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Women bank managers in British Columbia Egri, Carolyn Patricia 1983

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WOMEN BANK MANAGERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By CAROLYN PATRICIA EGRI B. Coram., The University of British Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUI^IIiMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Commerce and Business Administration) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 ( c ) Carolyn Patricia Egri, 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood th a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Commerce and Business Administration The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 ( 3 / 8 1 ) ABSTRACT This study investigated the personal history, psychological dimensions, and career experiences of Canadian female bank managers. As part of a larger research project on bank managers conducted by Dr. L.F. Moore and Dr. B. Beck of the University of British Columbia, this thesis focussed primarily on the sex-based differences between male and female branch bank managers. Personal interview and mail-back questionnaire data were obtained from 68 male and 41 female branch managers located in the Lower Mainland of B.C. The five largest Canadian chartered banks and one western regional bank participated in the study. Analysis of the demographic characteristics of female bank managers revealed that they came from predominantly rural, blue-collar families. A substantial proportion of female managers were not married (unlike male bank managers) and tended to have few, i f any, children. Female bank managers had less formal education than male managers in terms of academic achievement and attendance on bank training courses. Concerning motivational needs, female managers closely resembled male managers, exhibiting a high need for achievement, high need for power, and low need for affiliation. The female managers' managerial style conception differed significantly from that of their male colleagues. In their attributions of leadership behaviour for a "typical" bank manager, female managers often chose a consultative, communications approach. Male managers, however, more often selected a directive style consistent with i i traditional leadership style conception. Female managers held a higher interpersonal orientation than male managers. They, also stressed social and interpersonal values more than male managers. In terms of career experience variables, female and male managers have equivalent total years of experience in banking, however, female managers have significantly fewer years in managerial level positions. They are also working in the smaller retail-type bank branches unlike male managers who are in larger retail and commercial branches. Although the majority have experienced sex-based discrimination in their careers, female managers are generally optimistic about the future of women in banking management. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF CHARTS i x LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNC^ WLEDGEMENT x i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Women i n Society 1 Women i n Banking 4 Statement of Purpose 6 I I LITERATURE REVIEW 8 Women i n the Labour Force 10 Canadian S t a t i s t i c s 10 U.S. S t a t i s t i c s 15 Career Patterns 17 Women i n Management 20 Demographic Background 20 Parental Background 20 Influence of "Signi f i c a n t Others"... 26 Ma r i t a l Status 29 Childbearing 30 Role C o n f l i c t 33 Spouses of Female Managers 36 Education 37 Psychological Variables Which Influence Women as Managers 41 Aptitudes 41 Motivation 41 Causes for Success 48 Managerial Style 51 Selected Career Experiences of Women Managers 57 Career M o b i l i t y 57 Sex Role Stereotyping 62 Discrimination 65 Women i n Banking Management 69 A H i s t o r i c a l Perspective I. 70 Training and Development 75 The Future of Women i n Banking 80 i v Chapter Page I I I METHODOLOGY 84 Moore-Beck Bank Study 84 Subjects 84 Procedure 85 Research Instruments 85 Analysis of Data 96 IV RESULTS 98 Personal Background 98 Age 98 Ethnic Origin 98 Education 99 Parental Background 101 Career Choice 106 Ma r i t a l Status 107 Childbearing I l l Role C o n f l i c t 114 Spouses of Female Bank Managers 116 Psychological Dimensions of Female Bank Managers 118 Motivation 118 Causes for Success 120 Managerial Style 122 Career Experiences of Female Bank Managers 153 Geographic M o b i l i t y 153 Career Advancement 154 Career Paths 157 Discrimination 160 Career Opportunities 164 Career Plans 166 Summary 168 V CONCLUSION 168 Implications for Future Research 171 APPENDIX 1 175 APPENDIX 2 176 APPENDIX 3 200 REFERENCES 217 v LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Employment of Canadian Married Females —Explanatory Variables 14 2 Type of Career (Commitment of Married Women 32 3 Type of Career Commitment of Married Women By Age of Youngest Child 32 4 Labour Force Participation of Female Population 15 years and over, by Marital Status, Presence of Children and Education in 1976 38 5 Studies of Motivational Needs of Women 43 6 Extrinsic Motivator Preference Rankings — Females vs. Males 47 7 Work Mobility Table for Canadian Women Managers 59 8 Frequency of Relocation for Purpose of Corporate Transfer 61 9 Marital Status and Willingness to Relocate for a Promotion 61 10 Summary of Sex Role Identification Studies 64 11 Ratios of Male to Female Employees in Bank Management Positions 74 12 Percentage of Student Populations of ICB Programme Surveys by Sex 76 13 Background Characteristics of ICB Programme Survey Respondents by Sex 76 14 Reasons for Taking ICB Programme by Sex 77 15 Encouragement to Take ICB Fellows' Programme by Sex 78 16 List of Hypotheses 82 vi Table Page 17 Coefficients of Correlation Between Scores of Managers on SDI Scales and Their Job Success 94 18 Coder Consistency Check on Interview Data of Female Bank Managers —^ Bank Incident Responses 96 19 Academic Education by Sex 99 20 Occupation of Parents of Female Bank Managers 101 21 Academic Education Level of Parents of Female Bank Managers 103 22 Comparison of Education Level of Fathers and Mothers of Female Bank Managers 105 23 Influential Persons/Factors in Career Choice of Female Bank Managers 106 24 Marital Status of Bank Managers by Sex 107 25 Number of Children in Households of Married, Separated and Divorced Female Bank Managers I l l 26 Age of Children in Household of Married, Separated and Divorced Female Bank Managers 112 27 Average Number of Children by Age of Married, Separated and Divorced Female Bank Managers 112 28 Maternity Leaves by Age of Female Bank Managers 113 29 Role Conflict and Marital Status of Female Bank Managers 115 30 Role Conflict and Average Number of Children of Female Bank Managers 115 31 Occupation of Female Bank Manager's Spouse 116 32 Comparison of Education Level of Female Bank Managers and Their Spouses 117 v i i Table Page 33 Female Bank Managers' Self-Reports of Causes of Success 121 34 Female Bank Managers' Rankings of Causal Success Factors to Women and Men in General 122 35 Managerial Style by Sex — Bank Incident Responses 123 36 Functional Orientation by Sex — Bank Incident Responses 125 37 Role Orientation by Sex — Bank Incident Responses 128 38 Person-Thing Orientation by Sex of Bank Managers 132 39 Comparison of Person-Thing Scale Mean Scores: Bank Managers vs. Other Occupational Groups 133 40 Ghiselli SDI Item Differences — Male vs. Female Bank Managers 138 41 Rokeach Instrumental Value Rankings — Male vs. Female Bank Managers 146 42 Rokeach Terminal Value Rankings — Male vs. Female Bank Managers 146 43 Career Advancement of Bank Managers by Sex 154 44 Banking Entry Level Positions of Female Bank Managers 158 45 Reasons why Female Bank Managers Entered Banking 158 46 Entry Level Positions by Average Length of Time and Number of Positions Prior to Promotion to Manager Level — Female Bank Managers 159 47 Obstacles to Female Employee Progression Within Banking 160 48 Career Plans of Female Bank Managers 166 v i i i LIST OF CHARTS Chart Page 1 Canadian Labour Force Participation by Sex in 1971, 1976, 1981 10 2 Canadian Labour Force Participation of Females by Marital Status in 1971, 1976, 1981 11 3 Canadian Labour Force Participation of Females by Age in 1971, 1976, 1981 11 4 Canadian Labour Force Participation of Women by Marital Status and Age in 1981 12 5 Canadian Labour Force Participation and Marital Status of Women age 25-64 by Presence and Age of Children in 1976 13 6 U.S. Labour Force Participation and Marital Status of Women, age 25-54 by Presence and Age of Children, March 1974 15 7 U.S. Labour Force Participation of Women age 55 and over by Marital Status 16 8 1981 Canadian Labour Force Participation by Sex, Age and Marital Status (a) Single Marital Status 18 (b) Married Marital Status 18 (c) Widowed and Divorced Marital Status 19 9 Parents' Education Levels and Canadian Population Education Levels (1976) 104 10 Marital Status of Female Bank Managers by Age 109 11 Marital Status of Female Bank Managers by Years in Banking 110 ix Chart Page 12 Managerial Style Preferences by Sex and Years Experience as Manager — Bank Incident Responses (a) Female Bank Managers 126 (b) Male Bank Managers 126 13 G h i s e l l i SDI Value P r o f i l e s of Bank Managers vs. G h i s e l l i ' s Occupational Groups 144 14 Rokeach Value Factors of Male and Female Bank Managers vs. American Males and Females, Canadian Males 149 15 Bank Size by Sex and Age of Bank Manager 156 16 Bank Size by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank Managers 156 x LIST OF FIGURES Figure . Page 1 Relative Importance of G h i s e l l i ' s Thirteen T r a i t s to Managerial Success 93 2 Interpretive Framework for G h i s e l l i SDI Adjectives: Male vs. Female Bank Managers 140 x i ACKNOWLEIXlEMENT I would l i k e to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Dr. Larry F. Moore who invited me to work with him and Dr. Brenda Beck on the Bank Manager Research Project. His support and encouragement in developing and conducting this study i s greatly appreciated. x i i C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N Women i n S o c i e t y " I t t o o k a l m o s t 1 6 0 y e a r s , b u t women a r e f i n a l l y e n t e r i n g t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f m a n a g e m e n t a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e i n C a n a d i a n b a n k s . T h i s v a s t r e s e r v o i r o f p r e v i o u s l y u n t a p p e d s k i l l a n d t a l e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g a w e i g h t y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f b a n k p e r s o n n e l , i s g e t t i n g a b e t t e r s h a r e o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . H o w e v e r , m u c h g r o u n d i s s t i l l t o b e g a i n e d b e f o r e t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e j u n i o r r a n k s a r e e q u a l l e d i n t h e m i d d l e a n d s e n i o r r a n k s o f m a n a g e m e n t . " ( R e e d , 1 9 7 6 , p . 42 ) P r o g r e s s t o w a r d s e q u a l i t y i n t h e w o r k p l a c e h a s b e e n s l o w f o r women n o t o n l y i n t h e b a n k i n g i n d u s t r y b u t i n a l l a r e a s o f b u s i n e s s . Women a r e e n t e r i n g a n d r e m a i n i n g i n t h e w o r k p l a c e i n u n p r e c e d e n t e d n u m b e r s . T h e l a t e s t 1 9 8 1 C e n s u s r e v e a l e d t h a t 41% o f a l l w o r k e r s a n d 25% o f a l l p e r s o n s i n m a n a g e r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e n o w f e m a l e ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a ( e ) , 1 9 8 1 ) . C o m p a r e d t o 1 9 7 1 C e n s u s f i n d i n g s w h e r e 38% o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a n d 16% o f m a n a g e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w e r e f e m a l e ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a ( a ) , 1 9 7 1 ) , t h i s t r e n d r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e w o r k f o r c e . W h a t h a s b e e n t h e i m p e t u s f o r m a n y women t o a u g m e n t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s i n s o c i e t y t o i n c l u d e c a r e e r s ? T h e m o s t e v i d e n t r e a s o n i s b a s i c e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y . P r i m a r i l y d u e t o n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s , t h e d u a l i n c o m e f a m i l y h a s b e c o m e a n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r t h a n a l u x u r y . I n 1 9 8 1 , 56% o f a l l C a n a d i a n m a r r i e d a n d s e p a r a t e d w o m e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 1 5 a n d 6 4 w o r k e d o u t s i d e t h e h o m e . F o r s i n g l e , w i d o w e d , a n d d i v o r c e d women w h o n o w r e p r e s e n t 37% o f a l l C a n a d i a n w o m e n , t h e n e e d f o r o u t s i d e e m p l o y m e n t i n c o m e - 1 -i s even more urgent. In 1981, 64% of single and 59% of widowed and divorced women between the ages of 15 and 64 were in the workforce (Statistics Canada (e) 1981). A second impetus to female labour force participation i s the psyche of the modern woman. She i s better educated than previously with approximately one-tenth of Canadian women having had the benefit of university education. The positive relationship between educational level and the propensity to work outside the home has been well documented (Nakamura, et. a l . 1979; Statistics Canada (c), 1976). There i s also a growing recognition of the inherent right of women and minority groups to equal opportunities in the workplace. The movement to entrench this right le g i s l a t i v e l y i s evident in the recent Canadian Charter of Rights. In the American setting, the controversial Equal Rights Amendment exemplifies the growing concern of women to guarantee equality under the law. A l l of these forces have necessitated and f a c i l i t i e d the increased participation of women in the workforce. It i s the nature of their participation that i s the particular concern of this study. As Reed pointed out, women have traditionally f u l f i l l e d a supportive function in the workplace. They are numerically a large proportion of the working population however they have been restricted to what has been characterized as "job ghettos." "For example, labour force data are clear that the ghettoization of women into low-skill, low paying jobs has increased i n the last 10 years, and while women's participation in managerial jobs i s improving, at current rates i t w i l l be l i t e r a l l y a century before they reach a proportion equal to their participation i n the labour force." (Bennett and Loewe, 1975, p. 17) -2-For the majority of women, the rewards and benefits of managerial careers has been r e s t r i c t e d . Reasons for t h i s barrier are numerous. Several studies point to the r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t of sex-role stereotyping which reinforces the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of women as followers rather than leaders. "The existence of a 'male managerial model,' however, perpetuates society norms that women should not or cannot be successful i n management." (Terborg, 1977, p. 647) Others point to the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of females i n our society which hampers thei r pursuance of managerial career goals. "In most organizations the informal system of relationships f i n d both i t s o r i g i n s and present function i n the male culture and i n the male experience. I t s forms, i t s rules of behaviour, i t s s t y l e of communication and i t s mode of relationships grow d i r e c t l y out of the male developmental experience.... And i f organizations i n general are dominated by a male culture, then we need to note that at the management l e v e l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s higher ranks, the informal system i s t r u l y a bastion of the male l i f e s t y l e . " (Hennig and Jardim, 1977, pp. x i i ) In more general terms, Hennig and Jardim also comment on the barrier imposed by our " c u l t u r a l inheritance." "Both men and women have tended to define themselves i n part by th e i r differences. What a man i s i s what a woman i s not. What a woman i s i s what a man i s not. That, i n i t s e l f , has tended to mute, c r i p p l e and narrow a l l of our a b i l i t i e s to l i v e up to our p o t e n t i a l as human beings. That we have incorporated occupational roles as a major part of that defining process i s sadly destructive." (Hennig and Jardim), 1977, p. 203) When expressed i n t h i s manner, the barriers to the managerial success of women appear to be insurmountable on an in d i v i d u a l basis. But a small -3-proportion have succeeded i n overcoming these obstacles and establishing themselves as part of the business management team. I t i s these "pioneer" women who pursue and are successful i n th e i r careers who are of special i n t e r e s t . What sets them apart from the i r female counterparts? How have they achieved t h e i r career goals and at what cost? In establishing themselves i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine r o l e , have they also adopted a set of masculine values, attitudes and managerial style? Or have they developed a new approach to management integrating t h e i r feminine experience into a hitherto masculine managerial role? This study seeks to answer these questions by focussing on one group of women managers i n the banking industry. Women i n Banking The Canadian banking industry i s dominated by f i v e major national banks and several regional banks. Due to the constraints of the Bank Act of Canada and the monetary p o l i c i e s of the Bank of Canada, i n d i v i d u a l banks are very similar i n terms of services offered to the public. Recent technological advances i n computerization of bank services and the trend towards d i v i s i o n a l i z a t i o n have provided the impetus for change i n the industry as a whole. One recent development i s the changing r o l e of women as employees. In 1975, women constituted 72% of a l l f u l l - t i m e employees and 92% of a l l part-time employees (Bossen, 1976). However thei r jobs have been i n the t r a d i t i o n a l low-level c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l occupations. Now, increased attention has been given to the i n t e r n a l promotion of these women into managerial l e v e l s . The f i r s t woman bank manager i n Canada was appointed as recently as 1961 (Canadian Business, 1961). Since then, the progress of women into banking management has been slow however i t has been gaining -4-momentum within the last ten years to the point where now approximately 8 to 10% of a l l branch managers are women. The branch manager position i s a key one in the banking system. It i s at this level that there i s the highest degree of public contact. The branch manager i s at the "front l i n e " of the bank — responsible for personnel management and for promoting business with corporate and consumer clientele. The study of women bank managers i s important for a number of reasons. They are newcomers to management and thus are a relatively unknown entity. A large proportion of bank employees are female and thus constitute a significant management resource for the bank. To date, much of the research on women managers has produced conflicting results. Studies have often focussed on individual characteristics of female managers without providing an overall perspective. Also, the majority of research concerns the U.S. experience which in some respects may not be applicable to Canadian business. For women in the banking industry, additional information i s needed as to how a woman progresses within the bank hierarchy. As Van der Merwe explains in her study of Canadian women managers, both management and women have a need for knowledge about women in nontraditional managerial careers. "As role models, these women provide valuable feedback for the future management development of female Canadians. By identifying these women, successful in an area that up to very recently was closed to them, by getting a better understanding of their views and experiences, management and women can both benefit." (Van der Merwe, 1978, p. 45) With knowledge, management enhances i t s understanding and a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e this v i t a l manpower resource. It i s hoped that this study of -5-women bank managers w i l l a s s i s t i n the e f f e c t i v e employment of women i n the banking industry. Statement of Purpose The general purpose of t h i s study i s to provide an o v e r a l l perspective of the managerial woman i n banking. To t h i s end, information was gathered on a d i v e r s i t y of areas. To ascertain the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of the female manager, data regarding her personal hist o r y was obtained. To evaluate her behavioural and psychological approach to the managerial function, measures of managerial s t y l e , motivational needs, perceptions of co-workers, and personal values were s o l i c i t e d . And f i n a l l y , to evaluate the current status of her career, measures of career success and rates of advancement were analyzed. Perceptions of d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered as a woman i n banking were also requested i n order to determine the extent and type of sex-based discrimination i n banking, both past and present. To determine any sex-based differences, comparisons were drawn between male and female bank managers. S p e c i f i c a l l y , are women managers d i f f e r e n t from their male colleagues i n terms of family hist o r y , education, psychological functioning, managerial s t y l e , and career experiences? I f so, are there any c r i t i c a l factors which explain these differences? On other variables, comparisons were drawn between female bank managers and managerial women i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . The focus of t h i s analysis was to ascertain whether personal backgrounds and experiences of female bank managers were representative of female managers i n other industries and cultures (primarily the U.S.). This study of female bank managers i s an addendum to a larger study of Canadian bank managers conducted by Dr. Larry F. Moore and Dr. Brenda Beck of U.B.C. As such, t h i s study drew heavily on the research methodology and -6-instrumentation developed by Drs. Moore and Beck. The Literature Review i n Chapter I I provides the foundation for analysis by r e l a t i n g relevant research on women i n the labour force and i n management. Based on these findings, s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding female bank managers were developed. Chapter I I I on Methodology provides information regarding the development and procedural aspects of the study. Detailed discussion of research instruments u t i l i z e d i n the study i s also presented. Discussion of the results of the study i s found i n Chapter IV. Spe c i f i c hypotheses are tested against research findings and discussed i n terms of other research studies. Again, the primary focus i s on determining any sex-based differences between male and female bank managers. F i n a l l y , a summary discussion of research findings i s presented i n Chapter V — Conclusion. The future nature of the branch manager's job and the implications these changes may have for the female bank manager are discussed. In c l o s i n g , suggestions for further research on women bank managers are outlined. -7-CHAPTER I I  LITERATURE REVIEW In recent years, there has been a large increase i n research conducted on women i n business, especially i n the managerial and professional role s . One main impetus to t h i s movement was the U.N. declaration of International Year of the Woman i n 1975. This event served to highlight the changing role of women i n society as w e l l as to provide f i n a n c i a l support for research i n t h i s area. The l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l focus on three major areas of publication regarding women. (a) Women i n the Labour Force — the changes i n female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n both Canada and the United States. (b) Women i n Management — demographic backgrounds, motivation, management s t y l e , and career experiences of women i n business management. (c) Women i n Banking Management — the career experiences of Canadian and American women within the banking industry. American publications form a large component of the research available for review. The author has made extensive reference to American research and fee l s that i t i s relevant to a Canadian study because there are strong c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two countries. Furthermore, American business practices are frequently applied i n Canadian industry. U.S. studies which include a large segment of American c u l t u r a l minorities such as Negroes and Hispanics were s e l e c t i v e l y omitted as t h i s experience i s not p a r a l l e l to Canadian society. -8-The majority of research literature available has been fairly recent, primarily since 1960. In her extensive literature review of publications on career women from 1930 through to 1976, Lemkau (1979) was unable to find any relevant research prior to 1960. Thus, compared to other fields of interest in social psychology and organizational behaviour, attention to women in management appears to be a relatively new phenomenon. -9-Women i n the Labour Force Canadian S t a t i s t i c s During the past 10 years, there has been a considerable change i n the labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Canadian woman. Overall there would appear to have been an increase of working women despite age, marital status, and the presence of children. Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women s t i l l lags behind that of men, the current trend i s towards r i s i n g labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n (LFP) as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chart 1. Chart 1. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n by sex i n 1971, 1976, 1981. (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (a), 1976; S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981) LFP (%) 100 --80 -- • • Males 60 --_ _ • Females 40 -- , T , •» — 20 -0 1 1 1 1— Year 1971 1976 1981 Consideration of the marital status and age of the female working population indicates that the largest increases are for married and single women and those i n the 15 to 44 age group. Charts 2 and 3 again provide i l l u s t r a t i o n s of these trends. -10-Chart 2. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Females by M a r i t a l Status i n 1971, 1976/1981. (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (b), 1976; S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981) LFP 100 80 60 40 20 0 (%) 1971 • 1976 1981 M a r i t a l Status Married & Separated Widowed & Divorced Single Chart 3. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Females by Age i n  1971 f 1976,1981. (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (a), 1976; S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981) LFP (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 1971 1976 ^ 1981 Age 15-24 25-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Analysis combining marital status and age of women i n the labour force i n 1981 shows that o v e r a l l , single women are the most l i k e l y to be working outside the home. Widowed and divorced women are the second most l i k e l y groups with married women (husbands present and absent) the least l i k e l y to -11-be i n the labour force. This d i s t r i b u t i o n i s consistent across a l l age groups. Chart 4. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Women by M a r i t a l Status and Age i n 1981. (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981) LFP (%) 100 | Age 15-24 25-44 45-54 55-64 £3 Married and Separated (22 Widowed and Divorced ESI Single, never married Wi^h the introduction of children as a variable, the 1981 s t a t i s t i c s show an interesting development. Across a l l age groups, women with children above the age of 6 have a higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate than either women with no children or those with pre-schcol age children. Widowed, divorced and separated women with children e x h i b i t a higher rate of labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n than married women although i f they do not have children, they have the lowest LFP rate of a l l groups. At t h i s stage, the preliminary 1981 Census findings do not provide additional information explaining t h i s l a t t e r v a r i a t i o n . -12-Chart 5. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n and M a r i t a l Status of Women, age 25-64, by presence and age of children (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (d), 1976) LFP (%) 100-80-Age of Children No Children Some Children Some Children Under 6 years a l l age 6 and over I | Married, husband present Vft Widowed, divorced and separated Single, never married Overall, the presence of pre-schcol age children appears to have a temporary dampening e f f e c t on a woman's labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This finding i s consistent with an e a r l i e r study by Nakamura, et a l . (1979) based on 1971 Canadian Census data. They examined a number of variables which may impact on a married woman's decision to be a part of the workforce. -13-Table 1. Employment of Canadian Females — Explanatory Variables (Source: Nakamura, et a l . , 1979) Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Years of Education No. of children less than 6 years of age No. of children 6-14 years of age No. of children 19-24 years of age attending school f u l l - or part-time No. of children ever born Employment income of husband Pr o b a b i l i t y that a wife i s Currently Working Sign of Impact Significance ( t - s t a t i s t i c ) p< .005 p< .005 p< .05 p< .10* n.s.** p< .005 * Except ages 30-34 and 40-44 where non-significant variable ** Except age group 25-29 where p < .005 Thus, the women with more years of education and older children tend to be employed. Women with pre-school and school age children whose husband i s earning a r e l a t i v e l y higher income are alternately more l i k e l y to remain i n the home. -14-United States S t a t i s t i c s Recent s t a t i s t i c s (March 1974) on female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n (LFT) rates i n the United States indicate close agreement with Canadian patterns. For women i n the 25 to 54 age category there has been a general increase i n LFP (Klein, 1975). Compared to male p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates which have h i s t o r i c a l l y ranged between 95 to 100%, t h i s i s a dramatic change. M a r i t a l status and the presence and age of children appear to be i n f l u e n t i a l factors on a woman's LFP, as the chart below confirms. 1950 - 35% 1960 - 36% 1974 - 52% Chart 6. U.S. Labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n and marital status of women,  age 25-54 by presence and age of children March 1974 (Source: K l e i n , 1975, p. 11) LFP (%) EZH Married, husband present 100 80 f V7% Widowed, divorced and separated 60+ g£3 Single (never married) 404 20 + 0 Age of Children No Children 18 yrs and c h i l d l e s s Children 6-17 yrs Children under 6 yrs -15-For the U.S. women i n the 55 to 64 age category, LFP also increased steadily between 1950 to 1970 with a s l i g h t decrease by the mid-1970's (McEaddy, 1975). 1950 - 27.0% 1960 - 37.2% 1970 - 43.0% 1974 - 40.7% One main reason for t h i s recent decline have been substantial changes i n U.S. s o c i a l security benefits for older women. Ma r i t a l status again appears to be the c r i t i c a l influence on a woman's LFP. In 1974, four out of ten women i n the labour force age 55 and over were heads of households. A comparison of marital status and LFP rates bear out the prevalence i n the labour force of women not currently married. Chart 7 U.S. Labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n and marital status of women, age 55 and over by marital status (McEaddy, 1975, p. 21) LFP (%) 100-80-60-4a 20} YA Id 1 1 Married Widowed I Divorced Separated Never Married M a r i t a l Status For these U.S. s t a t i s t i c s , the following conclusions can be derived. F i r s t , marital status appears to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the prob a b i l i t y that a woman would be employed i n the labour force. The -16-s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates of women without husbands present bears out t h i s conclusion. Second, the presence of children i n the household (especially of the pre-school age) has a d e f i n i t e negative impact on the labour force involvement of women. Overall, the trend i n the U.S. has been for a steady increase i n the number of women working outside the home whether for f i n a n c i a l and/or personal reasons. Career Patterns To f u l l y understand the labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of women, consideration must be given to the pattern of their p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As shown i n the graphs following, men ex h i b i t a sim i l a r unimodal pattern of LFP throughout t h e i r l i f e t i m e although actual rates may vary due to marital status. Women, on the other hand, exhi b i t d i f f e r i n g patterns depending on the i r marital status. Single women and widowed and divorced women most clo s e l y resemble the male unimodal pattern (with single women c l o s e l y approaching single male LFP rates) whereas married women exhib i t a bimodal pattern. LFP peaks at the 20-24 year category followed by a low rate for ages 25 through 34, with a s l i g h t r i s e from ages 34 to 54. Similar patterns have been found i n both the U.S. and U.K. (Ward and Silverstone, 1980). Causality of t h i s bimodal pattern among married women has been attributed to childbearing i n that the ages 25 to 34 coincide with prime childbearing years. A large proportion of women follow an "interrupted" career pattern characterized by leaving the workforce while children are young and then re-entering once children reach school age. This choice obviously i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the presence of the husband's income, one which i s not present or to a lesser degree, for widowed and divorced women (Klein, 1975; Armstrong and Armstrong, 1978). Thus the o v e r a l l labour Chart 8. Canadian Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Women by Sex Age and M a r i t a l Status (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981) Chart 8(a). Single M a r i t a l Status LFP rate (%) ioo] 4 80 60+ 40 20 0 7^ i I \ Males £23 Females JZfeZL Age (years) 15-24 25-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Chart 8 (b). LFP rate (%) I Married and Separated M a r i t a l Status I 1 Males 100 80-60 -40-20;-n 62) Females 7, Age 15-24 25-44 45-54 55-64 65+ -18-Chart 8(c). Widowed and Divorced M a r i t a l Status LFP rate (%) I I Males 100! 801 20! 40f 60! 0 JZZL X/X Females Age 15-24 25-44 45-54 55-64 65+ force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of women appears to be d i r e c t l y linked to s o c i e t a l trends such as divorce and population age d i s t r i b u t i o n . One might expect that the bimondal pattern for married women may be further exaggerated with the "coming of childbearing age" of the post-war baby boom who are now i n the 23 to 38 age category. In respect to women i n nontraditional and managerial careers, several researchers (Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Weil, 1971; Wolfson, 1976; Yohalem, 1979) note that women i n t h i s group have a more continuous career pattern than t r a d i t i o n a l women. Thus one could postulate that t h e i r career pattern would more c l o s e l y resemble that of a si n g l e , widowed or divorced woman. The following question w i l l be addressed as part of t h i s t h e s i s . HYJ>OTHESIS 1. Female bank managers exhi b i t a continuous, high p a r t i c i p a t i o n career pattern despite marital status and the presence of children. -19-Women i n Management Demographic Background The next section of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review focusses on the examination of selected demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women who are working i n the labour force, especially those who are i n a managerial or professional p o s i t i o n . A common hypothesis i n studies of managerial women i s that the i r pre-workforce l i f e experience i s indicat i v e of the type of l i f e s t y l e they aspire to. This may be ascribed to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of the young woman through her family and peers. Again, we are examining the role of women i n a changing society. Whereas i n the past, these factors may not have been regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining a woman's l i f e plans, now they are given more significance i n understanding a woman's career choice. I t i s through t h i s l o g i c that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key factors which promote a woman to s t r i v e for a d i f f e r e n t role i n society than t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed may lead to a greater understanding of the woman i n a managerial p o s i t i o n . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e influences i s one mean of examining the male manager's motivation also. Although comparisons w i l l be drawn between male and female managers and professionals, the focus w i l l remain on women who choose to s t r i v e for t h i s new role as opposed to those who subscribe to the t r a d i t i o n a l homemaker role i n society. Parental Background. The e f f e c t of one's parents on h i s or her career choice and aspirations has been studied extensively. These studies have focussed on three major aspects of family background, namely; (1) parental occupation and socio-economic status, (2) parental education, (3) parental attitudes towards the i r c h i l d ' s career goals and aspirations. -20-In studies of female managers, there has been an additional emphasis on the pot e n t i a l influence of the subject's mother — either through an i n d i r e c t r o l e modelling or through active coaching. Based on her extensive l i t e r a t u r e review of women i n male-dominated professions, Lemkau provided the following p r o f i l e of the nontraditional woman. "She i s the oldest c h i l d of a stable marriage. Her mother i s probably as well-educated as her father and was employed during her childhood. Her father i s better educated than most and employed i n a professional or managerial p o s i t i o n . In keeping with the educational and employment status of her parents, her family tended to be upwardly mobile." (Lemkau, 1979, p. 236) A number of Lemkau's observations on the managerial woman are borne out i n other recent studies of the family background of female managers and professionals. Concerning parental employment, several studies have found that the father of a female business manager i s more l i k e l y to be or have been employed i n a managerial or professional p o s i t i o n . In her longitudinal study of female college graduates, Bielby (1978), found a pos i t i v e r e lationship between a subject's career salience and the socio-economic l e v e l of her father's occupation. Standley and Soule (1974) also found the same po s i t i v e relationship; fathers of women i n male-dominated professions were employed i n high status occupations and earned above-average incomes. Hennig and Jardim (1977), reported a large proportion (88%) of the fathers of the women executives i n th e i r study were employed i n business management positions with the remainder holding college administrative positions. Supporting t h i s f i n d i n g , Place (1979), i n her survey of New Zealand female managers, found that a substantial percentage of the fathers -21-of respondents were self-employed (40%) and were perceived as successful i n their careers (60%). In the author's survey of U.B.C. Commerce graduates (Egri, 1975) a substantial proportion (55%) of the fathers of female graduates were employed i n business management positions. Fathers of female graduates were also more l i k e l y to be employed i n a professional capacity (p < .01) than fathers of male graduates. The maternal employment factor i s the focus of several studies on female managers with less conclusive r e s u l t s . Standley and Soule (1974) found a large percentage (41%) of th e i r women professionals had mothers who were a c t i v e l y i n the workforce, either on a f u l l - t i m e or part-time basis. In h i s comparative study of female and male managers, B a s i l (1972) reported that although less than one-half of the mothers of women respondents were employed, they were three times as l i k e l y to have been employed i n a professional capacity than employed mothers of male respondents. Altman and Grossman (1977), examined the eff e c t s of maternal employment on the career plans of college senior women i n the U.S. Daughters of working mothers scored higher on career orientation than daughters of nonworking mothers (p < .10). This subject group also scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p < .05) on perceived maternal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with feminine role values i n contrast to the comparison group which reported lower career orientation with higher perceived maternal s a t i s f a c t i o n . Within t h i s l a t t e r group however, daughters of nonworking women who saw the i r mothers as d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r roles reported more career orientation than those with mothers who were perceived as s a t i s f i e d with the homemaker r o l e . -22-Foster and Kolinko (1979), found that working mothers provided a po s i t i v e role model for female graduate students whereas t h i s was not a s i g n i f i c a n t variable for male students (p < .05). The author (Egri, 1975) also presents supporting evidence that mothers of female respondents are more l i k e l y to be employed outside the home than mothers of male respondents (p < .01). Moreover, the employed mothers of female respondents were more l i k e l y to hold managerial or professional jobs than those of male respondents (p < .01). In contrast, a number of studies do not support the above findings. Bielby (1978), concluded that maternal employment i s l e s s important r e l a t i v e to other factors i n determining the career salience of female college graduates. However, she did find a small p o s i t i v e relationship between a married daughter's stated career commitment and maternal employment. Daughters of mothers who worked i n high status jobs were less l i k e l y to be career involved themselves. Hennig and Jardim (1977), found the mothers of their female executives to be primar i l y housewives (96%). This finding could be p a r t i a l l y explained by the age of their respondents ( a l l born between the years of 1910 and 1915) and thus the i r mothers would have been e l i g i b l e for the workforce during a period of very low female labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In Place's research (1979) mothers of female managers were not employed outside the home (65%). Tangri's study (1972) focussed on several factors which may influence a woman to select either a Role Innovative career i n a male-dominated profession or a Tr a d i t i o n a l career. Although mothers i n general were seen to exert a negative influence on the subject's choice of a Role Innovative career, there was a degree of maternal role-modelling present i f the mother -23-herself had been a Role Innovator. In support of t h e i r hypothesis that the mother serves as the most important role model i n respect to career salience, Almquist and Angrist (1971) studied college women's career goals. Subjects were allocated to one of two groups: (1) career-salient — women planning to combine careers with marriage and mothering r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; and (2) non-career-salient — women planning to leave the workforce after marriage and/or becoming a parent. An examination of parental influence revealed that career s a l i e n t women were more l i k e l y to have mothers who were employed (p < .001) and have attributed p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to th e i r parents (p< .05). Career s a l i e n t women perceived the i r mothers as successfully coping with t h e i r worklives. In summary, there appears to be inconclusive evidence regarding the pote n t i a l influence of maternal employment on a woman's choice of a nontraditional profession. However, paternal employment appears to have an i n f l u e n t i a l role-modelling e f f e c t on the daughter's choice of a nontraditional career. This thesis w i l l address two hypotheses i n regards to parental employment status: HYPOTHESIS 2. The fathers of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be or have been employed as a manager or a professional than otherwise. HYPOTHESIS 3. The mothers of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be or have been employed outside the home than otherwise. -24-The educational l e v e l of one's parents can also be considered an i n f l u e n t i a l factor i n a c h i l d ' s career choice because entry into c e r t a i n professions necessitates a university degree or other advanced study. A university degree may enhance one's promotional opportunities i n business management. Hennig and Jardim (1977), Tangri (1972), Place (1979), B a s i l (1972), and Eg r i (1975) a l l report a po s i t i v e relationship between parents' educational l e v e l and a woman's choice of a professional or managerial career. In general, women choosing nontraditional jobs have parents who have a minimum of Grade 12 and very often have attended college or university. These studies often noted that the mother's education achievement was at lea s t the same or higher than that of the father. Only Bielby (1978) reported a negative relationship between father's educational attainment and a subject's choice of a nontraditional career. Therefore, the hypotheses regarding parental education l e v e l are: HYPOTHESIS 4. Parents of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have attained a higher l e v e l of educational achievement that the general population. HYPOTHESIS 5. The educational l e v e l attained by a female manager's mother i s at least the same as or higher than that of her father. In her review of the l i t e r a t u r e on women i n male-dominated professions, Lemkau (1979) addressed the issue of ethnic o r i g i n . Based on several studies, she concluded that women of foreign o r i g i n (born outside the U.S.) were overrepresented i n areas where a high l e v e l of academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were important such as law and Ph.D.'s. However i n the general areas of business and p o l i t i c s , there were r e l a t i v e l y few women -25-managers of foreign o r i g i n . Van der Merwe (1978) provides substantiating evidence of Lemkau's observation. Of the 100 Canadian women managers surveyed, 91% were Canadian born. Therefore, i n regards to ethnic o r i g i n , t h i s study w i l l consider the following hypothesis. HYJPOTrlESIS 6. Female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be of Canadian o r i g i n than foreign born. Influence of "Sign i f i c a n t Others." The parent's r o l e i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e goes beyond j u s t teaching by example. To a large extent, the parent plays an i n t e g r a l part i n coaching h i s or her c h i l d i n th e i r l i f e plans. Active encouragement of ce r t a i n career alternatives b e l i e s the aspirations i n s t i l l e d i n a c h i l d . In general, studies which have addressed t h i s issue report that the woman manager or professional received p o s i t i v e parental encouragement of th e i r educational and career goals. Standley and Soule (1974) observed that parents of their female professionals received favourable encouragement i n regards to th e i r achievement and competence aspirations. A larger percentage (66%) of subjects recalled that the i r parents stressed achievement q u a l i t i e s (eg. to get good grades, to be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y curious) than the 17% who stated that s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s (eg. to be neat, to act more l i k e a g i r l , to be affectionate) were stressed more. Both parents were supportive of their daughter's academic achievements however, once degrees were obtained, there was reportedly l e s s support of subsequent career plans. Standley and Soule hypothesize that, -26-"....parents may have been interested i n the academic credentials to announce thei r daughters' worth and, once stated, parental — especially maternal — p r i o r i t i e s turn to more t r a d i t i o n a l values of housewifery and mothering." (Standley and Soule, 1974, p. 255) Hennig and Jardim (1977) support Standley and Soule's contention to a certain degree however they i d e n t i f y a d i v i s i o n between the parents i n encouragement of l i f e s k i l l s conducive to a career i n business. Parents were reported to have been very supportive of thei r c h i l d ' s achievements with the father taking an active part i n encouraging h i s daughter to part i c i p a t e i n sports and other t r a d i t i o n a l l y male a c t i v i t i e s . Subjects recalled that i n t h e i r early childhood they were not sex-stereotyped i n their a c t i v i t i e s . However, i n l a t e r adolescence, c o n f l i c t often arose over the subject's femininity. Although the father remained the primary role model providing a strong achievement orientation, subjects saw thei r mothers as a source of c o n f l i c t . During the teen years, the mother (who was i n a t r a d i t i o n a l female role) stressed the need for developing feminine s o c i a l s k i l l s necessary to maintain the role of a woman i n society — one which the subject a c t i v e l y resisted. The subjects submitted that at t h i s point i n thei r l i v e s , they looked forward to marriage and motherhood and dated s o c i a l l y . Thus parental influence has been observed as a two-edged sword with i n i t i a l p o s i t i v e reinforcement ( p a r t i c u l a r l y from the father) of a young c h i l d ' s nontraditional i n t e r e s t s . Later i n adult l i f e , greater stress was placed on marital and family goals. The hypothesis i n regards to t h i s quandary i s : HYPOTHESIS 7(a). The father i s perceived by the female bank manager as the primary f a m i l i a l source of po s i t i v e encouragement of her -27-career goals. In comparative studies regarding the influence of persons outside the immediate family i n the decision of women to seek out a nontraditional career, faculty members and male peers prove to be instrumental. Faculty members, male and female peers, and fathers (p < .01, p < .05; p< .01) are regarded as pos i t i v e influences on a college woman's choice of a Role Innovative career. Mothers on the other hand, were seen as a negative or conservative influence for the Role Innovative woman (Tangri, 1972). Theodore (1971) reported confirming evidence that f a c u l t y members (p< .001) and male peers (p < .01) supported career-oriented college women's l i f e plans. F i n a l l y , i n thei r comparison of career choice influences of others, Stake and Levitz (1979) arrived at the following conclusions. Faculty members (p < .05) and male peers (p < .06) were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n a career-oriented college woman's l i f e plans. For male students, female peers proved i n f l u e n t i a l (p < .06). For both male and female students, parental influence was not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Based on these studies i t would appear that faculty members or persons i n academic areas are very i n f l u e n t i a l i n a woman's selection of a non-t r a d i t i o n a l career. Male peers also seem to have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence although perhaps to a lesser extent. HYJXDTHESIS 7(b). Outside of the family, faculty members and teachers are perceived as the most s i g n i f i c a n t influence on a female bank manager's career choice. -28-M a r i t a l Status. As discussed previously, a woman's marital status appears to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on her labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In addition to Canadian and U.S. Census data, additional research has been conducted on the relationship between marriage and women's careers. Wolfson (1976) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l ationship between marital status and female career patterns from 1933 to 1965. Women who were single were more l i k e l y to have consistent labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n throughout a 25 year period (50% of t h i s group). On the other hand, 100% of the women who had careers interrupted by frequent leaving and re-entry i n t o the workforce and of less than 18 years duration were married. Yohalem (1979) observed a simi l a r r e lationship between m a r i t a l status and working. Two-thirds of the never-married women i n her study who had attended graduate school worked every year since graduation whereas only 25% of the ever-married subjects had. Yohalem also found that divorce provided a greater propensity to work especially i f the children were of school age or older. In her survey of Canadian women managers, Van der Merwe (1978) disclosed that only 38% of these women were married and 34% had never married. Place (1979) also observed that the female manager i s not as l i k e l y to be married as 60% of her subjects were either single or separated. Almquist and Angrist (1971) found a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n m a r i t a l status between career-salient (tended to be unattached) and non-career salient students (p < .01). Thus, based on these findings, i t would appear that marital status has a significant effect on the labour force participation of women. Essentially, women who are married are less likely to pursue a full-time career throughout their working lives. Women who never married or who have reverted to single status either through divorce, separation or widowhood are more likely to be in the workforce. This thesis addresses the issue of marital status as follows: HYPOTHESIS 8. Female bank managers are more likely to be either single, divorced, separated or widowed than their male manager counterparts. Childbearing. Interrelated with marital status, the presence of children also appears to have a direct impact on the labour force participation of women. Place (1979) observed fully 50% of her New Zealand women managers did not have children. Hennig and Jardim (1977) also observed that none of their women executives had children of their own. Of the women who did marry, a large number (50%) married widowers or divorced men who had children from their previous marriages. Van der Merwe (1978) also mentioned childlessness (64%) as a dominant characteristics of Canadian female managers. Of the remaining 36% who did have children, over 60% had children aged 18 and over. Yohalem (1979) observed the negative effect of children on labour force participation of married women. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of the married women in her study had children with the majority having two or three. However only 18% of a l l the mothers did not miss more than one year of employment. She found a negative relationship between the number of -30-children and labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y for women with school-age children. This difference was neg l i g i b l e once children reached high school age. Wolfson (1976) recorded a si m i l a r observation i n her study of career patterns of married women. She observed that women who had never worked or had a low rate of labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n , had an average of three children with the mean age of the youngest c h i l d of 10.8 years. For women with active careers, the average number of children was one and the mean age of the youngest c h i l d was 7.5 years. Faver (1981) studies the l i f e - c y c l e e f f e c t of marital and parental status on the achievement orientation, career values and family values of women between the ages of 22 and 64 years. She found that achievement orientation remained constant across age groups and l i f e - c y c l e groups, however, there were differences between age groups i n regards to career and family values. Within selected age groups, Faver found variations i n family and career values. For married women age 22 to 34 with preschool chi l d r e n , family values were l i k e l y to be high whereas for single mothers at t h i s l i f e cycle stage, career values were higher than family values. For married women i n the 35 to 44 year age group, there i s a negative relationship between age and the age of the youngest children. Thus older mothers appear to be more interested i n family values than younger mothers. As with the 22 to 34 age group, single mothers and c h i l d l e s s women emphasized career over family values. In the 45 to 64 age group, there was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e variance between l i f e - c y c l e groups regarding career and family values. In general, t h i s age group stressed family values over career values despite marital status. -31-Iglehart (1979) surveyed married women i n the labour force at two separate times — 1957 and 1976. In her survey she found a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the type of work commitment of married women i n the labour force. Table 2. Type of Career Commitment of Married Women (Source: Iglehart, 1979, pp. 31) 1957 1976 Non-Economic Reasons (prevents 'negative s t a t e 1 : ego s a t i f i c a t i o n ) 58% 82% Economic reasons 42% 18% * Pr o b a b i l i t y X 2 < .001 The same trend toward non-economic reasons for working i s consistent when examined i n terms of the age of the youngest c h i l d of the working mother. Table 3. Type of Career Commitment of Married Women by Age of Youngest Ch i l d (Source: Iglehart, 1979, p. 34) Age of Youngest Ch i l d Type of Commitment 1957 1976 0 - 5 years* Non-economic 31% 70% Economic 69 30 6 - 1 2 years* Non-economic 55 81 Economic 45 19 13 - 18 years Non-economic 57 82 Economic 43 18 19 years or older** Non-economic 60 84 40 16 * X 2 P r o b a b i l i t y < .01 ** X 2 P r o b a b i l i t y < .05 Based on the research conducted on childbearing and women's careers, the following deduction can be tested. -32-HYPOTHESIS 9. I f ever-married, female bank managers are l i k e l y to have few (1 or 2) i f any, children. Role C o n f l i c t . As has been discussed, marital status and childbearing appear to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on a woman's labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n . But once a woman makes the choice to work outside the home, what ef f e c t does that decision have on her l i f e s t y l e ? Of the two or three primary l i f e roles — wife, mother, worker — which dominates? Is i t possible to s a t i s f y the perceived requirements of each l i f e role? These questions are asked more and more often as women increasingly choose to work outside of the home. As found with executive and managerial women (Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Van der Merwe, 1978; Faver, 1981; Yohalem, 1979), some women choose to avoid t h i s c o n f l i c t by abstaining from marriage or childbearing, or by delaying these commitments u n t i l l a t e r i n l i f e . Whether t h i s i s a conscious or sub-conscious decision depends la r g e l y on the i n d i v i d u a l . This section presents several studies which examine the po t e n t i a l role c o n f l i c t s encountered by women. . Part of the debate i s whether men encounter similar c o n f l i c t s i n meeting work and personal goals. Herman and Gyllstrom (1977) surveyed 500 employees of a university i n an e f f o r t to assess i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t between career, personal and family a c t i v i t i e s . F i r s t , they found twice as many unmarried women i n their sample as unmarried men. These individuals tend to spend more time on personal a c t i v i t i e s than married persons. In assessing i n t e r - r o l e -33-c o n f l i c t , the authors discovered a po s i t i v e relationship between perceived i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t and the number of s o c i a l roles held by the respondent (p < .01). As a group, women perceived greater c o n f l i c t between work and home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than men (p < .01) even though men spent more time working outside the home during the week. The two groups which perceived the l e a s t c o n f l i c t between work and personal a c t i v i t i e s were unmarried women and married men with children (p < .05). Bryson, Bryson and Johnson (1978) i n th e i r study of dual career couples, concluded husbands remained r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by the presence of children i n the family un i t . Wives, on the other hand, reported d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the time available to meet domestic, avocational and professional a c t i v i t i e s . There also appeared a po s i t i v e relationship between the degree of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with time a v a i l a b i l i t y and the number of children i n the household. In a questionnaire survey of married men and women i n two organizations, Kaley (1971) found s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d i n a l differences regarding a woman's a b i l i t y to f u l f i l l both career and home obligations. Men reported a negative attitude that t h i s could be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y achieved whereas women as a group displayed a po s i t i v e attitude. Two studies conducted with college women (Almquist and Angrist, 1971; Altman and Grossman, 1977) sought to measure role c o n f l i c t expectations. Given that the majority of these women have not yet encountered the problems created by the c o n f l i c t i n g demands of career versus home, both studies also investigated the causes for thei r attitudes. Almquist and Angrist compared attitudes of college women who were either career-oriented (plan to combine family and career r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) and non-career-oriented (plan to relinquish t h e i r careers i n favour of home responsibilities). The authors isolated maternal employment of subjects as the main indicator of a woman's career salience (p < .001). Thus the mother who successfully combines work and home roles serves as an important role model in her daughter's subsequent l i f e plans. Altman and Grossman also arrived at similar conclusions regarding maternal influence on college women's l i f e plans. Daughters of working and career-oriented mothers displayed higher career orientation than daughters of housewives (p < .01). However, no relationship between career orientation and maternal satisfaction (subject's assessment of mother's overall l i f e satisfaction) was found for the career-oriented woman. For daughters of non-working mothers though, high perceived maternal dissatisfaction was positively correlated with career orientation (p<.001) — a negative role model effect is evident for this group. In regards to inter-role conflict for the working woman, the following hypotheses will be tested. HYPOTHESIS 10. Married female bank managers report greater inter-role conflict of career and family or personal responsibilities than unmarried ones. HYPOTHESIS 11. Female bank managers with children report greater inter-role conflict than ones without children. -35-Spouses of Female Managers B a s i l (1972) reported that the husbands of female managers were more l i k e l y to hold professional (42%) or managerial positions (50%) than non-supervisory jobs (8%). In contrast, only 17% of the wives of male managers held professional jobs, 6% held management positions and 28% were employed i n non-supervisory jobs. E g r i (1975) found supporting evidence of the equality of a woman university graduate's career l e v e l and that of her husband. Spouses of female respondents were more l i k e l y (p < .01) to be employed i n management or professional positions than the spouses of male respondents who were more l i k e l y to be i n non-supervisory jobs. Based on c i t e d research evidence the following hypothesis regarding spouses of female bank managers w i l l be tested. HYPOTHESIS 12. Spouses of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be employed i n a managerial or professional capacity than i n a non-supervisory job. The years of education completed by a woman appears to be related to the education l e v e l of her spouse. Yohalem (1979) established that a woman's l e v e l of education was generally the same or less than that of her spouse. Only 12% of the husbands of these university graduates had not graduated from college. Feldman (1973) also found an in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a female -36-graduate student's educational l e v e l and that of her husband. Women graduate students were more l i k e l y to have a spouse with a graduate education (more than 50% of the female graduate students) than spouses of graduate men (less than 25%). B a s i l (1972) reported that the educational and occupational l e v e l of women managers* spouses was more l i k e l y to be equivalent to or greater than that of the male managers' spouses. Only f o r t y - f i v e percent (45%) of the male managers' wives had attended college as compared to 75% of the female managers' husbands. Eg r i (1975) also found supporting evidence of t h i s trend i n that 95% of the spouses of female university graduates had also attended university whereas only 50% of the wives of male respondents had attended university. In respect to educational attainment, i t appears that the woman seeking a non-traditional managerial or professional career i s more l i k e l y to have achieved a higher l e v e l of education than the general population although perhaps less than that of male managers. Also, the educational l e v e l of a woman appears to be inter-related to that of her husband (more so than for men) and the managerial woman tends to marry a man with equivalent or greater formal education. HYIKDTHESIS 13. Spouses of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have equivalent or higher education l e v e l s than the i r wives. Education. Educational attainment can be taken as an indicator of career commitment as i t represents an investment of energy and money into preparation for a future job. In t h i s respect, i t would follow that the higher the education l e v e l of a woman, the greater her commitment to pursuing a career outside the home. In t h e i r analysis of Canadian 1971 Census data, Armstrong and /Armstrong (1978) concluded that women who have attained a high l e v e l of education are more l i k e l y than other women to work outside the home even i f they have children. Table 4. Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Female Population 15 years and over by M a r i t a l Status, Presence of Children &  Education, 1976 (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (c) 1976) M a r i t a l Status Single No Children Some Children -Some under 6 -None under 6 Married No Children Some Children -Some under 6 -None under 6 Less than Grade 9 33.5 28.0 20.0 37.5 20.5 34.5 27.5 37.5 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate (%) Separated, Divorced & Widowed No Children 13.2 Some Children 30.6 -Some under 6 19.1 -None under 6 32.6 Grades 9 - 1 1 39.5 38.4 30.5 59.4 41.5 41.3 31.2 48.4 31.6 52.2 37.2 57.2 Grades 12-13 67.0 60.5 53.5 78.5 59.0 45.5 37.0 54.0 40.0 68.6 61.0 71.5 Some Univ. 76.5 69.5 63.0 80.0 65.0 53.5 46.5 61.0 49.7 74.8 67.3 77.2 Univ. Degree 83.5 86.5 80.5 93.5 76.5 55.0 50.0 61.5 64.1 82.9 80.4 83.8 Approximately one-half of the women managers i n Van der Merwe's study (1978) had a university degree or diploma with an additional 13% having completed some university. Wolfson (1976) found that graduation from college with a vocational major and attendance i n graduate school were primar i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women who had a high rate of labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The choice of higher education was a dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of women executives studied by Hennig and Jardim (1977). Even though these women were of college age during the 1930's, a period of economic depression, 84% had attended university with a t o t a l of 48% majoring i n business or -38-economic studies. P e r r e l l a (1968) observed that the greater the number of years of school completed, the higher the labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate. Suter and M i l l e r (1973) documented that single and married women with higher l e v e l s of education were more l i k e l y to have a l i f e t i m e of work experience. Fernandez (1981) found that substantially more male managers had college graduation and graduate trai n i n g than female managers i n the 12 large U.S. firms he studied. There appeared to be a generational difference i n the attainment of college degrees. The largest differences (ie. men more than women) were i n the 40 years and over age categories with close equality i n educational attainment for male and female managers i n the 20 to 30 year age group. Yohalem (1979) observed that the number of years of education that a woman completed had an impact on both her labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n and subsequent family l i f e . Within her survey of university graduates, 32% had Ph.D. degrees, 18% had f i r s t professional degrees and 48% had Masters degrees. She found a p o s i t i v e relationship between the years of education completed and a woman's propensity to work f u l l time. In respect to family l i f e , women with more years of education were more l i k e l y to be unmarried and i f married, to marry at a l a t e r age. Consistent with t h i s f i n d i n g , Yohalem also observed that family s i z e ( i e . number of children) was smaller for women with higher degrees. The attendance and completion of a college education appears to have an impact on an individual's career goals (Fernandez, 1981). For both male and female managers, attainment of a college degree was ind i c a t i v e of high l e v e l career goals. Although women had lower career aspirations (despite education level) than men i n management, a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was demonstrated. Iglehart (1979) found that although non-economic reasons for employment by married women were c i t e d , there was a gradual increase i n t h i s type of career commitment with additional education such that for women who had completed college 88% c i t e d non-economic reasons for working. Thus the hypotheses to be tested regarding education l e v e l s of female bank managers are: HYPOTHESIS 14. Female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have a university or college education than not. HYPOTHESIS 15. Female bank managers have a lower degree of formal education than male bank managers. -40-. Psychological Variables Which Influence Women as Managers Several research studies have focussed on the psychological dynamics of women managers as compared to male managers and women i n other occupations. The majority of these studies address inherent aptitudes and motivational needs as measures of a woman's propensity to embark on a non-t r a d i t i o n a l career i n business management. Aptitudes. A male-female comparison of inherent aptitudes conducted by the Human Engineering Laboratory/Johnson 0'Conner Research Foundation (Durkin, 1978) produced interesting r e s u l t s . There were no discernible sex differences on thirteen of the twenty-one a b i l i t i e s measured. These a b i l i t i e s included a n a l y t i c a l reasoning, inductive reasoning, memory for design, number memory, objective personality, subjective personality, foresightedness, and various physical aptitudes. Of the remaining eight a b i l i t i e s measured, women excelled i n s i x aptitudes (finger dexterity, graphoria, ideaphoria, observation, silograms and abstract v i s u a l i z a t i o n ) whereas men excelled i n g r i p and s t r u c t u r a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n . Thus, i n regards to a b i l i t i e s often associated with managerial c a p a b i l i t i e s (objective personality, abstract v i s u a l i z a t i o n and high English vocabulary) there appears to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between men and women inasfar as innate a b i l i t i e s are concerned. Motiviation. Research into the basic psychological motivation of women i n management has most often been based on the following t r i a d of motives: (1) need for Achievement (nAch) (2) need for Power (nPower) (3) need for A f f i l i a t i o n (nAff) Measured prima r i l y through projective techniques such as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), research has indicated that successful managers -41-e x h i b i t high nAch, high nPower and lew nAff (Hall, 1976, pp. 106-108). A fourth motivational need, Motive to Avoid Success, has been postulated by Horner (1972) as a psychological barrier to achievement. Horner argues that "....most women have a motive to avoid success, that i s , a d i s p o s i t i o n to become anxious about achieving success because they expect negative consequences (such as s o c i a l rejection and/or feelings of being unfeminine) as a r e s u l t of succeeding." (Horner, 1972, p. 159, 33). The following table presents a summary of research conducted i n t h i s area of motivation as i t relates to women i n management. -42-TABLE 5. Studies of Motivational Needs of Women Traditional Careers Study Subjects nAch nPower nAff Tewari Women -higher for -higher for -no s i g -(1980) vs. Women women mana- women mana- n i f i c a n t i n General gers (p < .0001) gers (p< .001) differences -positive -positive - p o s i t i v e relationship relationship relationship with mgr.'s with years with age of years of managerial mgrs. education experience Moore and Women i n -higher for Ri c k e l Non-tradi- Non-tradi-(1980) t i o n a l careers vs. Women i n ti o n a l women (p < .016) Motive to Avoid Success Faver (1981) Tangri (1972) Cross-section of 'Women Women University Students — Roles Innova-tors vs. Traditionals no s i g n i f i c a n t differences across age groups or l i f e -cycle groups -no s i g n i f i c a n t difference no s i g n i f i -cant difference TABLE 5 (Cont.) Study Subjects nAch Knotts Women i n pro- -higher for (1975) fessional careers prof, women vs. women i n -positive r e l a -general tionship with education l e v e l (prof, women) Morrison & Executive and -higher for Sebald Nonexecutive executive women (1974) Canadian Women (P < .05) Trigg & Women i n Non- -higher for non-Perlman t r a d i t i o n a l vs. t r a d i t i o n a l (1976) Traditional women Careers i n (P < .01) health sciences Horner Males vs. Female (1972) College Students Presoott Male vs. Female (1971, College Students p. 163) Horner Male vs. Female (1972) College Students nPower nAff M-S -higher for prof, women -postive r e l a -tionship with with education (prof, women) -higher for executive women (p < .001) -lower for prof, women -lower for executive women (P < .05) -lower for nontraditional women (P * .01) Sig. higher for women (p < .0005) Sig. higher for women (P < .01) -males and females with low scores perform better i n competition TABLE 5 (Cont.) Study Subjects nAch Horner (cont. Tomlinson- Female College Keasey Students (1974) i I nPower nAff M-s Females with high M-s per-formed at lower level (p < .01 between female groups) -married women students with children scored sig. lower M-s than unmarried coeds Based on this summary of studies on achievement motivation, the following assertions can be made, (1) need for Achievement — Women in nontraditional and professional careers consistently score higher on their need to achieve than either women in general or women in traditional careers. There appears to be a positive relationship between high need for Achievement and education level. The need for Achievement motive appears not to be dependent on age or life-cycle stage (marital status, childbearing). (2) need for Power — Women in managerial and professional careers consistently score higher on their need for Power or Dominance. There appears to be a positive relationship between need for Power and education level and years of managerial experience. (3) need for Affiliation — Women in nontraditional careers consistently score lower than other women in their need for Affiliation. There appears to be a negative relationship between need for Affiliation and age of women managers. (4) Motive to Avoid Success (M_s) — Women score consistently higher on M_s than men. Marital status appears to have some effect on M-s scores in that married women score lower. In that research on M_s has been limited to subjects enrolled in colleges, at this point generalizations to women in the workforce is limited. The motivational profile of the managerial woman (high need for Achievement, high need for Power, low need for Affiliation) appears to be consistent with that of successful male managers. Unfortunately, comparative studies of men and women managers on this dimension are not available for review. In th e i r absence though, i t may be concluded that the woman pursuing a nontraditional career i s c l o s e l y aligned with her male counterpart i n regards to psychological motivation. High need for achievement i s exhibited by the personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an in t e r n a l standard of excellence, high academic performance and independence which are prim a r i l y i n t r i n s i c motivators of work performance. Therefore, i t would follow that persons scoring high on need for Achievement would also indicate a preference for i n t e r n a l over external rewards i n the workplace. Alpander and Gutman (1976) compared male and female preference rankings among selected i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c motivators. I n t r i n s i c motivators (work pride, personal development, self-esteem, and feelings of accomplishment) were rank ordered s i m i l a r l y for men and women. However, there were sex differences i n the ranking of e x t r i n s i c motivators. TABLE 6. E x t r i n s i c Motivator Preference Rankings — Females vs. Males (Source: Alpander and Gutman, 1976, p. 77) Female Ranking Male Ranking Superior Recognition 1 2 Peer Acceptance 2 4 More Pay 3 1 Fringe Benefits 4 3 Better Working Conditions 5 5 Van der Merwe (1978) found that women executives rate i n t r i n s i c factors at work (challenging work, approval of superiors, opportunity for advancement, and decision-making involvement) higher than e x t r i n s i c factors such as pay and job security. Based on these two studies, the managerial woman appears to value i n t r i n s i c rewards at the work place greater than e x t r i n s i c rewards. Also, -47-superior and peer recognition appears to be more highly valued by women than by men. HYPOTHESIS 16. Female and male bank managers have similar motivational need profiles Causes for Success. Causal attributions for success provide some indication as to the self-concept or perception of a woman manager. It also provides a sense of either an internal vs. external locus of control over one's career. Van der Merwe (1978) asked women managers which factors accounted for their personal success. The following l i s t is a summary of their most frequent responses. Determination Extra Effort Competence Hard Work Interpersonal Skills Self Confidence Intelligence Environmental Support Aggressiveness Luck With the exception of environmental support and luck, a l l of these factors indicate an internal locus of control. These women stressed that their energy and dedication was the primary cause of their managerial success. This checklist was replicated in this study with a variation as to the respondent's judgement of any sex differences in attribution of causality. Deaux (1979) addressed the issue of causality of success or failure in her study of male and female retail supervisors. Of the four causal factors of ability, good luck, effort and easy task, males more often claimed ability as responsible for their success (p=.029 and p=.055 for their two samples). Both sexes cited ability and effort over task ease or luck but females rated the use of effort over ability more often than males. There was no evidence of sex-based differences in causality of failure — a l l factors received low ratings. -48-In t h i r d party studies of causa l i t y ( i e . , not s e l f - r e p o r t s ) , similar observations are found. Stevens and DeNisi (1980) asked male and female managers to rate four factors ( a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , luck, and nature of the job) as to th e i r instrumentality i n the success or f a i l u r e of a f i c t i t i o u s woman manager. Male subjects most often attributed success to a b i l i t y (p< .01) and e f f o r t (p < .05); and f a i l u r e to lack of e f f o r t (p < .01) and to lack of a b i l i t y (p < .10). Female subjects attributed success to a b i l i t y (p < .01) and to e f f o r t (p < .01); and to att r i b u t e f a i l u r e to.the nature of the job (p < .01). Feldman-Summers and Kiesler (1974) conducted two experiments on causal a t t r i b u t i o n s of success or f a i l u r e of males and females. In th e i r f i r s t experiment, they asked male and female students t h e i r evaluations of a f i c t i t i o u s man or woman i n an examination s i t u a t i o n . A t t r i b u t i o n s to a l l four factors ( a b i l i t y , motivation, d i f f i c u l t y of task, and luck) increased with the l e v e l of success of the f i c t i t i o u s person. The one sex-based difference was that subjects (male and female) attributed more motivation to females rather than males at a l l l e v e l s of success. In t h e i r second experiment, Feldman-Summers and Kie s l e r again asked male and female students t h e i r causal a t t r i b u t i o n s for success for a f i c t i t i o u s physician. The researchers varied the sex and specialty of the physician (either p e d i a t r i c s or surgery). Using the same four factors (with luck being defined as the existence or absence of a physician fathe r ) , Feldman-Summers and Kiesler d i d f i n d some sex-based differences. Male subjects tended to a l t e r t h e i r a t t r i b u t i o n s of luck depending on the presence of a physician father whereas female subjects d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e on t h i s factor (p < .01). Of the other factors, motivation was attributed more to females than to males (p < .01). When the sex of the subject i s taken into consideration, a d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e for each group i s obtained. Male subjects attributed more a b i l i t y to the male physician than the female physician whereas the factors of greater motivation (p=.06) and easier task and luck (p < .01) was more attri b u t a b l e to the female physician. Female subjects d i f f e r e d somewhat i n the i r assessments i n that they saw the male physician as having an easier task (p < .01) and the female physician as being more motivated (p < .01) than the male physician. Based on these two experiments, Feldman-Summers and Kiesler argue that there are sex-based differences as to success factors. Success i n a job was most often related to being male espe c i a l l y i n terms of a b i l i t y whereas for the female, motivation appears to be the dominating factor. Thus there appears to be a trade-off between assessment of a b i l i t y (male) versus motivation (female). F i n a l l y , Jabes (1980) asked women managers th e i r appraisal of success causality for f i c t i t i o u s male and female managers. The four factors they were asked to u t i l i z e were personal a b i l i t i e s , personal motivation, easy job demands, and good luck. The subjects as a group judged the f i c t i t i o u s female manager as more successful than the male manager (p < .002). They also attributed more a b i l i t y to female managers (p <.02) with the factors of easier job demands (p < .003) and luck (p < .06) perceived as more applicable to male managers. C l e a r l y , i n t h i s study, women managers appear to hold a po s i t i v e bias towards other women managers. In summary, there appears to be s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences i n attr i b u t i o n s of causes for success — both on the basis of the sex of the study participant and the sex of the f i c t i t i o u s person being evaluated. In self-re p o r t studies, i n t e r n a l factors such as e f f o r t and a b i l i t y are c i t e d -50-as most important by both male and female respondents. Of these two factors though, e f f o r t and hard work are seen as more ascribable to women managers with a b i l i t y as the dominant factor for males. In studies dealing with assessments of t h i r d p a r t i e s , similar perceptions are found. The primary cause of success for male managers was seen as a b i l i t y whereas motivation was perceived as more instrumental for female managers. Female subjects also tended to ascribe external factors to male managers and in t e r n a l factors to female managers. These conclusions w i l l be tested d i r e c t l y i n t h i s thesis using Van der Merwe's l i s t of causal factors. The s p e c i f i c hypotheses to be tested are: HYJEOTHESIS 17. Female bank managers perceive motivational factors including hard work and extra e f f o r t as more instrumental i n t h e i r career success than other factors. fficTOTHESIS 18. Female bank managers tend to ascribe i n t e r n a l causes of success to women and external causes of success to men. Managerial S t y l e . Research i n organizational behaviour varies widely i n i t s approach to the study of managerial s t y l e . One set of theorists led by McGregor (1967) focus on the manager as an independent e n t i t y . His st y l e i s determined by the b e l i e f s and attitudes he brings to the work place. Others (Likert, 1967; Hemphill, 1949); Mintzberg, 1973) take a more s i t u a t i o n a l approach to the study of managerial s t y l e . How a manager or leader behaves i s l a r g e l y dependent on the nature of the group with which he i s involved. A comprehensive approach to the study of managerial s t y l e would integrate both of these approaches. Managerial s t y l e can thus be defined as a set of managerial behaviours, attitudes and assumptions. Managerial s t y l e has been shown to vary across organizations (Campbell, et. a l . , 1970) and across cultures (Ouchi, 1981; England, 1975). As such i t i s not a s t a t i c variable but i s subject to s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l determinants. Within t h i s study, managerial s t y l e has been defined to be a composite of managerial behaviour, b e l i e f and a t t i t u d i n a l systems i n response to his/her r o l e i n the organization. Unfortunately much of the available research comparing male and female managerial st y l e s has focussed on in d i v i d u a l leader personality t r a i t s . As yet, male-female comparisons u t i l i z i n g a comprehensive approach to managerial s t y l e are l i m i t e d . In t h e i r study of the managerial behaviour of 2000 managers, Donnell and H a l l (1980) ascertained few sex-based differences. They used f i v e dimensions of managerial achievement i n the i r series of studies. (1) Managerial philosophy — b e l i e f s and values of managers as defined by McGregor's Theory X - Theory Y managerial b e l i e f s . *No s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences i n the personal values and managerial philosophy were found. (2) Motivational dynamics — the manager's own motivational needs and how these a f f e c t the motivation of subordinates. A combination of Maslow's needs hierarchy and Herzberg's hygiene-motivator theories was u t i l i z e d . *Female managers exhibited a more mature and higher achieving motivational p r o f i l e (higher on s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs) than male managers. *There were no differences in subordinate motivational profiles ascribable to the sex of the supervisor. (3) Participative practices — the degree to which a manager includes subordinates in decision making. *Male and female managers employ participative practices in much the same way. (4) Interpersonal competence — ability to be an effective manager through use of exposure and feedback as defined by the Johari Window concept. •Subordinates of female managers report they receive less feedback than subordinates of male managers. (5) Management Style — concern for people/production interface in management as defined by Blake-Mouton's Managerial Grid Model. *No sex-based differences found in how a manager handles the organization's human and technical resources. In a study on sex-role stereotypes held by bank supervisors and undergraduate students, Rosen and Jerdee (1973) asked study participants to evaluate the supervisory style of a ficitious male or female supervisor in a problem situation. Ratings by students and bank supervisors of both sexes were similar. They found that a friendly-dependent managerial style is rated as more effective for supervisors of either sex when the subordinate was of the opposite sex. A reward style was judged as more appropriate for male rather than female supervisors. Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-Worker score (LPC) is another measure of managerial style. A high LPC score tends to indicate a relationship-oriented style whereas a low LPC score indicates a more task-oriented style which may place good interpersonal relations at risk. Alpander and Gutmann (1976) compared LPC scores of male and female executives and found that women tended to be more relationship oriented ( i e . , higher LPC scores) than men. Comparing women i n t r a d i t i o n a l and nontraditional managerial r o l e s , Moore and Ri c k e l (1980) found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences based on organizational setting or occupational l e v e l on either the "Structure" or "Consideration" scales of the Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). However, nontraditional women espec i a l l y managers, scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the Production Emphasis scale of the LBDQ (p< .01). Perceptions of r e a l i t y often influences one's behaviour i n r e l a t i o n to that assessment. Reif, Newstrom, and Monczka (1975) examined sex differences i n managers' perceptions of th e i r formal and informal organizations. Formal organization concepts were defined as authority, job description, performance appraisal, chain of command, p o l i c i e s and controls. Informal organization concepts were voluntary teamwork, personal influence, co-^worker evaluation, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , group cohesion, s o c i a l group membership, and grapevine. Women managers were found to have more pos i t i v e attitudes towards the formal organization and i t s a b i l i t y to s a t i s f y needs. They also valued interpersonal relationships higher than male managers. Male managers d i f f e r e n t i a t e d more between formal and informal organizational concepts whereas female managers tended to view the organization as an integrated whole. Informal interaction appears to be somewhat more l i m i t e d for women professionals than males. Given the recognized importance of the informal organization, t h i s represents a barrier to the effectiveness of the woman manager. Albrecht (1976) c i t e s several studies which document the exclusion — either by males or by themselves — of women from informal interaction. In his review of leadership research, Brown (1979) noted that sex-based differences in leadership styles were found in only three out of thirteen studies and that student subjects (as opposed to managerial subjects) perceived the most style differences. In only one study using business executives did a sex-based difference in leader behaviour occur. Using the LPC measure, men were found to be more motivated than women and women were more task oriented than men. Brown concludes that "Trait studies, measuring attitudes toward leader characteristics, found a great deal of sexual bias among both students and practicing managers. Style studies, however show a sharp division in the attitudes of managers and nonmanagers toward leader behaviour. Practicing managers overwhelmingly feel that there is no difference between male and female leadership styles; whereas students generally hold the opposite to be true. A similar division is found in contingency studies." (Brown, 1979, p. 607) Based on his observations, Brown then postulates the possibility that work experience may have a moderating influence on sex-stereotyped attitudes and behaviour. In summary, research has not yet adequately proved any significant differences between men and women managers in terms of their managerial style. As Brown points out, any differences may be primarily a function of the theoretical approach undertaken. In studies which find sex-based differences, common conclusions are: (a) Women managers tend to be more relationship-oriented than male managers. (b) Women are excluded from social interaction with organizational associates more often than men. -55-Otherwise, male and female managers exhibit similar managerial style on the dimensions of attitudes, behaviours and work relationships with superiors, peers and subordinates. Hypotheses on managerial style to be addressed as part of this thesis are: HYPOTHESIS 19. Female bank managers do not report a high degree of social involvement (either during or outside of business hours) with colleagues and clients. HYPOTHESIS 20. Female and male bank managers exhibit similar managerial styles in terms of their behaviour. HYPOTHESIS 21. Female bank managers are more relationship oriented in the work place than male managers. HYPOTHESIS 22. Female bank managers exhibit similar perceptions towards superiors, peers, and subordinates as male bank managers. HYPOTHESIS 23. Female and male bank managers have similar attitudinal and value systems. -56-Selected Career Experiences of Women Managers Career Mobility, Career mobility can have two components —geographic and organizational. In terms of both types of mobility, the reluctance of an employee to move either within one firm or between firms may pose a hindrance to his or her career progression. Within a firm which has separate locations, transfers to different positions at various geographic locations can constitute an essential part of general management development. And i f such internal promotional opportunities do not exist, the ambitious career person may elect to proceed on their own developmental programme by moving to a more challenging position in another company. In his study of career mobility of business executives, Jennings (1967) asserts there is a positive relationship between career mobility and the rate of career advancement. "It is now a widely established fact that most jobs can be mastered in a year and a half to two years and that from then on the manager is doing the work with a minimum of effort. If he is moved to another job, masters its requirements, and is moved to a third job, he, in a few years, get more intensive training and development than the previous manager, who usually stayed in any one job long after he had mastered its fundamentals." (Jennings, 1967, p.2) Substantiating this statement, Jennings found that business executives exhibiting a high rate of mobility reached the level of Divisional President an average of seven years before managers with low rates of mobility. Hennig and Jardim (1977) found a relatively stable pattern or career mobility for their group of executive women. Although several changed jobs within the fi r s t two years in the workforce, none changed companies over the next thirty years. -57-Van der Merwe (1978) found that Canadian women managers tend to remain i n one p a r t i c u l a r geographic area for most of t h e i r working l i v e s , however a subtantial number had changed company a f f i l i t a t i o n s throughout the i r careers. As can be seen i n Table 7, career s t a b i l i t y increases with age, however 66% have been with t h e i r present organizations less than 10 years and of t h i s group 56% have less than f i v e years tenure. -58-TABLE 7. Work Mobil i t y Table for Candian Women Managers. (Source: Van der Merwe, 1978, p. 48) Years Worked Years i n Company Years i n Present Job Age 20+ 10-20 5-10 1-5 1 20+ 10-20 5-10 1-5 1 20+ 10-20 5-10 1-5 1 Under 30 0 22 67 11 0 0 0 28 56 16 0 0 0 44 56 30-40 21 64 15 0 0 0 26 38 26 10 0 0 0 49 51 40-50 95 5 0 0 0 28 24 38 5 5 9 9 9 29 44 50-60 90 5 5 0 0 41 18 0 32 9 5 0 5 72 18 Note: Numbers in tables represent percentage of the total in that age group. i I Comparisons of career mobility between men and women reveal interesting r e s u l t s . In thei r survey of 850 employees of a large U.S. organization, Hoffman and Reed (1982) examined male and female attitudes towards career mobility. When asked whether they would accept a transfer to obtain a promotion, 28% of the women compared to only 12% of the men responded negatively. Their behaviour i n following i n t e r n a l postings of company transfers i s also consistent. Among the c l e r i c a l group, 25% of the men and only 10% of the women followed t h i s job a v a i l a b i l i t y process. Of the supervisory group, 21% of the men and 6% of the women exhibited interest i n intra-company transfers. Based on t h i s study, women are less l i k e l y to seek out promotional opportunities through job transfers than men are. In the author's survey of Canadian university gradutes (Egri, 1975) there were no s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences i n the t o t a l number of jobs held since graduation. Geographic mobility was somewhat l i m i t e d i n that the majority remained i n the Lower Mainland of B.C. However, geographic dispersion increased with the number of jobs held since university graduation. Again no s i g n i f i c i a n t sex-based differences were found i n terms of geographic mobility. When asked t h e i r reasons for moving to a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n , male respondents c i t e d promotion more often than female respondents who i n turn c i t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with job content as the motivating factor for a change. In h i s survey of U.S. managers, Fernandez (1981) compared the geographic mobility of males and females. For the white population there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the history of mobility. -60-Table 8. Frequency of Relocation for Purpose of Corporate Transfer (Source: Fernandez, 1981, p. 141) Number of Moves Men (n=1315) Women (n=766) Once 13.7% 12.1% 2 or more times 18.3 9.5 4 or more times 28.4 4.2 Never 35.7 62.3 When asked about t h e i r willingness to relocate for a promotion, male respondents consistently reported more willingness than female respondents. Of those respondents who indicated that they were " w i l l i n g " or "eager" to relocate, marital status appeared to be an intervening variable. Table 9. M a r i t a l Status and Willingness to Relocate for a Promotion (Source: Fernandez, 1981, p. 146) Ma r i t a l Status Men Women Married 58.5% 40.7% Never Married 80.7 53.2 Divorced 76 57.7 Widowed 75 50 Thus i t appears that women are less w i l l i n g to relocate geographically for the purpose of corporate transfers or promotions. Marriage has a dampening e f f e c t for both men and women i n terms of mobility, although the eff e c t i s more pronounced for women respondents. Based on t h i s research evidence, the following hypothesis w i l l be tested regarding the career mobility of bank managers. HYPOTHESIS 24. - Female bank managers are less mobile geographically than male managers. -61-Sex Role Stereotyping. Sex role stereotyping reflects attitudes which may impact on the subsequent performance of individuals. Within the workplace, the existance of stereotypic attitudes may affect the managerial opportunities made available to women and the subsequent assessment of their performance (Massengill and DiMarco, 1979; Jabes, 1980). In the Employers' Council of B.C. survey of managers (predominantly male) and working women, i t was found that managerial attitudes towards the su i t a b i l i t y of women in white collar managerial positions was less favourable than that of the women themselves (Employers' Council of B.C., 1975). Broverman, et. a l . (1972) developed a Sex Role Questionnaire as a means to ascertain the characteristics, attributes and behaviours on which men and women were thought to d i f f e r . Based on responses of males and females in numerous studies, the following observations were recorded. (1) The masculine poles of various items were more socially desirable than the feminine poles. (2) The male-valued items reflect a "competency" cluster, eg. independence, objective, active, competitive, ambitious, makes decisions easily. The absence of these t r a i t s reflects the feminine stereotype. (3) The female-valued items reflect a "warmth and expressiveness" cluster, eg. gentle, sensitive to others' feelings, tactf u l , neat, quiet, able to express tender feelings. Using the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, Powell and Butterfield (1979) conducted an extensive study of manager stereotypes among undergraduate business and part-time MBA students. A l l groups (male and female) described a good manager as more unlike themselves than did males, however women graduate students saw themselves as more masculine than feminine. Another measure developed to assess sex role stereotyping specifically as i t relates to managerial positions i s Schien's Self-Descriptive Index (1975). This index i s comprised of 92 descriptive terms which are found to be (a) more characteristic of managers and men, (b) less characteristic of managers and men, and (c) more characteristic of managers and women. Each respondent describes him or herself regarding each of these t r a i t s . The following summary table provides the results of several studies using the Schien Self-Descriptive Index or derivatives of this measurement tool. -63-Table 10 Summary of Sex Role I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Studies Study Schein (1975) Subjects Female Managers i n U.S. insur-ance companies More Like Men and Managers -High scores for female managers More Like Women and Managers -high (but lower than men and mgr.) scores for female managers Less Like Men and Managers Moore & Ric k e l (1980) i cn I C o l l i n s , Waters & Waters (1979) Matteson (1976) Women i n Tradi-t i o n a l careers vs. nontradi-t i o n a l careers Male and Female undergraduate students Male and Female managers i n health services -higher scores for nontradi-women (p < .001) and women at higher occupa-t i o n a l l e vels (p=.042) -no s i g n i f i c a n t difference be-tween trad, and non-trad, women -lower scores for women at higher occup. le v e l s (P=.017) -higher scores for t r a d i t i o n a l women (p<.001) -high scores for lower occupat-t i o n a l l e v e l s (p < .001) -women scored higher than men (p < .001) -les s favourable scores for men high on masculine and women high on feminine stereotypes (p < .01) -women scored s i g . higher than men -for both men and women, greater the yrs. of experience, less p o s i t i v e attitude toward women as managers (p < .01) Successful Managers -description of successful middle mgrs. cl o s e l y resembled Men i n General scale Women in management positions tend to perceive a close resemblence between themselves and the Men and Managers items, however there are significant differences revolving around the Women and Managers Scale. Female managers score significantly higher on this latter scale than either men or women in traditional careers. However, there is an interaction effect in that these scores are inversely related to the number of years of work experience a manager has. This may indicate a generational difference in attitudes towards women as managers, in that older managers hold a more sex stereotypic view of the management role. In summary, sex-role stereotyping works to the disadvantage of the female manager. Positive managerial attributes are perceived as consistent with the masculine, rather than feminine, stereotype. Discrimination. Discrimination against women managers has been more directly studied in terms of hiring, salary levels, and career advancement factors. When asked which factors prevented women from performing their f u l l potential in companies, Canadian women managers ranked first the lack of motivation on the part of women to take on responsibility and second, a lack of opportunity to prove themselves. Lack of adequate training for women was also cited as a factor. This same group of women also identified several factors responsible for excluding women from top level jobs. The primary factors was seen to be a misunderstanding by management about women's ability, followed closely by a refusal by women to take on -65-r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Poor career planning for women by business was recognized as a t h i r d factor. (Van der Merwe, 1978) Rosen and Jerdee (1974) also studied the e f f e c t of sex role stereotypes on the personnel decisions of male bank supervisors. U t i l i z i n g an in-basket exercise, responses to the following incidents were s o l i c i t e d with the sex of the employee serving as the dependent variable. (1) Promotion of employee to bank manager p o s i t i o n . The male candidate was recommended for promotion over the female candidate (p<.05). Subjects were also asked to rate the candidate on the basis of pot e n t i a l for customer relations and pot e n t i a l for employee r e l a t i o n s . In both cases, male candidates were given higher rates than female candidates (p < .05). (2) Choosing an employee to attend a professional t r a i n i n g conference. Younger promotable males were preferred over older unpromotable females 76% of the time, whereas the younger promotable female employee was preferred over an older unpromotable male only 56% of the time (P < .05) (3) Solution of a supervisory problem. When the problem was of a performance nature, ratings of male supervisory action of termination of employee was high and transfer low. The opposite ratings were accorded female supervisors for the same actions. When the employee problem was of a personality nature, no clear d i f f e r e n t i a l e ffects based on supervisor gender were evident. (4) Approving a leave of absence. Subjects rated a leave of absence s i g n i f i c a n t l y more appropriate (p < .05) for females i f i t involved the care of small children. They also rated i t more appropriate for a female than a male to take a leave of absence without pay (p < .01). -66-In conclusion, Rosen and Jerdee f e e l that there i s discrimination against women i n terms of promotion, development, and supervision as exhibited by t h i s group of bank supervisors — a finding p a r t i c u l a r l y germane to t h i s thesis. In a recent study of the h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l and number of promotions of managerial males and females within a f i n a n c i a l organization, Stewart and Gudykunst (1982) evaluated several possible i n f l u e n t i a l factors i n sex-based differences. When factors such as length of tenure, age and years of education were controlled f o r , "....females received more promotions than males but occupied s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower positions i n the organizational hierarchy." (Stewart and Gudykunst, 1982, p. 594.) For both males and females, length of tenure was the best predictor of the number of promotions received. However, the po s i t i v e influence of length of tenure and age was greater for men than for women. The incidence of salary discrimination between men and women has been w e l l documented (Suter and M i l l e r , 1973; Women's Bureau, 1973; Mancke, 1971; Sweet, 1973; and Levitan, 1971). D i f f e r e n t i a l s i n s a l a r i e s earned by men and women e x i s t even when factors such as educational l e v e l , labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been isolated. Discriminatory practices are reported to occur perhaps more often to women i n nontraditional careers as Tangri reports (1971). In the author's survey of university graduates (Egri, 1975) p a r t i a l support can be found for d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n salary based on the sex of the respondent. Only when considering the ending salary of the respondent's f i r s t job since -67-graduation and the salary of his/her t h i r d job (a small number of the t o t a l sample) were the s a l a r i e s of male graduates s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the female graduates. A question on perception of wage equality yielded interesting r e s u l t s . Although the majority (58%) of both males and females perceived equivalent salary treatment, men perceived t h e i r salary as higher than that of women more often than women perceived the i r salary as higher than that of men (p < .01). None of the male respondents perceived the i r salary as lower than that of the opposite sex whereas 19% of the women perceived t h e i r own sa l a r i e s as lower (p < .005). The interrupted pattern of labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women has been interpreted as the primary cause of economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between men and women i n the labour force by economists. In h i s examination of incomes of Canadian men and women, Block (1982) argues that i t i s the main reason for the apparent male/female earnings gap. "... the strongest determinant of the so-called male/female earnings "gap"....is marital status, and the asymmetric e f f e c t s of marriage on male and female earnings. That i s , marriage increases male earnings, and reduces female earnings." (Block, 1982, p. 108) Block's analysis reveals that the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n male/female earnings i s en t i r e l y a function of marital status of the woman. Women who remain single a c t u a l l y have income p a r i t y (99.2%) with single men whereas comparative s t a t i s t i c s for 'ever-married' men and women reveal a female/male income rate of .332. The majority (66%) of Canadian women managers surveyed by Van der Merwe (1978) reported that they had attended management train i n g seminars. These programs were generally of short duration (ranging from 1 to 5 days) and conducted by either consultants, u n i v e r s i t i e s , or in-house trai n i n g -68-facilities. These women felt such training had been beneficial in developing their management and interpersonal skills and many (56%) felt that more training was warranted. Reports of sex discrimination in terms of hiring, salary and career advancement are conflicting however there is substantial evidence to prove that women do perceive some degree of discrimination. The following hypotheses address this issue HYPOTHESIS 25 Male bank managers experience a faster rate of career advancement than female bank managers. HYPOTHESIS 26. Male bank managers manage larger branches than female bank managers. HYPOTHESIS 27. Female bank managers perceive sex-based discrimination in terms of career advancement and opportunities. Women in Banking Management Women in banking, and especially in banking management, are a fairly recent phenomenon. A comprehensive historical perspective on the employment of women in Canadian banking has been compiled by Barbara Hansen (1978-79). Based on her findings, the progression of female employment has been very slow and characterized by substantial discrimination in both promotions and pay. -69-A Historical Perspective. The first female employee in banking was hired in 1887 as a clerk. By 1915, this bank had a total of 630 female employees, the majority of whom were employed as stenographers and clerks. During World War I, employment of women in banking increased rapidly due primarily to the manpower shortage created by the war and business growth in war-related industries. During this period of time, women comprised one-quarter of banking staff albeit in junior clerical and secretarial capacities. Only 3% of women employed by banks were married. Jessie Murphy noted at the time that "We find women working side by side with men, doing the same work and doing i t quite well at a lower scale of remuneration; and this discrimination extends as well to the more advanced positions where women have taken over the work of senior clerks and are performing i t just as competently." (Murphy, 1914-16, pp. 315) Following World War I, many women remained on staff (30% of total employees) again primarily in routine clerical positions. Bank policies at this time severely restricted any career advancement for women. Hansen (1978-79) observes that banks did not provide pension plans for female employees: women were required to leave the bank upon marriage; and a ceiling on advancement was placed at the teller level. World War II brought considerable opportunities for women in banking. Again due to an even greater manpower shortage than occurred during World War I, women were recruited for what were previously designated "male" positions. Also married women were employed in the banks. However, following the war, female employees were once again relegated back to their clerical and stenographic jobs. An example of bank philosophy regarding the employment of women is -70-contained i n the winning essay of a 1953 essay competition sponsored by the Canadian Banker's Association. This essay, written by a man, c i t e s the benefits of r e s t r i c t i n g women to a c l e r i c a l r o l e . "Minor c l e r i c a l jobs, while es s e n t i a l to the o v e r a l l operation of the banking system, are not of s u f f i c i e n t importance to warrant the keeping of male s t a f f on them for extended periods of time. As a re s u l t of t h i s , by substituting women workers, who may only have a few years' experience and probably w i l l be employed for only a short time, i t i s possible to keep down the salary costs to the pa r t i c u l a r o f f i c e or bank without impairing the e f f i c i e n t handling of routine work". (Lund, 1953) Lund then continued to present several arguments against the promotion of women into more senior positions without banks: (1) matrimony — women tend t o leave employment when married; (2) lack of mobility; (3) prejudice — ".... of their own sex, prejudice of male associates and prejudice of the world as a whole." (Lund, 1953, p. 123); (4) emotions — ".... i t i s generally agreed that women are more emotional than men; and t h i s could play an important part i n the granting of loans, etc." (Lund, 1953, p. 124); and (5) increased salary costs — women would then demand equal pay for equal work. The 1950's was obviously not an enlightened period inasfar as equal opportunity for women was concerned! Although over 50% of the banking s t a f f were women, they performed 96% of the c l e r i c a l work. By the l a t e 1950's, a few women had reached the l e v e l of accountant and junior manager within bank branches plus were i n specialized positions i n o f f i c e supervision, investment and accountacy, l i b r a r i e s , and economic -71-research (Stephens, 1957). However, i t was not u n t i l 1961 that the f i r s t female bank managers were o f f i c i a l l y appointed. Actually Mme. Marie Jeanne LePage had held the pos i t i o n of "Acting Manager" for La Banque Provinciale du Canada since 1953 — she had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but not the t i t l e (Mallory, 1961-62). The Bank of Nova Scotia broke the barrier by appointing two women, Gladys Marcellus i n Ottawa and Shirley G i l e s i n Toronto, as branch managers (Canadian Business, 1961). Each had nineteen years banking experience pr i o r to their promotion to managerial status. When asked her feelings on her appointment G i l e s r e p l i e d , " I r e a l l y f e e l I have to make good. I have to work at i t because i t seems l i k e a l l eyes are on me. Besides a g i r l has to perform as w e l l as, or even a l i t t l e better than a man i f she i s to be successful i n business." (Canadian Business, 1961, p. 38) Gil e s and Marcellus rose from an e l i t e group of women for at the time, the Bank of Nova Scotia had only fourteen women employed as accountants and seventeen as assistant accountants, both entry l e v e l positions for management. Progress was slow for the remainder of the 1960's. By 1968, there were only thirteen female bank managers i n Canada (five of whom were i n the Bank of Nova Scotia). However i n the following year t h i s number increased to 29 with 709 women i n accountant positions. Hansen (1978-79) notes an interesting d i s t r i b u t i o n of these pioneer women managers i n that they were r e s t r i c t e d to small r e s i d e n t i a l branches. The prevalence of discriminatory attitudes within the banking industry -72-i n 1968, i s very much evident i n a survey of U.S. bank personnel o f f i c e r s (Riday, 1968). Although the majority of o f f i c e r s (82%) stated that i t was bank p o l i c y to promote women to executive positions, a sampling of comments belies actual practice i n the f i e l d . In general, bank p o l i c i e s c i t e that promotion i s based s o l e l y on a b i l i t y despite the sex of the candidate. In practice though, for many banks, female employee's length of service appears to be the prime consideration. "We note, however that a l l present and past women o f f i c e r s have been past normal childbearing age or t h e i r s i t u a t i o n indicated childbearing was over. (Riday, 1968, p. 49) "We tend to assign women with longer terms of service to such positions when they have gained a specialized knowledge of some phase of our business or who are p a r t i c u l a r l y adept i n customer r e l a t i o n s . " (Riday, 1968, p. 50) The banking personnel o f f i c e r s also indicated c e r t a i n reservations about the employment of women i n more senior positions. Representative of these views are the following quotes. "However, a l l factors are weighed i n the placement decision and the a t t r a c t i v e married or marriageable female of childbearing age i s viewed i n the same l i g h t as a man with a health problem." (Riday, 1968, p. 49) "Our p o l i c y has been to place women i n junior management positions.... We do not place them i n senior positions because we can't be sure how permanent they w i l l be and the public seems to prefer dealing with male o f f i c e r s . " (Riday, 1968, p. 50) In regards to management development of women managers, only 65% stated they encouraged women managers to attend banking schools. In 1969, bank management tr a i n i n g programs were most often r e s t r i c t e d to male employees as shown by Canadian enrollment figures — 3145 men and 128 women (Hansen, 1978-79). -73-The 1970's heralded a new era for women i n banking which was possibly prompted by threats of affirmative action (in 1969 a Royal Commission on the Status of Women was appointed); white c o l l a r unionism (sponsored by the Canadian Labour Congress); growth i n the banking industry; and the r e l a t i v e shortage of men wanting a banking career (Hansen, 1978-79). By 1975, there were now 186 female bank managers and women were now being employed i n a wider range of technical jobs. In a study j o i n t l y sponsored by the Advisory Council on the Status of Women and the Canadian Banker's Association, Bossen (1976) examined female employment i n chartered banks. Her findings confirm Hansen's charges of sex discrimination i n the areas of remuneration, career advancement, employee t r a i n i n g and development, and fringe benefits. A look at 1975 salary l e v e l s within banking shows that 87.9% of male employees and 27.3% of female employees were within the s i x highest salary l e v e l s . A comparison of types of positions held by male and female employees reveals that men predominate i n management positions although there i s a trend toward increasing female p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Table 11. Ratios of male to female employees i n bank management positions (Source: Bossen, 1976, p. 18) 1969 1975 Branch Manager 177:1 28:1 Assistant Branch Manager 201:1 6:1 Accountant 5:1 1:1 Of the 186 female branch managers i n Canada i n 1975, the majority were responsible for medium-sized (25 female managers) to small (161 female managers) branches. They were also predominantly i n suburban and r u r a l areas (62%) rather than urban locations. -74-In terms of fringe benefits, Bossen found that many banks had eliminated d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of male and female employees by 1976. Differences mainly p r e v a i l i n pension and group l i f e insurance benefits. Training and Development. Employee development i s another area where the experience of male and female bank employees d i f f e r e d . The o v e r a l l r a t i o of male to female employees enrolled on in-service tr a i n i n g was 3.7:1. As of 1975, no women had been sponsored for external executive l e v e l management programmes (Bossen, 1976). The I n s t i t u t e of Canadian Bankers conducts bien n i a l surveys of students enrolled i n t h e i r Fellows* Program which i s a bank management tra i n i n g programme. The programme consists of ten courses i n related f i e l d s such as Business Administration, Accounting, Communication, Economics, Marketing and Business Strategy. The primary orientation of the programme i s towards the development of bank managerial s t a f f . The questionnaire s o l i c i t s information on students' career background, educational and professional goals, motives for pursuing the FICB programme and general evaluation of the adequacy of the programme. Preliminary results of the 1981 survey (ICB, 1981) based on the responses of 42% of the t o t a l number of programme par t i c i p a n t s , (7095) are available. The general re s u l t s of t h i s survey are presented, however comparisons based on sex of the respondent are not yet available. A f u l l sex-based analysis i s provided for the 1979 survey re s u l t s (ICB, 1979). Background data on FICB program students indicates a change i n the student population i n that the average age has increased to 28.9 years i n 1981 as compared to 28.5 years i n 1979 and 28.7 years i n 1977. The sex composition of the student population has also sh i f t e d over the years. -75-Table 12. Percentage of Student Population of ICE Programme Surveys by Sex (Source: ICB, 1981, p. 4) 1977 - 1979 1981 Male 51.9% 41.1% 39.3% Female 48.1% 58.9% 60.7% This would indicate a greater interest on the part of female bank employees to gain additional managerial knowledge. Other sex-based comparison of personal background are available from the 1979 survey. Survey re s u l t s on these descriptive variables are provided i n the following summary table. Table 13. Background Characteristics of ICB Programme Survey Respondents by Sex (Source: ICB, 1979) Male Female Job P o s i t i o n -Management -Non-management Years i n Present Po s i t i o n (mean years) Years i n Banking (mean years) Formal Education (mean years) Courses completed on FICB Program including exemptions Number of Exemptions of FICB Program *F-Ratio, p < .0001 Based on these s t a t i s t i c s , i t would appear that although the female students comprised the majority of participants on the FICB programme, they present a d i f f e r e n t background p r o f i l e than the male students. F i r s t of a l l , they are p r i m a r i l y i n non-managerial jobs whereas the male students already have attained managerial status. Female students have few years i n banking and i n t h e i r present positions thus have r e l a t i v e l y l e s s work experience than t h e i r male counterparts. They also score lower on educational variables such as formal education completed (contributing 84% 29% 16% 71% 2.31 2.21 7.7 6.4* 13.72 12.94 4.82 2.99* 1.29 .43 -76-perhaps to t h e i r lower number of course exemptions on the FICB programme) and progress through the Fellows' programme. Given the d i f f e r e n t jobs held by male and female students, i t i s not surprising that male students f i n d the FICB management courses more applicable to the i r present job than the female students (F-Ratio = 71.518, p < .0001). Male and female students vary also i n the reasons for e n r o l l i n g on the ICB program. Table 14. Reasons for Taking ICB Programme by Sex (Source: ICB, 1979, p. 12) I n i t i a l Reason Present Reason Male Female Male Female Personal Interest Value 19.5% 25.6% 18.5% 16.3% Direct Application to Job 17.5% 10.4% 14.6% 7.7% Future Promotional P o s s i b i l i t i e s 38.7% 36.3% 23.4% 31.0% Personal Sense of Achievement 12.8% 20.9% 25.2% 30.6% Towards University Degree 9.1% 5.4% 14.4% 11.8% Other 2.4% 1.4% 3.9% 2.6% I t i s interesting to note the sex-based differences i n motivation to e n r o l l i n and continue the ICB programme. Reflecting th e i r non-managerial status, female students regard t h i s t r a i n i n g as less applicable to the i r present job. As with male students, the i r i n i t i a l motivation to e n r o l l on the programme was to enhance future promotional opportunities. Female students however, rated i n t r i n s i c motivators (personal interest and achievement) higher than male students. In regards to reasons for remaining i n the ICB programme, there i s an apparent s h i f t i n motivation. While promotional opportunities remain a strong factor for both sexes, the promise of a personal sense of achievement i s given greater status. In terms of the type of encouragement to pursue the ICB management tra i n i n g programme, there were s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences on a 7-point scale (l=Not at all,...,4=Somewhat...,7=Very). Table 15. Encouragement to take ICB Fellows' Programme by Sex (Source: ICB, 1979) Male Female F-Ratio Bank expects me to take FICB courses 3.84 2.62 F=356.107* Personnel Dept. encourages me to take ICB courses 5.42 4.56 F=170.786* Immediate Supervisor encourages me to take ICB courses 2.14 2.20 F=8.894** Fellow s t a f f members encourage me to take ICB courses 2.70 2.68 F=.100 I would encourage a colleague to e n r o l l i n ICB courses 5.77 5.56 F=20.386* * p < .0001 **p=.0029 Female ICB students report s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s encouragement for professional development from the Bank and the bank personnel department whereas t h e i r immediate supervisor provides more encouragement i n t h i s respect. They are also less l i k e l y to encourage colleagues to e n r o l l i n the ICB programme which i s consistent with the i r evaluation that the ICB courses have affected th e i r on-job performance less p o s i t i v e l y than for male students (F=12.038, p=.0005). In t h e i r suggestions for means to provide more encouragement for banking personnel to e n r o l l i n ICB courses, female students more often stressed the need f o r : more in-bank communication (F=27.566, p < .0001); more encouragement from higher l e v e l s (F=.615, p=.4324); greater job r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (F=44.337, p< .0001); more recognition for taking courses (F=12.98, p=.0003); and more p u b l i c i t y from the ICB (F=36.717, p < .0001). Male students reported a greater need for encouragement from t h e i r immediate supervisors (F=9.083, p=.0026) — consistent with the i r evaluation of r e l a t i v e l y l e s s encouragement received from t h e i r immediate -78-supervisor in Table 15. A final summary question regarding the extent to which the bank supports the student's pursuance of management training in other than financial terms reveals that males perceive greater internal support than females (F=35.167f p < .0001), again a consistent finding with reports on sources of encouragement for developmental training. Overall, the female students perceive less positive support and fewer benefits from their involvement in the ICB Fellows' Program. Considering the increasing proportion of female enrollees over recent years, the career and personal needs of the female students (most of whom are currently in non-managerial positions) may not be as satisfied as those of the predominantly management male students. Given that the FICB programme is directed towards the development of managers this is a reasonable finding. Female students have a different general backgroud than male students in terms of their education and job positions and thus appear to have different management development needs. When asked whether they planned to complete the FICB Diploma programme, 88.8% of the male students responded "Yes" whereas only 67.2% of the female students replied in the affirmative. Tied to their developmental plans, fewer students (20%) stated they knew what they would want to be doing five years hence while 80% of the male students had definite career plans. This denotes a greater degree of uncertainty regarding career plans among female students. As part of an affirmative action programme, the Royal Bank implemented management training seminars specifically for women employees (Day, 1975). These seminars focussed on upgrading technical skills in financial analysis, c r e d i t , administration, and general management — areas which women who had entered the formal manager tr a i n i n g programme were d e f i c i e n t i n . The success of t h i s programme i s evident i n the increasing number of women promoted to branch manager positions since implementation. Of the 112 women who participated i n seminar t r a i n i n g from the period 1973 through to 1975, there are 40 branch managers and 26 assistant managers. A considerable increase from the 6 female branch managers i n the Royal Bank i n 1973 at the inception of the programme. A c r i t i c a l assessment of affirmative action within the Canadian banking industry i s provided by Bennett and Loewe, "The fact of scant progress i s supported by more recent information from large Canadian organizations. For example, much has been made of the increasing numbers of women who are becoming managers, of the Canadian banking industry's 6500 r e t a i l branchs. While i t i s true that t h e i r numbers nearly t r i p l e d from 29 i n 1963 to 80 i n 1974, women are s t i l l only 1.2 percent of branch managers — which i s hardly encouraging to female employees, who make up 70 percent of banking's t o t a l workforce." (Bennett and Loewe, 1975, p. 45) The Future of Women i n Banking. On an opt i m i s t i c note, the Canadian Banker and ICB Review c i t e d an industry spokesman as saying, "Women w i l l have a greater share of management positions i n Canadian banking within two years, according to J . Urban Joseph, General Manager of Corporate Personnel for the Toronto-Dominion Bank. Speaking at a seminar i n Waterloo, Ontario, sponsored by the I n s t i t u t e of Canadian Bankers, Mr. Joseph said that by 1978 or 1980 at the l a t e s t , women w i l l occupy 25 to 30 percent of management jobs i n Canadian banks." (Canadian  Banker and ICB Review, 1975, p. 17) -80-I t i s interesting to note the current incidence of female bank managers in Canada as compared to Mr. Joseph's predictions. In 1983, approximately 9% of branch manager positions were held by women. A summary of hypotheses developed i s provided in Table 16 on the following page. -81-TABLE 16. LIST OF HYPOTHESES. WOMEN IN THE LABOUR FORCE Hypothesis 1. Female bank managers exhibit a continuous, high p a r t i c i p a t i o n career pattern despite m a r i t a l status and the presence of children. WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT Demographic Background Hypothesis 2. The fathers of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be or have been employed as a manager or a professional than otherwise. Hypothesis 3. The mothers of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be or have been employed outside the home than otherwise. Hypothesis 4. Parents of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have attained a higher l e v e l of education than the general population. Hypothesis 5. The education l e v e l attained by a female manager's mother i s at le a s t the same as or higher than that of her father. Hypothesis 6. Female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be of Canadian o r i g i n than foreign born. Hypothesis 7. (a) The father i s perceived by the female bank manager as the primary f a m i l i a l source of p o s i t i v e encouragement of her career goals. (b) Outside of the family, faculty members and teachers are perceived as the most s i g n i f i c a n t influence on a female bank manager's career choice. Hypothesis 8. Female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be either s i n g l e , divorced, separated or widowed than the i r male counterparts. Hypothesis 9 I f ever-married, female bank managers are l i k e l y to have few (1 or 2) i f any, children. Hypothesis 10. Married female bank managers report greater i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t of career and family or personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than unmarried ones. Hypothesis 11. Female bank managers with children report greater i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t than ones without children. Hypothesis 12. Spouses of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be employed i n a managerial or professional capacity than i n a non-supervisory job. -82-Hypothesis 13. Spouses of female bank managers are more likely to have equivalent or higher education levels than their wives. Hypothesis 14. Female bank managers are more likely to have university or college education than not. Hypothesis 15. Female bank managers have a lower degree of formal education than male bank managers. Psychological Variables Which Influence Women as Managers Hypothesis 16. Female and male bank managers have similar motivational need profiles. Hypothesis 17. Female bank managers perceive motivational factors including hard work and extra effort as more instrumental in their career success than other factors. Hypothesis 18. Female bank managers tend to ascribe internal causes of success to women and external causes of success to men. Hypothesis 19. Female bank managers do not report a high degree of social involvement (either during or outside of business hours) with colleagues and clients. Hypothesis 20. Female and male bank managers exhibit similar managerial styles in terms of their behavour. Hypothesis 21. Female bank managers are more relationship oriented in the work place than male managers. Hypothesis 22. Female bank managers exhibit similar perceptions towards superiors, peers, and subordinates as male bank managers. Hypothesis 23. Female and male bank managers have similar attitudinal and value systems. Selected Career Experiences of Women Managers Hypothesis 24. Female bank managers are less mobile geographically than male managers. Hypothesis 25. Male bank managers experience a faster rate of career advancement than female bank managers. Hypothesis 26. Male bank managers manage larger branches than female managers. Hypothesis 27. Female bank managers perceive sex-based discrimination in terms of career advancement and opportunities. -83-CHAPTER III  METHODOLOGY Moore-Beck Bank Study This thesis is an addendum to a larger research project conducted by Dr. Larry F. Moore, U.B.C. Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, and Dr. Brenda E.F. Beck, U.B.C. Department of Anthropology. The primary focus of their research has been on the managerial style, imagery, attitudes, perceptions, and motivation of bank managers. Research to date has centred primarily on bank managers in the Lower Mainland area of B.C. with additional data obtained from international bankers attending a Canadian executive management seminar. Funding for this extensive research project has been from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the Canada Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, and the Canada Secretary of State, Multiculturalism Branch. Most of the research instruments developed and assembled for the Moore-Beck project were utilized in this thesis. SUBJECTS Major national Canadian banks participating in this study on bank managers included: Bank of Montreal, Bank of Nova Scotia, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Royal Bank and Toronto-Dominion Bank. The western regional Bank of B.C. also participated in the study. A total of 68 men and 41 women branch bank managers employed in the Lower Mainland of B.C. formed the sample group. Study participants were -84-nominated by the banks themselves through the regional personnel managers. For the f i r s t phase of the interviews, banks were asked to draw a random sample of approximately 10% of th e i r experienced branch managers yi e l d i n g a t o t a l of 68 men and 9 women. In the second phase of interviews conducted approximately three months l a t e r , banks were asked to submit the names of a l l t h e i r remaining women branch managers — 32 i n a l l . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y was assured to a l l study participants guaranteeing that only aggregate group data would be submitted to t h e i r superiors. Individual p a r t i c i p a t i o n was completely voluntary. Procedure Data was collected v i a structured interviews and mail-back questionnaires. A one and one-half hour structured interview was conducted at the subject's convenience i n h i s or her o f f i c e . A t o t a l of s i x interviewers were involved i n data c o l l e c t i o n — f i v e i n the f i r s t group of interviews and two (one additional interviewer) for the second set of interviews (the remaining female managers). A l l interviewers had undergone tr a i n i n g i n conducting a structured non-directive interview and had a s p e c i f i c set of instructions covering introductory comments and interview probes to a i d i n e l i c i t i n g responses (See Appendix 1 for a copy of interviewer questions). Research Instruments Study data was obtained through the subject interview and mail-back questionnaire. The interview consisted of two parts: responses to branch bank incidents and issues, and subject's personal background. Subjects were asked to respond to a series of t y p i c a l branch bank -85-incidents covering several issues, eg., the promotion of a good t e l l e r , an improper transaction, t e l l e r incompetence, overcrowded conditions, technological change, and t e l l e r competition. They were asked to read a description of the incident, then to select from a number of possible actions, the one most l i k e l y to be taken by a " t y p i c a l bank manager" and to explain the underlying rationale for t h i s choice. The subject was then asked to select from a metaphor set, the most ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t y p i c a l bank manager i n each incident. This information i s not u t i l i z e d i n t h i s thesis. Interviewers recorded subjects* responses on a separate recording form. The branch bank interview instrument was developed and pre-tested with s i x experienced bank managers during the spring and summer of 1980. Moore and Beck (1981) u t i l i z e t h i s c r i t i c a l incident data to interpret the managerial s t y l e of bank managers which i s defined as, "... the texture or pattern of behaviours, assumptions and attitudes characterizing any manager or group of managers." (Moore and Beck, 1981, p. 3) Coding of managerial s t y l e followed the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) relationships model which defines s t y l e on the following continuum: Independent — i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c or person-specific orientation i n which individuals are encouraged to act autonomously; C o l l a t e r a l — horizontal or equalitarian s t y l e s i m i l a r to that found among peers; Li n e a l - h i e r a r c h i c a l or implementor s t y l e s i m i l a r to authority relationships such as a father to a son. In addition to the L i n e a l , C o l l a t e r a l , and Independent s t y l e interpretation, subjects* responses were also coded according to the functional approach taken (reward, decision-making, communication, goal -86-orientation, and management stance), and the management role assumed by the respondent (figurehead, leader-motivator, monitor-evaluator, disseminator of information, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and implementor of head office guidelines). These subsidiary interpretations allowed for in-depth analysis of managerial behaviour and attitude patterns. Comparisons based on branch bank manager's sex, age, and managerial experience variables were conducted on these style dimensions. A copy of the branch bank incidents and metaphor questions is provided in Appendix 2-1. The second part of the interview involved obtaining information regarding the subject's personal background such as age, marital status, education, employment history, mobility and ethnic background of self and of family. A copy of this form is provided in Appendix 2-2(a). Female subjects interviewed in the second phase of the study were asked for additional information regarding their husband and children, career experiences, personal goals and attitudes. A copy of this revised form is provided in Appendix 2-2(b). Upon conclusion of the interview, subjects were requested to complete a battery of forms to be done on their own time and to be returned by mail using a self-addressed stamped envelope. Two weeks after the interview, follow-up telephone calls were made by interviewers to subjects who had not yet submitted the questionnaire data. Response rate on the questionnaire was 82.4% overall. The follow-up questionnaire consisted of the following research instruments: (1) Superior, Peer, Subordinate Scale (SPS). This imagery or perception instrument was developed by Dr. L.F. Moore and Dr. B. Beck specifically for use in this study (Moore and Beck, 1982). The SPS scale employed a semantic differential-type questionnaire containing 26 bi-polar adjectives. For each set of adjectives, subjects were asked to assign a score from 1 to 4 regarding a typical manager's perception of superiors, peers, and subordinates. Scale items were clustered (with differential factor loadings) into factor sets regarding superior, peer, and subordinate imagery. Superiors — Job Orientation, Work Relationships, Leadership Manner, Ingenuity, Pace Peers — Job Orientation, Work Relationships, Collegial Manner, Ingenuity, Flexibility. Subordinates — Job Orientation, Work Relationships, Flexibility, Tenseness, Competitiveness. Split-half (odd-even) reliability of the scale was calculated for superiors (r=.79), peers (r=.90), and subordinates (r=.85). Cumulative percentage of variance explained by factor sets were: SPS-superiors — 53%; SPS-peers — 57%; and SPS-subordinates — 54%. (See Appendix 2-3 for a copy of the SPS Scale.) (2) Subject's Perceptions of Typical Business Managers in B.C.,  Ontario and Canada. (Data not used in this thesis.) (3) Bank Scenarios. Bank managers were asked to indicate the appropriate behaviour in three scenarios involving either their Assistant Manager, Junior Teller, Regional Personnel Director, or Manager of Rival Bank Across the Street. For each person, the respondent considered a -88-scenario involving: (a) an invitation to the person's wedding; (b) inquiry about that person's honeymoon in Hawaii; and (c) an automobile accident in which sons of the bank manager and the other person were involved with the other's son receiving a serious injury. Behaviour choices varied in terms of expense and the degree of personal involvement in the situation (See Appendix 2-4 for a copy of these questions.) (4) Metaphors for Branch Bank Operations. (Data not used in this thesis.) (5) Person-Thing Scale. The Person-Thing orientation model was developed by Barnowe and Frost (1978) in their study of career choice influences of U.B.C. business students. Barnowe and Frost hypothesized that there were four dimensions of personal orientation in regards to persons and things, namely; Generalists — high Person (P), high Thing (T) orientation; Person Specialists — high P, low T orientation; Thing Specialists — low P, high T orientation; Non-Specialists — low P, low T orientation. The Person-Thing measurement tool consisted of two 12-item scales based on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII). Independent judges (behavioural scientists) evaluated each item (on a 5 point scale) on the SCII as to whether i t dealt primarily with persons, with things, or a combination of persons and things. For an item to be included in the P or T scale, unanimous agreement was required of a l l five judges. The Frost-Barnowe Person-Thing Scale was administered in a number of studies involving business school students, mining managers, natural resource scientists, temporary clerical workers, and university academics. In the study of vocational choice of business school students (Barnowe and -89-Frost, 1978) the te s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the Person Orientation Scale was .76, whereas for the Thing Orientation Scale was .60. R e l i a b i l i t i e s (calculated with Cronback's alpha coefficients) for each scale ranged from .71 to .81 for the Person Scale and from .60 to .75 for the Thing Scale. Intercorrelation between the two scales ranged from r = - . l l to r=.13 thus indicating a high degree of independence. Intercorrelations between the Frost-Barnowe Person-Thing Scales and L i t t l e ' s (1972) independently developed Person-Thing S p e c i a l i z a t i o n Scales yielded a high degree of agreement. In studies of business school students and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r candidates, intercorrelations between the two Person scales ranged from .64 to .71, and between the two Thing scales the range was from .50 to .59. Intercorrelation between the Frost-Barnowe Person scale and the L i t t l e Thing scale ranged from -.07 to -.02, and between the Frost-Barnowe Thing Scale and the L i t t l e Person Scale from -.12 to .02. Thus both sets of Person-Thing scales appear to be measuring e s s e n t i a l l y similar concepts. Frost and Barnowe (1979) report the i r studies tying t h e i r Person-Thing scale to selected personality constructs. In a study of business students, a questionnaire package consisting of both Person and Thing scales, a group embedded t e s t , a measure of introversion-extraversion, ambiguity tolerance, and locus of control measures was administered. They found p o s i t i v e relationships between Extraversion scores and Person or Generalist orientation (p < .0001), and the a b i l i t y to disembed figures and Thing orientation (p < .01). These findings were lim i t e d to the male business students as no s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found for female questionnaire responses. A study involving mine managers (Dreschsler, et. a l . , 1979) revealed a -90-high incidence (81% of the sample) of Thing S p e c i a l i s t s i n t h i s t e c h n i c a l l y oriented industry. Line managers who had supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s tended to be Generalists whereas technical s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s were Thing S p e c i a l i s t s (p 4 .05). F i n a l l y , i n her study of business managers, Timms (1979) related t h e i r Person-Thing orientation to the content of st o r i e s about t h e i r i d e a l organizations and to time a l l o c a t i o n to basic organizational a c t i v i t i e s i n a simulation exercise. Person scale scores were p o s i t i v e l y related to the Person content of the organizational s t o r i e s (r=.32, p=.007). In regards to time a l l o c a t i o n , Generalists allocated more time to leadership a c t i v i t i e s (r=.50, p=.03) and to personnel a c t i v i t i e s (r=.48, p=.04). Al l o c a t i o n of time to f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s correlated p o s i t i v e l y with Thing orientation (r=.43, p=.048) whereas time for administrative a c t i v i t i e s was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with Person orientation (r=.43, p=.048). Sex-based differences i n the Frost-Barnowe Person-Thing scale scores were observed i n the study of business students. Females tend to be high on the Person scale and low on the Thing scale — ori g i n a t i n g p r i m a r i l y from scores on the occupational items of the two scales which may have been sex-biased i n nature. Subsequent r e v i s i o n of the scales to exclude these occupational items (the revised form was used i n the bank manager study) y i e l d s a s i m i l a r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between Person and Thing scales (r=.07 and r=,16) as with the i n i t i a l scale form. Factor analysis of the revised scales yielded s i x factors of Person-Thing orientation which are r e l a t i v e l y indpendent. Factor I: Things: Mechanical-manual a c t i v i t i e s . Factor I I : Persons: Interacting with others i n formal role s . Factor I I I : Things: Working with Numbers. Factor IV: Persons: Approaching Others Informally. Factor V: Persons: Interacting with Children. Factor VI: Things: Watching Machinery. A copy of the Person-Thing Scale is contained in Appendix 2-5. (6) Self-Description Inventory. A managerial assessment tool developed by E.E. Ghiselli (1971), the Self-Description Inventory (SDI) consists of 64 pairs of personally descriptive adjectives. One-half of these adjectives refer to socially desirable traits and one-half refer to socially undesirable traits. Adjective item scores are then grouped and weighted to describe one of thirteen traits. Abilities — supervisory ability, intelligence and initiative. Personality Traits — self-assurance, decisiveness, masculinity-femininity, and working class affinity. Motivations — need for occupational status, need for self-actualization, need for power over others, need for high financial reward, and need for job security. Based on extensive validity testing of the scale scores on diverse groups of businessmen, businesswomen, university students and line workers, Ghiselli evaluated the utility of his SDI to differentiate between occupational groups and levels of managerial success. The following figure denotes Ghiselli's conclusions based on research findings regarding the relative importance of his thirteen defined traits to managerial success. -92-Figure 1. Relative Importance of G h i s e l l i ' s Thirteen T r a i t s to  Managerial Success (Source: G h i s e l l i , 1971, p. 165) Very 10(H Important 76-64-61-Plays no part i n Managerial Talent 54 47-34-20-10 5-0 Supervisory A b i l i t y Occupational Achievement Intelligence S e l f - A c t u a l i zation Self-Assurance Decisiveness Lack of need for Security Working Class A f f i n i t y I n i t i a t i v e Lack of need for high f i n a n c i a l reward Need for power over others Maturity Masculinity-Femininity The computed c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between managerial job success (based on evaluations by the subjects' supervisors) and the SDI scores were as follows. -93-Table 17. Coefficients of Correlation between Scores of Managers on  SDI Scales and the i r Job Success (Source: G h i s e l l i , 1971, p. 150) Coefficients of Correlation Supervisory A b i l i t y Intelligence I n i t i a t i v e .46 .27 .15 .19 .22 -.05 -.03 -.17 .34 .26 .03 -.18 -.30 Self-Assurance Decisiveness Masculinity-Femininity Maturity Working Class A f f i n i t y Need for Occupational Achievement Need for S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Need for Power over Others Need for High F i n a n c i a l Reward Need for Job Security Thus, G h i s e l l i " s scale t r a i t s of supervisory a b i l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n i t i a t i v e , self-assurance, decisiveness, need for occupational achievement, and need for s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n bear a p o s i t i v e relationship with managerial success. On the other hand, there appears to be a negative relationship between managerial success and the need for job security, and to a lesser extent, the need for high f i n a n c i a l reward and working class a f f i n i t y . SDI scales for masculinity-femininity, maturity, and the need for power over others have i n s i g n i f i c a n t relationships with managerial success. Comparison with G h i s e l l i ' s research findings were made using bank managers' scale scores by t o t a l sample, by sex, and by age. A copy of G h i s e l l i ' s Self-Description Inventory i s contained i n Appendix 2-6. (7) Rokeach Value Survey. The Rokeach Value Survey (Rokeach, 1973) i s a measurement t o o l of the values held by an i n d i v i d u a l . Rokeach defines a value as: -94-...an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence." (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5) Rokeach's model defines two kinds of values; (1) Instrumental Values — modes of conduct or "means" values which can be either moral (having an interpersonal focus) or competence (having a personal focus); and (2) Terminal Values — end-states of existence or "ends" values which can be either personal (self-centered or intra-personal) or social (society-centered or inter-personal) . Values are seen by Rokeach as providing an important personal motivational function in that they are standards that guide one's conduct in l i f e . The Rokeach Value Survey consists of two sets of 18 personal values (instrumental and terminal) which the subject rank orders in order of importance to himself. It is a projective tool similar in nature to the Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test (Rokeach, 1973, p. 27). The Value Survey itself was developed by largely judgemental means from available trait and value l i s t s . Test-retest reliability of individual items ranged from .45 to .88. The average intercorrelation of value items was insignificant at -.06. Factor analyses of the 36 instrumental and terminal values revealed seven factor clusters on: (1) immediate vs. delayed gratification; (2) competence vs. religious morality; (3) self-constriction vs. self-expansion; (4) social vs. personal orientation; (5) societal vs. family security; -95-(6) respect vs. love; and (7) inner- vs. other-directed. The Value Survey could also be interpreted as indicative of three motivational needs: need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power. Individual Value Survey items were found to be highly correlated with need for Achievement, need for Power, and need for Affiliation scores obtained using the TAT method. A copy of the Rokeach Value Survey is contained in Appendix 2-7. Analysis of Data Interview and questionnaire data was coded twice by two individual coders. When there was a difference of opinion between the two coders, they conferred to reach a concensus. Inter-rater reliability of coders was 68% perfect agreement. A coder consistency check on interview data of female bank managers' responses to bank incident questions is summarized in Table 18. Table 18. Coder Consistency Check on Interview Data of Female Bank  Managers — Bank Incident Responses. Y2L Pearson' Correlation Behaviours Incident response choice p=.06 r=-.08 Function codes p=.30 r=-.06 Role codes p < .005 r=.19* Orientation codes p=.39 r=.02 Style code p=.76 r=-.02 *p=.0002 On only one code (behavioural role) was there a significant variance between coders, thus indicating a high degree of overall coder consistency. When possible, appropriate quantitative statistical analysis was conducted. Given the small size of selected samples (ie., female bank m a n a g e r s ) , s m a l l - s a m p l e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s w e r e a l s o u t i l i z e d . S u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s w a s o f t e n u s e d r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e s e c o n d g r o u p o f women m a n a g e r s a s m u c h o f t h e s e d a t a d e s c r i b e d a t t i t u d e s a n d c a r e e r e x p e r i e n c e s . I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n w a s r i c h i n p r o v i d i n g a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e o f w o m e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n b a n k i n g . I n o r d e r n o t t o l o s e t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w a s a u g m e n t e d w i t h q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . -97-CHAPTER IV  RESULTS The results of this study of female and male bank managers are presented and tested against hypotheses developed in the literature review. This chapter is divided into three sections: personal background, psychological dimensions of female bank managers, and career experiences of female bank managers. Personal Background Various aspects of female bank managers' demographic characteristics, family history, and current family situation were considered. Age. The mean age of male bank managers in this study was 43.10 years whereas the mean age of female managers was 45.50 years. This difference of 2.4 years was not statistically significant, and indicates the equivalency of male and female managers on this dimension of personal maturity. Ethnic Origin. Female and male bank managers are more likely to be of Canadian origin (73.2% and 77.6% respectively) than of foreign origin. For those not born in Canada, other English-speaking nations ranked high (20%) as countries of origin. Lemkau (1979) and Van der Merwe (1978) found that female business managers were more likely to be born in the country in which they were presently situated. Bank managers, both male and female, are also more likely to have been born in Canada than elsewhere. Thus Hypothesis 6, asserting that bank managers are more likely to be of Canadian origin than -98-foreign o r i g i n , i s accepted. Education. On the variable of academic education, male and female bank managers exhibited d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of achievement. Table 19. Academic Education of Bank Managers by Sex. High School P a r t i a l Univ. Post-Grad Grad or Less Univ. Degree University Male (n=68) 64.7% 16.2% 17.6% 1.5% Female (n=41) 78.0% 22.0% 0.0% 0.0% A comparison of mean academic education reveals that male managers have s i g n i f i c a n t l y more academic education than female managers (p < .005). Male bank managers with university education tend to have less banking experience than those with only high school graduation. Thus, more recent entrants to bank management have higher academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which indicates a change i n bank r e c r u i t i n g practices and/or standards. A similar relationship was not observed for female bank managers. Although the majority of the female managers di d not go beyond high school, the degree of academic education appears to be related to a woman's mar i t a l status. One-third of single women and male managers have attended university. Married women are less l i k e l y to have attended un i v e r s i t y , and separated and divorced women are the l e a s t l i k e l y to have advanced past the high school l e v e l . In addition to academic education, i n t e r n a l banking courses are an important source of career t r a i n i n g . Male bank managers had an average of 4.63 banking courses whereas female managers had an average of 3.95 -99-courses (difference Z-value=1.789, p < .10). Thus i n terms of i n t e r n a l banking courses male managers appear to have an advantage over female managers. An examination of managers holding FICB and CIBC management programme c e r t i f i c a t e s reveals that male managers more often have successfully completed these programmes than female managers (Z-value=3.63, p < .005). One would expect t h i s s t a t i s t i c to change considerably i n the future given the recent increase i n female enrollment i n the FICB programme to 60.7% i n 1981 (ICB, 1981). The value of education i s recognized as important i n career advancement as the following women recommended. "Take accounting courses, become an RIA, and you could advance i n t o commercial c r e d i t , become a higher l e v e l manager, or even a d i s t r i c t manager. You should s t a r t taking courses when you prepare for a career." "Do more than everybody else. Take train i n g and bank courses. Also the people you meet while on courses are important. You meet the regional o f f i c e people when they come speak at the courses, and you make a spe c i a l e f f o r t to t a l k to them so they remember you." Educational attainment has been asserted to be p o s i t i v e l y related to a woman's propensity to remain active i n the labour force and to set high career goals ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada (c), 1976; Armstrong and Armstrong, 1978; P e r r e l l a , 1968; Iglehart, 1979). Several studies found university graduation a strong indicator of female career commitment (Wolfson, 1976; Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Yohalem, 1979). Among the bank managers studied, none of the female managers had completed a university degree programme and only 22% had attended university. In academic education, female managers were subs t a n t i a l l y below male managers. The lower l e v e l of educational attainment among -100-female managers compared to male managers was also observed in the number of banking courses taken and the banking management diplomas held. Comparisons among women managers based on marital status showed that single women had the highest level of educational achievement with separated and divorced women having the lowest levels. Quite possibly, single women have relatively more time available to pursue educational goals than either married, separated, or divorced women. In summary, Hypothesis 14 which relates a high degree of educational achievement among female managers must be rejected. The majority of women in this study did not progress through university or college. On the other hand, Hypothesis 15 is supported, male managers have significantly greater educational achievement on a l l measures. Parental Background.. The influence-of the parents of the female bank managers on their career choice was examined in terms of parental employment, education, and active involvement in their daughter's career plans. The occupational profiles of parents of female managers were as follows: Table 20. Occupation of Parents of Female Bank Managers. Father (n= 33) Mother (n=33) Managerial Professional White Collar Blue Collar Has not been employed 12% 9% 18% 61% 0% 3% 21% 12% 9% 55% The majority of fathers of female managers were employed in blue -101-c o l l a r occupations (predominantly farming and fishing) i n r u r a l settings. Only 21% of the sample had father who were employed i n managerial/professional type positions. Unlike the studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e review (Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Lemkau, 1979; Standley and Soule, 1974; E g r i , 1975; Bielby, 1978), the fathers of female bank managers were not more l i k e l y to have been employed i n managerial or professional capacities. In f a c t , they were predominantly i n blue-collar occupations i n r u r a l , rather than i n urban settings. Thus Hypothesis 2, which asserts that the fathers of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to be or have been employed as a manager or a professional than otherwise, cannot be supported. The majority (55%) of the mothers of female managers d i d not work outside of the home. Only 3% of the sample were employed i n a managerial capacity during t h e i r careers. Of the professionals, these mothers were predominantly i n teaching or nursing careers — both female dominated professions. Of the mothers employed i n white-collar occupations, a l l were either clerks or secretaries (as opposed to the fathers who were mainly i n sales p o s i t i o n s ) . Although there i s a small d i f f e r e n t i a l (9%) between the percentage of mothers employed outside the home and those remaining within the home environment, i t i s interesting to note that the mothers employed outside the home are primarily i n female stereotyped occupations. Thus there are very few female "pioneers" among the mothers of female managers. These findings c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l those of B a s i l (1972) and Standley and Soule (1974) who found that s l i g h t l y fewer than one-half of the mothers of female managers were employed outside the home. However, the proportion of mothers who were housewives does not reach the l e v e l s c i t e d by Hennig and Jardim (1977) — 96%, or Place (1979) — 65%. -102-Maternal employment has been found to have both a positive (Almquist and Angrist, 1971; Airman and Grossman, 1977) and negative (Bielby, 1978) influence on the career salience of women, that is, their commitment to working outside the home. For the female bank managers studied, maternal employment appears to have a limited effect on career salience. Thus Hypothesis 3 that the mothers of female bank managers are more likely to be or have been employed outside the home than otherwise, cannot be supported. Since a significant proportion of the mothers worked outside the home, this hypothesis cannot be rejected with f u l l confidence. The educational attainment of the female manager's parents was considered in terms of its potential role model effect. The distribution of educational achievement of parents is provided in the following table: Table 21. Academic Education Level of Parents of Female Bank Managers Academic Education Level Fathers (n=29) Mothers (n=31) Less than Grade 9 55% 45% Grades 9-11 10.3% 9.7% Grade 12 20.7% 29.0% Partial Univ. 6.9% 12.9% University Degree 6.9% 3.2% Compared to the general Canadian male and female population there are a number of differences in education level -103-Chart 9. Parents' Education Levels and Canadian Population Education Level (Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada (c), 1976). (%) Fathers CH Mothers • • 100+ 80 + Canadian V7\ Males 60+ Canadian B£K| Females 40+ 20 Education Level Less than Gr. 9 Grade 9-11 Grade 12 P a r t i a l Univ. Univ. Degree As shown i n the above chart, university education l e v e l s was generally the same for a l l groups. The largest differences were observed i n the education l e v e l s of Grade 12 and below. Whereas the parents of the subject sample are s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y to have graduated from high school (non-education (for males, p < .005; and for females, p < .02). Differences were also observed i n the Grades 9-11 education l e v e l where the mothers and fathers of bank managers were l e s s l i k e l y to have progressed to t h i s l e v e l (p < .05 for males; and p < .02 for females). The parents of female bank managers di d not have high l e v e l s of academic achievement, unlike the parents i n other studies of managerial women (Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Tangri, 1972; Place, 1979; B a s i l , 1972; E g r i , 1975). In fact 65% of the fathers and 55% of the mothers had not attained high school graduation. Comparisons with the general Canadian population show that o v e r a l l , the parents of female managers are less w e l l educated. Thus Hypothesis 4 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ) , they were also l i k e l y to have less than Grade 9 -104-that parents of female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have attained a higher l e v e l of educational achievement than the general population, i s rejected for t h i s sample group of female managers. A paired comparison of the educational achievement of the fathers and mothers of female bank managers y i e l d s the following r e s u l t s : Table 22. Comparisons of Education Level of Fathers and Mothers of  Female Bank Managers. Percentage (n=29) Father's Education Level greater than Mother's 10.3% Father's Education Level equals Mother's 44.8% Father's Education Level l e s s than Mother's 44.8% As can be seen from Table 22 s t a t i s t i c s , the education l e v e l of the mother equals or exceeds that of the father for 90% of the females studied here. This finding i s consistent with the studies of Hennig and Jardim (1977) and B a s i l (1972). Therefore, Hypothesis 5 that the educational l e v e l attained by a female manager's mother i s at lea s t the same or higher than that of her father, can be accepted with a high degree of confidence. Concerning the possible role modelling e f f e c t of parental education, the managerial achievement of a woman manager i s not c l e a r l y linked to her parent's educational achievement. However, with the mother's l e v e l of education at l e a s t the same or higher than her father's, there appears to be some degree of maternal role modelling i n that the mother i s the father's equal or better on t h i s factor. The next section adds further support to t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . -105-Career Choice. In terms of the perception of overt influence on career choice, the female managers were requested to c i t e the person who was most i n f l u e n t i a l either as a role model or as an interested party. Table 23. I n f l u e n t i a l Persons/Factors i n Career Choice of Female Bank Managers. Family Members Percentage (n=29) Father 3% Mother 9% S i b l i n g 6% Husband 6% Uncle 3% Si g n i f i c a n t Others Bank Manager 18% Teacher 0% Male Peer 0% Female Peer 12% Self 15% Job Market/Chance 24% Contrary to e a r l i e r studies (Standley and Soule, 1974; Hennig and Jardim, 1977), the father of the female bank manager did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on h i s daughter's career choice. The mother emerged as the most i n f l u e n t i a l member of the immediate family but a large proportion (39%) of the female managers f e l t t h e i r decision was independently made. Consideration of other persons i n a female bank manager's career choice pointed to the bank manager as the most i n f l u e n t i a l . Teachers or facu l t y members played no part i n the career choice of these managers. Female peers also played a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n choosing a banking career. These findings are contrary to research studies which have found that faculty members and male peers have s i g n i f i c a n t influence i n a woman's career plans (Tangri, 1972, Theodore, 1971; Stake and L e v i t z , 1979). A -106-possible reason for this difference may be due to the different educational level of the subjects which affects their average age at entry into the workforce. In the other studies, subjects were mainly university students whereas the female bank managers were high school graduates. Since few female bank managers attended university, they did not experience the collegial atmosphere which normally encourages faculty-student interaction. Independent choice of a banking career is especially strong. Fifteen percent of the female bank managers cited no outside influence in their career choice and 24% stated that the job market (ie., availability of jobs) was the determining factor in their decision to enter banking. Thus, both Hypotheses 7(a) and 7(b) which postulate the positive influence of fathers and teachers/faculty members on a non-traditional woman's career choice must be rejected. Marital Status. Marital status as a measure of career commitment was tested by comparison based on the gender of bank managers. Table 24. Marital Status of Bank Managers by Sex. Males Females Marital Status (n=68) (n=41) Z-Value Married 94.1% 58.5% 4.56* Separated and Divorced 4.4% 26.8% -3.38* Widowed 0.0 0.0 Single 1.5% 14.6% -2.73** *p < .005 **p < .01 Consistent with Hypothesis 7, female bank managers were significantly less likely to be married than male bank managers. Conversely female managers were more likely to be separated or divorced or single than male managers. This finding is supportive of many research studies of managerial women which observe that managerial women are more likely to be -107-either separated, widowed, or divorced than married (Wblfson, 1976; Yohalem, 1979; Van der Merwe, 1978; Place, 1979; Almquist and Angrist, 1971). Reasons given for the greater incidence of single, divorced, separated, and widowed women in demanding managerial careers are numerous. Foremost i s the economic necessity of these women to pursue a more responsible and thus, higher paying career. Another i s the career/marriage trade-off for women which may necessitate a de-emphasis of career commitment on the part of married women. Within the female managerial group, marital status was also considered in terms of the age of the respondent, various career experience factors, and education level. When marital status i s viewed in terms of the age of the female manager, respondents are more l i k e l y to be married than otherwise in a l l age groups excepting those over 59 years. The highest proportion of separated and divorced women are in the 40-49 year age group. The smallest proportion of single women are in the mid-range of 40-59 years. -108-Marital Status of Female Bank Managers by Age. 1 • 30-39 years (n=10) •I 40-49 years (n=19) S3 50-59 years (n=9) > 59 years (n=2) Marital Status Single Separated % Single Divorced Work experience factors were also considered to evaluate what impact marital status may have on the labour force participation and career mobility of the female manager. By total years in banking, single women were proportionately more prevalent in the 6 to 15 years experience groups and in the greater than 20 years experience group. -109-Chart 11. M a r i t a l Status of Female Bank Managers by Years i n Banking. (%) 100-80 --60 --Years i n Banking 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 > 20 • Married (n=24) 13 Separated & Divorced (n=ll) g3 Single (n=6) The other experience factors of years as a manager and years i n present p o s i t i o n d i d not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y based on the ma r i t a l status of the respondent. This may be due to the small range (0 to 15 years) of managerial experience of the female managers as a group. As a measure of career mobility, the number of years of work experience at another bank was analyzed i n terms of marital status of the female bank manager. A l l m a r ital status groups showed a r e l a t i v e lack of inter-company movement (ranging from 58.3% to 66.7%). Only the married female managers indicated any substantial experience i n a r i v a l bank thus suggesting a greater degree of career mobility for t h i s group. Considering that the married group i s i n the mid-range of t o t a l years of banking compared to both single and separated/divorced women, and that a l l groups have e s s e n t i a l l y equivalent managerial experience, t h i s finding may indicate a greater willingness of married women to seek out new opportunities. -110-The impact of marital status on the availability to take educational courses has been discussed in the literature review. In this group of female managers, single women reported the greatest degree of academic education and attendance at banking courses. Separated and divorced women show the least amount of academic education and attendance at banking courses. Separated and divorced women show the least amount of academic education of a l l groups whereas married women have the least attendance at internal banking courses (20.8% had not attended any banking courses). Thus single women appear to have the greatest degree of education, both academic and corporate training, whereas married women appear to have not availed themselves of specific career oriented training to the same extent. This may indicate a greater difficulty on the part of married women to take these courses given their personal family obligations. Childbearing. The impact of childbearing on a woman's career has been discussed extensively in the literature. The presence and age of children in the female bank manager's household are shown in Tables 25 and 26. Although the percentages are drawn on very small sub-samples, this data represents the entire population available for study. Table 25. Number of Children in Household of Married, Separated and Divorced Female Bank Managers. Number of Children Percentage (n=28) 0 25.0% 1 17.8% 2 35.7% 3 21.4% -111-Table 26. Age of Children i n Household of Married, Separated and  Divorced Female Bank Managers. Current Age of Children Percentage (n=21) Less than 6 years 0.0 6 to 18 years 23.8% More than 18 years 76.2% From these s t a t i s t i c s i t can been seen that many of the female bank managers (25%) do not have children and i f they do, a l l are of school age or older. Of those with school age children, female managers are predominantly i n the 30-39 year age group. The majority (89%) over the age of 40 have adult children, i e . , over the age of 18. To determine the possible relationship between the number of children and the l i f e cycle stage of the female managers, the following calculations were made. Table 27. Average Number of Children by Age of Married, Separated and Divorced Female Bank Managers Age of Female Manager Average Number of Children 30-39 years 1.00 40-49 years 1.79 50-59 years 1.43 More than 59 years 0.00 Based on these s t a t i s t i c s , the female manager i n the 40-49 year age group has the greatest number of children. One-quarter of the married, separated, and divorced female bank managers did not have any children and an additional 18% had only one c h i l d . Moreover, there appears to be a trend towards fewer children among the younger managers (30-39 years) possibly indicating a conscious attempt to minimize the negative e f f e c t of childbearing on t h e i r workforce p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Compared to Canadian f e r t i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s , the female bank managers have s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer children. Based on the 1981 Canadian Census -112-( S t a t i s t i c s Canada (e), 1981), the average number of children i n the relevant age groups are: women age 30-34 years — 1.88 children; age 35-39 years — 2.33 chil d r e n ; age 40-44 years — 2.84 children; and over 45 years of age — 3.30 children. Several studies have noted that a substantial number of female managers have few, i f any, children (Place, 1979; Hennig and Jardim, 1977; Van der Merwe, 1978; Yohalem, 1979). The female bank managers i n t h i s study were no exception. Thus, there i s f u l l support for Hypothesis 9 which asserts that female bank managers are more l i k e l y to have few, i f any, children. The impact of childbearing on the female manager's career i s further assessed by the type and duration of maternity leave taken at the time of her children's b i r t h . Of the 20 female managers who had chi l d r e n , s i x d i d not take extended maternity leave. These women had a small number of child r e n , four had two chil d r e n , and two had only one c h i l d . The average age at which childbearing started for t h i s group of women was 25.5 years. In contrast, there was a greater number of children (average 2.2 children) for female managers who took some form of extended maternity leave. O v e r a l l , the average age at the time childbearing started was 21 years with the average duration of maternity leave 6.07 years. The following table gives further information as to the e f f e c t of the age of the mother on her choice to take extended maternity leave. Table 28. Maternity Leaves by Age of Female Bank Manager. Type of Maternity Leave Average Age at Star t of Leave Number of Pregnancies Delayed entry into workforce Full-time maternity leave Part-time maternity leave 18.3 years 24.5 years 23.8 year 3 8 5 -113-Women who did not take extended maternity leave tend to be older at the time of their childbearing and also tend to have fewer children than those withdrawing from the labour force on a full-time or part-time basis. The duration of any interruption in worklife for childbearing reasons averaged six years — the length of time before a child reaches school age. It is especially noteworthy that none of the childbearing female managers have pre-schcol age children, in fact, the majority have children over the age of 18. Combined with the observation that the female managers have only an average of 4.49 years managerial experience, this finding may indicate a postponement in assuming additional managerial responsibilities until the children are of a relatively independent age. Thus there is partial support of Hypothesis 1 which states that female bank managers exhibit a continuous, high participation career pattern despite marital status and the presence of children because a substantial number of women managers (30%) did not leave the workforce when their children were born. The interruption of careers was usually limited to six years for the majority of women bank managers with children. Role Conflict. As discussed in the literature review, the existence of inter-role conflict in a career woman's l i f e is affected by certain variables such as marital status and the number of children in the household. The marital status of female bank managers appears to have an effect on inter-role conflict consistent with other research findings. -114-Table 29. Role C o n f l i c t and M a r i t a l Status of Female Bank Managers. Role C o n f l i c t M a r i t a l Status No Yes (present) Yes (past) Married (n=19) 42% 42% 16% Divorced & Separated (n=7) 57% 43% 0% Single (n=6) 100% 0 0 More married women report role c o n f l i c t than either divorced/separated or single women. When the presence of children i n the household i s considered, there appears to be a d i f f e r e n t relationship between marital status, role c o n f l i c t , and the number of children i n the family. Table 30. Role C o n f l i c t and Average Number of Children of Female Bank Managers. Average Number of Children for C o n f l i c t Responses M a r i t a l Status No Yes (present) Yes (past) Married .33 2.25 2.67 Divorced & Separated 2.25 1.33 0.00 Among the female bank managers, marital status and the presence of children are more p o s i t i v e l y related to the degree of i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t reported. A substantial proportion of married women (58%) stated that they experienced c o n f l i c t between t h e i r roles of wife, mother, and career women. This c o n f l i c t was more pronounced for married women who had r e l a t i v e l y more children. Only 43% of the separated and divorced women reported r o l e c o n f l i c t however there was a negative relationship between the number of children and reported r o l e c o n f l i c t . Children of separated and divorced women were most often 18 years or older. On the other hand, married women often had school-age children who would have more demands on a mother's -115-time. And finally, as expected, none of the single women reported any role conflict. In summary, the degree of inter-role conflict has been postulated to be a function of the number of social roles held by a person. Working women, especially married ones, have been found to exhibit more inter-role conflict than men (Herman and Gyllstrom, 1977; Bryson, et. al., 1978). Thus, consistent with other research findings, Hypothesis 10 which states that unmarried female managers have a lesser degree of inter-role conflict than married female managers is supported. Hypothesis 11 that female bank managers with children report greater inter-role conflict than ones without children, can also be accepted when the age of the children is taken into account. Spouses of Female Bank Managers. In addition to one's parents, the husband of the female bank managers is hypothesized as a very influential person in her career plans. An evaluation of the spouse's occupational and educational background provides some indication of the degree of "matching" between husband and wife on these dimensions. Table 31. Occupation of Female Bank Manager's Spouse. Occupation Percentage (n=19) Manager/Supervisor 36.8% 0.0 42.0% 21.0% Professional White Collar Blue Collar Spouses were more likely to be employed in nonsupervisory jobs; -116-however, they were more l i k e l y to be i n white-collar occupations than i n blue-collar occupations. To t h i s extent, there appears to be a ce r t a i n degree of "matching" with the wife's occupation. This finding i s especi a l l y noteworthy when examining the type of industry that the managerial/supervisory group i s employed i n . Pour of the seven husbands who were managers were employed as bank managers. Thus, there i s support for Hypothesis 12 which asserts the equivalency of a managerial woman and her spouse's occupational status. Spouses of female bank managers possess a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l of education with 24% holding university degrees; 12% having p a r t i a l u niversity; 29% with high school graduation; and the remainder completing at l e a s t Grade 10. Although there were no university graduates among the female bank managers, a paired comparison of education l e v e l s of husbands and wives showed r e l a t i v e equivalency between couples. Table 32. Comparison of Education Level of Female Bank Managers and their Spouses Percentage (n=18) Spouse's Education Level greater than Female Manager's 44% Spouse's Education Level equal to Female Manager's 11% Spouse's Education Level l e s s than Female Manager's 44% Based on these findings, Hypothesis 13, which states that spouses of female managers have the same or higher l e v e l of education than t h e i r wives, can be accepted with l i m i t e d confidence. Both of these findings concerning spousal occupational and educational l e v e l are consistent with that of other studies which report that women tend to marry t h e i r equals or superiors on these two dimensions ( B a s i l , 1972; E g r i , 1975; Feldman, 1973; Yohalem, 1979). -117-Psychological Dimensions of Female Bank Managers Motivation. Psychological motivation was measured through sub-components of two research instruments — the Rokeach Value Study and Ghiselli's Self-Description Inventory. Based on his research findings, Rokeach (1973) found the following relationships between individual value ranking scores and need for Achievement, need for Affiliation, and need for Power. Need for Achievement — Independence (positive correlation) Intellectual (positive) Honesty (negative) Obedience (negative) Need for Affiliation - True Friendship (positive) World at Peace (positive) Mature Love (negative) Need for Power - Freedom (positive) Obedience (negative) Comparison between male and female bank managers' scores on need for Achievement yielded inconclusive results. Male managers ranked both Independence and Honesty higher than female managers and ranked Intellectual and Obedience lower. When value rankings of bank managers were compared with the value rankings of Rokeach's sample of American males and females, the Canadian bank managers scored higher on need for Achievement. Male bank managers had higher value means on Independent, Intellectual, and Honest values, but lower on the Obedience value than American males. Female bank managers, as compared to American females, also recorded a similar relationship of rankings although the relative rankings of Honest and Obedient values were reversed. With the exception of Obedience value scores, female bank managers recorded higher scores on overall need for Achievement than American males. On the need for Affiliation factor, comparisons between male and -118-female bank managers again yielded inconclusive results. Male managers scored higher on the True Friendship value but lower on both A World at Peace and Mature Love values. Comparisons between male bank managers and American males indicated that male managers scored lower on need for Affiliation for two out of the three value items, the largest disagreement being on the World at Peace value item (a difference of 8.36 mean rankings). Female bank managers showed equivalency on the True Friendship value item but less need for Affiliation on the remaining two items than American females. For the need for Power over others factor, male bank managers scored higher than female managers in the hypothesized direction for both value items. Comparisons between male bank managers and American males were inconclusive. However, comparisons between female bank managers and American females showed that female managers scored lower on this factor. A table of the Rokeach value mean scores of male and female bank managers and Rokeach's samples of American males and females is available in Appendix Table 3-1. Utilizing Ghiselli's Self-Description Inventory scores on motivational factors of need for Achievement, need for Self-Actualization, need for Power, need for Reward, and need for Security were also obtained for the bank managers. A mean score profile on these factors for male and female bank managers and Ghiselli's sample of managers, supervisor, and workers showed a similar relationship between factors for each group. Male and female bank managers have almost equivalent factor mean scores on a l l items (the greatest difference being .46). In terms of mean scores, they most closely approximate Ghiselli's manager sample although they score lower on need Achievement (but higher than Ghiselli's -119-Supervisors) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on need for Job Security (even higher than G h i s e l l i 1 s l i n e workers). Between the bank managers and G h i s e l l i 1 s manager group, both of these differences are s i g n i f i c a n t to the p < .005 l e v e l (Z-test). Generally, research studies have shown that women managers d i f f e r from other women i n terms of higher need for achievement (Tewari, 1980; Moore and R i c k e l , 1980; Knotts, 1975; Morrison and Sebald, 1974; Trigg and Perlman, 1976); higher need for power over others (Knotts, 1975; Morrison and Sebald, 1974; Trigg and Perlman, 1976). This feminine managerial p r o f i l e of motivational needs i s consistent with that of successful male managers (Ha l l , 1976). A fourth motivational need pertinent to managerial women was introduced by Horner (1972). On the Motive to Avoid Success, women consistently score higher than men (Horner, 1972; Prescott, 1971). On both the Value Survey and Self-Description Inventory, male and female bank managers exhibited s i m i l a r motivational need p r o f i l e s . Only on the need for Power Over Others (using the Rokeach Value Survey) was there a difference with male bank managers scoring higher than female bank managers. In summary, female bank managers ex h i b i t a motivational p r o f i l e s i m i l a r to male managers, thus providing support for Hypothesis 16. Causes for Success. The research l i t e r a t u r e on causes of career success for men and women documents c e r t a i n sex-based differences i n perceptions (Deaux, 1979; Stevens and DeNisi, 1980; Feldman-Summers and K i e s l e r , 1974). In terms of se l f - r e p o r t s , women see in t e r n a l factors such -120-as e f f o r t and hard work as most important whereas men see a b i l i t y as the most important denominator. Female bank managers ranked Van der Merwe's l i s t of causes of success i n the following manner. Table 33. Female Bank Managers' Self-Reports on Causes of Success Factor Ranking Percentage Hard Work 1 12.8% Competence 2 11.7% Self-Confidence 3 11.0% Determination 4 10.5% Extra E f f o r t 5 10.0% Interpersonal S k i l l s 6 9.4% Intelligence 7 8.3% Environmental Support 8 7.2% Aggressiveness 9 7.2% Luck 10 6.1% Consistent with research findings, women c i t e d hard work as the primary factor i n t h e i r career success, however extra e f f o r t only ranked f i v e on the l i s t . Factors denoting an in t e r n a l locus of control d i d rank higher than those suggesting an external locus (environmental support and luc k ) . Thus there i s p a r t i a l support for Hypothesis 17 which postulates that hard work and extra e f f o r t would outweigh other factors i n career success. At t r i b u t i o n s of causes of success for t h i r d parties has been found to d i f f e r depending on the sex of the t h i r d party. Namely, a b i l i t y and external factors are more often attributed to male managers whereas motivation and in t e r n a l factors are more often attributed to female managers. Female bank managers were asked to rank Van der Merwe's success factors according to th e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y to other women and to men i n general. -121-Table 34. Female Bank Managers' Rankings of Causal Success Factors to Women and Men in General. Success Factors Women in General Ranking Men in General Competence Determination Interpersonal Skills Self-Confidence Extra Effort Aggressiveness Environmental Support Hard work Intelligence Luck 1 2 3 3 5 6 6 6 6 7 3 6 6 2 5 1 3 6 6 7 In ranking causes of success for women in general, the female managers remained consistent in ranking internal factors generally higher than external factors. Compared to the self-report of success factors, the female managers ranked determination, interpersonal skills, aggressiveness, and environmental support higher for women in general. On the other hand, hard work was ranked considerably lower for women in general. Ranking of these same factors for men in general varied greatly from those attributed to women. Unlike for women, aggressiveness and environmental support received considerably higher rankings for men. Factors such as determination and interpersonal skills were considered of less importance for men than for women. Only for the factors of extra work (medium ranking); hard work, intelligence, and luck (low rankings) was there consistency between the two groups. These rankings would suggest only partial support for Hypothesis 18 which postulates that female bank managers ascribe internal causes of success to women and external causes of success to men. Managerial Style. The managerial style of bank managers was examined utilizing various research instruments to assess leadership behaviour, -122-relationship o r i e n t a t i o n , perceptions about co-workers, values, and attitudes. The re s u l t s of each, comparing bank managers on the basis of gender, age, and years of managerial experience, are presented sequentially. (1) Leadership Behaviour. To evaluate leadership behaviour, responses to the seven bank incident interview questions were analyzed i n terms of selection and rationale for preferred courses of action attributed to the " t y p i c a l " bank manager. Because the managerial s t y l e analysis i s lim i t e d to behavioural a t t r i b u t i o n s , i t i s not a complete analysis of available s t y l e data which also includes metaphor responses and q u a l i t y of imagery. These interpretations were f e l t to be beyond the scope of t h i s thesis which focusses on the behavioural rather than metaphorical aspects of leadership. I n i t i a l analysis of the behavioural at t r i b u t i o n s of s t y l e were coded as L i n e a l , C o l l a t e r a l or Independent using the Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck (1961) the o r e t i c a l framework. The male and female bank manager groups had very similar leadership s t y l e a t t r i b u t i o n p r o f i l e s . For each group, the s t y l e for a " t y p i c a l " bank manager was Lineal-Independent (for three of the seven incidents) followed by the Collateral-Independent s t y l e (for two of the incidents). A comparison based on the average percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n per s t y l e dimension over a l l incidents i s presented i n the following table. Table 35. Managerial Style A t t r i b u t i o n by Sex — Bank Incident Reponses Managerial Style Average Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n  Male (n=68) Female (n=41) Lin e a l C o l l a t e r a l Independent Lineal-Independent L i n e a l - C o l l a t e r a l Collateral-Independent 16.20% 20.30% 12.47% 27.69% 5.70% 26.85% 19.23% 22.03% 16.43% 41.96% 5.24% 27.62% -123-There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences (Z-test) based on sex of respondent for any of the attributed behavioural s t y l e dimensions. The age of the respondent i n a t t r i b u t i o n of managerial s t y l e was also considered. Within the 30-39 age category, female managers chose the Collateral-Independent (25.7%) and Independent (24.3%) managerial st y l e s whereas the male managers chose Lineal-Independent (25.3%), C o l l a t e r a l -Independent (23.3%), and C o l l a t e r a l (22.3%) s t y l e s . Generally they have equivalent a t t r i b u t i o n s of managerial s t y l e . Within the 40-49 age category, female and male managers both chose the combination styles of Lineal-Independent (20.8% and 32.2% respectively) and Collateral-Independent (30.8% and 27.4%). Again, no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n s t y l e a t t r i b u t i o n s were observed. Within the 50-59 age category, a s l i g h t difference emerges i n that the female managers chose the Collateral-Independent (25.8%) and C o l l a t e r a l (22.6%) s t y l e s . Male managers selected Collateral-Independent (29.6%) plus the Lineal-Independent (28.6%) s t y l e s . Small sample sizes l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these findings. The greatest difference i n managerial s t y l e a t t r i b u t i o n emerges i n the oldest age category (greater than 59 years) with the female managers choosing the Lin e a l (28.6%) and Lineal-Independent (28.5%) sty l e s whereas the male managers primar i l y selected the Collateral-Independent (40%) s t y l e . These comparisons are tempered by the fact that there i s a very small sample group (three males and two females) available. Across managerial experience groups, male managers consistently selected the Lineal-Independent and Collateral-Independent managerial s t y l e s . Lowest preference i s accorded to the L i n e a l - C o l l a t e r a l and Independent s t y l e s . -124-Greater v a r i a b i l i t y i s exhibited across managerial experience groups (although limited to under sixteen years) for female managers. The Collateral-Independent style i s consistently attributed to "typical" managers by a l l experience groups whereas secondary preference for each experience group was different. For the less than five years managerial experience group, the Lineal-Independent style was chosen; for the 6-10 year experience group, the Lineal style was chosen. A l l of these secondary attributions were along the same Lineal-Independent continuum. Comparisons between sexes based on years of managerial experiences suggest that females more often attribute Lineal and Independent managerial styles to the "typical" bank manager. Male managers exhibit a more pronounced preference for the Lineal-Independent combination style. A second approach to analyzing reponses to the bank incident questions was to ascertain the functional orientation of the manager. That i s , whether he or she was perceiving an approach to the problem stressing either rewards, decisions, communication, goals, or management policy-Male and female profiles on the function of their responses, averaged over the seven incidents, were as follows: Table 36. Functional Orientation by Sex — Bank Incident Responses. Percentage Distribution  Functional Orientation Male (n=66) Female (n=41) Rewards 13.72% 12.92% Decisions 30.51% 20.67%* Communication 23.65% 29.20%** Goal Orientation 14.45% 15.25% Management Stance 17.66% 19.90% * Z=3.477, p < .005 **Z=-2.0036, p < .05 As indicated in the above table, male managers visualized taking the decision-making approach whereas the female managers visualized taking a -125-Chart 12. 100% Lineal i Lineal Managerial Style Preferences by Sex an. Years E c o e r i ^ M ^ - ^ r ^ a n h ^ (a) Female Bank Managers Collateral Independent Male Bank Managers L-I L-C C-I Collateral Independent L-I L-C C-I I I Females: 5 yrs or less managerial experience M B Females: 6-10 yrs. Females: 11-15 yrs. Managerial Style \ \ Males: 5 years HH Males: 6-10 yrs. 23 Males: 11-15 yrs. g53Males: 16-20 yrs. SLMales: 20 yrs. Managerial Style communication approach. Further analysis based on age and managerial experience variables yields several sex-based differences. (See Appendix Tables 3-2 and 3-3) for s t a t i s t i c a l reference.) Within gender categories, there appear to be consistent patterns of functional orientation across age groups in the bank incident responses. Decision-making and communication orientations are ranked highest over others. Moreover, the profi l e of functional orientation i s consistent across managerial experience groups. The greatest degree of agreement is found for female managers with consistently higher emphasis placed on the communication and decision-making functions with rewards and goal orientation accorded the least degree of emphasis. Male managers again stress the decision-making and communication functions (in that order )in their responses with rewards and goal orientation receiving less emphasis. Overall, there appear to be only slight differences in perceived functional orientation based on the sex of the bank manager. Male managers seem mentally oriented more to a decision-making approach whereas female managers more often hold a communication orientation. Both groups place the least amount of emphasis on the rewards and goal orientation functions. There are few, i f any, differences within gender groups based on either the age of managerial experience of respondents. If anything, the eldest group (over the age of 59) shows the most extreme prof i l e ; however, this may be primarily due to the small sample groups involved. A third approach to analzying the managerial style of the bank managers in terms of their responses to the bank incident interview questions was to examine the role assumed by the manager. The managerial roles visualized were that of figurehead, leader, monitor, disseminator of -127-information, resource a l l o c a t o r , implementor of Head Office p o l i c y , and disturbance handler. Sex-based differences i n roles attributed to " t y p i c a l " managers averaged over a l l incidents i s provided i n the table below. Table 37. Role Orientation by Sex — Bank Incident Responses. Role Orientation Figurehead Leader Monitor Disseminator of Information Disturbance Handler Resource /Allocator Implementor of H.O. P o l i c y * p < .005 (Z-test) **p < .10 (Z-test) Male (n=64) 2.10% 46.50% 9.62% 22.90% 9.27% 6.12% 3.50% Female (n=41) 5.88%* 29.69%* 20.45%* 18.21%** 19.61%* 0.84%* 5.32% On almost a l l r o l e orientations there were s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences. Male managers most often v i s u a l i z e d a leadership role whereas female managers exhibited more d i v e r s i t y i n r o l e preferences. They chose the leader role more often than other r o l e s , however, the roles of monitor, disturbance handler, and disseminator of information proved to be strong selections. Again the interview responses on the managerial role dimension were analyzed i n terms of the age and managerial experience of repondents. (See Appendix Tables 3-4 and 3-5 for s t a t i s t i c a l reference.) Female managers vary somewhat i n t h e i r perceived role orientation when compared on the basis of age. Similar to the male role perception pattern, females age 30-39 select the leader role substantially over other r o l e s . Females age 40-49 years do not show such a clear preference i n that the leader, disseminator, and disturbance handler roles are almost of equal incidence. Women age 50-59 equally select the leader and disturbance -128-h a n d l e r r o l e s w h e r e a s t h o s e o v e r t h e a g e o f 5 9 s e l e c t e d t h e m o n i t o r a n d l e a d e r r o l e s o v e r o t h e r s . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e l e a d e r r o l e i s a c o n n e c t i n g d i m e n s i o n a c r o s s a g e g r o u p s , f e m a l e m a n a g e r s 4 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r a p p e a r t o s u b s c r i b e t o m o r e n u m e r o u s r o l e b e h a v i o u r s . M a l e m a n a g e r s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e v e r y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r r o l e s e l e c t i o n s a c r o s s a g e g r o u p s . T h e l e a d e r r o l e e m e r g e s a s t h e m o s t p r e f e r a b l e w i t h t h e d i s s e m i n a t o r r o l e b e i n g t h e s e c o n d c h o i c e ( b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s l e s s ) . F e m a l e a n d m a l e m a n a g e r s t e n d e d n o t t o a s s u m e e i t h e r t h e f i g u r e h e a d , r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t o r , o r i m p l e m e n t o r o f H e a d O f f i c e p o l i c y r o l e s . F e m a l e m a n a g e r s c h o s e a m o r e i n t e r a c t i v e m o d e o f r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n b y m o r e o f t e n s e l e c t i n g t h e m o n i t o r a n d d i s t u r b a n c e h a n d l e r r o l e s t h a n d i d m a l e m a n a g e r s . W h e n r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n d a t a i s a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s o f t h e s e x a n d y e a r s o f m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e , f e m a l e m a n a g e r s a g a i n s h o w a d i v e r s i t y o f p r e f e r e n c e s . T h e n e w e r m a n a g e r s (5 y e a r s o r l e s s m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e ) c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e m a l e p r o f i l e w h i c h s t r e s s e s t h e l e a d e r r o l e . F o r f e m a l e m a n a g e r s w i t h 6 - 1 0 y e a r s m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e m o n i t o r r o l e e m e r g e s a s t h e m o s t o f t e n v i s u a l i z e d , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y b y t h e l e a d e r a n d d i s t u r b a n c e h a n d l e r r o l e s . T h e m o s t s e n i o r f e m a l e m a n a g e r s a l s o v i s u a l i z e t h e m o n i t o r r o l e m o s t o f t e n h o w e v e r t h e l e a d e r r o l e i s i d e n t i f i e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s o f t e n t h a n e i t h e r t h e d i s s e m i n a t o r o r d i s t u r b a n c e h a n d l e r r o l e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e women m a n a g e r s p l a c e m o r e e m p h a s i s o n t h e m o n i t o r i n g a n d d i s t u r b a n c e h a n d l i n g a p p r o a c h . M a l e m a n a g e r s a r e v e r y c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s e x p e r i e n c e g r o u p s i n t h e i r p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s o n t h e l e a d e r r o l e a n d s e c o n d a r y e m p h a s i s o n b e i n g a d i s e m i n a t o r o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A s w i t h t h e f e m a l e m a n a g e r s , b e i n g a f i g u r e h e a d , r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t o r , o r i m p l e m e n t o r o f H e a d O f f i c e p o l i c y i s t h e - 1 2 9 -l e a s t c i t e d managerial r o l e . A f i n a l dimension of responses to bank incidents i s the orientation of the " t y p i c a l " manager to either subordinates, superiors, customers, a combination of the three, or a neutral approach. The preferred person orientation averaged over a l l seven bank incidents showed no s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based differences. For both male and female bank managers, the majority of responses (61% and 52% respectively) were oriented exclusively towards subordinates. Combination responses including subordinates were also c i t e d although to a much lesser extent. Only 6% of the bank managers1 responses involved a neutral stance. In addition to bank incident questions, bank managers were asked to respond to three personally-oriented scenarios involving work associates (internal and external to the branch). There were no sex-based differences i n the degree of involvement with each associate. In general, Assistant Managers ranked f i r s t ; regional personnel managers, second; junior t e l l e r s , t h i r d ; and managers of r i v a l banks, fourth. The primary orientation was towards the manager's immediate subordinate (see Appendix Tables 3-6, 3-7, 3-8). Personal s o c i a l i z a t i o n with colleagues and c l i e n t s was also considered. For female managers, interaction was mainly with peer bank managers at lunches and dinners. S o c i a l i z a t i o n with c l i e n t s was l i m i t e d to lunch engagements where the main purpose was to f a c i l i t a t e business dealings. Thus, there i s only l i m i t e d support for Hypothesis 19 which asserts a low degree of s o c i a l involvement with colleagues and c l i e n t s . A high degree of v a r i a b i l i t y e x i s t s among the female managers regarding who they s o c i a l i z e with and how often. There i s consistency however, i n the -130-recognition of the value of informal contact with business clients thus, in this area Hypothesis 19 cannot be substantiated. In summary, there were some sex-based differences in leader behaviour responses. Male managers were more consistent in their attribution of the traditional leadership, decision-making style to the "typical" bank manager. In contrast, female managers' responses were much more varied, responding to the situational differences in cr i t i c a l incidents. On functional orientation female managers exhibited a clearly stronger preference for a communications approach. For other measures of leadership behaviour, no significant sex-based differences were observed. Overall, in terms of their perceptions about "typical" managerial behaviour, male and female managers take slightly different approaches. Whereas male managers attribute a more directive style in their job, female managers are more flexible and are more likely to attribute a consultative approach. Therefore, Hypothesis 20 which states there are no sex-based differences in managerial behaviour is not accepted, to the extent that these perceptual attributions are indicative of actual behaviour. (2) Relationship Orientation. On the Person-Thing Orientation scales developed by Frost and Barnowe (1979) there were a large number of sex-based differences in scale scores. -131-Table 38. Person-Thing Orientation by Sex of Bank Managers Mean Scores Male Female T-value (n=59) (n=31) P r o b a b i l i t y Average "Person" Score 3.5593 3.9129 p=.004 Average "Thing" Score 3.0706 2.9722 Non-sig. Factor 1 — Things: Mechanical-manual a c t i v i t i e s 3.0073 2.5300 p=.02 Factor 2 — Persons: Interacting with others i n formal roles 3.6836 3.9677 Non-sig. Factor 3 — Things: Working with Numbers 3.0000 3.5444 p=.009 Factor 4 — Persons: Approaching others informally 3.5763 3.8629 p=.049 Factor 5 — Persons: Interacting with Children 3.3983 3.9677 p=.003 Factor 6 — Things: Watching Machinery 3.7797 3.1935 p=.004 Based on the Person and Thing scale scores, both male and female bank managers exhib i t a higher Person rather than Thing orientation. Although both groups appear to be Person s p e c i a l i s t s , female managers have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Person score than male managers. Male and female managers have e s s e n t i a l l y equivalent Thing scale scores. In terms of i n d i v i d u a l factors, male managers' mean scores are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on two of the Thing factors (Factors 1 and 6). Female managers score s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on one of the Thing factors (Factor 3) plus two of the three Person factors (Factors 4 and 5). No s i g n i f i c a n t sex-based difference was observed for Factor 2. Female managers, then, show a consistently higher Person orientation plus an abstract orientation. Male managers on the other hand, score higher on mechanically oriented dimension. Analysis of Person-Thing scale scores by sex and age of respondent -132-yielded several differences. For male managers with the sample divided i n t o older (greater than 42) and younger (less than 43) subsamples, the average Person scale was negatively correlated with age (X2=9.52757, p=.023; r=-.23098, p=.0081) as was the average Thing scale score (X2=.13981, p=.9767; r=-.13484, p=.2309). For female managers with age categories based on decades (eg., 30-39 years, 40-49, e t c . ) , a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with age and scores on Thing Factor 3 (Working with numbers was found (4=.3746, p=.021). No other s i g n i f i c a n t differences u t i l i z i n g t h i s age categorization or the bipolar age categorization were observed. Drawing from the Person-Thing scale scores compiled by Frost and Barnowe (1979, pp. 25-26) i n the development of t h i s research instrument y i e l d s interesting comparisons. Table 39. Person Scale -Male Mgrs. (n=59) -Female Mgrs. (n-31) Thing Scale -Male Mgrs. -Female Mgrs. Comparison of Person-Thing Scale Score Means; Bank Managers  vs. Other Occupational Groups. Bank Mgrs. 3.56 3.91 3.07 2.97 Business Students (n=456) 3.17* 3.17* Scale Score Means Mining Managers (n=178) 3.05 3.05 2.90* 2.90* 3.44* 3.44* Mgrs./ PT Stdt. (n=73) 3.44 3.44* 3.05 3.05 College Acad/Res. (n=270 2.90* 2.90* 3.02 3.02 *p < .005 (Z-test) -133-On the Person scale, male bank managers score significantly higher than a l l comparison groups except for the Managers/Part-time students in Timms' study (1979). Female bank managers score higher on Person orientation than a l l comparison groups. On the Thing scale, male and female bank managers score significantly lower than only one comparison group — the Mining Managers (Dreschler, et. al., 1979). Given that this latter group is comprised largely of Thing specialists (high Thing — low Person orientation), this is a reasonable difference as the bank manager's job does not have a high technical or scientific component. In summary, both male and female managers proved to be "Person Specialists". Women managers scored significantly higher on their average Person scores as well as on a l l Person factors. On individual Thing factors, male managers scored higher on mechanical activities whereas female managers scored higher on working with numbers. Overall, average Thing scale scores were equivalent for both groups. In relation to the requisite orientation of a bank manager, the female manager appears to have the advantage. A high Person orientation is required by a bank manager in dealing with both subordinates and clients. Of the Thing factors, the factor involving numerical orientation is the most relevant and i t is on this factor that women managers score higher. Thus based on person orientation, female bank managers appear to be slightly more relationship oriented than male managers therefore Hypothesis 21 is accepted. The higher Person orientation of the female managers is consistent with findings on leader behaviour attributions. Female bank managers advocate flexibility in dealing with a diverse set of problems. Remember -134-that they also visualized a communication or consultative approach more often than male managers. (3) Perceptions about Co-Wbrkers. The Superior, Peer, Subordinate scale measures the perceptions that a manager has about his or her superiors, peers, and subordinates. Perceptions are often based on past experiences with those persons and may influence behaviour in work situations, therefore an assessment of this variable i s important to understanding managerial style. (See Appendix Table 3-9 for detailed s t a t i s t i c s on SPS scale scores.) (a) Superior Ratings. Sex-based differences in bank managers' perceptions of their supervisors concentrated in perception of Leader Manner. Males perceived their supervisors in a positive lig h t as primarily democratic, humourful, relaxed, flexible, open, and predictable. Females, on the other hand, had a more negative perception of their supervisors as authoritarian, dour, tense, inflexible, closed, and unpredictable. On individual variable scores (p <• .05) a similar division i s evident. Male Perception of Supervisor — relaxed, predictable, passive, ambitious. Female Perception of Supervisor — tense, unpredictable, assertive, lacksadaisical. To determine the possible existence of age-based differences in female managers' perceptions, comparisons were drawn between women less than 40 years of age and women 40 years old and over. The younger group rates their superiors as irresponsible, democratic, and independent, whereas the older women saw their supervisors as responsible, authoritarian, and dependent (p <•. 04). (b) Peer Ratings. In contrast, males tended to perceive their peers -135-in less favourable terms than females did. Although no significant differences were recorded in factor ratings, individual variables which did differ (p < .05) included: Male Perception of Peers — incompetent, lackadaisacal, legalistic, non-competitive. Female Perception of Peers - competent, ambitious, pragmatic, competitive. On the age dimension for female managers, the only difference was recorded on the "caring" dimension with younger managers seeing peers as more caring. (c) Subordinate Ratings. In regards to perceptions of subordinates, females perceived subordinates more negatively than did males. Unlike ratings obtained for Supervisors and peers, there were significant differences in factors scores for subordinates. For three of the five identified subordinate factor clusters, males and females exhibited different perceptions. Work Relationships (p=.035) — Males saw subordinates as creative, supportive, sincere, equalitarian, and hurried. Females saw subordinates as reactive, threatening, phony, lofty, hurried. Flexibility (p=.043) — Males perceived subordinates as independent and flexible whereas females perceived subordinates as dependent and inflexible. Tenseness (p=.047) -- Males saw subordinates as relaxed on this dimension while females perceived subordinates as tense. Individual variable scores for which there were statistically significant differences (p < .05) were: Male perception of subordinates — decisive, equalitarian, creative, humourful, democratic, legalistic, flexible. Female perception of subordinates — indecisive, lofty, reactive, dour, authoritarian, pragmatic, inflexible. Again there were few differences in subordinate ratings based on age of female manager. Only on one variable was there a significant difference -136-(p=.05) with younger managers perceiving subordinates as harmful and older managers seeing them as helpful. In summary, there were several sex-based differences on the SPS scale. Female bank managers, as compared to male managers, regarded their superiors and subordinates in a negative manner. However, they perceived their peers more positively than male managers. Few age-based perceptual differences were observed for the female bank manager group. One may conclude that female managers view their superiors and subordinates as more threatening or less supportive than did male managers. On the other hand, male managers tended to be more negative regarding their peers. Recognizing that positive relations with one's superiors is essential for future career advancement and that the development of good relations with one's staff can reflect positively on branch performance, the alliance of the male manager with these two groups may be more conducive to managerial success. Peers on the other hand, are less influential (until they are promoted) in terms of assisting in meeting one's career goals. Thus alliance with one's peers would be a long-term rather than short-term political strategy. Based on these findings, Hypothesis 22, that female bank managers exhibit similar attitudes as male managers towards superiors, peers, and subordinates is rejected. (4) Values and Attitudes. Measures of bank manager values and attitudes were obtained using the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory and the Rokeach Value Survey. -137-There were few sex-based differences in personal trait factors as measured by Ghiselli's Self-Description Inventory. On only two traits were there significant sex-based differences with male managers scoring higher on Supervisory Ability (p=.013) and female managers scoring higher on Working Class Affinity (p=.034). However, there were no significant differences on other managerial performance traits; namely, Self-Assurance, Decisiveness, need for Achievement, need for Power, and Self-Actualization. Essentially male and female bank managers exhibit similar trait profiles on the SDI. Although there were few differences between male and female bank managers on summary trait scores, more differences were observed in the selection of individual adjectives. Calculations utilizing the Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients highlighted the following sex-based differences in pairs of self-descriptive adjectives. (Note that coding of pairs of adjectives were scored as follows: f i r s t adjective in pair equally "1", the second adjective equally "0".) Table 40. Ghiselli SDI Item Differences — Male vs. Female Bank Managers Self-Descriptive Adjectives  Male (n=59) Female (n=31) Significance Level Pearson Cor T-test Modest Mature Practical Realistic Strong Concerned Poised Civilized Dominant Stable Dependable Pleasant r=-.21 Harmonious r=.306 Stable r=-.234 Independent r=.237 Unselfish r=.208 Pleasant r=-.260 Ingenious r=.186 Dignified r=-.170 Unfussy r=-.177 Pleased r=.185 Content r=.189 p=.021 p=.002 p=.013 p=.012 p=.025 p=.007 p=.039 p=.055 p=.048 p=.040 p=.037 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. p=.042 p=.003 p=.026 p=.024 p=.050 p=.013 n.s. -138-Male managers, compared to their female counterparts, tended to stress logic and strength denoting an internal locus of control in their self-descriptions. Female managers on the other hand stressed interpersonal relations and concern with others denoting an external locus of control in their self-descriptions. Arranging the adjectives in these self-descriptions according to their orientation towards Self, Family and Friends, and Society provides further understanding of the contrast between male and female perspectives. -139-Figure 2. Interpretive Framework for Ghiselli SDI Adjectives: Male vs Female Bank Managers Male Self-Descriptive Adjectives I SOCIETY Female Self-Descriptive Adjectives CIVILIZED FAMJLY F R I E N D S DIGNIFIED S E ' L F STABLE ' STABLE I MATURE i INDEPENDENT REALISTIC PRACTICAL -140-In the "Self" inner circle, male managers include adjectives which emphasize strength of character of perhaps a heroic dimension (stable, mature, strong, modest = Superman). Female managers present an inward focus stressing self-actualization and satisfaction of the soul (stable, independent, ingenious, pleased, content). In the "Family and Friends" intermediate circle, there is a focus on interpersonal relations with significant others in one's l i f e . Males continue to stress strength virtures (dependable, dominant) modified by concern. These adjectives imply a degree of distance from others and a maintenance of self-control. Female managers stress manners in interpersonal relationships (polite, pleasant, harmonious, unselfish). The implication is toward achieving a closeness to others; however, this may also imply a subversion of self-interests. Last, in the "Society" region beyond, the adjectives denote culturally defined values. Male Managers stress logical process (realistic, practical) and societal manners (civilized, poised). Female managers on the other hand stress dignity — a self-oriented concern. Overall, male managers placed greater emphasis on adjectives which have a societal perspective, whereas female managers take a more inward focus. Male managers include many leadership type adjectives (strong, stable, mature, dominant) in their self-descriptions. In contrast, female managers include relatively more adjectives stressing social skills and interpersonal relationships within their immediate world view. Their self-image is defined by their personal relationships with others. This can also be interpreted on a sex-role stereotypic dimension with male managers assuming a masculine, paternal sex-role and female managers assuming the feminine, maternal sex-role. In this regard, the bank managers provide -141-consistent sex-role images. Comparisons of the value mean scores converted to trait norms for male and female bank managers and Ghiselli's group of managers, supervisors, and line workers is provided in Chart 13 (see Appendix Table 3-10 for statistical reference). As can be seen in the chart, female bank managers are ranked higher on traits of intelligence, decisiveness, working class affinity, and need for financial reward. Male bank managers ranked slightly higher on masculinity. On a l l other trait norms, there is general equivalency. In comparison to the American managerial group, female bank managers rank higher only on the intelligence trait, and closer than male bank managers on decisiveness, working class affinity, self-actualization, and need for financial reward. Perhaps denoting a cultural difference, Canadian bank managers ranked significantly lower than a l l American groups of traits of masculinity and maturity. -142-Chart 13. SDI Trait Norms: Bank Managers vs. Ghiselli's Occupational Groups (Source: Ghiselli, 1971) U> I Percentile Ranking IOC. 90-80-70-60-504 40 + 30 + 20 + 10 + Supervisory Ability Intelligence Initiative Self-Assurance Male Bank Managers Female Bank Managers Ghiselli's Managers Ghiselli's Supervisors E3 Ghiselli "s Line Work E 3 Decisiveness Masculinity Trait Chart 13. SDI Trait Norms: Bank Managers vs. Ghiselli's Occupational Groups (Source; Ghiselli, 1971) Cont. Percentile Ranking Male Bank Managers •PA Female Bank Managers 23 Ghiselli's Managers Ghiselli's Supervisors ©Ghiselli's Line Work Trait Maturity Working Class Achievement ' Affinity Self-Actuliza-tion Power Over Others Financial Reward Security On many trait norms, male and female bank managers f e l l between Ghiselli's managerial and supervisory groups. These traits were intelligence, initiative, self-assurance, decisiveness, working class affinity, achievement, self-actualization, power over others, need for financial reward, and need for security. Thus the SDI would appear to be relevant for the bank manager group on the majority of value traits. Also i t accurately reflects the position of the bank manager in the banking hierarchy which is the first level of management. To ascertain the underlying values or beliefs of Canadian bank managers, the Rokeach Value Survey was also utilized. In that personal values imply certain modes of conduct or behaviours, a comparison of male and female bank managers' rankings of Instrumental values (idealized modes of behaviour) and Terminal values (motivational end-goals) was conducted. On the basis of value mean scores, male and female bank managers provided the following rankings (l=highest ranking 18=lowest ranking) of Instrumental values. -145-Table 41. Rokeach Instrumental Value Rankings — Male vs. Female Bank Managers Males (n=59) Females (n=30) Ranking Value Value Mean Value Value Mean 1 Honest 3.69 Capable 7.50 2 Responsible 4.37 Honest 7.97 3 Capable 5.46 Loving 8.33 4 Ambitious 7.81 Clean 8.40 5 Independent 8.20 Cheerful 8.67 6 Loving 8.36 Forgiving 8.87 7 Broadminded 8.54 Independent 9.07 8 Logical 8.56 I n t e l l e c t u a l 9.07 9 Self-Controlled 9.47 Courageous 9.57 10 Cheerful 10.47 Helpful 9.57 11 Helpful 10.61 Responsible 9.60 12 Courageous 10.88 Logical 9.80 13 I n t e l l e c t u a l 10.88 Broadminded 9.93 14 Forgiving 11.10 Imaginative 10.33 15 Clean 11.90 P o l i t e 10.40 16 P o l i t e 12.25 Ambitious 10.60 17 Imaginative 13.47 Obedient 10.73 18 Obedient 14.95 Self-Controlled 12.60 The rankings of Terminal or end-state values for male and female bank managers were as follows. Table 42. Rokeach Terminal Value Rankings — Male vs. Female Bank Managers Males (n=59) Females (n=30) Ranking Value Value Mean Value Value Mean 1 Family Security 3.34 Mature Love 7.30 2 Happiness 5.42 Family Security 7.77 3 Self-Respect 5.73 Happiness 8.13 4 Freedom 7.14 Self-Respect 8.53 5 Mature Love 7.66 A Comfortable Life 8.67 6 A Comfortable Life 7.75 Equality 8.80 7 A Sense of Accompl. 7.80 Inner Harmony 9.10 8 True Friendship 8.08 True Friendship 9.10 9 Inner Harmony 8.83 Pleasure 9.27 10 An Exciting Life 9.46 A Sense of Accompl. 9.40 11 Wisdom 9.58 An Exciting Life 9.60 12 Pleasure 10.52 Social Recognition 10.03 13 Social Recognition 11.71 Freedom 10.57 14 A World at Peace 12.34 Wisdom 10.60 15 Equality 13.73 National Security 10.73 16 Salvation 13.97 A World at Peace 10.73 17 A World of Beauty 13.98 A World of Beauty 11.03 18 National Security 14.29 Salvation 11.63 -146-Male bank managers have a greater d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n rankings than female managers i n that the range for ranking of Instrumental values was 11.26 (5.1 for females) and of Terminal values 10.95 (4.33 for females). The greatest difference of r e l a t i v e rankings was observed for the Instrumental values of Clean, Cheerful, Forgiving, and I n t e l l e c t u a l (females' rankings higher than males'); and of Responsible, Broadminded, Ambitious, and Self-Controlled (females' rankings lower than males'). For Terminal values, females ranked Equality much higher than males; and ranked Freedom much lower than males. Thus on the basis of value mean rankings, male bank managers rank achievement and leadership orientation values higher while female managers rank interpersonal s o c i a l s k i l l s higher. There are substantial differences i n value means between the Canadian bank managers and Rokeach's samples of American men and women, and Canadian men, as can be observed i n Appendix Tables 3-11 and 3-12. Rokeach factor-analyzed value survey rankings i n terms of a number of value factors i n h i s development of a structure of American values (Rokeach, 1973, p. 47). On bipolar continuums, he presents seven value factors. (1) Immediate vs. delayed g r a t i f i c a t i o n . (2) Competence vs. r e l i g i o u s morality. (3) S e l f - c o n s t r i c t i o n vs. self-expansion. (4) S o c i a l vs. personal orientation. (5) S o c i e t a l vs. family security. (6) Respect vs. love. (7) Inner- vs. other-directed. The value item loadings for these factors i s presented i n Appendix Table 3-13. A weighting system based on these factor loadings with value means was used to calculate the positions of Canadian male and female bank managers, -147-Rokeach's sample of American males and females, and Rokeach's Canadian males on each of these value continuums. Chart 14 presents a graphic illustration of the relative positions on value factors. (Detailed statistics are provided in Appendix Table 3-14.) As can be seen in Chart 14, there are a number of similarities in the factor profiles of a l l groups. (a) Immediate over delayed gratification. (b) Self-constrietive over self-expansion. (c) Social over personal orientation. (d) Societal over family security. (e) Love over respect. (f) Other-directed over inner-directed. Between male and female bank managers there are slight differences in regards to the following factors. Factor 1. Male managers score higher on immediate gratification and less on delayed gratification. Factor 2. Male managers score higher on both ends of the competence-religious morality continuum. Factor 3. Male managers score slightly less on self-expansion. Factor 4. Male managers score higher on social orientation and less on personal orientation. Factor 5. Male managers score substantially higher on societal security but lower on family security. -148-Chart 14. Rokeach Value Factors of Male and Female Bank Managers vs. American Males and Females, Canadian Males. (Source: Rokeach, 1973) -4- -4- 4-30 25 20 15 Factor 1. 10 0 10 15 20 25 30 Factor 2. Factor 3. Factor 4. Factor 5. Factor 6. Immediate vs. Delayed G r a t i f i c a t i o n Male Bank Mgrs Female Bank Mgrs American Males American Females Canadian Males Competence vs. Religious Morality ~3 Self-Constriction vs. Self-Expansion S o c i a l vs. Personal Orientation S o c i e t a l vs. Family Security Respect vs. Love -149-Chart 14. Rokeach Value Factors of Male and Female Bank Managers vs. American Males and Females, Canadian Males. (Source: Rokeach, 1973) Cont. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Factor 7. Inner vs. Other-directed The scores for Factor 6 (respect-love) and Factory 7 (inner-other directed) are equivalent for both groups. Thus on a comparative basis, male managers tend to place more emphasis on s o c i e t a l concerns (Factors 2, 4, and 5) whereas female managers value personal concerns r e l a t i v e l y higher (Factors 3, 4, and 5). However, scores on Factor 1 (immediate-delayed g r a t i f i c a t i o n ) were i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Thus there appears to be a contradiction with i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t scores for which the societal-personal orientation of the sexes i s reversed. Rokeach observed that male respondents tended to be more achievement and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y oriented. Females exhibited a stronger orientation towards personal and s o c i a l values. As with the bank managers, there were considerable s i m i l a r i t i e s i n value rankings between the sexes. Cross-group value comparisons indicate that the female bank managers more c l o s e l y resemble Rokeach's female sample rather than h i s male sample. The male bank managers e x h i b i t s i m i l a r value scores to Rokeach's male respondents. This would suggest that the value orientations based on indi v i d u a l value scores, rather than composite factor scores, may be more accurate measures of values. -150-Compared to American males and females, the Canadian bank managers generally scored less on: immediate and delayed gratification; competence; and respect and love. They scored more on religious morality, social orientation, and societal security. Culturally then, the Canadian group appears to score higher on societal concerns whereas Americans emphasized personal concerns more. Analysis of age differences on the Rokeach Value Survey scores yielded few differences. For male bank managers, statistically significant age differences were observed for three Terminal values. (a) Family Security — positive relationship with age (x2=23.07, d.f.=12, p=.0271). (b) Inner Harmony — negative relationship with age (Pearson's R= -.43611, p=.0003). (c) Mature Love — negative relationship with age (Pearson's R= -.24374, p=.0326). Significant age differences for female bank managers were limited to two Terminal values. (a) A World at Peace — negative relationship with age (Pearson's R= -.38709, p=.1073). (b) A World of Beauty — negative relationship with age (Pearson's R=-.47992, p=.0036). No significant differences by age were observed for the Instrumental value set. Thus for male managers, older men stress family security, while younger men stress inner harmony and mature love to a greater extent. Younger female bank managers value a world of peace and beauty more than older women. Research on sex-based differences in values and attitudes has been -151-l i m i t e d . Women managers have been found to value interpersonal relationships higher than male managers (Rief, et. a l . , 1975). In terms of work-related factors, women also appear to value i n t r i n s i c motivators higher than e x t r i n s i c motivators (Van der Merwe, 1978). In one study (Alpander and Gutman, 1976) male and female managers ranked i n t r i n s i c motivators i n a similar fashion; however, they varied i n thei r ranking of e x t r i n s i c motivators. Women tended to rank intangible factors such as superior recognition and peer acceptance higher than male managers. These research findings are substantiated i n t h i s study of bank managers. Based on the res u l t s of the Self-Description Inventory and Value Survey, there appears to be substantial sex-based differences i n value systems of bank managers. Female bank managers consistently stress s o c i a l and interpersonal values whereas male managers place higher value on s o c i e t a l l y defined leadership q u a l i t i e s . Therefore Hypothesis 23 which postulates equivalency on the value dimension of managerial s t y l e i s rejected. -152-Career Experiences of Female Bank Managers Thus far t h i s analysis has dwelt on the differences between male and female bank managers i n terms of t h e i r personal backgrounds, psychological att i t u d e s , and perceptions. Going beyond what the i n d i v i d u a l brings to h i s or her job, we now look at the career experiences of these bank managers. S p e c i f i c a l l y , we w i l l look at the differences i n career mobility (both geographic and corporate); the factors f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering career progression; and the aspirations and opportunities for women i n banking management. Given the small sample (31) of female bank managers for which we have data for and the nature of many of the issues, anecdotal evidence w i l l be used extensively. Geographic M o b i l i t y . Female bank managers reported an average of 2.28 geographic moves since 1960 compared to male managers who reported an average of 3.98 moves i n the same time period. This difference was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the p < .025 l e v e l (Z=2.1505). This finding i s interesting when one considers the ma r i t a l status of male and female bank managers. In that married persons are assumed to be more stable ( i e . , l e s s l i k e l y to move geographically due to family commitments), female managers who have a large proportion of separated, divorced and single persons (41%) should also be more mobile than male managers who are predominantly married (94%). However, variations i n geographic mobility appear to be sex-based rather than based on marital status since female managers are consistently l e s s mobile than male managers. This finding i s consistent with that of several researchers who have observed that female employees are less mobile than male employees (Hoffman -153-and Reed, 1982; Fernandez, 1981). The importance of mobility as a p o s i t i v e factor i n career progression has also been established (Jennings, 1967). Because female bank managers are less mobile than male managers, Hypothesis 23 i s accepted. Career Advancement. To measure rate of career advancement, work experience factors such as the number of years i n banking, i n another bank, as a manager, and i n th e i r present position were considered. Table 43. Career Advancement of Bank Managers by Sex. Mean Values  Males (n=65) Females (n=41) Years i n Banking 22.95 20.34 Years i n another Bank 1.74 1.80 Years as a Manager 11.60 4.49* Years i n Present P o s i t i o n 3.76 2.68** * Z=6.2368, p < .005 **Z=2.3478, p < .02 Male managers averaged 2.61 years more of t o t a l banking experience although t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than that of female managers. Male and female managers were also approximately equivalent i n the number of years experience i n banks other than the i r present employer. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found when examining the number of years of managerial experience — t o t a l experience and i n present p o s i t i o n . On both counts, male managers reported a greater number of years managerial experience. Thus based on these research findings, i t would appear that males tend to be promoted faster to the managerial l e v e l than females given t h e i r equivalent years of banking experience. This would suggest d i f f e r e n t career paths for males and females within the banking industry i n that -154-males are on a "faster track" than female employees. Thus Hypothesis 24 is supported given the slower rate of career advancement observed for female bank managers as compared to male bank managers. This conclusion may change in the future as banks continue their recent policy of promoting qualified female employees. Although female bank managers have the same number of years in banking as male managers, the type of working experience is substantially different. Because female managers have less years of managerial experience, i t is logical that they are currently in smaller branches than male managers. The average number of employees managed by a male managers is 24.5 (full-time and part-time) whereas the average number of employees in branches managed by females is 10.7 (Z=6.49, p < .005). Comparisons based on gender and age of the manager yield similar results in a l l age categories. The difference is especially significant in the younger age groups: 30-39 year age group (p < .005); 40-49 years (p < .005); and 50-59 years (p < .05). Women tend to remain at the same size branch (average 12 employees) in a l l age groups whereas men peak in terms of branch size responsibility in the 40-49 year age category. -155-Chart 15. Bank size by Sex and Age of Bank Manager. Mean No. Employees 30-25 20-15-10-5 • 0 X 30-39 4- 4-40-49 50-59 > 59 Males Females Age of Manager When an experience factor such as years as bank manager is taken into account women again remain in the smaller branches. Given that none of the women managers had greater than 15 years managerial seniority, female managers s t i l l remained in smaller branches despite their managerial experience. The statistical difference based on sex and bank size was p < .005 for the less than 5 year and 6-10 year experience category, and p < .10 for the 11-15 year group. Chart 16. Mean No. Employees Bank Size by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank  Managers. Males Females s< 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 > 20 Years as Manager -156-For both sexes, there appears to be a positive relationship between years of managerial experience and the size of branch managed although to a lesser degree for males than for females. Male correlation coefficient between bank size and years as a manager was r=.80 while the female correlation coefficient was r=.94. The largest branches are managed by persons who have 11 to 15 years experience and are in the 40-49 year age groups. This appears to be the prime managerial group. As an alternate measure of current career success a "success ratio" was developed. Level of = Number of Employees (full-time + h part-time) Success Years as Manager On the basis of ratio scores, the bank managers were allocated to high, medium, and low categories of success. Unfortunately male-female comparisons based on this ratio measure were not very meaningful. The relative lack of ratio differentiation was primarily due to the generally brief managerial tenure of females as a group. In summary, within the bank branch hierarchy women managers tend to be at the lowest levels. This finding is consistent across a l l age and managerial experience groups. For women managers, additional maturity and managerial experience has not resulted in more senior job responsibilties. At this point in time, women managers are predominantly in the smaller retail branches. Therefore on the measure of the size of bank branch managed, women managers are responsible for smaller organizational units thus providing support for Hypothesis 25. Career Paths. The majority of women bank managers started their -157-careers i n entry l e v e l positions mainly within the banking industry. Table 44. Banking Entry Level Positions of Female Bank Managers. F i r s t P o s i t i o n with Bank Percentage (n=31) Bank T e l l e r 51.6% Bank C l e r i c a l 29.0% Bank S e c r e t a r i a l 3.2% Loan/Credit O f f i c e r * . 9.7% Bookkeeper 3.2% Miscellaneous 3.2% •Finance company The most frequently c i t e d reasons why female managers chose to enter banking presents a varied picture as to career planning. Table 45. Reasons why Female Bank Managers Entered Banking. Reason Percentage Only job available 27.5% Remuneration 17.2% Chance 13.8% Job Characteristics (customer contact, accounting) 13.8% Bank Image (prestigious employer 10.3% Job market variables accounted for 41% of the reasons c i t e d for entering banking. Variables over which the banks have control (remuneration, job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and image) accounted for another 41% of the career choice of female managers. Of the women who regarded the bank as a prestigious employer, a l l were born and raised i n England, suggesting a c u l t u r a l influence i n career choice. Only one manager c i t e d managerial opportunities as a reason for entering the banking industry. The path towards management was generally a lengthy one e n t a i l i n g an average of seven positions of an average of 2.42 years before promotion to a managerial l e v e l . Comparison of the length of time required and the number of d i f f e r e n t positions held p r i o r to becoming a manager provides an -158-i n d i c a t i o n of which paths are faster than others. Table 46. Entry Level P o s i t i o n by Average Length of Time and Number of  Positions P r i o r to Promotion to Manager Level — Female Bank  Managers. Entry Level P o s i t i o n P r i o r to Promotion to Manager Average Average No. Years Positions T e l l e r C l e r i c a l Stenographer Loan Officer (Bank) Loan Of f i c e r (Finance Co.) Management Trainee 17.9 17.6 9.0 12.0 8.5 9.0 7.1 8.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 As can been seen by the above s t a t i s t i c s , the "fast track" to management for women has been to obtain p r i o r experience i n a related f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . This avenue i s only s l i g h t l y faster than entering the bank management trainee programme. Surprisingly, stenographic experience i s more conducive to promotion to management than entering through the more technical positions of t e l l e r and c l e r k . This may be an indication of access to management s t a f f who are largely responsible for i n t e r n a l promotions. Unfortunately we do not have detailed career path information for the male management contingent. I t would be safe to assume that t h e i r careers i n banking did not s t a r t at the lowest l e v e l s ( s e c r e t a r i a l / c l e r i c a l / t e l l e r ) of the bank occupational hierarchy. This assumption i s based on Bossen's findings (1976) that male employees i n three major banks comprised only .1% of the secretarial/typing s t a f f , 6.7% of the c l e r i c a l s t a f f , and .8% of t e l l e r s . -159-Discrimination. Sex-based discrimination can take many forms — i t may be valid or invalid, overt or covert, accepted or challenged. Many female bank managers feel that some form of discrimination has been present either in their personal experience or for women in general. Female bank managers were asked to identify any obstacles (legitimate and otherwise) facing women in their banking careers. They were then asked to comment on career opportunities for women in banking — past, present, and future. A significantly large proportion (76%) of female managers perceived obstacles for women progressing within banking. The obstacles to advancement most frequently reported were: Table 47. Obstacles to Female Employee Progression within Banking. Discrimination regarding promotions available 36.6% Bank policy regarding career opportunities for women 21.9% Customer bias against women in management 12.2% Restricted mobility of women 7.3% Individual superior's bias 7.3% Other obstacles less frequently cited were lack of management training, peer discrimination, bias of women against management careers, and childbearing. As relatively recent entrants into bank management, the majority of women managers are currently situated in the smaller retail branches. "We have 65 branches in the Lower Mainland with only three women managers. Men are in the main branches; women in the retail branches." Unfortunately for women, retail branch experience is not as highly valued as commerical branch experience within the bank hierarchy. The acknowledged route to the executive levels is through commercial credit and -160-to date, women have not been assigned to these areas on a regular basis. "Executive career progression is through the commercial credit area. There are two women at very low levels of commercial training — the "gofer" level — they move slower than men". Thus, women managers are experiencing difficulty in gaining the requisite experience for future career advancement. However several women feel that the banks are only responding to the demands of their corporate clientele. As one woman summarized the current situation, "Inroads to commercial banking have not come readily. Banks can't promote females i f big businesses won't promote their women. Men are better at commercial on a man to man basis. Women are better at small details, will deal with people better." Even i f the banks were to consistently promote women into commercial areas, once there, women managers face resistance from corporate clients. Aside from the difficulties the banks encounter in the promotion of women into management, there are incentives to do so. Perhaps the most crit i c a l incentive is the banks' need for management personnel. "Banks are trying very hard to put women in management roles because they don't have a male population to glean from." Also, there is the threat of external intervention in manpower promotional policy as another female manager commented, "I s t i l l maintain that the Bank feels they must have a certain amount of women in the bank (management) to pay l i p service to the Human Rights people." However, even with the best intentions at the corporate level, the implementation of equal opportunity for women remains subject to individual -161-bias. Several women encountered sexual discrimination from those responsible for employee promotions. One woman's experience is typical of those related by several female managers. "When I first started, I told my first manager (after three months) that I'd be a manager. He said 'Hah!' But I didn't see him as an obstacle. I was going to do i t ! He had the problem." Another women also found that in order to progress to management, she had to assert herself. She felt that she was able to progress, "Only as a result of sheer insistence on my part and being in the right place at the right time. The man in Personnel tried to discourage me but when I accused him of discrimination, he said he never thought of i t like that. I got my promotion in three weeks. They didn't really want to discriminate, but they certainly did. They didn't think broadly enough. You have to speak up for yourself and eventually you'll get there." Similar to the women executives studied by Hennig and Jardim (1977), both of these women had developed specific career plans and pursued them aggressively. Once in management, female managers often experience resistance from peer male managers. For one woman manager discrimination from a peer was particularly overt. "When I received my appointment, my predescessor called a meeting telling the staff that he was being replaced by a woman and was insulted. He didn't know anything about my background and qualifications." Like others in her position, this woman has experienced isolation from her male colleagues in management. In the one year since her appointment, she has yet to be contacted informally by any of the other male bank managers. Career isolation is a concern for many women managers. Given the organizational benefits of close interaction between managers, sometimes -162-other women do not provide a support system for the new female manager. "Women don't help each other. I have heard women with degrees and who are ambitious saying 'I wouldn't want to work for a woman. Women who get to middle management may quit because they feel they're a l l alone." Thus the picture of the female bank manager as a "pioneer" in her field is confirmed. To overcome resistance from several sources, she must be confident of her abilities, have clear career goals, be independent and assertive. These statement by female bank managers confirm reports of sex-based discrimination in much of the literature on women managers (Van der Merwe, 1978; Rosen and Jerdee, 1974; Standley and Soule, 1974). Although salary data was unavailable for bank managers, one could intimate that there was salary discrepancies based on the size of branch managed. In that remuneration is based on the level of job responsibility, women bank managers, as managers of smaller branches, would also be at lower salary levels. This conclusion was confirmed by one female manager who stated "Women in management are on (salary) levels 1 to 7, not many get into 8 where they have more subordinates...." Women are outnumbered at a l l but the lowest levels in the banking hierarchy. Consequently, there has been restricted career opportunities for women within the banking system. Based on the reports of individual female managers, sex-based discrimination is perceived to exist. However, i t is also perceived to be weakening due to external forces such as social, economic and legislative changes regarding equal employment opportunities. Currently there is support for Hypothesis 27 regarding the presence of sex-based discrimination, however, the forecast is optimistic that positive change is -163-underway. Career Opportunities. The lack of career opportunities appears to be an obstacle of the past, at least in the eyes of female managers. When asked their evaluation as to present and future career opportunities for women in banking as compared to past opportunities, the majority (83%) reported that the situation had substantially improved. Only 10% felt current opportunities were worse than in the past, and 6.7% felt they were the same. The improvement in career opportunities was felt to be due mainly to a positive change in bank and societal attitudes towards women in management, a relative shortage of men entering banking, a high turnover of staff creating more managerial opportunities. "Some women don't realize i t but there has been an incredible improvement. I would like to have been born 20 years later. During the 1940's there were no careers for women — they got married and left." "It is a result of corporate rethinking. Banks finally realizing that they are losing a lot of potential by leaving them (women) at the lower echelons." "I feel I have more of an advantage as a woman. The bank is short of qualified women in management. There are fantastic opportunities for women. Males have more competition, women are more noticable, have a higher profile." "Probably there will be more opportunities for women due to divisionalization between retail and commercial branches. Women usually don't have the commercial training but are better at the detail work required at the retail branches." Women who felt current opportunities were worse or s t i l l limited based their evaluation on bank practices which restrict women managers to retail branches and to a relaxation of affirmative action programs for women. -164-"It depends on what you're going in for, for example, the Account Manager job for women is being phased out therefore there will be no internal advancement for women. Account Manager posts are now reserved for men as training posts because of their mobility. This trend started about two years ago." "There are only men (33) at the Credit Approvals department." "Women s t i l l have to prove themselves. Women have to go through a l l the small courses — men don't have to." Recognizing the organizational problems of career advancement, the female bank managers interviewed were unanimous in their assertion that hard work was the best way to overcome these obstacles. "Work hard. The woman has to work harder to prove herself — i t is not taken for granted that she can handle i t , for example, credit." "Show people you work hard. Project a good self-image. With banking, the more you are noticed for doing a good job, the farther you will get ahead." And then others give more general advice for the ambitious career woman. "Same thing as a man! Master each step, develop business, retain existing business. Drive to get ahead." "Be totally aware of how the organization functions and what i t classifies as an accomplishment. Hard work isn't enough. You have to become flexible enough to change with changing conditions and markets. Be realistic of own capabilities." A l l of these factors (both negative and positive) have an impact on the future career plans of this group of female managers. Career Plans. When asked where they would like to be in their career five to ten years from now, most female managers planned to remain at their present level or to leave the system entirely. -165-Table 48. Career Plans of Female Bank Managers. Career Plans Percentage (n=31) Stable — current or equivalent po s i t i o n Retirement Promotion to larger branch Transfer to Commercial Credit Promotion to bank executive Transfer to Head Office as S p e c i a l i s t Demotion to smaller branch 28% 22% 22% 9% 9% 6% 3% The question remains as to whether i t i s by choice or circumstances that few of the women managers aspire to higher managerial l e v e l s . The mean age of t h i s group was only 45.50 years — wel l within the range of senior management opportunities. As one young woman recounted, she may be getting s l i g h t l y battle-weary. "I'm t i r e d of being f i r s t — always trying to prove myself. Every step I've taken, I've had to prove myself. Society gives the man a chance. A woman has to prove herself continuously." Although career opportunities for women have expanded considerably i n the recent past, many women managers interviewed perceive r e s t r i c t i o n s inasfar as promotions to larger branches and into commercial c r e d i t areas. These perceptions are reflected i n the career plans of female bank managers. Less than one-half of the women managers planned to progress beyond t h e i r current l e v e l i n the organization. The majority planned to remain as managers of small branches or r e t i r e . Summary. In an o v e r a l l sense, female bank managers perceive a cer t a i n degree of sex-based discrimination from a number of sources — the bank as an organization, th e i r superiors, the i r peers, customers, and other women. I t has been shown that female bank managers i n general are hampered i n two important areas — geographic mobility and educational attainment — deemed -166-necessary for career advancement. The influence of these two factors in retarding managerial progression cannot be overlooked. The record shows that female managers are more likely to be managing the smaller retail branches. This may be due to their shorter tenure as managers (although not in terms of total years of banking experience) and may be a temporary situation until these women gain more managerial experience and training. However, there is recognized a significant organizational obstacle in progression that may limit the women managers to the smaller branches, out of the commercial branches seen as the path to the executive levels. It is recognized that times are changing for women within banking in terms of available career opportunities for women however there appears to be a level and area beyond which advancement is restricted. Whether this next obstacle to the executive suite can be overcome by the hard work credited for their current level of achievement remains to be seen. -167-CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Women are relatively recent entrants into banking management in Canada. Through data collected in this study, i t may be seen that they differ from male managers in a number of significant ways. The woman branch manager generally has less formal education qualifications for the job but has the benefit of extensive on-the-job training from the "ground up". Her managerial style conception often differs from that of men in behavioural attributions, personal values and perceptions of co-workers. In some respects, this difference is more conducive to meeting the demands of the managerial function. For example, the woman manager often takes a situational approach involving communication with subordinates. Thus, she appears to have a greater flexibility in meeting the diverse demands of the managerial role. Consistent with this finding, the female manager exhibited a higher person orientation than the male manager. Furthermore, the female managers stressed social and interpersonal values more strongly than male managers. This orientation is important in a position which requires extensive interpersonal skills both with co-workers and clients. In many ways, the managerial woman resembles her male colleague. Similarities were evident in a generally high person orientation and in motivational need profiles, that is, high need for achievement, high need for power, and low need for affiliation. Women bank managers are pioneers in the sense that they have fewer predecessors in banking management than do male bank managers. On average, they have fewer years managerial experience and this is reflected in their predominance in the lower levels of the branch bank hierarchy. With -168-additional experience, they should also progress to positions of greater responsibility. As one woman summarized, "Men are advanced faster. Women have to prove themselves. Personally I feel that the bank would like to have more women at the top." Hopefully future career opportunities will include the area of commercial credit which is the primary route to senior executive positions in the banks. Women managers are also pioneers within their own families. They had few persons to serve as professional or managerial role models during the developmental years. Their parents were in predominantly rural, blue-collar occupations with a low need for educational achievement. Their mothers were primarily in female stereotypic roles — both in the home and in the work place. Their husbands are generally their equals in terms of occupational status and education level. In that they perform similar career functions, husbands hopefully are more understanding and supportive of the demands placed on a business manager. The importance of the husband's support of career goals was underlined by one woman manager. " S t i l l a lot of women think they can't do i t , they are afraid of responsibility. They may not have the support of their spouses." The majority of the married women interviewed indicated that their spouses were supportive (both psychologically and physically) of their career ambitions. However, for women who are married and have children, there remains the additional pressure of role conflict between career demands and personal family l i f e . For many, this necessitated leaving the workforce during the childbearing period — possibly to the detriment of their career -169-progression. Other obstacles to female career advancement stemmed from discriminatory attitudes of the banking establishment and its members (both male and female) and bank clients. In general, women bank managers are optimistic that these biases are now changing and will be minor factors in the future. Aside from the changing sex composition of its managerial workforce, the banking industry is undergoing considerable organizational change. The f u l l impact of computerization of banking services and functions has yet to be felt. Generally, the introduction of the computer has been welcomed by the female managers. "The computer has been great for women. At fi r s t there were some job losses — about one from each branch. But then the computer allowed us to handle so much more business that we built up again. We now need extra tellers — and they are difficult to find. The computer has relieved women of so much tedious and senseless work that now women are available for promotion, and more interesting jobs are available too." Accompanying the introduction of electronic banking, other organizational changes are made possible. Already there is a trend towards centralization of commercial lending — a trend which may be expanded into the retail area where women managers are situated. The nature of the branch manager job will undoubtedly change with implementation of a computerized central accounting system. In some respects, the level of responsibility of the local branch managers may be reduced i f the lending function is transferred to a central location. Career options for branch managers may alter considerably as one manager commented, "More people are specializing as opposed to going to branch manager positions. Career branch managers are a thing of the past. It may turn into a mid-point on the way to specialization." -170-Then, are we studying a soon-to-be extinct species? Will the branch manager job be changed so extensively that traditional career paths are no longer valid? How will i t affect women who are only now opening up new avenues to management? The impact of technological change on the nature of the bank manager's job has yet to be determined. Whether women managers are adequately equipped to take advantage of these changes remains to be seen. If the emphasis is on formal education, the present group of women managers is at a relative disadvantage compared to their male colleagues. However, i f the emphasis is on general managerial skills, women managers appear to be well-equipped to meet the challenge of the future. Implications for Future Research This study is a first step in understanding women bank managers. To this purpose, a descriptive approach was taken to ascertain the personal characteristics, psychological determinants, and career experiences of Canadian female bank managers. At times, comparisons were drawn between male and female bank managers to determine sex-based differences.1 In other instances, this group of female managers was compared to her female counterparts in other Canadian and American industries. 1 The personal style of the female managers was considered based on the interviewers' perceptions of dress (masculine or feminine) and manner of expression (masculine, androgynous, or feminine). The majority (46%) of female bank managers f i t the masculine/adrogynous category. There were relatively fewer women managers (27%) who projected a stereotypic feminine image. This may indicate a suppression of their femininity to indicate that women bank managers are not very different from male managers in terms of personal style. -171-To the extent that this study presents a very tentative overall picture of the Canadian female manager, much research remains to be done testing specific dimensions of managerial women. For example, there is a relative lack of psychological research on Canadian female managers. Most of the female managerial comparisons involve American studies. Although similarities exist between Canadian and U.S. business, we need to ascertain where cultural differences may l i e . It is also important to determine whether there are regional differences within Canada. Is the business milieu (and its participants) in Western Canada different from that of Central Canada, Quebec, or the Maritimes? Information of possible regional differences is especially pertinent to national organizations such as the chartered banks. Another area of concern is the career experiences of female managers. As indicated in this study, bank policy regarding the promotion of female employees has undergone a significant change in the last five years. Longitudinal research regarding the effects of this policy is warranted. For the banks, an evaluation of how female managers differ from male managers is important for recruitment and developmental purposes. Do the female managers have special needs which should be addressed? If so, what actions should be taken to realize the f u l l potential of their female managers? It is hoped that this study has highlighted areas which merit further investigation of Canadian women managers, particularly in the banking industry. For as one women manager said, "Banks can't do without women!" -172-APPENDICES Appendix Page 1 Instructions to the Interviewer 175 2 Research Instruments 2-1 Interview Bank Incidents 176 2-2 (a) Personal Background ( f i r s t form) 188 2-2 (b) Personal Background (second form) 189 2-3 Superior, Peer, Subordinate Scale 191 2-4 Bank Scenarios 192 2-5 Person-Thing Scale 194 2-6 The Self-Description Inventory 195 2- 7 Value Survey 197 3 Research Tables 3- 1 Rokeach Value Means on need Achievement, need A f f i l i a t i o n , and need Power for Male and Female Bank Managers; American Males and Females 201 3-2 Functional Orientation of Bank Incidents Reponses by Sex and Age of Bank Manager... 202 3-3 Functional Orientation of Bank Incident Reponses by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank Managers 203 3-4 Role Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by Sex and Age of Bank Managers 204 3-5 Role Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank Managers 205 -173-APPENDICES CONTINUED Appendix Page 3-6 Wedding Scenario —Bank Managers Responses by Sex 206 3-7 Honeymoon Scenario —Bank Manager Responses by Sex 207 3-8 Automobile Accident Scenario — Bank Manager Responses by Sex 208 3-9 Superior, Peer, Subordinate Scale Factor Means by Sex of Bank Manager 210 3-10 Ghiselli SDI Trait Norms: Bank Managers vs. Ghiselli's Occupational Groups 212 3-11 Rokeach Instrument Value Means — Canadian Bank Managers and Rokeach Sample Groups 213 3-12 Rokeach Terminal Value Means — Canadian Bank Managers and Rokeach Sample Groups 214 3-13 Rokeach Factor Analytic Structure of American Values 215 3-14 Rokeach Factor Values of Male and Female Bank Managers vs. American Males and Females, and Canadian Males 216 -174-APPENDIX 1 Instructions to the Interviewer Introductory Interview Comments Each interviewer will include these statements in an introductory conversation with the interviewee before proceeding to the questions themselves. 1. Sponsor 2. Time Your regional supervisor, Mr , has already told you something about this study, I believe. This interview will take about Ih hours of your time. 3. Overview 4. Format We do not yet know much about managerial styles in Canada. This research is intended to help us define what the Canadian style i s . It will also be helpful in designing a new training program for persons interested in management positions. By style we mean a blend of behaviours, attitudes, and assumptions in a distinctive personal manner. The interview consists of a number of short stories or incidents. There are also a number of metaphors that allow one to describe what a bank is like. 5. Privacy We want you to know that your responses will be kept confidential. Your name and other identifying details will never be linked with the answers you give when our results are discussed or published. None of your answers will be revealed to your superiors and they will not be used in any way that could influence your personal career in the banking field. 6. Obligations 7. Procedures Your responses are voluntary. You may refuse to answer one or more questions or may withdraw from the interview at any time. Your completed interview will provide evidence of your agreement to participate in our study. I will read you several stories, one by one. After each story I will ask you to say how you think the typical bank manager would respond in that situation. I will be noting down your answers on this answer sheet that you see here. -175-APPENDIX 2-1. Interview Bank Incidents. THE INTERVIEW The interview i s ac t u a l l y on 5" x 8" cards. These were handed to the interviewee one at a time. Each incident, i s also read aloud to the interviewee. What follows i s a typed copy of the cards to be used. There are two cards represented on each page. -176-Here is a short story: A branch bank incident: The branch's most accurate and versatile teller now has about 3 years' experience and shows clear capability for further training and advancement. Frequently however, the branch has experienced staff shortages and has had trouble coping with daily routines. Moreover, new and inexperienced personnel, when obtainable, have created training demands, adding to the general stress. These difficulties would be compounded by the loss of the branch's best teller. A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. Indicate to the head office an unwillingness to recommend staff for other opportunities unless the replacement process is improved. 2. Recommend advancement for the teller regardless of the consequences. 3. Same as 2 but inform head office by letter, frankly informing them of the chronic problem the branch faces in obtaining replacements. 4. Say nothing to the employee regarding training or promotion possibilities but provide verbal reinforcement and express appreciation for a job well done. Recommend a generous wage increase. 5. Be patient and let the normal performance appraisal process leading to promotion operate effectively. Now please explain your answer. -177-Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employees in a branch bank as like the parts of a plant. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following parts would the typical manager be most likely to resemble? The Plant: flower, twig, branch, trunk, root, seed, leaf (choose one) Now, please explain your answer. Here is another story: A branch bank incident: Local branch services include automatic monthly withdrawals from each of three saving accounts belonging to a long-term customer in order to meet mortgage obligations elsewhere. The customer has just approached the loans clerk stating that the wrong amounts have been extracted from the various accounts on several occasions, causing overdraft charges which have not been the customer's fault. The loans clerk has tried to explain and apologize but the customer is irate and insists on seeing the manager. -178-A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. The manager listens while the loans clerk is asked to explain bank procedures and the probable source of error to the customer. 2. The manager > tries to explain the error to the customer himself, asking the loans clerk to listen. 3. The manager ; calls both the teller and the customer into his office. He then reprimands the loans clerk in front of the customer and assures the latter that this will not happen again. 4. The manager calls both the loans clerk and the customer into his office. He then accepts the blame on behalf of his staff, and assures the customer that this will not happen again. 5. The manager delegates the problem to the accountant and asks the latter to deal with the customer. 6. The manager praises the loans clerk and tells the customer that the computer must have produced some random errors. He says these will not happen again. Now, please explain your choice. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following body parts would best typify the kind of image the bank manager would wish to present to the customer? The Body: hand, brain, eye, teeth, tongue, breast, leg (choose one) Now, please explain your choice. -179-Here is another story A branch bank incident: Two branch tellers are seldom able to balance their cash each afternoon without help. One teller, a 23 year old man, is a management trainee with a university Arts degree, while the other teller (a female) is about the same age, and has previously worked in a large department store. In each case, there seems to be no single error pattern responsible for the imbalances. The female teller has an especially pleasant manner with customers while the man projects a more "professional" image. Both have been with the bank approximately 6 months. A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. Recommend to district personnel manager that both persons be transferred to other branches. 2. Hold separate discussions, search for possible underlying courses, let the tellers know that their performance must improve. 3. Ask the branch's best teller to provide as much informal coaching as possible to each individual. 4. Arrange for each teller to attend a "teller-competence" refresher course run by district staff. 5. Treat each individual separately; refer the man to the management training coordinator, ask the woman to attend a "teller competence" refresher course. Now, please explain your choice. -180-Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employees in a branch bank as like the tools in a tool kit. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following tools would the typical manager be most likely to resemble? The Tool Kit: brush, level, pliers, saw, clip, hammer, f i l e . Now, please explain your answer. Here is another story: A branch bank incident: Over the past several years the volume of customer traffic in a small, well located branch has greatly increased. A number of floor layout changes have been tried, but conditions in the customer area and the work area are overcrowded. During the past three years, staff turnover has been much lighter than average, and the head office has recently pointed this out by letter. Enlarging the physical space would include acquiring an adjacent building. -181-A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. In a letter to district office, outline the facts and request a meeting with the District Manager and also a site vi s i t . 2. Discuss the situation informally with the district manager and personally request that more space be made available. 3. Discuss the situation with staff, get suggestions, summarize these in a letter to district office, and also encourage branch staff members to write that office with their own requests. Now, please explain your choice. Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employee in a branch bank as like the elements of a natural setting. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following elements would the typical manager be most likely to resemble? A Natural Setting: fire, water, stone, o i l , wind, ice, sunshine (choose one) Now, please explain your answer. -182-Here is another story: A branch bank incident: The most experienced teller, a Canadian woman aged 34, has just approached you privately. She is complaining of odors of garlic and curry, which she attributes to a newly appointed teller from South Asia. She feels that the odors may also be offensive to bank customers (some have complained). Several other staff members reportedly share her view. A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. Draft a general notice on personal grooming and proper attire, stressing the positive effects of personal appearance on customers. 2. Ask the aggrieved teller to handle the matter herself. 3. Tactfully extend verbal sympathy to the woman who has complained. 4. Privately and tactfully discuss the complaint with the immigrant person. 5. Send a memo to the immigrant person outling the complaint and making tactful suggestions for change. Now, please explain your choice. -183-Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employees in a branch bank as like the members of a family. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following family members would the typical manager be most likely to resemble? The Family: mother, father, brother, sister, uncle, cousin, spouse (choose one) Now, please explain your answer. Here is another story: A branch bank incident: The senior bank management in Toronto has contracted for the installation of a set of new, up-dated computer terminals in branch offices across the country. Conversion of this new system is expected to take several months. This advanced technology is expected to reduce the absolute number of clerical operations needed. Hence reductions in staff are forecast. The remaining clerks will have to improve their overall knowledge of the banking system. Mechanical malfunctions are expected during the transition and some customers are likely to complain. The bank is currently facing a serious credit squeeze and there is a fierce inter-bank competition for depositors. Valued clients must not be lost in this technological shuffle. The staff has heard about the change via the grapevine and there has been much gossip. -184-A typical manager would choose which of the following responses to this incident? 1. Using a carefully drafted memo, draw the change to the employee's attention. 2. Inform employees of the change using a carefully drafted memo. In addition, invite signed, written feedback via a suggestion box. 3. C a l l a staff meeting and inform them of the change. Be prepared to answer questions. 4. C a l l a staff meeting and inform them of the change. Suggest forming an employee committee to study the implications for your particular branch. Invite a set of committee recommendations for how to cope with predicted problems. 5. C a l l in each employee and discuss the change, outlining the probable personal implications for that individual. 6. C a l l a staff meeting and inform them of the change. Announce a new training program designed to develop necessary additional s k i l l s and alleviate anxieties. Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employees in a branch bank as l i k e members of the animal kingdom. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following animals would the typical manager be most l i k e l y to resemble? The Animal Kingdom: owl, snake, dog, l i o n , horse, parrot, elephant (choose one) Now, please explain your answer. -185-Here i s another story: A branch bank incident: Two of the better t e l l e r s approach the manager with a suggestion. They want a record to be kept of the number of days in d i v i d u a l t e l l e r s obtain a balance on the f i r s t run. They suggest that a score board summarizing t h i s information be posted p u b l i c l y i n the s t a f f lounge, and that a bonus be given the winner after a three-month period. 1. Announce the idea at coffee, then put the suggestion to a secret vote among a l l t e l l e r s . 2. Put the suggestion to the t e l l e r s at a s t a f f meeting and ask for a show of hands. 3. Explain to the two employees that t h i s change would go against higher l e v e l bank p o l i c i e s . 4. Explain a decision not to adopt the suggestion because i t could hurt i n d i v i d u a l t e l l e r ' s feelings. 5. Announce the idea at coffee and ask that a committee be organized to study the issue. -186-Keep the above incident in mind, but now think of the employees in a branch bank as l i k e the members of an occupation. In meeting the problem just described, which of the following occupations would the manager's role be most l i k e l y to resemble? Occupations; doctor, lawyer, coach, professor, prime minister, farmer, engineer. (choose one) Now, please explain your answer. In the previous questions you have choosen these seven different metaphors to describe a branch bank manager: (interviewer to f i l l in the blanks) r i r I i f i What do these seven metaphors have in common that would help us characterize a typical branch bank manager? Which of the seven metaphors above would you choose as the very best one to describe the role of the typical bank manager? Explain your answer. -187-Appendix 2-2(a) PERSONAL BACKGROUND Name: Yaar of B i r t h : Post-Secondary Education: I n s t i t u t i o n m a r i t a l Status: Sex: Degree Year P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g : I n s t i t u t i o n C o u r s e / C e r t i f I c a t e Year Current Employment: Present P o s i t i o n : Name and Address of Bank: Years i n Present Job: Past Employment: I n s t i t u t i o n O f f i c e Telephone No. P o s i t i o n Detes Successive Residences Since 1960: Loc a t i o n Dates Ethnic Background of S e l f and of Family: Country of B i r t h 1) S e l f 2) f a t h e r 3) mother 4) Father's father 5) mother's father 6) Father's mother 7) mother's mnthor Year of Immigration rtothar to Canda (where relevant) Tongue -188-Appendix 2-2(b) PERSONAL BACKGROUND Name i M a r i t a l S t a t u s i Y e a r o f B i r t h i C h i l d r e n ( A g e s ) : P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t l o n i I n s t i t u t i o n D e g r e e Y e a r P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g * I n s t i t u t i o n C o u r s e / C e r t i f i c a t e Y e a r C u r r e n t E m p l o y m e n t i P r e s e n t P o s i t i o n : Name a n d A d d r e s s o f B a n k : Y e a r s i n P r e s e n t J o b : P a s t E m p l o y m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n O f f i c e T e l e p h o n e N o . P o s i t i o n D a t e s S u c c e s s i v e R e s i d e n c e s S i n c e I96O: L o c a t i o n D a t e s E t h n i c B a c k g r o u n d o f S e l f a n d F a m i l y : Y e a r o f M o t h e r C o u n t r y o f B i r t h I m m i g r a t i o n T o n g u e O c c u p . U S e l f 2 ) F a t h e r 3) M o t h e r 4) F a t h e r ' s f a t h e r 5) M o t h e r ' s f a t h e r 6) F a t h e r ' s m o t h e r 7) M o t h e r ' s m o t h e r 8) H u s b a n d ( i f a p p l l c ) E d u c . L e v e l -189-Appendix 2-2(b) PERSONAL BACKGROUND ( c o n t . ) 1. Why d i d y o u c h o o s e b a n k i n g a s a c a r e e r ? D i d a n y b o d y I n f l u e n c e y o u I n y o u r c h o i c e ? 2. Do y o u s e e a n y o b s t a c l e s b e c a u s e y o u a r e f e m a l e ? Where do y o u s e e y o u r s e l f I n 5 t o 10 y e a r s ? 3. What d o y o u h a v e t o d o t o g e t a h e a d ? I s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a d v a n c e m e n t d i f f e r e n t f o r y o u a s a woman? ^ . We*i»e g e t t i n g some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s p o r t s a n d t e a m w o r k i s i m p o r t a n t i n b a n k i n g . W o u l d y o u a g r e e ? A r e y o u I n v o l v e d I n a n y s p o r t s ? 5. Do y o u s o c i a l i z e w i t h o t h e r b a n k m a n a g e r s ? ( l u n c h e s , d i n n e r s , p a r t i e s ) — A l o n e o r w i t h someone e l s e ? 6. Do y o u t a k e c u s t o m e r s o u t ? I s t h i s i m p o r t a n t t o y o u r w o r k ? 7 . Do y o u h a v e a n y p r o b l e m s J u g g l i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s I n y o u r l l f e - - w o r k , w i f e , m o t h e r ? W h i c h r o l e d o y o u s e e a s d o m i n a n t ? How a r e c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s now f o r women a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p a s t ? 9. What f a c t o r s d o y o u a t t r i b u t e t o y o u r s u c c e s s i 1) D e t e r m i n a t i o n 6) E n v i r o n m e n t a l S u p p o r t 2) C o m p e t e n c e 7 ) S e l f - C o n f i d e n c e 3) I n t e r D e r s o n a l S k i l l s 8) L u c k >+) E x t r a E f f o r t 9) I n t e l l i g e n c e 5) H a r d Work 10) A g g r e s s i v e n e s s W h i c h o n e s d o y o u s e e a s s t r o n g e r f o r men a n d f o r women? -190-Appendix 2-3. Superior, Peer, Subordinate Scale 1) Please describe a typical B.C. business manager's perception of his superiors, peers, and subordinates. Select a number from the 1 to 4 scale for each item ( le f t ) and f i l l in the columns on the r ight with your choices. SCALE Example: | 1 j 2 | 3 TT~j pleasant unpleasant The Typical Manager Thinks His/Her Superior i s : Peer i s : (somewhat) pleasant) 1 (very pleasant) Subordinate i s : 4 (very unpleasant) ITEMS: Approachable distant decisive indecis ive threatening supportive caring not caring lo f ty equal i tar ian helpful harmful dul l clever committed not committed open closed work oriented non-work oriented author i tar ian. . . . .democrat ic ambitious lackadais ical dependent independent hurried unhurried assert ive passive conservation wasteful oriented f l ex ib le i n f l ex i b l e competitive non-competitive -191-Appendix 2-4. Bank Scenarios. Each person l isted across the top o f the chart below has just sent the branch manager an invitation to his/her wedding with someone whom the manager does not know personally. The typical branch manager would (Check the appropriate boxes) +J DI in as •r- C IA as O <— 01 c c o s_ O) a. s . r— O rO +J c u o OJ •r- S_ 1. Congratulate them verbally 2. Send them a nice card 3. Give them an inexpensive ($10) g i f t 4. Give them a moderately expensive ($25) g i f t 5. Give them a very expensive ($100) g i f t 5. Ask how much the tr ip cost with an eye to taking a vacation there oneself. 6. Ask nothing > +J •I- (U C £ OJ s- in Ol tn cn o (O V. c u 6. Invite them to a special lunch 7. Do nothing ine same persons have now just returned from a honeymoon in Hawaii. The typical branch manager would 1. Ask how the weather was 2. Ask i f they had a good time 3. Ask where they stayed 4. Ask about the entertainment they selected (cabarets, shows, etc.) -192-Appendix 2-4. Bank Scenarios. The son of each person l i s t e d across the top of the chart below has j u s t been i n a car accident with the branch manager's son. The other person's son i s i n h o s p i t a l with a broken hip. The branch manager's son, the d r i v e r , was shaken but uninjured. Both were d r i n k i n g at the time. The t y p i c a l branch manager would (check the appropriate boxes) + J r— CU 03 O) c r— S_ c ro 4-> o > OO i n •f— s -01 Q_ 4— O i. O S-C i — O U fd 0) !_ ro +J . !- < •u D I i- rjj C U OJ m rO O i — O Ol •r- C • i — •r- S_ rO C in ro C 01 O l - r - C ro in 3 r — OJ O ro CO < •"3 1. Ignore the matter 2. Send a card to the h o s p i t a l i z e d son 3. I n s i s t that h i s son apologize to the f a t h e r of the i n j u r e d boy 4. Joke about the matter with the f a t h e r of the i n j u r e d boy 5. Discuss the d e t a i l s of medical treatment with the f a t h e r of the i n j u r e d boy 6. Discuss the p o l i c e report with the f a t h e r of the i n j u r e d boy 7. I n s i s t that h i s son pay f o r the physiotherapy needed by the i n j u r e d boy 8. O f f e r to make medical payments him-s e l f to cover the h o s p i t a l b i l l 9. O f f e r to t e s t i f y i n court about h i s son's patt e r n of misbehaviour -193-Appendix 2-5. Person-Thing Scale. 8) PERSONAL REFERENCES For each i tem be low, p l ease show how much you would l i k e or d i s l i k e t a k i n g p a r t i n tha t a c t i v i t y . Mark an (x) i n the a p p r o p r i a t e box to the r i g h t o f each i t em. S t r o n g l y l i k e Somewhat l i k e I n d i f f e r e n t Somewhat O i s l i k e S t r o n g l y O i s l i k e 1. J o i n i n and he lp out a d i s o r g a n -i z e d c h i l d r e n ' s game a t a p u b l i c park 2. Ope ra t i ng machinery 3 . At tempt to comfor t a t o t a l s t r a n g e r who has j u s t met w i t h t ragedy 4 . A d j u s t i n g a c a r b u r e t o r 5. I n t e r v i e w i n g job a p p l i c a n t s 6 . Meet ing and d i r e c t i n g peop le 7. S o l v i n g mechanica l p u z z l e s 8 . He lp a group o f c h i l d r e n p lan a Ha l loween pa r t y 9 . B u i l d a r a d i o o r s t e r e o s e t 10. E n t e r t a i n i n g o t h e r s 11. Stop to watch a p i e c e o f machinery on the s t r e e t 12. I n te r v i ew peop le f o r a newspaper column 13. Remove the back o f mechanica l toy to see how i t worked 14. At tempt to f i x you r own w a t c h , t o a s t e r , e t c . 15. L i s t e n w i t h sympathy to an o l d t imer who s i t s next to you on a bus 16. Des ign i ng b r i d g e s , roadways, e t c . 17. Making s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r t s 18. Make f i r s t a t tempts to get to know a new ne ighbour 19. P r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n through a computer ?n • Working on a c rossword p u z z l e 21 . S t a r t i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a s t r a n g e r 22 . Computing f i g u r e s on a c a l c u l a t o r -194-Appendix 2-6. (9 ) THE SELF-DESCRIPTION INVENTORY The purpose o f t h i s inventory i s to o b t a i n a p i c t u r e o f the t r a i t s you b e l i e v e you possess, and to see how you des c r i b e y o u r s e l f . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so t r y to d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f as a c c u r a t e l y and honestly as you can. In each o f the p a i r s o f words below, check the one you think moU describes you. 1. 2. 3. 5. . capable d i s c r e e t understanding thorough cooperative i n v e n t i v e 4. \ f r i endly chee r f u l e n e r g e t i c ambi t i o u s persevering independent 7- loyal . dependable * — determined courageous q '- ''ndustrious P r a c t i c a l _ r e s o u r c e f u l 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. unaffected _ a l e r t _ _ sharp-witted _ d e l i b e r a t e _ kind _ J o l l y _ e f f i c i e n t _ c l e a r - t h i n k i n g _ real i s t i c _ t a c t f u l e n t e r p r i s i n g i n t e l l i g e n t _ a f f e c t i o n a t e frank . progressive _ t h r i f t y s i n c e r e calm thoughful fair-minded 21. ooised i ngenious 22. s o c i a b l e steady 23. 24. 25. 25. 27. _ a p p r e c i a t i v e _ good-natured _ pleasant _ modest _ responsi ble _ r e l i a b l e _ d i g n i f i e d _ c i v i l i z e d _ imaginative s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d 28. conscientious quick 29. l o g i c a l adaptabl e 30. sympathetic Datient 31. s t a b l e f o r e s i g h t e d 32. honest generous -195-Appendix 2-6. In each o f the p a i r s of words below, check the one you t h i n k lexat describes you. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. _ shy _ Tazy . unambitious . r e c k l e s s . noi sy _a r r o g a n t . emotional headstrong immature . quarrelsome _ u n f r i e n d l y _ sel f-seeking a f f e c t e d moody stubborn c o l d conceited i n f a n t i l e shallow s t i n g y 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51, 52. 53. _unsta bl e _ f r i v o l o u s _defensi ve _touchy _tense j r r i t a b l e _dreamy _dependent _ changeabl e _ prudish _nervous _ i n t o l e r a n t _ c a r e l e s s _ f o o l i s h _ a p a t h e t i c _ e g o t i s t i c a l _despondent _evasive _ d i s t r a c t i b 1 e _complaining _weak sel f i s h 54. rude s e l f - c e n t e r e d 55. r a t t l e - b r a i n e d d i s o r d e r l y 56. fussy submissive 57. opinionated p e s s i m i s t i c 58. s h i f t l e s s b i t t e r 59. hard-hearted s e l f - p i t y i n g 60. c y n i c a l aggressive 6 1 • d i s s a t i s f i e d outspoken 62. undependabl e r e s e n t f u l 63. s l y e x c i t a b l e 64. i r r e s p o n s i b l e impatient -196-FORM 0 Do NOT copy Appendix 2-7. B I R T H D A T E S E X : M A L E F E M A L E C I T Y a n d S T A T E O F B I R T H N A M E ( FILL IN ONLY IF REQUESTED) Z) 19«7 BY MILTON ROKEACH -197- HALGBEN TESTS 873 PERSIMMON AVE. SUNNYVALE, CALIFORNIA 3103? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 A COMFORTABLE LIFE (a prosperous life) AN EXCITING LIFE (a stimulating, active life) A SENSE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT, (lasting contribution) A WORLD AT PEACE (free of war and conflict) A WORLD OF BEAUTY v (beauty of nature and the arts) EQUALITY (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) FAMILY SECURITY (taking care of loved ones) FREEDOM (independence, free choice) HAPPINESS (contentedness) INNER HARMONY (freedom from inner conflict) MATURE LOVE (sexual and spiritual intimacy) NATIONAL SECURITY (protection from attack) PLEASURE (an enjoyable, leisurely life) SALVATION (saved, eternal life) SELF-RESPECT (self-esteem) SOCIAL RECOGNITION (respect, admiration) TRUE FRIENDSHIP (close companionship) WISDOM (o mature understanding of life) WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED, GO TO THE NEXT P A G E . -191-Below is another list of 18 values. Arrange them in order of importance, the same as before. AMBITIOUS (hard-working, aspiring) BROADMINDED (open-minded) CAPABLE " V 1 (competent, effective) f_ CHEERFUL (lighthearted. joyful) CLEAN (neat, tidy) COURAGEOUS (standing up for your beliefs) FORGIVING (willing to pardon others) HELPFUL (working for the welfare of others) HONEST (sincere, truthful) IMAGINATIVE ( d a r i n g , c r e a t i v e ) INDEPENDENT (self-reliant, self-sufficient) INTELLECTUAL (intelligent, reflective) LOGICAL (consistent, rational) LOVING (affectionate, tender) O B E D I E N T (dutiful, respectful) POLITE (courteous, well-mannered) RESPONSIBLE (dependable, reliable) SELF-CONTROLLED (restroined. self-disciplined) -199-LEAF 200 MISSED IN NUMBERING. 200 Appendix Table 3-1. Rokeach Value Means on need Achievement, need  Affiliation, and need Power for Male and Female  Bank Managers, American Males and Female's^  Bank Managers Male Female (n=54) (n=30) Value Means Americans Male (n=665) Female (n=744) Need Achievement Independent (+) Intellectual (+) 8.20 10.88 9.07 9.07 9.70 11.84 10.20 12.04 Honest (-) Obedient (-) 3.69 14.95 7.97 10.73 4.55 12.51 4.22 12.31 Need Affiliation True Friendship (+) 8.08 9.10 A World at Peace (+) 13.98 11.03 9.62 5.62 9.28 6.68 Mature Love (-) Need Power Freedom (+) Obedient (-) 7.66 7.30 7.14 10.57 14.95 10.73 11.81 11.71 5.88 6.80 12.51 12.31 -201-Appendix Table 3-2. Functional Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by Sex and Age of Bank Manager. Bank Managers' Responses Age (Years) 30-39 40-49 50-59 59 Sample Size n=28 n=10 n=20 n=19 n=14 n=9 n=31 n=2 Sex M F M F M F M F Functional — _ _ _ Chart Rewards 12.5% 11.83% 12.86% 12.71% 15.11% 12.05% 20.0% 15.0% Decision 30.74 21.51 30.95 26.52 30.94 15.66 23.33 30.0 Communication 21.96 27.96 26.19 30.94 23.74 28.92 26.67 25.0 Goal Orienta. 16.22 15.05 11.90 14.36 15.11 16.87 13.33 10.0 Mgmt. Stance 18.58 23.66 18.09 15.47 15.11 26.51 16.17 20.0 -202-Appendix Table 3-3. Functional Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank Managers. Bank Managers' Responses Managerial Exp. (Years) 5 6-10 11-15 16-20 20 Sample Size n=2 n=28 n=13 n=ll n=9 n=2 n=6 n=0 n=13 n=0 Sex M F M F M F M F M F Functional Orientation Rewards 13.02% 12.83% 13.61% 13.0% 10.48 15.79 14.52% - 18.11% S Decisions 32.56 23.02 26.53 22.0 30.48 26.32 30.65 - 27.56 1 Communication 20.93 29.06 26.53 30.0 29.52 31.58 19.35 - 24.41 Goal Orientation 14.42 15.85 15.65 15.0 15.24 10.53 12.90 - 12.60 Mgmt. Stance 19.07 19.25 17.69 20.0 14.29 15.79 22.58 - 17.32 Appendix Table 3-4. Role Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by  Sex and Age of Bank Managers. Bank Managers' Responses Age (Years) 30-39 40-49 50-59 59 Role Sex M F M F M F M F Orientation n=26 n=10 n=17 n=19 n=14 n=9 n=3 n=2 Figurehead 1.22% 4.82% 4.65% 5.42% 0.0% 8.97% 41.7% 0.0% Leader 46.53 37.35 42.44 28.92 50.81 24.36 41.67 27.78 Monitor 9.39 25.30 10.47 13.86 9.68 26.92 8.33 16.67 Disseminator 22.86 15.66 23.84 21.87 21.77 15.38 25.00 16.67 Disturbance Handler 9.39 14.46 9.88 22.89 7.26 16.67 12.50 27.78 Resource Allocator 6.53 0.0 4.65 1.20 8.87 1.28 4.17 0.0 Implementor 11.11 of H.O. P o l i c y 4.08 2.41 4.07 6.02 1.61 6.41 4.17 -204-Appendix Table 3-5. (Years)Manager Sample Size Sex Pole Orientation Figurehead Leader Monitor Disseminator of Infor. Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Implementor of H.O. Policy Role Orientation of Bank Incident Responses by Sex and Years of Managerial Experience of Bank Managers. ' ' Bank Managers' Responses 5 n=21 M n=27 F 6-10 n=14 M n=10 F 11-15 n=10 M n=2 F 16-20 n=5 M n=0 F 20 n=12 n=l M F 1.61% 45.61 12.90 5.22% 34.44 15.77 4.27% 46.15 5.98 6.12% 22.45 29.59 1.19% 45.24 7.14 0.0% 5.55 33.33 2.04% 51.02 8.16 - . 1.85% 48.15 9.26 22.04 19.09 23.93 15.31 27.38 22.22 16.33 - 25.0 8.06 18.67 9.40 21.43 11.90 22.22 10.20 - 6.48 4.84 0.83 6.84 1.02 5.95 0.0 6.12 - 7.41 5.38 4.98 3.42 4.08 1.19 16.67 6.12 - 1.85 Appendix 3-6. Wedding Scenario - Bank Manager Responses by Sex. Regional Mgr. of Other Asst. Mgr. J r . T e l l e r Pers. Div. R i v a l Bank Scenario Sex M F M F M F M F Reaction n=106 n=50 n=95 n=47 n=41 n=38 n=85 n=35 1. Congratulate them verbally 31.1% 20.0% 42.1% 27.7% 29.7% 21.1% 35.3% 31.4% 2. Send a nice card 12.3 14.0 15.8 17.0 25.3 31.6 30.6 34.3 3. Give $10 g i f t 0.9 4.0 21.1 25.5 3.3 5.3 5.9 5.7 4. Give $25 g i f t 45.3 46.0 17.9 17.0 33.0 21.1 17.6 14.3 5. Give $100 g i f t 0.9 0.0 0.0 2.1 1.1 7.9 1.2 0.0 6. Invite them to a spec i a l lunch 9.4 16.0 2.1 4.3 3.3 7.9 2.4 8.6 7. Do nothing 0.0 0.0 1.1 6.4 4.4 5.3 7.1 5.7 -206-Appendix 3-7. Honeymoon Scenario - Bank Manager Responses by Sex. Regional Mgr. of Other Asst. Mgr. J r . T e l l e r Pers. Div. R i v a l Bank Scenario Sex M F M F M F M F Reaction n=146 n=60 n=109 n=44 n=105 n=41 n=101 n=44 1. Ask how the weather was 19.2% 18.3% 23.9% 15.9% 21.0% 14.6% 22.8% 15.9% 2. Ask i f they had a good time 36.3 33.3 45.9 47.7 39.0 41.5 36.6 34.1 3. Ask where they stayed 29.2 18.3 15.6 11.4 17.1 9.8 13.9 13.6 4. Ask about entertainment they selected (caberets, shows, etc.) 17.8 21.7 12.8 18.2 10.5 17.1 9.9 13.6 5. Ask how much the t r i p cost with an eye to taking a vacation there myself 6.8 8.3 0.9 2.3 0.0 2.4 2.0 6.8 6. Ask nothing 0.7 0.0 0.9 4.5 12.4 14.6 14.9 15.9 -207-Appendix Table 3-8. Automobile Accident Scenario Bank Manager Responses by Sex. Regional Other Asst. Mgr. Jr. Teller Pers. Div. Rival Bank Scenario Sex M F M F M F M F Reaction n=130 n=58 n=124 n=54 n=121 n=57 n=121 n=52 1. Ignore the matter 0.0% 0.0% 0.8% 1.9% 0.8% 1.8% 1.7% 3.8% 2. Send a card to the hospitalized son 16.2 20.7 16.9 20.4 19.0 22.8 19.0 21.3 3. Insist that his son apologize to the father of the boy 14.6 5.2 14.5 5.6 14.0 7.0 14.0 5.8 4. Joke about the matter with the father of the injured boy 0.8 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 5. Discuss details of medical treatment with father of the injured boy 33.1 37.9 32.3 40.7 33.9 36.8 31.4 38.5 6. Discuss the police report with the father of the injured boy 20.8 25.9 20.2 24.1 19.8 24.6 20.7 25.0 7. Insist that his son pay for the physio-therapy needed by the injured boy 6.9 3.4 7.3 3.7 5.8 3.5 5.8 3.8 -208-Appendix Table 3-8. Cont. Regional Other Asst. Mgr. Jr. Teller Pers. Div. Rival Bank Scenario Sex M F M F M F M F Reaction n=130 n=58 n=124 n=54 n=121 n=57 n=121 n=52 8. Offer to make medical payments himself to cover the hospital b i l l 6.9 1.7 8.1 1.9 6.6 1.8 5.8 0.0 9. Offer to testify in court about his son's pattern of misbehaviour 0.8 3.4 0.0 1.9 0.0 1.8 0.0 1.9 -209-Appendix Table 3-9. Perception of Superiors Factor 1. Job Orientation 9.5375 9.5048 Superior, Peer, Subordinate Scale Factor Means  by Sex of Rank Manager. Males Females (n=59) (n=30) Factor 2. Work Relation- 6.769 ships Factor 3. Leader Manner Factor 4. Ingenuity Factor 5. Pace 6.7984 12.0819 13.3444 4.7119 4.6778 3.8475 4.0500 Perception of Peers Factor 1. Job Orientation 10.4052 10.2366 Factor 2. Work Relation- 7.2414 7.4194 ships Factor 3. Collegial Manner Factor 4. Informality Factor 5. Flexibility 4.1034 3.9355 3.8534 3.6290 2.0000 2.0323 Statistical Test (probability) T-value=.05 p=9.60 T-value=-.07 p=.945 T-value=-2.13 p=.036* T-value=.14 p=.89 T-value=.-74 p=.463 T-value=.36 p=722 T-value=-.47 p=.641 T-value=.82 p=.414 T-value=1.21 p=.23 T-value=-.27 p=.787 •Statistically significant difference. NOTE: Lower scores denote more positive imagery, higher scores indicate negative imagery. -210-Appendix Table 3-9.Cent. Males (n=59) Females (n=30) S t a t i s t i c a l Test (probability) Perception of Subordinates Factor 1. Job Orientation Factor 2. Work Relation-ships 10.9407 8.8305 Factor 5. Tenseness 11.1935 9.4129 Factor 3. Competitiveness 2.4068 2.2581 Factor 4. F l e x i b i l i t y 3.9661 4.2581 1.9559 1.5366 T-value=-.42 p=.676 T-value=-1.12 p=.265 F-value=191 p=.035* T-value=.81 p=.42 T-value=-1.70 p=.093 F-value=1.86 p=.043* T-value=1.48 p=.141 • S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference. NOTE: Lower scores denote more po s i t i v e imagery, higher scores indicate negative imagery. -211-Appendix Table 3-10. G h i s e l l i SDI T r a i t Norms Bank Manager vs. G h i s e l l i ' s Occupational Groups. T r a i t Norm Percentile Rank G h i s e l l i Male Female Mgrs. Sup. LW (n-57) (n=31) Supervisory A b i l i t y 29% 29% 45 28 26 Intelligence 40 49 47 20 19 I n i t i a t i v e 38 36 43 25 19 Self-Assurance 31 32 41 23 19 Decisiveness 23 28 43 20 19 Masc-Fem. 26 23 42 40 35 Maturity 46 44 100 100 100 Working Class A f f i n . 43 50 42 53 47 Achievement 23 24 45 16 11 Self-Actual. 32 39 44 26 19 Power Over Others 39 39 39 34 33 Fina n c i a l Reward 47 58 43 54 65 Security 62 62 46 57 65 -212-Appendix Table 3-11. Rokeach Instrumental Value Means - Canadian Bank  Managers & Rokeach Sample Groups (Source: Rokeach, 1973) Instrumental Values Bank Managers Male Female (n=59) (n=30) American Males Females (n=665) (n=744) Canadian Males (n=125) Ambitious 7.81 10.60 6.87 8.13 9.4 Broadminded 8.54 9.93 7.93 8.08 6.4 Capable 5.46 7.50 8.80 9.78 9.9 Cheerful 10.47 8.67 10.19 9.50 8.8 Clean 11.90 8.40 9.50 8.47 15.4 Courageous 10.88 9.57 8.15 8.54 9.1 Forgiving 11.10 8.87 8.59 7.16 9.1 Helpful 10.61 9.57 8.77 8.38 9.1 Honest 3.69 7.97 4.55 4.22 3.0 Imaginative 13.47 10.33 13.01 14.69 10.6 Independent 8.20 9.07 9.70 10.20 6.9 I n t e l l e c t u a l 10.88 9.07 11.84 12.04 8.9 Logical 8.56 9.80 12.34 13.38 10.5 Loving 8.36 8.33 10.48 8.71 6.4 Obedient 14.95 10.73 12.51 12.31 16.6 P o l i t e 12.25 10.40 10.79 10.66 14.6 Responsible 4.37 9.60 7.18 7.29 5.6 Self-Controlled 9.47 12.60 9.78 9.47 10.2 -213-Appendix Table 3-12. Rokeach Terminal Value Means - Canadian Bank Managers & Rokeach Sample Groups (Source: Rokeach, 1973) Bank Managers American Canadian Instrumental Values Male Female Males Females Males (n=59) (n=30) (n=665) (n=744) (n=125) A Comfortable L i f e 7.75 8.67 8.24 9.62 11.6 An Ex c i t i n g L i f e 9.46 9.60 13.04 14.65 9.8 A Sense of Accomplish. 7.80 9.40 8.73 9.50 9.2 A World at Peace 12.34 10.73 5.62 6.68 10.0 A World of Beauty 13.98 11.03 12.66 12.65 12.3 Equality 13.73 8.80 9.28 8.40 9.7 Family Security 3.34 7.77 5.03 4.81 7.5 Freedom 7.14 10.57 5.88 6.80 4.5 Happiness 5.42 8.13 7.97 7.58 4.7 Inner Harmony 8.83 9.10 10.76 9.70 7.4 Mature Love 7.66 7.30 11.81 11.71 5.6 National Security 14.29 10.73 9.41 9.97 16.6 Pleasure 10.42 9.27 13.19 14.03 12.3 Salvation 13.97 11.63 9.48 8.03 17.6 Self-Respect 5.73 8.53 8.48 7.70 6.9 S o c i a l Recognition 11.71 10.03 13.03 14.16 13.9 True Friendship 8.08 9.10 9.62 9.28 7.3 Wisdom 9.58 10.60 8.78 8.05 8.3 -214-Appendix Table 3-13. Rokeach Factor Analytic Structure of  American Values (Source: Rokeach, 1973, p. 47) T A B L E 2.7 F A C T O R A N A L Y T I C S T R U C T U R E O F A M E R I C A N V A L U E S (N = 1,409) Highest Highest Percent of Positive Loadings Negative Loadings Variance 1. Immediate vs. de-layed gratification A comfortable life Pleasure Clean An exciting life (.69) (.62) (.47) (.41) Wisdom Inner harmony Logical Self-controlled ; (-.56) (-.41) (-.34) (-.33) 8.2 2. Competence vs. religious morality Logical Imaginative Intellectual Independent (.53) (.45) (.44) ' (.43) Forgiving Salvation Helpful Clean (-.64) (-.56) (-.39) (-.34) 7.8 3. Self-constriction vs. self-expansion Obedient Polite Self-controlled Honest (.52) (.50) (.37) (.34) Broaclminded Capable (-.56) (-.51) 5.5 4. Social vs. personal orientation A world at peace National security Equality Freedom (.61) (.58) (.43) (.40) True friendship Self-respect (-.49) (-.48) 5.4 5. Societal vs. family security A world of beauty Equality Helpful Imaginative (.58) (.39) (.36) (•30) Family security Ambitious Responsible Capable (-.50) (-.43) (-.33) (-.32) 5.0 6. Respect vs. love Social recognition Self-respect (.49) (.32) Mature love Loving (-.68) (-.60) 4.9 7. Inner- vs. other-directed Polite (.34) Courageous Independent (-.70) (-.33) 4.0 -215-Appendix Table 3-14. Rokeach Factor Values of Male and Female Bank  Managers vs. American Males and Females, and  Canadian Males (Source: Rokeach, 1973) FACTOR 1. Immediate gratifi-cation vs. delayed gratific FACTOR 2. Competence vs. Religious Morality FACTOR 3. Self-Constr iction vs. Self-Expans ion FACTOR 4. Social Orientation vs. Personal Orientation FACTOR 5. Societal Security vs. Family Security FACTOR 6. Respect vs. Love FACTOR 7. Inner-vs. Other Directed Bank Managers Male Female (n=59) (n=30) +21.33 +19.61 -15.02 -17.16 +18.91 +17.73 -23.11 -18.78 +18.66 +18.15 -7.45 -9.45 +24.58 +20.78 -6.71 -8.55 +21.32 +16.37 -8.22 -14.01 +7.57 +7.64 -10.22 -9.96 +4.17 +3.54 -10.32 -9.62 American Males Females (n=665) (n=744) +23.67 +25.32 -16.75 -16.16 +21.78 +23.39 -17.46 -15.23 +17.07 +16.67 -8.93 -9.51 +10.36 +16.19 -5.20 -8.24 +18.02 +18.04 -10.65 -11.44 +9.10 +9.40 -14.32 -13.19 +3.67 +3.62 -8.91 -9.34 Canadian Males (n=125) +26.89 -14.62 +17.22 -24.47 +20.73 -8.63 +21.70 -6.89 +17.37 -12.81 +9.02 -7.65 +4.96 -8.65 -216-REFERENCES Abra, R.M., and Hall, R.I., "A System Model of a Branch Bank: An aid to changing the internal culture of an organization," Paper for 22nd National Conference, Canadian Operational Research Society, Quebec City, 1980. Albrecht, S., "Informal Interaction Patterns of Professional Women," Women  in Management, ed. B.A. Stead, Englewood Cli f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978, pp. 209-214. 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