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The status of stringed instrument instruction in the public elementary and secondary schools of British… Van Ooyen, Peter C. 1982

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THE STATUS OF STRINGED INSTRUMENT INSTRUCTION IN THE PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by PETER C. VAN OOYEN B.A., Calv i n College, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MUSIC EDUCATION, THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982 © Peter C. Van Ooyen, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of the study i s to i d e n t i f y and describe stringed i n s t r u -ment programs i n the p u b l i c elementary and secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1980-1981 school year. The study i s concerned with three main aspects. F i r s t , the s e t t i n g of each program within the com-munity and the general music program of the d i s t r i c t i s described. This d e s c r i p t i o n includes a sampling of program ra t i o n a l e s and goals. Because the programs studied are d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs, the d i s t r i c t music ad-mi n i s t r a t o r ' s r o l e i n the program i s outlined. Second, selected features of the program are compared. These include various aspects of enrolment and c l a s s s i z e , as well as the number, sex, and experience of teachers and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n and diplomas. Also d e a l t with are as-pects of the program of i n s t r u c t i o n , including the basic i n s t r u c t i o n a l format and teaching approach; the use of method books and materials; meth-ods of recruitment and student screening; and scheduling procedures and administrative and teaching devices employed to f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , some problems i n p u b l i c school s t r i n g pro-grams of B r i t i s h Columbia are discussed which have possible implications f o r the v i a b i l i t y of such programs. A personal interview was conducted with a l l teachers of the s t r i n g programs and with the d i s t r i c t music administrators. In each d i s t r i c t an a r b i t r a r y sample of classes was observed to determine the method of i n s t r u c t i o n and gather student data. A standard question format was used i i i with a l l , respondents. The data acquired from interviews and observations were entered into the guide during the interview. Data were c o l l a t e d and the numerical r e s u l t s tabulated. An analysis was made in terms of tables using arithmetic means and percentages. Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia are a lack of uniformity i n almost a l l aspects of programming and the r e l a -t i v e l y l i m i t e d involvement of students, teachers, and others i n the school communities. The nine d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs studied have l i t t l e i n common, not conforming to an acceptable standard, i f i n f a c t any such stan-dard e x i s t s . This non-uniformity i s seen i n such diverse factors as the socio-geographical o r i e n t a t i o n and the i n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s u t i l i z e d . The s e t t i n g of s t r i n g programs varies i n character (a metropolitan c i t y and environs, r u r a l and semi-rural areas) with populations ranging from a low of 30000 to 410000 and corresponding school d i s t r i c t sizes rang-ing from 6000 to 55500 students. C u l t u r a l resources such as orchestras, c h o i r s , and other arts organizations are found i n a l l areas. S t r i n g program a c t i v i t y i s extremely l i m i t e d i n scope. A very small percentage of a l l d i s t r i c t students, teachers, and schools were found to be involved i n s t r i n g s . This percentage contrasts sharply with the large per-centage of these involved i n band programs. Furthermore, scheduling c l a s s -es and ensemble rehearsals i s a problem. Many classes must be held out-side normal school hours or at a ce n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t , making p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f i c u l t f o r a percentage of students. Perhaps because of competition with other e l e c t i v e courses, students often choose not to take orchestra c l a s s e s , and in f a c t r e s u l t s of the study indicate that there are a very small number of classes i n st r i n g s or orchestra at the secon-dary l e v e l s . Most p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s at the beginning l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n . Further research would be u s e f u l regarding the m o t i v a t i o n f o r teachers t o enter the f i e l d of p u b l i c school s t r i n g e d instrument teaching, common character t r a i t s of these teachers, t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n s t r i n g e d instrument education pedagogy, and t h e i r l o n g e v i t y w i t h i n the f i e l d s ; the appropriateness of s t r i n g e d instrument i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n the context of p u b l i c school music education as compared t o other i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundation f o r p u b l i c s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , and i t s e f f e c t upon the success of s t r i n g programs. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES ' v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Purpose of the Study 1 1. 2 The Need for the Study 1 1.3 Other Information Concerning Public School Str i n g Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia 3 1.4 Selected Theses and Other Material Related to the S t r i n g Programs 6 1.5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 10 1.6 The Scope of the Study 12 1.7 Limits of the Study 13 1.8 Determination of S t r i n g Programs for Study . 13 1.9 The Instrument for Data C o l l e c t i o n 14 1.10 The Design of the Study 14 2. PROFILES OF INDIVIDUAL DISTRICT STRING PROGRAMS . 15 Summary 23 3. COMPARISONS OF DISTRICT STRING PROGRAMS • 26 3.1 Students 26 3.1.1 Enrolment 26 3.1.2 Enrolment by Grade Level 28 3.1.3 Estimated A t t r i t i o n 29 3.1.4 Male-Female Ratios • . . 30 3.1.5 Enrolment by Instrument. 31 3.2 Teachers 32 3.2.1 Selected C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 32 3.2.2 Types of Instrument Instructed and Teachers , : Previous Instrument Tr a i n i n g . . . . . . 34 3.2.3 Diplomas Earned . . . . . 35 3.2.4 Membership i n Professional Organizations 36 3.2.5 'Other Past and Current Teaching Experience and Professional A c t i v i t y 37 3.3 Programs of Instruction 38 3.3.1 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Formats and Approaches . . . . . . . . 38 3.3.2 Courses and Ensembles Within the Programs . . . . . . 42 3.3.3 Range of Class Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.3.4 Method Books and Supplementary Materials . . . . . . 44 v v i 3.3.5 Recruitment 45 3.3.6 Screening 46 3.3.7 Scheduling 47 3.3.8 Administrative and Teaching Practices To Aid I nstruction 48 3.3.9 Administrative and Teaching Practices To F a c i l i t a t e Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n 51 3.4 Summary 53 4. CONCLUSION 58 4.1 Problems i n S t r i n g Programs 58 4.1.1 The Setting 58 4.1.2 The Support Structure 63 4.1.3 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Format 68 4.1.4 Selected Procedures A f f e c t i n g Size and Form of S t r i n g Programs 70 4.2 Summary Conclusions ' 73 4.3 Suggestions for Further Study 75 5. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPENDICES 76 Selected Bibliography 76 5.1 Appendix I — T a b l e XXI--Area Populations and School D i s t r i c t Data 77 5.2 Appendix II-- L e t t e r to D i s t r i c t Music Administrators . . . . 78 5.3 Appendix III--Interview/Observation Instrument 79 5.4 Appendix IV—Key to Abbreviations 82 •5.5 Appendix V--Table XXII--Method Books, Supplementary Materials, and Orchestra Materials Used i n Stri n g Programs 83 LIST OF TABLES I. Schools, Teachers, Students Involved i n S t r i n g Programs . . . 24 I I . Enrolment i n Str i n g Programs and Ensemble P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . 26 I I I . Enrolment i n Selected Grade Levels 28 IV. Estimated A t t r i t i o n 29 V. Male and Female Enrolment 30 VI. Enrolment by Instrument 31 VII. Selected C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Teachers and S t r i n g Teaching Load 33 VIII. Types of Instrument Instructed and Teachers' Previous Instru-ment Study 34 IX. Diplomas Earned by Teachers 35 X. Teacher Membership in Professional Organizations 36 XI. Other Teacher Experience 37 XII. Courses and Ensembles Within the Programs 42 XIII. Range of Class Size 44 XIV. Use of Method Books and Supplementary Materials 45 XV. Methods of Recruitment 46 XVI. Scheduling of Instruction 48 XVII. Use of Equipment to A i d i n Teaching 49 XVIII. A c t i v i t i e s Outside Regular Classes 51 XIX. Provision of Instruments . 53 XX. Comparison of S t r i n g Program Enrolment i n D i s t r i c t s of Simi-l a r Size 60 XXI. Area Populations and School D i s t r i c t Data 77 XXII. Method Books, Supplementary Materials, and Orchestra Materi*-a l s Used i n S t r i n g Programs 83 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to si n c e r e l y thank the s t r i n g teachers and music adminis-t r a t o r s who w i l l i n g l y gave of t h e i r time to share t h e i r procedures, con-cerns and ideas. I also wish to acknowlege Dr. G.C. Trowsdale for h i s kind prod-ding and perceptive suggestions, and Prof. Hans-Karl P i l t z and Dr. Frank Gamble for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments. Peter C. Van Ooyen v i i i 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study i s to i d e n t i f y and describe stringed i n s t r u -ment programs in the public elementary and secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1980-1981 school year. The locations of s t r i n g pro-grams i n the province are i d e n t i f i e d and a p r o f i l e i s presented including t h e i r s e t t i n g and t h e i r major features. In addition, selected aspects of the programs are compared i n d e t a i l . These include the size of e n r o l -ment, information about teachers, and p r a c t i c e s u t i l i z e d within the pro-grams. Problems in s t r i n g program maintenance and growth are a l s o con-sidered. The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be useful to those intere s t e d in the improvement of current s t r i n g programs or i n the implementation of new ones. 1.2 The Need for the Study Cursory observations spanning approximately s i x years had given the writer the impression that stringed instrument a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia pub l i c schools was rather l i m i t e d . When concerts were presented by public schools, stringed instruments r a r e l y seemed to be involved. In discussions with fellow music d i r e c t o r s and administrators, t h i s writer received i n d i -cations that l i t t l e stress was placed on the teaching and playing of stringed instruments other than g u i t a r . However the number and v a r i e t y of wind groups seemed to be expanding to include jazz ensembles. Furthermore, 2 d i r e c t o r s spoke of band t r i p s abroad or appearances in i n t e r n a t i o n a l music f e s t i v a l s , but few s t r i n g groups from B r i t i s h Columbia seemed to take part in these events. Upon further i n v e s t i g a t i o n three factors became evident which may a f f e c t the current state of s t r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t i s the minimal attention given to s t r i n g programs i n comparison to band instrument programs at conferences for music educators held i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Examination of b u l l e t i n s for such conferences held since 1960 revealed that seven conferences included minor workshops i n s t r i n g p l aying techniques or orchestra demonstrations, and only two conferences included major presentations on stringed instruments. In contrast, major attention including workshops i n instrumental techniques, group teaching techniques, and reading sessions was given to band programs i n a l l conferences."'" The second factor i s that the teacher t r a i n i n g courses offered by the music education departments of The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and The University of V i c t o r i a do not include the teaching of stringed i n s t r u -2 ments. The Department of Music ( d i s t i n c t from the Department of Music Education) of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r s a two-unit course in which the fundamental, techniques and pedagogy of s t r i n g education are taught, incorporating a review of s t r i n g c l a s s methods and materials. A s i m i l a r course, but of only one and one-half units c r e d i t , i s of f e r e d by ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educators'Association (personal f i l e s of the association president), Vancouver, B.C. 2 The 1981-82 course calendar of The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia states that s t r i n g s are part of the instrumental techniques course (p. 260) but a check with the Department of Music Education confirmed that stringed instruments were dropped many years ago. Reasons for t h i s discrepancy were not given. The course in instrumental techniques l i s t e d i n the 1981-82 calendar of the University of V i c t o r i a (p. 163) does not indicate i n s t r u c t i o n of stringed instruments. This was also confirmed by chairman of the Department of Music Education. 3 3 The University of V i c t o r i a . However, since teacher t r a i n i n g i n stringed instruments i s not a part of music education i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s of the province, the question a r i s e s whether there i s much demand for such teachers. F i n a l l y , music educators and administrators admit a lack of awareness concerning the existence of stringed instrument programs. Their responses to queries about the existence of such programs indicate that there i s l i t t l e communication about stringed instrument programs. Because of the l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y of s t r i n g groups, and the three factors mentioned above, a number of questions a r i s e concerning the status of e x i s t i n g programs. 1.3 Other Information Concerning Public'School  S t r i n g Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia At present there i s l i t t l e information concerning s t r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educator, published by the B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educators' Association, contains few a r t i c l e s that even i n d i r e c t l y report on stringed instrument a c t i v i t i e s i n the public schools. Several a r t i c l e s have reported on the Suzuki-method c l a s s e s a t the Community Music School of Vancouver. One report, " P r o f i l e of a Begin-ning St r i n g Program," points out the s a l i e n t features of a 1966 program 4 5 in Washington State. Another a r t i c l e , "Is S t r i n g Training at an Impasse?" i s concerned with teacher t r a i n i n g rather than with s t r i n g programs. The few a d d i t i o n a l i n c l u s i o n s i n The B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educator r e l a t e d 3 1981-82 Calendar, The Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, B.C.), p. 292; The University of V i c t o r i a Calendar 1981-82 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.) , p. 182. 4 G.C. Trowsdale, " P r o f i l e of a Beginning S t r i n g Program," The  B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educator 10 (Spring 1967) : 14-15. ^ J . Kessler, "Is S t r i n g Training at an Impasse?" The B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educator 16 (Spring 1973) : 45. to s t r i n g s are concerned only w i t h techniques of teaching and p l a y i n g . I t i s easy t o develop the impression t h a t few, i f any, programs i n the province have had f e a t u r e s m e r i t i n g p u b l i c i t y . The only s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n was the survey conducted i n 1967 by H. Klyne Headley f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Music E d u c a t o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n : "The Status of Instrumental Music i n the P u b l i c Schools of B r i t i s h 6 Columbia." A questionnaire t h a t Headley sent out to 44 3 teachers i n the music f i e l d contained s i x items concerning s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The responses of the one hundred teachers who returned the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i n d i c a t e the p a u c i t y of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n at t h a t time. Fourteen i n d i c a t e d t h a t they taught v i o l i n ; n i n e , v i o l a ; t h i r t e e n , c e l l o ; and 7 8 twenty, double bass. F i f t e e n teachers responded t h a t they taught the 9 four o r c h e s t r a l s t r i n g instruments. Furthermore, seven teachers i n d i -cated t h a t they were "... .the only teacher t e a c h i n g intermediate and advanced o r c h e s t r a l s t r i n g e d instrument p l a y e r s , " 1 0 whereas s i x t e e n i n -d i c a t e d t h a t they were not the only teacher. Only three teachers r e p o r t e d t h a t they taught s t r i n g s together w i t h wind instruments, and fourteen r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d so s e p a r a t e l y . 1 1 No c l e a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n Headley's r e p o r t concerning the a c t u a l number of s t r i n g teachers i n the p r o v i n c e . From the items men-ti o n e d above i t can be seen t h a t the numbers ranged from a p o s s i b l e fourteen 6 H. Klyne Headley, "The Status of Instrumental Music Education i n the P u b l i c Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia," survey prepared f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia Music E d u c a t o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed (Vancouver, B.C.: 31 March 1967), p. 94. 7 The d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of double basses reported may be due to the f a c t t h a t band programs o f t e n i n c l u d e t h i s instrument. ^Headley, p. 63. 9 I b i d . , p. 69. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 73. "'""'"Ibid. , p. 65. 5 to a maximum of twenty-three teachers. In contrast, however, the number of educators teaching band instruments ranged from eighteen for bassoon 12 to eighty-seven for f l u t e , the average being sixty-two for any one instrument. In addition, i t i s not c l e a r whether Headley sought to determine i n s t r u c t o r s ' c a p a b i l i t i e s in teaching p a r t i c u l a r instruments or to estab-l i s h whether they a c t u a l l y taught these students. However, a question concerning the number of s t r i n g students taking p r i v a t e lessons revealed that teachers responding to t h i s item had a t o t a l of sixty-two v i o l i n , 13 three v i o l a , . s i x c e l l o , and t h i r t e e n double bass students. The t o t a l of eighty-four s t r i n g students i n the province i s seen i n sharp contrast 14 to the reported t o t a l . o f 9690 instrumental music students. F i n a l l y , i t i s important to note the d i v e r s i t y of materials used by s t r i n g teachers in the province at that time. Eight teachers used.one' of three d i f f e r e n t method books. The remainder used t h i r t e e n other as-sorted p u b l i c a t i o n s . 1 ^ This d i v e r s i t y seems to point to pronounced individualism or e c l e c t i c i s m in s t r i n g teaching. Su b s t a n t i a l l y greater uniformity i s apparent i n band because a majority of band teachers r e -16 ported the use of one of only two d i f f e r e n t method books. Although the Headley survey leaves much to be desired i n describing the status of instrumental music, and therefore s t r i n g programs, i t pro-vides some useful i n s i g h t into the l i m i t e d scope of these programs during the l a t e r 1960s. The only a d d i t i o n a l source of information that deals with s t r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c schools i s the B r i t i s h Columbia Music 12 . , p. 63. 13 Ibid. 72. 14 Ibi d . , p. 77-85. Ibid / P-15 Ibi d . 74-75. 16 Ibid., p. 74. , P-6 17 Curriculum Resource Guide. The newest e d i t i o n i s the f i r s t to include objectives and resources for stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n . The guide does not, however, provide information about current s t r i n g programs. The aforementioned dearth of information indicates a need f o r a com-prehensive study of s t r i n g programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c schools. 1.4 Selected Theses and Other Material  Related to the Stri n g Programs There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of published material surveying the status of stringed instrument programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c schools. However, c e r t a i n studies conducted i n the United States have some r e l e -vance to t h i s present study. A thesis by Paul Barton Grover, "The History of St r i n g Class In-st r u c t i o n i n American Schools and Its Relationship to School Orches-18 t r a s , " provides useful i n s i g h t into the e f f e c t that s o c i o - c u l t u r a l conditions had upon stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n during four d i s t i n c t time periods. The i n i t i a l period Grover o u t l i n e s , from 1911 (when the f i r s t known stringed instrument c l a s s was taught i n Boston, Massachusetts) u n t i l WWI, was a time of disagreement between advocates of pri v a t e i n -str u c t i o n and advocates of cla s s i n s t r u c t i o n methods. Playing the v i o l i n became as popular a pastime as guitar playing i s cu r r e n t l y . The popu-l a r i t y of the v i o l i n continued into the second period delineated by Grover. During t h i s time, from WWI to the Depression, there was increased 17 Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Branch, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Music Curriculum Guide: Secondary 8-12 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C. : 1980) , pp. 127-142. 18 Paul Barton Grover, "The History of St r i n g Class Instruction i n American Schools and Its Relationship to School Orchestras," University Microfilm Reproduction, LC MIC 60-3924, 1960. 7 opportunity for o r c h e s t r a l playing and summer music programs. Stringed i n -strument playing was becoming a greater force i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e of com-munities. Grover 1s t h i r d period, from the Depression to 1950, was charac-t e r i z e d by a decline i n stringed instrument playing. The r i s e of the movie industry, the influence of school bands, and the e f f e c t s of the Depression a l l contributed to t h i s decline. S t r i n g teachers aided the decline by f a i l i n g to achieve unity i n their, ranks. They tended to be highly i n d i v i d u -a l i s t i c , neglecting to j o i n i n a common front to l i m i t the decline of stringed instrument a c t i v i t y . During-the fourth period, which encompassed the 1950s, organizations appeared whose purpose was to improve and support stringed instrument a c t i v i t y . While elementary school programs p r o l i f -erated, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in junior and senior secondary schools continued to decline because band continued to dominate instrumental music a c t i v i t y . G.E. Baggett's t h e s i s , "The Status of Secondary Instrumental Music 19 Education (Band and Orchestra) i n the State of Arkansas, 1970," provides c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a by which the stringed instrument programs may be studied. Baggett was interested i n the academic education and teaching experience of the i n s t r u c t o r s , number and size of classes i n band or orchestra, c l a s s enrolment, size and s u i t a b i l i t y of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t and equipment, sources of budget, l i t e r a t u r e used, and major problems and concerns r e -lated to program management and development. He concluded that most i n -s t r u c t i o n took place i n the band genre and l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n was evident i n stringed instruments. Two other studies indicate c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s that were found to be successful in increasing the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Roger William Strong's 19 George Edward Baggett, "The Status of Secondary Instrumental Music Education (Band and Orchestra) i n the State of Arkansas, 1970" (Ph.D. d i s -s e r t a t i o n , The University of Oklahoma, 1974), Ann Arbor, D i s s e r t a t i o n Ab-s t r a c t s International 35/09 Music, p. 5893-A, 1975. 8 t h e s i s , "Practices Which Are Common to Successful Public School Orchestra 20 Programs," analyzes f i f t y - s e v e n selected p u b l i c school orchestra pro-grams. In his " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Successful S t r i n g Instrument Pro-grams i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s i n Northern Indiana and Southern 21 Michigan," Charles G i l b e r t Davis outlines successful p r a c t i c e s s i m i l a r to those found i n Strong's t h e s i s , such as the e c l e c t i c use of methods, active recruitment, scheduling rehearsals during school hours, and the pro v i s i o n of school-owned instruments. A number of studies that appeared during the early 1950s r e f l e c t the. renewal of i n t e r e s t i n stringed instrument programs that occurred at the beginning of that decade and provide insi g h t s into the pr a c t i c e s and concerns of educators at that time. "An Evaluation of Necessary Prac-t i c e s and Procedures i n the Junior High School Orchestra i n Relation to 22 Str i n g s " by Edward Thomas Luncher l i s t s a wide var i e t y of pr a c t i c e s i n -tended to provide success i n an orchestra program—practices such as the marking of bowings i n scores before rehearsal and obtaining uniforms for concert appearances. Two other theses, John William Shepard's "P r i n c i p l e s 23 of Method i n Group Str i n g Instrument In s t r u c t i o n " and "A Study of 20 Roger William Strong, "Prac ices Which Are Common to Successful Public School Orchestra Programs" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of Oklahoma, 1968), Ann Arbor, D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts International 29/08 Music, p. 2745-A, 1968. 21 Charles G i l b e r t Davis, " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Successful S t r i n g Instrument Programs i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s i n Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan," Ann Arbor, D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts International 35/07 Music, p. 4583-A, 1975. 22 Edward Thomas Luncher, "An Evaluation of Necessary Practices and Procedures i n the Junior High School Orchestra i n Relation to Strings" (M.S. Thesis, Duquesne Un i v e r s i t y , [1951?]). 23 John William Shepard, " P r i n c i p l e s of Method i n Group Str i n g Instrument Instruction"' (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of I l l i n o i s , 1954), Ann Arbor, D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts International 15/01 Music Education, p. 92, 1955. 9 24 Public School St r i n g Problems" by Ernest D. R o t i l l i , provide a descrip-t i o n of l a r g e l y conventional procedures. Although these studies may be helpful - resources for stringed instrument teaching, each author emphasizes those aspects dictated by his teaching b i a s . Neither provides compre-hensive treatment of the t o p i c . The non-uniformity of both theses also seems to r e f l e c t the individualism c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of stringed instrument instruction' i n the l a t e 1940s and early 1950s. This d i v e r s i t y was also noted by Grover and l a t e r , as discussed above, apparent in Headley's study. "Influence of Design and Construction of V i o l i n s upon the Progress 25 of School V i o l i n P u p i l s " by Zieber R. S t e t l e r was an attempt to r e l a t e the decline of enrolments i n s t r i n g programs to the design and construc-t i o n of v i o l i n s i n use at that time. S t e t l e r concluded that s t r i n g length, neck length, and p o s i t i o n of the bridge influenced the i n t e r e s t and pro-gress of school v i o l i n p u p i l s . With the advent of Suzuki instruments of a l l s i z e s , and perhaps p a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t of studies such as S t e t l e r ' s , manufacturers of stringed instruments have l a r g e l y solved t h i s problem. One f i n a l source of information concerning s t r i n g programs i s found in American S t r i n g Teacher, the p r o f e s s i o n a l journal of the American S t r i n g Teachers Association. The idea that stringed instrument teaching tends to be highly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c or non-uniform i n methodology i s supported by Emily Cooke's a r t i c l e entitled,' "Survey of S t r i n g Music i n the South 26 and Southwest." She examined seven towns and c i t i e s and provided 24 Ernest D. R o t i l l i , "A Study of Public School St r i n g Problems" (M.S. Thesis, Duquesne University, 1950). 25 Zieber R. S t e t l e r , "Influence of Design and Construction of V i o l i n s upon the Interest and Progress of School V i o l i n P u p i l s " (M.Ed. Thesis, Boston U n i v e r s i t y , 1950). 26 Emily Cooke, "Survey of S t r i n g Music in the South and Southwest," American Str i n g Teacher ( F a l l 1966) : 26-27. 10 information that included the number of students involved, the type of a c t i v i t y conducted, and the method employed i n teaching. Among other d i f -ferences, each program i n the seven towns or c i t i e s surveyed used a d i f -ferent method book. No one method had general acceptance. C l a i r e E. Faust's a r t i c l e , "An Administrator's View of the Suzuki-27 Kendall Method of St r i n g I n s t r u c t i o n , " gives an account of an experi-mental approach to the teaching of beginning students of stringed i n s t r u -ments. I t provided t h i r t y minutes of lesson time per day, and instruments were not allowed home for. p r a c t i c e . The a r t i c l e i s of p a r t i c u l a r impor-tance because i t provides an example of the continual experimentation that takes place i n approaches to stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n . Such experi-mentation i s perhaps not as prevalent for other curriculum areas, i . e . math, science, English, s o c i a l studies. The r a d i c a l approach ou t l i n e d by Faust would not generally be accepted by administrators and p r i n c i p a l s because of scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s , but i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f o r t s being made to improve the status of public school s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 1.5 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms D i s t r i c t s t r i n g program—a s t r i n g program t h e o r e t i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e to a l l students within a school d i s t r i c t on an e l e c t i v e basis but subject to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of teachers and school board-provided transportation for students to c l a s s l o c a t i o n s . D i s t r i c t music a d m i n i s t r a t o r — a general term given to an i n d i v i d u -a l who exercises a degree of authority or has an advisory r o l e i n the music or fin e arts programs of a school d i s t r i c t . . Examples of r e l a t e d t i t l e s 27 C l a i r e E. Faust, "An Administrator's View of the Suzuki-Kendall Method of String I n s t r u c t i o n , " American St r i n g Teacher (Summer 1963) : 18. 11 include Co-ordinator of Performing A r t s , Curriculum Consultant-Fine A r t s , and Music Consultant. The term "music supervisor" has become relatively-rare over the past decade. Song approach—a teaching strategy using generally unpublished c o l l e c t i o n s of songs and tunes selected by the teacher and given to stu-dents i n a progression from easy to d i f f i c u l t . The intention of t h i s approach i s to enable the student to master various t e c h n i c a l character-i s t i c s of the music with a focus on the enjoyment of i t s performance rather than p r i m a r i l y on te c h n i c a l exercises. Method book approach—the use of a.published book or se r i e s of books f or the elementary and intermediate stages of s t r i n g p l a y i n g . Each student has his own copy and progresses through the te c h n i c a l and melodic material at the cla s s rate of achievement. Heterogeneous c l a s s — a c l a s s that contains instruments of more than one type within f a m i l i e s such as s t r i n g s , winds, brass, etc., or a class containing instruments of various f a m i l i e s . Homogeneous c l a s s — a c l a s s c o n s i s t i n g of only one instrument type such as v i o l i n or c e l l o . Suzuki concept—a v i o l i n teaching approach developed by S h i n i c h i Suzuki of Japan. Its major aspects include mastery of basic p o s i t i o n and appropriate movement before the reading of musical notation; use of record-ings as aural models; emphasis on memory; mastery of each song before pro-gression to another; and u t i l i z a t i o n of the parent as in s t r u c t o r at home. Kodaly program—a general music teaching approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the ideas of Zoltan Kodaly including the use of the voice as the primary 12 v e h i c l e f o r music education; u t i l i z a t i o n of f o l k songs w i t h i n the melodic range of the students; use of hand s i g n a l s i n s t e a d of p r i n t e d n o t a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n ; and emphasis on c l e a r tone q u a l i t y and accurate i n t o n a t i o n . 1.6 The Scope of the Study The scope of t h i s study i s l i m i t e d to the p u b l i c elementary and secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t o f f e r d i s t r i c t - w i d e i n s t r u c t i o n i n v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o , and double bass w i t h i n the context of a d i s t r i c t music program. The study i s concerned w i t h three main aspects of e x i s t i n g programs. F i r s t , the s e t t i n g of each program w i t h i n the community and the general music program of the d i s t r i c t i s described. This d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s a sampling of program r a t i o n a l e s and goals. Because the programs s t u d i e d are d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs, the d i s t r i c t music a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r o l e i n the program i s o u t l i n e d . Second, s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s of the program are compared. These i n -clude v a r i o u s aspects of enrolment and c l a s s s i z e , as w e l l as the number, sex, and experience of teachers and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n and diplomas. A l s o d e a l t w i t h are aspects of the program of i n s t r u c t i o n , i n -c l u d i n g the b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l format and teaching approach; the use of method books and m a t e r i a l s ; methods of recruitment and student screening; and scheduling procedures and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and teaching devices employed to f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , some problems i n p u b l i c school s t r i n g programs of B r i t i s h Columbia are discussed which have p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the v i a b i l i t y of such programs. 13 1.7 Limits of the Study The stringed instrument programs studied are those generally thought of as d i s t r i c t programs within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a d i s t r i c t music admin-i s t r a t o r . Isolated s t r i n g classes i n any of the seventy-five school d i s -t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia not within the context of a d i s t r i c t - w i d e music program are not included. This study i s not an evaluation of program q u a l i t y i n terms of stu-dent s k i l l achievements at s p e c i f i c grade l e v e l s or other points of meas-urement. Determining such achievement i n r e l a t i o n to selected aspects of stringed instrument playing would require the use of evaluative i n -struments outside the scope of t h i s inquiry. The study does not specify p r a c t i c e s of i n d i v i d u a l teachers, nor does i t present the ideas of school p r i n c i p a l s , students, and parents concerning s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Further-more, s p e c i f i c budget information, o r i g i n a l l y sought, was found to be l a r g e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and impractical to obtain. 1.8 Determination of S t r i n g Programs for Study Letters were sent to the thirty-two current d i s t r i c t music adminis-t r a t o r s to determine whether t h e i r school d i s t r i c t o f f e r e d s t r i n g i n s t r u -ment i n s t r u c t i o n (see 5.2 Appendix I I ) . Nine were returned with informa-t i o n about the number of f u l l - t i m e equivalent teachers and i n some cases the approximate number of students categorized into the types of i n s t r u -ments played. Music administrators not r e p l y i n g were contacted by t e l e -phone i n order to v e r i f y that t h e i r programs d i d not include stringed i n -strument i n s t r u c t i o n . A f t e r evaluation of the number, size-, and l o c a t i o n of the nine d i s t r i c t s that indicated they had s t r i n g programs, i t was de-termined that a l l would be included i n t h i s study. 1.9 The Instrument for Data C o l l e c t i o n An interview-observation guide was developed that included major categories for consideration derived from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e and from experts i n the f i e l d (see 5.3 Appendix I I I ) . Sub-headings were deter mined for each major category. The guide was p i l o t e d i n one d i s t r i c t and rev i s i o n s were made which consisted of minor re-ordering of subheadings and d e l e t i o n of i r r e l e v a n t and unworkable items. 1.10 The Design of the Study A personal interview was conducted with a l l teachers of the s t r i n g 2 8 programs and with the d i s t r i c t music administrators. In each d i s t r i c t an a r b i t r a r y sample of classes was observed to determine the method of i n s t r u c t i o n and gather student data. A standard question format was used with a l l respondents. The data acquired from interviews and observations were entered into the guide during the interview. The use of a tape r e -corder was discontinued because i t was found to be awkward and i n h i b i t i n g . Data were c o l l a t e d and the numerical r e s u l t s tabulated. An analysis was made i n terms of tables using arithmetic means and percentages. 28 A l l teachers were interviewed except one teacher i n D i s t r i c t 45, West Vancouver, who was unavailable for interviewing due to a lengthy i l l -ness . Some data were obtained from h i s spouse i n a telephone conversation The tables indicate t h i s lack of data by the symbol "NA". 2. PROFILES OF INDIVIDUAL DISTRICT STRING PROGRAMS D i s t r i c t No. 35 Langley The Langley area population of 47000"** represents a mixture of a g r i -c u l t u r a l and suburban l i f e s t y l e s . Many residents commute the f i f t y k i l o -meters to places of employment i n Vancouver. C u l t u r a l resources include an arts c o u n c i l and a community music school. Because of the r e l a t i v e proximity of the area to Vancouver, i t s residents can p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r i c h v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l events and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The s t r i n g program i s conducted within the context of a uniform d i s -t r i c t general music program that provides a Kodaly program for primary grade students, and a Doane ukulele program for the intermediate grades. E l e c t i v e programs include choirs thoughout the d i s t r i c t and band programs offered in t h i r t y - f i v e of the t h i r t y - n i n e schools. The s t r i n g program i s offered in ten elementary schools. The program, which began in 1975, c u r r e n t l y includes students i n grades one, to eight. Two f u l l - t i m e teachers i n s t r u c t approximately 225 students under the guidance of a d i s t r i c t supervisor of f i n e a r t s . His r o l e includes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure the program's success. He meets with the teachers to review and evaluate the program, and aids i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s with parents, p r i n c i p a l s , and s t a f f i n regards to scheduling and other procedural matters. The r a t i o n a l e given by teachers and the "'"All population s t a t i s t i c s are taken from S t a t i s t i c s Canada, "Popu-l a t i o n and Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n - - B r i t i s h Columbia," The 1981 Census of Canada Ottawa: (Ministry of Supply and Services, June 1982) : Table 5. supervisor for i n c l u s i o n of a stringed instrument program i n the d i s t r i c t includes the b e l i e f that the a r t of s t r i n g p l aying should be maintained, that i n s t r u c t i o n i n p u b l i c schools gives greater opportunity for student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and that stringed instruments are a legitimate aspect of instrumental music programs. Goals stated for the program include the learning of the basic elements of music, the development of s t r i n g play-ing, and the development of a symphony orchestra f o r the d i s t r i c t . D i s t r i c t No. 36 Surrey Surrey, an o u t l y i n g suburb of Vancouver, has a population of 106500 l i v i n g within r u r a l and suburban areas. I t s residents support an a r t s centre and a f l e d g l i n g symphony society which provides a range of orches-t r a l and other musical a c t i v i t i e s for young students. Greater uniformity i n the d i s t r i c t music program i s being sought at present by the Supervisor of Instruction (Arts) thoughout schools. So far most school administrators have developed programs independent of one another. Band i s o f f e r e d i n seventy-one of the eighty schools, whereas str i n g s are o f f e r e d i n t h i r t e e n elementary schools. The s t r i n g program, which has been i n existence for f i f t e e n years, i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t Supervisor of Instruction (Arts), who also acts as a consultant to s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l s . Two f u l l - t i m e teachers i n s t r u c t in the program, which has approximately 450 students e n r o l l e d , be-ginning i n grade four. The b e l i e f that stringed instrument playing i s an important dimension of instrumental music i s given as a r a t i o n a l e for the program. Goals stated by the teachers and supervisor include the expansion of the program i n t o a l l schools where p o s s i b l e , the p r o v i s i o n of continuous and sequential i n s t r u c t i o n , the development of orchestras i n the secondary schools, and the development of a new generation of s t r i n g players. 17 D i s t r i c t No. 39 Vancouver Vancouver, a c o a s t a l c i t y of 410000 inhabitants, i s a cosmopolitan community o f f e r i n g a wide v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur orchestras, ch o i r s , an opera a s s o c i a t i o n , a major u n i v e r s i t y music department, an academy of music, and various chamber music groups are a l l major forces within the c u l t u r a l l i f e of the c i t y . The school board employs a Co-ordinator of Performing A r t s , who f a c i l i t a t e s the development of a wide v a r i e t y of programs. Because each school administrator makes independent decisions regarding i t s program, no comprehensive general music program e x i s t s throughout the d i s t r i c t . Band i s o f f e r e d i n eighty-three of the 104 schools. Fourteen elementary schools and one secondary school o f f e r s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as part of t h i s program. , The s t r i n g program i s one year o l d , although some schools had pre-v i o u s l y included orchestra and other s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n most of which had not been o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned by the school board. Two f u l l - t i m e teach-ers i n s t r u c t 324 students beginning in grade four. The program i s guided by the d i s t r i c t Co-ordinator of Performing A r t s , whose r o l e includes the presentation of proposals and budgets to the d i s t r i c t superintendent and the p r o v i s i o n of encouragement and support to i n s t r u c t o r s through consul-tat i o n s in organizational and.resource matters. The b e l i e f that stringed instruments are an important component of music education, and that stringed instrument playing aids i n developing mental and p h y s i c a l capa-b i l i t i e s of students, i s given as r a t i o n a l e f or the program. Goals for the program include an increase i n i t s enrolment, the maintenance of s t r i n g programs i n secondary schools, and the establishment of a v a r i e t y of en-semble playing opportunities. 18 D i s t r i c t No. 44 North Vancouver North Vancouver, another suburb of Vancouver, with a population of 95500, l i e s d i r e c t l y opposite Vancouver with a major water i n l e t separat-ing the two areas. Residents of Vancouver and North Vancouver share c u l -t u r a l resources. North Vancouver also supports a large a r t s centre. General music i n s t r u c t i o n consists of a v a r i e t y of programs depen-dent upon the i n d i v i d u a l school administrations. Band i s off e r e d in t h i r t y - f i v e of the forty-three schools; s t r i n g s are of f e r e d in eight schools, mostly at the elementary l e v e l . Five part-time s t r i n g teachers, the equivalent of 2.4 f u l l - t i m e teachers, i n s t r u c t 262 students who are i n grade four and above. The current program has been i n existence seven years following an i n i t i a l attempt at implementing a s t r i n g program in 1970. The program i s under the guidance of the d i s t r i c t Co-ordinator of Music, whose r o l e includes co-ordination of the program i n terms of s t a f f , budget, and miscellaneous administration. The r a t i o n a l e given for the program by the teachers and supervisors i s that a l l ch i l d r e n should have the opportunity to learn to play a stringed instrument, that stringed instruments are an important component of instrumental study, and that students should be given the opportunity of worthwhile group a c t i v i t i e s such as orchestra. Goals for the program include the establishment of stringed instrument playing i n secondary schools and development of a d i s t r i c t orchestra program. D i s t r i c t No. 45 West Vancouver West Vancouver, a Vancouver suburb, i s situated on the entrance to Howe Sound. The population of 36000 i s generally thought of as enjoying a wealthier l i f e s t y l e than surrounding areas. Although an a r t s c o u n c i l 19 e x i s t s i n the community, residents support few other c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s within t h e i r boundaries. General music i n s t r u c t i o n consists of a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l school programs. Band i s offered i n twelve of the .seventeen schools and s t r i n g s are o f f e r e d i n approximately three elementary and two secondary schools. The s t r i n g program began f i f t e e n years ago with the h i r i n g of the d i s t r i c t Music Co-Ordinator, who i s also a teacher i n the program. He and two other teachers i n s t r u c t about s i x t y students part-time, the t o t a l i n s t r u c t i o n time being equivalent to approximately one-half of a f u l l -time p o s i t i o n . The' b e l i e f that there i s a need for s t r i n g instrumental-i s t s i n e x i s t i n g musical organizations i s given as a r a t i o n a l e f or the program. Goals for the program include obtaining more i n s t r u c t i o n time i n elementary schools and increasing the number of s t r i n g instrumentalists in ensembles within the schools. D i s t r i c t No. 57 Prince George The Prince George area, located about 1000 kilometers from Vancouver, has a population of 60000. It s distance from Vancouver causes the residents to support t h e i r own concert society, an opera a s s o c i a t i o n , and an amateur orchestra. The music program of the d i s t r i c t includes a v a r i e t y of programs developed by i n d i v i d u a l school administrations, but Kodaly i s being i n -troduced as the d i s t r i c t primary music program. Band i s offered in f i f t y -three of the s i x t y - e i g h t schools. Strings are o f f e r e d to a l l students i n the d i s t r i c t at one l o c a t i o n . The s t r i n g program, i n existence for nine years, employs three f u l l -time teachers and has 160 students e n r o l l e d . The program u t i l i z e s the 20 Suzuki concept, which allows the students to begin i n any grade. The As-s i s t a n t Co-ordinator f o r Fine Arts i n the d i s t r i c t , responsible f o r music programs i n the schools, supports the teachers i n regular s t a f f meetings and presents proposals for program development to the d i s t r i c t superin-tendent. The need for students to be a part of worthwhile group a c t i v i t y , the provision of stringed instrument t r a i n i n g where none would otherwise e x i s t , and parental demand are reasons given for the existence of the s t r i n g program. Goals include obtaining more community involvement, de-veloping more ensembles, and increasing the enrolment of students i n the higher grades. D i s t r i c t No. 61 Greater V i c t o r i a The Greater V i c t o r i a area, with a population of 121000, i s located on the southern t i p of Vancouver Island. Accessible to. Vancouver only by way of f e r r y or plane, i t i s i s o l a t e d from the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s of the mainland metropolis. C u l t u r a l resources i n V i c t o r i a include a major uni-v e r s i t y music department, a p r o f e s s i o n a l symphony orchestra, and various arts organizations. The d i s t r i c t music program consists of a v a r i e t y of programs incor-oporated by school administrations independently; among these are Doane ukulele, recorder, and choir. Band programs are offered i n f i f t y of the f i f t y - f i v e schools and s t r i n g s are offered i n f i f t e e n elementary schools, two secondary schools, and one junior secondary school. The s t r i n g program has been i n existence for approximately t h i r t y years, with some orchestra programs e x i s t i n g p r i o r to the 1950s. Cur-r e n t l y the program u t i l i z e s 2.6 f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s by employing one part-time and two f u l l - t i m e teachers. Approximately 370 students receive 21 i n s t r u c t i o n . Teachers of the program may confer with the d i s t r i c t Cur-riculum Consultant (Fine A r t s ) , whose r o l e i n the s t r i n g program i s other-wise l i m i t e d . Reasons for o f f e r i n g the program include public demand, the need to develop orchestras, the need to educate the students for music-a l awareness through performance, and a desire to a i d i n the development of the r i g h t hemisphere of the b r a i n . An increase in p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the establishment of a d i s t r i c t - w i d e youth orchestra are stated goals for the programs. D i s t r i c t No. 68 Nanaimo The Nanaimo area, situated on the east side of Vancouver Island, i s about two hours by f e r r y from Vancouver. The population of 48500 l i v e i n both c i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l environments. Residents enjoy c u l t u r a l r e -sources including a community music school, an a r t s c o u n c i l , a community orchestra, and a regional college music department. The general d i s t r i c t music program consists of uniform Kodaly l e s -sons in grades one through f i v e and e l e c t i v e o f f e r i n g s of choir and band. Band i s offered in t h i r t y - n i n e of the forty-one schools; s t r i n g s are of-fered in three c e n t r a l locations accessible to most students. The s t r i n g program, i n existence f o r nine years, i s an outgrowth of the Kodaly program which began i n 1971. Two teachers share a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n i n s t r u c t i n g 152 students i n the program, which s t a r t s students i n grade four. One other teacher d i r e c t s a small e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r orches-t r a at the junior high school l e v e l . The d i s t r i c t Music Co-ordinator i s responsible for the program and aids in supporting the s t r i n g s p e c i a l i s t s through curriculum resources and f a c i l i t a t i o n of miscellaneous administra-t i v e matters. Rationales for the program include the necessity to increase 22 the number of s t r i n g players a v a i l a b l e to the community orchestra, and to provide an opportunity for ensemble playing i n groups other than bands A major goal f o r the program i s the development of orchestras i n the secondary schools. D i s t r i c t No. 71 Courteney The Courteney and Comox area i s situated on the east side of Vancouver Island i n the north c e n t r a l region. Its population of 30000 includes many transient residents who are members of the Canadian Armed Forces based i n that area. The c u l t u r a l resources of the area include a concert society, an art s organization, and a summer school of the a r t s . In General Music a v a r i e t y of teaching approaches i s u t i l i z e d by schools i n the d i s t r i c t , i ncluding some Kodaly i n s t r u c t i o n . Choir i s of-fered i n most schools. Band i s of f e r e d i n sixteen of the twenty-three schools, and s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s offe r e d i n three locations correspond-ing to three elementary schools not close to one another. The s t r i n g program, i n existence for seven years, u t i l i z e s one part time teacher who i n s t r u c t s 108 students, her s t r i n g teaching time equalin 0 . 7 of a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n . The r o l e of the Head Teacher, Music, i s lim i t e d to consultation i n curriculum matters. The r a t i o n a l e given for i n -cluding the program i n the d i s t r i c t i s that - the stringed instrument pro-gram contributes to the c u l t u r a l nourishment of students, that stringed instrument programs provide an avenue for learning c l a s s i c a l music reper-t o i r e , that stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n should be a v a i l a b l e to a l l students, and that stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n i s a legitimate a l t e r -native to the band programs. Goals f o r the program include the expansion of programs into the secondary l e v e l s of school and the "development of a d i s t r i c t s t r i n g orchestra. 23 Summary A scant nine of the 75 B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t s have s t r i n g programs. These are found i n three d i s t i n c t geographical areas. Five (Langley, Surrey, Vancouver, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver) are near to or part of a metropolitan configuration which o f f e r s many advantageous c u l t u r a l resources. Three ( V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, and Courteney) are located i n various areas of Vancouver Island. These areas, having been s e t t l e d well over a century ago, also have a number of c u l t u r a l resources. One program, more i s o l a t e d , i s located i n Prince George, a r e l a t i v e l y new set-tlement, which has a community orchestra. On the whole, d i s t r i c t s do not have uniform general music i n s t r u c -t i o n although Langley ( D i s t r i c t 35) and Nanaimo ( D i s t r i c t 68) have im-plemented Kodaly programs i n the primary grades. E l e c t i v e programs such as band are conducted i n most schools beginning i n grade s i x or above. Table I summarizes selected aspects of the nine programs. I t i n d i -cates the involvement of the d i s t r i c t schools, teachers, and students i n the l o c a l s t r i n g program. Also included i s the number of years the pro-gram has been i n existence p r i o r to 1981, and the t o t a l school enrolment i s presented for each d i s t r i c t to provide an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s s i z e . In general, the figures presented i n Table I ind i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i s p a r i t i e s among s t r i n g programs. S t r i n g programs are found i n various sizes of d i s t r i c t s ranging from 7500 students to 55500 students. Their existence ranges from one to t h i r t y years, the average being eleven, sug-gesting that there i s some support f o r s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The percentage of p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools i n which s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n occurs ranges from th i r t e e n to approximately t h i r t y - t h r e e , most of these found at the elemen-tary l e v e l . The FTE or f u l l - t i m e equivalency of teachers u t i l i z e d i s very 24 TABLE I SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS INVOLVED IN STRING PROGRAMS D i s t r i c t S t r i n g Programs Name Tota l Enrolment Duration i n Years Schools percentages Teachers FTEs percentages Enrolment percentages 35 Lgly. 13000 7 25.6 . 27 1.7 36 Sry. 30500 15 16. 3 .12 1.5 39 Van. 55500 1 14.4 .06 0.6 44 N.Van. 17500 7 18.6 . 24 1.5 45 W.Van. 6000 . 16 29.4 .15 1.0 57 P.G. 20000 7 NA .25 0.8 61 V i c . 23500 30 32.7 .20 1.6 68 Nan. 12500 9 NA .14 1.2 71 Court. 7500 7 13.0 .18 1.4 SOURCE: D i s t r i c t enrolment figures are taken from "Annual Report on Education," 1980-81 ( V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: Mini s t r y of Education, June, 1982): Table 1.4. NOTE: Data from which the percentages are derived may be found i n the Appendix, 5.1. NA - Not applicab l e . ( D i s t r i c t 57, Prince George, has consolidated i n s t r u c t i o n at one l o c a t i o n ; D i s t r i c t 68, Nanaimo, has done so at three locations.) small, ranging from only .06 percent of a l l d i s t r i c t teacher time i n the newly implemented program i n Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 39) to .27 percent i n Langley ( D i s t r i c t 35). R e l a t i v e l y few students are involved i n s t r i n g pro-grams. P a r t i c i p a t i o n ranges from a low of .6 percent i n Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 39) to a high of 1.7 percent i n Langley ( D i s t r i c t 35). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there appears to be l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between the t o t a l d i s t r i c t enrolment and the numbers of schools, teachers, and students involved i n the s t r i n g program. Likewise, the number of years that the s t r i n g programs have been i n existence has l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the same f a c t o r s . D i s t r i c t music administrators have various terms of reference, the most common being Curriculum Consultant, Supervisor of Music, Co-ordinator of Music and Fine Arts Co-ordinator. Most of these administrators take an active r o l e i n the maintenance of the stringed instrument programs. A common ra t i o n a l e f or o f f e r i n g s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s the convic-tion that p u b l i c l y financed schools should provide the opportunity to study a stringed instrument. A ra t i o n a l e f or s t r i n g programs i s also that stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n i s a necessary component of instrumental programs. Other reasons include the b e l i e f that students and communities may be c u l -t u r a l l y enriched and that s t r i n g study provides students with extra-musical b e n e f i t s . The most commonly stated goals are the implementation or maintenance of or c h e s t r a l ensembles i n the schools or larger community, and increased enrolment i n the en t i r e program. 3. COMPARISONS OF DISTRICT STRING PROGRAMS 3.1 Students 3.1.1 Enrolment S t r i n g program enrolments vary consi d e r a b l y among the d i s -t r i c t s . Table I I presents t o t a l program enrolment and enrolment i n ensembles. TABLE I I ENROLMENT IN STRING PROGRAMS AND ENSEMBLE PARTICIPATION (With Teacher FTE's and Schools) D i s t r i c t s S t r i n g Program 35 L g l y . 36 Sry. 39 Van. N 44 .Van. 45 W.Van. 57 P.G. 61 V i c . 68 Nan. 71 Court. T o t a l Program 225 450 a 324 262 60 161 381 152 108 Ensembles 90E 121 36E/70I 801 311 34E 86E/16I 15E 1081 FTEs 2 2 2 2.4 .5 3 2.5 1 . 7 Schools 10 13 15 10 5 l b 18 3 b 3 NOTE: Numeral followed by an E i n d i c a t e s ensembles e x t r a to s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and g e n e r a l l y e l e c t i v e t o s t r i n g students; the numeral f o l -lowed by I i n d i c a t e s the ensembles as p r i m a r i l y the i n s t r u c t i o n a l mode f o r those students p a r t i c i p a t i n g . These f i g u r e s are cl o s e approximations w i t h i n ±10. For various reasons accurate f i g u r e s were not available.. ^ D i s t r i c t 57 has co n s o l i d a t e d lessons i n one l o c a t i o n ; D i s t r i c t 68 has done so i n three l o c a t i o n s . 26 In making comparisons between the programs, teacher FTE a v a i l a b l e for each program must be kept in mind. The number of schools of the d i s t r i c t i n -volved i n the s t r i n g program i s included i n Table II f o r comparison to enrolment. St r i n g program enrolments range from a low of s i x t y i n West Vancouver to a high of 450 in Surrey. However, i n d i s t r i c t s having one or more f u l l - t i m e equivalent i n s t r u c t o r s the enrolments range from 161 i n Prince George to a high of 450 i n Surrey. I t i s important to keep in mind that the programs in Prince George and liangley u t i l i z e Suzuki con-cepts, e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t i n g the number of students that the teachers can i n s t r u c t on a weekly basis because of the extra time required to teach i n d i v i d u a l small group lessons. Programs that have more schools involved generally appear to have larger enrolments. The reported enrolment from i n d i v i d u a l schools ranges from two students to over f i f t y . Ensemble p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s generally low, although i n d i v i d u a l classes often function as ensembles (in a l i m i t e d sense of the word). The programs in Surrey, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, and Courteney have only ensembles which are part of i n s t r u c t i o n ; that i s , not extra and e l e c -t i v e to s t r i n g students. These include orchestras at a l l grade l e v e l s and some small ensembles (see 3.3.2 Courses and Ensembles Within the Pro-grams). The programs i n Langley, Prince George and Nanaimo provide extra opportunities f o r ensemble playing, but these are considered to be important components of the s t r i n g program. Vancouver and V i c t o r i a have both e l e c t i v e ensembles and ensembles which are part of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. E l e c -t i v e ensembles are generally scheduled outside of school hours. The low figures indicated f o r Surrey and Nanaimo are s i g n i f i c a n t . In Surrey s t r i n g students are encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a community-sponsored orchestra 28 program, but the number of such students i s not known. Nanaimo cur r e n t l y has a small number of students p a r t i c i p a t i n g only i n an e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r orchestra at the Junior Secondary school l e v e l . 3.1.2 Enrolment by Grade Level I t i s apparent from Table III that the greatest p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s at beginning l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n most d i s t r i c t s . TABLE III ENROLMENT IN SELECTED GRADE LEVELS (With Years the St r i n g Program Has Been i n Existence) D i s t r i c t 35 Lgly. 36 Sry. 39 Van. 44 N.Van. 45 57 W.Van. P.G. 61 V i c . 68 Nan. 71 Court. T o t a l Beginners Grade 4 210 156 75 25 . . . 204 70 54 794 Continuing Grade 5 • 140 125 52 ( 2 1 ) a . . . (127) b 37 36 390 Continuing Grade 6/7 100 7° 55° 30 18 331 Secondary Grade 8-12 . . . 0 36 d ( 8 0 ) S 14 . . . 50 15 0 195 Years . . . 15 1 7 16 . . . 30 9 7 NOTE: Langley and Prince George figures are unavailable due to the nature of the program of i n s t r u c t i o n (see 3.3.1).. aMixed 5-7. bMixed 5-8. Most students from grade 6. ^Even though the program has been i n existence only one year, there i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the secondary l e v e l s due to p r e - e x i s t i n g orchestra programs i n some schools. Most students from grade 7-9. 29 Most programs s t a r t s t r i n g students i n Grade Four. Langley and Prince George introduce students from any grade l e v e l (1-12) , because the programs u t i l i z e the Suzuki approach. The figures f or these programs are not a v a i l a b l e but i t i s known that most students are at the Grades Three and Four l e v e l s . The lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n figures in upper grade l e v e l s are s i g -n i f i c a n t . The average number of years the programs have been i n existence being eleven, i t may be expected that more students would be e n r o l l e d from Grade Eight downward. Determining the rate of a t t r i t i o n from Table III i s not p o s s i b l e , however, because the enrolment figures of previous years are not known. 3.1.3 Estimated A t t r i t i o n Estimates of a t t r i t i o n are presented i n Table IV. Teachers were asked to estimate the percentage of beginning students not returning to the program for the current year of i n s t r u c t i o n with the breakdown of TABLE IV ESTIMATED ATTRITION (Percentages of Preceding Beginning Enrolment Not Returning i n Current Year and Reasons Cited) D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. Vic . Nan. Court. To t a l 30 50 40 15 20 25 50 50 40 Transfer 25 50 7. 5 33.3 NR 60 25 NR 75 Interest 50 25 92 33.3 NR 20 50 NR 12.5 A b i l i t y 25 25 2. 5 33.3 NR 20 25 NR 12.5 NR - Not reported. 30 that f i g u r e according to three possible reasons, there being t r a n s f e r to other d i s t r i c t s , l o s s of i n t e r e s t , and a b i l i t y . Estimated a t t r i t i o n varies from a low of f i f t e e n percent to a high of f i f t y percent. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that i n the d i s t r i c t s where screening takes p l a c e — L a n g l e y , Surrey, West Vancouver, and Courteney— estimated a t t r i t i o n also v a r i e s , from twenty percent to f i f t y percent. Transfer to other school d i s t r i c t s may be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n most d i s t r i c t s , but loss of i n t e r e s t appears to be a major fa c t o r i n three d i s -t r i c t s . Most teachers do not a t t r i b u t e the l a r g e s t amount of a t t r i t i o n to the a b i l i t y of students. The high rates of a t t r i t i o n f o r reasons of transfer i n the Prince George and Courteney programs may r e f l e c t the nature of those communities as young and growing and having i n d u s t r i e s with a high s t a f f turnover. 3.1.4 Male-Female Ratios As indicated i n Table V, generally more female students take TABLE V MALE AND FEMALE ENROLMENT Estimated Percentages for F i r s t 2 Years of Instruction D i s t r i c t Male Female D i s t r i c t Male Female 35 Lgly. 40 60 57 P.G. 50 50 36 Sry. 50 50 61 V i c . 40 60 39 Van. 50 50 68 Nan. 35 65 44 N.Van. 30 70 71 Court. 35 65 45 W.Van. 45 55 NOTE: Estimates were reported by teachers; exact counts were not s o l i c i t e d . 3 1 part in stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n than do males. At the more ad-vanced l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n of male students declin e s . 3 . 1 . 5 Enrolment by Instrument A l l s t r i n g programs have s u b s t a n t i a l l y more students of v i o l i n than of v i o l a , c e l l o , or double bass. Table VI indicates the numbers of v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o , and double bass students i n those d i s t r i c t s report-ing. A common instrumentation r a t i o of v i o l i n to v i o l a , c e l l o , and double bass players i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r i n g orchestra i s eight v i o l i n s to two v i o l a s , two c e l l i , and one double bass. When considering the program i n North Vancouver, i t becomes apparent that i t s r a t i o approximates f i f t y -seven v i o l i n s to two v i o l a , f i v e c e l l i , and one double bass. The r a t i o s of most other d i s t r i c t s are even more disproportionate. If the goal of the program i s to develop orchestras within the pub l i c school system one must be concerned about the r a t i o . V i o l i n i s t s can quite e a s i l y t r a n s f e r to the v i o l a section but c e l l o and double bass players are not so e a s i l y found. TABLE VI ENROLMENT BY INSTRUMENT D i s t r i c t 3 5 Lgly. 3 6 Sry. 3 9 Van. 4 4 N.Van. 4 5 W.Van. 5 7 P.G. 6 1 V i c . 6 8 Nan. 7 1 Court. V i o l i n 2 1 0 u 2 7 2 2 3 0 5 7 1 4 3 u u 9 4 V i o l a 0 u 1 9 7 0 0 u u u 1 C e l l o 1 5 u 3 3 2 1 2 1 7 u u 1 2 Double Bass 0 u 0 4 1 0 u 0 2 u - Includes these instruments; numbers not a v a i l a b l e . 32 3.2 Teachers 3.2.1 Selected C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers and aspects of t h e i r teaching load further indicate the d i v e r s i t y among the s t r i n g programs studied (see Table VII). As mentioned previously, the number of male students e n r o l l e d i s generally smaller than the number of females i n most d i s t r i c t s . I t i s therefore i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there are almost twice as many male teachers as female teachers of these students. As for teacher load, eleven teachers are f u l l -time s t r i n g teachers and twelve are part-time s t r i n g teachers. Most of them also c u r r e n t l y teach other subjects. The number of schools to which a f u l l - t i m e teacher t r a v e l s i n order to i n s t r u c t classes ranges from a high of ten i n Langley to a low of one i n Prince George. The number of students per f u l l - t i m e teacher again indicates the great d i s p a r i t y among s t r i n g programs. A low of f o r t y -one i n Prince George contrasts sharply with a high of 250 i n Surrey. F i n a l l y , the s t r i n g teaching experience of the i n s t r u c t o r s i s not b l a t a n t l y divergent from t h e i r t o t a l teaching experience. The teachers involved have taught for an average of eight years and most of them have taught i n s t r i n g programs throughout t h e i r e n t i r e teaching careers. 33 TABLE VII SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHERS AND STRING TEACHING LOAD (Teacher, sex, teaching time, number of schools, number of students, years of s t r i n g experience over t o t a l teaching experience) D i s t r i c t Teacher Sex FTE Schools Students Experience 35 Lgly. A M 1 i o a 115 5/5 B F 1 i o a 110 2/2 36 Sry. A M 1 8 200 25/25 B F 1 5 250 4/11 39 Van. A M 1 8 94 10/10 B M 1 7 194 1/1 44 N.Van. A F .7 4 93 7/7 B F .5 3 45 4/4 C M .8 1 26 4/4 D F . .2 2 14 3/2 E M .2 1 4 1/1 45 W.Van. A M .2 1 27 14/14 B M .1 2 13 25/25 C M .2 2 20 NR 57 P.G. A M 1 1 62 4/4 B M 1 1 58 6/6 C M 1 1 41 7/25 61 V i c . A M 1 7 139 14/14 B M 1 7 153 5/9 C M .6 4 83 16/16 68 Nan. A F .5 3 61 9/9 B F 3 76 7/7 C M o b 1 15 NR 71 Court. A F . 7 . 3 108 6/11 Subtotals M 15 11 F u l l -•time F 8 • 12 Part- time TOTALS 23 16.2 79 2123 • 178/201 The teachers hold classes at the same schools. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r junior high orchestra only. NR - Not reported. 3.2.2 Types of Instrument Instructed and Teachers' Previous Instrument Training Almost a l l s t r i n g teachers i n s t r u c t v i o l i n students. An excep-t i o n i s North Vancouver, which also has teachers s p e c i a l i z i n g i n e i t h e r c e l l o or double bass. Table VIII indicates the instruments teachers i n s t r u c t i n the current program and instruments which the teachers have studied previously. TABLE VIII TYPES OF INSTRUMENT INSTRUCTED AND TEACHERS' PREVIOUS INSTRUMENT STUDY D i s t r i c t , Instruments Name Teacher Instructing Instrument Studied P r i v a t e l y 35 Lgly. A VI V c l VI CI Piano B VI V c l VI F l Piano 36 Sry. A VI V ia V c l DBass VI V c l Tpt FHn B VI V i a V c l Via 39 Van. A VI Via V c l VI V ia V c l B VI Via V c l VI 44 N.Van. A VI VI B VI V c l V c l ' C VI V ia Via Piano Organ D V c l V c l E DBass DBass 45 W.Van. A VI VI Piano B VI V ia V c l DBass VI Piano C VI V c l NA 57 P.G. A VI VI B VI VI C VI V c l V c l 61 V i c . A VI V ia V c l DBass Via Piano B VI Via V c l DBass VI . C VI Via V c l DBass VI 68 Nan. A VI V c l VI B VI V c l VI C NA NA 71 Court. A VI V c l DBass VI Key to abbreviations: VI - V i o l i n . DBass - Double bass. Tpt - Trumpet. Via - V i o l a . FHn - French horn. F l - F l u t e . V c l - C e l l o . CI -t C l a r i n e t . NA - Not a v a i l a b l e . 35 Teacher competency i n teaching p a r t i c u l a r instruments cannot be determined from the l i m i t e d information provided here. In addition the number of s t r i n g c l a s s method courses completed by teachers i s not known but few have earned degrees for which these courses are required. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that teachers generally teach i n s t r u -ments d i f f e r e n t from those i n which they have had p r i v a t e t u i t i o n . Most teach-ers i n North Vancouver and Prince George s p e c i a l i z e i n teaching the i n s t r u -ments on which they received primary private t r a i n i n g . A l l s t r i n g i n s t r u c -tors have studied and are p r o f i c i e n t on at l e a s t one stringed instrument. 3.2.3 Diplomas Earned A l l but one of the teachers have earned at l e a s t an under-graduate degree, f i v e hold master's degrees, and two have a doctorate. Table IX indicates the diplomas earned by teachers. The great v a r i e t y TABLE IX DIPLOMAS EARNED BY TEACHERS D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. V i c . Nan. Court. Teacher A BA BS BA BMus BA BMus BMus T C o l l BMus MEd BMus EdCert MA PhD EdCert B BA BMus BA BEd BS BMus BA BA . . . EdCert MMus MS EdCert MEd MMus PhD C BMus NA BS BA NA . . . Cons-Cert D Cons D i p l Su Cert E . . . BA MP Key to abbreviations—Appendix 5.4. NA - Not a v a i l a b l e . 36 of degrees earned by teachers i s of i n t e r e s t because i t suggests that teach-ers a r r i v e d at t h e i r present assignment v i a divergent educational backgrounds. 3.2.4 Membership i n Professional Organizations Membership i n pr o f e s s i o n a l organizations i s one poss i b l e i n d i c a -t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n pr o f e s s i o n a l development (see Table X ) . Only eleven of the twenty-two teachers i n the programs studied are members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Music Education A s s o c i a t i o n . Furthermore, only two teach-ers are members of the Canadian S t r i n g Teachers Association. If member-ship i n s p e c i a l i z e d organizations i s an i n d i c a t i o n of teacher i n t e r e s t in p r o f e s s i o n a l development, the question a r i s e s as to why more s t r i n g teachers i n the province have not bothered to join.""" TABLE X TEACHER MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van . N.Van. W.Van. P.G. Vic. Nan. Court. Teacher A Mu Un BCMEA BCMEA Mu Un NONE Mu Un NONE NAME BCTF MENC MENC BCTF MENC ASTA BCMEA OTF ASTA ASTA BCTF B BCMEA BCMEA NONE MENC Mu Un NONE BCMEA NAME ASTA BCMEA BCMEA NSOA ' MENC C BCMEA NA CSTA ASTA NA MENC AMEA CSTA BCMEA D Mu Un BCMEA E Mu Un Key to abbreviations—Appendix 5.4. NA - Not a v a i l a b l e . A f l y e r produced by the BCMEA l i s t s among the advantages of p a r t i c i -pation as a member: "excellent conferences and workshops for p r o f e s s i o n a l 37 3.2.5 Other Past and Current Teaching Experience and Professional A c t i v i t y Most s t r i n g teachers have l i t t l e past or current experience in non-music subject areas. Several have experience i n music areas other than s t r i n g teaching (see Table XI). TABLE XI OTHER TEACHER EXPERIENCE (Past and Current) D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. Vic . Nan. Court. Teacher A ColMu ColSc Eng ProVla GnMu81 None None Pro CIRm ColMu Geog ClRm81 Vln Band Soc Math81 GenMu GenMu Sci81 81 Orch 81 B None Band None None Band81 None Band None Choir Drama81 Orch 0rch81 Band81 NA Pro- None NA • Choir81 Orch Guitar 81 None None NOTE: "81" added to entry s i g n i f i e s current teaching. Key to abbreviations—Appendix 5.4. NA - Not a v a i l a b l e . development; news of research and c l i n i c s ; access to recent research; ideas for v i t a l music education at every educational l e v e l ; contact with other B r i t i s h Columbia music educators; a means of i n f l u e n c i n g the d i r e c t i o n of music education i n t h i s province—through b r i e f s to the ministry of education, the B.C. Teachers Federation, the u n i f y i n g voice of the BCMEA." (Underlinings added.) A f l y e r produced by the Canadian S t r i n g Teachers Association states that i t i s "an organization f o r a l l s t r i n g p l ayers, teachers and students." and "Dedicated to Greater Communication among s t r i n g instrumentalists across Canada." (Underlinings added.) 38 3.3 Programs of Instruction 3.3.1 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Formats and Approaches St r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia are grouped in t h i s sec-t i o n according to three d i f f e r e n t formats of i n s t r u c t i o n , i . e . hetero-geneous clas s e s , homogeneous classes, and a combination of these. Pro-grams may be further described as using a method book approach, a song approach, or a combination of the two. F i n a l l y , i n t h i s section the types of instrument instructed and the place of ensembles in the program are indicated. S p e c i f i c information on method books and supplementary materi-a l s i s presented i n Section 3.3.4. S p e c i f i c information on the type and p o s i t i o n of courses and ensembles, the number of sessions per week, the cl a s s lengths, and the grade l e v e l s i s found in Section 3.3.2. Programs with Heterogeneous Classes D i s t r i c t 36 Surrey The song approach characterizes the i n s t r u c t i o n in t h i s pro-gram. Students are given mimeographed sheets on which are featured pro-g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t songs and exercises. The students learn as they play a wide v a r i e t y of f a m i l i a r songs and observe the teacher demonstrat-ing various techniques. Emphasis i s placed on enjoyment of the experi-ence . Most students choose to learn the v i o l i n , , but v i o l a , c e l l o , and double bass are also studied. No formal learning outcomes e x i s t . The program includes some opportunity for small ensemble playing. Orchestra i s not a part of the d i s t r i c t program, but students are encouraged to par-t i c i p a t e i n a community symphony program for young players. 3 9 D i s t r i c t 3 9 Vancouver The d i s t r i c t u t i l i z e s a method book approach; that i s , a pub-l i s h e d book provides the material to be learned. Classes c o n s i s t l a r g e l y of v i o l i n but some v i o l a and c e l l o are incorporated. A r t i c u l a t i o n of learning outcomes i s i n progress but the r e s u l t s are not yet a v a i l a b l e . So f a r , few ensembles have been organized outside of c l a s s e s , perhaps be-cause of the newness of the program. In the past, orchestras were more commonly found in secondary schools. Today only one remains but the new program i s designed to increase student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ensembles. D i s t r i c t 61 V i c t o r i a The method book approach i s used i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , and the students progress through the books at a uniform rate. However, each of the three teachers involved uses a d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n . Instruction i s provided i n each of the instruments of the v i o l i n family. Opportunity for o r c h e s t r a l playing e x i s t s throughout the program. S t r i n g orchestra i s an example of the opportunity for students continuing to play stringed instruments in two secondary schools. D i s t r i c t 68 Nanaimo This program, although c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r a d i t i o n a l method book approach, i s modified by the influence of the Kodaly approach in the d i s t r i c t general music program. Singing and note reading games are used i n conjunction with the method book employed. A d d i t i o n a l songs and exercise material are often given to the students of v i o l i n , v i o l a , and c e l l o . No s p e c i f i c learning outcomes are o u t l i n e d . Outside of the classes few ensembles e x i s t other than a small e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r junior high school orchestra. 40 D i s t r i c t 71 Courteney A method book serie s published i n three l e v e l s i s used i n t h i s program. V i o l i n , c e l l o , and double bass are found i n c l a s s e s , which meet la r g e l y as heterogeneous ensembles. Orchestral playing i s a component of each of the three l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n . No formal learning outcomes e x i s t i n the s t r i n g program other than those found within the method book. Programs with Homogeneous Stri n g Classes D i s t r i c t 35 Langley Lessons in v i o l i n and c e l l o are o f f e r e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t employing a combined method book and song approach. Beginning students use a method book; more advanced students, progressing i n d i v i d u a l l y , are lent copies of songs and exercises f o r home p r a c t i c e . Later, s e l e c t i o n s from t r a d i t i o n a l v i o l i n and c e l l o r e p e r t o i r e are introduced. The Suzuki influence i s obvious. The students receive i n s t r u c t i o n i n small groups of one to four students of s i m i l a r a b i l i t y . One student receives i n s t r u c -t i o n while the others observe. Orchestra i s an important p a r t of the' program and i s of f e r e d to a l l students beyond the very beginning stage of playing. There are no stated learning outcomes f o r s p e c i f i c goal l e v e l s . D i s t r i c t 57 Prince George The Suzuki concept has the greatest influence i n t h i s d i s -t r i c t . The Suzuki method materials are used and hence a song approach i s dominant. Students must master a musical s e l e c t i o n before going on to study a more d i f f i c u l t s e l e c t i o n . Parents and students attend a pre-paratory c l a s s which meets once a week for ten weeks. Basic rhythmic patterns are learned; a sense of p i t c h i s achieved; and basic motor, 41 concentration and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s are taught. Parents also gain an un-derstanding of the Suzuki concept of music education. Upon completion of the preparation c l a s s , students are given p r i v a t e lessons with a parent observing, who i s also expected to become the teacher at home, r e i n f o r c i n g the s k i l l s introduced i n the lesson. Students of s i m i l a r a b i l i t y attend a weekly group lesson. Other d e t a i l s of the program are also derived from the Suzuki concept. . Learning outcomes for each year of i n s t r u c t i o n are c u r r e n t l y being developed. Students are encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n ensembles such as quartets or an orchestra which meet biweekly. Programs with Combinations of Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Classes D i s t r i c t 44 North Vancouver A method book d i c t a t e s the core of the material learned by f i r s t , second, and t h i r d year students. Although students receive i n -s t r u c t i o n i n homogeneous classes at three l e v e l s , heterogeneous i n s t r u c t i o n in orchestra, which includes a l l four instruments of the s t r i n g family, i s o ffered to the older students. Thus the program i s p r i m a r i l y orchestra-oriented with preparatory classes at the elementary school l e v e l . Stu-dents are encouraged to take p r i v a t e lessons for i n d i v i d u a l advancement. D i s t r i c t 45 West Vancouver Mainly homogeneous v i o l i n c l a s s e s are conducted i n t h i s d i s -t r i c t , but o r c h e s t r a — a mixed family (heterogeneous) group i n c l u d i n g c e l l o and double b a s s — i s offered. No method book i s u t i l i z e d ; rather the song approach i s used, with students learning i n i t i a l l y by r ote. Later the students are given exercises and songs compiled by the teacher from such divergent sources as Suzuki and the A Tune a Day method book. Following 42 the mastery of the basics of t h e i r chosen instruments, students are en-couraged to j o i n an ensemble, which allows for t h e i r continued involvement. 3.3.2 Courses and Ensembles Within the Programs I t i s apparent from Table XII that each s t r i n g program d i f f e r s in the type and number of courses and ensembles that e x i s t . By f a r the greatest number of classes are beginning s t r i n g c l a s s e s . Generally classes of most programs meet about f o r t y minutes twice weekly. Ensembles other than junior secondary and secondary orchestras meet once weekly, ranging i n rehearsal time from t h i r t y to ninety minutes. TABLE XII COURSES AND ENSEMBLES WITHIN THE PROGRAMS (Type of Instruction, Number of Classes, Frequency per Week, Class Length, Grade Levels) D i s t r i c t Type of Instruction Number of Frequency Grade Classes per Week Length Levels 35 Lgly. V i o l i n lessons [ 2 1 0 ] a 1 30 1-8 C e l l o lessons [ 15] 1 30 1-8 Beginner orchestra 1 1 30 Junior orchestra 1 1 30 Senior orchestra 1 1 60 36 Sry. Beginning s t r i n g s NA 2 30/40^ 4 Continuing s t r i n g s NA 2 30/407' 5 Advanced s t r i n g s NA 2 30/40 6-7 Quartet 3 1 . . . 6-7 39 Van. Beginning s t r i n g s 16 2 40 4 Continuing s t r i n g s 8 2 40 5 S t r i n g ensemble 1 1 NA 4-8 J r . secondary orchestra 1 3 60 8 Secondary orchestra 1 3 60 9-12 44 N.Van. Beginning s t r i n g s 8 2 40 4 Continuing strings 7 2 40 5 Beginning c e l l o 2 2 40 4 Continuing c e l l o 1 2 40 5 Beginning bass v i o l 1 2 40 8 Pre-orchestra 3 2 40 5-6 Intermediate orchestra 1 1 90 6-7 Advanced orchestra 1 1 90 8-12 Honours ensemble 1 1 30° 8-12 TABLE XII--Continued District Type of Instruction Number of Classes Frequency per Week Length Grade Levels 45 W.Van. Beginning strings 4 1 20 4-7 Continuing strings 1 NA NA 5-7 Elementary orchestra 1 2 60 5-7 Secondary orchestra 1 3 55 8-12 Secondary orchestra 1 NA NA 8-12 57 P.G. Preparation class 2 l d 40 1-12 Violin lessons [143]6 1 20/30 1-12 Cello lessons [ 17] 1 20/30 1-12 Violin group 12 1 40 1-12 Cello group 4 1 40 1-12 String orchestra 1 0.5 45 4--Adult Quartet 1 0.5 45 4-12 61 Vic. Beginning strings 18 2 40/45"° 4 Second year strings 7 2 40 5 Third year strings 2 2 40 6-7 Mixed strings 8 2 45 5-7 Jr. secondary strings 1 2 60 7-9 Jr. secondary strings 1 3-4 50 8-10 Sr. secondary strings 1 1 45 11 Beginning orchestra 1 1 60 5 Intermediate orchestra 1 1 60 6-7 Senior orchestra 1 1 90 8-11 Secondary orchestra 1 3 60 8-12 String orchestra 1 1 50 5-7 68 Nan. Strings I 7 2 45 4 Strings II 5 2 45 5 Strings III 1 2 45 6 Strings III/IV 2 2 45 6-7 Strings IV 1 2 45 7 Jr. secondary orchestra 1 1 90 7-9 71 Court. Beginning strings 3 2 45 4 Second year strings 3 2 45 5 Third year strings 1 2 45 6 Mixed 3rd-4th year strings 1 2 45 6-7 NOTE : Two or more courses having the same name are usually taught by different teachers, hence the repeated entry. aClasses consist of lessons with one to four students; number of groups not reported. bEach teacher holds classes for different lengths of time. Q Meets concurrently with advanced orchestra. Ten-week course only. Private lessons. fTwenty-minute lessons for beginners, thirty-minute lessons for ad-vanced students. 44 3.3.3 Range of Class Size Table XIII presents the range of clas s sizes i n each d i s t r i c t . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l format i n Langley allows for very small class s i z e s . Since a l l students i n Prince George receive a pri v a t e lesson once a week, the figures for t h i s d i s t r i c t represent the group classes which generally meet also once weekly. Programs with heterogeneous i n s t r u c t i o n ( D i s t r i c t s 36, 39, 61, 68, and 71) have larger c l a s s sizes than found i n programs with homogeneous classes ( D i s t r i c t s 35 and 57). TABLE XIII RANGE OF CLASS SIZE D i s t r i c t Students D i s t r i c t Students 35 Lgly. 1 - 4 57 P.G. 3 - 1 2 36 Sry. 5 - 50 a 61 V i c . 6 - 2 0 39 Van. 4 - 12 68 Nan. 4 - 2 2 44 N.Van. 4 - 10 71 Court. 4 - 2 0 45 W.Van. 5 - 10 This large figure represents a beginning cl a s s i n one school where teaching time for beginning i n s t r u c t i o n i s l i m i t e d . 3.3.4 Method Books and Supplementary Materials No s p e c i f i c method book or supplementary material i s common to the d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs. Furthermore, within some d i s t r i c t pro-grams ( D i s t r i c t s 44, 61, and 68) i n d i v i d u a l teachers use d i f f e r e n t method books. In f a c t up to eight d i f f e r e n t method books are used, perhaps i n -d i c a t i n g a tendency toward individualism among teachers i n s t r i n g programs in B r i t i s h Columbia (see Table XIV). 45 TABLE XIV USE OF METHOD BOOKS AND SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS D i s t r i c t Teachers No.of D i f f e r e n t Supplementary Materials Method Books 35 Lgly. 2 1 Teacher developed/orchestra albums 36 Sry. 2 None Resource material 39 Van. 2 1 Theory, book/orchestra l i b r a r y 44 N.Van. 5 4 Resource materials 45 W.Van. 3 None Teacher developed 57 P.G. 3 1 Teacher resources/orchestra albums 61 V i c . 3 3 Orchestral l i b r a r y 68 Nan. 2 2 Teacher developed 71 Court. 1 1 . Corresponding orchestra books SOURCE: For l i s t of t i t l e s , authors, and publishers see 5.5 Appen-dix V. Few d i s t r i c t s have developed l i b r a r i e s of s t r i n g ensemble music. Students generally purchase method books and supplementary materials, and teachers often have i n d i v i d u a l resource material on f i l e . D i s t r i c t s 39 and 61 have included secondary school orchestras f o r a number of years and therefore have assembled minor or c h e s t r a l l i b r a r i e s . Most other d i s t r i c t s u t i l i z e various albums of elementary orchestra music. 3.3.5 Recruitment Active recruitment i s conducted i n a v a r i e t y of ways by teachers i n the d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs, as shown in Table XV. Pre-sentations include performance on the instruments, showing of a video tape of pro f e s s i o n a l musicians, and a t a l k concerning the construction and h i s t o r y of the instruments. Letters are sent home to communicate 46 various aspects of the program to parents. In some d i s t r i c t s evening meet-ings are used to help parents become more f a m i l i a r with the program, to l e t them r e g i s t e r t h e i r c h i l d , and to allow them to make arrangements for instruments. D i s t r i c t 57 places advertisements i n the l o c a l newspaper to communicate information concerning the program to parents. TABLE XV METHODS OF RECRUITMENT D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. V i c . Nan. Court. Presentations a X b X b X xb c X X X X d X Letter home X X x X X X x e X Parent meeting X X X x X Advertisements X F a l l recruitment X x X X Spring recruitment X Assemblies. Grade IV. General music. Grade I I I . To a l l parents of students i n Grade IV. 3.3.6 Screening Whether or not screening i s d i s t r i c t - w i d e p o l i c y , some teachers hold the view that t e s t i n g students for p i t c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , p i t c h s i n g -ing a b i l i t y , rhythmic a b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , co-ordination, and academic a b i l i t y i s necessary i n order to determine appropriate 47 candidates f o r success i n the s t r i n g program or to l i m i t enrolment when s u f f i c i e n t teachers are not a v a i l a b l e . Standardized t e s t s are not used. Academic a b i l i t y i s usually indicated by the classroom teacher. Programs that screen prospective students are Langley ( D i s t r i c t 35), Surrey (Dis-t r i c t 36), West Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 45), and Courteney ( D i s t r i c t 71). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note (Section 3.1.3) that estimated a t t r i t i o n by reason of a b i l i t y i s not reduced when screening i s conducted. 3.3.7 Scheduling Scheduling instrumental music classes within the elementary or secondary school day has always been a c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r successful implementation of such programs. S t r i n g programs perhaps have more d i f -f i c u l t y than band programs i n t h i s regard simply because band programs have enjoyed a longer t r a d i t i o n within p u b l i c schools. Two programs (Dis-t r i c t s 57 and 68) have attempted to minimize major scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s by c e n t r a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n within t h e i r d i s t r i c t . However, s t r i n g pro-gram enrolment i s smaller i n these d i s t r i c t s than i n d i s t r i c t s with non-ce n t r a l i z e d programs. Table XVI indicates some basic features of cla s s scheduling, includingj the amount and type of c l a s s a c t i v i t y scheduled i n -side or outside normal school hours, and the number and type of schools i n which i n s t r u c t i o n takes place. Most programs have a greater number of classes scheduled i n elementary schools during normal hours of operation. Where a c t i v i t i e s are scheduled outside school hours, t h i s may include some c l a s s i n s t r u c -t i o n as well as ensembles. Orchestra i s scheduled both during and out-side school hours, but s t r i n g a c t i v i t y occurring i n secondary schools i s generally included i n the d a i l y school timetable. Teachers, and i n some cases the d i s t r i c t music administrator, negotiate f e a s i b l e schedules 48 TABLE XVI SCHEDULING OF INSTRUCTION (Percentage of a c t i v i t y i n s i d e and outside normal school hours with type and number of schools having s t r i n g instruction) D i s t r i c t 35 Lgly. 36 Sry. 39 Van. 44 N.Van. 45 W.Van. 57 P.G. 61 V i c . 68 Nan. 71 Court. Inside 95 100 80 75 90/50 a 50 70 80 100 Outside 5 0 20 25 10/50 50 30 20 0 Schools: Elem. 10 13 13 9 3 l b 14 3 b 3 Jr.sec. 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1° 0 Sec.8-12 0 0 1 . 1 2 0 2 0 0 Figures represent the schedules of i n d i v i d u a l teachers. i n s t r u c t i o n is. consolidated i n one elementary school l o c a t i o n f o r students f o r grades 1-12. In three d i f f e r e n t areas of the d i s t r i c t s . with the p r i n c i p a l s of i n d i v i d u a l schools. Generally, i n d i v i d u a l students leave t h e i r classrooms to attend s t r i n g classes i f s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i s not included i n the school timetable. Consolidation of i n s t r u c t i o n at a l i m i t e d number of locations a l l e v i a t e s problems such as scheduling of classes i n a large number of i n d i v i d u a l schools, and reduces problems of organization, l i m i t e d time, and t r a v e l l i n g expense experienced by i t i n e r -ant teachers. 3.3.8 Administrative and Teaching Practices To Aid Instruction Pra c t i c e s of two kinds are employed to a i d i n s t r u c t i o n . These are the use of equipment i n teaching, and various instructional.and ad-mi n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s . 49 Equipment: Teachers complement t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach by making use of various devices which f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . Table XVII presents those devices found employed within the s t r i n g programs. The piano i s often used f o r ensemble accompaniment, intonation reference, and demon-s t r a t i o n of melodic material. Audiovisual equipment and materials are used very o c c a s i o n a l l y to provide examples of pr o f e s s i o n a l performances. A chalk board i s sometimes used f o r v i s u a l representation of t e c h n i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l material, and i s used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l games designed to a i d i n music reading. TABLE XVII USE OF EQUIPMENT TO AID IN TEACHING D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. Vic. 68 71 Nan. Court. Piano Audio-v i s u a l Chalk board Chairs Music stands No Freq Infreq Infreq Freq Infreq Freq Infreq Freq Video Disc No Infreq Tape No Disc No No No No No Var Var Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Var Var Var Var Var Yes Yes Yes Tch Var Var Var Sch Sch Stu Stu Sch Key to abbreviations: Freq - Used frequently. Infreq - Used infrequently. Disc - Use of phonograph records. Video - Pre-recorded video tape of pr o f e s s i o n a l s . Var - May or may not be used or a v a i l a b l e with uniformity depending upon the p r a c t i c e s or teacher. Tch - Teacher supplied. Sch - School supplied. Stu - Student owned and supplied. 50 In contrast to band classes i n which students usually are seated i n c h a i r s , c e r t a i n s t r i n g teachers prefer to have students stand through a l l or part of the lesson in order to a i d in development of correct posture and improved movement. Also, in band classes a nonstandard use of music stands would generally not be found. However, among the s t r i n g programs a considerable v a r i a t i o n i s found i n the type and use of music s t a n d s — f o r example, teacher-supplied wire stands, school- or student-supplied wire stands, and school-owned heavy duty stands. In at l e a s t one d i s t r i c t music stands are not used in some class e s . Instruments: Although most instruments are equipped with f i n e tuners on each of the four s t r i n g s , l i t t l e uniformity i s observed i n the use of chin r e s t s , shoulder pads, and s p e c i a l pegs. S u r p r i s i n g l y , many teachers do not hold strong opinions on t h i s matter. Good q u a l i t y instruments are used by students in most programs. However, the condition of student-owned instruments and older instrument inventories of some d i s t r i c t s v a r i e s . Programs that f a c i l i t a t e the r e n t a l of instruments through re-t a i l e r s at a parent meeting may allow the use of inexpensive v i o l i n out-f i t s made in China, of which many are undesirable. Rooms: The types of rooms i n which lessons are taught include a teachers' supply c l o s e t , classrooms f i l l e d with desks and books, large studios., gymnasiums, and general-purpose music rooms. In d i s t r i c t s where teachers i n s t r u c t i n many d i f f e r e n t schools, the types of rooms used are frequently unsuitable for s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . 51 Budgets: Among the d i s t r i c t s no uniform budgeting procedure i s applied i n obtaining funds f o r miscellaneous supplies such as s t r i n g s , paper, and books. Five d i s t r i c t s (Langley, Surrey, Vancouver/ North Vancouver, and Nanaimo) a l l o t various amounts of t h e i r d i s t r i c t ' s music budget to s t r i n g programs. The s t r i n g program in Nanaimo receives eight percent of the $10000 music budget f o r the current year. S t r i n g teachers i n Vancouver are a l l o t t e d $2000 of the t o t a l d i s t r i c t music budget, the s t r i n g program having twice the enrolment of that i n Nanaimo. In Surrey, supplies are re q u i s i t i o n e d at d i s t r i c t l e v e l , but no spending l i m i t appears to be set. Small budgets are a l l o t t e d i n Langley, where the students must purchase most supplies, and i n North Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , where teachers must also negotiate allotments from i n d i v i d u a l school supplies budgets. 3.3.9 Administrative and Teaching Practices To F a c i l i t a t e Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Four types of p r a c t i c e s are employed to a i d student p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . F i r s t , a c t i v i t i e s outside regular cl a s s i n s t r u c t i o n are used as a motivational and a public r e l a t i o n s device (see Table XVIII). TABLE XVIII ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE REGULAR CLASSES D i s t r i c t 35 36 39 44 45 57 61 68 71 Lgly. Sry. Van. N.Van. W.Van. P.G. Vi c . Nan. Court. Public concerts X X X X X X X X X Assemblies X X X X Trips X X Workshops X X X X X X A l l programs present p u b l i c concerts at l e a s t once yearly while some pro-grams present more than one, usually during the Christmas season and in the spring. Many ensembles and s t r i n g classes give concerts in school assemblies. Unlike band programs, few s t r i n g programs include out-of-d i s t r i c t t r i p s within t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Workshops i n which a professional musician or ensemble i s brought into the d i s t r i c t to perform for or work with the students are organized on occasion. Second, while keeping p r a c t i c e records also helps keep stu-dents working, such records are not generally used by teachers. In Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 39) however, teachers have developed a "1000 minute club" to motivate students to increase p r a c t i c e time.. When 1000 minutes of p r a c t i c e i s recorded, c e r t i f i c a t e s are awarded to a student. T h i r d , reporting progress and other information to parents includes regular school report cards ( D i s t r i c t 61), s t r i n g progress r e -ports sent by the teacher ( D i s t r i c t s 35, 57, and 71), and o r a l reports to parents ( D i s t r i c t s 39, 44, 45, and 68). Newsletters are also used as a means of communication i n D i s t r i c t s 57 and 61. Fourth, arrangements f o r purchase or lease of instruments are often provided.. This aids parents who might otherwise hesitate to enrol t h e i r c h i l d because of cost and inconvenience. Table XIX indicates the p o l i c i e s of the s t r i n g programs in regard to the p r o v i s i o n of instruments. Rental fees vary among the d i s t r i c t s ; f o r example, students pay $2.50 per month for a v i o l i n or c e l l o i n one d i s t r i c t and $10.00 per month for a c e l l o in another program. Students may purchase an instrument indepen-dently, i f they so desire.. In some d i s t r i c t s the arrangements made are not o f f i c i a l school board p o l i c y but an i n t e r n a l s t r i n g program arrange-ment . TABLE XIX PROVISION OF INSTRUMENTS D i s t r i c t 35 Lgly. 36 Sry. 39 Van. 44. . N.Van. 45 W.Van. 57 P.G. 61 Vic . 68 . Nan. 71 Court. Instrument p o l i c y Stu SchR SchR SchR SchR SchP SchR SchR SchR V i o l i n X X X X X X X NA X V i o l a NA X NA X NA NA NA NA NA Ce l l o X X X X . NA X X X X Double bass NA X NA X NA NA NA NA X Key to symbols: x - Instruments are leased. NA - Not applicab l e . Stu - Students purchase t h e i r own or lease from a supp l i e r . Sch R - The school rents the instruments indicated; students cannot pur-chase the instrument. Sch P - The school rents the instrument; the student can purchase i t with r e n t a l applied to the purchase. 3.4 Summary Of approximately 2100 students e n r o l l e d i n the nine d i s t r i c t s ' s t r i n g programs of B r i t i s h Columbia public schools, about eighty-~eight percent study the v i o l i n ; nine percent, c e l l o ; two percent, v i o l a ; and one percent, double bass. Twenty-four percent of those enrolled are involved in ensem-ble s . Twelve percent are members of ensembles scheduled outside the clas s or i n d i v i d u a l lesson. Seven percent of ensemble members are not enrolled i n other classes or lessons, and f i v e percent of the ensemble members receive s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n that mode. 54 The l a r g e s t enrolment i n a l l d i s t r i c t s i s at the beginning l e v e l of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Enrolment declines at higher grade l e v e l s , begin-ning already i n the second year of i n s t r u c t i o n . In the f i r s t two years of i n s t r u c t i o n male students t o t a l around forty-two percent of the e n r o l -ment and female students t o t a l approximately f i f t y - e i g h t percent. This percentage gap widens i n upper l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n . The number of stu-dents not returning to the program f or the next year of i n s t r u c t i o n varies among the d i s t r i c t s , ranging from f i f t e e n percent to f i f t y percent. L i k e -wise the reasons f o r t h i s a t t r i t i o n vary, but tr a n s f e r out of the d i s t r i c t and loss of i n t e r e s t are most common. Of the eleven f u l l - t i m e and twelve part-time i n s t r u c t o r s , sixteen are male and seven are female. Part-time i n s t r u c t o r s teach s t r i n g s as l i t t l e as ten percent, or as much as eighty percent of a f u l l - t i m e equivalent p o s i t i o n . Most teachers t r a v e l from school to school to i n s t r u c t students, some to as many as ten d i f f e r e n t schools per week. One d i s t r i c t , Prince George, has ce n t r a l i z e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n at one l o c a t i o n . The number of students taught by one teacher ranges from forty-one i n Prince George to 250 i n Surrey. Most teachers teach few courses other than s t r i n g c l a s s e s , thereby s p e c i a l i z i n g i n that area. Their average experience i s eight years. As well as teach the instrument on which they have received previous t r a i n -ing, teachers also i n s t r u c t students of other s t r i n g instruments. The most common example i s that of a v i o l i n i s t teaching c e l l o (and i n some cases also the viola) and double bass. Teachers generally have under-graduate degrees; approximately twenty-five percent have graduate degrees. Only one-half of a l l s t r i n g teachers are members of a pr o f e s s i o n a l music teachers organization and even fewer are members of a pr o f e s s i o n a l s t r i n g teacher organization. 55 Three i n s t r u c t i o n a l formats are found among the s t r i n g programs: heterogeneous classes, homogeneous classes, and a combination of the two. Within i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s various approaches are u t i l i z e d f o r the presen-t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of technique and music to be learned. Some teachers use a method book, applying the material as o u t l i n e d i n the published book. Other teachers do not use a published book but favour a song approach, d u p l i c a t i n g various songs and exercises and presenting material i n accor-dance with t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l ideas. S t i l l other teachers use a method book ei t h e r for resource material or for beginning i n s t r u c t i o n and l a t e r use some type of song approach. Most d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs o f f e r i n s t r u c -t i o n i n the v i o l i n and c e l l o . A l l four members of the v i o l i n family are included i n some d i s t r i c t programs having ensembles and then usually at the more advanced l e v e l s . Although the importance of ensemble playing i s recognized by teachers i n most d i s t r i c t s , orchestras are not major fac-tors i n many programs. A reason f o r t h i s i s the low enrolment of students i n the advanced l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n and the r e l a t i v e youth of some s t r i n g programs. Few d i s t r i c t programs have a r t i c u l a t e d formal learning outcomes. In some cases learning outcomes are being developed. Students usually receive two exposures to s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n weekly. These may be e i t h e r two lessons or one lesson and one ensemble rehearsal. The lessons vary i n length among the d i s t r i c t s , ranging from twenty to f i f t y minutes. Ensemble rehearsal durations range from t h i r t y to ninety minutes. As the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach varies among the d i s t r i c t s , so does the range of clas s s i z e , from a low of one to a high of f i f t y students per teacher, but generally classes consist of about ten students per teacher. 56 Various method books are used by teachers from d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s and even by d i f f e r e n t teachers within a d i s t r i c t . This i s also true f o r supplementary material and orchestra music. S i g n i f i c a n t l i b r a r i e s have not been developed, mainly because most i n s t r u c t i o n and ensembles take place at the beginning or elementary stages of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Dis-t r i c t programs that have orchestra at the secondary school l e v e l s have c o l l e c t i o n s of orchestra sheet music. Active recruitment takes place by teachers. Some screening of stu-dents i s conducted before allowing prospective students to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program. This usually includes cursory checks of p i t c h hearing a b i l i t y , co-ordination, and academic a b i l i t y . Reported estimates of a t -t r i t i o n due to lack of a b i l i t y i s not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r d i s -t r i c t s that conduct screening and those that do not. Most classes are scheduled during school hours, with the student leav-ing the classroom f o r s t r i n g lesson i n s t r u c t i o n . Most ensembles are sched-uled outside school hours, with the exception of orchestras at the secondary school l e v e l s , those usually being scheduled i n the school timetable. Practices such as using equipment to a i d in cla s s i n s t r u c t i o n , and various administrative p o l i c i e s , are non-uniform among the d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs. Not a l l teachers make use of the piano but some use i t exten-s i v e l y to accompany students i n c l a s s . Audiovisual aids are r a r e l y used. The chalk board i s not used extensively. The use of music stands varies as w e l l . In some d i s t r i c t s students bring wire stands to c l a s s ; i n one d i s t r i c t music stands are often not used. Teachers d i f f e r i n opinion as to whether students should s i t or stand during the lesson. The rooms i n which i n s t r u c t i o n takes place vary, including supply c l o s e t , gymnasiums, c l u t t e r e d classrooms, and music rooms. 57 Generally, good q u a l i t y instruments are i n use by students i n most programs. L i t t l e uniformity was observed in the use of h e l p f u l attach-ments such as chin r e s t s , shoulder pads, and s p e c i a l t a i l pieces and fingerboard markers. Most instruments are equipped by the r e t a i l e r or teachers i n the d i s t r i c t with f i n e tuners on the four s t r i n g s . Funding for supplies and other operating expenses vary i n method and amount among the d i s t r i c t s . Funding includes money c o l l e c t e d from instrument r e n t a l , derived from d i s t r i c t music budgets, or a l l o t t e d to teachers by i n d i v i d u a l schools. Four devices are i n use to f a c i l i t a t e student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These include devices that a i d i n i n s t r u c t i o n of s t r i n g students. Extra-class a c t i v i t i e s for students are currently l i m i t e d to one or more p u b l i c con-certs a year and an occasional workshop. Practice records are not kept by students i n most d i s t r i c t s . However, i n Vancouver, students are given c e r t i f i c a t e s and other forms of recognition f or a prescribed number of minutes of - p r a c t i c e . Reports to parents take many forms including o r a l reports, school grades on school report cards, and newsletters. F i n a l l y , most programs f a c i l i t a t e the p r o v i s i o n of instruments, often renting for a monthly fee. 4. CONCLUSION 4.1 Problems i n S t r i n g Programs Two s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia become evident as a r e s u l t of the study. The f i r s t i s the lack of uniformity among the various d i s t r i c t s i n almost a l l aspects of s t r i n g programs, which presents some problems. The second i s the r e l a -t i v e l y l i m i t e d involvement of students, teachers, and others i n the school communities, because of such problems as scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s , lack of d i s t r i c t support, and l i t t l e c u l t u r a l motivation. These two character-i s t i c s w i l l now be considered with regard to four aspects of s t r i n g pro-grams: the s e t t i n g or environment i n which they e x i s t , including the c u l -t u r a l resources; the support structure, c o n s i s t i n g of the administration of the s t r i n g program, the teaching s t a f f , and community involvement; the i n s t r u c t i o n a l formats, which include the teachers' approach; and selected procedures. Conclusions of previous research i n s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n r e l e -vant to the study (mentioned i n Section 1.4), s p e c i f i c a l l y those of Grover, Strong, and Davis, are presented throughout f o r comparison of United States research findings to those of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4.1.1 The Setti n g The f i r s t aspect to be considered i s the s e t t i n g or environ-ment of the s t r i n g programs. One of the few factors having influence with-i n these settings common to a l l d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs may be socio-geographical l o c a t i o n . The s t r i n g programs studied are found i n three 58 59 i d e n t i f i a b l e types of areas: i n or surrounding a metropolitan c i t y ; i n d i s t i n c t communities located on an i s l a n d ; or, as i n the case of one pro-gram, i s o l a t e d by distance. Since only one program i s separated from the others by a r e l a -t i v e l y large distance, the i s l a n d programs being accessible i n a few hours from the metropolitan area, the question may be r a i s e d why no other pro-grams e x i s t i n remote areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. Any answer would neces-s a r i l y be complex, i n v o l v i n g among other f a c t o r s the nature of the B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c school system and the nature of s t r i n g programs themselves. (These factors are discussed below.) Another p l a u s i b l e f a c t o r i s that the communities or d i s t r i c t s that are remote from the lower mainland are characterized by s o c i o - c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s that are simply not conducive to s t r i n g a c t i v i t y . Nevertheless, i n t h i s vein i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note Davis found that ". . . school systems with a more r u r a l population tended to be more successful i n terms of numbers of students involved. . . In contrast to programs i n the United States, B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s -t r i c t s with a more r u r a l population, namely Prince George, Langley and Courteney, do not n e c e s s a r i l y have greater enrolment than those i n metro-p o l i t a n areas. Another f a c t o r that i l l u s t r a t e s v a r i e t y i n the s e t t i n g of s t r i n g programs i s the si z e of the school d i s t r i c t . Two aspects can be considered, the popululation of the community and the s i z e of student en-rolment i n the school system. F i r s t , the area populations range from a low of 30000 i n Courteney to a high of 4100000 i n Vancouver. C l e a r l y l i t -t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between population and environment s i z e can be seen. For example, Langley ( D i s t r i c t 35), having a r e l a t i v e l y large s t r i n g program "''Davis, D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts International (35/07, 1975, Music), p. 4583-A. 60 enrolment for B r i t i s h Columbia of 225, has an area population s i m i l a r to Nanaimo ( D i s t r i c t 68) with only 152 students enrolled. Larger areas such as V i c t o r i a ( D i s t r i c t 61), and North Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 44), do not have s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater enrolments. (See Table XXI, 5.1 Appendix I) Thus, no r e l a t i o n s h i p i s apparent between area population and s t r i n g program enrolment, nor does area population size d i c t a t e whether a s t r i n g program may or may not be v i a b l e . Second, s t r i n g programs e x i s t i n many sizes of school systems, ranging from a low of 6000 students i n West Vancouver to a high of 55500 i n Vancouver. Strong found: " D i s t r i c t s with an enrolment of 1000 to 2 18000 have the highest percent of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . ." However, i n contrast to these United States research f i n d i n g s , B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t s with an enrolment of 18000 or greater have larger s t r i n g program enrolments than d i s t r i c t s with a student population of less than 18000. Furthermore, d i s t r i c t s with s i m i l a r t o t a l student enrolment have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s t r i n g program enrolments (see Table XX). TABLE XX COMPARISON OF STRING PROGRAM ENROLMENT IN DISTRICTS OF SIMILAR SIZE D i s t r i c t 68 35 57 61 Nan. Lgly. P.G. Vic. D i s t r i c t enrolment 12500 13500 20500 23500 S t r i n g program enrolment 152 225 160 381 Teacher FTE 1 2 3 2.6 2 Strong, D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts International (29/08, 1968, Music), p. 2745-A. 61 It might have been thought that the number of teachers a v a i l -a b l e — a n d therefore able to r e c r u i t students—would have a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with the enrolment figures., but when Prince George ( D i s t r i c t 57) and V i c t o r i a ( D i s t r i c t 61) are compared i t i s clear that t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so. Instead,the size of enrolment i s more l i k e l y affected by the organization of the program (as w i l l be discussed below). More-over, recruitment of students could well be affected by the c u l t u r a l en-vironment of the school community. Various aspects of t h i s c u l t u r a l environment then become r e l e -vant to the discussion. These include the c u l t u r a l resources of the com-munity, the music education environment, and the t h e o r e t i c a l foundations of s t r i n g programs. Each of these contributes to the p a r t i c u l a r character of s t r i n g programs. C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s such as orchestras and arts organizations which evolve from the broader l o c a l community may represent a goal for students or function as an education t o o l i n the form of concerts and workshops for students. Perhaps more involvement of community c u l t u r a l organizations i n p u b l i c school s t r i n g programs should be encouraged by the music administrators and teachers, taking inventory of strengths and weaknesses and needs while avoiding competition between various groups, and working in a common e f f o r t toward r i c h e r music i n the community, large or small. The music education environment, another aspect of the socio-c u l t u r a l m i l i e u , i s very diverse in most school d i s t r i c t s with s t r i n g pro-grams. The unfortunate dichotomy between community music education pro-grams and those i n p u b l i c schools i s a f a c t o r in t h i s lack of uniformity. Whereas some areas such as Prince George have no community music school 62 and few i f any p r i v a t e teachers, other areas, notably Langley, Nanaimo, V i c t o r i a , and Vancouver have community music schools often d u p l i c a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n or providing services that the school for various reasons does not o f f e r . In the Vancouver area, a community music school and private teachers f i l l some of the need for s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n that i s not provided by the schools. Some of the students involved joined school orchestras, now defunct. Two questions a r i s e : f i r s t , whether non-school groups have taken p o t e n t i a l orchestra members from the schools; and second, what r o l e the schools should have taken to f i l l t h i s void. Indeed, the new s t r i n g program i n Vancouver i s a beginning, but the question remains whether and how the school program can b e n e f i t from the community program and vice versa. Another f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the non-uniformity of the music education environment i s what some would describe as a r i c h garden of methods for general music education which may i n f a c t be something of a quagmire. When music educators are introduced to the methods of Suzuki, Dalcroze, Kodaly, O r f f , and Mary Helen Richards, each deserving of atten-t i o n , the tendency may be for teachers to apply a piecemeal approach, using a b i t of the one and a b i t of the other, the r e s u l t being the de-s t r u c t i o n of the u n i f i e d method as i t was i n i t i a l l y conceived. This i s not to say that i n f a c t t h i s hodgepodge approach occurs i n many of the school d i s t r i c t s studied. Rather, the point i s that the s t r i n g programs appear stronger and more meaningful within the context of uniform general music programs c o n s i s t i n g of one method, as for instance i n Nanaimo and Langley, where the Kodaly method i s used i n the primary grades throughout the d i s t r i c t . A uniform d i s t r i c t - w i d e general music program would pre-sumably have a favourable influence on the e l e c t i v e s t r i n g programs implemented throughout the school system, i n terms of t r a i n i n g musically l i t e r a t e students and generating community i n t e r e s t i n a wide range of musical endeavours. School band programs cannot be overlooked as a factor i n f l u -encing the music education environment of schools. Grover, in his h i s -t o r i c a l study of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n the United States, concluded that the decline of stringed instrument a c t i v i t y conincided with the increase of school and m i l i t a r y band programs. Much support for the continuance 3 of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n was l o s t . The f a c t that band programs currently e x i s t i n v i r t u a l l y a l l secondary schools and many elementary schools at-t e s t s to the p o p u l a r i t y of wind and brass i n s t r u c t i o n . The p u b l i c i t y often associated with "successful" band programs may in f a c t be keeping them at l e a s t v i a b l e , i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but perhaps draws stu-dents out of the ranks of p o t e n t i a l s t r i n g players. Thus competition a r i s e s between band and s t r i n g a c t i v i t y . Arguments for the appropriate-ness of e i t h e r a c t i v i t y i n p u b l i c schools are presented with great fervor. Students become drawn into an unfortunate and unnecessary q u a r r e l , except f o r those who can make up t h e i r own minds concerning what i s appropriate within the context of today's c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . Perhaps hybrid band-orchestra ensembles at the secondary school l e v e l should be considered as a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem, the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n implementation being numerous (especially f or musical arrangements) but not insurmountable. 4.1.2 The Support Structure Perhaps two yet more fundamental reasons for non-uniform and l i m i t e d music education in the schools i s the public school system i t s e l f , 3 Grover, p. 198. 64 and the demand on students to meet u n i v e r s i t y entrance requirements. The l a t t e r i s simply a problem of time available f or students to take music courses because of these course requirements. It i s again important to remember that formulation of course requirements, which have never before been so r e s t r i c t i v e , also a r i s e from the current s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . Thus pressures are also placed on the p u b l i c elementary and secondary school systems. Renate Wilson in her book For the Love of Music summarized the conditions a f f e c t i n g music education i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. She wrote: ". . .80 percent or so of a l l secondary 4 school students do not have any music education at a l l . " This lack i s a r e s u l t of various p o l i t i c a l and economic pressures placed on the pro-v i n c i a l government to set r e s t r i c t i v e g uidelines, as much as the p a r t i c u -l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l guidelines at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . She also says: . . . school music should r e f l e c t music i n societ y indeed society i t s e l f — b u t the M i n i s t r y of Education i n each province has the power to assert ( d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ) how important music i s to the society that i t serves. A government that gives the a r t s low p r i o r i t y i s not going to a l l o c a t e funds f o r music s p e c i a l i s t s , nor w i l l i t allow i n i t i a t i v e and innovation i n the schools. How much music i s taught depends on: - The guidelines set by the p r o v i n c i a l government. - Guideline implementation by i n d i v i d u a l school boards. - The presence or absence of an energetic D i s t r i c t Supervisor of Music who can stimulate and influence a number of schools. - The i n t e r e s t of p r i n c i p a l and i n d i v i d u a l teachers. - The i n t e r e s t shown by parents i n getting music i n t o schools and improving what i s already there.5 Renate Wilson a c u t a l l y l i s t s the heirarchy of the support structure f or s t r i n g programs but perhaps i n reverse order. Even though i t seems that because of t h e i r d i r e c t involvement, administrators and Renate Wilson, For the Love of Music (Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1978), p. 47. 5 l b i d . 65 teachers have the greatest influence upon school programs, the p o t e n t i a l r o l e of the p u b l i c school constituency i s underrated. Parents ultimately have the power to influence guidelines at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . Yet l i t t l e involvement of parents was noted in the d i s t r i c t s having a s t r i n g program except for Prince George ( D i s t r i c t 57). In t h i s d i s t r i c t , u t i l i z a t i o n of the Suzuki con-cepts ensures d i r e c t parental involvement i n i n s t r u c t i o n . Also, the par-ent group has lobbied the school board to maintain s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and has helped in the organization of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Davis con-cluded that " . . . parental i n t e r e s t . . . i s one of the important aspects of a successful program."^ St r i n g programs tend to be i n i t i a t e d by the d i s t r i c t music administrators. Unfortunately i t appears that d i s t r i c t superintendents f a i l to give the necessary terms of reference to the music administra-tor so that he or she can apply the resources necessary in order to f a -c i l i t a t e growth of the s t r i n g programs. Thus a weak area e x i s t s i n the support structure of the program. Yet once the program i s implemented i n a d i s t r i c t no f a c t o r contributes to the success or f a i l u r e of the program more than the teach-ers. The i n t e r e s t of the school p r i n c i p a l and the energy of the s o - c a l l e d d i s t r i c t supervisor of music (or d i s t r i c t music a d m i n i s t r a t o r — a more ap-propriate term) are of course important. In f a c t , Davis concludes: "Suc-c e s s f u l s t r i n g programs have the support of the classroom teacher, and the support of the administrator in c l u d i n g p r i n c i p a l s , superintendents, 7 and the school boards." Most s t r i n g programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia school 6 . Davis, l o c . c i t . 7 I b i d . 66 d i s t r i c t s receive at le a s t some of t h i s support. This may be a reason why s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n continues to be o f f e r e d at a l l . Yet the teacher i s the one c l o s e s t to the d a i l y task of running the program, being the prime motivator, administrator, organizer, as well as musician-teacher. I f the teacher should f a i l at ju s t one of these tasks the program i s i n p e r i l . Strong echoes Davis: "Successful p u b l i c school orchestra pro-grams have enthusiastic e f f e c t i v e teaching supported by a v i t a l l y i n t e r -8 ested community and administrator." E s t a b l i s h i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers reported i n t h i s study i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to determine the success of teachers. Important aspects such as a purpose and d i r e c t i o n , a capacity for empathy, dr i v e , a b i l i t y i n organization, patience, and the a b i l i t y to communicate well, 9 which cannot e a s i l y be ascertained, were not determined i n t h i s study. But membership i n pr o f e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t organizations, the degrees earned, and the instrumental music t r a i n i n g of teachers, which elements are a part of t h i s study, should have some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the type of teaching that occurs. This study revealed that few teachers are a c t u a l l y members of pro f e s s i o n a l organizations. Assuming that these organizations are e f f e c t i v e i n promoting communication and pr o f e s s i o n a l development, one cannot help but ask why teachers have not bothered to j o i n (see footnote 1, page 36). In h i s study Davis concluded: "The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a suc-c e s s f u l s t r i n g teacher would include a degree i n music, preferably i n the area of s t r i n g education.""''0 In B r i t i s h Columbia few teachers have degrees Strong, l o c . c i t . 9See Chapter 1, Sections 1.1 and 1.2. Davis, l o c . c i t . 67 in the s p e c i a l i z e d area of s t r i n g education and therefore not a l l teachers have t r a i n i n g on instruments they teach. With t h i s background i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that teachers have d i f f i c u l t y a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l founda-tions for s t r i n g instrument i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p u b l i c schools. The two components of such t h e o r e t i c a l foundations which shape the format and approach used i n a program are the r a t i o n a l e f o r - s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and the stated or intended goals of these programs. Super-f i c i a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of a r a t i o n a l e was common among many of the teachers and music administrators interviewed. Reasons for stringed instrument study were often not stated i n the context of s o c i e t a l needs and d i r e c t i o n but rather within the context of the music education program; that i s , a good music education program should include i n s t r u c t i o n i n singing, ap-p r e c i a t i o n , and as many instrument types as p o s s i b l e , and therefore, s t r i n instrument i n s t r u c t i o n should be included in music education programs of the public schools. V a l i d reasons for s t r i n g instrument p l a y i n g i n the broader sphere of d a i l y l i f e were not generally a r t i c u l a t e d . The convic-t i o n stated by some teachers, that s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n contributes to the c u l t u r a l nourishment of students, i s a small step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . If a r a t i o n a l e i s stated s u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t would follow that the goals for the s t r i n g program might also be i n s u b s t a n t i a l . Beyond the obvious "to produce s t r i n g players," many s t r i n g program personnel i n d i -cated the development of orchestras or larger and more ensembles as a goal C e r t a i n l y ensembles are a f i n e motivational t o o l . Strong states: "The number of performances each year a f f e c t s student p a r t i c i p a t i o n at each grade l e v e l . " 1 1 Davis also found: "The more performances students are involved i n the more w i l l be the incentive to put f o r t h extra e f f o r t to 1 1 S t r o n g , l o c . c i t . 68 12 improve the level of performance." The existence of orchestras and other ensembles is not the culmination nor the sign of a valid public school string program,but rather the attainment of the less spectacular goals which are focused upon the needs of students in contemporary society. A precise array of goals must be articulated which, while val-id for individual students, are in some way realistic in the setting of monolithic public schools. Examples of appropriate goals might be to give the student the skil ls necessary for effective individual practice of an instrument; or, to use performance ability in a variety of meaningful con-texts. Learning outcomes, the stepping stones leading to the attainment of goals, were found to be virtually absent among.the string programs, though in some districts teachers were in the process of formulating learning outcomes for each level of string instruction. 4.1.3 Instructional Format Instructional formats and the approaches used necessarily re-sult from the foundational considerations alluded to above. In his his-torical study Grover concluded that during the decades prior to 1960 string teachers did not agree on a format for instruction. The disagreements extended to such concerns as heterogeneous ve'rsus homogeneous classes, 13 and training in technique versus supplying a musical experience. Such disagreements seem to exist currently in British Columbia string programs, and the same is perhaps true for string programs in other areas. The ques-tion of instructional format has become something of a moot point among string teachers. The decision as to format selection must be based on the emphasis and goals of the instruction. For example, one particular Davis, loc. c i t . 13 Grover, p. 199. 69 goal, to develop ensembles, corresponds well with heterogeneous cl a s s i n -s t r u c t i o n . Another goal, to develop i n d i v i d u a l performance s k i l l s , cor-responds more l o g i c a l l y with homogeneous clas s e s . The emphasis of i n s t r u c -t i o n , as Grover states, i s perhaps mostly dependent upon the teacher's personal ideas and b e l i e f s , many of which are derived from past t r a i n i n g and experiences. Perhaps that i s why a v a r i e t y of approaches are used by B r i t i s h Columbia s t r i n g teachers, ranging from s t r i c t adherence to a method book to a grab-bag of ideas taken from various method books and prominent music educators such as S h i n i c h i Suzuki and George Bornoff. Some teachers have formulated approaches c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the middle ground, combining aspects of two extremes, using method books as a basis for i n s t r u c t i o n and introducing useful elements derived from other aspects of music education. Davis concluded that "teaching p r a c t i c e s , common to successful s t r i n g teachers included an e c l e c t i c use of methods and materials. . . . " Many teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t r i n g programs used materials e c l e c -t i c a l l y but the number of d i f f e r e n t method books used throughout the prov-ince was d i s t u r b i n g . A question a r i s e s concerning the a b i l i t y of teachers to focus i n s t r u c t i o n with so many d i f f e r e n t p ublications a v a i l a b l e . Grover noted already in 1960 that l i t e r a t u r e and materials f or s t r i n g 14 i n s t r u c t i o n has increased. Headley's study of instrumental music i n -s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c schools also indicated a large meas-ure of individualism i n the use of method books. Other research revealed that t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not new (see Section 1.4). The apparent lack of consensus i n the use of method books indicates a continuing state of experimentation i n p u b l i c school s t r i n g teaching. This observation tends 1 4 I b i d . , p. 200. 70 to support the contention that foundational structures have not been uni-v e r s a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d . F i n a l l y , i t i s important to consider the influence of the Suzuki movement upon the non-standard approaches to public school s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Grover c o r r e c t l y predicted i n 1960 that s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n may be affected by the concepts of S h i n i c h i Suzuki which are being i n t r o -duced into North America.*""^ L a b e l l i n g approaches as "partly Suzuki" ap-pears to be i n vogue,•an attempt to appear current without being true to the intended form. The programs in Prince George ( D i s t r i c t 57) and Langley (Dis-t r i c t 35) i l l u s t r a t e Suzuki's influence. Certain aspects of Suzuki's h o l -i s t i c approach are u t i l i z e d i n Langley. The teachers i n Prince George attempt to be as true to Suzuki's concepts as i s possible i n the context of the public schools. I t i s questionable whether the Suzuki concept can be e f f e c t i v e l y applied to the pu b l i c school system, since a p p l i c a t i o n makes i t necessary to a l t e r a t h e o r e t i c a l framework upon which the Suzuki i n s t r u c t i o n i s based—a personal, family oriented program with which some pu b l i c schools are not compatible. 4.1.4 Selected Procedures A f f e c t i n g Size and Form of St r i n g Programs This section includes discussion of various aspects of pro-cedure and miscellaneous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t r i n g programs in f l u e n c -ing t h e i r s i z e and format. Not a l l factors discussed i n Chapter 3 w i l l be considered. Having established that the character of s t r i n g programs depends upon the various aspects of t h e i r s e t t i n g , the support structure, and i n s t r u c t i o n a l formats and approaches, i t must be kept i n mind that 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 202-203. 71 the items mentioned below are also r e l a t e d to the larger questions. Rather than i l l u s t r a t i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the primary purpose of the remain-ing discussion i s to provide evidence f o r the v a r i e t y of p r a c t i c e s and the l i m i t s of the scope of the programs. Grover concluded that by 1960 there was a great amount of ac-16 t i v i t y i n the elementary schools, but l i t t l e in the secondary l e v e l s . This s i t u a t i o n currently e x i s t s in B r i t i s h Columbia s t r i n g programs. Uni-v e r s i t y entrance requirements and competition with band and choral pro-grams are two reasons for t h i s phenomenon. Scheduling problems derive from these. Strong concluded: "Rehearsal placement during the day af-f e c t s student p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the junior high and high school l e v e l s , 17 but not the grade school l e v e l . " These conditions produce l i t t l e cause to hope for greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the secondary school l e v e l . In order to a l l e v i a t e scheduling problems at i n d i v i d u a l schools, Prince George (Dis-t r i c t 57) and Nanaimo ( D i s t r i c t 68) have each consolidated i n s t r u c t i o n at c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s . Although t h i s has obvious advantages to the teach-er, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of students i s e f f e c t i v e l y reduced due to problems of transportation to and from lessons and the necessity for the student to leave regular classes for an extended period of time when the lesson does not take place at that student's school. The v a r i e t y of scheduling procedures used in B r i t i s h Columbia s t r i n g programs also indicates some-thing of the experimentation i n s t r i n g programs, an attempt to maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some d i s t r i c t s and i n s t r u c t i o n in other d i s t r i c t s . Another aspect of programs indicates the l i m i t s of s t r i n g i n -s t r u c t i o n i n the province. This i s the small number of students of v i o l a , 1 6 I b i d . , p. 202. Strong, l o c . c i t . c e l l o , and double bass i n comparison to the r e l a t i v e abundance of v i o l i n students. If the goal of maintaining orchestras i s v a l i d , more students must be r e c r u i t e d to f i l l the need f o r v i o l a , c e l l o , and double bass play-ers. Perhaps employing s p e c i a l i s t s , as i s the p r a c t i c e i n North Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 44), to teach each instrument i s a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to t h i s prob-lem. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the d i v i s i o n of opinion on the prac-t i c e of screening p o t e n t i a l s t r i n g students. Screening appears to have l i t t l e e f f e c t upon a t t r i t i o n f o r reasons of a b i l i t y . C e r t a i n l y t h i s r e -s u l t casts into doubt the appropriateness of the p r a c t i c e . Testing, how-ever, i s perhaps v a l i d i n demonstrating to the student and parents the d i f f i c u l t i e s that may be encountered thus providing useful information on which to base a decision to enrol i n s t r i n g or another musical endeav-or. Strong's f i n d i n g may be h e l p f u l . He concludes: "Directors maintain-ing a high p a r t i c i p a t i o n percentage i n stringed instruments r e c r u i t through 18 pre-strings instrument cla s s e s , recommendations and school grades." The extent of the use of various i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices i n c l u d -ing the piano and audiovisual equipment, keeping p r a c t i c e records, and sending progress reports to parents vary greatly among the teachers of the s t r i n g programs studied. The continued i n t e r e s t , motivation, and suc-cess of students would be f a c i l i t a t e d by the creative use of as many of these devices as organization and time w i l l allow. The supply and use of equipment and the kinds of rooms i n which lessons are held are also non-uniform throughout the s t r i n g programs studied. The use of music stands, a necessity for music reading, i s a case i n point. In some classes music stands were not used, but rather 1 8 I b i d . 73 desk tops or whatever was a v a i l a b l e . The s t r i n g player's stance i s of great importance and poor posture caused by the lack of music stands i s detrimental to the success of students. As for the supply of equipment, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of instruments to students i s an important aspect i n r e -cruitment of s u f f i c i e n t numbers of students. Strong concluded: "An ade-quate supply of school owned instruments i s common to d i s t r i c t s with a 19 high percent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Few d i s t r i c t s having s t r i n g programs own large instrument inventories except Surrey ( D i s t r i c t 36) and Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t 39). Perhaps t h i s factor i s one reason for the large number of beginning students i n Surrey. Most other programs f a c i l i t a t e the r e n t a l of v i o l i n and c e l l o but no common pr a c t i c e i s found among the s t r i n g pro-grams. Finally., the rooms used for classes and rehearsals varied i n size and s u i t a b i l i t y . Other f a c t o r s , mentioned above, have greater e f f e c t upon the growth and maintenance of s t r i n g programs. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Strong con-cluded: "Adequately sized and properly located rehearsal rooms have l i t t l e 20 i n common with the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " 4.2 Summary Conclusions Two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia are a lack of uniformity i n almost a l l aspects of programming and the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d involvement of students, teachers, and others i n the school communities. The nine d i s t r i c t s t r i n g programs studied have l i t t l e i n common, not conforming to an acceptable standard, i f i n f a c t any such standard e x i s t s . This non-uniformity i s seen i n such diverse factors as the socio-geographical o r i e n t a t i o n and the i n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s u t i l i z e d . 1 9 I b i d . 2°Ibid. 74 The s e t t i n g of s t r i n g programs varies i n character (a metropolitan c i t y and environs, r u r a l and semi-rural areas) with populations ranging from a low of 30000 to 410000 and corresponding school d i s t r i c t sizes rang-ing from 6000 to 55500 students. C u l t u r a l resources such as orchestras, c h o i r s , and other arts organizations are found i n a l l areas. Music education environments i n some d i s t r i c t s include uniform gen-e r a l music i n s t r u c t i o n i n the primary grades, and i n other d i s t r i c t s a wide assortment of i r r e g u l a r l y implemented general music courses. E l e c -t i v e choir and band programs abound i n the secondary schools. The p r o v i n c i a l school system, by s e t t i n g r e s t r i c t i v e guidelines of school curriculum content and time allotments, has influence upon s t r i n g program implementation and growth. Although d i s t r i c t music administrators are often instrumental in implementing s t r i n g programs and provide much needed administrative and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s support, teachers a c t u a l l y hold the fate of s t r i n g programs i n t h e i r grasp. Teachers, administrators, and other p u b l i c school policy-makers have f a i l e d to a r t i c u l a t e theoret-i c a l foundations for s t r i n g programs which would include the r a t i o n a l e or purpose of s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and the goals of a program. Consequently i n s t r u c t i o n i s l e f t open to a plethora of ideas and p r a c t i c e s . S t r i n g program a c t i v i t y i s extremely l i m i t e d i n scope. A very small percentage of a l l d i s t r i c t students, teachers and schools were found to be involved i n s t r i n g s . This percentage contrasts sharply with the large percentage of these involved i n band programs. Furthermore, scheduling classes and ensemble rehearsals i s a problem. Many classes must be held outside normal school hours or at a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t , mak-ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f i c u l t f o r a percentage of students. Perhaps because of competition with other e l e c t i v e courses, students often choose not to 75 take orchestra c l a s s e s , and i n f a c t r e s u l t s of the study indicate that there are a very small number of classes i n s t r i n g s or orchestra at the secondary l e v e l s . Further, most s t r i n g program p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s at the beginning l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n . F i n a l l y , i n comparison to v i o l i n , the other i n s t r u m e n t s — v i o l a , c e l l o , or double b a s s — a r e studied by few students, with the r e s u l t that public school s t r i n g programs are not supplying the required number of players of stringed instruments needed to obtain balanced instrumentation as i s found in t r a d i t i o n a l orchestras. 4 . 3 Suggestions for Further Study A number of areas require further research. F i r s t , research about s t r i n g teachers would be useful . The motivation f o r teachers to enter the f i e l d of p u b l i c school stringed instrument teaching, common charac-t e r t r a i t s of these teachers, t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n stringed instrument educa-t i o n pedagogy, and t h e i r longevity within the f i e l d s need attention. Second, stringed instrument t r a i n i n g i s a complex and l i f e l o n g task. Within the context of the current s o c i a l climate, research on the appro-priateness of stringed instrument i n s t r u c t i o n within the context of public school music education would be useful . Other methods, such as community music schools, for large group i n s t r u c t i o n of stringed instruments should be studied. Methods f o r various community organizations to work together should be explored. F i n a l l y , the r a t i o n a l e and goals stated for s t r i n g programs are not c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . A study of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundation for p u b l i c s t r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , and i t s e f f e c t upon the success of s t r i n g programs, would be most u s e f u l . 5. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPENDICES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Baggett, George Edward. "The Status of Secondary Instrumental Music Education (Band and Orchestra) i n the State of Arkansas, 1970." Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of Oklahoma, 1974. Cooke, Emily. "Survey of S t r i n g Music i n the South and Southwest." American S t r i n g Teacher- ( F a l l 1966) : 26-27. Davis, Charles G i l b e r t . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Successful S t r i n g Instrument Programs i n Selected School D i s t r i c t s i n Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan." Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1974. Faust, C l a i r e E. "An Administrator's View of the Suzuki-Kendall Methods of S t r i n g Instruction." American S t r i n g Teacher (Summer 1963) : 28. Grover,.Paul Barton. "The History of S t r i n g Class Instruction in American Schools and Its Relationship to School Orchestras." Ph.D. D i s s e r t a -t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1960. Headley, H. Klyne. "The Status of Instrumental Music Education i n the Public Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia." A survey prepared for the B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educators Association. Vancouver, B.C., 31 March 1967. R o t e l l i , Ernest D. "A Study of Public School S t r i n g Problems." M.S. Thesis, Boston Un i v e r s i t y , 1950. Shepard, John William. " P r i n c i p l e s of Method i n Group S t r i n g Instruction." Ph. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of I l l i n o i s , 1954. Smith, G. Jean. "Audio-Visual Approach to S t r i n g I n s t r u c t i o n . " American  Stri n g Teacher ( F a l l 1969) : 29-30. S t e t l e r , Zieber R. "Influence of Design and Construction of V i o l i n s upon the Interest and Progress of School V i o l i n P u p i l s . " M.Ed. Thesis, Boston Un i v e r s i t y , 1950. Strong, Roger William. "Practices Which Are Common to Successful Public School Orchestra Programs." Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma, 1968. 76 77 5.1 Appendix I TABLE XXI AREA POPULATIONS AND SCHOOL DISTRICT DATA D i s t r i c t Area Pop. D i s t r i c t FTEs D i s t r i c t Enrolment Schools 35 Lgly. 47000 730.7 13500 39 36 Sry. 106500 1647.9 30500 80 39 Van. 410000 2959.3 55500 104 44 N.Van. 95500 996.4 17500 43 45 W.Van. 36000 332.3 6000 17 57 P.G. 60000 1166.6 20000 68 61 V i c . 121000 1287.1 23500 55 68 Nan. 48500 714.4 12500 41 71 Court. 30000 382.6 7500 23 SOURCES: D i s t r i c t enrolment figures are taken from Annual Report  on Education, 1980-81. Ministry of Education, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1982: Table 1.4. A l l population s t a t i s t i c s are taken from: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, The  1981 Census of Canada, "Population and Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n — B r i t i s h Columbia," Ottawa: (Ministry of Supply and Services, June 1982) : Table 5. 78 5.2 Appendix II LETTER TO DISTRICT MUSIC ADMINISTRATORS Dear S i r : If you have a s t r i n g program i n your d i s t r i c t , I would very much appreciate your time and e f f o r t i n f i l l i n g out the very b r i e f form en-closed, and returning i t to me as soon as possible i n the envelope pro-vided . As a graduate student at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I am interested i n making an assessment of the number and types of s t r i n g pro-grams a v a i l a b l e to pu b l i c school students. Allow me to thank you i n advance for your cooperation. Yours t r u l y , 1. Number of years the program has been i n existence 2. Instruments taught: V i o l i n V i o l a C e l l o Bass v i o l 3. Levels of i n s t r u c t i o n : (please give approximate number of students in each l e v e l i f possible) Elementary J r . secondary Sr. secondary 4. Number of teachers: Full-time Hours per week Part-time Hours per week PERSON (S) TO CONTACT REGARDING LATER CORRESPONDENCE Address Phone 79 5.3 Appendix I I I INTERVIEW/OBSERVATION  Instrument for D i s t r i c t No. 1. Community 1.1 Location and population 1.2 C u l t u r a l resources 2. Supervisor ( d i s t r i c t music head person) 2.1 D i s t r i c t music program Varied Uniform Subjects Grades 2.2 Bands/schools in d i s t r i c t 3. S t r i n g program (supervisor/teacher) 3.1 Age 3.2 Rationale f o r s t r i n g program i n the pu b l i c schools 3.3 Goals for the program 3.4 Supervisor's r o l e i n the s t r i n g program 3.5 Misc. 4. Classes/ensembles 4.1 Type Level . Enrol Freq/wk Min Totals Level Enrol Freq/wk Min 4.1.1 Largest/class/smallest c l a s s 80 4.2 A t t r i t i o n 4.3 Male/female 4.4 Misc. 5. Teacher . Sex 5.1 Teaching hours 5.2 Type of classes 5.3 No. of schools 5.3.1 Type 5.4 Private lessons 5.5 Tr a i n i n g 5.5.1 Instrumental 5.5.2 Degree(s) 5.5.3 Other 5.6 Experience 5.6.1 Str ings Same as current? 5.6.2 Other 5.7 Professional organizations 5.8 Rationale for teaching s t r i n g s i n p u b l i c schools 5.9 Goals for the program 6. Procedures 6.1 Method material 6.2 Supplementary material 6.3 Course o u t l i n e / o b j e c t i v e 6.4 Class procedure 6.5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach 6.6 Practice records and reporting 7. Recruitment 7.1 Recruitment procedures 7.2 Screening 81 8 Scheduling 8.1 Locations 8.2 Outside or inside school hours 8.2.1 A c t i v i t y outside 8.2.2 A c t i v i t y inside 9. Devices used i n teaching 9.1 Piano 9.2 Audiovisual 9.3 Chalk board 9.4 Chair use 9.5 Music stands 9.6 Rooms 10. Practices used to f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n 10.1 Instrument p o l i c y 10.2 E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 11. Equipment and materials 11.1 Instruments 11.2 L i b r a r y 11.3 Supplies 11.4 Rooms 12. Problem areas Mise. 5.4 Appendix IV 82 KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS Diplomas BA - Bachelor of Arts MA BEd - Bachelor of Education MEd BMus - Bachelor of Music MMus BS - Bachelor of Science MP ConsCert - Conservatory C e r t i f i c a t e MS ConsDip - Conservatory Diploma PhD Ed Cert - Education C e r t i f i c a t e T C o l l Suz Cert Master of Arts Master of Education Master of Musical Arts Master of Performance Master of Science Doctorate Degree Teachers College Suzuki C e r t i f i c a t e Professional Organizations AMEA American Music Educators Association U.S. ASTA American S t r i n g Teachers Association U.S. BCMEA B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educators'Association CAN. BCTF B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation CAN. CSTA Canadian S t r i n g Teachers Association CAN. MENC Music Educators National Conference U.S. MU UN Music Union CAN. NAME Nanaimo Association of Music Educators CAN, NSOA National School Orchestra Association U.S. OTF Orchestra Teachers Federation U.S. Other Courses Taught by Teachers ColMu College Music Soc ColSc College Science Orch Cls Rm Elementary Classroom ProVl Eng E n g l i s h ProVla GenMu General Music Pro Orch Geog Geography S o c i a l Study Orchestra Professional V i o l i n P r o fessional V i o l a Professional Orchestra None No other teaching experience 83 5.5 Appendix V TABLE XXII METHOD BOOKS, SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS, AND ORCHESTRA MATERIALS USED IN STRING. PROGRAMS D i s t r i c t Method Book Author Publisher 35 A Tune a Day Paul Herfuerth Boston Music Co. 44 Benoy-Burrowes C e l l o Method Novello 44,61,68 Learning Unlimited Ralph Matesky & Hal Leonard 71 Learn To Play a Stringed A r d e l l e Womack A l f r e d Music Co. Instrument Neal Kjos 39,44 . Merle Isaac Str i n g Class Method 61 Mueller Ruesch S t r i n g Method Belwin M i l l s 44,61,68 S t r i n g Builder Samuel Applebaum Belwin M i l l s 57 Suzuki V i o l i n School Zen-on Music D i s t r i c t Supplementary Material 35,36,45 Teacher developed or compiled 68 Exercises, songs, and charts 36,44 Bornoff V i o l i n Studies Gordon Thompson 44 B u i l d i n g Technique with Samuel Applebaum Belwin M i l l s B e a u t i f u l Music 57 The Do1fiein Method Schott 57 Developing Double Stops Harvey Whistler Rubank 57 Duets Mazas Belwin M i l l s 61 Duets for Strings Samuel Applebaum Belwin M i l l s 44,57 Duets, Suzuki V i o l i n School Summy Birchard 35 F i r s t Etude Album Harvey Whistler Rubank 35 F i r s t Solo Album Harvey Whistler Rubank. 57 Scales and Arpeggios Toronto Conserva-tory of Music 44 S t r i n g Power S a l l y O.'Rily N e i l Kjos 39,44 Workbook for Strings Forest A. E t l i n g D i s t r i c t Orchestral Material 35 F i r s t Program for Strings Belwin M i l l s 35,39,57, 61 Concert Program for Strings Belwin M i l l s 39,61 S t r i n g Ensembles of the Belwin Orchestra C o l l e c t i o n Belwin M i l l s 61 Brentwood S t r i n g F o l i o Belwin M i l l s 61,71 Learn To Play i n the Orchestra Ralph Matesky A l f r e d Music Co. 61 Odessy i n Strings Ralph Matesky Belwin M i l l s 

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