UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Residential rehabilitation as a rite of passage : a case study Northey, Bruce Albert 1983

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R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n As A Rite  o f Passage  A Case Studyby  Bruce A l b e r t  Northey  B.A., C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 7 5 .S.W., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 7 9  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES:': SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ©  October 1983 B r u c e A l b e r t N o r t h e y , 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  of  S>or,<J?  l^Ovk.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 Y 3  DE-6  (3/81)  Columbia  written  ii ABSTRACT T h i s study examines t h e v a l u e s , g o a l s , methods and context o f Camp Trapping, a w i l d e r n e s s - l o c a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l  rehabilitation  program f o r teenage males i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the law.  The program i s  l o c a t e d on a s m a l l l a k e approximately t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s south o f P r i n c e George, B r i t i s h Columbia.  The study i s n o t an e v a l u a t i o n o f  the camp's e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r an e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t h e problems o r r e s o l u t i o n s o f j u v e n i l e delinquency.  Instead i t focuses on Camp  Trapping's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r i t e s o f passage, an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l concept used t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n a range o f techniques used by a m u l t i t u d e o f c u l t u r e s i n t h e i r attempts  to transform  individuals  from one s t a t e o f s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e i n g t o another.  A s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s and a search o f Camp Trapping documents p r o v i d e d a c l e a r example o f how t h e Trapping o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o t h e community.  A f i v e week p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n study  p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t i n t o the way Camp Trapping i s presented t o i t s c l i e n t group and i n t o i t ' s d a i l y o p e r a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from these sources was then compared t o a body o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e r o r y c o n c e r n i n g r i t u a l and r i t e s o f passage.  T h i s comparison i n -  d i c a t e s t h a t Camp Trapping and r i t e s o f passage share a number o f a s p e c t s and t h a t an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e provides valuable i n s i g h t s i n t o the s t r u c t u r e s ,  purposes  and v a l u e systems o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e programs.  The p e r s p e c t i v e I have used f o r t h i s study i s based on a l a r g e body o f theory  primarily  c r e a t e d o r expanded on by V i c t o r W. Turner.  iii  Turner has focused on r i t u a l , myth and symbol i n g e n e r a l w h i l e p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o r i t e s o f passage, format.  a specialized  ritual  Perhaps h i s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a n t h o r o p o l o g i c a l  t h e r o r y i s h i s work on t h e purposes  and format o f the mid o r l i m i n a l  stage o f the t h r e e staged r i t e s o f passage.  I t i s d u r i n g t h i s mid-  stage o f the r i t e t h a t an e x p e r i e n t i a l l y - b a s e d l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s attempts  t o induce t h e d e s i r e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  Turner has a l s o p r o v i d e d us w i t h t h e phrase  " r i t e of a f f l i c t i o n " ,  i n d i c a t i n g a type o f passage designed t o take an i n d i v i d u a l from a c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d s t a t e o f i l l - h e a l t h t o one o f h e a l t h .  He p r o v i d e s  evidence t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t types o f i n d i v i d u a l i l l - h e a l t h can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a marked degree o f s o c i a l t e n s i o n and s t r e s s . S p e c i f i c r i t e s o f a f f l i c t i o n attempt  t o c o r r e c t both the i n d i v i d u a l s  and the s o c i e t y ' s i l l h e a l t h .  T h i s study i n d i c a t e s t h a t Camp Trapping shares g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , methods and format w i t h these types o f r i t e s .  Camp Trapping  c r e a t e s a s p e c i f i c type o f s o c i a l m i l i e u , c a l l e d a c i r c u l a r r e p e t i t i v e s o c i e t y , t h a t encourages  i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than  change as a response t o s o c i a l t e n s i o n s and s t r e s s . society i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y  conducive  societal  T h i s type o f  t o t h e use o f r i t u a l f o r the r e -  d r e s s o f t h i s t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t .  W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , Camp Trapping uses a number o f s p e c i f i c techniques t o bond i t ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o the d e s i r e d v a l u e and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n .  T h i s study i n d i c a t e s t h a t  system  repitition,  'iv paradox, the f o r c e d homo g e n a i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e methodical use o f means t o induce p h y s i c a l and emotional s t r e s s and the use o f s i t u a t i o n a l l y - d e f i n e d symbols a r e a l l i n use a t Camp Trapping. A l l these methods a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l i m i n a l stage o f an r i t e o f passage.  In a r i t u a l c o n t e x t , they a r e used  i n an attempt t o  c a t a l y i z e a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f world view, t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f a person's p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s o r h e r own p o t e n t i a l , and, as i m p o r t a n t l y , the p o s i t i v e r e a p r a i s a l o f t h e s o c i e t y ' s p o t e n t i a l . it  Ultimately,  i s hoped t h a t t h e r i t e w i l l c r e a t e o r s t r e n g t h e n a p o s i t i v e bond  between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i e t y .  These r i t e s a l s o  attempt  t o p r o v i d e meaning t o and r e c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e s o c i e t y .  T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t Camp Trapping c o u l d  w e l l be an example o f a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f the r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f Protestantism, i . e . a secular f a i t h .  F i n a l l y , t h i s study p r o v i d e s a number o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n r e s p e c t t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs. I t p r o v i d e s a new p e r s p e c t i v e from which t o examine t h e problems o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i a t i o n , v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l treatment r e s i d e n t s i n t o the p a r e n t community. s e r i o u s l y questions our s o c i e t y ' s a b i l i t y t o r e h a b i l i t a t e  It certain  o f i t s members w h i l e t h e s o c i e t y i t s e l f continues t o d i s a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f from the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s and i t s aftermath.  I t also  o f f e r s some t e n t a t i v e suggestions aimed a t improving the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s and suggests t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e Camp Trapping c o u l d w e l l be used by s o c i a l workers i n an attempt  t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e i r own  commitment t o the aims and methods o f the s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGES  Abstract  I  -i n  Table o f Contents  iv - v  L i s t of Illustrations  vi  Acknowledgements  vii  Introduction  1-8 9  31  R i t e s o f Passage - Theory  32  62  3  What I s S a i d  63  135  3.1  Camp Trapping's R e l a t i o n s h i p  Chapter  1  Camp T r a p p i n g - The Beginning  Chapter  2  Chapter  : Documents  to the Community 3.2 : Cariboo A c t i o n T r a i n i n g S o c i e t y — Internal  64 - 73 74 - 85  Structure  3.3 : Camp Trapping S c h e d u l i n g  86 - 97  3.4 : The T h e r a p e u t i c M i l i e u and  98 - 130  Techniques a t Camp T r a p p i n g  Chapter  3.5 : Camp Trapping Values  131  135  4  : Key Informant Interviews  136  153  : I n t r o d u c t i o n & Value Stance .  137  146  : Camp Trapping's M o r a l / E t h i c a l  147  \149  Perspective : Key Informants on Trapping's  149 - 153  Goals Chapter  5  : What i s Done  5.1 : The F i r s t Three Months o f the  154 - 241 155 - 182  W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1982 Camp 5.2 : Camp Trapping - A Snapshot  183  241  Chapter  6  : Analysis  242  303  Chapter  7  : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Work  304  321  : Camp Trapping & I t ' s R e l a t i o n  322  327  Epilogue  to P r o t e s t a n t i s m Footnotes  328 - 332  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Appendices:;1)Key  PAGES  continued  Informants on Camp's Methods  334 - 341  and T h e r a p e u t i c M i l i e u 2) Key Informants on Miscelaneous  342 - 344  Camp T r a p p i n g Aspects 3) Consent Form  345  4) L e t t e r o f Consent  346  5) Key Informant I n t e r v i e w G u i d e l i n e 347 - 351  Questions 6) L e t t e r from the Camp Trapping A f t e r - c a r e C o o r d i n a t o r t o the  352  R e f e r r i n g Agents i n r e s p e c t t o the S p r i n g 1982 Follow-up  study  results. References  353 - 356  mi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE Chapter 1.1-1  Camp Trapping Logo  28  Chapter 2.1-1  Context o f a R i t e o f Passage  36  G o a l s , O b j e c t i v e s & Methods o f  60  2.1-2  a R i t e o f Passage 2.1-3  A t t r i b u t e s o f Symbols: I  61  2.1-4  A t t r i b u t e s o f Symbols: I I  62  Cariboo A c t i o n T r a i n i n g  73  Chapter 3.1-1  Society's  Relationship  to the'  Community 3.3rl  D a i l y Schedule  95-96  3.3- 2  B a s i c Weekly A c t i v i t i e s  97  3.4- 1  Performance  3.4-2  Chart System Rewards  112  3.4-3  Performance  113  3.4-4  Chore Chart D e f i n i t i o n s  114 - 115  3.4-5  The Conduct Code  116  Chapter 4.1-1  Chart  Chart D e f i n i t i o n s  109  Key Informant Value Statements • -• 146 by Type o f Informant  Chapter 5.1-1  Camp Trapping's Layout  158  Chapter 5.1-1  Goal Comparison  244  Camp Trapping  - R i t u a l and  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am a g r e a t l y indebted t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r s , Dr. R i c h a r d Nann, Dr. John Crane, and Dr. John LeRoy.  They have g i v e n t h e i r  ment, support and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i q u e throughout this  encourage-  the process o f  study.  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank a l l those people i n P r i n c e George who gave t h e i r time and enthusiasm  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  to this  study.  I would l i k e t o thank t h e s t a f f and students o f  the W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1982 Camp Trapping Program. t h e i r support, openness, and h o s p i t a l i t y .  I w i l l never  forget  I n v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n on  and c r i t i q u e o f t h i s study was p r o v i d e d by P h i l K o l b u c , L a r r y Tomboulian and Kuniko  Miyanaga.  Their insights,  suggestions and  support were v e r y important.  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e t o t a l and c o n s t a n t support o f t h r e e v e r y s p e c i a l people, my p a r e n t s , who have always supported and encouraged  me, and June, whose f a i t h , support and  encouragement made t h i s study p o s s i b l e .  1  INTRODUCTION  Camp Trapping i s a w i l d e r n e s s - l o c a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l program f o r teenage boys who  have run a f o u l o f the law.  does not, however, concern i t s e l f w i t h the problem delinquency. importance attempt  rehabilitation T h i s study  of juvenile  The symptom o f law b r e a k i n g i s i n c i d e n t a l and o f  t o the p e r s p e c t i v e p r e s e n t e d here.  minor  Nor i s t h i s study an  to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Trapping program.  Instead,  Camp Trapping i s examined as an example o f some o f the v a l u e s and methods promoted and used i n c u r r e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r a c t i s e .  To  r e h a b i l i t a t e , i n a s o c i a l work sense i s t o " . . . . r e s t o r e t o a s t a t e o f h e a l t h , u s e f u l a c t i v i t y e t c . through t r a i n i n g therapy and ( 1 ) , s e l e c t e d i n t e r - a n d i n t r a - p e r s o n a l dynamics.  guidance"  Camp Trapping's  r e h a b i l i t a t i v e p r o c e s s and the v a l u e s t h i s p r o c e s s promotes are examined i n the l i g h t o f c u r r e n t t h e r o r i e s d e r i v e d from the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study o f r e l i g i o n .  The concept o f ' r i t e s o f passage' i s  the p r i n c i p l e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t g u i d i n g t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n . are a number o f reasons which l e a d me  F i r s t and most p e r s o n a l l y , I was f o r two y e a r s .  There  t o choose t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e .  an employee o f Camp Trapping's  During t h a t time, I was  s t r u c k by the  superficial  s i m i l a r i t y between the Trapping program and the r i t e s o f passage concept.  T h i s s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t y between r i t e s o f passage  t h e r o r y and numerous p r o c e s s e s i n Canadian r e c o g n i z e d by many.  s o c i e t y has been  High s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , gang membership,  marriage, c o l l e g e entrance and f r a t e r n i t y i n d u c t i o n are j u s t a o f the events we have been t o l d are forms o f such r i t e s .  few  When we  2  are t o l d , f o r example, t h a t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n i s a r i t e o f passage, the a s s o c i a t i o n normally r e f e r s t o the r i t u a l i z e d o r s t a n d a r d i z e d ceremonial p r o c e s s whereby the ' i n i t i a t e '  i s recognized  by some group as having l e f t one s t a t u s r o l e and entered While  another.  t h i s may w e l l be an important aspect o f r i t e s o f passage, i t  p r o v i d e s a r a t h e r obvious and u n i n f o r m a t i v e  comparison.  The concept o f r i t e s o f passage has been s t u d i e d i n some depth by, among o t h e r s , V i c t o r W. Turner. examinations  I t i s Turner's more d e t a i l e d  o f these r i t e s which w i l l guide us through an i n d e p t h  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e why's and wherefore's  o f these r i t u a l  and t h e i r l i n k s t o t h e s o c i e t y which c r e a t e s them.  sequences  T h i s study  indicates  t h a t Camp Trapping's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s bears much more than a s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance t o t h e i n t e n t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s o f r i t e s o f passage.  A second reason f o r u s i n g r i t e s o f passage t h e o r y i n t h i s  study  l i e s i n t h e c o n n e c t i o n between r i t e s o f passage and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n general.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e f e r s - f o r the purpose t o t h i s study -  e x l u s i v e l y t o our s o c i e t y ' s attempts  t o cure o r c o r r e c t  'malfunctions'  i n t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f some o f i t s members. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a t Camp Trapping i s intended t o prepare t h e student to assume a p e r s o n a l stance and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n which a l l o w s him to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n the g u i d e l i n e s s e t o u t by the p a r e n t community.  I t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s stance and b e h a v i o u r a l  p a t t e r n were i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  Camp Trapping i s thus designed t o c r e a t e  a transformation w i t h i n i t s students.  R i t e s o f passage a r e perhaps  3  one of the most a n c i e n t frameworks humankind has used i n our to perform  and v a l i d a t e such t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s .  We  attempts  c o u l d , perhaps,  c o n s i d e r i t a p r o t o t y p e o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s .  As such i t  p r o v i d e s us w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o touch the r o o t s and core of Trapping's  transformative  aspects.  A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program designed  to t r a n s f o r m an  s i t u a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviours v e h i c l e of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . o f passage.  individual's  and a t t i t u d e s i s a  So too, a c c o r d i n g to Turner,  is a rite  R i t e s of passage i s a p r o c e s s which a p p a r e n t l y encourages  and condones p e r s o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t r e i n t e r p r e t i n d i v i d u a l need i n a manner  t h a t r e i n f o r c e s : - s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and c o n t i n u i t y .  T u r n e r i a n model o f r i t e s o f passage a l l o w s us t o examine both t h e r a p e u t i c and c o n t r o l aspects o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s s o c i a l workers o f t e n choose to see as s o l e l y t h e r a p e u t i c . l i g h t s the f a c t t h a t therapy The  conducting  The  the therapy o r  as g i v e n by  that I t highorder.  those  rehabilitation.  ' c l i e n t ' o r student a t Camp Trapping can o n l y be  r e h a b i l i t a t e d when he shows an acceptance o f the r u l e s and work t h a t the t h e r a p i s t s take f o r granted. a l s o f e e l b e t t e r about h i m s e l f may t o the t h e r a p i s t s .  the  i s conducted w i t h i n a g i v e n s o c i a l  r u l e s and framework o f which are accepted  The  considered frame-  That the student  be a g o a l o f equal  may  importance  Yet the Trapping graduate t h a t f e e l s b e t t e r about  h i m s e l f w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g to operate o u t s i d e o f , o r i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o , the r u l e s and  framework o f s o c i e t y would never be c o n s i d e r e d  having been s u c c e s s f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  as  4 R i t e s o f passage theory o u t l i n e s methods, o b j e c t i v e s and t h a t show us more c l e a r l y how  these two  goals  aspects o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -  s o c i a l c o n t r o l and the enhancement of p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g - are i n t e r t w i n e d i n an attempt to s a t i s f y b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and  societal  needs.  I have not attempted t o pass judgement on the s o c i a l  control  a s p e c t s o f t h i s form of s o c i a l work, p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o be content with c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e .  No one would deny  t h a t a s o c i e t y needs some means o f i n s u r i n g i t s s o l i d a r i t y c o n t i n u i t y i f i t i s to  survive.. Whether or not s o c i a l work and  s o c i a l workers should be a p a r t o f t h i s o f t h i s study.  and  'means' i s not a t o p i c  What t h i s study does p r o v i d e i s a c l e a r example  o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e workers i n v o l v e d i n a s o c i a l c o n t r o l p r o c e s s .  Whether i t be f o r the s o c i e t y o r the i n d i v i d u a l , Camp Trapping attempts t o shape the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s . o f passage t h e o r y takes us beyond how  t h i s i s done.  Rites  the c o n v e n t i o n a l e x p i a t i o n s o f  Sone o f the methods t h a t Turner has o u t l i n e d  i l l u s t r a t e the importance of a f f e c t and r o l e m o d e l l i n g i n the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s . We and  are a l s o shown how  symbols, paradox, trauma  s t r e s s can be used as e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ,  a r i l y i n the area o f v a l u e s e d u c a t i o n .  R i t e s o f passage t h e o r y  r e f o r m u l a t e s the purpose and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e p i t i t i o n and i a t i o n , two  f a m i l i a r aspects of operant  particul-  assoc-  and c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g .  I t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s the c a l l f o r , and p r o v i d e s a new. p e r s p e c t i v e on, the need f o r e f f e c t i v e a f t e r c a r e and f o r s t r o n g c o n s i s t e n t l i n k s  5  between t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program, the students, and the community at  large.  F i n a l l y , r i t e s o f passage theory and the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of r e l i g i o n i n g e n e r a l h e l p s us t o d i s c o v e r and examine the fundamental v a l u e system and world view a t work a t Camp Trapping.  I t a l l o w s us  to p l a c e Camp Trapping i n an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t which h e l p s t o c l a r i f y i t s i d e o l o g y and p e r s p e c t i v e .  As we s h a l l see, Camp Trapping  appears  t o be one v e r y good example o f t h e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n " o f t h e p r o t e s t a n t tradition.  This d i r e c t l i n k with a m o r a l i s t i c s a l v a t i o n  religion  compels us t o r e - e v a l u a t e our stance as an a p p l i e d s o c i a l s c i e n c e . I t appears  t h a t Camp Trapping, and by i m p l i c a t i o n , perhaps numerous  t h e r a p e u t i c r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs (and perhaps s o c i a l work i n general) a r e i n many r e s p e c t s s e c u l a r i z e d replacements  for or  e x t e n s i o n s o f our r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and v a l u e s .  T h i s study p r o v i d e s another i n s i g h t i n r e s p e c t t o our s o c i e t i e s v a l u e system and world view.  Most people a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o accept  and b e l i e v e the p e r s p e c t i v e and e t h i c s o f t h e i r community.  The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s p r o v i d e s them w i t h a code o f behaviour and reasons f o r complying  with i t .  I t enables them t o choose a r o l e i n  the s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l more o r l e s s s a t i s f y both the i n d i v i d u a l ' s and the communitie's needs.  I n d i v i d u a l s a r e g i v e n a sense o f meaning  and r e l e v a n c e through t h e r o l e s t h e i r s o c i e t y encourages them t o play.  I f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i s not b l a t a n t l y cohersive or  t y r a n i c a l , the r o l e s i n d i v i d u a l s choose must be p l a y e d w i t h c o n v i c t i o n and f a i t h i f the s o c i e t y i s t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f .  To do so, i n d i v i d u a l s  6  must s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e r n a l i z e t h e i r community's world view.  Their  l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s must r e i n f o r c e the ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' o f t h i s world view. The community must p r o v i d e p e r i o d i c moments o f r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f the world view which r e i n f o r c e i n d i v i d u a l s ' r o l e s and r e c o n f i r m the p o t e n t i a l f o r each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l success i n the community.  I n d i v i d u a l ' s must f e e l and b e l i e v e , i f o n l y f o r p e r i o d i c moments, t h a t a l l i s w e l l w i t h themselves  and t h e i r community, t h a t who they  are and what they can become a r e b e s t served by t h e i r s o c i e t y , and t h a t they and t h e i r s o c i e t y a r e i n tune w i t h o r guided by a power o r ' t r u t h ' t h a t transcends and v a l i d a t e s the mundane r e a l i t i e s o f existance.  T h i s study e x p l o r e s how one contemporary B r i t i s h Columbian  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e s o u r c e f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s attempts  to provide  these f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s .  Much o f what f o l l o w s i s a form o f ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n used t o c r e a t e t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was gathered from t h r e e main sources.  Camp Trapping documents such as f o l l o w up s t u d i e s  ( i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s ) , s t a f f manuals, and brochures were examined i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n an i d e a o f how the o r g a n i z a t i o n wished t o present i t s e l f .  Ten key informants were i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n t h e i r  p e r s p e c t i v e s on Camp Trapping's g o a l s , v a l u e s and methods.  The  informants were a l l connected w i t h Camp Trapping i n some c a p a c i t y , eg: s t a f f , d i r e c t o r , founder, r e f e r r i n g agent board members.  ( u s e r ) , and s o c i e t y  The i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e d was complied t o p r o v i d e  a p i c t u r e o f how t h e r e l e v a n t a c t o r s i n the Camp Trapping experience i n t e r p r e t and v i s u a l i z e t h e program.  These two sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n ,  7  the key informants and the documents, have been combined t o form a major d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n o f t h i s study which I have e n t i t l e d  "What  Is S a i d " .  The t h i r d and f i n a l means o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g was a p a r t i c i p a n t observation f i e l d  study.  In the l a t e s p r i n g o f 1982 I l i v e d a t Camp  Trapping f o r approximately f i v e weeks.  During t h i s time I p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the d a i l y camp a c t i v i t i e s ; working, p l a y i n g , s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g w i t h the r e s i d e n t s . staff interaction.  Much o f my time was spent o b s e r v i n g student and T h i s documentation  was supplemented w i t h c a s u a l  c o n v e r s a t i o n s and semi-formal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h both s t a f f and s t u d e n t s . Some o f these i n t e r v i e w s and most o f the formal s t a f f - s t u d e n t meetings were taped and l a t e r t r a n s c r i b e d .  I a l s o read through the s t u d e n t s '  c h a r t f o l d e r s and the camp l o g o r d i a r y t o o b t a i n some i n k l i n g o f the events and experiences t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a f f / s t u d e n t group had shared between February 1982 (intake) and the time o f my a r r i v a l i n May.  The i n f o r m a t i o n from the p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n phase o f t h i s  study i s p r e s e n t e d i n d e s c r i p t i v e f a s h i o n i n t h e s e c t i o n  entitled  "What I s Done".  T h i s study's  d e s c r i p t i v e chapters are presented with  minimal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s although the reader must be reminded t h a t my own p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s undoubtedly and shape the d e s c r i p t i o n .  I t i s my hope however, t h a t  colour this  d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l a l l o w the reader t o immerse him o r h e r s e l f f o r a w h i l e i n t h e l i f e s t y l e and p e r s p e c t i v e o f Camp Trapping.  I hope  the reader may f e e l the t e x t u r e o f t h i s unique and f a s c i n a t i n g  8  community and formulate h i s o r h e r own ideas and impressions  o f the  community.  T h i s study i s e x p l o r a t o r y - d e s c r i p t i v e i n scope and method. ( 2 ) The to  i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented  i n a f a s h i o n which, encourages the readers  a r r i v e a t t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s .  I have, however, p r o v i d e d a s e t  of c o n c l u s i o n s based on my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the camp and shaped by the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e found i n Chapter two.  My r e a s o n i n g  i s deductive.  I have s t a r t e d w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l  framework which, p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a g e n e r a l type o f p r o c e s s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s o l a t e s a number o f key v a r i a b l e s , t h e presence o f which i m p l i e s the occurance o f a s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s .  An  hypothesis  c o u l d be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : ' I f a r i t e s o f passage form and techniques are i n use a t Camp Trapping at  Camp Trapping'  then v a r i a b l e s x,y,z, e t c . w i l l be p r e s e n t  The v a r i a b l e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n some d e t a i l i n  Chapter two.  No f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s study. initial and  I t i s an  e x p l o r a t i o n ; a f i r s t attempt t o apply some knowledge  t h e o r i e s formulated  s e r v i c e program.  by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o a s p e c i f i c  gathered  social  H o p e f u l l y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s I have  drawn w i l l s t i m u l a t e o t h e r s t o pursue s i m i l a r avenues o f e x p l o r a t i o n . H o p e f u l l y t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e community may d e r i v e some i n s p i r a t i o n from t h i s study which c o u l d l e a d t o improved r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  design.  8a  CHAPTER ONE CAMP TRAPPING - THE BEGINNING  9  CAMP TRAPPING - THE BEGINNING  'It  was my c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s world' - Bruce Hawkenson, S p r i n g , 1982.  Those who have heard the s t o r i e s o f Bruce Hawkenson's v a r i o u s endevours and i m p r e s s i v e p h y s i c a l stamina would be s u r p r i s e d , w i t h h i s unpretensious stature.  perhaps  H i s l e a n f a c e and well-muscled  neck  are the o n l y v i s i b l e c l u e s t o h i s almost legendary v i t a l i t y u n t i l he begins t o speak.  H i s v o i c e i s c l e a r and resonant.  overly loud, h i s voice e a s i l y f i l l s  Although not  a room, c o m p e l l i n g a t t e n t i o n .  When he begins t o speak, an aura o f s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and i n t e n s e involvement w i t h the t a s k a t hand begins t o surround him.  Bruce Hawkenson i s the founder o f Camp T r a p p i n g . H i s l i f e a r i c h complexity o f s t r u g g l e , i n g e n u i t y and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . i s perhaps  b e s t d e s c r i b e d as an e c c e n t r i c , r u r a l  He  entrepreneur.  Hawkenson spent much o f h i s c h i l d h o o d roaming the B r i t i s h i n t e r i o r w i t h h i s mother and s i b l i n g s .  has been  Columbia  Hawkenson's mother was a  t e a c h e r and although she always p r o v i d e d f o r h i s f a m i l y t h e r e were few l u x u r i e s i n t h e i r l i v e s .  Hawkenson l e a r n e d from experience t h a t  one needed few a m e n i t i e s t o both s u r v i v e and enjoy  As a young man, Hawkenson was q u i t e r e l i g i o u s . for  the m i n i s t r y i n a American B a p t i s t C o l l e g e .  life.  He went t o study  He never e n t e r e d  the m i n i s r y however and d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as not b e i n g  "overly  r e l i g i o u s " i n a t r a d i t i o n a l sense when he s t a r t e d Camp Trapping i n 1971.  10 By the mid-60's Hawkenson was back i n P r i n c e George working as a probation o f f i c e r .  He soon became f r u s t r a t e d and despondant over  the p r o b a t i o n department's i n a b i l i t y t o p u l l i t s a d o l e s c e n t out o f an i n c r e a s i n g involvement  i n criminal l i f e .  clients  The boys he  worked w i t h would c o n f i d e n t i a l l y express c o n f u s i o n , f e a r and f r u s t r a t i o n with t h e i r l i v e s , o f t e n i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the bravado and enthusiasm with t h e i r peers.  f o r t h e i r l i f e s t y l e t h a t they would e x h i b i t  They were n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l i v e s b u t t h e  c o r r e c t i o n s system c o u l d n o t o f f e r them v i a b l e  alternatives.  Something, Hawkenson thought, had t o done.  The  Idea o f Camp Trapping  The b r i e f and d i s c o n n e c t e d c o n t a c t w i t h c l i e n t s the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s r o l e allowed d i d n o t s a t i s f y Bruce Hawkenson.  I f , he  thought, he c o u l d j u s t g e t a h o l d o f these boys f o r a p r o t r a c t e d l e n g t h o f time and become t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r l i v e s , perhaps something c o u l d be done.  then  Camp Trapping was h i s answer.  The a c t u a l form t h e camp was t o take became a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f his  p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h s and p r e d i l e c t i o n s .  Hawkenson c o n t i n u a l l y emphasized f o u r major themes i n h i s conceptu a l i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f Camp Trapping.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Involvement i n one's environment  The boys were n o t t o be coddled.  The n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e  would  be p r o v i d e d but i t was t o be i n an environment t h a t demanded the  11 boy's p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involvement.  Without i t ,  p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l would not be p o s s i b l e .  their basic  Without t h e i r  involvement  t h e r e would be no firewood, without firewood t h e r e would be no I t was  t o become t h a t b a s i c .  H o p e f u l l y , the boys would begin t o see  t h a t they c o u l d a c t t o a f f e c t t h e i r own T h i s was  heat.  c r u c i a l f o r Hawkenson.  l i v e s i n a positive fashion.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t ( w i t h i n l i m i t s )  "The worst t h i n g you can do t o a person i s do t h i n g s f o r him.  If  you make t h i n g s so secure f o r people t h a t a l l they have t o do i s e a t and s h i t and s l e e p then they w i l l never become a n y t h i n g . won't know how  t o become a n y t h i n g .  They  I f a person i s unable t o look  a f t e r h i m s e l f then h i s freedom has been taken away. " 1.  D i r e c t l y connected  t o t h i s i d e a o f "becoming" through  i s the i d e a o f s t r u g g l e .  participation  Hawkenson b e l i e v e s t h a t we have t o have  'a r e s i s t a n c e t o puch a g a i n s t ' or a ' t e s t t o meet' i n order t o grow. In s h o r t , a person l e a r n s through meeting c h a l l e n g e and through  the  successes and f a i l u r e s t h a t r e s u l t .  Challenge and e x p e r i e n c i n g successes  C h a l l e n g e s were t o be p r e s e n t e d i n a number o f ways but were a l l t o be r o o t e d i n the b a s i c assumption v e r y l i t t l e y e t 'create abundance' from i t . was  t o pervade the camp and was  they  t h a t you can s t a r t w i t h T h i s sense o f c h a l l e n g e  t o b e g i n w i t h l e a r n i n g t o enjoy i t s  environment even though t h e r e were few amenities and many r i g o r o u s tasks.  T h i s i s one  w i t h the p h y s i c a l ' .  example o f what Hawkenson r e f e r s t o as  'starting  12  A p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f c h a l l e n g e , endurance, achievement community was was  v i t a l t o him  something he was  f o r a number o f reasons.  f a m i l i a r w i t h and  enjoyed.  and  P h y s i c a l challenge  As a r e s u l t , h i s  involvement i n i t and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t would be s i n c e r e and n a t u r a l . I t would not be a program he was himself.  In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s of p h y s i c a l c h a l l e n g e were  t a n g i b l e , e a s i l y measured and to  p r e s e n t i n g but i n s t e a d a p a r t o f  t h e i r cause.  i n r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e temporal  F i n a l l y , r e l a t i n g p h y s i c a l l y i s , i n Hawkenson's  o p i n i o n , the f i r s t  step i n a t h r e e step p r o g r e s s i o n o f n a t u r a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g between people. i n v o l v e d w i t h each o t h e r i n i t i a l l y task.  proximinty  As he sees i t , we become  through some s h a r i n g of a p h y s i c a l  His example i s p l a y i n g s p o r t s .  progression to r e l a t i n g  'mentally'.  What f o l l o w s i s a n a t u r a l To f o l l o w up on h i s analogy,  a f t e r the game the p l a y e r s w i l l meet over a beer t o d i s c u s s such t h i n g s as work and p o l i t i c s . emotional  concerns can be shared  a relationship. designed  The  As i n t i m a c y and  t r u s t begin to  and d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d stage  of  Hawkenson s e t up h i s camp t o f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n  c h a l l e n g e s t o compliment each  c o u n s e l l o r s and  and  stage.  'modelling'  Another e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r the program was nature o f s t a f f involvement.  p o s s i b i l i t y but he designed  to be  the  I d e a l l y Hawkenson would have l i k e d  run the camp w i t h v o l u n t e e r s .  people who  develop,  P r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s denied  the program i n a way  to  this  t h a t would a t t r a c t  were w i l l i n g t o commit themselves t o t a l l y t o the program.  They were to b e l i e v e i n i t and  to l i v e i t i f they were to have  any  13  effect.  They had  to be w i l l i n g t o d e d i c a t e t h e i r l i v e s t o the program  f o r as l o n g as they were i n v o l v e d i n i t . Working a t Camp was  t o be a person's 'joy' or  program i n t h e i r  'mission'.  I f they c o u l d not f e e l  He  attrative.  The  say " I want t o be l i k e t h a t " .  to m a i n t a i n success.  same manner t h a t they were i n v o l v e d w i t h the program.  personal  and  impossible  ship with  unique p e r s o n a l i t y was  some, i f not a l l ,  Each c o u n s e l l o r  o f the students.  They were not t o be Staff selection  Hawkenson would attempt t o l o c a t e people who  i n d i v i d u a l s , who  Hawkenson  t o form a meaningful r e l a t i o n -  carbon c o p i e s o f each o t h e r or of Hawkenson. crucial.  c o u l d complement each o t h e r ' s  o f a s u c c e s s f u l and  Each c o u n s e l l o r was f u l f i l l e d person who  was  were unique  s t r e n g t h s and  c o u l d express the s p i r i t and v a l u e s o f the program i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i z e d manner.  i n the  to encourage change i n a person without a  i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p forming f i r s t .  through h i s own  who own  to be a model or image could l i v e within  society's  limits.  One  was  t h a t i t i s the  c o u n s e l l o r s were to become i n v o l v e d w i t h the students  f e l t i t was  at  Hawkenson admits t h a t he  i n g r e d i e n t to ensure such a program's  The  t o be young,  students were t o look  l o o k i n g f o r supermen models y e t continues key  t o be a k i n d o f superman  (Hawkenson h i r e d o n l y male c o u n s e l l o r s ) was  p h y s i c a l l y f i t , happy and them and  the  'hearts' they were not wanted.  For Hawkenson, the i d e a l c o u n s e l l o r was model.  Trapping  o f the g e n e r i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s image was  t o be what i s  14  most s u c c i n c t l y summarized by r e v e r s i n g the C h r i s t i a n golden  rule  so t h a t i t reads as "do n o t do unto o t h e r s what you would n o t have them do unto you."  I d e a l l y , a c o u n s e l l o r was never t h e r e merely t o  s u p e r v i s e and d i r e c t ; he was a t the camp t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  I f he  requested a student t o c u t firewood a l l day, the c o u n s e l l o r would a l s o c u t firewood a l l day.  T h i s v a l u e was even p r e s e n t in. d i s c i p l i n a r y  consequences, he would p a r t i c i p a t e i n those consequences.  Hawkenson  f e l t t h a t t h i s had the added b e n e f i t o f e n s u r i n g t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s would have t o exhaust  a l l o t h e r means o f changing a behaviour  before  he would c o n s i d e r any p u n i t i v e form o f d i s c i p l i n e .  Evening  Sessions  Another important i n g r e d i e n t i n the program was a time f o r group r e f l e c t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n and encouragement. was n o t a s t r u c t u r e d group p r o c e s s . pre-packaged l i f e  In Hawkenson's time  this  Although they sometimes used a  s k i l l s program c a l l e d Zoom t o guide t h e i r  meetings,  i t was a f a i r l y c a s u a l time when students and s t a f f c o u l d d i s c u s s the events, the d i f f i c u l t i e s and the d e l i g h t s o f the day.  S t a f f could  use the Zoom s t o r i e s t o p r o v i d e a message ( " i t was s o r t o f l i k e little  s c r i p t u r e and v e r s e f o r the day") and would u s u a l l y  their  suggest  t h a t everyone take sometime t o t h i n k o f how they c o u l d do one t h i n g a little  b i t b e t t e r the next day.  These s m a l l c h a l l e n g e s were t o  be p e r s o n a l and d i d not have t o be shared w i t h the o t h e r s .  I t was  a time f o r r e f l e c t i o n , p r i v a t e and p u b l i c , on p a s t events and f u t u r e possibilities.  I t was a time when the group c o u l d encourage an  i n d i v i d u a l , r e m i n i c e about a shared success, o r p l a n f o r a f u t u r e g o a l .  15  While these f o u r program components were the h e a r t of Camp Trapping,  Hawkenson b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r f u l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s c o u l d  b e s t be achieved  i f each student had been p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d  by Hawkenson p r i o r t o a t t e n d i n g the camp, and had,  as a consequence,  made a p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n t o a t t e n d the camp and commit themselves to the program.  In Hawkenson's time each student came t o Camp  aware t h a t he had chosen to come.  The  c e r t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n even b e f o r e he was  student had t o meet a i n t e r v i e w e d as Hawkenson  had a c l e a r i d e a o f the type o f student Camp Trapping c o u l d b e s t serve.  I t was  one who  had passed a p p a r e n t l y unchanged through a l l o t h e r a v a i l a b l e  resources.  t o be f o r the  I t was  'hard c o r e ' j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t ,  not f o r any  j u v e n i l e diagnosed  as having  severe p s y c h i a t r i c problem, something Hawkenson f e l t of handling.  Every attempt was  a  incapable  In a d d i t i o n , the boy had to be i n reasonably  physical condition.  the  good  These were the p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e f e r a l .  made t o s a t i s f y them although not always w i t h  success.  The Design  and Environment o f the Camp Trapping Program - F i r s t Year  I t took Hawkenson l e s s t h a t a year t o move from the i d e a o f Camp Trapping t o i t s r e a l i z a t i o n .  During h i s l a s t few months as  a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r he l o c a t e d an a p p r o p r i a t e  semi-wilderness  s e t t i n g t h i r t y m i l e s south, o f P r i n c e George and f o u r m i l e s e a s t o f Highway 97. perched highway.  Trapping Lake  (hence the name Camp Trapping) i s  atop a r i d g e t h a t i s approximately  600  f e e t above the  I t s shores are r i n g e d by a stand o f p i n e , spruce and  birch  16 about a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e t h i c k . have been logged and are now  Outside t h i s r i n g the h i l l s i d e s  covered with scrub brush, young c o n i f e r s  and the o c c a s i o n a l stand of b i r c h .  The  l a k e has been stocked w i t h  t r o u t and i s home t o beavers and a v a r i e t y o f water f o w l .  In the  autumn and w i n t e r s t r o n g winds rush along t h i s r i d g e , o f t e n r i p p i n g many o f the t a l l , sparse  s l e n d e r spruce from t h e i r p r e c a r i o u s h o l d i n the  topsoil.  There were no neighbours d e l i n q u e n t s ' near t h e i r homes. t h e r e were no b u i l d i n g s .  to become f e a r f u l o f a 'gang o f There were no a m e n i t i e s , i n f a c t  Hawkenson l e a s e d two  l o t s from  government and put up a couple o f s u r p l u s quanset wood and  In  the  huts made of  canvas.  a d d i t i o n t o f i n d i n g a l o c a t i o n , Hawkenson a l s o had t o l o c a t e  funding.  Although P r i n c e George's s o c i a l s e r v i c e community  supported him, any money.  the V i c t o r i a government was  As a r e s u l t , the program s t a r t e d as a type of f o s t e r  home, under the a u s p i c e s o f the Department Resources  reluctant to provide  (MHR).  (now M i n i s t r y ) o f Human  Hawkenson, h i s w i f e Jay, and a young man  who  an e x - p r o b a t i o n e r of Hawkenson's were t o run the camp on f i v e a day per student f o r a t r i a l p e r i o d o f t h r e e months. had t o be supplemented i f they were t o s u r v i v e . moneymaking i d e a was b i r c h as firewood. w h i l e the r e s t was  was dollars  T h i s amount  Hawkenson's f i r s t  t o have the camp p a r t i c i p a n t s c u t and  sell  Each student would get a p o r t i o n o f h i s e a r n i n g s t o be put towards the camp's o p e r a t i o n .  17 I f Hawkenson's o p e r a t i o n was r e s i d e n t i a l treatment  c e n t r e s t a t u s , he would have t o have a p r i v a t e  n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y to back him. S o c i e t y was  ever t o move from f o s t e r home t o  c r e a t e d to oversee  mind, the S o c i e t y i n 1972  was  Thus Cariboo A c t i o n T r a i n i n g the camp's o p e r a t i o n s .  only a figurehead.  In Hawkenson's  A l l the d e c i s i o n s  were to be h i s and the S o c i e t y e x i s t e d t o endorse them.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e were the students.  Hawkenson had no  difficulty  i n l o c a t i n g them, having as he d i d the backing o f the l o c a l MHR A t t o r n e y General's for  (AG) o f f i c e s both o f which saw  a l o c a l , non-containment r e s i d e n t i a l treatment  t h e i r delinquent c l i e n t e l e .  In June o f 1971  a desperate  and  need  resource f o r  Bruce and Jay Hawkenson  a l o n g w i t h t h e i r young a s s i s t a n t , were ready t o open t h e i r door f o r business.  The Camp  Schedule  During i t s f i r s t t h r e e years the camp's l e n g t h and f o c u s changed f r e q u e n t l y , without however, changing  the essence  o f the f o u r key  components.  The There was  f i r s t camp o f t h r e e months d u r a t i o n s e t a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n . to be a t l e a s t h a l f a day of hard p h y s i c a l work every  day.  The boys were t o l e a r n the v a l u e and n e c e s s i t y o f e a r n i n g a l i v i n g although the work had an a d d i t i o n a l , more mundane g o a l .  The  p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s demanded t h a t money had t o be earned  i f the camp  was  to survive.  As we  have seen, the firewood s e l l i n g p r o j e c t began  18  f o r t h i s reason.  I t c o n t i n u e s t o t h i s day a l t h o u g h i t s revenues are  no l o n g e r e s s e n t i a l .  The boys and s t a f f would a l s o h i r e  out f o r l o c a l odd jobs l i k e haying on nearby farms.  By  themselves the  f o l l o w i n g year the work program had expanded t o i n c l u d e t r e e planting.  The camp had a l s o t o be maintained.  taken up i n the performance o f r o u t i n e t a s k s .  Much o f the day Water had t o be  hauled from the l a k e f o r cooking, d r i n k i n g and washing. p a r t i c i p a n t s had t o f i n d and prepare firewood f o r t h e i r consumption.  was  The own  L i v i n g q u a r t e r s had t o be kept c l e a n and meals had  t o be prepared.  In keeping w i t h the p h y s i c a l nature o f the program,  each day would b e g i n w i t h a two — l a t e r f o u r - m i l e run which always ended w i t h a jump i n t o the l a k e . w e i g h t l i f i n g program.  Hawkenson a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a  To keep c l e a n , the r e s i d e n t s r e s o r t e d t o  a sweat lodge which i n the e a r l y years c o n s i s t e d o f a dome-shaped frame o f s a p p l i n g s covered w i t h p l a s t i c . camp a p p a r e n t l y passed w i t h the r e s u l t s  inspection.  (although t h e r e was  The Hawkenson's and  their  The r e f e r r i n g agents" were p l e a s e d no o f f i c i a l e v a l u a t i o n ) and were  anxious t o see the camp c o n t i n u e .  Throughout the next t h r e e years the camp began t o e v o l v e .  In  the s p i r i t o f experimentation, the camps v a r i e d i n l e n g t h from three t o t e n months.  O u t - t r i p i n g , which i n c l u d e d backpacking  and  canoeing,  became an important p a r t o f the program but never i t s p r i n c i p a l f o c u s . U n l i k e , Outward Bound, Camp Trapping d i d not see s h o r t term, h i g h r i s k w i l d e r n e s s a c t i v i t y as i t s p r i n c i p a l method.  I t merely  supp-  lemented and p r o v i d e d more i n t e n s e counter p o i n t s f o r the more mundane r o u t i n e s o f camp l i f e .  They d i d experiment  b r i e f l y w i t h a pure  19  w i l d e r n e s s adventure  format but even t h i s was i n a d d i t i o n t o the  r e g u l a r camp r o u t i n e , one group l i v i n g a t Trapping Lake w h i l e roamed t h e w i l d e r n e s s . standard format  An o u t - t r i p i n g adventure  f o r the f i r s t  another  d i d become t h e  few weeks o f each camp.  Hawkenson i n t r o d u c e d t h i s i n i t i a l w i l d e r n e s s experience  i n an  attempt t o compensate f o r one o f the l e s s a t t r a c t i v e r e s u l t s o f Trapping's to  success.  As t h e camp's r e p u t a t i o n grew, r e f e r r a l s began  come i n from a l l p a r t s o f Northern  Hawkenson was unable He was unable  B r i t i s h Columbia.  As a r e s u l t ,  t o i n t e r v i e w each boy p r i o r t o t h e i r  attendance.  t o o b t a i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l commitment t o the program  before t h e i r a r r i v a l .  In a d d i t i o n , some r e f e r r i n g agents were  b e g i n n i n g t o use p o s s i b l e attendance  a t Camp Trapping as a t h r e a t  to  control their clients.  To o f f s e t t h i s , Hawkenson thought  i t best  to  take the boys t o an i s o l a t e d w i l d e r n e s s environment t o p r o v i d e  them w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e s p i r i t o f the program, t o ensure t h a t they c o u l d not r u n from t h e program and t o attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h and o b t a i n a commitment from each boy b e f o r e they s e t t l e d down t o t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e a t t h e l a k e .  An academic program was added i n t h e program's second year when the P r i n c e George School D i s t r i c t p r o v i d e d a t e a c h e r . thought  Hawkenson  t h a t t h i s was a v e r y important a d d i t i o n as i t allowed Camp  Trapping a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o focus on t h a t second l e v e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n which he c a l l e d the 'mental'. designed  f i r s t and foremost  p r o v i d i n g a continuous  The academic program was  t o teach, the j o y o f l e a r n i n g .  By  s e r i e s o f s m a l l academic successes and by u s i n g  20 the environment t o p r o v i d e an  e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g base, Hawkenson  hoped t h a t t h e students would come t o f e e l more comfortable w i t h the i d e a o f s c h o o l and more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e i d e a o f l e a r n i n g .  Learning  was t o be presented as a v i t a l and i n t e g r a t e d p a r t o f d a i l y l i f e and t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was t o be p e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e .  The  t e a c h e r was t o p a r t i c i p a t e completely i n the program j u s t l i k e any other s t a f f .  He was t o e a t and s l e e p w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r s and  students f o r f i v e days a week.  By the time a t e a c h e r had a r r i v e d a t Camp Trapping, the s t a f f component and involvement  had changed.  and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t had no time o f f .  I n i t i a l l y , the Hawkenson's I t was a t o t a l  By the s p r i n g o f '72 a cook had been h i r e d as w e l l  commitment.  as  another  c o u n s e l l o r and every attempt was b e i n g made t o p r o v i d e two o r t h r e e days o f f every two weeks o r so.  Before the end o f i t s  second year there were two c o u n s e l l o r s p e r s h i f t and r e g u l a r time o f f although the now standard week on, week o f f s h i f t was y e t t o develop.  Camp Trapping was q u i c k l y d e v e l o p i n g a r e p u t a t i o n o f e x c e l l e n c e . R e f e r r i n g agents were p l e a s e d w i t h the r e s u l t s and impressed staffs' dedication.  by the  The students' work and d e d i c a t i o n was a l s o  impressing the l a r g e r community.  They e s t a b l i s h e d new r e c o r d s o f  e f f i c i e n c y and q u a n t i t y i n t r e e p l a n t i n g and were viewed as dependable and e n e r g e t i c workers.  One camp w i l l f o r e v e r stand out i n Hawkenson's mind.  I t has been  21  to date, what he d e s c r i b e s  as the g r e a t e s t  experience o f h i s  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r camp i s , a t ten months d u r a t i o n , Trapping's h i s t o r y .  life.  the l o n g e s t i n  I t became a camp w i t h a theme, almost an  obsession.  Hawkenson and h i s s t a f f d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be good t o g e t t h e boys i n v o l v e d  i n canoeing and canoe r a c i n g .  They began w i t h a  r i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g program t o g e t themselves and the boys i n t o good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .  Wage labour was p a r t o f t h i s t r a i n i n g  as they needed some means o f a q u i r i n g canoes. t o be bought however, but c o n s t r u c t e d  by hand.  The canoes were n o t With t h e h e l p o f  t h e i r cook who was i n a d d i t i o n a h i g h l y s k i l l e d woodworker, the boys and s t a f f c o n s t r u c t e d to p r a c t i s e i n e a r n e s t .  t h e i r own r a c i n g canoes and then began  Before t h e ten months were up, Camp  Trapping had won n o t o n l y t h e j u n i o r d i v i s i o n o f t h e Northern Hardware Canoe Race ( a d i v i s i o n c r e a t e d  a t Hawkenson's request)  but had managed t o win t h e B r i t i s h Columbia J u n i o r ' s  t i t l e , and  a d u l t r a c e s i n both A l b e r t a and the s t a t e o f Washington.  Hawkenson  notes t h a t t h e camp ended w i t h the r a c e s as a " . . k i n d o f reward, i t was  a l l comaraderie and gung-ho t r a v e l l i n g down the road s i n g i n g a  song and d r i v i n g o f f i n t o g l o r y - i t was p r e t t y s t r o n g  It himself  a l s o marked the time when Bruce Hawkenson began t o disengage from d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e camp p r o c e s s .  spent three years t o t a l l y d e d i c a t e d had  stuff."  He had  to t h i s creation of h i s .  He  e s t a b l i s h e d i t s c r e d i b i l i t y , o b t a i n e d permanent funding and  groomed h i s successor.  I t was time f o r him t o p u l l out.  The  22  i n t e n s i t y and was  s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of h i s commitment took, i t s t o l l .  no p r i v a t e time and  there was  a f a m i l y t o raise. ..  There  There was  no  rest.  Hawkenson b e l i e v e s t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s ' workload , and  commitment  1  "wasn't r e a l l y sane", nor were they OK of time.  Commitment t o the camp and  mind "our m i s s i o n zeal".  and our  joy and  He f e l t t h a t t h i s was  e f f e c t i v e and  i t had  life.  the s p r i n g o f 1974,  passing  the t i t l e  had worked a t the camp f o r two was  Gordon chose Kolbuc.  you  years.  Both Gordon and  Although Kolbuc was  Phil  had worked w i t h  the l a s t d i r e c t o r t o have  succession  i n the s e l e c t i o n o f the d i r e c t o r .  too much involvement however. i n the camp's l i f e .  continues  to  be  Both Hawkenson  Both men  thus r e t a i n t r y to  avoid  T h i s i s a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n made  Hawkenson b e l i e v e s each d i r e c t o r as  w e l l as each c o u n s e l l o r , must make the program h i s own. program i s to be d i r e c t e d and i t s d a i l y operation,  get  on to M e r l Gordon, a c o u n s e l l o r  Gordon continue to s i t on the board o f d i r e c t o r s and  early  could  as program d i r e c t o r i n  c a r e f u l l y handpicked from the c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f .  a major say  did  As Hawkenson chose Gordon, so Hawkenson and  worked d i r e c t l y w i t h Hawkenson, the  and  be  t o have to  something you  to assume the d i r e c t o r s h i p i n 1976,  Hawkenson a t the camp.  missionary  Camp T r a p p i n g c o u l d  A f t e r the war  Hawkenson r e s i g n e d  period  i n Hawkensons'  to be done w i t h a  F o r h i m , i t was  a few y e a r s to serve the country.  Kolbuc, who  t o be,  l i k e n e d the involvement a c o u n s e l l o r had  on w i t h your own  who  the boys had  the o n l y way  i n l i s t i n g for m i l i t a r y service. for  s u s t a i n a b l e f o r a long  designed by an e x e c u t i v e  I f the removed from  Hawkenson f e e l s t h a t the s t a f f c o u l d no  longer  23  operate o r understand the program from t h e i r  "hearts'.  t h a t the program can o n l y r e t a i n i t s f r e s h n e s s employees see i t as a c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n  He b e l i e v e s  and v i t a l i t y  i f the  o f t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a , r a p i d l y e v o l v i n g and d i v e r s e program. Each d i r e c t o r has added new components and worked from a unique perspective.  In t h e f o l l o w i n g chapters  we w i l l see t h a t both the  s i t e and the program have changed q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y between 1974 and  1982. T h i s t r a n s i t i o n d i d n o t occur o v e r n i g h t .  Each d i r e c t o r  has added a t l e a s t one s i g n i f i c a n t program component and each has emphasized a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t h e r a p e u t i c approach. 1982  v e r s i o n w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l , and w h i l e we w i l l see  t h a t Camp Trapping  i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from i t s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n , we  w i l l a l s o be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h is,  a  f a m i l i a r core.  While t h i s  core  i n p a r t , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e f o u r key components o u t l i n e d a t  the beginning and  The S p r i n g  o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i t s essence l i e s i n t h e b a s i c  values  i d e o l o g y Hawkenson p r o v i d e d .  The Assumptions and Value System o f Camp Trapping  - First  Years  As we have seen, Bruce Hawkenson had t r a i n e d f o r t h e B a p i s t ministry. saw  By the time he was d e v e l o p i n g  Camp Trapping  however, he  h i m s e l f as " more o f a s e c u l a r i s t , a l l the i d e a l s (of t h e  C h r i s t i a n f a i t h ) were t h e r e b u t n o t wrapped up i n a r e l i g i o n . " S t a r t i n g from t h i s foundation  h i s f i r s t and most important assumption  was  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l " i s t h e most important t h i n g  i n the world ...  The  C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f i s t h a t you're r e a l l y important t o God - w e l l ,  24  I j u s t l e f t out the word 'God"."  Instead, Hawkenson maintained t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l was t h e most important, the most p r e c i o u s t h i n g t o themselves uals.  and o t h e r  individ-  S p e c i f i e d f u r t h e r , each o f t h e Camp Trapping students became  important and p r e c i o u s t o Hawkenson and the other  H i s second  assumption  staff.  was t h a t t h e r e was "a dynamic p o t e n t i a l  w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l t h a t c o u l d , without e x c e p t i o n , be developed. F o l l o w i n g on t h i s , h i s t h i r d assumption  maintained  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ,  h a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t a n c e o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l and having experienced some o f i t s power, would want more, and more i n t e n s e , instances o f r e a l i z i n g that p o t e n t i a l .  In otherwords,  f e l t t h a t d e v e l o p i n g one's p o t e n t i a l was i n t r i n s i c a l l y  In o r d e r t o l i v e l i f e  Hawkenson rewarding.  a t i t s f u l l e s t , Hawkenson a l s o assumes  t h a t one needs a sense o f d i r e c t i o n o r purpose t o l i f e .  In a d d i t i o n ,  one has t o b e l i e v e i n o n e s e l f , be s e l f c o n f i d e n t and possess a p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k on l i f e .  Hawkenson d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t Camp  Trapping would n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e i t s students w i t h these  attributes  but he d i d c o n s i d e r them v e r y important, i f n o t e s s e n t i a l  attributes  for  the c o n s e l l i n g  staff.  Another important assumption  was t h a t one c o u l d n o t l e a r n o r  develop one's p o t e n t i a l without p r a c t i c e . one o f t h e major purposes  Hawkenson b e l i e v e d t h a t  o f Camp Trapping was t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e  designs o r r o u t i n e s f o r e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g and then compell the  25  students t o a c t out these d e s i g n s and r o u t i n e s on a d a i l y b a s i s . F i n a l l y , Hawkenson f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t each person has a ' w i l l ' , a 'power o f c o n s c i o u s , d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n ' which a l l o w s and n e c e s s i t a t e s personal choice. statements.  From these assumptions  grew a number o f v a l u e  F o r example, i t wasn't enough t o have a w i l l , one a l s o  had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o use i t . A c c o r d i n g t o Hawkenson, we have t o a c t out our l i v e s , n o t s i t p a s s i v e l y and r e c e i v e o r o n l y r e a c t t o another's i n i t i a t i v e .  By the same token, i t wasn't enough t o have  a p o t e n t i a l , one had t o a c t t o r e a l i z e t h a t p o t e n t i a l .  For Hawkenson, a s u c c e s s f u l person would be p r o d u c t i v e , cons t r u c t i v e and a 'go-getter'.  The i d e a l Camp T r a p p i n g graduates  should " t r y out every nerve and f i b r e i n t h e i r body, they should e x p l o r e , they should a c c o m p l i s h i "  Hawkenson says he i s d i s s a t i s f i e d  w i t h the c o m p e t i t i v e overtones o f h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r a d v o c a t i n g t h i s v a l u e , y e t maintains i t i s based on p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l .  Those who  are i n c a p a b l e o f l o o k i n g a f t e r themselves, who a r e dependent, w i t h i n l i m i t s , on a system o r o t h e r p e o p l e , may n o t s u r v i v e . dependancy a l s o d e n i e s freedom  F o r Hawkenson,  through i n h i b i t i n g one's a b i l i t y  to choose and a c t .  ' A c t i n g ' , i t s e l f c r u c i a l , was made even more v a l u a b l e i f one c o u l d a c t w i t h commitment and d e d i c a t i o n .  I t was important t o be  i n v o l v e d , o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f u l l e s t sense w i t h one's The counter-balance t o t h i s a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d , one might  say almost  a g g r e s s i v e stance, l a y i n Hawkenson's emphasis on s h a r i n g . had t o share f o r one's own good and the good o f o t h e r s .  environment.  One  This  26 f o l l o w s from the assumption expressed  t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l i s p r e c i o u s and was  i n the emphasis Hawkenson p l a c e d on comaraderie'; t h e 1  f a m i l i a l c l o s e n e s s he wished t o develop a t Trapping Lake.  More s p e c i f i c v a l u e statements o f a Camp Trapping success.  are included i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n  Not o n l y would t h e graduate  stop h i s  law b r e a k i n g , he would a l s o become c o n s t r u c t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e i n a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t manner. working o r going t o s c h o o l .  F o r Hawkenson t h i s meant e i t h e r  In a d d i t i o n , the graduate  able t o r e l a t e b e t t e r to others. i n an understanding o f d i f f i c u l t  T h i s c o u l d be shown, f o r example, f a m i l y dynamics, obeying one's  p a r e n t s , o r r e s p e c t i n g one's p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . ness should show i n t h e graduates' behaviour. t o reason through d i f f i c u l t  should be  Finally, thoughtfulThey would be a b l e  s i t u a t i o n s , a r r i v i n g a t e f f e c t i v e and  s o c i a l l y acceptable solutions.  Hawkenson summaried t h i s v a l u e system i n a s e t o f f i v e short statements  which i s r e f e r r e d t o today as the Camp Trapping p h i l o s o p h y .  They a r e as f o l l o w s : 1)  I possess a l o t o f worth as an i n d i v i d u a l ,  2)  I have t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s c o v e r p o t e n t i a l  3)  I have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o develop these q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n  qualities,  myself, 4)  I can develop these by mental, p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l e x e r c i s e , and  5)  I can o n l y m a i n t a i n my growth and success as I share i t w i t h o t h e r s .  Those who a r e p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h Camp Trapping m a i n t a i n t h a t  27  these f i v e statements  continue t o be the camp's i d e o l o g i c a l  foundation.  Bruce Hawkenson a l s o p r o v i d e d Camp Trapping w i t h a logo which was  t o s y m b o l i c a l l y express h i s f i v e p o i n t p h i l o s o p h y  (see f i g u r e  He c r e a t e d t h i s logo t o summarize Camp Trapping's  essence  i n one c o n c i s e , e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d image. I t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , the water and t r e e s i n d i c a t i n g a w i l d e r n e s s environment, the sun and h i l l t o p the g o a l o f r e a l i z i n g one's potential.  The two i n d i v i d u a l s h e l p i n g one another up the h i l l  express the p r o c e s s o f c h a l l e n g e , s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n . Kolbuc, t h e t h i r d program d i r e c t o r , added the phrase another h e l p o n e s e l f  0  Phil  " h e l p i n g one  as a s u c c i n c t c a p t i o n which focuses our  a t t e n t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s elements o f t h e l o g o .  Problems Inherent i n t h e Program Design  Bruce Hawkenson was v e r y c l e a r i n d e s c r i b i n g what he thought the program d i d f o r these boys as a g e n e r a l r u l e .  I t was designed  to "... shock them o u t o f t h e i r l i n e o f t h i n k i n g .  I had t o take  them away from t h e i r group and g i v e them a r e a l shock  treatment  i n o r d e r t o change a l l the p a t t e r n s and then we'd g i v e them a whole new e x p e r i e n c e , something t o f o l l o w .  H o p e f u l l y , they'd g e t e x c i t e d  by and d e d i c a t e d t o t h i s new p a t t e r n so t h a t i t j u s t might j o g them loose from what they were d o i n g . "  T h i s shock treatment was t o be d e l i v e r e d n o t o n l y through the  Figure 1 . 1 - 1  Camp Trapping Logo  "Helping one another to help oneself"  p h y s i c a l demands and r i g o r o u s environment,  i t was  a l s o t o come from  the i n t e n s i t y and s i n c e r i t y o f the s t a f f ' s involvement and the c o n t i n u a l successes the boys e x p e r i e n c e . b l i n d t o the obvious problem  But Hawkenson was  not  t h a t t h i s c o u l d c r e a t e . . . . "One  of  the b i g g e s t dangers t o anyone i s when they have a r e a l good experience and then go i n t o a s e t t i n g where they can't get t h a t experience then t h e r e ' s a b i g letdown. r e a l l y good because dissapointed,  and  Sometimes i t ' s c r u e l t o g i v e  something  they can't have i t afterwards and t h e y ' r e so  that  Utopian  s o c i e t y t h a t you s e t up was  so  unreal,  t h a t when they l e a v e i t they become d i s a p p o i n t e d and j u s t say " t o h e l l with i t ,  I've t r i e d i t and i t doesn't work".  a c o n t i n u a l shock. the time.  I t ' s l i k e an orgasm, i t ' s not good t o have i t a l l  not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n back i n t o the  He knew from the s t a r t t h a t t h i s was p r o b l e m a t i c y e t  made a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o develop the program as i t was,  in his  o p i n i o n , f a r b e t t e r than having no a l t e r n a t i v e f o r these boys. s t a f f attempted  t o r e i n t e g r a t e the students w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s  o t h e r s , but i t was  not u n t i l 1977  t h a t an a f t e r c a r e program  The  about  the f u t u r e , l e t t e r w r i t i n g home, and v i s i t s from the f a m i l i e s  initiated.  on  People j u s t don't wake up s i n g i n g every morning."  Hawkenson was r e a l world.  You can't l i v e  and  was  Without c o n s i s t e n t support i n the community, whether i t  be from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e g i v e r s , without someone who  wants t o share the boys' r e c o u n t i n g and a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r  Camp Trapping e x p e r i e n c e s and h e l p a p p l y them t o d a i l y l i f e , o n l y the s t r o n g e s t w i l l e d c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e h i s new into h i s old habitat.  knowledge  30  F u r t h e r problems e x i s t e d i n the d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n attempting  to express the  'sharing' v a l u e .  Although the camp  p r o v i d e d many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to share, i t was students  d i f f i c u l t t o make the  a p p r e c i a t e the e s s e n t i a l r o l e s h a r i n g had  i n d i v i d u a l ' s success.  "We  i n ensuring  an  emphasized i t a l o t " , s a i d Hawkenson,  "but t h a t ' s a l o n g ways down the l i n e , from e x e r c i s i n g a muscle t o e x e r c i s i n g a s o c i a l muscle.  Even most r e l i g i o u s people  understand t h a t they have t o share t h i n g s w i t h the w o r l d . o f i t d i d get a c r o s s .  But i t was  But some  A number o f the k i d s wanted t o come back and  v o l u n t e e r t h e i r time a t Camp Trapping share.  can't  and  t h a t was  hard to get a c r o s s ; r e a l l y  them wanting to  hard."  The c r i t i c i s m most o f t e n l e v e l l e d a t Camp Trapping was appeared to c r e a t e a dependancy.  Some r e f e r r i n g agents f e l t  the boys came out needing Camp Trapping absence.  As we  o c c u r r e d and  that i t  and  that  s u f f e r r i n g from i t s  have a l r e a d y seen, Hawkenson acknowledges t h a t t h i s  t h a t i t bothered  him,  as i t n a t u r a l l y would w i t h h i s  s t r o n g d i s t a s t e f o r dependency i n g e n e r a l .  H i s o n l y suggestion  was  t h a t communities must become o b l i g a t e d t o work more c l o s e l y w i t h CATS d u r i n g the weaning p r o c e s s .  I t was Trapping. evidence  obvious to Hawkenson t h a t the communities needed Camp The  i n c r e a s e d funding and c o n s i s t e n t w a i t i n g l i s t were  o f t h i s need.  as Camp Trapping's  I t had  to be as much the .community's  i f t h i s problem of dependancy was  Hawkenson l e f t the program i n 1974  efforts  to be overcome.  and has gone t o on p r a c t i s e  31 what he preached.  In e i g h t y e a r s , he has developed  one o f t h e  l a r g e s t and most e f f i c i e n t t r e e p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n B.C.. has a l s o gone on t o win numerous canoe r a c e s . to  His passion  He  appears  l i e i n c o n s t a n t a c t i o n and c a t y a l i z i n g change i n h i s own l i f e .  Even now he i s t h i n k i n g o f removing h i m s e l f from h i s m i l l i o n  dollar  b u s i n e s s t o pursue another e x c i t i n g and h o p e f u l l y l u c r a t i v e b u s i n e s s endevour.  H i s new i d e a i s t y p i c a l l y h i g h r i s k , n o v e l and l a r g e l y  unexplored.  In c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g t o grasp f o r h i s own p o t e n t i a l ,  he has l o n g s i n c e removed h i m s e l f from i n t e n s e involvement Camp Trapping.  Although he has l e f t i t behind, he w i l l  with  never  f o r g e t the experience  "I  always look back w i t h extreme fondness a t Camp T r a p p i n g .  t h i n k everybody has a need t o a c t something o u t i n l i f e mean l i k e a drama where you're  just playing.  - I don't  Camp Trapping was my -  I was a m i s s i o n a r y - i t was my c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s world. my h e a r t and s o u l i n t o i t ; e v e r y t h i n g I had. more energy o r thought. at  its  I put  I c o u l d n ' t have g i v e n  I t might n o t have been much but I can look  i t and say t h a t t h e r e i s n ' t a s i n g l e t h i n g I would have done  differently. good.  I  To me i t ' s a g r e a t j o y and i t s good - t o t h i s day  I'm a proud man because o f Camp T r a p p i n g . "  31a  CHAPTER TWO RITES OF PASSAGE - THEORY  32  RITES OF PASSAGE - THEORY  I was 1976.  f i r s t i n t r o d u c t e d t o Camp T r a p p i n g i n the summer of  H i r e d as a c o u n s e l l o r , I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two weeks o f  staff  t r a i n i n g p r i o r t o b e i n g t h r u s t i n t o an arduous twenty-one day mountain h i k i n g adventure twelve teenage boys.  w i t h t h r e e o t h e r s t a f f members and  I t seemed a f i t t i n g  introduction to a  program t h a t consumed and r e g u l a t e d much of my two  l i f e f o r the  next  years.  During those two years my  f e l l o w c o u n s e l l o r s and I would o f t e n  s p e c u l a t e about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s , purposes program.  and d e s i g n o f the  In the course o f these r e f l e c t i o n s , I was  something I had been i n t r o d u c e d t o through my anthropology of r e l i g i o n .  reminded o f  r e a d i n g s i n the  Camp Trapping, i t appeared, was  very  much l i k e what V i c t o r Turner had been r e f e r r i n g t o as a r i t e passage.  T h i s concept seemed to p r o v i d e the o n l y t h e o r e t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t c o u l d begin t o e x p l a i n why  the i d e a o f Camp  Trapping would e x i s t i n the f i r s t p l a c e and why a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the task a t hand. set  i t felt  so  Turner had p r o v i d e d me  with a  of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s t h a t p l a c e d Camp Trapping i n a  c u l t u r a l context and helped me of  of  the Trapping experience  t o understand  why  c e r t a i n components  existed.  V i c t o r Turner has w r i t t e n a g r e a t d e a l .  There i s no one book  t h e o r y which s y n t h e s i z e s a l l he has s a i d on t h i s s u b j e c t . continue t o grow and change, making i t d i f f i c u l t  His ideas  and perhaps  33  i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o attempt t o s i m p l i f y and c o l l a t e a c o n c i s e T u r n e r i a n view o f r i t u a l ,  symbol, and r i t e s o f Passage,  Nevertheless  I have attempted t o do t h i s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h i s study  with  some shape and o r d e r l i n e s s .  Before p r e s e n t i n g my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Turner's  i d e a s , I must  p o i n t out t h a t I have a v e r y narrow knowledge o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l theory i n g e n e r a l . attempting  Turner i s o n l y one o f many g i f t e d  t o make sense o f p a t t e r n s o f human a c t i v i t y through the  study o f symbol and r i t u a l . Turner's  anthropologists  Not a l l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s agree w i t h  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s and a l l those who agree w i t h him i n  g e n e r a l do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y agree w i t h a l l he has w r i t t e n . j u s t i c e t o anthropology,  I should p r o v i d e c r i t i q u e s o f and p o i n t s  of view t h a t d i f f e r from Turner's. t o c r i t i q u e Turner's  To do  I t i s n o t my i n t e n t i o n however  'doing' o f anthropology,  from an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . he and a few o t h e r s have p r o v i d e d  or h i s conclusions  I t i s my i n t e n t t o use what  i n an attempt t o d e s c r i b e and  shed some l i g h t on one o f the f o r m a l i z e d methods our s o c i e t y uses i n i t s attempt t o r e h a b i l i t a t e some o f i t s more troublesome citizens.  R i t e s o f Passage  The  term ' r i t e s o f passage' was p o p u l a r i z e d by the B e l g i a n  f o l k l o r i s t A r n o l d Van Gennep i n 1908.  He d e f i n e d these r i t e s as  " P a t t e r n s which accompany a passage from one cosmic o r s o c i a l world t o another" 1.  Van Gennep goes on t o suggest t h a t every  rite  34  of  passage w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a s e q u e n t i a l t h r e e stage  system.  The f i r s t  stage he c a l l e d p r e l i m i n a l or s e p a r a t i o n r i t e s .  There are designed t o remove the p a r t i c i p a n t s from a former and prepare them f o r the second o r l i m i n a l stage. p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t e n occur i n t h i s stage.  state  Rituals of  The l i m i n a l o r t r a n s i t i o n  r i t e s p r o v i d e a time d u r i n g which the p a r t i c i p a n t s are  suspended  between the former s t a t u s and the s t a t u s y e t to come, o r , as Van Gennep puts i t 'he wavers between two worlds' 2. p a r t i c i p a n t s b e g i n t o e n t e r the new gregation or p o s t - l i m i n a l r i t e .  Finally,  the  s t a t u s by means o f a r e a g -  V a l Gennep uses the term  liminal  (from L a t i n , limnens - t h r e s h o l d / p o r t a l ) i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f r e q u e n t use o f a door or t h r e s h o l d to symbolize the t r a n s i t i o n point i n ancient r i t u a l . or  emphasized  Any o f these t h r e e stages can be downplayed  depending on the o c c a s i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , r i t e s o f  passage can be p a r t o f a l a r g e r r i t u a l sequence o r , i f the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage i n l o n g enough, can be found w i t h i n another, broader r i t e o f passage.  3.  Using Van Gennep as h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t , Turner has expanded and e l a b o r a t e d the concept o f r i t e s o f passage  i n general while  p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the second, or l i m i n a l stage. Before examining what Turner has t o say about the r i t e s o f passage p r o c e s s , we passage  should f i r s t take note o f the types o f r i t e s o f  t h a t he has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d .  There are  two.  R i t e s o f i n i t i a t i o n or l i f e c r i s i s r i t u a l s are the types w i t h which, we are most f a m i l i a r .  These are the ceremonial events  marking a group o f s o c i e t y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o r important times i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s development t h a t end a former and b e g i n a new s o c i a l status.  B i r t h , puberty, marriage and death are examples o f times  when r i t e s o f i n i t i a t i o n tend o t o c c u r .  Entrance i n t o a r e l i g i o u s  o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t r e e t gang, a s e c r e t s o c i e t y and g r a d u a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l may a l s o be marked by such events.  As Turner notes,  r i t e s o f i n i t i a t i o n n o t o n l y concern the i n d i v i d u a l s on whom they are performed  but a l s o mark changes i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a l l  people connected w i t h these i n d i v i d u a l s . 4. R i t e s o f a f f l i c t i o n , the second type o f r i t e o f passage, a r e curative.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a person need never pass through one  although among the Ndembu the t r i b e w i t h whom Turner d i d most o f h i s e a r l y e t h r o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h t h i s i s seldom the case. Turner has examined t h i s type o f r i t e e x t e n s i v e l y and m a i n t a i n s t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t s the major theme i n Ndembu r e l i g i o u s l i f e . s p e c i f i c disorders or misfortunes  Upon m a n i f e s t i n g  ( u s u a l l y concerned w i t h bad l u c k  i n h u n t i n g f o r men and r e p r o d u c t i v e d i s o r d e r s f o r women), a s p e c i f i c a f f l i c t i o n i s diagnosed and i t s c o r r e s o n d i n g c u r a t i v e prescribed.  rite  There are a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g  these r i t e s which I b e l i e v e w i l l a i d us i n our understanding o f Camp T r a p p i n g .  F i r s t of a l l ,  though' the d i s o r d e r ' s symptom may be p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,  the d i s o r d e r ' s cause i s both s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l . stem from the a f f l i c t e d person's  I t i s said to  f a i l u r e t o perform a s o c i a l l y  demanded task a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the honouring o f a deseased While t h i s d i a g n o s i s p r o v i d e s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e r i t e ' s  ancestor.  36 F i g u r e 2.1-1 Context o f a R i t e o f  Affliction  Breach o f Custom, convention, harmony. Group and/or i n d i v i d u a l . Symptom-individual  i-  Diagnosis  Rite of A f f l i c t i o n  1  Temporary o r Permanent r e s o l u t i o n / c u r e o f breach and symptom.  Failure  Re-diangosis C u l t membership Recognition of i r r e p r a b l e breech  New  Rite  Involvement i n f u t u r e rites  Adept  37 performance, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a f f l i c t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y amidst  i n e v i t a b l y occurs  i n t e r or intra-group discord involving  the groups o r groups w i t h which the i n d i v i d u a l i s a s s o c i a t e d . Turner b e l i e v e s t h a t the r i t e o f a f f l i c t i o n  "becomes a matter o f  s e a l i n g up the breaches i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  simultaneously  w i t h r i d d i n g the p a t i e n t o f h i s p a t h o l o g i c a l symptoms". 5. Socondly,  upon the r i t e ' s completion,  the p a t i e n t becomes a c u l t  member who can e v e n t u a l l y become a p r a c t i o n e r o r adept o f t h a t s p e c i f i c r i t u a l through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n subsequent performances. C u l t membership c u t s a c r o s s f a m i l y and even t r i b a l boundaries. f o l l o w i n g diagram i l l u s t r a t e s the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f events rounding a r i t e o f a f f l i c t i o n .  The  sur-  (See F i g u r e 2.1-1)  The Goals, O b j e c t i v e s and Methods o f R i t e s o f Passage  R i t e s o f passage i s a sub-category  of r i t u a l .  Although  Turner  i s somewhat vague i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the g o a l s o f r i t u a l , he has p r o v i d e d some guidance to  i n t h i s respect.  Thses same g o a l s apply  the more s p e c i f i c type o f r i t e we a r e examining.  The g o a l s  Turner has i d e n t i f i e d as as f o l l o w s : 1) communication, 2) c o n t r o l o f a g g r e s s i o n , 3) bonding, and 4) c r e a t i o n o f an i d e a system conscience.  6.  c o n c e r n i n g g u i l t and  38  The broadest o f these, communication, i s , a t f i r s t glance too obvious.  almost  Turner, however, i s r e f e r r i n g to more than an exchange  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and  ideas.  He  i s , I b e l i v e , r e f e r r i n g to the d e s i r e  or need t o communicate.  What i s more, he i s r e f e r r i n g to the  t r a n s m i s s i o n of a f f e c t .  Given Turner's i n t e r e s t i n 'communitas'  (see page  43  ), we would be w e l l advised  'communion' and  to t h i n k o f the word  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n of an i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n  and  a common s h a r i n g .  For Turner, r i t u a l attempts t o c o n t r o l a g g r e s s i o n back to one  by  o f the r o o t causes of c o n f l i c t and a g g r e s s i o n  t e n s i o n between n a t u r a l d r i v e s and  reaching - the  c u l t u r a l necessities, that i s ,  between what one wants to do f o r s e l f g r a t i f i c a t i o n and what must do t o p r e s e r v e  social l i f e .  one  S p e c i f i c r i t u a l s , or a common  r i t u a l theme i n a given c u l t u r e w i l l o f t e n d e a l w i t h a more s p e c i f i c form o f c o n f l i c t .  Among the Ndembu f o r example* Turner found t h a t  the attempts t o reduce the t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by maternal d e s c e n t and v i r i o l c a l i t y were u s u a l l y embodied and practice.  In our own  c u l t u r e the theme may  t e n s i o n between i n d i v i d u a l success s o c i a l c o n t r o l and  addressed i n r i t u a l  and  w e l l be based on  freedom and  the  the need f o r  solidarity.  As a g e n e r a l r u l e , r i t u a l w i l l attempt to c o n t r o l a g g r e s s i o n communicating  by  ' c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l human v a l u e s and p r i n c i p l e s upon  which a l l must depend t o s u r v i v e and which t r a n s c e n d or preempt s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s . " 7.  By a p p e a l i n g  r i t u a l p r a c t i o n e r s hope to transcend  t o these  'universal' values  the  and domesticate the d e s t r u c t i v e ,  a g g r e s i v e and d i v i s i v e impulses of i n d i v i d u a l s and so they may  communities  become w i l l i n g servants o f s o c i a l o r d e r .  In t h i s  sense, c o n t r o l o f a g g r e s s i o n can be expanded to i n c l u d e the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s o c i a l o r d e r , or as Turner puts i t to "nip r a d i c a l d e v i a t i o n i n the bud".  A c c o r d i n g t o Turner,  8.  'bonding' o f t e n r e s u l t s from overcoming  the troublesome d i a l e c t i c and c o n f l i c t between nature and c u l t u r e and between d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e . supposedly concerned  S u c c e s s f u l bonding w i l l  r e s u l t i n the " c r e a t i o n o f a motivated w i t h g u i l t and c o n s c i e n c e . " 9.  i d e a system  Although  he  has p r o v i d e d  us w i t h one o f the causes o f bonding and one of i t s r e s u l t s , does not p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i o n of the term i t s e l f . p r o v i d e s some i l l u m i n a t i o n .  Turner  Funk and Wagnall's  A bond, i t s t a t e s i s a " u n i t i n g f o r c e  or i n f l u e n c e . . . a n d a v o l u n t a r y o b l i g a t i o n . " 10.  The most  obvious  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the p a r i c i p a n t s i n a r i t u a l become u n i t e d to t h e i r s o c i e t y and each o t h e r . t h e o r y , t h e r e i s another  W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f  form of bonding.  Turner's  I r e f e r here to the  p r o p e r t y o f p o l a r i t y which he a s c r i b e s t o dominant symbols. Through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a dominant symbol, the p a r t i c i p a n t experiences the i d e o l o g y o r v a l u e statement i n a p y s i o l o g i c a l sensation or r e a l i t y .  o f the symbol  manifested  Thus c e r t a i n v a l u e s  i d e o l o g i e s are bonded to an e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i t y .  and  Bonding, then,  most p r o b a b l y r e l a t e s t o c o n n ecting the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s / h e r s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and c o n n e c t i n g v a l u e s to an e x p e r i e n t i a l r e f e r a n t i n the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e . not be i g n o r e d .  The v o l u n t a r y nature o f bonding should  Goal number two,  c o n t r o l of aggression, implies  40 an e x t e r n a l  c o n t r o l f o r s o c i e t y ' s b e n e f i t whereas g o a l number  bonding, i m p l i e s  three,  an i n t e r n a l acceptance o f one's a l l e g i a n c e t o one's  s o c i e t y and one's r o l e i n t h a t  society.  T h i s l e a d s n a t u r a l l y , as Turner has i n d i c a t e d , t o g o a l number four, 11.  "The c r e a t i o n o f an i d e a system concerning g u i l d and c o n s c i e n c e . " Turner does n o t i n c l u d e  t h i s f i n a l goal  t o see i t as a r e s u l t o f bonding. as d i s t i n c t g o a l s .  I b e l i e v e the two should be seen  The phrase " i d e a system" i m p l i e s a c o n s c i o u s  awareness o f a r a t i o n a l e o r her behaviour.  i n h i s system, p r e f e r r i n g  w i t h which the i n d i v i d u a l can j u s t i f y h i s  While bonding many p r o v i d e the m o t i v a t i o n , i t  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e a c o n s c i o u s understanding o f o r a r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r why one i s bonded.  By s e p a r a t i n g  the two,  I hope t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between f e e l i n g t o be a p a r t o f a moral world and the a r t i c u l a t e d r a t i o n a l e f o r b e i n g a p a r t o f t h a t moral world.  Turner sees r i t u a l as "...a between men". 12. sense o f a g u i r i n g acquiring  device for e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s  As such they a r e p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i v e , n o t i n the s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , but i n the sense o f  s o c i a l s k i l l s and s o c i a l p l a c e .  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  R i t u a l i s thus a form  R i t e s o f passage, as a type o f r i t u a l ,  provides  i t s own unique shape t o t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s .  Objectives  o f R i t e s o f Passage  In c u r r e n t problem s o l v i n g techniques and c u r r i c u l u m  design,  41 the o b j e c t i v e s o f a p r o c e s s are d e f i n e d by t h e i r m e a s u r a b i l i t y . are worded i n a manner t h a t connects the products  goals t o s p e c i f i c  They  activities,  o r r e s u l t s o f which a r e q u a n t i f i a b l e . F o r my purposes,  ' o b j e c t i v e s ' w i l l r e f e r t o the experiences r i t u a l p r a c t i o n e r wishes t o induce  o r s e n s a t i o n s t h a t the  i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  We have seen t h a t t h e o v e r a l l g o a l o f a r i t e o f passage i s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a i n d i v i d u a l o r group from one s o c i a l s t a t e t o another.  In the p r e l i m i n a l o r s e p a r a t i o n s t a t e , the o b j e c t i v e i s  the e f f e c t i v e removal o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s from the former s t a t e . The  i n t e n t i o n s here a r e t o make i t v e r y c l e a r t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  a r e no l o n g e r what they were, and t o i n t r o d u c e the l i m i n a l s t a t e , where they w i l l have v i r t u a l l y no s t a t u s .  Although  i t i s n o t always the  case, s e p a r a t i o n i s o f t e n compared t o o r made t o r e p r e s e n t a s t a t e o f death,  infancy or prenatal existence.  R a d i c a l changes i n c l o t h i n g ,  hygiene,  p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l l common  events.  The s e p a r a t i o n  stage attempts t o remove a l l s t i m u l i  c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r f l u o u s t o the i n t e n t i o n o f the r i t e . not pay much a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s stage.  Turner  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine  j u s t when i t ends and the second, o r l i m i n a l stage, b e g i n s . might expect, however, t h a t without  does  We  an e f f e c t i v e separation':"the  part-Lcipant would be able t o continue  :  indulging i n or r e l a t i n g to  h i s o r h e r o l d h a b i t s and p a t t e r n s t o the detriment o f any new learning.  The p o s t l i m i n a l o r r e a g g r e g a t i o n stage has a l s o r e c e i v e d scrutiny.  I t i s designed  t o r e i n t r e g r a t e the p a r t i c i p a n t ,  little  complete  42 with, new  status, into d a i l y non-liminal  life.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s are i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r new  I t i s a l s o a time when  ways o f t h i n k i n g ,  acting  and p e r c e i v i n g .  They are b e g i n n i n g to s o l i d i f y - through a p p l i c a t i o n -  a new  o f themselves, t h e i r s o c i e t y and  perception  it.  C o n c u r r e n t l y , the  t h e i r new few  roles.  o f the  t h e i r place  within  s o c i e t y i s s t a t i n g i t s acceptance o f them i n  Feasts,  celebrations  and  graduations are  just a  examples t h a t are f a m i l i a r t o us which are used to  emphasize t h i s stage.  I t may  be a p p r o p r i a t e  to note here t h a t p a s s i n g through a  does not guarantee a p a r t i c i p a n t f u l l s t a t u s i n a new have a l r e a d y status and  seen w i t h r i t e s o f a f f l i c t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  i s d e f i n e d more by a c c e s s i b i l i t y to new  roles.  He o r she does not  but r a t h e r a j u n i o r p r a c t i o n e r activities.  We  can  automatically  r i t e o f passage one  s a f e l y assume t h a t one  does not  new  respect  practioner,  cultic automatically  Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a  Mid-Stage - L i m i n a l i t y  f a c t , uprooted the  o f passage and He has My  become a  we  begins t o become something.  L i m i n a l i t y i s the in  information,  or a p p r e n t i c e i n the  become a n y t h i n g i n i t s f u l l e s t sense.  The  r o l e . As  rite  focus o f most o f Turner's a t t e n t i o n .  He  has  stage from i t s b r a c k e t e d p o s i t i o n i n a r i t e  transplanted  i t i n t o a v a r i e t y o f other l o c a t i o n s .  transformed i t from a l i m i n a l stage i n t o a l i m i n a l s t a t e .  categories  of stage and  o f methods and  objectives  correspond to the d i s t i n c t i o n  s t a t e , the o b j e c t i v e s d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the  ideal  43 s t a t e o f mind o f the l i m i n a r y w h i l e the methods c a t e g o r y o u t l i n e s some o f the techniques employed to c r e a t e the s t a t e , i . e . what i s done i n the l i m i n a l  stage.  Objectives  1.  The l i m i n a l s t a t e w i l l be the a n t i t h e s i s o f the p r e c e e d i n g In  state.  h i s a r t i c l e on myth and symbol, Turner informs us t h a t  l i m i n a l i t y i s the a n t i t h e s i s of what preceeds  i t C and  the  s e p a r a t i o n stage) and a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r what i s to f o l l o w . 13. T h i s i s a v e r y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d statement w i t h our f i r s t liminality.  t h a t should p r o v i d e us  i n d i c a t o r o f whether o r not we  I f the p r e v i o u s s t a t e was,  are e n t e r i n g  on the whole, one  r o u t i n e adherence t o o r d e r , the l i m i n a l s t a t e may spontaneous o r u n p r e d i c t a b l e . t h i s out, h i s statement in  2.  be c h a o t i c ,  Although Turner does not p o i n t  a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t one might expect  the l i m i n a l stage i f i t was  preceeded  by  i s another major focus o f Turner's.  order  chaos.  The P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l experience a s t a t e o f communitas.  anti-structure.  of  Communitas  He a l s o r e f e r s t o i t as  He uses these terms t o d e s c r i b e  a  r e l a t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f f u l l unmediated communication, even communion, between d e f i n i t e and determinate  i d e n t i t i e s , which  a r i s e s spontaneously  i n a l l k i n d s o f group  situations  c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " 14.  We  and  f i n d here support f o r our assumptions  c o n c e r n i n g communication as a g o a l o f r i t u a l .  44 Turner e l a b o r a t e s .  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h r e e types of  communitas, 11 spontaneous appears  or e x i s t e n t i a l ; which simply  t o happen; 2) normative,  to c o d i f y the spontaneous  1  which o c c u r s when someone  attempts  v a r i e t y i n a set of e t h i c a l precepts  and l e g a l r u l e s ; and 3) i d e o l o g i c a l ; once a g a i n an attempt  to  capture spontaneous communitas but t h i s time through the c r e a t i o n of a  Utopian  b l u e p r i n t f o r the reform o f s o c i e t y .  Turner  b e l i e v e s t h i s l a t t e r type i s p r i m a r i l y l i m i n o i d , o r l i k e ,  but  not i d e n t i c a l t o , l i m i n a l .  I f one experiences a s t a t e o f communitas then one  should be  e x p e r i e n c i n g a r i c h , meaningful, d i r e c t and s i n c e r e communion w i t h o t h e r s and perhaps w i t h an i d e a l expressed through o t h e r s . o b j e c t , i d e a l , person or group w i t h which one  feels  The  this  communitas i n a r i t e o f passage i s dependent on the o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s o f the s p e c i f i c r i t e and the s o c i e t y t h a t has c r e a t e d it.  I t c o u l d be a god,  the S t a t e , your a n c e s t o r s - o r perhaps  a l l of the above.  3.  The  s u b j e c t s w i l l experience the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l t h a t i s  not m a n i f e s t i n moral, d a i l y l i f e .  15.  Turner makes r e f e r e n c e to t h i s type o f occurance of perspectives.  from a number  I t i s e v i d e n t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the  mulivo-  c a l i t y and p o l a r i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f dominat symbols, the former a l l o w i n g a number o f ideals..and v a l u e s t o speak s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and i n harmony, the l a t t e r connecting these  ideals  45  and v a l u e s t o a t a n g i b l e , e a s i l y understood reality rites  i n the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e .  and emotion-evoking  A c c o r d i n g t o Turner,  another  o f passage method which serves o b j e c t i v e number t h r e e i s  paradox.  By showing us an harmonious a s s o c i a t i o n o f elements  and/or r e l a t i o n s h i p s which would n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d incongruent o r i m p o s s i b l e , we a r e reminded o f and compelled t o reflect  on the normal a s s o c i a t i o n s and p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n s .  F i n a l l y , as normal l i f e  i s s e g m e n t e d , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , and o f t e n  c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n , a r i t e w i l l t y p i c a l l y attempt t o m a n i f e s t the e x i s t e n c e o f an a l l - p e r v a d i n g and benevolent u n i t y u n d e r l y i n g daily  life.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l e x p l o r e and s c r u t i n i z e t h e i r  society's  norms and v a l u e s . 16.  O b j e c t i v e t h r e e paves the way f o r and i s a necessary p r e c o n d i t i o n of  objective four.  T h i s o b j e c t i v e speaks f o r i t s e l f .  I t sets  our the p r i n c i p a l t a s k f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s a t l e a s t i n r e s p e c t to g o a l number f o u r .  Once a g a i n , how they do t h i s and what norms  and v a l u e s they s c r u t i n i z e w i l l depend on the p a r t i c u l a r  rite  and s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n .  "The  irksomeness o f moral r e s t r a i n t w i l l be transformed  into a  l o v e o f v i r t u r e . " 17.  Needless  t o say, t h i s i s a t a l l  order.  In those s o c i e t i e s where  46 r i t e s of passage have been s t u d i e d , t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f v a l u e s and r o l e s through r i t u a l and liminality.  No one  f o r e v e r transformed  expects  sanctioned  a r i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t t o be once and  i n t o a paragon o f v i r t u e .  What the  rites  do i s to remind the i n d i v i d u a l s o f the elements o f v i r t u o u s n e s s and,  as i m p o r t a n t l y , remind them o f the b e n e f i t s and  of b e i n g v i r t u o u s . of  6.  We may  communitas one may  suppose t h a t w h i l e one  virtures  i s i n a state  t e m p o r a r i l y achieve o b j e c t i v e f i v e .  The p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l experience  and/or develop  a sense of  u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l a t l e a s t f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the r i t e . 18.  You w i l l have n o t i c e d , perhaps, t h a t o b j e c t i v e s 3,4,  and  5  c o u l d e a s i l y be g o a l statments o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n p o s t industrial societies.  A t r a d i t i o n a l educator would be  less  f a m i l i a r and, perhaps, l e s s c o n f o r t a b l e w i t h o b j e c t i v e s and 6. Along w i t h communitas, o b j e c t i v e s i x i s one cornerstones  o f Turner's  theory o f r i t u a l .  1,2,  o f the  I t i s h i s argument  a g a i n s t the s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f r i t u a l which sees i t p r i m a r i l y as a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l o r d e r , and/or technically instructive.  A c c o r d i n g t o Turner, r i t u a l i s  i n s t r u c t i v e but more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s t r a n s d u c t i v e .  By  e x p r e s s i n g what must be and connecting the p a r t i c i p a n t to i t , the r i t e p r o v i d e s a g r e a t sense of power to the By removing the boundaries  individual.  that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a i l y l i f e  p l a c e l i m i t s on i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y , the r i t e p r o v i d e s  an  and  47 u n l i m i t e d sense o f p o t e n t i a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  Since he or  she i s f o r m l e s s , he o r she has the p o t e n t i a l t o c r e a t e a  new  form out of a m u l t i t u d e o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and then maximize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the form.  I say  'multitude o f  forms' guardedly a s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l has l i m i t s , bounded i n p a r t by the r i t e i t s e l f and more completely by the s o c i e t y ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f v i r t u o u s n e s s which, i f a l l i s going a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n , the p a r t i c i p a n t has come t o l o v e , thereby no l o n g e r s e e i n g i t as an  'irksome  T h i s freedom and p o t e n t i a l  be l a r g e l y symbolic  'to be' may  when compared t o the confinements  of d a i l y l i f e  restraint".  it  but  can become a  welcome and sought a f t e r r e l e a s e .  In Turner's view l i m i n a l i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t of social health.  L i k e a b a t t e r y charger, l i m i n a l i t y depends on  the system i t r e g e n e r a t e s .  L i m i n a l i t y regenerates a s o c i e t y ' s  members so t h a t they i n t u r n can regenerate the s o c i e t y which then c a l l s upon p e r i o d i c moments o f l i m i n a l i t y t o regenerate i t s members.  Without l i m i n a l i t y , the s o c i e t y cannot renew  i t s members' commitment and thus m a i n t a i n i t s own  structure.  Without the s t r u c t u r e however, l i m i n a l i t y c o u l d not m a i n t a i n the s o c i e t y and i t s members a t t h e i r more p r a c t i c a l or mundane levels.  In d e - r i t u a l i z e d , p o r t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , l i m i n a l  occasions  are l e s s l i k e l y t o be e x c l u s i v e l y c o l l e c t i v e and r e l i g i o u s i n nature.  Many c u l t s ,  Utopian  movements, and the counter  culture  48  of  the 1960's are seen by Turner t o be attempts  l i m i n a l i t y as an end i n i t s e l f . of  to s t r i v e f o r  For Turner, a permanent s t a t e  l i m i n a l i t y i s both i m p o s s i b l e and u n d e s i r e a b l e as such a  system c o u l d not m a i n t a i n  itself.  For many o f us, the l i m i n a l o c c a s i o n s are p r o v i d e d through a r t , music, drama, p l a y , o r membership i n a m a r g i n a l o f subgroup t h a t does not p r e c l u d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a r g e r  society.  These s i t u a t i o n s however are s a i d t o be unable t o p r o v i d e the same sense o f p o t e n t i a l and bonding. l i m i n a l i t y but not i d e n t i c a l .  They are l i k e  Turner c a l l s such  situations  'liminoid'.  L i m i n o i d s i t u a t i o n s are more i d i o s y n c r a t i c and  experimental  than the c o l l e c t i v e and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i n a l i t y o f p r e industrial societies.  Where they occur , t h e r e i s no l o n g e r  a s o c i e t y - d e t e r m i n e d c y c l e o f l i m i n a l i t y and s t r u c t u r e .  Instead,  l i m i n o i d s i t u a t i o n s occur spontaneously i n l e i s u r e time. i s more c h o i c e i n v o l v e d . l i m i n o i d a c t i v i t i e s may have t h e i r own  An i n d i v i d u a l choosing one  set of  be surrounded by neighbours who  d i s t i n c t sets of liminoid  There  each  activity.  Where l i m i n a l o c c a s i o n s promote p e r s o n a l change, they a l s o promote maintainance the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ) .  of society's  s t a t u s quo  (not n e c e s s a r i l y  L i m i n o i d s i t u a t i o n s are q u i t e f r e e t o ,  and o f t e n do, promote changes i n s o c i e t y ' s  s t a t u s quo.  49 A d e s i r e o f need to experience communitas i s a t the core o f both s i t u a t i o n s however.  They both p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y  i n d i v i d u a l s to examine c h e r i s h e d by p r o d u c i n g a "metalanguage t a l k i n g about the v a r i o u s  for  symbols o f t h e i r s o c i e t y ' s  (verbal and  nonverbal) f o r  languages of everyday."  19.  When a p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s i t s people w i t h communitas, i t w i l l u s u a l l y be through a system o f r i t u a l l y guarded stimulated  liminality.  and  Post i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y appears to  a l l o w r a t h e r than p r o v i d e communitas through i d i o s y n c r a t i c liminoid situation. element o f c h o i c e ,  While there there are  both the i n d i v i d u a l and  The  Methods of the L i m i n a l  Now  t h a t we  the  i s more v a r i e t y and  a  greater  fewer safeguards a v a i l a b l e f o r society.  20.  Stage  have some i d e a o f what a p a r t i c i p a n t i s intended t o  experience i n the l i m i n a l s t a t e , we  should p r o v i d e some i n d i c a t i o n  o f the means by which a r i t e o f passage attempts t o c r e a t e  that  s t a t e i n the second or l i m i n a l stage.  Any  c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between method and  speculative.  objective i s largely  Moreover, the methods o u t l i n e d here must be viewed  a r e c i p e , t h a t i s , t h e i r sum the d e s i r e d s t a t e p e r f o r m i n g method  t o t a l may  (the o b j e c t i v e s ) number one  o f the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s .  and  or should r e s u l t i n  as  achieving  goals whereas,for example  would not n e c e s s a r i l y c r e a t e any Recipes can be m o d i f i e d  c e r t a i n i n g r e d i e n t s can be l e f t out o r added without  by the  one  chef,  50 r a d i c a l l y a l t e r n i n g the outcome.  1.  Removal o f the s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s amoung the p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the r i t e ' s d u r a t i o n .  T h i s method i s f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n the s e p a r a t i o n stage.  Novices  must o f t e n shed t h e i r c l o t h i n g and go about naked or d r e s s e d p o o r l y . A l l p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y i s removed.  Although t h i s i s done t o h i g h -  l i g h t t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n from, and i n a b i l i t y t o , depend on a  former  s t a t u s , i t a l s o serves t o i l l i m i n a t e any obvious s t a t u s d e s t i n c t i o n s among the n o v i c e s themselves.  21. Each p a r t i c i p a n t i s , i n r e s p e c t t o  the p r a c t i o n e r s , the r i t u a l and the v a l u e s which are p r e s e n t e d , i d e n t i c a l and e q u a l .  T h i s method may  a l s o serve t o draw the  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o g e t h e r , i f not more c l o s e l y than would otherwise the case, then a t l e a s t more q u i c k l y . between them.  a l s o s t i m u l a t e thought  status d i s t i n c t i o n s i n d a i l y  2.  There are fewer b a r r i e r s  Bonding and communitas may  method and i t may  Complete compliance  be  both be served by  this  c o n c e r n i n g the purpose o f  life.  o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o the p r a c t i o n e r s '  demands and r e q u e s t s .  Turner b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s method goes hand i n hand w i t h method number one.  I t i s another means o f i l l i m i n a t i n g s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n  and denying c r e d i b i l i t y t o any former way methods one  of being or a c t i n g .  and two are means o f t a k i n g away a former way  w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v i d i n g an i d e n t i t y w i t h o r bonding  Both  of being to  51 the group o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  3.  P h y s i c a l h a r d s h i p and endurance.  T h i s method along w i t h methods one and two, s e r v e s i n p a r t t o teach endurance, h u m i l i t y and obedience  although Turner b e l i e v e s t h a t  the most important f u n c t i o n o f these t h r e e methods i s t o "render the p a r t i c i p a n t s down i n t o some k i n d o f human prima m a t e r i a . . . beneath a l l accepted forms o f s t a t u s . " 22. I b e l i e v e t h a t i n add i t i o n t o t h i s , method t h r e e a l s o has the e f f e c t o f c r e a t i n g u n f o r g e t t a b l e i f traumatic e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e connected t o the key v a l u e s o f the s o c i e t y .  Although the e x p e r i e n c e s  themselves  may be p a i n f u l o r d i f f i c u l t , passage through them i s remembered as a s u c c e s s , as a key t o an improved  status.  One can see the  r e l a t i o n here between these methods and the p o l a r nature o f symbols. They may n o t o n l y teach endurance b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , t e a c h the v a l u e o r b e n e f i t o f endurance.  T h i s may be an a p p r o p r i a t e time t o mention Turner's b e l i e f  that  "the body can be regarded as a symbolic template f o r the communication o f knowledge." 23.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y relevant to  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the p o l a r nature o f r i t u a l symbols i n g e n e r a l and l e a d s me t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , i f Turner's a n a l y s i s i s c o r r e c t , r i t e s o f passage which, u t i l i z e methods one through t h r e e a r e i n e f f e c t c r e a t i n g a p o r t a b l e symbol f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . otherwords,  when the graduate p a r t i c i p a t e s i n d i f f i c u l t  In activites  ( p h y s i c a l o r o t h e r w i s e ) , when he i s humbled o r f i n d s t h a t he must  52 obey, the s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s he went through, i n the r i t e o f passage w i l l be remembered but i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the v a l u e s which were a t t a c h e d t o those r i t e s and w i t h the f e e l i n g o f success achieved by p a s s i n g through the r i t e .  These methods then can a l s o  be r e l a t e d back t o g o a l number f o u r .  4.  Frequent p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , statements and b e h a v i o u r s .  The b e t w i x t and between nature o f l i m i n a l i t y i t s e l f i s a form o f paradox  as Turner d e f i n e s i t ,  and t h a t " . 24.  i . e . , the s i t u a t i o n o f "being both t h i s  He goes on t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r examples, d e s c r i b i n g  masks and costumes t h a t are both animal and man,  and  reminding  us t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s are o f t e n t r e a t e d as i f they are androgenous, o r n e i t h e r l i v i n g nor dead.  The p r i m a r y purpose o f r i t u a l  i s to catalyze a s h i f t i n perspective.  paradox  P r e s e n t i n g an incongrous  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s a i d t o remind the observer or p a r t i c i p a n t o f the normal  s t a t e o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p and t o s t i m u l a t e r e f l e c t i o n on  the d i f f e r e n c e between the two b e l i e v e t h a t paradox  situations.  Watzlawick  et a l  i s equally b e n e f i c i a l i n psychiatric  They b e l i e v e t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a paradox  treatment.  forces a s h i f t i n  p e r s p e c t i v e , a l l o w i n g the c l i e n t s t o view the v i c i o u s c i r c l e they have entrapped themselves  i n , i n a new,  c r e a t i v e f a s h i o n which o f t e n  r e s u l t s i n an e f f e c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n o f the problem.  According to  Walzawick e t a l , paradox as therapy i s a form o f second o r d e r change.  I t i s based on the formual "not  'a'but a l s o  'not n o t ' a ' " ,  which f o r c e s " . . . the mind out o f the t r a p o f a s s e r t i o n and d e n i a l and i n t o the quantum jump t o the next h i g h e r l o g i c a l l e v e l . . . "  25.  53  In s h o r t , paradox as a t o o l o f therapy and r i t u a l h e l p s t o o b j e c t i f y a l l t h a t i s not m a n i f e s t i n d a i l y l i f e , one o f the c r u c i a l of r i t u a l  5.  objectives  liminality.  Frequent r e p i t i t i o n o f a c t s , statements, r o l e s and c r u c i a l v a l u e s .  W i t h i n a r i t u a l , w i t h i n each stage o f a r i t e o f passage, a s e r i e s o f r i t u a l s , one  i s l i k e l y to f i n d r e c u r r e n t reference to  or use o f symbolic a c t s and r o l e s , c r u c i a l v a l u e s and key or e x p r e s s i o n s . for t h i s .  or across  phrases  Turner b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e are t h r e e major reasons  F i r s t l y , these r e p i t i t i o n s c o n t a i n images, meanings f o r ,  and models o f behaviour t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l elements.  cultural  They must be known and remembered i f the s o c i e t y i s t o be  preserved.  Secondly, the r i t u a l , o r a s e r i e s o f r i t u a l s may  these s p e c i f i c images i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t  present  relational patterns,  p r o v i d i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h examples o f t h e i r p e r v a s i v e u t i l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e .  F i n a l l y , Turner, i n agreement w i t h Edmond Leach,  b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e p i t i t i o n s serve t o compensate the c r e a t e d i n symbolic condensations. 26. briefly,  ambiguity  As we have a l r e a d y mentioned  symbols speak o f many t h i n g s a t once and tend t o d i s o l v e  differentiation wholeness.  i n favour o f p r e s e n t i n g p i c t u r e s o f a  unified  Symbols, i f they are to achieve t h e i r ends, tend t o be  ambiguous and vague i f one t r i e s t o a n a l i z e them o r reduce them t o t h e i r v a i o u r components.  6.  The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f work as p l a y .  54  Turner documents frequent occurances i n r i t u a l of what we c a l l p l a y or amusement.  T h i s documentation i n c l u d e s such t h i n g s  as j o k i n g , game p l a y i n g , puns and and  the t r i c k s t e r myths.  r i d d l e s , gentle tauntings,  behaviour ... any  a c t i o n or process  d i s c o v e r something not y e t known". 27. or  clowns  'Work as p l a y ' , i s , however, a f a r broader  concept, confirmed by Turner's d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a y . as "experimental  would  He d e s c r i b e s i t undertaken t o  L i m i n a l i t y encourages p l a y ,  c o n v e r s e l y , spontaneous, s e l f - m o t i v a t e d p l a y as d e f i n e d here  may  produce a s t a t e of l i m i n a l i t y o r communitas.  Turner m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e i s a freedom here, fenced, axiomatic  v a l u e s , t o t r y out new  a c c e p t i n g them a t w i l l .  of course,  ways of behaving, d i s c a r d i n g  T h i s seems to imply  by  and  t h a t a r i t e of passage  w i l l c o n t a i n occurances o f what Canadian educators would c a l l e x p e r i e n t i a l education,  or l e a r n i n g programs based on l e a r n i n g  through a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one's environment.  As one  cur-  r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e s i t , "There should be a wide range o f "doing" o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  I t i s through experiences  d i v e r s i t y t h a t b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s are l e a r n e d and built".  7.  The  with  general effectiveness  28.  establishment  and use of r i t u a l  Symbols can be anything  symbols.  ( o b j e c t s , events, persons, r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  a c t i v i t i e s , a p e r i o d of time) i f "they are regarded by  general  consent as n a t u r a l l y t y p i f y i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g or r e c a l l i n g , some t h i n g or t h i n g s by p o s s e s s i o n  o f analogous q u a l i t i e s or by  assoc-  55 i a t i o n i n f a c t o r thought". 29. What i s more, Turner b e l i e v e s t h a t ritual  symbols express a r e s o l u t i o n o f two opposing t e n d a n c i e s  which are u l t i m a t e l y connected t o the opposing t e n d a n c i e s o f s e l f g r a t i f i c a t i o n and adherence  to s o c i a l c o n t r o l .  30.  Symbols have t h r e e p r o p e r t i e s which a i d t h i s p r o c e s s .  A symbol can  r e p r e s e n t many t h i n g s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , even an e n t i r e c u l t u r e o r b e l i e f system. depending  Any one o f these meaning can dominate the o t h e r s  on the  multivocality.  s p e c f i c s i t u a t i o n . Turner c a l l s t h i s a symbol's In a d d i t i o n , through analogy o r a s s o c i a t i o n ,  n o r m a l l y u n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s or t h i n g s can become m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d i n a symbol.  T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o as the u n i f i c a t i o n o f  disparate s i g n i f i c a t a . p o l a r nature.  F i n a l l y , Turner r e f e r s t o a symbol's  Each symbol has an o r e c t i c o r sensory p o l e connected  t o a c l u s t e r o f n a t u r a l and/or p h y s i o l o g i c a l phenomena which tend to arouse d e s i r e s and f e e l i n g s .  The i d e o l o g i c a l p o l e p r o v i d e s  r e f e r a n t s t o m o r a l i t y , s o c i a l o r d e r , norms and v a l u e s . The  symbol  i s designed t o connect these two p o l e s such t h a t the emotional power aroused by the former become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i d e o l o g i c a l values.  31.  The meanings a symbol may  have are p r o v i d e d by a form o f a s s o c -  i a t i o n whether t h a t be analogy, homology, o p p o s i t i o n , o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 032) and by the dimensions There are t h r e e dimensions  correlation,  i n which i t o p e r a t e s .  i s o l a t e d by Turner.  The e x e g e t i c dimension r e f e r s t o how  symbols are d e s c r i b e d and  56  explained.  I t has t h r e e  semantic foundations:  the nominal, o r what  i t i s c a l l e d ; the s u b s t a n t i a l , o r the c u l t u r a l l y s e l e c t e d n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s o r p r o p e r t i e s ; and the a r t i f a c t u a l , when i t i s an o b j e c t fashioned  by p u r p o s e f u l  human a c t i v i t y .  The second, o r o p e r a t i o n a l  dimension r e f e r s t o what i s done w i t h the symbol, w h i l e where and when the symbols come i n t o p l a y i s the t h i r d o r p o s i t i o n a l dimension. 32.  Turner d i f f e r e n t i a t e s two types o f r i t u a l symbol.  One i s the  o p e r a t i o n a l which i s s a i d t o be r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c g o a l s a t s p e c i f i c times i n a r i t u a l . of symbol t o t h i s v a r i e t y .  He has n o t a s c r i b e d the three Dominant symbols, on the other  properties hand,  possess these p r o p e r t i e s and w i l l r e c u r throughout a r i t u a l and even a c u l t u r e .  These a r e t h e symbols t h a t r e l a t e most s t r o n g l y  t o the c u l t u r e ' s e n t i r e v a l u e key  symbols and p r o v i d e s  system.  Sherry Ortner c a l l s them  us w i t h three types;  summarizing,  concept e l a b o r a t i n g and a c t i o n e l a b o r a t i n g . 33. symbols are s a i d t o s y n t h e s i z e  Summarizing key  a complex system o f ideas and  express an e n t i r e system a t once.  They a l s o tend t o be c a t a l y s t s  of emotion and/or o b j e c t s o r reverance.  E l a b o r a t i n g key symbols work i n t h e o p p o s i t e  direction.  They s o r t  out and make comprehensible v a r i o u s complex and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e e l i n g s and ideas i n a way t h a t makes them communicable i n a c t i o n s or words. and  They are seldom r e v e r e d ,  i n s t e a d they d e r i v e t h e i r power  "key" s t a t u s due t o t h e i r frequent  e l a b o r a t i n g symbols p r o v i d e  occurance.  Concept  c a t e g o r i e s f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g world  57 o r d e r u s u a l l y through a r o o t metaphor t h a t i s a b l e t o i l l u m i n a t e s o c i a l or c o s m o l o g i c a l key  scenarios  order.  A c t i o n e l a b o r a t i n g symbols  provide  t h a t formulate a c u l t u r e ' s b a s i c means - ends r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s i n a c t a b l e forms, i . e . , a myth d e s c r i b i n g how  one  should  act  or even a r i t u a l t h a t dramatizes the means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p . may  This  a l s o i n c l u d e r i t u a l i z e d sequences enacted i n everyday l i f e which  would not have the obvious dramatic q u a l i t y o f a formal I f O r t n e r i s c o r r e c t , we r i t u a l as  ritual.  not o n l y have symbols i n r i t u a l but  34.  also  symbol.  In summary, we  have seen t h a t symbols, when they are used, are  teaching devices a t a n g i b l e and  that provide  emotionally  values,  i d e o l o g i e s , norms, e t c . , w i t h  s i g n i f i c a n t ground.  I f e f f e c t i v e or  ' a l i v e ' , they p r o v i d e meaningful c o g n i t i v e c a t e g o r i e s which h e l p to order  the world w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  attachment t o the c a t e g o r i e s and  evoking an  t h e i r underlying  emotional value  system.  A d d i t i o n a l T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts S o c i a l Drama  Turner a l s o p r o v i d e s  us w i t h a model o f the type o f  s i t u a t i o n i n which r i t e s of a f f l i c t i o n would take p l a c e . dramas, as he c a l l s them are c a t e g o r i z e d by  social Social  " u n i t s o f aharmonic o r  disharmonic s o c i a l p r o c e s s a r i s i n g i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n " . The  35.  f o u r main phases of p u b l i c a c t i o n i n t h i s drama a r e : 1)  i n i t i a l breech, o f r e g u l a r , norm-governed s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , 2) c r i s i s where the breech widens to the p o i n t t h a t s o c i e t y i s  an a  58  compelled to a c t .  T h i s stage a l s o has  liminal  characteristics.  31 r e d r e s s i v e a c t i o n , which i s t h a t p o i n t to which r i t u a l or a c t i o n would be taken, and  4) r e i n e g r a t i o n , a t which p o i n t  breech i s healed or r e c o g n i z e d  and a p p l y i n g  the  as i r r e v o c a b l e . 36.  These scheme i s r e m i n i s c e n t category  other  o f Van  Gennep's, merely adding a  the t o t a l scheme to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s .  It  i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t f a i l u r e o f the r e d r e s s i v e a c t i o n i s accepted  as one  o f the consequences.  What i s more important f o r the purposes o f t h i s study i s t h a t Turner's s o c i a l drama model i s i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h h i s acceptance o f Gluckman's a s s e r t i o n t h a t c o n f l i c t w i l l be d e a l t with, i n t h i s d r a m a - r i t u a l s o c i a l system.  framework w i t h i n a c i r c u l a r - r e p e t i t i v e  37.  Gluckman d e f i n e s t h i s as a system i n which c o n f l i c t s can r e s o l v e d "... w i t h i n the p a t t e r n of the system.  The  be  i n d i v i d u a l s who  are members of the group and the p a r t i e s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p which c o n s t i t u t e the p a r t s o f the system, change, but t h e r e i s no change i n the c h a r a c t e r o f those p a r t s or the p a t t e r n s o f t h e i r 38.  independence".  T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d to a "changing s o c i a l system" which, a l l o w s  changes i n the system  itself.  Frank. Young f i n d s support  for this assertion i n his cross-  c u l t u r a l examination o f i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies. "dramatization  He notes t h a t  i s the communication s t r a t e g y t y p i c a l l y employed  59 by s o l i d a r i t y groups i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , but a l l t n e more vunverable d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n " . 39.  Summary  T u r n e r s t h e o r e t i c a l ruminations have p r o v i d e d us w i t h a 1  r e l a t i v e l y complex system.  H i s work on r i t e s o f passage has g i v e n  us a framework o f g o a l s o b j e c t i v e s and methods which should h e l p us i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether o r not v a r i o u s s o c i a l d r a m a t i z a t i o n s are u s i n g a r i t e o f passage format - o r something t o achieve t h e i r ends.  akin to i t -  We have a l s o been i n t r o d u c e d t o a theory  which m a i n t a i n s t h a t d r a m a t i z a t i o n s o f t h i s nature a r e most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n a s p e c i f i c type o f s o c i a l system, one t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c i n i t s e l f y e t promoting The  change i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l members.  f o l l o w i n g chapters w i l l provide a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c  microsystem,  Camp Trapping.  In chapters f i v e and s i x we s h a l l see  i f these t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s can h e l p us t o understand what i s o c c u r r i n g a t Camp Trapping and how i t i s connected t o i t s p a r e n t society.  GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND METHODS CENTRAL TO A: RITE OF PASSAGE a c c o r d i n g t o V i c t o r Turner GOALS OF RITUAL 1. Communication 2. C o n t r o l o f A g r e s s i o n  The  3. Bonding 4. C r e a t i o n o f a motivated  i d e a system r e _ g u i l t and conscience  OBJECTIVES OF RITES OF PASSAGE: transformation o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r group from one s t a t e t o another.  PRELIMININAL -SEPARATION removal o f s u b j e c t s from a former s t a t e . i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the r i t u a l state. symbolic removal from former s t a t e .  LIMINAL  POSTLIMINAL AGGREGATION  1) The s u b j e c t s w i l l experience a sense o f - r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f subjects communitas. into daily l i f e . 2) The s u b j e c t s w i l l experience t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n - acceptance o f s u b j e c t s new of a l l t h a t i s not manifest i n normal, day t o day s t a t e by o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y life. at l a r g e . 3) The s u b j e c t s w i l l develop and experience f e e l i n g s of u n l i m i t e d p e r s o n a l and/or group p o t e n t i a l a t l e a s t f o r the r i t e ' s d u r a t i o n . 4) The irksomeness o f moral c o n s t r a i n t w i l l be transformed i n t o a love o f v i r t u e . 5) Subjects w i l l explore and s c r u t i n i z e t h e i r s o c i e t i e s norms and v a l u e s .  METHODS p h y s i c a l removal from normal -Removal o f s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s among s u b j e c t s f o r - n o t s p e c i f i e d s o c i a l environment. r i t e ' s duration. - celebrations, feasts, change i n d r e s s , e a t i n g h a b i t s -Complete compliance o f s u b j e c t s t o p r a c t i o n e r ' s graduations, b i r t h sexual s t a t u s . demands and requests. (symbolic), coming out. symbolic death. -Establishment and use o r r i t u a l symbols. - P h y s i c a l hardship and endurance. -Frequent p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , statements, behaviours -The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f work as p l a y . -Frequent r e p i t i t i o n o f a c t s , statements, symbol use.  ATTRIBUTES OF SYMBOLS. :1 Turner and Ortner Symbols can be o b j e c t s , events, persons, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c t i v i t i e s , o r a p e r i o d o f time " i f they are regarded by general consent as n a t u r a l l y t y p i f y i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g , o r r e c a l l i n g , some things o r things by possession o f analogous q u a l i t i e s o r by a s s o c i a t i o n i n f a c t o r thought". (Turner, F o r e s t o f Symbols, page 19.) Types Of Symbols Turner:  Operational  Dominant  Specific, related to clearly differentiated times, o b j e c t i v e s , goals.  S y n t h e s i z i n g , a l l embracing. E x p r e s s i n g p e r v a s i v e and c r u c i a l c u l t u r a l values.  KEY SYMBOLS Ortner:  Elaborating D i f f e r e n t i a t e and make communicable s p e c i f i c f e e l i n g s and ideas. not revered; o f t e n repeated.  Summerizing Synthesize a complex system o f ideas and express an i n t i r e system a t once. Are o f t e n c a t a l y s t s o f emotion and/or o b j e c t s o f reverence.  a) Concept e l e a b o r a t i n g provide c a t e g o r i e s f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g world order, u s u a l l y through r o o t metaphors i l l u m i n a t i n g s o c i a l o r cosmological order. b) A c t i o n e l b o r a t i n g provide key scenarios t h a t formulate the c u l t u r e ' s b a s i c means-ends r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a c r a b l e rorms. Includes r i t u a l i z e d sequences i n everyday l i f e .  62  ATTRIBUTES OF SYMBOLS  ; II  Symbols o b t a i n meaning through:  analogies homologies oppositions correlations transformations t h e i r dimensions ....  Dimensions o f Symbols  15. E x e g e t i c : How symbols a r e d e s c r i b e d and e x p l a i n e d .  I t has t h r e e  semantic foundations i) ii)  the nominal, what i t i s c a l l e d , the s u b s t a n t i a l , c u l t u r a l l y selected natural materials and p r o p e r t i e s .  iii)  the a r t i f a c t u a l , an o b j e c t f a s h i o n e d by p u r p o s e f u l human activity.  2) The O p e r a t i o n a l : What i s done w i t h and t o a symbol. 3) The P o s i t i o n a l : Where and when symbols a r e used.  63  CHAPTER THREE WHAT IS SAID - DOCUMENTS  64  Camp Trapping's R e l a t i o n s h i p to the Community  Many who  :  3.1  are f a m i l i a r w i t h Camp Trapping t h i n k o f i t as an  i s o l a t e d w i l d e r n e s s program i n v o l v i n g d e l i n q u e n t boys i n a rugged, s p a r t a n and h i g h adventure  lifestyle.  While t h e r e i s an element  of t r u t h i n t h i s image, i t h i d e s the i n t r i c a t e d web Camp Trapping has w i t h the community a t l a r g e .  o f connections  Cariboo A c t i o n  T r a i n i n g S o c i e t y (CATS) i s t h i s web's most e s s e n t i a l s t r a n d .  When Hawkenson f i r s t c r e a t e d Camp Trapping, he was need f o r p r i v a t e s o c i e t y s t a t u s . l e g a l requirement.  CATS was  aware o f the  formed t o s a t i s f y  Under B r i t i s h Columbian law any p r i v a t e  this treatment  r e s o u r c e must be operated under the a u s p i c e s of a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y r e g i s t e r e d under the S o c i e t i e s A c t i f i t expects t o r e c e i v e government funding and r e c o g n i t i o n .  In i t s e a r l y y e a r s , Hawkenson viewed CATS  as a necessary inconvenience. budgetary  d e c i s i o n s . The  He made a l l the programming  f a m i l y - l i k e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e and  and the  v e r y s m a l l budget d u r i n g i t s e a r l y years enabled one person t o assume the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t h e r a p e u t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  In 1982,  w i t h a s t a f f o f f o u r t e e n and a budget of almost 300,000  d o l l a r s p e r annum, not i n c l u d i n g the a f t e r c a r e or CAT  house due  to  open i n the autumn, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s have become f a r more complex.  In a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y becomes much more  e s s e n t i a l when the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h i r t y - s i x youths and f o u r t e e n employees depends on the j u d i c i o u s expenditure of h a l f a m i l l i o n tax d o l l a r s a year.  65  A p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s the l o c a l community w i t h access to the c o n t r o l and m o n i t o r i n g of any program o p e r a t i n g with p u b l i c funds.  Membership i s open t o a l l members o f the p u b l i c w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f employees and funders.  Members can a t t e n d meetings,  q u e s t i o n and c r i t i q u e e x p e n d i t u r e s , p o l i c i e s and programs, vote i s s u e s and e l e c t the board o f d i r e c t o r s . government w i t h an  accountable  In t h e o r y , i t p r o v i d e s the  c o r p o r a t e body.  A c c o r d i n g t o the c u r r e n t d i r e c t o r , the funders, and  every  r e f e r r i n g agent w i t h whom I spoke, CATS i s the most e f f i c e n t commited n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y they have every worked w i t h .  and  This  r e p u t a t i o n i s based on a number o f elements.  From a f i s c a l  p o i n t , i t i s c o n s c i e n t i o u s and w e l l managed.  CATS i s not viewed  as greedy or o v e r l y ambitious overspent  on  (empire b u i l d i n g ) .  I t has  stand-  never  i t s budget and i s always w e l l a u d i t e d .  CATS members a l s o have a r e p u t a t i o n f o r n e i t h e r s h i r k i n g o v e r s t e p p i n g t h e i r r o l e i n r e s p e c t to the program.  nor  S o c i e t y members  do not t r y t o c o n t r o l the program, r e c o g n i z i n g , as d i d Hawkenson, t h a t the program d i r e c t o r and h i s s t a f f must f e e l t h a t the program i s t h e i r s i f i t i s t o be run e f f e c t i v e l y . S o c i e t y monitors  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the  the program from a v a l u e s and e t h i c s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  demanding o n l y t h a t i t s t a y w i t h i n the g u i l d e l i n e s and tone l i s h e d i n the f i v e p o i n t Hawkenson  estab-  'philosophy".  Many s o c i e t i e s are infamous f o r t h e i r i n t e r n a l b i c k e r i n g s and program m a n i p u l a t i o n .  That t h i s does not occur a t Camp  66  T r a p p i n g is. not t o o s u r p r i z i n g however, i t s membership never more than twenty  I t i s a small society,  individuals.  W i t h i n the membership, one can f i n d f o u r former Camp Trapping d i r e c t o r s and two former Camp Trapping t e a c h e r s .  In s h o r t , the  s o c i e t y membership i s aware o f the needs o f the program through t h e i r former d i r e c t involvement w i t h i t s o p e r a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n ,  members who have not a c t u a l l y worked f o r Camp Trapping have o f t e n been i n v i t e d and encouraged employees.  t o j o i n by p r e s e n t o r former camp  The few who have j o i n e d p u r e l y out o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t  have tended t o be a t t r a c t e d by the CATS p h i l o s o p h y and aims and have shown no i n c l i n a t i o n t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the program.  If  such an i n c l i n a t i o n d i d e x i s t , one might assume t h a t the former d i r e c t o r s and t e a c h e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y and on t h e board o f d i r e c t o r s p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r t o p r o t e c t the camp from such  inclinations.  The S o c i e t y i s g e n e r a l l y viewed as b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e o f both i t s d i r e c t o r and h i s employees.  The o n l y c r i t i c i s m o f the S o c i e t y i s  one agreed on by both i t s members and i t s employees.  Individuals  from both p e r s p e c t i v e s f e e l t h a t t h e program would b e n e f i t  from  the S o c i e t y ' s i n f o r m a l involvement w i t h the s t a f f and t h e camp. More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  i t was suggested t h a t s o c i e t y members should  make a p o i n t o f v i s i t i n g the camp more o f t e n t o o f f e r  their  encouragement t o both the students and t h e s t a f f .  CAT'S s t r u c t u r e i s l i k e any o t h e r S o c i e t y ' s -  A g e n e r a l meeting  i s h e l d once a year t o e l e c t a board o f d i r e c t o r s t o a one year  67  term.  The board i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  s o c i e t y ' s r o u t i n e work  which i n c l u d e s r e g u l a r l i a s o n w i t h the program d i r e c t o r , the o v e r seeing of f i s c a l  management, endorsement or r e j e c t i o n o f  program changes, h i r i n g new  proposed  program d i r e c t o r s as needed and  m o n i t o r i n g t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and o p e r a t i n g monthly s o c i e t y meetings.  The board always works i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i t s  program d i r e c t o r and o f f i c e manger.  I f i n d e p t h study o r p l a n n i n g  i s needed f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , the board can c r e a t e a committee or  task f o r c e f o r these purposes.  Such was  the case when CATS  began t o p l a n and lobby f o r i t s a f t e r c a r e home.  A quorum o f s o c i e t y members must vote t h e i r agreement on item p r i o r t o i t becoming CATS p o l i c y . monthly w i t h the program d i r e c t o r who  The  any  s o c i e t y and board meet  p r o v i d e s a r e p o r t on the camp  a c t i v i t i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Other meetings a r e c a l l e d a t need.  i ' . ^Aside from p r o v i d i n g community involvement w i t h Camp T r a p p i n g , CATS i s the camp's o f f i c i a l  l i n k t o i t s funder, the M i n i s t r y o f  Human Resources  does not have a mandate t o p r o v i d e  facilities for  (MHR).  MHR  f o r d e l i n q u e n t youth but i t does have a mandate t o p r o v i d e  o r fund programs t h a t p r o v i d e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o the community  which a r e c h i l d focused.  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  Camp T r a p p i n g i s i n a  r a t h e r unique p o s i t i o n , funded as i t i s by an agency t h a t i s not i t s p r i n c i p a l user.  MHR's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f o s t e r home program  had enabled i t t o fund Hawkenson without seeking a d d i t i o n a l for  i t s 1971  budget.  In a d d i t i o n , MHR  dollars  and the A t t o r n e y General's  o f f i c e were w e l l aware t h a t they shared many o f t h e i r c l i e n t s .  A  68 r e s o u r c e f o r one was e q u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e o t h e r .  As the program gained c r e d i b i l i t y i t r e t a i n e d i t s connections w i t h MHR, although the i d e a o f t r a n s f e r r i n g funding r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the A t t o r n e y General's c o r r e c t i o n s branch had been agreed t o i n p r i n c i p a l as e a r l y as 1977.  T h i s t r a n s f e r has never occured.  Until  r e c e n t l y t h i s was due p r i m a r i l y t o F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l c o s t s h a r i n g arrangements under the Canada A s s i s t a n c e P l a n which, u n t i l 1978, excluded j u v e n i l e c o r r e c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s from F e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Rumour o f a t r a n s f e r o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s again i n the a i r , but is  unconfirmed.  MHR has never been i n v o l v e d i n d i r e c t e v a l u a t i o n o r d e s i g n o f the Camp Trapping progrma. Services Coordinator o b t a i n i n g feedback  MHR Region F i v e ' s F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s  (F&CS) monitors the program i n f o r m a l l y  from MHR s o c i a l workers w i t h c h i l d r e n i n the  program and through c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the P r i n c e George MHR o f f i c e ' s d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r who i s t h e M i n i s t y ' s w i t h CATS.  through  Southeast direct  liason  The F&CS i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r conducting budget  n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the program d i r e c t o r .  In t h e p a s t few y e a r s , the i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l Committee on Wilderness programs has, a t MHR's r e q u e s t , conducted o f Camp T r a p p i n g .  two e v a l u a t i o n s  These e v a l u a t i o n s were n o t concerned  w i t h the  program p e r se b u t r a t h e r w i t h s t a f f outdoor e d u c a t i o n competency and w i t h t h e s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s a t the camp and on o u t - t r i p s .  69  MHR  has two o t h e r formal l i n k s w i t h Camp Trapping.  student who care.  Each  a t t e n d s the camp must be a c h i l d under the M i n i s t r y ' s  I f t h i s i s not the case p r i o r t o the student's  attendance,  he w i l l become a c h i l d i n care f o r the camp's d u r a t i o n .  As a  r e s u l t , every student has, i n theory, a s o c i a l worker r e s p o n s i b l e for h i s w e l l being.  The remaining l i n k i s found i n the Camp Trapping  student s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from MHR p r o b a t i o n branch  A few weeks p r i o r t o each camp, a  and one  from the A t t o r n e y General's  (AG) meet w i t h the program d i r e c t o r t o e v a l u a t e  the r e f e r r a l s and s e l e c t twelve new one o r two  second  juvenile  c h o i c e s who  students.  They a l s o  select  w i l l be o f f e r r e d a p l a c e a t the camp  i f a space becomes a v a i l a b l e .  The  s e l e c t i o n committee i s the o n l y formal r e c o g n i t i o n of the  important r o l e t h a t the AG's  regional office plays.  every student w i l l have had e x t e n s i v e involvement o f f i c e r who  In a c t u a l  with a probation  i s u s u a l l y the p r i n c i p a l r e f e r r i n g agent and  l i n k w i t h the community a t l a r g e .  fact  ongoing  The r e f e r r i n g agent, whether a  p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r or s o c i a l worker, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e t t i n g the student t o and from the camp, completing the CATS s i x month and  one  year f o l l o w - u p o r e v a l u a t i o n forms, and f o r s e c u r i n g a l l a f t e r c a r e arrangements.  As most o f the r e f e r r i n g agents are p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  Camp Trapping s t a f f s ' primary l i n k t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e community has become the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e .  With the advent o f the CAT  house,  the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e w i l l have i t s f i r s t f i n a n c i a l l i n k w i t h CATS through, i t s purchase  o f two of the s i x beds i n the home.  70 Camp Trapping has a d i r e c t l i n k w i t h the. P r i n c e George s c h o o l district.  In 1982, the s p e c i a l education teacher i t p r o v i d e s  worked three and one h a l f days a week a t the camp f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the r e g u l a r s c h o o l year.  The teacher i s o f f i c i a l l y a s t a f f  member o f one o f the l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l s , from which he o b t a i n s any s u p p l i e s he may need.  CATS has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the funding o f  t h i s p o s i t i o n although the program d i r e c t o r normally has some say i n the s e l e c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s teacher  i s a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by the s c h o o l board although the f u n d i n g f o r the p o s i t i o n has been p r o v i d e d by the F e d e r a l government  through  i t s Job C r e a t i o n Branch's L o c a l Employment A s s i s t a n c e Program T h i s f u n d i n g was f o r a developmental renewed p a s t September 1982. secure f u n d i n g from another  (LEAP).  stage o n l y and w i l l n o t be  Current attempts a r e b e i n g made t o source.  These a r e the o f f i c i a l l i n k s Camp Trapping has w i t h i t s parent community, although i n theory, Camp Trapping must a l s o conform t o the r e g u l a t i o n s s e t out i n the Community Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g Act.  There a r e however, o t h e r , l e s s formal  links.  The most important o f these,.is w i t h the l o c a l p o l i c e , the P r i n c e George RCMP detachment.  They a r e f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d upon t o search  f o r and apprehend students who run from the camp ( r e f e r r e d t o as AWOL).  Any student who AWOL's i s i n breech o f h i s p r o b a t i o n order  and i s thus b r e a k i n g the law.  Camp Trapping s t a f f ,  particularily  the Program d i r e c t o r and a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r , a r e f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s t o t h e c i t y j a i l where they p i c k up t h e i r l o s t wards.  The  71  p o l i c e a r e , i n r e s p e c t t o CATS, almost a second l i n e o f defence. Camp Trapping students are never f o r c e d t o s t a y a t the l a k e but they are made q u i t e aware o f the f a c t t h a t i f they run from the camp they w i l l be d e a l t w i t h by the p o l i c e and c o u r t s .  The  police  then, have the same r e l a t i o n w i t h Camp Trapping as they do w i t h the r e s t o f the community. d e t e r e n t and  T h e i r ever p r e s e n t v i g i l a n c e a c t s as a  control.  The RCMP have another, more r e l a x e d and i n f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n . As p a r t o f the a f t e r c a r e l i f e s k i l l s  program, an RCMP c o n s t a b l e w i l l  spend an evening with the boys d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the law and p o l i c e work a l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i c focus i s o f t e n on the i s s u e o f d r i n k i n g and  driving.  The a f t e r c a r e program w i l l of  i n t r o d u c e the students t o a number  community r e s o u r c e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s .  from employers,  Each camp w i l l have v i s i t o r s  educators, c o n v i c t s , handicapped  crime and r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s .  people, v i c t i m s of  Students u s u a l l y spend some time a t  camp l e a r n i n g f i r s t a i d from the S t . John's Ambulance and o f t e n v i s i t the l o c a l c o l l e g e , the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p board, the Canada Employment Centre and v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l w o r k s i t e s . at  In each o f these  situations  l e a s t one community member has v o l u n t e e r e d some o f h i s o r her  time t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h the students.  Camp Trapping has a l s o sponsored o r taken p a r t i n l o n g d i s t a n c e runs w i t h community groups, most n o t e a b l y w i t h the P r i n c e George Roadrunners  C a running c l u b ) and Canada Forces Base Baldy Hughes.  72  F i n a l l y , we must not f o r g e t t o mention t h a t f a m i l y and f r i e n d s are encouraged t o v i s i t the camp on Sunday's a f t e r the f i r s t month o f camp and t h a t some c o u n s e l l o r s and the a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r are o f t e n i n frequent  c o n t a c t w i t h these f a m i l i e s i n  an attempt t o p l a n a f t e r c a r e and e x p l a i n and promote the Trapping program.  We can b e g i n t o a p p r e c i a t e its  t h a t Camp Trapping, f o r a l l  i s o l a t i o n and uniqueness, i s i n t i m a t e l y connected t o the  community through a v a r i e t y o f formal and i n f o r m a l Figure  3.1-1  relationships.  provides  channels.  a scematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f these  73 Figure  3.1-1  Cariboo A c t i o n T r a i n i n g S o c i e t y ' s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Community  S o c i e t y and Board Members  The Community Churches, M i s c . Govt. Agencies C i t i z e n s , Convicts, Employers, Unions, S e r v i c e Groups.  Informal i n r o . g i v i n g , involvement in activities, instruction. P u b l i c i t y - r a d i o , T.V.,  newspaper  Services & supplies Rehab o f community members, placement ( s e c u r i t y ) employment, cash flow.  B  Funding (Cat House) R e f e r r a l & S e l e c t i o n and A f t e r c a r e C o n t r o l o f Students Placement r e s o u r c e , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .of c l i e n t s , assessment.  Attorney General  Referral, selection, aftercare. E v a l u a t i o n & f u n d i n g (Camp Trapping and Cat House Placement Resources, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f c l i e n t s , assessment.  Ministry of Human Resources!  Funding  S 0 C I  (CAP)  Federal Government Funding  (LEAP)  School I Board  I R.C.M.P.I  Student's Families  '  I  E  0  T  N  Y  Academic teacher and s u p p l i e s . LEAP V o c a t i o n a l Teacher & Equipment and s u p p l i e s . R  C o n t r o l & apprehension o f s t u d e n t s , i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n .  A  V i s i t s t o camp, involvement i n a f t e r c a r e  ^ 1  Rehab , emporary r e s p i t e , problem solving. I N G  74  Cariboo  A c t i o n T r a i n i n g S o c i e t y - I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e : 3.2  CATS and Camp Trapping  are h i e r a r c h i c a l .  s o c i e t y members have, i n theory, Trapping  program.  A t t h e top, the  u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l o f the Camp  They e l e c t the board members who i n t u r n ,  h i r e the program d i r e c t o r .  In a c t u a l f a c t , the program d i r e c t o r  h o l d s t h e most powerful and r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n .  Through h i s  recommendations, t h e d i r e c t o r can o f t e n ensure t h a t even h i s successor  w i l l be o f h i s choosing.  CATS has never h i r e d a program  d i r e c t o r who has n o t worked i n a c o u n s e l l i n g p o s i t i o n a t the camp. One former d i r e c t o r , though he spent two years a t the camp as i t s teacher,  spent the f i r s t month o f h i s d i r e c t o r s h i p as a c o u n s e l l o r  i n order t o f u l f i l l  The  t h i s u n w r i t t e n law.  Program D i r e c t o r  The program d i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t o t a l o p e r a t i o n o f the camp.  He must h i r e , s u p e r v i s e and d i s m i s s a l l employees w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n board.  o f the business  c o o r d i n a t o r who i s a l s o h i r e d by t h e  With the h e l p o f the b u s i n e s s  the y e a r l y budget and n e g o t i a t e  c o o r d i n a t o r , he must prepare  i t s settlement  w i t h MHR.  The  d i r e c t o r i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the proper and e f f i c i e n t use o f a l l o p e r a t i o n a l and c a p i t a l  assets.  He must ensure t h a t p r o p e r care and guidance i s p r o v i d e d t o each student  and t h a t the s t a f f a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a i n e d .  The  d i r e c t o r i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r program implementation and  75  development, and l i a s o n w i t h the p u b l i c and government  agencies.  While i t i s not p a r t o f the j o b d e s c r i p t i o n , the d i r e c t o r w i l l i n e v i t a b l y spend as much time as p o s s i b l e i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h and  students a t the l a k e .  w i l l t r y t o stay o v e r n i g h t weeks.  staff  He c h a i r s the weekly s t a f f meeting and a t the camp a t l e a s t once every two  I t i s a l s o n o t uncommon t o see the program d i r e c t o r on a t  l e a s t one o u t - t r i p each camp.  The  maintainance o f s t a f f r a p p o r t ,  s h i f t consistency  morale a r e perhaps the d i r e c t o r ' s most c r u c i a l d u t i e s .  and s t a f f  I f the s t a f f  do n o t f e e l h i s support, i f he does n o t encourage and c r i t i q u e  their  i d e a s f o r program i n o v a t i o n and implementation, a i d i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f i n t e r - s t a f f and s t a f f - s t u d e n t c o n f l i c t then the program w i l l be i n s e r i o u s jeporady.  No matter how e f f i c i e n t l y the f i n a n c i a l ,  p h y s i c a l p l a n t and l i a s o n d u t i e s a r e performed, Camp Trapping would c o l l a p s e i f i t s s t a f f were n o t p r o p e r l y cared  for.  During my  short  stay a t the camp the d i r e c t o r made, on average, two t r i p s weekly to the camp i n a d d i t i o n t o s t a f f meeting.  h i s r e g u l a r attendance a t the weekly  He would o f t e n be a t the l a k e w e l l i n t o the evening,  whether i t was t o r e s o l v e some s t a f f c o n f l i c t , a t t e n d an evening s e s s i o n , o r p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r v i e w and counsel students.  p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome  He was always on c a l l and had t o p i c k up o r take students  to c e l l s a f t e r r e g u l a r working hours on a number o f o c c a s i o n s . A l t h o u g h c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f had been s t a y i n g a t Camp Trapping f o r an average o f one and a h a l f years s i n c e Mr. R a i l began h i s d i r e c t o r s h i p , he was o f t e n i n t e r v i e w i n g p r o s p e c t i v e  c o u n s e l l o r s and  76  making arrangements t o ensure t h a t the proper s t a f f compliment was  always maintained.  As we s a t down t o a formal i n t e r v i e w one day i n March, he n o t i c e d t h a t I was j o t t i n g down b a s i c i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t the top o f the i n t e r v i e w schedule. "Put 'married' b e s i d e t h a t one" he had s a i d i n r e f e r e n c e t o the ' r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Camp T r a p p i n g category.  1  Although, i t was o f f e r r e d i n j e s t , h i s comment i s n o t  f a r from t h e t r u t h .  I n f a c t , employment a t Camp T r a p p i n g i s  g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be r a t h e r r i s k y f o r a married  individual.  Employees  normally become t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the program, and  few i f any  spouses o f Trapping s t a f f have avoided f e e l i n g a t  l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y r e s e n t f u l o f the program i f t h e i r mate has stayed w i t h i t f o r any l e n g t h o f time.  The Business C o o r d i n a t o r  Of a l l the CATS s t a f f i n g p o s i t i o n s , t h i s i s the most o f f i c e bound.  Although t h e d u t i e s may r e q u i r e o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s t o T r a p p i n g  Lake, most o f the b u s i n e s s c o o r d i n a t o r ' s time i s spent  carrying  out the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n t r i c a c i e s o f bookkeeping, p u r c h a s i n g , i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l and a l l the s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s .  The b u s i n e s s  c o o r d i n a t o r i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h s t a f f and students a l i k e .  I t i s a r a r e day t h a t you would n o t be a b l e t o  f i n d a c o u n s e l l o r o r student s i t t i n g c o m f o r t a b l y b e s i d e the c o o r d i n a t o r ' s desk t a l k i n g a t l e n g t h about t h e j o y s and t r i a l s o f Trapping l i f e .  The c u r r e n t c o o r d i n a t o r , Ms. Olson, has been w i t h  77  CATS l o n g e r than any o t h e r employee.  S i n c e 1977  she has worked  w i t h t h r e e program d i r e c t o r s , f i v e a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r s  and  scores o f c o u n s e l l o r s .  The p o s i t i o n i s one to  o f t h r e e without  counsel or d i r e c t students.  formal  responsibility  This r e l a t i v e l y neutral designation  seens to a l l o w a more r e l a x e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r s e l f and the students.  In a sense, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not u n l i k e the  j o k i n g o r c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s many s o c i e t i e s make a h a b i t o f p r o v i d i n g i n a t l e a s t one k i n s h i p category. t h e cook share t h i s r e l a x e d , nonparental  The  The  caretaker  and  role.  Caretaker  The c a r e t a k e s buildings  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the maintainance of a l l  equipment and machinery n e c e s s a r y  f u n c t i o n i n g o f the camp.  f o r the d a i l y  T h i s i n c l u d e s the power p l a n t , the  c r a w l e r t r a c t o r , the f u e l s u p p l i e s , chainsaws, hand t o o l s and building supplies.  I f b u i l d i n g r e p a i r s are necessary  he  will  c o o r d i n a t e the work.  The  c a r e t a k e r i s i n d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h the students  o f t e n has one his  o r two  o f them working a t h i s s i d e .  I t i s not  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y however t o monitor t h e i r behaviour.  students a r e aware t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l ask him  and  Although  i f student  performance i s a c c e p t a b l e , they are a l s o aware t h a t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is  t o the task a t hand r a t h e r than to the student-  Although  he  may  78  e x e r t a u t h o r i t y , he i s seldom viewed as an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and i s thus a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a more r e l a x e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t u d e n t s .  The  Cook  The cook has a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . works a normal e i g h t hour day, a t the camp.  L i k e the c a r e t a k e r , she  f i v e days a week and does not s l e e p  Both o f them d r i v e i n from the nearby town of  every morning.  Hixon  Both, have h e l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f o r over t h r e e y e a r s .  The cook has a student a s s i s t a n t who the k i t c h e n f o r week l o n g s h i f t s .  i s scheduled to work i n  Each student w i l l work i n the  k i t c h e n a t l e a s t once d u r i n g t h i s s t a y .  With no d i r e c t m o n i t o r i n g  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , she i s u s u a l l y a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a comfortable r a p p o r t w i t h the students, although, once a g a i n , the students are aware t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l ask f o r her comments i n r e s p e c t t o student behaviour.  Although  i t can be hard work, most students l o o k  forward t o t h e i r k i t c h e n duty as a welcome r e s p i t e from the more c o n t r o l l e d environments o f the w o r k s i t e s and the schoolroom.  The  cook i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e p a r i n g three meals d a i l y from Monday t o F r i d a y and f o r i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l o f a l l f o o d s t u f f s .  The A f t e r c a r e C o o r d i n a t o r  T h i s i s perhaps the most unique staff postions.  The  job was  and vaguest o f Camp Trapping  c r e a t e d i n 1977  i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the  d i f f i c u l t y most r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n graduates have i n t r a n s -  79  s f e r r i n g t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d knowledge and behaviour back to t h e i r r e g u l a r community. and  The ACC  implementing a l i f e  has become r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n i n g  s k i l l s component o f the Trapping  program  t h a t i n c l u d e s exposure to a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t community p e r s p e c t i v e s , job s e a r c h techniques  and d i s c u s s i o n s concerning  specific  problem areas such as a l c o h o l and drug abuse.  The ACC  i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g student  and o p i n i o n s on a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s . w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s and  This information  r e f e r r i n g agents, h e l p i n g the  to focus on s p e c i f i c problem areas and for  a f t e r c a r e arrangements.  The ACC  requests  and  i s shared counsellors  the r e f e r r i n g agents to p l a n  i s not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d  w i t h graduates as he must always focus on the students  Camp Trapping  aspirations  i n attendance.  graduate e v a l u a t i o n s are conducted by the ACC  analyzes  the s i x month and  one  year  who  follow-up  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s he r e c e i v e s from the r e f e r r i n g agents.  Although he  i s not d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n , i t i s h i s duty t o observe s h i f t c o n t i n u i t y and staff. absence. at  In a d d i t i o n , the ACC  to share these o b s e r v a t i o n s  with  the  assumes the d i r e c t o r ' s r o l e i n h i s  On average, the c o o r d i n a t o r  spends two  n i g h t s each week  the camp.  This p o s i t i o n w i l l  soon be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d .  With the  advent of the a f t e r c a r e home, the program d i r e c t o r w i l l become the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r s t o CATS, the a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r w i l l become the camp's d i r e c t o r and  the CAT  House w i l l be operated  by a house  80 director.  The ACC's d u t i e s w i l l become the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the  Camp Trapping d i r e c t o r .  The  Counselling  Staff  There are seven r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s . a r e l i e f . counsellor. the o t h e r  o f these i s  While h i s d u t i e s are i d e n t i c a l t o those o f  counsellors, his s h i f t i s f l e x i b l e .  r e q u i r e d to stand  One  He or she w i l l  i n d u r i n g a c o u n s e l l o r ' s absence or perhaps  become a f o u r t h s t a f f member i f there i s a p a r t i c u l a r i l y time at the camp.  The  two  program.  shifts.  At the p r e s e n t  male c o u n s e l l o r s .  therapy and  time each s h i f t has  t r a i n i n g and  therapeutic design.  have some w i l d e r n e s s  A s h i f t runs f o r one  female  Trapping  s u r v i v a l to e x p e r t i s e i n group  Each c o u n s e l l o r must be p h y s i c a l l y  experience as they are r e q u i r e d f o r the  students.  While a t the camp, each  c o u n s e l l o r i s on duty twenty-fours hours a day and and works w i t h the students. w i t h a swede saw  to  week, b e g i n n i n g a t noon each Monday, h a l f -  through the weekly s t a f f meeting.  firewood  one  They are the backbone o f the  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s they p r o v i d e  way  equally  As a u n i t , each s h i f t must c o n t a i n s k i l l s t h a t range from  expertise i n wilderness  f i t and  counsellor.  remaining s i x c o u n s e l l i n g p o s i t i o n s are d i v i d e d  between two and  stressful  r e l i e f s t a f f w i l l never have to work more  hours per camp than would be r e q u i r e d o f a s h i f t  The  be  eats,  sleeps,  A c o u n s e l l o r must be able to c u t  f o r a f u l l work day,  participate in a l l  81  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the morning run, ingage i n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s and time, a d m i n i s t e r  c r i s i s intervention at  any  the behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n program, p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the evening group s e s s i o n s and p l a n and  implement o u t - t i p s .  That i s not t o say t h a t a l l these events o c c u r d a i l y , merely t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s must be prepared t o do them as  Each c o u n s e l l o r i s d e s i g n a t e d maximum o f f o u r students.  She  as a key c o u n s e l l o r f o r a  o r he must prepare two  each camp on these f o u r , which n o r m a l l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h each o f them. c o u n s e l l o r on each  day  reports  involves establishing a Each student  has one  key  shift.  There i s no c o n s i s t e n t s h i f t c o o r d i n a t o r . one  required.  Instead,  each  day  o f the c o u n s e l l o r s i s s e l e c t e d t o a c t as the c o u n s e l l o r o f (COD).  coordinate  As the COD,  the  i t i s the c o u n s e l l o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  the days events,  assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n an emergency,  make a l l f i n a l d e c i s i o n s and monitor the behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n program.  The  c o u n s e l l o r s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e l i v e r i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g  the program on a d a i l y b a s i s . students'  w e l l being.  As such they are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  They must ensure t h a t the students  work i n a s a f e environment w h i l e challenges  and m o t i v a t i o n s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n camp l i f e . students,  simultaneously  providing  necessary t o encourage the  live  and  the  students'  Their d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n with  t h e i r demand f o r work and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r  the administration  82  of the c h a r t system and  t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r and  encouragement  o f c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ensure t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s  will  r e c e i v e the most i n t e n s e emotional response from the students. a r e s u l t , the c o u n s e l l o r s are c o n s t a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n d r a i n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s o f a p o s i t i v e and develop these r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the  negative  As  emotionally  nature as they  students.  Each c o u n s e l l o r attempts to develop these r e l a t i o n s h i p s through a genuine e x p r e s s i o n  o f her o r h i s own  p r e t a t i o n o f Trapping's  p e r s o n a l i t y as an  'personality'.  program o f t h e r a p e u t i c techniques  inter-  Although t h e r e i s a core  and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ,  each  c o u n s e l l o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g and/or improving t h a t program through t h e i r own  unique s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and  I f a c o u n s e l l o r i s a g i f t e d musician, may  become a p a r t o f the program.  music l e s s i o n s and  s i n g alongs  I f a c o u n s e l l o r has g e o l o g i c a l  or b o t a n i c a l e x p e r t i s e the students may these areas.  perspectives.  be o f f e r r e d t r a i n i n g i n  I f a c o u n s e l l o r i s b o i s t e r o u s and g r e g a r i o u s  w i l l be encouraged t o express the program i n a b o i s t e r o u s gregarious  fashion.  o r c l a s h w i t h h i s more subuded p e r s o n a l i t y . i n c l i n a t i o n , a counsellor's expression and  and  A q u i e t and r e f l e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r would be  encouraged to express the program i n a way  unaffected  she  which w i l l not c o n t r a d i c t Whatever t h e i r  of the program should  be  genuine.  I t i s the most e m o t i o n a l l y demanding p o s i t i o n i n the program. I f a c o u n s e l l o r i s not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h the her f e l l o w workers i t becomes e v i d e n t immediately.  students  Other  and  83  c o u n s e l l o r s f e e l the s t r e s s o f c a r r y i n g an a d d i t i o n a l l o a d while students become r e s e n t f u l a t the l a c k o f involvement  they  feel.  Each c o u n s e l l o r i s under c o n s t a n t s c r u t i n y from h i s c o l l e a g u e s and the students and t h e r e i s thus a c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t o perform c o n s i s t e n t l y t o the b e s t o f one's a b i l i t y .  C o u n s e l l o r s on o p p o s i t e s h i f t s are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h one another through a complicated system o f m i d - s h i f t change overs where one c o u n s e l l o r from each s h i f t exchange p o s i t i o n s . In the course o f a year, each c o u n s e l l o r e should have had o p p o r t u n i t y o f working on both s h i f t s . attempt  i n an  t o a v o i d s h i f t i n c o n s i s t e n c y , t o improve s t a f f r a p p o r t ,  and t o minimize on the o t h e r from one  T h i s i s arranged  the  the a b i l i t y o f the students t o p l a y one  (students o f t e n attempt  shift off  t o g a i n p r i v i l e g e s o r sympathy  s h i f t by complaining about the c r u e l t y o r e x t o l l i n g  the  g e n e r o s i t y o f the o t h e r ) .  The A l t e r n a t e E d u c a t i o n  School D i s t r i c t 57  Teacher  (Prince George) funds t h i s p o s i t i o n .  The  t e a c h e r i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a P r i n c e George highschool p r i n c i p a l .  In a c t u a l f a c t , the Camp Trapping d i r e c t o r  s u p e r v i s e s the p o s i t i o n and attempts t o have i n p u t i n the h i r i n g process.  The teacher works from September t o June and i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r p r o v i d i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d academic program f o r each student. In a d d i t i o n , he may environmental  i n s t r u c t such s k i l l s as w i l d e r n e s s s a f e t y ,  awareness o f any o t h e r area i n which he may  have  84 expertise.  He  and  the a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r  r e s p o n s i b l i t y of presenting  The  o f t e n share the.  the job f i n d i n g s k i l l s package.  teacher must p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the program.  He works from noon Monday t o Thursday a f t e r n o o n t a k i n g h a l f the  students each morning and  except on Mondays which are r e s e r v e d  The  Construction  o f each week,  h a l f each  afternoon  f o r s t a f f meetings.  S k i l l s Teacher  T h i s i n d i v i d u a l has a l t e r n a t e education  the  teacher.  services section administers  same weekly and y e a r l y schedule as  Although the s c h o o l board's s p e c i a l the funding  of t h i s p o s i t i o n , super-  v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y r e s t s w i t h the camp's program d i r e c t o r . Construction work and  Trades t e a c h e r  i s responsible  s a f e t y h a b i t s and p r o v i d n i n g  f o r teaching  The proper  s k i l l development i n a  v a r i e t y of consturction trades centred  around b a s i c c a r p e n t r y .  program attempts t o d u p l i c a t e a t y p i c a l w o r k s i t e and accomodates the f i r i n g o f students f o r the day to the t e a c h e r ' s  i f they do not work  are i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n r e s p e c t  the c h a r t system and  student behaviour.  His  even  satisfaction.  Both teachers  the  They are r e q u i r e d  to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l the program a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e g u l a r week o f t e n accompany students and c o u n s e l l o r s on o u t - t i p s .  One  to  and could  d e s c r i b e them as s p e c i a l i z e d c o u n s e l l o r s , h i r e d t o operate a s p e c i f i c program component but a l s o r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  85 every o t h e r aspect of camp l i f e .  The o n l y r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between  themselves and o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r s l i e s i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g d u t i e s , o t h e r than the f a c t t h a t they get the weekends and  They each p l a n t h e i r own  summers o f f .  programs but must be f l e x i b l e enough  to accomodate d a i l y program changes, unexpected events, o u t - t r i p s and emergency work programs a l l of which may  take some, i f not  o f : t h e i r students from them f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f  all,  time.  *************************  These f o u r t e e n p o s i t i o n s comprise the t o t a l CATS s t a f f . c o u n s e l l o r s , a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r and program d i r e c t o r are most d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the smooth o p e r a t i o n o f the  The those  total  program as i t r e l a t e s to the students although the t e a c h e r s have s i m i l a r but more s p e c i a l i z e d  roles.  The t h r e e support  staff  p o s i t i o n s , w h i l e a l l o w i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t a c t w i t h the are not v e s t e d w i t h any d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y over the students,  students, and  are thus able t o a l l o w a more r e l a x e d and c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with them.  86  CAMP TRAPPING SCHEDULES 3 . 3 ;  Camp Trapping does not operate on a continuous New  i n t a k e format.  students e n t e r and l e a v e as a group, s t a y i n g t o g e t h e r f o r the  d u r a t i o n of a camp.  The o n l y v a r i a t i o n t o t h i s p a t t e r n r e s u l t s when  s e l e c t e d students are removed from the program. e a r l y i n a camp a replacement  i s found.  I f t h i s occurs  As a g e n e r a l r u l e ,  any  student t h a t has been removed from a camp f o r o t h e r than m e d i c a l reasons w i l l most l i k e l y r e t u r n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the next camp.  P r i o r t o 1977  a v a r i e t y o f y e a r l y s c h e d u l i n g formats were  e x p l o r e d , w i t h camps r a n g i n g from one month Cwilderness only) t o t e n months i n l e n g t h .  In 1977  the program d i r e c t o r d e c i d e d t o  e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n a schedule t h a t conformed t o a r e g u l a r high school year.  T h i s schedule was  designed t o a l l o w Camp  Trapping graduates  a l e s s traumatic r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n to school  should they wish t o r e t u r n , a l l o w i n g them the o p p o r t u n i t y t o enter the e d u c a t i o n system a t the b e g i n n i n g o f a semester without delays.  As a r e s u l t , Camp Trapping now  o f f e r s t h r e e programs, o r  'camps' each year, b e g i n n i n g i n September, February, and The two  lengthy  July.  f i v e month programs are r e s e r v e d f o r those youths who  c o n s i d e r e d most a t r i s k t o themselves  and the community.  The  are two  month summer program i s o f f e r r e d as a p r e v e n t i t i v e program f o r those youths who dendancies.  are j u s t beginning to e x h i b i t delinquent  The average  whereas the average  age o f t h i s group hovers around f o u r t e e n  age i n the f i v e month programs i s i n the  f i f t e e n t o s i x t e e n year  range.  87  The  l o n g e r programs a r e , on average,  e i g h t e e n weeks i n  d u r a t i o n , the summer program l a s t s seven t o e i g h t weeks.  The  r e m a i n i n g e i g h t weeks o f the year a r e d i v i d e d u n e q u a l l y between each camp and a r e used p r i m a r i l y f o r s t a f f t r a i n i n g , program p l a n n i n g , and as a b r i e f r e s t from involvement  with the students.  A t the  end o f the s p r i n g 1982 camp the s t a f f had one week o f h o l i d a y s p r i o r t o two weeks o f t r a i n i n g and p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s .  T r a i n i n g and P l a n n i n g  Sessions  These s e s s i o n s o f t e n i n c l u d e a c r i t i q u e o f the camp t h a t has j u s t ended.  I f s p e c i f i c program areas have been p r o b l e m a t i c , new  approaches a r e suggested The e n t i r e s t a f f  and perhaps i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the program.  (except t h e support s t a f f ) then d e s i g n s the b a s i c  o u t l i n e o f the next camp.  I f p o s s i b l e , each employee w i l l  indicate  when or i f they p l a n t o take h o l i d a y s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development time and the schedule w i l l be a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y .  As a g e n e r a l  r u l e s t a f f a r e h i r e d and r e s i g n d u r i n g these between-camp breaks. The weeks f o r o u t - t r i p s , the a f t e r c a r e l i f e s k i l l s students t r i a l week a t home w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d .  program and the Normally  the l o c a -  t i o n and nature o f the f i r s t o u t - t r i p w i l l be chosen and p r e p a r a t i o n for  i s initiated.  S t a f f t r a i n i n g s e r v e s a d u a l purpose.  More o f t e n than n o t a t  l e a s t one new c o u n s e l l o r w i l l have t o be i n t r o d u c e d t o the program. Although most new c o u n s e l l o r s have a l r e a d y spent a t r i a l week a t an e a r l i e r camp, and a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the  88  program w i l l not b e g i n u n t i l the students a r r i v e , they must be p r o v i d e d w i t h a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e r u l e s , proceedures and operating  style.  The o t h e r aspect o f t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e s s t a f f development. While t h i s does not always o c c u r , s t a f f may be i n t r o d u c e d t o one o r more new t h e r a p e u t i c techniques o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s k i l l development workshop.  On one o c c a s i o n the s t a f f t o u r e d a number  o f r e s o u r c e s s i m i l a r t o Camp T r a p p i n g t o see the types o f programs and t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s used by o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l  rehabilitation  settings.  Camp Schedules  Each camp does not f o l l o w an i d e n t i c a l p a t t e r n y e t the percentage o f time spent i n camp and on o u t - t r i p s remains  r e l a t i v e l y constant.  Four weeks, o r j u s t under t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a f i v e month p r o gram i s s e t a s i d e f o r o u t - t r i p p i n g .  The a f t e r c a r e  lifeskills  program takes approximately t e n i n t e r s p e r s e d days o f a camp's time not i n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w s and evening s e s s i o n s .  One week i s s e t a s i d e  towards the end o f a camp f o r student home v i s i t s .  The remaining  eleven weeks a r e spent c a r r y i n g out the d a i l y and weekly camp routines.  The two month summer program i s almost e q u a l l y d i v i d e d  between o u t - t r i p and in-camp r o u t i n e , f o u r weeks h i k i n g o r canoeing and f o u r a t the camp.  The o v e r a l l o u t l i n e f o r the S p r i n g 1982 camp was as f o l l o w s :  89 9-  15  Intake and o r i e n t a t i o n  15  22  First out-trip  February  Cskil  February 22  March. 1  March  8  Regular program  15  22  Regular program  22  29  Regular program and f i r s t day o f l i f e  1  Regular program p l u s t e s t i n g and i n t e r v i e w s  skills  program. March  April  29  April 5  Regular program p l u s LSP  5  12  Second o u t - t r i p  12  19  Regular program p l u s LSP  19  26  as above  26  May 3  (ski).  as above  3  10  Working o u t - t r i p t o Nakusp  10  17  Two r e g u l a r days p l u s f i v e days o f home v i s i t s  17  23  One and a h a l f days home, remainder r e g u l a r p l u s LSP  31  Regular program  1  7  Regular program  7  14  Regular program, marathon, g r a d u a t i o n  24 June  During the f i r s t t h r e e weeks s t u d e n t s a r e n o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d to a l l a s p e c t s o f the program.  The f i r s t week w i l l emphasize a  s t r i c t adherence t o work and chore schedules and w i l l i n t r o d u c e evening s e s s i o n s and c h a r t s .  The second week's o u t - t r i p w i l l  often  be t o q u i t e an i s o l a t e d a r e a and w i l l be used by the c o u n s e l l o r s t o b e g i n d e v e l o p i n g a more r e l a x e d and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the students.  Often both s h i f t s w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n a l l o r p a r t o f t h i s  90 out-trip.  In t h e t h i r d week, t h e a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r begins h i s  i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w s , meeting w i t h each student s e p a r a t e l y i n an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s about t h e i r f a m i l i e s , Camp Trapping, drugs, s e l f growth, f u t u r e p l a n s and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . The academic s k i l l s t e a c h e r i s a l s o conducting h i s i n i t i a l t e s t s t o determine  each student's l e v e l o f academic a b i l i t y .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  t r a d e s t e a c h e r a l s o i n t r o d u c e s h i s program a t t h i s time.  From  t h i s time on, the d a i l y program f o l l o w s the r e g u l a r format t h a t i s o u t l i n e d i n the next few pages.  Graduation day i s normally the l a s t day o f camp.  Parents and  r e f e r r i n g agents a r e i n v i t e d , as a r e some o f the s p e c i a l and v i s i t o r s the camp has had.  lecturers  A l a r g e banquet i s prepared and  t r o p h i e s and g r a d u a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r each student. Most o f the t r o p h i e s focus on some p o s i t i v e b u t humourous aspect o f each student's s t a y a t the camp although t h e r e i s a l s o a trophy for  'most improved camper'.  Students a r e taken home a f t e r the  banquet by t h e i r p a r e n t s o r guardians although t h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n s when a student i s taken t o h i s home by one o f the c o u n s e l l o r s .  W i t h i n t h i s e i g h t e e n week schedule, e x c l u d i n g o u t - t r i p weeks, the weekly schedule remains r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t .  From the s t a f f ' s  p e r s p e c t i v e a week begins a t noon Monday and ends sometime i n the l a t e a f t e r n o o n on the f o l l o w i n g Monday.  Although students g e n e r a l l y  view the s t a f f change as the b e g i n n i n g o f a new week, the c h a r t and reward system ends on a F r i d a y n i g h t and b e g i n s on the f o l l o w i n g morning.  91  A Camp Trapping Week  On Mondays, the students a r e always i n v o l v e d i n g e n e r a l maintainance  d u t i e s which c o u l d i n c l u d e firewood c u t t i n g , camp  and v e h i c l e clean-ups and b u i l d i n g o r road r e p a i r s .  In the a f t e r -  noon they a r e l e f t l a r g e l y unsupervised w h i l e t h e e n t i r e s t a f f meets t o d i s c u s s the p a s t week's events and each progress,  counselling  student's  Evenings a r e devoted t o f r e e time, group s e s s i o n s and  individual chart sessions.  From Tuesday morning u n t i l l a t e Thursday  a f t e r n o o n the  students a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups,one o f which works i n the shop w h i l e the o t h e r i s a t s c h o o l . switch.  In t h e a f t e r n o o n t h e two groups  One student i s always working  i n t h e k i t c h e n i n the  mornings and t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y one o r two students working a c o u n s e l l o r o r t h e c a r e t a k e r on some maintainance  task.  with On Monday,  Wednesday and F r i d a y s t a f f and students take a mandatory sauna between f o u r and f i v e P.M.. Thursday  D u r i n g t h e same time on Tuesday and  everyone must be i n v o l v e d i n some form o f r e c r e a t i o n .  Each student can choose h i s own l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y b u t i t must be approved  by a c o u n s e l l o r .  Every evening except Saturday, u n l e s s  many students a r e away, students and s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e i n what i s known as t h e 'evening s e s s i o n ' , a form o f group therapy l a s t i n g a t l e a s t f o r t y minutes an evening.  T h i s s e s s i o n w i l l be f o l l o w e d  by an i n d i v i d u a l c h a r t s e s s i o n f o r a l l students on o r below L e v e l I o f the b e h a v i o u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n program (see an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s system).  Every F r i d a y evening a f t e r the  92  group s e s s i o n a l l those on L e v e l s I I and I I I w i l l have t h e i r meeting  i n the k i t c h e n t o determine by consensus who  own  i n these  l e v e l s has earned what rewards and whether or not t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n t r a c t s have been honoured d u r i n g the week.  On Saturday, a l l those students who  failed  t o make the run  more than once i n the p r e c e e d i n g week must run a g a i n . failed  t o earn t h e i r way  camp.  Those who  A l l those  who  t o town must s t a y behind and work a t the  earned t h e i r town t r i p go t o P r i n c e George w i t h  one o r two c o u n s e l l o r s l a t e Saturday morning.  In town they do the  camp l a u n d r y , p a r t i c i p a t e i n group s p o r t s , take any earned f r e e time, have a r e s t a u r a n t meal and see a movie. camp around 10:30  They u s u a l l y r e t u r n t o the  p.m.  Sunday i s a f r e e day except f o r those who e i g h t p o i n t s or l e s s .  have earned  These u n f o r t u n a t e s must work i n the morning.  The o t h e r students can s l e e p i n but must be up by 11:00 want brunch.  sixty-  F a m i l y and f r i e n d s are encouraged  a.m.  i f they  t o v i s i t i n the  a f t e r n o o n and a group s e s s i o n i n h e l d i n the evening. V o l u n t a r y saunas are not uncommon on the weekends.  The r e s i d e n t s prepare  a l l t h e i r own meals on the weekends.  A Camp T r a p p i n g  Day  Although the nature o f the work v a r i e s from Monday t o F r i d a y , it  i s a l l performed w i t h i n the same d a i l y schedule.  schedule has a l r e a d y been sketched.  The weekend  93 One  o r two  c o u n s e l l o r s w i l l get up  every weekday morning.  s h o r t l y before  6:45  They w i l l then wake up the o t h e r  Everyone must have t h e i r beds made and  residents.  c l o s e t s t i d i e d by 7:00  a t which time the group moves en mass to the  At 7:10  are p h y s i c a l l y a b l e , b e g i n the f o u r m i l e run.  T h i s must be  cleaned and 9:10  and dressed  eight t h i r t y .  By 8:00  a.m.  school/recreation  b u i l d i n g f o r ten minutes o f warmup e x e r c i s e s .  nonstop i n under f o r t y - f i v e minutes.  a.m.  a.m.  a.m.  a l l who completed  everyone must be  f o r b r e a k f a s t which i s served between e i g h t Morning chores are completed between 8:30  and  a t which time the work, s c h o o l and v o c a t i o n a l programs  begin.  There i s n o r m a l l y , but not always, a f i f t e e n minute c o f f e e break sometime each morning. are completed by 1:10  Lunch begins a t noon and p.m..  c o n t i n u e i n the a f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t y may on the day,  have changed.  Work, s c h o o l and  the mid-day chores  construction  a l t h o u g h the students i n v o l v e d i n each At 4:00  p.m.  work ends and,  depending  e i t h e r the sauna or r e c r e a t i o n p e r i o d b e g i n s .  a f t e r supper and  skills  Shortly  evening chores the evening group s e s s i o n b e g i n s .  I t ' s maximum l e n g t h i s l e f t open but the s e s s i o n seldom l a s t than an hour.  When the group s e s s i o n ends, the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r t  s e s s i o n s b e g i n f o r those  who  are s t i l l  ' on c h a r t s  are not have the r e s t of the evening as f r e e time. must be bed  i n the bunkhouse p r e p a r i n g  by 10:00  longer  p.m.  f o r bed.  The  '.  Those  By 9:30  everyone  r e s i d e n t s are i n  a t which time the power p l a n t i s shut o f f .  day u s u a l l y ends w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r or student r e a d i n g n o v e l o r s h o r t s t o r y as the o t h e r s  who  aloud  The from a  slowly d r i f t i n t o sleep.  T h i s format i s s u r p r i s i n g l y c o n s i s t e n t but by no means i n v a r i a b l e .  94  C o u n s e l l o r s have been known t o s t a y up w e l l p a s t t e n as they q u i e t l y make l a s t minute p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r an o u t - t r i p o r some o t h e r a c t i v i t y , and t h e r e a r e a l s o times when the evening w i l l end w i t h a campfire and weiner r o a s t t h a t l a s t s p a s t the r e g u l a r bedtime. Daytime a c t i v i t y a l s o v a r i e s t o accomodate s p e c i a l g u e s t s , e s s e n t i a l work p r o j e c t s and t r a i n i n g f o r the marathon run, which i n v o l v e s runs o f e i g h t t o twenty m i l e s .  The d a i l y schedules a r e a l l posted on l a r g e sheets o f paper tacked t o the bunkhouse w a l l .  F i g u r e 3.3 :1 approximates  these  schedules w h i l e f i g u r e 3.3:2 summarizes the type o f events t h a t occupy t y p i c a l Camp T r a p p i n g days.  95  F i g u r e 3.3=1  Daily  Schedule  Wake ups: Monday t o Saturday Sunday  6:45  a.m.  7:45 a.m.  f o r those who have t o work  Morning E x e r c i s e : C a l i s t h e n i c s and r u n Monday t o Saturday  7:00 - 8:45  Sunday  No e x e r c i s e  B r e a k f a s t and Chores:  8:00 - 9:10  Morning  9:10 - noon  Activities: Sunday  8:00  10:45  a.m.  a.m.  a.m.  Mid-day meal and chores:  Afternoon  Monday t o Saturday  noon - 1:10 p.m.  Sunday  11:00 - 1:00 p.m.  (Brunch)  Activities: Monday t o Saturday  1:10 - 4:00 p.m.  Sunday: l e i s u r e time  1:00  5:30 p.m.  4:00  5:00 p.m.  (Sauna Day)  4:00  5:30 p.m.  (Recreation Day)  Late Afternoon: Monday t o Saturday  Evening Meal and chores: Monday t o Saturday  Sunday  5:00 - 6:30 p.m.  (Sauna Day)  5:30 - 7:00 p.m.  (Recreation Day)  5:30 - 7:15 p.m.  Evening s e s s i o n , c h a r t s , and l e i s u r e time: From the end o f evening chores t o 9:30 p.m.  96  Q u i e t time and ready f o r bed: All  days  9:30  - 10.;00: p,m.  L i g h t s out and s t o r y time All  days  10:00  p.m.  97  Figure  3_3s2  B a s i c Weekly A c t i v i t i e s  Monday:  Maintainance work S t a f f meeting and s h i f t change Sauna, evening s e s s i o n and c h a r t s  Tuesday:  S c h o o l , c o n t r u c t i o n s k i l l s and maintainance work Recreation,  Wednesday:  evening s e s s i o n ,  charts  S c h o o l , c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s and maintainance work Sauna, evening s e s s i o n and c h a r t s  Thursday:  same as Tuesday  Friday:  Maintainance work Sauna, evening s e s s i o n , c h a r t s , L e v e l I I meeting  Saturday:  A t camp; maintainance and cleanup work, c h a r t s In town; l a u n d r y , r e c r e a t i o n , f r e e time, r e s t a u r a n t , movie  Sunday:  Sleep i n f o r a l l those e a r n i n g s i x t y - e i g h t o r more p o i n t s , maintainance work i n the morning f o r those e a r n i n g l e s s than s i x t y - e i g h t p o i n t s . L e i s u r e time, v i s i t o r s day, s e s s i o n and c h a r t s  98  THE  THERAPEUTIC MILIEU AND TECHNIQUES AT CAMP TRAPPING: 3.4  Bruce Hawkenson has d e s c r i b e d  Camp Trapping's 1971 program  as c o n s i s t i n g o f a blend o f r e c r e a t i o n / p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , o u t t r i p p i n g , hard p h y s i c a l labour, maintainance f u n c t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t r o n g f a m i l y f e e l i n g o r camaraderie Action Training Society s 1  program has expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d  since t h i s i n i t i a l conceptualization. d i s t i n c t subprograms.  Cariboo  One can now i s o l a t e s i x  With t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e a f t e r c a r e home  there w i l l be seven.  The s i x subprograms a r e : o u t - t r i p s ; s c h o o l ;  construction s k i l l s ;  t h e a f t e r c a r e program; the a l t e r n a t e program;  and  t h e core program which i n c l u d e s work, maintainance, c h o r e s ,  the behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n component and t h e d a i l y run. the t o t a l program the s t a f f employ a number o f techniques which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  The  specific  Within therapeutic  i n more d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n  Out-trips  There a r e f i v e types o f o u t - t r i p a t Camp T r a p p i n g : c r o s s country s k i i n g / w i n t e r camping; h i k i n g and backpacking; canoeing, urban s u r v i v a l ( v i s i t s t o l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n  a r e a s ) ; and working  out-trips.  The  f i r s t three o f these t y p e s a r e a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f the  t r a d i t i o n a l wilderness with, o r g a n i z a t i o n s  adventure model t h a t one commonly a s s o c i a t e s  l i k e Outward Bound.  Camp T r a p p i n g , however,  99  i s not a u t h o r i z e d ice  t o i n v o l v e i t s students i n white water canoeing,  c l i m b i n g or rock c l i m b i n g  ropes, r a p p e l l i n g , e t c . . these w i l d e r n e s s and  exciting.  t h a t would n e c e s s i t a t e the use  of  Even without these h i g h r i s k components,  adventure t r i p s are n o r m a l l y q u i t e  challenging  They serve a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g a  v a c a t i o n o r break from the camp r o u t i n e ; development o f team work and  cooperation;  an i n t r o d u c t i o n to and  recreation s k i l l s ;  development o f  providing opportunites  to overcome a v a r i e t y  o f p h y s i c a l and problem s o l v i n g c h a l l e n g e s ; and  e x p l o r a t i o n f o r i t s own  s t a f f and  new  providing  adventure  sake; and p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y  students to i n t e r a c t i n a more c a s u a l and  for  r e l a x e d manner.  As a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , each i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e s about  fifty  pounds o f equipment on h i s back i n c l u d i n g a p e r s o n a l  food  personal  items t h a t  c l o t h i n g and  equipment and  a p o r t i o n o f any  supply,  must be shared by the t h r e e o r f o u r p e r s o n sub-groups i n t o which the t o t a l group i s d i v i d e d f o r s l e e p i n g and The  cooking arrangements.  average o u t - t r i p l a s t from f i v e t o seven days.  A hike  usually  i n v o l v e s three t o f i v e days o f w a l k i n g anywhere from t e n t o twenty m i l e s a day the journey.  and  one  or two  days o f bivoac  or r e s t midway through  Canoe t r i p s f o l l o w a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n .  can f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n but  Ski t r i p s  i s i s more l i k e l y t h a t an i n i t i a l  day  long s k i w i l l take the group to a mountain h o s t e l from which the group v e n t u r e s f o r t h , on day  trips.  Working o u t - t r i p s g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e the s t a f f and some form o f bush, work whether t h a t be brush c l e a r i n g ,  students i n firewood  100 cutting or, i n e a r l i e r years, tree planting. earn some money on these v e n t u r e s .  Students n o r m a l l y  Since 1976, Camp Trapping  has had a s t a n d i n g c o n t r a c t w i t h the Nakusp H o t s p r i n g s t o c l e a r brush and o b t a i n firewood f o r one week each s p r i n g and each autumn. Although t h e group l i v e s i n t e n t s and must prepare t h e i r own meals t h e camp r o u t i n e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e c h a r t system i s maintained throughout the o u t - t r i p .  Urban o u t - t r i p s a r e t h e l e a s t l i k e l y t o occur as they a r e now seen as a type o f reward.  In a d d i t i o n , students must be w i l l i n g  t o work t o earn money t h a t would p a r t i a l l y s u b s i d i z e a t r i p o f t h i s type.  As students must work i n t h e i r f r e e time t o earn  money the urban o u t - t r i p does n o t always o c c u r .  this  When i t does, i t  normally i n v o l v e s a t r i p t o Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Students and s t a f f s t a y a t t h e youth h o s t e l s i n both c i t i e s and take i n a wide v a r i e t y o f events and s i g h t s e e i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Students a r e u s u a l l y  g i v e n f r e e time i n which they q u i c k l y l e a r n t h a t n e g o t i a t i n g a l a r g e c i t y can be as d i f f i c u l t and t r e a c h e r o u s as n e g o t i a t i n g a craggy mountain top.  The School o r Academic Program  The academic program was t h e f i r s t a d d i t i o n t o Hawkenson's i n i t i a l design.  As we have seen, Hawkenson b e l i e v e d i t would  p r o v i d e a l a r g e p a r t o f the 'mental t h a t he f e l t h i s students needed.  c h a l l e n g e ' and involvement I t s importance  o f b a s i c s u r v i v a l s k i l l s was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d .  as a p r o v i d e r  Although t h e r e  101  i s a wide v a r i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , the average student a t Camp T r a p p i n g has been unable t o s u c c e s s f u l l y complete a grade eight education.  A s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y have been c l a s s i f i e d as  functionally i l l i t e r a t e .  One o f the academic program's  aims' i s  thus t o b e g i n t o develop the s t u d e n t s ' b a s i c a r i t h m e t i c and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s to a functional l e v e l .  An i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  l e a r n i n g program c a l l e d VAST i s used f o r t h i s purpose.  modular  I f an  i n d i v i d u a l i s h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , advancement i n t h i s program can be r a p i d .  The L e v e l Two VAST program t h a t i s used can take a  person up t o the end o f grade t e n .  F o r those students who a l r e a d y  have grade t e n , correspondance c o u r s e s a r e used t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r academic development.  Unless a student uses h i s f r e e time t o pursue  these academic c h a l l e n g e s , he w i l l - a t most - p a r t i c i p a t e i n one hundred and seven hours o f academic involvement d u r i n g a f i v e month camp.  Each student i s g i v e n n i n e hours o f i n s t r u c t i o n p e r  week f o r an average o f t h i r t e e n weeks.  Academic It i s ,  advancement i s not t h e main purpose o f the program.  i n s t e a d , on o f i t s b y - p r o d u c t s .  subprogram  The o v e r i d i n g g o a l o f t h i s  i s t o c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g i n  g e n e r a l and s c h o o l i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The VAST program,by p r o v i d i n g  a s e r i e s o f c o n s i s t e n t and f r e q u e n t rewards  (i.e.  successfully  completed modules), a l l o w s many students t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r prolonged p e r i o d o f academic s u c c e s s .  first  The c a s u a l environment,  l i m i t e d s c h o o l hours and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t u t o r i n g a l l h e l p t o make s c h o o l a more e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e .  102  In a d d i t i o n t o the VAST program, the s c h o o l experience has been e n r i c h e d by the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s teacher.  o f each  Depending on t h e i r t r a i n i n g and i n t e r e s t s ,  different  t e a c h e r s have been able t o p r o v i d e s e s s i o n s on g u i t a r p l a y i n g , o r i e n t e r i n g , w i l d e r n e s s s u r v i v a l , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f l o r a and fauna, photography and a v a r i e t y o f c r a f t s and a r t i s t i c  The  endevours.  C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades Program  E s t a b l i s h e d i n September o f 1979, t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s course  i s designed  t o teach the students  such s k i l l s as b a s i c  c a r p e n t r y , masonary, i n s u l a t i o n i n s t a l l a t i o n and some f i n i s h i n g carpentry.  I t i s a l s o designed  t o t e a c h work s k i l l s which i n c l u d e  such t h i n g s as s a f e t y , p u n c t u a l i t y , c o n s i s t e n c y , obeying foreman and proper c a r e o f t o o l s and the w o r k s i t e .  one's  T h i s program's  u l t i m a t e aim i s t o become a s e l f s u f f i c i e n t e n t e r p r i s e t h a t would, through (contract) work be a b l e t o pay f o r i t s own s u p p l i e s and equipment and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s s a l a r y . have been obtained,  Although  some c o n t a c t s  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y has n o t been r e a l i z e d .  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s program has d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d the nature o f work a t Camp Trapping.  P r i o r t o i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , d a i l y work  would almost i n e v i t a b l y be c e n t r e d around firewood supplemented by v a r i o u s maintainance t a s k s . to  cutting,  I t was o f t e n  f i n d enough work f o r a l l the students on any one day.  difficult The  c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s program has p r o v i d e d a c o n s i s t e n t source o f work t h a t i n t r o d u c e s a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f work s k i l l s e a r l i e r work p r o j e c t s .  than  103  The A f t e r c a r e Program  The a f t e r c a r e program has been CATS f i r s t to  c o n s i s t e n t attempt  p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n from Camp T r a p p i n g t o the  community. conducts  I t has f o u r major components.  The a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r  a n e e d s / a t t i t u d e assessment o f each student e a r l y i n each  camp and a g a i n j u s t p r i o r t o g r a d u a t i o n .  While  these assessments  p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e i r purpose i s t o a i d the a f t e r c a r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by  primary  encouraging  the student t o t h i n k about h i s f u t u r e and by p r o v i d i n g a body o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be shared w i t h r e f e r r i n g agents and p a r e n t s . T h i s h e l p s the a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r perform h i s second major f u n c t i o n which i s t o a c t as a l i a s o n or l i n k between each student and the student's community.  The ACC  encourages the  referring  agents and guardians t o t h i n k about the student's f u t u r e and a s s i s t s them and the s t u d e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g a f t e r c a r e p l a n s . i s a l s o the a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  It  conduct  a s i x month and one year follow-up e v a l u a t i o n o f each student. R e f e r r i n g agents must agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s e v a l u a t i o n b e f o r e a student i s accepted i n t o the program. a b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o c u s i n g on the graduates'  The ACC  sends out  attitudes,  a c t i v i t i e s and c u r r e n t s t a t u s , then compiles the r e s u l t s i n t o a p r o f i l e f o r each camp.  F i n a l l y , i t i s the ACC's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c r e a t e and a life  offer  s k i l l s program f o r the students which supplements the  experiential l i f e  s k i l l s o f f e r r e d through the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a t  104  the camp.  T h i s i s broken down f u r t h e r i n t o an a l t e r n a t e  awareness package which i n c l u d e s such, t h i n g s as t r u s t e x e r c i s e s , i n d i v i d u a l and  group problem s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s and a l c o h o l  drug education. awareness.  Another package c o u l d be l a b e l l e d  and  community  T h i s i n v o l v e s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h people from v a r i o u s  walks of l i f e  i n c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s leaders, convicts, victims of  crime and handicapped p e o p l e .  There i s a l s o a j o b - r e a d i n e s s  or  pre-employment package which i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w techniques,  resume w r i t i n g and  job h u n t i n g .  o f v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s , s e r v i c e s and  It involves  tours  e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s , as w e l l  as group d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h employers, union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , employment, a p p r e t i c e s h i p and responsible f o r arranging  school counsellors.  The ACC  and i s also  the t r i a l week home, a time when each  student v i s i t s h i s community w i t h a pre-arranged l i s t o f a f t e r care r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s which he has c o n t r a c t e d t o  fulfill.  The A l t e r n a t e Program  The  a l t e r n a t e program i s Camp T r a p p i n g s means o f p r o v i d i n g 1  i t s e l f w i t h i t s own  isolated  r e s i d e n t i a l program f o r those  don't f i t i n t o Trapping's s o c i e t y . m i l e s i n t o the bush beside  Approximately one  who  and a h a l f  a s m a l l pond, the s t a f f have  constructed  a p i t house, a semi-subterranean d w e l l i n g o f Indian d e s i g n . student  does not  If a  "wish t o p a r t i c i p a t e " i n the camp program he i s  sent t o the p i t house l o c a t i o n where he must c u t wood a l l day prepare h i s own  meals.  Any  number o f students  can be  but one would r a r e l y f i n d more than t h r e e students  sent  and  there  a t the a l t e r n a t e  105 program a t any one  time.  Used p r i m a r i l y i n the f i r s t  two months o f  the program, the student i s accompanied by a c o u n s e l l o r and must s t a y a t the l o c a t i o n f o r a predetermined two main purposes.  l e n g t h of time.  I t removes p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome  I t serves students  from the Trapping Lake s i t e , a l l o w i n g t h e o t h e r students and to  f u n c t i o n more c o m f o r t a b l y .  Secondly,  staff  i t s ruggedness tends t o  h i g h l i g h t the advatages and l u x u r i e s o f the r e g u l a r program.  Perhaps  most i m p o r t a n t l y , i t a l l o w s each student a time t o r e f l e c t on h i s a c t i o n s and  speak a t l e n g t h w i t h one o f the c o u n s e l l o r s on a  on one b a s i s , thus encouraging Hawkenson f e l t was  one  the r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g t h a t  essential.  The Core Program  The  core sub-program i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p o t p o u r r i o f Trapping  a c t i v i t i e s which p r o v i d e a ground o r base t o which a l l the o t h e r subprograms have been a t t a c h e d .  I t i n c l u d e s the morning run, the  sauna, the behaviour management program, chores,  maintainance  f u n c t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n and work.  The  l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t and l e a s t emphasized o f t h i s grouping i s  the r e c r e a t i o n component. lifting  Hawkenson's s t r o n g emphasis on weight  and s p o r t s i s no l o n g e r p r e s e n t a t the camp.  Most o u t -  door s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s , o t h e r than canoeing, h i k i n g , s k i i n g running, tend t o be s o l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s .  and  These are supplemented  by o c c a s i o n a l and c a s u a l games o f f o o t b a l l , hockey and b a s e b a l l . The camp's d e f i n i t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n has been expanded t o i n c l u d e  106  the very p r i v a t e p u r s u i t s o f r e a d i n g and p l a y i n g  solitaire.  Chores and maintainance f u n c t i o n s are a l l those work elements t h a t must be done to ensure the c l e a n l i n e s s , s a f e t y and upkeep o f the camp premises.  Three d a i l y chore times are set a s i d e f o r  the r o u t i n e maintainance f u n c t i o n s which i n c l u d e f i l l i n g a l l the water c o n t a i n e r s , c l e a n i n g the b u i l d i n g s ' f l o o r s and maintaining  the firewood  counters,  and k i n d l i n g s u p p l i e s i n each b u i l d i n g ,  c l e a n i n g the outdoor t o i l e t s and  f e e d i n g the c a t .  Other r o u t i n e  but not d a i l y d u t i e s i n c l u d e sauna p r e p a r a t i o n , c l e a n i n g v e h i c l e s and  grounds maintainance.  the  There i s u s u a l l y always some  minor r e p a i r needed on a t l e a s t one  o f the b u i l d i n g s and,  at  t h e r e are major c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s such as b u i l d i n g a new  times, sauna.  I have i n c l u d e d work i n the sub-program because o f i t s e s s e n t i a l nature above and beyond the c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s and functions.  In otherwords,  maintainance  i f the C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s program d i d  not e x i s t , the camp would want t o and have t o f i n d work f o r i t s students.  Work i s a key  Teaching students  how  component of the camp's  t o work and  major o b j e c t i v e s of the program. searching t o be  for or planning  involved i n .  philosophy.  the joys of work are two  of  the  Consequently, s t a f f are always  a v a r i e t y of work p r o j e c t s f o r the  students  In a sense, the c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s program  the maintainance d u t i e s are subsets  of the core program's work  element.  As we  have a l r e a d y been t o l d , the sauna i s the camp's o n l y  and  107  means o f b a t h i n g .  In t h i s sense, the sauna c o u l d be more  a p p r o p r i a t e l y viewed as one aspect of p e r s o n a l hygiene.  The  nature o f the sauna experience has r a i s e d i t t o a s p e c i a l s t a t u s of  i t s own  however.  I t i s not o n l y a n o v e l form o f b a t h i n g f o r  most students, i t i s a l s o one o f the camp's c h a l l e n g e s .  Immersing  o n e s e l f i n a i c e - c o v e r e d l a k e d u r i n g the w i n t e r months i s a n o v e l and u n a t t r a c t i v e concept.  The  sauna's communal nature tends t o  c r e a t e a n x i e t y f o r the students d u r i n g the f i r s t few weeks o f each camp, y e t e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w s the sauna t o be viewed as an important and enjoyable l e i s u r e time d u r i n g which s t a f f and can r e l a x t o g e t h e r . graduates  students  I t i s one of the two r o u t i n e events t h a t  speak of most o f t e n .  The o t h e r i s the morning run.  F i v e days a week s t a f f  and  students a l i k e must run two m i l e s down the steep d i r t road l e a d i n g to  the camp and then back up f o r a t o t a l of f o u r m i l e s .  difficult  It is a  run because o f the road's steep i n c l i n e and the mandatory  d a i l y nature o f the event.  The run i s o n l y c a n c e l l e d i f the road  i s t r e c h e r o u s l y s l i p p e r y w i t h mud drops below -24 degrees  o r i c e o r i f the  temperature  celsius.  The Behaviour Management Program  The  ' s e l f management' o r ' c h a r t ' system i s camp's behaviour  m o d i f i c a t i o n program.  I t weaves i t s e l f  i n t o every aspect o f camp  l i f e and i s i n i t i a l l y the main i n c e n t i v e f o r the students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Trapping's mandatory a c t i v i t i e s .  108 The o r i g i n a l t a i l o r - m a d e d e s i g n o f t h i s system was p r o v i d e d by a p s y c h o l o g i s t a t P r i n c e George's C o l l e g e o f New C a l e d o n i a . Behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n i s based on the premise t h a t most human behaviour i s l e a r n e d through complex  i n t e r a c t i o n s between an  i n d i v i d u a l and her or h i s s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l Another important assumption i s t h i s t h e o r y ' s  environment.  belief  that  rewarding a behaviour w i l l i n c r e a s e i t s p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c u r r a n c e . The t h e r a p i s t s attempt t o i s o l a t e and a r t i c u l a t e v e r y s p e c i f i c , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r s . of  S u c c e s s f u l completion  t h i s behaviour w i l l r e s u l t i n a reward b e i n g earned by the a c t o r .  I f the rewards a r e c l e a r and r e l e v a n t , and i f the behaviour's d e f i n i t i o n i s c l e a r , the c l i e n t whould choose t o behave i n the d e s i r e d manner.  The behaviour and the reward must be a s s o c i a t e d  c l e a r l y i n a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , and should occur i n c l o s e temporal p r o x i m i t y .  Camp Trapping's c h a r t system o f f e r s rewards f o r every mandatory camp a c t i v i t y . but  i t has now  In i t s i n i t i a l  form i t was q u i t e  e v o l v e d i n t o a more complex  straightforward  f o u r l e v e l system, the  u l t i m a t e aim o f which i s t o e l i m i n a t e the n e c e s s i t y o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o each student.  The performance c h a r t  (Figure  3.4:1)  r e g u l a t e s much o f d a i l y l i f e , a t the i n i t i a l o r z e r o l e v e l o f the behaviour management system.  I f a student performs an  activity  adequately, he has earned the p o i n t o r reward t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d with i t .  Each- student can earn a maximum o f t e n p o i n t s a day.  If  t h i s i s accomplished, he r e c e i v e s an a d d i t i o n a l two p o i n t s .  These  bonus p o i n t s are not connected t o the weekly reward system.  Instead  •j 0 9  F i g u r e 3.4-1  PERFORMANCE CHART Student's Name:  Week o f :  Note: A student s t a r t s the week w i t h 0 points and earns these throughout. He can never lose a p o i n t or have them taken away. He can only earn thern. In the event that a weekly" t o t a l i s 1/2 p o i n t , base the rewards on the next lowest whole number.  Sat. Sun. P c P c  Objective Morning  Mon. pc  Tues. p c  Wed. Thurs. F r i , p c p c p'c  Alert  (1/2) (1/2) = 1 Work/School (1/2 + 1/2) (1/2 + 1/2)  a.m. p.m.  2  Chores (1/2 + 1/2) (1/2 + 1/2) (1/2 + 1/2) •  a.m. ° p.m.  n 0  n  Session and Free Tims Conduct 1/2 Cleanliness 1/2 Rua 1 Punctuality 1 Caretaking 1 Bonus ( 2 X 15c) Daily Total Accumulated Total  Daily  Accumulated Bonus •Points i i Weekly T o t a l p - performance c - conduct  Rewards Earned:  Allowance: Free Time:  110  they are accumulated  over f o u r week segments and can be t r a d e d i n  f o r what i s known a s a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n .  S p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s can be  o f a s t u d e n t ' s c h o o s i n g b u t must be approved  by s t a f f .  of bonus p o i n t s a l s o earns the student t h i r t y c e n t s .  Each p a i r The t o t a l  bonus p o i n t cash accumulation i s g i v e n t o the student a t g r a d u a t i o n along w i t h any o t h e r money he may have earned.  The c o u n s e l l o r o f the day (COD) has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g an acurate r e c o r d i n g o f p o i n t s earned each day.  The j o b  foreman,the t e a c h e r s and the o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r s a l l r e p o r t back t o the COD a f t e r they have determined who has earned s p e c i f i c  points.  I f a p o i n t has not been earned, a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the name o f the person who determined  the ' f a i l u r e t o earn' i s normally  entered on the back o f the c h a r t . Every evening except Saturday, a c o u n s e l l o r w i l l c a l l each student i n t o the bunkhouse o f f i c e t o go over the day's p o i n t s .  D u r i n g the f i r s t few months o f a camp these  c h a r t s e s s i o n s a r e emotion-laden  times.  Students a r e o f t e n aware  of t h e i r p o i n t e a r n i n g s but choose t h i s time t o argue, p r o t e s t o r threaten.  H a l f way through t h e camp the c h a r t s e s s i o n s b e g i n t o  l o o s e some o f t h e i r importance.  Many o f the students may no l o n g e r  be on the c h a r t system o r may be c h a r t e d f o r o n l y one o r two a c t i v i t i e s , having earned t h e i r way o f f a s p e c i f i c c h a r t e d item w i t h two weeks o f adequate performance.  A student can, however,  move back- t o c h a r t s i f h i s behaviour d e t e r i o r a t e s .  In a s i t u a t i o n  such as t h i s the s t r o n g emotional f l a v o u r o f the s e s s i o n s may be recreated.  Some s t u d e n t s and some s t a f f use c h a r t s e s s i o n s as a  time f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g .  I f t h i s i s the case, a c h a r t  Ill  s e s s i o n can l a s t f o r as l o n g as h a l f an hour f o r a p a r t i c u l a r student. of  I t i s one o f the few times t h a t a student can be assured  the u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n o f a c o u n s e l l o r on a one-to-one b a s i s .  Most students p r e f e r t o e i t h e r c o n f i r m o r d i s p u t e t h e i r as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e thus a l l o w i n g themselves the  earnings  more f r e e time i n  evening.  F r i d a y evenings the c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f w i l l t a b u l a t e p o i n t e a r n i n g s f o r the p a s t week and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o t h e a c t u a l  earned  rewards.  The c u r r e n t reward system i s o u t l i n e d i n f i g u r e 3.4:2  The  amount o f money earned has i n c r e a s e d over the years t o m a i n t a i n i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a reward.  The p o s s i b l e e a r n i n g s a r e posted on the  bunkhouse w a l l so t h a t each student i s aware o f e x a c t l y what i s available.  The reward system's c l a r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y  i s complmented by  the c l a r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y o f the d e f i n i t i o n s o f adequate performance for  each c h a r t e d a c t i v i t y and chore.  A p o s t e r o u t l i n i n g the  performance d e f i n i t i o n s i s tacked t o one o f the c o u n s e l l o r bunkbeds. Bunkhouse and schoolhouse  chores a r e o u t l i n e d on a p o s t e r i n the  bunkhouse's mud porch w h i l e a p o s t e r d e f i n i n g k i t c h e n chores i s afixed to a kitchen wall.  Figure  3.4':3 and 3.4:4 a r e c o p i e s o f these p o s t e r s .  As can be seen, each chore and each c h a r t e d area i s p r o v i d e d w i t h  F i g u r e 3.4 :2 Allowance  Chart System Rewards  -  0  .40*  .80$  69  70  P o i n t s Needed-68 Bonus P o i n t s -  1.20  1.60  2.00  2.40  2.80  3.20  3.60  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  4.00 78-84  .15* p e r p o i n t , r e c e i v e d a t graduation  Non-monetary rewards: P o i n t s Needed 78-84  - T r i p to town on Saturday i n c l u d i n g : r e c r e a t i o n o r gym a t c o u n s e l l o r ' s d i s c r e t i o n ,  laundry, H  (— 1  McDonalds, t h e a t r e .  w  - Sleep i n on Sunday morning. 73-77  - Sleep i n on Sunday.  69-72  - Only allowance earned.  Freetime i n town: Special  Earned by e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u s t w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s ; not t i e d t o c h a r t system.  Functions:  Bonus P o i n t s Needed 1st  4 c o n s e c u t i v e weeks o f 12 bonus p o i n t s per week  = 48 bonus p o i n t s  2nd  4 c o n s e c u t i v e weeks c o n t a i n i n g a niminum t o t a l o f  =52  3rd  4 c o n s e c u t i v e weeks c o n t a i n i n g a minimum t o t a l o f  = 56 bonus p o i n t s  S p e c i a l Functions  bonus p o i n t s  cannot be home v i s i t s and must be c o u n s e l l o r approved.  113  Performance Charts - D e f i n i t i o n s  Bed made, c l o s e t c l e a n and t i d y . Dressed and ready f o r run and/or c a l i s t e n i c s (No smoking u n t i l a f t e r run and/or c a l i s t e n i c s ) . Being on time as d a i l y schedule d e s i g n a t e s . Being on time as c o u n s e l l o r d e s i g n a t e s . Sauna - soap body / h a i r - r i n c e body / h a i r jump i n t o l a k e A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e and complete a s s i g n e d i n a l l o t t e d time.  tasks  A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e and complete a s s i g n e d t a s k s i n time a l l o t t e d . Complete f o u r m i l e run non-stop i n a l l o t t e d time (masimum 45 minutes) A c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n designated r e c r e a t i o n . Proper storage and maintainence o f a l l work, s c h o o l and r e c r e a t i o n equipment (or o t h e r equipment as d e s i g n a t e d by c o u n s e l l o r s ) . Complete chores i n a l l o t t e d time as d e f i n e d on chore c h a r t .  114 F i g u r e 3.4 4 :  BROOM HILDA  Chore Chart  :  Definitions  Sweep bunkhouse f l o o r so no l i n e i s found i n a s i n g l e sweep. Put brooms and dust pan i n proper p l a c e .  HYDROLOGIST  :  The f o l l o w i n g water p a i l s must be f u l l t o l i n e : 1. Bunkhouse - stove wash water - d r i n k i n g water c o n t a i n e r (must by s t r a i n e d ) 2.  K i t c h e n - hot water c o n t a i n e r - c o l d water c o n t a i n e r - wipe o f f a l l counters and f l o o r of s p i l t water - hange up water c a r r y i n g p a i l s  FIRE BUG  :  Bunkhouse b i n f u l l t o l i n e K i n d l i n g i n box f u l l t o l i n e Make and m a i n t a i n bunkhouse f i r e when needed Put away axe  LAVORATORY TECHNICIAN  :  Two r o l l s o f t o i l e t paper i n out-house Sweep out-house f l o o r Wipe seats w i t h p i n e s o l - once a day ( a f t e r supper) Clean wash b a s i n s i n bunkhouse Top counter, t i d y and wiped c l e a n Put away a l l c l e a n i n g m a t e r i a l i n d e s i g n a t e d area.  SANITARY ENGINEER  :  Empty k i t c h e n s l o p p a i l when needed - a t l e a s t once a day. Wash s l o p p a i l once a day a f t e r supper Sweep k i t c h e n f l o o r and a l l porches Shake out a l l rugs Empty and r e p l a c e f u l l garbage bags when needed - a t l e a s t once a day.  :  Wash a l l d i s h e s , p o t s , pan, u t e n s i l s , e t c . Clean out s i n k s and b a s i n s - wipe down counter top around s i n k . Note: be sure t o p u t one camp o f b l e a c h i n wash, water.  KITCHEN HELP: Washer  115  Figure  3.4:4  continued  Dryer  Dry a l l d i s h e s , p o s t , pans, u t e n s i l s , e t c . Put away a l l d i s h e s , p o t s , e t c . Put away a l l condiments from e a t i n g t a b l e s . Wash and d r y a l l e a t i n g t a b l e s and benches. Hang d r y i n g towels i n proper p l a c e .  KITCHEN DUTY  A s s i s t cook i n d e s i g n a t e d task when needed. Put away a l l l e f t o v e r food a f t e r each meal i n designated p l a c e . Set t a b l e s f o r each meal. Clean stove g r i l l when needed. Clean counters where food i s prepared and served.  CAMP DUTIES  Feed c a t Sweep s c h o o l - r e c r e a t i o n room f l o o r a f t e r breakfast. Do e x t r a t a s k s d e s i g n a t e d by c o u n s e l l o r .  JOB  Check each, and a l l chores a f t e r every meal and r e p o r t t o c o u n s e l l o r o f the day o n l y .  FOREMAN  PLEASE NOTE  Each day ( i n t h e morning) one c o u n s e l l o r should be d e s i g n a t e d C o u n s e l l o r o f the day. That c o u n s e l l o r w i l l then be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r checking a l l chores throughout the day and marking c h a r t s . Job foreman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e p o r t i n g chores t o d e s i g n a t e d C o u n s e l l o r o f the day.  F i g u r e 3.4:5  Conduct Code  You can earn t h i s p o i n t by behaving i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner t o those you.  around  I f you v e r b a l l y o r p h y s i c a l l y abuse ( i . e . swear a t , h i t o r c a l l down) o t h e r s  then you w i l l be expected t o d i s c u s s the matter i n a calm manner w i t h i n a s h o r t time and t o a p o l i g i z e i f necessary.  You may not agree w i t h a person, o r w i t h t h e i r  a c t i o n s but swearing o r f i g h t i n g i s not an a p p r o p r i a t e response.  You may earn h a l f  a work p o i n t f o r doing the job you are supposed t o do but may not earn the o t h e r h a l f i f you swear a t someone, e t c . .  On the other hand, you may earn your  p o i n t f o r being c i v i l t o o t h e r s but not earn the performance complete  the t a s k .  conduct  p o i n t i f you do not  117  a d e f i n i t i o n t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o measure.  Students have  no d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding these d e f i n i t i o n s a f t e r one two weeks o f d i r e c t involvement with, the t a s k s a t hand. are however, some grey areas open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  or  There  Performance  a t work and s c h o o l , although d e f i n e d as 'completing r e q u i r e d t a s k ' i s o f t e n m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w f o r those people who b e s t t o complete  have t r i e d  the t a s k but have been unable t o do so.  their The  conduct p o i n t i s even more s u b j e c t i v e a l t h o u g h e v e r y attempt i s made t o make i t as c l e a r as p o s s i b l e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t does o f f e r  supervisory l a t i t u d e i n i t s administration.  Outline i n Figure  3.-:5  the conduct p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n i s a l s o tacked'-to the""bunkhouse w a l l .  The camp's behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n c h a r t system operates on the p r i n c i p a l o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t , complimenting emphasis on the ' p o s i t i v e ' i n a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e .  the camp's  Negative  r e i n f o r c e m e n t and punishment are b e l i e v e d t o be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . Consequently,  s t a f f are a d v i s e d t o ' l e t the c h a r t s do the work'  C s t a f f p o l i c y manual, s e c t i o n 2, page t h r e e ) .  Rather than c a j o l e  o r c r i t i c i z e a student c o n c e r n i n g inadequate performance, t o l d t o comment o n l y on the s u c c e s s f u l l y completed  s t a f f are  charted areas.  The unearned p o i n t s are c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e f f e c t i v e reminder needed improvement without any v e r b a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n from the  Students must be f r e q u e n t l y reminded earned and never taken away.  t h a t p o i n t s are  'x'".  staff.  always  C o u n s e l l o r s a r e c a r e f u l t o say  f a i l e d t o earn "x" as opposed t o "you l o s t  of  "You  This d i s t i n c t i o n  appears t o be too s u b t l e f o r many o f the s t u d e n t s .  I f the students  118  b e l i e v e they have been g i v e n the p o i n t s as a r i g h t , then l o o s e them f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour, the system i s transformed  from  one o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t t o one o f punishment.  The  c h a r t system i s designed t o ensure the s t u d e n t s ' e f f e c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d a i l y r o u t i n e s . a new  I f administered  consistently,  camp w i l l be running smoothly i n a month as f a r as i t s b a s i c  maintainance  i s concerned.  The c h a r t system, a t t h i s l e v e l , i s not  designed t o d e a l w i t h the s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l problems and developmental  needs o f each i n d i v i d u a l .  I t does however p r o v i d e  tone, s e t t i n g and a c l e a r l y understood p a t t e r n on which o t h e r t h e r a p e u t i c techniques can  rest.  On r a r e o c c a s i o n s , an i n d i v i d u a l student's c h a r t may A student who  has a p a r t i c u l a r i l y troublesome  e x c e s s i v e swearing o r a g g r e s i v e n e s s may added o r s u b s t i t u t e d . have t o earn a d a i l y  have a new  e.g.  c h a r t e d area  I t i s p o s s i b l e then, t h a t a student  'politeness p o i n t  p r o v i d e d by the s t a f f .  behaviour,  be m o d i f i e d .  1  may  based on a d e f i n i t i o n  T h i s type o f m o d i f i c a t i o n i s r a r e and  w i t h c a u t i o n as s t a f f must a v o i d c h a r t i n g an unmeasureable  handled  behaviour  or one which, would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e a l t h w i t h by the c h a r t system.  The  s t a f f ' s u l t i m a t e aim i s t o have each, student transcend  c h a r t ' s zero base and a t t a i n L e v e l I I o r beyond.  the  As a student  p r o g r e s s e s t h e i r w i l l be c h a r t e d areas i n which- the student  excells.  A f t e r two weeks o f e a r n i n g p e r f e c t p o i n t s i n these a r e a s , the  119  student i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d t o earn the p o i n t s i n q u e s t i o n . i s assumed t h a t he has i n t e r n a l i z e d then out o f h a b i t o r d e s i r e .  the behaviours and w i l l  It  perform  E v e n t u a l l y ( i t i s hoped) a student  w i l l r e a c h t h i s p o i n t i n every a r e a .  When t h i s o c c u r s f o r two  c o n s e c u t i v e weeks the student has reached L e v e l I, be b o t h a t r a n s i s t i o n a l phase or an end r e s u l t .  L e v e l I can  In order t o  t r a n s c e n d i t , a student must m a i n t a i n h i s p e r f e c t p o i n t r e c o r d f o r an a d d i t i o n a l two weeks and c r e a t e a p e r s o n a l development p l a n t h a t o u t l i n e s s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r a l problems he e x h i b i t s and v a r i o u s means he w i l l employ t o e l i m i n a t e them. h e l p the students w i t h t h i s t a s k .  the  Counsellors often  At the end o f two weeks, the  student p r e s e n t s h i s c o n t r a c t t o the Monday s t a f f meeting a t which time L e v e l I I s t a t u s w i l l be granted i f everyone i s i n agreement w i t h the c o n t r a c t .  A student a t L e v e l I i s s a i d t o be a t the s e l f management stage. H i s rewards are automatic but are s t i l l  t i e d t o the c h a r t system.  He r e c e i v e s a warning on any c h a r t e d a c t i v i t y the f i r s t time i n any g i v e n week t h a t he f a i l s t o perform adequately i n t h a t a r e a . The  second  time t h i s o c c u r s he i s p l a c e d back on c h a r t s f o r t h a t  a c t i v i t y and must perform p e r f e c t l y t o earn h i s way  off.  f o r another two weeks i n o r d e r  I f a student gets a t o t a l o f t h r e e warnings  a week, spread throughout  a l l the c h a r t e d a r e a s , he goes back on  c h a r t s f o r every a r e a i n which he has r e c e i v e d a warning.  By  the  time a student has reached L e v e l I I he i s o b v i o u s l y q u i t e adept a t managing adequate performance i n t h e c h a r t e d a r e a s . I, each student i s g i v e n h i s own  While on L e v e l  c h a r t on which he r e c o r d s what he  120  t h i n k s he has earned.  T h i s i s then compared w i t h the s t a f f  records  each evening.  L e v e l I I i s f u r t h e r removed from the c h a r t system. I I student  A Level  i s not p u t back on c h a r t s i n t h e same manner as  d e s c r i b e d above.  Instead,  each L e v e l I I member monitors and  r e c o r d s h i s and h i s f e l l o w member's behaviour throughout the week.  On F r i d a y evenings t h e r e i s a L e v e l I I meeting which a l l o w s  special  priveledges l i k e hot chocolate  During t h i s meeting each student  and smoking i n the k i t c h e n .  presents h i s evaluation of h i s  week's performance and s t a t e s whether o r n o t he b e l i e v e s he has earned f u l l rewards. impressions  o f h i s behaviour.  rewards t o be granted. allowed  Other L e v e l I I members then comment on t h e i r  t o vote.  F i n a l l y , a l l p r e s e n t vote on any  One s t a f f member i s always p r e s e n t  In order  and i s  f o r a v o t e t o pass i t must be unanimous.  L e v e l I I members a l s o share t h e i r c o n t r a c t s w i t h each o t h e r and c r i t i q u e performance based on these p e r s o n a l i z e d g o a l s . can be w i t h e l d o r reduced i f i t i s d e c i d e d l i v e d up t o h i s c o n t r a c t .  Rewards  t h a t a member has not  E n t r y i n t o and e x i t from L e v e l I I a r e  not determined by the members b u t by the s t a f f . I f a L e v e l I I ' s a t t i t u d e i s not c o n s i d e r e d lesser  appropriate  he can be demoted t o a  s t a t u s , although once a g a i n , the demotion would be  d e s c r i b e d as a f a i l u r e t o earn the p r i v e l e d g e o f s t a y i n g a t L e v e l II.  As L e v e l I I members a r e supposed t o be examples t o o t h e r  non-charted i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour can be anything considered  students,  that i s not  s u p p o r t i v e o r r e f l e c t i v e o f the camp's i d e o l o g y .  121  L e v e l I I members can a l s o b e promoted t o L e v e l I I I . III  Level  i s , i n e f f e c t , a : j u n i o r c o u n s e l l o r p o s i t i o n and o n l y two  students  have as y e t earned t h i s s t a t u s .  The primary p r e r e q u i s i t e  f o r L e v e l I I I i s evidence o f l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y coupled a b i l i t y to maintain Camp Trapping  a good r a p p o r t w i t h b o t h students  w i t h an  and s t a f f .  s t a f f have n o t y e t developed the L e v e l I I I s t a t u s  t o t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n as n e i t h e r i t s rewards nor i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been c l e a r l y  defined.  A t t a i n i n g any l e v e l i s no guarantee t h a t one w i l l s t a y During my f i v e week s t a y a t Trapping  Lake, one student  there.  was demoted  from L e v e l I I because o f a temper tantrum he threw i n l e a r n i n g t h a t his  f r e e time f o r the next town v i s i t was t o be revoked.  Consistently  a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour i s the o n l y sure means o f a v o i d i n g demotion.  Camp Trapping  does n o t c o n s i d e r the c h a r t system t o be i t s  most e f f e c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l a l t h o u g h i t i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n s i s t e n t and a c c e p t a b l e the camp.  standard  however.  There a r e t h r e e  t h e r a p e u t i c approaches t h a t Camp Trapping  attempt t o go beyond t h i s minimum  Other Recognized Therapeutic  Modeling  patterns at  Success w i t h the c h a r t system e s t a b l i s h e s o n l y t h e  minimum b e h a v i o u r a l recognized  behavioural  invaluable  standard.  Techniques  other  uses i n an  122  The s t a f f p o l i c y manual i n c l u d e s modeling  as p a r t o f the  b e h a v i o u r a l management t e c h n i q u e s the camp uses.  Modeling  also  r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o Hawkenson's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s should be i d e a l images o f s u c c e s s f u l people who's a c t i o n s match t h e i r words. C o u n s e l l o r s are admonished t o never ask a student t o do something they themselves to how  would not do.  They are not t o t e l l  students what  do but i n s t e a d are t o show by a c t i o n and involvement what and t o do i t .  T h i s i n v o l v e s a l l aspects o f camp  life.  S t a f f s l e e p i n the same room as the s t u d e n t s , run each morning w i t h the s t u d e n t s , work s i d e by s i d e w i t h the students and by the same camp r u l e s as the s t u d e n t s . personal interactions.  abide  This a l s o holds f o r i n t e r -  S t a f f are c o n s t a n t l y aware o f t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r s t a f f and the students i n a manner t h a t e x e m p l i f i e s the advocated honesty  and c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  v a l u e s of s h a r i n g , empathy,  S t a f f must a l s o show t h a t they accept  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s even i f t h i s means b e i n g a b l e t o admit they are wrong and capable of e r r i n g .  In  g e n e r a l , t h i s approach i s taken f o r two d i f f e r e n t  reasons.  On the one hand i t i s i n s p i r e d by Hawkenson's 'do unto o t h e r s as you would have them do unto you' apprach.  On the other hand, as  a tenant o f a t h e r a p e u t i c regime, t h i s approach i s seen t o p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t example o f a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour which students can observe, experiment  w i t h o r mimic.  There i s v e r y l i t t l e w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n i n the t r a i n i n g  123  manual which d e a l s with, modeling.  Instead i t has the s t a t u r e o f  a fundamental, almost s a c r o s a n c t , c o n v e n t i o n .  It i s intimately  connected with, p e r s o n a l i t y requirements deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r employment a t Camp Trapping and as such i s almost viewed as a n a t u r a l r a t h e r than a t h e o r e t i c a l t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l . must 'have i t '  Reality  or ' l i v e i t '  as opposed  A counsellor  t o employing i t .  Therapy  R e a l i t y Therapy i s a t h e r a p e u t i c model designed by W i l l i a m G l a s e r . 1.  I t begins w i t h the assumption t h a t a l l people need t o  be lsived and t o l o v e , and need t o f e e l worthwhile t o themselves and o t h e r s .  I t a l s o assumes t h a t we need a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y .  A ' f a i l u r e i d e n t i t y ' r e s u l t s from a person's i n a b i l i t y to a c t i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner as d e f i n e d by t h a t person's c o n t e x t .  A 'success  i d e n t i t y ' i s developed by a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e involvement w i t h one's environment.  A person should be a b l e t o accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s o r her a c t i o n s and thus be a b l e t o accept the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e consequences  o f these a c t i o n s .  In s h o r t , a person must b e l i e v e  t h a t h i s o r her a c t i o n s a f f e c t the environment. are not t o l e r a t e d i n R e a l i t y Therapy.  V i c t i m stances  There are b a s i c  principles  involved.  The f i r s t i s t h a t e v e r y person needs involvement and i n t i m a c y with others.  C l i e n t s o r students must f e e l they are important  124 t o the t h e r a p i s t .  They must f e e l t h a t he or she cares f o r them and  believes i n their potential.  Although t h i s i s a necessary  r e q u i s i t e , i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t . can o n l y occur when one the one  t h a t i s cared  demander can be actions.  pre-  True c a r i n g , i n G l a s s e r ' s  opinion,  i s w i l l i n g to demand r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n from  for.  T h i s can o n l y be done however i f the  seen to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s or her  own  T h i s means t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r must accept s c r u t i n y  c r i t i q u e from the c o u n s e l l e d .  Ther terms o f t h i s c a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  must a l s o be c l e a r l y established.' f r i e n d s h i p and  and  S t a f f must be honest w i t h t h e i r  e x p l a i n t h a t i t s l i m i t s are d e f i n e d by t h e i r job  as  therapists.  R e a l i t y t h e r a p i s t s do not d w e l l on or d i g i n t o the p a s t . the c o n t r a r y , they a v o i d or d i s c o u r a g e c o n v e r s a t i o n  about p a s t  f a i l u r e s or i r r e s p o n s i b l e behaviour, p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d concentrate  on the p r e s e n t  and  the d e s i r e d f u t u r e .  On  to  In keeping with  t h i s second p r i n c i p l e , c o u n s e l l o r s attempt t o work w i t h a c t i o n s or behaviours, as opposed t o f e e l i n g s . performs b e t t e r  ( i . e . responsibly)  They b e l i e v e t h a t when a person  they w i l l then f e e l b e t t e r .  Although a R e a l i t y T h e r a p i s t w i l l not deny t h a t p a s t events have l e d to p r e s e n t  behaviours, he or she b e l i e v e s t h a t the p e r s o n must  not d w e l l on the p a s t . choice  Instead,  he must r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s h i s  to a c t as he does i n the p r e s e n t  and  as such, i t i s w i t h i n  h i s a b i l i t y t o choose s u c c e s s f u l behaviours r e g a r d l e s s of what  has  gone b e f o r e .  Once a student has r e a l i z e d t h i s and  once he has developed a  125  warm, p e r s o n a l involvement  w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r , he i s ready t o  begin e v a l u a t i n g h i s own behaviour.  A c o u n s e l l o r should n o t  preach- o r m o r a l i z e b u t c o n c e n t r a t e i n s t e a d on p o i n t i n g out v a r i o u s behaviours and t h e i r consequences, then h e l p the student t o d e c i d e which o f these a r e the most e f f e c t i v e and h e l p f u l .  F i n a l l y , t h e ^ c o u n s e l l o r and student can begin t o p l a n t o g e t h e r . The student can now commit h i m s e l f o r ' c o n t r a c t ' t o achieve  certain  performance standards o r behaviours, ones he has chosen h i m s e l f . At t h i s p o i n t , the c o u n s e l l o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o agree t o h o l d the student t o h i s promises.  She must n o t accept excuses o r  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s b u t f o c u s i n s t e a d on whether o r n o t the p l a n s a r e being put i n t o a c t i o n .  C o u n s e l l o r s are t o be t e n a c i o u s i n t h e i r  e f f o r t s t o ensure t h a t a student f u l f i l l s h i s committment t o himself.  One can see a s i m i l a r i t y here w i t h the behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n  program's l e v e l system.  The c o u n s e l l o r must never p u n i s h , c a j o l e o r f o r c e  compliance.  He o r she must r e l y on a system o f n a t u r a l o r l o g i c a l consequences t h a t a r e c l e a r l y s p e l l e d o u t and understood process.  as p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g  In t h i s way, the student begins t o see he has a c h o i c e  of a c t i o n s , each w i t h i t s own r e s u l t r e g a r d l e s s o f the f e e l i n g s o r a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n o f the c o u n s e l l o r .  T h i s i s o n l y a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f the p e r s p e c t i v e and techniques of R e a l i t y Therapy.  I b e l i e v e i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e us w i t h  some i d e a o f the focus- and themes i t c r e a t e s .  The Camp Trapping  126  s t a f f manual m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s the major t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l  Cpage  12\ and p r o v i d e s a f o u r t e e n page summary o f i t s p r i n c i p l e s and practice.  I t ' s major themes appear t o be as f o l l o w s : develop a  warm p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ; accept r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r your a c t i o n s and t h e i r consequences; an i n d i v i d u a l always has c h o i c e ; and c o n c e n t r a t e on d o i n g o r ' a c t i n g ' i n t h e p r e s e n t .  P o s i t i v e Peer C u l t u r e  P o s i t i v e Peer C u l t u r e (PPC) Trapping m i l i e u .  i s a new a d d i t i o n t o the Camp  I n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c group  therapy o r problem s o l v i n g d e s i g n developed  by Harry H. V o r r a t h  and L a r r y K. Brendtro. 2.  Before b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g what i t e n t a i l s , i t must be noted t h a t Camp Trapping has always r e c o g n i z e d t h e importance o f peer i n f l u e n c e and has attempted t o c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e peer c u l t u r e simply through d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n and involvement.  PPC however  p r o v i d e s a systematic group p r o c e s s i n which, t h i s can be developed, a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f which now shapes the camp's evening s e s s i o n s .  I t must be noted t h a t t h e r e a r e no CATS s t a f f w i t h e x t e n s i v e formal t r a i n i n g i n e i t h e r R e a l i t y Therapy o r PPC.  The camp's  p r e s e n t d i r e c t o r and one o f i t ' s c o u n s e l l o r s have e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n psychology, techniques.  e s p e c i a l l y i n respect to conditioning  F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the o t h e r t h e r a p i e s i s the r e s u l t  o f s h o r t workshops o r e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g o r on-the-job  training.  127  In r e s p e c t t o PPC, another B.C.  two of the p r e s e n t CATS s t a f f have worked a t  w i l d e r n e s s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program which uses  and the CATS s t a f f have had one PPC workshop.  PPC,  S t a f f o f t e n mention  t h e i r d e s i r e t o have more s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n these a r e a s .  PPC  i s based on the assumption  t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t peer group  i s the s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l group a f f e c t i n g a d o l e s c e n t behaviour. I t p r o v i d e s a system t h a t i s intended t o strengthen an i n f o r m a l p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e or t r a n s f o r m a n e g a t i v e t o a p o s i t i v e  influence.  L i k e R e a l i t y Therapy, i t assumes t h a t the  i s more  important than the  'here and now'  'then and t h e r e ' and t h a t each person needs t o  be accepted by o t h e r s and deserves acceptance.  Although  aggresive  a t t a c k s on and exposure of an i n d i v i d u a l i s avoided, i t emphasises t r u s t and openess i n d i s c u s s i n g and p r e s e n t i n g problems and maint a i n s t h a t c h a l l e n g e i s e s s e n t i a l i f behaviour  i s t o be  altered.  V o r r a t h and Brendtro b e l i e v e t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s are i n a limbo, caught between c h i l d and a d u l t s t a t u s w i t h no v a l i d r o l e or credibility.  T h e i r system i s designed t o a l l o w a d o l e s c e n t s an  a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n h e l p i n g o t h e r s cope w i t h problems and succeed i n the world. a d o l e s c e n t s t h e i r own  They m a i n t a i n t h a t t h i s system shows p o t e n t i a l and encourages them t o s t r i v e f o r  greatness r a t h e r than acquiese t o a u t h o r i t y .  There i s an u n d e r l y i n g v a l u e which, the PPC impart.  c r e a t o r s wish t o  They b e l i e v e t h a t a n y t h i n g which, h u r t s a person i s wrong  and t h a t we  are a l l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r i n g f o r one another.  3.  128  The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f PPC i s t o make c a r i n g f a s h i o n a b l e w h i l e a t the same time p r o v i d i n g an e f f e c t i v e group problem s o l v i n g model. Modeling  c a r i n g behaviour and r e l a b e l l i n g c a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e  two o f i t s p r i n c i p a l  techniques.  The c r e a t o r s o f PPC p r o v i d e a v e r y s p e c i f i c format f o r the p r o c e s s which they b e l i e v e , should be r i d g i d l y adhered  to.  It i s  a group p r o c e s s w i t h the group t o meet f i v e times a week f o r approx i m a t e l y an hour and a h a l f each s e s s i o n .  There should be o n l y  one group l e a d e r whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o p r o v i d e the ground r u l e s , d i r e c t the c o n v e r s a t i o n through s u b t l e q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r than p e r s i s t e n t c o n t r o l , ensure t h a t the r u l e s a r e f o l l o w e d , and p r o v i d e a summary o f t h e s e s s i o n s events.  In a sense, he o r she i s a c h a i r -  person who i s t o p r o v i d e s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than c o n t e n t , which, should be p r o v i d e d by the a d o l e s c e n t s . s p a t i a l arrangement horseshoe  Formal PPC i s s e t up i n a s p e c i f i c  (horseshoe o f c h a i r s w i t h the open end o f the  p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d by t h e c h a i r p e r s o n ' s c h a i r and t a b l e )  i n a room t h a t w i l l p r o t e c t the group from o u t s i d e d i s t r a c t i o n s . The group should n o t be co-ed,  and the s t u d e n t s a r e t o accept  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the problem s o l v i n g .  A meeting begins w i t h a review o f a l l the known problems and attempted  r e s o l u t i o n s which the group has d e a l t w i t h .  Afterwards  new problems o r c o n t i n u i n g i s s u e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and the group v o t e s on which, one i t w i l l d e a l w i t h t h a t evening.  The r e s t o f the time,  save f o r a t e n minute slimming up p e r i o d , i s spent c l a r i f y i n g the problem and e x p l o r i n g s o l u t i o n s .  129  PPC membership i s open ended. members can graduate  New  members are chosen by s t a f f but  from the group o n l y a f t e r the group has  d e c i d e d t h a t they are ready t o l e a v e . PPC  I t s creators maintain  the  takes a minimum o f f o u r months f o r i t t o have an e f f e c t on a  delinquent population.  I d e a l l y the group members should and  are  encouraged t o continue t h e i r p o s i t i v e problem s o l v i n g o u t s i d e o f the formal meetings.  They a r e expected  t o b e g i n t o a c t as p o s i t i v e  peer i n f l u e n c e s i n the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e .  V o r r a t h and Brendtro  call  t h i s a p r a c t i c a l t h e r a p e u t i c approach based on c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e as opposed t o t h e o r e t i c a l concepts.  They go on t o say t h a t a person  can o n l y l e a r n the techniques by exposure t o and p r a c t i s e o f i t . 4.  Much more c o u l d be s a i d about a l l these t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e s . I have l e f t out most o f the d e t a i l e d r a t i o n a l e and o p e r a t i n g methods for  each.  The b r i e f Sketches p r o v i d e d do, however, p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e  o u t l i n e o f t h e i r major assumptions and  We  objectives.  can see common threads running t h r o u g h them a l l .  Each,  t h e r a p e u t i c technique i s p r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d and concerned with- a c t i o n s or own  behaviour as opposed t o f e e l i n g s or thoughts. way  Each one  in i t s  demands t h a t the students a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r  actions.  Each therapy a l s o p r o v i d e s i t s own compliments the other t h e r a p i e s .  unique c o n t r i b u t i o n which  The c h a r t systems p r o v i d e s  p r a c t i s e i n f u l f i l l i n g a c o n s i s t e n t r o u t i n e and ensures t h a t a minimum standard o f p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g i s m a i n t a i n e d .  130  Modeling p r o v i d e s a t a n g i b l e and obserable m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f behaviour attached t o , or as a p a r t o f , a r e s p e c t e d and  appropriate  intimate  other.  R e a l i t y therapy p r o v i d e s a clear:: t h e o r e t i c a l model which can be used to apply a j u d i c i o u s combination of l o v e and a demand f o r action.  I t emphasizes t h a t a person's a c t i o n s r e s u l t from t h a t  person's own  c h o i c e , an emphasis t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  places  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i o n s on the a c t o r while p r o v i d i n g t h a t person w i t h the awareness t h a t he or she can e f f e c t h i s or her own I t a l s o suggests the c o n t r a c t i n g system a t use  life.  i n the program.  F i n a l l y , PPC p r o v i d e s Camp Trapping w i t h i t s f i r s t c o n s i s t e n t model o f c o n s c i e n t i o u s s h a r i n g among p e e r s .  As Hawkenson has  noted, ' s h a r i n g success w i t h o t h e r s ' was  the one  i d e o l o g y t h a t he found d i f f i c u l t t o teach. as y e t , a t l e a s t p r o v i d e s a group therapy and  c a r i n g as i t s primary o b j e c t i v e s .  Trapping s 1  PPC,  already  aspect o f h i s although  d e s i g n t h a t has  Without advocating  unproven sharing or r e j e c t i n g  i d e o l o g y and methods one must a t l e a s t admit t h a t i t  shows i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y .  As we  examine Trapping's  value  we w i l l begin t o see a c o n s i s t e n c y between the methods we i n t r o d u c e d to and  the value system i t promotes.  system  have been  131  CAMP TRAPPING VALUES - WRITTEN: 3.5  As we have seen, a r i t e o f passage can be viewed as a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s which attempts  t o bond i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e dominant  v a l u e s and behaviours o f a g i v e n c u l t u r e .  I t attempts  t o do so by  r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n j u e c t i n g meaning and purpose i n t o everyday  In  life.  t h e r i t u a l s o f p r e l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s , myth i s o f t e n t h e  e x e g e t i c m o d a l i t y embodying d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i n g s as they came to  be and as they must be; they p r o v i d e a b e g i n n i n g and a r a t i o n a l e  of  s o r t s f o r t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f system o f a c u l t u r e .  l i t e r a t e , cosmopolitan and mobile or  In  s o c i e t i e s myth i s o f t e n  overshadowed by d o c t r i n a i r e o r dogma.  superseded  Our v a l u e s a r e c a r r i e d i n  a more l i n e a r and l e s s m e t e p h o r i c a l f a s h i o n . 1.  Camp Trapping as a  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program i s , i n e f f e c t , a r e - s o c i a l i z a t i o n program and as such i s v e r y much concerned in  with values education p a r t i c u l a r i l y  r e s p e c t t o t h e i r enactment i n everyday  life.  One can f i n d a c l e a r  d o c t r i n e o r i d e o l o g y i n t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s Trapping has produced. Before r e v i e w i n g these however, i t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o b r i e f l y examine the i d e o l o g y o f the Outward Bound movement, an o t h e r program with, s i m i l a r g o a l s and methods.  The Outward Bound Ideology  Outward Bound has been d e f i n e d as ".,.. an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l develops  self-  132 confidence, concern for others and s e l f awareness i n the broad scheme of things when confronted by challenging, shared experience and adventure".  2.  This theme i s based on the following assumptions: -  one reveres l i f e for having experienced i t i n r e a l , dramatic terms, from such experience one learns to respect s e l f , from respect for s e l f flows compassion for others, compassion f o r others i s best expressed i n service to mankind. 3.  Like Outward Bound, Camp Trapping believes that an exciting and demanding wilderness environment provides the most effective and least complex context i n which these p r i n c i p l e s can be experi e n t i a l l y learned.  Unlike Outward Bound, Trapping offers i t s  program only to teenage boys who have run afoul of the Canadian legal system.  Trapping thus maintains that an Outward Bound - l i k e  experience can or should end or reduce an individual's p r o c l i v i t y to break the law or act i n an a n t i - s o c i a l manner.  Camp Trapping has expressed i t s values and assumptions i n a number of documents i t has published for internal consuption. are found with particular c l a r i t y i n the s t a f f manuals.  They  The following  fourteen points are a synthesis of these statements,  1.  Pre-camp student behaviour i s inappropriate. I t i s harmful to both the student and h i s society.  2.  Camp Trapping provides an opportunity for r e a l i z i n g a l l of the following:  133  3.  The  student as an i n d i v i d u a l i s v a l u a b l e i n h i s own  right.  4.  The student has p o t e n t i a l , p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s which have not been r e a l i z e d .  5.  I f these q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s are r e a l i z e d , the s e l f image w i l l improve.  6.  I f the student's s e l f image improves, become more a p p r o p r i a t e .  7.  The student's s e l f image and behaviour ( p o s i t i v e ! w i l l o n l y be maintained i f i t i s shared w i t h and r e c o g n i z e d by those around him.  8.  I t i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each i n d i v i d u a l t o develop p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s .  9.  The i n d i v i d u a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s and must bear the consequences o f t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  student's  h i s behaviour  will  these  10.  The i n d i v i d u a l grows through e x p e r i e n c i n g c h a l l e n g e and conflict.  11.  Demand from o t h e r s o n l y what you would demand from  12.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o develop empathy f o r the s i t u a t i o n s o f o t h e r s .  13.  P o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e and f u n c t i o n a l behaviour can o n l y be maintained i f one develops s u c c e s s f u l r o u t i n e s o r h a b i t s t h a t are p r o d u c t i v e i n the community.  14.  P o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , f u n c t i o n a l behaviour and s u c c e s s f u l r o u t i n e can be developed by mental, p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l e x e r c i s e . 3.  These f o u r t e e n p o i n t s c h o u l d be s a i d t o comprise  yourself.  a f a i r doctinal  body f o r Camp Trapping.  The key p o i n t s are s t a t e d as t r u t h s , as  the way  Using Turner's d e f i n i t i o n s we have here a  t h i n g s must be.  modern-day e q u i v a l e n t o r s u b s t i t u t e f o r , myth,.  T h i s w r i t t e n v a l u e system, the key informants' o p i n i o n s which f o l l o w i n the next chapter, and Hawkenson's p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s aims p r e s e n t a d o c t o r i n e of the powerful and p o t e n t i a l l y  and  self-  134  a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l who,  i f given the opportunity, w i l l n a t u r a l l y  d i s c o v e r and u t i l i z e a l l h i s o r her i n h e r e n t a b i l i t i e s . be accomplished  The  however through s t r u g g l e , c h a l l e n g e and  i n d i v i d u a l i s o n l y f i n a l l y and completely  these achievements are shared,  f o r others,  successful i f others.  (lack o f empathyl,  indeed a t the expense o f o t h e r s , then i t w i l l be t r a n s i t o r y  ultimately worthless.  This ideology's  only  conflict.  r e c o g n i z e d and a p p r e c i a t e d by  I f success i s o b t a i n e d w i t h no concern and  T h i s can  and  congruence w i t h Canadian  and  P r o t e s t a n t - perhaps C h r i s t a i n - v a l u e s , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter f o u r and i n the  epilogue.  Cariboo A c t i o n T r a i n i n g S o c i e t y has a l s o developed o b j e c t i v e s which a r t i c u l a t e s , i n a g e n e r a l way, students t o e x p e r i e n c e .  1)  To develop  a set of four  what i t wants i t s  They are as f o l l o w s :  the m a t u r i t y l e v e l o f each student by exposing  them  t o a wide range of l i f e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the program. 2)  To i n c r e a s e the i n t e r e s t l e v e l o f each p a r t i c i p a n t i n the about them by exposing  3)  experience.  To i n c r e a s e r e c r e a t i o n a l and mechanical s k i l l s as w e l l as t o develop  4)  them to a v a r i e t y o f  world  good work h a b i t s .  To i n c r e a s e the l e v e l o f s e l f m o t i v a t i o n by enhancing the s t u d e n t ' s s e l f image i n terms o f a c h i e v i n g and r e c o g n i z i n g success. A challenge-commitment p r o c e s s  The  i s b u i l t i n t o the system.  s e l f management program and r e a l i t y therapy are d e s c r i b e d  135  as two o f the. techniques used t o o b t a i n the f i r s t  objective.  The  work program, r e c r e a t i o n , p l a y , o u t - t r i p s and c o u n s e l l o r enthusiasm are a s p e c t s o f the program aimed a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g the second  objective.  The w i l d e r n e s s l o c a t i o n and camp r o u t i n e s are s a i d t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e objective three.  Emphasizing  the p o s i t i v e , what can be r a t h e r than  cannot be done, c o u n s e l l o r - s t u d e n t r a p p o r t , and c o n t i n u a l c h a l l e n g e s for  both s t a f f and students are a l l intended t o promote o b j e c t i v e  four.  4.  *********************  We  now  community.  have some i d e a o f how  Camp Trapping p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o the  I t ' s 'philosophy' o r v a l u e system, the  structure,  techniques and o b j e c t i v e s are a l l a v a i l a b l e i n w r i t t e n form  on  p u b l i c i t y pamphlets, i n the p o l i c y manual and i n the 1976 E v a l u a t i o n Report.  I t i s a p i c t u r e o f Camp Trapping t h a t the average  c o u l d o b t a i n i n an hour's r e a d i n g .  citizen  To know more about Camp Trapping  one must e i t h e r speak w i t h someone who  has been i n v o l v e d with, the  program, o r observe, o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e a t the camp.  In the  next chapter we w i l l examine what a v a r i e t y of CATS a s s o c i a t e s have to  say about v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the CATS program a t Trapping Lake.  136  CHAPTER FOUR KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS  137  KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS - INTRODUCTION AND VALUE STANCE  In March 1982, two months b e f o r e Camp Trapping,  I a c t u a l l y begin l i v i n g a t  I spent a week i n P r i n c e George i n t e r v i e w i n g a v a r i e t y  o f people who were o r had been i n v o l v e d with- Cariboo  Action Training  Society.  subjective  These i n t e r v i e w s were conducted t o o b t a i n  o p i n i o n about Camp Trapping key informants years.  from a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s .  A l l the  had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h CATS f o r a minimum o f two  Some has been i n v o l v e d s i n c e the camp's i n c e p t i o n i n 1971.  T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h CATS i s as f o l l o w s :  M i n i s t r y o f Human Resources  1) L i a s o n worker and r e f e r r i n g agent. 2) Family and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s Coordinator (Funder)  Juvenile  1) L i a s o n worker and r e f e r r i n g agent.  Probation  2) R e f e r r i n g agent. CATS, S o c i e t y Members  1) P r e s i d e n t 2) Board Member  CATS, S t a f f  1) Program D i r e c t o r 2) Male S t a f f 3) Female S t a f f  Former A s s o c i a t e s  1) Founder 2) Program D i r e c t o r 1976-1978  Each informant  responded t o an i d e n t i c a l s e t o f q u e s t i o n s  the f i r s t two t h i r d s o f the i n t e r v i e w . q u e s t i o n s used d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s .  Refer t o Appendix  5  during f o r the  There were two exceptions t o  138  this pattern.  The MHR F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t o r  (Funder) was unable t o p r o v i d e me w i t h enough time f o r a complete interview.  As a conseqence we d i s c u s s e d o n l y h i s formal r o l e i n  r e s p e c t t o CATS budgeting and f i n a n c i a l concerns.  The founder on  the o t h e r hand was a b l e t o p r o v i d e me w i t h a wealth, o f i n f o r m a t i o n about Camp Trapping i n a f r e e f l o w i n g r e v e r i e prompted o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y by my q u e s t i o n s . my pre-arranged  As he spoke, I heard answers t o a l l  questions.  Each i n t e r v i e w was a t l e a s t n i n e t y minutes i n l e n g t h and recorded on audio tape. i) ii) iii) iv)  The i n t e r v i e w s focused on f o u r broad  purposes  areas:  or goals;  values; Camp T r a p p i n g sub-programs; techniques and methods.  A f i f t h s e c t i o n asked q u e s t i o n s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gather subj e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o r i t e s o f passage t h e o r y .  The  i n t e r v i e w format allowed a g r e a t v a r i e t y o r responses i n  each a r e a .  I t was r e l a t i v e l y easy t o d i s t i n g u i s h a few common themes  running throughout  each s e c t i o n however.  I had o r i g i n a l l y intended t o use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gathered d u r i n g these i n t e r v i e w s t o h e l p me focus on r e l e v a n t p o i n t s o f view, behaviours and r h e t o r i c i n evidence a t Camp Trapping which, c o u l d i n d i c a t e both s t a f f and student compliance ideloogy.  with the a r t i c u l a t e d  I had a l s o toyed w i t h the i d e a o f c r e a t i n g a student  139  q u e s t i o n n a i r e based on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n which, c o u l d a s s i s t me i n determining value  whether o r not the students had i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e d e s i r e d  system and b e h a v i o u r a l  stance.  I t soon became e v i d e n t however t h a t t h i s e v a l u t i v e e f f o r t was expanding t h e scope o f t h i s study beyond t h e bounds o f m a n a g e a b i l i t y g i v e n the time c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h which I was f a c e d .  As i m p o r t a n t l y , I  came t o r e a l i z e t h a t the i n t e n t o f t h i s study was n o t t o prove o r d i s p r o v e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e Trapping  approach.  Instead, t h e  p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e was t o examine t h e i n t e n t and procedures o f t h e program i n an attempt t o a s c e r t a i n whether o r n o t i t f i t i n t o a r i t u a l i s t i c r i t e o f passage format.  As a r e s u l t , much, o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d  from these  inter-  views became unimportant i n r e s p e c t t o t h e t h r u s t o f t h i s study.  The  i n t e r v i e w s d i d , however r e - i n t r o d u c e . me t o t h e tone, l e v e l o f commitment and r h e t o r i c o f the Camp Trapping  environment.  They a l s o  p r o v i d e d me w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c o v e r how o t h e r s i n t e r p r e t e d the program.  The key informants' to  t h i s study's  initially,  v a l u e s and g o a l s statements became r e l e v a n t  hidden o b j e c t i v e .  While unconscious and u n a r t i c u l a t e d  I became aware o f my own need and i n t e r e s t i n  d i s c o v e r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p o i n t o f view and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e world as Camp Trapping presented  it.  I believe t h i s information i s  v a l u a b l e i f o n l y because i t i s so o f t e n ignored as we attempt t o develop and operate  s o c i a l s e r v i c e programs.  We would be w e l l  140 a d v i s e d t q become more aware o f our own p o i n t s o f view o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the world, as they a r e , u l t i m a t e l y , t h a t which we a r e attempting t o t h r u s t on o t h e r s .  My q u e s t i o n s and the comments they e l l i c i t e d d i d n o t l e a d themselves  w e l l t o a p o s i t i v i r s t i c , demographic and/or  statistical  analysis.  The i n t e r v i e w schedule had n o t been designed t o do so.  I t had, i n s t e a d , been designed t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base a more c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and o b s e r v a t i o n a l guideline.  As a r e s u l t , most o f the i n f o r m a t i o n the key informants p r o v i d e d i s n o t presented t o the reader i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  The key informant  comments on v a l u e s and g o a l s have d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the a n a l y i s presented i n Chapter F i v e and the e p i l o g u e . c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the main body o f t h i s study. i n f o r m a t i o n they p r o v i d e d has been v e r y and t a b u l a t e d .  I t i s therefore, A l l the remaining  ( c u r u r o r i l y ) . summarized  T h i s can be found i n Appendices i and i i should the  r e a d e r be i n t e r e s t e d i n examining i t .  Camp Trapping Value  I t appears  System  that values  ( d e f i n e d as b e l i e f s , standards o r moral  p r e c e p t s c o n c e r n i n g human i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and n a t u r a l environment) a r e r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o p i n down.  Many o f  the informants were h e s i t a n t o r came up w i t h o n l y one o r two v a l u e statments when asked t o comment s p e c i f i c a l l y on Trapping's  value  141  system.  Throughout  the i n t e r v i e w however, numerous v a l u e s statments  were made, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n r e s p e c t t o Trapping's g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . S h i f t i n g through the t r a n s c r i p t s o f these i n t e r v i e w s , I sought o u t statments t h a t were i n d i c a t i v e o f a v a l u e o r b e l i e f . as ' t h e r e ' s no f r e e l u n c h ' , 'people a r e p r e c i o u s ' , go-getters',  Statements  such  'people should be  'people should be u s e f u l ' , were c l a s s i f i e d as v a l u e  statements along w i t h more d i r e c t statments such as 'honesty i s an important v a l u e ' .  Many o f these statements blended and shared  a t t r i b u t e s , making i t d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e the key p o i n t the speaker was attempting t o make. There d i d however, appear t o be e i g h t themes running throughout the i n t e r v i e w s supplemented  common  by s i x o t h e r  v a l u e s statments which stood o u t but were expressed by o n l y one o r two o f the respondents.  Value I - The Three A's: Ambition, A s s e r t i o n ,  Achievement  As w i t h each v a l u e s statement,I have summarized and s y n t h e s i z e d a m u l t i t u d e o f statments made by the key i n f o r m a n t s .  Though the  p h r a s i n g i s mine, the content was p r o v i d e d by the respondents.  The f i r s t v a l u e s statment I have summarized as the statement: "You should be a s s e r t i v e , ambitious and achievement  oriented".  This  i s o f c o u r s e , an amalgamation o f a c l u s t e r o f v a l u e s which were u s u a l l y mentioned  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h each o t h e r .  The 'Three A's" a l l have  a dynamic, g o a l - o r i e n t e d tone about them which i m p l i e s t h a t t o succeed t o whatever  you are d o i n g i s o f g r e a t importance.  implies that being active i s preferable to being passive.  I t also Seven  142  informants s t r e s s e d t h i s v a l u e and o n l y one o f the f i v e p r e s e n t o r former CATS' employees d i d not s t r e s s  i t s importance.  Value I I - Each. I n d i v i d u a l i s P r e c i o u s  I have used Hawkenson's p h r a s i n g t o e p i t o m i z e t h i s c l u s t e r o f v a l u e statments.  The c l u s t e r  i n c l u d e s such statements as 'you should  a v o i d s e l f - d i s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r ' , 'you should b u i l d  self-respect',  'each person has a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l ' ,  'each i n d i v i d u a l  i s of value",  'each i n d i v i d u a l  'man  i s worthwhile', and  t h e r e were seven informants who were p r e s e n t o r former  i s good".  Once a g a i n ,  s t r e s s e d t h i s v a l u e , f o u r o f whom  employees.  Value I I I - Each i n d i v i d u a l has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y control  his/her  life.  The i n h e r e n t n e s s o f the a b i l i t y control  to  and p o t e n t i a l  to e f f e c t  and  one's l i f e i s a common element o f the f i r s t t h r e e v a l u e  statments.  I f i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e o f anyone working i n the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f i e l d without t h i s b e i n g one o f t h e i r b a s i c working assumptions. The key element o f t h i s statement which p r o v i d e s i t s uniqueness i s i t s emphasis  on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The c l u s t e r o f  statements subsumed under Value I I I c o n t a i n s such phrases as "people are  responsible f o r t h e i r actions',  sequences o f t h e i r a c t i o n s ' , potential'.  'people must a c c e p t the con-  'each person ought t o r e a l i z e  their  I t assumes t h a t a l l people have a c h o i c e and a r e , i n  a sense, c r e a t o r s o f t h e i r own  environment o r s i t u a t i o n .  It  143 assumes t h a t i t i s not o n l y our r i g h t but our duty t o c o n t r o l our own l i f e s .  E i g h t informants mentioned t h i s v a l u e and once again  f o u r o f the f i v e former o r c u r r e n t s t a f f i n c l u d e d i t i n t h e i r statements.  Value  IV - You should have reverance and r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s  Every informant r e f e r r e d t o t h i s v a l u e a t l e a s t once.  In one  sense i t i s a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f Value I I . Value I I however i s more concerned w i t h each person b e l i e v i n g i n t h e i r own p r e c i o u s n e s s while Value IV serves as a reminder same l i g h t . as  Reference  t h a t o t h e r s must be seen i n the  t o t h i s v a l u e i s c o n t a i n e d i n such  phrases  'you should have t h o u g h t f u l n e s s and r e g a r d f o r o t h e r s ' , 'only  ask o t h e r s t o do what you w i l l do', "I'm n o t the most person i n the world',  'be f a i r ' ,  important  'care f o r o t h e r s ' , and 'be  concerned  for others'.  Value V - You should be c o o p e r a t i v e and u s e f u l i n the community.  While t h i s v a l u e shares a t t r i b u t e s w i t h I and IV i t s d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the communal u t i l i t a r i a n e s s o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s .  F o r some o f  the informants t h i s v a l u e a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s necessary t o share w i t h o t h e r s b e f o r e you can be  Reference  self-fulfilled.  t o t h i s v a l u e c l u s t e r i s made i n such statements a s ;  'you can't be happy i f you hoard success', 'help f r i e n d s ' ,  success t o y o u r s e l f ,  'be a u s e f u l c i t i z e n ' ,  'share  your  ' c o n t r i b u t e something  144  to society',  'be c o o p e r a t i v e ' , 'be c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r s o c i e t y ' .  of the imformants made these and s i m i l a r  Seven  statements.  Value VI - You must earn your own way.  There a r e two o v e r r i d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d from t h i s v a l u e cluster:  1) a person cannot depend on o t h e r s f o r t h e i r b a s i c needs,  and 2) you must work o r expend e f f o r t t o s u r v i v e . expressed i n statements on someone e l s e ' ,  These i d e a s a r e  such as 'you can't be f r e e i f you a r e dependant  'the guys have t o l e a r n t o earn t h e i r own way',  ' you have t o work hard' , ' t h e r e ' s no f r e e lunch.' , and ' you o n l y g e t what you g i v e ' .  H a l f o f t h e informants o f f e r r e d t h i s type o f s t a t e -  ment as an e x p r e s s i o n o f Camp Trapping v a l u e s .  Value V I I - L i v e w i t h i n the r u l e s  S i x informants b e l i e v e d t h a t Camp T r a p p i n g taught t h e v a l u e and importance  o f l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f s o c i e t y ' s laws and  conventions.  T h i s was expressed  i n such statements  as 'be l a w a b i d i n g ' ,  'do what's expected o f you i n an a c c e p t a b l e manner', 'accept t h i n g s you c a n ' t change', and 'an i n d i v i d u a l can't l i v e without  structure'.  Value V I I I - Openess  A l l o f t h e c u r r e n t Camp Trapping employees b e l i e v e d t h a t 'openess' i s an important Camp Trapping v a l u e .  Although o n l y one  145  o t h e r informant mentioned i t , i t appears t h a t those working w i t h the s-tudents b e l i e v e i t i s an a c t i v e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e . i n such, statements as \be open'.  'be honest',  I t i s expressed  ' t r u s t y o u r s e l f and o t h e r s ' , and  I t seems t o imply t h a t honest communication w i t h and  t r u s t o f o t h e r s b e n e f i t s the i n d i v i d u a l .  Value statments  IX t o XIV d i d not appear t o f i t c o m f o r t a b l y  w i t h i n any o f the p r e c e e d i n g c a t e g o r i e s .  Although one might assume  t h a t they r e f e r t o one or more o f Values I t o V I I I , they a l s o appear to me  as having messages o f t h e i r own.  They are as f o l l o w s :  IX : 'You can't f o r c e v a l u e s down another's t h r o a t ' X  : 'Democracy'  XI :  Christian ethics  XII:  'Be p o s i t i v e "  XIII:  'Be happy'  XIV  : 'you grow through f a c i n g c h a l l e n g e s '  (II (1) (.2). CD (11 (.21  KEY INFORMANT VALUES STATEMENTS BY TYPE OF INFORMANT  I_  II  Current D i r e c t o r  X  X  C u r r e n t S t a f f Male  o  Current S t a f f Female  III  IV  V  VI  VII  X  X  X  o  x  X  X  X  o  X  x  x  o  X  X  o  X  X  X  x  x  x  Founder  X  X  X  X  X  X  o  Former D i r e c t o r  X  o  X  X  o  X  o  o  O  O  O  o  o  CATS Member Male  o  X  X  X  X  X  X  O  O  O  O  o  o  CATS Member Female  X  o  X  X  X  o  O  O  O  o  o  R e f e r r i n g Agent  X  X  o  X  X  o  p  X  O  O  O  O  X  R e f e r r i n g Agent  X  o  X  X  X  o  X  O  O  O  O  o  o  R e f e r r i n g Agent  o  X  X  X  o  o  X  o  O  O  O  o  o  TOTALS  7  7  8  10  7  5  4  2  I  2  x =  made statements agreeing with value,  o =  d i d not.  ~  VIII x  IX x  o  X . XI o  o  o o  XII o  o o  o  o o  X  I  o  I  XIV x  o  o  o  o  x  X  XIII  X  x  147  Camp Trapping's M o r a l / E t h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e  Taken as a whole, t h i s v a l u e system immediately inherently  exclued 'bad'.  Cstatements I-XIVl  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f t h a t people a r e  Concensus on Value IV, and seven o f t e n a g r e e i n g  w i t h Value I I c o u l d l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group o f key informants b e l i e v e s t h a t Camp Trapping b e l i e v e s people a r e inherently  'good'.  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l s who e x h i b i t  'bad' behaviours a r e n o t 'bad' i n themselves.  They a r e , i n s t e a d ,  misguided  and must be r e d i r e c t e d t o the source o f t h e i r own i n h e r e n t  goodness.  The emphasis p l a c e d on v a l u e d I , V, V I , and V I I however,  l e a d s me t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e predominant assumption  about human  nature expressed here i s t h a t a human b e i n g p r e s e n t s a t a b u l a r a s a o r n e u t r a l e n t i t y who can choose t o be e i t h e r good o r bad.  Developing  t h i s one s t e p f u r t h e r , the informants appear t o be s a y i n g t h a t an e n l i g h t e n e d s e l f i n t e r e s t should l e a d one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s e l f and o t h e r s a r e o f equal v a l u e and t h a t one cannot  succeed without the  h e l p o f o t h e r s and without h e l p i n g them i n r e t u r n .  The  i d e a l person emerging from t h i s v a l u e s composite  has somehow  managed t o l o v e h e r / h i m s e l f and o t h e r s , share and cooperate w i t h o t h e r s , while a t the same time r e a l i z i n g h i s o r h e r own g o a l s and p o t e n t i a l . T h i s t o t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l has a f i n e l y developed s o c i a l duty and s e l f c a r e .  sense o f  He i s a b l e t o achieve h i s ambitions  without harming o t h e r s and w i l l h e l p o t h e r s whenever p o s s i b l e .  She  i s a b l e t o do t h i s because o f the g r e a t i n n e r p o t e n t i a l and p r e c i o u s n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  148  The  informants' o p i n i o n s on o t h e r Camp Trapping aspects p r o v i d e  f u r t h e r v a l u e statements  (see Appendix)..  c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o what we have a l r e a d y seen.  They a r e not, however, i n The most important o f  these i s the informants' b e l i e f t h a t a c t i o n s a r e f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t than i n t e n t i o n s .  In t h e Camp Trapping m i l i e u one l e a r n s through  doing; one i s understood  and i n t e r p r e t e d through one's  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e n t , thoughts,  behaviour.  and v a l u e system a r e n o t as  r e l e v a n t as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i o n s .  Camp Trapping's  emphasis on r o u t i n e , p h y s i c a l a c i t v i t y , and  p e r s o n a l d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n a r e examples o f t h i s stance, a s i s i t s adherence t o R e a l i t y Therapy and B e h a v i o u r a l management techniques.  Another assumption  (and hence v a l u e s t a n c e l t h a t emerges,  concerns t h e importance o f c h a l l e n g e and s t r u g g l e i n t h e l e a r n i n g process.  We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t the p r e v a l e n t b e l i e f a t Camp  Trapping i s t h a t one l e a r n s b e s t by d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v i t y and t h a t one l e a r n s most e f f e c t i v e l y by c o n f r o n t i n g and overcoming a v a r i e t y o f o b s t a c l e s which a r e taken on as p e r s o n a l challenges.  S t r u g g l e and c o n f r o n t a t i o n a r e thus  'good' a c t i v i t i e s  which f a c i l i t a t e s e l f development and s o c i a l o r d e r .  The Canadian  Context  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to locate a concise statement  o f Canadian v a l u e s .  'official'  Perhaps our attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e  149  a wide range o f p h i l o s o p h i e s , p o l i t i c a l d o c t o r i n e s , r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r e s makes u s r e l u c t a n t t o advocate principles.  any one s e t o f g u i d i n g  Yet, i f you were t o show the l i s t o f Camp T r a p p i n g  v a l u e s t o a random sample o f Canadians I b e l i e v e you would f i n d t h a t , by and l a r g e , the l i s t would be c o n s i d e r e d an a c c u r a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f what Canadians t h i n k they should b e l i e v e .  In  h i s b o o k l e t Enduring Values  , t h e Saskatchewan educator  Henry Janzen p r e s e n t s a l i s t o f nine ' c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g ' o r 'core v a l u e concepts'.  They a r e as f o l l o w s :  11 e s t a b l i s h i n g  warm r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s ; 2) a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; 3). demonstrating promoting  courage and s e l f d i s c i p l i n e ; 4). f e e l i n g reverance; 5)  r e s p e c t f o r law and o r d e r ; 6) d e v e l o p i n g r e s p o n s i b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the o p p o s t i v e sex; 7) l e a r n i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f i n a n c i a l management; 81 d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding and concern; 91 maturing  i n t o i n t e g r i t y . 1.  Although Camp T r a p p i n g w r i t i n g s and t h e key informants make no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o p o i n t s s i x and e i g h t , we can see t h a t t h e two lists  (Janzen and Camp Trapping) have a g r e a t d e a l i n common • I  b e l i e v e i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t Camp Trapping has c r e a t e d a v a l u e system t h a t i s c l o s e l y attuned t o Canadian c u l t u r e .  Key Informants - Camp Trapping's  Goals  A number o f informants mentioned v e r y s p e c i f i c g o a l s such as t e a c h i n g good n u r t i o n a l h a b i t s , p e r s o n a l hygiene, p u n c t u a l i t y , good  150 manners, c o n s i s t e n c y , completing a s s i g n e d t a s k s and improved physical condition.  While these may w e l l be important a s p e c t s o f  the program, I have assumed t h a t a l l o f them a r e covered under t h e broader g o a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged.  These s p e c i f i c g o a l  statements  are a l l covered i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e c h a r t system d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2.4.  F i v e broad g o a l statements  emerged from my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  the key informant's statements. s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce  lawbreaking,  They a r e as f o l l o w s :  2) t o p r o v i d e immediate  c o n t r o l and consequences i n an i s o l a t e d 3) t o p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l  11 end o r social  but s u p p o r t i v e environment,  s o c i a l s k i l l s , 4) t o encourage p e r s o n a l  growth i n s o c i a l l y accepted manner, 5) t o mold t h e students more a c c e p t a b l e c i t i z e n s  into  over and above ending t h e i r law b r e a k i n g  activities.  These g o a l  statements  are the r e s u l t  o f a p r e l i m i n a r y and  t e n t a t i v e content a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d d u r i n g the interviews.  Each g o a l statement  i s based on a v e r y s u b j e c t i v e  amalgamation o f key informant comments. s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce  Category  I , " t o end o r  law b r e a k i n g ' , i s a p a r a p h r a s i n g o f statements  such as : "Graduates should keep o u t o f t r o u b l e w i t h the law",  "Camp  T r a p p i n g i s designed t o t r e a t hard core d e l i n q u e n t s ' and "Camp Trapping t r i e s t o g e t the k i d s o u t o f a d e l i n q u e n t r u t " . i n t e r v i e w e d mentioned something t o t h i s  Every  person  effect.  Category- IX, "To p r o v i d e immediate s o c i a l c o n t r o l and consequences  151  f o r j u v e n i l e law b r e a k e r s i n an a p p r o p r i a t e and s u p p o r t i v e expands on Category I .  environment"  I t i s the most p u n i t i v e o f the c a t e g o r i e s  e x p r e s s i n g as i t does a c l e a r d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t s o c i e t y i n an c o s t e f f e c t i v e but humane environment  while providing appropriate' 1  consequences f o r t h e misdeeds t h e Camp Trapping students have commited. statement  I t i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by the key i n f o r m a n t - p r o v i d e d "Camp Trapping i s designed t o remove troublesome  from t h e community and p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e consequences". c o n t a i n s statements containment",  people I t also  such a s "to p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o j a i l o r  and " t o p r o v i d e containment  and consequences i n an  c o s t e f f e c t i v e manner".  Category  I I I , "To t e a c h p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l s k i l l s t o t h e s t u d e n t s "  i n c l u d e s statements l i k e "students should l e a r n t o r e l a t e w e l l t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s and o t h e r s " , and "students should l e a r n t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and t o accept t h e consequences". I t a l s o i n c l u d e s statements  t h a t d e s c r i b e the type o f s o c i a l  t h a t t h e students should develop.  skills  They should be a b l e t o " c o n t r o l  themselves", " t h i n k t h e i r way through d i f f i c u l t i e s " , " t h i n k and a c t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n a group" financial  and " l o o k a f t e r themselves" (e.g.  independence).  Category IV, "To encourage p e r s o n a l growth, i n a s o c i a l l y manner", was  f o c u s e s on s e l f improvement.  accepted  Key informants b e l i e v e d i t  important f o r t h e students t o l e a r n t o f e e l b e t t e r about them-  s e l v e s and develop s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s t h a t would h e l p them succeed i n a s o c i a l l y accepted manner.  T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s such statements as  152 "Camp Trapping should l e t them experience success i n non-delinquent activities",  "provide them w i t h a s t r o n g e r i d e n t i t y " and  "provide  them w i t h more s e l f worth ".  Category V,  "To make them b e t t e r c i t i z e n s " takes us beyond  p a s s i v e o r n e g a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the i d e a l graduate to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i e t y .  i n respect  I t speaks of the students' and  the s o c i e t y ' s need t o have the students c o n t r i b u t e t o the s o c i e t y i n a p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e f a s h i o n .  I t i n c l u d e s statements  such  as "Camp Trapping should make them p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e and c o n s i s t e n t c i t i z e n s , " "... t e a c h them t h a t they have t o f i t i n t o a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and r o u t i n e world" and  "... g i v e them something  a c c e p t a b l e t o b e l i e v e i n and f o l l o w . "  Although c a t e g o r i e s I I I and IV seem t o have much i n common, the former c o n c e n t r a t e s on outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a c c e p t a b l e  behaviour  while the l a t t e r c o n c e n t r a t e s on f e e l i n g s and behaviours r e l e v a n t p r i m a r i l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  C a t e g o r i e s V and I I I are a l s o  similar,  the former however c o n c e n t r a t e s o n l y on what s o c i e t y wants t o see whereas the l a t t e r focuses more on the s o c i a l s k i l l s the wish t o see students develop. requirement  Category  I may  informants  be seen as the minimum  i n Category V but because o f t h e nature o f the Camp  Trapping c l i e n t e l e i t r e c e i v e s a v e r y s t r o n g emphasis and viewed as a separate g o a l .  We  can see how  compliment and b l e n d with, one another.  the g o a l s and  should be values  While t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y  less  emphasis on the p r e c i o u s n e s s o f the s e l f and o t h e r s , more f u n c t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t s o f these v a l u e s can be found i n g o a l areas I I I , IV and  V.  153  Conformity ,usefulness and s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y a r e the predominant themes i n g o a l s i n and IV.  These correspond t o key v a l u e s VI -  'you must earn your own way', and V I I , ' l i v e w i t h i n t h e r u l e s ' . F i n a l l y , t h e g o a l statements a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h e n e c c e s s i t y o f p l a c i n g c o n t r o l s on i n d i v i d u a l s and p r o t e c t i n g s o c i e t y .  In s o c i e t y ' s eyes,  Camp Trapping i s a c o n t r o l o f and consequence f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour.  I f our key informants a r e c o r r e c t , i t i s one o f the  most important a s p e c t s o f Camp Trapping as f a r as t h e average c i t i z e n i s concerned.  I f t h i s were t h e o n l y g o a l however,  little  more than a j a i l would be needed.  ************************  Chapter 3 and 4 have p r o v i d e d , I hope, a b i r d ' s eye view o f Camp T r a p p i n g .  The d e s c r i p t i o n these chapters c o n t a i n c o u l d be  o b t a i n e d without ever v i s i t i n g the Trapping Lake s i t e .  It i s a  d e s c r i p t i o n i n s h o r t , o f what i s s a i d about Camp T r a p p i n g .  While  c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s between Camp Trapping and the T u r n e r i a n r i t e s o f passage t h e o r y can a l r e a d y be d e t e c t e d , i t would be u n f a i r t o b e g i n any a n a l y s i s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p without f i r s t a c t u a l l y occurs i n d a i l y l i f e attempts  a t Camp Trapping.  what  The next chapter  t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t y p i c a l 5 month Camp Trapping  s e s s i o n and a t y p i c a l Camp Trapping day. to  examining  While  i t i s a step c l o s e r  Camp Trapping's r e a l i t y , t h e r e a d e r must remember t h a t the b i a s e s  and s e l e c t i v e n e s s I b r i n g t o t h i s study have undoubtedly f i l t e r e d the d e s c r i p t i o n i n Chapter 4.  shaped and  154  CHAPTER FIVE WHAT IS DONE  155 The F i r s t Three Months o f the W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1983 I t was  a hot sunny day i n e a r l y May  Camp Trapping. d i r e c t o r , Rob  Camp  when I f i r s t r e t u r n e d t o  I had h i t c h e d a r i d e i n t o camp w i t h the program's Rail.  He,  R i c k , one o f the c o u n s e l l o r s , and  myself  had squeezed i n t o the cab of Rob's p i c k u p a f t e r l o a d i n g a v a r i e t y of s u p p l i e s i n t o the back o f the t r u c k . on h i s r i g h t arm,  which now  " t e m p o r a r i l y handicapped  R i c k had a p l a s t e r c a s t  p l a c e d him i n the  evergrowing  c o u n s e l l o r " category.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t had been t h a t k i n d o f camp.  None o f these  p a r t i a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d c o u n s e l l o r s had been i n j u r e d on the j o b , but they a l l had i n j u r i e s t h a t reduced t h e i r l e v e l o f w i t h t h i s group of s t u d e n t s .  Rick was  involvement  the t h i r d c o u n s e l l o r t h i s  camp t o be wearing;-a c a s t .  Everyone was  t e l l i n g me. how  d i f f i c u l t group t o work w i t h .  t h i s group o f boys was  an e x c e p t i o n a l l y  Most o f the s t a f f were d i s s a t i s f i e d  w i t h the amount o f p r o g r e s s they had made w i t h the students and were f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r own w i t h much of the group.  attempts  t o e s t a b l i s h a good working r a p p o r t  Most of the s t a f f had been w i t h CATS f o r a t  l e a s t a year and a h a l f and had a t l e a s t f o u r o t h e r camps t o compare t h i s one w i t h .  The boys, i t seems, were b i g g e r , meaner and  than any group they had seen i n the l a s t two y e a r s .  tougher  I had been t o l d  a l l t h i s i n the CATS o f f i c e t h a t morning and d u r i n g my b r i e f  visit  t o P r i n c e George two months e a r l i e r .  Now, was  said.  as we drove south from P r i n c e George down Highway 97, We were a l l l o s t i n our own  thoughts.  I watched the  little  156  c o u n t r y s i d e r o l l by and thought back t o a 'camp .' I had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n as a f t e r c a r e c o o r d i n a t o r .  I t had been d e s c r i b e d i n the same terms.  Cddly enough, t h a t camp had a l s o been plagued w i t h numerous s t a f f i n j u r i e s and i l l n e s s e s .  I t had n o t been t h e b e s t o f times and I had  seen how q u i c k l y t h e remaining h e a l t h y s t a f f had been d r a i n e d o f their  energy.  A p p a r e n t l y much the same had been o c c u r i n g i n t h e S p r i n g , 1982 camp.  One o f t h e most severe w i n t e r s i n r e c e n t P r i n c e George h i s t o r y  had n o t helped.  L i v i n g under a low l y i n g sheet o f grey c l o u d , b e i n g  snowed on every day, having t o expend most o f t h e i r energy s h o v e l i n g paths and m a i n t a i n i n g the firewood supply had p r e o c c u p i e d s t a f f and students f o r the f i r s t month o f t h e program.  Now, however, t h r e e  months from i t s b e g i n n i n g on February 9th, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Camp Trapping community was g e t t i n g t h e b e a u t i f u l weather i t had earned through and  i t s winter s t r u g g l e s .  S p i r i t s had r i s e n w i t h the temperature  some o f the o l d v i t a l i t y was b e g i n n i n g t o course through t h e  counsellors' veins.  We soon came t o t h e Woodpeacker Ranch Road t u r n - o f f where a hand-made s i g n p o i n t e d e a s t t o Camp Trapping.  As we drove up the  l o g g i n g road I reminded myself t h a t I was no l o n g e r a c o u n s e l l o r a t Camp T r a p p i n g b u t an o b s e r v e r .  I t had a l r e a d y proven v e r y easy t o  s l i p back i n t o a c o u n s e l l o r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f Camp Trapping, and I did  n o t want t h a t t o happen.  Even though I would be p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n t h e program, I c o u l d n o t be viewed by e i t h e r t h e s t a f f o r students as one o f t h e i r c o h o r t s .  As we drove those l a s t f o u r m i l e s t o the  157  l a k e , I was b e g i n n i n g -more d i f f i c u l t  to r e a l i z e that maintaining  t h i s r o l e would be  than I had a n t i c i p a t e d .  Being o v e r l y f a m i l i a r w i t h one p o i n t o f view o f t h i s community might, i t appeared, have i t s disadvantages.  I had chosen Camp  Trapping  for  my f i e l d work because i t was w h i l e working a t the camp t h a t I  had  f i r s t seen the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r i t e s o f passage and  the d e s i g n o f t h e r a p e u t i c o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n communities. the p a r t i c i p a n t observer  I had chosen  r e s e a r c h model as the o n l y method a v a i l a b l e  t h a t c o u l d examine t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n  given the l a c k o f  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area and g i v e n t h e nature o f t h e type o f i n f o r m a t i o n X would be seeking.  The d i f f i c u l t y i n b e i n g  a neutral  but p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l a t Camp Trapping was o n l y now becoming evident.  P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g o f Camp  Camp Trapping to  Trapping  p o i n t s n o r t h l i k e a knobby f i n g e r .  I t stands  close  t h e e a s t e r n edge o f a r i d g e t h a t o v e r l o o k s t h e s i x m i l e band o f  farmland  s e p a r a t i n g i t from the F r a s e r R i v e r ,  T h i s b e a u t i f u l panorama  can o n l y be c l e a r l y seen a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s along the o l d l o g g i n g t h a t winds i t s way up t o the l a k e .  The l a k e i t s e l f  road  i s surrounded by  a narrow band o f t r e e s , l a r g e l y spruce, which had been l e f t untouched by t h e l o g g e r s .  By c l i m b i n g t h e h i l l  immediately t o t h e e a s t and  south, o f the l a k e , one can l o o k e a s t t o a v a s t expanse o f l o g g e d - o f f rugged h i l l s t h a t p r o v i d e an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Cariboo S c a t t e r e d b i r c h , scrub brush,  Mountains.  second growth p i n e and spruce  and a  158  159  p r o f u s i o n o f w i l d f l o w e r s cover these h i l l s .  Looking north-, one sees  a t h i c k stand o f c o n i f e r s which h i d e s more farm l a n d j u s t a few m i l e s away.  Camp Trapping  i s l o c a t e d a t t h e southwestern c o r n e r o f t h e l a k e .  Here one f i n d s a s m a l l , c r e s c e n t shaped c l e a r i n g c o n t a i n i n g o n l y a few t a l l c o n i f e r s among a s c a t t e r i n g o f b u i l d i n g s . A s w i t h the r e s t o f t h e l a k e , the l a n d s l o p e s g e n t l y t o i t s edge p r o v i d i n g easy access water.  t o the  There i s a s m a l l marsh a t t h e southern t i p o f the l a k e through  which a feeder  stream flows.  n e s t i n g area.  Immediately south o f t h e marsh i s t h e ' l a n d i n g ' o r  playing f i e l d The  A v a r i e t y o f ducks use t h e marsh as a  t h a t Camp Trapping  sometimes uses f o r team s p o r t s .  l o g g i n g road branches o f f i n t h r e e d i r e c t i o n s a t the l a n d i n g ,  the n o r t h e r n branch ending a t Camp Trapping's y a r d . s i g n p o i n t s you t o t h e l a k e ' s p u b l i c access southern boundary.  road t h a t forms the camp's  and a d v i s e s v i s i t o r s t o l o c k t h e i r v e h i c l e s  remove a l l v a l u a b l e s .  Immediately lot  carved  The same s i g n informs you t h a t t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f  b u i l d i n g s i a Camp Trapping and  Here a hand  beyond the s i g n i s a wide d i r t c o u r t y a r d and p a r k i n g  bordered on the west by a l o n g b u i l d i n g d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  sections.  T h i s b u i l d i n g houses t h e garage, the c o n s t r u c t i o n  workshop and t h e a l l purpose workshop.  trades  The power p l a n t and f u e l  sheds a r e hidden behind i t w h i l e t h e garbage shed a g a i n s t bears), s i t s t o t h e south, o f t h e workshops.  (well  secured  The e a s t e r n edge  o f t h i s c o u r t y a r d i s bound f i r s t by a l a r g e propane tank, and then by the b u i l d i n g t h a t serves as s c h o o l house, meeting p l a c e  and  160  recreation h a l l .  A s m a l l road s e p a r a t e s the outhouse and the bunk-  house, the two b u i l d i n g s t h a t mark the n o r t h e r n end o f the y a r d .  A s e t o f wooden s t a i r s descends from the schoolhouse t o the d i n i n g h a l l and k i t c h e n , both o f which are c o n t a i n e d i n one sided t r a i l e r .  aluminium-  J u s t t o the south o f the t r a i l e r s i t s the wellhouse  while the o l d quanset hut, now. a greenhouse,  l i e s between the d i n i n g  room and the l a k e .  One can walk n o r t h from the k i t c h e n a l o n g a wellworn path, midway between the bunkhouse and the l a k e .  T h i s p a t h l e a d s you p a s t an  o l d wharf and over t o the sauna and i t s woodshed. f l o a t s on the l a k e i n f r o n t o f the sauna. b u i l d i n g s on the s i t e .  One  wharf  There are two o t h e r s m a l l  immediately behind the sauna c o n t a i n s  each person's canoeing and backpacking equipment lockers.  A new  i n individualized  The o t h e r , between the bunkhouse and the f i r s t  c o n t a i n s an assortment o f o u t - t r i p equipment  shed,  and a v a r i e t y o f hand  tools.  The c l e a r e d c r e s c e n t ends immediately t o the n o r t h o f the sauna and o u t - t r i p shed but a p a t h b e g i n n i n g a t the shed l e a d s you another two hundred yards t o the c o u n s e l l o r ' s c a b i n i n which c o u n s e l l o r s can stay d u r i n g t h e i r time o f f . p l a c e where I c o u l d r e t i r e  T h i s c a b i n was  t o become my r e f u g e , a  t o w r i t e , read and  sleep.  There i s no c o n s i s t e n c y i n the d e s i g n o f the b u i l d i n g s except for  their shining~ t i n roofs.  The bunkhouse and powerplant shed  161  l o g s t r u c t u r e s , the former w i t h i t s l o g s p l a c e d v e r t i c a l l y , the w i t h them l a i d h o r i z o n t a l l y .  The workshop, shoolhouse,  and sauna are of plywood and frame c o n s t r u c t i o n .  sheds  Large s t o r e s of  firewood are stacked n e a t l y under s h e l t e r s along the west and s i d e s o f the bunkhouse. Trapping's  eleven years.  w h i l e the schoolhouse There was  These b u i l d i n g s had accumlated In 1979,  t h e r e was  no f u e l shed and no w e l l , size.  o f adding a second s t o r y t o the bunkhouse.  Camp Trapping's n a t u r a l environment i s the essence country.  north  slowly during  and workshop were h a l f t h e i r p r e s e n t  some t a l k now  latter  The r i d g e on which i t s i t s  o f Cariboo  marks the e a s t e r n edge o f a  t h i n i n h a b i t e d band o f good farmland b o r d e r i n g the F r a s e r R i v e r . E a s t o f the r i d g e l i e s w i l d e r n e s s .  V a s t l o g g e d - o f f areas  c r o s s e d w i t h l o g g i n g roads spread through  criss-  the f o r e s t e d l a n d between  Trapping Lake and B a r k e r v i l l e , s i x t y m i l e s t o the e a s t .  This land  i s a l l but u n i n h a b i t e d by humankind.  loggers  Trappers, h u n t e r s ,  and p r o s p e c t o r s v i s i t the f o r e s t , take from them, but seldom s t a y long.  A l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n o f bear  (black and g r i z z l y ) . , moose, coyote;  the t a n g l e d f o r e s t s and sodden m a r s h e s , a l l demand t h a t the  traveller  t r e a t s t h i s c o u n t r y w i t h c a u t i o n and r e s p e c t .  Your i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f the s i t e c o u l d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y depending on the day o f your a r r i v a l . i n an unoccupied almost  I f you f i r s t see Camp Trapping  s t a t e d u r i n g the summer  you may  e r i e s i l e n c e t h a t embraces a ghost town.  be impressed I t w i l l be  enough f o r you t o hear the l a k e l a p p i n g a g a i n s t i t s shore as stand on the bunkhouse porch.  The  w i t h the  still you  sound o f your boots as you walk  162  walk on the wooden porches and boardwalks i n the a i r .  seems t o l i n g e r ,  reverberating  An almost e v e r - p r e s e n t wind w i l l be r u s t l i n g the bushes  and c a u s i n g the c o n i f e r s t o sway and creak.  An o c c i s i o n a l barn  swallow may swoop c l o s e t o i n v e s t i g a t e you w h i l e the sound o f a woodpecker d i g g i n g f o r i t s l u n c h comes t o you from the f o r e s t . O c c a s i o n a l l y your a t t e n t i o n w i l l be drawn t o the l a k e by a s o f t splash.  A t f i r s t you w i l l o n l y see the r i p p l e s on the water but then  another rainbow t r o u t w i l l suddenly b r e e c h the s u r f a c e . w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y c a l l t o each o t h e r .  The ducks  You may be f o u r t u n a t e enough  to hear t h e i r s i n g i n g wings as they f l y overhead.  On o c c a s i o n , a  beaver from the n o r t h e r n end o f t h i s m i l e l o n g l a k e may venture t o i t s southern end.  An abandoned beaver lodge s i t s a c r o s s the l a k e  from the camp, reminding us o f our encroachment  onto t h e i r  territory.  I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t you w i l l see a b l a c k bear on the road o r near the camp's s l o p h o l e (a p i t f o r o r g a n i c r e f u s e ) .  The bears  have been a problem a t times but u s u a l l y mind t h e i r own b u s i n e s s .  The b u i l d i n g s w i l l a l l be l o c k e d b u t i f you peer i n t o a number of  the windows you w i l l see