Camp Trapping d i r e c t o r supervises the p o s i t i o n and attempts to have input i n the h i r i n g process. The teacher works from September to June and i s responsible for providing an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d academic program for each student. In addition, he may i n s t r u c t such s k i l l s as wilderness safety, environmental awareness of any other area i n which he may have 84 expertise. He and the aftercare coordinator often share the. r e s p o n s i b l i t y of presenting the job f i n d i n g s k i l l s package. The teacher must p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l aspects of the program. He works from noon Monday to Thursday afternoon of each week, taking h a l f the students each morning and h a l f each afternoon except on Mondays which are reserved for s t a f f meetings. The Construction S k i l l s Teacher This i n d i v i d u a l has the same weekly and yearly schedule as the alternate education teacher. Although the school board's special services section administers the funding of t h i s p o s i t i o n , super-visory authority rests with the camp's program d i r e c t o r . The Construction Trades teacher i s responsible f o r teaching proper work and safety habits and providning s k i l l development i n a v a r i e t y of consturction trades centred around basic carpentry. His program attempts to duplicate a t y p i c a l worksite and even accomodates the f i r i n g of students for the day i f they do not work to the teacher's s a t i s f a c t i o n . Both teachers are i n a p o s i t i o n of authority i n respect to the chart system and student behaviour. They are required to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l the program a c t i v i t i e s of a regular week and often accompany students and counsellors on out-tips. One could describe them as s p e c i a l i z e d counsellors, hired to operate a s p e c i f i c program component but also required to p a r t i c i p a t e i n 85 every other aspect of camp l i f e . The only r e a l difference between themselves and other counsellors l i e s i n t h e i r teaching duties, other than the f a c t that they get the weekends and summers o f f . They each plan t h e i r own programs but must be f l e x i b l e enough to accomodate d a i l y program changes, unexpected events, out-trips and emergency work programs a l l of which may take some, i f not a l l , of : t h e i r students from them for varying lengths of time. ************************* These fourteen positions comprise the t o t a l CATS s t a f f . The counsellors, aftercare coordinator and program d i r e c t o r are those most d i r e c t l y responsible f o r the smooth operation of the t o t a l program as i t r e l a t e s to the students although the teachers have si m i l a r but more sp e c i a l i z e d r o l e s . The three support s t a f f p o s i t i o n s , while allowing a great deal of contact with the students, are not vested with any d i r e c t authority over the students, and are thus able to allow a more relaxed and casual r e l a t i o n s h i p with them. 86 CAMP TRAPPING SCHEDULES ; 3 . 3 Camp Trapping does not operate on a continuous intake format. New students enter and leave as a group, staying together for the duration of a camp. The only v a r i a t i o n to t h i s pattern r e s u l t s when selected students are removed from the program. If t h i s occurs early i n a camp a replacement i s found. As a general r u l e , any student that has been removed from a camp for other than medical reasons w i l l most l i k e l y return to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the next camp. Prio r to 1977 a v a r i e t y of yearly scheduling formats were explored, with camps ranging from one month Cwilderness only) to ten months i n length. In 1977 the program d i r e c t o r decided to e s t a b l i s h and maintain a schedule that conformed to a regular high school year. This schedule was designed to allow Camp Trapping graduates a less traumatic re-introduction to school should they wish to return, allowing them the opportunity to enter the education system at the beginning of a semester without lengthy delays. As a r e s u l t , Camp Trapping now o f f e r s three programs, or 'camps' each year, beginning i n September, February, and July. The two f i v e month programs are reserved for those youths who are considered most at r i s k to themselves and the community. The two month summer program i s offe r r e d as a preventitive program for those youths who are j u s t beginning to exhibit delinquent dendancies. The average age of t h i s group hovers around fourteen whereas the average age i n the f i v e month programs i s i n the f i f t e e n to sixteen year range. 87 The longer programs are, on average, eighteen weeks i n duration, the summer program l a s t s seven to eight weeks. The remaining eight weeks of the year are divided unequally between each camp and are used p r i m a r i l y for s t a f f t r a i n i n g , program planning, and as a b r i e f r e s t from involvement with the students. At the end of the spring 1982 camp the s t a f f had one week of holidays p r i o r to two weeks of t r a i n i n g and planning sessions. Training and Planning Sessions These sessions often include a c r i t i q u e of the camp that has j u s t ended. I f s p e c i f i c program areas have been problematic, new approaches are suggested and perhaps incorporated into the program. The e n t i r e s t a f f (except the support s t a f f ) then designs the basic outline of the next camp. I f possible, each employee w i l l indicate when or i f they plan to take holidays or professional development time and the schedule w i l l be adjusted accordingly. As a general rule s t a f f are hired and resign during these between-camp breaks. The weeks for o u t - t r i p s , the aftercare l i f e s k i l l s program and the students t r i a l week at home w i l l be designated. Normally the lo c a -t i o n and nature of the f i r s t o u t - t r i p w i l l be chosen and preparation for i s i n i t i a t e d . Staff t r a i n i n g serves a dual purpose. More often than not at l e a s t one new counsellor w i l l have to be introduced to the program. Although most new counsellors have already spent a t r i a l week at an e a r l i e r camp, and although t h e i r r e a l introduction to the 88 program w i l l not begin u n t i l the students a r r i v e , they must be provided with a general introduction to the rul e s , proceedures and operating s t y l e . The other aspect of t r a i n i n g involves s t a f f development. While t h i s does not always occur, s t a f f may be introduced to one or more new therapeutic techniques or p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s k i l l development workshop. On one occasion the s t a f f toured a number of resources si m i l a r to Camp Trapping to see the types of programs and therapeutic techniques used by other r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n settings. Camp Schedules Each camp does not follow an i d e n t i c a l pattern yet the percentage of time spent i n camp and on ou t - t r i p s remains r e l a t i v e l y constant. Four weeks, or just under twenty-five percent of a f i v e month pro-gram i s set aside for out-tripping. The aftercare l i f e s k i l l s program takes approximately ten interspersed days of a camp's time not including interviews and evening sessions. One week i s set aside towards the end of a camp f o r student home v i s i t s . The remaining eleven weeks are spent carrying out the d a i l y and weekly camp routines. The two month summer program i s almost equally divided between o u t - t r i p and in-camp routine, four weeks hiking or canoeing and four at the camp. The o v e r a l l outline for the Spring 1982 camp was as follows: 89 February 9-15 February 22 March 1 15 22 March A p r i l June 29 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 1 7 15 Intake and ori e n t a t i o n 22 F i r s t o u t - t r i p Cskil March. 1 Regular program plus t e s t i n g and interviews 8 Regular program 22 Regular program 29 Regular program and f i r s t day of l i f e s k i l l s program. A p r i l 5 Regular program plus LSP 12 Second o u t - t r i p (ski). 19 Regular program plus LSP 26 as above May 3 as above 10 Working o u t - t r i p to Nakusp 17 Two regular days plus f i v e days of home v i s i t s 23 One and a h a l f days home, remainder regular plus LSP 31 Regular program 7 Regular program 14 Regular program, marathon, graduation During the f i r s t three weeks students are normally introduced to a l l aspects of the program. The f i r s t week w i l l emphasize a s t r i c t adherence to work and chore schedules and w i l l introduce evening sessions and charts. The second week's o u t - t r i p w i l l often be to quite an i s o l a t e d area and w i l l be used by the counsellors to begin developing a more relaxed and intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p with the students. Often both s h i f t s w i l l be involved i n a l l or part of t h i s 90 o u t - t r i p . In the t h i r d week, the aftercare coordinator begins h i s intake interviews, meeting with each student separately i n an attempt to ascertain t h e i r opinions and feelings about t h e i r f a m i l i e s , Camp Trapping, drugs, s e l f growth, future plans and past experiences. The academic s k i l l s teacher i s also conducting h i s i n i t i a l t ests to determine each student's l e v e l of academic a b i l i t y . The construction trades teacher also introduces h i s program at t h i s time. From t h i s time on, the d a i l y program follows the regular format that i s outlined i n the next few pages. Graduation day i s normally the l a s t day of camp. Parents and r e f e r r i n g agents are i n v i t e d , as are some of the spe c i a l l e c t u r e r s and v i s i t o r s the camp has had. A large banquet i s prepared and trophies and graduation c e r t i f i c a t e s are provided for each student. Most of the trophies focus on some p o s i t i v e but humourous aspect of each student's stay at the camp although there i s also a trophy for 'most improved camper'. Students are taken home aft e r the banquet by t h e i r parents or guardians although there are occasions when a student i s taken to his home by one of the counsellors. Within t h i s eighteen week schedule, excluding o u t - t r i p weeks, the weekly schedule remains r e l a t i v e l y constant. From the s t a f f ' s perspective a week begins at noon Monday and ends sometime i n the late afternoon on the following Monday. Although students generally view the s t a f f change as the beginning of a new week, the chart and reward system ends on a Friday night and begins on the following morning. 91 A Camp Trapping Week On Mondays, the students are always involved i n general maintainance duties which could include firewood cutting, camp and vehicle clean-ups and b u i l d i n g or road re p a i r s . In the a f t e r -noon they are l e f t l a r g e l y unsupervised while the entire counselling s t a f f meets to discuss the past week's events and each student's progress, Evenings are devoted to free time, group sessions and in d i v i d u a l chart sessions. From Tuesday morning u n t i l l a t e Thursday afternoon the students are divided into two groups,one of which works i n the shop while the other i s at school. In the afternoon the two groups switch. One student i s always working i n the kitchen i n the mornings and there are usually one or two students working with a counsellor or the caretaker on some maintainance task. On Monday, Wednesday and Friday s t a f f and students take a mandatory sauna between four and f i v e P.M.. During the same time on Tuesday and Thursday everyone must be involved i n some form of recreation. Each student can choose hi s own l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y but i t must be approved by a counsellor. Every evening except Saturday, unless many students are away, students and s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e i n what i s known as the 'evening session', a form of group therapy l a s t i n g at l e a s t f o r t y minutes an evening. This session w i l l be followed by an i n d i v i d u a l chart session for a l l students on or below Level I of the behavioural modification program (see an explanation of t h i s system). Every Friday evening a f t e r the 92 group session a l l those on Levels II and III w i l l have t h e i r own meeting i n the kitchen to determine by consensus who i n these l e v e l s has earned what rewards and whether or not t h e i r personal contracts have been honoured during the week. On Saturday, a l l those students who f a i l e d to make the run more than once i n the preceeding week must run again. A l l those who f a i l e d to earn t h e i r way to town must stay behind and work at the camp. Those who earned t h e i r town t r i p go to Prince George with one or two counsellors l a t e Saturday morning. In town they do the camp laundry, p a r t i c i p a t e i n group sports, take any earned free time, have a restaurant meal and see a movie. They usually return to the camp around 10:30 p.m. Sunday i s a free day except f o r those who have earned s i x t y -eight points or l e s s . These unfortunates must work i n the morning. The other students can sleep i n but must be up by 11:00 a.m. i f they want brunch. Family and friends are encouraged to v i s i t i n the afternoon and a group session i n held i n the evening. Voluntary saunas are not uncommon on the weekends. The residents prepare a l l t h e i r own meals on the weekends. A Camp Trapping Day Although the nature of the work varies from Monday to Friday, i t i s a l l performed within the same d a i l y schedule. The weekend schedule has already been sketched. 93 One or two counsellors w i l l get up shortly before 6:45 a.m. every weekday morning. They w i l l then wake up the other residents. Everyone must have t h e i r beds made and closets t i d i e d by 7:00 a.m. at which time the group moves en mass to the school/recreation b u i l d i n g for ten minutes of warmup exercises. At 7:10 a.m. a l l who are p h y s i c a l l y able, begin the four mile run. This must be completed nonstop i n under f o r t y - f i v e minutes. By 8:00 a.m. everyone must be cleaned and dressed for breakfast which i s served between eight and eight t h i r t y . Morning chores are completed between 8:30 and 9:10 at which time the work, school and vocational programs begin. There i s normally, but not always, a f i f t e e n minute coffee break sometime each morning. Lunch begins at noon and the mid-day chores are completed by 1:10 p.m.. Work, school and construction s k i l l s continue i n the afternoon although the students involved i n each a c t i v i t y may have changed. At 4:00 p.m. work ends and, depending on the day, either the sauna or recreation period begins. Shortly a f t e r supper and evening chores the evening group session begins. It's maximum length i s l e f t open but the session seldom l a s t longer than an hour. When the group session ends, the i n d i v i d u a l chart sessions begin for those who are s t i l l ' on charts '. Those who are not have the r e s t of the evening as free time. By 9:30 everyone must be i n the bunkhouse preparing for bed. The residents are i n bed by 10:00 p.m. at which time the power plant i s shut o f f . The day usually ends with a counsellor or student reading aloud from a novel or short story as the others slowly d r i f t into sleep. This format i s s u r p r i s i n g l y consistent but by no means inv a r i a b l e . 94 Counsellors have been known to stay up well past ten as they q u i e t l y make l a s t minute preparations f o r an o u t - t r i p or some other a c t i v i t y , and there are also times when the evening w i l l end with a campfire and weiner roast that l a s t s past the regular bedtime. Daytime a c t i v i t y also varies to accomodate special guests, e s s e n t i a l work projects and t r a i n i n g for the marathon run, which involves runs of eight to twenty miles. The d a i l y schedules are a l l posted on large sheets of paper tacked to the bunkhouse wall. Figure 3.3 :1 approximates these schedules while figure 3.3:2 summarizes the type of events that occupy t y p i c a l Camp Trapping days. 95 Figure 3.3=1 Daily Schedule Wake ups: Monday to Saturday 6:45 a.m. Sunday 7:45 a.m. for those who have to work Morning Exercise: Calisthenics and run Monday to Saturday Sunday 7:00 - 8:45 a.m. No exercise Breakfast and Chores: Morning A c t i v i t i e s : Sunday Mid-day meal and chores: Monday to Saturday Sunday (Brunch) Afternoon A c t i v i t i e s : Monday to Saturday Sunday: l e i s u r e time 1:00 Late Afternoon: Monday to Saturday 4:00 4:00 Evening Meal and chores: Monday to Saturday Sunday 8:00 - 9:10 a.m. 9:10 - noon 10:45 a.m. 8:00 noon - 1:10 p.m. 11:00 - 1:00 p.m. 1:10 - 4:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m. (Sauna Day) 5:30 p.m. (Recreation Day) 5:00 - 6:30 p.m. (Sauna Day) 5:30 - 7:00 p.m. (Recreation Day) 5:30 - 7:15 p.m. Evening session, charts, and l e i s u r e time: From the end of evening chores to 9:30 p.m. 96 Quiet time and ready for bed: A l l days Lights out and story time A l l days 9:30 - 10.;00: p,m. 10:00 p.m. 97 Figure 3_3s2 Basic Weekly A c t i v i t i e s Monday: Maintainance work Staff meeting and s h i f t change Sauna, evening session and charts Tuesday: School, contruction s k i l l s and maintainance work Recreation, evening session, charts Wednesday: School, construction s k i l l s and maintainance work Sauna, evening session and charts Thursday: same as Tuesday Friday: Maintainance work Sauna, evening session, charts, Level I I meeting Saturday: At camp; maintainance and cleanup work, charts In town; laundry, recreation, free time, restaurant, movie Sunday: Sleep i n for a l l those earning sixty-eight or more points, maintainance work i n the morning for those earning l e s s than sixty-eight points. Leisure time, v i s i t o r s day, session and charts 98 THE THERAPEUTIC MILIEU AND TECHNIQUES AT CAMP TRAPPING: 3.4 Bruce Hawkenson has described Camp Trapping's 1971 program as consisting of a blend of recreation/physical t r a i n i n g , out-tr i p p i n g , hard physical labour, maintainance functions and establishing a strong family f e e l i n g or camaraderie Cariboo Action Training S o c i e t y 1 s program has expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d since t h i s i n i t i a l conceptualization. One can now i s o l a t e six d i s t i n c t subprograms. With the addition of the aftercare home there w i l l be seven. The six subprograms are: o u t - t r i p s ; school; construction s k i l l s ; the aftercare program; the alternate program; and the core program which includes work, maintainance, chores, the behaviour modification component and the d a i l y run. Within the t o t a l program the s t a f f employ a number of s p e c i f i c therapeutic techniques which w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n section The Out-trips There are f i v e types of o u t - t r i p at Camp Trapping: cross country s k i i n g / winter camping; hiking and backpacking; canoeing, urban s u r v i v a l ( v i s i t s to large metropolitan areas); and working ou t - t r i p s . The f i r s t three of these types are a l l v a r i a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l wilderness adventure model that one commonly associates with, organizations l i k e Outward Bound. Camp Trapping, however, 99 i s not authorized to involve i t s students i n white water canoeing, ice climbing or rock climbing that would necessitate the use of ropes, r a p p e l l i n g , etc.. Even without these high r i s k components, these wilderness adventure t r i p s are normally quite challenging and e x c i t i n g . They serve a v a r i e t y of functions including a vacation or break from the camp routine; development of team work and cooperation; an introduction to and development of new recreation s k i l l s ; providing opportunites to overcome a v a r i e t y of physical and problem solving challenges; providing adventure and exploration for i t s own sake; and providing an opportunity for s t a f f and students to i n t e r a c t i n a more casual and relaxed manner. As a general pattern, each i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e s about f i f t y pounds of equipment on h i s back including a personal food supply, personal clothing and equipment and a portion of any items that must be shared by the three or four person sub-groups into which the t o t a l group i s divided for sleeping and cooking arrangements. The average o u t - t r i p l a s t from f i v e to seven days. A hike usually involves three to f i v e days of walking anywhere from ten to twenty miles a day and one or two days of bivoac or r e s t midway through the journey. Canoe t r i p s follow a s i m i l a r pattern. Ski t r i p s can follow t h i s pattern but i s i s more l i k e l y that an i n i t i a l day long s k i w i l l take the group to a mountain hostel from which the group ventures forth, on day t r i p s . Working out- t r i p s generally involve the s t a f f and students i n some form of bush, work whether that be brush c l e a r i n g , firewood 100 cutti n g or, i n e a r l i e r years, tree planting. Students normally earn some money on these ventures. Since 1976, Camp Trapping has had a standing contract with the Nakusp Hotsprings to clear brush and obtain firewood for one week each spring and each autumn. Although the group l i v e s i n tents and must prepare t h e i r own meals the camp routine, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the chart system i s maintained throughout the o u t - t r i p . Urban ou t - t r i p s are the l e a s t l i k e l y to occur as they are now seen as a type of reward. In addition, students must be w i l l i n g to work to earn money that would p a r t i a l l y subsidize a t r i p of t h i s type. As students must work i n t h e i r free time to earn t h i s money the urban o u t - t r i p does not always occur. When i t does, i t normally involves a t r i p to Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Students and s t a f f stay at the youth hostels i n both c i t i e s and take i n a wide v a r i e t y of events and sightseeing a c t i v i t i e s . Students are usually given free time i n which they quickly learn that negotiating a large c i t y can be as d i f f i c u l t and treacherous as negotiating a craggy mountain top. The School or Academic Program The academic program was the f i r s t addition to Hawkenson's i n i t i a l design. As we have seen, Hawkenson believed i t would provide a large part of the 'mental challenge' and involvement that he f e l t h i s students needed. Its importance as a provider of basic s u r v i v a l s k i l l s was also recognized. Although there 101 i s a wide v a r i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , the average student at Camp Trapping has been unable to successfully complete a grade eight education. A substantial minority have been c l a s s i f i e d as fu n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . One of the academic program's aims' i s thus to begin to develop the students' basic arithmetic and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s to a functional l e v e l . An i n d i v i d u a l i z e d modular learning program c a l l e d VAST i s used for t h i s purpose. I f an in d i v i d u a l i s highly motivated, advancement i n t h i s program can be rapid. The Level Two VAST program that i s used can take a person up to the end of grade ten. For those students who already have grade ten, correspondance courses are used to continue t h e i r academic development. Unless a student uses h i s free time to pursue these academic challenges, he w i l l - at most - p a r t i c i p a t e i n one hundred and seven hours of academic involvement during a f i v e month camp. Each student i s given nine hours of i n s t r u c t i o n per week for an average of thirteen weeks. Academic advancement i s not the main purpose of the program. It i s , instead, on of i t s by-products. The overiding goal of t h i s subprogram i s to create a p o s i t i v e attitude towards learning i n general and schooling i n p a r t i c u l a r . The VAST program,by providing a series of consistent and frequent rewards ( i . e . successfully completed modules), allows many students to experience t h e i r f i r s t prolonged period of academic success. The casual environment, lim i t e d school hours and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d tutoring a l l help to make school a more enjoyable experience. 102 In addition to the VAST program, the school experience has been enriched by the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of each teacher. Depending on t h e i r t r a i n i n g and i n t e r e s t s , d i f f e r e n t teachers have been able to provide sessions on guitar playing, ori e n t e r i n g , wilderness s u r v i v a l , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f l o r a and fauna, photography and a va r i e t y of c r a f t s and a r t i s t i c endevours. The Construction Trades Program Established i n September of 1979, the construction trades course i s designed to teach the students such s k i l l s as basic carpentry, masonary, i n s u l a t i o n i n s t a l l a t i o n and some f i n i s h i n g carpentry. I t i s also designed to teach work s k i l l s which include such things as safety, punctuality, consistency, obeying one's foreman and proper care of tools and the worksite. This program's ultimate aim i s to become a s e l f s u f f i c i e n t enterprise that would, through (contract) work be able to pay for i t s own supplies and equipment and the ins t r u c t o r ' s salary. Although some contacts have been obtained, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y has not been r e a l i z e d . The construction trades program has d r a s t i c a l l y altered the nature of work at Camp Trapping. P r i o r to i t s introduction, d a i l y work would almost in e v i t a b l y be centred around firewood cutting, supplemented by various maintainance tasks. I t was often d i f f i c u l t to f i n d enough work for a l l the students on any one day. The construction trades program has provided a consistent source of work that introduces a greater v a r i e t y of work s k i l l s than e a r l i e r work projects. The Aftercare Program 103 The aftercare program has been CATS f i r s t consistent attempt to provide an e f f e c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n from Camp Trapping to the community. I t has four major components. The aftercare coordinator conducts a needs/attitude assessment of each student early i n each camp and again just p r i o r to graduation. While these assessments provide valuable information for the counsellors, t h e i r primary purpose i s to aid the aftercare planning process by encouraging the student to think about hi s future and by providing a body of information that can be shared with r e f e r r i n g agents and parents. This helps the aftercare coordinator perform his second major function which i s to act as a l i a s o n or l i n k between each student and the student's community. The ACC encourages the r e f e r r i n g agents and guardians to think about the student's future and a s s i s t s them and the student i n developing aftercare plans. I t i s also the aftercare coordinator's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to conduct a s i x month and one year follow-up evaluation of each student. Referring agents must agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s evaluation before a student i s accepted into the program. The ACC sends out a b r i e f questionnaire focusing on the graduates' attitudes, a c t i v i t i e s and current status, then compiles the r e s u l t s into a p r o f i l e for each camp. F i n a l l y , i t i s the ACC's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to create and o f f e r a l i f e s k i l l s program for the students which supplements the experiential l i f e s k i l l s o f f e r r e d through the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s at 104 the camp. This i s broken down further into an alternate awareness package which includes such, things as t r u s t exercises, i n d i v i d u a l and group problem solving a c t i v i t i e s and alcohol and drug education. Another package could be l a b e l l e d community awareness. This involves discussions with people from various walks of l i f e including r e l i g i o u s leaders, convicts, victims of crime and handicapped people. There i s also a job-readiness or pre-employment package which includes i n s t r u c t i o n i n interview techniques, resume writing and job hunting. I t involves tours of various industries, services and educational centres, as well as group discussions with employers, union representatives, and employment, appreticeship and school counsellors. The ACC i s also responsible for arranging the t r i a l week home, a time when each student v i s i t s his community with a pre-arranged l i s t of a f t e r -care related a c t i v i t i e s which he has contracted to f u l f i l l . The Alternate Program The alternate program i s Camp Trapping 1s means of providing i t s e l f with i t s own i s o l a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l program for those who don't f i t into Trapping's society. Approximately one and a h a l f miles into the bush beside a small pond, the s t a f f have constructed a p i t house, a semi-subterranean dwelling of Indian design. If a student does not "wish to p a r t i c i p a t e " i n the camp program he i s sent to the p i t house location where he must cut wood a l l day and prepare hi s own meals. Any number of students can be sent there but one would r a r e l y f i n d more than three students at the alternate 105 program at any one time. Used primarily i n the f i r s t two months of the program, the student i s accompanied by a counsellor and must stay at the location f or a predetermined length of time. I t serves two main purposes. I t removes p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome students from the Trapping Lake s i t e , allowing the other students and s t a f f to function more comfortably. Secondly, i t s ruggedness tends to h i g h l i g h t the advatages and luxuries of the regular program. Perhaps most importantly, i t allows each student a time to r e f l e c t on h i s actions and speak at length with one of the counsellors on a one on one basis, thus encouraging the r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g that Hawkenson f e l t was e s s e n t i a l . The Core Program The core sub-program i s an i n t e r e s t i n g potpourri of Trapping a c t i v i t i e s which provide a ground or base to which a l l the other subprograms have been attached. I t includes the morning run, the sauna, the behaviour management program, chores, maintainance functions, recreation and work. The l e a s t consistent and least emphasized of t h i s grouping i s the recreation component. Hawkenson's strong emphasis on weight l i f t i n g and sports i s no longer present at the camp. Most out-door sport a c t i v i t i e s , other than canoeing, hiking, s k i i n g and running, tend to be s o l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s . These are supplemented by occasional and casual games of f o o t b a l l , hockey and baseball. The camp's d e f i n i t i o n of recreation has been expanded to include 1 0 6 the very private pursuits of reading and playing s o l i t a i r e . Chores and maintainance functions are a l l those work elements that must be done to ensure the cleanliness, safety and upkeep of the camp premises. Three d a i l y chore times are set aside for the routine maintainance functions which include f i l l i n g a l l the water containers, cleaning the buildings' f l o o r s and counters, maintaining the firewood and k i n d l i n g supplies i n each b u i l d i n g , cleaning the outdoor t o i l e t s and feeding the cat. Other routine but not d a i l y duties include sauna preparation, cleaning the vehicles and grounds maintainance. There i s usually always some minor repair needed on at l e a s t one of the buildings and, at times, there are major construction projects such as b u i l d i n g a new sauna. I have included work i n the sub-program because of i t s e s s e n t i a l nature above and beyond the construction s k i l l s and maintainance functions. In otherwords, i f the Construction trades program did not e x i s t , the camp would want to and have to f i n d work for i t s students. Work i s a key component of the camp's philosophy. Teaching students how to work and the joys of work are two of the major objectives of the program. Consequently, s t a f f are always searching for or planning a v a r i e t y of work projects for the students to be involved i n . In a sense, the construction trades program and the maintainance duties are subsets of the core program's work element. As we have already been t o l d , the sauna i s the camp's only 107 means of bathing. In t h i s sense, the sauna could be more appropriately viewed as one aspect of personal hygiene. The nature of the sauna experience has raised i t to a s p e c i a l status of i t s own however. I t i s not only a novel form of bathing for most students, i t i s also one of the camp's challenges. Immersing oneself i n a ice-covered lake during the winter months i s a novel and unattractive concept. The sauna's communal nature tends to create anxiety for the students during the f i r s t few weeks of each camp, yet eventually allows the sauna to be viewed as an important and enjoyable l e i s u r e time during which s t a f f and students can relax together. I t i s one of the two routine events that graduates speak of most often. The other i s the morning run. Five days a week s t a f f and students a l i k e must run two miles down the steep d i r t road leading to the camp and then back up for a t o t a l of four miles. I t i s a d i f f i c u l t run because of the road's steep i n c l i n e and the mandatory d a i l y nature of the event. The run i s only cancelled i f the road i s trecherously slippery with mud or ice or i f the temperature drops below -24 degrees c e l s i u s . The Behaviour Management Program The ' s e l f management' or 'chart' system i s camp's behaviour modification program. I t weaves i t s e l f into every aspect of camp l i f e and i s i n i t i a l l y the main incentive for the students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Trapping's mandatory a c t i v i t i e s . 108 The o r i g i n a l tailor-made design of t h i s system was provided by a psychologist at Prince George's College of New Caledonia. Behaviour modification i s based on the premise that most human behaviour i s learned through complex interactions between an i n d i v i d u a l and her or his s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l environment. Another important assumption i s t h i s theory's b e l i e f that rewarding a behaviour w i l l increase i t s p r o b a b i l i t y of recurrance. The therapists attempt to i s o l a t e and a r t i c u l a t e very s p e c i f i c , c l e a r l y defined and desirable behaviours. Successful completion of t h i s behaviour w i l l r e s u l t i n a reward being earned by the actor. If the rewards are clear and relevant, and i f the behaviour's d e f i n i t i o n i s c l e a r , the c l i e n t whould choose to behave i n the desired manner. The behaviour and the reward must be associated c l e a r l y i n a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , and should occur i n close temporal proximity. Camp Trapping's chart system o f f e r s rewards for every mandatory camp a c t i v i t y . In i t s i n i t i a l form i t was quite straightforward but i t has now evolved into a more complex four l e v e l system, the ultimate aim of which i s to eliminate the necessity of i t s application to each student. The performance chart (Figure 3.4:1) regulates much of d a i l y l i f e , at the i n i t i a l or zero l e v e l of the behaviour management system. If a student performs an a c t i v i t y adequately, he has earned the point or reward that i s associated with i t . Each- student can earn a maximum of ten points a day. If t h i s i s accomplished, he receives an additional two points. These bonus points are not connected to the weekly reward system. Instead •j 09 F i g u r e 3.4-1 PERFORMANCE CHART Student's Name: Week of: Note: A student starts the week with 0 points and earns these throughout. He can never lose a point or have them taken away. He can only earn thern. In the event that a weekly" t o t a l i s 1/2 point, base the rewards on the next lowest whole number. Objective Sat. Sun. P c P c Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. F r i , p c p c p c p c p ' c Morning A l e r t (1/2) (1/2) = 1 Work/School (1/2 + 1/2) a.m. (1/2 + 1/2) 2 p.m. Chores a.m. (1/2 + 1/2) (1/2 + 1/2) n 0 ° n -(1/2 + 1/2) • p.m. Session and Free Tims Conduct 1/2 Cleanliness 1/2 Rua 1 Punctuality 1 Caretaking 1 Bonus ( 2 X 15c) Daily Total Accumulated Daily Total Accumulated Bonus •Points i i Weekly Total Rewards Earned: Allowance: p - performance Free Time: c - conduct 110 they are accumulated over four week segments and can be traded i n for what i s known as a special function. Special functions can be of a student's choosing but must be approved by s t a f f . Each p a i r of bonus points also earns the student t h i r t y cents. The t o t a l bonus point cash accumulation i s given to the student at graduation along with any other money he may have earned. The counsellor of the day (COD) has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of ensuring an acurate recording of points earned each day. The job foreman,the teachers and the other counsellors a l l report back to the COD a f t e r they have determined who has earned s p e c i f i c points. If a point has not been earned, a b r i e f explanation including the name of the person who determined the ' f a i l u r e to earn' i s normally entered on the back of the chart. Every evening except Saturday, a counsellor w i l l c a l l each student into the bunkhouse o f f i c e to go over the day's points. During the f i r s t few months of a camp these chart sessions are emotion-laden times. Students are often aware of t h e i r point earnings but choose t h i s time to argue, protest or threaten. Half way through the camp the chart sessions begin to loose some of t h e i r importance. Many of the students may no longer be on the chart system or may be charted f o r only one or two a c t i v i t i e s , having earned t h e i r way o f f a s p e c i f i c charted item with two weeks of adequate performance. A student can, however, move back- to charts i f h i s behaviour deteriorates. In a s i t u a t i o n such as t h i s the strong emotional flavour of the sessions may be recreated. Some students and some s t a f f use chart sessions as a time for i n d i v i d u a l counselling. If t h i s i s the case, a chart I l l session can l a s t for as long as hal f an hour f o r a p a r t i c u l a r student. I t i s one of the few times that a student can be assured of the undivided attention of a counsellor on a one-to-one basis. Most students prefer to either confirm or dispute t h e i r earnings as quickly as possible thus allowing themselves more free time i n the evening. Friday evenings the counselling s t a f f w i l l tabulate point earnings f o r the past week and translate them into the actual earned rewards. The current reward system i s outlined i n f i g u r e 3.4:2 The amount of money earned has increased over the years to maintain i t s effectiveness as a reward. The possible earnings are posted on the bunkhouse wall so that each student i s aware of exactly what i s avai l a b l e . The reward system's c l a r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y i s complmented by the c l a r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y of the d e f i n i t i o n s of adequate performance for each charted a c t i v i t y and chore. A poster o u t l i n i n g the performance d e f i n i t i o n s i s tacked to one of the counsellor bunkbeds. Bunkhouse and schoolhouse chores are outlined on a poster i n the bunkhouse's mud porch while a poster defining kitchen chores i s afixed to a kitchen wall. Figure 3.4':3 and 3.4:4 are copies of these posters. As can be seen, each chore and each charted area i s provided with Figure 3.4 :2 Chart System Rewards Allowance - 0 .40* .80$ 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 2.80 3.20 3.60 4.00 Points Needed-68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78-84 Bonus Points - .15* per point, received at graduation Non-monetary rewards: Points Needed 78-84 - Trip to town on Saturday including: recreation or gym at counsellor's d i s c r e t i o n , laundry, H (—1 McDonalds, theatre. w - Sleep in on Sunday morning. 73-77 - Sleep i n on Sunday. 69-72 - Only allowance earned. Freetime i n town: Earned by establishing tru s t with the counsellors; not t i e d to chart system. Special Functions: Bonus Points Needed 1st 4 consecutive weeks of 12 bonus points per week = 48 bonus points 2nd 4 consecutive weeks containing a niminum t o t a l of =52 bonus points 3rd 4 consecutive weeks containing a minimum t o t a l of = 56 bonus points Special Functions cannot be home v i s i t s and must be counsellor approved. 113 Performance Charts - D e f i n i t i o n s Bed made, clos e t clean and t i d y . Dressed and ready for run and/or c a l i s t e n i c s (No smoking u n t i l a f t e r run and/or c a l i s t e n i c s ) . Being on time as d a i l y schedule designates. Being on time as counsellor designates. Sauna - soap body / h a i r - rince body / h a i r jump into lake A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e and complete assigned tasks i n a l l o t t e d time. A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e and complete assigned tasks i n time a l l o t t e d . Complete four mile run non-stop i n a l l o t t e d time (masimum 45 minutes) A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n designated recreation. Proper storage and maintainence of a l l work, school and recreation equipment (or other equipment as designated by counsellors). Complete chores i n a l l o t t e d time as defined on chore chart. 114 Figure 3.4 :4 Chore Chart D e f i n i t i o n s BROOM HILDA : Sweep bunkhouse f l o o r so no l i n e i s found i n a single sweep. Put brooms and dust pan i n proper place. HYDROLOGIST : The following water p a i l s must be f u l l to l i n e : 1. Bunkhouse - stove wash water - drinking water container (must by strained) 2. Kitchen - hot water container - cold water container - wipe o f f a l l counters and f l o o r of s p i l t water - hange up water carrying p a i l s FIRE BUG : Bunkhouse bin f u l l to l i n e Kindling i n box f u l l to l i n e Make and maintain bunkhouse f i r e when needed Put away axe : Two r o l l s of t o i l e t paper i n out-house Sweep out-house f l o o r Wipe seats with pinesol - once a day (after supper) Clean wash basins i n bunkhouse Top counter, t i d y and wiped clean Put away a l l cleaning material i n designated area. LAVORATORY TECHNICIAN SANITARY ENGINEER : Empty kitchen slop p a i l when needed - at l e a s t once a day. Wash slop p a i l once a day a f t e r supper Sweep kitchen f l o o r and a l l porches Shake out a l l rugs Empty and replace f u l l garbage bags when needed - at l e a s t once a day. KITCHEN HELP: Washer : Wash a l l dishes, pots, pan, u t e n s i l s , etc. Clean out sinks and basins - wipe down counter top around sink. Note: be sure to put one camp of bleach i n wash, water. 115 Figure 3.4:4 continued Dryer KITCHEN DUTY Dry a l l dishes, post, pans, u t e n s i l s , etc. Put away a l l dishes, pots, etc. Put away a l l condiments from eating tables. Wash and dry a l l eating tables and benches. Hang drying towels i n proper place. A s s i s t cook i n designated task when needed. Put away a l l l e f t o v e r food a f t e r each meal i n designated place. Set tables for each meal. Clean stove g r i l l when needed. Clean counters where food i s prepared and served. CAMP DUTIES Feed cat Sweep school-recreation room f l o o r a f t e r breakfast. Do extra tasks designated by counsellor. JOB FOREMAN PLEASE NOTE Check each, and a l l chores a f t e r every meal and report to counsellor of the day only. Each day (in the morning) one counsellor should be designated Counsellor of the day. That counsellor w i l l then be responsible for checking a l l chores throughout the day and marking charts. Job foreman i s responsible for reporting chores to designated Counsellor of the day. Figure 3.4:5 Conduct Code You can earn t h i s point by behaving i n a responsible manner to those around you. I f you verbally or physically abuse ( i . e . swear at, h i t or c a l l down) others then you w i l l be expected to discuss the matter i n a calm manner within a short time and to apoligize i f necessary. You may not agree with a person, or with t h e i r actions but swearing or fighti n g i s not an appropriate response. You may earn ha l f a work point for doing the job you are supposed to do but may not earn the other half i f you swear at someone, etc.. On the other hand, you may earn your conduct point for being c i v i l to others but not earn the performance point i f you do not complete the task. 117 a d e f i n i t i o n that i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to measure. Students have no d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding these d e f i n i t i o n s a f t e r one or two weeks of d i r e c t involvement with, the tasks at hand. There are however, some grey areas open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Performance at work and school, although defined as 'completing required task' i s often modified to allow for those people who have t r i e d t h e i r best to complete the task but have been unable to do so. The conduct point i s even more subjective although every attempt i s made to make i t as c l e a r as possible. Nevertheless, i t does o f f e r supervisory l a t i t u d e i n i t s administration. Outline i n Figure 3.-:5 the conduct point d e f i n i t i o n i s also tacked'-to the""bunkhouse wall. The camp's behaviour modification chart system operates on the p r i n c i p a l of p o s i t i v e reinforcement, complimenting the camp's emphasis on the 'positive' i n a l l aspects of l i f e . Negative reinforcement and punishment are believed to be counter-productive. Consequently, s t a f f are advised to ' l e t the charts do the work' Cstaff p o l i c y manual, section 2, page three). Rather than cajole or c r i t i c i z e a student concerning inadequate performance, s t a f f are t o l d to comment only on the successfully completed charted areas. The unearned points are considered to be an e f f e c t i v e reminder of needed improvement without any verbal c l a r i f i c a t i o n from the s t a f f . Students must be frequently reminded that points are always earned and never taken away. Counsellors are c a r e f u l to say "You f a i l e d to earn "x" as opposed to "you l o s t 'x'". This d i s t i n c t i o n appears to be too subtle f or many of the students. I f the students 118 bel i e v e they have been given the points as a r i g h t , then loose them for inappropriate behaviour, the system i s transformed from one of p o s i t i v e reinforcement to one of punishment. The chart system i s designed to ensure the students' e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d a i l y routines. If administered consistently, a new camp w i l l be running smoothly i n a month as far as i t s basic maintainance i s concerned. The chart system, at t h i s l e v e l , i s not designed to deal with the s p e c i f i c behavioural problems and developmental needs of each i n d i v i d u a l . I t does however provide tone, s e t t i n g and a c l e a r l y understood pattern on which other therapeutic techniques can r e s t . On rare occasions, an i n d i v i d u a l student's chart may be modified. A student who has a p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome behaviour, e.g. excessive swearing or aggresiveness may have a new charted area added or substituted. I t i s possible then, that a student may have to earn a d a i l y 'politeness p o i n t 1 based on a d e f i n i t i o n provided by the s t a f f . This type of modification i s rare and handled with caution as s t a f f must avoid charting an unmeasureable behaviour or one which, would be inappropriately dealth with by the chart system. The s t a f f ' s ultimate aim i s to have each, student transcend the chart's zero base and a t t a i n Level II or beyond. As a student progresses t h e i r w i l l be charted areas i n which- the student e x c e l l s . After two weeks of earning perfect points i n these areas, the 119 student i s no longer required to earn the points i n question. I t i s assumed that he has i n t e r n a l i z e d the behaviours and w i l l perform then out of habit or desire. Eventually ( i t i s hoped) a student w i l l reach t h i s point i n every area. When t h i s occurs for two consecutive weeks the student has reached Level I, Level I can be both a t r a n s i s t i o n a l phase or an end r e s u l t . In order to transcend i t , a student must maintain his perfect point record for an additional two weeks and create a personal development plan that outlines s p e c i f i c behavioural problems he exhibits and the various means he w i l l employ to eliminate them. Counsellors often help the students with t h i s task. At the end of two weeks, the student presents h i s contract to the Monday s t a f f meeting at which time Level II status w i l l be granted i f everyone i s i n agreement with the contract. A student at Level I i s said to be at the s e l f management stage. His rewards are automatic but are s t i l l t i e d to the chart system. He receives a warning on any charted a c t i v i t y the f i r s t time i n any given week that he f a i l s to perform adequately i n that area. The second time t h i s occurs he i s placed back on charts for that a c t i v i t y and must perform p e r f e c t l y f o r another two weeks i n order to earn h i s way o f f . If a student gets a t o t a l of three warnings a week, spread throughout a l l the charted areas, he goes back on charts for every area i n which he has received a warning. By the time a student has reached Level II he i s obviously quite adept at managing adequate performance i n the charted areas. While on Level I, each student i s given h i s own chart on which he records what he 120 thinks he has earned. This i s then compared with the s t a f f records each evening. Level II i s further removed from the chart system. A Level II student i s not put back on charts i n the same manner as described above. Instead, each Level II member monitors and records h i s and his fellow member's behaviour throughout the week. On Friday evenings there i s a Level II meeting which allows sp e c i a l priveledges l i k e hot chocolate and smoking i n the kitchen. During t h i s meeting each student presents h i s evaluation of h i s week's performance and states whether or not he believes he has earned f u l l rewards. Other Level II members then comment on t h e i r impressions of h i s behaviour. F i n a l l y , a l l present vote on any rewards to be granted. One s t a f f member i s always present and i s allowed to vote. In order for a vote to pass i t must be unanimous. Level II members also share t h e i r contracts with each other and c r i t i q u e performance based on these personalized goals. Rewards can be witheld or reduced i f i t i s decided that a member has not l i v e d up to h i s contract. Entry into and e x i t from Level II are not determined by the members but by the s t a f f . I f a Level II's attitude i s not considered appropriate he can be demoted to a lesser status, although once again, the demotion would be described as a f a i l u r e to earn the priveledge of staying at Level I I . As Level II members are supposed to be examples to other students, non-charted inappropriate behaviour can be anything that i s not considered supportive or r e f l e c t i v e of the camp's ideology. 121 Level II members can also be promoted to Level I I I . Level III i s , i n effe c t , a : j u n i o r counsellor p o s i t i o n and only two students have as yet earned t h i s status. The primary prerequisite for Level I I I i s evidence of leadership a b i l i t y coupled with an a b i l i t y to maintain a good rapport with both students and s t a f f . Camp Trapping s t a f f have not yet developed the Level III status to t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n as neither i t s rewards nor i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been c l e a r l y defined. Attaining any l e v e l i s no guarantee that one w i l l stay there. During my f i v e week stay at Trapping Lake, one student was demoted from Level II because of a temper tantrum he threw i n learning that h i s free time for the next town v i s i t was to be revoked. Consistently appropriate behaviour i s the only sure means of avoiding demotion. Camp Trapping does not consider the chart system to be i t s most e f f e c t i v e therapeutic t o o l although i t i s considered invaluable for e stablishing consistent and acceptable behavioural patterns at the camp. Success with the chart system establishes only the minimum behavioural standard however. There are three other recognized therapeutic approaches that Camp Trapping uses i n an attempt to go beyond t h i s minimum standard. Other Recognized Therapeutic Techniques Modeling 122 The s t a f f p o l i c y manual includes modeling as part of the behavioural management techniques the camp uses. Modeling also r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to Hawkenson's insistence that counsellors should be i d e a l images of successful people who's actions match t h e i r words. Counsellors are admonished to never ask a student to do something they themselves would not do. They are not to t e l l students what to do but instead are to show by action and involvement what and how to do i t . This involves a l l aspects of camp l i f e . S t a f f sleep i n the same room as the students, run each morning with the students, work side by side with the students and abide by the same camp rules as the students. This also holds for i n t e r -personal interactions. S t a f f are constantly aware of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to deal with other s t a f f and the students i n a manner that exemplifies the advocated values of sharing, empathy, honesty and consideration. Staff must also show that they accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r actions even i f t h i s means being able to admit they are wrong and capable of err i n g . In general, t h i s approach i s taken for two d i f f e r e n t reasons. On the one hand i t i s inspired by Hawkenson's 'do unto others as you would have them do unto you' apprach. On the other hand, as a tenant of a therapeutic regime, t h i s approach i s seen to provide a consistent example of appropriate behaviour which students can observe, experiment with or mimic. There i s very l i t t l e written information i n the t r a i n i n g 123 manual which deals with, modeling. Instead i t has the stature of a fundamental, almost sacrosanct, convention. I t i s intimately connected with, personality requirements deemed es s e n t i a l f o r employment at Camp Trapping and as such i s almost viewed as a natural rather than a t h e o r e t i c a l therapeutic t o o l . A counsellor must 'have i t ' or ' l i v e i t ' as opposed to employing i t . Reality Therapy Reality Therapy i s a therapeutic model designed by William Glaser. 1. I t begins with the assumption that a l l people need to be lsived and to love, and need to f e e l worthwhile to themselves and others. I t also assumes that we need a strong personal i d e n t i t y . A ' f a i l u r e i d e n t i t y ' r e s u l t s from a person's i n a b i l i t y to act i n a responsible manner as defined by that person's context. A 'success i d e n t i t y ' i s developed by active, responsible involvement with one's environment. A person should be able to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s or her actions and thus be able to accept the p o s i t i v e and negative consequences of these actions. In short, a person must believe that h i s or her actions a f f e c t the environment. Victim stances are not tolerated i n Reality Therapy. There are basic p r i n c i p l e s involved. The f i r s t i s that every person needs involvement and intimacy with others. C l i e n t s or students must f e e l they are important 124 to the therapist. They must f e e l that he or she cares for them and believes i n t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . Although t h i s i s a necessary pre-r e q u i s i t e , i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t . True caring, i n Glasser's opinion, can only occur when one i s w i l l i n g to demand responsible action from the one that i s cared f o r . This can only be done however i f the demander can be seen to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i s or her own actions. This means that the counsellor must accept scrutiny and c r i t i q u e from the counselled. Ther terms of t h i s caring r e l a t i o n s h i p must also be c l e a r l y established.' Staff must be honest with t h e i r friendship and explain that i t s l i m i t s are defined by t h e i r job as therapists. R e a l i t y therapists do not dwell on or d i g into the past. On the contrary, they avoid or discourage conversation about past f a i l u r e s or irresponsible behaviour, p r e f e r r i n g instead to concentrate on the present and the desired future. In keeping with t h i s second p r i n c i p l e , counsellors attempt to work with actions or behaviours, as opposed to f e e l i n g s . They believe that when a person performs better ( i . e . responsibly) they w i l l then f e e l better. Although a Reality Therapist w i l l not deny that past events have led to present behaviours, he or she believes that the person must not dwell on the past. Instead, he must r e a l i z e that i t i s his choice to act as he does i n the present and as such, i t i s within his a b i l i t y to choose successful behaviours regardless of what has gone before. Once a student has r e a l i z e d t h i s and once he has developed a 125 warm, personal involvement with the counsellor, he i s ready to begin evaluating h i s own behaviour. A counsellor should not preach- or moralize but concentrate instead on pointing out various behaviours and t h e i r consequences, then help the student to decide which of these are the most e f f e c t i v e and h e l p f u l . Finally,the^counsellor and student can begin to plan together. The student can now commit himself or 'contract' to achieve c e r t a i n performance standards or behaviours, ones he has chosen himself. At t h i s point, the counsellor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to agree to hold the student to his promises. She must not accept excuses or r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s but focus instead on whether or not the plans are being put into action. Counsellors are to be tenacious i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to ensure that a student f u l f i l l s h i s committment to him-s e l f . One can see a s i m i l a r i t y here with the behaviour modification program's l e v e l system. The counsellor must never punish, cajole or force compliance. He or she must r e l y on a system of natural or l o g i c a l consequences that are c l e a r l y spelled out and understood as part of the planning process. In t h i s way, the student begins to see he has a choice of actions, each with i t s own r e s u l t regardless of the feelings or authority p o s i t i o n of the counsellor. This i s only a b r i e f outline of the perspective and techniques of R e a l i t y Therapy. I believe i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to provide us with some idea of the focus- and themes i t creates. The Camp Trapping 126 s t a f f manual maintains that i t i s the major therapeutic t o o l Cpage 12\ and provides a fourteen page summary of i t s p r i n c i p l e s and pra c t i c e . It's major themes appear to be as follows: develop a warm personal r e l a t i o n s h i p ; accept r e s p o n s i b l i t y for your actions and t h e i r consequences; an in d i v i d u a l always has choice; and concentrate on doing or 'acting' i n the present. Positive Peer Culture Po s i t i v e Peer Culture (PPC) i s a new addition to the Camp Trapping milieu. In t h i s context, i t r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c group therapy or problem solving design developed by Harry H. Vorrath and Larry K. Brendtro. 2. Before b r i e f l y describing what i t e n t a i l s , i t must be noted that Camp Trapping has always recognized the importance of peer influence and has attempted to create a p o s i t i v e peer culture simply through d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n and involvement. PPC however provides a systematic group process i n which, t h i s can be developed, a modified version of which now shapes the camp's evening sessions. It must be noted that there are no CATS s t a f f with extensive formal t r a i n i n g i n either Reality Therapy or PPC. The camp's present d i r e c t o r and one of i t ' s counsellors have extensive t r a i n i n g i n psychology, e s p e c i a l l y i n respect to conditioning techniques. F a m i l i a r i t y with the other therapies i s the r e s u l t of short workshops or extensive reading or on-the-job t r a i n i n g . 127 In respect to PPC, two of the present CATS s t a f f have worked at another B.C. wilderness r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program which uses PPC, and the CATS s t a f f have had one PPC workshop. Staff often mention t h e i r desire to have more s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n these areas. PPC i s based on the assumption that the adolescent peer group i s the single most i n f l u e n t i a l group a f f e c t i n g adolescent behaviour. I t provides a system that i s intended to strengthen an informal p o s i t i v e influence or transform a negative to a p o s i t i v e influence. Like Reality Therapy, i t assumes that the 'here and now' i s more important than the 'then and there' and that each person needs to be accepted by others and deserves acceptance. Although aggresive attacks on and exposure of an i n d i v i d u a l i s avoided, i t emphasises t r u s t and openess i n discussing and presenting problems and main-tains that challenge i s e s s e n t i a l i f behaviour i s to be a l t e r e d . Vorrath and Brendtro believe that adolescents are i n a limbo, caught between c h i l d and adult status with no v a l i d r o l e or c r e d i b i l i t y . Their system i s designed to allow adolescents an active, responsible r o l e i n helping others cope with problems and succeed i n the world. They maintain that t h i s system shows adolescents t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l and encourages them to s t r i v e f o r greatness rather than acquiese to authority. There i s an underlying value which, the PPC creators wish to impart. They believe that anything which, hurts a person i s wrong and that we are a l l responsible for caring f or one another. 3. 128 The o v e r a l l objective of PPC i s to make caring fashionable while at the same time providing an e f f e c t i v e group problem solving model. Modeling caring behaviour and r e l a b e l l i n g caring a c t i v i t i e s are two of i t s p r i n c i p a l techniques. The creators of PPC provide a very s p e c i f i c format for the process which they believe, should be r i d g i d l y adhered to. I t i s a group process with the group to meet f i v e times a week for appro-ximately an hour and a h a l f each session. There should be only one group leader whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to provide the ground r u l e s , d i r e c t the conversation through subtle questions rather than persistent control, ensure that the rules are followed, and provide a summary of the sessions events. In a sense, he or she i s a c h a i r -person who i s to provide structure rather than content, which, should be provided by the adolescents. Formal PPC i s set up i n a s p e c i f i c s p a t i a l arrangement (horseshoe of chairs with the open end of the horseshoe p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d by the chairperson's chair and table) i n a room that w i l l protect the group from outside d i s t r a c t i o n s . The group should not be co-ed, and the students are to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a l l the problem solving. A meeting begins with a review of a l l the known problems and attempted resolutions which the group has dealt with. Afterwards new problems or continuing issues are presented and the group votes on which, one i t w i l l deal with that evening. The re s t of the time, save for a ten minute slimming up period, i s spent c l a r i f y i n g the problem and exploring solutions. 129 PPC membership i s open ended. New members are chosen by s t a f f but members can graduate from the group only a f t e r the group has decided that they are ready to leave. Its creators maintain the PPC takes a minimum of four months for i t to have an e f f e c t on a delinquent population. Ideally the group members should and are encouraged to continue t h e i r p o s i t i v e problem solving outside of the formal meetings. They are expected to begin to act as p o s i t i v e peer influences i n the society at large. Vorrath and Brendtro c a l l t h i s a p r a c t i c a l therapeutic approach based on counselling experience as opposed to t h e o r e t i c a l concepts. They go on to say that a person can only learn the techniques by exposure to and p r a c t i s e of i t . 4. Much more could be said about a l l these therapeutic techniques. I have l e f t out most of the d e t a i l e d r a t i o n a l e and operating methods fo r each. The b r i e f Sketches provided do, however, provide an accurate outline of t h e i r major assumptions and objectives. We can see common threads running through them a l l . Each, therapeutic technique i s present-oriented and concerned with- actions or behaviour as opposed to feelings or thoughts. Each one i n i t s own way demands that the students accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r actions. Each therapy also provides i t s own unique contribution which compliments the other therapies. The chart systems provides practise i n f u l f i l l i n g a consistent routine and ensures that a minimum standard of physical and s o c i a l well-being i s maintained. 130 Modeling provides a tangible and obserable manifestation of appropriate behaviour attached to, or as a part of, a respected and intimate other. Reality therapy provides a clear:: t h e o r e t i c a l model which can be used to apply a judicious combination of love and a demand for action. I t emphasizes that a person's actions r e s u l t from that person's own choice, an emphasis that simultaneously places the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or actions on the actor while providing that person with the awareness that he or she can e f f e c t h i s or her own l i f e . I t also suggests the contracting system at use i n the program. F i n a l l y , PPC provides Camp Trapping with i t s f i r s t consistent model of conscientious sharing among peers. As Hawkenson has already noted, 'sharing success with others' was the one aspect of his ideology that he found d i f f i c u l t to teach. PPC, although unproven as yet, at l e a s t provides a group therapy design that has sharing and caring as i t s primary objectives. Without advocating or r e j e c t i n g Trapping 1s ideology and methods one must at l e a s t admit that i t shows i n t e r n a l consistency. As we examine Trapping's value system we w i l l begin to see a consistency between the methods we have been introduced to and the value system i t promotes. 131 CAMP TRAPPING VALUES - WRITTEN: 3.5 As we have seen, a r i t e of passage can be viewed as a s o c i a l -i z a t i o n process which attempts to bond in d i v i d u a l s with the dominant values and behaviours of a given culture. I t attempts to do so by r e v i t a l i z i n g the relationships and injuecting meaning and purpose into everyday l i f e . In the r i t u a l s of p r e l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s , myth i s often the exegetic modality embodying descriptions of things as they came to be and as they must be; they provide a beginning and a rationale of sorts for the values and b e l i e f system of a culture. In l i t e r a t e , cosmopolitan and mobile s o c i e t i e s myth i s often superseded or overshadowed by do c t r i n a i r e or dogma. Our values are car r i e d i n a more l i n e a r and less metephorical fashion. 1. Camp Trapping as a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program i s , i n e f f e c t , a r e - s o c i a l i z a t i o n program and as such i s very much concerned with values education p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n respect to t h e i r enactment i n everyday l i f e . One can f i n d a cl e a r doctrine or ideology i n the various publications Trapping has produced. Before reviewing these however, i t w i l l be hel p f u l to b r i e f l y examine the ideology of the Outward Bound movement, an other program with, si m i l a r goals and methods. The Outward Bound Ideology Outward Bound has been defined as ".,.. an educational process dedicated to the p r i n c i p l e that the i n d i v i d u a l develops s e l f -132 confidence, concern for others and self awareness in the broad scheme of things when confronted by challenging, shared experience and adventure". 2. This theme i s based on the following assumptions: - one reveres l i f e for having experienced i t in real, dramatic terms, from such experience one learns to respect self, from respect for self flows compassion for others, compassion for others i s best expressed in service to mankind. 3. Like Outward Bound, Camp Trapping believes that an exciting and demanding wilderness environment provides the most effective and least complex context in which these principles can be exper-ie n t i a l l y learned. Unlike Outward Bound, Trapping offers i t s program only to teenage boys who have run afoul of the Canadian legal system. Trapping thus maintains that an Outward Bound - like experience can or should end or reduce an individual's proclivity to break the law or act in an anti-social manner. Camp Trapping has expressed i t s values and assumptions in a number of documents i t has published for internal consuption. They are found with particular clarity in the staff manuals. The following fourteen points are a synthesis of these statements, 1. Pre-camp student behaviour is inappropriate. It is harmful to both the student and his society. 2. Camp Trapping provides an opportunity for realizing a l l of the following: 133 3. The student as an i n d i v i d u a l i s valuable i n h i s own r i g h t . 4. The student has p o t e n t i a l , p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s which have not been r e a l i z e d . 5. If these q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s are r e a l i z e d , the student's s e l f image w i l l improve. 6. If the student's s e l f image improves, his behaviour w i l l become more appropriate. 7. The student's s e l f image and behaviour ( p o s i t i v e ! w i l l only be maintained i f i t i s shared with and recognized by those around him. 8. I t i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each i n d i v i d u a l to develop these p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s . 9. The i n d i v i d u a l i s responsible for h i s actions and must bear the consequences of that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 10. The i n d i v i d u a l grows through experiencing challenge and c o n f l i c t . 11. Demand from others only what you would demand from yourself. 12. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to develop empathy for the sit u a t i o n s of others. 13. Po s i t i v e self-image and functional behaviour can only be maintained i f one develops successful routines or habits that are productive i n the community. 14. P o s i t i v e self-image, functional behaviour and successful routine can be developed by mental, physical and s p i r i t u a l exercise. 3. These fourteen points chould be said to comprise a f a i r d o c t i n a l body for Camp Trapping. The key points are stated as truths, as the way things must be. Using Turner's d e f i n i t i o n s we have here a modern-day equivalent or substitute f o r , myth,. This written value system, the key informants' opinions which follow i n the next chapter, and Hawkenson's personal b e l i e f s and aims present a doctorine of the powerful and p o t e n t i a l l y s e l f -134 a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l who, i f given the opportunity, w i l l n a t u r a l l y discover and u t i l i z e a l l his or her inherent a b i l i t i e s . This can only be accomplished however through struggle, challenge and c o n f l i c t . The i n d i v i d u a l i s only f i n a l l y and completely successful i f these achievements are shared, recognized and appreciated by others. I f success i s obtained with no concern f o r others, (lack of empathyl, and indeed at the expense of others, then i t w i l l be t r a n s i t o r y and ultimately worthless. This ideology's congruence with Canadian and Protestant - perhaps C h r i s t a i n - values, w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter four and i n the epilogue. Cariboo Action Training Society has also developed a set of four objectives which a r t i c u l a t e s , i n a general way, what i t wants i t s students to experience. They are as follows: 1) To develop the maturity l e v e l of each student by exposing them to a wide range of l i f e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within the program. 2) To increase the i n t e r e s t l e v e l of each p a r t i c i p a n t i n the world about them by exposing them to a v a r i e t y of experience. 3) To increase r e c r e a t i o n a l and mechanical s k i l l s as well as to develop good work habits. 4) To increase the l e v e l of s e l f motivation by enhancing the student's s e l f image i n terms of achieving and recognizing success. A challenge-commitment process i s b u i l t into the system. The s e l f management program and r e a l i t y therapy are described 135 as two of the. techniques used to obtain the f i r s t objective. The work program, recreation, play, o u t - t r i p s and counsellor enthusiasm are aspects of the program aimed at accomplishing the second objective. The wilderness l o c a t i o n and camp routines are said to operationalize objective three. Emphasizing the p o s i t i v e , what can be rather than cannot be done, counsellor-student rapport, and continual challenges for both s t a f f and students are a l l intended to promote objective four. 4. ********************* We now have some idea of how Camp Trapping presents i t s e l f to the community. It's 'philosophy' or value system, the structure, techniques and objectives are a l l available i n written form on p u b l i c i t y pamphlets, i n the p o l i c y manual and i n the 1976 Evaluation Report. I t i s a p i c t u r e of Camp Trapping that the average c i t i z e n could obtain i n an hour's reading. To know more about Camp Trapping one must either speak with someone who has been involved with, the program, or observe, or p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e at the camp. In the next chapter we w i l l examine what a v a r i e t y of CATS associates have to say about various aspects of the CATS program at Trapping Lake. 136 CHAPTER FOUR KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS 137 KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS - INTRODUCTION AND VALUE STANCE In March 1982, two months before I a c t u a l l y begin l i v i n g at Camp Trapping, I spent a week i n Prince George interviewing a v a r i e t y of people who were or had been involved with- Cariboo Action Training Society. These interviews were conducted to obtain subjective opinion about Camp Trapping from a v a r i e t y of perspectives. A l l the key informants had been associated with CATS for a minimum of two years. Some has been involved since the camp's inception i n 1971. Their r e l a t i o n s h i p with CATS i s as follows: Ministry of Human Resources 1) Liason worker and r e f e r r i n g agent. 2) Family and Children's Services Coordinator (Funder) Juvenile Probation 1) Liason worker and r e f e r r i n g agent. 2) Referring agent. CATS, Society Members 1) President 2) Board Member CATS, Staff 1) Program Director 2) Male Staff 3) Female Staff Former Associates 1) Founder 2) Program Director 1976-1978 Each informant responded to an i d e n t i c a l set of questions during the f i r s t two t h i r d s of the interview. Refer to Appendix 5 for the questions used during the interviews. There were two exceptions to 138 t h i s pattern. The MHR Family and Children's Services Coordinator (Funder) was unable to provide me with enough time for a complete interview. As a conseqence we discussed only h i s formal r o l e i n respect to CATS budgeting and f i n a n c i a l concerns. The founder on the other hand was able to provide me with a wealth, of information about Camp Trapping i n a free flowing reverie prompted only occasionally by my questions. As he spoke, I heard answers to a l l my pre-arranged questions. Each interview was at le a s t ninety minutes i n length and recorded on audio tape. The interviews focused on four broad areas: i ) purposes or goals; i i ) values; i i i ) Camp Trapping sub-programs; iv) techniques and methods. A f i f t h section asked questions designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to gather sub-j e c t i v e information related to r i t e s of passage theory. The interview format allowed a great v a r i e t y or responses i n each area. I t was r e l a t i v e l y easy to d i s t i n g u i s h a few common themes running throughout each section however. I had o r i g i n a l l y intended to use the information gathered during these interviews to help me focus on relevant points of view, behaviours and rheto r i c i n evidence at Camp Trapping which, could indicate both s t a f f and student compliance with the a r t i c u l a t e d ideloogy. I had also toyed with the idea of creating a student 139 questionnaire based on t h i s information which, could a s s i s t me i n determining whether or not the students had incorporated the desired value system and behavioural stance. I t soon became evident however that t h i s evalutive e f f o r t was expanding the scope of t h i s study beyond the bounds of manageability given the time constraints with which I was faced. As importantly, I came to r e a l i z e that the intent of t h i s study was not to prove or disprove the effectiveness of the Trapping approach. Instead, the primary objective was to examine the intent and procedures of the program i n an attempt to ascertain whether or not i t f i t into a r i t u a l i s t i c r i t e of passage format. As a r e s u l t , much, of the information obtained from these i n t e r -views became unimportant i n respect to the thrust of t h i s study. The interviews did, however re-introduce . me to the tone, l e v e l of com-mitment and rhet o r i c of the Camp Trapping environment. They also provided me with an opportunity to discover how others interpreted the program. The key informants' values and goals statements became relevant to t h i s study's hidden objective. While unconscious and unarticulated i n i t i a l l y , I became aware of my own need and in t e r e s t i n discovering the underlying point of view and int e r p r e t a t i o n of the world as Camp Trapping presented i t . I believe t h i s information i s valuable i f only because i t i s so often ignored as we attempt to develop and operate s o c i a l service programs. We would be well 140 advised tq become more aware of our own points of view or i n t e r -pretations of the world, as they are, ultimately, that which we are attempting to thrust on others. My questions and the comments they e l l i c i t e d d i d not lead themselves well to a p o s i t i v i r s t i c , demographic and/or s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. The interview schedule had not been designed to do so. It had, instead, been designed to gather information on which to base a more c a r e f u l l y constructed questionnaire and observational guideline. As a r e s u l t , most of the information the key informants provided i s not presented to the reader i n t h i s section. The key informant comments on values and goals have d i r e c t bearing on the analyis presented i n Chapter Five and the epilogue. I t i s therefore, contained within the main body of t h i s study. A l l the remaining information they provided has been very (cururorily). summarized and tabulated. This can be found i n Appendices i and i i should the reader be interested i n examining i t . Camp Trapping Value System It appears that values (defined as b e l i e f s , standards or moral precepts concerning human int e r a c t i o n with the psychological, s o c i a l and natural environment) are rather d i f f i c u l t to p i n down. Many of the informants were hesitant or came up with only one or two value statments when asked to comment s p e c i f i c a l l y on Trapping's value 141 system. Throughout the interview however, numerous values statments were made, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n respect to Trapping's goals and objectives. S h i f t i n g through the tr a n s c r i p t s of these interviews, I sought out statments that were i n d i c a t i v e of a value or b e l i e f . Statements such as 'there's no free lunch', 'people are precious', 'people should be go-getters', 'people should be usef u l ' , were c l a s s i f i e d as value statements along with more d i r e c t statments such as 'honesty i s an important value'. Many of these statements blended and shared a t t r i b u t e s , making i t d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e the key point the speaker was attempting to make. There did however, appear to be eight common themes running throughout the interviews supplemented by s i x other values statments which stood out but were expressed by only one or two of the respondents. Value I - The Three A's: Ambition, Assertion, Achievement As with each values statement,I have summarized and synthesized a multitude of statments made by the key informants. Though the phrasing i s mine, the content was provided by the respondents. The f i r s t values statment I have summarized as the statement: "You should be assertive, ambitious and achievement oriented". This i s of course, an amalgamation of a cl u s t e r of values which were usually mentioned i n conjunction with each other. The 'Three A's" a l l have a dynamic, goal-oriented tone about them which implies that to succeed to whatever you are doing i s of great importance. I t also implies that being active i s preferable to being passive. Seven 142 informants stressed t h i s value and only one of the f i v e present or former CATS' employees did not stress i t s importance. Value II - Each. Individual i s Precious I have used Hawkenson's phrasing to epitomize t h i s c l u s t e r of value statments. The c l u s t e r includes such statements as 'you should avoid s e l f - d i s t r u c t i v e behaviour', 'you should b u i l d self-respect', 'each person has a great p o t e n t i a l ' , 'each i n d i v i d u a l i s of value", 'each i n d i v i d u a l i s worthwhile', and 'man i s good". Once again, there were seven informants who stressed t h i s value, four of whom were present or former employees. Value III - Each i n d i v i d u a l has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to  control his/her l i f e . The inherentness of the a b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l to e f f e c t and control one's l i f e i s a common element of the f i r s t three value statments. If i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive of anyone working i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f i e l d without t h i s being one of t h e i r basic working assumptions. The key element of t h i s statement which provides i t s uniqueness i s i t s emphasis on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The c l u s t e r of statements subsumed under Value III contains such phrases as "people are responsible f or t h e i r actions', 'people must accept the con-sequences of t h e i r actions', 'each person ought to r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l ' . I t assumes that a l l people have a choice and are, i n a sense, creators of t h e i r own environment or s i t u a t i o n . I t 143 assumes that i t i s not only our r i g h t but our duty to control our own l i f e s . Eight informants mentioned t h i s value and once again four of the f i v e former or current s t a f f included i t i n t h e i r statements. Value IV - You should have reverance and respect for others Every informant referred to t h i s value at le a s t once. In one sense i t i s a l o g i c a l extension of Value I I . Value II however i s more concerned with each person b e l i e v i n g i n t h e i r own preciousness while Value IV serves as a reminder that others must be seen i n the same l i g h t . Reference to t h i s value i s contained i n such phrases as 'you should have thoughtfulness and regard for others', 'only ask others to do what you w i l l do', "I'm not the most important person i n the world', 'be f a i r ' , 'care for others', and 'be concerned for others'. Value V - You should be cooperative and useful i n the community. While t h i s value shares attr i b u t e s with I and IV i t s difference l i e s i n the communal u t i l i t a r i a n e s s of i t s objectives. For some of the informants t h i s value also implies that i t i s necessary to share with others before you can be s e l f - f u l f i l l e d . Reference to t h i s value c l u s t e r i s made i n such statements as; 'you can't be happy i f you hoard success to y o u r s e l f , 'share your success', 'help friends', 'be a useful c i t i z e n ' , 'contribute something 144 to society', 'be cooperative', 'be constructive for society'. Seven of the imformants made these and si m i l a r statements. Value VI - You must earn your own way. There are two overriding implications derived from t h i s value c l u s t e r : 1) a person cannot depend on others f o r t h e i r basic needs, and 2) you must work or expend e f f o r t to survive. These ideas are expressed i n statements such as 'you can't be free i f you are dependant on someone else', 'the guys have to learn to earn t h e i r own way', ' you have to work hard' , ' there' s no free lunch.' , and ' you only get what you give'. Half of the informants o f f e r r e d t h i s type of state-ment as an expression of Camp Trapping values. Value VII - Live within the rules Six informants believed that Camp Trapping taught the value and importance of l i v i n g within the confines of society's laws and conventions. This was expressed i n such statements as 'be lawabiding', 'do what's expected of you i n an acceptable manner', 'accept things you can't change', and 'an i n d i v i d u a l can't l i v e without structure'. Value VIII - Openess A l l of the current Camp Trapping employees believed that 'openess' i s an important Camp Trapping value. Although only one 145 other informant mentioned i t , i t appears that those working with the s-tudents believe i t i s an active operating p r i n c i p l e . I t i s expressed i n such, statements as 'be honest', 'trust yourself and others', and \be open'. I t seems to imply that honest communication with and t r u s t of others benefits the i n d i v i d u a l . Value statments IX to XIV d i d not appear to f i t comfortably within any of the preceeding categories. Although one might assume that they r e f e r to one or more of Values I to VIII, they also appear to me as having messages of t h e i r own. They are as follows: IX : 'You can't force values down another's throat' (II X : 'Democracy' (1) XI : C h r i s t i a n ethics (.2). XII: 'Be p o s i t i v e " CD XIII: 'Be happy' (11 XIV : 'you grow through facing challenges' (.21 KEY INFORMANT VALUES STATEMENTS BY TYPE OF INFORMANT I_ II III IV V VI Current Director X X X X X o Current Staff Male o X X X o X Current Staff Female X X o X X X Founder X X X X X X Former Director X o X X o X CATS Member Male o X X X X X CATS Member Female X o X X X o Referring Agent X X o X X o Referring Agent X o X X X o Referring Agent o X X X o o TOTALS 7 7 8 10 7 5 x = made statements agreeing with value, o = did not. VII VIII IX X . XI XII XIII XIV x x x o o o o x x x o o o o o x x x o o o o o o o o o x x X o o O O O o o X O O O O o o O O O X X o o p X O O O O X X O O O O o o X o O O O o o ~ 4 2 I I I 2 147 Camp Trapping's Moral/Ethical Perspective Taken as a whole, t h i s value system Cstatements I-XIVl immediately exclued the philosophical b e l i e f that people are inherently 'bad'. Concensus on Value IV, and seven of ten agreeing with Value II could lead one to believe that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of key informants believes that Camp Trapping believes people are inherently 'good'. From t h i s perspective, individuals who exhibit 'bad' behaviours are not 'bad' i n themselves. They are, instead, misguided and must be redirected to the source of t h e i r own inherent goodness. The emphasis placed on valued I, V, VI, and VII however, leads me to believe that the predominant assumption about human nature expressed here i s that a human being presents a tabula rasa or neutral e n t i t y who can choose to be ei t h e r good or bad. Developing t h i s one step further, the informants appear to be saying that an enlightened s e l f i n t e r e s t should lead one to the conclusion that s e l f and others are of equal value and that one cannot succeed without the help of others and without helping them i n return. The i d e a l person emerging from t h i s values composite has somehow managed to love her/himself and others, share and cooperate with others, while at the same time r e a l i z i n g his or her own goals and p o t e n t i a l . This t o t a l l y integrated i n d i v i d u a l has a f i n e l y developed sense of s o c i a l duty and s e l f care. He i s able to achieve h i s ambitions without harming others and w i l l help others whenever possible. She i s able to do t h i s because of the great inner p o t e n t i a l and preciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l . 148 The informants' opinions on other Camp Trapping aspects provide further value statements (see Appendix).. They are not, however, i n contradiction to what we have already seen. The most important of these i s the informants' b e l i e f that actions are far more s i g n i f i c a n t than intentions. In the Camp Trapping m i l i e u one learns through doing; one i s understood and interpreted through one's behaviour. An individual's intent, thoughts, and value system are not as relevant as the ind i v i d u a l ' s actions. Camp Trapping's emphasis on routine, physical a c i t v i t y , and personal d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n are examples of t h i s stance, as i s i t s adherence to Rea l i t y Therapy and Behavioural management techniques. Another assumption (and hence value stancel that emerges, concerns the importance of challenge and struggle i n the learning process. We have already seen that the prevalent b e l i e f at Camp Trapping i s that one learns best by d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v i t y and that one learns most e f f e c t i v e l y by confronting and overcoming a va r i e t y of obstacles which are taken on as personal challenges. Struggle and confrontation are thus 'good' a c t i v i t i e s which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f development and s o c i a l order. The Canadian Context I t i s su r p r i s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to locate a concise ' o f f i c i a l ' statement of Canadian values. Perhaps our attempt to incorporate 149 a wide range of philosophies, p o l i t i c a l doctorines, r e l i g i o u s and cultures makes us reluctant to advocate any one set of guiding p r i n c i p l e s . Yet, i f you were to show the l i s t of Camp Trapping values to a random sample of Canadians I believe you would f i n d that, by and large, the l i s t would be considered an accurate expression of what Canadians think they should believe. In h i s booklet Enduring Values , the Saskatchewan educator Henry Janzen presents a l i s t of nine 'cardinal p r i n c i p l e s f or e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g ' or 'core value concepts'. They are as follows: 11 esta b l i s h i n g warm relationships with others; 2) accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; 3). demonstrating courage and s e l f d i s c i p l i n e ; 4). f e e l i n g reverance; 5) promoting respect for law and order; 6) developing responsible re l a t i o n s h i p s with the oppostive sex; 7) learning responsible f i n a n c i a l management; 81 developing international understanding and concern; 91 maturing into i n t e g r i t y . 1. Although Camp Trapping writings and the key informants make no s p e c i f i c reference to points s i x and eight, we can see that the two l i s t s (Janzen and Camp Trapping) have a great deal i n common • I believe i t i s safe to assume that Camp Trapping has created a value system that i s clo s e l y attuned to Canadian culture. Key Informants - Camp Trapping's Goals A number of informants mentioned very s p e c i f i c goals such as teaching good nurtional habits, personal hygiene, punctuality, good 150 manners, consistency, completing assigned tasks and improved physical condition. While these may well be important aspects of the program, I have assumed that a l l of them are covered under the broader goal categories that emerged. These s p e c i f i c goal statements are a l l covered i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y i n the chart system described i n Chapter 2.4. Five broad goal statements emerged from my interpretation of the key informant's statements. They are as follows: 11 end or s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce lawbreaking, 2) to provide immediate s o c i a l control and consequences i n an i s o l a t e d but supportive environment, 3) to provide p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l s k i l l s , 4) to encourage personal growth i n s o c i a l l y accepted manner, 5) to mold the students into more acceptable c i t i z e n s over and above ending t h e i r law breaking a c t i v i t i e s . These goal statements are the r e s u l t of a preliminary and tentative content analysis of the information provided during the interviews. Each goal statement i s based on a very subjective amalgamation of key informant comments. Category I, "to end or s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce law breaking', i s a paraphrasing of statements such as : "Graduates should keep out of trouble with the law", "Camp Trapping i s designed to treat hard core delinquents' and "Camp Trapping t r i e s to get the kids out of a delinquent rut". Every person interviewed mentioned something to t h i s e f f e c t . Category- IX, "To provide immediate s o c i a l control and consequences 151 for juvenile law breakers i n an appropriate and supportive environment" expands on Category I. I t i s the most punitive of the categories expressing as i t does a clear desire to protect society i n an cost e f f e c t i v e but humane environment while providing 1 appropriate' consequences for the misdeeds the Camp Trapping students have commited. I t i s best exemplified by the key informant-provided statement "Camp Trapping i s designed to remove troublesome people from the community and provide appropriate consequences". I t also contains statements such as "to provide an al t e r n a t i v e to j a i l or containment", and "to provide containment and consequences i n an cost e f f e c t i v e manner". Category I I I , "To teach p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l s k i l l s to the students" includes statements l i k e "students should learn to r e l a t e well to t h e i r families and others", and "students should learn to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r actions and to accept the consequences". It also includes statements that describe the type of s o c i a l s k i l l s that the students should develop. They should be able to "control themselves", "think t h e i r way through d i f f i c u l t i e s " , "think and act constructively i n a group" and "look a f t e r themselves" (e.g. f i n a n c i a l independence). Category IV, "To encourage personal growth, i n a s o c i a l l y accepted manner", focuses on s e l f improvement. Key informants believed i t was important for the students to learn to f e e l better about them-selves and develop s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s that would help them succeed i n a s o c i a l l y accepted manner. This category includes such statements as 152 "Camp Trapping should l e t them experience success i n non-delinquent a c t i v i t i e s " , "provide them with a stronger i d e n t i t y " and "provide them with more s e l f worth ". Category V, "To make them better c i t i z e n s " takes us beyond passive or negative d e f i n i t i o n s of the i d e a l graduate i n respect to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to society. I t speaks of the students' and the society's need to have the students contribute to the society i n a p o s i t i v e and constructive fashion. I t includes statements such as "Camp Trapping should make them p o s i t i v e , constructive and consistent citizens," "... teach them that they have to f i t into a highly structured and routine world" and "... give them something acceptable to believe i n and follow." Although categories I I I and IV seem to have much i n common, the former concentrates on outward manifestations of acceptable behaviour while the l a t t e r concentrates on feelings and behaviours relevant pr i m a r i l y to the i n d i v i d u a l . Categories V and III are also s i m i l a r , the former however concentrates only on what society wants to see whereas the l a t t e r focuses more on the s o c i a l s k i l l s the informants wish to see students develop. Category I may be seen as the minimum requirement i n Category V but because of the nature of the Camp Trapping c l i e n t e l e i t receives a very strong emphasis and should be viewed as a separate goal. We can see how the goals and values compliment and blend with, one another. While there i s c e r t a i n l y less emphasis on the preciousness of the s e l f and others, more functional equivalents of these values can be found i n goal areas I I I , IV and V. 153 Conformity ,usefulness and s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y are the predominant themes i n goals i n and IV. These correspond to key values VI -'you must earn your own way', and VII, ' l i v e within the r u l e s ' . F i n a l l y , the goal statements also recognize the neccessity of placing controls on individuals and protecting society. In society's eyes, Camp Trapping i s a control of and consequence for inappropriate behaviour. If our key informants are correct, i t i s one of the most important aspects of Camp Trapping as far as the average c i t i z e n i s concerned. I f t h i s were the only goal however, l i t t l e more than a j a i l would be needed. ************************ Chapter 3 and 4 have provided, I hope, a bird's eye view of Camp Trapping. The description these chapters contain could be obtained without ever v i s i t i n g the Trapping Lake s i t e . I t i s a descr i p t i o n i n short, of what i s said about Camp Trapping. While c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s between Camp Trapping and the Turnerian r i t e s of passage theory can already be detected, i t would be unf a i r to begin any analysis of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p without f i r s t examining what ac t u a l l y occurs i n d a i l y l i f e at Camp Trapping. The next chapter attempts to provide a description of a t y p i c a l 5 month Camp Trapping session and a t y p i c a l Camp Trapping day. While i t i s a step closer to Camp Trapping's r e a l i t y , the reader must remember that the biases and selectiveness I bring to t h i s study have undoubtedly shaped and f i l t e r e d the description i n Chapter 4. 154 CHAPTER FIVE WHAT IS DONE 155 The F i r s t Three Months of the Winter-Spring 1983 Camp It was a hot sunny day i n early May when I f i r s t returned to Camp Trapping. I had hitched a rid e into camp with the program's d i r e c t o r , Rob R a i l . He, Rick, one of the counsellors, and myself had squeezed into the cab of Rob's pickup a f t e r loading a v a r i e t y of supplies into the back of the truck. Rick had a p l a s t e r cast on his r i g h t arm, which now placed him i n the evergrowing "temporarily handicapped counsellor" category. Unfortunately, i t had been that kind of camp. None of these p a r t i a l l y incapacitated counsellors had been injured on the job, but they a l l had i n j u r i e s that reduced t h e i r l e v e l of involvement with t h i s group of students. Rick was the t h i r d counsellor t h i s camp to be wearing;-a cast. Everyone was t e l l i n g me. how t h i s group of boys was an exceptionally d i f f i c u l t group to work with. Most of the s t a f f were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the amount of progress they had made with the students and were frustrated i n t h e i r own attempts to e s t a b l i s h a good working rapport with much of the group. Most of the s t a f f had been with CATS for at l e a s t a year and a h a l f and had at l e a s t four other camps to compare t h i s one with. The boys, i t seems, were bigger, meaner and tougher than any group they had seen i n the l a s t two years. I had been t o l d a l l t h i s i n the CATS o f f i c e that morning and during my b r i e f v i s i t to Prince George two months e a r l i e r . Now, as we drove south from Prince George down Highway 97, l i t t l e was said. We were a l l l o s t i n our own thoughts. I watched the 156 countryside r o l l by and thought back to a 'camp .' I had pa r t i c i p a t e d i n as aftercare coordinator. It had been described i n the same terms. Cddly enough, that camp had also been plagued with numerous s t a f f i n j u r i e s and i l l n e s s e s . I t had not been the best of times and I had seen how quickly the remaining healthy s t a f f had been drained of th e i r energy. Apparently much the same had been occuring i n the Spring, 1982 camp. One of the most severe winters i n recent Prince George h i s t o r y had not helped. L i v i n g under a low l y i n g sheet of grey cloud, being snowed on every day, having to expend most of t h e i r energy shoveling paths and maintaining the firewood supply had preoccupied s t a f f and students for the f i r s t month of the program. Now, however, three months from i t s beginning on February 9th, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Camp Trapping community was getting the be a u t i f u l weather i t had earned through i t s winter struggles. S p i r i t s had r i s e n with the temperature and some of the old v i t a l i t y was beginning to course through the counsellors' veins. We soon came to the Woodpeacker Ranch Road turn-off where a hand-made sign pointed east to Camp Trapping. As we drove up the logging road I reminded myself that I was no longer a counsellor at Camp Trapping but an observer. I t had already proven very easy to s l i p back into a counsellor's perspective of Camp Trapping, and I did not want that to happen. Even though I would be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program, I could not be viewed by either the s t a f f or students as one of t h e i r cohorts. As we drove those l a s t four miles to the 157 lake, I was beginning to r e a l i z e that maintaining t h i s r o l e would be -more d i f f i c u l t than I had anticipated. Being overly f a m i l i a r with one point of view of t h i s community might, i t appeared, have i t s disadvantages. I had chosen Camp Trapping for my f i e l d work because i t was while working at the camp that I had f i r s t seen the possible r e l a t i o n s h i p between r i t e s of passage and the design of therapeutic or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n communities. I had chosen the p a r t i c i p a n t observer research model as the only method available that could examine t h i s hypothetical connection given the lack of previous research i n t h i s area and given the nature of the type of information X would be seeking. The d i f f i c u l t y i n being a neutral but p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l at Camp Trapping was only now becoming evident. Physical Setting of Camp Trapping Camp Trapping points north l i k e a knobby finger. I t stands close to the eastern edge of a ridge that overlooks the s i x mile band of farmland separating i t from the Fraser River, This b e a u t i f u l panorama can only be c l e a r l y seen at cer t a i n points along the old logging road that winds i t s way up to the lake. The lake i t s e l f i s surrounded by a narrow band of trees, l a r g e l y spruce, which had been l e f t untouched by the loggers. By climbing the h i l l immediately to the east and south, of the lake, one can look east to a vast expanse of logged-off rugged h i l l s that provide an introduction to the Cariboo Mountains. Scattered b i r c h , scrub brush, second growth pine and spruce and a 158 159 profusion of wild flowers cover these h i l l s . Looking north-, one sees a t h i c k stand of conifers which hides more farm land just a few miles away. Camp Trapping i s located at the southwestern corner of the lake. Here one finds a small, crescent shaped c l e a r i n g containing only a few t a l l conifers among a scattering of buildings.As with the re s t of the lake, the land slopes gently to i t s edge providing easy access to the water. There i s a small marsh at the southern t i p of the lake through which a feeder stream flows. A va r i e t y of ducks use the marsh as a nesting area. Immediately south of the marsh i s the 'landing' or playing f i e l d that Camp Trapping sometimes uses for team sports. The logging road branches o f f i n three d i r e c t i o n s at the landing, the northern branch ending at Camp Trapping's yard. Here a hand carved sign points you to the lake's public access road that forms the camp's southern boundary. The same sign informs you that t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of buildings i a Camp Trapping and advises v i s i t o r s to lock t h e i r vehicles and remove a l l valuables. Immediately beyond the sign i s a wide d i r t courtyard and parking l o t bordered on the west by a long b u i l d i n g divided into three sections. This b u i l d i n g houses the garage, the construction trades workshop and the a l l purpose workshop. The power plant and f u e l sheds are hidden behind i t while the garbage shed (well secured against bears), s i t s to the south, of the workshops. The eastern edge of t h i s courtyard i s bound f i r s t by a large propane tank, and then by the b u i l d i n g that serves as school house, meeting place and 1 6 0 recreation h a l l . A small road separates the outhouse and the bunk-house, the two buildings that mark the northern end of the yard. A set of wooden s t a i r s descends from the schoolhouse to the dining h a l l and kitchen, both of which are contained i n one aluminium-sided t r a i l e r . Just to the south of the t r a i l e r s i t s the wellhouse while the old quanset hut, now. a greenhouse, l i e s between the dining room and the lake. One can walk north from the kitchen along a wellworn path, mid-way between the bunkhouse and the lake. This path leads you past an ol d wharf and over to the sauna and i t s woodshed. A new wharf f l o a t s on the lake i n front of the sauna. There are two other small buildings on the s i t e . One immediately behind the sauna contains each person's canoeing and backpacking equipment i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d lockers. The other, between the bunkhouse and the f i r s t shed, contains an assortment of o u t - t r i p equipment and a v a r i e t y of hand too l s . The cleared crescent ends immediately to the north of the sauna and o u t - t r i p shed but a path beginning at the shed leads you another two hundred yards to the counsellor's cabin i n which counsellors can stay during t h e i r time o f f . This cabin was to become my refuge, a place where I could r e t i r e to write, read and sleep. There i s no consistency i n the design of the buildings except for t h e i r shining~ t i n roofs. The bunkhouse and powerplant shed 161 log structures, the former with i t s logs placed v e r t i c a l l y , the l a t t e r with them l a i d h o r i z o n t a l l y . The workshop, shoolhouse, sheds and sauna are of plywood and frame construction. Large stores of firewood are stacked neatly under shelters along the west and north sides of the bunkhouse. These buildings had accumlated slowly during Trapping's eleven years. In 1979, there was no f u e l shed and no w e l l , while the schoolhouse and workshop were hal f t h e i r present s i z e . There was some t a l k now of adding a second story to the bunkhouse. Camp Trapping's natural environment i s the essence of Cariboo country. The ridge on which i t s i t s marks the eastern edge of a t h i n inhabited band of good farmland bordering the Fraser River. East of the ridge l i e s wilderness. Vast logged-off areas c r i s s -crossed with logging roads spread through the forested land between Trapping Lake and B a r k e r v i l l e , s i x t y miles to the east. This land i s a l l but uninhabited by humankind. Trappers, hunters, loggers and prospectors v i s i t the f o r e s t , take from them, but seldom stay long. A large population of bear (black and grizzly)., moose, coyote; the tangled forests and sodden marshes,all demand that the t r a v e l l e r treats t h i s country with caution and respect. Your i n i t i a l impressions of the s i t e could vary considerably depending on the day of your a r r i v a l . I f you f i r s t see Camp Trapping i n an unoccupied state during the summer you may be impressed with the almost e r i e silence that embraces a ghost town. I t w i l l be s t i l l enough f o r you to hear the lake lapping against i t s shore as you stand on the bunkhouse porch. The sound of your boots as you walk 162 walk on the wooden porches and boardwalks seems to l i n g e r , reverberating i n the a i r . An almost ever-present wind w i l l be r u s t l i n g the bushes and causing the conifers to sway and creak. An o c c i s i o n a l barn swallow may swoop close to investigate you while the sound of a wood-pecker digging for i t s lunch comes to you from the forest. Occasionally your attention w i l l be drawn to the lake by a soft splash. At f i r s t you w i l l only see the r i p p l e s on the water but then another rainbow trout w i l l suddenly breech the surface. The ducks w i l l occasionally c a l l to each other. You may be fourtunate enough to hear t h e i r singing wings as they f l y overhead. On occasion, a beaver from the northern end of t h i s mile long lake may venture to i t s southern end. An abandoned beaver lodge s i t s across the lake from the camp, reminding us of our encroachment onto t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . I t i s quite l i k e l y that you w i l l see a black bear on the road or near the camp's slop hole (a p i t f o r organic refuse). The bears have been a problem at times but usually mind t h e i r own business. The buildings w i l l a l l be locked but i f you peer into a number of the windows you w i l l see that the place i s occupied. You w i l l notice the neatly made beds and the clothes hanging from the drying rack over the large woodstove i n the centre of the bunkhouse. An open book may be l y i n g face down on one of the beds. If you ignore f o r a moment the shining white aluminium cook-house and the propane tank., you could e a s i l y imagine yourself to have walked back a hundred years i n time to f i n d yourself i n an old logging camp recently carved on the edge of an uncharted wilderness. 163 Camp Trapping does not impose i t s e l f on t h i s land. You are very aware of the connection between humans and nature at t h i s place, the former blending i n with, and depending on the l a t t e r . If you a r r i v e at the camp when i t s residents are at home, the fe e l i n g i s quite d i f f e r e n t . Everything you saw and f e l t when the place was empty remains, but i s now a background to the busy goings-on of a human community. The power plant's constant hum i s ever present at the edge of consciousness. The various sounds of hand and power tools often predominate. Human voices can be heard from inside the buildings and without. Two or three people are chopping and sawing wood beside the bunkhouse while another crew c a r r i e s a prefabricated roof truss from i t s birthplace i n the workshop. A truck i d l e s i n the yard while the crawler t r a c t o r clanks and rumbles down the road. Two or three students may be s i t t i n g at t h e i r desks on the school's porch b u s i l l y writing or reading while the teacher squwats by one of them,quietly discussing a p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t math problem. Smoke i s r i s i n g from the sauna's chimney and a r a t t l e of dishes f l o a t s up from the kitchen. Two dogs f i g h t p l a y f u l l y i n the courtyard while a counsellor and student s i t i n animated conversation just a few feet away. Although the place i s a l i v e with human a c t i v i t y , i t maintains i t s close connection to i t s environment. When the work crews put down t h e i r t o o l s , nature quickly reasserts i t s e l f . I t i s a small community incapable of overpowering i t s natural surroundings. Somehow t h i s makes each a c t i v i t y and each i n d i v i d u a l unique and observable. 164 They are not l o s t i n an endless and anonymous flow of action. L i f e appears ordered and controllable - not controlled - but capable of being con t r o l l e d . L i f e appears manageable i f not managed. Of course the mood at Camp Trapping can change somewhat with the seasons and the weather. In the winter months much of the d a i l y a c t i v i t y w i l l be indoors. The v a r i e t y of i t s natural environment w i l l be homogenized by a thick covering of snow. The mud and heavy rains of spring may also keep much of the a c t i v i t y indoors as can the r a i n and strong winds of autumn. The mood i s also profoundly, i f more subtly affected by the camp's inhabitants and the d a i l y events they create. At times there can be a thick aura of tension, animosity and wariness. On others oc-casions Camp Trapping can exude a joyfulness, playfulness and warmth that would make anyone want to c a l l i t home. Yet through a l l these changes, Camp Trapping never looses that f e e l i n g of a manageable, ordered world. I t appears complete i n i t s e l f and compatible with i t s environment. The 1983 Spring Camp - The Residents As we have seen, three groups of twelve students pass through Camp Trapping each year. Each group i s unique, as i s each, i n d i v i d u a l . The students attending the spring 1982 camp ranged i n age from four-teen to seventeen with, the average age being sixteen. They came from as f ar away as Prince Rupert and Fort St, John although, the majority 165 were from the Prince George area. A t o t a l of thirteen students attended part or a l l of t h i s camp. Two of the o r i g i n a l students were no longer with the group by May, one being freed by the court and the other removed at the s t a f f ' s request. A t h i r d student arrived i n the second month of the program as a replacement. This p a r t i c u l a r youth had already spent three months at the Autumn 1981 camp but had not graduated. During the f i r s t week- of my stay there were only ten students i n the camp. The eleventh- arrived shortly a f t e r , having spent a month i n the Youth Detention Centre (YDC or Willingdon) i n Burnaby at the camp's request. This boy had been one of the o r i g i n a l group that had arrived i n February. Two of the eleven students had been referred by the Minis t r y of Human Resources (MHR) while the remainder had been referred by probation o f f i c e r s . Although one student had arriv e d without a court order, a l l of them had been involved i n law breaking a c t i v i t i e s . As a general rule t h i s included breaking and entering, car t h e f t and t h e f t under two hundred d o l l a r s . On boy had an assault charge against him. Aside from t h e i r delinquent a c t i v i t i e s , a l l of the students had exhibited some other form of behavioural problem. One was known to have s u i c i d a l tendancies, another to be involved i n chronic alcohol abuse. Alcohol and drug abuse, disobedience at home and 166 school and an apparent d i s ~ i n t e r e s t or r e f u s a l to involve themselves i n the accepted a c t i v i t i e s and aspirations of t h e i r age group were common at t r i b u t e s . Over ha l f the boys came from either single parent, reconstituted or foster f a m i l i e s . A number of the natural f a m i l i e s had t h e i r own hi s t o r y of criminal a c t i v i t y , violence and alco h o l / drug abuse. The common points of reference for a l l these boys how-ever remains law breaking, and what can only be described as d i s -obedience or inappropriate behavioural patterns. The communities, the schools and the families had been unable to control these youths or guide them to e f f e c t i v e and s o c i a l l y acceptable l i f e s t y l e s . The Camp Trapping Employees The teaching and counselling s t a f f ranged i n age from twenty -one to t h i r t y . The program d i r e c t o r and aftercare coordinator had worked at Camp Trapping for over three years while the average length of employment for the counsellors was appraching the two year mark. Only one counsellor had been employed f o r l e s s than a year. The three Camp Trapping support s t a f f were a l l over f o r t y - f i v e and had been involved with the camp from three to f i v e years. Both the o f f i c e manager and the cook had worked for three d i f f e r e n t program d i r e c t o r s since t h e i r a r r i v a l at the camp. Seven of the counselling and teaching s t a f f held a u n i v e r s i t y degree of some sort. The areas of study represented were psychology, phys i c a l education, k i n e t i c s , education, sociology and recreation education. There were no graduate degrees:- Those who did not have 167 a u n i v e r s i t y education brought with- them an extensive and diverse background. Taken as a whole, the s k i l l s and experiences t h i s group possessed were quite impressive. They included such, things as ins t r u c t o r ' s c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n skii n g , canoeing, gymnastics and a wide v a r i e t y of group sports. C e r t i f i c a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l f i r s t a i d , rock and i c e climbing, kung Eu and scuba diving were also included. Most of the s t a f f had had some experience i n a va r i e t y of outdoor labouring jobs such as forest f i r e f i g h t i n g , truck d r i v i n g , skidder operator, surveying, prospecting, tree planting, carpentry, lumber m i l l work, ranch and farm work, m i l i t a r y service and general labour. Interestingly, only f i v e of the s t a f f had any previous experience employed i n a counselling or teaching capacity and only two had had previous work experience with delinquent youth. This group of unique and diverse i n d i v i d u a l s appeared to share only two common at t r i b u t e s (as viewed from t h e i r resumes)., a love of and involvement i n outdoor and physical a c t i v i t i e s and a general desire to work with youth at Camp Trapping. The support s t a f f also l e n t v a r i e t y to the camp m i l i e u . A l l long time B.C. residents, they o f f e r r e d a wealth, of p r a c t i c a l experience and s k i l l s , shared through t h e i r frequent and intimate contact with, the students. It i s not surprizing to f i n d such, d i v e r s i t y i n a program that 168 prides, i t s e l f on the v a r i e t y of experiences i t o f f e r s . We should also remember that the s t a f f are as much models as they are "counsellors'. I f Camp Trapping can o f f e r fourteen unique and successful l i f e models i t i s assumed that the students are provided with- a greater range of appropriate l i f e models.. Camp Trapping, recognizing the uniqueness of each, of i t s students, attempts to increase i t s a b i l i t y to est a b l i s h intimacy, t r u s t and rapport with them by ensuring that i t s counsellors represent a broad cross section of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and l i f e s t y l e s . By the time of my a r r i v a l at Camp Trapping, the spring program had been running f o r three months. The twenty-five people i n t h i s community had already developed reasonably well established patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n . This p a r t i c u l a r group of students had, as a general rule stubbornly maintained i t s s o l i d a r i t y as a peer group i n opposition to the s t a f f . While there were many open breeches i n t h i s d i v i s i v e n e s s , and many more covert breeches, students were s t i l l 'us' to the s t a f f ' s 'them'. No group of Camp Trapping students ever discards t h i s mistrust completly but the s t a f f f e l t i t was stronger and more r e s i s t e n t than at previous camps. Among the students, there were some d i s t i n c t groupings. John and Chris shared a s i m i l a r native heritage and a love for music. Wendall and Vincent had what appeared to be a genuine empathy f o r each other and of f e r r e d each other t h e i r support. Both were often scapegoats and victims of the tougher boys, Roy and Jerry were both street wise and tough. They were i n many respects the most repres-entative of the juvenile delinquent stereotype. Both had d i f f i c u l t 169 home l i f e s and lengthy involvements with- the court and s o c i a l service network.. They were the most openly defiant and antagonistic and spent much, of t h e i r time together, Roy as the i n s t i g a t o r and Jerry as the follower. None of these dyads were inseperable. They were merely the most obvious and consistent r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There was another group that could be defined more by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the program than to each other. This consisted of Robert, Reg, David and Don. By March these four had managed to master the basic requirements of the program and had decided to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the camp a c t i v i t i e s . Three had attained Level Two and one had become the f i r s t student i n the camp1s hi s t o r y to a t t a i n Level Three. There were others who had earned Level Two (L2) and then f a l l e n back, and then there was Jerry who had reached L2 for the f i r s t time during my stay. Only Robert, Reg, David and Don had maintained what the camp referred to as Level Two behaviour f o r any length of time. The four L2 students d i d not form any obvious close attachments to each other or to any Camp Trapping peer subgroup. Three of them had managed to earn the respect of both t h e i r peers and the s t a f f yet remained unattached to either group. The fourth had managed to earn the s t a f f ' s respect but was not viewed too favourably by the non-level two students. Having been one of the most disruptive and uncooperative students at the camp's beginning, t h i s dramatic character change may have been resented and viewed as desertion by some of the others. He did, however, manage to avoid harassment 170 from the others. Perhaps the most remarkable feature these four young men shared was t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Each, had somehow managed to carve out a unique niche for themselves without depending exclusively on s t a f f or other students to define i t for them. They were a l l , to greater and lesser extents, loners who dealt with others courteously yet d i d not form any apparent close t i e s . The eleventh student had been unable to form any p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the other students. Jim was i s o l a t e d from the others, almost, i t seemed, by choice. Although he, Wendall and Vincent shared the brunt of student harassment, Jim appared to be i n a rather unique p o s i t i o n . Other students were not openly antagonistic to him. Instead, they appeared to be affronted by h i s apparently passive d i s i n t e r e s t with them and the program i n general. If there was one thing that s t a f f and students appeared to agree on, i t was t h e i r d i s t a s t e for Jim's voluntary non-involvement with l i f e at camp. The students had also formed t h e i r opinions of and rel a t i o n s h i p s with the s t a f f by the month of May. There was very l i t t l e strong p a i r bonding i n evidence although three of the students appeared to have a close r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with at l e a s t one of the counsellors. Two of the counselling s t a f f had managed to earn respect and appreciation from the majority of the students while one counsellor was d i s l i k e d and shunned by the majority. Each, student had one or two s t a f f members whom he l i k e d and appreciated. In private conversation, the actions and words of these counsellors 171 would often be referred to by the student i n a p o s i t i v e sense. By the same token, each, student would have one or two counsellors i n mind when they wished to describe unpalatable actions and attitudes at the camp. These student l i k e s and d i s l i k e s were spread evenly throughout the s t a f f such that most counsellors and the teachers were l i k e d , respected or d i s l i k e d i n about the same proportion. The two support s t a f f who worked at the camp were l i k e d and appreciated by the vast majority of the students. Staff had likewise formed t h e i r impression of and attachments with the students. Although two s t a f f mentioned that they and most counsellors had favourites among the students, there was l i t t l e evidence of overt favouritism. Cert a i n l y the Level Two and Three students were given more priveledges and treated more as equals but i t was impossible to t e l l i f t h i s had occurred before these students had obtained t h e i r higher status; status which by d e f i n i t i o n gave them more priveledges and equality. Most of the Level One and charted students received as much i f not more personal attention. There was a general concensus among the s t a f f as to which of the students were the most disruptive and troublesome. Two students were mentioned con s i s t e n t l y i n t h i s respect yet each was viewed i n a very d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . One was generally l i k e d and dealt with compassionately while the other was d i s l i k e d and avoided by most of the s t a f f . I n t e r - s t a f f relationships created t h e i r own dynamics. While I observed only one incidence of s t a f f c r i t i z i n g other s t a f f i n front !'lZ 172 of the students, private conversations revealed a f a i r amount of tension. On separate occasions, three d i f f e r e n t s t a f f members t o l d me of t h e i r desire to f i r e other s t a f f members had they been i n the p o s i t i o n to do so. There were a number of occassions when the approach or counselling s t y l e of other s t a f f were severely c r i t i c i z e d p r i v a t e l y . Whether or not these concerns were every expressed to the in d i v i d u a l s i n question is\ unknown to me although- a number of counsellors informed me that i n the recent past the camp's d i r e c t o r often had private conversations with, a number of counsellors concerning t h e i r approach and a b i l i t y . These s t a f f tensions did not, as a r u l e , emerge during the working day. The s t a f f a l l worked together i n a s p i r i t of cooperation and mutual support. Generally, there was a relaxed, joking rapport between s t a f f as they worked. On many occasions and e s p e c i a l l y around meal times, counsellors would continually chide and joke with one another. This joking r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between s t a f f and students and among the students themselves. I t would most often consist of gentle and humourous i n s u l t s or embarassments, frequently based on incidents that had occurred e a r l i e r i n the camp. At times, the students would take the joking one step too f a r and begin to say or do things that would a c t u a l l y hurt another's f e e l i n g s . There were times when t h i s was done i n t e n t i o n a l l y but most often the l i m i t s of t h i s joking r e l a t i o n s h i p were merely forgotten i n the exuberance of the moment. Staff and students a l i k e appeared to have a good understanding 173 of each other's l i m i t s . Students were p a r t i c u l a r i l y adept at knowing just how far they could go with each s t a f f member when joking, arguing, or expressing opinions and concerns. I t appeared that some students enjoyed seeing how far they could push a counsellor, hoping perhaps, to evoke the beginnings of anger and then quickly making c o n c i l i a t o r y jestures. Staff were also adept at t h i s game although, t h e i r purpose was hopefully to push students beyond a p a r t i c u l a r block or l i m i t a t i o n that appeared to be i n h i b i t i n g a student's successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Although the gauging of each other's l i m i t s was not always accurate, most of the people at Camp Trapping had quite a clear understanding of what could and could not be done with each i n d i v i d u a l . In short, by the time of my a r r i v a l , Camp Trapping was no longer a community of strangers. They had been able to develop an adequate working and l i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p based on the recognition of each other's a b i l i t i e s and l i m i t s . While there seemed to be very few close and intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p s , most of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had learned to work and l i v e with one another i n a r e l a t i v e l y relaxed atmosphere. With a l l the students and four of the s t a f f leaving i n l i t t l e more than a month, some of the i n d i v i d u a l s were already beginning to withdraw from involvement with the community i n preparation for t h i s imminent and inevitable separation. Others, recognizing that time was running short were beginning to reach out for assistance and friendship before i t was no longer a v a i l a b l e . I t i s extremely important to remember that Camp Trapping has a set beginning and end. This group's f i r s t month, of cohabitation 174 would have been very d i f f e r e n t i n tone and a c t i v i t y from the month which. I spent there i n May and June, Thirteen weeks before my a r r i v a l , the camp was opened to welcome twelve new ind i v i d u a l s , none of whom knew each other except on the most casual basis. Each student was an unknown to the counselling s t a f f as well. This group of strangers had gone through a very intensive three months i n order to weld them-selves i n t o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y cooperative and peaceable community. To do the program, students and s t a f f j u s t i c e , we should take a quick look at what had transpired between February ninth and May tenth. Nine of the eleven students arrived at the Prince George o f f i c e on the f i r s t day of camp. Aft e r t h e i r belongings were checked, (to make sure t h e i r clothes were marked,that a l l necessary clothing was there, and to confiscate any prohibited a c t i c l e s l the students were hustled into the camp's van and pick up truck and driven out to the lake. They were welcomed by the cold abandoned buildings of Camp Trapping, surrounded and p a r t i a l l y hidden by the heaviest winter snow i n recent Prince George history. There was no time to l i e about. A meagre supply of firewood had to be supplemented, paths had to be dug, f i r e s l i t and water hauled from the well. This was t h e i r i n t r o -duction to Camp l i f e . No welcoming speech, no personal interviews but plenty of work. Only l a t e r , when the esse n t i a l chores were complete and t h e i r clothing put away, were they able to s i t down together with the s t a f f to hear t h e i r i n i t i a l o r i e n tation to the rules and expectations of Camp Trapping. 175 Robert gave me Ms impressions of the f i r s t day: "They started throwing l i t t l e challenges at you r i g h t away. A l l we did was work for the f i r s t couple of hours, and some of these guys had never worked i n t h e i r l i v e s . Having your tailor-mades (cigarettes), taken from you and having to learn how to r o l l your own was r e a l l y hard too. No one had every l i v e d i n a bunkhouse before either. Like, you didn't have much privacy with everyone, even the counsellors, sleeping i n one b i g room. You couldn't just turn on the tap for a drink of water or turn up the thermostat i f you got cold. A l o t of guys found not being able to swear r e a l l y hard too. I t was a l l pretty strange." The students had been at the camp for l e s s than twenty-four hours before being introduced to the four mile run. Although, the f i r s t week of the run was not charted, the students were s t i l l expected to go the entire distance. I t i s impossible to describe the formidable appearance of that road to one who must run i t . Running two miles downhill and two miles up before sunrise i n subzero weather was most d e f i n i t e l y not the type of a c t i v i t y these boys were used to. No one made i t non-stop i n the a l l o t e d time i n the f i r s t two days. The f i r s t days were f i l l e d with work. As there was no school or vocational program during the f i r s t weeks, most of the boys were busy findi n g , bucking and s p l i t t i n g firewood. Finding the deadfalls was no easy task with f i v e feet of snow on the ground. During t h i s time, the teacher had begun to interview and tes t each student separately to determine t h e i r academic l e v e l of competency. 176 Other than these b r i e f interludes i n the warmth of the school house, the days were f i l l e d with, hard physical outdoor work. Reg, one of the older students who had f a i r l y extensive experience with hard physical labour (logging, farming, o i l rigs) t o l d me that the work was so hard during the f i r s t two weeks that even he had considered running from the camp. For the younger students who had never worked before, i t was i n h i s opinion, "pure h e l l " . Long hours of physical work, the four mile run, an unfamiliar environment and the lack of amenities and friends were not the only challenges these students had to face. There was also the chart system with i t s very p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n s of appropriate actions. The routine and exactness of t h i s system proved very hard for most of these students to handle i n the f i r s t few weeks. Looking back on those early days, there was a general concensus among the students that the s t a f f pushed them very hard at f i r s t and were very s t r i c t about the r u l e s . As one student mentioned, "They didn't l e t you get away with very much. They were always watching r e a l l y close and were r e a l l y picky". Some of the students believed that the s t a f f eased o f f , becoming less p a r t i c u l a r over time, however, one young man voiced h i s opinion that the s t a f f had only 'slacked o f f because the students had gotten used to doing the work the way the s t a f f wanted i t done. The evening sessions were as disconcerting and d i f f i c u l t as any other aspect of the program. Even i n May, thirte e n weeks a f t e r 177 t h e i r introduction, most students continued to d i s l i k e the sessions. When asked why, the answers were generally vague. There was a general concensus that they were a 'p i l e of s h i t 1 and an infringement on t h e i r free time. A number of students admitted that they did not l i k e t a l k i n g or exploring t h e i r inner feelings i n p u b l i c , while a few f e l t that c r i t i q u i n g other students was l i k e breaking ranks with t h e i r peer group, 'squealing' as i t were, thus being seen as siding openly with the counsellors. Many, of the students f e l t that 'their meeting',as the PPC group was referred to, could be used to c r i t i q u e and change the program. When s t a f f p e r s i s t e n t l y turned turned the students' focus away from changing the program and towards changing themselves, sone of the students f e l t f r u s t r a t e d and 'ripped o f f . I t wasn't what they wanted to do so how could i t be t h e i r meeting? By the end of May there were three or four students who had begun to talk-about the meetings i n a more p o s i t i v e fashion but i n i t i a l l y these meetings were seen by a l l as an imposition, a f r u s t r a t i o n and a threat. By the end of the f i r s t week, the new students had already been f u l l y immersed i n Trapping's intense l i f e s t y l e . They were given no respit e . I t was run i n the morning, work a l l day, session i n the evening and i n bed by ten p.m. Even the most outstanding and successful students had wanted to run from the program. For some, the physical i s o l a t i o n and severe climate had been the only things that kept them at the camp. 178 Before the f i r s t week had fi n i s h e d , the students had been introduced to the alternate program and the reward schedule. S t a f f , having already spotted three or four problematic students, had taken these boys up to the alternate s i t e and explained the hows and whys of i t s use. D a i l y l i f e at Camp looked quite luxurious i n comparison. The students were also introduced to crosscountry s k i i n g i n the f i r s t week. They had to learn quickly, as the following week they were scheduled to embark on a f i v e day s k i o u t - t r i p . The weather and the boys' lack of experience combined to force the canc e l l a t i o n of t h i s t r i p , but not before the group had spent an arduous day of u p h i l l s k i i n g . Because the t r i p was cancelled, the second week was much l i k e the f i r s t . The remaining days were f i l l e d with wood cutting, path shovelling, and general maintainance. The f i r s t two weeks of the camp were, i n f a c t , the orientation time f o r t h i s group of young men. The school and construction trades program began i n the t h i r d week, establishing a work pattern that was to continue u n t i l the camp's end, punctuated on occassion with o u t - t r i p s . Although one can examine the counsellors' "log" (, a d a i l y camp d i a r y ) , the session log and the students' charts, i t i s ac t u a l l y very d i f f i c u l t to capture a precise picture of the events and essence of the camp during i t s f i r s t three months. The two logs are very scetchy. Entries seldom go beyond s t a t i n g whether a day was p a r t i c u l a r i l y good or bad or mentioning student actions that stood out i n a p o s i t i v e or negative way. The general tone of the 179 counsellors' log supports what the counsellors t o l d me about the f i r s t three months. Entries bemoaning the lack, of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and progress and i n p a r t i c u l a r documenting a steady stream of undesirable behaviour on the part of three or four students, outweigh the p o s i t i v e , upbeat notations. But t h i s generally negative tone over-shadows the many p o s i t i v e events and encounters that the counsellors recorded. I t was as i f three or four p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t students had managed to capture and control the mood of the spring camp, robbing the counsellors of the pleasure they should have had through watching and partaking i n p o s i t i v e change and growth that the other students were showing to greater or lesser degrees. For example, three students were already earning f u l l rewards by the end of February. By the end of March almost h a l f the camp was at Level One or beyond. B r i e f pages of optimism punctuate the log. Counsellors commented on the p o s i t i v e tone of some of the evening sessions as early as February while productive and enthusiastic work days were noted r e g u l a r i l y . Enjoyable town t r i p s , s k i excursions and pleasant evenings appeared to occur frequently enough while small but important achievements and successes of i n d i v i d u a l students are recorded on nearly every page. There i s no doubt however that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of students presented more than i t s share of d i f f i c u l t i e s . Within the f i r s t three months, seven students spent at l e a s t one night i n c i t y c e l l s , six students spent time at the alternate program and fiv e students 18Q ran from the camp. There was an attempted suicide, two aggressive attacks made against s t a f f and numerous f i g h t s between students. Two or three students were consistently harassing the weaker and less popular students. A l l t h i s contributed to a more or less continuous state of tension and mistrust l y i n g just below the surface of d a i l y l i f e . I t was of l i t t l e comfort for the s t a f f to know that only three students were consistently problematic and behind most of the tension. Two p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome students were no longer with the progam when I arrived and a t h i r d was just completing a month's stay at a containment centre. Their absence had done much to improve the camp's mood. Aside from the tubulent fluctuations of interpersonal relationships and group mood, the Camp Trapping community also had to deal with the many challenges, demands and pleasures of the program. The students had been on two out - t r i p s p r i o r to my a r r i v a l , one an exi c t i n g s k i t r i p to G r i z z l y Den and the other a working o u t - t r i p to the Nakusp Hot Springs. The aftercare coordinator's alternate awareness program had taken them through a v a r i e t y of experiences including group t r u s t exercises,discussions with p o l i c e , clergymen , victims of crime, criminals, employers and educators, and an extensive drug and alcohol education program. They had already begun preparing for the end-of-camp marathon run to Prince George, having begun weekly runs of ten or more miles. Most students had made at l e a s t some progress i n the academic and vocational programs while some had shown hitherto untapped a b i l i t y and s k i l l i n these areas. Three students had securely established: themselves at the Level Two status 181 and another had managed to reach Level Three. Another student was almost at Level Two while one of the Level Two's was on the verge of becoming the second Level Three. No more than two students were consi s t e n t l y f a i l i n g to earn a l l the tangible rewards associated with the chart system. Yet a l l t h i s i s a poor and scanty picture of what occured i n those f i r s t three months. There were no records of the personal struggles, successes and f r u s t r a t i o n s that each student must have f e l t as he confronted challenge a f t e r challenge. Nowhere could I f i n d an adequate description of the many hours of intense and intimate i n t e r a c t i o n that must have occurred. To examine Camp Trapping i n any given month cannot do i t j u s t i c e . Like a school year, l i k e a play, the Camp Trapping program has a d e f i n i t e beginning and end. What happens i n May i s not at a l l l i k e what has happened i n A p r i l or February. I had v i s i t e d the camp for ha l f a day towards the end of March. I t had happened to be during one of the most tension ridden times t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group was to experience. No less than four students had been taken into town and threatened with a stay i n c e l l s that day. Two of them ac t u a l l y stayed i n those c e l l s f o r a day or two. The d i f f i c u l t students were at t h e i r most d i f f i c u l t and s t a f f patience was wearing very t h i n . I f the majority of the s t a f f had had t h e i r way, at l e a s t three students would have been permanently removed from the program. Tension and fatigue, were etched on the 182 faces of a l l the counsellors and teachers. Six weeks l a t e r the worst appeared to be over. Everyone was more relaxed, p l a y f u l and thoughtful. With two of the most trouble-some students gone from the program, the remaining residents had been able to create a reasonably cooperative community. The counsellors had been able to concentrate more on the students who were t r y i n g to succeed. S t a f f and students a l i k e were beginning to t r u s t and respect one another. Students were suddenly beginning to r e a l i z e that they would be leaving very soon. Four s t a f f members were also preparing to leave the program, two permanently and two for the summer only. Leave-taking, separations and the future were to be the major themes i n the next f i v e weeks. What follows i s a chapter which describes a ' t y p i c a l ' day i n the l i f e of Camp Trapping. It i s , of course, a composite of events which took place throughout the f i v e weeks of my stay at the camp. I t was d i f f i c u l t to decide how best to present the information I had gathered through my p a r t i c i p a n t observation r o l e . I wanted to present as best I could the essence of l i f e at the camp. Consequently, I did not wish to present t h i s information i n a categorized or abstract fashion, loosing as i t would, the tone and pace which are i n t e g r a l parts of the program design. This chapter i s thus an attempt to provide the reader with a b r i e f glimpse of l i f e as i t i s l i v e d at Camp Trapping. 183 Camp Trapping - A Snapshot The bunkhouse i s very quite i n the early morning. I t i s 6:35 a.m., the sun has been up for over an hour and now streams through the curtainless windows. A l l the occupants are asleep, most with the covers up over t h e i r heads to block out the sun. Outside, swallows, robins and crows are providing a natural r e v e i l l e , while inside the buzz and whine of a few insects are the only accompaniments to the r u s t l e s and snorts of the sleepers. An alarm clock t i c k s away on the windowsill beside Rod's head. Rod, a counsellor for almost two years now, i s sleeping on the upper bed of the bunk i n the southeast corner of the room, r i g h t beside the sinks and d i r e c t l y across from the counsellors' o f f i c e . At 6:40 a.m. the alarm goes o f f . Rod's hand shoots out, grabs the clock and shuts o f f the alarm. He groans s l i g h t l y as he raises himself on h i s elbows and gazes b r i e f l y out over the room of sleepers. Turning over onto his b e l l y , h i s gaze s h i f t s to the lake, the sun and the new day. S i t t i n g up, he swings his legs over the side of the bed and drops q u i e t l y to the f l o o r . Marion, sleeping i n the bed beneath h i s , wakes up and they mumble t h e i r goodmorning's as Rod s l i p s into h i s sweat-shirt and running shorts. Ralph, one of the counsellors's dogs i s i n s t a n t l y awake and a l e r t . He has padded over to Rod and with a gentle whine suggests that he should be l e t outside. They go out together. 184 When he returns Rod begins to make the rounds. Going from bed to bed he gives each student a shake while he says "Good Morning" or "time to wake up". He does not leave a student u n t i l they have made eye contact. Reg and Dan, two of the students, are already awake, dressed i n t h e i r gymstrip and busy making t h e i r beds, A few others are awake but are s t i l l gazing bleary-eyed at the room around them. By 6:50 a.m. everyone i s awake and up. Even Brian the teacher, with a cast on his l e g , i s up and dressed with, h i s bed made. The students are now busy dressing, making t h e i r beds and t i d y i n g up t h e i r closets. Not very much i s being said on the. students' side of the bunkhouse but over at the counsellors' beds, Ian, the a f t e r -care coordinator (ACC) has become quite exuberant. In a loud voice he can be heard commenting on the beauty of the day and how i s i s " r e a l l y gonna give'r on the run today". He and Brian, engage i n some lighthearted banter about Brian's running a b i l i t y . Ian i n s i s t s that Brian injured h i s leg just to avoid the run. Marion and Rod add t h e i r own pithy comments on the subject. The students are obviously enjoying t h i s exchange and begin to add t h e i r own humourous i n s u l t s . Two people was missing t h i s morning. Mike, the construction trades teacher, and John, one of the students, have gotten up q u i e t l y at 6:00 a.m. and gone o f f on a long run of eight or ten miles. Mike has been doing t h i s for two or three weeks now i n preparation for the marathon which i s only two weeks away. Today i s the f i r s t day a student has joined him. 185 At four minutes to seven, Rod announces that c a l i s t h e n i c s w i l l begin i n four minutes over at the recreation/school room. Some of the residents have already wandered over that way and are now groaning and grunting as they stretch and bend. In the bunkhouse, a few stragglers are putting the f i n i s h i n g touches to t h e i r beds and closets. As they leave to j o i n the others, Rod makes a b r i e f c i r c u i t of the room, checking to see i f everyone has earned t h e i r morning a l e r t points. Everyone's bed i s neatly made and the closets are reasonably t i d y . The morning i s o f f to a good s t a r t . As Rod leaves the bunkhouse, Marion the cook and John the maintaince man drive into the parking l o t . Marion gets out of the truck and grabs a box containing a large j a r of f r e s h cow's milk and a few other foodstuffs she w i l l be using f o r breakfast today. John heads over to the power plant where i n a few moments the d i e s e l motor i s heard coughing to l i f e . For the next ten minutes the s t a f f and students perform a var i e t y of stretches, isometrics and c a l i s t h e n i c s as they warm up for the four mile run. A number of them can be heard discussing the various correct muscle-stretching techniques. A few others complain about the aches and pains they f e e l . Vincent i s only going through the motions, attempting to avoid any strenuous a c t i v i t y so early i n the morning. Two of the students notice and c r i t i c i z e him for i t . He shouts back "eat mine you goofs" but Marion i s quick to chastize him and askes that he get to work. He complies witlx a frown and a steady stream of grumbling which every-186 one chooses to ignore or make fun of. At 7:09 a.m. the group i s massed together i n the parking l o t , some s t i l l stretching, some s t i l l yawning. Ian notes the time and s t a r t i n g to run,urges the others to begin. At varying speeds and with varying degrees of enthusiasm showing through, the group heads of f down the road. Only.Brian and Reg stay back, both out of action on doctor's orders. It has not rained for the past f i v e days so the d i r t road i s hard and dry. The runners kick up l i t t l e t u f t s of dust despite the early morning dew. Ian, Rod, Jerry and Chris have shot out ahead of the other runnners who remain bunched together during the f i r s t mile or so. The only consistent sound i s the thud of the runners feet against the road. Very l i t t l e i s said, even though there are a number of runners pacing each other. Most of the residents prefer t h e i r own throughts to any conversation that could occur. The front runners are well past the h a l f mile mark now and have begun the steady descent to the wooden bridge that marks the two mile point where they turn back towards the camp. Just before the one mile mark, the road affords a panoramic view of the c e n t r a l plateau to the west of the Fraser River. On top of a high promentory, f a r i n the distance s i t s what looks l i k e a f a i r y t a l e c a s t l e . Spires and domes r e f l e c t a golden early morning l i g h t . The image i s somewhat mis-leading as what they are seeing i s Baldy Hughes, a Canada Forces radar statio n . 187 As the. slowest runners round the corner that affords them t h i s view, those out front are descending the l a s t h i l l before the bridge. The f a s t runners are fortunate t h i s morning as they have surprized a cow moose grazing i n a cl e a r i n g . She gives them a s t a r t l e d glance then wheels abruptly and t r o t t s into the forest. The four front runners are now on t h e i r way back, to the camp. Their pace has been slowed by the steep i n c l i n e of the road which r i s e s without interruption u n t i l they are only ha l f a mile from the lake. By the time they top the 'hairpin turn' h i l l they have passed a l l the other runners s t i l l on t h e i r way to the bridge. Only Marion has not run the f u l l distance, as she continues to recouperate from a leg injury she suffered s i x weeks e a r l i e r . A h a l f mile from camp the road l e v e l s out. The runners are able to pick up t h e i r speed and almost race with each, other to the bunkhouse door. Ian decides that a quick dip i n the lake would be a f i t t i n g climax to the run. He convinces most of the others as they straggle i n and they are soon a l l down at the sauna wharf, each making a quick jump or dive into the icey water then quickly swimming back to shore. The water i s s t i l l very cold, i n f a c t , most of the lake was s t i l l i c e covered only two weeks e a r l i e r . Everyone has completed the run successfully today except Robert who was seen walking part of the way. There i s no known medical reason why he should not have run so he i s sent back- down the road to do i t over again. The counsellors do not appear to care whether 188 he runs or walks the second time as they merely give him a rag to place at the bridge rather than accompanying him. Robert i s angry because he w i l l miss his breakfast but complies with the request. Meanwhile, the others wash, shave and change into t h e i r work clothes. Immediately a f t e r washing, Wendel, the kitchen duty student for today, runs down to help Marion i n the kitchen. At 8:00 a.m. he appears at the kitchen door banging a pot with a large metal spoon. This i s the breakfast c a l l and a l l those not already waiting i n the kitchen vestibule hurry down to the kitchen. Leaving t h e i r jackets and boots i n the ves t i b u l e , the s t a f f and students l i n e up to receive t h e i r food. As always, the cook has prepared i t i n wholesome abundance. Plate i n hand, each person selects h i s or her own eggs from the g r i l l then returns to the serving table where Wendel serves out the pancakes and bacon. There are three tables i n the dining area, each attached to the west side of the bu i l d i n g and each with benches r u n n i n g - t h e f f u l l l l e n g t h of both sides. Dan and Brian always s i t at the table c l o s e s t to the serving area. Roy and Jerry usually s i t at t h i s same table but appear comfortable at any table as long as they are together. Wendel and Vincent also attempt to s i t with each other and are usually found at the back table. Other than t h i s , there appears to be no consistent seating arrangement. After serving the others, Wendel gets h i s own food and hurries to the back table where Vincent has saved him a place. There i s an 189 immediate hush. As soon as he i s seated Marion says "Can we have a minutes silence please?" As the seconds tick, by, a few of the students at the middle table attempt to s t i f f l e t h e i r laughter at some private joke. Their muffled giggles are guaranteed to prolong the silence. Shortly a f t e r a minute Marion says "Thanks Marion, thanks Wendel". This i s followed by a chorus to thanks as the other residents repeat her words. I n i t i a l l y , the table talk centres around the food but the topics begin to change as the appetities become p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d . John and Rod are t a l k i n g about rebuilding the sauna which was severely damaged by f i r e i n early A p r i l . I t i s almost complete now and i s scheduled for i t s inagural use t h i s afternoon. John w i l l need two boys to work on i t with him today. Marion and Jim are having a quiet conversation to themselves which draws occasional glances but no comments from some of the other students. Brian, Mike and the student John are t a l k i n g about f i s h i n g . Since the ic e has l e f t the lake, t h i s has become a major topi c . Many of the s t a f f are avid fishermen and a number of students have caught t h e i r enthusiasm. Although the f i s h are jumping, no one has yet caught one. Some of the others are discussing the marathon run. There are some strong student runners at t h i s camp and these are now engaged i n an earnest conversation with P h i l and Ian about carbohydrate loading, a special pre-run d i e t for marathoners. Roy i s t a l k i n g loudly to Jerry about h i s ex p l o i t s at Willingdon from where he has just returned. He then notices Robert returning to 190 camp. He c a l l s Robert a 'goof and goes on to t e l l Jerry about what the Willingdon inmates thougth. of Robert who had also stayed there at one time. P h i l and Ian simultaneously turn to Roy. P h i l i s the f i r s t to speak, "You know, with an attitude l i k e that Roy, you're going nowhere f a s t . Why don't you t r y being p o s i t i v e f o r once i n your l i f e ? " Roy, a fellow never short for words, maintains that he has been doing 'good' since he returned to camp but that the counsellors are " r e a l l y on h i s case now". He i s showing r e a l anger but then suddenly laughs. Roy i s aware that any major confrontations could have him i n containment for a number of months. Ian grimmances and i s obviously t r y i n g to r e f r a i n from saying anything further to Roy. The cook c a l l s seconds on breakfast and most of the boys rush up to the serving area. Food i s seldom wasted at Camp Trapping. A second cup of coffee i s appreciated almost as much. Coffee i s served only at breakfast and morning break times, which appears to be a p a r t i c u l a r hardship for many of the s t a f f . The one or two cups they get each morning are savoured and longed f o r . Rod has f i n i s h e d eating now and goes over to the chore board. Each- resident^ name tag i s placed on a peg beside a chore and i s moved down one peg each day. When the camp i s f u l l , there w i l l be three people on days o f f . Such i s the case today. David, who was at the bottom of the chore board yesterday i s moved to 'days o f f while Chris i s moved from 'days o f f to the top of the chore l i s t . A fter conferring with the other s t a f f , Rod places h i s own name tag beside the peg i n d i c a t i n g 'counsellor of the day' (COD). The name 191 tag rearrangement completed, Rod announces that school and work, w i l l begin at 9:10 a.m. This statement i s the o f f i c i a l signal that break-f a s t i s over and chore time beginning. I t i s 8:30 a.m. Everyone rushes up to the sinks to r i n s e o f f t h e i r plates then hurries o f f to t h e i r chores. If they can be done quickly, there w i l l be time f o r a short r e s t i n the sun and a l e i s u r e l y c i g a r e t t e . Jim and Vincent, both on days o f f , amble up to the schoolhouse porch, and begin r o l l i n g c i g a r e t t e s . Jim has just l i t his> when John walks by and slaps i t out of his mouth. Jim scowls but says nothing as John smirks and walks away. Jim reaches down, picks up the cigarette and continues to smoke. The dishwashers w i l l be the l a s t to f i n i s h t h e i r chores as i s usual. Since a l l chores are done three times a day, i t i s usually not too d i f f i c u l t or time consuming to r e f i l l the firewood box, and water containers or to sweep out the f l o o r s and clean the counters. Soon there are s i x students s i t t i n g on the school porch sharing Jim's tobacco while chatting e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y about 'Conan the Barbarian', t h e i r favourite movie t h i s spring. Reg and Robert s i t q u i e t l y on the bunkhouse porch l o s t i n t h e i r own conversation. Robert i s angry over h i s humiliation and cold and meagre breakfast. Reg i s conforting him and suggesting that he 'cool i t ' as i t ' s not that important and there's only a few weeks of camp l e f t . As Reg sees i t , there i s no point i n antagonizing the s t a f f with an angry outburst that could possibly loose Robert h i s Level Two p r i v i l e g e s . 192 The job foreman ("one of the chores! walks up to Rod at 8;55 a.m.. He has been kept busy running from chore to chore ensuring that they are completed to the camp's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . The sooner the chore i s checked, the greater the amount of free time the students have before work. Loud shouts for the job foreman r i n g out constantly between 8:35 and 8:55 a.m.. F i n a l l y , the job foreman and the counsellor of the day check the chores togehter. I f the COD finds that everything i s as described by the foreman then the foreman has also earned h i s point. This i s done quickly today for Rod and the other counsellors must have a short conference before work. The counsellors meet i n a small huddle i n the parking l o t as they delegate each other's r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s for the morning. Marion w i l l be d r i v i n g Reg into town for a doctor's appointment and w i l l also pick up some supplies. They also decide to get Robert an appointment as Rod has discovered that Robert may have a legitimate knee problem. Robert and Dan are assigned to help the maintainance man put the f i n i s h i n g touches on the sauna while Ian arranges to have Vincent out of the classroom for h i s end of camp aftercare interview. I f time allows, Ian w i l l interview another boy l a t e r i n the morning. The two teachers, Brian and Mike, leave the s t a f f group just before 9:10 a.m. and walk to the schoolroom and workshop respectively. There i s now a group of students waiting at each l o c a t i o n . Reg i s already standing by the truck waiting for Marion. Mike sends Dan and Robert down to the sauna where John can already be seen carrying a step ladder i n t o the b u i l d i n g . The Camp Trapping day i s two and a h a l f hours old as the boys and s t a f f s e t t l e down to t h e i r morning's 193 work.. Morning i n the Schoolhouse The morning s h i f t i n school would have consisted of Chris, Vincent, Roy, Jim and Reg. With Reg and Vincent otherwise occupied, Brian and the three remaining students enter the school room where the boys quickly set up t h e i r desks, one on each side of the stove, the t h i r d against a wall at the opposite end of the room, Brian r e t r i e v e s t h e i r school books from h i s locked o f f i c e and d i s t r i b u t e s them. As each student s e t t l e s down to h i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program of math or communications s k i l l s , Brian hobbles about from student to student quickly- discussing i n i t i a l questions and making mental notes of the sections each boy begins to work on. Jim and Roy quickly s e t t l e down to t h e i r work. Both boys have good reasons to be as cooperative as possible. Jim's blatant detachment from the Camp Trapping community has almost guaranteed that he w i l l be going to a foster home a f t e r camp. There i s a 'slim chance', i f h i s attitude improves, of returning to h i s parent's. The prospect of a foster home frightens Jim and he i s beginning to become more involved. Roy, on the other hand i s only 'one f a l s e move away' from being retunred to the c o r r e c t i o n a l centre from which, he has just returned, and then facing further sentencing to other resources. Being f u l l y aware of t h i s , he has become extremely c a r e f u l not to provoke a s t a f f person. Although, t h i s i s proving quite d i f f i c u l t for him on 19.4 many occasions, he appears very studious and quiet t h i s morning. Both, these hoys are capable of handling the. available academic material. Chris however, i s another story. Brian spends a great deal of time with him, c a r e f u l l y explaining the math- section Chris i s working on. Chris has taken on a d i f f e r e n t persona i n front of .his school books. He appears almost shy and speaks very q u i e t l y . Outside of school he has a tendancy to swagger, confident i n his p h y s i c a l strength, h i s guitar playing and h i s singing. He i s always being a p r a c t i c a l joker. A number of the counsellors had mentioned how they feared Chris had been damaged by h i s excessive drug and alcohol consumption and had even implied that h i s mother's alcoholism could have caused some prenatal braindamage i n Chris. Whatever the reasons, Chris i s a very subdued young man i n the classroom. I t i s 9:40 a.m. by the time Brian leaves Chris to h i s books. He walks over to an unused desk and s i t s down. As he begins to l e a f through a National Geographic magazine, Roy asks him to check a section of math that he has j u s t completed. Walking i s d i f f i c u l t for Brian due to h i s cast so he asks Roy to bring the work to h i s desk, where he quickly goes over the work. It i s done well enough, to enable Roy to move on to the next section. As Roy examines t h i s new work, he begins to p l y Brian with questions concerning the d i r e c t i o n s . Brian cuts him short. "You know how to use the book Roy. Y o u ' l l j u s t have to t r y to figure i t out for yourself. Its a natural progression from what you just completed". Roy begins to protest, but a stern look from Brian turns h i s protestations into a cackling laugh and he returns to h i s desk. Brian, having tested and learned the 195 a b i l i t i e s of each- student, p r e f e r s to encourage those who can to explore and discover on t h e i r own as much- as possible. The VAST program which he uses, i s also designed to encourage the same process. Brian knows very well that Roy i s capable of deciphering the new i n s t r u c t i o n s and proceeding on task without the teacher doing h i s thinking for him. Brian turns back to h i s National Geographic. He i s given ten minutes of uninterrupted reading before Jim requests some advice. Bringing h i s book over to Brian, Jim explains h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Brian looks over the work then asks a few questions of Jim. He finds a concept that Jim understands and then quickly builds from i t through a short series of understandable concepts u n t i l the s p e c i f i c problem area i s arrived at. Jim, having answered and understood a l l the questions Brian has asked, now sees the l o g i c behind the math problem that had stimied him. He thanks Brian then returns to h i s desk. While Brian i s t a l k i n g with Jim both Chris and Roy appear to have l o s t i n t e r s t i n t h e i r books. Roy i s miming to Chris h i s disgust of Jim's i n t e r a c t i o n with Brian. Chris giggles and mines back. They whisper a few words together but remain quiet enough to avoid Brian's attention. As Jim and Brian f i n i s h , Brian notes that i t i s 10:15 a.m.. He c a l l s a break, asking that they be back at t h e i r desks i n ten minutes. Students and teacher go outside to the wooden porch. Jim s i t s down and begins to r o l l a c i g a r e t t e . Chris s i t s beside him, places h i s arm around Jim's shoulders 196 and says "Hey buddy, good f r i e n d , how about some tobacco?" Jim grimmances and complains about never being repaid as he hands his r o l l i n g papers and tobacco pouch, to Chris. Ron paces, his hands i n h i s pockets, as he chats with Brian who leans against the school-house wall soaking i n the sun. The sound of hammering coming from the workshop provides a continual background noise. The four t a l k about f i s h i n g and the marathon but appear to be concentrating more on the sunshine and warmth. Roy i s the only one to appear r e s t l e s s . He i s t a l k i n g almost nonstop as he paces. His r i g h t hand reaches up to brush his hair out of h i s eyes every few minutes. Soon they are back i n the classroom, each at h i s desk, each working q u i e t l y . Brian s i t s on the couch i n the recreation area of the b u i l d i n g and has only just begun to read h i s magazine when Chris comes over with a puzzled expression on his face. Brian i s very patient and begins to go through each character i n the math problem. "Do you know what t h i s means?" Pointing to an 'equals' sign, Chris mumbles a no. "Well, i t means equal to. Do you understand that?" Chris mumbles again, s t i l l unsure. Brian continues: " I f I get four glasses of milk and give you one then we wouldn't have an equal number of glasses would we. I'd have three and you'd have one". Chris looks interested, he i s beginning to comprehend. "But," Brian continues, " I f I hand four and give you two then we'd both have two right? Would that be equal?" 197 "Yeah, sure i t would, T get i t now", Chris i s excited by t h i s exchange, something has been c l a r i f i e d f o r him. They go through the problem f a i r l y quckly now and Chris soon returns to h i s work. Now Jim brings a section of work over to Brian, who checks i t , congratulates Jim for doing well and encourages him to go on to the next section. As Jim returns to his desk, Vincent walks i n , having completed his interview with Ian. He t e l l s Jim that Ian wants him i n the kitchen. Brian makes sure that Vincent i s s e t t l e d into h i s work then comes over to t a l k with. me. In the l a s t few minutes of the class he and I discuss the school program i n general. In h i s opinion, there i s not too much he can do with t h i s group. He i s no longer t r y i n g to motivate the students who have exhibited no or l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the program. With only three weeks l e f t , Brian has decided to concentrate a l l h i s e f f o r t s on those students who are sincerely working towards completing some academic goal. The two youths who have been taking correspondance courses are doing well and two or three others have been working consistently and d i l i g e n t l y towards t h e i r grade ten. Brian would rather do a l l he can to help these boys succeed. As for the others, he f e e l s i t i s up to them. He i s aware that l i t t l e can be done now unless the students themselves decide they want to work. The academic program has been slowly de-emphasized as the camp draws to a close. The aftercare l i f e s k i l l s component and interviews, the home v i s i t s , and the f i n a l o u t - t r i p have a l l taken the students' 19.8 time and attention, drawing them away from consistent involvement with t h e i r studies. Brian and Ian have co-taught the job-finding, job^readiness course and Brian reminds me that l i f e s k i l l s are an i n t e g r a l component of the school program. He f e e l s that i t i s d i f f i c u l t , although not impossible, for any student to a c t u a l l y finish, a VAST l e v e l or correspondance course during a camp. There i s very l i t t l e time. If a student can begin to f e e l safe about succeeding i n school, i f he can begin to appreciate the p r a c t i c a l importance of f i n i s h i n g school, then Brian f e e l s that the program has done i t s work. Brian, along with the aftercare coordinator and other s t a f f , do everything they can to ensure that every Camp Trapping student showing an i n t e r e s t and determination to get back to school w i l l be placed i n an appropriate school s e t t i n g upon leaving camp. There i s l i t t l e more that can be done. Brian gets up and hobbles into the schoolroom. He goes to each student and performs a quick check on t h e i r progress then t e l l s them to clean up and put t h e i r books away. I t i s 11:55 a.m. and the work crews can be seen heading for the bunkhouse to clean up. For the boys with Brian, school i s out for the day. The Construction Trades Program Mike watches Brian herd h i s three students into the schoolroom then turns and enters the workshop. John, David and Jerry have 199 already entered the workshop, retrieved t h e i r carpenter b e l t s from the cupboard and are now f i l l i n g up the b e l t pouches with n a i l s . Mike wastes no time. He goes over to the truss form, unclasps i t and lowers i t to the. f l o o r . By t h i s time the crew has walked over to the p i l e of pre-cut truss pieces and i s already carrying a set over to the form. No one has yet said a word. Everyone knows exactly what i s to be done and works e f f i c i e n t l y . The truss i s on i t s way to being;' hammered together within minutes. Mike watches each student care-f u l l y . He ensures that the truss pieces are placed c o r r e c t l y , that the correct number of n a i l s are used at each point and that the n a i l s are properly spaced. His workers are old hands now. They know the routine and the expectations. Jerry seems perturbed and mumbles to himself but works s t e a d i l y . The Construction Trades Program was o r i g i n a l l y intended to be self-supporting within two years. Operating now for over a year and a h a l f , i t has yet to reach t h i s goal. Yet there i s no shortage of work. Mike i s responsible for securing work contracts and t e l l s me he has no d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s respect. The truss the crew i s completing r i g h t now i s one of an order of eighty requested by a greenhouse owner near Prince George, Since the student labourers are not paid for t h e i r labour, Camp Trapping can o f f e r a good p r i c e to i t s customers, but because of the frequent interruptions and the li m i t e d hours of work, the program cannot make 200 enough-to pay- for Mike's- salary. The-Federal Government LEAP grant which funds the program w i l l expire by the autumn of 1982, and the future of the program, although reasonably:promising,is by no means secure. Mike wishes he could work his crew longer hours and with, fewer interruptions. Sometimes he i s frustrated by the camp's i r r e g u l a r i t y . A portion of his crew always seems to be needed f o r other tasks, i s sick, or being interviewed or examined by someone. Nevertheless, Mike i s pleased with the progress and enthusiasm and p o t e n t i a l of three of the camp's students. He t a l k s with pride about the boys he has working on the schoolroom windows - b u i l d i n g them from 'scratch' and doing f i n e f i n i s h i n g work. He i s impressed with t h e i r a b i l i t y to learn new concepts and s k i l l s and to work independently and consistently. The others are, on the whole, average workers. They can, Mike says, "Take d i r e c t i o n but they don't think enough". Mike i s a fellow that most of the students are c a r e f u l with. Everyone respects and admires his s k i l l , b u t most students f e e l that he works them too hard and that he gets angry or impatient too e a s i l y . Mike does not seem to mind. As far as he i s concerned, the students are coddled. He wants to t r e a t them l i k e employees, to show them what " i t r e a l l y means to work hard and we l l " . He believes that his program i s much more tolerant than a r e a l work s i t u a t i o n . Many of the students, he believes, would have a d i f f i c u l t time "holding 201 down a r e a l job". Mike takes up h i s hammer now and a s s i s t s h i s crew complete the f i r s t truss of the day. Getting Jerry to help him he c a r r i e s the completed truss outside to be stacked with, the others. Twenty more and they w i l l have completed the contract. Jerry begins to complain. He f e e l s frustrated with the truss work and uses t h i s time alone with. Mike to express h i s wish f o r other work. Jerry says that he wants a chance to work on the more i n t r i c a t e carpentry but Mike refuses, saying that he does not think Jerry i s ready. Jerry a n g r i l y maintains that he would rather be digging ditches. He i s quite sincere. Mike t r i e s to reason with him,but Jerry i s becoming quite distraught. James pledges to do anything other than trusses and Mike f i n a l l y agrees to see what he can do. In actual f a c t , Jerry i s handling himself very well i n comparison to h i s i n i t i a l behaviour at the camp. Mike recognized t h i s - Jerry i s not swearing, he i s o f f e r r i n g to work and i s arguing reasonably. Mike and James seek out Rod who suggested that he and Jerry could spend the r e s t of the morning f i l l i n g i n some of the spots on the road that have been erroded by recent rains and the spring run-off. Mike i s back working with h i s crew of two as Jerry and Rod drive down the road. Mike and h i s crew get no coffee break today. They work st e a d i l y , the sound of t h e i r hammering i n h i b i t i n g any conversation. As each- truss i s completed, they r e s t for a few moments before taking i t out and beginning another. Any conversation 202 that does ensue i s e n t i r e l y work related. At 11:50 a.m. Mike, almost r e l u c t a n t l y , c a l l s a h a l t to the work. The boys and Mike put away t h e i r tools and head to the bunk-house to clean up. They have completed f i v e trusses t h i s morning and Mike i s pleased. As the three of them leave the workshop', he congratulates the students for working so well. Work at the Sauna Robert and Dan are pleased that they have been chosen to work with John the maintainance man. Although Robert i s one of Mike's trusted workers and i s often assigned to the challenging and i n t e r e s t i n g carpentry jobs, he knows that today he would have been working on the trusses. Rebuilding the sauna i s much more i n t e r e s t i n g and there i s a more casual atmosphere when working with John. Robert and Dan are both aware that being assigned to the sauna i s a type of reward from the s t a f f , a recognition of t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h e i r trustworthiness. I t confirms and enhances t h e i r status, already high fas both are Level Two and too strong and b i g to be treated with disrespect by t h e i r peers. Robert i s brooding a b i t today. Although- he i s c i v i l and cooperative with John, he appears preoccupied, frowning and uncommunicative. I t has to do with more than just being caught walking during the run. That was f r u s t r a t i n g but 'no big deal'. He and a l l the. students continually break the r u l e s , whether i t 203 be smoking or walking on the run, obtaining some 'weed1 (marajuanal or numerous other ' l i t t l e ' i n f r a c t i o n s . That, to Robert, i s just part of the game, as i s getting caught occasionally. Only occasionally, mind you, for i t you become too obvious i n your r e b e l l i o n "then they s t a r t to watch you c l o s e l y - r e a l close". I t i s something else that i s bothering Robert t h i s morning but he i s not sure as to i t s nature. Rebuilding the sauna had been going slowly u n t i l recently. In the l a s t two weeks however, the roof had been r e b u i l t and a new cinder block chimney i n s t a l l e d . Now the c e i l i n g i s almost complete and i t i s time for the benches to be put i n place. If they work hard enough, the residents should be able to use the sauna t h i s afternoon. John never appears to be i n a hurry but works methodically and l e i s u r e l y u n t i l the job i n done. He and the two boys begin n a i l i n g the c e i l i n g ' s 1x4's onto the c e i l i n g ' s frame. Not too long a f t e r they s t a r t , Rod joins them. Aft e r taking a b r i e f look around, he joins them at t h e i r work. The four work together e a s i l y . There i s occasional mild banter as they work but the conversation i s sparse. The noise and t h e i r concentration on the work w i l l not allow too many interruptions. Unlike Mike, John always takes a coffee break. At around 10:15 a.m. he c a l l s a h a l t to the work and the four workers saunter over to the cookhouse. Rod leaves them to t h e i r coffee and goes to see how Mike i s doing. Although he. planned to return, he soon finds himself digging ditches with: Jerry, 204 John, Dan and Robert drink t h e i r coffee quickly. Ian i s interviewing at the back table so the worker's conversation has to be somewhat subdued. They soon return to the sauna but pause to s i t i n the sun and have a cigarette before returning to work. They had already completed the c e i l i n g and were busy with the f i n a l measurements for the new benches before being joined by P h i l . P h i l and Rod had both begun the morning writing t h e i r reports on the three or four boys they are each responsible for monitoring. These were the f i n a l reports required by Ian and the r e f e r r i n g agents. They were to summarize each student's growth, strengths, and weaknessess, and were to make any recommendations they thought could be h e l p f u l . At that point he f e l t i t was best i f he go out and j o i n i n the work. After a few words with. Mike, he too had eventually ended up at the sauna where he began to help the others. Before the morning's work was complete the sauna crew were aware that they would d e f i n i t e l y have the sauna i n useable condition for the l a t e afternoon. I t had been a good morning's work, the crew well s a t i s i f i e d by the time they began to clean up for lunch. The Afternoon I t does not take long f o r the students to clean up and scurry down to the kitchen vestibule where they wait anxiously f o r the second b e l l , the o f f i c i a l announcement that lunch- i s ready to be served. Rod and P h i l are up at the bunkhouse. The radio phone had rung and Rod i s now speaking with- the program d i r e c t o r , Rob, who i s 205 c a l l i n g the camp from Prince George. Rod and P h i l are t o l d to expect Marion and Reg for lunch, and that Rob would be coming out around sauna time and staying through- evening session. He has something he wished to bring up i n session and would also l i k e to observe Roy for awhile. Lunch-goes by quickly, interrupted only by Marion and Reg's a r r i v a l . As everyone leaves f o r t h e i r chores and to unload the supplies that Marion has brought with her, Ian takes the s t a f f aside f o r a moment. He i s expecting the personnel manager of Netherlands Overseas, one of the largest logging and m i l l i n g operations i n Prince George. He i s scheduled to speak with the students t h i s afternoon about job expectations and prospects. I t i s possible that t h i s man may not a r r i v e so Ian suggests that the afternoon begin as scheduled. I f ther personnel manager does ar r i v e than a l l the work projects can be shut down for an hour or so, while he speaks with the students. Chores are completed by 1:10 p.m.. The residents are ready for the afternoon's events. As t h e i r guest has not yet arrived, counsellors decide to continue with the regular schedule. Mike takes Vincent, Roy and Chris into the carpentry shop, John takes Dan and Reg to the sauna while Jim and Ian return to the kitchen to complete t h e i r interview. The re s t of the boys j o i n Brian i n the schoolhouse. The various crews have s e t t l e d down to t h e i r respective 206 tasks for no more than twenty minutes when a Netherlands's Overseas fiick-up truck-drives up to the schoolhouse. Ian, having h a l f an eye out for Lloyd's a r r i v a l , runs up the steps to great him and sends Jim over to the sauna to fetch. Reg and Dan. Within minutes, the e n t i r e crew has gathered expectantly i n the recreation room. This i s no formal lecture. Three students lounge comfortably on the sofa, apparently savouring these few moments of passive entertainment. The others however, appear quite curious. Some lean up against the walls s t a r i n g i n t e n t l y at the stranger. Most stand unsupported i n groups of two or three, t h e i r arms crossed on t h e i r chests, t h e i r faces a picture of concentration. I t looks as i f they are ready to follow Lloyd back out into the bush as soon as he has f i n i s h e d t a l k i n g . Everyone i n the room appears to have a reverance for the mystique of logging and recognize, perhaps, that i t continues to be the l i f e b l o o d of t h i s area and t h e i r probable source of l i v e l i h o o d i n the years to come. Lloyd's appearance has put the boys at ease. He does not look l i k e a personnel manager. He i s a young man i n work boots, jeans, p l a i d s h i r t and down vest. He looks very much l i k e the other adults i n the room, as well he should, having j u s t returned from a bush s i t e construction project. He speaks to the students i n a very blunt and f o r t h r i g h t manner. An occasional swear word punctuates h i s statements. As he answers the students questions, he begins to paint a c l e a r and r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e of a logger's l i f e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . "Yes," he r e p l i e s , " there are big bucks i n t h i s 207 business and i t s a v a l i d reason for getting into i t . But don't expect to get those big bucks r i g h t away. You gotta s t a r t at the bottom and work you ass o f f . You've got to be responsible for yourself,your fellow workers and your equipment.,, i t costs too much to have some careless or lazy bugger destroy i t . Safety and p r o d u c t i v i t y are the two key points. We gotta have both. That means you gotta be able to think and move quickly, work hard a l l day and keep your mind on your environment and your work". Lloyd does not t a l k down to the students. They sense t h i s and respond e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to h i s descriptions and questions. Ian and some of the other s t a f f punctuate and summarize some of Lloyd's points by t r a n s l a t i n g h i s statements into phrases and words used frequently by the counsellors. " Is education important?" one of the students asks. "Yes", Lloyd r e p l i e s , "because i t s one way we have of s e l e c t i n g people. Besides, a l o t of loggers do contract work. They have to be able to read and understand a contract, respond to tenders and balance books". At t h i s point Ian takes the opportunity to b u i l d on the theme. "Not only that", he says, "but getting through school shows vyou're not a q u i t t e r , that you see something to the end". Lloyd continues, " I f you r e a l l y want to work- i n logging even now, i n tough, economic times, you've gotta chance i f you come to the worksite ready to work everyday. One of those days there's gonna be someone missing and then you've got your chance." 208 "You see", Ian adds, " i f you're a keener the door's not closed. You can get i t . I f you're patient, i f you got perserverance, i f you're not greedy for the big money f i r s t thing, then you can do i t . But don't think you can slack o f f once you're on and i n the union. You've got to obey orders, work hard and be c i v i l to your boss or y o u ' l l be gone, and f a s t " . The students have enjoyed the session and appear inspired. Half of them have said they want to be loggers and are bouyed by the r e a l i s t i c i f subdued optimisim Lloyd projects. Their work and lessons at Camp Trapping suddenly make sense for some of them as they can see these experiences preparing them for the type of l i f e they are saying they want. Although the formal session has ended, the students are not prepared to l e t Lloyd leave. Back outside, they c l u s t e r around him asking more questions as he leans casually against h i s pick-up truck. Ian and Rod confer a moment as they watch t h i s informal and exuberant gathering. Ian then walks up to the group and announces that Camp Trapping would l i k e to give Lloyd a g i f t of birchwood. He accepts g r a t e f u l l y and the students are quick to accomodate him. They begin to load up the truck's box with, dry cordwood from a stack beside the bunkhouse. While h a l f the students are engaged i n t h i s a c t i v i t y , four others continue to ask Lloyd questions about hi s company, some of them recounting s t o r i e s about t h e i r logger fathers and brothers. 209 By 3:15 p.m., Lloyd and his newly burdened truck have driven o f f . There i s an a i r of optimism and confidence around some of the bigger and older students as they t a l k with renewed vigour about future employment prospects. This t a l k continues as the residents return to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Ian, having f i n i s h e d with-Jim, sends him up to j o i n Mike's crew and asks Reg to j o i n him i n the kitchen. John, who preferred to continue working during the lecture, has announced that the sauna i s now ready for use. Dan i s asked to stoke up the sauna's stove and prepare the renovated b u i l d i n g for i t s christening. Everyone i s back at work within f i v e minutes of Lloyd's departure. The Aftercare Interview The kitchen windows are opagjued with, condensation, Marion's cooking and baking having heated up the build i n g . The aroma of fresh-baked bread f i l l s the kitchen as Ian and Reg s e t t l e down to t h e i r interview and coffee. Although the aftercare coordinator i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with providing each student with a smooth, and well directed t r a n s i t i o n from camp to the parent community, he a c t u a l l y wears a number of hats. Today Ian i s f u l f i l l i n g two of h i s r o l e s . The camp-end ACC interview i s intended to a s s i s t Ian, the r e f e r r i n g agents and the youths' guardians to plan e f f e c t i v e l y for each student. In addition, the interview i s intended to give the student an opportunity to assess the l a s t f i v e months and 210 contemplate h i s future. It also serves as an informal and subjective evaluation of the e f f e c t s the camp has had on each student. By-comparing the answers he receives today with the answers obtained at the f i r s t interview i n February, Ian has some record of s e l f -assessed change that has occured during the student's stay. While each interview schedule varies s l i g h t l y through, the addition or exclusion of a number of questions, most of the questions are i d e n t i c a l , allowing comparison of the student's responses. Program evaluation and student follow-up studies are additional ACC duties. Ian i s frustrated today. Yesterday afternoon's and t h i s morning's interviews were, i n h i s opinion, rather l a c l u s t r e and discouraging. Yesterday's had been p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t . The student had sat expressionless, answering each question monosyllabically. The student had shown no i n c l i n a t i o n to plan for and work towards his future. Ian was a f r a i d that the s i x month, followup would indicate that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r student would be back i n trouble with the law. Although- the two students he had interviewed t h i s morning showed more promise, Ian f e l t that they too would have some serious post-camp d i f f i c u l t i e s . Reg, however, i s another story. He had been an igigma at t h i s camp. His behaviour, a b i l i t y and rapport with the others had been exemplary since the beginning. He i s the spring camp's star student and the f i r s t student to reach Level I I I . Like a l l the others, Reg has just returned from the week-long 211 home v i s i t that Trapping arranges towards the end of each- camp. Unlike the others, he was away for nine days instead of the usual seven. Although h i s two extra days were not scheduled, Reg has not been punished or 'consequenced' for h i s absence. Although there have been mumblings about favouritism,the s t a f f f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n t r e a t i n g Reg t h i s way. His extra two days had been spent at Tumbler Ridge, a new coal development i n Northeastern B.C.. With h i s father's help, Reg's v i s i t to Tumbler Ridge had secured him a job as a surveyor's apprentice. He i s now scheduled to begin work, immediately a f t e r camp. Reg was the only student to return to camp with both a confirmed job and good reports from parents and r e f e r r i n g agent. Ian and Reg appear equally comfortable and relaxed i n each other's company. Reg's Level III status has had the e f f e c t of making him a junior or apprentice counsellor. His a b i l i t y to work on h i s own, to work consistently and to lead the other students while r e t a i n i n g t h e i r respect, has earned the s t a f f s ' respect. They can relax with him. Ian re l a t e s to Reg l i k e a f r i e n d l y employer reviewing h i s employee's work record. Reg, not su r p r i s i n g l y , says he l i k e s the camp. He t e l l s Ian that "The f i r s t couple of weeks were tough a l r i g h t . I t was l i k e being i n the army. I f e l t l i k e running away then but I wasn't that dumb. I'd take s i x months here to two weeks i n j a i l anywhere. The work i s n ' t that hard r e a l l y ; i t s nothing compared to farm work". Reg t e l l s Ian that the camp has helped him. He f e e l s more sure 212 of himself, and knows he can ' s t i c k to things 1 u n t i l they are fini s h e d . Reg i s proud of his running a b i l i t y and i s determined to complete and 'win' the forthcoming marathon. He f e e l s p a r t i c u l a r i l y confident about his future. Although, he does not plan to return to secondary school, he f e e l s his surveyor's appreticeship w i l l lead him along i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n as far as both, work and school are concerned. "It's not l i k e j ust a labouring job, I ' l l be learning a trade". Reg i s confident that he can avoid further confrontations with, the law. He w i l l be working long hours and w i l l not be keeping the same company. He admits however that i f he was just going back to the same s i t u a t i o n from which he came, he could very e a s i l y end up i n more trouble. When asked about drugs and alcohol, a c r a f t y smile appears on hi s face. " I ' l l be takin' a toke or two for sure,but that cop:; who was here r e a l l y drove i t home about booze and drugs mixed with d r i v i n g . I'm not gonna do that". Something behind h i s smile indicates that a "toke or two" may be a b i t of an understatement. Ian however appears resigned i f not s a t i s f i e d with. Reg's response. The counsellor's are aware that even Reg had used marijuana while at the camp. Drug and alcohol use i s i n i n e v i t a b i l i t y f o r most of the students. As a r e s u l t , the counsellors t r y to trea t the issue r e a l i s t i c a l l y . I f students are caught with- drugs or are incapacitated by t h e i r use than the s t a f f w i l l ensure that some l o g i c a l consequence 213 w i l l occur. If the students are not caught, i f t h e i r performance does not s u f f e r and i f they are not b l a t a n t l y defiant of the camp's rules concerning drugs, then the counsellors w i l l do l i t t l e to force the issue even i f they are reasonably confident that drugs are i n use. Any student that arrives with, a recognized drug or alcohol problem i s watched c l o s e l y and provided with- additional counselling i n the area i f i s appears necessary, Ian and Reg decide to take a break. Marion (the counsellor) and John have just walked i n and are s i t t i n g with Marion (.the cook), discussing a book that John has just received i n the mail. I t i s a book of native h i s t o r y and f o l k t a l e s written by John's uncle. Reg and Ian j o i n the discussion. John i s pointing at various people and objects i n some of the book's photographs, t e l l i n g us who and what they are. He i s very proud of h i s uncle's achievement. Marion suggests that John could perhaps read aloud from the book at bedtime. Ian and Reg support t h i s idea and express a great deal of i n t e r e s t i n the book. John seems genuinely touched by t h e i r enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t . He does not commit himself to reading aloud tonight however. The afternoon i s quickly drawing to a close as Ian and Reg get back to t h e i r interview. Ian runs through the remaining questions very quickly. Reg l i s t e n s i n t e n t l y , answering most questions b r i e f l y with l i t t l e elaboration. Reg does not think, he has changed a l l that much but, he says, he sees what he was doing more c l e a r l y now and knows now that i t was 'leading him nowhere *. He notes that he has 214 always been a conscientious and hard worker and quite competitive. He believes he 'just got into r a i s i n ' a l i t t l e h e l l too much". Camp Trapping, he maintains, has shown him that h i s lawbreaking was moving him r a p i d l y towards a loss of control and freedom. For Reg, such a prospect i s l i k e death i t s e l f . "So you guys may not have changed me a l l that much," he summarizes, "but you've kinda shown me a better way of getting what I want. It's been OK here too. I mean, i f I hadn't been here I'd either have been i n j a i l or just handing around not doing anything". The interview ends. Ian and Reg get up, stretch and begin to walk towards the door. Reg pauses to read one of the posters on the dining room wall, " I t i s not how much we have but how much we enjoy that makes happiness". He takes h i s cup up to the sink, rinses i t out then goes outside with Ian to j o i n the others as they prepare for the sauna. The Sauna It i s 4:15 p.m. Smoke and heat waves are r i s i n g from the sauna's chimney. Two students are walking towards the sauna, each i n a bathing s u i t and carrying a towel. Everyone at camp i s j u s t i f i a b l y proud of t h i s moment. Trapping has l o s t three saunas to f i r e . When the sauna caught f i r e t h i s spring , an e f f e c t i v e bucket brigade and f a s t cooperative, action had enabled t h i s group of campers to contain and put out a f i r e that had 215 threatened to consume the. b u i l d i n g . That was si x weeks ago. Now, with a new roof, chimney and i n t e r i o r , the sauna was i n better condition than p r i o r to the f i r e . For s i x weeks, keeping clean had been a d i f f i c u l t chore. They had r e l i e d on a sweat lodge made of poles and heavy p l a s t i c . They had to r i n s e o f f i n the open a i r . While a unique experience, i t was not p a r t i c u l a r i l y enjoyable. When students f i r s t a r r i v e at Camp Trapping, the sauna sessions are one of the le a s t palatable aspects of the program. Within a month t h i s opinion i s completely reversed. Saunas are eventually viewed as one of the most relaxed and enjoyable parts of the week. Although mandatory only three days a week, the sauna stove i s more l i k e l y to be stoked four or f i v e times weekly. Even the jump into the lake i n the winter becomes accepted a f t e r the f i r s t few weeks. It becomes one of l i f e ' s l i t t l e adventures. According to s t a f f who had worked at Camp Trapping before the a r r i v a l of female counsellors (1979), there used to be more tension around sauna time than now e x i s t s . I t took, the newly pubescent youths much longer to f e e l relaxed i n the a l l nude, a l l male environment. Students would watch i n horror as nude counsellors would wash each other's backs or perhaps massage each others aching legs. This type of contact was viewed as threateningly intimate and counsellors would be d e r i s i v e l y hooted at as "fags" and "queers". Although, a l l but the most i n h i b i t e d students would eventually get over t h e i r shock, and begin to r e a l i z e that men can be intimate without being sexual, i t would often take up to two months. 216 Since the a r r i v a l of female counsellors, convention now has i t that everyone must wear a swimsuit during sauna. The threat of communal nudity has thus been removed from the experience. As t h i s i s the end of camp, the students have already r i d them-selves of t h e i r fear of touching and being touched. Inside the sauna we f i n d that two of the students have already worked up a sweat and returned from t h e i r f i r s t jump i n the lake. Back now for the second phase of every sauna,they are shampooing t h e i r hair and soaping up and scrubbing t h e i r bodies. Each scrubs down the other's back without anyone else giving i t a second glance. I t had not been that way i n i t i a l l y . I ask Wendel and Vincent about t h e i r i n i t i a l feelings around the sauna and they t e l l me about how 'weird' the counsellors were and how 'funny' i t f e l t to watch them help each other wash. Wendel c a l l s over to John, asking him i f he remembers how everyone was 'weirded out' by John's lack of i n h i b i t i o n r i g h t from the s t a r t . John, i t appears, would always take o f f h i s bathing s u i t as soon as the women had l e f t the sauna. As Wendel and Vincent and I t a l k , Dan and John are r i n s i n g o f f . Scooping a bucket f u l l of hot water out of the tub on top of the stove, Dan mixes i t i n another p a i l with cold water from the lake. With two p a i l s of warm water he then proceeds to pour them over Jerry's head and body as John rubs o f f the remaining soap. Some of the la t e a r r i v a l s have now- become hot enough to make a run for the lake. Wendel and Jim dash out the door, run down the 217 long wharf and make clean dives into the cold water, Ian, looking on, ref e r s to t h e i r dives as an example of the unique Camp Trapping c i r c l e dive. Each camper quickly learns to dive out i n a curve that has them heading back towards the wharf almost as soon as they h i t the water. I t w i l l be a good month and a h a l f before the lake i s warm enough to swim i n comfortably for any length of time. The next set of divers i s asked to take the now empty p a i l s to the lake to r e f i l l them. This process w i l l be continued u n t i l every-one has soaped up and rinsed o f f . Half the crew has already fini s h e d and returned to the bunkhouse. A few others are drying themselves o f f i n the sauna's porch. Inside, Mike and P h i l have stretched out f l a t on two of the benches for a few minutes of b l i s s f u l relaxation. P.eg and David, also relaxing now, are discussing t h e i r post graduation plans. David i s almost c e r t a i n that he has work f o r the summer but i s determined to complete h i s grade eleven correspondance courses at the same time. Both of them are looking forward to some 'heavy partying' as a w e l l -earned graduation celebration. P h i l wonders aloud i f that means they w i l l end up getting arrested for drug use the day a f t e r camp ends. Both boys t e l l him not to worry. They w i l l have fun they say but they w i l l be c a r e f u l . Just as David f i n i s h e s reassuring P h i l , we hear the f i r s t b e l l announce that dinner i s only f i f t e e n minutes away. We make one more rush to the lake before we head up to the bunkhouse to hurriedly dress and j o i n the others for the l a s t meal of the day. 218 Evening at Camp Trapping Supper i s over now. An abundance of chicken, potatoes, vegetables, homemade bread, salad and f r u i t c o c k t a i l has satiated even the most cavernous adolescent appetite. A l l the chores have been completed except for the dishes, P h i l and Jim remain hard at work at the kitchen sinks as the others relax and enjoy the li n g e r i n g sun. Rob, the program d i r e c t o r , arrived ha,lf way through- supper and i s now having a private conversation with Roy i n the bunkhouse o f f i c e ; part of the close surveillance and tough-line process the s t a f f are takirtg. with t h e i r most troublesome student. Mike and Vincent are out f i s h i n g i n one of the canoes while Marion and Wendel, i n a second canoe, are paddling slowly along the edge of the marsh i n search of two mallard eggs for the cook's incubator. Jerry, Rod, Robert and Reg are playing catch i n the parking l o t . Chris s i t s i n the schoolhouse strumming one of the camp's guitars and singing an o l d R o l l i n g Stone's song. John s i t s with him, l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y with an harmonica cupped i n h i s hands. Dan i s asleep i n the bunkhouse while David and Brian engage i n an earnest conversation on Brian's bed. This i s the f i r s t time i n the day when there i s a noticeable l u l l i n the a c t i v i t y . I t i s a t h i n s l i c e of free time coveted by s t a f f and students a l i k e . Tonight most have almost an hour i n 219 which, to induldge themselves. The majority of students do not concentrate on any one a c i t v i t y during t h i s time. The game of catch breaks up i n twenty minutes. Rod enters the bunkhouse and l i e s down for a new minutes while the three students s i t for awhile i n front of the schoolhouse smoking and t a l k i n g about l a s t weekend's town exp l o i t s . Vincent has had Mike drop him o f f at the wharf and Brian i s now f i s h i n g with. Mike. Vincent joins the other three. The four boys do not s i t f o r long. Robert and Reg get up and begin to walk down the road on the east side of the bunkhouse. John heads f o r the bunkhouse while Vincent follows Robert and Reg, If there i s any marajuana at camp today t h i s i s probably the f i r s t opportunity the students have had to make use of i t . Vincent's nervous excitement as he leaves to follow Reg and Robert may indicate that the opportunity i s being grasped. For ten, perhaps f i f t e e n minutes, the camp i s very quiet. Chris's singing and the muffled rumble of the generator dominate the soundscape. Around 6:55 people begin to congregate around the schoolhouse porch again. Marion, Rod and David are already inside, setting up chairs i n a horseshoe-shaped configuration p a r t i a l l y blocked at the open end by two chairs set behind two school desks. By 7:00 p.m. a l l but Mike and Brian are i n or around the schoolhouse awaiting the beginning of the evening session. Ian runs over to the c l e a r i n g between the bunkhouse and school and y e l l s out to the two fishermen, c a l l i n g them back i n . 220 Inside, Marion and Rod are already seated at the two desks. Rod has a loose-leafed binder i n front of him. As secretary t h i s evening, he w i l l record tonight's events i n the Session Log. Marion, as chairperson, has a sheet of paper and p e n c i l i n front of her. She need only j o t down s p e c i f i c points or concerns that must be dealt with before the session ends. With much scrapping of chair legs against the f l o o r accompanied by loud conversation, the s t a f f and students- begin to seat themselves around the horseshoe. At 7:05 p.m. only Brian and Mike have not arrived. Marion and Rod decide to begin without them. The Evening Session Sessions are based rather loosely on the design and rationale of Vorath's and Brendtro's P o s i t i v e Peer Culture model (discussed i n Chapter ). The structure of any given session i s i d e n t i c a l to that of any other. Every session begins with a question r e l a t i n g to the day just past or to a major camp event. Tonight Marion asks what each person i s planning as a special t r a i n i n g regime for the eleven days l e f t before the marathon. There i a a surprizing v a r i e t y of answers as each person i n turn o f f e r s t h e i r suggestions. They include q u i t t i n g smoking, longer p r a c t i c e runs, more exercises and stretches, toughening one's feet and relaxing for two days before the run. Ian -mentions carbohydrate loading and the next ten minutes are devoted to an explanation of 221 the word 'carbohydrate' and of t h i s special marathoner's d i e t . Marion, with, an eye on the time, cuts t h i s discussion short with a promise to go over the d i e t and 'loading' process at another time. She then i n i t i a t e s the second phase of the session by c a l l i n g for issues. John i s the f i r s t to respond with the terse comment "Vincent's behaviour". Reg adds "Grad Day", and f i n a l l y Roy adds "Yesterday's work on Marion the cook's t r a i l e r " . Marion waits f o r a few moments. When no other issues emerge she selects Grad : Day as the f i r s t topic of discussion. Reg reminds h i s fellow students that t h i r t y minutes of the Grad^ Day ceremonies are reserved for a student presentation. He suggests that the students get together soon and begin planning. When Reg suggests that each student could make a short speech, Chris becomes worried. He has misunderstood and believes that each student w i l l have to present a t h i r t y minute speech. Chris i s re l i e v e d to hear that Reg was thinking more along the l i n e s of t h i r t y seconds f o r each student. The idea of a tal e n t show i s suggested and the size of the "feast", time of day, guests, and other f e s t i v i t i e s f o r the day are a l l mentioned as aspects of the day that must be planned and coordinated. There i s a groan of d i s b e l i e f when Rob t e l l s them that everyone w i l l be working on Grad Day to make sure that the camp i s clean and a l l the day's preparations complete. Before work on Grad Day can become a point of debate, Marion closes the issue, 222 reminding the students that Reg's suggestion should be acted on soon. She then asks Roy to present his issue. Roy Jerry Roy John Roy Marion John' Chris Roy Marion Jerry : Yesterday when we were working eh, I was t a l k i n g to Mike eh., and he walked away and I looked down and he turned around and said 'that's ten' and that I swore. I never even swore : Well, what do you want? What are you saying? : Well, l i k e , I don't think he should take my conduct point away. : Well you did eh? You sent, 'well f . . , you" a f t e r he gave them (pushups) to you, and before you said some-thing l i k e "What the f . . . do you do?" : No way - I said "what are you doing around here" or something l i k e that. And I never swore. : OK, i f you want to ta l k about a problem with Mike yesterday that's f i n e , but leave out anything about points and consequences. : Why don't we ask Mike cause I think what I said was ri g h t . : Ya, I think that's true cause everyone was cu r s i n ' out there. : Ya, but the way he works i t everyone should have got pushups for smilin' and saying h i , : So, i s the issue over or what? : I don't think, you should worry about i t Roy, l i k e everyone coulda got nailed a l l day long for swearing 223 so l i k e i t ' s r e a l l y a l i t t l e thing eh? Dan : Maybe i t just slipped out by accident, sometimes I do that, I don't mean to, i t just comes out. Roy : Ya, but i t ' s not f a i r . Marion : OK, can anyone think of some way to help Roy out? Reg : If you're gonna swear you might as well just say i t right. out then take your consequences. Don't mumble 'cause then they might assume you're swearing anyway and make you do them. John : Just do your pushups man. It's just ten, Richard gave me a hundred once just for swearing twice. Roy : But I never swore man. I t ' s l i k e , unjust. That's what I'm saying man. Mike (who has arrived about ten minutes earlier). ; 0K-, a l o t of people were swearing out there when they h i t themselves with hammers and I don't pay attention to that. But Roy said something deliberate to me twice and that's why he got pushups. A long s i l e n c e . Vincent : Maybe Roy didn't swear. Maybe Mike made a mistake. Another si l e n c e . Marion : OK, you've brought up your issue Roy. Are you s a t i s f i e d with the response? Roy : Ya, now l e t s talk, about the drinking water at work yesterday. Like another .... Marion : OK. we're going to go on to another issue. Maybe we'll 224 get back to that l a t e r . John? Roy i s not s a t i s f i e d . He i s about to speak again but decides against i t and hunches down i n his c h a i r . The other students are not supporting him on t h i s issue. To have John against him i s nothing, i new. Both students have a profound d i s l i k e f o r each, other. But t h i s time even Jerry, h i s best f r i e n d " , i s not supporting Roy. Roy r e a l i z e s that he w i l l not get anywhere without a well-reasoned support from the other students. John's issue i s of a d i f f e r e n t sort. This morning Vincent had been very s u r l y and uncooperative with everyone he encountered. Vincent's behaviour i s a topic that quite a few of the others also have on t h e i r minds. John wants to know what i s bothering him. Ian begins by noting that Vincent had talked with and apologized to Ian a f t e r the argument they had had. Ian compliments Vincent for h i s i n i t i a t i v e i n 'talking out' the issue. Vincent explains that he can not swim and the insistence of the others that he come down f o r a dip i n the lake t h i s morning made h i s both frustrated and angry. But Vincent had some behavioural problems a f t e r breakfast as well. Roy wonders why Vincent always takes h i s anger out on the s t a f f . He i s implying that Vincent i s a coward and w i l l not f i g h t with the students. Everyone ignores Roy's comment. Marion mentions that Vincent has been having d i f f i c u l t i e s . 225 during work and chores as well. She suggests that the group hear about them so they can t r y to help him. Vincent maintains that he was i n a bad mood and that i t was 'no big deal', Marion, on the other hand, suggests that he was arguing and doing sloppy work on purpose just to 'try everyone's patience' and to see i f he could get them upset. She thinks he i s playing a game. Vincent : You're wrong Marion. Marion : OK, then t e l l me how I'm supposed to t a l k to you about things to do around here without getting into a b i g argument. Vincent : I don't know. I knew t h i s was going to happen. Wendel : I think he was doin' what I do when I'm i n a bad mood. I s t a r t to bug someome else. Jerry to Marion: I don't think i t ' s a good idea, what you're doing to Vince. You're pressuring him. He's just having a bad mood. Seems l i k e he's a l o t better than he used to be. John : I don't think he should take i t out on other people. He should just leave everybody and s i t by himself. Ian : The object of t h i s session i s to put pressure on people whose behaviours aren't appropriate and we'd l i k e to know why a l l t h i s uncalled f o r behaviour was happening today. "Just a bad day" i s n ' t an excuse. Everyone has bad days but i t ' s no excuse to go around wrecking other people's days. 226 Vincent : Maybe I don't know how to handle bad days. Maybe I should do what John said and take some time out. Marion : Maybe we could get some other suggestions to help you. Rob : Well, I don't know i f t h i s i s a p o s i t i v e suggestion but Wendel's point was a good one. I know when I have a bad day I sometimes want to bring someone into i t -I get mad at the world. I think i t takes a l o t of w i l l -power to say "Ya, I'm having a bad day and I'm sorry I'm putting i t on to you". I f you keep i t to yourself y o u ' l l end up y e l l i n g at someone and then t h e y ' l l y e l l back, and then you y e l l ... i t gets worse. I f you t e l l people, i t tends to get better. You almost forget and fi n d youself saying "gee, why was I i n such a bad mood?" Everyone around you i s s t i l l r e l a t i n g i n a p o s i t i v e manner and then someone w i l l t e l l a joke ... and you forget the bad mood. I t can go away quickly but i t takes w i l l power . Vincent : Well, everyone knew I was i n a bad moody today but some people didn't help. They just made me more pissed o f f . Marion : I s t i l l don't think that t e l l s me why you were putting so much energy into thinking up what you could do wrong. 'How can I do t h i s wrong to get shouted at so I can get angry?' I'd rather see that energy get put into p o s i t i v e s t u f f . Vincent : Uh, t h i s i s n ' t personal or anything but have you ever seen a p s y c h i a t r i s t ? You're thinking up some pretty . ( 227 Marion Ian Vincent Ian Vincent Ian Vincent Roy Rob weird s t u f f . I t's not true what you said. : I disagree so I guess you and I w i l l have to talk about i t l a t e r . : I think. Vincent i s just t r y i n g to get away from his problem - not deal with them. I think, you want us to think, you're a turkey. I'd l i k e to know why you're playing that game. : You're p o s i t i v e I'm playing a game aren't you? : Well you do i t enough. : You're wrong. : Prove i t ! : T can't eh! : This thing i s going i n c i r c l e s . Maybe we should get o f f i t . I t 's possible to help but Vincent won't admit anything. : OK, to a c e r t a i n extent i t had a l o t to do with Vincent and the rest of the group. One of the assumptions so far i s that what Vincent i s doing i s i n t e n t i o n a l and another i s that Vincent was i n a bad mood. But can you say why you were i n a bad mood? Maybe i t ' s i n t e n t i o n a l , but there's a l o t of other things going on at t h i s time of camp 'cause there's a l o t of i n d e f i n i t e s and a l o t happening inside ... something we c a l l separation and loss. There's a l o t of close attachments that have been formed and these are gonna end two weeks from now and everyone deals with, that a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . I'm 228 just wondering i f that's one of the things behind Vincent's bad day. What do you think. Vincent? Vincent : I dunno, when I woke up I just got pissed o f f e a s i l y , Ian : I wonder i f anyone i s pushing Vincent around and he's covering up. Vincent : No one's pushing me around or aggravating me. Wendel : I think Vincent i s just a l l tensed up 'cause i t ' s the l a s t two weeks. I know I am. Chris : No one's pushing him around, I was just f o o l i n g around t h i s morning and I'm sorry i f i t was me that got you pissed o f f . Jerry : I never heard anyone p i c k on Vincent t h i s morning. I f anyone does then maybe everyone should help. Pretend he's your f r i e n d f o r the l a s t two weeks. If I see anyone doing i t I ' l l t e l l them to t r y to help. Marion : OK, thanks Jerry. That was a r e a l l y p o s i t i v e way to end t h i s issue. Maybe we can go to Rob now because he wants to t a l k about the separation and loss thing. Rob : I t ' s not r e a l l y a b i g thing, but i t ' s something the counsellors t a l k about a b i t and i t ' s something we see recurring. You know, we've just spent f i v e months together and have gone through- a l o t of crap and good times together. People have developed friendships and d i s l i k e s , but o v e r a l l i t s a s o l i d group. In the backs of our minds we s t a r t saying 'hey, i t ' s coming to an end". On one hand we're happy - we'll be out of t h i s 229 place but there's also ... you're also gonna see good buddies go o f f and you're not gonna see them again f o r a long time; maybe forever. Deep down we don't r e a l l y want to go. Some would l i k e to stay here because goin' home i s n ' t gonna be great so they s t a r t getting into trouble or acting funny and some of them don't know why. People react d i f f e r e n t l y during t h i s stage. We might have to look at ourselves and see how we honestly f e e l about camp and deal with i t . I know I f e e l i t and I know a l o t of the counsellors f e e l i t . Sometimes we can get i n r e a l l y t e r r i b l e moods, sometimes we're happy i t ' s over but sometimes we're sad. We worry about some of you guys not making i t , we loose friendships. I t hurts, but sometimes we don't know why we're hurting. We're saying goodbye to something pretty powerful and we don't a l l know what's ahead. Marion : I think what you said about future uncertainties i s r e a l l y true. A l o t of the guys don't know how i t ' s gonna go when they leave. There's security and friends and support here so maybe everyone's a l i t t l e anxious. Rob : Knowbody r e a l l y knows what i t ' s gonna be l i k e . You've been away from home for f i v e months- things change, you change. Wendel : I agree with Rob, 'cause i n two weeks I don't know where I'm gonna be. I've got nothing to look, forward to. A long s i l e n c e . Everyone i s looking at the f l o o r , Robert : I agree too. I t f e e l s weird going back to the r e a l world 230 a f t e r being out here i n the bush., s Me too, i t was r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t going home. My l i t t l e s i s t e r seemed to have changed so much. My friends had taken o f f . : A l o t of the time I can't r e l a t e to the way you guys f e e l but I'm leaving camp t h i s time too, and I wonder what's going to happen. I t fe e l s funny. I t ' s pretty t i g h t here... so, maybe we can close with t h i s issue. Lets think about i t , t a l k about i t . We've covered a l o t and i t ' s been a r e a l l y good session. OK, charts w i l l be i n ten minutes. Two things happen that I have never seen occur before. Wendel jumps up, knocking h i s c h a i r over as he rushes outside followed quickly by Vincent. The others, instead of getting up quickly., t a l k i n g and laughing as they usually do, s i t f o r a moment, a l l save one or two apparently l o s t i n t h e i r own thoughts. People begin to walk out slowly, alone or i n p a i r s . Ian, Rod, Marion and Rob leave the room together. They are outside now leaning up against Rob's pickup truck. Ian thinks that Rob has ' h i t the n a i l on the head*. He thinks there might just be some good things going on at camp r i g h t now - students looking hard at themselves. He f e e l s that i t i s about time. "I could have t o l d them the same thing I said a couple of nights ago", Ian says to Rob, "I could have complemented a l o t of people Reg Marion 231 Even Roy. I t never ceases to amaze me how p o s i t i v e he can be i f he decides not to put people down. He was saying some pretty good things towards the end tonight, not as good as two nights ago, but ... and Jerry. Amazing. Wendel, even Jim. In the l a s t couple of weeks I've been f e e l i n g that people are genuinely t r y i n g to help each other". " I t a l l seemed to s t a r t just before they went home for a week" notes Rod. "Maybe the blunt r e a l i t y of home l i f e r e a l l y started a l o t of them thinking. They're using the sessions a l o t better now". "Ya, l i k e a few nights ago when we were focusing on Robert", Marion adds, "they were o f f e r r i n g r e a l l y meaningful and ' f e l t ' ideas". I remember back to that evening. Wendel, Jim and Roy had spoken at length about the value and support of a good home. Robert, who had ignored h i s parents and 'partied' most of the time during h i s week at home, had l i s t e n e d very c a r e f u l l y . He knew he had upset h i s parents very much even though he admitted they were very good to him. Listening to the other three students t a l k -two of them from very bad and unhappy homes - had humbled or shamed Robert and he had begun to reassess h i s attitude towards h i s family. Their advice, was, i n essence, to honour and love your parents because you're very lucky to have them and even more lucky that they care for you. Robert had come to me a f t e r that meeting. He was 232 almost bubbling and beaming with excitement. What the other students had said had "Opened a whole new-door for me". " I t makes sense", Robert had added, "what they say about being decent to your f o l k s . I t ' s been getting me nowhere the way I've been doing i t , but now I f e e l l i k e I r e a l l y want to t r y to do what those guys suggested". Robert's reaction had amazed me. From my vantage point at that session, I had heard the very same suggestions students had been giving every night i n respect to a v a r i e t y of issues. They were standard phrases that were repeated almost verbatim every night. They had a l l had the same general theme. "You've got to be more p o s i t i v e " , "control your temper", "think before you speak or act", " o f f e r to help instead of c r i t i c i z e " , "you have to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and accept the consequences", "think about the people around you". These were the same messages one heard every session. I had even heard Robert say the same things to others i n e a r l i e r sessions. Yet that night they had been said to him and dir e c t e d at an important issue i n h i s l i f e . He had obviously been l i s t e n i n g . In retrospect I r e a l i z e d that there had been a difference i n the q u a l i t y of the suggestions that night. Each had been supplemented by a personal testimony of how the point i n question had effected t h e i r own l i v e s . Perhaps Robert had been l i s t e n i n g to the emotional strength behind the words that night. 233 Not long a f t e r Marion had mentioned Robert's session, Robert walks up to us. He t e l l s Rob that Vincent and Wendel are s i t t i n g down by the lake almost i n tears and suggests that maybe a s t a f f should j o i n them. Ian follows up on his suggestions and heads o f f to the lake. Shortly thereafter Vincent comes up heading for the bunkhouse. Rob intercepts him and they walk o f f down the road together. A few minutes l a t e r I notice lan and Wendel putting a canoe out into the lake. They paddle o f f together. Marion and Rod have gone into the bunkhouse to record the points and comments of the day for each person's f i l e or chart. Almost hal f the camp i s on either Level II or I I I . These students are not required to attend chart session. Four of the remaining s i x are on charts, the remainder on Level I. These s i x must report one by one to the bunkhouse o f f i c e to go over t h e i r day's earnings. Marion steps out onto the bunkhouse porch and c a l l s for Chris. Chart sessions are normally tulmultuous and emotion laden during the f i r s t few months of any camp. Most students value the rewards that can be earned through the chart system yet most also f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to perform well enough to earn them. 'Charts' thus often becomes a place of confrontation, re-negotion, tantrums and threats. Although as a r u l e , students know beforehand the number of points they have earned, the formal chart session i s often used by students 234 to vent t h e i r anger and make one l a s t t r y at gaining any points they may have f a i l e d to earn. During the f i r s t few months most of the students stay i n or around the bunkhouse during charts, at times almost hovering around the closed o f f i c e door. As each student leaves the o f f i c e , an excited chorus of 'whatcha get's? 1 coupled with, either congratulatory statements or sympathetic and usually loud support f o r a wronged student. These and the often b i t t e r complaints against the s t a f f , s i g n i f i c a t n l y r a i s e the decibel l e v e l i n the b u i l d i n g . At times i t i s almost reminicent of a p a r t i c u l a r i l y active day on a stock exchange f l o o r . A chart session can also become a counselling session although i t s primary function i s a rather blunt i f supportive tabulation and presentation of the dayfe earnings and by d i r e c t implication, of the day's behaviour. In keeping with t h e i r behavioural management philosophy, a counsellor i s supposed to comment on only the earned points, congratulating and supporting each student for h i s successes. The unearned points are supposed to speak for themselves. This i s not always the case however. Students often demand discussion and negotiation on unearned points and s t a f f have been known to forget the p o s i t i v e aspect of t h i s reinforcement schedule, using the time instead to c r i t i c i z e , threat or demand improvement. Some students, usually the shy, the scapegoats and the loners look forward to t h i s time during which, they are guaranteed a semi-private opportunity to discuss any problems, concerns or successes they may have. Some s t a f f are also prone to use t h i s time as an 235 i n d i v i d u a l counselling session where they can p r o b e f c r i t i q u e , develop a re l a t i o n s h i p or support and encourage an i n d i v i d u a l . Though the core of each session i s a constant, the counsellor involved and the events and mood of the day provide a continual v a r i e t y to t h i s l a s t formal a c t i v i t y of the evening. By the time a camp has passed i t s h a l f way point, and esp e c i a l l y towards the end of a camp, chart sessions begin to loose t h e i r importance and emotional impact. By that time, the vast majority of the students are performing well enough most of the time to receive f u l l rewards. I f the camp i s going p a r t i c u l a r i l y well, i t may be that a l l the students are at Level I or beyond, thus almost eliminating the need f o r a chart session. As camp progresses, students also learn that they w i l l seldom, i f ever successfully negotiate an addit i o n a l earned point. The game has been learned and, for the most part, mastered. There are however, s t i l l sessions of emotional excitement i f there i s a p a r t i c u l a r i l y contentious issue or i f the p o s s i b i l i t y of moving up a l e v e l i s eminent. Chris joins Marion i n the bunkhouse o f f i c e . Marion has Chris's f i l e open on the desk. I t , l i k e a l l the others, i s a t y p i c a l 8x14 inch f i l e f o l d e r . On the l e f t i nside face are a number of stapled sheets of paper. One, e n t i t l e d 'chart changes' outlines and dates each chart modification and l e v e l change.. Chris, for example, f i r s t obtained Level I standing on March, twentieth, and attained Level II 236 on A p r i l the. t h i r d . On A p r i l the- twenty-fourth-however, he was dropped back, to Level I for being 'abusive to s t a f f " . For the same reason, he was put back on charts on May the eighth., Although. attitude and rapport do not e f f e c t reward earning, they become central to maintaining a 'Level' status. Chris has obviously had his ups and downs. Tonight i s a d e f i n i t e 'up'. Marion(smiling1: Guess what Chris? Chris : I dunno, well maybe I do. Marion : You've j u s t made i t back to Level I, Congratulations. Chris : A l r i g h t ! Far out! Marion : Ya, i t ' s good to see you picking up again Chris. We were getting worried about you for awhile. Have you got anything you want to bring up? Chris : Nope, That's just f i n e . Marion : OK then. Maybe you could round up John for me. I'm glad you're moving on up Chris. Chris wanders out and can be heard h o l l e r i n g for John. I t i s the same story for him tonight, although for John i t i s the f i r s t time he has gone beyond charts. He i s equally happy but i n h i s own quiet way just smiles. He t e l l s Marion that he decided a few weeks ago to make i t to Level I before camp fi n i s h e d . He r e a l i z e s that there i s not enough, time l e f t to reach Level II but he wanted to reassure himself that he could at l e a s t perform well enough to be there i f he puts his mind to i t . 237 As John leaves, he i s asked to c a l l i n Vincent, Vincent had attained Level I at the beginning of May only to loose i t the following week when he ran away. He has yet to earn h i s way back to Level I and shows no r e a l i n t e r e s t i n doing so. He has not earned enough points to make i t into town t h i s coming weekend but does not appear overly concerned. One of the other s h i f t ' s counsellors, Richard, has become t i r e d of Vincent's constant complaining of being 'ripped o f f by the s t a f f . Vincent, i t appears, i s always blaming someone else for the i n j u s t i c e s i n his l i f e . Richard decided to show Vincent the difference between ' f a i l i n g to earn' and being 'ripped o f f . After ensuring that both he and Vincent knew that Vincent had earned a s p e c i f i c chore point on Monday, Rick had informed Vincent that he had decided to not l e t him earn that point. The two had had a l i v e l y debate that a f t e r -noon. Richard had not been able to keep a smile o f f his face, and even Vincent, a f t e r f i f t e e n minutes of haranguing Rick had, i n spite of himself, laughed aloud during the argument. Vincent knew that Richard wanted him to a r t i c u l a t e h i s knowledge of the difference between the two concepts. Vincent continues to refuse to do t h i s even tonight. Richard has l e f t a note on the chart, to the e f f e c t that Vincent can have his point back i f he agrees to stop claiming a ' r i p o f f a l l the time. Marion points t h i s out to Vincent. 238 Vincent : (with- a b i g smile on h i s face). This i s an i n j u s t i c e ! I can't make that commitment to you. He wants i t h i s way, I want i t mine. You should give me h a l f a point cause he's h a l f r i g h t and I'm h a l f r i g h t . Ri'ck i s t r y i n g to say that I say ' r i p me o f f a l l the time. I earned the point so i t s unjust. Marion : Di f f e r e n t counsellors do things d i f f e r e n t l y . Vincent : Well I guess I ' l l j u st have to beat you up them. They'll take me to c e l l s then. (Vincent i s f o o l i n g around now).. Marion : You're not taking Richard's point very seriously. I t ' s l i k e a debate i n school, Vincent : It ' s u n f a i r , j u s t l i k e H i t l e r k i l l i n g the Jews, I can't make that commitment 'cause maybe I r e a l l y w i l l get ripped o f f sometime. He's ju s t t r y i n g to provoke me. Marion : Looks l i k e . T e l l you what, I ' l l c a l l Richard and see what he has to say. Marion p i c k s up the radio phone and gets the operator to d i a l through. A f t e r a b r i e f explanation of the s i t u a t i o n , Richard t e l l s her that he was just t r y i n g tomake-a ;poiiit. Rick i s f u l l y aware that he must honour the chart system, thus the point must be rewarded. He tal k s with Vincent f o r awhile and apparently both to them are s a t i s f i e d . Vincent leaves contentedly even though h i s reinstated point w i l l not earn him the week's rewards, Marion smiles and with. a shrug says " I t must be the p r i n c i p l e of the thing". 239: And so the chart session contines, Roy, l i k e Vincent, appears to enjoy debating and negotiating every possible angle. He has f a i l e d to earn a point today that w i l l keep him from going to town. He argues strongly to have i t reinstated. He i s unsuccessful. Surprisingly, given the vehemence of his argument, he accepts t h i s with a shrug and walks o f f . I am t o l d l a t e r that Rob stayed at camp af t e r the evening session s p e c i f i c a l l y to see what Roy's reaction at charts would be. If Roy had l o s t h i s temper or become ve r b a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y abusive to s t a f f , Rob would have taken him to c e l l s and Roy's spring '82 camp experience would have been over. Roy appeared aware of the thi n l i n e he trod. Not a l l the s t a f f seemed pleased that Roy had been able to hang on. Marion has f i n a l l y completed the chart session. A b r i e f conversation with David about h i s impending Level I II status was the l a s t issue to be dealt with.. I t i s now 9:15 p.m. In f i f t e e n minutes the students w i l l be expected to be i n , or almost i n , bed. Two of them have already gone to bed, one to read, the other to sleep. Robert and Roy s i t i n t h e i r underwear on Roy's bed playing a game of chess. Ian and Vincent, also i n t h e i r underwear, are wrestling i n the middle of the f l o o r . Three of the boys are at the sink brushing t h e i r teeth. Mike i s also i n bed already. The others are outside, some s i t t i n g on the porch having a l a s t c i g arette. Marion and Rod are standing beside Rob's pickup truck. Rob i s at the. wheel and the engine i s running. The three of them are having a conversation about arrangement for Saturday's town 240 v i s i t . Rob i s t i r e d and anxious to get home. By 9:55 p.m. everyone except Rod i s i n bed and r e l a t i v e l y quiet. Someone asks who i s going to read tonight. P h i l says he w i l l but then John suggests that Chris could. To everyone surprize Chris agrees. For the l a s t two weeks the story that has been read aloud almost every evening has been a rousing Louis Lamour western i n which a 'breed' (mixed Indian and Caucasionl i s the. hero. Apparently Chris has been enjoying the story and i s w i l l i n g to t r y reading i t aloud. This i s an impressive act of s e l f confidence as, by B.C. school standards, Chris was close to being f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e when he arr i v e d at the camp. Rod takes the book and a f l a s h l i g h t over to Chris and shows him where the l a s t night's reader l e f t o f f . Rod then announces that he's 'gonna shut'er down', meaning that he i s about to go out and turn o f f the d i e s e l generator. As he walks out the door he f l i c k s the l i g h t switch, leaving the bunkhouse i n darkness except for the small c i r c l e of l i g h t coming from Chris's f l a s h l i g h t . Chris begins to read. He f a l t e r s i n i t i a l l y and must labour through sounding a number of words. At a p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t word which i s beginning to f r u s t r a t e him, a number of the students c a l l out the correct pronunciation. Chris thanks them and t r i e s out h i s new word. There i s no laughter or d e r i s i o n . Those who 241 are s t i l l awake are giving Chris t h e i r f u l l attention, and perhaps what i s more important, t h e i r f u l l support. Rod has come back i n and i s slowly undressing, l i s t e n i n g to Chris and watching his face as he struggles with, the story. Rod whispers to Marion,"Isn 1t t h i s great, I didn't think I'd ever hear Chris do t h i s . The other guys are r e a l l y being decent too". Marion and Ian nod t h e i r agreement as they continue to l i s t e n . Chris reads for twenty minutes and then comes to the end of a chapter, P h i l thanks him at t h i s point and c a l l s out a goodnight to everyone. There are only a few mumbled r e p l i e s and one "good-night Johnboy" i n return. Most of the students are already f a s t asleep. The counsellors, or most of the, w i l l be awake for awhile yet. I t i s always hard for them to relax at the end of a day. Each one i s l o s t i n h i s or her own thoughts, worries and s a t i s f a c t i o n s from the day. A l l of them w i l l have eventually slipped into sleep by midnight a f t e r savouring f o r awhile the only t r u e l y p r i v a t e time they have at Trapping Lake. 242 ANALYSIS "... be the man through whom you wish to influence others. Mere talk, has always been considered hollow, and there i s no trick., however cunning, by which one can evade t h i s simple truth for long. The fac t of being convinced, and not the subject matter of conviction i t i s t h i s which has always ca r r i e d weight" 1. C.G. Jung It i s now time to compare fac t with theory. When we attempt to place Camp Trapping within the general framework of r i t e s of passage aims and a c t i v i t i e s , a few s i m i l a r i t i e s immediately stand out. Perhaps the most obvious of these i s Trapping's c l e a r three stage system of separation, re-education, and the graduation process. There can be l i t t l e doubt that t h i s corresponds n i c e l y with the pr e l i m i n a l , l i m i n a l and post l i m i n a l phases of a r i t e of passage. I believe t h i s s i m i l a r i t y merits l i t t l e discussion how-ever as a vast array of human a c t i v i t i e s can be seen to have c l e a r l y marked beginning, middle and end segments. I t i s what occurs within each segment that i s of more importance. This three phase nature of Camp Trapping should be considered only a clue or in d i c a t i o n that a further r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t . Another rather straightforward s i m i l a r i t y between Trapping and r i t e s of passage l i e s at the goal l e v e l of both systems. We w i l l r e c a l l Turner's suggestion that r i t u a l i n general has four broad goals. When we compare these goals to those o u t l i n e d i n 243 Trapping's p o l i c y -manual, the key informants' opinions and the founder's conceptions, a more signigicant s i m i l a r i t y begins to appear. The following chart outlines t h i s s i m i l a r i t y . The intent of both systems mesh f a i r l y well. While we w i l l be returning to some of these goal statements i n our discussion of l i m i n a l stage objectives and methods, l i t t l e more need be said concerning t h i s correspondance. Both sets of goals are quite general and, as such, tend to be of l i t t l e value i n i n d i c a t i n g any strong c o r r e l a t i o n between these two systems. I f the goals were not shared we would, perhaps, have l i t t l e need to explore the comparison further. I t i s safe to say they are close enough to encourage a closer scrutiny. To say, however, that Camp Trapping and r i t e s of passage are si m i l a r would, at t h i s point, be equivalent to sta t i n g that the Canadian New Democratic and Progressive Conservative p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s are i d e n t i c a l i n that they both believe i n the preservation of democracy and the provision of j u s t i c e to Canadians. Our time w i l l be better spent i n examining the objectives and methods bf l i m i n a l i t y and of the program Trapping o f f e r s . We s h a l l also be looking more c l o s e l y at the concept of a r i t e of a f f l i c t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Trapping's program. Li m i n a l i t y at Camp Trapping Turner's: description of the l i m i n a l phase creates an image Figure 5.1-1 Goal Comparison - Ritual and Camp Trapping CAMP TRAPPING RITUAL  Ritual II Ritual II Ri t u a l I I I Ritual IV  Communication Control of Bonding Creation of an idea  Aggression system re g u i l t and conscience CT I End or s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce low breaking. Corresponds CT II Provision of immediate controls and consequences in a supportive environment. CT III Provision of p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l s k i l l s . Corresponds Corresponds CT IV Encourage personal growth i n Corresponds a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner. Corresponds Corresponds Corresponds ^ CT V To create better c i t i z e n s . Corresponds 245 of great i n t e n s i t y and paints a picture saturated with, emotional experience and personal in s i g h t . I f t h i s i s t y p i c a l of l i m i n a l experiences then Camp Trapping would f a i l to q u a l i f y , f i l l e d as i t i s with many hours and days of mundane existence. There are times when s t a f f and students a l i k e f i n d boredom t h e i r most troublesome issue; a s i t u a t i o n which may not be that unusual i n a program attempting to duplicate or model the r e a l i t i e s of every-day l i f e . Fortunately l i m i n a l i t y i t s e l f can be defined i n more mundane terms. As a r i t u a l phase, l i m i n a l i t y can be described as the time during which, the new perceptions, values, behaviours, s o c i a l r o l e s and information that describe the impending status are introduced to and i d e a l l y adopted by the r i t u a l i n i t i a t e s . Turner's use of the term leads t h i s writer to believe he i s attempting to describe a state of mind occuring or sought a f t e r i n a v a r i e t y of si t u a t i o n s . This l i m i n a l state i s described as one i n which individuals experience themselves as having unlimited p o t e n t i a l and as one i n which a feelings of 'oneness' with something p o s i t i v e and greater than one-s e l f i s attained. I believe t h i s state of mind i s cen t r a l to Turner's d e f i n i t i o n as i t appears to be the common thread running through a v a r i e t y of situations he defines as l i m i n a l or liminoid. Thus, according to Turner, the counter culture of the S i x t i e s and other marginal groups consider l i m i n a l i t y as an end i n i t s e l f , while C h r i s t i a n pilgrimage i s a contemporary example of controlled l i m i n a l i t y as a means to an end. 246 However r e a l the experience of t h i s l i m i n a l state may be, i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to conclusively demonstrate i t s existence i n the minds of Camp Trapping s-tudents. Rit u a l l i m i n a l i t y i s the issue i n question and as such, l i m i n a l i t y becomes relevant as a set of r i t u a l techniques (including setting) which, although they may induce t h i s state of mind, are used by the r i t u a l i s t s to achieve the objectives of the s p e c i f i c r i t e and the goals of r i t u a l as Turner defines them. I t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h a r i t u a l phase of l i m i n a l i t y from a psychological state of l i m i n a l i t y . While the l a t t e r may be an es s e n t i a l prerequisite for the success of a r i t e , r i t u a l l i m i n a l i t y must be more c l e a r l y defined by i t s techniques and objectives, only one of which would be the pa r t i c i p a n t s ' experience of the l i m i n a l state. There i s much, at Camp Trapping that i s n o n - r i t u a l i s t i c and that would be experienced as mundane a c t i v i t y by i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . Because of the camp's use of various therapeutic techniques, i t s l i m i t e d duration, some of i t s objectives and i t s frequent contact with the urban community, l i m i n a l i t y i n the camp i s somewhat sporadic and modified. One of the strongest counterbalances to l i m i n a l a c t i v i t y i s the s t a f f ' s awareness of the tendancy of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and s o c i a l service f o l k l o r e to c r i t i c i z e programs which i s o l a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s from the 'real world' on the assumption that i s i s p r e c i s e l y i n the r e a l world that the par t i c i p a n t s must learn to operate. There i s a tendancy then, for the camp s t a f f to balance the program's l i m i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with frequent incursions into or from mainstream society, p a r t i c u l a r i l y a f t e r the f i r s t month 247 or so. While some of these incursions are components of Trapping's reaggregation process and thus intended to terminate the l i m i n a l phase, t h e i r frequency has the e f f e c t of subduing l i m i n a l i t y at the camp. In the discussion of l i m i n a l i t y which follows, i t w i l l also be shown that there are a number of program variables which, have the same e f f e c t . I t i s for t h i s reason that I prefer to think of Camp Trapping as a liminoid or quasi-liminal phenomenon, one that has "features resembling l i m i n a l i t y . . . b u t not i d e n t i c a l to i t " 2. In i t s early stages, the camp may have been more l i m i n a l through evoking a stronger sense of communitas, perhaps even spontaneous communitas made more accessible to the students through Hawkenson's charismatic leadership. We need only remember Hawkenson's description of the ' gung-ho camaraderie' as the s t a f f and students 'drove o f f into glory'. As the camp grew i n siz e and complexity, as new coordinators arrived to r e - i n t e r p r e t the o r i g i n a l program, the s t y l e of communitas -and by implication i t s l i m i n a l i t y - became more an expression of normative and occasionally i d e o l o g i c a l communitas, both being a subdued and translated form of the sponteneous variety and more cl o s e l y associated with liminoid phenomena. 3. The increasing complexity of camp l i f e , the conscious attempts to create 'real l i f e ' s i t u a t i o n s , t o provide more Interplay with the parent community, and i t ' s routinized* communitas, ensure that Camp Trapping i s more liminoid than l i m i n a l . This i s an important 248 point. I t reminds us that Camp Trapping i s not a r i t e of passage per se, but that i t performs s i m i l a r functions i n s i m i l a r ways. The mix of liminoid and non-liminoid camp components w i l l be examined item by item. There are i n addition, however, some fa m i l i a r a c t i v i t i e s which, though not liminoid i n themselves, take on liminoid aspects through the context of the program. Such- i s the case with both the academic and vocational programs.: The p r i n c i p a l objectives of the vocational program are to develop s p e c i f i c manual s k i l l s and e f f e c t i v e work habits. One, though not the p r i n c i p a l , objective of the academic program i s the development of academic s k i l l s . With these objectives i n mind, both programs could be operated quite e f f e c t i v e l y outside of the camp milie u and indeed are modified versions of programs that do just that. Their content, some of t h e i r objectives and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r classroom structure are a l l quite f a m i l i a r and mundane to Trapping's students. In the Trapping context however, these programs take on some liminoid c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . School Throughout most of t h e i r l i v e s , school i s the central focus around (and occasionally in) which. Trapping's students plan t h e i r l i v e s . At Trapping however, the school components are expected to conform or blend into the camp's o v e r a l l l i f e s t y l e . They become part of the students' l i v e s , not central to them, yet p r e c i s e l y 249 because of t h i s , t h e i r relevance to the re s t of society becomes more obvious. Herein l i e s the liminoid connection. At Camp Trapping, school becomes just one aspect of an intimately connected whole. Under normal circumstances, schooling i s quite removed from work, the family, recreation and even to some extent, s p e c i f i c peer support groups. In addition, i t i s seen as a separate and s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t system intended to provide a s p e c i f i c c l u s t e r of needs. I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy for someone to begin to see school as having l i t t l e relevance to other present or future events i n his or her l i f e . I t , l i k e a l l other aspects of society, can be dealt with as a semi-isolated compartment.of one's l i f e . What one does i n school need not be discussed u t i l i z e d or remembered outside i t s door. Because of i t s si z e and i t s generalized - as opposed to in d i v i d u a l i z e d - curriculum design, a student can remain v i r t u a l l y anonymous within the system unless he or she i s much more or much le s s successful than the average student i n respect to academic and/or s o c i a l performance. On average, a student spends no more than nine hours a week i n the Camp Trapping school program, yet i t takes on much, more importance than the time would indicate. School i s perhaps the most r e s i s t e d aspect of the Trapping program due, i t i s assumed, to the students' previous school experiences. This resistance can be modified and, on occasion, transformed into a commitment 250 to schooling. There are liminoid c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the school program that may be p a r t i a l l y responsible for t h i s change. A high, school student does not normally sleep i n the same room as h i s or her teacher, nor are h i s or her parents or older s i b l i n g s ( i . e . the counsellors) a c t i v e l y involved i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s . The Spring '82 students mentioned that two counsellors took p a r t i c u l a r interest"inLthe . B c h c o l jprogram. They often spent time helping the p a r t i c i p a n t s with, t h e i r academic work both i n the classroom and a f t e r school, i n the evenings. We have seen how Trapping's teacher eats, sleeps and plays with h i s students. He can be seen doing a l l the normal a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i f e j u st as he, i n turn, can see h i s students i n t h i s broader perspective. The chart system i s another l i n k between school and Trapping l i f e i n general. The conduct point, f o r example, i s defined i n the same terms f o r every aspect of the program. Appropriate school behaviour i s no d i f f e r e n t from appropriate behaviour during work or play. One earns the same rewards for doing well i n school as one earns doing well at work. In conjunction with the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d academic program, these a t t r i b u t e s of Camp Trapping school sub-s t a n t i a l l y changes i t s nature. School becomes a more personal event, connected to the Trapping family, peer group and workplace by a number of interconnected and highly v i s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . School i s no longer an i s o l a t e d event where one i s either exceptional, anonymous or infamous. At Trapping, small, i n d i v i d u a l accomplishments 251 are recognized and applauded not only by the teacher but by other relevant adults i n the community. School i s thus capable of providing personal value and p o s i t i v e s o c i a l recognition Needless to say, the numerous speakers that come to the camp, the counsellors and the teachers are continuously emphasizing the p r a c t i c a l necessity of obtaining some form o f : s c h o l a s t i c ' c e r t i f i c a t i o n . This f a c t begins to be recognized by the students when, for example, lack of mathematical a b i l i t y blocks learning and advancement i n the vocational program. In terms of a r i t e of passage two things are occuring here. In part, the s i t u a t i o n i s paradoxical. School i s apparently the same - the content and objectives are si m i l a r to previous scholastic experiences - yet the context and experience are t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . I t i s the same yet not the same. Paradox i s one of the key techniques or methods at use i n Turner's l i m i n a l phase. I t appears to be an e f f e c t i v e means of drawing one's attention to the normal through the normal's unusual association with- some other item or event. By not i c i n g that an association i s d i s j o i n t , one i s simultaneously recognizing the normal form t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p takes. Thus paradox can be seen as one of the tools used to o b j e c t i f y a l l that i s not normally manifest. In t h i s s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , the juxtaposition of the school and the Trapping community should display for the students' scrutiny the interconnectedness of school, society and the i n d i v i d u a l . This a b i l i t y to display (or manifest), things 252 not normally manifest i n d a i l y l i f e i s one of the properties of r i t u a l . I have referred to i t e a r l i e r as one of the objectives of a r i t e of passage. In other words, one of the methods - paradox-i s being used to achieve one of the objectives of r i t u a l , that i s , revealing what i s not normally apparent i n , yet underlies, mundane s o c i a l existence. Camp Trapping attempts but i s not wholly successful i n creating another l i m i n a l aspect. The i n d i v i d u a l i z e d learning format, the in c l u s i o n of l i f e s k i l l s and occasionally the in c l u s i o n of such programs as f i r s t a i d and outdoor education are a l l conscious attempts to provide an environment and academic experience that w i l l , as Hawkenson desired, i n s t i l l a joy i n or love of learning. School programs are not normally run to foster an appreciation of and p o s i t i v e attitude towards themselves and t h e i r objectives, yet Trapping's school has t h i s as i t s major objective. A q u i s i t i o n of academic s k i l l s and fa c t u a l knowledge are secondary objectives which almost become methods to reach the primary objective. Meeting consistent, small successes within one's academic program i s hypothesized to produce an emotional s a t i s f a c t i o n and hence enthusiasm for learning. Ideally then, Camp Trapping hopes that the academic experience can be pull e d out of the tedious and onerous context most of i t s students place i t i n . School should become pleasurable, 253 perhaps even e x c i t i n g . In short, school and learning should become play i n Turner's sense. Although, many of the students I spoke with were proud of t h e i r academic achievements at Trapping, only one expressed any new found i n t e r e s t or enjoyment i n academic pursuits. Most students would have preferred employment to school and continued to have some aversion to school and formal learning i n general. Trapping wants i t s students to fos t e r a new appreciation f o r learning through experiencing i t as play. They have been unable, i t appears, to achieve t h i s aim. By and large then, we must conclude that the Camp Trapping school program i s not a l i m i n a l or liminoid a c t i v i t y . I t does however, through i t s context and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Camp Trapping community, help to provide - and i n turn, takes on for i t s e l f - a liminoid q u a l i t y i n the Camp Trapping m i l i e u . Work and the Construction Trades Program If new students are unfamiliar with, hard physical labour p r i o r to attending Camp Trapping, they have c e r t a i n l y had a s o l i d i n t r o -duction to i t by the time they have l e f t . Some of the older students who have worked i n the bush and those students who have been brought up on farms would however, consider Trapping's work program rather l i g h t . There are usually one or two such students i n each- session. As we have seen, Robert and Rod both f i t t h i s description i n the 254 Spring 1982 Camp. Work takes place from Monday to Friday between nine i n the morning and four i n the afternoon. If there i s a project demanding rapid completion, the hours would be extended. On Saturdays, those students who have not earned t h e i r way into town w i l l normally put i n at l e a s t h a l f a day's work. Tuesday through Thursday, each student works only h a l f a day, the remainder of work, time being spent at school. In a normal week,each student w i l l spend three and one h a l f days i n the work program, one and one h a l f days of which are spent i n the construction trades program. The construction trades program i s one of the most recent additions to the camp. I t i s well received by s t a f f and students a l i k e . Students expressed an appreciation f o r being taught a useful trade. In f a c t , one of t h e i r major c r i t i c i s m s was that Camp Trapping did not o f f e r enough vocational t r a i n i n g . The s t a f f also recognize the construction trades program's (CTP) t r a i n i n g value and are most appreciative of i t s a b i l i t y to provide consistent and meaningful work throughout the week. One counsellor mentioned how d i f f i c u l t i t was to f i n d work projects to f i l l the days on which CTP did not operate. During my f i v e week stay at Trapping, counsellors appeared to have more d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g time i n which to do a l l the work. 255 Three counsellors also expressed some concern about the e f f e c t the CT? has had on t h e i r r o l e at the camp. Pri o r to i t s introduction, s t a f f were responsible for designing each work day and working with the students. These counsellors now f e l t they were often l e f t with l i t t l e or nothing to do during the day, f e e l i n g at times l i k e unnecessary appendages. While I did, indeed, observe occasions during which counsellors appeared to 'do nothing' (resting, reading), while the students worked, such occasions were few. More often, counsellors would use t h i s time to run errands, write reports, repair or locate e-quipment or prepare for future a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s true, however, that l i t t l e time was spent with the students during the school and CTP times. I believe the counsellors were uneasy about t h i s lack of contact which, as we w i l l see, could well be a legitimate concern. The CTP program, l i k e the school program, i s b a s i c a l l y non-liminal- i n nature. I t i s a very t y p i c a l work set t i n g , being task oriented and time conscious. Although t h i s may be a novel experience for many of the students, i t s focus and s t y l e of operation are well known to them. Unlike the school program, i t i s not designed to ensure small d a i l y successes nor i s there any mention of i t being used to inculcate a sense of joy about work. I t i s , for the most part, hard physical work of a routine nature i n which a l l students are obliged to p a r t i c i p a t e . In t h i s sense i t can be seen as an example of forcing compliance to the practioner's demands and as a provider of physical hardship, endurance and r e p e t i t i o n . In other words i t does provide one element of a t y p i c a l r i t e of passage. I t 256 does not however, provide homogenaity; quite the reverse i n f a c t . A student can earn more responsible and i n t e r e s t i n g work, i f he shows i n c l i n a t i o n and a b i l i t y and i f he works with- consistency and per-serverance. Thus i t was that three or four students of the eleven were usually always working on the f i n i s h i n g carpentry (in t h i s case constructing window frames) while the others were l e f t with the more r e p e t i t i v e , s i m p l i s t i c and p h y s i c a l l y demanding truss construction. Even i t s repetitiveness and physical demands can hardly be said to be indicators of l i m i n a l - l i k e a c t i v i t y . I t i s quite simply a t y p i c a l North. American work environment. Thus a large part of the Camp Trapping work week i s now devoted to a d i s t i n c t l y non-li m i n a l a c t i v i t y . Not a l l Camp Trapping work i s of t h i s nature however. Maintainance work and i n p a r t i c u l a r , those tasks demanding hard physical labour i n which the s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e have a d i s t i n c t l y l i m i n o i d character. For four or f i v e years p r i o r to the CTP's introduction, firewood cutting - b i r c h for sale and coniferous for on-site consumption -was the core of the work program. Both these work projects continue but with l e s s emphasis placed on them. Students now cut b i r c h v o l u n t a r i l y i n t h e i r free time should they wish to earn a few d o l l a r s to have upon graduation or to finance a c i t y o u t - t r i p . Cutting firewood for l o c a l comsumption (only the kitchen i s not heated with. wood)., while s t i l l e s s e n t i a l , must now be accomplished on Mondays, 257 Fridays,and Saturday or during the f i r s t few weeks of a camp when the CTP has not yet come into f u l l play. Yet , i f work was the ultimate goal of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r project, f u l l scale production using modern technology would have been i n s t i t u t e d at the camp long before now. What one finds i n the wood cutting project indicates that motives other than p r o f i t and ensuring warmth are at work for i t i s the sound of the swede saw rather than the chainsaw which predominates. One of the s t a f f w i l l use a chainsaw, perhaps with the assistance of a student, to f a l l the trees but i t i s never used to buck or limb them once they are on the ground. On some occasions, the c a t e p i l l a r t r a c t o r w i l l be used to winch and drag p a r t i c u l a r i l y large trees out of p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t s i tuations. For the most part however, the focus i s on manual labour. This leads me to believe that the process i s more relevant than the product or, that a large quantity of firewood i s not the true or only goal of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work program. While they are not the most important variables influencing t h i s manual work s t y l e , there are p r a c t i c a l considerations used to j u s t i f y i t . Safety i s one. A chainsaw, for example, i s a dangerous t o o l i n the most competent hands, c a l l i n g f o r s k i l l and caution at a l l times. While ax and swede saw must be treated with respect, they are not considered to be as dangerous. 258 Another p r a c t i c a l concern centres around the s t a f f s ' constant worry over the paucity of work for each, camp session. A work day without work i s considered anethma f o r both p r a c t i c a l (supervision, misadventure) and i d e o l o g i c a l (work i s good, work gives meaning), reasons. The use of les s e f f i c i e n t technology increases the amount of time spent on the job and helps to ensure that the day can be f i l l e d with, a c t i v i t y . The s t a f f become very concerned when there i s l i t t l e work to do. Some cousellors f e e l that the students' energies must be used i n a productive fashion else they w i l l become problematic and un-ru l y . For most cousellors however, a paucity of work goes against the very essence of the program. Students are expected to develop good work habits, learn to follow a consistent routine and become productive, constructive members of society. Being an ex p e r i e n t i a l teaching process, Camp Trapping teaches these behaviours through d i r e c t experience. Without the experience, there w i l l be no learning. I believe there i s another and ultimately much more important reason for the rather primitive nature of the work experience: i t s symbolic nature. The wood cutting project i s , i n large part, a symbolic act which, provides an opportunity to create a liminoid s i t u a t i o n . The use of, f o r example, swede saws, peevees and axes i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y e f f e c t i v e i n maintaining the homogenaity of the students. A more t r a d i t i o n a l crew would have a d e f i n i t e hierarchy of f a l l e r , bucker, 259 limber, e t c . The person most c l o s e l y associated with the chainsaw would have the greatest status, the person who stacks the wood would have the l e a s t . Although status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s never completely avoided, t h i s task at Trapping i s designed to avoid i t s emphasis. Each worker uses the same range of tools and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a l l aspects of the job save the counsellor-controlled f a l l i n g operation. Physical endurance and hardship are other aspects of the l i m i n a l stage ensured by t h i s process. While not extraordinary or p a r t i c -u l a r i l y s t r e s s f u l r e l a t i v e to much work outside of Camp Trapping, most students w i l l never have worked as hard or as consistently for such l i t t l e f i n a n c i a l rewards. I t i s u n l i k e l y that the students would work i n t h i s manner without the s t a f f ' s enthusiastic encouragement and i n s i s t e n t demands. Complete aquiesense to the leaders' demands, another element of r i t e s of passage, i t thus reinforces at the work s i t e . The woodcutting program also provides a d i r e c t and immediate l i n k to Camp Trapping's ideology. Carrying log segments by hand becomes a group e f f o r t requiring a f a i r l e v e l of physical endurance. The value of a supportive and cooperative community i s made much more apparent by using t h i s primitive technique. The construction trades program i s not t o t a l l y devoid of t h i s aspect. Towards the end of my v i s i t to Camp Trapping the students completed the eighty-truss order a greenhouse owner had contracted. Although the students had consistently complained about the tedious, routine nature of the 260 job, i t s completion evoked an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t response. The boys worked e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y as they loaded the trusses for de l i v e r y and i n s i s t e d that t h e i r picture be taken i n front of t h e i r completed project. The trusses were c l e a r l y a major accomplishment i n t h e i r eyes. The group stood i n s i l e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n as the loaded truck drove away. I heard one student say to another, "We a c t u a l l y did a l l that". "Helping one another to help oneself" thus becomes a tangible r e a l i t y made even more obvious by the work program's attachment to the chart system through which each i n d i v i d u a l student can gain r e l a t i v e l y immediate f i n a n c i a l and recreational rewards. The swede saw i s i t s e l f an e f f e c t i v e metaphor f o r the same concept. Although i t can be used by an i n d i v i d u a l , i t s design encourages team work. Two people can use i t more e f f e c t i v e l y than one. Cutting with the swede saw allows one to a c t u a l l y f e e l the physical exertion of your partner as he endevours to a s s i s t you i n completing the task. The concepts of hard work, cooperation and perserverance become d i r e c t l y linked to the tangible physical r e a l i t y of you and your partner's exertion. One could say that the swede saw s a t i s f i e s the d e f i n i t i o n of a symbol's polar nature. These at t r i b u t e s , i n and of themselves, would not necessarily r a i s e swede saw use or the woodcutting program i n general to a symbolic l e v e l . The way i n which the task, i s presented and the counsellor's role tends to create a liminoid s i t u a t i o n which allows 261 the swede say to be seen from a d i f f e r e n t perspective, We have here another example of paradox. Counsellors present the woodcutting program as an important task j u s t i f i e d by i t s u t i l i t a r i a n value, i . e . warmth and p r o f i t , yet the r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t way i n which, the work i s done contradicts the stated objectives. Nevertheless, the counsellors are p e r s i s t e n t i n t h e i r demands and enforce compliance. Somehow the task i s simultaneously important and not important. The role that s t a f f play on the work s i t e (and i d e a l l y at a l l times) further heightens t h i s sense of paradox and the uniqueness of the camp. Counsellors are required to be, about a l l else, r o l e models for t h e i r students. I t i s quite often that a counsellor w i l l be at the other end of a student's swede saw or trudging up a h i l l with an armload of cordwood. Counsellors are not only expected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n everything students are required to do, they are also expected to do so with enthusiasm. I t i s not that they must feign unbound enthusiasm, but they must at l e a s t demonstrate an appreciation of and a willingness to do the work at hand without complaint. Their behaviour i s paradoxical i n two ways. Most Trapping students are of the opinion that work i s to be endured or avoided, not enjoyed or appreciated. Suddenly students f i n d themselves surrounded by people who appear to have d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g work from play. This novel attitude i s r a r e l y expressed i n the world at large. Thus students are exposed to a new mind set - a s h i f t i n perspective - which, forces them to re-examine t h e i r attitudes. Secondly, we must remember that most of these students have had a 262 lengthy h i s t o r y of i n t e r a c t i o n with, s o c i a l service and corrections o f f i c i a l s : . The function and involvement of these o f f i c i a l s vary, but generally speaking they l i s t e n , respond, lecture, monitor or enforce. They have l i t t l e d i r e c t contact with t h e i r c l i e n t s i n the more mundane and d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l