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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the social and economic conditions of child in care families Chan, Albert Wai-Yip 1982

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A STUDY OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF CHILD IN CARE FAMILIES by ALBERT WAI-YIP CHAN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of S o c i a l Work We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1982 © A L B E R T WAI-YIP CHAN, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia Canada, V6T 1W5 Date: December 19th, 1982 i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y examined the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s i n Regions 1 and 15 of the M i n i s t r y of Human Re s o u r c e s , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s and the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were a n a l y z e d . In a d d i t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the changes of the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s and the changes of the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were a l s o examined. A t o t a l of s i x t y c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s were used, w i t h twenty c a s e s from each of the l e g a l s t a t u s groups - from temporary c u s t o d y t o d i s c h a r g e , temporary c u s t o d y o r d e r extended, and from temporary c u s t o d y o r d e r t o permanent c u s t o d y o r d e r . The f i n d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were from low s o c i a l and economic c l a s s . Among the f a m i l i e s of the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups, f a m i l i e s w i t h extreme low s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n were more v u l n e r a b l e t o permanent removal of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In c o n t r a s t , f a m i l i e s t o which the c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d had b e t t e r s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s than the temporary c u s t o d y extended and permanent ward f a m i l i e s . i i i TALBE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x PREFACE x i i CHAPTER I . INEQUALITY IN CHILD WELFARE 1 CHAPTER I I . THE INNOCENT VICTIMS : A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS 7 PSYCHOPATHOGICAL MODEL 8 ECOLOGICAL MODEL 8 CULTURAL MODEL 10 SOCIO-ECONOMIC MODEL 11 CRITIQUE 12 ALTERNATIVE FRAMEWORK 14 CHAPTER I I I . SOCIAL AND EOCNOMIC CONDITIONS 17 CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH DESIGN 21 HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 21 PURPOSE OF EMPIRICAL STUDY 22 METHODOLOGY 21 INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES 23 SAMPLING 24 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 26 PRELIMINARY TESTING 27 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 28 MISSING DATA 29 CHAPTER V. PROFILES OF THE CHILDREN IN CARE AND THEIR FAMILIES ' 32 REGION 32 ADMITTING REGIONS 32 SUPERVISING REGIONS 33 LEGAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN CARE 33 TIME OF ADMISSION 34 TIME OF LEGAL STATUS REVISION 34 A. PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN CARE SAMPLE 35 1 . AGE 35 2. SEX 36 3. RACIAL ORIGINS 37 4. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION 37 5. INDIAN STATUS 38 6. REASONS FOR ADMISSION 38 SUMMARY 39 i v B. PROFILE OF THE FAMILIES 40 1 . HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD 41 2. AGE OF THE HEADS OF THE HOUSEHOLDS 41 3. SEX OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS 42 4. MARITAL STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS 42 5. RACIAL ORIGIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS 43 6. NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH THE FAMILIES AT THE TIME OF ADMISSION 44 7. NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH THE FAMILIES AT THE TIME OF LEGAL STATUS REVISION 44 8. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 45 SUMMARTY OF FAMILY PROFILE 46 Chapter V I . SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FAMILIES OF CHILDREN IN CARE 47 A. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FAMILIES AT APPREHENSION 47 1. LEVEL OF INCOME 47 2. SOURCES OF INCOME 48 3. OCCUPATION OF THE HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS 49 4. TYPE OF HOUSING 50 5. DWELLING AREAS 50 6. LEVEL OF EDUCATION 51 7. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYMENT 52 8. ASSOCIATION STRENGTH 53 9. FAMILY SOLIDARITY 54 SUMMARY OF THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT APPREHENSION 55 B. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF LEGAL STATUS REVISION 56 1. LEVEL OF INCOME AT STATUS REVISION 56 2. SOURCES OF INCOME AT STATUS REVISION 57 3. OCCUPATION OF THE HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS AT STATUS REVISION 57 4. TYPE OF HOUSING AT STATUS REVISION 57 5. DWELLING AREA AT STATUS REVISION 60 6. LEVEL OF EDUCATION AT STATUS REVISION 61 7. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYMENT AT STATUS REVISION 62 8. ASSOCIATION STRENGTH AT STATUS REVISION 63 9. FAMILY SOLIDARITY AT STATUS REVISION 64 SUMMARY OF THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF LEGAL STATUS REVISION 65 CHAPTER V I I . THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INFLUENCES 67 I . CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS 69 A. CORRELATION AMONG THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT APPREHENSION 69 V B. CORRELATION AMONG THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT STATUS REVISION 70 C. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT APPREHENSION AND AT STATUS REVISION 7 2 11 . ITEM ANALYSIS 7 4 I I I . INDEX CONSTRUCTION •. 7 5 IV. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND LEGAL STATUS 77 A. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND LEGAL STATUS 77 B. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDEXES AND LEGAL STATUS 79 V. PATH DIAGRAM 80 CHAPTER V I I I . INEQUALITY REVISITED 84 SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS RECONSIDERED 86 FOOTNOTES 90 REFERENCES 92 APPENDIX I . LETTER TO CHILD WELFARE SOCIAL WORKERS 102 APPENDIX I I . QUESTIONNARIRES 104 APPENDIX I I I . DATA RECORDING SHEET 117 APPENDIX IV. CONSENT FORM 118 v i L i s t of T a b l e s 1. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Regions 32 2. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Regions of A d m i s s i o n 33 3. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Regions of S u p e r v i s i o n 33 4. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by L e g a l S t a t u s 34 5. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Time of A d m i s s i o n 34 6. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 35 7. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Age 36 8. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Sex 36 9. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by R a c i a l O r i g i n 37 10. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 37 11. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by I n d i a n S t a t u s 38 12. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Reasons of A d m i s s i o n 39 13. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by the Heads of Households 41 14. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by Age 42 15. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by Sex 42 16. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 43 17. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by R a c i a l O r i g i n s 43 18. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Number of C h i l d r e n a t the Time of A d m i s s i o n 44 v i i 1 9 . Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Number of C h i l d r e n at the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 45 20. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Length of Residence 45 21. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by L e v e l of Income 48 22. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Sources of Income 48 23. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by O c c u p a t i o n 49 24. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by Type of Housing 50 25. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by D w e l l i n g Area 51 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n 52 27. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by Length of Employment or Unemployment 53 28. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h 53 29. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by S o l i d a r i t y ...54 30. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by L e v e l of Income a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 56 31. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Sources of Income a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 57 32. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by O c c u p a t i o n at the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 58 33. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Type of Housing a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 59 34. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by D w e l l i n g Area a t t h e Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 60 35. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 61 v i i i 36. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Length of Employment or Unemployment a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 62 37. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h a t t h e Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 63 38. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by S o l i d a r i t y a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 64 39. Mean D i f f e r e n c e s Between the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c C o n d i t i o n s a t the Time of Apprehension and of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 65 40. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the Nine S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t Apprehension 70 41. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 71 42. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t Apprehension and a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n .73 43. Weights of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s 75 44. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s by L e g a l S t a t u s a t A p p r e h e n s i o n 76 45. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s by L e g a l S t a t u s a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n 76 46. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s by L e g a l S t a t u s 78 47. B i v a r i a t e C o v a r i a t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes and L e g a l S t a t u s 83 48. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d ' s R a c i a l O r i g i n by L e g a l S t a t u s 87 49. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l y ' s R a c i a l O r i g i n by L e g a l S t a t u s 87 50. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e l i g i o s i t y by L e g a l S t a t u s 88 i x L i s t of F i g u r e s I . P a t h Diagram of C h i l d In Care Cases 23 I I . P a t h Diagram of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes and L e g a l S t a t u s 81 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT No e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y c o u l d be conducted i n i s o l a t i o n , and t h i s study was no e x c e p t i o n . A number of pe o p l e have p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s s t u d y . I am m o s t l y i n d e b t e d t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r s - Dr. John Crane, Dr. R i c h a r d Nann, and Dr. Kloh-Ann Amacher. They have g i v e n me e x c e l l e n t and i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e s . T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t would not have been p o s s i b l e i f i t were w i t h o u t the support and c o o p e r a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia. C h r i s R e i n h o l d and P a t s y George, F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t o r s of Regions one and f i f t e e n r e s p e c t i v e l y , s h o u l d be thanked f o r t h e i r time and a s s i s t a n c e . I must a l s o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o I r i s Wendell of Region one, s i n c e she had g i v e n so much of her time i n t y p i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . D u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r , my c o l l e a g u e s from the t h e s i s o p t i o n , A l e x Kwan, Bruce N o r t h e y , and A k i n i K i a n i , had g i v e n me s u p p o r t and encouragement. They made my s t u d y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia more e x c i t i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g . My g r a t i t u d e a l s o t o K e v i n Lo, who showed me how t o use the U.B.C. computer system. I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Joan F l y n n , who spend so much of her time i n e d i t i n g and p r o o f - r e a d i n g the d r a f t s . For m y s e l f , the t r a n s i t i o n i n Vancouver would have been d i f f i c u l t , i f not f o r my g i r f r i e n d , V a l e n c i a Lo, who had g i v e n me u n r e s e r v e d support i n my s t u d y i n g y e a r . I must e x p r e s s my x i s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o h e r . There a r e a g r e a t number of p e o p l e who had a s s i s t e d me i n the r e s e a r c h . I am g r a t e f u l t o the s o c i a l workers who were i n t e r v i e w e d . Without them, the d a t a c o u l d not have been c o l l e c t e d . I am i n d e b t e d t o t h r e e of my former p r o f e s s o r s from the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work of the U n i v e r i s t y of M a n i t o b a . They a r e Pete Hudson, Brad MacKenzie, and N e i l T u d i v e r , who had ta u g h t me p r a c t i c a l knowledge and t h e o r i e s , so t h a t my i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r i n s o c i a l casework was not a t o t a l f a i l u r e . The kwowledge which I g a i n e d from the w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e formed the t h e o r e t i c a l bases of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . There a r e people who I f a i l t o mention h e r e , and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n i s as i m p o r t a n t ; I thank a l l of them f o r h e l p i n g me to conduct t h i s s t u d y . Of c o u r s e , I am s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i n a l m a n u s c r i p t . x i i PREFACE T h i s s t u d y , which examined the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n the w i n t e r of 1980-81, w h i l e I was a s o c i a l worker w i t h the Fa m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e s of the D i s t r i c t of Kenora, Dryden, O n t a r i o . In my b r i e f e ncounter w i t h c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c l i e n t s , I n o t i c e d t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s of apprehended c h i l d r e n were from low s o c i a l and economic c l a s s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were c l i e n t s who had m a n a g e r i a l and b u s i n e s s backgrounds, the s o c i a l worker's i n t e r v e n t i o n was m i n i m a l , and i n most c a s e s , problems f a c i n g many of thes e f a m i l i e s were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d . In c o n t r a s t , a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of c h i l d r e n from low s o c i a l and economic c l a s s were a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e , and many of them f i n a l l y became permanent wards. In 1980, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t n i n e t y p e r c e n t of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n the D i s t r i c t of Kenora were N a t i v e I n d i a n s . Among many of these N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , a g r e a t number of them were apprehended on the r e s e r v e . In comparison t o the ' a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y ' of N o r t h A merica, N a t i v e s on the r e s e r v e were l i v i n g i n d e s t i t u t e . Many of them were unemployed, r e l i e d on government a s s i s t a n c e , had low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and inad e q u a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s , and they r e s i d e d i n s u b s t a n d a r d houses. I t was apparent t o me t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n s and f a m i l i e s of low s o c i a l and economic c l a s s were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c h i l d i n c a r e p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y among permanent ward c a s e s . x i i i A f t e r s e e i n g a number of f a m i l i a l breakdowns, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n , a number of q u e s t i o n s began t o s u r f a c e . The f i r s t and foremost was the unequal s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s of whom the c h i l d r e n were apprehended. I began t o s u s p e c t t h a t f a m i l i e s of low s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s , as compared t o those f a m i l i e s who had h i g h e r s t a t u s , were a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n . Due t o t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e , t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not o n l y more v u l n e r a b l e t o be removed from them, but t h e i r c h i l d r e n were a l s o s u b j e c t t o be kept i n c a r e on a permanent b a s i s . T h i s study was i n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , h o p i n g t h a t some of them would be answered. CHAPTER I INEQUALITY IN CHILD WELFARE Man has l i v e d w i t h i n e q u a l i t y f o r thousands of y e a r s , and i n contemporary Canada, s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l i n e q u i t i e s abound. In 1982, the new Canadian C h a r t e r of R i g h t s and Freedoms g u a r a n t e e s t h e r i g h t s and freedoms of a l l Canadians ( s e c t i o n 1 ) . In the t r a d i t i o n of Locke and M i l l , the l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y which i s demonstrated i n the C h a r t e r , and which forms the backbone of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l system and of p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy, has succeeded o n l y i n g u a r a n t e e i n g the r i g h t t o compete f o r unequal rewards, but w i t h o u t e q u a l c o n d i t i o n s and rewards f o r the c i t i z e n s of the l a n d . In the 1980s, Canadian s o c i e t y has become h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , not o n l y i n terms of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement, and i n c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r s , but a l s o i n the i n t e n s i f i e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic s y s t e m s . 1 In h i s c l a s s i c s t u d y , The V e r t i c a l Mosiac (1965), John P o r t e r p o i n t e d out t h a t the Canadian p o l i t i c a l and economic e l i t e was dominated by Canadians w i t h Anglo-Saxon and P r o t e s t a n t backgrounds. Clemant (1975) f u r t h e r showed t h a t , as compared t o the 1950's, the w e a l t h , power, and i n f l u e n c e of the c o r p o r a t e e l i t e had been g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e 1970's. W i t h the i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power among a s m a l l e l i t i s t group, the gap between the r i c h and poor i s w i d e n i n g . As w i t h many western i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g i n e q u a l i t y has become a 2 g e n e r a l phenomenon p e n e t r a t i n g the e n t i r e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of Canadian s o c i e t y . As one r e c e n t f e d e r a l government study commented : "Over the e n t i r e 1951-1973 p e r i o d t h e r e i s a s l i g h t tendency towards i n c r e a s i n g i n e q u a l i t y . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e r e g a r d l e s s of the i n e q u a l i t y measure or u n i t of a n a l y s i s examined .... T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y s u r p r i s i n g i n the l i g h t of g r e a t e r e x p a n s i o n of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y programs over the p e r i o d , most of which are supposed t o be r e d i s t r i b u t i v e i n n a t u r e . . . " 2 The i n e q u a l i t y of power i n the p o l i t i c a l system has prompted many low-income and m i n o r i t y groups t o form o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o seek b e t t e r r e c o g n i t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . As o b s e r v e d by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , "these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have i n common a commitment t o a s o c i a l change which w i l l b r i n g about g r e a t e r f a i r n e s s and j u s t i c e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s of t h i s c o u n t r y " ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , Poor P e o p l e ' s Group, p . 2 ) . In the m i d s t of t h i s u p h i l l s t r u g g l e f o r more humane and e q u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d , a number of groups, such as women, the poor, e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , and c h i l d r e n , have been v i c t i m i z e d by the unequal t r e a t m e n t s imposed upon them. A r e c e n t Quebec study shows t h a t even though poor f a m i l i e s make up o n l y 13% of a l l Quebec h o u s e h o l d u n i t s , two i n e v e r y t h r e e of the 31,000 c h i l d r e n i n c a r e throughout the P r o v i n c e came from 3 f a m i l i e s w i t h incomes below the p o v e r t y l i n e ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , 1979:2). The o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n from lower ecomomic c l a s s e s i n the c h i l d w e l f a r e system has l e d t o a s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s i n the U.S. and Canada on the i s s u e of s y s t e m a t i c v i c t i m i z a t i o n . 3 G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two camps. One group (Kempe et a l 1962, G a l d s t o n 1965, S t e e l e & P o l l a c k 1968) s u p p o r t e d the i d e a t h a t problems such as c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t were u n i v e r s a l and were not unique t o c h i l d r e n w i t h lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c backgrounds. The o t h e r group ( G i l , H o r o w i t z & Wolock 1980, G a r b a r i n o , P e l t o n 1981) i n s i s t e d t h a t the the soci o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s of the f a m i l i e s was s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e problems. S i n c e Kempe e t a l p u b l i s h e d The B a t t e r e d C h i l d Syndrome i n 1962, the causes of c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t have become major t o p i c s of study f o r many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s who are working i n the f i e l d of c h i l d w e l f a r e , or i n r e l a t e d a r e a s . Due t o the e f f e c t s of thes e s t u d i e s , and the c o l l e c t i v e f o r c e of the c h i l d advocacy movement, numerous p r o v i n c i a l c h i l d w e l f a r e a c t s were r e v i s e d or r e w r i t t e n i n Canada i n the 1970s. In the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, the f o r t y y e a r s o l d P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t was r e p l a c e d by the F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s A c t i n 1980. The new A c t p r o v i d e s a more up t o date and e f f e c t i v e law p r o t e c t i n g those c h i l d r e n who a r e deemed t o be i n danger. P a r a l l e l i n g t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e change has been a r e f o r m a t i o n i n the d e l i v e r y of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . In 1975, the 4 sev e n t y year o l d C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y system was a b o l i s h e d i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The d e l i v e r y of c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s was i n i t i a l l y r e p l a c e d by the Vancouver Resources Board, and was l a t e r t a k e n over by the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. A l l of the s e r e c e n t changes, i f they were ind e e d p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i a l measures, were supposed t o shed new l i g h t on the c h i l d w e l f a r e system i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, and t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r l e g a l and s u p p o r t i v e networks f o r the d i sadvantaged. In B r i t i s h Columbia, e v e r y year t h e r e were thousands of c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o c a r e by a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a g e n c i e s , such as the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s , the Vancouver Resources B o a r d , and the M i n i s t r y of Human Res o u r c e s . In 1978, t h e r e were 10,415 c h i l d r e n aged e i g h t e e n and under i n the c a r e of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of C h i l d W e l f a r e ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e 1979:1). A 1978-79 study (Amacher & M a i r 1979) showed t h a t N a t i v e Canadians c o m p r i s e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p e r c e n t a g e of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Vancouver Downtown and Vancouver E a s t a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , f a m i l i e s of the s e apprehended c h i l d r e n tended t o be poor, unemployed, on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , and l i v i n g i n s u b s t a n d a r d accommodation. The most d i s t u r b i n g and a l a r m i n g f a c t was t h a t 82.25% of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , as shown i n the s t u d y , were remained i n c a r e , or were back i n c a r e a f t e r r e t u r n i n g home f o r a s h o r t d u r a t i o n . As f o r t h e problems p r e s e n t i n the f m a i l i e s a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e , such as e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s 5 and d e p r i v a t i o n , inadequate h o u s i n g , f i n a n c i a l need, and unemployment, they comprised o n l y t h r e e t o seven p e r c e n t of the p r i m a r y reasons f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s placement (D. F a n s h e l and J . Grundy 1975). However, f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o the p a r e n t s ' c a p a c i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o implement a d e q u a t e l y t h e i r p a r e n t a l r o l e a c counted f o r 70-80 p e r c e n t of the reasons used by r e s e a r c h e r s to e x p l a i n the c h i l d ' s removal from the home (A. Kadushin 1978:116). In a study on f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h l e n g t h of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , J e n k i n s (1967) found t h a t f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s of l i v i n g , such as b e i n g housed i n rooms and b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , tended t o be r e l a t e d t o a s h o r t e r time i n c a r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , J e n k i n s o b s e r v e d t h a t demographic v a r i a b l e s , age a t placement, r e l i g i o n , and e t h n i c group t o g e t h e r c o u l d s e r v e as i n d i c a t o r s of d u r a t i o n of c a r e . Among a l l of the f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d , reason f o r placement was b e l i e v e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the l e n g t h of time t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e . D a v i d F a n s h e l , i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s (D. F a n s h e l 1976), d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the f r e q u e n c y of p a r e n t a l v i s i t i n g , the amount of casework c o n t a c t , the c o m p o s i t e index r e f l e c t i n g an o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s mother, and e t h n i c i t y and age of the c h i l d a t placement, were s t r o n g p r e d i c t o r s of the d e p a r t u r e of c h i l d r e n from c a r e . In a n o t h e r s t u d y , a f t e r e x amining 551 c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r c a r e c a s e s , H. Maas (1969) found t h a t f o r those c h i l d r e n who 6 were i n . l o n g - t e r m c a r e , as compared t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , were i n the most d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n s . Most of t h e s e c h i l d r e n came from f a m i l i e s a t the l o w e s t economic l e v e l , and most of t h e i r p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n e d no c o n t a c t w i t h the c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , most of t h e s e c h i l d r e n who were i n l o n g -term c a r e f u n c t i o n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a t a below-average l e v e l and some had i r r e m e d i a b l e p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . In the s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s t h e r e was growing c o n c e r n about the w e l l - b e i n g of c h i l d r e n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The mass media d i s c o v e r e d and p u b l i c i z e d numerous i n c i d e n t s of s e r i o u s c h i l d abuse, and brought t o the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of young c h i l d r e n . But i n the 1980s, a f t e r two decades of c o n t i n u o u s e f f o r t i n r e s c u i n g c h i l d r e n from m a l t r e a t m e n t , many young c h i l d r e n were s t i l l e x p e r i e n c i n g undue h a r d s h i p . Many of these e x p e r i e n c e s had r e s u l t e d from unequal s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s , as demonstrated i n numerous s t u d i e s (Amacher & M a i r 1979, P e l t o n 1981, G i l 1976, Maas 1969). S o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s w i l l not be e f f e c t i v e i f the c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h the problems emerged a r e not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s s t u d y w i l l d e v e l o p a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e of the s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s i n t h o s e f a m i l i e s from which c h i l d r e n were apprehended. I t w i l l a l s o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e f a c t o r s and the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . 7 CHAPTER I I THE INNOCENT VICTIMS : A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS In Canada, e v e r y year t h e r e a r e thousands of c h i l d r e n apprehended from t h e i r n a t u r a l homes. In 1979 a l o n e , t h e r e were 80,000 c h i l d r e n - one i n every hundred - l i v i n g ' i n c a r e ' a c r o s s the c o u n t r y ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e 1979:1). In the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, as of December 3 1 s t , 1980, 8,584 c h i l d r e n were i n the c a r e of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s ( M i n i s t r y of Human Resources 1980:33). The reasons l e a d i n g t o the s e p a r a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n from t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r e v a r i o u s . The common ones ar e "the p a r e n t s ' mental and e m o t i o n a l i l l n e s s ; p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s ; abandonment, n e g l e c t , or abuse of the c h i l d r e n ; s e v e r e m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t ; a l c o h o l i s m ; drug a d d i c t i o n ; and c r i m e " (A. Kadushin 1978:116). The phenomenon of s e p a r a t i n g c h i l d r e n from t h e i r n a t u r a l e n vironments g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s f a m i l i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and breakdown. The causes of the f a m i l i e s ' f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e adequate c a r e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e s u b j e c t t o v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . In the l a s t two decades numerous models have been c r e a t e d and d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s of t h i s unhappy s o c i a l phenomenon of f o r c e f u l removal of c h i l d r e n . G e n e r a l l y , these f o u r models a r e the P s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l model, the E c o l o g i c a l model, the C u l t u r a l model, and the Socio-economic model. Each of t h e s e models has i t s own t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . They v a r y , not j u s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the problems, but a l s o i n s o l u t i o n s t o the 8 i d e n t i f i e d problems. PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL MODEL The p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l model uses an u n i - c a u s a l approach which t r e a t s the i n a b i l i t y of the f a m i l i e s t o p r o v i d e proper c a r e t o the c h i l d r e n as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a t h o l o g y , or a s i c k n e s s ( G a l d s t o n 1965, Kempe, et a l 1962, S t e e l e & P o l l a c k 1968). The p a t h o l o g y or s i c k n e s s i s seen as d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r which i n d i c a t e an u n d e r l y i n g d i s e a s e or abnormal p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o S t e e l e & P o l l a c k (1968) , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem was made up of i n t r a p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s and of v a r i o u s forms of ps y c h o p a t h o l o g y on the p a r t of the p r e p e t r a t o r s . These d e f e c t s i n t h e p a r e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y were a c c e p t e d as the causes of mi s t r e a t m e n t i n f l i c t e d upon the c h i l d r e n . J . Brown (1981) c l a i m e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c h i l d abuse , and he saw e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s p l a y i n g a c r u c i a l and d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the p a t h o l o g y of c h i l d abuse (Brown 1981:36). The p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l model sees the o r i g i n of the problems of c h i l d abuse r o o t e d i n the p e r s o n a l i t y and mental d i s o r d e r s of the p e r p e t r a t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , the s o l u t i o n s t o these problems a r e c l i n i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g and p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t . THE ECOLOGICAL MODEL C o n t r a r y t o the p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l model, the e c o l o g i c a l model adopts a m u l t i - c a u s a l approach. The e c o l o g i s t sees the f o r c e s l e a d i n g t o f a m i l i a l breakdown as b e i n g p a r t l y embedded i n the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of the f a m i l y ' s 9 e c o l o g y ( Z i e g l e r 1979). E c o l o g y , a c c o r d i n g t o Germain and G i t t e r m a n , seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s between organism and environment(Germain & G i t t e r m a n 1980:4). The f o c u s i s on the a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s by u s i n g the environment, and t o shape t h e i r needs w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g i t . A d a p t a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l element of l i f e , i f the s p e c i e s i s t o i n c r e a s e the environment's d i v e r s i t y , and t o enhance i t s l i f e -s u p p o r t i n g p r o p e r t i e s . The environment c o n s i s t s of l a y e r s and t e x t u r e s . The l a y e r s ar e the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment, w h i l e the t e x t u r e s are time and space. F a m i l i a l breakdown i s l o o k e d upon as the m a l a d a p t a t i o n of the environment. The reasons l e a d i n g t o the f a m i l y ' s d y s f u n c t i o n are b e l i e v e d t o be the r e s u l t of the u p s e t s of the u s u a l a d a p t i v e b a l a n c e of the f a m i l y system. The problems of f a m i l y breakdown, and of the f o r c e f u l removal of c h i l d r e n , a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the outcome of the t r a n s a c t i o n between c h i l d r e n and the l a y e r s which i n c l u d e the f a m i l y and the s u p p o r t i v e systems. 4 S i n c e the problems l e a d i n g t o c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n a r e e n t r e n c h e d i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l systems, t o r e s o l v e these problems, the e c o l o g i s t p u t s the onus on the m a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o adapt and t o a d j u s t t o the environment, or t o d e v e l o p s u p p o r t i v e mechanisms t o enhance t h e i r problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s . A l s o , the e c o l o g i s t p r o v i d e s c o u n s e l l i n g t o m a l a d a p t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , i n o r d e r t h a t p r o p e r l i f e s k i l l s may 10 d e v e l o p . CULTURAL MODEL The c u l t u r a l model s u g g e s t s t h a t c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e the h o s t i l e and a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r of many a b u s i v e p a r e n t s (Bahan 1973), and thus l e a d t o the a p p r e h e n s i o n of the c h i l d r e n . In N o r t h American s o c i e t i e s , c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s condone the use of p h y s i c a l f o r c e i n c h i l d r e a r i n g . T h i s use of p h y s i c a l d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n and v i o l e n t b e h a v i o r a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n v i o l e n c e prone groups. As G i l (1970) has o b s e r v e d , the use of p h y s i c a l f o r c e f o r p u n i s h i n g c h i l d r e n i s a c c e p t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e means i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The ready use of e x c e s s i v e f o r c e w i t h a d i s c i p l i n a r y o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n the p h y s i c a l harm of c h i l d r e n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y the c h i l d r e n a r e removed from t h e i r a b u s i v e p a r e n t s . Another c u l t u r a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the source of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n i s the v a l u e c o n f l i c t between the dominant and s u b o r d i n a t e c u l t u r a l groups. In the Canadian c o n t e x t , the v a l u e s of N a t i v e s o c i e t y a r e v a s t l y and s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the v a l u e s of Anglo-Saxon P r o t e s t a n t s . In the l a s t hundred y e a r s , N a t i v e p a r e n t s , as w e l l as t h e i r c h i l d r e n , have been caught between the new and o l d , the n a t i v e and the n o n - n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s , customs, and v a l u e s . Many of them end by r e j e c t i n g b o t h , and they a r e p a r a l y z e d by the i n s o l u b l e dilemma i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y 5 . Those who want t o r e t u r n t o the t r a d i t i o n s of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s a re c o n s t a n t l y h a r a s s e d by 11 d i s c r i m i n a t o r y laws and r e g u l a t i o n s . Many of them l i v e under the shadow of c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n , and they are p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a d e s i r e t o c r e a t e an essence of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . The c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t c r e a t e d i n the l a s t hundred y e a r s has produced not o n l y the breakdown of the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s and systems of the N a t i v e p e o p l e , but a l s o the breakdown of many f a m i l i e s , which r e s u l t e d i n the a p p r e h e n s i o n of thousands of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . R e g a r d i n g the numbers of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n 1978, 37% of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia were N a t i v e I n d i a n s , 40% i n A l b e r t a , 50% i n Saskatchewan, and 60% i n Manitoba ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e 1979:7). N a t i o n a l l y , N a t i v e c h i l d r e n c o m prise more than 20% of the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n s u b s t i t u t e c a r e , w h i l e p e o p l e of N a t i v e background, as Hepworth o b s e r v e d , a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 6% of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n (Hudson & Mckenzie 1981:63). SOCIO-ECONOMIC MODEL P r a c t i t i o n e r s a d o p t i n g the Socio-economic model see the problems of inadequate c h i l d c a r e and those f a c e d by the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s , h a v i n g t o do w i t h a v a r i e t y of l i f e f a c t o r s . These may i n c l u d e p o v e r t y , crowded h o u s i n g , low s o c i a l c l a s s , unemployment, and poor e d u c a t i o n . These s u b o r d i n a t e l i f e s i t u a t i o n s a r e l i n k e d t o the development of the f e e l i n g of p o w e r l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r , and t o the phenomena of a l c o h o l i s m , f a m i l y v i o l e n c e and c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse. H o r o w i t z and Wolock (1981) c l a i m e d t h a t p o v e r t y was a 12 c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n c h i l d m a l t r e a t m e n t . G i l (1970) found t h a t n e a r l y h a l f of the a b u s i v e f a m i l i e s (48.4%) had e a r n i n g s below the p o v e r t y l i n e , and t h a t about 60% of them had r e c e i v e d p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g or b e f o r e the study y e a r . He a l s o found t h a t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the f a t h e r s were unemployed and t h a t the income of t h e i r f a m i l i e s was low. For G a r b a r i n o (1976), the unemployed f a t h e r i n the home was b e l i e v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of c h i l d abuse. In h i s s t u d y , Z i e g l e r (1979) p o i n t e d out t h a t a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between a f a m i l y ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and the i n c i d e n c e of c h i l d abuse (p.186). An e a r l i e r s tudy by G i l (May 1969) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h l a r g e r numbers of c h i l d r e n were more l i k e l y t o engage i n c h i l d abuse. Low income and substandand h o u s i n g were found t o i n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e s and problems f o r p a r e n t s who were a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p r o v i d i n g c o n s i s t e n t c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Canadian C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , 1979:4). With b o t h e v i d e n c e and r e a s o n , P e l t o n (1981) c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n t r a r y t o the myth of c l a s s l e s s n e s s , the phenomenon of c h i l d abuse, i n terms of p r e v a l e n c e and of s e v e r i t y of consequence, i s s t r o n g l y and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o p o v e r t y . CRITIQUE The p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i o -economic models p r o v i d e v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the problems l e a d i n g t o the removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r n a t u r a l homes. The p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l model f o c u s e s m a i n l y on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s of the p e r p e t r a t o r s , and t r e a t s the d i s o r d e r s as b e i n g 1 3 l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r inadequate c h i l d c a r e . Even though i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s and mental problems p l a y a c r u c i a l and i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n f a m i l y breakdown, and i n p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e f o r c h i l d r e n , the s o l u t i o n of t h i s m e d i c a l a p p r o a c h , which i s t o p r o v i d e p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t and c o u n s e l l i n g , tends t o i g n o r e the e f f e c t s of the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic sytems. W i t h an u n i c a u s a l model, p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i s t s c o u l d o n l y p r o v i d e p s y c h o l o g i c a l answers t o complex s o c i a l phenomena. They were not a b l e t o d e v e l o p comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and t h u s , t h e s o l u t i o n s t o , those problems which had r e s u l t e d from i n e q u a l i t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The e c o l o g i c a l model p r o v i d e s a comprehensive and s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of the phenomenon o f , and the reasons f o r , m a l a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n a c e r t a i n environment. T h i s model's emphasis i s on the m a i n t a i n e n c e of the e q u i l i b r i u m of the system. I t p l a c e s the onus on the i n d i v i d u a l s t o adapt, r a t h e r than t o d i s r u p t the system. I t does not a d v o c a t e f o r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d nor does i t h e l p them t o seek t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and r i g h t s . T h i s model has a tendency t o blame v i c t i m s f o r t h e i r i n a b i l i t i e s t o adapt, and does not q u e s t i o n t h e s o u r c e s of the i n b a l a n c e of power, as the s o c i o - e c o n o m i s t s do i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c h i l d abuse. In a s i t u a t i o n of i r r e s o l v a b l e i d e o l g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n between two groups or c l a s s e s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the e c o l o g i c a l model w i l l be u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o m i n o r i t i e s , because they have no d e s i r e t o d i s r u p t the 1 4 e q u i l i b r i u m , f o r the sake of p r o t e c t i n g the r i g h t s of a s m a l l group. 6 The c u l t u r a l model f o c u s e s on the v a l u e s and the t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between dominant and m i n o r i t y groups. I t tends t o l e a d p r i m a r i l y t o s o l u t i o n s which have been d e s i g n e d t o a s s i m i l a t e m i n o r i t y groups i n t o the mainstream. The m i n o r i t i e s ' r i g h t s t o p r e s e r v e and t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r c u l t u r e s have not been r e s p e c t e d and o b s e r v e d . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s model r e i n f o r c e s the d o m i n a t i o n of v a l u e s of the mainstream c u l t u r e over the v a l u e s of the s u b o r d i n a t e c u l t u r e . The soc i o - e c o n o m i c model i d e n t i f i e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between f a m i l y problems, such as abuse, n e g l e c t , and c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n , and low f a m i l y s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have shown t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h low soc i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y more v u l n e r a b l e t o f a m i l y problems, however, i t does not e x p l a i n why the same problems e x i s t i n f a m i l i e s of h i g h e r s ocio-economic c l a s s e s . ALTERNATIVE FRAMEWORK The problems p r e s e n t e d by the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the f o u r models i n d i c a t e a need t o seek an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o study the phenomenon of e n f o r c e d c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n . In s t u d y i n g the phenomenon of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s one common denominator i n a l l c a s e s , r e g a r d l e s s of the t h e o r e t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . That i s , i n a l l of these f a m i l i e s , the c h i l d r e n a r e appeared t o be a t r i s k . T h i s phenomenon, i n the eyes of s o c i e t y , i s u n d e s i r a b l e , and 15 c o n s e q u e n t l y the c h i l d r e n have t o be removed. By c o n v e n t i o n , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t s o c i e t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n who a r e deemed t o be i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . The problems l e a d i n g t o the e n f o r c e d p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n can be a r e s u l t of numerous f a c t o r s . These may i n c l u d e the p a r e n t ' s p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ; f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n and anomie among f a m i l y members, due t o c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t ; the m a l a d a p t a t i o n of the p a r e n t s i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n ; the a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by the heads of households i n d e p r i v e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s ; or i t can be a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e f a c t o r s . In s h o r t , the d i r e c t cause of the removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r n a t u r a l homes i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l . There i s no one cause f o r the a p p r e h e n s i o n of c h i l d r e n . C h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n must be r e g a r d e d as a complex s o c i a l phenomenon. C o n t r a r y t o the s t u d y of n a t u r a l phenomena, s o c i a l phenomena do not always occur i n a l i n e a r c a u s a l d i m e n s i o n , which can be reduced to a s i m p l e c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . 7 As s u g g e s t e d by G i l (1975), the f a l l a c i o u s tendency of i n t e r p r e t i n g the dynamics of c h i l d abuse a l o n g s i n g l e c a u s a l d i m e n s i o n s such as b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic, s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . T h e r e f o r e , a d i s t i n c t i o n s h o u l d be made between the l e v e l s a t which the problems o c c u r , and the f o r c e s u n d e r l y i n g the o c c u r r a n c e . In the case of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n , the l e v e l of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p breakdown s h o u l d be t r e a t e d 16 s e p a r a t e l y from the f o r c e s which d r i v e the p e r p e t r a t o r s t o m i s t r e a t the c h i l d r e n . These l e v e l s of m a n i f e s t a t i o n a r e the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s or s e t t i n g s i n which t h e s e problems emerged. The c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h i s study chooses t o i n v e s t i g a t e a r e the s o c i a l and the economic, which a r e b e l i e v e d t o be i n s e p a r a b l e from the s e t t i n g s i n which the phenomena of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n o c c u r r e d . The phenomenon of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n i s u n i v e r s a l t o f a m i l i e s of a l l c l a s s e s , but f a m i l i e s of low s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s are b e l i e v e d to-be more v u l n e r a b l e t o the temporary and permanent removal of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t u d y t a k e s up the p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c model - the a p p r e h e n s i o n of the c h i l d r e n i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e r e a r e two major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the phenomenon and outcome of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n . F i r s t l y , a l t h o u g h t h i s study r e c o n g n i z e s t h a t the impacts of the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s on the f a m i l i e s a r e c r u c i a l , t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e a c c e p t e d o n l y as the l e v e l s a t which the problems l e a d i n g t o the p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n m a n i f e s t . They are not the d i r e c t causes of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s removal. S e c o n d l y , as d i f f e r e n t t o the s o c i o -economic model, the s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s are t r e a t e d as i m p o r t a n t as the economic v a r i a b l e s . In t h i s s t u d y , the s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s , such as F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y , A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h , and L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the S o c i a l -Economic Index. 1 7 CHAPTER I I I SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS In any g i v e n s o c i e t y , people must produce i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e . They t r a n s f o r m t h e i r a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i n t o i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i o n , and c r e a t e c a p a c i t i e s t o produce t h e i r own means of s u b s i s t a n c e . In a s o c i e t y dominated by the market economy, such as Canada, the v a l u e s of p r o d u c t s a r e de t e r m i n e d by the demands of the market p l a c e . L a b o r e r s who have no ma r k e t a b l e s k i l l s must s e l l t h e i r raw p h y s i c a l t a l e n t s f o r the exchange of wages, which they depend upon f o r t h e i r d a i l y l i v i n g . Businessmen i n v e s t c a p i t a l i n t o t he economy so t h a t p r o f i t may a c c r u e . The s u c c e s s of the investment i s dete r m i n e d by the amount of p r o f i t r e t u r n e d . In t h i s c a p i t a l i s t economic system, the mode of p r o d u c t i o n d e t e r m i n e s not o n l y the n a t u r e of economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s c l a s s e s , i t a l s o d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , the s o c i a l s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l s . S o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g p e o p l e tend t o i n t e r p o s e upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t o a f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f , and a c t i o n s i n , the w o r l d . From the b a s i s of t h e i r economic c o n d i t i o n s , p e o p l e e n t e r i n t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r . The l i v e s of p e o p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o Marx, are an " e x p r e s s i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e " (Marx 1969:138). Thus, peop l e a r e economic, as w e l l as s o c i a l b e i n g s . Other than the n a t u r a l or i n n a t e needs, such as f o o d , s h e l t e r , and sex, p e o p l e a l s o have a m u l t i p l i c i t y of 18 needs, i n c l u d i n g the needs f o r c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , l o v e , or knowledge ( A l b e r t & Hahnel 1978:95). The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h e s e needs, both n a t u r a l and s o c i a l , a r e shaped by the economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e , and by the economic c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s . In western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , p e o p l e w i t h d i f f e r e n t a f f i l i a t i o n s of c l a s s , r e l i g i o n , and e t h n i c i t y , te n d t o have v a r i o u s degree of o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n meeting t h e i r needs. F o r p e o p l e of low s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o f u l f i l l t h e i r needs a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y lower than among peopl e i n more advantageous p o s i t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups a r e q u a n t i t a t i v e as w e l l as q u a l i t a t i v e . In c a s e s of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n , the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s a re dynamic and c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . Some s t u d i e s (Young 1964, Nurse 1964) showed t h a t the major f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r b e h a v i o r s were s o c i a l and economic s t r e s s , l a c k of immediate support from extended f a m i l i e s , s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , h i g h m o b i l i t y and unemployment . A Vancouver s t u d y (Amacher & M a i r 1979) showed t h a t many N a t i v e f a m i l i e s tended t o be poor, unemployed, on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , and l i v i n g i n su b s t a n d a r d accommodation. The q u a l i t i e s of l i f e f o r many of th e s e f a m i l i e s were worse than f o r average Canadian f a m i l i e s . Thus the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the s e f a m i l i e s t o f u l f i l l t h e i r needs were s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r . The lower q u a l i t y of l i f e appears t o have n o t i c e a b l e impact on the performance of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s . Thus, t h e 19 assumption can be made t h a t the changes of the s e c o n d i t i o n s , i n terms of the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s , s h o u l d have e f f e c t s on t h e i r b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . For these f a m i l i e s , the improvement of the c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d enable them t o f u l f i l l many of t h e i r u n s a t i s f i e d needs, and t o enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y of the r e t u r n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The n i n e i n d i c a t o r s s e l e c t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of t h e f a m i l i e s a r e : 1. Annual Income, 2. Source of Income, 3. O c c u p a t i o n of the Head of Household, 4. House Type, 5. D w e l l i n g A r e a , 6. L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n of the Head of the Household, 7. Length of Employment or Unemployment of the Head of the Household, 8. F a m i l y ' s A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h , and 9. F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . Each of these v a r i a b l e s d e p i c t a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t of the c o n d i t i o n s which a r e b e l i e v e d t o have i n f l u e n c e upon the f a m i l i e s ' ways of a c t i o n . One of the n i n e i n d i c a t o r s - the L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n - was used by H o l l i n g s h e a d and R e d l i c h (1958) i n t h e i r s tudy on S o c i a l C l a s s and M e t a l I l l n e s s . They d e v e l o p e d s c a l e s of measurement f o r a number of i n d i c a t o r s , and used them t o c o m p i l e an Index of S o c i a l P o s i t i o n t o e s t i m a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s i n the s t a t u s s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r c ommunities. An e a r l i e r study by Warner, Meeker and E e l l s (1949) used O c c u p a t i o n , Source of Income, House Type and D w e l l i n g Area as the f o u r s t a t u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an Index of S t a t u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which was i n t e n d e d t o a s s i g n i n d i v i d u a l s 20 and f a m i l i e s t o s o c i a l c l a s s e s . F a m i l y A s s o c i a t i o n ( f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l ) and F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y were two of the v a r i a b l e s i n the Geismar-Ayres F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g S c a l e (Geismar & Ayres 1965). As w e l l as these seven v a r i a b l e s a r e the F a m i l y ' s L e v e l of Annual Income and the Length of Employment of the Head of Household. These two v a r i a b l e s a r e i n c l u d e d because they a r e b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s , and t o have e f f e c t s on the f a m i l i e s ' way of t r e a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The d e f i n i t i o n s of each of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d the d e f i n i t i o n s from the s o u r c e s of t h e i r o r i g i n s . Some minor r e v i s i o n s were made t o s u i t the purpose and the use f o r t h i s s t u d y . The d e f i n i t i o n s of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the Length of Employment and Annual Income v a r i a b l e s were c r e a t e d and d e s i g n e d o n l y f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t ( f o r d e t a i l s of the d e f i n i t i o n s of the l e v e l s of each v a r i a b l e , see Appendix I I ) . 21 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN  HISTORICAL AND THEORECTICAL BACKGROUND Research i n s o c i a l work, as compared t o s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e i s a r e l a t i v e l y new d i s c i p l i n e . 8 But s i m i l a r t o t h e s e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h has c r e a t e d i t s own unique approaches a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of development. The t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of t h e s e approaches a r e de t e r m i n e d by the paradigms adopted by the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . 9 E a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h was dominated by t h e s o c i a l s u r v e y movement. The 1930s was an e r a r e p r e s e n t e d by the p r o b l e m - c e n t e r e d approach. In the 1960s, a l o n g w i t h the r i s e of f u n c t i o n a l i s m i n American s o c i o l o g y and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , the normative approach began t o f l o u r i s h i n s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h . C o n t r a r y t o the c o n s e r v a t i s m of the f u n c t i o n a l i s t s , t he new l e f t movement of the l a t e 1960's brought new i d e a s i n t o s o c i a l work. As observed by Geismar and Wood (1982), s t u d i e s i n the l a t e 1960s were h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d toward u n c o v e r i n g f l a w s i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l systems and i n the p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t i n g the l i v e s of c l i e n t s . I t i s w i t h The New L e f t t r a d i t i o n 1 0 t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s cond u c t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the aim of t h i s s t u d y i s t o g i v e a c r i t i c a l assessment of the s o c i a l r e a l i t y as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n , 1 1 of the outcome of e n f o r c e d c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n . 22 PURPOSE OF EMPIRICAL STUDY The purpose of c o n d u c t i n g an e m p i r i c a l study i s t o i d e n t i f y the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s , and t o e x p l o r e the a s s o c i a t i o n between the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the changes of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e w i l l be examined. METHODOLOGY T h i s study u t i l i z e d an e x p l o r a t o r y - d e s c r i p t i v e method ( T r i p o d i , F e l l i n , and Meyer 1969:25-26) w i t h an ex p o s t f a c t o d e s i g n . A r e t r o s p e c t i v e l o o k was n e c e s s i t a t e d by the l i m i t a t i o n of t i m e . I t d i d not seem to be f e a s i b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o f o l l o w the development and outcomes of c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s . Some permanent c u s t o d y c a s e s took one t o two y e a r s b e f o r e a f i n a l c o u r t o r d e r was o b t a i n e d . As an e x p l o r a t o r y - d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y , the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s tudy i s t o r e f i n e and d e v e l o p c o n c e p t s and hypotheses i n c a s e s of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n . T h i s study p r o v i d e s both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n phenomena. These i n c l u d e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s , and of the i n f l u e n c e s of the q u a l i t a t i v e changes of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s upon the r e v i s i o n of the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . As s t a t e d i n Chapter I I , s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a re 23 seen as the l e v e l of m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the problems l e a d i n g t o the a p p r e h e n s i o n of c h i l d r e n . These c o n d i t i o n s a re not the d i r e c t causes of the removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES In t h i s s t u d y , the s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n ( L . S . ) , the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n (S.E.S.T1), and a t the time of the f i r s t change or e x t e n s i o n of the l e g a l s t a t u s a f t e r the temporary c u s t o d y o r d e r e x p i r e d (S.E.S.T2).The n i n e s o c i a l -economic v a r i a b l e s a re : the F a m i l y ' s Annual Income, Sources of Income, O c c u p a t i o n , House Type, D w e l l i n g A r e a , E d u c a t i o n , Length of Employment, F a m i l y A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h , and F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . The g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among the s e v a r i a b l e s . F i g u r e I PATH DIAGRAM OF CHILD IN CARE CASES S.E.S.T1 >S.E.S.T2 I > L . S . < 1 The S.E.S.T1 i s the independent v a r i a b l e and the L.S. i s the dependent v a r i a b l e . The S.E.S.T2 i n r e l a t i o n t o the S.E.S.T1 i s the dependent v a r i a b l e s , but i t i s the independent v a r i a b l e s of L.S.. 24 Other than the independent v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e s , a number of d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e and of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The p r o f i l e s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n c l u d e d t h e i r age, sex, r a c i a l o r i g i n , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , I n d i a n S t a t u s , date of l a s t a d m i s s i o n , date of the l a s t change or the l a s t e x t e n s i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s , the a d m i t t i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g R e g i o n s , and the reasons f o r a d m i s s i o n . The p r o f i l e s of the f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e d the heads of the h o u s e h o l d s , t h e i r age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and r a c i a l o r i g i n , the numbers of c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g w i t h the f a m i l i e s a t the time of a d m i s s i o n and a t the time of the c h i l d ' s l a s t change or e x t e n s i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s , and the f a m i l i e s ' l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n the Region b e f o r e the-c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e . SAMPLING A c o m b i n a t i o n of p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s t r a t i f i e d sample method ( M a t y n t z , e t a l 1976:77) and p u r p o s i v e sample method were adopted i n t h i s s t u d y . The p r o p o r t i o n a l s t r a t i f i e d sample method was used i n d e t e r m i n i n g the number of ca s e s s e l e c t e d from the two Regions, and the number of l e g a l s t a t u s c ases was p u r p o s e f u l l y s e t a t twenty f o r each of the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s g r o u p s . A t o t a l of s i x t y c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s were chosen from Regions 1 and 15 of the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia. The M i n i s t r y of Human Resources i s d i v i d e d i n t o twenty 25 R e g i o n s . F i v e of these Regions a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g both s o c i a l and Income A s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and programs t o the p e o p l e of Vancouver. Region 1 c o v e r s the a r e a of E a s t Vancouver which i s bounded by B u r r a r d I n l e t , Boundary Road, C l a r k D r i v e , Broadway and the B u r l i n g t o n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y . Region 15 i s the Downtown and S t r a t h c o n a a r e a and i s bounded by B u r r a r d I n l e t , Hornby S t r e e t , F a l s e Creek, G r e a t N o r t h e r n Way and C l a r k D r i v e . The sample p o p u l a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o 60 c a s e s , because of the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l w o rkers' time f o r the i n t e r v i e w s . The numbers of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n Region 1 was t h r e e times more than i n Region 15. T h e r e f o r e , the r a t i o of c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s s e l e c t e d was kept a t the r a t i o of t h r e e t o one i n f a v o r of Region 1. 1 2 Out of s i x t y c a s e s , f o u r t y - t w o c a s e s were from Region 1, and e i g h t e e n were from Region 15. In o r d e r t o p r e v e n t c o l l e c t i n g i d e n t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s , f o r s i b l i n g i n c a r e groups, the o l d e s t c h i l d of the s i b l i n g s was p i c k e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h i s d e s i g n e n s u r e d s e c u r i t y of broader and g r e a t e r v a r i e t i e s of f a m i l i y background. Other than d i v i d i n g the cases by R e g i o n s , the s e l e c t e d samples were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t l e g a l s t a t u s groups. There were t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of l e g a l s t a t u s changes f o r the c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s . These t h r e e groups were : 1. c h i l d r e n who were i n temporary c u s t o d y and who become permanent wards, 2. c h i l d r e n who were i n temporary c u s t o d y and who had 26 t h e i r l e g a l s t a t u s extended, 3. c h i l d r e n who were i n temporary c u s t o d y and who were d i s c h a r g e d . The sample d e s i g n a l l o w e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e v e l o p c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e g a l s t a t u s groups of the f a m i l i e s . Based on the sample c r i t e r i a , the c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n : L e g a l S t a t u s Groups REGION 1 REGION 15 Gp. 1 Temporary t o Permanent 14 6 Gp. 2 Temporary Extended 14 6 Gp. 3 Temporary t o D i s c h a r g e d 14 6 TOTAL 42 18 The 60 c a s e s were s e l e c t e d r e t r o a c t i v e l y . The ca s e s which were most r e c e n t and met the sa m p l i n g c r i t e r i a were used i n t h i s s t u d y . METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e s o c i a l workers i n charge of the c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s . The F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t o r s of Regions 1 and 15 of the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources s e l e c t e d the 60 c a s e s , and i d e n t i f i e d the names of the s o c i a l workers through c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s . The C o o r d i n a t o r s i n f o r m e d the s o c i a l workers t h a t t h e i r c a s e s had been chosen f o r the s t u d y , and t h a t they would 27 be i n t e r v i e w e d . A t o t a l of 27 s o c i a l workers from the two Regions were n o t i f i e d about t h i s s t u d y . C o p i e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Appendix I I ) and the I n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r (Appendix I ) were forwarded t o them through the C o o r d i n a t o r s * o f f i c e s a t l e a s t one week p r i o r t o the i n t e r v i e w . T h i s was i n t e n d e d t o g i v e the s o c i a l workers ample time t o p r e p a r e themselves and t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n t e r v i e w . A l i s t of names was p r o v i d e d by the C o o r d i n a t o r s and the s o c i a l workers were c o n t a c t e d by phone t o a r r a n g e i n t e r v i e w s . Of the 27 s o c i a l workers c o n t a c t e d , a l l were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y , and t h e i r c o n s e n t s were sought (Appendix I V ) . A l l of the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n the s o c i a l worker's o f f i c e s . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , the s o c i a l workers were asked the same q u e s t i o n s as th o s e t h a t appeared on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I f they e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the q u e s t i o n s or d e f i n i t i o n s of the l e v e l s of the v a r i a b l e s , e x p l a n a t i o n s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n s were p r o v i d e d t o them. None of the answers p r o v i d e d by the s o c i a l workers were g i v e n i n an ambigious or c o n f u s i n g manner. A l l the responses p r o v i d e d by the s o c i a l workers were r e c o r d e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r on a p r e p a r e d d a t a -r e c o r d i n g sheet (Appendix I I I ) . PRELIMINARY TESTING A p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t was c o n d u c t e d i n J a n u a r y , 1982 t o determine the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and e s p e c i a l l y the d e f i n i t i o n s of the seven l e v e l s of the n i n e 28 s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . The method of da t a c o l l e c t i o n f o l l o w e d the same pr o c e d u r e s as i n the a c t u a l s t u d y . A t o t a l of s i x c a s e s were used, w i t h two from each l e g a l s t a t u s group. F i v e s o c i a l workers from f o u r d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . Other than the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the s o c i a l workers were asked t o comment on the programme d e s i g n and d e f i n i t i o n s . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g the r e s p o n s e s , one minor change was made i n a d e f i n i t i o n . The remainder of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the method of the data c o l l e c t i o n were s t a t i c . METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS A l l of the responses g i v e n i n the i n t e r v i e w s were coded on the d a t a - r e c o r d i n g s h e e t s , and were e n t e r e d i n t o the d a t a f i l e s t o r e d on magnetic d i s c . A l l da t a a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g u n i v a r i a t e s , b i - v a r i a t e s , and m u l t i - v a r i a t e s , were done i n the S t a t i s t i c a l Package For the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) programs ( N i e , et a l 1975, and K i t a 1980). For each of the n i n e v a r i a b l e s t h e r e were seven c a t e g o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s . The seven c a t o g o r i e s were p l a c e d i n an order of from low t o h i g h or from poor t o good. In acco r d a n c e w i t h the o r d e r of the c a t e g o r i e s , a v a l u e s c a l e of 1 t o 7 was a s s i g n e d t o the s o c i a l -economic v a r i a b l e s . For example, i n the v a r i a b l e of L e v e l of Annual Income, a v a l u e number of 1 was a s s i g n e d t o lower p o v e r t y c l a s s , and a 7 t o upper c l a s s . In t h i s c a s e , the c a t e g o r i c a l s c a l e was c o n v e r t e d i n t o an i n t e r v a l s c a l e . L e g a l s t a t u s per se was a nominal v a r i a b l e , but the s u b j e c t 29 of t h i s study was not o n l y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the l e g a l s t a t u s of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e and the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s study a l s o f o c u s s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the changes of the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s and the changes of the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s . Among the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups, the second l e g a l s t a t u s group - Temporary Order Extended - was seen as no change i n l e g a l s t a t u s u n i t , t h u s , a v a l u e of "0" was g i v e n . The f i r s t l e g a l s t a t u s group - Temporary t o Permanent - had r e g r e s s e d one l e g a l s t a t u s u n i t , so t h a t a v a l u e of was a s s i g n e d . The d i s c h a r g e d group, which , when compared w i t h the temporary o r d e r e x t e n s i o n group, had moved up one l e g a l s t a t u s u n i t , t h e r e f o r e , a v a l u e of "1" was g i v e n . In o r d e r t o s i m p l i f y the u n i t of measurement and t o a v o i d u s i n g n e g a t i v e v a l u e , a l l of the l e g a l s t a t u s u n i t s were g i v e n an a d d i t i o n a l v a l u e of "2". The r e s u l t of t h i s a d d i t i o n brought the v a l u e of temporary t o permanent group from t o " 1 " , the temporary e x t e n s i o n group grom "0" t o "2", and the d i s c h a r g e d group from "1" t o "3". S i n c e a l l of the l e g a l s t a t u s u n i t s had n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s , the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e was t r e a t e d as i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e . There were t h r e e main p a r t s of the d a t a a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t p a r t was d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e , as was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d . T h i s p a r t p r o v i d e d background i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The second p a r t c o m p r ised a p r o f i l e of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s a t the time of the 30 c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n s , or a t the time of the f i r s t l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . Other than the q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups was con d u c t e d . In the l a s t p a r t , the Pearson's c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was used t o examine the a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h between the s o c i a l -economic v a r i a b l e s and the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n , the s c a l e s of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s were used t o c o m p i l e an Index of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s , so t h a t the c o m p a r a t i v e p o s i t o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s c o u l d be known. F u r t h e r m o r e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a m i l i e s ' S o c i a l -Economic P o s i t i o n and the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were i n v e s t i g a t e d and e x p l o r e d . MISSING DATA The u n a v a i l a b l e d a t a on any s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d on the base of the v a l u e s of the o t h e r s o c i a l -economic v a r i a b l e s from the same c a s e . The method of c a l c u l a t i o n was as f o l l o w s : A l l of the t o t a l s c o r e s on s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o the p e r c e n t a g e of the maximum t o t a l . I n o b t a i n i n g the p e r c e n t a g e of maximum, the t o a t a l was c a l c u l a t e d as a pe r c e n t a g e of maximum p o s s i b l e t o t a l . i e a d j u s t e d t o t a l becomes : ADJUSTED TOTAL SCORE FOR ALL KNOWN VARIALBES TOTAL = POSSIBLE MAXIMUM TOTAL FOR THE KNOWN VARIABLES 32 CHAPTER V PROFILES OF THE CHILDREN IN CARE AND THEIR FAMILIES P a r t of the f u n c t i o n of a d e s c r i p t i v e - e x p l o r a t o r y study i s t o d e v e l o p q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the phenomena under s t u d y . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of c h i l d a p p r e h e n s i o n . These i n c l u d e the time and p l a c e a t which the phenomena of p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d . In a d d i t i o n , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c h i l d r e n and the f a m i l i e s , and the c o m p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l i e s were a l s o p r o v i d e d . REGION Seventy p e r c e n t , or 42, of the 60 c h i l d r e n i n c a r e c a s e s were s e l e c t e d from Region 1, and the r e m a i n i n g 30% (18) were c l i e n t s of Region 15. Region (N) % 1 (42) 70 1 5 (18) 30 T o t a l (60) 1 00 ADMITTING REGIONS Wit h the e x c e p t i o n of one c a s e , a l l of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were a d m i t t e d i n the Region i n which the c a s e s were s e l e c t e d . 68.3% (41) of the c h i l d r e n under temporary c u s t o d y were a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e i n Region 1, as compared t o 31.7% (19) i n Region 15. 33 SUPERVISING REGIONS Of the 60 c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s , 66.7% (40) of them were T a b l e 2. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by Regions of A d m i s s i o n . Region (N) % 1 (41) 68.3 15 (19) 31.7 T o t a l (60) 100.0 under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Region 1, 30.0% (18) by Region 15, and T a b l e 3. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by Regions of S u p e r v i s i o n . Region (N) 1 (40) 66.7 9 ( 1 ) 1.7 15 (18) 30.0 16 ( 1 ) 1.7 T o t a l (60) 100.0 the r e m a i n i n g 3.4% (2) were s u p e r v i s e d by Regions 9 and 16. LEGAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN CARE The s e l e c t i o n of the 60 temporary c u s t o d y c a s e s was based on the c r i t e r i a of l e g a l s t a t u s changes. In t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e groups of 20 cases were chosen. T h i r t y - t h r e e and o n e - t h i r d p e r c e n t (20) of the c h i l d r e n were d i s c h a r g e d from temporary c a r e and were r e t u r n e d home (group 3 ) . Another 33.3% (20) of them had t h e i r temporary o r d e r extended ( g r o u p 2 ) , and the s t a t u s of the r e m a i n i n g 33.3% (20) were r e v i s e d , and they had become permanent 34 wards (group 1 ) . TIME OF ADMISSION T a b l e 4. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by L e g a l S t a t u s . L e g a l S t a t u s (N) % D i s c h a r g e from temporary c u s t o d y (20) 33.3 Temporary c u s t o d y extended (20) 33.3 Temporary c u s t o d y t o permanent (20) 33.3 T o t a l (60) 100.0 E i g h t and t h r e e - t e n t h p e r c e n t (5) of the c h i l d r e n were apprehended b e f o r e 1980, and 11.7% (7) of them were taken i n t o c a r e between January and June of 1980. Another 33.3% (20) were T a b l e 5. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by Time of A d m i s s i o n . Time (N) % B e f o r e 1980 ( 5) 8.3 J a n . t o June 80 ( 7) 11.7 J u l y t o Dec. 80 (20) 33.3 J a n . t o June 81 (22) 36.7 J u l y t o Dec. 81 ( 6) 10.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 a d m i t t e d between J u l y and December of 1980, 36.7% (22) of the c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d between January and June of 1981, and o n l y 10% (6) were apprehended i n the l a s t s i x months of 1981. TIME OF LEGAL STATUS REVISION Only one and s e v e n - t e n t h p e r c e n t (1) of the temporary c a s e s under study was r e v i s e d between January and June of 1980. F i v e p e r c e n t (3) of the c h i l i d r e n ' s temporary o r d e r were r e c o n s i d e r e d 35 between J u l y and December 1980, and 15% (9) of the them had t h e i r s t a t u s r e v i s e d between January and June 1981. The m a j o r i t y T a ble 6. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . Time (N) % J a n . t o June 80 ( 1) 1 .7 J u l y t o Dec. 80 ( 3) 5.0 J a n . t o June 81 ( 9) 15.0 J u l y t o Dec. 81 (35) 58.3 J a n . t o March 82 (12) 20.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 of them, 58.3% (35) of the c h i l d r e n ' s temporary w a r d s h i p s were r e v i s e d between J u l y and December of 1981, and the r e m a i n i n g 20% (12) of the case were reexamined i n the f i r s t f o u r months of 1982. I n the c u s t o d y h e a r i n g s , the o r d e r s were e i t h e r changed or e xtended. PROFILES OF CHILDREN IN CARE SAMPLE In t h i s s e c t i o n , the c h i l d r e n ' s age, sex, r a c i a l o r i g i n , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , I n d i a n S t a t u s , and r e a s o n s f o r a d m i s s i o n were p r e s e n t e d . 1 . Age The mean age of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n t h i s sample was 9 y e a r s . Most of them, 51.7% ( 3 1 ) , were under t e n y e a r s o l d , and 48.3% (29) were e l e v e n or o l d e r . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e age group was f i f t e e n y e a r s o l d , which c o m p r i s e d 26.7% (16) of a l l the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . The second l a r g e s t group was one y e a r or under, which was 15% (9) of a l l of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . The s m a l l e s t age groups were the f o u r and f i v e y e a r o l d , w i t h each 36 c o n s t i t u t i n g 1.7% ( l ) of the s e l e c t e d c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s . When the ages of the c h i l d r e n were lumped i n t o t h r e e groups, 31.7% of T a b l e 7. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Age. Age (N) % Age (N) % 1 & under ( 9) 15.0 1 1 ( 2) 3.3 2 ( 5) 8.3 12 ( 3) 5.0 3 ( 3) 5.0 13 ( 3) 5.0 4 ( 1) 1 .7 1 4 ( 3) 5.0 5 ( 1) 1 .7 1 5 (16) 26.7 7 ( 6) 10.0 1 6 ( 2) 3.3 8 ( 4) 6.7 9 ( 2) 3.3 T o t a l (60) 1 00.0 Mean = 9 .00 S.D. = = 5.569 them were under s i x y e a r s , 28.3% were between seven and e l e v e n , and the r e m a i n i n g 40% were between the age of t h i r t e e n and s i x t e e n . 2. SEX T a b l e 8. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by Sex. Sex (N) % Male (33) 55.0 Female (27) 45.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (33) of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were boys, and the o t h e r 45% (27) were g i r l s . 3. RACIAL ORIGINS C a u c a s i a n c o n s t i t u t e d the s i n g l e l a r g e s t r a c i a l group, which had 43.3% (26) of the c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s . The N a t i v e I n d i a n was the second most numerous group, t h e r e b e i n g seventeen N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , or 28.3% of a l l of the s e l e c t e d c h i l d i n c a r e 37 c a s e s . Ten p e r c e n t (6) of the c h i l d r e n were of A s i a t i c e x t r a c t i o n . Negro and M e t i s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 3.3% (2) and 1.7% T a b l e 9. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by R a c i a l O r i g i n . R a c i a l O r i g i n (N) % C a u c a s i a n (26) 43.3 N a t i v e (17) 28.3 A s i a t i c ( 6) 10.0 M e t i s ( 1 ) 1.7 Negro ( 2 ) 3.3 Mixed O r i g i n s ( 8) 13.3 T o t a l (60) 100.0 (1) r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e m a i n i n g 13.3% (8) were of mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n s . 4. RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION For those c h i l d r e n who were i n c a r e , o n l y a m i n o r i t y , 36.7% or 22, were known t o p r a c t i c e r e l i g i o n . Among them, 11.7% (7) T a b l e 10. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n by R e l i q i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n . % R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n (N) P r o t e s t a n t ( 7) 1 1 .7 C a t h o l i c (11) 18 .3 Other A f f i l i a t i o n ( 4) 6 .7 No R e l i g i o n (26) . 43 .3 Not Known (12) 20 .0 T o t a l (60) 100 .0 were P r o t e s t a n t s , 18.3% (11) were C a t h o l i c s , and 6.7% (4) were B u d d h i s t or Muslems. The l a r g e s t group, 43.3% ( 2 6 ) , had no a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h any r e l i g i o n . The r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y of the r e m a i n i n g 21.7% (13) was unknown. 38 5. INDIAN STATUS A l t h o u g h N a t i v e c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d 28.3% (17) of c h i l d i n c a r e c a s e s , 64.7% (11) of them were known t o have I n d i a n S t a t u s . The o t h e r 29.4% (5) of the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n had no I n d i a n S t a t u s , and the S t a t u s of one of the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , or 5.9%, was not known. Tab l e 11. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n  by I n d i a n S t a t u s . I n d i a n S t a t u s (N) % Have S t a t u s (11) 64.7 Have No S t a t u s ( 5) 29.4 Not Known ( 1) 5.9 T o t a l (17) 100.0 6. REASONS FOR ADMISSION The reasons f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n were numerous. Some of them had a number of reasons f o r b e i n g a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e . From the i n t e r v i e w s , the number of reasons g i v e n by the s o c i a l workers per case ranged from one t o t h r e e . Of the 60 c a s e s , a t o t a l of 97 reasons were g i v e n . The one which was most f r e q u e n t l y used was p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e , 29.9% (29) of the c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e were b e l i e v e d t o have s u f f e r e d from the f a i l u r e of t h e i r p a r e n t s t o c a r e f o r them. The second most used reason f o r a p p r e h e n s i o n was n e g l e c t , which r e p r e s e n t e d 19.59% ( 1 9 ) . D e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r c o n s t i t u t e d 11.34% ( 1 1 ) , e m o t i o n a l abuse 7.22% ( 7 ) , d e s e r t i o n 6.19% ( 6 ) , p h y s i c a l abuse 5.15% ( 5 ) , and f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e 39 m e d i c a l c a r e was 3.09% ( 3 ) . Each of the f o l l o w i n g c l a i m s , p a r e n t a l mental i l l n e s s , p a r e n t a l p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , and s e x u a l T a b l e 12. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of the C h i l d r e n by Reasons of A d m i s s i o n . Reasons of A d m i s s i o n (N) % 1 . P h y s i c a l Abuse ( 5) 5. 1 5 2. D e s e r t i o n or Abandonment ( 6) 6. 19 3. E m o t i o n a l D i s t u r b a n c e ( 7) 7. 22 4. P a r e n t a l I l l n e s s , M e n t a l ( 2) 2. 06 5. P a r e n t a l I l l n e s s , P h y s c i a l ( 2) 2. 06 6. D e l i n q u e n t B e h a v i o r (11) 1 1 . 34 7. T r a n s i e n t ( 1) 1 . 03 8. Unmarried Mother ( 1) 1 . 03 9. P a r e n t a l F a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e M e d i c a l Care ( 3) 3. 09 10. P a r e n t a l F a i l u r e (29) 29. 90 1 1 . Lack of Housing ( 1) 1 . 03 12. S e x u a l Abuse by Neighbor ( 1) 1 . 03 13. E m o t i o n a l Abuse ( 7) 7. 22 14. N e g l e c t (19) 1 9 . 59 15. S e x u a l Abuse by P a r e n t ( 2) 2. 06 T o t a l (97) 100. 00 abuse by p a r e n t , c o n s i t i t u t e d 2.06 (2) of the reasons f o r a p p r e h e n s i o n . The r e m a i n i n g f o u r groups of 1.03% (1) were t r a n s i e n t , unmarried mother, l a c k of h o u s i n g , and s e x u a l abuse by n e i g h b o r . SUMMARY The age and sex of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by most of the c a t e g o r i e s . F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t were male, and 45% were female. As f o r t h e i r age, about 1/3 of them were under s i x y e a r s o l d , 1/3 between seven and t w e l v e , and 1/3 were between the age of t h i r t e e n and s i x t e e n . R e g a r d i n g r a c i a l o r i g i n s , the c o l o r r a c i a l groups were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d , the 40 m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n (56.7%) b e i n g non-white, and the l a r g e s t non-white group b e i n g the N a t i v e I n d i a n , which c o m p r i s e d 28.3% of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . C h i l d r e n w i t h I n d i a n S t a t u s r e p r e s e n t e d a v e r y s m a l l segment of the c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, but t h i s study found t h a t 18.3% (11) of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were b e l i e v e d t o have I n d i a n S t a t u s . Regarding the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , o n l y about 1/3 of them were known t o p r a c t i c e r e l i g i o n , and n e a r l y h a l f of them were known to have no a f f i l a t i o n w i t h any r e l i g i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the s o c i a l workers i n charge of the c a s e s , p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e was the most common reason f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n s . N e g l e c t and d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r were the second most common f a c t o r s . Abuse had been c o n s i d e r e d by many s o c i a l w o rkers as one of the major problems i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s , but i n t h i s s t u d y , p h y s i c a l , s e x u a l and e m o t i o n a l abuse o n l y c o n s t i t u t e d 14.43% of a l l the reasons g i v e n f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . B. PROFILE OF THE FAMILIES The f a m i l y p r o f i l e p r e s e n t e d here i n c l u d e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the heads of h o u s e h o l d s , the number of c h i l d r e n a t home a t the time of the a p p r e h e n s i o n , and a t the tim e of the l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . Other i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e the l e n g t h of the f a m i l i e s ' r e s i d e n c e i n the Region i n which the c h i l d r e n were taken i n t o c a r e . 41 1. HEAD OF THE HOUSEHOLD S i x t y - t h r e e and t h r e e - t e n t h p e r c e n t (28) of t h e Head of Households - the per s o n s who had the main so u r c e of income were the c h i l d r e n ' s b i o l o g i c a l mothers. Twenty-eight and t h r e e -T a b l e 13. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by the Heads of Households. % Head of Household (N) B i o l o g i c a l F a t h e r (17) 28.3 B i o l o g i c a l Mother (38) 63.3 B i o l o g i c a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ( 1) 1 .7 R e l a t i v e s ( 1) 1 .7 Other s ( 3) 5.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 t e n t h p e r c e n t (17) of them were the c h i l d r e n ' s b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r s . Both the b i o l o g i c a l g r a n d p a r e n t s and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s r e p r e s e n t e d 1.7% (1) of the f a m i l i e s ' bread w i n n e r s . F r i e n d s of the f a m i l y were c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t 5% (1) of the c h i l d ' s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . 2. AGE OF THE HEADS OF THE HOUSEHOLDS The average age of the heads of the households was t h i r t y -f o u r y e a r s . Among a l l of them, t h e r e was o n l y 1 t e e n a g e r . T h i r t y - t h r e e and t h r e e - t e n t h p e r c e n t (20) of the hou s e h o l d heads were between the age of twenty-one and t h i r t y . The l a r g e s t age group, 45% ( 2 7 ) , was between the age of t h i r t y - o n e and f o r t y . The group between the age of f o u r t y - o n e and f i f t y - o n e r e p r e s e n t e d 17.0% (10) of a l l of the hou s e h o l d heads. The f i f t y -one t o f i f t y - s i x y e a r group c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 3% (2) of a l l the ho u s e h o l d heads. 42 3. SEX OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS In an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y dominated by men, i t was Ta b l e 14. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households Age by Aqe. (N) % under 20 ( 1) 1 .7 21 t o 30 (20) 33.3 31 t o 40 (27) 45.0 41 t o 50 (10) 16.6 51 t o 56 ( 2) 3.4 T o t a l (60) 100.0 Mean = 34.0 i n t e r e s t i n g t o see t h a t the m a j o r i t y of heads of households of Ta b l e 15. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by Sex Sex (N) % Male (20) 33.3 Female (40) 66.7 T o t a l (60) 1 00.0 the f a m i l i e s of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were female. T w o - t h i r d of the ho u s e h o l d heads were women. T h i s meant t h a t i n eve r y t h r e e f a m i l i e s , two of them r e l i e d on the income of a female; whereas o n l y one i n eve r y t h r e e f a m i l i e s were r e l i e d on the income of a male. 4. MARITAL STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS Among a l l of the f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d , o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of the p a r e n t s (16.7% or 10) were m a r r i e d . T w e n t y - s i x and seven-t e n t h p e r c e n t (16) of the p a r e n t s were s i n g l e , 10.0% (6) were 43 s e p a r a t e d , 15.0% (9) were d i v o r c e d , and 1.7% (1) was a widow. About 1/3 of the household heads were known t o c o h a b i t w i t h a Ta b l e 16. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Heads of Households by M a r i t a l S t a t u s . M a r i t a l S t a t u s (N) % S i n g l e P a r e n t (16) 26.7 M a r r i e d (10) 16.7 Se p a r a t e d ( 6) 10.0 L i v i n g Together (18) 30.0 Widow or Widower ( 1 ) 1.7 D i v o r c e d ( 9) 15.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 l e g a l or common-law spouse. 5. RACIAL ORIGIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEADS The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r a c i a l o r i g i n s of heads of house h o l d s were s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . About Tab l e 17. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Heads of Households by R a c i a l O r i g i n s . R a c i a l O r i g i n s (N) % Ca u c a s i a n (29) 48.3 N a t i v e I n d i a n (21) 35.0 A s i a t i c ( 8) 13.3 B l a c k ( 1 ) 1.7 Mixed O r i g i n s ( 1 ) 1.7 T o t a l (60) 100.0 h a l f , 48.3% ( 2 9 ) , of the hou s e h o l d heads were C a u c a s i a n . As compared t o the r a c i a l o r i g i n s of the c h i l d r e n , a h i g h e r number of the p a r e n t s were b e l i e v e d t o be N a t i v e I n d i a n s . I n f a c t , more than 1/3 of the household heads were of N a t i v e I n d i a n e x t r a c t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , A s i a t i c s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 13.3% (8) of 44 the f a m i l y household heads, and the B l a c k and mixed o r i g i n s were i d e n t i c a l a t 1.7% ( 1 ) . 6. NUMBERS OF CHILDREN WITH THE FAMILIES AT THE TIME OF  ADMISSION L e s s than h a l f of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e were from s i n g l e c h i l d f a m i l i e s . I t meant t h a t i n 46.7% of the c a s e s , o n l y one T a b l e 18. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by C h i l d r e n a t the Time of A d m i s s i o n . Numbers of C h i l d r e n (N) % One c h i l d (28) 46.7 Two c h i l d r e n (14) 23.3 Three c h i l d r e n ( 7 ) 11.7 Four c h i l d r e n ( 8) 13.3 F i v e c h i l d r e n ( 3) 5.0 T o t a l (60) 100.0 Mean = 2.067 S.D. = 1.260 c h i l d was w i t h the f a m i l i y a t the time of the a p p r e h e n s i o n . At the time of a d m i s s i o n , a n o t h e r 23.3% (14) of the f a m i l i e s had two c h i l d r e n , 11.7% (7) had t h r e e , 13.3% (8) had f o u r , and 5.0% (3) had f i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h them. 7. NUMBER OF CHILDREN WITH THE FAMILIES AT THE TIME OF LEAGL  STATUS REVISION At the time of the temporary c u s t o d y o r d e r r e v i e w s , n e a r l y 2/3 of t h e s i x t y f a m i l i e s - 65% ( 3 9 ) , d i d not have any c h i l d r e n a t home. F i f t e e n p e r c e n t (9) of them had o n l y one c h i l d , 6.7% (4) had two, 10.0% (6) had t h r e e , and the remaing 3.3% (2) of the f a m i l i e s had f i v e c h i l d r e n a t home a t the time of the o r d e r r e v i s i o n . 45 8. LENGTH OF RESIDENCE The m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s ,53.3% (32) had l i v e d i n the Ta b l e 19. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by C h i l d r e n  a t the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . Numbers of C h i l d r e n (N) None (39) 65.0 One c h i l d ( 9) 15.0 Two c h i l d r e n ( 4) 6.7 Three c h i l d r e n ( 6) 10.0 Four c h i l d r n ( 2) 3.3 T o t a l (60) 100.0 Mean =0.717 S.D = 1.166 Regions i n which the c h i l d r e n were apprehended f o r a p e r i o d of Ta b l e 20. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s  by Length of R e s i d e n c e . Length of R e s i d e n c e (N) % Under 6 months ( 6) 10. 0 From 6 t o 12 months ( 4) 6. 7 From 1 t o 2 y e a r s (19) 31 . 6 From 3 t o 5 y e a r s (13) 21 . 7 From 6 t o 10 y e a r s ( 3) 5. 0 Over 10 y e a r s (10) 16. 7 Not Known ( 5) 8. 3 T o t a l (60) 100. 0 one t o f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e the c h i l d r e n were removed. Ten p e r c e n t (6) of the f a m i l i e s had r e s i d e d i n the a r e a s f o r l e s s than s i x months, 5% (3) of them from s i x t o ten y e a r s , and a n o t h e r 16.7% (10) of them had been i n the Region f o r over t e n y e a r s . The l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e of the r e m a i n i n g 8.3% (5) was not known. 46 SUMMARY OF FAMILY PROFILE As f o r the f a m i l i e s of the c h i l d r e n from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups, most of the heads of h o u s e h o l d (66.7%) were female. The age, between twenty and f o r t y y e a r s , c o m p r ised c l o s e t o e i g h t y p e r c e n t of the h o u s e h o l d heads t o t a l sample. Only a s m a l l m i n o r i t y - 16.7%, of the h o u s e h o l d heads were m a r r i e d . Of a l l of the f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d most of them were e i t h e r s i n g l e p a r e n t s or l i v i n g i n common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The l a r g e s t e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group among the the non-white was the N a t i v e I n d i a n s , who c o n s t i t u t e d 35.0% of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s . N e a r l y h a l f of the f a m i l i e s , 46.7%, had o n l y one c h i l d a t home a t the time of the a p p r e h e n s i o n , and n e a r l y h a l f of them had r e s i d e d i n the Regions f o r merely two y e a r s , or l e s s than two y e a r s , a t the time t h a t the c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e . 47 CHAPTER VI SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FAMILIES OF CHILDREN IN CARE The a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r s e r v e two o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i v e p r o f i l e s of the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e , and a t the time of the l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The second o b j e c t i v e i s t o compare and examine the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups. The f i r s t l e g a l s t a t u s group, as s t a t e d i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , was c l a s s i f i e d as the f a m i l i e s f o r whose c h i l d r e n permanent c u s t o d y o r d e r s were g i v e n . The second group was the temporary c u s t o d y e x t e n s i o n f a m i l i e s , and the t h i r d group was the f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d t o them. A. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FAMILIES AT APPREHENSION  1. LEVEL OF INCOME The m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s were from the lower p o v e r t y c l a s s . Lower-middle and middle c l a s s e s c o m p r i s e d o n l y 13.3% (8) of the " c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s " . As compared t o the group 1 (Temporary-Permanent) and group *> 2 f a m i l i e s (Temporary E x t e n d e d ) , the f a m i l i e s from group 3 (D i s c h a r g e d ) had fewer f a m i l i e s who were i n a s t a t e of p o v e r t y . The number of f a m i l i e s was 20% lower than the o t h e r two groups. In c o n t r a s t , There were more lower m i d d l e and mi d d l e c l a s s e s f a m i l i e s i n group 3, 20% (4) of the group 3 f a m i l i e s belonged t o 48 e i t h e r one of these c a t e g o r i e s , but i t was o n l y 5% (1) i n group 2 and 10% (2) i n group 1. Tab l e 21. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by L e v e l of Income. L e v e l of A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Income (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 L. P o v e r t y C I . (41) 68.3 (15) 75.0 (15) 75.0 (11) 55.0 2 P o v e r t y C l a s s ( 4) 6.7 ( 0) 0.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 3) 15.0 3 Lower C l a s s ( 7) 11.7 ( 3) 15.0 ( 3) 15.0 ( 1) 5.0 4 L. M i d d l e C I . ( 6) 10.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 4) 20,. 0 5 M i d d l e C l a s s ( 2) 3.3 ( 1) 5.0 ( 0) 0.0 ( 1) 5.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=1.733 Mean=1.650 Mean=1.500 Mean=2.050 S.D.=1.205 S.D.=1.226 S.D.=0.946 S.D.=1.375 2. SOURCES OF INCOME More than 2/3 of the f a m i l i e s (70.0%) r e l i e d on p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r income. Only 26.7% of the f a m i l i e s o b t a i n e d t h e i r income from wages or s a l a r i e s . In comparing the Sources of Income of the t h r e e l e g a l Income. L e v e l A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 of Income (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 2 P u b l i c Sources (42) 70. 0 (16) 80. 0 (15) 75. 0 (11) 55. 0 3 P r i v a t e So. ( 2) 3. 3 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 4 Wages (10) 16. 7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 5 S a l a r i e s ( 6) 10. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=2.667 Mean=2.500 Mean=2.500 Mean=3.000 S.D.=1.084 S.D.=1.051 S.D.=0.946 S.D.=1.214 s t a t u s g roups, group 1 had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s 80% (14) - o b t a i n i n g t h e i r income from p u b l i c s o u r c e s . The 49 p e r c e n t a g e was 55% f o r the group 3 f a m i l i e s . Wages and s a l a r i e s c o m p r i s e d 20% of the s o u r c e s of income f o r groups 1 and 2, w h i l e the f i g u r e was double a t 40% f o r group 3. 3. OCCUPATION OF THE HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS Les s than 1/4 of the h o u s e h o l d heads were e i t h e r s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s or p r o f e s s i o n a l s . U n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s c o n s t i t u t e d the l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l group among the f a m i l i e s , w i t h 33.3% ( 2 0 ) . Another 23.3% (14) of them were s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s . The r e m a i n i n g 20% (12) of the h o u s e h o l d heads had never been employed. T a b l e 23. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Houshold by O c c u p a t i o n . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 O c c u p a t i o n (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Never Employed (12) 20 .0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 5) 25.0 2 U n s k i l i e d (20) 33 .3 (10) 50. 0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 5) 25.0 3 S e m i - s k i l i e d (14) 23 .3 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 8) 40.0 ( 3) 15.0 4 S k i l l e d (13) 21 .7 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 7) 35.0 6 P r o f e s s i o n a l ( 1) 1 .7 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0.0 ( 0) 0.0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100.0 (20) 100.0 Mean =2.533 Mean=2.650 Mean=2.350 Mean=2.600 S.D. =1.142 S. D.=1.226 S .D.=0.988 S.D.=1.231 Group 3 had the l a r g e s t s k i l l e d l a b o r e r p o p u l a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , f a m i l i e s i n groups 2 and 3 headed the never employed and u n s k i l l e d c a t e g o r i e s . The l a r g e s t s e m i - s k i l l e d p o p u l a t i o n f e l l i n group 2, which c o m p r i s e d 40% (8) of a l l the f a m i l i e s i n t h i s l e g a l s t a t u s group. 50 4. TYPE OF HOUSING F o r t y p e r c e n t (24) of a l l of the houses i n which the f a m i l i e s l i v e d a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n . Another 1/4 were b e l i e v e d t o be e i t h e r average or good. Poor h o u s i n g amounted t o o n l y 16.7% (10 ) , and v e r y poor houses were 15% ( 9 ) . Tab l e 24. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Household by Type of Hou s i n g . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Type of Housing (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Very Poor ( 9) 15. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 2 Poor (10) 16. 7 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 3 F a i r (24) 40. 0 ( 7) 35. 0 (11) 55. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 4 Average (11) 18. 3 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 8) 40. 0 5 Good ( 4) 6. 7 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 Not Known ( 2) 3. 3 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 T o t a l (60)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=2.845 Mean=2.632 Mean=2.684 Mean=3.200 S.D.=1.342 S.D.=1.744 S.D.=1.146 S.D.=1.005 Average and good houses c o n s t i t u e d 45% (9) of a l l the houses of the group 3 f a m i l i e s , w h i l e the same type of houses composed o n l y 15% (3) of a l l of the houses i n both groups 1 and 2. F a m i l i e s i n group 1 a l s o had the h i g h e s t number of poor and ve r y poor houses - 45% ( 9 ) , as compared t o 25% (5) i n group 2, and 30% (6) i n group 3. The m a j o r i t y of the houses i n group 2, 55% (11) were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n f a i r c o n d i t i o n . 5. DWELLING AREAS H a l f of the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were of average s t a n d a r d . Among t h e s e f a m i l i e s , o n l y 1.7% (1) of them was b e l i e v e d t o l i v e i n an above average a r e a . The 51 r e m a i n i n g 35% (21) were r e s i d i n g e i t h e r i n low or v e r y low a r e a s . T a b l e 25. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by D w e l l i n g A r e a . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 D w e l l i n g Area (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Very Low (10) 16.7 ( 5) 25.0 ( 3) 15.0 ( 2) 10.0 2 Low (11) 18.3 ( 2) 10.0 ( 4) 20.0 ( 5) 25.0 3 Below Average ( 7) 11.7 ( 4) 20.0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 1) 5.0 4 Average (30) 50.0 ( 9) 45.0 (10) 50.0 (11) 55.0 5 Above Average ( 1 ) 1.7 ( 0 ) 0.0 ( 0 ) 0.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 Not Known ( 1 ) 1.7 ( 0 ) 0.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 ( 0 ) 0.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=3.0l7 Mean=2.850 Mean=3.000 Mean=3.200 S.D.=1.262 S.D.=1.268 S.D.=1.348 S.D.=1.196 With r e g a r d t o the d w e l l i n g a r e a , 25% (5) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s were i n the v e r y low c a t e g o r y , i n co m p a r i s o n , 15% of the group 2 f a m i l i e s and 10% of the group 3 f a m i l e s l i v e d i n a r e a which were c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y low. None of the f a m i l i e s from groups 1 and 2 r e s i d e d i n an above average a r e a , but 5% (1) of the group 3 f a m i l i e s was f o r t u n a t e enough t o l i v e i n such an a r e a . 6. LEVEL OF EDUCATION The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the h o u s e h o l d heads was g e n e r a l l y low. S e v e n t y - t h r e e and t h r e e - t e n t h p e r c e n t (44) of them d i d not gradu a t e from h i g h s c h o o l , 3.3% (2) d i d not have any f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . Among the non-gra d u a t e s , 56.8% (25) had seven t o e l e v e n y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . Of a l l the household heads, o n l y 5% (3) had some c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e . When compared t o the h o u s e h o l d heads of groups 1 and 2, the 52 l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the household heads i n group 3 were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . In group 3, 30% (6) were h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s , T a b l e 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 D w e l l i n g Area (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 No Formal Ed. ( 2) 3. 3 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 2 Under 7 y r s . (17) 28. 3 ( 6) 30. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 3 7 t o 11 y r s . (25) 41 . 7 ( 8) 40. 0 (11) 55. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 4 High Sch. Grad .(10) 16. 7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 5 C o l l e g e ( 3) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 Not Known ( 3) 5. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 T o t a l (60)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=2.9l2 Mean=2.778 Mean=2.737 Mean=3.200 S.D.=1.340 S.D.=1.838 S.D.=0.940 S.D.=1.005 and 10% (2) had r e c e i v e d some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . R e g a r d i n g p o s t -secondary e d u c a t i o n , the p e r c e n t a g e s were lower i n both groups 1 and 2. 7. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYMENT Most of the household heads, 55.0% (33) had been unemployed f o r more than one y e a r . In c o n t r a s t , l e s s than 1/5 of them had been employed f o r more than two y e a r s . For those who had been unemployed f o r more than one y e a r , group 1 had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e a t 65% ( 1 3 ) , which was 20% h i g h e r than group 3 and 10% h i g h e r than group 2. In comparison, a h i g h e r number of the group 3 f a m i l i e s had been employed f o r more than two y e a r s , f o r the group 3 f a m i l i e s , i t was 25% (5) , as v e r s u s 20% (4) f o r group 2, and 10% (2) f o r group 1. 53 8. ASSOCIATION STRENGTH F i f t y - e i g h t and t h r e e - t e n t h p e r c e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n T a b l e 27. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by  Length of Employment or Unemployment. Length of A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Emp. or Unemp. (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Unemp > 1 y r . (33) 55. 0 (13) 65. 0 (11) 55. 0 ( 9) 45. 0 2 Unemp 6-11 mo. ( 5) 8. 3 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 3 Unemp < 6 mo. ( 4) 6. 7 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 4 Emp < 6 mo. ( 3) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 5 Emp 6-11 mo. ( 2) 3. 3 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 6 Emp 1-2 y r s . ( 1) 1 . 7 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 7 Emp > 2 y r s . (11) 18. 3 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 Not Known ( 1) 1 . 7 ( 1) 0. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 T o t a l (60)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=2.712 Mean=2.2l0 Mean=2.600 Mean=3.300 S.D.=2.455 S.D.=2.503 S.D.=2.393 S.D.=2.515 S t r e n g t h of the f a m i l i e s were a t the m a r g i n a l l e v e l or worse than m a r g i n a l . The o t h e r 41.7% were c o n s i d e r e d t o be e i t h e r T a b l e 28. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by  A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h Assoc i a t i o n S t r e n g t h A l l (N) Group 1 (N) % Group 2 (N) % Group 3 (N) % 1 Poor 2 Inadequate 3 Below M a r g i n a l 4 M a r g i n a l 5 Above M a r g i n a l 6 Adequate 7 Good ( 5) ( 7) (10) (13) (17) ( 7) ( 1) 8.3 11.7 16.7 21.7 28.3 11.7 1 .7 ( 3) 2) 5) ( 15.0 10.0 25.0 4) 20.0 5) 25.0 5.0 0.0 1 ) 0) 1 ) 2) 2) 6) 7) 1 ) 1 ) 5.0 10.0 10.0 30.0 35.0 5.0 5.0 ( ( 1 ) 3) 3) 3) 5) 5) 0) 5.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=3.9l7 Mean=3.450 Mean=4.150 Mean=4.l50 S.D.=1.522 S.D.=1.504 S.D.=1.424 S.D.=1.599 above m a r g i n a l , adequate, or good. As f o r the group 1 f a m i l i e s , h a l f of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n 54 s t r e n g t h s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be worse than m a r g i n a l , w h i l e the same c a t e g o r i e s c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 25% (5) i n group 2 and 35% (7) i n group 3. Group 3 had the h i g h e s t numbers of f a m i l i e s who had adequate s t r e n g t h ( 2 5 % ) , w h i l e merely 5% (1) of the group 1 and and 10% (2) of the group 2 f a m i l i e s had s i m i l a r s t r e n g t h . 9. FAMILY SOLIDARITY The s o l i d a r i t y of the m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s were worse than m a r g i n a l a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e . Only 10% (6) of them were b e l i e v e d t o have above m a r g i n a l s o l i d a r i t y , w h i l e another 15% (9) were a t the adequate l e v e l . As Ta b l e 29. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by S o l i d a r i t y . F a m i l y A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 S o l i d a r i t y (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Poor (11) 18. 3 ( 7) 35. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 2 Inadequate (11) 18. 3 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 3 Below M a r g i n a l ( 9) 15. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 4 M a r g i n a l (13) 21. 7 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 7) 35. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 5 Above M a r g i n a l ( 6) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 6 Adequate ( 9) 15. 0 ( D 5. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 7 Good ( 1) 1. 7 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 T o t a l (60)100. 0 (20) 100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=3.382 Mean=2.450 Mean=3.500 Mean=4.200 S.D.=1.748 S.D.=1.504 S.D.=1.573 S.D.=1.765 f o r good f a m i l i y c o h e s i o n , i t was a t 1.7% ( 1 ) . In c o m p a r i s o n , the s o l i d a r i t y of the group 1 f a m i l e s was worse than both groups 2 and 3. S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (15) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s had l e s s than m a r g i n a l c o h e s i o n . In f a c t , 35% of them had poor s o l i d a r i t y . As f o r the f a m i l i e s who were a t the m a r g i n a l l e v e l , group 2 had the l a r g e s t number. I t was 35% (7) i n group 2, and 15% (3) i n both groups 1 and 3. The s o l i d a r i t y 55 of the group 3 f a m i l i e s was c o m p a r a t i v e l y b e t t e r . More than 1/3 of them had adequate or good s o l i d a r i t y , w h i l e w i t h another 10% of them had more than m a r g i n a l c o h e s i v e n e s s . SUMMARY OF THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT APPREHENSION The s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were g e n e r a l l y r a t e d poor. Over 2/3 of the f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n a s t a t e of p o v e r t y or of extreme p o v e r t y . Most of the f a m i l i e s c o u n t e d on the government f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Only a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of them, a mere 25%, c o u l d f i n d s k i l l e d l a b o r j o b s . The v a s t m a j o r i t y of them d i d not have any o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . R a g a r d i n g the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the heads of ho u s e h o l d s , 73.3% of them d i d not graduate from h i g h s c h o o l , and 1/3 of them had l e s s than seven y e a r s of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between most of the f a m i l y members were d i s r u p t i v e . They were h o s t i l e t o each o t h e r , and the m a j o r i t y of them c o u l d not c a r r y out d a i l y h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s . The c o n d i t i o n s of houses of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were l e s s than d e s i r a b l e . N e a r l y 75% of them were b e l i e v e d t o l i v e i n below average accommodation. W i t h such poor showing i n most of t h e i r s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , the o n l y c o n d i t i o n s which were a t more a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s were the D w e l l i n g Areas and A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h . E x a c t l y h a l f of the f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g i n an above average a r e a a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n , and 63.7% of them were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h s u p p o r t i v e systems a t the m a r g i n a l , or b e t t e r 56 than m a r g i n a l , l e v e l s . In comparing the c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups, the permanent ward f a m i l i e s had the worst performance, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e i r o c c u p t i o n , which was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than i n the f a m i l i e s i n which the c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d . The c o n d i t i o n s of the temporary c u s t o d y e x t e n s i o n f a m i l i e s were not much b e t t e r o f f than the f a m i l i e s of group 1. Three of t h e i r n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s were at l e v e l s lower than the permanent ward f a m i l i e s . Among t h e s e t h r e e f a m i l y groups, the f a m i l i e s i n which the c h i l d r e n were d i s c h a r g e d had the best r e c o r d s i n term of s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . B. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF LEGAL STAUTS  REVISION 1. LEVEL OF INCOME AT STATUS REVISION The L e v e l of Income of the f a m i l i e s a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n was s i m i l a r t o the l e v e l a t the time of the Tab l e 30. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by L e v e l of Income a t the Time of S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 L e v e l of Income (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Lower P o v e r t y (34) 56 .7 (13) 65. 0 (11) 55. 0 (10) 50. 0 2 P o v e r t y C l a s s ( 6) 10 .0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 25. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 3 Lower C l a s s (11) 18 .3 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 4 L. M i d d l e C I . ( 7) 1 1 .7 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 4) 20. 0 5 M i d d l e C l a s s ( 2) 3 .3 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=1.950 Mean=1.800 Mean=1.950 Mean=2.l00 S.D.=1.241 S.D.=1.240 S.D.=1.146 S.D.=1.373 c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n . Over 2/3 of the f a m i l i e s l i v e d a t or 57 below the p o v e r t y l i n e . The o n l y p o s i t i v e s i g n was the improvement of the o v e r a l l l e v e l . The mean of the L e v e l of Income a t the time of ap p r e h e n s i o n was 1.733, but the mean was up t o 1.950 a t the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . There was a net i n c r e a s e of .217 i n the mean. In comparson, the L e v e l of Income of the permanent ward f a m i l i e s was lower than the l e v e l s of the o t h e r two groups. The permanent ward f a m i l i e s had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s , 65% ( 1 3 ) , of lower p o v e r t y c l a s s . I n c o n t r a s t , group 3 had t h e l a r g e s t number of lower middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s - 20% ( 4 ) , as compared t o 5% (1) i n group 1 and 10% (2) i n group 2. 2. SOURCES OF INCOME AT STATUS REVISION L i k e the L e v e l of Income, the Sources of Income c o n d i t i o n a t the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n was s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than the c o n d i t i o n a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n . The mean of a l l of the f a m i l i e s was up t o 2.817 from 2.667, but as b e f o r e , p u b l i c s o u r c e remained by f a r the predominant source of T a b l e 31. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Sources of Income at the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . Sources . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 of Income (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 2 P u b l i c Source (37) 61 .7 (15) 75. 0 (11) 55. 0 (11) 55.0 3 P r i v a t e Source ( 2) 3 .3 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1 ) 5.0 4 Wages (16) 26 .7 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 7) 35. 0 ( 6) 30.0 5 S a l a r i e s ( 5) 8 .3 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 2) 10.0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100.0 Mean =2.817 Mean=2.600 Mean=2.900 Mean=2.950 S.D. =1.097 S. D.=1.095 S .D.=1.071 S.D.=1.146 income f o r the f a m i l i e s - 61.7% ( 3 7 ) . The o t h e r 26.7% (16) 58 r e l i e d on wages, and the r e m a i n i n g 8.3% (5) on s a l a r i e s . Group 1 had the l a r g e s t number of f a m i l i e s , 75% ( 1 5 ) , on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , as compared t o 55% (11) i n groups 2 and 3. Wages and s a l a r i e s c o m p r i s e d 40% (8) of the sour c e of income of the groups 2 and 3 f a m i l i e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o o n l y 25% (5) of the f a m i l i e s from group 1. 3. OCCUPATION OF THE HEADS OF HOUSEHOLDS AT STATUS REVISION R e g a r d i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , t h e r e was not much v a r i a t i o n w h i l e the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , the d i f f e r e n c e of the mean was .05. At the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , 60% (12) of the household heads were e i t h e r u n s k i l l e d or s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s . T a b l e 32. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by  O c c u p a t i o n a t the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 O c c u p a t i o n (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Never Employed (10) 16 .7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 4) 20.0 ( 4) 20.0 2 U n s k i l l e d (21) 35 .0 (10) 50. 0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 6) 30.0 3 S e m i - s k i l l e d (15) 25 .0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 9) 45.0 ( 3) 15.0 4 S k i l l e d (13) 21 .7 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 7) 35.0 5 P r o f e s s i o n a l ( 1) 1 .7 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0.0 ( 0) 0.0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean =2.583 Mean=2.650 Mean=2.450 Mean=2.650 S.D. =1.109 S. D.=1.226 S .D.=0.945 S.D.=1.182 The o c c u p a t i o n of the h o u s e h o l d heads i n group 1 d i d not change. H a l f of them were s t i l l u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s . The l a r g e s t s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r e r group s t a y e d w i t h the temporary c u s t o d y e x t e n s i o n f a m i l i e s , and group 3 a g a i n had t h e l a r g e s t number of s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s . 59 4. TYPE OF HOUSING AT STATUS REVISION The g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n of the houses i n which the f a m i l i e s r e s i d e d had shown c e r t a i n improvement a t the time of the s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . S i n c e the time t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d i n t o c a r e , a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of t h e f a m i l i e s , 15% ( 9 ) , moved i n t o T a b l e 33. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by Type of Housing  at the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Type of Housing (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Very Poor ( 6) 10.0 ( 4) 20.0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 0) 0.0 2 Poor (12) 20.0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 2) 10.0 3 F a i r (18) 30.0 ( 6) 30.0 ( 6) 30.0 ( 6) 30.0 4 Average ( 1 8 ) 30.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 6) 30.0 (11) 55.0 5 Good ( 6 ) 10.0 ( 4 ) 20.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=3.l00 Mean=2.800 Mean=2.950 Mean=3.550 S.D.=1.145 S.D.=1.399 S.D.=1.099 S.D.=0.759 average or good houses. However, the m a j o r i t y of the f a m i l i e s , 60% ( 3 6 ) , were s t i l l l i v i n g i n houses which were below the average s t a n d a r d . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (15) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g i n below average houses when the s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n were brought up f o r r e v i e w . As f o r the group 3 f a m i l i e s , 40% of them were in. the same type of houses. Most of the group 3 f a m i l i e s , 60% ( 1 2 ) , were r e s i d i n g i n houses of average or good s t a n d a r d , as compared t o 25% (5) and 35% (7) f o r the groups 1 and 2 f a m i l i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . There was no f a m i l y i n group 3 l i v i n g i n a v e r y poor house. 60 5. DWELLING AREA AT STATUS REVISION S i m i l a r t o o t h e r S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e was upward movement'in the f a m i l i e s ' a r e a s of r e s i d e n c e a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The mean was moved up t o 3.217 from 3.017. The most n o t i c e a b l e change was i n the i n c r e a s e of the above average c a t e g o r y . At the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s T a b l e 34. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by D w e l l i n g Area  a t the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 D w e l l i n g Area (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Very Low ( 9 ) 15.0 ( 6 ) 30.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 ( 2 ) 10.0 2 Low (10) 16.7 ( 1) 5.0 ( 7) 35.0 ( 2) 10.0 3 Below Average ( 6) 10.0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 2) 10.0 4 Average (29) 48.3 ( 8) 40.0 ( 9) 45.0 (12) 60.0 5 Above Average ( 6 ) 10.0 ( 3 ) 15.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 ( 2 ) 10.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=3.217 Mean=3.050 Mean=3.l00 Mean=3.500 S.D.=1.277 S.D.=1.538 S.D.=1.119 S.D.=1.147 a p p r e h e n s i o n , the above average a r e a c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 1.7% (1) of the t o t a l c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l y p o p u l a t i o n , but the f i g u r e was up t o 10% (6) a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The average a r e a remained the most p o p u l a r type of d w e l l i n g a r e a a t 48.3% ( 2 9 ) . The permanent ward f a m i l i e s a g a i n had the h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e i n the lo w e s t c a t e g o r y . 30% (6) of them were r e s i d i n g i n v e r y low d w e l l i n g a r e a s , as compared t o 5% (1) i n group 2, and 10% (2) i n group 3. In c o n t r a s t , group 3 had the l a r g e s t number of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n average a r e a s - 60% (12) - as compared t o 40% (8) i n group 1, and 45% i n group 2. 61 6. LEVEL OF EDUCATION AT STATUS REVISION The l e v e l of the ho u s e h o l d heads' e d u c a t i o n improved s l i g h t l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e . Four of the h o u s e h o l d heads, an i n c r e a s e of 6.7%, had g a i n e d one t o two y e a r s of c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . However, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of them, 70% ( 4 2 ) , d i d not complete h i g h s c h o o l . T a b l e 35. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by L e v e l of A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 E d u c a t i o n (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 No Formal Ed. ( 2) 3 .3 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1 ) 5. 0 ( 0) 0.0 2 Under 7 y r s . (16) 26 .7 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 6) 30.0 3 7 t o 11 y r s . (24) 40 .0 ( 8) 40. 0 (11) 55. 0 ( 5) 25.0 4 High Sch . Grad. ( 8) 1 3 .3 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1 ) 5. 0 ( 5) 25.0 5 C o l l e g e ( 7) 1 1 .7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1 ) 5. 0 ( 4) 20.0 Not Known ( 3) 5 .0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1 ) 5. 0 ( 0) 0.0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100.0 Mean =3.035 Mean=2.944 Mean=2.790 Mean=3.350 S.D. =1.412 S. D.=1.849 S .D.=1.040 S.D.=1.137 The l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the f a m i l i e s t o which the c h i l d r e n were d i s c h a r g e d was c o m p a r a t i v e l y b e t t e r than the f a m i l i e s of groups 1 and 2. 45% (9) of the group 3 hou s e h o l d heads had completed h i g h s c h o o l or had c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e . For the group 1 hou s e h o l d heads, the pe r c e n t a g e was 20% ( 4 ) , and i t was 10% (2) f o r group 2. Most of the hou s e h o l d heads i n group 2, 55% ( 1 1 ) , r e c e i v e d seven t o e l e v e n y e a r s of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . The same c a t e g o r y comprised 40% (8) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s , and 25% (5) of the household heads i n group 3. A l l of the hou s e h o l d heads i n group 3 had some f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , 5% (1) of the 62 household heads i n groups 1 and 2 ' d i d not have any f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n whatsoever. 7. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT OR UNEMPLOYEMNT AT STATUS REVISION D u r i n g the time t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , an a d d i t i o n a l 10% (6) of the hou s e h o l d heads j o i n e d the l a b o r f o r c e , but the unemployment r a t e of the f a m i l i e s remained Ta b l e 36. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Heads of Households by  Length of Employment or Uneployment a t the Time of  L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . Length of A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Emp. or Unemp. (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Unemp > 1 y r . (31) 51 .7 (14) 70. 0 ( 9) 45. 0 ( 8) 40. 0 2 Unemp 6- 11 mo. ( D 1 .7 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 3 Unemp < 6 mo. ( 4) 6 .7 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 4 Emp < 6 mo. ( 7) 11 .7 ( D 5. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 5 Emp 6-• 1 1 mo. ( 4) 6 .7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 6 Emp 1 -•2 y r s . ( 3) 5 .0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 7 Emp > 2 y r s . (10) 16 .7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=3.0l7 Mean=2.400 Mean=3.300 Mean=3.350 S.D.=2.383 S.D.=2.280 S.D.=2.536 S.D.=2.323 e x t r e m e l y h i g h . S i x t y p e r c e n t (36) of them were unemployed. Among the unemployed, 86.11% (31) of them had not worked f o r more than one y e a r . The unemployment r a t e was the h i g h e s t among the hou s e h o l d heads of group 1. Seventy p e r c e n t of them (14) had been unemployed f o r more than one y e a r . The unemployed c o n s t i t u t e d 55% (11) of both the group 2 and group 3 f a m i l i e s . Group 2 had the best employment r e c o r d , 25% of them had been working f o r over two y e a r s , as compared t o 10% and 15% i n groups 1 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 63 8. ASSOCIATION STRENGTH AT LEGAL STATUS REVISION The A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h of the f a m i l i e s had improved from the mean of 3.917 t o 4.383. The b i g g e s t change o c c u r r e d i n the adequate c a t e g o r y , i n which the p e r c e n t a g e was expanded from 11.7% (7) t o 21.7% ( 1 3 ) . The number of f a m i l i e s a t the adequate Ta b l e 37. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by A s s o c i a t i o n  S t r e n g t h at the time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . Assoc i a t i o n S t r e n g t h A l l (N) % Group 1 (N) % Group 2 (N) % Group 3 (N) % 1 Poor ( 3) 5 .0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 2 Inadequate ( 4) 6 .7 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 3 Below ( 7) 1 1 .7 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 1) 5. 0 4 M a r g i n a l (18) 30 .0 ( 6) 30. 0 ( 7) 35. 0 ( 5) 25. 0 5 Above M a r g i n a l (12) 20 .0 ( 2) 10. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 6) 30. 0 6 Adequate (13) 21 .7 ( 4) 20. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 7) 35. 0 7 Good ( 3) 5 .0 ( 0) 0. 0 ( 3) 15. 0 ( 0) 0. 0 T o t a l (60)100 .0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 (20)100. 0 Mean=4.383 Mean=3.800 Mean=4.550 Mean=4.800 S.D.=1.497 S.D.=1.576 S.D.=1.638 S.D.=1.105 l e v e l was n e a r l y d o u b l e . A l t h o u g h the g e n e r a l s t r e n g t h of the f a m i l i e s had improved, most of the f a m i l i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s , 53.4% ( 3 2 ) , were m a r g i n a l , or worse than m a r g i n a l . In c o m p a r i s o n , the a s s o c i a t i o n s of the permanent c u s t o d y f a m i l i e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y worse than the f a m i l i e s of groups 2 and 3. Only 30% (6) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s had b e t t e r than m a r g i n a l s t r e n g t h i n a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h s u p p o r t i v e systems, but 45% (9) of the group 2 f a m i l i e s , and 65% (13) of the group 3 f a m i l i e s , c o u l d p e r f o r m a t the same l e v e l . 64 9. FAMILY SOLIDARITY AT LEGAL STATUS REVISION At the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n , 26.7% (16) of the f a m i l i e s had s o l i d a r i t y above the m a r g i n a l l e v e l , but a t the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , i t was 43.3% ( 2 6 ) . The b i g g e s t i n c r e a s e was i n the adequate l e v e l , i n which 23.3% of the f a m i l i e s were known t o T a b l e 38. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s by S o l i d a r i t y  a t the Time of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . F a m i l y A l l Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 S o l i d a r i t y (N) % (N) % (N) % (N) % 1 Poor ( 8) 13.3 ( 7) 35.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 0) 0.0 2 Inadequate ( 8) 13.3 ( 3) 15.0 ( 4) 20.0 ( 1) 5.0 3 Below M a r g i n a l ( 8) 13.3 ( 3) 15.0 ( 1) 5.0 ( 4) 20.0 4 M a r g i n a l (10) 16.7 ( i ) 5.0 ( 6) 30.0 ( 3) 15.0 5 Above M a r g i n a l (10) 16.7 ( 3) 15.0 ( 5) 25.0 ( 2) 10.0 6 Adequate (14) 23.3 ( 3) 15.0 ( 2) 10.0 ( 9) 45.0 7 Good ( 2 ) 3.3 ( 0 ) 0.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 ( 1 ) 5.0 T o t a l (60)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 (20)100.0 Mean=3.933 Mean=2.950 Mean=4.000 Mean=4.850 S.D.=1.821 S.D.=1.932 S.D.=1.589 S.D.=1.461 pe r f o r m a d e q u a t e l y , w h i l e o n l y 15% (9) of them c o u l d do so a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n . Most of the group 1 f a m i l i e s were found t o have s e r i o u s problems i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r p r o p e r f a m i l i a l r o l e s . S i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (13) of them were worse than m a r g i n a l . In f a c t , 35% (7) of them had poor s o l i d a r i t y . None of the c o h e s i v e n e s s of the group 3 f a m i l i e s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be poor, and o n l y 5% (1) of the group 2 f a m i l i e s were poor i n term of t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y . The s o l i d a r i t y was b e t t e r among the group 3 f a m i l i e s , n e a r l y h a l f of whom were adequate. R e g a r d i n g s o l i d a r i t y a t the adequate l e v e l , o n l y 15% (3) of the group 1 f a m i l i e s , and 10% (2) of the group 2 65 f a m i l i e s were a t t h i s l e v e l . In g e n e r a l , the s o l i d a r i t y of the group 1 f a m i l i e s was c o n s i d e r a b l y worse than t h a t of the o t h e r two groups. SUMMARY OF THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AT THE TIME OF LEGAL  STATUS REVISION D u r i n g the time t h a t the c h i l d r e n w e r e . i n the c a r e of the government, the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s had shown improvement. Most of the c o n d i t i o n s changed o n l y s l i g h t l y . They v a r i e d between the mean of .050 and .550. The i n d i c a t o r which showed the most v a r i a t i o n was F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . T h i s may r e s u l t from the f a c t t h a t 65% of the f a m i l i e s d i d n o t have any c h i l d r e n a t home d u r i n g the time t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e . The one w i t h the l e a s t change was the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of the h o u s e h o l d heads. T a b l e 39. Mean D i f f e r e n c e s Between the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c and of L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n Soc i a l - E c o n o m i c A l l Group Group Group C o n d i t i o n s 1 2 3 L e v e l of Income .217 . 1 50 .450 .050 Source of Income . 1 50 .100 .400 .050 O c c u p a t i o n .050 .000 .100 .050 Type of Housing .255 . 1 68 .400 .350 D w e l l i n g Area .200 .200 .250 .300 L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n .113 .166 .190 . 1 50 L e n g t h of Emp.or Unemp. .305 .190 .700 .050 A s s o c i a i o n S t r e n g t h .466 .350 .400 .650 F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y .550 .500 . 500 .650 T o t a l 2.306 1 .724 3.390 2.200 In c o m p a r i s o n , changes i n S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the group 1 f a m i l i e s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than changes i n groups 66 2 and 3. Group 1 was the group of f a m i l i e s w i t h the l e a s t upward m o b i l i t y i n seven of the n i n e c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the improvement i n the Sources of Income and the L e v e l of Income were b e t t e r than e i t h e r one of the o t h e r two l e g a l s t a t u s g roups, the performance of the group 3 f a m i l i e s on the s e two c o n d i t i o n s were a t lower l e v e l s than were the o t h e r two groups. In c o n t r a s t , the c o n d i t i o n s of the group 3 f a m i l i e s were a t h i g h e r l e v e l s than both groups 1 and 2 f a m i l i e s . D u r i n g the time the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , the f a m i l i e s i n group 3 showed t h a t they were most improved i n t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s : D w e l l i n g A r e a , A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h , and F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . As f o r the group 2 f a m i l i e s , they were the most m o b i l e and had the be s t o v e r a l l improvement r e c o r d . They l e d i n s i x of the n i n e c o n d i t i o n s i n terms of upward m o b i l i t y . T h e i r aggregate mean d i f f e r n c e from the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n t o the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n was 3.390, which was about t w i c e the mean t o t a l of group 1, and was 54% h i g h e r than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n group 3. The o v e r a l l s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c s t a n d i n g of the group 2 f a m i l i e s l a y between groups 1 and 3, both a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n , and a t the time of the temporary o r d e r h e a r i n g s . 67 CHAPTER V I I THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INFLUENCES T h i s s t u d y d e p i c t e d s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the s o c i a l and economic l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups. These c o n d i t i o n s were seen as the l e v e l s a t which many of the d i r e c t causes l e a d i n g t o the ap p r e h e n s i o n of the c h i l d r e n m a n i f e s t e d , and as i n l i f e i t s e l f , the c o n d i t i o n s were i n a s t a t e of f l u x . The changes i n the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s , as shown i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s , were e v i d e n t among some of the f a m i l i e s . These changes, a l t h o u g h m i n i m a l , were more apparent when the f a m i l i e s were examined e i t h e r i n a c o l l e c t i v e group, or when they were c l a s s i f i e d by t h r e e s e p a r a t e l e g a l s t a t u s groups. There were t h r e e g e n e r a l n o t i c e a b l e f i n d i n g s i n the i n i t i a l a n a l y s e s . F i r s t l y , the r e s u l t s showed t h a t the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were low. Compared w i t h the o t h e r two groups, the c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n permanent c u s t o d y were the w o r s t . At the same t i m e , the f a m i l i e s t o which the c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d had the b e s t o v e r a l l performance i n n e a r l y a l l of the n i n e c a t e g o r i e s . S e c o n d l y , d u r i n g the time the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s of the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups had improved. The improvement o c c u r r e d not o n l y i n the f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d , but aso i n t h o s e where the c h i l d r e n became permanent wards. T h i r d l y , when the 68 upward m o b i l i t y of the t h r e e groups was compared, the most improvement was demonstrated i n the f a m i l i e s where temporary o r d e r s had been extended; the l e a s t improvement was among the f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n became permanent wards. In an attempt t o examine the c o r r e l a t i o n between the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s and a l s o between the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s and the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n , f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s were r e q u i r e d and a number of s t a t i s t i c a l measurements were t a k e n . The i n t e r e s t i n these a n a l y s e s l i e s i n the s e a r c h f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s and p r e d i c t i o n s of l e g a l s t a t u s changes, by u s i n g the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s , and the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes. In s e a r c h f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between s o c i a l -economic i n d i c a t o r s and l e g a l s t a t u s , t h i s study employed the Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t , r . In a d d i t i o n , a number of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s , such as i t e m a n a l y s i s (Doby, 1954:132-134), and p a t h diagram ( B a b b i e , 1975:132-134, L o e t h e r and M c T a v i s h , 1974:321-328, and N i e , e t a l , 1975:383-387) were conducted. The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s . F i r s t , the s t r e n g t h of c o r r e l a t i o n among the n i n e s o c i a l -economic i n d i c a t o r s was d i s s e c t e d . Second, item a n a l y s e s were performed on the n i n e i n d i c a t o r s t o a s s i g n l o a d i n g s t o each. T h i r d , by u s i n g the l o a d i n g s and s c o r e s of the n i n e s o c i a l -economic v a r i a b l e s , the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d . The Indexes would p r o v i d e 69 e m p i r i c a l d a t a on the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s b o th a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n , and a t the time of the l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . F o u r t h , the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between the s o c i a l -economic i n d i c a t o r s and the l e g a l s t a t u s , and between the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes and the l e g a l s t a t u s , were examined. F i n a l l y , p a t h diagram was u t i l i z e d t o d e p i c t the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s upon the l e g a l s t a t u s . I . CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS : A. CORRELATION AMONG THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT  APPREHENSION Among the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n , o n l y h a l f of the c o r r e l a t i o n s , e i g h t e e n out of t h i r t y - s i x , were found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the l e v e l of e i t h e r .05 or .01. F i v e of the n i n e i n d i c a t o r s , namely, the L e v e l of Income, Sources of Income, O c c u p a t i o n , Type of Hous i n g , and D w e l l i n g A r e a , were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r . The s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the L e v e l of Income and Sources of Income. E d u c a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d o n l y w i t h Type of Housing and D w e l l i n g A r e a . The Length of Employment had t h r e e c o r r e l a t i o n s which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ; t h e s e were between the Length of Employment, the L e v e l of Income, Sources of Income, and O c c u p a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e m a i n i n g two i n d i c a t o r s - A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h and F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y - i f 70 compared w i t h t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h most of the i n d i c a t o r s , were s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d . These two i n d i c a t o r s were a l s o found T a b l e 40. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the Nine S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t A p p r e h e n s i o n . (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ( 1 ) L . of I n c . . 84** .56** .36** .40** NS .70** NS NS (2)So. of I n . X .43** .28* .29* NS .82** NS NS (3)Occup. X . 38** . 34** NS .49** NS NS (4)Ho u s i n g X .62** .34** NS NS NS (5)D. Area X . 31 ** NS 3 7 * * .40** ( 6 ) E d u c a t i o n X NS NS NS (7)Employment X NS NS ( 8 ) A s s o c i a t i o n X .59** ( 9 ) S o l i d a r i t y X * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .o5 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . NS = Not S i g n i f i c a n t . N = 60 t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h D w e l l i n g Area a t the .01 l e v e l . Among a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s , D w e l l i n g Area was the most c o n s i s t e n t v a r i a b l e , which was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Length of Employment. B. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT STATUS  REVISION The number of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s e i t h e r a t the .01 l e v e l or a t the .05 l e v e l had i n c r e a s e d t o t w e n t y - s i x a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The v a r i a b l e s which b e n e f i t t e d most from the changes were A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h and F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . They were found not o n l y t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .72, but a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Type of H o u s i n g , D w e l l i n g A r e a , and L e v e l 71 of E c u a t i o n , e i t h e r a t the .05 or a t the .01 l e v e l . T h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .21 t o .49. None of these v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e i t h e r S o l i d a r i t y or A s s o c i a t i o n a t a p p r e h e n s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between A s s o c i a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n , and between S o l i d a r i t y and Sources of Income, were a c c e p t a b l e a t the l e v e l of .05. T a b l e 41. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ( 1 ) L . o f I n c . .83** .55** .36** . 38** NS .80** NS NS (2)So.of I n . X .51 ** .37** .37** NS .85** NS .21* (3)Occup. X 45** .27* NS .53** .25* NS (4)Hous i n g X .66** .22* . 37** . 49** .42** (5)D. Area X . 32** . 32** .32** . 38** (6)Educat i o n X NS .25* . 24** (7)Employment X NS NS ( 8 ) A s s o c i a t i o n X . 72** ( 9 ) S o l i d a r i t y X * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l • NS = Not S i g n i f i c a n t N = 60 The a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h between most of the v a r i a b l e s was s i m i l a r t o the s t r e n g t h a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n . There were no d r a s t i c changes. The most n o t i c e a b l e change o c c u r r e d between A s s o c i a t i o n and S o l i d a r i t y . There was a net i n c r e a s e of .13, which was the h i g h e s t i n c r e a s e of s t r e n g t h among the i n d i c a t o r s . Sources of Income and Length of Employment had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .85, r e p l a c i n g the p o s i t i o n of L e v e l of Income, which , w i t h Sources of Income, were the v a r i a b l e s w i t h the s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n a t .84 a t the time the c h i l d r e n were taken i n t o c a r e . The most c o n s i s t e n t v a r i a b l e s , i n terms of c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h 72 o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , were D w e l l i n g Area and Type of Housing. Both of thes e v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l of the v a r i a b l e s a t the .01 l e v e l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of D w e l l i n g Area and O c c u p a t i o n , and of Type of Housing and L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n , which were c o r r e l a t e d a t the .05 l e v e l . C. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AT  APPREHENSION AND AT STATUS REVISION As shown i n T a b l e s 40 and 41, a p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d among the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s , and t h i s p a t t e r n reappeared i n Table 42. With the e x c e p t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n between Sources of Income and D w e l l i n g A r e a , the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s among f i v e of the i n d i c a t o r s - L e v e l of Income, Sources of Income, O c c u p a t i o n , Type of Housing , and D w e l l i n g Area - both a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i e w , were proved t o be a c c e p t a b l e a t the s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of e i t h e r .05 or .01. With a l l of the c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s a t a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h and S o l i d a r i t y a g a i n had v e r y low c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h most of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . A s s o c i a t i o n , a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d o n l y w i t h A s s o c i a t i o n a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , and w i t h S o l i d a r i t y a t a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n between S o l d i a r i t y a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n and D w e l l i n g Area was c o m p a r a t i v e l y weak, but w i t h the c o e f f i c i e n t of .25 i t was a c c e p t a b l e a t the .05 l e v e l . One s a l i e n t f e a t u r e among the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the 73 i n d i c a t o r s was the e x i s t e n c e of s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between the same i n d i c a t o r s a t two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e . Of the n i n e T a b l e 42. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s  a t A pprehension and a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s a t a t A p p r e h e n s i o n S t a t u s R e v i s i o n (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ( 1 ) L . I n c . .84** .68** .55** .37** .33** .27** .66** NS NS ( 2 ) S o . I n c . .64** .72** .42** .26* NS .22* .70** NS NS (3)Occup. .51** . 47** ^ g7** .40** .26* .23* .45** .27* NS (4 ) H o u s i n g .40** .37** .54** .72** .45** Ns .30* . 43**.36** (5)D. Area .39** .34** .32** .40** .69** NS NS .39**.45** (6)Edu. .33** .27* .44** NS .30* .75** .28* NS .28* (7)Employ. .62** .73** .49** .29* .22* NS .81 ** NS NS ( 8 ) A s s o c . NS NS NS NS NS NS NS .63**.40** ( 9 ) S o l i d . NS NS NS NS .25* NS NS . 40**.60** * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . NS = Not S i g n i f i c a n t N = 60 p a i r s of s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s , the l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was .60, which was between the two S o l i d a r i t y v a r i a b l e s . The h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t was found between O c c u p a t i o n at a p p r e h e n s i o n and O c c u p a t i o n a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , which peaked at .97. T h i s showed t h a t the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n , were s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s a t two d i f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time had v e r y s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n . 74 I I . ITEM ANALYSIS Item a n a l y s i s , as one of s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s , was used here t o f i n d the c o m p a r a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e w e i g h t s of the independent v a r i a b l e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h of the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s was taken i n t o account i n the c a l c u l a t i o n . Item a n a l y s i s would a s s i g n the w e i g h t s f o r each of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s . A w e i g h t i n g system was r e q u i r e d because some of the i n d i c a t o r s might have d i f f e r e n t degree of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e , namely, the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . I f the a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s were not taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the non-weighted s c a l e would not r e f l e c t the r e a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the dependent v a r i a b l e and the accumulated s c o r e s of the independent v a r i a b l e s . The method of i t e m a n a l y s i s was choosen because i t was c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e and d i r e c t . The w e i g h t s of the i t e m s , i n t h i s c a s e the w e i g h t s of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s , were o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the amount of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s , the square of r , from 1, and t a k i n g the r e c i p r o c a l of the r e s u l t . S y m b o l i c a l l y , the e q u a t i o n f o r f i n d i n g the weight i s as f o l l o w s : 1 W = 1 - r 2 By u s i n g t h i s e q u a t i o n , the r e s u l t s from the c a l c u l a t i o n of the n i n e v a r i a b l e s a t a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n were 75 shown i n T a b l e 43. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the w e i g h t s of a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s were s i m i l a r , r a n g i n g from 1.00 t o 1.23. Due t o the l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n of the l o a d i n g s , the v a l u e of 1 was thus a s s i g n e d t o a l l of the w e i g h t s of the i n d i c a t o r s , both a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n , and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . T a ble 43. Weights of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c V a r i a b l e s I I I . INDEX CONSTRUCTION A composite index f o r the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s was c r e a t e d f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g a m u l t i p l e items index which would show the o v e r a l l S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s . The Indexes were c o n s t r u c t e d by ad d i n g t o g e t h e r the s c a l e s of a l l of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s . In t h i s s t u d y , s i m p l e a d d i t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t because the w e i g h t s of a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s were i d e n t i c a l a t one. When the s c a l e s were a c c u m u l a t e d , the a g g r e g a t e s c o r e t h u s became the s c o r e s of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes. The s c o r e s , compared t o each o t h e r , would t h u s r e f l e c t the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the c h i l d i n c a r e p o p u l a t i o n . a t A p p r e h e n s i o n ( W ) at S t a t u s R e v i s i o n ( W ) (1) L e v e l of Income 1.02 (2) Source of Income 1.04 ( 3 ) O c c u p a t i o n 1.00 (4) Type of Housing 1.01 (5) D w e l l i n g Area 1.01 (6) L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n 1.00 (7) Length of Empl. 1.02 (8) A s s o c i a t i o n 1.04 (9) S o l i d a r i t y 1.21 1.01 1.01 1 .00 1 .08 1 .02 1 .00 1 .03 1 .08 1 .23 76 I f the s c o r e s were c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h , they i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p o s i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s were g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e among a l l of Ta b l e 44. Fequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s by L e g a l S t a t u s a t Apprehension S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n Low Medium High L e g a l 13 t o 21 22 t o 28 29 t o 42 S t a t u s (N) % (N) % (N) % Gp.1 Perm. Custody ( 9) 47 .4 ( 6) 28. 6 ( 5) 25.0 Gp.2 Temp. E x t e n s i o n ( 7) 36 .8 ( 8) 38. 1 ( 5) 25.0 Gp.3 D i s c h a r g e d ( 3) 1 5 .8 ( 7) 33. 3 (10) 50.0 T o t a l (19) 100 .0 (21 ) 100. 0 (20) 100.0 T a b l e 45. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s  by L e g a l S t a t u s a t L e g a l S t a t u s R e v i s i o n S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n L e g a l S t a t u s Low 13 t o (N) 21 % Medium 22 t o 28 (N) % High 29 t o 42 (N) % Gp.1 Perm. Custody ( 9) 50 .0 ( 5) 23 .8 ( 6) 28.6 Gp.2 Temp. E x t e n s i o n ( 7) 38 .9 ( 6) 28 .6 ( 7) 33.3 Gp.3 D i s c h a r g e d ( 2) 1 1 . 1 (10) 47 .6 ( 8) 38.1 T o t a l (18) 1 00 .0 (21 ) 100 .0 (21) 100.0 the f a m i l i e s of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c S c o r e s of a l l of the f a m i l i e s were between 13 and 42 a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n s , and ranged from 13 t o 46 a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The mean s c o r e f o r a l l of the f a m i l i e s was 25.683 a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , and 28.083 a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . D u r i n g the p e r i o d t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , the average 77 i n c r e a s e was 2.40 f o r a l l of the f a m i l i e s . The S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c S c o r e s of the f a m i l i e s were lumped i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i c a l l e v e l s - low , medium, and h i g h - w i t h each l e v e l composed of about 1/3 of a l l of the f a m i l i e s . T h i s was i n t e n d e d t o draw c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s e s of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n s of the f a m i l i e s from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups. As shown i n T a b l e s 45 and 46, h a l f of the permanent c u s t o d y f a m i l i e s had low S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 15.8% (3) of the f a m i l i e s t o which the c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d had the same p o s i t i o n a t a p p r e h e n s i o n and 11.1% (2) a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . W i th r e s p e c t t o tho s e f a m i l i e s w i t h h i g h S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n a t the time of the c h i l d r e n ' s a d m i s s i o n , h a l f of the f a m i l i e s from the d i s c h a r g e d group belonged t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . At the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , t h e i r number was c o m p a r a t i v e l y lower a t 38.1% ( 8 ) . The o v e r a l l p o s i t i o n s of the d i s c h a r g e d c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l i e s , i n terms of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c performance, were s u p e r i o r t o both the permanent ward f a m i l i e s and temporary custody e x t e n s i o n f a m i l i e s . The permanent c u s t o d y f a m i l i e s , b o th at a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the low c a t e g o r y . IV. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC'FACTORS AND LEGAL STATUS A. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND LEGAL  STATUS With t h e e x c e p t i o n of two i n d i c a t o r s - Type of Housing and S o l i d a r i t y - the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between l e g a l s t a t u s 78 and a l l of the o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s , b o t h at a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , c o u l d not be a c c e p t e d at the s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of .05. When the c o r r e l a t i o n between these two i n d i c a t o r s and l e g a l s t a t u s was examined, S o l i d a r i t y a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .41, and the r was .22 f o r Type of Housing. T a b l e 46. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r s by L e g a l S t a t u s . L e g a l S t a t u s (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) At Apprehen. .14 .19 -.02 .22* .12 .20 .19 .19 .41** At S t a t u s R e v i s i o n .10 .13 .0 .27* .15 .11 .16 .28* .43** * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . N = 60 ( l ) L e v e l of Income ( 2 ) S o u r c e s of Income ( 3 ) O c c u p a t i o n (4)Type of Housing ( 5 ) D w e l l i n g Area ( 6 ) E d u c a t i o n (7) Length of Employment or Unemployment (8) A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h ( 9 ) F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y The a s s o c i a t i o n s between l e g a l s t a t u s and f o u r of the i n d i c a t o r s were s t r e n g t h e n e d d u r i n g the time the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e . The most n o t i c e a b l e change was between A s s o c i a t i o n and l e g a l s t a t u s . The r was up t o .28 a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , from .19 at a p p r e h e n s i o n . There was a net i n c r e a s e of .09. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s shown i n T a b l e 46, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n between l e g a l s t a t u s and seven of the n i n e i n d i c a t o r s a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , and s i x of the n i n e i n d i c a t o r s a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , were weak. The o n l y two i n d i c a t o r s which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s a t the time of 79 a p p r e h e n s i o n , were S o l i d a r i t y and Type of Housing. The a s s o c i a t i o n between th e s e v a r i a b l e s were s t r e n g t h e n e d a t the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r -A s s o c i a t i o n - was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s a t the time of s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . B. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC INDEXES AND LEGAL STATUS As shown i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between most of the i n d i c a t o r s and the l e g a l s t a t u s were not s t r o n g . The c o r r e l a t i o n was somewhat d i f f e r e n t between the aggr e g a t e s c o r e of the i n d i c a t o r s and the l e g a l s t a t u s . In c o m p a r i s o n , the a s s o c i a t i o n s between l e g a l s t a t u s and Indexes were s t r o n g e r than the a s s o c i a t i o n s between the l e g a l s t a t u s and most of the i n d i c a t o r s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the Indexes and l e g a l s t a t u s were .303 and .296 a t a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i x t e e n of the e i g h t e e n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of l e g a l s t a t u s and s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s were l e s s than .30. When the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c S c o r e s were a g g r e g a t e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s - low, medium, and h i g h - the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the new c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s and l e g a l s t a t u s were l o w e r . The new c o e f f i c i e n t s were .279 a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , and .238 a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . In c o n t r a s t w i t h most of the i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c a t o r s , the composite S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c I n d e x e s , both a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n and a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s . In c o m p a r i s o n , the 80 a c cumulated s c o r e seemed t'o be a b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r , i n terms of e x p l a i n i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r t o the , c o r r e l a t i o n s among a l l of the s o c i a l -economic i n d i c a t o r s a t the two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , and the Index a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , were n o t i c e a b l y s t r o n g . The c o e f f i c i e n t between the two Indexes was .792. V. PATH DISGRAM T h i s s t u d y , as mentioned i n Chapter I I , adopted the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were the l e v e l s a t which the problems l e a d i n g t o the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n s emerged, but these c o n d i t i o n s were not the d i r e c t causes of the removal of the c h i l d r e n . The s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n between the c o n d i t i o n s and the l e g a l s t a t u s were examined i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s . A l t h o u g h the a s s o c i a t i o n s between th e s e v a r i a b l e s were known, the i n f l u e n c e s , b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , t h a t the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s had had on the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s , had not y e t been i n v e s t i g a t e d . In l i g h t of t h i s knowledge gap, the method of p a t h diagram was u t i l i z e d t o examine the i n f l u e n c e s of the composite S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes on the l e g a l s t a t u s . The o b j e c t i v e of u s i n g p a t h diagram on the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c and l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s was t o compare the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e s e v a r i a b l e s , and t o b u i l d 81 t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of the phenomena of e n f o r c e d p a r e n t -c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n . The g r a p h i c diagram, as shown i n F i g u r e I I , F i g u r e I I . Path Diagram on the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes and L e g a l S t a t u s . r=.79 X- ->X' r=.30 r=.28 I >X 1 < 1 X'=Legal S t a t u s of C h i l d r e n In Care X 2 = S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . X 3 = S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t A p p r e h e n s i o n . P 2 3=.79 P 1 2=.15 P 1 3=.18 p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r e t i c a l model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Indexes and the l e g a l s t a t u s . The model i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , X 1, b e i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e , was i n f l u e n c e d by the two s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . The S o c i a l -Economic Index a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , X 3, was thought t o determine the Index a t l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . The s t r e n g t h of the impact on the dependent v a r i a b l e s was r e p r e s e n t e d by p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s which were s y m b o l i z e d by the l e t t e r P. In s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n , the p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t , P, was found t o be i d e n t i c a l t o the b c o e f f i c i e n t . 1 3 The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r X 2 X 3 was .79, X'X 2 .28, and f o r X 1 X 3 was .30. These c o e f f i c i e n t s , however, d i d not show the o v e r a l l e f f e c t s of X 3 on X 1 , X 3 on X 2 , and X 2 on X 1 . The d e t a i l of the e f f e c t s was i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 47. The e f f e c t 82 c o e f f i c i e n t , C, was c a l c u l a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n : 1 4  C 2 3 = P 2 3 + < 7 9 C 1 3 = ( P 2 3 ) ( p 1 2 ) + p i s = (79X.15) + .18 = .30 c i 2 = p i 2 = m!5 When the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e s were broken down i n b i v a r i a t e d r e l a t i o n s , the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e s of the independent v a r i a b l e s were a p p a r e n t . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the change of l e g a l s t a t u s was m o s t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , X 3. The e f f e c t was t w i c e as much as the Index a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , X 2 , which was a t .15. Rega r d i n g the n o n c a u s a l f a c t o r between l e g a l s t a t u s , X 1, and the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , X 2 , i t was .13, which means t h a t n e a r l y h a l f of the o r i g i n a l c o v a r i a t i o n betweeen the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n and l e g a l s t a t u s was acco u n t e d by p r i o r v a r i a b l e s . The p a t h diagram r e s u l t s i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t whereas S o c i a l -Economic Indexes had a genuine e f f e c t upon l e g a l s t a t u s a t the time of a p p r e h e n s i o n , the second Index measure had l i t t l e e f f e c t independent of the f i r s t . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e d the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c and the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s suggested t h a t the Index a t a p p r e h e n s i o n had s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e s on l e g a l s t a t u s than had the Index a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s of the p a t h diagram study i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the t o t a l i n f l u e n c e of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n a t ap p r e h e n s i o n on l e g a l s t a t u s was g r e a t e r than the S o c i a l -83 Economic P o s i t i o n a t s t a t u s r e v i s i o n , no c a u s a l i n f e r e n c e s of the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P o s i t i o n on the l e g a l s t a t u s c o u l d be drawn. Ta b l e 47. B i v a r i a t e C o v a r i a t i o n of S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes and L e g a l S t a t u s . D e c o m p o s i t i o n of B i v a r i a t e C o v a r i a t i o n B i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n of c o n c e r n X 2,X 3 X 1 ,X 3 X 1 ,X (A) O r i g i n a l C o v a r i a t i o n = r .79 .30 .28 (B) b1 : d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e b2 : i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e .79 0 .18 .12 . 1 5 0 T o t a l I n f l u e n c e = (b1)+(b2)=C .79 .30 . 1 5 (C) Noncausal = (A) - (B) = r - C 0 0 . 1 3 (D) square of r .62 .09 .08 In f a c t , no i n f e r e n c e t o , or t e s t o f , a c a u s a l model c o u l d be i m p l i e d or p e r m i t t e d , because the v a l u e s of l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , which was the dependent v a r i a b l e , was f i x e d when they were s e l e c t e d . The r e s u l t s of t h i s p a t h diagram study c o u l d not be taken as a n y t h i n g more than d e s c r i p t i v e , s i n c e the sample method, by f i x i n g the v a l u e s of the dependent v a r i a b l e , i s c o n t r a r y t o the assumptions of model t e s t i n g s i n path a n a l y s i s and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 84 CHAPTER V I I I INEQUALITY REVISITED The power t o c o n t r o l the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r s of s o c i e t y i s e n t r e n c h e d w i t h i n i t s own s t r u c t u r e , be i t f e u d a l or communal. The power t o c o n t r o l i s r e f l e c t e d by the i d e o l o g y of the day, and i s based on economic c l a s s , s o c i a l s t a t u s , and p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . 1 5 Man's modes of l i v i n g a r e d e t e r m i n e d by the s o c i a l and economic means of h i s day. T h i s means emcompasses the means of o r g a n i z a t i o n , of p r o d u c t i o n , of p r o c r e a t i o n , of a s s o c i a t i o n , and s o c i a l and economic d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . In any g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l e r a , the more open the system was, the b e t t e r the chance t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s would have t o f u l f i l l t h e i r needs. In Canada, as i n o t h e r l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e s , the power t o c o n t r o l i s d e e p l y embedded i n the market economy, which r e g u l a t e s the s o c i a l , economic, and, p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of i t s p e o p l e . 1 6 For the f a m i l i e s of apprehended c h i l d r e n , t h e i r s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s were the v e r y p r o d u c t s of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy. Due t o the l a c k of p o l i t i c a l and economic a c t i v i t i e s and i n f l u e n c e s , these f a m i l i e s became p r e y s of the system. The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of t h i s study i s the poor s o c i a l -economic c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s . Most of these f a m i l i e s .from Vancouver Downtown and Vancouver E a s t were poor, unemployed, f i n a n c i a l l y dependent on government a i d , had l e s s 85 than adequate a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h and f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y , and l i v e d i n houses which were below the average s t a n d a r d . I t was e n c o u r a g i n g t o see t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of th e s e f a m i l i e s , i n the p r o c e s s of s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n , had improved w h i l e the c h i l d r e n were i n c a r e , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the changes of the f a m i l i e s ' , s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o the change of the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s . T h i s study i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t w i t h a l l of the f a m i l i e s from the t h r e e l e g a l s t a t u s groups, the improvement i n terms of the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s were most n o t i c e a b l e among the temporary c u s t o d y e x t e n s i o n f a m i l i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e f a m i l i e s were c o m p a r a t i v e l y upwardly m o b i l e , t h e i r s o c i a l -economic s t a n d i n g s a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s change were lower than the d i s c h a r g e d c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l i e s . Most of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s used i n t h i s s tudy were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the l e g a l s t a t u s . When they were t a b u l a t e d w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s i t was obse r v e d t h a t the permanent ward's f a m i l i e s were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the low c a t e g o r i e s , and i n c o n t r a s t , the d i s c h a r g e d f a m i l i e s were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the h i g h e r c a t a g o r i e s . The S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes c o u l d o n l y e x p l a i n a l i m i t e d p e r c e n t a g e of the v a r i a t i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s . The r e s u l t s from the p a t h diagram study showed t h a t over n i n e t y p e r c e n t of the v a r i a t i o n s of the l e g a l s t a t u s c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d by the Indexes ( r 2 = . 0 9 and . 0 8 ) . S i n c e no c a u s a l i n f e r e n c e between the s o c i a l and eocnomic v a r i a b l e s and the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e s 86 c o u l d be drawn i n t h i s s t u d y , the r e a l e f f e c t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l and economic v a r i a b l e s , or the composite S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Indexes, on the l e g a l s t a t u s v a r i a b l e , c o u l d o n l y be r e v e a l e d by f u r t h e r s t u d y which w i l l use a d i f f e r e n t sample method. T h i s s t u d y , a f t e r a d o p t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l assumption of s o c i a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s , c o n s i s t e n t l y f o c u s s e d on the r e l a t i o n s between the f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and the c h i l d r e n ' s l e g a l s t a t u s . The f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y g e n e r a l l y echoed the d i s c o v e r i e s of the so c i o - e c o n o m i c model. Most of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s were found t o be i n the low s o c i a l and economic s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s s t u d y had i d e n t i f i e d the e x i s t e n c e of i n t e r n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l i e s . Among many of t h e s e low s o c i a l -economic f a m i l i e s , those a t t h e extreme low s c a l e s were more v u l n e r a b l e t o permanent removal of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS RECONSIDERED Of a l l of the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s a t a p p r e h e n s i o n , o n l y two i n d i c a t o r s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s , and the number of i n d i c a t o r s was up t o o n l y t h r e e a t the time of l e g a l s t a t u s r e v i s i o n . A l t h o u g h the composit e index - the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c Index - as compared t o most of the i n d i c a t o r s , had s t r o n g e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l e g a l s t a t u s , i t c o u l d not account f o r over n i n e t y p e r c e n t of the v a r i a t i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s . Due t o the absence of s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r s on the change of l e g a l s t a t u s , i t appeared t h a t the c h o i c e of the s e n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s s h o u l d be 87 e v a l u a t e d , and o t h e r p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . In r e c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s , T a b l e 48. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s  R a c i a l O r i g i n s by L e g a l S t a t u s . C a u c a s i a n N a t i v e O t h e r s L e g a l S t a t u s (N) % (N) % (N) % Perm. Ward ( 8) 30 .8 ( 7) 41 .2 ( 5) 38.5 Temp. E x t . ( 9) 34 .6 ( 6) 35.3 ( 5) 38.5 Di s c h a r g e d ( 9) 34 .6 ( 4) 23.5 ( 3) 23.0 T o t a l (26) 100 .0 (17) 100.0 (13) 1 00.0 T a b l e 49. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Household Head's  R a c i a l O r i g i n s by L e g a l S a t u s . C a u c a s i a n N a t i v e O t h e r s L e g a l S t a t u s (N) % (N) % (N) % Perm. Ward ( 9) 31 .0 ( 9) 42 .9 ( 2) 20 .0 Temp. E x t . (11) 37 .9 ( 6) 28 .6 ( 3) 30 .0 D i s c h a r g e d ( 9) 31 .0 ( 6) 28 .6 ( 5) 50 .0 T o t a l (29) 100 .0 (21 ) 100 .0 (10) 1 00 .0 two f a c t o r s i m m e d i a t e l y emerged. These were e t h n i c i t y and r e l i g i o s i t y . The t a b u l a t i o n t h a t appeared i n T a b l e s 48 and 49 i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the N a t i v e Canadians were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the permanent ward c a t e g o r y . 41.2% of those N a t i v e c h i l d r e n who were i n c a r e had become permanent wards. As f o r r e l i g i o s i t y , the p a t t e r n shown i n T a b l e 50 i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h no r e l i g i o n were u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the d i s c h a r g e d c a t e g o r y , and were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c u s t o d y e x t e n s i o n group. In comp a r i s o n , c h i l d r e n w i t h p r a c t i c i n g r e l i g i o n , be they C a t h o l i c s 88 or P r o t e s t a n t s , were u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the e x t e n s i o n c a t e g o r y . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e more r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , a f u r t h e r study T a b l e 50. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s R e l i g i o s i t y by L e g a l S t a t u s C h r i s t i a n Non-Rel. O t h e r s L e g a l S t a t u s (N) % (N) % (N) % Perm. Ward ( 6) 33.3 ( 8) 30.8 ( 6) 37.5 Temp. E x t . ( 4) 28.2 (12) 46.2 ( 4) 25.0 D i s c h a r g e d ( 8) 44.5 ( 6) 23.1 ( 6) 37.5 T o t a l (18) 100.0 (26) 100.0 . (16) 100.0 would be r e q u i r e d t o i d e n t i f y a d d i t i o n a l s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c v a r i b l e s . INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL WORK I n e q u a l i t y of c o n d i t i o n s , as shown i n t h i s s t u d y , were proved t o be r e l a t e d i n p a r t t o the removal of c h i l d r e n from t h e i r homes, and t o the changes of the l e g a l s t a t u s a f t e r a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e . Of the n i n e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s choosen f o r t h i s s t u d y , the s t r o n g e s t i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c a t o r s were S o l i d a r i t y and A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n the p r o c e s s of i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t would seem a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s o c i a l workers t o d e v e l o p s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t i m p r o v i n g t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n s , i f the g o a l i s t o r e t u r n the c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r n a t u r a l homes. A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of the f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o the c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n and the changes of l e g a l s t a t u s were not r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S o c i a l - e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e s o n l y a p a r t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the phenomena of e n f o r c e d p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n . F u r t h e r s t u d y i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t h a t 89 comprehensive p l a n s f o r s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . 90 F o o t n o t e s j_ 1. See the Canadian C l a s s S t r u c t u r e , by Dennis F o r c e s e , McGraw H i l l , 1975, and S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : Canada, e d i t e d by J . E. C u r t i s and W. G. S c o t t , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979. 2. P.74 R. Love and M. C. W o l f s o n , Income I n e q u a l i t y :  S t a t i s t i c a l Methodology and Canadian I l l u s t r a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d by M i n i n s t r y of I n d u s t r y Trade and Commerce (Ottawa : S t a t i s t i c s Canada March, 1976). E x c e r p t e d from Leo A. Johnson 1979:141. 3. For a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d on the p u b l i c a t i o n of c h i l d abuse i n the 1960s and 1970s, see D. W e l l s , C h i l d Abuse : An Annotated  B i b l i o g r a p h y , Scarecrow P r e s s , 1980. 4. The dynamics of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n was i l l u s t r a t e d i n "Con c e p t u a l Frameworks For u n d e r s t a n d i n g F a m i l i e s " , by L. S. Dodson, i n John R. MacDonald, T r a i n i n g Program, O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y of Community and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , Aug. 1980, pp.109-1 17. 5. See The I n d i a n I d e n t i t y C r i s i s , by H. Zentner ( e d . ) , C a l g a r y : S t r a y e r P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1979. 6. The i s s u e of i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t was a d d r e s s e d t o Dr. Germain i n a workshop a t Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y , Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o , on May 25, 1981. Dr. Germain r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n among s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l groups was a dilemma f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s , but she d i d not o f f e r any s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem. 7. The i s s u e on c o n f o r m i n g s o c i a l study t o a n a t u r a l i s t i c methodology was r a i s e d by D. Thomas, i n N a t u r a l i s m and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e : A P o s t - E m p i r i c i s t P h i l o s o p h y of S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , Cambridge P r e s s , 1979. D i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d by C h a r l e s T a y l o r i n " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and The S c i e n c e s of Man", i n Review of M e t a p h y s i c s , V o l . 25, 1971-1972, pp.3-51, and by Theodor W. Adorno, " S o c i o l o g y and E m p i r i c a l R e s e a r c h " , i n C r i t i c a l S o c i o l o g y , ed. by P a u l C o n n e r t o n , Penguin, 1978. 8. For i n s i g h t f u l a n a l y s i s on t h e h i s t o r y of s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h , see Sidney E. Z i m b a l i s t , H i s t o r i c Themes and Landmarks  i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h , New York : Harper and Row, 1977. 9. The meaning of paradigm r e f e r s t o the d i s c i p l i n a r y m a t r i x f o l l o w e d by the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The v a r i o u s meanings of paradigm were d i s c u s s e d i n "The Paradigm Concept and S o c i o l o g y : A C r i t i c a l Review", by D. L. Eckbery and L. H i l l , J r . , i n American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1979, V o l . 44, ( D e c ) , pp.925-937. 10. New L e f t i s m i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m of human essence. I t i s a d i a l e c t i c a l t h e o r y of essence and appearance, and when 91 t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o s o c i a l t h e o r y , i t has the i d e a of human p r a c t i c a l - c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , or p r a x i s . New l e f t i s m , as a b e l i e f , s t r i v e s t o l i b e r a t e the i n i t i a t i o n s of s o l i d a r i t y and the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the p e o p l e . For a d e t a i l d i s c u s s o n on the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of New L e f t i s m , see The  O r i g i n s of Modern L e f t i s m , by R i c h a r d Gombin, P e l i c a n Book, 1975. 11. The aim of c r i t i c a l assessment of s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions of the d i a l e c t i c a l / c r i t i c a l s c h o o l . C r i t i c a l assessment i n v o l v e s not o n l y s t a t i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s and g i v e n e x p l a n a t i o n s , but a l s o o f f e r i n g c r i t i c a l judgments, which t r a n s c e n d e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t they not o n l y r e f e r t o what e x i s t s , but a l s o t o what does n o t , but s h o u l d , e x i s t (see Mayntz, e t a l 1976:24). For a thorough study on the o r i g i n and development of c r i t i c a l t h e o r y , see M a r t i n J a y , The  D i a l e c t i c a l I m a g i n a t i o n : A study of the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l and  the I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , Boston : L i t t l e , Brown, 1973. 12. As of March 31, 1980, the numbers of c h i l d r e n under the c a r e of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of C h i l d W e l f a r e were 233 and 69 i n Regions 1 and 15 r e s p e c t i v e l y . See M i n i s t r y of Human Resouces,  Annual R e p o r t , 1980, p.76. 13. The method of p a t h a n a l y s i s was i l l u s t r a t e d i n D e s c r i p t i v e  S t a t i s t i c s For S o c i o l o g i s t s , by L o e t h e r and M c t a v i s h , Boston : A l l y n & Bacon, 1974, pp.320-328. 14. For d e t a i l s on the c a l c u l a t i o n of e f f e c t c o e f f i c i e n t , see N i e , et a l , 1975, pp.384-392. 15. Max Weber, i n h i s study on power, i d e n t i f i e d c l a s s , s t a t u s , and p a r t y as the t h r e e major s o u r c e s of power. See Max Weber :  E s s ays i n S o c i o l o g y , t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by H. H. G e r t h and C. Wright M i l l s , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. 16. L. Johnson (1979a), i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the c a p i t a l i s t l a b o r market of Canada, c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d the e f f e c t s of the c o l l a p s e of the p r e c a p i t a l i s t economic o r d e r had on the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e of unemployment was b e i n g p a r t of i t . For a t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s on the r e l a t i o n s between s o c i e t y and p r o d u c t i o n , see "Toward a R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l i s m , " by Jurgen. Habermas, i n Communication and the  E v o l u t i o n of S o c i e t y , Boston : Beacon, 1979, pp.130-177. 92 REFERENCES : A l b e r t , M i c h a e l and Robin Hahnel 1978 UnQrthox Marxism : An Essay On C a p i t a l i s m , S o c i a l i s m  and R e v o l u t i o n , Boston: South End P r e s s . Amacher, Kloh-Ann and Ken M a i r 1 979 "Apprehensions of N a t i v e C h i l d r e n i n Vancouver: J u l y 1, 1978 through June 30,1979. An E x p l o r a t o r y Study," P r i v a t e paper. B a b b i e , E a r l R. 1 979 The P r a c t i c e of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , Wadsworth Pub. Comp., C a l i f o r n i a . B a i l e y , Roy and Mike Brake (ed.) 1 975 R a d i c a l S o c i a l Work, New York : Pantheon Books, Bourne, R i c h a r d and E l i H. Newberger (ed.) 1 979 C r i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on C h i l d Abuse, D.C: H e a l t h & Company. Brown, J . 1981 "Some E t i o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s and Treatment C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n C h i l d Abuse." i n E x p l o r i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p between  C h i l d Abuse and D e l i n q u e n c y , e d i t e d by R. J . Hunter and Y. E. Walker, New J e r s e y : A l l a n h e l d , Osmun & Comp. 1981 . B r y a n t , H. D. 1963 " P h y s i c a l Abuse of C h i l d r e n : An Agency Study," i n C h i l d W e l f a r e 42, pp.125-130. Canadian C h a r t e r of R i g h t s And Freedoms 1981 I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1981. 93 Clement, W a l l a c e 1980 " S e a r c h i n g For E q u a l i t y : The S o c i o l o g y of John P o r t e r , " i n Canadian J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  Theory, V o l . 4, No. 2, pp.97-114. Clement, W a l l a c e 1979 "Access t o the Canadian C o r p o r a t e E l i t e , " i n S o c i a l  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : Canada, e d i t e d by J . E . C u r t i s & W.G. S c o t t , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979. Compton, Beutah R. and B u r t Galaway 1979 S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e , Dorsey P r e s s . Connerton, P a u l 1978 C r i t i c a l S o c i o l o g y , P e n g u i n . Cunningham, R o s s a l l a 1 979 C h i l d Abuse and F a m i l y - c e n t e r e d C a r e , T o r o n t o U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . C u r t i s , J . E. and W. G. S c o t t (ed.) 1 979 S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : Canada, To r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o . Dodson, L.S. 1980 "Co n c e p t u a l Frameworks For U n d e r s t a n d i n g F a m i 1 i e s , " i n T r a i n i n g Program: I n t r o d u c t i o n & Readings, V o l . I , pp.109-117, e d i t e d by J . R. MacDonald. O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y of Community and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Doby, John T. 1954 An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , P e n n s y l v a n i a : The S t a c k p o l e Company. 94 F a n s h e l , D a v i d 1 976 " S t a t u s Changes of C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r Care : F i n a l R e s u l t s of the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y L o n g i t u d i n a l Study," i n C h i l d W e l f a r e Volume LV, Number 3, March 1976, pp.143-171. F a n s h e l , D a v i d and John Brundy November 1975 Computerized Data f o r C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r Care : F i r s t  A n a l y s i s from a Management I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e i n New  York C i t y . New York : C h i l d W e l f a r e I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s . Fontona, V i n c e n t J . and Douglas J . Besharov 1 979 The M a l t r e a t e d C h i l d , C h a r l e s C. Thomas. G a r b a r i n o , J . March 1976 "A P r e l i m i n a r y Study of Some E c o l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t e s of C h i l d Abuse : The Impact of Socio-economic S t r e s s on Mothers," i n C h i l d Development 47 : pp.178-185. G a r b a r i n o , J . & A. C r o u t e r 1978 A Note on the Problems of C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y i n A s s e s s i n g the U s e f u l n e s s of C h i l d M a l t r e a t m e n t Report Data," i n American J o u r n a l of P u b l i c H e a l t h 68 : pp.598-600. Geismar, Ludwig L. and B e v e r l y A y r e s 1960 M e a s u r i n g F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g : A Manual on a Method f o r E v a l u a t i n g the S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g of D i s o r g a n i z e d  F a m i l i e s , F a m i l y C e n t e r e d P r o j e c t , G r e a t e r S t . P a u l Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , I n c . S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . Geismar, Ludwig L. and K a t h e r i n e M. Wood May 1982 " E v a l u a t i n g P r a c t i c e : S c i e n c e as F a i t h , " i n S o c i a l  Casework, V o l . 63, Number 5. 95 G e l l e s , R i c h a r d J . 1975 "The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of C h i l d Abuse," i n American  J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 45 ( 3 ) , A p r i l 1975. G e l l e s , R i c h a r d J . 1 973 " C h i l d Abuse as P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y : a S o c i o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e & R e f o r m a t i o n , " i n American J o u r n a l of  O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 43 ( J u l y ) : 611-621. Germain, C a r e l B. (ed.) 1 979 S o c i a l Work P r a c i t c e : People and En v i r o n m e n t s , and  E c o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , New York : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Germain, C a r e l , and A l e x G i t t e r m a n 1980 The L i f e Model of S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e , New York : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . G e r t h , H. H. and C. Wright M i l l s ( t r a n s , and ed.) 1 976 • From Max Weber : Es s a y s i n S o c i o l o g y , New York : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . G i l , D a v i d G. A p r i l 1975 " U n r a v e l i n g C h i l d Abuse," i n Am. J . of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y 45(3) : 346-356. G i l , D a v i d G. May 1969 " P h y s i c a l Abuse of C h i l d r e n : F i n d i n g & I m p l i c a t i o n s of a N a t i o n w i d e Survey," i n P e d i a t r i c s 44 : 857. G o l d s t e i n , J . , A. F r e u d , and A. J . S o l n i t 1 973 Beyond the Best I n t e r e s t s of the C h i l d , New York : Free P r e s s . 96 Habermas, Jurgen 1 979 Communication and the E v o l u t i o n of S o c i e t y , Boston Beacon. H e i f e r , Ray E., and C. Henry Kempe (ed.) 1 976 C h i l d Abuse and N e g l e c t : The F a m i l y and the Community, Mass. : B a l l i n g e r Pub. Comp.. H e i f e r , R. and C H . Kempe (ed.) 1 968 The B a t t e r e d C h i l d , Chicago : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . H o l l i n g s h e a d , August B. and F r e d e r i c k C. R e d l i c h 1 958 S o c i a l C l a s s and M e n t a l I l l n e s s , New York : John Wiley, H o r o w i t z , B e r n a r d and I s a b e l Wolock 1981 " M a t e r i a l D e p r i v a t i o n , C h i l d M a l t r e a t m e n t , and Agency I n t e r v e n t i o n s Among Poor F a m i l i e s , " i n L. P e l t o n (ed.) 1981 . Hudson, Pete and Brad Mckenzie 1 981 " C h i l d W e l f a r e and N a t i v e People : The E x t e n s i o n of C o l o n i a l i s m , " i n The S o c i a l Worker , V o l . 4 9 , Number 2, Summer 1981. Hunt e r , Robert J . and Yvonne E l d e r Walker (ed.) 1981 E x p l o r i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p between C h i l d Abuse and  D e l i n q u e n c y , New J e r s e y : A l l a n h e l d , Osmun & Comp., J a y , M a r t i n 1973 The D i a l e c t i c a l I m a g i n a t i o n : a h i s t o r y of the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l and the I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h ,  1923-1950, Boston : L i t t l e , Brown. 97 J e n k i n s , S h i r l e y 1 967 " D u r a t i o n of F o s t e r Care : Some R e l e v a n t Antecedent V a r i a b l e s , " i n C h i l d W e l f a r e Oct. 1967, pp.450-455. Johnson, Leo A. 1979a " P r e c a p i t a l i s t Economic F o r m a t i o n s and the C a p t i a l i s t Labor Market i n Canada, 1911-1971," i n S o c i a l  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : Canada , e d i t e d by J.E. C u r i t s & W.G. S c o t t , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979, pp.89-104. Johnson, Leo A. 1 979b "Income D i s p a r i t y and the S t r u c t u r e of E a r n i n g i n Canada, 1946-74," i n J.E. C u r t i s and W.G. S c o t t (ed.) 1979, pp.141-158 K a d u s h i n , A l f r e d 1978 " C h i l d r e n In F o s t e r F a m i l i e s And I n s t i t u t i o n s , " i n S o c i a l S e r v i c e s R e s e a r c h , e d i t e d by H. Maas, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, I n c . , pp.90-148. Kempe, C. H., F.N. S i l v e r m a n , B.F. S t e e l e , W. Droeg e n m u e l l e r , and H. K. S i l v e r 1962. "The B a t t e r e d - C h i l d Syndrome," i n J o u r n a l of American  M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 181 : pp.107. K i t a , S t a n l e y 1980. UBC SPSS : S t a t i s t i c a l Package For the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V e r s i o n 8.00 (Under MTS). Computer C e n t e r , U.B.C. L e i s s , W i l l i a m 1 978 The L i m i t t o S a t i s f a c t i o n : On Needs and Commondities, London : Boyars. Maas, Henry S. (ed.) 1978 S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h : Reviews of S t u d i e s . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, I n c . . 98 Maas, Henry S. 1969 " C h i l d r e n i n Long-Term F o s t e r Care," i n C h i l d W e l f a r e Volume X L V I I I , Number 6, June 1969, pp.321-333. MacDonald, John R. (ed.) Aug. 1980. T r a i n i n g Program : I n t r o d u c t i o n & Re a d i n g s , V o l . 1 : A  B a s i c T r a i n i n g Program For F r o n t - L i n e P r o t e c t i o n S t a f f  And S u p e r v i s o r s of C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s i n the  P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y of Community and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . Mann, W. E. (ed.) 1970 P o v e r t y and S o c i a l P o l i c y i n Canada, Canada : Copp C l a r k Pub. Company. Marx, K a r l 1969 The Economic and P h i l o s o p h i c M a n u s c r i p t s , New World Pa p e r b a c k s . Matheson, Kenneth Douglas, and D a v i s Neave 1967 E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l Survey of C h i l d r e n A d m i t t e d t o Care i n  the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Master T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Mayntz, Renate, K u r t Holm, and Roger Huebner 1976 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E m p i r i c a l S o c i o l o g y , Penguin E d u c a t i o n . M i n i s t r y of Human Resources 1980 Annual Report 1980 : S e r v i c e s f o r P e o p l e , M i n i s t r y of Human Res o u r c e s , B.C.. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e 1981 M e a s u r i n g P o v e r t y : 1981 P o v e r t y L i n e s , Ottawa : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . 99 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e 1982 M e a s u r i n g P o v e r t y : 1982 P o v e r t y L i n e s , Ottawa : N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e March 1981 The Working Poor : a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e p r e p a r e d by  the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , Ottawa : Nat. C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e December 1979 In the Best I n t e r e s t s of the C h i l d : a r e p o r t by the  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e on the c h i l d w e l f a r e system  i n Canada, Ottawa : Nat. C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e Oct. 1979 Woman and P o v e r t y : a r e p o r t by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of  W e l f a r e , Ottawa : Nat. C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e Poor P e o p l e ' s Groups : a r e p o r t of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l  of W e l f a r e on s e l f - h e l p problem s o l v i n g by low-income  communities, Ottawa : Nat. C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e . Newberger, E l i H. 1979 "The Myth of the B a t t e r e d C h i l d Syndrome," i n Bourne and Newberger (ed.) 1979. N i e , Norman H., C. H a d l a i H u l l , J.G. J e n k i n s , K. S t e i n b r e n n e r , and D.H. Bent 1975. S t a t i s t i c a l Package For the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , McGraw-H a l l , Inc . . Nurse, S.M. 1966. " F a m i l i a l P a t t e r n s of P a r e n t s who Abuse t h e i r C h i l d r e n , " i n Smith C o l l e g e Study S o c i a l Work 35, pp.11-25. 100 P e l t o n , L e r o y H. (ed.) 1 981 The S o c i a l C o n t e x t of C h i l d Abuse & N e g l e c t . New York : Human S c i e n c e P r e s s . P o r t e r , John 1965 The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c , T o r o n t o : U n v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s . S m i t h , Selwyn M. 1975 The B a t t e r e d C h i l d Syndrome, B u t t e r w o r t h s . S t e e l e , B.F. and C.B. P o l l o c k 1 968 "A p s y c h i a r i c study of p a r e n t s who abuse i n f a n t s and s m a l l c h i l d r e n , " i n The B a t t e r e d C h i l d , e d i t e d by R.E. H e i f e r and C H . Kempe. Chicago : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s 1968. T a y l o r , C h a r l e s 1971 " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the S c i e n c e s of Man," i n Review of  M e t a p h y s i c s , V o l . 25, 1971-72, pp.3-51. Thomas, D a v i d . 1979 N a t u r a l i s m and S o c i a l S c i e n c e : A P o s t - E m p i r i c i s t  P h i l o s o p h y of S o c i a l S o c i e n c e , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . T r i p o d i , Tony, P h i l l i p F e l l i n , and Henry J . Meyer 1969 The Assessment of S o c i a l R esearch; G u i d e l i n e s f o r the  Use of Research i n S o c i a l Work and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . I t a s c a , 111. : F. E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r . Tuckey, E l i z a b e t h U. T. 1 967 F a m i l y I n f l u e n c e on C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Cases at the P o i n t  of A p p r e h e n s i o n and i n L a t o r F o s t e r C a r e , Master T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 101 Warner, W. L l o y d , M a r c h i a Meeker, and Kenneth E e l l s 1 949 S o c i a l C l a s s i n A m e r i c a , C h i c a g o , 111. : S c i e n c e Research A s s o c i a t e s . Young, L. 1 964 Wednesday's C h i l d r e n : A Study of C h i l d N e g l e c t &  Abuse, New York : McGraw-Hall. Zentner, H. (ed.) 1979 The I n d i a n I d e n t i t y C r i s i s , -u C a l g a r y : S t r a y e r  P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d . Z i m b a l i s t , S i d n e y E. 1977 H i s t o r i c Themes and Landmarks i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h , New York : Harper & Row. 102 APPENDIX I LETTER TO CHILD WELFARE SOCIAL WORKERS (To c h i l d w e l f a r e s o c i a l worker i d e n t i f i e d by Team C o o r d i n a t o r s i n Region 1 and 15; M i n i s t r y of Human Re s o u r c e s , c i t y of Vancouver.) Re: Study on the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P a t t e r n s of C h i l d i n Care F a m i l i e Dear f r i e n d : The purpose of t h i s study i s t o i d e n t i f y the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the c h i l d i n c a r e f a m i l y , and t o f i n d out the c o r r e l a t i o n between the f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and the c h i l d ' s l e g a l s t a t u s a t the time of the c h i l d ' s l a s t and second l a s t change of l e g a l s t a t u s . The n i n e socio-economic i n d i c a t o r s used i n t h i s s tudy a r e : 1. Annual Income 2. Sources of Inocme 3. O c c u p a t i o n 4. House Type 5. D w e l l i n g Area 6. L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n 7. Length of Employment or Unemployment 8. A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h 9. F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y . D e f i n i t i o n s of the 9 i n d i c a t o r s a r e a t t a c h e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I w i l l c o n t a c t you t o a r r a n g e an i n t e r v i e w . In the i n t e r v i e w , the i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l ask you a l l the q u e s t i o n s as those i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . You s h o u l d r e c e i v e a copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e one week b e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w , so t h a t you w i l l have ample time t o p r e p a r e . Your name and the name of the case w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . T h i s study has been approved by the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Human Resources (Mr. N o b l e ) , and by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n your R e g i o n a l o f f i c e . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not a mandatory one, and you have the r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h o u t j e o p a r d y t o your s t a t u s i n the agency. 103 I f you have any q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e don't h e s i t a t e t o c o n s u l t your Team C o o r d i n a t o r , or you may c o n t a c t me d i r e c t l y a t the UBC S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work. Thank you v e r y much f o r your a s s i s t a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n . Yours t r u l y , A l b e r t Chan Master of S o c i a l Work s t u d e n t U.B.C. 104 APPENDIX I I  QUESTIONNAIRE CASE IDENTITY NUMBER: DATE OF INTERVIEW: PLACE OF INTERVIEW: QUESTIONNAIRE A C h i l d p r o f i l e a t the time of a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e 1. Age: 2. Sex: 1. Female 3. R a c i a l O r i g i n : 1. C a u c a s i a n 4. M e t i s 7. Not Known 4. R e l i g i o n : 7, 8, 9, 1. P r o t e s t a n t 4. Others I n d i a n S t a t u s : 1 . Yes 2. Male 2. N a t i v e 3, 5. Negro 6, 2. C a t h o l i c 3, 5. No R e l i g i o n 6, No 6. Date of the l a t e s t a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e : Year Month Day_ A d m i t t i n g Region S u p e r v i s i n g Region: Reason f o r A d m i s s i o n : 2 1. p h y s i c a l abue 2. d e s e r t i o n or abandonment 3. e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e 4. one pa r e n t deceased As i a t i c O t h e r s J e w i s h Not Known Not Known 17. P a r e n t a l f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e m e d i c a l c a r e 18. p a r e n t ( s ) i m p r i s o n e d 19. i n a b l i l i t y of f a m i l y t o 105 5. s o l e p a r e n t deceased 6. p a r e n t a l s e x u a l d e v i a t i o n 20. 7. p a r e n t a l i l l n e s s , m e n t a l 21. 8. p a r e n t a l i l l n e s s , p h y s i c a l 22. 9. a w a i t i n g a d o p t i o n p a r e n t s 10. removed from a d o p t i o n 23. p a r e n t s 11. a w a i t i n g permanent p l a n 24. 12. p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p 25. 13. mental r e t a r d a t i o n 26. 14. d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o r 27. 15. t r a n s i e n t 28. 16. un m a r r i e d mother p r o v i d e needed e d u c a t i o n p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e r e q u e s t e d by another p r o v . l a c k of housing/accommoda. f o r f a m i l y group not a p p l i c a b l e not known s e x u a l abuse by neighbour e m o t i o n a l abuse n e g l e c t s e x u a l abuse by p a r e n t 10. L e g a l s t a t u s of the c h i l d a f t e r the l a s t change or e x t e n s i o n of o r d e r : 11. Date of the l a s t change or e x t e n s i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s : year month day 106 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e B F a m i l y p r o f i l e at the Time of the C h i l d ' s A d m i s s i o n t o c a r e 1. Head of Household: 2 1. b i o l o g i c a l f a t h e r 2, 3. b i o l o g i c a l g r a n d p a r e n t ( s ) 4, 5. r e l a t i v e 6, 7. o t h e r s : s p e c i f y 8. not known 2. Age of the Head of Household: 3. Sex of the Head of Household: 1. female 4. M a r i t a l S t a t u s : 1 . s i n g l e p a r e n t 3. s e p a r a t e d 5. widow or widower 7. o t h e r s : b i o l o g i c a l mother s t e p - p a r e n t f r i e n d of f a m i l y male 2. m a r r i e d 4. l i v i n g t o g e t h e r 6. d i v o r c e d 8. not known E t h n i c o r i g i n of the head of h o u s e h o l d : 2. N a t i v e 4. M e t i s 6. Others 1. C a u c a s i a n 3. A s i a t i c 5. Negro 7. Not Known Number of c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g w i t h the f a m i l y a t the ti m e s of the c h i l d ' s a d m i s s i o n t o c a r e : 7. Number of c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g w i t h the f a m i l y a t the time of the c h i l d ' s l a s t change or e x t e n s i o n of l e g a l s t a t u s : 8. F a m i l y ' s l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n the Region b e f o r e the c h i l d ' s a d m i s s s i o n t o c a r e : 1 07 QUESTIONNAIRE C The Socio-economic C o n d i t i o n s of the F a m i l y a t the Time the  C h i l d was g r a n t e d Temporary Wardship. 1. F a m i l y ' s Annual Income. : 3 1. lower p o v e r t y c l a s s 2. p o v e r t y c l a s s 3. lower c l a s s 4. lower m i d d l e c l a s s 5. m i d d l e c l a s s 6. upper midd l e c l a s s 7. upper c l a s s 8. not known 2. Sources of Income of the F a m i l y :* 1 . n o n r e s p e c t a b l e source 2. p u b l i c source 3. p r i v a t e source 4. wages 5. s a l a r y 6. p r o f i t s and f e e s 7. i n h e r i t e d and earned w e a l t h 8. not known 3. O c c u p a t i o n of the Head of the Household : 5 3. s e m i - s k i l l e d 5. t r a d e s p e r s o n 7. e n t r e p r e n e u r 1 . never been employed 2. 4. 6. 8. u n s k i l l e d s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l not known 4. House t y p e . 6 1. v e r y poor house 3. below average 5. above average 7. v e r y h i g h 2. 4. 6. 8. h i g h average h i g h not known 5. D w e l l i n g A r e a . 7 1. v e r y low 3. below average 5. above average 7. v e r y h i g h 2. 4. 6. 8. low average h i g h not known 108 QUESTIONNAIRE C (cont'd) 6. E d u c a t i o n of the Head of the Household : 1. no f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n 2. under 7 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g 3. between 7 and 11 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g 4. h i g h s c h o o l graduate 5. 1 t o 2 y e a r s c o l l e g e or j o b t r a i n i n g program 6. u n i v e r s i t y g raduate 7. p r o f e s s i o n a l degree 8. not known Length of c o n t i n u o u s employment or unemployment of the head of the h o u s e h o l d : 1 . unemployed more than 1 year 2. unemployed between 6 t o 11 months 3. unemployed l e s s than 6 months 4. employed l e s s than 6 months 5. employed between 6 t o 11 months 6. employed between 1 t o 2 y e a r s 7. employed more than 2 y e a r s 8. not known .8. F a m i l y ' s A s s o c i a t i o n S t r e n g t h w i t h s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , c h u r c h e s , community groups, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and extended f a m i l y : 8 1. poor 2. inadequate 3. below m a r g i n a l 4. m a r g i n a l 5. above m a r g i n a l 6. adequate 7. good 8. not known 9. F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y : 9 1. poor 2. inadequate 3. below m a r g i n a l 4. m a r g i n a l 5. above m a r g i n a l 6. adequate 7. good 8. not known 109 QUESTIONNAIRE D The Socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s of the f a m i l y a t the time of L e g a l  S t a t u s R e v i s i o n . 1. F a m i l y ' s Annual Income : 3 1. lower p o v e r t y c l a s s 2. p o v e r t y c l a s s 3. lower c l a s s 4. lower m i d d l e c l a s s 5. midd l e c l a s s 6. upper m i d d l e c l a s s 7. upper c l a s s 8. not known 2. Sources of Income of the F a m i l y : 4 1. n o n r e s p e c t a b l e s o u r c e 2. p u b l i c s o u r c e 3. p r i v a t e source 4. wages 5. s a l a r y 6. p r o f i t s and f e e s 7. i n h e r i t e d and earned w e a l t h 8. not known 3. O c c u p a t i o n of the Head of the Household : 5 3. s e m i - s k i l l e d 5. t r a n d e s p e r s o n 7. e n t r e p r e n e u r 1 . never been employed 2. 4. 6. 8. u n s k i l i e d s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l not known 4. House type 1. v e r y poor house 3. below average 5. above average 7. v e r y h i g h 2. 4. 6. 8. h i g h average h i g h not known 5. D w e l l i n g Area . 7 1. v e r y low 3. below average 5. above average 7. v e r y h i g h 2. 4. 6. 8. low average h i g h not known 1 10 QUESTIONNAIRE D (c o n t ' d ) E d u c a t i o n of the Head of the Household : 1. no f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n 2. under 7 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g 3. between 7 and 11 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g 4. h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e 5. 1 t o 2 y e a r s c o l l e g e or j o b t r a i n i n g program 6. u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e 7. p r o f e s s i o n a l degree 8. not known Length of c o n t i n u o u s employment or unemployment of the head of the h o u s e h o l d : 1. unemployed more than 1 year 2. unemployed between 6 t o 11 months 3. unemployed l e s s t h a n 6 months 4. employed l e s s than 6 months 5. employed between 6 t o 11 months 6. employed between 1 t o 2 y e a r s 7. employed more than 2 y e a r s 8. not known F a m i l y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h w i t h s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , c h u r c h e s , community groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and extended f a m i l y : 8 1. poor 2. in a d e q u a t e 3. below m a r g i n a l 4. m a r g i n a l 5. above m a r g i n a l 6. adequate 7. good 8. not known 9. F a m i l y S o l i d a r i t y : 9 1. poor 2. in a d e q u a t e 3. below m a r g i n a l 4. m a r g i n a l 5. above m a r g i n a l 6. adequate 7. good 8. not known 111 Notes : 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s of reasons f o r a d m i s s i o n used i n t h i s s tudy a r e c o p i e d from the M i n i s t r y of Human Resourc e s ' C h i l d A c t i v i t y Form (HR 1629 C h i l d Care A c t i v i t y Form 81/05). 2. The person w i t h the major f a m i l y income s h o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d as the f a m i l y ' s head of h o u s e h o l d . 3. The f a m i l y ' s annual income l e v e l s a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. lower p o v e r t y c l a s s : f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l income i s 20% lower than the l i n e of p o v e r t y s e t t e d by the Senate Committee on P o v e r t y (see Appendix A f o r the s e t of p o v e r t y l i n e ) . 2. p o v e r t y c l a s s : f a m i l y ' s annual income i s 80-100% of the p o v e r t y l i n e s e t t e d by the Senate Committee on p o v e r t y . 3. lower c l a s s : f a m i l y ' s annual income i s above the Senates's l i n e of p o v e r t y but i s below 20,000. 4. l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s : the f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l income i s from 20,000 t o 34,999. 5. m i d d l e c l a s s : f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l income i s from 35,000 t o 49,999. 6. m i d d l e c l a s s : f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l income i s from 50,000 t o 70,000. 7. upper c l a s s : the f a m i l y ' s a n n u a l income i s above 70,000. 4. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s o u r c e s of income a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w : 1. n o n r e s p e c t a b l e s o u r c e : money o b t a i n e d from i l l e g a l o c c u p a t i o n , i . e . s t e a l i n g , gambling, p r o s t i t u t i o n , and e t c 2. p u b l i c source : money r e c e i v e d from a government agency or from some s e m i p u b l i c c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s P e n s i o n , U.I.C., and o t h e r Income A s s i s t a n c e . 3. p r i v a t e source : money r e c e i v e d from f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , c h u r c h e s , community a s s o c i a t i o n , and e t c . . 1 1 2 4. wages : amount i s d e t e r m i n e d by h o u r l y or d a i l y r a t e s . 5. s a l a r y : r e g u l a r income p a i d f o r s e r v i c e s on a monthly or y e a r l y b a s i s . T h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e s the commission type of s a l a r y p a i d t o s a l e s p e r s o n s . 6. p r o f i t s and f e e s : money p a i d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s f o r s e r v i c e s and a d v i c e . T h i s a l s o i n c l u d e s the money made by owners of b u s i n e s s f o r s a l e of goods, and r o y a l t i e s p a i d t o w r i t e r s , muscians, and the l i k e . 7. i n h e r i t e d and earned w e a l t h : money made by p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s money d e r i v e d from s a v i n g and i n t e r e s t s or b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s i n h e r i t e d from an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n . Or money from s a v i n g , investment or i n t e r e s t s from c a p i t a l w hich has amassed s u f f i c i e n t money so t h a t the person does not need t o work. 5. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of o c c u p a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. never been employed : a pers o n who has never worked f o r wages, commission, and the l i k e . 2. u n s k i l l e d : manual l a b o r which does not r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g . T h i s i n c l u d e s heavy l a b o r , m i g r a n t work, odd-j o b man, j a n i t o r s , newsboys, migrant farm workers and the l i k e . 3. s e m i - s k i l l e d : manual l a b o r t h a t r e q u i r e s some e x p e r i e n c e , s k i l l s or t r a i n i n g , i . e . f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , gas s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s , n i g h t watchmen, w a i t e r and w a i t r e s s , e t c . . 4. s k i l l e d : manual l a b o r or o f f i c e work t h a t r e q u i r e s t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . T h i s i n c l u d e s bank c l e r k s , p lumbers, e l e c t r i c i a n s , r e p a i r m e n , o p e r a t o r s , b a r b e r s , b a r t e n d e r s , c h e f , s e c r e t a r i e s , n u r s e - a i d s , c o n t r a c t o r s , e t c . . 5. t r a d e s p e r s o n : j o b s which s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e but do not r e q u i r e degree or c e r t i f i c a t i o n , i . e . manager, s a l e s p e r s o n , e x e c u t i v e s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e t c . . 6. p r o f e s s i o n a l : j o b s which r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l degree and c e r t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s c h a r t e r a c c o u n t a n t s , e n g i n e e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , j u d g e s , d o c t o r s , n u r s e s , e t c . . 7. e n t r e p r e n e u r : pe r s o n s who a r e the owners or the t o p e x e c u t i v e s of l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s , e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r s and the 1 1 3 l i k e . 6. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of house-type a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s * : 1. v e r y poor house : houses which have d e t e r i o r a t e d so f a r t h a t they cannot be r e p a i r e d . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n h e a l t h y and unsafe t o l i v e i n . 2. poor houses : houses which a r e b a d l y run down, but have not d e t e r i o r a t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t h a t they cannot be r e p a i r e d . Houses l a c k b a s i c maintenance. 3. f a i r houses : houses which a r e crowded but are kept i n r e a s o n a b l e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n . 4. average houses : houses which have s u f f i c i e n t rooms and space f o r the f a m i l y and are f u r n i s h e d w i t h b a s i c n e c e s s i t y . 5. good houses : houses which are s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than u t i l i t y demands, and a r e c o m f o r t a b l y f u r n i s h e d . 6. v e r y good houses : houses which have abundant rooms and space and a r e f u r n i s h e d w i t h e x p e n s i v e f u r n i t u r e s . The houses a r e surrounded w i t h n i c e s i z e lawn and y a r d . 7. e x c e l l e n t houses : houses which a r e v e r y l a r g e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g i n good r e p a i r and surrounded by l a r g e lawn and y a r d . The houses are w e l l d e s i g n e d and l a n d s c a p e d , and w e l l c a r e d f o r . The houses have an element of o s t e n t a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i z e , a r c h i t e c t u a l s t y l e , and g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s of y a r d and lawn. * The d e s c r i p t i o n of the houses' c o n d i t i o n s i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o a p a r t m e n t s . 7. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of d w e l l i n g a r e a are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. v e r y low : slum d i s t r i c t s , the a r e s w i t h the p o o r e s t r e p u t a t i o n , not o n l y because of u n p l e a s a n t and and u n h e a l t h y g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s , but a l s o because of the s o c i a l s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o those who l i v e t h e r e . 2. low : t h e s e a r e a s are run down and semislum. The houses a r e s e t c l o s e t o g e t h e r and a r e i n poor c o n d i t i o n . The s t r e e t s and y a r d s a r e o f t e n f i l l e d w i t h d e b r i s and waste. 3. below average : these a r e a s are u n d e s i r a b l e t o l i v e 1 1 4 because they are c l o s e t o f a c t o r y , r a i l r o a d or o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . Some of the houses i n t h e s e a r e a s a r e run down. 4. average : houses i n these a r e a s a r e s m a l l and u n p r e t e n t i o u s but neat i n appearance. 5. above average : t h i s i s an a r e a of n i c e but not p r e t e n t i o u s houses. The s t r e e t s a r e kept c l e a n and the houses and lawn surrounded the houses a r e w e l l c a r e d f o r . I t i s known as "a n i c e p l a c e t o l i v e " . 6. h i g h : a r e a s which a r e f e l t t o be w e l l above average. There are mansion and l a r g e houses w i t h huge w e l l c a r e d f o r lawn and y a r d s . 7. v e r y h i g h : t h i s a r e a has a h i g h s t a t u s r e p u t a t i o n . The s t r e e t s a r e wide and c l e a n , and have many t r e e s . The b e s t and most e x p e n s i v e houses a r e l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a . 8. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of f a m i l y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. poor : extreme h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e towards s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , c h u r c h e s , community groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and extended f a m i l y . 2. inadequate : a t t i t u d e i s h o s t i l e ; r e f u s e t o c o o p e r a t e . 3. below m a r g i n a l : a t t i t u d e i s somewhat h o s t i l e ; m i n i m a l c o n t a c t ; and u n w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . 4. m a r g i n a l : show i n d i f f e r e n c e towards any persons from the above groups; f a m i l y members ar e a p a t h e t i c and take no i n i t i a t i o n t o r e a c h o u t . 5. above m a r g i n a l : show some i n t e r e s t s t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t but a r e w i l l i n g not t o t r y t o work w i t h c o n t a c t e d r e s o u r c e s i n any p o s i t i v e sense. 6. aequate : show i n t e r e s t s and i n i t i a t i v e s , and a r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n r e g u l a r c o n t a c t . There a r e s i g n s of improvement. 7. good : p o s i t i v e and h e a l t h y a t t i t u d e , f a m i l y members show i n t e r e s t s and t a k e i n i t i a t i v e t o c o n t a c t o t h e r s , and a r e a b l e t o form m e a n i n g f u l and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h them. 1 1 5 9. The v a r i o u s l e v e l s of f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. poor : marked l a c k of a f f e c t i o n and e m o t i o n a l t i e s among f a m i l y members. C o n f l i c t among members are p e r s i s t e n t or s e v e r e . P h y s i c a l h e a l t h of f a m i l y members i s i n danger. 2. i n a d e q u a t e : marked l a c k of a f f e c t i o n and e m o t i o n a l t i e s among f a m i l y members. C o n f l i c t among members are p e r s i s t e n t or s e v e r e , but members' p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i s not i n danger. 3. below m a r g i n a l : n e a r l y no a f f e c t i o n and e m o t i o n a l t i e s among f a m i l y members. F a m i l y c o n f l i c t always ends i n d i r e c t v e r b a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n . 4. m a r g i n a l : l i t t l e e m o t i o n a l warmth e v i d e n c e d among f a m i l y members. F a m i l y members o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t , but not n e c e s s a r i l y ended i n d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . Members have no sense of s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b l i 1 i t y . W e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n i s p o t e n t i a l l y but not y e t i n a c t u a l danger. 5. above m a r g i n a l : l i t t l e e m o t i o n a l warmth but few c o n f l i c t s . Members eat and do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r but are unable t o make l o n g term p l a n f o r the f a m i l y . 6. adequate : warmth and a f f e c t i o n shown among f a m i l y members. W i l l i n g n e s s t o share some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but sometimes cannot c a r r y o u t . F a m i l y members can d i s c u s s problems but a r e not a b l e t o re a c h r e s o l u t i o n h a r m o n i c a l l y . 7. good : warmth and a f f e c t i o n shown among f a m i l y members; g i v i n g them a sense of b e l o n g i n g and e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . C o n f l i c t d e a l t w i t h q u i c k l y and a p p r o p r i a t e l y . D e f i n i t e e v i d e n c e of c o h e s i v e n e s s . Members f i n d c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t i s f a c t i o n i n f a m i l y l i v i n g . APPENDIX SENATE COMMITTEE POVERTY LINE OF 1981  F a m i l y S i z e P o v e r t y L i n e 20% lower than the P o v e r t y L i n e 1- $ 6,960 l e s s than 5,568 2- 11,600 l e s s than 9,280 3. 13,920 l e s s than 11,136 4- 16,250 l e s s than 12,992 5. 18,560 l e s s than 14,848 6- 20,880 l e s s than 16,704 7 or more. 23,200 l e s s than 18,560 1 17 APPENDIX I I I DATA RECORDING SHEET Case I d e n t i t y Number : (1-2) Date of I n t e r v i e w : (3-4) P l a c e of I n t e r v i e w : (5-6) P a r t A P a r t C 1. ( 9-10) 1 . (46) 2. ( 11 ) 2. (47) 3. ( 12 ) 3. (48) 4. ( 13 ) 4. (49) 5. ( 14 ) 5. (50) 6. (15-16) 6. (51) 7. (17-18) 7. (52) 8. (19-20) 8. (53) 9. (21-22) 9. (54) 10. 1 1 . (25-26) (28-29) ( 31 ) (32-33) P a r t B 1. (35) 2. (36-37) 3. ( 38 ) 4. ( 39 ) 5. ( 40 ) 6. ( 41 ) 7- ZZZZZZ^^ < 4 2 > 8. ( 43 ) P a r t D 1. (60) 2- Z I ^ Z ^ Z Z (61) 3. (62) 4. (63) 5. (64) 6. (65) 7. (66) 8. (67) 9. (68) 118 APPENDIX IV CONSENT FORM Re: Study on the S o c i a l - E c o n o m i c P a t t e r n s  of C h i l d - S e p a r a t e d F a m i l i e s I , , C h i l d W e l f a r e S o c i a l Worker of Region , M i n i s t r y of Human Res o u r c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the nature of t h i s s t u d y , and am f u l l y aware of my r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , hereby, ( c o n s e n t / r e f u s e ) , t o be i n t e r v i e w e d by A l b e r t Chan, i n v e s t i g a t o r of t h i s p r o j e c t . I t i s my u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t my name and the names of the case used i n t h i s study w i l l remained c o n f i d e n t i a l . S i g n a t u r e Date of S i g n a t u r e 

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